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The  present  book  is  the  result  of  twenty  four  years 
of  labor.  Excepting  almost  three  years,  all  this  time 
was  spent  among  the  Cheyenne  Indians  in  Oklahoma.  When 
I  first  came  to  this  people  only  a  very  few  understood 
English.  I  soon  saw  that  to  reach  the  Indian’s  heart  a 
thoru  command  of  their  heretofore  unwritten  language 
was  the  sine  qua  non  of  our  mission  work.  By  living  in 
close  contact  with  the  Cheyenne  I  had  a  rare  opportu¬ 
nity  to  listen  to  them  and  become  thoruly  acquainted 
with  their  ways  of  thinking.  In  course  of  time  a  great 
amount  of  linguistic  material  was  collected  and  the 
whole  classified  and  systematized  in  lexical  and  gram¬ 
matical  form. 

This  Dictionary  is  the  first  of  its  kind  in  print 
and  is  not  without  mistakes  and  imperfections.  The 
printing  was  not  done  by  a  printer  but  in  our  home. 
This  will  account  for  typographical  errors  and  the 
sometimes  arbitrary  dividing  of  words  at  the  end  of  a 
line. —  In  an  early  edition  of  the  Bible, Psalm  119:161 
was  made  to  read:  "Printers  have  persecuted  me  without 
a  cause"  instead  of  "Princes"!  In  an  other  edition  of 
the  Bible  (1632)  the  word  "not"  was  omitted  from  the 
seventh  commandment!  In  the  Oxford  edition  (1717)  of 
the  same  book  the  heading  of  Luke  20  read:  "Parable  of 
the  Vineager"  instead  of  "Vineyard"!  Such  blunders  do 
not  excuse  ours  but  they  comfort  us  to  some  extent. — 
The  printing  was  done  by  my  son  on  the  Multigraph:  the 
Oliver  Printype  (from  page  311  on)  was  not  available 
for  the  first  part  of  the  book. 

The  working  out  of  this  Dictionary  was  done  almost 
page  for  page  ahead  of  its  printing , leaving  no  time  for 
uniform  correction  and  review  ”d’ ensemble" .  In  spite  of 
the  limited  time , experience  and  means  for  its  printing, 
the  present  book  offers  to  students  of  the  Cheyenne  a 
linguistic  material  which  would  be  very  hard  and  to 



some  extent  impossible  to  gather  at  the  present  time. 

The  English  had  to  be  adapted  to  give  as  close  a 
literal  meaning  of  the  Cheyenne  as  possible.  Thus 
"thou, thee"  are  used  to  express  the  singular  form  of 
the  second  person  in  Cheyenne  in  order  to  avoid  confu¬ 
sion  with  the  plural  form  of  the  same  person. 

The  Cheyenne  nouns,  for  the  most  part,  are  verbal 
substantives.  They  are  formed  by  eliminating  the  prono¬ 
minal  prefix  and  adding  suffix  — stoz  or  — xtoz , as , "name- 
se,I  eat,  mesestoz.the  eating, food:  naanao , I  fall,  ana- 
oxtoz.the  falling.fall" .  Therefore  many  verbal  substan¬ 
tives  are  not  given  in  this  Dictionary;  they  being  only 
a  form  of  the  verb  easily  constructed. 

New  words  or  expressions  coined  recently  by  the 
younger  generation  are  not  recorded  in  this  book,  for 
the  reason  that  most  of  them  are  still  in  the  embryo 
state  and  very  unsettled.  I  have  endeavored  to  give  the 
correct  Cheyenne  terms  and  not  what  young  school  boys 
and  girls  have  coined  of  late  under  the  influence  of 
the  English  language. 

The  original  purpose  of  this  Dictionary  was  not 
only  to  give  lexicographic  but  also  anthropologic  data 
as  well  as  special  details  in  fauna  and  flora.  However 
the  little  interest  shown  by  scientific  institutions 
and  libraries  for  a  work  of  this  kind  did  not  warrant 
the  expenses  of  time  and  money;  therefore  the  book  was 
especially  prepared  to  meet  the  needs  of  our  mission¬ 
aries  among  the  Cheyenne  in  Oklahoma  and  Montana. 

The  Cheyenne-English  Dictionary,  Cheyenne  Grammar 
and  Cheyenne  Tales  exist  in  manuscript  form;  they  may 
be  printed  at  some  future  time. 

Kettle  Falls .Washington, 
July  14,1915. 


The  best  phonetic  system  will  not  record  an  Indian 
language  to  undoubted  satisfaction,  unless  the  student 
have  spent  at  least  two  years  in  close  contact  with  the 
Indians.  In  my  experience  I  found  that  vowels  and  con¬ 
sonant  sounds  differentiate  more  or  less  with  individu¬ 
als  and  families.  Not  only  has  the  schooling  of  the 
younger  generation  influenced  their  enunciation,  but 
different  family  groups  camping  together  have  not  al¬ 
ways  the  same  pronunciation  of  word  syllables.  Espe¬ 
cially  is  this  noticeable  between  Northern  and  Southern 
Cheyenne.  The  difference  is  not  great,  but  enough  to 
make  one  very  careful  not  to  write  Cheyenne  just  as  a 
few  informants  will  pronounce  it.  My  experience  has 
been, whenever  possible,  not  to  make  the  Indian  repeat  a 
word  a  second  or  third  time, for  he  will  invariably  pro¬ 
nounce  it  so  that  you  can  retain  it, but  not  the  way  it 
is  usually  spoken  in  fluent  language. 

The  key  to  the  Cheyenne  Alphabet  has  been  written 
after  years  of  study  and  experience  and  aims  to  elimi¬ 
nate  a  cumbrous  accumulation  of  consonants  and  typo¬ 
graphical  marks.  The  Cheyenne  has  a  strong  aspirate 
sound  preceding  vowels, which  is  indicated  by  "h" ;  when 
the  sound  follows  the  vowel  as  an  expiration  it  is  in¬ 
dicated  by  the  grave  accent  placed  above  the  letter; 
when  a  short  gap  follows  a  vowel  or  consonant  it  is  re¬ 
cognized  by  the  acute  accent  above  the  vowel  or  follow¬ 
ing  the  consonant.  Long  stress  of  a  vowel  is  indicated 
by  the  macron  above  the  same.  A  small  ring  above  a  vow¬ 
el  denotes  the  mere  whispering  of  the  same.  The  "e" 
will  become  "i"  (as  in  "it")  in  rapid  or  mocking 
speech.  When  "e"  precedes  the  "a"  or  "o"  it  sounds  as 
if  "y"  follows  it, thus  "ea"  and  "eo"  sound  like  "eya" 
and  "eyo " ;  "aeo"  becomes  "ayo.  This  being  the  rule  we 
dispense  with  writing  the  "y"  except  in  some  nouns 
ending  in  "-ayo", and  in  the  word  "onisyom"  (=in  truth). 



A,  M  in  pap.;  =»+“•  pronounced  like 

-a-  =a+e , pronounced  like  "I  ;  -5  is  a  long  ’  „  „ 
(hiatus )  is  "a”  followed  by  a  short  gasp;  -A-  is  a 
ipikeS  !itk  expiring  breatk;  -A-  i.  «»»  "bisper- 

ed  or  evanescent  sound. 

b  as  in  babe.  The  average  Ch.  makes  no  difference  be- 
’ tween  "b"  and  "p" .  Sometimes  "b"  turns  to  "m  or  v  . 
c,  pronounced  like  -tid  in  the  French  word  moitid  , 
similar  to  "teou"  in  the  English  word  plenteous  . 
d  as  in  dad;  but  used  only  by  some  members  of  the He  , 
’vesksenxrpaess  band  (see  organization). 
e  as  inir'*saKK — e—  is  long  "e",  similar  to  ’  a  in  ate 
’or  the  French  "e" ;  -6-  is  "e"  followed  by  a  short  gap 
(hiatus);  -k-  is  "e"  followed  by  expired  breath  The 
ring  over  "e"  would  indicate  an  evanescent  ”e",but  it 
is  rarely  needed. 

tr  as  in  go;  many  Ch.  pronounce  it  as  hard  as  k  . 
as  in  hate, with  strong  aspirate  sound, 
as  in  pit;  "I"  is  "i"  with  expired  breath, 
as  in  key. 

as  in  moment.  .  A  hvinj>iy^t- 

as  in  none,  ‘ 

as  in  obey;  -o- 'fVj  erf?a  .  —  - ; 

pronounced  like  "of"  in  decoy;  -6-  is  "o"  with  hia¬ 
tus;  -6-  is  "o"  with  expired  breath;  -6-  is  evanes¬ 
cent  or  whispered  "o".  In  very  rapid  speech  "o"  is 
pronounced  like  "u"  in  "nut". 

p,  as  in  paper. 

q,  similar  to  "coo"  in  coop, but  expired. 

s,  as  in  sense;  -s’-  like  "ss"  but  separated 
tus;  -§-  as  "sh"  in  she. 

t,  as  in  table. 

v,  like  the  latin  in  "amavi" ,  or  similar 
"ue"  in  "tue.hue" ,or  like  "f"  in  of. 

x,  as  "ch"  in  the  German  "ach". 

y,  as  in  year. 

z,  as  ”ts"  or  Ger."z";  — z’—  similar  to  "ds 

by  a  hia- 

t  the  French 

"d’ s” 

Remark.  When  the  Ch.  temper  is  aroused  all  the  con- 
-  sonants, but  especially  the  aspirates  become  in¬ 
tensified;  in  endearing  language  much  softer.  In  mock¬ 
ery  or  contempt  the  sibilants  are  intensified  and  the 
"e"  turns  to  a  short  "i"  sound,  while  the  "o"  becomes 
as  "u"  in  "nut".  The  women  and  children  use  the  softer 
language.  Thus  it  comes  that  a  word  may  be  heard  with 
the  sound  of  "h"  at  times  and  again  not;  or  a  word  may 
be  written  with  an  "e"  today  and  be  heard  with  an  "i" 
tomorrow.  In  ceremonial  and  dignified  language  the  dic¬ 
tion  is  slower, even  and  chosen.  Unaccented  syllables 
are  spoken  in  the  same  stress,  except  that  the  final 
vowel  is  half  mute  in  words  of  more  than  one  syllable. 


V  h-*>  wri/h**. 

A****,  b- 

I  ■ 

-A*  s* 

^  Out—  (^K\ ■Z++<t**J*.r/,til4ty  1  X-JfV-z* 

Cheyenne  orthography  and  reading. 


a,e,i,and  o  hare  the  continental  sounds, as  in  "papa, effect, 
bll,JQf£aK&QUDCNB?  owe.njj, 

According  as  these  rowels  are  accentuated  to  express  length. bre^- 

fy.asplratlonand  expiration. eranescence  or  whisper. also  coalescing 
diphtong)  their  pronounciation  becomes  affected. These  accents  are  '■ 
a,o,i,o  -  denoting  long  3ound  of  the  rowels  asin  "c&lm,feted; 

8  as  in  old, ode. -The  i  is  nerer  long, 
a ,4,1,6  -  denote  a  sudden, abrupt  stop(hiatus  internal)  .alv/ays 
pronounced  short  a3  in  "a-part,&-going,.erait,it,opera. 
a, 6,1.6  -  "  with  an  expiration  (breathing  out), as  if  an  h  soun: 

followed  them. 

%  a,e,o  -express  a  deorescendo  (to  a  whisper  of  the  soundjalmosl 
eliminating  the  rowel  value. 

a  is  pronounced  like  the  english  "eye". It  is  a  coalescing  (or 
diphtong  of  ££,used  mostly  in  rapid  speech. Thus  "raakaet* 
iron, becomes  makat  (pronounced  makeyet). 
a  is  pronounced  like  the  "ou"  in  is  a  compound  of  a 
and  o  =ao.Used  more  now  than  formerly, 
o  is  the  contraction  of  oe  in  rapid  speech  and  is  pronounced 
like  "oi"  in  oil. 

eo  is  heard  as  if  a  y  sound  was  between  them, thus  "eyo"  with 
a  short  diminuendo  in  the  final  o 

B  and  p  are  little  differentiated, the  p  is  stronger. 

C  is  pronounced  like  the  French  suffix  -ti£  in  the  wordB  "raoi- 
tie.amitie.pitie"  somewhat  like  the  -teous  (rlgchus)  in  righ¬ 
teous  or  plenteous  in  Snglish.not  as  strong  as  "ch"  in  churc 
I)  was  non  extant  forraerly.but  is  coming  into  use, especially  a- 
raong  English-speaking  Cheyenne. 

H  has  a  strong  aspirate  sound. 

G  and  K  are  much  alike. 

L  non  extant. 

M  and  N  as  in  English. 

P  as  in  "paper" • 

Q  has  a  slight  guutural  expiration, like  "khoo",is  often  inter¬ 
changed  with  k  and  g.  ^  J  A 

T  like  our  common  t  sound. Another  t  is  accented, as  t  to  denote 
a  strongor  explosive  t 

IS  as  in  "sun".  ... 

s*  is  a  prolonged  soft  s  like  the  second  s  in  "season*. 

z  is  a  very  strong  ts  sound  like  the  German  z. 

z*  is  pronounced  like  the  French  z  in  "azur  or  in  the 

i  w: 

X  is  pronounced  like  the  German  ch  in  "aoh" . or  the  Greek  Xi  and 
the  Hebrew  "Cheth".It  is  related  to  above  given  sound  of  the 
vowels  a, 6,1, 6, only  this  latter  "expiration  sound"  is  much 
softer  than  the  X  sound. 

XX*  X 



Act . =active 
acc . =accusative . 
adj . =adjective. 
aff . =af f ixe . 
att . =attributive . 

B. of  Am . Ethn . =Bureau  of 
American  Ethnology, 
c .=with. 

caus . =causative .  communionis. 
c.instr.=cum  in- 
strumentalis . 
cf . =confer . 
cj  ^conjugation, 
coll . ^collective . 
comp.=compare . 
coor.cj  ^coordinate 
dat . =dative . 
desid.=desiderative . 
die ,=dictionary . 
dim.=diminutive . 
dist . =distributive . 

e. g.=for  example. 

Eng . =Eng] ish . 
eqv . =equivalent . 
estim. =estimative . 
excl . =exclusive . 

f .  =form . 

fem . =feminine . 
fig . =f igurative . 
freq . =frequentive . 

f.sp.=female  speaking. 


genit . =genitive . 


gov . =governiug . 

gr .=grammar. 

hort .=hortative . 

hypo  ^hypothetic . 

i . e . =that  is. 

imp . ^impersonal . 

imper . imperative . 

in . =inorganic , inanimate . 

Ind.=Indians . 

indef . =inde finite . 

inf .=infixe. 

ins tr. =inst rumen tal. 

interj .=interjection. 

interrog . interrogative . 

intr . intransitive . 

Lat • =Latin . 

l. c.ioco  citato. 

m. =mode. 

M . Am . Anthr. Ass . =Memoirs  of 
the  American  Anthropolo¬ 
gical  Association, 
masc . =masculine 
ml.sp.=male  speaking. 

n .  =noun . 

n. agent . =nomen  agentis. 


obj . =ob j  ective . 

obs . =obsolete . 

or . =organic , animate . 



part . =participle . 
pass ,=passive . 
pers . =person . 

p, n.=pr.noun. 
poss .=possessive . 
pref .=prefixe . 

pres . ^present . 

pret . ^preterit . 

prog .  ^progressive . 

proh .  ^prohibitive . 
pro . =pronoun . 

q. v.^quod  vide, 
rad . =radix , roo t . 
recipr .  reciprocal . 
redupl . =reduplicate . 
reflex .  reflexive . 

ref .  referring ,  reference . 

reflect  .reflective. 

rel .  related , relationship . 


sc . =scilicet , to  wit. 
stat . =stative . 
sub.cj .=subordinate 
subj .=subjective. 
subst .^substitutive . 
s.v.=sub  voce, 
tr .= transitive . 

v.f.=verbal  form. 
v.n.=verbal  form. 

General  Remarks . 

When  in  a  word  a  letter  is  in  parenthesis , as ,  "en(h)oe- 
tam.noxtov(e) "  it  indicates  that  at  times  the  letter 
is  eliminated. 

The  word  "state"  when  in  parenthesis  (state)  refers  to 
a  stative  or  passive  meaning 

A  word  followed  by  an  interrogation  point  (?)  is  of  an 
uncertain  meaning. 

A  letter  by  itself  is  usually  between  quotation  marks. 

Being  unable  to  obtain  the  brackets  for  the  first  few 
pages  of  the  Dictionary .braces  were  used  instead. 

When  "(in.)"  follows  the  Eng.  word  "his"  it  means  "it 
his" , as , "nahestanomovo , I  take  his  ( in . ) , sc . . . i t  his  . 

The  Ch.does  not  differentiate  between  "he"  and  "she". 
Unless  the  meaning  be  obviously  masculine  "he"  may 
also  mean  "she";  oftentimes  the  Eng. "one"  is  used  to 
cover  both  "he"  and  "she",  and  has  not  the  indefi¬ 
nite  meaning. 

"It  or  one"  implies  that  the  term  is  used  for  either 
the  organic  or  inorganic  form. 

Sometimes  the  spelling  of  a  Ch.word  is  changed.  This  is 
not  a  printer’s  error  but  on  account  of  the  mutation 
of  vowels  and  consonants  in  certain  word  forms. 

The  cut  on  the  title  page  is  made  from  a  photograph 
of  Wolf robe, a  Cheyenne  Chief. 



&** ^ 




nalt'tfs  *  a  'r-e./. /£~ 


pftd-C*.  c 

Aj  pronounced  as  "a"  in  father^  with  a  macron  (s)  it  is 


long;  with  a  circle  above  (&)  it  evanesces  into  ; 
whisper;  with  a  circumflex  (a)  it  is  a  contraction  of 
"a"  and  "o"  and  is  pronounced  as  "au"  in  house.  With 
dieresis  (la),  it  is  a  contraction  of  "a"  and  "e"  and 
is  pronounced  similarly  to  Eng.  "I"  or  Ger."ei"  in 
suff.-heit.  With  an  acute  accent  (jQ^t  has  a  short, 
exploded  sound;  with  a  grave  accent  (k)  it  has  an  ex¬ 
pired  soun<i ,  resul  ting  from  a  hiatus.  "A"  as  pref.  gov¬ 
erns  the  Siib.  C  j  .  []  and  denotes  "ought".  In 
general  "a'/  indicates  "basis,  foundation,  f oio.t ,  sub¬ 
jectivity ,  predicate ,  surface"  .  if 

abandon,  expressed  by  rad.  -no-;  naase-noosan ,  la., 
fcj  ?1J'  leave  away;  naasenooxta  (in)  ,naase-nooto  (or.); 

—  dfa*4  naovenoosan, I  a.,  leave  entirely,  wholly,  -ovenooxta 
(in.  )  ,  ovenooto  (or.).  Nanohoxz  ninov.I  a.,  forsake  my 
^^^ome ;  nanohoxzeho ,  I  cause  one  (or.)  to  depart;  nanoo- 
/ _Vs"vanot to , I  a., leave  and  flee  from  one  (or.);  nanoota- 
”  na,I  a.  (in  the  sense  of  deposit  and  leave);  nanootano 
(or.);  nanbxtaovo . I  cause  one  (or.)  to  a.;  enoxtae, 
one  is  abandoned;  nahotamenooto , I  a . one  behind, 
away  from  one  .  ^ 

abandonment,  ovenoosanistoz , the  abandoning;  S'ee  le&w,,,  s  _ — 
"  forsake.  "'—Ha*  9 

abase ,  rad.-oomox-1  =base,  low,  humble;  namomoxanen  ,  . 

(obs.),I  a ., lower .humble ;  namomoxana  (in.).-momo-  ' 
xano  (or.);  namomoxazesta  (in. ) ,— momoxatamo  (or.),  I 
deem  abased , humble .  Namomoxaevoemo ,  I  count  one  abas¬ 
ed,  humble.  Naanovanen,  I  a., lower,  let  down,  — anovana 
(in. ) ,— anovano  (or.).  Navovovonatamo ,— nazesta  (in.). 

I  a. , deem  weak.  See  low , humble , down, press .< uLn  try  . 
abasing .  momoxanenistoz ,  the  a.  (more  in  the  moral 
sense);  momoxatamahestoz ,  the  state  of  being 
abased.  Anovanenistoz , the  a., putting  down;  anovana- 
zistoz, lowering.  ^  _  f  J  / 


a  It-iU-  ■■  ^tL^txc/rvso fie*,-*.' 

abate,  express* 


A  \- 

ipressed  by  rad.— ona—  =subside , become  less: 
naoz,it  becomes  abated;  eonatto,  it  abates, sub¬ 
sides;  eonattonsz, they  (in.)  a.:  eonatoeta,  one  (or.) 
abates  in  acting , doing ;  naonatodho  (or.),  naonatodsz 
(in.), I  act  abating  to;  eonataha,the  wind  abates;  eo- 
natooko.the  rain  abates;  eonatoanea , tbe  sleet,  mist, 
drizzle  abates;  eonataehota , the  heat  abates;  eonaze- 
tonetto , the  cold  abates;  eonazeto.the  snowing  abates; 
eonazetanevo , the  crowd  subsides;  abates, 
settles  down  (ref. to  pain  or  fluid  substance);  eano-  abates .recedes .gets  low  (sp.of  water);  -nhas- 
tom-  as  inf. denotes  "getting  less , slackening" ;  enhas- 
•'(  tomeoz  ,  it\  becomes  slackening ,  abating  . 

‘^'abating,  or  subsiding,  nhastomeozistoz ,  the  becoming 

abat^;  onatoetastoz ,  the  lessening  in  action, 

'  >  doing  01/  performing;  onaozistoz,  the  becoming  abated. 

'  The  inf7.— ona t—  is  used  in  all  verbal  forms  implying 
a  slackening.  Before  stems  beginning  with  "e",inf. 

,  1 .  -ona i-  becomes \-onaz-. 

abdo^n,  mavhonoz\the  a.;  see  belly;  naoseno^I  open, rip 
/~  one’s  a.  \  Cl  ■  rujz~ 

abide,  inf  .-toom(e)V  =to  a.  unchangeable;  etoomahe, 

UplM  L  one  abides  .^tne  same;  etoomatto,  it  abides  un- 

'  changeable;  or  he  becomes  unchangeable; 

f’fr1  Jr9"  etoomenistxeo ,  they  (\r.)  a. all  together  (not  separat- 
•  •  Navesz  ’  nemo  ,  I  k.with  one  (or.);  navesz’nemota,  „ 

V*'  I  a. with  it  (in.);  navesz  ’  nemotovo ,  I  a. with  it  his;  ” 

"T^nataesenethoe.I  shall  s\ay,a.with  (only  in  the  instr. 

M  a  form);  nasethoe.I  a.,sta\  (when  others  go  awav) ,  ~ 

main.  Natsetanoxtoz  natoVtanota ,  I  a. by  my  opinion. 
Inf. -eve-  denotes  abiding  .\ngaged  in,  dwelling  ( 
upon.  Naevfen,!  a.,  have  my\whereabouts ; 

naevae ,  I  am 

abiding  .being  (stat.  )  :  naevteesz‘,1  a.  (am  engaged  in) 
speaking;  naevemxiston ,  I  Vm  engaged  in  writing. 
Zexhoes .where  one  (or.)  abides\  stays  at;  zexevtens,' 
where  one  (or.)  abides  (has  his\whereabouts) ;  zexeva- 
es, where  one  dwells , abides  (stat >)  a 

abiding,  toomevostanehevestoz ,  life  abiding,  unchange- 
able;  toomeozistoz , the  becoming  abiding:  toorna- 
hestoz ,  state  of  abiding  unchangable .  Vesz ’ neinazis- 
toz ,  the  abiding  with;  ev’nistoz,  the  abiding,  the 

whereabouts;  evasto: 
abode , dwell , live . 
able,  expressed  by  inf. 
- Jrrtfa,  ~  ability  or  faculty. 

,/S%^^£avi"8  been  a-  before) 

^  d.c^^one  can  speak,  utter 
&-****'  speak).  Enoxtovae  ,  one 

he  state  of  living,  being.  See 

iv  V  \ 


-noxtov ( e )— ,  denoting  power, 
Enoxtove6sz ,he  can  speak  (not 
enoxtovensz  or  enoxtovoan, 
(as  when  children  begin  to 
is  a. (stat.);  enoxtoveoz,  he 
becomes  a. ;  enoxtovetan,  one  wants  to  be  a. ;  enox- 
1  ,4„tovetanona ,  one  is  trying  to  find  out,  to  know.  Esaa- 
y',il  noxtovetanoxtovhan ,  it  cannot  be  conceived.  Enoxtoveo- 


tfSH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY  a'  becomes  a  faculty .Naexae , I  am  able  (to  exe¬ 
cute).  Naotoxovae,  I  am  able,  wise , capable ;  the  inf. 
-otoxov(e)-  /denotes  capableness  from  experience  or 
practice, carf  also  be  used  in  the  sense  of  skilled, 

V  skillful  , 

ability,  nox/ovastoz, ability, faculty  as  a  state;  noxto- 

^  veoz/stoz ,  the  becoming  able;  noxtovenszistoz ,  the  vjfrtU&nA&'i 
S^lity  erf  speech,  power;  noxtovoanistoz ,  the  being  fpfd 
of  Attering;  noxtove-tapoxtoz ,  the  wanting,  trying 
:  know;  noxtovhfeneenovastoz ,  the  ability 
Inow/ng  how, understanding.  Qjtpxpvastoz ,  skill, ex- 
‘  wisdom  in  managing.  Zenoxtovaess , those  who 
faculty;  zeotoxovaess , the  skilled,  experien- 
iable  ones.  Exastoz,  ability  in  executing,  Aus- 
gsmacht.  —  eyo-v—,  -  /Lt-a-r-**;  -m-v******* 

abode, tipi .dwelling.  Nave, my  abode;  navenona- 
I  make  one  an  abode;  z&veetto .where  my  abode, 
ipi/is;  zexhoetto .where  I  have  my  abode;  zexhoevo, 


■T"  havf 


^  abode 

wt'  5^w^e7e  the  at>°de  of  mine  is.  Ve  has  more  reference  to-' 
l.w  dwelling  while  the  verbal  f.  zexhoevo  denotes  the. 

.ce  at".  Heszevox , its  abode , lair , den  -(of  wild  ani-  .  , 

Is}-  lit.  "its  hole".  HeexovoeSestov ,  its  resting' —a'  '-u, 

ace ,  -|  Fr  .gite  }  ref.  to  a  slight  depression  in  the 
ground  or  grass, where  animals  lie  down;  heestohestov,  ’  . 

_  its  resting  place, sp.  of  birds .  tu-LtUdy/d***.  &*£/&***'* 

( _ minate,  naoxstazesta  (in.)  naoxstatamo  (or.)  I  aboirk«w^/<a»** 

inate;  naSenezesta  (in.)  naSenetamo  (or.)  I 
ab.  ,  loathe;  napeosan.I  dislike, disdain, -peoxta  (in.),^* 
peoto  (or.)  Rad.  -exs-  denotes  "away  from";  rad.  — *1 
implies  "crushing"  and  rad.  -sene-  conveys  "loose‘a^V» 
fr-m".  /(hmru  a  hi  HtmiT  ■  '  '•  I 

abomination,  goxstaztastoz ;  mxstatamahestoz,  state  of  j 

bominatio’n;  Senetamahestoz  ,  the  loathing : //v* -  —  <*/■**■ 
peosanistoz ,'the  disdaining.  Oxstatamazistoz ,  mutualx^-^2«/^C..,,> 
abominating,  iWovt’  <UAfw<  */  0  ,■ 

aboriginal,  ad j .  is  rendered  by  inf.  -xama-  =natural,  k 
belonging  to  native 

character,  not  foreign, 
not  artificial, normal, simple, indigenous, inherent,  na¬ 
tive.  Sometimes  the  last  syllable  -ma  is  left  out  and 
only  -xa  is  used.  —Xamavostan, natural ,  native,  people ; 
xamaveho, genuine, natural  English  people  (as  discerned 
from  other  white  people).  Xamahoxzz , cottonwood  tree, 
also  implying  all  poplar  species;  xamave,  the  real 
tipi.  Xamavostanehevestoz , the  natural,  the  Indian  way 
of  living.  When  -xama-  is  infixed  in  v.f.  it  has  an 
adv.  meaning.  Naxamavostaneheve ,  I  live  in  the  native 
way , lifelike ,  Indianlike;  naxamamesse,  I  eat  natur¬ 
ally, unaffectedly.  An  Indian  having  eaten  at  a  table 
with  a  knife, fork  and  spoon  will  say : naxamamesse .when 
he  again  eats  Indian  fashion,  meaning  to  say:  I  eat 
again  naturally!  Naxaesztovo,  I  simply  speak  to  one. 


isaartahestamd, I 

V^k— . 

ist-t^S V**-*  t-ud-r*****' :  e/i-**e-e-. 

simply'  have 

"  '  '  In  connection  with 

mply  knows  nothing! 
poVt^res  the  -xama-  denotes  howing, tending,  stooping, 

'  examaaeo , one  hows  the  head  (head  inclined  down¬ 
ward®  ;  nanosxama&eotovo ,  I  bow  the  head  to  one  -jcf.bow!- 
aborti/on,  nasestoz,  the  miscarrying;  n&soxzz,  abortus 
(dead! . zehdhestaz .  living  abortus;  ends,  she 
s;  zenasz,  the  one  who  ab.  ;  endsoxzeve_,  it  is  an  .  . 

us;  is  an  abortion : vUp*** 
ehaenono.,  ( )  it  abounds;  ehaenotfeo ,  / 
,Eey"’for'.,7  are  many ;  eetimeoz ,  it  (or  one)  becomes 
'ounding , plentiful  -|cf.  abundant (-j 

,nt  (■  j  emaxatove , therg  abundance.  ^^rry.i>  -  tr&x.  nt'*"*r' 

'  ab jut ,  tataetto,  all  about  around;  natataeoxz,  I  go  a- 
T  bout, around  (and  disappear  behind),  as  when  one 
jp  Jgoes  abound  and  behind  a  corner, or  below  the  visual 

-tose-  denotes  about  in  the  sense  of  time, 

:  boint  of;  etosenaeoz ,  one  is  about  to  die: 
tosemes  is  abod^cpto  eat . 
above,  he  imgh,  ioa^^feneral  sense;  also  means  sky.heav- 
J*T-  7“  en.  ffi^imahbae h f&Mr,  that  which  is  from  heaver \)pf~v"7 

iTsly^sam^rTthe  realm  of  above  (obs.)  h  e  arr.&  hen i t t'  \ 
TWdheva,  aboved^he  door;  heamd  v<5n anistoySrfabove  tHe  •fcuS**’'  j 
V*  window;  heameohe,  up,  above  the  rivgp^tFr.en  amontA  .  *1 

When  infixed,  heama  becomes  -hea^-'fnaheameneoxz ,  I  v 

7  ,  above,  ascend;  heamemhayo^upistairs ;  eheameesz,  on0^Tj^'~'  3 

peaks  above  =  prays;  nah€amenana ,  I  set  it  above:  he-j  f17  "j 

stanehevestpir^i'if e  above,  eqv.  to  Kingdom  of  I 

dTstanov,  world  above  =  heaven  of  the 
^heamapavoome , the  heavenly  abode, paradise^ 

'o'f  bliss;  heamavostan, person  from  above;  heamax^  3 
one  is  from  above;  heama  ehoe,  one  has  his  4 ££/?■ . 

'abodelabove ,  on  high.  Zehehetovazemenotto  heama  zzYio-  it  ep.  J 

-■'Vst.i-.n  i  thou  our  Father  beins  "at"  above:  Zeheamasz,  .  L 

i  one  above  God);  hae§  heama, far  above;  ha- 


one  above;  eamhoomosan,  one  is  above,  greater  than, 
surpassing:  naamhoomosan  zehexovaes,I  am  above. great- 
itP. er  tdan  ,  surpassing  what  "he  degrees",  fk£Lh£*‘t*& 

u  liJ-'  LAbrahari,  O:thaenosz  =  the  one  who  is  many  fas  name  form, 
f  yrt^^abroacrKhas*-  no  exact  eqv.  in  Ch.  Inf.-mhon-  denotes  "in 
field"  but  ref.  mainly  to  procure  by  hunt- 

sometimes  it  implies  a  forward  broad 
r.teonosta.I  spread  it  abroad  (news). 
poheozSsstoz , swelling ;  oh&oxtoz,  painful  swell¬ 
ing;  eszeilsd,  scrophulous  abscess  (which  the  Ch. 
\  connect  with  the  gopher);  matters ,  forms  an 
j -.'js  abscess;  eoseoz,  itNbecomes  open, flows  out;  naoseo- 

•  zesz.I  cause  it  to  ffew  out, to  open;  lance  it.  , 
jO*  I  absence,  hovanehestoz ,  the  not  being  present , non/ exist¬ 

ence,  the  bei: 

more,  state  of  death;  dis- 


/  /,  t/AV  $  a  y/i  ,  \ 


<vk~]  tvd(rvte^cto^W^ct 

AB9El^r^«’y^/  '  engCish-cheyenne  dictionary 

^Brnssri  nStroapLife  i  H  a^' 

appearing"  from 'life?  #  & 

absent ,/^ho vane ,  one  (or.)  is  absent;  ehovahan, 
absent  or  not  present, not  is  gone; 

^Jahanehensz,  they  are  absent  (in.);  is  ■*****!' ~Ja..  A 
simply  not  here!  zehovahan ,  that  which  is  not;  mataho -t*^rr'0^zT 
vahan ,  when i  t  shall  be  no  more;  zehovaneess,  the  ab-' 
sent  ones,  the  departed ,  those  not  present;  zexhovane-^  a.dr ***"' 

jafeto  .during  my  absence;  zeheShovanes ,  as, since  he.  p f 

absent;  zetaeShovane.ez, until  we  shall  be  no  more,  un- 
til  our  death;  ehovanehestove ,  it  is  absent,  it  is 
departing  from  life.  The  rad.  of  this  is  -hova-  =P 
sonal  objectivity.  The  n  in  Ch.  has  often  a  neg.  or^/^^ 
contrary  meaning .  Esaahomatovaze ,  one  is  absentminded }^ - — 
■jhomatovazistoz  =  presence  of  mind}-;  saahomatovazis- 
toz ,  absentmindedness .  vf  **£^*d- 

absorb,  namhaestana, I  absorb  it, swallow  it fa^so  fig.); 

naponomaena,  I  abs .  it  (with  ajiletlfer  or  some- 
thing)  ref. to  liquids;  epoaneoz_-drf  becomes  absorbed; 
napoanen.I  abs. with  some  thing  .£TUft2e4mna(.  „ 

absorption,  poanenistoz,  the  act  of -'absorbing;  poarieo-ffi ■ 

zistoz.the  becoming  abs.  y’~  •  . 

abstain,.  nanhasta.I  abstain  from  it  -[tr.f.h  n anha s t o - ua aJl&wi 
;  df-rr'e-t  he,  I  abst.  from  one  (or.)  nanh^stomaeta,  I  ab- 

-  stain  concerning’ it;  nanhastomaet'ovo ,  I  abst .  conce 

m "  one;  nanhastoosesz  navoxfiz.I  make  my  body,  flesh , 

absta.  n  from;  nhastomevostanehevestoz .  abstemious  way 
UffpZ  living ,  temperate  life.  Rad.  -nhasto-  , fffi  -nhas- 

-  - -  implying  "from  one".  See  ^orbid^crvSv--^ 

W  abstemic  ilby  see  abstain. 

4>^ ^//^-abundanc  e ,  maxato'z ,  emax&tov  /there  is  abundance  ( of )' 

/  emaxatovensz ,  there  .is  abundance  of  them 
Mt  etftmatoz, abundance, plentifulness ;  ee 


there  is  plenty  (of  it);  esaaet&m&tovhan ,  flT  is  not~a 
H _  CiAJn  Plenty ;  esaaetamatovhanehensz ,  there  is  nit  an  abund- 
y-l  i?.‘^ance  [of  them  (in.);  eohaehostoes  tove ,  there  is  an  ab. 

(in  fruit  bearing) , sp. of  growing  things./  Rad.  -maxa- 
W/*!-  d11'  implies  "touching  all  around";  rad.  -e/tam-  denotes 
"reaching  up, full  t o "  .  /)%?<> ///. 
abundar  t ,  is  abundant  \d  [abound  j- ;  eetameoz, 

-  Tfrtr.  t~  i  t  becomes  plentiful  emaxeetany,  it  is  very  a- 
eetamhoneo . it  grows  abundantly ,  plentifully, 
y;  ehaestanszV  (in.)  ehaestxepr  (or.)  there  are 
of  them.  See  many.  ^ca.a.~  *&?&*•**&■  tZ.-:  t 

nahavsevoeho ,  I  a^.  deal  unfair  with  one;  nato- 
;on§6ho ,  I  -j  from  -totona-  =  spoil,  hurt.un- 

_  do);  naohaoeho.I  ab.  act  dreadfully  towards,  oppress 

one  ;  I  Semoz ,  one  abusing  in  sexual  matters  ,  overindul- 
..  gent/;  enasoeho.he  ab.her  ( zurm  Spiel  geben).  See  mis¬ 
treat.  The  inf.  -heom-  =  over  \  ijiuch;  -havsevhe tosse- 
-  purposely  bad, can  be  used  to  express  abuse;  eheom- 
y  to  hetahoestoto ,he  abuses  pis  riding  horse  =uses 
I  fc  &  IrtA****,  \ 

M  '-’*'** 

4* 1 1  ? 

yy^"  ^ch: 

1  ^  many 


—  teA-VMA. 


r  &Ct< ■,  ju-X~  ■  ckWi^o  |r£.A**-t^tV e+i w~(  iL  tu*tUnsic*y-iJL  ■ 

\  JlA-ew^fu  auu*^v  (twU  i  vt^aJCrn*.  \  <suw-<>#S  \tvo-yc\W-  U^-e.  - 

*aU  (cue.  aA^J^L  M v***\^rrZ 

t-a^C  ^  ti*-e-X  *- 

eAu 2- 

c«*v«&fl;  ^£jicA-ve-eu/^'yAcLt.(c 

abuse,  0  ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY  w  acoess.on  , 

[[*£**£■  rr 

it  too  much;  ehavsevhetosse-hozeotovo  tSma  hetahoes-**.  ‘  Jtix  ■ 
tovevo , they  abuse,  misuse,  purposely  badly  use  their <SrW?^X»_  fil 
own  riding  hors es^praJirflu^tfluA'i^  d*h(L taJA^\  H 

n.totonS^pteffstoz, abuse  in  words;'  ohaoe/astoz,ab.^’/^^2_  4 
actxdoing;  nouns  can  be  formed  frejm  any  v.f ,  !/Ke^M' 
having^teffe  inf  .mentioned  under  the  v.  abube.  O'jJ*1''* 

'abyss  ^vox  zsaa-mxaoonevhan ,  hole  without  /bottom  -jlit. 

lole.that  cannot  be  touched  by  fojit;  ^  from  na^^V*2- 

_ ,  I  touch  it, reach  to  it  with  foot| \yuMA^u^jruuiad 

l accept,  naamha, I  acc. .receive  (something  given);  naam-/^,^»‘ / 
j~  haenoz,  I  acc. receive  them  (in.);  naamhaenott </£  B 

)  I. acc. receive  (sing. or  pl.or.).  naamAta,  I  **  fl 

it, consent  to, agree  with  it;  naamatovo  ,  I  .acc  .  ir  B 

consent  to, agree  with  his;  nahotohestana  (in.)  B 

tohestano  (or.)  I  acc.  gladly,  willingly;  \  rad .  lMJ  ^vv  (UV<_  I 
Tjui,o(e)-  =  gladly,  generously;  v.f.  — hestan  =  toi 
'ta Ice}-;  namasezta  (in.),  namaseztovo  (or.)  I  receive  «  jj 
Twi  11  ingly .politely jnaohamehotoaetovo,  -ohamho>oatama-aA*Aa'^1'  '  M 
etovo.I  accept  his  person  (am  more  kind  towards  cne).""  iu 

_  ..This  must  be  followed  by  sub. cj. with  pre£-f  zehexov-. 
^fi*daeptable ,  emitatame ,  one  is  acceptable  ,. agreeable  ;  na-  % 

matazesta  (in,)  mamatatamo  A>r.)  I  deem  ac-  _  m 

peptable,  agreeable  -j  cf  .agreeable 

ceptance ,  amhastoz , acc . , the  receiving  of  a  gift;  ama -fraiTcL/t&j.yi 
-  tAtoz, acceptance  ,  consent , agreement;  masezto--'/p'',**-#4srf'*"'B 
LylflMtf'  vazistoz , freundliches  AufneMmen;  zehegohamhotoaeto-  '  f 

p  ‘  tto  (or  zehe§ohamemaseztd(eton6tto )  zehexovaes  es’-  I 

>>,  en.hen  esaapevaehan, the/dc ceptance  of  thy  person  be- 
fore  thy  friend, that  is  not  good.  (Lit. that  thou  art 
0.6  J  dealt  more  generpusly  unto  than  "degrees"  thy 
-  friend)-.  Hotoeama>Atoz ,  generous  acceptance,  consent 
(Einwilligung) .  Im  .ta.ckw'.,j»  ■.’rf:  v^v---  SLcc«k. 
access ,  zexhestaetta, where  acc . fs , ref . to  agate  or  op¬ 
ening,  entrance ;  zeveghahanenistove ,  access  i.e. 
that  by  which  there  is  an  approach;  nave Shahaneo von 
haonatovA , we  have  access  to  one  (approach)  by  prayer; 
cf. admission  and  join. 

accessible ,  is  attainable,  it  can  be 
reached  -jnahoxtamo  =  I  reach,  attain  where 
one  is;  ehoxtame  =  it  is  attained);  enoxtovhoeAenAto- 
ve,  it  is  accessible  -j  implies  reaching  and  staying 
at).  Maheo  eveShahaneoe  haonatovA,  God  is  (made)  ac¬ 
cessible  by  prayer.  -(Rad.  -hahan-  =  nearing, approach¬ 
ing).  EsaahceSetoehan , esaahoeg&n&tovan, it  is  not  ac 

cessible;  cannot  be  reached, attain¬ 
ed;  cannot  be  approached;  esaaha-  (or.)  is  not  accessible;  esaahoxtamehe , 
one  is  not  reached;  esaanoxtovhoxtamehe ,  -one  is  inac- 
cessible;eoxceesz’nistove, it  is  access ible , enterable . 
accession,  hoxstanenistoz , the  act  of  adding  to;  hoxsta- 
estoz.the  state  of  being  added;  hoxseozistoz , 


O^fjWVWf'  dr(Mlobnn>*tfH[A‘"  cle&CHc^  .A- 
WfrTslxJL*.]  J-  vl r  0  V  Lhj 


iWvvorm.t.-'J  CV 

1^  (>f£'U^f;/^-/^£j:  e-e-Kirre^,^  La^  a.  ce’^e+^^J 

*  Oec**+~/‘^,r‘  r  tiee—f*- 


—  gyjt  />*Aa  —  Cdv^y  dry*.,  ars.  f-t*rc- 

a  ~~JUj+Ur~.  As-,  OULH 

f  - 

I  ^  /£  K U@MPEFW$.  [)JC^RX^Xv/^/-rccoRD 

■  ft4  m  i  ng  an  accession, admission.  See  admit  and  join. 

accident ,  hooxtoomenestoz , atoomenestoz  (lit.  unpremedi- 
flj a  c/Ly*^-^  tated  suffering);  masohotoanavod&toz  and  maso- 

hotoanavoomenestoz, sudden  misfortune  (Jr.malheur  sou- 

dain )  .^-  Ivl  rl^^L  - - 


Udlll  )  (ut*  7  / 

_  accidefffftlly ,  ^-ata-  and  -os 
/V something  c 
;^>^'unintentional  ,not  premeditatec 

igU"  " 

-oseata-  are  inf .which  ^ 
done  without  design, /  4T*m( 
premeditated.  Naatano  or.  naoseata-J<r,st'u*tM 
no, I  shoot  one  accidentally;  naatasso  (or.),  naatax 
(in.)  I  cut  one  acc.;  naoseatane§eve,  I  did  it  acc. 

,  OseataneSevestoz ,  accidental  doing;  atanazistoz, acci¬ 
dental  shooting;  naatoesz.I  hit  myself  acc.  naatoeta, 

I  act  without  premeditation, make  a  mistake.  This  word 
has  been  used  for  "transgression" .which  it  implies  to 
ka  certain  extent,  but  for  which  the  right  expression, 
otaxoetastoz  (instead  o^.atoetastoz)  ought  to  be 
^W/used.  AlclCxLcu ttn e.k&zritiu,  >k*-  £ 

r  JZ  /Accompany ,  naveoxzemo,  I  g or  with  <6ne ;  naveoxzemota,  1^ 
ma. '  accompany  it, go  with  it,  Veoxzemosanistoz.the^^^P 
acc9^Panylne.  going  with;  navessevo.I  acc.  am  with  one  '  ' 

™  7  ( °y- )  See  company  and  companion.^^^Jpi'r,  I 

.^'Taccpfapiice ,  zevhestozezevsz  =  the  "acc,  ( sing. )  zevhesto>c— 

~  zezevesso  (pi.)  navhestTzezezeve ,  I  ^am  an 
*  4.CC.;  navhesthozezevemo , I  am  acc.  with  one.  ; 

u  IP*' 

ccomplish,  naexanen,I  acc.naexana  ( in. ) ,naexano  (or.), 

I -hi!*  to  aXini^h.^  Rad^-ex-  denotes  a  pro-^*. 

I  JLtft4j*-C  cess  en&ecT ,  aone  'thru .  nazee^anen ,  zeexana  (in.),  -ze- 
J  exano  (or.)  I  acc.  "by  touch  of  hands  or  fingers,hy 
-.handling.  Inf.  -vaxs-  or  -v8.s-  denotes  fulfill,  comp-  a.a-., 
tlete, achieve ;  navaxseneSeve , I  acc. doing;  navaxseexa n- jLy^l 
a/+*f)en,  I  fulfill,  -vaxseexana  (in.)  -v&xseexano  (or.  )  .Na^ 

^r<t-  vaxtoeta.I  acc.  (in  acts);  navaxtanen,  I  acc.  fulfill 
it’ make  it  complete;  -vaxtana  (in.)  -v&xtano  (or.) 
nav&xston, I  acc. a  design, building;  evaxsenhesso , it  is 
thus  accomplished,  completed;  nahdzeexanen, I  cannot, 

(fail  to)  acc.  Heeszistoz  zeheSev&xsenhessoz’ ,  since 

\er>t*&3  accomi)1 

...  0 

1 ishing, preparing ;  vaxseexanenistoz ,  the 

accomplishment;  heto  zehe§evaxseexane ,  the 


tStAfr™**- t°z >  the  acc. of  an  act ,  rite  .performance ;  v&xstonestoz , 

S  JcCec,.  accomplishment  of  a  ’design,  building.  See  fulfill,  4-p. 
my  v  complete, done.  «<*.  a 

HeA  Xd  t-iwftg.ccord ,  v.nanizeovsan,  -nizea  (in.),  -nizeovo  (or. )  „ 
jfflLVp  accord, grant, allow;  nahetooto  (or.), I  acc.^rant^A 

■  WV'fr^W'  bestofer  -j  rarely  used  in  the  in.  (■  See  agree .  n</a.  - 

accord n.  manohotoemazistoz ,  of  one  accord, agreement; 

/ namanosehegetanome ,we  think  of  one  accord; 
no-  J=  together 

c+~LtL.  a 

n  “  . 7  ■ 


/l^__0(^C  fi-l/tts?  &■  0~K-£ 

u>  G&C.  /«.  a-ce.,  a^JL**‘-a-'» 



1  W.0u toemazheni&,we  are  of  one  accord;  nimandseameamatamhe- 
1  m&,we  agree, consent  together;  inf.  -masdmano-  =  with 

!fu^y  &c-c.  one  accord  (done  with  a  rush  or  suddenly);  emasdmano- 
tUAA-aG^tUT-aseoxzeo , they  left  with  one  accord.  -Epavse-nemeneo , 
they  sing  well  in  accord,  together ;  emanohotoemanston- 
oavc-  n—  eo  _  they  design,  huild  with  one  accord.  Hestoxtaheonevo 

fl-MJL  pg  '  oa  Rp}ipmpttflnpViA7 *  t-Vipir  t.pcifimomr  wah  nnt  of  nnp 



es’aaseheznettanehez’ , their  testimony  was  not  of  one 
accord  (gestaltete  sich  nicht  gleich). 
accordingly,  is  expressed  by  inf.  -neSe-,  -osd(n)  and 
-sa-.  -Ne§e-  =  thus, from  there  (ref.);  na- 
neSevostaneheve,  I  accordingly  live  thus:  zehe§hetas  he  told  me,  so  I  make  it.  -Osa-  also 
-osa(n)  is  much  used  in  story  telling:  eosanenahoon, 
he  accordingly  killed  one.  -Sd-  is  mostly  used  in  the 
imper.  as:  nisdmezz,  give  thou  me  now!  (sc. what  thou 
hast  promised)  See  imper.  in  gr.  Sometimes  the  inf. 

-td-  is  used, implying  the  meaning  "exactly  as, exactly 
according  to":  zeh§sz  etdhessoz ’ , that  which  he  speaks 
comes  accordingly  (exactly)  so.  EtdneSevo  zexhetas 
Maheon.he  did  exactly  as  God  had  told  him. 
account, v.nanetosta  (in.),  nanetoemo  (or.)  I  account  so’  ;  : 

much;  is  acc  .  first ,  prominent ;  nan- 
,  heetovo , I  acc .for  one;  nanheeta,  I  acc.  for  it  (stand  .  , ’ 
for) .  7iaXu4£-  Q/iu- 

account,  n.  masdhoe>stonestoz,the  full  counting;  nimasd- 
hoestoz  zemestom.give  (thou)  a  full  account, ex¬ 

plaining;  nimasdhoestomevsz.give  me  (thou)  a  full  ac¬ 
count.  -{also:  nimasdmestomevsz  =  explain  (thou)  me 
all!}-  is  of  no  value;  is  of  no  acc . valueless ;  esaa- 
^.tonitoktaheonevd :  one  is  of  no  account  (in  charac- 
f?  0  C  A  Ve^_  ottiVe;  esfa*  e,L  U  acc  •  t(lhx^uA  uh 

- - ^^a^^rftahle ,  naveStoenanenotto ,  I  am  held  accJrespdhs- 

ible  for  one;  eveStoene  nitove,  one  is  made 
acc. held  responsible  for  me;  havs  naveiheszhovaon,  I 
am  made  acc. for  (charged)  the  evil. 
accumulate,  nahovxthoz  (sing,  in.)  -hovxthozenoz  (pi. 

in.)  I  acc.  See  store, pile. 
accusation .[^destomanistoz,  the  making  of  .a  malignant  ac- 
cusation; LdSsanistoz , the  accusing  malignant- 
ly;  momaxsetanevatoz .accusing-" tonguedness" :  momaxe- 
mosanistoz , accusation , telling  on;  momaxstomosanistoz, 
stative  accusing;  momaxstomoestoz , accusal ;  aestomemo- 
bJ>'c  maxemazistoz,  false  accusation:  ^Jiessazistoz.accusa- 
^tion, blaming. \L  t**-*  ttcovu^t 
accusative ,  ad  j .  The  Ch.  has  no  acc.  case  but  has  an 
acc.  verbal  sf f . i ndi cat ing  direct 

--  — - o  — - — tion  up¬ 

on  the  object .without  instrumentality  or  medium,  (by 
’V:  e.g.nahestana  ( in . ) , nahestano  (or.)  I  take 
l;t.  Thus  sff.with  n  denotes  accusative 

.  . . -  -  -  object .  Be¬ 
sides  this  the has  an  acc. mode  to  express  poss- 

t uw*  r  c 

( iTZZZtfa 

leva.  fa.  1* 

’  s* 

J  j-eJlLi»b&cd‘vtl  Cmndefe^** ^%.0l‘<\  3  — r- 

0***’  I  1  a„<jJL.*4s  'u»L(j,+~c  rtu+l 

1  t7n/L*vt~ejC-un'/t 



essifre  relation  between  sub j. arid  obj  .  e  .gi'nanomazenoz , 

I  steal  one  (to  have) , ich  sibhle  ihn;  nameanoz.I  give 
one  l(  or . ) , ioh  gebe  ihn.  Srie  gr. under  Accusative  Mode./"- &££u***- 
accuse,  nefe& san,  I  accuse  malignantly;  n^a£ to  (or .  )  fjl*  Tjfarui- 
-jfiesz  (in.);  na^estoman.I  make  a  malignant  accut 
U^sation;  namomaxem’ san,  I  accuse,  (tell  on),  -momaxesta^W^a 
r  (in.),  -momaxemo  (or.)  tell  of, move  the  lips  9-“^-*- 
touching  \ ;  namomaxsetaneva,  I  am  (provided)  with  ac -  Aafavt/- 
cusing  tongue;  namomaxsetanevaheve ,  I  am  one  with  an 
I  Aff-  acc •  tongue  ;  namorr.axstomosan ,  I  am  accusing;namomaxsto-^iy^x  x 
'  -f  moe,I  am  (state  of)  accusant;  naaestomemomaxemo ,  .  I  . 

acc.  one  falsely  \  inf .  -aestom(e)-  =  for  nothing, in 
vain}-  nahestoemo.  I  acc.  one  of  it,  blame  for  (with 
rancor);  nahessbho.I  acc.,  put  blame  on  one;  ehessa- 
zeo , they  (or.)  acc. each  other  of, shove  the  blame  on 
each  other;  ehessazenov , there  is  an  accusing  of  each 
other;  ehessevotazenov ,  there  is  an  acc.  and  quarrel¬ 
ing.  Z^Tsansz,  the  accusing  one  (malignantly);  zqp«- 
esz.the  accused  one;  zemomaxsetanevaz,  the  accusing 

tells  on  one;  zemomaxstomosz  =  the  accusant  one; 

|  r  hestoemsz.the  one  accused  of  it. 

y  ^  accustom ,  is  rendered  by  inf.  -oxce-  =  use  to,  wont.  E- 

■  •  oxcemeaa  hovae  nistoha  eseva.'ns  is  accustomed 

(used)  to  give  something  every  day.  Another  inf.  is 

■  -hox(e )-  =  acquainted  with, also  used  in  the. 

.  vaitfreia 

accustomed, inured.  Ehoxeoz  =  one  becomes  acustomed ,Uait+ei 
I  rfi*'1  Dat  acquainted;  navdnhan,  I  accustom  myself  to  darkness^V, 
(li't-I  make  light).  Before  stepping  out  of  a  lighted'*'"’"* 
lodge  into  the  darkness  outside,  the  Ind.will  shade 
their  eyes, so  as  to  become  accustomed  to  the  dark  be¬ 
fore  they  go  out, where  they  will  be  able  to  see  bet¬ 
ter.  This  expression  becomes  obs. 
iche,  v. ehSmatto , it  aches,  pains;  etavomatto,  the  ache, 
pain  increases;  nahohoeoxz.I  ache  (all  over);  na- 
hohoenaoxz.I  ache  in  my  limbs .  ■#»  «v*- 6-***^*^*- 

iche ,  n.hamatazistoz, ache, pain;  onSeozistoz ,ache ,  hurt;’ 

hohoeoxzistoz , ache ;  hohoenaoxzistoz , ache  in  limbs. 

_ See  pain  and  hurt. 

icid,  ad j . eveestoonaenoe  (in.),  it  is  acid  (in  taste); 
eveestoonaenoensz  (  CexAxeeno,  it  is  acid, 


n.veestoonatoz, acidity, puckering  in  mouth; 
estoondtoz, acidity .drawing  of  mouth  muscle 



aa  ,1  .j.  aggiuu,  ***** C/-ry*,  a  v  ^-4^ 

ixazesTta naho^cazta,  I  am  acq.  with  itf®* 
-hoxaztanoz,  -with  them  (in.)  nahoxatamo,  I  am 

—-making  acquainted  with;  ehoxetahoetoe ,ne  (of  horses  nil  V\ 


to  the  n 

th  rid-l  L.IV" 

h,  train/AgjMf^' 
the  ex-^N 


has  been  made  acq. .familiar  with  riding  (used  to 
saddle);  ehoxetahoe,  one  is  acq.,  familiar  with  i 
ing;  nahoxeeto.I  acq. one, make  him  familiar  with,- 
him  (usualy  said  of  horses, where  the  Eng. uses  the  < 
pression  "break");  zehoxeesz,  the  one  made  acq.  with,  ‘ 
trained;  ehoxeevosoe,  he  is  acq.  familiar  w;th, train-  j 
ed,to  play  :i^uftty:e  //</  C'  h  L  ,■  k<i/i  /n  <•  f  /  '•'^r 

acqualntable , ehoxaztaeoneve , one  is  acquaintable , friend/  ,  /)w, 
ly, approachable, congenial;  hoxaztaeoneves-  ™  ‘  ** 
toz , congenialty .acquaintablness ;  nahoxaztaeonevetovo , 

I  am  congenial  towards  one;  nahoxaztaeonevatamo ,  I 
deem  one  approachable;  (Rad.  -hox-  implies  close  con¬ 
tact  [ . 

acquaintance , zehoxatamo , the  one  with  whom  I  am  acq.,  my 
acquaintance ;  zehoxatamoze ,  our  acquain¬ 
tances  (with  whom  we  are  acq.);  zehoxatamaeze ,  our 
acq.  who  are  acq. with  us.  See  gr.Sub.cj.  Hoxaztastoz, 
acquaintance;  hoxatamahestoz.the  state  bf  being  acq. 
familiar  with.  Hoxeesohestoz ,  acquaintance,  (caus. ) ; 
hoxeesdhe ,  n. agent.;  hoxetahoestoz ,  acq.  familiarity 
with  riding.  *«*»***-  a.catuu.4- 

acquire ,  naena.TIn. )  *naeno  (or.)  I  acquire, own.  -aen- 
is  the  raa'.but  in  the  present  tense  of  I.pers. 
the  pro .pref. contracts  with-  the  a  of  the  v.  stem  into 
one  long  a,  except  in  the  pret.  when  the  first  a  in 
"na-"  becomes  very  short, e.g.  naaena.I  acquired , owned 
it.  -Naenanoz,  I  acquire  them  (;  naeno.I  acq. 
them  (;  nanegeaena.I  acquired  it  thus  (as  men¬ 
tioned  before).  Quite  often  the  Ch.  use  the  expre¬ 
ssion:  nahoehoxta.I  come  to  it, or;  comes 
to  me, to  mean  what  one  may  acquire  or  get,  as:  hamox- 
tastoz  nszhoehota, sickness  shall  come  to  thee  =  thou 
shalt  get  sick;  makatansz  nahoehotaenoz, money  came  to 
»  me  =  I  acquired  money;  manegevostanehevess  nszhoeho- 
taendv  pavstaomenestoz ,  if  you  live  thus,  you  shall 
have  well  being  (lit.  well  being  shall  come  to  you). 
Hahdaota^  (in.),  nahdaotovo  (or,)  I  come  to  it,  (get, 
acquire  it  gradually , not  at  random  or  accidentally). 
Nanegeamha.I  have  thus  obtained , acquired :  naeneo  ze- 
hegemeemeszetto.the  property  I.  have  acquired  (by  wor¬ 
king);  niaeneo  zeheSeveSeaenom  nsthozeohestovA,  thy 
possession, which  thou  hast  acquired  by  workjnitao  ze- 
hegevegeamhaetto  namakataemeva.all  I  acquired  with  my 
money;  heto  nitao  nanegeaena  zexhotovatto ,  this  all  I 
got  by  trading;  naheszhovaovaz ,  I  acquire  it  for  me; 
zetohetaemeha-heszhovaov&zetto  examahovahan ,  all  I 
had  acquired  for  myself  is  simply  gone!  Nahoxtamista 
(in.)  I  acq . it , attain  it, (does  not  imply  possession 
in  all  cases) . 

acquirement ,  hovae  zeaenom,  thing  I  own  or  naeneo  =  my 



property.possession;  nitao  zeheSeamhaetto.all  I  have 
received , acquired ; heneenovastoz  zehdaotomaz , zehoehox- 
tomaz , zeamhaz , the  knowledge  we  have  come  to,  we  have 
realized, we  have  received ;  etahanez’  mhayon  zeheszho- 
vaov&z  nasima,  here  is  the  house  my  younger  brother 

acquit ,  naevhanonizeomenano  (or.), I, 'let  him  go 
free  again;  naonohoemaoto  (or.),  I  judge  one 
straight, right, acquit  him  (by  law).  HoemanistovA  (by 
law  or  council ) ,hoemaotazistovA  (by  judgment)  evegeo- 
noevhosseme , one  is  acquitted;  evegxanovhosseme , one  is 
acq. spoken  straight  (with  or  by).  Zemehamomaxemanetto 
naevhaonohoemaotan , I  am  acquitted  (by  judgment)  from 
accusation;  zemehameatos  hoemanemhayon  eevhanonizeom- 
enane.he  was  acquited  by  the  court  (lit. having  been 
given  over  to  the  law  house  he  was  let  free  again), 
acquittal ,  evhaonohoemaotazistoz , acq . by  judgment;  evha- 
nonizeomenaneni stoz , acq . release ;  eevhaonohoe-  is  an  acq . ; eevhanonizeomenanenstov , it 
is  an  acq., a  release ; navoegetanocz  zehegevhanonizeom- 
enans.I  become  rejoicing  at  his  acquittal  (that  he 
was  acquitted )^_  . 

across ,  inf.  rT5xov-,  -exxov-  and  -ams(e)-,the  three  be¬ 
ing  also  used  as  detached  adv.—^Oxov-  =crossing 
(in  the  act  of);  -exxov-  =crossed,on  the  other  side. 

^Both  inf. ref. to  the  crossing  of  warecourses  or  space. 

■|Rad.  -ox-  to  cut  thru!-.  Inf.  -ams(e)-  =  crosswise, 

'  athwart.  Naoxoven.I  walk  across, wade;  nahotoxoven,  I 
walk  ac. several  times;  naoxovetaho , I  ride  across;  na- 
oxovotohen.I  swim  ac.;  naoxovekaax, I  jump  ac.;  naoxo- 
vahaz  I  throw  it  ac.;  naoxovahamo , throw  one  ac.;  nao- 
xovetxeovo,  I  drive  one  (in.), chase  ac.;  naoxovoesz.I 
go  ac.with  boat;  naoxovehetanon,  we  go  ac.  it  (moving,  "mit  Sack  u.  Pack").  NaexxovSn,  I  come  across 
(walking);  exxovetto , across , on  the  other  side;  oxove-  »/  ,j 

tto  homa.over  on  the  other  side  (while  one  is  sT;and-  'UP&vt*. 
ing  on  this  side);  naexxoveozdho ,  I  made  one  cross ,  a. 
come  across;  naeSexxovotanon'.we  have  (done)  crossing ** 
it.  See  cross  and  bridge.  Amsetto ,  crosswise  athwart ;  it*'*-*?, 
amsetto  voeva, across  the  sky;  amsetto  v6nanistovA,  a  -  I 

cross  the  window;  eamshSesso,  it  is  far  athwart  it;^,^' 
naamgeg.I  lie  athwart ,  across  ;  naamstxiston,  I  write  a-  p/t#'****-  [ 

cross  it;  naamseexa.I  cut  it  across; 
is  not  far  across  (body  of  water);  ehaehgmatto,  it  is 
far  across, the  shore  is  distant;  naonon,  I  come  a- 
cross ,  ashore ,  land  -jsee  ashore)-.  Oxov’nistoz,  the  walk¬ 
ing  across;  oxovetahoestoz , the  riding  acr.;  oxovahas- 
enistoz,  the  throwing  acr.;  zeoxovahamsz,  the  one 
thrown  across  (or.);  zeoxovahame , the  one  thrown  acr. 

(in.)  zeoxovahamesz  (in.  pi . ) ; zeoxovahamessd , the  ones 
thrown  acr.;  zeoxovensz , the  one  going  acr.;  zeoxove- 


tahSsz,  the  one  riding  acr.;  zeoxovetohonaz , the  one 
swimming  acr.  zexxovetohonaz.the  one  who  swam  acr.; 
zeoxovekaaxsz, the  one  jumping  acr.  -Amstxistonestoz , 
athwart  writing;  am§e§en&toz, athwart  lying;  zeoxove- 
txeosz.the  one  driven  acr.  Naoxovetahoha,  one  brings 
me  acr., give  me  a  ride  acr.  (either  on  horseback  or 
wagon). Inf.  -otxov-  “crossing  many  times  is  also  used 
to  denote  reciprocal  action,  e.g.  eotxovemeazenovoz 
makatansz.they  give  each  other  (Einer  dem  Andern)  mo¬ 
ney.  But  -otxove-  or  otxov(e)-  implies  distance  bet¬ 
ween  the  givers, as  when  the  Northern  and  Southern  Ch. 
make  gifts  to  each  other.  Eotxovevomazeo ,  they  see 
each  other  (across).  Some  Ch. pronounce  -oxov-  with  an 
h  sound, hoxov  or  hotxov,  so  both  forms  can  be  used. 

Inf.  -nos-  =acr.,but  over  a  barrier  or  an  eLevation.  .< 
See  over. O-. *•  •  . -CtHm 

act,  v.sff.  -oeta-  =acting,  -odho-  =acting  to  one, and 
acting  to  it,  convey  the  meaning  of  doing, 
Performing.  See  doing.  Etoxetanonavoeta.he  acts  wise- 
ly:  ePev°sta,he  acts  kindly;  ehavsevoeta.he  acts  bad- 
lXru~  //^^^emamovoetao,they  act  in  concert, together ;  esetoe- 
r^->e  acts  alike;  ezestoeta.he  acts  as  a  Ch.  Ofentim- 
kl*y<,t,e s  1  nfS^-ez-  or  ^-hez-  following  the  verbal  stem,  imp- 
/lies  behavior ,  conduct  in  acts  ,  e .  g  .namaseztovo  ,  I  act, 
ft** behave  pleasant, acceptable  towards  one, -{from  -mase-  = 
willingly  yielding, accepting)-.  Nataneheztovo , I  behave 
i^rT^^ashamed  of  him, -(from  -tane-  shameful);  napevaeztovo , 
act, behave  good  before,  towards  one;  e(h)eznetto, 

Q acts, proceeds;  edznetto  mAztaheva,  it  acts  in  the 
jL heart, heart' s  intents ;naheznessesz , I  cause  it  to  act, 

^  acts  upon  us. When  sff.-man  is 

implies  pretence;  etaeveononiseman,he  acts  as  a,  pre¬ 
tends  to  be  fool.  See  pretend. 

1  act,  n.matgezistoz, the  act, the  doing;  tdneSevestoz,  the 
very  act;  tdnesevstovd, in  the  very  act;  nitao  het- 
SezistovA  eonoazeoneve.all  his  act  are  characterized 
by  straightforwardness,  (lit. in  all  his  acting  he  is 
a  straightforward  one).  Vhanenhessemanistoz.mere  act, 
pretence;  pevoetastoz.kind  act;  pevo§tastotoz,  (pi.); 
popevoetastoz ,  kind  acts  repeated.  See  doing.  Inf. 
-nSena-  =in  the  act  of, while.  ..  i 

action,  see  act.  2^^-'  ,  ,.vv.«h ’T'' 

active,  is  active , industrious ;  enakaetto,.  it 
is  active.  Active  in  the  sense  of  busy  is  rend¬ 
ered  by  sf f .  -anen.Nazetanen, I  am  active,  busy  with, 
handling  something  with  fingers;  natotahopanen,  I  am 
kept  busy  by;  nah&stanen,I  am  busy  with  much;  navove- 
tanen,I  am  busy  with  preparing. 
activity ,  n&kastoz;  eohan&kastove , there  is  great  activ¬ 
ity - 3S~7  a., 

actual,  adj.  -td-  inf.  =the  very;!  etdnehov,  he  is  the 

V  V'.'  «; 0  12 


ivv5t'_  '  '*W/{£,  ° ;  e-U-4>O.  L±A 

atlM'/-i*n.  far At-f/i-  s/f/-*. 
t  Xc.  /if •'*  Av>^  '• 



verY  one.  The  sff.  -o  in  many  v.f.has  the  meaning  of 
"actual , real , taking  place,  true";  naanao ,  I  actually 
fall;  is  true, real;  napevetano,  I  rejoice 
(taking  place .presently ) ;  nitatomenahaz ,  let  me  pres¬ 
ently  kill  thee!  is  actually  so. 
jCute,  eohaoxzezeve , one  is  acute , sharp , shrewd ; 
acute,  sharp  (not  confound  with  eohSd,  it  is 
ense,  sp.  of  growth  of  plants,  as  dense  forest  or 
.snse ,  rank  weeds).  Enxooxta,  one  is  cute,  funny;  enx^^  < 

-  it  is  cute, funny.  Inf.  -oha-  =acutely.  A, 

acuteness,  ohaoxzezevestoz ;  ohamatazistoz',  acute  pain. 
add,  \pf.  -hoxs-  implies  adding, joining f  Nahoxstanen,  I 

add,  -hoxs  tana  (in.  )  ,-hoxstano  (or.);  nahoxs- * 
lpi/t'e  o  z ,  I  b>&come  added;  nahoxstae.I  am  added  (stat.);  na-i6 
hoxstanain^I  am  added  (pass.);  nahoxstaetovo ,  (or.),y 
■  «/*#*\j/'hoxStaeta  Hn . )  unto  one,  unto  it;  ehoxstota,  it  is, 
w’r *  '*/L&£ands  added\(as  a  house  addition);  nahoxsznetan ,  I  *  v 
1A  /f^mt  to  join;  Vpanohonetovo .  I  add  to  one  (dazu  noch) 

WjS"  0,  namamovhoston,  I  add,  count  together;  namamovhoesta  ze-^  - 
Jitfistoha,!  count  together  how  much  it  is, add;  namamo  i 
W,  /4/i^iiio  zehestxevoss ,  I  count  together  how  many  they 

are(or . )  .See  join. Inf.  -honaov( e )=added  unto  as  much,  **£*?*-  a 
that  much  more.  Nitosehonaove-amhaenon  hovae.we  shall ~/,<s-  ~  ~ 
receive  that  much  more  added;  ehonaoveamhastov,  it  is 
^  that  much  more  added;  namakataemoz  eveShonaoveamhas-  J 

tovensz , my  money  has  increased  that  much  more, once  J,| 

much  (thereby);  nahonaovana,  I  make  it  that  much  more , 
once  as  much;  Maheo  exhonaovanomevo  hevostaneheves-/* 
toz.God  prolonged  his  life  once  as  much.  Nahotonaova-  ,  *  ; 

na,I  increase  it, more  and  more 
addition,  hoxstanenistoz ,  joining  t/ge/her;  mamo vaneni s - 

toz,  summing  up  together;  hoxs  tanenistovS,  nan-  ^ 

eshosta'  zenhestoha,  by  addition  I  count  how  much  it  a-*6**~-*~/ 
is;  naoemo  zehestxevoss,  I  count  (them,  or.)  how  many 
they  are.  Mamovhoestonestoz ,  addition  (by  counting) ;  £Aj* 
mhayo  zehoxstota ,  the  house  addition;  honaovanenistoz .  /,/  TVV. 

+"-  hoxstaestoz.add.  (state ) , the  _ r.i  / 

addition, in  addition  ou ,  uuAdcict)i/Ui,aLiu,  v^^auej.cne  /  ,/ 

being  added  to;  honaoveamhastoz , the  receiving  in  ad -/s** i 
dition  to;  hoxseozistoz , the  becoming  added ;hotonaova-/^*^*y ^ 
nenistoz .making  an  increase  more  and  more. 
additional ,  ad  j  .  zehonaovasz ,  the  add.  one  (or.),  zehona  <f-  'h{.t/7 
venitaesz,  the  add.  master;  zehonaovevehon- r  ' 
evsz.the  add. chief;  zehonaovoess ,  the  add.  ones  (or.) 
often  used  for  the  upper  side  boards  of  a  wagon  box. 
Zehonaovehozeonevsz,  the  add.  servant;  zehoxstxeo , the 
add. writing. 

addressing  form  (vocative).  The  Ch.  has  not  a  regular 
vocative  in  the  sg. except  in  some  names  of 
relationships.  In  the  pi. the  vocative  is  usually  sff. 

(e)hasz  or  -esz.  Nih<5, father !  Hako, mother!  Naz, daugh¬ 
ter!  Nisee, grandmother!  Nxan, uncle!  Nahan.aunt!  Naz, 

(L\  t,  ,  CMTf  U  )  ,  Uj^3  L  — 



nephew!  Nahame,  niece!  Nig,  grandchild!  Maha,  friend! 

(of  same  age).  HovS  or  hovd, friend!  (more  between  ol¬ 
der  men) .KaSgonasz , children !  (in  general)  Nanisonasz, 
children  (my,sp.  to  one’s  own  children).  Onisyomatae- 
hasz, believers!  Onisyometanoehasz , ye  believing  ones! 
Onisyomatatanesz, believing  men!  Hetanesz,  ye  men!  He-  women!  Vostanesz,ye  people.*  war¬ 
riors.  Vdsesz ,  ye  peaks.  Nisenehasz,  my  friends,  (ml. 
sp.)  Niseehasz , my  friends,  (f.sp.)  Nis ’ onasz , friends . 

(for  ml.  and  f.)  Veksehasz,  ye  birds. 
gods.  Ohehasz,ye  rivers.  Moehasz,  ye  grasses.  Hoxze-  trees.  Hovahasz,  ye  creatures,  beasts.  Hovae- 
hasz ,  ye  things.  Hotoxkasz,  ye  stars.  Voasz  ye 
t  clouds.  Mapasz , ye  waters .Menasz , ye  serpents.  Kasovae-  young  men.  Kaseheehasz ,ye  young  women.  Anoth¬ 
er  way  of  addressing  is  the  second  or  pi. in. 
the  sub.cj.,as:  zehevasemetovaz,thou  my  brother .Zehe- 
hetovazemenotto , thou  our  father.  Zehehetoness ,  ye  fa¬ 
thers.  Vehonasz  or  ninehovheme  zevehonevess ,  ye 
chiefs .Naesztovo , I  address  one, speak  to  onejnaeszeta, 

I  address  it;  hevehestoz  nataxemxeomovo  vehaneoneva, I 
address  the  letter  (to  one),  -{lit.  his  name  I  write 
upon  the  envelope  or  package)-.  Nimestomevsz  zexhoes, 
explain  me, tell  me  his  address  (where  he  lives);  mxe- 
omovehd  hevehestoz  na  zexhoes,  write  his  name  and 
where  he  lives;  mxeoxz  zexhestano  mxistS, write  (thou) 
his  address  (where  he  gets  letters);  mestomoveha  zex¬ 
hestano  mxistS , explain  where  he  gets  letter;  maeveho- 
enszistovd  navegeesztovo , I  address  one  in  German. 
adhere,  napanoetovo , I  adhere, stick  close  to  one;  zepan- 
,  ^  oxevaeno ,  I  n-nerely  set  one  close  to  me;  napanoho, 

*1/ 1  Put  one  close^to  me  (make  -adhere  to); 
!  brZ-''  f  becomes  adhered , sticks , cleaves  to;  paeozistoz  the  be- 
!  '  \jJ*'  Jr''  coming  adherent  .adhessive  to, a  word  mostly  used  for 
x,-(t  „  printed  pictures  and  photographs.  -jRad.  -pa-  =adhe- 
'  jj)'  sion,  flat  against, shut  as  to  make  one  surface  )  .Napae- 
*1'  Y  ozessesz  mxisto,  I  print  a  book,  make  it  adhere  a- 
^  Sainst I  adheres  to  one  (as  stains  from 
HiJr  mud , etc . )  ;  havs  napanoetoe  evil  adheres  to  me;  epano- 

ta,it  stands  adhering  to;  nitao  zepanoetto , all  (in.) 

|:  i"C  that  a<illeres ,  cleaves  to  me;  comes  off, from 

^  having  been  adherent;  Inf.  -saapo-  =  not  discontinu- 
!  if1  o  ing, adhering  on.e.g.hovae  esaaxamapohestanohe ,he  left 

i  *  l'i*  nothing  untaken, did  not  leave  off  taking  everything; 

U*V>  nahekonetanotovo , I  atdhere,  cling  strongly  to  one  (in  ,  ,.  ,, 
/  .P V niK*  thot.mind);  nasaapoe(veoxzemahe ,  he  does  not  quit  me4"'4'4' 
M' instant),  adheres  to  me;  nasaapd— heves  ’  enehenoz ,  I  iu » <' 
hr  ^dhere  to  my  friend, am  faithful  to  him,  do  not  leave  L.  hi 

L/  L^ff  hayins  him  for  friend. 

yV^adherent ,  nahestaeveaz ,  I  am  merely  adherent,  not  real 
member  -(from  hesta  =navel;  hestaeva,  umbilical 

*  > 

(X&\\lLUil\  vy  \  ,  vumm  'V-A  -e+4 -t^eA  AA" : 

ljmWo**-  *< 

fTftJt*.  ,<rt/tM- 

A  ftfWte^dv  <'-  ^\  vv-Oaa.  t —  ---- 


p  ,  lurtt 

\  cord.  As  the  umbilical  cord  drops  after  a  time,  so 
\  does  one  who  is  not  a  real  member];  hestaeson.mere  a. 
\  for  a  time;  navhanenhestaesoneve , I  am  only  an  a.  (for 
\a  time) . 

adhesive,  is  a.;  see  seal;  enom&kozeve , 
X-  it  is  a ., gluey , pasty ;  axe  eoxcpaeoz,  gum  ad¬ 

heres,  is  a., sticks  to. 

adjoV,  rendered  by  inf.  -hoxs(e);  adjoins 
^(standing  close  against);  ehoxsemane , one  is  made 
'  t0  a<Hoin;  ehoxsemaneo ,  they  (or.)  are  made  to  adjoin. 

See  join,  usificxfre, it.*,  ?  a.  A. 
adjunct,  A.  .hoxehestoz , used  as  condiment , added  to  bread 
fav;  or  Pieat,  spread  with;  nahoxeevo.I  use  it  as  a., 

■  ^  ■  '  ~  condiment  v 

admire,  naohapevazesta ,  I  a .  it ;  naohSpevatamo , 1  I  deem 
one  (or.)  good;  napevatamanozesta , I  a.  the  scen¬ 
ery,  vista;  naohamoonazesta.I  a., deem  beautiful  (in.); 

naohamoonatamo  ( 
j.iV  it  (  looks 
nahessetamo ,  I 

(or . )  looks  a. 
very  desirable 
. )  is  an  a .  sight 
n  a. sight;  esaaohS- 
sight;  nisaa- 
not  know  how  a. 

•.);  eohapevenono  nahessezta,  I  a. 
fine  I  think  of  it);  eohSpevenohe 
one.  Naheneena  zeheSohapevatams ,  I 
know  how  he  is  admired. 
r  admirable ,  is  a.,  fine;  eohamoonata-  is  a., beautiful  (sp.gJR  scenery,  sky); 
'  tfY  eohaPavston,it  is  admirably  built;  eohapevenono 
(in-)  looks  a.;  eohapevenohe ,  o 
.'  •  eohamomoxenohe ,  it  (in.)  is  a. 
eohapavevoseoneve ,  one  (in. and 
esaaohapavevoseonevban  ,  it.  is  no’ 
pavevoseonevd ,  one  (or.)  is  not  an  i 
heneeno  zehexovohapevenos , thou  does 
he  is! 

admiration ,  ohapevaztastoz ;  ohapevatamaestoz ,  state  of 
being  admired;  y5!  ya!  interj .  of  a. (used 
by  men  only);  nao!  nao!  exclamation  of  surprise  or  a. 
(used  only  by  women).  Heto  zehelohSpevazto ,  his  a. 
for  this;  zehe§ohapevatamoss ,  his  a. for  one;  ni- 
saaheneenohe  zehexovohSpevatamandtto ,  thou  doest  not 
know  how  thou  art  admired,  how  fine  thou  art,  what 
a. one  has  for  thee!  roomoxenobestoz ,  a., in  the  sense 

of  desirableness. 

admit ,  ehoxsze,  one  is  admitted, joins ;  nahoxstano,  I  a. 
one  (or.)  to, let  one  join;  eeseoz,  one  is  admit¬ 
ted,  let  in;  naeseozdho , I  let  one  in;  naeseozhan ,  I 
am  admitted;  nahoxsz ’netan , I  want  to  be  admitted,  to  be  let  in,  become  a  member;  ehoxsz’netan.he 
wants  to  be  with;  evessene§etan,he  admits  with, thinks 
also  the  same;  nasaa^ztohe , I  do  not  deny  it,  I  a. it; 
nasaadztohe  zehe£heneenovo ,  I  a. that  I  know  him.  The 
expression  "na  hehe"  preceding  a  v.f.  denotes  admit¬ 
ting  .  acknowledging  ;  na  hghe  nanesove.I  a. to  have  done 
it , (Ger.nun  ja.ich  habe  es  getan) ;  nataxtanove-mesta , 
Itofli  tu*/p)*4rnd  -  wd  *-Iol 







admission  ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY  admonition 

I  a.  it  (in  words)  openly,  publicly  (in  the  sense  of 
explaining,  confessing);  na  behe  naneieesz,  exhevo, 
since  he  admitted  to  have  said  so  (lit.  well  yes,  1 
spoke  so, he  said).  .  . 

admission,  hoxsz’nistoz  (usually  to  membership);  eseo- 
-  zistoz .admission, entrance , the  becoming  enter¬ 
ed;  hoxsz ’ netanoxtoz , the  wanting  an  admission;  esaa- 
esz’nistovhan, there  is  no  entering;  zeto 
hetan  esaahoxsznistovhan  hevetov,  there  is  no  admis¬ 
sion, membership  for  this  man;  zeheshoxstans  nahesse- 
pevetano , I  rejoice  that  one  (or.)  has  been  admitted, 
about  one’s  admission;  taxtA  hehe  heShestoz,  free  ad¬ 
mission  ,  confession  ( open, public ) ;  saaheztomohestoz , 
non-denial , admission . 

admonish,  naoneev&toe  .  I  a .  ,  advi^ft-i  naoneevamo  (or.),na- 

-  oneevAta  (in.);  naohaevAtoe,  I  a. with  counsel; 

naohaevamo  (or.),  naohaevAta  (in.);  naohaevAtoe,  I 
a. with  warning.  Suff.-vAtoe  (genit . ) ,-vamo  (or.)  and 
-vAta  (in.)  denotes  urging,  coaxing,  admonishing,  ex¬ 
horting.  Axtom ,  Ger . achtung ,  passt  Acht !  (imper.sec. 
per., pi.);  vavekSxz,  reminding  of  one’s  duty,  either 
forgotten  or  neglected.  VavekSxz  natanegeve , this  time 
I  must  not  forget  to  do  it!  Ger.  Jetz  aber  in  ernst! 
Navonhosemo , I  a . one , persuade ;  navonhostomosan , I  am  an 
admonisher , exhorter ;  navonhosemo  emeaseoxz.I  a.,  per¬ 
suade  one  to  leave;  namomehememo ,  I  a ., exhort , enforce 
upon  one  by  promise  (also  used  for  "flatter");  naho- 
zeovosemo.or  nahozeovoseto , I  a. one, make  one  hope, urge 
to  hold  on;  see  hope;  naAtozeeno,  I  a. one  to  listen 
to  (by  touching, poking) .  ZeoneevAtoesz , or  zeoneevAto- 
mosansz , the  one  admonishing;  zeoneevAto,  the  one  who 
admonishes  it;  zeoneevamsz , the  one  admonished;  zeone- 
evamess5,the  ones  admonished;  zevonhosetanevaz ,  the 
one  exhorting  (having  that  gift  or  habit) ;  zevonhos- 
tomosansz , the  one  who  admonishes  (doing  it  constantly 
or  as  a  vocation);  zehozeovosesz ,  the  admonished, 
made  to  hold  on;  zemomeheraosansz ,  or  zemomehemosansz , 
the  one  admonishing , exhorting , enforcing  upon , flatter¬ 
ing  :  zeAtozeensz , the  one  brot  to  attention  by  being 
poked  or  touched;  hooxceesztov&z  nasz  zenohdtanoozz 
Atozeeno,  when  thou  art  speaking  to  one  who  becomes 
listless, make  him  listen  by  (gently)  poking  him!  Ma- 
acseo  eoxcenonametdAtozeenAzeo ,  old  men  will  make 
themselves  listened  to  by  poking  each  other, 
admonition,  oneevAtoestoz ,  the  a.,  redress;  oneevamsa- 
nistoz,  the  admonishing;  vonhosemazistoz , 
mutual  urging, a.;  vonhostomosanistoz ,  state  of  ad¬ 
monition, urging;  momehememazi^toz .mutual  admonition, 
(by  promise):  Atozeenazistoz .mutual  urging  to  listen 
to  (by  poking):  evonhostomohestov ,  it  is  an  admoni¬ 

tion;  evonhostomoetto , it  admonishes;  nahevonhostomo- 



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tf.dcv-6'  (h)  estov,  I  have  an  admonition  (to  give).  1 

adopt ,  namhonoenenoz, I  adopt  one  as  child;  namhonheyae- 
noz,I  adopt  him  for  son;  namhonhestonaenoz , I  a- 
dopt  her  for  daughter;  naoxsenovo,  I  adopt  one  (for 
resemblance  sake). If  a  Ch. loses  a  child  by  death  and 
happens  to  see  another  one , resembling  his  oirn.he  will 
adopt  it;  zehesevostanehevs  naneghestana, I  adopt  his 
way  of  living;  naneshestana  vehoevsanistoz,  I  adopt 
white  man’s  clothing  =1  take  after  white  man’s  cloth¬ 
ing;  zeoxcheSemesesz  veho  nanegemesse,  I  adopt  the 
white  man’s  way  of  eating  (the  way  he  eats,  the  white 
man, so  I  eat).  Zemhonoenetovata , the  one  whd  adopted 
thee  as  child;  zevehonevsz  namhonoenetoen ,  ‘ 

adopts  us .  J) .  ujj, , 

■  adoption,  jnhonoenetovazistoz, adoption  (as  chili 

■  U^wr^nbv-astoz.adoptionCfrom  resemblance) . 

—  adorn ,  namanseonan,  namanseonaoxz  (in.),  namanseonaovc  . 

(or.)  I  adorn,  ornament;  namanseonaotoT  I  adorn 
one;  napevseonaoxz ,  I  ad.  it  fine;  epevseonaoe ,he  is 
well  adorned;  navaxe.I  am  adorned  .fixed  up;  Viava  xee-^'"*^ 
I  //  n°  ’  ^  fix>  adorn  one.  The  rad.  —  manseo— \ref .  to/^~ 

A  iff  things  put  cn  as  ^1 .  ,  and  rad. 

- *-*'*'  •  <.  /  tty  ■ 

W  >>>addrning,  manseonanistoz* the  adorning;  manseonaova  . : f -  ~ 

^‘■S£&£&^naoxzist°z>done  t0  one-  PopevanS.zis- 
toz ,  t  ne' making  iKr.  e  .beautiful ;  vaxehestoz,  the  fixing 
—  up, arraying.  £c<^ckzc‘i+e+'*,Le  a^l 

He  adultery,  heocestoz , cheating  with  woman;  ocetovazistoz , 
m m  ‘  {pity  mutual  adultery  .cheating;  heoceo  ,n.  agent ;  ehe- 

Id) ;  <5xse-  ^ 

H^^JJCSoneve ,  one  is  aduterer;  hee  navesseocemo ,  I  commit 
"jp>  adultery  with  a  woman;  mataevestoz , adultery  in  g ener-W/^^- 
*^>1, fornication;  emat£eve,she  is  an  adulteress;  mata- 
J#°Stanehe're3t0Z|life  of  adultery;  tonBenovehestoz , 

<do°se  life  ,  lasciviousness  .adultery ;  etcnSenovd, she  is ‘***n*J'‘^  y* ’ 
loose;  etonSenoxka ,  he  is  loose;  acts 
v  *  *>-'in  a  bad  way  (used  also  for  adultery)-  masavoetastoz , 

n  &J  ■  l°°se  behavior .  ul  a/1  <«_**<■*<-*- 

aavance,  nahephooto , . I  am  in  advance  of  one  !(on  /  the 
: *-,n  road , beating) ;  navovoehoto , I  am  in  * 

fore  one;  Inf.  -hepe-  =in  advance,  beyond, over  (see 
^4  Uff* "  comparison) .more  than.  Maeto,  in  front,  before, in  ad- 
|  Vance ;  maeto  naamecxz ,  I  go  in  front  (vorher)  in  ad- 
^W'f’T^/yance ;  maeto  naamenevo.I  walk  in  advance  of  another; 

1  i  ^  sub,pref •  zehe§saa-  =in  advance,  before  that, (Germ, 
ehe);  enae  zeheSsaavomovo ,  he  died  before, in  advance 
*.■1.11*,  of  my  seeing  him)  I  saw  him;  Inf.  -nista-  =before- 
ij  » W  hand, in  advance;  noxa  natanistahotono  zetoseesztovfiz , 
jjgm'sfS  wait,  I  will  inform  him  in  advance  that  thou  willt 
Jp.:  speak  to  him;  nanistastanen,  I  buy  on  credit .before- 
V-  hand;  nitao  zenistastanendtto.all  thou  hast  bought  in  '  j 

^H|  advance;  nistaenanomohestoz , advance  money. 



rAL|  I  ■  j  Wglish-cheyenne  dictionary 

advantage,  is  an  advantage , gain ;  ehooztse- 

- — jt  is  advantageous;  ehoozetovazeo ,  they 

iitftre  of  advantage,  profit  to  each  other  (see  profit); 
.Hi/11,  /  ehoozenovensz . they  (in.) are  of  advantage;  ehoozenov- 
eo  they  (or.)  are  of  adv.  ;  tah  makatansz  etonShooz- 
0  Vt*0'  tseonevensz  etov?  how  does  money  he  advantageous  to 

ziM'l  '  thee?  Nitao  zeaenom  tah  eton§hoozenov  etov  mxhamoxta 
o  ^  fit')  dtto’  all  thou  possessest  how  can  it  be  of  advantage 
to  thee,  if  thou  art  sick?  Makatansz  esaahooz- 
Wnai+I)  enovhanehensz  maveSeononistoetastovesz .money  is  of_no 
ITU  advantage  when  used  foolishly.  Nitao  zevovistomoez 

d  pavevostaneo  eohShoozenovez’  etovan,  all  that  good  ■ 

people  teach  us  is  of  great  advantage  for  us;  hepao- 
sanistoz , the  being  an  advantage;  nahfepaosan,  I  advan¬ 
tage;  vovonanovastoz , advantage , supremacy .victory . 

: venturous,  rendered  by  inf.  -saahezev(a)-  =bold;  na- 

-  saahezevavoetahe ,  I  act  boldly.  See  bold. 

Nasaahezevaheoneve ,  I  am  adventurous.  The  meaning  is 
rather  "venturesome"  than  "adventurous", 
adverb.  All  infixes  that  modify  the  verb  are  adverbs 

-  and  end  with  an  e  before  verbal  stems, except 

when  the  last  begin  with  an  h.  When  a  predicative 
meaning  .is  implied  the  infixe  usually  terminates  with 
-a  or  -ae ,  e.g.  .  epevae,  one  is  good;  emonae,  one  is 
fresh, young;  ehavsevae , one  is  bad;  epeveesz.he  speaks 
well;  now, recently, speaks;  ehavseveesz ,he 
speaks  badly.  Adverbs  come  under  the  nomenclature  of 
infixes.q.v.  Some  adverbs  can  also  be  used  detached 
from  the  verb,  in  which  case  they  are  suffixed  by 
-(e) tto , e .g.nasdhovevomo , I  see  one  suddenly;  sehovet- 
to  navomo,  suddenly  I  see  him;  — anhoe—  downward;  nan- 
hoeneoxz ,  I  go  downward;  anhoetto  naneoxz, downward  I 
go.  Thus  the  adverb  becomes  detached  when  more  stress 
is  layed  upon  it.  A  remnant  of  old  adverbial  forms  is 
surviving  in  words  like:  oatos!  of  course  self-evid¬ 
ently,  that  is  a  matter  of  course , obviously ;  otamenos , 
genauerweise , pay ing  exact  attention  to;  taxamenos , in¬ 
quiringly,  inquiring  "wise";  anincs,  carefully,  in  a 
careful  way;  mom&tanos , in  a  respectful  way.frommer- 
weise.  These  examples,  show  that  adverbial  suf f .  —os 
or  -menos  is  the  eqv.of  the  En§.  -wise  in  the  sense 
of  manner  or  way.  ^  ,  «-*-*- 

adversary,  onehe , opponent ,  the  one  against  (n.agent.); 

zeoneztasz , the  adv.(stat.)  zeoneztosz ,my  adv. 

'  ^nemyr-zetfifevo^hasz, the  one  who  dqals  against  me, =  my 
j  adversary.  See  enemy, foe.  k.  —  l*-*1 

Pt  -1'-  adverse, rendered  by  inf.  -one-  =not  one  with, adversely ; 

1  '  ^  nadne-ne§eve , I  do  it  reluctantly, adversely ;  na- 

r  .gW^.^dneztovo.I  am  adv. to  one , act , behave  so;  eoneztae,  one 
c\\(Kd  -i-s  adverse  (stat.);  edneztaheoneve ,  one  is  adv.  (in 

\C,°\  a,*’  character  .held  so);  naonevodho.I  act  against  one, deal 



'S&3K&?*'  1 


adversely  unto  one;  nabnevoeta.I  act  adversely,  am  an 
"adverse-doer";  onehe , adversary , n . agent . ;  onevostan, 
adverse  person;  onevostanehevestoz , adverse  fortune  or 
fate,  inimical, ho-stile  way  of  living;  naoneztaetovo,  I 
am  adverse  towards  one;  oneztastoz,  the  being  adv. ; 
oneztaetovazistoz , the  being  adv . towards  .one ;  onevoeiY./A**-*-' 
tastoz , adv . do ing . 4-^-e-  tv/.  {■>  -  beVc.  ,  ^a-, 

adversity,  haomenestoz ,  adv.,  affliction;  heovazefoomeo 
zehoehotata.all  the  adversity , suffering  which 
comes  upon  thee;  hegkovceSe-vostanehevestoz.adv.  life^//*-«-  ‘ 
(lit.  life  of  thorns);  heSkovoeSe-voomenestoz, adverse. 
sufferings.  See  affliction,  suffering, hurt,4^v^/'«^,^«^<''y’' 
advertise ,  nap&ena  mxisto,  I  post  bills  (lit.  ' I  paste  ' 
paper);  hesthoxtovato  eamehaz’  ( or : eamSemez ’ ) 
hoxtahanemxistoneheva,  his  merchandise  is  advertised 
in  the  newspaper;  hesthoxtovato  ehoxev&tovez ’  mxisto- 
neheva  (or:  hoxtahanemxistoneheva) , his  goods  are  adv. 
in  the  paper  (lit.  are  heralded);  mxisto  eveShoxeva-  is  advertised  in  the  paper;  ehoxeva  zetoshox- 
tovatovez’ ,he  advertises  a  sale, 
advertisement ,  zeoxcepaene  mxisto,  advertising  paper; 

”  hoxevatoz , the  heralding, advertising;  ze- 

hoxevatove  mxistoneheva.that  which  is, .^raided  in  the 
paper;  masdhoxtovatoz  ehoxev&tove,  "mass"  sale  adver-  . 
tisement.  ief  r£>l*4c+& 

advice ,  oneevatohestoz , counsel , admonition;  c^ieevaosan-  ' 
istoz , the  giving  advice , counsel, redress ;  -v&toe, 
to  advise,  becomes  -vata  (with  in.  obj.)  and  -vamo . 

(with  or . obj ) , hence  differenj/ nouns  as  oneevatatoz 
and  oneevamazistoz .  VovistomOsanistoz , advice ,  the  ad-  _  ./  , 
vising, teaching;  onoevamazistoz , well  advice, 
advise,  the  three  suff  .mentioned  lender  "advice"  (-vatoe ,  '  / 

IrrtrfW  -v^ta  and  -vamo-Tdenote  advising, urging, admonish- 
Hr  ting.  counseling  or  persuading.  They  can  be  suff. to  any*****.  ^ 
^B^A*^** rad.  susceptible  of  above  meaning, e.g.  napavevamo  ,  Ifna 

\  n  '  •  ■  -  - 

susceptible  of  above  meaning,  e.g.  ^  ,  - - y  , 

a^dvise  one  to  be  good;  nahavsevevamo ;  I  to  be 
JiHd ad;  nahessevamo , I  adv.  urge  one  to  come;  namanevamo, 

to  leave, etc.  See  persimdg^--^*^^^^^-4^**^'-  • 

_ty,  hoxaztah^&nbv^stoz.aff .  ,  congenialty ,  friend- 
si"  .a<V¥in£a«'f''hotoastoz, aff. kindheartedness. 
i^Jafftofe^ehroifaztaheoneve ,  one  is  aff.  nihoxaztaetova.h^*^,^-^-^/*- 
H aff.  towards  thee;  zehoxaztaheonevsz , 
ti;  nahoxaztaeztovo ,  I  behave  affably  towards 

0ne  ‘  -a-A Wlec'/'  u.STa  — 

affect, f'su.ff ,-mftno-  =pretend;  ehamoxtaman,  he  affets 
^ —  jbe  sick.  See  pretend;  is  affected , 

'  hit  by  ;  naheznessesz ,  I  aff. that  it  - ;naheznessbho  , 

aff.tjlat  one  ....;  nitao  zehoehotaez , zetoeoez ,  7_ 

emxaoflez.all  that  affects , comes  to, touches  us.  faynjHRffil! 

_ ,  vhanenhessemanistoz,  aff  .hypocrisy;  heto 

»  &Ma “2  is!  v  .*  *r  ^  4  Cfr:^  tt*~ 



m  is  only  affectation;  vhanevom- 
sohestoz.aff . artificial, shallow  display;  evhanevomsd- 
i  is  only  affectation. 

ffected,  is  affected;  heoce, masc.n. agent ; 

heoka.fetu.n.  agent,  the  affected  one;  eheocevom- 
‘  ’  "sd.he  is  aff. showy, dude;  evhanenhessemaneheoneve ,  he 

is  affected, pretending  one. 

affection,  mehoxtastoz .mehoxtaeonevestoz , kind  love;  na- 
mehosanetovo ,  I  have  an  aff. for  one;  inf.— he- 
tos-  =fond  of, bent  on, habit  of;  ehetostoam, one  has  an 
affection  for  horses  (is  fond  of  them);  ehetosemane, 
he  has  an  aff. for  drink, (has  the  drink  habit);  nahe- 
tos&z.I  have  an  affection  for, am  fond  of;  hetosazis- 
toz, fondness, affection  for;  mehosanistoz ,  love,  aff. 
namehosetanotova.he  shows  affection  for  me. 
affectionate,  emehoxtaeoneve , one  is  affectionate;  ehox- 
]  L  ,  .ApJ'  aztaeoneve , one  is  af.  friendly;  mehoxtaez- 

[lOTO^1'  ^^Kovaz  nonametd ,  be  affectionate  one  ' 
n  actual  behavior);  inf.  -vovbnege- 

if^tenderly ,  affectionately  ;  nivovonegetanotoen.he  thinks 
us  with  affection;  nivovdnethozeohetoen,  he  works 
/•  MW  for  us  with  tender  care  (as  nurse  for  her  patient). 

Crj’  I  affiliate,  nanaiif vaeoxz , I  belong  with, one  with;  enoto- 
vaeoxz.he  is  not  af.  does  not  belong  to;  inf. 
-vess-  denotes  association,  partnership,  affiliation; 
navessevo.I  am  af.  with  one;  navistoe.ta,  I  am  af.  in 
doings, performances;  nivisthozezevemo , thou  art  af. 
accomplice  with  one;  naveoxzemaon,navessevaon,my  com¬ 
panion  (the  one  affiliated  with  me;  naheveoxzemadnen- 
oz  ,he  is  my  companion ,  aff  iliate  ;  naveaz,  I  af.  with, 
go  with, belong  to. 

affiliation,  vistoetastoz , af .  in  acts, deeds;  vessevazi- 
toz.the  being, going  with;  vesthozezevestoz , 
the  being  accomplice;  veazistoz , the  belonging  to. 
affirm,  hehe  naheve.I  affirm, I  say  yes;  nahetomemosan, I 
~  af.  declare  of  true;  nahetomesta, I  af.  it,  dec¬ 
lare  it  (of  it)  true. 

affirmation,  hetomemosanistoz, declaration  of  truth;  he- 
he  he§hestoz,af .  the  saying  yes. 
affix,  v.napaanen.I  af.  fix  to,  seal,-paana  (in.),pano 
(or.);  napoen.I  af.  to, patch  (having  reference  to 
flat  pieces);  -poenoxta  (in.),  -poenoto  (or.)  nahoen, 

I  af.  patch  (in  the  sense  of  adding  to  the  length  or 
width),  hoenoxta  (in.),  -hoenoto  (or.);  nahoenoxta 
navenoz,I  affix, attach  to  my  tipi  (in  adding  to  it); 
ep§.aene,it  is  affixed, sealed;  epieoz,  it  becomes  af. 
pasted, adherent  (to  a  surface);  epoenoe,  it  is  af. 
patched  (sp.  of  the  patch  or  object  patched);  ehoe-  is  af.  patched  (by  adding  to).  See  tie. 
affix,  n.See  respective  nomenclatures  of  pref.,inf.  and., 
suff .  -P&anenistoz.the  aff ixing, sealing;  pianeo, 


a  a//,  f-ST'r**'  ;  a.  ^7/ui^A 

Ut^*7  /  </_  vir  /r^sLf'AS'U.  *7.  x}*a£i>  *//,•+*  /  x 

**+/  I*** * 


affix, stamp, seal . 

M-Vy'  av? /y?‘£-*4 

_ _  -uPLd  ?  et~ %ci-C'isi-£U''04'lc4,  $  aJ-  t'u-*-~ 

afflict,  naonddho , I  af f  ,'*'‘hu£t , hartT  one ;  nahSomenesdho , 

I  aff. one, cause  him  sufferings  or  misfortune; 
naohaoeho , I  aff ., oppress .deal  hard  with  one;  naanove- 
tanoho , I  aff. one, make  him  sad;  naanovetanosoe , I  cause 

afflicted,  nahaomen.I  am  afflicted;  naanovetanooz , I  be- 
te&f.'i  Vn^.  come  sad ,  sorrowful ,  aff.;  nahaomeoz,  I  become 
‘  f  aff.;  namomohenoomen, I  am  aff. greatly  distressed;  na- 
mhaomeeoz ,  I  am. utterly  aff.;  naanovae.I  am  sad.sor- 
rowful ,aff . ( stat . ) ;  zehaomenesz,  the  aff. one;  zeano- 
tSsz , the  sad,  aff. one;  zeohaoesz,  the  aff.  oppressed 
one;  zeanovetanosz , the  one  to  whom  affliction  is  im- 
-V^arted;  See_suff  er ,  trouble  .misfortune  .U*- pr/ts*-, prr*i/****- ■  . 

B  , M  4 var flic t i o n ,  haomenestoz  , bereavment ;  haomeo , n . agent ;  ha-^^^ 
WTAr  -jar  omeozistoz.aff .  ,  the  becoming  afflicted;  ano-^^% 
B£-)  </,^ve^anox'toz  i  affliction,  sadness  (in  thot,  mental 
Jj"  state);  anoyastoz ,  af  f .  ,  sadness  _(state  of);  anovetan-4 

ehaomene  s  oh.&l£******-*$  — 

J--  state);  anovastoz ,  aff .  ,  sadness  (state  of);  anoveta  n- 
k  J?  ,  xze§e, growth, field, realm  of  affliction,  zqytq:, 

HU '  eanovetanosohetto  ,  it  is  aff  •  - 7  A 

J  causes  affliction. 

B9'  afford,  nahoxtamesta,  I  aff. reach  to  it;  nasaahoxtl 
‘  _  tohe  ememeatto.I  cannot  aff.  to  give  it;  zehed-. 

hSstoemakataemas  emevoeSemeaa  hovae  ,.*««re-e  he  has  much 
money,  he  can  afford  (lit.  he  may  well  give)  to  give 
something;  zenstamenoehevsz  esaaxamahoxtamistohe  mxa- 
stovsanistoz.the  poor  cannot  afford  gorgeous  clothing 
(cannot  reach  it).  Oftentimes  the  inf.  -ton§(e)-  =ab- 
ility  of, means  of  e.g.  zeheghamoxtas  emetonShozeohe? 
Since  he  is  sick, how  could  he  work?  ZehegsaahemakSta- 
ems  emetonSeneoxzd , since  he  has  no  money  how  can  he 
afford  to  go?  Nanexovae,  I  can  afford, come  up  to  re¬ 
quirements  ,  am  equal  to. 
affright,  see  frighten, scare, afraid, 
afire, see  fire .burning. 

afloat,  etahokovoeo , it  is,  afl ., floating  on  top, surface; 

“  is  (or  one  is)  afl . .drifting;  naamo- 
J,  l/  eo,I  am  afloat .drifting.  See  float. 

afraid,  nadtoxtae,  I  am  afraid;  nadho,  I  am  afraid  of 
■f  hi 1  '/hf*-  one!  nadta.I  am  afraid  of  it;  dtoxtastoz , the  be- 
^H^JM^ing  afraid;  inf.  -saajaTez(e)-  =not  afraid;  na,saa^feze- 
^-^.vemo.I  am  not  afraid  to  tell  of  him;  nasaaljlezevavoe- 
■  ^rftehe.I  am  not  afraid  to  do, am  venturesome  doer;  zee- 
WL^flP^  toxtassd ,  the  afraid  ones;  zedto^s.fjipvfaa  .those  who  are 
^  /  At  afraid  of  something;  end data, he  is  afraid  of, (from 
superstition,  something  tabooed)’ .  Some  Ch.fear  certain 
animals  or  objects .which  they  superstitiously  believe 
«"  ilave  occult  or  malevolent  inf  luence ,  e  .g.  homa  eno- 
eata.he  is  afraid , superstitious  about  the  beaver;  na- 
xamaetoxta.I  am  naturally,  simply  afraid;  dtoxtastoz 
i/r  nszhoeh°'ta>fear  shall  come  upon  thee ; naetoxtasdho ,  I 

n.  t 

-i/Tyba-  i)  - 

.  oMun. 

gj  Cn~u*>h'A*  rdjd-,  ^  u^tL.luut'  ^  /  , 

%^a^UuMij  Lj  CJ.  -  U^o£J  -  r>"  -  :  ^C^^e^Tyl 

VaiUu'  ^  <»vt Ht_  vum  ;9-i‘rA.f-  -jdtU-tL  <■+;  vuuc^ypoT o~,  *  *  ‘^5wVt  aTic\  - 
\i^fl^UVKV-ai^  aiUu  *>bvx*-  iVi-, »  zA«<L  ;b,^a^.<>y.7  **W,  «-^’y 

we"  ii  wu*.Ji  <**■ ;  V  ttc3^«.  (w^5 ■■  ^^3 


#«**.  /«•  lU^-t.  4+*-  AJ~r-r-*- 

\J  cause  one  'to  be  afraid;  dtoxtasohestoz, cause  of  being 
f  afraid.  See  fear. Inf.  -ise-  afraid  of .hesitating, e .g. 
eiseneoxz.he  is  afraid, hesitates  to  go;  niisedsztovo , 

/  A  you  are  afrai(l  to  speak  to  one;  nasaaiseneSeve ,  I  do 
£/*•/*"*>  it  without  hesitation,  fear .  /^u,  t^fc  W  ♦***'  |s  — 

after, -"inf 7  -ege  [ from  -gfe~^~  lying]  denotes  the  space 
"  of  time  lying  after  a  specified  action  or  condi- 
'  gU^  tion  and  =d°ne,e.g.  naeSemese,  I  am  done  eating  (the 
.,F^in  terval  following  the  eating);  nataedemesse , I  shall, 

Jl# »•  ^  will  be  done  eating  =after  I  shall  have  eaten.  In  the 


sub.cj.  the  pref.ze-,  preceding  -ede-  (becoming  zee- 
de-)  =af ter , in  the  sense  of  being  done , e .g. zeedeemes- 
e  etto, after  I  had  eaten  (=  being  done  eating).  [Do  not 
jve,-  ‘'‘^confound  with  pref.  zehege-  =  as ,  since  ]  .When 
h1*  *'  ^>ior  mata-  precedes  -ede-,  (becoming  mataeSe-  or  maede-) 

T it  means  after, being  done, refer. to  a  mediate  or  imme- 
**f.  ^diate  future,  e.g.  mataedenSetto ,  after  I  shall  be 
dead;  maedevomo  niszeoxzeo, after  thou  shalt  have  seen 
iri'/Lj  Jf'  him  come  hither.  Thus  zeege-  denotes  after, refer,  to 
:  L^'l  t  p.  past, and  maege-  or  mataege-  =  after  refer,  to  future. 
[, ,.(J‘  ■)  Both  prefixes  govern  the  sub.cj.  Inf.  -hestoxe-  =af- 

4*  ter, in  the  sense  of  behind;  nahestoxhoeoxz, I  came  af- 


'§  C^L  ‘ 

r  '"fh 
a  ,  r 


[ y  ing  of  "after"  in  the  sense  of  succeeding, 
..A1  .^.getting;  nanehea,!  am  after , following  it; 

j ter, behind, last,  not  in  front;  letter  n  followed  by 
either  one  df~The  vowels  a,  and  o  carries  the  rnean- 

f ollowing, 

■  ^.gBuuig;  nanenea ,  1  am  alter ,  roil  owing  it;  nanesevos- 
>«/* _ taneheve.I  live  accordingly , after  it;enhe,he  keeps  at 
){t*  (a  place).  Hence  nanoxzevomo,  I  seek  one,  ich  suche 
j  t*  nach  ihm;  nanoxzeovo.I  seek  where  he  is;  nanohoz  hoe- 
iL^n  voxkdz , I  get  meat,  ich  komme  nach  Fleisch;  nanozto- 

/'  ^A'vo,  I  inquire  (after)  of  him;  inf.  -honaov(e)-  im-. 

i 1  plies  the  one  after, next  to,  second, next  in  rank  to, 
J**  j  e.g.  zehonaove/^ft^taevsz , the  Vice-President;  zehonao- 

venitaesz , MMi^erte  next  to  the  master  or  ruler.  While 
•  *  .  letter  r^HTdlies  coordination,  after,  succeeding ,  the 
it/s  nS*'  con}rp^ njeaning  is  brot  in  by  letter  d, which  implies 
/'A'  %/^erpp  intending  =  no  more  after,  e.g.  naenemese.I 

(r  °P  eating;  ednotovae,  he  is  beheaded.  Inf.  -nd-  or 

A  is  e<l'v‘-to  English  pref ,un-  and  in-, e.g.  nanita- 

Irufiy'it'  vana>1  change, unset  its  coordination;  nanitana.I  pull 
l>lf-  11  out  (after  it  had  been  set  in).  See  letter  n.  In 

'fl/t'  repetition  of  an  action  or  condition, one  after  anoth- 

lyt'  er  the  Ch.use  the  reduplicating  form, e.g,  oedeva,  day 
<  ,  L !r  >,  after  day  =every  day ; totSeva, night  after  night  =every 
flvr  j  ni§ht;  epopevoeta,  one  does  good  repeatedly;  ehathavs- 
y  w  LtA  U/wvo&ta.,  one  does  bad  repeatedly;  nameto,!  give  to  one; 

,  1^  n  namometo.I  give  to  each, one  after  another.  Inf.  — ho- 

r  Jr*‘  •  is  also  used  for  "  one  after  another",  e.g.  eho- 

*  4r5eanao  hotoxceo.the  stars  are  falling  one  after  ano¬ 

ther;  ehotoehetoviizeo , they  follow, come  one  after  each 
other.  See  line, row. 

(  o-v«_  o^n. 

— .'UsQaAsG  C&.  -  r^A-e-  22 

„ <Vtf  ffuv/crwf  _  t«-  tvvctj 

frvu.  r/'  C 

—  'WC  M.D  u.-  -vv»  ffVcb  -  pv.4.  \ 






„U0?e— ,  2a£(*'  f*t 

'  I  'turpe  ru^kfy kfk>L 

■7L^^Ja/^J&';'£itUf~ - /  - 


afterbirth,  hestahe.  Is  usually  tied  fast  together  and 
placed  in  the  crotch  of  a  tree. 
afternoon,  zeeSesitovos  or  zeesensitovos ,  after  the 
middle  of  the  day  (ref.  to  past);  mataegesi- 
tovos  or  mataeSensitovos ,  afternoon  =  when  it  shall 
be  after  the  middle  of  the  day.  [Esitovos  =  it  hangs 
in  the  middle, sp. of  the  sun].  This  expression  is  gen-  ' 
eral  and  can  have  ref.  to  the  whole  afternoon, from 
1-4  o' clock, but  when  the  time  is  to  be  stated  more 
exactly  the  terms  -homos  and  -kaos  are  used.  ZeeShom- 
os, afternoon  about  2-3  o’clock;  zeeSekaos  refers  to 
the  time  of  the  afternoon  from  5-7  o'clock.  These 
terms  become  in  disuse  among  younger  Ind.  who  have 
learned  to  divide  the  day  into  hours.  Zenokxeo.ze- 
nisxeo.zenanxeo,  zenivxeo  zednsitovos,  1,2,3  etc. o’c¬ 
lock  in  the  ^'afternoon.  Mavona  matadnsitovos , to-morrow 
af terno on ;mavona  madnsitovos  matanisxeo , to— morrow  af¬ 
ternoon  at  2  o’clock;  han  eSeva  zeesdnsitovos  zenanx- 
eo , the  other  day, at  3  o’clock  in  the  afternoon;  zis- 
t6e§esitovos  noxsetto  zistakaos,  the  whole  afternoon 
[lit. from  the  very  middle  of  the  being  suspended  un- 
\  t11  it  suspended  short  from  (horizop) ] .Nistoha  maoxc- 

\  dnsitovos  ,  every  afteroon.  n.M  '-  ..1. tuV kA <rW-A-W tWT~  I 

I  Afterward ,  hohoma  (on  this  side);  hohomaevetto ,  shortly 
afterward;  nheS , then, then  afterward;  ninita, 
after ... .until  now,  ever  since,  from  there  on  until 
l  now;  niszetS,  ever  after,  until  here;  hotama.soon'  af-  I 

\  ter ,gleich  darauf. 

r  j^gain’  _hosse“  inf-  again, a  second  time  j^^hot  ’  se-  =  g? -.u/JLjna-  , 
gain  and  again, over  and  over;  -evhdsse-  =  back  a- I 
gain;  -evhatse-  =  back  again  and  again, repeatedly ; 

-honaov(e)-  again  as  much. Ehossenegeve ,  one  does  it 
gain;  nahot  ’  seneoxz ,  I  go  again  and  again;  naevhaseme-  *- 

to, I  give  it  back  again  (to  one);  eevhatseneoxz,one^%L*<>/ 

'  goes  back  again  and  again;  nahonaovemetan,  I  am  given 
to  again  as  much.  Inf.  -evha-  =  back, but  is  now  also 

used  in  the  sense  of  "again";  naevhakaggoneve ,  I  am  a- - 

child  again  (return  to  childhood).  Hotxsetto  .again'  - 
and^again,  over  and  over.e.g.  hotxsetto  nakokonoha  he-  ">  . 

nito.over  and  over  I  knock  at  the  door. 
against,  -one-  and  dnez-  as  inf.  denotes  against, ad 

j.  — w  »  ^  ‘ OgOlllO  L  ,  au-  1 

verse, hostile.  Naoneztovo,  I  behave  adverse  to 
f/Lc-\  ’  one  tsee  adverse];  edneztaetovazeo ,  they  are  against  $ 

each  other;  eonehozeohe.he  works  against,  fmit  Wider-  '  * 

cde*  | 



other;  eonehozeohe.he  works  against,  (mit  Wider- 
willen)  reluctantly;  edneztaenohe ,  he  looks  adverse, 
ram,  opposed;  zeoneztaetdess ,  those  who  are  against  me , my  4^ 
**  enemies.-  Natohaheztovo  (or.)  I  am  against, oppose  / 

•  f4*M4^0ne  ’  natohahezesta,  I  am  against  it;  eheto_eoxz ,  it  A 
^^Jrolls  (or. when  sp.of  stones)  against;  enxhetoeoxz,  it 
f  (also  or.)  comes  rollig  against;  navdstaenoz.he  is  my 
,luu^tirv^v°nent  £?esner);  navdstaetovo ,  I  am  against  (not 
*'  ‘h  - 

P  Ol  \J  0  e 

■  f  ^  ^ ;lb  nJ° 

bnglish-cheyeiNne  dictionary  K  /  vTj,1  aogravate 

k(  .  LI  r  rKUV«-.V  t'*  **?**•,  As  .  f  i 

;b^  ■ 


te./'l  a. 



~$Tl U- 'U-c  _nA-uev<i.-v  tY  m/ «g^  J 

^th)  one.  Inf.  -v6-  is  used  in  the  prohibitive  f om' 
and  means  "be  not  with",  e.g.  nivemesse,  do  not  eat 
Inf.  -ata-  and  -xaata-  =  against,  straight  against 
..facing  against.  [See  face].  Aox.over  against,  the  o 
7*^1 /irtKer  side;  oneota, against, contrary  to;  natoeovo.I  go 
^ /^against  one  (friendly  or  hostile);  eveStSeoe  hoemS,  it 
W  against  the  law;  eve§e6neztaetoe  hoemanistoz , itX 
^i^^/^vHgainst  (inimical  to)  the  law;  hosz  zestoetastoyg  e-  /*r^/ 
-Jesetoeoe  hoemanistoz ,  some  of  the  Ch.  ceremonials  are 
VF^fU K^/^gainst  the  law;  is  against  mOy/l  disdain 
Vi fif  Q^T'  it;  naoxkanomeShaevamo.v&tometto  'emasaje^ta,  agair"+ 

1  niy  warning  advice  he  leads  a  had  life. 
t"  •  Von-  age  the  inf. denoting  years  Lfrom  a  =wi/nter,  in!  yn^v- 

#££  ert  state];  eotniSeSnama-  ^  one  is  twelve  years  of  _  ,_.y-A 

age;  zenigeanamassS ,  those  of  two  years  old, aged  two;-' 
zeheeSes  nstaneeShemd,  as  he  is  old  we  shall  he  old;, 
zemxistoneveSessfi  ,the  ones  of  school  age;  emeSevoze- 
veahe,he  is  of  hahy  age;  etoxtoeanama?  What  age  has 
;  a’ he?  is  of  my  age;  naveahetova,  I  am  of 

i-  his  age;  ehaeae.he  is  of  age;  esdzeceae,  he  is  stilly- 
j  jjlItZ*  young;  years, my  age;  haeEestoz ,  the  being 

of  age>  See  old>year-  Totanoome ,  in  ages,  past,  ref. to  J  .  ,  ^  ■ 

,/^epoch  [ totaiuysflL, tozanoom , long  ago];  n^/tavonoome ,  an-^^p^B 
cient  age, remote  epoch;  eoxnestoe^yrfexov,  in  all  the  L^j 
ages.durch  all  die  Zeiten;  emahapiseveahe ,  er  ist  inr  .y.y#'  j 
\\y*  Greisenalter . fclL«w-  iXJf^  <  £-ac^-  *  (j 

aft 7  agency,  meavehoeno  ,  the  agency  (o^  Ind. agency).  Inf.  m 

-veSe-  implies  means, agency, instrumentalityjheo- 
ij  . ,  i  motomeva  feveSemanhaoxtovedao ,  hy  the  agency  of  his 
hpeath( inspired  word)the/e  was  a  creation .When  -ve§e- 
ftr  JAlQ-  used, the  accompanying  n.  agent,  takes  an  ablative 
‘Jy  ♦*gyt*fform, usually  sff.-eva/or  -ov&.Mere  agency  is  express-  j 

'  .jMed  hy  sff.  -eva  addict  to  the  verbal  stem, e.g.  nameze- 

tAu*  fif*Vvaena,I  just  hand/1 1  over;  naonosetanaeva,  I  am  call-  ■  * 

fir  Jtk'^dUr  ing,for  another/'one ;  namanSevaena,  I  merely  make  it; 

i*  esztomotxev&tnz,  agency  of  speech  =  interpretation; 

V  ^n^sztomotxevane  ,n.  agent.  =  interpreter;  nahessevaena,  I 

^^^//TS^/ake  it  (not  to  keep),  am  instrunental  of  its  being 
taken;  n^no&nevaeno , I  let  one  go  out, am  instrument  of 
his  outgoing;  nahot§evaena,he  uses  me,  I  am  his  tool, 

Irytr  |  .‘✓jifotftrjXment .  [This  agency  form  (-vaen)  implies  always 

irt  duration  of  the  action  or  condition] .  .■ 

'agepX,  meaveho.Ind.  agent;  emeaevehoeve ,  he  is  Ind.  a- 
r .  (v-  «  gent,  [from  -mea  =to  give,  and  veho  =  whiteman]. 

'JuL j^TSesztomotxevaeheve , one  is  interpreter , the  instrument 

of  speaking;  venootxevahe , instrument t of  saving, 
agglomerate,  see  pile,  heap  together.  ^ 

aggrandize ,  namahaana  (in.). 

great , large .  J% 
aggravate ,  ehonaovhotoan/rtt 


hotoanavoomen/one’  s  i  suffering  is  aggravated 

•  V.  .t.  H  r<aJ>J'  L  l.  .  J)  .  a- 

k.  *  ,  W 1 

j\"CrV'Q..  t-u-  0-^^ 

CU^(  fdnr  eVvu  11 


hesthamoxtastoz  ehonaovanez* ,his  sickness  is  aggrava¬ 
ted;  ehonaovhSrr.oxta,  one  increases  being  sick ;  eveShon- 
aovhotoanazhestatov , by  it  the  condition  is  aggravate- 

;greSv> i ve ,  enakae,he  is  agg. active ,  industrious ;  e&eo 

one  becomes  agg. attacking, assaulting;  eveho-T 
nae , one  is  agg.,  goes  ahead;  eSevae,  one  is  agg. dili¬ 



n&kastoz, activity;  aeozistoz , the  rushing- 
^fhonastoz , the  go^ng  ahead;  gdvastoz, 

agitate<^momoxtomeoz,_it  becomes  agT,  sp.  of  a  body  of  cJ.-i’tlWXte- 
is  violently  agitat-  /'= 

( SP  •  Of" wureT^Sg  7(vf Mrid )  ;  namomoxtomana  map,  I  ag . 

.r/  the  water;  namomoxtana ,  I;  namomoxtano  ,  I  ag .  one^t«-«-£-*‘*'%^ 
i^ffroiI1-_rli0mo“  to  m°ve]-;  becomes  ag.  .moving;  '  is  wind  (ref. to  waves);  namomoo- 
sesz.I  ag.,  cause  it  to  move;  naohaetanooz , I  become 
ag. excited  (thinking  pitched  high);  namomoxtoea  or 
namoxtoea , I, stir  it  (liquids);  hovae  eton§eve§- 
emomoxtcmeozi sto v ,  by  some  reason  the  waters  became 
agitated;  nanxsovoea,  I,  stir  it .durcheinander 
■  ruhren  (of  liquids)  [also  used  in  the .fg  ]  See  move. 
agitation,  momoozistoz , ag. .becoming  moved;  momoxtanen- 
istoz.the  agitating;  momoxtSmeozistoz ,  agita¬ 
tion  of  waters  (becoming  so);  momoxtomanazistoz,  the 
agitation,  moving  of  the  water  (when  done  by  some 
one);  ohaetanoozi stoz , agitation , excitement ;  emaxohae- 
tanoozistov, there  is  a  great  excitement;  emaxehomSo-  ,A_ 
zistov, there  is  a  great  excitment  (in  a  crowd)  i 

agitator,  zemomoxtanensz , the  one  who  agitates;  momoxta- 
jH| yyfltfU-  neneo .momoosohe  (caus.).the  agitator;  ohSeta- * 

■'/^4n0S0he > ^eohaetanososz ,  the  one  who  cause  agitation, ex-  "tyr 

*  -ft-  'citement;  zetaneneo  zeve§emomoxtomane  map,  instrument,  '  ** 

tool  with  which  water  is  made  to  agitate; 
ago,  tozea.long  ago;  totanoom  or  tozanoom.the  long  ago;/./,  the  long  ago;  is  note 
long  ago;  moxhezd,  not  long  ago, awhile  ago!  This  is 
usually  an  exclamation.e.g.  moxhezd  ehoe !  Was  he  not 
here  just  a  while  ago! 

agony,  ozetanonavoomenestoz , distressing, suffering.  [-$- 
and  -oz-  =  break];  -tan  ref.  to  mental  condition 
and  -oomen  implies  suffering  [rel.  with  drying].  See 

agree,  naam&ta  (in.)  naamatovo  (or.)  I  agree, with,  eon- 
'  '  *  ir-  j*iS  sent  to:  efflan°hotoemazeo ,  they  agree  together,  are 
one  accord;  hestoxtaheonevo  esaaseeznettanehez ’ , 
$dP-c^fc>LC:ir  testimony  does  not  agree;  inf.  -se-  =alike,con- 
to  .harmonize ;  hapo  naneSetan.I  agree  with,  think 
n*‘~  "the  same, am  of  the  same  opinion;  emanohoemaneo ,  they 
together  make  a  law,  agree  in  making  a  rule;  eamata 
H  ■  h>*^-  /J/r iuX  umP^/  cu~cu^^  C++Lt-tM%  io*lh 


f)  fr-Vcu.  w  oY.  0, 

Of  e  unli.  ^  w»f  <WAv 


jlujut;  j  li/ A,ejUu< 

l trjrr4*tl:‘U. 


=->/*■*  1**£j 

l\  0^a*»~  knlk-w,  ftf-'a-uji 

U&l&y^j  zetoseveoxzemas ,he  agrees  to  go  with  me. 


(I  deem  it 

agr.;  eaxaetan 

agreeable,  is  agr. 

^  good) ;  napevatamo,!  deem  one 

,one  is  ag. friendly .pleasant  to  me;  ematatame . OCX 
'dne  (in. or  or.)  is  agreeable , deemed  so;  is 
agreable  (Ger . leutselig) ;  nahotoazesta  ( in . ) , nahotoa- 
'tamo,(or.)  I  deem  agreeable;  ehotoatamano ,  it  is  agr. 
sp.  of  weather  or  nature;  ehotoeoz,  it  becomes  agr.; 

^  ehotoevostaneheve , one  is  agr. lives  a  pleasant  life, 
agreement,  amatastoz, agr. .consent;  amatovazistoz,  mutu- 
vj*  al  agreement  (not  written);  eSexhoemanistove , 

the  agreement  has  been  made  (law  has  been  passed); 
nanitovhoemanheme ,we  pass  a  law, an  agreement  toge¬ 
ther;  nimehaeghoema(jliem&  na.  nimehaegemxana  mxisto,  we 
had  made  an  agreement  and  thou  hadst  signed .the  pa¬ 
per  .■jya*'/ ***- 
ague,  n.natosevomoxtastoz ,  chilly  f eeYmg j^nanaiTosevo- 
v  moxta.I  have  the  ague, chills;  [-natos-  =  cold]. 
si  'ahead,  goes  ahead, is  progressive,  aggress- 
U-*1  .  ive;  maeto,  in  front;  maeto  etaeSeneoxz,  he  has 

gone  ahead;  nanitae.I  am  ahead, ruler,  master;  maeto 
^heznetto , it  goes .proceeds  (gestaltet  sich)  ahead; 
maeto  naameox&e.tova, one  goes  ahead  of  me;  maeto  naa- 
>meoxzevo,I  go  ahead  of  one  (of  one’s  going) ; etaSenis- 
taaseoxz,  he  has  gone  ahead, beforehand;  maeto  emesta- 
no  zetoshessoz’ ,he  explained  ( reflect .m)  th'a^  which 

was  going  to  be^'A-«—  <*■  _ _ 

idy.  v.See  help.  TTavist&mo , I  aid  assist  one;  naomotahoT^L -r ^ 
,  y,.  y  ,  \I  aid, assist  one  (stehe  fiir  ihn  ein).  [This 
>C  v*Yi Vjp  ta-  is  used  in  the  substitutive  m.  See  gr.].  ,  .  - 

^  W  $ aid!  n.vistamosanistoz, faculty  of  helping;  vistamazis- 
*  n^ifFVT-/ t°z,  aid,  mutual  assistance.  Zevistamas  nanghesshoe-  7—. 

'' jJ> , Jr  oxz ,  I  came  here  by  his  aid.  See  help.  O'* 

ai j ,  namek  head  ails;  naevhSmata,  I  am  ail- 
jFm*!/'  ing;  nato  tonstae  ,  I  am  ailing;  nasaapevomoxtahe ,  I  do 
^ Vl  1  not  feel  well>am  alling>  feel  indisposed.  See  ache, 
fflHJwl  pain. 

,J r  ,  ailment,  hSmatazistoz ;  heovasz  heSehamatazistoz  naeSho-  ) 

V  ehota.all  sorts  of  ailment  have  come  to  me;  he- 

/  to  nahesthamatazistov, this  is  my  ailment;  zaahamata- 

/  zistovhan, there  will  be  no  ailment;  totonstatoz,  ail¬ 

ment,  infirmity;  saapevomoxtahestoz, feeling  indispos¬ 
ed, not  well;  onSevostanehevestoz.a  life  of  ailments, 
aim,  t’se  either  detached  or  infixed  implies:  with  a 
purpose , aiming  for .determined, e.g.  t’se  naneSeve,  I 
do  it  purposely;  in  the  sense  of  being  "set  towards, 
facing  to",  the  letter  t  expresses  aim,  set  purpose 
[see  t],  Natazeoxz.I  go  there, to  a  place;  tano ,  there 
(pointing  forward).  The  mental  suff.  -tan  implies  the 
inward  desire , intent  toward  an  object,  e.g.namesetan, 

I  want  to  eat;  easeoxzetano , they  desire  to  leave.  The 

•  'i  B  i'  be  ^  u+W***~ 

rnierfl'- ,  2V  ck^..  ■ 





-tan  implies  the  aim  in  thot  or  desire.  The  o  implies 
object, aim,  etaoeoz.the  road  reaches  at;  na- 
— hca,e-7U*<^iXOQOyi'z‘' 1  arrive;  e(h)oaena  maatano.he  points, aims  the 
tJ'  gun, objects  it;  henova  zehescetovaneoxzess?  What  is 
"  thG  aim’purport  of  y°ur  g°ing?  [ Inf .hessetova-,  or 
f  .  -hegetova-  =  purporting;  zeheseto vatto  =what  it  pur- 

ports].  Nanosenaha  zexhomaoez.I  get  at, reach  the  aim, 
^'/<*iT'goal  (one  had  set  for  us)!  [zexhomaovo, where  I  put  a 
blanket  for  one.  The  Ch.used  a  robe  or  blanket  to  de- 
‘ 1  gnat e  the  goal  in  races].  Inf.  -he-  implies  aim  in 
sense  of  "have  to, am  bound  to",  e . g .nahevehomo ,  I 
f °n  seeing^him.  This  would  be  said  while 

in  the  act  of  going  to  see 

— - ~~  uuc.  When  the  action  is 

yet  carried  out, only  intended, the  desiderative  m. 
,a17 ha  ls  used’as:  navehomatanotovo , I  desire, aim  to  see  one. 
/ht-irKi  The  v.  -hoahe-  =run  for ,  covet ,  like ,  is  sometimes  used 
the  sense  "to  run, tend  towards  an  aim  or  goal", as: 
^ nahethoahe ,  I  am  after  jnahethoahe  zetoseamhaetto ,  I  run 
( in  order)  to  obtain.-  I  all  divers  expressions  there 
ff1)! ViS  n°  special  verb  or  noun  for  aim  as  we  have  in 
y  v  EnS.  ,  altho  the  meaning  is  conveyed  as  above  mentioned 
■  or  by  using  following  forms:  ta  nahethoahe,  there  is 

my  liking, aim, goal ;  eoxksaae§tSeoz6 ,  one  is  without 
purpose , aim, does  not  reach  anywheres . -f-JVom  etaeoz  = 
it  reaches  completely].  Niononevetto  nasaavostanehe- 
ve,I  do  not  live  without  aim, ignorantly ;  haeS  eoxksa- 
aeShoohe , one  has  no  further  goal, aim;  toxtomonetto  e- 
_ saaesze , one  does  not  speak  aimlessly.  See  aimless, 
aimless,  -toxtomone-  =  aimlessly , toxtomonetto  [used  de- 
tached];  nionone  and  niononevetto , at  random, 
J  ^  without  aim, ignorantly ;  nionone  nasaaneSev6 , I  do  it 
not  with  ignorance  .without  aim;  niononevetto  eoxchao- 
fj,  r.a.he  worships  in  an  aimless  way, without  system  (Ger. 
tdind links  )  ;  etoxtomonevostaneheve ,  one  lives  unregu- 
lated.aimlessly  (hit  or  miss);  natoxtomona,  I  am  aim- 
^m  Lbt+*r’lQSS’  niononeve't'to  examavostaneheveo ,  they  simply  live 
in  ways^of  ignorance  .without  system  or  rule;  hae§  e- 
W  ,  oxksaaeShoohe ,he  comes  nowheres,  has  no  goal; 

soxksaae§taeoz6 , one  reaches  no  aim;  nataome- 
ft ^'"’vhanetoxtoetan ,  I  have  no  aim, merely  surmise;  nataome- 
t^^*/^hanetoxtoeoxz>1  g0  with°ut  aim, having  nothing  speci- 
al  in.  view.  [toxtS  means  plain, prairies  .boundless  .not 
/,  limited].  Taomevhanetoxtoetanoxtoz ,  mere  conjecture; 
taomevhanetoxtoeoxz:  stoz , natural  free,  aimless  going. 

^ Taome  =self  (y°h  selbst ) ,  natural,  of  one’s  own  ac- 
-vhane—  =merely].  Taomevhanetoxtoevostaneheves- 
1  toz, natural  free  unrestricted  life.  [Toxtoevostanehe- 

vestoz, prairie  life , unrestricted  life]. 

^B  anr,  omotom;  omotomestoz,  the  air  that  one  breathes. 

[Oomotom  is  also  used  for  inspired  word  in  the  Ch. 
religious  terminology.  Eomotomeve,  it  is  air, breath; 

—ax,  v  /W< 

vaLii  ?■ 



&  •-.'  tt*r-f  £a.*l  a.r  n  -c*  ,  f* ^ 

^  ii  *  ■  /y^tf  'IoX**£>  e*~ 

t|r,l  t|>  r  /  O^J-rf  t  ■  /^t^-7  /i  Iff  ,.,M-  U^K-t-U-tej,  luLmJs/l  <*-.  ^  .*v 

L  ./.  >/.  sL  <U~,L,“rc  / 

(&**")  4*+*' .  ,  f.J/y  ’/  7 

L  tllV'.  zcttCvJ**-  Ji^-^*.********^,**-^  <*' »7  /-« <* 

/irs/hp  ‘  '.  /  <  VENGLISH-CHEYEN^E  DICT 


M  4S^SS22S^™?!R^ 

otatavoora.air  region, space , the  bluelodge  or  dome;  ea- 

nos, one’s  air, mien, how  he  looks.  Suff.  -non  denotes 
air  in  the  sense  of  tune, melody.  See  song, 
airship,  semo  zeamehatto .flying  boat;  eoa.hamazis.toz, the 
flying-up-by-wind.  oUlt^,  eudu~f  £>*^~ 

aisle ,  zeomepoota, zeomepopoota  (pi.)  that  which  is  open 
,  between  a  row  [also  used  for  streets].  Hotoma  rr.o- 

'Vj  hgoxzemhayo  zegmepopoota,  the  aisles  in  the  meeting 
house;  [zeomepopoota  mSevehoeno ,  the  streets  in  town], 
ajar,  etataota  henito.the  door  stands  ajar, open;  etata- 
"  is  fl-ung  ajar  (door, lid), 
akimbo ,  -zeSkseona-;  nazegkseonan ,  I  walk  akimbo;  ezeS- 
kseonaeo.he  stands  akimbo, 
akin,  see  related  and  relationship. 

alacrity ,  sevetanoxtoz , alacr .willingness , diligence ;  §e- 
vastoz , alacr .  ( state )  Inf.  seve-  =with  alacr., 
vivacity , sprightliness , e.g. etasdveaseoxz , he  left  with 
alacrity.  /^juu^f<Lo^\ 

alarm,  v. enotxeja^he  gives  the  alarm,  announces  stran¬ 
gers  (from  noz  =alien) ;  naohEetanooz , I  become  al¬ 
armed,  excited  in  feeling;  naseaovo,  I  arouse  one  from 
sleep;  ehomoozeo , they  become  alarmed, are  in  a  commo¬ 
tion;  emasdlrepftodeo ,  they  become  suddenly  alarmed, 
frightened ;'  nahepoetan , I  am  al. entertain  fears;  nahe- 
poetanoho,I  cause  one  alarm;  nahgpoestomohe , I  am  al¬ 
arming  (by  words);  nahepoesetaneva , I  am  an  alarmist;  is  an  alarming  report;  eohSotoeneo ,he 
looks  alarmed, frightened;  axxev  eoxzcetahame  hooxceo- 
aseoxzistovez ’ , the  bell  is  rung  when  there  is  a  fire; 
nahepoemo , I  alarm  one  (by  words);  nasesevaosemo , I  al¬ 
arm, waken  one  by  noise.  •‘v<*  .  •fcvnfh ei/<* 

alarm,  n.notoxevatoz , sound  of  alarm  (also  the  call  to 
arms);  enotoxev&tove.the  alarm  is  sounded;  ohae- 
tanoxtoz, a] arm, apprehension;  ohSetanoozistoz ,  alarm, 
sudden  excitment;  homdozistoz, sudden  commotion, alarm; 
masdhepdozistoz , sudden  alarm, fright ;  hepoetanoxtoz, 
alarm  (within  one), dread;  hgpotanoozistoz,  the  becom¬ 
ing  alarmed, filled  with  apprehension;  hepoestomohes- 
toz,the  alarming, by  words;  hepoesetanevStoz ,  alarmist 
disposition;  SeSevaose-kokoxaseo  (or  seSevaostomohe) , 
the  alarm  clock, Ger.Wecker. 

alas,  ahahe!  inter j.  exclamation  of  woe  or  regret;  a! 

’  long  drawn  out  with  subdued  voice  is  an  exclama¬ 
tion  of  sorrow, great  astonishment,  regret , oftentimes 
with  the  hand  held  before  the  mouth, 
alcohol,  vehoemap.the  water  of  the  white  man;  evehoe- 
~  is  alcohol, 
ale,  menemdp.also  used  for  beer. 

alert ,  eohan&kae , one  is  alert , industrious ;  inf.  -Seve- 
=with  alertness,  quickness;  §eveneoxzz,be  quick 



®§6vae-one  ^  alert;  Sevetanoz , get  busy 

rt;;  !k'  ble;  is  of  alert 
brisk, agile  d  i snns i  t  i  on  •  onou«4.»..  .  _  *  is  alert, op  his  * 

L!  U!  J-SK.nimoie ;  enonahaxczes 
brisk, agile  disposition;  enahetan.i 
guard  .•  ^  mefc* 

.  ^ oxictob  m  unot.dili^i 

v  zetanenistoz.aiertnsss  in  doing  something  with  the*“" - ^ 

hands  geveam'mstoz,  alertness  in  walking;  slraztas- 
toz, alert  in  disposition, friendly ,  merciful  disoosi 

sitionl  Thfwmaf  St5Z’merCifUlneSS’favorable  ii3-P0- 
sitionj .  The  words  Sivaztastoz  and  Sivaztamahestnr 

•  are  much  used  in  religious  terminology  and  denote 
pity  mercy,  grace,  favor.  Nonahaxkasfoz,  alertness 
briskness, agility;  nonahaxczestastoz , alertness  ae-ili  ’ 

nes^the'bein^10"’  !  ?ahetanoxtoz .  alertness  , watchful¬ 
ness,  the  being  on  one’s  guard. 

alien,  n.noz  (masc.),nota  (fern. )  .alien, foreigner ; 
auJ°n’f°reign  child, young  alien;  nanozeve,  I  am  an*  - 

a?ien:o,ntZT  ’.the  belng  an  alien!  hestbevosten^' 

alien, outsider;  nahest5evostaneheve,'Uii.-ve  as  an  ali¬ 
en;  hestohetan, alien  man;  hestohee, alien  woman;  hes- 
atanebian-heJe^t0Z’f°reign  Way  °f  living!  nahestoevo- 
*herahhnt-ZaZ+eme,We  are  strangers  towards  each  o- 

the  ho1  tn0V,;fOreisri  J"°rld’-  zehestchestassd , 

tne  alien  born  (ones) .  ^  w. 

m  ,  gifE’  adj. rendered  by  inf.  -noze-  alien, for^gn:  'W 
■^•<7/*^^;  zeesz ,  enozevoan ,  he  speaks  foreignlike;  inf .  ,-he- 
outsider^Cm  0Ubside’  ehestohesta,  he  is  alien  born, an 
■  outsider,  -notova-  =  foreign,  alien  (from  another 

HI/  ]  !  1’  nanotovaeoxz ,  I  roam  from  my  place, am  home- 

WL*„  less;  barbaric,  not  within  a  nation ,  country  or  associa- 

enotovaeo-they  are  alien;  enotovaeveo,  they  are 
^  V*  aliens,  nanotovaetovo, I  am  alien  to  one;  enotovatto, 
J alle"J  is  a  calling  for  stran- 
alarm  When  strangers  come  (in  war  times 
or  otherwise);  notovatto  evostaneheve ,  he  leads  the 
life  of  an  outsider, outcast, waif . 
alienate,  v.naovahaovo , I  al. myself,  separate  from  one- 
naasevoeovo , I  separate  myself  from  one;  navo- 

I-  aTr^VllenatS  mys,e/f  £&°m:  navovenosazetovo .  I 
■  al. myself  from  one  Pa. 

adienation,  ovahaovazistoz , the  being  alienated;  as?foe- 
ovazistoz> alienation, separation ;  vovenosdzi- 
stoz , alienation , disassociation . 

