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THE 


BRITISH 

FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


NEW SERIES— No. 126 , OCTOBER, 1868 . 


,#T\ 

Agriculture not only give* riches to a Nation, but tho only riches she can call her own.-^Dit. Johnson . 

DOUBLE NUMBER. fe'v ,3 

V/.-\r ,; y 


Published Quarterly — Price 65 . 


LONDON : 

ROGERSON AND TUXFORD, 265, STRAND. 


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THE BRITISH 


FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 

NEW SERIES. 


VOL. LV. 


1868 . 


NO. CXXVITI. 


PLATE I. 

MR. CLARE SEWELL READ, 

ONE OF THE MEMBERS FOR EAST NORFOLK. 



The Farmer Member— a title which he 
has so honourably earned for himself— it a farmer 
born and bred. He is a native, moreover, of the 
county which he represents, with Ketteringham as 
the place of his birth, and 1826 as the year. He 
was, too, home-educated at the ordinary commer- 
cial schools until the 16th year of his age, when 
he went into the study of agriculture under his 
father, who was then farming some 1,300 acres 
of land. With five years’ experience in this way, 
Mr. Sewell Read considered himself sufficiently 
well grounded to undertake, the management of a 
large farm in Pembrokeshire., on the Orielton pro- 
perty, aud held on lease by Colonel, now Sir Hugh 
Owen, and Mr. Herbert Kinderley. He con- 
tinued here until 1850, when he accepted the 
appointment of agent and steward to Lord Mac- 
clesfield on the Oxfordshire estates around Shir- 
burn Castle. After four years more thus oocupied 
Mr. Read returned to Norfolk, and “ set up for 
himself” at Barton Bendish, where, however, he 
only remained for two years. In 1857 he changed 
forms with his father, and entered upon the Plum- 
stead House occupation, which in turn he gave up 
at Michaelmas, 1865, and removed to Honingham 
Thorpe, where he holds a farm under Lady Bayning. 
Mr. Read, senior, died as a tenant of Sir Hanson 
Berney at Barton Bendish. 

From his very outset in life, Mr. Sewell Read had 
distinguished himself as a young man of much 
practical ability and proportionate promise. During 
his brief residence in Pembrokeshire he wrote the 
prise essay on the farming of South Wales for the 

Oi.d Ssarss.] 


Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society ; and, 
with his hand once in, he followed this up with 
two more prize reports, while at Shirburo, on the 
farming of Oxfordshire and of Buckinghamshire. 
A year or two after his return, he supplied by special 
request to the Royal Journal an article on the 
recent improvements in Norfolk farming, which 
serves as a kind of appendix or continuation of 
Bacon’s elaborate essay, written some fifteen years 
previously. Mr. Sewell Read’s career may conse- 
quently be followed by these papers, which it is 
scarcely necessary to say are amongst the most 
valuable contributions to the Society’s Journal . 
But Mr. Read has been before the public in other 
ways. So far back as 1848, when only just of age, 
he acted as a judge at a meeting of the Pembroke 
Farmers’ Club, and again at the show of the Car- 
marthenshire Agricultural Society in the year fol- 
lowing. In his own county he has also been in 
office, chiefly, if we remember aright, over the 
polled milking stock ; but it is as a judge of imple- 
ments at some of the more severe trials of the 
Royal Agricultural Society that Mr. Sewell Read’s 
authority has been established. No more con- 
scientious man ever accepted office, and none ever 
worked harder in the performance of his duties. 
He was in this way a man after Mr. Fisher Hobbs’ 
own heart, and often would the steward speak to 
the pluck with which the young judge stuck to his 
work. Mr. Read first came out at Carlisle in 1854, 
and, beyond his labours in the field or the yard, he 
was mainly instrumental in preparing the reports. 
He has, indeed, been at times very ready with his pen 
B [Vol. LXIV.— No. 1. 


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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


through other channels— such as the. Marl; Lane 
Express anil the Norfolk papers; while beyond 
his own proper business as a farmer he has had 
some considerable experience as a valuer and 
land-agent, having previous to his election been 
extensively employed in his own county and other 
parts of England. 

With suoh a character to go on, no wonder when 
at the election in 1865 the farmers of Norfolk re- 
solved to have a man of their own to represent 
them, they looked naturally enough to Mr. Sewell 
Read ; but he was very loath to come forward, and 
his nomination was only determined upon at the 
very last moment. Nevertheless he was returned, 
free of expense, by a majority of a thousand votes 
over a brother of the Lord-Lieutenant and a son of 
the famous Mr. Coke of Holkham. “ The Repeal of 
the Malt-tax” and “ A Farmer for Farmers” were 
the rallying cries of his committee, with whom 
party politics did not go for much ; nevertheless, 
Mr. Read was supported by the great body of the 
Conservatives, backed by a few Independents. 
On the hustings he announced himself as a 
Liberal-Conservative, explicitly stating his belief 
that more extensive and beneficial reforms would 
be passed by the Conservatives than would ever be 
obtained from a Whig Government,” characterizing 
the latter, then in office, as “ such sleepy Tories in 
power,andsuch thundering Radicals in Opposition.” 
During the time he has been in Parliament he has 
pretty generally followed up this declaration, as he 
may be considered a supporter of the Ministry, 
although he has never hesitated to declare against 
them, either in or out of the House, when he has 
thought they have been neglecting the claims of 
the agricultural interest, or making a mere stalking- 
horse of the farmer to serve their own purposes. 

Mr- Sewell Read, in fact— as be himself has 
said, on the same showing as the Noble Lord 
who sits for Arundel because he happens to 
be a Roman Catholic represents two millions— 
may be supposed to represent all the tenant- 
farmers. . And never was such a responsibility 
more bravely borne, as never has there been a 
greater success. From all quarters and by all sides 
alike is Mr. Sewell Read’s position “ as one hav- 
authority” recognised. Mr. Gladstone on one occa- 
sion went almost out of his way to speak to the 
merits of the honourable member for East Norfolk, 
as “ one whose modesty was only equalled by the 
ability which he displayed, and the knowledge he 
manifested of every subject he took in hand.” 


Mr. Sewell Read's name is not continually to bo 
found as figuring in the debates, but he never 
speaks without commanding attention, and is never 
absent when the interests of his large body of 
constituents call on him to be present. There is a 
simplicity in his manner, a want of anything like 
straining after effect, that is of itself effective ; while 
his bearing, as free from pretension as from any mock 
humility, carries with it all the weight of self-respeot 
and true dignity. An honourable gentleman, who 
possibly like Mr. Read, found himself some- 
what to his surprise in the House of Commons, 
complained to his friends, after an experience 
of two or three years, that he never had any- 
thing to do, and had never been put upon a 
Committee. Mr. Read’s complaint would, we 
fancy, be rather in the other direction, and we 
have had some opportunity of seeing how hard he 
works. Of course, he is on every committee at 
all connected with his own pursuits — the Malt- 
Tax, the Foreign Cattle Market, the County Finance, 
and so forth ; as he was very early called to act 
upon an Election Committee, was one of the most 
active of the Cattle-Plague Commissioners, and 
has had daily to encounter a correspondence the 
extent of which may be imagined now that the 
farmers of England are taking to political life with 
only one man to represent them. Let us just say 
further that beyond his Parliamentary duties and 
their “ contingences” Mr. Sewell Read is at thi9 
moment the chairman of the Farmers’ Club, the 
vice-president of the Chamber of Agriculture, a 
member of the Council of the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England, a member of the Council of 
the Smithfield Club, president of the Norfolk 
Chamber of Agriculture, chairman of the Norfolk 
Cattle Plague Association, with no doubt an &c. 
&c. that is accumulating almost as rapidly as the 
nails in the famous horse-shoe problem. 

It is a delicate topic to touch on, but one so 
creditable to all concerned, that we shall venture 
to do so— Mr. Sewell Read’s committee proposed 
not only to pay all the election, but also their 
member’s Parliamentary expenses. This offer was 
respectfully declined, but a considerable sum re- 
mains in hand towards defraying the cost of the 
coming election. There should be, we trust, no 
doubt as to the result of this, as scarcely any thing 
more untoward could occur to the cause than that 
in the Senate the services of Mr. Sewell Read 
should be lost to agriculture. 


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THE FABMEB’S M AGAEOfB. ? 

PLATE II. 

ON THE FLAGS, 


Perhaps the beet joke of all at that Islington 
Exhibition happened just when the hubbub was at 
its highest— when the bell was tolling, the people 
hurrahing or hooting, the horses refusing, and the 
Jndges and other authorities getting in each other’s 
way. Just then, two or three distinguished, but 
much perplexed foreigners were also discovered 
within the magic circle — gentlemen who, it ap- 
peared, had been sent over “ special” to see for 
themselves how such a show should be conducted. 
If they can but carry back with them the notion 
in its entirety, surely all Paris will go into ecstasies 
over the tuneful gongs, the give-and-take jumps, 
the “ get-ready” telegrams, and the wild rushes of 
the riders. Such a scene must have been “ made” 
for a Frenchman ! 

And we alas 1 have seen Y arm and Middlesboro’, 
and Goisbro,’ and Bsdcar, where the horse and 
the hound show lacked all this mosaic setting, and 
yet what delightful days those were ! It was a 
study, and a quiet study too, to watch men like 
Mr. Williamson, Mr. Milbank,* Captain Percy Wil- 
liams, and Sir John judge hounds, with the crack 
huntsmen of England, headed by Tom Sebright 
and Treadwell, judging the Judges, as they 
brought out a couple of promising puppies, or 


Ben Morgan ’deed the old bitch to straighten her* 
self before them. And then some one would draw 
out his tape, while a friend from the side would 
greet him 

“ With line and rule works many a-^swsll ; 

Good morning, sir !” 

" Three hours on the flags,” says Mr. Vyner, 
“may be very agreeably spent by a real sportsman, 
but it is a sad bore to one who is not an admirer 
of the symmetrical.” Our own impression, how- 
ever, is that the Yorkshire Hound Shows, under 
the conduct of a sportsman like Mr. Parrington, 
have tended more than anything else to make men 
admirers of the symmetrical ; or, in other words, 
to take a real interest in bounds. There will be 
the now annual show iu the first week in August 
at Wetherby ; to be held in association with the 
Yorkshire Agricultural Society, but no longer on 
the same ground, as it was found that the hounds 
were, if anythin?, rather too attractive a feature, 
so that, what with horses and hounds, the imple- 
ment makers more especially were left iu the oool 
shade. For our owu part, we have long continued 
to urge the adoption of the present arrangement 
as the more preferable. 


GBEEN MANUBE. 


BY CUTHBEBT W. JOHNSON, P.B.S. 


Given manure was almost the first used of fertilizers. 
As soon as wm began to till the earth he turned into the 
tail the plants with which it was tenanted. It was only 
when by successive crops he had impoverished the land, 
that it became necessary to find some additional means for 
festering its fertility. Some of Dame Nature's hints 
wodd soon lead to the employment of green crops as a 
ntaaare. The gradual formation of beds of peat, iu the 
hollows of even the most barren soils, would naturally 
suggest to the early cultivator that certain plants had 
the power of deriving almost all their support from the 
atmosphere and from water; it would then become a 
question as to which of these were the best able to thus 
rapidly supply themselves with that requisite nourish- 
ment. 


Now, the earliest of agricultural writers, whose workg 
hart escaped to us, allude to the cultivation, as a green 
naawe, by the Italian farmers, of the lupine. This 
plot g rows well wan on exhausted soils, and, when in 


flower, is still ploughed into the soil by the farmers of 
Italy as a green fertilizer. For the same purpose the 
farmers of some districts of England cultivate the buck- 
wheat, a plant which will grow on impoverished soils § 
in other districts they plough-in a crop of coleseed, 
which, like the lnpine and the buckwheat, derives a more 
than an ordinary supply of its nourishment from the 
atmosphere. Ou almost all the sea coasts of our islands 
the green sea- weeds are eagerly collected by the farmers, 
and employed as a manure ; and in some districts the 
leaves of our root crops are as carefully and as beneficially 
ploughed into the soil ; we also learn from Liebig that 
iu Germany the best results have been obtained from 
manuring the vineyards with the cuttings of the vine. 
“ The branches are cut from the vine in July or August, 
whilst still fresh and moist. If they are then cut into small 
pieces and mixed with the earth, they undergo putrefaction 
so completely, that, as I have learned by experience, at the 
end of four weeks not the smallest trace of them can be 

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THE FABMEB’S MAGAZINE. 


found. Some cut them in until pieees and hoe them into 
the soil.” (Organic Chew. 213.) 

Still, we are all aware that green manures have never been 
generally or systematically used ; for, as 1 have on another 
occasion remarked, the agriculturist has ever been more 
desirous of employing as food for his stock the vegetable 
produce of his land, than to bury it in the earth to pro- 
mote the future productiveness of the soil. Yet whenever 
green succulent substances, such as weeds, river collec- 
tions, sea-weed, &e., have been used, the result has almost 
always been satisfactory. The putrefaction of the vege- 
tables, and the gases in that case emitted, appear to be on 
all occasions highly invigorating and nourishing to the 
succeeding crop. During this operation the presence of 
water is essentially necessary, and is most probably de- 
composed. The gases produced vary in different plants 
— those which contain gluten emit ammonia; onions, 
and a few others, evolve phosphuretted hydrogen ; car- 
bonic acid gas and hvdrogen gas, with various vegetable 
matters, are almost always abundiuitly formed. All these 
gases, when mixed with the soil, must be very nourishing 
to the plants growing npon it. The observations of the 
farmer assure ns that they are so. He tells ns that all 
green manures cannot be employed in too fresh a state ; 
that the best corn is grown where the richest turf has 
preceded it ; and that where there is a good prodnce of 
red clover, there will assuredly follow an excellent crop 
of wheat ; he finds, also, when he ploughs in his 
crop of buckwheat to enrich his land, that this is most 
advantageously done when the plant is coming into flower. 
The chemical explanation of these practical observations 
is not difficult. “All green succulent plants,” said 
Davy, “ contain saccharine or mucilaginous matter, with 
woody fibre, and readily ferment ; they cannot, therefore, 
if intended for manure, be used too soon after their death. 
When green crape are to be employed for enriching a soil, 
they should be ploughed in, if it be possible, when in 
flower, or at the time the flower is beginning to appear ; 
for it is at that period that they contain the largest quan- 
tity of easily-solnble substances, and that their leaves are 
most active in forming nutritive matter. Green crops, 
pond wpeds, the parings of hedges or ditches, or any kind 
of fresh vegetable matter, require no preparation to fit 
them for manure. The decomposition slowly proceeds 
beneath the soil, the soluble matters are gradually dissolved, 
and the slight fermentation that goes on, checked by the 
want of a free communication of air, tends to render the 
woody fibre soluble, without occasioning the rapid dissi- 
pation of elastic matter. When old pastures are broken 
up and made arable, not only has the soil been enriched 
by the death and slow decay of the plants which have left 
soluble matters in the soil, but the roots and leaves of the 
grasses living at the time, and occupying so large a part 
of the surface, afford saccharine, mucilaginous, and ex- 
tractive matters, which become immediately the food of 
the crop, and the gradual decomposition affords a supply 
for successive years” (Agricultural Chemistry , p. 280). 

Bnt the question still remains to be more clearly an* 
swered, How do certain plants, instead of impoverishing 
the soil on which they grow, add, if ploughed into it, 
carbonaceous matters? Now, to this point Professor 
Voelcker has not long since directed his attention. He 
tell us (Jour. Boy . Ag. Soc., vol. xxv., p. 582) that “ we 
have abundant proof that it is chiefly the carbonic acid of 
the atmosphere that supplies the carbon of plants, or, in 
other words, the great bulk of all vegetation. It is calcu- 
lated, indeed, that at least three-fourths of the dry sub- 
stance of plants is derived from the carbonic acid of the 
atmosphere. During the day-time the absorption takes 
place continuously ; and no sooner have the leaves ab- 
sorbed carbonic acid than they set about the work of de- 


stroying its form, assimilating the carbon, manufacturing 
it into starch, gum, sugar, and other combinations found 
in all vegetable productions, and at the same time throw- 
ing off the oxygen, so as to restore the balance.” 

“ And,” continues the Professor, in another portion of 
his valuable Essay, “ the observations I have hitherto 
made all tend to show the direct influence which the 
atmosphere has in the nutrition of plants ; bnt there is 
another part which it plays in the growth of vegetables, 
which, though it may be called the indirect one, is so 
great in its effect, that we may say positively that all 
soils which are not penetrated by air are unproductive, no 
matter how mnch food they may otherwise contain. 
Cases are constantly brought nnder my notice, of soils, 
sent for examination, which are characterised as unpro- 
ductive, bnt turn out to contain an abundance of all the 
mineral constituents 'required for the growth of plants, 
and require only to be thoroughly penetrated by the air 
in order to furnish an unlimited quantity of food. The 
atmosphere really exercises a most beneficial effect both 
on the inorganic and organic constituents of the soil. 1 
have alluded to the large quantity of carbonic acid present 
in the air which exists in the interstices of the soil, but 
this supply cannot be produced unless the air finds its 
way into the soil. An excess of organic matter in the 
shape of decaying roots or leaves is so injurious, that 
where it exists in soils which are not easily penetrated 
by air it would be much better for it to be burnt alto- 
gether away. At first sight this may appear to involve a 
great waste of useful material in clay soils ; but if the 
beneficial effect be greater than the sacrifice, it can scarcely 
be called a waste ; for although serious doubt has been 
entertained respecting the utility of burning, some soils 
are with so much difficulty penetrated by air, that burn- 
ing is the only way of destroying the organic matter, 
which when present in an imperfectly aerated condition 
is rank poison to most cultivated plants. It is certain 
that the destruction of sour humus, as it has been called — 
though in a chemical point of view all humus is acid — 
has been attended with most beneficial effects, and when 
recourse cannot be had to proper means of aeriation, this 
destruction has been practised with great advantage to 
the succeeding crop, even if, as in the case of turnips, it 
would be otherwise benefited by the presence of carbona- 
ceous matters in the soil. When, however, we can effect 
the destruction of organic matters by the atmospheric 
oxygen, the practical result, I have no doubt, will be 
greater ; for not only does the air, and more especially 
the atmospheric oxygen, act upon the organic matters 
in producing carbonic acid, but it also has au important 
effect upon them in producing nitrates in the soil. 

“ We sec then that it is not only from the atmosphere 
by their leaves, but from the soil by their roots that plants 
derive their supplies of carbonic acid gas. Some time 
since, M. Boussmgault made some very careful experi- 
ments upon the amount of carbonic acid which occurred 
in soils, and he found that whilst the atmosphere that 
rested upon the soil only gave four to five in every 10,000 
parts, the air in the sou contained, in sandy soil recently 
manured, 217 parts of carbonic acid in every 10,000 
parts. Shortly after rain, the air from the same soil was 
again analyzed, and was found to contain as much as 974 
parts of carbonic acid ; evidently showing that the wet- 
ting of organic matter, and the rapid decomposition 
which through contact with the porous earth had taken 
lace in organic matter had led to the destruction of the 
umuB, and the formation of large quantities of carbonic 
acid. This threw some light upon the very startling 
growths sometimes noticed, especially with regard to 
root crops. They knew how veiy rapidly young turnips 
started after a good shower of rain, if the land had been 


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veil dunged, arising from the rapid production of carbonic 
acid in the soil. ITiey looked in vain for this resnlt in 
soils which had not been properly cultivated. The quan- 
tity of organic nitrogen in the soil is very large. 

“ ‘ Some years ago,” * adds the Professor, * I made an 
experiment with the view of ascertaining how much ni- 
trogen was present after the clover crop had been re- 
moved ; and I ascertained that, taking an acre as the ex- 
perimental area, it was equivalent to rather more than 
the amount of nitrogen present in 8 cwt. of Peruvian 
guano. It has been found that the clover crop is the 
most excellent preparation for the succeeding wheat, and 
it is known now as a fact, that after growing a good 
crop of clover a very large amount of root is left in 
the soil.” 

The primary question in ploughing-in a green crop is of 
course the profit compared with consuming it by live 
stock. This inquiry has been carefully considered in three 
papers, which are contained in the recently published 
number of the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society 
(toL iv., pp. 99, 108, 107, N.S.), by Messrs. Peter Love, 
6. Hurray, and W. £. Wright. Another use of one 
green crop-— the white mustard — when ploughed into the 
soil, has been described by Mr. Love, viz., its action as a 
smothering crop, for the cleansing of foul clay soils. 

As regards the comparative profit of green crops used 
as a manure, and as food for stock, Mr. Love observes 
{Hid, p. 99); 

“ Thirty years ago the ploughing-in of green crops was 
more studied and practised than at the present, the intro- 
duction of guano, nitrate of soda, &c., and the extraction 
of fertilisers from relhse of every description by the aid of 
chemical science having since then done mnch to meet the 
vsnts of the farm. The high price of meat has also in- 
duced the fanner to consume all his green crops by stock. 

“ I remember that it was pretty generally recognised 
among intelligent farmers, that the ploughing-in of 18 
tons of turnips per acre, after being crushed by a clod- 
crusher, gave 12 bushels of barley more than if the said 
turnips had been first passed through the animal, and the 
elements to form mutton and wool extracted ; it is also 
pretty ecrUin that a ton of turnips will produce 14 lbs. of 
mutton, and about 1 lb. of wool ; but the outlay on sheep, 
risk of losses, and cost of attendance, must he taken into 
account. 

“I have only once tested the difference of carting all 
off, feeding on, and ploughing-in turnips ; this was early 
in 1842, when beef and mutton sold by the carcase at 
from 4d. to fid. a-pound, and roots were superabundant. 

“A 12-acre field of light loam subsoil, the Northamp- 
ton ironstone, had been manured with about 16 tons of 
good fresh farmyard manure per acre, ploughed-in 10 
inches deep during the winter, with about 5 inches of 
wheat stubble, afterwards thrice cultivated in the spring, 
farrowed and rolled, then ridged-up, and two quarters of 
fane-dust (well fermented after wetting with urine) 
AnUed-in per acre under the seed ; the produce was a little 
over 18 tons of turnips per sere- The crop on 8 acres 
all carted off the land, that on 71r acres eaten bv 
*faep, and that on lk acres crushed with a Crosskilrs 
driernsher, then harrowed across the rows, re- crushed 
and ploughed-in 6 inches deep. The part eaten off was 
ploughed only about 3 inches ; that where the turnips 
*oe drawn 6 inches; the whole was sown with oats, and 
produced as follows : where turnips were drawn, within a 
peek, under or over, of 7 quarters; where eaten, 9 
garters; where ploughed-in, over 11 quarters per acre. 
Each piece was carefully kept by itself, and all thrashed 
the same week, and sold to the same man, on the same 
fajj at £1 per qr. They were harvested without wet, and 
*dghed 41 lbs. per bushel. 


“ If we can accept the result of this one experiment, 
it tends to show that the virtue of the manure left in the 
excreta of the sheep is about equal to what is expended on 
making mutton ana wool besides maintaining the animal's 
heat and existence. If we take the two quarters of oats 
is a fair equivalent to the 12 bushels of harlev before 
mentioned, it follows that the entire manurial value of 18 
tons of turnips ploughed-in is equivalent to 24 bushels of 
barley, or 32 of oats ; or if these are valued respectivly 
at 82s. and 24s. a quarter, is £4 lfis. for £18 tons, or 
about 5s. per ton ; or 2s. fid. per ton for the t excreta left 
by fattening sheep. 

“ Swede turnips, apart from their value as feed, arc 
not well suited for ploughing-in as manure ; they do not 
rot down well, though they be smashed with mallets. The 
clodcrusher will not break them, and the tops will strike 
root and grow, if any part of the crown of the bulb is 
left adhering to them. 

“The results obtained,” continues Mr. Love, “ by 
ploughing-in turnips in 1842 induced me to try white 
mustard in 1848, on a small field of 8 acres ; soil a stiff 
poor dav, upon blue lias clay subsoil, as foul with twitch 
as possible ; it was ploughed about 7 inches deep in the 
winter, then scarified with broadshares about 8 inches 
deep the last week in March, and after being well har- 
rowed, sown with white mustard-seed by a broadcast seed- 
harrow, at the rate of a bushel to 3 acres, covered in by 
very light seed-harrows. This crop was just breaking into 
bloom the last week in May, and 20 inches high, when it 
was ploughed-in about 4 inches deep, and 100 bushels of 
lime (after being slaked with salt and water) applied per 
acre ; then after one turn of the Norwegian harrow, re- 
sown with mustard, care being taken that all plonghed-in 
within the day should be re-sown on the same day it was 
ploughed ; all was finished on the last day of May. 

“On the 8th of July we began ploughing-in 6 inches 
deep this second crop, which was above 4fi inches high. 
About accomplishing this I had some misgivings at first, 
but managed it well by attaching a heavy block of wood, 
12 inches wide, 18 inches long, drawn by a chaiu attached 
to the large whippletree, and dragged just under the 
plough beam, a few inches in advance of the coalter. 
This further served to regulate the depth instead of a 
wheel. We had also the usual drag weight and chain to 
lap the whole under the furrow. About six furrows at 
the last must be done with the horses at length, or else 
when the land horse returns on the same track as he went, 
he ricks and entangles the long stems so together that 
they lap round the coulter and choke the plough, causing 
mnch trouble, and making the work rough and untidy : by 
putting the horses * at length' there is no trouble, except 
with the last two furrows. Immediately after ploughing 
we gave one turn of the Norwegian harrow, then re-sowed 
the mustard as before. The whole field was finished on 
the 12th of July. 

“The third crop was just breaking into bloom on the 24th 
of August, and the length above 5 feet; this was 
plonghed-in 8 inches deep, with four horses at length, 
followed by a two-wheel presscr, following only one 
plough, thereby giving each furrow a double go. After 
one turn of the Norwegian harrow, the land was left to 
settle down for the future wheat crop. As for the conch 
grass, except a few blades in the first crop of mustard, 
we saw no more of it, except the rotten roots, as we were 
ploughing the last crop in. After one torn of the Nor- 
wegian harrow in the first week in October, the land was 
drilled with two bushels of red wheat per acre, a light 
harrow following, then twice rolled with Crosskill's 
heaviest crusher : it was crushed again in March. The 
produce at harvest was all that any man could desire, and 


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6 


THE PARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


perfectly clean. After one 8-inch winter ploughing, and 
a shallow scarifying in the following March, it was drilled 
with white oats and clover seeds ; the crop of oats was 
magnificent, and in some parts injured the seeds. Thence- 
forth this field, which had borne a very bad character, 
behaved as well as the best. Daring the succedding 
seven years of my occupation of this farm, if I had to 
deal with any piece of very foul strong land, I cleaned it 
in this way ; bat if it was moderately clean, I consumed 
the mustard with store sheep and lambs. Mustard crops 
grown after those eaten off will not be so heavy, but with 
a very little com or cake they will keep from 16 to 24 
sheep per acre, half ewes and half lambs, from the 
middle of May to the end of August, or even later. The 
ewes (or stores) should follow the lambs in a separate 
pen ; a fresh piece should be given every day, and the 
piece fed off should be ploughed and sown the same day, 
because in dry seasons whenever the land is naked the 
moisture is soon dried up; thus there w ill be a regular 
succession, and also the almost certainty of a plant. 

“ The application of 1 cwt. of nitrate of soda to the 
first crop will almost double it, and, of course, much in- 
crease the two following crops, as well as their power to 
smother the twitch or other weeds. T know several per- 
sons who have made attempts at this system, but through 
dilatoriness in ploughing and re-sowing have failed to 
obtain a regular plant. I believe the Norwegian harrow 
to bo indispensable to*success, because it thoroughly pul- 
verises the soil at once, so that lengthened exposure of 
the different surfaces is avoided, and much moisture saved 
that would be lost by repeated harrowing and rolling. If 
in a wet season rains falls and delays the sowing after any 
part is ploughed, this delay gives the half-dead twitch 
time to revive before the smothering influences of the 
next crop can overpower it ; so that in either wet or dry 
seasons the mainspring of the whole system is prompt- 
ness and punctuality in performing every part of the 
work thoroughly well, with the least possible mauling of 
the soil, so as neither to make dust in the one case, nor 
mortar in the other. 

“ I need scarcely say that tri folium, tares, trefoil, 
Italian ryegrass, or any other forward crop may be grown 
as a first crop ; and after this is fed off, two crops of 
mustard may still be obtained either to eat off or plough 
in. The difficulty, nay, almost impossibility, of cleaning 
strong land in a wet season is well Known to all practical 
farmers. Now I venture to affirm that the foulest and 

r rest possible piece of land (sand, perhaps, excepted) may 
cleaned by growing white mustard, with 1 cwt of 
nitrate of soda per acre applied to the first crop, and 
three crops in succession ploughed-in, as before stated, 
let the season be either wet or dry. The soil will be left 
as capable of bearing a crop as if 20 tons of farmyard 
manure had been applied to a bare fallow. 

“ Whether sandy land, the natural parent of couch- 
grass, could be cleaned in this way I do not know ; but I 
dd know that all bog, fen, or peat, light gravel, or loam, 
and all clays can.. It is almost superfluous to contrast 
the expense of this system against that of the bare fal- 
low : but the case may be roughly stated as follows : 


Cost of an acre of bare-fallow manured with 20 tons farm- 
yard manure. 



Winter ploughing 

... £0 12 

March.. 

Scarifying and barrowing 

... 0 4 

April .. 

Cross-ploughing 

... 0 12 

June 

Summer ditto 

... 0 10 

July 

Three scufflings, &c 

... 0 12 

August.. 

20 tons dung and applying 

... 5 0 

August.. 

Ploughing, in dung 

... 0 12 

£8 2 


An acre producing three crops of White Mustard and 
ploughed in, &c. 

Winter ploughing £0 12 

March ... Scarifying, harrowing, and sowing; ... 0 5 

May Ploughing-in and re-sowing 0 17 

July Ditto ditto 0 17 

August... Ditto 8 inches deep 0 16 

August... Pressing and Norwegian harrow 0 6 

1 boshel mustard seed 0 16 

1 cwt. nitrate of soda 0 16 

£8 3 

Saved by this system 3 19 

£8 2 

“ When land is partially cleaned in the autumn, it may 
be perfectly cleaned and manured by growing throe 
crops of mustard, to be folded ; an acre will then keep 
an average of 20 sheep for 16 weeks, which will give a 
result as follows : 


Whtte Mu stake. Da- 

Cost of antomn cultivation £1 0 

Ditto as above for three crops 6 3 

Total cost of cultivation £8 3 

CojTTRA. C*. 

20 sheep kept 15 weeks at 4d. a week each... £5 0 
Valce of excreta left 2 10 

Gross return £7 10 

Cost of cultivation... ... ... 6 3 


Leaving to meet rent and taxes a balance of £1 7 

“I therefore conclude that plants when at their 
greatest green bulk are worth about 5s. a ton to plough- 
in as manure, and if palatable for stock, they will 
make about 14 lbs. of meat, and the excreta left will 
be worth, as manure, about 2s. 6d. per ton of food con- 
sumed.” 


I have thus given nearly the whole of Mr. Peter Love's 
practical observations : bis details of errors to be avoided, 
and of advantages to be reaped by the use of green manures 
on certain soils, will well repay the reader for a careful study . 
The agriculturist, I repeat, will note that we are here 
again treading in Nature’s footsteps ; it is by feeding on 
the carbon diffused in the atmosphere that the little 
plants attached to bare rocks or on the most barren soils 
support their existence, and by their death and decay 
gradually adding to the soil, the carbon which they derive 
from the atmosphere render it capable of supporting far 
larger and more valuable crops. Davy long since de- 
scribed the gradual formation of a soil in this way. 
After tracing the slow decomposition of a granite rock by 
the action of the atmosphere, he remarked that as soon 
as the smallest layer of earth is thus formed on the surface 
of the rock, the seeds of lichens, mosses, and other im- 
perfect vegetables, which are constantly floating in the 
atmosphere, and which have made it their resting-place, 
begin to vegetate : their death, decomposition, and decay 
afford a certain quantity of orgamlxable matter, which 
mixes with the earthy materials of the rock. In this 
improved soil more perfect plants are capable of subsist- 
ing ; these in their turn absorb nourishment from water 
and the atmosphere, and after perishing contribute other 
materials to those already provided. The decomposition 
of the rock still continues, and at length, by snch slow 
and gradual processes, a soil is formed in which even 
forest trees can fix their roots, and which is sufficiently 
fertile to reward the labours of the husbandman. 


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7 


THE NORFOLK AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. 

MEETING AT DOWNHAM MARKET. 


After a bug lapse, the Norfolk Society was first again 
in the field at Fakenham with an agricultural show in its 
entirety • and it has this season just oelebrated the most 
sncceasfnl exhibition of its order that has yet been held. 
The far- west meeting of the West of England Society at 
Falmouth was comparatively a failure ; the Berkshire and 
Hampshire gathering at Winchester depended mainly 
on the sheep for its merits; while the Islington Horse 
Show is too directly identified with the mountebank 
business to ever reach the dignity of a national 
institution of the kind we contemplate. Not that 
the illustration offered us at Downham was by any 
means perfect in its way. There were some sections of 
the show just as weak as there were others strong. 
Amongst the sheep and pigs, for instance, although there 
were many individual entries of much excellence, there 
was often little or no competition. Lord Walsingham, 
for one, has been advised, as he says — and badly advised, 
too — not to run for the first heat ; in other words, his 
brdship cannot afford to exhibit any of bis famous South- 
downs at his own county meeting because he intends ex- 
hibiting some of them at the Royal Meeting at Leicester. 
Sorely, with the numbers they must have to pick from at 
Merton, this only proves a sad want of plnck. But let 
us go on to suppose, for the sake of argument, that Lord 
Sondes, Mr. Brown of Marham, and Mr. Hngh Aylmer 
declined to send their sheep to Downham because they 
will, as we believe, send some from their flocks subsequently 
to Leicester. What, under the influence of such very 
eautions tactics, wonld become of the Norfolk Show? 
Lord Sondes exhibited tome very good Downs, his cup 
ahetriing being a particularly neat sheep, very true in his 
character, aa bred from Mr. Webb and Sir William 
Throckmorton. But in two classes of rams there was 
ooly one single entry beyond his lordship's own — a 
shearling of Mr. John Overman's ; and in the ewes, again, 
Mr. Overman and his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, 
with a badly-done dark-faced pen, alone attempted to dis- 
pute the Rlmham supremacy. The Down lambs, from 
want of roots or moisture, made pretty generally a very 
poor front, although Lord Walsingham mustered up 
courage enough to send one lot. With the Norfolk long* 
woolt—or, as they are now called, Cotswolds — the 
contest was ms usual eonflned chiefly to Messrs. Brown 
and Aylmer, although we are inclined to think that 
both may have better sheep kept back. Still Mr. 
Brown’s ewes, bred from s ram of Mr. Robert Lane's, 
are particularly good sorty sheep, and more uniform, in- 
deed, than might have been expected. The Markham 
first-prise old ram has never been out before ; bat, to oar 
thinking, he is abetter-framed sheep than the second, 
that has won in his time, and was thought by many to be 
•till tbs better of the two. In the other breeds, Mr. 
Henry Overman had the best of it with his Oxford 
Downs ; bat, despite the very limited competition, the 
riel short-wools and long-wools went far to make the 
sheep-show. 

It would appear that the Messrs. Sexton had this 
•seson a wonderful “ growth” of pigs; and that their 
neighbour, . Mr. Stearn, became cognisant of this very 
gmUyieg lack But, as the Sextons have sold out early, 
and as Mr. Steam did not enter, the pig prises at 
Downham were left very much at the mercy of Mr. 


Crisp and the Dnckeringa from Lincolnshire. Indeed, 
in the majority of the classes, there were no other entries 
although Mr. Crisp varied the entertainment, so for ma 
was possible, by taking one cup with a little black pig, 
and another cup with a little white pig, the Lineolns be- 
ing more of course in the ascendant amongst the larger 
breeds, although they did send a Berkshire or two from 
Butley. But the merits of these pigs were in an inverse 
ratio to their numbers. Mr. Moon, and Mr. Moon at a 
judge, declared they were good enough to win in any 
company, as no donbt some of them have been doing al- 
ready, and will do again. The Northorpes are probably 
on the grand tour, and will in the course of the season 
see as much of this sort of thing as Mr. Thumall, John 
Ward, or Mr. Ssndiy. . 

Mr. Sanday had scarcely elbow-room enough allowed 
him at Downham, and he did not look very happy in soli- 
taiy confinement ; but he got through his di^culties hand- 
somely enough. There were only two really good animals 
amongst the sixteen or seventeen all-aged Shorthorn 
bolls; and these he plaeed first and second. The 
Cap bull, as the best of til the bolls. Mr. Lynn's 
Prizeman, an own brother to Pamela, begins well 
with a good head and neck, and plenty of fine 
masculine character. Moreover, he both stands and 
moves well, being active enough, although very high in 
condition ; he is short of cost, but of fine quality, and 
goes on to Leicester with every chance of some further no- 
tice. His second. Lady Pigot's Charles le Bean, looks little 
the worse for his long journey westward, and is a vary 
taking animal st most points, bat he wants the age to 
compete with the other. The best bull at Fakenham last 
year, and, as we then said, a very bad one at best, was 
quite out of it, although the chief labour must have been 
to find a third and a reserve. The Branches Rosolio bad 
it still more his own way with the yearlings, where h^ 
nevertheless, had to beat Mr. Martin's Hermit, that heal 
him at Wisbeach last summer. Hermit was now put 
quite aside, and the second prize awarded to a plain slack- 
backed beast of Mr. Kersey Cooper’s, whose place did net 
say much for the other dozen in the class. Although 
fresh from her defeat down in the West, where the Short- 
horn dearly flourishes, The Queen of Rosalea oniekly 
righted herself in Norfolk, being at all points the best o( 
her breed on the ground. And a sweet cow she is, with 
her kind head, round frame, broad back, and fine banct SO 
that the comparison with the second as they stood side by 
side was very emphatic. There were still plenty of eninee 
here again, and Mr. Brackenbury took a prize and a 
commendation, and Mr. Gamble a commendation, and 
so forth. But Mr. Gamble does not get his stock un for 
show, and so of course he does not get prizes. Lord 
Walsingham’s better in-calf was about the pick of the 
oounty, and very good indeed she is in places ; bnt the ie> 
short, forward, and does not “ set herself ' to much ad- 
vantage. Lady Pigot and Mr. Lynn oome in again 
amongst the younger heifers, and it is very clear that, 
although some Shorthorn herds are being carefully 
cultivated in Norfolk, these have not yet made any great 
way. 

The red Polled beasts were nothing of a shew 
to that at Fakenham, and for ehoioe wo 
should have taken Lord Sondea’ beautiful little 


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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


yearling heifer, as something very perfect alike 
for symmetry and character ; but she was quite “ out- 
paced** iu her class, showing really as a yearling against 
animals some ten or eleven months older. Lord Sondes, 
indeed, had all the call here for quality, although we do 
not profess to say how far this goes in judging a polled 
milker. The Suffolks were well represented in perhaps 
the generally best class in the catalogue, that of cows in- 
calf or in-milk, where Mr. Walton, the only exhibitor 
beyond the confines of Norfolk, won with his old Favo- 
rite *, bnt the competition in the other classes of polled 
stock was not great. Mr. Henry Overman still tries the 
Ayrshire cross, and with every reason, so far as the prize 
list of the other breeds can speak to the worth of this ; 
while Mr. Wortley would appear to have taken to feed- 
ing Herefords in preference to Devons, and some very 
capital steers he has now in preparation. The fat stock, 
however, made a strong feature in the show, and what 
with Shorthorns, Poll-crosses, and Devons, should be 
heard of hereafter in the chronicles of the Smithfield 
Clnb. One of the best of these beasts, a fat cow exhi- 
bited by Mr. Dnrrant, and of the famous Shorthorn and 
Aberdeen “ nick”, was objected to, after having had the 
Cup awarded her for the best of all the fiat cows, as 
having never had a calf ; but we did not hear that she 
was disqualified. 

The distinction drawn over the breeds of cart-horses is, 
like a few other features in the management of the Nor- 
folk Society, somewhat eccentric. For example, the 
classes of cart-horses, that is to say cart-horses generally, 
are made to include Shires, Suffolks, and so forth, while 
the Norfolks have a section to themselves. Whereas at 
other shows the Suffolk chesnuts have a separate classifi- 
cation, and the bays and browns encounter, as they are 
no doubt occasionally crossed with, each other. We 
should not attempt to define a Norfolk cart-horse ; but 
from their appearance should imagine that the breed 
is not kept very strictly to any one particular kind. The 
Committee put on Mr. Thompson, a Suffolk breeder, in 
the open classes, and he began courageously enough by re- 
versing some previous decisions. Mr. Boby’s Conqueror, 
the first prize Suffolk stallion at the Royal Bury Show, 
was never noticed at Downham, although Mr. Crisp’s Cap- 
tain, the second at Bury, was second again at Downham ; 
and everybody seemed to think that Mr. Thompson was 
right, and that the Royal was wrong. Bnt Mr. Thomp- 
son went a deal further than this, and gave not only the 
first prize of the class, but the Cup, as the best of his 
three classes of stallions, to Mr. Rist’s Harwich Em- 
peror, a horse that some time since was disqualified, by a 
veterinary surgeon, for side-bones. However, they do 
not recognize the office of a veterinary inspector at the 
Norfolk shows ; and as the judge did not admit that the 
good-looking son of old Emperor ever had side-bones, of 
course he took all the prizes and medals and cups that 
his appearance otherwise so well warranted. His chief 
opponent, indeed, was not a chesnut, but a Shire colt in 
the next lot of three-year-olds ; and it must have been a 
very near thing between the two ; for Honest Tom has 
gone on improving since he won at Bury last year, and, 
although still rather a flashy horse, has a plenty of power, 
with anick action. He has never been beaten, we believe, 
Until the Cup went against himpiere ; but he h*d the credit 
of beating in turn the Suffolk President, the cup-horse 
of last season, when only a two-year-old. The stallions 
of this age at Downham were all Suffolks, as was the best 
mare, Mr. Walton’s Violet, a son of Canterbury Pil- 
grim, and herself a Royal second. The cart-foals, either 
Norfolks, Suffolks, or Shires, were poor, as the want of 
rain must have told against their growth ; bnt the Nor- 
folk cart-mares made up a capital class, with two of Mr. 
Edwards', much of a muchness, first and second ; and the 


working pairs again were worthy of the county. It was 
the hardest part of Mr. Sexton's day's work to cull 
them ; but he did so very satisfactorily, although they 
would have shown far better with more room to 
move in. 

The same may be said, yet more emphatically, of the 
hackney ring, if it can be so called, in which really 
clever hacks and pontes swarmed in, one after and one 
alongside of the other, until it beeame a matter of much 
astonishment as to how Mr. Parson ever contrived to 
see half of them, let alone keeping clear of them. The 
entry of ponies between thirteen and fourteen hands was 
one of the best we have seen for some time past ; and 
although the judge may have got to the two best of 
them, there were plenty still to pick from. The two 
classes of hacks were as good, and the two chesnuts 
in the over-fifteen hands lot, either for style or action 
worthy of their places almost anywhere, as first and 
second. In the next division, the fhct that Mr. Badham’s 
famous old grey Major could get no nearer than second, 
speaks something as to the excellence of his company ; 
whilst amongst other old favourites, Mr. Robert Alymer's 
chesnut, at 24 years of age, was the second best brood- 
mare, and Mr. E. Farm’s Little Wonder the best pony 
stallion. But the award over the stallions for saddle or 
harness, that is where the trotters came into competi- 
tion, sent all Norfolk home again in sackcloth and ashes. 
There were Trotaways, Fireaways, Phenomena, and 
Quicksilvers. There were real show horses, that ran out 
as much line as a twenty-pound pike, and that lifted their 
legs to a continual chorus of Hie, Hie ! and Ho ! and 
Ho ! And the prize alas ! went away from all these to a 
handsome “ real gentleman,” with all the air and car- 
riage of a thorough-bred horse, and with action as true 
and good as anything, if he did not make so much Rise 
over it. Sir Tatton Sykes bred him ; he is by Fandango, 
out of Star by Bay Middleton, and Mr. Crisp has quar- 
tered him at Butley, to improve the breed of horses ” for 
saddle and harness.” 

The best stallion in his own proper class, Sir Thomas 
Beauchamp’s Aconite, is still handsomer, for he shows 
more blood, and what with his clean wicked head, light 
well-arched neck, and good back, is a really beautiful topped 
horse ; while, as a rich brown, or black-brown, he would be 
sure to take about the country* Neither Mr. Stiggins nor 
the Abbot had a chance against him, although the judge 
hung terribly over his work. The four classes of hunters 
were pretty generally indifferent; but Mr. Gamble’s old 
horse has earned his character in the field, and Mr. 
Sewell showed a very nice chesnut mare, that went too 
short and tender, or she might have stood higher. The 
weight-carryers were an under-bred lot. with one or two 
of them got by trotting horses, and the winner fed as 
high as a prize ox. He would have looked and gone all 
the better for a long sweat or two. The three and four 
year olds were but moderate, and we doubt if a dealer 
could have done much business in this way. 

The implement show is mainly made up by local 
manufacturers and agents, with nothing beyond a few 
medals for distribution at the discretion of the judge, to 
whose awards the prize list will speak. Prominent 
amongst these awards was one for a combined straw- 
elevator and stacking machine, exhibited by Amies and 
Barford, that would promise to "take” on large forms. The 
dinner appears to have gone rather tamely, especially after 
the exciting speeches from the chairman and others at 
Fakenham. Bnt although Sir William Bagge and Mr. 
Sewell Read were on the pound in the morning, they 
had to leave at noon, in order to be in time for the debate 
over the Foreign Cattle Market SOI, which, provokingly 
enough, never came on after all. 


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THE FARMER'S MAGAZmfc. 9 

medal, and cup value £10, R. Wortley, Suffield ; second, £5, 
J. B. Aylmer, Fincham ; highly commended, W. Coleman, 
Bunhall ; commended, W. Goulder. 

Fat steer of any breed, not above three years old, £8 and 
silver medal, R. Wortley ; second, £5, J. B. Aylmer ; com- 
mended, J. How and £. Durrant, Wimbotsham. 

Fat eow, above three years old, £5 and silver medal, and 
cup value £10, £. Durrant, Wimbotsham. 

Fat heifer, not above three years old, £5 and silver medal, 
R. Wortley; second, £3, J. B. Aylmer; highly commended, 
W. Betts, Fincham, for two. 

Extra Stock: Commended, P. J. Sharman, Scarnin 
commended, W. A. T. Amhurst (Bretonne Hereford 

CART HORSES. 

Stallion, not under four years old, £10 and silver medal, and 
cup value £10, 1. Risk, Tattingstone, Suffolk (Harwich Em- 
peror) ; second. T. Crisp (Captain). 

Three-vear-old stallion, £o ana silver medal, W. Welcher, 
Up well, Cambridge (Honest Tom) ; second, £5, W. Wilson, 
Baylham, Suffolk (The President.) 

J. Lynn, Stroxton, Lincoln (Prizeman) ; second, £8, Lady Two-years-old stallion, £6 and silver medal, C.Boby, Stutton, 
Pigotj Branches Park, Suffolk (Charles le Beau) ; third, £5, Suffolk ; second, £4, W. Wilson. 

H. Aylmer, West Dereham (General Hopewell) ; commended, Cart mare, cup value £10 and premium of £10 and silver 
C. Beart, Stow Bridge (Forester). medal, S. Wolton, jun. (Violet), second, £6, R. Gillett, Hal- 

Yearling shortnom bull, £5, Lady Pigot (Rosolio) ; second, venrate (Sprite), third, £4, J. Warth, Sutton, Ely (Diamond). 
£3, G. Kersey Cooper, Easton (Hogarth the Second) ; highly Three-years-old cart filly, £6 and silver medal, S. Wolton, 
commended, H. Aylmer (Prince Hopewell) ; commended, Wm. jun. (Hatchett.) 

Goulder, Wimbotsham (Master Hopewell), J. How, Denver Cart foal, £5 and silver medal, S. Wolton, jun. ; second, 
(Rupert). £8, S. Delf, Christchurch, Upwell. 

Shorthorn cow, in calf or in milk, cun value £10, and £10 Pair of cart horses, whether mare or gelding, best suited 
and silver medal. Lady Pigot (Queen of Kosalea) ; second, £6, for agricultural purposes in Norfolk, and which have been 
J. How, Broughton, Hunts (Jolly Queen) ; third, £4, W. T. so used in the county for twelve months next before the exhi- 
Brackeubury, Shouldham Thorpe (Rosebud)): commended, bition, cup value £20 and silver medal, H. Overman ; second, 
J. Gamble, Shouldham (Chance and Fame), W. T. Bracken- £6, the Executors of the late J. Smith, Crownthorpe ; third, 
burr (Lady Booth), and G. E. Frere, Roydon (Tibbie Tudor). £4. J. Tingey, Ellingham. 

Shorthorn in-calf heifer, not above three years old, £3 and Norfolk cart horses, stallions, not under four years old, 
silver medal. Lord Walsingham, Merton (Thoughtless) ; £10 and silver medal, H. Overman (The Norfolk Lion) ; 

highly commended, G. E. Frere (Sugar Blossom) ; commended, second, £7, T. Wright, North Runcton (The Norfolk 
T. Crisp, Butley, Suffolk (Dahlia). Champion). 

Shorthorn heifer, in calf or in milk, under three years old, Three-years-old stallion, £8 and silver medal, cup value 
£8 and silver medal. Lady Pigot (Dame of Rosalea) : second, £20, J. B. Aylmer ; second, £5, E. Gilbert, Blofiedd (Duke). 
£4, J. Lynn (Aurora) ; highly commended, T. Crisp (Sera- Two-years-old stallion, £6 and silver medal, C. Mainprice, 
pbine 6th) ; commended, J. Gamble. Ely (No competition). 

Yearling shorthorn heifer. £4, J. How (Lady Anne) ; se- Mare, cup value £10, premium of £6, and society's premium 
cood, £2, Lord Walsingham (Daphne) ; highly commended, of £6 and silver medal, C. Edwards, Stowe (Bounce) ; second, 
H. Aylmer (Phillis 6th). £0, C. Edwards (Pink) ; third, £4, E. Crowe, Denver ; highly 

Norfolk and Suffolk red rolled bull, £10 and silver medal, commended, J. B. Aylmer (Beauty), J. E. Groom, Congnam 
and Downham cup value £10, B. Brown, Thursford, Norfolk (Jewel) ; and H. Overman (Brag). 

(Duke) ; second, £8, Lord Sondes. Three-years-old colt. No ment. 

Yearling Norfolk and Suffolk red polled bull, £5, Lord Three-years-old filly, £6 and silver medal, W. A. T. Am* 
Sondes ; no second award. hurst, Didlington ; second, £3, J. Tingey (Brag). 

Norfolk and Suffolk red polled cow, in calf or in milk, £10 Two-years-old filly, £5 and silver medal, F. Cambridge* 
and silver medal, S. Wolton, Newbourn, Suffolk (Favorite) ; South Runcton ; second, £3, W. Blomfield, Stoke Ferry, 
second, £6, J. Hammond, Bale (Butler) ; third, £4, J. Ham- Foal, £5 and silver medal, the Executors of the late J. 
mood (Lady Davy) ; highly commended, J. Hammond (Moss Smith ; second, £3, J. Tingey. 

Bose) ; the class commended. Hunters, thoroughbred stallion, cup value £10 and pre- 

Norfolk and Suffolk red polled heifer, in calf or in milk, mium of £10 and silver medal, Sir T. P. Beauchamp, Bart., 
under three years old, £6 and silver medal, W. Oliver, Dock- Langley (Aconite) ; second, £6, T. Crisp (Abbot), 
ing; second, £4, B. Brown (Cherry); highly commended, Mare or gelding, adapted for hunting, equal to 14 
Lord Sondes ; commended. Lord Sondes. stones, £10 and silver medal, G. S. Hall, Ely (Little John) j 

Yearling Norfolk and Suffolk red polled heifer, £4, and cup second, £5, J. Gedney, Runcton Holme, 
value £10, for the best animal in the three classes, B. Brown. Mare or gelding, adapted for hunting, not equal to carry 
Hadsom ; second, £2, Sir W. Jones, Bart., Cranmer Hall 14 stones, £10 and silver medal, and the Prince of Wales* cup 
(Primrose) ; commended. Lord Sondes. value £20, J. Gamble (Pliable) ; second, £6, A. Hamono, 

Polled eow or heifer, in calf or in profit, not being Norfolk Westacre (Tim), 
and Suffolk red polled, premium of £5 and silver medal, H. H. Four-years-old colt or filly, adapted for hunting, cup value 
Blomfield, Stoke Femr (Handsome). £10 and silver medal, T. Goold, Swaffham (White Stockings) ; 

Horned cow, not being sherthorn, Devon, or Norfolk and second, £5, W. Goulder. 

Suffolk red polled, in calf or in milk, £6 and silver medal, H. Three-years-old colt or filly, adapted for hunting, cup value 
Overman, Weasenham (Deal’s Eye) ; second, £3, Captain £10 and silver medal, G. S. Hall (Young Sir Roger). 

Catling, Needham Hall, Cambridge ; commended, W. Ellis, Harness horses, hacks and ponies — stallion for saddle or 
Wymondham (Rosa). harness, cup value £20 and silver medal, T. Crisp (Fandan- 

Heifer, in calf or in milk, not being shorthorn, Devon, or guero) ; second, £10, T. L. Reed, Downham (Trotaway ; 
Norfolk and Suffolk red polled, under three years old, £6 and third, £6, R. G. Beart* Raynham (Fireaway). 
silver medal, H. Overman (Kind) ; second, £3, M. Green, Best riding mare or gelding, above 16 hands and not ex- 
RmH*m ; commended. P. J. Sharman, Scarning (Victoria). ceeding 16 hands and 3 inches high, £10 and silver medal 
Yearling heifer, not being shorthorn, Devon, or Norfolk and and the cup value £10, S. Delf Upwell, Cambs ; second, £6, 
Suffolk red poUeu, £3, G. M. Nicholson, Elmham. E. Durrant, Wimbotsham ( M adeli n e). 

Fat steer of any breed, above three years old, £8 and silver Hackney mare or gelding, above 14 and not exceeding 16 



PRIZE LIST. 

JUDGXS : 

Shorthorn, Cross-bred, and Fat Cattle. — W. Sanday, Holme 
PSerrepont, Notts. 

Polled Cattle. — W. Horn, Debenham, Suffolk. 

Cart Horses (except Norfolk). — W. Thompson, jun., Thorpe- 
k-Soken, Essex. 

Norfolk Cart Horses. — G. M. Sexton, Wherstead, Suffolk. 

Thoroughbred and Hunting Hones. — S. J. Welfitt, Tath- 
weH, Lincoln. 

Harness Hones, Hacks, and Ponies.— G. F. Parson, Wal- 
didgfield, Suffolk. 

Southdown Sheep. — H. Lugar, Ingham, Suffolk. 

Long-woolled Sheep. — W. Bartholomew, Waddington 
Heath, lincoln. 

Pigs. — J. Moon, Plymouth, Devon. 

Implements. — T. Chambers, jun., Colkirk, Norfolk. 

CATTLE. 

Shorthorn bull. £10 and silver medal, and cup value £10, 


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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


hands high, £10 and silver medal, Bev. W. F. Thursby, Bergh 
Apton, Dagmar, second, £5, 0. D. Badham, Bulmer Tye, 
Suffolk (Major) ; highly commended, J. Groom, Ashwicken 

Brood mare, for saddle or harness, £8 and silver medal, 
&. Hubbard, Stow ; second, £5, R. B. Aylmer, Westacre. 

Entire pony, not under 12, nor above 13$ hands high, cup, 
value £5, and silver medal, E. Farrer, Sporle (Little Wonder) 

Pony, not under 13 nor above 14 hands high, £5 and silver 
medal, and cup value £5, A. B. Aylmer (Jade) ; second, £3, 
E. Larke, Wymondham (Duchess); highly commended, J. 
Warth, Sutton, Ely (Matchless). 

Pony, not under 12 nor above 13 hands hands high, £5 
and silver medal, J. J. Clarke, Swaffham (King of Hearts) ; 
second, £3, H. Ballard, East Carletou (Jacob). 

Cob, showing the best walking and trotting action under a 
rider weighing not less than 15 stones, saddle and bridle in- 
dnded (height not less than 1S| hands, nor more than 15 
hands), £10, and cup value £10, and silver medal, H. Martin, 
Littleport, Isle of Ely. 

Extra Stock.— Commended, T. Wright, North Runcton 
(pony). 

SHEEP. 

Shearling Southdown ram, £8 and silver medal, and cup 
value £1 0, Lord Sondes ; second, £5, Lord Sondes. 

Southdown ram of any age, £5 and £3, and silver medal, 
Lord Sondes. 

Pen of five shearling Southdown ewes, £5 and silver medal. 
Lord Sondes ; second, £3, Lord Sondes. 

Pen of ten Southdown ewe-lambs, cupvalue £10 10s., and 
premium of £4 and silver medal. Lord Walsingham ; second, 
£3, Lord Sondes. 

Pen of ten Southdown wether-lambs, bred by the exhibitor, 
£5 and silver medal. Lord Sondes ; second, £3, Lord Sondes. 

Shearling long-woolled ram, £8 and silver medal, H. Ayl- 
mer ; second, £5, T. Brown, Marham : third. £3, T. Brown. 

Long-woolled ram of any age, £8 and silver medal, and 
cup value £10, T. Brown ; second, £5, T. Brown ; third, £3, 
H. Aylmer. 

Pen of two long-woolled rams, £5 and silver medal, T. 
Brown ; second, £8, T. Brown. 

Pen of ten ewe or wether-lambs of any, other breed, £5 
and silver medal, J. Hammond, Bale;* second, £3, J. 
Hammond. 

( Pen of two ram-lambs, not being long-woolled, bred by ex- 
hibitor. £4, and silver medal, J. Hammond. 

Pen of three shearling wethers of any breed, £5 and silver 
medal, H.B.H. the Prince of Wales ; second, £3, J. T. Ashley, 
Litcliara. 

Pen of ten ewes of any age or breed, £5 and silver medal, 
T. Brown ; second, £3, T. Brown. 

Pen of ten ewes of any age or breed, not being Southdown 
cor long-woolled, £3 and silver medal, H. Overman ; second, 
£4, H. Overman. 

Pen of five shearling ewes of any breed, not being South- 
down or long-woolled, £5 and silver medal, H. Overman; 
second, £3, H. Overman. 

Pen of twenty shearling ewes of any breed, withont 
restriction as to clipping, £5 and £2, and silver medal. Lord 
Sondes. 

PIGS. 

Boar of large breed, £4 and silver medal, R. E. Duckering> 
Nortliorpe, Lincoln ; second, £2, B. E. Duckering. 

Breeding sow of large breed, £4 and silver medal, & E. 
Duckering ; second, £2, T. Crisp. 

Boar of small breed (black), cup value £5, and £4 and 
silver medal, T. Crisp. 

Breeding sow of small breed (black), £4 and silver medal, 
T. Crisp. 

Boar of small breed (white), cup value £5, and £4 and 
silver medal, T. Crisp ; second, £2, B. E. Duckering ; highly 
commended, B. E. Duckering and H. Aylmer. 

Breeding sow of small breed (white), £4 and silver medal, 
X. Crisp : second, £2, B. E. Duckering. 

Three breeding sows of small breed (black), not exceeding 
nine months old, £4 and silver medal : no merit. . 

Three breeding sows of small breed (white)* not exceeding 
nine months old, £4 and silver medal, H. Aylmer. 


IMPLEMENTS. 

Silver medals to Amies, Barford, and Co., of Peterborough* 
for combined elevator — Hambling and Son, Bast Dsrehum* 
for self-feeding thrashing-machine— Barnes, Wells, for well- 
tube— Le Butt, Bury St. Edmund's, for hand seed-drill — 
Hornsby and Son, Grantham, for turnip-cutter. 

Highly commended: Corbett’s combined blowing, wia- 
dowing, and screening machine ; Amies and Co.*s iron frame 
grinding mill and oilcake mill ; Holmes’ combined portable 
thrashing-machine; Woods and Co’s bone-works; Wilkin- 
son’s self-regulating bone-hoe. 

Commended: Sainty’s sheep and cattle permanent or 
portable fencing; Woods* chaffcntter; and Hornsby’s root 
pulper. 

THE DINNER 

was held on Thursday, when about two hundred attended. 
The chair was filled by the President of the Association, Mr. 
W. A. Tysaen Amhurst In the course of the proceedings 

Lord Waisinqham expressed the regret with which he had 
heard that their Members were not able to be present with 
them at that dinner ; because they were all extremely anxious 
to come, and nothing but a very important measure which was 
in Parliament, and which concerned agriculturists, would have 
detained them. There was a bill before the House of Com- 
mons, which proposed to establish a market by the side of the 
Thames for foreign cattle, and for foreign cattleonly ; and it also 
proposed to provide that foreign cattle brought over Imre for 
the purpose of being turned into food should be immediately 
slaughtered, while if they were intended for store stock— of 
which not many would come, because they had very good stock 
of their own, and did not want to go to tneir neighbours, hut 
supposing any should come for people who wish to have a 
particular species, such as Chinese sheep, of which he had 
some, or a Roman hull — they would have to undergo certain 
quarantine. The Metropolitan Market would then be leit en- 
tirely free, and they would hope to get rid of all restrictions 
with respect to animals removed from the Metropolitan 
so that their trade would be as free as it was before the in- 
coming of that formidable disease, rinderpest ; and they would 
not be in fear of any danger of having it re-imported into this 
oountry, for it undoubtedly came from abroad — from the 
Continent — and not only rinderpest, but plenro-pueumonia 
and foot and mouth disease, through which Urey had lost such 
an enormous number of their fine, magnificent cattle, inch as 
they had seen that day at the Show. He believed the only 
way of doing this was the way proposed ; but he might tell 
them the bill would meet with great opposition, and it was 
somewhat doubtful whether it would be carried, and he was, 
therefore, sure they would feel, with him, that their members 
were doing their duty more thoroughly by attending the Housf 
to support this bill than by coming to enjoy themselves with 
them, as he was sure they would have enjoyed themselves. If 
he (Lord Walsingham) had not been able to show so many 
sheep this year as he had upon some former occasions, it was 
because the competition was so great ; and he had been ad- 
vised he ought to reservo his horses during the first heat, and 
so he had allowed his noble friend Lord Sondes to walk over 
the course, as he so well could do. They knew he was afraid 
of him; but he should have pluck enough to meet him act 
Leicester, where he should stand a better chance, from not 
having worked his hones too hard in the first best. 

Mr. J. S. Weliitt responded to the toast of “The Judges 
of Horses,” and, in doing so, remarked that be thoughtit would 
be more satisfactory to the public at large, and would take 
considerable onos off the shoulders of one gentleman, if there 
were two judges another year. 

Mr. Mooir replied to tne toast of “ Judge of the Fig claaa, 
and expressed his belief that if the show had been larger tbp 
pigs that took the prises would not have been beaten, as they 
were of such excellent character. He differed from Mr. Wet 
fitt’s opinion as to two judges, and thought one judge omfcr 
was sufficient and best, because where you had one judge there 
was no calling in a third person : the judge was put upon his 
metal, and could not shirk. Where they had two or three 
judges, one might be told he had done wrong, and he could 
easily ssy that it was not his fault ; the other judgei did it, 
and he was obliged to give way. He was glad Norfolk had 
introduced the system of having but one judge, and hoped the 
course would be universally adopted. 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 11 


Mr. WiiriTT agreed "'with the remarks of Mr. Moon, and 
wm in favour of all other clas s es except horses having but one 
judge. He said there existed a difference of opinion with re- 
spect to horses which did not exist with regard to other 
awinul^ 

Mr. T. Ciiaxbe&s acknowledged “ The Judge of Imple- 
ments,** remarking that the principal novelty in the show- 
yard among the implements was u Norton’s American tube- 


well,” which, he thought, in many cases would be of great 
value. 

It will he seen that great difference of opinion exists as 
to the plan of single judges, many of the Committee of 
the Association being opposed to it, and a number of 
gentlemen who were invited to act in this way having 
declined to do so. 


THE THORNE AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. 


The sixteenth annual show has just been held, and in every 
point has proved more successful than any of its predecessors. 

The section which excited the most interest was the horse- 
nng daring the awarding of the prizes, and in this, especially 
in Yorkshire, most important department of the exhibition, 
the number of entries was very large, and the quality ex- 
ceedingly good. The entries were no leas than 60 in excess 
of last year, and included some very fine animals. The classes 
which attracted particular attention by their excellence were 
the huntere, roadsters, lady’s hacks, and draught-horses, the 
latter calling forth praise from every side. In the class for 
two-year-old geldings or fillies for agricultnral purposes, 
the prize was taken by a capital colt exhibited, 
by Mr. S. Waterhouse, Doncaster. The whole class 
waa a very good one, as was also the next one-yearling, hunting 
colt or filly. The collection was indeed so excellent that it was 
some time before the judges could decide. A beautiful little 
ehcsnnt, by Wild Hero, was very much admired, the only fault 
being that he was too small. The first prize taken was by 
Heber, out of a mare by Era, exhibited by Mr. T. Perkins, 
Soaith, and the second, by Arribas, shown by Mr. R. Bnlay, 
Hooton PagnelL The two-year-old hunting geldings or fillies 
were also an excellent class, and the prize was taken by 
a magnificent one exhibited by Mr. Godfrey, hut which had 
nearly been disqualified by being wrongly entered, lor the 
prize in the three-year-old hunting, gtlding, or filly class, there 
was a very good competition, ar.d even the judges could not 
agree for a long time as to whether 167 or 171, both by 
Arribas, should take the first ; finally, however, 171, 
shown by Mr. W. Glentworth, obtained the honour. In the 
competition for the silver cap, given by Messrs. Durham, 
Poster, and Shaw, for the best three-year-old gelding or filly 
for agricultural purposes, a famous lot of animals appeared ; 
Mr. William Tennant, of Baslow, being successful in taking 
the first prize. The next class consisted of pairs of draught- 
horses, and here the quality could not be excelled. A couple 
of superb greys, one by John Bull, exhibited by Mr. Brierley, 
of Middleton, earned off the cup, and they were the admira- 
tion of all who saw them, the judges expressing an opinion 
that there could be nothing better. The silver cup for the 
beet roadster nag or mare was taken by Mr. Winter, Good- 
eop ; the cap for the best lady’s hackney by Mr. G. Wakefield, 
Keadby ; and for the best pony not exceeding 14 hands, by Mrs. 
Mil ward, Thurgarton. The extra stock contained one of the 
best horses on the ground : this was a gelding exhibited by Mr. 
J. Robson, Mal*on, and to it a first prize was awarded. Turn- 
ing next to cattle, we may state this was the first show since 
the cattle plague, and was a very good one. Some 
useful bulls were shown, but it was in the cow class that the 
greatest excellence was to be found. Mr. Whittaker exhibited 
a very fine pair of heifer calves, which took the first prize, and 
in the sheep department he also took the silver cup for the 
best pen of long-woolled Leicester gimmers. The ewes were 
a very good class, and the show altogether excellent, for 
pigs the entries were not numerous, but the quality could not 
possibly be better. The competition, however, was confined 
to two exhibitors, Mr. John Dyson, of Leeds, and Mr. R. E. 
Dockering, of Northorpe, who took all the first and, 
with one exception, all the second prizes between them. The 
show of dogs was really remarkable, and it is very seldom that 
such a collection is brought together. The extra prizes and 
the many “ commended!” which the judges bestowea come as 
quite a sufficient proof of their general excellence. One class in 
particular, the fox-terriers, were specially noticed, and Mr. J. 
Denton, of Doncaster, took the first prize. 


PRIZE LIST. 

JUDGES. 

Horses — J. Robinson, Grove House, Manchester; T. Stamper 
Highfield House, Oswaldkirk ; T. R. Colton, Eagle 
Newark. 

Beasts, Sheep, and Figs — G. Bland, Coleby Hall, Lincoln ; 
R. Foxton, Wellburn, Kirby moorside : T. Dodds, Mount 
Pleasant, Wakefield. 

IMPLEMENTS. 

The best assortment of farming and other implements 
manufactured and exhibited by any one person.— 1st, Vickers, 
Snowden, and Morris, Doncaster ; 2nd, B. Sanderson, Thorne. 

HORSES. 

Mare aud foal for agricultural purposes.— 1st, W. Tennant 
Barlow ; 2nd, M. Aakern, Levels. * 

o 5^x7 “ d L foal » hunting.— 1st, H. W. Godfrey, Bank House • 
2nd, M. Askern. 

Mare and foal, carriage.— 1st, M. Askern ; 2nd 
Reynolds, Carlton; highly commended, T. Wakefield, Mes- 
singnam. * 

TkOTne ^ road8ter — 1#t > H ' W * Godfrey; 2nd, J. Lee, 

Yearling colt or filly for agricultural purposes. 1st p T 

Turner, Armthorpe ; 2nd, J. Coulman. * ^ **>*•£• 

Two years old gelding or filly for agricultural purnoses — 
Grange^ aterhou8e * Ellers i Snd » L H. Goulton?AiSyn 
Yearling colt or filly, hunting.— 1st. T. Perkin* *„•,'»«, . 
Aimy^’ H<>0t0n P,gneU : highly commended, P. iogherty, 

aasaetewsasitfAa 

Yearling colt or filly, carnage— 1st, W. H. Godfrey; 2nd, 
M. Askern ; commended, H. Cooke, Carlton * ^ 

ftvTaJTS w«t£fi. or mj> carriage - lat * H - w - Q °4- 
A»^sSw?RH^ 

W- ®rocicton, Tudworth ; tKliTcomi® 

mended, M. Durham, Thorne! ’ com-* 

Three yean old gelding or fill, for agricultnral numona . 
sdver cup nine £o.-lat, W. Tennant ?2nd, offi, 

S/teassT - * * — iSs 

? o?i! ey ’ highly commended, E. Mickle, 

thwaite, Thorne ; commended, E. Coalman. c ■ 

J w"?* of "y.W, 01 ' V. Tennant : 2nd, 

i “ mm ' nded > J ‘ B - 

Boadater^nag, or run of any age, a silver enp, value £8. 
— l«t, £. Winter, Goodcop; 2nd, O. Wakefield, Kcadhr • 
fftSgh^’ B * rker - M * lton ; commended, T. W& 


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Lady’s hackney, of any age or sex, a silver cup, value £5. 
— 1st, G. Wakefield ; 2nd, W. M. Barley, Thome. 

Pony, not exceeding 14 hands, silver cup, value £3 Ss. — 
1st, R. Mil ward, Thurgarton ; 2nd, W. White, Crowtrees. 

Pony not exceeding 12 hands. — 1st, E. Rogers, Rockley ; 
2nd, C. Book, Levels. 

Sucking foal by Gavazzi, a special prize. — 1st, G. Gillatt, 
Doncaster, 

Yearling by Antwerp, a special prize. — 1st, J. H. Bean, 
Stainforth. 

Sucking foal by Antwerp, a special prize. — 1st, M. Askern. 
Extra Stock. — 1st, J. Robson, Mai ton ; commended, W. 
White. 

CATTLE. 

Bull of any age.— 1st, J. Mann, Sprotbro’ ; 2nd, B. J. 
Whittaker, Hesley Hall. 

Bull under two years old. — 1st, G. Cattle, Hooton Levet ; 
2nd, J. S. Bum, Streetthorpe. 

Cow in calf or milk for daily purposes. — 1st, — Dickinson, 
Partridge Hill ; 2nd, B. J. Whittaker ; commended, J. Sykes 
(B ram with), J. Elliott (Levels), E. Barker (Pigburn), W. 
Brockton, J. P. Watson (Crowle Wharf). 

Heifer in calf or milk, under three years old. — 1st, B. J. 
Whittaker; 2nd, W. Brockton; commended, J. Aldam, Ep- 
worth. 

Pair of calves, above 12 and under 18 months old. — 1st, 
B. J. Whittaker ; 2nd, J. Elliott. 

Pair of calves, above 6 and under 12 months old. — 1st, J. 
Coulman. 


SHEEP. 

Long-woolled or Leicestershire ram of any age. — 1st and 
2nd, J. P. Moorhouse, Penistonc ; commended, J. Ingham 
(Marr), H. Poskitt (Barrington). 

Shearling long-woolled or Leicester ram. — 1st and 2nd, R. 
C. Workman, Almholrae. 

Pivc long-woolled or Leicester ewes, having suckled lambs 
until June 17, 1868. — 1st, J. Winder ; 2nd, E. Turner; com- 
mended, R. C. Workman. 

Five long-woolled or Leicester gimmers, bred by the exhi- 
bitor within a distance of 20 miles of Thorne, a silver cup, 
value £5. — 1st, B. J. Whittaker ; 2nd, M. Astern. 

Five long-woolled or Leicester wedders. — 1st, L. Baxter, 
Hirst Courtney ; 2nd, R. Law. 

Five lambs. — 1st, H. W. Godfrey ; 2nd, R. M. Waterhouse, 
Armthorpe ; commended, J. Warriner, Wroot. 

PIGS. 

Boar of the large breed. — 1st, J. Dyson, Leeds ; 2nd, R. E. 
Duckering, Northorpe. 

Boar of the small breed.— 1st, J. Dyson. 

Sow of the large breed. — 1st, J. Dyson; 2nd, R. E. 
Duckering. 

Sow ot the small breed. — 1st, J. Dyson ; 2nd, R. E. 
Duckering. 

Sow of the middle breed. — 1st, J. Dyson; 2nd, R. E. 
Duckering. 

Three store pigs. — 1st, R. £. Duckering; 2nd, E. T. 
Whaley. 

Open gilt of any breed, not less than 6 or more titan 12 
months old. — 1st, R. E. Duckering ; 2nd, J. Dyson. 


THE NORTH-EAST AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 


MEETING AT BELFAST. 


This annual show was held on Thursday and Friday, 
June 18 and 19. All the classes, with the exception of pigs, 
were good ; and in that quarter the decline was in numbers, 
and not in quality. Tho show of Shorthorns and other 
distinct breeds of cattle and sheep was such as to 
do credit to any show in the United Kingdom for quality 
and breeding. There were forty-nine entries of Short- 
horns of all ages. Six Shorthorned bulls, over two 
years old, competed in the first section, which 
ended in Mr. Ellison Macartney’s four- yew- old 
bull FitzJamcs being placed first ; he comes from the 
now famous Castlegrove herd. Mr Maxwell’s Chancellor 
and Mr. W. Charley’s Ulysses were second and third. 
The section for two-year-old bulls was made up of seven 
entries, Lord O’Neill’s Lord of the Manor leading the 
way. Mr. Mulholland’s bull Raven, by Ravenspnr, was 
placed next, but he had a smart tussle with Mr. M’Crea’s 
Northern Ensign, by Northern Chief ; while Mr. 
Moody’s Roger stood highly commended. There were 
12 entries in the yearling bull section, the Marquis 
of Downshire’s Marquis of Kildare, bred by Mr. 
Reynell, taking the lead, and also the Ulster Challenge 
Cap for the best animal in the short-horn classes. 
Mr. Maxwell’s Prince Royal stood next ; and the Earl of 
Dartry’s Lamp of Florence, from the Ardfert herd, made 
a capital third. An H. C. was given to Messrs. F. and 
W. Smith’s Jemmy, a son of Fitzjames the Second. The 
male sections finished in the bull calves. The Earl of 
Dartry’s Royal Butterfly — a beautiful white, only three 
months old — bred by himself, led off, followed by Mr. Elli- 
son Macartney’s White Rock, also bred by the exhibitor. 
The gem station of the show would be the cows of any 
age. The three prize ones were grand creatures, but of 
such different styles of sweetness and beauty as to render 
it most difficult and perplexing to place them, and the 
judges found it so > however, it ended in Mr. C. P. Les- 


lie’s Banshee being put first, his Lily of Warlaby third, 
and Mr. Maxwell’s Anita second. Banshee, the first prize, 
is a grand cow of great substance, Lily of Warlaby is every 
inch a shorthorn, and Anita one of the sweetest and loveliest 
matrons we have seen. The three-year-old section con- 
tained but two, Mr. Mnlholland’s Elfin Dorrit being 
placed first, and Mr. Richardson, of Kircassock, second 
for Lady Frances. The two-year-old section contained 
three entries, Mr. M'Corkell’s Rose of Warlaby, bred by 
himself, and Sir R. Bateson’s Red Rose, bred by A. War- 
burton, Kill, being first and second respectively, Mr. 
George CallweU’s Beauty the Sixth making a very 
handsome third. Foot entries composed the sec- 
tion for yearlings — the Earl of Caledon’s Countess, 
placed third at the last Dublin Royal, Mr. Max- 
well’s Princess Victor, and Mr. Charley's Princess Ade- 
laide, being placed first, second, and third respectively. 
The Earl of Dartrey exhibited a very nice heifer-calf, but 
there was no competition. 

The northerners are great admirers of Ayrshires as 
dairy cattle. Six males and twenty -nine females, of all 
ages, were exhibited in the Amateur Class. They were 
well and purely bred, and, to all appearance, very suitable 
to dairy purposes. The Devons were the best we have 
seen for some time in Ireland, and numbered five males 
and ten females of all ages; and they are evidently 
favourite?! with those who possess them. The diminutive, 
yet profitable, Kerries numbered three males and three 
females ; and Polled and Alderneys numbered but four of 
both sexes. 

A new class has been opened for thorough-bred horses, 
which brought before the public on this the first occa- 
sion four very handsome well-bred gentlemen, and on the 
next occasion it is expected that this class will be yet better 
filled. In this, the Amateur Class, agricultural sires, 
mares, and other draught horses useful for general pur- 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


13 


poses, were very well represented, numbering in the aggre- 
gate about 24 entries. 

The sheep shown were about the best we have seen here ; 
Leicestera, Border Leicesters, Lincolns, and Shrop- 
shire Downs were in goodly numbers and finely-bred. 
Mr. Bland invaded the northern metropolis with 
some of his finest specimens, and took some of the first 
prizes ; but in Mr. Leslie, of Glasslough, he found a rival 
worthy of his mettle, and the latter did not let the former 
take all the first prises. The pigs were excellent, but 
not numerous. 

There is but time and space te give a general 
epitome of the live stock exhibited in the farmers’ 
classes ; there were of Shorthorn cows and heifers 
twenty of all ages, and so remarkably good as to call 
forth unbounded applause for their beauty, condition, 
cleanliness, and their evident productiveness as dairy 
stock. In Ayrshire* they exhibited about 15, remarkable 
for their evident productiveness ; but the finest feature of 
all was the splendid array which farmers made of cross- 
bred cattle, the beauty of their colours, their grand size, 
substantial proportions, and capacious adders riveting 


the attention of the visitors to such a degree that we 
could scarcely get a peep at them. They numbered about 
thirty, and do infinite credit to the spirit and the know- 
ledge displayed by the north men m the selection and 
crosses which were produced. In sheep they were equally 
successful, whether in Leicesters, Border Leicesters, or 
Shropshire Downs ; but, like the amateur class, the pigs 
they exhibited, though remarkably good and well bred, 
were few, eight pens covering the whole of the farmers' 
entries. The show of poultry was a very fine one ; and 
in butter there were about 23 samples in firkins, crocks, 
and samples of six prints of lib. each. Of scutched flax 
three samples, and of green flax six samples, the finest 
was that of James Taylor and Sous, who got the first pre- 
mium, being much over three feet long, Mr. Borthwiek’s, 
who got the second, being nearly as large, and of very 
superior quality. The show of implements and machines 
was a good one, but we missed some of the English and 
Scotch makers, who used to come and pick up some 
loose cash, but not without giving value for it; how- 
ever, their places were well filled by their agents. — ■ 
Abridged from Irish Farmer's Gazette, 


THE RUST-IN-WHEAT COMMISSION. 

To His Excellency Lieutenant- Colonel Hamley, Officer Administering the Government of South Australia , £**., jre. t fye. 


His Excellency Sir Dominick Daly, Knight, late Governor- 
in-Chief of South Australia, having appointed us whose names 
are hereto appended a Commission to inquire into the diseases 
affecting the cereal crops of this province, we have the honour 
to report to your Excellency as follows : 

I. — Pnxi iminjlrt. — The natural history of the rust-disease 
having for yean past formed a subject of scientific investiga- 
tion, your commissioners did not anticipate being able, 
with the limited means and appliances at their command, 
to throw new light on the physiology of that malady ; but 
tferbro directed their best attention to the question whether 
the disease which has recently destroyed our cereal crops was 
identical wi tp the “nut” described by scientific men, or 
whether it was some new and modified disease, generated by 
peculiar conditions of soil and climate, affecting the growth of 
corn in this colony. They have, however, notwithstanding 
former researches, inquired anew whether the cause of rust 
was to be sought for in the seed sown, in the soil itself or in 
atmospheric conditions affecting the growth of the plant ; and, 
finally, whether any plan could be devised for mitigating the 
severity of the disease. On these points much valuable evi- 
dence, written and oral, has been collected, and will be found 
appended to this report. Tour commissioners have also directed 
their attention to the disease popularly designated “ take-all,” 
and have recorded the observations of many experienced and 
competent witnesses. The method of investigation has been 
the following : A schedule of questions (see Appendix), com- 
prehending some twenty separate branches of inquiry was 
printed, and parcels forwarded to all the corporations and dis- 
trict councils of the province for distribution amongst agricul- 
turists and other suitable persons in their respective neighbour- 
hood*. It was considered better that the various district 
councils should themselves select the formers whose evidence 
was required, than that the commissioners should limit their 
inquiries to individuals of their own choice. As regards the 
schedule of questions itself, it was framed simply as a guide to 
those who might wish to avail themselves of it ; each person 
addressed being invited to state his own views and opinions in 
his own way, altogether regardless of the questions proposed 
by the commissioners. Many witnesses have, in accordance 
with this invitation, given the result of their experience on 
various points of importance, supplementary to their replies to 
the schedules. The communications received in answer to the 
queries propounded by the commission have been carefhlly 
considered and collated, the most important portions of the 
information elicited being hereunto appended. This has un- 


avoidably occasioned some delay, but the value of the evidence 
thus secured will more than compensate for the loss of time. 
In addition to the useful and varied information gathered 
through the post from about 700 practical agriculturists, 
various witnesses liave personally attended before the com- 
mission, and given viva voce evidence, which will also be found 
in the appendix. These witnesses include some of the most 
experienced and observant wheat-growers in the province, as 
alio our ablest agricultural chemists and microscopists. Your 
commissioners have also had the benefit of a thoughtful and 
elaborate paper, prepared by Mr. Charles Todd, on the rain- 
foil of last season, compared with that of seasons preceding-— a 
paper to which they point with more than ordinary satisfaction, 
as replete with information valuable to the scientific farmer 
and tlie naturalist. Reference should also be made to a report 
kindly and readily furnished by Dr. Mueller, of the Melbourne 
Botanic Gardens, on the subject of the rust in wheat, sum- 
marizing the latest researches and discoveries with regard to 
that fearful malady, and effectually setting at rest some plausi- 
ble but unsupported theories on the subject. The scientific 
aspects of the question have also been professionally elucidated 
by Drs. Mnecke and Schomburgh, and Messrs. Francis, 
Cossins, and Ey, of this colony, whose conclusions are also 
appended. With these preliminary remarks, your commis- 
sioners proceed to submit the result of their investigations. 

H. — Red Rust. — As regards the physiological character 
of red rust, there can be no doubt whatever that it is essen- 
tially a vegetable parasite or fungus, attacking the plant ex- 
ternally, and brought into active operation by certain atmos- 
pheric or climatic conditions, the most effective of which last 
year were heat and humidity. In September and October 
there was a most unusual amount of moisture combined with 
sultry heat, and frequent heavy dews at night — that blades ol 
cereal plants being kept in a continual state of dampness, with 
occasional rapid evaporation, causing the pores of the leaf to 
be more than ordinarily open, and thus facilitating the en- 
trance of the infinitely minute spores, or seeds oi the rust 
fungus, which are more or less always floating in the atmos- 

} >here, or deposited on the soil or surrounding objects, ready 
or dissemination by every wind that blows. An opinion has 
been expressed before this commission that the rust on the 
wheat blade is simply an exudation from the plant itself, a 
spontaneous overflow of sap, and is not the result of parasi- 
tical attack. But this theory is altogether without support, 
either in the general conditions and circumstances of the rust 
as observed by the naked eye on a great variety of plants, of 


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u THU FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


im H 19 microeoopic appearanoes of the diseased wheat plant, 
for although the poet lnxariant growth* of wheat have 
doubtless suffered most from the rust, thus lending an apparent 
support to the theory of sap M exudation,** it is an undeniable 
fact, that a large number of cereal plants and grasses— the 
very reverse of luxuriant — have also suffered from rust, which 
must, therefore, be accounted for in some other way than by 
the outflow of superabundant juices. The spores of the rust 
are proved to be true seeds, possessing a uniform and definite 
character according to their variety, retaining their vitality as 
other seeds do, ana capable of being developed at any time by 
Hie application of heat and moisture. Your commissioners 
have examined through the microscope various specimens of 
last year’s rusted wheat, and find the rust spores identical in 
appearance with those noticed and delineated by Mr. Coolce, 
and other eminent mycologists, who have written on the sub- 
ject. There is, therefore, no doubt whatever, that the rust in 
wheat, now so painfully known to South Australian farmers, is 
identical with the disease long recognised by the same name in 
Europe, briefly described by Dr. Mueller, in his report hereto 
annexed. It has also been shown in. evidence, that the red 
rust has affected, in addition to wheat and other cereals, flax, 
lucerne, wild oats, wild barley grass, reeds, and many other 
vegetable productions. It has been noticed that the red rust 
appeared in some localities before the hnmid weather of Sep- 
tember and October, and also (in the south-east), after the dry, 
hot weather had set in. On this point it may he remarked 
that there are two distinct varieties of red rust, designated in 
Dr. Moeller’s paper, Pucctnia graminu and Puccinia ilraminis 
—one of which nas the power of producing its spores in al- 
most any season. Mr. Ey, in his evidence, also refers to the 
two kinds of nut, and avows his conviction that both have 
been active agents in the destruction of last season’s crop 
The rust that appeared earlier is popularly known as the 
*' long corn” rust, and is believed to have borne a fall share 
with the Vera rubigo (or true rust) in the desolation of onr 
last harvest. In the course of this investigation some points 
of importance have been established, materially affecting and 
modifying opinions hitherto entertained. In 1865, it was re- 
ported by the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, who 
took evidence on the subject of red rust, that crops grown 
upon land long cultivated were much more liable to the dis- 
ease than those grown npon new land, and that crops grown 
upon well cultivated and manured land were mnch less liable. 
These opinions, though disavowed by some cultivators, pre- 
vailed very generally down to the time when your Com- 
missioners entered npon their investigation ; bat the 
experience of last season excited grave doubts on the subject ; 
and the result of the evidence now adduced entirely sets aside 
this portion of the report of the Agricultural Society. It is 
founu, as the almost uniform result of last year's operations, 
that rust has prevailed upon all kinds of laud — upon 
lauds long cropped, npon fellow lands, upon grazed lands, 
npon virgin soil, upon manured lands, upon the plains, and 
upon the nilla. But more than this, it has been proved that 
in nearly every instance the richest lands have suffered the 
most from red rust, and that, in a large number of cases, the 
best crops have been reaped from the poorest natural soils, 
and from those most exn&nsted by frequent cropping. It is 
an almost universal fact that wherever the wheat grew most 
luxuriantly in September and October, there the failure has 
been most complete; whilst those crops that in the early 
part of the season were the least promising, as a role, turned 
out by far the best sample aud the heaviest yield. This very 
remarkable circumstance, attested by hundreds of witnesses, 
is thus accounted for : Luxuriance in vegetation, like exces- 
sive fat in animals, is not identical with vigour. Plants 
forced into abnormal luxuriance are more susceptible of 
climatic changes than those which are tough and hardy. The 
more juicy and succulent the plant, the more predisposed is it 
to the iuroads of the rust. The pores of the leaf being 
unusually open, the minute spores of parasitical fungi can 
more readily enter. Then, again, the more dense and heavy 
the crop, the less possible is it for the wind to circulate, and 
Hie saturated leaves to dry. On the other hand, in a thin, 
light crop, the leaf pores being less open to the entrance o t 
the rust seed, the disease is not so freely propagated, whilst 
the whole crop is far better situated to emoy the drying in- 
fluences of the wind, which retard the development of the 
p ara s i t e. The poor crop has thus a twofold advantage over 


the thick and luxuriant crop in a season favourable for the 
development of nut. Hence, so far as zed rust is concerned, 
rich soils, and what is termed “ high farming,” instead « 
shutting ont the disease or mitigating its seventy, operate in 
the contrary direction, always supposing that the climatic 
conditions favourable to the development of nut are present. 

The modus operands of the disease is twofold. The mat 
spores, obtaining entrance through the open stomata, or 
breathing pores of the plant, are very quickly developed, and, 
pushing forward rootlets ( myeeHa ), gradually work their way 
along the sap vessels of the leaf — in all probability injuring, 
by their multiplication and progress, its internal mechanical 
structure. But the chief damage — or, at all events, that 
which can with most certainty be traced — is cansed by the 
absorption of the wheat sap by the parasite that has entered 
its channels. The juices that should have gone to nourish 
the wheat-ear are intercepted in their progress by the iuM 
fungus, which starves the grain by living on its proper 
nourishment. This is not only dedneed from microscopic ob- 
servations, but is clearly demonstrated by chemical analytic. 
Healthy grains of wheat contain certain definite proportion* 
of inorganic ash — the ash, in its turn, containing definite pro- 
portions of phosphoric arid, potash and soda, and magnesia. 
It has been demonstrated that rusted wheat is very deficient 
in that ash, having sometimes less than one-third its proper 
quantity. On the other hand, the rust spores, gathered from 
the rusty wheat, yield, on analysis, an extraordinary quantity 
of ash ; and this ash is found to contain a large amount of 
the constituents present in the ash of healthy wheat, 
but wanting in the ash of rusty wheat. Doubtless 
further experiments on this point are eminently desirable; 
but, as far as chemical analysis has extended, it seems fairly 
proved that the wheat perishes throngh the absorption of its 
proper nutriment by the rust fungus, and that the constituent 
elements wanting in the shrivelled grain are to be found in 
the parasite which has fed upon and destroyed it. 

III. — Seed Wheat. — Your Commissioners having come to 
the conclusion that Hie red rnst is not originated in the soil, 
next directed attention to the several varieties of seed-wheat, 
with a view to determine whether any descriptions were of 
more hardy character than others, and better calculated to 
repel the attacks of the disease. On this subject the evidence 
of the numerous witnesses is remarkably coincident. With 
but very few exceptions it has been found iu all parts of the 
eolony that the Tuscan and purple straw varieties suffered 
least, whilst the more prolific varieties, such as the Goldsmith, 
suffered most. The Tuscan however, being a poor, yielding 
grain, is not likely to be generally selected for feed ; and the 
purple straw, therefore, is the wheat now generally recom- 
mended as combining a fair yield and a certain degree of re- 
sistance to the red rust. It of oonrse remains for the former 
to determine whether (to ensure the weightiest crop) he will 
sow prolifio but tender varieties ; or whether he will purchase 
a certain degree of immunity against the rust by bang con- 
tent with a variety of seed not quite so famed for heavy bear- 
ing. It is noticeable that the Victorian Commission of 1865 
emphatically recommended care in the selection of seed wheat, 
reporting favourably of the red straw aud Tuscans, and depri- 
cating the goldfen drop, white prolific, white velvet, and 
Winslow. Attention has been specially directed during this 
investigation to the question of the fitness or unfitness of 
shrivelled grain, and grain from rusted crops, for seed. There 
being in many districts of the colony but little good seed this 
year, your Commissioners deemed the point now under con- 
sideration to be one of the utmost importance, and they have 
much satisfaction in stating that numerous witnesses declare, 
as the result of their own personal experience, that shrivelled 
and rusty seed will produce healthy and abundant crops. This 
fact has, iudeed, been known botli to scientific observers and 
practical fanners for many years, aud is specially remarked 
upon by the Victoria Committee. In that colony scientific 
research and practical testimony were both brought to bear on 
the subject ; and, although Dr. Mueller and his colleagues ap- 
pear somewhat hesitant to account for the fact, yet they are 
most confident in reporting that not only will shrivelled and 
rusty seed produce good plants, but in many instances have 
yielded healthier and heavier crops than those raised from 
first-class seed. Nevertheless, as strong objections had been 
urged against the use of last season's rusted wheat aa seed, the 
Commission felt it desirable to bestow special care upen this 


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THE E AIMER'S MAGAZINE. U 


bamtk of their inquiry. They therefore collected all the re- 
Bahli information In their power, and alto requested Dr. 
B eh om b urgh, of the Botanic Gardens, to experiment upon 
▼mrions samples, including some of the wont procurable. The 
Ywsalt of experiments thus made fully supports the evidence of 
■CricnHnm witnesses. The very thinnest grain germinated as 
femadily as the finest ; and, although on first springing up ic 
mnpasred slightly wmker than the other, it grew freely, and in 
ft few days was as vigorous as that proceeding from a plumper 
weed. As however the germ must he nourished from the sub- 
stance of the seed until its roots can draw nutriment from the 
woO,ift is ressonable to suppose that very poor seed would have 
ft better chance in good than in exhausted soils. Your Com- 
missioners therefore consider that their inquiries on this par- 
tlcalar question terminated alike in an undeniable and satis- 
factory conclusion. Mnch valuable information on that subject, 
sftdooing Dr. Schomburgh’s report, is appended. It having 
been thought by some persons that the rust may partly be 
accounted for by the continued use for many years of the 
progeny of the same crop, and that a change of seed, brought 
from distant localities, would shut out the disease, your Com- 
aimioaers report that this idea is not supported by the evi- 
dence. Oa the contrary, crops raised from seed brought from 
diatant places have been affected with rust equally with those 
raamd from seed grown on the same sections. No doubt, for other 
rwrns unconnected with rust, change of seed is often desir- 
ahh ; and the evidence of witnesses on this point shows that 
ftftw seed should be procured as nearly as possible from a lati- 
tude similar to that where it is intended to plant it, and also 
from a poorer toil to a richer one, and vice c vrsd, otherwise 
tsana will be lost in the acclimatization of the new arrival. 
Rne spec ime ns of South Australian seed-wheat have produced 
wmft and d isea s ed crops in England, in fields where seed grown 
im the same neighbourhood produced healthy and fruitful 
plant*. The colonial seed had not become acclimatized, and 
tlse plant suffered accordingly. But although the red rust is 
slsown to be dependent upon atmospheric conditions, and to 
eosmesec its ravages upon the stem and leaf of the plant, aud 
not to ascend from the root, it is nevertheless desirable to 
pickle the seed for the purpose not only of killing the spores 
of black rust or smut, but also in order to destroy spores of 
the rad rust which may happen to attach to it. On the sub- 
ject of the composition of pickles for wheat, a few words will 
pteseatly be added. 

IV. — Black Bust aud Smut.— Smut being effectually 
de str o y ed by a proper preparation of the seed, it has not been 
thought necessary to inqmre particularly into a disease within 
the knowledge of all practical farmers. With reference to 
Uuk nut, late sowing is recommended as a preventive, unless 
the ground should previously be thoroughly saturated. Dry 
piosghiag t by turning up the land in clods, and leaving open 
cavities beneath the surface, which harrowing does not fill up, 
is co n sider ed by several practical agriculturists as strongly 
Bronzing the development of black rusk One witness says, 

The remedy I always adopt is, never to work my land unless 
it is sallcieatly saturated with a certain depth of rainfall, so 
that the soil is sufficiently moist throughout, and then work- 
ing the land when it is mellow. I have always found I have 
avoided black rost. I was led to conclude that black nut 
etas from the roughly-broki n state of the soil ; as the har- 
rows only penetrate an inch or two — the black rust always 
made its appearance when the roots got down that far — the 
bottom being hollow as a honeycomb.” Others, in like man- 
ner, recommend the thorough working and pulverization of 
the land, combined with proper pickling, as a sufficient anti- 
dote to this form of cereal disease. 

V*— Take all. — This disease, so destructive in many dis- 
tricts of South Australia, is not so well understood as' rust. 
Pinners and chemists are alike at sea — ploughmen and mi- 
croscopical observers differ i» toio as to its nature and causes. 
It is aid to result from an exhausted soil, from the presence 
of too much salt in the soil, from the deficiency of some con- 
stituent element essential to the maturing of cereal crops. It 
li daeknd to be want of drainage, and it is said to be want of 
igm. It is affirmed to be caused by a vegetable fangus, and 
bli a disease analogous to the potato disease. It is also 
ffirid t» be tbs result of insect ravages. Scarcely any two wit- 
agree on this point, whether firmer or chemist. But 
Aitalpetis of far too great moment to be passed over in- 
la some impests, takeall is more to he dreaded 


than red rust. The latter cannot commit wholesale destruc- 
tion, unless in connection with a description of weather such 
as we rarely have in this colony ; but Ukeall appears altoge- 
ther independently of the weather. And as its ravages ate 
irrespective of climatic influences, so are its -movements inex- 
plicable by reference to locality or soil. It is, like last season’s 
rust, to be found everywhere, and the ridiest soils often suffer 
the most. It attacks newly-broken or fallowed land as well as 
land frequently cropped. It especially attacks the slopes of hills 
— not so often the table land on the top, nor the flats in the 
valley, as the slopes and sides. All cereals fall before it ; even 
native grasses disappear. It works in patches, selecting cer- 
tain spots or centres — thence radiating, olten succeeded by 
oockspur or Grant's thistle, the takeall in following seasons 
reappearing in other spots. Its movements being so little 
reducible to rule, experience and observation are at fault in 
endeavouring to explain it, and hence conflicting ideas. This 
difference perplexes the inquiry, whilst the rapid spread of 
the pest, and the fear that it will every year encroach upon 
wider tracts of country, render dose observation and study a 
duty of the utmost importance. The appearance of the 
cereal, above ground, as it fades away and perishes 
under the influence of this insidious invader, needs no descrip- 
tion, being but too well known. The root has been examined, 
&Qd appearances detected, leading some observers to conclude 
that the disease is caused by a vegetable, and others by an 
animal parasite. Dr. Muecke has magnified and photographed 
fibres of the roots of wheat plants suffering from takeall, ex- 
hibiting a number of minute white threads of a woolly ap- 
pearance, which he considers to he the mycdU i of a fungus 
causing the disease. Mr. Ey, who has also examined it mi- 
croscopically, says that it is not a fungus, aud that the sup- 
posed fungoid may be found attached to all roots, healthy or 
unhealthy. He considers that the disease is caused either by 
animalcule attacking the plant in the first instance, or by the 
growth of a sort of a lichen at the bottom of the stalk, which 
serves as a nest for animalcnla. He says : “ What I recog- 
nise under the name ‘ takeall,' is the Vibrio triiici , or eel of 
wheat. A plant taken from a diseased spot wiU be found 
black on the stem, from the roots to the first internode ; and 
on pressing, a thin film of lichen or moss will come off. In 
this will be found a number 'of animalcnla coiled up, appa- 
rently dead ; hut on being moistened with a drop of water, on 
a glass slide under the microscope, will come to life in an 
hour, moving about with great rapidity. They are like eels 
of wheat, which, as yet, have only been found in the grain. 
I have not yet satisfied myself whether the eel or the lichen is 
the primary cause ; but one of the two is takeall. The ani- 
malcules might be sown with the seed ; it is sometimes the 
case that one grain of wheat will contain 4,000 to 5,000 eels 
of wheat.” 

The witnesses, however, whilst giving expression to their 
opinions, or their conjectures, were all (with the exception of 
Dr. Muecke, who strongly adheres to the fungoid organ of take- 
all) very careful to avoid any final or positive avowal. It is 
scarcely probable that tho takeall results from the development 
of vtbrioncs sown in the seed wheat, because the disease has 
been just as bad in crops from seed pickled in strong dilutions 
of sulphuric acid and other mixtures fatal to insect life, as in 
crops not pickled at all. The Victorian Committee make no 
reference to takeall — the very name in fact being an admission 
that the nature and cause of the malady are not as yet found 
out. The use of sulphur has been found beneficial, and land 
rendered barren by takeall has been recovered where the ashes 
of a bosh fence had been scattered ; but it is doubtful whether 
the sulphur acted specifically upon the supposed spore or egg 
of the takeall, or chemically upon the soil, nor is it certain 
whether the ashes of the bush fence destroyed the takeall by 
acting chemically upon the soil, or whether the change noticed 
where the edge was consumed might be attributable to tho 
heat of the nre. It is exceedingly desirable that this most 
vital question should be thoroughly sifted, as there is immi- 
nent danger of our wheat lands succumbing section by section 
to this mysterious visitor, and the Commision are, therefore, 
of opinion that a series of experiments in the application of 
diluted sulphuric acid, and also of sulphur in its various com- 
binations, both as a pickle (hr the seed and as & top dressing 
for the diseased spots id the land, might be of great use, inas- 
much as the only generally available remedies for takeall de- 
scribed in the evidence as haring been tueeeetfally used are 


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THE FARMERS MAGAZINE. 


16 


dilated salpharic add, applied by Mr. Ey ai a top dressing, 
and talphar and lime, used by Mr. Martin as a pickle for the 
seed. 

