This volume is the product of a conference, jointly sponsored by the RAND Center for Asia-Pacific Policy (CAPP) and the Taiwan-based Chinese Council of Advanced Policy Studies (CAPS). The meeting was held at Airlie House in Warrenton, Virginia from 3-6 August 2000, and brought together many of the nation's top experts to evaulate issues of structure and process in the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). The resulting volume is a pathbreaking reference work on PLA organization. While CAPS provided the primary financial support for the conference, RAND's Center for Asia-Pacific Policy supplied the funding for the publication This volume is a landmark contribution to the field of Chinese military studies. For years, the Soviet military studies field was replete with detailed organizational analyses, but a variety of factors, primarily the opacity of the Chinese system, prevented similar progress in research on the People's Liberation Army (PLA). Nor was study of PLA organization a high priority for members of the field, given the dearth of knowledge across the board. Instead, the first four decades of PLA studies in the non-governmental realm focused on topics that lent themselves to exploration via limited, official open sources, such as political work or civil-military relations.