■,?/>  ==^,_?£®e!eB'it  al.(°r.)  (from  flight)  ; 

)t0t(U  liahtS^V?  (0tm)i"  zi®^a5e§*  (or , )  where~one *a- 
zefa  fnA  f staoea, where  it  alighted , lit ;  eoeS  hoxze- 
OL-  zeva , ( or . )  i,  alights  on  the  tree;  hohona  eoes.the 


alike^,**-^'*'"'  ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY  alimentary 

stone  (or.  Lalights  [mapeva.on  the  water,  mhayon,  the 
i  sid^rhouse] .  alights;  alights  (when  re- 
maining  suspended, as  on  trees  or  on  houses); 
^  ip***'  alights  (into  water);  naomevondn,  I  alight,  from  a 

horse  or  wagon, by  descending;  naomekaax,  I  alight,  by 
jumping  from,  off :  ea-nJii>€-j.£  fi-e/y  /A^  a .  t*^***-. 

alike,  inf.  -se-  =alike,the  same;  is  alike  is  not  alike,  it  is  different ; 

esehessonsz, they  (in.)  are  alike;  esaasehessohane-  - 

hensz  (in.)  they  are  not  alike;  acts 

ajiltf'1*  alike,  is  the  same;  is  not^alike; 

eseegeneo  ,  they  look  alike  (or.), ref. to  face ; esehesta- 

o.they  (or.)  are  alike, ref. to  state , condition ;  eSepe- 
My’~  ^  vaeo , they  are  good  alike, of  the  same  goodness;  eseto-  is  the  same  is  uttered  alike;  e- 
seez ’netto , it  is  alike  (  aussert  sich  ahnlich, 
Ja  nr  .  gieich) ;  esaaseeznettan, it  is  not  alike.behaves,  acts 
.not  alike;  eseeSeamataeo , they  have  pains  alike  (or.); 

-  seeSe-  =alike,sp.of  people;  eseeSevostaneheveo , their 
•  customs  are  alike;  eseeSeexan,  he  has  the  same  eyes; 

eseetova , (or . )  it  has  the  same  fur,  is  furred  alike; 
n§ setdeva, one  (or.)  is  of  same  skin;  is  of 
r the  same  color;  is  of  same  size;  esetota- 
eta.he  is  of  same  size;  eseetossd,  it  is  of  the  same 
length;  (or.)  is  of  same  length  (sp.  of 
thread, rope) ;  is  of  same  thickness;  e- 
r  is  low  alike;  is  high  a- 
■|fr>  like  (standing  objects);  esethSstota,  it  sets  alike 

jjl^ jfT ^  very  high;  esehestohoe , same  height, sp. of  trees, poles, 

^  Jr  yft/toeome thing  planted;  is  short  alike; 
K  WtA  esetohomao , the  same  elevation  (low)  of  ground;  esee- 
wft J^  is  alike  of  short  length;  eseekass,  it  is  of 
*  r  ,i+he  same  short  distance;  is  of  the  same 

tlr  Jw short  time;  eseeszehenao.they  are  shirted,  coated  a- 
j/ like;  eseesaneo,  they  dress  alike;  zsehessosz , those 
(in.)  being  alike;  zsetotavesz , those  of  same  colors; 
(in.)  zsehestassd , the  ones  (or.)  being  alike;  zseeto- 
vassfi.the  ones  (animals)  of  the  same  fur  (color;  zse- 
etotaosz.the  ones  (in.)  of  same  size;  zsetotaetassd , 
same  size  (;  zseetostones , the  one  (or.)of  same 
length  (sp.of  ropes  and  thread)  or  long  cylindrical 
bodies;  zsetdevassd,  those  (or.)  of  the  same  skin; 
zsSetotaevetovassd , the  ones  of  the  same  thickness  in 
body;  zsetapetassd , those  (or.)  of  same  volume , capaci¬ 
ty, bigness;  zsetapeosz , the  ones  (  of  same  vol¬ 
ume,  bulkiness;  zseetososz,  those  (  of  same 
length;  zseestonessd , the  ones  (  of  the  same 
length  of  body;  zseetostassd , the  ones  alike  ( 
in  height , tallness ;  zseetoeaess 5 ,  those  (  of 
same  age.  See  same .kind. 

alimentary,  zeveSemesestov, wherewith  is  to  eat;  zeveSe- 

1  eVue  if<rf<u*^wfrre/  &j  /£  A-e^>s~a. , 

■’+<&  7raM**'£tVe-:  ^  ^  Lehlfa'j ~$ 

'  zijTgJt-  1 

x  V  6  **£t*^*4*'*-',  /UZ 

m^tame^,  Wherewith  there  is  food ;/mhaeft^^l^estoz , 

meTdnenJ*  one  isA^  isfnot  alive;  es6e&-4*^^rf^t^ 
itilX^alive , living;  j  hov£n  eametanen,''^'^'/; 

e.  See  alert, bri^.^-*^^*J*^f-*«-^> 

Wierkl  sense .rarfelyLftfixedVz^he^, 


alimentarv  c^nal . 
align,  see  row,  bjjie,  straight. 
live,  adj.ngeameoan  (while  living); 

alive ;  ear  ~  i 

one  is  barely  al>^e.  ^e  alert, bri 
all,  nitao.all 

-”  ta- the  s^b.oV. denotes  /'the  reach  of",  all T. /t 
J  of  them, or  all  of  it.eVgAgehetaene/va.  all  that  which  /’ 

/Ke tls-T  is  good;  zehetSepevaevosbN^all  who /are  good;  zetohetSfr*^**'*'^'* 

■  -h  hJ^’-^aS  the  same  meaning, only  that  thjfe  o  =every  orm^z 
®n‘  '^p-Hohetaepevoetavoss,  all,  evehv  c/ne  of  thp&ewho  are 
m"J  .L  "good-doers";  zetohetaehonebv  9111,  ejt&rything  that^y-^2^ 
ft*r  grows;  Inf.  -mae-  or  -ma-  and  ^mhS-^all  of  i  t  .""e  ."£.  ttJt /*!/- 
y  nszemaaena, thou  shalt  own  all  of  it;emaheneenovahe,he 
a  knower  of  it  all.  [Not  to  be  confused  with  inf. 

-ma-,  -mam-  which  implies  bigness , bulkiness  ( 
fangreich)  .large  body  of  it,  e.g.  stands 
sets  in  bulk;  zemhaomoeha, the  ocean, the  great  body^f 

[t  ka-*  _ 

*  oo  xa  uuia,  z,ciiJiietumut3UfcL ,  uiie  ucectrijtne  grea"c  poay^or^*^^ 

"f^/^waters] .  Nsem&tto  (detached) ,  all  of  it;  mbj^o^Tthe**'’’*1 
'all  of  it;  namhastonan,  the  all  rLiL^ua^^TT^^vini  ^  comp- 
haJ-  any ;  nimaozhem&,we  are  aUtogether  ,we_Jounch  togeth- 
,  .^ ; ,  etamaneoxzeo ,  they  all  went  there;  ngemaetto  and  .y-^ 

k  •'.j  ninmestovaetto  =all  of  me, together;  ngemadtto  and  n't- 

maestova6tto  =the  all  of  thee  together;  and  i  ✓ 

WT  ,i  nim^.estovaes=the  all  of_one  together;  nSemaez  and  n\- pl^4.e-U4jl 

WL  a  >  n&estovahez  =the  all  of  us  together;  ngemja&ss  and  r&- -jr  » 

■  y**?  mjaestovadss  =the  all  of  you  together;  nSempevoss  and 

HL*  ■  1  VO  T  vWa  oof  ATro  _  +  U«  «-»  T  1  ~  4- U  ~  ~  4- 4.  1 .  -  x x  j.  .  A—  /tX 



nxmaestovaes=the  ;  _ 

maestovahez  =the  all  of  us  together;  ngemja^ss  and  x&-* 
nfeestovadss  =the  all  of  you  together;  nSerrjpevoss  and* 
nln^estovaevoss  =the  all  of  them  together;  nSemjatto'* 
and  "niimestovatto  =the  all  of  it  together;  nistoxet-  ■  * 
to, all  of  me;  nistoxdtto , all  of  thee;  ni stays ,  all  off" 
one, every  single  one;  nist6xez,all  of  us  ;T 

,A^f  a11  of  you;  nistdxevoss,  all  of  them.  [Tke  o  in  the4' 

'  pi. forms  becomes  so  short  as  not  to  be'  pronbunced  at*2- 
*-all  and  we  write  usually  nistxez,  nistxes® ,nistxe-^*:',:a 
■  voss],  Nistasz.all  of  those  (  Nistno^aez , the"^  ^ 



'ty  /  .  M - -  «*  ^  »»*  x  wouttxiy  xixooACZi,  iiio  tACSO  ,ilia  OAC — ^  J  rf/  , 

voss].  Nistasz.all  of  those  (  Nistnovaez.the**^  'T^.w 
whole  of  us;  nistnovaess , the  whole  of  you;  nrstnova-rr  .  / 

\uLt^Y0S3,^‘lae  wllole  °f  ihem;  nistnovatto , the  whole\of  it; 

■  /^/T^^nistnovasz.the  whole  of  them  (  NitSeta.all  of  ' 

»y  stature;  nitaeta.all  of  thy  stature;  nitSetas\all 
\%.A  one’s  stature;  nitSetaz.all  of  our  stature;  nirSe- 

tass.all  of  your  stature;  nitaetavoss,  all  of  theiSr'  _ 
stature;  zehetao.all  of  its  stature , size ;  nistxestoz 
jl'  the  all  (Ger.die  Gesammtheit)  sp.of  or. beings:  nanis-  /  .  y/  -u 
jJP  txictonan.our  all  (Ger  .unsere  Gesammtheit  1  :  nani  sty-  jU****#1*- 

txistonan.our  all  (Ger. unsere  Gesammtheit);  nanistx- »" -  "  _ 

heme, we  are  all  (of  us);  enistxeo,  they  are  all  of* 

^  y  them  (or.);  enistansz,  they  are  all  of  thos_e  (in. 

«  ■'*  ^^Pl.):  etoomenistxeo,  they  remain, abide  firm  togeth  - 

etoomenistxeo ,  they  remain, abide  firm  togeti 
nistxenov,the  all  of,  (Insgesammtheit) ;  heovasz 


all  kinds  of' 



,^Y  ^ 

,r ,  ^ 
(‘■j  ^3 

e.g.  heovasz 



berries;  anonatto  heovasz  hegevostaneo ,  all  kinds  of 
people  (mixed  up);  zeoxtohetaomao ,  all  over  the  land; 
zeoxtohetaoxoss.all  over  one’s  body  (hemekon  noxset- 
to  heszehesseva  =from  head  to  foot);  zeoxtohetSeame- 
hoessi,  all  thru  them,  all  of  them,  who  are  sitting. 
This  pref .zeoxtoheta-  (with  sub.  c  j .  is  used  in  the 
sense  of  over  or  thru, as  examples  show.  Zeoxtohetae- 
mazeomeve , all  thru  the  spring.  When  "all"  implies  mo¬ 
ving  together  (  Sack  u.pack),  journeying  with 
belongings,  or  "packing"  [when  pack  =to  bear  as  a 
load], then  sff.  -e  or  -ehe  is  used,  e.g.  naaseheme.we 
leave  with  all, packing  all;  ehoxoveheo , they  all  cross 
the  river  (  Sack  u.Pack);  nataehetanon.hoe ,  we 
come  with  all  our  belongings  to  land;  exoxovehetanov 
ohe.they  crossed  the  river  with  all  their  belongings; 
ehoxovehestoveneo ,  there  was  a  crossing  with  the 
packs.  Nahoeme,  we  have  come  with  all;  ehoehestov, 
there  is  an  arriving  with  everything.  Inf.  -hov6- 
(sometimes  without  h)  =all  together  as  one  fold.  Ho- 
voetto, „^11  together  (in  a  collective  sense),  as  a 
whole;  o ,  they  come  all  together,  all  of 

them.  This  inf.  -hovS-  or  -ov-  is  extensively  used  in 
.and  v.forra&j_as :  ninitoveaenanon,  we  own  it  in  com- 
fcc £.»  mon;  enisovatto,  it  is  twofold.  [It  is  also  used  as  the  endings  -tove  and  -nove;  is 
I*  oif*  ea'ten!  emesenov, there  is  an  eating  (Ger.  es  wird  ge- 

Ci*V'  Ovt-r  isst)  implying  "folded"  action;  naSsztovo, 
l***'  _ speak  to  (with)  one].  Nomoss,  all  the  time  .ever;  me- 

seto,megsz,all  the  time  ,  always  ;  as  inf.-mese-  and  -a- 
mese-  =always,all  the  time  is  used, but  not  frequent- 
ly,  e.g.  naamesetaetovo , I  am  with  one  all  the  time, 
—  always;  nitao  tataetta.all  around, that  surrounds,  the 
.1  aMA.XhaL. surrounding  vista jtaxtanoom  means  the  same  only  is  an 
Vtoj  n  ®old  and  more  ceremonial  denotes  the  region  in 
4-6*44t-view  above  the  horizon;  nimaoetto,  all  around,  about, 
refers  not  to  a  line  around,  but  the  whole  surface; 

I  ,,  ir^jgtae  zeeso.all  the  night  long.  [Inf.  -von-  =thru  the 
^^^^dpvvhoie  night,  as:  evoneven,  he  walks  about  the  whole 
night  thru].  Zenetaoxsetto , all  of  my  body, flesh;  ze- 
•  hetaoxoss.all  of  one’s  body  (see  suff.of  sub.cj.); 

hdehaetto  =hdyaetto ,all  the  same, even,  just  the  same 
i  [what  would  not  be  expected];  Maheo,  the  All-Father, 

bfrY-cuu-'  ‘‘■‘‘^All-One ;  eamevonen,  one  goes  on  all  fours; '-mas  (5-  inf. 

=  all  of  a  sudden, suddenly ;  emas6aeozetovovo,all  of  a 
eK*-*  sudden  they  rushed  at  them;  M&manstomanehe ,  All-Crea- 
tor ;  inf.  -mat-  (and  -matx-  before  a n  aspired 

denotes  "all  out"  =  entirely,  completly, as  : 
£  is  all  used  up  (so  there  is  no  more  of  it);  emaseoz,!1 

it  becomes  all  used  up,  (Ger . verschwindet ) ;  namatoan, 
I  have  uttered  all  (I  had  to  say);  ematxiston,  he  has 
written  all  (completely);  emathoxtovatove , it  is  all, 

Ci'  r* 



-fx^-u/  scsr:/'* 

3 tJ-  fU  r/r~+*f/i, 

_  ZU-2- - 

J-c^—  ctfa-J-**  - 

v  ,  +**&#■"*'- 

V/sfA-^  ***•&;  *uz&***^- 
s  t .  x ^ 

1”.'^— ;^y' ' — "'f  7.,'ii^^- 

„  daW^®***** 

^  evr/yr*+ 

- - ; 

^  $%4</b^  atf. 

r/V«^  J*?/' 

7  *Z  ^  ’gs&rJ-  Af  ^  -*r A'tr^^ y  X,™. ,  i 
**.y_  *  /^?^'',2aa*BJS^~'" 

-  ",  l _ ~jr  /4 )  ^-u  sznsa^ 

^-^77  /J  _ ■ 

~r7^'  ”~Z££Z*‘*~*'*Z 
_„  _  ,  -X  — - 

£*^7''^^'  ■^****'  ^  /X  g  j ^  1^**+**“- 

-S  ^  ^  *-*■  ^4 

-vihtfz-  -  *-  **~~  y  "zZZZZz. 

bKw*^5*w  0—  .  jzJT  <~,ws~—,  **£«*- 


rSefjLzfo  —  e*r-~Zf'' 

—Zu  a*^-  *<-  > 


entirely  sold;  does  all,  entirely 
dissolve  in  water.  [Prom  -mat  ^entirely,  all:  -hop-  = 
dissolve  .melt ;  and  sff.’  -ova  =water  or  liquid  1 
all^ ,-oan-  inf.  =subside . cease  gradually ;  naoanaxano . 

®:;uy’5U1!te?  °?6,  See  peace-  NaveShaomoxta,  I 
+Hay.^th’  .tc|xtoehovan  eveShaomoxtanov.hesthaonstov, 

•  i-  i  ■  ■  *  t  n  p  wi  In  i  1  o  all  qv  4-  v,  ~  • _ .  .  * 

T r  “xxa’-y  ^acnyi;  nahSamosetano- 
tovo.I  want  to  allay  one ;naekovaoz  naoestonatoz  I  al¬ 
lay  my  thirst  (lit.  I  wet  my  dry  throat).  See  abate 
subside  ,  pacify  .  f)  &.K  * 

aii£liaE££>  vistomoanistdz,all/to, covenant.  [From  navi- 
.  .  stomoan  =1  promise  by  oath,  in  smoking]  na¬ 

vi  stofcohaovo,  I  promise  allegiance  to  one;  navistomo- 
haovo  zevistamonanetto , I  swear  all.  to  one  (or  ) 
aIl£II^£>  navepanaovo.I  alleviate  one;  navepan^moxta- 
maneho.I  make  one  to  feel  easier,  alleviated- 
naenoxeno , I  all. unburden  one;  nadnoxena.I  am  allevia¬ 
ted  ;  nadnoxeoxz ,  I  walks,  alleviated, unburdened;  nahomo- 
eno  (see  unload), I  all. take  off  a  load;  naoanaxano,  I 
ail. relieve  one;  naoanaxamoxtaman ,  I  cause  relief  I 
all. the  feeling;  naoanaxanomoxtae , I  feel  alleviated- 
navepanamoxtae , I  feel  all.  light.  [RSd.vep-  =light’ 
empty;  moxta-  physical  feeling;  -ox  as  sff.  =packed’ 
burdened;  -enox-  =unpacked , ending  the  burden;  -oan-  = 
allay, subside, calm  down.  [Inf.  -masto-  =not  in  use 
but_available, released,  relieved,  not  with,  stripped- 
namastohano.I  all. relieve  one, as  a  relay  horse;  emas- 
tohahe , one  is  all . relieved , stripped  from;  emastoheoz 
one  becomes  deprived  of;  egevhamastoheoz ,he  is  single 
again  (after  having  been  married)].  Eoxchaomoxtaomo-  alleviates, gives  relief  (as  of  medecine);  na-  pain  is  all. .relieved;  navepanaox.I  am 
ail. (from  burden;  nahaomoseho,  I  cause  one  allevia¬ 
tion;  nahaomosetanotovo , I  desire  to  all. one.  Nasepo- 
tomaovo.I  all.  one,  from  strain;  nasepotostahaovo  I 
all. one’s  heart. 

alleviation,  vepanSmoxtastoz  (in  feeling);  v&panaoxis- 
toz , all .  [from  burden, also  used  fg.];  oana- 
xanestoz , all ., calm;  enoxen&toz , all . from  burden;  oana- 
xamoxtastoz, calm, alleviated  feeling  or  condition-  se- 
potoniaovazistoz,  alleviation  from  great  strain;  sdpo- 
tostahatoz, all .relief  of  heart.  See  relief. 

alley, see  street, aisle, 

alliance,  see  fellowship.  Manohoemazistoz , common  (mutu- 
al)  alliance;  nistxnoemazistoz , the  being  all¬ 
ied  together, being  all  together;  vistaetovazistoz , mu¬ 
tual  fellowship, alliance;  manohevis ’ onemazistoz  alli¬ 
ance  of  friendship, brotherhood;  manohoemanistoz, ’alli¬ 
ance, pact;  visthozezevemazistoz ,  alliance .accomplici- 



ty;  visthozezevestoz,  the  consorting,  being  allied, 
with;  momeno  hestaneo  zeheSemanohoemazevoss , the  alli¬ 
ance  which  groups  of  nations  have  made  (=the  mutual 
laws  they  have  passed  for  each  other).  Vistoxestoz, 
all. of  warriors. 

--*■  ^allied,  navistamaozetovo , I  become  allied  to  one;  navis- 

-  thoemazemo, I  am  allied  to  one;  navisthozezevemo , 

I  am  allied, accomplice  with  one;  nahevis * onemo ,1  am 
friend  with  one;  navestax  or  navestox,  I  am  all.  (as 
warrior).  Navistohenemo , I  am  allied  with  one  (am  of 
same  mind).  The  inf.  -ve-,  -vesse-  (which  becomes 
vest-  or  -vist-  before  an  aspired  sound)  implies  as¬ 
sociation, being  allied,  fellowship,  as:  nave&z,  I  am 
with;  navessevo.I  am  allied  go  with  one. 
alligator,  hestanovd. 

allot,  nahestoaovo,  I  allot  land  to  one  (make  that  he 

-  have  land;  -is  allotted  (measured 

land)  [nataa.I  fit  one  with;  natSomevo.I  measure  unto 
one].  Zehestoaoessd , the  allotted  ones  (land);  ninehov 
zehestoaonetto , thou  who  art  allotted  .land ;nat5evamea, 

I  allot, give  by  measure;  tdevavetto  eoxcemometo  soss 
hestamevo.he  allots  to  each  one  their  food;  zetaevao- 
netto , that  which  is  allotted, measured  for  me;  hovae 
soss  zemezz , what  is  allotted  to  each  in  particular 
(lit. thing  particularly  given  to  one)  zenhestohazesz 
makatansz  soss  ninetSomoenonsz, so  much  money  he  allo¬ 
tted  to  each  of  us  (lit. that  much  monies  particularly 
he  measured  unto  us);  enahan  vostanehevestoz  Maheo 
zetaomoez.this  is  tha  ^life  which  God  has  allotted, 
appointed  to  us .  ujLtA-eW-*  ,  tl  <*i( .  i  < 

allotment,  taomosanistoz ;  hesthoaovazistoz , all . of  land; 
u  zehesthoaonetto ,my  allotment;  hoe  zetaomonet- 

.  ~aA  ijys  to, my  all.,  the  land  measured  to  me ;  seozehoe  .dead  land 
(allotment  of  a  dead  Ind.)  sdozehosz  (pi.);  naehosz 
(pl.)  naehoe  (sg.),  land,  allotment  of  "died"  ones, 
one.  [Do  not  confound  with  naeohe  =Dead  river]. 

-  allow,  hanizeovo.I  allow, permit  one;  nanizeon.I  am  all- 
rf |  owed;  is  permitted  to  me;  esaanize- 
^  7^  is  not  allowed;  esaanizeovazistovhan,  it  is 

^  ./not  permissive;  zeta  ninizeon,  h&petto  hovahan.thus 
'  [lyaf !  far  thou  art  allowed, not  further;  nizeovsz  emeaseoxz- 

etto!  Allow  me  to  leave  (that  I  may  leave);  inf.  -ox- 
and  also  -oxkanom—  =allowing,in  the  sense  of  conced- 
jy  ■-/  .  ing, granting, otherwise. .. .but, as:  naoxkanomemahacise- 

^  / jr  {rtiQve, granted  the  fact , allowing  that  I  am  an  old  man; 
/  ^ e o xp e va  oha  emeveghavsevevostanehevstovez ’  ,  allowing 

Jr  jp  that  it  is  good, but  it  may  lead  to  a  bad  living;  eox- 
7-  '[A’  tatonetto  navatomehozeohe ,  allowing  that  it  be  very 

cold, I  work  just  the  same.  Nasaanizeone  zemeeszetto, I 
jtrW'  am  not  allowed  to  speak. 

allowable,  is  all.;  esaaneSe vstovhan, 




it  is  not  all. admissible, not  to  be  done;  esaanethoe-  is  unlawful ,not  all . ; enizeomohe ,  it  is 
all. to  one;  is  not  all. to  one;  e-  is  all ., admissible . can  be  done;  esaa-  is  all., not  tabooed;  enhastonestov ,  it 
is  forbidden,  tabooed, not  allowable.  a&***'<*. 

allowance ,  nizeovazistoz ;  zenizeomonetto , my  all.,  that 
which  is  allowed  to  me;  soss  zetotaevamezes- 
s6 , the  allowance, apportion  to  each  [see  allotment]. 
Zeoxsaanizeovovo  etangeneoxzd ,  he  went  without  my 
all . , permission;  esaanizeoehe , allowance  is  not  given 
one ; nohass  hama  vistoetastoz  esaanizeomohenov , all .  to 
any  religious  doing  is  not  (given)  them, they  are  not 

.allude,  is  rendered  by  inf.  -n-,  as:  nanhesta.I  allude 
to  it;  nanheto.I  all. to  one ; enhevo , one  says  (al¬ 
luding  to  one’s  talk);  ne  (or.)  the  one  alluded  to; 
hen, that, which  was  mentioned  before  (alluding  to  it); 

eneSevostaneheve ,he  lives  thus  (alluding  to  hi; 
of  livijg^  '  ' 

^.allure  .^Hrahess 

iSliesset^iotovo.I  all.  one  .attract.  See  attract  .^''T 
I  /Jt11!’  ally,  co-warrior ;  estax,  thy  co-w.  ;  he-'"  -ygt 
■  vistax, one’s  co-w.;  nistxenan , our  co-w.;  estxe-^&&>*4i L_ 

WWby  vo,y°ur  co-w.;  hevistxevo,  their  c-w.  The  pi. is:  nis-^ZL)  ^ 
^xeo  (my),estxeo  ( thy )  .hevistxeo  (one’s),  nistxenaneo  / 

estxevo  (your)  hevistxevo  (their);  zevesthoze- 
I  dr  vem0 »mY  ally, accomplice;  zevestamo ,my  ally;  zevesse- 

■r„ir  v0,my  alI-the  one  with  whom  I  am;  'zevesthozeohemo ,  my  ,  1 

jjr  co-worker.  See  allied . 

/rjlz  almighty,  emaexaovae,  he  is  almighty,  all  powerful  I 

(state);  emaexahe.he  his  aim.  (in  execution)  • 

emaexaosan , one  is  aim. (acting  as  such);  eoxseohStama- 
he, one  is  aim.  .most  powerful;  enocenanosohStamahe 
is  aim. omnipotent. 

Almighty ,  Maheo  ZenocenanosohStamahesz ,  God  Almighty ;  ^^7——— 
Maheo  Zemaexaovaz , God  Almighty  (to  overpower);  ' 
Zemaexahesz  Maheo, the  Almighty  God  (to  execute);  Ma¬ 
heo  Zeoxseohatamahesz.God  Almighty  (mighty  and  dread¬ 
ful);  Maheo  Zemaexaosansz ,  God  Almighty  (overcoming 
all);  Maheo  Zehotoanahesz.God.Almighty  (to  be  feared, 
rigorous )  .  rJt***k*  -  *****  wAf-Awi a 
almost,  is  rendered  by  several  infixes, as:  -to’meleSease- 
/  =almost  ready  to, presently  starting  to....;  es- 
torriejesease-esz,  one  was  almost, about  (ready)  to  speak; 
estomeeSeanao ,he  was  almost, ready  to  fall;  -toseese- 
almost  at  the  point  of ; etoseeienae ,he  is  almost  dead; 
etoseei-niseSnama.he  is  almost  two  years  old;-tosee§- 
=now  almost, at  the  very  point  of;  natosee§t6vo- 
f  vetanen.I  am  now  almost  done  preparing;  -tosetd-  and 
,  -tostoes-  =almost,very  nearly, natostoeSeSsztovo, I  al¬ 
most  (lone  talking  to  one;  -oxcetoestos-  almost 

L  Wwb-uuAte  Uv/W  h*~-  1U-h^C'f 

,  Qt-  r^- 



would  '  nioxcetoeStoshovane , thou  wouldst  have 
most  died  otaegetos-  pref.  sub. cj .denotes  when  al¬ 
most....;  otaegetosenaeoz  n&vostanev6ho ,  when  he  was 
about  to  die, almost  dying.I  saved  him. 
alms  hovae  zeoxoemeiitov  hevetov  stamenoheo,  something  ■ 

- ’given  for  the  poor.  See  beg. 

alms-house,  mhayon  zeoxchoevoss  stamenoheo  zsaaheveno- 

-  vehessi  =house  where  live  the  poor  who  harc  , 

no  home .  Ef  «  • 

alone,  is  alone ; enoceetto , it  is  alone;  nino  j 

~J -  ceem&.we  are  alone;  enoceeo.they  are  alone;  -no- 

i«y^Vce-  inf. to  be  alone;  enocepeva.he  alone  is  good  (of- 
tentimes  used  for  superlative)  he  is  the  best;  etano- 
fa'rVk**  ceneoxz  he  goes  alone;  nocehestoz , the  being  alone. 

’  ....  -  i  alone; 

ceneoxz,  he  goes  alone;  nocehestoz ,  tne  Demg 
0,‘M [from  nokd  =one , enoce ,he  is  one].  Ninokatto,  I 
bi^-t  1  ninokaetto ,  thou  al .  ;  alone  (or.); 
”  iff0)  •jff  kasz.we  alone:  ninckaess ,  you  alone;  ninokiivos 



jsi  kaez,we  alone;  ninckaess , you  alone;  ninokavoss,  they 
e  ll  alone;  ninokaez1 , (for  in. and  or.)  one  alone  (excl.3d. 
-  ■  -  it  alone;  -noka-  =alone,the  only 

1  kaez.we  alone;  ninckaess , you 
alone;  ninokaez’, 

^  pers.).  Ninokatto. 

1  jU-7  j/1  one.e.g.  enokae.he  is  the  only 

uW  i heto  is  the  only  one 

,he  is  alone;  enoka 

_ _ _  __  __  _  _  “  own;  this  form  is 

used  in  the  third  pers. and  more  for  in. objects;  ven- 

elf ;  vengenokaez  noceto- 
;  vengenokadss  nocetova- 

when  alone  by  yourselves;  vengenokavoss  nocetova H 
when  alone  by  themselves;  nonocevetovaez ,  alone, 


genoka  nocetovatto ,  when  alone  by  itself;  vengenokatto 
nocetovatto, wnSn  alone  by,  for  myself;  venSenokaetto 
nocetovadtto , when  alone  by  thyself;  vengenokasz  noce- 
.u^'tovaes ,  when  one  by  *  {gAffi 

>V‘rez’ '  '  ’ 

fVy  6ss>w 

Ar U  each  one  by  ourselves;  nonocetovadss ,  alone, each  one 
^  yourselves;  nonocetovavoss ,  alone  ,  each  one  by  them- 
selves;  ninocevetovatto , for  myself  alone:  ninoceveto-  r. 

.  vadtto , for  thyself  alone;  ninocevetovaess ,  for  one’ s  / 
'  O'l*  ift* self  alone;  ninonocevetovahez.each  one  for  ourselves  /^f 
alone ;  ninonocevetovahgss ,  each  one  for  yourselves  / 
A(y  alone;  ninonocevetovahevoss, each  one  for  themselves 
■  L'**alone ;  ninocevetovatto , for  itself  alone. NokaenehA, let 
^  it  be  alone!  NocSeh&.let  one  be  alone;  totgenokatto , 
it  is  the  only  one, alone  it;  tdt§enokaes  nimevistae- 
maen.he  alone, the  only  one, who  may  helps  us.  See  on- 
>J  ly,  solely.  Naoseekahe,  I  am  alone  (having  no  one 



aiu iic  ,  —uoccu 

g .  See 

VjM  /  *  iy .  soitJiy .  inauhccitauc  ,  j.  v  o 

i(cV  f(  / :  else), also  used  for  destitute,  left  alone ,  forsaken , 

,  (py  j pure  chaste;  naoseeceoxz,  I  walk  all  alone;  -oseec- 
I4  and  -cseek-  =^o^no^ing  £^^0  thing  besides.^  See^ 

'"ale  yt~-icxe-  fe^of;  toxeeol 

. ■  ■ 

wu*  ■  CCM to^  I  *“*"  ,u* 

toxeeohe, along  the  river;  <r*^ 
nenasZjCome  along!  eveaz,  cr.e  goes  along,  belongs 
■no-  inf.  implies  along  with, ref. to  or 
ls :  nanoeoxz.nanoen, I  bring  it  along:  enoeaena.he 
owns  along  (Ger.dazu  with  it;  -(h)esto-  int.  carries 
the  meanig  of  along, thru  the  lengljh^ 

in  a  contin- 

r  1 »  ...-o  J,ri  i  q  ux  aiuiig)  viii  u  w**6  *  1  /?  i  ^ 



+  -0"*  / 

.uous  line  of  time  or  distance.  This  inf. is  used  alone 
but  more  often  combined  wit  another  susceptible  of 
denoting  "along",  e.g.  -am-  =on, continuing;  amesto 
(used  detached  or  incorporated)  =along  in  a  continu¬ 
ous  line.  Amesto  epavevostaneheve.he  lives  well  (mo¬ 
ral  sense)  all  along;  — shov—  =lessening,diminishing; 
-shov(e)sto-  =less  all  along, less  and  less;  nashove- 
vosan.I  see  less;  nashovstoevosan, I  see  less  all  al¬ 
ong  (less  and  less);  — nehe-  =soon;  — nehestoe-  =soon 
all  along.  [For  this  inf. form  and  the  one  ending  in 
-stov  (which  is  practically  the  same)  see  Infixes]. 
already,  rendered  by  inf.  -eSe-  =done ;  naegemese.I  have 

already  eaten;  -nistaeSe-  =already,  beforehand--—?— 
namstaesenheto , I  have  already  told  him  (beforehand).’ 
so,  jpato;  hapo,  also  like  wise;  both  of  these  words 
infixed  at  times, but  not  in  the  rule;  [hapoe- 
=in  like  manner];  -vesse-  =along  with, also; 
navessemese,  I  also  eat  with;  -aaze-  =also  in  the  - 
sense  of  besides .withal ;  aazevetto  is  used  detached, 
altar,  matqjo vat oz, where  upon  burning  (ceremonial),  is  y  — 

done;  also  matohov&toz  and  matohestotoz.  Ucu'u^rKai/'t'r'tfu^ 
'tter,  nani tavanen ,  I  alter;  -nitavana,  (in.)  -nitavarfo^/^f^. 
(or.);  enitavae , one  is  altered,  changed;  -nitave-  — 

=to  different;  enitaVtfgsz,  one  alters 
m  speaking, speaks  different.  See  change .different . 
alternate,  expressed  mostly  by  inf.  -metde-  =by 
turns;  metde  ehozeoheo , they  work  alternately. 

[Nonametde, reciprocally] .  Toto (h)ovetto  =alternating 
(lit. one  between);  etotohovhetanevoen, she  has  a  male 
child  alternately  (between  birth  of  girls);  nistoha 
eseva  eoxksaahozeohd , oha  totohovetto ,he  does. not  work 
every  day,  but  every  other  day .  J  et.. 

alternative ,  n.emetomoe,  alternative  is  given  to  one ; 

metomosanistoz,  the  giving  of  an  alterna¬ 
tive,  chance;  is  an  alternative;  ze- 
metomoness  zaaevhametomohestovhanehen°s , the  alterna- 
tive (given  to  you),  you  have, will  not  be  a  chance  a- 
gain.  Tdna  nasz  nimetomon.hozeohestoz  na  mato  hSeana- 
toz, either  one  alternative  is  (offered)  thee:  to  work 
or  to  hunger.  [Nametomevo,  I  give  one  a  chance, make 
room  for  one]. 

altho ,  is  rendered  by  inf.  -kanom-  and  -oxkanom,  altho, 

•*-  even  tho;  ekanomeesz,  altho  he  speaks.  The  inf. 

4ox-  =otherwise,  tho;  naoxheneena,  altho  I  know  it; 

J(h)on§-  =altho  being;  honShamoxtasz  esaadzetanohe ’ 

:Wl  fl'?-ltho  sick  he  does  not  fret;  [not  to  be  confounded 
^^with  -onS-  =hurtful]. 

always ,  me§sz,meseetto,all  the  time;  -mese-  and  -amese- 
inf.  =always ;  naamesetaetovo ,  I  am  with  one  all 
the  time;  amestoe , always , continuously . 

2E*  see  be.  '  ~ 

*  . . . 


fr ,  IU,  fcnf  ~n  cMU-  ( /WJw  14  . 


'v?  fTVUfcV*.,  it  ^  £*&<*■ 



tVA  O' 

amaze,  is  amazing, strange ;  eohSetanooz , one 
-  becomes  amazed;  eotosetan,  he  is  amazed, astoni¬ 
shed;  naotostazesta, I  am  amazed  at  it;  naotostatamo , 
I  am  am. at  one;  eohaoStastov  it  is  an  amazing  deed 
wonder . strange , surprise 

nahenAkastov, I 
endeavor  (in 
desire  to  attain;  ve- 

,f  (dreadful).  See  wonder, strange, surprise. 

ambition,  n&kastoz.amb.  zeal,  indu/try;  n 
i+trV'- - have  amition;  dtsetanoxtoz.amb. 

thot);  hoxtamistaetanoxtoz.amh. 

honaetanoxtoz.amh. .desire  to  he  progressive;  nahetho- 
ahe  zistoseamhaetto ,my  ambition  is  to  obtain;  nahet- 
JjY  hoahe.I  run  for;  esaaxaSevetanoheonevd ,he  has  no  amb. 
hHJ^Ltb  ambitious,  eohan&  is  very  amb.;  nha  zehoxtamista- 
*s.kar  ~,T&  etanoz.the  one  who  is  amb. to  attain;  evehona- 

e tan, he  wants  to  come  ahead.  The  sf f .  —tan  denotes 
the  inward  desire;  evehonaeoneve ,  he  is  an  ambitious 
one;  enakaeoneve ,he  is  an  ambitious , industrious  one; 
esaaxama-gevetanohe ,he  simply  is  not  ambitious;^  nha 
.axahoxtamistatanotohess  hovae , ehecehoeo  na  ehaean- 
those  who  are  not  ambitious  sit  still  and  hunger. 

,  enonomeoxz , he  ambles  (as  if  shaking);  nonom§|e-^___ 
'  naheo, ambling  horse .  *<****«•*/* 

.,  naevhapevanen, I  amend,  repair,  make  good  again; 
napevana_£in. ) .napevano  (or.);  naonoanen.I  amend, 
reform, straighten;  -onoana( in. ) ,  -onoano  (or.);  na-fi 

evhameseoz.I  amend, come  to  better  judgment,  feeling 
recent.  See  reoair . ref orm. 

;repent.  See  repair , ref orm. 

American,  is  rendered  by  veho,  which  refers  to  non  Ind*-  I 

~ - 1  ians;  the  Ch. proper  name  V£hoevoha(m) .usually 

translated  American  horse  means  "non  Indian  horse"; 

■  xamavostaneo  =aboriginal  people , American  Indian;  ve- 
hoevoham  =  horse,  of  the  whiteman;  when  the  Ch.  wants 
v  to  differentiate  between  Germans,  Mexicans  and_other 
A  men  he  calls  the  Americans  xamaveho.  Zev&hoevoemsz , 

V  one  wh0  is  an  American  citizen  (counted  as  a 

.  v  whiteman) .  NivaSitaeman,  our  American  Government  (lit. 

^✓our  Washington) . 

K  uj|Tamiability,  axaetanoheonevestoz ;  hotoaeonevestoz ,  am. 
fflZ, ,  goodheartedness;  hoxaztaeonevestoz,  am. 

friendliness . 

amiable,  eaxaetanoheoneve , one  is  amiable;  ehotoaeoneve , 
he  is  am. kind;  ehoxaztaeoneve ,he  is  am.  conge¬ 
nial,  friendly. 

amicable,  see  amiable;  eohahoxaztaeoneve ,  one  is  very 
amicable .friendly  disposed. 
amid,  amidst,  rendered  by  inf.  -sSxs-^  sSxseno-  =in  the 
midst  of  (Ger. mitten  unter) ;  navomo  Sistato  esxso- 
enoheo  zexaoz’,1  saw  pine  trees  in  the  midst  of  the 
forest;  nasxsenaovo , I  make  one  to  be  amidst;  nasxse- 
naoen.he  is  among  us;  esxsenoln  mata.he  walks  among 
the  woods;  esxsenoetaho ,  he  rides  (horseback)  in,a- 
midst, among;  esxsenoevonfen  mats,  he  crawls  among  the 

a ,1,'VU4  Y  MJ  waJo  ua  ( W  ^  0^  kIv  VCu'fthT.  At 'I  X  Wo  ^  ( 

'  Ja-lK  V*  a***'-**:  ^ea.iur^a^ftu^^yAar^lu^ 



woods.  The/ o  preceding  the  x/ is  mostly  dropped,  espe-  ^ 
cially  when  more  syllables  /follow. Sxsoetto . amid,  among  ***.'... 
(detached);  th/ woods  or  brush;  sxsoemha- 
yonoz , among , amids’t  houses/;  etc^vhoeo  hohonaxceo  mons-t//V^^<<^_ 
ceva, there  are  little  si/ones  among  the  beans;  eto tv-? 
ensz  makajansz  maxemem/va ,  there  is  money  among  the c 
apples.  Tie  inf.  -tob /-  =folded  in  with  inf.  -sxso- 
denotes  aifaidst  in  thjg  sense  of  thru  (Ger.  hindurch) . 

The  v.  -vfeaz  is  aW  used  in  the  sense  of  amidst,  am- 
long, together  withes:  vostaeo  eveazeo  esevonstovA, 
white  buftf aloes  aVe  among  the  buffaloes  (herd).  , 

_  —  — 4SS .  ahej}pv,out  j/f  the  way:  hovae  ahetov  esaane§ev<§, 

he  did  noth/ne  amiss;  [ahetovazistoz ,  fault,  mis- 
J ake].  Sometimes  inf.  -ox-  is  used ,  denoting  not  as  ■ 

tended,  erroneously,  by  mistake,  as:  naoxtxiston, 

WlJ'4*^^/  white  amiss  j/naoxtoan, I  utter, say  amiss;  naoxtoeta,  Ti 
WF'  uc^~  aft  amiss»3^  error!  naoxsemo  ,1  mention  one  by  mis- 
m  tIke;  nao-pezesta,I  Judge  it  amiss.  See  mistake  • 

° "-mitni t ion /heskovaneonoz, denoting  all  the  war  weapons, 



Z  LM*  : 

formerly  used  by  the  Ch.  At  the  present  ioy 
rd  vehoemahoz  (white  man’s  arrows^ — oram'ty '  - 
shpts)  is  used  for  ammunition_lj^s_^--ft«rnffenenoz vehoema-”!^!*^^^* 

1  carry  ammunitiotts-f  haFeyfeho ema v  I  have  anmnmi-^?^J| 
tiqns .  ,  - rti*  , "x::: ^  - 

,  ^mc/n^t ,  rendered  by  inf.  -s'Sxsoe-  H  * 

see  Orni.clsty  ^4^.  ^ 

and '  ^t'o  0  V-  f" 

amount,  e/rhestoha,  it  amount^  to  that  much  (alluding  «  “ •  V"**' 
tr)  ;  nisde  makatansz  enistoha  ninistastanenis- H-a-*K****4*- 
toz.tMy  debt  amounts  to  $10;  zehestoha, that  amount, as 
much  4s;  nohase  tone s tohA , any  amount;  nistanehA,  let  ** 

it  ber  that  amount!  nohass  emetongtaeonetto ,  whatever 

int  it  may  be;  tonstSxnov.any  amount;  zehetao ,  that  r~- 

(nt,in  bulk, size;  does  not  am-^.«^  F? ^ 

■  to  anything,  is  useless;  eohaoeme,  it  amounts  to/£«?£u~^ 
r  much  (in  value .worth) ;  etonitSo,  it  amounts  to  y  j~ 

;  much  (of  size, bulk);  etonitaeta,  one  (or.)  am-  3eA**a’  ~~ 

;s  to  that  size;  etonitoeme , one  (in. or  or.) 
o/nts  to  that  much  (value);  etonestoha,  that  amount/? ■'**)*, Ui’^- 
Win  numbers)  in.;  etonestxeo,  that  amount  (or.)  in^'*y^***y' 
numbers.  Zehetao  esaanitaohanehez ’  ,  it  amounts  not  to -netci- **/ 
Ahis  size  (in.);  haestoemakatansz ,  a  great  amount 
/money;  amounts  to  much  (numbers);  etas-y^  1ka-t  e*?W- 
/  reaches  to  that  amount;  inf.  -taestov-  =same, 
mjr  equal^amjouai';  is  equally  good;  eta- 
\i  '  I  (or  he)  is  of  equal  amount  (value);  zet- 
hSstoha  ninistastanenistoz  mxsaaenanenehdtto  hezeze- 
h&;  thy  debt  will  amount  to  very  much  if  thou  does 
not  pay  now. 

ample,  etonitSo?  how  ample  is  it?  EtonitSeta?  how  ample 
is  it?  (or . , sp. of  dry  goods.etc.);  nae§t£eozheme , 
we  have  fully  enough, amply ;  naeStahemakataeme ,  I  have 

a  39)U<U{3  ^  ^ 


^  1  <UxaA-U> 

Au  -wv-ace/tVi!  ^  a  • 

<2/1 rcvu^U 



ample  money, fully  enough;,  esaaegtSexovhan,  there  is 
ample  time.  See  large , enough, sufficient . 
amulet,  vonh&xa  ( sg. ) , vonhaxasz  (pi .), charm, idol . 
amuse,  navosoe.I  play, dance, amuse;  nahetds.I  amuse, more 
s  in  the  sense  of  interest,  entertaining,  fond  of; 

.  nahetdsdho , I  interest  one;  zehetds  hovae , something 

'Vjjr^6‘\y  interesting, entertaining;  het6s&zistoz,  interest,  a- 
musement, fondness  for.  This  inf.  -hetos(e)-  further 
carries  the  meaning  of  "habit", as:  nahetosaz.I  am  in 
^  the  habit  of,  am  fond  of;  nahetostoam, I  am  fond  of 

horses.  See  funny. 

^amusement,  vosoestoz;  hetosazistoz, fondness  for;  hovae 
zeveSohazistove , cause  of  amusement, merriment. 
See  pleasure. 

-anatomy,  see  body  (parts  of). 

Jn..Affy/  ancient, x  adj.nistaeSiensz, ancient, former  days;  hako  ni- 
‘  stavostanehevestoz,  ancient  custom  or  way  of 

Tving;  nistaSnoz, ancient, former  years;  nistavostan- 
;  r '  f  ‘  eo, former .ancient  people;  nistaomevostaneo ,  ancient 

!  people, of  a  former  period;  nistaome,  in  the  ancient 

time  .epoch;  nistavonoom,  the  very  ancient  period  or 
a  epoch;  nistavonoome , in  the  very  ancient  times;  vono- 
r  om, ancient  time jhakovonoom, very  ancient  time ; vonoome- 

1  \,K  ,  vostaneo  .ancient  people.  The  word  nista  means  before, 

lost  period,  epoch. 


...... _ «... _ _ —  -  (lit. former  old 

„]  people);  vonoomemahacseo , the  ancients;  zevonoo- 

mevsz.the  ancient  one  (or.).  vitti,  (j  a .  cx^c-,  ^****’^~y 

land,  na  usually  with  a  longer  stress  upon  a;  na  mato, 
and  also;  na  nhe§ , and ■ then;  na  hapo,  and  likewise; 
hot  =and,ir.  counting,  as:  nis6e  6t  nasz,  twenty  and 
one.  This  hot  is  found  in  old  tales, taking  the  place 
of  na  [hence  the  word  hotaheo  =story;  hotahanistoz, 
the  telling, narrating] .  E.g.  "Veho  hotaveamensz  t’sa 
moevase.hotoseSetdeavons  vosxot  hohona  hdtanonos  =a 
non  Indian  and  he  was  walking,  where  he  went, and  he 
was  nearly  starved;  there  was  a  mound  and  he  spied  a 
stone  upon  it , etc ." .This  hdt  is  the  criterion  for  old 
Ch. tales.  Na  with  a  very  long  a  =and  in  the  sense  of 
surprise  or  disaproval , e .g.  na  zehe§easeoxz !  And  that 
he  should  have  left!  Na  zehe§eonisyomdtomass ,  and  you 
believe  it!  Nahass  or  nohass  =and  whatever;  when  and 
has  a  purposive  or. resultant  meaning  or  expresses  a 
reduplication, then  e  is  infixed, as:  eanhoehozeohe ,  he 
goes  down  and  work  =to  work;  naenoztovo,I  ask  and  ask 
one  =ask  him  many  questions;  naohaeSekaax, I  arise  and 



t**,  6-*-  *-*'  a  .  -  l/t-vA*.-  *  a., 

a*u+****sizfr;  »~<-  Q*ut  A^-i? 

■  ui^cttt-  ^  a*±**s,  -n-*<s. 

\  anecdot j  enGlish-cheyenne  dictionary^  fafrP,*1*:.. 



w-zZ. vfcr^ 

anecdfcte,  hotaheo,  story,  narration;  ho tahan i s t %i^\J££riwtt0*»At~ 
T~  telling  of  an  anecdode;  ehotaheoneve , it  is  an£/MP, 
anecdote.  See  story.  flea-nut-  -  er  U&*-fc*Jfue- 

inf.  -hosse-,  nahossepevana,  I  repair  it  anew.a <**■** 
gain;  -voTOeg-  =an&w,from  the  start  again; evovoeS-^?*-"  , 
itaoz.he  is/ horn^anew;  naevhamonana, I  make  it  anew <2^47-“'' 
i  again.  /— krtM-t-t-  -  aA^’L,  iiwMU*S-r/uye  jra/Jc+±i-t7Zt^7 

,.ngel ,  hoze  zeheszemensz, feathered  servant  ,hozeo/zehes-'*fu^'  reah~**^ 
zemenessd  (pi.);  Maheo  hesthoze, God's  servant;*!/-/  s 
maheonhoze,  mysterious,  godly  servant.  The  Ch . us e 
feathers  to  symbolize  the  world  of  spirits.  The  downy 
feather  worn  by  priests  in  ceremonies  ref.  to  spirit#*! 
power  or  being  for_  which  or  with  which  they  work.  iW**/  * 
Thus  hoze  zeheszemensz  is  not  altogether  borrowed^  — 
from  Christian  terminology.  The  expression  vehoa 
(white  woman)  used  by  some  young  Indians  is  improper.  t/lU*e-- 
anger,  v.nataoveofsdho , I  anger  one;  ehavsevstahaoz ,  he/^^.. 

(J-'  becomes  angered.  [Havs.bad  +  staha  =hearted].  E -4  .  y  / 

,,^l>t/^saanehestaha’one  is  slow  to  anSer!  enehestaha,  one 
L*)r  soon  angered  (from  nehe  =  soon  +  staha).  See  angry, 

*  wrathful  v  cKi^b^^U  ^  ■  -  '  ,l  ' 

anger,  n .  ta^vetano^oz ,  anger ,  rartcor  '(from  taov  “frown- 

ing)7~TaoveoJ_sohestoz,  cause  of  anger;  ^astahatoz ,  a  -y  ■" 
anger  (intense  feeling  of  the  heart );  nehestahatoz ,,  - 
quick  anger, short  temper;  takovstah&toz , anger ,  rancor  ,  .  y~ 

of  heart;  momotoetanoxtoz ,  show  of  anger  (the  knit- 
ting  of  the  brow);  momdtaeozistoz,  anger,  violence;*^* 
angle,  v.nanonono.I  fish  with  hook  and  bait.  See  fish.  '■ 
angle,  n. zeheiksaevxeo , that  which  is  written  or  drawn 
to  a  point,  [-hesks  =pointed,  tapering  +  -vxeo  = 
writing,  drawing].  Zeohe§ksavxeo  =several  written 
■7V  «  angles  “triangle.  This  has  special  ref.  to  the  angular 

—  drawing  of  the  Ch.  upon  certain  robes  and  parf leches. 

I f  Such  drawings  are  symbols, used  in  certain  ceremonials 

and  to  a  larSe  extent  in  the  Ch.  ornamental  art.  He§- 
^  P  kxsanonestoz, angular  writing, drawing  on  robes  or  par- 
Wr*  JL^i  f leches;  naheSksaevxiston, I  write  angular, in  angles;! 

■  <^^7  .^‘•^aheSksanoha., I  make  it  an  angle  (with  an  instrument)/ 
jfl  jy*  _When  ref. is  made  only  to  written  lines, suff.  -vxiston 
or  -vxeoe  are  used.  HeSksanomd,  robe  having  an  angle 

an  ^ 

or  the  form  of  a  triangle;  zehe§ksaetto ,  that  which 
forms  an  angle  or  triangle . Inf .  -nime-  =at  an  angle 
from, deviating, as :  enimetaho,  he  rides  at  an  angle 
(when  body  of  rider  leans  at  an  angle  from  the  horse 
he  rides).  Enimaz.he  has  a  mouth  at  an  angle  (drop¬ 
ping  or  tilting  at  one  corner).  ^ 

angry ,  emomataeoz ,he  becomes  ang. violent;  enehestaha, he 
gets  angry-  easily;  nahSstah&tovo ,  I  am  angry  at 
one  (or.);  nahastah&ta , I  am  ang. at  it ; nahaoetovatovo , 

I  am  angry  with  one  ( in  words ) ;  nahestadetovatovo , I 
am  ang. on  his  account ;  "nahavsevstahaoz , I  am  ang. , feel 






p?"  c*i 

bad;  nahavsevstahaozetovo , 

l/irr' r’Ajs&Zmi 

il  become  angry,  "mad"  to- 
_  _  wards  one;  naasetaoveoxz, I  go  away  an®;.;  naSstahaoxz, 

^  I  am  becoming  ang. ;  nivdeaseoxeve ,do  not  speak, angri- 
*  ly.  See  anger  and  wrath, 

anguish,  ohSozetanoxtoz  (tense  feeling  |of  worry);  oze- 
^anonavoomenestoz,  anguish  (suffering  worry); 

*  ,  :eometanoxtoz, broken  up  feeling, ang.  I  oeomevoomenes-  ,  i 

suffering  anguish.  S,ee  agony .  —f-  uc 
angular,  see  angle.  .  ^  a-Ltvc,  it  w)  »*\  ^vSl 

animal,  hov&n,  general'  term  for  quadruped;  hdva  when/«<a£^'l 
3  wfl+rA’j' .  _7~  used  in  the  constructive  genit.  as:  hdvahe- 

| 1  *uVfconoz,  animal  bones;  vesshov§.n,  snail  animals;  Pe_f£p^v\,| 
It  -  -  iMP+^lhet,  small  animal  (game);  mevavovan,  carnivorousl**^4^;/  *•! 

animal;  h6va(e)hasz,ye  animals!  Toxtoehov^n, prairie  /  | 

animals  •Utrya+f-t*-*-'*",  a.  /i  /t-fr  O-Ct  | 

animate,  v.naametanendho , I  animate  one;  naametanen.I  am  ■ 

ti.,  live;  naametaneseho ,  I  cause  one  to  be  smi;; 

live.  yWV frr-yJjte-  =?**-**£-,  f 


animate v  ad j. ,zeametanenetto, that  which  is  animate,  has” 
life;  zeametanensz , the  animate  one  (or.);  eno- 
:ka,  one  is  ani.,  brisk;  eomotom,  one  is  ani., 


:xa,  one  is  am.,  orisK;  eomoiom,  one  is  am .  .  v  ; 
breathes;  is  animate, has  life,  ^ 

animation,  ametanenesohestoz,  the  cause  ,of  life.1  See.  ^  ( 

- iif  e -U  —1^ 

ank/e,  zexonaotta  (mazhessTof  foot), ankle  joint;  '[-oi 

•round,  branch  like];  veo5  or  veooo, ankle  bone 
mim  Hill  rre4~;  mHmlikmmnfina.asn  ,  T  cut  one’s  ankle;  na-  / 
'nimononaoz, I  twist,  sprain  ~mp~)ankig;.  nanimaeohan,  J  ,,  t  I 
sprain  my  foot,  i I 
.nnex,  nahoxstanen, I  add.anrJex;  -hoxstana  (in.),  -hoxs- 
~  tano  (or.)  ;  ehoxstae , one  is  annexed;  vi**f 
sits  annexed.  See  add  and  join.  4tr*~Tl 

annexation,  hoxstanenistoz.the  adding,  joining  to.  See  I 
addition, joint. 

annihilate,  navonenoto.I  annihilate  one ;  navonenoxz ,  I 
—  degtr0y  it;  navonhaha,  I  annihilate  it  by 
'jtf  heat, fire;  navonhano  (or  navonhaono)  :  I  by 
fire;  navonedstelno, I  by  fire  (instantly);  e- 
TjX;  vonh&e  it  is  (pass.)  fire;  (or  he) 
p;  ^►‘'is  annihilated  (state)  by  fire;  navoneovoto,  I  des- 
"  ^  tjitroy,  by  water;  navoneovoxz,  I  ann.  it  by  wa- 
P.^’^ter;  evonomeogeS ,one  is  ann. instantly  by  water  (body 
$ y  of ), engulfed;  navonana.I  it  off.  See  des- 
pr  troy, wipe  away.  Inf.  -von-  =destroy , lose . 

Nannihilation,  vonenotazistoz ;  vonenotsanistoz ,  the  act 
of  annihilating;  voneovatoz,  water; 
voneomeozistoz , ann. .becoming  engulfed  by  water;  vono- 
w  meostohestoz, annihilation  by  water  (in  one  sweep);  e- 

vonomeostohestov, it  is  an  annihilation  by  an  on  rush¬ 
ing  body  of  water;  voneostaestoz , instant  heat, 
announce,  ehdxeva.he  announces,  heralds;  enotoxeva.he 

announcement  ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY  annul 

arm  strangers ; eonosetaneva, he  ann. .calls  out  to  come 
evevhoeSeva.he  arrn.  the  breaking  of  camp;  emooxeva, 
he  ann  inviting  to  a  feast;  ehdneotonova,  he 
ann.,  makes  known,  give  information;  emhonhoesta.he 
ann.  spreads  the  news  abroad;  ehenevhoesta,  he  ann. 
scatters  the  news .proclaims .  The  sff.  -eva  implies  a 
heralding  by  one  invested  with  that  office;  maeto  na- 
mesta.I  ann. explain  beforehand;  nahoxevooxta . I  ann. 
publish  it;  nahoxevooto , I  ann. proclaim  one;  hotahane- 
.  mxistc  eveShoxeva.he  ann. in  the  newspaper . The  expres- 
sion  hoxeva  is  used  for  general  announcements  made 
for  the  camp  or  the  tribe.  Only  men  invested  with  of- 
ments  °f  heralds  are  allowed  to  make  public  announce- 
announcement  is  an  announcement;  gSemez 
hoxevatoz, the  office  of  heralding  has  been 
given  to  him;  notoxevatoz , the  announcement  of  stran- 
gers  (ref.mostiy  to  Ind.from  other  tribes ). alarm;  ve- 
vhoeSevatoz ,  the  ann. to  break  camp;  mooxev&toz,  the 
ann. of  an  invitation  to  eat  in  a  certain  lodge;  ono- 
^d|-^Va"°2,the  ann..  calling  to  come;  ax°xeva  eveSho- 
xevatov.the  made  with  the  bell;  hotonazistoz , 
the  ann. , information;  heneotonov&toz , the  ann.  procla¬ 
mation,  information;  hbnevhostomosanistoz  and  mhonhos- 
tomosanistoz ,  news  announcement,  the  announcing  of 
news.  [Rad.  -hen-  =scattering  from  center,  radiating- 
rad.  -mhon-  =abroad  afield;  -hoesta-  -to  tell  of  itV 
^nevhostomohestoz,  mhonhostomohestoz ,  the  announce- 

announcer ,  hoxevahe, herald;  onosetanevahe ,ann. ,  the  one 
n  *.  calling  to  come;  hotaheo , announcer ,  messenger 
( hat .nuntius ) ;  hotonovahe  and  hdneotonovahe .  announ- 
cer, informant . 

annoy,  namavetanona , I  am  annoyed, wearied;  namavetanoha 
he  ann., wearies  me;  naozetan.I  am  ann.,  bothered-’ 
navenomoxta, I  am  ann., vexed;  etakovetan , one  is  ann 
irritated;  naoz-hemeemoeho , I  ann. .disturb, molest  one; 
eozetanosohetto , it  ann.  (causal), 
annoyance,  mavetanoxtoz, ann. .wearies  in  mind;  mavetano- 
hazistoz, causing  ann. .wariness;  ozetanohazis- 
toz, ann. .bother;  venomoxtastoz, ann. vexation:  takove- 
xanoxtoz,  ann.,  irritation;  ozhemeemobhazistoz.ann. 
causing  disturbance, molestation, pestering;  naozhemee- 
mostoman.I  create  annoyance. 

M££yi£f.  is  ann. .wearisome ;  eoneztae-  is  ann. , tedious ,  irksome;  evenomoxtas-  is  ann.,  vexatious;  eozetanosohestove .  it  is 
annoying  (causal).  See  bother .disturb, meddlesome 

zenanotasz  makatansz , the  $8.00  interest  given 
twice  a  year  to  the  Southern  Ch. 
annul .navonana, (in.),;  is  ann  wiped 

navonana  ,(in.],  ann.  i  t ; 


-ZVft  Cl— 1/ 

I**#  -  yco  J 

H  fl-%  o' $  i»-  *‘h 


{km^uL,.  ticvvfitarci^,  “ 

\  ^11/eJy 

i  .  U^ a- ice* -u+  -'Y/> e ?****i,  &■#/  %***■ 

HLcLl<u.rt-\cijt^jv/h  tUc~~fU-  ' e^tai-e^U.  X0es?  t_  | 
tea-  *  x«-  cc-Li-^J -  y  0%4-  tf-t  <-  cl+*4,  $  °  j 

L^/Zef;  *?*'*'*'*£'??“*'  *’  ^  **1'  ****  ffijl 


.faJlZi  I 

MAVfft**^*^*4****'?  a  •**•  *>*'  ^  v  _  .  . 

away;  is  ann. taken;  eVesevha-ho- 
\  vahan  hoemanistovd,  it  is  annulled  by  law;  >vegevha- 

asetane  hoemaotazistovd ,  it  is  ann.,  taken  away ,  by 
judgment ; zgmehavistomazevoss  §gevhahovahanehez\their 
marriage  is  annulled, (is  no  more);  nanedemanisz  leexo- 
vahan.I  make  that  it  be  ann., that  it  be  no  more.  \ 

\  annular,  hohonea  is  ann.,  ring  shaped.  ^ee 


\  ring. 

\ annunciate,  see  announce,  pinto 
anoint,  naxoeonano.I  anoint  one, putting  salve  _  ^ 

ment  on  any  part  of  one’s  body;  naxoesta,  1 

re  or  ointvffj^.*/'  ■ 
laxoestS,  I  tiiiet’1"  9 


menu  on  any  pari  ox  one  a  uduji,  uaxucoi.0,  ^ 
have  my  hair  anointed , oiled .  See  ordain, install .  1 
anon,  dneheetto , anon, immediately ;  a,  and  d-kass  (^loseTr  ‘I 

- to, in  time)  presently, in  a  very  short  time;  errata- ;  P 

esz  na  a  enaeoz,  he  was  speaking, anon  he  died.  Infc.  '  tf,  /,  I 
-nehe-  =soon,  in  a  little  while,  and  -dnehe-  =ver/y,y/^‘ :  il 
soon, immediately  can  be  used  for  anon.  \  r  "  1 

anonymous,  t’se  esaanoxeohe  hevehestoz  zemetas  mxistS^  )  | 

- the  letter  he  sent  me  was  anonymous ,( lit  .pur t*V/i  I 

posely  he  wrote  not  his  name, when  he  gave  me  the  pa-  /ax^V,’ 
per);  zemxeo  dnohoesz  hevehestoz,  esaanoxedhanehez’  ,  he 
wrote  me  an  anonymous  letter,  (lit.  when  he  wrote  he  ,L 
hid  his  was  not  written  with  it);  t’se  enoho- 
ez’  esaanoxeolianehez  ’  hevehestoz  mxistoneheva,  the 
letter  is  anonymous  (lit.  on  purpose  it  was  written 
one’s  name, in  the  letter, or  on  the  paper), 
another,  mato  nasz,  one  more;  zenitasz  ( sg .), another ; 

zenitassS , others ;  (in. and  or.)  is  an- 

r> r 

other,  a  different  one;  enitaensz , they  (in.)  are  oth- 
"  ers, different;  enitaeo.they  (or.)are  others;  enitav- 
ae , it  is  another;  enitavaensz , they  are  others  (in.); 
enitavaeo , they  (or.)  are  others, are  changed;  nanita- 
vae.I  am  another  man;  -honaov-  as  inf.  =another,a 
second;  zehonaovasz.the  second, next  to .next  one;  no- 
nohoma,  one  to  another;  zenita  eseva  nszevomo , thou 
shalt  see  him  another  day.  See  change , different . _ 
answer,  v.nanosta,I  reply, ans.;  I  reply  to  it;  nancsto- 
vo , I  ans. to  one;  nasaaoxohe.I  ans. nothing;  esa- 
aoxoheo.they  answer  nothing;  natoseoxheve ,  I  am  going 
to  answer;  answers  for  one, meets  the  require¬ 
ments;  ans.;  heto  zemetanetto  navegpevetde- 
oz , this  which  I  have  been  given  answers  well  for  ■  me, 
is  enough, meets  my  needs;  esaavestaeozehan,  it  will 
not  answer  the  purpose;  zetohetSehoneo  niveSepavetS- 
eozenon.all  that  grows  answers, is  sufficient  for  us; 
hooxceonomanetto  naamdta,  when  called  I  answer,  obey; 
mdnoztovaz  nostovsz , when  I  ask  thee  answer  me;  nani- 
zeomon  asking  was  granted,  answered; 
niamatomon  zexhaonatto,  thy  prayer  was  answered;  zex- 
haonatds  natoseam&tomevo , I  will  answer  his  prayer  to 
me;  zdvestomos  naam&tomevo ,  I  answer  his  petition 



(grant .agree  to  it);  nataneho vevomotS, , I  shall  answer, 
stand  for  one;  noxa  zetaomhoehota  hesthavs!  wait  he 
shall  answer  for  his  evil!  (his  evil  shall  come  unto 

answer,  n.ndstatoz , reply ;  zeheSeamatoe  nsthaSn&tonan , 
”  the  answer  to  our  grayer;  oxhestoz  nasaametohe, 
I  give  one  no  answer. 

\  answerable,  esaan^s^tovhan,  it  is  not  answerable;  heto 
zeheSevetto  namesaaveStoenane,  I  cannot  be 
answerable  for  this  which  thou  doest;  exheszhovaoe 
nitao  nitSezistoz , he  was  made  ans .  for  all  thy  doing. 

_ azesc  (sg.)  azesceo  and  azceo  (pi.);  azesceo  hes- 

zevoxevo ,ant  underground  dwelling;  azceo  hevenove- 
vo, ant-hill;  zetapetass  azesceo,  large  ants;  zetoce- 
tass  azesceo , small  ants;  azesceo  zeoxcevostaneheve- 
voss , the  custom  of  ants.  Azesc  ant  has 
bitten  me;  zemoxtavassS  azceo, black  ants, 
antagonism,  dneztastoz.  See  opposition. 
antagonist,  zeoneztasz;  zeoneztdsz,  my  antagonist.  See 
adversary , opponent . 
antagonistic ,  is  ant.  See  adverse , oppos¬ 
ing.  M  d.  P 9 cx  A-  , 

antagonize,  eonezta.he  ant.;  eoneztae&ovo ,he  ant.,  acts 
antagonizing  towards  one;  naoreztovo,  I  ant. 
one;  nadnevodho,!  do  ant.  one;  natakovetanoho ,  I  ant. 
one, cause  him  to  feel  angry;  natohossemo , I  ant.  pro¬ 
voke  one, (by  words);  naomosemo.I  ant. provoke  one  (in 
words), rail;  naomoseho.I  act  antagonizing, provokingly 
towards  one. 

antecedent ,  nistavetto , beforehand ;  nista  can  be  used  as 
pref.  (constructive  geni . )  or  inf. 
antideluvian,  adj.hako  vonoom  zeheSsaaeSemhaovattan,  in 
the  ancient  epoch  before  it  flooded  all 
over.  a.A+t- 

I  antelope ,  vo5e  (sg.)  large  antelope;  voaeo  (pi.);  voka, 
small  antelope;  vokSeo  (pi.);  vokaesson,  young 
antelope ;  hotoavoa, antelope  buck.  A 

mterior ,  maeto  zeheSsaa-  (pref .governing  sub.cj.)  =in 
front,  ahead  before;  maeto  zehegsaahoeoxzes , 
prior .anterior  to  his  coming;  nistavetto  zeheSsaaeSe- 
mesehdtto  oxchaonaz, anterior, to  thy  eating, pray. 
anteroom,  nooxtde  zepoota.zeneota  the  room  of 
"  the  house  back  of  the  front  one;  zepoota  = 

\  open;  zeneota  =that  which  is  inside. 

\anti-,  is  rendered  in  pref.  or  inf.  one  =opposed  .  _  . 


'Antichrist ,  Ocevostanevhan, false  Christ;  Oxne Christ, An- 
tichrist.  This  last  njime  is^  no^^rrpJe^s 
ithout  previous  evpl  n.nat.i  0:1 . 

anticipate ,  nanistavoeSetan, I  ant., rejoice  bS' 

matan,naox^eneena, I,  I  was  cons^ 

anticipation  ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICJIONAR^f  it^  ^  SET"!- 

-f-tJLSL^*,  <*■  [*U*/  *•*  *“',f  ^  ■  J  /  ’ 

~  .  .  /  ..hi.: — 4.4.-  ^ov,-mor,^  t  *«+.  ..feel  beforehand ;ze- 


oiiX4*^  of  it;  nistavetto  nahomaoz , I  ant 
^  \|u>-  heSsaaeSevestomohesz  hovae  nanistameto, 

w*  his  asking  something  by  giving  him  beforehand;  naho- 
^  -^X^'zeovasetan.I  ant. hope;  see  hope.  NatSoheraetan  [do  not 
4  ^wc^ijr  confound  with  nataohemetan  =1  want  to  lack],  I  ant., 

y  confound  with  nataonemeiari  -i  ^ 

M  ».  flr^y*e"  apprehend  (Ger.zum  Voraus  ermessen) .  Inf.  -hohoome-  = 
beforehand, anticipating;  nahohoomemeto  zehegsaaeSeme- 
tas.I  anticipate  his  giving  me  by  giving  him. 

/*"  1  \  anticipation,  nahotometan,  I  rejoice  in  anticipation; 

- * - -  ■  ■  -------  J-'--  rejoicing  in  anticipa- 


^^^■^^^•hotomctanoxtoz.the  rejoic 
4»Tron,  taohemetanoxtoz , ant . , apprehensi 

zistoz  ,'pr  e-feeling ,  ant.;  zexheneenom  zenstoshoensz 

nanistavovetanen,  in  ant.  of  his  coming  I  prepare 
r  +  (things).  Nistavetto  nahoxtovavo , I  sell  in  ant. of  his 

n  sellingi sell  before  his  selling. 

Ir-tiT* XX  antipathy,  oneztaetanoxtoz ;  peosanistoz , anti ., avers  ion ^ 

I  have  a  detest, an  anti. for 

“  nataomegenitamo ,  _  — . 
one, natural  aversion;  naxamapeoxta ,  I  have  an  anti. for 
JZkU*'  it, Simply  disdain, dislike  it. 

Antique,  hako  vonoome  -gnxhesso,  it  is  antique  (comes 
m"  \h'  from  ancient  times);  zeto  vost&hona  hako  vonoo- 

V(T  '  me  enxhesta, this  white  stone  is  from  ancient  times. 

^  ly1  "  antiquity,  nistaomeno;  maxenistaomSno , great  antiquity. 

aiptler,  see  horns,  ****+*.- a, ■*] 

apvil,  taxetjonanestoz . 

apxiety ,'Seomstotanoxtoz  and  hdmstStanoxtoz.-***-  IvihiUtthy- 
anxious,  naozetan, I  am  anx. ,  worried;  naheomstotan, I  ajn 
.  .  anx.  .preoccupied;  nahomstotan, I  am  anx. 

nrehending;  nahessozetanotovo , I  am  anx. about  hn 




vomatanotovo , I  am  anx ., eager , desirous  to  see  one. 

i  1  mental  sff.  -tan,  (tanota  for  the  in.  ana  -tano tovo 

tflCWjpn  for  the  or.)  denotes  eagerness,  desire,  anxious  for;  e- 
\ohaveazetan , one  is  very  anxious  to  go^long. 

-  \ohaveazetan , one  is  veijr  cuuiuUo  u'"  1E>V' 

’  1  Werative  m-in  the  Ch-  gr- 

L..Vn  any-,  nohas , nahas , any ;  ahas,  and  any;  nbhass  emetonitae- 

fV  f  ,  A  _ 1_  4  /  _  _• _ \  .  4-  ~ ^  r<  4-  « /-,  -rr  OVITT  OMftnVl  + 

o.— 'onettoj  any  'amount  (size);  tpristoxnov, any  amount 
j,  jfv  •>  (number).  When  connected  with/d  n.  nohas s  and  nahas 
■3'**  take  a  final  e  except  when  tpe  n.  begins  with  an  as- 

✓  pired  sound;  nohase  nha, anybody;  nohas  hetan.any  man; 
nohashama , any  (matters  not  which)  jnohashama  tonexove- 
iWTwFi  any  time;  nohase  nasz.any  one;  nohase  nasz  ze- 
hestxevoss  nisaavomohe?  Did  you  see  any  one  of  them? 
f"  ^ anyhow,  vatometto, notwithstanding;  as  inf.  -vatom  (e)-; 
^  Jr*  ev&tomeneox^vie  goes  anyhow;  inf,  — tan§—  is  used. 

JfjVj  for  anyhow, at/trlmes, as:  nivdneoxz  natange- 
LfV'  Jr  y  neoxz.he  told  me  not  to  go, but  I  go  anyhow. 

V  anything,  nbhas  hovae;  hamanaeg,  most  anything;  nohas 
^  jf®  ~  iiama  zemezetto  nazevegepevetan ,  anything  thou 

jr  r  give^t  me, I  shall  be  glad  of  it;  tonxestoe,  anything, 

’  whatsoever;  hovae  esaa-amhahe,  he  received  not  any- 
15  yi  /thing;  ponoxta  exhoen.he  came  without  anything,  empty 

r  J/*  yV  :  V44.«£i-C4 







<T7u'*vy  —  /  —  /*f*-  oi)  ,  A> 

e  .•  etrvi/t^/et-isi^,  r<rr-~-  afa^r.  e  e*<Csnr*«W*_ 

A”—  .-  <S<ri«  W*  *<-<.  t'  Aa^ 



tangehozeohemd/,  let  us  work  anyway;  no  -  f/i/m.&*t*'~'.  */ 
(not  known  how)  he 

L<^  ,  "  »  f  % 

eat  s <err^.*^ 

esaa-  , 
in  no  wise<*"V 


anyway ,  rendered  by  inf. 

anyway;  nitangeho 
has  etonShSmoxtaeoz ,  anyway 

anywhen,  nohashama  tone§, at  any  time  whatever, 
anywhere,  nohase  t’ sa, wherever . 
anywise,  rendered  hy  the  negative  inf 
~  xamapevahe ,nor  is  he 

(ache,  Mozeeonhetan  (sg.);  M< 

cording  to  Mooney  [see  [emoirs  oi  xne  Antnropo-  jfi 
ogical  Assoc .Vol . I .Part  6,p,426]  this  name  refers  to/ 
people  using  the  rasp  fiddle".  While  not  contradict-^J 
ing  this, I  simply  state  her/6  that  moze  is  used  a  prey rM~r , 
fik  for  the  larger  male  an/mals,  as:  mozeehotoa,  bul^  *a' 
(of\huffaloes) ;  mozevehoehotoa.bull  (of  cattle) 
zgnoham, stallion;  mozenakp .male  bear.  The  mozeo^..  ....  f 
itself  designates  a  mede/mal  herb  (also  mozenis^a)  ^ 
used  rp  promote  the  flov/  of  the  breasts.  The  pp^p 
name  M^zeeSeve  =sweet  root.  q/sejb ,  l 

.apart,  inf.  -ae-,  de§-,  Me-  and  ■=o£eS- ’’’denote  apart, by,^ _ 

self;  the  ending  -eS  refers  to  a  passive  state,  7. 
j'cl  at-  'while  the  o  before  "  -  r~"A 

nywise  good,  in  no  wise^f/^^t^ 

eeonhetaneo  (pi.).  A  c- pptJ*? 
of  the  Anthropo- 

nuiic  me  u  ucxui  c  ac  and  aeg  implies  distributive  ^  ^ 
ft ciftM-  meaning;  'Mehoemaz ,he  counts  himself  apart,  separate7T“ 

xx,  from  others;  e&ehoe.he  sits  apart, by  himself;  nio de-'t/i.  , 
hoem&.we  s^t  apart, by  ourselves;  nipaehoetovaz,  I  sit*^?^^  „ 

■  <  apart  from  thee;  naodehano,  I  take  them  apart, sort  _ /- 

=,  them  (or. )  ;  naevhadeseoz,  I  become  apart, by  myself  ;na-  c*^S~ 

degvostaneheVe , I  live  apart;  niodegvostanehevhema,wew_  y  ^  1 

■&.  each  live  apart;  eoaeshistanoveo ,  they  are  living 

■Ly/Ax/*~/part  ,as  people;  inf.  -nohe-  =apart,  aside,  deviating/'’^®'^-  | 
B»J!>-‘''"^>/'*from;  nanohdnOy nitovd , I  put  him  apart, aside  from  me  ;/*•*'''* tfr 

Aw,  nan0he0z,I  become  "side  tracked".  See  separate.  Inf / (U^- *6-***. 
m  -vohov-  denotes  apart,  asunder  (of  objects  put  toge-  ^ 

■  ther ) ;  evohovaeo  ,^hey  come  apart(as  shingles  .flooring, 

■  ”  which  are  spokeniof  as  or.)  evovohovSen  they  lie , , 

I  ,  apart;  evohovonat'to , it  breaks  apart  ( anything  ground , 

cylindrical);  evcjhovonattonsz  (pi.);  evoHoveoz,  it 
comes  apart;  navoh!pvaovd.zheme ,  we  keep  apart  from  each 
tm:  .Jr  other;  navohovaovo',  I  keep  apart  from  one;  evovohovo- 

heo ,  they  come  apart  (as  flooring).  The  reduplication'*. 

-vo  designates  p(Lr  .distributive  meaning;  naoninxa-^**'4- 
in,  I  take  apart;  -Oninxana  (in.),  -oninxano  (or. )  Sjfs  ZZL 
so  demolish;  aegeozess  nitovd  nimesaatoneSsaneheme 
apart  from  me,  ye  can  do  nothing,  ye  cannot  prevail;  £ 
hevaodeSeozetovess  nimesaatoneosar.eherce  ,  being  apart 
from  me, ye  cannot  prevail;  emosetto,  apart,  secretly ; 

-mes-  inf.  =  secretly;  naemoseeszto  vo ,  I  speak  to  one^t**''  ,  | 

apart ,  secretly .  (MiiJt, 


apathetic ,  esaanitorn^tsanejOne  is  apa., without  feeling;  ' 




ehdzenitomotsan ,he  is  apa. , cannot  feel;  mdzhesta  zsa-  apa.  heart;  esaaxama-tonSetanoheone vd ,he 
is  apa. .simply  indifferent. 

apathy,  saanitomotsanehestoz , ap. , the  having  no  feeling: 

- saatonsetanoxtoz ,  ap. ,  indifference:*^ 

ape,  n .ho tame vo stan .person  dog;  make-vostan.ape.lmonkey; 
""’make  is  corruption  of  the  Eng. monkey, 
ape,  v.nahoxeszeha, one  apes , counterfeits  me;  =ape 

-  imitate  in  acts  or  gestures ; this  word  is  not  a 

bal  f.  but  implies  mimicking.  See  imitate, 
apex,  honoc, apex, point;  -tonocnanoss-  =extreme  apex.ex-^ 

-  tremely  (used  as  infix);  hekamon6on, apex, pinnacle , 


apheresis  (aphesis),  is  indicated  in  Ch.  by  the  _ small 

-  ring  (°)  over  vowel, as  nitovd,  eszistovd,ax°- 

xev.  .  In  other  places  the  shown  by  the  apos¬ 
trophe, as:  eesz’neo  for  eeszdneo.  The  e  or  i  of  nouns 
ending  in  -estoz  or  -istoz  becomes  apocopated  when 
they  add  more  syllables,  as:  navostanehevestoz ,  my 
life;  nivostanehevstonan.  The  vowels  o  and  a  in  the 
syllables  ox  and  ax  become  apocopated  when  more  syl¬ 
lables  are  added, as:  eestax.he  steps  in;  eestxeo.they 
step  in;  nistoxs.each  becomes  nistxeo  =all. 
aphonia,  hdze-'STehahestoz.not  able  to  voice  .hoarse . 
apiece,  in  the  sense  of  each, every , is  rendered  by  o  and 

-  reduplication  of  first  consonant  in  the  word, 

as:  nasz  =one;  nonasz, one -apiece;  apiece 
(many  times);  noniS  two  to  one;  nononiS,  two  to  each, 
two  apiece;  nonive,  four  to  one;  nononive , f our  to 
each, apiece;  nametonoz  maxenoz,  I  give  to  one  apples; 
namometonovoz, I  give  them  each  apples;  nononasz  maxem 
namometonov, I  give  to  them  an  apple  apiece. 

•  »  apologize,  natamestomovo  zeheshavsevoanetto , I  will  ap. 

to  one  for  my  speaking  bad;  heto  zeheShavse- 
veoxhetaz  naevhaasetana,  I  take  away  what  evil  I  had 
said  to  thee;  naevhameseoz  zeheShavsevoeaz,  I. repent, 
apologize, for  having  illtreated  thee;  nahavsevoan  e- 
tov.tato.go  and  tell' him  that  thou  hadst  spoken  evil 
concerning  him  (lit.  I  spoke  bad  concerning  thee, go 
,  v  .  and  tell  him) 

(UpnKfW'A  apoplexy,  sdhovenSestoz, sudden  death. - - 

apostle'p'TTenevenenahe  ,  one  who  is  ordered  to  go  , apostle  ;  - 
i.  '  :l\,  x'  j-  .',„'i;7(T<'hozeo  zehenevenenahessS ,  the  apostles .messen- 
™  Jjic^gers,  those  who  are  sent  out  in  all  directions. 

appal,  naohaetanoho ,  I  app.  one;  is  an 
-  appal ing  deed;  naohSetanooz, I  become  app.;  nama- 

sdhepooz , I  become  suddenly  frightened, app. ;  eohahoto-  is  an  appaling  sight;  maxhotoanavoom, 
appalling  condition;  sehovanistoz,  the  suddenness  of, 
the  appalling;  sdhovanistoz  mdztaheva,  the  sinking, 
sudden  feeling  in  the  heart, that  which  appals. 



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j^jLe^^-  /&*-  ^  A/ 

/b  (x-yy"&-  a  j/ -t-i—i-*-  — /S/rY  —  ^ 

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J/5r  aft-  e&*'**+y  e**-**- 


OJC**  e*jt .  *-+{[.  —  tw.'Vc^vv  /  — U-*A^_c>VAe*Tw  s  cxMIm. L 

isxoz ,honeo , clothing.  See  dress , cloth  int£v%*]I^y«y 
endered  in  Ch.with  the  hypothetic  m.  ( see  rr<  - 

apparent,  is  rendered ) ;moetaas6, apparently  he'has  left;  dvos 
tomanoon  estSevhan.he  shpw&d  the  stans,  i 
appar«:ently  was  night  .md/iene +u ***■  - 1* *r~ 

apparition,  mxeenos  hetaneo .apparition  of  men;  zehetxe  -  , 

ens ,  the  app.the  appearing  one;  mxeeom,  ghost 
tent, lodge  of  apparition.  The  pref.  mxee-  has  ref.  to 
spiritualism  or  manifestation  from  the  spirit-world. 

At  irregelar  times  the  mxeeom  is  put  up,  where  a  camp 
is, or  several  families  live.  Back  of  this  lodge  is 
always  tied  a  bundle  of  tall  willows  or  saplings.  Du¬ 
ring  the  night  a  votive  service  or  ceremonial  is 
held.  Votive  offerings  of  dry  goods  are  exposed  out¬ 
doors.  The  apparition  or  spirits  are  supposed  to  im¬ 
part  their  power  to  the  votive  gifts,  by  putting  them 
on  or  touching  them.  Towards  dawn  there  is  a  rush  for 
the  votive  of f erings , f or  they  have  acquired  a  special 
spiritual  power.  Mxeeczistoz,  the  apparition;  mxeeo- 
zistomanistoz,  the  making  of  an  apparition;  this  is 
also  used  for  stereopticon  views. Seooxz  =dead  person, 
is  also  used  for  spectral  apparition,  in  so  far  as 
the  ‘apparition  is  one  of  a  dead  person.  They  are  sup¬ 
posed  to  be  very  obnoxious  to  human  bn-Lngs,  causing 
cramps ,  twitching  of  facial  muscles  and',  other  afflic¬ 
tions.  This  affection  is  called  seozeatastoz ,  "spec¬ 
tral  infection"  ./rve-e^nttfa,  •  />*•"*  :  «.  c'f-V  -  ■ 

appeal ,  v.namomoxzemosan,  I  -app.  ;  nam'omoxzemo ,  I  >■  r  ■  ■ 

one;  namomoxzesta,  I  app.  to  it;  pref.  momoxe-  ' 

(gov. sub. c j . )  =appealingly , implorigly ;  momoxenistosz ,  / 
oh  may  he  hear  me!  Nimomoxzemaz , I  appeal  to  thee;  na- 
vessemomoxz , I  appeal  with,  worship  with  (expression 
used  mostly  by  Northern  Ch. ) .  [The  rad.momo  =low, 
humble;  emomoxae  =one  is  low, humble], 
appeal ,  n.momoxzemosanistoz,  the  appealing;  momoxzema- 
zistoz, appeal;  momoxzestomohestoz ,  imploration; 
emomoxzemosanistove, it  is  an  appeal.  Ninisonevo  hemo- 
moxzem’ sanistovevo , the  app. of  your  children.  Often¬ 
times  the  o  in  such  forms  in  apocopated  and  replaced 
by  an  apostrophe  *  a. ,  .  v  <A v  '/~£~ 

appear ,  inf.  -me-,  -mee-  and  also  -mehe-  =to  pome  to 
view  (usually  from  plane  or  surface).  Emehoax.he 
appears  stepping  out;  Meeo , appearing-woman  (Ch.proper<^i”-"-/- 
name).  Evhanem^eo , one  merely  appears  (not  yet  in  full 
liyfa-sight) ;  appears  coming  up;  e§ehe  ^oxmeenesz,,*^^^* 

'  at  the  appearing  of  the  sun;  enstoseeSemeen  e§ehe  ,,,/ 
vftl  the  sun  is  about  to  rise  (come  up);  Hotoameene,  Bull-,z'£~Z*t 

($'  coming-up  (proper  name);  emeehoen,  he  app. coming  up + 
**,  out  of;  nivae  ehoena-mefeneo ,  he  app.  four  times  (in 
ijyP’connection  with  ceremonials);  eme-henevhosta ,  it  app. 
fr  ✓(coming)  suspended;  ememomenokosta,  it  app. in  single 

j  ^  "ff*  •  j 


^  bunches, suspended  [as  the  apparition  of  the  fiery ^ 

tongues,  Acts  2:3].  Emeezevatoeo ,  a  rising  dust  aP 
-T,  pears, comes  up  in  sight;  emeheotatavatto  it  appears/ 
-l^;.X?lue  (when  distant  mountains  come  in  sight);  emasdme-p?  f- 
-  hetooxzeo.they  suddenly  appear  coming;  ap-^^ 

pears  (see  apparition);  zehetxeens , the  appearing  one 

l*\n ameena,  I  make  it  appear.  _ 

'[therefrom:  namda.I  find  it;  namdovo.I  find  one, 

K  a/  m^ndn,  I  mine;  name'nomen.I  dig  out  (edible  bulbs);  na- 
’  V  ^\]iO  m£noovoto,I  dig  one  out  by  means  of  water  (by  pour- 
tly  fit  |0Ving  water  into  the  hole  of  burrowing  animals)].  Na- 
J aV|>*  meovoea ,  I  make  it  appear  (out  of  liquids )  .bring  it  to 

rj-flif-  ,view;  meo  =early,dim;  when  day  light  appears;  meovo- 
na  in  the  early  morning;  meo  =road,  path  appearing 
(likely:  from  the  grdfmd);  -nameemo.I  reveal , divulge 
'  fc'one  (by  words);  namesta  or  namehesta,  I  toring  A* 

0/  forth, make  it  appear  by  the  lips  -explain.  Sff . 

^  ‘'for  the  or.  and  -nono  for  the  in.  denotes  external  /  . 

show,  look,  aspect.  Emomenohe,  emomehemenche  (or. )  .oneMltw'1 
'  app.  looks  fine;  emomehemenono  (in.)  it  app.fme;  e_  "‘‘T" 

jU  momoxendhe  (or.)  ’one  has  a  desirable  app. look;  emomo- 

rf  nj  haim  desirable  look;  epevenohe  or.)  ne^/j 
Jr  y  Y  innVQ  cronfl  •.  ehavsevenono ,  it  looks  toad .  [bee 

,}V.  u 

-  ’  appearance a  m^e ozistoz, the  coming 

'  y  — - the  rising  to  view;  mehoenistoz,  appearance 

Mfy  rf^ut  of;  mxeeozistoz, appearance  (see  apparition);  ze- 
'KlUSL  heSenos  ,his  appearance ,  aspect  (or.);  zeheSenonoe,  its 
appearance;  zeheSepevenos , one ’ s  fine  app.looK;  zehe. 

V,  ey  jr  hetome  esaanhessohan , it .  is  not  as  its  app.  is;  momoxe- 
nohestoz  a  desirable  app., look;  hovae  zsaamomoxenohe- 
,  ;  r.  stovhanehez '  esaahoahe , something  of  undesirable  app. 

MV  •  <*.  he  does  not  like;  hovae  nivSohaztanov  tahoc  tass 
V^Yhan-het'orne ,  do  not  judge  by 

the  outside  ap.of  a 
v thing.  /Tass  nihetoman  zeheSepavaetto ,  thou  hast  the 
rtl yr^/r  *  app. of  being  good;  zeheSemavoms ,his  app. before  all  - 
his  being  seen  by  all.  See  look, sight, view. 

. m  v  aroea:  ,  inf.  oanj  ) -  denotes  settlii  g, seasii  g;  na  a- 

-  noevatoe,  I  appease;  -oanoevamo  (or.),  urge  to 

h  J.V'feeace,  quiet;  -oanaoevata  (in.);  oanosz!  be  quiet,  ap 
\r  U^peased!  naoanozeeoz ,  I  have  become  app.;  naoanoevaose- 
^  I  app.  one  (by  speaking  to  him);  naoanoevaostomo- 

san  I  am  (appeasing) , an  appeaser  (in  words);  zeoanoe- 
vaostomosz ,  the  one  who  speaks  soothingly ,  appeasmgly  , 
oancevaos tomohe  or  oanoevaostomosanehe ,  the  appeaser: 
eszistoz  et’sgoanoevaostomohetto 


tj.'J'  .^spfcech)  is  certainly  (t’se)  appeasing; 

this  word 

_\T  c  , 

rr  j  4  f,  a'U.  ™ 

lit  tuwi 



toz.the  appeasing  counsel;  oanaoe vamazistoz,  the  act  - 
of  appeasing  by  advising, urging;  nahaomooz,  I  become / 
appeased;  nahaomoxtae , I  am  (state)  app., have  peace;* 
nahaomoxtomoxta,  I  feel  appeased  ,at  peace;  nahaomoxto-^y-,-T-/i</rt^rt  • 
6ho,I;  nahaomoseho , I  cause  him  to  be  app. ,  at^  Ti*****-  ~  ! 

peace;  haomos!  be  cool,  quiet  (Ger.  rege  dich  nicht 
auf!);  nahaomostanotovo ,  I  am  axious  to  appease  one 
haomoxtastoz ,  the  state  of  being  app.;  haomoxtomoxtas-^Aa 
toz.the  feeling  app., at  peace;  haomostanoxtoz ,  desire^^’^*2^’ ,L 
to  app.;  haomoozistoz ,  the  becoming  app.;  navovoeSemo,  <*ff***** 

I  app soothe  ,  comfort  one.  See  pacify,  calm ,  peaceful .  h  tx******'*^  , 
Naoanomoxta,  I  feel  app.  comforted;  naoanomoxtaman,  I  Ila^***1*1** 
make  to  feel  app.;  na,oanomoxtamano ,  I  make  one  (or.) 
feel  app.  ;  naoanaxajmoxta  and  naoanaxamoxtaman  have 

the  same  meaning  as  ^naoanomoxta  and  naoanomoxtaman ,.  y* 
only  refers  to  the  state  of  being  appeased.  4-*^.  j^LO-u., 
append ,  nahoxstanen,  I  app.,  -hox’Stano  (or.)  and  -hoxs- 
tana  (in.)  =add  unto;  nahoeno.I  app.  (or.sp,of 
dry  goods)  to,  in  mending  (adding  to  the  length  or 
width);  nahoxstaeta, I  append  to  it;  nahoxstaetovo ,  I 
append  to  one.  See  add.  In  Ch.the  h  sound  implies  an 
adding, huggig.hangingg  to.  Nanoxea.I  append  to  it  (in 
writing);  noxeoxz  nivehestoz,  append  thy  name  to  it, 
along  with  it  (Ger.dazu).  — — 

appendage,  zehetoxsetto  all  my  flesh,  body,  all  the  ap- 
“  pendage  of  my  body,  my  members;  zehetaeston, 
all  its  appendage, appurtenances, parts,  (of  a  build¬ 
ing);  zehetaeveazetto ,all  its  appendage,  all  that  be¬ 
longs  to  it. 

appetite,  mesetanoxtoz , the  desire  for  eating;  measenis- 
toz, app. , taste ;  nameasen.I  have  appetite , taste 
for;  esaaxamesetanohe ,  he  has  no  app.,  feels  not  like 
eating;  mavoxdz  zehethohatto ,  the  app.  of  the  flesh 
(what  it  desires , covets ) ;  hemakataemetanoxtoz,his 
app. for  money.  [Sff.  -tan  denotes  want, greed]. 

zessezistove, there  is  a  sudden  applause. 
apple ,  maxemen  (sg.),  maxemenoz,  (pi.);  hestovoeskon ,  * 

dried  apples;  maxemenoe  (sg.),  maxemenosz  (pi.)/’ 

=°rch ~ 

a,  a-  / 

apple  tree;  maxemenoeSe, growth  of  apple  trees 
ard.  [Maxe  =large,big  +  men  =berry].  Maxemeneva 
mong  the  apples;  maxemenoeva,  among  the  apple  trees; 
maxemenoeseeva, in  the  apple  orchard, 
application,  btsetanoxtoz ,  endeavor;  paoanenistoz ,  the 
app.  pasting  to;  vSstomevazistoz,  ^app^. re¬ 
quest;  ,appeali*^« 

■  .tjj.  apply,  napaoanen.I  apply,  -paoana  (in.),  -paono  ( or .  )  7f ' 

to  paste  on, upon  a  surface;  napoenoe,  I  apply  (aryr‘ 

■  , ^  patch  of  clothing) ;  napoenqto ,  I  patch,  (or.),  napoe-  ,  / _ 


^.,aH.^-w<r«-X</  fc~~ 

<u*rzT?™^W^&~  «**■** 

(in.)  apply  patchT 'on  /  na*fon*<5: 


"  appo11 

„  A+V  Aoita^I  patch  (in.)  apply  pa^ch^on/naSfonj^moxzenfo 

L  see  one  (see  appeal);  evesta  hozeohestoz ,he 
Jj  1)^.  ^  \aio .  i asks  for  work;  inf.  -<5tse-  denotes  application 
the  sense  of  "to  give  oneself  wholly  to", as:  e<5t- 
jeWhona.he  app. himself  to  prayer;  edtsehozeohe ,  he 
V*’  fcpp. himself  to  work;  zeheSetovaetoez ,  applied  to  us, 
v  ,*  /that  which  it  means  to  us.  [HeSetova , inf .  =purpose], 

lint,  naenano , I  app.,  set  one;  navhestano.I  app. one 
—  to  be  with, as:  navhestano  nathozeoneva ,  I  app. 

:  to  be  with, among  my  servants;  navhestanaz , I  app. 

i elf  to  be  with, throw  my  lot  with;  namatono ,  I  app. 

It OLUtlC^t  orfdain  one  (religious  term);  zematoessft,  the  appoint- 
Sa  'itg-f/Wf1  .initiated  ones;  navomenoto.I  app.,  select  one;  na¬ 
ff  ' vfimfenota, I  app. one  for  one. See  select , choose . Exhoema- 
Jqo  zetosemoheoxzistovez’  .they  appointed  a  gathering 
Yin^VU/MW'lto' / made  a  law  for);  nanitootan  heto  hozeohestoz,  this 
Y^‘  /Work  is  appointed  to  me ,( entrusted ) .  See  allot. 

bpointment ,  is  an  appointment, rul- 

- - ing;  enanenistpz,  the  appointing,  laying 

Town;  vomenotazistoz , app . select  ion;  mat6hestoz , app . , 
ordination;  zehegeenans , one ’ s  app.  to;  meaveho  mata- 
eSeenansz , when  the  Ind. Agent  shall  have  been  appoint¬ 
ed  =af ter  the  appointment  of  the  Ind.  Agent;  See  al-i 
lotment .  — , ^ 

apportion,  nav^ozenovo ,  I  "app.  to  one,  give  one  one’s  por- 
-  tion;  navozenohova, I  app., am  one  who  distri¬ 
butes;  navozenomevo , I  app. .distribute  to  one;  navho- 
zena.I  app. it, divide  it  into  distributive  parts  (with 
no  ref. to  equality  of  portions);  nasestoxtana,  I  app. 
divide  it  into  equal  parts.  See  allot, 
apportionment,  vozenohov&toz ,  the  act  of  apportioning, 
-  distributing;  sestoxtanenistoz, app. .divi¬ 
sion  into  equal  parts;  vozenomevazistoz, app. distribu¬ 
tion.  See  allotment. 

appose,  ehestoematto, apposes, juxtaposes;  nahestoemaoxz , 
— ~  i  app., put  it  side  by  side;  nahestoemaovo  (or.) 

nahestoemaeta, I  appose , juxtapose  it  to  it.  See  side. 
Napaoanal  appose  it, flat, close  against, 
apposition,  hestoemaestoz , juxtaposition ;  see  side, 
appraise,  nahoeman  zehexovoeme,  I  app.  it,  determine 
-  (make  a  rule  as  to  its  value);  nahoeman  ze¬ 
hexovoems  , I  app. one  (or.);  ehexovceme  nanitoesta,  I 
app. it, estimate  its  value;  zehexovoems  nanitoemo,  I 
app. one  (or.), count  how  much  worth  he  is;  natSoesta 
zehexovoeme , I  app.,  measure  its  value  (by  counting); 
nataoemo  zehexovoems , I  app. one  (or.),  measure  one  (by 
counting) ; eSetSoeme  is  appraised;  nao- 
hatama  zehexovaes.I  app . one , judge  of  one’s  value  (not 
in  counting);  naohazesta  zehexovae,I;  naohata- 
mo  zehexovoems  (or.). 

appraisal,  ohatamazistoz  zehexovoeme  hoe, the  app. of  the 



I  lUlfTlZrfl'Pf  ■Vp**/  a/tetif.tF ■  fotM-fteautu  j  tJUaJU  tih-u^ 

*  A  i/ <4^  <■ 

i*+  +*  *4^/-  J 

UrvrMMr  nirri^u  «  nw  /■  — 



y  a**- 


land;  nitoestonestoz  zehexo voemevoss  mohgnoham 
app.  of  the  horses.  See  worth. 
aPgrg;isement ,  zehexovoeme,  its  app.  ;  zehexovoems 

(or.)  valuation, 


app . ;  zehexovatams , one ' s 
estimation  (not  in  counting) . 

S£P£££iLte.  : napevazesta,  ( in. ) , napevatamo  (or.),I  app., 
deem  good;  zeheSevistaemetto  napevazesta,  I 
app. thy  helping  me;  esaahesseztohe  zemehapevogs  he 
does  not  appreciate  that  he  was  well  treated  [nahes- 
sezesta  I  consider,  heed];  zemezess  nahSoemezesta, I 
app.  value  what  you  gave  me;  haho  naheSetan.I  app., am 
thankful  for;  mo  hah5  nihetohe  zeheSevistaemata’  j 

doest  thou  app.  that  he  helped  thee?  ,  /uU. 

apprec^aUpn ,  haho  heSetanoxtoz,  feeling  of  thankful 
ness  j stoz ,  app .  approval .  J 

appi-ehend,  nataohemetan  I  app.  .measure  in  thot;  ^tlaneS- 
staha,  I  app.,  not  knowing  what  wiLl  "happen; 
nahohoomeeta, I  app. it, have  foreboding  fea^f  nahepoe- 
tan.I  am  app.,  dread;  nanoxtovheneena  /f  app  grasp  C\  C 

with  the  mind, understanding  uj^guaj^Kcfau*.,  w  »a*‘a- 

“  taohemetanoxtoz -Tin  thot);  neSstah^toz  '' 


—  — —  yiu  muwi  nesspanatoz^^p.r  •  _ 

app. , foreboding jhohoomdtoxtastoz  app.fore-/rA^''‘^v‘T- 
;*•«=  fear;  hepoetanoxtoz ,  the  being  in  dread  of;' 

— T^^heneenovastoz, app., mental  grasp, understanding.  ’ 
approach,  v.  rendered  by  inf.  -hahan-  =nearing,  near;  *  is  aproaching;  is 
.walking  nearer;  is  app. ; ehahane- 
.  , time  is  app.[-exov-  -the  cut  off, degree];  ehahan- 

J  ®|0Ttnett“^ime  app., comes  nearer  and  nearer;  nahahaT' i 

w  us, ,  oxi.iv.  o.yy.  ,  guinea  nearer  ana  nearer;  nahaha-  •  ■ 
ioxta.nahahaneoto  (or.),  I  am;  nahahaneovo , I 
jp. where  one  is;  nahahaneta.I  app. to  it;  [nahahaneo- T'T'- 
ftovo.I  stand  near  one];  hahane-sit ’ taeva , approaching T  ‘  '  ; 
udnight;  nakahangn.I  app. closer;  zehahanensz , the  one T.,  t 
tpproaching;  zehahaneosz , the  one  (or.)  app. me;  zeha-T  'T-, 
laneoetto ,  the  one  (in.)  app. me;  hahanetto .hahetto ,ap-' T ‘ ;  -T 
broaching,  near  by.  See  near.  Ehahanemeaneve  ,  the  summer,  •-  . 

,^pp.j  app. to  the  value.  Esaaha-  T -<*,  '~*'  cannot  be  approached. See  approachable. 

Toach,  n.hahanenistoz,  the  app.  (in  walking);  hahane- 
oxzistoz ,  the  app.  (coming);  hahanebveozistoz, 
the  app. (the  soon  becoming  time);  hahaneovazistoz , the 
app. to, nearness;  kahanenistoz.near  approach;  hahanes- 
toz  is  difficult  of  app.;  eveShahanes- 
tov  oxovo.the  app.  to  the  bridge;  ehotoanatto  zeveSe- 
hahaneoe ,  its  app.  is  hard, difficult-;  hotoana-hahanes- 
'  toz.hard  of  app.  \  . 

approachable,  is  appTf  ehotoanaTahar^J~<^^'^1 
not  easily  approachable;  ^ 

1  ^  u  i  •  j  lb  not  ed j  if -*  ^ ^ mi k/ _l c  is  unapproachable;  ehdzehahaneoheo 
they  (or.)  are  unapproachable;  esaahahaneohan ,  it  i 
not  app.;  esaahahaneoehe , one  (or.)  is  not  app. 

,  :  W,  SU  CU1V  )<  «/Wua- 

53  ;  - - 


r_U'0*-a  - 



approbation,  see  approval, 
appropriable,  eheszovstov. 

appropriate,  v.naheszhovaov&z , I  app.for  myself;  namjafon- 
heszhovanetovo , I  app.  it  his;  nam)Aonhesz- 
hovanenoz,I  app. one  for  myself;  namhonheszhovaetova, 
he  app. me;  namhonheszova,  I  app. .provide  as  property; 
zevaSitaevsz  e§nananoz  mak&tansz  zetoseveghozeohesto- 
vezesz,the  Government  appropriated  money  for  labor; 
emhonheszhovaoenovoz  makatansz,  they  have  been  appro¬ 
priated  money  (provided  with  money  for  their  own), 
appropriate,  adj . eneSepeva, it  is  app.,  suitable,  befit- 
ting  (alluding  to ) ; epavazeonatto , it  is  app. 
befitting;  napevazeonazesta.I  deem  it  app.  Epevazeona 
heto  hozeohestoz , this  work  is  appropriate, befitting. 

„  appropriatness ,  pavezeon&toz;  pavetSeozistoz, fitness . 

,  approvable,  epevatamazistove ;  epevazeonna,  it  is  app.;  is  app.  (or  appropri- 
t,V^.  ;  fesaapevazestatovhan ,  it  is  not  app.  (or  apropri- 

i^/ie^'ate .  See  appropriate . ^  u 

.♦^'jj^i^pproval ,  pevazestato^<pevatamazistloz .  ^ecm 

approve ,  napevazesta"(l  approve  of  it, deem  it  gSoT,  am  infij/”** 
favor  of  it;  napevatamo,  (or.);  epevazeona, ^ 
is  approved,  appropriate -naamata,,  I  app. of,  consent  toT^^^ 

i  t  y  •  h  ***> 

approximate,  v.see  approach  and  nea / y 
approximate,  ad j .hahanetto , nearly ;  usually^ 
used  in  giving  numbers,  as:  hoetov  nande  =  ' 
about, not  quite  30. 

appurtenant,  adj .zehetaeve&zetto ,  all  that  goes  with; 

zehetaoxsetto.all  that  is  app.  to  my  body, 
all  of  my  flesh;  zehetaeston.all  its  parts  (of  some¬ 
thing  built). 

apricot,  ocemaxemen;  ocemaxemenoe.ap.tree;  ocemaxemeno- 
e§e,ap. trees  growth, orchard .  [Oce  =sly, cheat¬ 
ing,  disguising  +  -maxemen  =large  berry]. 

April,  poetaege,  moon  of  shedding;  vepozeveSe ,moon  of 
leafing.  The  first  is  the  old  name.  Very  few  of 
the  younger  Ch.are  acquainted  with  these  names, 
apron,  taomo-osoestoz  [from  hedge, barji  etao  mo 
=it  bars, hedges  (sp.of  growing  plants  or  trees)]. 
Nxpsoestoz,nxpsoesto  (obs.)  =loin  cloth, breech— clout ; 
enxenxpsoestonaov&zenov5noz,they  made  unto  themselves 
aprons , breech-clouts.  [This  word  has  only  ref. to  loin 
cloth.  Where  in  Genesis  3:7  the  Eng. version  has  "ap- 
rong"  we  translate  as  in  Hebrew  by  "loin  cloth, or 
breech  girdle].  ^  ‘ 

apropos ,  hozamd!  hozamd  emeseo,  apropos,  he  ate;  with 
this  hozamd  the  Reflective  m.  (see  is 
used  oftentimes. 

apt,  ad j. See  able.  Txo  =apt, liable  to, likely;  txo  etos- 
hosseesz.he  is  likely  to  speak  again;  enegeoona, one 


v  uUxnJL  ^  jft^y-c^u-  -  P  cue^ht'e,  -  (e  ^dtcj  *ff= 
/v2^  £  £  P<**fo^#^cl***t**'  -  -*+**■**'*/  £*-  M* 

. j^%4/0*t/ra~~<h  -  5 






is  apt .skillful. 

aptitude, see  ability.  Hetosazistoz, apt. propensity, 
aquatic,  zehetSevatto  m&peva,  that  which  lives,  has  its 
being  in  the  water;  zehetSevavoss  m&peva, aqua¬ 
tic  beings, all  who  live  in  the  water;  zehetSehoneo 
m&peva, aquatic  plants. 

aqueduct,  zeametomdstoon  zeveSeamovanenistove , continous 

^ _ Q  structure  wherewith  water  is  led. _  _ 

arable ,  ezftomaxovatov,  it  is  arable , plowable  ;  esaazeto-/y/^4i^/&'&^<~  is  not  arable .  anfw'/ro.-r,£J 
.rbitrary,  adj.toxtomon  as  mf. denotes  something  ^with-^^i- 

out  fixed  rule  or  principle;  toxtomonetto  na-^j^W^ 
saaneSeve.I  did  not  do  it  arbitrarily;  toxtomonetan- «— — 
oxtoz, arbitrary  in  thots;  taomenitaetanoxtoz, arbitra¬ 
ry  .domineering, despotic  disposition;  emomenkoezesta , 
one  is  arb. .selfish  (in  disposition);  [-momenkoe-  =to 
ibe  by  one's  self].  EoaeStanoheoneve ,  one  is  arb.  .apart 

his  thinking;  esaakooxtahe ,  one  is  arb.. , selfish.  ./  f  j*,lo  . 

oveoehom, arb.  ,  summer  house,  shady  place  made  by  .'•/  '  . 
brush  or  saplings;  oveooestoz ,  that  which  makes  up 
,rbor;  naoveoeoston, I  eredlf  an  arbor;  naoveoeosto- 
k>,I  erect  an  arbopAfor  one;  eoveooeSeve,  it  is  an  '  ^ 

shady  plac^-A  a  shady  i  growth  (not  made).  See  <*■ 

vui A-f4--  >' 

k.that  which  is  bent;  navoxkoana.I  set  it eV£*lurQ  £  ^ 

.  See  bend,  curved;  zevovdemsz,  the  arch  one ,  ; 

ense  of  most  worth;  zevovoemsz  zeheszemensz 
archangel;  zeahaneoneztoez.our  arch  enemy.  j 

l  be  rendered  by  inf.-oha-  =in  a  high  degree , 

1  ensp ;  eohamehoseoneve  ,he  is  an  ardent  lover.  . 

toanatto,  it  is  ard.;  ehotoanavoma,  it  is 
slrd.  Aehotoanavhozeohestove, it  is  an  ard.  work.  ^ » 

v .  be^-- — **  1>1£  4  £  wt  et+a*  k 

(pref .gov.sub.cj.=the  reach  of, as;  zehetS- 

area,  reach  of  land;  zehetao,  its  area,'*  ^*2?^ 
anount;  NzehetSexov.area  of  time;  zehetSpoota, the 
open  a  -ea.  (in\a  wood, or  in  a  town, etc.)  zehetSenano- 
area  of\  (things)  planted;  zehetSzetpmax, the  a- 
plowed  Wand ) .  .  . 

iafetestovhes\a,I  arg. about  it;  nahestovhestanon , we 
arj. about  itWhestov  =both  sides,  +  hesta  =to  say 
it].  N ieset&zhem<kwe  arg.,  dispute  (Ger .Wortstreit) ; 

.j,nahdsa  >v§,zhem, we  arg., sp. pro  and  con.^'t 

arid ,  zs  a.ahestonemao\han,  arid  land;  nemetomao,  barren 

d;  ookomaoxze'ge, arid, bare  ground;  ensdmaeh6ta,  / 
a,  it  is  arid,  parched  ground  .*  <-<-*•  /thy  :  -  4 - 

iaoha,I  arise;  rmohSeSekaax , I  arise, jump  up;  n%r 
ohSetao , I  arise  aty against;  naohSetaotovo , I  arise 
sJgainst  one;  naohfetaota  (in.);  natde.I  arise 
(frory  sleeping) .  See  ri^e.  Egehe  er.emeen,  the  sun.  i% 

.g.  i  0  •  LO*., 


r  ,JLj^ 


’  arduous , 

oe.the  ; 
rea  of  ] 
argue ,  i 


0>uUkW-  - 

-  ’e^U-C  l-i~UL^ux-  f, /4  e^*-^icr/{y^  t-r'h 




11  ^  p-"  AXpr  ±ffV^  jY  H 

thmetic  zeoxcedstonsto  vythe  numbering , counting',,^^^^/  ' 
semonemhayo , the  ark  (^oat-house);  vistomohane-ve- 

— - Seeseo , ark  of/covenant.  [Na iris tom 5h «n  \  W 

a  covenant';  veBeSseo/case]  , 


arm,  v.naheskovanen, I/am  armed  (with  weapons 

7  vaneoz , I  become/armed  [from  heSkov  =that  which  is 
"thorny  .pointed] ./  Formerly  this  ref.  to  bows .arrows, 
spears  and  knifes.  Nahemahatano ,  I  am  armed  with  a 
.  gun .have  a  grin;  kao  enodn.he  is  armed  with, carries  a 
revolver ;  tfamhonooxan,  I  am  armed  (provided  with  club 
\  or  stoned);  emSesena.he  is  without  arms .unarmed . 

X  (weapon)  n.heskovaneo  (anything  to  stick  or  pierce 
\) .  hes'kovaneonoz  (pi.);  naheskovaneon ,  I 
H  See  armor .  LuHcVe"^' •***'“'  >^4*^  a- ,u-**f***'  :  e***  3^1+YJl 

n.maaz.the  arm.maazenoz  (pi.);  arm;  naaze-  "  1 

iy , arm  (or  arms)  or  in  my  hand;maaz-mazeno-  ^ 
.atossenaevaena, I  am  long  armed, overlong ; 
natoksenaevaena, I  am  short  armed;  nahestatamonasso , I  . 

■  j. rj  Cut  his  arm  (at  shoulder);  ehSesenaevaena.he  is  longt'  ,^t ■> 

'  armed  (one  arm):  ehathSesenaevaena,  he  is  long  arm 

(both  arms);  ekokaena.the  arm  is  short, ref. to  sleeve;  4 
nahenehavenaeva,  I  lift  the  arms;  nahenehavenaevao ,  I  frr**- 
stand  with  uplifted  arms  jnahenehavenaevan,  I  walk  with 
uplifted  armSTTmhenehavenaevaeno , I  uplift  one’s  arms;  '/'* 
\ime  t>  it  a  t.unx  razeenaeoe .  I  stand  with  outstretched  arms;  naheamez  e-(<  ^ 

■  >  *  n-  enaeoe ,  I  stand  with  arms  outstretched  upward;  naan-j 

«  a^TM^Uionaevao , I  stand  with  downward  arms;  nahotxavenaevao ,  ->"• 

I  stand  with  crossed  arms;  etamenaevaena,  he  has  a 
stumped  arm  (is  one  armed) ; etotamenaevaena, he  is  arm-  *  - 
ekcu* f^de^^-less  (both  arms  stumped);  Ssenaevaoxtoz^  armhole  ( m 
„.**v  =ippvpl.t.o  which  sleeve  is  attached;  otSenaevaoxtoz ,  ^  ^ 

arm,'  n.maaz.the  i 

i  '  out  his  arm  (a 

^  Iff 


{JsA/aJ  fa- 


tlW  sleeve), to  which  sleeve  is  attached;  otaenaevaoxtoz , 

I  open  arm  hole, as  in  sleeveless  vest;  naveSeazenanoto ,  ,v 

'"■h  I  sheath  his  arms, fitting  closely ,  similar  to  gloving;^* ■ 

„  namanoe§ ,  I  tie,  bind  his  arms,  hands  together;  i gr. 
nahotameazenaeto , I  tie  one’s  arm  or  hands  behind  his  f  ^(1  jo 
Jl  {A,  back;  nanskoxtseno ,  I  hold  one  in  my  arms;  nanskoxtse-  pr 

naednaevaena,  I  am  with  a  broken  arm;  theyV^U 
"  ~~  ena  is  a  verbal 

.ad  j  . form  which  denotes  "provide: 

\vr  Lyi*  yjtov, armful;  eamos.he  stands  with  arms  stretched  for- 
wards,  palms  downward.  [The  same  word  may  mean:  he 
-  JfcVjL  ^  floats  on,  from  -oes 

inf.-naeva-  =with  arm;  the  added  sff.- 

"provided  with" ;  ohotomezis- 


=to  be  suspended]. 

armor,  mahataeszehen,  armor,  coat  of.  mail 

(lit.  metal 

.  [7  coat);  mahataevsanistoz , armor , war  dress;  [mahata 

■  Y  ^^=metal,iron,  +  eszehen  =  coat, shirt].  Meoevhonec,  ar- 
/V*VV' mor  [meo  =warring  +  honeo  =apparel];  makataevhoneon  = 
armor, metal  apparel;  namahataevhoneonaovo , I  cloth  him 
with  armor;  naeseonaoto  mahataevsanistoz,  I  put  armor 


/S.V*' igtaZ3fa'*~zsr 


zehe/na,  he  is  provided  with  armor;  mahataeszehenlttoz,  Z*/  C#*'a^u; 
the /being  provided  with  a  coat  of  mail.  The  Ch.proper/^^*^- 
namp  "Mahataeszehen"  is  usually  translated  "Iron- 
Shirt".  Nameoevsan.I  am  clad  for  war.  See  war.  “ 

army,' maxenokova-notxevestoz ,  [maxe  =large,  +  nokova  - / y 
collected  in  one,  +  notxevestoz  =the  being  warrior  ^ 

(from  notax  =warrior)];  emaxenokova-notxevetto ,  it  is 
a  great  army;  zeheszemeness  hozeo  henotxistov, the  ar¬ 
my  of  the  angels;  t'sa  z&momenoenotxevstov, where  dif¬ 
ferent  army  corps  are;  emaxhSenoheo ,  there  is  an  army 
of  them  (they  are  a  great  many);  emaxhSenonoensz 
(in.);  zehetahenotxemetcess  ehahaneoxt<5 , his  whole  ar¬ 
my, all  his  warriors, is  approaching;  Maheo  zehenotxe- 
metoess , God ’ s  army  (his  warriors);  zehetahenotxemet-  whole  army, the  whole  of  my  warriors.  <,  (t,  ‘Um -ift 

aroma, pavemejsozistoz , good  smelling.  J (uJ.  —  1~t£r*- ~  t?#?  *" 
c , epavemeeozistov, it  is  ar.,o x  good,  smelling. 
around,  nimaoetto  , all  around,  on  ali:  sides  (of  a  plane)  ; a 
Ityi  ahaetto  .  around,  in  the^sense  of  away  from,  p,-*44^*** '  _  * 

l  voiding  it;  enimaosta,  it^errbs  around;  enimaeoxz,he^<«V'i***^**"- 

f  TU*2 

walks  around  ;  eahaeoxz  .hexwalks  around  .making  a  byway 
eahaeoxzeta.he  walks  around, passing  it  (Ger .umgehen) ; 
inf.  -aha-  implies  avoiding, keeping  off;  nat&xtaeoe- 
tovon,we  are  aroupa  one  (see  circle , surround) ;  noka- 
tSoheoneva  et&xt^nitaomoeha, it  is  one  ttfTTe  around  the 
water.  [Sff.  -cmoeha  refers  to  a  body  of  water, from  o 
=not  set, not  solid  +  m  =aggregation  of].  Et&xtaomoe'- 
ha,it  is  a  body  of  water  around,  =it  is  surrounded  by 
,/  water;  etdxtaorieoeo.they  stand  around, encircling;  e- 
t&xtaohoneSeo /they  stand  around, as  a  ring;  naohonee- 
tovon.we  sit  in  circled ring)  around  one;  naohonede- 
tovon.we  stand  in  circle  (ring)  around  one.  See  en¬ 
circle  ,  surround -.  f-ez.  A  /i /U.  ^ 
arouse,  naseaovo,I  arouse  one  (from  rest, sleep,  lethar-' 
gy) ;  emomataeoz , one  becomes  aroused , angry ;  nata- 
kovetanoho.I  arouse, provoke, anger  one;  nanakas6ho,  I  to  activity , industry ;  naSevetanoho , I  to 

arraign,  eonome  hoemanemhayon.he  is  court, called 
to  the  law  house;  nitoseonomanheman°s  zehetaes 
Maheo, we  are  to  be  arraigned  before  God;  eonomeo  ze- 
toshoemaoevoss , they  are  be  judged. Nha  zeonomsz 
hoemanemhayon, the  one  arraigned  in  court, 
arraignment,  hovaeva  zeveSeonoms  hoemanemhayon,  the 
-  thing  with  which  one  is  brot  to  court. 

arrange ,  nahoxeanen,!  arr . , put  in  order;  hoxeana  (in.), 
-hoxeano  (or.);  nahoxeexanen , I  arr. .prepare  in 
order;  nahoxeosan,!  arr. place  in  order;  nahoxetahos- 
an,I  arr. set  in  order;  navovetanen .  I  arr.  get  things 
ready  beforehand;  ehojj&rTono,  it  looks  well  arranged; 
naonoanen,  I  arg j^gfraighten ,  settle  things;  -onoana 


rv4  fen- 

L_  VWe —  »  ; 

-  w  *  ^SCVUM^*- 


rrcLw  Jyt  V  I***- 



( in. ) ,-onoano  (or.);  napevanen.I  arr.,in  the  sense 
of  repairing, making  better  (usually  with  inf.  -evha-. 
See  prepare .ready, agree.  Naexhoemanheme  zetosemoheox- 
zistove.we  arr.that  ;there  be  a  meeting.  [Naexhoeman  = 

I  pass  a  law].  e  <<-//,».  Mjet ,  ij_  ah*  .  cii'iL*-**- 1  -< 

arrangement,  hoxeanenistoz.hoxeexanenastoz,  the  arrang- 
ing;  vovetanenistoz,  the  preparing;  voveta- 
nazistoz,  arrangement, preparation;  onoanenistoz,  the 
arr, .straightening;  evhapevanenistoz,  arranging,  re¬ 
pairing;  tama  is  his  arr., his  law;  ema- 
noexhoemanistove , there  has  been  an  arr. made. 
arrant ,  is  expressed  by  inf .-ahan(e)-  =extremely,  out- 
and-out;  eahansenova.he  is  an  arrant  villain;  e- 
ahanemashane ,  he  is  an  arrant  fool;  eahanatamae ,he 
laughs  extremely .genuinely  (  se  meurt  de  rire). 
array,  v.navaxg.I  am  arrayed, dressed  and  painted;  nava- 
xeno.I  arr. one  (or.);  emxastovsan.he  is  arr.  with 
the  finest  clothing(Ger .-mit  der  Fulle  von  Kleidern) ; 
enonotohoeo  zistosemeoevoss ,  they  stand  arrayed  for 
battle  (they  stand  ready  for  warring);  ehoxeotansz, 
they  are  arrayed, placed  in  order;  nahoxeosan,  I  place 
in  arr.;  nal  ;  I  •  ;  3an,l  arrs  .arrange  .  n, place 
order  upon  something;  stands  in  array, 
well  ordered-*— r.ahoxetahotana, I  place  it  in  array, 
array,  n . esexhoneoeo , they  stand  in  array, formed  in  line 
(see  line, row);  vaxehestoz . array . ref . to  dress  and 
paint;  mxas  to  vsani  st'oz  ,  arr ,  display  of  fine  clothing; 
ehoxetahosanistov, it  is  an  array .placed .in  order  upon 
something.  V^tt,  v.' 

arrear,  n.nagenomabo , I  am  in  arr ., late, behind  time;  na- 
genomaeom, we  are  in  arr.;  egenomaeo,  they  are  in 
arr . , behind  time . 

arrest ,  v.  matanSeveho  was  arr.,  taken  by 
the  police  [matan  =milk;  see  police];  natdhaeto, 

I  arr.  stop  (as  a  horse).  See  stop.  Nahessevaeno , I 
arr. seize  one;  nahessevaena, ( in. ) . 
arrest,  n.nxpaozistoz, the  arresting, stoppage ;  hessevae- 
nazistoz, arr. .seizure. 

arrival,  hoenistoz,  (from  walking);  hceoxzistoz.arr . , 
coming;  home;  heoehes toz , arr . 
(with  belongings);  eheoenov , there  is  an  arr.;  hooxzi- 
stoz, arr. with  game;  er.oxtomoehestov,  it  is  an  arr. from 
hauling;  monetochoeoxzistoz , immediate  arr.;  napeveta- 
no  zeheShooxevoss ,  I  am  glad  of  their  arr.  home  with 
game;  napevetano  zeheShooxzevoss ,  I  am  glad  of  their 
arr.  home. 

•arrive,  nahoen.I  arr.,  from  walking;  nahoeoxz,  I  arr., 
come ; jnahoeoe , I  arr., am  arriving;  namonetochoen, 

I  have  just  arr.;  nahoox.I  arr. packing  game;  naheoe.I 
arr. with  all  my  belongings;  nahoeoe.I  am  arrived  now; 
nanoxtomoe.I  arr. from  hauling;  nahoeSena,  I  am  arriv- 





lu  k*T 

ed,have  attained;  etaoeoz,  it  arrives , leads  to  (of  a 
path);  nahoxtamista  ( in. ) .nahoxtamo  (or.)  I  arrive, 

,ttain, reach  at;  manxho&netto ,  when  it  arrives;  mae§- 
tonexoveoz.when  the  time  will  have  arrived,  come ;"  nao- 
lovohesz , I  arr .with  a  boat, land  on  shore;  naonove-to- 
Wpna.I  arr. (to  shore)  by  swimming. 

'gance  ,  menoxcetazetanoxtoz ,  arr .  .haughtiness  ;  ohSe-  /ru.f  . 

I  menohestoz.arr. ,  pride ;,  menoxcepeosanistoz, 

.disdain.  //#/  HuuMii-J-rra  -h-O^a. 
arrogant,  eohamenoheoneve.he  is  arr ., overbearing;  eme- 
noxcetazetan.he  is  arr . .haughty ;  emenoxcepeos- 
an,\he  is  arr .  .disdainful  and  proud;  zehe§oh.aheneeno- 
vaelvatam§.z  eoxcemenoxcetazetanotovo  zenit&ziss ,  deem¬ 
ing!  himself  very  learned  he  is  arr.  towards  others; 

oxtfcseSeavaozistovesz  maeto  eoxcevovoeam'netton°s  me- 
noxe^aze^tanojctoz, where  there  is  to  be  a  fall, there  * 
goe:|  before  hand  the  arrogance.  „  /«.„ 

arrow,  mShe  fag .  \  jiah.oz  (pi.);  arr.  namoxoxzz 

'tfruw*"" - -=Tny"f  lint  arr.;  namahSJan  =our  arr  (sg.);  namahe’a-  , 

noz.our  arr.  (pi.);  an  arr.;  nahemltheve,  I  • 

have  an  arr;  nimahenan,  our  arr.  ref.  to  sacred  arrows  7%, 
owned  by  the  Ch.  They  are  mysterious ,  religious  sym- 
bols, greatly  venerated  by  all  the  Ch.  They  are  said 
to  have  been  given  to  the  tribe  by  their’  ancient  pro¬ 
phet  or  leader.  His  name  was  Nizhevoss  (Eagle’s  nest 
or  peak), but  from  his  charater  and  relations  to  the  {*. if  <*--■-  j 

tribe  his  agnomen  became  Mozeeoeve  =Sweet-Root-Mede-//>^/ &  1 

cine.  This  root  is  used  to  increase  the  flow  of  thJ I 
human  milk.  Mozeeoeve  was  the  spiritual  father,  Ua~ 

_  ,  teaching  was  the  milk  f or  y the  tribe  to  grow  bv l^The  t^*-**L  */***—  t 

p.  venerated  arrows  were  /^iven  by  him  as  symbols,  toJ^— ^ 

*i<rf  crystalize  his  teachings  and  make  them  more  tangible . 

■  '  /If,  The  arrow  shaft  (because  made  of  wood)  represents  thejjt-  /£*>•>-*— 

■  v  people;  the  feathers/symbolize  the  spirit  world;  th 

■  / flinty  arrow  points/are  the  emblems  of  incorruption, 

health, fire  and  eternity;  the  fur  enwrapping  the  fQur^.A<^<?i  f 
.  arrows  represent/the  "anim^Te"  being  who  holds  within  i^+Sk*****^- 

■  f<^;^himself  all  thaf  which  the  arrows  stand  for.  Usually ot- 

1  "°nce  a  year.-,  the  "bundle"  is  unwrapped  after  pre-  9i^a~ 

4t,i*  '  „fJui.liminary  ceremonies.  Any  ^  adult  male  member  of  the*^^  J7 

Atl  tribe  may  mgice  an  appeal  to  these  arrows, when  a  greats. fT . ...  tf/ 

V  ’  trouble  of  some  sort  has  befallen  him  or  some  one  Q?  A*.  fcdLt. 

■  41‘  1^)  his  blood.  After  the  appeal  has  been  made, the  devotee  , 

J‘  makes  a  /'ceremonial  visit  to  the  different  camping &***■"■ 
places  of  the  tribe  and  gathers  votive  offerings. 

^  +  V,  «  ~  «  4-  -J 1 ,• 4-V,  ^  mma  1  A  vttf  l'  V)I»4  V*1-*  n  _  U4*3^. 

the  same  time  he  receives  ^he  preliminary  instruc 
tions  from  a  priest.  After  orie  or  several  months  of 
preparation, the  arrow  gathering  is  held.  This  gather¬ 
ing  is  called  "hoetonestoz" ;  \  the  devotee  is  called 
"hoetonesevahe" ;  ehoestoneseva\  =he  makes. an  offering 
(to  t!he  arrows);  maxhoetonstov.When  the  arrow  worship 


\ \A\JUn. 

'  '  : 

Arr/U,rr*y«.  uyrr-<-.4^ 

jy  ,  n  Ct^„t . ,^ .  /Ar- 

■  ±txr~ 

■  //orfs-u** 

l<r-  uJitj.  tbj. 

Tf^fiSlUh  UW“~ 



\  •  -ptttfe] — emeaeyaxeva.he  occasioiT§«Mv  arrow  wor- 

hooton, reunion  of  the  sacred  arr.;  ehootonstov, 
the  arr .  worship  takes  place.  Moxozz  zehoestavesz , 
fiery  arrow  points;  esaahemahestovhan, there  is  no  ar- ,  f 
row;  ehestoena.he  draws  (the  arr. or  bow);  mShe  esaa-^x 
,moxoxzevhan,  the  arr.  is  net  provided  with  a  tip f  ' 

tfjl/kr  V  AU  AiC  viiwiix  |  w*iv  •  _ 

-jM^flint  point);  emoxoxzeve,  it  is  tipped 
.  a/t  ti>  namShe  ep^-  no 

yj'  ^  I  provide 


with  flint 

v'  '  .  namShe  ep<5no,my  arr. has  no  point;  namShe  namoxotaoz, 

i  provide  my  arr. with  flint  point;  mahe  enSevao,  the 
4A>  arr. flies  swiftly;  nokoamestov, one  arr. shot  (in  mea- 

suring  distance  =about  400  yards);  zevovokS  mShe, 

^  bare  arr., not  tipped  nor  feathered;  namatos  I  am  out 

of  arrows;  namatohamenoz, I  spend  all  my  arr;  ehfepse- 
juyL.  shoots  (arr.)  beyond  the  mark;  evavanoxseo,  it 
shoots  (arr.)  whirling;  naexoovoeta , I  provide  the  ar- 
V i  row  with  feathers;  napenosoxta  namahe,  I  chew  the  end 
I  •’  i"a  of  my  arr.;  hakosoevoz,  round  pointed  arrows  (bullet 

IJ.if '  '[uL;  y  head);  paosevoz,  blunt  arrows  (having  a  ball-like  head 

or  being  hemispherical);  p&sevota,  thick  end  arrow; 

'  fponoevozz , blunt  pointed  arr . (popinjay  head);  heSkose- 
//  vo z, sharp  pointed  arr.  (not  tipped);  penosevoz , chewed 
/.point  arr.;  [These  arrows  are  mentioned  in  tales  and 
*  are  attributed  to  have  killing  power,  possibly  they 
were  poisoned~*by  the  saliva  or  otherwise].  Motaxce- 
voz, tipped  with  steel  points;  vastavoxoz , _tipped  with 
barbed  heads;  maxamoxoz,  stone  tipped.  Mahe  eoea.the 
arrow  alights;  mShe  eostao,  the  arr.  alights  and  re¬ 
mains  suspended  (as  on  a  tree);  mahe  eseao.the  arr.a- 
lights  into  the  water;  etonovhoesta  mahoz  nehaneva, 
the  arrows  were  thick  on,  the  lake  (it  wa_s  ^  thi cl^^i th^^^ 
arrows  upon  the  lake).  1TTV><^?  - jL*i_  <LeaJ-*~U 

- -artery,  mazhemaeme.  I - n - r- — 

Sn^t^&df<s,frTuT1  eohaoxzezeve  ,  one  is  artful .  cunning .  ,  fa.  ^ 

"  A  artfulness .  ohSoxzezevestfli, — - , 

— *^rtichnke7  hoenoxkon  (also  sweet  potatoes). 

articulate,  enonaoseesz ,he  articulates  distinctly  (in 
-  speech) ;  enonSoxtoan.he  art. .pronounces  dis¬ 
tinctly.  Inf.  -nona-  =at  a  time.  The  distinct  articu¬ 
lation  in  speech  is  considered  old  and  good  Cheyenne 
and  is  conserved  among  older  people  and  in  ceremonial 
language.  See  plain. 

articulation,  nonSoseeszistoz, distinct  art. (in  speech), 

_  yi  -  1  ’  slow, distinct  pronunciation;  nonaoxtoanis- 

^  .H^oz, distinct,  good  articulation,  pronunciation  [the 
v  ,+  antonym  is:  enonotoveesz,  one  speaks  with  hurry,  not 

M"' \-cu<j  clearly].  Honaeonahestoz ,  art.  (any  form  of  joint  in 
body) ;  zexhonadonahestov, where  there  is  an  arti- 

.  Ml 

1  L  ^ 


|  faksivn? 

||  fM-  O-Triy, 


Qnnc^  u 

culation;  hotonadonahestoz, articulations ,  joints,  the 
"several— jointing”  [reduplicative  form] ;  zeheshonaeo- 
i  irv*-  haevoss,  where  they  are  jointed;  mah&z  zexhonaotto, 
hand  joint, articulation  of  the  wrist.  See  joint. 

hand  joint, articulation  of  the  wrist.  See  joint.  y  JstJrLb 


i.  ^ £-t-  Aa~c^m—  fv  t'A- 

artless '**L'6tfrn ErfeTfsH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY 

ITrtless ,  ehg'spoxze  ve ,  oneTs  artless, fails 
as,  lass, as, as  if  (not  real).  [Rad.tass  i 

tass, scalped  man  (still  living)  and  m&tasoom  /y _ ^ 

spirit].  Tass - hapo  ,  as  .  .  .  .  so  ;  tasse  vezen.just 

zista-  pref  gov. the  sub.cj.  =as,at  the  time  when;  zi.-_  he  had  eaten;  zistaaseoxz,  as  he  left;4!  J 
zeheSe-  sub. pref.  =as  ,  since;  zeheSqaseoxz , as , since  he^f^l 

left;  homSxz ,  as,  for  instance;  zehexo?- _ -nexov,/^^^ 

as.... as, in  the  degree  ....  so  ;  zehexovepevaes  nanexov- *".***' 
ae,I  am  as  good  as  he  is  (lit. as  he  degrees  being^/^.  ^  ;/ ' 
good  so  do  I);  zeheta-. . .  .-nita-. . .  .  =as . . . . ao  (ref  •  L£/*-* 
to  size, area, reach, amount) ;  zehetSehozeohes  nanit5hoy^~L/**«-‘*^'s 
zeohe ,  I  work  as  much  as  he  does  (lit.  as  he  amounts  i  n  ^ 
working, so  do  I).  From  above  examples  it  is  seen  that^Tw.^44- 
zehe-  =as,  (in  zehe§e-, zeheta, zehexov-) ;  when  follow- yu  ^  ol  * 
ed  by  inf.  -nexov-,  -neSe-,  -nita  in  the  dependent 
clause, has  a  comparative  meaning;  zeheSevostanehevez  fa  .ti-l***f** 
ene§evostanehevo,as  we  live  they  live;  inf.  -taestov- 
=as  well, as  much  as .nataestovoemo ,  I  am  as  much  worth 
as  he  is;  tass  if  (wondering, guessing) ;  tass 
hama  ehovane!  as  if  he  were  gone!  =1  wonder  if  he  is 
not  gone; tass  hama  if  he  were  eating, he  must 
be  eating!  Homeev&  if , supposing ;hoomeev&s  ehSmox  tutnii 
tasz, supposing  he  be  sTck~ hoomeev&s-hetbtosz ,  suppos-  t-t  y-"“  - 
ing  he  be  true;  zezhestassd,  such  as  they  are  (or.), 
zezhesosz.such  as  those  (in.).  See  such.  Inf.  -tatdm- 
e§e-  =as  soon  as, usually  in  combination  with  pref.ze- 
or  zis-;  zistatomegenSeoz , as  soon  as  he  was  dead;  ma-  I 

eSemesesz  zetatomeaseoxz ,  as  soon  as  he  has  eaten  he 
will  leave;  zet&§  (from  zetaheS-)  =as, during  the  | 

time, while;  zetageneoxz , as', while  he  was  gone.  Some¬ 
times  infixes  become  detached  and  add  sff.-noxz, deno¬ 
ting  as , e .g.-hece-, easily , quietly .becomes  hecenoxz  = 
as  easily, easily-like;  difficult ;ve-  old;  inf.  -ox-  “otherwise, tho ,  is  used  for 
"as"  in  the  sense  of  however  (expressing  a  conces¬ 
sion)  , e . g. zeoxpeva  nasaahoahe , as  good  as  it  is,  I  do 
not  like  it;  zeoxhavsevaesz  eSivatamS  Maheon,  however 
bad  he  be, he  is  pitied  by  God;  na  tSma,  as  for  (whe¬ 
ther  me, thee, one, us, you  or  them),  is  specified  by  the 
subi.of  the  sentence,  tama  for  me 
I  rejoice;  na  tSma  eanavetano,  as  for  them  they  are 
sad;  na  tSma  nitoshozeoheme,as  for  you,  you  are  going 
to  work;  navhestamo  =nave s she s tamo, and  navesshestata- 
no,I  am  as  he  is  (ref. to  stature,  condition) ;  navess- 
hestatana,I  am  as  it  is,  conform  to  it.  Zenhestavoss 
vostaneo  hapo  zenhesta  vonh&tan,  as  the  people  are, so 
will  be  the  priest;  zhestas  zevovistomosansz  zenhesta  .....  > 
zevovistomoessd ,as  the  teacher  so  the  pupils. 
ascend,  edensz,  one  ase.,  steps  upward;  eden’netto , it 
asc.  [from  6  =upward, upright ;  eea,  it  stands  up- 

s  found  in  _ 

"■  *tb^ 

•  i>  r  n  >  i*  A  AA.lliX, -  1V^/  ^  J2A)  b 

e^f  W  ke^u/W 

W^*  -  J^-^^cVfl  r  '  ^ 


right;  runs  upward;  floats  upward, 
w/W^  eohaetto  it  asc., rises;  emaxojaaeneo  was 
ascending^  greal  smoke  (Bef lect .». >  S  eheameoxx  one 
.  _ +  ~  v,oovpn’  nataeoxz  eseome.I  asc., go  up  the 

>Ke  ^  nci  .LC^  o  •  Ill  •  J  t  - - - > 

Isc" above ’, to°heaven ;  nataeoxz  eseome.I  asc., go  up  the 
hill-  is  ascending  ground;  eohaenSev  eomao 
Zj.  \’s  Hr y  ascending  (steep)  ground;  eeSeo,  vapor  i; 

pVu=n.)tieha . he  ascends  (flying);  eheamehatto. 

J  ^  J,U. it  is  very  ascending  (steep)  ground;  eeseo,  vapoi r  \ 
sending;  eheameha.he  ascends  (flying)  \ 
ff+Zs  it  is  ascending  (flying  upwards ) ;***f~~  «****. 

/  a  scendable,  eeenistov,  it^  is  asc.;  eeaxistov.asc  .by  run-/^ 



j,  eeenisiuv,!^  w — -- — _  ■  » 

ning;  e6o6S6n£»‘«,by  floating 

ascension , *  ascent ,  d&nistoz;  eaxistoz  (by  flight  run- 

- ni  ).  eoxzistoz,  asc.  going  up;  doesenatoz, 

asc.  (by  floating);  heameoxzistoz ,  asc.,  the  going 

ascertain,  oose§  nataeSheneena  zehesso.I  ascertain  it,  truth  I  will  know  what  it  is;  naoms- 
tazesta  eohetom.I  test  the  truth  of  it;  nataeBpavhe- 
neena  eoeSenaeoz  na  mo  hovahan.I  will  asc. (know  well) 
whether  he  died  or  not;  nataeSpavheneena  zehexovoems, 
n  I  ascertain  his  worth  (also  nataeSpavheneenovo);  eta- 

eShetomeme,-  the  truth  has  been  ascertained  about 
j"  .  P  Oy  I  or. and  in. )  .  1fLfrU-<^7£ 

W  ‘S'lSSTci  ”  ‘tSC1  X  / 

"’I!/  ash,  mot^^trree-  (Fraxinus 

■v  ash^pS=powder ;  hoestapa, ashes  (f ire^f7der ) 

-  pa, white  ashes;  mahaxcepS.,  old  ashes, clinku 

MU*  4,  word  obviously  is  derived  from  the  rad.hae  And  hie  - 
burning;  the  letter  p  denotes.,  a  crushing,  pressing  to 
m.  n  n  o  o  thus  nhae  or  ps 

7 vohome-  ,,v-  . 
[This  .  fi/p' 

J.  rtl 


f  J  '■A'J^lL  burning;  the  letter  p  denotes  a  crushing,  pressing  to 
f  K  piecesfpowder ;  thus  phae  or  pi  =crushed/o  powder  by 

.  heat  or  fire].  Pa  zfeveota , ash-pan  or  ash-pit;  zehone- 
>/C'  -eK'  ta  pa, heap  of  ashe s ;  “ahax°e"paJ®h^ei5^1^^ ^ 

i  J ashes  ;  m  a '  ,  7 

Kf^^ashamed,  r.ataneneztovo  ,  I  am  ash. of  one  (/or .  f,  na  tanehez- 

- - ta  (in.);  natanehe ,  I  am  ash.  [Aatanevazesta,  . 

deem  it  a  shame];  natanehesdho ,  ycause  one  to  bi 
ash.  ;  natanehe  vomoti,  I  am  ash. for  one'.  See  shame, 
ashen,  paea  ehesso  it  is  ashen, ash-1  ike ;  vohomepaea 

T  ,  - neSendhe ,he  looks  ashen, like  white  ashes. 

A^Urrt'  asidi,  eama,  at  the  side;  eama  meo.Jht  the  side  of 
— '&'**' h.7 — '  road »  nestle  on,  aside  of  the^rc|ad;  inf 

^  u^side-from' 

"  — . 





_  -nohd-  =a- 

'rom.'astr'ay  from;  nanohdoz,  I  become  aside,  as- 
'tray;  nanohdtan.I  am  aside  in  thol .distracted;  ^ano- 
hdvoeta  I  act  aside  (from  the  good);  nanohenoseho ,  I 
cause  one  to  go  astray;  nanohdoxzil  go  aside,  astray, 
nanohbohe , I  turn  aside , astray ;  napohdna,  I  put  it  a- 
side, apart;  inf.-nime-  =aside,  tf  one  side,  deviating 
from  a  perpendicular  or  horizontal  line  m  a  wideni  g 

a  aX. I; (L-  ^ 


.  jr+Vc 

j  angle;  naasetanen,  I  put  it  aside;  -asetana  (in.). 

-asetano  (or.);  inf . -ae- , aeS- , -oaeS-  =aside  by  self; 
see  apart;  e&ehoe.he  is  aside  (by  himself);  zeheSe- 
aseenanom  nitao .having  put  aside  (laid  aside)  every¬ 
thing;  emosetto,  aside,  as  not  to  be  heard,  secretly; 
emosetto  ene§eve,he  does  it  aside , secretly ;  inf.  -a&- 
ze-  =aside .besides , at  the  same  time;  eaazeosen.he  has 
aside, he  "besides"  (Ger .erubrigen)  e.g.  epavenasoendo 
na  ea&zeoseneo , they  have  well  enough  (to  eat)  and  to 
spare;  aazevetto  enonotovseSsz ,  aside  of  this  he 
drinks;  oxsecetto  namehahoe, aside  of  me  there  was  no 
one  (l3.t. perfectly  alone  I  was);  de§  naenana  etov,  I 
put  it  aside, apart  for  thee;  edeSenane  nitovd,  it  is 
put  aside, apart  for  me;  maxemenoz  eode§enanansz ,  the  / 
apples  are  put  aside, apart. —  n-1117  / 

ask,  navestomosan,  I  ask  of;  navestomohe ,  I  arrrasking  of;  ,*•/- 

vestomosanistoz,  the  asking  of;  navesta,  I  ask  for 
it;  [not  to  be  confounded  with  navista.I  promise  it  ** 
and  navesta,  my  temple  (of  head)];  navemo.I  ask 
one;  vemosanistoz , the  asking  for;  navestomevo,  I  ask  jf 
it  of  one;  navestomevonoz ,  I  ask  those  (in.)  of  one;  — 

navestomevonotto , I  ask  them  (or.)  of  one;  vestomeva- 
zistoz.the  asking  of  one;  navestomoenoz, I  ask  for  one 
(to  have  him);  nivemaz.I  ask  concerningTTor  thee;  ni- 
vestomoet.ovaz ,  I  ask  for  thee  (to  have  thee);  naoen,  I 
ask  entreat , pray ;  nahaoen,nahaon,  I  entreat,  pray  (is 
the  word  commonly  used  when  not  combined  with  infixes 
or  other  verbal  forms);  nahaona.I  am  asking  (in  pray¬ 
er  ,  entreaty)  ;  hevehestovS.  naveShestoen, I  ask,  entreat 
with  (in)  his  name;  Ehan  naveShestoenatovamo  Hehya 
hevehestov& , I  ask, entreat  God  with  (in)  the  name  of 
His  Son;  navestomovo , I  ask  for  it, his;  eaanendztanoz , 
he  ask  those  (in.)  to  be  his  property;  nanozesta.I 
ask, question  about  it;  nanoztovo.I  ask, question  one; 
nanozemo.I  ask, question  concerning  one  (or.);  nanoz- 
tomovo.I  ask, question  itiiis;  nanoztomevo , I  ask, ques¬ 
tion  for  it  his;  nanoztovamo , I  ask,  question  him,  his 
e.g.  hehya  nanoztovamo , I  question  his  son;  nanoztavo- 
vo,I  ask, question  one, by  look  or  sign;  noztastoz,  the 
asking,  questioning;  naenbztovo,  I  ask  questions  of 
one;  [rad.  noz  is  closely  related  to  inf.  -nox-  and 
-noxz-  =seeking  after].  See  question.  Namooto,  I  ask, 
invite  one  to  a  meal;  nanethoaztomon, it  is  asked,  re¬ 
quired  of  me ;  paveamS-tatoz  ninethoaztomSenon.he  asks, 
requires  of  us  good  obedience;  nahethoaztomevo  hevox- 
ca,I  ask, require  his  hat;  nahozetan.I  am  asked  to  do 
for  one;  heto  nitao  nitsghozetanenon.all  this  we  are 
asked  to  do;  Maheo  zehoz ( es ) tomoez  esaahotoanattane- 
hez'.what  God  asks  us  to  do  is  not  hard;  zetohetaho- 
z(es)tomonez  or  zetohetahozetanez ,  all  that  is  asked 
of  us  to  do,=our  duty;  enahan  zehethozeto,  this  is 


I  r'  S»J-/3  <t«  /2-.  _  lSf'HAA  ****-*-*1*,, 


what  I  ask  him  to  <fo;  nanethozetan  heto  hoxaonestoz ,j 
am  asked  to  do  this  bead  work, 
askance,  ehedkseno.he  looks  ask. jnatotazenetov 

ask. .disdainfully  at  one.  [From  -taze  =dis^4in- 
fully  +  -(e)ne  =countenance,face] . 
aslant,  sits  aslant;  zeamsetto,  th^t  which 
is  aslant,  athwart;  enovoxeo,  he  writes  aslant 
(see  tilted, bevel) ;  is  written  aslant 
across;  radiates  light/aslant ; 
amshenevatovEoz  hotoma  mhayo,  a  ray  oy  light  aslant 
the  room  (within  the  house), 
asleep,  eotoedenom, one  is  sound  asleep;/ namdovo  zenEoz, 

I  found  one  asleep;  epevenomjie  is  well  asleep; 
eeveoanaxaenom,  he  is  settled  /asleep,  he  sleeps 
leisurely  emeoavenomhoe ,  he  sits  half  asleep.  See 
drowsy,  sleep. 