VI. — Pickling Seed Wheat. — Although experience 
shows that pickling seed wheat is no security against red rust, 
it does not follow that it has no effect at all upon that disease. 
Apart, however, from this formidable enemy to cereals there 
are other foes to be met and vanquished only by a proper 
system of pickling the seed, and hence the inquiries made and 
evidence taken by the Commission on the subject. It is not 
necessary to dwell upon a practice so well known and generally 
observed; but it maybe remarked that the evidenoe taken dis- 
closes great difference of usage in this particular. Whilst 
some farmers only let their wheat remain in pickle for a few 
minutes; others allow it to be in solution for hours. The 
chemical witnesses recommend six or eight hours' steeping ; 
Dr. Muecke says eight if the weather be wet, and twelve if it 
be dry, giving four ounces of bluestone to the bushel. Some 
formers do not soak the wheat at all ; but merely sprinkle it 
with the liquid solution, turn the heap over a few times, and 
dust it with dry lime. It is doubtful, however, whether the 
fungus spores adhering to the grain are effectually destroyed in 
this manner, and as the power of wheat to retain its vitality 
under oertain conditions of pickling can easily be ascertained 
by ex p eriments, it would be worth while for agriculturists to 
make a set of trials. There is much reason to fear that in 
many instances, from the weakness of the solution and the in- 
sufficient time allowed for the grain to absorb it, the operation 
is null and void, so for as regards the destruction of the para- 
sitical spores. It has been shown that sulphur, either in form 
of flowers, or milk of sulphur, or in that of sulphuric add, 
has been employed with very excellent effect. The sulphuric* 
add is used, four ounces, by wright, to each bushel of seed, 
diluted with as much water as the wheat will take up ; the 
latter, after a few hours' solution, being dried with slaked 
lime. Sulphur and lime also make an excellent combination 
most effectual in destroying fungi. The milk, or flowers of 
sulphur, in powder, to be mixed with twice its wdght of fresh 
slacked hot lime, ten gallons of water to each pound of sulphur : 
this forms a sulphuret of lime with which the wheat is to be 
well moistened, and afterwards dried with fresh slacked Ume. 
It is to be hoped that a few practical experiments will be made 
during next aeed-time, with a view to determine the double 
question of the proper strength of pickle and the length of 
time that the seed should lie in it. 

VIL — Stubble Burning.— On the subject of stubble 
burning, in connection with the rust disease, the evidence is 
conflicting. From the prevalence of the rust last season it 
follows, however, as a matter of course, that the country is 
covered with rust spores to a for greater extent than usual, and 
that a large proportion of them adhere to the straw and stubble 
that lie on the stubble lands. These spores would necessarily 
be destroyed by the burning of the stubble, although enough 
would still remain in other places to spread the disease next 
year, should we have a return of last season's weather — a con- 
tingency, however, which, to judge from the past, is highly 
improbable. Still, as we have had rust in several previous 
years, although to nothing like so fearful an extent, the Com- 
mission recommend the burning of stubble, and the collection 
and burning of hedge clippings and other refuse matter, in 
which the seeds of the rust fungus will have found shelter. 

Vin.— Exhaustion of the Soil.— Although not im- 
mediately connected with red rust, your commissioners have 
taken evidence with reference to the constituent elements of 
the soil in this province, and have to report that this impor- 
tant branch of agricultural science has been almost wholly 
neglected. Not more than half-a-dozen analyses of the sou 
appear to have been as yet made, so that science has so far 
lent practically no aid at all in instructing South Australian 
formers as to the adaptation of their lands to the growth of 
particular crops. It is, in the opinion of this commission, 
highly desirable that an agricultural chemist and analyst be 
appointed, in order to carry on a regular and continuous 
system of experiments upon soils and manures, and also to 
conduct microscopical and chemical observations bearing on 
the subject of the growth and disease of our cereals. The 
vast tract of country annually cropped with wheat is being 
gradually robbed of its phosphates, and other constituents I 
essential to the formation of a healthy growth ; and as there is I 


scarcely anything returned in the shape of manure, the grain- 
producing power of the soil is every year becoming less, in- 
volving a sure diminution of average yield, even though we 
may escape the plague of red rust. The appointment of an 
official agricultural chemist would not involve any serious ex- 
penditure, whilst it would afford to formers generally the means 
of obtaining reliable analyses of their wheat-lands at a nominal 
charge, thus guiding them in the choice of crops, and in the 
adoption of measures calculated to restore to the soil those 
fertilizing elements of which it may stand in need. It cannot 
be too constantly borne in mind that soils are not always to be 
correctly judged from appearance, even by the most practised 
eye. Land that appears rich, and which, as regards most of 
its constituents, may really be so, may, notwithstanding, be 
deficient in some one element indispensable to the growth of a 
vigorous crop, or of some one element necessary to render the 
other constituents of the soil soluble and capable of assimila- 
tion by the plants. This knowledge can only be acquired by 
chemical experiment. In other countries, and in the sister- 
colony, especial attention is devoted to this branch of agricul- 
tural science which, though pre-eminently necessary in South 
Australia, is neglected with an indifference as reprehensible 
as it is unaccountable. 

IX. — Conclusion. — On the whole, and especially as re- 
gards the red rust, your commissioners, though, nec e ssarily un- 
able to discover a specific remedy for a disease, the germs of 
which are universally diffused and brought into active vitality 
by atmospheric causes, have much pleasure in submitting to 
your Excellency the large amount of valuable information 
elicited by this inquiry. If a positive cure is not discovered, 
several very serious mistakes are corrected ; mistakes which 
would be costly in their operation and disappointing in their 
results. It is sltown that the extraordinary ravages of red rust 
last season were not caused, as many asserted, by exhaustion of 
the soil ; and that, therefore, expensive manuring*— however 
beneficial in other respects — are useless as a preventive of rust. 
It is shown that there are some wheats hardier than others ; 
the farmer thus having, in some small degree, the means within 
his own power of diminishing the extreme destructiveness of 
the disease by avoiding those varieties that are most easily 
overcome by it. It is also shown that as red rust is not pro- 
pagated, like smut, from diseased seed, shrivelled grain, of 
little value for milling purposes, will produce both healthy and 
abundant crops, under ordinary favourable circumstances of 
soil and climate. It is shown that agricultural chemistry has 
scarcely made a start as yet in this colony, although of so much 
importance to a proper system of cultivation. And finally, 
your commissioners hope that the attention which has been so 
widely directed in all parts of the provinces, not only to the 
sad visitation which has befallen it, bnt to the general condi- 
tion and prospects of agriculture, will have the effect of lead- 
ing to closer habits of observation, and to more careful ex- 
periments on the part of formers themselves ; and on the part 
of the Legislature and Government, to a corresponding appre- 
ciation of the claims and requirements of an interest which, 
without exaggeration, may be represented as the cardinal in- 
dustry of the province, and the chief foundation of its pros- 
perity. 

Committee-room, Parliament House, April 9th, 1868. 

John H. Barrow, Chairman. 
Thos. Hogarth. 

Wm. Eterard. 

Jno. Carr. 

W. Cayenagh. 

[The Appendix referred to in this Report has not yet been 
published.] 


CURE FOR RED-WATER.— Boil 6 lbs. of nettles in a 
gallon of water until it is reduced to half a gallon. To three 
pints of this juice add one pint of salt, and give it to the 
animal when she is attacked. If riven in the early stage, one 
dose is sufficient ; if the attack has been in the animal for 
some time, a second dose will effect a core. [The person who 
gave us the recipe milks 60 cows, and he never had a fatal 
ase since he was told this remedy. — El>.] 


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17 


THE CONDITION OF THE 

Mr. Bailit Dkxtox read a paper on this subject at the 
meeting of the Society of Arts, in which he said : At the 
next general election that class of the community known as 
the agricultural labourer will be the only operative class 
which will be excluded from voting. Though, in the 
practical view I take of the matter, I fail to discover any rea- 
wn why operatives living in boroughs should be admitted to 
the franchise, while operatives living in the country should be 
excluded, I cannot help recognising in the uneducated, depend- 
ent, and scattered condition of the latter the real reason why 
the country has tacitly allowed — as if by common consent — a 
distinction to be made between the wage-paid labourer of the 
frctory and the wage-paid labourer of tne farm. This dis- 
tinction cannot have arisen because the premises occupied 
by the one are more valuable than those occupied by the other, 
for it would be difficult to say which labourers dwelling — the 
raral or the urban c o st s more money to provide, and it has 
often been shown in this room that the actual money-rent paid 
by the farm-labourer is no criterion of the value of the premises 
he occupies ; nor can it be because the wages of the one are 
modi greater than those of the other, for when the earnings 
of each are carefully dissected it will be seen that there does 
not exist that great difference between the two which there is 
generally supposed to be. It can, in fact, only arise from those 
etuNs which limit his mental abilities, and prevent his in- 
creasing the value of his labour, wlrile they depress his status 
in the social scale — causes which it is the duty of the country 
to investigate and remedy. But before I go into these causes 
snd remedies, I will do my best to remove the misapprehen- 
sions that prevail as to the value of the farm-labourers occu- 
pation and the amount of wages his services command. There 
n much in the one that affects the other, and no effort to im- 
prove either can be successful unless we carefully comprehend 
the circumstances of both. The average rent of farm-laoouiers' 
cottages at the present moment may be fairly stated to be rather 
uder than over Is. 6d. per week, which is less than £4 a-year. 
This rent is quite as much as the majority of old existing 
cottages are worth, for most of them have but one bed-room, 
tnd tre wanting in those accommodations which are essen- 
tial to decency and comfort. Such dwellings have been, and 
may still be, built for about £50 each, if constructed of plaster 
sad thatch, without regard to substantiality, and £4 a-year — 
being 8 per cent. — may be considered a full return, if such 
dwelling* *re admissible at all. But if we have reference 
to those cottages which, under the influence of sanitary 
reform and sound estate economy, are taking the place of those 
miserable hovels — which all well-thinking people oondemn — 
We shall find that their average cost is £160 each, or £330 the 
pair, exclusive of the site on which they stand. This site, 
which would cost £15 more, would make the fee simple value 
of the whole £175. We >11 know that every speculator, em- 
ploying capital in house building, looks for something like 7 
per cent, if he is to replace the capital and make 5 per cent, 
net after paying insurance and doing repairs. If, therefore, a 
form labourer paid for his occupation the rent iu money which 
a speculator would demand, the payment, instead of Is. 6d. or 
2a., which he still continues to pay for a good cottage as he did 
for s had one, would be £13 5s., which closely approximates 
the rateable value fixed as the qualification of a county voter, 
while it exceeds that of the lodger in boroughs. But it is not 
in money wholly that the formlabourer pays for the improved 
cottage, if it forms part of the farm on which he works, or is 
so connected with it that the former lias command of the ser- 
vices of the cottager. A farmer having good cottages at his 
disposal can select the best workmen as his daily labourers. 
Moreover, he can keep them, which is not the case with the 
occupiers of the miserable hovels that generally exist ; and as 
newly-built cottages are now usually placed so as to reduce to 
* minimum the distance the labourer has to walk, whereby 
time and sinew are saved, the advantages to the employer are, 
in the segregate, equal to the difference between the return 
doe to the condemned hovel and that due to the improved 
°ottage ; and thus, in point of fact, the farm labourer receives 


AGRICULTURAL LABOURER. 

in a better home an equivalent to increased wages. Having 
had some considerable experience in nearly every county in 
England, I desire to state shortly the conviction at which I 
have arrived— tliat, measured by the real value of the services 
rendered bv the agricultural labourers in different parts of 
England, the prices peculiar to different districts are as high as 
the return to oe gained from those services will sanction. It 
appears to me to he a fallacy to snppoae that the labourers of 
one district are as good workmen as the labourers of another, 
and that for the services of each, when applied to the same 
object, the same money should he paid. Still, it con only be 
on such grounds that the proposal lately enunciated for the 
formation of unions, even though “ established on principles 
strictly defensive,” among agricultural workmen, can be sup- 
ported. Considering that combinations of workmen are inju- 
rious in proportion as ignorance prevails, and that the want 
of education is the special characteristic of the agricultural 
labourer, I can anticipate only the worst results from unions 
among them, and am quite at a loss to comprehend how any 
national benefit can arise by encouraging them. If the la- 
bourer of Dorsetshire or Devonshire was as able a workman as 
the labourer of Northumberland or Lincolnshire, a common 
standard of daily wages could be adopted ; but the truth is 
that there is as much difference in the value of ordinary labour 
in different districts in England as there is in the character of 
labour in different countries abroad, and it is only con- 
sistent with economy that this difference should govern 
the price paid. Iu making this remark, however, I do 
not lose signt of the fact that the price of labour must be 
regulated in some degree by the cost of maintaining labourers 
and their families in their own districts, so as to perpetuate 
the race upon which the produce of the land depends. With 
respect to the wages oi the farm - labourer it has been 
my duty for the last seventeen years to inquire into the stand- 
ing wages of every locality in wliich drainage works have been 
executed. In addition to these inquiries, I We recently made 
others, and have obtained such reliable information, that I be- 
lieve I am perfectly justified in stating that the present average 
weekly wages of the farm-labourer, excluding extra allowances 
at hay-time and harvest, and all payments lor piece-work and 
over-time, as well as the value or various perquisites in the 


shape of beer, milk, fuel, &c., are as follows : — 

s. d. 

North-Eastern district *... 14 G 

North-Western district 14 0 

Mid-Eastern district 13 0 

Mid-Western district 11 0 

Midland district (exclusive of Middlesex) ... 10 9 

South-Eastern district 13 0 

Mid-Southern and South-Western districts ... 10 G 


These figures include shepherds and horse-keepers, but do 
not include the wages of nailiffs, where they exist, nor of 
other special employes, nor the earnings of labourers’ wives 
and children. Tney include, however, beer and cider when 
they form a regular daily allowance in lieu of money, but not 
otherwise. The mean weekly day-labour wages of able-bodied 
men throughout the whole of England may be taken at 
12s. 6d. To this must be added the additional gains by occa- 
sional piece-work,* extra payments at hay-time and harvest, 
when doable the ordinary wages is frequently given, inde- 

* The advantages gained by the adoption of piece-work in 
the place of day-labour are stated by one of our leading 
farmers, Mr. Charles Howard, of Biduenham, to be — 1. The 
work is done more expeditiously, at the proper time and with 
less supervision on the part of the employer ; 2. It is less ex • 

S eusive than day-work, and payment is made for only the work 
one ; 3. The labourer, finding his wage is regulated by the 
quantity and quality of the work performed, is more industrious, 
and exercises moie skill in what he does ; and 4. By placing 
higher wages within reach, the temptation to leave farm-work 
or other occupations is lessened. 

O 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


pendently of the increased allowance of beer or cider. In the 
aggregate, the actual income derived from these employments 
is equal to from Is. 6d. to 3s. a week, according to the custom 
of different districts. Where piece-work can wholly take the 
place of day-labour, a labourer may earn 25 per cent, more 
than by the day. The total value of the beer and cider sup- 
plied to each labourer as his allowance, at hay-time and harvest, 
when employed in drilling and machine-threshing, and when 
engaged in piece-work, if spread over the whole year, would 
amount to from Is. to 2s. a week, according to locality. With 
these additions to his direct money-wages, the farm-labourer 

S uns from 15s. to 16s. per week, talcing the mean of England. 

ut, besides this aggregate, he gets other advantages, which 
are unknown to the industrial-labourer living in a town. The 
rents of the dwellings of town-operatives vary from 4*. to 6s. 
a week, some having very good dwellings for these rents, 
while others are obliged to pay as much for lodgings only. 
Comparing these figures with the Is. 6d. or 2s. paid bv the 
agricultural-labourer for cottages equally as good or better 
than the dwellings of the town-operative, the difference must 
be regarded as a gain to the former. The town-operative 
seldom, if ever, has the advantage of a garden wherein he may 
grow potatoes and vegetables. His outlay for these essential 
articles of food is often great, particularly if he has many 
children to provide for. In fact, the ordinary payment for 
potatoes and vegetables by a mechanic, with a wife and 
three children, living in town, is stated to be 2s. 6d. 
a week. An agricultural - labourer, if he is fortunate 
enough to have — what he ought invariably to have — a 
rood of garden-ground as part of his occupation, which 
he may cultivate after he has done his wage-paid work, will 
grow upon it vegetables sufficient to yield nim a return, after 
payment of rent and for seed, of at least £4 a year, which is 
rather more than Is. 6d. per week. I am assuming in this es- 
timate that he has time and strength sufficient to do all the 
labour that is required to cultivate it, and that he is careful in 
storing the refuse of his dwelling, i.e., the ashes, sewage, and 
waste, so that he may avoid any payment for either labour or 
manure. Tims it will be seen that from his house and garden 
the agricultural labourer gains advantages equal to at least 4s. 
a week, which, if added to his money returns, will raise his 
wages from 15s. or 16s. to 19s. or 20s. a-week, independent of 
what his wife and children may make, and this frequently adds 
25 per cent, to his income. I have said nothing about the 
gains of gleaning, which have been estimated at £1 Is. lOd.^to 
£2 ; nor about the favourable difference in the cost of bread, 
meat, and milk in the* country compared with what it is in 
towns ; nor of the benefit an agricultural labourer is said to 
derive from the keeping of a pig, as I am doubtful myself 
whether anything is fairly gained by it ; neither have I esti- 
mated the great advantage or pure country air in securing the 
health and strength of the labourer and his family, though all 
these have a money value which should be considered. I may 
here state that for several years past I have adopted the weekly 
wage of 20s. as the basis of payment to tne able-bodied 
labourers employed by the General Land Drainage Company 
when away from their homes during the draining season, at 
which time the number has frequently exceeded 1,500. The 
system adopted when going into fresh districts is to make the 
earnings of a few good practised hands, of medium capability, 
who follow the company’s foremen wherever they go, the data 
for paying all other hands. The weekly work of a good gang 
of drainers will, if divided, give to each hand as muen as from 
30 to 40 rods of digging, and the price per rod will be fixed 
by the foreman at such an amount as to apportion to the 
standard men 10s. to 22s. a-week, according to the length of 
the day, after paying for the repair of tools. While these 
figures are the wages of standard workmen, the local labourers, 
at the commencement of the work, will seldom earn more than 
from 10s. to 12s. Of course this is to be expected, and the 
statement is only apposite to the present inquiry, when it is 
said that, whenever a turn-out or a strike takes place it is in- 
variably found to have its origin in the local men, and there 
are many kindly-disposed persons who take their part, though 
the result invariably shows, if they will only persevere, they 
can, after a time, make as good wages as the older standard 
hands. With this knowledge it will be understood with what 
dismay I look upon the proposal of unions 'which can only 
maintain inferior work, done at an extravagant cost, and dis- 
content at the same time. The weekly earnings of different 


labourers, which fairly represent the dan known as industrial 
operatives, may be stated to be as follows 


Carpenters and joiners from 18s. Od. to 28s. < 

Sawyers „ 21s. Od. to 26s. < 

Bricklayers average 31s. i 

„ labourers „ 19s. 

Brickmakers.. from 24s. Od. to 30s. 

Masons average 30s. 

„ labourers „ 17s. 

Gardeners (exclusive of head gardeners) „ 16s. 

Smiths from 26s. Od. to 28s. 

Painters average 28s. 

Boot-makers from 21s. Od. to 26s. 

Tallow workers (labourers) average 18s. 

Coal miners from 17s. Od. to 27s. 

Quarry men (slate) „ 18s. Od. to 23s. 

Railway labourers (maintenance) „ 15s. Od. to 20s. 

Butchers* men „ 16s. Od. to 18s. 

Police-constables average 20s. 

Bakers’ men from 21s. Od. to 26s. 1 

Cotton workers average 18s. 

Silk workers from 17s. to 2 


The difference between these figures, which, it will be seen, do 
not cover the highest grade of trade operatives, and the wages 
of the agricultural labourer, is too great to exist between the 
two main branches of the wage-paid classes without making 
efforts to reduce it. It accounts for the fact that the popula- 
tion of our leading agricultural counties is decreasing, while 
that of other counties in which manufacturing towns exist is 
increasing with more than ordinary rapidity. It accounts, too, 
for the deplorable truth, that while the industrial labourers of 
our towns are known to save money to provide for incapacity 
and old age, the utmost the agricultural labourer manages to 
do is by means of provident societies, if he is lucky enough to 
belong to one which is well managed, to provide for illness 
during his working age. In the breast of the former there 
exists a hope of accumulating money, and ultimately becoming 
a master, while the final prospect of the latter is, I regret to 
say it, nothing but pauperism and the union. Sad as this 
picture is, it is a satisfaction to know that the rate of agricul- 
tural wages throughout the country has increased within these 
last 35 years quite as much as 20 per cent., while theprices 
of those provisions and supplies which constitute the ordinary 
food and necessaries of life have, on the whole, decreased in 
the aggregate about ten per cent. The price of meat and 
cheese has increased within the last few years at an extraor- 
dinary rate. This is partly to be accounted for by the preva- 
lence of diseases amongst cattle ; and it is a curious fact that 
just 50 years ago the price of the best meat was the same as 
at this moment, though if we only go back half that time — 25 
years — it was about 40 per cent, cheaper. Inferior meat has 
not been liable to snch changes, though there has been a rise 
of 2d. per pound. Bread, though high in price at this mo- 
ment, remains at much the same cost as it was before toe 
repeal of the corn-laws. Beer, though nominally cheaper, is 
so much worse in quality that we cannot regard it as actually 
reduced in cost. Tea, coffee, sugar and groceries generally 
are 50 per cent, less than they were 50 years ago. Clothes 
and shoes are equally cheaper. The cost of fuel, on the whole, 
is less than it was 35 years ago. Though I hope I have shown 
thut the position of the agricultural labourer is not so bad as 
many represent it to be, no one can say that it is quite satis- 
factory ; but with the profits of farming as low ana uncertain 
as they are, it will be acknowledged that the only way to 
justify an increase of labourers’ wages will be by render- 
ing the value of the labour given greater than it now is. 
Active hands, directed by superior intelligence, already obtain 
wages above the mean of los. ; and as there is greater scope 
in agriculture for the exercise of judgment than perhaps in any 
other trade or pursuit, in which physical labour forms so great 
an element, owing to the diversity of its objects and the ca- 
sualties which may affect them, there is no reason to doubt but 
that with an increase of knowledge on those points which 
alone can enhance the value of labour, the earnings of the 
whole class may be increased. This directly brings ns to the 
subject of education and its influence on the agricultural la- 
bourer by bringing his mind to bear on his physical duties. 
The state of education among agricultural labourers was truly 


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Indic a t e d by the Royal Commissioners appointed in 1861. to 
inquire into the state of public education in England, when 
they said that in the British army, which I believe is chiefly 
made op out of the agricultural class, “ out of 10,000 soldiers 
ex a mined in 1856. more than one-fourth could not write, and 
more than one-fifth ooold not read, while in the British Foreign 
Legion, raised in 1855, four-fifths of the Italians and 97 per 
cent, of the Germans could both read and write.” Those, 
however, who are brought often into contact with the English 
form labourer, as I happen to be, require no statistics to prove 
the almost total absence of education that exists among them. 
We can only wonder that with a nation so advanced in civiliza- 
tion as our own, such a condition of mind should be allowed 
to lower one particular class without a general effort on the 
part of all other cl ass es to improve it. But the want of educa- 
tion is mot to be wholly attributed te national apathy and in- 
difference. It is doe to various causes special to rural life, 
but perhaps the most powerful of all is the belief that existed 
largely at one time, and still lingers with some few farmers, 
that Mucation disqualifies a labourer for manual work in the 
field. This belief had its origin in the little education possessed 
fay the majority of farmers in times past, though at the present 
time there is no class more quickly awakening from indiffer- 
eace to the benefits of knowledge than the fanners. Moreover, 
they are not as a class to be blamed wholly for past indiffer- 
ence* for there were many landowners who themselves pre- 
ferred men as tenants on their estates who were not possessed 
of those attainments which qualified them to appreciate educa- 
tion in their labourers. Not many years back it was a com- 
mon thing to exhibit less care for the comfort of the labourer 
than for the comfort of cattle j better buildings, indeed, were 
provided for the cows than for the labourers. But this state of 
things is happily gone by. I will not here dilate on the man- 
ner in which the children of the labourer should be taught at 
school, nor enter upon the arguments for and against compul- 
sory education. I am content to express my conviction that 
primary education at school — consisting of reading, writing, 
and arithmetic — is essential as the basis of improved practical 
knowledge, even though it be called forth in the dnties of a 
labourer, and that, as public attention has at last been aroused 
to the otnect, the good sense of the country will rightly de- 
termine how it shall be attained. To confine our efforts, 
however, to elementary school learning would, I contend, fail 
in the object we all desire— which is, to see the farm labourer 
earning more money by labour of greater value to his employer. 
To do this, technical-— that is, practical — education must be 
aaociaied with primary school teaching. Technical educa- 
tion, I believe, has been more than once explained in this room 
to mean practical tuition in those operations which men are 
called on to perform in the business of life. It is, however, a 
term that has been exclusively used in connexion with 
the aits and sciences, and those businesses in which 
mechanirel and chemical science have been mixed np. 
I* ^ agriculture I believe the term has never been 
used ; but perhaps in no calling is technical education— 
if by that term we properly express practical education- 
mom required. I will endeavour to make this understood. 
There is not a farmer in the country who, be he engaged in 
sheep forming or in dairying, in tillage, or in mixed forming, 
does not know the superior value of a labourer well acquainted 
with special duties. Take, for instance, a shepherd. The 
vase of a good shepherd is 16s. a-week, besides perquisites ; 
sad I venture to say that, at this moment, there is hardly any 
other description of agricultural service in which there are 
fewer rnpabte men. A good shepherd is one of the most dif- 
ficult men to obtain, ana the loss to individual formers, and to 
the country generally, from the want of them is very great. 
Again : Good hone-keepers are almost as difficult to obtain 
as good shepherds. From my own experience I can say that 
the difference between a good horse-keeper and a bad one is 
■ot to be measured by the simple difference between scanty 
aad liberal wages. Any one accustomed to horses knows im- 
mediately, by tile appearance or the touch of their skin, 
whether the man in charge of them knows his business ; and 
he will confirm my opinion that any difference in wages will 
ha more than counterbalanced by the saving in tha corn which 
hones will consume, and the service obtained from them when 
wijl a ttended to, compared with that when they have been in- I 
nnntly treated. The same remark will apply to the tending 
of qeat stock, Speaking agaiq frqm my own experience, I 


have found that cattle under the charge of a man who 
thoroughly understands them will fatten quicker, and in every 
respect do much better with less food, than under a man who, 
from attempting indiscriminately all the duties of the farm, is 
master of none. In the minor matter of poultry, I have known 
many pounds lost by the want of proper treatment of them ; 
and many a labourer’s wife with a small plot of ground, who 
has brought intelligence to bear, has raised more poultry in a 
year than has been produced from a form of several hundred 
acres. If this he admitted to be the case with live stock, it 
will be unnecessary for me to point out the advantages of em- 
ploying men in the use of implements who have taken pains 
to understand them. The loss sustained by formers from the 
careless treatment of costly implements is great. Few 
labourers know how to adjust them if they get oat of order, 
and one who thoroughly understands the steam-engine so as to 
take charge of it when ploughing land or thrashing com is 
indeed a prodigy in his parish. And why should we dread the 
purchase and use of steam-engines on our forms, on the ground 
that we have not a labourer who could take care of them, 
when tuition in youth would supply the omission P It is true 
that my friend, Mr. Howard, of Bedford, now and then under- 
takes to tutor a form-labourer in the management of the 
engine, if he is previously assured of his intelligence. This 
circiunstance, while it shows how an individual difficulty may 
be overcome, must go some way to prove tliat technical educa- 
tion is to he attains in the lowest grade of agriculturists, as 
in the more refined artisan class. It would be tedious to pass 
through all the branches of a former’s business, to show now 
technical knowledge in the labourer would apply. There is 
hardly an operation in tillage that would not be done better, if 
the operator had early understood it. Take the simple opera- 
tions of ploughing, drilling, and sowing : is not a good work- 
man worth Is. or 2s. more per week titan a bad one ? The 
same observation applies to hedging, ditching, draining, and 
thatching, in which there is no comparison between an expert 
man and an unpractised one. I have myself sent miles for a 
good thatcher or hedger. How, then, are these practices to 
be taught in yonth P I will do my best to explain. The only 
reasonable ground for keeping the children of an agricul- 
tural labourer from school, is the circumstance that, 
having hungry stomachs to fill, and active bodies 
to clothe, they most earn something to pay for 
the food they eat. and the clothes they wear ; and so weighty 
is this excuse with some men of high position and character, 
that they are led to doubt the policy of compelling attendance, 
even for the limited number of hoars yearly which it is pro- 
posed the children should be at school. Still, so essential is 
primary knowledge, that we may with certainty assume that 
this objection, weighty though it be, will give way to general 
‘ I would suggest would be. 


opinion ; and what I would suggest 
dreu who attend school for the umil 


' WUU1U UCi , that those chil- 
itad time determined upon, 
should, when earning their food and clothes by labour, be 
placed in a situation to obtain fundamental technical— or, if it 
be better, to call it practical — knowledge on the form ; not by 
placing them indiscriminately one day to do one thing and the 
next another, merely to meet the convenience of the moment, 
but by putting them for a sufficient time under the shepherd, 
or the horse-keeper, or the stock-keeeper, or the dairyman, or 
the engineer, or the hedger and ditcher, or the thatener, that 
they may learn, as for as such labourers can teach them, the 
duties or their fixture calling. The only difference between 
the present system and that which I would suggest w ould be, 
that a youth employed on a farm should be so systematically 
engaged that he should early learn, by a species of apprentice- 
ship. all that can be practically taught upon it, and tliat the 
shepherd, the dairyman, or the engine-man, as the case may 
be, with whom he should be placed, should receive a bonus for 
teaching him all he knows. In order to be assured that these 
teachers deserve their bonus, the youths should, at certain pe- 
riods, undergo examination, and, where it be practicable, be 
made to compete with other youths for prizes. All that would 
be required in the way of national, district, or outside aid, 
would be the provision of qualified examiners, and the means 
of paying the teachers their fees and the youths their prizes. 
Already we have throughout the country, in the autumn, 
matches in ploughing, ditching, and draining, and the interest 
that the labouring men take in the competitions may be taken 
as some proof that, under proper control, competitive trials 
may be extended to forming youths engaged in various agrj- 

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cultural duties. The payments to the labourers for teaching* 
and the youths for learning, would each act favourably in 
maintaining superior services on the farm, and thus the farmer 
himself would naturally become interested, and would give his 
support to the system. Youths would gain at one and the 
same time primary education at school and practical in forma* 
tion on the (arm, and the two descriptions of knowledge would 
tell with increasing advantage upon each other, and would 
finally effect what is really wanted — an improvement in the 
quality of the labourer’s work, so that he may command in- 
creased wages for that work from his employer. At present 
the beer-shon is a great bar to the improved condition of the 
agricultural labourer. The influence of drink on an unedu- 
cated miud cannot be better shown than by the fact that beer 
or cider will go much farther than its equivalent in money in 
inducing men to exert themselves, although the money could 
he taken home by the labourer for the benefit of the wife and 
children as well as himself, while the beer or cider, if drunk, is 
dissipated in selfish indulgence. The quality of the beer and 
cider sold in the lowest-waged districts is the worst. The beer 
is seldom if ever genuine, and its effects are not to be mea- 
sured by its immediate action on the system. It tells equally 
upon the physical energies of the man as upon the moral 
were of his mind. The quantity of beer drunk in the 
y and haivest time would surprise many of my hearers, 
though in the ordinary disbursements of a labourer — as 
ascertained by Mr. Purdy, of the Poor Law Commission — 
only one instance appears on record in which an ex- 
penditure in beer has been entered. 1 presume that case 
was the only one in which the wife had partaken of it as a 
necessary item of food. It is nevertheless true, that during 
harvest every able-bodied male labourer drinks beer which costs 
from 8d. to Is. a-day, taking the average of harvests in the 
eastern corn-growing counties. I should be sorry to condemn 
beer as an article of food when properly made with good malt 
and hops, but that article is seldom to be met with. The 
liquid sold as beer in rural districts satisfies thirst at the time, 
and provokes it as soon as drunk, and it takes more vital 
strength out of the man than it ever supplies. I cannot 
speak too strongly against the prevailing excessive use of bad 
beer and cider. It is the bane of the farm labourer. In 
those counties in the West of England where cider is used in- 
stead of beer, the impoverished condition of the agricultural 
labourer is even worse than where beer prevails. His inferior- 
ity in work is mainly to be attributed to the bad character of 
the cider, and the excessive use made of it. There is some 
proof of the injurious influence of excessive drinking, in the 
fact that in all the worst-paid districts — where labour com- 
mands the lowest wages, and where those wages are all that 
the labour is worth — the publican and beer-seller bear a far 
larger proportion to the number of agricultural labourers than 
is the case in those districts where the wages are higher and 
where the labour is more valuable. We often hear mentioned 
the low rate of wages in the county of Dorset, and compari- 
sons are made with the wages ruling in other counties. When 
we turn to the statistics giving the occupation of the people in 
the population returns of the last census, we find that whereas 
in Lincolnshire, which I select as tbe best cultivated county in 
England, the number of agricultural labourers is 52,871, and 
the number of people living by the sale of beer is 1,317 ; in 
Dorsetshire the number of agricultural labourers is 19,4S4, 
and the number of persons selling beer and cider is 582, show- 
ing a proportion in the former case of one beer-seller to 40 
agricultural labourers, and in the latter one beer-seller to 33 
labourers. The proportion in Lincolnshire is much too high ; 
but what is to he said of Dorsetshire, where the labourers 
earning only two-thirds of the wages of Lincolnshire, support 
a larger proportion of beer and cider sellers ? The figures 
given, moreover, do not fully represent the real state of things 
as regards the extent to which the beer and cider is drunk in 
Dorsetshire, as in that county a great deal of cider is given in 
lieu of money wages, whereas in Lincolnshire no such regular 
practice prevails either with respect to beer or cider. But I 
can illustrate this important part of the question by stating 
a case, within my experience, which can hardly fail to exhibit 
the fact that low wages and inferior work are associated with a 
preponderating use of beer or cider. In the year 1852 I had 
the control of someexteusive drainage works in Dorsetshire, 
and at that time the agricultural money-wages of the district 
ranged from 7s. to 9s. a-week. Impressed that such pay was 


inconsistent with suitable labour, l imported into the work 
some north-country labourers from Northumberland, practised 
in draining, to afford an example for such local men as chose 
to enter the trenches and dig by the piece. I guaranteed to 
the northern men a minimum of 18s. a-week, although I 
could command the services of as many Dorsetshire labourers 
as I desired to employ at half that price. The result showed 
that 1 was right in bringing high-priced competent men 
amongst low-priced inferior ones, for as soon as the Dorset- 
shire men knew what the north-country men were getting, 
and saw the character of the work executed by them, they 
applied all their energies m imitation. At first they drank 
more beer, thinking that by such meaus they could do more 
work. They soon saw their error, and it was both amusing 
and instructive at the same time to see how struck they were 
when they found that the northern men had for their dinners, 
good meat and bread, while they were living on bread, tobacco 
and miserable beer or cider. It was by very slow degrees 
that the Dorsetshire men realised the truth that butchers’ 
meat was more strengthening than bad beer. Eventually, by 
the example afforded them, the “ technical education^ 
given them by the Northumberland men, and by the effect of 
improved food, the despised Dorsetshire men were enabled to 
earn as much as their teachers, and it was not long before I 
actually removed them into the north of England, to compete 
with iorkshireraen in the work they had learned ; and the 
first place at which they were engaged was Swine, in Holder- 
ness, where there did not exist a publichouse or a beers hop in 
the village ! If this experience of mine (ails to convey what 
I mean, I can perhaps show that inferior work, low wages, and 
excess of drink, are attended by a greater amount of pau- 
perism than belongs to districts where better labour, higher 
wages, and less beer prevail, by quoting from Mr. Purdy the 
result of figures he has given in his paper published in the 
Journal of Ike Statiencal Society , which shows that whereas, 
in an example district in Dorset and Wilts, where the weekly 
wages were 9s. 6d., the rate of relief to the poor was Ss. 2d. 
per head on the population, in a similar district in Cumber- 
land and Northumberland, where the weekly wages were 1+s. 
6d., the rate of relief was only 5s. 5d. Thus far 1 have spoken 
of those means of improving the condition of the agricultural 
labourer which will depend on himself and the force of educa- 
cation gained at school and on the farm. There are other 
means, however, by which the higher and middle classes in 
rural parishes may render material aid while the seeds of edu- 
cation are taking effect. I have said may render aid, because 
all Englishmen resist compulsion : but I reel those words are 
hardly strong enough when applied to some objects. I would 
rather say, will be induced to render aid by the influence of 
public opinion. I refer to four principal objects ; first, to a 
more general substitution of good cottages for bad ones — cot- 
tages which will secure health and comfort in the ordinary 
living department, and provide separate bedrooms for the 
parents and children of different sexes, so os to secure com- 
fort aud decency, which have hitherto been incompatible with 
the dwelling of the (arm labourer ; second, the provision of a 
proper means for the drainage of villages and cottages, and 
the utilisation of the iefuse which may be discharged from 
them. This is a matter upon which little has yet been done. 
We have drained large towns, and discharged their sewage into 
the rivers, a practice which the country has determined shall ' 
not be coutinucd. At present we have not entered upon a 
mode of dealing with the sewage of villages and small commu- 
nities ; and whether it will be by the introduction of the drv- 
earth system (Mr. Mottle’s), or by any other process of utili- 
sation, yet remains to be determined. The dry-earth system 
commends itself to the minds of many as the most suitable for 
villages, because each resident may preserve the refuse of hit 
own cottage for the benefit of his garden without injuriously 
affecting his neighbour ; and this being a very desirable ob- 
ject, the problem has to be solved how, by combined actioa ( 
all the residents of a village may be brought into one common 
system of proceeding. As the wage-paid labourer cannot o( 
himself do this, it would appear positively necessary that thfi 
owners of village property should take the initiative. ThinL 
the supply of pure wholesome water in quantity sufficient ti 
secure cleanliness and comfort to villages and cottages 
T have already addressed the Society upon this im 
portant object, and will abstain from repetition. The supplj 
to large towns is an easy matter, compared to the provisos 


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2l 


of villages and small communities. But with our whole 
water supply undergoing change from causes we cannot 
central, and our village cottagers called upon to pay as much 
as a penny per pail for water, the subject must soon receive 
attention. And, fourth, the provision of ground for the re- 
creation of those children which it is by common cousent de- 
termined should be educated. I will now address myself to 
those objects in which the upper and middle classes of our 
rural parishes may voluntarily assist the lower class. Fore- 
most amongst them are benefit societies. Of all things which 
the labouring man most dreads is his condition in his last days. 
By subscription to local societies (if well managed) a labourer 
may, under the present state of things, contrive to obtain the 
means of support if sickness overtakes him, but a provision 
for old age is an object which very few agricaltnral labourers 
secure. If the earnest interest of the upper classes in a parish 
could be manifested by taking a part in the management of 
benefit societies, very great good would attend them, and it 
would no longer be said that out of the 23,000 friendly so- 
cieties which exist in Eogland and Wales there are not 20 sol- 
vent. By importing into the mode of management the agency 
of the post-office as a means of securing safety of deposit and 
of insuring allowances in sickness and old age, as lias been 
proposed by the Rev. J. Y. Stratton, in some interesting 
articles written by him in All Ike Year Round anl in The 
CorttkiU Magazine, the extension of such societies would fol- 
low. It was with a view to gain this advantage that the Kent 
Friendly Society memorialized the 'Postmaster-general last 
year, and I believe with good effect. All persons who have 
given their attention to the matter concur in objecting to the 
meetings of friendly societies at pnblic-houscs ; and if the 
higlier classes would really take an interest in them, the prac- 
tice would be discontinued. ** Sometimes,” says Mr. Tidd 
Pratt, “ the club is sold with the good-will of the house.” 
Beer house dubs are indeed a great abomination. Some few 
existing societies are excellent precedents for the establishment 
of others. The Essex Provident Society has enrolled betweeu 
nine and ten thousand members, and has a capital of between 
£70,000 and £80,000 ; and the Hampshire Friendly Society 
has upwards of 3,000 members and a capital of £35,000. The 
Uitchin Friendly Institution, established in 1828, is, perhaps, 
based on as good a foundation as any in the countiy, as every 
member who insures against sickness is Also compelled to in- 
sure for a pension in old age, an object declared by Mr. Haw- 
kins, its founder and great supporter, to be of “ vital import- 
ance if the wage-paid classes are to be taught the advantage 
of respectability in providing for themselves when past work 
without application to the parish.” The next object which 
the higher classes can help the lower is in establishing and 
maintaining garden allotments under a provident system of 
management, by which a labourer, having allotted to him a 
rod or land, may pay, during his active life, a rent more than 
sufficient to satisfy the landowner, but which it is quite worth 
his while to pay, to secure the profit which the gardening of a 
rood of land will give. In the majority of cases a landowner 
who would not let a single rood of land to the labourer would 
let a plot of many acres to the parish authorities, and would 
be quite satisfied in receiving say £2 an acre, tithe free, which 
a equal to 3d. a pole or 10s. a rood. If the labourer paid 6d. 
a pole, or £1 a rood, tithe and rate free, he would be paying 
double the acreage rent that would satisfy the landowner, and 
if the surplus was invested through the same agency as that 
of the “ Post-office Benefit Societies,” it wonld accumulate so 
as to provide die rent of the land after a certain number of 
years, whereby the labourer in his latter days would hold the 
land rent free. Thus he would insure one means of support. 
Bat such an advantage can only be gained by the combina- 
tion of die more wealthy parishioners, who together might 
become seenrity to the landowner for the principal rent. 
Again, village hospitals and infirmaries, enabling the labouring 
dams who have lived a worthy life to gain proper medical ad- 
vice and nursing at home, are working well where properly 
managed, and are fit objects for benevolent co-operation. But 
besides these, there is still anodier, in which the upper classes 
may do much good. We have recently heard mnch of co- 
operative societies for reducing the cost of provisions, and pre- 
venting extortion on the part of London tradesmen. Without 
mitering upon the question of whether such societies arc de- 
sirable or beneficial for those they were originally intended to 
aarist, it ll quite certain that a modification of them may, with 


great advantage, be carried out in villages for the supply of 
food and clothing to the labouring population in rural dis- 
tricts. At present there has been very little experience in 
co-operative stores m villages. There is no doubt, however, 
that the small wages of tne agricultural labourer are much 
reduced by tribute to the local tradesmen ; and with so little 
to spend as the labourer has, it is indeed desirable that that 
little should purchase as mnch as it can be made to do. One 
condition would be paramount, and that wonld be, that ready 
money should be the only means of purchase ; but as this 
requirement would produce provident and carefal habits it 
could not eventually militate against success. Associated with 
co-operative stores there might be established a common 
kitchen and bakery, at whicu food might be cooked with 
economy, and a better knowledge of cooking among labourers' 
wives acquired. Several efforts of this character are now being 
made in various parts of the country, bnt I am not in posses- 
sion of sufficient information to speak of the results. I trust 
I may be allowed to dose my remarks with an acknowledgment 
of the assistance 1 have received from numerous corre- 
spondents ; among them I may mention Mr. Lawson, of North- 
umberland ; Mr. Briggs, of Yorkshire ; Mr. Skdton, of Lin- 
colnshire; Mr. George Jackson, of Cheshire; Mr. Charles 
Howard, of Beds ; Mr. Sqnarey, of Wilts ; Mr. Morris and 
Mr. Castree, of Gloucestershire ; the Rev. Prebendary Bre- 
reton ; Mr. Stnrge, of Bristol ; Mr. Fowler, of Bucks ; Mr. 
Mechi ; the Rev. J. Y. Stratton ; Mr. Charles Whitehead, of 
Kent ; Mr. Whitting, of Cambridgeshire ; Mr. Hagger, of 
Liverpool ; and Mr. James Webb, of Worcestershire. 

Mr. Frederick Wood must say, at the risk of being con- 
sidered a Malthusian, that one of the greatest causes of the 
miserable condition of the agricultural labourers had not been 
noticed, viz., their early marriages. It was generally the prac- 
tice of farmers, if they had occasion to dismiss any hands, to 
select those for dismissal who were unmarried ; and this, and 
the miserable condition of bachdor farm labourers, drove them 
to marry much earlier than they otherwise would. He was afraid 
there would be no real improvement in the condition of agri- 
cultural labourers until they were taught to look with more 
forethought upon so important a step as that of marriage. 

The Rev. J. Y. Stratton could say that beerhouse-dubs 
were a great abomination. He had also stated that while the 
manufacturing operative had the hope of bettering his condi- 
tion, and even of becoming, in course of time, an employer, 
the agricultural labourer had no such hope or object ; and if 
he joined a benefit sodety, it was not one which would render 
him assistance in old age. The agricultural labourers of Eng- 
land looked upon the poor-rate as a kind of rent-charge, in 
lieu of that rood of land which Mr. Denton very properly 
wished to see them employed upon ; and this was, no doubt, 
one reason for the early and imprudent marriages which had 
iust been allnded to. He bdieved that, on the average, farm 
labourers married at the same age as members of the peerage ; 
whereas it would be found that, as a rule, professional men 
found they must wait ten years longer before they could es- 
tablish themselves. He did not wish to find fault with the 
poor-law, but he believed that in the next session of Parliament 
a commission wonld be appointed to inquire into the whole 
subject. The usual form of benefit societies in rural districts 
was what was termed a sharing-out club, which came to an 
end and was re-constituted every year, a contrivance by which 
the burdensome and aged members were got rid of and became 
ultimately dependent on the poor-rate. It was easily capable 
of proof that, on many of these sharing-out clubs, men spent 
more money than would support them in old age, and in greater 
comfort than was afforded them under the poor-law. It was 
estimated that, even in the present unsatisfactory condition of 
the vast majority of friendly societies, two millions a year 
were saved to the poor-rates by their agency ; and this was 
enough to show what might be expected if an improved system 
could be introduced. Knowing pretty well the difficulties in 
the way, a farm labourers’ society, in which he held office, one 
of the oldest and best friendly societies in England, some time 
ago memorialised the President of the Poor Law Board, point- 
ing out the difficulties which were experienced in carrying out 
that law, and a memorial was also sent to the Postmaster- 
general, asking for some system of Post-office friendly societies. 
This proposal was worthy the attention of all those who were 
endeavouring to ameliorate the condition of the working 
classes. In conclusion, he would refer those interested in the 


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matter to a pamphlet which he had published,* entitled 
“Friendly Societies v. Beerhouse Clubs,” which contained 
many important facts. 

Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., wished Mr. Denton's paper had been 
read at the meeting recently held at Willis* rooms. He 
attended that meeting, and from statements made there it might 
almost be inferred that the English farm labourer was the 
most down-trodden being under tne sun. One of the principal 
things there advocated was the establishment of trades^ onions, 
which had been so thoroughly denounced in the paper that he 
need not trouble the meeting further about that question, ex- 
cept to say that, in his opinion, much of the effect of nnions 
was already attained by the general employment of agri- 
cultural labourers by the day; the main object of 
unions was to do the least amount of work and receive 
the largest amount of pay, and that was really the effect of 
employing labourers, as was almost exclusively the case, by the 
day. Another scheme put forward was that of co-operation. 
Now co-opcration between the employer of labour upon a farm 
and the employed, was visionary and impracticable ; but there 
was one species of co-operation which would no doubt be 
successful, and that was the introduction of piece work, by 
which the greatest amount of work was done in the shortest 
t ime, and in the best manner. By this system a farm labourer 
could easily earn 25 per cent, more than on day work ; it was 
usual in Norfolk to pay £6 a month in harvest time, but in 
putting out his harvest work by the acre, he (Mr. Bead) found 
that his men conld earn £7 or £8 a month. There was another 
matter which deserved special remark, viz., that although 
labourers in some districts only got nine shillings a week, and 
in others eighteen shillings, it was quite possible that 
the last-mentioned earned nis money, and that the former 
was over-paid for the work he did. It should also be 
remembered that when men were spoken of as receiving 
8s. or Os. a week in the west of England, they often had per- 
il uisites which were worth 5s. a week more. There was no 
doubt that the old poor laws engendered and encouraged pau- 
perism ; and he feared that the present law, as it was too fre- 
quently administered, would have the same effect, though in a 
more limited degree. He believed that since the passing of 
the Union Chargeability Bill, granting of out-door relief nad 
not been watched with the same careful scrutiny as heretofore, 
individual ratepayers not having the same interest to look 
sharply after it ; he thought the practice of giving out-door 
relief was increasing, and ought to be most jealously watched. 
The people of this country ought to be taught not to look to 
the operation of the poor Jaw for their support in old age : 
and to this end the upper and middle classes ought to do all 
in their power to encourage good sound friendly societies. 
Beerhouse clubs were really a curse to the labouring man, 
instead of a benefit, and generally failed just at the moment 
when they were most required. On the other hand, they 
must not go to such a rigid extreme as to disgust the labourers ; 
for to men who had but few holidays, a harmless frolic once a 
year, on club day, was very wholesome, and tended much to 
increase the popularity of the club. There was another fact 
mentioned in the paper which he considered of some import- 
ance, that twenty-five years ago meat was 40 per cent, 
cheaper than at present ; it was just about that time when 
they oegan to import foreign cattle, and the result, therefore, 
appeared to be that they had introduced foreign diseases, that 
farmers had lost a vast amount of cattle, and that the public 
liad to pay much more for their meat. Mr. Denton seemed 
to think it rather strange that agricultural labourers were not 
admitted to the franchise ; but they must remember that while 
the borough qualification had been reduced only from £10 to 
about £4, that for counties had been reduced from £50 to £12 ; 
and if the present bill was spoken of as a leap in the dark, he 
considered that one which would give the franchise to the 
agricultural labourer would be taking a jump into the bottom- 
less pit. 

Mr. Jucxs Howard said the gentleman who had spoken 
of Use evils of over-population could hardly have had much 
experience in rural districts, or, at any rate, he conld not have 
had to harvest some 500 acres of corn. The truth was, that 
we were beginning to feel the evils of under-population. There 
were so many excellent points in the paper that he was very 
reluctant to take exception to anything, but he certainly 

* Ridgway, Piccadilly, 


thought that rather too bright a picture of the condition of the 
rural population had been painted. There were yet sadly too 
many villages and districts neglected by those whose duty it 
was to care for them ; and the noble example set by the Duke 
of Bedford and others in covering their estates with excellent 
cottages and schools had not been followed to anything like 
the extent it ought to have been. There was no doubt that 
the condition of the agricultural labourer had much improved 
during the last twenty-five years, and this he attributed, in a 
great measure, to the improved system of agriculture, under 
which there was much more demand for manual labour than in 
the primitive system which it had superseded. The intro- 
duction of Sweae turnips, and a regular system of root culture, 
had added millions to the national wealth, by enabling the 
farmer both to grow more com and also to feed more stock ; 
and this had improved the condition of the labourer, not only 
by finding employment for a large number during the summer, 
but also by providing them with something to do in the win- 
ter when otherwise they wonld have been idle. The greater 
facilities for travelling, our large public works, railways, and 
land drainage had also had something to do with this state of 
things, and the introduction of machinery upon farms had had 
a great influence — having broken down that dead level which 
so long existed in the rate of agricultural wages. When a man 
was employed to swing a flail which only cost a shilling, 2e. or Ss. 
a- week difference in wages was a great consideration ; bnt when 
the same man had to attend to a thrashing machine which cost 
£400, a difference of a few shillings to a steady, skilful, and 
trustworthy man was a mere bagatelle. So with the steam- 
plough . Men were now paid more for sitting on a steam-plough 
and directing its movements than they formerly were for break- 
ing up the stubborn soil with great labour. The condition of 
the English labourer contrasted very favourably with that of the 
French peasant, who, as he had fonnd from frequent observa- 
tions last year, was generally, on large farms, in the receipt of 
about Is. 7d. a day, for which he had to work from four o'clock 
in the morning nntil eight o'clock at night, and until noon on 
the Sunday, whilst he slept in the same hovel with the bollocks. 
Under such circumstances it was not very surprising to 
find that most of the men were unmarried, and their whole 
condition was about as comfortless as could be well conceived. 
Notwithstanding what had been said by the hon. member for 
East Norfolk on the effect of the Union Cliargeabdity Bill, he 
believed it would have a material influence for good on the 
future of the labouring population. Under the former state of 
things, landlords had a direct inducement to pull down cot- 
tages instead of building them ; bnt under the present system 
all that was changed ; and this was very important, for one 
of the main things wliich onght to attract the attention of the 
landed interest was how to increase not only the number bnt 
the quality of the habitations of the poor, under the present 
Act the labourer was freed from the serf-like necessity which 
bound him to liis own parish, and he was able to travel over 
the union in search of employment ; and he (Mr. Howard) 
hoped the day would soon come when this limit wonld be yet 
farther extended. 

Mr. C. S. Read asked leave to explain that he did not ob- 
ject to the principle of the Union Cliargeability Bill, but only 
to the mode in which relief was too often administered 
under it. 

Mr. J. K. Fowler ( Aylesbury) said, beginning with the 
auestion of labourers' dwellings, he believed that was one of 
the most difficult things that had to be considered. They had 
heard what was the cost of a decent house ; and he need 
hardly say that it was impossible for an agricultural labourer 
to pay, as rent, interest even on £140. He had had, through 
his landlord, to build one or two cottages, and he found they 
cost from £130 to £140 each — for they onght all to have 
three bedrooms — and this represented a greater rent than the 
men could pay; but he believed the tenant-farmers would 
willingly co-operate with the landlords in this matter, and 
take npon themselves the rental of any reasonable number of 
cottages, to he included in the rent of the form and buildings, 
which they would let to their men at a moderate rent, and 
also give them garden-ground to cultivate. He gave each of 
his labourers hali-a-rood of the best land on the form, as near 
as possible to the farmyard, and told them to take whatever 
manure they wanted : and once a year, when “ harvest-home’’ 
came round, they had a little exhibition of the garden produce. 
All this had a most excellent effect in keeping ttan from 


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23 


the beerhouse, and in encouraging habits of independence 
and industry amongst them. The question of wages was one 
that would settle itself, especially where a man was no longer 
tied to his own particular parish, but allowed to go to an ad- 
joining one, where he thought he could find a better master 
or higher wages. With regard to what Mr. Denton very ap- 
propriately named “ practical education,” that was a point 
which could not be too much insisted ou. Being very 
anxious that a good ploughman in his employ should be 
taught even farther excellence, he got his friend Mr. James 
Howard to have him taught ; and the result was that at 
the next county ploughing match he won the first prize, 
ami a great deal of attention was excited amongst the 
other men to sec how he set his plough and went to work. 
He believed that the agricultural labourer, if properly 
educated, might be made as good a skilled labourer as any man 
in die manufacturing districts. He (Mr. Fowler) was now 
using the steam plough, and every man engaged in attending 
to the m ac hin ery, including the one who drove the engine, 
was, a few years ago, an ordinary agricultural labourer. Mr. 
Denton had spoken of bakeries for the benefit of the men, but 
he did not well see why they should not have public breweries 
M so as to avoid the bad beer so much complained of, 
oolv it would be auite necessary that the present oppressive 
nut-tax should be removed. The supply of water to the 
dwellings of the poor was of even greater consequence than 
that of oeer, and should never be overlooked in the erection of 
cottages. 

Mr. C. Wren Hosjlyns regarded the whole question very 
much from a point of view which had not been touched upou, 
and which he could not pass by in absolute silence, namely — 
the position which, in regard to the constitution of the whole 
order of English society, the agricultural labourer held in the 
body corporate. They had a body of laws relating to landed 
property, which were peculiar to England, which they had at- 
tempted to enforce upon the colonies and to establish in In dig 
tad America, but which had broken down in each of these 
i n stances , and which existed in no other country in the world 
with the exception of portions of Austria and Russia ; he re- 
ferred to the laws which tended to the aggregation of land into 
large and still larger territories — lie could not call them 
estates— of from 5,000 to 10,000 acres, and which it was mo- 
rally imp o s s ibl e could be farmed by the proprietor. It had, 
therefore, to be let oat in portions to tenant farmers. If these 
tenancies existed for the term of human life, or even for 
twenty-one years, or any such term as would give something 
fixe a feeling of proprietorship, it would matter little who the 
owner of the noil might be in reality ; but at present the effect 
was to make all the efforts of the farmer point to those dis- 
coveries which suited his circumstances, and would enable him 
to make the most oat of the land in the shortest time. He 
adm itted that this system was very satisfactory to farmers and 
proprietors ; hut there was one individual who would raise his 
voice against it if he had the power, and that was the one 
whose condition they were discussing— the agricultural la- 
bourer, whose position was such that he did not come in con- 
tact with the owner of the cottage which he inhabited, or of 
the land wljieh he tilled. The tenant who employed him held 
his l a nds under such conditions as compelled him to make the 
most oat of it in a short time, and with the least expenditure 
of labour ; mid, under these circumstances, he did not stand on 
equal footing with the man who came in contact with the 
i rt na l owner of the soil; and, in fact, those men who were em- 
ployed about the gardens of the proprietor, were always in a 
tatter position, had better wages and dwellings than those 
who worked for the tenant fanner. The latter was not able 
nafa to influence the condition of the labourer ; the cottage 
is which he lived did not belong to him ; the farmer might 
leeve the farm and the labourer stay, or the labourer might 
km while the farmer stayed • there was no life-long relation 
batmen them of that kina which rendered the mans condi- 
tkm an improving one, because of his labour beco min g more 
mpuMtou. He thought, however, their condition was capa- 
te jd jpua* amelioration, and no doubt machinery operated in 
agBOwuro the same as in trade, though the conditions were 
net fi e ri Jy alike, because in the one case there was the power 
m e lmnet unlimited production, while in agriculture the 
a though not so limited as some might sup- 
• d efinite limit. He should most gladly see any 
w hieh would improve- the condition of the 


agricultural labourer, but he thought more good would be done 
by commencing at the other end of the chain of causes, and 
endeavour to obtain some alteration of that system which 
was tending to larger and larger aggregation of estates. One 
point in the paper and discussion he iiad noticed with much 
pleasure, the importance of technical or practical education. 
He had himself seen the work of a farm done altogether in- 
efficiently, sira ply because every one was trying to do every- 
thing, and because the system seemed to be a miscellaneous 
one Dy putting any man to any employment. If there were 
more subdivision of labour on farms he was certain good 
results would follow, and one of the main advantages of 
technical education would be that each maD would be able 
to do at least one thing well, instead of a great many things 
indifferently. 

Mr. S. Sidney said Canon Girdlestone had proposed one of 
the few things which would really do the labourer good ; when 
he found that in one parish or district the wages were very 
low indeed, he recommended the men to go elsewhere, and 
that was just what caused the great superiority of mechanics 
to farm -labourers ; they were much better educated, not so 
much in the wav of reading and writing, but in knowledge of 
the world, and now best to provide for themselves, and im- 

E rove their condition. The agricultural labourer must not be 
mited to the mere bounds of his parish, as was now too often 
the case. The fathers of his (Mr. Sidney’s) friends the farmers 
were anything but alive to the advantages of education ; they 
did not like a labourer who had an idea beyond his own parish 
Sir Geo. Jenkinson had not heard the paper, bat Mr. 
Hoskyns had admitted that large owners were the best em- 
ployers of labour. Ho understood him to say that in the 
neighbourhood of large owners the labourers were well paid 
ana cared for, and lived in good cottages, but that the reverse 
was the case where tenant-farmers were occupiers ; and what 
was the inference, but that where there was most capital there 
would be the best remuneration for labour ? He did not be- 
lieve education would enable a man to till the ground better 
than his fellow who had liad no education. An exemplifica- 
tion of this was to be found in the case of railway navvies. 
There were no men in the world who had so much physical 
ability to do an enormous amount of work ; they laboured 
from Monday morning nntU Saturday afternoon, and, as a 
general rule, were drunk from Saturday afternoon to Monday 
morning. They received enormous wages, and consumed an 
enormous amount of beef and beer, and did far more work 
than any agricultural labourer ; but wbat enabled them to do 
so was not education, but the amount of food which they con- 
sumed. In the same way, education would not enable the 
agricultural labourer to do more work. He was, however, not 
the less an advocate for education, which it was the duty of the 
upper classes to give to those below them, but he did not like the 
question put upon a false issue. He had lately seen in 
the papers the detailed case of a man with a large family of 
ten children, the eldest of whom earned 3s. fid. a-week ; and 
when the man was asked about sending the lad to school, he re- 
plied that it was not the question of the penny for the schooling, 
but of the 3s. fid. which he earned, ana which made just the 
difference between living and starving. That was the great 
difficulty which had to be met with in reference to education, 
and which, he thought, it was impossible to get over. 

Mr. J. Bennett nad a farm in Sussex, on which he employed 
some seventy men, but he found it a growing difficulty to pro- 
vide habitations for them, and some Had to walk four miles to 
their work. He could not get a bit of land on the roadside on 
which to put up any cottages, and be did not know how to 
remedy the evil, which was a very grave one. Mr. Hoskyns 
had alluded to the land laws, but he thought the game laws 
had also something to do with the question. The great land- 
owner attached mnch more importance to the game than to 
the condition of the labourer, and would not have a cottage in 
this place or that, lest the game should be interfered with. As 
to the state of education, he (Mr. Bennett) had offered a shil- 
ling to each of his men who could write tneir names, bat not 
ten of the seventy could do so, and the question was, how this 
ignorance was to be overcome. In some places the parson 
would assist them, and in others he would not, or could not, 
and then the case was hopeless. Some of the clergy were 
afraid of the men becoming too independent, and thinking for 
themselves ; and the squires thought education would make 
them saucy, and that if they learned anything beyond the 


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24 

limits of their own parish they would draw comparisons, and 
that when improvement once began they would improve them- 
selves off the land altogether, and go where they believed they 
would be better off. 

Mr. W. Haw es (the chairman) said it appeared to him that 
Mr. Read was not sufficiently informed aoout trades' unions 
when he spoke of the system of day work having the same 
effect, which was enabling the men to do the least work and 
have the highest pay. The object of trades' unions was to 
bring men together to agree to a uniform rate of pay, which 
they thought most conducive to the welfare of all ; and he 
could not agree that the effect of trades' unions was such as 
Mr. Read had stated it to be. Then the same gentleman went 
on to trace the effect of legislation in introducing foreign 
cattle, and drew the inference that that had been the cause of 
the increase in the price of meat, stating the price of meat so 
many years back ; but he forgot that there was an intervening 
period when meat was quite as high as at present, long before 
the operation of Sir Robert Peel’s Act— certainly long before 
the introduction of contagious diseases by foreign cattle. The 
fact was, that if the importation of foreign cattle had been 
injurious, they must not forget that long before the disease 
was introduced hundreds of thousands of foreign cattle had been 
imported, of which the country had had the benefit. 

Mr. C. J. Read said lie had not alladed to the cattle-plague 
but topleuro-pncumoniaand other diseasesof a similar character. 

The Chairman said that if the state of the case was as 
bad as Mr. Bennett seemed to think, it appeared al- 
most hopeless ; but if the labouring classes did, os he be- 
lieved they would, gradually improve, there would be 
an increase of produce from the land, and the whole class , 
would rise considerably in the social scale. No one seemed i 
to have noticed that which lie (the Chairman) principally 
relied on — the appropriation of a certain number of hours to 


general education, and a certain number to practical instruc- 
tion in farming pursuits, so that in a few years they would be 
in a position to earn the highest rate of wages in their calling. 
Then there was the question of the improvement of their 
dwellings, which had been taken up by this society again and 
again, plans having been prepared, and every possible scheme 
suggested for reducing the cost, but they could not bring it 
within £130 : they could build a hovel for a great deal less, 
but not a cottage fit for a labouring man to hve in. If they 
had improved dwellings, and the other things which had been 
mentioned, gardens and friendly societies, and co-operative 
stores which might do a great deal in enabling them to supply 
themselves oh the lowest terms, they would soon be in a much 
better position ; and above all, if they could induce these men, 
not by legislation, but by showing them the benefit of it, to 
abstain from the beershop, their greatest enemy would be 
conquered. They must not go away with the idea that the 
navvy was such a deplorable creature as the hon. baronet had 
painted him : they were not, as a rule (and he knew a great 
deal more of them than of agricnltnral labourers), drunken or 
unintelligent men — they were one of the most intelligent class 
of workmen in the country. Take a navvy abroad, and lie was 
the most valuable mau you could get. Place him in circum- 
stances of great difficulty, requiring coolness, intrepidity, and 
perseverance, and the Behaviour of these men was most remark- 
able. The great works of the country could not have been 
accomplished but for the energy and discipline which existed 
amongst them. Most of them had attended national schools, 
and had a certain amount of real education ; and it was this 
combined with their practical knowledge, which made them 
such valuable workmen. There were drunken navvies, no 
; doubt ; aud in this, as in other cases, people were apt to judge 
| a class by a few. 

1 A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Denton. 


THE MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE 


On every farm on which a profitable course of alternate 
husbandry is being successfully carried out, the connection be- 
tween corn and cattle is inseparable. Corn may for a succes- 
sion of years be low in value, yet it must be grown to provide 
food and litter for the animals of the farm, so that there may 
be no break or interruption in the supply of manure. The 
foundation of modern farming where success is aimed at is 
manure, unsparingly and ungrudgingly applied ; but little cau 
be accomplished without it, and no process or system of culti- 
vation, however elaborate, lias been discovered, or is likely ever 
to be, which would do away with the necessity for its use. 
The most fruitful source of manure within reach of the far- 
mer is the stock of cattle kept on the farm, the quantity made 
during the season being more or less, according to the num- 
ber of animals kept, ana both quantity and quality varying to 
a much greater extent than is generally supposed, according as 
the food supplied to the stock is nutritious or otherwise. The 
dung of poorly-fed animals is hardly worth the trouble of carting 
out, being but of little other use than serving to keep certaiu 
soils open, enabling the air to circulate, and so act beneficially by 
its ameliorating and disintegrating influence. The dung of well- 
fed animals, containing as it does all the elements of nutri- 
tion, not only altera the texture of the soil, but enriches it, 
the effects of a dressing of pure dung from highly-fed ani- 
mals being immediate, and also to some extent permanent. 
Taking advantage of this principle in the character of farm- 
yard manure, we find that tne leading agriculturists of the pre- 
sent day base their success on liberal feeding, expending large 
amounts on the purchase of concentrated food, besides sup- 
plying abuudatice of that which is home-grown. The extra 
profit obtained on the stock fed with these substances would 
scarcely ever repay the feeder, did he trust to that alone ; and 
he therefore looks to the extra value of the manure to recoup 
him for his outlay. A fanner without having the slightest 
knowledge of chemical analysis can, in the laboratory which 
nature has provided, easily experiment for himself, and ascer- 
tain without the slightest risk ol failure the exact difference 
of value between a load of manure made by animals in good 


condition and liberally fed, and the same quantity from animals 
in poor condition aud living on food of poor quality, even al- 
though they may be getting as much of it as they will con- 
sume. In this instance one trial is sufficient, as it will be 
speedily proved that a single load of well-rotted pure muck , 
snch ns wc have described, will give better results m the field 
than three when the beasts have been poorly fed. The differ- 
ence is especially noticeable with crops of quick growth, such 
as Italian ryegrass, tares, &c. : the crop is heavier far ; and, 
again, what is of almost equal importance, the crop is 
forced forward with such rapidity by the superior excellence 
of the manure, that a fortnight at least is gained at a period 
of the year when a supply of succulent fodder is often- 
times urgently wanted. Manure, therefore, being con- 
stantly in demand for the purpose of keeping up the 
fertility of the soil, and cattle being the principal 
source of production for this valuable and indispensable con- 
stituent in agricultural economy, there ensues that connection 
between corn and cattle husbandry, which, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, renders them inseparable. We thus find that 
cattle, whether they pay or not, mast be kept by the arable 
farmer who desires to oe successful in his business j and he is 
the most prosperous who, keeping a stock of cattle, makes that 
stock profitable— not only in a secondary or subsidiary sense 
by the assistance they render him in raising paying corn crops, 
but also makes a separate, independent, ana dearly-ascertained 
refit on every animal of which that stock is composed. We 
ave at least one very high agricnltnral authority holding the 
opinion that this cannot be done, and that the former must 
look to his corn alone for all the profit he may legitimately 
expect from his live stock ; we have, nowever, an equally high 
authority holding quite the contrary opinion, and we ourselves, 
judging from our own experience, look upon all farming as a 
very miserable affair, where no profit is derived from the cattle 
kept except that obtained through the manure which they 
supply and the increased quantity of corn the former can by 
its assistance be enabled to grow. It is our opinion (and one 
which we feel assured is snared by most practical men) that 


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the British fanner has not the slightest reason to dread that 
the home-production of meat will ever be over-done, or that 
it can ever exceed the demand except for exceedingly limited 
periods. Bad trade, for instance, by lessening the amount of 
money circulating in the country, has frequently the effect of 
reducing the price of meat by a decreased demand, and the 
value of live cattle is consequently somewhat affected thereby. 
Corn, keeping at high rates for a season, also to a perceptible 
extent limits the consumption of meat, and has while it lasts a 
correspondingly depreciating tendency. Either of these in- 
fluences however are seldom so powerful or so long-sustained 
as to affect the average of a whole year to any appreciable 
extent, the intervals daring which meat remains low being 
BHudly so short as to enable the stock-holder so to manage his 
home-arrangements as to secure at least a good average, if not 
tlie very highest quotations for the year. Judging from wlmt 
has taken pace daring the past year with reference to the in- 
troduction of fresh meat from foreign countries, it is not im- 
probable but that we may very shortly have considerable 
importations of that article in a condition that will enable it 
to enter pretty freely into consumption in Great Britain. The 
principal sources of simply — Australia and South America — 
are however so distant from this country as to almost preclude 
the possibility of its being sold at sncli a price and in such 
quantity as to effect in any very sensible degree the interests 
of the British agriculturist. However well the preserv ing 
process may be accomplished, it can scarcely be expected to be 
equal to meat that has been fed and slaughtered at home ; and 
in all likelihood it will tend more to increase the consumption 
of meat amongst that portion of the population with whom it 
is at present but little used, rather than to displace it on the 
tables of those who at present are the largest consumers. It is a 
matter of extreme difficulty to obtain for imported meat a perma- 
nent position in the markets of this country ; the slightest differ- 
ence m colour, texture, taste, or (what is perhaps most important 
of all) smell, to the home-article which it represents, ana which 
it is expected to some extent to supplant, forming an almost 
insuperable harrier to its successful reception by the British 
public. Tastes must be acquired and prejudice overcome before 
it will be generally accepted, and this too nfter scientific men 
have been engaged in laborious investigation, it may be as in 
the present instance for many years, m solving a mode by 
whidi the meat can be preserved and transmitted. Science, 
truly, can and has surmounted many difficulties and vexations 
perplexities, bnt is comparatively powerless in creating new 
tastes or subduing prejudice, a notable example in proof of 
this being afforded by the recent attempt to introduce 
the use of horse-flesh into England as a means of in- 
creasing the meat supply, and thereby lowering the price 
of beef. The publication of Mr. Frank Buckland’s 
letter has apparently given a complete quietus to the or- 
ganization which had this for its object, no more having been 
seen or heard of it — at least in the columns of the public 
journals. Yet here science did its utmost, the most skilful 
men in their profession having been procured to prepare the 
banquet (so called) ; bnt all tue modes of preparation with 
which these artists were acquainted, combined with the most 
piquant and appetizing seasonings, could not overcome the pre- 
judices of the guests, or prevent their subjecting each delicate 
moved to an olfactory test before submitting it to the 
scrutiny of the palate. When intelligent and cultivated men 
could make suen a poor dinner on tnis meat, and it, too, so 
wdl disguised, it is nard to suppose that it would be accepted 
by the class its promoters expected it to benefit, who, as a class, 
are above all men notoriously difficult to please, and whose 
prejudices in regard to new or untried articles of food are much 
mare deeply routed, and probably more difficult to overcome 
than even the higher classes. One coold easily imagine the 
bowl of derision with which any gentleman would be met who 
p ropo se d to his servants to dine off a roast loin of colt or filly 
which he had slaughtered for home-consumption, having for 
some reason or another found the animal unfit for any other use- 
ful purpose ; or again, did he inform them that having fattened- 
up a superannuated carriage-horse, for the purpose of being 
utilized on the table of the servants* hall, it would require 
but tittle stretch of imagination to suppose that they one and 
all gave him warning on the spot, and that he was politely 
requested to provide nimself with a fall retinae of new ser- 
vants on that day month. Anyone who knows anything of 
the difficulty experienced in getting servants to cat beef or 


mutton which lias been killed on account of injuries from 
kicks or other accident received in the field, and which they 
have in some way or other got an inkling of, can form a very 
fair conception of how any new and particularly economic 
article of rood would be received, whetner that was home- 
raised horseflesh, Australian mutton, or beef from the South 
American prairies. Well-paid tradesmen in towns and large 
cities, and well-to-do country people, are all equally particular 
about the quality of their meat, few being willing to take any- 
thing but prime joints, when the state of their exchequer per- 
mits of its being done, preferring rather to go without when 
they cannot do so. Taking everything connected with the 
habits of the people into account that bears upon the consump- 
tion of meat, ana consequent demand for cattle, there appears 
to be but little danger for many years to come, if ever, ol any 
farmer rearing cattle which will not reimburse him for the 
trouble and expense he has been at in bringing them to the 
selling point, with in the fertility imparted to his fields by the 
manure he has made by their means, and by a separate profit 
upon each animal, after charging it with the full value of the 
food consumed. To ensure success, it is essentially necessary 
tliat everything connected with the management of the stock 
should be done in the best possible manner, every minutiae 
being observed which has the slightest tendency to conduce to 
their welfare and progress, and so facilitate the end in view. 
The object of the present paper is to review a few of the lead- 
ing poiuts necessary to be atteuded to in the management of 
cattle on an arable farm, where the cnltivation of corn and 
the breeding, rearing, and feeding of cattle arc simultaneously 
carried out. 

Spring is a period of the farmer's year, during which his at- 
tention must be devoted more particularly to tue care of his 
live stock. At that time the bulk of his breeding animals are 
dropping their young. The comfort and health of the mothers 
and the welfare of the little creatures newly-ushered into the 
world must therefore be looked after with more than ordinary 
assiduity. When he has had the forethought to take the 
trouble, and go to the expense of procuring good sires, the 
extra labour involved, instead of being felt as a burden, be- 
comes a source of real pleasure, the owner feeling satisfied 
that under ordinarily fortuitous circumstances his prospects of 
remuneration arc all he could possibly wish for. In cattle 
breeding, the selection of the male should be gone abont with 
no spirit of parsimony, bnt rather with an excess of generosity 
and thorough determination to secure a first-class animal what- 
ever the cost. The influence of the male on the character and 
value of the future produce is now so well known and gener- 
ally understood and acknowledged as to make it really sur- 
prising that a cross-bred brute should be used by any one at 
the present day who has such a number of animals in liis herd 
as to warrant the keeping of a valuable bull. Whatever the 
breed, there is no better investment of capital by an agricul- 
turist than that expended in the purchase of a sire of good 
descent, the profits being not ouly large, but coutinuous, the 
influence of one really good animal extending for years. At- 
though it is desirable in a milking stock to have tne bull de- 
scended from a line of cattle famed for their milk-producing 
properties, that feature in the character of a herd being also 
transmitted, it is not nearly so important as when the object ot 
the breeder is purely the production of beef. That the produce 
of a cross-bred bull often tarn-out excellent milkers, is a fact 
easily proved, as many owners of dairy-stock take very little 
trouble about the selection of a sire, paying but slight attention 
to his breeding, providing he is raoaerately straight and level 
along and over the back, of a good colour, healthy-looking, and 
cheap. On account of this indifference and seeming negligence 
on the part of stock-holders, the animals, in numerous cases, 
are so altered in form, colour, and general configuration, that 
it is impossible to recognise the breed from which they origin- 
ally sprung. Notwithstanding this peculiarity, the milking 
property is seldom injured to a perceptible extent, many of the 
cows composing snch a herd being extraordinary milkers. It 
is, however, very different when the herd is maintained for the 
purpose of raising stock to lie fattened for the butcher, as the 
use of any other than a highly bred bull becomes then simply 
a picking of one’s own pocket. It must be admitted that use- 
ful beasts for the stall are often to be met with, neither the 
sire nor dam of which was pure bred ; but, all other things 
being equal, the superiority of those animals, the sire even of 
whicn has been pure bred, is so marked as scarcely to admit of 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


comparison. Without a particle of extra care, pure breeding 
conauces to economy of food, to laying on flesh quickly, and 
to early maturity. The advantages derived from these dis- 
tinguishing characteristics are numerous and valuable, but all 
tending to one pleasing result, viz., the increase of the fanner’s 
capital. A half-bred neifer, the sire of which was pure, can 
be easily finished for the butcher at the age of two years, 
bringing as much money then as one of three years, wliich 
had the disadvantage of being cross-bred by both sire and 
dam. Here there is all the expense attendant on the main- 
tenance of a large animal for an entire year saved — in itself an 
immense thing, quite sufficient to enrich the farmer who takes 
advantage of it, and to impoverish him who neglects it, par- 
ticularly now-a-days, when excessive competition for land, and 
dear labour cut down the farmer’s profits to the lowest possible 
point. 

Britain possesses several local breeds of cattle for meat- 
producing purposes, a few of the more noticeable being the 
Hereford, Devon, Foiled Angus, and West Highland, all good, 
some of them indeed of rare merit, as the Hereford and Angus, 
but mostly confined to the districts from which they derive 
their name, and difficult to be got pure in any other part of 
the country, unless with a fancier of the breed. The Short- 
horn, which would seem by general acceptation to have been 
received as the breed, of cattle most suitable for the im- 
provement of existing breeds is now to be met with 
in great perfection in every part of the kingdom. 
By whatever name a cow may be designated — whether 
Ayrshire, Kerry, Highlander, or cross-breed— or however 
shabby and insignificant she may appear, if crossed by a pure- 
bred shorthorn her produce will partake so much of the cha- 
racter of the sire as to make it. with fair treatment, both use- 
ful and profitable. Even to tne very fastnesses of the High- 
lander himself has the shorthorn penetrated ; and excellent 
butchers’ cattle, the produce of a Highland cow and shorthorn 
bull are yearly fed in the western islands of Scotland, and sent 
round by steamer to Glasgow. The distilleries on these islands 
afford a good supply of food in the shape of grains, there styled 
draft, on which the cattle thrive well, and require but little out- 
lay for oi cake, turnips and grains being able to finish a heavy 
beast with but little assistance from the more expensive article. 
No particular difficulty need be experienced in getting a use- 
ful sire of shorthorn blood, pure stocks being now so equally 
distributed over the whole kingdom. The expense, also, is not 
by any means great, when the value of the breed is taken into 
consideration, the days of extravagant prices being numbered, 
unless for stocks of very high character. During the past few 
years many herds of shorthorns have been founded, and 
managed on more sensible principles than was originally the 
case. Formerly it seemed to be supposed by every possessor 
of a herd of shorthorns that as the Dreed was capable of car- 
rying an almost unlimited amount of flesh, it therefore became 
absolutely necessary so to pamper each animal that it might 
become a specimen of what the breed would attain to, and the 
enormous load of meat it could be made to carry. Tliis was 
frequently done to such an extent as to reach the stage of 
actual cruelty, the poor beast’s very existence being a burden ; 
and thus money was not only spent uselessly, but the animals, 
both male and female, were often so injured by excessive obe- 
sity as to be unfit for anything but slaughter. Now, however, 
the breed having got into the hands of men who cannot 
afford to measure the treatment they give their cattle 
by any other standard than that of pounds, shillings, and pence, 
pure-blooded specimens can be had, wliich have been ra- 
tionally treated, thus combining two important advantages, 
their constitutions not having been impaired by over-feeding, 
they are eminently suitable for reproauctivc purposes; and 
the cost is gieatly less. A young bull of either Booth or 
Bates blood, and a good one too, can now be got for thirty 
guineas, which, having been used to the ordinary food of the 
farm, is in no danger of falling away when removed to other 
quarters, but, on the contrary, having a tendency to improve, 
especially if his new owner is disposed to be kind to him, 
which is extremely likely to be the case. Thirty guineas is a 
large sum for a man of limited means to give for one animal, 
whatever its merits, or however much benefit he may look for- 
ward to by the use of that animal ; yet for the small farmer, 
whose stock consists of but ten or fifteen cows, the possession 
of a pedigree bull is so essential to his interests, that the 
getting of one is worthy of a strong effort on his part. Two 


neighbours who are on friendly terms can serve each other 
very materially, by joining in the purchase of a bull, thus di- 
viding the risk, lessening the amount to be expended by each 
party to half, and thereby probably bringing it within reach 
of both, and doing the business required to as much purpose 
as if both had got a bull. In a partnership of this sort, an 
animal cast by a wealthier neighbour may often be procured, 
giving them the advantage of having one of whose merits 
tney nave had previous opportunity of forming an opinion — a 
point of no inconsiderable value. Such a bull, being come to 
his full growth, and consequently weighty, will in general 
bring his first cost when sow to the butcher ; so tliat, by & 
little management, the services of a pure-blooded bull can be 
had at no mrther expense than that incurred by feeding him 
during the short period he is required on the farm. Surely 
the importance or this matter ought to be sufficient induce- 
ment for a farmer to take a little extra trouble in looking 
about for a really useful beast, instead of contenting himself 
with a mongrel, whose produce at twelve months old will be 
worth not more than two-thirds of what they would have been 
had a pedigree-bull been used, the treatment being in both cases 
exactly the same. One of the most useful bulls we have known 
was repurchased, when four years old, by his breeder for £25, 
from a party to whom he was sold when a calf for one hun- 
dred pounds. The breeder having seen his produce knew his 
value, and got him just at butchers* price, and the animal was 
subsequently so valuable that he would not part with him for 
three hundred. This was, of course, an exceptional case : the 
breeder being an excellent judge profited by his knowledge, 
and prized highly what another discarded. An ordinary far- 
mer could not make such a lucky hit very easily, but following 
this example, and acting upon the same rule, would be largely- 
benefited by introducing blood into his stock at comparatively 
little outlay, the high price of which under any other condi- 
tions would keep it beyond his reach. Having gone to con- 
siderable trouble and outlay in introducing good blood, it is 
highly necessary and well worth while for any one who has 
done so, to pay an increased amount of attention to his cows 
during the period of gestation, so that, apart from circum- 
stances over which he has no control, they may get a fair 
chance of bringing into the world a fully matured and healthy 
calf. 

It is intensely galling to lose the well-earned fruits of skill, 
capital, and labour through the carelessness or inconsideration 
of those in charge of the animals ; but there are certain dis- 
turbing influences quite out of the province of the attendant, 
and which every owner of stock should do his utmost to guard 
against, or if they exist to remove them, as far as lies m his 
power. Uneven passages to and from the fields or to drinking- 
ponds are injurious to cows heavy in calf, and should be kept 
as even and smooth as the nature of the surface will permit. 
Narrow doors from the stalls are also highly prejudicial to the 
cow and her future offspring, as in spite of the utmost care cattle 
will crush each other when going out and in, so much so as in 
many instances to inflict extensive local injury by the excessive 
straining. Where a large or even moderately-sized stock is 
kept the utmost facility for entrance and egress ought to be 
allowed, the doors or rather gates being wide enough to admit 
an ordinary cart, and placed at convenient distances. Strict 
attention to ventilation and good drainage will also be given 
bv the careful and considerate owner of a breeding stock, and 
if a constant circulation of pure air is kept up, one of the most 
fruitful causes of abortion is neutralised* viz., foul air. Some 
attention is required to be given to the feeding while turnips 
form a large portion of the diet, as a cow will readily slip her 
calf after feeding heartily on cold roots, if the stomach has 
been comparatively empty. Giving the hay or straw with 
which she is supplied in addition, the first thing in the morn- 
ing, counteracts this tendency in a great measure. No trouble 
ought to be considered too great which has for its object the 
prevention of cows prematurely slipping their calves, as when 
it begins in a herd it seldom leaves it without inflicting ex- 
tensive injury and consequent loss. 

The cow having produced a fall-timed, healthy calf, the 
leading idea of its owner in connection with the young animal 
should lie to keep it so, and this is in general attained without 
much trouble, save by providing it with airy and comfortable 
quarters and a plentiful supply of nutritions food. To ensure 
from the very commencement of its existence a healthy organ- 
ization, it is a good plan, when it can be managed, to permit 


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the calf to suck its mother for the first few days — that is, until 
the milk has assumed its natural colour and become fit for use. 
Although excellent in theory, this is especially difficult to carry 
out in practice ; the instinctive feelings of both dam and off- 
spring having been aroused, it is some time before they can be 
got to forget each other, and unpleasant consequences are apt 
to ensue when the separation has been effected. The calf 
haring for these few days been accustomed to drink with its 
head derated, it is hard to make it understand that the opera- 
tion can be quite as comfortably performed with the nead 
down, and it displays considerable obstinacy on this point. A 
little hunger soon brings it round, and leads to the required 
iteration in the habits and instincts of the little creature ; and 
it is much better to give time, and leave it to the teachings of 
hunger, than compel it to keep its head down by main force. 
In toe case of the cow more is to be apprehended than a little 
annoyance, there being positive danger of present loss and perma- 
nent injury when she nas taken kindly to her calf, and resists 
the separation. In constant expectation that she will be per- 
mitted to rejoin it, she retains the milk, in spite of repeated 
and long-continued efforts to withdraw it by hand ; aud when 
thus retained severe inflammation is immediately set up, and 
the poor animal is in imminent danger of losing a quarter, or, 
in extreme cases, a half of the udder. The moment it is noticed 
that the cow is holding her milk, the calf should be allowed to 
suek, so as to relieve tno pressure and prevent inflammation. 
The udder being thus softened, the milking may with great 
propriety be finished by the dairy-maid. This may be con- 
tinued for a few days, until it is known, by the softness of the 
big and the uninterrupted flow of the milk, that the 
danger is past. Should the calf not be rc-adraitted, 
or ereo delayed so long that the swelling lias be- 
come intensely painful, the opportunity for relief iu this 
manner is lost, and the udder must he softened by fomentation 
with hot water and the application of soothing and repcllant 
ointments, involving a considerable sacrifice of both time and 
trouble. The probability of symptomatic fever of this kind 
occurring from partial or total suspension of the milky secre- 
tions renders a system excellent in theory, highly objectionable 
in practice, and in consequence the calf is, in most coses, re- 
moved to his own crib immediately after having been licked 
dry by the mother, the connection between them never again 
being renewed. This, of course, particularly refers to stocks 
where profit is looked to from the dairy, as well as from rear- 
ing, as in districts where the latter is the principal object the 
calf is left with its mother until reared. The calf now being 
dropped, it may reasonably be thought that it must be a very 
poor one indeed, if not worth rearing, providing the sire has 
Wen weO selected and the dam ordinarily good v Yet even 
under the most favourable conditions with regard to the 
parents, there will now and again be calves dropped not worth 
the trouble and expense of rearing, particularly m the case of 
male calves, whether intended to be kept entire for breeding 
purposes or for feeding for the butchers as bullocks. It is well, 
therefore, that a little judgment should be exercised, and each 
calf sulgected to a rigid scrutiny before any expense is in- 
curred, as an ill-thriven animal is not only a loss, but a positive 
eyesore while it remains on any farm. It is much better to 
send an excessively narrow-backed, flat-ribbed, or drooping- 
nunped calf at once to the butcher, and get a few shillings for 
it, man keep it on and risk the loss of pounds by feeding it for 
several years, consuming food which might otherwise be profit- 
ably employed in feeding an animal which would by its supe- 
rior conformation have a fair prospect of leaving something 
for its keep. A delicate-constitutioned cow may often be worth 
holding over for her superior milking qualities; but unless of a 
rare breed, when it may be worth while to run a little risk, 
her offspring are seldom worth the trouble of rearing. While 
milk is plentifully supplied to it, such a calf will often look as 
wall as its comrades, aud have all the appearance of thrifti- 
ness ; but if it inherits its mother’s delicacy, which it almost 
invariably does, it begins to fall away from the time that it is 
turned out to shift tor itself. If it survives the winter it is 
mortiy a gannt-looking object, with not the slightest appear- 
ance of ultimately becoming cither valuable or profitable. 
Well-bred oows and those which have been long milked, how- 
ever bred, frequently drop their calves very small, in some 
cases remarkably so. When well-formed, healthy, aud full- 
tuna this is not particularly objectionable, as liberal treatment 
them on, a few weeks being sufficient to bring 


them to the standard of those of the same age, which were an 
average size when dropped. It is very necessary when a con- 
siderable number of calves ore being reared together to con- 
fine them in separate cribs so as to prevent their sucking each 
other, a habit as disgusting to the on-looker as injurious to 
the poor animals themselves. Where not convenient to have 
a crib tor each calf, a little collar could be provided and slipped 
over the head of each one as soon as fed, the fastening being 
just as far distant as will prevent contact. The confinement 
when the warm weather has arrived, and their owner is de- 
sirous of putting them out during the day, need he only tem- 
porary, as the intense desire whicn they evince for sucking. is 
shown most strongly for half-an-hour or so after being 
fed. When this habit is not prevented there is almost 
a certainty of a few deaths occurring each season 
from the hairs thns taken into the stomach collecting into 
an indigestible mass, the poor things dying in frightful agony. 
The indestructible nature of the materials forming this ball 
renders a cure next to impossible'; prevention is therefore all 
the more necessary to be attended to, and there is no better 
preventive than the modes of temporary separation we have 
now described. Although nature indicates that milk warm 
aud numixed as it comes from the cow is the natural and 
proper food tor the calf, yet tor certain reasons of economy 
ana convenience large numbers are annually reared and get 
scarcely more of their mother’s milk than is absolutely neces- 
sary to clear out the stomach, aud give them a healthy start. 
When the farmer is so situated as to have a good market tor 
his milk, and a remunerative price for it, he is tempted to sell 
the greater portion ; and if at the same time he is desirous 
of rearing a good many calves, he finds his ingenuity taxed to 

E rocurc suitable substitutes for their natural food which he 
as otherwise disposed of. Oatmeal, linseed and Indian meals 
are excellent aids, boiled and mixed with a little milk, and 
when given plentifully, good, useful, hardy, and healthy cattle 
can be raised with comparatively little trouble. Infusions of 
hay and gelatinous mosses are sometimes used in rearing 
calves ; but they do not contain sufficient nourishment, are 
too sloppy, aud the calves grow up deficient in bone, pot- 
bellied, and generally unthrifty. In batter dairies the pure 
skim-milk without any mixture whatever is the food of the 
calves, and when given in sufficient quantity answers the pur- 
pose admirably, strong healthy beasts of good bone being thus 
raised. They seem to relish the milk better, and thrive faster 
when the milk is supplied to them after having become 
coagulated, than when given merely soar, bat not thick. 
Notwitlistanding the efficiency of these substitutes tor the 
genuine article, and the amount of success attending their use, 
the animals cannot be brought to the same perfection or to 
such early maturity at full prices, as is the case when the 
milk is used fresh from the cow. So true is this, that it may 
be fairly conceded that when the breed is valuable, and early 
maturity for the batchers a leading object, the full amount of 
profit obtainable from the stock cannot be reached when the 
calves are not wholly reared on new milk. A familiar 
example of its forcing powers is to be met with at every agri- 
cultural show, where shorthorns occupy a prominent position, 
the class of yearlings being so well-grown and their shapes 
so folly developed as to present all the appeaxanoe of 
mature cattle, while their condition is such that they are 
fit for the shambles. We have seldom so fully realised the 
striking effects of pure milk fresh from the cow in feeding 
calves, and the ultimate advantage to the stock thus reared, 
in elegance of contour, aptitude tor feeding, and general hardi- 
ness of constitution, as we did in one particular instance, when 
on a visit to Scotland in the autumn of 1865. In the districts 
we visited, comprisingportions of four counties — viz., Stirling, 
Lanark, Renfrew, and Dumbarton — the dairy takes a leading 
position on most farms ; and, stimulated by the constant de- 
mand for its produce, the farmers are unremitting in their 
efforts to keep up the supply of milk with regularity through- 
out the year. Tne Ayrshire breed is very generally diffused 
over these counties, no other being valued for the dairy ; and, 
accustomed as we have always been to Shorthorns and Short- 
horn crosses, the calves we there saw looked singularly dimi- 
nutive. On hearing the good qualities of the breed from 
which they were descended described by their owners, and a 
high value set npon the Httle creatures themselves, we fonud 
considerable difficulty in appreciating their qualities and value 
—in feet, could not do so until taken to the byre at milking- 


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28 


THE PARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


time, and shown by ocular and unmistakable demonstration 
tint a little cow, with udder so near the ground that there 
was barely room for the milking-pail, could give such an over- 
flowing quantity of milk as to render her valuable for that 
quality alone, independent of all other considerations. Al- 
though the size of the Ayrshire breed, whatever the age, sex, 
or condition, seemed to us remarkably small, still it was not 
so in every instance, as on one farm in Dumbartonshire, which 
we visited, we were particularly struck with the large size and 
general sappiness of all the cattle on it, in comparison with 
those of other districts which we had previously passed 
through. Seeing that they were all of the pure Ayrshire 
type, we asked the tenant why there was such a difference P 
He replied that it was solely the result of liberal treatment 
during the first four months of their existence, as he made a 
point of looking after his calves himself, and gave them new 
milk, without the slightest adulteration or admixture, for the 
above-mentioned period. New milk there brings, on the 
average of the year, tenpencc the imperial gallon ; and when 
it pays in the end to give it to calves, when such a price can 
lx* had, surely it would doubly repay those to do so, who, 
living in remote districts, can {perhaps only make a little more 
than half that price for their milk. We nave seldom enjoyed 
a day with more intense enthusiasm than that spent on this 
farm, in the society of its occupier, and still look back upon it 
as a green spot in what was altogether a most pleasant and 
gratifying tnp. Situated in the midst of a beautifully-culti- 
vated district on the northern shore of the Frith of Clyde, 
with much to instruct the mind in an agricultural point of 
view, there was also much to delight the eye as it roamed over 
the horizon. Underneath flowed the classic Clyde, bearing on 
its placid bosom a numerous fleet of ships of all sizes, from 
the princely merchantman down to the crowded river-steamer 
and the Highland wherry. Quite in view was the ancient 
Castle of Dumbarton, celebrated in old historic records as the 
scene of brave deeds, and mayhap cruel ones also. Through 
the populous and busy Vale of Lcven, the little river im- 
mortalized by Smollett can be seen threading its silvery course 
on to where it mingles with the Clyde. Northwards the lofty 
Ben Lomond is plainly seen bounding the view, rearing his 
even-then snow-capped head in undisputed possession of a vast 
but solitary territory. The calves however reared are at the 
age of four months able to find a subsistence for themselves 
when turned out on the pastures, and to enable them to con- 
tinue progressing in growth and healthy condition require 
good grass and a plentiful supply of water. Abundance of 
food should be the motto of every stock-holder, and that 
during every season of the year ; and on no account should he 
permit an interval of scarcity to occur when changed from tht 
milk to other feeding, or at the close of the season when the 

{ matures begin to fail. The mistake of leaving all animals too 
ong on the grass before removing them to their winter 
quarters is too frequently made, aud is the cause of great loss 
both of money and time, it being a considerable period before 
they regain their previous condition. The mistake is mostly 
made from the desire to economize the winter store of food by 
not beginning on it too early — an excellent motive, but no 
cause for any dread of the early exhaustion of the winter store 
should ever exist, at least under ordinary circumstances. 
Either a sufficient supply of winter food should be grown or 
the stock reduced at the beginning of winter to such a number 


as there is a reasonable prospect ot being able to feed, as one 
well-nourished animal will leave more profit for the winter’s 
keep than three which have been pinched, it being quite 
promblcmatical whether they will leave even any profit at all. 
With regard to shelter and accommodation during winter, the 
straw-yard is undoubtedly the best mode of keeping them in 
health, as the sheds that surround it afford ample protection 
from inclement weather, and, being loose and having con- 
siderable space to walk about, sufficient exercise is taken to 
preserve young stock in a growing state. Keeping cattle in 
warm houses at night, aud turning them out during the day on 
the pastures through all the months of winter, is a practice 
one would think quite inconsistent with the teachings of 
reason and common-sense, and certainly quite incompatible 
with successful and profitable management. It is a system 
however which is very much acted on, and, notwithstanding 
improved modes of management becoming better known, 
seems, whatever the reason, by no means to be on the decline. 
Every farm-yard should be provided with a large straw-court, 
shed ued, and constantly supplied with water ; the expense 
of putting it up is well repaid by the increased amount of 
manure made, the improvement on the pastures when not 
poached and eaten too bare, and lastly the increased value of 
the animals, without the slightest extra expenditure for food. 
When cattle are being tied-up for fattening, the arrangement 
should admit of their having plenty of room ; they look better 
when not too crowded, they can he in any position, and are 
therefore more comfortable and can be better managed in every 
way. It is equally important that daiiy-cows should have 
plenty of room, as it enables the milking to be performed 
without danger or inconvenience, and obviates all danger of 
injury from the cows treading on each other when turning 
quickly round — a mishap which is just as likely as not to occur 
on a pap or portion of the udder as on any less sensitive part. 
Proper shelter, so that they are protected from the chilling 
rains and cutting blasts of winter, a regular supply of pure 
water, good and sufficient litter, and an abundance of whole- 
some food, not only keep the cattle in a continual state of 
progression, but ward off all those diseases which are the 
result of chills or sudden changes from scarcity of food to 
great plenty. Losses from these causes are excessively 
grievous, and can seldom be prevented by medicine, as the 
poor animals are usually so far gone when first noticed that 
Wore any evacuant within reach of the farmer has time to 
act on the peculiarly complicated system of stomachs possessed 
by the rami a ants the vital spark has fled. Selling the most 
valuable animals each year for the sake of the slightly-increased 
amount of receipts, is a prolific source of injury, and keeps 
many a herd of cattle at a point almost below mediocrity, that 
would under happier auspices be a credit to its owner and 
much more profitable. We do not, of course, allude to wealthy 
stock -owners, who never sell from necessity ; but to those who, 
living solely on the profits of their farms, are compelled by the 
inexorable force of circumstances to act in the way that will 
realize most money for the time being, without being in a 
position to consult their own wishes in the matter. If at all 
possible, a few of the choice young heifers should be held 
over each year as breeders, so that there may be no danger of 
retrogression in the character and quality of the stock. 

J. S. 


THE OLD PLANS 

At one time the irrigation or watering of land was more 
common than it is at the present day ; and on hilly lands 
having a command of water tne practice was more general than 
in comparatively level champaign districts. The rule was al- 
most universal that where there was a command of water 
and means for application it was applied on the land. To- 
wards the middle and close of the last century, when farms 
began to be regularly cropped under the alternate system of 
husbandry, as it is sometimes technically termed, the practice 
was greatly cartailed, and in many instances wholly given up. 
It was applied not only to land permanently lying in grass. 


OF IRRIGATION. 

but also to arable lands when in grass. In those simple times 
arable lands were cropped on the out-fteld and in-field system, 
and it was to the out-fteld that the water was applied. The 
in-field lands were kept under a continuous course of cropping, 
and to them all the manure made on the farm was applied. The 
out-field lands were cropped so long as they would yield anything 
that would pay the harvesting ; and when they would yield com 
no longer, the grasses having got the mastery, it was then 
allowed to lie in grass ; and it was when thns laid ont that the 
water was applied to restore tlie worn-out soil to renewed fer- 
tility. Not long before the father of the writer entered upon 


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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


29 


farming (1806), about half the lands nnder the plough were 
out-field, and thus cropped. And when serving his appren- 
ticeship the writer himself assisted in filling np some of the 
water-courses, so as to bring the land they occupied under the 
ploogh. 

Such being the old practice, it forms a prominent topic in 
works on agriculture, published at the time. It is noticed in 
most of the country reports to the Board of Agriculture ; and in 
his surreys and work on “ Landed Property, Marshall gives a 
detailed account of it. 


In the latter work, Marshall gives illustrated directions for 
watering land, on the following four plan s, vis. : — 

“ 1. Covering low flat lands with stagnant or slowly-moving 
water. 

M 2. Raising flat lands into ridges, and overflowing them 
with running water. 

**3. Spreading running water over naturally uneven sur- 


faces, and 

“ 4. Watering sloping grounds that have been raised into 
ridges by cultivation.” 


(1). In the first of these plans a dam or sluice was placed in 
the river, so as to raise the water sufficiently high to flood the 
meadow lands adjoining. In snch cases the nature of the de- 
tails depended much upon the inclination and character of the 
land. Thus, the lands immediately adjoining rivers are often 
higher than those more remote, so that by an underground 
pipe or conduit, the latter would be more easily watered, than 
the former. Floodgates were placed upon these underground 
pipes, so that they could be opened and shut at pleasure as the 
work or state of the grass required. Again, underground 
drains were often required to drew off the water, so as to pre- 
vent too great a depth when stagnant, and to dry the grouud 
when the water was turned off the maiu altogether. In other 
examples, the application of the water and its removal from 
the land was in each case effected by open water-courses. But 
the more common plan was partly oy underground and partly 
by surface conveyance of water to and from the land. 


But, besides watercourses for conveying the water to the 
land, the land itself generally required less or more levelling 
before the water conld be spread over it, according to this 
plan ; and to effect an even distribution, it was often neces- 
sary to plot out the ground into a series of levels, or rather 
gentle inclinations, in size according to the undulations of the 
surface, not unlike laying oat groand for rice-beds. In many 
cases this subdivision of the land was snrronuded with no 
litUe difficulty ; for, unless the levels were mostly formed by 
the hand of Nature, the equal distribution of the water on 
the lands was more easily effected by the second method of 
application noticed by Marshall — viz., ridges. 

