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Rendered into the Labrador Dialect 




DR. 5. K. HUT DON, Nip: 







Ablatsangortitsijox tépkoninga Inuit oxausinginut 
Labradoreme atorpaktunut 

Ajoxkertuijoxk W. W. PERRETT 


Aniasiorte $. K. HUTTON, London 

Aulatsixkataujok Katangutigét Missioninginik 

Aglaktox Englishetortunginik 

Hudson’s Bay Companillo, London 




For the last five years it has been my privilege to journey during the summer and 
autumn along the coasts of Labrador, Hudson Bay and Baffin Island as a member 
of the Hudson’s Bay Company. I have therefore had ample opportunity to study 
at first hand the problems of Arctic Canada and Labrador and to appreciate the 
viewpoint of our Fur Traders, of Medical Officers, Missionaries, Royal Canadian 
Mounted Policemen and other Government officials. 

Stated briefly, the facts are these : unlike the Greenland Eskimo and unlike his 
Alaskan cousin, the Eskimo of Labrador and Canada have for the most part re- 
tained the original character and habits of their race. They are hunters, trappers 
and seafarers for the most part—happy-go-lucky, sporting folk, affectionate to 
their families, friendly and generous to all members of their community and on the 
best of terms with the White Men and Women who live among them. Through 
the enterprise of missionaries many of them have learned to read and write, and 
they in turn have taught others in their encampments, so that now there are few 
Eskimo communities where the written word is not intelligible. “They have, 
however, only one book in their language—the Bible—with a Liturgy and a few 
religious tracts. Upon these merry people, wholly ignorant of the Why and 
Wherefore of the World, the shadow of Civilisation is now falling. Indeed, the 
idea of this book was born within sound of the waves of Hudson Bay, as I stood on 
the ruined battlements of Fort Prince of Wales, looking across the harbour of 
Churchill towards the construction camp of the Hudson Bay Railway. Cranes, 
steam shovels, pile-drivers, pneumatic drills controlled by all sorts and conditions of 
men—here on the threshold of the North was the vanguard of Civilisation. 

The contact of Civilisation with primitive races resembles the contact of radium 
with the human body. If skilfully applied it can be of the greatest benefit: if 
applied unskilfully it may destroy that which it is intended to benefit. It will be 
conceded that in the past Civilisation has demoralised the primitive races who lived 
within the path of its progress. Alert to this danger the Canadian Government 
from time to time introduces measures to protect the interests of the Eskimo. 
Attacking the problem from another angle this book endeavours to arm the Eskimo 
with vital knowledge, so that apart from the crutch of sympathetic legislation he 
may stand a better chance to fend for himself. Here he will find his first Map of 
North America and Great Britain ; here he will find the story of Canada and the 
Empire ; for a sporting people there are pictures of a sporting King and a sporting 
Prince ; for families who almost worship their children there are pictures of a 
Queen who loves children. _In this setting the relation of Health and Industry to 
the Welfare of the People is laid bare. 

If the text is redolent with metaphors of blubber, seal meat and the chase, it is 
because such things are significant to the minds of all Eskimo, but the translator’s 
ingenuity has been tested again and again in conveying within the limits of the 
Eskimo vocabulary the meaning of words such as ‘ germ’ and ‘ care,’ which were 
never dreamed of in their philosophy. 

It was thought proper to place the English and Eskimo texts side by side 
primarily for the convenience of the Hudson’s Bay Company Post Managers and 



Apprentices in all parts of the Canadian and Labrador hinterland, regardless of 
whether they traded with Eskimo or Indian ; for the Company has but one tradi- 
tion in its dealings with the people of either race, and it is well that this oral 
tradition of the old Chief Factors should be at hand in this new form on the shelf 
of every Post Library, lest at any time we—or those who follow in our footsteps— 
should forget. 

This book will not be given to the Eskimo ; for he, like the White Man, values 
most the things he pays for. It will cost him the equivalent (at present values) of 
a few ermine skins. ‘The White Man will have to pay a little more. 

Unfortunately the Eskimo in the Canadian Arctic and in Labrador have 

learned a different mode of reading and writing. The Labrador Eskimo reads 
the Roman characters, while in Baffin Island and Hudson Bay he has been 
taught to read ‘ syllabics,’ an alphabet similar to shorthand. ‘Thus it will be 
necessary to transcribe this version, which is destined for the Labrador, into 
syllabics for it to be intelligible to the Baffinlanders and Northern tribes. “There 
are various Eskimo dialects, but the Baffinlander can converse with the Labrador 
Eskimo with no greater (or less) difficulty than a Cockney can converse with an 
Aberdonian. Now that the main stumbling block of having the English version 
translated into the Eskimo language has been surmounted, it will be a compara- 
tively easy matter to transcribe it from the Labrador dialect to such other versions 
as may be required elsewhere in the North. 