/aspect,  zehedenono ,  itaf"  as . , the^ay  it  looks;  zehedenos, 
one’s  (or.)  as.;  zehe^aeonitavenono  natotaoha- 
£*>V’<r*zesta,  I  study  its  different  aspects;  naohazesta  ze- 
**  AU.ob  heSeonitavatamano,  I  study  the  different  aspects  of  .  . 
b.  *' weather ,  nature .  <vwjl  . 

/  (j  asperity,  saamomenovap^stoz,  without' agreeableness  ;  ma-7  fe 

taet&toz,  as/ , toughness .harshness  [from  mats,  = 
cactus];  venhastoz,,'  as . ,  sourness,  crabbedness.  See 
sour, harsh.  'SeSkonastoz ,  asperity,  grating, stinging ; 
heSkovoaestoz, a/,  .grating;  pepeastoz,  as.,  roughness 
(not  smooth) ;  /niheneenanon  zehe§em&matae  nivostane- 
hevstonnan.w^know  that  our  life  is  full  of  asperity, 
harshness.  / 

asperse,  naheemotsan, I  asp.  [taking  water  or  medecine 
in  mouth  and  forcing  it  out  in  spray^form];  na- 
hdemotomo.I  asp. one  (with  mouth) ;  naheemotoxta, I  asp. 
it  (with  mouth);  nahdemdvoxz,  I  asp.,  besprinkle  it; 
naheemovoto, I  asp. .besprinkle  one  (or.). See  sprinkle. 
Naadstome-momaxemo , I  asp., slander  one. 
aspersion,  aestome-momaxemazistoz,  asp. , slanderous  re- 
)  port;  hdemotsanistoz, asp. .besprinkling  (with 

/mouth);  hdemcvotazistoz, asp. besprinkling;  hdemotoma- 
'  zistoto , the  ingredients  used  for  mouth  asp., usually 
medicinal  or  sweet  scented  herbs;  nEesevosz,  certain 
herbs  used  in  ablutions  (consisting  mostly  in  asper¬ 
sions  from  the  mouth)  by  the  priests  or  doctors. 

,  asphyxia,  nxpotomeozistoz  (from  dust  or  vapors);  nxpo- 
tomeost&estoz.asp.  by  heat,  suffocation.  [From 
nxp  =  close, bar  +  — omotom  =breath] . 
asphyxiate,  enxpotomeoz.he  becomes  as.;  enxpotomeostae , 

I  he  as ., suffocates . 

aspirant,  n.nha  zehethoahesz.the  one  who  runs  for;  na- 
i  hethoaheztovo , I  am  an  asp.  for  her. 

aspirate,  v .navepeestonaesz , I  as., utter  with  breathing 
v«  [from  vdp  =hollow  +  estona  =pharinx  +  -esz  to 


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lAusU^LcLC^tVl,  *  fr~J-  Or.ti~U«^y 


u>^sxJL  u*  •<(-  ■  fu*  ' *^y.  ^  TLaA. — 


t*u  tqv*  > 


"lip"  =speak]. 

aspirate ,  adj.  vepeestonaeszistoz,  asp.  speech.  This  we 
represent  by  the  grave  accent  over  vowels. 
aspire,  nahozeovSsetan, I  asp., hope;  nahoeSenatan, I  asp. 
desire  to  reach  within  a  place;  nahethoahezta,  I 
asp., run  for  it;  nahess&z.I  asp.  =inspire , inhale . 
ass,  vohooxta  (large) .vohokoxta, donkey;  vohokoxtaeson, 
young  donkey  (Fr.anon);  toxtoe-vohooxta.wild  ass. 
assail ,  naaeozetovo,  I  ass.,  rush  at  one;  naaeozeta.I;  nimasdaeozetoeneo , they  ass.  us  suddenly; 
nanhadoenon  hamoxtastoz,  sickness  assails  us, collides 
with  us;  heovasz  zehesso  havs  nahoehota,  all  kinds  of 
evil  assail  me. 

assassin,  nasenehe, killer;  zenasensz.the  one  who  assas¬ 
sinates;  nitoenahane,  ass.,  murderer  (killing 
blood  relations);  hoxovsd, assassin.  This  name  desig¬ 
nates  the  murderer  ostracized  by  the  tribe, 
assassinate,  ass., kill;  enaho.he  ass. one;  e- • 
nitoenahan,  he  ass.  a  blood  relation.  The 
killing  of  friends  or  blood  relations  is  considered 
murder  among  the  Ch.  and  the  murderer  was  ostracized 
by  the  whole  tribe.  The  killing  of  an  alien  or  an 
enemy  was  a  manly  virtue.  Thus  nanaho,  I  kill  one  and 
nanitoenaho.I  murder  .assassinate  one. 
assassination ,  ni toenahanestoz , nasenis toz . 
assault,  see  assail, attack. 

Hll  assemblage,  moheanenistoz , ass . .collecting:  zemanoeessfi, 
the  assemblage  (of  people),  their  being 
gathered  together;  manoehestoz , the  assemblingjmanoha- 
stoz.ass. , the  being  united  together;  nitovastoz,  ass. 
the  being  as  one , compacted  together;  nokovanenistoz , 
the  assembling  into  one;  moheoxzistoz, the  assembling, 
coming  together ;nokova-mamovanenistoz, the  assembling, 
bringing  into  one,  of  different  parts;  moheaovoha- 
ifiestoz.ass .of  horses , cattle  or  sheep;  mohenoovanenis- 
toz,  the  assembling  of  water;  mohenoovaozistoz.the 
ass. of  waters  nitovomoeh&toz.the  assemblage  of  waters 
together;  emaxemohetanevS , there  is  a  great  ass.,  mul-  ' 
titude  (of  people);  see  gather;  emoheegemeatovensz , it 
is  an  assemblage  of  gifts. 

assemble .  namoheanen,!  ass., gather;  -moheana  ( in.) ,-mo- 
heano  (;  nanitovanen,  I  ass.  make  to  be 
one  foldjnanokovanen, I  ass., make  to  be  one;  namanoha- 
na,I  ass. to  one  bunch;  namanoeme,  we  bunch  together, 
ass.;  namoheoxzheme ,  we  ass. come  together;  nanokova- 
mamovano.I  ass., bring  them  (or.)  together;  namoheao- 
voham,  I  ass. the  stock;  emohenoovanen.he  ass.  the  wa¬ 
ters;  emohenoovaozistov, the  waters  are  assembled . See 
gather .together.  Namoheozo.I  bring  them  together;  ze- 
moheenessd , those  (or.)  -who  have  assembled,  come  toge¬ 
ther  ;■  zdmehanonokanevoss  naevhanokovano ,  from  their 


U .  tuiiL+JUr'dh)  J 

a.  ■* 

-i^y  *?*. 

english-cheyenne  dictionary 


■being  dispersed, I  made  them  to  he  together  again  (as 
one).  See  gather , collect , organize .  Nahoxpoanen, I  ass. 
in  a  package;  -hoxpoana  ( in. ) ,-hoxpoano  ( 
ssembly  zeamonehoessS , those  sitting  present;  moheox- 

- 2 i s toz  the  assembly .gathering;  hemanohastoy  ze- 

xanovevostanehevess6,  the  assembly  of  the  righteous; 
hemomenohastovevo  zeto  vostaneo.the  different  assem- 
,JL  blies .groups  of  these  people.  See  crowd, multitude . 
.■sent-,  naamata, I  ass.,  consent  to  it;  -amatovo  or.). 

-  See  agree.  EomaeS  =he  does  not  assent  (lit. he 

shakes  his  head  in  dissent).  _ 

assert,  t’se  enhesso  =it  is  indeed  so;  t  se  enhesso  na- 

-  heve,  x  assert  that  it  is  so,  (  is  indeed 

so  I  say);  tse  is  indeed  true;  t'se  eheto- 
m6’naheve,I  assert,  say  that  it  is  true  indeed;  t  se 
nahetom, I  assert , certainly  I  am  true;  nahetomesta,  I 
declare  it  true;  nahetomemo  (or.).  T’se  -indeed , deci¬ 
dedly,  determinedly .purposely.  _ 

assess,  navShoevhoesta, I  ass., count  it  as  "white  man  ; 

-  navehoevoemo , I  ass .one, count  him  as  citizen. 

assessment,  vehoevoemazistoz , asS . , the  counting  as  white 

~  man.  .  . ..  ,, 

assiduity,  6tsetanoxtoz,ass . in  thots .disposition;  dtse 
- hestc^,;ass . ;  6tseheonevestoz,ass . ,  (in  char¬ 
acter);  nakastoz, ass. .industry.  Inf.  -6ts-  =endeavor- 

assiduous, ^dj.  is  ass. ,/ndeaVo ring; 

e6t-«  y, 

one  is  zealous;  e6tsevhoena,  he9^  ' 
egevetan, one  is  ass . ,diligent ;  6 t- 

prays  assiduous. 
tzC'  sehe , the  assiduous  oi 
AiV*T  industrious  (Ger .arbeitsam, 
l**9  xV^aasiPTi  see  appoint , allot .V- x ■  ..  .  - —  . 

M^jJi^asflft  naomotao.  I  ass.,  stan/for  one;  navistamo,  I 

,  — ~  ass  “help  one;  navistam/ta  (in.);  nahSnevoto,  ^ 

defend  one;  navistam&ozetovo  ,  I  ass., am  on  his 
side;  nahevistamenoz,  I  jpe  one  to  assist  me,  nah 
vistametova.he  has  me  to^ass.him.  . 

ii^^^ssi stance,  omotsanistoz/he  assisting;  omotaazx^oz, 

“ - mutual  ass., /aid;  vistamazistoz, ass  help, 

4^*^*U^fistamaozetovazisto/  ass.,  the  being  on  one’s  side; 
V.»^  zevistamaozetos  nahfessevostanevhan, f or  his  ass.  I  was 

i^v^rtsaved;  nasaahev is/amazistov, I  have^no  ass 
_  vist&mazistovhai 


....  .  See  help, 
the  one  who  ass.,  helps; 

aids;  vistamose- 

is  of  i 

assistant,  nha  z/r istamosansz , 

Wf - zeomofcsansz.the  one  who  ass., 

ne , vistaozepfvistaoseo ,  ass.,  helper;  omotsene , ass . , 
stand  by;  Wahevistamenoz, I  have  one  for  ass:,to  stand 
with  me; .fteva  Maheo  mxhevistametcez.tah  niva  emetone 
5etaez?/If  God  be  for  us  (our  ass., stand  by)  who  will 
prevail  against  us?  See  helper.  Visthoze , co-servant, 


i\U  -  COA  . .  i  ^  ‘  j‘"  ' 



assistant  in  work. 

associable ,  e ve§,zistov,  it  is  ass.;  esaave&zistovhan  it 
is  not  ass. 

associate,  v.nave&z,  I  ass. with;  ass. with; 

esaave&zettan ,  it  does  not  ass. with;  navesse- 
vo.I.ass.,  am  with  one;  navesseneSeve ,  I  ass. with  in 
doing;  nanhestavonoeve,  I  ass.  with,  am  of  the  same 
class;  navisthozezeve,  I  ass.  with,  am  an  accomplice; 
navesthozeohemo , I  ass. with  one  in  working;  navistoe- 
ta.I  ass.  with  in  doings  .performances  ;  navistoStamo,  I 
ass. with  him  to  perform;  navesthoenaemo,  I  ass.with^^’*52!^ 
one  in  prayer;  navhestanovemo ,  I  ass,  with  them,  livd?^****^ 
with  them  as  a  tribe  or  nation;  navistomo.I  ass ! with^^w*  ' 
marry  one.  The  rad.  -vess(e)-  and  -vest-  or  -vist-^f^XI- 
before  aspirates  denotes  association;  nanooeta.I  ass 
with, am  connected  with  doings;  endonetto ,  it  ass  with 
connects,  relates  with,  to.  See  connect , relate _  Inf! 

-nitov-  =  associated,  in  common.  UCU’/vTincze'Se*’*,  9 
associate ,  n.navessevon,  my  ass.,  also  navefssevaon^%y^T*^,^^_ 
ass ., consort ;  ass. , companion 

nahevessevonamenoz.he  is  my  ass.;  nahevessevaonetova,  - 

I  am  his  ass.;  ass ., companion.  These 
expressions  imply  company,  going  together.  The  inf. 

-nitov-  denotes  "in  common"  as  a  concern  (in  busi¬ 
ness  );  enitoveaenanov  heto  hoxtovamhayon, they  are  ass. 
in  the  store  (lit. they  own  the  store  in  common);  na- 
nitovame  heto  hozeohestovA,  we  are  associates  in  this 
work;  vistaoseo, ass. , helper.  See  companion, assistant, 
fellowship.  Niahane  zeto  zevesthozezevemo , this  is  the 
one, my  associate , accomplice ;  ass. in  mar¬ 
riage;  zevistoetamo  and  zenooetamo , the  one, my  ass., in 
doings, performances.  The  inf.  -noo-  denotes  "connect¬ 
ed  with";  zevesthoenaemon,  my  associates  in  prayer; 
zevesthozeohematao , thy  associates  in  work.zevessemxi- 
stonemaesse ,your  school  associates, 
association,  manohastoz, 

ass.,  congregation;  notxestoz, 
warriors;  dostaenotxestoz,  ass. of 
ass . , • company , organiza- 

ass.  of  _ 

Christians;  dostaemanohasto:  ,  .  _.f  _ ^ _ 

tion  of  Christians;  nitovetanoxtoz, ass . of  the 
sense  of  common , together ;  ndonetanoxtoz , ass .  of  thot, 
-n  o  nection;  n<5onetanoxtov&  enahan  zeve§heneenom,by 
thot  connection, association  I  know  it;  emanohastove , 
it  is  an  ass., a  grouping  together;  emomenohastov, it 
is  in  several  groups  or  associations;  nitovhoxto- 
vazistoz,  ass.  in  trade;  nahoxznetan  hemanohastov, I 
want  to  join  their  association. 
assort,  namomenohanen, I  assort  in  groups  [-momen-  =hy 
bunches,  -momenohana  (in.),  -momenohano  (or.)]; 
namomen-o&ehananoz , I  ass. them  (in.)  in  groups  by them¬ 
selves.  [-0&e-,-oaes-  =by  self, apart;  see  apart];  e- 
momen-odehoeo , they  stand  assorted, in  groups  for  them- 


.  ^ 

selves, e.g.  sp.of  dry  goods, 
assortment .momenohastoz ,  the  ass.,  grouping  in  several 

-  classes  or  bunches;  heto  z&momenohanevosz 

vehoheSkovohestotoz  nasaapevaztohe , I  do  not  like  this 
assortment  of  needles;  momenokov, several  ass.;  nohov 
=  one  ass . .bunch .package  of  (in.);  nishov.two  ass.  of 
the  same  kind.  ,  ,  '  T 

assuage,  naonaxano.I  ass., soothe  one;  nahaomoxtodho ,  I 

-  ass. .appease, comfort  one;  eoaneoz,  one  (in. ana 

or  )  becomes  assuaged , calmed  down;  naoanomoxta, I  feel 
"  a-hnt.f!  naeifv.  Naoanoeva- 

JJWI  or.)  becomes  assuagea ,  caimeo.  uuwn, 

( aSs. .alleviated.  See  appease, abate, pacify.  Naoanoeva- 
.is  ^  T _  —nnnnpvata  (in.).  — oanoevamo 


toe, I  ass.  by  advice;  -oanoev&ta  (in.),  -oanoevamo 
lor.).  Nahopetanooz , I  become  ass., see  lenient, 
assume,  eoneetan.he  is  assuming, particular ;  evhanezis- 

-  toxtoetan,  he  merely  ass.  conjectures;  hoomeev&s 

ehSmoxtasz ,  assuming  that  he  be  sick, suppose  that 

he _ ;  eSokomese  nahessetamo , I  ass. that  he  has  eaten 

(lit. he  cannot  fail  to  have  eaten, I  think  of  him);  e- 
hamoxtaeman , he  ass . .pretends  to  be  sick.  See  pretend. 
Evhanetaometan,  he  simply  ass.  Inf.  -zistoxtoe  and 

;S?r'  ■ass,j”inslyi 

assumption’,  vhanetaometanoxtoz.merfe  ass ., opinion;  onee- 

-  tanoxtoz.ass. ,  fastidiousness;  v 

toetanoxtoz .mere  ass .  conjecture 

insurance,  hozeovosetanoxtoz , ass . confidence^  —  r-. 

-  vosetanoxtoz,ass . , confidence ;hestahatoz ,a — . 

.  heartedness  (Ger.  Beherzigkeit) ;  hestahaovazistoz , 
l^ass.,  mutual  ass.  heartening;  niheovosehoxovista-  travel  with  ass.  Inf .-heovos ( e )  -with  confi- 


:ic  Zi  i.  o  uwA- 

Lope;  heo- 

:,  nahozeovosemo , I  ass . one >ake  him  hopeful,  nano  ■ 

'  zeovoseto  , I  ass.  one  by  promise;  nahestahaovo ,  17  «•*/- 
ass.  hearten  one;  namomehememo ,  I  ass.  to  one  (in 
words);  naheovosetanoho , I  keep  one  assured, hopeful . 
assuredly,  oose§,in  truth. 

asthma,  nxpotomevomoxtastoz ,  choking  sickness;  enxpo- 
-  tomevomoxta.he  has  asthma. 

astir,  eSeieoz , one  is  astir, awake.  . 

astonish  inf.-otos-  =astonishing;  eotosetan.he  is  as., 
^’eotohesso,  it  is  as.;  naotostaz.esta,  I  deem  it 
astonishing;  naotostatamo , I  deem  one  as . ; eotostatama-  is  an  astonishing, marvellous  sight  (of  scenery, 
nature);  eotcseesz , one  speaks  astonishingly;  esaaton- 
Seotohesshan,  it  cannot  be  astonishing.  See  marvel^ 
wonder.  Eotosevoeta, one  acts, does  astonishing  perfor- 

astonishment ,  otoesetanoxtoz , ast .  (mental);  otSstastoz^, 
-  as. (state);  otdstatamaestoz ,  the  being  an 

as.;  otostatamanohestoz, astonishing  sight  ( m  nature 



S \\-<Au^  vista);  otosevoetastoz ,  astonishing  deed.perform- 
ance.  See  wonder. 

.  7L-  leA* 

■lvi  z.teo+&J  *  hriJuj 

fctij  (caAtto**,  a  ef-AAAjL-r' 

astound,  namasdotosetanooz.I  become  as.;  naohSetanooz . I 
am  as.,  become  alarmed;  naotostahapz,  I  become 
as. (in  my  heart);  eohaoo.he  looks  astounded;  naohao- 
mo,I  look  at  him  astounded;  eohaoxta,  he  looks  at  it 
as.,  surprised;  eohaotoene,  he  looks  as.,  surprised, 
frightened;  esdhoveoz,  one  is  as.  surprised.  See  sur- 

prise •ajla;  JirW _  .  ,,  r  --  , 

■  ad.i  •  naooxseoz .  I  '  become  astrayed;  naooxsenoslhc t!*a~ea 

B^y-  = "  ~  I  cause  one  to  go  astray;  naooxsetan.I  am  astray 

(mental);  - 


becoming  astray;  . . -  — ^*..6  4  ^ 

.(ff,']—  -  x  w">=  >.u  feu  asu  ajj  naouxsexan,i  am  astray  <r 

' - 4‘"1);  naooxsetanoho ,  I  keep  one  astray  (mental);  _/  t 

evostaneheve,  I  live  astray.  Ooxseozistoz , the  Ua***/*^  - 
ng  astray;  ooxsetanoxtoz ,  the  being  astray  (men-  Cl/O, 

■i**'1-'  ,^tal);  ooxsetanohazistoz , the  keeping  astray;  ooxseno-4'*** 7  ‘ 
B.-to/  sohestoz,  cause  of  going  astray;  ooxsevostanehevestoz  uaw?  *; ’  v''f 
astray  in  living  (Ger . verfehltes  Leben) ;  eoox-^^^"-* 

sevovistomosan,one  teaches  astray, at  variance ;•  ooxs 
B^  1  ,  ■  .{.vovistomosanistoz  .heterodox  teaching;  ooxsevovistome- 
B''(l/.l/%>azlst02,heter°dox  doctrine;  eooxsevoeta,  he  acts^at 
variance  with,  astray  from;  ooxsevoetastoz ,  heterodox 
B  ‘fpllfol  doing.  [Rad.  -ooxs-  is  derived  from  oxs  =elsevihere 
™  f  and  denotes  "at  variance  .different ,  not  at  the  place , 

not  normal,  strange".  The  Greek  hetST'ts  is  the  Ch.  /L.  J 

ooxs].  Inf.  -nohe-  =aside‘^‘fr6m,  swerving  from;  enohd-/^  JL* 

■  r^Xtr^u?2’  he  turns  astray^jf  rom-;  nanohetan,  I  turn  as  .from  v 
WM1 "'>*■  _( mental ) :  nanohevoetaTI  act  swerving  from, go  as. in  my 

fft{'  doings;  enohdpavevostaneheve ,  he  turns  as.  from  thej„,  a.L 
right  living;  nohdozistoz,  the  turning  astray;  nohd-  *  /) ,t 

tanoxtoz, astray  in  thot,  distraction;  nohdvoetastoz]f^''"/^tf^v“ 


'  astray, wrong  doing.  Inf.  -von-  =astray  in  the  sense’**"' 

''  of  lost;  evoneoz,  one  is  as.,  lost;  navoneozeham,  my^ . 
'«  ~si  horses  went  as., are  lost;  navonetan.I  forget, am  as.JL  /»***  “v** 
thot.  See  lose, forget  -tur/ie-- 
3tride.  natahoenoz.  I  am  as.  of  for.):  nataVin--1— ~T  - 



astride,  natahoenoz,  I  am  as.  of  (or.)'  natahopta7l  am_^». 
as. of  it.  See  ride.  Cn  M*  fn^ifaieertiaAgM*  _ 

'astronomer,  vostan  zeoxcheneenovoss  hotoxq.a  persoS" wim  A*?- /&***• 
knows  the  stars.  In  former  days  the  Ch.  had 
men,  priests  who  knew  more  about  the  stars  than 
others, and  had  names  for  different  constellations . 

See  stars. 

astute,  eohaoxzezeve ,he  is  very  astute, shrewd;  eocehe-  is  as .  .deceitful . 

astuteness ,  ohaoxzezevestoz ;  oceheonevestoz, as.  .deceit-  ^ 
asunder,  see  apart.  Q,6 

a~t>  has  no  exact  equivalent  in  Cn.  As  a  rule  the  vowel  ^  jjf 
"e"  denotes  the  prepositional  meaning  of  "at"  » 

.  in  the  sense  of  a  point  in  space, within  the  limits 
of, in  the  direction  of, in  reference  to;  nd-  that  one'*-*’1— 

(ref. to  or. ) ,hdn,that  one  (ref. to  in.);  the/ **-*+**] 


center;  natazeoxz.I  go  there  at;  natahemese.I  am  "at" 
going  to  eat.  Napeosan  =1  dislike;  napeosen.I  do  dis¬ 
like, am  at  disliking;  napevodho  =  I  am  at  doing  good 
to  one;  napevoeta  =1  am  at  doing  good;  naendztovo,  I 
am  at, asking  questions  of  one;  is  at,  en¬ 
gaged  in  speaking;  evehomo.he  is  at  seeing  one;  ohe, 
river;  oh6,at  the  river;  vehoeom, square  tent;  vdhoeo-  the  square  tent;  vehoneom,  the  chief’s  lodge;  the  chief’s  lodge;  nataehoe.I  am  going 
to  live  at.  Pref.ze-  used  extensively  in  the  sub. form 
of  the  v.  =that  which, the  one  who  (pointing,  indicat¬ 
ing  at).  "At", in  the  sense  of  added .prolonged , extend¬ 
ed  ,  belonging  to .within, adhering,  is  rendered  by  "h" ; 
'nahoeoxz.I  come  at, arrive;  nahoenoe.I  mend, add  to, at; 
nahevehomo,  I  am  at  going  to  see  one;  nahemhayon,  I 
have  a  house;  navoeSetanoho ,  I  am  at  rejoicing  one, 
(Ger.ich  erfreue  ihn) . 

atheism,  6ztomohestoz  zehe§henehovstovs  Maheo,  denial 
—  that  God  has  a  being, personality ;  oxsaaonisyom- 

atamesz  Maheo, the  non  belief  in  God. 
atheist,  esaaonisyomatamohe  Maheon,  he  is  an  at.,  does 

- not  believe  in  God.;  edztomohe  zeheShenehovsto- 

vez'  Mahebn , he  denies  that  God  has  an  existence;  e- 
v  saamaheonand.he  is  atheist. 
l%M  athirst, nha  zehaonsz.he  who  is  athirst;  nha  zeohamane- 
jfiy/  ^  tanoz,  he  who  is  athirst,  wants  to  drink.  See 

thirst.  Ehaoneta , he  is  thirsty  for  it  (fig.), 
atmosphere, omotom, at. , air;  taxtaom.the  surrounding  at.; 

-  setovoom,  the  middle  at.;  otatavoom,  blue 

sky;  [these  expressions  are  connected  with  ceremo¬ 
nials];  the  sff.  -om  denotes  sphere , region  of;  -mano 
ref.  to  atmosphere, air, nature, scenery,  vista,  e.g.  e- 
pevatamano , the  at. is  clear, or  fine;  eoxkossemano ,  the 
at. is  of  brpwnish  tint,  when  the  horizon  all  around 
becomes  darkiy  hazed;  eheoveatamano , the  at. is  yellow- 
ish  tinted;  emaeatamano , the  at. is  of  a  reddish  tint; 
eoveoatamano ,  the  at .  dfl s  clouded,  it  is  a  cloudy  at., 
weather;  evenotamaph  and  evenotavoma^ the  at.  looks 
smoky;  eanstaeSe-e"ve ,  the  at.  is  hazy  [from  anstaeS  = 
haze,  trailing^ mist  on  lower  ground.  See  weather, 
cloud] .  Sff^-mano-  ref  .also  to  quality ,  s  ituation,  con¬ 
dition ,  coticeived  collectively , and  has  a  similar  mean¬ 
ing  ter'' the  Eng. sff.  -ful  in  expressions  like:  it  is  y 
drpadf ul , beautiful , awful .  See  full,  -  f* **7 

itaf;e ,  nahestoomen,  I  at.,  suffer  on  account;  [hesse  = 

/ - from.because  of  +  oomen  =suffer];  nahestoomeoeho , 

I  cause  one  to  atone;  nahestoomenetovo , I  at.  for  one, 
on  his  account;  nahestoomeneta, I  at. for  it;  also  used 
in  the  ehestoomenenov  tama  hesthavsevevo ,  they 
themselves  atoned  (for)  their  sin.;  nahestoomenevomo- 
ta,I  atone  in  one’s  place.  . 

,  .  .  +  _ 

<1  vii  cub**--  **rro 

hre^cL;  twtMivaW^  aCt fr”.  clxa^rg.  ^,,...//,  ^/v^ 

,  tjU  T.  ^vct^X^t^rv'-^4-'t*'(  9  **■'“*-  Il_< — .  *  tO-A/i_i<fU_fl.l/«  ,  3  air,  <*+  a , 

JthXjtJ-  tWt-W^MvoV/.cij-o  .  «Va^^  I 

X  ^£ZU  aM.,djJ^W[uU^  ^ 


atonment,  hestoomene/;ovazistoz,at.  ;  hestoomene-vovehe- 
"'  - Vansom  by  suffering;hestoomene-vove- 

hevavomotxev&toz  _/at expiation  for  [from  hestoomen  = 
suffer  for  +  voveheva  =  ransoming  +  vomotxevatoz  = 
substitute , in  njace -for ] .  See  suffer, 
atrocious,  eahar^emomeztomazistov,  it  is  a  cruel,  atro- 
1  cious/doing;  eahanemomeztovogtastov,  it  is  an 

atrocious  deed, act;  see  cruel, 
atrocity,  mtjmeztovodhazistoz, atrocity, cruelty ;  ahanemo- 
dztovoehazistoz ,  an  atrocious  act;  ahanemomez- 
tomazistoz,  atrocity.  ,  r> 

attach,  /ndonetto , it  is  attached  to, related,  connected; 

nandonena, I  attach  it, connect  it;  see  tie, bind, 
attack,  attacks;  naaeozetovo , I;  na- 
toeoavo.I, rush  at  one  to  fight;  namenha- 
ono,I  att ., challenge  one  (Inst.m.);  namenhaostdno , I 
att. , challenge  one  instantly;  namenhaen . I  am  attack¬ 
ed;  namenhae , one  attacks  me;  namenhaovatan,  I  desire 
to  att.  challenge;  tahemenhaehA,  go, attack  him!  Inf. 

-geveas-  =attacking  in  the  sense  of  beginning  with  a 
will , diligence ; naSeveashozeohe , I  att., begin  my  work, 
attack,  n.aeozistoz;  toeoaovazistoz,  att . ,  rushing  at  ft 
menhaonestoz , att ., challenge .  — 

attain,,  nahoxtamista,  I  att.,  overtake  /  i-t-j  '"nahoxtamo "iW.— 

'(or.)  is  overtaken;  nahdeS,I  att., am 
able/  capable;  nahdeSena,  I  have  att.;  ‘ehdeSetto ,  it^v 
att  j\  does  not  att.,  is  unattainable  \ 
nahpeSemo.I  enable  one, make  him  att.;  Semehan,.^»*■''<I!,  ^ 
it  cannot  be  attained .  t  £^.i-  let-  U*ra-*<rVf.  a  *-<-  * 
attainable,  ehoxtamestov% it  is  attainable,  can  be  over- 
/  taken;  ehdegeme,  it  is  att.;  ehde§en&tov,  it  ' 

att.;  esaahdegemehan, it  is  not  att. 

.nment .hoxtamestoz , att . , the  overtaking;  hdesenatoz, 
att.,  ability  to  reach;  hoegemazistoz,  the 
laking  one  attain. 

;empt,  rendered  by  inf.  -onis(e)-  =trying,  test- 
ing;  naonisheneenovo ,  I  att.,  try  to  know  one; 
naoniseneseve , I  att.  to  do;  naonistoeta, I  am  one  who 
att.  to  act, perform;  toanoxa  onisetto,  let  it  be  at¬ 
tempted  ,  tried  !  See  try, test.  Inf.  -dtse—  denotes  at¬ 
tempt  in  the^sense  of  striving, endeavoring.  See  these  /, 

words  .  C7liK^l</  <*?/  &%.**.&•**/  *?.  £ 

attempt,  n.bniseztastoz.sftt.  .trial, test;  onisetanoxtoz^^^^^f///;?_ 
att.  (mental);  dtsetanoxtoz,  attempt,  endeavor~""*^ 
(mental);  d tsehes toz , the  att . striving .  See  trial.  dfarf- 

attend,  nameemesz.I  att. to, take  care  of  it;  nameemdho,  — 

■  I  att. to, take  care  of  one;  navovonethozeohetovo  tfffaVc. 
zehSmoxtasz,  I  att . to  .minister  unto  the  sick  one;  na-  Ctwnti*acf 

vesshooxz  maheonemhayo ,  I  (with)  attend  the  church:  - - lKJi 

navostaneheon, I  am  attended , live  not  alone;  navosta- 
neheovo.he  is  attended  by  me,  lives  not  a^one^, 

..  */. 


att-  ^ 

,  cu*in7-i —  ^  ba*|  (itr.t  iWw 


A,*"‘  * M  ,W-M  K 


\  ^  ATTENDANi 


with  him;  is  attended  hy.with  it  there 
xamavostanehevestoz  enoane  hotoanatto , the  life  of  the 
Indians  is  attended  with  hardships;  vehoemapemanistoz 
enoane  hamoxtastoz,  drinking  whiskey  is  attended  hy 
sickness;  evessevae  hevls’on,  he  is  attended  hy  his 
brothers  =his  b.are  with  him;  vonstoxno  hozeon  eves- 
seva.he  is  attended  by  countless  servants, 
attendance,  vesshooxzistoz,  the  attending  with  (to  a 
zevessemoheoxzessfi , the  attendance, 

meeting) . 

they  who  attend  a  meeting;  epavemoheoxzistove , the  at 
tendance  was  good  (of  a  gathering), 
attendant ,  zevesshooxzz , the  att.  (to  a  meeting);  zeve- 
azz.the  att.,  one  who  goes  with;  zeveazetto, 
art  the  att., that  which  goes  with;  hoze , att ., servant . 
attention,  na&toezeeno , I  call  one’s  att. by  poking  him; 
epave&tomon,  he  pays  good  att  ’'gi 
<  h  v'^naonista,  I  pay  att. .  heed  to 


napaveonemo,!  pay 

well  att-.  to  “one,  heed  him;  naSaaone2roire>-J^pay  ^o^tt^^*^ 

- v 


to, neglect  one;  atom!  attention!  look  out Q 
.ttentive,  epaveahatomon.he  is  att., listens  well.™  )  n ,  t  ^  *  ‘ 
attenuate,  v.nakakoana, I  att.  it  make  thin;  naheSks5n 



I  att. by  tapering  with  instrument;  namapevom- 
att.  it  (liquids);  nazceana.I  att.,  make  it 



attenuate,  ad j.eohSonae, one  is  very  att.,  lean;  etoxko- 
-  nae , one  is  att., lean ;  zetoxkonasz, the  attenu¬ 
ated  one;  zehetonasz  nanitonae,  I  am  attenuated  as 
he  is;  enitonaeo , they  are  thus  (alluding)  attenuated; 
eohaonaoz , one  has  become  very  attenuated.  See  thin, 

ohaonastoz , 


attenuation,  hetoxkonastoz,  state  of  att.; 

_  great  att. 

attest,  v . ehetomesta , he  att. the  truth  of  it;  nahetome 

mo,  I  att.  that  one  is  true.  ^fr»  4^jL~7y  o 

attest,  n.hetomemazistoz .  l" 

attic,  zeneota  vaxsheama  mhayon.thartrToomtohibn  J-s  top-jj  ■■eiW 
most  of  the  house.  ~  ettmd.  *+ 

Jattire,  see  adorn, array, dress 

I  .  see  ““nuvicf'i - v.  y 

|  ^vtv^w/o^attidude,  zehegeos.his  att.-, the  way  he  stands;«^^tr^ 
L  r1n wlllM ,ӣjr~  stoes.his  att., the  way  he  sits  down;  ezhegeoe ,  > 

tfk-  n*.; has  this  att.;  stands  this  way;  hesz- 

k-  .  has  this  att.;  stands  this  way;  hesz- 

Rf’w^v^wulhe§eoestoz, one’s  att .,  standing ;  zeheSeztovo,  my 

1  o  4-^.nov-^o  tvio  in-r  — ez-  denotes  attitude,  be-  i. 

fTT, L -J^IJude  towards  one.  The  inf 

\u™^v^avior  >  conduct . 

attorney,  hoemaneveho , lawyer  (white  man) 

nahessenSxsohe , I  cause  to  come, attract;  nahes- 
senoxsha ,  one  att. me;  nahessenoxsesz , I; 
nahessenoxsgho , I  att.  him;  ehesseaonoto ,  he  att. 


(in.)  [with  the  mouth, as  serpents  do];  nahestomsohe , 
I  att.  by  look;  nahestomdho , I  att. one  (or.)  by  look; 
nahessetanotovo , I  att. one  (or.)  by  mind;  nahessetano- 

lessetano-  ,n  i  l 

^  rjlUL  fcu.’  WV  **  AWT 



tovo  nitov&.I  (or.)  to  me, by  thot;  nahessema- 
ova.he  by  pretending;  ehesseman.he  pre 

attraction  hessetanoxtoz,  mind;  hessenoxsohes- 
attraction^^^^^  ^  making  come;  het5msohes- 

toz,  cause  of  att.  by  look;  hessetanotovazistoz,  the 
attracting  one, by  thot.  ...  .. 

attractive,  heto  eoxchessenoxsohestove ,  this  is  att., 

- - ’drawing;  is  very  at-  4** 

tracting-  heto  eveShessetanoxtove ,  this  is  a  means  of  - 

attraction, is  attractive  (mental);  eveShestomsohes-  '  is  att., is  a  nmeans  of  attraction  by  look, 
heSemomoxenos  naveghessetanoton ,  I  was  attracted  by 
one’s  desirable  apearance;  is  att.,ae 
sirable ;  emomoxenohe , one  is  attr. .desirable, 
attractiveness, hestomsohestoz, att. by  look;  ^m°xen5hes- 

-  toz  att.,  desirableness;  zeheSepei enos 

zeto  hetan  naveShessetanoton, I  am  drawn  by  the  att. of 
this  man  [lit. he  looking  well, this  man,  3 
ed].  ‘ 

attributed v. The  Ch. language  has  an  attributive 

-  hetasz , thou  art  attributed  to  have  said.evcm 

osz  he  is  att. to  have  seen  one;  navoxtan°s,  I  am  att. 

?o  have  seen  it;  emaheone vesz ,  he  is  atW  to  be  God; 
evehonevsesto , they  are  att. to  be  chiefs;  ehSmoxtasz, 
he  is  att., said  to  be  sick  (  soil  krank  sem  , 
see  Attributive  This  form  of  the  v.  is 
extensively  used  by  the  Ch. implying 

sition,  saying  and  state  ascribed  to  one  .Urxe&e^a  V. 
auburn,  zeoLmlk,  that  which  is  admfr^  '  ^ 

- and  emaovess,  one  has  auburn  h|ir.  The  Ch  admi  e^ 

light  brownish  hair  with  a  tint  of  deep  red  and  call 
this:  "yellow  haired";  eheovstd,  he  isyei low  haired. 

This  of  course  in  ref.  to  long  hair,  bot^ 
and  women.  Long  and  beautiful  hair  is  much  mentioned 
in  the  Ch. stories.  See  hair, 
auction,  hoxevatovd  is  bo U  at  auc 
-  tion  [from  hoxeva  =herald  and  hoxtova  t  _ 

Jld'n,  ehestatamahe , one  is  aud  .  i  esaajiezevahe  one 

-  is  bold, aud.;  ehatamaz.he  is  aud. .valiant. 

audacity,  hatamazistoz ,  valor;  hestatamahestoz ,  aud 

- reckiessness;  saaitfezevahestoz , boldness,  tova- 

Upcf n7  q.ud  in  the  sense  of  insolence.  ^  ^  ,  A 

arr£„si%daSeSfss4  f 

ztovo.he  granted  me  an  audience  [lit.he  granted  me 



entrance  that  I  should  speak  to  him];  nanizeomon  zis- 
toscfisztovo  ZevaSitaecsz,  I  was  grant.d  an  audaanc, 

auger^  otaheo  [from  naot&on.I  bore, pierce;  otaeshetan 
- ' pi erced-nos e-man ,Nez  Perces].  See  bore, pierce. 

augur^ntma&kootanovoaansz  [from  mato  -badger  +  -otan- 

;Sig,-b0re  into].  The  hadger  was  used  formerly 
for  divinftion  of  future  events.  As  with  the  Romans 
the  Ch  priests  would  foretell  future  events  by 
state  or  position  of  the  entrails  of  animals .foremost 
the  badger; also  by  the  images  represented  in  his  co 
agulating  blood.  The  animal  was  cut  in  two  halveo 

while  alive.  The  fur  of  a  badger  enwraps  the  sacred, 
arrows  of  the  Ch.and  those  are  also  used  as  omens  foi 
the  tribe.  Certain  old  men  could  also  foretell  future 
events  by  the  form  of  certain  clouds , called  ehostone- 

aunt;  zahchaheztoveszS ,  aunts; 

- ’nahan  my  aunt;  r.hahe.thy  aunt;  s  aunt, 

nahlnu  aunt;  zehehAhez  our  (sub.  form);  nhahevo. 

STS;  hehdhevo ,  their  bunt.  PI. not  much  an  uae 

Nahehahenoz  she  is  my  aunt;  naheh&hetova, I  am  his 
hS  aS^  nlhi^heton.I  am  an  aunt;  nahehahe,  I  have 
an  aunt-  hehdhestovestoz , aunthood ;  hehdhetovazistoz, 
the  being  an  aunt  to;  hehahemazistoz , the  being  mutual 
aunts? cofle  c t i on  of  aunts;  nahehdhevoemo ,  I  count  her 
as  my  aunt.  All  relationships  have  a  pecular  v.f. 
which  we  classified  as  Rela^°^hlP  ^rJer  for 

-he-  denotes  possession .na-heh&he—noz  -I  have  her  for 
aunt;  nahehahetova  =she  has  me  for  aunt.  s®®  ’ 

Among  the  Cheyenne  an  aunt  is  the  sister  of  one  s  fa 
tS  (no?  of  one's  mother);  also  the  wife  of  one's 
uncle  (either  father's  brother's  wife  or  mother  s 

austere^adjT^emdm&tae , one  is  au. .grave , abstemious ,  re- 
— —’Ug^us.godiy.  Itlf.  -mdmAta  is  used  in  many  re¬ 
ligious  S  and  has  ref.  to  the  class, of  Ch  who 
strictly  observe  religious  performances.  Zemdm&tahes- 
s6  ,  the  class  of  the  austere,  religious  ones; 
vo§ta  one  is  performing  religious  rites  (said,  of 
priests)  [obviously  related  to  -ornata  “SOber].^-* 
mdtavostaneheve ,he  lives  an  austere  relig'ous  1 ife 

emdm&taesz , one  speaks  a^^rely*gr^ly;t^srais^°e 
or  -acred  subiects;  em6m&tavoan ,  one  utters  austere, 
sacred  words ; ^mdm&tavoanistoz , sacred .grave  utterance , 
religious  term;  mdm&tahetan,  austere .  : 

mdm&tahee. austere. religious  w0^+ ?3?*r5Xti% 
nehevestoz, austere, religious  Christian  1  t  “ 

baptized, anointed  with  water  on  the  head], 

austere, sacred  day;  mdm&tavostan,  austere,  religious 



fj-wUeMA*.,  lujL  ,v  cuJ.j 

r+*r6L  (u«rA.  ta^y.  4 

\U'a,‘  .  ~  - _ -  •  n^-it/AAf 


austebit/^y^  english-cheyenne  dictionary  *  ~cwnj/ 

(ty  M4M**U^*'t  /<^<^*«-g 

person;  mdm&tamahaciss .austere,  grave,  religious  oid>*v"y' 
man;  namdm&tavazesta, I  deem  it  au. , grave;  namdm&tava- 
tamo.I  deem  one  (or.)  au. ,  religious;  emdmdtavenohe , 
one  has  a .religious  appearance;  emdm&tave- 
ne , one  has  a face;  mdmdtanos,  in  an  austere, 
grave, religious  manner.  See  holy, pious, sacred.  Inf. 
-vovoxbon-  =strict, rigid, impartial  (not  in  a  reli¬ 
gious  sense ) .austere ;  evovoxbonae,  one  is  au., strict, 
inexorable;  does  not  strictly 
imply;  evovoxbonhetaneve ,he  is  an  au., strict  man;  e-  lives  a  rigid,  austere  life. 

See  rigid, strict. 

austerity,  vovoxbonastoz , au. , strictness ;  mdm&tahestoz, 
au. .gravity, piety ;  mdm&tavostanehevestoz ,  au. 
in  living;  mdm&tavenohestoz,au. in  appearance, 
authentic,  is  au.,true.  Z '  ■ 
author,  zehemanstoonehesz , the  au.,  maker , designer , crea-  **“**'*1 
,  tor  (of  something  put, built  together);  zehe- 
exaene^nsz, the  author,  the  one  who  brings  to'execu- 
ZehetSeneonsz , the  finisher  ( Ger . Vollender )  ]  . 
nitahestoz , rule ;,  power 
f  au.  [From  nitahe  =ruler , master  +  hoemanis- 
to^'=]|aw)\.  Nametan  nitao  nitavhoemanistoz  heama  na  ,  • 

i  all  authority  in 
^earth I  nakenitahestov,  I  have  the  au. ; 


fi  p-iAatath  ori/ze 


ehenitihesto-  f 

nknitdemandho , I  make  one  rUTbr;  nameto  nitd- 
les&oz  or  nitdvh»emanistoz , I  give  to  one  the 
authority, power, rule;  nahetooto  heneSevestoz , I  confer 
upon)  one  the Nauthori ty  to  do;  nahetooto  zexhoxtovas 
namMayon  I  confer  upon  one-  that  he  sell  my  hoi^se.  /  ' 

auto-/  is  rendered  by  inf.-taom-  -of  self . 
autograph,  tama  hetaomemxistonestoz ,  one’s  own  na 

writing. ejUJlru-eJ-^Xc  U,  4  '*'■*’*' 

automatic,  moves  by  itself .automatic¬ 
ally;  etaome-amoeoxzetto ,  it  goes  automatic¬ 
ally;  taomenemenistoz, automatic  music, any  musical  in- 
’  istrument  playing  by  its  own  mechanism.  Sometimes 
inf.  — taom-  denotes  "without  any  reason  or  speci- 
eause"  e.g.  grows  by  self;  esaataom- 
.oeoxzd.he  did  not  come, for  no  apparent  reason, 
omaton , taomezetaneneo . 

itcmobi le ,  taome-amoeoxzistoz ,  that  which  runs  of 

itumn ,  autumn;  tonoegehe , moon  of  the  fall. 

See  months. 

'avail,  v.  avails, helps ;  eveSevistama-  is  of  avail .assistance ;  nahozeto.I  av. 
myself  of  one’s  help;  is  of  no  av. ; 
haonktoz  maha  eveSetoneozistov, prayer  is  of  great  av. 

/  avail ,  n. esaaveshoozenovan, it  is  of  no  av.,  advantage, 

Mlrr- w  wLL\  75^^ 'TtnL  nr  '•  iyXju^cu**- 



gain  profit;  is  of  avail .benefit .use ; 


availability^  hooztseonevestoz , av advantage ;  kanozea- 

_ — - - - J-  ^  n  oVn  1  i  tv  z/y-j 

r,  nOOZ^CUUCVCOOV^,«.v., - f - o’  ’  -  ^ 

'  hestoz, availability.  ru*, 

one  is  available,  rfan  be  used 


(,  S^<~. 


. .  _  .  -y 

available,  ekanozeahe,  one  is  available,  <*an  be 

-  (or.)  is  extra;  nisaahozetand?  art  thou 

not  in  the  service  of  some  one?  Ehozestomohestov,  it 
is  available  (Ger.steht  zur  Verfiigung);  esaahozeehan, 
it  is  not  in  use,  is  available;  zeheSsaahozehes  (or 
-hozes )  natazeto,  since  he  is  av^a^'e/1Ly2  a 
use)  I  am  going  to  use  P 

avalanche ,  bistass  zemame-anhosevar/oz  hohamoss  h°^ae 
— va,snoW  sliding  in  bulk  down  the  side  of  a 
mountain.  Hohonaeo  emasdanhosevano , there  was+an  aval, 
of  stones;  hohamoss  zeomao  fcmasd-anhosevanotto ,  there 

avarice , ^ozevatanoeohevestoz ;  makataemetanoheoneves- 
-  toz.av. ,  the  wanting  money;  haovatanoheoneves- 

avaricious^r emakataemetanoheoneve , he  is  av.;  ehozevata- 
— L-"~  noheoneve.he  is  greedy, coveting;  ehaovatan- 
oheoneve,  he  wants  riches;  emehoxta  hemakataeme,  he 

avenge"  nameSe’Jom^ta.I  av., fight  for, defend  onejnaeviz- 
— ~'tomoe,I  av.,  take  vengeance;  havs  zeheSevez  ni- 

nr.'  nrfivent  u_. _  a- 

"’toz, disgust, av.  Su-  ■ 

-  — — — ent  f  — ‘toeir 


avert,  nat5eman“l“avert , prevent*’ -t^, prevent 

- it;  -toemandho , prevent , avert  one;  natoemandho  zi 

stosenitoenahans,  I  av.  ,  prevent  one  from  murdering, 
nahestomano , I  prevent  one.  See  prevent  avoid.  t4AJU, 

avid,  ehSpoe ,  one  is  av.  .gluttonous  (in  eat^), 

-  sanetan , emhaestomosaneoneve , one  is  avid, greedy  to  ^ 

swallow;  tass  emhaesta  naeszistoz.he  was  avid  for  my 
words  (as  it  were  he  swallowed  my  word)  ;  f 

tanotomova  Maheo  ye  avid  for  Jois  £°r  ' 
naoha-hoahe , I  am  avid,  craving  for;  is^ 

&e&~££jBat  ; 

av., great  desire , covetousness ;heneenatanoheonevestoz , ^ 

avoIdf°naroSi  av., avert  it;  navohovaovo ,  I  av.  ,  keepy'  . 

• - ’away  from  one;  naoxstaovo.I  (on  the  way, as  v 

to  not  meet  him);  naovahSovo,  I  av.  one, keeping  y\ , 
from  one;  eahaeoxz.he  avoids, in  going  wide  of,  ni  ,y\ 





/-zrr/b  t  £*— 



st  it  (passest  on  the  farther  side 
=away  from,  wide  of;  naohdea  (in. )  ,1*^'**,  &»“*£-*— 
roid , shun  (meeting);  nahomista,  I  ' 

3  escape. 

tov,  it  is  avoidable  (in  going); 

3, one  (in. or  or.)  is  avoided;  eo- 
~.)  is  avoided;  emeovahdovazistov,  is  not  av.,es-  is  not  av. ;  esaaohdeo- 
anot  be  missed;  ndko  esaa-ahdeox- 
not  av. ;  vox  meoneva  esaa-ahaeox- 
n  the  road  is  not  av. 

,one  (in. or  or.)  is  avowed  openly; 
nathavs,  I  avow  my  wrong, sin;  e- 
nes  av. .acknowledged.  See  frank, 
toz;  tdxtanovemeemazistoz ,av. , con- 

ait;  -tonoxta  (in. ) ,-tonomo  (or.); 
await  for  it  (it  lying  posture); 
he  one  who  awaits  patiently;  navo- 
z,I  see  one  awaiting  (in  a  lying 
Heovasz  zehesso  zetoshoeohotata 
u  dost  not  know  all  that  awaits 

awakes, becomes  awakened;  etotonoe, 
ning  the  eyes);  esaatotonohe ,  one 
awakes  not;  nasehano.nasehaoho.I  cause  one  to  awake; 
na§e§evamo,I  coax  one  to  awake;  nadedevaosemo , I  awake  fj  „  )  i 

one  (by  noise). 

awake,  ad  j  .  etotoedena  ,;one  lies  awake  ;  totoedendtoz ,  the  4tP*e**n  wee  - 

lying^awake;  ede’  is  awake: - 

awaken,  nadedeozeho ,  I  aw.,^ause  one  to  awakeTnasTJSWKQj  A*^*3^*' 

I  aw.,  arouse  one;  dedeozistoz , the  awakening;  Se^V 
devamazistoz, the  awakening  by  coaxing ; d/devaosemazis-//^.. 
tcz.the  awakening  by  noise a.  ,  .  ~y 

award,  v.navovemo.I  award  to  tv?  the  Cerise*  of  pay-^'^ 

ing  tribute  .homage  to  one  (in  words)];  navoveta-^.,^!* .  f*rv- 
notovo , I  pay  tribute  to  one  (in  thot);  navoveahetovo ,  ,r~  v 

I  pay  tribute  to  one  (in  deeds). 
aware ,  homatan  nandheneena,  I  am  aware,  concious  of  it 
'  [homatan  denotes  inward  feeling];  na(h)omaozeta, 

I  become  aware  of  it;  na(h)omazetovo, I  become  aware, 
concious  of  one;  naomata.I  am  aware, feel  of  it;  nao- 
matovo  (or.);  naoxheneena, tho  I  am  aware,  tho  I  know; 
nandheneena  zehedenSs.I  am  award  that  he  is  dead, 
away,  haed.far  away,  distant;  e^aess6,  it  is  far  away; 
inf.  -as-  =away ,  start  off  (also  begin);  eas.he 
,h£  goes  away, starts  off;  nitftashemd, let  us  be  off,  awayT 

),I  cause  one  to 


j*-* ZZ  *#.  **-■ 



cl  '  a 


, 't-*-*-  tWb 

gain, prof it;  is  of  ava:  is  o  no  * 

or  serviceableness ;  ~ 
availability,  hooztseonevestoz, av. .advan 

- — - hestoz , availability .  ^7 

available,  ^kanozeahe,  one  is  availabl 

- - (or.). is  extra;  msaahozetane? 

v.--V‘lnot  in  the  service  of  some  one?  Ehozes 
is  available  (Ger.steht  zur  Verfugung) 
it  is  not  in  use.  is  available;  zehe 
-hozes )  natUzeto,  since  he  is  avail 
use)  I  am  going  to  use  him.^^-** 
avalanche,  hestass  zemame-anhosevarfoz  h 

- - —  va>snow  sliding  m  bulk  do* 

mountain.  Hohonaeo  emasdanhosevano.thf 
of  stones;  hohamoss  zeomao  Imaso  anhoa 
was  a  land  slide. 

avarice,  hozevatanoeohevestoz;  mahata^ 

- —  toz.av. ,  the  wanting  money;  ha 

toz.av. .greed  for  riches. 

avaricious,  emakataemetanoheoneye ,he  is 

-  noheoneve.he  is  greedy, covet 

oheoneve ,  he  wants  riches;  emehoxta 
loves  his  money.  .  ,  ,  „  . 

avenge,  nameoevomoti, I  av., fight  for>^e 
- —  tomoe.l  av.,  take  vengeance;  ha 

g  l‘l 


9  < 


-  tomoe.l  av.,  take  vengeance,  xw, 

.  .  _  t  „ nnft  irom  murdering 

one;  natoemandho  si- 
stosenitoenahans,  1  a,.,  prevent  on.  from  jurd.nn*. 
-"est»a„o. I  prevent  on. .See  P-vent  £Votd  e*haet-  ^  -f 

S'S!  Taet  W 

—  ^anetanUmhaestomosaneoneve  one  is  avicUgreedy  to  _ 


words  (as  it  were  he  swaiiowea  my  .j  >  —-“‘word 

2S2SS.TS  MTSa  SSt 

avid, craves  for.  See  °rave'1  ttony.  mhaestatanoxtoz,  «T“ 




haeoxta, thou  avoidest  it  (passest  on  the  farther  side 
of  it);  inf.  -aha-  =away  from, wide  of;  naohdea  { in. ) , 
naohdeovo  (or.)  I  avoid, shun  (meeting);  nahomista,  I  ' 

avoid, escape  it.  See  escape, 
avoidable ,  eahSeoxzistov,  it  is  avoidable  (in  going); 

~  ~  ~  (in. or  or.)  is  avoided;  eo-  (in. or  or.)  is  avoided;  emeovahaovazistov, 
it  should  be  av. ;  is  not  av. , es¬ 
capable;  esaahomstaetoehe , one  is  not  av.;  esaaohdeo- 
ehan,it  is  unav. , cannot  be  missed;  nako  esaa-ahdeox- 
zetoehe.the  bear  is  not  av. ;  vox  meoneva  esaa-ahSeox- 
zetoehan.the  hole  in  the  road  is  not  av. 
avow,  et&xtanSvemeeme , one  (in. or  or.)  is  avowed  openly; 
natdxtanovemesta  nathavs,  I  avow  my  wrong, sin;  e-  becomes  av. .acknowledged.  See  frank, 
avowal,  tdxtanoveozistoz ;  tdxtanovemeemazistoz.av. ,con- 
'  fession. 

await,  natonosan.I  await;  -tonoxta  ( in. ) ,-tonomo  (or.); 

”  natonoegeta,  I  await  for  it  (it  lying  posture); 
zeoenovetonosansz, the  one  who  awaits  patiently;  navo- 
mo  nasz  zetonoedenaz , I  see  one  awaiting  (in  a  lying 
posture).  See  wait.  Heovasz  zehesso  zetoshoeohotata 
nisaaheneenohe,  thou  dost  not  know  all  that  awaits 

awake,  v.ededeoz, one  awakes, becomes  awakened;  etotonoe, 
one  awakes  (opening  the  eyes);  esaatotondhe,  one 
awakes  not;  nasehano,nasdhaoho,I  cause  one  to  awake; 
nadedevamo.I  coax  one  to  awake;  nadedeyaosemo , I  awake  fj  »,  j 
one  (by  noise). 

awake ,  ad  j  .etotoeSena^one  lies  awake;  totoedendtoz ,  the  t  f~3l 

lying  awake;  is  awake; - 

awaken,  nad^deozdho ,  I  aw-.^ause  one  to  awake  , 

I  aw., arouse  one;  dedeozistoz.the  ^wakening;  Se-S luafa**- 
sevamazistoz.the  awakening  by  coaxing; §figevaosemazls-^j£ 

";  =  *the  awakening  by  noise  ^ 

award  ,  v.navovemo.I  award  to  xme  [in’  the  sense  of  pay-^  ^  ■ 

-  ing  tribute  .homage  to  one  (in  words)];  navoveta-^,1. 
notovo.I  pay  tribute  to  one  (in  thot);  navoveahetovo,  r 

I  pay  tribute  to  one  (in  deeds), 
aware ,  homatan  nandheneena,  I  am  aware,  concious  of  it 
(homatan  denotes  inward  feeling];  na(h)omaozeta, 

I  become  aware  of  it;  na(h) omazetovo , I  become  aware, 
concious  of  one;  naomata.I  am  aware, feel  of  it;  nao- 
matovo  (or.);  naoxheneena, tho  I  am  aware,  tho  I  know; 
nandheneena  zeheSenSs.I  am  award  that  he  is  dead, 
away,  haed,far  away,  distant;  eljaessd,  it  is  far  away; 
inf.  -as-  =away,  start  off  (also  begin);  eas.he 
goes  away, starts  off;  nitftashemd, let  us  be  off,  away! 

Easeoxzeo , they  have  left, gone  away;  naasetana,  I  take 
it  away  [the  "s"  implies  "from, deriving, off"] ;  enise- 
-*•/  oz,  it  comes  away, out  off;  naaseozeho.I  cause  one  to 
1  L  l 

^  •  77  iurm^> 

i  Lf-nrrrt-* 


‘  ENG  - 


,  !* 

I  JUL^ 

y  '’go  away, to  leave 




wav  -to  j.eavc  naaasemeanoz ,  I  give  them  (in.)  _ 

way"  naasethozeto , I  send  one  away  for  to....;  easet  -/ 
hozg  zetoshozeohes ,  one  is  sent  away  to  wor  ,  i  • 
au>^U[^  ah5-  =awav  wide  of  (see  avoid);  naovahaovo.I  keep  a- 
ZJK  way  from  on^  naahSeoxzetovo ,  I  go  away,_wide  of  one;  ^ 
4^"  eahSehoe  one  stands  away  .wide  of;  inf.  nos  and  noo  ^ 
A*  se-  -not  with, away, from  having  been  with;  nanooseme- 

semo.I  eat  without  him  (he  being  away ); _nanooseoz ,  I  A' 

$  ..►*  ***  ,  j  — , .  nvr\  .-in  rrmr-a  with;  nanosetan,  I 

semo.I  eat  witnoui  rum  Tf"'  t  + 

become  turned  away,  am  no  more  with;  nanosetan,  I  put 
awav  reject  (in  mind);  naovahSemo,  I  keep  away,  from 
l  being  with  one;  inf.  -nSeve-  =away  in  the  sense  of 
"  t  "without  break  or  delay";  en§evemese,  he  eats  away, 
enSevenemen , one  sings  away;  the  same  meaning  of  away 
iU^'1  can  be  rendered  with  the  negative  inf.  saapd(e) 

. .  can  he  rendered  with  the  negative  mi.  sadpoio 

does  not  discontinue;  esaapdhestanohe , one  keeps  away 
>4 aking  it.does  not  cease  taking  it; 
jiH  r  ...  taking  ,  doing;  hazz!  away!  get 


"keeps^away^oingldoes^not ”stop°do ing ;  hazz !  away!  get 
St  of  ™  way,  thou!  [Usually  said  to  one  person). 

Spe  denart  leave.  Nataedtaenooto ,  I  turn  away  from, 
leave  one;  naddtaendoxta,  I  turn  away  from  it-Hakoy 
haeS  etazeoxz , far  away  he  goes;  naasetanomon  zemeW  '  is  taken  away  that  which~I  owned.  See  t^rn.p — - 
awe  v.naohaetanooz, I  become  awed, m_dread ;  eveSeohaeP- 

- ’ tanoe  one  is  awed  by;  heto  zeohatamano  naveSeohS 

tanohattMs  great , terrible  (sight)  awes  me;  naohBeta- 
noho  I  inspire  one  with  awe,  dread;  naohSdatoe.I  am 
awed’ inspired  with  reverential  fear;  niohaeatovo , thou 
art  inspired  with  awe  before  one;  naohS6&ta,  Jrew- 
ence  it  with  fear. 

awe,  n.ohaetanoxtoz, dread,  apprehension,  ohaetanoha^is 

-  toz,  the  inspiring  with  awe,  dread;  ohSdatohestoz, 

awe  reverential  fear;  ohad&tovazistoz,  awe  towards 
one  veneration;  nieStoenheetovovo ,  you  stand  m  awe, 
veneration  before  one;  inf.  -datoe-  =awe,  reverential 
fearing;  edatoe-mdm&tavoetao ,  they  perform  the  rites 
wi.CFro.  "4"  =f earing, dreading  +atoe  -listen 
,  .  .-•••obey  +  mdm&ta  =austere,  grave,  religious  +  -oeta  to  doing].  btfK  t  .  eoha_ 

awful  adj.eoh5tamano,it  is  awful, awe  inspiring, 

~ famaAoetastov,  it  is  an  awful  .dreadful  .powerful 
doing;  is  awfui  dreadful;  eohSogtas-  is  an  awful,  terrible  deed; 
is  awe  inspiring, worthy  of  veneration;  eohamdm&tavoS-  is  an  awful, solemn  performance;  niheneenan- 
ov  zeheSohStamano ,do  you  know  the  awfulness  i*-- 
awhile  is  rendered  by  inf.-ninove-  =awhile;  nSenmove- 

-  xoveva,  for  awhile,  (for  a  time);  ninovexoveva, 

for  awhile  short  time;  eninovhozeohe ,  one  works  a- 
whilel^eninov’netto , it  is  but  for  awhile;  ninovetto 
nasaaeszd ,f or  awhile  I  did  not  speak;  moxheze.juBt  a- 
while  ago;  etamonekasexove  zehegeaseoxz,  it  is  ju 


awhile  ago  that  he  left;  moxheze  n&vomo,  just  awhile 
ago  I  saw  one;  ngeninovexoveva  emehahozeohe ,  for  a- 
while.for  sometime  he  was  workig;  "momen"  either  in¬ 
fixed  or  detached  denotes  "by  bunch , group ",  but  can 
also  be  used  in  the  sense  of  an  alternate  condition 
or  doing  of  short  duration , e .g . toxto  eoxcemomenhoes- 
ton  na  momen  eoxchadn,  on  the  prairie  for  awhile  he 
would  read  and  for  awhile  he  would  pray  (Ger.bald  las 
er.bald  betete  er).  Kasexov  =short  time;  is  also  used 
to  express  "awhile";  kasexoveva  emehavoegetan,  for  a- 
while.a  short  time, he  rejoiced;  etaeShSexov  zehegevd-  is  quite  awhile  (long  time)  since  I  saw  one. 
awkward,  is  awk., young  at  it, feeble;  eo- 
nohomaeoneve ,he  is  an  awk. one;  esaaotoxovahe  one 
is  awk.,  not  skillful;  esaapevheneenohe,  one  is  awk 
does  not  know  well;  is  awk.,  green;  zeheg- 
sdhdxaetto  navegetane, since  I  am  still  awkward  I  feel 
embarassed  .  u*.  i<t  - (U  - 

awkwardness ,  onohomastiz;  saaotoxovahestoz,  awk.,  not 
skillfulness;  hdxastoz.awk. ,  state  of  being 
inexpert, green, 
awl,  hbo 

awning,  hoveoo,  shade;  zehoveohosta, 

See  shade. 

awry,  rendered  by  inf.  -nime-  =turned  aside,  also  de¬ 
tached, e.g.  nime  nahoz,  I  set, put  it  awry, to  one 
side;  nanimeenana  or  nime  naenana.I  set  it  down  awry, 
to  one  side;  nimenexhozz ,put  it  sideways,  awry;  eni-  stands  awry. 'See  side , deviate . 
ax,  hoxqx  (hoxqfix) ,  mathoxqx,  the  ax  [mahoxqx  old  word 
for  the  ax,  from  which  "tomahak"  must  be  derived],  is  an  ax;  ax;  nahesthoxq- 
xeme.I  have  an  ax;  ehec^a  hoxqx  kamxeheva,  the  ax  is 
stuck  in  the  wood;  eheceo  sticks  in  the 
ground, the  ax.  [The  word  for  hammer  is  toxq.from  ton- 
on  =to  pound  with  with  an  instrument;  an  ax.hoxax  is 
a  hammer  cutting  thru.  Old  Indians  tell  me  that  the 
original  model  for  the  hammer  was  the  raised  arm  and 
fist, while  the  arm  raised  and  hand  opened  edgewise 
gave  the  idea  of  the  "cutting  hammer".  [Anything  that 
has  a  "hold"  or  is  tied  to  has  the  rad. -to-  in  Ch.] 
axilla,  nazeno, armpit. 

~i£a_^ovae  zet&sitoveoz  na  zenovege-nimaoesen^tov, 
something  thru  the  middle, around  which  rotation, 
takes  place.  T Kc  -It 

axle,  rnakat  zeoxceseoxtaoz  amoerteo , wagon  axle  (lit. iron  » 

hanging  awning. 

which  enters  the  wagon  legs), 
otatavoom, the  blue  vault. 

tbtiA-  O  fc-l  “  1 

CTr+u>vw,  v 




B,  pronounced  like  "b"  in  baby.  It  denotes  close  to  a 
-  surface  adhering  to.  Many  Ch.  make  no  distinction  be 
twe en° the^s ounds  of  "b»  and  -p-  and  a  few  pronounce 
the  "b"  like  the  soft  Hebrew  beth  . 

Baal  Atovsz  in  the  hieratic  use  of  the  Ch.  -  Sun  god  . 
“"““'Known  and  used  solely  by  certain  initiated 
priests.  [Amebnito  -Ashtoreth  in  hieratic  Ch.and  re¬ 
fers  to  the  moon], 

Babble  v . evoveevenisfryone  babbles  (as  a  little  child), 

- zevoveevensz , the^ne  who  babbles. 

Babble,  n.voveevenszisto zi[_^e 6 f ^  ? y i mri  -i- c ■ 

Babe,  me§evoz‘(sg.),me§evoto, babies;  ev5mome8evotohe< 

- sees  the  Babe  or  Babies;  is  a  babe, 

emeSevozeveShe,  one  is  of  babies*  age;  zemeSevozevsz 
the  baby  one;  zemeSevozevess .the  babies;  nameSevotam, 
my  babel  nahemegevotam, I  have  a  babe;  nahemegevotam  is  my  .babe;  nihemeSevot^oevo ,  ^ou^reh^  ^  ^ 

Babel!SZeve§eonitavevenszistov  * ^herewith  d^ferent^  ^  /y 

fa"  languages  ensued.  u*.k*-*~'~+**'  /  ,-h' 

lhabv  megevoz.see  babe.  .  .  ,  h\ ■  .V- 

the  one  who  is  bach.;  zehovoahevess6 ,  the  bachelors, 
heehe^bach° woman ;  e^ehSve.she  is  single  .batch.  ,  un¬ 
married  woman, virgin. 

. ... 3.0-me ;  »ahoso„e„.I  tack, 

- - - push  back;  -hosonena  (in.),  -hosoneno 


pusn  oa-o*.,  ' - 

(or.);  nahosonoham, I  back  up  (the  horse.).  • 

back  adi .nooxtde ,  back  position,  in  the  rear  (usually 
— ’ of  aA  interior);  nooxtde  taxe^stoz , the  back  seat; 
zehestoxesz , the  back  one ;  zehestoxessfi , the  back  ones 

tack!  “SS&feT  tack  (of  tody); I  »atat =».  y/, 

ss*ss?ffL  -nss. 

saddle;  naponomaeomoheme ,we  ride,  bare ban  ,  ne  ,  \y\ 

80  a\  oW)\  ( 

'  Wta&«vv K (  , 



<?  ~r. 


oLa^A.  -r'f 7*  -  /f^*i'J ‘ 

/  /  .  -  />^  .  AlldL  A  <■ 


■  v‘. 

7Mwu.<*  6~r^j*& 
^jyv/u.  rn*- 


**** .  A a-  k +++*4-  **  <=~T 

e  lb.  uXi'  -  \W 


--  "f?  t^*-lk-  jyt+**--.i~Li-  jr-reVi^,  J>-*&-  t-a-ck  ttr- 


,che  back, other  side  of  a  hill  or  mountain,  also  used 
figuratively  e.g.  nearr.oss  zehota  nameheneenohe ,  how 
should  I  know  what  is  back  of  it?  Zepaomao  (large)  u£h 
zepakomao  (small)  tack.knoll  of  ground. 

ick  adv.inf .-hoso-  -backward;  nahossooxz.I  go  teok-wr^ ^ 

- wards;  nahosoostax,  I  shrink  back;  nahosovone,  I  ^  Jr 

I  step  backward;  inf.-evha-  =back, returning;  naevhaoxz > 

g0  tack  home;  eevhaeoxz.he  has  come  back;  naevhasd- ~ 

^-^-1  go  back  home;  eevhaeoxz.he  has  come  back;  naevhasd- ^,,u~ 
ostax  and  naevhaeostax , I  step  back  quickly;  eevhasve- 
,\*l.  oxzetsan.he  turns  backsliding;  ^naevhavana,  1 

turn  it  back  (as  leaves  of  book);  -evhase - back  an- 

FjXu  other  time ,  again ;  Inf.-hooljS-  =turning  back  and  look- 

'  ilaing;  nahootceoz ,  I  become  turning  back  and  looking; 
ip.**  naevhahootS'eveoxta  and  naevhahootoetoxetanota,_i  turn  i*jzr<>L'^Ck*j  / 
back  and  look  at  it  (in  thot ,  retrospection)  ;  naezeeoz,^.  A, 
and  naezeeostax.I  jerk  back  (suddenly)  with  the  head; 
eA  nSezeaeg  ,  I  jerk  back  with  the  head, when  lying;  nane-  7-*» 

■  yP  y  hevamo.I  call  one  back; ,  I  order  one^^-****^ 
P*  ,iv*tback:  nanosepaonaetovo  or  nanosepaonaoetovo ,  I  sit ,  r^- 

,  ^turning  my  back  to  one;  nanosepaonaxetovo ,  T  turn  my 

back  to  one  (lying  position)  and:  nahotamaeS,  I  He  /  r 

with  back  against;  nahotamaeBeta,  I  lie  with  back  a  '  ,  i 

'■±  gainst  it;  -hotamaeSetovo  ,  ( or . )  ;  natatameas.I  turn  my  **fef/r**A’  ' 
Wry  >"back  and  leave;  inf.-hotam-  =turning  bac^-t:,  keeping 

.^behind, e.g.  nahotamenheetovo , stand  behind, back  of  one  4»_ 

ft ^irfthence  -the  follower];  nahotamamese ,  I  eat 

Sitting  behind  the  back  of  another;  nanoneesenonao ,  If  / 

|  ,P t ^it, reclining  ba.  on  elbows;  namsiskotaeho , I  sit  (al-  fay" 

>  most  lying)  backward  (knees  drawn  up) ;  natoehaneenaA 

_  .  .  .  ,  ,  «  _  T  ci  _  J  i _ J  „  ■U«  nlr  /-v  -P  VtaoH  •  ’.a  n  V>  Q  YY  n  "t .  V)  n  Pi' .  I 

most  lying)  backward  (knees  drawn  up);  -  T —n.t, 

vjf  ze,  I  sit  with  folded  hands  back  of  head;  nahanotho?',  I.  (  ,, 

1  ^  .tl'  sit, head  bent  backward;  inf.  -hano-  and  -hanos--  =  e/tau.f)<ft W 
J  ny  backwards  with  head  thrown  back;  nahandxtacr,  I  fall 
O^jVAbackward  (from  higher  ground);  nahancseanao ,  I  fail 
backward a.  -Urnser  period  of  time);  ehanoeoxz, 

V  ^^one  walks  with  h§ad  thrown  back;  etotoeveto.  a,  one  is  .  , 

bent  (crippled)  backward;  nanonosta,  i  talk  back, re-  " 

tort  *  nasaanonostahe.I  do  not  talk  back;  ehootoeoxz, 

nent  bones  usually  en£. 
bones].  Tass  esaahestatone/as  it  1 
background,  nooxt6e  [antonym 
front  of]. 

jront  ofl.  . 

^backslide,  v .  eevhasveoxze  t  *  san ,  one  ba.,goes  back^gu^rr 
,  rJ  where  he  formerly  belonged;  evhS^Veoxzet 1  -  ft*’ 

sknistoz.the  ba..(said  of  such_Jjad  ■%  t  .  -j.  •w^uJL'i>A0|!’'r.^ 
associations  they  hadleftU-  - 
^--backward ,  see  back , adv tH|  U 

/-uduiiwara,  see  uauix. ,  v -i  v 

bacon,  hesksesehotam, bacon,  .por1^. 
bad,  adi.ehavseva  (in. )  .ehavseva^e,  (o 


►u  -  —  wm  ^  7  •>. 


hams/nova,  it  is  worse;  ehosohamsenova  or  enanoshavse-  is  worst;  nahavsevazeona,  it  seems  bad  to  me,  I 
Jr  deem  it  bad;  ehavsevazeoneve ,  one  is  a  bad  character; 

nahavsevetan,  I  feel  bad  (mentally);  nahavsevomoxta, I 
feel  bad  (physically ) jnahavsevaetovo , I  am  bad  towards 
one;  nahavsevaeztovo ,  I  behave  bad  towards  one;  na- 
havsevoeta, I  act  bad;  nahavsevodho ,  I  do  bad  to  one; 
nahavsevoesz.I  do  bad  to  it;  nahavsevemo,  I  speak  bad 
of  one;  nahavseveesztovo , I  speak  bad  to  one;  ehavse- 
veesz , one  speaks  bad;  ehavsevoan.  he  speaks  bad  (sc. 
utterances).  Oftentimes  bad  is  expressed  by  the  nega¬ 
tion  of  "good",  e.g.  is  bad, not  good; 
esaapevahe , one  is  not  good, is  bad;  is 
a  bad  day;  heto  mhayo  ehavseva, this  house  is  bad;  he- 
eszistoz  ehavseva,  his  word  is  bad;  nihavsevazesta, 
thou  deemest  it  bad;  ehavsevatamo ,  he  deems  one  bad; 
nahavsevoemo , I  count  one  for  bad;  ehavseyoetastov,  it 
is  a  bad  act, deed;  in  so  far  that  bad  is 
is  used  for  ad j .  and  adverb,  but  the  real  ad j .  f.  is 
havseva  =bad;  the  Ch.  can  say  havseve-vostanehevestoz 
=bad  life, bad  living  or  vostanehevestoz  zehavseva , the 
life  or  living  which  is  bad. The  ending  in  "a"  instead 
of  e  denotes  a  state  or  quality.  The  rad.  "havs"  is 
the  exact  equivalent  of  the  Ger .verwerf lich.  Nahavse- 
vstahaoz , I  become  bad  hearted  =angry;  havs evhe tan, bad 
man;  havsevomao,  bad  land;  ehavsevatamano ,  it  is  bad 
weather;  havsevematam , bad  food;  ehavsevenono  (in.)  it 
has  a  bad  appearance;  ehavsevenohe ,one  has  a  bad  ap¬ 
pearance.  y  •  k 6  s c- 

bad,  n.havs ,  mathaVs ,  the  bad;  Havsevevhan  or  Havsev- 
T7 ’ha n,  the  Bad  (in  person);  havsevastoz,  badness 
s  tate  )  havsevestoz ,  that  wch  is  bad  (being),  badness; 
i&t'l  o  aI'  havsevstxe.the  realm  of  the  bad;  zehavseva, that  which 
is  bad, the  evil;  zehavsevasz,  the  bad  one  (or.)  zehav- 
sevaessS ,  the  bad  ones;  havseve-vostaneo ,  bad  people; 
)  .  zsaapevaehan , that  which  is  not  good, the  bad;  Havevsz 

name  of  a  prominent  evil  person  in  an  old  Ch.tale. 
See  evil  an  devil. 

badge,  hoetoseo;  exxeoe  is  written  on  a 

-  badge;  nimoo,  badge  or  heraldic  emblem,  usually 

consisting  of  a  bunch  of  hair  or  a  feather  suspended 
„  .  on  the  tip  of  one  of  the  lodge  poles. 

badger,  maako  ;maakootanovosans , religious  term  referring 

- t-tTTfte  badger  in  certain  ceremonials  and  espe- 

ciably  in  auguring.  See  augur . 

J-JIty-'4''  badinage,  see  banter. 

badly,  rendered  by  inf .-havseve— , see  bad.  Ehavseveman- 

8^  - isz,  one  makes  it  badly  or  makes  it  bad;  zeto 

nisima  ehavseobha  heves’eno,  this  my  younger  brother 
has  been  treated  badly  by  his  friends ; ehavsevetan  one 
feels  badly  (mentally);  feels  badly 


ytt  W  b  t Vypy.’y 







(physically).  In  the  sense  of  unskillfully .poorly  or 
imperfectly  inf.  -saapeve-  =not  well, is  used.e.g.esa- 
apevhoestond , one  reads  badly, poorly ;  esa,apavevosand , 
one  sees  hadly , imperfectly, 
baffle,  see  deceive .perplex. 

bag , _v . navehanen , 1  bag, put  in  bag;  -vehana  (in.);  -ve- 

hano  (or.);  navehoz.I  have  it  in  bag, receptacle ;  ,  is  in  bag  or  receptacle _ 'n-e~-  iu  K*.U 

bag,  n.moemestoz, large  bag  made  of  grass;  kaemestoz, 

hand  bag,  small  bag;  vehaneo  ag,  envelope ,  small  case  />/ 
T7“  or  tin  box  (from  navehanen,  I  wrap  in)-;  veSeeseo,  me- 
decine  bg;  the  bag,  receptacle ;  hemanoeveo- 
-A-toz, water  bag  (made  of  the  paunch  of  buffaloes);  ze- 
*T^.eneheone-kaemestoz,bag  for  combs  or  hair  brushes;  ho- 

emskot , parf leche , bag  of  rawhide;  vehooseo, bag,  recep-  ' 
tacle, trunk;  formerly  the  small  round  Ind.bags  made 
of  tanned  leather^^^'W^-^'-^-i'A’^ /W 
bail,  v.nanohan.I  bail .dip'out  (liquids).  *  ' 

bail ,  n.voveheviltoz,  bail,  ransom;  navoveheva,  I  give 
bail;  navovehevavomotA, I  give  bail  for  one,  ransom 
one.  See  ransom.  Honeanat, bail, handle, chain, 
bailiff,  matanavdho .police  [lit.  breasted  or  milk  white 
man, because  of  the  star  or  badges  such  officers 
wear  on  the  breast];  ematanaevdhoeve .--ho  is  a  bai-  , 

liff  .sheriff  .police.  I 'Tijrfa eu~/> 

,it,  hoenovatoz.the  bait ; ehesthoenovatov,  it  is  a  bait.^",'*'^" 
bake,  ehonoxta.she  bakes  it;  ehonoto,  she  bakes  ( or . ) ; 
ehonosan,  she  bakes,  roasts;  ehonoe,  it  is  baked; 
hono, baked, roasted  meat;  honovoxkdz .meat  to  be  bak-  fft*~ 
ed,roasted[bake  and  roast  are  expressed  alike  in  Ch.] 
Natonov&non, I  bake  bread  (Ind. bread  as  baked  in  Dutch 
ovens);  nitonov&nonhem&.we  bake  bread  in  Dutch  oven; 
ensomaehdta,  the  ground  (surface)  is  baking  (when 
heated  by  the  sun  or  otherwise);  eoxomaehdta,  it 
(ground)  bakes, cracks  from  the  heat;  is 
baked, cracked  open  (ground  )  by  fire;  hononistoz, 
baking  pan.  See  bread. 

baker,  kokonoomane-vdho , baker  (white  man);  kdkon6o-hox- 

B  to vamhayo .bakery  (house  where  bread  is  bought); 

I  j!  zehonosansz,  the  one  who  bakes;  honosanehe, baker , 
njj ^  roaster. 

^  .^balance,  v.has  no  exact  equivalent  in  Ch.but  the  bring- 
~  inS  into  or  keeping  in  equilibrium,  the  moving 
r,[ UP  an(i  down- or  swinging,  is  expressd  by  the  consonant 
sound  "v",  e.g.  vavaestoz , swing ;  naeven.I  move  up  and 
down  in  one  place  (Ger.habe  mein  Wesen  dort) ;  evnis- 
toz.the  being  at  one  place,  the  whereabouts  of  one; 
naevetanona, I  weigh  in  my  mind;  nieveeszhema,  we  are 
engaged  in  talking.  Hence  the  verb  "to  be"  in  the 
sense  of  exsist  or  take  place  (evolving)  is  charac¬ 
terized  by  suffix  -eve;  nahetaneve,  I  am  a  man  (from 


balance  english-cheyenne  dictionary 

hetan  =man);  emhayoneve,  it  is  a  house  (*™n  “tayo  - 
Souse).  See  he . naeveohazesta, I  balance .weigh  the  mat- 

halance^n^hovae*  zeveSe-ehanSohazistove ,  something  with 

wMch  heaviness  (weight)  is  ascertained;  ehana- 

°“® *I?d-Pe£*  Pike's  Peak, also  called  Ookoomeneni- ^  Lm 
3  *  fa!  »e“i»rd  »o£f-lald, donated  <Pr.  ™ 

ref. to  any  place  lacking  natural  covering  of .hair, 

bale^ ' vSnah.oxhoh.5es an ,  I_bale  bundle  up;  n^°X^°h°e^l 

-  I  bale  it;  nahoxbohoeto  (or.),  bundle  o  Pl 

hoxbohoesz  mdesz.I  bale  hay.  See  bind  bundle.  Ehox- 
bohoehe ,  it  is  baled;  zehoxbohoesansz,  the  one  wno 

baleen*  hoxbohoeseo;  nathoxbohoeseo ,my  bale, bundle ;no- 
— ’kw  Sesz  zehoxbohoesz , one  bale  of  hay;  hoxbohoe- 
sanehe, baler  jmdesz  zevelehoxhohSesanistove^  haler  , 
balk ,  epapone#o e ,  one  balks ,  refuse  to  go ,  /T 

balkv  epaponehoeoneve , one  is  balky. 

Soil  V  nalkanen  I  ball;  -akano  (or.),  -akana  (in.) 

UfifSrrPor  one  is  formed  into  a  ball;  akanenis- 
toz  the  forming  into  a  ball;  naonistakoanen,  I  wind 
^  into  a  ball;  -onistakoana  (in.);  onistakoano  (  .K 

.  n  oxzem  clay  ball;  oxzevonistoz, wheel  play.  Oxzem 

- ’  ref  ~~to—’the  wheel  .which  resembles  a  tennis 

/•fAfecket "round  and  without  handle, about  fifteen  inches 
I  tf^^JrdiametSS.  The  center  mesh  is  called  mae  or  hesta, 

*nvi nnii  or  heart)'  the  periphrastic  meshes  are  dis- 
Sc°t VrL  ?hr.oth.S  a„5  represent  hostU;_a„„.ls 


tallef  the/  oLam.not  in 

Dali-.  I  cgWiai  - -  ; 

s-SiAths “« tjrsrthS 

*%-  zispove ,  something  that  has  a  fragrance;  xoaneo.balm, 
,  ointment;  see  balsam, perfume 

(t  ^ 

^  J*' 


balmy,  is  balim^r  agrant-. 
balsam,  voxcemexoaneo  ,per£jj*re,  fragrant  ointment , salve . 

— banana,  voxkaemenoz , crqpJred  berries, 
band,  v.emomeno&neo.tMey  band, group  together;  emomenox- 

-  koeneo,  they'  band  together,  apart  from  others, 

selfishly;  emanohaeo , they  are  banded  together;  emome- 
nohaeo , they  are  in  different  bands  or  groups; 

-mano-  =banding  together.  fa 

,  nband,  n. tohestoz, bonds ;  manoeoxtahestotoz ,  bands,  shack 

- ]_es  f0r  the  feet ;  manoeazenahestoz, bands  ,  shackles  X****- 

for  the  hands;  see  bind , bandage .  Manh&o , tribe , / 

|T1&  .that  which  has  been  made  together  (from  n^anhdovo,  I  ,  ^ 

jJr*  make  one  to  be);  [manh&o  also  means  island ]\.  Manhas -j/yy 
r  jjy  toz.the  band, tribe;  manohastoz, band, congregation;  mo-^f  p.7r/r*t .  Or  different  groups  (momen  =group-ffi' ; Jy 
■/  s  .  man0ehestoz ,  the  banding,  coming,  arriving  tog 
#■/  /  ther;  mohenov&toz, band, organization;  mohdoxtok,  band, 
yS/  /  collection;  is  a  band;  zemomenoiiastov, 
where  there  are  groups  or  bands.  See  gather, together, 
meet.  Notxestoz,  band  of  warriors  ( from  notax  \war-^*f/k  '*'^- 
e  rior);  onehanotxeo ,  band  of  the  "drum"  warriors,  htoze-ft 
ahJJ?' — ""eoeve.the  traditional  prophet  or  hero  of  the  Ch.tnibe 
^ ‘fuh  organized  four  bands  of  warriors:  1 . Hotamhetaneo ,  \he 
'^\T  "Dogmen".  2 .  Voxksehetaneo  ,  the"Foxmen"  (excess  -fta, 

from  voxq  -deviate , crooked) .  This  band  was  also  call\-  te.t_Jj.y6  . 
ed  Mozoonhetaneo  -Flintmen.  3 .Hemoeoxess , the  "SpearA  -  / 
men"  (from  mooxz=lance  head). This  band  is  also  c ailed — 
Odmenotxeo  -"Coyotemen" .  d.Mahoevass,  the  "Redshields  euAx 
(from  ma  —red  +  -oeva=provided  with  shield  or  nail ) ^  ^u*— 
the  older  name  for  this  band  was  Ho toahetaneo , the  '  -- 

"Buffaloe  Bullmen"  , f rom  hotoa  -Bull  (either  of  buf-*^^^in* 
f aloes  or  deer, elk  or  bear).-  The  names  of  these  four 
old  warrior  bands  were  given  to  the  Ch.  by  their  tra - 
ditional  prophet ,  according  as  he  appeared  to  them  at  4, 

first  when  they  were  pursuing  him. 
warrior  bands  are:  Hematandhess ,  the 
bowstrings" , also  called  Honienotxe 
Hotame-mashao ,  the  "Demented-dogs" 
without  sense, reason,  unreasonable).- 

Other  names  of 
"Wolfwarriors" ; 
(from  -mashd-  = 
Different  names 

were  given  to  certain  groups  of  Ch. families , sometimes 
in  reference  to  the  camping  order  in  the  tribal 
circle  and  oftentimes  because  of  a  local  particular¬ 
ity  or  prominent  family  traits.  Some  such  names  have 
even  arisen  since  I  was  with  the  Ch.  For  instance  a 
part  of  the  Hotamhetaneo  living  in  the  neighborhood 
of  Fonda , Oklahoma  are  called  the  "Veenoto" , because 
of  one  Ch.  who  did  not  cut  his  eyebrows.  Another  ins¬ 
tance  is  a  family  group, whose  head  man  was  an  "Eseom- 
hetan",but  who  were  called  "Eszenehetaneo "  -Swamp- 
men, because  they  camped  near  a  swamp.  Another  family 
group  was  called  "Otatavoha"  -Bluehorse,  from  an  old 



man  of  this  name,  who  died  but  a  few  years  ago.  The 
three  names  came  up  since  I  came  to  the  Southern  Ch. 
Other  band  names  I  know  to  also  be  of  recent  dates, e. 
g. Anskovenenes  (Narrow-nose-bridge) , and  Penet’ka.What 
has  happened  within  thirty  or  forty  years  must  have 
happened  before  too.  Even  the  band  Heve§ksenxp&ess  is 
not  very  old.  This  band  tabues  the  beaver  because 
thro  that  animal  a  man, who  is  still  in  remembrance  of 
some  old  Ch. ,  died  of  suffocation  or  strangulation. 
Evataneo ,the  "Peltmen"  (from  eva, pelt , skin  with  hair) 
is  the  name  given  to  the  Southern  Ch.  as  a  whole,  to 
distinguish  them  from  the  Oxmesess  ("Eaters")  who  are 
the  Northern  Ch.  Thus  in  the  camping  circle  the  name 
Evataneo  has  not  ref.  to  any  special  band.  When  for 
instance  Oxmesess  (Northern  Ch. )  come  to  attend  an 
Arrow  Ceremonial  they  are  not  taking  a  special  place 
in  the  camp  circle, but  each  one  will  be  with  his  or 
her  family  group.  Sotaeo  is  the  name  of  a  band  or 
tribe  of  Indians  whose  language  was  only  dialectical¬ 
ly  different  from  the  Ch.  and  readily  understood  by 
the  latter.  Eseomhetaneo , the  "Hillmen  (some  of  these 
also  claim  to  belong  to  the  Sotaeo!);  HeveBksenxpa- 
ess , the  "Obstructed-oesophagus-ones"  (from  heve§ksen= 
oesophagus  ajjd  — nxpaoe  =to  shut,  obstruct  an  aper¬ 
ture);  Oevemanha, the  Scabby-tribe  (from  oeve, scabby  +  create, make  as  one);  MasiSkota,  the  "Reclin- 
ing-ones"  evidently  from  namsiSkotaehoe , I  am  reclin¬ 
ing  (almost  lying  posture)  with  one  knee  drawn  up  and 
the  other  foot  placed  across  it;  Totoemanha, the  "Shy- 
band";  Votapeo , the  "eaters"  (from  a  Sioux  word) ;Hovx- 
nova.ths  "Penurious- ones"  [  is  rich,  ehovx- 
nova , one  is  in  penury].  Oxtokona  or  Oxtokoona,  the 
"Lower  jawbone";  N&koemanha, the  "Bear-band";  Penet’- 
ka , name  given  to  the  "Friendlies"  of  1874—75;  Moxta- 
vataneo , the  "Blackmen" ,  also  the  name  for  the  Utes. 
Moseo , were  an  allied  band  to  the  Ch.  The  name  is  de¬ 
rived  from  Monsoni.a  tribe  which  is  said  to  have  oc¬ 
cupied  the  territory  south  and  north  of  Rainy  Lake 
and  Lake  of  the  Woods, and  eastward  to  Moose  river, in 
Canada.  [James  Mooney, in  the  Memoirs  of  the  American 
Anthropological  Association, Vol . I .part  6, p.369] .  No-  "Northern-ones" ;  Oseaono  and  Oxnova  are  for¬ 
mer  bands  of  Cheyenne  of  which  nothing  definite  is 
known  besides  their  names.  Zesseohoomoeo ,  the 

"Cheyenne-Sioux" ,a  number  of  mostly  Northern  Ch.  hav¬ 
ing  intermarried  with  Sioux  and  for  the  greater  part 
living  near  the  Pine  Ridge  Agency, S. Dakota.  See  orga¬ 
nization.  [Mr. James  Mooney  of  the  Bureau  of  American 
Ethnology  at  Washington, D.C.  has  written  a  valuable 
and  very  reliable  article  on  this  subject  in  Vol. I, 
part  6,  p.402—418  of  the"Memoirs  of  the  American 


Anthropological  Association].  ZeamenoneoessS ,  music 
band, the  ones  who  go  about  serenading.  This  has  no 
ref.  to  musical  insruments , altho  any  kind  may  be  im¬ 
plied.  In  order  to  specify, the  instruments  would  have 
to  be  named, as  tapenonoz  =trumpets , flutes ;  matanoene- 
menestoz  =string  instruments  and  oneavo  =drum. 

"bandage ,  v.nahdxeetsan, I  bandage  (a  wound.etc.);  -hdxe- 
A)  eto, bandage  one;;  ehdxehe,  one,# 

\  (in.  and  or.)  is  bandaged;  nahdxesztovo ,  I,  ^.i*^****- 
one’s;  nahaestoha-hdxeesz ,  I  (wrap)  band. many  times 
(when  coiling  several  times);  navehodsz.I  band. 

(when  the  whole  object  is  wrapped  in,  as  a  fractured  fa*. 
foot  or  leg  in  a  plaster  cast).  See  bind .  NaevhaSe -//  . 

xoneano,  I  unbandage .uncoil  the  bandage;  nafcxpeneto , I  - 
bandage  one’s  eyes, blindfold;,  heax  nanxpenes^ovo , I 
band,  it, one’ s  ey  e. 

bandage,  n . hdxehestoz ;  hdxeetsanistoz , the  bandaging, 
bandit,  genovahe,  robber .despoiler,  (from  na§eno,I  rob, 
despoil  one  [by  violence]);  nxpaevgho,  bandit, 
desperado,  refer,  to  masked  white  highwaymen  (from 
-nxpa-  =covering  the  face  +  vdho  =whiteman) ;  eSe- 
novaeve,  one  is  a  bandit;  Senovastoz,  the  act  of  a 
bandit.  See  rob.Enxpaevehoeve , one  is  a  bandit. 

>  bank,  v.nahestovomaena,  I  bank  up  the  gj^-.’^d;  eneohSe, 
i-Pjl  ”  vde.the  cloud  is  banking  up, rising;  vde  etatomse- 4^**' 
hoe, the  cloud  is  banking  up, wall  like. 

'ZFL  bank,  n.makataemhayo .money  house;  emakataemhayoneve ,  it e/ces*&rS*c*-'~ 
is  a  bank;  oxeano, steep  river  ba  ,  ’  ;  eoxeanc- 

a / r  eve, it  is  a  river  bank;  oxeanoea  ehesso,  it  is  like  a 
i  bank, a  bluff;  hestovoma.on  both  banks,  sides  of 

iver  Danx.a  diuii;  nesuovoma, on  Dotn  oanss,  sues  ci  v  ^ 

a  river;  hdma.on  the  other  side,  other  bank  (of  a  r  i  - 
ver  or  lake);  zehestovomao ,  bank,  low  elevation 
ground, brow  of  a  hill;  onovetto.the  bank  of  a  river, 
where  one  lands;  naondn.I  come  to  the  bank, land;  nao- 
nozeho , I  cause  one  to  land, reach  the  bank.  The  rad. 

-ono-  denotes  less  the  bank  than  the  coming  out  from 
any  body  of  water;  toxeeohe , at , along  the  river  bank. 

banker,  makataevfeho , the  money-white  man;  emak&taevSho- 
eve, he  is  a  banker. 

banner,  hSeo, flag, "standing  floating". 

banquet,  maxemesestoz ,  feas  t  j^/neetjaestoz  .public  banquet, 

least  .'IISW  rs,  l* .  aJU 

banter,  v.nanasoemo ,  I  banter  one.  »ee  joke.  r*-* /*’*''**' 

banter,  n.vhane-nasoemetastoz, banter, good  nattered  teas-/ 
ing.  See  joke. 

baptism,  dostahestoz , the  pouring  upon  the  head;  sdfenis- 
toz, baptism, the  going  into  the  water  (ref  to 
river  or  lake);  the  first  form  is  the  more  natural  to 
the  Ch.,  the  second  more  strange  and  needing  an  ex¬ 
planation;  edostahestov, it  is  a  baptism;  eostaovdtoz, 
baptism,  the  baptizing;  dostaemdm&tavoetastoz ,  ceremony  'ijf 


'  O  87 - -KfcHtf?-* tT»  i  , 



baptismal,  eeostaemdm&tavoetastov, it  is  a  bapt . service , 

^  -  rite, ceremonial.  , .  . 

Baptist,  seenistovfi,  zeveBdbstahessd ,  the  ones  baptized 

-  by  entering  (descending  into  the  water). 

baptize, nadostaova, I  baptize  (on  who  does  it  as  his  vo- 

__S - cation,  like  John  the  Baptist);  nadcstano.I 

bapt . one ;  naeostaha,  I  bapt.  it  (see  Instr .m. in  Ch. 
KrP)-  nieostaesz ,  I  bapt.  thee;  nabostahe.I  am  bap¬ 
tized, am  a  Christian;  zeeostahessd , the  baptized  ones 
=christians ;  bostaemanhastoz, baptized  band, church  (as 
a  body  of  Christians  believers);  dostaevostan ,  a  bap¬ 
tized  person;  eeostaevostaneheve ,  one  lives  a  bap 
tized .Christian  life;  dostahatan,  baptized,  Christian 
man;  dostahee,  Christian  woman;  zistaeostaes ,  as  one 
was  baptized;  edostaetan, one  desires  to  oe  baptized, 
dostaetanoxtoz , the  desire  to  be  baptized;  eeos.aenov, 
there  is  a  baptizing.  The  v.stem  -dosta  when  used  as 
infix  denotes  "Christian". 

bar  vas  expressed  by  inf.  -nxp-  -obstructing  a  pass- 

- age, close  an  entrance  or  egress;  nanxpaosan  I  bar 

keen  shut  in;  one;  it,  enxpa  bars , obstructs ; enxpoeoz , it  or  one  has  be- 
A^bome  shut  inTbarred;  nanxpoono.I  bar  0?®’?hlAon® 
ft*'  (instr. meaning)  ;  nanxpooha.I  bar , shut , lock  it,  nan 
U'  patovan, I  Bar, by  shutting  stove  damper;  nanxpeneto , I 
'bar  one’s  eyes  .blindfold  one;  enxpazena,  one  has  his 
mouth  barred  .shut  (with  something);  nanxpazenano ,  I 
,.1*  .  bar  one’s  mouth  (Instr. m.);  enxpazenanaze, one  sits 

Jith  one  hand  covering  his  mouth;  nxpeoxtam, before 
the  door, barring  the  entrance;  enxpehoe, one  stands, 
,  barring  or  before  the  door;  sets  barring, 

it  V  it  has  become  barred, stopped, shut;  mae  eveBe- 



barring  or  before  the  door;  enxpu  w 
ii^xcr  it  has  become  barred, stopped, shut;  mae  eveBe- 

nxpaozistov,  wherewith  blood  is  stopped.  This  inf. 
-JV'  A  •*— mYn — "  implies  barring,  sh 

w--  n  — nxD— "  implies  barring,  shutting  of  a  passage  or 
^  . i,^°  laperture  ;  nxpaeveho , the  masked  white  man  (whose  face 

shat  out, tarred;  applied  to  hlgh.ay  men); 



.  enxpotomeoz*)one~suf  locates,  is"  tar  red  in  his  1 Oreath 

|V  ing-  nanxpeamena ,  I  shut,  close  it  by  means  of  fat  or 
■oK  pilch, as  the  holes  of  a  basket, boat, trough, etc.  [From 
,  J'  -nxD-  +  am  =fat , grease ] .  is  a  bar 
.uM^^ring;  becomes  a  barring;  enxpaosane- 
AJ'i’PI  nov^there  is  a  barring;  enxpeozenov,  there  is  abar- 
paring  (becoming  so);  zenxpaosansz,  the  one  who  bars, 
entrance  or  egress;  zenxpaosensz,  the  one  who 
the  barring.  The  difference  between^  these^two 

P'  ,/  L'  expressions  is  only  in  the  a  and  •  other 

!***■  the  "a"  implies  a  faculty,  quality, state,  the  other 

yV^1  naV°San  and_nav°fen 

navosan  and  navosen;  both  mean  "I  see"  ’ ^Lnlies 
ref. to  the  faculty  of  seeing, while  the  second  implies 

,,  SI^J, 


yhe  actual,  progressive  seeing].  Votanxpavs .barring 
the  good .exempt  of  good;  evotanxpavseve , one  is  barred 
from  good, is  wicked.  See  close , stop, shut  and  in. 

■bar,  n.nxpoheo,  bar,  lid,  cork;  nxpohaneo,  bar, shutter, 
lock;  nxpaosenehe , the  one  barring;  zenxpaosanetto , 
i  bar, that  which  bars,  obstructs;  nxpatovanehe.the  bar 
for  the  smoke  =stove  damper;  hasso.crow  bar;  zeohano 
mahaeta.iron  bar;  nxpaovamehe.the  keeper  in  ,  the  bar 
,  of  the  stock  (horses,  cattle  and  sheep),  shepherder; 
panxpoho.pomum  adami ,  shutter,  (Adam's  apple);  mox- 
enxpoho , epiglottis . 

'barb,  navastax  or  navaestax.T  barb, cut  into,  edgewise; 
navastaxd^I  barb  it  (navastassS  would  be  the  or. 
where  it  could  be  used).  See  barbed;  zeheSkovetto  vS- 
* stxestovA.barb  (as  in  an  arrow  head). 

'barbecue,  v.nasdoxtano ,  I  barbecue  one,  roast  before 
fire;  es6oxtane,it  is  barbecued, 
barbecue, n.emaxemesestov.nitaetas  vehoehotoa  zeoxcsdox- 
tans  hoestav&,it  is  a  big  eating  where  a  whole 
^ beef  is  broiled  (roasted) .held  in  or  before  the  fire, 
.barbed,  is  barbed;  is  bar. (state, 
quality);  vSstavoxoz , barbed  arrow  heads;  mak&t 
.fS  zeveSeamoeneane , barbed  wire.  There  is  no  ref. to  "bar- 
■fSyi "  bed"  in  this  word, but  it  is  used  for  barbed  as  well 
*  as  smooth  wire.  Zeoxce-maoxcenetdosz ,  the  ones  (in.) 
barbed, ref.  to  heads  of  certain  plants, like  wheat. 
[From  -maoxce-  =tufting  on  top;  maoxcena, downy  feath¬ 
er  stuck  on  top  of  head  of  a  priest,  symbolizing  his 
attendant,  spirit] .  tufts, is  barbed, 
barber,  hooxtxovaveho ;  ehooxtxaovavehoeve ,  he  is  a  b. ; 

hooxtxovamhayo, barber  shop  (house);  ehooxtxova-  is  a  [From  rad.  cut 
hair.  Ehooxtxe.he  has  his  hair  cut;  zehooxtxessd , the 
ones  with  hair  cut;  nahooxtxen,  I  am  having  my  hair 
cut;  nahooxtassd , I  cut  one’s  hair;  nahooxtxova, I  am 
cutting  hair  (as  a  vocation) .See  hair].  Zehooxtxovaz , 
the  barber, hair  cutter.  , 

bare ,  v .  nahotxanen ,  I  bare,  unveil,  uncover;  -hotxano 
~  -  (or.);  -hotxana  (in.);  has  been 
bared  for  me;  naho'V fthene efla I  bare  it, reveal  it,  open 
it  to  knowledge;  matas&Sffla.  nahotxeneenomeva,  the  spi¬ 
rit  bares , reveals  it  ,to  me;  inf.-hotxa-  =bare  in  the 
sense  of  uncover;  ehotxaeheve , she  is  bare, is  a  widow; 
naexoena,  I  bare,  peel  it  (by  hand);  naexoeno- 
u  (or.);  naexonoxta.I  bare, peel  it  (with  teeth);  naexo- 
nomo  (or.) ;  naexoaxd.I  bare, peel  it  (with  knife);  na- 
exoassS  (or.);  see  peel, skin.  Naookoena.I  lay  it  bare 
■  (of  surface  covered  with  hair, feather  or  grass;  naoo- 
kano,  bare  one  (or.),  pick  one’s  feathers  (by  hand); 
naookassd,  I  bare  one  (with  cutting  instrument)  of 
hair  or  feathers;  Ookass.p.n.  the  depilated  one;  na- 



I  ""ookoena, I  lay  It  tare  (out 

W  lay  bare  the  ground, remove  the: °arth  and  trees, 

‘“14“S  eSs^fremoS  rSfceremonial  purposes].  Nao- 

•>  '^“■snfSri^S'  iS: 

ment  on  their  enemies  y  7  |nt  because  easier 

parts.  Thescaipingw  ft.  Sometimes  narrow 

of  taking  the  skin  *nd  k®®^t!d  at  the  neck  and  torn 
strips  of  skin  would  be  ^arted^at^n  ^  Qf  the 

down  the  back, as  far  a  P  removing  of  the  sod 

bark  for  certain  having  of  animals  or  hu- 

-for  religious  rites  and  the  paying  ^  defilment 

man  beings  had  the  same  verb  nahestoomen, I 

tent) .desert ,  a.±  ffle-  denotes  bare  m  the  A,. — //,*/ 

AAotirf  wide  area’’  n6naked  exempt  of;  nanemetoxs.I  am 

sense  of  entirely  naked,  exempt  o  •  &ta  zgngme.  '/ 

bare  l3°+y;51+SeathSt  thou  wert  bare,  naked?  Na- 


A,  r  ?=*  L  “n?  -  » n  ts  r?  ' 

— .  eponomaota,  it  sew  ge+s““on  absolutely 


W  kf* 

■iL  ^  i»  »»*  - -  ;  „ 

v.  is  bare, empty  space  (of  an 

bar  e-foot ;  ponoxta  ehoeoxz- 
XtCir  ed;  is  bare, dm 

Vn  becomes  ba(1 

see  dry.  AoWaM4^0'  , 

™  ^  barely ,  adv.inf.  -pono  low, 

ieoxz,  he  comes  bare-,  empty  nan- 
•  dried  up, (of  watercourses)  low, ,  ^ 

is  sometimes"  used  for 



hoveno  ehoeoxz.he  barely jScarcely^arrivet.^e—^X^je^^,^ 

bareness, ehEomenestoz  destitution;  see  emptiness^_^ 

ba^ai-  buy^hnaho x t o v ame at  \^in  bar., barter;  na- 

hoxtovameto  - 1  JJt' ”  ' ba^61' trade  j^ehoxtovatove ,  it 
bargain,  n .hoxtovatoz , bar .  .tr^.  . 

l,  n. hoxtovatoz, bar. ,traa,  mutual  bar. 

-  bar., trade;  is  a 
trade;  hoxtovametazistoz , bar . , barter . 


1  C^jrU^ 

fwinM'L'  W*iA, 'hrf,  roW- — aM— 

(jOZy  ~4  — L^gfu!,,*~.  — W  <*y* 


'k,  v.emae  hotam.the  dog  barks;  hotameo  namaetoe,  the 
dogs  bark  at  me;  namaetoe ,  they  bark  at  me, is  also 
used  figuratively,  they  growl  at  me.  [Another  word 
•ery  similar  is:  namhaetae , they  swallow  me  =they  are 
all  against  me, eat  me  up] ; ehoemSe , it  is  heard  barking 
dog);  naexoestcmoano  hoxzz.I  bark  the  tree  (peel  the 
oark) , by  hand;  naexoestomoano  hoxzz,  I  bark  the  tree 
(by  instrument);  see  peel, bare, 
bark ,  n.maestoz  (obs.),  the  barking;  emSenov, there  was 
barking  (of^more  than  one  dog);  hetonec,  outside, 
rugged  bark;  hom&.bark  (or.);  hesthomA.its  bark, rind; 
hesthomosz;  (in. pi), its  (smooth)  bark, husk, rind;  ma- 
komehess,  red  'willow  bar,k  (smoked  as  tobacco  by  the 
Ch.).  Semo , bark, boat . 
barn,  moh&nohamemhayo , /table  (hoarse-house), 
barrack, hoxzezemhayo , log  house;  hoxzezemhayonoz  (pi.); 
r  is  a  barrack.  ,  ,)  ^el 

barred , see  bar.  _ _ c^L  -  a-,  '  • 

t  ^rrel »  vehoemax,  the  white  man’s  wood;  vehoemaxsz, 
y*  (P1  • )  ■  is  a  barrel;  evehoemxev- 
'ensz,they  are  barrels;  vehoemxeva,  in,  by  or  on  the 
barrel;  vdhoemaxea  is  barrel  like. 
rrelled,  nokzenavd , one-barrelled  (of  gurjs);  nixzena,- 

v6, two-barrelled.  /4<r  j*  sr-yX*.'*.  Gm* 

row,  zenoceoxtatto  amoeneo,  the  ortC-1 egged  wagon 

r  ■" 

I  From  -noqy 
barter,  v.nahoxtova 

_i_  jone  +  eoxtatto  =  it  legs 

C4 — ,  T^u'o  rvx4++. 

tova.I  barter ,  trade  ,  sell  orlrny 

tovameaa,  I  barter  it, give  it  in  trade. 
varr.eto.I  barter  it  to  one;  see  buy. 
barter,  n.hoxtovazistoz ;  hoxtovametazistoz, mutual  bar., 
trade;  hoxtovame&toz , the  giving  in  trade , barter . 
base,  v.nalioomaosan, I  base, lay  a  foundation  on  surface 
of  ground;  na/oomaosen,  I  do  base, lay  the  founda¬ 
tion;  nataxoomaoxz , I  base  it  upon, make  a  base  for  it; 
nataxoomaotana, I  base  it,  sel;  it  upon  a  base,  founda¬ 
tion;  nal^oomaoseonan,  I  base,  set  a  base  (below  sur¬ 
face);  naMoomaoseonaoxz, I  base  it,  set  it  on-founda¬ 
tion  (deeper  than  the  surface);  najioomaoseonaovo ,  I 
base  one, make  one  to  set  as  a  foundation(sp.of  stones 
which  are  or. in  Ch.);see  foundation.  [Prom  #o  touch¬ 
ing  at  +‘-omao  =ground  surface]. 
base,  is  base,  low;  is 
base, low;  this  word  has  not  quite  the  bad  meaning 
implied  in  the  Eng.  "base"  while  eahansenova  is 
stronger  yet, meaning:  one  is  base  and  wicked, 
base,  n.hoomahoestoz, base, foundation  (whereon  something 
sets);  hoomaosanistoz ,  the  basing, founding;  hoomao- 
'  senistoz.the  laying  of  a  foundation, basis ;  hoomaoseo, 
base  itself;  hoomaosenehe ,n. agens , the  founder;  hooma- 
oseonanehe.the  founder  (where  base,  or  foundation  is 





r  j . i . ^ 

^  where  it  sets  on.'tttf  r  ^  ^ 

Jl1U'\JL' baseball,  ohonistoz  ^  garnet  ;  eohoneo, they  play  baseball  ,k 

- oh&neoxzemo ,  baseball  (the  ball  used  at  the  IM-  f  u*J- 

W  y  baseball  game);  ehotavatanS,  they  want  to  win  the^ir 

same:  this  is  usually  said  of  baseball ,buv,  can  also 



i)  *4^ 

game;  this  is  usually 
II  H  infer  other  games. 

I*  basement,  hoemhayo, house  in  the  ground, cellar.  £uf.  r 

basenesss,  ahansenovastoz.see  base,  ad  j.  t'  £,*' 

bashful  etand , one  is  bash, ashamed;  etandheoneve , one  is 

- —  a  bash. one ;  etotone,  one  is  bash. .backward, 

-  f  shy;  is  a  bash., shy  one;  etotone- 

heztovo.he  behaves  bash., shy  towards  one  ;  zetotonessd , 

/  the  bash,  ones;  zetaneessd  ,  the  bash.  ,  ashamed  ones;  na- 
“X'.  tandesdhd ,  I  cause  one  to  be  bash.;  natotonesdho ,  I 
cause  one  to  be  bash.;  totonevostan, bash. , shy  person; 
tanevostan , bash .  person;  totonehetan,  bash. , shy  man; 
totonekadgon, bash. , shy  child;  totonemanhd.bash.  band; 
natandtan,  I  am  bash. (mental) ;  natotonetan, I _ am  bash, 
in  thots;  is  bash.  (lit. one  is  become 
"Axkoet",a  man  who  was  extremely  bashful).  There  are 
several  instances  where  a  proper  name  is  used  epithe- 
tically;  tifffs  from  the  bash.  Ch.  man  Axkoet.was  made 
the  v.f .eaxkoetaeoz  =one  becomes  like  Axkoet;  niax- 
koetaeozetovo , thou  art  bash.,actest  as  Axkoet  towards 
one.  [Another  example  is:  emaxeasea  =one  stays  too 
long  (visiting)  in  the  evening.  Maxeas  was  a  Northern 
Ch.who  would  stay  so  long  at  night  while  visiting 
that  his  name  became  proverbial  in  the  verbal  form], 
bashfulness,  tanehestoz, bash. .also  shame;  totonestoz, 

-  bash,  backwardness,  shyness;  axkoetaeozis 

toz, bashfulness  (epithet);  tanevoomenestoz,  suffering 
bash. .shame, humiliation;  totonevoomenestoz, suffering, 
afflicted  with  shyness;  tanetanoxtoz,  bash,  m  thot, 

totonetanoxtoz, shyness, backwardness  (in  thot);  tane- 
heonevestoz, characterized  by  bash.;  totoneheoneves- 
toz, characterized  by  shyness, bash. ;  hovae  zevesetoto- 
.nestove, something  by  which  bash ., shyness  is  occasion- 
^ i^hed ;  totonesohestoz, cause  of  bash. , shyness . 

,,  ^V^asin  nseSevoene-veto, wash  basin;  zeveevo,  that  which 

•[**!>'  - 'is  basin  like;  forms  a  basin, depre- 

vision;  is  a  basin  formation  (as  m  the 
ifug-  t>UL  mountains)  .concave  depression;  see  concave.  Zeveevo 

V^ao  where  the  ground  forms  a  basin. ecCro-ru-aSrt,/?  e-  *  A  ‘ 
y*fa"”''«e»y4.»2Tl  bisk,  warn,  myself:  zeheSexo.atamano  / 

- naneSpavexovdeoz , I  bask  in  the  sun  (lit. as  it  is 

warm  weather  I  become  warmed), 
basket,  moeevetoxq, basket  (general  term);  emoeevetoxko- 

-  is  a  basket.  [Prom  moe  =grass  +  vetoxq  - 

receptacle, vessel.  Vetoxq  is  a  dim. f. from  vetg,  large 


<  7  '  .  .  A2  -^v.  ' 


^/t**^/*  ■»***-^” -  /  y-v-  %wCv-  ' 

f^fcl,  ae*u.hJtta  (IL.  uTtyL-  lWf" ^tU^L  ,  -Fi/jL- 

%Am^Y  t\idd~n\  (vL^x  M-tf]  .ji^'hJr 

’  ft****- 


vessel;  ve  -with  and  to  -hold].  Moeevoton8o .willow 
basket;  venoetoxq , small  basket;  venoets, large  basket; 
venoetonoz,  large  baskets;  venoetoxkonoz. small  bas¬ 

bass,  t&pehahestovA  eveSenemen.he  sings  bass, sings  with 
broad  voice.  See  voice, fish, 
bastard,  emcxtoenoxzz ;  _ eemoxtoenoxzeve ,  one  is  a  bas.; 

eemoxtodn, she  gives  birth  to  a  bastard;  niemox- 
toenoxzevheme , you  are  a  bastard;  niemoxtoenotaz ,  lit. 

I  "bastard  thee", a  tr.f.of  the  v.naemoxtoen;  eemoxt- 
hosse , she  is  with  child, illegitimately.  Rad.  emo  or 
-emo  -secretly^  suff.  -odn  =bear  children.  See  bear, 
child.  Ni emoxtoenoxzz , thy  bas.  child;  heerr.oxtoenoxto- 
enoxzetto ,her  bas. child;  naheemoxtoenoxzetova  (or  na- 
V  hemoxtoenoxzetova) ,  I  am  her  bas.  chi  Id 
bat,  m6s iskane-zenona , the  brown-leather-winged-^one . This 
/  i X.H*.  word  is. also  used  for  doubt  .from  pictures 

T?  ,  which  the  Ch .  saw. ,* e  fr  .  /I*.  £*/**-<.  f  y 

^  bath,  tohamestoz , the  bathing;  emam,  sweett  lodge  bath.  - 
~  See  sweat  tent. 

bathe,  natoham.I  bathe;  natohamoto.I  bathe  one;  natdha- 
metan.I  desire  to  bathe.  The  rad .-to-  =cold,cool; 
toham  =to  cool  in  water.  Ch. speaking  to  white  people 
will  use  the  expression  tohamestoz  alscr~for  the  sweat 
bathing, but  they  do  not  use  it  among  themselves;  na- 
„/*&‘,I'Aiema  I  bathe  in  the  sweat  tent,  I  take  a  sweat  bath: 

^  ’  cf* sweat, wash. 

battle,  v.nameosan,  I  bat. .fight;  -meoxta,  (in. )  ;  -meoto, 

(or.).  [Not  to  be  confounded  with  -mehosan,  -rne- 
<^y^tdioxta  and  love].  Nahesset&zheme ,  we  battle 
Jl  with  each  other ,  combat ;  nidnetazheme ,you  have  stopped 

battling, fighting;  zeoxtoedetazevoss .during  the  whole 
time  of  their  battling,  fighting;  zeoxchedetAzevoss , 
the  way  they  bat.  [The  -az  or  -az  implies  "with  .each  .  _ 
other"].  Cf .  fight ,  war .  Aa-LeTc  etn&e,  e*  /uJ-tr  A.; 
battle ,  n . meo tazi s toz , the  battling, •righting;  maxemeota- 

zistoz , a  great  battle;  ehoetazistov,  it  is  the'^U"/*^ 
noise  of  battle.  See  wars.  A  detailed  account  of  the  r 
wars  of  the  Cheyenne  with  white  men  is  given  by  James 
Mooney  in  the  "Memoirs  of  the  American  Anthropologi¬ 
cal  Association",  Vol.I.part  6,  p.378-400. 
bawl,  v.ehoxeva.he  cries .proclaim  by  outcry;  cf. herald. 

EaxSeme.he  bawls, cries;  see  cry ;  y/e-Vic- , 
bawl,  n.hoxev&toz. 

baY»  adj.emaova,  it  is  a  bay  horse  (of  red  fur).  Cf. 
color . 

bay,  n. zce-estomoeha, "small  entrance  to  a  body  of  wa¬ 
ter";  zee  =small  +  es  =to  enter  +  omoeha  =  body  of 
water.  ■M/ece.T'Wv-tutaa  ,  *■  c-^ 

be,  there^is  no  Ch.  v."to  be", but  it  is  expressed  by  e, 

/implying  at, under, substance, actual.  In  the  predica- 

zK nf.  ~  .♦**.  S*m***L 

~ yifj  (l*-  f  tive  forms  the  final  'JeJ!  =being,But  is  oftentimes  en- 

■*  /I a.  tirely  or  half  mute.e.g.  is  good;  ehamox- 

±ae ,  one  is  sick;  the  "a”  in  such  forms  denotes  state, 

/*  ^**condition.  The  suff.  -e§  denotes  "to  be  in  lying  pos- 

,  ture";  naove§,I  lay  down;  cf. lie, lay;  the  inf.-ev(e)- 

Vyvw»-o^4L  =to  be  at, engaged  at;  naeveeszheme , we  are  engaged  in 

—  Ue^t*,  iW^Speaking.  The  suff  .-eve  is  added  to  nouns  to  verbal- 
fo  IS  ize  them, thus:  ehetaneve,  he  is  a  man  (from  hetan 

4-^y  —  e  <*-£*--* 



-i'iac  //y  -t  L  e  -t*-  J  ^ 



rrr,.  „  «i  man);  is  a  house  (from  mhayo  =house); 
— \aw<.TCU/t  is  a  child  (from  kaggon  =chi Id ) ; ematam- 
io_  (*/>_«/ •t'*  i -*-T-»  is  food  (from  m&tam  =food);  eaneve,  it  is  win- 

ter  (from  g  =winter);  eSszistove,  it  is  a  word  (from 
a T ,  gszistoz  =word) ;  is  a  disease  (from 
r  \  •  h5in0xtast0Z  =sickness);  cf. balance,  v.  Navosan  I 

(fonnl  4-  -rr  /-»  v  i  n  +  i  w  ^  I  v,  V,  i  \ 

seeing  (faculty , existing  in  this  condition);  navosen, 
- j  .  CvAi'v^.  i  am  seeing  (actually  seeing, at  seeing, Ger .faktisch)  . 

c(j  P  lAfx-a,' Ttu/t,  The  first  (navosan)  ref.  to  subjectivity ,  the  second  to 
UaUtWr^jecstiTity);  Naeven.I  am, have  my  existence  (Ger.Wes- 
aud' en)  at  a  cer"tain  place;  ev’nistoz,  the  existing  at  a 
'place  (whereabouts);  evastoz,  the  being  at  a  place, 
^tviii^Cstsit.or  subjectivity);  nha  zeevensz  Oxmesen,  the  one 

i  u  having  his  wherp”1''"’' "  »*'"»  +  -  »> «  •  - ua„ — 

.‘The.  who  i s  , dwe  1 1 ; 

reabouts  in  Montana;  nha  zeevasz  hdama, 
-  h.‘LLi<K^t-wno  is, dwells  above.  Stationary  existence  or  be- 
u,yiuM'ingt  "whei  e-~one  stands  or  sits",  is  expressed  by  the  v. 

ehoe,  one  is  (here); 

r^^-U^fcu/o  -hoe  =to  be  settled  at  a  place,  - ,  _ 

zexhoes  .where  one  is;  zexhoevoss  .where  they  are;  eho 
fr&ivuj  £f\  ta,it  is  at  (place);  zexhota , where  it  is;  ehotansz, 

.h  pkui£.rfoufc-thev  (in.)  are  at  a  place;  zexhotanevosz,  where  (in.)  ,;i- 

_ they  are;  is  at  (not  touching  the  ground, 

suspended, hovering)  ;  eh5sta,it  is  at  (suspended);  na-^'^tT^ 

’  i  hesta,  I  am, have  my  being, existence , origin  [hestahe 
!,wi«dr»a-/|s'c'e'*'  umbilical  cord].  Nanxhesta,  I  am  from;  [nahestaoz=  I*"-  become  born, zehestass ,  the  ones  who  are, have  their  be-f?  ^  ^ 
Zezhestassd  =the  Cheyenne;  Ger.  die  Eingeborenen] ;  (p  , 
s-ifc??Z*3li*zen0  esaahestaheo  vaozeva,  deer  are  not  here  (G^w1, 
f**~r****J  nicht  einheimisch)  oxhesta  is  in  the  samefc/l  4{i 

\\,QL)a^vV'iT'(We-r,  condition;  nanhestatovo , I  am  like  unto  one;  nanhesta-  hv'Uf  like  unto  it;  navhestamo,  I  am  with  one,  like'  jf-j 
(  one  (vhestaneo  =compatriot) ;  is  thus;  en-^^V 

(ogives  is  so  (alluding);  hovae  zehessS  heama, things  fPj  i 

from  above;  is  not  so;  these  two  v.  J '■!' 

|TZTT  yLq  toMii .  [ehesta  (or.)  and  ehessfi  (in.)]  come  nearest  to  the  yr 

verb  "to  be"  in  the  sense  of  existing;  Maheo  ehesta,  l’U 

LTl)(i  .^a.  God  is;  etaomhesta  Maheo, God  is , orig: nates  of  selfinJjs 
hestatoz,  the  existence ,  being,  condition;  mazhestaetto  ,  o)/'1 

vn-^cC-  if  1  te  so>  tnanhess6 ,  if  it  is  so;  nanehov.I  am  the  '/ 

^  Tflone>  ninehov.thou  art  the  one;  enehov.he  or  she  is  ,''y 

the  one.  nanghovheme ,  we  (they  and  I ,  or  one  and  I )  ,are|F  if' 
+v,Q  ninehovhem&,  we  (you  and  I, or  you  and  wey'^/iy^, 


one ; 

:  ones; 

!  the  ones; 

ninehovheme ,you  i 

-9  they  are  the  ones;  nehovestoz.the  being  one 

«-  few  ,  ■V'^o^uXa/  -ft  a-v  Mivi> 

the  ones;  enehoveo,  f 
the  per- 

HU* A-^.i 






son  or  personalty;  person  or  person¬ 
alty;  suff.-eoneve  =n . agent . verbalized , e . g.  havsevoe- 
taheo  =evil  doer;  ehavsevoetaheoneve ,  one  is  an  evil 
doer;  nizeheo  =liar;  enizeheoneve , one  is  a  liar;  §i- 
vaztahe  =the  merciful  one;  eSivaztaheoneve ,  one  is 
merciful;  mehoseo  =lover;  emehoseoneve , one  is  a  lov¬ 
er.  Such  verbs  become  substantives  by  dropping  the 
pronominal  pref.  and  adding  suff .-stoz , e .g .  havsevoe- 
taheonevestoz , the  characteristic  of  being  an  evil  do¬ 
er;  nizeheonevestoz,  the  characteristic  of  being  a 
liar;  sivaztaheonevestoz .mercifulness ;  the  Ger.  suff. 
-haft,  as  in  boshaf t , lugenhaf t , tei lhaf t  come  very  near 
the  Ch. meaning  of  -eoneve.  The  "e"  with  a  grave  ac¬ 
cent  (S)  denotes  "to  be  undergoing, gradual  prpgress" 
and  is  always  combined  with  "n",as:  naamen.I  am  step¬ 
ping  by  degrees  =walk;  naeszen,  I  am  gradually  pro¬ 
ceeding  into,=enter;  naoenovae.I  am  enduring .undergo¬ 
ing  with  patience .persevering;  when  suff. -In  is  fol¬ 
lowed  by  one  or  more  syllables  the  "e"  becomes  apoco¬ 
pated  and  a  hiatus  results  which  writer  designates  by 
acute  accent  or  apostrophe , e .  g.  enters; 
eesz ’ neo , they  enter;  naamen,  I  walk;  niam’nhem&.we 
walk.  This  is  especially  the  case  in  the  imp. f. of  the 
v. ending  with  -en;  eam’  walks , rrr-progressing ; 
ehez’netto, it  proceeds  (Ger.aussert  sich) ;  evhan’net-  is  but  for  a  time  (from  -vhan-  =merely  +  -fenet- 
to);  een’  is  ending,  coming  to  an  end  (from 
-en-  =end ,  stop  +  -enetto  =stepping  gradually  on); 
esaadn’nettan, it  is  unending  (from  -saa-  =not  +  -6n- 
=ending  +  -enettan  =proceeding;  the  suff.  -an  is  the  the  imp.m.;  ehaexov ’ netto ,  it  is  lasting  a 
long  time  (from  -haexov-  =long  time  + 
ceeding  on);  the  very  rad.  -exov-  is  derived  from  "fe" 
and  refers  to  cutting  the  length  of  by  gradual  pro¬ 
cess.  See  being.  Sff.  -na  attached  to  nouns  or  verbs 
has  a  participial  meaning  denoting  "to  be  with,  be  on 
with, or  have  on";  eszehen  =coat;  eeszehena, one  is 
with  a  coat, has  a  coat  on  or  is  "coated";  toxca  =cap, 
hat;  nahetoxcaena, I  am  hatted;  nahaona,  I  am  praying; 
(from  nahaon.I  pray);  sitovos  =midday;  is 
noon;  esitovosena,  it  is  being  noon;  ese§,one  lies; 
ese§ena,one  is  in  a  lying  posture.-  Sff.-ea  or  -aha  = 
to  be,  (imp.m.)  in  the  sense  of  "being  in  the  state, 
form  of";  is,  forms  a  small  body  of  wa¬ 
ter, a  pond;  etoxeha,  it  borders,  skirts , forms  a  rim; 
eheceha  stands  in  (stuck), the  ax;  is, 
stands  upright;  is  a  great  body  of  wa¬ 
ter;  epevomaoeha,  it  is  good  ground; 
forms  a  "doors";  [not  to  be  confounded  with 
ehenitoneheve ,  it  is  a  door];  henitonea  is 
like  a  door:  hoestaea  is  like  fire;  eseha, 



bcy<  *■ CL' 

j-pril  CK- 

it  waters, there  is  water  (in  a  cavity); 
forms  water  (not  to  be  confounded  with  is 
water);  is  shining  blue  (a  state 
of  blue  brightness);  [eotataveoasetto ,  it  shines  blue 
(action)].  Suff.-eoz  denotes  "to  be"  in  the  sense  of 
become,  take  place,  happen;  epeveoz,  it  turns  to  be 
good;  nihavseveoz, thou  becomest  bad;  nahestaoz,  I  be¬ 
come  into  being, am  born;  ehavsevstahaoz ,  one  turns  to 
be  angry, "becomes  with  a  bad  heart";  comes 
to  be  morning.  This  suff.  -eoz  implies  short  transi¬ 
tion,  short  interval  of  time.  When  the  transition  is 
gradual , taking  a  longer  interval  of  time, the  suff. 
-eoxz  is  used  with  the  same  meaning,  but  implying 
slower  process;  ehetaneveoxz ,he  turns  to  be  a  man, be¬ 
comes  a  man;  ehetaneveoz ,he  becomes  a  man  (suddenly 
or  in  a  very  short  interval).-  Inf. -he-  =is  to  one  or 
have;  me  is  a  hat,  I  have  a  hat;  nahern- 
hayo.a  house  is  to  me, belongs  to  me;  nahemesestov, to 
me  is  food.I  have  food;  nahevasem  (from  nisima,  my 
younger  brother) ,  to  me  is  a  toother;  nahevasemenoz , 
one  is  to  me  a  younger  brother, I  have  one  for  bro¬ 
ther.  See  poss. .imper.and  hortative  the 
beach,  seetto  zeametoxea  zemhaomoeha,  the  sloping  con- 

- ’ tinuotrs~ along  the  great  water  body,  ocean  beach; 

zistoeov&zetto  hoe  na  zemhaomoeha, where  meet  land_and 
great  body  of  water';  [zemha-  =where  the  great  +  -omo- 
eha  =it  is  a  body  of  water];  zeenomoeha,  where  the 
body  of  water  ends, beach;  zeenhoeve,  where  the  land 
ends,  beach,  shore;  toxe  nehaneheva,  along,  closely 
skirting  the  lake;  zistoxemaoeha  nehaneheva, the  strip 
or  border  of  land  along  the  lake;  zeamhosta  or  zetox- 
eamhosta  zemhaomoeha  (or  nehaneheva,  beach,  when  a 
line  of  bluffs  border  the  ocean  or  a  lake);  zehdmhos- 
ta, the  banks  along  the  beach  or  shore;  toxetto  fol¬ 
lowed  by  zemhabmoeha,nehan_or  ohd, denotes  .J'along the 
edge  of "  .  fijj 

beacon,  neeva’tseo.sign;  eneevatseoneve ,one  is  a  beacon 

sign.  Cf . sign. 
iead,  v . nahoxahon ,  I  bead  (hoxa  =close  .r.ahoxahon,  to  put 

- ’close  with  instr.);  nahoxaono  (or.);  r.ahoxaoha 

(in.);  nahcxaohanoz  mocanoz  I  bead  the  mocassins;  ni- 
hoxadno  eszehen, thou  beadest  a  coat, shirt;  ehoxahon-  is  a  beading  (or  a  beadwork) ;  naonistaxc- 
hoxaon, I  bead  in  circles  [onist&q  =circle  or  round 
strip;  "aq"  turns  into  "axe"  when  a  syllable  fol¬ 
lows];  namahoxaohanoz,  I  bead  them  (pi. in.)  all  over; 
emahcxaoensz.they  (pi. in.)  are  beaded  all  over;  nani- 
maesehoxahon,  I  bead  in  circle  (convolute);  emmaese- 
hoxaonsz , they  are  beaded  in  circle  (convolute);  na- 
nahe-mmahoxahon , I  bead  three  rows  (of  beads)  around; 
[-nahe  =three  times  +  -nima-  =surrounding  +  -hoxahSn 



y  /•{  a  C4^*rx-  e  h>cu~e0/  Ct44-^e*ft?  /  irtu^ 

-  Ml e/tu?<^i>  iux^y^t^yy>/  UC*£fm  \flsr/JU*~ 

i  fa0?*r£fi*+***,  )  Cu1* 

py  ^  •*"  *''-*■*>  -  — -j  y  y  • 

|/  #Aj.  — ~  .  4  Mt*f*r~ 7  */A»~7 

I  A  Q  r>*  .  .  O  U  S>  -L  *  Ja ^  <mVU  _  £«-# '«-*-<  .  ^a/«-  I  ,  _/  /_  ^  +  47. 


C&lc  C-tst*** 

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<(il^  ‘  *  -A^- 

/  .  ‘  -  ^  /» 

— "rr.  !&;£*%£ 

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a<~  *uJ¥***£r*~f  ~ 

ZZZIL-/^^  A  ~*‘ 

£c*~-  ^~~,± 

;  y^yr 

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_  ^  a-,  , 

a.  _£  ••  eXe.<*a,£<.  J,  w*y.~f' 

yr~w*~~x  ~1 T&fczLv*--  •^~*-- 

t.A.eyU'*.  '^-/".r  <~,±~^~-'”~~"~~- 

e*,  </■  ^  *"-%  = 

?&*?**■*?*&>  ~  nree^y*  S  4  *  £rfi*.'~4 

Ij*  s*‘-  V 

f’atteef •***”},  *-**"**  J  .  f ****"■ 

-£<r/*-**^#--"  /***-"**-  ^  *e &/*-***  *J**"~- 

/2-f^y /*““ 


ye  eye-  yeju*—/"  ^'“ 




=bead ] .  is  headed  at  the  rim;  ezeene-  is  beaded  on  edge  (like  open  work);  etape-  is  beaded  in  large  design  (-t&pe-  =large); 
etozceehoxahon  (-tozce-  =small)  it  is  beaded  in  small 
design  ;  is  beaded  in  star  design 
(-hotoxc-  =star);  evaozeva-evoxtavensz,  they  are 
(beaded)  with  deer  design  (-vaozeva-  =deer);  the  word 
"beaded"  is  not  incorporated  here,  only  the  design 
(zexhoxtav  “design  in  beadwork) ;  eohegksoxtavensz,  L*  0,^#- 
they  are  (beaded.)  with  triangle  des  ign .  (-heSkso  =  tap-^*d£/ 
ering);  eveksevoxtavensz, they  are  (beaded)  with  bird  ’  utW- 

design,  (vekseo  “birds);  emavokoir.hoxahonsz ,  they  (in.^M//,  "  Jr 
pi.)  are  beaded  all  over  white;  emaheovehoxahonsz , 
they  are  beaded  all  over  yellow;  eotatavehoxahonsz , A 
they  are  beaded  in  blue.  Above  expressions  are  used 
in  sp .of  mocassins  which  are  in.  In  beading  on  dry^ 
goods  (which  are  considered  or.)  the  or. form  would 
have  to  be  used;  emahoxahoe,  one  is  beaded  all  over; 
emahoxahoeo , they  (or.jare  beaded  all  over .  Cf  .f  eatlysr 

or  quill  work 

' _ bead .  n.oneavoq  (  the  sg .), oneavokSz , Beads .  [Prom 

one  =round,  around  +  a  “headed  +  -voz  “piece  of 
skin;  first  beads  (usually  bright  hard  red  berries) 
1  were  strung  on  a  slender  skiji  string] .  "ETSiskaneo  one- 

■^T^lrrVp/^  avokSz, amber  or  tanned  leather  colored  beads;  otata- 
1  veoneavokSz , blue  beads;  eotatavensz  oneavokfiz,  the 

beads  are  blue;  maceoneavokfiz ,  light  red  beads;  ema- 
konsz  oneavok6z,the  beads  are  red;  ohase-oneavokSz 
(-ohase-  =to  shine),  shining  (silver  bright)  beads, 
(said  of  cut  steel  beads);  hoxkose-oneavokdz ,  dark 
brown  beads;  hopae-oneavokdz, purple  beads  (hopSemenoz 
“grapes;  hopae  “grape  color , purple ) .  The  verbal  suff. 
-menoe  denoting  granular, is  also  used  in  connection 
eads.  This  suff. is  derived  from  the  word  "men" 
“berry  (see  berry)  and  has  ref. to  granular  formation 
of  beads, seeds  or  berries;  emsiskanemenoensz.they  are 
(sc.oneavokfiz)  leather  brown  colored,  "berried"  or 
granulated;  also  emsiskaemenaensz.  Eheovemenoensz, 
they  are  yellow  granulated.  Oneavokdz  must  be  implied 
or  stated, because  this  could  be  said  of  other  granu¬ 
lar  objects.-  Hpxahonestoz, the  beading , beadwork ;  hox- 
ahonestoto  (or. j .beadwork,  ref.  to  the  material;  zex- 
hoxtav, design  in  beadwork. —  [In  former  days  the  de¬ 
corative  art  of  the  Cheyenne  consisting  of  quill 
work, feather  ornamentation  drawing  on  skins  and  par- 
fleches  was  the  privilege  of  certain  gilds  of  women, 
which  required  a  ceremonial  initiation.  These  women 
were  called  "The-Selected-Ones"  or  .tfoneneheo  (from 
the  verb  namonen.I  chose, select ) .  They  were  usually 
older  women  and  in  most  cases  priestesses,  also  ini¬ 
tiated  in  the  hieratical  signs  or  drawings.  Only  they 


N  /He 

u.0 ,  &  &.,/ire*. 


v understood  well  the  meaning  of  different  designs  in 
^eadwork.  While  most  women  still  follow  the  old  de¬ 
in  beading, they  are  also  introducing  changes  as 
tcy  strikes  them.  The  Moneneheo  had  strict  rules  in 
the ii\ designs  and  they  kept  secret  the  meaning  and 
arrangement  of  the  colors  as  well  as  the  relation  of 
the.  designs  to  each  other.  The  designs  were  always 
symbol ical\and  talismanic,  representing  concrete  or¬ 
ganic  object^  whereas  the  colors  were  more  emblematic 
of  the  abstract  in  creatures  and  creation, e .g.  white, 
for  active  lifeMfrom  light);  blue,  for  quietness, 
peace,  serenity  C^rom  the  cloudless  sky);  green,  for 
growing  life;  red, for  warmth,  food,  blood,  home  (from 
blood);  amber  yellow>qipeness .perfection, beauty  (from 
the  sunsets);  black , for\cessaticn  oJT  enmity .hostili¬ 
ties  (from  a  dead  coal.bedng  no  more  hot).  The  mean¬ 
ing  of  the  colors  ramifiesV  as  they vare  combined  or 
according  as  they  are  of  lighter  or  darker  shade], 
beak,  maevS.the  beak;  heevS , itsN^eak .  See  nose.  Epevhe-  is  well  "beaked", 
beam,  v . eohazene , one  is  beaming, has\a  smiling  face(from 

-  laugh,  smile  +  ene  =facds|:  eohazenetovo  or 

eohazeneotovo ,he  beams  upon  one;  ehenevatoyaoz , it  ,be-j 
comes  beaming  (rays  of  light).  ‘ 

^  Li  liuu*#*4->r 

beam,  n . 5mhao .bulky  piece  of  wood';' "e§ehetriahe , sunbeam.'"1*" 

bean,  monsc,  (sg.or. )  ;  monsceo ,  beans  (considered  or .) 
momaxe— monsceo ,  large  "beans;  oace-morv^ceo,  rouncH  f  f\\ft 

beans, peas.  The  is  obviously  derived  from  mqnscess  =  vrt 
little  buffalo  calf,  denoting  "little  roundNlovalW  M 
head".  Monsceo  ehooeto.she  cooks  beans;  this  iC  also  r"  I 
said  jokingly  of  one  whose  hair  becomes  singed;  rtaita- 
ocemenoz, coffee  beans  (named  after  acorns  which  isjsed 
to  be  roasted). 

'V.sff.-ox  denotes  "bear  on  the  shoulder", to  pack; 
nar.hox ,  I  bear, pack;  -r.hoto  (or.);  -nhoxta  (in.); 
naasetox, I  bear  away;  -asetoxenoz, (obj .or . ) ;  navevox, 

I  am  bearing, am  loaded;  cf. burden;  nandxeoxz,  I  walk 
bearing  a  pack;  naamhox,  I  am  bearing  on;  hena  zeanf-- 
hoxsz?  What  is  he  bearing?  Naentxeoxz,  I  stop  walking 
with  a  pack,  drop  my  pack;  nahoox.I  bear, pack  home 
(game);  nahoaxeomo.I  pack  it  (or. of  game)  home;  na- 
stoxemo , I  bear  with  one, shoulder  with  one  (a  load); 
stoxemazhem&.we  bear  each  other’s  burdens;  also 

I  bear  (burden)  with  one, in  company 

*P®with~orte7  naoeomox,  I  bear  a  grievous  burden  (from 
eom-  =grievous,  sorrowful);  napaomo,!  bear  one  on 

-  l-jO^-V^the  back, with  a  blanket;  napSovoto,  I  bear  one  on # the 
back;  napaovoxta,  I  bear  it  on  the  back;  ehoetto.i 
jilr  //  J  bears  fruit;  bears  no  fruit;  [ehoetta 
^  y'sA't/'  it  is  fruitful;  esaahSettehan,  it  is  not  fruitful] 
inf.-oenov-  “bearing  long, longsuffering,  ; 

///  -  .  *2  "  .^98 

ov  '  y  ^  PJ  a  / 

*U“V  is  persevering, bearing  long;  nioenovaez-  * 
tovo.thou  behavest  longsuf f ering J  forbearing  towards 
one;  eoenovetan,  one  bears  long,  is  of  persevering 
mind;  naoenove  n  izc  maetova A.  bear  with  gentleness 
towards"  one;  eTTShovobmen , he  bears  long  under  suffer¬ 
ing  (cl*. bare);  naoenovoomenenon  heovasz  hegetotonsta- 
toz.we  bear  all  kinds  of  infirmities;  naoenove tanoha, 
one  imparts  patience  to  me  (long  bearing);  naevhone- 
no  (or.), I  bear  one,  lift  up  from  below;  naevhonena 
(in.);  naeSeneo,!  bea£  in  my  countenane  (from  zehegi-  one’s  eountenace  is);  nseztastoz  zehe§ene§ene- 
(5s, as  one  bears  indignation  upon  one’s  countenance; 
cf. carry, burden,  load.  The  vowel  "o"  implies  "bear, 
hold,  support"  (Ger.  halten).  Eaneoz,  she  bears  a 
child;  naaneozetova,  she  gave  m^  birth.  See  birth,  J 
child.  UMj-t  6  ' 

bear,  n.n&ko,  (;  [rad.  -nuk-  implies  sharp-  <- 

ness , liveliness ,  briskness;  en&koo,  one  sees  dis- 
tinctly,  sharply;  enikae,*one  is  industrious, brisk, 
lively].  N&koss,  bear  cub  -or  little  bear;  naka, she  ^*T 
bear;  xamanako .natural  bear  (brown);  mozen&ko,  bull 
bear;  moozenako,  black  bear;  v6pazena-n§lko,  white 
mouthed  bear  (silver  tip);  voxpenako .gray .white  bear; 
heovenako,  cinnamon  bear  (yellow  bear;;  r.Sko  heszevox, 
bear  den;  nakosetto,  bear  range;  r.akoemoxger.,  bear 
sweet  smelling  grass;  oenen&ko,  blind  bear;  n&koeva, 
bear  hide.  [The  majority  of  Ch. proper  names  are  deri¬ 
vatives  from  different  parts  of  the  body.  Uext  in 
preponderance  come  the  names  derived  from  "bear". 

Would  it  show  that  the  Ch.had  much  more  to  deal  with 
bears  than  with  buffaloes?  Evidently  the  names  deriv¬ 
ed  from  "bear"  are  older  than  the  ones  derived  from 
"buffaloes"].  Here  follows  a  list  of  Ch.  names  con¬ 
nected  with  "bear". 