(2). The soil dug out of the feeders and drains was not un- 
frequently found sufficient to form comparatively level land 
into ridges ; so that this plan of spreading the water was less 
expensive than is perhaps generally imagined. Thus, when the 
land was previonsly nnderaration,it was gathered op by the plough 
into ridges of from 30 to 60 feet in breadth. An open cut 
was then dug down the middle or crown, for the feeder, and 
which, from Us being nearly level, was not unlike a canal 
when overflowing its hanks. The open furrow between was 
formed into a drain, and the ridges levelled, or rather carried 
into the proper slope by levelling machines, and harrowing 
a i fA finishing off by maunal labour. When in grass the grassy 
sod dug out of the middle of the ridges was placed noon the 
edge, so as to raise the surface several inches higher than be- 
fore in the middle of the ridge. The grassy sod from the 
drain was placed beside this, and the loose earth dug out from 
both spread over the surface so as to give it the proper in- 
clination. In many cases this was all that was required to pre- 
pare the land for the water ; for, owing to its being compara- 
tively level, the feeder when full overflowed like a canal, spread- 
ing the water equally over the sides of the ridges, and as the 
ti 4 r« of the ridges were lowest at the edge of the drain, there 
wonld be a gently-continued imperceptible flow from the feeder 
to the drain. Through hollows a foot and even two feet be- 
low the natural level, the water in the feeders was sometimes 
carried by small embankments, sometimes in aqueducts over the 
drains, where such were carried down these hollows to the end 
or side ditches, and so on. But raised aqueducts and embank- 


ments were avoided as much as possible, under-ground pipes 
being preferred for conveying the water from the level on one 
side of a hollow to the same level on the opposite side, such 
being out ot the way of the feet of cattle, &c. 

In examples of this kind the cardinal rule was to avoid 
stagnant water anywhere on the side of the ridges. The nearer 
to eqnalitv of inclination and uniformity of flow from the 
feeders downwards to the drain the better, as this produced an 
equal fertilising effect upon the land. But an equal inclination 
could not always be made ; indeed, it was but seldom made ; 
hence the other maxim of an equal quantity of water to an 
equal area of land or length of ndge in equal times. 

(3) . The third method, viz., spreading running water equally 
over the surface of a meadow without ridges, had the same 
object in view as the second, the surface of the meadow being 
undulated or uneven. The general practice of carrying out 
this plan involved a considerable amount of underground 
work in the conveyance of water to the higher levels, where it 
was thrown upon the meadow, and allowed to spread around 
over the greatest possible area of land by gravitation. To 
effect this, and avoid rapid currents, small wooden troughs 
lying ou the surface were used. And to avoid expense this 
gave rise to the finishing of one part of a field at a time, the 
wooden troughs being then removed to another part. In 
this wav an old man or boy went over a larger area of ground 
in a given time than those unacquainted with the practice 
were apt to calculate. Another plan of distributing the water 
over unlevel surfaces was by crooked feeders, winding round 
about the grounds on levels, subsidiary feeders branching ofT 
from these, on what was termed, in some places, the “ fish- 
bone system.” This plan as illustrated in agricultural books 
is generally too formal, the meandering of the feeders having 
too great a sameness of curvature to each other. Whereas, in 
the meadow, although the branches have a close fish-bone 
similarity, the diversity in the direction of the principal feeders 
was greater than is represented in the old works just referred 
to. 

(4) . The fourth system noticed by Marshall, of watering 
sloping ground that had been raised into ridges by cultivation, 
was perhaps the more common. In ploughing, the land was 

f athered up into brood, high-crowned ridges, and carefully 
ept in this form. The ridges thus formed and kept were 
often very crooked, the surface of the grouud imperatively 
demanding it ; and they were not always of uniform breadth, 
being narrow in some parts and broad in others. When in 
grass and about to be watered, a plough-furrow was opened 
down the crown of each ridge, into which the water was theu 
throwu from the main water-conrse at the headlands. The sod 
turned oat by the plough was cat into short lengths, and used 
for making dams and directing the water over the sides of the 
ridges, and the surplus from one dam to the next below, until 
the whole was utilized. The greater the inclination of the 
land the greater the number of dams required aud the less the 
distance between them, the object of the dams being not only 
to turn a portion of the water over the ridge, but also to prevent 
the remainder from forming a rapid current, and thus washing 
away the soil. When the ridges were of considerable length and 
breadth, it required a corresponding volume of water to be 
turned down each ridge, and no little skill was requisite to 
spread it equally over the whole, from the upper to the lower 
end. With a plentiful supply of water a u umber of ridges could 
be watered together ; but when the supply was limited, only 
two or three, aud sometimes not mare than one ridge at a 
time. The ridges on'the farm already referred to, first occupied 
by the writer’s father (1800), were about half-a-chain in 
width aud from ten to twelve chains in length, so that each 
ridge contained upwards of half-an-acre ; and to this day the 
water-courses aud form of the broad crooked ridges may be 
traced on the outfield lauds thus watered. 

The water-courses in some porous gravelly and sandy soils 
had to be puddled in tbe bottom and sides with clay, or with a 
mixture of clay and peat, to prevent the water sinking and 
flowing off through the subsoil. In the course of time such 
soils filled up with vegetable matter, and sometimes with clay 
and silt, purposely mixed in the water, thus filling them up and 
changing their texture from gravel and sand to loams. 

X.Y. Z. 


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THE NEW FARM. 


Painless dentistry/’ did yon say the advertisement 
was ? Why, then, now, that’s jnst exactly what I wanted 
last Christmas, and expect to want about Midsummer- 
day. Now, is there no one of the many existent good- 
natured fellows who will not, as poor inimitable W right 
used to say, “ come for to go for to send for to fetch 
for to bring for to carry” one of these said clever artists 
to sustain me nnder the operation of “draw” to which I 
shall shoitly be subjected. I should be so thankful if it 
could be done. How thankful I cannot say. 

Having touched upon the subject, let me go farther 
and counsel, I trust without offence, enthusiastic youth. 
I am spirited thereto bv a recent encounter, from which I 
have emerged I consider not only scathless, but triumph- 
ant, with an unconscionable tradesman who had the audacity 
to try upon me a trick which I can attribute only to what 
they must have judged a juvenile guilelessness of coun- 
tenance. 

Don’t you, my lad, if you go into a swell London shop 
(whether to fit out your bridal, or in any such bashful 
mood), on giving an order, content yourself with simply 
entering in your pocket-book the price stated by the airy 
and self-satisfied individual who shall accompany you 
through the show-rooms, giving the prices so fluently 
after rapid calculation with pen from behind his sapient 
ear. Get the particulars written ont of each article that 
you order, the price it shall be for cash upon delivery, 
and the time of its certain delivery. To that document 
get your fashionable attendant’s signature appended, 
“ Catchem and Co., per Oily Wideawake,” or else the 
chances are that upon receipt of the goods you will re- 
ceive also an exceedingly spiced invoice, far hotter than 
you intended, and which shall curtail you of some reason- 
able comforts for months to come ; while if you go open- 
mouthed to your solicitor, and mean to blow them up 
bodily, you will find that there is no locus standi . They 
will shield themselves under the simple reply, “ We gave 
only a proximate estimate.” So you, my dear, wifi be 
beautifully done. Experto crede / 

1 am more urgent upon this point, as there is a noble 
trustfulness about the mind of youth, which is most 
admirable and highly romantic, but simply doesn’t pay. 
For many a year how have not we old fellows been prone 
to half-apologize if we had dared to ask whether “ dis- 
count were allowed “ if such be the cash price 
“ whether it were of the material,” and so on. And it is 
with something of an angry rebound of feeling that one 
trinmphantly demands now from the most self-possessed 
shopman “ the best material for the lowest figure ; and 
be quick, please, for I’m in a hurry.” 

No more of the diffidence with which we took our orders 
as to breakfast, &c., from the college scout, and allowed 
his intervention with the awful University tradesmen. 
No more of that : “ no, no, not for Joe — not for Joseph, 
oh 1 dear, no 1” Eh I the smiling of the counter-skipper 
now, and the bowing, and the desire to serve, and the 
hope that yon’ll recommend us, sir,” which, to the vain 
mind, are of value equal to a redoubled discount. 

Smart’s the word. Knock the wind ont of them first 
blow — apologizing, of course, for the contretemps ; but 
the effects produced, and the courteous apology, effectually 
salves. 

Water-wolves — water-wolves are we not all ? preying 
upon each other, rather than “jolly dogs,” as one fain 
wish, and as w« were went onceto believe, over 


devil’d kidneys and a damper, “ in the days that we were 
young, a long time ago.” 

D’ye see that, yoimg friend ; for if ye don’t, and have 
to wait for the spectacles of personal experience, why, 
then, more’s the pity, and our Cassandra self hath sung 
in vain. 

But to return homewards. I was constrained just now 
to steep my hands, feverish from rowing, in a basin of 
water half-boiling. I had been musing of Shorthorns, 
and the sweet, darling heifer-calves that have been 
dropping upon our pastures of late, when, drop ! down 
came a huge spider from his swing, which I had not no- 
ticed above me. Poor thing ! how he was doubled up at 
once ! Didn’t like hot water at all. Must have been 
married. It was so like what one is obliged so often to 
do oneself, under influence of the conjugal (tin) kettle. 

There hath been a multitude of the spider-tribe about 
the house lately. They are said to follow in the wake of 
the black beetles, a huge horde of which has overrun us 
again lately. The beetle must afford rich feeding j for 
these spiders are a monstrous sort. We have found that 
strewing the leaves of the elder-tree upon the kitchen- 
floor causes somehow a diminution of the beetle class. 
Whether they find the vegetable poisonous or not, I don’t 
know. A confectioner counselled the recipe. 

We are plagued by another insect invasion. The 
evening air hisses with the flight of myriad cockchafers. 
Herein, however, our old friends the rooks (to whom we 
have been staunch, under the remonstrance of prejudiced 
agricultural neighbours) have done us an exceeding 
service. I could not imagine, yesterday morning, what- 
ever was the matter with the birds. • They were in and 
out among the apple-trees and beeches, clumsily alight- 
ing, and staggering along the weak twigs, managing to 
maintain their equilibrium only by a half-flutter, with their 
wings up, and swaying after the example of Blondin’s 
pole. 

“ Them be after the blight, them be,” remarked fat 
Melon, the gardener, as he came up to my window, 
triumphantly exhibiting a grand Gloire de Dijon rose : 
“ Beaut he a beauty, sir ?” 

** Call him the ‘ Second of May/ Melon, if you want a 
name for it.” 

“ Why, sir ?” 

“ Why, because it reminds me of some one whom I 
saw on that day with his shirt-collar petals all turned 
down, and a yellowish tinge about the gills.” 

Poor Melon, who likes a dance abont the May-pole, 
and a suck at the cider-cask afterwards, hereupon retired 
in consternation. 

“ Them be after the blight, sir.” And, sure enough, 
they were in good earnest. I at once had the craws of 
sundry rooklings (of which a tart was being made for the 
kitchen) cut open, and found therein a thick debris of 
the comminuted, half-digested pest, a few of their shiny 
brown armour-plates being yet unsmashed, which I exhi- 
bited in exaggerated stature, by help of the microscope, 
to our horrified cook. 

Bless her heart I she is a good, clean, simple-minded 
thing. But the mention of her name reminds me. She 
of late has heard a ghost ! In the stillness of the night, 
a knocking at the door ! Too frightened to move, she 
has simply ducked under the blankets, instead of ad- 
vancing, as we consider she should have done, interro- 
gating, “ Who’s fa* knocking at the door ?” (Aside : 


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"Dat yon. Sambo?” to be omitted.) Well, of course, 
this is no joke in a country -house. The place soon got 
the reputation of being haunted; and then there’s no 
getting servants at all. Well, it so happened that, one 
night, ourself had got deeply interested in a hideous 
novel— one of the "Fine Young English Gentleman” 
sort, that are as keenly rapid in their attractiveness 
(" sensation effect,” it is termed) as a red-herring drag, 
but which no one ever looks at a second time, for the 
pleasure of restudying a pet passage of eloquent and 
truthful worth (as one does with the Waverley lot), and 
which are only so much “rot,” to use an expressive 
vulgar term, when the literary merits of England come 
to be registered — when, about the witching hour of 
midnight, we heard a mysterious " Tap, tap 1 ran ! tap, 
tap !” It made our blood run cold, we confess ; but we 
were brave enough to explore, and we found — what, I 
wonder? Well, I'd have told you, friend. 

Heresy and insubordination in the camp ! “ You must 
indeed tell ns when the calf is going to be killed, poor 
dear little thing. It is so tame and so pretty,” with an 
air of coy indignation our eldest born little girl remon- 
strated, sitting up in her cot, as I went to give her the 
regular good-night kiss. "Such a sweet,” coaxingly 
added another little puss, also leaning out from behind 
her curtain with a remonstrativeness of pouted lip that 
was pretty to behold. " I declare I won't touch veal for 
ever so long,” said her sister in chorus. This was all in 
reference to a fawn -tinted gazelle-eyed Alderney calf that 
was unfortunately born of the masculine gender, and had 
consequently to make way for cream and butter. As if 
they hadn’t quite enough of pets already ! enough for- 
sooth to ruin any farmer. There’s the old faithful canter- 
on-three-legs Breadalbane terrier, with three fat long- 
tailed puppies in her wake, as slow-paced as herself. 
There are no end of bantams, although ultimately I had 
to send all the poultry from the stable premises to the 
bailiff’s wife at the farm, as the poor hens prone to incu- 
bation had been frequently left to their fruitless sitting 
without ever an egg under them, until it was difficult to 
say which were the barest, their hapless bosom or the 
board that served them in lieu of nest. Talk of the dis- 
comfort and attaching agonies of a seat in Parliament ; 
they are for not a moment to be compared to the occa- 
sional sufferings of a brooding fowl in a child’s hen- 
house I Then on the list of pets come cats and kittens 
in hopeless measure. Woe betide either them or the 
young pheasants ere long ! A curious incident happened 
to this special nursery puss last week. She had had left 
to her one prettily-marked bantling out of the lot born 
and duly consigned to a watery grave, and of this she was 
especially proud. Well, one day it was missing, and the 
poor mother was miserable. The children declared that 
she had forgotten where she had deposited it. This 
seemed an extraordinary theory, considering the might of 
instinct. Anyhow she followed them everywhere in their 
search about the rooms of the house, the out-buildings, 
and even through the shrubberies and woodland walks, 
all to no purpose, mewing piteously the while — whether a 
note of lamentation, or gratitude, or entreaty, it is impos- 
sible to say. At last they appropriated a kitten from a 
eat at the farm, which with much ceremony they delivered 
to the nnrsery puss. She at once took to it, while the 
robbery or transference was treated with the utmost in- 
difference by the bucolic puss, who trotted about or 
watched in the stable and cowsheds for her prey just as 
unconcernedly as if she felt that all had been done for 
the best, and that her offspring had been fortunate in its 
promotion to an upper circle. 

Well, one morning, about light, some days after the 
kitten’s disappearance, I was awoke by a sad cry, as if of 
an animal in pain, which seemed at one time quite near, 


at another quite far off. It occurred to me that it might 
be that old Melon had managed to ensnare a rabbit, of 
whose inroads he has been complaining lately, and that it 
was from this unhappy animal that the wailing proceeded. 
I looked out of the window, but failed to detect the vic- 
tim's whereabouts. Then the agonized cry drew nearer, 
until at last it was beside my pillow. I sprang np, and in 
a closet behind a chest there was the wretched missing 
kitten, crawling and shrieking as if mad with pain. It 
most have been there for some days the housemaid de- 
clares, and that without making the least sound of any 
sort. IIow to account for the circumstance is beyond 
me, unless possibly it had been in a trance. Anyhow, so 
it occurred. The nnrsery puss was delighted to receive 
her own again from the children, with sundry scoldings to 
boot, while the farm cat took ungraciously the return of 
her infant, which our fry decided it was only just to re- 
store. 

Rooklings, tom-tits, sparrows, and snch like, they 
have had in quantities, ana destroyed by excess of kind- 
ness, too, feeaing them by force ever so often in the day. 
Lastly, they have some blackfaced mountain ewe-lambs 
within a wired enclosure. This last sort doesn't pay on 
my side. It's all very well for the young ladies to have a 
snowy pet, with broad blue ribbon around its neck, nib- 
bling parsley out of their hands, and bleating gratefully 
at their approach. Bat when these said lambs grow to be 
big sheep, and in their turn have lambs too, then it comes 
to be no joke, for me at least, the fond feeder of the lot 
ovine and human, for it just happens that their pet lambs 
of the year before last have this year lambs of their own, 
which are now worth, the chicks hear from the bailiff, 
some fifteen shillings a-piece. For this sum they have 
deliberately sned me. Now if this goes on it must ulti- 
mately be a serious affair. " What about their keep, my 
pet ?” I appeal in vain. " Oh ! you know, papa, they 
can’t eat much,” &c., &c. But the subject depresses. 

To change the subject: In the river bed below the 
farm, there is lodged a huge bonlder, some five yards 
square, which when under water is, as the Irishman said, 
a sign to the traveller that he must not attempt that ford. 
It is a splendid balcony this hot weather, whereon one 
can lie wandering in dream-land, soothed, too, as Maecenas, 
by the murmur of the flowing stream. 

The other day we saw a splash from the shore ; so get- 
ting into the boat, we ascended the rock upon the upper 
side, and creeping quietly to the edge, on looking over we 
saw beneath ns a glorious salmon of about ten pounds 
weight, resting on his oars, upon the look out for spoil. 
Dash t flop ! and having secured the prey, with a quick, 
brief, curve in the flashing water, he was returning to his 
post when his quick eye marked U9, and with a glance of 
light through the wave he was gone ! 

What a blessed gift is Sabbath repose I For the 
fashionable idler it is an idea difficult to realize ; rather, 
in fact, ennuyi % tired, tiresome, he wanders from clnb to 
clnb, acquaintance to acquaintance, to the stables, to 
dinner, to early bed. The right welcome bright enjoy- 
ment it really is, fully to appreciate, take a mastership in 
a school for six months. Teach boys from half-past six 
a.m. to ten p.m., with rare intervals, when the small deer 
have their play, and are really more troublesome than 
while under lesson drill, owing to the scrapes they will 
get into, their noise, their pngnacionsness, their dirt-pie 
delight. Eh ! what it was then, to sleep the extra two 
sweet hoars unstartled by that dreadful bell ! Bat why 
particularly I dilate upon Sabbath repose here is that one 
enjoys it so thoroughly of a summer evening at one par- 
ticular corner of the sloping lawn, just where it joins on 
to a wild piece of the hill. All nature seams to appreciate 
the difference in the day. The whole air is so still and 
warm, and the tints upoq the western sky are 99 delicious. 


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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


The swallows skim fearlessly aud frequent in the upper- 
cloud region. A bright brown hawk slips idly across. 
Abundant turtle-doves croon amidst the elm-trees. The 
wild pigeons are cooing through the wood. The incessant 
rooks are so busy on their tree-tops. An occasional 
pheasant steps gallantly out from the covert shelter, occa- 
sionally escorting a timid hen who has been up to feed, 
and seems fearful of returning alone ; while a brace of 
partridges advance, pecking up to the very verge of our 
feet, wnere we lie unseen, young and old holding our 
very breath, lest we should disturb the elements of our 
enjoyment. 

We have had a good deal of trouble with the shorthorns 
of late. “ Well ! and what is it has happened to your fasci- 
nating stock ?” some may ask. Why, in the first place the 
grand cavalier the monarch Butterfly having managed by 
dint of his great weight and his being tied up to establish 
a housemaid's knee, it was judged expedient to remove him 
into a loose box. As it happened, fortunately, the place 
selected was the bay of a disused barn, where he was 
strongly walled in on every side, excepting the door, which 
he makes to creak and shake every time he touches it with 
neck or flank. Precautions had been taken in the fitting 
of it, that he should not be able* to introduce his horn 
anywhere. As his temper is not of the best, and his eye- 
balls glare out exactly like those of his graudsire the 
Towneley Frederic, I judged it expedient to attach a cord 
to the ring in his nose, to run over a small wheel on the 
beam above, being weighted at the end, so as to allow of 
his advancing and retiring at pleasure to aud from his 


manger. This was a large stone trough laid upon a bed 
of masoniy. The very moment he found himself at 
liberty he worked his horns beneath the trough, and threw 
it high in air with inconceivable strength and savage 
temper. Down it came again, and right upon the cord, 
pinning his nose to the ground ; whereupon he blared and 
roared so fearfully that his attendant, in a fright, managed 
to cut him loose and get out again in time to avoid his 
resentment. Here, theu, was a pretty kettle of fish ! 
For the time, he went positively mad. It was frightful 
to behold his fury as he wreaked it upon everything within 
reach. Fortunately there was little besides his bedding 
and his victuals attainable. He had to be watched con- 
tinuously, for fear he might manage to overthrow the 
door ; but in a day or two he grew calmer, as he got 
more used to his lodgings ; and, stealing his opportunity, 
the herd-boy, having left the door so far open as to allow 
of his hasty retreat in case of need, managed to pouuce 
upon the animal’s tail, to which he clung vigorously, 
until the beast, having exhausted himself in the vain 
endeavour to get free, took a look round of curious in- 
spection ; whereupon the lad hooked him cleverly with 
his rod, and the bovine brute was at man's mercy again. 
He became mild enough on being tied, and 1 trust now 
will not have to be done for with a bullet, as 1 once was 
afraid. What other events in the herd have occurred I 
must leave until next time. 

I forgot to mention that the ghost turned ont to be, 
as you may have guessed, simply a death-watch beetle. 

Vigil. 


AGRICULTURE OF FRANCE. 


A couple of years ago there went up Ruch a cry from the 
French agriculturists that the Government felt it incumbent 
to appoint commissions of enquiry. The country was divided 
into thirty zones, and each zone was subjected to the exami- 
nation of a different commission. The enquiry lias terminated, 
aud an immense mass of evidence has been sent to the Minister 
of Agriculture. Several volumes have already been published, 
and the information furnished by these printed reports is quite 
sufficient to show the causes of suffering. These are want of 
labour, want of capital, want of communication, want of 
instruction, and the taxes levied on the transfer of property. 
To this list may be added the sub-division of land ; but most of 
the commissions, though they point out evils attendant on this 
system, consider it favourable to production. The second 
question put by the Minister of Agriculture runs thus : — 
During the last thirty years what influence has been exercised 
on the conditions of production by the division of property P 
The commission for the department of the Manche says the 
result has been to angment production, but in reply to other 
questions the same commission points out that the small pro- 
prietors have not sufficient capital to improve their farms ; 
that the excessive division of property is an obstacle to the 
employment of machinery, and again that the principal ob- 
jection to the division of property is that it renders drainage 
impossible. The Calvados commission also replies to question 
two, that the division of property has augmented production, 
but deplores the want of capital. In Eure, sub-division has 
been found prejudicial to production, and the commission con- 
demns the practice of dividing the land amongst the heirs on 
the death ol the head of the family. M. Genteur, president of 
the 11th zone, gives much valuable information in his report. 
He says that since 1789 the division of land has constantly 
progressed, aud that, confined within reasonable limits, this 
system presents two advantage — 1st. It is useful as regards 
the development of production ; 2nd, in encouraging the 
labouring classes to buy property it “ moralises” them, in- 
terests them in the maintenance of social order, inspires them 
with conservative sentiments, and keeps them from the temp- 
tations and seductions of the town. On the contrary, when 


exaggerated it gives rise to serious inconvenience, and the 
Legislature should prevent it bein* carried to excess. Accord- 
ing to the Code Napoleon, the father, when dividing his goods 
amongst his children, is obliged to give each an equal share of 
all the objects composing liis fortune. The opinion of tlie 
agricultural world is that this law produces an excessive divi- 
sion of landed property, and that it would be better for the 
father to share his goods amongst his children according to 
their tastes and professions. Another commission reports that 
“the extreme division of property is one of the principal 
causes which prevents the use of agricultural machines.” 
And again, when alluding to drainage, “ the parcelling out of 
the land prevents the farmers carrying away the water ” The 
Commissioners admit that the system of division should end 
somewhere, but it would be a terrible blow to the ideas of 
1789 to re-establish the laws of primogeniture even as regards 
land, and no one would be bold enough to propose such a 
measure. M. Genteur does go so far as to recommend that 
the head of the family should be allowed to give liis land to 
oue child and his funded property to another ; but any bill 
introduced into the Corps Legislutif tending to such a con- 
summation would be vigorously opposed. 

Another cause of agricultural suffering is the want of labour 
felt all through the country ; this is attributed to the army, 
the development given to various industrial undertakings, and 
the immense public works being carried on in Paris and other 
large towns. Everywhere statistics show that the rural popu- 
lation is on the decrease, and that the deaths exceed the births ; 
the peasant prefers the town because the labour is generally 
lighter, more continuous, and better paid ; in fact, one can 
easily imagine the attraction for a Breton, who gets at most 
half a franc a day, of ten times that amount to be earned in 
Paris under Prefect Iluussman. That deaths should nearly 
everywhere in the country exceed births does not aloue depend 
upon emigration. If we tnrn to auother report, we find that 
immorality has much to do with the matter, and that there is 
a general hankering after luxury : — 

“ The good old manners are disappearing day by day, and 
rustic simplicity is no longer in vogue ; luxury and the lore of 


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33 


pleasure have invaded the most remote parishes. The number 
of natural children increases, the nnmber of legitimate ones 
diminishes. The peasant of to-day is determined not to have 
children. To counteract this tendency it is demanded that the 
Government should encourage large families by relieving them 
from taxation. I am obliged to state that religion is on the 
vane. The priests are wor thy of all respect, but they have 
lost their influence, and, to believe the testimony of many 
persons, this state of things has been produced in consequence 
of the clergy preaching dogma rather than morality, and not 
adhering to those principles upon which modem society 
reposes. * 

Want of capital is another malady which afflicts agriculture. 
The fever of speculation has spread through the whole country, 
and the money which used to be laid out in the improvement 
of land is now invested in railway shares and loans, or squan- 
dered on the Bourse. On the other hand, the fanner who 
desires to get money can only do so by paying an exorbitant 


interest, for very few proprietors can fulfil the conditions upon 
which alone the Credit Fonder and Credit Agricole will make 
advances. The country people also complain of the large 
amount of stamp duty which they have to pay, and where 
there are so many forced sales, and where so many persons are 
left land which they cannot keep, this species of taxation is 
es pec ially onerous. 

What most of the commissioners demand is that the con- 
scripts not belonging to the active army shall only be called 
out for drill when there is no agricultural work to do ; that 
there shall be fewer fairs and market days, where much time 
is wasted ; that the stamp duties shall be lowered ; that the 
farmer shall he Afforded facilities for getting money ; that 
agricultural instruction shall be given ; that some means shall 
be adopted to prevent the constant emigration to large towns 
and some modification introduced into the present law affect- 
ing the right of disposing of property by will . — Pall Mall 
Gazette, 


THE EXHAUSTION OF THE SOIL, AND THE RENEWAL OF ITS FERTILITY. 


The following paper was read by Mr. J. J. Mxchi, at a 
meetin g of the Mid lan d Counties Farmers’ Club, at Birming- 
ham, on Thursday last, June 4. Twenty-one years ago, I 
came on n visit to that eminent man, your near neighbour, the 
late Sir Robert Peel, who was himself even then, a great 
agricultural improver, and deeply impressed with the necessity 
for a mend in g our agricultural ways. M y speech on that occa- 
sion is recor d ed in my book. I well remember the celebrated 
“ Tamworth bull” being led oat for our inspection, and I have 
no doubt that he has left reminiscences profitable to the neigh- 
bourhood. By your invitation to me to come here to-day I 
iakt it for granted that, as agriculturists, you are dissatisfied 
with things as they are, and are resolved upon further pro- 
gress. I nave great faith in your determination in this re- 
spect, for I cannot forget the very rooent beginning of your 
now great Birmingham Show, and how rapid and suceeasfal 
has been its development. This, alone, convinces me that 
there mast be among you some bright agricultural spirits. I 
remember dining at its inaugural meeting and subscribing to 
its funds. But while your busy Birmingham hive supply 
Britain and the world abundantly with its wares, you foil to meet 
the food requirements of your neighbourhood. Why is it that 
we cann ot produce our own food in sufficient quantity P I 
have proved by my own form, and by my unoontradicted state- 
ments, that we ean more than do this, by the investment of 
greater intelligence and capital. Bat to do this we must add 
sric a ce to art, and learn to believe in science as our profitable 
helpm a te . That has been for 28 years the opinion of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England, for as I opened its annual 
vwuae I saw on the title-page “ Practice with Science,” and I 
accepted the motto in its roll significance, because I saw on its 
comkeil your talented oountyman— the author of “ Talpa” — 
and others whom I knew could fully appreciate the meaning 
of that motto. But is that title recognised and acted upon by 
the bulk of British agriculturists P I feel humiliated in being 
obliged to sey, decidedly not. What does Baron Liebig say of 
this in the preface to his last great work, “The Natural Laws 
of Husbandry,” published in 1863 P “ In the sixteen years 
which have intervened between this work and the sixth edition 
of my * Chemistry applied to Agriculture and Physiology,* I 
have had sufficient opportunity to become minted with all 
the o bstacl e s which are opposed to the introduction of scien- 
tific fo n dling into the domain of practical agriculture. Among 
the chief of these may be reckoned the complete separation 
which has always existed between science and practice. What 
do I often read in the British farmers* own papers, and what 
do I too frequently hear from farmers themselves P “None 
of your theory and book-forming for me : I am a practical 
■mn.” Bat I am happy to be able to admit that the last 
twenty yean have made some considerable inroad upon this 
foeliag, and that there is growing, especially among the rising 
aad better-educated generation, a gradual but still too 
limited tendency to believe that science may hereafter be found 
to lend useful aid in the cheaper and more abundant 
production of food for the people. Let me say for myself that 


I am a book farmer ; that for more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury I have practised by the light of science ; that I have 
read and studied the communications of eminent chemists and 
agriculturists who have thought it no disgrace to put into 
print their discoveries and experience. What benefits have 
not such men conferred ! Long after they shall have passed 
away their knowledge will remain to enlighten and advantage 
their fellow-creatures. I am a firm believer in the theories 
and principles of that great man Baron Liebig. But can we 
wonder that the agricultural mind has been so cramped and 
narrowed, when we reflect that it was only the other day, in 
the history of our nation, when we had no roads, or such bad 
one* as to be hardly available, so that the agriculturist was, 
as it were, locked up in his own parish, without educational 
resources or means of intercommunication , and, therefore, as 
a natural oonsequenoe, largely impressed with the self- 
sufficiency of isolation P But the schoolmaster is abroad now : 
the steam-kettle has set everything boiling, and we are pre- 

9 to advance at steam pace. The mind and body are 
j, and, consequently, in rapid movement, and, it I could 
come again in 1068, with some of my kind, hospitable, and 
charitable forming friends, and then “ take stock** of British 
agriculture, how greatly should we not be astonished, and 
hardly believe that we were in the good Old England of the 
present century ! We are all slaves to circumstances, and if I 
find fault, it is rather with British agriculture than with the 
British former and landowner. Begging pardon for this intro- 
ductory digression I proceed to the subject of my paper. 
There is a natural tendency in man to exhaust the soil of its 
very small percentage of rood for plants. This desire is too 
obvious to be denied, and it has caused the stringent restric- 
tions in leases forbidding the sale of hay, straw, roots, and 
green crops. Man has to be protected against himself, for he 
u his own greatest enemy, wnen he prooeeds upon a system 
of exhaustion without restoration, thus producing minimum 
instead of maximum crops. This spirit of spoliation arises 
from a want of knowledge and a mistaken belief, or hope, that 
there ia in the soil an inexhaustible store of plant food. In 
our colonies and in the United States of America (whose Go- 
vernment has still 1,500,000,000 of acres of uncropped land to 
dispose of, without any restrictions as to cropping! the first 
settler finds a soil stored with an ample supply of plant food, 
which he believes will last for ever, so he goes on cropping 
and selling everything off his land, making little or no manure, 
which is either thrown into a river or left unused, and when 
a gradual but certain exhaustion of the plant-food in the soil 
has proved to him that his crops are no longer remunera- 
tive, he seeks a new home in the unexhausted and un- 
settled for-west, taking his chance of the fever or ague, 
generated by rich but undrained and uncultivated swamps, 
or lands reeking with decomposing vegetable matter. 
Good formers in Britain can hardly realize the fact that the 
extensive and oncc-fertile original settlements of America have 
been so exhausted by 80 years of constant cropping without 
manure that some districts will uot grow wheat at all, while 

1 > 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


extensive tracts produce only from 8 to 12 bushels per acre, 
and often less. (See recent American statistics ; also Baron 
Liebig, “ Modern Agriculture,” p. 220.) The soil is like a 
school pudding, with a few plums in it, widely and very un- 
equally scattered. Baron Liebig says at p. 143 of his “ Modem 
Agriculture”: “ Chemical analysis has. with its rigorous 
methods, proved that of thousands of fields there is scarcely 
one which contains more than 1 per cent, of the ash con- 
stituents of plants (clover, for instance) in a state suitable to 
the wants of plants/’ Many fields oontain only one-fourth to 
one-half per cent., some even less; Liebig points out that if 
this plant-food (phosphate of lime, potash, and ammonia being 
the principal elements) were intimately intermixed and con- 
densed on each granule of the soil, we should get many and 
better crops from our present store; but the plant-food 
is usually not in this desirable condition, and therefore the 
chemist’s analysis of our soil gives us no accurate knowledge of 
the quantity of plant-food in it in an available condition. The 
very finely comminuted condition of Peruvian guano causes it 
to be very quickly used by the fibres of plants, especially 
when applied with water or washed into tne soil by rains. 
This teaches us the value of an intimate admixture and com- 
minution of the soil. Liebig says : “ A field is not exhausted 
for corn, clover, tobacco, or turnips so long as it yields re- 
munerative crops without needing the replacement of those 
mineral constituents which have been earned away. It is ex- 
hausted from the time that the hand of man is needed to restore 
the failing conditions of its fertility. In this sense, most of 
our cultivated fields are exhausted. The soil will be termed 
exhausted, in the agricultural sense, when the crops eease to 
be remunerative — that is, do not cover the expense of rent, 
labour, interest of money, fee.” (See Liehig, “Modem Agri- 
culture.”) I wish you would read the Baron’s lucid and 
original explanations of many things that now puzzle and per- 
lex the British farmer; for instance, why you can grow 
arley where you could not grow peas or clover ; why bones, 
snperphosphate of lime, nitrate of soda, or salt are very ad- 
vantageous in some cases and useless in others. He, as it 
were, takes you down into the soil and shows to you the plant- 
food, in what condition it is, and how the rootlets feed on it. 
I come now to oonsider the means of giving or renewing fertility. 
Natural or artificial drainage is one of the most important 
bases of fertility. No one would expect a plant to thrive in a 
flower-pot if there was not a hole at the bottom for the escape 
of surplus water. So it is with the soil. The feet appears so 
clear and indisputable that one would suppose it to be now 
generally admitted. Perhaps the want of means may prevent 
much draining, but I know that in my county there are a great 
many farmers, not deficient in capital, who do not even now 
believe in drainage on their strong loams (non-calcareous tile 
earths). Twenty-odd years ago I proved that they were mis- 
taken. We must offer our tribute of thanks in this matter of 
draining to the late Mr. Smith of Deanston, Mr. Josiah Parkes, 
and Mr. Bailey Denton. Foremost and earliest in spring 
draining was the late Mr. Elkington, of your county, who re- 
ceived £500 from Parliament in acknowledgment of the ser- 
vices he had rendered. I drained all my land 24 years ago, 
making it, as it ought to be, the first step in improvement. 
Every drain is perfect now. Probably if all the land requir- 
ing draining were to be drained, the cost would amount to 
from £40,000,000 to £100,000,000. Our best authorities 
agree that it would return 15 per cent, to pay for the 0 per 
cent, principal and interest of the operation, and it can be 
done now on security without outlay. There is so much iron 
in some parts of your county that unless the pipes be small, 
and the flow consequently rapid, the drains get filled with it. 
I remember that prevented tne success of Mr. Smith, of Dean- 
ston, draining for the late Sir Robert Peel. He used the old 
flat sole, with a tile upon it. In consequence, the flow was 
wide, thin, and slow, and the ochrey iron matter had time to 
settle and accumulate. The 1-inch pipes put in by Mr. 
Josiah Parkes caused a much more rapid flow, so that the 
ochrey matter was carried out into the open ditches. By very 
deep draining I have converted a small bog into a sound, dry, 
rofitable soil. I am sorry to see it recorded in the Society’s 
ournal and elsewhere that on some estates it has been found 
necessary after drainage for the landowner to appoint regular 
inspectors of the ditches and mouths of outlets of the drains, 
which would, but for this, be choked up, owing to the neglect 
of the tenants. This ought to form a stringent clause in the 


lease, but I rarely hear of its being interted. I heard that 
when parts of Cheshire were drained, sod the rushes dis- 
appeared, the farmers complained that drainage had spoiled 
their cheese by doing away with the rushes. The fact is, the 
milk was so much improved by the new grasses that sprung up 
that it was too fat, and the cheese would not “ travel” safely, 
but broke into pieces. Some knowing hand remedied this, by 
skimming a little of the fat or cream off before m a kin g the 
cheese. In Suffolk they make butter first, and then cneese 
from the skimmed milk. This is called “Suffolk bang.” 
There is no fear of its not travelling safely ; for it has been 
suggested that they should be used for paving stables. It is 
sold at about $$1. per lb., and is eaten sometimes with the 
fat of salt pork, to “ get it down.” I could enlarge very much 
on the advantages arising from drainage, such as greater and 
earlier crops, of better quality and eatieT ploughing, and in- 
creased temperature of soil and subsoil ; _ but most of you 
know all about it. I would not farm undrained heavy land, if 
offered to me free of rent. How important is tillage ! Alter 
drainage, and before manure, the most important. Baron 
Liebig writes (at p. 108 of his “Modern Agriculture”) : “ As 
the smallest portions of (plant) food cannot of themselves 
leave the spot in which they are held firmly fixed by the soil, 
we can understand what immense influence must be exerted 
on its fertility by its careful mechanical division and thorough 
intermixture. This is the greatest of all the difficulties which 
the agriculturist has to overcome.” This i n di cat es the im- 
portance of first-class implements in perfect c on d i ti o n, in s te a d 
of the imperfect, old-fashioned, and half-worn ones which we 
too frequently see. Tillage acts in various ways, as beauti- 
fully explained by Liebig. If ws could pee the naif per cent, 
of available plant-food in the soil, we should find xt widely 
scattered, unequally apportioned, and insu ffi cie ntly diffu s ed — 
more in one place, fees in another ; and as water cannot 
transpose it from one place to another, this must be done 
principally by cultivation. One cannot sufficiently appreciate 
the advantage of keeping the surfaoe of our hard or stiff soils 
open and friable, thus permitting the operation of those na- 
tural laws so lucidly explained by Liebig (“ Modem Agricul- 
ture,” p. 49). Alter tne crop is removed, the sail is usually 
tied together by root-fibres. It becomes of the highest im- 
portance that they should be well shaken out by cultivation, 
and thus easily decomposed by atmos p he ri c action. I have 
found by practice the advantage of cross-ploughing my clover- 
leas before they are ploughed again for wheat. It makes a 
considerable difference in the crop, and gets rid of sing and 
wireworm. I know many who do this, although the general 
opinion has been for only once ploughing ; but it is erroneous, 
at all events on suoh soil as mine. Try an acre or two ; and 
yon will soon arrive at a conclusion. Comparative trials on a 
moderate scale are very advantageous: they remove many 
prejudices, and increase our profits. I always eross-pkmgh after 
beans. The good effects of tillage are well illustrated in a con- 
servatory where plants or shrubs are pot-bound or tub-bound, and 
one wishes to avoid repotting. The pot or tub is generally 
found to be filled with one solid mass or network of roots, so 
tightly packed that water cannot enter among them. In that 
case I soften the surfaoe with water, divide the surface mats 
of roots by cutting them to pieces, fork the surface to the 
depth of 2 to 6 inches — in fact fallow as deeply as I ean, get- 
ting gradually deeper and deeper. The sickly plant soon re- 
vives, and makes new shoots in spite of l osi n g one-fourth or 
more of its roots, many of which have, no doubt, been long 
since useless. While fallowing I continue watering from 
tune to time with Peruvian guano and water (not too strong* 
about one-tenth of an ounce to the gallon). The result as a 
vigorously growing plant, where once it was pale, aiokly, in 
fact almost dying. I have many snch instances in my coasm- 
vatory of the success of such fallowing, both with flowers and 
large camellias, fee. Before leaving tillage, let ns recognise 
those two great tillage lights— Jethro Tull and the lamented 
Rev. Samuel Smith, of Lois Weedon. Let us congratulate 
ourselves on the application of mighty and untiring steam to 
the cultivation of the soil. It may, however, be well to re- 
member that, unlike the horses it has superseded, it makes no 
manure. Chemical analysis has shown that the few inches of 
ton or cultivated soil contain most of the money in our agri- 
cultural purse, each inch from the top containing lees plant 
food than the one above it. This is because the surface toil 
has the power of arresting and fixing a large quantity of plant 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


35 


food, especially ammonia (some of which it gets from the 


ch a n c e of appropriation, and then come the next and lower 
cues, and a* plants multiply their side fibres near the surface, 
we may comprehend why surface manuring is often found so 
beneficial — at least I have so found it. Now, as the first few 
Indies of top sail would take much more plant food than we 
ever give it, we can readily imagine that the poor subsoil 


ever give it, we can readily imagine that the poor subsoil 
comes badly off; in fact, we see by its appearance that al- 
though so close to the top soil it is cold, dense, pale, and unal- 
tered, mid altogether different from the friable and manured 
surface soil. Can we wonder, then, that the plants look well 
while in their early growth — rejoice in the good things of the 
top soil P Bat when their main or tap root at the later stage 
of its growth descends into the cold empty subsoil, ought we 
to be surprised at .the leaves looking bilious and queer P — 
w going to Halstead Eair” is the saying in Essex, be- 
cause the fair takes place early in May; and they also 
say sarcastically that such plants forget to return. By 
following the first plough with another (without the 
breast) drawn by four strong horses, we break up the sub- 
soil, and intermix it with the upper soil; by which means 
it participates, with the surface soil, in the manure applied. 
It does not answer to bnry the top soil and overlay it with the 
under soft. With certain soils, like mine, it would injure the 
crops for yuan. The improper physical condition of soil im- 
pedes the working of plant roots and fibres. The dense, un- 
moved, unmanured, and nnaerated condition of the subsoil 
sots iniarioasly on those plants, such as clovers, turnips, and 
other deep-rooted plants, which depend upon the subsoil for 
their summer food. Hence the “ going o a* of our corn crops 
in May and June, just when they require the largest amount 
of food ; hence the dying of clover in the spring. Its roots 
get starved when they reach the empty, nnmanured, unaired, 
and unwholesome subsoil. Clovers don't fail in the rich sub- 


soil should, if possible, be manured, for the roots of most of 
our crops descend several feet in drained soil. I know the 
case of a parsnip descending IS feet 0 inches in a loose soil. 
It is because the subsoil has so little plant food in it that our 


question of tillage, permit me to say that I do not agree with 
those who condemn Essex heavy-land formers for frequently 
dktarbine their laud by cultivation. I am convinced practi- 
cally, ana especially by the scientific reasons given by Liebig, 
that the frequent separation and intermixing or the grannies of 
the soil during suitable weather is beneficial, chemically and 
physically — assuming, of course, that the land is drained, 
naturally or artificiafly. Keeping the crops free of weeds is, 
I know practically, one of the best and cheapest methods off 
enlarging our crops. The last saving a former should resort 
toil tout of hand or horse-hoeing. The neglect in tins matter 
is painfully obvious, and robs the country of millions annually. 
Dart tdl me of sowing thiek to smother the weeds. Every 
half-crown paid for hoeing does, I know, bring baok 7s. 6d. 
The cultivation is worth tne money, irrespective of weeds. I 
always hone-hoe my wheats, beans, and peas once or twice 
with Garrett's horse-hoe (at about Is. per acre), and hand-hoe 
twice or even three times, at a cost of about 7s. 6d. to 10s. 
for the hand-hoeing. Women afterwards hand-pick any 
weeds that have escaped the hoes. We know by 
the leaves of our flowers when there is anything 
wrong below • so it is with onr field crops, and 
as 1 came here by rail certain bilious-looking crops 
in d icate d an uncomfortable state of their roots, owing 
to want of drainage or food in the subsoil, or in con- 
sequence of weedy competition. If selling off tbe crops 
from the farm causes exhaustion, bringing them (or their ele- 
ments) beck again is the true and obvious way of restoring 
fertility. The difficulty of doing this by town sewage is by no 
means great, as I know by twenty years of practical experi- 
ence, but I calculate that it will still be many years before 
landlords and tenants estimate its true value, and anxiously 
yet forward their claims for those precious streams of the life- 
blood of the nation that would enrich their fields and increase 


their gains. Our foreign importation of eatables and drink- 
ables is over £70,000,000 sterling : much of this, as well as of 
our own produce, goes down the sewers. If all were applied 
to our sou it would greatly increase its fertility. Those who 
dpsire to know the effect of town sewage on every crop should 
read Mr. John C. Morton's recently published report of his 
experience at the Lodge Farm, Barking, with 300,000 tons of 
London sewage (published in a 2s. pamphlet, by Warne and 
Co., Bedford Bow, London). If these facts do not open the 
eyes of landlords and tenants to the advantage of using and 
paying for town sewage, my opinion of the English character 
must be a wrong one. It is a disgrace to our intelligence that 
the use of sewage should be forced upon us mainly by sanitary 
rather than agricultural considerations. I mu s t congratulate 
your county that the town of Leamington should have 
assembled a Sewage Congress, due, mainly, to the indefatigable 


assembled a Sewage Congress, due, mainly, to the indefatigable 
and praiseworthy exertions of one individual. I am glad to 
find that Birmingham is at length taking steps to utilise its 
sewage. This is also being done by many lunatic asylums, 
onions, prisons, reformatories, and public charities. It does 
seem like a national absurdity to pay millions for birds' dung 
from Fern, and yet waste our own at home. But let us deal 
with the time and circumstanoes present. Let us admit that 
we waste our sewage, and that we are not yet sufficiently 
educated (agriculturally) to comprehend the physical and 
chemical conditions of our soil and its requirements. Let us 
confess that we don't believe enough in the agricultural chemist. 
I am now going to tell you of what I call a golden maxim for fer- 
tilising our exhausted soils. Let your live stock consume, in pro- 
portion to each acre of your land, a large quantity of cattle food 
that was not produced on your own farm. Make , as it were, 
a farmyard or foldyard of your land, taking care that every 
particle of the manure, solid or liquid, shall go on to or into 
the soil. It is of little use to raise food on one sid e of the 
farm to be consumed on the other. That adds no mineral 
element to the soil : it is like “ robbing Peter to pay Paul,” or 
taking money out of the right-hand pocket to put in the left- 
hand one— the stock of money is not increased. All onr most 
successful farmers use plenty of cake, that was not produced 
on their own farms, but is the produce of foreign countries. Im- 
port cattle food instead of man’s food. I know some first- 
rate farmers who invariably oonsume £3 worth of cake per 
acre per annum over the whole farm. Such people have 
always plenty of corn to sell. These remarks apply equally 
to grass lands. Take foul and exhausted grass land, fold it 
closely with fattening sheep (not store auimals), consuming 
plenty of cake, beans, malt combs, bran, roots, and hay, ana 
its poverty will suddenly disappear. Half the kingdom is in 
grass land, and most of it is robbed and starved. That is a 
great arithmetical mistake— I mean subtraction instead of ad- 
dition. I give this golden maxim as a practical fanner of 26 
years ; bat if it is disbelieved or doubtea, try an acre on each 
field. On this acre consume £6 worth of produce (cake pre- 
ferred) that did not grow on your farm, ana then keep an ac- 
count of its prodace for the next four years, and it will effect 
a most satisfactory change, both in your mind and pocket. 
Bemember that, when by draining and high farming you have 
destroyed the sour worthless grasses, you must re-sow with 
good grasses and clovers adapted to the altered and improved 
condition of your soil. We are far too sparing as to sowing new 
grass seeds and elovers on onr pastures from time to time. 


Having for 20 years used from £o00 to £1,600 worth of pur- 
chased food, as well as each year some guano, &c., I am 


Voelcker, and Lawes, so that we must give a decided verdict 
against artificial manures. Except on the score of want of 
capital, or for its portability, it is decidedly disadvantageous 
as compared with the sheep-fold or under-cover-made 
manure, all of the animals of coarse being highly fed on a 
variety of rich food. With poor lean-stock-made manure, 
guano and artificials show to greater advantage, aud they arc 
always useful as auxiliaries when we are short of the best 
cattle manure, which we rarely have in sufficient quantity. 
In certain exceptional cases, such as Cheshire — where the one 
element wanting was bone earth, bones— or superphosphate of 
lime, have been found of immense advantage. Artificial 
manures, and even guano, are deficient in some of the neces- 
sary plant food ; therefore it has been found, on some light 
lands particularly, that the land gets tired of guano, and that it 

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has had an exhausting effect. Guano is certainly nearly 50 
per cent, too dear in comparison with the beat shed-manure, 
and its price regulates that of other artificials. The building 
up of a plant is like the building up of a house— we must first 
know what materials are required, and then take care that 
they are all provided in a suitable condition and proper propor- 
tion. The want of any one of them would render all the rest 
useless, although they were present in superabundance. Given, 
in the case of house-building, slates, bricks, lime, sand, boards, 
nails, and labour ; still they would all be useless by the 
omission of water, or any one of the other materials. 
This is the great plant-lesson enforced and explained by that 
great philosopher Baron Liebig, whose works will, in 1968, be 
found in the library of every intelligent farmer. A ton of 
Peruvian guano costs £13 ; and taking this as ^standard, Mr. 
Lawes has given in the following table the value of the manure 
produced from the consumption of a ton of various kinds of 
food. This may be said to settle the question against arti- 
ficials • but then farmers must treat their manure as they do 
their guano— keep it free from rain-water. No farmer would 
think of scattering his guano over his farm-yard and allow the 
rains to wash much of it away ; but it is equally wrong so to 
treat his home-made guano. He should always leave half- 
an-acre unmaunred, or try artificial manures on a small space, 
so as to form a correct comparative opinion as to their value. 
This is too seldom done. We ought also more frequently to 
submit our cake and artificials to the agricultural chemist, 
whose large experience would, for a very moderate considera- 
tion, spare an immense amouut of victimising. This is one 
very obvious way iu which science will benefit agriculture. 

Ur. Lave*' Table, showing the estimated value of the manure 
obtained from the consumption of one ton of different articles 
of food, each supposed to be of good quality of its kind 

| Estimated money 
* . value of manure 

I^onofJfcod. 


1 Decorticated cotton-seed £ s. d. 

cake 11 10 0 

2 Not decorticated 7 0 0 

3 Rapecake 7 0 0 

4* Linseedcake 11 0 0 

6 Malt-dust 6 0 0 

6 Bran 5 10 0 

7 Lentils — 

8 Linseed — 

9 Tares — 

10 Beans 11 0 0 

11 Peas 11 0 0 

12 Locust beans — 

13 Oats 9 10 0 

14 Wheat 17 10 0 

15 Indian corn 9 0 0 

16 Malt — 

17 Barley 11 0 0 

18 Clover hay 4 10 0 

19 Meadow nay 3 5 0 

20 Oat straw — 

21 Wheat straw 2 0 0 

22 Barley straw 1 10 0 

23 Potatoes 6 0 0 

24 Mangolds 1 0 0 

25 Swedish turnips 1 0 0 

26 Common turnips 0 12 0 

27 Carrots 1 10 0 

28 Fresh cut meadow grass — 

29 Ditto Italian rye-grass... 0 17 0 
One ton of meat (best quality) sells for 

per stone of 81bs.— say that it takes 81bs. 
make lib. of meat. 

1 ton of meat 

8 tons of rape-cake, at £6 10s.... £52 

Cost of carting, breaking, feeding 
out, 6s. per ton 2 


4 18 0 
4 12 0 
4 5 0 

3 17 0 
3 13 0 
3 IS 6 
3 13 6 
3 2 6 
12 6 
1 14 6 

1 13 0 
1 11 6 
1 11 6 
19 6 

2 5 0 
1 10 0 
0 13 6 
0 12 6 
0 10 6 
0 7 0 
0 5 0 
0 4 3 
0 4 0 
0 4 0 


7M. per lb., or 5s. 
of corn or cake to 

... £70 0 0 


64 8 0 


Value of manure 


£16 12 0 
39 4 0 


£53 16 0 


So here we get £53 16s. worth of guano for nothing. Ver- 
dict for the plaintiff. 


Take linseed cake, 8 tons, at £11 

£88 

0 

0 

Feeding out, Ac 

2 

8 

0 


£90 

T" 

O 

1 too of meat 

70 

0 

O 


£20 

8 

0 

Value of manure at £4 12s. per ton 

£36 

16 

0 

Loss on feeding ... 

20 

8 

0 

Value of manure 

£16 

8 

0 

Take 8 tons of beans, at £10 per ton 

£80 

0 

0 

Grinding and feeding out 

4 

O 

0 


£84 

0 

0 

1 ton of meat 

70 

0 

0 


£14 

0 

0 

Value of manure from 8 tons of beans, at 




£3 13s. 6d 

£29 

8 

0 

Less 

14 

0 

0 

Value of manure 

£15 

8 

~o 


All these calculations are founded on the estimate that it 
takes 81bs. of cake or beans to make lib. nett of meat. Some 
people say 71bs. will do it. Lawes says 51bt. to lib. live 
weight. My live-stock account of last year (which you have 
uo doubt seen) show that my animals consumed — 

Of purchased cake and linseed £228 0 0 

Corn (principally beans and some oats) ... 236 O O 

Malt combs 17 O O 

Bran 42 O 0 

Condimental food 35 0 0 

£558 0 0 


Also the produce of 25} acres of grass and green and root 
crops. After charging to the stock all the purchased food, 
the cost of producing the green and root crops, and all ex- 
penses of attendance (horse and manual labour), the balance 
or charge against the stock, or rather for the manure, was 
only £158 4s. 9d. In 1865 and 1866 the balance was still 
more favourable, because meat was dearer and feeding-staffs 
cheaper than in 1867. The manure from the purchasqjl food 
alone is worth (according to Mr. Lawes' table) about £240, 
besides the value of all the manure arising from the consump- 
tion of 25} acres of home-grown green and root crops, and a 
large quantity of straw used as food and as bedding. Alto- 
gether, we can fairly take the manorial value of the whole as 
£340, against a loss of £158 4s. 9d. in feeding. I know also 
from experience that the farm manure greatly exceeds in effect 
the artificial manures. But you must not expect such favour- 
able results as I get, unless you adopt my plan of economising 
food by comminution and variety, by giving it warm in winter, 
by under-cover feeding of cattle, and folding of sheep in sum- 
mer ; and, not least, keeping the manure under cover, and 
doing all the laborious portion by steam power, which 1 have 
now used for over 20 years. My cattle never get more than 
lialf-a- bushel (301bs.) of roots daily, pulped and mixed with 
much straw chaff, 121bs. of beanmeal and cake, lib. each of 
bran and malt combs, }lb. of crushed linseed, and lib. of con- 
dimental food. Boots and green food should only be used 
as salad with richer and dner food. They are expensive to 
grow, and the cost of them in handling and feeding out is 
great. A ton of cake worth £10 will only cost half as much 
to prepare and give to the stock as a ton of bulky and watery 
roots, worth IDs. to 12s. When given in the usual large 
quantities, they are rather physic than food, taxing unduly the 
urinary organs, and keeping the bowels too relaxed, for they 
oontain 88 to 90 per cent, of water — but we are not here to- 
day to discuss the feeding question. Cheese-making and milk- 
selling are sad exhausters of the plant-food in the soil, unless 
the oows are largely supplied with supplementary food ; and 
the system of raising and selling half-starved lean stock starves 
the land, the landlord, and the lanner, except on very rich soils. 
As a rule, I say, tell me how much fat meat you make per acre, 
and I will tell you bow much corn you grow, for corn is de- 
pendent ou fat-meat manure. Lime is a good servant, but a 


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37 


lad master ; lime (like earth burning) tends to render trail* 
able the plant^food in the soil which was before unavailable, 
owing to its improper physical or chemical condition. Lime 
adds little manure to the soil ; it only cooks or prepares what 
there is in the soil, and gets it ready for the plant. 
The continuous use of lime, or rather its excretive use, 
without ample manuring, has in too many im- 

poverished the land, the tenant, and the landlord. It appears 
to me that one of the most important uses of ehalk and lime 
is to neutralise or destroy the regetable adds in the soil In 
Essex, on our stiff non-calcareoos days, we all know that 
where a wood or fence has been removed from our heavy soil, 
no s atisf actory crop can be got until the land is chalked, but I 
never heard any explanation of this except that the earth was 
sweetened. No doubt the land was sour, or rather the vege- 
table excretions — roots — were add. Land that grows sorrel 
will no longer grow it after chalking. To test the action of 
chalk, I scraped some into powder, and placed in a wineglass 
as much as would one-fourth fill it. On pouring on to it 
some vinegar a violent ebullition took place, boiling over the 
mouth of the glass. No such effect could be again produced 
with the same chalk and vinegar. Both alkali and add were 
neutralised. The fanners say it is of no use chalking a 
second time— at least for 14 years. This appears to explain 
why it is so. I have often been found fault with for not 
chalking or liming sufficiently, but I do not find the need of it, 
because the quantity of ammonia produced by my stock feed- 
ing under cover, effected, as shown by the crop, the same pur- 
pose as the chalk. Convinced of tins, I asked the opinion of 
an eminent chemist, and he stated that ammonia was an alkali 
five tunes more powerful than chalk. Possibly it may be that 
the excess of ammonia in Peruvian guano acts fevourahly in 
cold sour soils, by neutralising or ^destroying 'acidity rather 
than as food for plants. I presume that the ammonia which 
remits from the folding of sheep fed on rich nitrogenous food, 
such as cake, beaus, &c., which enrich poor heavy land pas- 
tares, neutralise the adds produced from the immense network 
of dead grass fibres in the soil. Baron Liebig says that irri- 
gating grass-lands produces the same effects as careful plough- 
ing. It is easy then to understand the favourable effects of 
town sewage on grass lands, especially Italian rye-grass, for 
such sewage superahounds in ammonia, which is considerably 
in excess of proportion to the other ingredients of plant food 
contained in the sewage. I consider salt a very important in- 
gredient. Although scarcely a manure in itself (except for 
saline plants, such as mangel wared) it confers many benefits 
by dissolving and distributing the phosphates that are 
already in the soil. It attracts and retains moisture 
in light soils, and on such soils is of very great value as a top- 
dressing, by preventing the ravages of wireworm. I always 
sow six imperial bushels per acre on my light land wheat and 
barley before the wireworm acts — that is, before the plant ap- 
pears above ground. I know some persons who use as much 
as 5 cwt. per acre. I sow about II cwt. per acre ou heavy 
land (drained), mixed with guano for wheat and oats. The 
ashes of mangel wurael contain much salt. An excess of salt 
render* the land barren for a time. Our stiff, plastic, non- 
calcareoos day, almost free from vegetable matter, becomes, 
when burned, real brickdust, and yet it is a most valuable fer- 
tilizer. Twenty years ago 1 burned an immense quantity, with 
great advantage. Science teaches ns the why and the where- 
fore. Here it tells ns that the hitherto unavailable elements 
of plant food locked up in our stiff days become liberated by 
the action of fire, and rendered available for the feeding of our 
crops. But there is another and most important advantage. 
The physical condition of the soil is entirely changed by burn- 
ing. The bird-lime, or putty-like soil, previously almost im- 
pervious to air or water, becomes loose mid friable, permitting 
the free drcnlation of plant roots, and making the land work 
so much easier, and leave the plough breast readily. There is 
no safer investment on stiff days than burning the nasty stick- 
ing, dense, unmanured subsoil ; where coal is dear it must be 
dried by the atmosphere before burning, and is of course sum- 
mer work. One old stump of a pollard will start and burn 
140 cubic yards. The most notable and successful instance 
of earth-burning on a large scale is that of Mr. Randall, near 
Evesham. He has continued burning, winter and summer, 
for 20 years. Coal-dust is there very cheap, and one ton will 
horn twenty tons of earth. Ton have no doubt observed the 
immense mounds of earth burned for ballast or road basis for 


railways, or where new streets are being made. Burned clay 
or brickdust is a capital manure for roots, owing to the alka- 
lies in the soil being liberated by burning, especially so after 
being used as s bed for animals. It is a first-rate dry bed for 
sheep ; a barrowful daily to abont twenty sheep. It most be 
kept dry under cover or thatch ready for use. This is Mr. 
Randall’s practice. When we have learned, as farmers, the 
value of straw for feeding purposes, we shall burn more earth 
and use more sparred floors. I have my eye on many thou- 
sand miles of great wide banks, miscalled fences, filled with 
worthless pollards and straggling hashes, untrimmed and un- 
cared for. I would born the lot, and then they would beoome 
a source of considerable fertility to the soil. Now they are 
robbers and impoverishers, and a breeding place for weeds and 
vermin ; in fact, a regular nuisance. We can’t afford to grow 
wood on cornfields now. Land is too dear for that, and coals 
too cheap. We most go for our wood to the non-rented 
forests of Canada. 

The suggestions I have made necessarily lead us to consider 
perhaps one of the most useful lessons a fanner can learn 
—namely, “ What is the most profitable amount of 
capital to invest per acreP” for on this depends much of his 
success. In a poor arable form like mine, requiring much 
manure, I find £16 not enough, and I should prder from £20 
to £26. This, I know, is very much above the usual amount 
estimated in the general opinion, which is £10 per acre. 
Taking the whole country I do not believe it is so much as £5 
per acre. In my balance-sheet yon will have seen how this 
£16 was apportioned, the most important point befog live 
stock £6 per acre. Is that too much on an arable farm P No. 
I wish it could be £10 per acre, as it ought to be, for the 
manure is in exact proportion to the live stock. In this re- 
spect no better confirmation of the soundness of the proposi- 
tion, and no better example can be followed, than that of the 
agricultural labourer, with his one pig and his 20 rods of 
ground. That animal when fat is worth on an average £4 
(say 8 score pounds of meat at 6d. per lb.), so that the capital 
invested in fet live stock is £32 per acre ! ! ! and as the manure 
exactly follows the meat made, he makes probably twenty times 
as much manure as the average of farmers. This is a greet 
lesson. Can we wonder that the eottage-garden is productive P 
I often hear labourer* say, “ If I don't fet a pig my garden 
becomes unproductive P” But then, how are we to get the 
capital P Well, credit is capital, and profitable capital too 
(although it belongs to somebody else), in industrious, careful, 
capable nands. Here the labourer, again, gives evidence. He 
buys his lean pig for £1. The miller trusts him with the three 


it, pays 

garden. Honest, industrious, capable ''farmers, having a lease, 
or an unchanging landlord, can go to the miller quite as well 
as the cottager does, and will find the rich cattle-dealer accom- 
modating “for a consideration,” to which he is fairly entitled. 
Hie banker obliges the cattle dealer, and uses a portion of his 
customers’ deposits for that purpose. Have not many of our 
self-made men in the City of London and in your busy empo- 
rium (Birmingham) begun with no other capital than industry, 
honesty, and ability P Upon that sound foundation other 
people’s capital has found a safe and profitable resting-place ; 
so it is, or should be, in agriculture. Depend upon it, when 
agriculture is improved and so carried out as to become more 
profitable and leu uncertain, capital will be readily found. 
But there must be “ a will ” and then there will be 
found “ a way.” I am bound in trnth to say that it 
is the want of will and belief rather than the want of 
means that retards agricultural progress. The belief 
in money - making ratner than the desire for cheap 
locomotion opened our purses, and emptied them too, to the 
extent of £600,000,000, in making railways. I have spun 
“ a very tough yam hut if on taking it to pieces you can 
find a few useful threads, my object will have been accom- 
plished, and I shall be much gratified. But as words without 
deeds do not carry their weight, let me invite a deputation 
from your Club to come and inspect my crops in July, just 
before harvest. You will then be able to judge practically of 
the results of my system. You will see seventy-three acres of 
wheat, which, judging from their present appearance, may 
compete with any crops grown on the richest land in the king- 
dom, although Tiptree Heath land is naturally notoriously 


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38 


THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


poor. You will probably pronounce them to be amply thick, 
although only sown with 1 bushel of seed per acre, and (al- 
though this is no part of our subject) you will conclude that 
an immense waste of seed occurs in this country which might 
be avoided by a better style of farming. Even the peck of 
wheat per acre may surprise you. ion will also decide 
whether the money spent m procuring the absence of weeds is 
remunerative. You have had before you my balance-sheets 
(truthful copies of my accounts), and baye therefore the means 
of judging by an inspection of the farm whether this year, be 
the pnee what it may, the crops are likely to prove remunera- 
tive. Believe me when I say that my sole o eject in making 
these remarks, and giving you this invitation is, as it always 
has been and ever will be, a sincere desire to increase and 
cheapen the food, and enlarge the sphere for employment of 
the British people, and concurrently to improve the farmers’ 
and landlords’ profit, and the general well-being and well- 
doing of our common country. This, in my opinion, is, in a 


national point of view, the most important of our duties. The 
stomach cannot wait. The food question acts for good or for 
evil on all other interests, which are therefore more or less 
subservient to and dependent upon its quantity and price- 
revolutionary and rebellious principles find little room in well- 
filled stomachs ; but hunger breeds discontent and fosters 
crime. The margin for agricultural improvement is, in this 
country, immense. I have often stated, and that statement 
has never been contradicted, that with skill and capital omr 
home-food supply (meat and bread) might he more than 
doubled. Tiptree Farm is a proof of this, because it» average 
quality is much below that of the kingdom, while its produce 
is much more than double that of the country at large. I am 
no participator in a fear of foreign competition. I*t us, there- 
fore, be dissatisfied with things as they are ; let us apply dur 
will (capital will speedily follow) to the better and Cheaper 
| feeding of Hr. John Bull. 


ROYAL AGRICULTURAL 

Monthly Council, Wednesday, June 3, 1868.— 
Present : The Duke of Richmond, K.G., president, in the 
chair; Lord Bridport, Lord Kcsteven, Lord Tredegar, 
Sir J. V. B. Johnstone, Bart., M.P. ; Sir A. K. Mac- 
donald, Bart. ; Sir W. Miles, Bart. ; Sir H. Vane, Bart ; 
Sir Watkin W. Wynn, Bfirt., M.P. ; Mr. Amos, Mr. 
Baldwin, Mr. Barnett, Mr. Bowly, Mr. Cantrell, Colonel 
Challoner, Mr. Davies, Mr. Dent, M.P. ; Mr. Dnice, 
Mr. Edmunds, Mr. Brandreth Gibbs, Mr. Hassall, Mr. 
Holland, M.P. j Mr. Hornsby, Mr. Hoskyns, Colonel 
Kingscotc, M.P. ; Mr. Mil ward, Mr. Pain, Mr. Randell, 
Mr. Ransome, Mr. Sanday, Mr. Shuttleworth, Mr. N. C. 
Stone, Mr. Torr, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Webb, Mr. Wells, 
Major Wilson, Mr. Jacob Wilson, and Dr. Voelcker. 

The following new members were elected 
Audcrson, Charles G., Countcsthorpe, Leicester 
Arabin, W. St. Jnlicn, Englefield Green, Surrey 
Badcock, Rev. Thomas, Fleckney, Market Qarborough 
Bcrridge, Thomas, Sutton, Lutterworth 
Berry, William, 95, High-street, Leicester 
BIuckc, Rev. William Strong, Willoughby, Lutterworth 
Bowden, W., jun.. Prospect House, Cirencester 
Brierley, Harry, Church Lawford, Rugby 
Brook, Charles, Enderby Hall, Leicester 
Burley, Wm. Robinson, Leicester 
Burney, George, Millwall, London, E. 

Catlin, Richard Edgar, Leicester 

Chamberlain, Henry B., Ivy House, Dcsford, Leicester 

Chapman, William, Apethorpe, Peterborough 

Clarke, John Sanders, Seatling Hall, Lutterworth 

Cooper, Alfred Allen, Leicester 

Crawford, Miss, Hill House, Farnsfield, Southwell 

Dain, M. J., Leicester 

Davies, Benjamin, Huyton, Chorley 

Duff, Alexander M„ 37, Gallowtree Gate, Leicester 

Eckersley, James, Burnt House, Chorley, Lancashire 

Ellis, James, Glenfield, Leicester 

Emberlin, Horatio Edwin, Oadby, Leicester 

Fletcher, George, The Friars, Leicester 

Fletcher, Wm. Ainton, Shipton Olliffe, Cheltenham 

Foster, John, Copson Lodge, Hinckley 

Fowko, Frederick Thomas, Lowesby Hall, Leicester 

Fowler, Robert, Leeds 

Foxton, George Prebend Terrace, Leicester 

Furness, Rev. John Monteith, Oakfield, Rugby 

Gee, John, Welford, Rugby » 

German, William, Measham Lodge, Mherstone 
Gerrard, John, Adlington, Chorley 

Godfrey, William, Borongh Fields, Walton, Bnrton-on-Trent 
Goodacre, R. J., 22, Lower Hastings -street, Leicester 
Green, William, Leicester 
G rims ton, Captain R. V. Sylvester, Leicester 


SOCIETY OP ENGLAND. 

Hack, Matthew, Leicester 

Harcourt, Edward Wm., Stanton Harconrt, Witney 

Hardwick, Richard, Bowdon, Altrincham 

Harrison, Thomas, 3. The Crescent, Leicester 

Hartopp, Sir John, Bart., Four Oaks Hall, Sutton Coldfield 

Hassall, Thomas, Rearsby Rectory, Leicester 

Hawkes, Thomas, Tiverton 

Higginson, John, Humberstonc Road, Leicester 

Hiu, Abraham, St. George’s, Leicester 

Hodges, Frank, Mayfield, Leicester 

Hodges, George Heniy, Stonygate, Leicester 

Hodges, John Edwara, Stonygate, Leicester 

Hodges, Thomas William. Mayfield, Leicester 

Hollmgworth, John, Market-street, Leicester 

Hood, the Hon. A. W. A. Nelson, Cumberland Lodge, Windsor 

Hoskyns, Rev. Henry James, Blaby Rectory, Leicester 

§ oward, B. M., Great Witchingham, Norwich 
owland, A. R., Lndesdon House, Thame 
Hubbersty, Wm. Philip, Wirksworth 
Innocent, Arthur, Kib worth, Beauchamp , Leicester 
Johnson, Wm. Henry, Old Hall, Braunstone, Leicester 
Jones, John, Maes-y-paudy, Machynlleth, Merionethshire 
Mayman, B., 56, Drury Building, Water-street, Liverpool 
Miles, William, Leicester 
Odames, Samuel, Leicester 
Overton, Robert, jun., Leicester 
Ouston, H. A., Bushloe House, Great Wigton, Leicester 
Parrish, Richard, The Uplands, Bridgnorth 
Parrott, John, jun., Norfolk Farm, Staines 
Pearson, Wm., North Kilworth, Rugby 
Pochin, R. G., Braunstone House, Leicester 
Potterton, Wm. H., Boughton Grange, Northampton 
Preston, James, Leicester 

Pugh, Wm. C., Stratford Villa, Woburn Road, Croydon 

Ratcliff, Thomas, Norton-juxta-Twycross, Shecpy, Athenftode 

Sarson, John, Leicester 

Saunders, Charles R., Nunwick Hall, Penrith 

Shipman, Robert M., Bredbury, Stockport 

Stone, Joseph C., Rowley Fields, Leicester 

Stone, Samuel, Glenfield House, Leicester 

Tate, Wm. James, St. Margaret's, Dunham Massey, Altrincham 

Thorpe, William, Shenton, Nuneaton 

Tyrwhitt, Sir Hy., Bart., Ashwell Thorpe HalL Wymondham 

Whitaker, B. L, Hesley Hall, Tickhill, Rotherham 

Willett, Geo. W., West House, Portland Place, Brighton 

Wood, Charles Henton, Thurlastom Hinckley 

Wood, Rev. W. Paul, Saddington Rectory, Market Harboro*. 

Worswick, R. W., Normanton Hall, HincYley 

Finances. — Major-General Lord Bridport presented 
the report of the committee, from which it Appeared that 
the Secretary's receipts during the past month, amounting 
to £1,135 la. 6d., had been examined by the committee, 
and by Messrs. Quilter, Ball, and Co., the Society's 


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scconntanU, and were found correct. The balance in the 
hands of the hankers on May 31 was £8,508 8s. 4d. 
The committee had heard with regret of the death of 
Inspector Bradstock, of the Metropolitan Police, who for 
many years rendered good service to the Society at their 
annual Shows, and desire to record their expression of 
sorrow, and suggest that the Secretary be empowered by 
the Council to oonvey their sincere sympathy to his 
widow. This report was adopted. 

Journal. — Mr. Thompson, chairman, reported that in 
consequence of the lamented death of their late Editor, 
it has been necessary to make temporary provision for 
carrying on the Journal work, and, subject to the ap- 
proval of the Council, the committee have made arrange- 
ments with Mr. Goodwin to bring oat the next Number. 
The committee recommended that a list of members be 
printed in the next Number. The arrangements con- 
nected with filling up the vacant post of Editor having 
been the subject of much discussion at two successive 
meetings of the committee, at which considerable variety 
of opinion was expressed, it Was finally resolved that the 
Question should be referred to the Council for their consi- 
deration and decision. This report was adopted. Mr. 
Randell having moved that in future the Secretary of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England be also Editor of 
the Journal^ was seconded by Lord Bridport, and sup- 
ported by Mr. Milward, Colonel Kingsoote, M.P., Mr. 
Bowly, Mr. Holland, M.P., Mr. Jacob* Wilson, and Mr. 
Torr ; and opposed by Colonel Challoner, Mr. Thompson, 
and Mr. Dent, M.P. The wording of the motion having 
been altered to “That after the 1st January, 1869, the 
offices of Editor and Secretary shall be held by the same 
gentleman,” it was supported by Lord Bridport, and, after 
a long discussion, carried by 22 Ayes to 5 Noes. 

On the motion of Sir W. Miles, a committee, consisting 
of the President, Earl Cathcart, Lord Bridport, Mr. Dent, 
M.P., Mr. Edmonds, Mr. Brandreth Gibbs, Mr. Wren 
Hoskyns, Mr. Randell, Mr. Thompson, and Mr. We Ms 
was appointed, to consider how the decision is to be carried 
nut. 

Chjssic.il. — Sir John Johnstone stated that Dr. 
V Quicker reported that he has in preparation a paper on 
the special causes of the beneficial effect of Clover as a 
preparatory crop for Wheat, embodying some of the 
laboratory results of an investigation into the chemistry 
of the Clover plant. There is also standing over from the 
last Journal a paper, already in type, on the composition 
end nutritive value of Trifolinm striatum, a new kind of 
Clover, especially adapted for poor sandy soils. The 
committee beg to call tne attention of fanners to the feet 
that the nnmber of adulterated guanos this season in the 
market is unusually large ; and in some cases, where it 
has been told by auction, the sample proved to be not 
worth one-fourth of the price paid for it. The com- 
mittee cannot help expressing their regret that the trade 
in spurious manures snonld receive encouragement by the 
system of purchasing manures (an article so liable to adul- 
teration) by auction sales. 

Leicester Meetino. — Mr. Thompson, chairman, 
reported the recommendation of the committee, that Mr. 
Stphiek be engaged as Assistant-Steward, on the usual 
terms ; that shedding and hurdles, as per entries, be 
ordered from the contractor; that 10,000 stock cata- 
logues and 8,000 implement catalogues be printed ; that 
the charity and union workhouse schools shall be admitted 
free to the show-yard ou the last day of the show, subject 
to such regulations as the local committee think desirable. 

Manchester Meeting , 1869. — That it is desirable that 
smno member of Council should superintend and direct 
the preparation of the land for the trial of implements, 
and make arrangements for the snpply of forage to the 
show- yard. The committee recommend that Mr, Davies 


be requested to undertake this duty, and authorized to 
make all the necessary arrangements, and a statement of 
the probable quantities required to be sent to him by the 
Secretary. This report was adopted. 

Implements.— Mr. Thompson reported the following 
list of prizes, to be offered for competition in 1869 : 

Machine* and Implement* for the Harvatiivj of Crop*. 

Sect. I. For the class of mowing machines — for two-horse 
machines, £50 ; for one-horse machines, £30. 

Sect. II. For the class of hay-making machines, £30. 

Sect III. For the class of nay collectors, £15. 

Sect IV. Reaping machines : 1. For the class of reaping 
machines with self-delivery, in sheaf, dear of the horse track, 
£60 ; 2. For the class of reaping machines with self-delivery, 
in swathe, dear of the horse track, £60 ; 3. For the class of 
reaping machines without self-delivery, £30 ; 4. For combined 
reaping |and grass-mowing machines, £30 ; 5. One-horse 
reapers, £30. 

Sect. V. For the class of horse-rakes, £30. 

Sect VI. Waggons: The dare of— 1. Pair-horse waggons, 
£30 ; 2. Other waggons, £20. 

Sect VII. Carts: The class of— 1. Single-horse carts, £20 ; 
2. Two-horse carts, £20 ; 3. Harvest carts, £15 ; 4. Market 
casts on springs, £10 ; 5. Liquid manure carts, £10. 

Miscellaneous awards to agricultural articles and essential 
improvements therein (10 Silver Medals). 

This report was adopted. 

Education. — Mr. Holland, M.P., stated that the 
committee recommended that the thanks of the Council 
he given to each of the Examiners for the service ren- 
dered, and that each of the nine gentlemen who are not 
members of Council be presented with the sum *of £5. 
Of the] £200 allotted to education, £119 14s. 6d. has 
been expended as follows, viz., 9 Examiners, at £5 each, 
£45 ; awarded in prizes, £60 ; expended in printing and 
advertisements, £14 14s. 6d. : £119 14s. 6d. This re- 
port was adopted. 

Show- yard Contract. — Mr. Randell, chairman, pre- 
sented the following report from the surveyor : — 

“ The Show-yard works at Leicester are progressing very 
satisfactorily, and are fast approaching completion. The main 
entrances, and the whole of the Society’s portable buildings 
are ready for use. The outer fences and gates are also com- 
pleted; two -thirds of the cattle sheds, horse-boxes, and 
stables are also erected. Seed and model sheds complete, and 
the whole of the implement sheds, including those erected by 
the Society for exhibitors in machinery in motion yard, are in 
a forward state ; 7,000 feet of the former, and the whole of 
the latter, are already completed. The fodder and nurse-cow 
sheds are also completed. The Local Committee are making 
great efforts to make everything complete, the levelling already 
done in the show-yard is far more than asked for, and the 
roads and approaches, both from railway-siding to receiving 
yard, and to tne entrances for carriages and foot people, when 
completed (and is already in a forward state), will be every- 
thing that can be desired. The railway siding is in a for- 
ward state, but the dock and platform accommodation is in- 
sufficient ; this I have pointed out to the local engineer, and 
orders have been sent him from Derby to increase it.” 

It is recommended that the Royal Horticultural Soeiety he 
asked to join in the expense of erecting a shed over turn- 
stiles in the fence between the Show-yard and their 
grounds ; one of the Society’s turnstiles, and one belong- 
ing to the Horticultural Society, being placed in such 
fence. The surveyor having certified that the contractor 
is now entitled to the sum of £2,000, the committee re- 
commend the payment of that sum. The committee re- 
commend that the surveyor go to Manchester, and pre- 
pare a preliminary plan of the Show-yard, previous to the 
next Council meeting. This report was adopted. 

Mr. Torr having called attention to the subject of re- 
freshments in the Show-yard, it was referred to the Man- 
chester Committee. 

Judges. — A committee, consistieg of Lord Bridport, 
Sir Archibald Macdonald, Bart., Colonel Kingscote, M.P., 


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Mr. Dent, M.P., Mr. Amos, Mr. Bowl/, Mr. Davies, Mr. I the present year, offer a few prises for village farriers or 
Druce, Mr. Brandreth Gibbs, Mr. Randell, Mr. Milward, j blacksmiths to compete for, in making, fitting, and 
Mr. Sanday, Mr. Torr, Mr. Webb, Mr. Wells, Msjor nailing-on shoes on horses, both for hunters and 
Wilson, and Mr. Jacob Wilson, were appointed to recom- for those used for agricultural purposes; certain 
mend judges of stock, implements, wool, butter, and conditions to be specified, and inspection to be made 
cheese ; whose report would be presented at a Special of the work done by a properly qualified veterinary 
Council on the 16th inst. surgeon, by whom the principles to be followed and 

A suggestion to the Council made at the general the faults to be avoided shall be pointed out to the 
meeting by Mr. Lewis Fytche — “ Mr. Miles’ paper on various competitors, and the prises for this class shall be 
llorse-Shoeiug contained in Vol. XVIII. of the Journal awarded by a committee of, say, three gentlemen, specially 
being out of print, that 1,000 copies of the same be appointed for that purpose, assisted, perhaps, by the vete- 
printed for the use of Members” — was referred to the rmary surgeon above mentioned : this has been tried in 
Journal Committee ; and that by Sir George Jenkinson, Gloucestershire, and with very great benefit” — was referred 
Bart. — “ That the Council will, at any future show after to the Manchester committee. 


ROYAL AGRICULTURAL BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION. 

The eighth annual dinner of this institution took place on that occasion which he should be sorry to omit noticing, 
Wednesday evening, June 3, at the Freemasons' Tavern, under because he was anxious that, through the medium of the 
the presidency ofvisoount Enfield, M.P. About 100 gentle- public press, the advantages which the institution had con- 
men sat down. ferred, was conferring, and was likely to confer, upon the 

It appears that there are on the books of the institution 20 agricultural interest throughout England, should be well known 
male pensioners, at £26 per annum ; eight married pensioners, (’Hear, hear). With their permission then he would glance 
at £40 per annum ; 32 widow pensioners, at £20 per annum ; for a few minutes at its past history ; he would next consider 
four unmarried orphan pensioners — the orphans, however, being its present position; and then he would trust to their 
women of the respective ages of 60, 67, 63, and 80 ; and four generosity, to their sympathy, and to their recommendations of 
widow pensioners, at £10 per annum. In addition to these its claims among their mends and neighbours, for its future 
the society has in the course of its brief career aided 22 male success (cheers). He believed he was correct in saying that 
pensioners, seven widow pensioners, and three unmarried the institution owed its origin, some eight years ago, principally 
orphan pensioners, all deceased. The operations of the society if not entirely to the exertions of a gentleman who was now 
involve an expenditure of abont £5,000 a year, and, although seated on his left hand, his friend Mr. Mechi (Hear, hear), 
it has £20,000 of funded property, it stiU requires, to meet Feeling deeply impressed with the fact that in this country, a 
present demands, an income of about £5,000 from subscrip- country so peculiarly devoted to agricultural pursuits, every 
tions and donations. This sum is obtained from hundreds of guild, and every profession, excepting the agricultural interest, 
supporters all over the country, who are however nneqoally had some benevolent or charitable institution connected with 
distributed, as some agricultural districts do not contribute so it, Mr. Mechi directed his exertions to provide a remedy for 
liberally as others, owing possibly to the feet that the claims this state of things ; success attended his exertions, ana the 
of the institution have not been equally advocated in all. institution was now in the eighth year of its existence (Hear). 

After proposing in suitable terms “ The Health of Her He need scarcely remind them that its principal object was to 
Majesty, provide pensions for bond fide farmers, their widows, and un- 

The Chairman gave “ The Prince and Princess of Wales, married orphan daughters, and to educate their orphan 
and the other Members of the Royal Family.” In doing so children ; and he thought he could not do better than promt 
he spoke of the interest which the present race of English in as concise a form as possible its annual budget for their con- 
sovereigns has always manifested in regard to agriculture ; sideration. There were at that moment then 68 pensioners of 
observing that George III. received the appellation of “ The the Society, consisting of 20 males, who received £26 per 
Farmers^ Friend,” while the present heir to the throne had annum each, 8 married couples receiving £40 per annum each, 
combined with a love of country pursuits a great fondness for 32 widows with £20 a-ye&r each, ana 4 unmarried orphan 
field sports. The noble lord also congratulated the assembly daughters and 4 widows who received £10 a-year each, 
that tne Princess of Wales — the good and sweet princess who Having looked into the balance-sheet he found that on the 
had endeared herself to the whole nation— had again delighted 18th of Febraary last there was an excess of income over ex- 
the public by appearing among them after her protracted penditure of £760, whilst the funded property of the institu- 
illneus. tion consisted of £12,000 in Consols and £8,000 in the Three 

The next toast was “The Army, Navy, Militia, and Volnn- per Cents. Reduced, in the whole £20,000, which was a very 
teers,” in proposing which the Chairman adverted to the good nest egg (loud cheers). An analysis of the subscriptions 
Abyssinian Expedition, and the success which had crowned from the different counties, however, was somewhat a source 
it, os affording fresh evidence that the army of Great Britain of dissatisfaction ; and his friend Mr. Mechi having attended 
was equal to any emergency that might arise. to this subject in a letter which he had written to the public 

Lieut.-Col. Sir Charles Russell, M.P., in responding for prints, he (Lord Enfield) might perhaps be allowed to refer to 
the army, also alluded to the Abyssinian Expedition, ana re- ft here. It should be remembered that the institution made no 
marked that one great advantage connected with it was the distinction whatever between counties, and that all who re- 
salutary impression which it had made on the Eastern mind, ceived the proper number of votes were elected and got their 
He also observed that that was the last time he should appear pensions irrespective of the counties they might come from, 
on such an occasion as a representative of the army, as he had But he found that there were some counties which did not 
already placed his commission in the hands of her Majesty. respond to the appeals of the institution so generously as they 
The Rev. Mr. M*Call, as a Volunteer chaplain, returned ought in proportion to their acreage. There was, for ex- 
thanks for the Volunteers, and congratulated tne company ou ample, the great county of Devon, with 1,654,400 acres ; it 
the improved position of the nation relatively to other nations contained only 45 subscribers. Yorkshire, again, with 
in consequence of the organisation and efficient condition of 3,735,000 acres, had only 48 subscribers ; whilst Hampshire, 
that branch of the military service. with its 970,470 acres, had 641 (cheers.) Essex, with 921,120 

The Chairman then rose and said, in bringing nnder their acres, had 645 subscribers, and the county with which he was 
consideration the toast of the evening, which was “ Prosperity more immediately connected, Middlesex, with 186,480 acres, 
to the Royal Agricultural Benevolent Institution,” it was his he was glad to see mustered 468 subscribers (cheers.) Lanra- 
wish to detain them as short a time as possible. Still there shire, with its 1,130,240 acres, on the other hand, furnished 
were circumstances connected with their gathering there on only 12 subscribers ; Lincolnshire, with an acreage of 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


41 


1,671,010, only 64 subscribers ; whilst Northumberland and I 
Cumberland together had only 8 subscribers, though their 
united acreage amounted to 2,172,160. He spoke in no cavil- 
ling spirit ; but he really thought that as all the counties en- 
joyed the same advantages, without distinction, they ought to 
•end a number of subscribers that was in fair proportion to 
their acreage (Hear, hear.) Now, with regard to farming 
generally, he was quite sure that in that society, where there 
were some of the most distinguished agriculturists from all 
parts ol England, it would be bad taste in him to say anything 
on the practical part of the subject. If he did so be knew he 
should only betray his own ignorance ; he should, therefore, 
only trend upon what he believed to be safe ground (laughter.) 
He looked upon fanning in two points of view ; first, as an 
amusement, and, second, as a profession or occupation. As 
an amusement, it was the most healthy, the most moral, and 
the most English that any gentleman could indulge in (Hear, 
hear.) But as a profession or occupation, he was quite sure 
there was none that was embarked in more seriously, and oft- 
tunes with greater misgivings (Hear, hear.) In every pro- 
fession they knew well that, without the blessing of Provi- 
dence, it was lost labour to rise early, late take rert, and eat 
the bread of carefulness ; hut when they considered that the 
agricultural interest was more than any other dependent upon 
that blessing for success, that at the proper time the early and 
the late showers, the dry winds, ana the vivifying and warm 
sunshine were required, he was sure that the fuming class 
must feel above all that they were dependent upon Providence, 
and that this institution, more than any other, gave them the 
means of laying by store for bad times (cheers.) On looking 
through the list of those who were pensioners of the Society, 
he found that nearly all the causes by which those personsjiad 
become pensioners on its bounty were loss of crops, had times, 
heavy ruins, mildew, blight, cattle plague, and other events 
over which human beings had no control whatever, and which 
were solely at the disposition of Providence (Hear, hear.) 
One source of gratification to him in the Society’s report was 
to find that so tittle was spent in bricks and mortar. On read- 
ing the account of the laid annual dinner he observed that 
mention was made of the fact that with the exception of occu- 
pying two rooms at Charing Cross, the Society have nothing 
to do with bricks and mortar (Hear, hear.) Consequently they 
were not called upon to add a wing to a building one year, and 
another wing another year ; and it most be a source of comfort 
to those who were dependent npon their bounty to know that 
they had not to leave their native homes, their healthy villages, 
or their breezy downs, to take up their abode and be stewed in 
buildings in the heart of a great and stifling city, where they 
might be said to a certain extent to be deprived of their liberty 
(cheers). The good which the institution did was done at 
home. The pensioners received their pensions at home, and 
had not to leave the places with which tney had been identified 
all their lifetime from earliest childhood (Hear, hear). He re- 
membered having been personally canvassed some years ago to 
rive bis support to the Society, by their excellent secretary Mr. 
Shaw, who then made a suggestion to him which he would re- 
commend to his brother members. It was that, whenever they 
attended any agricultural gathering in their respective counties, 
they should always seek an opportunity of saying a few good 
w o r ds in behalf of the institution (Hear, hear). The Rood 
which it did only required to be known, and he was sure there 
would be hearty help and cordial response from the length and 
breadth of the land in aid of its object (Hear, hear). It might be 
id in whose behalf he made this application ; his answer 
, on behalf of the farmers of England. And now, he was 
' to do what was, perhaps, a rasa and a dangerous thing, 
le was going to draw their picture, but it was a mere outline 
sketch, and he must leave his hearers to fill in the details. 
First, the firmer was a typical Englishman, attached to his 
co untr y, and a supporter from his birth of the Queen and 
Church (loud cheers). In the next place, he was a strong 
politician, hut at the same time he was a generous opponent, and 
respected consistency in himself and others (cheers). He was 
also a hospitable man. He was a true sportsman. He never 
grudged his landlord a good day’s shooting, but lie deprecated 
from the bottom of his Heart, as he (Lord Enfield) did, the per- 
nicious and mischievous system of over-preserving, which was 
the ruin of 'many a farm (Hear, hear). Lastly, he was a 
warm admirer of the three noblest works of creation — a 
handsome woman, a clever horse, and a well-shaped hound 


(loud cheers and laughter). This, lie admitted, was only a 
fancy sketch rather rudely drawn, hut it was one which a little 
observation had told liim was not an untrue one ; and in con- 
clusion, re-echoing the old sentiment of “ speed the plough,” 
he would offer three wishes. One was, that the good under- 
standing which he hoped now more than ever existed between 
landlora and tenant — between those who tilled the soil and 
those who served under them — mightjlong continue to exist ; 
that the fanners of England would, as they had hitherto done, 
take every opportunity of doing good to themselves and their 
neighbours, by making use or all those advantages which 
modem experience in machinery and chemistry would suggest 
to them ; and that by the blesssng of Providenoe the expecta- 
tions which at the present moment we might fairly entertain 
of a bountiful and full crop might be more than realised this 
year (load cheers). He thanked them respectfully for the at- 
tention with which they had listened to him in proposing the 
toast, and with all sincerity and earnestness he called npon 
them to join him in drinking continued prosperity to the Royal 
Agricultural Benevolent Institution of England (The toast was 
received with three times three, and loud cheering). 

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir C. Russell, M.P., proposed “ The 
Chairman and after the toast had been drunk with cordi- 
ality the noble lord briefly returned thanks. 

Mr. Mbchi had been entrusted with the duty of proposing 
as the next toast, “ Prosperity to the Three Great Agricultural 
Societies of the United Kingdom.” In doing so, however, he 
need not enlarge npon the great benefits which these institu- 
tions had conferred npon British agriculture; bat he was 
happy to say that in connection with the toast he was to add 
the name of one of the best farmers in England, under one of 
the best ^landlords in England : he alluded to his friend Mr. 
John Hudson, of Castleacre (cheers). If the whole country 
were farmed, taking arable and pasture, in the same way as 
that portion of the conn ty of Norfolk which was the property 
of the late Mr. Coke, and the present Lord Leicester, and 
which was held by Mr. Hudson, we should not hear so much 
as we now did abont the necessity of foreign importation 
(Hear, hear). They had been drinking his (Mr. Meohi’s) 
child’s health that evening, and he oould not pass over the 
subject withont saying a few words in regard to the bantling. 
At present it was a mere infant ; but if he oould come again 
a hundred years hence, which he should oertainly not do, 
he believed he should be astonished at the proportions it would 
have attained. He had good grounds for saying so ; for we 
had 60 million acres of land, beside 17 million of mountain 
and waste : and if every farmer only subscribed a penny an acre 
they would have an income of £260,000 a-year, or if he sub- 
scribed bat a farthing an acre they would have an income of 
more than £60,000 a-year. So tliat he was encouraged to 
hope that his bantling would by-and-bye grow into a good- 
sized man. (Cheers.) 

Mr. J. Hudson, of Castleacre, in responding, said, the 
people ot thiseonntiy could not afford to have half crops; 
they wanted cheap food— cheap bread and cheap meat — and 
it was only through landowners (giving great encouragement to 
tenants, and the exertions of the tenants themselves, that that 
national want oould he met. Happily agriculturists were 
marching on in the right direction, and the rate of march was 
accelerated by the accession of steam. A few years ago no 
one scarcely believed in the applicability of steam to the culti- 
vation of the soil ; hut he had lived to seethe day when steam 
was so applied, and he had no hesitation in declaring that he 
had himself used it with advantage. Cultivation had of late 
made great strides, and farmers most put their shoulders to 
the wheel, and they will doable the produce of the land. 

The Rev. G. C. Berkeley proposed “The Executive 
Council,” which toast was acknowledged by Mr. John Collins. 

Among the remaining toasts were “The Secretary” (Mr. 
Charles Shaw), “ The Stewards,” and finally “ The ladies.” 

The subscriptions announced in the course of the evening 
included 25 guineas from her Majesty, and 10 guineas from 
the Prince of Wales, the aggregate being about £4,000. 

The musical arrangements were under the direction of Mr. 
G. Perren, who was ably assisted by Miss Mabel Brent and 
Miss Palmer, Mr. T. Lawler, and Mr. L. Hatton, the last- 
named gentleman presiding at the piano-forte. 

Previous to the dinner, a special meeting of the Council 
of the Royal Agricultural Benevolent Institution was held at 


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42 THE FARMERS MAGAZINE. 

the Freemason’s Tavern. Present, Messrs. C. S. Cantrell ment inviting applications for the appointment be nol inserted 

(chairman), J. Collins, H. Corbet, A. Garrett, J. Howard, J. in The Times and the agricultural journals. 

Hudson, A. H. Johnson, J. J. Mechi, J. Naish, T. Scott, G. It was resolved that the appointment be filled up at a 
Shackell, and W. Vivian. meeting of the Council, to be called for the first Monday in 

The business of the meeting was confined to the considers- July, 
tion of the necessary steps to do taken in filling up the secre- Mr. Charles Shaw, jun., a candidate for the office, had an 

taryship, about to become vacant from the resignation of Mr. interview with the Council. 

Charles Shaw. It was proposed also to call on Mr. J. N. Lee, who, how* 

It was resolved that Mr. Shaw's tenure of office dose at ever, did not appear to be in attendance. 

Michaelmas. The Council sat for nearly two hours, and the discussion 

It was resolved on a division, by 6 to 5, that an advertise* was at times very animated. 


THE BATH AND WEST 

MEETING AT 

Cornwall — of which Falmonth is one of the principal 
towns — is in popular estimation one of the last counties 
of England with which agricultural associations are or 
could be connected. The very aspect of the country in* 
deed is supposed to give rise to associations anything but 
Arcadian. Bare and ragged hills ; bleak moors ; a coast 
singularly wild, abrupt, and grand in its outline, fringed 
here and there vritn wood, the appearance of which 
indicates the hard struggle they have to main- 
tain against ungenial air and biting frosts — all tell of a 
country the characteristics of whicn, in an agricultural 
aspect, are the very antipodes of the rich rolling lands, 
the fine soil, and wooded glades of more favoured 
counties of Merrie England. The very population, too, 
in their garb and manner tell of a mode or modes of life 
very Afferent from that met with in purely agricultural 
districts. Nor is the cause of this supposed difference 
difficult to be met with. Everywhere around are the 
marks of mining operations, which afford subsistence to 
the main part of the population. Such may be said to 
be the popular or Guide Book — not published, it is need- 
less to say, in the county — view of thiB, in many respects, 
remarkable part of her Majesty’s dominions. Much, if 
not indeed the whole of it, does indeed apply to one part 
of Cornwall, but that is comparatively a limited part. 
Certainly it does not apply to the part which is passed 
through from Plymouth to Falmouth, nor in the country 
immediately around the latter town. Of the whole ride 
extending between those two towns it may indeed be 
said that in point of raral and picturesque beauty some 
of the districts of England celebrated in this way will 
have a difficulty to compete with it ; in some respects it 
cannot be excelled. The lateral valleys, for example, 
which open up on both sides of the railway, are very 
numcrons ana very beautiful, spanned by viaducts of 
great height and length, and rich in wooded valleys and 
bosky dells. Little arable land comparatively is seen 
from the railway, the land being chiefly under pasture, 
and, as may be gathered from what has been above stated, 
there is much wood, which gives a rich and charming ap- 
pearance to the country. And truly ample time is given 
to the traveller to observe the scenery through which he 
passes ; for, although now and then the tram — at least 
the one we travelled with was possessed of this peculiarity 
— passed pretty rapidly on, it made up for the rapidity of 
its flight at such times by the staid slowness at others, 
and by the patient placidity with which it waited at 
stations, which, fortunately for the impatient traveller, 
were generally at points of considerable beauty. We were 
supposed in the official mind to be travelling “ express 
bat the thought was forced upon the mind of him who 
was accustomed to more pushing modes of progress, If 
that was the express, what could possibly be the slow 


OF ENGLAND SOCIETY. 

FALMOUTH. 

train? that forced one back to the good old coaching 
days, when “ slow but sure ” was the motto. 

From what we have stated it will have been surmised, 
what is indeed the fact, that the agriculture of Cornwall is 
peculiar. There is, or at least was, in the old system, 
little pasture land, using this term in its highest signifi- 
cance ; yet, under the influence of good husbandry, the soil 
bears a sward of a peculiarly firm texture. Under the old 
system, cereals were taken off the land in succession. Mid 
the exhausting effects of such a system may be easily 
conceived. But with the introduction of the alternate 
and green-cropping system of cultivation, a great im- 
provement has taken place. 

The situation of the show-yard is very beautiful, in a 
field sloping gently down, and almost to the edge of the 
bay. The upper part is high enough to give a splendid 
view on either side. And the weather of this, the first 
day, was all that could be desired to give the utmost 
degree of artistic effect to the whole scene. A fine dear 
sky, with rolling clouds in it, sufficient to give that play 
of light and shade on hill-top and valley-side so dear to 
the lover of Nature, and so prolific of artistic effect. The 
sea, like a lake in its calm beauty, lay shimmering in the 
snn, speckled with whitened sail of statdy ship or tiny 
boat. 

The entries of stock were small, compared with the 
meeting of the Society at Truro, in 1861. The show, 
however, was on the whole a good one ; and although 
numericfdly weak, the cattle, sheep, and pigs will contrast 
fovourahly with any of the Society’s previous exhibitions. 
There were 79 entries of cattle, as compared with 184 in 
1861 ; sheep 141, as against 234 at Truro ; horses 36, com- 
pared with 89 ; and pigs 86, against 42. The cattle con- 
sisted of Devons 49, Shorthorns 24, Herefords 6 ; of sheep 
— Leicester's 48, Cotswolds 16, Sooth Downs 18, other 
Downs 40, Somerset and Dorset homed sheep 23. 
Horses for agricultural purposes numbered 8, hunters 17, 
lack® 4, and ponies 7* There was, as usual, a varied 
display of articles of taste and utility in the building de- 
voted to art manufactures. 

