Introduction:: The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of the hormonally inactive cortisone to active cortisol, thus facilitating glucocorticoid receptor activation in target tissues. Increased expression of 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the association of two 11β-HSD1 gene (HSD11B1) polymorphisms with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its characteristics in the Bosnian population. Materials and methods:: The study included 86 participants: 43 patients diagnosed with MetS and 43 healthy controls. Subjects were genotyped for two HSD11B1 gene polymorphisms: rs846910: G>A and rs45487298: insA, by the high resolution melting curve analysis. Genotype distribution and an influence of genotypes on clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed. Results:: There was no significant difference in the mutated allele frequencies for the two HSD11B1 gene polymorphisms between MetS patients and controls. In MetS patients, no significant associations between disease-associated traits and rs45487298: insA were found. Regarding rs846910: G>A variant, heterozygous patients (G/A) had significantly lower systolic (P = 0.017) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.015), lower HOMA-IR index (P = 0.011) and higher LDL-cholesterol levels (P = 0.049), compared to the wild-type homozygotes. In the control group, rs45487298: insA polymorphism was associated with lower fasting plasma insulin levels (P = 0.041), lower homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (P = 0.041) and lower diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.048). Significant differences between rs846910: G>A genotypes in controls were not detected. Haplotype analysis confirmed the association of rs45487298: insA with markers of insulin resistance in the control subjects. Conclusions:: Our results indicate that a common rs45487298: insA polymorphism in HSD11B1 gene may have a protective effect against insulin resistance.