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ITlE GATEWAY • vnlimx'XCVIll number 10 

Tools may dig up historical clues T 


News Staff 

A University of Alberta anthropolo- 
glst lias found thousands of ancient 
tools and artifacts left by early man in 
Irlnga, Tanzania. 

to 2006, associate professor Pam 
Willoughby, along with graduate 
students Pastory Bushozi and Katie 
Bittner, found 182kgofliistoricalarti¬ 
facts such as pottery, animal bones, 
and, most importantly, stone tools. 

Willoughby first went to Tanzania 
in 200S in search of rock shelters 
that ancient peoples would have 
used as instant housing over 200 000 
years ago. She had hoped that these 
caves might contain the garbage left 
behind by our ancestors thousands 
of years ago, but when she arrived, 
she found artifacts literally covering 
the floor. 

"The surface had pieces of pottery 
and iron from early smelting on it. 
[It] was just littered with artifacts," 
Willoughby explained. "[However], 
my permit wasn’t for [that] region, but 
the next region over, so even though I 
saw stuff and took lots of pictures, 1 
couldn’t collect anything." 

When she returned the next year, 
her intent was just to prove that arti¬ 
facts were there so that she could get 
a grant and rettirn later. However, she 
found so much in the 30 days of dig¬ 
ging that another trip back has been 
put on hold until all of the artifacts 
could be properly documented and 
studied. This is due in large pan to the 
stringent rules of the Tanzanian gov¬ 
ernment. which still owns the arti¬ 
facts even though Willoughby found 
and collected the them. 

“We have [the artifacts] on loan for, 
in theory, as long as we want, but the 
understanding is that we don’t go back 

A ROCKY PAST A massive find of ancient tools may unlock humans’ past. 

to get more until we return [the ones 
we’ve already taken]," Willoughby 

The artifacts that Willoughby 
brought back to the O of A range in 
age from over 100 000 years old— 
the Middle Slone Age—to about 3000 
years old, in the period known as the 
Iron Age. Although the focus of the 
study is on Middle Stone Age arti¬ 
facts. the newer ones, because they 
lie on top. must also be collected and 

Tit rough her work, Willoughby 
hopes to answer two pressing issues: 
first, how the tools of the Later Stone 
Age emerged from the larger, earlier 
type; and second, what prevented the 

ICC needs more recognition—Goldstone 

lee stint:it 

News Writer 

The survival of international justice 
depends on the will of leading nations, 
according to Richard J Goldstone, 
former Justice of the Constitutional 
Conn of South Africa and former 
prosecutor of the UN International 
Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and 
the former Yugoslavia, 

Goldstone spoke at the 19th annual 
McDonald Lecture, held in the Law 
Centre on 27 September. His speech, 
entitled "The Future of Internationa! 
Justice," provided insights into the 
development of international criminal 
law and discussion of the challenges 
that he ahead in addressing it. 

Identifying the key problems facing 
the International Criminal Court 
(ICC). Goldstone said that ’’[the Court] 
hasn’t got its own police force or own 
army—it has to rely on governments 
to support it." Later, he emphasized 
that the lack of political will and the 
failure of leading nations to recognize 
the Court were other vital and related 

After express! ng disappointment that 
the UK and France (both parties to the 
Rome Statute, which created the Court) 
failed to even mention the ICC in their 
calls for action in Sudan, Goldstone 
noted that "unless the political will can 
be mustered in that regard, credibility 
of the Court is being weakened. 

“[We need to] put pressure on coun¬ 
tries to .recognize die Court," he said, 
noting tliat the concept of international 
criminal justice hasn’t tieen with us long. 

"Until Nuremberg, there was no 
such thing as international criminal 
justice. It didn't exist.” 

Goldstone added that prior to 
Nuremberg, war criminals enjoyed 
effective and concrete impunity. 

"In their own countries, they were 
unfortunately regarded more often 
than not as war heroes, and not as 
war criminals. Nuremberg ignited a 
flame and a hope for an international 
criminal court. Unfortunately, the 
Cold War intervened." 

‘Until Nuremberg, there 
was no such thing as 
international criminal 
justice. It just didn’t 



Goldstone pointed out that it 
wasn’t until 1993 that an ad hoc 
international criminal court was 
established in the former Yugoslavia, 
and explained that it was established 
due to European anti-war sentiment 
following World War II. 

Goldstone said that in 1994, when 
Rwanda requested a court to be set 
up in their country, the UN Security 
Council could not have denied Rwanda 
the same service that was provided in 
the former Yugoslavia. 

"It is impossible to understand 
international criminal justice with¬ 
out recognizing the politics that 
is its mother and father. Without 
politicians, without politics, there 
wouldn’t lie international criminal 
courts—they wouldn't get financed, 
they wouldn’t be established in the 
first place," Goldstone said, noting 





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tools’ makers, our ancestoral Homo 
sapiens, from leaving Africa. 

According to Willoughby, although 
they had the technology’ to make these 
tools more than 100 000 years ago. 
they didn’t emerge from Africa until 
only 40-60 000 years ago. 

With those questions in mind. 
Willoughby hopes to return next year 
to collect and study more samples 
and continue her work answering the 
questions of the past. 

"In theory, we’re looking for the 
magical, hypothetical site where 
[Middle Stone Age tools] cliange into 
[Later Stone Age tools]," Willoughby 
explained. “I think one of our sites, 
Mlambalasi, could be that site." 



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the great advances and benefits that 
have been achieved in international 
criminal justice. 

He said that in recent years, gen- 
der-related crimes such as systematic 
mass-rape have finally been recog¬ 
nized as being criminal, and not just 
an uncontrollable aspect of war. 

"Systematic mass rape has been 
used as a form of warfare for thou¬ 
sands of years, but it was never rec¬ 
ognized as a crime." Goldstone said. 
“The reasons are obvious—these 
laws were written by men [They] 
assumed and accepted that rape and 
plunder was something that automat¬ 
ically happened in warfare" 

But that has changed, and Goldstone 
said tills was due in no small part to the 
ad hoc tribunals fomied in Yugoslavia 
and Rwanda—both precursors to the 

Goldstone went on to say that 
thanks to the creation of the ICC. 
the protection of civilians has been 
extended to civilians in civil wars, 
rather than just civilians involved in 
wars between nations. In Goldstone’s 
opinion, the existence of the ICC can 
create real deterrence. 

“it is difficult to prove deterrence," 
Goldstone noted. "How do you prove 
what wool d hare happened but for 
these tribunals having been set up?” 

Goldstone ended his speech 
praising Canada and the nations of 
Scandinavia, whose foreign policy 
he deemed as being based on morals 
rather than on commercial concerns. 
There are currently 104 nations parly 
to the Rome Statute, but Goldstone 
emphasized that two important 
democracies—the US and India— 
haven’t ratified it. 

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