The Devon's were remarkably good, comprising 24 
bulls and 25 females. In class 1st, bulls not exceeding 
4 years old, there were eight entries ; the competition 
being between Mr. Turner’s Albert Victor, Mr. Mason’s, 
a local exhibitor, bred by Mr. Davy, of Flitton ; Mr. 
Boiler’s, Mr. Walter Farthing’s, and Mr. Clarke’s, bred 
by Mr. Farthing. The judges had no difficulty in giving 
Mr. Turner the first prize, and they awarded the second 
to Mr. Mason, highly-commended Mr. Boiler’s, and com- 
mended Messrs. Farthing’s and Clarke’s. In class 2nd — 
bulls not exceeding 2 years old — there were sixteen en- 
tries. The competition was very spirited, and altogether 
this was an unusually good class. The judges selected 


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six, viz, Mr. Walter Farthing’s Duke of Gothelney, Mr. 
Farthing's Master Arthur, Mrs, Tremaine’s Lord Aylmer, 
Mr. Beckle's Perfection, Mr. Boiler's, and Mr. Wm. 
Smith’s ; and, after a lone consultation, they awarded the 
first prize to Master Arthur, a very thick good yearling, 
frell got up; but the public thought the second-prize 
animal, Mr. Boiler's, was more matured, and had better 
points, and that the first-prize one wonld not train so 
wefl. We believe the judges were not unanimous in this 
derision. Mrs. Tremaine's and Mr. W. Smith's entries were 
highly -commended, and Mr. Bickle's and Mr. Farthing's 
commended. Class 8 contained nine entries, and 
among them were some good cows. The first prize was 
deservedly awarded to Mr. John A. Smith, of Bradford 
Feverfl, who also had another highly-commended; the 
second prize going to Mr. Walter l&rthing, Mr. Tre- 
maine’s Rose 2nd being highly-commended. Class 4 — 
heifers not exceeding 8 years old — brought together a very 
beautiful lot, and which gave the judges some trouble. 
The first prize was eventually awarded to Mr. Buller, 
of Downs, for a remarkably good heifer, which, we 
hear, is intended for the Royal at Leicester ; Mr. Turner 
winning the second with a very beautiful heifer, and 
Mr. Walter Farthing and Mr. Hambro receiving high- 
commendations. Class 5 — heifers not exceeding 2 years 
— contained six entries. This was not so good a class as 
the previous one. Mr. Turner’s Duchess 6tn won the first 
prize, Mr. Butter's the second, and Mr. Walter Farthing's 
was highly-commended. Lord Falmouth was an ex- 
hibitor in each of the Devon classes, but was not success- 
ful ; at his lordship's best animals were kept back for 
Leicester, where, we hear, he will be in force. 

The Shorthorns formed a very good section of the 
Show. Among the exhibitors were Lady Pigot and Mr. 
Stratton ; but the prizes usually carried off by these far- 
famed prize- takers were on this occasion retained in 
Cornwall. Messrs. Hosken and Son’s cows and heifers were 
much admired and extolled, and it is very questionable if 
so good a lot has ever before been exhibited from one herd 
at any of the Society's meetings. In class 8 — bulls not ex- 
ceeding four years old — there were only three entries. 
The competition was, however, severe between Lady 
Pigot’s and Mr. Stratton's, opinion being divided as to 
the best animal. The first prize, however, was awarded 
to her ladyship’s Charles Ie Beau, and the second to Mr. 
Stratton's Lamp of Lothian; Mr. Hosken and Son's 
Prince Frederick 2nd, bred by themselves, receiving a 
commendation. Had not the age been limited to four 
years there would have been more entries in this class, 
and we very much doubt the policy of the restriction. 
When the prize-list first appeared we were informed that 
this, and there being no class for yearling bnlls, caused 
much dissatisfaction. We would also suggest the So- 
ciety's offering a third prize in some of the classes. 
In class 7 — bulls under two years — there were nine com- 
petitors. The judges selected five, viz., Lady Pigot's 
Rosolio, Lord Radnor’s Orkney, Mr. Pollard’s Lord 
Lyon, Mr. W. Trethewy's Duke of Cornwall, and Mr. 
Stratton's James 2nd, giving the first prize to Mr. Pol- 
lard's Lord Lyon, eight months old, a very thick and 
good red calf, with capital quality, got by Rectifier (22,687), 
grandsire 7th Duke of York (17,754) ; the second to Lady 
Ingot, and a high commendation to the Earl of Radnor. 
Although Air. Pollard’s calf was much admired, it was 
thought by many that Lady Pigot's should have been 
placed before him. In class 8. — for the best cow — there 
were five competitors. Messrs. Hosken and Son exhibited 
three splendid animals, bred by themselves, and which 
would be no discredit to the Royal, and hut for one or 
two of them being down-calving at that time, they 
would have put in an appearance at Leicester. Lady 
Pigot sent her Queen of Rosalia; but she was 


beaten by Messrs. Hosken and Son’s Rosebud, their 
other two cows, Countess and Carnation, being highly 
commended, and Rosalia taking second honours. In class 9 
— heifers not exceeding three years old — there were but 
three entries. The competition, however, was exceed- 
ingly strong between Messrs. Hosken and Son’s two 
heifers, Butterfly and Ruby, bred by themselves, and Lady 
Pigot's Dame of Rosalia. The Messrs. Hosken were, 
however, again eminently successful, winning both prizes, 
her ladyship being awarded a high commendation, at which 
her herdsman was indignant, and with very bad taste 
declined the proffered honour. The public opinion went 
with the judges. In class 10 — heifers not exceeding two 
yean — again there were only three entries, hut the com- 
petition was very keen. The judges, however, preferred 
Lord Radnor's Darmstadt, and awarded the “ bine rib- 
bon” to his lordship ; the “ yellow” to Messrs. Hosken 
and Son’s Keepsake, and a high commendation to Mr. 
Stratton's Bade Light. Messrs. Hosken and Sons re- 
ceived continued congratulations from their neighbours 
and friends on their well-merited success. 

The Heretords do not flourish much in Cornwall, 
and there were only six entries in five classes, and not one 
of these bred in that county. It should, however, be 
stated that Mr. Olver, an upholder of this breed, and who 
has on numerous occasions been a successful exhibitor, 
lost several of his cattle with the plague. In Class 11 — 
aged bulls — there were only two entries ; Mr. Duckham’s 
Reginald easily winning the first prize, and Mr. Rawle 
Poramore being second. In Clfess 12 — bnlls not exceeding 
two years old — Mr. Paramore’s was the only entry, and 
he was awarded the first prize. In Classes 18, 14, 15, Mr. 
James, of Dorset, was the only exhibitor, and to his cows 
and heifers were awarded the first prizes. 

The show of Leicester sheep was very good, and In 
Class 10 — yearling rams — the competition was very keen 
and spirited, the Cornishmen contending most success- 
fully. Comer, of Somerset, exhibited four; Messrs. 
Norris, of Devon, three; Kingdon Radmorc, two; 
G. Turner, two ; Gould, four ; G. Radmore, four ; and 
Tremaine, of Cornwall, four; Roscwarne, two; and 
Clarke, one. »The first prize was awarded to Mr. 
Tremaine, and the second to Mr. Roscwarne ; but several 
good judges preferred the second to the first prize sheep. 
Messrs. Corner, Turner, and Gould had each a commend- 
ation. In Class 17, for aged rams, the competition was 
not so great, there being only fourteen entries and eleven 
exhibited. Air. Gould deservedly carried off the honours, 
and won the first and second prizes ; Mr. Turner receiv- 
ing a commendation. The other exhibitors were Messrs. 
Kingdon Radmore and G. Radmore, Devon, and Messrs. 
Tremaine and Williams, of Cornwall. In Class 18, for 
yearling ewes, there were five entries, and the competition 
very close. Mr. Inner won the first prize, Air. Trcinain 
second, and Air. Comer a high-commendation. The other 
exhibitors were Messrs. Norris and Gould. 

The Cotswolds, though not numerous, were well re- 
presented. In Class 19, for yearling rams, there were 
only eight entries. The competitors were Messrs. Gillct, 
who showed three ; Beale Brown, three ; and J. K. 
Tombs, two ; the latter winning the second, and Air. 
Gillet the first prize. In Class 20, rams of any other age, 
there were still less ; but the class was a good one ; the • 
only entries being Messrs. Gillet, two ; J. K. Tombs, two ; 
and Beale Brown, one. The first prize was awarded 
to Mr. Gillet, for a remarkably large and good 
sheep, while Mr. Gillet had another commended ; the 
second prize went to Mr. Beale Brown ; and one from 
Mr. Tombs was commended. In Class 21, for yearling 
ewes, there were but three entries, and only one of them 
put in an appearance — Air. J. K. Tombs’s — and these were 
awarded the first prize. 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


In Southdowns, class 22, for the best yearling ram, 
there were eight entries, but only five exhibited: Mr. 
Neville Greville, M.P., winning both prizes, whilst Sir 
Wm. Throckmorton's two sheep were not oommended. 
In class 23, for rams of any other age, the first priie was 
awarded to Mr. Greville, M.P., and the second to Sir 
Wm. Throckmorton ; there were four entries, bnt two 
only were shown. In class 24, yearling ewes, Lord 
Radnor and Sir William Throckmorton, were the 
only competitors, and the jndges awarded the first prize 
to the latter for a very beautiful and even lot ; his Lord- 
ship winning second honours. These classes were mnch 
admired ; but the public thought the Hampshire, Shrop- 
shire, and Oxford Downs likely to yield a better profit 
to the farmer. 

With the Hampshire Downs there was not much 
competition : Class 25, yearling ram, eight entries, and 
five exhibited : the first and second prizes were awarded 
to Mr. Rawlence, the other exhibitors being Messrs. 
Moore and Coles. Class 26, old rams, four entries, and 
two exhibited : Mr. Rawlence obtaining the first and Mr. 
Coles the second. Mr. Moore entered two sheep, bnt 
they were not sent. Class 27 : Mr. Rawlence mode two 
entries in this class, but only one lot was sent : the judges 
awarded him the first prize, and for the second there was 
not any competitor. 

Amongst the Other Downs, class 28, for best yearling 
ram, Lord Falmouth exhibited four Shropshire, and 
Mr. Davy two ; Mr. Wallis two Oxford Downs, and Mr. 
J. K. Tombs two. The first and second prizes were 
awarded to Mr. Tombs, who also won the second prize 
for the yearling Cotswold. Class 29, rams of any other 
age : Lord Falmouth exhibited eight Shropshires, and 
Mr. Wood one ; Mr. Wallis two Oxford Downs, to which 
the first and second prizes were awarded, with eleven entries 
in this class. Class 80, yearling ewes, four entries and 
three competitors : The first prize was awarded to Mr. 
Wood’s pen of Shropshires, and the* second to Mr. Wallis' 
Oxfords, the other competitor being Mr. Davey, whose 
pen of Shropshires were reared on land recently reclaimed 
from waste in Cornwall. The Shropshire and Oxford 
Downs have increased very much of late years, and stand 
high in the estimation of the public ; why are they not 
entitled to separate classes and special prizes, as well as 
the Hampshire Down, Somerset, and Dorset Horn ? 

In the Somerset and Dorset Horn, yearling rams, 
class 31, Mr. Mayo won the first and second prizes, the 
only other competitors being Messrs. James and Danger. 
Class 32, rams of any other age, three entries, viz., Mr. 
Mayo one, and Mr. Danger two, the former winning the 
first, and the latter the second prize. Class 33 : There 
was more competition in this class, there being five en- 
tries and the same number exhibited ; Mr. Mayo again 
winning first, and.Mr. Danger second : the other exhibitor 
was Mr. James, of Bland ford. 

With Exmoor and other homed mountain there was 
very little competition. In Class 34, rams of any age, 
there were only 4 entries and 3 competitors — Mr. Maun- 
der winning 1st and 2nd prizes, the other competitor 
being Mr. Quartley. In Class 35, for pens of 5 ewes, 3 
entries, the first prize was awarded to Mr. Maunder, the 
2nd to Mr. Quartley. 

In Dartmoor and other moor, in Class 36, rams of any 
age, Mr. Drew, of Tavistock, was the only exhibitor, and 
he was awarded the 1st and 2nd prizes for two Dartmoor 
rams. In Class 37, pens of 5 ewes, only one entry by Mr. 
Drew, who was awarded the 1st prize for 5 Dartmoor ewes. 

The pigs, although not numerous, were exceedingly 
good, the Messrs. Elmhurst, Duckcring and Sons exhibit- 
ing in all the classes and taking most of the prizes. In 
the large breed, class 49, boars not exceeding two years 
old, only two entries, Messrs, Dockering and Sons 


winning 1st and 2nd prizes. Class 50, boars not exceeding 
one year old, 5 entries, 3 competitors : Messrs. Dockering 
and Son won the 1st prize, and Mr. Widdicomb, Berk- 
shire, the 2nd ; the other competitor was Mr. King 
Tombs. Class 51, breeding sows in farrow or with litters : 
There were ten entries, Messrs. Dockering and Son won the 
1st and .2nd prizes, and Mr. King Tombs was commended. 
Class 52, pen of 2 breeding sows not exceeding nine 
months old, only three entries : Messrs. Dockering and 
Sons 1st prize, Mr. Williams, M.P., 2nd, and Mr. King 
Tombs commended. 

In Pigs, of the small breed. Class 53, best boar, 
above one year and not exceeding two years old, four 
entries and four competitors, the first prize was awarded 
to Messrs. Duckering and Sons ; the second to Mr. Coles ; 
the other competitors being Lord Radnor and Mr. 
Davey. In Class 54, boars not exceeding one year old, 
two entries only : First prize, Messrs. Duckering and 
Sons ; the second, Mr. Davey. In Class 55, best breed- 
ing sow, five entries and five competitors, and an ex- 
ceedingly good Class, the first prize being awarded to 
Mr. Collier, of Devon ; second to Messrs. Duckering and 
Sons, whilst their other sow was highly-commended ; and 
Mr. Davey and Mr. Coles each receive a commendation. 
Class 56, for the best pen of two breeding sows, five 
entries and five competitors : this was also a very good 
class ; Mr. Cornish, of Devon, winning the first prize ; 
Messrs. Duckering and Sons the second; whilst Lord 
Radnor is highly-commended, and Mr. Davey com- 
mended. 

The Horse department of the show was by no means 
good. The Society offers no prizes for thorough-bred 
stallions, and the horse division of the prize-list has in 
this and other respects been sadly pared down ; moreover 
the Society's charges operate against a good entry. The 
Royal Cornwall Agricultural Society had a much better 
show of horses last year at Launceston than the Bath and 
West of England could command on this occasion. 
There were four classes for horses and mares for agricul- 
tural purposes, with eight prizes, and yat there were only 
nine entries, and two of these were disqualified by the 
judges. The first prize for stallions in Class 38 was 
awarded to Mr. Laity, of Camborne, Cornwall — a very 
useful chesnut bred by himself ; and the second to Mr. 
Brydges Williams for a chesnut Suffolk stallion. In 
Class 39, for the best stallion foaled in 1866, there were 
only two entries, and the jndges deemed one not worthy 
of a prize : the first was awarded to a splendid two-year- 
old, bred by and the property of Mr. Hitchcock, of 
Heytesbury, Wilts. In Class 40, for best mare and foal, 
the judges disqualified both animals for being entered in 
wrong class, as more adapted for general purposes. In 
Class 41, for the best filly foaled in 1866, no entry. 
In the four classes for Hunters there was nothing parti- 
cularly worthy of note, except Mr. Battams's chesnut 
gelding The Don, and his brown gelding Slapton, these 
winning the first prizes in their classes. In Class 42, 
best mare or gelding foaled before 1st January, 1864, two 
entries, Mr. Battams first prize, and Mr. James, St. 
Mawes, second. In Class 43, best mare or gelding foaled 
in 1864, four entries, first and second prize Mr. Battams. 
In Class 44, best mare or gelding foaled in 1865, four 
entries : first prize to Mr. Michelmore ; second, Mr. 
Came. In Class 45, best colt or filly foaled in 1867, 
seven entries : this was a pretty good class ; Lord 
Falmouth receiving first prize, and a high-commendation 
for another ; the second to Mr. Laity. In Class 46, for 
Hacks, best mare or gelding not more than six years old, 
nor exceeding fifteen hands high, four entries : Mr. 
Battams winning the first prize, and Mr. Williams, of 
Pananuworthal, Cornwall, the second. In Class 47, 
for Ponies, the best mare or gelding, not exceeding 


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fourteen hands high, two entries, one only shown : the 
lint prise awarded to Mr. Smith, of Bradford Peverill, 
Dorset. Class 48, the best mare or gelding, not exceed- 
ing thirteen hands high, five entries and five competitors : 
This was a very good class, and excited great interest, 
the aaimala being justly much admired, particularly Mr. 
Gay** white Exmoor, Gem, to which the first prize was 
awarded ; Mr. Collier receiving second, Mr. Michelmore 
highly-commended, and Mr. Arthur Willyams commended. 
There is no question bnt that the prize-list for horses re- 
quires some radical revision. 

He Poultry Show was very good. 

Judges: Cattle, Mr. R. Warren, Blandford; Mr. J. 
Weppdl, Exeter ; Mr. Savidge, Sarsden, Chipping Nor- 
ton. Long-woolled sheep and large pigs : Mr. Sanday, 
Holme Pierrepoint, Nottingham ; Mr. J. Partridge, sen., 
Hilldown Bow, North Devon. Short-woolled sheep and 
small pigs ; Mr. J. Ford, Rushton, Blandford ; Mr. F. 
Budd, Hatch Warren, Basingstoke. Horses: Mr. H. 
Thnrnall, Royston ; Mr. H. Terrell, South Brent, Ivy- 
bridge, Devon. Poultry : Mr. E. Hewitt, Birmingham. 

In point of excellence of articles exhibited, we 
believe the show to be nearly up to the average; 
and certainly the display of implements and machines is 
of much greater extent and practical value than we 
anticipated would have been the case in view of the ex- 
treme distance which exhibitors from the making districts 
have to bring their exhibits. The number of exhibitors 
is nearly one hundred ; the number of entries, thirteen 
hundred and thirty-one ; exceeding by some four hundred 
the entries for the Truro show held in 1861. The num- 
ber of sheds is fifteen, including one 800 feet in length, 
for the exhibition of machinery in motion ; the whole 
run of shedding extending to two thousand seven hundred 
and ninety feet. 

In going over the stands we shall take them in the order 
as they present themselves on entering the yard, or rather 
on turning from the offices. And the first which attracts 
oar notice is the collection of seeds and farm produce of 
Messrs. Sutton and Sons, of Reading, Berks. The prac- 
tical and suggestive value of this collection may be gathered 
from the statement that it is comprised in a died one hun- 
dred feet in length, and that it embraces upwards of one 
bundred-and-fifty varieties of grasses, about one-half of 
which are growing, at least have been brought directly down 
from the experimental beds at Reading, and from being 
carefully rooted in soil are fresh and vigorous. The col- 
lection of seeds is also very valuable, presenting samples 
of upwards of one thousand varieties. The centre case 
is pert of that very complete one which was exhibited in 
ftris at the Great Exhibition of last year, and for which 
vu obtained the first prize. We may also take special 
note of the remarkably fine specimens of' mangolds, in 
fine condition, thoroughly sound. There were Sutton’s 
red, the large intermediate yellow-globe, and red 
The garden seeds were well represented. We 
have shove alluded to the specimens of grasses, natural 
sad artificial, exhibited in their growing state ; and as 
them were all or nearly all at their flowering stage, they 
presented the most practically useful examples which 
could be obtained. We are glad to see the Messrs. Sut- 
ton paying attention to the proper development of this 
branch of rural economy ; for it is one in connection 
with which there is a wide field for nsefhl operation. The 
improvement of old and the laying down of new pastures 
and meadows, is one of the most important branches of 
agricultural economy, and although much has been done 
of late in tins direction, it is not too much to say that 
more remains to be done. 

The next collection of seeds and farm produce is 
that of Carter and Sons, High Holborn, London. Here 
is exhibited a very extensive collection of farm, garden, 


and flower seeds ; 800 samples of corn seed, also of com 
in the ear ; and samples of the permanent grasses, for 
which Messrs. Carter received the prize at the Paris Ex- 
hibition of last year. 

Next to the Messrs. Carters’ stand was that of Mrs. 
Mary Lyne Pontey, of Plymouth, who exhibited a pretty 
large collection of farm and garden seeds, specimens of 
grasses for pastures and meadows, and of roots — as 
Fisher Hobbs' orange globe mangold, a root of smallish 
sixe, bnt of good shape and quality. 

Passing to the centre of the field, in which the imple- 
ment sheds are placed, and taking them in their order as 
we proceed towards the sea, we find first the stand of 
Messrs. Samuelson, of Banbury, the principal feature of 
which is the number of mowers and reapers exhibited. 
Amongst these we noticed the reaping machine with self- 
raking and side-delivery. This machine presents the 
same features which characterised it at the shows of last 
year, at which it was exhibited, although several improve- 
ments in detail have been introduced. The self-raking 
movement is very ingenious, being effected by the end of 
the arm of the raker moving over an eccentric path, the 
course of which is so arranged as to give the necessary 
movement to the rake as it sweeps across the delivery 
platform — which is carved in outline, so as to deliver the 
swathe at the side — first bringing down the rake from its 
highest point to gather in the corn to the knives, to 
sweep more or less horizontally across the platform, and 
then to rise np clear of the corn after delivery. In the 
one-horse reaping machine, the delivery is manual, and at 
the back, being effected by a moveable platform, or rather 
open rake table, hinged at one side to the machine, and 
capable of being lifted np by a lever and pedal movement, 
acted upon by the foot of the attendant who sits upon 
the machine. The corn is brought up to the knives by a 
hand-rake. In adapting this machine for catting clover 
and seeds, a swathing apparatus is added. By a simple 
arrangement of lever the cutter-bar and platform are 
lifted np in turning the machine; and the height to 
which the cutter-bar is raised from the ground is adjusted 
by a screw and chain. In the grass-mowing machine 
there are some points of excellence worthy the attention 
of the purchaser. Of these we would direct his attention 
to the simple form of clatch by which the cotters are 
thrown in and out of gear ; and the very effective and 
ingenious spring movement, worked by the foot of the 
attendant who rides along with k the machine, by which 
the cntter-bar it adjusted so as to meet the inequalities of 
the ground over winch the machine passes in its working. 

The stand next come to is that of Bentall, of Hey- 
bridge, Essex, in which is exhibited a small but 
good collection of the specialities for which Mr. Bentall 
is so well known, as his chaff-cutters, oilcake-breakers, 
turnip-cutters, and root-pnlpers. This latter class of 
machinery is constructed upon such correct principles 
that we do not wonder of its having maintained its high 
reputation during a now considerable coarse of years. 
We believe we were the first in the columns of the present 
Journal to give a detailed description of the movements 
of this machine, and the position it has since taken and 
maintained have justified the high opinion we then formed 
of and expressed about it. 

One of the most extensive, if not the most exten- 
sive, collection of machines exhibited by makers from 
a distance, is that on the stand of Picksley and 
Sims, of Leigh, Manchester, and which comprises 
examples in various sizes of his chaff-cutters, oilcake- 
breakers, root-cutters, and pulpers, with lawn-mowers, 
and horse-rakes. The horse-rake is made with a 
straight shaft, through from side to side; and the lifting 
movement is simple, and easily worked. A novelty is 
exhibited in the form of a new reaping machine, the 



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pincipal feature of which is the construction of the knife ; 
the finger-bar has the fingers screwed on at the receiving 
intervals, and steel blocks are fitted in behind these. The 
whole of the upper surface presented by these blocks and 
the end of the fingers is perfectly flat, with sharp edges 
at the sides of the fingers ; and being made of cast-steel 
of the finest quality, the lower surface of the cutters or 
knives work against it, and thus tend to keep the cutting 
edges continually sharp. The form of the fingers also 
prevents choking. 

In the next stand, Brenton, of Folbathic, St. Ger- 
mains, Cornwall, exhibited his patent cylinder reaping 
machine. This has a aide delivery, the platform being 
curved ; but it is terminated by an obliquely out end, 
against which a roller or cylinder revolves ; this is conical, 
the smallest end being nearest the working gear, the 
longest at the furthest end of the delivery platform. The 
patentee claims for this arrangement a strengthening of 
the machine, and a regular sheaf delivery of the corn. 
The travelling or bearing wheel are of considerable 
diameter, and the gearing is simple in character. A reap- 
ing machine is also exhibited with back delivery, the rake 
platform being worked by the foot of the attendant. 

Hie stand next arrived at in our ramble through the 
sheds is that of Messrs. Howard, of Bedford, who have a 
very large collection of their well-known implements and 
machines. Amongst these we particularly noticed their 
mowing and reaping machines, in both of which very con- 
siderable improvements have been effected since their last 
public appearance at Smithfield Show in Christmas of 1867. 
The same remark applies also to their boiler, which, we are 
glad to know, is rapidly assuming a high position in this 
important department of steam appliances. We are, how- 
ever, not by any means surprised at this, for from the 
very first practical examination we made of it, and the 
results of which we gave in a special report upon it in the 
pages of this Journal, we saw in it so many features of 
excellence that we had no hesitation in claiming for it a 
high position amongst modern and recent inventions. Wc 
look upon this as forming the most important improve- 
ment of recent times in boiler -construction ; and it is just 
because we have for so long been impressed with the high 
importance of this department that we so strongly express 
ourselves in relation to it. A few remarks as to the 
improvements recently made by the Messrs. Howard 
will not be out of place here, and first as to the reap- 
ing machine. The first peculiarity which strikes one on 
examining this machine is the two driving-wheels with 
wjhich it is provided. We believe this to be a sound me- 
chanical arrangement, inasmuch as it not only ensures 
thorough general steadiness of action, but it tends to keep 
the knives in full action in nearly all positions in which 
the machine is placed. It also gets rid Of the necessity 
for having a side draught, the draught-pole being placed 
in the best position to secure a direct, and a consequent 
lightness of draught ; and, further, the balance of the 
whole is so perfect as to keep all weight which might 
otherwise arise from oppressing the horses. This arrange- 
ment also permits of a form of framework which is well 
calculated to secure several advantages. The cutter-bar 
is winged or jointed to the side of it, and it thus can 
readily accommodate itself to the inequalities of the ground, 
and the whole of the framework can be very readily freed 
from the platform and rake in passing through gates, or 
on being stored np in the implement shed. The points 
connected with the cutter-bar now come under notice. 
This is placed behind the driving-wheels, which position 
enables it to pass easily over obstructions, and the bar is 
provided with a raised projection upon which the knife 
works to and fro ; this raised part allows the dirt and soil 
to fall freely away from the cutting parts. The fingers 
have a clear space between them, which is advantageous 


in low cutting. The driving-gear for the cutter-bar 
is well arranged ; the crank is brought down 
low, to admit of its working in almost a direct line with 
the cutter-bar, and a combination of bevel with spur 
gear is used to drive the cutter, the first slow motion be- 
ing taken off the main driving wheel by means of bevel 
wheels, the second rapid motion being taken off by spur- 
wheel gear, the employment of which by the way affords 
facilities for qniekly changing the speed of the knife, this 
being done by simply altering the spur wheel. The self- 
acting gathering rake is drawn by special apparatus, thus 
being independent of the driving gear for the cutters. 
The gathering arms revolve in an inner cam, which has 
its curves very abrupt, changing from a very low to a 
very high line. The blades are brought down as low as 
the points of the rakes, and bring in the corn to the ac- 
tion of the knives. Having performed this, the gatherers 
rise very suddenly, so as to be kept perfectly clear of the 
grain, and the rake is next brougnt into action, and 
sweeps the grain off the platform in sheaf, the size of 
which can easily be regulated by altering the gearing of 
the gathering apparatus. The mowing machine is very 
similar as respects its driving gear to the reaper jost 
described ; of course, a higher speed of knife or cotter-bar 
is provided for. The fingers are raised or lowered accord- 
ing to the nature of the ground by means of a lever, 
another being provided by which the cutter-bar can be 
raised in passing over mole-bills or other obstructions. 
The cutter-bar is put in and out of action by a lever 
worked by the foot of the workman. A description of 
the boiler has already appeared in our columns. 

The next stand is occupied by Messrs. Kearriey, of 
Ripon, Yorkshire, who exhibit their mowers and reapers. 
They exhibit a novelty, recently patented, in a new 
mode of attaching the end of the connecting-rod 
which works the cutter bar to the crank wheel, and the 
object of which is to prevent, by any extra pressure which 
may come upon the cutter bar, the jamming np the knife 
eye or crank-pin. This is effected by a very ingenious and 
simple modification of the ball joint. The crank-pin, 
which is hollow, passes through the centre and is fixed to 
the ball joint, the spherical or partiy-spherical sur- 
face of which plays in a corresponding hollow or cup 
turned in the face of the wheel to which the crank-pin is 
connected; and the whole are secured together by a 
washer, bolt, and nut. Any undue pressure which tends 
to throw the connecting-rod out of the direct line is got 
rid of by the crank-pin giving and taking, the ball joint 
moving in its cup or socket ‘^admitting of a lateral pUty 
more or less, according to the pressure brought upon the 
connecting-rod. The crank is made hollow, and a 
diagonal riot, ent in it admits of the oil, with which the 
hollow of the pin is filled from time to time, being passed 
to the moveable joint, which is thus kept well lubricated. 
A supply of oil can be conveyed by the hollow crank-pin 
equal to several hours 1 working — five or six. 

L. L. Larksworthy and Co„ Lowesmoor Iron Worki, 
Worcester, exhibit various articles, as ploughs and har- 
rows; and Messrs. Garton and King, of Exeter, their 
cooking stoves and seats. The same firm have also stalls, 
and a loose box fitted up with their improved fittings, in 
conneotion with which there are exhibited a good many 
stable appliances. 

Going up the field we come to the stand of Colt- 
hurst, Symons, and Co., of the Patent Tile Works, 
Bridgewater, who exhibit a goodly collection of tiles, pave- 
ments, and amongst the former specimens of Beadon’s 
patent Gothic tile, an excellent and cheap contrivance for 
forming eaves gutters, and to which we have on other occa- 
sions specially referred. Passing the Arts Department, 
and following the course of the field, we take the row of 
sheds next the sea, and work our way back again to the 


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entrance, at which point we began our labours. In this 
arrangement of our work, the stand we first come to is 
that of Parkham, Northgate Street Iron Works, Bath, 
who exhibits a good collection of hurdles and gates. And, 
by the way, referring to gates, we may remark that in 
many cases a remarkable overlooking of the principles 
upon which they should be constructed is to be found in 
many gates exhibited at our shows. The subject is one 
of importance, and will bear investigation in a special 
paper, which we purpose shortly devoting to it. 

The stands next in order contain exhibits, the ma- 
jority of which, not being specially connected with agri- 
culture — at least not requiring much special description 
—may be noted in one paragraph. The exhibits are 
Beach's (Dudley, Worcestershire) cattle-food ; Hepburn’s 
(Long-lane, Southwark, London) leather belting; Glid- 
don's (Willeton, Taunton) prize ranges, who also exhibits 
s screw-driver water-tap, showing considerable ingennity 
in the means bv which leakage is prevented, this being 
effected by a double screw and flat washer- valve ; G. 
Bodge’s (London) vulcanized India-rubber driving bands, 
tubing, and waterproof sheeting ; Cook (Redruth, Corn- 
wall), dog-carta; the Bovey -Tracey (Newton Abbott) 
Pottery Company, fire-brick and tiles ; Bullay (Station- 
road, Plymouth), miniature brougham ; Terrill (Redruth, 
Cornwall), cooking range ; T. Pethick (Tamerton Folliott, 
Plymouth), farm carts ; Hardon (Albert Works, Strange- 
ways, Manchester), royal patent feeding cake; Richard 
Crign Silvester (16, St. James's- walk, Clerkenwedl, 
London), American inventions, &c., a knife sharpener, a 
nose-ring for cattle, and a weighing-scale ; Baker (Comp- 
ton, Newbury, Berkshire), liquid manure carta, and 
pump ; Day, Son, and Hewitt (22, Dorset-street, 
Baker-street, London), medicine-chests, gaseous fluid, 
Ac. Bradford — the ubiquitous Bradford — of Cathedral 
Steps, Manchester, turns up here, as at every show, 
with his washing-machines, which, as Josh Billings would 
say, “are, in course, poorly agyerkateryilmashins,” which 
have fantastic designations as “Vowel” machines; why 
so-called we cannot say. Bat he has here something 
specially agricultural, and which deserves more than a 
passing notice : it is a churn, which, as usual with this 
indefatigable inventor, he designates fantastically, and it 
therefore figures as the “ C.C.C.” churn. Whetner there 
is a hidden or occult pun in this, we know not ; but the 
sound, at all events, conveys a hint to look at it. And 
really it is worthy of being looked at, as it possesses eon- 
ridaaMe claims to being what seems all the rage at 
present, an aerating or atmospheric churn. The principal 
feature lies in the form of the dasher, or rather plough, 
for the milk is acted upon by the reciprocatory motion, 
like the old-fashioned plunge-churn, which is square or 
rectangular in form. Its extremities or side-wings, as 
we may call them, are simply hollow boxes, the outer sides 
of which are quite open, although the upper part or lid 
and the sides and ends are closed. These boxes do not 
stretch right across the whole of the plunger, but are 
stopped short, leaving a space between them. This 
space is filled up with square bars set diamond form, 
tuns O . The plnnger thus constructed is provided 
with two cross-bars, to the centre of which one end of 
an upright lever is jointed, the upper end of which is 
jointed to a horizontal cross lever placed some distance 
above the top of the churns, and one end of which is 
gnsped by the operator, the other end being jointed to a 
vertical snpport at tho back. The operation is as fol- 
lows : The box in which the plunger is placed is filled to 
s certain height with the muk or cream to be operated 
upon, and the plnnger lifted sharply up, till the lower 
edge of the side-wings or boxes of the plunger are a little 
above the surface of the milk or cream, the air then passes 
into and fills the spaces of the boxes, when the plunger 


is forced down into the liquid, and the air is passed 
through it, and up between the chnrn and set bars, the 
shape and position of which cause a variety of contrair 
currents, which agitate the liquid. Whatever other result 
is obtained, that of passing a large body of air through 
the liquid is certainly obtained : a very short working of 
the chnrn suffices to show that. We believe trials have 
shown its value in practice, and certainly nothing can be 
fairer than the terms upon which the inventor offers it to 
the public, for he gives intending purchasers a month's 
trial of it, and if that does not satisfy them, he takes 
back the churn. Our description is complete when we 
rive the poetical quotation with which the inventor beads 
nis prospectus, and which is applicable to more things 
than to churns : — 

“ The current that wttfc gentle murmur glides, 

Thou knowest, being stopped, impatiently doth rage.” 

Shakespeare, from whom this is taken, has been called a 
“ universal -minded man it must be so, else he could 
not thus have been pressed into the service of agricultural 
implement makers, to, slightly altering the quotation, 
" point their prospectus, and adorn their tale.” 

The attendance during the two first days. Monday 
and Tuesday, both of which have been half-crown 
days, has not by any means been great; but we be- 
lieve the pecuniary result has satisfied the Society — at 
least such is what common report says, if that is trust- 
worthy. On Monday 659 paid for admission, 1,800 yester- 
day, but the number admitted to-day (Wednesday) must 
reach some thousands, for already, at the early hour we 
write this, crowds are pouring in from all quarters. The 
weather is beautiful, and the attraction outside the show 
as well as inside cannot foil to bring a large concourse of 

P eople. If, in addition, to the money they bring to the 
ociety, they bring also business to the exhibitors — which 
up till to-day has been exceedingly dull-^all concerned 
will have no reason to complain. 

On Tuesday forenoon, about eleven o'clock, the trials of 
mowing machines was begun on a field of rye grass, in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the show-yard. The trials 
excited great interest, and were attended by a considerable 
number of visitors to the show. The Bath and West 
of England Society have for some years given up 
the prize system, and that trials such as were carried 
out on Tuesday and Wednesday were not trials in the 
ordinary sense of the term, as involving any com- 
petition for prizes or other marks of merit. The So- 
ciety takes no cognizance of them, but simply affords 
facilities for carrying them out, and takes toe general 
management of them such as they are ; leaving the public 
who witness than to be the best judges of the results. 
It is, to say the. least of this arrangement, open to dis- 
cussion as to whether it is a wise policy on the part of the 
Society ; whether, indeed, it is not an ignoring of one of 
the duties of an agricultural society— -namely, that which 
imposes upon it the task of ascertaining for its mem- 
bers what are the inventions and appliances which are 
likely to be useful to them iu their practice. Those are 
not few in number nor unimportant in influence who 
maintain that this is one of the duties, possibly the most 
important, which an agricultural society has to perform ; 
and, if so, it is difficult to see why this Society nas fore- 
gone its performance. We cannot but think the decision of 
the Bath and West of England Society an unfortunate one. 
The prize system has unmistakably done much good, and 
is still capable of doing good ; and there is one commentary 
very striking, to be met with in the show-yard itself, 
upon the decision of the Society, with reference .to the 
doing away with the prize system in connection with the 
implements and machines. A walk through the stock and 
poultry departments will show on every side tickets 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


blazing forth “First prize,” “Second prize,” “Third 
prize,” and so on. How is this? Is the prize system so 
good for one department that it is followed ont ; so bad 
for another that there it is condemned, and throst aside 
as worthless, if not worse ? We do not lose sight of the 
fact that there are conditions affecting the stock prize 
system which do not affect — at least in the same degree — 
the prize system connected with implements and 
machines ; nevertheless, to many it does seem an anomaly 
that prizes should be given in one and not in another 
department. It is scarcely the place — certainly not the 
place to do the subject justice — to take np the discussion 
of this question at the end of a long article. Mean- 
while, we feel that we should not have been doing 
either our readers or ourselves justice had we not 
alluded to it, and very clearly given our opinion upon 
it. We now conclude by giving the list of those who 
tried their machines on Tuesday. The numbers refer 
to the numbers of the plots which the different com- 
petitors — if the term is allowable when nothing was 
competed for — drew for the choice of plots. (6) Walter 
A. Wood, (1) Samuelsou and Company, (4) Brenton, (7) 
Reading Iron Company, (2) Hornsby and Sons, (9) 
Burgess and Key, (10) Beverley Iron and Waggon Com- 
pany, (6) Picksley, Sims, and Co., (3) Howard of Bedford, 
(8) Kearsley, (11) Bamletts. The trials excited great in- 
terest, and a slight shower before and after and during 
the trial made the grass in capital order for wording. As 
a rule, the work done by all the machines was excellent, 
although to some .the usual mishaps occurred, which pre- 
vented them from displaying their full powers. It would 
be invidious under the circumstances to enter into a 
detailed account of the work done by the various 
machines : that will be probably done when more leisure 
awaits us. On Wednesday the reaper trials were being 
carried on in a field of rye some distance from the 
Show-yard. The crop is in excellent condition for dis- 
playing to advantage the capabilities of the different 
machines entered for trial, the principal entries being 
made by Burgess and Key, Howard, Wood, Brenton, 
Kearsley. 

THE IMPLEMENT STANDS. 

Holmes and Son, Norwich. — Seven-horse power portahle 
steam-engine; combined prize portable finishing thrashing 
machine ; improved circular-saw table ; eight, ten, and four- 
teen-row corn and small occupation drills ; four-row and 
economical West of England seed and manure drills ; broad- 
cast com and seed-sowing machine; single and two-row 
turnip and man gold drills ; and corn-dressing machines. 

Tasker and Sons, Andover. — Six-horse power portable 
single cylinder steam-engine; single-blast patent combined 
portable thrashing machine ; screw-lifting jack ; corn-dressing 
machines ; oilcake breakers ; and circular-saw tables. , 

Clayton, Shuttleworth, and Co., Lincoln.— Five and six- 
horse power single cylinder portable steam-engines ; single and 
double-blast combined thrashing and finishing machines ; and 

S tent combined two-row revolving liquid manure and drop 
ill for turnip and other seeds. 

Powrs and Co., MUlwall. — Improved mortising, tenoning, 
and boring machine ; improved enaless band sawing machine ; 
the “ Joiner Universal” sawing machine; improved three- 
cutter moulding machine ; improved self-acting circular saw- 
bench ; and a portable steam-engine to drive the foregoing 
machinery. 

The Reading Iron Works (Limited), Reading.— Three- 
horse power portable steam-engine; two patent “dipper’ 1 
mowing machines ; improved lever horse rakes ; gorse-bnumng 
machine ; improved chaff-cutters for hand and horse power ; 
oilcake mill ; grass seed broadcake sowing machine ; ana forty- 
two inch combined portable thrashing machine. 

Brown and May, Devizes. — Eight-horse power patent 
portable steam-engine ; and four-feet six-inch combined 
finishing thrashing machine. 


Marshall, Sons, and Co., Gainsborough. — Five and eight- 
horse power portable steam-engines ; combined thrashing and 
finishing machines ; and improved circular-saw benches. 

Plenty and Son, Newbury. — A patent engine and boiler 
yachts, launches, and other boats. 

Hawken and Clemow, St. Issey and St. Merryn, Corn- 
wall. — Ten-horee power double-cylinder portable steam-engine ; 
eight-horse power single-cylinder portable steam-engine; com- 
bined portable double-blast finishing thrashing machine ; im- 
proved circular-saw bench (new implement), with cast-iron 
frame and planed table; improved chaff-cutting machine; 
(new article), set of steadying blocks ; combined reaper and 
mower ; self-raking, “ Eclipse,” and governor self-raking 
reapers ; improved horse-gear ; turnip-cutters ; an assortment 
of “ Excelsior” turnwrest and other ploughs ; an iron plough 
(new implement), made with wrought-iron centre-piece intro- 
duced in the beam, and wrought-iron frame ; collections of 
hay and dung forks; leather machine bands, and vulcanized 
india rubber bands: patent flexible or chain harrows; and 
collection of oil feeders, &c. 

The Beverley Iron and Waggon Company, Beverley. 
— Two-horse grass mowing machine ; one and two-horse 
reaping machine, with manual and double self-acting swathe 
delivenr ; three pairs of patent cart wheels, with axles, to 
carry 20, 25, and 30 cwts. ; Newcastle prize or one-horse 
model cart ; self-cleansing clod crusher and roller ; and a pair 
of cast-iron wheels for clod crasher or roller. 

Ruston, Proctor, and Co. — Five and six-horse power 
portable steam engines; single and double blast thrashing, 
finishing, and dressing machines; and improved circular- 
saw bench with planed metal table. 

Humphries, Pershore. — Six-horse power portable steam 
engine ; combined thrashing and finishing machine ; and pair 
of two-and-a-half inch cider pren screws. 

Hornsby and Sons, Grantham.— Six-horse power portahle 
steam engine, with contracted steam chamber ; four-feet com- 
bined thrashing, shaking, and finishing dressing machine; 
“Governor,” “Premier, and “Plymouth” self-raking and 
one-horse back-delivery reaping machines ; patent “ Paragon” 
mowers, and “ Plymouth” and “ Paragon” combined mowers 
and reapers; an assortment of light and strong two-horse 
iron ploughs; root-pnlpers ; patent washing machine with 
wringer and metal screw ; improved patent mangle with 
brass-capped sycamore rollers: patent 10}-inch forked leg 
wringer, with metal screw ; and ten-row corn and seed drill. 

Garrett and Sons, Saxmundham. — Four and six-horse 
power portable steam engines ; combined thrashing and finish- 
ing dressing machines ; patent straw elevator ; ten and eleven- 
row Suffolk corn drills ; West of England and other pattern 
corn and seed drills ; two sizes of Chambers* patent artificial 
manure distributor ; improved horse hoes ; corn dressing ma- 
chines ; and patent rick and corn ventilators. 

Sutton and Sons, Reading. — Collection of one hundred 
specimens of dried grass, plants, and samples of grass seeds ; 
complete assortment of the principal kinds of agricultural, 
horticultural, and floricultural seeds ; collection of agricul- 
tural roots ; and growing samples of various kinds of seeds in 
pots. 

Beale (Carter and Co.), London. — Samples and specimens 
of natural grasses for permanent pasture; wheats, barleys, 
oats, mangel, turnip, ana other agricultural produce. 

Pontey, Cornwall. — Collections of approved kinds of seed, 
grasses, and field roots, including mangolds and turnips. 

Samuelson and Co., Banbuiy. — Self-raking ana one and 
two-horse “ Eclipse*’ reaping machines ; two-hone grass mow- 
ers ; combined mower and reaper ; and fourteen, nineteen, and 
thirty-inch lawn mowers. 

Bentall, Maldon. — Five specimens of patent chaff cutters, 
of various power, for hand ana horse working ; improved disc 
root pulpers; Gardner’s turnip cutters; and improved oil- 
cake mills. 

Roberts and Sons, Bridgewater. — The patent “Econo- 
mist” carriage; waggonettes; park phaetons; Malvern, 
Whitechapel, and other dog carts ; a eadabout Dennet gig ; 
and miscellaneous lot of single and double harness. 

Picksley, Sims, and Co., Leigh.— Variety of different 
size chaff cutters for hand and horse power ; steel grinding 
mills ; oat and bean mills ; smooth roller crushing mills ; 
single and combined turnip pnlpers, slicers, and strippers; 
Gardner’s single action turnip cutter; new pattern oilcake 


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mill ; eleven, thirteen, fourteen, and nineteen-inch lawn mow- 
era; tingle and double cylinder garden rollera ; an assortment 
of combined wood and iron garden pic-nic chairs, of rations 
uses and patterns ; American and improved horse rakes ; case 
oi American hay and manure forks ; twelve pig troughs, as- 
sorted sixes ; two-horse mowing machines; two-horse com- 
bined reaper and mower ; and one-horse “ Champion 1 * reaper. 

Goes and Son, Plymouth. — Specimens of brass and steel 
letters for marking and branding purposes; and ornaments, 
coats of arms, and trade marks for all kinds of metal, wood,&c. 

Buxton, St. Germans, Cornwall. — One and two-horse 
patent cylinder reaping machines; two two-horse “Nonpa- 
reil** mowing machines ; three-row turnip and mangold drill ; 
combined mowing and dressing machine ; broadcast com and 
seed machine ; improved registered sheep rack mounted on 
iron wheels ; set of tubular iron whippletrees ; samples of 
machine driving bands ; and bundle of nay and manure forks. 

Howard, J. and F., Bedford. — An assortment of iron one 
and two-wheel iron ploughs for every variety of soil and work, 
with subsoil, ridging, ana digging-bodies for attachment ; im- 
proved potato-raising plough, with two wheels and doable 
raisers; improved plough sledge, 'dynamometer or draught 
gauge, sets of patent flexible chain and beam iron harrows, 
improved wrought-iron harrow carriage, sets of trussed w hippie 
trees, patent horse rakes, three sixes patent double-action hay- 
making machines, new patent improved two-horse mowing 
machine, one and two-horse manual and self-delivery reaping 
machi n e s , and new patent safety steam boiler and super-heater 
of tea-horse power. 

K i am l s i, H. and G., Bipon. — Two-horse grass mowing 
machine, two-horse combined mower and reaper, one and two 
hone reaping machines, and a meadow mower. 

Larkworthy and Co., Worcester. — Three sixes patent 
"Excelsior” iron ploughs; various sets of "Excelsior* iron 
scuffles, drag and beam harrows; sets of “ Excelsior” steel 
plough and equalising whippletrees, and a wrought-iron cattle 
crib. 

Gahtox and King, Exeter.— An assortment of cottage, 
do m es t ic, farmhouse, and pedestal cooking stoves, ranges, grates, 
and heaters ; variety of useful and highly-omamental com- 
bined wood and iron garden seats and tables ; set ef cast-iron 
work for loose box, porcelain manger and drinking trough ; 
seta of east-iron stall divisions and stable fittings ; cast-iron 
galvanised hay-racks and corner mangers ; single mid double 
harness fittings, and general stable necessaries and utensils ; 
wrought-iron gates with posts and stays, wrought-iron hurdles, 
con t in u ous entitle chain fence and galvanized strained wire ; 
wrought-iron cylindrical boiler, and cast-iron crescent boiler. 

Bobt, Bury St. Edmund’s.— Five patent double-action hay- 
makers, fitted with wood or iron travelling wheels ; patent 
con screens, with blowers and removable wire beds ; improved 
patent barley screen, improved corn-dressing machine and 
screen combined, improved malt screen, barley and malt hum- 
meflen ; patent self-acting horse-rakes, with seat for driver ; 
and patent oval-beam iron and wood-beam ploughs. 

Tuck and Son, Bath.— Patent and improved Homblotten 
and Chantrey stiles, in oak and iron ; lengths of five-wired, 
continuous, and tubular cattle fencing, with straining pillars ; 
specimens of wrought-iron field and garden gates, hurdles, and 
verandahs in different panels ; selection of garden seats, chairs, 
tables, watering engines, and wheelbarrows; models of cast 
and wrought iron boilers ; model of arrangement for heating 
churches or public buildings ; and model of gasworks for man- 
nous, factories, collieries, &c. 

Whitx, London.— Specimens of the patent S. L. V. oil- 
feeders, save-all, pyramid oil-cans, needle lubricators, artificial 
dams, stable and bam lamps and lanterns, and thatch fas- 
teners ; and samples of leather driving bands, straps, lashing 
laces, and thongs. 

Musgravx Brothers, Belfast. — Four full-sized horse- 
stalls, with patent fittings ; a variety of fittings and stable fur- 
liture, racks, mangers, Ac. ; patent iron cowhouse fittings, dog 
kennels, and piggeries ; patent harness-room, slow combustion, 
and conservatory stoves ; and an assortment of Btable utensils 
and necessaries. 

Plimsaul Brothers, Plymouth. — Improved one-way and 
other ploughs ; turnip hoes ; flexible, chain, and Bedford har- 
rows ; improved American tubular, iron, hand and horse rakes ; 
patent self-raking and one-horse “ Eclipse” reaping machines ; 
combined reaping and mowing machine ; double and single 


action hay tamers; chaffcatters of various power; improved 
turnip pulpers, strippers, and slioers; Gardner’s single and 
double action turnip-cutters ; improved oat, bean, com, seed, 
and malt crushers ; two and three row turnip and mangold 
drills; corn dressing and blowing machiues; an assortment 
of liquid manure barrows, pumps, and garden rollers ; washing, 
wringing, and mangling machines ; garden chairs, engines, 
flower-stands, &c. ; selection of spades, scythes, and forks ; an 
assortment of lawn mowers and rolling machines ; galvanized 
iron cattle, pig, dog, and poultry troughs ; American cottage 
and domestic cooling stoves and ranges ; a variety of gas- 
burner stoves, with flexible tubing ; a variety of cooking pots 
and domestic utensils ; Milner’s patent fireproof boxes and 
safes ; stable fittings and furniture; corn measures, weighing 
machines, garden tools, knife-cleaning machines, and cask of 
sheep wash. 

Carson and Toonk, Warminster. — An assortment of 
chaff-cutting engines for hand, horse, or steam power ; 
Moody’s patent turnip-cutters, on iron frames; oilcake 
crushers ; single and double cheese-presses, on iron and wood 
stools ; and an assortment of wrought* iron horse-hoes, with 
three steel hoes and five tines. 

Baker, Wisbeach. — Improved combined blowing and dress- 
ing machines, and combined corn-dressing machines with one 
hopper. 

The Canadian Washing-Machine and Agricultural 
Implement Company, Worcester. — Patent Canadian wash- 
ing-machines, with wood and iron frames ; two sizes of com- 
pound lever mangles; patent combined washing, wringing, 
and mangling machine ; India-rubber wringers ; patent clothes- 
horse and dryer ; and sets of improved diagonal-shaped three 
and four-beam harrows. 

Sara, Penryn, Cornwall. — Twelve-horse power horizontal 
steam-engine ; pair of 12-horse power vertical engines, with 
reversing motion; 2-horse power small donkey engine and 
boiler; steam-ram for forcing water; sets of three chaff- 
cutters ; and set of four ploughs. 

Nicholson, Newark-on-Trent. — 'Eiree haymaking ma- 
chines, with single and combined motion ; (new implement), 
high-wheeled horse-rake, of great height, and constructed to 
carry large loads ; 24-inch garden roller, with double cylinders ; 
patent cue crasher ; registered bottle racks to hold six and 
twelve dozen ; sack-lifting machines ; malt and corn shovels ; 
and Baker’s patent anti-incrastator. 

Hansomes and Sims, Ipswich. — An assortment of iron 
beam two wheel, moulding, ridging, turn-wrest, or one-way 
ploughs, for every variety of soil ; ndging, subsoil, potato, and 
digging bodies ; sets of trussed iron whippletrees and porael- 
trees ; improved horse-rake ; set of three patent-jointed har- 
rows ; bean-cutter ; oat and combined mills ; oilcake breakers ; 
Gardner’s turnip-cutters ; root-pulper, for hand power ; and 
four “ automaton” lawn-mowers. 

Burgess and Key, London. — Beaping and mowing ma- 
chines, and combined reaper and mower. 

Buckingham, Launceston. — Champion butterfly ploughs ; 
seven-tiiied cultivator ; (new article), a cultivator with nine 
tines, for large occupations, to cover six feet of land ; and an 
improved horse-hoe. 

Dening and Co. (late Wightman and Dening), Chard, 
Somerset. — Haymaking machines ; horse-rake ; cheese-press ; 
apple mill and corn-bruiser ; three sizes of horse-gear ; iron 
ploughs for light and heavy land ; root-grater ; and horse- 
noe. 

Wilcocks, Bath.— Three, four, five, and six-motion beer- 
engines, with fittings complete ; gas-cooking stoves ; bottling 
machine, for soda-water manufacturers; soda-water cylinder 
or condenser ; atmospheric kettle-boilers and kettles ; two and 
three-liglit chandeliers ; harp lamp ; and set of pewter wine 
measures. 


Eastwood, Blackburn. — An assortment of patent com- 
pound-action churns, in sizes to churn from one to eight 
gallons. 

Bam lett, Thirsk. — Two-horse grass mower, and one-horse 
reaper. 

The Bristol Waggon Company, Bristol. — Light crank- 
axle, improved farm, and pony or errand carts ; Wood’s one 
and two-horse mowing and reaping machines, and combined 
mowing and reaping machine ; three sizes of American horse- 
rake ; patent steel-tooth bay-collectors ; grass seed distributor ; 

£ 


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fire and six-row asm -drills ; patent and improved sheep- 
racks ; and improved road-scraper. 

Le Butt, Bnfy St. Edmond's. — Foar patent “ Champion” 
doable-action haymaking machines ; (new implement), regis- 
tered self-acting hand seed drill, for prodncing greater regu- 
larity in sowing seed ; an assortment of mower or reaper- 
knife rests ; everlasting malt-screen ; and (new article), speci- 
mens of the Aberoom chair, which by a simple movement is 
instantaneously converted into a pair of useful steps. 

P AJurxLL and Son, ExeteT.— A variety of gig aad other 
harness, saddles, bridles, snaffles, Martingales, A©.; whips, 
canes, sticks, and whipholders j riek-cioths, winnowing-sheets, 
and carriage-wrappers ; aad a collection of three, foar, and 
live-bushel sacks. 

Harding, Wincanton .—Harding’ s genuine horse food, in 
casks, canisters, and packets. 

Penney and Co., Lincoln.— Patent adjustable corn-screens 
and separators ; sack-lifters ; improved registered gravel, sand, 
coal, and malt screens ; rolls of galvanised game and poultry- 
netting ; and six galvanised wire meat safes. 

Hawses, Spencer, and Co., Tiverton. — Eight, nine, 
eleven, thirteen, and fifteen-row patent chain com drills ; three- 
row turnip, mangold, and manure drill ; single and doable- 
action turninp cutters; patent self-acting horse-rakes ; hay 
machine ; reaping machines ; patent fire-bars ; and washing 
machines. 

Carson and Co., London.— Samples and patterns of the 
original anti-corrosion paint ; samples of varnishes, raw and 
boued linseed oils, turpentine, and paints ; and an assortment 
of improved brashes and materials for painting purp os e s . 

Colman and Morton, Chdmrford. — Variety of patent 
cultivators, with five and seven tines; improved one-horse 
gear ; water or liquid-manure cart ; patent adjustable rotary 
Cora screen ; new patent oilcake cutters for hand or steam 
power ; and samples of shares, Ac., for Column's cultivators. 

Reeves, R. and J., Westbury. — Two, three, and four-row 
liquid manure and economical seed-drills; eleven-coulter 
small-occupation corn-drill ; patent broadcast manure distri- 
butor ; and improved portable barrow-pump. 

Page and Co., Bedford. — Improved draining pipe and tile 
machine; patent horse, hat, corn, and stubble rakes; one and 
two-hone wrought-iron ploughs ; sets of diagonal iron har- 
rows ; improved one-row combined expanding and universal 
steerage horse-hoes ; and improved linseed-cake mills. 

Cambridge and Co., Bristol, — Improved Cambridge roller 
and clod crashen; patent notched-wheel rollers and clod- 
crushers ; sets of three and four-beam combined tine and 
chain harrows ; three-wheel land-presses- ; one and two-hone 
gear; twenty-three and twenty-six teeth hone-rakes; and 
Gardner’s single and double-action turnip cutters. 

Woods, CocxsEdge, and Warner, Stowraarket.— One, 
two, and four-horse power vertical steam-engines, complete ; 
universal grinding and crashing mills, for oats, beans, barley, 
linseed, malt, wheat, pets, maize, fee. ; Gardner's single and 
double-action patent tnrnip-Cotten ; improved root pulpen and 
graten; improved horse-works, with separate intermediate 
motion ; portable corn-grinding mills, with twenty and thirty- 
six inch french burr stones ; improved oilcake breakers, patent 
perfect hog-troughs, one-horse carts* to carry thirty cwts., 
and Woods' one and two-horse mowers and reapers. 

Wood, W. A. (Cranston), London.— One and two-horse 
Wood’s Royal grass-mowing machines, with and without reap- 
ing attachment ; Wood’s Royal one-horse reaping machine ; 
and Nova8eotia grindstone, for sharpening reaper and mower 
knives. 

Williams and Co., Falmouth. — Miniature waggonette to 
carry four persona, two and four-wheeled dog-carts, and har- 
vest waggon. 

Croggon and Co., London. — Variety of galvanized iron 
pails, turnip skips, bowls, and basins ; rolls of asphalte, in- 
odorous, ship-sheathing, and dry hair non-conducting felts ; 
models of sheds and galvanized iron church ; samples of 
Kamptnlicon floorcloth and stall planking ; two garden engines ; 
galvanized iron cistern, gas stoves; samples of perforated 
iron and zinc asphalte blocks, shovels, spades, and forks ; and 
rolls of strand wire fencing. 

RolliNb, London.— A large assortment of patent American 
domestic, well, suction, and force pumps, of various power ; 
patent American aqnarins and hydraulic ram; bundles of 
American hay and mannre forks ; Nova Scotia grindstone and 


India pond extra scythe atones ; improved American wheel 
horse-rakes ; variety of small American implements for form 
and household use ; set of American thermometer churns ; 
and assortment of S haler and Fairbanks weighing raaohinoe, 
weights, scoops, &e. 

Ash, Penzance.— Two and four-wheel dog-earts and park 
phaetons. 

Bears, Newton Abbot.— Three and five-horse power port- 
able thrashing machines; three end five-horse power port- 
able gear; three-row turnip and mangold drill) winnow- 
ing machine, patent “ Eclipse” reaping machine, oombimed 
reaper and mower ; and Riche's aad Watts' patent ** Eureka” 
grist mills. 

Richmond and Chandler, Salford. — Assortment of chaff- 
cutters of various size and cut, to work with hand, horse, or 
•team power ; eora crashers ; one, two, and four-horse gear ; 
root washers, turnip cutters, steaming apparatus, saekholden, 
and bread-kneading machines. 

Titter, Birmingham. — Cattle medieines ; Tipper’s medi- 
cated mystery, for cows, calves, sheep, pigs, poultry, and dogs ; 
and sheep-dipping apparatus for scab, tick, and fly. 

Inlett, Ladoek, Cornwall. — Varirty of oemetery memorial 
stones, pillars, and crosses. 

Mitchbll and Burgees, Manchester.— Emery composi- 
tion grinding machines and files for ordinary and reaper knife 
sharpening, and portable stand for holding reaper knife bar 
while being sharpened. 

M cru lx’s Patent Earth Closet Co., London. — Speci- 
mens of the patent earth commode, with pull-up aad self- 
action, made of various woods; patent ductless earth and 
cinder sifter, patent earth urinal, seta of self-acting and pull- 
up apparatuses, drying stove for drying earth, aad galvanised 
iron tanks for earth closets. 

Davet, Crofthole, Cornwall. — Excelsior turn-wnest ploughs, • 
with steel breasts, skim coulter, and parallel self-acting wheels ; 
portable horse rake, and set of tubular whippl et ree s . 

Day, Son, and Hewitt, London. — Stock-breeders' com- 
plete medicine ebeet, containing “ Guide ” and lane assort- 
ment of cattle and sheep medicines and compounds ; cheats 
of ohemical extracts, gaseous fluid, red drench or inflam- 
mation powders, red paste or condition balls, for the cun of 
the various complaints and diseases incidental to horses, 
cattle, sheep, Ac.; the ahuninate of zinc and sulphuretted 
extract ointments ; and four pamphlets—" Key to Farriery *’ 
(two editions), “ Prize Essay on the Bearing of Calves,” and 
“ The Breeding and Management of Sheep.” 

Barer, Newbury.— Liquid manure or water cart, on 4-inch 
wood wheels ; liquid manure distributor ; pump, with 12 feet 
of suction hose attached ; and 130-gallon liqaia mannre cert, 
with distributor attached. 

Silvester, London.— Patent American scales, improved 
American blade sharpener, and patent noose ring for leading 
cattle. 

Haedon, Manchester.— Samples of royal patent cake, and 
original condimental food for feeding and health restoring. 

Pithicx, Plymouth. — Two-horse form carts for general 
purpo s es. 

Terrill, Redruth.— £ix sizes of i mp roved cooking appa- 
ratus, fitted with every requisite for domestic use, and made 
of various measurement. 

Jones, Gloucester,— Composition for w ate rproofing, soften- 
ing, and preserving feather ; aad Gloucestershire specific for 
foot-rot in sheep. 

Parham, Bath.— Assortment of iron, tubular, aad orna- 
mental field, garden, and wicket gates aad pillars ; rolls of 
continuous galvanized wire fencing for cattle, sheep, doge, 
poultry, Ac. ; ornamental hurdles, with trellis and chain tops • 
strong wrought-iron cattle crib ; various garden seats ; and 
specimens of verandahs. 

Hepburn and Sons, London. — Lengths of stout double 
and single leather belting, mill-band strapping, and driving 
bands of various weight, length, and width ; lengths of leather 
pipe and suction hose ; leather fire buckets, strep s crew s and 
fasteners, and hydraulic leathers ; and canvas hose for fire 
engines and liquid manure carts, tanks, Ac. 

BBacr, Dudley. — Beach's farinaceous food for cattle, sheep, 
and pigs ; eondiment for horses ; and superfine flour. 

Gliddon, Taunton. — Open fire kitchen range or cooking 
apparatus ; steaming apparatus for domestic use ; " People's ” 
cooking range, and “ Vesta” cottage range ; suspension roast- 


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51 


THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


iag apparatus, fitted with tin screen : enamelled iron bath, 
eom^ete ; and (new) »crew-down tap, for all kinds of spirituous 
and malt tiqnon. 

Dopes, London. — Rolls of india-rubber and vulcanised 
machine-hands of various length, width, weight, and sub- 
stance; vulcanised india-rubber hose mid tubing for fire, 
engines, breweries, m an uf a c tories, &c. ; assortment of useful 
india-rubber articles for domestic and other purposes ; india- 
rubber waterproof covers and sheeting ; ditching and malting- 
boote, driving-aprons, capes, coats, &c., and gntta-percha 
driving-bands. 

Coon, Bedruth .—Two- wheeled Malvern dog-cart, and four- 
wheeled phaeton. 

The Bovet Tracey Pottery Company, Bore? Tracey.— 
Rreand architectural brick goods in great variety, for all 

^Sullet, Plymouth. — Miniature brougham, Victoria ba- 
ronche phaeton, and skeleton-body park phaeton. 

Major, Bridgwater. — Model roof, exnibiting various kinds 
of roofing and other tiles. 

Browne and Co., Bridgwater.— Variety of plain and 
w wldcd bricks, tiles, and pottery. 

SutcHLiT, Weymouth^— Six-horse power portable engine, 
imvenal joiner, batting sawing machine, and mortising ma- 


THE ANNUAL MEETING 

Of the members was held in the council tent at 12 o’clock or 
the Wednesday, Sir John Duckworth, Bart., the President, ir 
tbs chair. 

The Secretary (Mr. Goodwin) read the following Reports 
** T he C ouncil have the gratification to announce that, not* 
withstanding the deeease of several valuable members, pro- 
miiieatly among whom most he mentioned the late John Silli- 
fiuft, Eeq n of Coombe, in the countv of Devon, there has been 
no serious diminution in the number of subscribers. There 
are at present on the books 69 life governors of tlie Society, 
101 governors, 554 members subscribing not less than £1 
JjanMly, and 253 members contributing 10s. annually ; total, 
977. The growing disposition of locd agricultural societies 
to enlarge the area of their operations, and to invite the 
■aanfimturere of agricultural implements to exhibit at their 
shows, has entailed on thst enterprising body of men a great 
uosnse of cost and trouble to meet the requisitions of the 
various a nnu a l exhibitions. When therefore a proposal was 
Jjtely made by the Southern Counties Association, embracing 
the counties of Hants, Berks, Oxford, Sussex, Surrey, and 
Kent, that their association should be amalgamated with this 
Soorty^the Council was induced in great measure by this 
wnsmwation to appoint a special committee to confer with a 
uu i upending body of the Council of the Southern Counties 
A monitio n • and, after mature consideration, it was in the 
ant instance resolved at a special meeting of the Council, 
held at Taunton, on the 14th of March, and afterwards con- 
firmed at an ordinary meeting, held on the 28th of March, 
that it is desirable for the amalgamation proposed by the 
Southern Counties Association to be acceded to on the follow- 
uw terms : 1. That the name of the amalgamated society be 
‘Tne Bath sod West of England Society (established 1777) 
and Southern Counties Association.* 2. That the rules of the 
Beth and West of England Society be adopted as the rules of 
the amalgamated society. 8. That m the united Council the 
yue-premdents and half of the Council (18) of the Southern 
Counties Association he added to those of the Bath and West 
of England. 4. That the office do continue at Bath, and the 
©Seers of the Bath and West of England Society become 
those of the amalgamated society. 6. That the meetings of 
the Council be held at Yeovil. To this proposal the Council 
recommend that the annual meeting give effect. The Council 
are happy to announce that the financial position of the 
mewty is satisfactory. The funded capital has not been it 
sjy ww diminished during the last three years, and it is hoped 
that the experiment of holding a meeting so for west as Fal- 
mouth will prove eondneive to the great objects for which the 
•ooety was founded. The exhibition, though not so large ai 
on several previous occasions, has the ment of great excel- 
«ee. Stock and poultry are represented by fine specimens ol 
»e best breeds, machinery and implements by the productions 


of many of the best makers from remote parts of the United 
Kingdom. The Art Department is replete with works of great 
ment by living artists, whose names are annually becoming 
more familiar to the frequenters of the society’s exhibitions, 
and the Conncil desire to record their obligations to the Lord 
President of the Privy Council, and the authorities of South 
Kensington Museum, for the fine collection of objects in deco- 
rative art entrusted to the society for exhibition. An invita- 
tion having been received from the Mayor and Local Com- 
mittee of the town and county of Southampton to hold a meet- 
ing there in 1869, the Council recommena that, subject to the 
usual requirements of the society being complied with, the in- 
vitation be accepted. At the last annual meeting a proposition 
was made that a petition should be presented to the Legisla- 
ture in favour of stricter regulations in reference to the impor- 
tation of cattle from foreign ports. The subject was referred 
to a special meeting of the Conncil of the Society, and a me- 
morial, which it is hoped has not proved fruitless, was pre- 
sented to the Privy Conncil. The Council recommend that 
the Earl of Carnarvon be appointed to the office of president 
for the i year 1869. To supply the vacancy occurring in the 
Council by resignations ana tne usual retirements, the Council 
recommend that the following members be elected : Mr. Wm. 
H. P. Carew, Antony House, Torpoint, as vice-president. 
(The names of the Council included the Rev. A. Thynne, Pen- 
stowe, Stratton, and Mr. E. B. Willyaras, Nanskeval, St. Co- 
lumb.) 

On the motion of Mr. Jonathan Gray, seconded by Mr. 
P. P. Smith, the report was received, adopted, and ordered to 
be circulated among the members of the society. 

Mr. Poole, in pursuance of notice, moved an alteration of 
the sixteenth law so as to allow of a general law being altered 
at a special general meeting as well as at annual meetings. 
The motion was seconded by Mr. Hussey. 

Mr. Wills thought the alteration unnecessary, as the mem- 
bers of the society pnt the greatest confidence in the Conncil, 
by whom the whole of the business between the annual meet- 
ings might be transacted as heretofore. 

Mr. Acland, M.P., pointed ont that it would be impossible 
to eomplete this amalgamation with the Southern Counties 
Association without altering some of the laws, and it would 
he a pity to leave the matter in an unsettled state for twelve 
months till the annual meeting. 

No amendment was proposed by Mr. Wills, and the motion 
was then pnt and carried. 

The Bev. T. Phillpotts moved that the proposed amalga- 
mation with the Southern Counties Association be approved 
and confirmed. « 

Mr. Spooner, of Southampton, seconded the motion, which 
was carried. 

Mr. Poole moved the appointment of a committee to con- 
sider and report to a special general meeting of the Bat h and 
West of England Society, how the proposed amalgamation 
could be best carried ont, and what alterations in the rules were 
required. 

The motion was seconded and adopted. 

Colonel Archer moved that the Earl of Carnarvon be 
elected the president of the society for the ensuing year, which 
was seconded by the Bev. T. Phillpotts, and carried unani- 
mously. 

Mr. Earthing then proposed, and Mr. Stokes seconded 
the election of the members of the Conncil as recommended, 
which was agreed to. 

On the motion of Col. Archer, Mr. W. H. Pole Carew was 
elected vice-president of the society. 

A vote of thanks was then accorded to the chairman for the 
ability and courtesy with which he had presided over the pro- 
ceedings of the society ; and at a meeting of the conncil imme- 
diately preceding the annual meeting, it was resolved that the 
besttnannks of the Conncil be presented to the chairman, 
vice-chairman, and the members of the local committee, for 
the liberality with which they had received and entertained 
the society, and for the zeal and ability with which they had 
laboured to bring the meeting to a successful issue. 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


THE ISLINGTON HORSE SHOW. 


There is a story told of a man who, on his return from I 
the Derby, was found hurrying over his dinner in the 
coffee-room, and who, on being asked the reason for all 
this haste, answered that he was going to Astley’s, and 
was afraid he might be late! It would have been 
imagined that he hod seen ouite enough of horses for once 
in the way, although we still finish the week much as this 
enthusiast did his day out. Astley’s Amphitheatre is, to 
be sure, shut up and to be sold; but after the week at Epsom 
we wind up with the horse show at Islington, and it 
comes to much the same thing. There is the same smack 
of the sawdust, the like scenes in the circle, the lofty 
jumping, and “ Pay here for the boxes.” If they would 
only run a tame fox now and then round the ring the 
illusion would be complete. 

With some considerable experience of such meetings we I 
have long thought that the horse show might be made some- j 
thing more of. There can be no disguising the fact that on 
the turf tbe horse is regarded merely as an instrument of 
gaming, aud that the countenance of the Government in the 
way of Royal Plates, to be run for at comparatively heavy 
weights and long distances, has come in its influence to be 
little more than a nullity. Surely some of the thousands 
of pounds annually wasted in this way might be advan- 
tageously applied in some other direction. At any rate, 
the experiment is worth trying, for nothing could promise 
to be more idle or useless than this expenditure, as at 
present persisted in. Let there be a few of the Royal 
Plates devoted to the encouragement of sires either for 
the saddle or harness, aud a few more of her Majesty’s 
gifts be offered for hunting-horses of certain ages and 
capabilities. A very small modicum of patronage of this 
kind would have a very great effect. It would give a 
stamp to the thing, and incite many more people to ex- 
hibit and improve, who may not as yet have thought much 
of these opportunities. The Royal Agricultural Society 
of Ireland is indeed about to take the matter up, and 
address the Government T>n the deterioration in the 
breeds of horses. Unfortunately the Charter will not 
permit of the Royal English Society going before 
Parliament, or the Council might do something of the same 
kind, say in the course of the next ten or twelve years. 
Of course a vast deal will depend upon the conduct of 
the shows. If such a gathering be regarded chiefly as a 
scheme for getting shillings and halfcrowns out of the 
public, our argument would be as false os if we went for 
breeding horses with main consideration of the hundreds 
and thousands the black-legs may get out of the public. If 
with this one great object in view an irrepressmle air of 
absurdity is to characterise the proceedings; if the 
uufortunate horses arc to be “jumped” and “ jumped” 
again from one week’s end to the other, and as an at- 
tractive finish to run trotting matches in a circus, we 
merge the horse-show into the fair show. There was 
during the Monday in Whitsun week an entertainment 
at Islington, in the conrse of which “lady jockeys” 
rode a steeple chase “ over four water jumps and eight 
fences,” with a display of fireworks in the evening. It 
is only right to sav, that this exhibition was not be in 
the Agricultural Hall, bnt on the adjoining Count v Cricket 
Gronnd. There was, however, it is fair to add, “ extra 
prizes for trotting and leaping” in the Agricultural Hall, 
and sportsmen and horsemen could have had the op- 
portunity for comparing these grand national demon- 
strations one with the other. There was, though, no 


fireworks after the trotting, an almost culpable omission, 
which the directors should order their people to see to 
by another year. 

To our thinking, the sportsman should have no greater 
treat than a well-conducted horse-show. Let ns take him 
on a month or two, when in the centre of a great grass 
ground three gentlemen have some of the picked nap of 
all Yorkshire parading around them. Beyond a solitary 
attendant at the gateway there is not a soul to interfere 
with these authorities. The very horse seems to make 
his entrance and exit by instinct, and though possibly 
once or twice during the day a varmint-looking gentleman 
with a certain official air about him may cross the scene, 
it is as likely as not that he never exchanges a word with 
the judges, but, iu the exercise of excellent taste, leaves 
them to their duties, content to see that the genius of good 
order still reigns supreme. There are no trotting matches, 
there are no “ leaping” matches ; but if a man wishes to 
try a horse, there is a row of bushed hurdles in a quiet 
corner, at which he may put anything he has in price. 
But what does any true sportsman think of this jumping 
in public ? Mr. Thomson’s clever horse would not have 
it at Islington, and another that took a first prize as a 
hunter absolutely refused to have anything to do with 
such Cockney contrivances. As The Timet has it, “ One 
horse walked up against the fence and coolly pushed it 
down, and another showed his intelligence by selecting a 
break between the tressels, through which he shambled 
mnch as a donkey would manage a two-feet ditch. It is 
a pity better arrangements were not made for jumping ; 
although no judge would think of condemning a hunter 
for refusing a fenee with a crowd close under his nose, 
laughing, shouting, and cheering by turns” And yet 
horses were sent time after time over “the jumps,” 
while Lord Macclesfield stood by, with a smile of some- 
thing like shame on his face, and the officials and the 
other “ set” and the directors, and the visitors, and the 
clerks of the Company, and the distinguished foreigners 
got in each other’s way, and took complacently enough to 
judging the judges. What a fuss they did make of it, 
to be sure ! Every now and then somebody sounded an 
alarum, a cross between a gong and a dinner-bell, and 
one was irresistibly reminded of the “ Walk np ! walk 
up! all in; jnst a-going to begin!” Then a director 
said to some unfortunate groom in charge of a horse, 
“ Now walk !” and then somebody else, who wasn't a 
director, squeaked out, “ Now trot !” while a third or- 
dered him bodily out of the ring, and a fourth told him 
to stop where he was! And then they all went and 
bowed and smiled at the judge?, under the manifest im- 
pression that they had been doing a deal to facilitate the 
business ! But how is it there are no gongs, no board of 
directors, no distinguished foreigners, no clerks, to inter- 
fere with the arrangements of a Yorkshire meeting ? 

The Horse Show pays ; bnt we should like to see the 
horse show regarded as something more than a successful 
speculation. Everybody, as it is, seems to treat the thing 
as a joke. People laugh, as they would at “ Mr. Many* 
man,” when a beaten horse runs round and nearly over an 
official. The proceedings, moreover, occasionally approach 
very closely upon acts of cruelty, and many a horse may 
never forget the “ bucketing ” he gets here. With some 
love, and we had almost added respect, for a horse, we 
have been induced to say so much upon so much that is 
objectionable in this now annual exhibition. 


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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


The doors opened for a fifth Show, as usnal on 
the Saturday after the Derby, and in the coarse of 
the day there were a fair number of visitors. There 
were two sets of judges — the lords and commons: 
the lords commencing the business of the day a little 
after ten, with the weight-carrying hunters, a rather 
heavy dam, numbering fifty. Amongst these were about 
a wore that looked like hunters, and two notorious im- 
postors who have taken their value in prize-money a 
hundred times over, as neither of them as hunters is 
really worth a ten-pound note; and we hope, for the 
good of the cause, of horse-shows in particular, that they 
will never have another penny awarded them. Those 
that struck us as possessing hunting characteristics were 
Mr. Anstruther Thomson's Borderer and Valeria, about 
which there could be no mistake, although we think there 
decidedly was, in giving Miss Tyler's Tyrconnel a place, 
for he hi* anything but a hunting forehand. Capt. Percy 
Williams, who has often acted as judge in the Hall, had 
a big slaahing five-year-old with rather a loaded ahoulder 
and strong round flashy action, that would require a deal of 
steam to keep him going, and who smacked a little more 
of charging than staying with hounds ; but he is a young 
ooe and big one, so time may work wonders as he sobers 
down. Mountain Dew, a well-known prize-taker, and 
a banter all over, being a capital goer and a fencer in the 
open, would not have anything to do with the jumping 
bittiness here, many more horses following suit during 
the day, including Capt. Thomson's good-looking hnnter, 
Borderer. Can this be wondered at ? As well might 


we eipect banters to take to sawdust and face 
gaudy green-pea-coloured leaping-bars topped by rows 
of Lincoln and Bennett's, or Christy's beat, and 
the staring heads within them, as a good man 
across country, to don a chignon, long stockings, and 
ihart gauze petticoat, and be as a# fait in simpers, 
curtsies, and turning heels over head, or jamping 
through a hoop, as the American Ella himself. 
Mountain Dew has thickened, but would have 
*bown to more advantage with less carcase. Mr. All- 
Mpp’sSparkenhoe was a really gentlemanly-looking horse, 
of fine form, breed, and action, his legs coming well 
aider him ; couple with him Mr. Davies Bryan's Here- 
ford, and you have two horses very taking to the eye, and 
of excellent symmetry. Captain Heath's Chicken caused 
mock merriment from his description in the catalogue as 
daading “ 16 hands 5 inches high, a wonderful hunter 
®P to 17 stone." Five inches ! while the dam of one 
of the stod horses was stated to be a well-known 


dalboD 1 Mr. Manner's Phalanx was a compact 
good-looking horse, bnt with something more of the 

^ 01 form and action ; as*was Colonel Carleton's 
orth, but we doubt not that both can take their 


toms as banters. Mr. Fison’s had breed, and could 
■eve. Mr. 6. Stones’ Middleton, and Mr. S. Cope- 
dike’s Belkrophon, and Mr. Booth's Shamrock, were 
pod-looking, the latter lighter in his carcase than 
us owner is in the habit of showing horses. Lady, an 
oW-foshioned hunting mare of Mr. Codrington's, looked 
Me like sixteen than six ; and Lord Ingestre showed 
foor, Godfrey and Gurney being our fancy, the latter a 
®**ful, good-topped horse on a short leg with fair action, 
to not over fist looking. Colonel Somerset’s Tom 
Steele is a quick-looking grey, with bone, and Mr. 
Greetham’s a fair-looking chesnnt. Voyageur has a 
■todder that would stop one of Stephenson’s locomotives, 
*ad Master of Arts, thongh grand in his top, is the most 
wooden choppy goer that ever pat his head through a 
breast-plate : both were in excellent trim for the German 


Mage market, a market that by nature they are much 
Me ada p ted for than Market Harborongh, or any other 
totting country, though kept in the ring tul the last. The 


next class, forty-eight in number, for hooters without 
condition as to weight, was headed by a lengthy, well- 
formed, gentlemanly horse of the Prince of Wales', 
Knight of St. Patrick, who was awarded second honours, 
a horse that the owners of a great many in this class 
might try and carry away in their eye, just to give them 
some notion of what a hunter ought to be — a thing, judg- 
ing them by some of the brutes exhibited, they must 
have but a very few loose ideas about. In fact, there was 
a deal of weeding, which might have been done 
with a very wide hoe in a very little time, without 
the slightest chance of injuring a good plant. Denmark, 
a very useful but rather plain horse, the judges did not 
take to, and although with many of the chmcteristics of 
his brother Mountain Dew he has more of the charger 
about him, and he made his exit, never to return, with 
such horses as Mr. Pauli's Plaudit, Mr. Drage’s Thorpe 
Malsor, Mr. Sander’s Crick, Col. Somerset's two, Aerolite 
and Caiuarvon, Mr. Pagden’s Confidence, Mr. Greethams 
chesnnt, whilst horses with shoulders like Mr. Clarke's 
Rosa, Mr. Raike's Amazon, and Mr. Davis's Chevening 
came labouring in a second time and were kept before 
their lordships till the last torn. The Honourable Mrs. 
ViUiers, a fine woman across country in her day, sent a 
very neat, compact chesnut, Toby, but who wants his 
shoulders shaved to make him perfect. Among those good- 
looking were Mr. Kirk’s Bayard a good-topped, useful 
horse ; Mr. Bevan's black mare, by Sir Hercules, with 
form, breed, and action ; Mr. Newman's Prince ; Mr. 
Lloyd’s Planet ; Mr. Topham's Springy Jack, third here 
last year to Brayfield and Gddfinder ; and Mr. Thomas 
Bradfield's Harkaway. With something about them 
oommendable were Mr. Mitchell's Orion and Esquire, and 
Mr. Barker's Tom Bowline ; but the beauty of the hour, 
aud who received her honours amidst a general clapping 
of hands, was Lady Derwent — a lady not only by title, but 
in manners, form, and carriage — who for symmetrical pro- 
portions, strength, and breed is a Venus in horseflesh, and 
if it were not for a deep dish in her frontispiece, some 
three inches below the eye, which nearly approaches to a 
deformity, she would be perfect : she was the best and Cup 
four-year-old at Driffield last year. The third was the well- 
known General, whose carcass was a little too big ; he has 
thickened considerably, and is deservedly a great favourite 
with most people ; if he has a fault, he u rather long 
from the elbow and stifle to the ground, or short from 
whirl-bone to stifle. For hunters without condition as 
to weight, aud not exceeding fifteen-two, there were 
nine fair ones out of the twenty -three. Chillon, a black, 
well-built gelding, was considered the best by their 
lordships. Nutbourne running him very hard, as 
he was a really nice one. Sir George Wombwell 
sent a very nice bloodlike chesnut mare, a little slack in 
her back ; and Mr. Cox has a capital framed one in Star ; 
whilst Mr. Addison's Idle Boy, Mr. Barker's Exchange, 
Mr. Beck’s Peter, Mr. Newman’s Fire King, and Mr. 
Hall’s Nimrod were commendable for looks. Oat of the 
thirteen four-year-olds there were five somewhat in the 
form and fashion of hunters, the prize going to Nugents- 
town, a useful, hardy -looking chesnut belonging to a noble 
lord whose name ought to be familiar to most foxhuuters, 
or at least to those who do not labour under the same in- 
firmity (if we can call it one) as a well-got-up swell in a 
train the other day, who declined our proffered Tele- 
graph in the most off-hand manner with “ I kent read." 
The second, Brigadier, a powerful, deep-topped horse, with 
a sensible head if not a handsome one, wonld have shown 
to more advantage if he had not been suffering from the 
Killerby Hall complaint — too much to eat. Mr. Good- 
liff’s Father Monrad, said to be by Trumpeter, appeared 
to be very good-looking ; whilst Mr. Topham’s brown 
by the Ugly Buck was a taking horse spoilt by a slack 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


loiu, and Mr. Toynbee’s Bird’s Eye was neat, quick, and a 
goer. Then came feeding time, and the Lords to luncheon, 
and the Commons proceeding with the park hacks and 
ladies’ horses, horses of all shapes and sizes with jockeys 
to match, including the guardsman in uniform, who lives 
on his pay, proud of his weight and inches, down to the 
bow-legged stable lad, who, if he could only have kept that 
deformed bit of humanity within eight stone seven, might 
have had a valet, dined with dukes and marquises, and 
been lauded by toadying scribes as the great jockey So-and- 
so. The first and second were neat hacks of fashion, and 
the third a light, leggy charger ; but Cuirassier pleased ns 
far more as a charger. General Hess, by The Nabob out of 
Lady Alice by Lanercost, was first in the thoroughbred 
stallions in a class of nine. He is a nice-looking horse, 
with good ends and fair middle ; the second being Idler, 
by the Flying Dutchman out of Urania by Idle Boy, a 
varmint, hardy-looking horse with fair ends and limbs, but 
a hollow back, and we fancied rather light in his thighs. 
Mr. Stiggins’ still looks like a good useful horse for the 
country, so far as shape goes. John Halifax is a big one ; 
Ivanhoff the handsomest and best-shaped of the lot, cut 
him off at the knees ; Brown Dayrell coaching-looking ; 
First Hope a weed ; and Mail Train so overloaded with 
fiesh that he seems short and over-topped, and looks nothing 
like so well as he did a month or two ago, when we saw 
him knocked down at Tattersall’s at something over ten 
guineas, which wc thought at the time remarkably cheap. 
The roadster stallions were not a grand class, the prizes 
going to three roans — Rapid Roan, a rather good-looking 
roadster with a heavy forehand and waspy middle, but a 
first-rate goer, was shown at the meeting of the Royal 
last year at Bury, when he only came in for a com- 
mendation. Young Performer is anything but a true-made 
one, with not the best of heads ; while Young Phe- 
nomenon, though he can go, almost comes under the 
denomination of a two- ended horse, having but little 
middle. The prize stallions under fifteen hands were not 
a strong lot — the first a three-year-old, Merry-legs, being 
a very true-made hack with good ends and no lumber ; 
and the second a good goer of fair form. So far, we 
have seen better horses in all these classes at the Agri- 
cultural Hall. 

Of cover hacks and roadsters, from the glimpse we 
got of them in their stalls, there appeared to be some fair 
samples; but of course action would go a great way. 
Cheltenham Tommy, a strong short-legged cobby hack, 
is more remarkable for useful than elegant looks, while 
the Dorking lass, Brown Duchess, shows a deal* of quality 
with a handsome top and capital shoulders, but not the 
best formed forelegs. Cheshire Phenomenon is one of the 
roan Norfolk trotting tribe, some of which are strong useful 
hacks enough, but too many like our Cheshire friend, 
whose shoulders always remind us of Sinbad the Sailor 
and his hanger-on the Old Man of the Sea. It is quite 
astonishing the number of really good-looking horses one 
comes across, who if not burdened with this incubus 
would be all but perfect. Romulus and Remus found 
room in the Agricultural Hall, the former a very good- 
looking lengthy grey cob, carrying off the first prize for 
park hacks up to weight; the second to him being Hero, 
another handsome one of his sort, but a very different 
stamp, being a powerful cob, something of the Cleveland 
cart-horse in miniature. He was steered by a feather 
from Pimlico, man and horse appearing to be cut out 
for one another. Mr. Salter’s Young England was a 
powerful cob of somewhat the same class, and a very 
useful animal for a welter weight. In the harness 
class Romulus was again elected, beating Nellie, 
coming from the same Common, a very neat little 
hackney mare, perfect in manners in a gig, with 
nice quiet elegant action, and who, it will be seen, 


heads the list in another class of park hacks for riding pur- 
poses. Highflyer came in for a commendation, a cobby 
hack that could step ; and there were some others worthy of 
mention, but nothing extraordinary. The Prince of 
Wales had a couple in the next class of park hacks. 
Lord Macclesfield acted for Col. Kingscote, the Master of 
the Horse to the Prince, who retired from the ring for 
the time. Rupee is a fair hack ; Le Vent, a bay lathy 
Arab, perfect in his manners as a lady’s horse, and quieUv 
ridden by an unassuming horsewoman ; while the third 
prize, Bridesmaid, is a nice hack, with some style, but 
a trifle thick at her shoulder points. We don't 
hold with applauding or hissing gentlemen while acting as 
judges, as you would a lot of mountebanks ; and knowing 
how easily an audience is led on to hiss or cheer, we look 
upon such ebullitions of feeling with some doubt, more 
especially when there are more blanks than prizes ; bat Hie 
mistake here is clearly the plan of conducting the whole 
thing, more like a second-rate circus than a meeting 
for sportsmen and horsemen. Moreover, this is the 
only show of the kind, that we know of, at which 
the judges are supplied with the name* of the ex- 
hibitors. At sll other meetings the awards are made 
by numbers, and it was in this way that the late Prince 
Consort gained his many premiums at the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society and Southfield Club. But at the Islington 
Horse Show, with stewards and others continually ear- 
wigging them, it was concluded that the judges knew the 
Prince’s entries ; and hence the sad scene that occurred. 
Any man may make a mistake, a peer perhaps as readily 
as a commoner ; but the question is why a lord should be 
made an exception, and put in a position manifestly to 
hU own disadvantage ? If the ring were kept thoroughly 
clear, if the lords were left to themselves and their books, 
which should give nothing beyond the conditions and 
the numbers, their awards, let them be ever so indifferent, 
would hardly be received with hooting and hissing. We 
have seen as many horse shows as most people ; but we 
remember no such demonstration as this, katplan, one of 
the Arabians presented by the Sultan to the Prince, was 
here, and looks much improved since he has been in this 
country. Miss Letitia Millard, quite a feather in a skirt, 
handled a chesnot with a big knee in an artistic maimer, 
but so quietly, that it was a treat to see, after the exhi- 
bitions one had to endure year after year of a rough- 
riding amazon, with no hands, who was always polling 
and hauling away at her mount, or on the grin with mock- 
modest smiles aud leers. After Lord Macclesfield loft, 
there was fearful pottering and waste of time with the 
Commoners, who seemed to have no method whatever, and 
when they came to the park hacks under fourteen hands 
and a-half, their feeble hesitation was almost unbearable. 
The Hero, who with his rider went ronnd and round the 
ring time after time till he sweated again, most have found 
this out. Mr. Salter pulls down with his saddle a trifle 
more than eight -stone-ten 1 Round and round, again 
and again, and then they are polled up for inspection, and 
the more the judges look the more they hesitate, and the 
more undecided they get. Then the gong is struck by 
some one, time after time, for the next class, muffins, 
more champagne, or perhaps in the hope of hurrying on 
the trio to a decision ; but it has not the least affect, 
and there are offers of 6 to 4 that the judges, like junes* 
will have to be locked up. Statue-like they stood; 
then e yoick-over noisy gentleman tendered his 
advice, pointing first to one horse and then 
another. At last they decided by disappointing all those 
that did not get prizes, more especially Hero and his 
rider, who had not had such a bucketing for many a long 
day. Nellie, as we have said before, was first, though wc 
liked her better in hirness ; Fenette is a small chestnut 
marc, not much to look at, with good Cut flourishing hut 


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rtlgar action, and Quicksilver a cobby back. There were 
KTeral in the class, for there were all sorts, weight- 
carrying cobs, etcetera, that, before another bench, like 
ipirit-rappers, might torn the tables. Black Jessie, 
standing fourteen hands, was really a charmer in harness, 
with not useful action ; while Miss Menken was a com- 
mon looking cob hack, not remarkable for bead, shoulders, 
middle-marten or limb#, and no compliment to the 
" adorable Mazeppa,” as the Frenchmen christened her. 
Pass, a don, with a hog mane, and a very short round 
bushy tail that looked Eke a chignon, so artificially was 
the little kitten got up, did not want for action 
or knowing looks. In the ponies not exceeding 
thirteen hands, Mnltum in Parvo is a really nice pony, 
ray showy, with form, breed, and stylish action ; and 
Jacob, a black, neat, clever goer, without any nonsense ; 
while Black Prince is quite a different stamp to Mnltum 
in Parvo, with short hammering action. There were one 
or two nice harness pairs, the cream of the lot, or rather 
their owner, coming from Argyleahire. The customary 
tom-foolery in trotting came off on Friday, for a higher 
title yon cannot give it j a groom with a varmint-cover 
hash in a high mail-cart, went over a crasher at one of 
the tarns, and while they got the horse free and gathered 
«p the pieces, there was a pretty general verdict of 
“ served him right” Later in the day another servant 
was taken off senseless, and it was thought at first that 
be had been killed outright. Shepherd T. Knapp, the 
American, was in foil force: he has rather a heavy 
neck and head, bat a round deep middle piece, great 
quarters and limbs, and is a really fine fine-goer* The 
wiad-np waa with the jumping, a good-looking 
hone of Captain Carieton's, with something of a 
charger-like forehand, taking the artificial double 
in and out and topping a rasper in hunter-like style. 
The second-best was Buzzard, a light, blood-like, steeple- 
chasing looking animal of good form. Lord Comb erm erc, 
Captain J. Anstruther Thomson, and Captain Percy Wil- 
liams were judges of jumping; and superintended the 
arrangement of the fences. Two or three came to 
§net--oae a trooper, who stood much more chance of 
bring down among the dead men, or maimed by an ugly 
rails got underneath his horse, than he would, by ati 
wt—ils, if in the Abyssinian rook-shooting party. 
Another, a dealer-looking man hi a white hat, took the 
fences very decently several times, bat at last put a 
dimax to his crimes by getting an awful purl, ploughing 
the tan with his nose, and turning up with his face dyed. 
He retired for a while, aad then was ushered in again, 
looking very ruffled ; but, on Captain Percy Williams pre- 
■ntmg him with a bit of yellow ribbon, which appeared to 
act Use balm of Gilead, he gained Ms proper equilibrium ; 
hr w» sooner were the eofoars fastened to the horse’s 
head than the battered white hat was seen topping the 
ban, amidst continual applause, and Solomon was once 
mote in all hia glory! 


PRIZE LIST. 

HUNTERS. 

e.-— Lord Combermerc. Lord Macclesfield, and Lord 
i (aad for Thoroughbred Stallions). 

Weight mrimstte Id stone: lint prize of 480 to Capt. 
M. N. Heneate, BaeaJend, Leominster (Mountain Dew) ; se- 
cond of fflOytthfr Tyler, Wareham (Tyreonnel) ; tMrd of 
mib. J. Amtrafcer Thomsen, Brixworti (Borderer). 

Without aeadHioa m to weight : Pint prise of £50 to Mr. 
BL Beraby, Gxnton, Yorkshire (Lady Derwent) ; second of 
fiffi, fiJLH. the Prince of Wales (bright of St. Patrick); 
third ef jtlfiy Mr. T. Gee, Wadhurst, Sussex (The General). 

Without condition at te weight, and not exceeding 15 
hands S i n c h es high : Ural arize of MO to Mr. J. Casson, 
•u rah»b y-8taA, Carlisle (CKlfcnV: second of *20, Mr. W. 
J. Uojd, Watfcfd (Nstbourne). 


Four-year-olds : First prize of £50 to Lord Somerville, 35, 
St. James-street (Nugentstown) ; second of £25, Mr. J. B. 
Booth, Killerby, Catterick (Brigadier). 

STALLIONS. 

Thoroughbred : First prize of £40 to Lord Spencer, Al- 
thorpe Park (General Hess) ; second of £20, Mr. T. Merrick, 
Northampton (Idler). 

Roadsters not less than 15 hands high : First prize of £25 
to Mr. E. Jolley, Banham, Norfolk (Rapid Roan); second 
of £15, Mr. J. Rowell, Bury, Huntingdon (Young Performer) ; 
third of £5, Mr. J. Abel, Norwich (Young Phenomenon). 

Stallions under 15 hands, for getting Hacks, Cobs, or 
Ponies : First prize of £15, Mr. W. Major, Malton (Merry- 
legs) ; second of £10, Mr. D. Lister Westwood, Hkey, Leeds, 
(Black Performer). 

HACKS. 

Judges. — Colonel the Hon. Charles Hay, Colonel Kingscote, 

and Mr. Harvie M. Farquhar. 

Park Hacks and Ladies' Horses of any height : First prize 
of £20 to Mr. J. G. Morrel, Notting Hill (Jenny) ; second 
of £10, Sir E. C. Dering, Pall Mall (Quicksilver) ; third of 
£5, Lieutenant-Colonel Dougall Astley, 4<0, Belgrave Man- 
sions (Napier). 

Cover Hacks and Roadsters, not exceeding 15 hands 2 
inches high : First prize of £15 to Mr. T. W. Potter, Earl 
Court, Cheltenham (Tommy) ; second of £10, Mr. W. Morley, 
Effingham Hill Lodge, Dorking (Brown Duchess) ; third of 
£5. Captain St. Clair Ford, Zeelugt House, Cheltenham 
(Cheshire Phenomenon). 

Park Hacks, Weight-carriers, not exceeding 15 hands 
2 inches high. — First prize of £20, to Mr. C.M. Baker, Clapham 
Common (Romulus); second of £10, to Capt. T. Hargreaves, 
Arborfield, Reading (Hero) ; third of £5, to Mr. G. H. Smith, 
8tamford Hill (Kitty). 

Harness Horses, not exceeding 15 hands 2 inches high, 
of the best shape, with park-action, in single harness. — First 
prize of £15, to Mr. C. M. Baker, Clapham Common ( Romu- 
lus) ; 2nd of £10, to Mr. W. G. Clift, VNellie); Highly com- 
mended and Medal, to Mr. W. Green, Leeds (Highflyer). 

Park Hacks and Ladies' Horses, not exceeding 15 
hands 1 inch high. — First prize of £20, to H.R.H. the Prince 
of Wales (Rupee) ; second of £10, to Mr. Bedford (Le Vent) ; 
third of £5, to Mr. A. T. Hewitt, 38, Gloucester Place, Hyde 
Park (Bridesmaid) ; Highly commended, Mr. W. J. Beadale, 
Chelmsford (Duplicate). Horses, not exceeding 14* hands and 
a-half.— First prise ef £20, to Mr. W. G. Clift (Nellie) ; se- 
cond ef £10, to Mr. B. T. Fowler, Jun., Gillingham Street 
(Finette) ; third of £5, to Mr. C. M. Baker, (Quicksilver) ; 
Highly commended, Mr. C. Groucoek, Stanfield Hall, Wy- 
mondham (Pretty Se-ensnn) , Capt. Hargreave (Hero) ; and 
Mr. J. Casson, Carlisle (The Bean), 

Ponies, not exceeding 14 hands, in single harness. — First 
prize of £15, to Mr. H. Beck, Brandon, Norfolk (Jessie) ; second 
of £10, to Mr. C. Bullard, Norwich (Miss Menken) ; third of 
£6, to Mr. C. Groueock, Wymondham (Puss) ; Highly com- 
mended, Mr. J. S. Calthorp, Isle of Ely (The Dandy) ; and 
Mr. W. M. Spence, Weston, Yorkshire (Venus) ; Commended, 
Mr. C. L. Sutherland, Croydon (Qipsie). Ponies, not exceeding 
13 hands high, in single harness. — First prize of £12, to Mr. 
J. Gilman, Jun., Birmingham (Mnltum in Parvo) ; second of 
£8, to Mr. H. Bullard, Norwich (Jacob) ; third of £5, to Mr. 
J. Hatton, Clapham (Black Prince). 

Extra Prize : Harness Pairs, not exceeding 14 hands' 
—Prize of £1D, to Mr. C. M, Moreton, Lnrgit Castle, Ar- 
gyleehire. 

Gold Medal, as best of all the hunters, to Mr. E. Hornby 
(Lady Derwent), 


THE “EXHIBITION” AT ISLINGTON. 

It is more than questionable whether the amusement whieh 
called forth so many bursts of laughter was of the right sort. 
If, instead of a trial of priae-hunters at fencing, this had been 
a donkey-race, or some clownish competition in which rough 
humour is an essential ingredient, the shouts of mirth would 
not have seemed inappropriate or uncomplimentary. As it 
wiS) the riding and deriding which went so clesely together 


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were hardly well-matched. The horsemen who lost their 
stirrups, their temper, and now and then their seats, were 
bold equestians certainly, or they would not have ventured on 
a public display of such remarkable incompetence. Some of 
them, with a grave persistency that was ludicrous to see, but 
is painful to think of, rode again and again at hurdles which 
there was not the least likelihood of their ever getting over, 
and seemed to be rather stimulated than discouraged by the 
re-echoing peals of laughter in their repetition of a wild rush, 
ending always in a sudden stop on the near side of the fenoe. 
Others belaboured their horses with heavy huuting crops over 
the head, on the cheek, anywhere, like mad tailors out for a 
holiday. — The Daily Telegraph . 

The management depends chiefly upon the parades in the 
arena and the jumping ourlesque as the chief “ draws” for the 
amusement of the Londoners. No practical horseman would 
consider that hurdle-jumping in a public arena, when sur- 
rounded by a noisy crowd, ought to be regarded as any test of 
what a clever hunter could do in the open country, with the 
cry of the pack to stimulate his energies, and plenty of space 
to get into bis stride, and to collect nimself properly before 
talung off at his fences. Here I may state that this jumping 
buffoonery is a species of refined cruelty in which the female 

e xt of the assembly appear to take the greatest delight. 

unters that are positively as fat as prize oxen, from a cessa- 
tion of work in the field, and that have been made up in flesh 
to hide faults, and show a sleek coat, are in a few instances 
galloped through the heavy tan flooring until the sweat rolls 
off them in streams, and then put at the hurdles when in a 
state of exhaustion, to blunder over them and come down 
“ all of a heap *' on the landing side. “ Groggy ” park hacks 
and stale old roadsters are also " rammed” at the hurdles by 
excited grooms and ambitious “ swells,” who appear to have 
had a few lessons in riding-schools, ana take this opportunity 
to show off their scats. — The Sportsman. 