Moxtaven§,ko ,  Blackbear;  Heoven&ko,  Yellowlear;  Vox¬ 
penako,  Whitebear;  Voxpazenako,  Grizzlybear;  Nakoeva, 
Bearhide;  Nakosetto,  Bearlariat;  Nakoevoeta,  Bear- 
doing-good;  Nakoss,  Littlebear;  Nakoemoxsen,  Bear- 
sweetscented-grass ;  N&kxemen,  Bearfeather;  N&kxevo- 
tonevsz,  Beartai If eather ;  Nakxaeosz,  Bear-fast-run¬ 
ning;  Eseomenako,  Ridgebear;  Toxtoenako,  Prairie- 
bear;  Naktaeoz,  Bear-attaining-to ;  Mkvoomasz,  Bear- 
white;  Nakooxhot ’ tanoz , Bearstumbling;  Ndkoevao,  Bear¬ 
tailed;  Nakmaovasz,  Bear-red-furred  or  Bear-red;  Na- 
koemeS,z,  Eearbeard;  Nakxoveoeg,  Bear-lying-down;  Na- 
koemaxsevona,  Bear-with-garters ;  Naknenoovasz ,  Bear- 
with-ample-fur ;  Nakoeocene,  Bear-one-eyed;  Naknos, 
Bear-one-tooth ;  Nakoematama , Bear — old— woman ; Naknokasz , 
Bear-one  or  Lonebear;  N&kzevamen&voz,  Bear-challeng¬ 
ing;  .  M-knoze,  Bear-alien;  Nakoeosoham,  Eear-still- 
better  or  Bear  shot-heart;  Naknootana,  Bear-necklace; 



Ndkozeveas .Bearbellied  (?);  Nakoeata.Bearfoot ;  Nakoe- 
mSs.Bearchips;  Heendko , Womanbear ;  VostanenakcLPerson-- 
Bear;  Mktoovas,?;  Nakzeas,  Bearbelly;  Ndko&panisz , 
Bear-making-winds;  NdkoemazevS , Bear-dung ;  Nakonasze- 
evasz,  Bear-with-wife ;  NakomSetan,  Bear-jealbus-of- 
wife;  Nakoeoos , Bear-standing-looking;  Nakxhaszj,  Bear- 
tall  or  valiant;  Ndkxaaxcetta,  Bearlittle  or  young; 
Avonenako .Starvingbear ;  Nakaeomsz ,Fat-she-bear ;  Nako- 
maheoneve  .Eear-niysterious  or  supernatural;  Hestoxena- 

ko .Behindbear ;  Nakohemeq .Bearhead ;  Nakoenxa,  Bear - 

(Lat.  Ursus  urinam  faciens);  Nakxooxeehosz ,Eear-on- 
pole ;  Maxenako .Bigbear ;  Ndkoeneoz .Eearfaced  (?);  Na- 
koo-oxnivess ,  Bears-four;  Nakoo-oxhaestxess ,  Bears- 
many;  Nakxomistac , Bear-owl ;  N&koemat  .Bearbow;  N&koe- 
meoe,  Bearfighting  or  Bear-straining;  Nakooseveon , 
Bears-jealous ;  Nakohetan , Eearman ;  Nakoeveoze , Bear-on- 
warpath;  NUktotamensz, Bear-walking;  OkonenenS.ko, Stub- 
tooth-bear;  Vovoenendko.First-blind-bear;  Nakxeovasz, 
Bearyellow;  Ndkeemaha,  Bear-large;  Nakoeoxce^, Bear- 
mouse;  Naknovdnsz , Esat — slow  walker;  : \k vovoasz ,  Bear- 
spotted;  N&knoea,  Bear  ?  ;  Nakoeoa,  Bear  ?  ;  Nakzeo- 
oehcsz.Bear  ?  ;  Nakoevhozeta,  Bear-ranging  or  forag¬ 
ing;  Nik tame oz, Bear  ?  ;  Veozenako , Warpath-bear ;  Nakt- 
omooz , Bear-Bear ing-up ;  Hospendko,  Failing  or  Timid- 
bear;  Ndkxhaovaz , Bearstrong-in-fur ;  Naknotoma,  Bear¬ 
firstling;  Nakomasz-zessosz,  Bear-disturbing^;  Naktam- 
ozz.Bear  ?  ;Maheonendko .Sacred-bear ;  Heamanako  ,  Above¬ 
bear;  Nakoeszehena.Beai — coated ;  Nakohenom, Bear-thigh; 
Hotoanako , bullbear ;  Haszeandko, Big-headed-bear ;  Nako- 
evitanov, Bear-tongue ;  Nakhos, Bearsitting;  Nakoemaet, 
Bear-little-man;  ESehendko , Sunbear ;  Naksovasz,  Bear- 
young-man;  Oxendko, Halfbear ;  HeSkovizen^ko .Porcupine- 
bear  (Thorny-bear) ;  NakoeanSsene ,  Bear-neck;  Ndknee- 
vaz, Bear-playing;  NstkoevSs .Bear-tooth;  NdkoseS,  Bear- 
lying;  Kdkoeve , Bear lodge ;  Ocendko , Cheating-bear ;  Maa- 
cendko,  Oldbear;  Ndkonaoz,  Bear-sleeping;  Ndkohesta, 
Bear-heart;  Nakoovaz .Bearfur ;  Nakoozeoxz,  Afraid-of- 
bear;  esendko .Nosebear ;  Ndkoeo-emxo, Bear-leather;  Nd- 
kototoxzesta.Heelbear ;  Ndkoseovosz,  Sandbear;  Nakso- 
ensz.  Bear-thru-woods;  Nakxhastas,  Bear-tall-young; 
Ndktoeometanona,  Bear-mourning;  Ndkxhoensz, Bear-out¬ 
ing;  iidkoemasea,  E-earcrazy;  Nakoetovoaz,  Bear-with- 
dropping-lip;  Nakoosenevootan,  Bear-claws-necklace ; 
Ndkoeoha,  Bear-rising;  Ndkomaoxcgna,  She-bear-with- 
feather-on-head;  Ndka.She-bear ;  Oevendka,  Scabby-she- 
bear;  Veoxcendka.B  i  tter-she-bear ;  Ndkoeneovoer.e  ,  Rar.g- 
ing-she-bear;  NakoenShe  ?  ;  Nakcevosoe .She-bear-play- 

ing;  Ndknoxca ,  She-bear-alone  ;  Na'koestoss ,  Bearquiver; 
Ndkoosonaehe,  She-bear-claws ;  Ndkoetnazene ,  She-bear- 
sore-eyes;  Ndkaess,  Young-she-bear ;  Nakoeosevehona, 
Jealous-she-bear;  Maxendkahe,  Big-she-bear ;  Ndkxe- 


n  /u,  a-  IJ  u<M**AtusC/'&'X/u*  /aju*  a~* 

c^c  ;b&tu/-A w-  ^  ‘Tv' 

51^  :r 

w<~  — -KigtfeffcH^KfrJE  8c?io SjJs**r-*"'- 

A  A.  /s.y/u. 

:,She-bear-smoking;  N&koemeona.Sl^e-beai — road;  NA- 
tnenonehe , She-bear-s inging ;  Nakoevo&n, Bear-wallow¬ 
ing \?) ;  Maenaka,Red-she-bear ;  Nakoenone , Bear-sing¬ 
ing;  \pvoasz-naknothomae , Spotted-she-bear-robe ;  N&ko- 
eoene , 3he-bear-blind ;  Ndkmaheona , She-beai — mysterious ; 
Voestsoenako , Cranebear ;  Voestscendka, Crane-she-bear ; 
Nakmesetane , She-beai — hungry ;  Ocenenaka,One-eyed-she- 
bear;  NaknKaene,  Bear-catching;  Naknotoene .Bearlook ; 

NAkoeme&z ,  Bearbeard . 

beard,  m6kz  (raX.  -me-  =  fuzzy  [me§e-  =hairy]  +  -&z  = 
mouth);  mdazenatotoz, beards  (by  themselves);  eme- 
azena.he  is  bearded, has  a  beard,  has  fur, hair  around 
mouth;  me§eeseveho\white  man  with  hair  (under)  nose  = 

Mexicans;  hotoameaz\beard  of  a  buffalo  bull;  hestove- 
meaz, beard  on  each  side .wiskers ;  hestanemedz , bearded 
temples;  meazeq’sam,  bbarded  sheep,  goat;  voxpemeaz 


IcUiyico  |  uicaz.c4  oaui,  uaaiucu  vuApciucaz-  , 

gray  or  white  beard;  moXtameaz,  black  beard;  rr.aemeaz, 
red  beard;  tosemeAz,  lohg  beard.  Cf.  shave.  Proper 
names  are;  Hestanemeaz , Temple-beard ;  VoxpemeAz,  Gray- 
beard;  Egkovemedz,  Bristle-Xeard ;  Moxtameaz,  Black- 
beard;  Heovemeaz , Yellowbeard ;  Xaemeaz .Redbeard ;  Tose- 
me&z.Longbeard.  See  tassel, 
beardless,  esaameazenahe ,he  is  beardless;  zsaame&zena- 
hesz,  the  beardless  one\  Ttee— Ch.  wear  no 
beards.  The  wearing  of  beards  or  eyebrows  was  consi¬ 
dered  ill.  bred, ill  kempt.  An  old  Ch.  told  writer  that 
the  "hairy  face"  had  been  the  punishment,  foc-fhe 
first  murderer.  \  kj~</u 

bearing,  n . zeheSeneseneos ,  as  one’s  bearing\[s  (in  the 
countenance);  one’s  bearing. posture 
inf.— hez-  or  -ez-  in  some  verbal  f.denotesN^bear- 
ing, behavior, conduct, as :  nataneheztovo , I  bear  i 
.shamed  of  one  (from  natane  =1  am  ashamed) ;  zehe§^ss^  I  bph«rve  towards  one;  nasivatamaeztova,< 
bears  with  mercy .behaves  merciful  towards  me;  naneey 
vat’,s«fCl  take  bearings.  See  mark. 

beagt',  hovan;maheonhov&n, mysterious, sacred  beast;  i__._  „ - f  . 

tt~~  ~  vovdn, carnivorous  beast;  vesshovan,  small  beas  ;s  \ 

^animals.  The  name  ho  van  is  given  especially  to  ;he/A-t* 
h/fts larger  animals,  opposed  to  man  and  excluding  bir<.s,  A 
'  *\jL/  fishes  and  invertebrates.  In  apposition  to  ottyer  <2?^ 

'  nouns  (similar  to  the  ger.itivus  cor.structus 

‘ijPbSebre.i  the  final  n  becomes  apocopated  and  the  grive  ‘A*, 

,  h<‘  accent  changes  into  an  acute, e.g.hovAemSs, animal  <  x~Jg£ 

■.  W  ..crements;  hovahekor.oz ,  animal  bones;  [following  words 

hovae, thing;  hovS.male  friend;  ho vahan, nothing;  eno-^j^, 
vaeve , what  sex  is  it?  kasovS, young  man  are  not  reTat-^? 
ed  to  hov&  from  hovan] .  ' 

beat ,  nimasenotanhem&.we  are  beaten  (in  war);  nimaseK^-^?^  X 
toneo.we  beat  tem;  eahaneanoto,  one  beats  him  (to  -// 

L“/  J  . 

death);  namomeaeveanoto , I  beat  one  bloody;  naxsevea- 



$**/*/(£ , 

Hi'!**'  a. 

jde/  W  ^r'ENGLl: 


i  noto.I  beat  one  to  exhaustion.  Suff.-noto  =to  strike 
.  upon  one;  navovonoehoneo ,  we  beat,  defeat  them  (from 

1/  .f  h  -vovon  ^exterminate)  ;  navovonaneo,  we  beat,  conquer 
j}  -^nhem;  natapodho.I  beat, subdue  one  (tapo-  =to  set  one 

\\V]  J  Jr  flat);  nahotano.I  beat  one  (as  in  races);  nihotasz,  I 
Sr  ,  beat  thee;  is  beater  [cf.  overcome , over- 

1  turn] , victorious ;  hotiivatoz ,  victory ;  nahotavaetovo ,  I 
beat, overcome  for  one;  naveeono.I  beat  one  (Ger.prtig- 
eln) ;  naveeostdno , I  beat  one  (Ger.  Trachtpriigeln  geb- 
en) ;  naocenoto,  I  beat  one  (cheating);  niocenotaz.I 
beat  thee  (oce-  =to  shut  one  eye, cheat);  naoxkscvoto, 

I  beat,  bruise  one  blue  (from  oxkoss  =blue  black); 
.emomostax  and  emomostaha,  the  heart  beats  fast;  emo- 
thj'  .  >  moxtax,  the  pulse  beats;  masenotazistoz ,  beating  (in 
Irf  war )  J  niomeveanotazistoz  ,n.  the  beating  bloody;  sxseve- 

y  -fV  anotazistoz.n.the  beating  to  exhaustion;  ahaneanotsa- 

/  nistoz,n.the  beating  (faculty)  to  death;  nha  zeahano- 

-  tasz.the  one  who  beats  me  to  death;  zesxseveanoxetto , 

*  Jr  vthou  who  beatest  me  exhausted;  nha  zemomeaeveanoesz , 

ft'  ilk  cf. blood)  the  one  beaten  bloody;  zemomeaeveanoess , 
/the  ones  beaten  bloody;  vovonanenistoz ,  the  beating, 
L.  conquering;  vovonoestoz,  beating,  defeat;  tapodhazis- 
^toz,  beating,  subduing:  nha  zehotSvaz,  the  one  who 
. yfi oft  beats , overcomes ;  nha  zehotasz.the  one  who  is  beaten, 
‘TrV*,’  ^  overcome;  zeveeoes.the  beaten  one  (Ger.  der  Geprugel- 
Ir‘  te)  zeveeonsz ,  the  beating  one  (Ger. der  Prugelnde); 

)  *  strY X  veeoestoz.the  being  beaten;  veeonestoz,  the  beating; 

Jr  zeveeoedeS ,  the  one  who  got  a  beating, whipping;  oceno- 
O] fjlr  tazistoz,  beating,  cheating;  oxksovotazistoz ,  the  beat- 
I  yr  ’  ing,  bruising  (blue).  ^ 

I Wijjt  4**^  beatitude,  vonhetotaetanoxtoz  (von  =lost  +  -hctota-  = 
happy,  glad  +  -tanoxtoz  =in  thot,  lost-in- 
\J^'X  gladness-of-mind ;  vovonitoomenestoz,  great  felicity; 

(vov6n(e)  =pleasing  +  toomenestoz  =undergoing) ;  vone- 
pavstaomenestoz,  beatitude,  felicity  ( Ger . Seligkei t ) 

•  -  1**  (from  pav  =good , perfect  +  -(he)sta  =state , condition  + 

4  tL  -oinenestoz  =undergoing;  vonhetotan,  beatitude  ,  supreme 

happiness;  vonhetotanstaomenestoz ,  beatiude  (Ger. 
Gliickseligkeit )  .  Cf. bliss. 

beautification,  moonanenistoz  (from  moona,  beautiful); 

1  zemoonane  heto  mhayo.the  beautification, 
beautifying  of  this  house. 

beautified,  emoonane,  it  is  b. ;  emoonatamane ,  it  is  b. 

-  (the  whole  effect);  emoonanensz,  they  (in.) 

are  b. ;  emoonaneo  (or.), they  are  b. ;  emoonatamanensz, 
they  are  b.  (sp.  of  objets  in  nature , views , vistas ) ; 
namoonana,  I  beautify  it;  namoonano,  I  beautify  one 

beautiful,  inf .moon(a)  “beautiful , splendid  (in  a  physi- 
~~  cal  sense);  emoonaeo , they  (or.)  are  b. ;  emoo- 
\ r>me  she  is  b.  ;  is  b. ;  emoonansz , they  (in.) 


are  b. ;  is  beautiful  (the  effect  as  a 
whole, as  a  view, vista,  etc.);  vosz  emoonatamanoensz , 
the  clouds  have  a  beautiful  effect, aspect ;  moonatama- 
noStastoz,  b.  doing,  effect  in  general;  zemo'ona, that 
which  is  b.;  zemoonatamano , that  which  has  a  beautiful 
affect;  emoonatamae§ston, it  is  beautifully  designed, 
built.  The  rad.  -moon-  is  related  to  -mon-  =fresh, 
young.  Zemoonasz , the  (or.);  zemoonaessJ,  the  b. 
ones  (or.);  zemoona.the  b.  one  (in.);  zemoonaesz , the 
b.ones  (in.);  namoonemanisz,  I  make  it  b. ;  naraoone- 
manston, I  design, build  beautifully;  emoonsan.he  dres¬ 
ses  beautifully;  nimoonsano.thou  dressest  one  beauti¬ 
fully;  emoonaemanhaevoon  Maheon.they.  (or.)  were  made  - 

b . by  God;  emoonatamae , one  has  a  beatiful  effect;  emo  —  o-wt- 
onohe , one  has  a  b. look, appearance;  emoonono,  it  has  a"1  ***** 

b. appearance ;  emoononoensz,  they  (in.)  have  a  b. ap¬ 
pearance;  emoonoheo.they  (or.)  have  a  b.look;  emoono-  j, 

vess ,  she  has  [emooovess.she  has  coarse  hair].  ■»/'»»; 
Emoon(e)std,she  has  b.,long  hair;  emoonoxtav,  it  is  a  e/aVO*” 
b. color;  has  a  b.,fine  effect;  eohape-  ' 
^--'r^Tfatamano ,  i  t  is  very  b.(the  effect  of  it);  epevatamae, 
she  is  b.  (from  — peva—  =good, fine, perfect,  physically 
WT  and  morally)  cf.good;  epevovxtav,  it  _i_s  beautifully 
Jyjcr^  colored;  epevovxtavensz,  they  (in.)  are  beautifully, 
finely  colored;  epevovess ,  she  has  b.,fme  hair;  epav- 
sta.she  is  beautifully  haired;  (or.)  has  a 
b.,fine  fur;  emoonomao , it  is  b. ground;  emooonomoeha, 
it  is  a  b.  body  of  water;  emoonevxeoe,  it  is  drawn 
beautifully  .  y?  7^/^ 1 

beautifully,  rendered  by'inf .-moon-, see  beautiful. 
beauty,  moonastoz;  moonatamahestoz , state  of  b. ;  moona- 
tamanohestoz.b. .splendor;  pevatamahestoz , b. 

/  i»and  goodness;  pevatamanohestoz, beautiful  effect;  moo- 
,,  (r  nchestoz,  b.  (in  appearance);  pevenbhestoz,  b.  (in 
Jfr  look);  it  is  of  great  b. ; 

v  hemoonastoz  naveShessetanotoenon,  she  attracted  us  by 

her  b.  Hepevatamahe.stoz  Maheovthe  b.  (and  goodness) 
of  God. 

beaver,  homae  (ho m3.)  ;  homaeo,'  beavers;  hetanehoma , male 
b.  ;  heehorr.a, female  b.;  homaess , young  b.  ;  Homani- 
sto , Beaver-howling ;  Homahesta, Beaver-heart ;  Homaoxvo- 
komasz, Beaver-white ;  Homaoxzeoxz,  Beaver-afraid.  The 
suff.-hom  denotes  "lodge";  homa  may  be  derived  from 
it.  Hom3  heszevax, beaver  tail;  homaoxz  (sg.)  beaver 
skin;  homaoto  (pi.);  homave , beaver  lodge. 
because,  inf .-hesse-, by  reason  or  on  account;  ehessha- 
moxtaeoz.he  becomes  sick  on  acrcount  of;  pref. 
zexhomax-  =for  the  reason  that'  (off  set  by);  zexhom- 
axhavseva.for  the  reason  that  it  is  bad.  Inf.  -hesse- 
(sometimes  -hest-,as  before  spirants)  implies  also 
"from,  thereby ,  by"  as;  vonhar.i  stovfi,  exhesseeszen ,  by 


li  V  ri  V  a  ^  I V  ^  *  . 

?*'  w«iVw^uwV*!^/-rAj  -  ‘Z^^rZ'p 

fl^-Vo  IamM 

english-chey/nne  dictionary 

/he  window  he  came  in;  -veghesse-  =wherewi  tlf,  whereby ; 
f  etahan  zeveghesseanaotto , thus  it  is  taht  (whereby)  I 
fell;  -nxhesse-  =wherefrom;  nanxhesshoeoxz, where  I 
come  from.  See  "cause".  Homaesto .because  of, for  (used 
detached);  pref.  -zehes-  denotes  since .because .  See 
prefixes  of  sub,, 
become,  is  expressed  by  suff.  -oz  added  to  v.  stems; 

ehavseveoz,  it  becomes,  turns  bad  (from  havs 
=bad) ;  ehavsevaoz,  it  becomes  in  a  bad  state  (from 
-havseva  =to  be  bad);  ehSmoxtaeoz ,  one  becomes  sick;  becomes  angry .violent  (from  mom&ta  =to 
be  high  tempered);  ekaggoneveoz.he  becomes , turns  into 
a  child  (from  kaggon  =child ) jnakaneoz , I  become  tired;  becomes  moving.  See  Become  mode, 
Nakaneozetovo , I  become  tired  of  one;  navessekaneoze- 
mo,I  become  tired  together  with  one;  nakaneozeta, I 
becpme  tired  of  it.etc.Peveozistoz.the  becoming, turn- 
ing'out  well;  hestaozistoz ,  the  becoming  born, birth; 
momoozistoz , the  becoming  moving;  pevetanoozi stoz ,  the 
becoming  rejoicing.  This  suff.-oz  denotes  a  short  in¬ 
terval  of  time.  When  the  "become"  spans  a  longer  per¬ 
iod  the  -oxz ;  is  becoming  (gra¬ 
dually)  bad;  ehetaneveoxz ,he  is  becoming  a  man;  nahS- 
.  eaeoxz ,  I  a'nTbecoming  old;  emazeomeveoxz,  begoni; 

#  ing  springs — T  r7M 
be  coming  /Tnf. -vo  ta-  denotes  becoming  m  the  sense  of 
gating, often  implying  increase  ogrvgr^^vc 
tanise-dnaeon,  they  were  both  getting*^©^  (older, 

.fj*'  sometimes  the  inf.-ve-  indicates  "becoming",  as:  et£ 

^  is  becoming , growing  cold  (colder);  epe-  *7^ 
'  vomsohe , one  is  becoming  (comely);  epevomsohetan ,  one 
.-desires  to  be  becoming , decent ;  ea&avotaehan , it  is  not 
uvi'^'^coming  not  decent;  evota  (obs.)  it  is  becoming; 

'  V^fisaahestariometanonov-d .'One  is  not  becoming.  Epevetaa, 

~  V - It  is  beaomingTfT-ts  one  (as  a  hat, etc). 

jj^Ai^ked,  Segistoz  couch;  SeSistotoz,  beds  (from  -seg  =to  lie); 

I  i!  is  a  bed;  esaahegegistove , one  has  no 

k  u  .uJ^bed,  couch;  is  not  a  bed;  BeSistoz 

bed, couch;  esaagegistovhan,  _  . 

zemakataevston ,  iron  bedstead;  eeSeexhomani stov, the 
bed  is  provided  (lit. the  robes  are  prepared;  has  now 
j:*»  /r^Vref.  to  improvised  beds);  eegeexhomaeo ,  is 
provided  with  bed!  navohetanen.J  fix  the  bed,  prepare 


lay  down  to  sleep; 

for  sleep;  naovgena,  I  go  to  bev , 

[naovsemeoz , I  lay  down, from  a  sitting  posture];  ov5e- 
neon.bed  cloth;  hestomoz.his  bedding;  honokon,  bed 
quilt;  tonovhonokon,  bed  mattress;  homaxstoto,  bed 
.spread;  hoozeono , bedstead  (of  Ch.mdke, having  ref.  to 
head  or  foot  of  bed ,  consisting  of  r'pbes  or  willows); 
aenocehoozeno , beds tead  made  of  willow  sticks  decorti- 
»  vickted  and  held  close  together  by  .sinews  or  leather 

d  springs  running  transversally  thru -ijhem.  Both  <?nds  of 

r  I*  ana  ne ±a  cie 

4^i  A  springs  running  transversally  thru  -them. 



g.  v  rvtt,  ^ 


this  mat  like  bedstead,  taper  to  a  width  of  about 
twenty  inches  (or  less).  These  ends  form  the  foot  or 
head  of  the  bed, by  being  raised  to  an  almost  vertical 
position  and  supported  by  long  sticks.  In  moving  from 
place  to  place  these  "bed  mattings"  are  rolled  in  a 
bundle.  These  menocehoozeono  are  decorated  in  divers 
ways,  a  certain  number  of  willow  sticks  being  alter¬ 
nately  painted  white .blue , red  and  yellow.  The  common 
beds  were  made  of  robes  simply  stretched  over  strewed 
grass  or  wild  sage;  others  consisted  of  two  poles 
supported  by  sticks  called  hooseanoss ( sometimes  there 
were  a  few  cross  pieces);  upon  the  poles  the  willow 
matting  was  set.  Nxpoosestoz.bed  spring;  vaoxtam,  the 
bed  placed  north  and  south, opposite  the  entrance,  and 
considered  the  place  of  honor  for  guests  or  prominent 
men;  gesemhayo,  bed  room  (bed  house);  k&gonass ,bed  ' 
bugs;  bed  fellow.  See  1  i e . 
bedding,  see  bed.  /«  Av  < 

bedimmed,  eyes  are  bedimmed.  - - ~  _ 

bee,  h&nom  (sg.),hanoma  (pi.);  moxtaveh&nom,  black  bee ,  f  ^ 
bumble  bee;  heoveh&nom, yellow  bee, wasp;  h&noma 
zexhevenovevoss , beehive ;  ehepaneaseonam  hanom,  it  has 
its  honey, the  bee;  hanom-paneaseo ,bee 1 s  honey;  [-aha-  bite, sting;  bites -eae]. 
beef,  vehoehotoa;  vehoehotoa  hesthoevoxz.beef  its  meat; 

1  nanaho  vehoehotoa, I  kill  a  beef  (whit  man’s  buffa¬ 
lo);  namevo  vehoehotoa, I  eat  beef  (meat;  lit. I  eat 
of  the  cattle.  Parts  of  the  beef  are  as  follows:  ma- 
zeoxz.neck  piece;  hestazeo,  shoulder  blade;  henaeva, 
piece  on  shoulder  blade  (chuck  rib);  haegksaes,  piece 
of  shin  (foreleg);  hot&n,  side  meat;  hemdnekov, piece 
between  shoulders;  esovakov, sirloin  piece;  hedeonbne- 
va , breast  piece, clod;  voxtas, flanks;  esemaneva,  veiny 
piece  (flanks  next  to  hindquarters);  heSep.rump;  he- 
ton.part  of  rump  and  "mouse  buttock";  henom, thigh 
piece, round  steak;  hececenom, soft  thigh  piece .tender¬ 
loin, near  "thick  flanks";  hens taneva, soup  piece  (just 
above  knee  in  fore  leg);  eseva,  sinew  piece  of  shin; 
heszeo.hind  part;  henstan.knee  piece  (in  front);  hes- 
tona, piece  above  knee  on  back  part  of  hindleg;  heen, 

abdomen  piece, from  throat  (brisket)  on;  henaevaoxz,  - - 

fore  quarters;  henomoz.hind  quarters;  he§eoo,meat  and 
bones  of  rump;  vo,  hump  (on  buffaloes);  vitanov, 
tongue;  aetovotSz,  ilium  or  pelvis;  honovonoz , sir¬ 
loin,  dried.  [Not  cut  white  man’s  fashion, but  from  the 
hump  to  the  rump, the  tender  meat  along  the  spine  and 
above  the  ribs].  Matons, belly  piece;  venooxz,  tripes; 
hepeemon, first  stomach;  hestxoanoz, spleen;  hd,  liver; 
heponoz,  lungs;  hesta,  heart;  heszhetatto,  kidneys; 
vxtatto, kidney  fat;  heveeonigsz, small  intestines;  he- 
statoz, colon;  hevaonSs , rectum ;  hep.rib;  hevesksetaen, 


'tiL^ujiud  u: 

i  »  itlh^r  T^L^IUn.  , 

uj,  c^JAL,  Yt-o-d. 
i  ..  ?.'  i  L  ..  I 

•£rt£<K''f’  a^-cij(_  olySceuf.  ^n.«-n.  fc]^ 


pipes  of  bowels , little  sucker , (vermiform  appendix  to 
the  caecum).  Eanen,  one  cuts  up  a  beef  (or  any  ani¬ 
mal).  Ch.used  no  saw, cleaver  or  ax  to  cut  up  a  beef, 
they  cut  the  meat  in  slabs  and  severed  the  bones  at 
the  articulations  with  a  wonderful  dexterity.  EnSena- 
oesova,  she  is  cutting  the  beef  (after  butchering)  in 
thin  sheets  for  the  drying  purpose;  eds’onaz  hoevoxz, 
she  dries  beef;  honovoxq, dried  piece  of  tender  meat; 
nameneovo.I  give  one  meat.  See  meat. In  sp.of  parts  of 
the  beef  the  Ch.say  "its"  in  many  instances , e .g.  hes- 
zeoxz.its  neck;  neck  or  the  neck  would  be  mazeoxz. 
beehive,  hAnoma  zexhevenovevoss ,  where  the  bees  have 
-  thei: 

•  home . 

beer,  menemAp,  peppery  water  (used  sometimes  to  mean 
•'j  vinegar).  At  the  present  time  the  Engj_jso^*d: 

',[t'  "beer"  is  known  by  the  average  Ch.  (in^-Oklahoma) .  is  beer.  ^ - 

beetle .amskona  (the  oval  onsJ-i— pSvemSot son, water  beetle  J 'fH-1'1? 
~  ~  (Dytiscus  verii««dis) ;  lit.  well  smelling  little 

■  befit!  see^etr^f^T^ 

J  before,  zehetaetto;  before^  me  (in  presence  of, face  to  y 

l  jj'"~  face );  zehetaetto , before  thee;  zehetae(e)s, 

I*/  fore  one;  zehetaeez ,  before  us;  zehetaeess  ,  before  you ;  J 

zehetaevoss , before  them;  zsaae§e-  ( sub.  cj.p  t  it* 
=before,not  yet  having;  zsaaeSemesehez  naoxchaoname ,  r4"  ,  C 
before  we  eat, we  pray;  vovoenotto  nahadname  na  nanovp  ^ ,  ,  Jt 
semesheme ,  first  we  pray  and  eat  afterwards;  vovaeno  tV  J 

to=first,  beforehand;  novs  as  inf.  =less  than^LES^n^^'’ 
*i?$£ond  in  taking  place .  CNovseaseoxzeo  ^AtosemesevodP,,*/'1 ' /'■' 

leave  before  they  eat; 
■fnre  thrm. 


.  thou— 

nd  afterward  goirf 

_ , .  . .  preference  to,r.  ,  P  j 

sooner  than";  in  connection  with  vovoz  the  inf ,-oham- H.  4%t‘* 
V>" f  ^=rather ,  is  used.altho  it  is  not  indispensable;  vovoz 

befo  rej7 /r 

h*  .  in  bi,  i.ivuvucuA^ctucii,  uuc  uciui  c  vj-xioc;  uo, 

ovoenotto  naam’nevo,  I  walk  before  one  (lit. before 
V'' /  on’e’s  walking);  maeto,  before,  (detached)  ahead,:' 

"  fjA  front;  otS  mhayo  ehota  maeto, behold  there  is  a  house 

j r  J^ahead;  ehoe  maeto  mhayon.he  is  in  front  of, before 

%  .  e-1  house;  hestd  (detached),  close  front  part, 

(^.  l,  ^  next  to  (antonym  to  ndoxtd  =rear,  back  part);  hestd 

ezdnsz.step  here  before,  to  the  front  part  or  side 
(as  in  a  council  or  meeting  house);  nista  (also  used 
detached)  =bef ore , formerly ,  beforehand;  etaeSenista- 

^A  ujw  ****-£•  (1*^  r,^ 


^  AA^'l 



off-  ,V  rv  CM 

yarseoxz.he  has  gone  beforehand;  nae8enT§tsm&£o,  I  g&ve 
^  /  ^  i-fc  t0  one  before;  nistavostameo ,  people  fronTAi-ef^r  e , 
htfL***jkla'ncient S  (nistaom!  former,  /ancient  time);  the  inf ixeSr--/ 

•  ^  -oham-, -vovoe-,-nista-  became  ohame tto , vovoenotto  and  /; 

^  \  nistavetto  when  used  deta/hedly  and  then  they  have 

.  Bj»r\  more  prepositional  meaning.  Nocd§  mxheeoz  nstavomonf 
^TY*'  \  day  when  left  (ffrom  something)  we  shall  see  w.  YT 
■7V1'  |one;  we  shall  see  him  i^he  day  before  (something  else/^^W 

U™"'*  *  MtaH 

w — ,  **-'-“*  uciuic  i,  oume  uning  eise^  si 

(happens);  kasexov  mxhe/oz  zenstoseSholnsz  nataaseoxz ,**<■ 
lit. a  short  time  left  that  one  will  come,  I  will  dj"'*' 

away;  a  short  time  baTore  he  comes,  I  will  leave;  spr-A^rjM. 
jaaeShoend  nllnovseasabxz  ,  I  left  before  he  came,  lit.  one  '/****«• 

had  not  yet  come.I  ieft  (less  than);  -hohoome-  be¬ 
forehand ,  previously  ,  ohoomevcsansz ,  look  beforehand 
.  (watch) .  When  "be/ore"  implies  an  or. or  in.  object  in 
-*~mssage^aperti/re  or  hole  it  is  rendered  by  inf.  * 

*”2S£~=olrra^gT^tatru£ting, st opping;  enxpehoe  henito-  j-*4- 
ijieheva, one  staiyls  before~-the--4£or ;  nxpeoxtam,  before,^*f^~a' 
.the  entrance  ./blocking;  nxpemelnT>-h&fore  the  road  ,7* 
blocking  the  passage.  See  close .  ?gs7nu>- 

,1-^  befriend,  nah  ox/tamo ,  I  befriend  one;  naveSvohest&imova- 

tor  one  V10  have  him);  nivet,^..  ....  i  beg  for  A. 

p  1  thee  (to  imve  thee);  vestomoheo , asker , beggar ;  hozeno- 

.p'fY^At  ra°heo,  beggar  (for  food);  ehozenomoe , one  begs  (for 

^  ir^ )  ;  naozetanonavhozenomoe,  I  beg  in  distress.  Cf./t****'- 
Jy*.  hr^ask,  supplicate,  pi  ead.vuU-i  ►vo.S  S\ 

b2Set,  natfestoeSeeho,.  I  begeir  one;  zehes'toeseessc  ,  the *  '  “  ‘ 
IIa-j*  progenitors .  \  '-r  y ' 

'  beggar,  tfozenomoheo , befear  for  food.  Cf.beg.  ^  y- '  .  • 

A,  **1.  beggar  d/y,  emomoxetto/,  i\  is  b.  .miserable ;  momoxevos/a^  ^ 

’ b' 1  \e  <also  humble  living). 

_  by  inf.X^-as—  =off, away, start; 

\ *i/rYo!! *-  0X2 ,  one  starts  goingk  eas ,  one  is  off, goes;  ease-*"  / 

,  tanen, one ^ takes  away;  eadheneena,  one  begins  to  know/-y 

*<n  j  ■,  +  .  begins  to  pray;  emoneaseanao , one  just  '■ P*7  o 

foil.  _ A.OO„_  \ 




it;  eashaon.i 

,  begins, starts  to  fall;  -mon^ase-  =just  starting, be-  #•-  ,  ^ 
gj-  ring;  ease  to  eta,  one  begins  'to  perform;  easetoetas- 
+"~  4’,“  performance  starts;  Zexhesseasetto ,  beginning  Y^/W**4'*"* 
“.easetto, first  beginning  (detached  particle);  \\jx _ 


ov, the 


AA'  has  a  beginnings  Nanehov  zenxhesse- 
asetto  nitao  hovae,  I  am  the  beg\nnig  of  all  things; 
enehov  hevetov  zer.xhesse-vovoeaseVtovez  1  ,  he  is'sthe  ^ 
one, from  whom  beginning  is  (lit.  Sor  himself  by  him 
there  is  a  first  beginning  from);  zem^hesse-asemanha- [*a-l 
oxtove  noxsetto  mataenhistanovez’  er.Sehsretcomahe , from 
the  beginning  of  the  creation  until  the\orld  (human ) JC*^- 
shall  end, he  remains  unchangeable.  EsaahV^sestovet- f  has  no  beginning;  starts  Wv^rain;  dL^.'v 
Jfl  easthozeohe ,  onp\  begins  to  work.  When.-  the  v.  steSPSae- Y  1 

XY  .kj4  Jj  >,  .t 



yy7t  '7/ 

.  Jzm&t 

Wtt  dU\x\y>- .  Q 

J/L  — 




, :  . 

“  and  the  inf. -as-  or  -ase-;  easethozeohe  or  easthozeo- 

he;  easethone , one  starts  to  step:  eas.etfr5neo, 
gins  to  germinates .  —  fri/KoS-  =- 
beguile,  naocenoto.I  b.  one  (  acc.  );  niccenotaz , I  b. 

-  thee;  naocetovo.I  b.  "unto"  one;  naoceta,  I  b. 

"unto"  it  (has  dative  meanig) ;  nahovenjifsdho ,  I  b.  one 
(cause  one  to  err,  be  eceived) ;  navoneoho,  I  b.  one 
(divert  one’s  attention  from.keep  one  forgetting.  See  . 
deceive  ;  t.  ******  </>■, 

behalf,  is  expressed  in  the  subst.m. ( ) ;  nahesseo- 
zetar.ototovo ,  I  am  anxious  on  one's  behalf;  "in 
behalf"  in  the  sense  of  "for  the  sake"  is  rendered  by  my  behalf, for  my  sake;  etov.thy  be. or  sake;’ s  be.;  nitovan.our  be.  (excl.);  etovan, 
our  be.  (incl.);  etovevo,  your  be.;  hevetovevo , their 
be. or  sakes.  This  does  not  affect  the  v.f.  altho  inf. 
-hesse-  is  often  used  in  this  connection;  etov  navoe- 
6etan, on  thy  be., for  thy  sake  I  rejoice;  nihesshaona- 
tovazenotto , I  pray  to  thee  in  one’s  be.;  nihesshaona- 
tovaenotto , one  prays  to  thee  for  one’s  be.;  nihessha- 
onatova  prays  to  thee  in  my  be..  Sometimes 
inf.  -veSe-  xs  used  to  express  "in  be.",  in  the  sense 
of  "on  account  of";  naveSepevetanonoz  (or  -nonotto), 
on  one’s  be., account  I  rejoice  (Ger.  ich  habe  Preude 
an  Einen);  niveSevoeSetanotovaz , on  thy  be., account  I 

rejoice. _ {uLmi Ci£l,C*<vu+  O-rtir^vraa- 

behave,  fiane§ez,I  be. thus;  naneSeztovo,  I  bef .  thus  to- 

-  wards  one  (in  deeds);  the  particle  -ez-,some- 

e/t.nn  times  -hez-,is  inserted  before  the  modal  suff .  to  ex- 
press  behavior,  conduct;  namaseztovo , I  be. friendly, 

,  .  v  politely  towards  one;  natane.I  am  ashamed;  natanehez- 

tovo ,  I  be.  ashamed  of  one;  natanehezta,  I  be.  ashamed  ^ 

§'*'*** .  l3Jtc.  of  it;  napevae ,  1  am  good;  napevaetovo ,  I  am  good  unto 
Qr  tow3,rds  one;  napevaeztovo ,  I  be.  as  good  towards 
one.  Navovdnhesta, I  be. well  (with  kind  care);  navovd- 
^^Staw'i^ty^nhestaeoneve ,  I  am  well  behaved  (— vov6n-  implies  car- 
LaAteii***  ess .kindness ,  pleasantness,  fond  solicitude, benevol- 
'ence;  -hesta  ref.  to  exist  as  such;  navovdnhestaetovo 
*  \  Jdl,  I  be. with  tender  care  "unto"  one  (lit. I  am  of  good 
rTV*' behavior  unto  one);  vovonhestatoz ,  good  behavior ,  state 
3  0f  being  benevolent,  blessing  [ vovdneSenhestoz  =bene 

,  .  -v^+»v«u^dicere  or  benediction, blessing  (in  words)]. 

P  fr  behead,  naenotovasso ,  I  be.  one  (from  -notov  -r.eck  + 

■  ** - -ass5 , to  sever  with  knife);  naenotovaxfi.,  I  be. 

l-.^W^it;  enotovae  (stat.)  one  is  beheaded;  naenotovaosto- 
**1™%  no, I  be. one  at  a  sweep  (with  one  stroke);  naenotov- 
>  ano.I  be. one  (by  striking);  etamenotovae ,  one  is  be¬ 
ll  ^rt,  headed, truncated;  tamenotovatoz.the  beheading, trunc- 

.  ating;  is  beheaded  (as  adoll).  The 

^  inf.  tame-  refers  to  what  is  left  as  a  stub,  as  ta- 


j  (Last'  khiv-J-'/' 





t  if /l* 

mes ,  st|ute'' nose. 

behind  Adv.eBenomsieo, one  is  b.;  e§enomaeo ,  they  are  b. 

too  late  (failing  to  reach  in  time);  nasenomae- 
om,we  are  b.,too  late;  -hestox-  the  rear;  ehes- 
oxen, one  comes  b.,at  the  rear;  zehestoxessd , the  ones 
wh0  are  b’’  hovae  zehestoxetto,  that  (thing)  which  is 
>  ehestox’  proceeds  b.  ;  nahestoxe.I  am  b.  ; 

-hotam-  =b. ;  -hootam-  =b.the  back, turning  b.  e.g.  na-  ?  , 

'  hootamenesLzenaeto.I  tie  one’s  hand  b.his  back;  ehoo- 
tamene&  has  his  hands  tied  b.his  back;  hoo- 
tamene&zenaessz, tie  (thou)  my  hands  back!  naho- 
tamaen.I  walk  b.,  b.the  back  of;  naheneenovo  zexhota-  y  , 
mafens.I  know  that  one  is  walking  b.(my  back);  naho- '/'Wrfifcr 
tamoeohetovo , I  come  running  b.  one  (he  turning 
back  to  me);  nahotamamese ,  I  eat  b.  (also  nahotam %-facA  #'/ 
mese ) ,  I  eat  b.  (the  back  of  some  one);,  the  tf//^ 
one  following  b. ;  nahotamaovo , I  come  up, b. one;  encs-  stands  turning  his  back  from;  etahane  yds 
nipaonan, there  is  a  mound  (peak)  b.  us  (back  of  us). 

Cf.back.  Nahdseoetoeneo , they . started  into  (as  a  riv¬ 
er)  behind  us.  /  r:  . 

behind ,  prep.hotama  ( d  e  •  •  ■  frorr  v.),  at  the  back.b. 

the  back;  hotama  ehoeoxz,one  arrives  close  b.the 
■  back  of*  this  is  also  used  to  express  an  action  tak- 
1  ing  place  close  after  the  "back"  or  "heels"  of  anoth- 

n  er  action;  hestoxetto  (detached),  b. ,  last  (of  line); 
hestoxemeon.b.  (on  the  road,  but  also  used  tropical¬ 
ly);  hovae  hestoxemeon  zexhota, the  thing  which  is  b. 

,or  past;  neamoss , b. , on  the  other  side  of  a  hill,  also 
metaphorically  as:  nameheneeno  hovae  neamoss  zehota, 
how  should  I  know  thing(s)  b.  the  hill  (hidden  from 

r.view) ;  nooxtd , b . , s ituated  at  the  rear, back  part;  ehe- 

vetovhota,  it  stands  b.  (hidden  by  something  else); 
ehevetovehoe.he  stands  b.  (so  as  to  be  hidden  by  the 
^object  b.  which  he  stands);  nahevetovana ,  I  place  it  - 
b.  (so  as  to  be  hidden) .  d./**Af*~*-  •' 

H  behold,  navehosan.I  be.;  -vehomo,  be. one;  -ve&^yK* 

^  it;  evehoxtanoz.he  beholds  them  (in.);  evehomo, 

1  ’jTl* itp.*'  he  beholds  them  (in.);  evehome,one  (or  it)  is  beheld; 

evehomensz ,  they  (in.)  are  beheld;  evehomeo ,  they  (or.) 

^  are  ^elield;  vehosanistoz,  the  beholding.  [Rad.  o  de- 

Pf'j  notes  sight].  Zevehosanessi , the  ones  beholding;  zeve- 
homessd.the  beheld  ones;  zevehomesz,  the  beheld  ones 
(in.);  n,aveho  sane  tan ,  I  want, desire  to  behold.  Cf.  "to 
see".  OtaT,  behold!  OtST  zehexovemehotaez ,  behold  how 
much  he  loves  us!  OtSmer.os, behold, consider!  See  look, 
behoove,  see  becoming. 

^ being,  v. zexgv’netto .where  I  have  my  being  (Ger.raein 
Wesen) ;  zexev&tto .where  I  have  my  being  (exis- 
f*"1"  E^^tence);  both  words  have  more  ref.  to  the  place  than  to 
•  “ct  the  person;  zfenhees , where  one  has  his  be ing , stand ing ; 


^  ^yy  ^ 

'*7^,*2£gfr:'ft'**'  ~  '  m  ^64 



A  jut**  **7 


r  beinoT  U1U  I  IUINMB  I  /y  -/ 

pi  -  zj  —  7cA  £  a-  A*~***<e~$ 

'  z&vostanehevevo .where  r  have  my  beingf,  living;  see  be; 
4u*ft**-  zehe6hovangs  > one  *■*««  away  (or.);  zeheshovahan ,  being 

yii-if e,p?]tiT  taz.we  being  s: 

*•  he§h?moxtaevos! 

I  do  not  care  to  eat;  zeheghamoxtaetto ,  thou  being 
sick;  zeheShamoxtas , one  (or.)  being  sick;  zeheShamox- 
sick;  zeheShamoxtass ,you  being  sick|  ze- 
they  (or.)  being  sick;  zeheghamox- 
/  /■„/.  being  sick;;  zeheSSvfens 

^ J.  /  ..4a>,/n ,  one  being  in  Montana;  naevSn.I  have  my  be- 

*■  ft1  Ju2,  ing, whereabouts ;  naevae  =1  have  my  being, dwelling; 

^  naevae , I  have  my  being  (Ger.  mein  Dasein) ;  zexevas , 
*0*i*T%**™  one  bas  bis  being, dwelling;  oxhesta  epevomoxta, 

'  tofaWI*-  one  is  being  well  (oxhesta  =keeping  in  the  same  be- 
ing, condition)  ;  being  myself;  ze- 
ftt**-*^  (j  heSenehovs  being  my  younger  brother;  zeheS- 

pjt.  fas-1  *\  hescestovevoss  ,  they  being  mothers;  zehegevehonevs  ,  one 
being  a  chief;  zeheghevehonametos ,he  being  a  chief  to 
me;  being  a  table;  zehegemxis- 

*  m  me ;  zeneseuaAtjniebcbbuvc,  lo  ugxu& 

/L  being  paper;  the  pref.zehege-  =since, 
JfaJL*1s[  .  -  i.  the  "being"  is  implied  in  the  verbal  f.;  nasaavom 
^  zehegedoenetto .  I  do  not  see  him,  I  being  blind;zehe 


zehegedoenetto.I  do  not  see  him, I  being  1 
doens  nasaavomahe ,he  being  blind  does  not  see  me;  ze-  being  cold. 

being,  n.nEh’dvestoz , the  be .  one;  ev’nistoz, the  be., the 
whereabouts  (Ger.  Wesen  haben) ;  eev’nistovensz , 
/  ^  jLw/O-^  they  (in.)  have  their  be.;  eev ’ nistoveo , they  (or.) 

,  /U"  have  their  be.;  evahestoz  (evastoz  in  rapid  speech), 
y&CW)' being  (Ger .Dasein) ;  the  dwelling  at  a  place;  zetohe- 
tahetovatto ,my  whole  being  (physical )  ^all  of  myself; 
^  '  g.~  zehetahetovadtto ,  thy  whole  be.;  zehetShetovaes ,  one’s 

tjn*  whole  be.;  zehetahetovahez , our  whole  be.;  zehetSheto- 
whole  be.;  zehetahetovavoss ,  their  whole 


-ftcf  -  - 

40**  DP?  vahess.your 

be.;  .person;  navostanehevestoz ,  my  be., as  a 
"  '  living  person .  [Writer  heard  only  once  an  old  shaman 

say:  "navostan"  in  the  exact  sense  of  "my  being",  and 
the  connection  inferred  that  he  meant  his  metaphysi¬ 
cal  self.  Either  is  this  an  archaic  form  or  the  man 
chose  the  expression  for  himself, as  is  sometimes  the 
case  with  such  men];  matasoomfi,, spiritual  be.,  spirit 
(lit. something  incorporeal , ethereal  as  counterpart  of 
physical, real) .  ZeevassS  mapeva.the  water  beings;  ze 


S'  Ivassd  beings;  zeevseoss  omotomeva, the  air 
pbeings;  zeamevon ’ nessd , the  creeping  beings;  zehestan- 
jj/ovess6 ,  the  human  beings;  votostataneo ,  the 

beings  on 
surface  of 


5# . . 

aT Jm  V  the  surface  (ref.  to  human  beings  on  the  suriace  oi 
•IT  r  y  the  ground).  The  suff.  -vhan  is  used  tQ  personify  a 
r-  certain  quality  or  condition,  e.g.  nahSmoxtae.I  am. 
4*  ^ick;  Hamoxtaevhan ,  Sickness,  as  a  personal  being; 

1  ^  iV  i’r  havs, bad, evil;  Havseve vhan, the  Evil  as  a  person;  nSe-- 
^  1?  dl*S  Mstoz, death  (from  -nae  -to  die);  NSevhan, Death  person- 
lA  ^  ified;  is  hungry; 

V.  r  .  , 


HSe ana vhan,  Hunger  in 



person;  zehetSeametanenevoss ,  all  the  living  beings; 
zehetaematasoomaevevoss.all  the  spiritual  beings;  No- 
cenanotavhan, Supreme  Being  [from  noce  =alone  +  -nano- 
tae-  =above  all  else  +  -vhan , personif ication] . 
belch,  nakokotom,  I  belch;  nakokotcmoe,  I  am  belching 
(doing  it  repeatedly);  zekokotomoesz ,  the  belch¬ 
ing  one;  zekokotomoz,one  who  belches;  kokotomohestoz, 
the  belching. 

belfry,  heama  maSq  zexhosz  ax'xevd,  small  house  above, 
where  the  bell  hangs. 

belief,  n.onisyo'm§,ta,toz,true  obedience  or  consent;  from 
-am&ta  =to  agree  with,  obey,  consent  +  onisyom  = 
truly;  eonisyomsLt&tove, it  is  a  be.;  esaaonisyomat&to-  is  not  a  be.;  onisyomaztastoz ,  belief,  (from 
naonisyomazta, I  deem  it  true);  onisyomatovazistoz, mu¬ 
tual  be.;  onisyomenietamistoz ,  true  trust, faith, be. ; 
hozeovoseonisyomat&toz, confident  be., faith;  hozeovo- 
senietamistoz, hopeful  be.,  trust;  hozeovosetcetanox- 
toz, holding  confidently  with  mind  or  see 
faith  .faithful •yahy 
believe,  v.naonisyomazesta,  I  be.;  naonisyomazta, I  be. 
~  it;  naonisyomatamo , I  be. one  (credit  with  vera¬ 
city);  naonisyomata, I  be., agree  with,  truly  obey  it; 
naomsyomatovo , I  be. one  (truly  obey);  riadnisyomeneho- 
vazesta.I  to  be  it;  naonisyomnehovatamo ,  I  be. 
one  to  be  the  one;  naonisyomaeztovo , I  behave  believ¬ 
ing  towards  one;  naonisyomaezta  (in.);  nahozeovoseni- 
etam.I  be., have  confident  trust;  nahozeovosenietamen- 
oz,I  be.  on  one  (also  nahozeovosenietametovo , I  be. un¬ 
to  one);  nahozeo vosetdetan, I  be., hold  (in  mind)  with 
confidence;  nahozeovosetoetanotovo , I  be.  in  one,  hold 
(in  mind)  confidently  to  one;  nahozeovosetoetanota, 
(in.);  naonisyomnietam,  I  truly  be.  (trust),  have 
faith;  nionisyomnietametovaz, I  be., have  faith  in  thee 
(and  trust);  zeonisyom&toesz.the  one  believed  in;  ze- 
onisyomataz.the  one  believing;  zeor.isyomazto , the  one 
believing  it  (to  be  true);  zeonisyomatamo , I , believing 
one  (to  be  true);  zeonisyom&to,  the  one  believing  in 
it;  zeonisyomatovata.the  one  believing  in  thee;  zeo- 
nisyom§.tass6,the  ones  believing;  zeonisyomnietamessS , 
the  ones  believing, having  faith;  zeonisyomnietameto- 
esz.the  one  who  is  believed  (and  trusted)  in;  zeoni- 
syomnietametosz,the  one  believed  in  by  another  one 
(named);  zeonisyomnietamstahaz.the  one  with  a  believ¬ 
ing,  trusting  heart;  zeonisyomnietametosz , the  one  be- 
lieving.-trusting  in  me;  nha  zsaaonisyom&tahesz.the 
one  who  believes  not;  zeheSeonisyom&tovetto , since 
thou  believest  in  me;  nha  zehozeovosenietamsz ,  he  who 
believes, has  faith;  nha  zehozeovosetoetanoz,  he  who ■ 
believes  (holds  with  confidence);  nha  zehozeovosetoe- 
tanoto  heto.he  who  believes,  has  confidence  in  this; 


lux  B^w^*-^^*--  J  ^tf,  £tW  £J2*^4oj  (p^>-rrx^  ft,. 



nha  zehozeovosetoetanotosz ,  he  who  has  faith  (confi¬ 
dence)  in  me;  eonitaveonisyomgitove ,  there  are  various 
kinds  of  believing  (onitav  =different ,pl. ) ;  eonisyom- 
&toe,one  is  believed;  eonisyomatoe  zeto  is 
believed  by  this  man  (this  man  believes  in  one;  zehe- 
getanotto  naeSevomo  t’sa,  I  believe , opine , that  I  saw 
him  somewheres;  zeheSetanotto  ehSmoxtareoz,  I  believe 
(it  seems  to  me)  that  he  is  sick  (becomes  sick);  ze- 
hegetanotto  etosooko  na  mato  etosetonetto ,  I  believe 
it  will  rain  or  be  cold;  zehessetamo  esaaeSenShe, I  do 
not  believe  that  he  is  dead  (lit.  I  think  of  him  he 
has  not  died, or  he  is  not  yet  dead);  heto  zehes  naam- 
Ata , I  believe  this, what  he  says  (  agree,  con¬ 
sent  with, believe ;  am&ta  denotes  to  "accept  by  obey¬ 
ing  or  listening".  See  faith, 
isliever  ,•  onisyomataheo ,  be.  in  the  general  sense, but 
used  more  and  more  to  designate  Christians, al- 
the  latter  are  usually  called  eostaheo  (the  bap- 
Xj.  tized  ones);  eonisyom&taheoneve,  one  is  a  be.;  oni- 
syomataheonevestoz , characteristic  of  a  be.;  eonisyom-  is  a  believer’s  characteristic;  na- 
vesseonisyom&tahemo , one  is  my  co-be.  (lit. I  am  a  be., 
with  one);  onisyomatahemazistoz ,  the  being  believers 
congregation  of  be- 

4,  together;  onisyomataemanohastoz ,  congrega 

7#'  .(fl*'  lievers , church;  eonisyomataemanohastove , i 

J ## 


gregation  of  believers,  a  church;  onisyomataemanhao 
and  onisyomataemanhastoz , the  band  of  believers  (not 
much  in  use, but  proper);  naonisyom&taevis ’ onemo ,  I  am 
one’s  brother  be.;  onisyomataevis ’ onemazistoz , fellow- 
tl  (+'  a^'t B^'ship  of  believers;  zeonisyomataheonevsz ,  the  be.,  he 
r  -L  \jtZr  who  believes;  zeonisyomataheonevessS ,  the  believers, 

.  I hey  who  believe ;zehet5eonisyomataheonevevoss,all^ the 

believers;  onisyomataehasz!  Ye  believers!  Onisyomata- 
lr^llan(from  onisyomata  =to  believe  +  hetan  =man)  believ- 
ov  hoi  ipT/irur  min :  onisvom&tata] 

fyr  hevstove’,  it  is  a  life  of  faith;  eonisyomatavostanehe- 

ve,  one  lives  as  a  believer, leads  a  Christian  life, 
Kl *  zsaaonisyomataheonevgsz,  the  one  who  is  not  a  be.; 
MjAy  zsaaonisycmataheonevehess6 ,  the  ones  who  are  not  be- 

^  lievers ;  of  believers  (lit. 
r  r  (/t  warriors  of  belief);  naonisyorr.ataenotxeve ,  I 
J'Jy'yLt  warrior  of  faith(  implying  connective 
with  others, or  co-militant  Christian) 

.f\.r  cation  has  influenced  the  term 

,er,  believing  man;  onisyom&tatanistoz , the  people  of 
’faith  (ref. to  .a  group  or  band);  onisyomatahee ,  woman 
believer;  onisyomataheson,  young  be.;  onisyomataevos- 
tan , a  person  believer;  onisyomatavostanehevestoz , lif e 
Christian  living;  ecni syomatavostane- 

connective  aggressiveness 
Christian  edu- 
onisyom&ta"  to  become 
what  it  is  today,  but  its  former  use  was  not  a  reli- 
~  " - J -  —  Goa 

Y  ,r 

gious  one.  When  a  Ch.  spoke  of  his  dependence  < 
y  (as  Creator  or  Supreme  Being)  he  used  the  term 


T%3JZm;  £~* 


tam"  =to  trust,  rely  on, as:  nanietamenoz,  I  believe, 
trust  him;  nanietametovo , I  trust  in  him;  also  the  ex¬ 
pressions:  "hoxsSena"  =leaning  on,e .g.nahoxsSenanoz, I 
am  leaning, trusting  him;  zetoxetanotovdss  Maheon,  the 
ones  who  mind  God;  zedatovdss  Maheon, the  ones  who  re¬ 
verence  God;  zemdm&tahessd , the  devoted  ones  or  reli¬ 
gious  men.  Writer  has  combined  or  connected  these  ex¬ 
pressions  with  "onisyom&ta"  and  found  that  they  were 
readily  understod  by  young  and  old  Ch.,men  and  women 
alike, thus:  zeonisyometoxetanotovdss  Maheon, the  ones 
who  believe  in  God;  zeonisyomd&tovdss  Maheon, the  ones 
who  truly  reverence  God;  zeonisyomenietamessd  Maheon, 
the  ones  who  truly  trust  God;  zeonisyomhoxsSenassd 
(or  -hoxsSenatovdss)  Maheon,  the  ones  who  truly  lean 
on  God;  zeostaemdm&tahessd ,  the  Christian  religious 
ones.  See  Christian, faith. 

bell,  ax’xevJ  (from  rad. ax  =to  open  the  mouth  to  cry); 
na  oxKd  ax’xevonoz, bells ;  ax’xevonsonoz ,  small  bells  (Fr. 

~  -  grelots).  ezetahame  ax’xevd,  the  bell  is  rung;  ezeta-A  naatcva- 
hamensz» hells  are  rung;  nazetahaz  ax’xevd, I  ring  th z  rfcueu, 
tLL  A,w  bell;  nazetahazenoz  ax’xevonoz,!  ring  the  bells;  ax’-  rfU. 
/iwf/^xgv  onsonoz  ex’xevonensz,  the  small  bells  jingle  [fram/ZicesaJatt- 
ex’  makes  a  jingling  sound);  ax’xeva  eveShc- 
xev&tove ,  it  is  heralded  by  the  ,bplls  or~Beil. 
bellied,  see  belly.  ,  r.  vc r "  ' 

bellman,  ax’xeva  zeveShoxevaz . the  one"  who  heralds  with  n 

a  bell.  . £ pjt u-ytatf)/ 9 t.  . 

belly,,  matonS, the  V. .  ;  natons,  my  b. ;  toniSsz,  entrails ; 

~  '  etonissz,  one  ’  s  entrails  ,  insides  ;heton§ ,  one  ’ s  b .  ; 

onSeva  nszeamevonen,  on  thy  b.  shalt  thou  crawl  / 
.on§eve,it  is  a  b., abdomen.  [Etor.gevehe ,what  is  his  * 

:ame?  EtdnSeve,  what  is  he  doing?].  i *~J*l 
big  bellied;  is  round  bellied;  esoxeas 
one  is  shining, polished  bellied;  ehekas,  one  is  soft4* /\jfy 
bellied;  is  ugly  bellied;  Mxasd,  Helly 
touching-woman  (name);  Hekas , Soft-belly ;  Makse .Big-A?^*^ 
belly-woman;  Nistapaas , Formerly-lump-bellied;  Okakas, 
Cone-bellied;  ev&potaoeg , one  has  a  sunken  b.  (of  hor¬ 
ses, also  of  trees  with  eppty  .trunks ) ;  [rad.-vep-  = 
hollow];  see  empty  .hollow.  [‘  *u  Lj 
belong,  endonetto , it  belongs  to  or  with  (related, con- 
~  ’  nected  to);  esaandonettan ,  it  does  not  be.  to;  7/^^ 

nandonetovo , I  be. with  one  (connected  to  one); 

zenooetastove , something  that  belongs  to  a  ceremonial 
or  performace;  nivevonetanotanov  zetohetaenooStasto-  not  forget  all  that  belongs  to  (is  connected 
with)  the  ceremony;  belongs  to  me  (lit. 
I  have  it  for  my  own;  from  naaer.a,  I  own  it;  aeneo, 
property;  naheaeneonenoz , one  (or.)  belongs  to  me  or  I 
have  one  for  my  property;  the  inf.  -he-  (cf.  "to  be") 
denotes  possession , that  which  is  "unto  one",  e.g.  na- 

,u cnCfc 

1— «  \m)osJa\ H  ‘  " TfJ- 

hovae^  ^ 


hemhayo.the  house  belongs  to  me  or  a  house  is  "unto 
I  .jlr  “1|>"  »  belongs  to  me;  naheszhovenoz ,  they 

-,e)r  fi\k v^i/fin.)  "belong  to  me;  the  same  word  may  also  mean:  one 
,/u  /  (or.)  belongs 


(or.)  belongs  to  me;  see  relationship  m. ;  mazhov.  ma- 
oxz,  aeneo,  mazhotoz,  mean  belonging;  mazhov  =the 
'  \f/  thing  one  has  (from  hovae  =something);  nazhov,  my  be- 
O  vi  longing, my  "thing";  nazhovanoz  (;  nszhov.thy 


niaeneo.thy  be.jheaeneo, 
;  niaeneonevo,  your  be. 
mazhotoz  =things,  that  which 

\y  V-'  longing, my  "thing"; 

Lv  /^belonging;  heszhov, one ’ s  be.:  nazhovan.our  be.;  nsz- 

hovevo ,your  be.;  heszhovevo , their  be;  the  pl.f.of  the  rarely  used  in  the  first, second  and  third 
ri4per8  • Pl  *  *  except  in  the  irregular  form  foe  "mazhoto; 
•  I*./ mazeoxz  “property  in  the  collective  pl. sense,  belong- 
^.ings;  nazeoxz , nszeoxz , heszeoxz ,  my, thy,  and  one’s  be- 
^^^^/^VJ-ongings ;  the  pl .  f.  of  the  three  rarely  if 
(>,  ^//ever  used,  in  its  place  mazhov  is  used;  aeneo  =belong- 
IpT  b  ing, property  has  more  ref. to  or. beings  or  both 
.Jr  ,jr  fc-^Pr-  together;  be. 

/^U^6’8  be  . ;  niaeneonan, 
tr..?  Jt  /Keaeneonevo.  their  be.; 

krlr  ijs  J  one  "holds"  (from  nahoz.I  hold  it.Ger.ich  habe  es  bei 
r  jJ  m\r) ;  nazhotoz,nszhotoz,heszhotoz,nszhotanoz,nszhove- 

i/r  v"oz>  heszhovevoz,  my,  thy,  one’s,  our,  your  and  their 

things.  It  will  be  noticed  that  the  two  last  pl.pers. 
jA" are  irregular;  they  really  derive  from  "nazhov":  the 
jl'  t  word  mazhov  or  nazhotoz, etc. must  be  used  carefully  as 

O'  it  can  be  misunderstood  for  mazhoto,  etc. .which  are 
j  Q/  bhe  "partes  obscenae  mulieris".  Old  Ch.  have  also 

‘/JLcalled  attention  of  the  writer  to  the  expression  "he- 
m J*  aeneon"  =one’s  belonging  or  property , which  also  car- 
Ari  ries  the  meaning  of  "privatae  partes"  .Naheszhovao  vo ,  I 
impart  one  with  some  belonging, also  "lay  it  to  one’s 
**  Ar/y  charge".  See  property.  Zeaenom,  that  which  I 

k/'  longs  to  me;  zeaenomd , that  which  belongs  to  thee;  ze- 

aeno.that  which  belongs  to  one;  zeanomaz,  that  which 
be. to  us;  zeaenomass , that  which  be.  to  you;  zeaenome- 
voss.that  which  be.  to  them;  zeaenon.the  ones  (or.) 
be. to  me;  zeaeno  (;  zeaenoss.the  ones  (or.) 
belonging  to  thee;  zeaeniz , ( or . sg . ) ;  zeanoze.the  ones 
/ (or.)  belonging  to  us;  zeaenoz  ( ) jzeaenosse, the 
.  ^Jjyj^f.ones  (or.)  be. to  you;  zeaenoss  (;  zeaenovdsse, 
j]  the  ones  (or.)  them;  zeaenovoss,  (;  zeae- 
noss.the  ones  (or.)  one  owns;  zeaenoz’  (  ;nahes- 
,  tana  zehetaheszhovetto ,  I  take  all  that  belongs  to  me. 

T"1 1'  *  Nahoxstae.I  belong  to, am  member  of;  nahoxstaeta ,  I  be- 

Jr  long  unto  it;  nahoxs  taetovo.I  belong  unto  one, join 

y  rt  unto  one;  hoxstaestoz , the  belonging  unto,  membership; 

Jj  hT*  evhanenhestaeseoneve , one  merely  belongs  with, goes  a- 

!  .long;  this  is  said  of  a  Ch.or  anyone  who  does  not 

br  r  really  belong  to  an  association, but  still  sides  with 

.t,  at  least  for  a  time.  [From  hestahe  “umbilical 
cord].  Zehetovatto,  that  which  belongs  together  (as 


iSUai'n^t,  l ij 


one);  zetohet^tovStto ,all  that  belongs  to  me^in  ^\h**rMp‘ 
zehetovaez.we  who  be . together : zehetovaesp, . von  belongly^***^/^ 
ing  together;  zehetovaes .  that  which  hcicTT^'  +  c 

makes  one  with  one;  zehetovavoss . they  belonging  toge-nT 
ther;  enotovahe^  one  does  not  be.  to,  is  out-’T*"/;^^ 
sider;  naneBtovaeoxz, I  cause  one  to  be.  to  (a  body) 
zeveazessS ,  the  ones  who  be., go  along  with;  zeheta  eve-/?*/^ 
&zevoss , all  who  be. to, go  along  with;hovae  zeveazetto,  ’ 
the  thing  which  belongs  to;  veazistoz,  the  belonging 
to, going  along  with;zeheszhovsz,the  one  (or.)  to  whom 
it  belongs, the  one  who  has  or  owns;  zeto  kaggon  nahe- 
nisonenoz , this  child  belongs  to  me;  hato  mhayo  nahes- 
zhov.that  house  belongs  to  me;  nitao  zevoxtomA  nahea- 
eneon.all  thou  seest  belongs  to  me.  See  "be". 
beloved,  zemehoesz.the  be. one;  zemehoessS,  the  be.  ones 
(or.);  zemehoe,  the  be.  one  (in.);  zemehoensz 
(;  zehemehotaz, thou, my  be. one;  zehemehotaness ,  j 
(you)  beloved;  see  "to  love" .  Us-  Ur 

below,  -anhoe-  or  anho  (inf.)  =beldw, downward ;  anho e t - 
-awb^n-  ~  t0*b-  (detached);  anhoetto  evestove,  there  is  a3 
/  At^4camp  b.  (downward  from  the  place  of  the  speaker);  hea- 

enxhesheanhoen, from  above  he  came  b.,down;  &tono,  r<7t'c^ 
.under, underneath, beneath;  atono  gegistovA,  b. ,  be- 
,  /  ,  neath  the  bed;  &tono  mapeva ,  under ,  b .  the  *a;,er;  nov5s, 

/rfp. b.>less  than,  inferior ;  enov’netto  ,  it  is  inferior;  po- 
77.^/  no  ,b.  (Fr .  en  aval), down  the  river;  the  land  or  country 
wr!j  situated  along  and  downward  of  a  river  course;  eanav-  (in. or  or.)  is  worth  or  price  (cheap- 
er);  eanavhoemensz ,  they  (  are  value  (low- 
than);  eanavhoemeo , they  (;  esaanexovepevae- 
I^Vrjr.ban , i t  is  inferior  (in  quality), not  as  good;  esaapao- 
'j  ff  enexovahe  zehexovahetto , one  is  (does  not  come  to 
"degree");  inf.-paoe-  =up  to ,  level ,  equal  to;  napa- 
'"^oevehonevetova, one  ranks  with  (or  to)  me  as  chief; 

A,  fA»^*^asaapaoevehonevetovahe ,  one  does  not  rank  with  me,  is’ 

'/ — l  ~,me  as  °bief;  hovane  nasaapaoemaheonevetovahe, 
t-mI.  ranks  as  God,  with  me.  See  low,  less, 


_  v.nahdstatonaovo , I  belt  one;  zehostatonaoesz,  the 

belted  one  (or.);  zehostatonaoessd , the  belted  ones 
(or.);  zehostatonaoe.the  belted  one  (in.);  zehostato- 
naoensz.the  belted  ones. (in.);  zehdstatonaovata,  the 
one  who  belts  thee.  See  gird, 
belt,  n.hostato, belt, girdle;  oasevhosta to , shining  belt 
(with  Mexican  silver  plaques);  hetanevhostato , 
man’s  belt;  heevhostato .woman’ s  belt, 
bench,  v . etaxesehestove ,  it  is  furnised  with  benches 
(also:  it  is  a  bench);  esaaeSetaxesehestovhan,  it 
has  not  yet  been  furnised  with  benches, 
bench,  n . taxesehestoz , bench, seat , chair ;  taxesehestotoz , 
pi.;  (taxe  =upon  +  -se  =rest , set , si t ) ;  tahoestoz, 
seat, bench  (natahoe,!  sit  on,  upon);  onoatamano-hes- 

%  ■ 



'should  be  "-hoes-"  on  preceding  page)  toz,  honorable 
\  bench  (court);  is  a  bench;  etaxese- 
KV,  [y  hestovensz ,  they  are  benches;  etahoestove.  it  is  a 
-if'' VT'fv'  seat;  nataxese.I  sit  upon  a  bench  or  chair;  esaataxe-  is  not  a  bench. 

.  jIt**  .“bend  v.navoxkanen, I  b. ;  navoxkana,  I;  navoxkano 

- ’(or.)  voxkanenistoz, the  bending;  evoxkane,  it  is 

bent;  evoxkanensz . they  (in.)  are  bent;  evoxkane. one 
(or.)  is  bent;  evoxkane o , they  (or.)  are  bent;navoxka 
nomovo.I, one’s;  navoxkanomota, I  b.for  one;  rad. 
-voxk-  =crooked,  curved;  evoxq,  it  is  bent, curved;  is  bent  twice ; evoxceoz  meo.the  road  bends, 
is  curved;  is  bent, crooked;  see  crooked; 
navoxkaena, I  bend  it  (either  end  part  of  an  object, as 
the  end  or  butt  of  a  whip);  navoxkaeno  (or.),  as  the 
head  of  a  horse,  etc.;  navoxkoena,  I  set  it  bent  (as 
the  arches  for  the  game  of  croquet);  navoxkoeno, 
(or  )  I  set  one  bent  (as  the  wagon  bows, which  arc 
spoken  of  as  or.;  or  the  willow  sticks  used  for  the 
'it’  ,  sweat  lodge);  the  ending  -ena  and  eno, denotes  that 
»  the  ends  are  bent  and  set  in.-  Navoxkoan.I 
speaking, switch  off  the  subject;  nanohfoxeve.has  the 
same  meaning  as  swerve  aside  in  talking, 
speaking; -evoxkae,  one  is  bent  (state);  evoxkaensz, 
Or  f  they  (in.)  are  bent;  evoxkaeo,  they  (or.)  are  bent, 

iywS  zevoxkae,  that  which  is  bent  (state);  zevoxkasz.the 
r  L  *  ftvfyubent  one  (or.);  zevoxkaessS.the  bent  ones  (or.),  ze 
JT  X^voxkaesz, the  bent  ones  (in.);  voxkaemenoz, the  ben. 

berries  (bananas);  Voxkahe  (proper  n.  )  Bent-woman, 
(/'  “voxq  or  bends; , they  (in.)  bend, 


y'0,u  a,’  voxkd , the  one  s4t  bent  ’or  the  curving  one  =rabbit, 

Mev  bends  (from  heat)  or’ water)  ref’ 

,4to  cylindrical  objects;  bends  (by  heat  o. 
$\i-  water);  evoxkonatansz ,  they  (in.);  evoxkatansz , they 

\y  (in  );  bends  from  heat;  evoxkonaeo,  they 

rS  or.:;  evcxkonaensz , they  (in.);  evoxkonae , one  (or.) 

is  bent  (state)  by  heat;  navoxkoneano ,  I  bend,  curve  it 
yA  ..(or.sp.of  ropes  or  cylindrical  objects)  ;  navoxkone-- 
Kyj)  fna  I  (in.).  The  inf.  -one-  refers  to  something 
loAg  and  round, as  limbs , branches , spokes  thread , ropes , 
**  r  /r}jr  snakes  and  any  object  whose  width  and  thickness  is 
^uct  smaller  "than  its  length;  becomes 
^  bent  up  (as  toes), from  cold;  etotoevetovao , they  (or  ) 
are  bent  backward  (bodied  with  back  bent ) ;  see  crook, 
bend  n  zevoxq.the  b.;  zevoxceoz  meo.the  sharp  uhe 
- -’r0ad;  zevotaneoz  meo, where  the  road  makes  a  gradu¬ 
al  b.;  ’see  crook, bow, corner, 
beneath,  atono ;  the  lodge  below, nether 
- gions;  atonoomehetaneo , the  people  from  be.,  thr¬ 
ones  from  the  under  world;  [opposed  to  Yotostataneo 
the  people  of  or  on  the  surface  (human  beings)],  ato 




no the  earth;  atono  v6nhani stovd , be . the  win¬ 
dow;  atono  hezenoneva,  be.  one’s  wing;  na&tohaovo.I 
make  one  to  be  be . ; nitoseatohaova  hezenoneva, he  will 
put  thee  be. his  wing  (or  wings).  See  cover, under,  be¬ 
low.  Axtono  voeva, beneath  the  sky. 
benediction,  vovdneSenhestoz , well-saying,  well  wishing 
•  '  (in  words).  See  bless. 

benefaction,  pevoetastoz  ( good-do i'ng ) ;  epevoetastov,  it 

-  is  a  bene.;  epavet ’ sanistove , it  is  a  bene.; 

pavet’  senistoz, bene .  .doing  good.  ;  ith****^ 

benefactor,  pevoetahe;  popevoetahe , repeated  benefactor; 

-  pevoetatan , bene. , man  bene.;  zepevoetasz,  the 

one  who  does  good,  act  kindly;  napevoetaetovo , I  act  > 

as  a  bene. towards  one;  pavet’senehe  and  pavet 1  se_o_t  be-  TT 
nefactor;  napavetovo.I  am  good  towards  one;  epavetse-  is  a  benefactor. 

beneficence,  pevoetaheonevestoz ; 

-  is  beneficence, or  it  is  beneficient.  In  all 

the  Eng. terms  having  the  prefix  "bene"  the  Ch.has  the 
exact  equivalent  -peve-  or  -pave- -=good, well, kindly, 
beneficent,  see  beneficence;  etapevezeona,  it  is  bene- 
ficent, beneficial. 

beneficial,  is  bene ., helpful ;  epeve- 
tovazi sto v , i t  is  bene . (mutual ) ; — otapevazeo-  is  bene.;  is  bene. to  me. 
benefit,  v.navovbnhestaetovo , I  bene.,  am  of  service  to  /v '  ‘  > 

- one;  heto  naveSepevanan, I  am.  benefitted  (made^.,-,  ■  j 

better)  by  this;  napevetovo,  I  bene. one;  napeveta, I;  etahan  eseoxz  zepevetoetto , here  is  the  mede- 
cine,  which  benefitted  me  (or:  zeveSepevetonetto  =  ‘/'?  ‘  . 

•wherewith  I  am  benefitted);  nahesseneSeesz  nszenonox-/  * 
pa-vovdnhestaeton,  I  speak  thus  for  thy  bene. (lit. I 
therefore  thus  speak  in  order  that  thou  be  helped  in 
thy  condition);  nahooenosbho ,  I  cause  one  to  bene,, , 
profit;  nahooztsan , I  bene ., prof it .  have  an  advantage;  j 
see  profit ,  advantage  .prosper :  **  'h: 

benefit,  n.vovonhestatoz, service, helpfulness ;  hooenosa-2f/2^f*V  g 

- zistoz, bene,  .profit;  pevetovazistoz,  bene .  (mutu  ~ 

al);  honaoveamhastoz ,  bene  .,  gain ;  evegehonaoveamhasto- *** 
ve , thereby  is  a  bene.,gain.  See  prosperity.  its 

benevolence,  vovonegetanoxtoz  (in  disposi tion) ^  vovo- 

- nhestatoz , bene . ,  benefit;  vovdnitoetastoz , 

bene. (in  acts);  vovdneSepevoetastoz , bene . ,  kindliness 
(in  deeds);  vovonhestaomenestoz , bene .( condition  of); 
vovonegemeatoz , bene . ( in  gifts);  vovoneSevcstaneheves- 
toz ,  bene  .  (  in  living ) .  -  V  tV e  tUst-rur*,  -  f ^ 

benevolent,  navovonesetanoheoneve , I  am  bene.;  nivovone- 

- - -  getanotovo,  thou  art  bene,  towards  one  (in 

thot);  navovonhestatova ,  one  is  bene,  to  me,  of  help, 
service;  evovonitoeta, one  is  ber.e.(in  acts);  navovo- 
negdho , I  am  bene. to  one  (treat  benevolently);  evovo- 



ne§evostaneheve,one  leads  a  bene. life;  evovoneSemea, 
one  gives  benevolently;  evovdneSeesz, one  speaks  bene, 
words;  navovdne§etovo,I  am  bene. unto  one;  evov6ne§se-  is  bene .( character ) ;  evovoneSsetaneva,  one 
is  bene. (by  occupation)  navovone§stoman, I  make, "occa¬ 
sion  to  be"  bene.;  Vovonem&tasoom.bene. spirit.  Wher¬ 
ever  inf.  -vovon—  is  used  it  implies  "bene"  in  the 
sense  of  kindly  care, fond  solicitude.  The  same  inf. is 
used  to  render  our  word  "blessing  in  its  various  app¬ 
lications, See  bless. 

benighted,  nahetaeme.I  am  be. .overtaken  by  night;  tae-  y living ' 
benign,  is  be .  .generous ;  ehotoaheoneve,one  6 *  f1**- 
is  be.  (characteristic);  ehotoetan,  one  is  bz.C&z4^’- 
(mental);  ehotoestaha,  one  is  be. in  heart;  r.ahahotoa- 
eztovo.I  behave  be. towards  one;  ehotoavostaneheve , one  'uw'* 
lives  a  be., generous  life.  Inf.  -hotoe-  =benignly  or 
benignantly, generously ;  ehotoaevoeta, one  acts  benign¬ 
ly;  esaahotoetanoxtovhan,  it  is  not  be.;  ehotoetano-  is  be.. 

benignant,  same  as  benign  or  benevolent, 
benignity,; .benignancy 
(from  mehos  =love  +  hotoa  =generous,  benign); (in  .character) ;  hotoaevoetastoz, 
be.  (in  acts);  (in  thot, disposition) ; 
f  (of  heart)  ;  hotoeozistoz.the  becom- 
ing  benign;  manohotoemazistoz  .mutual  be.  (one  accord). 

's'  bent,  see  bend, crook, curve  and  side.  EhezesomSe , one  is 

bent  on,  handles  constantly;  inf.  -vovoxbon-  = 

I  strictly, can  be  used  to  express  bent  in  the  sense  of 
("K  "bound  to",  e .g. evovoxbonhozeohe , one  is  bent  on  work- 
ing;  nivovoxboneesz,  thou  art  bent  on  speaking.  The 
"  inf .  .-voxce-  =crooked , bending, by  eliminating  the  "v" 

(|r  jr./'-'  becomes  -oxce-  which  is  used  extensively  to  denote 
something  done  from  use  or  habit, e.g.  eoxcenemen,  one 
sings  (has  this  bent;  Ger.  pflegt  zu  singen) .  When 
means  deflecting  from  a  straight  line  into  an 
oblique  one, the  inf.-nime-  is  used. e .g. enimetaho ,  one 
"  rides  bent  sideways  (the  fore  part  of  the  body  de- 

fleeting  from  the  vertical  line;,  enimaz,  one’s  mouth 
is  bent,  twisted  sideways .  uul-  i'W  —  Vc — 
benumb,  see  paralyze.  Inf.— na-  implies  "numbing",  hence 
the  expressions;  en&e,  one  is  dead;  enaeoz ,one 
becomes  dead;  sleeps;  is  para¬ 
lyzed;  is  paralyzed  in  both  legs;  ena-  is  benumbed  from  cold;  becomes 

berate,  navehoeto.I  be . one  (in  words ); navehoesta  (in.). 
See  rebuke, punish. 

bereave,  nahaomenes^ho , I  be. one  (lit. I  cause  one  to  be- 
come  unfortunate, afflicted) .  See  misfortune. 

ryo lv c ^  ^  <vlL  txiL 



bereavment ,  haoraenhestoz.haomeo  (n.agent.);  maxhaomene- 
stoz, great  be.;  mhaomeeozistoz,  complete  be 
(happening);  heovasz  heSetoomeo , all  kinds  of  be.  mis¬ 
fortune;  haomenevostanehevestoz , life  of  be.;  haomen- 
hestoz.sad  be.;  veoomenestoz , excessive  be. 

«  berefb»  namhaomene , I  am  completely  bereft;  ' 
_  be<:  becomes  entirely  be.;  zehao- 

menessd.the  be. ones;  nahaomenes^ho ,  I  cause  one  to  be 
rv£.  haomenhetan ,  the  be  .  man ,  unfortunate  one;  haomen- 

-  hee ,  the  be. woman;  haomenekaSgon,  the  be. child;  haome- 
nevostan,  the  be  .person;  haomenhistanov,  the  be.  world- 
haomenehasz,  ye  bereft  ones!  we  are 
be-:  is  sadW  bo.;  cv  pang, one  is,;/ 
excessively  be.  See  rob.  w*,V\_*aa^>  Vo-,  \U<i  ufv  ■ ,  Ltf*. 

berry,  v. ezceemenoe , it  is  small  berried;  ' 
is  yellow  berried ; evokomemenoensz ,  they  are  white 
berried;  emsiskaemenaensz.they  are  amber  (color)  ber¬ 
ried,  (sp. of  beads);  esaapevemenoehan,  it  is  not  well 
berried;  is  coarse  berried  (grained); 
ezetSemenoensz , they  (in.)  are  thus  berried;  enitSeme- 
noensz  (alluding) , they  are  thus  berried , having  ref. to 
the  size;  eh&pemenoe,  it  is  big  berried;  eoacemeno- 
ensz.they  are  round  berried  (like  kaffir,  corn) :  naoe- 
nernen.I  gather  berries;  epavemenamatto ,  ft*  bears  good  , 
berr ies , f rui t .  See  fruit. 

berry  ■  n.  men  .berry;  menoz ,  berries  hr  fruits.  The  etymo-^^*^ 
logical  value  of  "m"  =broad , surf ace ;  and  "n"  de_  A*’*'*-'--*” 
noting  round, the  Ch.word  "men"  would  mean  "the  round eH**-n**u4- 
surfaced  one". The  association  of  inf.  -men-  with  flatSjorrr ,-e,  -V 
rounded  obj . points  to  the  same  meaning  of  "men" .Name -c£*y**~ 
nam.rny  b. , fruit;  namenamoz , my  b's;  nimenam,  hemenam J Ihusntmeasr, 
thy, one’s  b.  ;  namenaman,  our  b. fruit;  namenamanoz , 
b’s, fruits;  nimenamevo,  your  b. ;  nimenamevoz,  your 
b’s.;  hemenamevo,  their  b.  Nahemenam,  I  have  a  r  - 
b’s.;  has  good  b’s.  (fruits);  ehemcr  -  c^.  produces  b’s, fruits;  mSmenoz  (pi. )  .corn, 
usually  in  the  pi.;  maicen  is  the  sg.but  rarely,  used/ 
namamenamoz  (my  corn(s);  maemenoz,  red  b’s, buffalo 
b’s;  macemenoz , little  reddish  b’s.  growing  in  small 
clusters  on  low  bushes, in  Oklahoma;  hoxzezemaxemenoz , 
large  tree  b’s.;  moxtaemenoz , plums ;  maxemenoz,  large 
b’s., apples;  oeksemaxemenoz , taper ing  b ’ s ., pears ;  meo- 
vamaxemenoz, fuzzy  large  b’s.,  peaches;  ccemaxeraenoz, 
apricots;  hbgaehemenoz ,  grapes;  oacemenoz,  round 
small  b’s., kaffir  corn^  mazemenoz , oats ;  heovemaxeme- 
noz, yellow  large  b’sy(lemons  and  also  oranges;  veox- 
cemaxemenoz, bitter  j/s. .large  wild  plums;  toxtomaxe- 
menoz,  prairie  la^ge  b’s.,  plums;  mataocemenoz, wood 
b’s., acorns , coffee ;  naktavaemenoz ,  persimons;  hestaa- 
zemenoz,  wild  Currants;  _  heskovhestaazemenoz,  thorny 
b’s., straw  b'p<;  hotamemenoz , dog  b's;  menemenoz,  ser- 

kO.  <V  *?  G'cvut, 






pent  b’s.,  pepper  (and  poisonous  b’ s . )  j^mataemenoz , 
wood  b’s., china  b’s  (looking  like  yellow,  transparent 
grapes  and  hanging  in  loose  clusters  from  the  tree); 
heSkovemenoz, thorny  b’s., black  b’s.;  voxkaemenoz , bent 
b’s.,  bananas;  vovoxkaemenoz ,  crooked  b’s.,  devil's 
claws;  voxkcemenoz , rabbit  b’s. (figs  are  now  so  call- 
ed) ;  hesceehemenoz, shrunk  b’ s . .mulberries ;  hetanemen- 
oz.male  b’s., June  b’s.;  heovasz  hegemenoz,  all  kinds 
&.  (J^‘"of  b’s.  is  a  b.;  emenevensz ,  they  are  b’s. 
V*  '  [not  to  be  confounded  with  emenoensz,  they  (in.)  are 
berried] .Meneva, in, among  the  b’s.;  eveazeo  hohonaxceo 
*  meneva, there  are  stones  among  the  b’s.;  esaamenevha- 

^  u-i  .v^  nehensz , they  (in.)  are  not  b’s.;  men6e  (sg.),  mendsz, 
jj  b. bushes  or  trees  (fruit  trees);  maxemendsz,  apple 
trees;  moxtaemendsz.plum  bushes;  hesceehemendsz ,  mul- 
'  berry  trees  or  shrubs;  pavemendsz.good  b. shrubs;  hav- 

sevemen6sz , bad  b. bushes;  ehavsemendeve , it  is  a  bad  b. 
bush  or  shrub;  eohapavemendeve ,  it  is  a  very  good  b. 
tree  (fruit  tree);  esaamaxemendevhan ,  it  is  not  an 
apple  tree.  [The  Ch. consider  trees  as  organic, but 
spoken  of  in  connection  with  their  fruit  they  become 
inorganic].  A  collection  or  growth  of  fruit  bearing 
trees  or  shrubs  is  designated  by  suff.-eSe;  maxemend- 
ese , growtlu-of  large  b. bushes  =apple  orchard;  emaxeme-  is  an  apple  orchard;  hopaehemenoeSe .vine¬ 
yard;  meovamaxemen6e§ensz,peach  orchards;  esaahdpde-  is  not  a  vineyard.  The  rad.-menbe,-,. 
comes  inf.-mene-  =round, fine, polished  surface,— g. > 
meneekson.doll  with  china  head;  meneha  (also  a  wo¬ 
men’s  name, Berry)  ref. to  rounded  shape  and  chatoyant, 
also  said  of  the  disc  like  brooches  made  from  shells 
and  worn  as  ornaments.  Meneeohe , round  or  disc  shell 
river, North  Platte  river.  [The  name  "Moon  Shell"  as 
given  by  George  Bird  Grinnell  in  his  "Cheyenne  Stream 
Names"  is  not  only  fitting  for  the  shape  of  the 
shells, but  also  for  its  symbolical  meaning.  Either  in 
disc  or  segmental  form, such  shells  are  to  represent 
the  shining  crescent  or  disc  of  the  moon.  But  the 
common  word  for  moon  is  taeSehe  (night  sun), only  one 
old  expression  containing  the  rad.  -me  is 
moon  -|as  given  to  writer  by  "Arrow  keeper "  j- ,  evidently 
not  referring  to  the  moon  itself, but  its  appearance, 
because  inf. -me-  has  ref. to  "coming  up  at  the  surface 
or  horizon" , emerging.  TaeSehe  emeen.the  moon  is  ris¬ 
ing.  But  the  Ch.  word  "men"  has  ref.  to  granuliform, 
conchiform  and  discoidal  small  objects;  when  used  in 
combination  with  other  words  it  refers  more  to  china- 
ware  .whose  glazed  surface  and  shape  resemble  certain 
shells,  (Discinidae) .  Such  shells  in  the  form  of  a 
"dished"  disc  and  having  chatoyancy,  must  have  been 
very  numerous  along  the  North  Platte  river, hence  its 


ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY :  Meneeohe.  From  the  glossiness  of  such  shells 
as  well  as  their  shape .anything  made  of  chinaware  re¬ 
ceives  the  prefixe  mene-,e.g.  meneevetoxq,  vessel  of 
chinaware;  meneekson.doll  (with  head  made  of  porce¬ 
lain);  is  chinaware;  is 
not  chinaware;  is  built  of  chinaware.] 
The  inf.-momen-  =by  groups,  by  clusters  (from  berry, 
grain);  emomenoveneo , one  has  a  fine  face .countenance; 
namomenovatamo.I  deem  one  fine, comely;  emomeemenche , 
one  has  a  comely, fine  look, appearance .  All  such  ex¬ 
pressions  formed  with  inf. -men-  are  derived  from  ap¬ 
pearance  and  contours  of  berries  which  to  the  Ch. sug¬ 
gested  the  comeliness  of  lines  and  surface.  Hence  the 
rad. -men-  (feather)  in  all  quill  or  feather  work,  and 
the  Ch. fondness  for  multicolored  beads.  See  bead. 

beseech,  -momoxzemosan , to  beseech, plead  with;  namomox- 

~  zemo,I  beseech  one;  namomoxzesta, I;  namo- 

moxztomoe , I  be.  (engage  in, from  habit  or  vocation). 
Among  the  Northern  Ch.the  expression  namomoxz  =1  wor¬ 
ship;  navessemomoxz, I  worship, be. with  one  (in  company 
with).  The  Southern  Ch.  use  the  word  nahadn.I  pray, 
be., worship;  nahethaonatovo , 1  beseech  one  (inf.-he- 
denotes  continued  action);  r.ahaonata,  I;  nahac- 
na.I  am  beseeching, praying.  See  plead, pfaj.  Zemomox- 
zemosansz.or  momoxzemosanehe.the  beseeching  one;  ze- 
momoxzemosaness 5 , the  beseeching  ones ; zemomoxzemsz , the 
besought  one;  zemomoxzemessd , the  besought  ones;  namo- 
moxzemosanevomota, I  be. for  one;  nihessemomoxzemaze- 
notto.I  be. thee  on  one’s  account, for  one’s  interest; 
pref.momoxe-=beseechingly, imploringly  and  governs  the 
sub.cj.,  e.g.  momoxenistovetto , I  be.,  implore  thee  to 
hear  me;  0  mayest  thou  hear  me!  Momoxevomasz -nahesse- 
tamo.O  would  he  see  me, I  think  of  one; I  wish  beseech¬ 
ingly  that  one  see  me;  navovonemomoxzemo , I  well  wish¬ 
ing, be. one;  momoxzemosanistoz , the  beseeching;  emomox-  is  a  beseeching;  momoxztomohestoz, 
continual  beseeching;  emomoxztomohestove , it  is  a  be¬ 
seeching;  emomoxzemosanenov,  there  is  a  beseeching; 
emomoxzemazistov, it  is  mutual  beseeching;  namomoxze- 
tan, I  want  to  beseech;  momoxzetanoxtoz , the  wanting  to 
be.;  namomoxztomoenoz ,  I  be. for  one  (to  get  one);  ni- 
momoxztomohetovaz , I  be. for  thee  (to  have  thee);  naofe- 
nove— momoxzemo , I  persevere  beseeching  one  (-oenov-  = 
persever ingly ) ;  nadtse— momoxzemo ,  I  endeavor , strive 
beseeching  one.  See  wish. 

beset,  feel  beset;  naozetan.I  am  b.;  nadze- 
tanooz.I  become  b. ;  naozetanoozetovo , I  become  b. , 
bothered  with  one;  nahesoeozetar.otovo ,  I  am  b.  .anxious 
on  one’s  account;  naozetanona , I  am  b. (state);  naoze- 
tanoho ,  I  keep  one  b.,  anxious;  r.aCzetanonavoomen ,  I  am 
b. , suffer  anxiety;  namhaetoe,  I  am  b.  (barked  at)  by 



them;  nimaoetto  nimhaetan,  on  all  sides  thou  art  b. 
(namhaeta, one  eats  me  up);  nasoxpstomaoe  ze6neztoess, 
they  ones  who  are  adverse  to  me  (nasoxpsto- 
maovo , I  b., harass  one;  navovoaovetan, I  am  b., perplex¬ 
ed;  nathavs  zepanoetto ,my  sin  which  besets  me  (napan- 
oe'it  besets , cleaves , clings  to  me);  emasdbtoxta,  one 
is’b. by  fears;  (inf.-masd-  implies  suddeness,  over- 
wheiming) ;  emamanseonaoe ,  one  isb.  (with  ornaments, 
^  f  tw/oUdorned  with);  niotaohSnSevetoe , one  besets  thee  very 
much;  nahotoanavomaoz, I  aCm  b.  ,  in  a  difficult  condi- 
tion.  See  hard, difficult 

uf  4^  beside , besides ,  a§.zevetto'  ('detached)  besides, in  afidi- 

(I  - tion  to;  inf.-a&ze-  =Taooi-4»g.,  in  addition ,  connegr 

tion  with, moreover;  ea&zeosen,  one  "besides",  has  i-n 
addition;  eoceheoneve  na  ea&zenom&z , one  is  a  deceiver 
,and  steals  "besides  (in  addition  to);  toxe  (usually 
prefixed) .besides,'  bordering;  toxeohd,  beside,  along 
side  of  the  river;  toxe  zemad,  besides,  skirting  the 
forest;  etoxeha  =it  skirts, is  besides;  eama  (not  to 
confound  with  heam&  -above) , beside ;  eama  meo ,  beside 
the  road;  see  side;  inf.  -pae-  or  -pae-  -besides,  up 
to  equal  to;  hovane  nasaapae-maheonevetovahe ,  no  one 
is ' beside  ®3  as  God  (there  is  no  God  beside  me);  inf. 
-kanom-  denotes  "beside"  in  the  sense  of  concession 
e.g.  nakanomemahac  i  s  eheve ,  al  tho  ,  concedi^fchat^beside 
.  the  fact  that  I  am  an  old  man;  kajmze-  -besfidSs ,  ex- 
^  tra, free, available;  ekanoxzeae , one  is  besides  avail 

able;  mato .besides ,  also;  ahas ,  all  beside, all^else; 

<  able;  mato .besides ,  also;  ahas,  all  oesaat , - -  . 

t  .J^p&etto, beside, close  by;  naeamoxta,  I  pass  beside  it; 
naeamooto  (or.).  See  side.close.near  by, pa 
.>/  , _ . _  n  ,•  nn  nnmnnen  .we  b .  one : 

naeamooxo  tor./.  — .  -j  »P  ,  * 

besiege,  naombnon  or  naoomonon.we;  r.aoomononeo ,we 
-  b . them  (or.).  See  surround. 

besmear,  napapanoeS.I  am  besmeared  with.  See  smear, 
bespatter,  bespatters  us;  napapanoe  - 

,  v  „  - - -  vo  i  be. one;  examaenSpapanoeoenov  ahanomaoxz,^ 

^*11  ^ey  were  simply  bespattered  with  mud;  -heniskomar**6 
W1**  be.  .besprinkle;  naheniskomano  ,  1  be. one  (or . )  ;  niheni  - 
iskomana, thou  be.  it;  zeheniskomansz , the  one  who  be 
zeheniskomanessb , the  be . ones 'f'l*** 
besprinkle,  see  sprinkle;  nahenigkoirfehaz,  I  be.;  nahe 
’ niakomavoto, I  be. one  (or.);  naheniskomovoxz , 

I  be  it 

best,  zehossohamepeva' (superlative  form  of  epeva  -it  is 

-  good);  zetohetSnita , the  b.of  all,  most  prominent, 

important  (from  be  leader  or  -aster) ;  enan- 
osepevae ,  one  is  the  b.,most  excellent;  er.ocepeva,  it 
is  the  b.,  the  only  good  one  (in.);  zehosohamepeva , 
the  d.  ( in. sg. ) ;  zehosohamepevaesz  (,  zehoso 
hamepevaesz , the  (or.);  zehosohamepevaessS ,  the 
b  ones  (;  nitapevae  zeoxheSenchevooS , thou  art 
the  b.of  all  (zeoxheSenohevoss  =altho  there  .e  many,, 






b~VU>  f 




etapeva  zeoxhesenonoez’ , it  is  the  b. among  all  (in.); 
enanotceme , one  (or. and  in.)  is  the  b.,in  worth, value. 
NaeSenoto.I  get  the  b.of  one.persuade  one;  nahepeoce- 
tovo.I  get  the  b.of  one, outwit  one  (from  -hepe-  =rr.ore 
than  +  -oce  =deceive  +  -tovo  =unto  one);  nanovono,  I 
get  the  b.  of  one, beat  him  (as  in  races);  enanosepe-  tastes  b. ;  emxastovsan, one  dresses  in  his  b. 
(-mxastove-  =touching  all);  zeoxhese-hosohamedtsetan- 
otto  nasaameovaohe ,  altho  I  do  my  b.,I  am  not  pros- 
1  perous  (zeoxhege  =altho  being  +  hosoham-dtsetanotto  = 
striving  my  most);  zenanosepeva  zemeheSetto,  the  b.I 
can  do;  zenanosepevaez ’  zemehesezz , the  may  do. 

I  bestir,  bestirs  himself .becomes  moving;  mo- 
moozz,  b.  thyself  .move  !  Esevetano , one  bestirs  him¬ 
self,  is  diligent;  Sevetanooz , bestir  thyself!  Sevasz, 
now  at  it!  b. thyself!  (Ger.nun  los ! ) .  Inf.-Seve-  =di- 
ligently.bestirringly.  See  loose.  .  , 

bestow,  nahethooto.I  be. upon  one;  nanethootan,  I  am 

stowed  upon;  namahooto  (also  namahooto),I  be .  ,  / 

commit  all  unto  one;  mahooxeha,  be  .,  commit  .give  thy, 
whole  heart  to  him.  See  give.  Namahon.I  all. 

\  bestride,  natahoenotto  (or  also  natahoer.oz) ,  I  be.  one 

(or.);  natahoeta,  I  be.  it;  natahog, I  be.,  <. 

riding  fashion.  This  expression  is  also  used  for  sit-^f^/<  ^ 
ting  on  all  kinds  of  vehicles.  See  ride, drive;  natho-  utrr/‘afa*- 
ze  etahoetoe  zeto  horse  (servant)  is  be-  fU*,  & 

„  stridden  by  this  man;  natahoetova,  one  is  bestriding  * 

■  ,mb;  nitahoetovaz , I  be. thee.  Tahoestoz , the  bestriding, 

'  A1'  sitting  upon. 

•bet,  v . enovetazeo , they  are  betting;  nitanovetdzhemd, let 
us  bet!  NixenovSemeno , come  bet  on  us!  Rad.-nov  de¬ 
notes  "less, coming  short  of".  [NanovOno, I  beat  one]. 

,.e1  bet,  n.novgehestoz ,  the  betting;  novSetazistoz ,  mutual 
~  betting;  novSenoham, betting  horse  (on  which  betting 
1  ,  is  made ) . 

.betray,  namesta.I  make  it  appear  (in  words);  nameemo,  I 
&  make  one  evident  (in  words);  this  does  not  imply 

betrayal, but  revealing,  divulging;  emeseetaneva,  one 
betrays  (has  that  bent);  naemoxt’tovanoz,  I  be. one 
(sell  in  secret);  be., cheats.  See  trai¬ 
tor;  emomaxsetaneva, one  be., tells  on;  nimmnaxemo , thou 
tellest  on  one .  -ofa-arf*-  ^  ii^teLr  ri'A*-' 

betrayal,  meseetanevatoz ;  meemazistoz,  the  divulging; 

emoxt’ (for  money);  momaxstanevatoz , 
betrayal, the  telling  on  one. 

lyer,  meseetanevahe ;  momaxsetanevahe ,  be.,  one  who 
tells  on;  emeseetanevaeve ,  one  is  a  be., see 

better,  v . navovetanen , I  better,  reform,  change .prepare  ; 

navovetanaz, I  better  myself;  navovetano.I; 
naonoanen ,  I  b .,  ref  orm,  redress  ;  naor.oanaze  tan ,  I  want 


leU-wW1-  uk'Ur.  «i~  ■e^v£%\li~  ■-'■ 

Lift si~  ^/-^- -^7^^' 

\<hfUMU'  to  be  better;  napevanen,  I;  napevano.I  '*«' 
h  nnP  for.):  napevana,  I;  napevananoz, I  b.then/* 

etter;  napevanen,  I;  napevano.i  (or.);  napevana,  I;  napevananoz, I  b.thenf4^^* 
(in.)  is  bettered,  repaired,  ameliorated;^^ 

„h+v,  ;„fiY  -pvha-  =again ;  naevhapevanen,  I  b .  UStitf 

also  with  infix  -evha-  =agairi;  iiaBvuaycvMKu.i 
ameliorate  again;  eve§epevane,it  is  bettered,  amelio-^tl^^ 
rated  by  or  with;  heto  zeheSezez  niveSepevananon  ^mnii 
vostanehevstonanonan.this  doing, we  b.our  lives;  epe- 
veozistovatto  it  is  bettering,  conducive  to  better¬ 
ment.  See  reform, redress.  Eevhapevatamano.the  weather 
has  bettered, cleared. 

better,  adj . eohamepeva,  it  is  b.  (-oham-  =more  than); 

-  is  b.(-hepe-  =beyond , farther  than);  tastes  b.,or  ehepepeveeno ; _ ehepepev- 
hensenOjOne  knows  b.  ;  ehepceme,one  (or. and  in.)  is  b. 
in  value, worth;  see  comparison.  Zehepepevomao ,  a  b. 
soil;  eh^pepeveoz  meo.the  road  is  b. ;  epevomoxtaeoz , 
one  becomes  b. feels  b.  ;  epe vomoxtaeoxz , one  is  getting 
b., improving  in  health. 

Lj!T  betterment,  vovetanenistoz , the  bettering, reforming;  vo- 

»/ -  vetanazistoz, betterment;  onoanenistoz , be , re- 

/  form, redress;  evhapevanenistoz , b . , the  repairing;  pe- 
vanazistoz.b. ;  pevomoxtaeoxzistoz ,  b. , improvement  in 
health;  evhapavevostanehevestoz,  b.,  improvement  in 
living, beifter  life;  heovasz  hetoomeo  zehoehotaez  ni- 

living, better  lire;  neovasz  neroumeu 

ve§hepevanazistovenon,  the  divers  trials  encountering 
us  are  for  our  b.  (lit.  we  have  for  our  bettering);  1  * t  Y  /  tl  ■ 

jetting,  sap  bet .  ehufjtffMt #■'«  W, 

Between  tofovettofb .  ,  in  the  middle;  to.ovetto  zehetaez, 

T - -  ' b. where  we  are,  in  the  midst  of  our  presence; 

;t?nf . -toov- , etcfovhoe , one  is  b.,in  the  middle;  totohov- 
'KoOroVkHW2' '*  etto  one  b. ,  intervening ;  niS  totohovetto,  two  b.,at 
VUiVh^M)T,«,^«ervals  of  two;  inf  .-totohov(e) ,  in  b.  ;  see  either; 
u  w  ' _ •*-  in  wbfirf)  two  obiects 

meet  a  high  incline;  henova  zeveienitava  mamovetto? 
•  S.rvUW^What  is  the  difference  b.?  T<5na  nasz  makatansz  na  ma- 
v.  toheva  mhayo,nitaomotaaz!Choose  b.  (either)  money  or  a 
tfo*  house  ! Noname td ( either  inf. or  detached)  ,b.  in  the  sense 

E^efe^of  "one  mother";  ^  +v**  ^  °ne 

nonohoma,  b.  in  the  sense  of  "one 
,  to  another"  f'etoovhoeo  hohor.axceo  maxemeneva,  there 

are  stones  b.  , among  the  apples;  etoovensz , they  (in. 

,  f)  .  are  stones  D.  , among  me  _ 

are  b. ;  setov,b.,in  the  middle;  esetovhoe  one  sits 
xtV^^  the  middle ;  esetovhota,  it  sets  b.,m  the  middle. 

3etov  denotes  "b. two,  in  b."  referring  to  the  line  . 
Objects  See  middle.  Letter  "t"  in  itself  implies 
Gw**4)  .  "between,  inter,  set  b.two”.  Eheiretovhota,  it  is  hidden 
by  it, when  an  object  intervenes , sets  as  to  hide 
.winKJ-t- another  object;  ehevetovehoe , one  (or.)stands  b.  , 
cf*  2-**  tM**  hevetovana, I  hide  it  frpm_ 

■  ^ 

placing  something 








b.  it  and  onlooker.  Mhayo  ehevetovhota,  the  house 
stands  hidden, is  obscured , eclipsed  by  another  object  '  * 

standing  and  the  onlooker.  EShaxtaxe.a  go-b. 
bevel,  v.nanovSexd, I  (its  end);  nanovSeso.I  b.  one 
(or.sp.  of  stones);  enovSeS,  it  (or.  and  in.)  is 
bevelled  (cut  in  b.  at  the  end);  enov&e§ensz,they 
(in.)  are  bevelled  at  the  end;  enovaeSen  hohonaeo,  //>  ] 

they  are  bevelled  the  stones, at  the  end;  enovSeha,  it 
is  b . ( sp. of  the  b. surface  itself, not  the  object  bev-  ' 
elled;  enovSeo.they  (or.)  are  bevel;  enovaensz,  they 
(in.)  are  bevel  (the  objects  bevelled);  nanovSso.I  b. 
one  (or.), cut  one  b. ;  nanovax&.I, cut  it  b. ;  eno- 
vaoz  meo.the  road  becomes  bevelled, oblique ;  eeS;cova- 
.1  becomes  bevelled,  oblique,  tilting  from  top  to 

bottom;  ox  eSxovatto , one  side  is  bevelled, is  tilting, 
oblique;  nanovamxiston, I  write  bevel  like,  obliquely. 

”  See  oblique, tilting, 

bevel,  n.novaxeoo. 

^-beverage,  hovae  zeoxcemanistove , something  to  be  drunk;  is  not  a  good  beverage, 
bewail,  namemo.I  bewail  .one  (or.);  namemota.I  bewail 
it;  see  wail  and  weep. 

beware,  nanahetan.I  b.,am  cautious  (in  thot^;  nanahez- 
tovo,I  b.of  one  (or.);  nanahezta,I  b.of  it;  na- 
nahevev&toe , I  urge  to  caution,  to  b. ;  nanahevevamo  I 
urge  one  to  on  his  guard;  nanahetanotovo , 

I  b.of  one  (in.), in  thot;  nanahetanota,  I  b.of  it,  in-  M 

thot;  nanahetanona, I  am  in  a  state  of  bewaring;  nana- 
hetanonatovo , I  behave  bewaring  of  one;  nanahetanoho , I 
keep  one  bewaring, on  his  guard;  nanahetanonaovo , I  im¬ 
part  to  one  that  he  beware.  Nahetanoxtoz , the  bewaring 
(in  thot);  naheztsanistoz.the  bewaring  in  acts;  na- 
/  j  jheztovazistoz, mutual  bewaring;  nahetanohazistoz , the 

keeping’ cautioning.  Zenahetanoz , the  one  who  bewares; 
zenahetanossS  ,  the  bewaring  ones;  zenahetanonaz ,  the 
■ -1*  one  in  a  state  of  bewaring;  zenahetanotcsz,  the  one 

who  bewares  of  me  (in  thot);  zenaheztosz, the  one  who 
b.of  me  (in  acts);  zenahevev&toesz ,  the  one  who  urges 
to  beware;  zenahevevamasz , the  one  who  urges  me  to  b. ; 
zenahevevamessd , the  ones  urged  to  b. ;  nahev&tomosane , 
the  one  who  urges  to  b. ;  nahev&tomohe ( o ) , the  caution¬ 
er;  enahev&tomoe , one  urging  to  b. ;naheztsane , one  be- 
waring;  see  cautious. 

bewilder,  is  bewildered, perplexed;  na- 

~  vovaovaovo,I;  evovaovaoe , one  is  made  be-  / 

Ih  twj  wildered, confused;  navovaovetanoho,  I  keep  one  bewil-  gl/p-l/tZ 
VtflCLUJUt  dered, perplexed;  naononoveoz , I  become  bewildered , con-  tu  </  /L,  c*u- 
(h.  founded , not  knowing  what  to  do;  naononovano,  I  cor\- fun-wctc 
j  '  found,;  r.aononovanen  =1  b., confuse;  Maheo  eono-^  '  / 

7  ,  .  / ' novstahan " ,  God  confounded,  bewildered  their  ( 


heart;  naononovstahaovo , I  make  one  to  be  bewildered 




j^^fSr^ononovs tahaoa ,  one  becomes  bewildered 
>**  .*•*•'  in  . _ +  o  1=  in  a  bewildered  conditi' 


'  heart*;1  eononovhesta,"one  is  in  a  bewildered  condition 
or  disposition;  eononovstaomen, one  is  undergoing, suf¬ 
fering  bewilderment.  See  confuse, confound.  Ehestoye- 
oz.cne  becomes  bewildered, puzzeld  (is  in  straits  be¬ 
twixt);  emas6to tahopetanooz , one  becomes  suddenly  be 
wildered, (from  -mas6-  =suddenly,  at  one  moment  +  to- 
taho-  =in  disorder , confusion  +  -tan-  -mind, thot)  ,  eo- 
haotcene , one  looks  bewildered, scared;  exahec  ohaotoe- 
ne,  one  looks  simply  riveted  by  bewilderment  or 
frieht.  See  disturb, commotion, 
bewilderment,  vovaovetanoxtoz , b . in  thots;  vovaoyacazis- 

— : - toz  b.  ,  mutual;  vovaovetanohazistoz ,  the 

/A*^V^hnaintaining  bewildered;  ononoveoz: stoz ,  the  becoming 

bewildered;  ononovetanoxtoz.b. ,  confusion  m  mind,  on 

^'i>r>^nenis4 oz.the  making  bewildered;  ononovstahatoz 

b., confusion  of  heart;  ononovhestatoz , state , condition 
of  b. •  ononovstaomenestoz ,  the  undergoing, suffering 
b. .confusion;  hestoveozi stoz , b . ,  the  becoming  puzzl- 

\  ed;  masdtotahopetanoxtoz, sudden  b., confusion, disord 

\  of  thots;  totahopestatoz, condition, s. ate  of  b-.disor 

\  der;  ohaotoenestoz ,  look  of  b.  ,  fngh  •  ’ 

\  commotior^-*^  (uaUM*-  bewitching- 

bewitch ,-eShanomosan,  one  causes  death  by  ^witching, 

-  eahanomosha.he  was  caused  to  die  by  on  (  y 

sorcery);  is  said  to  b.;  ehoneh- » 
witcher  sorcerer;  eehoneheoneve , one  is  a  bewitcher. 
?iis  was  mostly  done  by  the  priests, by  words, looks  or 
Tell  It  was  a  sort  of  curse,  damnation  transmitted 
bv  evil  magic  (in  words, looks  or  acts).  Hence,  nae 

KS& £  »ho 

S"e6italtieso»e  wShery  Ir  the 

■  . 

^i^^S^inr5ma8zrstL,:u5turi  b.’,  cum,  damna¬ 
tion;  ovahoamazistoz.b., magical  shooting. 



U.O.L& In^dlc^g.^ 

I  X-  —  'Vt-cf’y'U-4.  -&**■*-)<— 

<-,6— .<-  i(?-ryJ 
e-rdL*  c^'tu—, 

slr>-ry^~c+i^±\u^  >/  <t~  U -4 


beyond,  neamoss .beyond  the  hill,  the  other  side  of  the 
hill, used  also  metaphorically;  neamakoss , b . the 
hidl  distance)j  nhasto.  (detached) , b.  , further ;  pnUJenj* 

inf.-hfep(e)-  =b. ,  farther  than,  and  is  used  for  the  ,/ . , 
comparative  form;  eh&  is  b.good  =better;  h e-/VlJh*yJ 
petto, b.;  hepeoss  and  hepeotto , both  mean  b. ,  farther*'”/  ' 
than;  walks  b.  ;  ehep’  goes  b. ;  g s-Ti/iadreU/a- 
hep’netto  noce  a, one  year  is  b.  ,  passed  away;  e§hep- i*  ?*■  is  b.,sp  of  time  passed  by;  homa, b., over  on 
the  other  shore  (of  lake  or  river);  homa  z&mhaomoeha,  , 

b-  the  great  body  of  water  (ocean);  homa  heama  histan-  &?***■,  o-. 
ov,  in  the  world  b., above;  homa  tano,  over  there  b.a 
body  of  water  or  fluid  substance;  nahepenocz.I  am’ov-X,  ^  /- 
er,b.;  naoomen.I  walk  b.(pass  and  keep  on  going);  Q0- #***'*  **•*«- 
om’nistov ,  the  passing  over  b. ;  oom’nistoz,  Passo  ver^^/T~tf*~ 
(Ger  .Vorubergehen)  ;  (or.)  flies  on  and^T1 
b. ;  (in.)  flies  on  and  b. ;  eoomezeva- 
toahansz , the  (in.)  pass  on  and  b. blown  in  the  air;eo- 
omeamax , one  is  running  away  passing  b. ;  naoomemeohe , I 
am  running  past  b. ;  look  b.,  past  a  point 
and  straight  on;  -ocra  (not  to  be  confounded  with  -h<5- 
hom-  =on  this  side)  denotes  passing  by  and  going  far¬ 
ther  ahead;  hezeno  maatameo  esaa^neohettan, eoxceoom’ - 
netto.hier  the  train  does  not  stop  running, it  passes 
on  b. ;  nszeoxenSheman°s , oha  nszeoom’ne-vostanehevhe- 
man°s  t’sa  oxs  histanov.we  concede  that  we  shall  die 
but  we  shall  live  on  some  other  world;  eoomeka- 
ax, one  jumps  on,  be.,  passing  over.  [Inf.-ome-  (not 
-oome-)  denotes  "off  from  a  surface"; 
jumps  off  from].  Inf.-heom-  the  sense  of  "too, 
over  much, exceedingly" ;  eheomhozeohe ,one  works  b.(sc. 
what  is  expected  ),  too  much; ,  one  is 
strict  b.  (sc  .measure) ,  too  rigid;  inf  .-von-  =b.  reach ,  1 

lost;  is  b. depth;  evonhoesfonstov,  it  is 
b.  count  (usually  meaning  "mi llions" ), losing  count  o f  “9 

evonhetotaetan, one  is  b. himself  with  happiness;  evon-  sets  b. height,  exceedingly  high;  navonetan 
it  is  mind,thot,I  forget;  is  b.  his^- 
head, lost  his  head. 

BiBIei  Maheonemxisto, sacred, godly  book;  Maheo  hemxisto^V^^/-^^- 
God  his  book;  emaheonemxistoneheve, it  is  a  Bible **r. 
Maheonemxisto  Bible,  lit. the  Bible  I  own ; 
hemaheonemxisto , his  (sp.of  God)  holy  book;  Maheone-/. 
mxisto  zeaeno, one’s  Bible;  Maheonemxisto  zeaenoz,  n nr 
Bible;  Maheonemxistoneheva, in  the  Bible;  heto  eamdha 
Maheonemxistoneheva, this  is  the  writing  in  the  Bible; 
eamSeme  Maheonemxistoneheva, it  is  written, said  in  the 
Bible  (when  the  words  are  quoted);  ezheSeamSeme  Ma¬ 
heonemxistoneheva  it  is  thus  written  in  the  Bible 
(when  quoting  the  words  immediately  afterward);  ene- 
SeamSeme  is  thus  said,  written 



in' the  Bible  (when  alluding  to  what  has^already  been 
quoted  or  read);  ezetxeoe  Maheonemxistcnheva,  it  is 
thus  written  (pointing  to  what  is  to  be  mentioned)  in 
the  Bible;  heto  enetxeoe  Maheonemxistoneheva,  this  is 
written  (alluding  to)  in  the  Bible;  emxea  Maheonemxi-  is  written  (state)  the  Bible;  ehoesta  Maheone¬ 
mxisto  , one  reads  the  Bible;  nahoestomevo  Maheonemxis¬ 
to,  I  read  the  Bible  for  one;  ehoeme  Maheonemxisto.the 
Bible  is  read;  vostan  oxhoestoesz  Maheonemxisto , when- 
'  ever  a  person  reads  the  Bible;  oxhoemesz  Maheonemxis¬ 
to  , whenever  the  Bible  is  read;  pref.ox-  ref.  to  the 
occurring,  the  time  when  something  takes 
place;  axhoestoesz  Maheonemxisto , one  should,  ought  to 
read  the  Bible;  axhoemesz  Maheonemxisto,  the  Bible 
ought  to  be  read;  vehSeme  Maheonemxisto.the  Bible  be¬ 
ing  read  (—  implies  "being  kept  on,dwelling 
on";  (Ger.dabei  verharrend).  As  the  Ch.  use  the  word 
omotom  for  "inspired  word"  the  name  Maheoneomotom 
=" inspired  Word  of  God"  is  better  than  Maheonemxisto, 
and  is  not  exotic  to  the  Ch.  religious  terminology. 
Maheoneomotom  refers  not  to  the  Bible  as  a  book,  but 
denotes  its  character  and  contents.  See  book  and 

Biblical,  emaheoneomotomeve ,  it  is  the  inspired  godly 

- Word, is  Pibilcal;  esaamaheoneomotomevhan , it  is 

not  Biblical;  esaanetxeoehan  Maheonemxistoneheva,  it 
is  not  so  written  in  the  Bible, is  not  Biblical, 
bibulous,  emaneheoneve , one  is  b. ,fond  of  drinking;  see 

bicker,  is  bickering , talking  back;  nanono- 
- hevoan.,1  b. , grumble;  nonohevoanistoz.the  bicker¬ 
ing;  en§eoevaeczeo , they  are  bickering, quarrelling  in 
words;  bickers .raises  a  talk;  enaonova- 
tov, there  is  a  bickering;  nahesshaonovatoe ,  they  are 
bickering  on  my  account.  See  grumble, 
bicycle,  ameovamoxzistoz  and  amoeovazistoz ,  the  going- 

-  on-by-machine  (or  magic).  Eameovamoxzistove  and  is  a  bicycle ;ameovamoxzistotoz  and 
amoeovazistotoz , bicycles ;  etahoe  ameovamoxzistovS,  or 
amoeovazistov&.one  rides  a  b. ;  eameovamoxzetto  or  ea- 
moeovatto , the  b,  goes.  , 

bid,  v. navi stomo eta, I  bid . offer .promise  for  (to  have, 
it;  zehestoha  makat  navista  zexhoahetto  hovae  oxho- 
14,  tovatovesz , so  much  money  I  offer,  desiring  something 
^  at  a  sale  (when-  it  is  sold),  I  bid  so  much  for  some¬ 
thing;  matotoa  matonde  makatansz  navistomoetanoz  he^o 
hoe, I  bid  (offer  for)  ten  hundred  dollars  (monies)for 
this  land;  nahepevistomoeta  heto  zeoxhexovoeme ,  I  bur 
more  for  this  than  it  is  (otherwise)  worth;  navesse- 
vista  makat  zexhotovStanotto , I  bid  money,  wanting  to 
buy;  naenanomoxtatanota  heto  hoe  zexhoahetto , I  bid 


(want  to  pay  for  it)  for  this  land, desirous  to  have 
it.  Oxhotovazistovezesz  nha  zehepevistomcsz  eoxchesz- 
hov  at  a  sale  the  one  who  bids  most  gets  the  thing 
(lit. is  appropriated);  zetotaom-vistomoessi  oxhotova¬ 
zistovezesz,  each  one  of  those  who  bid  (the  single 
bidders)  at  a  sale  (when  a  selling  occurs);  nsthoe 
zexhotovatove  nanovse-vistomoeta,  when  thy  land  was 
sold  I  bid  less, underbid  for  it.  Bid  in  the  sense  of 
command, order, enjoin, is  expressed  with  the  instr  mo¬ 
dal  suff.-enano  and  -nenAno  (or.)  and  -nenaha  (in  ) 
this  last  being  rare.  This  commonly  added *’to 
the  verbal  stem.e.g.  nahoen.T  go  out;  nahoenenano  I 
.  bid, order  one  to  go  out;  naeszen.I  enter;  naesznenA- 
no,I  bid,  order  one  to  enter;  naas,  I  leave,  go  away 
naasenenano , I  bid, enjoin  one  to  leave;  nanehevamo  I 
call  one  back;  nanehevavenAno ,  I  bid,  command  one  to 
come  back;  naasenenahemo , I  bid  his  (the  one  with  him) 
to  go  away;  naasenenahe,  one  has  bidden  me  to  leave- 
niasenenaesz , I  bid  thee  go  away.  See  order.  Zehoene- 
nahessfi , the  bidden, ordered  ones  (to  come);  zemohessA 
or  zemoohessi , the  bidden, invited  ones;  namooto.I  bid 
invite  one  to  eat;  nitaaxaotaz  zistoseaseoxzdtto ,  let 
me  bid  th'ee  good  bye  (shake  hands)  as^thou  art  to 
leave.  Zistoshovanes  nahooxeaxaoto , as  he  was  about  to 
die, I  bid  him  (shook  hands  "to"  him)  good  bye.Namase- 
ztovo.I  bid  one  welcome. Bid  in  the  sense  of  pressing 
entreating , urging  takes  suff .— vamo jnaesznevamo , I  bid 
press, urge  one  to  enter. See  pe’rsuasive  Ch.’gr. 
bid.n.makfitansz  zetotaom-vistomoesz  oxhbtovazistov- 
esz.the  single  bids  at  a  sale, 
bier,  niveoxtaos toz, the  four  legged  stand  or  scaffold 
(for  the  dead),  used  by  the  the  abscence  of 
trees, in  former  burials.  The  present  bier  would  like¬ 
ly  be  given  the  same  name, if  in  use  among  the  Ch.  As 
it  is  vevhon  or  vehostoz  would  include  both  the  bier 
and  the  coffin, as  in  Eng.  bier  is  sometimes  used  by 
catachresis  for  coffin  or  even  grave.  Eniveoxtaosto-  is  a  bier, a  scaffold  (for  the  dead);  eniveoxta- 
ostovensz ,  they  (in.)  are  biers,  scaffolds  (for  the 
dead).  The  expression  "for  the  dead"  is  not  in  the 
word  niveoxtaostoz.but  implied  by  the  use  of  that 
special  stand. 

tig,  inf. -tap-  =big, bulky;  etapeone,  it  is  big  (ref.  to 
circumference);  (or.)  is  big;  zetapetaz 
hetan,the  big, bulky  man;  is  big, it  has  size;  to-orfa. 
etaeta, one  is  of  large  size;  is  big  around; 
etonitac,  how  big,  large  is  it?  big, 
large  is  one  (or.)?  etonet&peone ,  how  big  around  is 
it?  etonetapetae ,how  big  is  one?  etonitaone ,how  large 
around?  hape  is  used  to  denote  considerable  in  size, 
dimension, amount,  large  piece,  lump;  hApe  nameta,  one 



gave  me  much  of  it;  etaphaen  kaggon,  the  child  cries 
considerably;  maha  =big  in  size, area;  emahaeneota,  it 
is  big , large  inside;  zemahaeneota, a  big  room;  emahao, 
it  is  big;  zemahao.that  which  is  big;  emahaonsz,  they 
(in.)  are  big;  zemahaosz , the  big  ones  (in);  emaha 
one  (or.)  is  big.large;  emahaetao , they  (or.)  are  big, 
large;  zemahaetaz , the  big.large  one, also  used  to  de¬ 
signate  the  older  one  of  two  children, as:  zemahaetaz  older  son;  zemahaetaz  n&tona,  my  older  daugh¬ 
ter;  zemahaetassd ,  the  big,  large,  older  ones  (or.); 
nanehov  zemahaetato , I  the  big  or  older  on;  zemahaeta- 
ez,we  the  big.large  ones;  emahaone  =etdpeone,  it  is 
large  in  circumference,  only  that  the  first  implies 
the  whole  surface,  whereas  etapeone  ref.  more  to  the 
circumference  alone;  (or.)  gets  bigger, 
larger;  is  too  much, too  big;  etaheomae- 
ta, one  (or.)  is  too  big, too  large;  (from  inf.-heom-  = 
too;  Fr.trop);  zehetaetaetto  big  as  thou 
art  I  am  (big);  I  am  of  the  same  size  as  thou  art; 
namahaanen.I  make  big, or  bigger, I  "biggen" ;namahaana, 
I  make  it  bigger;  namahaano.I  make  one  (or.)  bigger, 
enlargen  one;  (or. and  in.)  is  made  big¬ 
ger, is  "biggened";  emahaanensz.they  (in.)  are  enlarg¬ 
ed;  emahaaneo , they  (or.)  are  made  bigger;  mahaanenis- 
toz , the  making  bigger;  namahaemani sz ,  I  make  it  big; 
namahaemandho , I  make  one  (or.)  big;  emahaemanensz , 
they  (in.)  are  made  big;  emahaemaneo ,  they  (or.)  are 
made  big;  mahaemanistoz , the  making  big;  emahacmoeha, 
it  is  a  big.large  body  of  water;  inf.  mha-  =big, en¬ 
gulf  ing,  cover  ing  to  a  great  extent  or  all  over;  emha-  is  the  great  body  of  water, the  ocean;  emha-  covers  all  (the  large  extent),  sp.of  water. 
See  large,  wide,  great,  much.  Inf.-maxe-  =big, large, 
great;  maxemenoz,  big  berries;  maxemhayo ,  big.large 
house;  maxhetan.a  big  man;  maxehahestoz ,  a  big  voice; 
maxemakata.a  big  money  =a  dollar;  Maxemahe one 3 eva ,  on 
big  sacred  day, on  Sunday;  Maxemaheo, Great  God;  Maxe- 
matasooma, Great  Spirit.  This  inf.-maxe-  is  also  used 
to  denote  high  degree,  e.g.  emaxemashane ,  one  is  very 
wicked;  emaxepeveeno ,  it  tastes  very  good;  maha  used 
detached  is  similar  to  hape  and  designates  a  large 
amount  or  area, e.g.  maha  epoota.a  large  area  is  free, 
empty  (as  a  clearing  in  a  forest, or  room  left  in 
places  otherwise  occupied,  as  seats  in  a  hall  or 
church);  maha  ozetanoxtcz  gave  me  consi¬ 
derable  anxiety;  maha  naegemese.I  have  eaten  a  great 
deal, or  I  have  enough;  emahaatarnaz ,  one  considers  him¬ 
self  big;  nimahaatamo , thou  considerest  one  great, 
bigamist,  zeniSeevaz , the  one  who  has  two  wives;  (— ni§— 
=  two  +  -eva  ="wif ed" ) ;  eniSeeva,one  has  two 
wives;  zeni£eevass6 , the  ones  who  have  two  wives;  eno- 



niSeevao,  they  each  have  two  wives;  nini§eevam&,  we 
have  two  wives;  ninonigeevamA,  each  of  us  is  a  biga¬ 
mist, has  two  wives. 

bigamy,  niSeevatoz.the  having  two  wives;  lit. the  being 
"two-wifed";  ninhastomonenon  niSeevatoz,  b i gamy 
is  forbidden  us;  eniieevAtove ,  it  is  bigamy  or  biga- 

mic . 

bighorn,  qos  ( sg . ) ;  q’san  (pi.)  sheep;  Formerly  the  Ch. 

knew  only  mountain  sheep  and  called  them  q’san. 
[The  etymological  value  of  sound  "q"  or  "k"  in  Ch.  is 
"short, broken  off , abrupt , stub" .hence  the  verbs  -koko-  peck,-kokonon, to  knock, -kokoehd, to  beat  (like 
pulse);  then  words  like  kokoeaso .watch, kokoeaxan, 
chicken, k6koa, quails, etc.  All  these  derived  from  the 
repeated  abrupt, short  sounds].  The  name  qos  or  k6s 
for  sheep  could  be  translated  either  by  "Shorty , Stub¬ 
by  or  Butter  (from  butting).  The  ending  -an  denotes 
gregarious  habits  and  thus  q’san  means  a  flock  of 
sheep.  [Noman, fishes , school  of;  kokoeaxan,  chickens, 
flock  of;  hovan, animals , as  a  tribe  or  group  together; 
Zestan, Ch. tribe  or  nation;  hestan.the  humans;  etc.]. 
Eq ’ saeve , it  ] s  a  sheep , bighorn ;  q'saeson,  small  big¬ 
horn  , lamb ;  see  sheep;  since  the  Ch.saw  the  domestic 
sheep  they  call  the  bighorns  "nhaeq°san,  nhaeqcs  = 
wild  sheep;  also  toxtoeqos , toxtoeq’ san  =field  (prai¬ 
rie)  sheep. [Toxto  =plains, prairies, q. v. , but  ref.  also 
to  anything  unbounded,  ur.domesticated ]  .  Meazeq’san, 
mountain  goat, also  goat.  The  Ch. consider  the  bighorn 
as  a  half  mysterious  animal, but  still  would  hunt  them 
(after  propritiating  the  bighorn  tutelar  spirit)being 
fond  of  mutton, using  the  fleece  for  couches  and  the 
horns  for  spoons  and  plates.  The  horn  spoons  were 
made  by  selecting  nice  specimens  of  horns, kept  in  hot 
water  until  they  would  soften  and  then  fashioned  into 
ladle  shaped  spoons, as  the  fancy  struck  the  design¬ 
er.  Usually  the  butt  end  of  the  horn  was  slit  open  to 
form  the  bowl  part  of  the  spoon,  while  the  tapering 
end  was  curved  in  divers  ways  to  form  the  handle, 
which  was  decorated  by  incisions.  Q,sSevevsz,  sheep 
horn;  q’saevoevetto, bighorn  horn  (vo  =curved  +  vetto 
=horned);  the  last  name  is  applied  to  sheep  horns  as 
used  for  different  purposes. 

bigness,  t&petatoz;  mahaet&toz  (see  big),sp.of  or. stat¬ 
ure  ;  maxehestoz.b. .greatness.  These  n. forms  are 
little  in  use.  The  n.form  the  in. form  emahao  or  eta- 
eone  would  be  mahaoxtoz  and  tapeonestoz,  but  writer 
never  heard  them.  Eotosetanooz  zehesemahaoz ’  nircha-  marvels  at  the  bigness  (that  it  is  big)  of 
thy  house.  VehCrna  zeheSemahaetatovs  heto  hohona,  look 
(you)  at  the  b.of  this  rock!  (lit. how  big  a  stature 
it  is). 



bile,  evehdp, the  gall  bladder;  heoveone .bile ,  gastric 

- 1  juice;  vomits  bile, gastric  juice  (he- 

ovf  =yellow)  cux&L'  ■ 

bill,  maevo , the  b. ;  ehevb.its  b. ;  see  beak, nose;  mxisto 
— (  zeveSeamehA  nistastanenistoz , paper  on  which  it  is 
written  "the-taking-on-time" .  This  may  also  have 
ref. to  account  book.  See  list, 
billiards,  ohdnistoz;  (see  ball);  ohonemhayo,  billiard 

IhZfcZ - house, pool  hall;  plays  b. 

^billion,  matdtoa  matotnde  vonhoestonstov,  ten 

- f - hundred  millions;  the  word  vonhoestonstov  =be- 

tja^l  ^yond  count, lost  in  numbering.  It  was  used  (when  the 
i  V*-*!  LsiM'  Ch.and  Arapaho  sold  part  of  their  lands  in  Oklahoma) 
y-  l.  ^  a.  r  /  o  designate  "million".  An  intelligent  Ch. woman  told 

Viter  that  she  could  count  far  in  her  mind,  but  from 
V*"  .l**'  ten  on,  she  could  not  "grasp  the  number".  She  could 
/  represent  to  herself  ten  in  the  abstract  because  her 
/  sight  could  catch  hold  of  ten  objects , eleven  made  it 
7  harder  and  confusing.  How  much  less  can  they  grasp 
thousand  not  to  speak  of  millions  and  billions! 
billow,  V.  billows, ref  to  the  sinking  ap- 

,  ~T - pearance  of  water  ;  becomes  billow- 

2?^  ing  (billowy);  eseomeostahA ,  it  billows,  (with  rush, 

violence);'  billows, ref.  to  the  crest 
b** .74**'  forming  waters;  becomes  billowy;  ehes- 
*7  t +  ^-io.  billows  in  a  sweeping  rush;  emomoxtome- 
ftf  ,v7  '$5xz,it  billows,  surges  to  and  fro; 
•rf\l  .^/"billows  surging;  emomoxtomeostahA,  it  billows  (a 
h*"  sweeping  surge);  billows,  oncoming  to- 

wards  chore;  billows  with  rush  or 
/  violence , shoreward ;  mapsz  eonovomeostahansz ,  the  wa- 
M  '  ters  b., surging  with  a  rush  shoreward;  eamomeoxz,  it 

billows , surges  on;  eamoineostahA, it  billows,  surges  in 
an  on-sweep;  billows  falling  back,  re¬ 
ceding;  billows  receding  and  fall¬ 
ing  with  violence;  becomes  billow, like 
a  wall  of  water;  enxhetomeostahA , it  sweeps  up  like  a 
wall  of  water;  is  billowing, with  large 
waves;  billows  (the  splashing  of  a 
b.or  wave);  evonomeoxz, it  bi Hows , engulf ing ;  evonome-  billows  with  one  violent  sweep.  In  all  the 
above  forms  the  inf.-om-  refers  to  the  body  or  area 
of  water.  The  suff.-ostahA  [  ir.str.m.of] 
denotes  "with  one  blow,  sweep,  flash, rush".  The  inf. 
-se-  =down  into;  -(h) esse-  =forming  a  crest;  -momox- 
=agitate;  -ono(v)-  =shoreward;  -am-  =onward,  continu¬ 
ous;  -ava-  =fall  over;  -von-  =lose;  -eoe-  =not  set¬ 
tled, surging  to  and  fro  (  wobt).  When  the  whole 
surface  of  the  water  is  not  impli-ed.the  sound  m 
changes  to  "va",thus  -ova-  instead  of  -ome;  e.g.eseo- 
vaoz , eonovovaoz , etc .  See  water. 


billow,  n.secmeoxzistoz.the  billowing;  zeheshesseomeo- 

- - —  the  billows  are  rising;  zehexove-mo- 

moxtomeoxz  (or  -omeozistove)  map,  tass  nanexovhomaoz  the  surging  water,  (as  the  billows  are) 
so  it  feels  in  my  heart  (Ger.wie  die  Wogen  so  wogt  es 
in  meinem  Herzen).  There  is  no  noun  for  billow,  it  is 
understood  with  the  verbal  form  (see  billow.v.); 
ehesseomeoxz, the  billows  are  surging;  eonovomeostahd, 
a  b. comes  shoreward  with  one  rushing  sweep;  etc.  The 
Ch.form  is  sg.,but  means  either  sg.or  pi. 
bin,  vepemax.bin, box;  lit. "empty  wood" ;  vepemaxsz.bins ; 

- ’ evepemxeve,  it  is  a  bin,  box;  evepemxevensz , they 

(in.)  are  bins, boxes.  This  would  ref.  only  to  small 
bins  or  boxes;  zevehota, where  it  is  kept, bin, recepta¬ 
cle;  zevehota  pen’nSo, where  the  wheat  is  held  in, 

(ref. to  standing  receptacles);  zevehotaevosz  mamenoz, 
where  the  corn  is  in;  mamenemhayo,  a  corn  bin  (the 
bin  standing  as  a  building);  mSmenema§q,a  small  corn 
bin;  mamenemhayonoz, corn  bins;  eraamenemhaoneve ,  it  is 
a  corn  bin;  esaam&nenemhayonevhan,  it  is  not  a  corn 
bin;  nasaahemamenemhayone ,  I  have  no  corn  bin;  esa- 
am5menemhayonevhanehensz , they  are  not  corn  bins;  na- 
mSmenemhayonan , I  build  a  corn  bin;  esexahota  mamene- 
mhayc , the  corn  bin  is  standing  finished (-ex-  =execut- 
ed);  esemEmenemhayonane , the  corn  bin  is  built;  esema- 
menemhayonanensz , the  corn  bins  are  built;  mamenemha-  bin  builder;  pen ’nSomhayo, wheat  bin  or 
elevator .also  flour  mill;  hdosemhayo  [hoosemahayo , 
storehouse, where  things  are  stored , cached] ,  coal  bin 
(if  it  is  a  building);  zevehota  hdos, where  the  coal 
is  in.  See  case , receptacle .  — 

bind,  a  package;  nahopo6eto,I  b.  one  v  x 

u -  (or.);  nahopodesz, I  bind  it;  nahopo6estomovo ,  I 

,pV\0  4-Vio  nnp  wVin  hiirls  :  zehnnode . 

it  his; 


that  which  is  bound;  zehopo6esz , the  ones  (in.)  bound; 

■/.***  i  zehopo6esz ,  the  one  (or.)  bound;  zehopodessS  ,  the  bound^^7 

ones  (or.);  hopodesanistoz ,  the  binding;  eh6po  6  e  s  ani  s 

....  •-  V“"“J  >^6^  is  a  binding;  esaahopo6ehan, 

t  is  not  bound 

f,  is  not  to  be  is  not^^,^^ 
a  binding;  esaahopodehe , one  is  not  bound;  zsaahdpode-^^,,,^. 
hesz , the  one  (or.)  not  bound;  zsaah6po6ehanehesz ,  the^^y'^ 
Jj/Jones  (in.)  not  bound;  zsaahopo6ehess6  ,the  ones  (or  *  ^ 
lot  bound;  see  sheaf  .bundle .  Nahoheto.I  bind  one  (in~ 

I L  waddling  clothes )  ;nahoe§esz ,  I  b. ,  bundle  it  up;  nahd-6^^ 

xeesz.I  b., bandage  it;  nahdxesztovo ,  I  b.,  bandage  it(  ~  f 
y**"  one’s;  nahdxeto , I  b. .bandage  one;  see  bandage;  nahoo-'' 

‘  ui‘ln  tameazenaeto ,  I  b.,tie  one’s  hand  behind  one’s  back;^Kf/* 
./^naniSeoxtaeto,  I  b.,tie  one’s  feet;  namanoeoxtaeto ,  l/fy 
.  t^b .  one  ’s  feet  together;  namanoe.dzenaeto ,  I  b.  one’s 
t.-'^^hands  together;  nanonisoeto,  I  b. ,  tie  twox  together ; 

W/W  U-ft/J  namanooet^I  bind,  tie  them  together :  namanooesz 



it  together;  namanooto.I  b.them  (or.)  together;  nama- 
nooxta , I  b . it  together;  nimanootanhemfi, ,  we.  are  bound 
0  together  (tied);  emanooeo , they  (or.)  are  bound,  tied 
together;  emanootovo  hestovotto , they  (or.)  b. together 
(inflated  skins);  manoot£,zistoz,the  binding  together; 
nanonoevaseeto , I  b.,tie  them  (or.)  each  by  the  tail; 
nanoniSeevaseetS.I  bind, tie  them  two  by  two  by  the 
tail  (-nonis-  =by  twos  +  -evas-  =tailed  +  -eto, denot¬ 
ing  tying;  is  bound  (the  edges  of  a  gar¬ 
ment  .provided  with  a  border  or  edge.  See  edge, border, 
tie.  The  ending  in  -et  refers  to  tying, 
binder,  hopodesanehe ,  the  one  who  binds;  hopodeseo , the 

-  binder, also  bundle  and  sheaf;  hopo6esane-oexova- 

toz, binding  machine , binding  mower;  oexovatoz  zeaaze- 
hopo6esanetto .mower  which  binds  besides  (at  the  same 
time) . 

binding,  heto  navegetoetan.this  is  binding  for  me. 
biped,  zeniSeoxtaz.the  one  having  two  feet;  zeniSeox- 

*  -  tassd.the  two  legged .footed  ones;  eniSeoxta , one 

is  two  footed;  niSeoxtaestoz , the  being  biped;  enise-  has  two  legs  (also  said  of  two  wheeled  wa¬ 
gons);  eniseoxtaoz , one  becomes  tow  legged.  Inf.-oxta- 
=legged.  See  leg. 
birch,  vesceess,  birch  tree. 

bird,  vecess;  vekseo , birds ;  Rad.-vece-  denotes  pocket; 

-  is  hollowed  out;  vecenhastoz , pocket ; 

vecess  would  mean  small  depression,  concavity  and 
might  have  ref. to  the  bird’s  nest, but  nest  is  a  dif¬ 
ferent  word.  Writer  derives  the  word  vecess  from  rad. 
_hec-  =soft,  mellow,  downy  to  the  touch;  vhecess  = 
little  soft  one.  Vekseha.she  bird  (used  as  a  woman’s 
name);  hetaneham  vecess, male  b. ;  heeham  vecess , female 
b.;  meSeeva.the  fuzzy, downy  one, not  fledged;  moneva- 
to, fledgeling;  otatavekiess .blue  b.  (Sialia  sialis); 
maevess , red  bird  (Cardinalis  cardinalis);  maxe vecess, 
the  eagle,  great  bird  (see  eagles);  heheenon, black 
birds  .usually  the  red  winged  ones  (Agelaeus  phoeni- 
ceus);  maheonevecess, sacred, mysterious  bird  (a  red  b. 
mentioned  in  a  tale  connected  with  the  ceremonial  ar¬ 
rows);  honihetanevecess , wolf— man  b.,the  American  blue 
jay;  honi  =wolf  +  -hetan  =man;  the  name  Wolfman  is 
given  by  the  the  Pawnee  Indians;  heovkaevecess , 
little  yellow  bird,  the  Flycatcher;  evecesseve  or  is  a  bird;  vhos, bird’s  nest; 
makes  a  nest;  enhohona,  it  (or.  for  the  Ch.)  is  set¬ 
ting;  ehokova* it  (or.)  is  hatching;  eShokovao , they 
are  hatched;  zeto  vecess  emomeSeoxta,  this  b.has 
feathery , hairy  legs  and  feet.  See  fly.  Following  are 
some  proper  names ;•  VecessevokomSsz.Whitebird;  Vecess- 
oxhastxess .Many birds ;  Maevess , Redbird ; Heheenon , Black¬ 
bird;  Monevato , Youngbird  (Fledgeling);  Hokova,  Hatch. 


e~  - - 

_2./ 4>C-t^^d/t7  4-c. 






birth/  hestaozistoz,  the  becoming  born;  (from  nahesta.I 
am,  have  existence;  nahestaoz.I  come  into  exis¬ 
tence; taozistoz , the  new  birth.the  being 
born  again  from  the  first;  eaneoz.she  gives  birth; 
eaneozetovo , she  gives  one;  anistoz,accouchement; 
aneozistoz.the  being  born;  ehetanevcen, she  gives 
a  male  child;  eheevoen.she  gives  a  female  child. 

