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Historic, Archive Document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
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Vol. XXV. 



AUG. 15, 1897. 



No. 16. 




GeEanings looks very neat in her new suit. 
Easier to read too. 

Wiesbaden is where the big convention of 
German bee-keepers will be. Wish I could 
be there! 

Alfred Austin, England's poet laureate, 
is a member of the Kent Bee-keepers' Associ- 
ation — not an honorary member, but pays his 
subscription. 

Ants in hives. M. Guilleminot, in VApi- 
culleur, says he is successful in getting rid of 
ants by first removing what he can of their 
nests, then sprinkling well with finely crush- 
ed soot. 

Did you ever notice that, in enlarging 
the brood-nest, the queen often lays first on 
the side of a fresh comb furthest from the 
brood-nest? I wonder why. [I never no- 
ticed it.— Ed.] 

To The question, whether it is possible 
and desirable to increase the length of tongue 
in our bees, nearly all repliers in A. B.J. 
agree as to desirability, and a large majority 
believe it possible. 

The Beegian government has issued an 
order that all railway embankments shall be 
covered with honey-plants. — Bienen - Vater. 
May be that will happen here, if government 
runs the railroads. 

Byron Waeker is right about ' ' even thick- 
ness of combs." The fact is, I'm so used to 
thinking of separators being used that I never 
thought of the great unevenness there might 
be without them. He's right, too, in think- 
ing there may be too great economy of words 
in describing grades. 

You are RIGHT, I think, Mr. Editor, p. 550, 
in thinking the bees would not have so readi- 
ly capped over that honey if I had taken awa}^ 
all the brood-frames, leaving only full frames 
of honey ; but there was no ' ' putting-in of 
the frames of foundation in alternation," as 
you mention. It was frames of brood alter- 
nated with frames of honey. 

In repey to Mr. Craig's question, p. 573, I 
think fall is better than spring for sowing 



sweet clover, and it most surely must be sown 
or self-sown every two years, for, like a pars- 
nip, it grows one year without blooming, 
blooms the next year, then dies root and 
branch. So if bloom is wanted every year, 
seed must be sown or self-sown every year. 

Prof. Cook favors a return to the old plan 
of having a few bees on every farm, rather 
than large apiaries in the hands of specialists. 
— Rural Calif ornian. Which may and may 
not be all right if every farmer would keep 
bees. But if all the specialists were killed off, 
would it at all increase the number of farmers 
who keep bees ? 

Many thanks, friend A. I., for giving fits 
to the electrical thieves that are worse than 
pickpockets, and especially to their aiders and 
abettors, the religious press. Don't let up on 
the latter till they cease to be partners in 
crime. [Doctor, suppose you tell them the 
plain truth. We will furnish you all the 
marked sample copies you want. Perhaps a 
word from you would have more weight than 
from A. I. R. — Ed.] 

The Argentine Republic, as reported by 
A. Michaut in Apiculteur, is a paradise for 
bee-keepers — no failures from drought or 
moisture (except once in 12 or 15 years grass- 
hoppers allow a quarter crop); no foul brood 
or other disease ; no moth ; abundant harvest 
for three months in the vast alfalfa fields, and 
an average yield of 75 lbs. a colony at 3 cts. a 
pound, and 3}i lbs. wax at 20 cts. Perhaps 
Prof. Bruner will tell us about it. 

Sheep are good to keep down grass in an 
apiary, but they move hives on their stands 
more than cows or horses. [I am sure your 
experience is different from that of Vernon 
Burt and the rest of us. Whenever a horse is 
stung in the vicinity of our apiary, there is 
usually a fracas, and a lively one too. The 
last experience our Meg had at our home api- 
ary was when she kicked over two hives and 
had a runaway generally. Say, doctor, do 
your sheep kick ? — Ed.] 

Rev. M. Mahin, D. D., has observed close- 
ly, and never found bees working on strawber- 
ry-bloom worth mentioning till this year ; but 
this year they worked as freely on it as on clo- 
ver. He thinks an unusually damp and cool 
spring accounts for it. [Two or three years 
ago a few insisted that bees never work on 



586 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Aug. 15. 



strawberries. Others stated just as emphati- 
cally that they did. The truth of the matter 
is, some years bees do visit strawberry-blos- 
soms, and some years they do not. — Ed.] 

Glass covers for hives seem to have gone 
out of use at Medina ; but at least two corre- 
spondents of the British B.J. like them after 
four years' trial. [Glass covers ! I hardly 
know to what you refer unless you mean two 
that we used during winter, sealed down over 
the brood-nest, and covered with packing for 
experimental purposes. The result of the ex- 
periment that season seemed to show that 
bees did better under absorbents than under 
sealed covers. The glass was simply a matter 
of convenience. — Ed.] 

C. P. Dad ant says, in American Bee Jotir- 
nal, "Why two Unions? Can't we lay aside 
all disputes and come together ? I belong to 
both, and am willing to help both; but how 
much stronger we should be if we stood to- 
gether as one man ! " Vous avez raison, mon 
cher ami. [Just so ; and I believe that nine- 
tenths of both organizations are with friend 
Dadant. Amalgamation is not given up by 
any means ; and I hope the new constitution, 
at the next convention in Buffalo, may be so 
worded as to suit the most fastidious. — Ed.] 

Sweet clover, it has been said, will drive 
out flies if the stalks are hung up in a house. 
Big bunches are hung in our honey- room, and 
the flies seem to enjoy roosting on it. [I do 
not see how sweet clover could drive flies out 
of the house ; but I can readily imagine how 
the flies would like to roost on it. But why 
have flies in the honey-room at all ? Why not 
have screens and screen doors ? If you send 
one of your women-folks out to the house 
properly screened (house screened, not the 
woman), I will warrant she will bat the flies 
to death in very short order. I judge your 
women-folks by ours, for they are sure death 
to flies.— Ed.] 

Honey is quoted by the gallon, p. 547, in 
the New York quotations. Wouldn't it be just 
as well to have nothing but pounds ? [When 
honey is quoted by the gallon it usually means 
southern honey, or an inferior quality, for 
such honey usually sells in the South by the 
gallon. I believe with you that it would be 
better if it could always be sold by the pound, 
for on that plan the producer is paid just as 
much for thick honey as for thin. Or, to look 
at it in another way, a premium is put upon 
thick honey — the only kind that ought to be 
put on the market. — Ed.] 

I don't wonder, Ernest, that you have 
come to the conclusion that you want all your 
queens clipped. So far as looks are concern- 
ed, it need make but little difference. Cut 
the big wing on one side, leaving the little 
one intact, and you'll have to look pretty 
closely to see that a queen is clipped. [Yes, 
I am thoroughly converted to your way of 
looking at the matter. Say, doctor, is it 
wrong for one to change his mind ? or should 
he stick and hang to his originally published 
opinion, right or wrong? There are some 
people I know, and editors too,twho appear to 
feel that the latter policy is the better one. 



As for myself, even if it is a little humiliating 
once in a while, I expect to right about face 
just as soon as I know that the other fellow is 
right and I wrong. I really do not mean to 
give anybody a rap on the head ; but it would 
be better for bee culture if there were more 
who are willing to change front. — After read- 
ing the foregoing it sounded very ' ' goody- 
goody " — a little too much so, perphaps. 
Can't help it. I believe in the doctrine of 
conversion from the error of one's ways. — 
Ed.] 

Is The ability to build comb inborn, or do 
the young bees learn it from the older ones ? 
Kokevnikow, a Russian, secured a lot of 
young bees that could never have seen comb 
built, and they made a finished job of comb- 
building the first time trying. — Bienen- Vater. 
[Exactly. The young bees will build just as 
good combs as the older bees, just the same 
as young cats and dogs can swim as well as 
old cats and dogs. The puppy spaniel that I 
had swam just as well the first day I threw 
him into the water as he did on other days 
months afterward when he swam out into the 
lake for his own pleasure after blocks of wood 
had been thrown out for him to bring in. — 
Ed.] 

Thick top-bars and %-inch bee-space do 
well as regards burr-combs; but brace-combs 
between top-bars are plentiful. [As a general 
rule, there are comparatively few burr-combs 
over thick top-bars; and there are practically 
none when the spaces between them are % 
inch. But our friends and patrons do not 
seem to like to have the top-bars quite as wide 
as you do, and accordingly there are occasion- 
ally burr-combs as well as brace-combs. There 
is a great difference in colonies. We have one 
at our out-yard that sprinkled the burr and 
brace combs in pretty thickly between the sets 
of extracting-supers, but they are as one in 
five hundred. It is the exception that proves 
the rule. — Ed.] 

Almost surely, Mr. Editor, you are right 
in thinking your home apiary overstocked 
with 300 colonies and nuclei; but a compari- 
son with the out-yard doesn't prove it, for a 
like comparison of my home apiary with the 
north apiary would prove the first overstocked, 
although the two are about equal. A short 
distance often makes a big difference. [What 
you say is true. During the early part of the 
honey-flow I was called to hive a swarm half 
a mile from our home yard. I then observed 
that our neighbor's bees, some two or three 
colonies, while only half a mile away, had 
about three times as much honey per hive as 
colonies of equal strength in our large home 
apiary. This led me to believe that two 
things were true: First, that the home yard 
was overstocked ; second, that bees do not 
usually fly much over half a mile in quest of 
stores '; and it is only when they can not get 
honey within this range that they will go 
further. So long as there is a little to be had 
near home, so long are they content with 
that little. But, "all the samee," I do not 
believe it is wise to put out-apiaries much 
nearer than two miles. — Ed.] 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



587 



FIGHTING GLUCOSE IN CHICAGO. 



The Plan Proposed on Pages 554, 555, Impractica- 
ble ; the Legal Status of the Question. 

BY HERMAN F. MOORE. 



Mr. Root: — In regard to your plan to have 
Mr. W. A. Selser, of Philadelphia, make anal- 
yses of samples of suspected honey, it would 
not be best, as we could not use his evidence 
here in our courts without great expense in 
bringing him here to testify in person. No 
other mode of testimony would be satisfacto- 
ry. The analyses must be made by some 
chemist near by, or in Chicago. 

One thing to be remembered is, that there 
would be considerable expense connected with 
prosecuting these honey -mixers here in Chi- 
cago. It would be the best place on earth to 
make such a fight if made by one of our Bee- 
keepers' Unions, because the best advertised; 
and any action here would be at once commu- 
nicated to the whole world of bee-keepers in 
all lands. 

We must remember who are our foes here 
in the outset. I inclose a clipping from a 
Chicago paper about the Glucose Trust. A 
new incorporation of the G. T. has just been 
made in New Jersey, with $40,000,000 capital 
stock. These people are pushing their busi- 
ness here in Chicago, as I believe $1,000,000 
worth a year of their products is consumed 
and handled through this city in a year. They 
would undoubtedly fight us tooth and nail. 
Their first fight would be to furnish unlimited 
money to hire the best lawyers in Chicago to 
defend any one arrested for mixing honey 
with glucose, and to pay their fines if con- 
victed. If the bee-keepers desire to push this 
matter it would be necessary to provide not 
less than $1000 in money at the start to pay 
necessary expenses. It would be necessary to 
retain, to aid in the prosecution of offenders, 
I one of the best lawyers in Chicago — one whose 
name would earn* prestige in the courts and 
before the people. To retain such a lawyer a 
liberal fee would be necessary. 

I should like to see a decisive move made 
I against the works (glucose) of the enemy; 
but it should be done in the proper manner, 
and with a force commensurate with the 
. wealth and fighting qualities of the said ene- 
my, or it had best be left alone. I should be 
glad to hear from Mr. York, as he is here 
among them, and knows the conditions as 
well as or better than I. 

I will say, for the benefit of those who know 
me personally, that, though I am a lawyer, I 
am not in a position to represent the' Bee- 
keepers' Union in such a prosecution, and 
have no thoughts of myself in the above re- 
marks, though I should be glad to give them 
the benefit of any knowledge or experience I 
may have in the premises. 
. Chicago, 111., Aug. 4. 

[From your statement of the case it looks 
almost as if we were helpless. Although I am 
not a lawyer, nor the son of one, let us exam- 
ine the matter a little from another point, for 
I feel as if we could not give it up. How will 



this do ? Employ Mr. Selser to analyze two 
dozen samples of extracted honey bought in 
the open market in Chicago. Suppose he 
finds one dozen of them to be adulterated. 
Would not this, coming from the Union, be 
sufficient evidence to induce the prosecuting 
attorney or the food commissioners of your 
State to bestir themselves a little, especially if 
the General Manager kept on dinging at 
them ? Why, in the name or the good State 
of Illinois, is it necessary for the Union or any 
organization made up of private persons to 
defray the expense of prosecution that rightly 
belongs to the State ? Ohio has an energetic 
food commissioner, and I have no doubt he 
had a constituency back of him who prodded 
him up to a sense of his duty ; and those of 
us who live in this State know that he has 
made the food-adulterators fear and tremble. 
He even went so far that some of our ' ' good 
people ' ' actually began to protest, and they 
fairly begged him to "let up " on the poor 
persecuted mixers. The Union must not of 
itself assume the expense of prosecutions ; 
but can we not give the Illinois State Food 
Commissioner, or whoever that functionary is, 
a little ' ' waking up " ? 

It is too bad that the liquor element and the 
food-adulterators have got matters into such 
shape that it is hard to secure conviction ; but 
the good people of our land must wake up, for 
the other side certainly are not asleep. Glu- 
cose and whisky, and all other enemies of the 
human stomach, must not triumph over right. 
—Ed.] 



GLUCOSE, AGAIN. 

BY R. M'KXIGHT. 



I am surprised, Mr. Editor, that you too 
look upon glucose as vile stuff. You say, 
' ' The article that is ordinarily used for pur- 
poses of adulteration is hardly fit to put into 
the stomach of a pig, let alone that of a hu- 
man being." I take it that the statement 
used in the above paragraph covers all arti- 
cles ' ' ordinarily used for the purposes of adul- 
teration. ' ' In this you are certainly mistaken. 
Whisky, I believe, is usually adulterated with 
water; therefore water is unfit to put into the 
stomach of a pig. Coffee is usually adulter- 
ated with chickory, therefore chickory is vile 
stuff, unfit to be used by a human being. 
Mustard is adulterated with flour — your logic 
proves flour vile stuff. The sparkling diamond 
is chemically identical with the somber char- 
coal, so it will be in order for Cecil Rhodes 
and other diamond kings to denounce char- 
coal as vile stuff, and its producers scoundrels. 
Now that there is a large factory at Niagara 
Falls for manufacturing diamonds out of char- 
coal, all these adulterants are, I contend, le- 
gitimate articles of commerce, and their pro- 
duction is neither a fraud nor a sin. The 
fraud consists in mixing them with articles of 
a higher commercial value than themselves, 
and selling the mixed article for what it is not. 
The only proof you furnish that glucose is 
vile stuff is that it nauseated vou once while 



588 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Aug. 15. 



sampling honey mixed with it, and left you 
afflicted with ' ' a horribly nasty taste ' ' that 
clung to you for days. I have known people 
nauseated for days from sampling butter at a 
show-fair where all the butter was considered 
good. It is unfortunate that this article is be- 
lieved to be largely used in adulterating honey 
in the United States. The practice is a fraud 
that ought to be stamped out, and I am pleas- 
ed to learn that you are making progress in. 
that direction. I believe that glucose, when 
properly refined, is not detrimental to health, 
and I am slow to believe that those who are 
engaged in its production are scoundrels. It 
is an extensive industry in your country. 
There is a line of steamboats running from 
Gladstone to this port that bring in tens of 
thousands of barrels of this ' ' stuff ' ' during 
the summer, and as man)* bags of grape sugar 
made from the same source. This is all 
through freight going to Britain and Europe. 
If it is used only as an adulterant the fraud 
must be widespread. One thing is certain — 
bee-keepers can not stop its production by 
calling it, and those engaged in producing it, 
ugly names. Perhaps your Deople have great- 
er reason to feel sore over this matter. Honey 
adulteration is not practiced here to any ap- 
preciable extent. Out of several hundred 
samples analyzed by the Dominion chemist 
last year, only twelve were found to be adul- 
terated. 

Owen Sound, Can. 

[In your first quotation you wholly misun- 
derstood me. The quoted sentence standing 
by itself might admit of the interpretation 
that you have given it; but when placed in 
connection with the other sentences it will be 
seen to convey quite a different impression. 
"The article (namely, glucose) that is ordi- 
narily used for purposes of adulteration is 
hardly fit to put into the stomach of a pig. ' ' 
I have reproduced the quotation, but have put 
in parenthesis the exact meaning I intended 
to convey. Your argument is all for naught. 