Alas ! the everlasting hurdles were introduced, and one of 
those bear-garden scenes, such a disgrace to the Islington 
shows, commenced ; and in the first ten minutes there was as 
many spills as would occur in a quiet burst from Ashby or 


Crick gone. How fatal accidents were avoided is marvellous, 
and must be put down to sheer good luck, as horsemanship 
had nothing to do with it. What nerves people must have to 
charge different ways at the same place simultaneously ! Of 
course collisions oocurred, though none serious enough to 
cause damage. One man rode under the triangular props for 
the bell, instead of over the fence, and upset the lot, luckily 
clear of himself and every one else. Horses were galloped and 
jumped until the sweat streamed from them, the management 
considerately putting up four obstacles, instead of only two, as 
formerly; ana, in fact, so abused and degraded were good 
animals by this farce that we took our departure in sheer dis- 
gust. Before closing these remarks, we must also refer to the 
catalogue, which was compiled with the usual care f?), and 
rivalled a pantomime in changing sex and colour ; but the 
climax was reached in describing Captain Heath’s The 
Chicken as sixteen hands five inches high!— The Sporting 
Gazette . 

There may be a little of the circus about the show, and it 
goes on a day or so too long, but owners need not jump their 
horses unless they like ; ana with Dick Webster to lead the 
revels, and “tootle” the jumpers along, the Whitsuntide 
visitors had a merry time of it. This is, after all , the greed con- 
sideration ! — The Sporting Life . 

The jumping over the artificial fences caused great amuse- 
ment to the visitors. As a rule, this is the most that can be 
said of this performance in so confined a space, for the display 
is utterly unserviceable for any assistance it affords to the 
judgment or estimate to be formed of fencing-power in the 
open. — The Gardeners' Chronicle. 

The jumping business, to which strong objections are made 
by many ot the exhibitors, serves to fill the Hall, and is un- 
attended with danger. — The Field . [Agroom who was thrown 
at a fence on Friday, according to the Times, “lay senseless and 
bleeding for nearly five minutes ; but after a most painful sus- 
pense, he revived sufficiently to justify his removal, and later 
in the evening he was sufficiently well to walk. Altogether, 
the day was characterised by a sreies of singularly -narrow 
escapes.”] 


HIGHLAND AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND, 


The monthly meeting of the directors of this Society was 
held on Wednesday, June 3rd, in Edinburgh ; Mr. Stirling, of 
Kippendavie, in the chair. 

The Secretary reported that, in terms of the instructions re- 
ceived at the special general meeting on the 13th of May, he 
had forwarded the addresses to the Queen and his Royal 
Highness the Duke of Edinburgh to the Duke of Montrose 
for presentation, and that his Grace has since received the fol- 
lowing letter from the Principal Secretary of State for the 
Home Department : “ Whitehall, May 27, 1868. My Lord 
Duke, — I have had the honour to lay before the Queen the 
loyal and dutiful address of the Highland and Agricultural 
Society of Scotland in reference to the atrocious attempt upon 
the life of his Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh ; and I 
beg to inform your Grace that her Majesty was pleased to 
receive the address very graciously. — I have the honour to be, 
&c., (Signed) Gatiiorne Hardy.— His Grace the Duke of 
Montrose.” 

A letter was read from the Board of Trade announcing 
that the Lords of the Council have refused to recommend to 
her Majesty to grant a veterinary charter for Scotland. 

A plan of the yard at Aberdeen, showing the position of 
the different erections, was submitted and approved of. 

Mr. F. N. Menzies reported correspondence between the 
secretaries of the different railways in Scotland aud himself 
in reference to some more liberal arrangement as to the rates 
charged for stock sent to the general shows of the society, 
from which it appeared that the subject was brought before a 
meeting of the general managers of the English and Scotch 
railways, held at the Clearing House in London, iu May last, 
when it was decided to adhere to the following regulations, 
which have been for some time in force : 1, Stock and imple- 
ments to the show to be charged full rates. 2, From the 
show, if sold, full rates. 3, From the show, if unsold, to be 
conveyed free back to the station whence they were sent, at 


owner’s risk, on production of a certificate from the secretary 
of the agricultural show to the effect that they are really un- 
sold. 4, All the above to be carried at owners* risk. 5, Col- 
lection and delivery to be performed by the owners. 6, Regu- 
lations Nos. 1, 2, 3, as to cattle and horses, apply only if traffic 
be conveyed in cattle waggons and by goods trains. 7, Poul- 
try and dogs to be charged full rates both ways. 8, No reduc- 
tion in the ordinary rates for horses or cattle when c on veyed 
in horse boxes. 9, Parties requiring the exclusive use of a 
horse-box for only one animal, to be charged one fare and a 
half. 

The Secretary stated that, on the other hand, the directors 
of the Highland Railway Company had very hand so m el y 
agreed to carry unsold stock going home from the Aberdeen 
show, in horse-boxes, free of cnaree ; and to run special trains 
with stock, to or from the show, if the numbers are sufficient. 

It was reported that, at the recent examinations by the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England, the principal prises 
were gained by students in the class of agriculture in the 
Edinburgh University, and that every one of the Edinburgh 
agricultural candidates took a first prize. There were twelve 
candidates, of whom six obtained prizes, and out of the six 
prize-men four were Edinburgh men, three of them having 
already obtained the diploma of the Highland Society. 

It was arranged that the following subjects should 
be brought before the general meeting on the 24th June . — 
Election of members; chair of agriculture; Aberdeen show 
arrangements; agricultural education: Veterinary College 
examinations ; letter from Board of Trade in regard to veteri- 
nary charter for Scotland ; No. 3 of the fourth series of the 
Society’s Transactions ; premiums awarded for essays and re- 
ports ; Dr. Anderson’s report on the chemical department. 

The Secretary submitted the names of 46 candidates for 
election as members at the next general meeting, and stated 
that he anticipated a much larger list before the 24th. 


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THE PREMIER ON THE PRIZE SYSTEM. 


A meeting was held on Monday, Jane l,at Hatton, a village 
near Aylesbury, where Mr. Disraeli inaugurated an exhibition 
of the industrial products of the district. The idea of holding 
inch a display originated with Sir Anthony and Lady de 
Rothschild, whose seat is situate in the neighbourhood. A 
circular inviting the villagers to send in some article of their 
handiwork was issued. Any objections to so doing were met 
in the address, which begged them to get rid of the notion 
that they could not make anything. They were also specially 
requested to encourage their children, “ as the means of show* 
ing them the road which leads to the exercise of ingenuity 
and taste, and to a life of honest industry ; as the road which 
does not lend either to the public-house or to the wasteful ex- 
penditure of time or money.** It was pointed out that there 
was an industry followed in their villages which might be 
turned to greet advantage. They could manufacture the plait 
into hats and bonnets, boxes and bonnets, in endless variety ef 
form and colour ; there was also great room for ingenuity in 
the production of plans and machinery for the hatching, rear- 
ing, warming, and cleansing of the poultry raised in such 
numbers in the district. It was promised that the highest de- 
grees of merit in each darn should be rewarded by silver and 
bronze medals — a promise which it was found had the most 
beneficial effect, as the keenest interest was shown in the en- 
deavour to win so distinguishing a mark of skill. If any fear 
was entertained that the exhibition would be but a small one, 
it was speedily dispelled ; for contributions had been sent in 
from fifty parishes. There were five classes of exhibitors— 
skilled artisans and tradespeople, labourers, their wives and 
daughters, school-children, domestic servants, farmers and 
their families. Baron Lionel de Bothschild placed the grounds 


attached to the mansion-house at Hatton, formerly the resi- 
dence of Sir Henry Dashwood, but at present unoccupied, at 
the service of the conductors of the //fe, and a more delightful 
spot could not have been found in the Yale. The spectators, 
numbering something like five thousand, formed a huge semi- 
circle around the steps at the entrance. In the centre were 
the united choirs of Hatton and Aston Clinton. Behind them 
was the band of the Grenadier Guards, under Mr. D. Godfrey; 
and a company of the 4th Bucks Volunteers, commanded by 
Captain Selfo, did duty at once as a guard of honour ana 
keepers of the circuit beyond which the general public could 
not pass. At one o’clock Mr. Disraeli took up a position on 
the top of the steps leading to the mansion, his arrival being 
greeted with a hearty cheer. The proceedings were com- 
menced by the choir singing a “ Song of Joyous Greeting.** 
Mr. Diskjlxli, who, upon stepping forward to speak, was 
received with load cheers, said: I am afraid my words will 
sound very flat after the sweet voices which we have had so 
much gratification in listening to. Bnt I obey the commands 
of the lord of the manor in addressing yon one moment before 
we witness the exhibition of the indostry of our vale and its 
neighbourhood. Now, for a very long time, it has been con- 
sidered that the good old county of Buckingham only 
produced butter, beef and barley (a laugh) — three excellent 
things, and produced in this county in excellent style. Bnt 
the fact is we have, for a very long time, been producing many 
other things for which we have had no credit, and to-day we 
are about to attempt to vindicate our reputation. 1 think, 
therefore, that when you accompany us to witness the exhi- 
bition of industry, not of this parish only, as was first in- 
tended, in its more modest ana primitive idea, but of fifty 
contiguous parishes that have contributed the result of their 
ingenuity to this exhibition, you will be astonished at some of 
the productions, and proud of the land that has produced 
them. Many of you know well that there are many instances 
of the arts and manufactures in which this part of the world 
has not only not been deficient, but has even excelled. The 
lace of Buckinghamshire— especially of late years — lias vied 
with that of the Low Countries ; and we have produced at 
public exhibitions that which has rivalled with success the 
productions of Mechlin and Valenciennes. In one part of the 
county there is the manufacture of furniture carried on with 


singular success, in which our beech wood is used, particularly 
for chairs, which we have furnished to most parts of England, 
and even to many of onr colonies. Our embroidery will vin- 
dicate its claim to the approbation of those whom I now ad- 
dress. Bnt there are also several other departments of inven- 
tion in which we shall to-day advance our claims for public 
confidence and approval. In the first place, let me congra- 
tulate yon that in this county there is so earnest a movement 
in order to improve the residences of the labouring classes. 
In this oounty, for several years, there has been an endeavour 
— and a successful endeavour — to accomplish that great end, 
and to-day we shall find before ns specimens of invention and 
of design for that object which, I hope, will achieve the great 
end desired, and which will unite comfort and convenience 
with economy. There is also, I am told, one other manufac- 
ture which I shall myself witness with very great interest, 
and which I think yon must observe with no ootnmon feelings. 
It is the production of an ancient manufacture in this county, 
though little known out of it, and not so much as it ought to 
be in the county itself. I allude to the silk manufacture, 
which not only exists but flourishes in onr county town of 
Aylesbury. we shall witness specimens of the art of 
ability rarely equalled. No doubt the account which has 
reached me of these productions is not exaggerated, be- 
cause our manufacturers in Aylesbury compete, and com- 
pete successfully, with the French makers, the goods lmjng 
exported to France, where they are re-exported back to 
England, and then bought with admiration in Regent- 
street— (a laugh) — as the finest productions of the French 
looms (renewed laughter*) Under these encouraging circum- 
stances we need not despair of our manufactures flourishing 
and increasing in the good county of Bucks. To-day there is 
a very great effort to recognise success in all those varied 
branches of indostry, and to stimulate the various arts. I 
know not whether I am correct in enumerating the number of 
medals to be distributed, but I believe nearly two hundred 
medals will be given to-day— certainly one of gold, very many 
of the sister precious metal, and a considerable number of an 
enduring metal, which will commemorate the name and 
achievements of the successful competitors for these prises. 
Allow me for one moment to touch upon the interesting cha- 
racter of the scene before us* In what could the varied classes 
of our complicated and admirably-devised society be better 
united than for purposes like the present, and for ends like 
those which we are all anxious to accomplish P How much 
better are meetings like the present than mere meetings for 
brntal pastime, filling a void which yon have felt, and which 
yon have desired should be supplied, but which the generosity, 
the taste, and the intelligence of those who should give a 
colour and form to the society in which they live, have hitherto 
been deficient in affording ; I think, therefore, that on this 
occasion every heart most feel grateful to the generous owner 
of the soil for the public spirit which on this and every occa- 
sion he has shown. And m all the arrangements that daring 
six anxious months have been matured, we must recognise the 
graceful thought of that lady whose taste and intelligence have 
diffused throughout this neighbourhood such beneficial results. 
I will detain you but one moment longer, and, taking advantage 
of the position which I unexpectedly occupy, will announce 
the inauguration of the Industrial Exhibition of Hatton and 
the neighbourhood, and ask you to acoompanv us to witness 
the triumph of the indostry of the Vale oi Aylesbury. 

The models of cottages which had been sent in by carpenters 
and builders were critically examined. A special circular had 
been issued to the competitors of this class, which stated that 
" greater attention must be paid to substantial and interior 
comfort than to outward and architectural effects.** Several 
models were sent in, some of which possessed a good deal of 
merit. The general collection of articles was of a very varied 
character. It included a quantity of needlework, which had 
been executed in a superior style. The judges, who. of course, 
had tasting orders, spoke highly of the qualities of the articles 
of food, such as home-made preserves, wines, cheese, and beer* 


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CANON GIRDLESTONE AND THE LABOURERS. 


The anniversary of the New Inn friendly Society, Halber- 
ton, took place on Whit-Monday. In the afternoon a large 
party assembled at the New Inn, where a dinner was provided 
by the host, who is the secretary of the Club. Canon Guldlx- 
a tone, who presided, said : Yon seem to think there is no shy- 
ness in me— 4hat I am made of brass. Well, but I really do feel 
shy. As I said in the pulpit this morning, I should be glad to 
see some provision made, so that when a man is * past work” 
he may receive some 5s., 6s., or 7s. weekly, thus ending his life 
in quietness and oomfert. Take that sugrestion into your serious 
consideration. I have, lying on my table in the vicarage, the 
rules of twenty or thirty trades* unions throughout the greater 
part of this country, and those of each oontain this important 
provision — when the member is “ past work** he has an allow- 
ance which for the remainder of his life will keep him in 
comfort and happiness. I have another thing to say. I con- 
sider that as the vicar of this parish I am the shepherd of a 
flock, including formers, shopkeepers, labourers, artisans, all 
descriptions of men, and that I am not called upon to look to 
one class more than another, but to do my duty to all — en- 
deavouring, in God's sight, to promote both the spiritual and 
the temporal weal of aft around me. The public prints say, 
“ The parson has no right to interfere with the temporal con- 
cerns of his neighbours.” Am I to be oonfloed to the pulpit 
and the church P Am I, when I see you in ruinous oottages, 
yogf wives and children wanting flic and clothing, living upon 
miserable hard cheese and stale oread, instead of beef ana mat- 
ton, such as our good host has provided us to-day — am I when 
I see all this to tuna deaf ear, to be so Mind and hardhearted 
as not to notice it at all P Am I to go home to my own oom- 
forts and enjoy aB the prosperity that God has given sse, with- 
out making a single efbrt to better your positionP Some per- 
sons say that the parson ought to do that. But I hold quite a 
differeat doctrine. My duty is to provide you with the ser- 
vices of the church in which I minister without ritualistic in- 
novation or any other kind of innovation — to preach to you 
“ the troth as it is in Jesus.” Another duty is to look to the 
temporal as well as spiritual welfore of every single sheen 
that my heavenly Master has committed to mj keening, ana, 
God being my helper,! am determined to do so ns long ns I 
have health and strength. This is the nrefoee to what I am 
going to sty. I abominate anything luce violence and ag- 
gression. Most of you have probably read el the outrages 
committed in connection with the trades uafooa of Sheffield, 
Manchester, and other places. Nothing coaid he worse 
than that workmen should combine either against then* 
masters — destroying their masters* property — or else 
against their fettow-workmen who won’t join a 
nninn. But with a carcfol safeguard against anything of a 
violent character, I do think that if you agricultural labourers 
of the West of England, who are undoubtedly very much less 
paid than any others ia other parts of the country, would 
unite one with another not to damage your masters' property, 
not to imure those who don’t ehooee to unite with you, but to 
respectfully, chilly, courteously, with kind Christian tempers 
and Christian hearts, represent to your employers that yon 
cannot on 8s., 9s., or 10s. a week maintain with decency a wife 
and family, and lay up against a rainy day for the time of in- 
firmity and old age— I <£> think that if you stoutly unite in 
this manner you may undoubtedly with God’s Messing attain 
your point. If any number of operatives in the West of Eng- 
land would unite for that purpose -only they had better find 
some one to take the lead m such a union — I will give aB the 
countenance and sasistanoe in my power. You must not sup- 
pose that my heart ia entirely engrossed in this one particular 
society. I am your president, and most of you are my pa- 
rishioners. Bui I must bear in mind that there is another 
dub of a similar kind in this parish. In another plaee it has 
been represented that I am opposed to that club ; but I take 
this opportunity of stating that I am as thoroughly friendly 
to that dnb as I am to this. Both have the same objects : 
both arc composed of labouring men. 1 don’t see why they 
should not boon the most friendly tema with each other: the 


only rivalry between them should be who can get the most 
members, and who can get the largest amount of foods. For 
my own part I reciprocate any good feeling which they have 
shown me. It has been said that I invited the police to keep 
the “Hearts of Oak” dub in order when they met last Fri- 
day. I may mention that the whole of the dun, with the ex- 

S tion of a few honorary members, as se m bled on my lawn 
, gave my wife and fonuly as hearty eheen as you youT- 
selves have given me this day. If I had received an invita- 
tion to dine with the dub— which I did not— I should un- 
doubtedly have accepted it. I should have gone in the follest 
confidence that every labouring man in that room belonging 
to that dnb would nave protected me from the slightest at- 
tempt to insult or injure me. Every one of them as I believe 
has as affectionate a heart towards me as I believe you your- 
selves have. The police did not come into this parish to keep 
the Hearts of Oak in order, hut to keep a few formers in 
order. They came to keep in order a man who ooeupies the 
office of churchwarden in this parish. Being oharged with 
the custody of the parish, he asked my representative on the 
left hand to lend him the keys of the church, and then what 
did he do P Without the slightest notice he had the smith at 
his elbow, who takes off the lock of the church door, puts H 
in his bag, goes to Tiverton, and gets keys made. In what a 
predicament I am placed I The churchyard is mv freehold 
just as mueh as this house is a free house. What should I do 
to the man who said “ Give me the keys of your house” f I 
should say, “Get, you fellow, out of my preausee directly” 
(laughter). Bat the person of whom I am now speaking fid 
not dare to do that. In a sneaking way he gets bold or the 
keys : the locks are taken off, and he gets folse keys made, so 
that he may enter the premises at any time he chooses. 1 
repeat that the potiee were called into this village on Friday, 
not to keep in order the Hearts of Oak, but the gentleman 
who, as the parish churchwarden, took off the lock or mother 
person’s property and had keys made for hie own use. 
Understand what the perish is. Thai parish has 1,750 peop l e 
in it; tome are men, some are women; some are knd- 
ownera* some are formers and occupiers ; some are tra d e — e a , 
some merchants; some are labourers. It is absurd to suppose 
that the parish ia oompoeed of any one class. The pMnh 
property belongs to the poorest labourer as to the richest land- 
owner or the moat prosperous former. My position is this. 
I don’t wish to trespass on anybody’s rights, but merely to 
hold tight by my own. I will not allow anybody to take fe- 
me one jot or tittle of the property entrusted to me by tile law 
of England, of which I am tbs guardian and the custodian. 
At my tithe audit dinner I stated that I was most 
thoroughly disposed and determiied to overlook everything 
pest, to let bygones be bygones. I now say that I « squally 
determined, through good report and evil report, to manitsm 
inviolable every single privilege committed to me by the laws 
of England as the vicar of this parish. In doing that 1 am 
defending, not myself, bat you. A friend of mae, writing 
from Yorkshire the other day, said “ When the men yon seta 
me first came thev could not do above one-third as muck work 
aa my own Yorkshire men do; but it is wonderful what 
twelve months’ beef and mutton has done for them.” I re- 
plied, “ My dear sir, all that a Devonshire man wants when ha 
gets to Yorkshire » a proper quantity of beef.” Yes, beef 
suits them better than diy bread and musty cheese (laughter.) 
It was a curious thing that when I was preparing to meet yon 
on the lawn 1 was tola that a young man wanted to see me » 
my hall. I went to see who it was, and found an ancon— 
dapper spruce voung man, with a watch-chain and everything 
complete — in met, much better dres se d than I was (laughter.) 
I looked down on my rusty black — that of a peer permuted 
person .(laughter.) “I am,” he said* “ oae of those who 
twelve months ago you sent into Lancashire” — my own parish. 
I answered* “ Well, it appears that I did you a good turn.” 
He had come down to attend the meeting of the Hearts of 
Oak Club on Friday hut ; he said he thought I was going to 
speak on the question of labourers’ wages, and he should like 


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Be to mention his own particular case. He stated that he had 
not been there very long before his wages were raised to £17 
e-year, and everything found him. Well, his coat and watch 
looked very much like that (laughter.) He added, “ Nothing 
should induce me to come back and receive the low wages of 
Devonshire.” He had his sister with him, and was going to 
take his brother back. This is only one out of a great many 
cases. With a few exceptions the hundred men whom I have 
sent to different places m the country are prospering as much 
as I could possibly desire. I say it is for you to help your* 
selves. You can do so by united action, respectful, courteous 


action— with no violence, no aggression. If you cannot get 
your wages raised in this parish and neighbourhood, do like 
others have done— go and seek your fortunes in better paid 
counties than this. I observe present my friend Mr. Grills, 
who has always stuck to me like a leech ; and I am sure he 
will agree with me, that when I advocate higher wages for the 
agricultural labourer, I am advocating the prosperity of the 
fanner himself. I have said over and over again, and I main- 
tain it in spite of everything said to the contrary, that as 
the best fed horse does its work the most satisfactory, the 
best fed labourer likewise gives the most satisfaction in hiswork. 


ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND. 


The monthly Meeting of the council of this Society was 
held in Upper Sackville-street, Dublin, Sir George Hodson 
in the chair. The other members present were— Hon. 
Chades J. Trench, Lieut.-General Hall, C.B., Charles Col- 
tfcunt Vesty, John Bolton Massey, John G. Coddington, 
Edward Pardon, J. P. Byrne, Laurence Waldron, D Jj., H. J . 
MacF&riane, J.P., Dawson A. Milward, Hans H. Woods, D.L., 
Richard Challoner, Robert Borrowes, and Rev. R. W. Bagot. 

A subscription list was opened for the prises offered by the 
local committee of the late cattle-show held in StephenV 
green, the council contributing £50, and the local committee 
£50. It was stated that the competition would be very large, 
and that important results would follow from so desirable an 
object. 

The half-yearly report was submitted by the Chairman, and 
adopted, with some slight modification in reference to the prise 
offered by his Excellency the Lord-Lieutenant. 

The Sic hit art read the accompanying communication, 
which had been received from Dr. Steele : 

“ Royal Dublin Society, Kildare-st., 1514 Nay. 

“ My dear Sir,— I duly submitted fo the oonncil, at their 
yesterday, your letter of the 4th inst., together 
with its accompanying resolution of the oouncil of the Royal 
Agricultural Society, proposing joint action on the subject of 
the deterioration of the breeds of horses in Ireland, and I have 
been directed to acquaint yon that the council of this society 
had previously resolved to address Parliament on this im- 
portant matter. — I am, my dear sir, yours very faithfully, 

“ W. E. Steele, Assist.-Secretary. 

“ Capt. Thornhill, Sec. Roy. Ag. Society, 42, Sackville-st” 

Mr. Waldron thought it would be better to have two 
bodies acting independently in the matter. 

The Chairman said there was this peculiarity in the 
matter, that the word M Parliament” attached to the resolution 
would have the effect of taking the matter oat of their juris- 
diction. 

|£r. Waldron observed that it was considered if Parlia- 
ment addressed the Crown to issue a royal commission it 
would give general satisfaction. Many gentlemen were of 
opinion that by acting independently it would be much better 
than if the two bodies acted together. 

Mr. MacParlane remarked that as the Royal Dublin 
Society would not co-operate with them, he did not see why 
the question should not be referred to the committee to take 
action, and call on the Government to issue a royal commission 
to inquire into the whole matter. 

Mr. Woods said a committee had been already appointed, 
and was then in existence. 

Mr. MacParlane believed that the Royal Dublin Society 
would not act with them in any matter. 

Mr. Waldron did not think Mr. MacParlane was justified 


in making such a statement, as they had at that moment a 
Joint Flax Committee. He repeated that in his opinion it 
would he better and more effective if the two bodies acted in- 
dependently of each other. 

Captain Vesxy was not aware that on all subjects they had 
declined to co-operate with them. The committee might be 
summoned together to consider the subject. 

Mr. MacParlane thought they should be empowered to 
take the neoesaaiy steps to apply to the Government at once, 
as it should be done m June. Power should be given them to 
make application at onoe, without calling on them to make a 
report to the council. He was not sorry how matters turned 
out ; became the Royal Dublin Society having petitioned 
Parliament to issue a royal eommisskm, it was time for them 
to apply to the Government to do the same thing, and thus 
strengthen them in adopting any course which they might 
think proper. 

Mr. Waldron believed that there was a disposition on the 
part of the Government to give them every assistance; but as 
considerable expense would he entailed, they did not like to 
take the respraaibiliiy on themselves. If the petition was at- 
tended with suooeas, of eeurse the Government would merely 
be the exeeutive in the ease to carry out the (Wishes of Par- 
liament, that the expenses incurred would be legitimately ex- 
pended. 

Mr. MacParlane observed that the oost would not exceed 

£ 100 . 

Major Borrowes said with regard to the cry of scarcity of 
horses in Ireland, he was of opinion that the evil wonld effect 
its own cure, because he did not think the Goverment could 
any step in increasing the number or breeding of hones in 
this country. It foreign governments continued to send for 
remounts to Ireland, they would have to give more for their 
own re-mounts ; sp that in this way the evil would effect its 
own cure. 

Mr. MacFarlane remarked that they merely wanted to 
have a royal commission issued, whieh would direct public 
attention to the breeding of horses in this country. 

The Chairman stated that he was one of a deputation who 
had waited on the late Lord Carlisle on this point, when his 
Excellency told them that if any action was taken by the 
Government, it would refer only to the question of re-mounts. 

Major Borrrowes said they would find before three or 
four years were out that the Government would be obliged 
to increase the price they gave for re-mounts by a considera- 
ble amount. 

The Secretary was directed to summon the horse-breeding 
committee together, for the purpose of taking immediate ac- 
tion in the matter. 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


The challenge cap which had some time ago been awarded 
to the Duke of Leinster was returned bv His Grace, to be in 
fatare a perpetual challenge cap for the best description of 
labourers’ cottages in Ireland. 

The following gentlemen were balloted for and unanimously 
admitted members of the society : Crosdale Molony, Kilna- 
c randy, Co. Clare ; and D. H. Cooper, Hanorer House, Carlow. 

The half-yearly general meeting of the society was held the 
same day, in the reading-room of the Farmers’ Club. The 
Hon Chas. J. Trench was called to the chair. 

The minates of the former meeting having been read and 
confirmed, 

Captain Thornhill, secretary, read Jhe half-yearly report, 
as follows : 

“ In presenting a report of the proceedings of this society 
daring the present hall-year, your council are enabled to record 
a considerable addition to the list of members elected daring 
that period. 

“ The annual national cattle-show for 1868 will be held for 
the province of Ulster at Londonderry, during the last week 
of August next, and will occupy the site of the successful ex- 
hibition of 1858. From the untiring zeal displayed by the 
local committee up to the present time, your council anticipate 
a large and influential meeting. 

“ The society’s exhibition of 1867, in Stephen’s-green, so 
interesting in its various departments and carried out with so 
ranch energy and perseverance, proved most remunerative in a 
financial point of view ; and the local committee, after pay* 
ment of all the attendant expenses, having a large surplus in 
hands, determined to allocate a considerable sum in prizes for 
the successful cultivation of green crops during the present 
year. Your council have supplemented such prizes by the 
amount of £50, in order fully to cany out the recommenda- 
tion of the general meeting in May, 1866, to that effect. 

“ In reference to the proposition adopted at the half-yearly 
meeting of the society, in December, 1867, that a remission of 
taxes, firing, and gaslights, valued at £50 yearly, should be 
made to the Royal Agncultural Society’s Club, your council 
have to report that such an appropriation of the society’s fonds 
having been considered unwise and illegal by a considerable 
section of your members, an extraordinary meeting was con- 
vened by requisition, and was held on the 6th March last, for 
the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of re- 
scinding so much of tne proceedings in December as sanctioned 
such allowance. The dub, in the meantime, having, at a 
general meeting of their body, determined upon relinquishing 
all claim to such remission oi taxes, &c., it was decided at the 
extraordinary meeting of the 6th March that the question be 
referred to the next general meeting in May, and your council 
accordingly recommend the rescinding of such portion of the 
proceedings of last December as sanctioned the remission 
above referred to. 

u Your council are happy to report that during the past 
half-year much success has attended the efforts of the local 
farming societies in connexion with the parent one in deve- 
loping the agricultural resources of this country, and that the 
numerous prizes awarded, in money and medals, among the 
fanning classes are productive of benefidal results, indicating 
that the system of mixed husbandry is again gaining ground. 

“ Your council has again to express regret that more ge- 
neral competition has not taken place in connexion with the 
prizes offered for newly-erected labourers’ cottages, three par- 
ties only competing in Leinster — A. Kavanagh, Esq., M.P., 
Mrs. Boraford, and Robert Cosby, Esq. ; one in Munster— 
Lord Mounteagle ; and for improvements in already-existing 
labourers’ dwellings, one in Leinster — Lord Digby. Lord 
Digby, the Hon. King Hannan, and Robert Cosby, Esq., are 
competitors in drainage for 1867-8. 

“They have also to report, in reference to the prize offered 
by his Excellency the Marquis of Abercorn, for the best de- 
sign of a labourers’ cottage, to be erected for a limited sum, 
that a very large number of plans have been submitted to a 
committee of their body, but that, although many of these de- 
signs evinced much careful consideration of the subject, the 
cost of construction, according to the average rates of build- 
ing in Ireland, would be in excess of the appointed limited 
outlay. Measures have been adopted, with the sanction of liis 
Encellency. to allow the competition to remain open to the 
1st September, 1868. 


“ In accordance with your 9th rule, ten members of your 
council retire, bnt are eligible for re-election. A correct list 
of members whose subscriptions have been paid to 1st of 
April has been prepared, and forwarded to each member en- 
titled to receive it. 

“Annexed is a statement of receipts and expenditure for 
the past year, as audited by Messrs. O’Connor and Molloy, 
who kindly gave their servioes gratuitously. 

“ Signed, “ Gso. Hodson, Bart., Chairman. 

“ J. Badhax Thornhill, See.” 

Annual Statement or the Receipts and Expenditure 
of the Royal Agricultural Society or Ireland for 
the Year 1867. 

Dr. £ a. d. 

To balance to credit last account... ... 557 17 11 

Subscriptions received from 854 members, np 
to May, 1868 ... ... ... 1,363 10 0 

Interest — viz., on cash in funds 

(i. c, £5,585 5s. 9d.) ... £164 15 4 

Ditto on cash in bank on deposit 16 3 1 

180 18 5 

Cash from Local Committee of the Dublin 
Show, 1867 ... ... ... 677 6 0 

£2,679 11 4 

Cr. ■ - 

Money premiumslto local societies ... 210 O 0 

Medals for year ... ... ... 129 11 6 

Secretary’s salary ... ... ... 250 O 0 

Accountant’s ditto ... ... ... 80 O 0 

Chemist’s ditto ... ... ... 100 0 0 

Mr. Callanan’s gratuity ... ... 29 18 0 

Hall-porter’s wages ... ... ... 26 0 0 

Printing and advertising ... ... 34 8 6 

Stationery and bookbinding ... ... 10 11 0 

Postages ... ... ... 20 8 0 

Rent and insurance ... ... ... 135 15 6 

Furniture, including safe (iron) ... ... 18 13 10 

Sundries... ... ... ... 5 3 2 

Judges’ expenses to and from Dublin Show ... 192 16 S 

Clerk of the yard (Mr. Corrigan) ... 10 O 0 

Secretary’s travelling expenses ... ... 18 11 0 

Prizes paid ... ... ... 1,143 2 2 

Printing, advertising, and stationery ... 86 12 3 

Badges ... ... ... ... 3 5 6 

J udges of cottages (travelling expenses ... 29 10 7 

Prizes for cottages fin lieu of medals) ... 30 0 0 

Estimating prices rrom plans, for tne Cottage 
Committee, by Mr. Doolan, measurer ... 7 11 3 

Judges of drainage (travelling expenses) ... 9 13 8 

Balance to credit ... ... ... 97 18 2 

£2,679 11 + 

Examined, and found correct. Charles C.|Ve8Bt. 

H. J. MacFablanx. 

21st May, 1868. Phineas Riall. 

We have carefully examined the above accounts, and com- 
pared the vouchers with the items, and we find them to be 
perfectly correct. Val. O’B. O’Connor. 

Robert Molloy. 

Lieut-General Hall moved the adoption of the report, 
which appeared to him to be very satisfactory indeed. 

Sir Georoe Hodson seconded the motion, and in doing 
so observed that it was unnecessary that he should refer par- 
ticularly to any topic noted in the report which has iust been 
read. It might be thought suitable, however, that tie should 
say a word or two in reference to the paragraph which related 
to the appropriation of a portion of the society’s funds for the 
use of the Royal Agricultural Club. That paragraph had been 
carefully considered and attentively worded, and ne sincerely 
trusted that the meeting would adopt it without discussion and 
without dissension. There had been a good deal of feeling dis- 
played in the matter, but he did not think there was anything 
in the paragraph with which the most sensitive could find 
fault. The dub, they were aware, had reHnanished the ebum 
put forward for an allowance for rent and taxes, and the 
council had considered it proper to aocept their offer, declining 
to receive soeh allowance; and they now wished them to 


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adopt the report^ which rescinded, ton certain degree, so much 
of the p ro c e e di ngs of the former general meeting as sanctioned 
that appropriation. The adoption of it, he thought, would 
restore to them a good deal of peaoe and tranquillity, and 
give effect in the main in inducing Lord Clonbrock and his 
co-trnstee to continue as trustees of the society (Hear, hear) . 
If would also enable them to approach with better attention 
the main objects which the council and the society had in 
view — that of promoting agricultural science in this country. 

The Chairman said, before he put the resolution, he 
thought it was a question whether it should not be followed 
by a resolution absolutely rescinding what had been done at a 
previous meeting. 

Mr. Byrne conceived that if the motion for the adoption 
of the report was pnt from the chair, it should be aoceptablevj 
to all parties ; bat, if anything else were put forward, there 
might be others who would canvas it out of doors. The 
paragraph was drawn up in order to promote that harmony 
and lrindly feeling whien it was right and necessary should 
exist in a society like that. The dab had agreed to those 
tense; nod if the acceptance of the report, in its present 
shape, was acceptable to the meeting, it would tend to the 
cordial agreement of parties outside. 

The Chairman remarked that it appeared to him, as 
Chairman, that it was not quite satisfactory, inasmuch as 
some me mb ers who had not paid their subscriptions might 
not do so, as they would my that the resolution had not been 
rescinded. A snort resolution, rescinding the previous one, 
was, he thought, necessary. 

Sir Qsorgb Hobson wished to my, as a member of the 
council, that it was not in the province of the members to do 
mom than recommend the general meeting to rescind the 
rasolatioa in question. They had no power to do anything 


final in the matter. They, therefore, sent it forward as a 
recommendation ; and if the report was adopted, he did not 
see why it should not be considered sufficient to answer aU 
the purposes. 

Sir John Dillon insisted that the resolution referred to 
should be decidedly and absolutely rescinded by the meeting. 
He had been always opposed to it from the beginning. 

Mr. Waldron said the question before the chair was the 
adoption or rejection of the report. It might be competent 
for anybody afterwards to move such a resolution as that 
which the Chairman spoke of. He apprehended that their 
duty was to adopt the recommendation of the council or not, 
as they thought fit. 

The Chairman then pnt the resolution, which was carried 
unanimously. 

Captain Vesby moved that, in compliance with the recom- 
mendation of the council, the resolution relative to an allow- 
ance of £50 to the Agricultural Club, passed at the half- 
yearly general meeting, ne rescinded. 

Mr. Hans Woods seeonded the motion, which was carried. 

Mr. Woods proposed a vote of thanks to Messrs. Molloy 
and O'Connor, for having kindly audited the accounts of the 
society free of charge. 

Sir John Dillon seconded tlie resolution, which was 
passed. 

On the motion of Major Borrowes, seconded by Mr. George 
Woods Maunscll, Messrs. Townsend, Millward, and Byrne 
were appointed scrutineers to tgke the ballot for the election 
of members of the council. 

The following is the result of the ballot : Hans H. Woods, 
Sir John Power. Bart., R. M. Carden, P. J. Newton, Lord 
Powerscourt, John Borthwick, C. U. Townsend, Lord Lurg&n, 
Sir Richard Musgrave, S. A Richards. 


EAST SUFFOLK CHAMBER OF AGRICULTURE. 


A meeting of this chamber was held at Ipswich. The pre- 
sident, Mr. F. S. Corraaice, M J*., was in the ehair. The at- 
tendance was limited, there not being 30 members present. 

Mr. W. Johnson (Boyton), vice-president of tne chamber, 
introduced the first subject — The Condition of the Agricultural 
Labourer. He said : At a Conference held in March last in 
Willis’s Rooms upon the condition of agricultural labourers 
a aeries of resolutions were passed for the proposed remedy of 
imaginary grievances, and with those resolutions fanners gene- 
rally differed. The object of the meeting was to take into 
consideration three questions : “ What are the causes of the 
unsatisfactory condition of the agricultural labourer P” u What 
an the best means calculated to improve that condition P” 
“ If by the formation of a society, then upon what plan should 
sneh society be constituted, and what steps should he t ak en to 
form it ?*’ In the first place, he was not disposed to admit 
that the present state of the agricultural labourer was so 
thoroughly depressed as was represented. He was prepared, 
from an experience of more than 30 years in this county, to 
state, without fear of contradiction, that he never knew the 
aghcaltoral labourers in East Anglia in a better position 
than at the present time. At the same time he was unwilling 
that it should be inferred that he was not willing to enter into 
the consideration of the desirability of improving the com- 
forts and condition of the agricultural labourers, for he would 
begfad to do anytiung to improve their condition ; but he did 
not wish to admit that they were so oppressed and persecuted 
as it was endeavoured to be made out. The Rev. Canon 
Gndlestone stated that the poor people were expected to bring 
up their families upon 7s. or 8s. or 10s. a week. They knew 
nothing of sneh wages in Suffolk, and consequently the ques- 
tion ok rages did not apply to their case. Canon Girdlestone 
said that he had been instrumental in raising the wages from 
7s. to 10s. a week ; bnt in this part of the country they ranged 
from 12*. to 15s., and therefore with the question of wages 
they had nothing to do. Mr. Johnson then referred at some 
length to the proceedings at Willis’s Rooms, and proposed a 
resolution condemnatory of the resolutions passed, which, 
after some observations from the chairman, was taken as carried. 


The Hon. Sec., Mr. U. Biddell, said he had received a 
long letter from Col. Adair, upon the subject of County Finan- 
cial Boards, from which he read an abstract. 

Mr. JonNsoN said : It was unnecessary for them to disenss 
the details of Mr. Wylde’s very voluminous bill, it having been 
withdrawn, and they had simply to consider the principle of 
the measure, which would require very few words, the justice 
of the attempt having been admitted by the Government, 
although the Bill was rejected and a committee appointed to 
inquire into the working of county business generally. Com- 
mittees were very slow travellers, and very often were ap- 
pointed for the purpose of postponing measures, so that 
nothing more might l>e heard of them, and consequently it was 
necessary that this committee should be reminded that the 
country was watching their proceedings. Hitherto county 
business had been confined to the county magistrates, and he 
was not going to say a word of complaint or disparagement of 
the conduct by the magistrates of that business, for he believed 
they were anxious to investigate and control the expenditure 
to the best of their judgment ; but as the county expenses af- 
fected real property generally, the ratepayers claimed a right 
to superintend them. The question was, what was the most 
advisable step to take P He would not propose anytiung pon- 
derous or complicated like Mr. Wylde’s Bill, because if there 
were a large financial committee the result would be too apt to 
be a great deal of talk and very little work. He at the same 
time believed the magistrates would gladly accept the assist- 
ance of other parties, men of judgment and experience, to 
co-operate with them on financial matters. He took up this 
question with no feeling of opposition to the magistrates, and 
would much regret that the magistrates should imagine that 
there was any feeling of antagonism to them, for the desire 
was simply to co-operate witli them in solving the different 
problems that might be bi ought before them. They had been 
told that these matters were purely -landlords' questions, and 
that all charges on laud finally fell on the landlord ; bnt he had 
yet to learn how to divide the interests of the tenant and the 
landlord, for he considered they most be identical. It was as 
great a mistake to attempt to divide the interests of landlord 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


and tenant ai to divide those of the employer and the em- 
ployed, and he regretted that there were not more landowners 
members of that cnamber. He moved 

“ That this Chamber views with approval the principle em- 
braced by the bills upon the County Financial Board. The 
application of that pnnciple is, at present, a matter of appa- 
rent difficulty ; bnt this Chamber begs to record its opinion 
that these aifficulties are not such as onght, in its opinion, to 
present an insuperable obstacle to the just settlement of this 
question.” 

Mr. B. L. Everest said, as representative of that chamber, 
he was present at the last meeting of the council of the Central 
Chamber in London when this subject was discussed. One 
gentleman strongly condemned the reference of the subject to 
the House of Commons to a committee, as shelving the ques- 
tion ; but Mr. Wvlde denied that such Was the case, and it 
seemed that Mr. Wylde had been so unfortunate as to draw an 
impracticable bill, and one the details of which his own friends 
did not like. 

Mr. G. Tomline, M.P., believed that if the system were 
changed it would not be found more economical; but if 
it should not be more economical, still they would have 
the satisfaction of spending their money tnemselves and 
knowing how and why they spent it. But he did not stop 
here — he went further, and said the magistrates would thank 
them for giving them the power (if it should turn out that by 
Financial Boards they did give it) of resistance to those cen- 
tral authorities to which allusion had been made — power of 
resistance to government inspectors and government depart- 
ments, who liked to throw every burden, even those which 
were almost imperial as well as those which were local, upon 
the rate-payers. He had been told by the Lord-Lieutenant 
that a circular had been sent round to Lord-Lieutenants asking 
their opinion whether the magistrates would consent to borrow 
on the security of the county rates a very large sum for the 
purpose of building barracks for the militia when called up 
for their training, and stating that when those barracks were 
built with money borrowed on the security of the rates, then 
Government would consent to pay a rent for them. Bnt Go- 
vernment had no power to pay a rent, because the money 
which was to be applied in payment of rent most be voted by 
Parliament. However, this secret circular had been sent to 
Lord-Lieutenants asking their opinion as to the probability of 
the magistrates assenting to the imposition of this new burden. 
Now if that circular had been sent by the Home Office to 
County financial Boards, if they existed — he would not pre- 
jodge the question and say whether they would assent to the 
proposition or dissent from it — the rate-payers would be treated 
with a certain degree of courtesy ana respect in their repre- 
sentatives being asked whether they were willing to have a new 
burden imposed on them, and whether they were inclined to 
borrow a large sum for the erection of those barracks, the ex- 
pense of which ought not, in his opinion, to he thrown upon 
one species of property, the owners of that species of pro- 
perty having no power at this moment to criticise or condemn 
this new demand. There was proof enough that this secret 
system of departmental government was burdensome upon 
rate-payers, and magistrates might thank them if by esta- 


blishing County Financial Boards they gave them the power 
of saying “ no*’ to such demands. In West Suffolk, he saw 
by the newspapers, the magistrates were acting with great 
courage in respect to the gaol inspector, that a new gaol should 
be built, and he said the establishment of County Financial 
Boards would do the magistrates a service in giving them the 
power to say “ no” to burdens, the imposition of which they 
could not now resist. The circular he nad alluded to was an 
argument for Financial Boards, 4c. He did not think the 
Lord-Lientenant, who was by his office the re pr es entative of 
the sovereign, was a proper person— nor even would the High 
Sheriff, as representative of the freeholders, be the right 
person — to communicate with on the subject of the finances of 
the county. Let them have a Financial Board, who would 
Know what was proposed, who wonld openly discun it, and 
who might, as they pleased, say w Yes” or “ No.” 

Mr. Herman Biddell could not understand why, if there 
was no opposition to the principle involved in Mr. Wylde’s 
Bill, bnt only objection to the manner in which it was drawn, 
the whole matter should have been referred to a committee. 
It appeared to him the only principle involved was, “ Are the 
ratepayers to be represented in determining upon the collec- 
tion and disbursement of county funds P or is it to be left in 
the hands of those who liave for years had the management 
of it P ” All agreed that the ratepayers should be represented, 
and why should it be referred to a committee to inquire into 
the working of certain matters P The ratepayers never as- 
serted that the funds were misapplied or mismanaged : all they 
said was that they were altogether disregarded in the matter. 
He could not see the necessity for a committee, and regarded 
it as an attempt to shelve the matter. 

The President said he must call their attention to the cir- 
cumstance that they had only discussed the principle of a bill 
for establishing County Financial Boards, and that the details 
remained untouched. They had not heard anything from any- 
one with reference to what such a bill ought to be, and there 
was a wide difference between the mere admission of a prin- 
ciple and the determination of details. He was not a Govern- 
ment apologist, bnt they would allow him to say a few words 
upon the debate on Mr. Wylde’s bill. There was an entire 
unanimity among the speakers with reference to the principle, 
bnt scarcely one speaker approved of the way in which it was 
applied. The bill was cumbrous ; it went into a great deal 
more than Parliament wonld, at one sitting, be prepared either 
to disease or decide upon, and it opened all sorts of principles. 
Mr. Biddell had said that committees were very often the 
grave of good measures, but they were also often the grave of 
very bad ones, for of all hills introduced into Parliament the 
larger proportion were utterly to be condemned, and for one 
rood bill ten were introduced so bad that if their authors had 
been tolerably discreet they never would have seen the light. 
Therefore he approved of sending the hills to a select com- 
mittee, more especially sneh a bill as that in question. When 
they came to examine the details they wonld find this was not 
such an easy thing to apply. 

After some further discussion the resolution was assumed to 
l>e carried, and the meeting broke up. 


SOMERSET CHAMBER OF AGRICULTURE AND COUNTY ASSOCIATION 

OF RATE-PAYERS. 

The fourth general meeting of the members of this associa- principles laid down were sound and good (hen they could join 
tion was held at Bridgwater, when Mr. J. P. Broad me ad, of it; and he thought quite the same. It had been thought by 
Enmore, was voted to the chair. some tliat it was merely the claims of the Chamber of Agri- 

The Chairman said, that this was not merely a meeting of culture which they met to advocate : but such was not the 
the Chamber of Agriculture, hut also of the “ County Asso- case — they were also an association of ratepayers, and as such 
elation of Ratepayers,” and consequently it affected all classes dealt with matters affecting every class of persons. If they 
of persons who were liable to pay rates. He repeated they considered the system upon which the poor-rate was levied at 
must be very ! tbankful to the gentlemen connected with the present, and what was really proposed by this association, they 
Yeovil Board of Guardians for having moved in this important could not fail to see that those wno are now unfairly burdened 
matter. They might not be prepared to concur in all the would be greatly relieved by the personal property of the 
minor details to which the chamber had committed itself, and, country being called upon to contribute, as it ought to do, to- 
moreover, they were not asked to do so. The promoters of wards the rate for the relief of the poor, and allihoee various 
the association merely said if they could agree that the general other charges which he had named- They did not ask to be 


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THU FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 63 


relieved of any burthen which it was right aad init for them 
to bear ; they wanted to have everything fair, and that was the 
object of this meeting. Some persons argued that money in 
the funds should be exempted, oeeanse at the time the funds 
were established money was reauired for carrying on a war, 
and there was a kind of compact that the capital so invested 
■h— id be free from rating. But at that time we had no police 
or highway rates, and many of the burthens now complained 
of bad not been imposed upon them. Therefore, these things 
being altered, all things mint be altered. He urged them to 
move la this matter, for If they did not they eonla not expect 
that those who were not at present rated would come forward 
voluntarily and offer to bear their proportion of these charges. 
They might feel that in justice they ought to do so ; but of 
course they would say, “ Let those who are interested in it 
move in the matter ; we are not going to do so.*' If they did 
not put their shoulder to the wheel they would not get relieved. 
An impression seemed to prevail that they wanted to transfer 
all these burdens to trades and minufilctuiea ; bat it was not 
so, for by including all personal property in the assessment 
tlwy would be benefited rather than oppressed. After all it 
was but fair that those who obtained tneir wealth from the 
labour of the poor, should, when these had become indigent 
ami unable to work, help to support them ; whereas at present 
the poor, whose best labours were employed in the aggrandise- 
ment of the wealth of the manufacturing interest, were thrust 
hsck upon the landed interest for support, whilst those who 
had reaped the advantage of their labour contributed nothing 
towards the rate. He appealed to the meeting whether the 
system was not an unfair and unreasonable one r 

Mr. Awnurws, as secretary of the association, explained 
more fully the objects and purposes of the meeting. 

Mr. Jo me Trask proposed “ That this meeting fully ap- 
proves and endorses the resolutions passed by meetings of this 
association held at Yeovil, Taunton, and Bristol." He re- 
marked that the resolutions referred to had been circulated, 
and no doubt every one present was conversant with them. 


Mr. John Samson seconded the resolution, aad it was 
carried by acclamation. 

Mr. T. Baker, of Boroughbridge, proposed “That this 
meeting pledges itself to use every effort to make the olpects 
and purposes of this association known throughout the county 
of Somerset in accordance with the circulars and resolutions 
sent to the guardians of each parish, aad addressed to the rate- 
payers.*' He moved this resolution oeeanse he highly approved 
of the movement and the broad principles upon which the 
association was based. He believed the time had come when 
the rating system should be thoroughly and completely over- 
hauled and readjusted. 

Mr. Jam £8 Kinder, in seconding the resolution, hoped 
that the matter would be taken up in thorough earnest- 
ness, and he had no doubt their efforts would be crowned with 
success. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

Mr. R. S. Pittard proposed, “ That in the opinion of this 
meeting a persistent attempt should be made by the chairmen 
and committees of the associated ratepayers in each union to 
get every town and parish in their union represented by a 
ratepayer, and to canvass for members and subscriptions.’’ 

Mr. J. Stuckey, of Drayton, seconded the resolution, which 
was carried. 

Mr. H. Q. Andrews proposed, “That in the opinion of 
this meeting the ratepayers of parishes, independent of sub- 
scriptions from large proprietors, should attempt to raise the 
income of this association to £1,000 a-year, ana that this can 
be done with ease in a field consisting of 510 parishes." 

Mr. Reynolds seconded the resolution, which was carried 
by aeolamation. 

Mr. James Fry proposed, “ That the secretary be requested 
to convey to Sir Massey Lopes the thanks of the Somerset 
Chamber of Agriculture and of this meeting for the able way 
in which he has brought the question of Local Taxation be- 
fore the House of Commons." 

The motion on being seconded by Mr. Frith was carried. 


THE PENWITH AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 


The anneal exhibition of the Penwith Agricultural Society, 
which has now attained the age allotted as man's sojourn 
era earth — three score and ten — has been held at Treneere, 
Penzance. A finer show of cattle and hones for a local meet- 
ing has rarely been seen ; and some good judges expressed it 
as their opinion that it would take some unusually fine cattle 
to heat the first-prize shorthorns, exhibited at the above show. 
Ia —king their awards to the hones, the judges had a most 
arduous duty to perform, and they were a considerable time 
before they succeeded in awarding the prizes to their own 
latmftmHiiw. The horses wars tried In every way, and ia the 
p r es e nc e of a large number of spectaton, and it was generally 
admitted that they gave their fiat in favour of first-dais 
horses. The show of pigs was certainly not large, but what 
was deficient in quantity was in every respect made up in 
quality. The contest in this department was between Mr. E. 
Beiitho and Mr. Sydney DavUy, two gentlemen who have 
rampfisri in former teen. Last jeer the first prize was cur- 
ried off by Mr. Bolithc », and this year the same gentleman was 
again successful, Mr. Davey being second ; but he was dis- 
qualified from taking the second prize in consequence of his 
hating won the same prize last year. There was an excellent 
exhibition of sheep, usd the Leicester rams were especially 
noticeable for their size and beauty. The judges were*. For 
cattle, sheep, and Pigs — Messrs. Luke Bice, St. Enoder ; 
Jabex Steeper, St. Colomb ; and MarshalL Maidstone, Kent. 
For hones and implements — Messrs. J. Burgess, Barncoose, 
Megan ; WfcHser Laming, Trevethoe ; and R. Quick, Tre- 
weliard St. Jnst. The following were the 

AWARDS. 

Cattle. 

North Devon Bnlls.— First, 0. Mason, Truro ; second, J. 
Burgess, Barmcoose. 


Shorthorn Bolls. — First and seoond, Hosken & Son, Hayle ; 
third, S. Harvey, Sennen. 

North Devon Bulls, calved since January 1st, 1867. — First, 
T. Stevens, Wendron ; second, 0. Mason. 

Shorthorn Bulls, calved since January 1st, 1867. — Second, 
Hosken A Son. 

North Devon Cows.— First, J. Burgess ; second, J. Mason. 

Shorthorn Cows. — First and second, Hosken & Son. 

Cows of the Guernsey or Jersey breed. — First, R. F. Bo- 
litho, Ponsandane ; second, H. Hodge, St. Levan. 

Cows of the cross-breed. — First, E. Bolitho, Trenuggo; 
second, Rev. M. N. Peters, Penzance. 

Two-years-old Shorthorn Heifers.— First and second, Hos- 
ken A Son. 

Heifers of the Guernsey or Jersey breed.— General Tre- 
menheere, Boscathnoe. 

Horses. 

Stallions calculated to improve the breed of saddle horses.-* 
First, W. Hawke, Bndoek (Bee King) ; second, J. Yeo, Bod- 
min (Gazna). 

Stallions calculated to improve the breed of horses for gene- 
ral purposes. — First, Hosken and Son (Forester). 

Stallions calculated to improve the breed of cart-horses.— 
First, H. Laity, Clowance (Goldfinder) ; second, H. Roberts, 
St. Hilary (Oxford). 

Brood saddle mares with foals.— First, J. Abraham, Crowan ; 
second, G. Eustice, iun., Hayle. 

Three-year-old fillies or geldings for the saddle.— Firet, S. 
Harvey, Trevear ; second, N. Hoskins, St. Allen. 

Three-year-old fillies or colts for general purposes.— First, 
Bran well and Sons, Penzance. 

Two-year-old colts or fillies for the saddle.— first, W. Jelbart, 
Roborough, Devon. 

Two-year-old colts pr fillies for general purposes.— First, J. 
Bone, Penzance. 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


Cart-mans with foals.— First, Branwell and Son ; second, 
J. Pearce, St. Bury an. 

Y earling colts or fillies for the saddle.— First, H. Laity. 

Yearling colts or fillies for general purposes.— First, J. 
Chappie, Sancreed. 

Sheep. 

Leicester rams.— First, J. Rosewarne, Nanspuskcr ; second 
and third, J. Thomas, Phillack. 

Leicester hogg rams. — First, second, and third, J. Rose- 
warne. 

Fire Leicester ewes.— First and second, J. Thomas. 

Fire Leicester hogg ewes. — First, W. Laming, Trevethoe ; 
second, J. Rosewarne. 


Southdown rams or other Down. — First, S.Rodda, Penzance ; 
second, R. F. Bolitho. 

Five Soutlidowo ewes, or other Down. — R. F. Bolitho. 

Pigs. 

Boars.— T. Thomas, Sancreed ; second and third, S. Davey, 
Redruth. 

Sows in farrow, or having had farrows. — First, E. Bolitho, 
Trennuggo ; second, J. S. Davey. 

Husbandry Implements. 

£3, Messrs. Holman and Sons, for the best assortment of 
implements, particular mention being made of the corn horse- 
hoe and the liquid-manure distributor. 


THE RABBIT QUESTION IN COURT. 


A case involving the question of law as to damage to grow- 
ing crops by rabbits came before the Court of Common Pleas 
on June 1st. Mr. Gatacre, the landlord, appealed against a de- 
cision obtained byMr.Woobrick.his tenant, in the County Court 
of Shropshire. The case stated that the plaintiff in the court 
below was tenant to the defendant under a lease containing a 
proviso excepting all game, which was reserved to the de. 
fendant as owner of the land. Adjoining a field so held by 
the plaintiff the defendant had a coppice, which was full of 
rabbits, and the rabbits got^nto the plaintiff's field, and so in- 
jured the crops, that in 1865 the defendant allowed him £75 
as compensation for the damage done by them. The rabbits 
were for a time kept down, but since then they had greatly 
increased, and inflicted damage on the tenant’s away-going 
crop of lut year to the valued amount of £21. The defendant 
offered the plaintiff £12 as compensation, which he refused to 
receive, and brought his action in the Shropshire County 
Court to recover the amount of the estimated damage, and the 
learned judge of that court gave judgment for the plaintiff for 
the amount claimed, against which was the present appeal. 

Mr. Archibald appeared for the appellant, and Mr. Hudson 
for the respondent. 

For the appellant it was contended that the action would 
not lie, that the rabbits were fere nature, and that the 
appellant was not responsible for what they did. Suppose a 
fox had gone ont of the coppice, was the appellant to be held 
responsible for its taking his neighbour's chickens P The re- 
spondent was restricted by the terms of his lease from killing 
the rabbits when on his land, but that was by his own agree- 
ment He referred to “ Jeffries v. Evans," 34, Law Journal 
Report t, C. P., page 51. The learned counsel was here stopped. 

For the respondent it was contended that the decision of 
the court below was right. Half the respondent's crop had 
been destroyed by the rabbits which issued out of the appel- 
lant's coppice, and it was his duty to keep down their increase, 
so that they should not be a nuisance to his neighbours. 

Tbe Chief Justice : Are the rabbits the property of the 
appellant P 

Mr. Hudson : The appellant ought to have kept down their 
increase. 

Mr. Justice Byles : They are the most proliAc of all anmals. 

The learned counsel, conceding that, still contended they 
had no right to consume the respondent's away-going crop, 
and that the appellant ought to have taken means to pre- 
vent it. 

Mr. Justice Willes : Have you looked into the civil law on 
the subject P 

Mr. Hudson said he had not. He had thought it was more 
a question of the co mmon and statute law. 


Mr. Justice Willes said if the learned counsel would consult 
the civil law, title Actio noxalie, he would find it had much 
bearing on the matter. 

Mr. Hudson said he had not referred to that head of the 
civil law, and proceeded to contend that the rabbits were a 
nuisance, and had wrongfully been permitted to increase. 

Mr. Justice Willes referred the learned counsel to the old 
case, in the year books, of the bear, which while tamed and 
in captivity rendered its master liable for its acts, but having 
regained its liberty and escaped into the woods it committed 
all manner of atrocities, for which its former master was held 
not liable. In the present case, had these been tame rabbits, 
the case might have been different. So also there was the 
case of Dale v. Edwards, where a person kept a dog which 
had a propensity to go out on his own account, and went 
poaching into a preserve, and killed the pheasants, where it 
was held that an action lay against the owner of the dog ; that 
case liad carried the law to the extreme. It seemed to him 
that this action was an utterly groundless one. 

The learned counsel said the decision in this case was that 
of Mr. Josiah William Smith, a very learned judge. 

The Chief Justice wished to treat the decision with every 
respect, but it was the decision appealed against, with no au- 
thority to support it. The appellant was not the owner of 
these rabbits in any sense to make him responsible. There 
was no contract, expressed or implied, in the lease, that he 
would keep in or kill down the rabbits. The judgment mast, 
therefore, be reversed. 

This decision leaves tbe matter in a very unsat i s fa ctory 
state for the farmers, who suffer by the overstock of game, 
which there is no question is the case in some parts of the 
kingdom. Taking Essex generally we do not think the te- 
nantry have much to complain of in this respect— though of 
course there are some lands that do suffer from this cause ; 
and most of the oocupiers have a little of the sporting 
spirit in them, and look rather with pride than displeasure to 
a fair stock of game in their fields and hedgerows. But in 
other districts of the kingdom the manner in which the game 
is preserved is a serious loss to the tillers of the soil, and the 
rabbits are a nuisance, for though the owners of the land do 
not care much about the latter, where these are the perqui- 
sites of the gamekeepers, as is oommonly the case, those gentry 
look jealously and closely after them, and take care to have a 
good stock in hand. 

This decision, which places the rabbits on the same ground 
as the sparrows on the house-top, is therefore a grave matter 
to many, and will require the serious consideration of the 
tenant in taking, and a liberal arrangement on the part of the 
landlord in letting, a farm. 


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THE FARMERS MAGAZINE. 


THE STATE OP AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. 


At the last meeting of the Maidstone Farmers’ Club 
Mr. Eltt read a paper on “The state of Agriculture in the 
United Kingdom, and its relation to the safety of the Nation.” 
He said: I hare to introduce a subject to tout notice which is 
one that is perhaps rarely taken op hr aimers. My motive 
in bringing this subject before the duo may be deemed pre- 
sumptuous- if it be, I can only plead my wish that it may 
Vend men of for greater co n sequence and ability to consider the 
matter. I hare been led to think, by seeing in The Mark Lana 
Express and other papers, the probable chance of England 
wanting earn before the arrival of the harvest. Now, if such 
an event is likely to take place daring a time of profound 
peace, with the ports of all the world open to us, what may be 
the ease prove if war, or any other evil, shut off our supplies P 
Our fleet, which has for “ a thousand yean braved the W tie 
and the breate is indeed an arm of strength, and ever may be 
E n gl a nd look proudly to it. But not even to such a tower of 
strength should we trust for a supply of food. We, in some 
measiue, resemble ancient Home, she, like us, conquered and 
col onis e d , and at last depended for her s applies of food more 
oa foreign lands than her own. Corn, Ac., was obtained more 
cheaply from other soils; thus her own were neglected, and the 
Pontine Marshes were allowed to run to waste and beoome 
swamps. Brigands there find a shelter, and thus prove a curse 
to Roma, as well as a fatal miasma anting therefrom. These 
evils may not be feared ; but a short supply of corn is by no 
menu improbable, and what would be the state of London, 
and of our great cities, with their over-crowded populations, if 
suffering from the want of the neoessaries of life P We know 
too well how unmanageable they are. Let us then consider 
bow we oan make ourselves rs safe as we can, and try to meet 
an evil even before it arrives. Looking hack to the state of 
agriculture centuries ago, we And that the United Kingdom 
ad not produce a fifth of its present amount. Yet then it 
prodooed enough to feed its inhabitants. Now, with all its 
increase, it needs immense supplies of foreign grain, Ao. 
Population has so largely increased that it has outgrown the 
land- Agriemlture has made rapid strides, bat cannot keep 
paee, at least with its knowledge. What are we to endeavour 
to doP how obtain a greater supply P As the laud now yields 
three or four times as much as it did in the days of the 
Edwards and Henrys, can it not he made to yield far more, 
and thus ensure our safety ? We have now the advantage of 
chemistry ; we have manures from cloth and other factories : 
we have guano ; the knowledge of herbs and plants converted < 
into manure. We learn that by a change of crops, by : 
keeping our land clean, fallowing is rendered generally 
unnecessary; by grubbing all useless hedges and trees, 
taking in all straggling land, we are enabled to increase our i 
seres, as well as throw our land open to the son and air. We 


have also the knowledge of machinery. Where these acts have 
lot been done, let them be so. Let prejudice be pat aside, 
1st men be taught their own and their country’s welfare ; let, 
also, liberal leases be granted to good tenants, and let them be 
meouraged to reader the land fruitful ; let, also, rabbits and 
harm ba placed at the disposal of the former. I oome now to 
what I deem more neoessary than even the before-mentioned 
wp of Increase. Let no man talk of indelicacy or impro- 
priety. Our Great Creator, when he formed man, made him 
to live agreeably to his will ; and let no fastidiousness curl np 
its nose at the organs God ordains him to live by. See with 
what infinite wisdom it is ordained that all we eat or drink, 
all we wear, even oar bodies, can be returned to the earth, and 
so (rectify it that it will reproduce what has bean consumed. 
Thu u a foot well known to scientific men — nay, even to most 
•gricultnrists. Why , then, should not production go on with 
oonsnmptionP Why* because we waste and destroy the 
Mens. Thus oar towns are rendered unhealthy, our rivers 
polluted, when that which poisons them might be rendered a 
Mewing. It might not, in the language of the world, repay 
individuals or corporate bodice, hat surely Government might 
nd in so good a plan. Deep cesspools might be formed, into 
vhieh all the excretia might run. They might be covered 


over to prevent smell by evaporation, and the contents sold for 
manure. There is a new invention — earth-closets— a plan 
of which I have before me. These we are now using at the 
Union, and I believe they will supersede water -closets, Ac., in 
many plaoes, and be the means of easily effecting the purpose 
of retaining animal manure. Dr. Moncktoo, in his ahle 
paper, to wnich I had not an opportunity till lately of paying 
proper attention, urges greater attention to agriculture, though 
ne aoes not openly state the necessity ; yet both he and Mr. 
Mechi bear me out in presang it on the public. Let the 
formers of England change sides with the public, and extend 
protection to those who refused it to them. Let us humbly 
look on the earth in a religions point of view. The Great 
Creator made it beautiful to man, and from its bosom fruits 
and flowers sprang, unlilled, uncultivated. Man, by his dis- 
obedience, brought the thistles and weeds, and what then 
seemed to be a curse upon the around. But, even then, in 
His severity, the mercy of God field out a remedy : “ Thou 
shalt labour, and by the sweat of thy brow shalt thou raise 
thy bread.” There was health and happiness in the com- 
mand. Man has found health and content i he has restored, 
by that labour, the earth to its fertility ; fruits and flowers 
have again sprung forth, and thus man only obeys the com- 
mand of his Maker when he applies all his diligence to the 
cultivation of the earth. 

A letter was here read from Messrs. Haynes and Sons with 
regard to the use of earth-closets, and the advantage which 
they had proved on their own premises and elsewhere. 

Mr. Hans said he oould fully endorse what Messrs. Haynes 
said, as he had used a similar closet on his own premises, and 
found it to work admirably. There was still, however, great 
prejudice to be overoome in the matter, as lie had found that 


unyuuioa w w utdiwuio ui iuc iumioi, as mb u*u iuuuu buac 

labourers had refused to use them. He thought they were 
greatly indebted to Mr. Elvy for bringing the subject forward, 
not only as formers but as Englishmen. No doubt the ques- 
tion of feeding the people concerned every one in the country. 
Mr. Elvy had touched two points in his paper which were re- 
ceived with cheers, and therefore he imagined his views met 
with their approval. The questions were the providing of 
greater security to the tenant* and that their lands should not 
be overran with game. According to the agricultural statistics 
issued lately, the population was twenty millions, and the 
acreage under wheat three millions two hundred thousand in 
round numbers. He had no doubt that if expense was not 
considered, one-half or two-thirds of the wheat land could be 
made to yield very much more than it now did. Bnt then, 
under present circumstances it would not pay. The tenant 
was suffering from want of capital, and he wanted greater 
security given for what he did. and the destruction of the crops 
by haras and rabbits avoided. No farmer would object to 
give reasonable and fair sport. Might the time never come 
when country gentlemen oould not find fair sport. Bnt there 
was no sport, in his opinion, in shooting down flocks of game 
as if they were barndoor fowls. It was frequently said that 
he who oould make two blades of grass grow where one grew 
before was a benefactor to his country ; and lie thought the 
opposite was also true, that he who prevented two blades of 
grass growing where one grew before — that any landlord who 
refused fair security to the tenant* and who allowed hit land 
to be overstocked with game— was not a benefactor to his 
country, but quite the contrary. He did not with to see any 
legal remedies introduced, for he thought over-legislation was 
a great evil. But all that they could do to call the attention 
of the oountry to those defects* by making their voiees heard* 
he thought they ought to do. 

Mr. Bridglakd (the Chairman) mid he thought the qaaa> 
tion of game was one entirely between the landlord and the 
tenant. A former took his land with his eyes open, and he 
made his own bargain. He thought, however, they should 
try to get rid of the annoyance of the ground game* hares and , 
rabbits. 

Mr. Hatis said be wished to see the land produce as 
much u it possibly could of the food of the people. Ho 


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66 THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


spoke not as a farmer, but as an Englishman. He thought no 
reasonable man would object to a fair, old-fashioned style of 
shooting, but he did not think it was right that the fanner 
should hare the produce of his fields destroyed by vermin. 

Mr. Hodsoll said he thanked Mr. Elvy most cordially for 
the manner in which he had introduced the subject. He 
held, however, that the produce of the land contributed but 
in a degree to the safety and the welfare of the nation. 
It really was ♦he subdivsion and distribution of labour which 
contributed so powerfully to the prosperity and safety of this 
realm. What was it that enhanced and created the value of 
the produce of the soil but labour P What was the flax which 
they produced worth until it was dressed and woven and spun P 
What was the value of metals— of even gold itself— until 
labour had been applied to it P They would pay, perhaps, two 
guineas an ounce for an elaborate article in silver, the raw 
material of which they could buy at 5s. It was true that a 
great deal of wealth first emanated from the soil, but it was 
distributed through various streams in which manufactures 
and commerce took part, and so built up the colossal power 
and wealth of this kingdom. When Mr. Elvy spoke of Rome 
and the Pontine marshes, and suggested that England might 
possibly decline in a similar manner, he forgot that the position 
of the two countries was entirely different. Borne never 
encouraged a subdivision of labour, and the extension of com- 
merce and manufactures, so that that country could trade with 
others, and the wants of one nation could be supplied from 
the over-productions of another. He was satisfied that, as 
long as commerce and manufactures existed in England in 
their present state, we should find markets for the products of 
our slrill, and have plenty of money to purchase of the 
foreigner the supplies of iood we required. Rut he did not 
ignore any of Mr. Elvy’s conclusions with regard to agricul- 
ture. There was nothing to prevent them from producing 
two blades of grass where one grew before, but everything to 
encourage them in doing so. Every penny we laid out in corn 
was so much abstracted from the wealth of this country ; and, 
therefore, the question of liberal leases and matters of that 
kind ought to be considered. Mr. Hodsoll concluded by 
calling upon both owners and occupiers of land to assist the 
efforts of the West Kent Chamber of Agriculture to obtain, 
without further delay from the legislature, through their 
representatives, a more fair adjustment of local taxation, 
which, he said, was only secondary in importance to the in- 
crease of their crops. 

Mr. T. Bexvzs, inn., said he fully concurred in what Mr. 
Hayes had said, that the want of security and the game 
were the two great things at the present time that hindered 
agriculturists from progressing. They should be encouraged 


to make the land of England produce more than it does 
now. Mr. Hayes had said that if the present acreage of 
wheat were made to produce one quarter more than it has 
previously done, it would feed the population of the country 
for three weeks. But he said that the acreage of wheat 
planted at the present time might be made to produce three 

n ’ters per acre more than it does now, and that would 
the country for nine weeks. The question Mr. Elvy had 
introduced was very important as to the safety of the country, 
If they did not take care of themselves, they would find them- 
selves in a position they would all deplore : and it was for the 
landowners to look about them and see what was for their own 
interests as well as for the interests of the agriculturists. 
They might have increased rents if they would give proper 
security to their tenants, and do away with their greatest 
curse, the game, for there was no doubt that it was a curse to 
them. The question of small enclosures was another matter 
that should receive the serious attention of them all. Tn his 
neighbourhood they saw enclosures of one, two, and two-and- 
a-half acres surrounded by trees, where there would be but a 
small patch in the middle where they could grow anything. 
Then the drainage question was a matter of great importance 
to them. He believed that the interests of the agriculturists 
had been too much ignored by the commercial class for many 
years, and if they had been better upheld by them they would 
have been in a very different position, and have had more 
money to have spent upon such improvements, while the com- 
mercial class would have been noue the poorer. There had 
been, he considered, too great a tendency in the legislation of 
late years towards the commercial interests, and ignoring al- 
most — if not entirely — the agricultural interests. The com- 
mercial interests would never serve England in the event of 
famine ; neither their money nor goods would feed the people. 
If at any time the country should be at war with more than 
one nation, they would find it very difficult to get food for the 
inhabitants, and, therefore, they should stir heaven and earth, 
as it was said, at the present time to increase the produce of 
the land in the country. He was convinced that the produce 
might be doubled in a few years if the proper steps were taken. 
If they went through the country they would see all round the 
fields places that would not produce nearly as much as ths 
middle would. Then came the question of hedgerows and 
timber, and the game that lived in the hedgerows devoured 
what sprang np. On that account they would find that in the 
Weald of Kent the produce of many farms was notone-anarter 
of wbat they might be made to yield in the coarse oi some 
three years. 

The discussion was continued for a short time after this, but 
with nothing of moment in it. 


TOPDRESSING. 


At the dinner of the Wester Boss Farmers’ Society, Mr. 
Adam said: I may say that top-dressing is an operation 
with which our forefathers were little, if at all, acquainted. 
It ia an operation that has become common in these later 
through the importation and manufacture of such 
quantities of portable manures. Our forefathers 
would have given to their land with right goodwill, I donbt 
not, all the manure they could scrape ; but with guano, 
nitrate of soda, and the endless diversity of stuffs with which 
we are now famil : ar, they knew nothing ; consequently, their 
crops, having had applied to them beforehand all the dis- 
posable manure, had to go on to harvest nusupplemented, un- 
assisted by any addition, and depended exclusively on the sun- 
shine and rain from heaven. We, in this respect, are now-a- 
daya more advantageously circumstanced. In addition to the 
ordinary farmyard manure, we not only can give, when sowing 
the crop, a supply of artificial manure, but even after the crop 
is brairded, should there be any appearance of sickness of the 
plant, any indication of stinted growth, a manure easily dis- 
solved, and readily washed to the roots of the plants, we can 
apply with immediate and astonishing effects. In this respect, 
the farmer stands somewhat related to the plant as its medical 
attendant. IliR practiced eye detects the first symptoms of 


disease, for fading colour and lagging step ; but, assured of the 
cause of disease, the fitting manure is applied with the desired 
result of the restoration of the beautiful hue of health, and of 
greatly-accelerated growth. The necessity of topdressing 
arises from the soil being imperfectly supplied with the con- 
stituents necessary for the growth of plants. Did the soil 
naturally contain an inexhaustible supply of all that the plants 
required for their growth, then manure, either ordinary or 
artificial, would never be needed. But it is well known that 
very little of the soil of our country is fitted naturally for the 
full development of onr plants; and it is equally well-known 
that soil, thus naturally fertile, speedily becomes, by continuous 
cropping without mannre, so reduced and impoverished as to 
exhibit only the shadow of a crop. The large proportion of 
the soil of onr country is naturally so barren that, when im- 
proved, it will grow nothing until supplied at a great cost with 
plant-growing substances. Indeed, the first outlay in clearing 
and breaking np ground is often small as compared with the 
outlay necessary m bringing it into a state of ordinary fertility. 
But a state of ordinary fertility is not all that is desiderated. 
What the improving tenant is desirous of, is to have his land in 
that condition in which he might reasonably anticipate the 
largest possible yield. True, there are a few favoured spots in 



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6t 


#ucfa a condition ns this ; and to apply topdressing to these to 
iicresse the return would be the height of folly, as it would in 
ill likelihood result in a crop early laid and in a diminished 
return. To apply additional manure to soil already 
sufficiently supplied with erery necessary ingredient, is similar 
to bringing an additional round to the dinner-table after all 
die guests are choke-full. But farms in such a state as this 
are rarer than angels' visits. I once saw, and perhaps only 
once, 2 cwt. of Penman gnano riven to one acre over and 
above the supply given to the field generally, without the 
slightest perceptible difference, either at the hoeing or lifting 
of the crop, simply because the field had a sufficiency of 
manure without this addition — there being over 32 tons of 
turnips per acre. It is not every day that one will stnmble on 
a farm off which a yield could reasonably be expected of 6 qrs. 
of wheat, 9 qrs. of barley, and from 10 to 11 qrs. of oats per 
acre, and these are Mr. Mechi’s maximum returns. If these 
returns have not as yet been reached by us, is there not room 
for top-dressing ? and if they have been reached by ns, is there 
not need for abundant manuring still, to keep the ground in a 
condition in which it can continue to give a return so magnifi- 
cent ? Whether such returns as these can ever be reached as 
a general rule it is impossible to say, but I am persuaded that 
ere the soil be brought to its highest possible state of cultiva- 
tion much baa to be learned and much has to be done. The 
kinds of manure that are more generally used for top-dressing 
purposes are guano, nitrate of soda, and dissolved bones. 
Until within these few years guano was more commonly used, 
bat, from the foil in the price of nitrate of soda, it is now 
coming more generally into use, and from its facility of solu- 
tion, it is very easily washed into the soil. To specify any one 
kind of manure as the best for top-dressing purposes generally 
would be unwise and misleading. The kina of crop to which 
it is to be applied, and the nature of the soil in each particular 
case, must be folly considered, and the manner adopted thereto 
must be selected. To all our cereal crops, top-dressing in 
ordinary seasons, if wisely applied, will be advantageous. 
True, in such dry summers as we some time ago had, top- 
dressing was of little or no valne ; whilst in dry shallow sous 
it was really disastrous, greatly assisting the drought in its 
withering effects. But fortunately such seasons as these are 
the exception, not the role, and without somewhat of the pro- 
phetic spirit cannot be foreseen. To grain crops the quantity 
to be applied must be carefully considered, as it now and then 
happens, when nitrate of soda is largely need, that there grows 
an abundance of straw, but the grain maybe nearly entirely want- 
ing, and when this happens the straw is inferior also. A large 
dose may be much more safely applied to grass, either for pas- 
ture or hay, as there is less regain to the growing of seed than 
to the quantity of grass sown, and hay secured. The season 
I hare found most suitable for topdressing is spring. Even 
to antumn-sown wheat it is more advisable to apply topdress- 
ing in spring than when the grain is sown ; for 1 have found, 
when applied in autumn, that the manure very much exhausted 
itself in forcing on an undue growth in winter and early spring, 
which was again cut down by the later frosts, leaving the 
wheat in a worse condition than it would have been if it had 
received no topdressing at all. To wheat and grass, topdress- 
ing may be applied at any time in spring, care being taken, 
however, that the soil be not too wet, so that the manure 
would be in danger of being carried away, and that there be 
vain either at the time of sowing or the prospect of its imme- 
diate coming thereafter, so as to secure that the manure be 
washed into the ground as soon as possible. Topdressing of 
oats and barley is more conveniently applied at the time of 
sowing the grab. Could present prices of grain, or some- 
thing even considerably lower, be stereotyped, then there could 
he no question of the profitableness of topdressing; bat 
should prices fell to nearly one-half their present amount, 
which we have sometimes seen, it might yet be advisable to 
topdress, if not for the value of the additional grown grain, 
yet for the increased quantity of straw raised, which would 
be so helpful in maintaining or improving the general condi- 
tion of tire form. 

Mr. Middleton said that he topdressed different ways 
almost every kind of crop, and generally he found himself 
benefited by it — perhaps not so much as he would desire, but 
still to an extent that no considered remunerative. The soil 
on his form was easily overdone, and therefore he had to top- 
dress carefully. The mixture he preferred for corn crops was 


dissolved bones and nano, with a little nitrate of soda. Bor 
hay he found gnano best, with a little both of nitrate of aoda 
and bone mem. 

Mr. Beth u NX said that he generally topdressed his gran 
every year with nitrate of soda and gnano ; for his corn crop 
he ured guano chiefly. He never tned nitrate of soda or dis- 
solved bones for his corn crop, and of the guano he usually 
gave from one to two hundredweight an acre. 

Mr. Sim said it had been romanced that the man who made 
two blades of gnu grow where one grew before deserved the 
thanks of mankind ; and he considered that the former who 
top-dressed judiciously would almost accomplish this feat. 
One thing, however, they all ought to learn, and that was, to 
mix manures properly ; for sufficient attention was not usually 
paid to this important point. In com crops, a great deal de- 
pended on judicious mixture, sa that they might not find a 
handful of nitrate here, a handful of dissolved bones there, and 
a handful of guano in another place. He found the following 
mixtures answer best in his own experience : For wheat, one 
hundred-weight of nitrate, a todf-hundred weight of Peruvian 
guano, and one hundredweight of superphosphate have the best 
and most lasting results ; and I think the proper time for ap- 
plication it iust when the fresh growth sets in in spring. 
Barley, of all other grains, is the most dangerous to top- 
dress, as, if too quick and luxuriant a growth is induced, you 
are apt to have soft straw and a lodged crop. He found two 
hundredweight of best superphosphate most suitable, harrowed 
in with the seed. Oats, on strong land especially, repay top- 
dressing more than any other grain, as it ensures a strong, 
quick growth at once, and in dry seasons prevents the crop 
from becoming set after the strength of the seed is exhausted. 
He found one hundredweight guano and two of superphos- 
phate most beneficial Of all crops, the most marked results 
of top-dressing are produced on potatoes. He found last year, 
by actual experiment, that it increases the crops by one-fifth ; 
and, in talking the other day to a farmer (who has been a 
regular grower of potatoes for years), as to the quantity he 
gave to his potatoes, he told me he never used lew than six 
hundredweight per acre ; and he believed it would pay to give 
more. He found Peruvian gnano one hundred weight, potash one 
hundred weight, and best dissolved bones two hundred-weight 
to suit him best, two-and-a-half hundredweight pnt down when 
planting, and one half-hundredweight when earthing up. 

Mr. Hosack said he had not top-dressed much ; but he 
tried it last year, and he had nearly two-thirds — at least folly 
one-half— more crop on the part that was top-dressed than on 
the other parts or the farm. The mixture he used was a 
hundredweight of nitrate of soda, two hundredweight of super- 
phosphate, and two hundredweight of salt. The soil was 
very strong clay. He considered that top-dressing was remu- 
nerative. 

Mr. Axxxs, whose experience of topdressing in Roxburgh- 
shire was asked, said that be had not yet had very much expe- 
rience of it, bat he had tried it on grass and oats, and in both 
instances the result was most extraordinary. In regard to the 
oats, the thing he noticed was that while the rest of the field 
was very dirty, the part topdressed was comparatively clean, as 
well as the crop produced being much heaver. By topdressing 
grass he found the crop improved about one-half ; on the other 
hand, the foggage or grazing was not so good, bat the second 
vear the grazing was quite as usual if not better. The foggage, 
however, was not nearly so good, especially with nitrate of 
soda ; with Peruvian guano and bones it is not so bad. In 
Roxburghshire, topdressing was not carried ont to a great 
extent, because the land had not much body in it. He men- 
tioned as an experiment on one occasion that two acres of 
light soil were topdressed in the middle of a field, and another 
two acres, not topdressed, were carefully measured off. In the 
part of the field topdressed the cron became quite flat, and, on 
being thrashed out, it was found that there was a dead loss of 
six bushels an acre, compared with the piece not topdressed. 

Mr. Fenton said that on all ordinary land judicious top- 
dressing was, in his opinion, beneficial. He recommended as 
a good mixture two cwt. of salt and two cwt. of nitrate of soda, 
half-cwt. of Peruvian gnano and half-cwt of super-phosphate ; 
he had fonnd this suit very well both for grass and corn. Ho 
advised every one to use two or three cwt. of common salt; it 
strengthened the straw, and likewise kept itrappy. 

Mr. Ross said he had got his fern in very bad condition* 
but by using a good deal of Dingwall manure he had brought 


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66 THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

it into meh excellent order that be was afraid to topdress it. paid bin. As ho had said, a groat part of bit load was tbm. 
He found that so long as be could grow very nearly 6} quarters and jet be bad always had as good crops as others with better 
of wheat to the acre ne did not require to topdress. land. He considered the farmer should always topdress, es- 

Mr. Harper : Don’t make last year a criterion. pocially if be had not such land as their friend Mr. Ross; on 

Mr. Petirkin said that on the farm he occupied before be the good alluvial soil, such as many of them had about Ding- 
came to Boss-shire the soil was generally light, and he had to walL he considered that top-dressing was beneficial, 
apply a good deal of artificial manure. What he found an* Mr. Harper said that topdreasing bad puxxled him a good 
swer best was a cwt. of guano, a cwt. of super-phosphate, and deal, and he did not think that his experience was of any 
a cwt. of nitrate. He remembered on one occasion topdressing authority. The year before last he topdressed a dry field 
a grassfield of 25 acres, and giving it of nitrate alone about with guano, super-phosphate, and bones, out he was obliged to 
two and a*half or three cwt. per acre. He had an extraordin- use extraordinary measures to keep the crop down, and he 
ary crop of hay, perhaps not less than 300 stone to the impe* partly lost it. When in Edinburgh a gentleman to whom he 
rial acre, and it was thmnish soil ; bat next year he had no- was speaking had told him that nitrate of soda had nearly 
thing. After that he never topdressed with nitrate alone, but ruined him. He had a good crop the first year, bat the next 
used the mixture he had mentioned, along with a cwt. of salt, he had none at alL 

On the land he required to djess for oats, he often laid down The Chairman then summed up, giving it as his opinion 
the manure (got from fishing villages, fie.) in September or that with proper attention topdressing would pa j all farmers. 
October, or il not then in spring, and found veiw great benefit The result of the discussion was that guano, nitrate of soda, 
arise from that method. Topdicesing, he thought, had always and bone meal were considered the best top-dressing mixtures. 


THE WORCESTERSHIRE CHAMBER OP AGRICULTURE. 

At a meeting, Mr. G. Whittaker chairman, a letter was opinion of this Chamber the reports of the meetings of the 
read from the secretary of the Central Chamber, requesting Central Chamber have not been as full and satisfactory as they 
the secretary to forward to Mr. Jasper More, Mir., the could wish, and also to call his attention to the fact that meet- 
chairman of that Chamber, the names of any gentlemen this iags of this Chamber are sometimes omitted, although he has 
Chamber would like to give evidence before the select com- been furnished with the necessary information.” 
mittee of the House of Commons on the subject of Financial The Secretary mentioned that Mr. Dillwyn, MJ?., bad 
Boards. introduced a bill “ to amend the laws relating to the holding 

The Chairman said he thought that perhaps they would of fairs in England and Wales.” He had written for copies of 
have some difficulty in proving their case, hut they wanted the bill, which he expected in a few days, 
to show that, if they had Financial Boards, the moment any The Chairman said that, at the last meeting, it was pretty 
bill came before Parliament affecting the interests of the rate- well agreed that they should call a general meeting of the 
payers, the ratepayers on those Boards would immediately Chamber to consider the subject of local taxation. He oom- 
oppoee that measure, and show to the country that the bill aide red it the most important subject that had come before 
would increase the burdens of the ratepayers. — Mr. Buck them for some time, and he had a notion that a public meeting 
confirmed what bad been said by the chairman, and added would go s good way towards ventilating the subject. A long 
that with regard to the Lunatic Asylum the magistrates had to conversation ensued as to the desirability of havmg the public 
carry out the provisions of an Act of Parliament, under the meeting immediately or postponing it for some time, and this 
supervision of the Lunacy Commissioners. The manage- was decided by the following resolution, proposed by Mr. Abell 
menfc of the gaol, too, was now by a special act placed in the and eeoonded by Mr. Smithin, being earned, “That a public 
hands of a joint committee of city and county magistrate*, meeting be held this day fortnight on the subject of local tax- 
subject to the supervision of inspectors appointed by the Home ation, at half-past eleven o’clock.” — The resolutions to he 
r Office ; end in a discussion at the Central Chamber of Agri- proposed at tins meeting— three in number-wi re then dia- 
cnltureit was stated that the magistrates had very little con- mined and agreed upon, 
trol over county expenditure. — Mr. Abell remarked that that — 

might be to, bat they never found the Government and the At the meeting of this Chamber, Mr. G. Whitakzr, chair- 
magistiatos coming into opposition. In nineteen eases oat of man, 

tweaty the alterations were suggested by the magistrates^ A Mr. Trimmer moved, “That this Chamber, having taken 
discussion followed, in the coarse of which Mr. Gurbt mid he into consideration the great and continued increase in the 
did not think Mr. Wr’i’s bill went for enough. He thought poor-rates, and local taxation generally, is of opinion that the 
that the ratepayers should elect all the mem toil of the Board, preeent system of rating is unequal and unjust. 

It was true that 'jiey had a great many good financial men Mr. Russon eeoonded the resolution, which waa put and 
sitting as magistrates, hat the principle they wanted to do carried. 

away with we “taxation without representation.” A few Mr. B. Smithin moved the second resolution as follows: 

years ago, at the time of the alterations at the gaol, there “ That income arising from personal property ought to can- 

were magistmtesput upon the Gaol Committee who were not tribute with real property to a national rate.” 
business men. Whan they got such men on co mmit tees they Mr. White hair seconded the neolotion, which was 
were induced to lay out money without due regard to economy-— carried. 

Mr. Webb said that ia his district the magistrates had no Mr. James Webb moved “That an income-tax, p ro perty 

adequate interest in the matter of expenditure. There were levied, will afford an economical means of taxation, and tha 

twoor three formers in the neighbourhood who had to pay Chamber will use He beet endeavours to bring about a system 

more rates that all the magistrates put together.— Ultimately of national rating on that bans.” 

it was i agreed that Messrs. Whitohair, Webb, and Bliek (seen- Mr. J. Abell seconded the motion. 

twyl be appointed to represent the Chamber. Mr, Willis-Bukd objected to the income-tax being men* 

Mr. Buck reported that the period for which the CkamUr tinned. He thought they would have great opposition to any 
of Acriadivre was ordered to he supplied to the members of scheme for taxing personal pro pe rt y, and th eir endeavour 
the Council had expired, aid he wished to know if it waa to he ought to be as much as possible to disarm opposition. The 
continued.— Several members of the council complained that income-tax was a very unpopular tax, and the very name of it 
the reports of the various meetings of the Chamber had not would create opposition. 

been reported, and Mr. W bbb proposed the following reeoktion, Mr. Webb, in reply, raid he thought that the difficulties 
which was agreed to 4 That the secretary of this Chamber suggested with regard to taxing real property could be got over 
request the editor of the Chamber of Jjncokvre to supply for a national rate being levied, and out of that the ui^imt of 
copiea of that journal for the next two months for the mem- the precepts of eaoh union paid. 

tors of the council, and at the same time state that in the Mr. Brno* aapported the resolution, and contended tint 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


they ought to be supported by both the borotgh and county 
members. 

The Chaikm ah expr e sse d hh regret that on the present 
occasion they had so few landowners of the county of Wor- 
cester endeavouring to null with the tenantry for an adjust- 
ment and equalisation of the hardens npon land. It appeared 
to him that, although the landlords did not pay the taxes, and 
they fell upon the tenants, if they did not mind it would 
eventually fell on the landlords. He was very much surprised 
that the large landed proprietors of this county should take 
so little interest in the welfare of their tenants. It was time 
that all parties connected with the land should lend an assist- 
ing and helping hand to promote the one cause. There was 
no wish to put dies against class, or tenant against landlord, 
and he was sue that the tenantry of the kingdom were not 
opposed to the wishes or the interests of the landlords, but 
they did feel, aad felt ‘justly, that burdens crept on time after 
tuae which had to be borne exclusively by tenant-farmers. 
With regard to Mr. Willis-Bund’s observations relative to the 
income-tax, ho could not agree. He did not think they had 
anything to apprehend from adopting the income-tax ; it was 
not for them to suggest the mode of legislation. Mr. Fear- 
son had suggested one remedy, and Mr. Webb another, the 
latter gentleman suggesting that a proportional amount be 
paid out of the Consolidated Fund ; but he would not detain 
the meeting by dwelling on these subjects, as it was so simple 
a matter. He would, however, say that he did not think tne 
adoption of this course would at all do away with local go- 
vernment. This Chamber was not a political one, and ne 
hoped it would never become political, out where matters of 
interest to the tenant-farmer was concerned it was their duty 
as a dam to insist on the county members attending in their 
places in the House of Commons and voting on all important 
d an ve s. He thought that on Mr. Wyld’s Bill to establish 
Financial Boards it was their duty to have attended, but the 
feet that only twelve county members were present on that 
occasion did not show that they took a deep interest in the 
•Fairs of the farmers. He thought that when any vital sub- 
ject was brought forward they (the Chamber of Agricul- 
ture^ would not be doing their duty if they did not write to 
the borough and county members to beg of them to support 
any measure which the Chamber might think ought to be 
passed. 

The Chairman then put the motion, which was carried. 


THE WESTERN CHAMBERS OF AGRICULTURE.— 
At a meeting at Falmouth, during the Bath and West of 
England show week, Mr. Brydges Williams in the chair, the 
subject of poor-rates and local taxation, and a motion which 
Sir Massey Lopes brought before the House of Commons a 
short time since, were discussed, and the following resolutions 
passed : Sir Massey Lopes, M.P., proposed, and Mr. Whevenen 
seconded, — “ That it is the opinion of this meeting that the 
direct tax of eleven millions per annum now levied nnder the 
name ot poors* rates bears unfairly on income arising from 
real property ; and that the exemption of income arising from 
personal property is not only unjust, bat also impolitic and 
prejudicial to the public interest.” Proposed by Mr. H. G. 
Andrews, and seconded by Mr. Peter, — “ That, whereas the 
majority of ratepayers in towns are deeply interested in the 
removal of the exemption from poors* rate of income arising 
from personal property, means should be taken through the 
medium of the several Chambers of Agriculture in the 
Western counties for uniting their co-operation in this move- 
ment.” Mr. H. G. Andrews said that at a meeting of the 
Somersetshire Chamber, held at Bridgwater on the 27th of 
May, he was lUputed by that Chamber to p r es en t the 
following resolution to Sir Massey Lopes : M Resolved, that 
the thanks of this meeting be given to Sir Massey Lopes, 
M.P., for the able manner in which he has brought before 
the House of Commons the present unjust exemption from 
poor-rate of income arising from personal property.** The 
Chairman said that the meeting could not do better than 
follow the example set by the Somerset Chamber. He would 
therefore propose that the best thanks of this meeting be 
g i ve n to Sir Massey Lopes for having treated the subject with 
so much ability, and having given so mseh attention to that 
important question. 


THE MORPETH CHAMBER OF AGRI- 
CULTURE. 


The usual monthly meeting of this branch was held at Mor- 
peth, Mr. Thos. Bell in the diair. 

Mr. Thomas Lawson, of Longhunt Grange, having read a 
short paper on local taxation, Mr. J. Angus moved, and Mr. 
T. Lawson seoonded, M That this Chamber strongly recom- 
mend the council to send at least one witness to give evidence 
before the Select Committee of the House of Commons npon 
the present system of county finance, and that soch witness 
specially bring before such committee the expenditure of 
£2^50 in the purchase of premises adjoining the Moot Hall 
Courts, for the sole purpose of removing the danger which 
might accrue to such courts in case the aforesaid premises 
took fire ; the said Moot Hall Courts having always been 
regularly insured against fire.** 

Mr. John Moor moved, and Mr. John Rutherford 
seconded, “ That the local rates press severely on the landed- 
interest, and that this severity arises by a large amount of pro- 
perty of a local description being exempted from assessment, 
and that in consequence not one-half of the property ability 
within a parish is assessed to the relief of the poor.*’ 

Mr. Young moved, and Mr. Moor seconded, the follow- 
ing : “ That many matters of rather national than local pur- 
pose have been added to the local rates, and that such ought, 
m whole or in part, to be repaid to the local treasurer from the 
national treasury.” 

Mr. Ruthrrford moved, and Mr. Angus seconded, “ That 
there is no subject of greater importance, or more immediately 
requiring the fell consideration of the general council of the 
North of England Chamber of Agriculture, and that our local 
council members he requested to press the council to take such 
steps as will define what would he a more equitable assess- 
ment of local property for local purposes.” 

EAST RIDING CHAMBER OF AGRICULTURE.— At 


the ordinary monthly meeting of members at Beverley, Mr. 
W. Bainton presiding, on the motion of Mr. Langdale, 
seconded by Mr. C. Dixon, the chairman was selected as a 
witness to be examined before the House of Commons Select 
Committee on the disadvantages of the present system of 
county finance. A very lengthy discussion then took place by 
adjournment, on a paper read by Mr. R. W. Parke, of 
Catwick, at the last meeting, relative to the present system of 
rating. After two hours* debate, Mr. Parke proposed “ That it 
is the opinion of this meeting that the maintenance of the 
poor, highways, police, and militia frills unfairly upon real 
property alone, and that all property and income whatsoever 
ought to contribute its reasonable proportion.” Mr. A* 
Crosskill and Mr. Norfolk objected to a division taking place 
at that hour, as two-thirds of the members had left the room. 
The objection was overruled, and the motion was carried by 
12 against 7. 


A CUBE FOR THE RABBIT COMPLAINT.— Farmers 
never make a greater mistake than when they allow their 
worst farming to be round a wood. It is precisely there that 
should be the largest expenditure in cake and com, and the 
greatest amount of manure. Farmers ought to be made aware, 
if they are not now, that when we have heavily folded a piece 
of white or red clover, the sheep having been well supplied 
with cake, com, malt combe, bran, and hay, the second growth 
will be so rich and rank that it will kill many sheep, whether 
lean or fat, and is almost certain death to lambs. This applies 
equally to rabbits. The same remarks apply in degree to 

S tature or Italian rye-grass, for I dare not sewage-manure the 
ret or spring-growth when it is intended for sheep and lambs. 
They cannot stand such rich food, nor can the rabbits. A 
friend of mine who farms 1,200 acres told me an amusing 
story about this. His bailiff was desirous to have some rab- 
bits in a grove, to which my friend waggishly assented. His 
fat sheep were closely folded and heavily caked round the 
grove, and the rabbits soon departed this life. Those who 
intend following my example of dose-folding will do well to 
take note about the dying of sheep as well as of rabbits. I 
have a great respect for pheasants and partridges ; they oan 
hardly be too numerous, and are the farmers’ best friends. 
Of course the pheasants should be fed in covert.— J. J. Mschi« 


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THfe FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


HANTS AND BEBKS AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

MEETING AT WINCHESTER. 


The show of this society took place on June 5. The entries 
almost in every class showed an increase, though in some few 
of the subdivisions there was scarcely what could be called 
keen competition. The cart-horses, although not numerous, in- 
cluded some excellent animals ; and some were descendants 
from previous winners at these meetings. Among the mares 
in-foal there was nothing very striking, but the mores as o 
class were very good. The cattle presented some moderately 
good specimens, more especially amongst the cows ; but 
perhaps the exhibition was chiefly remarkable for the 
sheep shown. The Hampshires were particularly noticeable 
for tneir splendid quality, and one of the judges — Mr. Saun- 
ders, of Watercombe— declared he had never before seen such 
sheep ; and some Cotswolds sent in by Mr. Tombs, of Lechlade, 
Gloucestershire, deservedly attracted much attention. In pigs 
there was a marked improvement ou the show of two or 
three years since os to number, variety, and quality, and that 
they were excellent will be at once manifest when we say 
that a sow sent by the Marquis of Ailesbnry, winner of 
a Bath and "West of England prize, came off here 
with third prizee, and was, though of splendid quality, 
admittedly inferior to those placed before it by the mdges. 
There were in all only three “ hunting horses.” The show of 
agricultural machinery was large ; made up as this was by 
Tasker, of Andover; Wallis, Haslam, and Steevens, of Basing- 
stoke; Sutton, of Shirley ; Burgess and Key, of Newgate-street; 
The Beading Iron Worn; Brown and May, of Devizes; Gower 
and Son, of Hook; H.andG.Kearsley,of Ripon; Fitt,of Bishop- 
stoke ; Taylor, of Headbourne Worthy ; Samuelsou, of Banbury ; 
Watson, of Andover ; and Bradford, of Fleet-street, London. 

There was a trial of grass-mowers, all the machines being 
drawn by two horses. The competitors were — The Beading 
Iron Works ; Woods, of Upper Thames-street, London ; Samnel- 
son; Hornsby, of Grantham ; Burgess and Key ; Howard, Bed- 
ford ; and H. and G. Kearsley, Bipon ; but the majority of the 
machines entered were in the hands of local agents. One acre 
of clover and rye grass was cut by each, and the prizes were 
awarded tbns : — I, Woods (48 min.) ; 2, Howards (52 min.) : 
3, Burgess and Key (76 min.). These three had an additional 
trial in order to place them, after being selected as the three 
best. The work was considered to be very good. 

The dinner under the presidency of Lord Northbrook was 
but thinly attended, and the proceedings were rather tame ; 
Mr. Beach, Mr. Bonham Carter, and Mr. Barrow Simonds, 
the three M.P.’s present, keeping carefully clear of “ Farmers' 
Politics.” 

PBIZE LIST. 

S HEEP . 

Hampshire, or West Country Downs. — Ewe Tegs not 
separated from the flock. — First prize, a cup, value 10 guineas, 
J. Warwick, Martyr Worthy ; second, £5, G. K. Budd, Clid- 
deaden, Basingstoke. Highly commended, J. Warwick. 
Commended, W. Pain, T. and M. Arnold, W. and J. Cordery, 
and J. Beeves. 

Ewe tegs not separated from flock before 1st April. — First 
prize, a cup value £5 5s., J. Barton, jun., Hackwood Farm, 
Basingstoke ; second, £6, G. K. Budd. Highly commended, 
W. E. Fitt, Littleton. 

Ewes of any age. — First prize, a cup value £5, F. S. 
Schwann, North Houghton ; second, 50s., J. Bawlence, Bull- 
bridge, Wilton. Highlycommended, J. Palmer, Cliddesden. 
Commended, W. Pain, W. E. Fitt, and J. Wigg. 

Bams of any age. — First prize, £5, B.Coles, Middleton Farm, 
Norton Bavant, Warminster ; second, 50s n J. Moore, Littlecott, 
Pewsey. Highly commended, W. F. Bennett, Chilraark, 
Salisbury. Commended, J. Moore, and T. and M. Arnold. 