This  suff.-oen  is  the  Eng. "bring  forth";  ehestacevo- 
en.she  gives  twins;  ehestoxheevoen,  she  gave  b. 
last  to  a  girl;  etotohovheevoen , she  gives  a  girl 
at  intervals  (alternating  with  boys);  etotohovhetane- 
voen  ,  she  gives  a  boy, .  (alternating  .with,  girls); 
see  child.  (Enesthoeseama,ffiio  Ta  d a-_ch4.Ld ; 
etotohovhenison.she  gives  a  child  at  intervals 
(from  time  to  time,  leaving  intervening  time;  ena- 
zeane , she  dies  in  childbed;  hestahe, afterbirth;  ehox-  is  a  birthmark.  This  may  also  apply  to  other 
spots  on  the  body;  eaneozetan, she  is  in  travail;  na- 
sestoz , premature  b. ;  ndsoxzz,  premature  born  child 
enas* , she  has  a  premature  b. :  zenasz.the  one  who  hm 
a  premature  b.  Enotomoen,  she  gives  b.  to  her  first 
child;  enqkoen,  she  gives  b.  to  her  only  child-  4 

child .  <?/l .cA  t/(L4r/e  ■,«  f£c  ^.  <  i  • 


birthday,  eseva  zeveshestaozistove ,  the'  day  in  which 
there  is  birth;  eS  zeveSemeetanotoe  hestaozis¬ 
toz, day  wherewith  the  birth  is  remembered;  hiz  egeva, 
nohonde  5  etanexov  zenxheShestaozetto ,  to-day  there 
are  (lit. is)  fifty  years  since  I  was  born, 
birthnight ,  taeva  zexhestaozistove ,  in  the  night  when 
birth  took  place. 

birthplace ,  zexhestaozevo , the  place  where  I  was  born 
/  ^  hoe  zexhestaozevoss ,  the  land  where  thou  wast, 

/.  born.  f */<*£****• **•£»*&& 

biscuit,  aksevanoxz ,y  )iene^ 
bison,  see  buff alo .  1/ /  .  / <t7r  / . 

'bit,  hox&zenSsi 

j  ~  small  quantity  .piece ;  tozce, small  bit  of  each;JT^g 

//£J  .^/hataaxcejby  bit;  heva  taxce  nasaametahe,  one  did  not/^-^-w<*^« 
fali f*l  Sive  me  even  a  bit,  small  piece;  tozce  makStansz , a><-«- 
,*tf*few  bits.pieces  of  money;  otaheo,  bit  or-  auger.  See^^s 
J  piece,  small.  The  Ch.  called  a  25  cents  piece  "toviz",/""*'^ 
VAj^L,  which  is  a  corruption  for  "two  bits".  A/ 

\  bite,,  v.eahanosan,  one  bites,  is  biting  (faculty);  eaha  n-*L**~~  i~TZ/i 

~  >xta,one  bites  it;  eahanoto,  one  bites  one  (or.);-^^*— — — 

j+i/c  ‘ 


bit  and  bridle;  see  bridle.  Taxce ,  sf 

ce;  tozce. small  bit  of  each:  7/^, 




!>-.  ,hes1  bites;  na6xta,  I  bite  it  (leisure-  „ 

„  r  _ _ 

nSoevoxta.I  bite  of  it  (piece  by  piece);  napoe-^ 

I  bite  it  off;  napoevomo.I  bite  one  off;  nahes-  .  • 

'San,I  bite,  (to  take  in  mouth, as  fishes  bite);  na-/*T- 
ono.I  bite  one  (or.)  nahestoha,  I  bite  it  ( in.  )  ./Lag 


1-^7  ~hestomosan,-hestono  and  -hestoha,  does  not  .... 

0  hCL^77a/  ^  «/ 

.  *  W  <2^  // cm  ru/  _  k lia-at _ 1 




A  m 


^9  R  <!/  *  /iwrMrjLmujb  &&*■**■ 

ply  the  biting  with  the  teeth,  but  more  a  "taking, ^  v^V- 
drawing, sucking"  by  holding  with  the  mouth.  The  Ch.  fart  Vp 
doctors  use  this  a  great  deal  in  treating  their  pa- 
tients .Nahestoomevo  (also  nahestomevo ) , I  hold  it  with^’  Lr 
;M  the  mouth  for  one;  [nahestoomevo  means  also:  I  reach  h'/'J 
mu'  t%I  after  it  for  somebody  (by  means  of  a  stick,  etc. )]  , 

/.  Napopoomo  n&thchevon, I  bite  my  nails  off  (from  napo-^Ur  /r'ft 
ox ta.I  bite  it  off;  napopooxta,!  bite  each  off);  eoe-r^a^ ill 



^  omo  hesthohevon.he  (of  animals)  bites,  gnaws  off  hisjvt  (t( 

claws;  ehestomo  (h)  etto ,  it  bites, takes  a  grip;  eahano-£,v 

tazeo ,  they  bite  each  other  (envy).  See  envy.  ^ 

J  bite,  n.ahanosanistoz.the  biting;  hestomosanistoz ,  fhes^ 

tomohestoz ,  the  bite, the  hold  with  the  mouth;  noka  H  ,  -ffh  'y- 
i Lsf‘  A  hoseo  or  bite, one  mouthful;  ahanotazistoz ,  // 

\*r  the  biting  each  other.envy  w  1 

it-.  H'e.itM' 

lous;  eahanomae.he 

is  biting  (of  animal;  fig. of  persons);  eahgnose 

biting,  is  biting,  envious;  is  biting  ( characteristic ) 
bitter,  tastes  better;. Jj^veoxc-  =bitter 
-eno ,  savoring )  f Wl>%feS.aveo^eenonarr, 

—  - , _ .  .is  not  b. 

(in  taste);  zeveSeveoxceeno.that  which  makes  it  taste 
b.;  naveoxkovana,  I  make  it  b.  (liquids);  eveoxkae,  one^/t**,  •<  ;,V 
is  b.;  veoxcemap,  b.  water;  ,eveoxcevoomen,he  suffers  in' 
bitterly  ^condition) ;  eveoxcstaha,  one  is  bitter  y',,  i 
hearted;  niveoxcstahatovo ,  thou  art  bitter  hearted  „ /'  dy 
against  (another)  one;  eveoxceesz , one  speaks  bitter- 
'y  .•P1  ly;  veoxcemanistoz.b.  drink;  veoxcevostan,  b. person;  ' 

1  r1  ,eveoxchesta,one  is  b.  (in  a  b.  disposition, makeup)  ; 

..y  y eveoxcetonetto ,  it  is  b.cold;  eveoxcestavoss ,  one  has 

.v'-  b.cold  ears;  eveoxc'estavfiseo ,  they  have  b.cold  ears; 
y  feels  b. ;  eveoxcevostaneheve,  one 

leads  a  bitter  life.  is  me.  I  »/ 
regret;  see  sour .  ,  pv.MvvvV,  &V ■  * ' 

bitter,  n. zeveoxceeno , the  b. ,  that^which  is  b.(in  taste , 
/““j^^but  also  used  fig.);  zeveoxceeno  na  mato  zevece-  'JU-  ' 

‘enn  nioxcemetanenon  zeheSevostanehevez ,  the  b.  and  the 
given  us  while  we  live. 

bitterness,  veoxkastoz, (state ) ;  veoxchestoz,  the  being 
bitter;  v%xcstahatoz,b.of  heart;  veoxcevoo- 
menestoz.b.  in  suffering  jj^veoxcetanoxtoz ,  b.of  thot. 

See  sourness.  Veoxclvcrtrfox^aetoz ,  b. feeling, 
black,  emoxtav6,it  it  is  b. ;  is  b.  (lighter 
shade  or  a  small  surface);  emoxtavonsz , they  (in.) 
are  b.(see  blacken);  emoxtavae , one  (or.)is  b. (state); 
emoxtavaeo , they  (or.)  are  b.  ;  emoxtavaensz.they  (in.) 

•  are  b.  The  difference  between  emoxtavd  and  emoxtava 
cannot  be  well  expressed  in  Eng.  The  first  has  an  ac¬ 
tive  and  the  second  a  passive  or  stative  meaning.  % 

Moxtav  and  moktav  denote  black  or  deep  blue  color. Voe 
hoosea  eheSemoxtavd , the  sky  is  black  like  coal  (hoos 
=coal  +  ea  =like);  nSe  Smoxtavgenao  zememstar.essS , the 




dead  lie  black  drowning,  it  was  black  with  dead 
(people)  lying  from  drowning;  emoxtavsena, one  lies 
black  (posture  ;  smoxtavcme,  is  b. (sp.of 
liquids);  (atmosphere) 
is  b.;  emoxtavona, the  morning  is  b. ;  moxtav  and  mok- 
tar  can  be  used  as  inf.  to  designate  b.  Moxtav&ho.b. 
man.negroe;  moxtavdhoa.b. woman;  is  b. 
tailed;  moxtaemen,  b.  snake;  moxtaemenoz,  b. berries; 
moktaveonavokSz , b . beads ;  moxtavoham.b. horse;  moxtav- 
geon.b. cloth;  emoxtavsan, one  dresses  in  b. ;  zemoxtav- 
sanessd ,  the  ones  dressed  in  b. ;  moxtavhoestot.b. 
dress;  zemoxtavhoestasso , the  b.  robed  ones  (catholic 
priests);  moxtavhomd , b . robe ;  moxtaveohe , b. creek ; ernox- 
taveoxta , one  has  a  b.leg;  moxtavhohona , b . stone  (name 
for  the  Black  Hills, in  South  Dakota);  moxtaveSnd ,b. 
hawk;  moxtaveto.b. kettle  (also  a  pr.r.ame);  inf.-aeno- 
ne-  denotes  the  sense  of  dark,  absence  of  color;., 
see  dark.  Zeneamanemoktavd , b. ( coffee  brown);  zemoxta-  (saphire);  (of  hor¬ 
ses, animals)  is  b.and  white  spotted;  emoktavehema ,  it 
(animals , especially  horses)  is  b.and  white  speckled; 
emoktavenehema, iron  (black)  gray, sp.of  horses;  emok- 
tavehemenpohon.b.roan  spotted;  emoktavenehemenpohon, 
iron  roan  spotted;  [sp.  oT~animals  and 
birds, the  suff.-ova  ref. to  the  fur  or  pelage]  is  b. 
furred;  emcxtavovao , they  (or.)  are  b. furred;  emoxta- 
vovatt  , it  (in. sp.of  pelts, etc.)  is  b. ;  emoxtavenShe , 
one  (or.)  looks  (in  appearance)  b. ;  emoxtavenoheo , 
they  (or.)  look  b. ;  emoxtavencno , it  looks  b. ;  emoxta- 
venonoensz,  they  (in.)  look  b.  ;  emoxtaveoaseM,  it 
shines  b. f  zemoxtaveoaseha, the  shining  b. ;  emoxtave-  gets  b. (process  of  time);  (or.) 
becomes  b. ;  becomes  and  stays  b. ;  emox-  turns, becomes  b. ;  emoxtavene , one  has  a  b. 
face;  turns  the  face;  namoxtav- 
aovo.I  make  one  to  be  b. ;  smokes  b. ; 
zemoxtavoetto , b. paint  (ref. to  house  or  wagon  paint); 
hdos.coal  (used  to  paint  the  face  partially  b.  denot¬ 
ing  peace  after  war, also  victory).  Ch.  pr. names  com¬ 
bined  with  "black"  are  the  following:  Nizemoxtavasz , 
Blackeagle;  Moxtaveano.Blackhawk;  Moxtavecess .Black¬ 
bird;  Moxtameaz,  Blackbeard;  Moxtaven&ko,  Blackbear; 
Moxtaveto.Blackkettle ;  Moxtavhoni .Blackwolf ;  Moxtave- 
ne .Blackface ;  Moxtavataneo ,  the  Utes;  Moxtav&tataneo , 
theBlackf eet ;  Moxtaveomehetaneo.Blacklodge-men;  Mox- 
tamaoxeena , Black-head-feather . 
blacken,  namoxtavanen. I  b. ;  namoxtavana  (in.);  namoxta- 
~  vano  (or.);  namoxtaveneno , I  blacken  one’s  face; 
namoxtavan&z , I  b. myself;  namoxtavenesz, I  b.  my  face; 
namoxtaveneoz, I  b.  in  the  face;  namoxtavdno . I 
with  instr. ;  namoxtavoha, I  (with  instr.);  nave- 


blacknio  ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY  blandish  blackens  my  hands  Vmoxtav  =black  + 
eona  =handed  +  -oz  =become);  nave^emoxtavataoz , it 
blackens  my  foot  (-ata  =footed) ;  namoj^av&taovo ,  I  b. 
one’s  feet, make  one  to  have  black  feetK  emoxtavcmeoz, 
the  water  becomes  black.blackens ;  emasdrfoxtavomeosta- 
h&;  the  water  blackens  with  one  sudtren  sweep  or 
•  flash.  a  ] 

blacking,  hovae  zevegemoxtaveoase-voanisl|ove ,  shoe 
'  blacking  (something  whereby  shoes  lare  polish¬ 

ed);  maataehoesta  zevegemoxtaveoasehd,  stove  black¬ 
ing  (wherewith  the  stove  is  made  to  shine  black), 
blackish,  is  b. ;  emoxtaveneova, it  is 
b.(fur);  is  b. (water , liquid) . 
black-jack,  hookomeS , black-oak  (Q,uercus  nigral, 
blackness,  zs&enonitto , that  which  is  b.,dark;\see  dark, 
blacksmith,  tononehe .tononeveho ,b. , (veho  =white  man);  is  a  b. ;; 
natonoha.I  (instr.m.). 

blacksnake ,  moxtaemen, also  called  maatameo,  iron  serp- 
ent;  it  is  from  this  that  the  word  for  rail¬ 
road  rails  was  derived, the  shape  of  the  rails  looking 
like  a  streched  out  blacksnake. 
blackdeer,  moktaevaseva  vaozeva  (the  Columbia  deer.mule 
Ifeer ,Cariaeus  columbianus ) . 

bladder,  xaenooxz;  b.;  nomaheponSo,  fish 

blade,  zehetox,  the  whole  blade;  zehestovonenetto , 

-  double  b.;  zexhetonenetto.b. ,the  cutting  part, al¬ 
so  evesa,  it  is  bladed,  sharp  edged,  provided  with 
teeth;  he.ves  its  edge.blade. 
blame,'oeeto,  I  b.  .accuse  one;  nahesseho.I  b.  ,  make 

[one  to  be  the  cause  of;  ehessazenov ,  ehessevotaze- V1* 

/.they  shove  the  blame  on  each  other  (lit.  there  is 
ilaming  on  each  other);  is  put,  /**  A,j 
.rged  to  me,  I  am  blamed  for  it.  [Naheszhov  =1  have  Jjf/'  f^“ 
fme thing;  naheszhovaovo ,  I  make  one  have  something  * 

j.. seme  thing ;  nahesznovaovo ,  1  maite  one  nave  suiuc  uuug 
/tM'  ■  '  -  -  '-!)]•  Het0  havs  will 

charged  (blamed  for)  with  this  evil.  Heto  nitao  ►  J/n/ 

charged  (blamed  for) 

*  '^/  are  blamed  ^for  ^all^thi  s 

yjy  S'  j  censure , chide . 

ckcCt*rl/j)  stales,  tUj  sutd.tfix'i 

oz;  hessevotS-zistoz,  the  blaming  eacl 


,g  /  /lame ,  ’  n i h es s a z i  s t oZT'his &7oiK2  is’toz’, the  blaming 

other;  oeetazistoz , b  the  accusing  of  each  other. 

/  blanch,  navokomana,  I  b.  it;/  evok/meneoz,  it  blanches; 

evokomeneoz , one  blanches  in  the  face;  evokomene- 
/  blanches  (instantly).  See  bleach, whiten. 

bland,  inf.-hotoa-  =bland , generous , suave ;  ehotoaheone- 

/ - ve , one  (or.)  is  b. ;  ehoxaztaheoneve , one  (or.)  is 

b. .complaisant, congenial. 

blandish,  inf .-momehem-  denotes  b ., cajole , flatter ;  na- 
momehemoan.I  utter  blandishing  words;-  namome- 





hemosan.I  b.  ;  namomehemo.I  b. .flatter  one;  namomehe- 
mehesta.I;  namomehemehestomoe ,  I  b., speak  coax- 
ingly(doing  it  repeatedly);  namomehemehestomosan, I  b. 
(implies  faculty  of);  momehemevostan, blandishing  per¬ 
son  momehemhetan  ,  blandishing  man;  momehemoane , bland - 
isher ;  momehemosanehe .momehemehestomosanehe .momeheme- 
hestomohe , blandisher .  The  three  have  almost  the  same 
meaning  only  that-  the  last  denotes  actual  doing;  emo- 
mehemesetaneva,  one  blandishes  (from  habit  or  voca¬ 
tion);  emomehemesetanevaheve , one  is  a  blandisher (from 
habit) ;  momehemesetanevahe , blandisher , flatterer ;namo- 
mehemetan, I  want  to  b.  ;  is  bland¬ 
ishing  (in  disposition);  emomehemstaha,  one  has  a 
blandishing  heart;  emomehemoeta,  one  is  a  blandisher 
(in  acts);  emomehemevxiston, one  writes  blandishing; 
zemomehemehestov, that  which  blandishes;  momehemehee, 
blandishing  woman;  emomehemenche , she  looks  blandish¬ 
ing,  cajoling;  heto  naveSemomeheman, I  am  blandished  by 
this;  nioxcehahaneoevo  momehemehestovA, one  approaches 
you  by  blandishing, blandishment ;  napopevemo,  I 
(or.)  [from  napevemo  =1  speak  well  of  one;  the  inf. 
-po-  denotes  reduplication  of  the  action;  the  suff. 
-emo  in  v. "discendi”  has  a  genitive  meaflTRg;  napeve- 
mo,  I  speak  well  of  one;  nipevemaz.I  speak  well  of 
thee;  the  dative  f. would  be:  napevooto,  I  speak  well 
to  one.praise  him];  emomehemomao ,  it  is  blandishing 
ground, enchanting, cajoling;  see  flatter , coax,  cajole, 
enchant . 

blandisment,  popevemazistoz  or  momehemazistoz;  momehe- 
'  “  mosanistoz , the  blandishing;  momehemehesto- 

mohestoz, b. in  actual  repeated  doing;  momehemehestomo- 
sanistoz  b. ;  momehemesetanevatoz,  habit  of  blandish¬ 
ing.  Nahetanotom  zehetSeveSe-momehemazistove,  beware 
(ye)of  all  blandishments!  Momehemoanistoz , blandishing 
utterances;  zemomehemomaoe , the  enchanted  ground, place 
of  blandishment  (having  ref. to  the  ground);  momeheme- 
eszistoz.b. in  speech;momehemeeszistxe,the  collection, 
realm  of  b.  ;  esaamomehemehestovhar.,  it  is  not  a  b. ; 
momehemetanoxtoz , b. in  thot;  momehemevostanehevestoz , 
the  leading  a  life  of  b. , cajolery;  momehemetanoxtoz, 
thot  of  b. ;  momeheme— voomenhestoz,  enduring  b., flat¬ 
tery;  momehemstaomenestoz, in  the  state,  condition  of 
b. ;  momehemezhestAtoz, disposition  of  b. ;  momehemevxi- 
sto, writing  of  b. ;  momehemhetanistoz ,men  of  b. ;  mome- 
hemhistanov.a  world  of  b. ;  momehemenohestoz , look,  ap¬ 
pearance  of  b.;  momehemoetastoz , act  of  b.  This  inf. 
-momeheme-  denotes  blandishing,  coaxing,  cajoling, 
wheedling, making  agreeable , caressing, flattering,  used 
either  in  a  good  or  bad  sense. 

blandly,  inf.-hotoe-  =with  suavity,  gently, generously, 
~  favorably  disposed;  ehotoeesz,  one  speaks  b. ; 


^^mY^wOW  „  .  «. .  u.) 

\a*0L'  fahult  ,4nV  .  iivunr*tvWt4  „+  tVO^-04  H^,  l*L 


ihotoem&zeo.they  are  gently  disposed  towards  each 
inf ,-nonizeom-  ='blandly, gently ;  see  gentle. 
hlandneV?,  hotoastoz , complaisance ;  hoxa^taheonevestoz , 
b. , congenialty ;  nonizeomastoz , gentleness . 
blanket,  v\nanhcmano , I  (or.):  nanhomanetan, I  want 
to  be  blanketed;  nadnhomano.I  take  the  b..  (lit. 
unblanket )  sY-om  one;  see  robe, 
blanket,  n.hom\,sg. ;;  nathoman  (excl.).our  b.; 

nathoraai^o ,  pi . ;  nsthoman.our  b.  (incl.);  nstho- 
V'  — n!SVo,your  b.;  nsthomevo , pi .  Homd  is  considered  or. by 
1  mI*''  -i"  the  Ch*  N^vomo  VeohSpevaesz  homd ,  I  saw  a  very  good 

^  b.,robe;  zenhomanessd , the  blanketed  ones;  homanazis- 
j  .e^  toz , the  blanketing/pretexting ;  heto  nahesthomanazis- 

qjjlfl  If  '  ^ytov,it  is  my  blanketing, pretext;homaoestoz,saddle 

.jjjp-  .  ^  b.  ;  vox 

Seononhomd, calico  b. ;\  tonovhomd  thick  b.  (-onov-  = 
dense;  -tonov-  =thick )  ;\mahomS. ,  red  b. ;  pokhomd,  gray 
b.  ;  voxbomd, white  gray  b/'t  b. ;  zezex- 
homd, shawl  or  b.with  fringe^:  heocevhomd, fringed  b., 

.  all  around;  see  robe.  ESexhomsjiistov, the  blanket  are 

ready, the  bed  is  provided, (see  N?ed) ;  zexhomaoez , it . is 
a  b.for  us, meaning  "goal".  Formerly  a  b.  was  used  to 
designate  the  goal  in  races, etc  .ft**?**?,  J. 
blare,  tapen  enistohetto , the  trumpet  blares.  7i 
.blaspheme,- etotazeesztovo  blasphemes  against 

God;  etotazetanotovo  Maheon,  one  blasphemes'? 
'^--''TYhot)  against  God;  etotaznonoan, one  utters  mockery, 
blasphemious  words;  ehatavsevenonoanetovo  Maheon,  one 
.  ,p„  'izters  evil  words  against  God;  ehathavsevenonoan,  one  e^r 
4-q] W  driitters  evil, blasphemious  words;  etotohoxtoan, one  ut-  * 

^  #•'  ters  mockinS  words;  etohosenonoan,  one  utters  revil- 

ing,  blasphemious  words;  natotohoxtodho ,  I  impart  meek¬ 
ly  i  lj.  ery  .blaspheme  to  one,  treat  one  blasphemiously ;  etaze- 

.(M  A/t  ne,one  has  a  contemptible  face;  tazend  (name),  blas- 
.jPl1  phemious-face ;  nha  zetotaznonoanetovoz  Maheon  zetaev- 

(r  J0’/  hahoehota  tama  hetotaznonoanistoz ,  he  who  blasphemes 

i against  God, to  him  will  come  again  his  own  blasphemy, 
jf  v  Zetotaznonoansz.the  one  who  blasphemes;  zetotaznonoa- 

r'JV  \y  ,  netoesz , the  blasphemed  one;  zetotohoxtoesz , the  one 
JT  ideated  revilingly, blasphemiously ;  nha  zehathavseve- 
$  ,r  v  llrtohosemoz  Maheon, the  one  who  blasphemes  God,  (this  is 
r  uw  J^the  strongest  term);  see  contemptible , mock, revile . 

iV'  .*)(»  ../blasphemy,  totaznonoanistoz ;  havsevenonoanistoz,  evil 
yjtfxjtfi"'  utterance;  hathavsevetohosnonoanistoz ,  b. ; 

i  k ehathavsevetohos-nonoani  stove ,  it  is  a  b.,  or  it  is 
T  7  blasphemious.  See  blaspheme,  from  which  many  other 
j 0  J>  noun  forms  can  be  made. 

Vr  Jr  jr  blast,  epoehova,  one  (or.)  blasts,  does  the  blasting; 

{.  ,Ve-  epoevoh6otta,it  blasta, burst  asunder(with  a  flash 

^  of  light, as  powder);  poehovatoz , the  blast;  enxmaxhae- 
Vi*j ostahfi, ,  a  blast  of  wind;  see  wind;  epepeostahansz ,  they 
rr  (in.)  ara  blown  to  pieces  by  a  blast  of  wind;  epe- 


voea,  it  is  blasted  asunder,  apart  (has  ref. to  the 
shattering);  eoxevohootta,  it  bursts  with  blast.  The 
inf.-vohoo-  denotes  the  flash  of  the  blast.  Zemas6ni- 
stohetto  tapeno.the  blast  of  the  trumpet, 
blaze,  emomaatova,  it  blazes;  eohaatova,  it  blazes  up 
'  '  (with  smoke).  The  suff.-tovS-  or  -tovao-  implies 

fire  and  smoke.  See  flame, fire.  a 

bleach,  evokomaneoz, it  b., becomes  white;  evokomene,  one  the  face;  evokomeneoz, one’s  face  b., becomes 
pale;  evoxbomeoz,  it  (liquids)  b. , becomes  whitish; 
evoxbomeostahA, it  turns  instantly  whitish,  it  b.  ins¬ 
tantly  (liquids);  ehecevoxpoovaoz ,  it  turns  slowly 
(quietly)  white , bleaches  (ref.  to  furs);  see  blanch, 
white.  is  bleached, whitened, (as  branches 
of  trees  or  bones  when  dried  up);  evokonaota,  it  sets 
stands  bleaching.  See  dry.  Nahoeiemo  hoeva,  I  spread 
it  (or. when  sp.of  drygoods)  on  the  ground  to  dry  (and 
bleach) .  -  ^  ~  v  J)  V  ft/?'***- 

bleak,  nemexomao ,,  ground;  ookomaoxzeg'e ,  barren/^qff^y- 
”  grouna.  (as  :.f  peeled);  ehon6s,  it  is  b.,  dreary 

lonesome ;  (ehonStatamano ,  i t  is  b.  .dreary, desolate,  (sp/’Z _ — 

‘of  the  whole  appearance  of  a  place);  etohovetoeve ,  it  -  i 
is  a  desert, b. place.  ,  eJW'-”'-'  c  v  i.  ■ .  .‘V 

blear,  emomapeo ,  one  ’  s  eyes  are  bleared ,  di  rrir.ed  by  tears  .  ^  ft//-. 
bleat ,  bleats , lit . "\s  heard".  This  is  said  ’  < 
not  only  of  sheep  but  all  animals  except  the  dog. 
bleed,  becomes  bleeding  (from  mae  =blood)  ;  .  rj. 

,  eohamaeve,  it  is  much  blood/bleeding;  eohSe6ta,  it 

i yiDtJW*'  iS  bieeding(a  wound);  ehevoeoz  ,/>ne  bleeds  to  death  ( in  e> 

a  short  while);  ehevoeoxz ,on"e ' bleeds  to  death  ( longer tK*-i'*+*~* 
time);  hevQQOzistoza^nci^h^iioeofczistoz,  the  bleeding  ^6-. 
j  to  death;  nahevodho.I  cause ‘’one  to  death;  emome- 
je^'yieozeoz,  she  bleeds  (at  child’s  birth); 
ft  ///****( b.from  the  nose;  matomenistoz.nose  bleeding;  naoSema  "out"  (with  instr.);  nao'semaeseho ,  I 
Mby  cutting  throat  or  otherwise,  so  all  the  blood 
Jj,  flows  out;  -os-  issuing  +  mae  =blood  +  sdho  =to  cause 

^  •  "  one);  becomes  faint  from  bleeding;  eto- gcie  < 

hoehoe,  one  stands  bleeding;  etohonoeoz , one  faints 
4^  (sitting)  from  bleeding;  r.adeneno,  I  b.  one  (draw, 

blood, as  in  surgery.  Ch. doctors  do  it  mostly  in  fever 

and  head  ache  cases;  when  the  drawing  is  done  by 
mouth  the  expression  -heston  is  used);  naheston,  I  b. 

done  to  draw  out 

•internally  (  is  bloody  under  the  skin, as  in 
bruises);  zemomeaevenoesso , the  bled  ones  (the  slain); 

■  «Vrl 



.,  r  —  ,7-  a  ) 


’ ju/zemomeaevacessS , the  ones  slain;  zemomeaevSenassd , the 
'H‘  ones  lying  bleeding  (from  hemorrhages  or  wounds);  see 

blemish,  v.etassetto,  it  blemishes,  defiles;  nataseho.I 

-  cause  one  to  be  blemished, defiled;  esaatasehe-  is  not  blemished;  does  not  b. ; 
etasettonsz.they  (in.)  b. ;  etasehestovensz.they  (in.) 
are  blemished;  (or.)  is  blemished;  etase- 
heo.they  (or.)  are  blemished;  see  defile ;, ehdetovd , it 
has  a  b. , is  defective;  esaahdetovohan  (neg.);  ehieto-  blemishes;  esaahoetovattan  (neg.);  ehdetovs-  is  built  with  a  b ., defective ;  esaah6etovstone- 
han  (neg.);  ehdetovo , one  has  a  the  eye;  ehdeto-  has  a  the  hearing;  ehdetovae,  one  is 
blemished,  defective;  see  defective.  is 
blemished, spotted;  is  a  b.,a  spot  (also 
birth  mark);  esaahoxtavhan ,  it  has  not  a  b.,  it  is 
spotless;  see  spot.  is  spotted  (on  cloth¬ 
ing)  .blemished. 

blemish,  n. tasehestoz :  see  defile;  etasehestov,  it  is^a 
b.;  esaatasehestovhan ,  it  is  not  a  b. ;  hdetova- 
toz,b. deficiency;  zeheoxtavestoz , the  spot;  this  word 
does  not  jjaply  means  spotted  in  color,  but 
//U’Y  in  so  far  as  the  spot  would  be  where  it  does  not  be- 

V”  hp,  /long  it  would  be  a  blemish, hence  esaahoxtavhan,  it  is^K 
spottiess,  without  blemish.  Ehetasehestov,  one  has  X 
ab.;  ehetasehestovensz,  they  (in.)  have  blemishes; 
ehetasehestoveo , they  (or.)  have  blemishes;  esaahepta- 
r  ^  /  (or.)  has  no  b. ;  esaahetasehe^tovhan, it 

jjS  f ■  xohas  no  b.  ;  hdetovstonestoz , b.  in  building;  esaahdetov- 
^  nT  is  not  a  building;  ehdetovstone- 
K /  is  a  building;  hdetovooxtoz ,  the 

sight;  one  had  a  defective  sight; 
hdetovatomonestoz.b. in  hearing;  nasaah6etovatomond ,  I 
have  no  my  hearing;  esaah6etovd,tomonstovhan ,  it 
is  not  a  hearing.  See  deficiency, 
blend,  inf .-aestoe-;  eaestoeo , they  (or.)  are  blended, 

- mixed;  eaestoensz , they  (in.)  are  blended;  eaesto-  is  blended  (in  colors);  naaestoenen  _or  na- 
estoenen , I;  naaestoena.I;  naaestoeno,  I  b. 
them  (or.);  naaestoenanoz , I  b.them  (in.);  aestoeneni- 
stoz ,  the  blending;  eaestoevovane ,  it  is  blended 
(liquid);  made  blended  (liquid);  na- 
aestoevomana, I  b.  it  (liquid);  eaestoevome , i t _ looks 
blended;  naaestoevomahdz ,  I  b. ,  mix  it  (liquid)  by 
shaking  (as  a  bottle  of  medecine);  aestoevomahazes ,he 
must  mix  it  by  shaking  (hortative  m.);  eastoevomaha-  is  blended .mixed  (liquid)  by  being  shaken, 
bless,  nadszenen.I  b. ( consecrate , off er .  This  has  only 
X  ref. to  the  ceremonial  offering  of  food  to  the 

/  cardinal  points;  nadszenomovo ,  I  b. ,  one’s; 



'^'dszenistoz.the  blessing ,  of f ering ,  consecrating .  Nato- 
toxenen , I  the  sense  of  thank  or  well  wish. When  a 
Ch. receives  a  gift  in  public  dances  or  ceremonies,  he 
raises  his  hands  with  palms  facing  the  giver  and 
moves  them  downward, as  if  to  stroke  him  from  head  to 
foot.  In  former  times  this  was  done  slowly  and  with 
both  hands  and  bent  head.  At  present  the  motion  is 
quicker  and  shorter,  often  done  with  one  hand.  This 
must  have  been  the  attitude  of  prayer  or  thanksgiving 
in. former  days, for  writer  himself  became  the  object 
of  such  an  act, when  called  by  an  o-ld  woman  to  see  her 
sick  grandchild.  At  the  same  time  she  mumbled  a  pray¬ 
er, well  wishing  to  myself  and  my  family  (naming  the 
relationships).  In  an  old  Ch.tale  the  same  is  relat¬ 
ed  of  a  young  maiden  who  called  the  help  of  the  magi¬ 
cians  living  in  the  mounds.  Thus  -totoxenen  must  mean 
a  "prayer  of  blessing  as  a  thank", but  the  lit. meaning 
implies  the  gentle  stroking  at  the  face  or  front  of 
another  person.  Because  this  expression  belongs  to 
the  religious  terminology  of  the  Ch.  it  has  been 
avoided  by  Christian  Indians, but  the  writer  recom¬ 
mends  the  use  of  the  word  to  express  blessing  in  the 
sense  of  praise  and  adoration.  Natotoxenenetovo , I  b. , 
adore  one  in  thankfulness;  natotoxenen-momoxzemo ,  I 
implore  him  by  blessing, praising;  natotoxenenmomoxze- 
mossan.I  implore , supplicate  by  blessing;  navovoneSe- 
nheto.I  (Lat.  bene  dicere),  to  say  kind, well 
wishing  words  to  one;  navovdneSeho,  I  b.  (in  acts, by 
doing  something  kind)  one  (Lat. bene  facere);  navovb- 
negetanotovo ,  I  want  to  b.  one;  navovonhessetamo , I 
think  one  blessed;  navovonegseoneve ,  I  am  one  who 
blesses, in  the  sense  of  praising, being  praiseful;  na- 
vovoneSes toman , I  occasion  a  blessing, a  praise;  navoJ 
voneSsetaneva, I  b. (habit  or  vocation);  evovoneSsetan- 
evaheve.he  is  one  who  blesses;  navovonemea , I 
giving;  navovonemeto , I  give  to  one  in  kindness;  navo- 
vdnepevoeho , I by  treating  him  well, by  doing  him 
good;  zehesepevomoxtaez  etahanez’  Maheo  hevovonepevo- 
etastoz  etovan.that  we  are  well, this  is  God’s  bless¬ 
ing  towards  (for)  us;  navovonitoomenesdho , I  cause  one 
to  experience  blessing  (from  -oomen-  =suffer,  endure, 
undergo , experience .  [The  inf.-vovone-  or  -vovoneSe-  = 
Latin  bene;  kindly,  fondly,  devotedly,  devoutly,  with 
tender  care, well,  and  has  unlimited  applications  with 
as  many  word  combinations],  Navovonhestatovo , I  am  a 
blessing, of  service, helpfulness  to  one.  See  care.  Na- 
vovone-momoxzemosan ,  hevetov,  I  b.  one,  wish  well  for 
one;  nahepavstavstovetanotov, I  wish  one  that  he  have 
felicity, bless  one. 

blessed ,  epavstaomen , one  is  b.,in  a  b. condition;  zevo- 

vdnhessetamata  Zerr.aheoneni  tahesz ,  thou  b.of  the 


vzpxrU-*  1 

r  ill"  Momoxe-totoxene: 

'  pj[000  {ll^fUUI6nS\  evovoneSetanotoe, 
j  is  b.(thot 


totoxenenetoesz  nhessetamehd,  the 
one  is  b. (mentally) ;  evovbnhes- 
of);  evov6ne§enhestohe,  one  is 
b.(in  words);  evovdneSehe , one  is  b.(in  doing);  evovd-  is  b.,  done  well  unto;  Vovonesematasooma, 

,  b. Spirit;  pavstaomene  nha,b.  be  the  one  (who-)!  Aha, 
.,a j  /£>  blessed!  (Ger.  wohl! ) ;  ninehov  zenohcemanetto  to- 
'/f(Fv /  JwtoxenenistovA, thou  (lit. thou  who  art  worthy  of 
/.j/r  i  ^adoration) ;  Maheo  zenanotoemsz  totoxenenistovd,  God 
the  most  b. ( lit .worthy  of  exalted  blessing);  vovoneS- 
pavstaomenestoz.blessfulness ;  etotoxenenetoe ,  one  is 
b.,well  wished  and  prayed  unto.  This  implies  the  hand 
motion, but  it  wil  also  be  gradually  understood  fi¬ 
guratively.  EohSpavstaomenestove , it  is  a  b. condition, 
experience;  eyavoneSepavstaomenesha  is  b. 
of  God  (ref. to  one’s  state  or  experienece  of  bliss). 
Vovdr.epavstaomenestoz  maeto  zevistomohestovp',  the  b. 
promise;  lit.  the.  blessfulness  which  ^is  promised 
ahead .  **>'•'>  '******* ^ ** '  ' 

blessedness,  vovoneSepavstaomenestoz ;  vonhetotahestao- 
menhestoz, blissfulness ;  vovonhessetamahes- 
toz, state  of  being  considered  blessed;  vovonhessez- 
tasto-z.blesspdness ,  (disposition  of) . 
blessing,  zetohetSeveSepavstaomenhestov,  whatever  is 
1  conducive  to  felicity;  tass  natotoxenetovo 

Maheo  zemetas  zetohetaevegepavtaomenhestovez’ ,  I 
bless, adore  God  for  giving  me  all  that  is  conducive 
to  felicity  (for  all  that  is  a  blessing);  totoxeneni- 
stoz.blessing.homage, adoration  (see  bl^ss);  etotoxe-  is  a  b. ;  esaatotoxenenstovhan ,  it-is  not 
a  b. ;  vovoneSenhestoz.b. in  words, benediction;  vovone- 
Sehazistoz,  b.  in  doings;  vovoneSetanoxtoz,  b. ,  well 
wishing  (intention,  disposition);  vovoneSstomanistoz , 
occasioning  a  b. ;  vovonitoani stoz .utterance  of  b., de¬ 
votion;  vovonitoetastoz ,  act  of  b.,  devotional  act  of 
kindness  or  tender  care;  see  care;  vovdneSstanev&toz, 
b.,the  habit  or  vocation  of;  vovoneSseonevestoz.b. ,as 
a  characteristic;  vovon^neatoz.a  gift  of  b., devotion; 
totoxenen-momoxzemosanistoz, worshipful  b. ;  momoxhet- 
hootanevoz  hevovdneSemeatoz ,may  we  be  granted  his  b. 
(in  gifts);  Maheo  momoxhethootata  hevovoneSetovazis- 
toz.may  God  grant  thee  his  b.(in  doings);  Maheo  ufomo- 
xehethootasz  pavstaomene-vostanehevestoz,  may  God 
grant  me  a  blessed  life;  . zetohetSevo vdneSetanotoez 
Maheo, all  the  blessings  that  God  intends  for  us. 
blight,  v. enasomeoz, it  becomes  blighted, withered;  ena- 
someozensz , they  (in.)  become  blighted;  enasomae, 
it  (in. and  or.)  is  blighted  (state); 
blights , languishes ;  has  the  b. 
(sp.of  trees  whose  leaves  wither  away ) ; eoonatansz  ve- 
potoz.the  leaves  wither, dry .have  the  blight;  hestSe- 


Blew,  -  /r**<*. 

„■$ ^,'1  *£f  a**.  .jL^W'^y^Jiy  a 

C6^^  /u  ——‘*7  /' 

^c^/4  ' 

_  >£r'a** t’Z-si 

/l^l#/'. rt^**x>diy  ^  ^ 

t/^£_  /■/  A-O-f  a-f C*-/^ ,  ay-^-^C  .  •^'e>*'“'*~ 

*-  /' ‘'&h-/  **£ 

7“7T"  ~f~  ■? y 

^  !L^  *4*-**4-*  7  r*!^^^afe^ 

^r  y.^£zz'^-l - 

tf  (  ^AZ'AZZL^ 

'«-»••  ,^- 




t^r****^**'-',^ *■*>'•&*-  ^  y_  />.. 


z~  7Z?  ‘~aT££~Z^ 

«.  u--kZi^[ iw~  "L:),f^^<L  ~  -•- * 

U  /-  .  «>-*,  <^*~y  /u^~  /^7“;Arrj2; ; 

^  -  9~l^zZZ?l 

nt  K  '  ‘  ^ — <-  ^.^.fe%n3s 

«,m-  •  '  y  ^ 

rrx^rl'^  -  7  7, 

I>f/L  £(Lr~;*~j.  rfW^i«,iKr*T't>'n~y--”' 

CU  Jr^o  ^  CM^- ^  ^  * 'V 

Jov^a-  V"V^trw^»*A*.  ^  umV^|^^vwi''1x' 

,  -#t  *  v 

•'n,  ck^pv  0*1*-**  *4 

7,  ^  - - - 

'  w 

iM-fr* ta/tv*  uuXt^Ut',  77) 

L.  h<jC*\Ub^*+*  [}W  uvirr^y 


<f  Ca» 

^s^iuit  V*-  ^jijuvv*-!. 



noz  eoon4tansz,the  branches  have  the  fire  b.,dry  or 
wither  from  heat;  hoxzz  eoon4e,  the  tree  is  blighted; 
hoxzz  zehexoveocnds  naoxcepoehestaenasso ,  I  cut  the 
branches  of  the  tree  as  far  (in  the  degree  that)  as 
it  is  blighted;  [-hexov-  =in  the  degree  +  -oonas-  = 
that  one  is  dried  by  heat;  -poe-  off  from  +  hestaena- 
=branched  +  -so-  =to  cut  one].  See  wither.  Eoonacsta-  blights  instantly  from  heat  (sp.of  things  shap¬ 
ed  like  branches  .cylindrical)';  blights, 
withers  by  heat;  blights  instantly, 
from  heat;  nivostanehevestoz  tass  enasomatto,  the 
life, as  it  were, is  blighting;  enasomeoxz, one  (in. and 
or.)  is  get  ting .growing  blighted.  Vovonitoomeo  eoxce- 
nehenasomeozistov, the  pleasure  is  soon  blighted;  zeto 
hoxzetto  enonasomeoxzeo.each  of  these  trees  is  get¬ 
ting  blighted;  ametaneni stoz  enasomaheoneve ,  life  is 
subject  to  b. ;  zetohetSehoneo  hoeva  et’senasomaheone- 
ve, each, of  the  plants  (everything  that  grows  as  a 
plant)  is  subject  to  b. 

blight,  n.nasomeozistoz,  the  blighting;  nasomeoxzistoz 
blighting  ( slow  progress ) ;  nasomastoz , state  of 
blighting, withering;  oonaozistoz , the  blighting  of  the 
branches . 

blind,  v.na6oenen,I  blind;  na6oeneno,I;  nanxpoma-^,^^^- 
enosan.I  am  blinded  (by  dust, snow) ;maeno  enxphos,  ^  ' 
the  fog, mist  blinds  (shuts  out  by  hanging);  naenone- 
exaneoz,!  am  blinded  (Ger .geblendet) ;  eaenoneexaneoz, 
one  is  blinded, (by  a  dazzling  light);  naonisexaneno , I  (in.), I  put  out  one’s  eyes  (with  instr.);  nao- 
niseexaneostdno.I  instantly  (with  instr.);  eo- 
niseexaneoe§e§ , one  is  made  b. instantly;  zeheSohavoho- 
ovas  emasd-doeneostaestovez’ ,as  it  (the  sun, or.)  was 
intensely  dazzling,  there  was  an  instant  blinding 
flash.  [When  instantaneous  flash  of  light  or  fire 
takes  place  suff.-ostae  is  used].  Nadoeneostaxno  or 
-ost4no;  I.  by  a  flash  of  light  or  fire;  edoene-  ■  * 
ost4he,one  is  blinded  by  a  flash  of  light :  ?  ei*.*  ^ 

blind,  adj.edoen,  one  is  blind;  is'b.of  one 

eye;  edoeneo,  they  are  b. ;  nadoenhme.we  are  b. ;  *  becomes  b. ;  eoceneoz,  one  becomes  b.of 
one  eye;  desires  to  be  b. ;  eaenoneoz, 
one  becomes  b. , dazzled;  mazhesta  zsaahotooettan,  a 
heart  having  no  sight  (Ger.kein  Einsehen,  keine  Ein- 
sicht).  Ocenhotoa, b. buffalo  bull;  doenhetan, ; 
ddenekasgon.b. child. 

blind,  n.zedoensz.the  one  who  is  b. ;  doeneo.the  b. ;  ze- 
doenessd.the  b.  ones;  zeocensz.the  blind  of  one 
eye;  zeocenessd , the  b.ones  of  one  eye. 
blindfold ,  nanxpene.I  am  b. ;  nanxpeneto.I  (by  ty- 
”  ing) ;  nanxpeneno.I  (with  instr.).  [Inf. 

-nxp-  —to  shut  an  aperture,  a  passage  .  Nanxpanomovo 


iu  M, 


heexa.I  6hut  one’s  eyes, b. one  with  hand;  nha  zenxpa- 
nomcsz  naexa.the  one  who  with  his  hands;  nanxpe- 
netan.I  km  hlindfolded  (something  tied  on  the  eyes), 
blinding,  enxpomatamano ,  it  is  b.  (sp.of  storm,  snow  or.nW'ff 


doenetto, blindly. 


'blindly ,  random 

— ■ —  blindness,  <5oenestoz,b.  ;  is  b.  ;  edoene- 

nov,  there  is  a  b.,  blinding;  ocenestoz, one- 
eyedness;  voenes.toz, partial  b. ;  emasd-doeneostaestov, 
there  was  a  sudden, instant  blinding, dazzling;  aenone- 
exaneozistoz,  blinding,  dazzling;  nxpomaenosanistoz, 
blinding  (as  in  a  storm).  Confound  not  ddenestoz, 
blindness .with  denehestoz  which  means  the  bleeding  of 
an  artery  (purposely ).  Lirii  *" 

blink,  naoceneovan,  I  b.  .with  one  eye;  napopoemazeniS ,  I 

b. ,  wink  quickly  with  both  eyes;  naoceneovaneto -UaajliuIIim 
vo, I  b.  ,wink  at  one.  See  wink.  Vehoeozistoz ,  vehoeoze-k 
tovazistoz, b. .glance ;  hescenaooxtoz , b. , glimpse ,q.v.  i. 
bliss,  hetotaetamahestoz, state  of  happiness;  hetotaevo- 

- om, region  of  bliss;  vonhetotaevoom,  region,  area, 

■yZX'  sphere  of  b. , paradise;  hetotaevoomenhestoz ,  undergo- 

/  "  ing, experiencing  happiness;  hetotaetanonavoomenhes- 

"1^  toz.b.  (state  of  mind);  hetotaetamanohestoz.b.  ,  atmos- 

i, phere,  general  appearance  of;  hetotaevezhestatoz, 

1,4***^ blissful  state ,  existence ;  hetotahestaomenhestoz ,  exis- 
'  tence  in  experiencing  b.,  happiness;  vonhetotaevoome- 
nhestoz  or  vonhetotahestaomenhestoz ,  b. , felicity,  su- 
i; ~ '  preme  happiness.  Pref.  von-  denotes  "lost  in, beyond 
I ^self".  Nitoseeseozhaneman°s  zexhetotaevoomenhestove , 
we  are  to  be  led  into  the  place  where  there  is  bliss; 

(1/  ^ ( zex-  =there  where);  pavstaome  or  pavoome,  at  the 

!  place  of  happiness ,  b.  ;  hetotaevoomenetto ,  blissfully 

/  (detached),  Ger.  gliickselig;  hetotaetto,  in  a  happy, 

\\A  1(1/  blissful  manner;  Maheo  nszepavstaomer.eshaen.God  shall 
1  make  us  experience  b. ;  ehetotaezhesta,  one  is  in  a 

0-  dl  i  I.. blissful  condition, existence ;  evonhetotahestaha,  one 

-------  ■  . - 



is  blissful  in  heart;  vonhetotahestah&toz,  blissful¬ 
ness  of  heart;  vonhetotane-vostanehevestoz.the  lead¬ 
ing  of  a  blissful  life;  vonhetotan, the  bliss  itself; 
vonhetotaetanoxtoz, blissful  intention  or  disposition; 
Vonhetotaevhan, Bliss  (in  person);  vonhetotahestanov, 
blissful  world;  vonhetotahestanovhestoz,  blissful 
race,  nation,  mankind;  zevonhetotaevoomenessd ,  the 
blissful , supremely  happy  ones;  hetotaevoomenhestxe , 
realm  of  b. .where  there  is  nothing  but  b. ;  hetotaevo- 
omatoz, blissful  situation  (-omao  =ground) ;  evonhetc-  is  a  ground  of  b. ;  evonhetotaetamano ,  it 
is  a  blissful  atmosphere, general  appearance;  vonheto- 
taetanoxzege , realm, sphere  of  blissful  intention,  dis¬ 
position, where  there  is  nothing  but  supremely  happy 
disposition  of  mind;  navonhetotaetanoho , I  spur  one  to 


^  Is.  alsj  4j^k^<bicuUl U 

'TIAMADV  i%’arr  /,  ' 

llfieA.  BLOOD 



be  supremely  happy  minded,  blissful;  navonhetotaevo- 
moxta, I  feel  (physically)  supremely  happy,  blissful; 
this  can  also  be  said  of  one’s  frame  of  mind;  vonhe- 
totaevomoxtastoz , bliss , blissful  feeling. 
blister,  blisters;  nianestaheonaoz , thy  palms, 
thy  hands  become  blistered;  eanes taheonaozeo , 
their  hands  (palms)  become  blistered;  lit. they  become 
"blistered_handed" ;  nianeaxtao,  thou  hast  blistered 
feet;  naaneaxtaoz ,my  feet  become  blistered;  zeaneha, 
the  b.;  zevegeanestaheonaozistov, that  which  blisters 
the  hands;  zeveSeaneaxtaozistov,  that  which  b.the 
feet;  zevedeanehestov, that  which  occasions  a  blister;  becomes  blistered  (not  to  confound  with 
eaneoz , she  gives  birth  to);  aneeozistoz.the  becoming 
blistered;  nahSmata  hurts  me  where  it  is 

blithe,  is  b. ;  ehetotaheoneve ,  one 
is  b.gladsome.mirthful ;  ehetotaetanonova, one  is 
blithesome,  radiating  happiness,  merriness , sprightli¬ 
ness;  ehetotaenche , one  looks  happy , cheerful ;  ehetota- 
eohaz , one  laughs  blithely, with  happiness;  ehetotaeo- 
hazene , one  has  blithesome, jocund,  merry , smiling  face; 
ehetotaetto  speaks  blithefully ;  eohaze- 
heor.eve  ,  one  is  bli  theful  .mirthful . 
blizzard,  see  snow, blast.  ,  j  ~  &**‘**~' 

(bloat,  see  swell, blow.  , 

'lob,  can  be  expressed  with  inf.-mame-l  =in  a  bu]/  or  *  ■ 

~  mass;  paneaseo  emameanaoz,  the  fsolassess  falls 
in  a  blob;  falls  in  bloVs;  emameotoa-  -j fc,'/-  fall'  in  blobs  one  after  another 
block,  rendered  by  inf.-nxp-  =to  shut , stop/seQ 
omhao, block  of  wood  ,  beam,  (uJ.-rna  me.- 
blockade ,  nxpaovazistoz ;  nxpaosa/istoz.the  blockading,  /***^ '.??£*+**. 
or  blockage;  enxpaoeo , they  (or.)  are  blockad¬ 
ed;  is  a  blockade , blockage ;  enxpao- 
vazenov, there  is  blockading. 
blockhouse ,  hoxzezemhayo ,  tree  house;  hoxzezemhayonoz , 

~  (pi.);  ehoxzezemhayoneve ,  it  is  a  b. ;  ehox- 
zezemhayonevensz, they  (in.)  are  blockhouses, 
frlood i  mae.b.;  emaeve,  it  is  b. ;  becomes  , 

&E bloody  (also  mulier  menstrualis ) ;  mazhemaeme,  3eu<'~a*a' ~ 
b.(that  one  has )  ; nazhemaeme , my  b.  ;  nszhemaeme , thy  b .  ■i&jiu.'w.a-t - 

-  - ’  ~  "  -  nszhemaeman,  our  (incl.)  b.  ;  Htdfr, 

heszhemaemevo ,  their  b.  ;  n&hes-**y 
naheszmaemer.oz  ,  one  is  my  b.  ,  I 
niheszhemaemetovaz , thou  art  my  / 

,  niheszhemaerr.etoen ,  we  are  one’s  b.  ;  mazhemaemeva  jK'.  J—  f 
lTCU'*0*'  in ,  by  the  b.  ;  is  bloody  (black  and  blue;  'jjMTdetn&t—  Blut  unterlaufen)  ;  emaova  can  also  mean:  it^y<*^’<- 
is  red  water;  is  bloody.under  the  surfaced. 

,1^  °/  skin  or  internal.  The  suff.-kova  is  the  diminutive 



i  J  nszhemaemevo , your  b. 
g/L,  zhemaeme,  I  have 

u  ’  r 

3  have  one  for  my  b. 

04  £  sfutii  {L, 

'  ‘^IMish-cheyenne  dictionary  v  .^ny*  -coo 

^form^o^^iPf-  -Iva.  P^Sovenor!T?  it  is  bloody  (under 
^HTf’e^Sve  ‘one, one^ ‘looks  bloody.  Namaoveoxtaneno , 
I  bruise  one’s  forehead'  bloody;  namaoveoxtano ,  I 
v  bruise  one’s  leg  bloody;  namaoveaxtano , I  bruise  one’s 
foot  bloody;  namaovenodho , I  bruise  one  bloody;  na6en- 
Sno.I  bleed  one  (with  instr.),  to  let  blood, draw  b. ; 

U$ denehestoz ,b. drawing, letting ;  has  an  he¬ 
ll  v  morrhage;  emomeaeve,  it  is  b. ,an  hemorrhage;  emomeae- 

jfiy  haen  one  has  bloody  tears;  emomeaevenohe ,  one  looks 

yy.M  J,.  eomomeao .  they  weep  for  the  slain.the  "bled 

goods , 

one  bloody;  namomeaevenodho ,  I  cause  one  to  look 
bloody;  momeaevenodhazistoz, blood  spilling;  namomea- 
evhoneon,  I  am  clothed  with  b.  (tropical  speech  to 
mean:  I  have  done  bloody  deeds);  zemaevhoneonetto ,  my 
bloody  deeds;  zemomeaevhoneonessS ,  the  ones  who  com¬ 
mitted  bloody  deeds;  emaevenohe,  one  looks  bloody;  looks  all  bloody  (stains  on  cloth  or 
body);  evesetasehe  m&  is  stained, defiled  with 

one 's“own“b.“, which  would  be  mazh4maemeya) ;  eo-  ,  i  is  very  bloody;  eheszenoetto ,  one  s  coatwyf 
ir  is  b. stained;  namaevano.I  make  one  red.bloodyy  nama e j 
l,  1  t^ ,  I  stain  it  bloody, red;  see  red;  maevhoneo,  bloody 

k £1  garment  =bloody  deeds;  zeoxheSsaahemaevhoneones  mx^ 
*V*7^*>^heyoeoztomotaen,altho  ha  had  committed  no  crimes  he, 

a  -xl*  bled  for  us  to  (death;  zemomeaevaoessd ,  the  bled, slain,-.  ^ 
y  oneis;  momevoxzz , clot  of  blood;  emomevoxzeve ,  it  is  $■. 
i;lot  of  b. ;  esaamomevoxzevhan , it  is  not  a  clot  of  b.  ; 
momevoxze va .with  a  clot  of  b. ;  eheoseoz  mae , the  b. 
coagulates;  zeheSeheoseozez’  heszhemaeme , as  his  b.had 
coagulated;  etahemokdz , one  has  bloody  stool;  eoeSeme 
ore’s  spilled.  The  inf. -5-  and  -vo-  in  names_  of 
relationship  evidently  ref. to  "blood  issued";  navohe- 
stotjo,my  relatives  by  blood;  nitonitoemS  ,how  art  thou 
to  one?  Nimaoejna^hgma.we  are  all  one  b.  ,  re- 
at»d  The  words  for  blood  (as  issued),  relatives  and 
counting  have  the  long  "5";  very  probably  that  "to 
offer  to  sacrifice",  is  also  derived  from_  blooa 
I  . —  -  v  issued"  [nadeto,  I  sacrifice  one  (or.,;  5sto,.sacri- 

L.  oJta)  ficel.  The  red  paint  (dark, deep  red)  in  ceremonials 

a!co^  ref.  to  blood  as  emblem  of  life  and  the  living  one. 

;  \\  The  priests  used  to  paint  hair  and  face  red,  long  e 

^  fore  certain  ceremonials  took  place  Red  paint  and 
r  stone  pipes  are  reverenced  by  all  Indians.  An  old 

_  ~  ~  a  .  _ _*j n 


UA  VcOLM-tipC  E-  ■ 

we  are  painted 

7m tM4"  red  the  "Maicemaheo"  (the  Great  Spirit)  sees  that  his 
na^0  ■s^'1  blood  worships  him;  there  are  two  mam  things  that 
stirs  the  pity  of  a  father  towards  his  child:  its 
or  **%#&*'  tears  ,and  „its  blood.  When  an  ^Indian  prays  to  the 


148  "•  t 

ft  1  /  hi  5 



"Maxemaheo"  with  tears  he  cannot  but  be  heard  and 
helped.  But  when  the  "Maxemaheo"  sees  the  blood  of 
his  children  it  stirs  his  heart  to  compassion, as  no¬ 
thing  else  will." 
bloom,  see  blossom. 

blossom,  inf.-es-  has  ref.  to  end  or  point;  enokoeset- 

— - - to, it  blossoms  (one  alone);  emanodesettonsz, 

they  (in.)  b.  in  bunch;  -mano—  =in  a  bunch  +  -6—  = 
grass,  growing  plant  +  -es-  ends, heads  out  +  -etto 
stands  for  the  impersonal  f..of  the  v. ;  emaoesettonsz , 
they  (in.);  eheovoeseozensz , they  (in.)  become 
yellow  blossoms;  eheovoesettonsz , they  (in.)  b. yellow;  ^  —  b.  white;  evoxboesenonoensz ,  all  the 
blossoms  are  white;  etataesettonsz.they  (in.)  '  b. 
pen;  ehdnevdeseozensz, they  (in.)are  at  it  blossoming ~  ' 

(Fr.ils  s’dpanouissent)  .they  break, burst  out.  in  blosf-  ,  /a 
sons.  The  in.  endings  have  ref.  to  grasses,  bushes 
shrubs  or  fruit  trees.when  the  word  tree  is  not  men- 
tioned.  Tree  in  or.  but  when  called  by  the  name  y  J 
of  its  fruits, the  in. form  is  used.  If  we  are  in  an 
apple  orchard  and  say:  the  trees  are  blossoming,  the 
Ch.of  this  will  be:  hoxzetto  ehenevoeseoxzeo ,  the 
trees  are  abloom;  but  if  we  mention  the  kind  of  a 
tree  (by  the  fruit  it  bears ), say ing ;  the  'Spple  trees 
are  in  bloom, the  Ch.of  it  will  be:  maxemendsz  ehdne- 
voeseoxzensz  or  ehdnevoesettonsz.thus  using  the  in.f. 
Epoesettonsz , they  (in.)  break  into  blossoms;  hoxzz 
ehdnevoesenohe , the  tree  looks  radiating  with  bloom  or 
blossoms;  mbesz  na  heovasz  he§emen6sz  emahenevoeseno- 
noensz.the  grasses  and  every  kind  of  shrub  are  all 
radiating  with  blossoms;  mazeomeva  zehegepevatamano- 
hdnevoeseoxzistov  tass  enhessoz’  vostanehevestoz  ox- 
monastovezesz ,  as  in  the  spring  the  radiance  of 
glorious  blossoming,  thus  is  (as  it  were)  the  life 
when  young.  NszekanomenSemd  ax  nivostanehevstonan  ze- 
evhS,sepevatamano-hdnevoeseoxzi stov  t’sa  oxs  histano- 
v&,altho  we  shall  die, our  life  shall  break  out  again 
in  glorious  bloom  in  a  world  apart.  Eanoahansz,  they 
fall  by  the  wind, ref. to  the  blossoms;  mae§henevoese- 
ozevosz  ze&noahansz , after  their  blooming  they  (in.) 

■shall  fall.  Emanhestaomen , one  is  blooming, prosperous 
See  prosper, increase.  Mxeomatotoz, blossoms  of 
wood  trees. 

blot,  naponomaena, I  (in  the  sense  of  drying,  some- 
;  7  thing  that  was  wet;  naSexoena.I  b.  it  (as  stains, 

i^‘*^pots ) ;  zemeozistoz , the  blot, blotch, stain;  also  hehe- 
*^fpozistoz;  nigexoenomonenon  zehavseva,  that  which  was 
bad  is  blotted  out  from  us, we  get  rid  of  that  which 
is  bad.  See  stain , soil , spot .  Eponomaene , it  is  blotted 
IU**)  /  (as  a  wet  writing);  ponomaenoz  zemonemxeomS. ,  blot  that 
l/tf'tf'  y  which  .thou  hast  just  written;  sexoenoz  heto., blot  this 



y which  thou  hast  just  written; 


out;  esaatonSe§exoenehan, it  cannot  be  'blotted  out. 
Lotting,  ponomaenistoz , the  h. ( something  wet);  Sexoene- 

- -  nistoz.the  h.out;  esaaSexoenenstovhan, there  is 

no  blotting  out. 

Lotter,  ponomaene-mxisto, blotter .blotting  paper;  pono- 
'  maeneneo .blotter . 

Low/  vTnafestovSsan, I  b. ;  nadstovoxta, I  it;  naes- 
vr~  tomovo.I  one  (or.);  is  blown. in¬ 
flated;  examaestovome , one  is  simply  blown,  inflated, 
‘'bloated  (as  from  fatness ) ;  edstovomensz ,  they  (in.) 
^  are  blown,  inf  lated ;  eestovomeo ,  they  (or.)  are  blown, 

Q  M  ltxJ^  inflated;  nadstov(o ) 6no , I  one  (in.str.)  nadstovo- 
rT^' f*-ha,I  b.  at.  it  (instr.);  dstovoxkSz, inflated  skin 
e^ji\or. ) ;  estovotto  (pi.);  dstovoseonoz,  inf  lated  intes- 
,  tines;  is  a  hard  blowing  (usually  said 

a  great  wind);  zeheddsta,  where  the  wind  blows; 
C™  blows  from  (wind);  edsta,  the  wind  blows, 

/UM  fa.  (  windet).  [Writer  calls  the  attention  to  the 
yj*  F  jr  Ch. translation  of  John  III:  5-8.  The  Ch.word  for  "to 
'  fr'  born"  is  -hesta  or  hestaoz.thus  so  similar  to  -ds- 

yA  Jy*  that  the  paronomasia  is  quickly  noticed  by  the 

*  ..y'  ind.and  makes  that  passage  more  striking  to  them]. 

Zehesestd „§nhesta,  as  the  wind  blows  so  is  one  (in 
-  -  condition);  zenSeSdstd,  where  it  blows  from  (wind); 

t’sa  oxs  oxneevhiisdstasz, when  it  occurs  to  b.from; 
,^-evavdsta.  it  blows  back;  oxnenose-estasz , when  it  oc¬ 
curs  to  b. again  from  another  direction;  haae§  eestd, 
the  wind  blows;  eanevepozevaha,  the  leaves  fall, are 
blown  down  by  the  wind;  emanoahansz,  the  wind  blows 
the  leaves,  i.e.  make  them  grow.  The  Ch. believe  that 
leaves  and  grasses  grow  and  increase  from  the  blowing 
of  the  wind  in  spring;  epecstahansz , they  (in.)  are 
blown  to  pieces  by  the  wind;  epepeostahansz.they 
(in.)  are  blown  to  shreds  by  wind;  easetoahansz ,  they 
(in.)  are  blown  away  by  the  wind;  is 
blown  by  wind;  is  blown, hurled  away 
by  a  gust  of  wind;  is  blown  -hurled  over 
by  a  gust  of  wind;  eaveSstahansz.they  (in.)  are  blown 
over  by  a  gust  of  wind;  eoxsevoeostaha, _  it  is  over¬ 
turned  by  a  gust  of  wind;  eoxeostaha _ve ,  the  tent  is 
blown, torn  apart  (by  wind);  enxmaxhaeostaha.a  gale  is 
blowing;  enxmaxh&eostaha  na  eaazeoet^,, it  is  blowing  a 
great  snow  storm  (blizzard);  easetbaoe,  one  (or.)  is 
driven, hurled, blown  away;  easetoegstax,  one  (or.)  is 
blown  away  by  wind  ( instantly ), in  one  sweep);  eoxse- 
voeostax , one  (or.)  is  overturned  by  a  gust  of  wind; 
zemaxhaa  niasetoeostxhemS. , as/the  wind  was  strong_we 
were  blown, hurled  away  witjar  one  sweep;  eS-tohomaeos- 
tax  a  gust  of  wind  covered  one  (or.)  up  with  ground; 
eatohomaeostaha,  it  w£s  covered  (with  ground)  by  a 
of  wind;  eajjxmomaotaenax ,  one’s  tracks  are 





covered, obliterated  (with  ground  or  dust)  by  a  sweep 
of  wind;  see  track.  Eanoaoe,  one  (or.)  is  blown,  dri¬ 
ven  down.  The  suff.  -aha  is  used  to  designate  any 
hurling, driving, dashing, thrusting  and  throwing  motion 
or  passage  thru  the  air.  In  above  verbs  of  blowing, 
the  rapid  passage  thru  the  air  and  not  the  blowing 
action  is  referred  to.  See  throw.  Ezevatoahansz ,  they 
(in.)  are  blown, hurled  into  the  air  (as  leaves ,  etc .)  ;<.  is  blown, whirled  up  in  the  Na> 
mxevcmotoxta, I  (ref. to  liquid  whose  surface  is 
blown, either  to  cool  it, or  any  visible  or  invi¬ 
sible  foreign  matter.  It  also  means  to  purify  and  vi¬ 
vify  the  potion  or  beverage  before  drinking  it.  The 
breath  of  a  priest  or  consecrated  person  has  a  nega¬ 
tive  and  positive  influence;  it  rejects  or  expels  ma¬ 
lignant  (evil, foreign)  matter  and  imparts  or  inspires 
life.  Thus  the  ^expression  namxevomotoxta  (-mxe-  to 
sweep  away  +  -vom-  liquid  surface  +  -otoxta-  ref.  to 
the  mouth  [with])  has  a  common  and  a  ceremo¬ 
nial  meaning.  When  a  Ch. makes  an  invocation  before  a 
meal  he  may  say:  mxevomotoxtoz  n&  thy  mouth,/ 
by  thy  blowing  sweep, purify  our  food;  asking  that  thed^Wi* 
Higher  Being  expel  from  it  that  which  is  evil  and  /  ,‘b 
impart  to  it  vivifying  power.  This  ex^rbssion  Can-£[yZ 
not  be  improved  in  asking  the  blessing  at  table.  Mxe-  n 

v Imotoxtomevemeno  n&taman , blow • upon  our  beverage  fall _ t, 

so  including  food)  =sanctify  it.  NaasetotpxtarrT^Tit^J^I^-. 
away;  naasetotomo , I  (or.)  away'f''  also  said  of 
dogs  chasing  some  animal;  naog^e'foxta ,  I  b.  the  fire 
(to  make  it  burn);  nahdtoyaTvoxta ,  I  b.out  the  fire; 
nazevoze  ,  I  b.  smoke  (  in/smoking)  ;  nazevotoxta,  I  b.  *  - 

smoke  at  it;  nazevotomo<i  b.  smoke  at  one  (or.);  nahe  -  ,2 v/ 
eme,I  nose;  navonevdxta  (-vooxta)  ,  I  b.  it  o f f ,  'jtAJik .  • 

destroy  it  by  blowing;  navonevocmo , I  off  to  de-  * — - 
struction;  etosevonevoomSevo  Maheon,  they  shall  be 
destroyed  by  the  blow  (breath)  of  God;  is 
blown  asunder, to  pieces  (by  blasting, crushing)  ;  epoe-/^. 

zevatoaha,  epoezevatoeostaha,  it  is  blown  up  (by/T,, _ { 

blast);  tapen  enistohetto ,  the  trumpet  is  blown;  ehaa-/  blows  clouds.  Vahestoz,  blow  of  the  hand; 
napoeneno  ,  I  give  one  (or.)  a  b.on  the  face,  slap  him 
suff.-i.noto  =to  give  blows  to  one, to  beat  him;  eahan- cLmut 
eanoe ,  one  was  given  blows, hurled  blows  at;  esxsevea-4 
n6o,they  were  given  blows, hurled  at  with  exhaus-X^ 
tion;  nimomeaeveanota , one  gave  thee  bloody  blows, beat 
thee  bloody.  Easetoaoe  venotaeSe , the  smoke  is  blown 
away;  evenotavdmaha , it  blows  smoke  (in  the  air).  Amo- 
ahasemo  emoxtonaha,  the  sail  boat  moves  (is  driven, 
blown  by  wind);  amoahasemonoz  emoxfctonahansz ,  sail 
boats  are  moved  (by  wind);  eonoveamoxtonaha , it  is  mo¬ 
ved,  blown  ashore  by  wind;  amoahasemo  eonoveostaha.the 



sail  boat  is  blown,  hurled  ashore  (with  one  sweep); 
tonomSeon  zeoxceveSeamoeo  amoahasemo  eas-sdoax,the 
sail  boat  is  blown, swelled  by  wind.  [TonomSeon,  thick 
cloth, canvas ;  zeoxceveseamoeo .wherewith  it  is  driven; 
amoahasemo, sail  boat  (from  -amoaha-  =to  drive,  blow  + 
semo  =boat, canoe) ] .  Eahanomotom, one  is  blowing, out , of 
breath;  eahanhotoanatto  is  a  b.  ,  hardship 
to  one;  is  a  one  (misfortune), 
blower,  zeestovsansz , the  one  who  blows;  as  a  glass  b. 
blubber,  eaxaemeoz , one  is  blubbering, crying;  eaxaemeo- 

-  zenov, there  is  a  blubbering;  nomaevi td , f ish  fat 

(blubber  would  be  called  so  if  the  Ch.usel  it), 
blue,  (from  "open  sky");  eotatatav,  it  is 

-  b. .having  ref.  to  the  color  itself; 

.fhs  (in. and  or.)  is  b.  (ref.  to  the  object);  eotatavome,  it 
V,  (in. and  or.)  is  b.,sp.of  liquids;  eotatavomano ,  it  is 
b. , ref. to  atmosphere  or  general  appearance;  eotatavo- 
b'K  is  a  b. morning  (ref. to  atmosphere);  eotatavan- 
hj'  is  getting  b. ;  becomes  b. ;  eo-  is  blued;  blues  (sp.of 
coloring  material);  eotatavaneova,  one  has  a  bluish 
fur  (animals);  eotatavaneovatto ,  it  is  a  bluish  fur 
(ref. to  the  fur  itself);  naotatavanen,  I  b.;  nao- 
tatavano  one  (or.);  naotat.avana ,  I;  eotatave-  has  b. feathers,  is  feathered  b. ;  otatavdsz.b. 
.grass , alfalfa ;  otatavem6esz , b . grasses ;  otatavoham, b. , 
iron  gray  horse;  otatavaevecess ,  b.bird  (Sialia  sial- 
ie > ;  zeotatavaesz,  the  (or.), sp.of  dry  goods, 
blankets;  zeotatavasso  (pi.);  smokes 
b.  The  ending  -tovao  is  pronounced  tovS.the  "o"  sound 
being  absorbed  by  the  "a", this  becoming  long.  Eotata- 
venohe , one  (or.)  looks  b. (sp.of  drygoods);  eotatave-  looks  b. ;  otatavoneavokiz , b . beads ;  heto  sit- 
oxc  eotatavone , this  rope  (or  string , spoken  of  as  or.) 
is  blue;  eotatavoesettonsz , they  blossom  b. ;  zeotata- 
voetto , that  which  blues, (ref.  to  coloring  material);  shines  b. ;  is 
burnished  b. ;  eotataveoaseostaha,  it  shines  (flashes) 
b.  ;  eotataveoaseostax  .one  (or.)  appears ,  shines  ban  a 
flash;  eotatavoeva , one  has  a;  eotatavoevaostax 
(or  -oestax) , one ’ s  skin  shines  flashing  b. ;  lit.  in  a 
flash  one  is  with  a  shining  b.  skin;  zeotatav , that 
which  is  blue, sky  b. ;  deep  b.  is  often  called  black 
(q.v.);  zeotatavepok , turqoise  b. , grayish  b. ;  zeneama- 
neotatav , becoming  bluer .Antwerp  b. ;  zemoxtaveotatav, 
b . black , sapphire ;  zehaeotatavoetto ,  that  which  makes 
very  b.,deep  b.  (coloring  material);  zepoeotatav, that 
which  is  gray  and  b. ,  lavender;  eoxoxzeotatav,  it  is 
green  b. , lyan  b. ;  is  brownish  b., pea¬ 
cock-  b. ;  zeoseotatavoetto ,  coloring  material  of  that 
color  (peacock);  (animals)  is  b.and 



white  spotted;  eotatavehema ,  it  (ref.  specially  to 
horses)  is  speckled  h. ;  eotatavehemenpoon,  it  is 
(horse)  blue  roan  spotted;  eotatavova,  (sp.of  fur 
bearing  animals)  it  (or.)  is  b. furred;  eotatavovao, 
they  (or.)  are  b. furred;  eotatavovatto ,  it  (in.  sp.of 
the  fur  itself)  is  b. ;  zeotatatavovaz ,  the  b. furred 
one  (or.);  zeotatavovasso ,  (or.  pi.);  '  otatavoom 
b. lodge,  sphere,  firmament;  Otatava,  Blue  (; 
otatavhcmfi, b. robe ;  eotatavsan ,  one  (or.)  is  dressed  in 
b.;  otatavsanistoz , b. clothing, suit;  otatavhoestoto , b . 
dress;  otataveszehen , b. coat  or  shirt;  eotataveszehe-  .  is  provided  with  a  b.coat;  has 
b. shoes;  otatavemocanoz, b. shoes ;  otatavomao,  b.soil, 
ground;  Otatavene , B. face  (;  eotatavene,  one 
has  a  b.face.  ZeveSeotatavovatove , bluing  (with  which 
to  make  liquid  b.);  eotatavovatto , it  makes  the  water 
b.;  eotatavovane  and  (liquid)  is  made 
b. ;  naotatavovana  or  naotatavomana,I  make  it  b., sp.of  .  . 
water  .  1e<S«fa  ' 

bluff,  v>t  see  pretend.  c“"  */  ' 

bluff,  adj. rendered  by  inf .-saahezev(e) ;  esaahezevahe , 

1  one  is  b. , bold, rude, abrupt, gruff .frank;  esaaheze-  (or.)  speaks  frankly,  rudely,  bluffingly, 
gruffly;  esaahezevavoeta , one  is  b., gruff.— - 
bluff,  n.oxeano.b. .precipitous  declivity;  andeva , on , in , 
down  the  incline  (of  ground  not  precipitous);  eo: 
xepuoeh&,it  is  b.  .precipitous ;  is  a  b.^, 
a  precipice;  oxeanoea  is  like  a  b.  XA 
bluing,  zeotatavoetto , the  b. (itself);  zeveSeotatavova- 
tove .wherewith  the  water  is  blue;  zeveileotatavo- 
mane, wherewith  liquid  is  made  blue, 
blunder,  v. eoxtoan, one  blunders  in  utterance;  eoxtxis- 
ton, one  (or.)  writing;  eoxtoeta,  one  b.  in 
ac  ting ,  performing  ;  r.aoxston.I  building,  erecting ; 
naoxstoonaoxz , I  building, erecting  it;  naoxstoo- 
naovo , I  making  it  (or. refer. to  dry  goods , cloths , 
wearing  apparel);  naoxsemo,  I  b.,  mention  one  by  mis¬ 
take;  naoxshestana , I  taking  it,  take  it  by  mis¬ 
take.  See  mistake .wrong ;  >naoxsezesta , I  judging; 
naoxsetamo.I  made  a  b.,a  mistake  in  judging  him;  na- 
oxzseoz.I  am  blundering , become  muddled;  navone§,I  b. 
in  going, err;  inf.—oxse-  “otherwise  than  intended. 
[Oxs, another  place , ooxs , other  places;  not  the  place 
where  one  is] . 

blunder,  n. oxtoanistoz , b. in  uttering, pronouncing;  oxse- 
eszistoz ,b. in  speech, wrong  word;  oxsetanoxtoz ,  thot,  wrong  thot;  vonSenat.oz ,  b.  in  going,  erring; 
oxseoxzistoz,b. in  going;  going  to  the  wrong  place£ 
oxtxistonestoz , b . ip  wri ting , wrong  writing;  oxtxisto  gave  thee  the  wrong  book;  oxtoetastoz , b. in 
performing;  oxstonestoz,  building,  fashioning  wrong; 


'  ,  jy-r’a-t'-**-  L*.'m-re£^ 

-t-p e' 4  » 


ahetovazistoz.b. .mistake, that  which  is  amiss .fault. 
See  mistake .wrong. 

blunt,  is  b. (ref. to  b. point);  etamonsz.  they 
(in.)  are  b. ;  natamosoha.I  b. it, make  it  b. ;  nata- 
mgs.I  have  a  b.  nose;  Tamesa,  Bluntnose  (woman’s  pr. 
name);  Tames .Bluntnose  (man’s;  natamesaovo.I 
make  one  (or.)  to  have  a  b.nose;  natameseno.I  cut 
one’s  nose  b. ;  tamonhoxzz.b. tree, stump, truncate;  na- 
tamosdno  hoxzz.I  b., truncate  the  tree;  etamooxtax, one 
has  his  hair  cut  b. (usually  on  the  forehead);  etamo- 
oxtxeo.they  (or.)  have  their  hair  cut  b.  Tamooxtxeta- 
neo.some  of  the  Zunian  tribes,  foremost  the  Hopis. 
( Altho  the  actual  name  for  the  Hopis  is  Xahetaneo, 
Mink  people  [Homines  urinam  faciendes]).  Etamenoto- 
vae , one  is  b. headed,  decapitated.  Enx&po,  it  is  b . , 
dull, sp. of  edge  being  b. 

I  blur,  gets  blurred  (as  writing);  eoni- 

tovanevova,  it  is  blurred  by  water  (as  a  book, 
etc.);  eonitcmaoxz, it  blurs, comes  off, peels  off;  see />  . 
peel,  enie  tens/iceTar,^  ^  £.  a~  ' 

Iblurt,  inf.-xama-  can  be  used  to  express  "blurt"  as: 

examahevo , one  blurts  out  (in  words), 
slush,  emaeneoxz , one  is  blushing;  epoetovaoz , one  be- 
comes  blushing, flushes  up, see  spark.  Zeto  zemaen- 
eoxzz.the  blushing  one;  zepoetovaozessS , the  blushing, 
flushing  ones. 

b^ar,  mozeheSkseesehotam ;  emozeheSkseesehotameve , it-  is 
a  boar;  also:  hetaneham  he§kseesehotam,male  pig; 
sehetanehamsz  heSkseesehotam,  the  male  one  of  the 

board,  oxjjeon.that 
~  woods 

split;  popoxpoemaxsz.the 
(-ox-  =cut, split  +  -poe-  = 

cl)  fl 



rtalers ; 

lab  +  -max-  =wood  +  -sz  The  first  po- 
eduplicati ve  particle  denoting  the  severalty_in 
,he  collection.  Popoxpoeomhaoxnoz, boards, planks  (om- 
h  to , beam ,  block  of  wood).  Oftener  the  word  Sistato 
( ~ef . to  Coniferae)  is  used  to  indicate  lumber , boards . 
Slstato  evovohovaeo , the  boards  come  apart;  Sistato 
vovohoeSen, the  boards  (or  flooring, e1;c. )  lie  coming 
lajpart.  T’sa  zeoxcemesesz .where  one  eats, boards;  me- 
imhayo .boarding  house.  Zenitaetsaness8 ,the  Board, the 
s;  Maeveho  zenitdetsanessd , the 
ion  Board  of  the  Mennonites. 
boast^  boasts 
?  ances);  boasts  of  himself;  emome-y 

hemazena, one  is  boastful;  see  vain, proud.  Ctm£tl 
boast,  n.menoxkoanistoz  or  momenoxkoanistoz.  ffcbiwltj 
boat,  amoheszistoz , the  floating  one;  esaaheamoheszisto-^*^  I 
veheo , they  (or.)  have!  no  boast ;  o’vaamoheszistoz , 
magical  b., steam  b. ;  amoe{anev£ho, boatman  (white  man); 
..eamohesz,  one  rows  the  boat, makes  float;  see  row:  iV 

i  Mennonite  ruler:? 
boasts  /  (in  utter- 

,  J, 

„  r 




feemd.b. canoe.  The  Ch.used  to  cross  d 

b.cance.  The’ Ch.used  to  cross  deep  rivers  by 
sans  of  rawhides.  Those  who  could  swim, would  swim 
across  and  then  pull  the  rest  over  on  the  rawhides. 
The  Ch.must  have  made  very  little  use  of  boats, for 
their  vocabulary  in  that  direction  is  disappointing. 
They  say  that  they  did  not  make  or  have  regular 
boats.  They  would  travel  around  larger  bodies  of  wa¬ 
ter, swim  across  rivers  pulling  over, on  rawhides, their 
belongings  and  those  who  could  not  swim.  Or  they 
would  journey  up  a  river  until  it  became  fordable  for 
all.  Those  rawhide  rafts  were  called  papoesemo,  =flat 
boat;  semonoz, boats;  maxsemo , large  boat;  hoestasemo, 
fire  b., steam  b. ;  amoahasemo , sail  b. ;  amoahasemo  ea- 
moxtonaha, the  sail  b. moves  by  wind;  semo  esaa-asetoe- 
han.the  b.does  not  float, progress, start  ahead;  semon- 
eva,  by ,  in,  on,  etc .  a  X>oz.X .  Arut  efiutu-eH**, 
bob,  ehooeszeax, one  (or.)  bobs  the  head;  ehooeszeae , one 
~  has  a  bobbing  head:  ehocstaha,it  bobs  up;  ehoostax, 
one  bobs  up.  f  a.  A  Ww. 

bobtail,  v&koham, b. horse , short  tailed  horse;  s4e  tail. 
bob  white,  k6koa,(sg.);  kokoan, flock  of  quails;  ekbkoa- 
eve,it  is  a  quail  (Colinus  Virginianus ) ;  see 

quail . 

bode,  eneevatonhess  havs,it  bodes  evil;  zenistaneeva- 
tonhessetamar.o ,  the  foreboding  in  the  nature, sky, 
atmosphere , weather  general  situation,  condition.  See 
foreboding, token, sign.  Heto  nineevatonhesseztomonenon 
havs.this  bodes .portends  evil  for  us.  See  portend. 

tod i ly ,  r.itdoxz, : n  person;  inf.-nitde-  =the  very  one, 

body ,  mavetcv.the  body;  nitov.rcy  b. ;  etov,  thy  b.;  he-’s  o.;  n_tcvan,our  (excl.)  b. ;  etovan.our 
(incl.!  b. ;  etovanoz.nitovanoz,  our  bodies;  etovevo, 
your  b.  ;  etovevoz.your  bodies;  hevetovevo?,  their  bod¬ 
ies;  nahevetov, I  have  a  b.(also:  I  have  a  brother-in- 
law);  nahevetovetoen, we  are  his  body;  nahevetovaovo , 
I  make  one  a  b. ;  nahevetovaoxz , I  give  it  a  b. ;  zehe§-  one  is  bodied .formed  [ehetovatto , ehe- 
§etovatto  =it  embodies;  inf .-he§etova-  =for  the  pur¬ 
pose],  Navostanehevetovaovo, I  make  unto  one  the  b.  of 
a  person  (lit. I  make  one  "person-bodied”);  nanakoe- 
vetovaovo.I  make  unto  one  the  b.of  a  bear  (lit. I  make 
one  "bear-bodied" ;  nanexovhevetovaon, I  am  bodied  to 
such  a  degree;  nansevetovae , I  am  so  bodied;  naneseto- 
vaoto.I  embody  one  so;  nahevezhovaovo , I  make  one  to 
i\ *J|be  likeibody  one  as, represent  one  as;  ezesevetovae , 
,<r  one  is  long  bodied  (ref. to  the  trunk);  ezeksevetova, 

■flwlt^loyjone  is  short  bodied  (ref. to  trunk) ;  ezestwiehe ,  one  qs 
(•’f'f  UrtuM.  l°ng  bodied  (ref.’  to  barrelled  or  round  part,  as  in 
•horses , snakes  [see  rope]);  ezekstonehe,  one  is  short 
r‘  bodied  (ref. to  same  as  ezestonehe);  rnavoxdz.the  body 


of  flesh.the  flesh;  b. , flesh;  nivcxSz,  thy 
—■TtlffYlM—  b.  .flesh;  hevoxoz , one ’ s  b. ,  flesh;  nivxotan  (incl.), 
t,  our  b.  .flesh;  navxotan  (excl.)  our  b.  .flesh;  nivxoze- 

'n  .  vo, you  r  b., flesh;  hevxozevo , their  b.  ,  flesh;  zehetox- 

^iU/Pt,Uu»r>  setto,that  which  is  my  b.,my  flesh.the  setting  '  of  my 
tmeuAj.kO'&o  fiesh;  zehetoxsdtto , that  which  is  thy  b.,  thy  flesh; 
fUu an*—  i**-  zehetcxs , that  which  is  one’s  b. flesh;  zehet&xsez , that 
^u!tp7,  which  is  our  b.  ;  zehet&xsess , that  which  is  your  b.  ; 

fxf  / \  ■- 5he1  5xse voss, that  which  is  their  b.  ;  nistoxetto,  all 

^  sUtA^  ,JMUJ  of  ffiy  b., flesh;  nistSxStto ,  all  of  thy  b.  ;  nistoxs.all 
/  of  one’s  b., every  one;  nist6xez,all  of  our  bodies. all 

cf  us;  ni stixess , all  of  us;  nistSxess,  all  of  their 
bodies, all  of  them.  See  flesh, all.  In  the  above  ex¬ 
amples  the  rad.-tov—  denotes  the  frame  as  a  whole, the 
structure , the  form  of  the  body, while  the  rad.-tox-  or 
-ox-designates  the  component  parts,  the  very  matter, 
substance—- afLthe  same.  Zehetahetovahetto ,  all  of  my 
*4^4  .•  -frame  form;  zeheDShetovahetto ,  all  of  thee,  thy  whole 
zehetaetovahes  ,all  of  one’s  frame;  zehetahe- 
-  ~  VA-'  tovahez  all  of  our  body  as  a  structure;  zehetahetova- 

h6ss  ,all  of  your  body, all  that  is  in  you;  zehetaheto- 

-  ^  vavoss ,-all  that  is  in  them, their  whole  makeup. 

v  ex  The  rad.-omo-  =liquid, fluid, horizontal  body  of,  de- 

iaLra.*I«^«'T‘/y(noting  "body  of  water";  is  a  small  round 
I  ^^7  t.of  water, a  pond;  esoxkomoeha,  it  is  a  narrow  b.of 
^a\u.  ‘-’T-  water  a  strait;  is  a  large  b.of  water. 

Prefix  ma-  denotes  the  area  or  mass  of  an  object,  de¬ 
signating  its  collectivity,  as  we  say  "the  eye", not 
■the  eye  of  any  one  in  particular  but  in  the  abstract, 
e.g.maex  zsaavoxtos , that  which  the  eye  has  not  seen. 
Maexansz,the  eyes;  maaz,the  hand;  maaz,the  hands  (&s 
a  whole,  a  body);  manisson,  the  child,  all  that,  is 
child;  mavetov , the  whole  tr  nk;  tama.tasooma,the  Spirit 
(all  that  is  spirit);  maonisyomatatoz , the  belief,  all 
that  is  belief  (Ger.das  Glauber.);  ,the  evil  as 

a  whole, in  a  body.  Hence  inf.  -mano-  -to  mass, gather 
together;  see  gather.  Manohastoz, congregation, associ¬ 
ation  body,  of;  manhao , tribe ;  manhastoz, generation. 

Inf!  -nitov-  =as  cr.o  body,  In  common;  ninitoveaena- 
non, we"  own  it  in  common  (-nitov-  =as  a  b.+  -aen-  =^° 
Jzm  v  - -  o"n  _  on-  Tst  Emtovaeo, 

Ly  wwMUjIt  they  are  as  one  u.  ,  eeu  *  —  - -  - 

lUUtjV1-  inf. and  suff'.like  -tov,-ncv,  -hov,  -sov  alway: 

L.i.  V.  to  something  that  is  in  a  b. .together  as  one; 

♦H*' 1 

-The  rad.-ov—  as  in 
s  refers 

something  that  is  in  a  b. , together  as  one;  hence: 
nokov, one  fold, nisov, two  fold.nanov  three  fold  nivov, 
four  fold, etc. .meaning  a  b.of  several  (or  many),  as  a 
age  of  beans  is  a  body  of  many  beans; 
sees  o'l  ;  ,  a  .  Qf  ones  see  one  =they  see 

one;  ehozeohec , they , the  single  tines  work;  ehozeohe- 
-  no  V,  there  is  working,  i  .  e .  the  work  of  single,  ones  is 
>  jjvJ  <vWa^S-otr-bined  int0  one*  ^  NacSstaova,  I  am  baptizing, 

<V5 ^ 


word  nadostahe  =1  am  baptized.  The  suff.-ova  implies 
the  different  acts  of  baptizing  embodied  in  one.  Na- 
zetax.I  cut  (one  time);  nazetxova,  I  am  cutting, my 
several  acts  of  cutting, combined  in  a  b.  or  continous 
action;  evoesetano,  one  rejoices;  evoeSetanonov, one 
rejoices  manifoldly;  evoesetannonova,  one  is  rejoic¬ 
ing,  imparting  joy  (from  the  store  or  b.of  joys  he  is 
provided  with).  Nistxenov, the  whole  as  a  b.  of  compo¬ 
nent  parts ,Ger. das  Ganze;  enistxenov , there  is  the  b., 
the  whole  of  them  as  one.  Nistnovaez, the  whole  set.b. 
of  us;  nistnovaess , the  whole  set.b.  of  you;  nisnova- 
voss.the  whole  set, b.of  them  (or.);  nistr.ovaesz,  the 
whole  set  of  them  (in.);  nistnovatto , the  whole  set  of 
it;  nistnovenov, the  whole  of  them  as  a  general  body. 

IHcvoetto ,  (detached)  the  whole  of, as  a  b.,as  inf.  -ho- 
voe-  =the  whole  in  a  b.,Ger.  insgejsammt,;  ehovoeseojc- 
zeo.they  left,  the  whole  of  them ; 

XamaemavoxSz , the  natural  body, the  flesh;  examaemav-^,>yy^^’  is  a  b.of  flesh;  xamaemavxozeva, in  the  b.of 
flesh;  matasoomaemavoxoz ,  the  spiritual  b.  ,  a  h  .whose 
component  parts  or  substance  matter  is  spirit;  emata-  is  a  b.of  spirit.  Zehetoxs  nanetoxs ,  - 

I  have  the  same  b. (ref. to  b. matter)  as  hej  epavxos,  / 
one  has  a  good, sound  b. ;  epavxdseo , they  fori)  have  a 
sound  b. ;  naneemetoxs , I  am  naked,have  a  bare  b. ;  ene- 
emetxseo .they  (or.)  have  a  bare  b.  See  flesh.  Evxoze- 
ve,it  is  b. matter,  flesh;  is  not  b. 
matter;  evxozeveo , they  (or.)  are  flesh. Seozeheq, bones 
of  a  dead  one , skeleton;  seozehekonoz, skeletons ;  eseo-  is  a  skeleton;  eseozehekonevensz ,  they 
(in.)  are  skeletons.  Following  are  parts  of  the  b. :  ,  , 

Mavetov, trunk;  mazhekonoz , bones  and  legs;  zehetSo-J*^ 
toegen&tov, the  muscles, as  bundles;  hessesoz,  sinews; 
mdzesess,  tendon;  zexhotonadonahestov,  where  the 
joints .articulations  are;  honaeonahestoz ,  articula¬ 
tion;  hothonadonahesto;: ,  articulations  (collective); 
maton§,the  insides , entrails ;  ma&zenoz, the  arms;  meq, 
the  hair  and  the  head;  vxtaneexanistoto ,  eyelids 
(or.);  maex.the  eye;  maexansz , the  eyes;  venooto,  eye 
brows;  maexa  mavenotto,  eye  lashes;  zevoseexanetto , 
sunken  space  under  the  eye.  See  eye.  Maoxta.the  fore¬ 
head;  zemamoveoenetto , above  bridge  of  nose;  zemamove- 
oxtanetto .where  forehead  meets,  center  of  forehead; 
hekonevsze&toz, cranium ;  maevo.the  nose;  matazeem, nos¬ 
trils;  mazeoe, cavity  in  nose;  paesestoz , bone  of  the 
nose, ridge;  zenSkoveoenetto , bridge  of  nose;  mavota- 
noxz.the  cheek;  mavotanotoz , the  cheeks;  mazhekonev- 
votanoz , cheek  bone;  mavest&.the  temple;  mavestanoz, 
the  temples;  matovdxz  or'matovooz,  the  ear;  matovoo- 
toz,the  ears;  zexoosomestatto , root  of  ear  shell;  me- 
semeetatoz,  auditory  canal;  zexosomeo  m§,tovooz,the 



root  part  of  the  ear  next  to  cheek;  maztoho ,  the  jaw 

or  chin;  zexooso-omstoonatto , ramus  ol  lower  jaw,  maz, 

?he  mouth,  also  lips  (ref .more  to  exterior  part  of 
mouth)-  matoeazenon,  corner  of  mouth;  mavitanov, the 
tongue'  toonevetanev&toz.the  ligament  or  band  under 
the^oAgue;  mazeto .palate ;  mavesoz.the  teeth;  maxeves 
zetahooxec  wisdom  tooth;  maxevesoz .molars ;  moxenxpo- 
ho^epiglottls  ;  rr.anxpoho  ,  Adam’ s  apple;  heveSksen,  oeso¬ 
phagus  , windpipe ;  mahestomohes toz ,  alimentary  canal, 
mazenotov.neck  (whole  of  it);  mahane.the  nape  of  the 
neck-  mahane-nazeseo. tendons  of  nape;  mazeoxz.the  ex¬ 
terior  throat;  maestoo , throat  (interior);  zevecevha- 
ne  cavity  of  nape;  zepaehane .prominent  bone  of  nape. 
Mazemen^  collar  bone;  mazemeneva, _cavity  of  collar 
bone;  matatamd.the  shoulder ;  i matatamon, the  folder 
matazeo, shoulder  blade;  ma£z,  the  arm;  mal.ze..oz  the 
arms;  mazeno.arm  pit;  mazenon , wing,  or  upper  part  of_ 
arm;  amanaos.arm  muscles;  mazes , elbow;  maaz  zexonao 
?o  tapering  Aart  of  lower  arm;  maaz  zexonadonahestov, 
the  2ist?Joint  of  hand;  maaz, .the  whole  arm  and  hand; 
maztahe .palm  of  hand;  maztahecnoz .palms  of  hands,  z. 
gekstaeonatto , the  inner  part  of  palm;  zevosetah* sona 
to  cavity  of  palm;  moesq,  finger ;  moeskor.oz,  the  fing¬ 
ers-  mahSESfio esq, thumb ;  moeSq  zeoxceveSezeenxStove , the 

ina'ex  finger! setoveos,  middle  finger;  honaoveos, 
f-onrtb  f infer  (ring  finger);  tooxeos,  small  finger; 

Sh«vo,the  mil  Tela.);  moeSq 

ve  the  articulation  of  the  fingers;  moeskonoz  zex 

he«thotona6onahestovevosz(pl. ) .  Mazhekon.the  leg;maz- 
hekonoz  the  legs;  mazenom.the  thigh;  hestovavonoz , in- 
eide  thigh  muefles  (gracilis) ;mazetaeva, loin  muscles; 

mazezeo  hip  bone;  mazeton, buttocks ;manstan, knee .mans 

Sneva!knee  muscle, above  knee  (Rectus  femons)  m^zes- 
eve  calf  of  leg;  maao.shin;  mahaon, popliteal ,  veo  , 
malleolus-  zexonaota  mazhess,  the  ankle  part  of  the 
foot-  mahess  or  mazehess.the  foot;  mazhesto, the  heel, 
mazhesto-esess,  Tendo  Achillis;  matoeSata,  sole  _ 
foot-  vosatatoz, plantar  arch;  hekonevat&toz ,  metatar 
sus^ * moeSkonoz , toes .  MazheeSeeo , the  zemamovje- 

netto, sternum;  vecevSenestoz, cavity  of  chest,  matan, 

tamSkoneSeona  pit  of  stomach;  popoxpohepestoz , the 
whole  thorax  (Ger.Rippenkorb) ;  mazevax.os  coccyx;  v- 
segestoz, cavity  below  os  coccyx;  oxov°®®*T^pa5the 
meet;  mS.z§eo,os  sacrum;  mazeoxpeva,  anus,  maP^  ’ 
flat  of  the  back, especially  the  upper  part,  m&tat5n, 
the  spine;  mAtazeo , shoulder  blade the  upper  ; , prominent 
part;  zek&,konepaonatto,the  thm  part  of  t 


blade;  meSenonsz, genitals ;  mavetoxz, penis ;  mataxevot, 
testes;  macesta, vagina ;  heszhoto , one ’ s  vagina;  zedne- 
vecez,zistaenoenae§enoz,zistcneoetto,  zeestone,  words 
ref. to  special  parts  of  the  vagina.  M&tap.the  brain; 
mae, blood;  mazhemaeme ,  blood  circulation,  arteries; 
mazhemaemenotov, aorta  (throat  artery);  mhaestomohes- 
toz,  pharynx;  mazhestd,  the  heart;  mazhepondz,  the 
lungs;  mazhee , liver ;  mavehfep.the  gall  bladder;  maze- 
veceonigq , the  intestines;  mazhetato  (or.),the  kid¬ 
neys;  raazhep.the  ribs;  mazevohep , false  rib;  hooxehep, 
last  rib, floating  rib;  xSenooxz, bladder;  vehosestoz, 
uterus  (with  child);  matxpohanoxz , os  or  cervix  uter¬ 
is.  MavSxoz , flesh ;  hoevoxoz .meat ;  hoeva,  skin;  meta- 
e§q,  skull;  seozemetaeSq ,  skull  (of  dead  person). 
[Each  one  of  the  terms  for  body  and  names  for  parts 
of  body  will  also  find  its  place  alphabetically  in 
the  Dictionary] . 

Proper  names  made  from  different  parts  of  the  body: 
I. Head  and  hair:  Zestae,  Longhaired;  Eagoeszeha, 
Thin  or  Flathead;  Maxszeha,  Largehead;  Haeszeha, 
Stronghead;  Oeszeha, Shavehead ;  Atoeszeha,  Mattedhead; 
Zeahe.Head;  Tamszeha,  Blunthead;  Moxtavszeha , Black¬ 
head;  Ace .Littlehead;  Mistaemeq.Owlhead.  [ 
=headed , "sphered" ;  rad.-de  refers  to  hairTHaired;  meq 
refers  to  the  part  of  the  head  coverd  with  hair,  the 
scalp;  rad.  -ovess  denotes  the  "body"  of  hair,  the 
hairs  as  they  make  up  a  whole  of  themselves  on  the 
head].  SeozemetaeSq, Skull  (of  dead  person);  Haestoes- 
taema,Many-lice ;  Zcemeq.Littlescalp  (not  ref. to  scalp 
taken, but  to  the  haired  portion  of  the  head);  Hemeko- 
nemashane,  Crazy  or  Foolish-in-one’s-top;  N&koemeq, 
Bearscalp;  Honokoxno .Point-peeking  (Pecking-on-head) ; 
Maxhestap.Bigbrain;  Havsevovess .Baahair ;  Hestotonov- 
ess , Thickbraided-hair  (-hestotSn  =to  braid  +  -tonov- 
ess  =thick  hair);  Voxpae .Grayheaded;  Heov&e,  Yellow¬ 
haired;  Mao vess .Redhair ;  Kaovess  Shorthair;  Hast&e, 
Longhaired  (name  given  to  Gen. Custer);  Zekstde, Short- 
haired;  Mamxk&e,  Wavyhaired;  Maoxcena,  this  name  is 
usually  interpreted  Red-feathei — on-head;  [hooxz  ema- 
oxce.the  corn  is  tasselling;  emaoxcenetto  =it  heads, 
tassels  on  top  (as  barbs  on  ears  of  wheat)].  The  fact 
that  -maoxcena  =tasselling  feather, is  the  usual  suff. 
word  added  to  other  combinations,  where  there  is  no 
red  color, shows  that  above  interpretation  of  Maoxce¬ 
na  is  must  mean:  Headfeather  or  Tasselfeath- 
er  (rad.-maoxce  always  implying  that  the  tassel  is  on 
top).  Heovemaoxcena, Yellow-tassel-feather ;  Moxtamaox- 
cena,  Blaok-tassel-f eather ;  Sdenec , Small-depression- 
in-head  (  is  stove  in);  Hookoxtxehe , Cuthair ; 
Hooxtxhetan.Otto  (Indians);  Tamooxtxetaneo , one  of  the 
Zunian  tribes ,Men-with-hair-cut-blunt ;  Momaxst&emaha, 



2gThe  face  in  general.  Zeceovavene ,  Shortf orehead ; 
Paeoxq ,  Lumpf orehead;  Egeoxtane .Baldf oread;  Tapeox- 
tane.  Largef orehead;  HeSksetotanez, Pointed-cheekbone ; 
Tonov&z,  Thicklip;  Vavovaz , Sorelips ;  Sevaz, Drooping  - 
1 ip •  Kasaz.Shortlip;  Nimaz.Twistinglip;  Zceaz , Little- 
lip-  the  suff.-az  refers  also  to  mouth.  Maazena, Red- 
lipped;  Hehescene .Wrinklef ace ;  Ceensz.Littleface ;  Ma- 
ene  Redface;  Moxtavene ,  Blackface;  Kaene,  Shortface, 
Havsevene,  Badface;  Soxkomene,  Slenderface;  Kakoene, 
Thinface;  Honehevoene , Wolf-whi tef ace ;  Moceene , Little- 
womanface;  Tamene .Bluntface ;  Tamenehe,  Bluntface  wom¬ 
an;  Masavcxene ,  Poolish-crookedface ;  Voxene, Crooked- 
face;  Voxkoxene .Bentupnose ;  Kocestona, Protruding  jaw 
bone;  Zestoone .Longshinface ;  Tazene .Blasphemiousface , 

3  The  nosfe.  The  ref. to  nose  formation,  nos¬ 
ed.  ‘  Oxeese  .Runningnose  ;  Tameese  or  Tames  Bluntnose; 
Tamesa.Bluntnosewoman;  Vocxcemaevo,  Crookedbeak,  The 
rad.  -maevo  includes  snout, bill  and  nose .Pees .Flat 
nose;  Kaes .Shortnose ;  Sosoxc,  Stove-in-nose;  Menes, 
Wormynose;  Oanees,  Pittednose;  Maes, Rednose;  (the  fe 
min?ne  form  adds  an  -a"  to  -6s,  e.g.Maesa.Rednosewom- 
an)  Aes  Bignose;  Mistaevoxen.Owlbeak ;  Nonomaevoxen , 
Thunderbesrrf  usually  translated  "Roma-n-mose-tlxurider  ,  . 
[The  thunderbird  of  the  Indians  has  a  sharp, crooked 
beakl .  Heovees , Yellownose ;  Hekonees .Hardnose ,  Voxces, 
Crookednose ;  Hokoxcemaevo ,  Crowbill;  Oetaneo-oxes , 
Crowmen-nose  (ref. to  Crow  Indians);  Otaes , Piercednose 
=Nezpercb ;  Otaesetaneo,  Nezpercbs  Indians;  Esoxe., 
Smoothnose;  Oeves,  Scabbynose;  Mattenngnose;  Kaes.- 
heove  Short-yellow-nose;  Voxkaes,  Crooked-shortnose , 
HotoavoSs ,  Bull— whit enose ;  Oxeesekass , Little-running- 
nose;  Mista-oxvoxensz , Owl-crookedbeak ;  nose;  Hoxeese, 
Bandagednose;  Kohes , Crestnose  (elevation  on  Pidg-  of 
nose);  Kohemaevo,  Crested-on-bill ;  Ononevoxces , Aell 
bentnose;  Onoes , Straightnose ;  Ceces,  PI lantnose,  Ma¬ 
gees  Pugnose;  Zeses .Longnose ;  Kaesevo voasz ,  Short- 
nose-spotted-white;  Ooenevoxces,  Blind-crookednose , 
Maxeeseonon,  Greatnosed-Ree  (Arikara  Indians);  Ookae- 

ma4TTeethI'and1  tongue.  Ves  =tooth;  ~onen  =toothed.  Ho- 
konene , Sharptooted  (hok-  denotes  pointed  incisive  or 
Fronttoo>thed;  Kaonene .Shorttoothed ;  Tovokoenene  Miss 
ing-front-tooth  (Ger.  Zahnlucke);  Tostonene,  Canine 
•  toothed;  NAknos.Eeartooth.also  Stomachtooth,  Nak°e 
Nritanov,  Beartongue , Pointedtcngue ;  Hotoavitanov , Bull 
tongue;  Mahaensz , Sal i va  or  Tears;  Maataevonene , Iron- 

t°5tThe  ear.  Suff.  -esta  =eared.  Nocesta,  One-eared; 
Momahaesta ,  Eigeared;  Homaesta  Beavereared: \ 

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.‘~?erT*  ■  ‘  "■«-  . 

_ - -  /J  *”&/*** 


Mazesta.Festeringear ;  Evoseese , Earring ;  Tovocesta, In- 
dentedear;  Menevoseesta ,  Feather-earring;  Oxhavseve- 
voseesta,  Bad-earring;  Vehoeeosees,  Whiteman-earring; 
Evehokcsees ,Little-whiteman-earring ;  Si toxcvoseesta, 
String-earring;  Hotoavoesta,  Bull-white-eared;  N&ko- 
ematovosz, Bear-ears . 

.6. The  eyes.  Rad.-exa  =eye  or  eyed.  When  the  eyes 
are  taken  to  mean  countenance  of  the  whole  face  the 
suff.-ene  is  used  (see-  face).  Naknotcene .Bear  look 
(having  the  eyes  of  a  bear);  Ocene,  One-eyed;  Oenec, 
Littleblind;  Vovepotoene,  Sunkeyes;  Onon-oxtocensz , 
One-eyed-Ree  (Arikara) ;  Heoveexan, Yelloweyes ;  Honeox- 
voensz, Wolf-white-eye ;  Momahaexan, Bigeyes ;  Tozcemaz- 
en.Sliteyes;  Maca, Redeyed  (woman);  Paevenoss,  Lump- 
brows;  Hoxoveveenoss, Crossbrows  (when  the  eye  brows 
meet  above  the  nose);  Voxp'eexan,  Gray  eye  s  ;  Maataexa  or 
Maataevexa,  Ironeye  (wearing  eye  glasses);  Oesca, 
Scabby  eyes. 

7.  The  throat  and  neck.  Suff.-hane  ref. to  the  nape 
of  the. neck;  suff.  -eoxz  denotes  the  exterior  part  of 
the  throat;  rad.  -notov-  designates  the  whole  neck. 
Ehand.Nape;  Po ’ shane .Lumpnape ;  Vdshane,  Nape-cavity; 
Nekshand,  Long  or  Tapering-nape;  Kaenotov,  Shortneck; 
Koehand, Prominent-nape, also  Hindhead;  HcLc-rA.exz.Bull- 
throat;  NAkoehansene.Bearnape ;  Panxpoho .Adam’ s-apple ; 
Mocenxpoho,  Little-epiglottis;  Maxenxpohona,  Goiter; 
Honeheveestoona, Wolf-throat .pharynx ;Niseno to vaoxnoka , 
Two-necks-in-one ;  Hekonaeoxz.Hard  or  Stiffneck. 

8.  The  arms, fingers, legs  and  feet.  Suff.  -naeva  re¬ 
fers  to  "armed,  having  arms",  suff.  -oxta  =legged; 
suff.-ata  =plant  of  foot;  suff  -os  or  -eos  =fingered; 
Eenaeva , Brokenarm ;  Tamenaeva , Stumparm ;  Eokastatamon , 
Hump-short-shoulders ;  Hemeeneva, Collarbone jHeszhevox- 
kon, Hump— on-shoulder  (of  animals;;  Honehaesata,  Wol'i'- 
long-foot;  HaeSxasz , Going-far  (not  a  long  distance, 
but  a  long  walk);  Hoxkseoxta,  Shortlegged;  Maeoxta, 
Redlegged;  Kamxeveoxta,  Woodenlegged;  Vcestsoheq, 
Craneleg;  Hooxensz .W'alkinglast ;  OaceA , Roundshin ;  Ho- 
hoenaz.Achinglimb;  Hokomenone , Lame-coyote ;  Seozetha- 
sata,Longfooted-dead-person  (ghost);  Nonika.Lame;  Na- 
koedta.Bearf oot ;  Katoeata.Bentupfoot ;  Voxcata ,■  Crook¬ 
ed-foot;  Voxcatahe  (fem.  form);  Nakoenone , Lamebear ; 
Hoe'/aoxtamensz , Walking-on-earth  (afoot);  Voazevanone, 
Lamedeer;  Paeata,  Lumpfoot;  Hossoetaeven, Barefooted ; 
Seozevdta, Dead-one ’ s-foot ;  HeneSeosae,  Stiff-finger; 
Panstaneva.Lumpknee ;  Momaxenstane .Bigknees ;  ilenoxca- 
ta.Finefoot;  Mahamocanoz , Bigshoes ;  Pevohan.Wellshoed ; ,  Sacredlimp  (Mysteriouslame ) ;  Esatahess, 
Sinewfoot;  Hoevazevadvensz ,  Living-  (having  one’s 
whereabouts)  on-earth;  Tokseoxta, Shortlegged;  Amevon- 
en.  Crawling;  Oxata,  Splitfoot;  Xomonata , Spearf oot ; 



Moceeata.Littlefoot  (fern,  form);  Moehestatamon.Elks- 
shoulder;  Toszhetona,  Longheel;  Hotoavc , Bull— hump-on- 
shoulder  ;  Oakseva.ftoundcalfleg;  MomeSeoxta,  Hairleg; 
Noceoxta, Onelegged;  Poeseva,Lumpcalf-of-leg ;  NiSeose, 
Twofingers;  Naheose .Threef ingers ;  Mazeose,  Festering- 
finger;  Homaeos,  Beaverclaws;  TameSkoss .Bluntf inger ; 
EeSkosa, Broken-off-f inger ;  Kaceeos.Bentup-thumb;  Ams- 
toevo , Spreadnail ;  Mistaezeeos , Owlpointingf inger . 

9.  The  ribs .heart , entrails , belly , etc .  EhSpe , Broken- 
rib;  Hooxheq.Lastrib  (Floatingrib) ;  Hotoaheton,  Bull- 
ham;  N&kohesta.Bearheart ;  Homahesta.Beaverheart;  Hee- 
mazhesta.Womanheart ;  Evohonov,  Diaphram;  Heszhetaz, 
Kidney;  Hotoavseona, Bull-os-sacrum;  NoneSeo ,Dri ed-os- 
sacrum;  Voxpas .Whitebellied ;  Tapeas , Bigbellied ;  Nis- 
tapaas , Former-lumpbellied ;  Hekas , Sof tbell ied ;  Okakas, 
Conebellied;  Maxenom.Bigthigh;  Hesksess , Tapering-but¬ 
tock;  Hotoaevess ,Eull- buttock;  Oevess , Scabby-buttock ; 
Meo vavSeq , Li  ttle-hairy-os-sacrum;  Maxetana , Bigbreas t- 
ed;  Nakoevax,  Eeartail;  Maxepao .Bigback ;  Hotoaevax, 
Bulltail;  OeveSks .Scabby-bowels ;  Votoneheve .Birdtail 
( masc . ) ;  Votona.Birdtail  {fen..);  Evaxeneo , Tai lend  (of 
human  being? , referring  to  the  coccyx, the  very  caudal 
end  of  the  spine);  Soxpseona, Thru-os-sacrum;  Hooxsep, 
Lastr ib; "rioboahep , Eullr 1 b ;  omstoo .Lumbar-region;  Ha- 
paeo, Lumpstanding;  Mesetta, Feces ;  Honeoxmazvosz , Wolf¬ 
dropping;  Hotameveonegq.Dogentrail ;  EveeoneSq .Bowels . 

10.  Miscellaneous.  Pavenaeva, Feathered-arm;  Pavena, 
Sweetf eather ;  Pavene .Powderface ;  Otatavena.Bluef eath- 
er;  Kakonita , Tapering-waist , Thinwaist ;  Hetone.Ham  or 
Buttock;  Zestonehe ,  Long-barrelled-trunk;  Kakstasz, 

,  Shortbody;  Kakstahe  (fem.);  Xamosdz,  Dropping-lip- 
with-saliva;  Heszhemaem.His-blood;  Tamahe ,  Stumpywom- 
an;  Hesctameostos ,  Her-mother-struck-her-over-the- 
small-back;  Totoevetova.Bentbackward ;  Oneonax, Loose- 
bones;  Voxtan , Skin ;  Hotoaevxtan,  Bullskin;  Epaesess, 
Lumpsinew;  Koemaess,  Instepsinew;  Hestanemeaz , Side- 
whiskers;  Voxpemeaz , Graybeard ;  HeSkovemeaz .Bristling- 
beard;  Moxtame&z.Blackbeard;  Hotoame&z.Bullbeard;  Na- 
koemedz .Bearbeard  ( Taper ingbeard ) ;  HeovemeAz, Yellow- 
beard;  Maemeaz.Redbeard ;  Tosemeaz.Longbeard ;  MeSeese- 
veho .Hairy-nose-whiteman  “Mexican;  Meaz, Beard. 

bog,  Sxenitamomaoxzese,  bog  (place  where  there  is  no- 

thing  but  slimy  ground);  hekornaoxzese , place  of  soft 
ground;  ahanomaoxzeSe, boggy .treacherous  ground;  eSxe-  is  a  bog;  zex-xenitamomao ,  where 
the  ground  is  boggy;  zexhekomao,  where  the  ground  is 
soft;  zexeahanomao .where  the  ground  is  treacherous;  is  not  boggy  ground.  The  rad. 
-fixenitam  (sometimes  pronounced  mxenitam)  denotes 
si ' my  scum, semi— liquid  mud;  rad.-hekom—  =soft  and  wa- 
tery;  rad.— ahan—  ref. to  "be  thrown, hurled" ;  the  suff. 



I  -omao  denotes  ground.  Hekomaenehan,  lake  of  boggi  **y 

(  consistency;  see  lake 

v.nahooesz.I  boil  it;  nahooeto,  I  boil  one  (or.); 
nanehov  zehooeszetto , I  who  boil  it;  zehooeton.I  b. 
im  (or.);  naexaha.I  done  (see  cook);  naevh&no, 

^yr\  I  (or.),  in  order  to  separate  filth  or  grease  (of 

(  cons: 
l  boil,  ’ 

\Jp~  ™ 

V*]  I  b.: 

clothes , pork) ;  nansoomehaena ,  I  b.  it  with  warm  water 
(-nsoom-  =  warm  liquid);  see  warm.  Nahekonohanoz , I  b. 
them  (in.)  hard  or  dry;  nadeohanoz , I  b.them  (in.) 
dry;  ensoometto,  it  boils;  ensoomeha,  the  water  is 
boiling;  is  not  fully  boiled,  underdone; 
nahospaanoz , I  fail  to  b.them  (in.);  inf .-hosp-denotes 
"not  sufficiently, unsuccessfuly;  eesevota,it  is  boil- 
ing,seething,also  ref. to  the  boiling  of  cold  water  as 
in  water  falls, etc.;  evoxceonsevota, it  boils,  seethes 
hard;  eheozevo-ta,  it  boils  over;  epopoesevota,  it  boils 
up  with  bubble  (Fr.  bouilloner) ;  r.acekcvaha,  I  . 
soft;  omoto, boiled  meat;  omotonoz  (pi .  )  .  ^ 

boil,  n. xaema, boil ,  tumor  ;  xaemao ,  (pi . )  ;  naxaemae.I  have  --"ft 

_  tut'sA-a'-i.  I 



boils , tumors . 

boiler,  nSehaneveto , wash  boiler  (also  wash  tub) 

~  meveto, water  heater  .boiler.  «*<>***.  ; 

boisterous,  inf ,-hehetov-  =unruly;  ehehetova, one  is  b. , 
i  unruly;  zehehetovanesso , the  b .  ouasu;  hehetov-  t± 

\  anhetan^^  ,^^  "Jj1'-*. 

N'^bold  , '^ehestaha ,  one  is  b . , couragueos ;  naheszhestahato v, I 

am  b.,have  courage ,Ger . beherzigt ;  ehatamahe . one  is  fa**f^**S**^ 
b.  ,  brave,  vigorous;  ehatamaz,  one  is  bTY'-s^l^ant 
self;  zehatamazz, the;  zehatamazessi  ,  the' 
ant  ones-;  hStamazhetaneo ,b. fearless  menjnahestatamde-, 

I  am  b.  .audacious  ,  reckless  .daring ;  ekoxkahe  =ehStama- 
he, one  is  b.  ,  brave  (used  mostly  in  the  3rd.pers.};  C*/  is  b. , insolent, brazen,  forward,  impudent; 

'jitter*.,  inf . -saa&^ze-v—  =bold,  blunt ,  gru-f£ ,  f ra-nk 

NasaaVdzeyahq , I  am  b..fear  nothing:  see  veil. 

«rA-  is  a  b . utterance , saying ;  is 
.  a  b.deed.  [Inf.  -oha-  denotes  intensity,  dread, in  a 
r<^fhigh  degree].  Inf.  -saaise-  =bold  in  the  sense  of 
•  "not  hesitating,  dreading".  Nasaaiseeszd,  I  am 
speak, do  not  hesitate  or  dread  to  speak. 
bolster,  zehotxovetomseosz,  wagon  bolster  (lit.  that 
-  which  sets  up  across);  understood  only  in"  con¬ 
nection  with  a  wagon.  Namaestoonaovo , I, make  one 
to  be  pillowed.  See  pillow. 

bolt,  nxpohaneo , b. , shutter  (as  used  for  doors);  nxpoha- 
neonoz , bolts (shutters ) ;  is  a  b. ; 
nahekonxpohana  henito.I  b.the  door;  toneoheo  zeonimo-' 
taoaneoneve  honoc.b.with  threads  at  the  point;  lit. 
round  holder  (toneoheo)  with  winding  (see  wind)  at 
the  point  (honoc);  tdneoheonoz  zeonimotaoaneonevesz- 
honoc,  bolts.  Toneoheo  zeota  honoc,  b. whose  end  is 



pierced  (like  clevis);  toneoheonoz  zeotaesz  honoc', 
clevises;  tcneoheo  zeonimotaoaneoneve  honoc  naveSeto- 
eonoha , I  (lit. I  nail  it  with  a  bolt.Emasdasetax, 
one  holts  away  (running);  swallows .holts 
it;  emas6mhaesta  hen  zexoxhomo,  he  holted  down, that 
which  I  fed  him.  Zeonimotaoemaensz  §eon,  a  holt  of 
cloth, drygoods  (or.).  Etomsehoe,  one  stands  bolt  up¬ 
right;  sits  holt  upright; 
sets  holt  upright. 

honafide,  onisyometanoxtovS, ,  in  good  faith,  without  de- 

- ’ceit. 

bond,  tohestoz ,b. .fetter ;  tonestotoZMplT)  ;  etohestov , 

-  it  is  a  b., fetter;  etoheo.they  (or.)  are  in  bonds; 

r~Zy~  4.  is  not  a  h.,see  tie.  Zehetohestov- 
etto  vistomazistoz ,  the  bonds  of  matrimony  (lit.  the 
fc'Lyiivb  ties  which  marriage  has).  Zetohetaeve§etoeti.zez ,  the 
lliJjJL.  bonds  which  bind  us  (lit.  all  wherewith  we  are  tied 
I  „  r  to  each  other);  zetohessS ,the  ones  who  are  in  bonds; 

ttfoiaiZUOuiu  tohemhayo , bond  house  (where  one  is  tied) .prison;  tass 
/'Tk&ftr'  tohestovfi,  eamevostaneheve , one  lives  a  life  of  bond- 

1  **' 

age  (lit. as  it  were, in  bonds  one  leads  his  life);havs 
nioxcenxpaoenon  tohestovfi.,  the  evil  shuts  us  in  bonds; 
hetosemanistovfi  eveSetohe,  he  is  kept  in  bonds  by  the 
drink  habiTt;  heovasz  hesetohestotoz  nivefietoetanen- 
onsz.we  are  tied  with  all  kinds  of  bonds ZeveStoeta- 
nez  emesaatonSe— popooneeozehanehen°s , the  cor.ds  (that 
with  which  we  are  tied)  that  tie  us  cannot  break 
asunder.  See  bound , tie .hold , slave . 
bondage,  momonehevestoz , b . , servitude , slavery ;  emomone- 
1  vostaneheve , one  lives  in  b. ;  momonehevsto va  na- 
Sexana , one  delivered  me  from  b. , slavery.  The  word  mor¬ 
mon  ref.  not  to  bonds,  but  rather  to  an  abject  ser¬ 
vile  condition.  Etohe  havseveva,  one  is  in  the  b.of 
sin  (is  tied  in  evil);  nahetohestovetanotovo , I  desire 
one  to  be  in  b. ;  emomoneheve , one  is  in  b.,is  a  slave; 
namomonaovo , I  bring  one  into  b. ;  namomonaoto , I  en¬ 
slave  one.  The  suff.-naovo  denotes  a  longer  process, a 
keeping  one  in  b. .while  suff.  -naoto  ref.  to  the  one 
act  of  enslaving.  The  first  suff.  has  more,  indirect, 
intransitive  meaning, wile  the  last  has  a  direct, tran¬ 
sitive  value,  similar  to  the  Eng.  in  such 

verbs  as  befall .bedraggle , besing , bespeak , etc . 

bondman,  momonhetan;  emomonhetaneve , one  is  a  b. ;  zemo- 
■ monhetanevsz , the  one  who  is  a  b. 
bone,  mazhekonoz , the  bones  (also  legs);  mazheq.the  b., 
also  the  leg;  heq.bone;  hekonoz , bones ;  nazhekonam, 
b.  ;  nszhekonam ,  thy  b.  ; , one ’  s  b.  ;  naz- 
n  hekonaman.our  bor.e  ;  nszhekonamevoz  ,your  bones;  hes- 

zhekonamevoz ,  their  bones.  The  word.heq  is  also  ap¬ 
plied  to  wagon  wheels  (wagon  is  or.).  Seozehekonoz , 
bones  of  a  dead  person;  evokonaotansz  hekonoz,  they 



FNini  icu.rurvrKiwc  nirnAMAov  ^ 

lie  (set)  bleaching, whitening,  the  bones;  evoonaoeha 
heq.the  bone  bleaches;  evoonaoansz  hekoncz,the  bones 
are  bleaching;  evoahaeoeha  ( sg . ) , evcaheohansz  (pi  • ) iAe^ 
hekonoz ,  the  bones  lie  scattered  (on  the  ground) .  k\Y('JZsf --fa 
such  expessions  ref. to  bones  bleaching  on  the  ground.  &  wJ/Zt 
Vostanehekonoz,  bones  of  people;  hovahskonoz , bones  of 
animals;  is  a  bone;  ehekonevensz  they ^ 
(in.)  are  bones;  emoceevezevod,  it  is  made  of  b.or^-.-  / 
horn;  is  made  of  b.(both  expressions6’'-——^ 
ref. to  handles  of  knives  ,  etc  .,  made  of  bone). The  suf  f  .A***#*' 

06  is  the  same  used  to  denote  the  growth  of  plants 
and  the  lit.  translation  would  be  "it  bones"  instead  ^  (*U+*t**- 
of  "it  is  made  of  bone". When  the  whole  object  is  made p,0-gj4jr^ 
out  of  bone  the  suff.-ston  is  used;  ehekonevstoon ,  it^^/j 
is  made  out  of  bone  [  is  made,  builtC ^ 
strong].  turns  to  bone;  naheszhekonev- 
aoen  Maheo.God  provided  us  with  bones;  eheszhekoneva- 
oz, one. becomes  provided  with  bones;  naheszhekonameto- 
va.I  am  his  bone;  mazezeo.hip  b. ;  hotoavo.the  promi¬ 
nent  part  of  the  shoulder  blade  on  top  of  the  shoul¬ 
der;  mazgeo.os  sacrum;  mazto.chin  bone:  mazeo.bone  of 
elbow;  mitatamo, shoulder  bone  (head  of  humerus);  md- 
tazeo , shoulder  blade , scapula ;  maao,  shin  bone;  veoo, 
ankle  b  .  .malleolus  ;  mazheegeeo  ,  brea.: :  i  .  .--dtnramjniaz- 
hesto .heel .heel  b. ;  hoxovoeo .pubis  (bone);  mataton, 
spinal  b.or  column;  mazemen , collar  b. ;  naemenevaoses , 
my  collar  broken.  Hekoneem&son,  b.  ornament  worn 
as  a  neck  band  or  hanging  on  the  breast, like  a  breast 
plate, held  together  by  leather  strings.  It  is  compos¬ 
ed  of.  slender  white  tuties  made  of  bones, from  about  2  v 
to  4  inches  long  with  a  diameter  of  about  3/8  of.  an 
inch  at  the  middle,  both  ends  tapering  from  the  mid¬ 
dle.  These  tubes  are  hung  close  together  transversal- 
ly  to  the  breast.  Usually  there  are  four  rows  of  such 
bones,  each  row  about  14"  in  length.  Kasexa.I  clean,  f  cn.ah-L— 
the  bone  (from  the  meat;  eSenoxtano  hekon  (sp.of  ' 
dogs,  etc.)  ,he  eats  the  bone  clean;  cseoenc-xtano  he 
is  gnawing  the  bone;  nasdsenoxsan, I  gnaw;  nasdsenoxta 
hekon,  I  am  gnawing  a  b. ;  nadha  heq,I  break  the  b. 

(with  instr.);  nadomohe.I  am  breaking  (bones),  in  or¬ 
der  to. get  the  marrow.  An  old  Ch.told  writer  that  the 
first  tools  human  beings  used  were  bones,  or  made  of 
bones;  this  material  being  easy  to  supply.  Ribs  of 
larger  animals  were  used  to  make  cutting  instuments 
and  also  to  stir  the  ground  where  corn  was  planted. 

Writer  saw  an  old  woman  using  bones  to  draw  pictori¬ 
als  on  rawhides;  bones  were  extensively  used  tot  an 
hides.  Sharp  bones  of  birds  or  fishes  were  used  as 
needles  or  tubes.  The  old  Indian,  mentioned  above, 
laughed  when  writer  told  him  that  it  was  thot  stones 
were  first  used  as  tools.  "Yes", he  said, "for  hammers 


-*4^  X^V^g^^^^^^ENGLISH-CHEYENNE 
_ •  j-S-'Z'  n/na  a-v/ru-  -  s. 

‘THV'/ff't  vje&f^rf^^t^er^iise^  such  tools  were  too 

/h,P~^-tA-  hard,  to  make  and  were  heavy.  We  were  told  by  the 
2*"^  grandfathers  of  the  olden  times  that  bones  had  been 

their  tools  before  using  any  stones.  Other  people  may 
**'1”  have  used  stones, we  used  the  tools  that  were  natural¬ 

ly/**^  '°*x’iy  made  for  us  and  which  we  found  lying  where  animals 

- '  died, or  were  killed". 

bonnet,  hoxca;  of  the  special  lodge  where 

\ -  the  sacred  cap  or  bonnet  is  kept.  See  cap. 

i  f^^lbony,  is  bony. 
fV^C+r  DOOk,  mxisto.b.  .paper  (from  -mxe-  =surf ace  touched  by 
- instrument;  namxea,  I  draw, write  it;  navxea.I  hew, 

t-fl-*'  ‘  inscribe  it;  namxiston.I  write,  -design^  by  writing). 

mxistcnoz .books .papers , letters  ;  is  a 
AaC*^  f  book ;  nistamxisto, ancient  writing, old  b.  ;  maheonemxi- 
sto ,  the  sacred  b.,the  Bible;  see  write.  Hoemanemxis- 
1  rj*,,  to, law  book;  zistxisto,  Ch.b.  ;  hoevxisto, land  book, 

deed  for  land;  mxistonemanstone  (vSho),  book  maker 
j- (white  man);  mxistonanevstonane .book  maker;  epSozess- 
gsz  prints  a  b.;  hepaon  mxisto.the  back  or 
I  binding  of  a  b.  ;  nazetana  mxisto.I  turn  the  leaves  of 

t  s'  a  b.  ;  nahoxpoana  or  nahapana  mxisto,I  close  the  b. ; 

t  natataena  mxisto.I  open  the  b. ;  naasemaena  mxisto.I 

I  -A  1  turn  over ’'the  leaves  of  a  b.  ;  naasemaena  means  also: 

I  begin  to  roll  up  (to  fold), and:  I  begin  to  paint  it 
red;  eeveha  mxisto,the  b.  lies  (is  laid  aside);  ehe- 
i  _  xeohe  is  written  in  the  b. ;  ametano-  . 
V/v i^ria-mxistd.b.of  meditation  (the  Bible);  ametanenemxia^/^ 
^W^^living  t.,b.of  life. 

uv/vwi  „ _ _ _ , _  ..  n  -sox  yj&Zitftjf 

i  7(7^-’ slick”+' -anoz  =shoes) ;  tostoononoz, boots  (long  o 
■  V  *  tended  anklets);  hoxovoetostoonon.hip  boot(from  ho- 

^K>fWxo*  =across  +  tostoon)  ;vokononoz, lower  boots, gaiters  ;>  ,  ^ 

4 v.ohonon,  bracelet  for  the  lower  part  of  the  leg.ank-  ^,1. 
T  ■  '  1  hevohonon.his  ankle  hair  (said  of  buffaloes); 

see  sound. 

boot,  soxocanoz, slick, rubber  b. 

,or  shoes^-ff  rom 

evokononettonsz , they  (in.)  are  short  boots, gaiters, 

1  Sy  /^nklets  ;  ehevokononeo ,  they  (or.)  have  low  boots, 
•-tflets.  See  bracelets . 

.)[  booth,  hoveoeom, when  made  of  boughs  (hoveo  =shade  +  om 

-  =lodge , inside  space  [ev&peometta, there  is  nothing 

inside]);  vehoeom.b. , square  tent.  The  suff.-om  ref. to 
lodge  interior.  [See  sundance]. 
booze,  enonotovseSsz , one  boozes, is  drunk.  See  drink, 
border,  (or.)  is  bordered , sp . of  a  garment; 

-  zetoxenoesz , the  one  (or.sp.of  garment)  which  is 

bordered;  natoxenoto.I  border  it  (or.;  as  when  sewing 
something  on  the  edges  of  a  garment).  is  a  borders;  inf.-toxe-  =close  along  the  edge; 
toxeeoh§ .along  the  border  of  the  river;  natotoxesta, I 
b. it  in  speaking, talk  about  it;  natotoxemo , talk  about 




.  \njLevkd — eux$?Ur  3  a***— fa-.  ‘x^+**»:e^h^V*-t t 1L& 

\  (VoS^A.  &-  Z~^kcL~U-^u^-*^<n+*--V~\:<n)CV-(  ^-u^hr/wi,  £_*  cittfeua^.  Z^Uf 

Lw  •  *~c> *-*-*— ****--+y  v.«V*,  ‘L£*A  iA«  ■*.  &-~  £**-f  y>f>i'-n'i'i (ryj_ayll  _ 

3"‘>.l“~'^'  ^^X'ic^TUk.L  ~  *- 

yAft*  ons  (or.);  etoxetan , one  borders  in  thot,  is  thotful'; ^/t^tcre- 
toxSenatoz ,  the  parading  within  the  camp  circle,  '.'edg- y  /  j(  ^ 
ing"  the  rows  of  lodges;  etoxSenatove ,  the  parade  V, 
takes  place;  etoxSenanov, there  was  a  parading.  Eame-  is  bordered  (roads, rivers, etc. ) ;  toxetto  d#t/***** 
zemhaomoeha , border .edge  of  ocean;  etoxeoxz*  one  (or.) 
goes  along  the  b. ;  etotoxoeoxz,  one  goes  along,  from 
one  place  to  another;  front  of, before,  bor- 
dering.close  to  the  front  side  of;  zexhoanoazenatto, 
the  b.,  rim,  edge  (of  pail,  well, gun;  the  rim  of  an 
aperture);  zetoxeamhoesta  zemhaomoeha  (or  nehanehe- 
va),a  line  of  bluffs , cliffs ,  bordering  the  ocean  (or 
lake);  toxenoheveeszehen , lace  coat;  toxenoestoz , lace , 
braid  edging. 

bbre,  naotSon.I  bore  (with  instr.);  is 
a  boring;  becomes  bored;  eotao,  it  is  a 
bored  hole;  (  is  a  hole);  naotaedno,  I  bore 
'  ne  (or., as  stones  , -potatoes , etc .) ;  naotaeoha.I  b.  it; 
[aotSemxesta.I  (as  a  pipe  stem);  eotaemxe,  it  is 
|  red ;  naotaemaso.I  bore  one  (or.  sp.  of  finger  nails 
ears);  naotano.I  (or.)  by  fire, heat;  naotSo- 
,1  by  heat;  naotaeseno.I  b. one’s  nose;  eotase-  (or.)  bores  by  gnawing;  see  dig;  zeotae, 
that  which  is  bored,  a  hole;  zeotaesav-the  holes 
(aide);  zeotaesozevatto.that  which  has  a  hole  (bored) 
ii  the  butt  end  a(as  needles);  has  a 
hbfle  (bored)  in  the  thick  end  part.  See  hole,  pierce, 
e  ineztaevenohe  ,.one  for.)  looks  bored, annoyed  ;  ednez- 
.  t  levenoen, one  (or.)  walks  bored;  zeotaeohe . that  which 
iS  bored  (by  instr .).  &jl*.  w  0U*aa-  - 
boryr ,  otSheo ;  (or.)  who  does  the  boring;  is  a  borer  (instr.);  eotaonehsve,  ^ 

one  (or.)  is  a  borer.  f*T 

.//borilng,  zeo;taanestnv ,  t  h  p  -baying .  -  '  ,  „}/& 

'  'bornl.-^elhestaoz,  one  is  b.;  ehosohestaoz ,  one  becomes  b .a-^- 
!  /  _  backward;  epeveSeeseoneve ,  one  is  well  b.,of  good^^^*^^  _ 

kl^.n^t*/^Leedine , lineage ;  hestaozistoz , the  becoming  b.  ;  zeh 

^fa0ZZ)the;  zehestaozessS,  the  b.  ones;  zehesta-  4/  ? 

ifrttunu^yM*  ozz  matasoomaeva ,  the  one  b.  of  the  spirit.  Notomson,  * 

^UArJeu^fc?,  first  b.  (of  animals.)  :,notomoenoxz,  first  b.  (  child) 
ril-fc** J  hotomoenoxztagoo^r^cMld ;  see  child.  Evh&shesta 

Ttu. AJf»Pz,one  is,  becomes  b.  again;  eevhashesta, one  is  b.  ^ 

again, a  second  time.  The  Ch.  believed  that  dead  per-  /wt/uy***"' 
sons  (especially  young  ones)  would  "be  born  again 
.  the  body  of  another  one.either  in  the  tribe  or  some ^ 

_  where  else,  vTtvJX-oU***,  ej 

w  borrow,  navestomevo  zevhanemezevaenas ,  I  ask  of  one  to  -  , '] -tfijn 

-  -  ‘ -  makatansz  zetose  -  3  * 

.  lit  w&J 

just  let  me  have;-  navestananoz  makatansz  zetos( 

^ /  gykaSnanomonoz, i  "b. monies  (lit.  I  ask  monies  that 

hall  replace  again)  .Nivdstomeva  nazetaneneon  zetose- 
,  vhanhozeoxto , one  borrowed  my  tool  (lit. one  asked  of 

h*fe£&  s^x^f^hzksa^  ^ 


r*’~j  '  v  rjr'rfir”  '7'  ■  \  "  a 

Vh4  GUtfl  o ,  {. ,  '  U-  e  ^ 




me  my  tool, to  just  use  it). 

bosom,  hegeeon.b.,  breast;  nazheSeeon,  my  b.or  breast 

-  nanohoenoz, I  hold  one  (or.)  in  my  b. ;  ninohoetov 

az.I  hold  thee  in  my  b. ;  heszhegeeon, one ’ s  b.  lua.**, 
boss,  etaomenitdetan.he  wants  to  boss;  etaomenitdetani 
heoneve , one  is  bossing, domineering.  n 

both,  ninisovaz .both  of  us  (ref. to  two  different  par-Vu^  >  f 
- ties  or  bodies);  ninisovadss ,b.  of  you;  ninisova .j  1 

voss, b. of  them  (or.);  ninisovaez’ ,b.of  them  (excl.fiK*“ ,  *)  VI 
of  the  3rd.pers.);  ninisovaesz , b. of  them  (in.);  nini-v4'*  '  i 

sovetto.b. together;  engenig ’nettonsz , ( in. )  b.go  toge^ 
ther;  from  -nig-  =two  +  -bn-  whose  "b"  becomes  apoco¬ 
pated, +  ettonsz, which  is  the  pi.  suff.of  the  impers. 

(Inf .-nig(e)-  =two,both);  natanigeneoxzheme ,we  two, or 
both  are  going  there;  ninigez.b.or  two  of  us;  niniS- 
ess.b.or  two  of  you;  ninigevoss , two  or  b.of  them.  The 
difference  between  inf.-nisov-  and  -ni§-  is  that  the 
first  implies  two  fold  while  the  second  denotes  dis¬ 
tributive  meaning;  ehaea  ninigevoz,  he  is  older  than 
each  of  us  two  are.  The  suff .-voz  .in  both  words  de¬ 
notes  a  genitive  f., meaning:  he  is  older  than  "it" 
our  being  old.  Inf.  -haztov-  =both,  in  the  sense  of 
either  side;  haztovom,  on  either  (both)  side  of  the 
river;  heatovcm , on  each  side,  b. sides  of  the  river. 

Lui  Inf.-hestov-  =b. ,  double;  is  b. sided  (for 

J+vsiLtLuiA he  one  and  for  the  other  side).  Ninixasz ,  b.  (  in . ) .  Ii 
1  c  .>X/iJhere  were  two  packages  of  coffee  I  would  say:  nini 
iLTj  7  sovasz  nahestananoz,  I  take  b. ;  but  if  there  were  two 
pieces  of  money  I  would  have  to  say:  ninixasz  nahes¬ 
tananoz, I  take  both;  enigepevaensz.they  (in.)  are  b. 
good;  enigepevaeo , they  (or.)  are  b.good;  enisovepeva- 
ensz.they  (in.)  are  b.good, sp. of  two  bodies  of  compo¬ 
nent  parts;  eniso vepevaeo .they  (or.)  are  good, sp. of 
two  parties  of  men, etc.  Nigehestoz , the  being  two.  is  b.  (at  the  same  time)  good, 
bother,  naozetanoha , one;  naozetanor^an, I  am  bother- 
"  ed;  naoz-hemeemodho , I  (needlessly).  Inf. 

^1q2—  =breaking  up  +  —tan  =mentally.  Naeveoheveghesse- 
-Szetanoxzeve ,  I  head  about  (lit. to  brood  about  in  .  , 

*4*1  r  one  ’  s  mind)  .  -TntTTteitn/-**#  'f& 

^botheration,  ozetanohazistoz ;  6z-hemeep0iJb^Tstolz,  msd  *  J  - 
.  dlesome  b.  ;  eSzetanoh^erievTthere  is  a  b.  I  . ,  > 

^“"bottle’  nanivsetto  ,  that  whi  ch.  isnransiucent ,  pellucid 
,  I  i,  A  clear, glass;  nanivset)<%nsz ,  bottles.  The  expres-  ^  X 

■  C"H'y££,  s^n  dQ-es  not  describe  bottle,  but  ref. solely  to  A  , 

to  to  the  Elass  matter ;  JtfrVianivse-  =clear  translucent,  is^ 


To  to  tne  glass  mavuer  voc-  •  t-"  fUl 

fr*^l°e!£^used  as  inf.;  enarfl^sevSme ,  it  (water)  looks  pellucid,  +KJ 
limpid;  eotaenarykess,,  it  is  1^5/ear  ( in  the  nigh  L ufc  .  I 

EP^.’laUKNanivsetto  eve^ta  eseoxz  ,  fc^^medecine  is  in  a  b . 

ivsett^  is  glftSs'br  a  bottle ^  ^ 
,ohnttnm  m  il/fn  &  v  n  .  h  .  (  cJfi)  Q  T /  C 

fl'Water  /  courses);  z^h^nesdevo 



j/‘  &**-*-/  ■ 

'far****,  ' 

V  £C*x- 



b.;  zenehanevoomao ,b.of  lake  (nehan  =  lake  +  vomao  =  j 
ground  surface);  zexoomaota.b.  (inner)  of  cups  B.nd.f*au 
bottles;  zexeszevetto ,  outer  b.of  cups, glasses, bot- 
ties;  zexoota,  where  it  sets, all  around;  zednota  vhds,  ,£ 
where  the  peak  ends  setting;  zeszheneevoomao ,  b.of 
swamp;  vaxseanhotto,  at  the  b.  (from  a  height);  the  ~~r 
double  "oo", often  pronounced  as  a  long  "o" .designates  the  sense  of  "surrounded  or  hollow  surface". 

Hence  suff.-to  is  used  for  vessels;  heto, vessel,  cup, 
basin,  "having  a  b.";  deep  is  it  or  how 
far  to  the  b. ;  is  very  deep.  No  dbubt  the 
expression  "hoe"  to  be  at  a  place  means  "to  bottom", 
as:  nahoe.I  b.  ,  am,  stay  at.  See  foot  ^foundation. ^  Zis.-  .^t- 

bottomless,  zsaamxaoseonevhan  vox ,  b .  hole  ,  pi  t  '(namxdaT  I*  ***■£*&.. 

~  ~  touch, reach  with  foot);  zsaamxaoonehevhan, 

that  which  has  no  bottom  (lit.  that  which  is  no t 
touched  by  foot);  zevonoetam,  that  which  is  lost 
depth, beyond  depth;  map  zeotSo  ,  b  .water  hole;  epoeset-t'<(.. 
to  hetoxq,  the  cup  has  its  bottom  off, is  b.  (coarse 
expression) . 

bough,  hestS,(sg.);  hestaenoz, (pi. ) .  See  branch, 
boulder,  maxhohona  zeoxevoeSemsz,  large  rock  which  has 

fallen  and  lies  broken.  .  .  t  ,  / 

bounce,  see  throw  or  jump  up _ 

bound  ,  v .  nahohanenonaovo  ,  I  set  bounds  to  one.  [From  ho Jjtll 
haneno, large  or  small  mound  of  earth  (or  ashes\^',/’ 
from  smoking)  indicating  forbidden, restricted  ground. 