You still fail to furnish one iota of proof 
to the effect that glucose is a legitimate article 
of commerce. If you will show me one legit- 
imate use to which glucose is put, outside of 
its use as an adulterant, I will give you a 
chromo. It is possible that it is used in the 
manufacture of liquors; if so, it should be 
classed along with them. — Ed.] 



MARKETING HONEY. 



The Problem of Candied Honey ; the Policy of Re- 
placing Candied Honey with Liquid, Con- 
demned ; Some Valuable Hints. 



BY. J. A. BUCHANAN. 

I believe I stated some time ago that I 
would have a short talk on this subject. It is 
one that is continually bobbing up. Articles 
of interest embracing many facts and some 
theory have been appearing in GivKANiNGS 
for some time, especially the talks by Mr. 
R. C. Aikin. It is true, that bee-keepers who 
produce alfalfa, basswood, and other kinds 



which soon granulate, will ever have trouble 
unless a way shall be discovered to prevent 
candying. 

We have handled immense quantities of fal- 
falfa honey, but have given it up on account 
of its ready disposition to candy. Mr. Aikin 's 
suggestion to put up the honey in small cans 
of 1, 3, or 5 lb. sizes, and retail or wholesale 
in this way, letting it candy when it may, de- 
pending on the printed instructions as a means 
of information and education whereby the 
consumer may learn to liquefy his own honey, 
will do with only a very few people, , as I test- 
ed this very plan some years ago. 

Some four or five years ago I visited grocers 
in different towns and cities, on the hunt for 
bargains in honey that had been put up this 
way which had stuck on their hands, and, be- 
ing candied, it was not wanted, but looked 
upon with suspicion by both grocer and buy- 
ers. I found in one store several hundred 3-lb. 
cans of candied white-clover honey, and 
bought the lot at 5 cts. per can, and the gro- 
cer was glad to get it out of the way. This 
honey was labeled with plain directions for 
restoring to the liquid form. It is surprising 
how few persons there are who will read in- 
structions in the management or use of any 
article. 

Some of the worst abuse I ever got in my 
life came from retailers and customers upon 
finding the honey I had sold to them had can- 
died, or " gone back to sugar," as they put it, 
as well as firmly believed. We now handle 
only such grades of honey as will not candy, 
are or very slow to do so. 

As to the matter of taking up all jars, cans, 
or glasses, and replacing with freshly liquefied 
stock, I can think of nothing more distasteful 
than such everlasting foolery and waste of 
time; not only so, but, worst of all, this re- 
liquefying will soon destroy both color and | 
flavor. I have known several parties who 
once put their honey on the market in this j 
way. I did so myself, but it's too puttering a 
business to keep up continuously. 

In localities where the honey crop is not j 
large, bee-keepers can find customers for all 
they produce, with little trouble, and at satis- j 
factory prices; but the case is different where 
there are great quantities and no good home 
demand. In this case it appears to me it 
would be quite as well to wholesale and let it j 
fall into the hands of those who make a busi- \ 
ness of handling honey by hunting up con- J 
sumers. By the time this class pays freights, 
stands all losses, bears all expenses of travel- 
ing, taking orders, delivering, etc., he will I 
find, these slow times, that his profits will all I 
be taken at any ordinary bank, if not all, to I 
defray expenses. 

Just let every producer do his level best to 
sell in his home market all he produces, at 
the best price possible to obtain, going at the 
business with a determination to sell, and I 
am sure there will be no very large quantities 
find their way into the hands of city commis- ■ I 
sion houses. 

I have often bought bee-keepers' crops of 
honey and stepped into the towns right around 
them, and in a few days' work have doubled 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



589 



my money on the purchase, while they all 
the time claimed there was no use to try any 
more to sell honey in " such places;" but I'll 
admit the fact that not all people are sales- 
men. 

Although we sell large quantities of honey, 
both comb and extracted, each season, we 
never sell honey to dealers, but altogether to 
the consumer, giving them fresh honey, and 
so good that they will not keep it long enough 
to candy. 

We put up no smaller packages than one 
dollar's worth, as it does not pay to deliver a 
less quantity at the close margin at which 
honey may be sold these times. 

It has always seemed a mystery to me how 
it comes, that, in nearly every case, we are 
able to purchase honey of the same quality 
from commission merchants of the large cities 
at a less price than we can buy direct from 
the producer. Perhaps bee-keepers ship to 
cities in the hope of getting the best prices; 
but after waiting long and getting anxious for 
returns, they advise their dealers to close out 
at once to the best advantage, which is sure 
to be to any other person's advantage more 
than to that of the owner of the honey. 

Now let every one who can find any thing 
like a fair home market go to work and sup- 
ply this and keep it up, which plan will be 
found to give, in the outcome, the best and 
most permanent satisfaction as well as profit. 

Holliday's Cove, W. Va. 

[I believe I have already said — at all events 
I will say it now — that Mr. Buchanan has 
probably sold more honey, in a retail way, 
and has done more in the way of developing 
local markets, than any other bee-keeper in 
the United States. He annually produces 
large crops of honey, and not only sells his 
own, but sells for a good many others. 

Mr. Buchanan's experience with regard to 
candied honey, and replacing the same with 
liquid, will probably not work satisfactorily 
with him; but Mr. Chalon Fowls, of Oberlin, 
O., has worked on this plan for years, and 
considers it profitable. 

I was struck particularly with one paragraph 
where Mr. Buchanan says he has often bought 
bee-keepers' crops of honey, and sold it right 
around their homes, and doubled his money, 
while they, the bee-keepers, had all along 
claimed that there was no use of trying to sell 
honey in their markets. Granting that Mr. 
Buchanan is a natural salesman, and knows 
the art of selling, this does not explain how 
he should be able to double on his money, 
unless, at least, those bee-keepers who com- 
plain of their home markets have made no 
effort to develop them. Perhaps they are not 
read up — or at least have not read the series 
of valuable articles that have been running in 
Gleanings and the other bee-journals ef late. 
Understand, I do not question Mr. B.'s right 
to double on his money. It is his privilege 
and right, if the other fellows won't post up 
and do something. 

Mr. Buchanan calls attention to another 
significant fact; namely, that in nearly every 
case he has been able to buy honey of a given 



quality from commission merchants in the 
large cities cheaper than he could buy the same 
honey direct from the producer. This is too 
true. It can be explained only on the ground 
that so much honey is sent to the cities that it 
ghats the markets; and the consequence is, 
the bee-keeper is glad to get any thing if he 
can only get something. Too often he is de- 
ceived by quotations that are above the mar- 
ket. Big promises for immediate returns at 
glittering figures allure him. Why will not 
bee-keej ,ers learn to be careful ? Nine-tenths 
of the producers know the art of securing 
honey; but I almost believe that nine-tenths 
of them do not know the art of selling. Why, 
we are to-day having the finest qualities of 
comb and extracted honey offered to us at 
prices that are ridiculously low. Sometimes 
we buy, and sometimes we do not. We very 
much dislike to be lugged into the "general 
swim ' ' with those who are trying to buy 
closely, at the expense of the hard-working 
bee-keeper. It is too bad, but need not be if 
producers would not be so fast to lump their 
honey off in large lots for the sake of getting 
a " big pile " all in one lump. — Ed.] 



GOOD CROPS AND GOOD PRICES. 
The Advantage of Selling around Home. 

BY DAN WHITE. 



I notice in last issue, July 15, comments 
about our large crop of honey. Some are 
afraid of a glut in the market, ruinous prices, 
etc. Now, if I can say a word of encourage- 
ment I will gladly do so. My this season's 
crop is about 7000 pounds, mostly extracted, 
and I expect to market every pound of it at 
fair prices. You know good help to work 
among bees is hard to find ; consequently 
about four weeks' good hard labor by myself 
alone has secured this honey. I have no one 
to settle with for labor but myself. Now, is 
it good policy for me to sit down and wait for 
people to come and buy my honey, or put it 
in large packages and throw it on the market ? 
I believe I can now well afford to do some 
hustling around, and sell this honey. Don't 
you see I shall do this myself ? and when I 
get through, my expense account will not eat 
up a large share of my honey crop. I can 
now report one day's labor, 600 lbs. honey 
sold, nearly all for cash, and in the mean time 
I have found where I can place about 600 lbs. 
more just by driving around with the honey. 

Let me give my price: 8 cts. per pound, in 
a small way; $7.00 for 100 lbs. I have al- 
ready filled' and taken several orders for 100 
lbs. in a family — some of them farmers too. 
Don't be afraid to go out among the farmers, 
and especially the laborers in villages and 
cities. I have told you before that four fam- 
ilies out of five hardly know what honey is. 
Now, sir, we have lots of honey, and let's 
hunt these people out and tickle their palates 
with some good honey. We shall not only 
get rid of this crop, but we are making a mar- 
ket for future crops of honey. 

I could hardly give the time to say what 



590 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Aug. 15. 



little I have. I will report later how I get 
along. But I will add this much, and close: 
I have had a host of help around me picking, 
marketing, and looking after 8 acres of small 
fruit. When I get settled up, and expenses 
paid, I believe I shall take off my hat and give 
three cheers for the bees. 
New London, O., July 20. 

[Dan White is a "hustler;" and if you 
could see him once as I have, and imbibe a 
little of his enthusiasm — well, I think you 
could sell honey too. Our hustling friend 
asks a very pertinent question : Is it good pol- 
icy for the bee-keeper to sit down and wait for 
people to come and buy his honey, or put it 
into large packages and throw it on the mar- 
ket ? or shall he sell it himself around home, 
and get good prices? Just think of this a 
good long while, brother bee-keepers, and 
then ponder a moment on some of the things 
that Mr. Buchanan has said in the article just 
preceding. — Ed.] 



DEVELOPING HOME MARKETS. 



Putting out a Fine Article, and Having it Stand 
on its own Merits. 



BY B. F. ONDERDONK. 

Mr. Root: — I notice an uneasiness in the 
minds of some of the correspondents of the 
various bee- journals as to what they will do 
with the large crop of honey in view this year. 
I would say to all, make your own market. 

In 1895 I commenced with three colonies, 
and got a surplus of 89 finished sections, re- 
taining imperfect ones for my own use. As 
my duties call me to the city every day I do 
all my apiarian work before 7 A. M., and after 
6 p. M. , working as early as 4:30 and up to 10 
p. m. The first case, a 12-lb. section one, I 
fixed up, using wider glass than usual, 3^ in., 
to make a good display, and carried it into 
the house, and said to my wife, ' ' Show this to 
the grocer when he calls for orders." 

She asked him, " Do you sell honey? " 

" Well, we always have it, but there is little 
sale." 

" Is it as fine as this ? ' ' 

" My ! isn't that nice ? What we have looks 
as though the mice had gnawed it. If that is 
for sale I'll take it and see what can be done 
with it. " 

This was in October. He sold my entire 
surplus ; and when that was exhausted he 
sold all of his old stock — an appetite was cre- 
ated. In 1896 my surplus of 312 lbs. was 
gone by January. 

The other grocer with whom I also deal 
wouldn't touch it. "Never sold any comb 
honey." This summer I told him he ought 
to sell honey, to be up with his competitor. 
' 1 Well, I'll think about it. ' ' 

The first honey I took off June 22, and sent 
him a case with the message, "If you don't 
sell it I'll take it back." He has now his 
fourth dozen. The other man has it also on 
sale. I have taken off 385 sections to date. 
Of" course, among them are some nice and 



white, but only three-fourths full, hardly mar- 
ketable (of course, all sections are thoroughly 
cleaned); and as we have a fish-peddler who 
sells fruits and vegetables as well, I said: 
" Here, you can surely sell honey." 
" Oh ! I don't know." 

" Well, now, these you can have at 10 cents; 
sell them for 15 cents; or two for a quarter; 
these No. 1 are 13 cts.; fancy 15 cts., to the 
grocers." 

This peddler's route covers a circuit of five 
miles from the village, 'and is run three days. 
He sold out his case (12 sections) each day, 
and had not enough to go round. He has 
engaged all my incomplete sections. He got 
15 cts. each, and a nice profit, $1.80. 

In the spring a neighbor living a mile away 
came to me and asked me if I would instruct 
him in the care of bees, as. he knew nothing 
about them, and had a chance to purchase 
eight colonies. I have informed him on all 
points, and he is a credit to my teaching, mak- 
ing a success. 

Some of my friends expressed surprise at 
my willingness to encourage competition as 
they called it. I told them that a successful 
competitor would increase the field of de- 
mand ; that honey would be introduced to 
hundreds of families who would not other- 
wise know of it; but that I felt it my duty to 
benefit my fellow-man, even though I might 
suffer loss. 

Mountain View, N. J. 

SECTION-PRESSES AND THE RIETSCHE PRESS, 
AGAIN. 



The Comparative Merits of the Daisy, Hubbard, 
and the Rietsche Combined Machine Discussed. 



BY F. I,. THOMPSON. 



Some time ago Alois Alphonsus, of Vienna, 
stated that foundation could be made as thin 
with the Rietsche press as with a mill. He is 
a professional bee-keeper of good standing.. 
That was the basis of my ' 1 assumption ' ' of the 
possibility of making eight L. sheets to the 
pound with the press. I did not entirely be- 
lieve that statement, but thought he was a lit- 
tle mistaken ; yet it strongly indicated that 
foundation could be made pretty thin, for 
surely they can turn out 11 feet to the pound, 
anyhow, in Europe, on the mills there in use. 
At any rate, that statement, and your experi- 
ence of three L. sheets to the pound, seem ut- 
terly irreconcilable. Though I have never 
seen a Rietsche press, what I read about it 
makes me lingeringly suspect that your expe- 
rience with it is not identical with that of for- 
eign bee-keepers. Did you use the honey and 
alcohol lubricant ? The press is frequently re- 
ferred to in high terms by disinterested parties 
in a number of foreign bee-papers which I re- 
ceive. I hope to learn before long just how 
thin the improved machine makes foundation. 
I think it would be well to find out all about 
this ; for until then I, for one, and no doubt 
others, will feel uneasy, and be tempted to 
send our hard-earned dollars across the ocean 
for something to save money with. 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



591 



Yes, I did think you were favoring the sup- 
ply-dealer at the expense of the bee-keeper, 
but supposed it was because you w T ere under 
the false impression that you were favoring 
both. One may be mistaken in this as in oth- 
er ways — in fact, more readily, for the consid- 
eration of unconscious bias comes in. 

So far I am not certain that I may not have 
got the worst of it ; but now for the next 
round — look out ! You say you have ' ' care- 
fully tested ' ' every combined section-machine 
sent you. What does this mean ? A machine 
might be carefully tested in twenty minutes, 
and a verdict given. But in the case of any 
machine depending partly for its speed on the 
way it is handled, a short test is no test at all, 
unless its defects are quite obvious. Other- 
wise no machine you test is on equal terms 
with the Daisy. Not less than five thousand 
sections should be put up, and ten thousand 
would be better. The operator must learn to 
finger it as an expert does a piano. This re- 
quires time, and lots of it ; but I see no other 
way to do. Piano-fingering is exceedingly 
awkward work for a long time ; but, when 
once learned, the motions required are as ele- 
gant and effective as they formerly seemed 
awkward and unnatural. 

I have not tested the Daisy — not because I 
do not want to, but because I have not time at 
present, and have not a suitable lamp. But I 
will leave it to you whether there are not some 
things I can say about it, as well as the Hub- 
bard, which I have not worked either. (I 
have used, besides the Rauchfuss, the Parker 
and the Clark machines, and a treadle press 
called the Beeson. ) My objection to all sepa- 
rate machines is that, in folding, certain mo- 
tions are gone through with that have to be 
done over again when the foundation is fasten- 
ed. If you could combine the Daisy and the 
Hubbard, wouldn't you do it? But, this idea 
is "theoretical." Not so. The other day I 
made repeated experiments with lots of twen- 
ty sections each on my machine, some previ- 
ously folded, and some not, to ascertain how 
much extra time the folding took when both 
operations were performed together. One lot, 
already folded, was supplied with top sheets 
at a rate which, if continued, would be 450 an 
hour. Another was folded and supplied with 
top sheets at the rate of 436 an hour — a very 
trifling difference which leaves the Hubbard 
out of sight, even at the rate of 500 in 15 min- 
utes. In another case, in which both top 
sheets and bottom starters were used, one lot 
with and one without folding at the same 
time, each lot was done in 4^ minutes (or 266 
an hour) — no difference at all. (By the way, 
what is the record of the Daisy in putting in 
both top sheets and bottom starters ? ) I may 
mention here that I made several trials' of 
20 sections each on the folding part alone, out 
of curiosity. The average was 20 in 65 sec- 
onds — a rate of 1000 in 54 minutes. An expert 
might equal the Hubbard. But, of course, 
there would be no object in folding separately. 
I mention this simply to show that no time is 
lost by the method of folding employed. 