Shearling Bams. — First prize, a cup, value £10 10s., E. 
Olding, Batfind, Amesbury ; second, £5 5s., S. King, Bock- 
hampton, Lambourn ; third, £3, S. King. Highly commended, 

A. Morrison, Berwick, Tisbunr; J. Parker, Lasham, Alton. 

Bam Lambs — £5 5s., A. Morrison ; £3, L. Lewis, Chilton 

Candover. Very highly commended, G. Edney, Whitchurdh. 
Highly commended, J. Moore and A. Twite hen Commended 

B. Cole, G. Edney, F. S. Schwann, W. F. Bennett, J. Barton, 
jnn., and E. Olding. 


Bams of any age — First prize, a cap, value £5 5*., C. Child, 
Lower Wyke; second, £2 2s., J. Warwick. Highly cosi- 
mended, J. Warwick. 

Ewe Lambs — £3, J. Warwick ; £2, G. B. Budd. 

Sheep of any other Breed— Bams of any age— £5, 

J. K. Tombs, Langford, Lechlade, Gloucestershire : 60s., T. 

B. Brown, Salperton Park, Andoversford. Highly com- 
mended, J. Wheeler, Long Compton. 

Shearling Bams — A cup value £5, J. K. Tombs; 50s., 

J. K. Tombs Highly commended, J. K. Tombs. 

Bam Lambs — £2, Mrs. Clift, Shereborne St. John ; £1, 
Mrs. Clift. 

Ewe Lambs— £2, J. Atkins, Barton, Peverfl; £1, H. 
Portsmouth. 

Ewes of any age— £6, J. Atkins ; £1. J. Atkins. 

Ewe Tegs — £2, H. Portsmouth. 

Fat Lambs— £3, W. E. Fitt. 

CABT HORSES. 

Stallions — £5, W. H. Gale, Manor Farm, Burbage, Wilts : 
50s., J. M. Earwaker, Peak Farm, Warnford. Commended, 
W. E. Fitt. 

Two-year-old Stallions — £3, R. Gringham, Shalden ; 80s., 
R. Gringham. 

Mare and Foal— £5, J. G. Attwater, Britford, Sshsbuy; 
60s., W. B. Stubbs, Tichborne, Alresford. Highly Com- 
mended, J. Atkins. Commended, Messrs. Follett. 

Cart Mares— £5, F. M. Boss, Fobdown, Alresford ; 50^ ¥. 
B. Bailey, Brown Candover ; £1, F. M. Boss. Commended, 

F. R. Halbert. 

Three-year-old Filly— £3, J. Atkins. 

Two-year-old Filly.— First prize, W. Woodward, Owileboiy, 
Winchester. 

HUNTERS 

£5, R. P. Fitzgerald, North Hall, Preston, Candover; £3, 
J. Canning, Sutton Scotney. 

CATTLE. 

Shorthorn Bulls— £4, J. Atkins; £2, J. Taylor, Held- 
bourne Worthy. 

Bulls of any other breed— £3, J. Tumi, Hartley, Alton ; 
£2, E. Curtis, Dimmer Grange. 

Two-year-old Bulls of any breed— £3, J. Atkins ; 80a, W. 
L. W. Chute, The Vyne, Basingstoke. 

Yearling Bulls— £2, T. R. Hulbert, Old Alresford. 

Cows in milk— £3, J. Turvil ; £2, Mr. C. Charlwood, Pad- 
worth Mill, Beading. Commended, W. Goodall, Winchester. 

Heifers under three years old— £2, C. Charlwood; £1, W. 
Nicholson, Basing Park, Alton. Highly commended, J. At- 
kins, J. Turvill. 

Heifers under two years old — £2, J. and M. Arnold, West- 
meon; £1, C. Charlwood. Highly commended, J. and M. 
Arnold. 

PIGS. 

Berkshire Boars — £4, H. Hnmfrey, Kingston© Farm, Shriv- 
enham ; £2, H. Hnmfrey ; £1, J. H. Clark, Attwood, Maiden- 
head. 

Berkshire breeding Sows— £3 and £2, H. Hnmfrey ; £1. 
the Marquis of Aylesbury. 

Boars of any other breed— £3, Captain R. P. Warren, 
Worting House, Basingstoke ; £2, J. Wheeler, Long Comp- 
ton, Shipton-on-Stonr. Commended, Capt. R. P. Warren. 

Sows of any other breed — £3 and £2, Capt. R. P. Warren. 
Commended, T. Baring, M.P. 

EXTRA STOCK. 

Highly commended, Mias Tannton,Stockbridge, for shorthorn 
oow ; commended, T. Chamberlayne, for three pigs 14 weeks 
old; C. Charlwood, for shorthorn heifer; A. C. Sayen, 
Bishopstoke, for a oow. 

The Judges were — Sheep, T. Saunders, Watercombe, Dorset ; 

G. Butler, Tufton, Whitchurch; and J. Allsopp, Wellow, 
Hornsey* Norse*, Cattle, , and Pigs, J. B. Spearing, Benbam 
Lodge, Beading; J. White, Odihara; and W. C. Spooner, 
Eling. Hunters ,_W. W. B. Beach, M.P., and J. Deacon, 
Master of the H.H. Poultry , J. Bailey, Mount-street, Gres- 
venor-square, London. Mowing, J. Lancashire, C. Hart, and 
E. Portsmouth. 


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71 


TO FALMOUTH AND BACK. 

BT A PRACTICAL PARMER. 

I must confess that the primary reason of my visit I country, along a bank, then a tunnel, then a bank, and 


was the circumstance of the show being held in a part of 
the country I had not yet visited. I had been to Exeter 
and Torquay, but no further — hence my desire to pass 
through Devonshire into and through a considerable part 
of Cornwall. I was greatly delighted with my journey 
down. My first day’s journey from Waterloo Station 
ended at Plymouth. The country through which 1 passed 
down to near Basingstoke is comparatively uninteresting 
— wild heaths, desolate and dreary ; bad land, and worse 
fanning. Energy, intelligence, and capital only are requi- 
site to improve most of it. Much of it is undoubtedly 
bad enough ; bnt in these days of abundance of capital, 
and no great lack of enterprise, the wonder is that it re- 
mains unproductive so long. In getting into Wiltshire I 
was truly struck with the remarkable improvements 
manifest since my visit to “The Royal Meeting” at Salis- 
bury, 1857- It may be the season — it may be my 
fancy : be that as it may, 1 was much pleased with the 
satisfactory prospects everywhere before me. The crops 
on all sides were nearly clean (only a few yellows here 
and there), and almost all good. The sainfoin crops 
unusually plentiful, clean and good — the grass seeds very 
remising — the fallows forward and cleanly. In the 
reeding of cattle and sheep I could occasionally notice 
signs of crossing, or attempts, as I thought, to improve 
their breeds. This is as it should be. The chief end of 
migratory societies is to import or introduce the know- 
ledge of departmental agriculture, and excite native energy 
and talent wherever they go. Beyond Salisbury I soon 
got into some very pleasing and fine dairy districts ; but 
as I had no opportunity of taking notes, and evening was 
earning on, I reserved my remarks thereon till my return. 
I readied Plymouth too late to notice the district. The 
town itself is most interesting : The Hoe is unsurpassed 
by anything I have seen. My next day’s run down to 
Falmouth was rapid and interesting in the extreme; 
bnt as I purposed taking agricultural notes of my 
journey on my return, and was enabled to do so, I 
give them as they struck me on, so quickly passing. 
1 left Falmouth at 10.10 a.m. We were soon in the 
country ; and at Penryn, about two miles from Falmouth, 
the land along our route clean and well farmed ; over 
viaduct No 1 country exceedingly pretty ; the hills very 
steep, and valleys narrow and deep (apparently, as we 
passed along, averaging from 200 to 500 or 600 yards in 
width, and chiefly laid npon wood frame-work), and posi- 
tively looking dangerous to pass over. The fields arc 
rerj small, surrounded with hedges, not cut into shape, 
bnt laid in some fashion on the banks on which they 
stand. More beautiful valleys; arrive at Perrenwell- 
station. The bridge or viaduct fine ! Presently a mining 
district on our left ; small paddocks, too small for fields, 
on onr right, with hedges round and timber ; now some 
heath, and over a long viaduct very high, and then 
through a catting to Truro, which is beautifully situate, 
surrounded by richly-wooded hills and still richer valleys, 
deep and picturesque, with a pretty river flowing through 
it. The grass fields small, but rich in verdure, and nicely 
grazed, chiefly with dairy stock. No crops to any extent. 
The church on the hill to onr left very imposing, and ex- 
tremely rich. The stock seen along our route chiefly 
shorthorn cattle and Leicester sheep. The town is almost 
beneath ns, we being npon a long and high viaduct. Some 
crops of wheat. We soon pass into a high and poor 


into a fine country on our right, well-farmed. The 
stock, shorthorns and Leicesters. We keep passing fair 
crops and good seeds ; the soil now free, now strong ; 
the crops, wheat, oats, and barley. The soil now looks 
like a stony, gravelly district. Reach Grampound-road — 
now a slaty soil ; the farming still good. A small flock 
of rams. Now viaduct after viaduct; then a cutting; 
get amongst mines, and in a higher country, and broad, 
with larger fields; the seeds and farming good. Now 
into the white clay district, i>., " decomposed granite.” 
Mach is raised and sent to the potteries. On onr left 
a fine country comes in, and a view of the sea to the 
right. We noticed that the implements seen are poor 
and very homely-made. Saw establishment for stamping 
ore, &c. ; pass two viaducts, high and very fine, over- 
looking it. Anstel: We are now getting to a high 
elevation, and travel nearly along the tops of hills, with 
most richly-wooded valleys below us, all extremely beau- 
tiful for many miles together, and nicely grazed or in 
meadow : the country to the right very undulating — now 
in a catting, now a view of the sea ; field with much 
garlic ; now amongst the mines — tin — krolin. At Par- 
station : much white clay shipped from hence to various 
countries, as well as to Staffordshire. We pas9 along 
steep hills, and over romantic valleys, to a better country, 
and well grazed — to Lostwithiel. The soil clay or clayey 
loam, grass lands abounding in buttercups. The fields 
far too small, with big hedges and trees: the sheep 
Downs, and the cattle Devons. Wc pass along the country : 
extremely pretty grass-seeds ; good Leicester and Down 
sheep here. The rich woods and varied foliage of a park, 
with nice residence near Bodmin-road station, are very 
fine. We arc at a great elevation: country wild, and 
abounding with mines. The hills higher ; we are drag- 
ging hard — now upon a high viaduct, about three 
hundred yards over a beautiful dell, extending to our left 
and far below us. Now another viaduct, very deep : the 
hills on our right not cultivated, but on our left good 
farming ; now wild again — our viaduct over the tree-tops. 
Another remarkably deep — all trees under us again ; ano- 
ther still deeper and narrower. These narrow gorges, 
spanned by these wondrous viaducts, created singular 
emotions on passing. They don’t appear to average 
above two hundred yards in length, and the depths must 
be from one hundred to two hundred feet. We now go 
along the hill-sides ; the country to the left very fine. I 
never saw such a succession of deep viaducts before. We 
arrive at Doublebois-station. We are soon along some fine 
land, fairly farmed, and notice Devons, Shorthorns, and 
I thought a small flock of Cotswolds and Cotswold 
lambs : again over a very fine viaduct. Liske&rd : again 
a fine viaduct and fine hill. Menheniot station — a nice 
country now — Devons and Leicesters. The soil a sort of 
slate stony loam, of singular appearance. The roads 
mended with slaty stone ; viaducts again long and high ; 
country more expansive and good — quite a relief to get 
away from the little crowded fields, the hedge-row timber 
almost meeting across them, to their larger fields well- 
farmed and growing good crops : noticed mangolds given 
to some fine lengthy sheep. We soon reach St. Germans ; 
all very fine. Now come to the river, clothed with 
beautiful trees to the water’s edge. A park or beautiful 
wood opposite, all very rich. The river, along which we 
rattle, broad and very attractive. We soon ap- 


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72 


THE FABMEB'S MAGAZINE. 


proach Saltash, with its wonderful viaduct. The woods 
and scenery of Mount Edgecombe from this point is very 
fine. 

I would here observe that amongst the answers to 
many inquiries I learnt that flock-masters never wash 
their sheep prior to shearing, and that the average 
difference in price of washed wool is from 4d. to 5d. per 
lb. I learnt that landlordism is at its height in Cornwall. 
On many estates the tenant must not destroy a rabbit ; 
no, not for his own table 1 nor any game ; that rabbits 
are sold by landlords by 200 or 300 couples together ; 
that the tenant must give twenty-four days 1 notice before 
he can plash a hedge, so that the steward, with his paint- 
pot, may come and mark the saplings intended to stand. 
I was told one telling fact. An old and good tenant 
applied to the steward for a couple of rabbits. He sold 
him a couplet and gave a receipt for the money ! The 
tenant bought a handsome frame with glass front, and 
therein is displayed this bright specimen of landlordism. 
I was told that the tenants, as a class, were kept down ; 
and although there were many good and liberal landlords, 
open to every improvement, yet there were “ exceptions 
to the rule.” How is agriculture to flourish under such 
auspices ? Tenants are now becoming enterprising 

capitalists. Only let them the land upon proper terms : 
they, by their expenditure, will make it productive, aud 
greatly to the advantage of landlord and tenant. This 
land of paddocks must be turned into fields. The tenant 
must graze sheep and cattle instead of rabbits and game, 
and that only for his landlord. “ Property has its duties 
as well as its rights." I believe it is false economy. A 
good tenant would amply compensate a landlord in rent 
for destroying rabbits. I trust the visit of the Bath and 
West of England Society to this remote district will open 
the eyes of both landlords and tenants to their best and 
permanent interests. It is to a modern agriculture that 
England looks for her progress and prosperity ; and land- 
lords neglect their duty in withholding the requisite en- 
couragements. Well, we are now in Devonshire: we 
leave Plymouth, and are again on “ the line," and soon 
into a rich and well-cultivated country, the fields of fair 
size : the stock grazing are chiefly Devons, Shorthorns, 
and Leicester sheep. Have a view of Dartmoor to the left, 
over a beautiful vwley. Now a high viaduct ; deep valley 
very richly wooded ; and a view of the sea to our right. 
The land rich and well-farmed at Wybridge. We noticed 
the beautiful establishment for making paper held by J. 
Allen & Sons, It is in a charming valley, crossed by a long 
viaduct. I again notice that these viaducts appear to be afi 
upon timber supports. Dartmoor now close to us : it extends 
from hence across to Oakhampton. The country is very 
fine to our left, and we have a view of the sea to our 
right. We reach Kingsbridge-road. The*! country is 
still remarkably pretty; the fields very nice, but too 
small, and fences large, and trees overshadowing the 
land; the farming fairly done; the grazing stock, 
Devons and crosses of heavier-woolled sheep are seen. 
Near Brent we come upon the first water-meadows seen, 
and the fields near are much larger and much more like 
profitable farming. Herefords and Devons seen here, 
and notice large herds of dairy cows. Totnes: the 
country steep and abrupt, the soil on the red sandstone, 
or red-land. Note : Heard that the like custom, with 
regard to notices before plashing hedges, is customary 
in these parts of Devonshire. Newton : Near this 
station is a fine hill, covered with new houses, upon 
a dry red-land district ; no doubt healthy for residents. 
We now approach the sea at Teignmouth, and from 
thence along the coast to Dawlish. The line of route by 
the sea, and along the marshes of the river, is very in- 
teresting. The marshes are good and extensive, but not 
equal to Romney Marsh. Exmouth stands immediately 


opposite, as we leave the sea for the river side. Star- 
cross appears to be the home of many Exeter citizens, 
and is the station before reaching Exeter. We scarcely 
rested at Exeter ; were soon* in the country, which is very 
richly wooded. The land good red-hind, and well farmed, 
and grazed chiefly with dairy cows and sheen, although 
but few of the latter are seeu. The country along which 
we are now passing is very pretty to the Ottery-road 
station. There is a fine valley to the right, and the 
country is nicely undulating, and rich in woods ; the fields 
much too small, and hedge-row timber very injurious, 
but rather better than some districts already passed. 
I have said very little about the crops thus far ; in fact, 
we have not passed much arable culture, it being chiefly 
grazing and meadow ; but the whole country appears in 
great freshness and beauty, having had plenty of rain, 
and the general report says it never looked better. We 
now pass Sidmouth to the right, down the valley, and 
enter a long cutting emerging upon a rich valley well 
grazed with Devons and Leicester sheep ; the crops good 
and forward, evidencing no want of rain. Leaving the 
red-land we come to a district more of clay and stones, 
pass a very rich country on the left, but fields still far too 
small and sadly burthened with hedges and hedgerow 
timber : now a ridge of good high land, extending to the 
sea ; through a cutting, to another charming valley, and 
rich to Honiton Station; again a very pretty country, 
overdone with wood and hedge, the grass in great plenty, 
the hills steep and abrupt; pass a broad valley to the left, 
hills to the right ; the crops good and grass abundant ; 
crops of beaus seen, denoting a clayey district ; enter a long 
tunnel ; the cattle chiefly Devons, valley deep, hills like 
immense banks, and full of wood ; no sheep seen ; still 
small fields, and much wood. The whole country through- 
out for many miles appears as if it was laid out for orna- 
mental scenery rather than profitable farming ; the grass 
lands are not heavily stocked with cattle, and no sheep 
are seen; meadows plentiful. Coryton Junction : We 
ore now passing through a region of dairy farms ; much of 
the land is laid in as meadows; see many dairy cows, some 
very fine ones ; a few Leicester sheep and Downs. Now 
in a sandstone district, the country very good, but small 
fields still, full of wood, and the lands not well-managed ; 
much of the grass land under meadow. I would here 
remark that notwithstanding the large dairies around 
us, I have not seeu a good modern farmstead 
along my whole route : nearly all are v ery 
homely, and thatched with straw, and not very 
extensive or commodious. Down sheep here, and a 
cross apparently of Herefords near. We come upon 
sheep-folds now — yes, and a creditable farmhouse, not 
thatched; but wood, wood, wood, and not much corn. 
Orchards now become prominent : a very pretty valley 
to our left, with more corn and fewer cows, but more 
sheep, chiefly Downs; some large flocks seen. The 
country varied — now red land, now clay, now red land, 
and well-farmed and properly grazed ; a good farming 
near ; a good dairy of cows. Shorthorns and Herefords. 
Pass Foide Abbey, a fine old place ; mowing commenced 
near and making clover hay. We find more flocks, and 
large dairies of cows ; the country a heavier soil, and five- 
farrow lands ; Italian rye-grass grown, beans cultivated. 
The dairies along this part of my route are large, varying 
from 40 to 70, or even 90 cows ; nearly all of them are 
let out to dairymen at a stated price per cow. These 
dairymen undertake the sole management, and make their 
cheese and do all their business upon the farmer's pre- 
mises. We now enter a portion of Somerset — Yeovil to 
Sherburne ; very rich to our left. The Vale of Blackmore, 
which we soon reach, is a very fine agricultural district, 
and extensive ; it is capital land — the arable is cleanly 
farmed, and the rich grass land is fairly grazed; the 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 75 


tent under cereals, exclusive of wheat and oats (chiefly 
maize), and under tobacco. The whole acreage under 
wheat in all the Colonies is nearly 1,000,000 acres, 
whilst vines now oover 18,819 acres. The acreable yield 
of wheat, oats, and hay is highest in Victoria; New 
Sooth Wales gives the highest acreable yield of maize 
and other cereals ; the average yield of potatoes and to* 
baeeo is highest in Tasmania ; and most wine per acre is 
made in South Australia. 

Returns of the machines and implements in use upon 
farms and stations in Victoria, and ot theirvaluc, are given : 
from these, it appears that 165 steam-engines, of an 
aggregate power equal to that of 1,239 horses, are used 
by farmers, and 22 steam-engines of 143-horse power 
by squatter*. The total value of the plant or machines 
and implements possessed by farmers amounted to 
€804,515, whilst that in the possession of squatters is 
only valued at £81,182. The crops reaped ana sown by 
machinery covered 160,649 acres, of which all but 
1,100 acres were upon farms. The number of persons 


employed upon farms is 42,211, and upon squatting 
stations 9,640. 

There are 114 mills for grinding and dressing grain in 
the ccdony ; 106 of these are worked by steam and 8 by 
water power. The amount of horse-power employed is 
2,952. There are 855 pairs of stones at work, and the 
quantity of grain operated on was 4,000,000 bushels. 
The flour made during the year was 85,586 tons. The 
approximate value of the machinery and plant of the 
flour-mills was £176,425. There ore now 86 breweries 
in the Colony, employing 648 hands and 471 horses. 
Nearly 9 million gallons of beer are made, in the manu- 
facture of which 539,000 bushels of malt, 603,289 lbs. 
of hops, and 6,290,000 lbs. of sugar are used. 

In closing this summary, it may be added that as there 
are stated to be officially 434 million acres of land avail- 
able for agricultural or pastoral purposes in the colony 
and as not 8 million are yet occupied, there is ample 
room for expansion of population and stock, even at the 
rapid rate at which they have been shown to be increasing. 


THE MISMANAGEMENT OF LANDED PROPERTY. 


The following account, extracted from a local newspaper of 
the district in which the estates are situated, gives an account 
of changes made and about to be made on the Savernake 
estate — a very extensive pronerty in Wiltshire, belonging (so 
far as an entailed estate can oolong) to the Marquis of ALles- 
bwy. The estate is chiefly on the chalk formation, some part 
of it extending to the green sand and marl formations respec- 
tively, cropping out below the chalk. Part of the high lands 
•re poor and thin day above the chalk ; the greater portion 
consists of thin soil upon chalk, which under high cultivation 
may be made largely productive, and carries sheep well, while 
the lands on the green sand and marl are naturally fertile, but 
require skilful management. This is particularly the case 
with the marl soil. By far the greater part of the estate con- 
sists of poor or light land ; there are very large woods on the 
property, and Savemake Forest is an enormous tract of un- 
cultivated land, stocked with fallow deer and game, in which 
the tenants of many of the adjoining farms have the liberty of 
turning in some of their stock during the summer half of the 
year. A “ run in the forest” iB, however, only available for 
stock of a third or fourth class character, as the natural 
growth of the soil is not sufficiently fertile to carry anything 
like good stock. It may form a tolerable summer’s run for 
sheep during the day, but, practically, the deer and game con- 
sume nine-tenths of such natural produce as there is. The 
terms said by the Marlborough Tima to have been recently 
imposed on the tenants Would seem to be about as complete 
examples of the mismanagement to which estates in England 
are subjected as could well be brought together: “Ttte 
Sayekkaks Estates: Very important changes are about to 
take ntace in the relative position of landlord and tenant on 
the Marquis of Ailesbury’s estate, consequent on the late re- 
valuation of the whole of his lordship’s property, which has 
been made by Mr. Carey, of Shrewsbury, on the accession of 
Mr. Bolam to the stewardship. Not only has the rental been, 
in most cases, increased, and iu all re-adjusted in accordance 
with the valuation, but the terms of holding have been con- 
siderably altered. Day by day, during the past week, by request 
of the steward, the farm tenants have attended at the S&ver- 
aake Forest Office, to receive the new proposals and future 
terms of holding. These, with the re-aajusted rent, are to be 
seceded to before Lady-uay next j but we are sorry to hear 
that the increase of rent has in many cases given great dis- 
satisfaction, and that the future rent-charge is pronounced to 
be excessive. The rent of some farms has been raised 
upwards of 35 per cent. ; in one instance we are informed 
the rent of 130 acres has been increased by £60 or £70 
a-year, sad another tenant has to pay about £200 addi- 
tional rent per annum. The agreement varies in many 
respects from the former terms. Provision has been made for 
quarterly payments of rent — instead of half-yearly — and for 
twelve mouths’ notice to quit to be given on either side, The 


agreement also reserves to the landlord all game and rabbits. 
The tenant is to keep the buildings in good repair ; to pay ohe- 
hnlf the cost of labour for landlord’s repairs, and one-third the 
cost for outside painting. All the ‘ hay, straw, haulm, fodder, 
clover, tares, artificial grasses, cabbages, root crops, and other 
produce* are to be consumed and converted into good manure, 
and to be used on the land. Then there are some additional 
regulations as to cropping, and the 14th clause, which must 
surely be equivalent to additional rent, provides that the tenant 
keep insured to a fixed sum, in the name and for the benefit of 
the landlord, all farm buildings against loss by fire, iu an office 
approved by the landlord, and to produce, when required, the 
policy of insurance, and receipts for the current year’s premium. 
The occupiers of house property — particularly m Marlborough 
— must also be prepared for a considerable increase of rent, if 
we may judge from the exalted ideas we know to have been 
entertained of the property by Mr. Carey. It is to be hoped, how- 
ever, that Mr. Carey has not based his calculations on the re- 
lative value of house property in his own county town of 
Shrewsbury. The trade now done, and for many years past 
doing, in MarlborOugb, will not warrant any increase of rent , 
nor can a grave reduction in the income of the agriculturist be 
made without being proportionately felt in the town.” An 
increase of rent to suen an extent as is mentioned could only 
be justified by giving to the tenants at the same time addi- 
tional security and length of tenure ; but it would seem that, 
besides advance of rents, new restrictions and burdens are im- 
posed on the tenants. They appear to have held, hitherto, 
simply as yearly tenants, governed only by the custom of the 
country. This is perhaps, the least satisfactory form of a 
yearly holding. If there be a reasonable confidence between 
the tenants and the landlord— or perhaps we should say the 
steward — husbandry may be carried on in a moderately good 
manner, though it is not likely to make any striking advance. 
Bnt when that simple — homely— system is departed from, and 
the yearly tenant is required to sign a written agreement con- 
taining an elaborate system of restrictions, game reservation, 
cropping, manure, and crop-consuming clauses, such as are in- 
dicated by the foregoing extract, a new system of petty and 
vexations interference is inaugurated, which must soon drive 
from the property all the best farmers, and will assuredly dete- 
riorate the cultivation. There is, perhaps, no greater mistake 
than to bring a surveyor from a different district to re-value au 
estate, especially when it is intended to lessen the free action 
of the tenants .— The Economist. 


WORTH KNOWING.— It may not be generally known 
that Indian com given whole to horses, is a very dangerous 
feed. I have seen two cases, one a very narrow escape from 
death through inflammation, brought on by this feed ; the 
other resulted in death in a very short time this week. It 
swells the stomach, and is bad to digest.— R. R. 

Q 2 


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THE FASMEB’S magazine. 


ROYAL AGRICULTURAL BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION. 


At the animal meeting on Wednesday, Jane 17 t the following 
report was Tend and adopted. 

Premising that the year ending the 31st of December, 1867, 
was fraught with a larger amount of commercial stagnation and 
social disorganisation than any which had preceded it within 
their recollection, the Council hare just reason for self-con- 
gratulation in the well-assured fact that the Royal Agricultural 
Benevolent Institution, whose affairs they have the honour to 
direct, has not in any degree retrograded from that sphere of 
expansion which for eight successive years it has been gradually 
developing. Whatever might be thought in auarters where the 
“ utilising’ principle is advocated, in exclusion of all pro- 
spective considerations, the Council are unanimous in think* 
ing that too high a value cannot be set on that 
wise forethought which has directed, year by y ear, the invest- 
ment of capital, not only as a means of imparting strength 
and efficiency to the Society, but as a guarantee for the punc- 
tual fulfilment of any engagements to which the Council, in 
the execution of the trust oonfided to them, might hereafter 
find themselves pledged. Pensions for life, once granted, can- 
not be revoked without manifest injury and injustice to the 
recipients. Having moreover due regard to the importance 
of creating new and enlarged sources of relief, the Council 
are strong in this conviction — a conviction based upon eight 
years’ practical experience — that the course which has 
been pursued is the safest and the best for all the prac- 
tical purposes for which this charity was called into exist- 
ence ny its excellent founder. The Institution now 
stands on a solid foundation, and may take a foremost 
place amongst those which adorn and dignify this country. 
During the past year fifteen pensioners have been placed on the 
books of the Institution, making up the total number since the 
first election to one hundred and six. The financial position 


of the Institution is not less gratifying. The donations 
and subscriptions amounted to £4,860 17*. lid., being 
£960 13s. 2d. in excess of the previous year. In addition to 
the balance of £621 9s. 4d., £607 10s. have been received from 
dividends, making the total receipts of the year £5,979 Os. Gd., 
of which £1,475 nave been paid to pensioners, and £2,768 15a. 
have been added to invested capital of the institution, leaving 
a credit balance at the bankers, after payment of all expenses, 
of £760 8s. 8d. 

Messrs. Johnson, Naish,Hndson,and Brown, retiring members 
of the Council, were re-elected, and Messrs. BeddnU, Baldwin, 
and Donald Niooll were elected in the room of Messrs. Bain, 
Rigden, and Sanday, who also retired by rotation. After 
some other formal proceedings, the Council proceeded to the 
election of pensioners. The following are tne names of the 
successful candidates : Male pensioners at £26 per annum — 
Edmund Painter, John Steel, Thomas Barnett, David 
Unthank, William Torvill, Charles Theedam, Joeiah Jerr&rd, 
and William Pinriey. Married pensioners at £40 per annum 
— Walter and Hannah Mansfield, Thomas and Hannah 
Hughes, and William aud Anderson Des Forges. Female 
pensioners at £20 per annum — Elizabeth Sandon, Jane Halls, 
Ann Harris, Ann Carter, Sarah Wheeler, Elisabeth Clarence, 
Sarah Brett, Mary Needham Brett, Arnndell King, Jane 
Haviland, Rebecca Davie, and Eliza Jones. The following 
orphan children were also admitted : Andrew Anscomb, Earl 

Louisa C. Qran^EhxjSeth Back, Ann C. Fell, AunEliza 
Adams, Elizabeth Beiliss, Sarah Polley, Kate Spencer, and 
Mary E. Hall. 

The thanks of the meeting were voted to Viscount Enfield, 
M.P., for his kindness in presiding at the anniversary of tha 
Institution, and to Mr. Shaw, the Secretary. 


STAFFORDSHIRE CHAMBER OF AGRICULTURE. 


A meeting of this Chamber was held on Saturday, Jane 13, 
at Stafford ; Mr. R. H. Masfen presided, and there were about 
twenty members present. The first business on the circular 
convening the meeting was as to “ the appointment of well- 
informed witnesses to give evidence before tne Home of Com- 
mons Select Committee upon the disadvantages of the present 
system of county finance, and as to the best machinery for es- 
tablishing a representative control of the expenditure.” 

The Chairman said he was rather at a loss to know whom 
to nominate to represent them on such a question. 

Mr. J. Neville (Haaelour) said that so far as this county 
was concerned they had reason to be satisfied, the financial 
board being composed of thorough business men who would 
not allow any unnecessary expenditure of the funds over which 
they had control. But there were many counties which were 
not so well represented, and the funds of which were not so 
well managed ; and as the principle propounded was a good 
one, that Chamber ought to assist in obtaining such a mea- 
sure as was thought desirable to improve the working of the 
present wstem. 

Mr. Mat expressed a similar opinion. Though he did not 
think there was any unnecessary or wasteful expenditure of 
the finances of this county, he considered that they ought to 
be ready to assist others who were not so favourably circum- 
stanced. He suggested that they should request Mr. Startin, 
of Exhall, near Coventry, to give evidence before the commit- 
tee. Mr. Startin was a gentleman weU-aoquainted with finan- 
cial matters, and a short time ago he read a very excellent 
paper on “The Rating Question” at the meeting of the 
Midland Farmers' Clnb, at Birmingham. Very probably Mr. 
Startin might be nominated by the Warwickshire Chamber, 
bat even if he was it wonld be strengthening his hands if 
nominated to represent this Chamber as well. 

The Chairman referred with disapprobation to the course 


which he said had been taken by the magistrates with refer- 
ence to the dissolution of the Barton Highway District. 
When the ratepayers petitioned the magistrates to allow the 
district to be dissolved, the magistrates wonld not listen to 
them. The subject was brought forward a second time, and 
with a similar result, although no magistrate in the Burton 
district would second Mr. Bass's amendment in opposition to 
Mr. Lyon’s motion. 

Mr. May said the Chairman was in error. The magistrates 
at the last Quarter Sessions granted, by a majority of 21 to 
10, a provisional order, which was all they could do. 

Mr. May’s suggestion was agreed to, and the Secretary was 
instructed to wnte to Mr. Startin to know whether he would 
consent to represent the Chamber. 

The next business on the programme was to appoint a malt- 
ster, brewer, or other person of the consuming interest, to give 
evidence in favour of the repeal or transference of the malt 
duty. 

Mr. Mat remarked that they should endeavour to select 
some gentleman who was not only practically acquainted with 
the subject, but who, being in an extensive way of business, 
wonld carry tome weight and influence with him in whatever 
evidence he might give. It was pretty evident that the 
Government wonld not sacrifice the revenue arising from the 
tax altogether, amounting as it did to six millions annually, 
and he thought the aim of the committee wonld be to transfer 
the tax from malt to beer. They wanted some one, therefore, 
who would give evidence favounhle to soph a transfer, and he 
did not imagine that the brewers as a class were so favourable. 

Mr. Neville said they were decidedly un&vqurable. 

The names of several gentlemen were npntioned, and 
amongst the rest that of Mr. M. T. Base, but at the same 
time an opinion was expressed that he would he opposed to 
the transfer of the tax from malt to beer. It was decided that 


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THE FABMEB’S MAGAZINE. 


77 


tk Secretary should write to Hr. Bus and inquire what hia The Chairman and Mr. Pxrry said the subject referred to 
news were on the natter, and that in can they were favour* was the great question of the day, so far as the agricultural 
able he should be asked to five evidence. interest was concerned. 

Attention was nest called to a public meeting proposed to Mr. Nzvillx hoped that at the meeting referred to the 
be held at Leicester, on the Friday of the show week, of the question would be taken up in an earnest manner, for one ex- 
ns m b cr s as of the various chambers of agriculture, one of the pense after another was being thrown upon the rates, and 
ntgects for discussion being, “ The Pressure of Local Taxa- there was only one species of property that could bear the 
tioa upon Beal Property” burden. 


FOBEIGN AGBIOULT U BAL GOSSIP. 


The Hohenheim Agricultural Institute in Wurtemberghas 
just celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of its foundation. Herr 
yon Goether presided over this celebration, which collected an 
imposing number of old pupils of the Academy, among whom 
were 203 Wurtembergers, 10 from North Germany, 7 Aus- 
trians, 5 Bavarians, 4 Swiss, 1 Russian, 7 from Baden, and 2 
representatives of the new world. After the songs, without 
which no f&e would be complete in Germany, and after the 
customary speeches and felicitations, when the pupils had wel- 
comed those who had preceded them in their career, and when 
the c ompany assembled had visited the workshops and collec- 
tions, the sound of a gong gave the signal for a dejeuner ^ 
which was served on the terrace before the ch&teau. Neither 
the King nor the Academy of Hohenheim nor its director 
Herr von Werner was forgotten in the toasts which termi- 
nated the repast ; and Herr von Goether was not the least 
sppUadcd of the orators when he assured the joyous meeting 
that all plans for the extension and improvement of the old 
and celebrated institute would meet at his hands, as a minister, 
with a reception all the more sympathetic, as he was sure 
beforehand of the agreement and gooa-will of the King. This 
good-will was, indeed, proved by the presence of his Majesty, who, 
accompanied by the Queen, arrived subsequently, and caused to 
be presented to him some of the foreigners who “ assisted” at 
the interesting agricultural jubilee, and then proceeded to 
the trial field, where a reaping machine and other apparatus 
were tried before him. This unexpected visit was greeted 
with enthusiasm by those present, who sainted the royal 
eonple with much applause, since they saw in this act of good 
taste a proof of direct interest and effective solicitude for the 
first and most ancient establishment devoted to agricultural 
instruction in Germany. — By a contrast which has excited 
regret among French agriculturists, the Grignon school has 
not been able to celebrate its fortieth anniversary in so 
striking a manner; and notwithstanding the splendour of 
its part, its alow re-organization for the future and its 
half existence in the present are subjects of grief 
smoug those devoted to the progress of agriculture. — In 
Bohemia, questions relating to the organization of exhibitions 
and agricultural instruction are exciting but little interest at 
present, the whole attention of proprietors ' and fanners being 
directed to the cultivation of beet-root and to manufactories of 
indigenous sugar, which, according to a local expression, come 
«p literally like mushrooms. In some localities where habita- 
tions made themselves remarked neither by their number nor 
by their importance, and where cultivation might even pass as 
negligent, persons travelling are now much surprised to per- 
ceive fields of beet-root of a very fine appearance and great 
vorks, the high chimneys of which command general atten- 
tion. These results are due iu great part to the development 
of the spirit of association, as the majority of these enterprises 
are constituted by shares, and among the principal persons in- 
terested are landed proprietors, who have undertaken at the 
*amt time to devote a certain portion of their land to the cul- 
tivation of beet-root. It was important also to assure the co- 
operation of small cultivators, and with this object associated 
manufacturers have concluded with such persons contracts 
which, for the season of 1868, fix the price of beet-root deli- 
vered at the works at la. 3d. per ewt., roots from marshy lauds 
bring excluded. This fixed pnee assures the producer from all 
eventualities ; but it is further stipulated that in case, in the 
months of October, November, and December, the price of 
mixed sugar should be quoted on the Prague market above 
3011., the sum paid to cultivators shall be slightly increased. 
Bat manufacturers do not content themselves with associating 


cultivators, to some extent, with them in their profits : they 
also make advances to them of money, without interest, in 
proportion to the quantity of land cultivated with beet-root : 
these advances are made to the extent of £3 10s. per acre. 
The refuse left from the beet-root after treatment is also sup- 
plied to cultivators formanurial purposes, the charge made 
Being deducted from the price paid for the raw material de- 
livered. Finally, transport indemnities, calculated accord- 
ing to the distance of forms from manufactories, 
are granted to producers. These indemnities are pay- 
able in money or in refuse at the pleasure of those 
entitled to them. These are advantages which deserve to be 
taken into serious consideration ; but some persons look back 
and affect to regret the time when the proprietors of large 
forms sold their beetroot on better terms than at present. Bnt, 
if the present state of things is not so good for some, it pre- 
sents an improvement for the majority; and it cannot be 
doubted that sugar-producing industry has become a real 
source of prosperity for the agriculture of Bohemia. — June is 
the month for the meetings and exhibitions of French agri- 
cultural commissions, and at all the meetings lately held the 
new Society of Agriculturists of France has evoked sympathetic 
adhesions. “Instruct yourselves; make an interchange of 
your ideas,” said the Viacomte Cormedet to the Chenerailles 
Committee; “there is the principal advantage of meetings 
like ours — in seeing, you learn to ao better ; in meeting each 
other, you can take concert with each other — and thus the 
wants and aspirations of agriculture can be declared, expressed, 
and summed up. Moved by this thought, a certain number 
of eminent agriculturists — some of whom honour me with their 
friendship — nave sought to found at Paris a vast association, 
which forms French agriculturists into a living and compact 
body. Your president — whom I applaud on finding him here 
in his old place— and myself have been among tue first to 
welcome an idea which seems to ns likely to be attended with 
fruitful results, and which now comprises nearly 1,200 ad- 
herents. Under the presidency of one of our statesmen, who 
disdains not in his leisure hours to occupy himself with agri- 
culture — I mean M. Drouyn de Lhuys — this vast society, 
divided into several sections, will assemble every year at Pans, 
in order to discuss the interests of agriculture, and to affirm 
and defend them if necessary. This will be, in fact, a Parlia- 
ment for our agriculturists.” At a meeting of the Chfiteau 
Thierry Committee, the president, M. de TUlanconrt, deputy 
to the Corps L6gi*Udif % spoke to the same effect. A special 
exhibition of mowing and reaping machines, held by the Meaux 
Committee, was also an occasion for bidding welcome to the 
new association. We should note, in passing, that the jury of 
the Meaux competition awarded the first prue to the mowing 
machine of M. Lallier ; that of Wood, exhibited by M. Peltier, 
less fortunate than at Senlis, was classed in the second rank. 
A machine of smaller dimensions, on Wood’s system, modi- 
fied by M. Peltier, worked separately: The jury was very well 
satisfied with its manner of working, and awarded it a first 

S rize of £16. — The annual exhibition of the Committee of the 
eine-et-Oise was held on the lands of the form of St. Ger- 
main-les-Corbeil, belonging to M. Darblay, jeune, and culti- 
vated by M. Renard. The committee more than fulfilled its 
programme by organizing a very fine horticultural exhibition, 
and instituting steam ploughing trials, which proved perfectly 
successful. One of Fowler’s apparatus, belonging to M. 
Decanville, of Petit-Bourg, was worked during the day. On 
the report of M. Lucien Rousseau, of Angerville — who did 
not allow the occasion to escape him of rendering homage to 
the idea which originated the Society of Agriculturists of 


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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


France— the prize of honour of the committee was awarded to 
M. Dados, of MaroUea-en^Brie. A banquet of 600 coven 
terminated the fete. Toasts were proposed — by M. Darblay, 
to the Emperor ; by M. Boeelli, Prefect of the Seine-et-Oise, 
to Agriculture ; and by M. F&ay, of Eseonnes, to Agricultural 
Associations. All these toasts were warmly applauded ; but 
what took the fancy of the meeting most was a humorous and 
forcible, although hastily 'improvised, speech of M. Victor 
Borie, editor in chief of the “ Echo Agricole.” “ I do not 
wish,” said M. Borie, “ to raise complaints against any one ; 
it has been the same from all time ana under all Governments, 
but it is a fact of which Agriculture is not proud, that while 
our war budget is £16,000,000 our agricultural budget is but 
£160,000. Some days since there assembled at Pans a body 


composed of honourable men, belonging to all retigious beliefs 
and all opinions : this was the Peace League. The members 
of this Peace League are very brave men, who have the good- 
ness to believe that you can make men very happy without 
shooting them. Well, I think like them, and we all think 
like them. What is the Agricultural Committee of the 8eine- 
et-Oise bnt a league of peace and a league against misery and 
famine P And what is this new Society of Agriculturists of 
France, of which we have heard, hut a league of all agricul- 
turists to render the soil fruitful and combat misery and 
famine P . . . Make roads ; they are a veritable encou- 
ragement of Agriculture. Found some cannons the less, and 
make roads ; manufacture some chassepots the leu, and make 
roads— roads, and still roads.” 


CALENDAR OF AGRICULTURE. 


Finish the sowing of turnips, as directed last 
month. In the eastern counties, turnips sown in 
in this month escape the fly better than in Jane, 
the insect being not so prevalent as in the former 
month, and the plants are less liable to be mildewed. 
Horse and hand-hoe potatoes, mangold wurzel, and 
the earliest sown Swedish turnips. Those plants 
growing on lands with stiff under-soils are best 
ploughed in the intervals of the drills by the 
miniature plough of wood or iron. The narrow- 
pointed share with one wing pierces the subsoil more 
effectually than the duck-footed share, raises fresh 
soil to be scarified by the light implement with two 
knives, with the power of one horse for both opera- 
tions. The hana-hoeings are done betwixt the 
scufflings, loosening the soil between the plants, and 
cutting all weeds that escape the ploughings. The 
single plough requires more time than the double- 
kmved scufflers ; Dut the work is better performed ; 
and true economy consists not in getting things 
cheaply done, but in getting them well done. The 
processes are repeated till no weeds appear, and the 
land is completely fallowed, with nothing growing on 
it except wnat is sown or planted for crops, exhi- 
biting a true specimen of the cultivation of land. 
The young plants derive much benefit from the 
frequent stirrings of the intervals of the drills, and 
most in dry weather: it causes evaporation of 
moisture, which is imbibed by the leaves. Tall 
weeds are pulled by hand, if any rise after last 
scuffling ana hoeing. 

Clay Tallows for wheat are prepared by ploughing, 
harrowing, and rolling; and after each earth of 
cultivation the weeds and stones are picked by hand 
and removed from the ground. The dung and lime 
intended to be applied to the land are prepared and 
brought forward. 

Draining of wet lands is done with the greatest 
neatness and cleanliness on a surface of grass, as the 
turf is present to cover the stones or tiles, and the 
surface is not puddled as on arable lands in wet 
weather. The proper direction of the drains must 
be marked out in winter, when every wetness shows 
itself. The drains may be dug to the required 
depth beforehand, ana the bottoms only to be 
cleaned when the cavities are filled, the turf inverted 
on the materials, and the excavated earth replaced 
in the drain. On fallow lands the drains must be 
excavated, filled with the stones or tiles, the covering 


laid on these materials, and the loose soil placed over 
all, with much force, not to impede the working of 
the land. 

Wean the latest lambs, and place them on the 
best pastures. Put mares to the stallion regularly. 

Attend that the pasture fields have a supply of 
water, and that no gaps are continued in the fences 
of the fields, and that no dilapidated or awkward 
moving gates are seen to mark a slovenly manage- 
ment ana a careless profession. 

The sheep flocks will require attention. Protect 
by the contents of the dredging box the deposit of 
the eggs of the maggot-fly on the body of the 
animals. Dress clean the posterior parte of the 
animal from the adhesions or the excrements. 

The corners of all pasture fields, both natural and 
artificial, which includes the whole farm, are very 
usefully widely planted with trees of spreading 
branches, as beech, ash, and sycamore, to afford shelter 
to cattle and sheep from heavy rains and scorching 
heats, and coolness in hot seasons. In arable lands, 
the corners of plantations may be extended to a 
circle, which the plough go round without turning 
at the comers, and thus relieve an inconvenience. 
Shelter-sheds for cattle may be placed in the sub- 
division fences, with a roof sloping into each, with 
a central height of 15 feet, a froqt height of 6 or 
7 feet, and a bottom width of 12 or 14s feet. Per- 
manent pastures should have these provisions as a 
necessary furniture. Sheep are mnen benefited by 
small thatched cots in the comers of the fields, 5 
or 6 feet in the central height, 4 feet in front, and 
about 5 feet wide. These provisions are very useful 
pi any localities of a high or low elevation. 

Hay harvest will be general during this month. 
Dry the herbage in two or three days, by alternate 
tedding and cocking ; build it into long staeks, lay 
it lightly together, and allow it to settle by its own 
weight. It is a mistake to tread the herbage firmly 
together. Pull nothing from the sides of the ricks 
tiff well settled ; then dress it into any form, and 
thatch it without delay. A scaffold of boards is 
raised to pitch the hay to a high rick. When the 
hay is damaged by rains, mix salt in the rick, as 
directed last month. A tarpaulin doth will cover 
the stack from rains, when the building is inter- 
rupted, and removed in dry intervals to allow the 
escape of the gaseous evaporations. A light sail- 
cloth will defend day showers, suspended from a 


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tHB FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


?9 


tone passing along the rick, fastened to an upright 
pole at each end, and raised and lowered by pulleys. 

Com harvest will commence this month m early 
localities with the most forward grains. Early peas. 
Harley, and rye will be cut first. Tie the barley ana 
rye into sheaves, to be placed in shocks of twelve 
together; lay the peas in small heaps, and turn them 
frequently. Carry the grains quickly when dry, to 
be lodged in barns in a clean readiness, or built into 
ricks on stands of stone ready in position, or on the 
ground with straw spread beneath. 

'Vetches are now the green food of the farm. 
Cut the herbage fresh in the forenoon for daily use, 
for maintaining the work-horses, the milch cows in 
the yards and sheds in the evening feed ; the sheep 
consuming the crop on the ground, or cut into 


troughs along with oats and cake for being fattened. 
This most valuable plant admits a large application 
in affording a most nutritious green food to all the 
animals of the farm— horses, cattle, sheep, and 
swine, and in acting as a smothering crop on the 
land, covering the surface, killing all weeas, and in 
mellowing the surface of the ground into a moist 
and clammy state of fertility. The crop must be 
thick on the ground, from tluck-sowing of seed, and 
a careful heavy rolling of the land in the young con- 
dition of the plants, m order to lock with a key the 
moisture that is in the ground and what may fall 
from the heavens for future use. The vetoh in the 
winter and spring varieties form the green food of 
the farm for lour months of the year, and demand a 
much larger attention than has been yet bestowed. 


CALENDAR OF GARDENING. 


Kitchen Garden. 

Sow peas of anv short kinds in the earliest days 
of the month, and again soon after : the crop may 
be fine, and therefore acceptable in September. 
Sow endive twice in the month, from the 8th to 
12th, and from 20th to 25th. Plant kidney beans, 
French beans, and scarlet runners ; round-leaved 
spinach early, and the winter, or prickly sort, in 
tbe latter and of the month. Sow lettuce, radiah, 
and a large succession of turnips in the red and 
white varieties ; early Dutch, white, and yellow, to 
come in late in the year and through winter. 

After the second week, sow cabbage seeds, York 
and Varack, for colewort s, called “greens,” one of 
the sweetest of spring vegetables ; and at the close 
of the month, in some situations, for early hearting 
spring cabbages. Sow small saladings as may he 
required, as carrots and onions, to be drawn young, 
and, on poorish land, a few of the large bulbers to 
stand the winter, and subsequently to be trans- 
planted for an autumn crop. 

Transplant celery, the last crop : it must he care- 
fully earthed op ; and in doing this for the first and 
second rimes, nbld each plant compactly with oue 
hand, while the other applies fine earth dose around 
the lower part of the leaves, hut not so high as the 
growing heart. Give water copiously dong the 
trenches, if the weather he dry, for the first good 
stand is most important. 

Transplant broccoli at various times for early and 
later spring supply, choosing, if possible, a moist 
state of soil ; otherwise, if the weather he dry, every 
hole must be filled with water. The ground should 
be rich in nitrogenous manure ; and therefore tome 
soet, mixed up with spit dung, would be usefal, as 
k contsins salts of ammonia. May '•sown cauliflower 
may be treated in the same manner. 

Tra n sp lan t leeks ; dig and manure richly a plot 
for a row or two, and uae with the dung 2 oz. of 
sulphate of ammonia to the small barrow. Very 
prime guano, to the extent of a pint to the same 
balk, would comprise phosphates of ammonia and 
of lime, several ammoniacal and nitrogenous com- 
pounds, common salt, and neutral sulphate to the 
soil. It is the comprehensiveness of pure guano 


which stamps its value, and therefore it should 
always be added to the less powerful manures as a 
restorative. In planting leeks, make deep case- 
like holes, and drop therein, applying water in a 
small stream, so as to fix the roots of each. 

Transplant vegetable-marrow and cucumbers 
already raised in heat. Dig a hole for each in a 
warm open spot of ground ; put in a barrow or 
more of leafy, rich manure, and cover it with some 
light rich soil ; plant, water, and cover with hand- 
glasses till growth be established, and then gradually 
train oat the runners. Stop the points occasionally 
to obtain laterals. 

Propagate herbs by slips. Collect camomile 
flowers. 

At all seasons, and under most circumstances, 
while crops are growing, the following are required 
to be done : Stick and top peas, also kidney and 
broad beans ; earth-up legumes and potatoes ; peg 
down and train the regular advancing shoots of 
vegetable-marrow, gourds, and cucumbers; hoe 
and move the surface among crops; give weak 
guano- water to plants of the cabbage family. 
These directions are not many, nor any way ex- 
pensive. 

Fruit Department. 

In the end of the month, plum and cherry-trees 
may be trained in the best placed shoots ; apple 
and pear-trees next month. Budding is now per- 
formed with wall-fruit, and will succeed if done 
adroitly, by always recollecting that both stock and 
scion be in a moist condition, when the hark 
detaches freely from the wood. Success depends 
upon attraction between the vital organise ble juicy 
membrane, which exudes, or is deposited between 
the yearling wood and the inner bark. The bark 
must rise freely, owing to the exudation of the 
proper juice between the new wood and the bark. 
If the operation be timely and skilfully performed, 
the fluids attract each other, solidify, and cause a 
union between the secreting surfaces. The art may 
be learned by watching the operations of a jobbing 
gardener or workman, which are found in most 
country places, and are occasionally employed by 
farmers of the higher grade to perform the upper 


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80 THE FABMBftS MA GAEINE. 


works of the garden. To these persons the above 
directions can only apply. 

Lay strawberries at the first joint into small 
pots of free loam. They will root speedily in moist 
weather, or if watered when dry. 

Flower Garden. 

Roses are budded by the rules that have been 
given for fruit-trees. The largest plants must be 
chosen in health and strength, and which are 
judged, from appearance, to contain the juices in 
abundance. Experience will soon enable to judge 
these appearances, and also perform the dissection 
with skill and utility. It is a very pleasing and 
instructive employment. 

Keep all parterres, flower borders, lawns, walks, 
and shrubberies in neat order, free from weeds, 
and duly regulated. 

The collection of manure for the kitchen garden 
claims a chief attention, as no articles need be 
imported as auxiliaries, guano-water being onlv 
recommended for some broad-leafed plants. All 


lands in farm or garden cultivation should maintain 
its own fertility— light lands of sands, downs, and 
commons excepted — for green food and sheep food. 
The garden requires a liquid pit of brick and 
cement, to contain every vegetable and earthy 
refuse, cattle droppings, and all large weeds cut 
into short lengths, saturated with the soapy waters 
and urinary liquids of the dwelling-houses, all 
carefully preserved for the special purpose. A dry 
compost-heap may be added of hme and all 
earthy bodies, to make a change of manure. The 
water-closets to hold the excrements in box on 
wheels, to roll backwards into an uncovered posi- 
tion, in which to receive fine earths as a mixture, 
to absorb the moisture, and kill the odour, and 
from which the contents are lifted for use. One 
or two common privies will collect on the largest 
farms, the farm dwelling being always separate. 
These three sources will supply most amply every 
demand for manure, all gathered bn the fawn, at 
little expense, and not by any extra trouble or 
interference. 


AGRICULTURAL REPORTS. 


General agricultural report for June. 

In the early part of the month, a severe drought was ex- 
perienced throughout the country. It enabled the hay-makers 
to complete their operations at an early period ; but it com- 
pletely parched up the crops in many districts. The wheats 
upon light soils have suffered to some extent, and it is anti- 
cipated that their yield will Call short of previous expectations. 
Upon strong lands, however, very little damage has been sus- 
tained. It is hoped, therefore, that the entire crop will come 
up to a fair average. The barley and oat crops will, we appre- 
hend, fall short of last season, owing to the want of an 
adequate supply of moisture. Beans and peas, however, are 
likely to yield well. 

Owing, chiefly, to the rapidly diminishing stocks held by 
our farmers, very small supplies of English wheat have been 
brought forward during the month. The millers have, there- 
fore, been compelled to pay an advance of 2s. per qr. from 
the lowest point, and very little disposition has been shown to 
force sales by the importing houses. As far as we can judge, 
the value of both English and foreign wheat will be supported 
for several months. The sale for barley and oats has been 
very inactive, on easier terms, and at Mark Lane the top 
price of flour has fallen 4s., or to 60s. per 280 lb. We have 
very little change to notice in the value of either beans or 
peas : for the most part, tales have been wholly in retail. 

In the forward districts, nearly the whole of the crop of 
hay has been secured in very fine condition. The quantity, 
however, is considerably less than last year ; but there is 
every prospect of a heavy second crop. In the metropolitan 
markets new meadow hay has sold at from 80s. to 80s., 
old 70s. to 96s., clover 70s. to 110s., and straw 80s, to 30s. 
per load. 


The reports from the plantations, in reference to the 
appearance of the hop bine, are favomable. For the molt 
part, fly is scarce, and the burr promises well ; indeed, it i» 
supposed that the crop will be unusually large and of fae 
quality. On the continent the bine looks remarkably well. 
The sale for hops in the Borough has been much restricted, 
and the quotations have bad a drooping tendency. 

The scanty supply of moisture has retarded the progress of 
the potato crop. Very few complaints respecting disease hate 
reached us, and most of our correspondents agree in stating 
that there is every prospect of a large growth. Very few 
potatoes have been brought forward ; but new qualities hate 
sold at from 6s. to 12s. per cwt. 

The colonial wool sales held in London have been brought 
to a conclusion at one time, owing to the large quantities of 
wool taken by continental booses ; prices showed in sdtancs 
of id. to l|d. per lb., compared with the March sales ; bat, 
prior to the dose, that improvement was lost. Considering 
that over 200,000 bales were brought forward, it is surprising 
that the quotations were so wdl supported. 

The drought has had a most prejudicial effect upon the beet 
and turnip crops. In some counties they are partly destroyed* 
and it is believed that even the late flne showers will not 
improve them to any extent. 

There has been a moderate demand for most kinds of 
produce in the Scotch markets, and prioes generally have been 
well supported. The country has suffered much from the fete 
dry weather. 

Very small supplies of wheat have been exhibited in the 
Irish markets. The demand has fallen off ; yet prices hirt 
been well supported. The island has been visited with copioW 
showers of rain, which have greatly improved the appearing 
of vegetation. 


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. THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


81 


REVIEW OF THE CATTLE TRADE DURING THE 
PAST MONTH. 


Owing to the serious drought experienced in the early part 
of the month, the supply of rood in the pastures has fallen off 
lonsiderahlj. Many of the graziers nave, therefore, been 
compelled to withdraw their stock, and the consumption of 
food has fallen partly noon hay. This has led to an increased 
mpply of beasts in onr leading markets, and to much inactivity 
ia the demand for most breeds. The fluctuations in prices 
have as a consequence been somewhat extensive. At one 
period, the best Scots and crosses sold at 4e. 8d. ; bnt, owing 
to the limited quantities of dead meat on sale in Newgate and 
Te a deaVn l l , the quotation lias since advanced to 5s. per 81bs. 

The numbers of sheep brought forward havs been exten- 
sive ; but we have observed a falling off in their general 
weight and condition. Although a good business has been 
doing, the rates have fluctuated. The best Downs and half- 
bred? have ranged from 4s. 8d. to 5s. per 81bs. 

Lambs have come freely to hand. The demand has fallen 
off. and the leading quotations have been 5s. 6d. to 6s. 6d. per 
8 lbs. 

We have very little change to notice in the value of calves. 
Prices may be quoted at from 3s. 8d. to 5s. 2d. per 8 lbs. Pair 
average numbers have been brought forward. 

The best small pigs have supported previous rates, with a 
ftir demand ; but inferior pigs have sola heavily. 'Hie former 
have changed hands at from 3s. lOd. to 4s. 4d., the latter 
Ss- 4d. to 3s. 8d. per 8 lbs. 

The following figures shew the total supplies of stock exhi- 
bited in the Metropolitan Cattle Market during the month : — 

Head. 

Beasts 19,650 

Sheep and Lambs 177,690 

Calves ... «*• in 2,875 

Kgs 1,480 

COMTAKISON OF SUFFLIIS. 


June. 



Sheep. 



Beasts. 

Cows. 

and Lambs. 

Calves. 

Pigs. 

3,280 

1864 ... 

... 25,890 

550 

138,450 

2,786 

1865 ... 

... 24,050 

646 

165,720 

4,278 

3,210 

1866 ... 

... 18,820 

130 

139,880 

1,864 

1,782 

1867 ... 

... 16,270 

120 

146,650 

2,600 

2,048 

The comparison of the arrivals of English, Scotch, and Irish 
beasts it as under : — 


From— 

Jane. 

1866. 

Jane. 

1867. 

June. 

1868. 

Norfolk, Suffolk, 4c. .. 

9,000 

5,570 

9,000 

Lincolnshire 

— 

400 

370 

Other parts of England. 

1,930 

2,240 

1,920 

Scotland 

59 

737 

97 

Ireland 

20 

20 

220 


The imports of foreign stock into London were as follows: — 


Beasts 

Sheep and Lambs 

Calves 

Kg. 


Head. 

5,827 

16,849 

1,910 

669 


Total 24,655 


Total in June, 

n 

tt 


»t 

»t 


1867 

1866 

1865 

1864 

1863 

1862 

1861 


48,508 

47,425 

61,935 

38,029 

30,059 

22,841 

32,751 


From the above comparison it will he seen that the imports 
of foreign stock are falling off considerably, notwithstanding 
that prices continue remunerative. We learn, however, that 
on many parts of the continent both beasts and sheep are 
higher in price than in En gland . Whilst high quotations con- 
tinue abroad, we can hardly anticipate any important increase 
in the importations. 

Beef has sold at from 3s. to 5s. ; mutton, 3s. to 5s. ; lamb, 
6s. 6d~ to 6s. 6d. ; veal, 3s. 8d. to 5s. 2d. ; pork, 3s. 4d. to 4s. 
2d. per 8 lbs. to link the offal. 


Com* jdusoN of Pkicxs. 



June, 1864. 

June, 1865. 


s. d. s. d. 

s. d. s. d. 

Beef from .... 

... 3 4 to 5 0 .. 

. 3 6 to 5 2 

Mutton 

... 3 6 

5 2.. 

. 4 4 

6 4 

Lamb 

..6 0 

7 0.. 

. 6 0 

7 8 

Veal 

... 4 0 

5 0 . 

..4 0 

5 4 

Pork 

..3 6 

4 0.. 

. 3 6 

4 10 


June, 1866. 

June, 1867. 


s. d. s. d. 

s. d. s. d. 

Beef from .... 

.. 3 10 to 6 0 .. 

. 3 4 to 6 6 

Matton 

... 4 0 

6 0.. 

. 3 8 

5 4 

Lamb 

... 6 8 

8 0 . 

..6 0 7 0 

Veal 

..5 4 

6 4.. 

. 4 0 

5 6 

Pork 

..4 0 

5 2.. 

. 3 4 

4 6 


Scarcely any foreign meat has been on sale in Newgate and 
Leadenhail ; and the arrivals from Scotland and various parts 
of England have been on a limited scale. On the whole the 
trade has ruled steady. The leading quotations have been as 
follows : — Beef, from 3s. to 4s. 6d. ; mutton, 3s. 2d. to 4s. 8d. ; 
lamb, 4s. 6d. to 5s. 4d. ; veal, 3«. 6d. to 4s. 6d. ; and pork, 
3s. to 4s. 6d. per 81bs. by the carcase. 


WEST SUSSEX. 

The state of the growing cereal crops is now a matter of 
vast interest and importance. 1 see there are persons as last 
year who are telling the public of the grand appearance of the 
crops generally, bat I thmk these will turn oat as last year to 
be false prophets. In this division of the county, which has 
such variety of soils, my report mast have reference to locality. 
On the good land of the sea-coast I think the wheat crop is 
generally looking well, and with favourable weather will pro- 
duce a fair average yield. On the hills, except some pieces 
which have been tnin of plant all the winter, from the ravages 
of slug and wireworm, I believe the prospects are good. In 
the stiff land of the Weald I do not think appearances are in 
favour of an average. It is a question also whether on all 
soils the present unexampled weather (for the sun shines from 
morning till night) will not injure the crop, and bring on pre- 
mature ripeness. I know ola farmers say “ nothing like dry 
weather for wheat.’* I say so too, but this is rather beyond 
ordinary dry weather, and in addition we have now aparohing 
east wind. Barley and oats, except on the very lest soils 
and where got in very early, mast, I think, be short in straw 
and deficient in yield. In the clay lands of the Weald a large 
proportion of the oat crop will be a failure. All root crops 
most suffer from the present dry weather. Mangold wurzel 
came up badly, and swede turnips may be considered hitherto 
a failure. Both lean and fat stock are falling in price, and 
feed is becoming scarce. The hay crop, a very light one gene- 
rally, has been carried so far in capital order. -—June 19. 

AGRICULTURAL INTELLIGENCE, 
FAIRS, &c. 

BANBURY FORTNIGHTLY FAIR.— The demand for 
cattle was very slow ; and few sales were effected, even at a 
redaction on the prices of last market. The mutton trade 
was also doll, and the price obtained was about 4s. per stone. 

BANNOCKBURN FAIR drew together a large attendance 
of dealers and farmers from all parts of the country. The 
show of stock consisted principally of Ayrshire milch cows, 
grazing cattle of the sound, useful, and profitable breed, and 
several lots of calves and stirks from Ireland. The market 
opened flat for all descriptions of stock ; and the dnllness 
which so early indicated itself was not relieved as the day pro- 
gressed. For milch stock the sale was especially doll ; and 
the same remark is applicable to the Irish cattle. Home- 
bred animals for grazing purposes were easier gut quit of. In 
the horse fair there was a quiet sale for all kinds ; and at the 
finish of the market the want of customers was made apparent 
by the number of animals which remained unsold. From Ire- 
land there was a fair show of cob and harness-horses ; but a 
very dnll demand took place. The following were among the 
chief transactions: Mr. Potts purchased calving heifers at 
from £10 to £12. Mr. Crawford sold a lot of fonrteen 
Crosses at £5, and a lot of stots at £6 10s. Mr. Keir sold 


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82 


THU FARMER 1 8 MAGAZINE, 


calving queys at from £9 to £10, and milch cows at similar 
prices. Mr. Goodwin sold calving queys at from £7 to £9, 
milch cows at from £11 to £12 10a. Mr. Graham sold milch 
cows at from £10 to £14, fat oows at from £14 to £14 10s., 
and queys at £7 10a. Mr. MKScchie sold milch cows at from 
£10 to £15. Mr. Brock sold miloh cows at from £12 to 
£14. Mr. Liddell sold milch cows at from £14 to £14 10s. 
Mr. Waddell sold calving queys at £8, and milch oows at 
from £10 10s. to £13. Mr. Scott purchased milch cows at 
from £10 to £14. Mr. Yoill purchased draught-horses at 
from £28 to £30. Mr. Christie sold draught-horses at from 
£20 to £43. Mr. Walker sold draught-horses at from £20 to 
£35, and harness-horses at from £20 to £40. Other sales of 
a similar nature were recorded. 

BOEOUGHBEIDGE HORSE FAIR.— There was a good 
attendance of both local and foreign buyers. First-class 
hunters and roadsters still continue to keep an upward ten- 
dency, and the best descriptions were readily sold. A poor 
show of cab and trap horses, but they had good sale. The best 
draught horses for town purposes went at paying figures, but 
other descriptions, which were abundant, went at very irregular 
prices. 

BOSTON SHEEP MARKET. — There was a fair supply of 
fat sheep at market ; but, the demand being small, trade was 
dull, at from 5d. to 6d. per lb. 

BRADFORD FAIR. — There was quite an average show of 
horned cattle ; but the continuance of drought had an adverse 
influence on business, and prices had a drooping tendency. 
The quotations for milch cows ranged from £12 to £21 each, 
and for geld cows from about £9 to £16 each. Stock of the 
choicest quality, and commanding the best prices, were in fair 
demand; but this was quite an exceptional feature in the 
market. The chief business done was in good draught- 
horses, which were scanty in number, and commanded good 
prices. 

DROIT WICII FAIR was well attended. There was a 
larger quantity of stock for sale than on several previous 
summer fain; but the business transacted was somewhat 
limited. The prices may be fairly quoted as follows : Beef 7d. 
to 7|d., mutton 6£d. to 7d., lamb 8d. 

LEDBURY FAIR was rather a small one, except iu regard 
to store sheep, of which there were a good number. Fat sheep 
were scarce. Stock for the most part were somewhat lower ; 
dealers not numerous. Beef sola at 7d. to 7fd«, mutton 
(wethero) 6d. to 7d., fat ewes 6d. The pig trade was brisker. 

MENHENIOT MARKET. — A large number of cattle were 
offered for sale. Fat bullocks realized from £3 6s. to £3 10s., 
per cwt., but there was not a brisk sale. There was n good 
supply of neat Devon store steersjwhich, from the plentiful 
supply of grass, realized good prices. There was a small 
supply of sheep and lambs. Shearing sheep 6 Id. per lb., in 
the wool 8d. per lb., lambs about 8^3. per ib. There was a 

S lentiful supply of cows and calves, the prices of which had a 
ownward tendency. 

NEWARK FAT STOCK MARKET.— A good supply of 
both beasts and sheep, and a fair number of buyers ; but trade 
was slow, and sellen were obliged to give way in favour of 

P urchasers before sales could be effected. Beef ranged from 
s. 6d. to 8s. 6d., the hulk being sold at 8s. Sheep 5£d. to 
6d. per lb. Lamb 21s. to 25s. each. 

NEWTON - STEWART MARKET. — Business opened 
stiffly, the recent fall in the price of sheep having a visible 
effect on this market. Holders of stock in many instances 
would have been content with the current figures of last mar- 
ket, but buyers were offering from five to ten per cent, less ; 
consequently, trade ruled very heavy. Three-year-olds ranged 
from £10 to £12 each, two-year-olds £7 7s. to £9 9s., storks 
from £3 to £5. A few left unsold. 

ROSLEY HILL FAIR. — Horses in great numbers were 
brought for sale, and there was no lade of buyers. The con- 
dition of the horses was good, though of course liberally in- 
terspersed with inferior nags. Anything really good was quickly 
picked up at a very good price ; and, indeed, good prices might 
he quoted for all classes. A good business was done all 
through the day. Prices for the best dass shown ranged 
from £30 to £50, other classes coming down according to 
merit. 

ST. AUSTELL MONTHLY MARKET was well attended 
both with buyers and sellers, and many good bargains were 
made. Fat cattle sold at from £3 0s. to £3 10s. per cwt. 


SOUTHMOLTQN FAIR.— There wefe pot aamanybulloob 
exhibited as previous to the outbreak of the cattle-plague, & 
good deal of business being now done at the homes of the 
bleeders. Fat bullocks sold well, and were eagerly bought at 
128. 6d. per score. One prime lot sold at 13s. per score, but 
those were the best in the fair. Cows and calves were dear, 
so were young bullocks and steers, a pair of the latter fetching 
£30. There was about the usual number of sheen penned ; 
ewes 6d., wethers 61d. to 7d. per IK, with a rather slack sale. 

STOFORD FAIR suffered in two ways— from the prevail- 
ing dry weather, many fanners being in the midst of their hay- 
harvest, and those who attended being rather apprehensive 
about the keep. The sale consequently, on the whole, was 
dull. Considering the length of time that the fair has been 
closed, there was a large quantity of fat beasts and yearlings, 
the best beef moving off at 12s. & score. Yearlings druggish. 
An average number of sheep, which we quote— ewes 30s. to 
48s., lamo 18s. to 27s. 

^TARBOLTON FAIR.— There was a large display of stock, 
entirely composed of Ayrshire cattle. There was a rood at- 
tendance of dealers and others. The market proved a dull 
and sluggish one, and prices were back from recent district 
fairs. The prices of two-year-olds ranged from £4 to £7. of 
stirks from 30s. to £4, ana of calving cows from £9 to £18. 

TAUNTON FAIR. — Cattle were not so numerous as in 
years gone by. Good animals sold readily at the following 
prices : Fat beasts £16 to £27, store ditto £10 to £15, cows 
and calves £12 to £18, fat sheep 40s. to 47s., grazing ditto 
32s. to 39s., rams £6 to £14. Business in horses was very 
brisk ; the number was much larger than last year, and, taken 
as a whole, the quality superior, especially those for the 
road and for agricultural purposes. Hunters fetched £28 to 
£55, carriage horses £14 to £38, cart horses £10 to £30, 
hacks £10 to £26,ponie8 £9 to £18. 

THORNE FAIR. — The show of horses and beasts was 
above an average, bat very inferior in quality ; from £15 to 
£30 was abont the range of prices. For Irish calves £11 to 
£12 was asked, and small bullocks were sold at £5 15s. each. 
For English cattle the prices were higher ; but very few lots 
changed hands, good year-old heifers being from £8 10s. to 
£12, and calves £12 to £16. 

WORCESTER FAT STOCK MARKET. — Owing to the 
shortness of keep, there was a very large supply of stock 
brought to the market, and consequently prices were dnll, and 
in many cases much lower. Beef was £a. per lb. lower, snd 
mutton Id. to $ d. per lb. lower than last market. 

IRISH FAIRS.— Mullaghcrew : Prime specimens of bed 
went to fully 65s., second class from 56s. to 60s. per cwt, and 
third class from 48s. to 62s. 6d. per cwt. Tnree-year-oki 
heifers brought from £13 to £15 for those in best condition, 
two-year-olds from £9 to £11 10s., yearlings from £4 to £7 
each. Three-year-old bullocks from £12 to £16, the latter 
figure being obtained for a prime lot, two-year-olds from £8 
to £11, yearlings from £4 to £8. Young springers went from 
£15 to £17 10s. each, while inferior springers sad milkers 
rated from £9 to £12 10s. per head. There was an immense 
show of sheep and lambs, and busy buying tor shipment. 
Prices were, nevertheless, a shade lower than late fairs, from 
6 Id. to 6 Id. per lb. ware the quotations for wether mutton m 
the skin, ewes in proportion, lambs from 24s. to 30s. each, 
hoggets from 32s. to 38s. a-piece. The swine fair was well 
attended. Bacon rated from 61d. to 7d. per lb., still holding a 
smart price. Stores went from 40s. to 55s., and the weanling* 
from 16s. for the smallest to 24s. for the best. — N zwtowx* 
bajlry : Beef went up to 61s. per cwt. for prime animals; 
new milch cows and springers averaged £13 each, strippers 
sold from £8 to £11, three-year-old cattle from £10 to £1® 
each, two-year-old £9 to £10, yearlings £3 15s. to £6. Mut- 
ton sold from 5Jd. to 6Jd. per lb., hoggets from 80s. to 
lambs 19s. to 26s., frit pigs from 64s. to 57s. 6d. per cwt, 
stores varied from 34s. to 50s., slips from 15s. to 25a, boa- 
hams from 11s. to 16s.— Collar : Yearling bollocks and 
heifers rated at from £3 10s. to £6 6s. per head. Two and 
three-year-olds ranged from £7 to £13. First-rate mdchen 
and springers near the dropping realised from £13 to £15 Ifo 
per head, second and third ditto eight to eleven guinea* 
Young bulls were bought at from £6 to £10 10s. per head* 
Half-fat cows and strippers ranged from £12 5s. to £15 10 s * 
per head. Some prune ewes averaged 38a. per head, heap* 
and lambs 17s. to 30s., and mutton 3d. to OfA pm lb. Sand 


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ppm kishes and creel* went from Ids. to 28s. each, slips 
am stores 82s. to 40s. 

CORK BUTTER MARKET, (Friday last.)— Firsts 102*. 
tecoads 99s., thirds 92s., fourths 90s., fifths 77s., sixths 60s. ; 
nild cored— firsts 106s., seoonds 102., thirds 96s. Number 
is market, 1,590. 

GLASGOW CHEESE MARKET, (Wednesday last.)— 
The supply of cheese moderate, 630 having been laid down, 
diirfj new. To dear off some lota that were lying over, 
kw prices were taken. Business upon the whole slow. 
Aboot 18 tons sold. Old Cheddars 51s. to 57s., new ditto 
44s. to 49s., old Bunlops 48s. to 55s., new ditto 42s. to 45s., 
sew sldm-milk 21s. to 23s. 


THE HARTS IDE SALE. — A sale of stock at Hartside, 
in the Cheviots, took place on Friday, May 29, under the 
direction of Mr. Samuel Donkin. Upwards of 3,000 sheep 
tnd lambs were brought to the hammer , besi des horses, cattle, 
and other (arm stock. The sheep sales were the great feature 
of the auction, and the Greensides averaged as follows : — 
Young ewes and lambs £2 5b. 10d., four-year-old ewes 
& fa. Id., five-year-old ewes and lambs £2 Ss. The Hart- 
al three-year-old ewes £2 7s. 3d., four-year-old ewes 
£ fa. 3d., five-year-old ewes £2 os. 8d., gimmers £1 17s. 5d., 
eve hoggs £1 8s. 9d., wedder hoggs £1 2s. 4d., Dinmonts 
£1 12*. 24, old wedders £1 16s. ?d., tup hoggs £2 15s. 6d., 
old tups £2 4s. 5d. The competition was very keen. 

SHORTHORN SALE. — On Thursday, June 4, a draft of 
shorthorn dairying cattle, from the celebrated herd of Sir 
Curtis M. Lampson, of Rowfant, Sussex, were sold on his es- 
tate by Mr. Strafford. There was a large company present 
from various parts of the country, and several of the cattle 
ven purchased for foreign exportation. Among the principal 
loti sold were a roan much cow (Fancy) of known blood and 
from a prize family, to Mr. Roberts for £315, and the auc- 
tioneer remarked that this was the highest value ever re- 
coded for a cow in Sussex. A Yearling heifer, the produce of 
this cow, was purchased by Mr. Cheney for £152 5s., and a 
calf (now bnt two months old), from the same cow, realized 
Uk, to Mr. Sartons. Brunette, a milch cow, was sold 
to Mr. Bigg for £105. Mr. Tracey bought Hebe at £70 7s. : 
Mr. Akins took Nancy at £79 16s. ; and Mr. Downing hod 
niaress at £78 15s. ; two other yearling heifers fetched £81 
18s. ; and three other calves under four months of age pro- 
diced £69 6s. The sixteen dairying shorthorn cows realized 
“ average of £69 19s. each. The three heifers made an 
»enge of £78 4a. 6d., and the four calves brought the 
average of £30 9s. each, and the herd, consisting of 23 head 
cf cows, heifers, and calves, produced the aggregate amount 
of £1,475 5s. 


SALE OF A DRAFT OF MR. HARWARD’S SHORT- 
HORNS. — Mr. Strafford sold, at Winterfold, near Kidder- 
®ia*er, on Jane 17th, 34 cows and heifers, and 16 bulls and 
blUalTea, announced as bred with great care from the 
Jtock of the Duke of Devonshire, Lord Ducie, Messrs. Bow- 
17, Maynard, and Rich, and others. Amongst the bulls was 
Cwlaton, the sire of many of the cows and heifers 
offered. A number of gentlemen, fanners, butchers, and 
others attended. The total produce of the sale amounted to 
AL&3, the average for the 49 animals being less than 30 
grioeus each. Lady Jane 2nd, a roan, sire Duke of Bolton, 
vas boaght by Mr. Beaselev for 41 guineas ; Oxford Lassie, a 
red, sire Duke of Ormond, by Mr. Mann for 40 guineas ; Fo- 
re* Queen, a roan, sire Fitzroy by Mr. Nash at 37 guineas ; 
l«»»lia, a rich roan, sire Archduke, by Mr. Holland at 37 
pmess; Duchess of Gloucester, white, sire Mandarin, by 
Mr. C a st l ing at 31 guineas; Cleopatra the 8th, red and white, 
10th Dike of Oxford, by Mr. Norris at 45 guineas ; 
tjjrating Woman, red, sire Royal Arch, by Mr, liiakeway 
w « guinea* ; Cleopatra 9th, a rich roan, sire Lord Oxford, 
JjMr. Davis at 68 guineas ; Yorkshire Lass, a roan, sire 7th 
uf York, by Mr. Cutler at 38 guineai ; Maid of Oxford 
aras the highest-priced female, her sire was 7th 
y 8 ” * York and dam Maid of Oxford, and she was knocked 
to Mr. Cutler for 80 guineas in calf. Charleston is a 
end 5 years oH, oy Lord Oxford ; and his dam, 
of Bemngton, was bought by Mr. Morris for 46 
Mark Antony, 11 months old, made 46 guineas, to 


Mr. M unns ; and Lord Waterloo 2nd, 6 months’ old, 35 gui- 
neas, to Mr. Cutler. The local papers speak to “ the spirited 
competition,” but according to the prices realised the sale 
must have been by no means a success. 


ENGLISH WOOL MARKET. 

CITY, Monday, June 22. — We have no change of impor- 
tance to notice in the English wool- market. The trade con- 
tinues languid, and the quotations are almost nominaL Stocks 
are on the increase ; but there is soon likely to be a revival 
in the export demand. 


CumniOT PnxoiB ov Ebolibh Wool. 

s. d. 

s. 

d. 

Furness — Southdown hoggets 


1 

H 

to 1 

4 

Half-bred ditto 

If 

1 

4j 

1 

6 

Kent fleeoee 


l 

4 

1 


Southdown ewee and wethers .. 

1 

3 

1 

4 

Leicester ditto 


1 

3 

1 

34 

Sobzb— Combing 


1 

0 

1 

el 

Clothing 


1 

2 

1 

0 


BRACKLEY WOOL FAIR, (Wednesday last.) — Basinets 
was doll, owing to the absence of the large manufacturers. 
In the fair there were about 13,000 fleeces of Wool — a larger 
number, we believe, than on any former occasion. The highest 
price obtained was 39s. 6d. per tod, the average being 38s. 

BRADFORD WOOL MARKET, (Thursday last.)— The 
continuance of a moderate consumptive demand for wool, 
principally the lustre sorts, is reported to-day. The tone of 
the trade is rather firmer, owing to the improvement which 
has taken place during the last few days in the Liverpool 
cotton market, but staplers allege that they are unable to 
realise prices proportionate to country rates, which are 
gradually hardening. As, however, there is a large quantity 
of wool to come forward, and the drought, should it continue, 
will have a very injurious effect upon tne crops and upon the 
state of trade, they are not very eager as yet to replenish their 
stocks . — Bradford Observer. 

" CUMBERLAND WOOL FAIRS.— At the annual wool 
fairs held in Cumberland prices generally have had au upward 
tendency, and a fair amount of business has been done. At 
both Longtown and Brampton the prices were nearly the 
same. The following were the average : Half-bred hoggs 
Is. 7*d. to Is. 8<L, Cheviot hoggs Is. 4d. to Is. 5kd., mule 
hoggs Is. 2d. to Is. 3|d., Leicester and half-bred ewes Is. Sd. 
to Is. 4d., and Cheviot ewes Is. Id. to Is. 2d. per lb. 

DONCASTER WOOL MARKET, (Saturday last.) — 
Another immense market, not far short of 1,800 sheets. 
These great supplies naturally check business, and trade ruled 
very flat. Still flne lustre wools were not quotably cheaper, 
and inferior runs scarcely so. About 6d. per stone would 
cover the greatest redaction, hot for all business purposes last 
week’s prices most be quoted with a slow trade. 

GLASGOW WOOL MARKET, (Saturday last.)— Fine 
weather having now set in, clips arc coming into the market 
more freely, and during the week a fair average of bred wools 
has changed hands. Rates have been well maintained. A few 
clips of laid Highland have also come in, hot as bnyers are 
evidently waiting the result of the sales next week, little busi- 
ness has been done. Rates, it is expected, will be fully tested 
then. White Highland is not in request. — F. 11. M'Lcod. 

HEREFORD WOOL MARKET, (Wednesday last.)— There 
was again a fair quantity of Wool at market, and prices were 
about the same as last week — viz., wethers 15d. to 15)4. per 
lb., mixed wool 16d. to 17id., and hoggs 18<L to 184d. 

LEEDS (Enolish and Foreion) WOOL MARKET, 
(Friday last.) — The consumption of English wool is well 
maintained, and prices are firm, especially for the best quality. 
The farmers are asking higher rates than can be got for some 
sorts in the manufacturing towns. Colonial wool is barely 
maintaining the prices given at the beginnning of the sales, 
and as there is still a large quantity to offer the necessities of 
buyers can be easily met. Inferior wools are selling at losing 
prices for the colonists and others. 

LEOMINSTER WOOL FAIR.— Wool ruled from 16d. to 
I8d., and to fetch the latter price about one-half of the fleeces 
were tegs. Lambs’ wool was 12d. and 13d., but not so much 
on offer. 

MALTON WOOL MARKET, (Saturday last.)— The full 
clip of wool now being available, there are numerous sellers 
among the smaller farmers] buyers, however, were not so 


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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

ea^er to purchase as a week ago, and tiie best wools are not i at from 12s. to 16s. per stone ; locks from 9s. to 10s. 6d., and 
quite so nigh, the extreme rates not being given. The average | cots 12s. to 14* .per 144bs. 

prices may be put at 23s. for hogg fleeces, 21s. mixed, and 18s. BRESLAU WOOL REPORT, June 18.— Owing to the 
ewe per 14^1ba. continuance of the German wool-fairs, which are attended br 

STOCKTON WOOL MARKET, (Wednesday last.) — A 1 our customary buyers, business is completely at a stand-still, 
good supply of wool, which made the following prices : In the meanwhile, large supplies are arriving from Prussia, 
Leicester, all hogg 21s., two hoggs for one ewe 20s., nalf-and- Posen, Poland, and Hungary, which, added to our remaining 
half 18s. 6d. to 19s. ; Cheviot hogg 17s. 6d. to 19s., ditto stock, form a quantity of about 35,000 cwts. The recent 
ewe 14s. to 15s. per stone ; Scotch od. per lb. fairs of Landsberg, Dresden, Rostock, Halle, Weimar, Leipzic, 

YORK WOOL MARKET, (Thursday last.) — To-day there and Augsburg had very nearly the same result as our own, 
was the largest show of Wool that has ever been known in and only at Stettin was an indifferent revival noticeable, as 
York, the number of sheets pitched amounting to about 1,500. combers were purchasing rather freely, and paying for good 
The business done was consequently slow, and last week’s washed a little more in proportion than at other lairs. The 
prices could not be maintained. Pure-bred fleeces fetched Berlin fair, which begins on the 19th inst., will be a deciding 
from 17s. to 22s. per stone as per oount of hogg, ewe, and one for the further march of the wool-trade.— Gunsburg 
wether fleeces ; ana clean condition and cross-bred wools sold Brothers. 


REVIEW OE TH 

DURING THE 

For three weeks the month of June followed the 
dry hot month of May, with greater intensity of 
solar power, until general apprehensions were en- 
tertained that the drought would seriously affect 
the yield of corn, as it has already that of hay, 
which proves a my scanty produce. Some fine 
rains began to fall on the third week, with more 
frequent falls subsequently, and we hope they will 
save much of the spring corn, which was in great 
jeopardy. Wheat in the light lands suffered quite 
as severely, whole fields with a gravelly subsoil 
going off as if by blight, and such lands must be 
past recovery ; but the deep highly-farmed loams 
scarcely ever looked better, and have been put 
about a month forward by the extraordinary heat. 
This is no slight matter at a period of exhausted 
stocks, being perhaps equal to an import of two 
million quarters. So the pinch apprehended by 
many cau now never be felt, unless there should 
be disasters iu harvest time. These, however, we 
have no right to expect, but rather to be thankful 
that a critical period has thus been met by the 
kindness of Providence — though, as in all these 
cases, at the smart expense of some. The rain, 
we fear, has arrived too late to make a good crop 
of peas, though it will wonderfully alter the mar- 
ket gardens. The beans, being later, have received 
great benefit, as well as the late pieces of barley 
in the cool roils, and also a good portion of the 
oats. But enough has passed to remind us of 
our constant dependence, in the midst of the most 
industrious and intelligent efforts, on the soil; and 
it affords a striking comment on those sure words : 
“ Neither is he that planteth any, nor he that wa- 
tereth, but God that giveth the increase.” In 
France, it would seem, opinions vary ; but the gene- 
ral expectation is not beyond an ordinary year. 
Belgium and Holland appear satisfied with their 
prospects, the soils of both countries, though so 
different, better bearing the heat. Germany has 
had rain. There are some complaints in Poland, 
Russia, and Spain ; but America promises an 
average surplus for export. Our rates have ma- 
terially altered for wheat under these changed 
circumstances, the decline beiog on the first Monday 


E CORN TRADE 

PAST MONTH. 

about 3s. to 4s., fully 1 «. of which was subse- 
quently recovered. The following were the recent 
quotations at the several places named : —The 
best white wheat at Paris 76s., red 70s. 6d. In 
Belgium rates varied from 66s. to 68s. 6d., white 
Zealand at Rotterdam 71s., Holstein red at 
Hambro* 69s., Saale 67s. 6d., red at Cologne 5 7s., 
at Mayence 60s., Berlin 61s., the best high-mixed 
at Danzic 7 Is., Serbian yellow at Pesth 38s., red 
Banat to 43s„ Upper Canada spring 54s. 6d. per 
480lbs. No. 1 spring American at New York 59*. 
per ASOlbs. ; No. 2, 67s. 

The first Monday, which happened to be the 
first day of the month, was the time of deepest 
depression. The weather was most splendid; the 
home supply of wheat only small ; and, though 
the foreign arrivals were large, they were by no 
means excessive. Very little was exhibited on the 
Kentish and Sussex stands ; but a sort of panic 
seemed upon the trade, and, though Enghjh 
factors had not much to clear, they would gladly 
have done so at a decline of 3s. to 4s. per ar. ; bat 
millers seemed in a state of alarm, and left the 
stands pretty much as they found them. The fo- 
reign trade was very little better, factors being 
willing to submit to a reduction of 2s. to 3s. per 
qr., without finding more than the most retail 
custom. The same influence was felt in the float- 
ing trade ; and some time holders sacrificed 
several cargoes of Odessa Ghirka wheat at 54*. 
6d. per qr., which at the end of the week brought 
3s. 6d. per qr. more. The depressed advices from 
London haa considerable effect on the country 
markets. A few went down more than London— 
viz.. Bury St. Edmunds, Bristol, Gloucester, and 
Sheffield noting a decline of 4s., and Hull of 4*. 
to 5s. ; but more generally 2s. to 3s. was noted as 
the decline, and several did not exceed 2s. per qr. 
Liverpool, which gave way 6d. per cental on Tues- 
day, recovered on the following Friday. Glasgow 
was quite panic-stricken, and noted a fall of ' &• w 
3s. per boll ; but Edinburgh was more 
the reduction not exceeding 2s. per qr. Dubun 
submitted to 2s. per barrel, with but little doing at 
the decline. 


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85 


On the second Monday there was a more limited 
supply of native wheat, bnt a greater abundance 
of foreign. The Essex and Kentish stands exhi- 
bited very few firesh samples this morning ; and the 
weather having become colder, some reaction was 
experienced, and Is. per qr. advance was realised 
on good samples. More confidence was exhibited 
in the foreign trade, there being no disposition to 
force sales; and floating cargoes were fully Is. 
dearer than on the previous Monday. The re- 
action evinced in the London market was much 
more marked in those of the country ; but they 
raried materially. Though more money was ge- 
neral!? demanded, some were only firm ; some re- 
ported a rise of Is., as Ashford and Alton ; more 
were up 2s., as Birmingham, Bury St. Edmunds, 
fa.; others rose 2s. to 3s. ; and not a few were 
up 3s. to 4s., as Boston, Ipswich, Leighton 
Bustard, Sleaford, and Stockton. Edinburgh 
advanced 2s. per qr. Glasgow was only slightly 
dearar. Dublin reported a great trade, with very 
little change. 

On the third Monday there was a small supply 
of English wheat, but plenty from abroad. There 
were but few fresh samples showing on the Essex 
and Kentish stands ; and some were asking more 
money, say Is. to 2s. ; and in one or two instances, 
we bear, it was made, but generally we could only 
note more firmness in the trade. There was, how- 
ever, more demand for foreign, at the previous 
currency ; and cargoes afloat were a better sale, at 
folly as much money. With scanty supplies 
again in the country, and the weekly sales further 
reduced, there was a hardening tendency in prices. 
About half the reports were Is. per qr. higher ; a 
few were up Is. to 2s., as Ipswich, Leeds, Lynn, 
Market Hurborongh, and Market Rasen; yet 
nine places were dull, as St. Ives and Sheffield. 
Edinburgh was up again Is. to 2s.; but Glasgow 
vas only slightly improved. All that could be 
mid of the wheat trade at Dublin was, that it was 
ins. 

On the fourth Monday the native supply was 
again small, but the foreign was the largest of the 
lour weeks. Some fine rains had fallen, and done 
ouch good to the wheat on the light lands. A few 
of the previous week’s samples were yet on the 
Essex stands, increased by a small number of 
Iresh. An effort was again made to realize some 
advance, but it did not succeed, though everything 
good was fully as dear. Fine Danzig being very 
scarce was held high. A steady demand was ex- 
perienced for the better qualities of Russian and 
>pnng American, but low qualities were rather in 
favour of buyers, and somewhat difficult to place. 
Hosting cargoes were fully as dear. The subse- 
quent advices from the country showed little differ- 
ence. 

The London imports daring the four weeks 
w *re 8,698 qrs. English wheat, 131,747 qrs. 
foreign against 14,947 qrs. English, 103,775 qrs. 
foreign for the same period in 1867. The London 
averages commenced at 73s. 9d., and closed at 68s. 
5d. pw qr. The London exports were 52 qrs. 
"heat, 63 cwt. flour. The general averages opened 
at 73s. lod., and finished at 67s. 6d. The imports 
htio the Kingdom for four we»ks were 2,976,449 


cwt. wheat, 164,303 cwt. Flour; against 2,330,211 
owt. wheat, 370,608 cwt. flour for the same time in 
1867. 

The supplies of country flour have kept up 
very well, considering the difficulty of procuring 
wheat in the interior ; but the foreign arrivals have 
been moderate. A decline of Is. to 2s. per sack 
took place on the first Monday, in sympathy with 
the state of the wheat trade, bringing Norfolks to 
488., and the better markets in proportion. There 
has been no quotable change since, business 
having been quiet. The foreign trade has been 
also on a small scale, the best American barrels 
scarcely being worth over 36s. On the third 
Monday town millers lowered the top price from 
64s. to 60s., at which it remains, and does not seem 
for the present likely to change. The imports into 
London for four weeks were 50,754 sacks country 
made, 9,396 sacks 6,540 brls. foreign; against 
69,977 sacks country, 20,643 sacks foreign for the 
same period in 1867* The Paris market has fluc- 
tuated much, but closed rather dearer, and above 
profitable shipments to England. 

The arrivals of maize have been moderate, and 
so has the demand, at about Is. decline in the 
course of the month. 

Very little British barley has come to hand, but 
little has been wanting. The foreign receipts have 
lately been somewhat liberal, thongh chiefly of a 
grinding description. The market, though weak 
iu prices through the month, and giving way 2s. 
per qr., subsequently hardened, in conseauence of 
unfavourable reports as to the influence of the late 
drought on the growing crop, which in some 
localities have suffered much ; and though the late 
moderate rains will doubtless save a good many 
pieces, they have come too late for some that were 
prematurely forced into ear. Malting prices are of 
coarse nominal, but good Saale could be had at 
368. to 37s., and good grinding has lately sold 
freely at 32s. The imports into London for the 
four weeks were 1,367 qrs. British, 34,631 qrs. 
foreign; against 2,075 qrs. British, 24,934 qrs. 
foreign last year. 

The malt trade was very quiet during the earlier 
part of the month, and tending downwards ; but 
the late reports respecting barley have caused more 
business, at rather firmer rates. 

The entire supply of oats from the United King- 
dom has been very scanty, but the foreign arrivals 
have more than made up for the deficiency, and been 
very large for the time of year, generally exceeding 
the expectations of importers from the previous 
foreign reports. Steamers have helped to swell the 
amount with Russian sorts, and these with the 
inferior qualities have given wav in value during 
the month about Is. per qr. ; but so scarce has 
been fresh heavy corn, ana so small its proportion 
to the bulk of our receipts, that it can hardly be 
considered any cheaper. Good 38 lbs. sweet corn 
is worth nearly 28s., but light and inferior has been 
selling at 23s. As there seems little now left in 
the country, we shall principally 'depend on foreign 
arrivals. It is well some fine rains have fallen, for 
this crop ; as, though forced on at a rapid rate by the 
powerful sunshine, it was very unpromising a little 
while back, and we fear now cannot be a plentiful 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


one. As we know the hay has suffered, we may 
have another dear eeaeon for this corn. The im- 

S ort8 into London for four weeks were 957 qra. 
English, 130 qrs. Scotch, 880 qra. Irish, 160,069 
qra. foreign. This grain has lately risen again in 
France from injury done there, and we may once 
more have the French in the market for Russian 
corn, as they have all along been buying in Ireland. 

The bean supply has been moderate, both Eng- 
lish and foreign, yet prices gave way on the first 
Monday Is. per qr.; but they have since been 
hardening, as the haulm is very short and the 
drought is said to have lessened the number of 
pods as well as prevented their filling. The im- 

E >rt8 into London for four weeks were 1,702 qrs. 

nglish, 3,280 qrs. foreign, against 2,037 qrs. 
English, 7,924 qrs. foreign for the same time 
in 1867. 

Scarcely any English peas have appeared at 
market, and there have only been two small ship- 
ments of foreign white. There has, however, been 
little demand for hog feed, maise being cheaper 
and barley also ; but white sorts, from the short- 
ness of stocks, have kept steady, being worth 45s. 
to 47s. per qr. The imports into London for four 
weeks were 79 qrs. English, 1,400 qrs. foreign, 
against 294 qrs. English, 4,333 qrs. foreign in 1867. 

Linseed, in consequence of the short supplies, 
has been rising till it has gained 2s. to 3s. per qr. 
from the lowest point, and seems likely to be dear. 

In Cloverseed a limited sale has been sometimes 
made, at about late rates, and it is now held for 
more money. New samples of trifolium have ap- 
peared in France, and trefoil here. Prices not 
fixed. 

CURRENT PRICES OP BRITISH GRAIN AND FLOUR 
IN HARK LANE. 

ShOlinfs per Quarter. 

WHEAT, Essex and Kent, white... old 73 76...new 86 to 76 

,, „ red „ 71 78... „ 66 71 

Norfolk, Idnooln, and Yorkshire, red 64 71 

BARLEY 84 to 86 Chevalier, new 87 46 

Grinding 38 35 Distilling 36 40 

MALT, Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk 69 extra 70 76 

Kingston, Ware, and town-made 69 70 76 

Brown 64 63 

RYE 40 42 

OATS, English, food 26 to 88 Potato 80 86 

Scotch, feed 00 00 Potato 00 00 

Irish, feed, white 23 26 Fine 28 80 

Ditto, blaok 28 86 Potato 27 82 

BEANS, M&zagan ...42 44 Ticks 42 46 

Harrow 43 46 Pigeon 48 66 

PEAS, white, boilers.. 46 47 Maple 46 to 48 Grey, new43 46 

FLOUR, per sack of 2801bs., Town, Households 56 60 

Oountry,on shore 49 to 60 ,, 62 66 

Norfolk and Suffolk, on shore 46 48 

FOREIGN GRAIN. 

Bhflltpf per Quarter. 

WHEAT, Dantaio, mixed 68 to 70... old, extra 74to78 

K&nigsberg 68 71 extra..... 68 73 

Rostock 68 71 fine 72 74 

Silesian, red 66 68 white.... 68 73 

POmera., Meckberg., and Uokermrk. ...red old... 68 72 

Russian, hard, 68 to 61... St. Petersburg and Riga 61 63 

Danish and Holstein, red 62 66 American 64 67 

French, none Rhine and Belgium 00 00 

Chilian, white 71... Californian 73 ... Australian 76 77 

BARLEY, grinding 32 to 84. ...distilling and malting 36 40 

OATS, Dutch, brewing and Polands 26 to 83 feed 23 28 

Danish and 8wedish, feed 24 to 30.... Stralsund... 24 29 

Canada 22to25, Riga 27 to 28, Arch. 27 to 28, P’sbg. 29 30 

TARES, per qr 40 42 

BEANS, Frieelfmd and Holstein 46 48 

Kdnigsberg 43 to 46.. .Egyptian . 48 44 

PBA8, feeding and maple... 42 44...fine boilers 44 46 

INDIAN CORN, white 36 42...yeUow 89 41 

FLOUR, per Back, French..51 50.. .Spanish, p. sack 60 66 

American, per brl, 80 38., .extra and d’ble.84 36 


IMPERIAL AVERAGES. * 

For the week ended June 13, 1868. 

^Vheat 23,127} qrs. 67s. «d. 

Barley 8471 ,, 42a. 2d. 

Oats 1,327} „ 80s. 4d. 


COMPARATIVE AVERAGES. 


WHEAT. 
Yoars. Qrs. s. 

d. 

BARLEY. 
Qrs. 8. d. 

OATS. 

Qrs. s. d. 

1804... 70,299} .. 

39 

6 

1,821 . 
1,073} . 

. 27 11 

3,636} ...20 0 

1865... 61,802 

.. 41 

1 

. 27 3 

2,161} ...23 8 

I860... 48,276} 

.. 47 

4 

728} . 

. 36 0 

1,308 

...25 9 

1807... 39,767} ., 

.. 65 

9 

1,012} . 

. 36 2 ! 

1,807 , 

...27 8 

1868... 23,127} . 

.. 67 

6 

847} . 

. 42 2 1 

1,327}, 

,.30 4 


FLUCTUATIONS in the AV'aAGE PRICE of WHEAT. 


PSICB. 

May 9. 

May 10. 

May 23. 

May 30. 

June 0. 

Juno 13. 

74s. 7d. 





... 

... 

74s. 3d. 

L 

— — ■ 

... 


... 

. M 

73s. lOd. 

... 

... k 



... 

1 m. 

72s. 3d. 


... 

... L 


1 ... 

... 

70s. 8d. 


... 

... 

I - L 


1 

07s. 0d. 


... 

... 


1 ... 1 



BRITISH SEEDS. 

Mustard, per bush., brown 12a. to 13s. white 8a. tolOa. 

Oaxaby, per qr 68a. 74a. 

Clovbbsbbd, rod 64s. 66a. 

Oobiaxdbb, per cwt 20a. 21a. 

Tibbs, winter, new, per bushel 6a. 6a. 6d. 

Trefoil 21s. 22s. 

Ryb grass, per qr 18a. 20*. 

Lixsbbd, per qr., sowing 65s. to68s., crushing 60s. 62a. 

Lixsbbd Cakbs, per ton £11 6s. to £11 10a. 

Rapbsbbd, per qr 68s. 60a. 

Raps Ca kb, per ton £5 10s. to £6 Os. 

FOREIGN SEEDS. 

Oobiaxdbb, per cwt 21s.to22a. 

Oabbaway „ 44s. 45a. 

Olovbrsibd, red 44s. to46s., white 64s. 70s. 

Trbfoil 18s. 20a. 

Rtxobass, per qr 17s. 18 b. 

Hbkvsbbd, small 38s. per qr., Dutch 40s. 42s. 

Lixsbbd, per qr., Baltic 66s. to 60s... Bombay 

Lixsbbd Cakbs, per ton... £10 10s. to £12 0s. 