Such  a  "bourn"  is  always  to  be  found  about  ten  yards 
away  from  and  facing  the  entrance  ot  the  sacred  ar¬ 
rows’  lodge].  See  leap,  jump.  (»{-  Tyte  —  , 
bound,  part . etoehe , one  is  b. ;  ^etoSsz.the;  zetoe- 
’  he , that  which  is  b. ;  natoetan.I  am  b. ;  see  bind, 
tie.  'U.ctfo  &  ./*  s#/*?**"*,********?*- 

bound,  n. tohestoz, bound, f etters ;  c zehetohestovsz,  one’s  * ;  zehetoetanetto.that  which  I  am  b. 
with;  hohaneno.b. , limit  [name  of  tne  conical  mound  of 
earth  indicating  a  forbidden  area]. 
boundary,  hohaneno ,b. .bourn;  n&thoe  zednomaoeha, where 
-  my  land  ends. 

boundless,  is  b.(in  thot),  lit. 

it  cannot  be  measured, comprehended;  zsaadno- 
moehahan.the  b.  sea,  that  area  of  water  not  ending;  cannot  be  measured;  esaadn’nettan,  it  i  /  t  - 

is  b.  .without  ending;  esaahen’nistovettan,  it  is  b .,/  / 

has  no  ending ;.  esaat  ’  sa-hohanenonaohan ,  it  is  b.  ,  has/ 
no  limits.  Inf.-vone-  (lost)  expresses 
"beyond  conception";  evonemahao,  it  is  large  (-beyond  hbCt. 
the  limits);  is  a  b.area  of  water;  von- 
eotatavoom, the;  evonetaohe,  it  is  beyond  meas¬ 
ure  , immeasurable . 


U- macUt^ 

i  Uuiau^Lt.  ’etK'V,  xZl^OLsr^fl-  '  y,  g  £  A*~  uj***«*-c t-er?,. 

,  (or  )  is  “7777:1  ves  freely;  epa -ilfu^yu^^e 
ine  is  b., gives  kindly.  *fr9*?*'* 

.,.  "  petama  "  one "  is  b.  ;  eetamhoneonsz ,  they  grew  /^^zr 

--'bounti?;ily!  abundantly ;  inf  -e tarn-  .  =plen- 
teou  > , abundant  ,b.;  eetama  Sivaztastovd,  one  is  b. 

^  mercy .  See  abundant  .benevolent  ^  _  VlftniriM  th<T>  i 

bounte  ius 

emeanovae , one  . 
vemeaheoneve , one 

----he-'d)7  nah6szedho,I  cause  one  to  b.tne  neaa;  - 

Bzeeno  head  to  one;  eakavaehoe,  one  sits  with 
fc^i^bowtd, drooping  head;  naxamaaeo.I  J-^e  head  (  xam  l^r  ^ 

or.).  Both  terms  ref. to  bowing  of  J^e  jj®a^r  JithJut 


cial  ref. to  the  head);  nanosxaxoeSetovo .  *  ^  <  b 



i)k*Ut  theV  »ah"cazc'  !£- - -ith  ml  v...! 


strng  digger;  maatano  -gun].  Mataxc  ahecekona  the 
^tipple;  mataxc  ehekona.  thab.  island  ;  matanoena 

k  to4 

Q  nf  h  .  See  game.  Mahatfsz .Bighow  (proper 


Cllrfi.r1'  :hiS  ?UrP7Lr7  Se7„ih  OOP  7LSning  to  the 

l<2ZL?£gU  •i££1  S&XSSJZJZ 


K-EJss.n:  as.-  psu:  i «  *.  100.. 

unstretched  (this  is  also  said  of  the  trigge ^ 

SSiS’cm.ii.SriES!'  na^stotanajunstrech  it. 

ttvvak.£<U-V,^:’  ^  (Wui**~ 

£jl2v^vt_12,  ■C4~APZ,  W-t' 



taking  the  string  off  at  one  end  of  the  b.;  nahestoe- 
na,I  pull  the  b. string;  naeveonistoena, I  pull  the  b. 
in  trial, before  shooting;  see  shooting.  Voxkoeneo, 
wagon  bow;  voxkoaneonoz.bows  or  arches;  voxkoeoeseo- 
noz.bows  (ending  -seonoz  indicates  that  the  ends  of 
the  bow  are  inserted  into  something',  so  as  to  keep  it 
standing);  Nonond, rainbow;  enonondeve,  it  is.  a  rain¬ 
bow.  The  part  "nono"  is  also  found. an  "nonoma"  (thun¬ 
der)  .while  the  suff.-nd  denotes  bow,  snare-,  trap.  The 
Ch. believe  that  a  great  monster  serpent , called  Axxea, 
is  the  enemy  of  the  Nonoma  (thunder)  and  spues  out 
great  streams  of  water  to  hurt  the  latter .Nonoma  then 
sets  his  trap  or  snare  and  catches  the  Axxea, so  the 
rain  stops.  Hence  the  name  nonond  for  rainbow,  snare, 
trap  or  fishline.  The  suff.-d,  for  bows  provided  with 
strings, is  no  doubt  derived  from  the  days  when  ani¬ 
mals  were  caught  with  snares  and  traps  made  with  a 
withe  or  a  sapling  by  arching  them.  Nonondsz  are  the 
bows  of  which  the  altar  of  the  Sundance  is  made. 
bowel,  matons;  matonedsz , pi . ;  venooxkdz , bowels , stomach ; ^ ^  is  a  stomach, b.  ;  maveeonegsz ,  in-  7"/ 
f  testines;  natong , natonessz  (pi.), my  b., stomach;  nave -  b. ,  intestines  ;  ni veeonxanoz ,  our  b.  ,  intes-/  " 

'  tines;  niveeonSevoz.your  b.  ,  intestines .  Natong  nahS-  -ffan  b.  ,  stomach  hurts  me;  naveeonegsz  nahamatanoz , .  fiCU&y*J 
r  jm  bowels. hurt  me;  my  b.  .belly;  naveeoiv^.^^U^4r-  i 
.^  my  b.  ,  intestines .  The  word  venooxkdz  ref/Kc^re 

to  the  stomach  part  of  the  viscera.  Matonessz  ref.  to^^^*****^®^, 
the  viscera  as  a  whole, while  maveeonegsz  denotes  "the^^w  ef., 
intestines.  Vee  =hollow  +  -one-  =cylindrical  body  - ia£,f 
'  =horizontal  posture.  See  entrails.  Nakokoomoxta, 

feel  rumbling  (of  b. ) ;  nakokocmoxtaveana, I  f eel  njmb-^ . 
ling  (in  b.)  .from  hunger.  See  belch.  a.  ^ 
bower ,  hoveod.b. , booth, shade, arbor;  nanoveoostona^vo , 

make  a  b.  for  one;  hoveoedm, b.made  for  summer^/5**^tf^,u' 
dwelling.  See  shade.  Hoveoedme, in, at  the  b. ;  zexhest-  ' 

ho veoedmenetto , where  I  have  my  b. ;  zexhestoveodetto , 
where  my  b.^arbor  is;  Vonaedm  or  Vonadm  ref. to  the  b. 
of  the  Sun  tent.  See  Sundance, 
bowl ,  heto  or  veto;  meneeveto , large  chinaware  b. ;  mene- 
~  ~  evetoxq, small  b. ;  vetonoz , large  bowls;  hetoxkonoz, 

small  bowls.  The  word  ref. to  vessel ,q,.v. ;  ehetoxkone-  is  a  b.  1(e C 

bowstring,  matand ;  matandsx , bowstrings ;  ematandeve,  it 
is  a  b. ;  is  provided  with  a  b. ; 
matandeva  navegenonovoto , I  catch  one  (or.)  with  a  b. 

(made  into  a  snare).  See  bow. 
box,  vepemax, hollow  wood, wooden  b. ;  vepemaxsz , boxes  (of 
"  wood);  evgpemxeve,  it  is  a  b. ;  evepemxevston , one 
makes  boxes;  vepemxevstonehs , box  maker;  vepemxeva , in , 

•  at, thru, on  the  b.  Naestana  vepemxeva,!  put  it  into  a 


box.  Rad.vepe  =empty .hollow  +  -max  =wood, wooden.  Ve- 

haneo.b. (small) .receptacle, envelope.  Vehaneonoz,  pi.;  is  a  small  b. ;  xoaneonevehaneo ,  salve 
or  ointment  b. ;  navehana.I  envelope, b. it ;  evehane,  it 
(also  or.)is  boxed  (enveloped) ; evehotane , it  is  set  in 
a  b.;  vehoseo, Indian  bag, or  box, chest,  with  a  lid  or 
laps  to  shut;  vehoseoneva, in  the  b.or  bag;  evehoseo-  is  a  chest,  b.,bag;  navehoosan.I  keep  in  a  b. 
or  bag;  ref. to  a  receptacle  +  -ho  =to  "bot¬ 
tom", stay  at;  vehoehoseo .white  man’s  box,  chest, bag, 
trunk;  mxistonevehoseo ,b. ,  receptacle  made  of  paper, 
cardboard  b. ;  mxistonevehaneo , small  b.made  of  paper, 
paper  bag;  amoeneo-vehoseo .wagon  b. ;  also  zevecevhos 
amoeneo,  the  hollow  part  of  the  wagon;  zehonaovhos 
amoeneo .double  (boards)  wagon  box. 

boy,  hetanekaSgon;  hetane  =male  +  ka§gon  -child; 

J  .  J - n1,n  X  —  n  a  r*  •  pi.  P  +  HOPlf  fl  S 

,  ~ -  w)naui,ui.v  O  U., 

hetanekaggonamenoz.he  is  my  b. ;  naheszhetanekasgonam- 
etova.I  am  his  b.;  heszhetanekaSgonamestoz , the  having 
a  b  • ” naheszhetanekaSgonam, I  have  a  b. ;  naheszhetane- 
kaSgoname ton , I  am  a  b.  (to  one);  hetanekaggonasz ,ye 
boys!  ZeszhetaipkaSgonevetto ,  when  I  was  a  b.  See 

brace,  naheens’dhoe ,  I  stand  brading  my  legs; 

. — — — < — —  -r-  1  _  J _ x  b,  ~  -i  +-  1  rX.  m 

ii  -bracelet,  nauuu,  auuuuu«,n“."*-.-i  -  ■  - 

■-irzmr.  vide  one  with  bracelets;  nahevhohonaovo , I  pro- 
..Vi  vid/o^^ith  foot  bracelets  (anklets);  evohonon  b 
ffA'o.Vr*  for  ths.  foot, ankle;;  zehevohonessS , the 

'  '  ones  who  have  bracelets;  i\ipavet)rfohona,thou  art  pro 

nifpfp  bracelets  J^chiTtl 

sdhoe ,  I  stand  bracing  my  legs;  nahekonana 
I  b.  .strengthen  it .  J 

Let,  hohon;  hohonoz, bracelets ;  nahohonaovo , I  pro- 
- —  •.  —  •> — 1-T  -  +  -  •  nahevhohonaovo, I  pro- 

Oraceieis;  I  iyavcmuu 

vided  with  nice  bracelets  hekefti e/[ru4. 

no, it  is  b.  'See  sour. 

salty.  /*- 


brackish,  eveneeno 
brag,  see  boast. 

braid,  -hestotonon,  to  braid;  nahestoton&no ,  I  b.  one 

-  (or.);  nahestotonoha, I  [See  Instr.  m.of 

the  Ch . v . ] .  Nahestotonohe , I  am  braided;  nahestotono- 
esz  I  b. myself;  nihestotonoesz , I  b.thee;  nihestotono- 
emo'hestona, thou  braidest  her  daughter;  zehestoton- 
5ns z  she  braids;  zehestotonoesz , the  one  who;  ze- 
hestotonoeszz , the  one  who  b. herself;  zehestotonoetto , 
I  who  am  braided;  zehestotonoeszetto , I  who  b.^myseli; 
nanehov  zehestotonohom,  I  who;  hestotononestoz , 
the  braiding;  nahoxehotonono , I  clean;  zehoxeho- 
r  tonohessd  the  ones  who  are  braided  clean;  nae.g-exho- 
jty^  tonono , I  am  done  braiding  one  (or.);  nieS-exhotonoha- 
"  non, we  are  done  braiding  it;  homao  esoxphotoneo ,  the 
^■vr  blankets  (or.)  are  braided  in  the  fringes;  epavhoton- 
ao , they  are  well  braided,  provide^  v  with  nice  braids, 



%fv  j  -  f  .’VLtf 
i  ,i  itVVi- .  „ 


(this  is  said,  of  woven  'fabrics  which-  are  or.  in  Ch.); 
zemahotonasso , the  ones  braided  or  woven  in  red  color; 
zeososemakotonass6 ,  the  ones  braided  or  woven  in 
b'rown.  When  the  braiding  is  done  without  any  instru¬ 
mental  medium  the 'verbal  form  is:  nahestotoena,  I  b. 
it;  nahestotoenomovo , I  one’s;  nanishotoenen, I  b. 
in  two  strands;  nanishotoena, I  b.  at  in  two  strands; 
nananhotoena, I  into  three  strands;  nis-hotoeno- 
mohestoz.lock  braided  in  two  strands;  nanhotoenomo- 
hestoz.lock  of  three  strands;  enisotnova-vhotoene ,  it 
is  braided  in  seven  strands;  enisdtnova-vhotonohe , one 
(or.)  is  braided  sevenfold;  nar.ohotoena,  I  in 
with;  nanohotonoha, I  (c.instr.)  in  with;  the  im- 
per.of  -nohotoena  would  be  nohotoenoz  =braid  it  in 
with;  the  imper.of  -nohotonoha  would  be  nohotonoxz  = 
braid  it  in  with.  Naonehahotoer.a,  I  unbraid  it;  naone- 
haovess.I  unbraid  the  hair;  nasdvae.I  am  not  braided, 
have  my  hair  loose.  See  hair  .plait.  ;  CvCttn- 

brain,  mazthap.the  b. ;  hesthap, brain;  nazhesthap  or  na- 
.  b.  ;  nszhest&p  or  nszthap.thy  b.  ;  heszhe- 

or  heszthap, one’s  b.  ;  nszhesthapan  or  nszth§,p- 
liy J  t/'r-j an , our  (incl.)  b.  ;  nazhesthdpan  or  nazthapan, our  (ex- 
Cl-^  ’  nszhesthapevo  or  nszth&pevo ,your  b.  ;  heszhe- 
[^1  sthapevo, their  b. ;  naheszthap  nr  naheszhesthap , I  have 
b. ;  emazth£,peve  or  is  b. ;  esaahesthdp- 
evhan  it  is  not  b.  Nahest&pan, I  b.  (has  ref. to  a  mix¬ 
ture  of  brain, liver  and  fat  which  is  rubbed  on  hides 
previous  to  tanning.  See  tan).  Noavdxdz , brainless , 
senseless , also  shiftless, without  backbone.  .  • 

brake ,  hfeneSeoxtanohamestoz .wagon  b.  (rad.hdn  =holding  ftAiM-tif**— 
”  from  +  — eS-  =eontinuing  +  -eoxta-  =wheel , legged  + 
-nohamestoz.ref .  to  horses);  toeoxtanohamestoz , ( inf . 

-toe=  bind, tie, hold) ;  nahdneSeoxtano  amoeneo  pr  raX^-ef**-'4**** 
eoxtano  amoeneo.I  set  the  the  wheels  of  the  wag 
on  (or.);  ehdneseoxtane  amoeneo,  the  wagon  set;  <*  is  a  wagon  b. ;  ehdneSeoxtano- 
hamestovensz.they  are  wagon  brakes;  ehene§eoxtano"ha-  acts  as  a  b.  Naevhapevana  toeoxtanoham¬ 
estoz,  I  repair  the  wagon  b.-  Brake,  in  the  sense  of  a 
thicket, is  rendered  by  suff.-eSe .which  denotes  cover¬ 
ed  with, full  of.e.g.:  §i stat<5e§e , thicket  or  brake  of 
pines;  mataege,  wood  thicket;  heSkovoese,  brake  of 
brambles , thorns . 

bramble,  heSkovdsz,  b.  bushes;  hegkovoeSe,  b.  thicket;  is  a  b. thicket;  heSkovhesta&- 
zemenoz,b.,  black  berries;  heskovhestaazemendsz,  b., 
black  berry  bushes ;  ehe§kov<5hestaazemen6eve,  it  is  a 
b., black  berry  bush;  heSkovohestaazemendege ,  b.  berry 
thicket . 

bran,  zemahoxomohamestoz ; ze  =that  which  +  -ma-  =reddish 
+  -hoxom-  =to  feed  +  -ohamestoz  denoting  "stock". 


?*A/fi a tJuUa Stmert e noth,  '<LuJuA  , 

V«*  ■ 'TzirZZZZ:* 

J  ns*7a £s 

,yir-^/-fU  /k.  - 


\,i  Jl-reJM /£>  fo-. . 

'branch,  v. ehdnevorreha, It  branches \ ramifies ;  .  ehinevone-^A^a-^^ 
\  genao , they  (or.)  b.out;  hdne-  designates  a  radi-/,«v, 

l  ation, ramification  fro  m  a  .point\  These  expressions^-, 
do  not  ref. to  tree  branching,  b\it  have  the  sense  of  ✓ 
"radiating  from" .  Nevertheless  tha  inf.-(v)on-  ref.toy’f777^^- 
y  a  branch  shaped  body,  like  pipes , thread,  tendrils. 
^O-blMd  vessels, ropes  and  water  courses 
^  *  .JShenevoonatto , it  b.out  from;  hes 

tonsz , the  branches  b.  out  from 

,  ocuui  xxo,  , 

See  radiate- 

laenoz  ehdnevoonat-  -**”**‘1 
tech  other.  The-  inf.  ‘ 

-(v) oona  ref .to  the  gradual 

of  cylindrical 

r  Tfi wfi  •  W  t  0  z  ■  1 

objects.  b.from  (of  water  courses); 
nahenevoneSename ,we  b.out  into  different  directions; 
ehdnevoneSena,  it  b.  out  (as  art|s: 

plants, etc.;  spoken  of  as  or.);  i_IH  T _ 

b.out  (in,);  hdnevone£en&toz,the  branching  out;  hoxzz 
enisoona, the  tree  b., forks  into  two  branches;  enanoo- 
na.b.into  three;  enivoona,  b.into  four;  ehenevoona 
hoxzz, the  tree  sends  out  its  b. ;  zexhesshdnevoneha , 
where  the  branching  starts  from;  zexhesshdnevoonatto , 
where  it  b.from. (ref .to  a  branch).  Ehdneozensz  meon- 
oz , the  roads  b. ;  the  same  expression  would  be  used 
for  water  courses  (ohesz);  ehdnevoonaozensz  hestaen- 
.'injLoz.the  branches  become  ramified,  TlD'L-  - 

_  jbhanch,  n.hesta.b.  of  tree;  hestSenoz,  branches  (in.); 
Lnara-W^' W~  hestaenov, the  branches  (in  a  body.  Er.branchage ; 
7^»J>.-i'{?er  .Astwerk)  ;  hestaenovd  or  hestaenoveva,  in, within, 
\£.h  0- (TVT^l  the  branches;  hestaenoz  eoxceatokonsz ,  the  branches 
\ tfh are  entangled, matted;  vokonaekamaxsz,  dried, bleached - 
»/  branches;  peoononoz  and  peoxkononoz,  broken  branches, 

or  twigs  °n  the  ground;  enokstaenatto ,  it  has  one  b. ; 
\Sl  °JT  has  many  branches;  enahestae- 

,  has  three  b. ;  eniv(he)  has  four 

j  /f‘ /  ’  b.;  has  seven  b.  ;  tass  nihesta- 

'  yf'  enovheman°s ,as  it  were  we  are  branches.  In  religious 
t/  7  terminology  the  branches  are  used  metaphorically  to 

>  \  designate  famil ies , whi le  the  trunk  is  the  nation.  An 

old  woman  told  writer  that  the  old  people  in  the  fa- 

*  4 - CM'^UM*4’mily  were  the  trunk  of  the  tree,  their  children  were 

JtrnuJ^  „  the  limbs  or  larger  branches .while  the  twigs  were  the 
grandchildren.  Naoehestaendno  hoxzz, I  prune  (cut  off) 
the  branches  of  the  tree  (when  done  by  striking);  na- 
oehestaenaso , I  cut  its  (or.)  branches (when  done  with 
knife )  ; ,  I  cut  its  b. short;  nakokahesta- 
enaso , I  cut  its  branches  short;  or 
nahoxehetaenaso , I  prune  its  (or.)  branches;  napopo- 
hestaenaso , I  cut  off  its  (or.)  branches  with  a  knife 
(Fr .ebrancher) ;  zeto  hoxzz  epopohestaenax ,  this  tree 
has  its  branches  cut  off, (  est  ebranche;  Ger.  er 
ist  abgefistet);  hestaenoz  ze£§§sz, the  branches  which 
are  cut  at  the  end;  nadxomovo  hesztaenov  I  cut  its 
branches;  epopodSensz  hestSenoz,.the  b.  are  cut  off; 

-  m*. 

(V  In’ 




Ini’  . 

d  trrtuTc~-  1L. 

Pi,?  -  fin^T^r^w?^, ^  fl-  <<^4. j 

'j£^,k  *»%?;** 

ll4  **'  english-cheyi 


hestaenoz  zepoeSesz,  the  branches  which  are  cut  off 
zehehestaenov^z, its  branches  (Ger.sein  "Geast"  sein 
Astwerk);  hesztaenoz, its  (the  single  ones)  branches- 
hesztaevoz, their  branches;  zeto  nda  nahesztHenotto , 
this  my  son  is  my  b. ;  nahesztSetova,  I  am  one’s  b  • 
epavhestaenov  or  epavhestSena  zeto  hoxzz,  this  tree 
\  has  good  branches, is  well  branched.  See  tree, 
toranchy  ehaestohestaenatto,  it  is  b.j  haestohestaenH- 
toz , the  being  b. ;  eatohestaenatto ,  it  is  b.and 
1  entangled. 

tirand,  v . namxehdno ,  I  (or.);  namxehoha,  I  b.if 
\  (in.  and  or.)  is  branded;  emxehoeo! 
\they  (or.)  are  branded;  nasaamxehoho ,  I  do  not  b.  if 
(nasaamxehond , I  do  not  (or.);  nanehcv  zemxheho-  is  I  who  brands  it;  zsaaegemxehohoetto ,  before 
1  had  it  branded. 

ibd,  n.mxeovdtoz,  b.  on  animals;  hoestaonoz,  fire 
X  bnands|  makat  zevegemxeovatove , the  branding  iron. 
brandish,  naomstahaz.I  b.,wave  it;  nacmstahamo  (or., as 
I  flag, blanket,  etc.);  naomstahasen,  I  b.,wave- 
abtahasenistoz.the  brandishing,  waving;  naovoeosta- 
lf,I  b-.wave  it  with  one  sweep.  See  shake.  Xovatov 

..aaveostahasenetovo , I  b.  a  sword  at  one. _  Xovatoveva 

navleSemenaostdno , I  b.a  sword  at  one,  I  challenge  one 
with  a  sword. 

brands ,  vghoemap.the  white  man’s  water;  evShoemapeve  it 
J  is  brandy, whiskey.  See  whiskey, 
bran-new,  is  bran-new.  See  new. 

— a££±Lkeovemakat>b-  .yellow  metal.  [Makat  is  the  dimi¬ 
nutive  form  of  mahaeta  which  is  generally  ap¬ 
plied  to  iron.  Originally  it  referred  to  the  "red 
one" , i . e .  copper].  Eheovemakataevston ,  it  is  made  of 
b. ;  eheovemakataeve , i t  is  b.  ;  eheovemahataeve  it  is 
b. (when  sp.of  a  large  piece  of  b,). 
brassard ,  hoetoseo  zeveghohonaevaoxtov ,  badge  "brace 

---  on  the  arm.  See  badge. 

brave,  ehatamahe , one  is  b.,  considered  so;  is  ^'-^y - 

''h.  b.  .valiant; ;  hohfflietaneo ,  very ■ofes&m+S&.y 
•  Courageous  man;  hatamahestoz,  the  being  b.  ,  brav-k« 
r  3  ’  dliackatis,unfc!'reTi't  is  a  bfchxidf -zehjltamahesso ,  the 
'UW'U.'t'l  uSS*  Namen3-n°.1  b. ,  challengd  one;  nahegliatamahe ,  1 / 
^anSer ,  run  the  risk.  See  bold.  Esaahezev&ha^pne iZZZj-  ' 
ls  not  afraid,  is  b.  ~  S.  y 

^rawn-  hekoneozi s toz , strength ;  ehekoneoz , one  is  brawny. 

r^^bray,  see  soundf 

brazen,  is  b., insolent,  impudent;'  tdvahesf 
toz, the  being  b. ;  is  brazenness; 
zetdvaesz , the;  zeto  hetaneo  natdvaheto,  these 
men  are  b. towards  me;  etdvaheoneve ,  she  is  b., arrog¬ 
ant;  tdvaheonevestoz ,  brazenry .  /a  . 



breach,  nasoxpax.I  make  a  b. , break  thru;  naeseoxevooha, 

I  make  a  b.into  it;  rad.  es  =into  +  -eox  =break 
in  two  +  -vo  =asunder;  zexeseoxevoohe , the  b. .where  it 
is  broken  in;  zesoxpxe,  the  b. ,  where  it  is  broken 
thru;  zesoxpxehestov .where  the  See  break, 
bread,  kokonhdo;  (from  -kokondn  =to  tap, knock;  kokono- 
he, woodpecker) ;  is  b. ;nakokonho- 
onam,my  b. ;  hosz  kokonhSo  nimezz.give  me  some  b.  ;  ze- 
kokonhoonevessS , the  "bread  ones",  expression  used -by 
the  peyote  men  to  designate  the  Christian  Indians, 
having  ref.  to  the  symbolical  bread  of  the  Lord’s 
Supper, in  contrast  to  the  peyote.,  I 
make  b.;  kokonhSonanistoz , the  b. making;  kdkonhSonane- 
he,b. maker;  kokonhoonemaneveho ,  baker  (white  man);  is  a  b. maker;  ekokonhoonema- 
nevehoeve , one  is  a  baker;  nahonoxta  kdkonhoo,  I  bake 
b.;  ehonoe  kokonhSo, the  baked;  kokonhoo  zeveSe- 
papanohe  heoveamsceva.b.  and  butter,  (lit.  b. which  is 
spread  over  with  yellow  grease);  kdkonhoo  naveSepapa- 
noha  amsceva, I  spread  the  b.with  fat  (when  using  ins- 
tr.);  kokonhoo  navegepapanoena  amsceva,  I  spread  the 
b.with  fat  (when  using  the  fingers);  kdkonhoo  epoha- 
hota  or  epohata.the  b. raises  (swells  by  heat);  kokon¬ 
hoo  epevhata, the  b. raises  well;  kokonhoo  ehosph&ta, 
the  b. fails  to  raise;,  eosh&ta  or  eoehota  kokonhoo, the 
b.does  not  raise;  nahoxomo  kokonhSo, I  feed  one  b. ;na- 
sdasen  k6konhoo  moxtavhopeeva, I  soak  coffee;  na- 
seomesz  kokonhSo, I  dip  the  b. ;  eotova  or  eexova  koko-' 
nhoo , the  soaked, wet;  Esaahekokonhoonamd , one  has 
no  b.  e.ll.ik.rn.0 o'-w- 
breadstuff,  zetohetaeveSemane  kokonhoo,  all  that  with 

which  .bread  is  made. 

breadth,  zehetaeoz,  its  b.  (sp.  of  water  courses  or 

- road.s);  zehetao ,  its  b.,sp.of  in.obj.;  zeamset- 

to , its  b., width  across  it;  zehetaomao,  the  b.of  the 
^land ;  zeoxtohetaomao ,all  thru, over  the  b.of  the  coun¬ 
try;  inf.-amse-  =across  the  b.of;  zehetaeomoeha,  the 
b.of  water  area;  zeoxhetaeomoeha ,  all  over  the  b.of 
the  water;  naamse6ena, I  tear  it  across  the  b.(done  by 
hands);  naamseexa.I  cut  it  across  the  b.  ; 

break  ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY  break  one’s;  nadenomevo.I  for  one;  zeeeno.the  one 
(in.)  one  breaks;  zedenom.that  which  I  b. ;  zepoenome- 
vaz.that  which  I  b.for  thee;  heto  kdkonhdo  napoenomo- 
nenon.this  bread  is  broken  off  for  us;  zedenomota, 
that  which  I  b.for  (substitutive)  one;  namamepoena,  I  off  (in  chunk);  naamsedna.I  across;  eamsed-  is  broken  thru  the  middle;  zeeeozz.the  one  who 
or  which  becomes  broken;  zedeozessd,  the  ones  (or.) 
broken;  zedeoxzessd , the  ones  (or.)  breaking;  zedeox- 
zesz.the  breaking  ones  (in.);  amoeneo  zedeaessS.the 
broken  wagons  (or.);  e6staha,one  is  heart  broken;  na- 
pdena.I  by  crushing;  napepdenanoz ,  I  b.  each  one 
(in.)  to  to  pieces, by  crushing;  epeeoz,  it  is  broken 
in  pieces;  epepdeozensz, they, each  one  (in.)  are  bro¬ 
ken  in  pieces;  napenon,  I  b. ,  pound  to  pieces  (by 
crushing  with  instr.);  napendno,  I  b.  one  (or.instr.) 
to  pieces;  napepenono.I  b.them  (or.)  all  to  pieces; 
napeoha.I  in  pieces;  napepeohanoz, I  b.them  (in.) 
all  in  pieces.  The  inf.  -pd-  denotes  breaking  by 
pounding, crushing, down  flat  pressure.  ZepenSnsz,  the 
one  who  breaks  in  pieces;  nanehov  zepdenomonoz , I 
who  in  pieces ;nanehov  zepepeenomonoz , I  who  b.all 
of  them  (in.)  in  pieces;  nanehov  zepepdenon.I  who  b. 
them  (or.)  all  in  pieces;  nanehov  zepdohofif,'!  who 
in  pieces  ( instr .);■  nanehov  zepeohomonoz , I  who  b.them 
(in.)  in  pieces;  nanehov  zepependnon , I  who  b.them 
(or.)  all  in  pieces  (instr.);  napenoxta.I  b. ,  chew  it 
(with  teeth);  napenomo,  I  b.,  chew  one  (or.)  ninehov 
!  zepenosoxtomossdz  mEhoz.thou  who  breakest  by  crushing 

d  the  arrows’  points.  See  chew.  Nada.I  b. with  the  foot; 
na6oha.  I  i't  with  an  instr.;  nadohanoz.I  b.  them 
'fJLjfaLt  (in.);  ninehov  zedohomd ,thou  who  breakest  it;  natone- 
*  §s§|,ton  nadoha.I  with  the  sole  of  my  foot;  nadox- 
ta.I  with  the  teeth;  nadomo,  I  (or.)  with 
he  teeth;  nanehoTji^zedoxtom,  I  who  with  the 
^ teeth;  nadxapen.T  b Yin  two;  the  inf.-dx  =half,in  two; 

^  nadxana.I  b. , split  it  (by  hand);  nadxoxta.I  (by 

<  teeth);  na6xoha,I  (by  instr.);  nadxaha.I 
..  '.(by  heat);  nadxano,I  (or.), by  hand;  nadxomo,  I 

j  (or.)  with  the  teeth;  nadxono ,  I  (or.)  by 

flyy-4^  instr.  ;  na<5xa,  I  b.  it  with  the  foot;  nadxax,I 

(pr.  '  (with  knife);  nadxaso.I  cut  one  (or.)  in  two.  Edxeoz, 

ufv  *'  one  (in.  and  or.)  is  broken  in  two;  meneevetc  edxeoz, 

1  the  pitcher  is  broken;  eamsedxeoz ,  it  is  broken  thru  j  jir<^, 
the  middle;  see  tear.  Nadvooha. I  asunder,  apart 
'/V  instr.);  nanehov  zedvoohom,  I  who  b.  it  apart; 

I  naoxevoono , I  (or.)  apart;  evooxz,  apart! 
dvoohoha”'  let  him  b.  it  apart!  Naevoohomovo ,  I 
one’s  apart;  na6xevohena, I  apart  (by  hand);  <5xe-  (thou)  apart!  Inf.-dxe-  two;  when 
the  "o"  is  long  (5)  it  implies  "break  open".  Nadxe- 

l ^ 





o\a,I  apart  (by  instr.);  naesedxevooha, I  enter 
iy  breaking  it;  naoxevoehaz, I  asunder  by  throw¬ 
ing  it;  nadxevoeSemo .hohona  (or.),  I  b.  the  stone  by 
throwing  it  (or.);  napopoehaz.I  b.itcMrf  in  pieces  by 
throwing;  napopoesemo , I  (or.)  off  by  throwing; 
napopoahAz , I  by  pulling  off;  napopoahamo , I 
(or.)  by  pulling  off;  becomes  broken, 
(sp.of  cylindrical  bodies  pulling  asunder);  napopoo- 
neohaovo  sitoxc,  I  b.  the  rope  by  pulling.  Inf. -one- 
ref  ers  to  cylindrical  bodies;  sitoxc  =rope  and  is 
or., like  dry  goods  and  thread.  Natataoha,  I 
(instr.)  open, ref. to  lids , stoppers  of  jugs, etc.  Naes- 
koxtano.I  b. one’s  leg;  naoe§koxtano , I  b.each  of  one’s 
Teg;  nadegkdseoho , I' s  finger  short;  naoegkdseo- 
o,I' s  fingers  short;  nha  zeoeSkoxtanas , the  one 
too  broke  my  legs;  zeeeSkseohas , the  one  who  broke  my 
fYnger  short;  ee§koxtanae,one  has  a  leg  broken;  eoe§- 
koSae , one  has  his  fingers  broken  short.  The  "k"  sound 
is  'a  diminutive  form  and  implies  "short  off"  or  "the 
point  off" .here  in  these  examples.  EeSeosae,  one  has 
the  \f inger  cut  (state);  eoeSeosae , one  has  all  the 
fingeVs  cut  off;  napopoestaostono , I  one’s  ears 
(at  on^  sweep);  naemenevaoseS ,  I  have  my  collar  bone 
I'cSeatae , one  has  the  foot  broken;  eoeSeatae, 
ipth  feet  broken;  edpeoaohe^  one  has  a  rib 

kr'UJ*  n  lal  °n^  SWi 
r  r  br°ken;W=: 

^  one  has  V5 

broken;  naeoneevokdno  SiSinovoz,  I  break  the  snake 
tfr  \  aPart  (witH  stroke") ;  nanoose-sohetovaz ,  I  way 
Vjn  1 A)  ^brn  fflor  .  hi  ndurch  1  :  naesxsoxnes  .  I  b.  thru  into;  na- 

)  thru  (Ger .hindurch) ;  naesxsoxpeS , I  b.  thru  into; 
soxpax.I  b .  thru ;  naAz  arm  is  broken;  namo- 
nomax.I  b.the  land  (by  plowing);  breaks 
apart  by  drying, shrivelling  (by  weather  process ), said 
of  branchlike, tapering  objects;  esoxonata,  it  breaks 
from  heat;  evohovonatto ,  it  breaks  apart  (said  of 
spokes  of  wheels.from  weather  process);  evovohovona- 
tansz , they  each  (in.)  b. apart, from  heat; 
breaks'  open, cracks  (from  the  weather); 
breaks  open, from  heat;  eoxtata,  it  breaks  open  from 
he'at;  eoxomaeoz ,the  ground  breaks  open;  eoxomaehdta, 
the  ground  breaks  (from  heat);  breaks, 
cracks  open  (said  of  ice  on  water);  naatoeta,  I  b., 
transgress;  naodena  hoemanistoz, I  b.the  law.  Nahoxee- 
to  mohenoham , I  b. , train  the  horse;  ehoxeetahoetoe ,  it 
is  (or. horse)  broken  to  the  saddle;  eondeostahA  vde, 
the  cloud  breaks  up  (at  one  sweep);  eonSeoz  vde, the 
cloud  dissipates,  becomes  broken;  eonixahA  vde, the 
cloud  breaks  up.  The  inf.-oninx-  =shatter,  demolish, 
a  disintegrate, dismember .  EneedepoeostahA  vde.the  cloud 
,  is  breaking  apart;  epopoeostahA,  breaks  into  several 

tr^parts ;  breaks  open  (of  an  abscess);  epoe- 
*7(1  J\< yr^settonsz  zepevszeavdesz ,  the  flowers  b.  open;  (see 
•^lT •  ’’vi .  blossom);  breaks  down  (in  health);  esxse- 






englis'h-cheyenne  dictionary 

veoz , one  breaks  down,  becomes  exhausted; 
breaks  forth, comes  into  view;  egehe  oxmeenesz,  at  the 
breaking  forth  of  the  sun;  easetax, eamemeohe. ( strong¬ 
er  term), one  breaks  out  by  running;  naasethoaoz,  I  b. 
away  (running);  naasethoaozetovo ,  I  b.  away  from  one; 
rad.  -ase-  -start  +  -hoa-  -to  run  +  -eoz  =become; 
inf  -mas 6-  designates  "break"  whenever  an  action  or 
condition  has  an  abrupt  beginning;  emas6axaemeoz ,  one 
breaks  into  tears;  breaks  into  a  laugh, 
emas6hamoxtaeoz , one  breaks  sick  (where  we  say  falls 

sick").  See  broken, crack, tear, piece, shatter, 
breakable,  is  b. .will  break;  eoxceoxevoe 

----- -  is  b.;  is  b. ;  eoxceonSeoz, 

it  is  b.  See  break, breakage .  .  .  ..  0 

breakage,  (breaking),  zeox,  the  break;  denenistoz  the 

-  breaking;  oeenistoz.the  oreakage  (pi.),  oee 

neo.the  break,  also  transgression;  niodeneonan.our 
breaks, faults  (not  to  confound  with  6oeneo  -the  blind 
one);  niodeneonan  nidoenenaenon,  our  faults,  freaks 
transgressions  blind  us;  [in  Ch.the  first  o"  denotes 
reduplication, and  thus  makes  the  noun  pi. in  Eng.], 
deozistoz , the  breaking,  becoming  broken  (quick  pro¬ 
cess);  deoxzistoz , the  breaking  (slow  process);  eeaes- 
toz  the  breakage  ( state , condition) ;  peenenistoz,  the 
breaking  by  crushing;  peeozistoz , the  becoming  broken, 
penonestoz , the  breaking  by  pounding;  oxe°zl^toz' 
breaking  in  two;  oxeozistoz , the  becoming 
6xanenistoz,the  breaking  in  two  (acting),  e.koxtana 
zistoz ,  the  breaking  of  a  leg;  eegkseonazistoz , the 
breaking  of  a  finger;  mohenoham  hoxeesohestoz ,the 
breaking  of  a  horse;  popooneeozistoz.the  t)rea^^g.h  ^ 
nulling  apart  ( ropes , etc .) ;  zetohetaeoxane ,  all  that 
is  broken! the  breakage;  zemaoxevoeha , all  ^breakage 
( shattered  apart  by  throwing);  esxsoxpsenatoz , the 
breaking  thru  (Ger .hindurch) ,  making  a  passage  thru; 
soxpxestoz  ( soxpaxestoz ) ,the  breaking, breach  ^step¬ 
ping  thru;  zeto  hohona  zeheSeoxevoeSems , the  breaking 
Tf  !hi»  eione  (by  shattering) •  *=  nany  noun,  e^ld  be 
formed  as  there  are  .ords  for  the  v.  to  break 
all  its  modes  and  ramified  derivations.  The  Oh.  gr. 
explains  how  all  these  noun  forms  can  be  made  and 

breakdown]*  esxseveoz, one  has  a  b.,ls  «khaueted;  eaeeos 

- one  has  a  b.(in  health);  sxseveozistoz ,  ex 

haustion.b. ;  aveozistoz.b. in  health.  hreakers 

breaker,  zemasd-onovomecstahd  hohonaeva,  the  breakers 
-  the  oncoming  billows  dashing  inshore  over 

the  rocks)-  hooxcemasd-onovcmeostahfi.  hohonaeva  eaaze 
nistoneva-veoeotSmaha ;  .hen  the  breaker, 
the  rocks  they  (at  the  same  time)  roar  in  heaving 
waves . 




Qfyt.  .  r  tv 6y~  **7.  et^r  ft*^*~'* 


7j |  -  m’/yjc* 

'fa****  £***#•,- 

&  ^/u.  /y-ejc^ 

6~e~i>,  /Z*y  ’&**-  iu:  *w 

-/  *  'esKfe  ra^  <* 
ey-rfafyL&6-e7a~*-<-j*-,y  r'/Lf A-*~p 
&**&-  /•>*/<  .  &  '1--i*y*/l*\ 

~0%ZzV*-*//U*-  V a ta^a^v  //>.) 

BREAST.  ENGLISH-CflEYENNE  DICTIONARY,/  _ ,  breathe  /*/, 

>a  'y^^Bgeakfast ,  meovcna  zeoxcemesestov;  meo^  =/  early  +  -vona ^ 

!  '’  ’  'ght  comes);  namese,  I 

day)  ;  zee§eme<5meses ,  after 

Med:  n. 

eat  early  (in  the' 

eating.  Esaa-^5^  A*.  ' 


;  U’ntafo- 

^  _  one/ had  eatjen  h. 

»j,  Tt3eM^'‘zetpsemec5mesestovl  I  cook  for  the  early 

breast,  mazheSeeon, the  b., chest ;  *ri 
j uc ! t ■  tfr fa  zheseeon-one ’  s  b.  ;  nazheseeonanl  (obs . ) , 

(i  <*-  vzemamov5ene't't°ib. bone, sternum  (where  the  chest  comes  Kt 

/  /^'together ,  the  middle);  vecevgenestoz , cavity  of  b.  (at 

•^^.v-'t/iower  part  of  sternum),  lit. depression  in  chest;  na- 

\UJ^-  poeseneno.I  strike  one's  b.  ;  napoe§enenesz, I  smite  my  irf  ' 

~  *b. ;  eme§ehe§eeona, one  has  a  hairy  b. ;  apavheszhegeeo-  *1  slwuU^  has  (is  provided  with)  a  good  b.J, chest, one  is  vha|  ^ 

my  b., bosom;  i  /bit. 
-  ;’s  b.;  omo-  Hl\h,  ■ 

p  Tlarfa-^  t^^orr.axestoz ,  the  heaving  and  sinking  of  ihe  b.  ;  eomoto-  <d^  j,:  'H 
max,  it  heaves  and  sinks  (breast),  \iatan,  breasts  1^^ 
v  ( or  mammary  region;  hetanar: ,  her  b.  ;  ni^ozeoto  mata-  ‘v  i.- 

|l  " r^xz ><diou  usest  her  for  nurse.  See  nurse\j!andnotamo^ #■*••*- f'44‘p 

+***'  ^rt*fT^an&nb>J  jsuck  her  b.  ;  nanehc.I  give  one  tfte^^b.;  ni-  ^J*  ~\ 

[ee  tqpi,.  _ 
heaving  ' 

ies;  eomoto-  Oyprr 

zeomotomevsz,  the  one  who  is  b. ,the  ^ 
unotomevess6,pl.  The  word  "omotom"  also^’.^^'V  t 
.word";  Maheoneomotom,  God’s  inspired 

niomotoman, our  b.  ;  niomotomevo, '.  % 

omendya  and 
rod  are  we  mat 

B 7-*./ en a  or  n^eseha, give  (tiiouj  one  the  b.  ;  see 
m  ^  breath ,v^niot\i;  omotomaxestoz.the  visible 

.egeha,  gf 

f  the  breast, when  one  breathes;  eomoto- 


...leans  \"inspirep 
(word.  Naomotonj 
(your  bi 
'the  b.o!£. 

omotomeva, by, with, thru,  in  , 
Maheo  nave§emanhanheme,v  bY^''/77/'",‘ 
Naheomotom, I  have  b. 

•*’ ’  if'  •I'^breath^/naomotom,  I  b.  ;  ni^motomhemd.we  b.  ;  eomotomeo  /f1*/  / "a  l, 
iu|  th'py  b.;  naomotomeozVI  become  breathing;omotom-^-'1 '  lX'/, < 

wJ5* hestoz.the  breathing  (alsoN^  gentle  movement  of  th eusun^t^f 
bee  ^ir>  eomotomhestove ,\it  is  a  breathing;  na-^A. 

IP*!^  omo'tomaovo\I  impart  one  breathing;  eahanomotom, one  b.f" 

*l\i  hard, is  panning;  zehetaeomotomevdes ,  all  who  b.  i  na-  a 

omotometan,I  want  to  b. ;  naomotomeVdho , I  cause  one  to.  i 
'  •  !  ramaxeomotom,  I  b.  freely,  relieved,  draw  a  long<l'<^:,^c^u-n«i 

fe  breath;  namaxecmotomeoz,  I  feel  relieved,  draw  a  long'OT^hau* 

.  'breath;  naomotomSena ,  I  lie  breathing;  n^hessSz,I  Uauce. jiJa) 

'i*  -V  i^iinhale  it;  riahessatovo  heomotom,  I  lhhale  one’s  *  »  7' 

a  1  breath;  napeosenlp.t6tomovo  heomotom,  I  drslike  the'™-/'-4*' 

V  ^  y  smell  of  one’s  b.  ;,  -peose-  =to  dislike ,  loathfes+  -ma-^wi/jl 
^'toto  (from  namatoxta  =1  smell  it)  +  -cmovo  =lst  his. 

I  ,**  ^  Naomotometovo ,  I  b\upon  one;  naomotomeztovo/SE  am  "  -M- 

Y’  jfiA/  breathing  to  one;  nah^qtoxta.I  b.out  something  (spuai?1^/ 

S*  jjF  ,  out )  ;  naanevooxta,  I 

at  .v  ^  u  ^  )  ,  uaancvuuAia,!  u,  ma 



Eoxemeaz,one  has  an' 

I  n 

^  /j/y^'j^/dT  I  ir  vir/j^i  r  y 


eu.A\  u  t  j  t, 

c ix-(l ■  v/rtyu^tf  j*  *y~r  ^  \ 

.  __  I 

C  dv*' OwV  tinv-rt^vXAXiXrt,  ^  x  .  wnM- 



offensive  breath  (mouth);  (oxem  =rotten  +  -kz  = 
mouth).  Omotomeozi stoz ,  the  occurence  of  breathing; 
emaso-omotomeozeo , they  (or.)  abruptly  become  breath¬ 
ing;  naomotom  eam3eme,my  word  (inspired)  is  written 
(having  more  ref. to  the  saying  than  to  the  writing). 
Namxevcmotoxta, I  sweep, clean  it  with  my  breath.  See 
explanation  under  "blow".  EtosevonevomSesz  Maheon,  he 
is  to  be  blown  away  by  God’s  (breath).  The  words  "om- 
otom.osotom"  and  "hekotom"  are  related.  The  first 
ref. to  "moving  up  and  down",to  "heave  and  sink",while 
the  second  (osotom)  means  the  "allaying.not  heaving" 
or  "rest",  and  the  last  (hekoton)  designates  the 
"calm";  Nanxpotomeoz , I  suffocate,  have  my  breathing 
shut.sifled;  esdeomotom, one  is  still  breathing;  epa- 
veomotomhestov, there  is  a  good  exales  fragr 
ranee  or  good  air  (also  metaphorically) ;  ehavsevomo-  breathes  bad;  is  not 
good  breath, air;  eevhapaveomotom, one  breathes  well 
again;  ednomotom, one  ends  breathing;  zetohetSeomotom, 
all  that  breathes.  Zepevszeavodsz  emapaveomotomhesto- 
vensz.the  flowers  b, fragrance,  (lit. the  nice  headed 
grasses  are  all  well  breathing). 
bred,  epeveeSeeseoneve , one  is  well  b. ;  eShestovoozene , 
one  has  ears, is  well  b. ;  eonisyomhekonestata,  one 
is  ill-bred  (is  hard  of  ears).  Among  the  Ch.  the 
piercing  of  the  ears  is  attended  with  ceremony, for  it 
symbolizes  the  opening  of  the  understanding, the  time 
from  which  the  child  is  to 'hear  and  learn.  Children 
whose  parents  are  dead  or  which  have  no  one  to  bring' 
them  to  have  their  ears  pierced  at  certain  ceremoni¬ 
als  are  "onisyomhekonestata" ,  their  ears  are  still 
hard.  As  a  rule  such  children  grow  up  without  any  de¬ 
cent  training  (as  the  Ch.  used  to  have)  and  become 
ill-bred.  The  younger  the  child  has  its  ears  pierced 
the  less  it  suffers  and  the  better  it  is  for  it.  This 
was  the  symbolical  teaching:  the  sooner  children  hear 
and  obey  the  more  and  the  easier  they  will  learn.  The 
pain  when  the  ears  were  pierced,  together  with  the 
present  the  parents  had  to  offer  for  tne  occasion, 
would  show  that  obedience  and  learning  cost  some¬ 

breeches ,  veSeesenostoto  (or.),b.,  pants;  nxpsoestoto, 
breech-clout;  nanxpsoestonaovo ,  I  make  b.  unto 
one;  enxpsoestove,it  is  a  breech-clout.  See  pants,  .  / 

'-7X4*/#  leggings. 

,  breed ,  /nahestoeSeeho ,  I  b.  .beget  .bring  forth  one;  ehe§e- 

hestovoeo , they  (or.)  raise , b. children .  NaeSeeho , I  JftJ, 
raise, b. one.  Zehestoeseessc , the  bred  ones .progeny. See/ 

**  bring  forth  .grow,  raise  .  Dr.  l.  r  , 

breeder,  zehe§ehestovoess6 , b. , progenitors , zeeseesohesz , 
the  one  who  causes  growth, of  people  or  animals. 







Cny  2 etfa^«./  M 

•  ^  /Lc  firca/L  ffy  c  t..  -  *  ' 


•  «Y-  r>--e~cse  .-  /* 

X'  /.  N 

c  ^ 

**  * 



breeding,  hestoesehestoz ;  eveShestoesehestove ,  thereby 
'  is  a  b,;  hestoeSeesohestoz,  that  which  causes 

growth  in  people  and  animals, the  breeding. 

'breeze,  see  wind.  Hoven  edsta, there  is  a  light  b. 
brethren,  zehevi s ’ onemon , they ,  my  b. ;  zehevis’onemaess , 
the  ones  who  are  my  b. ;  ehevis ’ onemazeo ,  they 
.  /.Wi'^'are  b. (with'  each  other);  ehevi s ’ onetovdzeo ,  they  ar 
.^V'b.  (unto  each  other).  Nis’s,  my  brother  or  sister; 
j»  (y.  nis’  b. (Ger .Geschwister) ;  es’on.thy  b. ;  hevis’- 

M  on, one’s  b.  ;  nis  ’  onar.eo ,  our  (excl.)  b. ;  es  1  onaneo  ,  our 

J (incl.)  b.  ;  es’onevo,  your  b.  ;  hevis ’ onevo , their  b. 

This  expression  is  the  equivalent  of  the  Ger.  Ge- 
^’('Mr^ochwister , but  also  designates  cousins  and  half  bro- 
*  *ttlers  or  sisters, or  all  together.  When  a  has 

dr  several  wives, their  children  will  say;  nahevi s ’ oneto- 
f  vjlzheme.we  are  "Geschwister".  Nahevis’on,  I  have  b.  ; 
rL.^!  ^nahevis’onenotto.I  have  them  for  b.  ;  nahevis  ’  onenoz  ,  1 
*T  have  one  for  cousin, half  brother  or  half  sister,  etc. 

't  See  brother. Nis’onasz, brethren!  This  expression  has 

come  into  use  among  Christian  Ch.The  old  address  used 
by  a  speaker  was  usually:  vehonasz  na  notxesz,  chiefs 
and  warriors ! Also :  hetanesz,kasovaehasz,men  and  young 
men!  Writer  heard  the  Messias  teacher  (Porcupine) 
fr. addressing  a  crowd  by  saying:  navbhestonasz , my  blood 
relatives!  The  expression  "nis’onasz"  will  be  under¬ 
stood  by  Christian  meaning  them  only  and  not 
others, altho  the  latter  be  present.  The  proper  way  of 
addressing  a  mixed  audience  of  Ch.  would  be  either: 
Kahaehasz  ,  Friend  s  !  Or:  Hetar.esz,  heesz  na .  kaSgonasz, 
Men, women  and  children! 

bribe,  naemosevo veho , I;  emosjevovehazistoz,  the  b. 

(enios  =secret  +  -vovdho,  to  ransom, pay  for;  see 
ransom);  eemosevovehe , one  is__bribe_d;  zeemosevovdhasz , 
the  one  who  bribes  me. 

trick,  mahede , (ma  =red  +  Yiege  =dust) ;  emaheseeve,  it  is 
a  b.  ; ,  bricks  ;  mahohonaeo  (or.),  bricks, 
(ma  =red  +  hohonaeo  =stones);  emahononaeveo , they  are 
red  stones;  emahohonaevston  or  emaheSeevston , it  is 
built  of  bricks;  mahese  eveSemane,  it  is  made  out  of 
bricks;  epaveir.aheSeev^toona ,  i t  is  beautifully  brick¬ 
ed.  wr. 

bride,  monhd|  (newly  married)  (mon  =recently  +  -hde  = 
woman);  zemonhevsz , the  one  who  is  b. ;  emonheeve, 
she  is  a  b. ;  zetoshehyamsz , the  one  about  to  be  mar¬ 
ried  (sp.of  woman);  emonhehyam, she  is  newly  married 
(hehyam  =having  a  husband). 

bridegroom,  mon#eta  (mon  =newly  +  -heta  =man) ;  zemon- 
heszheemsz , the  one  having  recently  a  woman; 
emonheszheem,  one  is  a  b.;  see  wo  4A.t4t0,4rriAtf‘ 

bridge,  hoxovoo ,b. , the  one  set  across;  ehoxovooneve ,  it 
is  a  b. ;  hoxovohestoz.the  bridging;  ehoxovohes- 


ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY  is  a  bridging;  nahoxovoonan, I  make  a  b.  The 
expressions  are  also  used  in  the  fig.,  especially  in 
the  religious  terminology,  thus  hoxovoonani stoz  de¬ 
notes  b. making, mediation;  zehoxovoonansz , the  "ponti- 
■ f ex"  or  mediator.  Such  expressions  were  especially 
heard  during  the  "Messias"  movement, but  they  were  not 
new  then.  See  crow.  ZenSkoveoenetto ,  b.  of  the  nose 
See  nose.  Hoxovoo  emakStaevston,  the  b.  is  built  of 
iron;  hoxovoo  ekamxevston , the  built  of  wood;  ma- 
hataemeo  hoxovoo , railroad  b. ;  ohe  ehoxovoona,  the  ri¬ 
ver  is  bridged,  provided  with  a  b. ;  nahoxovoonaoxz 
ohe, I  b.the  river.  See  cross. 
brldle.  hoxzenaeseo.b. .bit  (from  hox  =  bind, tie  around 
[see  bandage]  +^-zena  which  ref.  to  mouth  "end" 
of  animals);  is  a  b. ;  nahoxzende- 
toham.I  b.the  horse;  suff.-oham  is  from  mohdnoham  = 
horse.  Hoxzenaetohamestoz , the  horse  b. ;  ehoxzenaeto-  is  a  horse  b. ;  naonehahoxzenaetoham  I 
take  the  of  the  horse , unbridle  the  horse;  r.aes- 
tazenanoham,  I  b.  the  horse,  I  put  into  the  horse’s  uJ  V/L 
mouth;  nanitdzenanoham,  I  take  off  the  horse's  moutlf^X^'t . 
unbridle  the  horse;  nahoxeesetoham,  I  b.the  /horse"’/  /  i  ■/ 
(when  tying  around  nose).  See  halter. 
brief,  speaks  briefly;  kaoanistoz,  b .  speech 

utterance;  kasexov.b. space  of  time  ekasevostane-  7  is  a  short  duration  of  life;  ekasexov’-,/  *./ ,  is  for  a  b.time;  see  short .  7iajia.0)c/4r0  v  &?*'**/***•*- 

brigand ,  -Senovahe.b.  , robber , despoiler  ;  esenovaeheve , one^7^ 
is  a  b.;  eSenovavostanehe ve ,  one  leads  the  life 
of  a  b.  See  rob. 

brigandage,  genovahestoz ;  eSenovahestove ,  it  is  a  b. ,  "  J 


eq^  is  b., shining;  amomazistovea  ehexo- 
)  voenov  it  is  b. .dazzling, ( lit. mirror  like  it  has 

v'  ^  1°°^)  >  ecmsenohe ,  one  (or.)  looks  "b.  ,  luminous ,  shin- 

;rJ  r  ing  also  eq§.  sevenohe;  eqjasevenono ,  it  is  b.  ,  luminous; 

na#sena,I  make  it  b.  (light,  fire);  -oas-  denotes 
flame:  see  burn, fire;  naopsevoaena , I  make  it  b.  ,  fur- 
^  bish  ib> voaeha, it  is  b. , furbished ;  eqgsevoaeoe, 
it  is  made  b. , shining, is  furbished;  nanhovaena.I  wipe 
f  [t  it  b.;  epevatamano,  it  is  b.  (sp.of  the  general  out- 
uC*\  look, appearance ) ;  zepevszeavo6sz  eohSpevatamanoensz , 
the  flowers  are  very  b. ;  emaatamano,  it  is  (of 
the  atmosphere  or  general  appearance  of  objects);  has  a  b. yellow  appearance;  esaavotoe-  (or.)  cannot  be  looked  upon, is  dazzling  b. , 
pure;  esaavotoenovhan,  it  is  dazzling  b. , cannot  be 
looked  upon.  See  shine.  Eotoxovae , one  is  b. ,  intelli¬ 
gent  ;  otoxovastoz , brightness , intelligence . 
brighten,  naodsevoaena, I;  nahetotaetanoho , I 
(or.), make  him  cheerful;  eneamepevatamanoeoz , 



k  .WA-VO 

it  is  brightening  (of  the  weather , sky) ;  emasdpevhotc- 
eoz, one’s  sight  brightens;  emasdpevotoene ,  one  ’  s  face 
brightens ,( or  emasdpevotGeneoz) ;  eneamehot Genov,  it 
gradually  brightens , becomes  sight.  See  sight, look, 
brightening,  emavovoaseSena, it  is  b.  , resplendent ;  emii- 
odseostaM, it  is  b. , flashing;  eoasevoaeos-  is  b., shining;  emdodseostax,  one  is  b.  in  a 
flash, shining.  See  resplendent , shine . 
brightness,  zeoxcheSeodsevoaeha,  the  b.,  that  which  is 
brightening;  oasevenohestoz , the  b.,in  look, 
appearance;  pevatamanohestoz , the  b. .appearance ;  zehe- 
oasevoaeha, its  b.  See  shine, 
brilliant ,  eohavovoasedena, it  is  b.,very  shiny;  eohdvo- 
~  -  shines  brilliantly, 

brim,  heszeneva, its  b.,lip  (see  lip);  hetoxq  heszeneva, 
the  b.of  a  cup;  zekagoeo,its  crests , edges ;  zeSka- 
goeo.b. (where  it  ends,  thin,  tapering);  zehepeo.its 
outer  b.,rim.  is  full  to  the  b.(of  li¬ 
quid);  is  full  to  the  b.  (of  dry  subs¬ 
tance);  has  been  filled  to  the  b.  Na- 
oxenoena.I  fill  it  to  the  b.(with  dry  substance);  na- 
oxenoenoto.I  fill  one  (person)  to  the  b. ;  naoxenoe- 
noxz.I  fill  it  (anything)  to  the  b. ;  naoxenovana,  I 
fill  it  (with  liquid)  to  the  b. ;  naexa  eoxenoesen  na- 
hden,my  eyes  are  brimful  of  tears, 
brimstone,  heovhohonaevhoesta, yellow  fire  stone, 
brindled,  esbkovotavova, it  is  b .( animal , fur ), is  strip- 
ed, barred, streaked. 

brine,  map  zeohavoxbomaoxzevane ,  water  which  is  made 
very  salted.  See  salt. 

bring,  nahoeoztsan , I  b. (generic  terra);  nahoeozdsz.I  b. 
’  it;  nahoeozeho.I;  nahoeoztomevo.I 
for  one  (or.);  nahoeoztomovo , I, one’s;  nahoeozto- 
mevonotto.I  to,  for  one;  nahoeozamo.I  b. one’s 
(or.);  heq'sam  nihoeoztomevazevonotto ,  I  b.  to  thee 
one’s  sheep;  nahooztovo,  I  b.  it  to  a  place  for  one; 
heto  nahooztomon.this  is  brot  upon  me;  nahooztomota- 
az,I  upon  myself, for  me;  nahoox.I  b.  game  (from 
the  hunt);  nahoeoamaovo , I  (or.)  by  driving,  (as 
cattle);  nahoeoamaovoham, I  the  stock, by  driving; 
nahoaovo.I  b.thcm  (or.)  in;  nahoeoaovo,  I  b.them  ir. 

U(fast);  nahoaovoham,  I  b.the  stock.  Naeseozesz.I  b.  it 
in;  naeseozdho.I  (or.)  into;  nataeseozesz ,  I  b. 
it  into  (speaker  being  outside);  nanxeseozesz , I 
into  (speaker  being  inside);  nahoeozesz,  I  out; 
nanxhoeozesz, I  out  from;  natahoeozesz,  I  will  b. 
it  out  to;  nahooxoveozesz, I  across;  nahooxovdo- 
zeho.I  b.  one  (or.)  across;  nahoenemotoxta , I  come 
bringing  it  in  my  mouth;  hotam  ehoenemotomo  kdkoa.the 
dog  brings  a  quail  in  his  mouth;  etahoenemotoxta ,  one 
brings  it  out  in  his  mouth,  toward;  enxhoenemotoxta, 



y />.  w.  fa***,,  sUi  ^ 

a;  'PcIi£-**€.  ■*/£>- 

Jl/i  ft t  e,*f* ****-,  ■w2^-*u*e 


"  v  J:  yrrsr/s~*- 


yUSt/C./y  "A 

one  brings  out  in  his  mouth, from.  [The  Ch.inf.-ta- 
implies  the  going  forth  of  an  action, from  the  speaker 
onward;  when  the  action  is  reversed.not  from  but  to¬ 
wards  the  speaker, inf .-nx-  must  be  used.  Whatever  is 
behind  or  past,  when  referred  to, has  the  "n"  or  "nx" 
infixed, as  a  rule  after  the  pronominal  pref.].  Naho- 
oxtooneanoham, I  b.the  horse  to  the  place  (by  lead¬ 
ing);  maevehoeno  nanxhooxtoneanoham,  I  b.  the  horse 
from  town  (leading);  natahooxtoneanoham  m&evehoeno, 
I  b. (lead)  the  horse  to  the  town;  niszetooxzesz.b.  it 
hither,  to  this  place!  Nixeseoetom  (ye) 
wood;  naeseoetanoz  maxz.I  wood(s);  nimenimeta, 

u.xu  w uuu^sj  j  nimenimeta, 
,4.(1  thou  shouldest  one  (or.),  in  the  sense  of  fetch 
I ^  of  ?  to  give;  namenimeta.he  might  give  me.  The  -ni-  im- 

-y  vit"  pneto  wiat  me  one  oi  wnom  the  giving  is  expected 
will  have  to  come  from  some  place  to  bring  the  gift 

the  speaker.  A  sick  Indian  may  say  to  a  visitor:  , 

1.'  ,.^  naheveho  namenimeta  eseoxz.the  white  doctor  should 
**  t/J'y  ’  ®e  medecine ,  or ,  let  him  send  me  medecine.  [Tones  nitne-*'^^* - 
y-L !'•'**  nivehcmo ,  some  day  you  should  come  (from  where  you£*2*>£f-£, 
i'’~  live)  to  see  him].  Inf  .-me-  =appearing  forth,  coming 

(  /  up  to  view;  nameenen.I  view, reveal;  nameena.I  h .  e< , ,  t  f.  c 

it  up;  nameen0  (or. ) ;  nameenomovo,  I  b.  it  one’s  toAJn*r'ty’s 
!u  j h  *■'  view;  zemonemeene , one  will  be  brot  to  vfew,  revealed?-*-*,"?  '  > 
a'  (~mone_  =newly, recently, only  then;  Ger.erst);  nameoe 

\tJL  na,  I  b .  it  to  view, set, invent  it;  nahestoereeoena,  ±  u: - ->v- 

h  fjM  it  to  view  from  out  of.  The  difference  to  tween  t:w,eo-*a^/‘^' 

jktr  Nameovoea,  I  up  (from  a  liquid  substance);  namen-j, _ 

1  ri/K  on,1  view  with  instr.,I  mine;  namenoha  makfit,I  y  * 

i  iy  |»A  U»«ie  iron;  see  dig;  nameeostdno ,  I  (or.)  to  view  - 

ana  nameoena  is  the  ."o"  in  the  second  word, and 
that  implies  "place ,  set"  ,  thus  :  I  b.,  place  it  in  view. 

T  V,  i  +■  1  vn  (  -P  o  T  l  «  n  ;  A  ^  -  v.  ^  -i-  ^  \  .  

,}£y  -I»i-ne  iron:  see  dig!  nameeostdno ,  I  (or.)  to  view  ' 

^Mv,y****  instantly  (instr.m.);  nameeostoha ,  I  to  view  in  a  *^*<^**«A 

flash  :  fimeeopfifiS  .  nnp  i  s  hrnf  tn  tri  pm  ino-i-ontiv  (  v-.  r.  _ 


tr.m. ) ;  namehesta  or  namesta.I  to  view  by  words 
.  I  explain, reveal  it;  nameemo.I  reveal  one  (or.), 
to  view  by  words.  See  come  up.  Inf.-hestoe-  or  -hes- 
t3  denotes  "from  out  of";  nahestoeSeeho, I  (or.)  , 

up, raise, breed  him;  nahestoeseesz , I  b.  it  forth  from^ 

out ,( implying  growth, development ); zeto  hoxzz  eoxches- 
,  toeseeszenoz  maxemenoz , this  tree  brings  forth  apples; 
(  /-nha  zexhestoeSeehaezee , the  ones  who  brot  us  forth, our 
,,^Progenitors.  EhooeSeme ,  one  is  brot  up  in  a  lying  pos- 
i  o/Mv  :ture.  (on  travois  or  horse);  nahooe§emo,I, lying. 
j'tifrff aveSeamha,  it  me,  I  receive  something  by  it;  tox- 
fto  makatansz  much  money  did  it  b. 
thee?  Nahoemetaenon  hovae.he  brot  us  something,  (lit. 
he  came  to  give5  us  something.  See  carry. 
dnink ,  toxea;  [  the  verge;  niotatoxehoe ,  thou 
-  standest  at  the  b. ;  etostdenae,  one  (or.)  is  at 
the  verge  of  death. 



brisk,  enonahaxczhesta, one  is  b.  (from  nature ) ;  enona- 

- haxkae ,  one  (or.)  is  b.  (state);  inf.  -nqnahaxse.-  = 

briskly;  enonahaxceoxz , one  (or.)  goes  briskly;  enona- 
haxcen, one  (or.)  walks  briskly;  enonahaxchozeohe „  one 
(or.)  works  briskly;  nasaaevhanonahaxczestahe , I  am  no 
more  b. .agile;  evavftkae , one  is  b. , jerky, brusk;  evava-  (or.)  is  b. .quick, rash;  see  rash, fast.  Nona- 
haxczestatoz, briskness, sprightliness, vivacity, agility 
(from  nature  or  disposition);  nonahaxkastoz,  brisk¬ 
ness, the  being  b. ;  vavftkastoz,  briskness , jerkiness ; 
vavanetfttoz, briskness , rashness .  Zevavanetass.the 

*  -  '  V  -  .  / 


rash  ones;  ^/W*-**  *  ^  f 

brisket,  helleondneva,  breast  part  of  beef.  See  beef. 

L  istle ,  enepoovao , one  (animal)  is  bristled, from  anger, 
fear, sometimes  used  fig.  of  people;  it  ref. to 
hair  "raising"  or  standing  erect;  ematftovao , one  (or.) 
bristles, ref  to  actual  bristles  [mat ft  =prickly  pear, 
cactus].  Ematfto6,  it  is  bristling,  pricking  (said  of 
growing  plants;  matadsz, bristling, prickly  plants.  He- 
skovoetto.procupine  quills.  See  thorn.  HeSkovezeneeo , 
hair  brush  made  of  the  porcupine’s  tail;  zemataovat- 
to.the  bristles  from  a  fur,  also  brush  made  of  such 
material.  Zematftovaz,  the  one  (or.)  provided  with 
•  \  bristling  fur;  Ij 

brittle,  ehec  or  is  b., Gee 'soft;  ematacf,  i"  ' 

i  .  ,  w  7 - is  b., breaks  easily;  ematakonsz  (pi.);  ematac s- L>M*-  . 

IjuJ^  is  getting  b.  ;  is  b.from  heat,  j j  ^ Uviu#.. 
*  .(n'h1'  broad,  see  breadth, wide.  The  "m"  implies  b.  .expanded  afe^,  ' 

,  in  the  words:  maxe, great;  maha, big, wide.  Inf.-vo*--* 

ta-  before  "maxe"  and  "maha"  denotes  "b.,very  wide\ — , 

1 7r  L  r  great"  .  See  abroad.  Evotamahaeoz  meo.the  road  is  b. ;  eUfKnJht 

Y  L  great" .  See  abroad.  Evotamahaeoz  meo.the  road  is  b. 
evotamahaoz  ’  heszhesta.b.  is  his  heart. 

Hr*  i  (.j’Jxroadcast ,  nahdneazenoz  mazemenoz,  I  sow  the  oats  b. ;  1 

ehdnehamensz , they  (in.)  are  thrown  b.  ;  nahd-  /  ' 
I  pyf  nevhces  ta , I  spread  the  news  b. ;  nam6nhoesta , I  spread 

(Vi]  v  ’  the  news  abroad,  make  them  generally  known.  [See 

'  i**'  spread,  choose  and  provide]. 
fPV'l  J*’  broadcloth,  see  cloth. 

,  hi /'■'  brocket,  hotoxpevaozeva,  stag  in  the  second  year.  See 

IV  aP  deer. 

/  .  broil ,  nahonoxta ,  I  b., roast  it;  nahonoto.I  b.  one  (or), 

^  ^  -  as  bird, rabbit, fish, etc. ;  ehonoe,  it  is  broiled; 

honovoxkdz .meat  to  be  broiled  (usually  sirloin);  hoo- 
IflrJjTi)**  no, broiled  meat;  hoono  namese,  I  eat  broiled  meat, 
roast;  naseoxtano  hoestavft.I  (6r.)  on  the.  spit. 

Homdozistoz, broil ,turmoil:vAA*-^-»v»xvl*ivuv»;T»  ~hrv-  m>.  - 

broken,  epoevoeSena, it  is;  epoevsevoeS,  he  has  a 

- --yhorn;  has  the  point  (of  blade) 

W  «  b/f  is  b. blunt;  is  b. 

'  Ln, nicked;  etovoeoeseha,  it  is  b.  in, indented .nicked 

etovoneneodseha ,  it  is  indented 

^<3 in’  tovose§eheo, saw> 

g^a  f/ApAMrow 


eeeae  amoeneo, 
° •  ’  edPeoa°he, 

frA  r . 

7W  s 


,foL-  (saP  between  teeth);  see  indented;  is  h. ; 

■  edeae  amoeneo, the  wagon  is  h. ;  naaz  arm  is 
b.;  edpeoaohe , one  has  a  rib  b. ;  eoeevoeg  it  is  b  in 
pieces;  pieces, apart  disinte- 
7^  grated;  becomes  b. asunder;  eoninxoeos-  is  b.,  demolished  instantly;  hoe  eoxane.the 
earth  is;  is  two;  eoxevoeha  it 
lies  b.apart^  eoxevoe Seme, one  (or., as  rocks)  lies  b. 
apart;  eoxeostaha,  it  is  b.,  torn  by  wind;  eoneeva- 
vensz , one  (or.)  speaks  brokenly;  eoneevav&tomon  one 
understands  brokenly.  See  break, crack, piece;^AtX*A>^‘*/^*^' 
bronze,  zemsiSbanemae^makat , brown  reddish  jnetal . 
brooch,  senoehaseo;  see  pinT — &  fu 

brood ,  enhohona,  she  is  brooding,  setting ;  naheomeveohe-^Z/^V 
_  7  tanona, I  b.too  much  (over  something);  naeveota'/^"2' # 

ohetanona,  I  am  brooding.  See  hatch,  child. 

/brooH,  ohevahe  ;  ohec  ,  brooklet .  - 

.  f^Xbroo^,  mxevomaoheo,  ground  sweeper;  mxeheoo ,  sweeper  ;  em^C—-- 
J  1  xevomaolleoneve  and  is  a  b.  ;  mxe- 

"  /•  '  v/omaoheonoz, brooms, also  broom  corn;  see  sweep. 

“  broomstick,  mxevomaohevhoot<5 , broom  handle;  mxeheoonev- 
r  j  hoot6 ,  broomstick. 

b/other ,  the  Ch.has  four  different  words  foj;  .b,  ;  a  com- 
)fT  /  mon  one  used  by  male  and  female  to  designate  a 

younger  b.or  sister, e.g.  younger  b.or  sis¬ 
ter, said  by  an  older  b.or  an  older  sister.  Another 
common  word  for  both  sexes  to  designate  "co-brother" 
or.  "co-sister",  half  b.  or  half  sister,  or  cousin 
(first, second  or  remote), e.g.  nis’  b.  For  brevi¬ 
ty  sake  we  use  the  simple  Eng. word  "brother"  with  the 
understanding  that  it  implies  all  the  other  meanings 
(for  the  word  nis’is).  For  older  b.the  Ch.has  two 
different  expressions , the  one  used  by  the  men  and  the 
other  by  women.  The  word  used  by  men  can  be  used  by  a 
woman  only  when  she  speaks  of  the  man’s  b.,  e.g. your 
b.,his  b.  The  word  which  a  woman  uses  for  older  b.can 
be  used  by  a  man  only  when  he  speaks  of  the  woman’s 
» e.g. your  "b.or  her  b.—  Nisima,my  younger  b.or  sis- 
ter;  younger  brothers  or  sisters;  esiiria, 
thy  y.  b.or  s.;  esimao,  thy-  (pi.).;  hevasem,  one’s  y. 
b.or  s.;  hevasemo , one ’ s-  (pi.);  nisimahan , our  y.  b.or 
s.,(excl.);  ni  s  imahaneo  ,  our —  (pi.);  es  itnahan  ,  our  y.b. 
or  s . , ( incl . ) ;  esimahaneo,  our-  (pi.);  esimaevo.your 
y.b. or  s.;  esimaevo.your-  (pi.);  hevasemevo,  their  y. 
b.  or  s.;  hevasemevo,  their-  (pi.);  esimah&sz ,ye  y. 
brothers  or  s.;  zehevasemetovaz,  thou  my  y.  b.or  s. 

Nahevasem.I  have  a  y.  b.  or  s.;  nahevasemenoz, one  is 
my  y.  b.or  s.;  nahevasemenotto , they  are  my  y.  b.or  s. 

( Pi • ) ;  nahevasemenon,  one  is  our  y.  b.  or  s.;  zehe- 
vasemetto.I  who  have  a  y.  b.or  s.;  also  one  who  is  my 
y.  b.or  s.;  zehevasemeton, the  ones  who  are  my  y.  b.or 



s .( pi . ) j  nahevasemetova,  I  am  one's  y.  b.or  s.;  ze- 
hevasemetcsz.I  Who  am  one’s  y.b.or  s.;  nahevasemeton, 

I  am  a  y.  b.  or  s.;  zehevasemestovsz, the  one  who  is  a 
y.b.or  s.;  zehevasemestovessd ,  y.b.or  s.(pl.);  eheva-  has  y.  b. (pi.) .said  to  mean:  it  yields  in¬ 
terest  (of  money).  Hevasemestovestoz , the  being  y.  b. 
or  s.  Nahevasemetan, I  want  to  have  a  y.  b.or  s.;  na- 
hevasemetanotovo , I  want  one  to  be  my  y.  b.or  s.;  ^na- 
hevasemevoemo , I  count  one  as  a  y.  b.or  s.;  nanehov 
zehevasemevoemanetto , I , who  am  counted  as  a  y.b.or  s.; 
hevasemetovazistoz , the  being  mutual  y.  b.and  s.(pl.); 
nihevasemetovazhema, we  are  to  each  other  y.  b.  and.  s. 
(pi.).  Writer  thinks  that  nisima  denotes  "the  one 
born, issued  after  one".  The  relationship  m.  explains 
all  these  As  above  terms  imply 
both  younger  brother  or  sister,  it  appears  vague  who 
of  the  two  may  be  meant.  The  difference  is  recogniz¬ 
able  in  the  sentence  connection,  or  by  adding  the 
name, or  sex  of  the  one  mentioned.  E.g. nisima  hetane- 
kasgon,  my  y.  b. ,  (boy);  nisimd  heekaggon,  my  y .  s., 
(girl);  nlsimd  y.  s.  (young  woman);  nisima 
kasova,  my  y.  b.  (young  man);  nisima  y.  b. 
(male);  rdsima  y.  s. (female).-  Nis’is,  my  b. ; 
nis ’ son, my  brothers;  zehevl s ’ onetto ,the  one  who  is  my 
b.;  zehevis ’ one t ton ,  (pi.);  es’is,  thy  b. ;  es’on.thy 
brothers;  zehevis ’ ondtto ,  thou  who  hast  a  b.,  or  the 
one  who  is  thy  b. ;  hevis’on,  one’s  b. ;  nis’onan.our 
b. , ( excl . ) ;  es’sonan,  our  b.,  (incl.);  es ’ onaneo , our 
brothers;  es ’ sonevo ,your  b. ;  es ’ onevo , your  brothers; 
hevis ’ onevo ,  their  b. ;  hevis’ onevo,  their  brothers. 
This  term  is  understood  to  mean  "co-b."  and  "co-s.", 
half  b.and  half  s., cousins  of  all  grades.  Nahevis ’on, 
I  have  a  b. ;  nahevis ’ onenoz , one  is  my  b. ;  nahevis’on- 
eton.I  am  a  b.  ;  nihevi  s  ’  onetoen ,  we  are  one’s  b.  ;  r.i- 
hevis ’ onetovazhemd,  we  are  bretheren  to  each  other; 
nihevis ’ onemazhemS. ,  we  are  brethren;  nis 'onasz, bro¬ 
thers  and  sisters!  Zehevis’  b. ;  ze¬ 
hevis  ’  onestovsz,  the  one  who  is  b. ;  zehevis ’ onesto- 
vessd,  the  brothers;  hevis ’ onetovazistoz ,  the  being 
brothers  to  each  other;  hevis ’ onemazi stoz ,  brother¬ 
hood;  nahevis ’ one  tan , I  want  a  b. ;  nahevis ’ onevoemo ,  I 
count  one  as  a  b. ;  oxzhevis ’ onestovstovesz.when  b. re¬ 
lationship  occurs.-  The  following  with  rad.-tatanem 
are  the  expressions  used  by  women  for  older  b.  But 
whenever  a  male  speaks  to  or  of  a  woman  concerning 
her  b.,he  Uses  the  term  used  by  women. 
older  b.;  natatanemo ,my-  (pi.);  nstatanem,  thy_ol.b., 
(woman  addressed  by  man  or  woman);  nstatanemd,  thy- 
(pl . ) ;  hestatanem.her  ol.b.;  hestatanemo,  her-  (pi.); 
natataneman, our  ol .b. ( excl . ) ;  nstatamaneman.our  ol.b. 
(incl,);  nstatanemaneo , oui —  (pi.);  nstatanemevo ,  your 



ol.b., (woman  addressed  by  man  or  woman);  nstataneme- 
vc.your-  (pi.);  hestatanemevo , their  ol.b.  (of  women); 
hestatanemevo, their-  (pi.);  nahestatanem,  I  have  an 
ol.b.;  nihestatanemhemd,  we  have  an  ol.  b. ,  find.); 
ehestatanemeo , they  have  an  ol.b.;  nahestatanemenoz , 
one  is  my  ol.b.;  nihestatanemenotto ,  they  are  my  ol. 
brothers;  nahestatanemeton, I  am  an  ol.b.;  nahestata- 
nemoemo.I  count  one  as  my  ol.b.;  zehestatanemetoez , 
the  one,  our  ol.b.;  zehestatanemetovata ,  the  one, thy 
ol.b.;  zehestatanemestovsz.the  ol.b.;  zehestatanemes- 
tovessd , ( pi . ) ;  Hestatanemestovestoz ,  the  being  ol.  b. 
Nahestatanemetan, I  want  an  ol.b.;  hestatanemetanox- 
toz.the  wanting  an  ol.b.;  zehestatanemetovaz , thou  my 
ol.b.!  This  however  is  very  rarely  said, as  sisters  do 
not  speak  to  their  brothers.  Hestatanememazistoz,  the 
being  ol.b. (to  a  sister)  with  each  other ;nahestata- 
nemo,I  am  ol.  b.  with  him  (to  a  sister);  zehestata- 
nemsz  or  zehehestatanemsz ,  the  one  being  her  ol.b.; 
oxhestatatanemestovstovesz ,  when  the  "being  an  ol.b." 
occurs, or:  where  there  is  a  relationship  of  ol. broth¬ 
ers  to  a  sister;  nihestatanemetovstovaz ,  thou  art  my 
ol.b. in  relationship. The  following  with  rad.-ndh-  are 
the  expressions  used  by  men  for  older  b.  But  whenever 
a  female  speaks  to  or  of  a  man  concerning'Tiis  b.,she 
uses  the  term  used  by  men.  ol.b.;  nenhe.thy 
ol.b. (man  addressed  by  man  or  woman);  hendfi, one’s  ol. 
b. ;  nandhan,  our  ol.  b.  (excl.);  nindhan.our  ol.  b. 
(incl.);  ninehevo,  your  ol.  b. ;  henehevo, their  ol.b. 
Writer  never  heard  the  pi. of  above, except  in  the  sub. 
f.of  the  v.,as:  zehenehetton.the  ones, my  ol. brothers; 
zehenehetoss , the  ones, thy  ol. brothers;  zehenehess , the 
ones, his  ol. brothers;  zeheneheze , the  ones, our  ol. bro¬ 
thers;  zehenehesse , the  ones. your  ol.b.;  zehenehevose , 
the  ones, their  ol. brothers;  nahenehe.I  have  an  ol.b.; 
nihenehemd,we  (incl.)  have  an  ol.  b. ;  nahenehenotto , 
they  are  my  ol. brothers;  niher.ehenoneo ,  they  are  our 
(incl.)  ol. brothers;  nihenehetova , thou  art  his  ol.b.; 
nihenehetoevo ,you  are  his  ol. brothers;  nihenehetove , I 
am  thy  d.b.;  nihenehetovaz.thou  art  my  ol.b.;  nahe- 
nehevoema.he  counts  me  for  his  ol.b.;  nihenehevoemae- 
neo.they  count  us  for  ol. brothers;  nihenehetovd.zhem&, 
we  are  ol. brothers  to  each  other;  riahenehemo.I  am  ol. 
b.with  him;  henehetov&zistoz, the  being  ol. brothers  to 
each  other;  henehemazistoz, ol .  brotherhood;  zehenehe- 
stovsz.the  one  being  an  ol.  b. ;  zehenehestovessft , ol . 
brothers;  henehestovestoz , the  relationship  of  ol. bro¬ 
thers,  the  being  ol. brothers;  ehenehestovstove ,  it  is 
an  ol.  b.  relationship;  oxzhenehestovstovesz ,  when 
there  is  a  relationship  of  ol. brothers;  nihenehestov - 
stovaz,.thou  art  my  ol.b. by  relationship;  zeheneheto- 
vaz.thou  my  ol .b. (addressing) ;  zehenehetovetto ,  thou, 



unto  whom  I  am  an  ol.b.;  nahenehetan, I  want  an  ol.b.; 
henehetanoxtoz , the  wanting  an  ol.b.;  henehevoemazis- 
toz,the  counting  each  other  as  ol. brothers  or  the  mu¬ 
tual  relationship  of  ol. brothers, 
brotherhood,  hevis'onemazistoz;  ehevis 1 onemazistove ,  it 
-  is  a  brotherhood. 

brother-in-law,  the  Ch.has  two  different  words  for  b., 

-  one  used  by  the  men  and  the  other  by  the 

women.  Following  are  the  expressions  used  by  men  for 
cr///b  :  nitov , my  b. ;  etov.thy  b.(man  addressed  by  man  or 
,  „  woman)  ;  hevetov.his  b.  (m.or.f  .sp. )  ;  nitovan,  our  b.  , 

( excl . )  ;  etovan.our  b.,(incl.);  etovevo,  your  b.  being 
1  .cif  addressed  by  man  or  woman);  hevetovevo , their  b.(m.  or 
^  j  f.sp.).  The  pi. of  above  writer  never  heard  except  m 

the  sub.  f.  of  the  v.,  as:  zehevetovetton.the  ones, my 
brothers-in-law, etc.  Nahevetov.I  have  a  b. ;  ehevetov- 
^  eo  they  have  a  b. ;  nahevetovenoz,  I  have  one  for  b. ; 

nihevetovstove , I  am  thy  b.;  nihevetovstovaz ,  thou  art 
my  b.;  nahevetovetan , I  want  a  b. ;  nahevetovemo ,  I  am 
b.with  him;  hevetovemazistoz ,  the  being  b.with  one; 
nahevetovetov&zhema.we  (excl.)  are  b.  (pi.)  to  each 
other;  hevetovetov&zistoz ,  the  being  b.  (pi.)  to  each 
other-  nahevetovevoemo , I  count  him  as  my  b. ;  heveto- 
vevomazisfoz,  the  counting  one  for  b. ;  zehevetoyes- 
tovsz  the  one  being  a  b. ;  zehevetovstovessd , b .  (pi.); 

hevetovstovestoz ,  the  being  a  b.,  relationship  of  b., 
oxzhevetovetovstovesz , when  a  relationship  of  b.  (pi.) 

occurs.  See  relationship  Following  term, 
"nitam"  is  used  by  women  to  desigate  brother  in  law, 
and  by  men  to  signify  sister-in-law.  Nitam,  my  b.(f. 
sp.)  or  my  sister-in-law  (m.sp.);  etam.thy  b.  (woman 
addressed)  or  thy  s.(man  addressed);  hevetam.her  b. 
or  his  s.;  nitaman.our  (excl.)  b.(f.sp.)  or  our  s.(m. 
sp.);  etaman.our  b.(incl.)  or  our  s.;  etamevo.your  b. 
(woman  addressed)  or  your  s.(men  addressed);  hevetam- 
evo  their  b.(sp.of  women)  or  their  s.(sp.of  men).  Na- 
hevetam  I  have  a  b.  (f.  sp.)  or  I  have  a  s.  (m.sp.); 
nihevetamhem&.we  (incl.)  have  a  b.(f.sp.)  or  we  have 
a  s  (m.sp.).  The  following  terms  imply  the  same  dual 
meaning  as  above,  but  only  one  is  given  for  brevity. 
Nahevetamenoz ,he  is  my  b. ;  nihevetametovstovaz,  I  am 
thy  b.(  a  woman);  nahevetametan, I  want  to  have^ 
b  •  nahevetametan, I  want  to  have  a  b. ;  nahevetamevo- 
ma , she  counts  me  as  her  b. ;  zehevetametto , I  who  have 
,  1  a  b.;  zehevetamezg.our  b. (pi. ) ;  zehevetamestoysz ,  th- 

lUP*  being  b. (to  a  woman) ;  zehevetamestovesso ,b. (pi . ) ,  (to 
women).  See  sister-in-law. 

»><>^^row,veenoto,the  brows, eye  brows.  t><f 

"  brown,  zeneamanemoktav, coffee  b.,seal  b. ;  _ eneamanemok  - 

-  tavonsz, they  (in.)  ar  coffee  or  seal  b  All  the 

endings  given  to  -moktav  can  be  adopted  by  the  above 


6  S-.  (/t-±~nS. 

■e(  ^  &.  <i1>v.£-  e-J  o-a  o  e^yt  i't~  A-fct . 

/  TLt,  &•.  nr****.  zja-i 


J  *  ft  V  Ullci  ,.L  U  .  1  0  W1  Oil  Si  U  •  y  U  VI1UUI1C  V  3,  ,  1 

d,4ty  fc  ibhtn.,!  b.  (  o .  instr . ) ;  naovono.I  b.oi 
A#,*  •<-  ovhooneva  navegemxena , I  sweep  it  < 

"  •J'1  nnpvn.  navpseimfivnmanha  hfit.o  mhavi 


term.  See  black.  ZemSziskan ,b. , leather  b.,  ref. to  old 
leather  color , similar  to  oak  finish;  emSsiskanemeno- 
ensz , they  (in.)  are  b. , amber-gold, (sp. of  grain  shaped 
obj.);  zemsiskanema, reddish  b. ( terra-cotta) ;  emsiska- 
nemaeta,  one  (or.)  is  "reddish  b.  (see  red,  for  end¬ 
ings  added  to  -ma) ;  namsiskanemaena, I  stain  it  red¬ 
dish  b. ;  emsiskanemaova, it  (animals)  is  reddish  b. ;  is  b. white  spotted  (of  horses). 

See  color;  under  this  word  special  examples  of  combi- 
\  nation  and  suffixes  will  be  given.  Eheovocova,  it  is 
b. furred  (sp.of  horses). 

l,browse,  mohenoham  eeveno2,  the  horse  is  browsing;  tato 
hotoa^zeevenoxzz ,  yonder  bull  who  is  browsing; 
i  q'san  eoxeevenozeo , the  sheep  are  browsing.  ^  ****-* 'U^J 

bruise,  naoxkoscvoto ,  I  mark  ofle  reddish  blue,  maroon;  ' 
having  ref. to  the  spots  caused  by  the  b. ;  -oxkcs 
=maroon  (color)  +  o  denoting  blood  flow  +  oto,  suff .= 
to  one.  Naonsxox.I  am  b.from  a  load  on  the  shoulders,/ 
also  used  otherwise.  Oxkosovotazistoz ,  the  brui sing^^^^L^- 
"blue";  onSxoxistoz.the  b.on  the  shoulder;  ongeozis-^.^/Cx.^^**"* 
toz,b.,hurt;  naongeoz,  I  am  hurt,  bruised.  See  hurt ,/ 
wound.  Napenon.I  b. , pound , crush  small  (with  instr.).  _  AS,*# 
See  break.  ^  rc 

bruit,  see  noise. 

brume,  anstaeg , light  fog  or  mist  trailing  in  the 
pressions  of  creeks  and  gullies. 
brunt ,  nisazistoz,nonahahestoz,b. .encounter, fight;  eni -  P'&UJ7 
s&zistoz, it  is  a  b. ;  pdeovazistoz.b. .clash, poeho- 
eoetovazistoz.b.  .mutual  clash. 

brush,  'ovh6o,b.  ;  eovh6oneve  ,TF~  is  a  b.,from  rad.Svo  =b .  (&* 

~  shake  off , [eoveoz ,he  shakes, said  of  horse  or  oth¬ 
er  animal , shaking  itself  free  of  dust  or  water.  This 
is  used  tropically  by  older  Ch;  to  say  that  one  has^-^ 

"turned  a  new  leaf"].  See  shake;  ovhooneva  navegeo-/ 
voha.I  with  a  b. ;  ovhooneva, with, by  a  b.;  naov-^  c 
one  (or.,  as  a  coat); 
off  with  a  b. ;  ovho¬ 
oneva  navesemxevomaoha  heto  mhayo,  with  a  b.  I  sweep 
•  the  room.  See  sweep.  Naasevooha.I  off  (by  blow¬ 
ing);  naasetoha.I  off;  hegkovizeeneheo ,  hair  b.  *  1  ,  , 

(formerly  the  tail  of  a  porcupine;  heskoviz,  the 
bristling  one), the  bristling  comb;  [zeeneheo.comb]  .£**1 
;  Heskovizeeneheoneva  navegezeenehesz ,  I  comb  myself I) 
with  a  b. ;  hahdndo,  paint  b. ;  is  a 
paint  b.  ( r.ahahdana , I  rub  it);  nahaha6noha  voxpestoz.I 
b.the  paint,  implies  the  brushing  and  rubbing  at  the 
same  time.  Zetokto6sz, brushes, small  shrubs;  zeasetoe- 
vessesz, vines,  b.  of  vines;  menoege, willow  brushes, 
bushes;  is  a  willow  b. .growth  of  wil-  /  ./> 

1  ows  .  &  r%  r-K  rr****.  — **  ci. 

brutal,  is  b. ,  implacable;  [nananovo 

u-s-z -I 



tf#***"  ■ 

_ ./..I  /-uirvirKiKic  nir" 


recogni/e  one, am  civil  to  one];  esaananonehe9nevd , one  is 

/  =  ah  devoid  of  sense , stupid , 

Stator.)  is 

Zcifious;  eohaesenova  one  (or.)  ' 

r%?llal^!Saiansenova^ozTh!?w?ckedne°ss,  cruelty .  ^ 

’ gffervescestals^soap^huhhies ;  *  moca’from  moksa! 
calf, the  huhhles  resembling  the  fluid  of  the 

f  'Eggessssss-ss 

?g&j±SSStt  5  ISSli  S 

njana«o,6»«ket  handle^  (iy  tond3).  na53t , taoha,I  b. 

‘*ith  “?«•]■  ^:ss5S,rs£E:l  »■- 

enoham , I  fc.the  horse .harness ;  naest  taeno, 

(pi.);  voKaevsanuw  ,  navomo  zemoo- 

ly)  ;  evokaevsanistove ,  it  *  "b  dress, 

nasz  vokaevsanistoto  (or.),  |®ess  (for  a  woman) ;evo- 
(man1  s  dress)  ;  /^^^^’^^^^^^ohaevozevohes-  i^  woman  of ; vohaenocanoz.b. shoes; 
toz. woman  8  (on);  evohaenocaneoz .  one 

navohaenoan. I  have  sno-b  ,  haeszehena, 

S^S  STSSlSSJS’r1^) 






cuttings  of  b., fringes;  zezezexoetto, fringes  of  a  b. 
dreis.  See  deer /hide , skin. 

bud, /mxeoomatotoz, buds  of  cotton  wood  trees;  hoxzezeme- 
nosz, bud, small  green  capsules  of  cotton  wood  trees. 

There  is  no  Ch. equivalent  for  the  Eng. "bud"  as  a  gen¬ 
eral  term.  See  bloom  or*  blossom.  Z^oxchdjjevoesetto,  * ) 

that  which  is  budding.  etfCc  & f»J.h 
budge,  see  move.  fa-  f  ' 

buff,  zemfisiskan,  brownish  vellow  color.  See  brown, 

buffalo.^SseVon, buffaloes  (as  a  herd);  hotoa,  b.  male, 
bull;  mozeehotoa.b.sire;  moksa.b.calf ;  hetane- 
voksa.b.male  calf;  heevoksa,b. female  calf;  heovoksa, 
newly  born  b.calf,(heov  =yellow  +  -oksa  from  moksa  = 
calf;  at  that  time  the  b.  calves  are  more  yellow); 
moxtavoksa, black  b.calf  (about  one  year  old);  mons- 
cess.b.  heifer  (about  two  years  old);  hotoxpess.b. 
bull, between  one  and  three  years  old;  hotoxpeoeva, 
scabby  young  b. bull ;hotoxephoeva, young  b. bull’s  hide; 
hotoxpa.b. bull, about  four  years  old;  hotoxpaess  and 
hotoxpacess , small  b. bull, not  four  years  old;  ^estovo-  y  * 

nenehotoa.b.  with  side  teeth  (ancient  animal  .which 
differed  somewhat  from  the  bisons  and  was  .fierce;  jljla — 
penehotoa, ancient  mythical  b.  [mentioned  in  the  Ch .a**-'**^- 
tale  of  the  Pleiades].  Monemehe,  young  b.cow;  mone  = 
young, recent  +  -mehe  =cow  (expression  used  only  for 
buffaloes,  elk,  moose  and  deer);  mehe,  b.eow;  vesta, - 
white  b.cow  (sacred  animal  to  the  Ch.  The  term  "vos- 
ta"  was  also  applied  to  other  such  "albinos");  ookoe- 
nemehe.late  bearing  b.cow  (in  the  fall);  zemonhosgsz, 
b.cow  with  first  calf  (bearing);  ehose,  she  bears ;  ^  /  /V, 
matamamehe.old  b.cow;  voegemehe,  fat  b.cow;  mamehe ,  ' 

poor  (lean)  b.cow;  maheonemehe,  mysterious  or  sacred 
b.cow;  ooenhotoa.bliud  b.bull.  Hotoaxemistoz.b.  wal¬ 
low;  escemoz  (sg. ) .escemoto  (pi.), either  half  or  less 
of  a  b. robe, which  children  used  for  bed  covers;  ho- 
toavoz , b. skin  (male);  hotoavotoz,  (pi.);  esevoeonoz, 
b. skins  (general  term);  esevonoeva.b.hide  with  fur; 
hoed  (or  hoead) ,  freshly  scraped  hide, used  for  the 
lodge  cover;  hoeanoz,  hides;  this  word  was  applied 
mostly  to  b. hides, but  is  now  extended  to  other  hides. 

Mosesk  or  moseSq, tanned  b. leather  (now  also  applied 
to  other  leather);  msiskan.old  b. leather;  [hence:  ze- 
msiskane.buff  color];  msiskaneom,  old  lodge  made  of 
'anned  b. hides;  naesevessemsiskanoxta, I  had  also  old 
leather  breeches  (pants).  The  old  skin  cover  of  a 
lodge  was  sometimes  used  to  make  breeches  for  the 
boys  or  old  men.  It  is  said  that  even  the  poor  boys 
were  not  elated  at  wearing  the  old  buff  colored  pan¬ 
talets.  Moseskoneon, lodge  made  of;  mdseskono- 
estoz, woman’ s  dress  of  b.  skin;  moseskanocanoz ,  shoes 



made  of  b.  skin;  namfiseskonoan,  I  am  shoed  with  b. 
leather;  mdseskonooxtoonoz .woman  leggings  made  .  of  b. 
skin;  mdsiskonoxtoxz,  men’s  legging  or  breeches  made 
of;  esevonevxtanensz.b. skins  not  tanned;  ese- 
vonhoma, b.robe  (or.)i  mdseskonhcma,  b.robe  (depilat¬ 
ed);  namendno  esevonhoma,  I  adorn  the  b.robe  with 
quill  work  (or  feathers);  hemootonsz.the  b.’s  beard; 
hevohonon, the  b.’s  long  hair  on  the  lower  part  of  the 
front  legs;  heszevon.the  b.’s  hump.  For  the  different 
parts  of  the  b.see  beef.  Esevor.  maonovaxsz,  when  the 
buffaloes  shall  come  out.  The  Ch. believe  that  all  the 
b. herds  had  an  underground  hiding  place  from  which 
they  would  issue  forth  at  certain  times.  At  one 
time  of  great  dearth  of  food  two  young  men,  ceremoni¬ 
ally  painted,  found  their  way  to  the  b. underground  by 
plunging  under  a  great  waterfall.  They  found  an  old 
woman  who  pitied  them  and  finally  .provided  them  with 
corn  and  buffalo  meat.  This  is  related  in  a  special 
tale .  The  Ch.taad  certain  men  who  claimed  to  have  the 
power  of  "calling  the  buffaloes"  and  bring  them  in 
close  vicinity, naoetaevoan  is  the  name  of  such  a  man. 
Vohaenohonistoz , the  surrounding  of  the  buffaloes;  vo- 
haeatoz.—rhute  leading  to  the  surrouonding  of  the 
buffaloes.  A  very  good  description  of  these  chutes 
and  surrounding  is  given  by  George  Bird  Grinnell  in 
his  book  "Blackfoot  Lodge  Tales"  pages  229-231.  For 
proper  names  ref. to  buffaloes  see  under  "bull".  Heko- 
nemazistam.b. rib, used  in  a  certain  game.  See  games. 

-Jjjsevonemaes.b. chips . 

,  amskona  (the  oval  round  one);  pavemeeot'son,  water_ 
bug  (Dysticus)  also  called  oxemeeot’son;  kaggonas- 
eo, bedbugs. 

buggy,  amoenigk, small  wagon  (amoeneo  =wagon) ;  moktava- 

- moeneo , the  black  wagon, top  b.  (considered  or.). 

See  wagon.  „  q  Ui. 

bugle,  t&pen,  see  trumpet.  4.10,1  *  ***4‘  *01*? „ 

build,  namanston , I  b. , construct , frame  up, set  up  by  mak-' , 

— *  ing;  manstonestoz.the  building, constructing ;  nam-  '  *  / 

^-aa^  hayonevston,  I  b., construct  a  house;  b. 

^  .jjJP  .  shelter  (as  usually  done  with  wagon  sheets  or  tent 
1  doth, put  up  wall  like,  in  a  circle  upheld  by  tent  W*  is  b.  (like  a  walk, side  walk) 

fc  ,  yv*",  poles ,  - ,  -  -  -  - 

.ft]  y  is  b.  (a  wall);  the  suff.-ston  denotes 

A  fr'  ...  ,  A _ y  _ 4.  v-,  olt  • 

emaemanston , 

set  up , construct , erect , design , framing1  , 
he  creates,  frames  all;  manstoor.ehe ,  the  builder;  eman-^Kvc,lT 
stooneheve ,he  is  builder .maker .  Heto  mhayo  epaveman-  ,  w 

stoona,  this  house  is  well  b.  ;  namar.stoonaovo ,  I  o.,^;l  ' 
make  for  one, provide  one  with  by  making, constructing, 
putting  together  something , etc .  See  make.  Namhayonan,  a  j 
evhdsonan,  the  bird  b.  its^,^/  I 

**  ' 

ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY  (**  buu.  house  larger;  nahoxsemhayonan, I  b.avttouse  addi- 
tion;  nahoxsemanisz, I  make.b.  it  against,  leaning  on;  pjlyft-i/a 
napaemanisz, I  make.b. it  parallel  to, close  along;  na-" 
paemhayonan, I  b.a  house  close  along;  mhayo  eSexaota, 
the  house  is  built, finished, stands  ready;  heto  mhayo 
zemonhoxsthota, this  house  wich  is  just  built  in  ad¬ 
dition.  Nahoxovoonan, I  b.  a  bridge;  suff.-an  desig¬ 
nates  the  making, building;  nameonan.I  b.  a  road;  na- 
hekonano , I  b.up  one’s  strength, strengthen  one;  nanie- 
tam.I  b. , lean  upon, trust , rely ;  nanietamenoz , I  b.upon, 
rely  on  one.  'w,‘  ,  ,  u  .  , 

bulge,  epaoene j-  it  bulges,  (as  from  a  pocket,  satchel), 
napaenxsan.I  make  buldge;  napaenoha , also  napaen- 
rtfciifc  nxz.I  make  it  b.;  napaenono.I  make  one  (or.)  b. ;  na- 

^j£W**fp&ena(?)  ,1  make  it  b.  ;  eniseexaneone, one’s  eye  is 

bulging  out;  eoniseexaneohe ,  one’s  eyes  are  bulging 
out;  epaonen,  the  tooth  is  bulging, protruding. 

bulk,  rendered  by  inf  .-mam(  e )- ,  -momame-  (in  reduplic  ^ 'rTZ^. 
- tion)  =bulk,  block, broad,  large  dimension;  emamhota 

vehooseo ,  the  trunk  sets  bulky;  emamemeaeo  ,his  bulky 
head  was  raised  (of  animals);  mame  =bulky  +  -me-  =to 
come  up  +  -aeo  ref. to  head;  zeto  hotoa  emameta,  this 
bull  is  bulky;  emomametao  ,  they  (or.)  are„bulky ,  each  * 
one  of  them;  emamemanoon  maxevostano,  he  made  a 
great, bulky  statue.  Honoxista, the  bulk .major ity ,  most 
great  number;  honoxhestxez ,  most  of  us,  the  b.of  us;  jU^ag 

nixhonoxtxez ,  the  majority  of  our  member;  honoxista^^l>*'^ 
etaegemese,  he  has  eaten  the  b.  of  it;  -honoxe-  -theJ’^j'^^,^ 
b.  .major ity, most;  honoa.the  greater  part .  ■■ra^r 

bull,  hotoa, said  of  buffaloes,  moose,  elks,  stags , ramsA 
and  cattle;  mozeehotoa, b.  (male  of  domestic  cattle 

dyth***'  used  for  breeding  purpose);  hotoa  alone  refers 
‘/Va  ••t***f  buffalo  b.  ) ;  [for  names  of  young  buffalo  bulls  see 
(^UL^r  h'lffalol:  hotoavoae. antelope  buck;  hotoaovaozeva, buck^^^A 

“  "  toakds , ram!  The  name  has  evidently 

animals.  Ehemotoham.he  serves  as  sire,  -  . 

they  serve  as  sires.  Following  are  proper  names  1 
which  the  word  bull  appears:  Ho  toanonoma,  B.  thunder  ;  / 

Hotoaoxhastaesz  .Tallb.  ;  Hotoaoxvoton,Tailfeather-b..;  ft,/, 
Hotoaoxmoxtavaecz , Elackb. ;  Hotoaoxhaecs ,  B. standing  Jy 

high;  Hotoavoes , Whiteface— b.  (-vo  =white  +  es  =nosed); 
Hotoavitanov,  B.  tongue;  Hotcaoxsthomosz ,  B.  robe  .  [The  fjm./  . 

inf .-ox-  is  much  used  in  names  and  denotes  "said,  _ U 

called  so"].  Hotoaoxnhesz,  B. standing,  (enhe,  one 
stands);  Hotoavenooxz ,B. stomach;  Hotoanamosz.B. sinis¬ 
ter  (namosz  =situated  at  lefthand, lefthanded) ;  Hotoa- 
oxhaaxceta , Smallb. ;  Hotoxpe.Youngb. ;  Htoaoxvokomaesz , 

Whiteb. ( evokomae , one  [person]  is  white).;  Hotoxpeoeva, 
Young-scabby-b. (hotoxpe, young  b.+  -oeva  =scabby);  Ho- 
toameen.B. -emerging  (  comes  to  view);  Hotoa- 







heman, Thirsty b .  (heman, he  goes  to  drink);  Hotoahe- 
vess , B. buttocks ;  Hotoaheton , B.ham  (see  beef);  Hotoa- 
vo ,  B ! hump  (heszevcn  =his  hump);  Hotoavosta, Albinob. 
(vosta  or  voeeta  =shining  white  like  crystals);  Ho- 
toav<5e,B.  cloud  or  (vde  =cloud  or  sky);  Ho-toxp- 
nohess ,Youngb.-anus ;  Hotoaeevax ,B. tai 1  (heszevax,  his 
tail);  Hotoanase.B. killing  (  kills);  Hotoa- 
naseona ,fem.f orm  of  preceding  name;  Hotoahe ,B. woman ; 
Mistaehotoa.Ghostb.  or  Owlh.  (mista  =owl , ghost);  Hc- 
toaoxhdzeohas  ,  B.'unahle-to-r  ise  (h6ze  =cannot ,  eohae  , 
one  rises);  Hotoaoxzevhamsesz,  B. coming-back-to-eat) ; 
Ho t oa oxhohonaevs z ,B. stone  (  is  a  stone); 
Hotoxpeva,  Youngh.hide ;  Hotoxkaam,  Littleb. shooting ; 
Hotoxka.Littleh. ;  Hotoaohame ,B. shooting ;  Hotoaxhaehe- 
staeme , Lousy b .(see  louse);  Hotoaocene ,One-eyedb.  (eo- 
cen.he  is  oneeyed);  Hotoameaz,  B. beard;  Hotoanako ,B. - 
bear;  Oxhotoa.Halfb. ;  Hotoaoxzevhotoene ,B. eyes  orB.- 
look(ehotoene,the  way  one  looks, the  appearance  of  his 
eyes;  eohaotoene ,he  looks  scared);  Taxem.Buffalowal- 
low  (has  ref. to  the  holes  made  by  buffaloes  in  roll¬ 
ing);  TSxemeo, fem.  form  of  preceding  name;  the  name 
Taxem  does  not  ref. to  the  animal  but  to  what  it  does 
by  rolling;  Hotoanisto.B. bellowing  (enistohe  =one  is 
heard, makes  himself  heard;  this  is  said  of  most  ani¬ 
mals  and  also  persons);  oevhotoa,  Scabbyb. ;  Hotoama- 
heo.Mysteriousb. ; .  Hotoanaoz,  Sleepingb.  (enaoz,  one 
sleeps);  Hotoahemas ,B. chips  (-mas  =feces);  Hotoaxhae- 
ohSs.B. high-sitting-still;  Hotoaxhoesz.Sittingb. ;  Ho- 
toaveka,  Lameb. ;  Hotoavekahe  and  Hotoavehae  is  the 
fem.  form  of  Hotoaveka;  Hotoaoxnistxess , All-of-the- 
bulls  (zenistxessS , the  whole  of  them);  Hotoavoevehe , 
Married-to-b.  (uncertain  meaning);  HotoaoxzeSvxtos , 
E. breeches;  see  leggings;;  Hotoava- 
ko  Eobtailb. ;  Hotoahotoxpa,  Mature-youngb. ;  sec 
young  buffaloes;  Hotoxpess,  Youngb. ;  Hotoavevass  B.- 
with-a-tail;  Heovhotoa.Yellowb. ;  Hotoaexama.B. blad¬ 
der;  Hotoaoxtavoneosz.B. starving;  Hotoaoxtohasz,  Ris- 
ingb.;  Hotoahehess , ( ? ) ;  HeSkovizehotoa.Porcupineb.  or 
Eristlingb. ;  Hotoaenisevaz , Double-tailb.  or  Bigamous 
b.;  Hotoamenavo,  Challeng ingb . ;  Hotoaehotahan ,  B. nar¬ 
rating;  Ni staehotoa, Ancientb. ;  Semoz .Effeminateb. ( es- 
emoto.he  abuses  his  health  with  women);  HotoaeSeoo ,B. 
os-sacrum;  Hotoanoen.B. walking-less, or  stooped;  Vos- 
ta, Albinobuffalo ;  Esevona.Buffalowoman ;  Esevoneam  ne, 
Buffalo-walking-woman;  Esevonemeo .Buffaloroad ;  Esevo- 
nemeona, fem. form  of  preceding  name;  Hotoamasea, .Brut- 
ishbuff.  See  pr. names  under  cow. 
bullet,  vbhoema , vehoemSoz  (pi.), the  white  man’s  arrow. 

See  shoot.  , 

bullrush,  vitandsz ,bullrushes ;  vitanoeSe.a  patch  of  d. , 
vitanoeSesz , patches  of 



bumble-bee,  moxtavehanom, black  bee;  zetSpetass  hanoma, 
r.t  |i-f.-T'  the  chunky  bees, 

bump,  nakSeni s , I  face;  nakonaeg.I  head;  nako-  kOjfouftfh. 
naeovo  ,  I  b.  against  one;  nakonaeovazheme  ,  we  b.our  }£.***», 
heads  together;  nikoeneovazhem&.we  b.our  heads  toge-  /ei/L/h-, 
ther  (face);  nakoeszeax.I  head  (upper  part);  na-  £Xm. 
koenstaneS , I  b.  my  knee;  nakoeszeonax,  I  elbow;  /*****?£.' 
nakoeaxtax.I  foot;  nakoeaxtaxenanoz ,  I  foot^**^- 
against  one  (or.).  The  rad.-ko—  designates  a  part  of 
the  surface, usually  a  sallient  part;  inf.-poe-  on  the 
other  hand  ref. to  the  whole  surface, as:  napoeniS.I  b M 
my  face  (the  whole, by  falling  flat  against);  napoes 
zeax.I  head,  by  falling  headlong;  r.apoenstaneg ,  I  knee, by  falling  flat  against  something;  see  fall 
flat.  When  the  bumping  occurs  against,  endwise, as  the  J Lji 
foot, fingers  or  one's  seat  against  an  object , inf .-to-""" '  — — 
is  used.  NatoeneveoseS , I  toes;  nitoeneveosegena- 
md.we  b.our  toes;  nat oene veost&no , I  b. one’s  toes;  na- 
toenevatax, I  foot  against;  nat  oene  vataaeenan'o) z,I  foot  against  one  (or.);  nitoenevStaxenatovaz )  foot  against^tlieer;  natoenevataostono ,  I’s^^“  ‘ 
foot;  natoxpa-e-ses, ,  I  b.  the  fingers’  end  (by  poking); 
natoeseS ,T  seat  (as  in  falling  with  a  thump); 
nadonax, I  shin.  Nouns  and  part. forms  can  be  made 
with  all  the  above  terms.  Ch. gr . explains  this  forma¬ 
tion.  See  swelling. 

bunch,  rad.-ako  =b.  ;  naakoesan,I,  b.  ;  akoesanistoz ,  the 

bunching;  naakooesz.I  b.  ;  naakotana,  I  set  it  in".''  '  .  j<‘'' 
bunch  (as  corn , hay , etc .) ;  mdesz  zeakotaesz,  bunches, 

"piles ,  stacks  of  hay);  zemanokodsz.b.of  grass  (mano  =  !>*•, 

together  +  -ko-  =b.  +  6sz  =grasses);  nokov.ore  b., 
cluster  (nok  =one  +  ov  =in  a  body);  nokov  hopaehemen-  1 
02 , a  b . of  grapes;  nokov  panoonoz,  a  b.of  shingles; 
emomenoakotanensz , they  (are  set  in  several  bunches );  ftfTj' 4*  ' 
they  (in.)  are  bunched;  nahoxpohoesz , I  tie/ 

i  a  b.or  bundle.  See  tie. 
bundle,  nahoxpohoesan , I  b.(by  tying, packing) ; 


hoeto.I  b.  one  (or.);  see  bind.  Hoxpohoeseo  ,  th  e 

hoxpohoeseoneva,  ir.,  with,  etc.  the  b.  ;  zemehavoneos- 

~f  zetto  naevhamea  hoxpohoeseoneva,  that  which  I  had  - i  Jj 

Afti/fjr  lost,  I  find  in  the  b.;  nathoxpohoeseo  ,my  b.  ;  nathox- ***£**■ 
‘  n  r bundles;  see  sheaf;  b .  , 


(by  rolling  up);  namanohoxpoanen,  I  b. up, pack  together**’^?;'*’”! 
JaiI"  (does  not  ref.  to  the  tying);  namanohoxpoana,  I  b .  ,  pack 
Il^L  a11  UP-  See  pack , gather  together, collection. 

bung,  nxpoheo,  b. , 


stopper;  vehoemax  henxpoheo,  the  j!,/, 

’s  stopper.  See  stopper;.  r  .  c  t  Lh t{ 

:  blunder.  ' 

ovosz  (pi. ) .burs .all  prickly  seeded  grass- 

hS.novd.ese  .patch  of  prickly  seeded 

grasses  ; 

9 1**+-  atrfr'L*' 


r^.W of  the . .  -  .  ^  , 

•  .  of  game;  ehooxenov.they  (collective)  come  home  bur-  ^ 

Mv'VvfS^'"  dened  with  game,  packing  game;  emamevox.he  packs  a' 
bulky  b.  ;  zemamevdxessd ,  the  ones  with  a  bulky  b.;  eo- 
Mr' hanaox , one  has  a  heavy  b.  ;  zeheanSoxz, the  heavy  bur-j 
W,Jp*\  dcned  one.  [The  suff.  -ox  ref.  to  a  pack  or  load  on 
.lb  1  /  the  back  or  shoulder].  Whenever  one  or  more  syllables  - 

fi ollow  the  "ox"  ,'the  "o"  becomes  evanescent.  Namame-  m 

^  -  it, am  packing  it;  nandxena.I  am  with  a  .y'’ > 

nanehov  zenoxenatto ,  I  the  one  burdened,  0 


nandxenoz,  I  ; 

,1  ad j.  form) . 

’  -^loaded;  nanSxevomota, I  am  b.for  one; 

^  .Flys o  with  one  (or.),  pack  carry  one;  er.Sevdxseoenov.they  t, 
^bfYK  stand  b.,  loaded  with  it;  nindxetovaz ,  _  I  pack  thee  f  , 

away;  naohdSxenoz , I  drop  one  (from  carrying  him), also  v 

^ ir  said  fig.  to  signify  abandon;  niohdoxetovaz ,  I  drop  . 

i>  thee, abandon  (when  he  depended  on  me);  naenox.I  am<  (y  1 

~  -unburdened  (state . )  ;  ,nadn6xeoz , I  become  unburdened. ; 

burdened,  loaded  with  i 
V  (dragging  the  b.);  zeheanaevosoxtoss ,  the  ones  dragg 

fr*‘n^t*'ing  a  b^  naheanaox,  I  am  heavily  burdened  (see 
weigh)  ;  nav%pana5xena,I  am  easied  (adj.  form)  of  "b. 


T*fp6**:/  navepanaox ,  I  am  easied  of  my  b.,or: 

* _ _  a  *  ri-JrVL  -  „  i _ -  '  T  TV  i  O 

i  lightly  bur- 

v  *  ]  v  i*  v  g[  lid  v  C  uana-'j  r-  ,  u.  «.ui  w  ^  ^  ~  - 

^MXV  M  */^dened .  Nabneztavenctsn,  I  walk  in  a  Wdened'  manner^.  ^ 

See  tear  .carry,  load,  _  A* 

yfeWW^urden,.  n.vevon.b;  vevonsz, (pi. ) .also  yevoxistoz;  oh*-  JMj* 
.12*?  /naoxistoz  or  heanaoxistoz ,  intense,  heavy  •  '  is  a  heavy  b.  ;  enoxi stoz ,  the  unbur  jj/  Jj 
^"denihg;  vepanaoxistoz , easy  of  burden;  hevevon  naveSe-flyf  J  f/ 
f^-A^^.vev/xev o,I  am  loaded  with  one’s  b.  ;  b.,  y 

navevSxistoz ,  my  b.(part.  noun);  hevevcxeva.byrt^i  y 

burdensome, SIohaSani,  it  is  heavy, b.;  eveseheanaoxistc-  tf 

is  b.  (by  its  means  there  is.  burden U\^ 

'  f^eheanaeWcsoxzeve , it  is  b. (dragging  burden) ;  zeheanae- ^ 

^*fc^7/’A<’‘‘foS'oxzevatto , that  which  makes  burdensome ; 

y&sfEisr.  Tt ' 

burn,  navonhano ,  I  b.Ve  (or.);  nayoniha.I;  evona- 

- ta  it  burns.  The  (or.),  and  -aha  (in.), 

and  -8ta  (impers.)  have  ref. to  fire  and  heat  and  re¬ 
quire  the  Instr  m.(see  Inf  .-von-der.otes  des- 
tuction,  loss  .  Navoneostano  ,  I  i nstantly ,  •  ,  navor. 
ostaha  (in.);  burns  instantly;  evonao- 
,  „  eo , they  (or.)  b. ;  evondeo.they  (or.)  are  burned,  con- 

I " i‘ur **•*««#» 3 Ok it. 





tu/  (rnit^y  rX*~<y  ~  . 

7 - „  ./ 


Vondhee , consecrated  woman, priestess ;  Von&hetan 
(Vonfetan) , consecrated  man.priest;  Vonaeom  and  Maxevo- 
naeoim, lodge  of  consecration, purification.  Von&eom  is 
the  j small  lodge  (of  the  so-called  sweat  lodge  kind), 
while  Maxevondeom  ref.  to  the  great  lodge  or  what 
whi^e  people  have  called  "Sun  tent" ,( see  Sun  dance). 

This  ceremonial  appellation  has  ref. to  the  ceremonial 
hurijiings  and  propitiating  done  by  the  priest.  Von&exa 
ref .to  charm  and  talisman.  Evonaexaeve , one  is  a  sac¬ 
red  ior  consecrated  person, endowed  with  a  certain  pow¬ 
er.  Evon^/ova.he  is  a  ceremonial  burner,  whose  office 
is  to  do  the  ceremonial  burning;  zevon^vaz,  the  one 
who  does  the  burning;  zevondovassS ,  the  priests 
whose'1, office  is  to  do  ceremonial  burning;  esaavonata-,  does  not  b. ,  is  not  consumed;  eveshdoovatove 
hevetoW  is  burned  for  God;  enoo&sen.he  burns  (m'Jk. 
in  connection  with;  h^giseonoz,  ingredients  burned  as  fay 
incense  in  ceremonials;  hesthq|.seonoz,  one’s  burning 
ingredients;  hooestooen, ceremonial  burning;  enShesto- 
vo,  it!  b.  very  hot;  eohahc,  it  b. intensely  (ref. to 
heat);  naoni^xano.I  (to  hurt  by  fire);  naonfixa- 
ha,I  b . j  it;  naoniH§eost§.no ,  I  b.  one  instantly  (to 
hurt);  /naoni^5ebst£iha,I  b.  it  instantly;  naon£jftxae,I 
am  burnt  (hurt  by  fire  or  hot  object);  eonitfx&eo , they 
(or.)  are  burnt  (state);  zeoxceoni^xaestove ,  that 
which  is  burning  (suffering);  burns, 
has  the  faculty  of  hurting  by  heat, as:  zeonfyfxaovass 
mescess.the  burning  worms, the  worms  which  cause  burn¬ 
ing;  onjr^x&estoz ,  the  burning  (active);  onf/xAestoz ,  t  _  0 
the  burning  (state);  naon^xae  ,  I  suffer  burning;  nao  -  sjw  e-’ 
nf/fx&e, I  am  burnt  (state);  naohade.I  am  in  a  state  or 
burning  torment;  naohaae ,  I  suffer  intense  burning;  /  -tj 
eahan&  is  burning  to  death;  eahan&  is  burnt  £ 

death;  naeszeost§.e ,  I  am  burnt  (any  place  on  one,s^l’a^^ 
person);  naoexog.sena,  I  b.  it , peel ,. skin  by  means  "7 

fire;  hoesta  ecgis.the  fire  b.  ;  zexeqgis  .where  there  is^f-®^  § 

a  fire  b.  ;  eexq|s,  it  is  started  burning.  The  suff 
— cj0.s  =refers  to  flame, fire;  q.v;  nahoheaz  ( nahohaz ) ,  I  £/■<*, 
yfeed  the  fire, make  it  b. ,  by  adding  wood;  emonhohaz , 
one  has  just  fed  the  fire;  emonhdegeme  hoesta, the 
fire  has  just  been  made  burning;  nahohaz-tomevo.  I  a-, 
make  it  b.for  one  (or.);  hohoovAtoz,  burning  of  ruh-*>t^~£ 
bish;  nahAeli&no ,  I  make  one  b.,set  fire  to  one  (or.  \  \v.  //i. 

nahotiae , I  b.,from  being  bareheaded,  exposed  to  theC7  - 

sun;  evonszeaostEle ,  one  ’  s  head  gets  crazy  from  heat, 
one  has  a  sun  stroke;  von  =to  lose  +  -szea  =head  + 

-ostae  =one  burns  instantly;  naon/'#geS,t§,e ,  I  b.  my 

foot;  naon#$§eAtaost§le,I  b.  my  foot  instantly  (also 

scald);  naanohe.I  have  my  foot  burned;  naanoosta  na-  ■  (/ 

hesseva.I  b. , scald  my  foot;  when  the  burning  is  done 

dy  hot  liquids  suff.-omano  (for  the  or.)  and  -om&ha 




,  K^/Sano ,  I 

and  -omata  (for  the  impers . ) ;  navoneo- 
,  ^//niano , I  (destroy)  with  hot  water  (as  pouring  hot 
1c water  into  the  holes  of  certain  animals);  see  scald. 
if*'’  Nahes’emaan,  I  b.  my  shoe  (so  it  shrivels,  not  the 
jp,  Mr whole, but  in  part);  nahes ’m&anoz ,  I  b.  my  shoes;  the 
jrad.-hes’  ref.  to  contracting,  drawing  together  +  -m- 
denoting  surface  +  -a  =heat  +  -an  which  designates 
jVVj  'jy  shoe;  ehes '  em&ttansz ,  they  (shoes  )  shrivel  from  heat; 
i-ife  1  esaatonitatahan,  it  is  not  burned  in  the  least, scorch- 

1  VV^V^'ed;  see  scorch;  burns  (of  hair, fur) ,  singes ; 

:i**r^e  is  not  singed;  see  singe;  eveostata,  it 
^^'pV^’burns ,  singes  in  a  flash;  (or.)  is  singed 
L  in  an  instant;  is  burning, hot;  eohaehdta,  it 
^  is  intensly  hot.  See  fire.  Fire  and  burning  have  a 

r  ***  very  prominent  part  in  all  Ch.  ceremonials,  hence  the 
j_mp0r.tance  of  the  pipe.  An  old  priest  (Hotoanamos) 
told  writer  that  in  the  different  ceremonial  burn-  - 
^  J  ings  ,  the  fire  ingredients,  the  hot  coals,  the  flames, 

^  the  smoke,  have  all  their  symbolical  meanings.  By 
1  shining  for  years  upon  growing  trees  or  plants  the 
sun  has  imparted  of  its  strength  and  life  to  the 
'll-O plant  substance.  When  a  Vondeom  is  made  there  is  al- 
jjjt  ways  a  burning  heap  about  twenty  feet  from  the  "sweat 

..  lodge" ,  in—arder  to  heat  some  rocks  (piled  up  with  the 

wood).  The  fire  transmits  to  the  stones  the  sun’s 
trength  accumulated  in  the  wood.  These  are  brot 
'  ' '  into  the  Vonaeom  and  thrown  into  a  vessel  of 

.his  means  the  sun’s  strength  is  transmit- 
water  which  in  its  turn  gives  it  out  in 
vapor  inhaled  by  those  who  sit  in  the  Von&eom.  But 
together  with  this  is  also  the  sun’s  generative  as  Jr  j  . 
well  as  regenerative  power  symbolized.  The  burning 
heap  as  center  of  heat, with  the  essential  skull  of  a  i  , 
buffalo  bull  near  it  and  facing  the  Vonaeom, then  th Qfjru'kCUl^ 

jy  VK.  < 

|  , \ h  a/  V 4hot)  int0  the 

*  V  <^>tater;  by  this  i 
I'll ^  J  ted  t0  the  wate: 

«yj  . 

.  V  r 

j  ^  .y'  UWJ.  X  C  J.  \J  WWA4.  ‘.vvrl  «  *-**'"■  —  —  - - o  - -  - - W - 

l,J  .r.y path  cut  straight  from  the  fire  into  the  Vondeom, end- /-> 
v  mT  irg  there  in  a  head  like  circle,  also  cut  in  the l P"1.  r’ 

:  i SO  '  . 

I  ^  ^ 


mg  bliCI  C  ±11  O,  UCftU  v^xi  oxv^,  sxwv  -.** 

ground;  all  this  is  to  symbolize  the  sun’s  generative  Am»*> 
r  ^power.  The  buffalo  skull,  the  burning  heap  and  the  -pr  Jt 

r  straight  path  ending  into  the  Vonaeom  leave  no  boubt  ■ 

as  to  what  the  whole  thing  not  only  represents , but  is 
believed  to  effect.  A  mythical  bull  transmits  the 
sun’s  life  and  power, or  to  be  plainer:  breeds  it  into 
the  Vonaeom.  Heat  and  light  is  needed  to  life,  hence  - 
such  symbols  and  ceremonial  burnings.  The  thot  under¬ 
lies  the  burning  of  incense  to  "loosen"  te  benefici- 
ent  fragrance  inherent  to  some  plants.  Another  way  is 
heat  applied  to  water, to  free  by  decoction  certain 
plant,  elements  which  promote  life  and  health.  The 
fragrance  and  therapeutic  power  of  .plants  is  given  to 
them  by  the  sun,  whioh  in  its  turn  received  it  from 
the  Maxemaheo  (Supreme  Mysterious  One).  The  so  called 

1  '  -  *  1  '  ■  OjrhM' cL  W aA  CbWC) 

'  U  V  /  ' - *U-T  ,t4  **^*7*J^  4  _  • 


Sun  dance  is  a  Vonaeom  only  in  a  different  and  large: 
scale ,q .v. 

burner,  mak&t  zenxjiesshdnevookass  vohokasenanistoz.lamp 
b.(lit.  mescal  wherefrom  it  radiates  shine, the 
lamp).  -L  L^t~, 

lburning,'^nan§h(5/, I  am  b.,am  hot,  have  fever;  nShdestoz, 

‘  fever;  /eohSehdta, it  is  b.,very  hot;  evehemehd-  /%/jjp/~/7ry 

ta  it  smells/ of  b.  (singeing);>  /  \5 

smells  of  b/rags;  emdemehdta,  it  smells  of  b.hay  ot,Le'<i‘^7^ 
straw;  etanitoxcemehdta, it  smells  of  b. rotten  wood;  ' 

etaheSkonamehdta, it  smells  of  b. bones;  etaveseemehd- 
ta,it  smeyls  of  b. grease;  etahononemehdta,  it  smells 
of  roasting  meat;  eSistatoemehdta, it  smells  of  b.  ce¬ 
dar,  pine/  evevSistatoemehdta, it  smells  of  b.fir;  eta- 
momoemehota ,  it  smells  of  b.  hair; 
smells  of  general;  etamxistonemehdta,  it  smells 
of  b.  paper;  eohossmehdta , it  smells  of  b.coal;  evece- 
mapemehfdta, it  smells  of  b. sugar;  evescevanemehdta,  it 
smells/ of  b. bread, pancakes, etc. 
burnish,  naodsevodena , I;  odsevoaenenistoz , the  bur- 
nishing;  is  burnished;  eodsevoa-  shines  burnished;  eodsevoaeoe , it- is  made  to 


burro,  see  ass:  vohokoxta^b-fidonkev. 

burrow, see  dig;<Tieszevox,  its  b.  (of  animals) .  77174^7 , 

burst,  b.  ;  see  break  ;^<eoseoz,  it  b./open  {soft ,  i'y  f-a/ ~ 
that  it  flows  out);  eoxaomeoz, the  ice  b., breaks ; 
uj-  'IK'  u  -  jnaoxoxta.I  (with  teeth  or  mouth);  eoxevohohdta,  ~~ 

1^  /  it  b.with  a  blast;  nadseotovo,  I  b.  it  ( thfr-sibdomen ) 
one’s  open, so  the  contents  flow  out; 
b. apart, as  ropes , cylindrical  objects;  eoxszeax, 
his  head;  is  b. , shattered.  _ — 

bury,  -ato-  =under,  covered  by;  is  buried \eav'6ff' 
see  cover;  naatohono.I  b.  one  (or.instr.);  naato-g.^”^ '  ' 

’  I  atohohestoz ,  the  burying,  grave  ;  edtohohes- 

5  is  a  grave, a  burying;  is  not^^^^T^,^ 

**  f  buried;  zexeatohohestove ,  where  it  is  buried,  grave- 

^U^yard,  where  the  grave  is;  naatoaovo.I  make  one  to  be  7, 

'  buried;  nadtohova.I  am  buried  under  water;  edtohova-  eUFe-J 
oz,it  is  being  buried  under  water;  eatohovatto ,the^>*f 
water  covers , buries ;  nadtoena.I  am  buried  under  snow;** 
naatogneostdno ,  I  (or.)  under  snow,  in  a  moment  is  instantly  buried  under  snow;  naa-^^^tew^- 
toeneostoeoz , I  get  buried  under  snow,  in  an  instant ; 
naatoenaovo , I  make  one  (or.)  to  be  buried  under  snow;  qfr.c../'/ 
naatodeno.I  (or.)  under  grass;  naatodena.I^  .Jr,^ 
under  grass;  naatoomaena , I  under  ground;  naatoo-  ’ 
maeno.I  (or.)  under  ground;  eatoomaeoenovo^^  tY‘ 

mhayonoz , they  (or.)  are  buried  under  the  houses,  lit.^- 
they  are  covered  under  by  the  houses. 


ij  bui 


■UcjUv  ~7\u44  u 

(  i'um^  V^'  *$**  fy -{+>-]&'*“■•+*,?  V*} 

\  .  .  J.  .„  A^**:iLi+h*k**r:  ihOL.\Tc^c4-^ ,ir^ 

*  '  ^''vntU)t 

Jit  d  [umIU  ’cuvvHit  <^i .  14  U* *-  etfs*~  ^ 

*  j.  ^4,  -u^Vy;  £*4-  *M~:  4c 

^£uX  Cf  ^JsfW^a  WU -  &.  :  vtaW^'Uau^  fi 


“*SK  t.  u*. 

•  UM^JUbvc.*--  ■_  1  :.t 

\  |*_JEJC_—  *  >"• 

1  QZCt'^^O* 

^T“’  the^lowj^  Measure  ;Xhen6o°b!inScapacity!She- 

^ushel.jaeva*^^  -  .  haesto  hen5onoz  enitotaoene,  it 
measures  many  bushels  ^  “easure  . ehegth6tov&tov- 

J^siness -  /£ (  trade);  heto  nahet- 

^ozoheta!  thL  is  my  b. , oe^tidn.worti  . .^“STt^ 

^/.hczeohestovetanota  I  want  this  for  my  K,  he 

5/'jjt»  uff  b. (occupation)  here,  tama 
, °mazheseeo  , b. ,  chest . 

9  {  fv^V  bustle,  see  hurry  Ugfr  £'  n^etanen.I  am  bus-/4^ 


Lok  r^r»:  " :?  h. h-ii 

\Q  was  b-  preparing  nis  Qf  _anen;  the  0r.  is 

1  e\9ud-n*-^~  above  verbs  is  suff.  a  a  (inj  and  nazetano 

hl^atata1^  zuf f imply  "b. i r.  doing  something  with  the 
B»l4.U4  <or;h  T?L  'Sf?  "n  instead  of  -an.n  would  imply  "b. 

*^-V'  S  .■’rafeStrohaIia"am'’i.a.o“h?hg0' ”t 

<A^ r*-:"  Ihs^r  £  *is&5 

I  aW^F/ jfi' such  cases  the  6ha_re^1^  ld  have  accompanied  him 

&*>,y  -f”“  6San“r?anam  I  zeStae  Std.Oha  ho- 

yahan^that^much  S£  shift  give  ~„°;™e  ”o? 

a  little  .  tfci"  '  ...totSenoka  Gaheo, 

Sl^irSt  1  “od“  -tseniieeo  »£«••££ u” 
good;  this  inf. combined  wi oh  mon  t  r 



just  newly)  becomes  "-moneetdtg-" ,  as:  emonetotShoe- 
oxz.he  had  but  come;  "but"  in  the  sense  of  "very  re- 
cently"  is  rendered  by  the  term  "moxheze"  =but  awhile 
f  ago;  moxheze  n&vomo.I  saw  him  but  awhile  ago;  he6se, 
but,  on  the  contrary;  oxtaetto  and  oxtovaetto  (and 
inf .-oxtova) ,but  otherwise, however  that  may  be;  ovox- 
bonetto,  but,  denoting  concession,  (Ger.  dennoch),in 
spite  of  the  fact  that,  relenting  from  previous  pur¬ 
pose;  natosemehanaho  ovoxbonetto  nasgivatamo,  I  was 
going  to  kill  him.but  I  pitied  him;  onit&z,  but, just 
the  opposite,  on  the  contrary;  onit&z  enEe.but  he 
died;  this  would  be  said  in  the  case  the  doctor  had 
given  a  certain  medecine  whioh  he  claimed  would  heal, 
but  instead  was  ineffectual  and  therefore  (in  the 
Indian  mind)  kills  the  patient.  Hdtaz,  but  behold; 
etosaamehahoeoxzehesz ,hdtaz  eShoen,  he  was  said  not 
to  be  coming, but  behold  he  has  arrived!  Ooto.but  con¬ 
sidering;  ootd  zeheSetotaxoetavoss ,  but  considering 
the  fact  that  they  have  transgressed;  hoxkse  niva.but 
who?  (sc.  no  one);  hoxkse  t’sa,  but  where?  ( 
wheres);  hoxkse  toneg,  but  when?  (sc. never);  dha 
ve-, but  if;  dha  vehovahan,  but  if  it  is  gone;  dha 
vengooko.but  if  it  is  raining 
butcher,  nanaton,T\b.  (ref.  to  the  killing);  enatoneo, 
they  (or.)  b. ;  naanen.I  b.(  the  cutting 
up  of  the  parts);  natonehe.the  one  who  butchers;  na- 
natonevgho,  b.  (white  man);  nato%mhayo ,  b.  house 
(slaughterhouse);  hoevoxzemhayo .meat  shop;  zenatons- 
tov.when  the  butchering  is  done.  This  expression  was 
Used  in  the  days  when  the  Government  issued  beeves  on 
hoof  to  the  Ch.  Monday  being  appointed  for  this,  the 
term  was  applied  to  designate  the  day  of  the  week. 

The  present  generation  has  dropped  this  use. 
butchery,  natonestoz;  esaameotazi stovhan  onit&z  ena- 
”  was  not  a  battle,  but  rather  a  b. 

(or  butchering). 

butt,  natamoson, I  cut  off  the  end,  blunt  with  instr. ; 
natamosoha.I  b. it, cut  off  its  end.  Eotaesozeva, its 
thicker  end,  butt,  is  provided  with  a  hole  (as  nee¬ 
dles);  hestsozeva, its  b.,the  thicker  end  part  of  an 
ob j . ;  is  a  b.end;  hesozevdsz,  stubbles, 
thicker  ends  of  plants  (the  feet).  See  foot, bump. 
butter,  heoveamsc .yellow  fat;  eheoveamsceve ,  it  is  b. ; 

“  heoveamsc  naveSepapanoha  kdkonhoo.I  b.the  bread; ^  N 
lit. yellow  fat  I  spead  the  bread  wi_thu— th-4-s- — ^ \ 
the  use  of  an  instr.  “so,  5,  )oix, 

butter-fly,  evavaxcemd ,  the  jerking";  brisk  on«~~' 

tal ) ;  evavaxcemao,  (pi/)  .  —  l)  6U/X  Qfe)  — 

ee  carts  of  the  bodv<  ^  erwa+.J  ' 

buttocks,  see  parts  of  the  body 
button, • naest ’ taena, I;  eest ’ taeoneva,  < 
toned, buckled, harnessed;  honikomon.b 

e  is  but- 
(usually  lawful- 

Buy  english-cheyenne  dictionary 

the  round  ones);  moceesz , buttons  (of  horn);  moceevet- 
to, button  of  horn;  est'taeneo,  b.  clasp .frog, buckle ; 
eest ’ taeoneve , it  is  a  b.,that  which  is  mser  • 
buy  nahdtova, I  buy  or  sell , trade , exchange  for;  nahoto- 
— "’vanoz.I  buy  one  (or.)  for  me;  nihotovatovaz ,  I  buy 
or  sell  thee,  trade;  nahbtovoto,  I  buy  or  sell  of  one 
(or.);  nahotovotonotto , I  buy  one  (or.)  of  one  (or.); 
nihotovotaz , I  buy  of  thee  (or  sell  to  thee);  nihbto- 
Yotazenotto , I  buy  one  of  thee  (or  sell  one  to  thee), 
naoxceanavhotova.I  buy  or  sell  cheap;  nahotoanavhbto- 
va, I  buy  or  sell  dear.  The  above  shows  that  the  Ch 
have  no  special  term  for  either  buy  or  sell  .the  word 
"hotova"  =to  trade, exchange.  See  sell  and  tradf^^  ^ 

vicinity;  inf. 

a^, beyond;  eoomeohetto  maatameo.the  train  pas¬ 
sed  by;  eoomen, one  passes  by  and  on  (slow  walk),  mf. 
-de-  =by  in  the  sense  of  apart, by  itself ;ae  ehota  or  sets  apart;  other  forms  of  this  are  inf. 
_de§—  and  oae§~;  the  first  means  to  be  by  itseli, 
apart ;  eaeghistanoveo , they  live  by  themselves  a  part; 
when  the  "o"  prefixed  to  "ae"  it  denotes  reduplica¬ 
tion  ;eoae3histanoveo,  they  live  apart  from  each  other, 
by  themselves. See  apart .Nxpemeo , by , close  to  the  road, 
Snotim  by  the  entrance;  see  shut.  When  agency  is  to 
v  ^  bePexpressed  inf.veSe  =by,with;  -veShesse  -thereby, 
Jl,-'  and  -hesse-  =by, thru, are  used;  heto  matameva  naveSha- 
1  1  J,*  mixta  by  this  food  I  am  sick;  oftentimes  the  noun 

M  agent' is  suff.with  -eva  in  addition  to  the  inf.  veSe 
^ , Jr  in  the  verb. Nouns  ending  in  "-toz"  become  tovd  ,e.g. 

beeszistovd  naveSepevetanooz,  by  his  word  1  was  made 
W  glad!  This  form  with  the  suff.  to  the  n. agent. denotes 

" thru"  When  the  suff.  -eva  or  -ova  is  not  used,  the 
^  -ye§e-  -with.  Inf.  -veShesse-  -thereby and  require^ 


,1 'f^^thiBIuffW-ivI  o?  -ovd;  vdnhanistovd 
rVj.Te  :£w  I. came  in.  In  passive  forms  the  word  JW 

therappcllativetnoun,rticrebcco»L  the 


cj  )!  Petereva.he  was  seen  by  Peter;  eonb.J  Ka-  was  called  by  God.  This  is  only  the  c; ase 
r«  ».  is  considered  a  pr.  name,  o  her.rse  it  s 
Maheono  instead  of  Maheoneva  -by^  God.  S.  „J.Je4 
names  formed  with  the  sub.  cj.  the  by 
_s+v,  o,,ff  pziss  e  R.  emeta  ESeoxmahaeziss ,he  was  gn 
en  it  by  Redmoon  (ESeoxmahaesz  -Redmoon) .-Above  form 





of  "by"  are  only  used  in  the  3rd. per . sg. or  pi.  of  the 
passive.  But  in  all  the  verbal  forms  where  a  3rd.  subject  the  Ch. incorporates  the  "a"  in  its 
suffixe  to  designate  "by",  e.g.navoma.I  am  seen  by 
one.or  one  sees  me;  nivoma,  thou  art  seen  by  one, or 
one  sees  thee;  is  seen  by  one;  nivomaen,  we 
are  seen  by  one.or  he  see£  us;  nivomaevo ,you  are  seen 
by  one.or  he  sees  you.andJ  evcmaevo , they  are  seen  by 
one.  NShoestova  enaha.he  was  killed  by  the  fever;  ma- 
heveva  enaha.he  was 'killed  by  an  arrow.  When  "by"  de¬ 
notes  relation  of  time , "during" , suff.-'eva  is  used, as: 
taeva, by  night;  day;  heto  zexoveva,  by  this 
time;  nexoveva,  at  thai  time.  The  terms  "by  me, by 
thee, etc."  are  rendered  in  this  wise:  nitov&.by  me; 
etovA,  by  thee;  hevetbvA,  by  one  (writer  has  also 
heard:  nitoveva, etoveva  arid  hevetoveva) ;  nitovan  (ex- 
cl.),etovan  (incl.)  by  us;  you, and  heveto-  j  them. .Inf .-pa-  =by ,  parallel  to, close  along;^  . 

napaeqiovo ,  I  *am  close  by  one.  When  "by"  expresses  re-  ouLeefov,, 
lations  of  is  rendered  by  inf. -no-;  no  -  ^  A 
nig, by  two, two  at  a  time;  four, or  four  at  a 
time;  also  in  the  sense  of  "together  with, in  addition 
to, along  with",  as:  nanomxea.I  write  it  -along .  See 
along.  In-  the  sense  of  "multiplied  into"  the  Ch. ex¬ 
press  "by"  as  shown  in  the  following:  nixa  tdevhatto 
nix, two  multiplied  by  two;  lit. twice  again  two;  niva 
t6evhatto  noho ,  four  multiplied  by  five.- 
the  by , incidentally, apropos ;  in  the  sense  of  "at  an 
end, gone  by"  the  verb  -hep’netto  is  used.e.g.  eShep’-  is  by, passed  away, over;  and  by, 
gradually;  and  by, before  long. 

bystander,  zepaehoesz , the  one  standing  close  by;  paetto 
zehoess6,the  bystanders. 

byway ,  paemeo, side, parallel  road;  inf .-aha-  =from,keep- 
ing  from;  makes  a  byway, round  about 



C,  is  pronounced  similarly  to  the  Eng.-teou  in  the  word 
"plenteous" , or  like  the  "quiet"  in  the  Fr.  word  in¬ 
quiet.  "C"  is  most  always  a  soft  "k", followed  by  an 
"e"  sound.  See  "k".  It  denotes  a  diminutive  form, 
something  concave. 

cab,  moxtave-amoeneo .black  wagon, also  used  for  buggy. 
cabbage ,  voxpde ,  voxp<5sz  (pi.);  evoxpdeve,  it  is  a  c.; 

~  voxp  =white  +  <5e  =grass  .plant . 
cabin,  mask, small  house;  is  a  c. 


CO&t'cM^lL'.  ^  C . , tlcwv-  ib C^J  4L~bf**e) ;  u^ry^^Yct 

xkou^TV,^  W^v.  tV(«^n^  A  J^-4tlu-  ‘V  C'^^t^-' 

\  On^nJoLa^  W(L-&-  -'/<M  C^o-a*^ 



cable,  sitoxc  zet§,peonesz,a  rope  which  is  thick, 
caboose,  hooxe-amoeneo  amhovxtoene-mahatameoneva, 
last  wagon  on  a  freight  train, 
cache,  nahoose.I  cache;  hoosehestoz , the  cache. 