In fastening bottom starters only, in previ- 
ously folded sections, I reached the rate of 490 



an hour. Small starters appear to be handled 
a trifle easier than full sheets. When this 
rate, with my experience (at that time), in 
putting up only 5000 sections on this machine 
is compared with your rate of 500 an hour, and 
an experience of hundreds of thousands, prob- 
ably, on the Daisy, I don't think there can be 
much doubt as to the conclusion to be drawn 
concerning the foundation-fastening portion 
of the Rauchfuss machine ; and when 3-ou 
come to add the 15 minutes previously requir- 
ed to fold those 500 on the Hubbard, and then 
compare the total result with the fact that the 
combined machine adds less than three min- 
utes to its separate record to accomplish the 
same result, it looks as though inexperience 
with the combined machine actually did bet- 
ter work than experience with the separate 
ones. 

But I hear some one say, " Oh ! if you are 
going to compare your spurts wnth the ordina- 
ry records of others." To this I calmly reply, 
Consider the piano again. A beginner of, say, 
400 hours' practice may spurt all he pleases ; 
but he can not run a scale, nor hop around 
among the sixty-fourth notes, nor execute a 
trill, at a quarter of the rate in which an ex- 
pert does it, and the latter will carry on a con- 
versation at the same time. In other words, 
when speed depends on strength the inexperi- 
enced may gain by spurting, but not when it 
depends on dexterity. Of this I became pain- 
fully aware when, in making the "spurts," 
my fingers boggled and hit the corner of the 
press more, it seemed, than they did before. 

As to quality, I grant the excellence of the 
toggle-joint in saving power, but contend that 
sufficient power for the purpose can be saved 
in other ways. The Rauchfuss machine saves 
power in two ways ; first, by a treadle, by 
means of which the same bodily exertion with 
the foot applies greater force than with the 
hand ; second, by a lever in the machine it- 
self. The power is at one end, the fulcrum at 
the other, and the pressure is applied about a 
third of the distance from the fulcrum to the 
power. If any person were inclined to criti- 
cise the resulting exertion required, he could 
do so without touching on the principles of 
the machine. It would only be necessary to 
lessen the distance from the fulcrum to the 
point of pressure. But I do not know that 
there would be any object in doing this. As 
it is, the exertion is trifling ( on properly dove- 
tailed sections), and, what is more to the pur- 
pose, the work is perfect, so I do not think 
the Hubbard would be preferred on account of 
superiority in results. 

Passing to the quality of the work done in 
fastening foundation, I call your attention to 
Mr. Hutchinson's" statement that he has met 
with better success in fastening flat-bottom 
foundation by pressure than with the heated- 
plate machines. I assume that, among the 
latter, he includes the Dais}^ ; but he does not 
include the Rauchfuss, as he has not tried it. 
Somnambulist, too, says this is his (or her) 
last year with the heated plate. Hence, with- 
out having used it I may infer there is some 
reason for thinking the work of the Daisy is 
not perfect ; for, although neither of them 



592 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Aug. 15. 



mentions it, other heated-plate machines are 
not common. Now, unless I am greatly mis- 
taken, flat-bottom foundation was the kind 
chiefly or exclusively used when the Rauch- 
fuss machine was being constructed and ex- 
perimented with. At an)'- rate, I know by my 
own experience with flat-bottom foundation 
that the machine will fasten it so it will tear 
sooner than peel off. This looks like superi- 
ority to the Daisy. The reason is, I suppose, 
the speed with which the foundation reaches 
the wood after leaving the heated plate. The 
construction of this machine is such that if, 
for a guess, the starter in the Daisy drops in 
J5 of a second, in the Rauchfuss it must drop 
in about of a second. The heated wax has 
no time to begin cooling before it has gripped 
the fibers of the wood. By sliding the foot off 
the end of the treadle, not lifting it, the spring 
gets in its work like a flash, and meanwhile 
the fingers of both hands exert on the starter a 
downward pressure which reaches its maxi- 
mum at just the proper instant, since, by prac- 
tice, the action of the foot becomes automatic. 
This speed renders entirely unnecessary any 
surplus of melted wax, such as I have seen ac- 
cumulated on a lamp used in the Daisy. A 
touch, and it is done, when the lamp is hot 
enough ; and the hotter the better. Thus 
foundation is saved. 

A mere inspection of the machine will con- 
vince any one that its work can not be inferior 
to that of the Daisy, for all the good points of 
the latter are retained ; and, for the reasons 
mentioned, I don't think it much of an as- 
sumption to infer it is superior, even if I have 
not tried the Daisy. 

I ought to add that I find it better, in fold- 
ing sections with the Rauchfuss machine, to 
give a sudden punch to the treadle, instead of 
a simple pressure. By so doing it never fails 
to drive the locked corners as tight as they can 
possibly be, with but slight exertion. 

If you are going to test the machine, I ad- 
vise fastening the wire which connects the 
treadle with the lever to that one of the two 
holes in the treadle which is nearest the cen- 
ter. This allows the foot to slide off the end 
of the treadle when releasing it. It is only by 
so doing that the full play of the spring is ob- 
tained. Also be careful not to get too many 
fingers in the section. The forefinger and 
thumb of each hand are sufficient. Press the 
foundation only down, not in any other direc- 
tion. The two forefingers should rest on the 
top edge of the foundation. When holding 
the section in position for folding, it is not 
necessary to bring the dovetails any nearer to- 
gether than to bring them just inside the jaw. 
The machine does the rest, providing the up- 
per and right-hand portions of the section are 
pressed against the back of the machine, not to- 
ward each other. This is one way in which 
the machine saves time. Those accustomed 
to the Daisy are very awkward with this ma- 
chine at first. 

Montrose, Colo., July 20. 

[I am willing to admit that the Rietsche 
press may have achieved in Europe better 
results than we have been able to secure from 



our press of the same make; but, taking every 
thing into consideration, your position is a 
little lame by reason of the fact that you have 
never tried the Rietsche yourself. But the 
fact is still significant that the manufacturer 
of the machine we had, at least, did not claim 
that it would make more than five and one- 
half sheets to the pound. Granted it could 
make eight on their improved machine, I do 
not see how it could be possible for it to com- 
pete with the foundation bought in the open 
market, at present prices, for the reason that 
I do not believe the average bee-keeper is 
skillful and expert enough to reach a speed 
that would warrant him in trying to turn out 
an inferior article at home, to say nothing of 
messing things up generally. 

Granting all you say with regard to the 
difference between trained fingers and fingers 
new to the work, there still remains the fact 
that you have not tested, as you say, either 
the Daisy or the Hubbard machine. In order 
to form a correct estimate one should be rea- 
sonably familiar with both the combined 
Rauchfuss and the two machines that seem 
now about to enter the contest. As I have 
never tested the Rauchfuss I will not discuss 
the relative merits of the two classes of ma- 
chines at this time, because a Rauchfuss is 
already on the way, and ere long I hope to be 
able to make a report on it. In the mean 
time, permit me to say that I am inclined to 
believe it is a good machine. Yes, I will go 
further and say it is possible it may do more 
rapid work than the two separate machines 
we have used. I hope it may. "When it ar- 
rives I shall be interested in seeing it have a 
most thorough and careful test; and if it is all 
that you seem to think it is, we shall be very 
g ad to enter into some sort of arrangement 
whereby we can supply it to our general trade. 
We Medinaites are always looking for some- 
thing a little better than we already have; and 
whe.i we find it we are glad to place it before 
our customers. — Ed.] 



OCCURRING THOUGHTS. 



BY J. W. SOUTHWOOD. 

The lateral moving of the self-spacing 
Hoffman brood-frames when hung on the new 
tin rabbets is so easily and quickly done, and 
the frames at the same time so nicely adjust- 
ed, that they are worthy of much merit as 
time-savers. Just think of moving all the 
frames from either side, and adjusting them 
at the same time, compared with the manipu- 
lations of the old-style frame. 

Of course, it is more work for a busy and 
tired editor; but I say, give us footnotes. 
Often, when busy, I read them first, to see if 
I desire to read the article. They are full of 
thought, broad in remembrance of like 
things or sayings, yet condensed and right to 
the point. Continue to give us footnotes. 

I think sometimes we bee-keepers are too 
hasty in coming to conclusions, and thus mis- 
take the exceptional for the general habit, 
trait, or characteristic, then hasten to give the 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



593 



public our mistakes. One or two observations 
or experiments are not enough. 

I may be wrong, but sometimes I wonder if 
it would be possible to have some queens and 
comb of Apis dorsata shipped over to some 
Southern State, the queens clipped, and intro- 
duced into some Italian colonies, and the 
combs, containing drone and worker cells, in- 
serted ; and, when drones are produced, en- 
deavor to mate with-Italian queens. 

I know we can not all arrange our articles 
as well as W. Z. Hutchinson and the editor ; 
but we can exercise care and thought. We 
sometimes mention things that are not inter- 
esting. That able writer, in speaking of 
measuring combs which the bees spaced and 
built as they chose, said he measured some of 
the combs of his father's box hives in the 
barn some 27 years ago. It is of no interest 
to know whose hives the combs were in, nor 
whether they were box hives or gums, nor 
when it was, nor where they were. The points 
of interest are the thickness of the combs and 
the distance from center to center. 

The basswood bloom w T as not as plentiful as 
usual, but w 7 as sufficient to give a good supply 
of nectar ; but the extremely hot and dry 
weather brought out the bloom nearly all at 
the same time, and almost dried the bloom as 
soon as out; and if bees worked on it any it 
w-as early, as I was under small trees at differ- 
ent times and could neither see nor hear a bee 
at work. White clover is abundant. It did 
not yield well at first, but is yielding well 
now. 

\Apis dorsata could not, I think, be crossed 
with Apis mellifica, another species. — Ed.] 



NOTES BY THE WAY. 

BY J. T. CALVERT. 

After crossing the Rocky Mountains, so 
full of wonderful and enchanting scenes, their 
lofty peaks covered with perpetual snows, 
and where the pure water of the mountain 
streamlet, laughing and dancing on its way 
down over the rocks, ever increasing till it be- 
comes a mighty stream, w x e come to the plains 
of Western Colorado, where, under the in- 
fluence of irrigation, great transformations are 
taking place. Fruits in great abundance and 
variety are produced. It is estimated that 
there will be several hundred carloads shipped 
from Grand Junction this year. The honey 
industry is also flourishing here, and this 
year's crop is estimated at six carloads for 
shipment from this one station. This is pro- 
duced from alfalfa, and is of excellent quality. 

In our short stop of an hour here I hunted 
up The Abbe^- Hardy Co., commission dealers, 
who supply the larger portion of bee-keepers 
in this vicinity. They also supply fruit-men, 
and are large shippers of fruit and honey. 
From the number of young orchards which 
we passed, it would appear that only a begin- 
ning had been made in fruit-growing in this 
valley. 

On arising the next morning we found our- 



selves in the charming Utah Valley, still sur- 
rounded by the snow-clad hills. The neat 
and comfortable homes, surrounded Avith 
fruit and farm products in great adundance 
and variety, betokened the thrift of these peo- 
ple. 

We stopped for two days in Salt Lake City. 
This is a charming city in many ways. The 
streets are all laid out. very wide (110 feet), 
about twice as wide as ordinary streets. All 
the poles for telegraph, telephone, and elec- 
tric-light wires, etc., are in the center of the 
street, and on either side # of these the street- 
car tracks, leaving a vers- wide space for 
driving, and an unusually wide walk. In the 
gutter, between the walk and the street, on 
both sides of almost every street, is a beauti- 
ful stream of clear spring water from the 
mountains. This may be turned into the 
gardens by side runs across the w^alk, making 
irrigation very easy and convenient. All 
around the city are the snow-clad mountains 
rising several thousand feet. From Fort 
Douglas, just outside the city limits, on the 
foot-hills to the east, a splendid view of the 
city and valley beyond is had — Salt Lake 
itself spreading out on the western horizon 
25 to 30 miles distant. The water of this lake 
is so heavy with salt that one can not sink in 
it, but will float with head and hands and feet 
all above water. I know this is so, for I tried 
it myself. The water is so very strong that 
one is in danger of strangling if he allows his 
head to get under water. No matter how 
weary you may be, you will find here that 
your feet are so light that it is difficult to get 
them under you again after you have allowed 
them to come to the surface." 

While in Salt Lake I \isited at the home of 
John H. Back, our agent handling bee-keep- 
ers' supplies at this point. From him I learn- 
ed that there had been a heavy loss of bees in 
Utah the past winter, many having allowed 
their bees to starve for lack of attention. The 
prospect for a honey crop was good with those 
who had given their bees proper care and at- 
tention. The principal sources of honey here 
are alfalfa, and sweet clover, which grows in 
abundance in most of the waste places. 

I was not fortunate enough to meet any 
other bee-keepers here, although I learned 
afterward that one or tw^o had tried to find 
me, and failed. 

The Christian Endeavorers from the East, 
journeying to the Golden Gate, spent Sunday 
here, and held what was called an inter- 
mountain rally. There w^ere some 50 special 
trains, each bearing from 300 to 500 people, 
who stopped here for rest. We were royally 
entertained, and no doubt left behind 'us a 
lasting impression. 

Leaving here early Monday morning we 
passed on through Ogden and across the 
great alkali plains of Utah and Nevada, reach- 
ing Reno on Tuesday morning. Here I spent 
a day visiting the bee-keepers who, in past 
years, had shipped us such nice alfalfa honey. 
I found here the prospects for a honev crop 
the poorest they have had in years. While 
they should have been taking their first and 
best honey from the first crop of alfalfa, the 



594 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Aug. 15. 



bees were scarcely making a living, while the 
first crop of hay was being cut earlier than 
usual on account of two obnoxious weeds that 
were becoming a great pest, requiring the cut- 
ting of the alfalfa earlier to prevent the weeds 
going to seed. 

I found that perhaps the most progressive 
bee-keeper in the vicinity of Reno was a wo- 
man, Mrs. Sherman. I spent two or three 
pleasant hours in her home hearing her tell 
her experience, which was usually one of 
trial, and dearly bought. I visited her shop, 
where she and her daughters make the neces- 
sary preparations, e^en to making their own 
foundation. She is so careful in the grading 
and packing of her honey that she has always 
been able to sell it at a good price, thus reap- 
ing the reward of her unremitting toil and 
careful management. I found two others of 
the principal bee-keepers — Mr. Ball and Mr. 
McCart — away from home. I hired a bicycle 
and went out into the country a few miles, 
and had a short visit with Mr. Cooper and Mr. 
A. C. Hash. 

In this section they have rain during only 
two or three months in winter, and they de- 
pend upon irrigation for most of the beautiful 
vegetation and field crops of the valley, 
through which flows the Truckee River down 
to the arid plains, where what is left of it 
sinks out of sight. 

As I pass over these immense plains of bar- 
ren waste, yielding nothing for mankind, and 
note what may be accomplished by the water 
stored up and distributed in sufficient quanti- 
ties at the proper time, making the desert 
blossom as the rose, and produce all manner 
of fruits and vegetation for the blessing of 
man, and remember that, for most of this 
country, water falls during the year in suf- 
ficient quantities, if stored up and utilized at 
the right time, to make all this region pro- 
ductive, I think of Jesus' words to the wo- 
man at the well : ' ' He that drinketh of the 
water that I shall give him shall never thirst, 
but they shall be in him a well of living water, 
springing up unto everlasting life." The 
fountains of God's grace are sufficient to bring 
joy and peace in abundance to all mankind. 
They only await the co-operation of man and 
the intelligent application of his truth to our 
lives — not in an avalanche once a year during 
the winter revival season, but the daily 
streams with gentle flow and subtle power, 
divided and subdivided till it reaches every act 
in the daily life of every living creature. If 
in the distribution of water through the irri- 
gation-ditches any portion is omitted, the 
vegetation there soon withers and dies. So 
with any life that is not constantly supplied 
from the fountain of God's grace. 



IMPROVEMENT IN DRONE AND QUEEN TRAPS. 

BY ADRIAN GETAZ. 



hole in the zinc before they go up. The same 
inconvenience is found with the queen at 
s warming-time. During the excitement the 
queen will run to and fro over the zinc, fail 
to find the cones before the swarm is all out, 
and finally go back into the brood-nest. 



WIRE CLOTH 




In using queen-traps T have often found 
them too slow in their work. What I mean 
by this is that, before entering the cones, the 
drones remain too long below, trying every 



In trying to improve the trap I find that 
the best way is to use a piece of wire netting 
instead of a tin slide to cover the trap. The 
light attracts the drones and queens, and to a 
great extent the workers also, and they go up 
at once. In such a construction it is necessa- 
ry to have the front of the upper compartment 
made with bee-zinc so as to permit the work- 
ers to go out. The accompanying figure 
shows the details. 