But for the co-operation of Mr. Perrett who is now spending his fortieth year 
of service among the Eskimo of Labrador this book would probably never have 
materialised. ‘The road of the Eskimo translator winds up-hill all the way : 
chapter by chapter with infinite pains and patience he devoted his energies and 
skill to this unenviable and seemingly interminable task. He would be ‘the first 
to record with me an appreciation of the help rendered by his colleague Dr. S. K. 
Hutton, Secretary of the Moravian Missions in London, who, conjuring up the 
memories of twelve years of Labrador life, regained almost overnight his Eskimo 
fluency in order to assist both Mr. Perrett in the spade work and proof correction, 
and me in various features affecting the book asa whole. ‘This generous labour of 
love on the part of Mr. Perrett and Dr. Hutton is in accordance with the high 
tradition of the Moravian Missions—known of old as the Unitas Fratram— 
which first ventured among the Eskimo in 1733 and which ever since 1771 have 
maintained stations on the Labrador coast. 

I am likewise deeply indebted to Chief Factor Ralph Parsons, Fur Trade Com- 
missioner of the Hudson’s Bay Company, who gave both encouragement and 
advice to this work. ‘The manuscript was read by other friends of Northern ex- 
perience, namely, Sir Wilfred Grenfell, Archdeacon A. L. Fleming (Archdeacon 
of the Arctic), Dr. L. D. Livingstone, M.D., and Mr. V. Steffansson, to whom I 
am grateful for constructive suggestions. 

Thus it has come about that His Majesty’s most cheerful subjects, the Eskimo, 
have two books in their language where before they had one—a book for Sundays 
to which is now added this book for weekdays. 


68 BISHOPSGATE, Lonpon, E.C. 2 

December, 1930 

FOREWORD - - - = 





RuLerRs - - - - - - - 

. How rue Empire oF THE KING AND QUEEN WAS 

FORMED - - - - - - = 

. Tue Laws or CanaDA AND NEWFOUNDLAND - 

. THe Men or Gop 2 = = a ys 



> HEatTH - - - = = 

. [THE Power oF Foop In THE Bopy - 

. THe Trait Trowarps Heartu = 

. For Innurr Wives ¥ a = 

. THE BurtpiInc AND Care or Housgs 


. THe Nature or Work AMONG ALL MEN 


. THe Exampie or Wuire WorKERS - 

. Care In Work - = a S 


. Tue PLepcr oF THE Company To THE INNUIT 



SIVULIARUTSIT - < e = = 2 = 9 




jAksE - - - - - = - 19 
TAULAUNGMANGAT~ = - ~ ~ ~ 29 
III. Canapa Hupson’s Bay CoMPANILLO - - 43 
IV. Perkxoyar MaticaksaukojaLLto CANADAMUT 


VII. Arsurtinek - - - - - - - Io! 
VIII. Nerxrus PrrsaRTUNINGA TIMEME— - - - 109 


X. Inurr Arnanoinut [rincajut - - - - 149 





XIII. Mrxxrerryernek Pisuxritto Aminoira Parrt- 
JAUTSIARNINGIT - ~ - - - Ewa ol Oil 
XIV. KasiunAr IcJARAKSAUNINGIT - - - - 193 



a] OR whom does a hunter care most? Is it 

| for his team of dogs or for his rifle or for 
his boat? These things are valuable 
possessions and worthy of great care— 
but how much more precious to him are 
his wife and his children! 

See—the hunters are returning to the camp from 
the floe edge. The komatiks * are loaded with seals. 
What excitement and noise there is! The dogs lift up 
their voices, the whips crack, the children shout and 
laugh, the women busy themselves with the cooking. 
At last the dogs are tethered for the night, the meat has 
been divided and the hunters are back in their igloos + 
warm and contented. 

Yes—it is indeed a good thing for the hunter to return 
to his igloo after a successful day to answer the eager 
questions of the children, and to watch their smiling faces. 

It is a good thing to see the head of a seal coming 
upwards to his blow-hole when you stand ready above 
with your spear; it is a good thing to spy many walrus 
lying asleep on the shore; or the fresh track of a bear— 
that is a glad sight too for the eyes and gives an appetite 
to the belly. But gladder than all these things is the sight 
of happy laughing children playing round their mother. 
How good the sight is to the eyes!_ What appetite it gives 
to the heart! 

Soon the young child will become the young hunter 
eager to win the praise of the old hunters: in time his 

* Eskimo word for sledges. t Eskimo word for houses. 

INASUARTIB suna kamaginerparivak- 

paik ? Kingminé, kukkiutinelonét, umi- 
anelénét? ‘Tamakkoa ivlernadlaralloarput 
pairijaksaudlarlutiglo—aipanele xkitorng- 
aneloakkituginersariséngolungilagit mak- 
konangat ? 

Takuitse, sindliarsimajut angeralerput  sindmit. 
Kamutit ussilertortauvut puijenik. Uimajartoxadlarpox 
Kaggudlartoxarlunelo. Kingmit miagérput, iperautat 
serkopalavut, sorutsit Kaigarsuxkatigékput ijudlarlutiglo, 
arnallo nerkiksaliorput. Kingmit annudjartausinnarput, 
puijit avitauvut, angutillo iglomingnélerput aukanitsiar- 
lutik namaksilutiglo. 