'cactus,  mat&;  is  a  c.,  prickly  pear;  xamae- 
~  c.;  matao  (or.)  ehegkonaeo,  the  c.  are 


cadaver,  seoxz  or  eseoxzeve,  it  is  a  c.;  naseotam,  my 

c.,dead  one;  see  dead.  COA  cMv  ce*u* 

.  ■ 

’c.,dead  one;  see  dead.  COA  c&h 
P(L(L^  Mi,  caget  vekse-hemagq, bird’s  cage;  see  prison 
^  cajole,  see  blandish, flatter. 

^  cake,  'zevecekdkonhdo ,  the  sweet  bread; 

•  pie:/**/ _ 

^  J.  calamity,  mhaomeeozistoz, great  misfortune;  

C?  - 

'ison.  .  ,  .w. 


’  veehano.cake 

ve  o  omenhe  s  w*  lui 

„  ^  toz;  see  misfortune.  4r+u*A 

calculate,  see  count. 

j]  /  caldron,  maxemoxtaveto, large  black  kettle;  see  kettle . 

calendar,  mxisto  zeveSheneenohevoss  eSeheo, paper  (book)  ^ V; 

by  which  moons  are  known.  ^  (u*  f, 

,  calf,  moksa;  is  a  c.;  moksaeo  (pi.).  See^^-i^  t  ”f 
lj  vueu-CKUL  under  "buffaloes".  Zehetar.eamsz  moksa,  male  c.;  ‘V/4J1 

I1  IcUUr  c.(rj  zeheamsz  moksa, female  c.;  mazevonaeva , calf  of  leg.  c-  ^/Af4 
'  calico,  kagoeSeon,  thin  cloth,  from  kago  =thin  +  Seon  =  u<o 

|/t  ■ffi>r.-U4>kui - cloth.  See  cloth C.  ^ 

|  -fmll  call,  naonosan ,  I  call;  naonomo.I  c .  one  (or.);  naoncxta,.  ^  c«£ 

c  .  it ;  eonostaneva , one  calls  (as  a  crier);  eono-f^e^.  is  a  caller, crier,  (n. agent.);  naox-  '(c.^ 
fi*4*’"  seonomojl  by  mistake  jzeonosansz ,  the  calling  one  La* 

1  a  (or.);  zeonomsz.the  called  ones;  namoheonomo , I 

51  ^  ^  ]  C  ■  '  \  4- _ 4.1 _  /4-~ _ 4-V,„„  +<™=4-V,  =  v.  N  .  + 

[]  ytlAV/ 

1  l.  ^  (  cai. 


iiAs  ,,  nanehe 


'(or.)  together  (to  gather  together); 
calls,  sends  out  a  cryjzeo  natSsenistoe ,  I  will  c.from 
Lbjl)  this  place;  zenistSsz,  the  one  calling;  zenistohetto 

|  .  ..  t&pen,  the  trumpet  shall  c.,  resound;  ehoxeva,  one 

calls .heralds ;  nahSxevoxta, I  c., herald  it;  zehoxevaz, 
— tEe  one  who  calls .heralds ;  evevhoe§eva,he  calls  for. 
removing  the  camp;  namooto,  I  c.,  invite  one  to  eat; 
nanehevamo.I  back;  nanehevavenano ,  I  c., order 
back;  naasenenadstdno ,  I  have  one  called  (sent) 
,y;  nanoh^Jevenenano ,  I  c., order  one  in;  nahoenenano , ' 
.y**'  /<£’  I  c.,  order  one  out;  see  order;  navdho ,  I  c.,name  one 
^  fy  (or.);  navdsta,  I  c.,name  it.  [Navista,  I  promise  it; 
i-t/J1**  y navhesta ,  I  am  with  one,  of  the  same  kind;  navesta,  I 
'  ask  it;  navesta, my  temple  (of  head)].  NaheSevesta, I 
/  c., give  it  the  name;  nioxcetonSevdsta  doest 
jM  W  'A  thou  c . this?  or  one  (or.)  '  is  called .named ; 

/v  ehesevehe ,  one  is  called, has  the  name; 

\i  ‘JL  is  called,  has  the  name;  navdhan,  I  am  called, named ; 
ft>r  nv  Jf*  0/  naheSevehan , I  have  the  name;  eoxceoxhestohe ,how  is  it 
rTJr]Lfi  yA  called, named?  (  is  one  (or.)  called, nam- 
<  NitonSevdhand ,  how  art  thou  called,  what  is  thy 

“iJ  v  name?  Hahevehestonaovo , I  (or.)  with  a  name;  no- 

v  J  Jt  fr\j,  ■  ■ 



caJUU^,  .  1  {U^r..L+^„ 

H*  —  Md  % 




hevehestonaoxz , I  with  a  name, give  it  "a  namS~;_  nE^^1/*),  f. „■ 
maxehaheztovo ,  I  c.with  a  loud  voice  to  one  (or.);  na-  .  w^^***^ 
taoxcenoevehoenoz ,  I  c.  one  (or.)  with  song,  praise-"  c  *** 
one’s  name;  nioxcenoevehoetovaz ,  I  c.thee  in  singing;  <t\<- 
naasheto  ,  I  (or.)  to  go  along.  *-*»-0-en'A/>e*4.X  4^ 

call,  n.onosanistoz, the  calling;  onSmazistoz, mutual  c 
onosetanevatoz, the  calling  (as  an  agency);  hoxeva- 

toz.the  calling, heralding;  nehevamazistoz , the  calling7^ 
back;  ni stohes toz , the  call, sending  out  a  cry;  maxeha- 
hestoz.a  loud  voice.  See  name.  Naonoman.I  am  called, 
received  a  c. ;  etahan  zehethozetanetto.this  is  my  c. 

''^uty,  vocation.  See  invite., 
callous,  see  feeling. 

calm,  nahaomosemo ,  I  c^one  (by  words)  jhaomosemosanistoz,  /  tz,. 

the  calming;  haomoxtosz!  Be  calm  thou!  oanhosz 
be  thou  calm.quiet!  nahaf?mooz,I  am  calmed;  haae§ 
haamoozeneo , the  wind  calmed  down;  naoanaxane . I  am  c . 
placid, soothed;  naoanoeoz.I  am  calmed , become  rested,  s 
subsided  in  feeling;  see  peace ,  comfort  .quiet .  Oanaxa-,, 
nestoz,  c. ,  repose;  oanoeozistoz,  the  having  become/)'-’ •,  //,/ 
calmed.  becomes  c.  (water);  eoanomoeoz, 
the  water  (body  of)  becomes  calm.  See  still, 
calumet,  see  pipe.  * 

calumniate^,  see  slander  .  iaj\  a.  P'  ~iy  t'"'  *  P 

camel,  nistaevoha(m) ,  lit. ancient'  hoi4e.J»a-*&  Acruthe,  'trr,‘V^^y 

zevegepSozistove,  that  wherewith  pictures  arei***^/^^^^ 

emosanistoz,  t]  iJ3a- 

_ J%L‘  taken. 

vestoz.c. ;  is  a  c.  (from  ve  =tent) ; 

,  z&vestove , where  the  c.  is;  nahamoxz  ’  nheme ,  we  c.; 

nahamoxzeotanon  vds.we  c.  before  a  peak;  navisthdzemo ,  naJta^e  — 

'  I  c.  with  one  (or.)  [navistozdmo ,  I  smoke  with  one/yj. 

t  tA‘re*fi’  (or.)];  niva  zevisth<5zemata,who  camps  with  thee?  Ehd-j)^ 

»7  johestov,  they  break  c., disperse;  evevhoeSeva.he  calls,  ' 

^  heralds  the  removal  of  the  c.  (to  load);  evevhoes-^o  , 

ov, there  is  a  change  of  c.;  nataoehetovon  {nataoeto-^7 
IM  ^  /  y'%on ) ,  we  move  to  one’s  c.;  emoneexhozenov ,  a  new  c.  i  s  etc‘> 

fD'  s’et  up;  many  nights  shall  be  the^^7*/// 
k  jjkl  fa/e?  •?  Nitostoxtoenoz,  how  many  nights  shallt  thou  c .  ?/2fc  * 

n  /.Nanoceenoz  >  I  night;  naniSeenoz,  I  c .  two  nights; 
*j^'Y*Tnahaestoenozheme,  we  c.  many  nights;  zehetaoenov, the 
fi.C'jt'  whole  c. .where  they  c.,the  "stay”  is;  zehetSozistove ,  . 

*  t^e  whole  c.  (ref.  to  crowd).  NamSxtaeovo ,  I  mark  a  c,  jlu  a**u*x~ 

w  camping  place  for  one  (or.);  namdxtaeoto , I  locate  one^i*^/ 

’  (or.);  namSxtaeoxta,  (  in. )  ;  moxtagva,  sign,  left  where 

c.was;  mix taehota, place  where  the  c.was;  nimSxtaenan, 
place, mark  where  the  c.was,.  The  term  "mdxta’l  refers 

to  marking.  See  tenj.—.^^-e  fctt* ,  ' - — 

can,  inf .-ndtov-^ffenotes  faculty ,  capacity;  nandtovensz,  - 
I  can  talk;  esaaeSer.otovenszd ,  he  cannot  talk  yet; 
n6toveozistoz,the  faculty , capability ;  notovastoz,  fa¬ 
culty  , capacity ;  inf.-otoxov-  =able , experienced ;  eoto-  ,  a 

-a*!*  on-  'H 

XjUVW  tUU^  -l^CLAA/t W 


TOVencHcvc.he  does  1, ^ 

«T“-  im&SE™!,  I  cad  prevail; 

SoLdetcjl  can 

cay:  I  can  do 

p^e:iin  ?=aato^?aa„Saa  The  . ne^cannot  prevail; 

see  prevail,  inf.  noze  h  „t  hn  e-g.  tah  emenoze- 

ing  sense, when  connected i  wi -h  t  h  7  |?  gee  cannot.  can  one  Itnen;  oxkonoz  (pi.);  tom- 

can,  tomsevetonoz,  (pl.)i  o^oheo 

seveto, larger  tin  can,  eoxooneve,  it  is  a  , 

— -tSr:ar.J%lo«!5ae"«eaLt5  c.;eSecxpo.ceha  a 

large  ditch, making  out  a  narrow  strip  of  a  d  y 

water.  __-ilow  bird;  heovevekseo, 

Canary,  heovevecess,  small  yellow  oiru, 

’  small  yellow  birds, 
cancel,  naevhavonana.I  c.,wipe  it  out. 

candid,  se  frank, open.  <,-|ender  light;  vokome-vohok- 


»  staff. 

_  cem&pevensz, they  ~  -7—  --  --  staff  .tukk^-'.V 

cane,  hokto .hooxtc ;  ekok J®;^Indians' * ^e  called  Can-*— 
cannibal,  mevaveho.  T  supposed  to 

- nibais  ty  the  Ch.  They  *®r  hild"„  which 

eat  their  prisoners , and  would  r  a  Mevavehoa, 

they  would  steal  from  neighboring  trihes^^  . 

a  fem.c. ;  emevavehoeveone  is  a  c  ^  haatanosz,big 

cannon,  maxemahaatano ,  large  gun, 

guns.  See  shoot.  it.  lnf.  -mesaa-  = 

„  cannot,  hoxks  nameheton§eve ,  .  p§_  ’=c>  (not  having 

3C -  c.,(not  Wiin ^  4«f  f-6ze-=c! (fail  to, does  not, 

to;neh6zeohae^,hq  c.rise;  eh6zetanonov ,  it  is  impos. 

J  is  a  canoe. See 

e«,*V  T^^canoe,  semo ;  semonoz ,  (p  •)>  LX<V(a>wMl(^'''  ’ 

“  TAUdvfefate^.rSffiion;  etaevavhoemam - 

- ’  is  a  canon;  see  law.  . 

cant,  see  bevel, tilt 
cantaloup,  see  melon 


,  is  a  canon;  a  ee.  VT,  .  UjJ 

:  bevel, tilt.  \Uh»o, 

3,  see  melon. 


canter,  see  gallop, lope. 

Cantonment,  Zemamovd,  Where-the-woods-meet.  Cantonment 
is  the  name  of  a  Ch.and  Arapaho  Agency  in 
Oklahoma.  The  name  was  given  to  the  place  from  its 
use  by  the  U.S. troops  who  had  their  quartering  sta¬ 
tion  there, in  former  days.  The  Ch.  name  however  has 
nothing  to  do  with  the  above  meaning;  it  refers  to 
the  coming  together  of  the  black  oak  woods  frotp  the 
south  east  and  south  west  with  the  strip  of  the  woods 
from  the  north  and  north  east, closing  in  together  at 
the  North  Canadian  a  little  northwest  of  Cantonment, 
canvass ,  tonovseon, thick  cloth;  etonovSeononeve ,  it  is 
c. ;  see  ducks. 

cap,  mastoxca, cap;  nastoxca,  my  c.;  also  voxca.c. ,hat; 
navoxca,my  c.or  hat(head  cover);  voxcasz , caps , hats ; 
nivoxcaanoz.our  hats;  nivoxcaevoz ,your  .hats;  nahetox- 
caena.I  am  with  a  c.or  hat;  hoxcadm  or  Voxcadm,  lodge 
of  the  medecine  cap.  This  maheor.hoxca  (mysterious 
cap)  was  given  to  Tomsevess  (Erect-horn)  who  came  out 
from  a  high  mountain  peak  (vds).  The  name  "Tomsevess" 
was  given  him  because  of  the  horns  with  which  the 
cap  was  supplied  and  which  would  stand  erect  when  he 
wore  the  cap.  The  "mysterious  cap"  was  believed  to 
have  the  power  of  bringing  out  the  animals  which  the 
Ch. needed  for  their  food.  Writer  saw  the  Voxcadm  er¬ 
ected  only  once  at  the  occasion  of  a  Sun  dance.  Then 
the  Maxevonadm  (Sun  tent), the  Maheonedm  (Arrow  lodge) 
and  the  Noceedm  (One  lodge)  were  also  erected.  A  tale 
is  connected  with  this  Voxcadm,  relating  how  a  young 
medecine  man  and  the  wife  of  a  chief  went  up  a  high 
mountain  peak  which  formed  a  great  natural  lodge, into 
which  they  entered  and  where  they  received  ceremonial 
instruction  for  four  days.  The  rad.  -vo-  is  found  in 
mountain  peak, cloud, sky, headcover  and  also  in  foot¬ 
wear  and  ref. to  something  standing  or  set 
plying  the  further  meaning  of  "cover .protection" 
(Ger.Schirm) .  The  erect  horns  on  the  cap  no  doubt  im¬ 
plied  "protection  by  animal  food" , sc. from  starvation. 
An  old  form  for  cap  or  hat  is:  head  cover; 
voxca  is  the  diminutive  of  voea.  See  hat. 
capability,  ndxtovastoz , the  being  able;  ndtovetanoxtoz , 

. (mental ) . 

_ _  _  ,  h*.  *->  c  .  /  -ft. 

capable ,  nanotovae.I  am  c.;  nanotovazesta , :  am  al 

comprehend  it;  nanotovano,!  enable  one, make  one 


rnaxe  one  , 

c.;  inf.-ndtov-  =capable  of;  see 
capacity ,  zehetaeneota, its  capacity  ,  inside  volume;  eto-  t**  c" 

~  nitdeneota,  how  much  room,  c.?  Eniveneota , it  t*-"  S  •  . 

has  three  rooms  (a  house);  ehaestoeneota,  it  has  many  j 
rooms;  has  a  large  c.;  is 
of  small  inside  volume;  henhoo .measure  of  c.,  bushel;  . 

also  tSevdeneo;  nataev&voensan,  I  measure  the  c.,  the  'jAj  fb 



E  ^tv- 

contents;  natSev&voenota,  I  measure  its  c., contents; 
nataevavoenotomovo , I  measure  it  one’s  (as  with  a  bu¬ 
shel).  Enitotaoena*  it  has  that  much  c.t  volume, con¬ 
tents.  Zehendtovheneeno , the  has  to  know;  notov- 
emesestoz , the  c.or  ability  to  eat;  notovheneenovas- 
toz.c.  of  understanding;  eohS-hen6tovhozohestov,  one 
has ' a  great  c.for  work;  esaahendtovahestov6 , one  (or.) 
has  not  the  c. .capability. 

cape,  zenahomaoeha, point  of  land  projecting  into  a  body 
of  water;  see  prommontory, project.  .Homa.c.,  robe; 
nathom&.my  c robe , cloak  resembling  a  robe, 
caper,  ekokaax,  he  capers,  hops;  ekokaeoxz,  one  (or.) 

-  walks  capering, prancing  (as  a  horse);  ehetotaeko-  (or.)  capers  about  joyful;  ekokaaxetan.he 
wants  to  c.;  ekokaeoxzetan.he  wants  to  prance, 
capital,  is  c.;  see  important , chief ;  na- 

- nitazesta,  I  deem  it  of  c  .  importance  ;  zemtaecto 

or  zenitoeme  maevehoeno , the  capital  town  (not  in  use, 
but  understood  to  mean  that  said  town  or  city  is  the 
most  important);  or  one  (or.)  is  of  c. 
value  [zenitoemsz, the  headman, captain] .  Makatzeoxc- 
hevasemetto .money  which  brings  brothers^capital . 
capitalist,  zehaestoemak&taemaz  zeoxcohShevasemettoz- 

— - - 'esz,  one  who  has  a  large  amount  of  money 

bringing  interest.  j.UfipJJ  9/- 

caprice,  senomastoz.  See  fickle, wind.  ‘ 

capricious,  (or.)  is  c .  ; -^oxksenomaeoxz , 

— it -  one  is  fiCkie, walks  with  any  wind;  esenoma- 

vostaneheve , one  (or.)  leads  a;  tass  esenomaho- 
zeohe  one  works  wit  caprice , irregular .without  metho  . 
capsize,  or  one  (or.)  capsizes;  naoxsehaz 

-  semo.I  c . the  boat;  lies  c.;  ehota^  is  capsized , overturned  (as  boats  or  anything 

capsule,  hovae  zeoxcevehota  eseoxz,  something  in  which 
-  medecine  is  contained. 

captain,  notxeveho .warrior  chief;  enotxeyehoneve  one  is 

—  - -  a  c  rnot  to  confound  with  notxeveho  =white  sol¬ 

dier]  ;  zenotxevcemsz , c . of  soldier , off icer ;  zenitdesz, 
the  one  who  is  c., leader.  See  leader , ruler .  Emtoeme, 
one  is  regarded  as  c., headman;  enitaenotax  chief  sol 
dier;  eniUenotxeve ,  he  is  c. .leader  of  soldiers ,  war¬ 
riors.  See  game  (base  ball ) .  ^ 

captaincy,  notxevehonevestoz.c.  - 

captivate,  nahessetanotovo , I  c., attract  one;  mornehe  " 

—  - - mazistovA  nahessetanotovo,  I  c.  one  (or.)  Dy 

flattery, blandishment;  mesestov&,mehosanistov&,  peva- 
tamahestovS,  nahessetanotovo,  I  c. 

beauty.  Ehessetanotoe , one  is  captivated, attracted  y. 
See  attract.  Heexa  nave She stSmehan, I  am  captivated  y 
one’s  eyes. 

^tSff^N^crotovRr*^  ht~~^fv  s 

(or  )  C.;  c.;  nahemomonam,  I  have  a  e  K(*Or- 

nahemomonamenoz , one  is  my  c.;  namomBnevo^taneheve  I 

i-.j  a  nfe  of  a  c.;  namomooeho,  I  treat  one  ao  a  c^, 
s?ave-  namomohestoneheve.I  decend  from  a  c  ;  zemomo- 
ne.hevessS , the  captives;  zehemomonametton.the  ones  who 
are  my  captives.  See  slave, prisoner.  ...  - 

captivity,  momonehevestoz ;  momonezhesta „oz , condition  of 

-  a  captivity.  ,  ,  . _ _ 

•actor  nha  zemomonaotsansz , the  one  who  takes  captive, 

— -’zSmomonaovsansz.the  one  who  makes  one  to  he  cap- 

•aptur e ,  v . namomonao tsan , I  c.;  namomonaoto  I;  na- 
- nhaeno.I  c.,  catch  one;  nanhaena.I  b .  ,  catch 

’anture  n.momonaotazistoz,  the  c.;  nhaeneo,  -thej  c., 

-booty;  nhaenistoz , the  capturing;  momonaovsams-  ^ 

toz.the  capturing, making  one  to  be  cap tuve.  Car 

car,  amoeneo, wagon;  mahatameo  amoeneo  ra^ 

c  ar bun  c  1  e  ,  xama ,  c . ,  bo  1 1 .  tL 

oarc^hon.onjh.jto,  lies, emptied  (the  carcass);  thi" 

.  ’  .  ,  _  _ _ flot+.sned  and 

also’  said  <*«, 

s;*r:s”.i;uts-a  «sr, 

the  c  (wi?h  flesh  dried  on  the  ribs);  see  corpse. 
ears,  monSe-onS;  namonSemoto, 


-  ,tr:  ryn,j 

««/<■-  ft;'™‘la  1* eSreLlons nota.  is  used 

Mmcfa-  TWth;  eSehe  zenxhessemeensz  for  east  ^  •*- /^ 

^^Vises'-)  ;  nomhasto  for  south  ' 

Kf^their(ord:r  Betides  these  four^^d^points.jhj 

“Idi^IrthLe  different  points  animal  spirits 


'  'V 

Jj.  1U  1 

/>  /  f'UA*  $  Va-At-  e- 

„  JU+r* 

d  4CS44'4i?.e-  m  *  /^  /ui/»yM-..i!«wy-'»  *— -:•  - 

,,  c  ■/  -  vov6nitfe.maena  hoe,  I  take  c.  of  the  lam;  napaveta 
firVOiurtl -ice  ,  d  c.of  it.  napavetovo,  I  take  good  c.  of 

y,^Z7ZZ££!f7  ■ 


it;  napavetovo,  I  take  good  c.  of  one  .  . 

fix  fu*A-^Qr  ^  j  am  good  towards  one;  nanoata.I  handle  it  with/Z/^  I 

^  (£$5nri>'U.ih~c  .  .with  ceremony;  naonesta,  I  c. for, pay  attention  to^^,*^ 

naonesta,  I  o. for, pay  attention  to 

—  -  it:  naonemo ,  I  c. for, pay  attention  to  one  (one’s);  na-^ r,  > 

ta ,  I  c. for, heed  it;  napopaerr.o  ,  I  c. for, heed 
(one’s)  ;  Tiapopaazetta,  I^-it;  napopaatamo  ,  I  c.  for 
/  4a.^,yf)ne;  nasaapaph^— hessetamohe ,  I  do  not  c^a  whit  for  one* 
hif  ■  or.)or:  papas 'oasaahessetamohe  ;navovo^hesse  tamo ,  I  r  -r 

•#  H*"\  J  first  for  one,prK£r  one  in  judgement,  estimation;  < 

navovo&hessezta,  I  f^first  for  it, prefer  it;  suff.-tan  k ft* 
^  .  denotes  "wanting,  caring,  desirous";  nasaan<  oxzetan ,  I  'IP-  * 
O'  ».(■'  ^ I  do  not  c.  to  go;  nasaafo^etanohe ,  I  do  not.  c. to  eat; 

r  tL*e"  Uo  not  c.  to  go;  nasaa^etanohe ,  I  do  eat;#^, 

asaavomatanotovohe.I  do  M*  see  one  (<r.);  na- 
rfrJUjrs  aaonoaztohe.I  do  not  c.  foSi^  do  not  hoAor  it  not 
r  deem  it  well.  See  careful , carel>&S.  Hahetodepevatamo 
\  ^ or  nahetoxtatamo ,  I  deliberately  c>^or  one. 

,  f/vf  1  care,  n. vovonestoz.c. ,  regard , interestVvovonetanenis- 
K  1  cjrzj"  Voz.c.  .busy  caring  for  (Ger.Pflege)  ;  s^vonetomae- 
^‘^TnenLtoz.c.of  the  soil,  ground;  vovonetovaziptoz , c 
'  welldoing  to  one  ; vovonethozeohestoz  .work  of  c.ykind 

ness\  (Ger.  Pf legearbeit) ;  pavetovazistoz , good 
wards!  ore ;  pavonistomohestoz  or  pavonemazistoz.good  , 

c.  ,a-tttention  (to  one’s  utterances);  popaemazi  stoz ,  po-  -h  pkM.- 
pastomohestoz , c . , heed ;  vovozhesseztastoz , first  c.for,  / J 
preference  (in  judging, deeming )  ;  ozetanoxtoz.c. ,soli 
citudeV worry ;  heomstanoxtoz , c .  .anxiety  .preoccupation 
neevavosanistoz, c . , the  watching.  See  careful. 

.g.  bee  carei  ui  •  / 

'careen,  careens;  eegxovaamoesz  amoeszis-  ff  r  ~ 
- t\z , the  boat  careens;  see  tilt. 

m, progress,  ex-  ,i£eJL 
qourse  of  life; 

_b  was  the  c .  of  / 
course  of  work; 

fi  "  ✓  zeoxche§|ehOtovatove , tne  course  or  wide;  zeoxcheSemo- 
/  mdtavoet astov , the  course  of  ceremonial  doings;  hes^- 

w  .  _ „  4-  r*  OPDA7P7  Vl  T  fi  1  1  f  ft 

c  .was 

hesevost anehevestoz  tass  eeeozez,  his  life  S 
broken, e s  it  were.  ■  ^ 

careful,  raohan.I  am  c.,  cautious;  c.,  cau 
***-  is  one  (or.);  inf.  -tSos-  denotes  c.  in  tne 

je  of  "saving";  natSoszhova, I  am  c., saving  with  my 
proper^, belongings;  natgosexan,  I  am  c  saving  with 

my  eyesf;  a  c. manner, carefully  (Ger. bedacht 

sam);  3aohoomeetan,  I  am  c.,  cautious  (fearing 
thing )/ See  careless.  Inf.-che-  =careful  with  c0^S®i' 
deliberation;  thinks  carefully ,wi ,h  de¬ 
liberation;  naioheesz.I  speak  carefully;  inf.  -nonaox 

jeiraxion;  ,  ±  — - 

rvonaos-  =each  for  itself ,and  can  be  used 

irefully"  , as!  in  expressions  like: 

"carefully" ,  as  in  expressions  nr-c. 
utt/ers  carefullLy ,by  cutting  each  syllable;  en°^°"e 
' t one  speaks!  carefully,  distinctly.  Naheomstotan, 1 


"”''  ._..  ......  “  " ■  ^aruy 


careless  t  JiNGLISH-CHEYENNE  DfcTIONARY  . 

am  overcareful,  preoccupied 

beware.  Inf 

^estoz,  carefulness, 
vovoxpon-  =careful, 


strict, impartial , inexorable 

careless,  nasaaohaetan,  I  am  /.  ;  *tsaaoha'etanoxtoz' care- 
1  lessness;  nasaaohane , I  am  c.,not  cautious;  ze- 

he§saaohaheoneves , as  one  /is  c.,  takes  no  precaution; 
esaaonokotahe , one  is  c .^spendthrift ;  nasaavovozheSe- 
tanTl  am  c,,do  not' thintT'bef’oreira.nd;  nha  zsaavovozhe- 
§etanoheonevesz,the  c. /one,  ho  does  not  think  before¬ 
hand;  see  rash.  u. 
caress,  inf .-vovones-  denotes  "with  tenderness , fond-  n 

ness ,  interest , regard"  .  See  stroke, fondle. 
caretaker,  zevovonethozeoesz , the  one  who  takes  car/‘  'of 
Tby^woj-king ) ;  vovonetanehe , caretaker, 
cargo,  see  load/burdent^*^/^'^/^*’7''^- 
:arnivorous .mevavovan, c .  beast ,  animal ,  i»«  a.  yet tt’ee,  c. 
carol,  nanonomenon, I  c.,sing  trembling, trilling;  nano- 
nevdhoenoz,  I  c.,  sing  exulting  concerning 
one, lit. I  carol  "one";  nahonienon,  I  sing  the  wolf’s 
c.;  namaheonenon,  I  sing  a  sacred  c.;  nazessenon,  I 
sing  a  Ch. carol.  See  sing.  Nonomenonistoz.c. ,  trill 

warble;  vovone§enonistoz,c.of  praise .affection, bless- 
carpenter,  kamxevstonehe ,  the  worker  in  wool;  ekamxevs-J$At/^/^*'*,^■ 


toneheve.he  is  a  c.;  kamxevstonestoz.the  car-'-^ 
pentering;  is  made  of  wood;  epavekam- 
xevstoona,it  is  well  built  of  wood.  Mhayonanehe,  c.t 
house  builder. 

carpentry,  kamxevstonestoz ;  zetohetaekamxevston.all  the 
c.,that  which  is  built  or  made  of  wood.  „ 

Ci  -  carpet,  honoq ,  c . ,  rug;  is  a  c.,rug;  mhayo 

-fj  4 epavhonokoneva.the  house  is  provided,  furnished 
r  /  LjJ^yith  a  fine  c.;  honoon, floor ;  honokon, quilt  and  rug; 
r  ^^^onoon  eveSeamhoonevenotto  homao.the  floor  is  carpet¬ 
ed  with  robes, blankets;  zeotatavod  eveseamhooneve  hoe 
mazeomeva.with  green  grass  the  earth  is  carpeted  in 
/‘‘spr  ing ;  Seonon  zesokomoeneziss  eveShotopstotohenotto 
•'  honoq, the  woven  with  stripes  of  rags. 

,  carpetbag,  kaemestoz, small  bag. 

.  01,  ^arrlage.  see  buggy. 

W9  >  Jap carrion,  hov&n  zeoxeozz, animal  which  has  become  rotten. 
iM,#/U>Vrf_i,1carry,  suff .  -ox  implies  the  carrying  on  shoulder  or 
v'di back, see  bear.  Napaovoxta.I  on  shoulder  ;  ^  c. 

-  back, see  bear.  Napaovoxta, 

,ff_napaovoto ,  I  (or.)  on  shoulder  or  back;  napaomo ,  _ 

I  (or.)  on  back  with  blanket;  nahoox.I  c.home 
r  i>~  from  the  hunt;  nahooxeomo.I  (or.)  home  from  the 

i  hunt;  nandto.,  I  (or.);  nandxta,  I;  nanox.I  *'£***' 

V  -ji/r  I  c.,pack;  tahetoxsz  honovonoz.c.  thou  the  meat!  Na-  V1 ‘3* 
hoxezeena,  I  (in  a  sling);  nahoxezeenov ,  I 
,  . .  -  •  '  'r-  -  nanogne-/2u‘c^^^7 

(collective)  in  a  sling;  nanoen.I  c.  along; 

Xcw»»j  *^4,  ( (i«t  ej  a. (fit 
'  ”  -  .  uwlwt  cLji-a&-  I  CLc\^ 

^Ucit-t tViVr  umXw 


,  u. 

- (*“~J  ,  ** 


noz  maxemenoz ,  I  c.  apples  along;  narfofenenon  map,  we  c. 
water  along;  nahooxtanova,  I  c.  food  home  (from  a 
fgast);  hena  zenoensz ,what  does  h^  c. along?  Nanoeoxz, 
along, in  going;  nanoeozesz,  I  c.,  bring  it  along; 
wAO’rnahoz.I  c .with  me, wear;  nahozenoZ  makatansz , I  c .  mo- 
tWU*  jiies  with  me;  nasaahoze  akavanem'ozc ,  I  knife  with 
1%‘tne4'  (Ger-.Tch  habe  kein  Messer  bei  mir) 

•me  _ _ _ _  naakozehesto- 

nahoz^rcVin'my’girdle;  hotam  etaseoestoha  kokon- 
hoo  the  dog  carries  off  the  b/ead;  easetoeostaha,  the 

.in  bcyth  hands,  or.  each  side;  naha- 

hemaxeo-  iin*rn* 

hdo.the  dog  — -  --  .  . 

tiA,0+i4'  Jn  wind  carries  it  of;  (or.)  is  carried 
!  Jr  C-^  fn^o ff  by  wind;  see  blow;  naaseohetovo ,  I  c.  one  (or.) 

’  off;  naaseoheta, I  c.  it  off';  naevhoneno,  I  up- 

VJ  ward;  suff.-naenoe  ref. to  the  carrying  with  arms  or 

']  hands .  Naamenaenoe ,  I  c.wiiih  the  arm  (as  a  pail.etc. ); 

If*4*.  e-*7  nahestovenaenoe  ,  I  c  .  in  both  hands, on  each  side;  naha- 

7estoenaenoe,  I  c.  much  in  my  hands ,  I  have  my  hands  crn'Zjn 
M  ^  *  -jfc>*full ;  nameto-nitaenaenoaf,  I  c. instead  of, for;  hemaxeo  i<n*u<*  , 
US*  a*0  sazistoz  nametonitaenaeloe, I’ s  punishment;  na-  ,, 

„IlS  heomhepenaenoe ,  I  c.more  than  I  can  stand;  naomomenae-  Mt'.L 

9^^  noe  j  c>  with  Weeping ;  naomoinenaenoheme ,  we  c  .with  ^  ^ 

weeping;  zeamenaenoesbd ,  the  ones  who  c.  with  the  i  r 
■  il-  .ft  hands  or  arms.  In  the  sense  of  "involving,  implying,  ,vr£~ 
^  ^(comprising"  inf.  -no^  (=along  with ,  together  with)  is.  *  CtU 
^  X^used;  implies ,  carries  in  itself;  enooetastov, 

X",  it  carries  also  a  ceremonial  with  (it);  enpvovistomo  -  ’  carries  a  teaching.  This  -no-  cannot  al-L  ^ 
L*«t‘  >,  O1/ ways  be  translated  by  "carry", for  it  implies  also^  in  )  -  ■ 

II  relation, holding  with,  in  addition 

lmpilCto  aiou  xix  » 

to, in  connection^/, t 

Wc-’tOH  h£  with”.  See  support.  Natahoha  mohfenoham, the  horse  car- 
|  lr  ries  me;  hovae  zevestahohestove ,  the  thing  by  which 

il  i  carrying, transport  is  accomplished;  etahoeta,  ?r  // 

I  .  one  carries, bears  it  up;  rests  upon  (by /  /M 

‘  V the  means  of),  is  borne  up  by;  zeto  hohona  etahox/. 
i  I  ,!?  &  mhayon.this  rock  carries,  supports  the  house ;  mhayo  - 

j/f ,  <T,yetahoha  hohonaeva,  the  house  is  carried,  borne  by  the  Ul 
./'rock;  etahoetoe , one  (in. or  or.)  is  carried, borne  up 
ir  suff.-eztovo  (  for  the  or.)  and  -ezta  (for  the  in.) 

^  L*  J‘  denotes  carry  in  thfeV sense  of  behaviour , conduct ;  na-; . 

pevaeztovo , I  c. myself  well  towards  one;  naoenovaez „o- 
va, one  carries  himself  patient  towards  me.  See  move, 
remove. take  away, connection.-/—-  c  ' 

the  two  legged  wagon.  1  <«*'»'*■<• 
carve,  namxeaxova.I  c.;  namxeax&,I;  namxeaso,  I  c. 

- 1  r,y  a«  Q  Qt.nnel:  mxeaxovatoz , the  carving;  na  , 

(.^/‘■Vfjcart ,  zeniSeoxtaz  amoeneo, 

carve,  namxeaxova.I  c.;  namxeax&.I 

-  one  (or. as  a  stone);  mxeaxovatoz , the  carving;  . 

oesova ,  I  c  .  the  meat, cut  it  in  slices  .  1 

cascade,  zeanhoneo  map, falling  water. 

case,  naveana , I;  is  cased;  vehaneo , case , 

-  is  a  c.;  see  bag , envelope . 

haneo , ref . to  smaller  cases,  vehoseo  to  larger  ones, 
.-v'vepemax  =wooden  c.,box;  "heva"  enher  detached 
W'  pref . and  followed  by  the  sub. cj .denotes  "in  Oie  case 


£  c.  4L,L.^1,  444.  .'/  jLds/k , 


that";  hevahSmoxtasz,  in  the  case  one  is  sick;  pref. 
hevani  (contracted  of  heva  +  hon§)  means:  even  in  the 
case  that;  hevandhovanesz,  even  in  the  c.  one  should 
be  absent;  also  carries  the  meaning  of  "in 
the  c. that", but  at  the  same  time  denotes  "further, 
still", e.g.  vehovahan.if  it  is  still  gone;  venSemasa-  the  case  one  is  further  wicked, 
cash,  makatansz .monies ;  t 6  makatansz  namet^enoz ,he  gave 

me  the  very  money, cash.  viadiU'vveVfl/’, , t/rm i ft u 

\  cask,  vehoemax;  vehoemaxsz  (pi.);''  evehoemxeve ,  i.t  isT|~*  /, 

,  \  ~  cask.barrel.  C-  ^  ^  „  ' 

ji]  cast,  nasdahasen, I  c . into ;  nasdahaz.I  c.into;  nasdaha- 
MfA,  tovo,  1  c«  it  one’s;  naseahazevo,  I  into  it, 

tone ’ s ;  naseahamo.I  (or.)  into;  eanstahamenax, it^/#^^! 
jKfy  is  c.down  by  the  wind  (sp.  of  fruit);  eavahamaz , one 
^  (or.)  c.  himself  down;  eanaham&z,  one  c. himself  do 

^  i/A  from;  see  launch,  throw;  nadahd,z,I  c.,tos‘s  it  upward 
V  sdahasenistoz,  the  casting  into;  ( in .  an&^y,^*-? , 

,  if  or.)  is  c.  upward;  naestano  zeto  hetan  aenonemhayo , 

/jtr  c.thls  man  into  prison  (put  him  in);  see  in, into;  na - 

voneg,  I  am  c.away,err;navoohoeto,I  c . away , reject  one;-  -  ...  '  ' 

l &  JrS  evqp^oeto  c.away  his  wife;  navqpMoesz.  1  uagnj-e~ 

J  'J*  away;  or  one  is  c.away;  ^eyoohoensz,  ; 

1  \t**%hey  (in.),  are  c.away;  evgpjloeo,  they  (or.)  are  c .  J,  A . 




.hey  (in.)  are  c.away; 


,  0.1  o,  \wi.j  cw  c  ^ 

away;  zevqjo^oessS ,  the  ones  c.  away;  inf.-sd-  denotes/^T-,  -z-  -~- 
Uf  "down  into".  The  rad. -aha-  ref.  to  the  throwing,  hurl- 
In ^  ing, driven  by  force.  Eseostaha,  it  is  c.  driven  away  ' 

by  wind;  see  blow.  casts  light.  77 a-<Aa&a.tUt, 


caster,  zistahoneSeo  .where  it  rests  upon .  H-a./cTe-  i^At  CJ 


1  veeostono.I  (or.)  instantly;  eveeoeded, 

'  one  has  been  instantly  castigated;  veednestoz, the 
castigating;  veeohestoz,  the  being  castigated.  See 

castor-oil,  amsc  zeveSeoom’nistove ,  oil  with  which  to  AvtH/i 
purge;  also  amsc  zevede-sdamasedezistove . 
castrate,  naoxozevanoham, I  c.the  horse, also  for  cattle; 
j  naoxozevaso(?) ,1;  zeoxozevaesz, the  cas- 

/  trated  one;  zeo.xozevaess6 ,  the  castrated  ones, 
casually,  r.ohas  hama  toned, at  any  time;  taometoned,  ad; 

-  no  specified  time;  inf .-momaxom-  denotes  cas¬ 
ual,  without  design,.  w  ca,, 

cat,  kaesehotam, short  nosed  dog  rkaes>fshort  nosed  +  ho  -  itekjiL6}u.- 
tarn  =dog) ;  kaesehotamess .young  c. .kitten.  Hetaneka-^^^  t 
esehotam , tomcat  (male  cat);  heekaesehotam, female  cat.  1  1 

cataclysm,  zemhadvatto .deluge ;  inf.-mha-  expresses  the 
—  overwhelming  force, e.g.namhaomeeoz, I  am  over¬ 
whelmed  by  misfortune. 

catalepsy,  zeoxcenaeozistov, the  becoming  dead, 
catapult,  is  hurled  out;  see  throw, 
cataract,  zemaxeanhoneo  map, a  great  failing  of. water.  .  d 

(> .  (^Wcrnt-  nr  Uit',  .. 

tVcixrwJ^-  (VStfluT  a.  _°vCc  t  vv^TO . 

OLA  c/^M|AA»-e-frYca4 

pV  QcryJL  OL  ^  C . 

W  aa- 
i<ATCU'W-'o  e  w  «*i 

tutnrA^  c . 

'  .ieiwubfa  uUlud^ 

't  -  4  brOL~~h.  hra^,f^r^*-  <2' 

KxLy£,  a‘ 

l^ou  o- 

vtax*  o^rc^X^u. *^e.,»> 

\  F-  ' 



\  catarrh,  heahestoz , coughing ;  nah&a  (or  -h&ya) ,  I  -cough. 

V  catastrophe,  see  calamity.  .- 

\  catc 4,  nanhaenen, I  c.;  nanhaeno.I  (or.),  zenha- 

\  -  ensz ,  the  caught  one  (or.);  zenhaenessd, 

\  ^(pl.);  nanhaena,  I  c.  it;  nanhaena,  I  am  caught  by 
UWt snow';  zenhaenaz , the  one  caught  in  snow;  nanhaova  I  am 
tiin  caught  in  the  rain;  zenhaovaz,  the  one  caught  in  the 
^A'rS;  nanhae.I  am  caught  by  fire  or  fire  catches  me; 
“  nanhaono.I '(with  instr.);  nanhaoha  I  (ms- 

nanhaoxta, I  c.  with  the  mouth ;  nanhaomo , I 
\ C-fan  (or  )  With  the  mouth;  inf.  -nha-  -to  center  to  with 
^  ut  speed;  [nanhatovo,  I  come  to  one;-  nanhadovo.I  clash 

.d'H  |  with  one;  nanh&xzevo ,  I  come  to  one];  nanhaoxta.I  c.  a 
'  glimpse  of  it;  nanhaomo, I  c.  a  glimpse  of  one  (or.), 
^  'H  /J  nahonovoto.I  by  snare;  nanhaonoto.I  c.o 
.  ..  Ly  Y  +vrr,-  nqnhaonotsan.  I  c.lhac 

with  a  snare  or  trap;  — .. - 

r7j,.i]  Wy  snare;  naekotdno.I  (or.) 

one  (or.) 

nanhaonotsan,  I  c. (habit)  with 
■■■  ^.JPIPI  Pile  (or.)  by  trap;  nashovanha- 

^ono  l’missed  catching  one  (or.); ^ashovanhaeno  I  m 

S  T  matching  one  (by  hands);  naonohono ,  I  c ., land , bring 

X  Si  cor?)  to  shore  with  net,  instr  ;  £«»»£«*. 

%,■£  ESEUS  it  o^ght.struck.hit  ..  the  tranches 

4^,3  .s^aj-ks)-  nhaeneo ,  catch ,  booty  ;  nhaenenistoz, the  catch 

1  S;  nh^nistoz.^he  catching  by  i^tr . ;  nhaonotsanxs- 

i  •  V*  toz.the  catching  .taking  with  snare  (as  »  habit) , 

n A"  ssjsi^-t.siw w sas^su.: . 

I  JlV'f/  caught  in  the  rope, or  thread, is 

110,1  C'°ne  (0r,)  With  a  r0pe;  — —  for.') 

a  rope;  ‘ranhaor  otatanotovo, '  I  desire.  ’ 

cat e chi sm^mscTst d^zenovov i stomdsz  nha  «tose« ataesz  or 

— — "’vovistomeyazistoz  •  zeoxceveSevovistomoes  ze 


£*-<*-*  t  i-7  irripiA  ,«. ., 

Lrv"flv*«^;  (I-  (Lfc*j  0*u^.  cJiuA^J-- 

iTULs  ,LA"  Z  D  J  _  /5l^  1  -  . 

iU  **■ 

ttfi  C.X**M~  "1  cvr-  lUi,  -  l*-e-  •'0  ,  IVT”  ",»r 



i  who  is  to 

x  ■  >'  -'VETljUfc 

toseeosifaesz ,  the  teaching  taught  to  the 
he  baptized. 

catechi/e,  naoxceendzta,  I  am  catechising,  asking  ques- 
’  ‘  ~  tions;  naoxceenoztovo  zenoohatamo  zeto  ka§- 

gon.I  c.this  child, lit. I  ask  questions  of  (or.)  this 
child, thereby  judging  it.  Naoxceendztovo  zeto  vostan- 
eo  zenoohatamon  eodostahevoss  na  mo  hovahan.I  c. these 
people , thereby  finding  out  whether  they  are  Christi¬ 
ans/  or  not. 

categpry,  nhestavono , that  c. (alluding) ;  enhestavonoeve , 
it  (or  i 

see  class, kind. 


iuJ  < 

e)  is  of  that  < 
cater),  see  provide. 

caterpillar,  me§emen,the  hairy  worm;  meSemlneo ,  (pi ..)  ; 

f  emeSemeneve, it  (or.)  is  a  c. 

catfish,  mohe&zenanoman;  see  fish. 

cathartic,  zeveSeoom’nistov  eseoxz;  zeoacemenoesz  zeve- 
j  geoom’nistov, round  pills  to  purge  with, 
catholic,  zemoxtavostassd , the  black  robed  ones. 

cattadil,  vitandsz, (pi. ) ;  vitanoese.a  patch  of  cattails .  Jtoj-i/e-tff- 
catt.l  pi,  vfehoehotoa,  (pi)  ;  c.,  (veho(e)  = 

|  white  man  +  hotoa  =bull , buffalo )  rvif***^  _  ra/r 

I  inf .-hesse-  ^because ,  for  xne  c .  ,  in  behalf;  na-<r / 
hessepevetanooz ,f or  a  c.I  rejoice;  nahesse6zeta- j. 

1 0$t  notovo.I  am  worried  for  one’s  c.,in  one ’ s  'behalf ;  na J ' 
/^^hessdho , I  (or.), or  I  have  c. against  one  (or.);^ 
chesses z,T  c-it;  nahesshaenon  is  the  ); 
i  our  sickness;  hessazistoz, the  c.;  hovae  nasaa- 

hesshahenov, they  have  no  c. against  me;  heto  ehessene-  ;ct'  ' 
<lVtP<  Zp^eve,  he  does  it  for  this  c.;  zeto  zehessazistovsz ,  <  -f  u 

'  ^  this  one, who  is  the  c.;  suff.-esdho  (or.)  and  -es<§sz 
(in. )  .sometimes  only  -s6ho  and  a  causative  , 

"0  ending;  see  causative  Nar.aozesdho ,  I  c .  one  J4 , ;/,  .v  - 
°r.)  to  sleep;  nameetanos^ho ,  I  c.  him  to  remember;  y,  , 

^  Jr in  ^naheznessesz.I  c.  it  to  go  forth.  The  nouns  of  thisA^WVJ; 

causative  in  -sdho  and  -sesz  are  of  two  kinds ,  the  - 

^n. agent  and  the  v.n.;  na6zetanos6ho , I  to  worry;^^, 
fr'  Jr  jozetanosohe ,the  c.of  worry  (n.agent.);  ozetanosohes - 4 f iLufitt 
toz.the  c.of  worry, the  causing  of  the  worry;  e6zetan-^y^f 
IrPrhf** °sohetto,it  is  causing  worry  (n.agent.);  eozetanoso-'  •  C 
jr,  jr]  hestov,  it  is  a  c.of  worrying.  Suff.  -s6ho  denotes^'.  - 
"cause  one  to  be  agency";  when  the  "s"  is  not  used  c,t #/„. 

}’Wr  and  the  suff. is  only  -6ho,the  action  is  direct,  e.  g.  *>' 

’  nahamoxtasdho.I  to  be  sick;  nahamoxtadho , I  make 

one  sick.  Suff.-pho  has  practically  the  same  meaning 
as  -6ho,  only-  that  the  last  implies  result, effect; 
without  medium, while  suff.  -oho  =actuate  one  to.  See  .,fxMd.*mU?ec,  e. 

caution,  naohaevdtpe , I  c.,warn  admonish;  naohaevamo,  I 
-  '  (or.)  ;  r.aohaevata,  I  c.  it;  nanahevamo.I 

c . .urge  ore  to  beware;  na5haetan,I  have  c.;  ohaetan, 
the  c  /.itself ;  ohaetanoxtoz ,  the  thot;  ohaevatomo- 


C  -  ri^L 

cautious  english-cheyenne  dictionary 

he, the  cautioner;  ohaevatomohestoz ,  the  cautioning 
factin  on);  ohaetanoxz , that  which  cautions;  naohae a-  cautioning, that  in  me,  which  cautions .warns ; 
nahevevatomo'ne ,  the  one  who  cautions,  urges  .o  beware 
(predicative  meaning)  nahevevatomosanehe  (n.  agern..), 
nahevev&tomosanistoz , the  urging  (agency)  to  beware, 
the  cautioning;  zenahetanoz , the  one  who  takes  o-., pre¬ 
caution,  is  wary;  zenahevevamsz, the  one  cautioned ,macU 
wary;  zeohaevamsz , the  one  cautioned, admonished,  warn¬ 
ed;  zeoxeS-ohaevamevoss.altho  they  had  been  caution 
ed;  aninos .with  c. .carefully .  See  care 
cautious,  naveSchaetanoxzevenon,  we  are  made  c .  oy  n, 

- - opopgetnn.^"*-  is  too  c.,too  slow;  mf.-ohoome- 

-  =with  caution, care .watch;  naohoomeevosan,  I  look  c.; 
naohoomeetan, I  am  c.,wary;  heto  eohaetanoxzeva ,  it  is 
c.  (predicative  meaning);  zeto  hetan  zeohaetanoxze- 
vaz  this  man  who  is  of  c . character (predicative ),  heto 
mxisto  zeohaetanoxzevatto , this  book  which  cautions, 
makes  c.;  is  c.,  prudent;  zeohansz,  the  c  . 
prudent  one;  eohaesz  or  speaks  cautiously 
or  cautioning, with  counsel.  See  careful, 
cautiousness,  ohaetanoxzevestoz ;  ohoomeTOsamstoz ,  c., 

watchfulness ;  nahetanoxtoz ,  c.,  wariness; 
dhetanoxt'oz.c .  .consideration;  8“»nes^_c^ru4enCe ' 

ijyVc.)"  e^  eaves  (ref. to  Srljn?  under 

down);  caves  in  (of  grounH) ;  eyosoe 
tam  is  caves, hollows  out  (water);  vox, hole,  c.,  evoxe 
ie  It  is  I  hile  in  the  ground. a  c.;  heszevox,  one  *  s 
’den  (sp.  of  animal);  zexhoazenatto  heszevox,  the 
\Jjjf movt h , entrance  of  c.;  maxevox.a  large  hole.c  ^  maeo- 

an  enormous  cave  in  the  North,  where  they  took  refuge 
dav  and  where  they  found  an  immense  flock  of 
““ntafn  sheep)  the,  could  see ,t.r  i»t< 0  the  reoe  - 
nr  +hP  cavern  countless  eyes  shining  ir  the  darKne-o. 
So.Ser odor  .as  so  strong  as  to  ho 

?rs;=d,””a’“»?n  Signlie  the  «tite 

«ee  (in  ceremonial  language).  Old  _informants  told 
writer  that  there  used  to  be  a  race  of  people 
underground  and  making  the 

would  forge  metals.  Have  they  ref. t  P  P  ■ 
from  the  south  and  doing  mining  in  the  mountains. 




fr*~L  Muf' 

'  ,»»*&££? 



maxevox ;  is  a  c.,a  great  hollow 
in  the  ground.  Zexhoazenatto  maxevox, the  mouth 
Entrance  of  a  c . 

■avity  it  a  c.,  hollow;  heves  s ^ 

■ - tooth  has  a  c.;  see  hollow, hole, empty. 0^t^^rrefyU4te.‘ 

iease ,  rendered  by  inf.  -oano~  and  -oan-  =to  subsideW^ 

quieten, let  ds>xm  "from;  eoanhozeoeoz , one  ceas eb^r  _  * 
-from  working-;- eoanoeoz, one  ceases  , subsides ;  oanosz.c.  eeMA&ewafa 
'  talkingT^s  quiet;  eoanaxane ,  one  is  of  quiet  disposi-^^|^^|a^  8 
X^4"'  ti-ofif  See  quiet,  peaceful.  Inf.  -6n-  <£st0]j^r°J"> 
naenhona ,  I  c. praying;  see  end  .stop,  e  o/n***tzir*A*5< 
l vl  •  ceaseless,  does  not  end;  esaaoanoeoze- 
-  is  e..does  not  quit ,  quieten . 

cedar , 

.aCIJCU^GJiQii,  x  o  ~  ~  - »  - 

'  is  c.,does  not  quit .quieten, 
gistato;  gistatoc, small  c.;  egistatoeve,  it  xo  t. 

-  c.;  gistatoeSe, patch, growth  of  cedars;  the  term 

gistato  applies  also  to  other  coniferous  trees,  e.g. 
xamagistato , vevgistato  and  vokomsistato .  See  under 
"fir".  The  word  gistato  applies  also  to  lumber;  esis- 
tatoevston  heto  mhayo.this  house  is  built  of  c.,  lum- 

ceiling  gegemhayo  heama  zeestovoeha,  the  c.  of  a  bed 

- ’room  (when  ceiled);  heama  zeneota,  the  c.of  a 

room;  heama  eveSeestovoeozenotto  gistato , it. js  ceiled 
above  with  cedar.  .  ... 

celebrate,  hiz  e§eva  evegemeetanotoe , to  day  we  c.,^lit. 

-  it  is  commemorated, remembered;heovaszetoetas- 

tov&  is  celebrated, remembered  with 
divers  "doings";  emom&tavoetastove.a  ceremony , rite  is 
celebrated;  niohaoton.we  c., extol  one;  heto  e§eva  na- 
vegemeetanotoe  zexhestaozetto , to  day  I  birthday 
(lit. to  day  it  is  remembred  that  I  was  born).  Zeto 
hetan  eohaoseoneve , this  man  is  celebrated,  extolled; 
zeto  hetan  epaveneevaoe  zeoxtohetaomao ,  this  man  is 
celebrated  (well  known)  all  over  the  land, 
celebration,  amoetastoz  zevegeemeetanoxtove ,  c.,  doing 

-  by  which  commemoration, remembrance  is  made; 

hiz  egeva  emaxhetotae-meetanoxtove ,  this  day_  is  a 
grea‘  c.,a  joyful  commemoration;  eg  eenane  zevegemee- 
tanoxtcv-  day  is  appointed  for  c ., remembrance . 
celerity,  sevastoz;  o  otovestoz.c . ,  hurry;  erseveoxz, 

- o  e  goes  with  c.;  er.gevhozeoheo ,  they  (or.) 

work  withe.;  inf.  -gev-  denotes  c . .quickness ;  inf. 
-maxengev-  or  -ohaengev-  =great  c., velocity. 

-maxengev-  or  -onaensev-  -great  t- . , » • 
celestial,  hearna  zehesso,  that  which  is  from  the  sky, 

-  heaven;  heama  zehestaz.the  (or.);  heama 

zehestassfl , the  c.  ones;  zetohetaeamoesenavoss  voeva, 
the  c. bodies  (or.);  1  t.all  that  have  their  floating 
in  the  sky, heaven;  heama  (or.)  is  c., 
ma  is  c.,is  from  the  sky.  . 

celibacy,  saavistomazhestoz, the  non  marrying;  hovodhes- 
toz, bachelorhood. 



cellar,  hoemhayo;  ehoemhayoneve ,  it  is 
house;  navosoha  hoemhayo, I  dig  a  ( 
word  for  cellar. 

i  c . ,  ground 

sed  for  lime ) ;  also 


cement,  voozena.c. (same  word  u  — 
zena.zeotatav. jw 

cemetery,  seoto  ze^tonoevoss , where  the  corpses(or.)  are 
buried.  The  Ch. buried  usually  on  top  of  hills, 
if  possible  on  trees , or, on  scaffolds  called  niveoxta- 

*v*-n5  ****** — verty  k 

naveoeto.I  (or.);  naveoesta,  I  (in 
words);  naveoestomosan, I  c.(as  an  office,-  voca¬ 
tion);  naveoestomoe ,  I  c.  (engaged  in);  zeveoesz.the 
censured  one;  zeveoestomosansz,  the  censuring  one; 
eveoestomohetto ,  it  censures;  veoetazistoz,  censure; 
veoestomosanistoz  or  veoestomohestoz,  the  censuring; 
esaahotoahestShan, it  is  censured.not  approved  of  (in 
words);  zehegevevo  naveoestomo,  he  censures  my  doing; 
nasaahotoahestomohe  naaseoxzistoz,  he  censures  my  de¬ 
parture  , complains  about  it  (in  words ).^ 
census,  hostonestoz.the  counting;  etosehostonstov, there 

-  is  to  be  a  c.;  nistoha  matbte  5  eoxcemahoemeo 

vostaneo.a  taken  of  the  people  every  ten  years; 
lit. every  ten  years  they  are  all  counted, the  peoples; 
ni tosehSeinanhemA  zehestxez.a  c.will  be  taken  of  us. 
cent,  macemakat , the  small  red  money  (metal );  Jiaesto  ma- 
cemak&tansz,  many  cents;  nasz  macemakat,  one  c.; 
nasaahemacemakataeme , I  have  no  penny;  heva  nasz  mace¬ 
makat  nasaahoz6,I  have  not  one  c.with  me. 
center ,  sound  "n"  (denotes  center-  into  or-Xr-om-wh-ich. 

T - ^tEven^oxzf, c . of  tree.  Whenever  the  subject  or  ob- 

jet  is  the  c .towards  which  action  or  statement  con- 
Ky  -verges, ietter  "n"  must  be  inserted, e. g.  ;  nimezz,  give 
fi,(4t0^9h°u  to  me;  nixhotahaove ,  tell  (you)  me;  ninhetaz  I 
/iT1^  say  unto  you;  nanoxzoto,I  go  towards  one  (or.);  zenx- 
1^*'  eoxzetto,  where  I  come-from;  naneaseoxz,  I  departed 

from  there;  this  infers  the  place  where  the  speaker 
t-  is , compared  with  the  one  he  left;  it  implies:  I  left 
^  ^  there  converging  here;  nimenimeto,  thou  shouldest 

c’  Lr'  fetch  it  to  him;  nimenimez,  you  should  fetch  to  me; 
'' ’  <)  r  enhevo , this  is  what  he  says, his  saying  ( 
jY1  V  A-  luding  to  the  one  who  is  mentioned;  eneameoxz,  he  is 
coming  on, toward  the  speaker;  the  Eng. prep. "unto"  is 
the  next  best  equivalent  for  the  Ch."n"  in  all  its 
I  meanings, as  far  as  it  (the  term  unto)  denotes  "un"  - 
back, from  +  "to"  =toward.  Pref.  zexhessene-  denotes 
/  "from  a  center  or  where  the  converging  is";  zexhesse- 
noemeatove , the  c.of  giving, where  the  giving  radiates 
from;  exhessenevohoota, the  .c.of  light .shine;  zexhes 
senevonatto,  the  c.  of  the  branching  (of  branches)^ 
zexhessenevonstov , the  c. where  from  it  branches;  zex- 
hes ser.evo ^ ea , the  c.from  emanation, radiation;  zistane- 

k  ^  *****>  If* 

_ a  ,  jVuJLIW 220 


vonoeoz.c.of  creeks, where  creeks  branch  off jzexhesse- 
nenstov , the  c.of  dispersion, the  point  from  which  the 
going  radiates;  zexhesseneoz  meonoz,  where  roads  c., 
meet  or  start  from.  See  radiate , middle .  The  rad.  -ve- 
carries  the  meaning  of  center ,  center  ing ,  the  point, ob¬ 
ject  or  place  about  which  thing  or  things  cluster; 
hence  — vep  =hollow,  centerless;  ves,  centering  to  a 
point, tooth;  ve, lodge;  hence  also  thg  meaning  of  inf. 

-ve  =getting, growing,  centering,  dimaSt;  etavetor.etto , 
it  is  getting  colder;  inf.-v&xs-  or  -vSs-  =point,end, 
complete, climax.  Inf. -nita-  denotes  center , chief ,  im¬ 
portant;  q.V.  ;  —  V&U- - t? . 


*te rm^'fe o’r^a t a "  '*'impl?fes 
I  Jt.  ~  "austere, grave, solemn, religios, pious  and  c£- 
,f  remonious"  all  combined  in  one.  The  terms  zemomAtk-  /«**• 

hessd ,  zemaheonevessd  and  zevondetanevessd  apply  to  „  '?■£&'- 
Ch. priests  (or  priestesses).  The  "zemomAtahessS"  ar^f\ 
those  who  observe  strictly  all  the  religious  require- 
ments.  The  zemaheonevessd  (mysterious,  supernatural ,  ' 

godly  ones)  inspire  more  fear  and  awe  than  respect.^^O  y^L. 
They  are  the  recognized  theurgists  among  the  Ch.  The^  /// 
evondhessd  or  zevondhetanevessd"  are  the"  "'consecra-^/;/  ^ 

/• 'rr<£  ‘ 

.dru,  ted  ones";  see  under  "burn".-  The  suf.  -oetastoz  is  ,;/ 
the  noun  form  of  the  verbal  ending  -odho  =to  do, act  ' 
'1  >  unto  one;  -oetastoz  "performing, doing" .  Emomd-  4-  is  a  religious , ceremonial  doing;  emo-,  , 
£'  mdtavoeta, one  performs  religious  rites;  ezetoeta,  one/, 

fU**  is  ceremonially  engaged  (ref. to  actual  religious  ma-  - 
!  ffl1'  Le-  nipulation  or  operation);  evistoeta, one  participates 
^  in  a  ceremony;  easetoeta,  one  opens  a  ceremonial  do- 

v  ing;  closes  a  c  .performance ;  eamoeta,  one 
Perf°rming  a  ceremony.  This  term  becomes  now  ap- 
j  .yf'p/Lied  to  fairs  and  divers  celebrations; 
^  «•  Performs  a  ceremony  in  connection  with  another  cere- 

‘  monial.  Except  the  term  "momdtavoeta"  all  the  expres- 
j  ;  S*  ^sions  mentioned  above  are  also  applied  to  any  per- 
<r  ii/rrormance ,  where  there  is  any  ceremony  or  certain 
course  connected  with  it.  The  ceremonial 

rows"  is  really  the  Ceremonial  or  worship  of  the  Ch. 
'iV^i  tf1''  "Par  excellence".  It  was  origi- ated  by  Mozeeoeve  (see 
,t^,Tr  f  arrow)  to  make  his  teachirg  concrete  and  tangible, but 

Id  Hotoanamoss  told  writer, "the  ceremonials  were 
only  the  shell  containg  the  truth".  Writer  heard  the 
Ch."Messias"  leader  (Porcupine)  utter  a  similar  sen¬ 
tence.  A  detailed  account  of  the  Ceremonials  of  the 
Arrows  and  the  Sundance  has  been  written  by  George  A. 
Dorsey  (Field  Columbian  Museum,  Publication  99  and 
103) . 

ceremonious ,  emomdtazhesta,  one  has  a  grave,  c.conten- 



IV^!:!™^’  ious  c  rite ;  mom&tavoanistoz,  ceremonial 
;  1%%^  utterance!  terminology;  emom&tavoan,  one  speaks  with 

k  c. ;zee§6noetastov  emasdhdneoxzistov ,  after  the  c  was 

m  over  (done)  there  was  a  dispersion';  ota  etazheSease- 

toetastov, behold  the  c.  opens  thus  (as  follows);  veho- 

^'  c.(of  the  white  “an),  dostae- 
,  .^V,Umom&tavoetastoz,  Christian  c.;  zessemom&tavoi Bta: sto 

Ch  c  ;  esaaevhazessemom&tavoetaheo , they  (or.,  do  not 
“ierie  the  Ch.c.  .religion  The  inf  .->,an,a-  carries  the 

,  ^  meaning  of  "without  c informal  ,na  .ural  .  An  ehucat 

K;  #  ed  Si  may  come  home  from  school  and  say:  nitaxama- 

^  '  meshem&, let  us  eat  naturall/, without  c^mj^ing  to 

t  eat  in  the  Indian  way . 

/  X^err.uous,  ts  rendered  hy  inf.  -maoxc-  -having  the  apex 

.  ^ i  - or  less  bent  downward.  Emaoxcene  .to  ,  it  n 

•  ’1;*' a s selling.  See  tassel  .Maoxcena, a  c. feather. 

ft*  ,  0.  k(oi_  =Certainly  must;  nasaahokovomoheo ,  I  certainly 
l.JctJ*-  k(oj  them  (or.);  nszhokomese ,  thou  cer- 



Elj-r  a»  not  c. .restate.  «b» 

denotes ' "determination ,  but  not’ particular ized" 

"rendered  by  the  Ch."nasz"  -on.;  nasz  hat ««•; 

■  *  s 

g  /*^^^4iSyttheaCh^"hoii"1isomiS  hisz  vostaneo  eoxceetoxtae c- 
o^erSin  men  are  becoming  ^aid.  The 

: - saah6zer.hessohan  nSeatoz.the  c.o  '  = 

'  ^  since  it  cannot  fail  to  be,  the  death;  ehdzenhesso 

it  cannot  not  be 
:  o.of  God;  lit. since 
e  vhahahe  s  t  o  vhan ,  the 

'  cert i  tude —  ** 



>  jt  fk  elf**4**  oka.^Jf  t^,S  «</■ 

.  c  Osu-Z-  4^/11^,-  e  d  ‘^t~~e' —  &4-e-t0 C4i.i-<_e.  a ^  du**-ui  :  ' /Le-in<-a-fj  £  ac^^x-X^ic 