Knoxville, Tenn. 

[Your improvement on the Alley trap, I 
feel sure, is a good one. Quite by accident 
the artist has suggested in his drawing anoth- 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



595 



er improvement ; namely, allowing a large 
amount of zinc surface just in front of the en- 
trance, as at C. The ordinary Alley traps 
have too few perforations through which the 
bees pass back and forth into the hive, to al- 
low of proper ventilation, and probably for 
next season, at least, we shall modify the trap 
somewhat on the line suggested in your let- 
ter, leaving at the same time a large amount 
of perforated-zinc surface so that, during the 
height of the honey-flow, the bees may not 
suffer from want of sufficient ventilation. If 
the entrance is too contracted, or at all ob- 
structed by perforated zinc, the heat inside of 
the hive is apt to be such that the super will 
be deserted, and the bees will be clustered out 
in front ; and those bees that cluster outside 
cluster over and about the entrance so as to 
make the opening much smaller, and thus at 
the same time considerably aggravate the dif- 
ficulty.— Ed.] 



THE NEW UNION. 

A Movement on Foot to Kidnap it ; a Note of 
Warning. 



BY DR. A. B. MASON. 



Editor Gleanings: — I've just read Mr. Her- 
man F. Moore's article on page 554, in regard 
to the pure-food laws of Illinois, and it occurs 
to me that the new Union is being the means 
of getting some of our eyes open. Like you, 
I presume a goodly number of honey-produc- 
ers, as well as others, have been thinking 
that the work of the U. S. B. K. U. would be 
in securing pure-food legislation; but Mr. Da- 
dant's ideas were first-class; and he, being 
one of the Board of Directors of the Union, 
I thought we might soon hear that work had 
been begun by the Board along the lines he 
suggested; but here comes our old (or, 
rather, yon ?ig ) friend Mr. Moore, formerly of 
Ohio, but now an attorney in Chicago, and he 
gives us the law of Illinois on pure food, or, 
rather, the adulteration of pure food. It is as 
good a law as could be asked for, unless a 
pure-food commissioner would make it more 
valuable, and I doubt not we shall hear that 
the Board of Directors have begun work 
along the line proposed by the constitution, 
in looking after the adulterators of and dealers 
in adulterated honey. 

Mr. Moore's article is very timely, and 
shows his interest in this work ; and I hope it 
will be the means of starting the Union on its 
mission. I'm wondering if it would not be a 
good plan for General Manager Secor to get 
some one in each State in the Union to look 
up the law on this matter as Mr. Moore has 
so thoughtfully and kindly done. Perhaps 
some bee-keeping attorney in each State will 
follow Mr. Moore's example, and give us or 
the General Manager the law on the subject. 
There need be no great expense in learning 
just what each State has on this subject, and 
no very great expense in having Such laws 
enforced, for they provide for their execution 
at the State's expense ; but the Union can see 
to it that some one " starts the ball rolling." 



It may be well to have some samples of 
suspected honey purchased and analyzed, as 
you suggest, and begin the good work right 
in "bad Chicago ;" and with Mr. Moore, Dr. 
Peiro, Dr. Miller, Mr. York, and a goodly 
number of other members of the Union right on 
the ground, we may look for gratifying results 
being accomplished, and without making a 
very big demand on that $3800 income of the 
Union, which Skylark, in one of his " flights," 
predicts will be ' ' overleaped ' ' this year. 

While I think of it, Mr. Editor, isn't Sky- 
lark an active member of the Ananias family ? 
No person by the name of Skylark has sent 
me " two dollars and fifty cents " for member- 
ship in the U. S. B. K. U. The man who sent 
in that ' ' two dollars and fifty cents ' ' has got 
a good straight honest name, and not a word 
about " Skylark "-ing in it. I might say that 
each bulldog that sits on the "coffers" that 
Skylark refers to has a collar around his neck 
with the name of the State he represents on 
it, and those bulldogs are so fed as to develop 
the most intense bulldog nature ; and woe 
betide any non-union person who may attempt 
to interfere with the deposit each so faithfully 
guards. 

I have not thought of your suggestions 
enough to say what will be the best course to 
pursue; but I am sure that our Board of Di- 
rectors are abundantly qualified to handle the 
matter, and I hope they will at once proceed 
to business, and the Board may draw on my 
Illinois coffer to the full amount of any ex- 
pense they may incur; and if there doesn't 
happen to be enough in that coffer I'll open 
up others to honor their drafts. 

As I have said before, every honey-produc- 
er, every lover of honey, and every dealer in 
honey, ought to help on the good work by 
sending a dollar to General Manager Secor or 
the Secretary, and not be selfishly reaping the 
benefits of other people's investments. If 
only a small portion of such should respond 
to this suggestion I might have to enlarge 
those "coffers," and feed the "bulldogs" a 
little more heavily. 

I'm sure Mr. Moore's article will cause a 
thrill of joy in every member and friend of 
the Union, and I know I shall work with re- 
newed pleasure for the accomplishment of the 
objects for which it was organized, for their 
accomplishment seems nearer in sight. 

While having some business correspondence 
recently with A. B. Williams & Co., of Cleve- 
land, O., dealers in honey, I referred to our 
Union and its objects, and stated, as above, 
who ought to belong to it. The next mail 
brought a request for information in regard to 
the Union ; and the next day, after getting 
the information, their dollar for membership 
in the Union lay safely in my Ohio " coffer." 

Nearly every day I am receiving a member- 
ship fee, and some days several. On the 18th 
of last May I received 24 names and $24 from 
Mr. J. Webster Johnson, of Arizona, Secretary 
of the Salt River Valley Bee-keepers' Associ- 
ation, making 24 members; and another day 
I received 7 names and $7.00 from J. P. West, 
of Minnesota, making all members of the 
Union ; and I presume General Manager Secor 



596 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Aug. 15. 



is being made equally happy in receiving 
names and dollars for the Union. 

Congratulations and good wishes for the 
" kid, " and offers of more money if needed, 
frequently accompany remittances. One bee- 
keeper, in sending his membership fee, says, 
" I'm a poor man; but if you want more mon- 
ey, call on me and I'll help all I can; " and 
others come with offers of more money if 
needed. If each one whose interest is in- 
volved in the success of the Union's work 
would send his name and dollar there would 
be no lack of funds. 

I got a letter from a Canadian this week 
that kind o' riles me. He says: " I am pleas- 
ed to see that you are making every effort to 
have a grand convention at Buffalo, N. Y. 
From what I can judge you will succeed. I 
have every reason to believe that there will be 
a good attendance of Canadians as well." 
. . . Here's what makes me " bile." "I 
may give you a hint — I expect to see as many 
Canadian as United States bee-keepers at the 
convention; and if there are, we may vote it 
a Canadian instead of a United States organ- 
ization. Ha, ha! " 

Now, Mr. Editor, isn't that "galling"? 
We've licked " Johnny Bull " twice, and now 
some of his offspring propose to drop in on us 
unawares at Buffalo, and ' ' lick ' ' us out of 
our boots on our own soil. "To arms! to 
arms! " Turn out, Yankee bee-keepers, and 
meet the enemy (?) and they'll be ours. Stir 
up your readers Mr. Editor, let us not be van- 
quished. 

I've already written to the Bee-keepers' Re- 
view to give the note of warning, and shall 
write the editor of the American Bee Journal 
in the same strain, and would also send to the 
American Bee-keeper, The Progressive Bee- 
keeper, The Busy Bee, and the Southland 
Queen, were it not too late. Oh that I had 
received this hint before! The Canucks have 
imbibed some of our Yankee vim, and they 
may give us a good ' ' tussle ; ' ' but let us not 
get left. Transportation is cheap, so let every 
one who can be on hand with arms and rations 
for a three-days' tussle. It would be too bad 
to let the Canadians kidnap our healthy 
growing " kid. " 

I shall take Mrs. M. with me to take care 
of me, and no one but a coward will attack a 
woman, and the Canadians are not cowards; 
so I am safe; but woe betide those without 
women to hide behind. 

[No, no; we can't afford to let the Canadians 
kidnap our growing kid. My better half ex- 
pects to be present. Yes, bring on the women. 
We may need their help. — Ed.] 

BRODBKCK'S " ONE THING RACKING " IN THE 
CONSTITUTION OF THE NEW UNION. 

[After the above was in type we received 
the following additional matter. — Ed.] 

I have just received a letter from Mr. Geo. 
W. Brodbeck, of Los Angeles, Cal., in which 
he says, " If time and circumstances permit I 
may forward a few suggestions in connection 
with a revision of the constitution of the U. S. 
B. K. U. The one mistake made at Lincoln 



was in not making the U. S. B. K. U. a distinc- 
tive national organization ; for if this had 
taken place the old Union would have been 
forced to surrender and you would have en- 
listed the interest of several thousand bee- 
keepers in the United States who now stand 
aloof. It is an evident fact, that two like or- 
ganizations can not exist ; and, if I am not 
mistaken, unless there is a compromise be- 
tween the two the B. K. U. will revise their 
work and follow r in the line of the U. S., and 
the result then will be a mere question of time. 
I should like to see one good organization do 
all the work required ; and, as a member of 
both, I am willing to aid, as far as lies in my 
power, to accomplish this purpose. 

" Controversies, as a rule, act as a wedge 
when opposite results are desired ; but a set- 
tled purpose to compromise differences ends 
in brotherly love. I have no desire, doctor, 
to pose as a critic, as my sole interest is in see- 
ing one grand union of bee-keepers in the 
United States. " 

I don't remember that I have anywhere re- 
ferred to the spirit that actuated the formation 
of the constitution of the U. S. B. K. U.; but 
I want to say that a desire to serve the inter- 
ests of honey producers, consumers, and deal- 
ers, was at the bottom of the whole matter ; 
no selfish interest happened into it. You 
know, and so does every other reader of your 
journal who has read my articles, and what I 
have said at conventions, that I was a firm op- 
ponent to the amalgamation of the N. B. K. U. 
and the N. A. B. K. A. unless it could be ac- 
complished without in the least interfereing 
with the efficient work of the National Bee- 
Keepers' Union." I have repeated this many 
times, and I know that you and those engaged 
in trying to bring about the union of the two, 
and enlarging the scope of their usefulness to 
the pursuit, thought just as I did about the 
matter. 

After a good deal of correspondence by the 
members of the Amalgamation Committee, 
and all hope of accomdlishing any thing had 
fled, I drafted what, after some alterations, is 
now the Constitution of the U, S. B. K. U. 
My original draft was submitted to several 
leading bee-keepers for criticism; and after all 
this was done you were so well pleased with it 
that, without consulting any one, you had it 
put in type and printed, and sent me fifty 
copies to do with as I saw fit, and I sent about 
twenty of them to our best-known bee-keepers 
for criticism and suggestions, such as Mr. 
Newman, Prof. Cook, Mr. Brodbeck, Mr. Se- 
cor, Dr. Miller, Mr. Hutchinson, Hon. R. L. 
Taylor, R. F. Holterman, Mr. Doolittle, Mr. 
Elwood, and Mr. Manum. Nearly all replied. 
Most were satisfied with it as it was. Mr. 
Newman and Prof. Cook each made one sug- 
gestion, if I remember correctly. 

The whole matter, with all the suggestions 
offered, was submitted to the Lincoln conven- 
tion, and by it referred to a committee of 
three, all members of the National Bee-keep- 
ers' Union, to be put in shape for its adoption 
or rejection by the convention. The commit- 
tee met in Dr. Miller's room at the hotel 
( although he was not a member of the com- 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



597 



mittee ) and went over the whole matter care- 
fully. They then invited about fifteen other 
members of the convention, among whom, if 
my memory serves me, were Dr. Miller, Rev. 
1 E. T. Abbott; L. D. Stilson and E. Whitcomb, 
iof Nebraska; E. Kretchmer and Hon. E. 
Secor, of Iowa, and A. I. Root; and I believe 
all sanctioned the work of the committee. I 
may say here that most of those invited to 
meet the committee were then, and are now 
members of the National Bee-keepers' Union, 
three of them members of its Advisory Board. 

No material change of the constitution as it 
went to the hands of the committee was made 
by them, and none by those invited to meet 
with the committee. It was then submitted 
to the convention, and gone over and discuss- 
ed and adopted section by section, only two 
changes being made, I believe. 

Being opposed to amalgamation, except as 
above indicated, I took special pains, in draft- 
ing a constitution, to have every thing so 
shaped as to favor and forward the interest of 
the National Union, going so far as to make 
the officers of the old Union the Board of 
Directors of the U. S. B. K. U., and leaving 
the funds, as before, entirely in the hands of 
and at the disposal of those officers. I know 
that the aim was to make it as nearly in intent 
as possible to the old Union's constitution, 
some going so far as to suggest that it be 
called "National," with the expectation that 
the old Union would adopt the new consti- 
tution. 

In the light of these facts, what more could 
have been done than was done ? Of course, 
we don't know what Mr. Brodbeck means by 
" the one mistake made at Lincoln," nor how 
it could have been made more ' ' distinctly 
national." Unlike Mr. Brodbeck, there are 
those who think the constitution is " incom- 
plete, and full of incongruities." I myself 
must admit that it is incomplete, but that is 
owing to the effort made to make it as nearly 
as possible in line with the old constitution. 

Perhaps "the B. K. U. will revise its work 
and follow in the line of the U. S." Some of 
us, member of the old Union, tried to have the 
"work revised," but failed; and the result 
was the organizing of the U. S. B. K. U. If 
the N. B. K. U. "follows in the line of the 
U. S., I believe it will be following a vigorous 
young leader. 

Why didn't Mr. Brodbeck tell us how to 
avoid making the Lincoln mistake ? Perhaps 
he'll tell us how to correct it at Buffalo. 
Those interested in the success of the U. S. B. 
K. U., like Mr. Brodbeck, "would like to see 
one good organization, . . . " and are 
' ' willing to aid as far as lies in their power to 
accomplish this purpose," and have not and 
will not entertain any other feeling than 
"brotherly love," for their sole purpose is to 
have ' ' one grand union of bee-keepers in the 
United States," and they propose to work in 
that direction till that desire is accomplished. 

It is proposed by several to propose changes 
to the constitution at Buffalo, so as to make it 
as complete as possible ; but all proposed 
changes will have to be submitted to every 
member for their adoption or rejection, and 



this can not be done at Buffalo. From my 
correspondence I gather that the feeling is 
general that the coming convention is to be a 
large and good one, members in California, 
Arkansas, Tennessee, South Carolina, Rhode 
Island, Massachusetts, and Vermont, and 
many of the States between these, signifying 
their intention of being present. 
Sta. B, Toledo, O., Aug. 6. 




FEEDING BACK EXTRACTED HONEY. 

Question. — I have read somewhere that, if I 
were to run an apiary for extracted honey, 
during the harvest of white honey, and feed 
the same back to the bees to put into sections, 
said extracted honey would sell in the section 
form for enough more to give me a big profit. 
Is this a fact ? If so, how and when should 
extracted honey be fed back in order to pro- 
cure comb honey ? 

Answer. — The feeding of extracted honey 
in order that comb honey may be obtained is 
something that has been tried by very many 
of our best apiarists, and still remains an un- 
solved problem with some of those who have 
tried it. Some have reported success and 
others a failure; but, if I am correct, those 
who consider the thing a failure far outnum- 
ber those who consider it a success. From 
my experience in the matter, I should say if 
any one must feed extracted honey to his bees 
in order that comb honey may be produced, it 
should be fed in the spring, in order to hasten 
brood-rearing, thus securing multitudes of 
bees in time for the honey harvest; then, by 
putting on the sections at the right time, a 
large crop of comb honey may be secured, if 
the flowers do not fail to bloom or yield honey. 
My experience has also led me to think that 
it is better to secure the honey in the sections 
in the first place, rather than have it stored in 
combs, and then thrown out with the extractor 
that we and the bees may go through with 
much labor and stickiness to secure the same 
thing which we might have secured without 
all this trouble. The practice of feeding back 
is on the principle of producing two crops to 
get one, and no one will argue that such a 
course would pay in the long run. Even un- 
der the most favorable circumstances, to finish 
nearly completed combs of honey, I can not 
make it pay if I count my time as any thing. 
At the close of certain seasons, when I would 
have a large number of unfinished sections, 
many of which were so nearly finished that a 
few ounces of honey would apparently finish 
them, it seemed that it might pay to feed a 
little extracted honey to finish such; but after 
a careful trial of the matter, covering a period 
of ten or more years, I finally gave it up as a 
bad job, and have not fed back a pound of 
honey during the past six years. If any one 



598 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Aug. 15. 



should wish to satisfy himself that feeding 
back will not pay, he can get the best results 
hy feeding the extracted honey right at the 
close of the early white-honey harvest, so that 
the bees are kept active. It is thought best 
by some to take away all combs except those 
which have brood in them, when preparing 
the colony for feeding back; but if all combs 
are filled with sealed honey, except that which 
the brood occupies, there is no advantage in 
taking away the combs, that I can see. The 
extracted honey should be thinned to a con- 
sistency of raw nectar, by adding the neces- 
sary amount of warm water, thinning only 
the amount needed for one feeding at a time; 
for if the thinned honey is allowed to stand 
long in warm weather, it is quite liable to sour 
and spoil. 