Rape SB id, Dutch 60s. 62s. 

Rajb Cabb, per ton £6 10s. to £6 Oi. 

HOP MARKETS. 

BOROUGH, Monday, June 22.— Our market remains 
without alteration, trade showing no improvement, and prices 
continuing only nominal. The fine weather which has pre- 
vailed during the past week has improved the appearance of 
the plant ; but rain is much needed in some districts, fire-blast 
having already been noticed. On the whole, however, the 
reports from the plantations must be considered satisfactory. 
Continental prospects are equally good, making the markets 
flat. Belgium snows more inquiry, the stock held being 
small. New York advices to the 9th inst. report the market 
as very inanimate; and the bine, with few exceptions, i< 
healthy and vigorous in every section. 

Mid and East Kent £4 5 £6 6 £6 la 

Weald of Kents 4 0 4 15 5 18 

Sussex 3 15 4 4 5 J 

Faraham and country 5 0 6 0 6 ® 

Yearlings 3 5 3 10 £ j 

POTATO MARKET. 

BOROUGH AND SPITALFIELDS. 

LONDON, Monday, June 22.— Very few old Potatoes 
are on sale, and the quotations of such are nominal. For new 
produce, of which a fair supply has been on sale, there has 
been a limited demand at our quotations. The import into 
London last week consisted of 2 tons from Antwerp, 6 Bou- 
logne, 565 Dunkirk, 11 Havre, 102 Rotterdam, 437 bags 
Gibraltar, and 752 boxes from Cherbourg. 

Kent and Essex Wares ... 8s. to 10s. per cwt. 

Scilly 7s. „ 9s. „ 

Jersey 8s. „ 9s. „ 

Lisbon ... 6s. „ 7s. » 

French Cs. „ 8s. „ 

POULTRY MARKETS. — Gosling. 6s. fid. to 7s, Dock!** 

2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. each. Sumy Fowls 10s. to 12s,iih° 
Chickens 6s. to 8s., Barndoor Fowls 4s. 6d. per conpk. 

EngUsh^E^s^s^to^s^French^oJ^^s^d^e^OO^^ 

Printed by Rogereon and Tuxford, 265, Strand, Ixwdon, W.C. 


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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


73 


leMs too mill ; and for the lint time we mw some 
uderdniiiiiig in progress. We are now in Dorsetshire, 
[ saidst capital dairies ; much meadow land. The country 
aear Gillingham nicely undulating, mostly under grass ; 
- the land a heavy soil. Shaftesbury -on- the- Hill to our 
I right ; the same order of dairying and culture, with an 
’ oeewioiial water-meadow, are seen ; the crops of wheat, 


oats, and beans are good, bnt oats late. We now have 
more culture ; the valleys good and grass superabundant ; 
culture good, and preparations for turnips going on. Near 
Dinton we observed small fields, much grass, and all 
roughly managed. We come upon much wood again to 
our right *, the Dorset and Wiltshire Downs in the dis- 
tance. We soon roach Salisbury, where my notes cease. 


ON GREEN MANURING. 


The progress which has been made in every department 
of industrial art during the last twenty years is consider- 
ably greater than we are ready to acknowledge, until a 
artful consideration of the subject gives evidence which 
proro beyond doubt that advances and improvements, 
whicb may be small in their individual character, have 
earned us far onwards in the path of economy and pro- 
ductiveness. The practice of agriculture has during this 
period advanced as rapidly os any of the industrial arts, 
ud those who have so ably co-operated in promoting im- 
provements may congratulate themselves upon the results 
which have been obtained. It often happens that when 
the stream thus steadily progresses, we find that we over- 
look some matters of interest to which we may again turn 
with advantage. 

One important detail of agricultural practice which has 
i been somewhat overlooked during the interval referred to 
b sgsin attracting the attention of those who are likely 
to encourage its extension. We refer to the practice of 
green-manuring. This proceeding, as is well known, 
consists in the growth of green crops for the express 
purpose of the vegetable matter so produced being added 
to the soD, and thereby increasing its productiveness. In 
some parts of the country the employment of green 
msnares is a well-established and very successful practice 
—one that ia steadily persevered in, and with highly 
beneficial results, and it will be readily acknowledged 
that its more extended adoption will in many cases prove 
to he advantageous. 

It does not involve any abstruse theories if an explana- 
tion be given of the practice here referred to. In the 
growth of a crop, we have two sources of food which are 
mOalde for its requirements. We have the soil, as the 
source from which all the mineral matter of the plant is 
derived, together with a small portion of the organic or 
combustible portion ; and the atmosphere, from which the 
growing plant draws the chief portion of its organic con- 
stituents. If the soil had been the only source of food, 
the growth of a crop could not have added any new 
material to the land, and could not have increased its fer- 
tility in this manner. It is perfectly true that the mate- 
rials would by the processes of growth have been altered 
in their condition and modified in their character. Scat- 
tered as they might previously have been, and in a con- 
dition only slowly available for vegetation, they have been 
collected by the fine searching roots of the plant, and are 
ia a condition more ready for use than prior to their 
being absorbed into tbe growing crop. As a natural con- 
sequence, even the mineral matter required for one crop is 
thus gathered and rendered more immediately available 
by the assistance of the preceding crop. But when we 
consider the large amount of vegetable matter which is 
accumulated from the atmosphere and then incorporated 
with the soil, we cannot fail to he struck with surprise at 
the fertilizing matter thus added to the soil. Rich as 
such manure is in its composition, it has the advantage of 
being ready for use by the succeeding crop just as the 
nourishment is required — not liable to be washed from 
the land and wasted ; hut as the process of decay pro- 


ceeds, 90 does the decaying matter liberate the imprisoned 
elements of nutrition, and place them at the disposal 
of the growing crop. 

We must not look upon this increase of nutriment as 
the only action resulting from the use of green manures ; 
for, if so, it would become a simple matter of calculation 
whether or not we coaid purchase these supplies of ma- 
nure, and add them to the soil, at the same cost. This 
is, undoubtedly, a very interesting subject for research, 
and one which will well repay the scientific agriculturist 
for the consideration it demands, and in its economical 
bearings will be most important. Few will be prepared 
for the diminished cost at which a given quantity of am- 
moniacal manure con he gathered from the atmosphere 
by a growing crop, and then added to the land, as com- 
pared with the purchase of the same quantity of manure, 
even when obtained in its most economical form. It is, 
however, upon the mechanical influence of green manures, 
as well as on their chemical action, that their value so 
much depends. 

Upon the strong clay soils this mechanical action is 
exceedingly important. Many of these soils, whilst con- 
taining abundant stores of fertility, have such a dense 
and compact character, that there is great difficulty in 
carrying oat the ordinary tillage operations whereby the 
soil is prepared for the growth of the crop ; and after the 
necessary preparation has been well performed, such soils 
are predisposed to revert to their original condition, and 
become as dense and compact as ever. The peculiar in- 
fluence of green manures upon these soils is that by their 
incorporation they impart a porosity and friability to the 
land which very much encourages the growth of the 
roots. They are thus able to penetrate the soil more 
freely and more perfectly, and to search for the nutri- 
ment required by the crop. This enables the crop to 
take advantage of the natural fertility of the land ; and 
the cultivator obtains practical proof of its pecuniary 
importance. 

The action is materially modified upon sandy and 
loamy soils, where we have to contend with an absence 
of that density and tenacity of character which we desire 
to overcome in the case of strong and tenacious clay 
soils. 'When green manures are ploughed into sandy 
soils, the action which is observed upon them is an in- 
creased capability for retaining moisture ; and even ma- 
nure, which previously could not withstand the wasting 
action of the rain, but was liable to be soon carried 
down into the subsoil, is preserved by the vegetable 
tissues thus added to the land. The influence has been 
of very great importance upon very light and frequently 
blowing sands ; for by the agency of green manures these 
have been ameliorated so as entirely to alter their cha- 
racter, and thereby a foundation has frequently been laid, 
preparatory to the more ordinary tillage operations ; and 
superior turnip and sheep -farms have thus been formed 
upon barren and worthless tracts of land. 

There are, however, certain qualities of growth which 
should characterise the crop selected for the purpose. 
Rapidity of growth and a suitability for the soil upon 

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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 


which it hat to be grown are essentially necessary. Mus- 
tard, buckwheat, and lupin hare been most extensively 
used, and otter a choice according to the character of the* 
soil and district, each possessing its especial merit, and 
becoming, under various circumstances, most suitable lor 
cultivation for the production of green manure. 

It is also very desirable that the age of the cron at the 
time it is ploughed into the land should be carefully con- 
trolled. Whilst the plants are in a condition of luxuriant 
growth, and just as they are preparing to bloom, the 
juices are most fully charged with nitrogenised matters, 
and are in their richest condition. This stage being 
passed the condition of the fertilising ingredients changes 


in its character, and some of the more valuable become 
imbedded in woody fibre from which they are not readily 
available. An overgrown crop is therefore not only more 
injurious to the land, but it is less useful as a preparation 
for any succeeding vegetation. 

There is another beneficial result which has followed 
the use of green manures, and especially mustard, which 
is the destructive influence it appears to exert upon the 
wire- worm, one of the wheat-farmer’s greatest pests. So 
beneficial has its influence been regarded that in some 
districts its cultivation is especially encouraged for this 
reason. 


AGRICULTURAL STAT 

We have recently received an official copy of the agri- 
cultural statistics of the colony of Victoria for last year, 
and as there are some important facts to be gleaned from 
a careful perusal of this document, we shall abstract 
a few of the statements for the information of onr readers. 
Although some attention is still given to gold mining, 
the exports of gold averaging about £6,000,000, agricul- 
ture and sheep-farming occupy now very prominent 
places in the industry of the colony. The export of wool 
now reaches 43,000,000 pounds, or more than double what 
it was at the time of the gold-seeking mania in 1853. 
The horses in the colony have quadrupled, there are 
double the number of sheep, and the cattle keep steady in 
number and quite adequate to the wants of the increased 
population ; the population in the colony having doubled 
in twelve years. 

The occupied land in the colony now amounts to 
7,947,455 acres. The area occupied during the last ten 
years amounts to 6,840,930 acres, or more than three- 
fourths of the whole extent of land at present under occu- 
pation. The average Bize of holdings is 325 acres ; that 
of the lots usually devoted to farming pursuits, 104 acres. 
The average area in occupation to each individual in the 
colony is 11.5 acres. In the last ten years, settlement 
has progressed in a faster ratio than population. 

The land enclosed amonnti to 6,970,106 acres; of 
this 1,151,228 acres were fenced-in in 1867. The ave- 
rage area cultivated by each holder is 21.7 acres, of 
which freeholders contributed 70 per cent., and non- 
freeholders 30 per cent. The average area cultivated by 
farmers is 251 acres, and by squatters 52} acres. Farmers 
cultivated 13 per cent, of the land they occupied, and 
squatters 1 per cent, of the alienated laud attached to 
their runs. The extent cultivated by each occupier was 
greatest in the year 1861, when the average was nearly 
31 acres ; since that period the tendency has been for 
settlement to outstrip cultivation, so fhr as the number of 
occupiers is concerned. Comparing the land in cultiva- 
tion with the population of the colony, on an average, 100 
acres are cultivated to every 109 individuals. Should 
cultivation advance in the same ratio, in relation to the 
increase of population, the next returns should show a 
proportion of not less than an acre under tillage to each 
nead of the population. This proportion has already been 
exceeded both in New South Wales and South Australia. 
In the former colony, according to the latest returns, 
with a population of 431,000, the number of acres placed 
in cnltivation amounted to 451,000, or a fraction over an 
acre per head ; and in South Australia, daring the last 
season, no less than 4.37 acres were placed under tillage 
to each individual in the community. 

The numbers of live stock returned for Victoria are as 


ISTICS OF VICTORIA. 

follow : Horses, 121,381; cattle, 598,968, of which 
140,414 were milch cows; 8,833,139 sheep, and 74, 70S 
pigs. In ten years there has been a net increase of 73,549 
in the number of horses, of 4,191,591 in the number of 
sheep, and of 22,481 in the number of pigs, but a falling 
off of 47,645 in the number of honied cattle. There 
are nearly 15 head of stock of all descriptions to each 
man, woman, and child in the colony, cousisting of about 
one-fifth of a horse, one head of cattle, 14 sheep, and 
one- tenth of a pig ; and about 111 head to the square 
mile, namely, lk horses, nearly 7 cattle, 102 sheep, and 
less than one pig. 

In all the Australian colonies, inclnding Tasmania and 
New Zealand, there are upwards of 600,000 horses, nearly 

4.000. 000 cattle, 88,500,000 sheep, and nearly 400,000 
pigs, or more than 43,000,000 head of stock of all de- 
scriptions distributed throughout the group. New South 
Wales still heads the list in 13f millions; Victoria stands 
second, 9,628,000; Queensland third, 8,264,000 ; and 
New Zealand fourth, 5,297,000. New South Wales and 
Queensland are still the great grazing colonies, as they 
own 2,700,000 head of cattle, and Victoria has under 

600.000. As a sheep-breeding colony Victoria stands in 
an equally good position, surpassing Queensland by nearly 

2.000. 000, but outstripped by the older colony 
South Wales, which owns more than Ilk million sheep. 

Passing now to an examination of the agricultural re- 
sources and production of Victoria, we find that the 
most important crop cultivated is wheat, which covered 
208,588 acres, ana produced 4,641,205 bushels. The 
average produce per acre was — wheat 22.3 bushels, oats 
30 bushels, barley 80.2 bushels, potatoes 2.7 tons, hay 
1.7 tons. Four years ago vines only covered shorn 
2,000 acres in Victoria, less than one-half the extent of 
ground now devoted to that culture. The vines number 
8,231,022, more than half of which are in bearing. The 
grapes gathered last year amounted to 60,659 cwt., of 
which 48,395 cwt. were made into wine. The cultivation^ 
of tobacco if not increaaing in Victoria, the acreag 
having declined from 023 acres in 1864 to 243 acre 
in 1867. . .. 

If we inquire into the area of land in cultivation 
and the extent sown with different crops in 
the Australian colonies, inclnding Tasmania ajj_ 
New Zealand, we find that close upon 2 , 500 , 0 W 
acres are under tillage. The greatest amount of eu * 
tivation (789,714 acres) and of lands under vines, 
wheat, and miscellaneous tillage is in South Australia, a 
is also the largest extent under hay, if New Zeau^ 
(which only returns sown grasses and not hay) w e ‘ 
eluded. Victoria can boast of the largest eitent un 
oats and potatoes, and New South Wal$s the larfjp* 1 


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L /hJ.vi futthstu*: 0 <j H.yerson J I'ujftVJ. 265Stnvuf.. kk'<8. 


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PLATE III. 


MOUNTAIN DEW: a Prize Hunter. 


THE PROPERTY OP CAPTAIN E. N. HEY GATE, OP BUCKLAND, LEOMINSTER. 


Mom tain Dew, bred by Captain Heygate, in 
1862, is by the Era, out of Whisky by Wind- 
bound, her dam by Linguist — Dick Andrews. 

The Bra, foaled in 1840, was by Plenipoten- 
tiary, out of Sister to Memnon by Whisker, 
her dam Manuella by Dick Andrews. The Era, 
a very neat horse, was successful alike on the 
turf and the ahow-ground, having won some 
good races at long distances, and taken a num- 
ber of prises as a stallion calculated to get 
hunters. 

Whisky, bred somewhere in the neighbour- 
hood of Dumfries, and foaled in 1853, was 
purchased, when a four-year-old, by Captain 
Heygate, of Mr. Daggs, of Annan, tracing her 
title to a libation over which the bargain was 
sealed. The mare, a black brown, was hunted 
for four seasons, by Captain Heygate, in Lei- 
cester, Yorkshire, and Cumberland, and a won- 
derfully good one she turned out. She never 
tired, ana was a famous jumper, particularly at 
water, taking one day, at the finish of a long run 
with the Hurworth, the river Wisk, when no one 
else would have it ; and her owner there and 
then declining a long price for her from Mr. 
Cookson. At eight years old, although still 
quite sound, she was pat to the stud, her first 
being born dead; her second, Mountain 
Dew by tne Era ; her third, Denmark by the 
Era; her fourth, Britannia by Ancient Briton; 
her fifth, Cura$oa by Kemptown ; her sixth, a 
yearling filly O. D. Y. by Double X, and a 
ibal, Norma by Ancient Briton, now at her foot. 
With Denmark at her side. Whisky took the 
second prize for hunting brood mares, at the 
fioyal Society’s meeting at Worcester, and the 
first prize at Ludlow and Leominster, in the 
same year; while all her stock have been win- 
ners. The successes of the two brothers, 
Mountain Dew and Denmark, are well known ; 
Britannia, now at the stud, won several pre- 
miums as a two and three year old ; and Cu- 
rasao, although only a week up from the field, 
was the best of her class at the last Birmingham 
show. The yearling, said to be a beautiful filly, 
we believe, never been out ; but the foal 
was another credit to her dam, as they walked 
round the ring at Leicester. Whisky herself is 
anther a coarse-looking mare, showing more 
power than brooding; but with capital clean 


limbs, and she was here again a good second in 
the brood-mare class. 

Mountain Dew is a black horse, now six years 
old, standing sixteen hands and an incli 
high. He has a good sensible head, with a neck 
that was somewhat light ; but this has thickened 
so much since onr portrait was taken, that it 
can now be scarcely called so. He has good 
shoulders, with hunting withers, and a deep 
barrel; but he is just a trifle flat in his ribs ; 
he has good loins and quarters, with lengthy 
muscular arms and thighs, and first-rate joints, 
while the knee and hock are well let down to the 
ground. But it is not as a stand-still horse 
that Mountain Dew is seen to perfection, or 
even when going round the circus at Islington, 
or over a course as hard as a turnpike road at 
Leicester. Let him the rather extend himself* 
on a good reach of ground, with a bit of a bite 
for his feet, and then will he bring his hind legs 
well under him in a style never to be forgotten 
by those who can appreciate the action of a 
hunter. Mountain Dew, in fact, is something 
more than a mere show-horse, great as has been 
his success in this way. He was put into work 
at three off, beginning the season in Hereford- 
shire, and going on into Leicestershire with his 
owner's other horses in December. Captain 
Heygate’s own weight is about 12st., but 
that of his groom nearly 14st., though this 
difference is apparently none to Mountain Dew, 
who goes as well with one as the other. Last 
winter he had a very hard season of it in 
Leicestershire, coming three days a fortnight, 
or frequently twice a week, with long distances 
to cover and home again. Mrs. Heygate often 
rode him with hounds as a three and four year 
old, as she still does in the summer as a hack ; 
and he is a very charming lady’s horse, with a 
temper so good, that when lying down in his 
box, the Captain and his little boys will sit on 
his back, and he will eat out of their hands. He 
is a capital horse through dirt, and altogether a 
perfect hunter, at least until he took to public 
life; but on this point we shall prefer to let 
Captain Heygate speak for himself : “ I think 
tho horse has been much spoilt by jumping at 
shows, the worst thing ever introduced, except 
to collect a crowd. During the early part of 
last season I could hardly ride him at a fence, he 

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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


was so excited ; but towards the end I got him ageur ; while his brother Denmark was the 
much quieter ; though this was the reason he first for four-year-olds, and his half-sister Bri- 
refused at Islington.” When will gentlemen tannia the first for three-year-olds. In the fol- 
and sportsmen refuse to give any further ooun- lowing month, at the Bury St. Edmund's Meet- 
tenance to this mountebank business P which, ing of the Royal Agricultural Society, Mountain 
as Captain Heygate so well puts it, is only use- Dew was placed third, with a prize of £25, in 
ful to draw crowds and shillings, and that goes the weight-carrying hunter class, against Mas- 
so far to spoil a good horse. ter of Arts first and Voyageur Becond, of which 

As a young one Mountain Dew did not make award we thus wrote at the time : “ The more 
much mark in the show ring, having been pa- we see of Master of Arts the more are we satis- 
raded several times, with nothing more ooming fied that he is a glutton for prizes, and nothing 
of it than an occasional commendation. Handy but a show horse after all. He is very well 
home, indeed, at Leominster they told the Cap- strutting round a circus, but his gallop iB no- 
tain his colt was only fit for a carriage-horse ; thing like the Strong bold stride of a hunter 
while at the Bath and West of England Meet- but short and scratchy, as if his knees were tied 
ing at Hereford in 1865, Mountain Dew, with together. He wants a lesson from Mountain 
the strangles on him, was merely oommended Dew.” At the Manchester Meeting of the 
in the three-year old class, while his brother Den- Liverpool Agricultural Society the black horse 
mark took the first prize for two-year-olds. A got “ righted” again with the first prize of £20 
friend of ours, who acted as judge here, main- for hunters up to 14st., beating amongBt many 
tained from that moment that Denmark was the others Master of Arts placed third. The Baron 
better horse of the two, but we joined issue in second, "Voyageur, Sprig of Nobility, and 
favour of his elder brother, and we ourselves Buffoon. At the Lichfield Meeting of the 
have since “ assisted” in awarding prizes to Staffordshire Agricultural Society he took the 
most of the family. At the Bath and West of first prize of 20 gs., with Denmark highly com- 
England Meeting in the year following at Salis- mended; and a second prize of £10 at Tam- 
bury, however, Denmark again took his first worth, an award which led to an essential differ- 
prize as a three-year-old, and Mountain Dew ence amongst the judges, the Yorkshireman 
was again commended in his class, being lame giving his colleagues a bit of his mind coram 
at the time from an over-reach which he got populo. At Chester he took the one prize of 
when hunting in the spring. In the autumn of £l 0 for hunters, at Wirrai the first prize of 
this year I 860 , Mountain Dew’s merits came to £10, and later on in the autumn the first prize 
be more recognised, and at the Abergavenny of 20 gs. again at Abergavenny, without any 
Horse Show m October he took the special conditions as to weight. In I 068 , at the Is- 
prize of £25 in a large class of all-aged hunters lington Horse show, he took the first prize of 
up to 14st. In the December folio wmg, at Lord £80 for weight-carrying hunters up to 15st., in 
Tredegar’s show at Newport, in Monmouth- a class reaching to fifty of “all sorts,” with Voy- 
shire, ne won the first prize of £20 for hunters ageur and Master of Arts amongst them. At 
Up to 14st., when one of the judges thus wrote the Birmingham Horse Show, in another large 
to us of his prize horse : “ He pleased us more field, he took the first prize of £25 for hunters 
than anything we had seen, having fine even up to 15st. ; and at the Leicester meeting of 
action, and domg all hiB leaps in splendid form, the Royal Agricultural Society the secpnd prize 
He must, if all go well with him, turn out a very of £25, being beaten for first by the Yorkshire 
valuable animal.” In 1867, at the second Bath mare. Lady Derwent. 

and West of England Meeting at Salisbury, Captain Heygate refused £400 for Mountain 
Mountain Dew took the second prize in the AU- Dew at Manchester last autumn, but the horse 
aged class of hunters, being beaten for first by and his brother Denmark are now for sale, as 
the famous Irish- Yorkshire prize horse Yoy- they are rather over-stocked at Buckland. 

PLATE IV. 

THE RETURN PROCESSION. 

“ English sportsmen will give almost any- by occasionally consulting such a guide. The 
thing for good grouse-shooting; and Scotch information is honestly given — a great point; 
proprietors have taken advantage to demand and if a view or a hotel be not worthy of a 
rents which, twenty years ago, would have been visit, the stranger must be very obtuse if he 
incredible. No sooner is a moor in the market cannot gather as much from his pocket-oom- 
thttn it is snapped up ; and thus a large amount panion. The advice in this way must be par- 
of capital is introduced into the country, in ticularly serviceable; but the sportsman, as 
addition to the circulating medium which is usual, raises the tariff wherever he goes or 
brought in at the time of the shooting season.” whatever business he goes on, and “ in some 
So says Murray's Handbook for Scotland, as just of the more solitary districts of Ross and 
issued— certainly one of the best works of the Sutherlandshires, as the inns are limited in size, 
land ever brought out. Although intended they are frequently monopolized by sports- 
more especially for the use of the tourist, there men so that the more general traveller will 
is no class of traveller but who may profit often find that even chairs and sofas are not 


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89 


[THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


to be obtained.” The laird in the print, how* 
ever, looks very much above that sort of thing. 
His boose is his Castle; the Hill his own 
property; and the moon tain-hare, the blaok 
oock, ami the don deer will reoeive thq atten- 
tions of a man -cook, and have their ftmereal rites 
flavoured with the best of Burgundy, The pro- 


oessionhas been re-formed early this afternoon, 
and the dinner-hour may be observed accord- 
ingly ; but the late Duke of Athole, a very keen 
stalker, was occasionally out until 11 or 12 
o’clock at night ; and dmner, of course, was 
never served until’ his Grace’s return. 


THE MILK WE CONSUME. 

BY CUTHBBBT W. JOHNSON, P.B.S. 


The see of milk naturally commenced with the birth of 
the first apunmalian. The provision thus made by Crea- 
tive Wisdom for the nourishment of the new-born ia far 
too ranarkable to escape the observation of the most 
eardess. When we proceed to examine the composition 
of that milk our interest and our admiration are increased. 
We cannot indeed fail to reflect that it was essential to 
adapt the food of the young animal, not only to its sus- 
tenance, but for its growth. This provision, too, was 
needed, not only for the enlargement of its purely organic 
parts, but for its bones also. Now, these requirements 
are all supplied in milk. We shall presently see that in 
it is contained an ample supply of matters essential not 
only to the formation of flesh and fat, but also of the phos- 
phate of lime, of which bones are so largely composed. 

We here again see the contrivance of a Divine Archi- 
tect* by which every requisite is provided, every present 
and future want anticipated, even before the calf is bom. 
The use by man of the milk of our domestic animals 
dates from a very early period. We find it noted 
in the earliest book in our possession (Genesis xviii. 
8), and also that butter was then made from it. For 
many centuries the consumption of milk was confined to 
its use as a beverage, the manufacture of butter and 
cheese, or in cookery, ft was only about two centuries 
since that its great modem employment in tea and coffee 
commenced. It is chiefly to the use of milk in this way 
and its composition that I propose to address myself in 
this paper. One or two valuable reports indeed have 
been lately made on this subject, and moreover the supply 
of milk to the metropolis and to other densely populated 
placet has become of increasing importance to many of 
my readers. 

Milk as an addition to tea and coffee is unknown in 
China. In that peculiar empire the infusion is made by 
putting the tea at the bottom of a cup and pouring upon 
it boding water; it is then allowed to cool, and drunk 
without any admixture. Mr. Fortune, who travelled over 
the tea districts of China, only on one occasion met with 
sugar and a teaspoon. The Celestials, it appears, regard 
tea as of a cooling nature, so much so indeed, that the 
lower orders are wont to counteract this supposed effect 
by adding to it ginger and common salt. 

Before we examine the composition of the cow’s milk 
consumed in London, let us see what is its chemical 
composition as drawn from cows of different breeds. This 
important inquiry not long since engaged the attention of 
Professor Voelcker. He observes in one of his valuable 
prsetiesl reports (Jovr. Soy. Ag. Soe vol xxiv., p. 308) ; 

“ The Shorthorn, though more particularly distinguished 
for its precocity ana exeeuence as a meat-producing animal, 
is nevertheless an excellent milking cow. Some families 
of even pure-bred Shorthorns are, indeed, distinguished 
in this respect*, for, when well fed, they will yield much 
mflk, and at the same time go on improving in condition. 
On this ecconnt they are preferred by many to Ayrshire*,, 


Alderneys, and other breeds of peculiar or local merit, and 
are becoming more and more the principal dairy breed of 

Yorkshire cow, essentially a Shorthorn, is the 
favourite breed of cow-keepers in London and other l^rge 
towns, as it surpasses all others for the quantity of mdk 
it yields. The milk, however, compared with that of the 
smaller breeds is more watery and less rich in butter, and 
better suited for direct consumption than for the making 
of butter or cheese. The statement made by some that 
pore-bred Shorthorns are not good milkers, is emphati- 
cally denied by others. The truth is, there are Short- 
horns which are good milkers, and others which are not. 
As a rule, animals remarkable for the rapidity with which 
they put on flesh and fatten are not the best milkers, and 
vice vend. Shorthorns, on the whole, perhaps, are 
more useful for general dairy purposes than any other breed. 

“ In I860, 1 made some experiments with a view of 
ascertaining whether pure-bred Shorthorns gave more or 
less, and better or worse milk, than cross-breda. In the 
month of September, I860, three cows from the common 
dairy stock, and three pedigree Shorthorns, belonging to 
Mr. Thomas Proctor, Wall’s Court, near Bristol, were 
kept on the same pasture, and the milk from each set 
of cows carefully measured and subsequently analyzed. 
The pasture was good and the supply of food unlimited. 

“ The daily produce in milk was as follows : 

“Three common dairy cows gave 31 pints in the 
morning, 21 pints in the evening, making together 52 
pints. 

“ Three pedigree cows gave 28 pints in the morning, 
21 pints in the evening, or together 49 pints. 

“The common CQwsthua produced rather more milk, 
but the differences were trifling. 

COMPOSITION OP MUX OP COMMON COWS (ON ORASI 
▲LONS) ON SEPTEMBER 18, 1860. 

“ On evaporation, the morning’s milk gave : 

Water 86.7 

Dry matter 13.3 



100.0 

“ The evening’s milk : 

Water 86.6 

Dry matter • •• IM Ml 13.4 


100.0 

" As there was no appreciably difference in the concen- 
tration yf the morning’s and evening’s milk, both were 
mixed and analyzed together, with the following results : 

80,66 

3.47 
6.11 
- 0.78 


Water ... ... 

Batter 

BSlS"" z 

Mineral matters (ash) 


’Containing nitrogen 

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90 


THE FABMEB’S MAGAZINE. 


“ Composition or Milk op Pedigree Shorthorns 
(or Grabs alone) on Sbft. 18, I860.™ The morning's 
millr of the pedigree cows contained 87.6 per cent, of 
water, and 12.4 per cent, of dry matter, and thus was 
lass concentrated th an the morning’s milk from oommon 
cross-bred Shorthorns. 

“The evening's millr contained 86.8 per cent, of 
water, and 18.2 per cent, of solid matter, and therefore 
was about as concentrated as the evening's milk of the 
oommon oows. 


“ The following numbers show the detailed composi- 
tion of this milk in the morning and evening, ana the 
average composition of both : 


Water 

Morning. 

87.60 

Evening. 

8A80 

Average. 

87$0 

Batter (pare fat) 

3.66 

4.16 

3.86 

"Casein 

3.19 

3.37 

3.28 

Milk-sugar 

4.92 

4.86 

4.89 

Mineral matters (ash) ... 

0.73 

0.81 

0.77 


100.00 

r 100.0 

100.00 

"Containing nitrogen 

0.61 

0.64 

0.62 


u Whether we regard quantity or quality, the three 
uvosu-bredU in these experiments gave rather more favour- 
able results. 

" After some time all the cows, in addition to grass, 
received lib. of good linseed-cake per head per dead, and 
then yielded : 

3 common cows ... 281 pints of milk in the morning and 18 
in the evening, or together 46} pints. 

3 pedigree oows ... 26^ pints of milk in the morning and 22 
in the evening, or together 48 f pints. 
composition or mixxd morning AND EVENING* 8 MILK ON 
SEPTEMBER 24, 1800, COWS ON PASTURE AND llB. OP LIN- 
8XXDCAKE XACn DAILY. 



Common 

Pedigree 


Dairy Cows. 

Cows. 

Water, 

... 87.10 

86.60 

Butter 

4.28 

4.28 

"Casein ... 

3.06 

3.26 

Milk-sugar ... 

4.84 

6.30 

Mineral matters (ash) 0.72 

0.67 


100.00 

100.00 

"Containing nitrogen 0.49 

0.62 

Percentage of 

solid 


matter ... 

... 12.90 

13.60 


“The addition of oilcake appears to have slightly in- 
creased the amount of butter in the milk, bnt not the 
yield of milk itself. After the cows were kept for a 
week upon lib. of oilcake and grass ad libitum , 21bs. of 
sake were allowed to each animal. The average yield of 
milk then was as follows : 


3 oows produced 80 pints in the morning and 19 in the even- 
ing, or together 49 pints. 

8 pedigree cows produced 26| pints in the morning and 21 in 
the evening, or together 47k pints. 

COMPOSITION OP THE MIXXD MORNING AND EVENING’S MILK 
ON OCTOBER 2 (OOWS PED UPON GRA88 AND 2LB3. LINSEED 


CAKE EACH DAY). 

Common 
Dairy Cows. 

Pedigree 

Cows. 

Water 

86.90 

86.60 

Batter 

3.96 

4.19 

"Casein 

3.37 

S.19 

Milk-sugar 

4.98 

5.34 

Mineral matters (aah) 

0.79 

0.78 

"Containing nitrogen 
Percentage of dry 

100.00 

0.64 

100.00 

0.51 

matter 

13.10 

13.60 



“ It will be seen that the milk of the cows when kept 
> grass alone was rich in butter, and generally speaking 
than average concentration. The grass evidently 


was of good quality, and as the oows had plenty of it, we 
i yn well understand that the additional snp^lv of linseed 
neither increased the yield of milk nor its rich ne ss. In- 
deed the yield of milk slightly diminished in October, 
when 21bs. of oilcake were given, not, 1 believe, in oon- 
sequenoe of the oilcake, but because with the advancing 
spas on the produce in milk gradually decreases, whilst 
its richness perceptibly increases." 

We have already allnded to the marvellous provision 
made for the formation of the bones of the young in its 


mother's milk. 

When milk is evaporated to dryness, and the dry 
matter burnt, it leaves, says Professor Vodcker, a 
whitish ash, which consists chiefly of the phosphates of 
lime (bone earth), and magnesia. The relative pro- 
portions of the several snbstanoes in lOOOlbs. of the 
ynillr of two cows were found by Haidlen to be as 
follows : — 


Phosphate of lime.... 
Phosphate magnesia . 


lbs. 

lbs. 

2.31 

3.44 

.42 

.64 

.07 

SY1 

1.44 

1.83 

.24 

.34 

.42 

.46 

I5o 

A77 


As regards the effect of cake and other concentrated 
food upon the quantity and quality of the milk, the gene- 
ral result of the Professor's experiments appears to be, 
that, of adding to the produce or richness of the 

milk, “ the additional food had a tendency to go into 
meat or to produce fat. This shows that we cannot in- 
crease or improve ad infinitum the quantity or quality of 
milk. Cows which have a tendency to fatten when sup- 
plied with additional food rich in oil and in flesh-forming 
materials, like linseed-cake, have the power of converting 
that food into fat ; but they do not produce a richer 
milk, and they may even produce it in smaller quantity. 
It is this which renders all investigations on the influence 
of food upon the quantity and quality of milk so extremely 
difficult. According to theory it would appear that food 
rich in oily or fatty matter would be extremely useful for 
producing rich milk ; but in practice we sometime# And 
that it produces fat and flesh instead. Sometimes its in- 
fluence is even injurious ; for cows supplied too abun- 
dantly with linseed-cake produce milk which does not 
make good batter. 

“ A very curious case of this kind was brought under 
my notice some time ago by Mr. Barthropp. He had 
m»lk which furnished cream that could not be made into 
butter. When put into the chum it beat up into froth ; 
the casein would not separate from the batter, even in 
the cold weather of January. Mr. Barthropp had given 
his cows linseed-cake in considerable quantities ; sod tins 
cake, perhaps for want of being mixed with a sufficient 

a uantity of good dry hay, evidently had the effect of pro- 
ucing too much liquid fat. On trying to separate ss niucb 
as possible the solid or crystallized fat fron the liquid 
fat, I found that the latter was very much in excess of tbs 
former. This is the most striking instance of the infln* 
ence of a great excess of oily food on the quality of cream, 
and consequently on the batter, which has come under 
my notice. 

“ In speaking of the quality of cream, I would take this 
opportunity of remarking, that bad oil-cake, and particu- 
larly bad linseed-cake, does a great deal more hum than 
is generally supposed by dairymen. The inferior taste of 
the milk is weU known. The wholesomeness of the mitt 
of stall-fed cows is further affected by the abominable 
matters which are occasionally put into linseed-cake- 
Oilcake-crtuhers seem now to have the privilege of ineor- 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


91 


grating any kind of oily refuse with linseed-cake ; and 
since this has been the case, we have heard more fre- 
quently of diseased milk, and of milk which has a disa- 
greeable flavour. If cows most have extra food, and lin- 
seed-cake be preferred for the purpose, the very beat and 
purest kind of cake will answer best. 

“ Distillery wash, the acid water of starchmakers, and 
similar refuse, make milk, as is well known, watery; 
and this dispenses with the necessity of mixing it after- 
wards with water. Water is not so much added to milk as 
it is incorporated in the animal system before the milk is 
produced. It is well known that acid water, and espe- 
cially water that contains lactic acid, has a tendency to 
produce an abundance of milk. When animals are fed 
with concentrated food, such as bean-meal or cake, it may, 
perhaps, be advisable — in the absence of brewers’ grains 
or distillery refuse— two materials which contain lactic 
add— to generate some lactic acid by keeping barley- 
meal for some time in contact with water, and by letting 
it ilightly ferment, some vegetable matter perhaps being 
added, which has tendency to hasten the process. By 
doing this, I am inclined to think that concentrated food 
like cotton-cake, or bean-meal, or rapecake, wonld be 
rendered more digestible — more readily available for the 
production of milk of a good quality.” 

Having thus seen what milk is in its pure state, let ns 
next examine its quality as commonly delivered to the 
container in the metropolis. On this head we have an 
abundance of information in the valuable recent report 
of Mr. J. C. Morton {flour . Roy. Ag . Soc. t vol. iv., p. 70 
N.S.) Of the amount of water found in that milk, and 
of the causes which lead to its great adulteration we 
need hardly a more graphic account than that given to 
Mr. Morton, by “ one recently in the trade,” of whose 
letter the following is a copy : — 

“ I suppose it is allowed *n all sides that the London 
mQk trade is not what it should be, and that very little 
pare milk is sold, especially to the poor. Before attempt- 
ing to remedy this great evil the causes must be ascer- 
tained. With the poor, milk is n necessary more than a 
loxnry ; and, if pure, it is a most valuable article of food. 
As sold to the poor it yields a much greater profit than 
to the upper classes, as the former nearly always * fetch* 
it themselves, and thereby save the milkman the expense 
of distribution, which at a West-end shop costs about 0|rf. 
a quart for a wide-spread business, and Old. for a compact 
one : and besides this, the rent in a poor district is so 
much lower. Bat in spite of all this the poor are the 
worst served, and the season is that the trade among 
them has fallen into the hands of snch very 1 small’ men, 
who sell so little, that the business cannot yield a main- 
tenance withont help from the * cow with the iron tail.' 
These same small men cannot contract with a country 
firmer for his milk, and therefore are in the hands of the 
wholesale dealers. The wholesale dealers, again, give 
only so low a price to the farmer that he in his turn, to 
make it pay, must add a little water. 

“ And if yon go below the' labouring class to paupers, 
they are treated worst of all. We have tendered for five 
or six workhouses at a price which wonld have given ns 
a profit of less than one farthing a quart, and vet we have 
aot been accepted. Tenders of I#, id. a barn gallon 
(8 quarts) have been accepted, or 4 d. a bam gallon less 
than our milk now costs ns at onr shop ; and we are only 
paying the market value of pure milk in large quantities. 
Tne fact that a dealer offered to bay a large quantity of 
onr ‘skim,’ avowedly to supply a workhouse contract for 
* new,' shows what the paupers really get. 

“ Next, as regards the upper classes, the expense of 
distribution is so great that only a very small margin is 
left for profit on each quart ; bnt, on the other hand, the 


businesses are generally large. The bar to the sale of 
pure milk among the better classes is the system of per- 
centages to servants. They all expect 6 per cent, on the 
gross amount of their master's bills, and this is jnst about 
what wonld be net profit on an honestly conducted West- 
end business. If this is not paid the milkman is ‘ worked 
out' So, to avoid this unpleasant process, he commences 
by adding water sufficient to pay this tax, and an that 
seems to pay well he soon doubles the quantity. We lose 
two or three customers a week from the servants, hat we 
continually get more new ones, as pure milk will draw in 
spite of all this. 

“ I have forgotten to mention a rascally trick of the 
milk trade, which deserves exposure ; I mean the selling 
cream in quantities short of imperial measure. When we 
began onr business we were forced to have cream-cans of 
correct measure made on purpose, as the tinman assured 
us that no dairy-man in London sold cream except in 
measures 25 per cent, short, and consequently he had no 
others. We have found this to be true by measuring the 
cans of many other dealers. The milk, however, is sold 
in proper measures.” 

The commercial portion of onr inquiry is that of which 
my reader will very naturally wish for information. On 
this portion of onr inquiry, I will again quote from the 
paper of Mr. Morton, who has pretty well exhausted the 
question. He observes {ibid, p. 94) : — 

" From returns, collected some little time since for the 
Society of Arts, from asylums, schools, and institutions (not 
infirmaries, or hospitals, or workhouses, where special 
dietaries exist), it appeared that 2-5ths of a pint of milk 
a-day is the average quantity which a mixed population of 
healthy people consumes when its diet is under medical 
direction. And in some places the actual consnraption 
approaches this quantity. Thus the town of Stirling, 
which has a population of 12,500 persons, was then sup- 
plied by 190 cows in the town, besides 200 gallons a-day 
of buttermilk (a most nutritive and useful food) brought 
in by rail and otherwise. There was here a cow to every 
50 people ; and this, at the average of 800 gallons yearly 
to every cow in milk gave 100 imperial pints per annum 
to every man, woman, and child, or about 2-7 ths of a 
pint a-day a-piece, very nearly the medical standard ; and 
indeed exceeding it when the 200 gallons a-day of butter- 
milk are taken into acconnt, for this would furnish half a 
pint a-day to the S,200*belonging to the labouring class in 
a community of 12,000. 

“ The English town of Mansfield maybe fairly compared 
with the Scottish town of Stirling. It contains about 
10,000 people, and 108 cows. Taking these at 800 
gallons a head per annum, and adding 20 gallons of skim 
milk daily, of which I heard as being sold in the outskirts 
of the town, there were only nine gallons (72 pints) per 
annum for each inhabitant, or l-5th of a pint a-day a- 
piece— one half the medical standard. 

“ Take, now, Bedford: — It contained in 1865, at the 
time of my inquiry, about 15,000 people, and 100 cows : 
and 128 gallons of milk, the daily produce of about 50 
other cows, were bronght in daily by railway. 150 cows 
to 15,000 people are one eow to 100 people, about the 
same as at Mansfield ; and this, at 800 gallons a cow, is 
abont 70 pints a year, or l-5th of a pint a-day a-piece — 
one-half the medical standard. 

“ If then l-5th of a pint a-day be taken as the quantity, 
not which ooght to be, bnt which it consumed in general 
by a mixed population of English people, then the 
3,000,000 of onr London population require 300,000 
qnarts a-day ; and this, at 10 quarts a-day from each cow 
or rather from each stall, indicates 30,000 stalls occupied 
by cows kept upon the London plan as needed for the 
London milk supply. And if people were fed according 


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92 


THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE, 


to the medical rule of Our selected institutions, twice this 
number of stalls, representing abont three times that 
number of cows per annum, would be needed for the sup- 
ply. At the time of my inquiry into this subject, two 
years ago, I ascertained that the usual number of cows 
kept within the metropolitan district was about $4,000 ; 
and between 30,000 and 40,000 quarts of milk a-dsy, in 
addition to the town production, were then being brought 
in from the country, which must have needed 3000 or 
4000 cows for its production ; so that the total number 
of cows then engaged in supplying London fell considera- 
bly short of the number indicated by the average of such 
towns as Bedford and Mansfield. 

“During the cattle plague more than half of the 24,000 
London cows disappeared, and the railway delivery of 
milk rapidly increased, and though, as the London cow- 
houses have again filled, the country trade has somewhat 
declined, yet the quantity still delivered is very great 
indeed. 

'** The following table, of which the figures have been 
most obligingly supplied to me by four of the leading 
metropolitan railways, indicates the growth and, in some 
measure since the spring of 1866, the decline of the trade. 

Monthly Delivery of Milk (Imperial Gallons) 
by Metropolitan Railways. 



Great 

Western. 

North 

Western. 

Great 

Northern. 

Great 

Eastern. 

1865. 





Januarv 

8954 

14168 

14904 

76818 

February 

9460 

18024 

15276 

76846 

March 

14590 

12752 

16416 

74783 

April 

11775 

10242 

18216 

84452 

May 

13050 

6624 

20124 

69891 

June 

14932 

6656 

20392 

68212 

July 

12791 

8480 

20666 

82525 

August 

23474 

23152 

20952 

70005 

September 

59782 

76160 

21924 

101212 

October 

103214 

123952 

26016 

112890 

November 

116802 

116700 

27576 

88714 

December 

140293 

148296 

27180 

109825 

1866. 





January 

143600 

155952 

30348 

95269 

February 

186764 

143880 

31608 

106483 

March 

201686 

158484 

33516 

116700 

April ... 

211016 

142188 

35516 

145647 

May 

285918 

125208 

39492 

120993 

June 

221851 

95998 

37512 

120178 

July 

166892 

80304 

39012 

109973 

August 

153766 

64572 

38292 

109431 

September 

110159 

53772 

35280 

109362 

October 

115884 

63072 

36444 

107955 

November 

120346 

59936 

95914 

107542 

December 

126819 

66564 

33336 

109295 

1867. 





January 

118870 

63480 

31068 

110048 

February 

181810 

•"> 1648 

29784 

102500 

March 

156679 

61908 

37128 

106228 

April 

122979 

60696 

36180 

106510 

'fay 

160628 

84156 

38316 

106968 

June 

125499 

49800 

40212 

109107 

July 

112233 

49752 

43392 

10554$ 

August 

118720 

39084 

42744 

105487 

September 

95965 

38088 

39788 

109605 

October 

86668 

50640 

19798 

107561 

November 

149510 

50652 

38772 

128084 

December 

123121 

60528 

37884 

126784 


“ It is this aspect of the subject which more than anv 
other is directly interesting to the readers of this journal 
So large an increase in the quantity of milk brought up to 


town as took place daring the cattle plague indicated of 
course a very considerable alteration in the management 
and industry of many a dairy district. And as the facili- 
ties offered by the London railways increase, and the 
methods of transmitting milk with safety are improved, 
so no doubt we may expect an extension of the trade 
between the London milk dealer and the country dairy 
farmer. The latter cannot generally make more than 7d. 
a gallon by cheese or butter and pork or bacon ; and if 
the London milk dealer will give tnat or a little more at 
la distant railway station, it may be for the interest of the 
farmer to give up the expense and labour of dairy man- 
agement, and in their place incur the risks and costs of a 
hew and unaccustomed trade. The exchange has not 
always been satisfactory : for until, by cooling the milk 
before starting and by perfectly filling the cans and car- 
tying them without excessive shaking, the liabilities to 
souring and spoiling on tbe road have been diminished or 
avoided, great losses, especially in hot weather, have been 
and will be suffered. 

“ I say nothing here of other risks which interfere with 
the extension of this trade — the risk of bad debts which 
'the farmer runs and the risk of adulterated milk which the 
dealer runs — for these are common to all commercial deal- 
ings. A Londbn wholesale cowkeeper will receive from 
his customer who comes to his cowhouse and milks his 
cows 8 d. or 4*/. an imperial gallon more than the fanner 
•will receive fbr country milk delivered, with all its charges 
paid, at the London terminus ; not only because it is the 
produce of specially fed cows and perfectly fresh, but be- 
cause it is certain to be unadulterated. I was told the 
other day by a London milkman that every barn gallon 
of such milk as his would “ dear* 1 a quart of water with- 
out any chance of the adulteration being detected by sn 
ordinary consumer ; and he had known that quart put in 
before the milk had left tbe cdufitry farm on its railway 
ioumey. The mere risk of such dishonesty is enough to 
lower the market value of the article to dealers, who pro* 
bably would rather benefit by some such dilution than 
suffer from it.* 

These facts (and other practical details abound in the 
paper by Mr. Morton from which I have quoted so much) 
will hardly fail to interest the reader. To the general 
student, the provision of milk for the sustenance of the 
young, its chemical composition, and its vast import- 
ance, when we employ it m our daily food, wfll all afford 
matters of abounding interest. To the agriculturist 
such details will reasonably suggest the inquiry as to a 
better supply of food to the milch cow, and of pure milk 
to densely populated places, and*an improved mode of 
Conveyance from distant dairies ; and above afi, the Best 
means for its preservation until it reaches the consnmer, 
from “the cow with the iron tail,* will not escape his 
attention. 


THE ASSESSMENT OF WOODS AND GAME.— Mr. 
Sewell Bead and Mr. Jasper More have introduced a bOl 
which runs as follows — “ Whereas it has been held by the 
courts of law that woods and plantations, other than saleable 
underwoods, are not liable to be rated to local rates : And 
whereas the right of sporting, when reserved by the owner of 
the land, or let to any person not being the tenant occupying 
the land, is not liable to be rated to load rates : And whereas 
it is expedient that such distinctions and exemptions shonld 
cease : Be it therefore enacted by the Queen’s most exceBeit 
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Loros 
spiritual and temporal, and Commons, in this present Parlia- 
ment assembled, and by the authority of the tame, as follows : 
1. From and after the first of January, one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-nine, every description of woods andplan- 
tations in England and Wales, not now liable to be rated for 


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the relief of the poor tad other local rates, shall be liable to 
be rated to such rates, and the occupiers of all woods and 
plantations shall be rated forthwith, under the provisions of 
twenty -five and twenty-six Victoria, chapter one hundred and 
three, and such other acts as regulate the assessment of other 
te n ements and hereditaments to local rates. 2. For the pur- 
pose of assessing land let for agricultural purposes the gross 
estimated rental shall be the full rent at which the land, irre- 
spective of any reservation of game or timber, might reason- 
ably be expected to let from year to year, free of all usual 
tenant’s rates and taxes, and tithe commutation rent-charge, if 
any ; and when such land is occupied by the owner the gross 


estimated rental shall be so assessed without any reduction 
whatever for any game or timber which may tend to greatly 
depreciate the agricultural value of such land. 3. Where any 
tenant shall pay any increase of rate by virtue of this act ou 
any land which he may occupy under any lease or agreement 
at the time of the pasting of this act he shall be entitled, 
daring the currency or continuance of each lease or agree- 
ment, to deduct from any rent he may pay for such land the 
amount of the increase of such rate from such rent, and the 
amount of such increase shall be fixed and declared by the 
Assessment Committee of the union in which the land is 
situate,” 


ON THE SUPPLY OF MOISTURE REQUIRED BY LAND. 


The per-centage of moisture required by land to produce 
the highest degree of fertility is very various— other things, 
as temperature, being the same. Reduced to the form of a 
practical question, it may be thus individually nut by farmers : 
What is the degree of moistness required by this or that fortd 
of mine, to place it in the highest state of productiveness, for 
the different kinds of crops, during the different months of 
the year ? The general proposition, therefore, relative to the 
quantity of water required by fertile soils to produce abundant 
crops, appears at first sight very simple. It is, however, other- 
wise when its details are practically entered upon, for then its 
dimensions exceed in magnitude those of almost all others in 
connection with successful agriculture. 

The supply of moisture to land to produce fertility is so 
closely connected with that of air, heat, and light, that in any 
practical proposition the former cannot be separated from the 
latter. Thus, when air is excluded by moisture, heat is 
partially excluded, much of it being carried off by evaporation 
from tne surface ; but when the soil has a proper supply of 
air in its texture, more heat is absorbed and less carried off by 
evaporation, so that the difference between the two conditions 
is voy considerable. 

The grand question of questions, however, is the proper 
distribution of air and moisture in the soil, so at to produce 
the best effect. It is a well-authenticated fact, that the heavy 
showers of rain which fall at this season of the year on some 
soils displace much air. Hence the manner they cool the 
land, taking into consideration the amount of heat carried off 
by the excessive evaporation after a heavy shower. But when 
the land is properly drained, the elcess of moisture is soon 
drawn off, when the supply of fresh air rushes in to supply 
its place. But the two processes thus briefly noticed— the 
first, the filling up of the interstices of the soil with water, 
and the removal of air from the sail. with the compression of 
what air remains within the soil ; and the second, the drainage 
of the excessive moisture and the fresh supply of air — are very 
different on different soils, and in different states of the same 
soiL And such diversities depend much upon the distribution 
of the air and water in the soil, whether oy normal or artifi- 
cial means, \je. whether produced by the natural state and 
quality of the land, or by drainage, cultivation, manuring, and 
cropping. 

Of natural examples the richest soils are those that main- 
tain a highly subdivided state, and which have much decaying 
vegetable matter in their texture — land that cannot be 
drowned in wet weather nor burned up in dry. They are 
soils that always retain a suitable supply of air and moisture 
it all seasons for every kind of crop sown, that is adapted for 
the climate. 

These important results are due more, perhaps, to the che- 
mical qualities of such soils than to their mechanical construc- 
tion. The more practical question, however, is the joint co- 
operation of both these agencies. Thus the presence of a 
large amount of decaying vegetable matter has a great affinity 
for Doth air and water. It has also a powerful capillary at- 
traction in bringing up water from below, to supply what has 
been removed by the crops grown, orby evaporation when lying in 
fallow or before the crops cover the 1 ground. By the former — 
a strong affinity for Water — they not only ratam the moisture 
in them, the forofe of affinity that counteracting that of evapO* 


ration, but they also abstract from night-dews and the air 
drawn into them from the atmosphere much moisture, which 
they supply to the roots of crops. Water is also chemically 
formed in them during the chemical changes that take 
place. From the air contained in the interstices Of 
such soils and in the texture of decaying organic 
matter, and also in the pores of decomposing inorganic 
matter in a highly subdivided state, much Less of it is 
displaced by heavy showers of rain than what takes place 
on poor soils of a different description. And, as the air thus 
left is compressed, its expansive action assists in the drainage 
of the land. The compressed air thus performs a mechanical 
function, as well as the chemical one of supplying its oxygen 
in the process of decomposition. And, as compressed air 
gives out heat, it keeps up the temperature of the soil to a 
degree favourable to the fertilising proce ss and the supply df 
food to plants. From experiments made on the Continent by 
Schdnbein, it appears that, “in every case where water is 
evaporated, the nitrogen of the atmosphere combines with the 
oxygen and hydrogen of the water, so as to form nitrate of 
ammonia and from experiments made in this country, when 
similar fertilising results were obtained, the high fertility of 
such soils, and the continuance of heavy crops produced by 
them for years in succession, may yet be traced to the abore 
combined function of air and water in the soil. But, be this 
as it may, farmers have from time immemorial been familiar 
with the high degree of fertility which snch soils posseM 
under the conditions in question. 

Of artificial examples, where a high degree of fertility is 
produced by drainage, cultivation, manuring, and judicious 
cropping, those are the richest that approach the nearest to 
the natural examples relative to' a finely subdivided state of 
soil, air. and water. But in examples of this class the pre- 
sence 'of decaying organic matter, and also a suitable supply 
of the inorganic food of plants, are essentially necessary to 
produce the required chemical affinity for air and moisture, 
mere mechanical subdivision being insufficient to produce the 
desired fertilising effect. Thus some of the poorest and most 
worthless soils in the kingdom are in a finely subdivided state, 
and possess a degree of capillaiy action highly injurious to 
their fertility, as the quantity of water which they raise and 
contain excludes the requisite supply of air required by most 
cultivated crops. Hence their pronenesS to produce tquatic 
plants, as rushes, Ac. 

It follows from these preliminary observations under this 
head, that the works of drainage, cultivation, Manuring, and 
cropping, require each to be carried out with due regard to 
the quality of the soil and the nature of the season, hi order 
to fit the laud for the retention and supply of moisture to 
growing crops, works which involve a very high degree of 
professional skill on the part of the former, in Order to pro- 
duce the desired effect. Were soils of a uniform quality, H 
would be a comparatively easy matter to lay down a genfertl 
rule for the execution of such works ; but uniformity of softs 
being the exception, and diversity the rule, so to speak, form- 
er® must be guided by their own skill and experience, and not 
by book rules. J'lo doubt book rules may assist; as for ex- 
ample, WcU-drain tfre subsoil , and pulverise the staple, put 
however truthftil and generally applicable snch a rule may be, 
yet when taken to the field, it may just as weft hare been left 


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ai home on the shelf, for the practical fanner reqairos as much 
skill and experience to carry it out as if he had never seen it. 
in short, the day is gone by when snch general rules can with 
propriety be piped into the ears of practical farmers, for proper 
drainage ana pulverization are questions which convey very 
different meanings, owing to the wide difference in the require- 
ments of different soils. Thus, what would be generally con- 
sidered proper drainage for one description of land often 
proves very imperfect for others ; and the degree of pulver- 


ization to which some soils can be reduced, so as to place them 
in the most favourable hygrometrical condition, is at all times 
a very perplexing, if not problematical question, whose proper 
solution depends more upon future and unknown conditions 
relative to the weather than upon the past or present circum- 
stances of the case. To provide for the exigencies of the 
season in out fickle climate, requires no little skill on the part 
of the farmer to attain successml results. Nemo. 


THE DROUGHT AND ITS CONTINGENCIES. 

BY A PRACTICAL PARMER. 


The drought still continues, and the heat of the past 
week has been extremely oppressive, and almost unex- 
ampled in its continuance. We have occasionally had 
single days with the thermometer equally high, but not 
for several consecutive days, i. e. t from Thursday July 
16th to Wednesday 22nd, or an entire week. The drought 
has now been foil fifty-four days in full force, and much 
loss and difficulty is experienced ; and what is more, not- 
withstanding every appearance and foretokening of rain, 
none comes. Moreover, the drought commenced at the very 
time when we were most anxious for summer rains or 
showers, to cause the growth and progress of our green 
crops for the sustenance of our farm stock during the ensu- 
ing winter. All is yet in abeyance. My fear is that it will 
rove one of the most disastrous droughts England has ever 
nown. Had it commenced earlier or later, better provision 
could have been made than we shall now be enabled to make. 
1 remember many trying seasons, but never, I think, one 
so arid and distressing as the present. In 1817 the 
drought commenced Aug. 31st and lasted till Nov. 2nd, 
followed by a severe winter, but then we were well pro- 
vided with turnips and other winter food. In the next 
year it was much worse and lasted much longer, begin- 
ning May 17th and continuing to Sept. 1st, t. e. t 108 
days, but there were to be found some tolerable crops of 
turnips, and the hay crop bad a start and was fairly 
gathered. In 1826 the dronght began Feb. 28th and 
lasted till July 1st, 124 days. This was the most severe 
visitation of the kind I have known, and the distressing 
circumstances connected with it may be easily imagined. 
The heat, too, was extremely great. As for grass, turnips, 
or any kind of green food, there was none, and straw was all 
we had to fall back upon, andlncky was he who had a supply 
of this unusual summer food. In 1840 we had a very se- 
vere drought throughout the spring, commencing on the 
25th of February, and continued to the 4th May. Such 
a spring seeding and snch dearth of spring grasses I never 
knew. It was nearly midsummer before the farm stock 
could be put upon summer pastures. In 1844 we had 
another severe drought. It commenced March 26, and 
continued till July 1 — 97 days. Sommer grazing was 
nearly thrown away, and the re-sowing of the green food 
crops general ; bat we obtained tnrnips and coleseed at last, 
although inferior crops. Hay, of coarse, was wretchedly 
bad. In 1862 we had another very severe spring dronght, 
commencing so early as February 15 and without rain till 
May 6 — 80 days, which 80 days gave a rainfall of 0.72 
of an inch. The difficulties experienced during this 
spring were exceedingly trying to every cattle-owner and 
flock-master. In 1864 we had a very dry summer : the 
dronght began Jane 24 and did not cease till August 28. 
Die green crops were woefully distressed ; and in addition 
to the drought, we had a deplorable attack of the great 
drab-coloured grub, which literally consumed whole fields 
of fine healthy plants of mangolds and turnips, so that in 


the following winter the farm stock had to subsist upon 
straw, hay, and artificial foods. We now come to the 
present season. We have had but a slight shower or two 
since May 80, and this is the 27th July. In foe east 
of the kingdom the pastures are everywhere parched up, 
the turnips in many parts unsown, and those sown making 
no progress ; the spring crops now harvesting are the 
worst known for many years. The water in all foe tow 
countries is becoming very scarce and bad : in some die* 
tricta the stock has to be taken for miles to a watering, 
or this is brought to them in carts, or barrels, or tube* 
as many fanners do not possess water-carts. The expense 
and trouble no one knows but those who have to resort to 
snch a practice in a hot season like this — the hottest Jnne 
since 1868, and the driest since 1826. The stock, however, 
must have water ; of food they have scarcely any ; indit is 
surprising how they live, upon the scanty dry herbage 
they do gather. Of water they drink abundantly ; and 
animals supplied liberally with cake do not shrink tosny 
extent. The reports of the metropolitan and country 
markets amply testify to the difficulties of the graners. 
Many thousands of both cattle and sheep have been sent 
in half-fatted, simply because the fields were bare of food, 
and the stock losing instead of progressing. This must 
tell severely upon the public ere long. It will be worse 
than the cattle-plague times. Vast numbers of cattle 
were then sent for slaughter, altogether unfitted for sale 
as animals of consumption. The like is going on now; 
and, in addition, sheep in great numbers are forwarded 
for sale when only “ half-meat.” These were an exemption 
during the cattle-plague trial ; but now they must go, or 
starve upon the land. In reference to store stock, foe diffi- 
culties are still greater ; they cannot be sold at any price. 
Already the terms of wintering cattle and sheep are ruling 
very high. For lambs, one shilling per head per week is 
demanded. The owners of store cattle most, if possible, 
retain them till the foldyards are ready to receive them ; 
and then I fear they will have to take very unremune- 
rative prices. The depreciation in price now » 
foil twenty per cent. ; ana animals purchased to graze to 
the spring, instead of improving and bringing a fan 
profit, have so deteriorated in condition as to entail s 
loss of equal amount. These are very serious items to ojtf 
graziers to encounter; but where is it to end? The 
contingencies are yet to be provided for. There i* » 
long autumn and winter to tide through, and that almost 
without hay, or strew from any of our spring crops. Hay i» 
already selling at from £6 to £7 10s. per ton ; msngwds 
and tnrnips nil, there are next to none ; cake at an exorbi- 
tant price ; while wheat straw will be tolerably abundant, 
but it is indifferent food for stock. What, then, to to be 
done? It is not only a choice of difficulties, bat of difficulties 
of no ordinary kind. From whence are to come the " mate- 
riel” for fattening either cattle or sheep ? Store stock we 
can sustain in a somewhat thriving state, but how are wa 


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to supply the public with fitted animals ? This is the hard 
RoUem to be solved. My first suggestion is, that every care 
be taken to secure the present crop in as good condition 
ts possible, in order that the straw may be kept valuable 
ana nutritions. For this purpose let all the corn crops be 
cut before they are fully npe. The com is benefited by 
it both in quality and yield, and the straw is much more 
nutritious. Let every thrashing be very carefully done, 
md all the straw, pulse, and chaff he husbanded as 
a necessity for food for stock. In its consumption adopt, 
as seems most desirable, some of the many devices for 
enhancing its nutritive value. Steam all tainted straw 
or fodder, and mix with flaxseed tea, or meal, or com, or 
brio, or pulped mangolds, and turnips. All other straw 
and fodder should be cut into chaff, to be damped, and 
then add a mixture of any of the above-named or other 
feeding stuffs. It is to many of these and similar devioes 
that we must resort to carry our farm stock through the 
ensuing winter. So much for the consumption of fodder. 

My next suggestion is, that every available piece of 
liable land on the farm shall be immediately broken up as 
dewed of its crop, and be sown with turnips or coleseed, 
or planted with cabbages if plants can be had. It must 
be remembered that the harvest is an early one, and if 



the common plough, by scarifier, or in any other' most ex- 
peditious way, good may result. We may have tolerable 
green crops yet. Be that as it may, it is well worth the 
attempt to get them. My own crop of early peas has 
already been harvested, thrashed, and sold, and the land 
broken up, awaiting rains for sowing it with coleseed. I 
hope to break up my oat land and much of my wheat 
land for a like purpose. The crops of green food may 
not be heavy, but “ half a loaf is better than no bread/’ 
The crop thus produced may be an incongruous one : it 
may consist of turnips or coleseed, intermingled with oats, 
barley, or wheat, grown from the shed corn, but it will be 
food, and this is what I am aiming to procure. I would 
in these autumn crops avoid sowing other than the quickest 
growing varieties of turnips. It is preposterous to sow 
swedes or mangolds. It may in many cases be very de- 
sirable to sow rye for spring feed, or tares, or trifolium ; 
if so, by all means do it. If inany field much wheat is shed, 
and it is possible to pulverize the surface so as to cause 
its growth, you have a crop at once growing nearly equal 
to rye. But I need not multiply these simple suggestions. 
Every former must contrive for himself. I only want to 
impress upon him that in this unusual season he must 
adopt unusual practices. No landlord will say, “ Why do 
yon do this ?” but rqjoice in the energy of his tenant, 
be it a deviation or not from lease or regulated cropping* 


THE NEW FARM. 


Alack-a-day ! that one must needs write, sultry weather 
or not ! It don’t matter that one would mightily prefer just 
to ait down in the now swift, shallow stream of the limpid 
Wye the day long, listening (if it could be) to sweet music 
ii the distance, and having birds’-eye and bottled 
pony within reach. It don’t matter that the prevailing 
ant is such — (Bother the comet that will sweep his tail 
» near to our gasping planet!) — that one could with 
nfantage, as Sidney Smith said, “ get out of one’s flesh 
*ad sit in one’s bones for half-an-hour but you see, 
gentle reader, that when one’s mind gets on the fret, ’tis 
lib one’s wife’s talk, or young pop : it must froth over, 
voder risk of an explosion. I am anxious to tell you the 
remit of my experiments : first, as respects the pelmrgo- 
rinm seedlings, the history of whose parentage I gave 
700 in a former number. A few have flowered. With 
*bt keen anxiety, and almost hourly visits, did one not 
witch the debut of that first blossom ! It was all I 
wold do to refrain from opening it, vi et armie, when 
tb floret had really begun to extricate its petals from the 
wdoong grasp of the calyx points. I think old Melon 
hd take a surreptitious peep by help of the grape-sriseors, 
b 1 eannot otherwise account for sundry marks upon 
he flower when it did appear, that looked for more like 
Wring caused by human interference than simple 
▼rising due to Natnre’s pencil. How grievously disap- 
pointed I was to find that the flower I had produced by 
hat of 10 much painful care actually came out identical, 
to ill appearance, with one of the commonest sorts that 
old women indulge, with a broken teapot, in their cot- 
tog® window I “ Good bye," said I at once, with Celtic 
perseverance, “ to this fan but* behold I the next in 
rixe tad tint is an eminent triumph, although not so rare- 
tooking a sample as one could hive wished. And yet the 
pwento qf the first (the failure) are superbly tinted flowers, 
from the stock of about the best grower in England. 
Howersr, the former, if he would succeed in his profes- 
won, mart reflect over every experiment : and this is 
what I did conclude, on my river rock and over the 


sweetest of pipes — Why yon see that’s a new proof, young 
man, if yon wanted one, that if you are to suoceed as a 
breeder in the production of fine animals, at all equal to 
their parentage, you must select for your elements those 
that are not only symmetrical in form, but whose striking 
traits and features have become stereotypedjin their 
nature, so that yon can safely rely upon “ like ’’ being 
born of “ like.’’ More than ever now I appreciate the 
wisdom of those shrewd, grey-haired men, of whom the 
auction ring leans forward to take a good look, when 
the glass rnns oat, and a small well-shaped heifer is 
credited to Mr. So-and-so, at bidding of many hundred 
guineas. Besides her own sweet feminine attributes and 
graceful style of person, her character went beyond, upon 
a long, stout stock of most fashionable sires. There will 
be little doubt of her producing beauties. Xi, Finally, 
then, whether yon would breed Shorthorns or South- 
downs, or any other “fancy stock,’’ you most provide 
yourself with the very beet blood, to begin with, «* well* 
shaped animate that have n genealogical tree of indisput- 
able value. 

It is no good beginning now to start pedigrees. A great 
and successful breeder, pre-eminent in the prize-list, 
lately found ont this fact, and consequently made a dean 
sweep of the lot, a grand selection of cows fetching only a 
few guineas over butcher’s price. He was, doubtless, 
getting aware of what his customers had long since found 
out, that there was no satisfaction in carrying his new 
strains on. Himself endowed with rare judgment and 
taste, he could generally attain success ; but when it came 
to his elements (only jost conglomerate and scaredy 
baked) being pot into leu experienced hands, the sad feet 
occurred that no particular development could be relied 
upon to issue out. It might be this shape, or that shape, 
or something of all sorts. Hence, he wisdy made a 
clearance, and will, I expect, now be more fortunate in 
his prices, when his customers find that the seedlings 
answer to the parent plant. 

There is one disagreeable nuisance to which I am sab* 


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ject. I don’t know whether other Shorthorn breeders 
suffer similarly. It is, that certain gentlemen, exceed- 
ingly worthy in all respects bnt this I donbt not, come and 
look over one's young bulls. They always select the best, 
and ask the price. As a matter of course they wince 
thereat, and reply coldly, “ Mine is only a common dairy 
herd ; I cannot afford that." “ Ah 1 then I'll show you 
what will suit you at one-fourth the figure. Here's a 
grand young animal, pure bred, but descended from ani- 
mals whose owners never took the trouble to enter their 
stock in the ‘ Herd Book.' There, now, he is as good 
as any one I have shown you, only excepting his having 
no recorded pedigree to show." Oh dear no, not for 
Joseph at all I The gentleman-buyer wants the best of 
pedigrees, although Ms herd is but a dairy lot of cows, 
and requires this cheap in consideration of that fact. 
Just look at the logic of itl Is it to be wondered 
at that one has sometimes not patience to reply to such 
application. He never calculates (oh dear, no 1) that if, in 
consideration of Ms cows' poverty of blood, I charitably 
sell Mm at about butcher’s price the near relative of a 
twelve hundred-guinea bull, he may the next day pass 
the animal on at a stinging figure to the enthusiastic 
cousin or friend who does go in for the terribly 
Mgh-bred kind, because really after all the bull is better 
than he requires. And if he does make this second 
bargain, will he remember the first seller ? Will he or 
will he not ? Avaunt t I have no patience to write fur- 
ther of such. Let them learn to reason, before they in- 
sult the feelings of those who like myself have launched 
their bark in trust upon a costly deep. 

“ Poor little Dandy ; how sorry he will be to leave his 
mammal" This was the sympathetic remark of our Ben- 
jamin, in respect to one of the three terrier puppies wMch is 
about to be sent to a distance, as of course one cannot be 


keeping such small deer for everlasting ; especially as the 
lamb question makes one sufficiently sore in regard to the 
children's pets. Benjamin had not reckoned upon the 
neighbourhood of his brothers and sisters when this 
tender-hearted reflection gained utterance. Of course a 
maternal caress reached him ; but, alas 1 the agnomen of 
Dandy stuck, and hath given an advantage to his mis- 
chievous brother. 

Talking of miscMef— unfortunately, one day, a month 
since, a lady, who had been with the “ Missus" inspecting 
the poultiy at the form, quite casually cast a glance of 
inspection over the half-door of a loose box in which a 
yonng Butterfly of ten months holds Ms reign. She had 
a white floating veil on, the flutter of wMch so terrified 
the young animal, that he jumped and knocked himself 
about the box quite frightfully. He has since given us 
much trouble. He will not be soothed, and butts vi- 
ciously at remonstrance of any sort ; whereas up to that 
period he was as gentle as need be. It is so busy at the 
farm-house now. Such squadrons of ducklings, each 
officered by a single matron, dabbling about as dirty and 
as short-clothed as campaigners ' upon a heap of fresh 
vetches in apartments damp as I wish the turnip-ground 
could be. The burnt couch ashes, of wMch I carted in 
quite thirsty some fifteen waggon-loads last autumn, and 
upon which a shoal of pigs was fattened, has sieved out 
so beautifully fine, and yet so greasily damp, as to put the 
bailiff into ecstasies. I am not quite sure that he did 
not actually taste a crumb on the tip of Ms finger. I 
trust the swedes may like it. I have not a seed in yet, 
nor shall I put any in nntil rain threatens. Mildew al- 
ways punishes our early sowers. My seed is reposing 
the meanwMle amidst a bedding of sulphur, as a precau- 
tion Against the raids of fly. Vigil. 


CENTRAL CHAMBER OF AGRICpLTURE. 


A dinner of the Chamber was held at Leicester in the show 
week ; Mr. Jasper More, M.P., President, in the chair. After 
the usual complimentary toasts, 

Mr. J&A8FBN proposed “ Success to the Chambers of Agri- 
culture throughout the kingdom,” coupled with the health of 
Mr. J. More,M.P., President of the Central Chamber. They 
had had the opportunity of seeing the rise and progress of the 
different Chambers throughout the kingdom, and he thought 
the way in which they had gone on had been a most satis- 
factory thing to those who had been the promoters of them. 
He felt it to be one of the most important steps ever taken by 
the British former. They had always been told in their agri- 
cultural meetings to keep away from politics, and to a certain 
extent he agreed with that course ; but there were circumstances 
in which there wa9 a diversity of interests, and there were cases 
in which that of the occupiers had been forgotten by their 
legislators. There was au election pending, and they knew 
the expressions made nsc of by gentlemen as to the pressure 
brought to bear by the different Chambers of Agriculture. 
He hoped they would support men who would act for the 
benefit of the agricultural community. He did not care 
whether they returned a Whig, a Tory, or a Radical ; bnt they 
ought to return such men as would espouse their cause in a 
way which, he wus sorry to say, was not always done by those 
who professed to be their representatives. Last night, or 
rather three o’clock that morning, saw the conclusion of a 
debate which had occupied the House of Commons three 
times during the present session. The Bill under discussion 
had been opposed by some of the representatives of the in- 
habitants ot this county; but the result of the division of last 
night was one which those preseut must hail with satisfaction. 
As to their worthy Chairman, he believed that in his place in 
Parliament he had felt it his duty to study the interests of the 
men who returned liim— the tenant-farmers of the county of 


Salop — and such a man they should seek to represent them. 
(Mach applause). 

The Cha.iR.man, in returning thanks, said he was aware 
be owed the privilege of being chairman of the Central 
Chamber of Agriculture to the confidence which the tenant 
farmers of Shropshire showed in returning him. He felt 
most proud of it, if it enabled Mm in any way to promote the 
interests of Chambers of Agriculture. He was glad that they 
had met for their first dinner in the county-town of their 
first president, Mr. Pell, and that they had met on a day in 
which the agricultural interest had been represented in the 
greatest strength in the House of Commons He believed 
on no occasion had the agricultural interest asserted its power 
by a majority of more than a hundred, as it had done thst 
morning. They must excuse them being tired, for every 
member present voted five rimes between one and three that 
morning in favour of the Metropolitan Cattle Market Bill- » 
was impossible for them to meet without ma k ing some allanon 
to such & remarkable fact. He knew that some of them might 
have a prejudice against discussing politics at an agricultural 
dinner (cries of u No, no.”) He was extremely glad to heir 
them repudiate that. The first division taken was two wrtto 
ago on the adjournment of the debate j and o* that occaaon 
the agriculturists reached the extraordinary majority of 14*. 
They had now to consider how to abate Hie opposition to UjJ 
bill. All tjhe Liberal party were not their opponents, for la* 
night more Liberal members voted for the bill than the mino- 
rity that opposed it. They had, all through the division!, nny 
Liberal members supporting the buL The conduct of one mem- 
ber of the Government might, undoubtedly, have given nsc to 
the opposition, simply from ratting the notion that they were 
not sincere in the conduct 6f the' bill. The nbtdon of the flap 
ket was originally Mr. Ayrton's. Lord Robert Montagu ony 
last session, said that the imports to Bnglaadwe** so nanier<#*> 


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97 


that any restrictions would cause an interference with trade 
which would be intolerable ; that the proposal was M a gigantic 
system of protection.** The matter now rested with the Go- 
vernment. In the Chambers of Agriculture they had a great 
machinery established, which mignt be used for good pur- 
poses. One of these was the obtaining of county financial 
boards, not as separate bodies, but as including the representa- 
tion of farmers with the magistrates at quarter-sessions. He 
tad just ended his labours as a member of the committee on 
the malt-tax ; and he thought the best substitute for the tax 
would be a b rewe r’ s licence ; but to carry that out, they must 
tax private brewing ; and whetherthat could be done, deserved 
their most attentive consideration. With respect to the sub- 
ject of the night, the House of Lords came to the conclusion, 
twenty yean ago, that every description of property ought 
jufltty to he eaied upon to contribute to that wnicn the Act of 
43rd of Skabeth contemplated should be contributed according 
to the ability of every inhabitant ; and they had to consider 
the bed means of inducing the next Parliament to give effect 
effect to the resolution. He had moved for the reprint of the 
Lords’ committee on parochial assessments ; it was being re- 
furnished, and he invited their earnest attention to it. He 
had no great faith in the results of committee, on agricultural 
subjects. Urn one had slumbered for twenty years unnoticed. 
No one earned out the conclusions of the committee which sat 
on the Game Laws in 1846. On turnpike trusts and on 
oounly financial boards, after from ten to twenty years had 
elapsed since a committee reported on them, the House of 
Commons merely said. Refer them to a committee again. If 
they were referred to committees, it would be owing to the 
action of Chambers of Agriculture if legislative results were 
gained. He should like to see Mr. Read Under-Secretary for 
Agriculture. In two counties where there were such depart- 
ments minute provisions against the cattle plague had existed 
since the middle of the last century. He rejoiced to see so 
many foreigners at the show, one of whom, specially sent by 
the Emperor of Prance, he had invited to their meeting to- 
day. They would see that France was 60 years behind Eng- 
land in agriculture, and Italy about 200 years. He had no 
great confidence in the results of committees, as they were 
seldom acted on in legislation. In the House of Commons a 
private member could not carry anything, and their object 
must therefore be to get the Government to take the matter 
«p. It was worth their while to consider whether they should 
■ot try to get a department of Agriculture into the Govern- 
ment, which circumstances had shown would be a great ad- 
vantage. The chairman said it was dear that personal 
p rop ert y had existed so long without being rated, there must 
be some strong considerations against attempting to rate it. 
No one said a word against their view, and he was obliged to 
{dace himself in the invidious position of asking a question 
from an opponent’s view. He asked if Sir G. Jenkinson’s 
views were carried out, would they consent to tax English 
incomes for the poor of Ireland ana Scotland P (** No, no.”) 
Rut it vraa impossible to legislate for England alone in taxa- 
tion. Then he wished to know if his property consisted of 
£100,000 in the Funds, how could they be aole to rate him P 
If they tried to do so at Leicester, he should go to London. 
H they succeeded in rating him there he should go abroad and 
invest his money in foreign securities. This is merely a diffi- 
culty which he suggested to them ; bat as he did not wish to 
oppose their views, he would merely ask them to study the 
evidence given by four very able men before the House of 
Lords on the subject. By all means let them try every means 
to tain their endL Let tnero go in a deputation to the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer next November, and see what hope 
he would give them of the Government adopting their views. 
He believed county rates ought to be reduced, oat by a very 
different method. Some charges, such as the militia, should 
he entirely taken off the rates ; others, such as police and 
hmatic asylums, should receive an increased grant from Go* 
vem me n t. But let them rate personal property as well, if 
they can. Let them remember, however, that they most be 
weaker in the next Parliament. The majority of electors 
would be consumers, not prodncers j and the extinction of the 
eight small boroughs the other day would make them at least 
twelve less in a division, such as the one on the Cattle BiH. 
He begged to conclude with his hearty good wishes for the 
(access of the Leicestershire Chamber. (Applause). 

Mr, C. 8. Bead, MJP., returned thanks as a very young 


member of the Council of the Royal Agricultural Society, and 
he believed the only one present on that occasion, for the com- 
pliment paid to that body. This meeting appeared to him to be, 
from what little he had seen of it, one oi tne best which the So- 
ciety had ever held. They had been furnished with a magnificent 
site, and from the long lines of stock which he had nad the 
pleasure of glancing through, it appeared to him that their 
cattle had come out of the affliction which had overtaken them, 
improved and purified, rather than degenerated. It was the 
custom in these days to look very gloomily upon the finances 
of the Royal Society ; but when they considered that they had 
gone through the visitation of the cattle plague, and that in 
1866 there was no show, and that last year there was only half 
a show, and when they remembered that they had reduced their 
capital stock by £3000, it was not to be wondered at that people 
should take such a gloomy view of its prospects. On the other 
hand, the Royal Society was not supported by the tenant farmers 
as it ought to be, and he thought there was very good reason 
why such support was not given (cheers). Be meant to say 
that the Council was a pocJcet borough (Hear, hear). The 
tenant-farmers who were on the Council were the best and 
ablest of their class, and the great noblemen and large 
landed proprietors who take a prominent part in agricul- 
ture were very properly represented, hut he contended that 
there was a set of gentlemen on that Council who aid all 


Market Bill, or in favour of Malt-tax Repeal it was very 
damaging to the little influence he (J4r. Read) had, to have 
gentlemen of the Council of the Royal Agricultural Society, 
getting up and making speeches and voting directly against 
the agricultural interest. They could scaroely believe that 
the gentleman who drew up the report the other day against 
the report of the majority of the Malt-tax Committee — a 
report which said that the malt-tax was no sort of burden 
to the British farmer, and who drew up the report of 
the Trade in Animals Committee, which said that there ought 
to be the same restriction put upon English cattle as was placed 
upon foreign cattle — was a leading member of the Council of 
the Royal Agricultural Society (Shame) 1 Leaving the 
subject of the Society, he would now allude to one or two 
things which had been adverted to by the Chairman. He 
had told them that he did not believe in the value of com- 
mittees. He did not think that there was ever in these day® 
legislation without either a committee or a commission pre- 
ceding that legislation. He would ask them to remember 
particularly the Cattle Plague Commission, of which he was 
a member. They recommended the stamping out the disease, 
and, though that was an unpopular measure at the time, they 
knew how successful it had been. They also reported in 
favour of separate markets for foreign cattle, and that was 
the bill upon which they divided so successfully last night. 
Therefore, ne thought, so far as commissions were concerned, 
he had proved that they were of some use. With regard to 
committees, they had recently had a committee on financial 
boards, and they had recommended that all Boards of 
Guardians should send representative ratepayers to take their 
scat at the quarter sessions with the magistrates, and assist 
them in all the financial business of the county (Hear, hear). 
They also recommended that in all committees, such as police 
and finance committees, half of the members should be 
magistrates and half elected ratepayers. If those recommen- 
dations were carried out, what more eould they wish for P 
what more could they desire P They did not want to set up 
county financial boards with separate and distinct jurisdiction, 
but they wanted the voice of ratepaycts heard in the court of 
quarter sessions, and then he thought all would go smooth 
and pleasant enough (oheers). As to the Chairmans remarks 
noon the Cattle Bui, it was true that they were backed up by 
50 independent Liberals ; but unfortunately for them, with bat 
one exception (Mr. Lowe), the whole Opposition went con- 
tinually into tiie lobby against the agricultural interest. For 
25 days, when in committee, they were taunted and badgered j 
it was said that they wished to deprive the poor of their 
meat, and that they wanted nothing bat protection. What 
they wanted was thorough free-trade, but it must oe a 
rational free-trade, not free-trade in foreign diseases, which 
were sure to produce first a pestilence and then a famine in 
meat (cheers). 


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l'HE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


The Chairman said Mr. Heed's remarks were likely to con- Mr. Ducehaji moved, "That this meeting calls upon the 
v ey a wrong impression as to what he said about county finan- members of all Chambers of Agriculture to support by every 

cial boards. He had taken a great interest in this question, means in their power those candidates who declare themselves 

and he had always thought it better to have farmers represented in favour of a revision of local taxation.” He contended that 

at the quarter sessions, in preference to having distinct financial the present system of local taxation inflicted injustice upon 

boards. one part of the community for the benefit of the other, and 

The meeting then proceeded to the discussion of the subject that the Chambers of Agriculture would not be carrying out 

of the evening, "The pressure of local taxation on real property.” the objects of their promoters if they did not act in accordance 

Sir G. Jenkinson said, he had been requested to propose with tne resolution which he proposed, 

the first resolution — “ That this meeting declares that the tax- Mr, Mat responded to all that Mr. Duckham had said with 

ation now levied by local rates bears unfairly upon the income regard to Chambers of Agriculture, and believed with that 

arising from real property, and urges that income arising from gentlemen, that they were to be made of real service to the 

other sources ought to bear an equitable share of the poor law country. It had been mooted to him by a gentleman who 

charges, and other local burdens.* He had had the honour of represented a county, that their association was one-sided, 

reading an address on the sutyect to the Central Farmers' if such was the case, then all he had to say was, that he bin* 

Club. He believed if the matter were taken up by all the self was not so. His only wish was to do that which was the 
Chambers of Agriculture, they would be able to bnng in a best for all men. He trusted that their Chambers would avoid 

measure, whatever Government succeeded to office next year, any impression of what might be termed extreme party feehog. 

and to compel attention to a real grievance and a real imustice. Agriculturists had a great work toperform, and ho believed 

Mr. Pell moved “ That a committee of the House of Lords, they were in the van of doing it They were very young, md 

m the year 1850, having decided that the relief of the poor is he did not think they had, as yet, put their forces ia the right 

a national object, towards which every description of property fonn. It struck him that the present was the time tor them 

ought to contribute, this meeting recommends the Chambers of to put their forces in order, not for the mere sake of psitjr 
Agriculture to support by every means in their power legisla- politics, which would he detrimental to their success, but 
tion for carrying the principle into effect.” In attempting to simply that they should unite, in order that they might 

advance the intentions of that committee, it was necessary he somehow or other teach the country that they, as formers, 

should call attention to the evidence that was given before it, were, after all, not so tor behind other people as might be 

as well as to a portion of the report founded upon that, to imagined. The question was, whether farmers as a dsis 

which the Central Chamber of Agriculture had called atten- should be taxed, and other members of the community set 

tion. He was bound to tell them that the committee of the free. He coincided with the gentleman who had spoken 

House of Lords that sat 20 years ago, directed its attention to before him that such a thing ought not to be, and he thought 

other points, besides the one which had been selected for him it practicable that it should oe changed. Why should a penny 

to bring before the meeting. The committee directed its atten- i n the pound be levied for the release of the Abymmian 

tion first mainly to the way in which the tithe was assessed captives, whilst the captives in our prisons and gaols were 

upon every person in England. Among the witnesses ex- pud f 0T from another source P Why should not the mine 

amined there were two important ones, one he was very sorry thing be paid for in one way as in another P Why should they 

to say had passed from among them now, but had left a name build ships of war, or any other expensive armament of the 
redolent of good sense and surpassing ability behind him, the Government, paying a penny in the pound, and not pay in the 

late Sir G. Cornewall Ixswis, and another was still living and name way for lunatic asylums, and other parochial establish* 

aiding the agricultural interest by his exertions, the present men ts P Why should they pay their pennies in the pouid to 

Lord Malmesbury. The report stated that as a general prin- teach people how to kill each other, and not pay to teach 

ciple it was impolitic, if not unjust, to levy upon one class them how to live amicably together P His rates had increased 

of the community all those rates which were to be expended something about one-third upon his occupation ; they us'd to 

for the benefit of all classes of society, that certain property be 2s. 6d. per acre, now they were 4a. Id. Still, he should 

should be exempt from those rates, and that the rates should not grumble if the burdens were borne generally— Enghad 

attach solely to real property. That this thine had been so expected that every man would do his duty. He said, let hist 

for the last 60 years was no reason why it should continue for d 0 it, in paying as well as in acting. He most sincerely wished 

50 years more. Upon what did the security of personal pro- that Mr. Haflett, who was a great man in product** pere 

perty depend P It depended upon the happy feeling that seed, would take Mr. Read, and produce more seed like bin- 

existed between the poor and the nch in this country. How (applause)— and that Mr. Mechi, who was so well-known la 

was that maintained and substantiated P By the system pecu- connection with thin-seeding, would thin-seed Mr. Reed over 

liar to England, the system of the poor law. If he was right the whole breadth of the I*™!, and so produce to the form*** 

in saying the poor laws were essential in giving the full value a good crop of ■dmirmhl* men such as he was (Cheers), 

to personal property in England, he contended that personal Mr. Algernon Clares (the Secretary of the Chamber) 
property should bear its share in supporting the poor rate, said the resolution called upon them to exert some political 

Sir G. C. Lewis considered that it would be fair to levy a tax action in the next election with a view to ensure the retire 

upon those persons who now escaped all contributions to the to Parliament of members who would be likely to carry oat 

local rates ; for example, fundholders, mortgagees, and persons the objects of the Chamber. He was quite aware that this 

whose income arose from the profits of trade. Could they was the first time that the Central Chamber had officially 
have any better evidence of that eminent man P He thought taken cognizance of any strictly political action beyond dtps* 

he understood Sir G. Jenkinson to say the statute of Elizabeth tations, petitions, and so on ; but it must be remembered that 

levied the poor rate upon the real property of the land (Sir G. the Chambers were not merely farmers’ dubs, afraid to tab 

Jenkinson : I said it imposed it upon real property because any particular action, neitherwere they about to form the®* 

there was no other to impose it upon). The principle of the selves into trades* unions ; hut at the same time, while there 
statute was that it should be levied upon real property, and might be an element of danger in the resolution which the 

also upon every person in the parish according to his ability ; meeting was asked to carry out, still there was great wesknc® 

and acting upon that principle the Scotch up to 1845 at- in being afraid to pan such a one at all. The resolution,** 

tempted to lerry the rate, and, in feet, in certain parishes in read by Mr. Duckman, called upon them to support im the 

Scotland, still continued to do so. It had been laid down by next election such candidates as declared themselves in fore« 

the Judges that property to be rated must be visible— must 0 f what they might call Chamber questions. He wasawsre 

exist in the parish ; and persons had removed property to there were two words in that resolution which were oripuDj 
other parishes to escape the rating. If a man occupied a intended to be put into it, and they were " wherever mefo*' 

house at £100 a-year, and another a farm at the same rent, it might be that an excellent man might come forward, mj»* 

and another a warehouse at a similar amount, did they pretend one as they would like to elect, but still he might be dmj 

that if they laid a shilling rate upon each of these men that ng^st the reform of local taxation. Another man, in req*« 

they were rating them according to their ability P There was to whom they might use every endeavour to keep 

no doubt but personal property should be rated as well as rea- Parliament, might wish to act strictly in accordance with 

property, and it would he the duty of the Chambers of Agril their view of revising local taxation, and therefore it *** 

culture to take care that this matter was pressed upon the thought advisable to say "wherever expedient” Wh**** 1 

attention of t he legislature. the nse of going np to Parliament and audng their repre** 0 ** 


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tra to do something for them, and at the same time being 
afiaid to apeak to the candidate before he got there. Uia 
object in ad dressin g the company was to ascertain what 
floene the Central Chamber in particular, and prorincial 
Cham bare also, oagfat to take in the coming elections. Were 
they to have a committee sitting in London to act whenever it 
was advisable to do so, and so as to ear nr out the views of 
abort t or were they to act as the Chambers of Com* 
» did* never interfere in the elections, and by that meant 
1 neit h e r one party or another P 
Mr. C. H. Fiswu rose amidst some applause mingled 
with langkter. (After considerable interruption, the chairman 
said it was possible that the interruptions came from gentlemen 
who were not strictly sober. He should advise them to take 
a stroll, and oool themselves.) He said, as regarded the reso- 
lution than before the meeting, he most say that he cordially 
agreed with it, bat he confessed there were, at the same time, 
a twiisiahlei number of practical difficulties connected with 
it that required to he well considered before any measure for 
carrying oat such n principle was passed into law. He knew 
from his own experience the gnat injustice that was inflicted 
under the pr esent system, and the neat practical difficulties 
that atom from time to time npon the subject of the ineome- 
tax. They knew perfectly well that if they only took np the 
Haws newspaper they would be sore to see a return of con- 
science money seat by individuals who had escaped payment of 
the tax. He thought the principle suggested by Sir George 
Jen ki neon was a very sound one, and could be carried ont pre- 
cisely in the way that half of the expense of keeping np the 
nofiee fores was refunded by the Government to the different 
districts that supported it Everyone, he believed, who bad 
examined the question, most come to the conclusion that there 
was a great amount of unfairness and injustice as regarded 
foe income-tax. He happened to be a commissioner, and he 
heard it said that the frauds which were committed in some 
particular neighbourhoods were almost beyond conception. 

Mr. GxEEJf, M.P., could not see how a parish could with 
justice be called upon to support a national militia, or when 
a man was drowned and thrown ashore, the parish, wherever 
it happened to h e, s hould be mulcted with the expense of the 
coroner’s jury. With regard to patting the expense on to 
foe income-tax, that was a question on whioh he should not 
Mke to give an opinion, but certainly they bad heard enough 
to make them think on the subject. He hoped the day had 
gone by when there would be any class feeling between town 
and county, because the interests of both were beginning to 
be so united that they must go hand-in-hand together; and 
that which was conceived to be justice to both of them would 
have to be done. 

Mr. Tuxvn mid that the subject they had under discus- 
sion was undoubtedly the question of the day. He should 
like to have it written in large letters in every public building, 
where it eould be seen, that instead of paying on the rental 
of Is. in the pound, he had to pay on three. There were 
£300,000,000 paid to the property-tax, bnt only £100,000,000 
mid to the poor-rate. Everybody knew that that waa a fact. 
It was simply a question of the rale of three, and they should 
think of it night and morning. 

The Rev. E. Smtthus thought that something should be 
done so that daring the next Session of Parliament the matter 
might be taken np as it ought to be. There was only one 
cfuion end one voice as to the injustice of local taxation. 
Surely in the next election they would have justice done to 
them. He agreed with Sir George Jenkinson that they 
should have an income-tax; then instead of having to pay 
fc. fid. in the pound, as at present, their payments might be 
reduced to as low as 2d 

Mr. Nniu>, of Warsby, Manchester, considered Mr. Duck- 
ham’s resolution of vast importance. He besought them not 
to let anything go forward which bad in it anything like a 
politieal bias He believed there was no question of modern 
ngisktion which claimed more consideration or was calcu- 
lated to do greater justice to the agricultural interests than the 
mviricnof focal taxation ; and in whatever shape it might be 
premnttd, there would still be left the broad principle that the 
qpicuknral interest, ao for as focal taxation was concerned, 
most prove the revision of Parliament 

Mt^Rasdall, of Market Risen, held that the national 
exchequer ought to meet all liabilities connected with charges 
of poor-ratea oy an imperial taxation founded on an impar- 


tial assessment on the entire inoome of the country. At pre- 
sent they were paying in the dark ; for instance, one-third of 
the poor-rate was devoted to other purposes than the relief of 
the poor. The local taxation was levied on real property 
alone, whereas real property only represented one-third of the 
annual income of the oountry. The experiment of the blind 
leading the blind had been carried to a considerable extent. 
However, there was a great hope that the eyes of the leaden 
would be opened. It was not long since that these Chambers 
ot Agriculture were formed, bnt they had already gained a 
standing in the country, which they would honourably main- 
tain (Hear). They were listened to in the House of Com- 
mons, and the proceedings that day had been characterized by 
an amount of mind and well directed zeal, which could not fail 
to make ita mark. 

After speeches from several other gentle- men the resolu- 
tions were pat seriatm, and carried unanimously. 

Mr. Rxio in moving a vote of thanks to the Chair- 
man was most anxious that a fair distinction should be 
drawn between the politics of agriculture and the politics 
of party (fond cheers). This 'was a distinction beginning to 
be felt ; and he could not help thinking that the towns would 
soon begin to regard this question of land taxation as affect- 
ing them also. He was glad to see Mr. Goschen, one of the 
members for the City of London, taking up similar views the 
other night in the House of Commons. In dealing with this 
question, therefore, they must be careful to keep its general 
bearings always in view. He was, on that account, anxious 
to see all exemptions abolished. Several kinds of real pro- 
perty — woods, mines, game, Ac. — were now exempt from local 
rates, and those exemptions should be got rid of. No doubt 
it was a great question, bnt a national rate for the relief of 
the poor was beginning to be thought of. At any rate all 
establishment chances, the cost of lunatic asylums, the 
militia and such other fixed charges ought to be defrayed ont 
of the consolidated fond ; but^the casual poor, respecting which 
the expenditure may be lavish or parsimonious as guardians 
pleased, were burdens on real property which ought to be 
supported by the district. The land even then would pay its 
fair proportion of taxation levied by the State for objects in 
whicn it had no special interest. He asked, then, but for a 
simple measure of justice. It is not for us (said the hon. 
member) that gunboats rot in Chinese seas ; it is not for us 
that consuls are sent to semi-barbarous powers, who land us in 
an Abyssinian war and extra in oome-tax; ( it is not exclusively for 
ns that large additional grants are made year by year for 
eduertion ; it is not for ns that a quarter of a million a year is 
spent by the Government on art and science (cheers). I say, 
therefore, that we want nothing bnt justice, and though we 
may wait long for it, we will be satisfied with nothing less 
(load oheers.) 


THE DEVONSHIRE CHAMBER OF AGRICUL- 
TURE. — The quarterly meeting of this Chamber took place 
at Exeter ; Mr. Elias Ward, of Hangridge — in the absence 
of the president, Earl Forteacne — in the chair. The meet- 
ing toolc into consideration the propriety of establishing a 
standard weight for the sale of grain. Mr. G. Radmore, of 
Thorverton, brought forward a resolution recommending the 
adoption of the following scale: 1st, Bushel of wheat 601bs. ; 
2nd, Bushel of barley 501bs. ; 3rd, Bushel of Oats 381bs. 
He referred to the anomalies in the present system. At 
Liverpool the weight of a bushel of wheat was 701bs. ; at 
Barnstaple, 651bs. : at Exeter, 621bs. Mr. Holley, of 
Okehampton, seconded the resolution. Mr. Norrish recom- 
mended that the returns should be made of all grain sold in 
the market, and moved an amendment embodying his views, 
bnt as there was no seoonder it fell to the ground. Mr. Rad- 
more’s resolution was then carried, with only one dissentient. 
The Chairman introduced for discussion the subject of the 
extent of highway districts and highway rates. He moved 
“ That highway districts should be conterminous with Poor- 
law Unions.” Mr. Holley showed that with regard to some 
matters there should be a national instead of a county rate. 
The resolution was carried by a majority of 19 against 4. 
The Chairman then proposed “ That the expenses of main- 
taining the parish roads should become chargeable to the 
oommon fund of each district,” Mr. Norrish seconded the 


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motion. Hr. Bisdon, of Walton, thought that the principle 
propounded was good, and that the resolution expressed what 
would eventually come to pass. The Bev. W. H. Karslake 
suggested the formation of a small eommittee to assist Mr. 
Ward in ascertaining how the proposed alteration, if carried 
out, would affect the parishes, Re much doubted whether the 


oounty area would not be the best with reference to themsia- 
tenanoe of the highways. The resolution was carried hr a 
majority of 10 against 9. Mr. Bisdon gave notice of a 
motion, that aa the general election ia approaching thedeeton 
be strongly recommended to press on the candidates for election 
the great necessity of more uniform and equitable rates. 


AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. 


On Monday, Jnly 20, ata general meeting of the Think Cham* 
her of Agriculture, Mr. Craiglb, of Brawith, the Chairman, 
said they had met together to consider the question of agri- 
cultural returns — whether good or bad was to be derived from 
them — whether thould give them their support, or raise their 
voice against the adoption of them. The subject had now 
been under discussion a considerable time — in Scotland more 
so than in England— and in the former country agricultural 
retains had been tried with great suooess until lately. The 
primary cause of these returns being instituted was through 
the cattle plague. The Government were induced, in Marcn, 
1866, to issue the cattle census to ascertain what cattle the 
country ooutained, and, in June they imagined the idea of 
ascertaining the wheat crops. The returns were very imper- 
fect at first, a large section of the community having objected 
on principle to them; but gradually they have improved. 
The tax-gatherer is mixed up with them, and there is a great 
dislike to that word — there was rather a dread of Government, 
and the returns being sent to the tax-gatherer. He thought 
they ought to discuss the subject as fully as they could, and 
ask themselves whether they should give the information, and, 
if they did so, whether that information would be for the be- 
nefit of the country. His opinion was that it was a capital 
thing, and would be found of very great use to formers, if pro- 
perly compiled and prepared ; bnt they had not yet the statistics 
to enable them to see of what real benefit they were, for some 
of them rather tended to mislead than to form a proper data. 
They would all have noticed the great discrepancies from year 
to year, and by them they could not ascertain whether they had 
advanced or retired. He thought some arrangement ought to 
be made in classifying these returns, whereby the man in the 
south might see what his brethren in the north were farming, 
and he considered that some arrangement of that kind would 
be the means ol promoting a general efficiency. The present 
returns do not contain all the occupiers, for he knew nimself 
many in the North Biding who had not sent in their returns. 
In 1861, 7,099 were returned as farmers and occupiers, and, 
in 1867, this number had increased to 12,631. Now it was 
impossible that in six years the number would nearly have 
doubled itself. He suggested also that if the size of the hold- 
ings each man held was returned, it would be advantageous. 
Before they discussed the general principles of that subject, 
they should take it on its merits, ana that is what they ought 
to discuss first. If any person present would move a resolu- 
tion, he had another which he would afterwards move as to 
details, and which he thought would be of advantage to them. 
He referred to the agricultural statistics prepared in Belgium, 
Holland, and France, and the satisfaction that was derived 
therefrom, and said he had no doubt that, on principle, agri- 
cultural statistics would be a great benefit to all of them, and 
not be detrimental to them. A man’s means were not disclosed 
to the public. What would a general do in battle, if he was 
not acquainted with the supplies to be obtained P and it was the 
same with the country at large, who ought to know what sup. 
plies they had at hand; for if the aid derived from foreign 
countries was cut off, they would have no idea of the resources 
of this country. He briefly referred to the question of estimat- 
ing the total crops, which would, in his opinion, be found very 
difficult. They knew the area, but he considered it would be 
injurious to couple the estimate with the area. It was very 
necessary they should have agricultural returns, and those re- 
turns should be as complete as possible (applause). 