fcA-1"-),  (ryA-J,  £<x*+£- a.a  **.  imy^s &*'<*-),  cj*<-  <-2~-  is»7k*. Le_ 

K  ^trtfcUA)  cxw-e  _£t^c  /'Ct^-^-^TJ 0*~r  a-^,-*-a-^-J/  -*<- 


syomazesta, I  am  mentally  convicted  that  it  is 

Mizestatoz.the  not  doubting;  hetomhestoZjJtrtfth,  c .  ^ 

cessation,  dneozistoz , the  end;  oanoeozjjafdzTc . ,  the  sub-'  ' 

~~~  '  ^■|f*4|iding  from;  bnetazisjk^ia-fcTof  battle  ,  combat . 

Ux^~  chafe  ,,11  apnexoevoeS  and  nao«^xoeoeseg ,  I  have  my  ski n 
V'HeM  //-£**  abraded,  chafedi^—-€miesenov,  one  is  chafing, fret- 4 
Fv,j‘uL  tinSI  s  eej^rr  naSegehaehana,  I  c.,rub  it, (wear  it** 

■TJLsr*  down,  m«*p5sely  or  otherwise)  .c»l  -cttiee  ~  rr -au-S-  v-  j  , 

y’,  rjLt  chaff  ;''nestbmc5sz ,  its  chaff  .husks/.  U.O.  -o*4-£-*sa^,  a/™"i  ^^~- 

iexf**[7  chagrin ,  venomoxtastoz ;  navenomoxta,  I  am  chagrined, mo r- 

ZL  ~  tified.  'eo.uff&f*? 

"/Lfi chain,  ooneanatonsz ,  chains  ;  honeanato  .handle ,  bail ;  ma-  <tfa  uy>./»~- 
Lifl t‘/\l  ~  kataeseonatorsz , c . traces , tugs ;  natoeto  oor.eanato-  bo/?<i 

*  ■«/’  "Zl^  eva.I  tie  one  (or.)  in, with  chains;  etoehe  ooneanato-. 

V  6  ,  is  tied  with  chain;  zetoehessd  ooneanatoeva./M^"'**'''’*- 
rf  the  ones  (or.)  bound  in  chains, the  chained  ones;  na - lUfirutauaA 
^  vegetoetonoz,  ooneanatonsz,  I  bind  one  (or.)  with 
chains ; in  the. sense  of  range,  connected  series,  inf.  - 
-ese-  is  used.e.g.  nakosetto , bear  range;  eseom.c.of 
hills .  LcTt^-t -i eL~-^. 
chair,  taxeseestoz;  nataxe^e.I  sit  upon;  taxesestotoz, 
chairs;  is  a  c. 
chairman,  zenitaeszz.the  c., leader  in  speaking.. 

chalk,  voozena  zeveSemxistonstov,  lime  with  yhj.chyit/  ■/ * 

'  written. 

-  Challenge,  namenano ,  I  c./one  (of.);  ntffoenaost&no ,  re . 

one , instantly^  namenhaen, I  am  challenged;  na -7eni7n/ia*t**-\ 
nkM  ,ometoxano,I  close  to  one  (running  as 
, possible  to  the  enemy  to  dare  him )  .'H.ieu.fao./Hsa/w ,**■&> 

</■'  chamber,  heama  zeneots(,  upper  room;  SeSemhayo , c . , bed-'^*^V^,w''^’ 

\ J.1-'  room.  ***-  /-rf  -V/,  /*  e^r1***-  ^ 

''  champ ,  nakokoonenig , I  c., gnash  the  teeth;  kokooneSen^-  j 

the  champing  of  the  teeth.  -Ay  l*-&n 

champion,  see  defend;  zehotfivaz,  the  c .  .^victor  ;  Asee  '^cer^-- 
overcome  .victory .  ja 

chance ,  see  happen;  inf .-nonxema-  =chance;  nffhxematxo 
by  c.;  nametomevo.I  give  one  (or.)  a  c., room, op - 
portunity;  metomevazistoz ,  c  . ,  opportunity;  sometimes  *^**2*^. 
the  verbal  suff.of  the  used  to  express  "c.",e.  jLr  *- 

g.  naaxevaenS,  it  chances  to  stirke  me;  said  of  in . or  a 
or . subj .which  is  merely  the  agency  of  the  action,  asti#. 
when  a  branch  of  a  tree  would  strike  one  or  if  some 
one  while  hammering  would  inadvertently  hit  another 
bV**/one.  Nasaazegetanotomone , the  c.was  not  given  me;  lit.  4  <-/ 
r> JU. t  was.nevef  thot  of  me;  nonaxenegevestoz  nasaameto- 
jvX  c.was  given  me  for  the  doing;  lit. the  possi-  4L« 

•  )(}^  j^/bility ,  the  likeliness  of  doing  was-  not  given  place  to  ^'CK. 


me  (Ger.die  Moglichkeit  des  Tuns  war  mir  i 
raumt);  is  a  mere  c.  Chance,  as 
an  unknown  agency , independent  of  causation, is  foreign 
"  '  '  -  •  •  whatever  happens  is  not  a 


IT  1  i/  to  the  Indian  mind 



/ (ft#**-  nu.  state-  60*01'*-  i+t£ai/*S?' 

.  j Ttfe+a.efJrfo-l'S-  ~S>. 


\  Z<L..„/  ENGLISH-CHEYENNt  DiCTI  OMl,^  .vS--?25»4. , 

\^  '3'a±fts?‘^s!S 

Sx^.'-s^.s-ss s  ^ 

not  a  chance.  Hence  the  Ch.  vocabulary  has  no  exact 
rendering  for  the  Eng.  "chance", 
chandelier,  zehaestohestaenatoona  vohoksenamstoz  the 
ctondelier,  branched  lamp;  zenis5xtohestaenatoon 

zeveSevohoksenanistov,"  the  seven  branched  made  one 
wherewith  the  lamp  consists",  the  seven  branched 
candlestick  in  the  Tabernacle, 
change  v.rad.nitav  =change  .differentiate  ;  namtayanen, 

- — ’i  c . .make  different;  nanitavano,  I  c. one  (or.); 

nanitavana  I  c.i't;  nanitavananoz, I  c . them  ( in  . )  ;  eni-  or  one  is  changed. made  ^^en-; 
nan  I  am  changed;  nanitavae,  I  am  different,  (state,, 
ty  nanltaveoz.I  am  changing;  nanitavaoz , 1  : 

'  eenltave!esz?oAe  cha^rllF'speech,0 speaks  fj^rent! 

something  else , exchange ;  nametdenoham  I  c.hor  , 

✓  -r-  _  _i _ ^DtrQnn  T  c  .  ClOtJlins  « 



g  ,0,A.  something  else ,  exchange ;  nametoenonam 

dkj!  sssisixrfessfu 

/ia;  wnen  ^  •  - - 

e§iSinovozeveoz,  he  changes 

JTJJSrtMnwi  Appearance  changes;  enitaTci 
oM's^f^ehanged;  has  a  change, 
heart-  Maheo  endtovenitavstahano  vostano,  God  can  o. 
S!  heart  of  man;  nanitavana  natSetanoxtoz ,  I  c  my 
nanitftvetan.I  think  diffekent ;  nanitarheaetan- 
oxzeve, I  ha,e  a  different  mndi  nanitav.detan,^ 

’l  Tdifferent' opinion;  enitavaheoneve ,  _  one  cha*gJr 

A  able;  inf.  .vyovpS  (vo#es)-  :ehan^ngl  anSW’ 

refor^txaevhajtajotovo  I  c  my  m  ■ 
^  /  (state);  nitaveozistoz, the  changing  (process)  nitava 

L\  fitVft.  vcX» .  v«.  c*vl . 

y  etA—Ch-efc/.  J7  oL*-*\+0ft  ->  t  ul/li'Vj 

[*&■)  *}?*+' fc ;  M  A  e  / \4YLHi-41.  £1*  f  / 0-^1  r/ 

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pfjU,  e-xS'S y 

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4l  «#<e/ 


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-  . 



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l±^-Xr^O-  ,  CK  <Jl+-e 


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&  ?c> 


O'lb'iy  ■ 



ozistoz,  the  c.  (fpom  a  state);  nitavstahatoz,  c.of 
heart .different  heartedness;  nitavstahanazistoz,  the 
c.of  heart;  nitavetanoxtoz  or  nitaveSetanoxtoz,  c.  of 
mind;  metpmevazistoz'  turn, alternate ;  metdehozeo- 
hestoz.the  working  by  c.,  turn  (by  changing  about); 
vovoge-ohetanoxtoz, c.of  mind, reconsideration;  evhavo- 
voghestaozistoz, rebirth, regeneration;  evhavovogevos- 
tanehevestoz , c . of  life , conversion ;  see  relief;  nita- 
vatamanoestoz, c . of  weather , aspect , general  appearance; 
metoenenistoz ,  c.,  exchange;  metoenohamestoz,  c.  of 
horses;  metdevsanistoz.c.of  clothing;  nitavsanistoz, 
c.of  cloting, different  clothing;  metdevsanistoto.c.of 
dress;  nitavhestatoz , c . of  condition, being;  nitavomox- 
tastoz.c.  of  feeling  (phisical);  nitavoanistoz  or  ni- 
tavomaozistoz , c.of  feeling  (psychical);  nitavomazis- 
toz,c.of  utterance;  oxhesta  epevomoxta, there  is  no  c. 
in  one’s  well  being;  oxhesta  ehesta, there  is  no  c . in 
one’s  condition. 

changeableness ,  nitavaheonevestoz. 

changeable,  enitavaheone ve ,  one  is  c.;  eni tavaheonevs-  is  c.;  is_c., in¬ 
terchangeable  ;  enitavatamanoheoneve ,  the  weather, as¬ 
pect, general  appearance  is  c.;  endtovemetdene ,  it  can 
be  changed , exchanged , interchanged ;  eneheoxseoneve , one 
is  c. , a. changeling, inconstant .fickle . 
changeful,  esaatoomahehe ,  one  as  c.,  does  not  abide  by; 

_  esaat00ma-ttanj  1 1  is  c.,  mutable , subject  to 
change;  eoxceonitavetanoheoneve,  one  is  c.  in  mind; 
eneheoxseoneve , one  is  c. .fickle, inconstant, 
changeless,  is  rendered  by  inf.  -toom-  =un changing, re-  • 
"  mainijng  the  same, or  at  the  same  place;  Maheo 

etoomahe,  God  'is  c.;  toomevostanehevestoz,  c.  life 
(eternal  life);  toomezhestatoz , c . condition ;  toomahes- 
toz, changelessness ;  etoomenistxeo ,  they  remain  toge¬ 
ther, do  not  change;  toometto,  changeless"ly " ;  etoom-  remains  (setting)  c.;  pro¬ 
ceeds  without  change;  natoomana,  I  make  it  c.,make  it 
remain  the  same , immutable . 
changeling,  nha  zeneheoxseonevsz , the  c., fickle  one. 
changer,  nha  zemetoenensz.the  one  who  changes,  exchang- 
es;  jnetoer.eneo ,  the  c. 

channel,  zeamotohe.that  which  is  dug, ditched;  map  eso- 
komevosaonetto , the  water  digs  out  a  c.;  naamo- 
tovoson, I  dig  (instr.)  a  c.;  nahaeotSvosoha, I  channel 
it  deep  (see  dig);  naamemxeoha,  I  make  a  c. .groove 
(instr.)  it;  naamevxeax,  I  cut  groove , channel  (with 
knife);  navosoha  amovaneneo,  I  dig  a  water  e., ditch 
(for  irrigation);  naamsevosor , I  dig  a  c ., ditch , groove 
across;  naamsevosoha, I  dig  a  c. across  it;  naamsevxea- 
x&,I  cut  (with  knife)  a  c., groove  across  it;  gistato 
eamsevxeaxeo , the  boards  are  grooved  across;  hesthoe 


■jlc.  (Huyttutt*  “vALrA  *K-  X*  SU-,  t-r“  cC**C  Jitt/Zj' S<*.  rfy-  . 

*  -.  '7  *-x-L-,/i*-&asz.  A tfs**.  o£H  t‘j-, 

y*+4^i  ///ne7  c  zAasz-aLcA**-**' XtyA&*7‘'< Aa* 

\  a.  £tfiAcjC  a_  U^}  *~ttr-J£j  9k-  C4>UAK-+~*«-*tL<r  lA^tX**'**.  /L /•-*-'  «_ 

7  r  .  L.  fF/1  *.  t7-o*-U- ,  *KaAa-*S-i**K-a-f'?it-rz-e  0  ^ +J>,V, 

-  P>LCTJPN>RY  ^  ^  CHARM  ^ 


_  _  _  e.  Xc.  7" 

—  f-  en^^h-c'h^ennT% - .„.. - 

/'V  f7*^  *  e/ime/  ,T-Vr**+~s  Ms?i£/>tuivj  iU  fW 

/ esoxpeamotohe ,  his  land  is  crossed  by  a  c., ditch. 
Esoxpeamomoeha,  it  is  a  c.,  narrow  body  of  water,  a 
strait.  In  the  sense  of  "line  of  activity,  direction 
of  effort"  channel  is  rendered  by  inf. -he-  or  -hese-; 
zehethozeohetto ,my  line  of  work;  enitaez’  zehethozeo- 
hes.his  line  of  work  is  different;  zeheszheSevostane- 
hevstovetto ,the  c., direction  of  my  living, 
chant,  see  sing, carol. 

chaos,  totahopepeastcz, utter  disorder;  etotahopepeasto- 
~  ve,it  is  chaotic;  see  disorder, 
chap,  see  rough. 

chapel,  maheonemhayo .also 'maheoneeszejnhayo .  See  church. 

^char,  see  burn, scorch ;cU-~~uL}  -ii -,»<» « -»«•* \ 

character,  usually  rendered  by  suff  .-eoneve ;  epevazeo-**  ct'ar'  (/ 

' jrro*'rilx/  KLtA***^  ~  neve, one  is  of  good  c.;  zeheghestatto ,  my  c., 
vZ t ifa  being;  eonoazeoneve ,  one  has  c.,  is  honorable;  hovae 
iJ -<,/?'^eve§ePevane  r.ivostanehevstonan, something  whereby  our 
T*i' er1'1**1"’  c  • ,  life  is  bettered;  tass  zeheSetovatto  heto  neSeves- 

toz.the  c.of  this  doing;  heto  mhayo  zeheSetovamane , 
totye)L^  the  c., purpose  of  this  house. 

7  characteristic ,  inf.-neeva-  = known  by;  eneevaheneenoe, 

7  it  is  one’s  c.,one  is  known  by. .  • 

1r**1  _  characterise,  eneevaheneenoe ,  it  characterizes  one; 

,]ft  J1'  "  ehese^tovatto  characterizes  evil . 

charcoal.  toesgahoos ,  fire  coal.  >  -  uu*  * 

i^\niae'oSe,ltoen,one  charges , rushes  at  us;  niaeoze-  ^  ^ 
oneo.we  c.,make  an  onset  on  them;  nahoemen- 
fnargeiT,  attacked;  namenano,  I  c . , challenge 
•  iamivniaxemo , I  c.-,  accuse  one;  is  ^  w*' 
naamatomon,  it  is  charged  to  me  (as  a 
het'b *naneevavoxta, I  am  in  c.of  this, watch  it; 

(or.);  nanetootan  heto  yity  ft] 




layd  |to 

nsfnee  vav5mo\l 

hpzeojhestoz A  this  work  is  under  my  c.(lit . hj 

sntrustad  to  me;  nanethozetanenotto  zeto.v^ 
ise  peopj^e  are  my  c.,my  duty.  d^&,1A£»vi4e'W»1 ^ ■ 
tahoest\to ,c . ,war  horse;  natahoe^foTo  ,my  c.  ’”'un\u 
tariot  zeniseoxtaz  amoeneo,  the  two  legged  wagon  ‘itfr'rV‘  . 
(or.  )  .  Hi j'e'f-yfa -  &A.  ■  tM'^\  J 

merciful;  epevoe-  ^ 

/charital le ,  eSivaz  is  c., merciful;  epevoe- ^g.,1**" >/ 
k.  c.,kind  in  acts;  eoxceSivaztaetovo  is  \. towards  the  poor;  see  beneficent.  'W 
givaztaheonev^stoz .mercifulness ;  mehoxtastoz ,  UfA 
..kindness;  mehpse-pevoStastoz , c . ,  lovingkind-  j«£*' 
ness  ifn  acts;  mehos-ho'toastoz,  c. ,  loving  generosity ; 

s tamer 




”  cha 

t  y\f^7iv 

see  bejievolence . 

see  pretend  A 
ee  attract;  vonl 
Charms  are  worn 
her  parts  of  the  body.N 

ng.des: rable ;  emomoxenonoVit  looks 



cV amulet;  von&xasz  (pi. 

‘  .e  hair,  around  the  neck 
Emomoxenohe ,  one  looks 

WoJMvyV'IU vJ. 

.  tvk .  Wu ievw  t* 


- «>  cjulf- 

iia-a.  ' 


cha£y,  eohan , one  is  c ., cautious , prudent ;  enahetanoheo-  is  c.,wary. 

ctiase »  nanehosan.I  c.;  nanehomohe ,  I  am  chasing  after" 
enehotaneva, one  is  chasing, trailing;  hot am  etse- 
totomo.the  dog  chases  one  away;  naasevoeovo , I 
off;  nahosetxeovo, I  c.  one  home.;  naasetxeovo , I 
away;  nahoetxeovo.I  out;  nahoxovetxeovo ,  I  c.one1'^"”": 

chasm,  zemaxeox oma eo z , a  great  crackln  the  ground;.  see'^^T" 
abyss.4-u.b.6,MW,  WflvoMto,  JQA-q-ye  c4^Tu 

chaste,  ekoma.ohe  is  c.;  ekomheeve,  she  fs  k  c.  virtu-No* ° 
ous  woman;  see  pure, virtuous  yc-jkt*. 

chasten,  haomenhestovS,  naveeoaon.I  am  chastened  in 

fliction;  nanizeomac  hamoxtastoz,  the  sickffess 
Maheo  nioxchekomaden,  God  chas 

chastens  me; 

makes  us  chaste.  See  chastise. 

rens  us , 

- - - 

chastise,  navehoeto.I  (or.)  in  w^pdTs;  navehoesto-Wd^ 
moe.I  am  a  chastising;  n&vtTedno.I  (or . )^ 
with  rod;  naveeostono , I  c .oner  instantly,  in  a  flash  •  ***»*.  , 
eveeoeges  ,  one  (or.)  isjsirSeti  sed  instantly.  See  pun-^V'1^. 
ish,  castigate. 

chastity,  komas^e^Tekomastove ,i t  is  c.;  komheSvestoz 
c  .  in  woman ;  see  pure . 

chat,  navistonovamaj I  c.with  one  (or.);  vistonovamazis^-  ■£*** 
toz, mutual  c. ; \  zevistonovamasz,  the  one  who  chats > 
with  me  .  \  :  ;  , 

chatoyant,  see  bright , shine . 

chatter,  ehSonova. one  chatters,  is  talkative;  zehaono- 
vassd.the  ones  who  c.;  haonovatoz, the  chat¬ 
tering;  ekokonomensz  teeth  are  chattering 
(from  fear  or  cold);  ekokoevon,  it  is  a  chattering 
clattering  sound.  See  sound.  r-**^*/***,  '*> k. 

cheap,  is  not  dear, not  expensive  ( eho  is  expensive);  is  c.  ^ 

not  counted  high;  is  getting  '*"#**■ 
is  lessening  in  worth;  zeto  mohfenoham  esaahaoemehe , 
this  horse  is  c.,not  worth  much;  v&hoehotoS  eshovho- 
emeo , the  cattle  is  (pi.)  getting  cheaper;  eanavhoeme, 
it  is  (or  one  is)  c.,down  in  value;  zeanavhoemsz  lidma 
naxhoxtovanoz , I  bought  a  c.robe;  hoxtova  zeanavhoeme  . 

zehegsaahaestoemakfitaemahess,  buy  that  which  is  c.  M**v<*^ 
since  you  have_  not  much  money.  (swtd. 
is  sold  (or  bought)  c. 

CJ:iea't ■  cheats;  naocetovo.I  one  (or.);  ep-^f 
cehestoz , the  cheating;  oceheo.the  cheater;  zeo- 
cesz , the  one  who  cheats.  See  deceive.  Eoceheoneve , one  * 

(or.)  is  a  cheater. 

check,  natohaena,  I;  natohaenoham,  I  c.the  horse; 
natohaeno , I;  when  it  denotes  the  checking 


A9'r\  .a  Y»-*Xckx k*c> 

/ ’*  (*  %7  .  ..  .JvA-h'*'*  \**-**-  .J  „  .7u«». 

*  -“[  v-d.fc 

'Ho^^IUh  jcwwfL,  cWc^ll  .Veladl-,  u», 

W»4*v ,  UA-  9  .  IT,  ,£^  a  __ 
^VAa-V>vva^(«J»Ji^  4 




i  Jr***"  ~'*d8$  yv.i«u»( 

k  MW*  .  ,  ENGLISH-CHEYfNNE.  DICTIONARY  \  . -  '  ~ 

/Z  H  (crlr",fMO»*  ell  trxtL / n,U~t 

f  a  passage  inf.  -nxp-  =  to  stop,  is  used ; >nanxpaovo  ewlx. 
qsan.I  herd, c. the  sheep;  nanxpaovoham, I  c.  iri\,keep  in  \M*JLvuifc 
stock;  enxpeoz  mae.the  blood  is-  checked;\ 
.  zeameha  makfit, paper  on  which  money  is  written^  TV ftffrfiVWVIL' 

Ijk  cheek,  mavotanoxz , the  c.;  mavotanotoz,  the  cheeks;  na-J^n- 

ft  c.;  napoevotanoseno , I  slap  one  on  the 

napopoevotanos&no , I  slap  one  one  the  cheeks.e«'Urt-«-^'s?- 
i  J^^Mjheer.^nahestahaovo.I  c., encourage  one;  nahetotaetano-V/--^ ' 

|  jg^ho.I  c.,make  one  glad  .happy;  naaxaoto.I  c.,  greet 
■  +(J>i^Lfc^<A°ne  »  hetotaetanohazistoz ,  the  cheering,  making  happy 
eM-y  lu«s£''  hestahaovazistoz , c .  .encouragement.  chfa"*r‘ 

-Cheerful,  ehetotane , one  is  c.;  ehetotaneSeve ,  one  does 
£3  Tr^jkSKSS'lt  cheerfully;  ehetotaenohe , one  looks  c.;  he-  ***  J 
totaetto ,  cheerfully;  hetotastoz,  cheerfulness.  See 
-  blithe.  Inf.  -vovon  denotes  also  "to  cheer, cheric 

ui1^  care  tenderly  for" . 

%  cheese,  hekonheoveam.hard  yellow  fat. 

eszehen.c. ,coat;  i 
hen, under  c. 

;  dtono-esze- 

l^l'^jl-fJt^cherish,  navovoneSeho  ,  I  c  .  one  ;  navovonesetan ,  I  want  to 
c.J  •  navovoneSetanotovo ,  I  desire  to;  see 

.  j ^  yjp:  u  .  ,  .  no.  v  u  v  unco c  uctnu  tru  v  u  ,  ±  v 

cheer]  navovdnegetovo , I  c.,nurtur< 
tan, I  c.,entertain  as  a  hope;  zeh< 
,<lV  notom  naxaasetanomon.  all  that  I 

■ture  one;  nahozeovose 
zehetSemehahozeovoseta-  - 

■' ,ul  notom  naxaasetanomon,  all  that  I  cherished  was  taken  /  - 

^  from  me.  u.a.TU.t/ttft,  f  <A  ■  ■*-  —  kW't-  >> 

1  cherry,  men.menoz  (pi.);  mencSe ,  c .  tree  or  shrub;  men6szl/'7^! 

Mjrf£f}{t  7J  ~  c.  trees;  is  a  c.tree.  The  word  means 
j  berry, but  when  used  alone  it  implies  the_ species  oftr^f|1 

wild  and  choke  cherries. 

chest ,  vepemax-.-err,  box~j  vehoehoseo  ,  c ., box,  trunk ;  q.v.; 
v'Ji^r^TEazhe  §  e  e  o ,  the  c., breast;  nazhe§eeo,my  c.  ^ 

Vfc>Mfchew,  eaxkame ,  one  chews  (as  people  chewing  gum),  rumi- 

nates;  napenosoxta, I  c.the  point  of  it;  nahopenos-  ^  J 
•***&*  oxta.I  c.  it  to  pulp;  naxaxanosan ,  I  c.,  crush  with^f'' 

teeth;  naxaxanoxta,  I;  naxaxanomo.I - J 

.  -a-  .  f /’^^tCheyenne ,  ZezestassS;  either  from  the  verbal  f.  ehesta^-yt’X^ 

’  -  is, or  r.ahestd  =1  am  wounded,  or  inf  .-zes-  ,^4  c* 

;es  something  extended,  pointing  forward, 

:awn  out.  The  name  "ZezestassS"  is  evidently  derived 4^-^  ^ 
^  from  the  root  meaning  of  "zes-"  and  not  from  "hesta" ,  r^i//u  > , 

rlly'.  as  all  the  combined  forms  show.  Zestan, Ch. nation ;  n&-\r 

tvfy'  i)  zestae ,  I  am  a  Ch.  ;  ezestaeo,  they  are  Ch.  ;  zeshetan, 

A.n.O'vy  .  at  rv,  mov,  •  -rochoo  nvi  wnmnn-  7 p s slcasn v5 _ Rh . vounff  man:  ze-;  zeshee,Ch. woman;  zesekasovS, Ch. young  man 
sekasehee , Ch. young  woman;  zesekasgon.Ch. child;  ezese- 
V^kaSgoneve , one  is  a  Ch. child;  zesevostanehevestoz ,  Ch. 
'  way  of  living;  nazesevostaneheve , I  live  as  Ch. ;  zese- 
mom&tavoetastoz, Ch.  ceremonial .religious  rite;  eoxc- 
ze^semom&tavoetastove ,  it  is  a  Ch.  ceremonial;  ezese- 
nisz , one  speaks  Ch. ;  Zesenszestoz , Ch. language ;  zesto- 
anistoz , Ch.utteranc ;  ezestoan,he  utters  Ch. ;  Zesens- 
ze , Ch. -talker  (;  Zesenszehe , Ch. -woman-talker ; 
*  “ 






zistxistd , Ch. book,  paper  or  letter;  zistxistonestoz , 
Ch. writing;  nazistxiston, I  write  Ch. ;  zesemeo,the  Ch. 
way;  zeseve , Ch. lodge ;  zesevostan,  Ch. person;  nazese- 
'mon,!  sing  a  Ch.tune;  zesenonistoz,  Ch.tune  or  song; 
zesthoe , Ch. country , land ;  zesemocan, Ch.  mocassin.  In 
the  "Handbook  of  American  Indians"  there  are  eighty- 
five  names  tabulated  for  the  Cheyenne,  the  most  of 
which  being  variants  of  the  name  given  to  them  by  the 
Sioux.  As  James  Mooney  says,"the  popular  name  has  no 
connection  with  the  French  'chien',  as  has  sometimes 
erroneously  been  supposed,  but  is  derived  from  the 
name  by  which  the  Sioux  call  them,Shahi-yena,  Shai — 
ena,or  S’naiela, meaning  'people  of  alien  speech',  the 
same  name  being  applied  also  by  the  Sioux  to  the  Cree 
in  Canada".  From  stories  told  to  writer  by  old 
Cheyenne  they  migrated  from  a  distant  country, in  the 
north.  One  tale  relates  how  this  land  was  discovered 
by  a  man  who  was  borne  on  an  eagle’s  back  across  a 
wide  body  of  water,  the  flight  taking  four  or  five 
days.  Another  tale  mentions  a  long  journey  from  a 
land  "of  islands", and  how  part  of  a  large  body  of  wa¬ 
ter  was  crossed  over  its  ice.  All  the  stories  agree 
in  relating  that  part  of  the  Ch. people  were  left  "on 
the  other  side"  and  they  firmly  believd~ihat  their 
brothers  are  yet  living  there.  Writer  knew  a  very  old 
but  intelligent  Ch. woman, who  told  him  of  how  her  own 
old  grandmother  use  to  know  songs  praising  the  olden 
times  "when  they  lived  on  fishes  and  fowls, and  had 
not  to  eat  'this  nauseating  buffalo  meat'".  One  tale 
speaks  of  the  great  magicians  who  lived  in  mounds  or 
stone  habitations , which  were  beautiful  inside, with 
lions  and  bears  watching  the  entrance.  An  old 
relating  the  story  connected  with  the  ceremonial  ar¬ 
rows  told  writer  that  their  history  had  four  parts: 

1.  The  ancient  time, when  they  were  happy, but  were  de¬ 
cimated  by  a  terrible  disease,  were  left  as  orphans. 

2.  The  time  of  the  "dogs",  v/hen  these  animals  were 
used  as  beasts  of  burden.  3.  The  time  of  the  buffa¬ 
lo.  4.  The  time  of  the  horse,  which 'is  recent  his¬ 
tory.  Evidently  the  Ch.had  not  known  the  buffaloe 
wherever  their  former  habitat  was,  for  not  a  few  of 
their  stories  begin  by  saying:  "when  there  were  yet 
no  buffaloes".  The  earliest  authenticated  habitat  of 
the  Cheyennes  seems  to  have  been  in  Minnesota.  They 
first  came  in  contact  with  the  French  in  1680, when  a 
party  of  their  tribe  visited  La  Salle’s  Fort  on  Illi¬ 
nois  river  to  invite  the  French  to  come  to  their 
country  at  the  head  of  the  great  r iver , i . e . , the  Miss¬ 
issippi.  See  the  the  "Cheyenne  Indians"  by  James 
Mooney  in  V.l.Part  6, of  M. Am.Anthr.Ass . ,a  very  valu¬ 
able  article  on  the  more  recent  history  of  the  Ch. 


chicken  ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY  ^^chiefta'n 

WoAAxivk:^ iw-»  -u. o.uwiv?Waa v <>  «-*•*.  ) 

chicken,  kokoeax;  kokoeaxan , chickens ;  kokoeaxeson, young 

- ’c.;  hetanekokoeax.male  c. .rooster  (also  kokoe- 

axhetan) ;  kokoeaxhee ,hen. 

Chickasaw, Ziksi. 

Vchide ,  naveoeto.I;  naveoesta,  I;  naveoesto- 

N - moe,  I  am  a'  chiding,  censuring;  zeveoestomo- 

sansz,  the  one  who  chides,  censures, reproves;  eveoeta 
zevovistomosaneziss ,he  was  chided  hy  the  teacher, 
chief,  veho ;  evehoneve.he  is  a  c.;  emaxevehoneve ,he  is 

■ -  a  great  c.;  evehoneveo , they  are  chiefs;  evehone- 

vetan,he  wants  to  be  c.;  navehonam,my  c.;  nahevehon- 
am  I  have  a  c.;  nahevehonamenoz.he  is  my  c.;  naheve- 
honametan, I  want  to  have  a  c.;  vehonevestoz , the  being 
c.;  vehonevetanoxtoz , the  wanting  to  be  a  c.;  hevehon- 
ametanoxtoz.the  wanting  to  have  a  c. ;  vehonekasgon, 
child  of  a  c.;  the  chief’s  lodge;  veho- 
neeszistoz.the  speech  of  chiefs.  Sometimes  "vehon”  is 
used  as  inf.  in  the  sense  of  "main, best,  prominent, 
noble"  e . g . vehonemakat , the  chief  metal,  =gold;  eveho- 
nevostaneheve , one  leads  a  noble, prominent  life, or  he 
leads  the  life  of  a  c.;;  eve- 
honeeszistov,  it  is  a  chief’s  council, speaking.  An¬ 
other  expression  used  for  nitde  =master,  leader, 

1  Lit***'  ruler  head, lord;  enit&eoe ,he  stands  as  c.;  zeritdesz, 

I ’JW the  c. master, lord;  see  ruler;  nanitaemanhan, I  am  made 
Y  .  ,  i  itoc .  master ;  enitaenane  ,he  is  set  as  c.;  nanitdeam,  my 

c,  ruler;  enitdvhoeme,  he  is  c.  ruler;  zenitdvhoemsz , 
the  c. ruler;  notxevo,  c.,  captain;  vehona,  chief ess; 
evehonaeve , she  is  a  chiefess;  vehonehoeman.c. council¬ 
or, or  c. judge;  (or  one)  is  worth, 
value;  enanotae.he  is  c. above  all, most  prominent.  See 

chiefly,  nanosetto,  above  all .preeminently ;  inf.  nano- 

- se-;  enano’sepevae  ,he  is  good  above  all. 

chieftain,  zevehonevsz , the  c.;  zevehonevessd , the  chief - 
-  tains;  zenitaessd , the  chiefs .rulers ;  see  sol¬ 
diers.  In  former  days, when  the  Southern  and  Northern 
Cheyenne  were  one  body,  they  had  forty  four  chiefs, 
elected  from  time  to  time.  It  happened  that  some  oi 
the  older  chiefs  were  reelected,  while  not  a  few  of 
the  ex-chiefs  took  further  part  in  the  councils  as 
advisers  to  the  new  body.  The  rule  however  was  tha. 
forty  new  and  four  of  the  older  chiefs  be  selected, 
the  latter  as  head  chiefs  of  the  tribe.  Altho  priests 
and  chiefs  were  not  the  same  men, the  first  had  often 
a  greater  influence  than  the  chiefs  themselves..  Es¬ 
pecially  the  Arrow  keeper  and  his  men  swayed  a. great¬ 
er  authority  than  the  chiefs.  The  present  Arrow  keep¬ 
er  is  a  shining  example  of  the  usurpation  of  head¬ 
man’s  authority  by  his  priestly  influence.  The  coun 
cil  of  the  forty  four  chiefs  chosen  from  the  differ- 


^N(^H^feYE^N^ICTIONARYt^^^  e^cpk-f* 


J  ic  cUUn^^t^'y  ^  cL^}^*n  hnr/l~'  W/L  *-~fry-c>l- 

T  vt/alu^  m>*  •  *w  d^rJ^\  o  -»  / 

tv'-  tuu^{^W3^  -v*v? K^_9  tWfc—  ^  cL . 


c /^^^ent  warrior  bands  was  symbolized  by  a  bundle  of  forty 
1  i  i/four  red  Pointed  invitation  sticks  .kept  with  the  ce- 

^-'inTU’^remonial  arrows.  The  Cheyenne  say  that  this  system  of 
havinS  a  council  of  forty  four  chiefs  was  adopted 
-from  another  tribe.which  the  Ch.had  practically  anni - 
'V  hi-lated.  A  woman  prisoner  told  her  captor  (a  chief) 

hrf/r  V  °f  “he  ways  of  her  own  people  in  selecting  chiefs.  The 
*  pleased  the  Ch.,who  under  the  woman’s  instruc- 

■  \C  Wyti°n  se't  UP  'the  "vehoneom",  fixed  the  forty  four 

■  sticks  and  elected  their  chiefs  on  the  new  plan. 

\  chieftaincy,  vehonevestoz ;  zehevejionevsto.vsz ,  the,  on 

\r  1  who  has  the  c.  uMJuluutwia. 

■child,  ka§gon,"the  little  one" , (pronounced  "kasgon"  by1 
\vrf/'  L  '  women  and  children);  heekaggon.fem.c. ;  hetaneka§-VM^t^tlc'r 
)yyr\cu  gon.m.c.;  ekaSgoneve,  it  is  a  c.;  ehose.she  is  with 
liltlf*  c.;  eaneoz.she  gives  birth  to  a  c.;  c.; 
meSevoto , babies ;  is  a  baby  c.;  eheni- 
son,she  has  a  c.,an  offspring;  own  c.;  nani- 




one  who  is  c.;  zehenisonestovessd ,  the  ones  who  are^Zr-' 
children;  nahenisonetan,  I  want  a  c.;  nahenisoneton,  I  tJurr,/-'**-  » 
am  a  c.(to  one);  zehenisonetto ,  the  one  being  my  c.  :/’v/a!im// 
/  —  zehenisonetton,  the  ones,  my  children;  nanisonamo 

foster  c.;  nahenisonamonenoz.he  is  my  foster  c.; 

henisonevoemo , I  count  one  as  my  c.;  nakaSgonam,  my  c  _ 

&tuifWnot  the  own  one)>  uahekaSgonam, I  have  a  c.;  nahekaS-T^  & 
</u^.T^onamenoz«one  is  “y  c .  (not  own  'offspring) ;  kaSgonasz ,  . 
r-— ' ye  children!  Nanisonasz  ,ye  my  children!  Esaaheniso- 
hrau^y  tM^cjcy&'txQ ,  she  has  no  c .  ;  menotocess ,  c .  too  young  when  itsj* 
tl**-  (A ■  ^brother  is  born;  na»e§ehestov^e ,  I  bring  up  children;^ 

/  nahestoeSedho.I  beget  a  c.;  nanestoeseam|ia,  I  am  de-1 
2£l/IUl-'l/oVfl£  rive  red  of  a  C.;  emenotomoen, she  has  a  c.  every  year;  .4 

fyg  rhU  ehaestnofen, she  has  many  children;  etakomcen, she  has  a 
.  seldom;  ehetanevoen,  she  has  a  m.c.;  eheevoen,  she 
( .uAtt-  has  has  a  fem.c.;  ehestacenevo^n,  she  has  twins. 
l^Zr  suff.-oen-  or  -oen-  =to  have  a  c.,to  give  birth  to  many  children  has  she?  Etotohovheta-^^f/ ‘ 
t*‘^/nevoen,she  has  a  male  c . alternately  (with  fem.  child- 

ren)  ;  enazean,  she  dies  in  c.  bed;  enotomoen, she  has  U~‘J  . 
hkfL^"^  first  c.  ;  .^hotomoen)  she  has  her  second  c.;  enoko-  g./e.e'U.ael^ 

^  n! slle  llas  onf  c‘*  enisoen,she  has  two  children; 'ena-yit.^  «*» 

tA^noen,  she  has  three  children;  nanokoenoto,  I  have  my 
.^/-only  hiai  (or  her);  nokoenoxz , the  only  c.(of  some 
V  //upne);  nanokoenoxzz  ,my  only  c.  ;"henokoenoxzetto ,  one’s 

ilk  f :  /'only  c.;  nanokoenoxzenan, our  (incl.)  only  c.;  nanoko- 
iT^'j  en°xzeve / 1  am  an  only  c.;  nanotomoenoto ,  I  have  my 
-/-first  c/in  one  (him  or  her);  notomoenoxz , first  born 
z*/*'7  c.;  first  born  c.;  nanotomoenoxze- 

vur/y  ve,I  am  a  first  born;  rxa^o-te-mo  enoxg-g ,  my  second  born 

foo  * 

C  (UinV.,1  "u  U 

■W-V^  (5  ' 

c  ,1^  idi^ 


^eM>  '  V  bpjt 

.W*ttK,  “  «*“**?  ‘ 

cii .  ti  n 


(male)  c.;  ninisoenoxzevhem&.we  are  two  children  (to 
some  one);  enivoenoxzeveo , they  are  four  children  (to 
some  one);  ninistxnoenoxzevhemA , we  are  all  the  child¬ 
ren  (of  some  one);  examaeSvoxpstnoen, she  has  simply  a 
brood  of  white  cildren  (having  ref. to  an  Ind. woman 
having  white  children);  zeto  kaggon  esdtocaeo,  these 
children  are  still  young;  eemoxthose,  she  is  with  c. 
(illegitimately);  eemoxtoen,  she  has _  an  illegitimate 
c.;  niemoxtoenoto , thou  hast  an  illegitimate  c.  in  him 
(or  her);  emoxtoenoxz ,an  illegitimate  c.;  niemoxtoe- 
noxzz  thy  illegitimat  c.;  eemoxtoenoxzeve ,  one  is  an 
illegitimate  c.  Ka§goneveho , Childchief ,  Littlechief, 

ildhSod! 1  kasgont^Tstdz H^SgcSevstOYA , in  one’s  c^  tf 
^  ^  childish,  tass  ka§gon;  eevhakaSgoneveoz,  one  becomes  a 

7  r*Vvi  “M 


,  ft  .  I  .tTl  child  again. 

CluM^R«ill-  inf. -to-  denotes  chilly.cold;  becomes 

-  chilled;  etoeonaoz,  one’s  hands  get  chilled;  eto- 

eona,  he  has  chilly  hands;  etoeoxz,  one  is  getting 
chilled  also  fig.;  natoe&ta.I  have  chilly.cold  feet; 
natoeszea. I  have  a  chilly  head;  is  cold, 
chilled  (as  food);  etoeSen.they  (or., as  potatoes)  lay 
chilled, cold;  is  chilly  (sp.of  liquids);  see 
cold.  Nanatosevomoxta , I  have  a  c.;  n.a^s®v9moxt®f^°£ • 
c.  (preceding  fever )  i*€a.€**J****}f  /* 

chime,  axxevonoz  oxzetahamevosz  zeoxcevesenemenistove- w  ^ 

- vosz , when  the  bel-ls  are  rung  as  to  make  music;  is  rung;  nemenistoz  =music;  ehbezetaha- 
mensz  axxevonoz  zenemenistovevosz ,  they  are  heard 
rung, the  be 11s, making  music, 
chimera,  vhanetoxtoetanoxtoz .mere  imagination;  see  fan- 
-  cy;  aestom-hozeovosetanojxtoz ,  false  hope.expec- 

chimerical,  efeme-vha’netoxtoetanonov,  it  is  c.,  mere 

„-j -  conjecture;  hovae  zevhanetoxtoetanotoe  hotaz 

jlDlffy  ’  zsaaxamahovaevhan, something  imagined  hut  which  simply 
is  nothing.  _  va.  _ 

chimney,  mahe§e-5as #histoz ;  maheSe  =brick  +  oase^istoz 

cn i nine y  .  i uau-ov  ~  *  — --  _  ^  . 

=f  lue  ;  eoaslnistove , it  is  a  c.fflue.  See  smoke. 
piMt  ^hin^ maztoho;  naztoho,  my  c.;  is  two 

the  land  of  the  Slit- 


China,  Tozcemazeneo  hesthoevo, 

Chinaman! STozcemazene, Slit-eyes;  etozeemazenhetaneve ,he 

- ~  iS  a  Chinese;  Hotamozenhoeo , the  ones  with  hair 

braided  behind  • 

chinaware,  meneevetoxq;  meneeveto,  large  vessel  of  c., 
meneekson , doll  with  head  (or  also  limbs)  o 
porcelain.  Anything  having  the  appearance  of  porce¬ 
lain  takes  the  pref.mene-;  see  berry, 
chine,  navovepacmaso , I  (or.), cut  up  his  backbone, 



1  i  -  a.  Uh'l<*C- 


evovepaona,  one  is  chined;  hestona  (not  to  be  con¬ 
founded  with  hest6n&  =one’s  daugnter),  chine,a  piece 
or  the  whole  of  the  ridge  or  back-bone  meat  of  an 

Chinese,  see  Chinaman;  Hemeko-zenimaoeasenessd ,  those 
who  coil  their  hair. 

I  chink,  etoxzeevon,  it  chinks  (as  metal,  money,  cups,  -  7 1 
JL  glass)  .clinks, cliks;  becomes  chinked, 

cracked;  zistaevatto  nanxpestana,  I  close, fill  up  the/*  V— .<*’ 

chinks;  zistSevatto.the  c.  .where  it  is  cracked.lfci^A^jC^^ 
chip,  napoevooha, I  c.  it  off  (with  instr.);  see  chop ; 
cc&iittc mxenivaoxz.a  chip  of  the  old  block;  evdonoz,  chips  foJ.c'L- 
wood  and  bones;  eevooneve,  it  is  a  c.;  evxseonoz, 

^  chips ,  crumbs  ;  is  a  c.,  crumb,  fragment  '^L  c* 

maes, chips, dry  dung;  hovaemaes, animal  chips;  ovaema-^iit^^Hlf’'^ 

'  es,magical_chips  (usually  { /c~7J /L- 
chipmunk,  noeeson,  little  squirrel;  see  squirrel.  6£JC./L. 

Chippewa,  Moomstashetaneo ,  people  of  the  bullrushes, 

~  sometimes  also  Moiseo.  .The  Ch.  themselves  do 

not  fully  agree  on  the  two  names.  Writer  thinks  that 
the  name  Moiseo  is  the  same  as  the  Chippewa  "Mouso- 
nee"  given  to  one  of  their  gentes.  The  Mousonee 
phratry  of  the  Chippewa  includes  the  Moose^  and  Rein¬ 
deer  gentes  and  the  word  prefixe  for  such  "animals  in 
Cheyenne  is  "mohe". 

chirp,  nasSpemo.I  one.  See  whistle. 
chisel ,  navSpoha.I  c., hollow  it  out  (with  instr.);  na- 
vepobr.o  hohona,  I  c.  the  stone  (or.);  navSpdn.I 
c.;  vSp6nistoz,the  chiseling;  vSponehe , c . , or  the  chi- 
seler;  naamevSpodno  sistato,  I  c.  a  groove  in  the 
board;  napoevooha, I  off;  see  chip, chop.  EvSpohe, 
it  is  chiseled  out;  epoevohe,  it  is  chiseled , chipped 
off;  eamev&  is  chiseled  out  (in  length) .groov¬ 
ed;  naotSax,  I  c.  a  hole;  naotaaso  (or.,  as  stone, 
board);  both  words  ref. to  chiseling  by  cutting  a  hole 
thru, but  not  by  blow  or  stroke. 
chocolate ,  not  used  as  beverage  by  the  Ch. ;  it  is  call- 
~  ed  like  coffee,  "moxtavhop"  =black  soup, or 
"maemoxtavhop"  =red-black  soup;  cakes  goes  under 
the  name  of  candies:  "vecemapsz" .  The  school  children 
are  likely  to  adopt  the  word  "chocolate"  into  their 

own  language.  , 

Choctaw,  Saktaeo. 
choice^  zenanosepeva.the  best  of  all;  zenanosepeva  hoe- 
"  voxkdz.the  c.meat;  zenanotoeme , ( in. ) , the  c.,  in 
worth, value;  zenanotoemsz  (or.)  homa  nametanenotto ,  I 
am  given  the  c. robe, blanket.  Noxzevomenistoz ,  the  act 
of  choosing;  see  choose .  u.t/~a' ^/Lc.  ch+tix.ty— 

choke,  naoxc.I  c.,in  eating]  nanxpotomeoz,  I  c.,suffo- 
cate, stifle;  chokes  (by  food);  eohoxk- 
se§,one  chokes  ( in  disking)  ;  chokes 

\u.^M’^T'u^'^itM,^<r*i‘^4’'~"  tj,  ;.w<  iLv^L’- 

fc,  U'  <b-**'tt, 







1  liquids  in  the  wrong  passage .while  swallowing);  eoxk-  chokes ., provokes  constriction;  nahekotano, 

I  (strangle  hy  hand);  nahekozeto,  I  (ty 
\  rope, or  hanging;  nahekotaovo , I  make  one  to  c.  (exter- 

Ak  \  nal  constriction);  nahekotao.I  c.,it  chokes , throttles 

H  \  me;  nahekotono,  I  c.  one  (with  instr.,  as  trap.etc.) 

W  \  Menoz, choke  cherry  (-Prunus  Virginiana) . 

x  \choose,  nanijtaa’l  c.,deem  it  most  important;  nanrtaovo/ 

M.kuwAaVwtie3* - 7  I  (or.);  nanitdomotaibz ,  I  c.for  myself;  na- 

*■  -  -  nitfomotaazenotto ,  I  c.him  for  myself  (a  robe,  horse, 

l-u1.^o+vM-*AetcL  )  ;  zenitaoessi.the.chp^n^nes.Rad.-nita-  =promi- 

penjt .  important  .prefer;  hi  tdoseo  ,  the  chosen  one;  eni- 
,lLiUu~  r>^  tTc  (  is  a  chosen , preferred  one;  henitaoseo, 

,  ’  s  chosen  one;  namomeseaovo ,  I  c.,  single  one  out 

namomeseaa,  (in.);  zemomeseaoessd ,  the  chosen, 
nrc^,  select  ones;  navomenoto ,  I  c., appoint  one  (or.);  navo- 

marnotel, I  appoint, c.for  one;  see  appoint.  Momoxetaome- 
,r*r  c  nqxzevomenotto ,may  I  c.,  select  for  me;  namonenoz,  I 
c  iSelect  one  for  me;  nimonetovaz ,  I  c. .select  thee 
Aa-C*-  fc  r  me;  nanezemo  .  I  c.,  select  one  (or.)  by^  statement  ,ry  ^ 
Me  select, elect. j SL.  u  ||  ■*-/.Ma*+**'t*** 

kin  OClC  DOigVW|Vi.VV/w./'m^tVV*/i'f»'//*W  - - - 

_  chop ,  napoevooha , I  off;  napoevoono , ( or. ) ;  napoena- 

\uLMfrrr  ono.I  c. one’s  hand  off;  napoesz^no.I’ s  head 
In  off;  napoeszeavo.I, one’s  head, off;  napoevoax,  I 

'Vt-^OVo  vMAjLtA  C>K  off, by  cutting;  napoesevoaso  ,  I  c. one’s  nose  off. 

Ivy |Wju,|>Vov-  \by  cutting;  napopoestaostaso , I  c. both  one's  ears  off, 

'U'-uiL;  by  cutting;  napopohestaenaso ,  I  its  (or.sp.of  a 

'  \  lr ring  tree)  branches , prune  it;  napoeosevoono , I 

'  ( bjX  stroke)  his  finger;  napoevohomovo  hemoeSq.I  c.  it 

/  u  D  Jl  I  ofjff,\ne’s  finger;  napoevaseostono , I  (with  blow) 

oV .  jjg  tail;  napoevohomovo  heszevax,  I  c.  it  off, one’s 

tiil;  rtaavono  hoxzz.I  c. down, fell  a  tree;  navovesoha, 

;  Ida  pieces, mince  it;  evoveevenisz»he  chops  his 
i] leech, spieaks  cut;  naoman,  I  c.wood.  The  cutting  or 
severing  tSf,  a  blow  requires  suff.-ono  (or.)  and  -oha 
( In.  ) .  * i/o/ule ,  it  C  ia u.thJ «•'“ 

chosen,  zenezemessd.the  c.ones  (or.);  nitaoseo,  the  c., 

- c""_  elect  one;  zenit&ohessd ,  the  c., elect  ones  (by 



j  [jisCiA--  : 

I  tu-ak 

In  Jit*** -7  histoto ,my  c., elect  ones, picked  ones.  See  choose •jtt“ra'T/l  )li 
)  Christ%  Maheonexcestaansz ,  The-one-anointed- by-God .  Usu-  ' 
^lly  the  very  name  "Christ"  is  used, but  when  ^  in 

^  , 

/connect  „  . 

Vostanevnan) , it  is  better  to  say  "Maheonexoestaansz1 
thus:  Vo&anevstomane-Maheonexoestaansz ,  which  means 

"Savioui — byVGod-anointed" , which  is  the  translation  of 
the  names  "Jtesus"  and  "Christ"  combined.  As  the  name 
"Christ"  is  Oreek,  and  is  really  not  pronounced  as  m 
Eng., writer  s\es  no  need  of  forcing  an  Eng. pronunci¬ 
ation, which  isxvery  hard  for  the  Indians  who  do  not 
understand  the  B*}g.  Either  let  it  be  pronounced  as 



near  the  Greek  as  possible  and  make  it  "Xistos"  in 
Cheyenne  or  give  the  translation  of  it:  "Maheonexoes- 
taansz"  =Anointed-of-God" .  Names  have  a  meaning  in 
the  Bible  and  they  ought  to  be  translated  so  as  to 
give  this  meaning  and  not  a  mere  name.  For  the  young¬ 
er  Ch. generation  which  understands  Eng., and  has  heard 
the  name  as  we  have  it, the  matter  is  different,  altho 
it  also  is  important,  for  them  to  know  themeaning  of 
the  name.  Kfie '-i sy.  A 
Christendom,  eostahestanov,  the  world  of  Christians; 
t  ,ifejw&6J^ostahetanistoz, Christians  collectively. 

Christian,  eostahe,  the  one  anointed  with  water  (see^^- 
baptize);  eSstaheo,  Christians;  writer  would /******- 
cal1  the  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  name  for 
Christ  (Maheonexoestaansz)  is  closely  related  with/^L 
dSstahe ;  if  Christ  is  the  "Anointed  one  with  oil", the  , 

Christians, his  followers , are  the  "Anointed  ones 


the  '  . 

-  -  with 

water".  What  is  poured  upon  the  head  in  a  ceremonial  y,  ^ 

A*.  way>  they  understood  to  have  ref.  to  the  mental  and,f 
f  jftR,  .  psychical  man,  the  head  being  the  seat  of  the  four  * 

most  imP°rtant  senses  and  these  are  subject  to  super -Jf  fas? 
iJj**"1  natural  revelation. Any  ceremonial  anointment  influen-*'*"^ 

(W^  ces  the  whole  life  of  the  one  subjected  to  it.  Hence^f  ^/^i- 

1  ftr  their  name  "eostahe"  for  Christian  is  fitting  and'**'?'  / 

oj/P*'  characterizes  for  the  Ch.  the  difference  of  religion, 
i NaAostahe ,  1  am  a  C.;  z6ostahess5 , the  Christians;  bos-  J,. 

tahetan , a;  Sostahee,  a  C.  woman;  6ostaekaSgon , u 
C.  child;  6ostakasovS, a  C. young  man;  Sostakasehee^a  ^ 
young  woman;  eostamahaciss , C .  old  man;  dostamatama, a  /-pfrfr 
C. old  woman;  6ostaevostan,C. person;  na^ostahetaneve j I 
am  a;  n^ostaheeve , thou  art  a  C. woman;  e6ostae- 
ka§goneve,it  is  a  C.  child;  n6ostakasovaehevhem&,  we 
are  C. young  men;  nabostaevostaneheve , I  lead  a; 
dos  taevostanehevestos , C . 1 iving ;  ebos  taevostanehevs to-  is  a;  nadostaetan,  I  want  to  be  a  C.;  <§o- 
staezhestatoz.C., being,  condition;  dostaemxisto , C . book; 
eostaeom, C .lodge ;  eostaemom&tavoetastoz , C . ceremonial ] 
rite;  6ostamom&tavhoestomohestoz,C. religion;  Sostaeo- 
nisyomat&toz.C. faith;  6ostaevovistomevazistoz , C.  doc- 
tripe;  6ostaevovistomosanistoz , C. teaching;  dostaevo- 
vistomoseo , C. disciple ;  ^Sstaevovistomosanehe ,C. teach¬ 
er;  6ostamom&ta6§,C. sacred  day;  edostaemomAtaeSgve , it 
is  a  C. , sacred, holy  day;  dbstaemom&tavostan.a  C.,  de¬ 
vout  person, saint;  eostahevis ’ onemazistoz , C .  brother¬ 
hood, fellowship;  6ostaemanhao , C . band , body ;  gostaenot- 
xeo , C. soldiers  (ref.  to  an  organization);  eostaenot-,  army;  ebostaenotxeve ,  one  is  a  C.sol- 
1 Ler .belong  to  the  C. organization;  navessebotahemo ,  I 
am  a  C.with  one;  vesse6ostahemazi stoz , the  being 
gether.C. fellowship;  zsaabostahessd ,  the  non  Chris¬ 
tians;  6ostahozeovosetanoxtoz,C. hope, confidence;  eos- 

_'Wvo  AaaA-Hi  -VcWA/A-  ~  Jvj--'' 

Christianity  ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY  Christmas 

taemeo.the  C.way;  vhanedostaemand.C. pretender  (merely- 
pretending  to  be  C.);  evhanedostaemaneheoneve , one  is 
merely  pretending  to  be  C.;  nadostaevoemo , I  count  one 
as  a  C.or  I  am  related  to  one  as  a  C.;  nadostaevata- 
mo , I  deem  one  a  C.;  nadostaevazesta,  I  deem  it  C.; 

\  eostaevostaneo.C. people;  dostaevostanemazistoz , C . f el - 

r  I  lowship ;  dostaenonistoz.C. song, tune;  dostaemesestoz, 

*  C. feast;  dostaemoheoxzistoz.C. gathering;  eostaevonho- 
setanev&toz, -C.  admonition,  preaching,  urging;  see 
church.  faez/aosu-i*1**-  t  (/rri^V i  cuwifi'vw 

Christianity,  dostaevostanehevestoz , the  state  of  being 
V  I  living  as  a  Christian;  heto  zhedevestoz 

MM  ^^TyefaadSstaevo^tanehevstovhan,  this  kind  of  doing  is  not 
\u  cos taemom&tavhoestomohestoz ,  C.  in  the  sense  of 

Christian  religion;  eostaemanhaevestoz , C . as  a  body  of 
Christians;  see  church. 

Christianization,  dostaovatoz, the  making  Christian,  the 
baptizing;  dostaemanhazistoz  (from  na- 
v/^7^-r»£-'M£o  dostaemandho.I  make  one  to  be  a  C.,  I  make  one  to  be 
/^"baptized) ,  the  making  to  be  Christian;  see  Christian- 
i  ze ;  dostaemanetanoxtoz.the  increase  of  Christians; 

1  *  yjf?  !  dostaemanhestoz.C. .increase  of  Christian  stand,  gene- 
■'  rating  of  Christians. 

;  Christianize,  nadostaemanho,  I  C.  them;  nitao  hestaneo 
■iaAirU**'  maedeeostaemanhevoz ,  when  all  the  nations 

shall  have  been  made  Christians;  edostaemanhaoeo  .they 
^  have  been  Christianized;  nadostaemanetanotonheme ,  we 

■  <IU  are  Christianized  .made  to  grow  in  Christian  life. 

Christ  less ,  zsaahoneovohess  Maheonexoestaaneziss  (or 

3  j - Christeva) ,  the  ones  who  do  not  have  Christ; 

)  zenoosevoStanehevemoss  Maheonexoestaaneziss , those  who 
I  live  without  Christ. 

Christlike,  enohoeme  Christeva, or  Maheonexoestaaneziss, 



— ’one  is  worthy  of  Christ;  zehessoz  hevostaneT 
,7(?^wehevest0z  Maheonexoestaansz  (or  Jesus)  nat6nedevosta- 

nehevetan.I  desire  to  live  &  (lit. as  it  is  his 
life, Christ, I  want  to  live).  Eonisyomhoneovo  Jesuseva 
(or  Maheonexoestaaneziss),  one  is  C.  (lit.  one  truly 
has  put  on  (like  a  cloth)  Christ. 

Christmas,  zexhosanistov,  when  it  is  C.  (lit. -when  the 
hanging  takes  place).  The  v.  — hosan  =to  hang 
Vactrve  meaning),  [nahosan,  I  hang;  nahosemo,  I  hang 
one].  The  Ch.  were  used  to  hang  or  tie  offerings 
,*o  trees, rocks  or  other  supposed  animate  objects.  The 
first  C . tree  they  saw  made  the  impression  on  them, 
that  whatever  was  jout  or  hung  on  the  tree  was  _an  of¬ 
fering  similar  to  their  own, hence  the  name  "hosanis- 
toz  or  hosenistoz" ;  is  C.;  toned  etos- 
hosani stove, when  is  be?  Zeedhosanistove , after  C. 

(ref. to  the  past);  mataedhosanistove, after  C. (ref .  to 
the  future);  mxhosanistove^  when  it  is  C.  time;  har.e  ,  I, 

-U  h  w***<J2*^r^  ^ 1  ^  vr  *  4?“  i  h 




-  \A  ^  « 

wuwi- — - 

SLA  ZaI<C  ^  1  \ 

A '-^-V — -  <f[  rue,  ■lln.u.  l,ct?  4a,(,iuf!ie4^ 

■  ',  lie  0i\*LilLab-;n^  ij'ifa.C  ~  vtl.+r  &*-  "La-hi-n^aL  trt^  a^tL- ^ 

ffe1  ‘rtet 

[-t'“‘”  w  +  •  '  M  -  “-•  'wtAt,j!r£&- 


iu- .  zexhosanistove,  then  .when  it  was  C.time;  'hosanistotC//  *± 

( or . ) , C. gif ts ;  of  recent  date  the  expression:  sito vo- 
aneva  hooxcemeatove .has  become  in  use  and  means  " 
the  middle  of  the  winter  when  gifts  are  given".  Wr  i  -  ^ 

ter  thinks  this  expression  a  poor  improvement  on  the  -uk****"* 
old  word.  The  old  Indians  know  that  the  C .  tree , like 
their  own  "hangings"  symbolize  something,  only  they/  X»/u?W- 
must  be  led  from  their  animistic  to  the  higher , Chris-?' 
tian  conception. 

chronic,  in  the  sense  of  "prolonged, interminable,  inve-' 

terate"  can  be  expressed  in  inf.-tose-  or  v^ytir*1 
hetose-;  ehetosemaneheoneve ,  one  is  a  a.,  inveterate 
drinker;  etoseesztsan , one  speaks  prolongedly,  without  - 
■  coming  to  an  end;  is  a 
/  .Jm*  aease. 

WM'jfr^huckle,  eemoxtatama,  one  chuckles , laughs  - 
lit. laughs  in  secret, 
chum,  suff .-mo  combined  i 



inf.  -vesse-  denotes  com¬ 
munity, association  with;  navesseanamo.I  c.with  one 
in  eating;  navessevostanehevemo.I  c.with  one, in  liv¬ 
ing;  navessevo.I  am  one’s  c.,his  companion;  naves- 
sevon  and  navessevao ,my  e.(see  fellow, companion) ;  na-  is  my  school  c.;  evistxistonemazeo , 
v /  they  are  schol  chums;  is  my  bed  c.;  vist- 
x  xi stonemazi s toz , chumhood  (in  school). 
chunk ,  is  rendered  by  inf .-mame , see  block, bulk;  namame-^ 
poena, I  chop  or  break  a  c.of  it;  emamehota  hoos, 
the  coal  is  lying  (setting)  in  chunks;  emomamemesenov 
hoevoxkSz, each  one  of  them  (or.)  was  given  a  big  c.of 
lump;  _e§xova  voxbom&z,  c lump  of. 

meat;  esxova, 
salt;  see  lump,  e-t- 

esxova  voxoomaz,  c.,xump  of 
r+f*A»,/L  ft?-,  ,WS  e /.//>*-*« 
house;  emaheoneeszemhayone-**"*  ££t£f- 

/ajjier , 

/  cisar» 

.church,  maheoneeszemhayo.c. house;  emaheoneesz&nhayone- 
Ur  is  a  c. building;  also  maheonemhayo, sacred, 

—  IToly  house  and  eszemhayo,  talking  house.  Eostae- 
mhanaevestoz , c . , the  body  of  Christians;  manodcstahe- 
tanistoz.the  collected  body  of  Christians;  raanoeoni-  ,/ 
syomataheo ,  body  of  believers.  ^  7 

yohurn,  see  boil ,  seeth  jheoveamsc  namaPrts-z^T  make  but ter.t^'^7 

maxemenemap,  apple  water ;  is  c  . J 
hestotoeon;  onimotaeon , c .  (also  for  cig^ptte)  ; 
nahepdnoz  hestotoeon.I  smoke  cigars.  Xui?r- 

cigarette,  onimotaeon;  nahepdnoz  onimotaeon,  I  smol?®^ 

cigarette;  nazedemaoz.I  smoke  cigarette;  na--w»*^-. 
zeSemaenesz , I  roll  a  c.;  mxisto  zeveSzesemaozis tov , c  .fe 
paper  (with  which  cigarettes  are  smoke  j  /**•••  A}, 

£inch,  hoxt  ’  taeseoneve ,  it  is  a  c . , gi r tiy^o r* feonbeT'rfth 

hoxt’  taetoham,  I  c.the  horse;  n^onehahoxt ’ taeto  A&fcA'-y 
ham, I  uncinch  the  horse;  ehoxt  (Aaeseoneva,  it  is 
cinched  (horse  in  that  condition)  .77 
cinder,  hotaehe, cinder, of  burnt  grass,  after  a  prairie  oJca?  6* 
fire;  either  that  carried  or  left  on  the  ground. /TljL. 

cvwet,  il  U  X  .  t  ///, 

237  -fc  caatlIu  In,  '  j  /  ‘ 

cA*. .  (Ct-tLf-y-*/*-  <<&-  - 

i  tUx  M-e.  cvUuxvvc'WX-  V 

■Jmh  <*<*%“* 


■  ircle,  zeonistakoane,  that  which  is  a  c,,: makes  J 

—  "andVr.f*  “tVh.a*  UTau! 

'  „0.  +?ev  sit  in  c.;  zehenoneoz, where  the  camp  c. 

eoomoneo , they  sit  in  c. ,  are  in  four  con- 

^is;  niva  eoxze stovoneo ,  they^i  ^  round, surround; 
‘\centric  circleo,  ’  .  na0nistacevxiston, 

fen”:  s£.u.siSi:iV in  a  vs- 

£&&  aSAgrsf 
'  CT££32sacrstf  ss;  ,» 



ohone6and  -tata-;  naonistacemanisz ,  I  make  it 
.  it  is  c  •  tovoseSeheo  zeonistaq.c.saw. 

c  ;  eonisUq.itisc.,  t  gurface  Qf  circle>  also  to 

■ball  ahapld"  .  The  rad . -on-  ij  |o«ver  tha  true  ..rd 

circulate ^etoxeazetto^it* circulates;  eS.oeSen  «az=«a- 

clr.alatl.r^e^'*  ^cxceLonieodtov,  the  c.of  the 
£i£«”£i”. 6“?I**SsrS,jhe1lr;™ciaal 

;;-ur i. S*&T= 

rigidly  secret  It  is  be  considered  a  mem- 

stranger  male  could  ever  7  lnitiated  by  circum- 

her  of  the  Ch. tribe  except  whether  for  the 

c  -.on.  NaevxtaneS , 1  am  circumcised.  Whether  1 
reason  of  their  circumcision  or  "maheon- 

teach  that  the  Ch. people  is  a ^Christian  every  means 

are  devised  to  bring  the  "lost  one"  J»ek.  e^pr  ^ey 
have°  no  thing5  again*  t**  the  i  r  people  being  baptized, pro- 


J  • JL  yfacuVc./ em'f'au 

\  /  7z2^t  c+*t*J*^  **  OiVe.f  ua~e  r/r?vu<-e*  efci'J  om  e.,ef/L*_  ^ 

Igr^  -  ;  ;  . 

'  felTo  x  hxuJj tMiwYaff^ 

/La.f  o++a~iL;A  try  e'yrflAtuz-e se vkfi'tifat***- 


vided  they  do 
ceremonials  _ 

\ circumcision,  evxtaneSestoz ;  eevxtandSstov,  it  is  c.ti^U^7?^^ 
circumference,  emahaone,  it  has  a  great  c.  (of  round 

do  not  emancipate  themselves  from  the  Ch. 
s  •  ,eV$rtiu^{^^evAh*c>,  ^  ,[  t. ' 

6VYt.fl.nP5pcfn7  •  OOVvtovin?!ft4-^„  ,•  4.  -■  _.  _  (  ...  n  tft)  jC  ‘j  ^ 

_  bodies);  etaxceone,  it  has  a  small  c .  : 
etonitSone,  what  c.has  it?  Zehetaone , its  c;  zehetSon-/#*7 
es.its  (or.  sp.  of  stones,  dry  goods, animals)  c . ,  s  izeC/Y 

w  bod viU*'tf7Ze4e' 

small,  narrow  body*^/ 

1  it?  EtonitSeta.what^/^/^' 

around;  ezceonehe,  one  Ai 
(around);  etonitSo , what  size, _ 

size^c . is  one?  ( sp . or . rocks ,  mountains);  noka  tacheo*^  - 
enitao,it_is  one  mile  of  size,  wide;  naha  taloheoneva 
etatanitaomoeha;  it  is  three  miles  around , in  c.  (as  a  , 
lake, body  of  water) .  ,X 

circumspectly,  aninos,  with  care,  caution,  in  a. careful  ^ 

manner.  —  pfi e-mm.  - 

circumstance,  tonxhestoz,  under  any  c.;  the  stiff. -omen 
and  -staomen  denote  sometimes  the  meaning 
of  "c.";  enstamenoeheve , one  is  in  poor  c.,  condition; 
epavstaomen, one  is  in  good  c.;  ehaomen,one  is  in  hard 
c.;  see  condition. 


cistern,  zfevehota  ookom&p, where  the  rain  water  is  kept; 

ookoemape— votaen, well  for  rain  water, 
citation ,  has  no  adequate  in  Ch.  In  quoting  however  the 
•  *  (  Ch.has  the  inf,.— ze—  and  -zehese-  which  means 

"thus"  and  point  forward  to  what  is  to  be  done  or 
said;  ezheSeesz.he  speaks  thus;  nazheto.I  say  this  to 

one:  .  When  ref.  is  made  to  something  past  or 

following  the  quotation  inf.  -ne-  or  -ne§e  is  used; 
enhevo.he  said  so  (as  already  cited);  eneSeesz,  he 
spoke  or  speaks  thus, as  mentioned.  See  thus.  Often¬ 
times  when  making  citations  the  Ch.  will  imitate  the 
voice  of  the  one  whom  they  quote.  When  they  cite 
words  which  are  written  then  say:  ezhegeamgeme , it  is 
couched  so  (sc.  in  writing),  or  enesearr.Seme ,  with  the 
difference  explained  above. 

citizen,  navhesta,  I  am  with;  nhestaneamo ,my  co-citi¬ 
zens;  hestaneamb , thy  co— c.;  hevhestaneamo , one ’ s 
co-c.;  nhestaneamaneo.our  co-citizens;  hestaneamevc , 
your  co-c.;  hevhestaneamevo , thei r  co-c.;  navhestaneo- 
neve.I  am  a  c., fellow  man  of  the  same  nation;  navhes- 
tano.I  join  myself  to  one  (Ger.  geselle  mich  zu  Ein- 
em);  evfehoevoeme,  one  is  a  c.  (lit.  is  counted  as  a 
white  man);  evehoevaoe,  on  is  made  a  white  man  (an 
American), a  c.  Nitapave-vhestaneonevhemfi.  zehespavoni- 
stomaz  hoemao,let  us  be  good  citizens, by  heeding  the 
law!  Navhestaneamo , I  am  c.with  one.  •  •  ■ 

citizenship,  v&hoevbemazistoz ,  American  c.;  vghoevaox- 

toz,the  being  made  citizen;  vhestaneoneves-  ' 
toz, fellow  c.;  vhestaneamazistoz ,  the  being  c.with 
one, co-c.;  nigvhestaneor.evstonan  zetamonenez ’netton°s 
heamahestanov, our  in  the  world  above  (lit.  will 



take  place). 

city,  maevehoeno , the  place  where  the  white  people  stay 

-  together;  suff.-eno  denotes  a  habitat, e.g.  Oxmese- 

no, Montana  (the  part  where  the  Northern;  Oe- 
taneno , Crow  Agency  (lit.  Crow-town);  meavehoeno , the 
Agency  (lit. place  where  the  Agent  stays ); Oklahomaeno , 
Oklahoma;  n&estoz, city, town, where  they  all  stay, live; 
emaestove,  it  is  a  c.,  town;  emaxemaestove ,  it  is  a 
great  c.  ;  emomenoml-estovensz ,  they  are  groups  of  ci¬ 
ties;  zemaestove , where  the  c.,town  is.  Naseeoxz  mae¬ 
vehoeno,  I  go  to  the  city.  The  inf.-sd-  denotes  "down 
into"  and  ref .usually  to  go  to  a  lower  posi tipn.down^^ 
ward  into.*Ui~~-a^«4< 

civil,  emaseztae , one  is  c., polite.  rrr*,  e  “/ 

civilization,  vehoevostanehevestoz.the  white  man’s  liv-  ^  / 

civilize,  navdhoemandho.I,  make  one  a  white  man; 
- evehoevostaneheve , one  is  civilised,  livps 

a  wh  i  t  e - t#br .  uJ-vtL-  twv-M, 

clad.'^nahoneoaon,  I  am  c.;see  clothes  .dress  .  NahekovaV-^iT? 

-  san  and  nameovavsan , I  am  soft  raiment , [-hekc- 

va-  =sof  t ;  -meova-  =f uzzy  ] .  ft  in.'.vetiv****,  4*.  c'  e . 
claim,  nahetomhesta,  I  c.  it  to  be  true;  nahavsevemo , I 

-  c . , say  that  one  is  bad;  navestomohenoz ,  I 

for  me  (by  asking);  sometimes  the  attr.  used  to 
express  "claim", when  the  meaning  is  "said  to  be  ;  ea- 
enosz ,he  claims  to  own  one  (or.), or  one  is  claimed  to 
own  one;  nahetomhesta  zeheSeaenom, I  to  be  mine; 
naaeno  ehevo.he  claims  him  (lit?. I.  own, he  says);  t  se 
naaenanon  ehevon.they  (lit. indeed  we  own  it, they 
say);  nahevis ’ onenoz  ehevo.he  claims  to  be  his  cousin 
(lit. he  is  my  cousin, he  says ) ; zeheSheszhovetto  nasaa- 
nhestohe  I  do  not  as  my  property  (lit. that  it  is 
my  property  I  do  not  mean  to  say);  navestomohetanoz 
makatansz , I  c.the  money, ask  for  it;  navestomohetomo- 
vonoz  hemakatansz , I  c.,ask  one’s  monies.  (See  allot¬ 
ment  for  the  sense  of  land), 
clamber,  nadvonen.I  c., climb;  nanosevon&n, I  c.over  it; 
see  climb. 

clamor,  v.ehSnevosehaheztovovo.they  one's  defense; 

-  ehaenov ,  one  is  clamoring;  emaxehaheo , they  c., 

shout  with  loud  voice;  ehaonovao,  they  c.,  raise  much 
talk;  maxehahestovA  esaahotohestohenov , they  clamored, 
complained  about  it  with  loud  voice;  see  boisterous, 
clamor,  n.maxehahestoz.c. ,loud  voice;  makes 

.  . -  a  great  c. ,noise;nahetosehaestam,we  make  a  c.(to 

make  great  r.oise  in  crying);  emomoevon, the  sound  of  a 

crowd, din, hubub;  see  noise;  haenovastoz.c. .noisiness, 
clamorous,  ehaenov, one  is  c.,  noisy;  nahaenovoseho ,  l 

-  cause  one  to  be  c.;  inf.  -hehetovan-  denotes 

»c.  boisterous, uproarious" ;  hehetovanhetaneo ,; 




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*1.  /Z-  <W- 

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>  v-r~~  /  /^  ’  "“-  ‘^“TTyv  /Ua£*'u- 

&nss- !  _  _.  _ 


X  &"'<*' ****  I  *  -t//i/>eataj‘* 


CmAhAi  aX^i'Y-oA^  o>-«  fL  ■  (L  .  f-ry~  **/i>-l  u^y/uiuyA*i^c , 

*  i-c  ct  k-*riu<LJ~i*--e-‘'<-  plfa>r  <9  <2 .  a»»A-  ,iu.<-,  «,«Xy  cAJr/Ust+f, 


yy  is  c. (voice, sound) . 
clamp/  nahapanen.I  c.;  nahapana,  I;  nahafpano,  I* 

one  (or.);  ehapane ,  it  is  clamped;  hi.panenis.toz , 
the  clamping;  h&paneneo .  the  c.;  nah§lpaovofI  make  one 
to  he  clamped;  nahapaa.I  with  the  feet;  nh&pen- 
oe,I  c.hy  means  of  thread, I  sew;  see  shut, close;  h&- 
peozistoz.the  becoming  clamped, 
clandestine,  same  as  secret;  q.v. 

clang,  '  is  heard  clanging.  See  sound, noise, 
clank,  clanks, is  heard  clanking, 
clan,  see  band , organizatio *-<•*.«.  — ffvw- 

clannish,  emomenSxkoeo .  they  are  c.;  //emomenSxkoezesta,/-^^-^,, 

one”  is  c .  ,'f  or  himself;  emomen6xkoevost^ie^J'<4^^’y  ^>4. 
heve.he  leads  a;  momen6xkoestoz ,  clannisbfiess 
...  selfishness. 

clap,  ekdkoSvahasenistov,  it  is/a  clapping  (against  each '^7/.  yZ, 
cymbals);  nah&pahaz,I  close  (as  f/ 

'cJ.*  J7 

other,  as  - - * —  7/  j  , 

box, book);  napopoesez,  I  c.  the  hands  (in  applause )i9&u* 
popoesezistoz , the  clapping'  of  hands;  ekokoevahame ,  it ■ 
is  clapped  (ref.  to  soi/id);  nonoma  emas6nistohe , a 
thunder  c.;  lit. thunder  soundspof  a  sudden;  6r.ehetto,y  .  .  ( 

at  a  clap  immediately: 

clapper,  zetahaseo , kokoevahaseo.^  {Jtmm,  /.  _ 

clarify,  ehoxeomeoz,  it  clarif ies4^ liquids ),  becomes, 

ZT”  clean;  enanivse vomeoz ,  it  becomes  clarified,  **/?&- 
cleared, transparent  (of  liquids);  nananivsemanisz , I 
c.,make  it  clear ,  transparent ,  translucent ;  Maheo  nsze-  .A..  A . . 
nanivsenomoenon  nsztahan,  God  will  c.,  glorify  our7"^"*^/  ^ 
it* 'hearts;  tass  enanivseoz  toxetanoheo,  as  it  were  th &£****. 
y  wise  man  is  clarified,  glorified;  Maheo  heomotomevA^/c^/  -eAr. 

e*jr.>4ve Senanivsemane  nivostanehevstonan,  our  life  is  made 
.  *  uV*7  clear,  glorified  by  God’s  Word;  nanivseozistovd  nv  ]/  /  __ 
y  hossenanivseozistovd  maeto  nioxceam’nheman°s ,  we  walk<^*~'t*^(^- 
from  glory  to  glory  (Ger.von  einer  Klarheit  zur  an-'**<^,/ 
dern).  Writer  would  prefer  the  term  "nanivsevatamahe-  *' 
stoz  or  nanivsevatamanohestoz,"  for  "glory"  rather  /y  ..j/ 
than  "vohooevatamahestoz"  .  /i 

clarion,  see  trumpet.  /  /t^**-*^  * 

clash,  epoeov&zeo ,  they  c,  together  (or.);  epoeov&zet- 
tonsz.they  c. together  (in.);  poeov&zistoz, mutu¬ 
al  c;  also  ekokcevahamllzeo ,  they  c.(or.),as  cymbals; 
nonameto  enhadovazeo , they  c.,  collide  together  (with 
no  ref. to  sound);  etoeovstzeo , the  c.,come  in  conflict. 

.  clasp,  natoomana,  I  c.  it, hold  it  immovable;  natoomano 
y£-c.  J  7~„~  (or.);  nahekozeno.I  c. one’s  neck  (as  a  child  its 

"i^fnoth  e  r  ’s  neck);  naest’taena,  I  c.,  buckle, button  it; 
7  est’ 

est  ’ taeneo , the  c. .buckle, button;  eest’taeoneva,  it  is 
clasped  (in  that  condition);  nahapana, I  c., clamp  it; 
naaxaoto,  I  c.  one’s  hand,  shake  hands;  see  clutch,, 
rasp;  natcenomovo  heaz.I  c.,hold  his  hand .  u.  xU-arf>  *-ui  i /r\ 
them  (or.)  (in  groun 

class ,  v . namomenoSnano ,  I 

iem  (or.)  fin  f roup 



nahoxeosan.I  c. , arrange, set  in  order. 
class,  n.nhestav, that  (in.)  c., ref. to;  zhestav.this  c., 

- kind  (in.  )  .pointing  to;  nhestavono  ,  that  (or.)  c  •  .  ^ 

kind, ref. to;  zhestavono,  this  (or.)  c.,  kind, pointing 
to;  enhestayonoeoz, one  becomes  of  that  c.,kind,  deno-  k  -*■  * 

mination;  enhestavonoeve , one  is  of  that  c.;  ezhestav- 
onoeve ,he  is  of  this  c.,kind;  navhestavonoevemo ,  I  am 
of  his  c.;  nitonhestavonoevd , to  which  c. .kind, denomi¬ 
nation  doest  thou  belong?  Nanhes tavonoeozetan,  I  wish 
to  become  of  that  c.;  navhestamo  or  navhestavo.I  am 
of  his  c.,kind;  nasaavhestavohe,  I  am  not  of  his  c., 
character, kind;  nonisde  classes .groups  of 
twenty;  nonive  classes .groups  of  four, 
classification,  hoxeosar.istoz ,  c.  by  putting  in  place; 

momenoaovazistoz.c. .grouping, 
classify,  namomenoaovo  zsehestavonoevessd , I  group  toge- 

-  ther  the  ones  (or.)  that  are  _of  the  same 

class, kind;  namomenovxeanoz  eszistotoz  zsehestavonoe- 
vesz,I  c. words  of  the  same  kind;  zsetotavesz  na  zse- 
totaoesz  naoxcemomeno-aehananoz ,  I  c.  them  (in.)  ac¬ 
cording  to  color  and  size;  lit. the  ones  (in.)  of  the 
same  color  and  the  ones  of  the  same  size_I  group  se¬ 
parately.  Nanohoesta , I  c. it, count  it  with  (Ger.hinzu- 
zahlen);'  nanohoemo  nomazeheoneva,  I  c.him.count  him 
with  the  thieves.  Nanhestavonoevatamo  pavhetan.I  deem 
one  (or.)  to  belong  to  a  class  of  good  men;  lit.  I 
deem  him  in  the  class  of  good  man. 
classmate,  zevistxistonemo ,  my  c.  (also  schoolmate  orj 

-  co-student);  navistxistonema,  one  is  my  c.; 

evistxistonemazeo , they  are  classmates, 
clatter,  clatters;  eohaekokonoeS ,  it 
.  —  clatters,  rattles;  nistonevanoxzistoz,  the  c.; 

Ili^ohaekokoeSenatoz , the  c., rattle. 

"'claw,  m&thdhevo,  the  c.,  nail;  nathohevo,  my  c.,  nail; 

hesthoevon,  his  c.,  nail;  hesthchevonevo ,  their 
claws;  see  nail.  Claw  or  nail  are  or. because  supposed 
to  be  animate  and  being  part  of  a  man’s  spirit  (pro¬ 
tective  spirit).  [Hence  claws,  nails  and  shield  have 
the  same  root  form] .  Emehohevaoz  na  nhe§  eevhaheipohe- 
vaoz,he  draws  his  claws  out  and  then  in  again;  inf. 

-ms-  =appear ;  ir.f.  -hap-  =clasp,fold;  eseposeoz.he 
stretches  out  his  fingers  or  claws;  esosoxpano ,h< 
draws  in  his  claws  .when  he  catches  something;  epavhc- 
he va ,  he  has  good  claws;  ehavsevhoheva.he  has  bad  _ 
claws;  evoxphoheva.he  has  white  claws.  [Hence  the  Vr  •  ,L  .j/iifhQ" 
na  /oxphohevS.  =Whiteshield  or  Whitenail;  Mahohevd,  J. 
Redshield  or  Redclaw] .  In  religious  ceremonials  the  i 

’ - "ter 


the  : 

claw  matt 

"exxovon"  =shell , symbolizes 
(also  horn)  as  protective 
hesthbhevonenaneo  (or.)  ou?  nails  and  claws  (the  pro¬ 
tective  ,  shielding  substance  in  us).  Epohohevaoes ,he 

r  H’  b 

substance  (fetisch).  Ii-ll  M 

-  n 


yXu  JppJJp* 



C^>/ a^ian^'t ^US H-C/eYE N N E  DfcTIONAWf’  —  && 

r\bs  his  c.  or  nail  off; 
claws.  See  nail 

clatos;  kaesehotam  nahot&na,  the  iay'claws  me;  nahoti-'^V^,' 
no  ,  I\c  .,  grasp,  clutch  him.  See  scratch.  Hesto voegkon ,  ,i 
dew  c\aw,[same  word  used  to  exgr/ss  "dried  apples"  , no  j 

doubt  because  of  their  resembl/ng  dried  apples].  / 
clay,  hetamomaoxz.c. ;  ehetanomaoxrzeve ,  it  is  c.;  hetpn  =  J 

male  V  -omaoxz  =ground;  really  hetanomaoxz  =ground  uf  .i^*-**-*  , 
of  distensible  quality, lending  itself  easily  to  being  y/A/1^- 
i  shaped  inbo  any  form.  Formerly  extensively  used  'by 

Ch. children,  to  make  balls  and  figures  of  animals , etc  J!/  ^ 

llyjjf'f  The  last  was\  especially  the  case  when  the  Sun  dance^^^V,/^^** 
it/jl  took  place.  VEff igy  of  the  p_hallus_  (which  used  to/i’‘'x‘je 

be  hung  to  the  center  pole  of  the  Sun  dapce)  was  al--^  ' 

I  so  modelled  with  "hetanomaoxz",  writer  was  given  one^^,^,^'^- 

such  figure, but  burnt  as  a  brick  and  of  heavy  weight.  ppfp 
clean,  inf  .-hoxe(e)-  =c.  ;  is  ehoxeae,  one 

ciupt  (or.)  is  c.;  ehoxeo,  it  cleansj^ehoxenohe ,  one_//AA.  - 

- "  (or.)  looks  c.;  ehoxenono,it  looks  c.;  ehoxenonoensz ,  c/,a~Sy 

they  «in.)  look  c.;  eShoxeene , one  (or.)  has  a  c  .face 
Oegepavevoen,  one  (or.)  has  a  good  (clean)  face;  ehoxe-**^**^f^  M 
hotonohe  ,  one  (or.)  is  c. braided;  is  c .  wa-^y  ""  ' 
ter;  ehoxeomeoz , the  water  becomes  c., clear;  nahoxes \ 
JLlb taha.I  am  c. hearted;  nahoxehestaeona,  I  harve  c. hands'^* 

am  c. handed);  (or.)  has  a  c. mouth;  zeho -g/ifiye£- 
^  JjW^zenassS.the  ones  (or.)  who  have  a  c. mouth  (not  us  - 
jG'  ing  profane  .desecrating  language);  namxevomotoxta . 
ftPrfyr  fir  (a  liquid,  food  or  water,  by  blowing  over  it  in  a 
I  itlfjJ*'  ceremonial  way);  mxevomotoxtoz  n&taman,  c.our  food; 

\Jl  lit. sweep  our  food  with  thy  mouth  or  breath,  sanctify 

it;  bes  under  "blow".  Nahoxeanen,  I  am  cleaning;  naho - ^ ^liJo+p 
t xeana.I;  nahoxeano.I  c  .  one  (or.);  nahoxeevosta-  ***  f, 

™  nehsve.I  lead  a;  nahoxeetan.I  think  c.;  naho-^' — ■jifJ*' 

TIP?  hetSetanoxzeve , I  have  a  c.mind;  nahoxeazesta, I  deern.***^''  jO**-*" 

c'  I  am  deemeduTT;  nahoxeaztomon ,  ft  is  cVuhto  me;  ehoxea • 

'  nitov,  it  is  c.for  me,  on  my  account;  nahoxeeonaoz ,  I  \ 

Jr  n ^*have  c. hands;  nahoxeevomoxta,  I  feel  c .  (physical ) ;  see  ' 

sweep;  hoxeetanoxtoz  ,  c  .  thot ;  hoxeevos tar.ehevestoz  ,.  c.  ^  tjp 
wr .(Lpr /life;  inf.-hoxe-  combined  with  inf  .-pave- .thus  -hoxbr  tM‘  ‘ .  t- 
f  pave-  =perfect;  ehoxepaveesz ,  he  speaks  perfectly  fO 
fjr  fo/**' .  well;  inf  .-vaxshoxe-  =c  .  thruout ,  completly ,  perfectly 

. >y  ,  nasaav&xshoxeahe ,  I  am  not  perfectly  c.,not  perf  ect ;  \  depJjOii*') 
^ !i sometimes  "-hoxe-"  denotes  "better,  in  order";  nata ~  j^-(y 
hoxeemxea.I  am  going  to  write  it  better, in  order;  na-^ 

•  hoxeosan,  I  arrange  in  order;  zehoxeassd , the  c . one s ■ jint* 
(or,);  zehoxeaesz.the  c.ones  (in.);  zehoxeevostanehe-^ 
vessd.the  ones  (or.)  who  lead  a;  zehoxeemomA-  t#1' 
tavostanehevess6,the  ones  (or.)  who  lead  a  sainted, c. 
life.  [Do  not  confound  inf.  -hoxe-  =clean,with  inf. 

-hdxe-  =to  become  aquainted,  or  — oxe-  =to  break  in  . 



.  tfQfi  7  t  —  ,  1/liV  uuv  HJ.1V  J.O 

n(vLi  /M/  hovaeva  naveSehoxeanan, I  was  something;  zemeha- 
^  tasehanez  naevhahoxeanaen  Maheo,  as  we  were  defiled, 

V_God  cleansed  us;  nahoxeanomevo ,  I  from;  nahoxea- 
nojiovo  hevoxca,  I  c.  one’s  hat;  nahoxeana  mhayo.I  c.the 
v  t,  i'  to»use;  mapeva  Jiaeszehen, I  clean  my  coat 
, .  w  i  '  at  U  jlU  ,  y  a  c(.  A>  j^j 

V  ^  ^njO8-  Cleansing,  hoxear.azistoz  ,  the  c.;  navestomevo  emehoxea- 
nez’,  nazhesta,  I  ask  him  for  the  c.  of  my 
heart;  heto  eoxeanovatto ,  this  has  the  power  of  c,; 
esaahoxeanazer.ovhan ,  there  is  no  c.fci 
clear,  napavemgsta, I  make  it  c.dy  explaining,  I  explain /rit^’a/K 
it  well;  napavemestomevo ,  I  make  it  c.  to  one, by 
'  explanation;  nat&tanovanen,  I  make  it  c., expose  it; 

_  .  nat&tanovana, I  make  it  c.  ;  natatanovano  (or.);  et&ta- 

OAjulxlC  IClW  novoz  or-  .tata  enovoz .  it  (stands)  is  c  .  open ,  frank; 
jl^  etatanBveoz ,  it  or  one  (or.)  decomes  plain ,  c  .,  exposed , 

revealed;  natatancvemesta ,  I  make  it  c.,  confess  it.ex- 
'V  '  W/^jpese  it  by  words;  nhe§  enoveoz  nitov4,now  it  becomes 
/ plain, c. to  me;  tass  etatanoveoz  natgetanoxzeva,  as  it 
^  V*  hZ****  were  it- gets  my  mind;  t&ta  is 
‘'fl"4*' [  4j  becoming  c.(made  plain)  to  me;  nataeSheneeno , i t  is  c. 

/ir  /  to  me,  I  know  now;  nahoxeevooto  ,  I  c  .  one  .declare  one 
\  clean;  zgmehamomaxems  nahoxeevooto , I  from  accu- 

\pr  sat  ion;  hoemanistovA  eSevegeono  ( ev )  hoseme  ,he  has  been 

cleared  by  law;  emehamomaxeme  zgnasens  na  eevhanoni- 
,l*v  M  zeomenane  hoemaovazistovA ,  he  was  accused  of  murder 


two].  Hoema  zehoxeo,  the  law  which  cleans,  cleanses-  gets  c.;  clean  in  the  sense  of  "not  for¬ 
eign,  straight  thru, unqualifiedly, wholy,  clearly , simp¬ 
ly,  purely"  is  expressed  by  the  inf.  -xa-  and  -xama- ; 
naxamavonetanota, I  have  "clean" .unqualifiedly  forgot¬ 
ten  it;  inf.-oseec-  denotes  the  sense  of  "pure 
•  entirely  alone, free  from  foreign  matter, by  itself  en¬ 
tirely  .without  any  one";  hence:  zeoseekass8,  the  ones 
(or.)  who  are  without  any  one, destitute;  see  pure.  is  c.,it  is  not  defiling ;  esaatasehe-  is  c.,not  defiled;  see  defile, clear. 
cleaner,  n.hoxeanenehe  the  c.;  ehoxeaneneheve ,  he  is  a 
c.;  ehoxeanova.he  is  a  c. 

cleaning,  hoxeanenistoz , the  c.;  ehoxeanenov,  there  is  a 
c.,also  he  is  one  who  cleans, who  has  the  qua¬ 
lity  of  c.;  zehoxeane  mAzhesta, etahanez ’  hethozeohes- 
toz, Maheo, the  c.,  cleansing  of  the  heart  is  God’s 

cleaness,  hoxeastoz , the  state  of  being  clean;  hoxeemo- 
~  mAtahestoz,  or  mSmata-hoxeastoz ,  religious  c., 
cremonial  purity;  hoxeevostanehevestoz ,  c.of  living; 
hoxeetanoxtoz , c . in  thot;  hoxehetgetanoxzevestoz , c .  of 

cleanse ,  same  as  clean;  zehoxeanensz,  the  one  who 
■>  .fa**'  cleanses;  zehoxeansz,  the  o'ne  who  is  cleansed; 
rv,mra<  '  ' 

leak  ,  „  ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY ,  _  #  clear, no 


(that  he  killed)  but4ie  was  cleared  by  judgement 
lit.he  was  liberated  by  the  judging;  zemehatotahopas- 
tove  etaegevhahoxeane.the  confusion, disorder  has  been  /  ' 

cleared.  M&pevatamano  eseva  nstaneoxzhemd j  on  a  c.  , 
day, we  shall  go  there;  enee§epoeosta&  voe.the  clouds t’*r.,ta*r>^4^ - 5 
c.up;  also  epopoeostad,  the  clouds  c.,  break  up;  ene-J^JJ'^r, 
e5ehotxad,it  is  clearing  up, uncovering  (the  sky);  to£L/l£i/^ 
make  c.,in  the  sense  of  "bright", see  under  "bright-*A«*^'--> 
en" .  "Clear"  in  the  sense  of  "transparent,  transluc¬ 
ent, pellucid"  is  rendered  by  inf ,-nanivs- ;  enanivse-tfAff****"*^- 

,1(1*  .  M 

In' parent  body  of  water;  hovae  esaaton5enohoehanehen°s 

/(r  '  hevetov  Maheo.hevanSe&enonittoz’  tass  en-Sxamananives- 
soz  hevetov  Maheo,  nothing  is  hidden  in  the  sight  of 

pellucid  for  Him.  When<^y«^e- 


Mahe  o , 

God, even  darkness  is  simply 
c.ref.  to  an  open  space  in  a  forest, free  ar ea, vacant cj? 
room,  the  term  -poota  is  used;  emaxepoota,  it  is 
great  clearing,  free  space,  area;  esdpoota, there  i^^w 
still  c.  room  (ref.  to  seats  or  space  in  a  room. ~ 
which  are  not  yet  occupied;  also  speaking  of  a  free  y  ' 
area  of  land);  maevghoeno  zeomepopoota.the  thorufares  yr<fc^- 
of  a  town, streets, the  c. thorufares  between  walls  or 
buildings;  "clear"  in  the  sense  of  freeing  from  bur¬ 
den,  obs  truction,  relieve  from  encumbrance , also  exoner¬ 
ate  ,  liberate, ^i^from  burden)  is  rendered  by  the  rad.  ,  ;  i 

-masto-;  emdstoheoz,  one  is  siSi&ed-,  noliovod  f rom; 
nasz  sistato  emastohoe , one  pine  (tree)  stands  c.,dis-  ___ 

tinct  (from  the  others;  either  standing  alone  by  self 
or  having  branches  cut  off).  The  term  "masto-"  is  of^fll 
difficult  rendering  in  Eng. and  writer  heard  different  D 
and  confusing  translation  of  the  same.  What  he  givesAf^^ywiA**' 
is  the  more  reliable  meaning. Thus  her 

'  ana  contusing  translation  oi  tne  same,  wnat  ne  gives’''Jj/#jffi>^- 
x-riPz"'  the  more  reliable  meaning. Thus  here/jthis  word  -ma 
rU*** s^ohoe  might  also  denote  the  elearingoiv  the^ 

J.r‘)  l  ^^‘removing  the  trees  or  other  .obstructions .  NamSstoha-  *— 

* ,  I  c.  remove  fewMlrawo  (as  when  the  bur-^  _ 

clean;  inf.-xa-  or  -xama  also  denotes  "clear"  in  the^" 

,‘r.  ^^sense  of  "natural ,  simply ,  c  .  thru"  ;  nasaaxahemeses  tovd ,  I 
'(V\‘  ./'am  c»°ut  of  food;  nasaaxa-hovae-aenohe ,  I  am  c.out  of^^— ^  . 

'^0  .y^vanything  I  own;  exameatove ,  it  is  a;  exanoyae'““"'i*<la,<- 
it  is  c.,  straight;  naxaasetana,  I  away;  namxeen, 

PV  c .  ( by )  swe eping . , ,  ILeC*  uXuvL  cr» 

J  clearing,  gepoota/  where  there  is  an  open  space*'  ( ii\ 

woods  or 1  fields, also  of  unoccupied  seats).  Z5-\^ 
mad  eSemastohecz  na  natosemonomax,  where  the  timber  has  become  cleared  and  I  am  going  to  break  t ^  . 


(with  a  plow)  the  ground. 

clearly,  inf ,-mese-, c plainly ;  -tatanov-,c. .openly,  in 

-  plain  sight;  -nak- , c ., sharply ;  oatos  (detached 

term), c., of  course, self  evidently;  inf.-hoxe-  =clean- 
ly , c . ;  nahoxeoo ,  I  see  c.;  -oxta-  =clear  thru,  dis¬ 
tinctly;  naoxtanomo,  I  see  one  (or.)  c . , distinctly . 
This  inf. really  denotes  "thru, over,  from  one  end  to 
the  other, the  whole  length  of.  [Naoxtaen.I  spend, pass 
the  night;  winter  old  horse, colt  hav¬ 
ing  "cleared"  the  winter].  Exahavsevoeta,  one  has  c. 
done  wrong;  esaaxaheneenohe , one  evidently, c.  does  not 
know;  nasaaxaesztovohe , I  c., obviously  do  not  speak  to 

clearness,  nakooxtoz.c. .sharpness  of  sight;  hoxeooxtoz, 

- -  c.,cleaness  of  sight;  nanivsevatamahestoz.c. , 

clarity;  meseeszistoz , c . of  speech;  mesemestomevazis- 
toz.c.of  explanation;  pevatamanohestoz ,  c.,of  atmos¬ 
phere, fine  weather .general  fine  appearance;  xaenSei- 
haetanoxtoz.c.of  thot , judgement ;  xamapavetgetanoxtcz , 
c., soundness  of  mind.thot  purpose,  intent;  xanovevo-:- 
tanehevestoz , c . of  living, straightforward  j  e 

cleavage,  see  cleave.  “f**/ 

cleave,  naoxevoon.I  c., split  apart;  naokevooha,  I,/^ 
cut  it  open  (instr.);  naoxevodno  hohona.I  c. 
'the  rock  (or.);  namameoxevodno  hoxzz,  I  c.a  yawning 
t/dr  cleft  in  the  tree;  lit.  I  greatly  split  the  tree; 

.  .  >  Sr*  La  *  .  i  —  _ _ a _ ~  4- «  4-  v«nn  ■?»-.  nl  ofl  enl  T  +  (  Trv  2.  i  ghl  — 


_ thigh;  naoxevoe&tano , I 

s  foot  (by  blow);  naoxevoemaso , I  (or.)  by 
shooting.  Hovae  zeoxevoohe,  something  cleft,  split 
apart;  zeto  hoxzz  zeoxevoohesz ,  this  tree  which  is 
cleft;  hoxzetto  zeoxevoohessd ,  the  trees  that  are 
. c  ^ deleft;  hoxzetto  zeoxevoemxessd,  the  trees  cleft  (by 
.AlL^^lightning)  ,by  shooting.  Hohona  zeoxevoohesz  nitovan, 
ithe  rock  which  was  cleft  for  us;  see  rend, split.  Epa- 
i't  cleaves, clings, sticks, adheres  to;  see  adhere; 

OS.  cleaves  to  me;  hovae  zepanoetto,  some- 

mA  ^  thing  that  cleaves  to  me;  zepanoeta,  that  which 
'/'.r  oImtps  nli ns's  to  thee:  zenapanoetto ,  that  which 


hoxzz  eoxevoem&xe, the  tree  is  cleft,  split  (hy 
ning)i  naoxevoemxesta  kamax.I  c.the  wood  by  si 
it; ,  I  c. 

cleaves,  clings  to  thee;  zepapanoetto ,  that  which 
cleaves  to  me, at  different  places '(on  my  person);  na-  cleaves  to  me  (at  different  places);  each  one  of  us;  napapanoeto- 
toenon,it  cleaves  to  us, each  one  of  us  (at  different 
places  on  our  persons).  See  stick, 
cleaver,  zeoxevcSnsz , the  one  who  cleaves, cuts  asunder; 

oxevodnehe  and  cxevo6o,the  c. (latter  word  also 
applied  to  instrument). 

cleft,  zeoxve voohe , that  which  is  c.;  Sen  zistovoo,  the 

-  c . of  a  rock;  Jen  =rock  standing  byself;  zistovoo 

=in  the  open  space .fissure  between;  is  a 


c., broken  apart;  zeoxevoeha, where  there  is  a  e.;  ze- 
oxeatasz  or  zeoxevoe&tasz , the. c. footed  one  (not’  ref. 
to  cloven  hoofs), the  one  whose  foot  was  c.;  tooveo- 
son, the  c.of  the  hoof,  between  the  claws  (fingers); 
eoxe&tae ,he  (animal)  is  c.  footed,  cloven, or  etooveo- 
sae.he  is. cloven  in  the  hoof. 
clemency,  Sivaztastoz,  c.,  mercy,  pity;  hdpsanistoz , c . 

(Ger.  Schonung);  ehdpsanistove . , it  ,is,  a  c., 
leniency.  h -o  r>  •>  -d  i  v  «,•>  t 

clement ,  egivaztae , one  is  c ., compassionate ;  egivaztahe-  is  c.,  humane;  nahopeho,  I  treat  one 
*7  with  clemency, leniency ;  eh&psaneoneve , one  is  lenient, 
sparing, c.;  rad. -Siva-  or  -Seva-  denotes  mercy, com¬ 
passion,  clearance  ,  [older  Ind.  used  to  say  -xeva-  in¬ 
stead  of  -Seva-;  the  term  "xeva"  must  be  the  oldest 
and  implies  "clearance,  relief,  release"],  while  rad. 
-hop  denotes  melting,  changing  from  hard  or  solid  to 
fluid  substance  [hdpaehemenoz. grapes, the  melting  ber- 

clench ^nahekonana  naaz , I  cfmy  fist.make  my  hand  hard; 

nahapanen  and  nahapeonaoz , I  close  my  hand,  press 
my  hand  close;  nahekonehapanen, I  c.hard;  nahekonhapa- 
na,  I  c.  it  hard;  nahekonhapano  (or.);  see  clutch, 
teeth, mouth. 

clergy,  maheonegszhetanestoz ;  emaheoneeszhetanestove  it 
it  is  the  c. 

clergyman,  maheoneeszhetan, c . .minister, missionary;  ema- 
heoneeszhetaneve ,he  is  a  c.;  some  Ch.  say  ma- 
heonhetan, which  formerly  was  applied  to  the  catholic 
priests  in  Montana;  Maheone  =holy  (from  mysterious)  + 

-esz-  =speaking  +  -hetan  =man;  maheoneeszeveho , c . , 
minister;  the  suff.— veho  =white  man;  maheoneeszeve-  ,  o 
hoa, white  woman  missionary.  iifnui  uJi , 

£l££k,  mxi stonehe , the  c.  .writer^  veho  zemxistonsz , 

white  man  who  writes .  l, 

clever,  eotoxovae , one  is  c. ,  experienced  in  something, 
able;  eneSeoona, one  is  c., skilled;  inf.-otoxove- 
=cleverly, skillfully , ably;  eotoxovehoeston,  he  reads' 
cleverly.  <  •  {la  v  a&luyt 

clevis,  toneoheo  zevoxceoz  na  hestov  hesthonoc  zeota, 
bolt  which  is  crooked  and  whose  double  point  has 

click,  clicks. 

cliff ,  anoeva;  oxeanoeva.c. ,  bluff  (cleft  under, down); 

zeamemaxeoxeanoe ,a  bank,  line  of  cliff  s  .precipicejIfttZ^^^ 
see  bluff.  Hoevotto  ,  c  .  ,  cave  people;  see  cave.  §>c  ■  n*-  , 

£linib,  nadvondn,  I  c.;  hoxzezeva  nadvonen,  I  c.a  tree;  — " 
nadnosevonoxta, I  c. up, over  after  it;  nadnosevond- 
to,I  c.over  after  one  (or.), to  catch  him;  naesevondn, 

I  c., crawl  into;  nahotoanan,  I  c.with  difficulty,  a 

S "t> G P ^  tt  1  a  o  •  Vinf  noviQ  —  loov/l  ^  -i  -f'-f’-i  nnl  4-  _j_  r-. ■. -P-P  X~»  -c*  /  i.  fr — * 


to  walking  and.  whose  "e"  is  apocopated .making  -hotoa- 
n§ln  instead  of  -hotanadn;  naomevonen.I  or  down 
from  (wagon,, etc. ) ;  naanhoevonen ,  I  c.down; 
naonovonen,  I  c.  out  of  water,  river;  naeen.I  c.  (by- 
walking);  naddn  hohona.I  c.  a  mountain,  rock;  see  up; 
denistoz.the  going  up, ascending  by  walking;  evonenis- 
toz  and  evon’nistoz.the  climbing, crawling ;  see  crawl; 
nasdvonen.I  c.down  into;  edvon’netto , it  climbs;  eoni- 
motaoneani-zetto ,  it  climbs  up  by  winding  around  some¬ 
thing  (said  of  certain  plants);  edasetto.the  climber, 
vine, (ref. to  climbing  plants ); edasetto  eonimotaoenet- 
to  hoxzezeva, the  vine  climbs .winding  around  the  tree; 
edasetto  eonimotaoneanazetto  hoxzezeva, the  vine  winds 
itself  up  the  tree;  sitoxceoneva  navededvondn, I  c.  by 
means  of  a  rope;  naanhostoneani,z , I  c.down, let  myself 
down  with  a  rope;  -an-  =down  +  hos  =suspended  +  -one- 
ref,  to  rope, string  +  -anaz  =do  myself.  Heto  hohona 
esaatond-ddnetoehe.this  mountain  cannot  be  climbed; 
esaaton§-eenetoehan,it  cannot  be  climbed;  esaatond--  is  not  climbable.  Nasaatond-dvon’ ne ,  I 
cannot  c.;  esaatonddvon’nistovhan,  it  is  not  climb- 
able;  zeto  hoxzz  esaatondedvon’netoehe.this  tree  can¬ 
not  be  climbed. 

clinch,  tsrreoheo  zeedeestohe  napenohomovo  hesthonoc.I 

-  c . a  nail;  lit. the  nail, after  it  has  been  driven 

in, its  point  I  pound;  nahekonevoxcepenoha  toneoheo,  I 
c . the  nail, pound  it  crooked;  nahapanen.I  c.,  grapple; 
see  pinch,  clamp,  clench. 

cling,  natonoe.I  c.;  natonoetovo , I  one  (or.);  na-  i 
*  '  /  ~  tonoeta.I  it;  evedepanoed,  it  clings  to  one 

#|j  (as  lint, pieces  of  straw.etc.);  napanoetova ,he  clings 

t  i.fA'Cr  to  me;  see  cleave ,  adhere ;  nahekonetonoetomovo  zexhe- 
'  L*/"tasiI  c>to  wha't  he  said  to  me;  nahekonemehoto  nanis- 
*t>  w*  on, I  c.  in  love  to  my  child;  clings  to, 
sticks;  nahekonetoetanota  naeszistoz.I  my  word; 
natoetan.I  hold  in  thot;  inf.  -saapoe-  =not  let  go; 
esaapoenedeve , he  does  not  let  go  doing, he  clings  to 
his  doing;  esaapoemashaneheoneve ,  he  clings  to  his 
foolishness.  mnxk  alsa.'M.JbM.,  <JL.{o  u*  ptc-l 

clink,  etoxzeevon, itrcl‘inks  (as  small  metallic  bodies 
,  or  earthenware).  *.e^**-o *= 

clinker,  maaxcepS,, irregular  piece, small  lump  of  ashes, 
clip,  see  shear;  nahooxtaso.I  c. one’s  hair;  zehooxtxes- 
sd.the  shorn  ones. 

clipper,  hooxtxovitoz;  eh.ooxtxovi.tove ,  i t  is  a  c.;  hoox- 
-  txovahe , the  c. (person  or  instr.) 
clitoris,  zistoneoetto  heszhoto. 

cloak,  homa,  blanket,  robe  (as  worn  by  Indians);  see 
blanket, robe;  zeseszehe,  long  coat,  overcoat; 
nanhomana , I;  nanhomano.I  (or.);  nanhoma- 
naz.,1  c.  myself;  ehesthomanazi stove ,  he  has  it  for  a 



^  * /h#" 

c.,a  cover, di sgui se , pretext ;  ohSehonatoz  ehesthomana- 
zistovenov, long  prayer  they  have  for  c.;  homstaestoz 
c. .cover, mantle;  eoxchestomstaestovenov  inaheonoltas- 
toz, under  the_c.,  cover  of  ceremonial.  Hoxcaeszehe 
hoodedc.;  zeseeszehe  zenomEstoxca, long  coat  provided 
with  a  hood;  tovoxeszehe, army  c.(with  cape);see  coat, 
clock,  maxekokoase, large  watch;  kokSaseo, watch,  smaller 
c.;  kokoaseonoz , (pi . ) ;  is  a  c  •  is  ticking;  from  -koko-  =to  tap  gently- 
kokoas taaxestoz , c . on  a  shelf;  ekokoastaaxestov,  it  is 
a  c.(on  a  shelf).  See  time.  Kokoase  zeoxcenistohetto , 
striking  c.  ’ 

clod,  mhadoxz  (or  mhahaoxz) , lump;  emhaaoxzeve  hetanoma- 
oxz,a  lump, c. of  ground, clay;  heSevoxz  zemamemenoe, 
soil  m  chunks , clods ;  hetan  ehegevoxzeve ,  man  is  a 
clod, dust. 

clog,  hovae  evegenxpaoe,  it  is  clogged,  obstructed  by 
something  (in  a  passage);  see  close,  hold, hinder 
stop, prevent TLt_  *  *■*-  • 

close,  inf.-nxp-  denotes  "close"  in  the  sehse  of  shut-^f±£i^ 

.  ting, obstructing  an  entrance,  passage,  aperture; 

nanxP°oha. 1  c.with  instr.(in.);  nanxpoono,  I  c.  with 
instr*  (°  a  jug);  nxpodo.a  cork, etc.;  nanxpaovo  , 

]  .L>s  A  /V*  I  f1  .  OUR  irn  IfPPn  Pnnl  ^  c-  ^ ~  ~ t  .  ,  ,  \  t 

-  filling  in, as  chinks )  ,ucyf  * 

•  naonxPsstano ,  I  c.,stop  one’s  ears;  nanxpeesz,  I 

ixr'  a  string  (to  tie  it), see  tie;  nahekonxpoa-  /  4  tight;  nahekonxpooha ,  I  c.  with  an  instr 
boit.cork  or  lock;  nahekonxpoono , I  lock  one  up;  heni-//^L<?/^ 
-/Z-  ^-t5  ehekonxpoohe ,  the  door  is  closed  tight  (with  lock)  • 

r  -,r  ehekonxpoohe,  the  door  is  closed  tight  (with  lock)  /«*'<* 

V*  hekonxpooxz , c . , cork  it  tight!  Hekonxpooo,  lock, cork’  [M*  «*/ 

\jylt,jJe'  °olt;  nxpoheo,  the  closer,  lid,  cover  (over  an  aper-  j  f 
y  ture);  is  a  lid, cover; 

Hr t)  v*  l  c .,  obstructing  the  breath;  enxpotomoxta.he  suffers 

^Ci  ft*  dyspnoea, asthma;  enxpexaenoseoz ,he  suffers  fromA'^^ 

^  dysuria;  nxpotomoxtastoz ,  dyspnoea;  nxpexaencsestoz  c/./v., 

■'  jv  d^suria,  retention 

dyspnoea;  nxpexaencsestoz 

y, , r  now*-  ■  -  —  urine;  enxpsoestonaov&z  one 

-  himself  a  Clout, breech  clout;  nanxpehoe.I  stand 

'r  ^-'before  an  opening;  nxpemeon, closing,  obstructing 
yVtT‘2'oad!  nxpeoxtam, closing, obstructing  the  door;  nanxpa- 
,  .  T  -  by  hand;  nanxpanomovo  he ex, I  c.,shut  one  * 

hand);  see  blindfold;  nanxpazenaoz , I  hold  i 

CLgr^^'kefo're  an 

‘iLWir  eye  <by  ha 

W  7  mouth  c.; 

nanxpazen&no , I  c.  one’s  mouth;  nanxpatovan , 
v-.the  damper  (of  stove  pipes);  see  shut, stop;  enxpoe-  ^  is  set  closed;  enxpaeoz,  it  is  closed , checked • 
see  check, stop . ^Nahapanen,  I  clinching,  clamping,’ 
pinching;  nahapazenaoz , I  c., clasp  my  mouth  shut;  na- 
h&pana  mxisto.I  c.the  book;  nahapeonaoz,  I  c., clench 
my  hand  ;nah£,penoe,  I  sewing;  see  sew;  naoomana, 



„„  I  c  it  up,  by  covering  over  (as  when  an 

inc i s i on& i s ’ made  in  til  body  and  the  surface  closed 
over  again);  eevhaomovaoz  or  eevhaohomovaoz , the  water 
close?  over  again, return  to  their  former  place, coming 
together  and  forming  one  again;  eohomovatto, the  water 
closes  in,  covers  all;  naev&ho  zeegeosenoss  hetano 
eevhaoomanomovo  hevoxSz .after  the  physician  had  oper¬ 
ated  the  man  (in  the  bowels)  he  closed  over  again  his 
ht  is  difficult  to  find  out  whether  the  term 
S^m-  of-ohom-,  as  one  will  hear  ' both  forms  and 
tere  seems  to  be  no  difference  in  meaning.  Naoomoha  I 
c  enclose  it;  naoomono,  I  c., enclose  one;  see^su 
round;  emamovhotazeo ,  they  (or.)  come  closer 
meet;  nahona.I  (a  door);  honoz  c. it! 
has  become  closed;  nahonheto.I  forbid  one* 
one  by  saying);  nahonesta.I  forbid  it;  see  forbid. Na- 
honesetan  I  thot, against, exclude, shun  (in  thot), 
honesetanotovsz  havseveva,  c  .my  thot  from  evil ^excude 

they  (in. fare  c! together,  crowding;  nahoxatamo.I  am^^- 
ore  in  the  sense  of  friendship,  acquaintance), 
tahoxhoe ,  sit  c.  together!  Toxetto.c  along, along  the 
Z3e  border;  hangs  c.; 
for  j  III gs%8  suspended;  r.apaehoe.I  stand  stay 
i! Uiso cfing);  napaehoetovo ,  I  stay  stand  one 
(or  );  napaehoeta, I  stay  it;  inf.  pae  c.,  a 
hering  clinging  side  by  side;  hence:  hovane  nas-ap-e- 
maheonetovahe , there  is  no  God  besides  me  side  by  side 
with  me-;  paemeo,  the  road  c.  by, side  y 
side;  napLhozeohetovo.I  work  c -besides  one; °e 
zeohetomovo  hesthoeo.l  work  c. besides  °»*  *  J1®1  •  t 
or  hahetto.c. .near  by;  see  near;  natoxpotaoho , I  .7 
inserting  k  finger  into  one’s  wound,  c.a  hole  by  - 
ITrtVri  !  finge?;  see  insert  stick  into;  natoxpozeos- 
tono  I  c.  up,  by  inserting  (with  instr.,  as  a 
hole’, or  the  nose);  nahooetovo.I  c.up  on  one« 
with  one;  also  naxahooetovo , I  ^  "  ;t  "  ' 

-hoxs-  =c  .against ,  ^joining^  .eJoxBtot*.  .^sets  ^ 

?Sl”he  or'distance ;  k^ks  (detached  term)  not  dis- 

mof  s  e  fonfc '. ^ from  SiiTS  « 

from  c.;  nakaoexova.I  mow  c ., short ,  _ see  ,nan 

pta  I  c  a  doing, performance, ceremonial ;  e8enoetao,o 

‘e*th.  ptrfomtice  is  closed;  naCn.sss.I  c.„  speech 
end  it;  zetosheseenemsestov,  towards  the  c.  of  ^ 
meal .feast ;  enahan  evedednstcnstov  in  tto.wijj.thj 
cerenomonial  is  closed,at  the  end. 


'  tUfa*,  udLd'f^y  -  <**•}  sc/ 

v.x— ?**  i-*~~' ■ 


the  ending ,  cutting  off.  PevogtastovS,  eveiegneoz  h°- 
vostanefHvestoz.his  life  closed  in  deeds  of  kindness., by  folding  (like  a  pocket  knife); 
akavaneomozc>qlosing, folding  knife;  emosetto,  secret¬ 
ly  , c .privacy ;  Ho vcxbonae , one  is  c ., strict , searching ; 
navo voxbonendzto vsul  have  one  under  c. scrutiny;  lit. I 
ask  one  searchinglW  evenaheSkos,  one  is  c.  stingy; 
enxpotomeoz  hotoma  hetis^mhayo,  it  is  c.,  stifling  in¬ 
side  this  house;  is  closed, forbidden,  ta- 
boed  (by  religion);  zexoveVa  ehostomohestov  emdnes- 
t°z,at  present  the  hunting  be  closed, forbidden;  see 
forbid;  fits  Unfitted)  closely;  na- 
hekonetaoe ,  it  fits  me  closely  Rightly ;  see  tight- 
ep§.eveg  (epaevSena) ,  it  (or  one); 
sets . 

closet ,  zeceneota  zexhosanevoss  es  ’  anis'foxto ,  c.  for/ 
clothing  (not  movable, built  in  the  hou§4j  ;  "kae- 
mestoz  was  a  former  name  for  kitchen  c.or  cabirted;;  atX  ' 
present  the  term  "vehoseo"  ,  chest, is  used;  evehosebne  is  a  c. (movable);  vehosebnoz, (pi. ) ;  mesekamhE 
yo,c.,prvy;  ernes  ekamhajroaeve , it  is  a  c. .water  c. 
clot,  momaevoxz.c.ofjbio'od;  momegvoxzz , clots  of  blood; 

emomafevoxzeya-rit  is  a  c.  of  blood;  heSevoxz.c.of  , 
dirt,  mud  .A*/.  —  w*-  e fhj  —  e.  w  ,  fr  ■ 

cloth,  |^ghV(or. )  .c.of  calico  or  ufuslin;  Seonoz(  in.  )\T/f 
-^gs;  eSeononeve,  it  is  c.;  seononeva.with  a  c . 

I  tlack  c.;  moxtavSeon  zehaoemsz,  black  c. 

HWwhlCh  ls  exPensive  (broadcloth);  moxtavSeon  zeocea/ 

(i  taz’  ^lack  c*  which  is  smooth  (also  used  for  broad-  ^  4 
•  --'Cloth);  (or.)  is  smooth  (speaking  of  cr'*™*, 

,  ,  like  broadcloth);  emooa(or. )  ,it  is  rough  (cloth);  ze-^e^^ 
mooaz ,  the  rough  one  (cloth);  (or.) 
smooth, sleek  (like  fur);  nitavszea ,  this  is  applied  to^T? 
the  broadcloth  which  Ch.used  for  special  heavy  blank 
p4l'ets,with  a  bright  colored  line  on  the  selvage  edge 

voxpemonafS*  /  (or.),  white  sheeting,  used  for  ligh-fc]P«>W^ 
blankets  in/  summer  time;  otatavgeon  zecceataz,  blu 
broadcloth/  zemaetaz  geon,  red  c., calico;  kakoegeon,  ’ • 

thin  c  .  ,  cadico  ;  geon  zemeovaz,  fuzzy  c.;  evageon ,  wool  -  *** 
en  c. [besides  the  regular  term  "voxpeva" , eva  is  also fifk. 
used  for  J  cotton,  because  the  Ind.  called  the  cotton^ 

"wool",  1 t  being  similar  to  sheep’s  wool  in  appear-* 
ance];  i/onovgeon, thick  c. .canvas  c.;  zeotoenovsz  Se-/  ^ 
on, cheese  c.,with  holes  thru  it.  Honeo, c . ,garb,  wear^J?^ 
ing  appkrel.also  used  in 'the  figurative.  _  . 



clothe,  mahoneonaovo , I  make  one  to  be  clothed;  nahoneo- 
^  (  ~  T011’1  am  made  to  be  clothed;  nahoneovo,  I 

(0*)  (or.) /put  it  (clothing)  on, don  it, wear  it;  [keep  in 
jT  -£^mind  /that  organic] ;nahoneovo  is  also  used  figur- 
m^>-ativ/ly  in  the  sense  of  "I  put  him  on";  nha  zehone-  . 
ovdss  ni simon, the  ones  who  have  familiar  spirits;  na- 

-  iJluiz  lJL**.  • 

li-tfiu  -  (*-'  cX^IU  ,,/U  *?  y/ 


it^V  englishJheyenne  dictionary 

,  ,  T  am  wariM  it:  Maheo  ehonea  xanovastoz  na  ho 

npBs;  nahoneovo  maxeszehen.I^wear^an  0rerce^, 

.K' 1 

.s;  havs  zehethoneonez ,  the  -  Qr-PVioth°d  with;  namomeaevho  -  ^ 

,  5?.^rS52^ 


evhoneonaovo , I  make  one one  with  iron  apparel;  ^ 
namakataevsaneno ,  I  c.,  mvself  (my  line,  ,  '2^y 

566  e*"  of  Sclo  thingamy  s  elf  ^^nar^ethoneonaovaz,  this  is*>*>* 

course  of  elotmnD  y  „hn/r.poseho  I  cause  one  tort 

re“;iS"c.hSotfe=rra  -ss,  -.»«»»•». 1 

strangely  clothed..  o  (nl  in. )  .natho^Jt)* 

—-■ner^’o'/.^ei  taring,  Jameni  nathoneo-  ff 

noz  (,“)  nsthmeS.thy  o.i’s  0  hat 

“i;';sra?i=ir  °.:i 

neoniheva’.with.hy.etc.clothesjnahoneonaovo  I  “5^°^ 

to  have  c  ;  esaa^f to  denote  character, 
clothed  iwith^iron^app  ej;^.  emahataevsanistov, 




: e  ar  niui  ,  v; w»  v#  t  v*-* - - 

hataevsanistoz^iron  address;  ^J^^negiehev^1  it 

apparel , c . ;  nahoxeesan.I  ?  ,  y,  ther  c  •  gvaevsani- 
neln.I  have  o.i  to‘  the  act  of 


the  only  propel  "■fo™.«hil  tKe  ending  -sa- 

nis to to&"=dr ess ;'vokaevhone5^ buckskin  =  .; 

oneheve , they  are  buckskin  c  (the  e™ j  navokoevsan , I 
navokaevhoneon,  I  have  Du°^kih  '  (buffalo) 

have  buckskin  dress  on;  “^konhoneo  leat) buffalo  (or 
c , ;  emeSkonhoneoneheve ,  they  are  c. 



other  leather);  namse§konhoneon ,  I  am  clothed  with 
leather  c.;  pesanistoto , ragged  c.;  mxastovsanistoto , 
gorgeous  c.;  namxavstovsan,  I  am  clothed  sumptuously, 
luxuriously,  in  full  regalia;  taes ’anistoto , suit  of 
c.;  pavsanistoto .good  c.;  moenoevsanistoto ,  immune  c. 
(Ger.gefeite  Kleider);  moenoevhoneo.c. .apparel  which 
makes  one  immune,  invulnerable;  zemoenoevhoneonessd , 
those  clad  with  immunity , invulnerability ;  namoenoev- 
honeon.I  am  clad  with  immunity  (Ger.ich  bin  gefeigt); 
moonsanistoto , beautiful  c., dress;  moonevhoneo , beauti¬ 
ful  c.;  has  on  beautiful  c.;  maheo- 
nevhoneo, godly, mysterious  c.;  maheonevsanistoto ,  god¬ 
ly, sacred  c., dress;  this  has  ref.  to  certain  ceremo¬ 
nial  c.;  especially  was  this  the  case  during  the 
"Messias  wave”.  Heto  xanovevostanehevestoz  zexheszho- 
vaor.ez  etahan  maheonevhoneo  tass  zexhoneonaoes  Maheo, 
this  righteous  living  which  has  become  our  property 
is  the  godly  clothing  with  which  God  clothed  us. 
Different  parts  of  clothing  are:  eszehe  or  eszehen, 
shirt  (also  coat, jacket) ;  atono  eszehen, under  shirt, 
underwear  (ref. to  the  shirt  part);  see  coat;  veSeSse- 
noestoto,  pants,  drawer;  for  the  last  the  term  atono 
veseesenoestoto  (under  pants)  is  also  used ;  yohaenox- 
toz, buckskin  leggings;  matovoanoxtoz , leggings , breech¬ 
es  (for  men);  msegkonoxtoz, leggings .breeches  of  buf¬ 
falo  (  leather  )  skin  (for  men);  matohono .woman  legging; 
vohaenoxtohononoz .woman’ s  buckskin  leggings;  mseskon- 
oxtohononoz, woman  buffalo  (leather)  leggings;  v(h*)3e- 
stato.belt;  hcma, mantle;  maxeszehen, overcoat ;  voxpe- 
monat , sheeting(f or  blanket  or  cloak);  see  cloak, coat; 
hokot, necktie, collar  or  muffler;  zezexhoma, shawl ;  vo- 
stoz  or  hoestotd .woman’s  dress;  vohaenoestoz ,  woman’s 
buckskin  dress;  vohaevozevoestoz ,  same  as  preceding 
term, only  ref. to  fringes .fringed  buckskin  dress;  mes- 
konhoestoz,  buffalo,  leather  dress  (woman’s);  eszehe 
zeotaevaoxtov, vest ;  (the  parts  of  clothing  are  or.), 
clothing,  see  clothes;  nasaahesthonedneheva , I  am  with- 
~~  out  c. (quality, condition) ;  nasaahesthoneSn6 ,  I 

have  no  c.;  nahesthoneSn , I  have  c.;  zehexovhoneonaos 
nioxcev6ohatamo , do  not  judge  him  according  to  his  c. 
cloud,  voe;  vosz, clouds;  is  a  c.;  evoeveoxz, 
~~Ji  it  is  getting  cloudy;  is  a  dense 
(  l}^tic.  ( thick  cloud);  the  c.;  the  word  for  sky 
Jl,  is  practically  the  same  as  for  c.,  at  least  no  dis- 
1  tinction  is  made  at  present,  but  writer  thinks  that 

f  ,^y^the  term  for  sky  has  a  shorter  "o".  Voe  eneehosta.the 
.  c. banks  up;  eamha  voe, the  flying  fast;  voe  eama- 
^ Ar  esta.the  drifting;  eahavoeoxz,  it  blows  clouds; 
if.'  j  4)-  eookovoeoxz,  it  clouds  for  rain;  c.  for 
a  steady  rain,  nimbus;  eneohSe  vge ,  the  rising, 
II  like  a  cumulus;  voe  emasomoxtaweoxz ,  the  c.  turns 


black-  zetonov  voeva,  in  a  thick  c.;  eomomano.the 
clouds  are  spreading;  ehostonevoeoxz,  it  c. foretell¬ 
ing  This  term  was  given  by  an  old  Ch. (Flathead)  now 
dead  He  said  to  writer  that  "events  could  be  fore 
told "by  certain  formations  of  clouds .especially  at 
sunup  and  sunset;  not  only  the  shape  but  also  the 
colo?  of  such  c.  formations  had  meanings,  which  only 
certain  priests  understood".  The  same  priests  had  al 
so  classified  the  stars  into  groups  and  knew  by  them 
certain  events.  These  Ch. astrologers  are  now  practi- 
callv  extinct.  Hetanevoeo , Cloud-men .name  given  to  the 
ArapOhoe  Indians ;  eo^Sedstad,  the  clouds  break  apart 
(swiftly);  eoninxaS,  voe , the  clouds  break  apart,  also 
Se  v  e;  eneSepoeostaA  the  clouds  segregate  it 
clears  up;  emomenohosta  voe, the  grouping  apart, 
segregating;  eneSehotxaA,  the  clouds  are  Rearing, 

To-  is  sheep  clouds;  voe  enmehosta&.the  ^ 

)  apears, comes  up;  enxavoxpomano  etoseto rf  n  looks  clouding  white  for  cold;  voe  eamhosta  -  J* 
iUMua|,  c. flies, passes  overj^_yoe  eanoshomoesta, the  c.  hanBs 

kevj  am. 



flies  oasses  over;  voe  eanoshomoesta, the  c.  hangs  y 
n-,  "Becomes  clouded  over  (as  cf***.^. 

n  star  or  high  mountain);  eatoeneoz,  it  become.  -  u  a  _ ur0+,  it  becomes-f  . 


^^fX^tTiddlnX  the  ct^alsoKofflhdeta  oieomad.'it  becomes., 
itikAA  llouSed  (hidden  by  clouds);  voeva  etataevoneoz  one U Afe 
BUaur~.-WaiS.M~r.  in  the  clouds;  eanistaeSevoeoxz  ,.t  clouds 

it' simply^ieZgettingCclouded  all  over!  eheko- 

tfSf  =»=»:  3Ss  ;Eus;:: 

I  come  flying" ’the  grasshoppers;  voe  emaxenSevhostaa 

ail  vne  the  c  is  flying  swiftly;  emomohetaevene ,  one  s 

U  clouded, one  Irene;  see  fro.n;  ecevatoeo  n 
\r0t  ^eiutt^A.Us  a  c.  of  dust;  see  dust;  is  a  c.of  P  ■ 

)  i  =  y  .-ova  it  is  a  c.  of  smoke;  when  c.  denotes  "multi 

^"fStude"  (ref.  to  people)  suff.-tanevo  is  used > e ; § ' " 

<u  ^a^hgetanevo  or  ehSetanevo ,  or  emohetanevo  ,  a  great  mul 

Se H. of  people;  see  multitude;  hoosea  ehedemox- 
kSl»f»,.L  tavo  voe,  the  block  1*lT  J.d*VfuC- 

f,  .  cloven,  see  cleave ,  clef  t.  '  F  T  one  • 

club  .evaohevo,  cudgel;  evaohevo  naveSehSmo,  I  c.°n  , 

buJL  vVdcc. - LA  lit'.'I  -Strike  one  with  a  c.;  see  orSanizati°  ' 

clump]  see  lump;  zemomenooxzesz , a  c.of  shru  s, 

rSPrinV5S?!e'xlm“lmenova,one  i.  c .  ,  .1»;  . 

C(xuC  tv' 

<**-  OttVlrw  0 

(  1  ~  ’\0  •  *  —  ’ 

-  *-**$**  —  sna-F-n— , 

^w^v-e.  &t  *■**-,  '  ^  £o,/W<^f'OT./ 7-*-< *- *- -yd 

_  aV-  —  Ay '<7?. - 

^  7L.  ‘~^- 


^ItAT-mTrr/rf  j*~ 

cluster ,  nokov  hopaehemenoz ,  a  c .  or  grap^s^zemomeno^**-4f^^ 
pavszeavodesz , a  c.of  flowers;  zemomenohestae- 
natto , a  c.  of  branches;  zemomenokdsz,  a  c., bunch  of 
grass;  zemomenooxz ,a  c., clump  of  bushes;  emomenokov- 
hostansz , they  (in.)  hang  in  clusters.  Inf.-momeno-  = 
in  bunches, groups;  momenohastoz, c . ,  group;  emomenoha- 
eo.they  (or.)  group, c. together;  see  group 
clutch,  natonoe.I  c., holding  at;  natonoetovo , I  hold  on 
to  one  (or.);  natonoeta,  I;  tonoestoz.c. , 
hold;  nahot&no.I  one  (or.),  cia-w-  -hi®;  hotanovS,- 
CJ-  toz ,  the  clutching  ^  Qrif,  t  ctcu^X,  \  a^io  L6?i  ±et,-ei**xheZ 

clyster,  see  injection.  ?  |  n-n*  Ju*.  I  *  \k~~  ■  V 

coach,  naaneemo ,  I  c.,  train  one;  na'aneeva,  f'cTT’fPaxn+Tf*’  iv"  ^ ' 
see  training;  maxemoktavamoeneo ,  large  bugg ~J 


see  “*  ““““6,  ,  large  ouggy^ i  / 

or  carriage;  also  zeniSetaxeseestovsz  (or  -tovaz )CT‘b  4-' 
moktavamoeneo  =two  seated  topbuggy.  toiA-Jt*' ^ «*•-<_ 

coagulate,  coagulates;  heosemde,  coagula«fed7"^ 
blood;  heoseamsc ,  coagulated,  congealed  oil 
heosevisc, coagulated  fat.  X**- 

coagulation,  heoseozistoz , the  becoming  hardened  ( of^'l  * 

quid  substance  )  ^*'c- 

coal,  hoos;  hoestahoos , charcoal ; 'nahoxtova  hoos , I  trade  1 

c.;  zenxestovoe, living  c.;  also  zenosestovoe ;  se e ,r> ■'"***  ^ 
fire;  mhahaoxz  hoos,  a  lump  of  coal;  hoosea  'ene2emox-'t>"'*',l 
tavae ,  one  is  black  as  c.;  hoosea  eheSemoxtavo ,  it  * 

black  like  coal;  hoos  (or  mooxzenistoz)  nimetanenon, A  1 

we  are  given  coal  =victory;  this  ref.  to  the  painting 
black  (with  dead  coals)  after  a  victory  in  battle. 

[A  dead  coal  being  black  and  more  hotL. 
coalesce,  see  blend.'  c,  AiU,«a*r • 

coalition,  vhestamaozistovazistoz , the  becoming  allies  ; 

mamovhotlizistoz  zemanovist&mazistov, the  meet- 
.[<  ing  together  to  help  each  other, 
coarse,  is  c., rough  (or.sp.of  cloth)  emoovess, 

~  it  is  c .hair ;  is  c . thread , rope , etc . , 

(or.);  inf, -moo-  =c., rough,  is  c., rough, not  ,  ,  ordered;  is  c. grained  :ehes-  <U.s  6 /latM/a.  is  c., gritty  (with  points);  heskovoaeta, 

it  (or.sp.of  stones, etc.)  is  c., gritty;  hehetovanov- 

hetan, c . .uncouth  man,  ill  bred;  ehavseveeSeeseoneve , 

one  is  c.,ill  bred, not  well  brot  up;  see  bred;  zehav- 

seva  mesestoz, c . ,bad  food;  esaamomenovahe , one  is  c., 

not  nice  or  fine. 

coast,  seetto  zeametoxehA  zemhaomoeha, the  coast  of  the 
ocean;  lit. the  incline  bordering  the  great  body 
of  water;  see  beach, border ;  nasevano.I  c,,  slide;  se- 
vanoxtoz.the  coasting, sliding;  see  slide;  etoxeamo- 
hesz  zeametoxehaz  z&mhaomoehaz ,he  ships  (sails)  along 

coat,  eszhehen.c.or  jacket,  shirt;  in  former  days  the  wore  usually  nothing  from  the  waist  up  .ex- 



cept  in  cold  weather  or  by  festival  .when  the  buckskin 
shirt  or  coat  was  worn.  Even  in  very  cold  weather 
writer  saw  old  men  with  only  a  buffalo  robe  on .when 
going  outside. The  women  had  no  coat  over  their  dress- 
I  Lrv^'.ies.  c.;  naeszehenaneo  ,our  coats;  niesze- 

5  jJ- '  henevo  ,your  coats;  maxeeszehen.big.or  overcoat;  ese- 
WVlA  eszehen, long  c.  ;  tahoceszehen, outer  c.;  hoxcaeszeher. , 
IS  J  hooded  c.;  also  zeseeszehe  zenomaestoxcaz ,  long 
,  ( ^  I  my  vided  with  a  cap;  heozeszehe.c.with  storm  collar;  to 

K,  Yr \  voxeszehe ,  army  c.with  cape;  tonoveszehen ,  thick  c.; 
•iP*  tr  toxenoheve eszehen,  embroidered  c.  or  bound  with  tape; 
&  namahataseszehen , I  put  on  a  c. of  mail ;  namahatasesze- 

henano  I  put  on  him  a  c.of  mail;  namahataneseszehen  I 
V)  yr)  ke  0£f  c.of  mail.  namahataneseszehenano ,  I  take 

(Kt  off  his  c.of  mail.  Heoveeszehen,  Yellow-c . (pr .name ) ; 

Mahataeszehen.Ironcoat( ;  Eoxseszehen, Turncoat 
(pr.  name).  is  a  c.;  naeszehena,  am 
with  c . , shirted ;  eoxae  c.'is  torn;  naes- 
zehenaovo ,  I  provide  one  with  a  c.,  make  him  to  be 
coated;  heeszehenovA  eno bn,  he  carries  it  in  his  c.; 
naseszehenano.I  put  a  c.  on  one  (or.);  naseszehen  . 
put  on  my  c.  Formely  only  men  used  this  term, but  as 
women  begin  to  wear  coats  or  sweaters , there  is  a  rea¬ 
son  for  them  to  speak  as  the  men.  Naneseeszehen, I 
take  off  my  c.;  naneseeszehenano , I  take  off  one  sc., 
"uncoat  him".  Oftentimes , especially  now, the  word  es¬ 
zehen"  is  shortened  to  "eszehe"  and  even  >.0  esze  . 
Emetonotto  eszeheno,  he  gives  one  a  c.;  nametonotto 
eszehen  zepevovxtavsz ,  I  gave  him  a  c.  of  beautiful 
color;  emezenotto  eszeheno  zehaestxnovxtaveziss ,  h- 
was  given  a  multicolored  c.;  namomeaeygemamo  heesze- 
hen  T  dip  one’s  blood, I  make  one  s  c. bloody  ^(by 
putting  it  in  blood).  See  clothes.  Noka  navoxpon  I 
Lint  one  c.  (to  give  one  c.of  color);  nixa  navoxpoha 
namhayo.I  give  my  house  two  coats  of  painting, 
coax,  naoegenoto , I  c., persuade  one  (or.);  navonhosemo , I 
TS^c.  influence  one  (or.)  with  word;  napavevamo ,  I  c., 
a Ol'C*n\l^?RQ  one  (or.)  to  be  good;  for  the  endings  -vamo 
o?.),and  -vata  (in.)  see  persuasive  Also 
^  ^V^see  blandish, flatter.  Naoe§en6s6ho  or  naoeSendxseho 
cause  one  (or.)  to  be  coaxed,  persuaded ;  i aioeBenota 
^  zistoseveoxzemoss  ,he  coaxed  thee  to  go  with 

genohe  havseveva.he  was  coaxed  m  the  evil;  oeSenota 
zistovd  eveShesseavao,  he  fell  thru  coaxing  (f  g>)> 
esaatonSeoeSenoehe  zeto  hetan  this  man  cannot  K 
coaxed;  oeSenSxsohe , the  coaxer.the  cause  of  coaxing, 
eoesenxsoheoneve ,he  is  a  coaxer.a  blandisher. 
cob,  hookoxz  c.,corn  ear  which  is  shell 
ed;  see  corn. 

cobblestone,  hohonaxc ;  see  stone, 
cobweb,  see  spider  and  web. 





(>lt/L.  Le.ce.a3hz.  *  ^ 

**cj>*f-*^,  f>^ 

^  *’■  /  C  Ce*-*  */'*  £-*^<-,  c*x-yh~e-/ 

^U^yca^ ZJ:Z'*Mc 

■'£.  fiL*’u-  0^.^^ aca.a-cr*/-eaH/ 
sTbyi-t-^  c. 

e/fe-t'-a-r-***™-  *■  / 




— ' ’  “SSo’SS  SfS’.1  eniscesta  *  *°*Z*™.H 

times  suffixed)  to  names  of  birds?  S^tin”* 

cocoon,  nisim6nevehaneo,c.,medecine  bag  (became  of  si 
milarity  to  a  certain  medecine  W) 
coerce,  namomatavonhosemo , I  force  one  (or  )  hv 

namomataegenoto  I  also  nnm l  _y  words> 
nahesetypnifn  T  _  „  ’  ne>  aiso  namomata-oeSenoto : 


%°? 4tr.s 

“  *°rk  by  coercion, force;  naeShokoaxa^eo"?  I 

— -  .hich  formerly  Z'TJ S*^0 S’ ! 

"°f3  *  oce-  -little  oval  round  t  meLa 
ries,  mataocemendsz  would  be  the  name  for  c  trees-  is  a  c  tree  <?hrn>,-  c. trees, 

it  is  a  c  henn-  om„  +  c  •  lree  ,  shrub ,  emataocemeneve , 

,  a  c •  Dean,  emataocemenevensz,  they  are  c  hPar,« 
mataocemeneva  evedzeo  hohonaxceo!  among  Se^  bea^ 
llttle  stones>'  motxoemenoz ,  a  tree  growing 
°^lahoma  and  commonly  called  c.tree;  it  laSSlargeg 
beanlike  pods  hanging  from  its  branches.  Zehdesz  ma’ 

taocemenoz, green  c. beans;  zsaaeSepftnoehanehSz  Satan" 

mataocemenoz,  the  c .^eanS’a^oa^ed^  zeeSeSno^sz 

bpanl.11--  ^  d’  naPeenanoz  mataocemenoz,  I  grind  c 
beans ;  e§epeenensz  mataocemenoz,  the  c  beans  ara 
beon-dii  *«*•>»•”«■*  mataocemenoz, after  (past)  th=  o 
»  “  vfn  ?!“  8r°“a :  V«o.SrInd.r.o:Siff  ‘^.“l  is  a  grinder  ,  c  .  mi  11 ;  moxtavhon  c  flim,  lii. 

^moxta-  =black  +  -hop-  =melted , ’made  llqSiJ | 

tavhbp^l’Jrem^  thS  C‘ 1  naexdta  °r  naexaha  mox- 
vnop,  I  prepare  c.;  ensoomeha  moxtavhop  the  c  is 
warming  or  is  hot;  enxatoomeha  moxtavhop, the  C  is  be- 
ang  prepared,  is  getting  ready;  see  cook^arm.  Neeme- 

caS  Pau'?airS?ened  (lit-bare  c-)  !  matanaemoxtavhop, 

U  lait  fc -mixed  with  milk);  moxtavaeo , c . not ! 
drink  I3 r namin’ 1SV  a  C*  pot'  nanomen  moxtavhop, I 
c  tastla  ’*  ^Ilnk  Water];  epeveeno  moxtavhdp,  the 

coffin  zehaemoxtavome  moxtavhop, strong  c.; 

coffln  vehoestoz;  is  a  c. ;  vehofstotoz 

1  S!  ■***-*“  dZi ^ 

COffin-.  A  iA  ,  A  <_i 

cog,  heves ,  its  c.,  tooth.  U 

i  !L  t  L-.-j 



, cogitate,  naShetanona, I  am  cogitating, thinking ,  musing; 

- naeveohetan ,  I  am  engaged  in  cogitating,  think¬ 
ing-  see  think,  consider:  naeveohaetanota, I  c. about 
itf consider  it ^  ^ 
cogitation,  ohetanonatoz,  the  cogitating;  eveohetdnox- ^ 

cognate,  see^elationship;  zehevohestovemazessS ,  the  e.  ^  e- 

__I -  ones  (connected  by  blood  or  birth);  ehevohesto- 

vetovazeo , they  are  cognate , related.  See  relate- 
cognition,  noxtovheneenovetanoxtoz , the  faculty  of  know- 

-  ing;  noxtovetanoxtoz , the  ability  of  knowing, 

(Ger.Vermogen) .  See  know  ./»•»*  *- 
cognizance, nSheneenovastoz;  see  know.  />■»  1 <- 
cohabit,  navisthozemo , I  c.,camp  with  one;  naoxceveamo , I 

-  c .with  one  (as  husband  and  wife). 

coherent,  is  c.,well  connected;  he- 

-  eszistoz  epavemanoonetto ,  his  speech  is  c., 

well  c.;  esaapavenoonettan,  it  is  incoherent,  not 
related  together;  inf.-noone-  =in  connection,  m  line 
with-  enoone-hooxtahan,  he  narrates  coherently;  mi. 
-manoon(e)-  -connected, fitted  together, in  coherence; 
epavemanoonston,  he  built  well  connected,  coherently. 

See  connect .relate , fit  together, 
cohere,  see  adhere ,  cleave  ,  stick.  E^ko^e®*noonettonsz ,  . 

— -  they  (in.)  c., connect  strongly  together,  epaeo 

zetovtlzettonsz , they  c., cleave  to  each  o fa 
cohesive,  see  adhesive^^VYW^^--*^^^^ 
cohesion!  pavemaaosw^oCthe  being  well  connected , fit- 
ted"dfogether;  p9.eozistoz,the  cleaving  to. 
^ebrustakoneeoz,  it  gets  coiled;  SiSinovoz  eonista- 
~ V^aeS.the  rattle  snake  lies  coiled;  evoxceoneS,  it 
f  ***  .  /Cot  )  lies  coiled, like  figure  8; 

JhZL(or  one)  is  coiled  in  a  heap;  narr,omekanoag.ano  l  c  a 
^'T^rope  [naseponeano ,  I  uncoil  the  rope  (or.)];  naomsta 
k0|n0iI  (or.)  into  a  ball;  naonistakoneano ,  I  • 
the  rope  into  a  ball;  [naevhagexotoano^  I  unwind  the 

"see  wind.  Eonimataevoxq  or 
rw^coils'  up,  winds  up  spirally;  zeonimotaevoxceoz.that 
u  Vl-oA-which  is  coiled,  wound  spirally;  see  spool ,  spiral . 

tdmakatansz,  the  very  metal, the  coins;  “akSt  mea 

-  metal, and  when  applied  to  money  it  meant  coins, but 

«-<  t  now  the  word  makat  is  also  used  for  paper  money.  X 
,  V^JL^^mamakatansz  nametaenoz  ,he  gave  me  money  in  coins  (na 
WPTL**  aural  .genuine  monies).  Makatansz  eoxcepaozesehen  , 
^monies  are  coined, printed. 

■  coincide,  is  rendered  by  inf.  -se-  -the  came,  also  de_ 

- - tached  term  "seetoeg"  =at  the  sanu  tim-,  coincides, agrees  together.  _ 
colander,  Senovaneo;  see  filter .sifter .  Egenova 

-  it  is  a  c.;  Ben3vaneoneva,with^a  ~ 

cold,  rendered  by  inf\-to- 

_ ed  by  ini. -to-  =c. , cooi , chi^y 

•  »<***’  /it~.M.  .  ^l.jiMT  trru*-  ,  _  (>A^r 

»  J  l'fyZZt  >■•.! 

c. weather;  suff.-os  ref. to  c.,  freezing. 
,g  i s  c .( temperature ) ;  etavetonetto ,  it  is  growing  c.;' 

Jr  is  bitter  c.;  is  a ^ 

{  .wind ;  hotongohaetonetto ,  in  spite  of  severe  c.weath- 

er;  hotonetad, when  there  is  a  c.wind;  estSno  and  es-^f y~ 
iL’r  '  tsup.nrz.  the  o-  subsides:  stanoetonetto  .  t.We  over- _ ..  ',***^.£ 


,  \lFJ-  r.  I 

toneoxz.the  c.  subsides;  etapoetonetto , the  over-„ 
come, has  subsided;  estonooz,  it  (weather)  changes  to  ^*r 

is4^  the  fall, turning  to  c./ 

c  •  ( liquids )  ;  is  c.  water 
and  in.)  is  getting  c., chilled;  meh< 
«,^T  '  j  the  love  gets  c.,  chilled;  eton! 

'  jpiT*j)j  staying ,  camping  at  a  chilly ,  c  .plac; 

6toeoxz,one  (or 

nistoz  etceoxz 

;  c&, 

'.they  (or.)  are^,..^^.  has 

a  c.hand;  etoeonaoz,  one  gets  c./handed;  natoeata,  l- 
f.  "nfi  have  c., chilly  feet;  etoeszea.ony  has  a  c.head;  etoe-  $ t 
V1!  Jc.-  (something, as  food)  is  z.J  etoe§en,they  (or . , as 

£/ .  (  (  iooq;  is  c.q  eicesen ,  oney  ior.  ,as 
.  potatoes , tomatoes )  lie  c.;  etoiioxtoeo , they  (or.)  set,  rz~*\ 

M ;  .i.  . .  ^ 

sets  c.(sp.of  liquids  in  vessels);  is  c  AJj'/r'^cA-'L 
body  of  liquid;  tonos  omoto^c . boiled  meat;  etonoxtho-^^/^'C 

(uncooked);  eka-  . 

. )  ;  eoxcetoeome-^i"^.,..-/'^ 
growing  colder; 

■e  but  the  'aom&.„ae.tAtt- _ ''h  ■ 

sta  hoevoxkSz.the  meat  is  /hanging  <  bends  up  from  cAof  toes, etc. 
eoxz.the  lodge,  tent,  hhme,  house 
rad.-eom  ref. to  dwelling  (not  the  place  1 

as  dwelling);  [enSeomfed,  the  lodge  gets  warm];  nana-  • 
tos,I  am  c.;  eahano^r,  one(or. )  is  c., freezing  to  death,  ^ 
AS  extremely  c.;  (in/.ahan-  ^extremely , overwhelmingly ) ; 

>j /  U>\\.  naohaos,  I  am  very  c.;  naeat@vos,I  have  a  c.  foot; 

naoe&tavoss ,  I  have  c.feet;  when  inf. -naze-  (=killing<**^|)L>& 
Jr  #  l  c. )  is  used  it  denotes  "freezing";  see  freeze.  Often- 
VUT  times  in  Ch.the/suff.  -os  ref ^no^.t^  actual  freezing.^*^, 

~  but  denotes  Intense  c.  Nanazeonaos  my  hands  are(  .  ctL<A 

i.  getting  freezing  c.;  naanov&tanos ,my  feet  are  freez-./^4  _ 
/?/*7  ing  c.;  nanazadtavos ,my  feet  are  getting  frozen; 

^  veoxcestavo^my  ears  are  bitte: 

tot4!  /  c->coneea1^  gets'* 

.coagulated;  naomomos,!  cry  from  c. 

inf  A,  ~ 

l,v/eep;  nanonomos.I  shiver  from  c.;  nano-T^r/*''*'"' 

!■  r>\'y'  J  ®°nos,I  ai6  drowsy  from  c.;  zeheSenonomos  na  zeno-no-^^  / 

j-fl'gih  jjC  monos  eoinomos .being  shivering  and  sleepy  from  c.  he^s2^7zv«*-- 
|  cries  f/om  c.  ;  naaveostos.I  fall  over  from  c.;  tone-*^***  * 

pt"  1  tovane/toz , the  c. weather.  Na6haevomoxta , I  have  a  c  .  ;  ff^ 

naehaevomoxtaeoz ,  I  get  a  c.;  nadhaeoz.I  have  a  c . , ^ 
ft  coug a.  "Ohoemaha"  is  the  personification  of  cold,  v^luix# 
lCl, jjjir  was/supposed  to  live  in  the  far  northland,  coming 

southward  with  an  icy  breath.  Woe  to  the  lodge  which^Jjr^^^/ 
.W**’  had  no  provisions  of  fuel  and  food!  Ohoemaha’s  ic  y*C*r~ 
breath  would  chill  to  death  the  fireless  home  and  the 
foodless  body, re joicing  to  find  lodges  where  there  VtM-A 
was  neither  fuel  nor  food!  It  used  to  be  the  custom, 
especially  when  blizzards  were  oncoming, to  take  a 
wooden  stick, jab  it  into  a  piece  of  meat, rush  ouside 
of  the  lodge  and  say:  See!  See!  Ohoemaha, we  have  food  „  > 

"  ’  '  w  JL  Joy  ****  L‘ “•-“***/ 

\  ^  l  O  (%Q  / -  fin  )Lau  t  Li  (Hi  id  O-^ct 

tk  WeV  _ _ _  - 

^(L^foM-VJ..259  b  ft*.  *1^ 

ko  O.^u^ylIxx  a-l  l'<L^ 

.0  *  “iL...  C 

o  fC 't 


and  fuel!  And  'the  grim  man  from  the  northland  could 
not  harm  there, hut  would  vent  his  cold  blast  on  less 
fortunate  beings.  Another  personification  of  cold  or 
rather  blizzard  is  "Vocem".  Eut  this  is  more  recent 
and  the  name  Vocem  seems  to  have  been  applied  to  the 
blizzard  from  a  man  of  that  name  who  died  in  a  snow 

coli  c^momoxtStastoz ,  ref . to  griping  of  bowels;  emomox- 

-  t6taoz,one  has  c.;  emomoxt6ta,one  is  colicky.  See 

dysentry, stool . 

collapse,  falls  of  a  sudden;  emasdonen- 

-  genoonetto,  it  collapses,  falls  apart  (where 

narts  were  fitted , connected  with  each  other);  eavev- 
hota  it  collapses, falls  in  a  heap;  eavevoe,  one  col¬ 
lapses,  falls  in  a  heap;  namas6avevoeoz , I  c.,fall  in  a 
heap  of  a  sudden;  naaveoz.I  c., break  down  in  health, 
naaveostos , I  c.from  c.;  collapses,  be¬ 
comes  exhausted;  esxsevomoxta, one’s  health  collapses, 
sxseveozistoz.the  becoming  collapsed , exhausted ;  sxse- 
vomoxtastoz  or  aveozistoz  or  avemoxtastoz ,  the  c.oi 
well  feeling, breaking  down  in  health.  See  fall, 
collar  vohomeeszehen, shirt  c.;  hootanohames .otoz .horse 

- ’collars;  is  a  horse  c.;  voo- 

tanohamestoz  is  another  name  for  horse  c.;  nahevoota- 
nohamestov, I  have  horse  collars;  navootanaovo , I  put  a 
c  on  him;  also  nahootanaovo  and  nahevootanaovo ,  I  put 
a’o  on  one  (or.), put  something  around  one’s  neck;  es- 
evotanaoE ,he  has  a  c.  on;  naeSevootanoham  I  hare  put 
the  c. on  (the  horse);  hoota.c.,  muffler;  hokota.small 
c., necktie;  see  neck.  Nazemen, c .bone ;  naemenevaoseS , I 
broke  my  c.bone;  naonehavootanoham, I  take  off  the  c. 

(from  horses);  naonehavootanaoyo .  i  t^ak|  ^off^the^^ 

loosen.  •> ' ther*  '  ^ 

collect,  rendered  by  rad.* -moke-  and  -mohe 

- -bunch  together;  q-.v.  Namohenen.I  c., gather, 

mohenen , I  a  body;  namohenanoz , I  c.them(in  );  na- 
moheno , I  c.  them  (or.);  namohenomevo ,  I  e.for_  one 
(or.);  makStaemoheneneheo, money  or  tax  collector,  mo 
henenistoz  ,  the  collecting,  c  .  ;  narnoheana,  I 
it;  see  gather;  nahovxtsan.I  c.,  heap  up;  nahovoxze 
noz  I  c.  store  them  (in.);  is  collected, 
cool, calm;  emomenohaeo , they  are  collected  in  groups, 

SZillTo :  tKm^T^Sll^  todies , 

collection)  mohene^istoz^  e^heeSemeatovensz  gifts  have 

-  been  collected,  a  c.of  gifts;  moheoxzistoz, 

c.. gathering;  hovxtxistoz,  c.  of  writings;  mf.-hovx-  ( 

implies  th§  meaning  of  collecting 

collective,  rendered  by  iVif.Uan’o-  ^togilher;  -mone  j 



collectively;  inf.-e-  denotes  to  "at  together" ; etaoe- 
tanov , they  arrive  at  it, attain  it  together ; eamehesto- 
ve , there  is  a  journeying, moving  together (Fr . ensemble ) 
as  a  collection  of  individuals.  See  all, together. 
collector,  moheneneheo;  mohenenhetan ,  the  man  c.;  nha 
zemohenensz.the  one  who  collects.  Hovxtsane- 
heo,c.,one  who  stores  up;  ehovxtsaneheoneve ,  he  is  a 
c.;  see  store, lay  up. 
college,  mxistonemhayo , schoolhouse ;  q.v. 
collide,  nanhada, I  c.  with  it;  nanhadovo.I  c.with  one 
(or.);  zenhadom.that  with  which  I  collided;  nha 
zenhaeos.the  one  who  collided  with  me;  zetohetaenhae- 
oetto , all  that  befalls,  comes  against,  collides  with 
me . 

collision,  nhadovazistoz .mutual  c.;  ninixasz  maatameon- 
”  oz  emasdnhadovazettonsz , both  trains  collided 
with  each  other;  maatameo  oxnhaeovazistovesz,  when  a 
c.of  trains  occurs;  amoheszistoz  oxnhadovazistovesz, 
c.of  boats. 

£/  colon,  zevoxkxec ;  see  punctuation. 

s  color,  v.navoxpon.I  c. .paint, with  instr.(the  rad. ref. to 

•Jf  ~  ~  white  color, but  is  used  in  general);  navoxpoha,  I 

paint  it;  see  dye, paint;  r.amaeneoz.l  c., blush;  suff. 
-vxtav  =colored;  has  a  good  c.,is  well 
colored;  zepavevxtavessd , the  nice,  well  colored  ones 
(or., not  ref. to  fur  bearing  animals);  ehaestxnovxtav, 
it  is  multicolored;  has  an  ugly  c.; 
heovasz  eheSezeavodevensz  zehaestxnovxtavesz,  they 
(in.)  are  all  sorts  of  flowers  of  many  colors.  M6eea 
ehe§evxtav, it  is  like  grass  in  c.;  zehe§evxtavs  h5ma, 
nasaaheneenomovohe ,  I  do  not  know  the  c.  of  the  robe 
(suff.-movo-  =it  his, robe  being  or.). 
color,  n.suff ,-oetto  to.  c. names  indicates  the  ma- 
ay •  ^ ^  terial  or  paint.  Zeheovaneotto .melon  or  brick  c.; 
zehaheovoetto .deep  yellow  c.;  zemaomaoxzevoetto ,  pink 
c.;  zevoxpheovoetto , straw  c.;  zeoxoxzheovoetto ,  tur¬ 
quoise  c.;  zehSeotatavoetto .deep  blue  c.;  zeoseotata- 
voetto .peacock  blue  c.;  zeosemakomaoxzevoetto ,magnen- 
ta  c.;  zexamaheovoetto .natural  yellow  c.;  zepooetto, 
gray  c.;  zehe§ieevheovkoetto , fawn , dust  c.;  zeoxkoso- 
etto, maroon;  zemoxtavoetto ,  black  c.;  zevoxpoetto, 
white  c.;  zeoxzevoetto ,  green  c.;  zemaevoetto,  red; 
etc. etc.;  any  combination  of  color  can  suffix  -oetto 
to  designate  the  c .mater ial ,( the  above  names  ref. to 
paint  or  color  material).-  In  colors  the  diminutive 
form  (usually  indicated  by  letter  "k")  ref.  to  little 
or  light.  Zevoom,  zevokom,  white;  zemoxtav.zemoktav, 
black;  zemao,zemaq,red;  zeheovd , zeheovoq .yellow;  zeo- 
xoxzev, zeoxoxkozev, grass  c.,  green;  zepoov,  zepokov, 
gray;  zeotatav,  blue;  zeheovemao,  zeheovemaq , orange 
red;  zeneamaneheov, cherry, turning  to  red  yellow;  ze- 



color  ENGL1SH-CHEYENNE .  DICTIONARY  ,'l- *'  .  Jsolor^' 

TififliuAu*.  -,  W.'^I  Kl<(yW.u<,U«'*' lw 

1  ,  otatavepoq, turquoise, blue  gray;  zeheorepoq , gray  yel- 

UX«  low;  zeneamaneotatav, Antwerp  blue;  /jeneamanemoktav 
f<  irw  ia.^  seal  brown;  zeneamanepoq, caf 6  au  lam.grayish  yellow 

l[i.ur  .  •*  i'l.v.  zeneamaneoxkostav , mauve  ,  brownish  b/ue;  zeneamaneta- 
tav, apple  green;  inf.  -neamane-  =/urning  to  intenser 
I  -  shade;  zemaase-onevxtav.purple ;  zfeosepoq.drab;  zemox- 

I  *  |  tavsntata7.saTiphire.dark  blue:  gehdpazenavxtav, violet 

(grape  color);  zeae  s  tome  ve  o  evxtav ,  dove  ,  ashen ;  zeose- 
/j  fi  o^zeovxtav.dark  yellowish, salmon  pink;  zeotatatav-maa- 
m  ■  t^-/U*/U seonevxtav, lilac ; ;  zeosemakoma- 
J  'W'tri'tet  oxzevxtav,  magenta,  rose;  zeosozemaoxzevxtav,  helio- 
****['  IfiV T  tr°Pe!  zenanivsemaktav, scarlet;  zepoktav, pearl  gray; 

^^JXi^zeosezemaeovxtav, melon;  zeoseoxoxzev, olive  green;  ze- 
™  xaoxceamenoevxtav;  robbin’s  egg  blue;  zepoeotatav, 

fdjA  1„  lavender;  zeoxemaeo,  claret;  zexamaheov,  .corn  c.; 
W*'  [l  ^  »  zeoxoxzeotatav,  lyan  blue;  zeoseheovoxq , lemon ;  zem- 

J  M/r  siskan, ochre,  leather  c.;  zemsiskanema, terra  cotta; 
i  ti)r  oJ*'6'  zemsiskan, brownish, reddish  brown;  zevokomeov,  canary; 

VzeheSieeveovok,  fawn, dust  c.;  zeheszeemaq,  cardinal; 
zeosepoeotatar.gobblin  blue;  zepoevokom.buff ;  zeox- 
y  lJ  yV^koss  .maroon, reddish  br own, mahogany .  The  inf.-ose-  = 

Jf.y  dull  red,  reddish  brown;  heovone.deep  yellow,  yellow 
K  ^  III. (see  Standard  Die.);  toxtoheovone .prairie  yellow, 

i.r  i  corn  c.  The  above  are  really  participle  forms  of  c.of 

^  To  in. Objects.  When  ref. is  made  to  the  c. only, or  hue  the 

u/r  \r,  i/’suff .-vxtav  is  used  for  all  colors  except  white, while 
V  jji  ^  black  and  blue ‘keep  their  ending  -tav. 
/  t,s  c.  .tint, hue;  zeotatav,  blue  c.,  tint, hue;  zemoktav, 
t  j*  black  c.;  zepoktav  .grayish  tint;  zeoxoxzevxtav,  green 

H  v  jr  c., tint, hue;  zemsiskanemaktav,  terra  cotta  c.,tint,' 
J1*J  Cy  1-hue;  zeheovxtav, yellow  c., tint, hue;  zeoxkosovxtav ,ma* 
!Y  Jp*  '$£  roon  tint, hue;  etc., etc.-  Color  infixes  are  follow- 
■tja  vT  v  ing;  vokom-  and  -voom-  =white;  -mae-  and  -mak-  or 
UCp'  -mace—  =red;  -(h)eove-  and  -(h)eovok-  or  -(h)eovce-  = 

'  yellow;  -moxtave-  and  -moktave-  =black;  -oxoxze-  and 

.  — oxoxkoze—  =green;  — otatave—  =blue ;  — msiskane— 

ochre.  is  white  (in.);  evokomsie , one  (or.) 

.  is  white, (diminutive  form);  hovae  zevokom, something 
IT  Y  «0  white;  homa  zevoomaesz.a  white  robe  (or);  evoomsan, 

< K  one  is  clad  in  white;  evoxpome,  it  is  whitish  (li- 
aJT  quid);  (fur  bearing  animals  and  birds) 

. jY  is  white;  is  white  (of  furs);  evokom- 

glr  l  is  getting  white;  evokomaneoetto.  it  whitens 

(sp.of  c. material, as  chalk, etc.  .which  b/  contact  will 
w  whiten  other  objects);  is  a  white  morn- 

yjt'j  ing;  or  one  turns  white  (by  process  of 
time);  or  one  turns  white,  gets  whit¬ 
ish;  evokumene ,  one  has  a  white  face;  voxpeexansz, 
white  eyes;  voomhoneo  ,?/hite  clothes;  vokomSeon,  white 
cloth;  navokomana,  I  whiten  it;'  navokomano.I  whiten 
one .  A  great  amount 



'  other  combinations  can  be 




made, but  the  above  will  suffice  to  show  how  they  are 
formed, and  each  color  will  come  in  its  alphabetical 
order, q.v.  Colors  of  animals  are  as  follows:  evovc- 
as,it  is  white  spotted;  emoktaevovoas , it  is  black  and 
white  spotted;  eheovevovoas ,  it  is  yellow  and  white 
spotted;  emaevovoas , it  is  red  and  white  spotted;  exa-  is  red  brown  and  white  spotted;  eQ-  is  blue  and  white  spotted;  emonevovo-  is  dead  grass  and  white  spotted;  emoktavenevo-  is  iron  gray  and  white  spotted;  emoktavehema, 
it  is  speckled  black  on  white;  is  red 
speckled;  is  yellow  speckled;  eotatav-  is  blue  speckled;  emocevaShehema,  it  is  dead 
grass  speckled;  is  black  speckled; 
emoktavenehemenpohon,  it  is  black  roan  (speckled); 
eheovc'ehemenpohon ;  it  is  yellow, cherry  roan;  emacehe- 
menpohon,  it  is  red  roan;  eotatavehemenpohSn,  it  i3 
blue  (iron  gray)  -roan;  emocevasehemenpohon,  it  is 
fawn, dead  grass  roan.  The  suff .-hemenpohon  =speckled. 
For  horse  colors  see  horse.  Altho  above  expressions 
yare  translated  by  "it"  they  all  refer  to  or. beings. 
%?1$&avova’it  (°r,)  has  a  black  fur  or  plumage;  emoe- 
^^^’■aTova,  it  has  a  fawn  or  dead  grass  fur;  evokovova,  it 
has  a  white  fur;  emaova,  it  has  a  reddish- fur,  (bay 
.P^  b°^se) ;  has  a  blue  fur, plumage;  eoxema- 
V  {tV.  c'iair®Y&' has  a  dsep  red  fur  or  plumage; 
has  a  yellow  fur;  etonetova.what  c.has  it?  (sp.of  fur 
bearing  animals  or  birds);  etonetovatto , what  the 
nflc,-  .  fur.or  how  ls  11  furred?  oxcesea  is  fur- 
u. red  (meaning  c.or  substance)  like  a  mouse;  epoova,  it 
is  Sray  fur.  When  c.  ref.  to  round,  cylindrical  objects, 
especially  thread  and  rope,  suff.  -one  is  added, e.g. 

I  *  W'^maoneeo  sitoxceo , they  (or.)  are  red  strings,  ropes;  (or.)  is  black;  is  yellow; 
P'  is  beatifully  colored;  zeto  sitox- 
y  ’ceo  ehaestxnovxtavoneeo, these  strings  are  multi color- 
dJ  is  green  (as  yarn);  evokomoneeo 
:^,K^^u2_sitoxceo .  the  strings  are  white.-  has  a 
y  [avhite  nose  (animals);  has  a  red  nose;  emox- 
i>-V rtKr&i'  tavene.he  has  a  black  face;  emaeoxtae,  he  has  red 
jL  4Wlegs ;  emoxtavatae ,  one  has  black  feet;  has 
gray  hair;  eheovd.she  has  yellow  hair;  emaova, one  has 
hair;  etc.;  see  hair.-  is  spot- 
y.  '  ted, blotched  blue;  has  small  red  spots, 
'd'hj  dots>  has  black  dots;  epapanooxoxzevx- 
vUcJUjC  has  large  green  spots ,  blotches ; 
ltofhw< <  is  red  speckled;  emace)ij6hehemeoz,  it  becomes  red  spec- 
kled  •  s  tained  ;  nazemana.I  stain  it;  zemoxtavoetto  na- 
zemana,  I  stain  (in  spots , speckles )  with  black  c., 
dOL/  Pairt ;  namaena.I  stain  it  red;  namenokam  namaeno,  I 
stain  my  willows  (used  for  bedsteads  and  regarded 



as  or.)  red;  naoxoxzeveona, I  have  green  hands  (from 
paint’ or  stain) jnamaeveona, I  have  red  hands  (from  red 
paint  or  stain);  eoxoxzev66 , the  grass  is  green.  Fol¬ 
lowing  are  examples  of  pr. names  combined  with  color. 
Maevess,  Redbird;  HonioxmahSsz ,  Redwolf;  Moxtavene, 
Blackface;  Maeoxta.Redleg;  Otatava.Blue ;  Hotoavoes, 
Whitef ace-bull;  Otatavena,  Bluefeather;  Heoveexansz, 
Yelloweyes ;  Heovemeaz,  Yellowbeard;  Heoveano  Yellow 
hawk-  Heovd, Yellowhair ;  Moktavhonehe .Elackwolf ;  Honi- 
oxvokomasz.Whitewolf;  Voxpehoom,Whitecoyote;Voxpeno- 
noma , Whi t e thunder ;  Voxpoheva,  Whitenail.Whiteshield; 
and  many  other  names,  q.v.-  The  colors  have  an  lm 
portant  symbolical  meaning  in  the  Ch. ceremonials  also 
in  their  daily  life.  White,  symbolizes  life .light, 
morning^  spring%ast ;  red, symbolizes  fire  blood,  heat, 
summer, relation,  life  substance,  center  (in  the  sense 
of  heart);  green,  symbolizes  growing  life,  you.n, 
happiness ,  and  is  connected  with  blue, which  symbolizes 
serenity,  cloudlessness.  Deep  golden  yellow  symbol¬ 
izes  ripeness,  perfection,  beauty , sunset .west .  Thio 
color  isPprized  by  the  Ch.and  golden  yellow  hair  is 
considered  the  most  beautiful.  Black,  symbolizes 
inertia  (from  dead  coal  and  night)  and  the  north; 
painting  with  black  c.or  coal  signifies  victory  over 
an1 enemy .also  cessation  of  hostilities .peace .  The  Ch. 
have  different  shades  of  colors  with  respective  y 
holism  "especially  with  the  different  hues  of  red 
paint, the  dark.dull  red  used  in  religious  "to”°c)io? 

“JiSKt.'S  ornaments^  hadValso^their  symbolical 


&  sssra 

S*  emoxtavevansz , they  (In.)  lie  black  on  someth, „t 
n  (surface) 

KAOS-'  r> 

colt?  mocenohamson, young  c.;  mocenohamson  hoxovoeson 

£ -  about  six  months  old, after  having  shed  their  first 

f  coat;  oxtaenoham , one  year  old  c.;  monemohenoham, about 

three  vears  old  c., young  horse.  See  horse.  , 

I  J^^fc'olumn,  zetomseo, c., pillar;  enohovavoneoxzeo,^h^oj;),^ 

- march  in  a  c.;  see  file, line  row.. 

SiSinovozhetan;  SiSinovozhetaneoi,  (pi. )  , 

.  ,  .  _  a  a.  „  a.  „-p  +  v,o  (InrMKmhes:  SlSl-  r 


...  . .  Si§ inovoznexan ;  . . . 

— ~-x=  novozhetaneno  .habitat  of  the  Comanches,  nsz  iw**' 

^V^KnoVozhetanenszistoz.C.  language;  eSiSmovozhetanensz, 

-  n<r  novozhetanens -  , 

.1 P  he  speaks  C.;  sisinovoz 

LUi,  & 

nazeenehe.I  am  ^ 

=rattlesnake . 

comb,  nazeeneno,  I  c.  one  (instr.  ‘^"ve^a"  clean 

—  combed;  nahoxeeszeha, I  am  well  combed, hav 
h=od  (the  hair  not  yet  braided  ;  zeeneheeo , c . ,  ez-e  i 

Ssfei ; 



combat,  rendered  by  suff.-taz;  ehetazeo , they  c.;  tass 
vostaneo  ehesetazeo , they  people;  naohSe- 
t&zemo , I  have  a  hard  c.with  one;  nietazemaz,I.c.thee; 
zednetazevoss , when  they  were  done  battling;  naeset&z- 
heme.we  have  a  word  c.  (Ger.  Wortgezank) ;  hetazistoz, 
c.,the  battling;  zehet&zessd ,  the  ones  battling;  see 
brush, fight. 

combination,  nitovastoz,  c.  (state);  nitoveozistoz ,be- 
coming  combined;  nitovetanoxtoz,c.of  thots; 
nitoveaenazistoz.c.of  property;  er.itoveaeneoneve ,  it 
is  common, combined  property;  nitovanenistoz,  the  com¬ 
bining;  nitoveeszistoz.c.  of  words;  nitovemxistones- 
toz,c.of  wrtings;  nitovemanistoz, c . in  making;  nitov- 
hoemanistoz.c.of  law  regulation;  ehotoanatataheoneve , 
it  is  a  hard  c. (ref. to  locks);  rad.-nitov-  “together 
as  a  whole ,  compact  as  one;  nitovetto,  the  whole  c., 
concern  as  one.  —  —  —  *'ct-  “*■  .n 

combine,  combines;  enitovonsz,  they  (in.)  c.; 

enitovaensz.they  are  combined  (in.);  enltovaeo, 
they  (or.)  are  combined;  enitoveozensz,they  get  (in.) 
combined;  enitoveozeo,  they  (or.)  become  combined; 
inf.-nitove-  “combined, together  as  a  whole;  nanitove- 
aenanon.we  own  it  combined, or  in  common;  .nitovetto, 
combinedly , as  one  together;  enitovemeseo ,  they 
eat;  enitovaeo  zetoseaeozetoeze ,  they  are  combined, 
they  who  are  going  to  attack  us;  nanitovana,  I, 
compact  it  as  one;  nanitovano,  I  c.them  (or.)  to¬ 
gether;  ninitovhadnamA.we  pray, pray  in  common;  is  combined , consi sts  of;  nanoana.I  c.,put  in 
with;  heto  enooetastov, this  is  combined  with  a  doing, 
ceremonial;  inf. -no-  =added, connected  to;  zehegepava- 
es  enootoxovae ,he  combines  wisdom  to  kindness;  lit. 
being  good  he  adds  to  it  wisdom;  inf.-mamov-  =to  come 
side  by  side .unite .meet ;  this  however  does  not  imply 
fusion  into  one;  namamovanazheme  zistoshozeohez ,  we 
c.,meet  to  work;  emamovand.zeo  vistomazistovi, they  c., 
unite  in  marriage;  zenSenahetotane-hoxo vistavatto  na- 
nohoozenov.I  c.the  pleasure  of  travel  with  profit; 
lit. while  I  an  happily  travelling  I  add  advantage, 
gain, profit.  Inf.- mano-  “together, combined;  emanohoe- 
maneo.they  make  a  law;  see  together, 
combustion,  see  burn, fire. 

come,  is  expressed  in  different  ways;  inf. -ho-  =c.,  ar- 
rive;  inf.  -nx-  =c.  from;  inf.-nxhess-  =e. 
from  cause,  reason;  inf.  -nxhestoe-  =c.from  out  of; 
inf.-nox-  “coming  toward;  inf.;  -nha-  =come  upon,  un¬ 
to;  inf.-n(e)-  =c.unto;  inf. -me-  =to  c.into  view,  ap¬ 
pear.  Nahodn, I,  arrive  from  walking,  or  short 
distance;  nahoeoxz,  I  c.  at,  arrive,  ref. to  the  whole 
course  of  the  coming;  nahoeohe.I, arrive  (running 
or  in  a  rush);  nahoenevo,  nahoeoxzevo  and  nahoeohevo 


tUliiJ-e^Ki  i/tvi-  J  c  .{yn^ 

4L£Ucl/kjU<>* 'Pg-'^ry^-  tycoon-  ^<-<**7 M****^. 
£  O^Ao-itO  7*?r0y  ^  ^ 

one’s  Place;  the  differe: 

A  A-C^ 

/pL  <2-'*'*"  t""‘  y  _  aV-^ya-  er*~~  ~  '  y 




in  esaahoeoxzettan  and  esaanoeon=™,  ^ 
--;'  Tirit  .  esaahoend ,  esaahoeoxze  and  esaahoeohd,  one 
has  not  .,  naveSshoenemo ,  navesshoeoxzemo  and  na 
does  not  c.  nave ss  ^  one .  navesshoenemota, 

vesshoeohsmo , I  °*»®"1  Jhofen .naxhoeoxz  and  naxho- 



c  ^VLZ^o  wS'n  I  Shall  he  heard  coming  here; 

^IWr-*'-  **^  -  ’ _ -  ov,si  marvx-hoeohesz ,  when  one 

BP5«y*“i  vsjsi&rzxs?  £8“-“  i 

J^'rKS°SoS2I.*SS!U.o»«>  -SPRSTVS 

tt*  -A,*'  ,  _  1  n  ~  4--UAV'., 





tore;  mat.h.Snsz,  to  the 

one  Shall  c. there;  nahoehoto  I  c.  to  one  v  zetohe_ 

very  meeting);  nahoehoxta  J  _  ^t^t^  tQ  ^ef&llen  me; 

taehoehotSetto , all  tha  h  sorts  Qf  things  which 

heovaz  zehesso  hoeh°*?;*a’  ghoeoz  nathavs  natSetanoxto- 
c .  to  ."befall  thee;  eevhaveShoeoz  Jtna^  mataho-hoe- 

va,my  evil ^“hoeoxzetto  and  mataho-hoeohetto ,  when  I 
netto ,  mataho-hoeoxzetto .a manxho-hoSnetto ,manx-hoeox- 
shall  have  arrived  there ,manxo  have  arrived 

te  5s^i*P"s*'rr  snuiu.^ 

zeghohestaoz ,he  is  JJ;1  „hf„  =heard;  ehoetazeo, 


when  the  time  comes ;  etaeShoeohe .  one  has 

eShoen, etae§hoeoxz , etaeShoeoe  a  eneShoec- 

al ready  arrived  ^re;  eneshoen  ene.ho.o^  ^  tQneg 

he  and  has  alre  ^  c_  t0?  tones 

etaeShcene?  How  far  ( -  ]  c.?  naho®h6tovanoz 

eneShoene ,how  far  (hither)  has 

c.  \j>hA 



.  -  moh&noham.I  came  to  trade  horses;  ^hoeozdho.I  cause 
one  to  c.,I  bring  him;  see  bring.  does 
|  .  Vtnl-i  not  c.out  (of  a  hole);  the  reduplication  of  -hoe-  is 
",  7^oth°e~.=each  of  several,  arriving;  ehothoehetovazeo 


-hothoe-  _  ^  _ ^ 

I  they  arrive, c. one  after  another  (not  in  line , but~each 

0  arriving  for  himself);  inf.  -hotho-  or  -hothoa-  - 
out  of,  several  or  many  times  separated 
from  each  other;  ehothoatova,  the  smokes  c.  out  at 
close  intervals;  enxhotoatova,  smokes  c.  from  out  at 
(towards  one);  ehoeeo.they  c., arrive  together;  emohe- 
6*-r  oxzeo  ,  they  c., assemble  together;  ehoehetanov,  they  c., 

'!  <  arrive  together  at  it;  ehoehestove , there  is  a  coming, 

.tU) Ica-WP^rriving  together.  Nanxeoxz,  I  c.  from  (on  my  way 
C,,tnuA-  from);  nanxhesta,  I  c.,  am  from;  manxhooxz,  I  c.home 
^  iT  (from  another  place);  nanxhoen.nanxhoeoxz  and  nanxho- 
‘4~  .  A  eohe.I  c., arrive  from;  nanxhoeoxzevo.nanxhofenevo  and 
4x^(/'tUt#7-nanxhoeohevo»  1  c., arrive  from  one’s  place;  nanxeox- 
■+  Ijlj  zev0>  1  am  coming  (not  arriving)  from  one’s  place; 
‘^nanxhesshoen.nanxhesshoeoxz  and  nanxhesshoeohe ,  I  c. 

'•  arrive  from,  because ;  enxhestoen.he  comes  from  out  of;  /_ 

Y~  nanoxzoto ,  I  c. towards  one;  nanoxzoxta.I  c. towards  it  ;_/Z^- 
nanoxtoseme  ,  I  c.  towards  for  refuge;  ninoxtoseme tovaz ) 

°j  |  *•*'**■*-'(  e^/a)  Lc  C.  Jj  <x_ 

wu/i  “-Y-  K  *  }  Vi a-t^o^  a  fyn-c*-.  — ^  « — 

l^L  ;  -Coe*  a-d^Li,  ^  Jj  ) 


crrta.rat'J/  ^  ~~~ 

- —  '  moh&noham.T  n.amfi  t.n  t.m^e  horses* 

.  thee  for  refuge;  nanoxtoen.I  "  rolling1 

\ti~jU*- haul;  nanoxtoena ,  I  haul  it  here;  see  get.  Nanh&xzei 
.^Qvsan.l  c  .unto  (the  place  of);  nanhaxzgvo.1  c.  unto  one  - 

I  (his  place) ;nan’nhaxzeva, he  comes  unto  me;  nanKSfovo,  ^  j  * 
kruV«^irA_I  c. upon, collide  with  him;  nanhada.I  c.upon  it;  nan-^sjwi / 
hatovo,  I  c .unto  one;  nanhata.I  c.unto  it.  Eme& 
|  comes  up, appears;  emeenetto,  it  comes  up;  oxmeenesz  'f  ,  7 

iA^-en*/ e5ene  .when  the  suns  sunup;  see  appear;  enm  e-X'*4aJ^r/>  appears  coming  out;  enmehcevonen, one  appear!3***'^ *2^ 
coming, crawling  out;  enmeestax,  he  appears  stepping, 

in  (said  by  one  already  inside);  emeoesena,  it<  y 

.  *~&~comes  up  (of  celestial  bodies);  eneesz6n,one  comes  in 
vitW^c./T  (said  by  an  insider);  the  "n"  or  "ne"  ref. to  the  com- 
<~(Ur-Li£A)  ■’•nS  towards  a  center  where  one  is;  eneamen,one  is  on 
clr-  Jl  coming;  naneaseohe,  I  c.  away  from  there  hither  (by 
l  running);  eneaseoxz.he  left  (there)  to;  pref. 

/•Lw  0r  nix~  is  used  in  the  imperative  and  hortative 

implies  the  direction  toward  the  speaker;  nixhd- 
-^tahaovsz.tell  (thou)  me!  nixehdtahaovsz ,  to 
tell, me!  nixemsesz,  to  eat  (thou)!  nlnasz.c. 
along!  [not  to  confound  with  "nenSsz,  be  coming 
along!”];  niveoxzemsz , c .with  me!  niosz.c. quick!  nis- 
zeoxzz , c .  here!  Inf.  -ze-  ref.  to  the  very  point  or 
place;  before  "z"  the  becomes  nisz-.  Pref. 
nixe-  or  nixhe-  ijiplies  that  the  one  addressed  is  to 
c.from  some  distance  to  where  the  speaker  is.Ni-  to¬ 
wards  the  speaker’s  direction, but  not  necessarily  im¬ 
plying  distance;  nixe-  always  implies  shorter  or 
longer  distaneft  and  means  "unto  for".  Nixevehomsz,  c. 



/,  -> 

to  see  me;  nixemezeh&.come  to  give  him;  nimenimeta, 
thou  mightst  come  and  give  him;  namenimeta , one  might 
c.and  give  me;  nimenlmeto  or  nimenixemeto ,  thou 
mightst  c  to  give  one;  namenixedsztova.he  might  c.and 
\  speak  to  me;  zeto  zevisthozeohemon  nimenivistamo  or 
'^nimeninxevistamo,  thou  mightest  c.  and  help  the  ones 
^  who  work  with  me.  Nan'nh&xzeva,  one  comes , is _ coming 
h*’  ■  where  I  stay, unto  me;  nin’noxzota,  one  is  coming  to- 
jT  {^Awards  thee;  hen  ohe  zenxhoxov’nez ,  the  river  which  we 
tW  Mtave  crossed;  lit. that  we  c. from  crossing  (Fr.  la  n- 
viere  que  nous  venons  de  croiser);  hetan  zenvehomoz, 
vKirftr  the  man  we  have  seen,  that  "we  c.  from  seeing"  (Fr. 

^  /* l’homme  que  nous  venons  de  voir);  nahoeoxz  jsenveox- 
"  izemo  I  c . from  going  with  one;  hovae  zenveShamoxtass , 
'that  thing  which  you  "c.  from  having  been  sick  with" 

(pr . que  vous  venez  d’avoir  6t6  malade).  Surf. 

-hoe§  denotes  "to  come  to  and  s^ay*at^a^'r®^hria 
state".  Nahoegena, I  have;  nataeg.I  shall  attain,  does  not  c.,  attain  is  una, 
tainable ;  cannot  he  known, 
it  is  inscrutable, unsearchable;  ehoeseng.tov.ii-  is  at- 
/,  ,  - /.tainable, reachable.  Hognistoz,  the  coming, arriving 

h>  ref. to  slow  gait  or  degrees  of  march);  hoeoxzistoz, 

'••the  coming  or  arriving  (ref. to  a  faster  walk  ;  h°eo- 

—  hestoz ,  the  coming, arriving(at  a  running _gai t ) .hoeho- 

tazi stoz  ,  the  coming  to  one, meeting;  nhaeovazistoz ,  the 
I  4  *  coming, clashing. colliding  together;  nhaxzevosanistoz , 

iUU&fl”0-  the  coming  unto  the  place  of  (doing  it  as  habit)  , 
F^nrn^nhaoxzevazistoz.the  coming  unto  one  s  place,  nha„oya- 
Wft/jC'  .  zistoz  the  coming  unto  one;  hoegenatoz , the  coming  to, 
attainment. reaching  a  state;  hoehestoz,  the  coming, 
ul***.  'arriving  together;  moheoxzistoz , the  coming,  assembl  i  n,_ 
^  “7  .together;  meenistoz , the  coming  up ,  appearing ;  see  ap- 

Jlc'aOi  ring.  Honexoveozistoz.the  coming  of  the  time,  ze 

*  i“lti*U?exhoneo6,the  coming  of  the  grass;  manxhoemaxevoeseta- 
L  LL T^noxtov.the  coming  of  great  rejocing;  ®a^ho^^a"; 
*  ov  when  the  world  comes  to  an  end.  at  the  commg_of 

***^t*-  th;  erld  of  the  world.  Veno  nahooxz.I  visit;  veno 

^  nanxhooxz, I  c. from  visiting;  ■  emaz 'netto  ^  °omes  t 
■an  end  it  gets  "all";  emoheeneo,  they  c. .gather  tog 
'then;  emohf oxzeo , they  c. .gather  together ;  nataeszen  I 
go  iAtc, enter;  naneeszen.I  (when  inside);  nan. 
hofen.I  c.  out  (when  outside);  en’nonochoeneo ,  they 
(or.)  c . out  one  by  one  (said  by  one  standing  ou 
side);  enxhahar.en , one  comes  nearer  and  nearer;  enxha-  comes  nearer  and  nearer;  nanxeoxz  zisto- 
sevistamor.,1  help  them  (or.);  nanxhoevist^ amo  i 
have  c . (from)  to  help  them;  gBhoehamoxtaeoz.he  cam  , 
already  sick;  nahekotomahoen ,  I  c.,  arrive  quietly,  comes  by  itself;  comes, 
grows  by  itself;  nanochetovo,  I  c.  to  get  one  (or.), 



__  / i  p-y/ <2*  **  —  1 


t  .  *L  a  P  f.  *y>-  v-s/P 

q  /  i  s*  A  ^/a  ■e^  y^/  ' 

**v,  r  /--  ~  m/lfrttfa**-  ‘/Ul  /<*>cAx  U  ‘  S-**-*,  ‘Ju.  *71  -  (fr  ** 
Ju*-***'/'  CfXii&'i  ta  ^Ay/ ct  ~t  t-t  /*  *  &  r.  <y.  /-*  *■*• 

:ome  ENGLISH-CHEYENNE  DICTIONARY^ _ „-y'  come/ 

nanooheta , I  c.  to  get  it;  naneevhdxz.I  c.  back  from 
there.  Hokahd.come  in, welcome!  this  was  adopted  from 
the  Arapahoe.  T'sa  ninSheme .where  do  you  c.from?  na- 
meegenonaxetovo,  I  may  e.  at  him,  what  I  might  do  to 
him;  nahoeohetovo ,  I  c.  to  one,  running;  epopexhovoo, 
they  (in.)  c. slowly;  naneamoxtd , I  c . by  it;  naneamoto, 

I  one.pass  him;  naneanhoen  =naneanhon,  I  c.down 
from;  nanxhesseneoxz ,  I  c.  for  the  reason , cause , be¬ 
cause  ;  nanmeoesthoen, I  c., appear  from  out  of;  emamov- 
hotazeo.they  c. close  to  each  other.  Nanxho-hoeohetoe , 
they  came  running  to  me;  nanxhetosemetoe , they  fled  to 
me, came  to  me  from  there  for  refuge;  nan’noxtoseme- 
toe , they  are  me  for  refuge;  ehoehao  vecess,  the 
bird  comes .arrires  flying;  nahoehaetova.he  comes, ar¬ 
rives  flying  to  me;  naneamehaetova ,  he  comes  flying 
towards  me;  en’niseh&  is  oncoming, flying;  nanean- 
hohaetoe  vekseo.the  birds  c.down  flying  upon  me;  when 
inf.-n-  happens  to  come  before  a  "t",  an  "s"  is  in¬ 
serted  as:  manxhoeoxzz ,  when  he  shall  have  arrived; 
manstoshoeoxzz.when  he  shall  be  at  the  point  of  com¬ 
ing, arriving;  mans tahoehotata, when  ho  shall  be  coming  . 

to  meet  thee;  inf.-nox-,  -noxze-  and  -noxta-  denotes 
"coming, oncoming  towards  a  center";  hotoxc  zehesze- 
vaxsz  ninstanoxtoesetoenesz,  a  comet  shall  “be  coming 
(see  star)  towards  us;  nazen’noxtoesetoen  hotoxc, a 
star  shall  be  coming  towards  us;  nan’noxta-amevon’ne- 
tova  vgho , the  spider  is  crawling  towards  me,or:  nan’- 
noxzota  zeamevonensz  veho,  it  crawls  coming  towards 
■Ut+u-me , a  spider;  zenxhessemeatov,  where  the  gift  (or 
,a gifts)  comes  from;  zenxhestavo,  the  place  I  c.,, am 

,  from;  t’sa  nanxhess-hepevomoxtastove .where  from  does  - 
U  my  health  c.?  etongenhesso ,how  does  it  c.(how  does  it 
.Jkht***-  happen)?  etonShoeoxze ,how  does  he  c.,  arrive?  Zenx- 
/  hesshenevatova, where  the  light  comes , radiates  from; 

see  branch, radiate .  Ehoenhesso .  it  comes .happens ,  ar¬ 
rives  thus  (ref.);  came  .happened  this  way^TT** 
(pointing  to);  eanavhoemeoz ,  it  comes  down  in  value , 
price  (also  or.);  ehestoxenetto ,  it  comes  afterward 
nahestoxenetova.he  comes  after  me;  see  follow.  Nanxyte***^ 
hessenenahe  ,  I  am  ordered  to  c  .because ....  ;  nanxetox*  gSn-x&a?*. 
hoeoxz , I  c. visiting  from  place  to  place;  nanxhoxeva, I e/a.  e.i'iii.i*- 
c .  from  heralding;  see  go;  heo  zepevaeziss  enxhestono-^// Aa. 
etoe.he  comes ,  decends  from  a  good  woman;  ninxhestone-^-.  A*-*? 
Senam&.we  c., descend  from;  ninxh6nevcne§enam§.,we  c.,  / — 

branch  out  from;  pavevostaneo  nanxhes  tonoetoe ,  I  c.,  i/at/dJa/T 
descend  from  good  people;  see  descent ,  lineage  ;  eSha  „  has  age, is  of  age;  esaaeghaeahe ,  one 
not,  is  not  of  age;  naneas.I  c. off, start  off  a 
place;  naneaseoxzetovo  ,  I  came  away  from  one  (or . )  ;  ij /id T mtU" ,  I 
nanxhoxoven,  I  came  over  (by  crossing);  nanitdxnehe ,  1 1/.  ‘kiliMO* 
c. short  (state);  nanitSxneoz, I  c. short  (becoming  so) 5/  a 






nitdxnehestoz  and  nitSxneozistoz, short  coming;  enize- 
oz  it  comes  short,  does  not  reach  around,  or  far 
enough;  eevhameseoz , one  (or.)  comes  to, revives,  comes 
to  sense  again  (also  fig.);  nimxisto  eSeamhastov  or 
eShestane ,  thy  .letter  has  c.  to  hand; 
comes  true;  also  ehetomo , there ,  it  comes  true.  Nata- 
estovhoemo , I  c.up  to  one  (or.)  in  value;  nataestovoo- 
to  I  c.up  to  one , equal /amount  as  much;  esaataestovo- ’does  not  c.up, equal  to - ;  see  equal.  Nahox- 

tamista, I  c.up  with  it, overtake  it;  nahoxtamo.I  c.up 
with, overtake  one  (or.);  hoxtamazistoz , the  coming  up 
with, overtaking  one;  zeheSetos  nataevhaveghoehoto ,  I 
shall  c.up, get  even  with  him;  lit. what  he  has  done  to 
me  I  shall  again  c.with  it  to  him;  nieSeamha  zetohe- 
taemehahozevaztom , thou  receivest .gettest  all  that  was 
coming  to  thee (all  thou  hadst  been  desiring);  evoeSe- 
amha  zemehaozenoxtovoxas ,  he  gets  what  was  coming  to 
him!  lit. he  deserves  richly  what  he  anxiously  was 
bent  after'  Nohas  harna  namenxhoeohotan  nazaavesemni- 
tameoze , c .  what  may,  I  shall  not  give  up  on  its  ac¬ 
count.  Zemehaenanooxtom  emon-hoesetto ,  ohat  which 
had  planted  is  just  coming  up.  Eniseoz,  it  comes  off 
(as  nail, shoe);  comes  off  (something 
hanging', suspended, as  a  wagon  neckyoke);  en'mseoz  it 
is  coming  off  (toward  the  speaker);  epoeoz,  it  comes 
off  (falling  off  from  a  surface).  kahoetaho , I  c.,ar 
rive  on  horseback;  nahoeamoeoxz ,  I  c .,  arrive  .on  a 
wagon;  nahoeamchesz , I  c., arrive  on  a  boat;  nanxetaho 
I  c . from  on, horseback;  nanxeamoeoxz .  I  c  from,  on_a 
wagon;  nanxeamohesz , I  c. from, on  a  boat ;nahoemeto  ese- 
oxz  I  came  to  give  him  medecine;  naho-hemeto  eseoxz^- 
have  c . in  order  to  give  him  medecine;  nahoevostaneva- 
zetan  I  be  healed;  nihehozetaz,  T  c.  to  thee  for 
help ; ' nanxho-hozeemo , I  c., arrive  bringing  a  message 
for  one;  nanxho— hozeta, I  the  service  of  one  na- 
hehozeemetovaz , I  c.for  the  doctor, for  healing  U 
who  has  the  power  of  healing);  naho-hemeonan, I  c.  tor 
wno  I  T„,  rnsAd  to  be  said  only 

the  doctor  iwiui  ±uu..  L — -- 

after  having  smoked  to  get  the  medecine  manj. 

ftmely,  reAde?ed  by_  inf.”-momen-  ^finely  shaped .good 

1T7 - looking;  emomegovae, one  is 

_ IX  u  J  -r-^rmrcsr" T'ffeem  it  c .  ;  namome^ovatamo ,  I  deem  one  (.or. 

£^^^^!T^mome-emenohe,one  looks  c.,is  good  looking;  emo- 
emenono  ,it  looks  c.;  napevomsohe ,  I  am  c.,have  good 
i*  looks, napevomsohetan,  I  want  to  be  e.;  pevomsohestoz, 

.fwuuw- ^.^omeliness, good  looks;  momejfovastoz , state  of  comeli 
■  ^_r*r*un#ess;  momeemenohestoz,  comeliness  in  looks, having  g  - 
looks;  momefovatamahestoz,  the 

ikiu'M'  of  being  deemed  c.  -  vla-o j  ^ 

V  T.  comestible,  is  fit  to  be  eaten, see  eat. 

comet,  hoestav  hotoxc,  fiery  star;  eho.oxceve  zehoes 

\X_UU>  ~~  L  (N  C-  *^ssr 


tavsz,it  is  a  fiery  star;  hotoxc  zeheszevaxsz, star 
with  tail;  ehotoxceveo  zeheszevaxessd ,  they  (or.)  are 
stars  with  tails;  hovae  hotoxcea  zehesso .eheszevaxet- 
to, something  like  a  star,  it  has  a  tail;  hotoxceo 
(or.)  zeheszevaxessS  eoxcemeosen,  comets  do  come  up; 
the  suff.-oes  ref. to  the  motion  of  celestial  todies; 
inf. -me-  =tfo  appear,  come  up  to  view;  engenanimaoes  is  (at  present)  moving  around  the  sun;  ho¬ 
toxc  zeheszevaxsz  nszen’nonaxe-noxtoenesz, the  c.  is 
said  to  likely  move  towards  us  (future);  hoestav  ho¬ 
toxc  eohaengevcesenasz,  the  c.  is  said  to  have  a  very 
swift  motion;  see  motion.  Before  the  advent  of  the 
white  man, the  Ch.did  not  pay  much  attention  to  comets 
and  were  not  exercised  by  the  sighTof  them.  What  they 
learned  from  the  white  man  about  possible  (?)  danger 
of  our  colliding  with  a  c.has  brot  some  fear  to  them. 

Older  Indians  however  think  they  are  immune  from 
danger  from  that  source, and  say:  "if  the  sight  of  a 
c. exercises  the  white  man  it  must  be  for  a  good  rea¬ 
son, no  doubt  he  knows  (the  white  man)  that  he  deserv¬ 
es  some  kind  of  punishment"! 
comfort,  raaTnvo«freaasanr  I  do  ^?riavgvoeSemA ,  I  c.o 

(or.);  navovoeSemaovo.I  make  one  to  be  comfort- 
/  <0"  ed;  naoxcevovoesemaoe , it  is  a  me;  navoyaegeman, Mat 
l‘j"  )  am  comforted  by  it;  navovoesemstaha,  I  am  comforted  at 

,U  heart ;  Maheo  nivovoeSemstahanaen.God  comforts  us;  na-fcj/"1^ 
/ bu^^i^vovoesemstahaovo , I  c.his  heart;  navovdnetoan,  I  speak/^ 
words  of  c.;  navovonetoanetovo ,  I  speak  words  of  c.un- 

H.>»'uih;kvi»us  w»u,i  Hums  ui  c .  un- 

r  to,  for  him;  navovoneSemo ,  I  c.,  cheer  up;  eoxcevovoes- 

i  I  J-l*  '  l't  c\c\(*G  n  •  OUATrnvinS’nnnf  ^  4  4- _  does  c.j  com- 
forts  ,  cheers  ;  is  a  c.;  vovoeSe- 
mosanistoz,  the  comforting;  vovoegemstahatoz ,  c.  of jL  <•  „ 
heart;  evovoeSemstahatove ,  it  is  a  c.  for  the  heart ; 
vovoegemazi stoz .mutual  c.;  evovoegemazistov,  it  is  a^^rMT 
comforting;  nha  zevovoegemosansz'  or  zevovoesesto-^***-'  &  •  _ 

mosz.the  one  who  comforts;  zevovoegemsz , the  comf orted^^^-^Vy-^ 
one;  navovoegemstoman, I  make  c.;  evovoeSemstomanehe-  ' 
ve.he  is  a  comforter;  Vovoegemstomanehe ,  Comforter 



. . 

^  j  I  b  vovoegemstomanistoz , the  making  a  c.;  Maheonematasooma 
jf.  niahane  zenocevovoegemstomansz , the  Holy  Spirit,  he  is 
^  "the  only  comforter , comforting  one;  vovoegemosane-mxi- 

sto , comforting  book;  vovoesemosene- eszistoz ,  comfort¬ 
ing  words;  vovonitoanistoz, comforting, cheering  utter- 
ance.  Nahaomoxtomoxta, I  am  comforted, at  peace, appeas- 
e<l;  haomoxtomoxtastoz, comforting  peace;  nasaahaomox- 
<  todha.he  does  not  effect  in  me  c.and  peace;  haomoxto- 
JiW^^^CTCxtamanehe.the  comforter  .appeaser ,  peace  giver  (o.r 
tmyjr  roaker).  See  peace.  Haomoxtomoxtamanistoz , the  comfort- 
ing  peace  giving  (or  making);  vovbnitOomenestoz.c. , 
ease, satisfaction.  Tonovhonokon.i  comfort,  (lit. thick 




\comf ortable ,  is  c.,  of  peaceful 

-  enjoyment;  eosotomohestove ,  itis  c.,rest- 

ful;  gee  rest.  Kavovonitoomen  or  navovonitomoxta.I 

^  domical!  ^MsT^t^'cVjemxooxtaJfone  (or.  )^is 

^y.  - ny>  producing  mirth;  nanxooxtazesta, I  deem  it 

"  'VSV  c.;  nanxooxtatamo .  I  . - 


e  - -  no  (or.)  ana  -nenana  (.m.j  °  _ 

. instr.m.  The  ending  "nenano"  is  derived  from  enan 
**,i**Y  to  set.  lay  down,  only  the  grave  accent  on  the  a  (in 

iiy  xne  grave  av.-®**-  ~  - 

the”or! )  and  the  "h  sound"  in  the  in.  indicate  force, 
compulsion.  Naho&n.I  go  out;  nahoenenano .  I  < s. . or< ier 
one  to  go  out;  nahoenenahemo ,  I  c . one  s  (or.)  to  go 
^  or  Jut-  hevasemo  nahcenSnahemo ,  I  c.,  order  his  younger 
k/jTS  Mother  to  go  out;  naas.I  leave.start  away;  naasene- 
’  ibT.  P t  nftn0  t  c  one  to  start  away;  naasenenahe.  they  (or.) 

VorSer  me  to  start;  naesenenlno.I  to  enter;  na- 
^nohevenenalno ,  I  c. .order  one  aside;  naeszenenano ,  I  c 
one  to  speak; , I  back. order  him 

S,  to  come  back;  nahoeoxzenenano.I  to  come^rr  . 

jJKk  more  intensive  form. of  command  is  the  suff.  nenaos 
V/  o£o»,l  mate  a  c  rule  for  It.  Ho.«.»aa  - 

Nitdvhoemanistoz,  commanding  m  the  sense  of  powe  , 

co^Sl^^l.^anitiaaz.  “^.ruler^^aehenot- 
the  one  having  authority,  commanding  position, 

of  white  soldiers.  chief.c.,  s«®^ 
co^r^rivZ^rrrr'Sir/evenkeU;.  aaa  a  ... 



impressive  appearance;  examavehonatamahe ,  one  has  a 
c., majestic  character;  mom&tazestatoz ,  c . , dignif i ed 
state;  tass  nasz  zenit&vhoemansz  ene§enohe,as  it  were 
he  has  the  appearance  of  one  who  has  authoritative 

commandment,  hoemaoxz.the  c. itself;  hoemao.the  c.  law 
ehoemaoxzeve , it  is  a  c.,law;  nahesthoemaox- 
zevheme.we  have  a  c.,a  law;  nanethoemaonheme ,  we  are 
commanded  to, we  have  a  c.;  hesthoemao ,his  c. (having  a 
sg.and  pi. meaning);  hoemanistoz,  the  law  making, also 
c.;  hesthoemao  naeSeoednomovo ,  I  have  already  broken 
his  commandments;  hesthoemanistoz  emesaaeenehan.his 
c. cannot  be  broken  (in  the  sense  of  "ought  not").  the  sense  of  forbiddance;  enhastoose-  is  a  forbiddance, a  tabo;  see  forbid. 
commemorate ,  eve§emeetanoxtov,it  is  remembered  by;  hiz 
eSeva  naveSemeetanotanon  day  we  c. 
one’s  death;  see  celebrate, remember . 
commemoration,  oxveSemeetanoxtovesz ,  when  remembrance 
~  -  occurs  by  something;  eseva  zeveSemeetan-  of  c. 

commence,  is  rendered  by  inf.-moneas-  which  is  combined 
"  of  "mone"  =first,new,  and  "as"  =begin, start ; 
thus  -moneas-  =newly , just , first , only  started;  zemone-  the  commencement , in  the  beginning;  namone- 
aseeszen  mxistonemhayo ,  I  begin,  c.  to  go  to  school; 
emoneasethozeohe  han  eSeva, he  began  to  work  the  other 
day.  Zee§easeoxzevo  emoneaseaxaemeoz, after  my  leaving 
he  commenced  to  cry;  nitaasetoetamd,'  let  us  c.,  begin 
(a  doing  or  ceremonial);  nitamoneasetoetamd,  let  us 
first  start, c.;  see  begin, start.  Etamoneasepeva, i t 
commences  to  be  good, or:  it  is  first  now  (or, only  now 
is  it  that  it  is)  good;  easemanszenov  heto.they  c., 
begin  to  make  it;  emoneasemanszenov,  they  e.  to  make 
it, begin  to  make  it  for  the  first  time, 
commencement,  see  beginning;  zemoneasetto ,  at  the  c.; 

moneasetto  enxhesshavsevae ,he  is  bad  from 
the  beginning.  4, ,  •.  Lt  <~; 

commend,  napevazesta, I  c. it, approve  of  it, deem  it  good;* 
napevatamo  (or.);  napavhosemo,  I  c.him,  spea] 
well  of  him;  napavhosestomosan, I  c ., speak' well  of....*-* 
(doing  it  as  habit);  napavhosesta, I;  see  praise.4 
commetndation,  pevhoestomohestoz , pevhoestomosanistoz  or 
pevhosestomohestoz , the  commending , speaking 

well  of. 

. comment ,  natotoxesta, I  c. about  it;  natotoxemo.I  c. about 
~  one;  natotoxstomosan,  I  do  c.  (habit  or  voca¬ 
tion);  natotoxstomoe,  I  am  commenting.;  natotoxetan,  I  thot;  natotoxstomovo , I  his;  natotoxstomovo 
heeszistoz.I  c.  upon  it  his  word;  heto  zetotoxeme, 
this, which  is  commented  upon;  zeto  zetotoxemsz,  this 


Vmu.  U •£ 

-*■  £w^-|  &J2*-o  vi^l _'^c-*-#-t.!M-^ 

. . ^ _ 0 _ |mi  _  __  - . -  habit 

a/i/\MJ^°l  of  commenting);  totoxseo.the  commenter;  etotoxseone- 
n  4-»  fu*'  is  a  commenter, a  discusser  .also :  it  is  a  topic 
for  c.,  discussion;  esaatotoxseonevhan,  '  +■ 

.  nahavseyetotoxemo , I  c.evil  concerning  one  lor.];  ne- 
y  L  yeto v  nahessetotoxemanheme ,  we  are  commented  upon  on 
^ j-0  •**  Jv.*-  his  account;  nasaaonistohe  zeoxetotoxemanetto ,  I  do 

Cl  /  /  noot  heed  it.altho  I  am  commented,  talked  about;  natc- 

J  toxstomoenon  Maheoneeszistoz ,he  comments  the  Word  of 
God-  to  us. 

comingle,  eaestoeo  .they  c.;  see  mix. 

Qtr*  z-1"  — •*• — * 

COmillgJ-C,  510=  kUSV  ,  "  •  » •  .  ,  T 

'commiserate,  nasi vatametan,  I  c.;  naSivatametanotovo , 

yi  --  u  i - c.with  one;  na§ivatametanota,  I  c.  with  it; 

\  see  pity.  ©AA-*«y*'r<*-*&lu«  -J***^1’** 

I  commiseration Sivatarfetanoxtoz;  esfaaheSivatametanoxto- 

ryii'  '  r  \ -  has  no  c.;  see  conpassion. 

1  u  Vommitj^uff.-oeho  (or.),  -odsz  (in.)  and  -oeta -( state ) 

- "/denote  c. .enact, perform;  nahavsevoeta, I  c. wrong, 

ndhavsevoetaetovo , I  c. wrong  towards  one  (or. ) ; _nahav- 
*  7rtf/sevoetaeta,I  c. wrong  against  it;  this  ending  -et&ini- 
plies  a  condition  or  state  of  doing, acting;  eohaoetn, 
if  he  commits  a  terrible  deed;  emasavoeta,  he  commit; 

I  fornication  or  crazy  things;  the  suff.  oeho  and  oeo?. 

fjc‘'  have  a  transitive  nahavsevodho,  I  treat 

/.<»"!  4-c  one  wrong;  this  transitive  meaning  is  oftentimes  hard 

to  rendef  in  Eng. as:  naohaodho,  I  do  terrible  thing; 
^  unto  one  (Ger.ich  behandle  ihn  schrecklich) ;  above 

suffixes  also  denote  "commit"  in  a  good  sense,  which 
"'then  must  be  translated  by  "enact,  do  unto  treat  or 
,r>L  ^Wform,  effect,  impart  unto"  as:  naeSepevoeho.I  ha.-e 
one  good  unto  one  .have  treated  him  well;  naoxcepevo- 
^  V^eta.I  c., act, do  the  right, or  the  good;  napevoetae -- 
J<r/rv o.I  am  a  well  doer  towards  one.  Etaomenahaz  he  eom- 
a  itted  suicide;  heto  zehesezevoss ,  this  which  they 
(of.)  commit  ted,  did  ;  heto  zeheSezenov  eoxchestomstae^- 
{rujir'  yJjsf  _ _ „  voA«a  +  n«r  t.Vi pv  committed  this  with  the  mantl- 

fW*'  “V  ^  (of. )  committed,  did;  heto  zenesezenov 

tovenov  haonatoz , they  committed  this  with  the  ma 
of  worship  or  prayer;  lit.ttfUs  doing  they  took 
^  ship  for  a  mantle;  naneSeve  havs ,  I  c.evil,  bad, 
of  3  nvn  T  have  committed  evil  un^o 

3  havs  naeSeneSetovo,  I  have  committed  evil  un.o 

Naoxtoeta ,  I  error;  naatoeta,  I  c.transgressio  , 
&xko  natotaxoeta ,  I  c.  trampling  down,  transgression 

f o  natotaxoeta,  l  c.  7P„pyi_ 

xiet  (h)  ooto  ,  I  c.,  entrust  unto  one;  mmahootaz  zeaen 
om  I  c .all  1  have  unto  thee;  heto  nanet(h)ootan  thi- 
has  been  committed, entrusted  unto  me;  nivhanenet (h) o- 
otanenon  vostanehevestoz  emepavhozeoxtomaz.we  are  or 
ly  entrusted  with  life  to  make  a  good  use  of  it,  naz 
hesta  napiandoto  Maheo.I  c.all  my  heart  unto  God,  ema 



,y/en,  a^c^cJrt^t  -x.<-»  +-+'4? 



_1J  —_-f~J’  COM  MU  _, , 


nitofe  is  all  committed  unto  God;  zetohetS-  ' 

enit;54es  ,all  that  has  been  committed  unto  one, that  he—/'  r:/t  ,, 
has  been  endowed  with;  naeStSHooto, I  have  committed, 
given  enough  unto /one;  nioxtpotazenoz, I  entrust  thee’,, 
with, give  thee  these  (in.)  by  mistake;  see  give;  *f  ,  , 

writer  never  heafd  the  in.  form  ofhjhis  verb, but  it""^*/  ?  “• 

appears  in  the  word  "naamfcxta"  =1  'receive  it  [for  my 
toil, trouble, work) ;  is 

my  trouble  .work ;  see  give  and  receive.  Many^^^T^-  «s 
nounce  the  doubld  "o"  as  a  long  one.  In  the  above  ex-  r< 

amples  of  -t(h)opto  the  double,  "o"  is  pronounced  a.s/t*&*Ui_l 
one  long  "o"  but/ with  a  slight  hiatus  before  the  fin- 

al  "-to" ,  somewha/t  like:  "naheto - to".  After  the  "t" 

the  "h"  can  be  left  out;  hahg  nihetazemeno  zexhetoxe- 
menotto  ametanehistoz.we  thank  thee  to  have  entrusted  *"*" 

us, committed  us  with  life. 

common,  inf.-oxce-  denotes  use  to , customary , common ,  ha-*?,y< Z 
^  bitual ;  /eoxceneoxzeo ,  they  commonly  go  there 
femehaoxchoeoxieo.they  used  to  come  here;  eoxcenomaz.^^f^ 

"  Ji-jJr  it  is.  c.for  Wim  to  steal;  eoxceneSeesz ,  it  is  s.fori^^^^ 
him  t0  sPeak/s°;  emomoxa,  it  is  c.,  low, vulgar;  inf-  — 

-nitov-  =c.i k  the  sense  of  belonging  to  all  concern- 
ed;  heto  hos  nimehani  toveaenanon ,  we  owned  this  land 
a^1  rr.  in  c .  ;  enitovenegeveo ,  they  (or.)  did  it  irfc.;  see^  j 

yK  combine  .  Irff.-vesse-  and  -vist-  denote  in  c.  with,  par 

V  Jr  tieipating/with,  together  with;  nasaaxavistamohe  z.eXo^a-Lr/Jfj- 

V'  hetan,  I  have  nothing  in  c.with  this  man.  Inf.  -xama-/^tii£'^^!’ 

^  LJt^c-ln  the/sense  of  simple,  natural,  without  ado, as  a 

,<r  matter  of/fact;  xamahoxzz ,  c .  tree  ,  (name  for  the  cotton 

t‘r  wood  tre^f);  xamamohenoham, the  c. horse  =Ind. ponies 

Jjommotion,  homoozistoz;  ehomoozi stoz ,  it  is  a  c.;  inf 
.\jflr  -homo-  =to  disturb  (a  body  or  surface);  naho-yC-^W^yy 

momanesz.I  cause  a  c .  .disturbance  ;  ehomoozeo, there  is  ‘y/Te*‘ 

a  c,amonS  them, they  become  disturbed;  ehomoomoeha,  Vne/LrrnJY&ue- 
water  (a  larger  body)  is  in  c.;  ehomoomeoz,  the  water^rW2/^- 
JJ)  -  becomes  disturbed;  ehomoomeostad ,  the  water  gets  sud-//./  j]  c . 

•  ®  denly  into  c.(with  one  rush  or  sweep);  homaszesohesVT*^ £ 

,  cause  of  disturbance,  c.  ;  ehomaszesoheo  ,  they  caase'^f77Zv|^wVhI 
c.  .disturbance ;  homaszesoheja  disturber, on^  who  caus-^''" 



disturbance;  homaszesohe^ a  disturber t one  who  cau°-^'^— -  — 
jyt  es  c.  .disturbance. 

K  -commune ,  navistonovamo ,  I  c.,  converse  with  one;  navesse- 
«soemo,I  c.,  talk  together  with  one;  see  con¬ 
verse.  Navessemaheoneana, I  c..  partake  of  the  Eucha¬ 
rist;  1  navessemaheoneanamo ,  I  partake  of  the  Lord’s 
supper) with  one  (<«*.);  navessemaheonemese , I  c.,eat  of 
the  Lord’s  supper;  navesemaheonemesemo ,  I  c.,eat  of 
the  Lord’s  supper  with  one.  ZemaheoneanassS  or  zema- 
heonemeaessg , the  ones  partaking  of  the  Eucharist. 

Writer  deems  the  first  term  the  better  of  the 
tho  the  Second  is  now  well  understood  by  the  Ch. 

vessemataveanassfi , the  ones  who  partake  of  the  peyote. 

W.  i^UwiUf>,»UP  eAjuU 

’1  275  h* 

IU£./V  (H'M-  . 


-  r. 

o+tn  it  ffives  itself;  ehotxovemeat ove,  it  is  c.,can 

> r  rss-rsiru 

hotter!  WtahMemaklStaeva  eveShotkoveSszistoye ,  It 
is  c .by  wire.  es„„oV,.nT,p-na^  0r  zevessemaheonemes- 
communicant  zeyessem  king  of  the  Lord.s  supper; 


-*  S*sSSi£g&2?gg& 

^^—-^‘"'talkative.  emahePnemes-  t,  -c+‘^i 

JgEye^comunlon,  “"‘“"'“'i'8*; . ’Lfctonean&toz,  has  the  earn 

~v a»aais tot  =  Uterehange  of  «rd  : 

Uv^veSsohestOZ,u,CrVecSa  emaAohastov»oI  they  make  up 
T^t.jn^junity,  ««nohastoa,  ;;ano_mhaestove ,  it  is  a  s  they 

^^/iiye.staylorether:  see ;  oreanisatio, 

F  b4  12!£^'0”Tc  naiania^',  ?  £,  P«I=  the„  (or  )  to- 

y/j,1'  gether^nahoxpoestamanoz ,  I  c  the.  (tn.plU 

Sff/,  .J°  8  sa°ki  hakekonenitoyana.I-C... 

f^L'^(/K.AOZ»it  1S  a  i  -strong  firm,  "-hekonenitove-  - 

1  tv  are  comPac'te<3  ’  nanlt°InT1ohe  it*  is  braided,  compacted- 

|  fy  ly  together;  ehoxoevotonohe  it  xs0braide;  ehek*nezce_ 

I  ynr  ly;  ehoxoevotopsto uonohe ,  1-  „„mT,o  =  =.  heto  moeevho- 

^  is  packed  in  small  °°^t  Is  ^ven  very 

tonoo  eohShoxoevhotonohe,  this  bas  agreement  to- 

c.;  namanohoemanheme.  we  make  a  aiV*fe  a  C#I  an 

agreement^ enact ed°amiawe together ;  manohoemanistoz.a 


a-kw'* '*<***-*■  t"-- 

^,'At^-o..  ;  juM.- P7Z  ,'Kdtca/t  r*1- 

f. ,«  c*.*j*l~4**. 

au^  e  ./**-  /te+’At/?  <u>~. 

/i-c  c  a-  c.;**t- 


erase**  7****t, 


/vu,  Va*ty 

T-eem^nt ;  also  nitorhoemanistoz. 
companion ,/veoxzemaon, c . ;  eveoxzemaoneve ,  he  is  t 
r^  c.;  naheveoxzemaonanenoz 
■  'ix/e^4’"is  ™y  c ■  :  niheveoxzemacnanetovaz , thou  art  my  c.;  ves- 
/&  sevon,c* .the  one  going  with;  navessevon ,my  c.;  rate-  ■ 

W* C.  vessevon, I  h, -  -  -  -  ---• 


partner;  evistaheoneve 

c. ;  tvL-z'/cW- 

have  a  c.;  nahevessevonanenotto ,  they  &reti<u~-J*te- 
my  companions;  vistaheo  and  vistaoseo,  c.  .fellow  with, 

■*Wf  W^  partner;  evistaheoneve  or  evi  skowm.™  ^ 

partnex-j  e  vis  saneoneve  or  evistaoseoneve ,  one  is  a  c  A  ^ 
"jpnWconsorf,  nahevistaheonenoz  or  nahevistaoseonenoz  he 
■  I  is  my  c’ .consort,  fellow;  vistaozeo,  same  as  preceding,  i 

c.  „  only  f°r  a  short  time;  nahevistaozeon,  I  got  a  c ,  .Ves***?^*-  1 

‘‘  Partner>  helPer  I  nahevistaozeonenoz,  he  has  become  m 

\tlA^  j  c,  .partner;  navistoenaemo ,  I  am  boon  c.with  one,  one’s  JL>.  «*<-**,  1 

%'C,  convive  (ref.  to  being  a  guest  at  feasts  with  one);/  '  '  !, 

-t.  nimeemsz  zeveoxzemosse  (or  zeheveoxzemaonanettoss )  na 
Wf  *  nszeveSeohatamazenovo,  tell  me  with  whom  thou  goest 

k'r*  (whom  thou  hast  as  companions)  and  I  will  judge  thee 

by  them;  see  company, fellow, fellowship. 
companionable ,  eveoxzemaoneve , one  is  c.;  eohapavevista- 
oseoneve ,he  is  very  c.,a  good  partner. 
companionship,  veoxzemazistoz  and  veoxzemaonevestoz ; 

vistaheonevestoz , c ., partnership;  see  fel¬ 
lowship;  vostanistoovazistoz  and  vostaneheovazistoz  .‘trott  (> 

!!!‘?an  p  •  ^  I 

(implying  espe-*' 

.  - panying)  ;naveox- J 


company ,— naveoxzemo ,'I  keep  c.with  _ _ 

c  i  ally  the  going  with  one , accompanying) jnaveox- ~ 

;emota,  I  keep  c.with  it;  zeveoxzemo , the  one  with  wh.nm^^: 

keep  c . ; zeveoxzemaezee , the  ones  who  keep  c.with  us  • 
navessevo ,  I  am  in  c.with  one, also:  in  sympathy  wi  th ;  u 
nha  zevessevon  or  nha  zevessevaess ,  the  ones  with  4*  a-0' 
whom  I  am  in  c.,or  the  ones  who  are  in  c.with  me;  na-/  '7^* 
vostanestoovo,  I  keep  one  c.  (when  lonesome  or  left'**'^  W 
alone);  navostaneheovo  .  I  keen  o  .  wi  tVi  •  r,ai,nc.tan0knM  t 

;  navostaneheovo  ,  I  keep  c.with;  navostaneheon.  I 
.,am  not  alone ;7  niva  zevostaneheovata,  who 
with  thee, who  keeps  thee  c;?  Veoxzemosanistoz ,  c. 
the  going  with  (Ger.  das  Begleiten)  ;  veoxzemazistoz ’  u^****’  j-  • 
c "  >  the  going  with  one  (Ger. die  Begleitung)  ;  vesseva- 

n  c.with:  hevfinv7fimB7is  +  n7  ^ 

zistoz.c.  ,the  being  in  c.with;  heveoxzemazistoz  nime- ‘~r\ 
saanoose-aseoxzevohenon, we  cannot  leave  without  his  Y  t\*f» 
c •  .his  going  with;  vostanestoovazistoz,  the  keeping/^*^' 
c.,not  leaving'  alone  (of  people);  vostaneheovazistoz,  a.  C 
c. , companionship;  heva  noosehevestaneheovazistovezeno 
nimsaahetot^nevostanehevhem&.were  we  without  c.,  com- 
panionshin/we  could  not  live  happy.  Venohoxzeo , c . , vi - 
sitor;  zeto  hetan  evenohoxzeoneve ,  this  man  is  a  vi¬ 
sitor  (not  from  a  distance);  hoxovistavaheo , c . .visit¬ 
or  (as  A  traveler);  namooto  hoxovistavaheo,!  have  in¬ 
vited  /.(the  travelers .visitors)  for  a  meal;  hoxovis¬ 
tavaheo  ehoeo  veno, there  is  the  tent;  lit.  trav¬ 
eler/,  visitors  are  in  the  tent;  namhastonan.our  c., 
the  ^hole  of  us;  nokov  nctxistovA,  a  c.  of  soldiers; 
oJa»  C*4&***».c**,  (MAX- 


when  "c."  implies  "together  as  a  whole  in  the  act  of 
traveling  or  arriving" , rad  "e"  or  "ehe"  is  used, being 
incorporated  after  the  verbal  stem;  ehoSeo.they  ar¬ 
rive  in  c.,  all  together;  ehoxovehestove ,  there  is  a 
crossing  in  c.,or:  they  (or.)  cross  in  c.,  together; 
nihoxo vehetanon  ohe,we  cross  the  river  in  c.;  tohove 
eamehestoveneo, there  was  a  journeying  in  the  de¬ 
sert  (or:  they  [or.]  traveled  in  c.  thru  the  desert). 
Hbtovaveho  zemanohass6 ,a  c.  of  merchants;  emanohaeo, 
they  (or.)  are  in  c.,an  organization,  a  body  of  peo¬ 
ple;  emomenonotxistov,  they  are  groups,  companies  of 
soldiers;  emomenohaeo,  they  are  (or.)  in  companies, 

comparable,  is  c.,it  equals