Then there is another item against feeding 
back, which is that, from some reason or other, 
this fed-back honey is far more likely to candy 
or become hard in the comb than is that put 
in the comb at the time it is gathered from the 
field. When first taken from the hive it looks 
very nice and attractive ; but when cool weath- 
er comes on in the fall it assumes a dull, un- 
attractive appearance, thus showing that the 
honey has hardened in the cells; while comb 
honey produced in the ordinary way is still 
liquid, and will keep so for from one to three 
months after the fed-back article has become 
almost unsalable. 

COMBS OF HONEY FOR NEXT SEASON. 

Question. — I have on my hives about 200 
combs, very full of honey, which I wish to 
use for next year's increase. I am at a loss to 
know what to do, so ask if it would be advis- 
able to throw the honey out with the extractor 
and use the empty combs, or would it be best 
to use the full combs of honey ? I expect to 
make my increase by natural swarming. 

Answer. — If extracted honey brings a good 
price in your market, and the honey in the 
200 combs is of good quality, then my advice 
would be to extract the honey and sell it; for 
the old saying, "A bird in hand is worth two 
in the bush," is generally correct. If, on the 
other hand, extracted honey drags heavily, at 
a price hardly above the cost of production, or 
the honey in the combs is of a quality not fit 
for market, then I would store the combs of 
honey away till spring ( allowing the bees to 
protect them till there was no danger of dam- 
age from the larvae of the wax moth), when I 
would use these combs for building up colo- 
nies in the spring, by exchanging them with 
the colonies for combs that they might have 
which were empty, or nearly so. In this way 
you will get this honey converted into brood, 
which brood, when hatched into bees, will 
store for you large quantities of honey. If the 
colonies in the spring had no need for this 
honey, then I would use the combs of honey 
something as you propose, hiving new swarms 
on them. If the combs are only from one- 
third to one-half full of honey, then you may 
secure the best results by hiving your swarms 
on the full number of frames and putting the 
sections on at the time of hiving. But if com- 
pletely full from bottom to top, it will be bet- 



ter to use only from four to six combs to the 
hive when hiving the swarms; for, if given a 
full hive of full combs of honey, the bees may 
not carry much of the honey to the sections, 
as they generally will do with the whole where 
only a few are used. If the bees do not im- 
mediately start to carrying the honey from 
these full combs, the result will be little or no 
honey in the sections, and little brood and 
few baes in the hive in the fall. But should 
the honey in the 200 combs be of inferior 
quality or of dark color, or both, then the only 
thing to do with it is to extract, or use it for 
spring feeding; for if such inferior honey is 
given at swarming time, more or less of it will 
find its way into the sections, thus injuring 
the sale of the honey, and giving yourself a 
bad reputation. 




COMMISSION HOUSES ; THE ADVANTAGE OF 
CO-OPERATION. 

The clipping inclosed is from the Denver 
Field and Farm. It does not speak directly 
upon the subject of bees, but I think it would 
be a good thing for bee-keepers to take 
example, as the}' have battles to fight in 
marketing their produce, similar to those of 
the farmer. O. W. Stewart. 

Las Cruces, N. M., July 26. 

CO-OPERATIVE MARKETING OF CROPS. 

When a crop is produced, but half of the battle 
against all the evils of trade is won; and unless the 
farmer finds a good market his labor is lost, and the 
complaint is made that the farm does not pay. 
There are many leak-holes between the harvest and 
the market, by which the profits escape through care- 
lessness; but the most important point, requiring 
constant vigilance, is the fluctuating scale of supply 
and demand. Many times the western farmer and 
stockraiser loses his entire shipment of potatoes or 
sheep, and frequently receives a bill for freight, with 
the stereotyped "please remit" stamped upon the 
paper. 

There is no safety in relying upon the middle-men 
or agents of commission houses, because they give no 
guarantee of returns except such as the market as- 
sures on day of sale. The local merchants are not 
always justified in paying the value of produce, even 
in goods, for the reasons that they have not the capi- 
tal to invest nor facilities for watching the market. 
Direct shipments can not be made to the market 
centers except by train or carload lots, and then ex- 
perienced dealers must accompany the produce in 
order to realize the full benefits of all that the market 
returns. Individual marketing has always proven 
disastrous to the general farmer because of lack of 
business tact and the small lots of produce he has to 
offer. 

The only solution of the question of realizing all 
there is in the products of the farm lies in the proper 
practice of co-operative marketing. The Utah Mor- 
mons have constructed irrigation-ditches, built up 
over three hundred towns, and conquered vast areas 
of desert by co-operative exertions, fully demonstrat- 
strating the fact that the principle is correct. In 
citing these facts Joel Shoemaker asks: Why not 
adopt the methods used in selling as well as in grow- 
ing produce ? Twenty farmers could band together 
and practically control the community. Five of the 
best qualified men acting as a board of directors could 
employ one of their own number as a manager, and 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



599 



transact the business with profit to the entire commu- 
nity. 

This plan has worked admirably and profitably m 
several instances under our personal observation, and 
the efforts of those enterprising fruit-growers at Mont- 
rose, Delta, and Grand Junction, in organizing local 
market associations, seems a very commendable 
movement. If it does not succeed as fully as some 
may hope for the first season or so it is a step in the 
right direction, and must eventually lead to a better 
condition all along the line. There is much to be 
learned in this as in other things; and after all we of 
the new West need a good deal of schooling in most 
of our undertakings. 



A PROTEST ; APIS DORS ATA. 

Mr. Root: — I can heartily indorse your 
views regarding the importing of Apis dorsata, 
page 488, and hereby enter my protest against 
the use of public funds for its importation. 
If they are of any great value it is surely a 
"good" personal investment for some of 
their advocates. From what reliable people 
in their native home say of them they are too 
much like wild geese to be of any value to 
bee-keepers in this country ; but, instead, I 
think they would prove a curse, even if they 
could withstand our climates, which I very 
much doubt. I am quite sure that we already 
have too many varieties of bees in this country, 
for our own good, and surely more ' ' names ' ' 
than "varieties." Every thing considered 
in the make-up of the little bee, I don't be- 
lieve there is a bee on the face of the earth 
to-day that is superior to the pure and simple 
three-banded Italians, and their equals are 
very scarce, judging from a "personal" 
standpoint, and information gleaned through- 
out the United States. 

I have said before that I have had experi- 
ence that I have never seen in print, in 
the early mating of a queen and a vast num- 
ber of queen-cells on one comb; and last week 
I found something that seems as unusual to 
me, and I have never heard of the like, nor 
seen it in print. 

WORKERS REARED IN WORKER-CEEES. 

When I am extracting I make it a rule, 
after taking the combs from the extractor, to 
take my old uncapping-knife and shave the 
heads off from all drones found in the upper 
stories ( I use no queen-excluders ) ; and in do- 
ing this I found one comb full of what ap- 
peared to be drones, but noticed that the caps 
were not quite so prominent as usual; and 
when I severed the caps I found, instead of 
drones, perfect workers nearly ready to hatch; 
notwithstanding the cells were regular old- 
style and full-sized drone-cells, the little fel- 
lows reall}- looked lost in them. Have you 
or any of your readers ever had an experience 
of this kind ? It seems to me that it proves 
one thing positively ; and that is, that the 
queen governs the egg-production by her own 
free will, and that the shape and size of the 
cell have nothing to do with it, as has been 
claimed by some writers in the past. 

I am of the opinion that our basswood-hon- 
ey flow is going to be very light here this 
season, as it is nearly all open now, and bees 
are not doing much, I think on account of the 
extremely hot weather for the past week. 

Hillsboro, Wis., July 12. Eeias Fox. 



HONEY-FEOW NOT EXTRAORDINARY IN 
WISCONSIN. 

In answer to Dr. Miller, page 477, and Harry 
Lathrop, page 528, I will say that Northern 
Wisconsin wall not glut the market unless on 
fall blossoms. Bees are in about the condi- 
tion they were May 20, except excessive 
swarming since July 8. Returned last night 
from an investigating-trip in the direction my 
bees all want to go, and have 50 colonies, new 
swarms, ready to start at sundown for an out- 
apiary 24 miles north of Chippewa Falls, Wis. 

I find here willow-herb, goldenrod, frost- 
flowers, etc., covering the ground for miles 
where the forest-fires burned in 1895 and '96. 

E. A. Ceeaves. 

Eagle Point, Wis., July 20. 



WHAT IS THE MATTER WITH THE WHITE 
CEOVER THIS YEAR? 

My bees seem to be working very busily 
this season, but I don't know what they work 
on. I haven't seen a bee on a white-clover 
blossom this season. We have no timber 
within a mile, and not much within three 
miles, except a few artificial groves of cotton- 
wood, maple, and willow. There is plenty of 
white clover. Samuee Ceough. 

Ellarton, la. 

[This report seems to be an exception to the 
general run. All the rest say that the clover 
this year is all right. — Ed.] 



GRANUEATION OF AEFAEFA. 

I am much interested in the discussion as to 
alfalfa honey granulating. My experience 
has been that it does not granulate here unless 
it be in the brood-chamber. I have kept 
alfalfa honey in 1-lb. sections for a year, and 
no signs of granulation; but last spring I found 
it badty granulated in hive (stores that bees 
had carried over winter ) . 

AVe are just in the midst of our alfalfa 
honey-flow. The first crop of alfalfa did not 
produce much honey; but it is coming in very 
fast now, and I am afraid my bees will get the 
swarming-fever. The bees here are all run 
for comb honey — no extracting yet. I think 
the home market will take care of the surplus. 

Alma, Neb., July 21. T. L. Porter. 



There is an abundance of white clover here, 
and we are having a slow but steady and last- 
ing flow. From 7 hives and a nucleus with 
which I began operations this spring, I have 
taken 238 lbs. of marketable honey in sections, 
with about 50 lbs. more ready to come off, and 
no diminution of the flow as yet. 

Ben Avon, Pa., July 9. H. P. Josein. 



I have been worked up to the highest notch 
myself, working every day at the railroad shop, 
and working with the bees nights and morn- 
ings. I have taken already 1400 sections of 
white-clover honey from 12 hives, and more 
to come. W. L. Richmond. 

Lexington, Ky., July 11. 



600 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Aug. 15. 




BR S ok The flysTERY of Crystal ffou/vfAir/. 



and Alfaretta halted their ponies 
near the corral; and while Gimp 
cared for them they approached 
the house. The door was a trifle 
ajar, Fred knocked. There was a stir of 
chairs within, and hastening steps. The door 
opened, and Mrs. Buell's troubled face ap- 
peared. 

" Fred Anderson!" she exclaimed, her face 
aglow. ' ' Fred Anderson ! Fred Anderson ! 
Oh! where is my girl, my Alfaretta? " 

" Right here, Mrs. Buell; allow me to intro- 
duce her;" and Alfaretta stepped within the 
house. 

' ' Dear, dear mamma ! ' ' 

"Dear child!" and mother and daughter 
were clasped in along embrace. " My own 
Alfaretta again, and still not my own, not my 
own." 

"Why, yes, dear mamma. Why do you 
say so? your own, and well again; and papa — 
where is dear papa ? ' ' 

Fred caught Mrs. Buell's eye, and made an 
energetic dumb motion to her to keep quiet. 
She appeared much surprised, and abruptly 
asked, "Where is Dr. Hayden ? " 

Fred explained the doctor's queer departure, 
and took occasion to whisper to her, while 
from the veranda she was showing him where 
to find Prof. Buell, to say nothing about 
Alfaretta 's parentage. 

Fred hastened toward the levee where the 
professor was at work; but he had not gone 
far when he met his old friend. 

"Fred Anderson, as I live," 
shouted he. "I had a strong feel- 
ing that something good was going 
to happen, and I hastened to the 
house. Dr. Hayden, of course, 
is with you and Alfaretta? " 

"Alfaretta is at the house, and 
sane," said Fred. 



might cause much pain to Alfaretta, with no 
good result." 

The professor's greeting was less effusive 
than Mrs. Buell's, but not the less hearty and 
loving. 

" Dear Alfaretta! and yourself again! How 
great the blessings showered upon us! In this 
hour of our joy let us remember the Giver of 
these blessings, the healer of the sick, the one 
who brings great joy in the place of trouble." 

The afternoon and evening were hardly long 
enough for the rehearsal of the experiences of 
the pastjyear. Prof. Buell said he would have 
continued his search for Alfaretta again; but 
upon his return home he found a letter from 
Dr. Hayden, saying that Alfaretta would be 
cared for and returned in due time. This led 
him to await further developments, and now 
the sequel showed that Alfaretta' s hejira the 
year before was a providential occurrence. 
The earthquake was a theme of constant re- 
currence in conversation, and Fred now learn- 
ed of its extent. Sacramento had been thor- 
oughly shaken, and the town of Williams had 
been so severely shaken that several houses 
were demolished. It was the most severe 
earthquake felt for years on the Pacific coast. 

T.iat evening Fred presented to the parents 
his claims for the hand of Alfaretta. 

"It seems," said Mrs. Buell, "that your 
lives have run together ever since Alfaretta 
fished you from the river; and, PVed, as you 
have been instrumental in bringing her to us 



Sane? sane?" rep 



eated Prof. 



Buell. "Yes, it is possible, and 
true if you say so, Fred; let us 
hasten. But, about Dr. Hayden — 
where is he ? " 

Then Fred explained to him 
the sudden departure in the night, 
and the motive. 

"Sure, sure," replied Prof. 
Buell; "the same self-sacrificing 
man I knew years ago. I should 
have been so glad to meet him 
again. But I believe I shall tell Alfaretta 
about her parentage." 

"No, I would not," said Fred; "it is 
doctor's request that you should not. 




all well again, we shall let you two decide your 

own destiny." 
the "That is what you meant, mamma," said 
It Alfaretta, 1 'when you said I was not your own. ' ' 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



601 



"I suppose so," said Mrs. Buell, evasively; 
," you know I was so overjoyed, Alfaretta, that 
I hardly knew what to say. Don't refer to my 
foolish words again, dear." 

The next day Fred desired to visit the Gher- 
ing ranch, and Gimp was impatient to see his 
mother "an' the kids," so the party that 
rowed up the river consisted of the whole 
Buell family. 

At the Ghering ranch there was great rejoic- 
ing again. Fred could hardly believe that 
Mrs. Ghering was formerly Mrs. Dawson, so 
great had been the change. He made partic- 
ular inquiries for Matt Hogan ; and while they 
were talking about him, who should appear 



"Me ould friend, it's a heaven-sint idea," 
said Matt; "and is it Alfaretta that would 
make yer home comfortable loike for yees?" 

It happened that day, that, after Mr. Gher- 
ing had shown all of the improvements he 
had. made upon his ranch, the Dawson ranch 
was discussed. 

"Wall, I 'spose the boys might work it 
arter a while, " said Mrs. Ghering; "but per- 
haps it's better tu sell it than tu see it go tu 
rack. But, Fred Anderson, it ain't every one 
I'd sell tu; but seem' it's you that'll occupy 
it I'll sell, an' trust tu suthin' tu turn up fur 
the boys. They seem ter like fishin' better'n 
ran chin', anv way." 



mi 'A 




Qrv 

f ' 



but that worthy himself, driving a mule team 
to a farm wagon, and a comely Irish maid by 
his side ? 

Biddy Maloney had been caring for an aged 
father lor many years. She had been a faith- 
ful daughter; and when her charge was re- 
leased by death she hastened to join her lover 
here in California, and was proving as exem- 
plary a wife as she had been a daughter. Matt 
had improved his neat ranch, a few miles from 
the river, and his main source of revenue was 
from a well-kept apiary. 

"It is meself that can projuce the foine 
honey, Fred. I'd loike yees to settle down 
here now, and become a compaterter." 

" Well, Matt, what do you think of the plan 
of my buying the Dawson location? " 



"You know, Mrs. Ghering," said Fred, 
" that I will help your boys all I can, and shall 
want Gimp right along. We will rejuvenate 
the old place." 