Mr. Ringbosb ( Osgodby ) inquired of the Chairman whe- 
ther, in the Scottisn statistics, there was not some estimate of 
the counties. 

The Crajkmax replied that it was attempted in three coon* 
tics. 


Mr. Bin grose agreed with the Chairman that a great dial 
of objection had been taken to the statistics being assoaital 
with the revenue offices, as it then appeared as having a con- 
nexion with taxation. He considered that if the forts were 
collected by the Board of Guardians, it would bs lass objec- 
tionable to the p&blic at large. If the statistics were collected 
by them, they might form an estimate in committee. Some 
formers he knew of would be afraid to give a correct retain 
for fear of their landlords coming upon them for a higher rent ; 
others would make their crops greater than they really were, 
merely from a spirit of bombast. He thought thrt on looking 
over the area they might themselves make a pretty good esti- 
mate of the crop. He oonduded by moving the following re- 
solution : “ That this chamber records its opinion of the nine 
of agricultural statistics, and suggests that that there should 
be a further development of the system now in foroe, in order 
that greater accuracy may be obtained.** 

Mr. Applzyard (Angram) thought if the formers discussed 
the question, as they were doing that day, there would be 00 
more objection to agricultural statistics. If they ask their 
neighbours why they do not send in their returns, the answer 
given is that there is no advantage to them in doing so— they 
aid not know what they were for. If every person properly 
understood the object of the Board of Trade in maxing oat 
these returns, he was sure there would be no more objection 
to them. A copy is sent to the farmer, six or eight weeks 
before harvest, to fill np : he is to give his estimate. If they 
estimate the quantity of quarters per acre they must be reiy 
far wrong ; and if the formers were called upon to do that, there 
would be a strong objection to it This, however, ia not what 
he is required to do. He is only asked to give an estimate of 
his entire crop. If farmers were called upon to give an esti- 
mate of quarters per acre, the landlords would see it, and, per- 
haps, raise the rents. He could not see any objection to the 
present system, and he had great pleasure m seconding Mr. 
Ilingroses proposition. 

The Chairman next referred to a discussion which had 
been raised in the House of Commons, on the advantage of 
having a separate department for agriculture, having it repre- 
sented in the Cabinet, and doing away with the returns to the 
Board of Trade. Perhaps they would not exactly have a 
minister of agriculture, hut some person holding a similar po- 
sition — a secretary for managing the agricultural affairs of 
this kingdom. There was no doubt of the failure of agricul- 
tural statistics as commanding respect from the formers, as d 
this would be best removed by having the statistics collected 
entirely independent of all Government office*. He called 
their attention to the trouble in gaining information during 
the cattle-plague; they were referred kom one person to 
another, and never knew from whom they were getting proper 
information, or from whom the restrictions came. What they 
wanted was an executive, and under that organisation the 
Chambers of Agriculture would be most usefril to them. They 
would not then be responsible to Parliament, bnt would be 
independent of Government altogether. Agriealtnre formed 
the great back-bone of the country, and although a large por- 
tion of the community could not be oooupied in commerce, yrt 
they oould in agriculture. A proper system of agriculture 
was, he thought, a thing that could not be over-estimated, and 
their object was to make the whole of the agriculture of the 
kingdom to radiate from one centre. Whatever party be ia 
power, it should be their object to look after the interest of 
agriculture. He thought that since agricultural stat i stics ksd 
been introduced they had certainly oonduoed to the benefit of 
the former, and would still mere so if oollected as they now-' 
mended. Re proposed “That this chamber considers thst 


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agricultural statistics would be more efficiently collected were 
my compulsorily done by a national department of agricul- 
tare, and in its opinion it woald be for the good of the country 
if inch a department was instituted.'* * Be next referred to the 
■atneet as taken ap in the House of Commons by Mr. Ad&nd, 
and said that move than £70,000 a-year was spent over the 
services rendered to agriculture, which waa very badly repre- 
sented. What he suggested was that there be a commissioner 
of agriculture appointed, who would be responsible to Govern- 
ment, and by that there would be not only a considerable 
saving ejected, but the work would be carried out much more 
satisfactorily than at present. 

Mr. Bullet (Osgodby) seconded the motion, and then pro- 
posed “ That the brat mode of distributing the form of returns 
would be through the medium of the overseen of the poor for 


each township, and such returns to be sent by each occupier 
under seal to the department of agriculture." 

Mr. Barnett (Birdforth) seconded the motion. 

Mr. Ringrose thought statistics no use unless they were 
made ap soon after sent in, and he considered they should be 
placed in the hands of a local man, and made up by him. 

Several members objected to this, on the ground that their 
affairs would then become known in the locality. 

Mr. West (secretary) suggested that this question stand 
over until another meeting, and moved “That no mode of col- 
lecting these returns be approved of by this chamber that doe s 
not ensure perfect secrecy so far as it relates to each particular 
occupier.” 

Mr. Barley agreed to withdraw his motion ; and that pro- 
posed by Mr. West waa carried. 


MALT-TAX REPORT. 


[We gave the substance of the following report which has just been issued.] 


The 8dfeet Committee appointed to inquire into the opera- 
tion of the Malt Tax have considered the matters to them 
referred, and have agreed to the following Report : 

L Your Committee opened the inquiry by taking evidence 
from the Board of Inland Revenue, and the chairman of the 
Board (Mr. Stephenson) pnt in a statement of the different 
rates of duty on malt from the year 1097 (when it was first 
imposed) to the present time, as follows : “ In 1697, on its 
first imposition, it was 6d. a bushel; in 1713, when it 
was extended to Scotland, it was 6d. ; and in 1720, in 
Scotland, it was reduced to 3d. Then, in England, in 
1700, it was raised to 9$d. a bushel; in 1780, it was 
raised to Is. 4£d. a bushel, and to 8d. a bushel in Scotland. 
Then, in 1783, the duty was imposed in Ireland, at 7d. a 
bushel ; that was raised m 1796 to Is. 3d. Then in 1802 it 
was respectively 2s. fid. in England* Is. 8fd. in Scotland, and 
Is. 9|d. in Ireland. In 1804, which was a year of war tax, it 
was raised to 4s. fifd. in England, 3s. 9*4. in Scotland, and 
2s. 3$d. in Ireland. In 1813 it was raised to 3e. 3fd. in Ire- 
land ; and in 1815 it was raised to 4e. fid. in Ireland. Then 
in 1810 the duty was reduced to what it had been prior to 
1804— via., 2s. fid. in England, and la. 8Jd. in Scotland, but 
it was reduced to 2s. 4Jd. in Ireland. In 1819 it was raised 
to 3a. 7$d. in England and Scotland, and 3s. 0|d. in Ireland. 
Then in 1822 the duty was fixed at 2s. 7d. uniformly, at which 
it stands at the present time, with the exception of fi per oent., 
which was adaed in 1840 to the excise duties generally, 
making the actual impost 2s. 8$d. For a short time, from 
1854 to 1856, there was a do ty of 4s. during the Crimean 
nr. and aftqr that it reverted to 2s. 8£d», as it stands now.'’ 
Fallowing this statement* with regard to the amount of tax. 
Hr. Stephenson stated as a remarkable feet, that the amount 
of malt consumed had remained almost stationary for 100 years 
poor to 1830, although the population had largely increased ; 
that daring this period the consumption was 26,000,000 
bathela a year, and that on the repeal of the beer duty in 1830 
the consumption rapidly increased, until in 1866 it reached 
45,000,000 oush. for England only. ( In 1866 the amount of malt 
on which duty was paid in the united Kingdom was upwards 
of 52,000,000 bushels. These statements lead your committee 
to the conclusion that a reduction in the rate of duty would 
lead to a large increase in the consumption of malt. 

2. Your Committee proceeded to examined several agricul- 
turists of peat practical experience, taken respectively from 
all parts of the country. These witnesses appeared to your 
Committee to be generally of opinion that the effect of the 
malt-tax is to interfere with the due rotation of crops, by 
causing wheat to be sown where barley could otherwise be 
sown ; that it causes inferior barley to be neglected for malt- 
ing pur p ose s, though it is well known that such barley would 
make good malt ; that it causes the labouring classes to con- 
sume am unwholesome kind of bser ; that it prevents the far- 
mers giving their labourers wholesome home-brewed beer; 
that it promote to a groat extent the agricultural labourers 
browing bear in their own cottages ; that it prevents the far- 
mers making malt ou their own prenpaes, m used to be the 


custom, it having been given in evidence that in the counties 
of Essex and Cambridge few of the farm- houses were formerly 
without malt-houses attached to them. It has been proved to 
your Committee that malt is valuable for feeding purposes, 
and that the Excise restrictions, in preventing barley being 
sprouted for the feeding of horses ana cattle, are injurious to 
the agriculturist. 

3. Tour Committee next examined maltsters from the coun- 
ties of Suffolk, Norfolk, Hertford, Lincoln, Devon, and York ; 
from whom your Committee gather that the number of malt- 
sters has sensibly decreased in the last few years, whilst the quan- 
tity of malt manufactured has increased ; that although some of 
the witnesses were favourable to a repeal of the tax, they ad- 
mitted that the trade, as a whole, were opposed to the repeal, 
on the ground that it would lead to an increase in the number 
of maltsters, and to the practice of malting by farmers ; that 
the tax compels the maltster to use more capital in his trade, 
by at least 60 per cent., than would be otherwise required. 
The Committee feel bound to observe that it is given in evi- 
dence that the revenue officers offer every facility to the malt- 
sters in the conducting of their business. 

4. Tour Committee examined two eminent corn-factors, 
who are large buyers of home-grown barley and Urge im- 
porters of foreign barley. Their evidence goes far to show 
that, although in certain localities abroad first-class barley can 
he grown, yet that as a rule the best English barley would 
always command a higher price than foreign barley for malting 


purposes. 

5. Your Committee also examined three gentlemen emi- 
nent as public brewers, who generally state that the consump- 
tion of beer has increased very much of Ute years ; that 
more capital is required with the tax than would be re- 
quired without it; and that public-house beer is not 
adulterated to their knowledge. Mr. Allsonp asserted 
confidently that the public brewer can and aoes deliver 
beer cheaper to the consumer than he can brew it for himself. 
Two country brewers were also examined, the first of whom 
objected to the repeal of the malt-tax, as he could see no good 
in it, whilst the other waa of opinion that it would confer 
great benefit on the public generally, hut especially on the 
labouring classes. 

6. Your Committee also examined Mr. Gordon, of Brantham 
Court, Suffolk, who has a plan for commuting the malt duty by 
levying a duty on the malthouse, according to measurement ; 
a plan which certainly appears to have pome merit, but upon 
which your Committee are not prepared to express any further 
opinion, inasmuch as it is novel, and requires to be considered 
by the officers of excise. 

7. Your Committee next examined, on behalf of the con- 
sumer, a manufacturer employing large numbers of workpeople 
on the borders of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and a very intel- 
ligent labouring man from Playford, Suffolk. The latter, Elias 
Amos, stated that he was a farm labourer at Playford, and that 
he brews in hk cottage three times a year ; that be could brew 
oftener, and that he and his family should use beer instead of 
tea if malt ware cheaper, as they can do more work on it ; that 


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he can do more work on the beer he brews than on public- 
home beer, which is not wholesome. He ears all labourers in 
his country would brew if they could affora to do so. The 
former witness, Mr. Joshua Fielden, of Todmorden, gives im- 
portant evidence as to the extent to which cottage brewing is 
carried on at the present time. He caused an examination to 
be made, from house to house, in seven townships situate in 
the parishes of Halifax, Huddersfield, Calverly and Rochdale. 
The total number of families visited was 9,822, and the result 
is that 76 per oent. of these families brew at home, 8 per cent, 
would brew but cannot afford to do so, 6 per cent, buy their 
beer, 10 percent, do not drink beer. 

8. The witness accounts for the prevalence of this habit, by 
the fact that the wages received by a family in the manufac- 
turing districts are so much more than those received by a 
family in the agricultural districts. He also states, from his 
own experience, that those who practise it are the least given 
to frequent public-houses, and are the most sober, steady, and 
industrious of the population. This witness contends that 
the malt tax being laid on the raw material increases in pres- 
sure at every stage of the manufacture or ohange of hand 
through which it passes, and he arrives at the following re- 
sults ; that, taking the price of barley at 81s. a quarter, the 
tax, when paid by the nuuster, is 70 per cent.; tliat the person 
who buys malt and brews beer from it pays a tax of 100 per 
cent.; and that the person who buys beer by retail in a public- 
house pays a tax of 140 per cent. Your Committee are of 
opinion that the principle on which this calculation is based 
is correct, and that the consumer of beer pays a very much 
heavier tax than goes into the Exchequer. 

9. Two lane distillers were examined by your Committee, 
of whom Mr. Menxies was anxious that the distillers should 


be allowed to make beer from some portion of his wort, and 
that the duty on such beer should be charged in the same 
manner as the drawback is now allowed on exported beer. 
This witness, with all the large Scotch distillers, presented a 
memorial to Mr. Gladstone to this effect, in 1866. But your 
Committee must add, that the second witness dissented from 
this proposition. He also thinks that a reduction of the duty 
on strong wines would interfere with the spirit duty. 

10. Your Committee concluded this part of their labours 
by examining Sir Charless Preesly (formerly Chairman of the 
Board of Inland Revenue), and Mr. C. B. Foreey (Surveying 
General Examiner of Excise). The first of these witnesses 
stated distinctly that there would be no difficulty in raising s 
tax from private brewers ; and the second could point out no 
insurmountable difficulty in substituting a brewei’s licence in- 
stead of the malt tax. 

11. Your Committee consider that the result of the evidence 
taken by them is, that the malt tax prevents the farmer from 
cultivating his land to the greatest advantage; that it ob- 
srtucts him in the use of a valuable article of food for cattle ; 
that, by making it ne ce ss ar y to employ a large additional 
amount of capital in the important trade of malting and 
brewing, it has created and tends to foster two large monopo- 
lies ; and that, by materially increasing the price of beer, it 
encourages adulteration, and prevents to a great extent the 
habit of brewing amongst the labouring people. 

12. Your Committee, carefully reviewing the whole of the 
evidence before them, are of opinion that the malt tax might 
be repealed, provided some means for raising the same amount 
of revenae, ii required, be substituted either in the shape of a 
brewer’s licence or some other form. 

July 18, 1868. 


THE CATTLE PLAGUE ACT. 

(From the Supplement of the London Qaidtc of Friday, July 24— Saturday, July 25). 


From and immediately after the 26th day of July, 1868, 
Article 26 of the Consolidated Cattle Plague Order of August, 
1867, shall, with respect to the metropolis, be read and have 
effect as if the words “ ten days'* were therein substituted for 
the words u six days." 

The schedule to the Metropolitan Cattle Plague Order of 
August, 1867, shall be read and have effect as if the words 
“ eleven days** were therein substituted for the words “ seven 
days;** and the forms of Metropolitan Cattle-market passes 
shall be altered accordingly. 

The word “ animal" means exclusively an animal comprised 
in the definition of cattle ; and the word “ calf’ means ex- 
clusively a calf not more than 14 days old; and, subject 
thereto, words in this order have the same meaning as in the 
Metropolitan Cattle Plague Order of August, 1867. 

Notwithstanding anything in the Metropolitan Cattle Plague 
Order of August, 1867, cattle may be moved alive out of the 
metropolis, in accordance with the provisions of this order. 

Where any person being the owner of any animal within 
the metropolis which, except in the case of a calf, has been in 
his poesesuon not less than eight weeks, or which, in the case 
of a calf, is born from a cow which has been in his possession 
not less than 28 days, is desirous of moving such animal alive 
ont of the metropolis, he may give notice of snob his desire 
to the local authority by writing, stating : 

The fact of the requisite possession as aforesaid ; 

The name and residence of the owner of the animal ; 

The name of the person to whom, and the place to which 
the animal is to be sent ; 

A description of the animal, stating its sex, breed, age, dis- 
tinctive marks, and other particulars sufficient for identifica- 
tion. 

On receipt of any such notice the local authority shall, 
unless there appears to them good reason to the contrary, and 
on being satisfied of the fact of po s se ss ion for the time requi- 
site under this Order, proceed, as soon as may be, to cause an 
inspector appointed by them under the Contagious Diseases 


(Animals) Acts to visit the cowshed or place from which the 
animal is desired to be moved : — 

In all cases within three days after the reoeipt by the local 
authority of the owner’s notice ; and again, 

In the case of any animal other than a calf, at the expira- 
tion of 28 days from the day of the first visit (both dsys inclu- 
sive) ; but 

In the ease of a calf, at the expiration of seven days fron» 
the day of the fint visit (both days inclusive) : 

And to report to the local authority on the state of health 
of the cattle in the cowshed or place aforesaid. 

If in the case of any animal, the inspector, on etch such 
visit, is satisfied and reports that it and all other cattle in the 
cowshed or place aforesaid are entirely free from contagion* 
or infections disease, and that it has not, since his first viflt, 
been in contact with any cattle other than those in the wa- 
shed or place aforesaid, then the animal may be noted sure 
out of the metropolis at such time within three days sfter the 
second visit of tne inspector. 

Cattle brought to the metropolis by the London and North- 
Western Railway may be moved alive within and out of the 
metropolis by tne London and North-Western Railway to 
Willesden station, thence by the West-London Railway to the 
junctions with the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, and 
with the London, Brighton, and South -Coast Railway, at or 
near Long Hedge, ana thence by either of the last- mentioned 
railways ont of the metropolis. 

Cattle, the produce of Spain or Portugal, or of Normandy 
or Brittany, may be landed at any port in Great Britain, along 
the coast from the North Foreland, westwards to the Unb- 
end, and thence northwards to the Mull of Canty re, at puce* 
approved by the Commissioners of Her Majesty’* Custom*. 

Until cattle landed from a vessel under this Order hsve been 
examined by an inspector appointed or approved by the Co®* 
missionere of Her Majesty’s Customs, they aboil not be mow 
from the place of landing, or be allowed to come in eontaci 
with any other cattle. 





THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE, 


193 


LEICESTERSHIRE FARMING. 


" A plough in t field arable/’ says Cowley, “in most 
noble and excellent coat of anna." It was a home-truth 
quaintly told, and one not to be lightly gainsaid. Still* 
the decision of the twenty Midland firmer*, who met to 
celebrate the victory of Salamanca, and then sent off the 
best score of bollocks in their pastures to “ Sir Arthur/' 
touches the real key-note of Leicestershire firming. 
Drayton, it is true, could think of no other title for the 
county than “ Bean Belly," when he strung together in his 
“ Polydbion," "the blazons of the shires/' but the lapse of 
two centuries and a-half has placed bullocks before beans, 
and wethers before wheat. Its "rich and marly plain" 
hath, according to Burton, “ the proportion of a Hart, 
broad at the top and narrow at the bottom, which name 
it truly beareth, for that it lieth almost in the hart and 
center of the whole continent of the kiogdome." Ex- 
cept where Bardon Hill rises more than eight hundred 
feet, above 

“ the craggy bound. 

Bogged and high, of Charnwood forest ground," 

where you meet, as Herbert* did in harvest -time, those 
■lent workers iu cowl and gaberdine, under the shadow 
e i the cross upon the rock, the county is pretty generally 
a succession of gently-rising hills, of which a south- 
eastern range separates the basin of the Soar from the 
Welland. It contains 816 square miles, or about 
565,346 statute acres f ; and extends 45 miles, north to 
south, from Normanton in " Bcver's batning vale," to 
Stanford Park, dear to the Pytehley ; and forty, from 
east to west, between Wymondham and Nether Seal. 
Its 335 parishes lie in seven hundreds, and the present 
county valuation is £1,063,686. The population, ac- 
cordxng*to the census of '61, was 243,648, with the males 
in a minority of 6,202 ; while the sum total showed an 
increase in sixty years of more than eighty per cent. By 
the same tables we find that there were 194 landed pro- 
prietors; 3,483 formers and graziers ; 1,051 farmers' 
mas, grandsons, brothers, and nephews above fifteen 
engaged on the land; 128 farm-bailiffs; 567 shepherds 
lout-door) ; 2,547 servants (in-door) ; and 16,182 agri- 
cultural labourers. 

It is not a county of large forms. Nearly half of them, 
except on the grazing or Harboro' side, are under 50 
acrea ; there are not many above 500, and one of 700 or 
800 acres is quite an exception. On the Harboro' side, 
or "Top Leicestershire” as it is often called, they usually 
average from 200 to 300 acres, and are let, in some in- 
stances, at from fifty to sixty shillings, but more generally 
from forty to fifty. Large fields, let by the half-year for 
keeping, will make £4 and upwards. From thirty to forty 
shining* is the average for plough forms all over the 
eownty, hot some of the heat are let at fifty ahillings, and 
£3 in very isolated cases. Nearly all the forms on Chain - 
wood Forest are small. In the Vale of Belvoir they more 
resemble those on the Harboro' side in extent, bnt in- 
crease to 400 acres on “ The Heaths," or Waltham side 
of the Duke of Rutland’s property. 


* In ifliwoa to Herbert B.A.’s celebrated picture of “ La- 

innirf g$ 4 tt ure P 

t VoL iii.. Census (1861) Report, p. 80. 


There are scarcely any leases in Leicestershire, and 
except upon a few estates competition has increased rents 
considerably during the last twenty years. The custom 
of the country as regards unexhausted improvements has 
grown more liberal, but it is still less so than in Notts. 
An allowance is generally made to the out-going tenant 
for draining done by him within six or seven years, pro- 
vided he has paid for the tiles. If the landlord has found 
them, the allowance for labour only extends over four 
years. In some instances a portion of the cost of unex- 
hausted artificial manures is allowed, and so for the most 
part is one-fourth of the oilcake consumed in the last two 
years of the tenancy, if no crop of com has been grown 
from it. When wheat has been sown on a clover ley, the 
out-going tenant generally receives 3s. to 5s. per acre for 
herbage, hut not any rent, rates, or tithe ; and there is 
also a three-years’ allowance for bones on the lighter soils, 
and a two-years' one for lime. On mangolds, cabbages, 
or potatoes £1 per acre is allowed for the unexhausted 
value of form-yard and artificial manures ; bnt it is not so 
with turnips. 

There is a lack of good farm-buildings, although a 
gradual improvement is going on ; but much remains to 
be done, especially in cattle-yards and field hovels. At 
present many farmers cannot tie up nearly enough beasts 
on turnips and straw. This system is preferred for the 
sake of economising food, hut there are too often only 
sheds for half the number, and the rest run loose in the 
yards, and are often unable to lie down in very rough 
nights. There has been no lack of spirit among 
landlords and formers in the purchase of good im- 
plements. Private steam ploughs are kept at Key- 
thorpe, Garthorpe, Prestwold, Goptall, and Burton- 
on -the- Wolds, and until lately a Smith’s cultivator 
was let out near Twycross ; hut the ploughing is gene- 
rally done with two horses, and three on the stronger 
soils; and the old wooden plough is not yet extinct. 
Reaping machines and steam thrashers are let out, and 
one of the most useful combinations we met with, was that 
of a pulper and a straw cutter, discharging into the same 
"well" and raising the mixed fodder by a hoist and 
funnels either through the wall into the carts outside the 
barn, or the storehouse within. Many Irish reapers 
still come over, hut the machine and the scythe are 
gradually superseding the sickle. The scythe is, perhaps, 
most in favour, as it acts best upon strong land, which 
the machine cannot get into. Daring harvest, the men 
seem to prefer taking out much of their increased wages 
in ale or beer rather than in money, and the agreements 
as to extra hours, supper in the house, &c. , are so various 
that hardly a dozen farmers could speak to jost the same 
practice. Men-servants hired in the house get from £15 
to £20 with rations, and, exclusive of hay and harvest 
times, when they earn more than doable, a labourer’s 
wages will average from 2s. to 2s. Sd. per day. 

" Matters of antiquitye, historye, armorye, and gene- 
alogy in the eonntie of Leicester, whose beauty hath long 
been shadowed and obscured," found their earliest 
chronicler in Barton, whose work was printed in “ Litle 
Brittaine, neara unto Aldersgate-street," in 1622. The 
north-east and south-west sides were credited therein 
with " good soile and apt to hear corne and grasse." The 
vale of Belvoir was " inferiour to none neere adjoining 
for gooduesse and deepnesse of soile," and. when clond 
and mists hung over its Castle tower, the rustics looked 


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up from their toil, and thought of “ this old proguoitick 
rime there currant”— 

u If Betzer have a cappe, 

You ohurles of the tale, iooka to that t”* 

The north-west side for the most part bore a hard and 
barren reputation. “ It yieldeth frnite not withonte great 
labour and expences, but is still riche in pitcoale and 
limestone, wherewith they doe husbande their grounds,” 
as well as plenty of wood and fuel, in which the south- 
east was wanting. Of the latter side, our author wrote 
that it was “almost all champain and yeeldeth great 
delight and profit in every way save one.” “It affoordeth,” 
he added (and this is the earliest allusion we find to its 
sheep), “many goode and large sheepe pastures, breeding 
a sheepe to that height and goodnesse, so that (as I have 
credibly heard) neither Lemttvr nor Cotswould can ex- 
ceed them if one respeot, either largenesse of the body, 
finenesse of the woof, or goodnesse of the breed.” 

A similar work was “attempted by John Throsby”— 
under the Whartoniau motto, “ Knowledge is to be drawn 
from particularities” — late in the eighteenth century, and 
a very elaborate one by Mr. Nichol, in the present. The 
agricultural history of the countv entered very little into 
their plan, and Quaint Old Fuller did little more than 
make merry with its “ masculine beans,” and the good 
silver which they caused to rattle in the pookets of the 
“stout yeomen,” upon whom he strongly pressed the 
need of a Friday market. The Board of Agriculture 
commissioned Mr. William Pitt to report progress before 
1790, and his elaborate labours are alluded to by Mr. 
Marshall, in his “ Abstract of the Reports.” The latter 
gentleman had himself written the “ Rural Economy of 
the Midland Counties,” and resided for that purpose, in 
1784-87, at a small village near Tamworth, where four 
of them meet.” His analysis of his rival’s authorities 
(one of whom was the celebrated Dr. Darwin) are suffi- 
ciently caustic, and he treated all quotations from his own 
works in Mr. Pitt's Report as “pearls set in a shifting 
beaoh.” He found, it seems, no land worth less than 
five shillings an acre, and few on lease worth less than 
ten. From fifteen to twenty shillings per acre was the 
valuation he put on the county generally, “which no 
other county, Rutlandshire excepted, can bear.” 

Arthur Young carries us back to 1771, when he left 
his Bradmore farm for a tour through the North-West 
Midlands. “ Suoh as were pleased to give intelligence to 
the author during the course of his tour” were neither 
few nor chary of speech. He entered the county from 
Northamptonshire, with his mind fall of a close of 212 
acres, belonging to Sir James Langham of Haselbeach, 
which “ waved over the side of a hill, with herds spread 
out to the eye, more like a patriarch's of old.” He had 
gaxed on the 6,000 acres in Naseby fieldf, from which 
the Ironsides, scarcely a hundred years before, had chased 
the Cavaliers into Market Harborough, at the close of a 
bloody summer's day. Booth of Glyndon had shown him 
cattle of the longhorned Lancashire sort, and a two- 
horse Rotherham plough. As he rode on his way 
by Leicester and Loughboro’ to Dishley, which Mr. 


* Mr. Marriott, of Kibvrorth Harcourt, in Top Leices- 
tershire, who has registered the rainfall for several years 
past, informs us that the average for 1856-67 is 23 inches 54 
parts, and that the highest rainfall for any year was 30 inches 
18 parts in 1866 ; each part signifying the one hundredth part 
of au inch. The years 1857, I860, 1862, and 1865 are next in 
order. Ia the diycst year, 1864, the rainfall was only 18 
inches 4 parts. 

+ This is Mr. Mastin's computation in his History of 
Naseby, but the award of the Enclosure Commissioners in 
1822 puts it down at 3,375 acres, 



Coke always styled “the best inn on the road, 1 ' 
he “saw a new tool called a spud” at Mr. Ayer’s, of 
Tilton; and fonnd Mr. Shuckborough Ashby a right 
pleasant guide to the farms round Qnenby Hall. He set 
the average rent of land at sixteen shillings, and of the 
best grass land at thirty ; and he met with no commons 
but Charnwood Forest and Rothley Plain. He wrote 
strongly on cabbage in preference to turnips, and consi- 
dered that spring cabbage for beasts and antomn cabbage 
for sheep, with barley or oats for straw, should bs cardinal 
points of a new county system. Beef, pork, and mutton 
were then only S|d. per lb. ; and the consumption of tea, 
both by labourers aud the recipients of parish relief, 
surprised him not a little. A lean eighteen-months' 
wether brought its £1, and a fat one ten shillings more. 
It was not the practice to send them up to Smithfield out 
of the grass, but they were placed on turnips for some 
weeks near Hatfield or St. Albans. 

Of the longhorns he gave a much more favourable re- 
port than he did of the shorthorns, and estimated the hide 
at fifteen shillings more to the tanner. Nothing seems to 
have struck his attention so much as the eleven to thirteen 
feet, which were taken up by the hedge and posts and rails 
of the ox fences ; and his proposed substitute was a bank 
between two ditchea with posts and a line of feathers on 
the top, " which not even a deer would jump.” There was, 
however, nothing left for him to desire, when he found 
the “ Bakewell Junior” of that day among his cow-teams. 
Dishley seemed to him “ incomparable in every particular 
of good husbandry,” and with such olean-kept quicks 
that they were “bigger at three than others at six.” 
His longhorns were “ all as fat as bears ; ” and it waa 
their great improver’s boast that an ox of 50 stone had 
30 of it in roast against 20 in boil. One part of hi» 
stock management was, to say the least of it, peculiar. 
He rotted toe sheep he would not sell to breeders before 
he sold them to the butcher; and he did so by putting 
them on pastures over which water waa always flowing 
after the middle of May. 

The geological structure of the county has this espe- 
cial feature, that the change of soil from light, sandy, or 
gravelly loam to stiff marl is by imperceptible shades. Its 
different formations are so blended, that we can hardly 
apeak with the decision of the late Arthur Clough, 
when he described himself, daring a visit to his 
old school, as standing on the blue lias at Rngby, 
with the red sandstone westward at Coventry, and 
four mile* off the Northamptonshire villages, “ all built 
of their native yellow-brown oolite, and whose pesmntry, 
in their ftistian gaiters and knee-breeches, have a yellow- 
brown oolitish appearance.” The eastern part is mostly 
occupied by the oolite, toe blue and white lisa, and the 
intermediate formations ; and the rest consists generally 
of the new red sand-stone, and occasionally of gyp*^ 
with vast ooal-deposits commencing on the borders of 
Derbyshire, and skirting Charnwood Forest on the w«t. 
It is in this coal-district that the Flora is richest. No 
less than 165 and 155 speoies can be gathered in th® 
course of a stroll round Castle Donington and Ashby-de- 
la-Zouch respectively; whereas yon may search Syaton 
parish at the fertile jonotion of the Soar and the Wreske, 
and only find 72. 

The hills of Charnwood Forest are varied ana 
boundless in their mineral stores. “Swithland Slate 
pits” has a familiar sound both to the contractor and the 
foxhunter. Whittle Hill furnishes hones for scythes. 
Cement-limestone is found at Barrow in horizontal layers, 
one or two feet thick ; and granite blocks for the Londoa 
streets are hewn from the rocks in the new red sandstone 
round Mount Sorrel and Qooro. The uplands are in 
some places gravelly, but mostly oonsist of agreyish lo*jn» 
more or less tenacious in its texture. There are eight 


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Mud* of loam between Melton Mowbray and Normanton, 
though few bat a geologist ooold detect the shades of 
difference, at the soil shifts from ** sound grey” at Wal- 
tham to Banff-coloured” at Braunston, and then to the 
strongest or “ deep grey,” which dips from Stathem Point 
into the rale of Belvair. Sheep-management varies con- 
siderably upon them. In the meadows of the Wreake, 
near Melton Mowbray, lambs are very seldom wintered. 
Between Thorpe Arnold and Grantham the sheep eat the 
turnips off the land, whereas in the vale of Belvoir the 
eold clay bottom will not admit of it. 

The soil is generally deep and not easily burnt up. It 
may be divided into three great leading classes— friable 
day loam for corn and grass, sandy or gravelly loam for 
barky and turnips, ana excellent meadow pastures along 
the rivers. There are frequent deviations in management, 
according to diversities of soO and variation of seasons ; but 
the fonr-ooarse is most general. On the lighter soils the 
following rotation is usually adopted : 1 st, fallow for root 
crops ; 2nd, barley with seeds ; 3rd, seeds ; 4th, whfe&t. If 
the farmer want* a two-years' ley instead of corn, when he 
seeds his land down, he sows white clover with the usual 
mixture of rye-grass, &c., and red, clover if only for one 
year. The quantity required per acre for the former is 
one bushel of 25 lbs., which costs twenty shillings. On 
heavier soils the six-course rotation is followed, to wit, 
1st, dead fallow or roots ; 2nd, wheat or barley seeded 
down ; 3rd, seeds ; 4th, wheat ; 5th, beans ; 6th, 
wheat or oats. If more than one year’s seeds are re- 
quired, and the plant will stand, a second year may be 
taken, and one less in corn. On the land round Tooley, 
which naturally “ grasses” wfell, four or five years' ley is 
adopted, which enables a farmer to stock very heavily with 
•beep, and then break up for oats, when eight to nine 
anarters have been obtained per acre. In the Upton 
district the six-field course often runs thus : 1st, break up 
for oats, 2nd, wheat; 3rd, turnips, mangold, peas, beans, 
potatoes, vetches, or dead fallow, or a mixture of these 
crops; 4th, barley; 5th, seeds; 6th, seeds. In many 
cases, the second year’s seeds are dispensed with, and the 
five-field coarse adopted. The practice is very variable, as 
some parishes in this district grow very good wheat and 
beans, while others suit turnips or barley. There are 
farms in which no particular course is followed, but that 
crop is taken which seems likely to pay most at the time. 
As a role, in the south-western district the oat crop is worst 
and wheat and beans best. 

Upon the day lands a dead or summer fallow is gene- 
rally taken; but on the lighter soils, in order to start the 
rotation, a crop of swedes, white turnips, or mangolds, 
is grown. The turnips are principally consumed on 
the land, and the rest drawn off and eaten in the yards. 
The old system of pin fallows (sometimes called bye or 
bastard fallows in Northamptonshire) , which consists in 
breaking up the wheat stubble in autumn, cross plough- 
ing, scarifying, harrowing, and burning the twitch pre- 
paratory to potting in the barley crop, is very much gone 
out, as, except in very dry seasons, it cannot be done 
with advantage. There is, however, much less necessity 
for it than formerly, as twitch and couch grass are 
rapidly disappearing before a higher system of farming. 

On some of the lighter sous the wheat is stocked 
heavily with sheep in the spring, in order to consolidate 
the root. If the weather is fine, and the land in good 
condition, the plan is considered by many, apart from 
the keep thus obtained, to act nearly as well as the clod- 
crusher and roller, as it prevents the plant from lodging 
so much in a wet harvest time. If ewes and lambs are 
put in, there is sometimes danger of the best lambs dying 
very suddenly from eating too freely, or from the change 
it produces in the milk. The stronger land, which will 
not bear treading, is very seldom stocked, and some far- 


mers have calculated the loss at harvest by doing so at a 
quarter of wheat per acre. 

The wheat, which is principally- winter-sown, is, like 
the barley crop, very generally drilled io, which enables 
the fanner to hoe it m May at mnch less expense, and 
for more efficiently. This is nearly always done with the 
hand-hoe, bat the patent poppy-extirpator or light har- 
row has been used across the drills in light soil with very 
good effect; and if this is done early enough in the 
spring, before the weeds have got deep hold, it dispenses 
with hand-hoeing altogether. Its effect is very good, as 
the extirpator does not draw away the soil from the plant 
like the ordinary harrow, but moulds it up. The usual 
rate of seeding for the oat crop is about four bushels to 
the acre, which is very often sown broadcast. The most 
improved mode of putting in the bean crop is dibbling 
by hand, with the aid of a line across the ridges in rows 
sixteen inches apart. The holes are then kicked in by 
the attendant boys, and one harrowing (which can be de- 
ferred a fortnight, if necessary, for fair weather) with a 
pair of horses finishes the operation. This mode of 
management leaves the subsoil much less “ set ” than 
when the crop is drilled in with three horses, and has 
had two harrowing^ as well. 

The horse-hoe is rather falling into disuse, as, inde- 
pendently of the loss occasioned by trampling down the 
headlands, the work is very mnch better done by hand ; 
and as the horse-hoe cannot act without damage under 
20-inoh rows, there is a great saving of space, and the 
yield is for two reasons better in consequence. Two or 
three beaus iu a hole are preferred to more, and when the 
plan is followed out by a clever setter, the rows would 
delight even a Dutchman’s eye. 

Lime is used extensively on breaking np the clover 
leys for the oat crop, and is also mixed in large heaps 
with ditch scourings, Ac., and the addition of salt, as top- 
dressing for grass-land. When yard manure is drawn 
out into the fields, the cart is generally driven on to the 
heap and tipped, in preference to forking up the dung 
loose, and allowing a second escape of ammonia. Some 
fanners put a two or three-inches coating of soil on the 
top to fix it, when the heap is finished. Lord Berners 
bore testimony a few years since at The London Farmers* 
Club to the value of covering manure until the time for 
spreading. His lordship observed that “ he had 
ordered the manure to be covered up in heaps as it was 
brought into the turnip field, and so to remain until it 
could be spread and ploughed in. The result was, that in 
the month of September there was one portion of that 
field, which had been so covered, where he was up to his 
knees in plants, whilst the other was only a little above 
his ankles. Inquiring of the bailiff what could be the 
cause of the difference in this otherwise fine crop of 
swedes, he was told that at that particular part of the field 
where the turnips were smallest, the labourers had been 
caught in a thunder-storm on the Friday afternoon, and 
could not get to work again until the following Tuesday. 
Consequently the manure had remained uncovered for 
four days ; and it was plain, from the venr first springing 
of the turnips until they were gathered in the winter 
time, where the men had left off. In another field the 
wheat-stubble was in one part so strong that he could 
scarcely get his pointers into it, and it was as high as his 
knees. Mentioning this to the bailiff, the latter said, ‘ If 
you mean a point from a certain oak-tree in that field 
where the stubble is so strong, I can tell you the reason. 
It was this: You came to me, and found fault with me 
for not having oovered np the heaps just at the tree, and 
it was from that point that we covered them up for about 
six or seven acres.' ” 

The tendency of late years, in the gnudng districts, 
has been to increase the arable as ancillary to grass-land, 


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bo as to manufacture as much meat and wool as possible. 
There was a day within the late Dick Christian’s recol- 
lection, when he rode in a run from Cant's Thorns 
“ thirty miles on end to Harboro', and grass all the 
way ;” bnt since that proud and happy time Old Pasture 
has quite bowed its head to new prices. Towards 
Loeeby and Twyford, which were both in the line, the 
plough has gained on the grass ; and about Great and 
Little Dalby fully eight hundred acres of inferior land 
has been broken up within a few years. The plough has 
also stolen a march round Priors Coppice and Owston 
Wood; and on the hill-side, between Braunston and 
Withcote. Carlton, Noseley, Shankton, Keythorpe, and 
those Top Leicestershire districts generally, are all keep- 
ing more sheep on their pass-land by the aid of roots ; 
and it has been found that, by breaking up a fourth of 
four bundled acres of rather mossy pasture, which will 
hardly keep a sheep in winter, a fanner is enabled to 
double his flock. There are many graziers who haye no 
plough-land ; but they seem to be coming round fast to 
the opinion that *' those lands which are one-fifth on the 
plough are occupied most advantageously.” On the 
strong days between Melton Mowbray and South Crox- 
ton there is yery little change ; but in the East Foscote 
Hundred some Adds haye been laid down, simply, as 
was observed to us, “ because farmers tire of working 
with four horses for forty shillings a quarter.” Near 
Loughborough laying down is rather the fashion ; but on 
Charnwood Forest a great deal of land has been broken 
up for turnips, followed by barley, with two years’ seeds, 
and then oats, and it is rather a common practice to pen- 
fold the oat-stubbles with Sheep. On the Leicester 
Forest and Bosworth side there has been very little 
change, but, if anything, in favour of laying down, though 
some bad old pasture has had the plough put through it. 
On the Duke of Rutland’s estates, the temptation to 
“ make the corn-sacks walk to market, instead of being 
carted there,” has induced many to lessen their arable 
land ; but we should say that, speaking of the county as 
a whole, more furrows are turned up every year, but more 
with a view to the meat-market than to Mark -lane. 

Long Clawson and Hose, in North Leicestershire, 
have no mean fame among pastures; and some of the 
best on the Harborongh side are on the clay at Lubben- 
ham, Oadby, and Great Bowden, and carry one bullock 
and nearly two sheep to the acre. Glooston and Cranoe, 
which were once wheat-land, haye been laid down ; and 
Glooston is said to feed bullocks as fast as that famous 
100-acre close. Old England, by the Welham-side. 
The best pastures are always grazed; bnt bones and 
liquid manure are very seldom used, and they receive no 
top-dressing beyond knocking the dung about ; while the 
inferior ones are top-dressed, before they are shnt up for 
hay, with a little lime, and sometimes with nitrate of 
soda. A ton and a half of hay per acre is a good average 
crop; and two crops are very seldom taken. Of the 
management of grass we have spoken more fully in con- 
nection with cheese-dairy farms. 

Leicester, Loughborough, Market Harborongh, and 
Melton Mowbray are all large wheat-markets, more espe- 
cially Leicester, which is chiefly ruled by the Liverpool 
quotations. The farmers always sell, as at Nottingham 
and Grantham, by the “ 18 stone nett of 631bs.” to the 
bushel. The Vale of Belvoir grows good beans and wheat, 
principally red, but inferior in skin and quality to that 
grown on the gravelly soils, which commands one or two 
shillings more. Barrow-on- Soar and Cossington, both of 
them on the cement-limestone (which has a large propor- 
tion of phosphate), grow the best description of white 
wheat ; and there are also some capital crops at Dise- 
Wttrth, and between Breedon and Bonington. Cham- 
3 Forest combines fair wheat and barley with good 


oats. The land about Upton also suits it as well as 
beans ; and red wheat is the favourite in the Haiboroogh 
country. Round Loughborough both red and white 
wheat are used pretty equally ; and a mixed quality is 
also modi liked, and tnought to yield better than either. 
The Essex White is sown more round Barrow ; and its 
fine <( pastry ’’-flour is so esteemed that the Nottingham 
and Derby millers send it to Manchester and Sheffield, 
and make three or four shillings more for it. Improved 
and Druce’a White are also in fashion ; and so is Renner’s 
White, more especially on high-conditioned land. Goldei 
Drop and Browick or Bristol are also “ well-accustomed" 
reds, but not equal in quality to the Red Lammas or Old 
Red, which sometimes produces five quarters from a 
fallow crop, and breaks so well in the mill. 

It is on the whole rather a fluctuating connty for 
barley, which is not very first-rate, and is principally 
consumed by cattle. The climate does not suit it, and 
colours it too highly for pale-ale purposes, and it grows so 
much, straw that it is apt to get laid. If the Burton 
brewers purchase it they choose the Chevalier, but Sari 
barley from the Hamburgh market is their sheet-anchor. 
Many farmers grow the old long ear, a rather coarse 
luxuriant tort, with sometimes twenty corns on a side. 
Queniborough has some “quality barley” on its sandy 
loam ; and Cossington is nearly as famous for it as for 
wheat. It is also grown pretty good, but, like the oats, with 
no great strength of straw, on Charnwood Forest, and, in 
fact, all the way from Diahley to Leicester, through Quorn* 
don, Mount Sorrel, and more especially at Syston except in 
very dry seasons. Hardly any is grown in the H»r- 
borough country except about Smeeton, and taking one 
season with another, for beautiful colour and malting 
purposes, the midland brewers depend most for their home 
supplies on the thin, stony soils near Stamford. 

Oats are not so much cultivated, and for the most part 
on ground newly broken-np. Old turf plonghed-in leaves 
more in the land to feed future crops than when it is 
pared and burnt ; bnt the oat crop is very liable to be 
attacked by the wire-worm unless liming and clod-crash- 
ing are very carefully carried out. Paring and homing 
are a more popular though expensive process, and many 
landlords object to it on account of the future deteriora- 
tion of the land, especially if it is too deeply done. 
Turnips are often sown instead of oats, a plan which gives 
six weeks longer for burning, and then two or three white 
crops can be taken in successive years, if agreements wm 
admit of it. The Canadian Poland oats require s deep 
soil to mature them, and the earlier they are sown the 
better. Black Onc-sides or grey oats thrive best on very 
well-conditioned soil, and Scotch Potato have less straw 
and arc generally ten days later. Tartarians ere little 
sown, and Friesian ds flourish bravely round Melton 
Mowbray, and go principally to the Matlock millers. The 
Harborongh side grows tins crop pretty well, bnt the 
largest supplies come from the parts about Leicester and 
Loughborough, and are chiefly Canadian Polands, weigh- 
ing “ 18 stone nett of 45} lbs. per bushel.” The balk of 
them goes to Nottingham, and some of the finest sample* 
to Manchester. „ 

Leicestershire is not given to “rejoice in potatoes, 
and its home supplies are principally drawn from the 
Lincolnshire fens. A considerable quantity was once 
grown on the north of the connty, but “ since the disease 
they have dwindled to a tenth ;” still they hold a place w 
the green-crop rotation on the Duke of Rutland’s estates. 
The Lincoln Reds are grown more on the Lincolnshire 
border, and Mokes, a late potato hut rather uncertain, is 
well as Farmer’s Profits, have rather given way before 
Second Earlies and Irish Protestants. The last-named is 
a very good sort — prolific, mealy, and sizeable. There are 
good creech or “ red soil potatoes” at Knipton, but the 


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crack parishes for them are Brannston and Eaton, two or 
three miles south of Belvoir. 

A great many turnips are grown on the clay of the 
Vale. Boot crops also flourish well ou the black soil of 
the Forest, and the swedes near Beaumanor hare taken 
the Loughboro' Agricultural Society’s prize. On the 
lighter, sandy soils about Peckleton and Kirby Mallory, 
capital swedes and Improved Skirvings are grown, bat 
towards Stoke the land beoomea stronger and less suited to 
them. At Cadeby, Osbaston, and Nailstone the sheep 
can eat them oil the land, but not at Upton. About 
Narboro* and in the Harborough country they are never 
eaten off, but put down upon the grass. Very few are 
gr o w n about South Croxton, which is not strong feeding, 
but strong working land, and hence the farmers very 
seldom finish off their beasts, but sell them as “ Norfolk 
steers” between Michaelmas and December 8th. 


Mangolds and cabbage have been introduced very 
since there was a Mure in the turnip crop. This 
crop is nearly everywhere taken after wheat, and the land 
is dressed in autumn by some of the high farmers with 
twenty tons to the acre of farmyard manure, and sown in 
spring with three to five cwt„ of salt according as the soil 
is strong or light, but on some farms three to four cwt. 
of guano per acre and some salt are deemed sufficient. 
The Yellow Globe has been very much run on, and so have 
the kmg reds on strong soils, as they grow more out of 
the ground and do not gather so much dirt — although they 
are, for this reason, more easily affected by the early 
trout. 

Cabbages require as high forming as mangolds, and 
nitrate of soda and guano suit them best. It is found to 
be a very expensive and impoverishing crop, and gene- 
rally follows wheat. The land requires to be very clean 
and wdl-manured, and we have heard of it getting in a 
very rare instance from 25 to 30 tons of farm-yard manure 
per acre. After such a dressing the crop is always eaten 
in the yards or on the grass. Under any circumstances, 
eating off cabbage makes great waste, and wherever it 
is practised only every third or fourth is left on the 
ground. Where the land is very strong, eating off is also 
objectionable for another reason — that the dead leaf and 
day get into the sheep’s feet and lame them. The drum- 
head cabbage, which is " all heart and no peel,” is first- 
rate for teaching lambs, or feeding off cull ewes on the 
grass. From 45 to 80 tons have been grown per acre at 
Narboro’ Woods in a good season ; but they should be 
all consumed not later than November, as they are apt to 
open and crack with the wet weather. Lucerne is some- 
times grown to the extent of two or three acres, for horses ; 
but there is very little rape to be found in the county, and 
scarcely any mustard. Peas are sown to a considerable 
extent on the light soils ; and are given, along with beans, 
to the hogs, which are thought by some formers to 
acquire more bone and fibre on them than on any other 
food. Beans thrive on all the strong land, but are rather 
subject to blight on the lighter; very heavy crops of 
then are grown round Bel voir and Melton Mowbray, and 
the run is generally on the hardy and prolific Heligoland 
and white-eyed bean. About South Croxton and Billes- 
don the land does not suit them so well ; bat they are 
much cultivated, both in spring and autumn, about Six- 
HilU and Ragdale. Not many beans and peas are grown 
about Ashby -de-la- Zoach ; and Barton-in-the- Beans is by 
no means superior in its growth to the perishes round it, 
whose fanners prefer peas, as the straw is more useful for 
stock. 


Owston, Launde, and Tilton— which Jack Goddard and 
Frank Goodall know so well — are the big woods on the 
east side ; but the great mass of the woodland is still 
upon Charnwood Forest, and, whenever owners plant 


there, it is almost invariably with larch. Hollies flourish 
in rich luxuriance in the south — and more especially, to our 
eye, in the neighbourhood of Bari Shilton and Bosworth ; 
while in Top Leicestershire the ash has been sown by 
winds or birds in almost every hedge. Woodmen teu 
yon withpride of the ashes of Barton Field, and of the 
elms of Wistow. Between them, these two trees do yeo- 
men service, as the ash supplies the felloes and the 
“ hubs '* of the wheels of those blne-and-red and straw- 
coloured four-horse waggons in which Leicestershire de- 
lights. One-horse carts are not nearly so much used as 
in Northamptonshire, and in hay and harvest-time they 
are hardly seen at all. 

* The woods, which are gradually being thinned, are 
generally a tangled mixture of oak and ash, with hazel 
undergrowth. In the detached ash-holts, the poles are 
shoots growing, for the most part, from old “ stools,” and 
generally seasonable and fit for cutting every 17 or 18 
years. In Viscount Hood v. Kendall , which was tried a 
few years since at Leicester, it was found by the jury that 
there is a universal custom that such poles are not 
“crops,” but belong to the landlord, in the absence of a 
special agreement. Leave was reserved to the defendant 
to move to enter a verdict, if the court above should be 
of opinion that, notwithstanding the custom, the defen- 
dant had a right to the poles ; but, as it had not been 
left to the jury to consider on what terms the tenant held 
the farm, a new trial was ordered. The matter was, 
however, settled out of court. Such ash poles are very 
valuable for rails, the oaken posts for which are generally 
bought in Northamptonshire ; those with three holes can 
be got for 8d., and those with four at Is. 

A good ox.fence consists of a flight of post and nils 
(for which wire is sometimes substituted) ; two yards from 
that, a four-foot hedge planted with quicks, and strongly 
back-fenced with maple, sallow, or blackthorn out of the 
woods, and then a wide ditch. Horses, resolutely ridden, 
will often clear from nine to ten yards over them. “ I 
like the nil best,” said an eminent hnntsman to ns, “ on 
the other ride of the hedge ; so that, if the horse does not 
quite clear it, it will break if he drops ou to it with his 
hind legs.” They are generally strongest ou the Har- 
borough side, from Kibworth by Stanton Wyville, the 
Langtons, Hornyhold, and Hallaton Bottoms. Some of 
the biggest bulfiuches have been left for cattle shelter, and 
not cut for 80 or 40 yean. For practical purposes they 
are useless at this stage, as, when they have once risen to 
13 or 14 feet, there is little or no shelter at the bottom. 
About 10 or 12 yean is the longest period to which they 
should be allowed to ran, as they do not require so much 
putting down, and the old layers will use up again. The 
truth of the saying, “ Good land, good fences, is patent 
from the bad growth of the quicks in the Six-Hills 
country. The little two and three acre fields with high 
hedges, round Dishley, are all gone *, and in some parts 
the exigencies of steam-cultivation have also acted as a 
most potent hedge-grabber. About Norm&nton, where 
there is no “ kettle o^ steam,” there has also been a great 
foil of hedge-row timber, and fields of 15 acres have been 
more than doubled. The only stone walls are on Cham- 
wood Forest ; but they are built very stiff, with sharp cop- 
ings, which “ cut a hunter’s knees like a knife whereas, 
in Gloucestershire, “he can general!} take a toot ont of 
the wall, and no account.” Wire-fencing, a yard off the 
hedge, has rather increased towards Pickwell and Lees- 
thorpe; bat the fox-hunting feeling of the country is 
against it, and the introduction of lease covenants to 
that effect, as well, have caused it to be pretty universally 
taken down during the hunting season. 

Great strides have been made in drainage, and the 
results tbt&ined by a very careful and scientific system at 


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108 THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


Keythorpe hare been already detailed in the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society’s Journal .* Thirty years ago a Leicester- 
shire agriculturist was very strongly in fovour of con- 
tinuing to drain with straw m preference to tiles. His 
argument was to the effect that “ draining with straw 
leaves pores in the clay, and thus leaves a possibility for 
water to get down ; whereas if yon put in a tile you put 
in clay on it again that soon becomes adhesive, and no- 
thing gets through it.” He did not then purpose going 
deeper than eighteen inches, and it was thought by many 
that water might percolate through two feet ; but any one 
who proposed four feet was deemed ripe for the asylum. 
On some of the strong grass land two feet is still not 
exceeded, and is thought to keep the surface greener in a 
dry summer ; but the conventional depth is from three to 
four feet, and ten or twelve yards apart in gravel and 
seven to ten in day. A considerable amount of Govern- 
ment drainage has been done on large estates, at four feet 
with two-inch pipes, which have quite sunerseded the tiles 
set on slate. Clergymen have availed themselves of the 
ban pretty extensivdy for their glebes ; and if the land- 
lords take it up, they generally charge the tenant five per 
cent., and pay the one per cent, themsdves. The Duke 
of Rutland and several of the landowners give the tiles, 
the tenants finding the labour ; and this is in fact the 
pretty constant practice throughout the whole county. 

And so from white and green crops — from oxfence and 
woodland — we turn to stock at last. There is no lack of 
local show-stimulus, and ** The Leicestershire and Rut- 
landshire Society,” now ** The Leicestershire and 
Waltham,” was in being as far back as 1808. It did not 
seem to strike its committee, as it had done the apolo- 
gists whom Arthur Young met on his way, that “ ant- 
hills made a varied bite for the cattle.” On the contrary, 
they offered a premium of 20gs. in that year to the man 
who " will free not less than five acres from anthills in one 
year ; but still they made him wait “ for proof of efficacy” 
three years for his money. 

The Sparkenhoe Farmers’ Club, whose lists are open 
to All England, is not, strictly speaking, a county insti- 
tution, bnt selects its places of meeting from Staffordshire 
and Warwickshire as well. Its show is held early in Sep- 
tember, and moves annually to one or another of nine 
towns. Agricultural labourers, single or married, firame- 
work knitters, farm-boys, and dairy-maids, all receive 
prises, under certain well-considered restrictions. The 
skill of drainers and hedge-cutters is duly recognised, 
and, besides the general competition, there is a champion 
class among ploughmen “ for the straightest ridge of two 
furrows.” Rearing lambs is a science, yrhich receives 
special attention, and the shepherd classes are quite dis- 
tinct for long-wool, short-wool, and cross-bred flocks. 

The store cattle judges are especially eqjoined “ not to 
take into consideration the present value for the butcher.” 
Longhorn men regard the snow as quite a rallying ground, 
on which they can still successfully give battle to their 
Teeswater supplanters. It is also as great an honour to 
be the Sparkenhoe cheese champion of the year as it is 
to get the highest price per ton at the Leicester October 
fair. The prizes, which amount to about £700, extend 
to pigeons, poultry, and rabbits, as well as barley for 
malting, fruits, and flowers. Conjointly with the two 
other societies, it hu given a considerable impulse to 
poultry breeding in Leicestershire, where the Dorking is 
quite the prima-donna of the hen-roost. 

The Loughboro’ Society is conducted much on the 
same principle, and so is “ The Leicester and Waltham,” 
which holds its meeting in August, and is very liberally 
supported with special prizes, which swell its added money 
to about £850. The horse element is especially predomi- 


♦ Vol. xiv. p. 96. 


nant. Hunter prizes are open to all England, and three 
are limited to six neighbouring hunts. A Scottish society 
makes fifteen hands the limits of its butter-milk cart 
horses, and fourteen-two of its sweet-milk cart ponies; 
and so in these Leicestershire lists a “ cob ” may not ex- 
ceed the latter height, while a “ hack ” may range between 
it and fifteen-one. We know no higher standard of 
orthodoxy for country societies to follow. 

Still there is none of that enthusiasm for breeding 
hunters with “ great hips and rumps, and hocks a little 
in,” which animated the breasts of ‘‘ the old Blneeosts.” 
“ Those crashers would hardly wait for hounds to get on 
the scent;” and they bred and rode such horses that 
Jonathan King, of BeCby, would hardly take one out of 
the stable to show a purchaser, under 800 gs. Many 
other farmers, who did not ride in this long blue coat and 
gilt-button brigade could sell to the Meltonians at £150 
to £200; but very few hunters are bred now; and the 
days when Carver of Ingarsby could say that ha got 
200 gs. apiece for seven colts out of one man seen to 
have faded into fable. Four-fifths of the Leicestershire 
hunters are now bought in Loudon ; and many of the 
rest are originally Irish colts, which have been brought 
over by the dealers to fhirs at Leicester, Tam worth, sad 
Belton (where Welsh pony buyers for the coal mines slso 
resort), as well as the more finished material, which nay 
be seen after a canter over “ the forest ” to the snijr 
stables at Talbot-lane. If the formers do use s Wood 
sire, he is mostly put to a light waggon man. Their 
choice of such sires is also very limited. They want 
another Vivslds, with his long, low, and lasting horns, 
which always, young or old, “ had a lag to tpm at s 
fence;” a Julius Cesar, with his fioe tempered, up- 
standing, and “ spawny bays ; a Cannonball, with his 
good-looking, clever-actioned, middle-weight stock ; sod 
a Belzoni, with his big, plain browns, rather sour is the 
temper and forge-hammer iu the head, and new quite 
ripe till they were riaing eight. Cart-hone breading is 
the safer aim of the Leicestershire men, whan, as is some 
of the rich gracing forms, they do not pudge a colt his 
grass. A great number are told at Waltham fair, on or 
about September 19th, where they laually come up, at 
two off. These Leicestershire colts are also in strong 
foree, side by side with the kindred levies from North- 
amptonshire, Lincolnshire, and Notts, at tbs Rugby 
Martinmas fair, which lasts from the 16th to the 8Ssd 
of November. They are of all ages, from yearlings op 
to five years old, with a strong dash of the Clfdesdale 
as well as the old Leicestershire horse in them, and mostly 
browns or blacks. The plough-formers of Oxfordshire, 
Berks, and Backs generally buy the juniors ; and if thsre 
is anything with age and substance for dray-work, the 
London dealers seldom leave them. 

March 2nd is the large spring fair at Leicester for 
store beasts, and there are also Low Fair and Palm Fair 
before and after Easter. Every Leicester Saturday is 
more or less a fair up to Old May-day. April 2nd is slso 
a large foir-day at Lutterworth, and so is Holy Thursday. 
Market Harborough has a very large one in October, asd 
the “ Norfolk Steer Market” is held at Leieestar <n 
December 8th. From Maroh to Jane the Shropshire* 
Hereford, Welsh, and Irish cattle are powed into the 
county through Leicester market, and again from Sep- 
tember to Dooember. 

The Hereford still holds the lead of it* kinsman, the 
black with white free Shropshire, and the Welsh rant, 
bnt thsre has been no Hereford dairy in the county since 
Mr. Henry Chamberl&yne of Desford died in ’55. Hs 
bore an honoured name in Southfield Club annals, and 
besides acting as steward, he added to his head prize for • 
Hereford bullock in *88 the gold medals of 1858-59 
for Long-woolled wethers, with Leicester! bred from to* 


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THE FARMER’S MAGAZINE. 


own ewes, and two of them by Buckley rams. Here- 
ford* have always been liked in Leicestershire, not only 
for their feeding qualities, but for their fine tempers in 
the yards, where the horns of the West Highlanders are 
never at rest. The Shropshire was once upon a time 
more of a smoky-faced brindle, until he was “ crossed 
up” about Pontypool and Welshpool, with the Welsh and 
Hereford cattle, and took to the coat of the one and the 
face of the other. Still his ancestry will hardly repay inquiry, 
and no doubt has much in common with the Montgo- 
meryshire and Glamorganshire breeds, both of which are 
nearly extinct. The former of these two was once very 
common in Shropehire, and in many points, except its 
superior rise, resembled a Devon ; while the latter, with 
the substitution of black for red, was very like a Hereford 
in its colour marks. Be their pedigree what it may, the 
Shropehire, like the Runts, ere good ones to rongh it, 
and when there is not room to tie up all, they have to lie 
hi the yards. A few West Highlanders, Devons, and 
Galloways are still to be seen} but that once great Scotch 
four at Melton Mowbray in August, where “ the heavy 
hlaclD” from the Stewartry might be found in droves, 
now knows them no more; and “ The Shamrock” has 
foiie superseded The Thistle. The heaviest cattle sup- 
plies are sent up to Smithfleld between July and 
December, and in a straggling way daring the first half of 
the year. There are not many cows and heifers amonnt 
them ; but any shortcoming in this respeet is made up by 
the bullocks. Still there is no doubt that the Leicester- 
shire formers stock hard, and one season with another 
sad of beasts quicker than they once did, and not so ripe 
in condition ; and in a Top Leicestershire 400-acre fonn 
a grariar will have about 150 beasts and 600 sheep. 

The longhorns still struggle for a separate existence in 
a small district round the pomt of impact of Warwickshire, 
Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and Leicestershire. They had 
made themselves a name at Upton as far back as 174b ; 
hut it waa not until 1756 that the blood of the renowned 
Two pen ny, from Diahley, began to tell, and caused Bake- 
well to ^eak of George Chapman's as “one qf the bed 
herd* I kmm anyteAgre” Some years after BakewelTs 
death, Shakespeare of the sort made £420 at Mr. Prin- 
sepp's, of CraxalTs sale ; 'and it was said that 700gs. was 
fafoacd for Tiger. With such traditions to inspire them, 
we tan hardly wonder at a select few “ clinging to this 
expiring cause” with more than Jacobite seaL The 
Upton herd has an uninterrupted title of more than 
eleven tames eleven years, in grandsire, sire, and grand- 
son. The present Mr. Chapman hat taken seven firsts 
and a eeoood with them at Southfield, and five firsts and 
at many seconds at Birmingham, besides breeding three 
other winners. Competition at these shows is always 
vary limited; hot his steer of 8 years and 8 months, 
which took Arable Christinas honours in ’68, won the 
Sperkemhoe county cup in the same year, against two 
lo ng horns and three shorthorns. Mr. Chapman has also 
taken £70 in Royal Agricultural prises at Exeter, Wind- 
sor, Ba t te rie s, and Plymouth. Among his champions 
were “ Exeter,” with his shaven poll and great brindled 
carcase, which weighed 21st. 121be» par quarter, and 
“ Sparkenhoe,” that “ pand old longhorn bull, himself 
o oe of the graatert curiosities of the show, * who jour- 
neyed still forthar west in ’65.f Mr. Godfrey, of 


* Report of stock steward* at Plymouth, Royal Agricul- 
tnsnl Society** Journal, voL i. (8.8?), p. 304. 

t Mr. Chapman’* moat reoent purchase of new blood ha* 
bean from Mr. Fletcher Ring, of Wythop, in Cumberland. 
This 1* going back to first principles, as the Drakelow stock 
of Sir & Qreriey, on which Mr. Webster, of Canley, near 
C o v entry , the first aatenttflo improver of the sort, is said to 
have worked, was kept up by bulls from that county and 
'Westmoreland. 


Wigstou Psrva (who won with a pair of cows, when the 
Royal Agricultural Society met at Warwick), and the 
Messrs. Taverner, of Upton, have also longhorn dairies 
in Leicestershire ; but Mr. Green’s and Mr. Astley’s of 
Odstone herds were dispersed when their owners died. 

The adherents of the breed muster twelve or thirteen 
more in the three adjoining counties ; but a few of them 
are not purely longhorn men ; and one of them. Colonel 
Inge, keeps a shorthorn bnll. They give as the reason of 
their faith in beasts of the sort, that they are not only 
hardier, and keep their young looks longer, bnt furnish 
more meat on the best parts, and a greater weight of car- 
case at a less outlay. The cows, which should calve, if 
posrible, at three years old, feed fastest from that age to 
five, especially if they have had a calf. Their tendency 
is to feed more on the back and barrel ; and hence the 
butchers are rather prejudiced against them, and say that 
they have not enough of the steel-yard inside, and ao not 
“prove” so well in consequence. Many of the cows 
will hold on well to fifteen, and then feed up to eleven or 
twelve score a quarter. A yearling bull will make from 
15 n. to 25gs., and some years ago a two-year-old was 
sold by auction for 50 gs. 

Mr. Borbnry has bred them white, but the darker 
colours are preferred. Dark brindle is thought very 
hardy ; bnt Mr. Chapman and some other breeders like 
cherry-red, with the back white, and the sides coloured. 
The coat shonld be as curly as possible ; and a face with a 
darker shade intermixed is liked better than a white or 
bald. They are a remarkably docile race, and their thick 
skin saves them in a great measure from the torture of 
the gadfly. The tanners set much store by it, and will 
pay as high as £2 7s. fid. for a first-rate bull’s hide, and 
still higher for that of an ox. Good keep gives that 
blood-red tinge to the horns, which is always prized by a 
breeder. They begin to show the age wrinkle after three, 
and ran into ail shapes. Some grow so much down that 
the cows can hardly graze, and they require to be sawn 
off, like “the wheel -horn,” which will curl right back 
into the nose. Others go straight away into space, at an 
acute angle ; and it is not very uncommon to see one 
following the usual curve, and the other curled into the 
“ scorp, like a boxer’s hands in position. To walk down 
the massive red-and-white line of forty cows at Upton, 
all busy with their hay bandies on the pastures, and the 
thirteen-year old “ Rose ” still “ blooming fresh and fair ” 
at their head, is a very pleasant picture, even on a 
January day, backed np, a* it is, by Bosworth Field, 
whese well still marks the spot where the third Richard 
lost his life and crown. 


As a general role the plainest cows are the best milkers, 
and the milk of a seven or eight year old one is generally 
thought the richest. Some of the best “ fill-pails ” will 
give 19 quarts at two meals, and the dairy farmers have 
made 4} cwt. of cheese from one cow. They are kept in 
winter on barley straw and pulped turnips, and mostly 
calve early in April. Calves get new milk for three weeks 
or a month, and then have linseed and oilcake dissolved 
in gruel, with the over-night’s milk or whey. The cows 
are good nurses ; and one of Mr. Chapman’s, which had 
only three teats, brought np a ball-calf on each with 
credit. Some of them have been sold recently to Mount- 
serrat, as well as to Ireland. They are crossed with 
Shorthorns to a small extent in the county, and the 
“ half-horns,” as they are called, milk well ana come to a 
great weight, if they are not taken beyond a first cross. 

H. H. D. 


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THE ESSEX AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. 


MEETING AT 

1q the exercise of a certain timidity, or still more 
Certain selfishness, the show of the Essex Agricultural 
Association is still mainly confined to the county. In 
this respect it does not rank well with its neighbours ; 
and any further comparison would be as unfavourable, 
for despite the admirable way in which the old “ Royal’* 
ground was laid out, the meeting was at most but a partial 
success. The cart-horses were with a few exceptions so 
indiflerent, that a well-known breeder and judge, who has 
so far voted for a continuance of the home-trade in prizes, 
declared that he could support such a system no longer ; 
while Messrs. Newton and Little very candidly expressed 
their surprise at the sheep and pigs, and at having come 
so far to see so little. On the other hand, notwithstand- 
ing the absence from the lists of such supporters as 
Messrs. Maijoribanks, Bramston, and Clayden, who have 
lately been selling out, the entries of Shorthorns were 
very creditable ; as a good word may be certainly said 
for the general strength of the riding-horse section. 
Then, again, the town and district took up the visit with 
a deal of heart. In association with the Association 
there were flower-shows, poultry-shows, and dog-shows ; 
flags were flying and shops were closing ; as in foct there 
was plenty of spirit evinced everywhere, save just where 
spirit should have been most prominently displayed. Let 
the entries be thrown open, as they are in Norfolk and 
Suffolk, and let any animal be allowed to win, so long as 
he is good enough to do so ; and then, and not till then, 
Essex, as we have just said, may take rank with its 
neighbours. 

As it is, and but for the offer of a few All-England 
premiums, the proceedings have of course little beyond a 
merely local interest and influence. After looking through 
the sheep, the judges came to look still harder at their 
instructions, which went to say they were “not to award 
any prize in classes in which the animals exhibited did 
not possess sufficient merit.’* Here was clearly a dilemma 
on the face of it, for the entries were but few ; some of 
these were not sent, and those that were had bnt little 
merit. If the Essex Society be still to continue a 
“limited” company, it is a question of some moment 
whether these excellent instructions should not be 
amended, or more properly altered? Or, by another 
meeting the prize list may itself read in significant com- 
mentary on this restrictive principle. However, Lord 
Braybrooke was permitted to take the premiums for 
Southdowns against absolutely no competition. The 
Audley End sheep show a deal of breeding; but the 
rams, more especially, are small, light of wool, and any- 
thing but good in their symmetry, beginning with snake 
heads and weak necks. The ewes and fot shearlings 
were better ; but even these did not come up to the cha- 
racter of the Smithfield Club prize pen. Mr. Giblin had 
it almost as much his own way with the Cotswolds and 
Oxford Downs ; but these would make no mark out of 
the county, and so Mr. Hugh Aylmer of course took the 
open prize for long-wools with a small but useful sheep 
of very superior quality to anything of home-growth. 
In the other short-wools, Mr. Portway won with some 
coarse useful black-faces ; but these sheep are so plain, 
that they can never tell in the show-yard, while in charity 
to some of the other exhibitors of other short-wools, we 
will say nothing more about them. The judges had the 


CHELMSFORD. 

wooden spoon ready for one pen of ewes and lambs, as 
“the worst lot seen in a show-yard for a very long time.” 
By the way, would it not be as well at a limited county 
meeting to nave a wooden spoon for the worst lot in every 
class, as inducement for doing better ? On this showing, 
the sheep judges would at any rate have had something 
to do at Chelmsford. 

Of pigs there was a very short entry; but we 
have before now spoken to the merits of Mr. Griggs’ 
Berkshires, as really good specimens of their sort, and 
now crossed, as the bows arc bred from Captain Stewart 
of Gloucester. Still they could make no stand in the 
All-England classes, where the Sextons could not and 
Mr. Steam would not show, and so as at Downham the 
Ducktrings and Mr. Crisp had it all their own way, with 
Lincoln for large and Suffolk for small, as usual. 

It may be as well to have it known that the horror of 
one of the Shorthorn judges — and two of the three were 
“ Royal” authorities — is “ a pretty bulL” And as lady 
Pigot sent a pretty bull in the well-named Charles le 
Beau for the All-England premium, her ladyship reached 
but a high commendation, and Mr. Christie kept the prise 
in the county with Duke of Grafton, by Duke of Geneva, 
bred by Lord Penrhyn, a big, long, broad four-year-old, 
of good quality and with some capital points, being espe- 
cially good in his back and hind quarters, and well let 
down to his hocks. Against all this, he is light in his neek, 
and has a rather tapering egg-sucking head, but is never- 
theless at all points a grand usefol bull, that might have 
commanded some notice at Leicester, had his owner 
hardened his heart to send him on. He could not take 
the first prize class of the county here, because be took it 
at the show in 1867 ; but the judges held to bis line to 
far as they could. They made his daughter Potmtilla 
their choice in the youngest clan of heifers, and then 
took her with her ihther and mother as the best family 
party, or bull, cow, and calf; the cow Primula having pre- 
viously won prizes at all stages from & heifer calf upwards 
at these meetings. The first prize bull of the county, 
Mr. Upson’s Sorcerer, is a gooa well-grown three-year- 
old, also bred by Lord Penrhyn, and a long way the best 
of a short class. There was nothing very extrordinuy 
amongst the two-year-old and yearling bulls. Colone l 
Brise in the younger class fhiriy beating Mr. Sturgeon • 
good-looking one on the nice points of hair, hand, and qua- 
lity. In a better lot of cows, over which some commenda- 
tions were scattered, Mr. Upson was again first with t foe 
taking cow in high condition, the second being weak in her 
loin, but showings deal of breeding. The best two- year-o ld 
heifer was in anything bnt show form, having recently 
calved, and being very poor, so that all due allowance hid 
to be made for her by “judges”; while they got 
on again to the Duke of Grafton vein in his daughter 
Patchouli 4th, a well-grown handsome yearling, of good 
colour and quality ; Mr. Pigot getting next with another 
very nice heifer in Dagmar. Another daughter of the 
Duke, as we have already mentioned, was the best hafer 
calf ; but the trio of judges got terribly at variance for » 
second, each taking ana holding to his own, until Mr. 
Aylmer had to be called in, when he went with Mr. 
Game for Ringlet, another daughter of the Duke of 
Grafton, a son of whose was also the best bufl-cali. 
Amongst the Shorthorns without pedigrees Mr. Upson 


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took the prize for heifer* under twelve months old, with one past there has always been s thoroughbred stallion within 
that for style and quality showed a deal better than many the farmers’ reach at Belhns ; hut Sir Thomas offers some 
to be found in The Herd Book , as it appears, she is bred further inducement, in the shape of premiums for stock 
at least on side of her head ; whilst far among the best by his horses. Mainstone now appears to be replaced bv 
dairy cows was a beautiful Alderney exhibited by Mr. Amsterdam, a neater horse of very high qualify, and with 
Beadel ; but the judges kindly took it into consideration all the prestige of performance to recommend him. He 
that she would be worth little or nothing when she had was quite the hero of the day at Chelmsford, taking the 
done with the dairy, and so they highly commended her, premium in the county class against three or four very 
and gave the two prizes to two Shorthorns* As Short- well-bred but odd looking horses, that as thoroughbred 
kora men they no doubt did quite right ; but as the class sires seem to have been turned to queer purposes. The 
was distinctly one for dairy cows they no doubt did quite excuse made for Whitmore, a West Australian horse, 
wrong, as their unfortunate explanation only goes to make looking so bad, was that he had been driven about by his 
this wrong the greater. owner in a cart ; while Port Royal by Yellow Jack was 

As we stated in our last, Mr. Thompson, the single- ready to be “ jumped” as a hunter, and Camillas by 
handed judge and his own veterinarian, passed Harwich Newcourt looked more like steeple-chasing than the stud. 
Emperor at Downham, and Professor Vamell passed him But the judges resolutely scorned from the first having any- 
again at Chelmsford, although the horse had previously thing to do with the “ leaps” in front of the Orand Stand, 
been disqualified by some of the profession. He ac- either in the way of proving a sire or his stock, so that 
cordingly stood in again for the All-England Cup, over Amsterdam’s looks and action secured him a very blood- 
whieh award there was a deal of deliberation ; but even- less victory. In the All-England class the contest was 
tually Cup-bearer was once more proclaimed the winner, closer, with four or five fresh animals in, such as the lum- 
as he was at Braintree in 1867 and at Epping in 1866, bering Abbot, the lucky Knight Templar, that has already 
Mr. Manning still clearly holding to his horse, who has won a prize in Essex ; a Big Ben four-year-old of Captain 
gone on improving, ana whose two “ odd” forelegs did Sparrow’s, and another four-year-old from Hasketon, a 
not show so conspicuously as they have done. Harwich stud that has taken so many All-England honours out of 
Emperor, like his father before him, “ seems” to be flat Essex into Suffolk. Still King of the Dale, despite his 
in his sides after work ; and the third left in, Mr .JWilson’s size, failed to accomplish so much, the premium again 
President, beat Cup-bearer for the Cup at Fakenham last going to Amsterdam, to the very manifest satisfaction of 
year. They are three very good horses, and settled as the the public, but in the ring the award was only ar- 
points of a Suffolk may be supposed to be, the three may rived at on a division. Although a showy young horse, 
as likely as not change about again the next time they King of the Dale does not prove so well ; he is high on 
meet, the more so as only one of the three judges at hig leg, has not the best of shoulders, is throaty in the 
Chelmsford is a breeder of the sort. President won setting on of his head, and will have to fine and drop a 
another All-England premium, in which neither Cap- bit before he can do better than he did at Chelmsford, 
bearer nor Emperor showed against him ; his chief oppo- In another open class for “ stallions, thorough-bred or 
Bent being a two-year-old of Mr. Bott’s, a very smart otherwise, calculated to get weight-carrying hunters,” of 
good-limbed colt, that was not only the best of the county course he won against such cattle as Pollard, not 
two-year-old class, but first again against All-England of thorough-bred ; Harkaway by Master Moody ; Morgan 
the same age, where he beat a very good class, many of Lightfoot, a machner, that took a prize in another 
the entries being Suffolks bom and bred. Mr. Wolton’s class, although nobody knows what for; Young Kingston, 
well-known Violet was the best All-England mare, and beaten by Morgan Lightfoot, and that is saying some- 
Major Wilson’s three-year-old the best filly, and with thing ; and The Abbot, Port Royal, and Whitmore, over 
these the excellence of the cart-horse section came to and over again. Bat Captain Barlow had his reward in 
something like a foil stop. For the cart stallions of the other ways, for in the heat class in the show, where 
county there were two premiums and two entries, the everything was commended, much of the superiority 
first prize going to a dead lame one and only half a good was traceable [to his stable. This was the lot 
one; the second with more propriety being withheld of two-year-olds, in which Mr. Vickerman was first with 
from an animal, that any man might have the misfortune a handsome, well-grown, very promising, thorough-bred 
to breed, bat no one as we should have thought the filly by Ace of Cluos, and highly commended for another 
temerity to buy. However, the Reverend R. A. Wes- filly by Surplice ; while another high commendation, and 
thorp duly enters his horse as bred by Mr. Crisp, and “ the reserve” went to Captain Sparrow's fiily by Ace of 
Mr. Crisp is congratulated accordingly. The connty cart Clubs, for which the judges regretted they had not a 
mares were an indifferent lot; bat Mr. Holmes’ prize mare second nrize at their disposal. Some of the young Main- 
and foal were worthy of their place and price, 50 gs. for stones, both foals and yearlings, were full of promise; and 
the lot. There was only one three- vear-old filly, and she the two prize brood-mares had foals at foot by this horse, 
was a had one ; but we most make some exception for Of the younger stock, the three-year 'olds, on the con- 
Mr. Bott’s couple of two-year-old fillies, like nis two- trary, were very indifferent, and there was nothing but 
year-old colt by Chapion and both of very good quality, the winner in it ; while being without further condition, 
The yearlings were few and poor, and the foals in much and open to hunting hackneys, or coaching colts or 
the same category, the best being out of the prize mare, fillies these classes were made up of " all sorts,” although 
Almost all the cart-horses exhibited were Suffolks or the heat bred one generally got it. A niciah level mare 
Suffolk crosses, the majority of course chesnnts, with a of Mr. Christy, that promises to go over a country, was 
few bays by way of variety ; but beyond Mr. Bott’s en- the best four-year-old ; but there was no standing against 
tries, the county of Essex had very little to do with the Mr. Barker’s long siring in the hunters of all ages, 
actual merit of this department. Indeed, if this limits- Barring another of Mr. Christy's he had not much to beat 
tion and disqualification after winning be only persevered amongst the mares ; while the steeplechase hone Tom 
in, tiie probable result will be that animals competent to Bowline was a deal too much of a workman at all points 
win in Essex will be incompetent to win anywhere else. to give the geldings a chance, and he won the open prize 
The riding-horses were a deal better, and some very almost as easily. Mr. Beadel’s prize hack-mare and 
decided improvement is here discernible, no little of which prize cob were both very good of their kind, the cob Jacob 
is attributable to the desire of Sir Thomas Lennard to being a treasure for a “ heavy-weight.” Mr. Christy 
get and keep tome good blood in the country. For years had also a very neat hack-mare, and Mr. Hicks a wonder- 


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folly clever dan pony, tliat for shape, style, and <c car- 
riage” was a long way a-head of his motley company. 

There was a goodly array of implement stands, which, 
as somebody said, went to “ make it look like little 
Royal but with neither trials, premiums, nor no- 
velties onr report would come chiefly to a list of exhibi- 
tors for the home and the adjoining county of Suffolk. The 
flower-show was said to be a success, as it certainly ap- 
peared to be well-attended ; but there was not a crowded 
company at the dinner, where the chief topic amongst the 
M.Pjis of both sides was the new Foreign Cattle Market. 
Mr. Spooner, as the only one present, returned thanks 
for the judges, and in doing so took the opportunity of 
very fairly ridiculing the practice of “ some other socie- 
ties,” where catalogues containing the merits of the animals 
and the names of the owners are placed in the judges’ 
hands. The only society we know of, that adopts this 
plan, is the London Horse-show Society, while Mr. 
Spooner acted “ in happy ignorance of all this,” and, as 
it appeared was applanded, and not hooted. 

PRIZE LIST. 

JUDGES. 

Cult Honaxa. — T. King, Preston Hall, Suffolk ; J. Man- 
ning, Orlingbnry, Wellingborough j W. C. Spooner, Ealing 
House, Southampton. 

Elding Hobsis.— H. Biddell, Playford, Suffolk; H. 
Corbet, Strand, London ; H. Thumall, Royston. 

Cattlz. — W. H. Beauford, Bedford ; G. Game, Church-hill 
Heath, Chipping Norton ; W. Ladds, Ellington, Kimbolton. 

Shbep and Pigs.— M. Biddell, Playford ; E. Little, Chip- 
pen ham ; R. Newton, Campsfleld, Woodstock. 

Vetbrinakt Inspector,— Professor VarneU, Beech House, 
Belton, Yarmouth. 

HORSES FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES. 

Stallion.— First prize, £20, G. D. Badham, Buhner Tye, 
Sudbury (Great Eaatern) ; second, £10, withheld : no merit. 

Entire two-year-old colt. — First prize, £15, W. Bott, 
Broomfield ( Champion) ; second, £7, G. D. Badham (Fit* 
Emperor) ; higlily commended, R. G. Salmon, Clacton Hall 
(Minor) ; commended, H. Croxton. Burnham (Young Boxer), 
and Marriage and Sons, Broomfield. 

Mare, not under four years. — First prize, £6, A. B. Croxton, 
Burnham (Silver) ; second, £4, E. Catchpool, Feering Bury. 

Mare, four years and upwards (open to all England). — 
Prize £10, S. Wolton, jun., Kesgrave (Violet) : highly com- 
mended, A. B. Croxton (Silver) ; commended, F. M. Wilson, 
Stowlangtoft Hall, Bury. 

Mare, with foal at foot.— First prize, £10, H. Holmes, 
Booking: second. £5, W. Belcher, Sandon (Blossom). 

Cart filly, under four years. — Prize, £10, F. M. Wilson ; 
highly commended, F. M. Wilson ; commended, S. Wolton, 
jun. (Matchett). 

Three-year-old filly. — Prize, £5, T. Taylor, Earls Colne. 

Gelding.— Prize, £5, G. Potter, Hoo Hall, Rivenhall. 

Two-year-old filly. — First prize, £7, W. Bott ; second, £4, 
W. Bott. 

Yearling oolt, — First prize, £5, J. Gibling, Little Bardfield ; 
second, £3, G. Norfolk, Layer Marney. 

Yearling filly .—First prize, £5, H. Foster, Totham ; second 
prize withheld : no ment. 

Foal. — First prize, £5, H. Holmes (out of prize mare ) ; 
second, £3, T. Taylor ; commended, W. Elphick. 

Plough horses.— First prize, £7. G. F. Josling, Berners 
Roding (Gilbert, Diamond) j second, £3, withheld. 

8tamon (open).— Prize, £26, W. Wilson, Bsylham Hall, 
Ipewich (President) ; highly commended, W. Bott (Champion) . 

8tallion (open to all England).— Prize, £20, T. Crisp, 
Butley (Cupbearer) ; highly oommended, W. Wilson (Preti- 
deuth and I. Riat, Tattingstone (Harwich Emperor) j oom- 
mended, C. Boby (Conqueror). 

Colt (open). — Prize, £10, W. Bott (Champion) ; highly 
commended, W. Wilson and C. Boby (Captain). 

RIDING AND COACHING HORSES. 

Thoroughbred stallion.— Prize, £16, SirT. Barrett-Lennerd. 
Belhus, Romford (Amsterdam), 


Stallion, not thoroughbred.— Prize, £10, F. Butcher, Colne 
Engaine (Morgan Ligntfoot). 

Hunting mare. — Prize, £7,F. Barker, Ingatestone (Jessies). 

Hunting gelding.— Prize, £7, F. Barker (Tom Bowliae). 

Hunter fall England). — Prize, £20, F. Barker (Tom 
Bowline) ; highly commended, B. Sparrow, and J. Grout 
(Turk) ; commended, J. Christy (Madonna). 

Hackney mare. — First prize, £5, W. J. Beadel, Chelmsford 
(Duplicate) ; second, £3, J. Christy (The Nun). 

Hackney gelding. — Prize, £6, P. O. Papillon, Leiden 
Manor. . 

Mare or gelding, 4 yrs. — Prize, £7, J. Christy, Roxwell 
(Madonna). 

Mare or gelding, 3 yrs. — Prize, £7, G. D. Badham 
(Eclipse). 

Mare or gelding, 2 yrs. — C. R. Vickennan, Thoby Priory, 
Brentwood (The Countess) ; highly commended, C. R. Vicker- 
man (Crucifix), and B. Sparrow. The class commended. 

Mare and fold.— First prize, £6, J. Caaidy ; second, £3, G 
Pool. 

Cob.— Prize, £5, W. J. Beadel (Jacob) ; commended, Alfred 
Hockley, Hatfield Broad Oak, W. Lucking (Young Hreawaj), 
and Sir J. T. Tyrell, Bart., Boreham-house. 

Pony. — First prize, £4, C. Hicks, jun., Stansted Mount- 
fltchet (The Earl) ; second, £2, C. Barnard, Harlow. 

Half-bred yearling by Mainstone. — Prize, £5, C. Sturgeon, 
South Ockendon-haJl. 

Thorough-bred stallion (open to all England).— Prize, £25, 
Sir T. Barrett-Lennard (Amsterdam). 

Stallion, thorough-bred or otherwise, to get hunters (open). 
—Prize, £25, Captain F. Barlow (King of the Dale). 

CATTLE. 

Shorthorn bull.— First prize, £15, J. Upson, Rivenhall 
^Sorcerer) ; second, £10, J. Piggot, Buckingham Hall (Grand 

Two-year-old bull.— First prize, £10, A. P. Clear, Mildon 
(Monarch) ; second, £6, J. Chaplin, Ridgwell (Raven’* 


Yearling bull.— First prize, £10, Col. Brise, Spain’s Hall 
(Whipper-in) ; seoond, £6, C. Sturgeon (Grand Signeur). 

Cow. — First prize, £10, J. Upson (Violet 3rd) ; second, £ 6 , 
J. A. Piggot (Daphne) ; highly commended, J. R. Cbsplin 
(Iona). 

Heifer (two-years-old).— First prize, £8, J. Upson (Rose- 
bud) j second, £5, J. R. Chaplin. 

Yearling heifer.— First prize, £7, J. Christy, jun. (Patchouli 
4th) ; second, £5, J. A. Piggot (Dagm&r). 

Heifer, not exceeding 12 months old.) — First prize, £6, J. 
Christy, inn., Boynton Hall (Potentilla) ; second, £3, William 
Tippler, Roxwell (Ringlet). 

Bull, not exceeding 12 months old. — First prize, £6, J. 
Chri stia n. (Duke of Babraham) ; seoond, £3, J. Hatley, 

Shorthorn bull (open to all England).— Prize, £20, J. Christy, 
jun., Boynton Hall (Duke of Grafton) : highly commended, fi. 
Aylmer, West Derenam Abbey, Norfolk (Thorndale Duke), 
and Lady Pigot, Branches Pfcrk, Newmarket (Charles Le 
Beau). 

Bull, cow, and calf (open to all England). — £20, J. Christy, 
jun. (Duke of Grafton, Primula, and JPotentilla). 

SHORTHORNS WITHOUT PEDIGREES. 

Cow.— First prize, £8, W. Sworder, Stapleford (Tawney) ; 
seoond, £4, D. Christy, Patching HalL 

Heifer, two yean old.— First prize, £5, J. Oxlty Parker, 
Woodham Mortimer-place j second, £3, Colonel Brise, Spams 
Hall, Braintree. 

Yearling heifer. — First prize, £5, J. Giblin, little Bardfield ; 
second, £3, J. Oxley Parker. 

Heifer, not exceeding 12 months old.— Prize, £3, J. Upton, 
Rivenhall. 

OTHER PURE BREEDS. 

Bull. — Prize, £5, C. Hill, Harrow Lodge, Hornchurch- 

Bull, two years. — No entry. 

Cow.— Prize, £4, S. Hanbury, WickhaM-place, Withal* 
(Alderney). 

Heifer, two years old.— Prize, £8, 0. Hill (Queimie). 

Yearling heifer. — Prize, £3, 8. Oourtall, GosfteM, (Alderney). 


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DAIRY CATTLE. 

Coir or heifer. — First prise, £8, J. Upon, Bivenhall (Lady 
Dade 2nd) ; second, £5, A Young, jun., Roxwsll (Shomhorn) : 
highly commended, W. J. Beade! (Alderney). 

PAT CATTLE. 

Ox or steer.— Prise, £6, J. S. Dennis, Mashbury Hall 
(Shorthorn). 

Cow or heifer.— Prise £5, J. Perry, Booking (cow). 

SHEEP. 

Southdown ram of any age.— Prise £8, Lord Braybrooke, 
Aadley End , 

Short-woolled ram.— Prise £5, J. M. Green, Stradiahall, 
Newmarket (blackfeced). 

Cot* wold ram. — First prise £5, J. Giblin, Lt. Bardfield ; 
second £3, J. Giblin. 

_ L«ng-woolled ram.— First prise £6, W. King, Woodham 
Perris (Lincoln) ; second £3, W. King (Lincoln). 

Oxfordshire or Shropshire nun. — First prise £5, J. Giblin 
(Oxford Down) ; second £3, J. Giblin (Oxford Down). 

Shearling Southdown nun. — First prise £5, Lord Bray- 
brooke ; second £3, Lord Braybrooke. 

Shearling shortwool ram (any other breed). — First prise 
J. M. Green (blaclrfaeed) ; second £3, J. M. Green. 

Shearling Oxfordshire or Shropshire ram. — First prise £5, 
J. Giblin ; second £3, J. Giblin. 

Shearling kmg-woolled ram.— First prise £5, J. Giblin: 
aeeond £3, J. Giblin. 

Shearling pore Down awes.— Find prise £6, Lord Bray- 
farooke. 

Shearling short-woolled ewetw— First prise £6, W. Sworder ; 
aeeond £3, P. Portway. 

Shearling long-woolled ewes. — First prise £5, J. Giblin. 

Ewes ana lambs. — First prise ££. — J. Giblin (Cotswold) ; 
aeeond £3, C. Sturgeon. 

Fat shearling short-woolled wethers.— First prise £5, Lord 
Braybrooke ; second £3, Lord Braybrooke. 

Fat aheariing cross-bred or long-woolled wethers.— No 
mtrj. 

Longwweollsd mim— (Open to all England).— Prise £10, H. 
Aylmer, Wert D«E Ahbey (NorSk CoUwold) ; cU- 
■ended, J. Giblin (Cotswold). 

Short-woolled rain.— (Open to all England).— Prise £10, 
Lord Braybrooke (Sonthdown). 


nos. 

Boar.— Firrt prize £5, J. Pertwee, Boreham (small Suf- 
folk) ; second £3, Wm. Thompson, jnn., Thorpe (Essex). 

Boar, not exceeding 13 months. — First prize £5, G. D. 
Badham (white) ; second £3, G. Griggs (Berkshire). 

Sow in pig. — First prise £6, G. Griggs (Berkshire) ; 
second £3. C. Sturgeon (Berkshire). 

Sow and pigs. — Prize £6, G. Grig — ^— i — 

Three sow pigs.— First prise £6, 

% S co m mende d, C. Sturgeon. 

, large bnwL— (Open to all England).— Prise £10, 
Dido ring aad Sons, Northorpe, Kirton Lindsey (Victor). 

Boar, small breed.— (Open to all England).— Prise £10, T. 
Ckisp (small white) ; highly commended, Duckering and Sons 
(Comet). 

Sow. — (Open to all England).— Prise £5, Duckering and 
8oas (Lily) j highly commended, Duckering and Sons (Prim- 
rose). 


THE DINNER. 

The dinner took place on the Thursday, but the attendance 
was not so large as usual. The President of the Society for 
the year. Sir C. C. Smith. Bart., who occupied the chair, gave 
M Snccees to the Society. Their presence, he said, indicated 
the interest they took in the society, which had now been 
organised eleven years. At that time it was thought a bold 
experiment, bat he thought he might tty it had now lived 
down all mistrust and doubt, and an evidence of its validity 
was the aatenaion of the meeting to two days. This might be 
a bold, but he considered it a venr wise, step, and thought it 
would re su lt in success. Hie president then congratulated the 
mental upon the successful character of the meeting, upon 
the u npro f em ent in both the numbers and quality of the 
stock, and open the general feet that the society was 


making a gradual but certain progress. Implements also 
were well represented, and in these days, when the want of 
labour was so much felt upon farms, he thought they could 
not do better than encourage and acknowledge the merits of 
the machinery which was so efficient a substitute. He espe- 
cially noticed the tube well, and recognised in that invention a 
great boon to the labouring man upon a farm ; and with regard 
to the prodace exhibited from Barking, he said they could but 
rejjoioe rather than frown at the advent of the odoriferous fluid 
which enabled cultivation to be brought to so high a state of 
perfection. In conclusion, he acknowledged the debt of grati- 
tude that was due from them to the secretary of the society — 
(Hear, hear) — and all those who had assisted to promote the 
welfare of tne society. 

Mr. W. C. Spooner, who returned thanks for the judges, 
said, in reference to the particular department in which he had 
acted that day, he was nappy to say that, coming from a long 
distance, he was not aware of the ownership of a single animal 
that came before him, for the society very wisely did not do as 
he had heard some societies did — put into the judges’ hands 
catalogues containing the merits of the animals and the names 
of the owners (laughter). In happy ignorance of all this, 
they were enabled to give their judgments impartially and to 
the best of their ability. On behalf of the judges, he con- 
gratulated the society upon their very excellent show, and the 
Urge number of animals exhibited. In the department in 
which he had been engaged — that of the cart-horses — there 
was a want of competition m two most important classes. Ono 
of these was the class of stallions, in which there were only 
two animals exhibited, and only one possessed any merit. In 
mares also there was a want of competition and a want of 
merit. He suggested to the committee whether, in order to 
remedy this state of things, they should not give some greater 
encouragement to exhibitors, and take away some of the pre- 
sent restrictions. 

Sir TnoMia Western, in responding for the County Mem- 
bers, said the show had an additional attraction for him, be- 
cause ol the past devastation caused by the cattle plague, and 
the present absence of that pestilence from the country. This 
subject reminded him of tne Metropolitan Foreign Cattle 
Market Bill, upon which, he said, there would be a severe fight 
in the House of Commons. He was not prepared to say that 
it would be carried, but it was a very important measure for 
this country, and the exertions of all were needed to pass it. 
Many members connected with large towns were opposed to it, 
because they believed it would be the means of contracting the 
supply of meat ; bat that was not so— the only idea in the minds 
of the promoters of the Bill was protection to the home 
cattle against the re-introduction of the cattle plague. It 
would be brought forward in a few days, when he trusted it 
would have the support of every member of this county, and 
of the borough members also ; and he hoped to be able, when 
they met again next year, to hear that the effects of the Bill 
had been such as they desired. 

Mr. Silwin-Ibbztson, in responding, also alluded to the 
subiect of the Metropolitan Foreign Cattle Markets Bill, and 
saia he himself felt very great interest in the subject, he having 
sat upon the Committee on the Bill for 25 days, daring which 
time they had had a mass of evidence before them, and which 
had been sifted, not by the most impartial adversaries, but by 
men who used every possible device to defeat the measure. 
The Bill, notwithstanding, had gone to the House, not exactly, 
perhaps, as ita friend oould have wished; bnts till a very 
serviceable measure. When it came before the House he was 
satisfied that a large number of agricultural members of Ireland 
and Scotland, who did not sit on the same side of the House as 
himself, would give it their support, lt was said by the oppo- 
nents of the measure that it would diminish the supply or fo- 
reign meat : bnt every witness the Committee had^before them 
tola them that, though at first the restrictions or the measure 
might to a certain extent impede importation, the trade would 
almost immediately find its own level. The farmers through- 
out England, and certainly of Essex, ought to look upon this 
measure as one most important to their interest*. 

Lord Eustace Cecil said : With regard to the measure be- 
fore Parliament which had been alluded to, he need not say that 
he thoroughly went with the two previous speakers in all that 
they had said. He hoped the Bill wonld be made to suit, if possi- 
ble, all classes, but especially the agricultural community. With- 
out going into several agricultural objects which had Deen be- 


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fore the House, and which, perhaps, might be considered semi- 
political, there was one exception to which he might allude, 
and that was a very old friend with whom he had lately had a 
great deal to do : he alluded to the Malt-tax* He read the 
other day that at a certain meeting, of a rather more political 
character than this, some one who uttered the well-known 
cry upon this subject was threatened to be turned out of the 
room. He had, therefore, an additional reason for asking for 
their indulgence in bringing this question before them, be- 
cause he certainly had no desire that so rigorous a measure 
should be carried out as regarded himself— that he should be 
turned out of this room or elsewhere. As a member, however, of 
the Malt-tax Committee, he felt it was only right to report pro- 
gress upon the question, because a great deal had been said in 


Chambers of Agriculture and elsewhere of the dilitoriness of 
that Committee. The fact was that they had had a great many 
disadvantages to oontend against : they had had a number of 
witnesses who had not given their evidence in the shortest 
way in the world, and their worthy Chairman— small blame 
to him — had thought fit to get married, and no one could 
grudge him his well-earned honeymoon. They, however, he 
thought, began to see the end of their discussions ; and he 
sincerely hoped that their deliberations would be satisfactory 
to the public, and to the large agricultural class. Two 
things he had especially learned while on that Com- 
mittee — one was that everybody was most anxious to 
get rid of the Malt-tax, and secondly, that no one would 
allow his own trade or profession to be agood one. 


THE BIRMINGHAM HORSE AND HOUND SHOW. 

IN BINGLEY HALL. 


“ Love me love my dog,” is an old saying, that had it 
been started in these days there would most likely have been 
added “ and give him a prixe.” This is equally applicable 
to the horse, and we know of no more unenviable post 
than a judge at a show ; as for one he pleases there are ten 
non-contents. Bat this is a mere matter of arithmetic 
after all, the old sow and her pigs again, and more pigs 
than teats. If there is one more unenviable post than 
that of a judge it is the critic, who goes to the best of 
his ability as straight as the crow flies, for he may not 
only offend the exhibitors, but the judges as well. And 
why has Ginger turned that smile of honey that he was 
wont to greet us with into one as sour as veijoice, and 
growl as he passes, “ His head ara’t well set on, arn’t it P 
And where, oh where is the hearty shake of that horny 
hand of old Whipcord as he looked in our eyes ? we 
imagined to see if we had glass ones or a cataract form- 
ing — vanished. Yes. He has turned astronomer when 
we meet, and wants a martingale qnite as much as that 
brute of his with the ewe-neck that we called a stargazer. 
Then there's Steel, because we said his horse bored, has 
taken to terrestrial studies or counting his toes ; whilst 
Oily Gammon, who was always pointing out and dilating 
in the plaintive notes of Philomela on the points of 
Shapeless, thinking that he was persuading ns that she 
was far superior to the prize-winner Perfection, has 
stopped his piping, and with ruffled feathers shifts and 
sides about, or tarns tail as if he had been shot at, or 
borrowed two-and-six. “ Love me love my dog 1” never, 
if he be a savage deformity or your horse a shapeless 
brute. But for the love we bearyou, here we are at our 
post with the indelible pencil. The hour is ten — and the 
scene laid in Bingley Hall — the centre being fitted up as 
a circus, with Lord Combermere and Mr. Cookson in the 
open as judges ; when in there comes dancing a mealy 
chesnut, with light wavy mane and tail, which add to his 
foreign appearance. It is Umpire, the American, by Le 
Comte out of Alice Caracal, by Imp Sarpedon, and a 
fair performer on the turf in his time, having staked for 
forty races, and won thirteen. But now, he figures for 
the first time in a new character, being sent by his noble 
owner, the Earl of Coventry, as a candidate for prizes 
given for thorough-bred stallions calculated to get weight- 
carrying hunters. Amd if “ like gets like,” or