" That's jest my idea, "said Mrs. Ghering, 
and the bargain was closed. 

Fred was very happy for a few weeks in set- 
ting things to rights on the old Dawson place; 
and one of the first improvements was the 
purchase of a dozen colonies of bees of Matt 
Hogan, as a start for a large apiary. 

"Sure," said Matt, "it will be a pleasure 
to have a neighbor baa-kaaper to talk to." 

"Yes, Matt, there's nothing like being fra- 
ternal; and now if we had some of those 
Crystal Mountain queens I have told you 
about, what wonders we could accomplish! 



602 GLEANINGS IN 

But," said Fred, sadly, "not even this place 
will ever equal the bee-keeping paradise that 
was in the beautiful valley." 

There was a quiet wedding at the Buell resi- 
dence one day; and, after a feast of good 
things, a boat gaily decked with flowers and 
streamers carried the bride and groom to their 
new home. A few weeks after the marriage a 
letter arrived, addressed to Alfaretta. It was 
postmarked "City of Mexico;" and upon 
opening it there was found a card inscribed, 
" Wedding-present from Uncle Ralph." With 
the card was a draft for $5000. 

" Dear Uncle Ralph!" said Alfaretta; " and 
what a generous gift! and what a strange man! 
I never could really understand him." 

Fred thought that he might enlighten her; 
but, no — the secret of her parentage must be 
kept. 

Fred devoted much of his ranch to fruit; 
and between that and the increase of his 
apiary he gave employment to several men. 
Gimp Dawson became so expert with the bees 
that he was given entire charge of the apiary 
during a portion of the year. The little church 
not far away called the people together every 
Sunday. Fred and Alfaretta became promi- 
nent factors again in the exercises, and were 
always at their posts of duty. Mr. Buell con- 
tinued to minister to the spiritual needs of the 
people, and the little church was known as 
the " Goodwill Union Church." 

Fred Anderson, in all of his past losses and 
disappointments, looked beyond the clouds 
to the silver lining beyond; and now when 
the clouds had rolled away, and he was living 
in the sunshine of prosperity and a happy 
home he did not forget the source whence all 
blessings come; and, having a fellow-sympathy 
for those in trouble, he ever held out the help- 
ing hand to them. The home that was now 
builded here was in marked contrast to the 
former unhappy Dawson home. 

As the seasons progress, there is the seed 
time and harvest; there is the gathering of 
the fruit and the grain and the honey; and so, 
too, in progress of time, there is a wail of an 
infant beneath the roof. 

Mrs. Ghering comes down to congratulate 
the happy parents. ' ' I s'pose, Mr. Anderson, ' ' 
said she, "that's what you meant when you 
said you'd rejuvenileate the old place; an' 
what'r ye goin' to name the boy? " 

"Ralph Hayden Anderson," said Alfaretta. 

"What a purty name, to be sure!" replied 
Mrs. Ghering; " may long life and joy rest on 
all of you." 

The tourist passing up the river never fails 
to notice the neat rose-covered cottage and its 
well-kept grounds. The Anderson place is 
one of the beauty spots of the Upper Sacra- 
mento; and should he pass in the evening, a 
child may be seen tumbling on the lawn, 
while on "the vine-covered veranda the happy 
parents, with guitar and voice, wake the echoes 
across the river with many familiar songs. 

When about to close their evening exercise 
Fred will commence to thrum a well-known 
prelude. Alfaretta smiles toward him, and 
with both sad and pleasant memories of the 
past she sings that old song: 



BEE CULTURE. Aug. 15. 

The night is stormy and dark, 

My lover is on the sea; 
Let me to the night winds hark, 

And hear what they say to me. 

THE END. 







I 









From the best information I can get, glean- 
ed from a good many letters, basswood has 
been generally a failure throughout the coun- 
try, although in some sections it has been 
unusually good. A wet cool spring, very fa- 
vorable for clover and grasses, was ' ' a little too 
much of a good thing " for basswoods. 



I would call special attention to a valuable 
article by J. A. Buchanan, in another column. 
He has given us a little food for thought. It 
should not be true that honey can be bought 
at a commission house cheaper than it can 
be from the producer; neither ought it to be 
true that many bee-keepers make no effort to 
develop their own home market. 



In our last issue I confessed that I had j 

changed my mind on the subject of clipping J 

queens' wings. Mr. E. U. Parshall, of Coop- ] 

erstown, N. Y., the old tramping-ground of j 

J. Fenimore Cooper, writes: "I think you 1 

will enjoy bees better since you changed your 1 

mind. I could not keep mine where I do did j 
I not clip my queens." 

Mr. Parshall also writes that basswood has I 

been a failure, and that it was his opinion J 

that a good man}^ supplies would be left over. 1 



In the July Revieiv, Mr. E. E. Hasty said I 
that he believed friend Hutchinson needed I 
less alteration to make him a model bee-editor I 
than any other editor we have. Bro. York, of I 
the American Bee Journal, in commenting on I 
this, says: "Well, Editor Root (E. R.), that \ 
settles it so far as you are concerned. You I 
might as well stop trying to be a ' model edit- j 
or.' Need too much alteration." I have been 
puzzling my head to know whether Bro. York 
was trying to hit me or to hit the other fellows 
over nry head. Let it fly. Seriously, I've 
only tried to be myself. 



I omitted to mention in our last issue that 
Mr. W. A. Selser, the branch manager at our j 
Philadelphia office, 10 Vine St., had for his 
object, in his recent visit to the West, the se- 
curing control of a number of apiaries that 
produce strictly pure white-clover honey. His 
plan of operation among the bee-keepers, I 
think, is a very admirable one. While he 1 
represents us at Philadelphia the honey busi- 
ness is his own venture. 

I remember of once asking him a question 
regarding the matter of buying honey on com- 
mission. Said he, "I can not answer. I al- 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



ways pay cash. I always feel sorry for the 
poor bee-keeper who sells his honey on com- 
mission." Mr. Selser has a warm heart. 



A bee-keeper, Mr. Robert Ayers, of Wood- 
ley, Fla., with whom A. I. R. once stopped, 
was stung in the back of the neck. The sting 
or stings caused a sore, and blood poisoning 
set in, resulting, we regret to say, in his death. 
If we were to moralize on this we should hard- 
ly be justified in concluding that the stings in 
this case resulted in death. Possibly a slight 
breaking in the skin at the same point would 
have caused the same result, for blood poison- 
ing does sometimes set in, even from slight 
abrasions of the skin. 



The prospect is good for a fall flow of honey 
this year — at least around these parts. Fre- 
quent rains have made every thing grow lux- 
uriantly. Sweet clover has grown so thriftily 
that around here at least it has almost all gone 
to seed ; but the bees have worked on it busily 
for weeks. Honey has been coming in a little 
every day — just enough to keep down robbing 
and to keep the bees good-natured. The sea- 
son has, therefore, been very favorable for 
queen-rearing. The asters and other fall flora 
are now just coming into bloom. Truly, 
great is the year 1897 tor honey. 



I forgot to mention in our last issue that 
our new type for the journal gives us about 
W>% per cent more reading-matter than we 
had with our old type — that is, a gain of that 
much on the contributed matter and editorials, 
which were "leaded." On answers to cor- 
respondents, travels, and Our Homes, and all 
matter that was set with close lines, or 
"solid, "as the printers term it, the reader 
loses about 5 per cent. But the total gain, on 
any estimate, is nearly 9 per cent over what 
we were giving our readers, taking the journal 
all through; and at the same time we are giv- 
ing them a slightly larger letter than hereto- 
fore, which, our foreman says, he "specs" 
will be appreciated by the older readers. 



THE ROOT COMPANY EMPLOYEES' PICNIC AT 
EUCEID BEACH PARK. 

Our employees this season have had an 
unusually long and heavy run. The force 
has been divided into day and night gangs, 
each of 11 hours' run. We have been so busy 
that we have had to run during Decoration 
day and the Fourth of July full blast. Work- 
ing on holidays rather ' ' goes against the 
grain " of working-people, and I do not blame 
them; but we had orders to fill, and honest 
obligations to meet. 

Now that w r e are over the busy rush, the 
men have planned a big picnic on the 13th, to 
Euclid Beach Park, on the shore of Lake Erie, 
near Cleveland, about 40 miles from Medina. 
This involves a run of about 30 miles on the 
cars and 10 by boat. I wish all our readers 
might be present with us and enjoy the picnic 
with our busy workers of the Home of the 
Honey-bees. 

We have had, during our heavy run of busi- 



ness, about 180 employees. If these people 
take along their families, their " best girls," 
and their " best fellows," we may have a shop 
picnic aggregating some 400 or 500. On that 
da} 7 our whole plant will be shut up, office and 
all, as tight as a box, with only a watchman 
and perhaps a clerk to take care of telegrams 
and urgent business. 



THE '97 HOFFMAN FRAMES. 

The new end-spacing Hoffman frame met 
with an immediate and hearty reception; and, 
moreover, it seems to have been just what 
bee-keepers were looking for. Mr. Nysewan- 
der says his trade has been greatly pleased 
with them. There are only two staples used 
to a frame; and yet our records show that we 
have this season bought about a ton of them. 
There are 800 staples to the pound, or enough 
to make 400 frames; 2000 times 400 makes 
exactly 800,000. If this does not mean that 
the new end-spacing Hoffman frame is popu- 
lar, I do not know what does. 

I have experimented with and tested a good 
many kinds of frames, including quite a vari- 
ety of closed ends ; but I do not know of any 
thing that begins to suit me anywhere near as 
well as the new-style Hoffman. It can be 
handled twice or nearly three times as rapidly 
as the old-style unspaced Langstroth frames; 
and in these da}-s of low prices on honey it 
means that we must make short cuts. Our '96 
style of Hoffman was a good frame; but the 
'97 pattern is far ahead of it. 



SMOKER FUEL; DRIED TWIGS AND PEANER' 
SHAVINGS. 

For years we have been using and recom- 
mending planer-shavings for smoker fuel. 
For a longer period of time Mr. Bingham has 
recommended stovewood split up into short 
lengths. Mr. Hutchinson, in a recent num- 
ber of his journal, says it makes good fuel, 
but it burns out the smoker-cup too fast, and 
rather recommends planer-shavings, or fuel of 1 
that sort. At our basswood yard, having got- 
ten nearly out of the excelsior sawdust (a fuel 
that is something like planer-shavings in its 
results) I made an attempt to piece out the 
fuel by breaking up, into lengths of four or 
five inches, dead limbs or twigs from the bass- 
wood-trees. A little excelsior fuel was lighted, 
and the cup filled up with broken twigs. It 
was very evident that, while the smoke was 
not as dense, it was much more lasting, and, 
except with the very crossest colonies, it gave 
very satisfactory results ; and I am inclined 
now to believe that a combination of planer- 
shavings and soft dry wood would be more sat- 
isfactory, generally, than either alone. 



SECOND CROP OF WHITE CEOVER. 

WE can hardly say that the honey season is 
closed in this vicinity, and reports coming in 
would seem to indicate a like condition in oth- 
er localities. There seems to be around here, 
at least, what we might call a second crop of 
white clover. This is particularly noticeable 
in the fields from which grass has been cut for 



604 GLEANINGS IN 

hay. The frequent rains have made sweet clo- 
ver do better than usual, and have caused red 
clover (or peavine) to put forth its best efforts 
in honey secretion. While the bees have not 
made much of an attempt to store surplus 
since about the middle of July, they have held 
their own and a little more. It begins to look 
now as if we should not have to use extract- 
ing-combs containing sealed honey that has 
been set aside for wintering purposes. If the 
fall flow shall amount to any thing, very little 
feeding will be necessary. All of this, if gen- 
eral, looks toward prosperity for the bee-keep- 
er. During a number of the previous seasons, 
the clovers (especially the white) have been 
killed out root and branch by the drouth. 
This year, clovers of every description are well 
rooted, and we may well hope, at least, for a 
good clover crop next year. 



BIG COLONIES, AGAIN. 

I have said a good deal in our late issues 
in regard to the value of powerful colonies; 
and, as I have said before, I reiterate; I ex- 
pect to say a good deal more about it. It is 
one of those things that will bear repetition; 
for I believe it is going to take a good deal of 
pounding to get the fact thoroughly into the 
heads of bee-keepers. Well, here goes for 
round No. — let's see — somewhere about seven 
or eight — call it eight — for I am sure I have 
harped on this question at least eight times. 

I have noticed that a two-story eight-frame 
Langstroth colony, run for extracted, is just 
the sort of colony we need for producing comb 
honey. Take off the upper story with all its 
extracting-combs, that the bees have begun 
storing in, and place in its stead one super 
containing full sheets of foundation, and, my! 
how the bees go to work! If the colony is 
very populous it may be wise to put on two 
supers. I am not sure, but I am inclined to 
believe that a good way to start bees to stor- 
ing honey in supers is to give them extracting- 
combs; and if the season is a good one, take 
the super away and give them supers prepared 
for comb honey. But the plan won't work a 
little bit unless the hive is fairly ' ' biling ' ' 
over with bees. The super that has been re- 
moved may be given to an extracting-colony 
to complete. 



JOSEPH NYSEWANDER. 

WE have with us to-day Mr. Joseph Nyse- 
wander, of Des Moines, Iowa, who is almost 
too well known to need any introduction here. 
Originally he was an obscure bee-keeper in 
New Carlisle, Ohio. 

I remember very distinctly of our receiving 
a letter from Mr. Nysewander, at that point, 
offering his services as stenographer and type- 
writer operator, adding that he was using a 
caligraph. As we had no stenographer at 
that time he was engaged, and worked for us 
a time. He finally left us, and struck out for 
himself, buying supplies and doing some man- 
ufacturing. He shortly discontinued manu- 
facturing, as he early discovered that the 
large factories could not only make supplies 
for him cheaper, but better goods as well. 



BEE CULTURE. Aug. 15. 

Soon after, we began sending him supplies by 
the carload, for I believe he was one of the 
very first who bought goods of us in a whole- 
sale way, and he has ever since been getting 
his stuff by the carload. During the past 
year he has already purchased of us thirteen 
carloads of goods, besides numerous small 
shipments. 

He is a young hustling business man ; and 
the rapid strides that he has made in the bee- 
supply line is no small credit to his enterprise 
and pluck. . He is now on his return trip to 
Des Moines, having been to visit his father, 
who is very sick, and who even now is not 
out of danger. 



A TWEEVE-MIEEION-DOEEAR GEUCOSE TRUST 
AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE. 

In our issue for July 1st I stated that it had 
been reported that the glucose-factories of the 
United States had formed a trust aggregating 
two millions of dollars, and added that I hop- 
ed this trust would put the price on the stuff 
up so high that it will not pay to use it in hon- 
ey. Another item now appears in the daily 
press, to the effect that another glucose com- 
bine has been formed, aggregating something 
like twelve millions! If this is true, it goes to 
show that there must be an enormous demand 
for an article that is used, if I am correct, en- 
tirely for the purposes of adulteration. 

By the way, it was somewhat of a query in J 
my mind why this particular trust should be 
formed at this particular time. Then it oc- 
curred to me that it might be the tariff. In 
looking over the Dingley act I find glucose 
has a tariff of 1% cts. per lb., the old rate be- 
ing 15 per cent ad valorem. The new duty is 
heavy enough to shut out foreign competition; 
and now an enormous trust has been formed, it j 
ought to be possible for it to run the price up to 
where I hope it won't pay to use it in honey. 
Let it go up. Honey has been coming down in 
price ; and if it is true that glucose will be go- 
ing up, all the better for the bee-keepers. It 
is when honey goes up and glucose down that 
the adulteration of honey is on the increase. 

It is also reported that injunction proceed- 
ings will be begun against the formation of 
this big trust, under the anti -trust law. I 
don't know, but somehow I hope the injunc- 
tion will be dissolved, and that the trust will 
shove the price up. 



REPORTS IN REGARD TO DRAWN FOUNDATION. 

Very unfortunately the new dies were com- j 
pleted too late to get samples all over the I 
country in time for the honey-flow. In the I 
great majority of instances the honey-flow 
was either waning or had stopped at the time I 
the drawn foundation was received, and the I 
results were, therefore, somewhat negative 
in some instances. A lot we sent to Mr. 
F. A. Salisbury reached him just about the I 
time the honey season was stopping. After 
putting the drawn foundation and full sheets 1 
of ordinary foundation in the same super on 
the hive, he wrote us, July 17, "Honey for 1 
the last few days has not been brought in as j 
a short time before." . . . " The founda- j 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



605 



tion is drawn out about y% inch; and the 
drawn foundation is fastened all around by 
the bees, and slightly bulged." Again, on 
the 20th of July, he writes: " I looked at the 
foundation and drawn foundation, and found 
both in about the same condition as on the 
17th. It looks as though our honey season 
were at a close." 

In the mean time we had written to Mr. 
George E. Hilton, knowing that willow-herb 
would follow later than clover, and asking 
him if he would test the drawn foundation. 
He immediately replied that he could, but 
asked us to send three supers, each contain- 
ing half drawn foundation and half full sheets, 
to Mr. Robert, at Woodville, Mich. The 
supers were sent ; and under date of Aug. 5th 
Mr. Robert writes: "At noon to-day the com- 
mon foundation had cells fully as deep as the 
drawn, and much whiter and more uniform in 
appearance. Honey is not coming in very 
fast, and work in sections goes on very slowly. ' ' 

This test so far would seem to be rather 
against the new article; but one swallow does 
not make a summer. 

Mr. D. N. Ritchie, of Black Lick, O., who, 
I think, is speaking of the new drawn foun- 
dation, writes, Aug. 6th: "We took off the 
box containing the new-process foundation, 
and I must say it excels the natural — no fish- 
bone, and better to eat. " The fact that Mr. 
Ritchie compares the new process with the 
natural, and speaks of the "no fishbone," 
leads me to believe he was referring to the 
new drawn foundation. 

Mr. B. F. Onderdonk, of Mountain View, 
N. J., had previously written us very favorably 
in regard to the new drawn foundation. In a 
later letter he writes : 

The experimental super was taken off last evening. 
July 1st it was placed on a strong colony, and this, as 
I explained before, was near the end of the honey- 
flow, as the drouth had set in, lasting from the 20th of 
June till the 13th of July, without a drop of rain. July 
10th I examined and found the new deep-cell founda- 
tion, and natural starters, fully drawn and honey 
stored; Dadant's full sheets half drawn; Van Deusen 
not touched. 

It will be seen from this that the drawn 
foundation fully equals the natural comb, and 
that both were ahead of ordinary foundation. 
Assuming that Dadant's was equal to the best 
of ordinary foundation, here clearly is an 
instance where drawn foundation and natural 
comb were decidedly ahead; but it should be 
stated that the test was more severe because 
Mr. Onderdonk used narrow starters of drawn 
foundation — one at the top and one at the bot- 
tom. These in the above test were placed 
over against full sheets of ordinary foundation. 
I Mr. Onderdonk states further on that the 
space between the two starters, top and bot- 
tom, of the drawn foundation, was filled in 
with natural drone comb, and therefore the 
appearance of the comb honey from the full 
sheets of foundation w T as better because it was 
all worker; but, of course, if Mr. Onderdonk 
had had the full sheets of drawn that we are 
now making, the appearance would have been 
just as good, and the result decidedly in favor 
of the new product. 

We also sent some samples of the new drawn 



foundation to Dr. A. B. Mason. At the time 
of sending I told him that I knew he would 
give them a very fair and impartial test; and 
that if the thing did not pan out well I knew 
he would be prompt and fearless enough to 
say so, for he is one of those chaps who, if 
the other fellow does not like what he has to 
say — well, he does not worry much about it. 
He has tested the new foundation, and here is 
what he says: 

The ten samples of drawn foundation (or whatever 
you call it) you sent me for trial came duly to hand. 
Eight of the pieces. 3% by 3% inches square" were put 
in two shallow super frames, four in each; and as the 
four didn't fill the frames to their full length a piece 
of newly built comb of about the same thickness as 
the drawn foundation was put in to fill it. In five 
da3's all was filled with honey, and nicely sealed over. 

Having some company to dinner the next day after 
I had removed the honey from the hive, I thought it 
would be a good time to test it. One of the company 
I have known as a great lover and consumer of honey, 
eating it at nearly every meal for years. 

Both kinds, the natural comb made by the bees, 
and the drawn foundation, were tested, and some 
said the drawn foundation was the nicer, but none 
thought the natural comb was any nicer, or less 
" gobby " than that from the drawn foundation; and 
the great honey-eater above mentioned thought the 
comb from the drawn foundation was the nicer, and 
preferred it to the other. For my own part I could 
not possibly make myself see any difference, except 
near the edges, and there our samples of natural 
comb were heavier than that from the drawn founda- 
tion. A. B. Mason. 

Station B, Toledo, O., Aug. 6. 

The doctor's experience is more in line with 
our own; and it does not seem to me that 
there can be any question about the eating- 
quality of the drawn-foundation comb honey. 

I will be frank about it and state that, in 
my opinion, there are times when drawn foun- 
dation may not show any particular advantage 
over ordinary foundation ; but I am just as 
sure that, in a majority of instances, it will 
prove superior, as I am sure it is an advantage 
to use full sheets of common foundation in- 
stead of narrow starters of the same article. 

Before any opposition came up at all, it was 
universally admitted last year that it would be 
a great advantage to use natural-comb starters 
in supers for the purpose of starting the bees 
to work in the supers. It was, however, ad- 
mitted that, after the bees got once started > 
they might work just as well on foundation as 
on the natural comb. Mr. B. Taylor, a year 
or so before he died, called attention to the 
great value of drawn combs, and many anoth- 
er one fully indorsed it ; and all the tests so 
far with the natural comb and the drawn 
foundation, both of the same depth, seem to 
show equal results. So we may assume that 
there will be a big demand for drawn founda- 
tion, even though we admit that there are times 
when foundation will give as good results. 

You will see that I have endeavored in the 
above to state the facts fairly. I have not 
tried to bolster up drawn foundation any 
more than it deserves. 



Don't forget the big convention that takes 
place from the 24th to the 26th at Caton Hall, 
Buffalo. A. I. R., Mrs. E. R. Root, Leland, 
and myself expect to be present. See con- 
vention notes for rates. After attending the 
convention I expect to tour eastward among 
bee-keepers, part of the way on my wheel. 



606 




ON THE WHEEL AMONG THE POTATO- 
GROWERS. 

On the next to the last day of July I started, 
off to visit a relative about thirty miles away. 
Our boy Huber, fourteen years old, rather 
thought he could keep up with me on the 
wheel, and so he proposed to go along. When 
about half a mile from home I stopped to see 
my mother, who is living with my youngest 
sister; and finally two of my sister's children, 
aged respectively thirteen and sixteen, decided 
to make two of the party provided I would go 
slowly and rest often. Come to think of it, I 
guess it was the mother who enjoined the 
above conditions in case they went along with 
Uncle Amos. Neither of the girls had ridden 
a wheel more than two months; but they put 
off in fine spirits, notwithstanding the warm 
July weather. 

When about ten miles from home I proposed 
a little ' ' rest in the shade while we tried some 
lemonade." Now, that rhymed itself — you 
must not lay it to me. When we were seven- 
teen miles from home I told the children it 
was time for my forenoon nap. We were near 
Fairlawn, a place where I often stop for rest 
and refreshment. The good people there 
promised to have dinner ready by the time I 
woke up, and all together I managed to get 
the children to rest nearly an hour. 

A little further along we stopped at Mr. 
Miller's, where they grew those beautiful cold- 
frame cabbage-plants last fall. The Wake- 
field cabbages were all sold, but they were 
just carrying into the city of Akron great 
beautiful heads of Early Summer by the 
wagon-load. There seemed to be quite a dis- 
crepancy between the prices we get for cab- 
bage on our market- wagon and the price paid 
by the largest wholesale grocer in Akron. 
They said their first Wakefields brought them 
60 cts. a dozen, but they finally got down to 
30 cts. His great heads of Early Summer, 
weighing from 4 to 8 lbs. apiece, brought only 
2% cts. by the wagon-load.. Now, the price 
that we receive at retail is from 10 to 20 cts. 
apiece; but this large wholesale dealer pays, 
say, 2% cts. a head. He turns them over to 
the retail grocer at perhaps 4 or 5 cts. The 
retail grocer trims off some of the leaves so as 
to keep them looking nice and fresh, thus 
reducing the weight, and sends them all over 
the city to his customers (you know it is the 
fashion to deliver goods nowadays, even if it 
is only a spool of thread or a paper of pins), 
and gets 10 cts. a head. Now, it looks as if 
there were pretty good profits here, and I con- 
fess I think so still. But, dear friends, you 
have your choice. Those who grow the cab- 
bages can run a wagon to the consumer, and 
deliver them direct, and get the big prices; 
and the consumer can, if he chooses, get ac- 
quainted with the gardener, and go or send 



Aug. 15. 

right to the grower and cut short the profits 
of the middleman. We all know this; but, 
notwithstanding, where a man grows cabbages j 
by the acre he sooner or later prefers to sell 
them to somebody who will take the whole lot 
right off his hands, and let him go to work 
raising another crop where the cabbages grew. 

A little further along I stopped at the At- j 
wood celery-farm. Mr. Atwood says his 
ground does not produce celery as well as it 
did years ago; and he thinks even muck land | 
does better under some system of rotation. I I 
found him and his men in the bunch-onion 1 
business. They have a fine crop of Southport ] 
White Globe onions, and they are putting j 
three onions in a bunch, said onions being 1 
from the size of a hen's egg up to that of a 3 
small-sized goose egg. Such bunches retail I 
for a nickel; but the man who grows them by l 
the acre is glad to have them taken off his 
hands in quantities at only a cent a bunch. It 1 
is the same with cabbages. The middleman j 
who consents to take these perishable goods I 
by the wagonload must have a margin so he 1 
can deliver them at a low price to the retail j] 
grocer. The latter must have a profit, so that j] 
at times when they do not go off readily he j 
can sell three bunches for a dime, or two for a I 
nickel, when they begin to get a little old. 

Mr. Atwood thinks that onions do finely j 
after celery; and I suppose that, after growing J 
onions for a while, the celery will be all right fl 
again. 

While I talked cabbages and onions the j 
children enjoyed themselves in exploring the 1 
gardens and grounds; and when I reached my 1 
cousin's farm, where Huber 's cyclometer reg- I 
istered just 31 miles from our starting-point, j 
the children felt so well that the two older | 
ones declared they could turn right round and | 
go back home before dark, and just enjoy the 1 
fun of it. I told them, however, they would ] 
do well if they made the trip after a good 
night's rest. * 

As our stopping-place was only three miles I 
from Mogadore, Summit Co., O., my old 
boyhood home, we proposed to visit over there 
after supper. The children suggested taking 
their wheels; but I thought they had had i 
wheeling enough that day. Mr. Wolf furnish- ' ! 
ed us a big stout horse and, surrey; and with 
his two children (a boy of twelve and a girl of 
seventeen) we had a merry party, I assure 
you. I presume the good people who lived in 
the cottage on the hill were somewhat surpris- 
ed to see such a crowd marching into their | 
quiet dooryard; but after I informed the good 
lady, that about fifty years ago my grandfather 
made my mother a present of that home, and a 
that I lived there about 11 years during my 
childhood, she very courteously invited us to 
make ourselves at home all over the premises. 
Old familiar landmarks met me on every side. I 
I walked around the octagon house, and 
climbed down the steps on the gravelly hill- 
side; admired the beets, vineless sweet pota- 
toes, lima beans, and other vegetables that 
still grew with such wonderful vigor on that 
gravelly hillside; then I pushed open an un- 
used gate. After some groping among the 
bushes I found a well-remembered path, and 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



607 



the children trailed after me down to the bab- 
bling brook. A good strong plank took us 
across to the old cold spring in the hillside. 
A little stone crock stood on a shelf above the 
spring. . The dark-colored earthenware seemed 
to invite coolness. While dipping up the 
sparkling water I remembered the many times 
I have craved, especially during sickness, a 
cooling drink from that very spring. I passed 
the water around, and each and all declared 
they had never in their life tasted such re- 
freshing spring water; and Huber said, " Why, 
pa, this is surely as cold as ice water." They 
had forgotten their ride of 31 miles, perhaps, 
and also that it was a hot July day; but, not- 
withstanding, I had to agree with them that 
that water was all my fancy and memory had 
painted it. I drank it again and again. The 
water from that spring does not need boiling 
to make it wholesome. And then I wondered 
if my digestion would not be good without 
the necessity of riding a wheel if I could live 
where I could drink daily from the waters of 
that celebrated Mogadore ' ' cold ' ' spring. 
The well-worn path down the hillside attests 
the fact that many besides myself had taken a 
fancy to this special spring. Cousin W T olf has 
a spring in a hillside right close to his dwell- 
ing; but the waters are hardly equal to those 
of this particular one I have been talking 
about. He was a little surprised when I told 
him that, for the small sum of $9.00, he could 
get a little hydraulic ram that would send the 
water all over his house, and all over his farm, 
for that matter. Of course, the expense of 
the piping would be extra. We sat out under 
the shade-trees talking over old times. The 
young ladies thought they would retire; but 
Huber, as he lay in the hammock, said he 
thought he would not go to bed till " pa did." 
When I was ready to go, however, he did not 
respond. My cousin called to him; then he 
shook him. Finally I gave him a shake, and 
then — what do you think ? Why, he declared 
he had not been asleep at all, and was sure he 
heard all we had been talking about; and I 
think he did — fifteen or twenty minutes before 
he needed such a shaking. I tell you, friends, 
a boy of fourteen, who is growing like a weed, 
needs lots of sleep, especially after he has 
ridden over thirty miles on the wheel in one 
day. By the way, dear father and mother, let 
me suggest to you to give the boy, and girl 
too, all the sleep they need when the}* are in 
their teens. Would vou think it any thinof 
strange if I were to tell you a little care to give 
them plenty of sleep and rest when the}* are 
growing so rapidly might lay the foundation 
for robust health and usefulness in later years ? 

Next morning the children were all right, 
and wild to try their wheels again; but Mr. 
Wolf promised to take us to visit Wilbur 
Fenn's if we would wait an hour or two. On 
the way we picked up my relative, Dennis 
Fenn, and a little later we ran across Mr. 
Metlin, so we finally had five potato-growers 
together in council. I have not space to give 
you all of that talk; but I will take space to 
give you just one little item to show you how 
intricate and complicated is the matter of 
growing just a crop of potatoes. 



Cousin Fenn took us over to a nine-acre 
field. The greater part of this field looked as 
his fields usually do. Every hill of potatoes 
was so much like its neighbors that there was 
scarcely a choice between them — no bugs, a 
perfect stand, all bright and thrifty. At one 
end of the field, however, there were perhaps 
twenty or thirty rows that were not up to the 
standard. You could tell the dividing line 
clear through the field. I suggested there 
was a different kind of seed. He shook his 
head. "Planted at a different time?" he 
shook his head again. 

" Well, Wilbur, what makes the difference? ' ' 

He answered something as follows: 

' ' You see, I have always advocated planting 
potatoes in loose ground. I did not believe it 
was best to roll the ground at all. I wanted 
it so the potatoes could expand and enlarge 
symmetrically without being squeezed out of 
shape by uncongenial surroundings. I put in 
my planter and started to plant the field with- 
out rolling the ground. When I had got thus 
far I did not feel quite suited with the way 
things were going, and so hitched on to the 
heavy roller, and rolled the rest of those nine 
acres. You see the result. " 

Now, this would seem incredible were not 
the object-lesson right before our eyes. With- 
out a question, the use of that roller on that 
field of nine acres more than paid for itself in 
growing this one crop of potatoes. I strongly 
suspect that the low yield of potatoes per acre 
throughout our State of Ohio is owing to the 
fact that the farmers who grow them are so 
poorly supplied with proper tools for pulver- 
izing and fining up the soil. 

Finally the children were delighted to be 
permitted to step out of the buggy and take 
their wheels once more. We just flew over 
the cinder wheel-path between the White 
Grocery and Middlebury; and when we came 
on to the paved streets on the side of Akron 
toward our home. Miss Rena would anticipate 
me and run up hill like a young colt that had 
got started for home. I tried to have her stop 
long enough to see the beautiful residences 
along the suburbs of that Akron road, but I 
could not hold her back. We took a hasty 
dinner where we had dined the day before; 
but when about ten miles from home it was 
evident that the girls were becoming tired. 
We took long rests under the shade- trees be- 
side the road. We washed our faces in the 
babbling brooks coming from hill-side springs, 
and I for one had a really restful holiday. 
We reached home at five o'clock, having made 
about 65 miles in two days. All declared they 
would like the fun of doing it all over again. 

Now, dear friends, if your boys or girls are 
crazy for a wheel, give them the means if you 
can of earning one; and when they get it, 
watch over them and see that they make a 
proper use of this wonderful new gift that has 
so recently come from the kind Father above; 
and when the wheel comes, teach the children 
to make a good use of it. Do not let them 
ride far at a time. Have them take plenty of 
sleep and rest. Don't let them undertake a 
century in one day until they are men and 
women grown; but before that time have 



608 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Aug. 15. 



them trained in the fear of the Lord so that 
never, under any circumstances, will they 
think of undertaking a century run on Sunday. 



Our Neighbors. 



Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. — Matt. 
19:19. 

For several years past I have had invitations 
to visit the great seedsmen, and look over 
their trial-grounds around the city of Phila- 
delphia. There are perhaps more prominent 
seedsmen congregated in this city than in 
any other one spot on the face of the earth. 
I was told the best time for me to visit would 
be during the month of August. On Monday 
morning, Aug. 2d, while at the breakfast-table 
I noticed a low rate on account of the meeting 
of the League of American Wheelmen. To 
take advantage of this low rate I should have 
to go during the first week in August; and to 
be sure and get around without being away 
from home over Sunday, it was needful I 
should start in the fore part of the week. So 
all of a sudden I made my preparations and 
was off. Now, I do not propose in this depart- 
ment to tell you much about my visit to the 
wonderful gardens and seed-growing farms; 
but I will tell you of these things later. I 
love to study plants and high -pressure garden- 
ing ; but I love to study humanity and my 
' ' neighbors ' ' still more. 

I soon found myself among a crowd of more 
than ten thousand boys and girls who love to 
ride the wheel . Some of them were doubtless 
pretty well along in life; but with their wheel- 
ing-suits they seemed to be youthful, at least 
for the time being. Perhaps I should tell you 
that I am and have been a member of the L. 
A. W. almost since it started. Of course, I 
am not in sympathy with Sunday riding nor 
with the racing business, as a rule; but for all 
that, I am in deep sympathy and in touch 
with all these people who are finding health, 
strength, and happiness through the proper 
use of the wheel. I am also in deep sympathy 
with the movement that the L. A. W. has in- 
augurated in the way of better roads and freer 
communication with our neighbors and the 
whole outside world. 

I have frequently spoken of the facilities for 
wheeling in this, that, and the other location. 
I said the sandy desert of Arizona, in special 
localities, was the finest place for wheeling in 
the whole wide world; and when down in 
Florida I spoke with enthusiasm of the sandy 
beach, just as it was left by the briny ocean 
waves, so hard and firm that the wheel passed 
over it without leaving even a visible track; 
but when I got outside of the city of Philadel- 
phia, and tried their beautiful cement roads, 
with their graceful curves up and down the 
slopes, with the green lawns and brilliant 
arrangement of flowers and foliage, with beds 
on either side, I decided I should have to take 
it all back, and admit that the suburbs of 
Philadelphia come nearer to being the wheel- 
man's paradise than any other spot I have 



ever viewed on the face of the earth. It would 
have done you good to see the way in which 
the boys and girls congregated there and 
enjoyed this privilege. Not only all day long 
were they seen spinning and flying in every 
direction, but even late at night. Yes, I my- 
self was out until between ten and eleven on 
two or three occasions; and even at these 
hours wheels were flying with boys and girls. 
There were tandems in great numbers, and 
the front seat was almost always occupied by 
a pretty woman with her brother, husband, or 
lover — of course I could not tell which — just 
back of her. With every crowd of boys there 
were almost sure to be two or three girls; and 
may be this accounts for the fact that, during 
my stay of three days in the city, my ears 
were only once pained by hearing an oath, 
and this once was by an outsider and not by 
one of the wheelmen. May God be praised 
for so much; and if the constant presence of 
womankind among the boys out on their 
sports and recreation had something to do 
with the circumstance, then I am glad that it 
is the fashion to take the girls along, even in 
our athletic sports. 

As soon as I arrived in the city I saw ban- 
ners in every direction proclaiming, ' ' Wel- 
come, L. A. W." Hotels had the same wel- 
come, with reduced rates, and the restaurants 
made it a business to provide a special low- 
rate dinner especially for the wheel-riders. 
Rides were planned on the steamers to the 
various pleasure-resorts, free to every one who 
showed his L. A. W. ticket. This ticket, let 
me explain, is given to every subscriber to the 
spicy little magazine entitled The L. A. W. 
and Good Roads. 

Before I go any further, permit me to say 
that my heart has been rejoiced during the 
present year to know that the president of this 
great organization is a Christian man; and he 
has been doing some grand work in the line 
of discouraging Sunday centuries, as well as 
all kinds of Sunday racing, and things of like 
import. 

Wednesday evening we had a beautiful 
boat-ride up the Delaware River, and then 
back again down the river to Washington 
Park . This park is an immense garden in the 
shape of a pleasure-resort. The ground around 
and between the trees is all covered with a 
smooth floor which is kept constantly neatly 
swept. Abundance of shade, excellent water, 
refreshing drinks, with ice-cream and refresh- 
ments in general, make it a pretty place right 
up to the water's edge. A Ferris wheel, very 
much like the one in Chicago (only 10 cts. for 
a ride ) Receives, of course, a large patronage. 
Toboggan-slides that start away up above the 
tree-tops, send boat-loads of passengers down 
a long steep incline with terrific speed, land- 
ing them in the waters of the little artificial 
lake. The boat strikes the water with such 
force that it skips with its living freight away 
up into the air, and bounds and rebounds 
again and again. Of course, the water flies in 
great torrents in every direction except toward 
those in the boat. With the splashing of the 
water, and the shrieking of the boys and girls 
inside, it makes a most animated scene. 



1897 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



609 



When the boat was pretty well loaded, so the 
rebound was unusually great, it seemed as if 
some of the inmates were thrown nearly two 
feet above their seats ; but as they clung to- 
gether, and came down all right with no one 
hurt, the program kept being repeated all day 
and away into the night. Finally, when it was 
announced that one of our expert cyclers was 
to ride down that incline on a wheel, great 
crowds gathered all around the banks of the 
lake. We were afraid we should not be able 
to see him clearly; but when we found he 
carried a lot of fireworks attached to either 
handle-bar we were pretty well satisfied in 
this respect. Down, down he went, with 
terrific speed. It made me think of some of 
my adventures in going down long steep hills. 
Just when, even-body was holding his breath, 
when the wheel was up to its very highest 
speed, the rider dropped his fireworks, and 
sprang from his wheel just in time to dive 
down into the water. He came up safe and 
sound somewhere out in the middle of the 
pool, then swam ashore while a boat near by 
fished out of the water his dripping wheel. 
Then the crowd was called up to witness the 
play of the electric fountains. This was much 
like the one at the World's Fair, except that 
it was much more elaborate. While we sat 
entranced by the brilliant sparkling sprays of 
the water, listening in the meanwhile to the 
most exquisite strains of music from one of 
the finest bands the world can probably fur- 
nish, through the misty waters some dim 
phantom-like object seemed slowly rising. 
Was it imagination ? or were there reallv some 
letters that meant something through that 
sparkling, radiant combination of rainbow 
colors and sparkling waters ? Oh, yes! there 
were the words, " Welcome, L. A. W.," rising 
right out of the water; yes, and there seemed 
to be human hands holding aloft a beautiful 
banner; and finally up out of the water itself 
came three Graces in woman form — veritable 
mermaids rising up out of the depths of the 
sea, holding aloft their banner. Somebody 
who stood by me said, " Surely, they can not 
be living figures, although they are astonish- 
ingly true to life." But at just that moment 
the central goddess — yes, she would have 
made a very good Goddess of Liberty — waved 
her hand and bestowed a most bewitching 
smile upon the crowds of American wheelmen. 
Now, this naiad who rose up out of the water 
was not clothed with vers* much of any thing; 
in fact, a water-nymph would not be supposed 
to need very much drapery, even though she 
appeared before a great audience. The daz- 
zling spray and the rippling water clothed her 
as with a halo. I suppose you know your old 
friend who writes these Home Papers has been 
more or less critical in regard to things of this 
kind — circuses, theaters, and the like. Well, 
for once I was somewhat puzzled. The me- 
chanical effects produced by these wonderful 
electric fountains were grand, and there was 
nothing objectionable about them. The ac- 
companying music was also entrancing. The 
beautiful grounds and shade-trees seemed to 
make the place a little paradise on earth; and 
that figure of the beautiful woman, so artisti- 



cally combined with the other environments, 
need not necessarily have been objectionable. 
If I am making any mistake, I pray that the 
Holy Spirit may set me right. 

The next day our good friend Selser, who 
represents our Philadelphia house, insisted 
that I must make at least a brief visit to At- 
lantic City before leaving Philadelphia. He 
did not tell me what I should see, but asked 
me to trust him. Our passage of 60 miles was 
made in 55 minutes, including one stop ; and 
this railway, so straight and level and beauti- 
ful in all its appointments, is in the habit of 
making this speed right along. If I am cor- 
rect, it is the fastest train in the world. 

Atlantic City is a place of 200,000 people — 
at least, that is the number at this season of 
the year. In the winter time it shrinks down 
to twenty thousand. I will tell you why ; it is 
one of the most celebrated bathing-places in 
the world. It is all. hotels, bathing-houses, 
and such places of business as usually congre- 
gate under such circumstances. When I first 
caught sight of a group of perhaps fifty or a 
hundred bathers on the shore, I wanted to 
stop a little ; but friend Selser had a different 
plan. " Come," said he ; " let us take a little 
stroll through ' Vanity Fair. ' Perhaps that is 
not quite the proper name, but it may make 
you think of it. We will look at the bathers 
a little further on." 

I have not time here to describe the beauti- 
ful pavilions, machinery of all sorts for plea- 
sure and recreation, curiosities exhibited for 
sale from all parts of the earth, mechanical 
inventions in the way of electricity, chemis- 
try, optics, etc. Finally we came to the cen- 
ter of attraction. Almost as far as the eye 
could reach, human beings were down in the 
surf getting health and recreation amid the 
deafening roar of the salt-water breakers. 
Hundreds does not tell the story. There were 
literally thousands of human beings, all mixed 
up, some under water, some on top of it, and 
all enjoying themselves. Mr. Selser did not 
urge ; but when I expressed a wish to join 
them he said ' ' All right. ' ' There was such a 
crowd for bathing-suits that we had to wait 
quite a spell. I soon became accustomed to 
men and women all around me in their novel 
dresses (or ^ //dress, ) looking like a lot of 
frolicsome juveniles instead of grown-up men 
and women. My preconceived notions for a 
while rebelled against this sudden departure 
from ordinary decorum, but I made up my 
mind that it was my business to observe and 
inquire, rather than to criticise. The first 
thing that struck me was that such a bathing- 
place is of itself a great leveler. Poor people 
and rich people, as well as old and young, 
were all mixed up indiscriminately. The 
millionaire and his wife and daughters, when 
they threw off their costly clothing, also threw 
off, at least to a certain extent, their pride — 
and I came pretty near saying arrogance. 
May be it is the right word. It took me a lit- 
tle time to get over the chill of first going into 
the briny water ; and, remembering that I had 
only recently thrown off my overcoat and fur 
cap, I felt a little anxiety. In a short time, 
however, I was. tumbling around with the rest, 



610 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Aug. 15. 



and laughing and shouting until I almost for- 
got to shut my eyes and mouth and hold my 
breath when the big foamy billows came surg- 
ing over us. Friend Selser kept urging me 
to turn my back toward the wave when I saw 
it coming, for it might strike with such force 
as to hurt my face. There are two ways of 
meeting breakers. One is to dive through 
them, and the other is to jump up so your 
head conies out of the way of the water. At 
every wave, more or less of us tumbled down 
and got mixed up. Oh ! but didn't we get 
clean with that tremendous washing and rins- 
ing from the briny waves ? Some of us were 
awkward, but nobody seemed disposed to be 
touchy or to complain. There seemed to be 
the utmost good nature prevailing everywhere. 
Everybody laughed at all that happened. 
Once or twice I saw some awkward country 
youth back up so as to jostle some fine lady, 
evidently of rank and culture ; but his awk- 
ward apology was always accepted, even if it 
was hardly what the circumstances seemed to 
warrant ; and with all the haps and mishaps 
of that delightful day I did not hear one un- 
kind or even despondent remark. I am not 
sure that I even saw a despondent look. 

Oh, dear me ! why didn't it so happen that 
I might take a salt-water bath every day in the 
year? Now, then, is there any thing wrong 
about having all humanity bathe together in 
this promiscuous way ? When you become ac- 
customed to it, everybody seems at least de- 
cently and becomingly clad — that is, for the 
time being. If we would all remember to 
clothe our minds and thoughts in such a garb 
as we are sure would be pleasing to the great 
Father above, it would not matter so very 
much about this matter of dress. If every- 
body loved his neighbor with a pure and holy 
love (as in the language of our text), woman's 
dress might conform to season and circum- 
stances, at least far enough to allow her to 
move easily and gracefully through her voca- 
tions in life. Perhaps we should need more 
often to pray, " Create in me a clean heart, O 
God, and renew a right spirit within me ; " 
but such a prayer would only bring us nearer 
to God ; and any circumstance or set of cir- 
cumstances that would drive us oftener to the 
throne of grace might be a blessing in itself. 
( Continued in our next. ) 



SEE THAT WINK ? 

BEE SUPPLIES. 

Root's Goods at Root's Prices. 

Pouder's Honey=Jars and every 
thing used by bee-keepers. L,ow 
freight rates ; prompt service. 

Catalog free. 

WALTER S. POUDER, 
62 riass Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 




CHAS. ISRAEL & SON., 

486, 488 & 490 Canal St., Corner Watts St.,N. Y 
LIBERAL HHMPV WHOLESALE 

ADVANCES I lUnC I DEALERS & 

MADE -and- COMMISSION 

ON ^^^^^r ^, MERCHANTS. 

CONSIGN- BEESWAX Esta * clished 



MENTS. 



13,5. 



IF YOU WANT BEES 

that will just "roll" in the honey, and that are won- 
derful red-clover workers, also gentle to handle, and 
exceedingly hardy, then try MOORE'S STRAIN 
OF ITALIANS, the result of 18 years of careful 
breeding. 

Warranted queens, 75 cts. each; 3 for $2.00; per doz., 
$7.00; tested, $1.00; select tested, $1.50; select warrant- 
ed, $1.00. Strong 3-frame nucleus, with warranted 
queen, $2.50. Safe arrival and satisfaction guaranteed. 
Circular free. Those who have never dealt with me I 
refer to A. I. Root, who has purchased of me over 850 
queens. 

J. P. Moore, Morgan, Pendleton Co., Ky. 
QUEENS BY RETURN MAIL. 

Daughters of best imported queen mother, warrant- 
ed purely mated to drones of imported stock from a 
different source; hence, a direct cross. 12 years as a 
honey-producer on a large scale has taught me what 
good queens mean to the producer, as well as how to 
rear them. Price of queens, 50c each. Safe delivery 
and satisfaction, or money refunded. 

L. H. ROBEY, Worthington, W. Va. 

Queens Given Away. 

Gray Carniolans and Golden Italians. We will give 
a fine tested queen (either race) to all customers or- 
dering six untested queens, and a fine select tested 
queen to all who order 12 untested at one time. The 
queens given away will be sent to customers in August. 

Apr. 



Grade and prices of bees 
and queens. 



Untested queen 

Tested queen 

Select tested queens 

Best imported queens 

1 L,. -frame nucleus, no queen... 

2 L,. -frame nuclei, no queen 

Full colony of bees, no queen, 

in new Dov'd hive 



May, j July, Aug. 



June. 


Sept. 


T'75~" 


"$ 65 


1 50 


1 25 


2 50 


2 25 


5 00 


4 00 


75 


,50 


1 .50 


1 00 


5 00 


4 00 



We guarantee our bees to be free from all diseases, 
and to give entire satisfaction. Descriptive price list 
free. 

F. A. Lockhart & Co., Lake George, N. Y. 



Dovetailed Hives, 



Sections, Extractors, Smokers, 
and every thing a bee-keeper 
wants. Honest goods at close 
honest prices. 60-page cata- 
log free. 



J. M. JENKINS, Wetumpka, Ala. 



MUTH'S HONEY-EXTRACTOR, 
SQUARE GLASS HONEY-JARS, 
ROOT'S GOODS AT ROOT'S PRICES, 

Bee-keepers' Supplies in general, etc., 
etc. Send for our new catalog. "Prac- 
tical Hints" will be mailed for 10 cts. 
in stamps. Apply to 

CHAS. F. MUTH & SON, Cincinnati, 0. 

In writing advertisers, mention Gleanings. 



Single Tube — — 

India Bicycle Tires. 

Good ones, too, for 

$5.00 Per Pair. 

Including repair kit and pump. We have given 
them a thorough test and find them well made and 
durable. 

THE A. I. ROOT CO., Medina, O.