Ahaila, Kuvianadlarpok pinasuarte sulisimatsiarlune 
angerarungnarmat xkitorngamelo aperkutigixkattartangit 
kiolugit, kénangillo kungajut ulernairtorlugit. 

Kuvianadlarporlo utakijub aglome puijib niakoa aglo- 
mut puiartortox takopago, utakijok atuinautilugo nau- 
kiaromavlugo; Kkuvianadlarpox aivexsoaraluit sidjame 
siniktut kerngumiklugit; nannorlénét tumisilugo—tam- 
anna takoranidlarpox ijemut, naxlo ikliguktipa. Tamak- 
konangalle Kuvianarnersaungijaidlarpok sorutsit takonar- 
lugit Kuviasudlartut ijudlartullo andnatik ilumavlugo. 
Tamanna ila ankoxsinarpok ijenut, nakoxsititsivorlo 

Manakasakut nukappiak pinasuartingorlarpox katjar- 
lune nertortaunermik inuxoartunut; ila, sukutsiane nuk- 
kiminut Kakianainerminullo nelonaijailarpox pinasuartio- 



strength and his prowess will prove him to be a hunter of 
greater honour than his father—or of less honour. 

Do you remember what strength, what eagerness and 
what prowess you had when you were a young hunter? 
Illness or fatigue never kept you in the snow-house or 
the tent when the season was ripe for hunting. 

Somehow it seems that to-day our young men (and for 
that matter some of our older hunters too) are less active 
than was customary in the good old days. It seems that 
they are less hardy and less determined than we were. 

It is strange that some of our young hunters cough so 
heavily these days, that the young wives produce fewer 
children than their mothers did, that people complain of 
aches and pains in the chest. 

Then again there was no happiness in the camp after 
last deer hunt. We killed only four deer among forty 
people: the food was very scarce and there were no winter 
clothes for the women to sew, and the children were sad 
eyed for a time. 


These are hard questions to answer. It is as though a 
hunter is making a long journey with his komatik and 
dogs over difficult country to which he isa stranger. The 
blizzard sweeps down on him: he can scarcely see the 
form of his dogs, so thick is the snow: he knows not 
whether to turn to the right or to the left to avoid danger: 
his dogs cannot smell the scent of the encampment. He 

is a wise hunter unwilling to risk his life in the swirl of the 


luarnerminik atataminit—ubvalo piséngolualunginermi- 

Aulajivét nukkigilauxtarnik katsungainerilauxtarniglo 
KaKianainerilauxtarniglo indsuktilutit ? Kanimasermut 
merngortornermullénét kikkartitauxattalaungilatit iglovi- 
garme tupermelénét pinasuarvexatsiartilugo. 

Kanokiax, uvlomele inédsuktovut (ilalo inuxoarnersat 
ilangittaux) 6maringinersauxk6rput ilusiolauxtomit uvlune 
KAngersimajune. Axkinersauxérput katsungainginersau- 
Korlutiglo piusiolauxtomit. 

Malungnarpox pinasuartit indsungnersat ilangit Koer- 
torpadlarmatta uvlune makkonane, arnat aipalit ikiner- 
sanik KitorngisOngomatta andnagilauxtamingnit, inuillo 
sutaijartut sagvilerinermik okauteKaxkattarmatta. 

Amalo xuviasungnekatsialungilax nunalingne tuktu- 
siorviolauxtub kingorngane. Sittamainarnik tuktulaux- 
pogut inuit 40 otilugit; taimaimat tuktuvinexatsialau- 
ngilak arnallo merxsoraksaxalaungilat okioxsiutinik 
tuktujanik; sorutsillo ijingit Kungatsiarungnairput. 


Apertsutit tamakkoa kiolugit oxilungilax. Iingavox 
sorlo kemuksertotut ingergajotut nunakut oxilungitokut 
ilitaringitamigut. AKKunaxsub opalukpa: Kingmit taku- 
ksautsialungilallonét perktok taimak piungitigingmat; 
Kaujimangilax talerpingmullénét saumingmullénét sangu- 
juksaumang4rme nangianartoxk kaluseriaromavlugo; King- 
mingillo naimajungnangilat tupiub tippinganik. Pina- 

suarteogamele silatujok indsine asserKijomangila pijari- 


blizzard. Quickly he finds a place where he can build a 
snow-house, and within its shelter he rests until the storm 
abates and the sun appears, by whose light he continues 
his journey in safety. 

Thus has the proper course of our Innuit * lives been 
obscured by these changes, and by the problems of why 
these things have come to pass and by what means we can 
retain in our camps the former health and happiness of 
our fathers, and fully enjoy the prosperity which comes 
from our trading with the Company. 

Rise up from the sleeping benches women of the camp, 
prepare the clothing for your men folk! Awake good 
hunters! Awake children! The blizzard no longer 
obscures your path. The light of the sun will guide your 

This book—the Book of Knowledge—is the light of 
the sun: it will show you the path through the difficult 
places of life: it will provide you with further knowledge 
of the White Man: it will show you by what means you 
can make yourselves and your children more happy and 

Read then this book—the Book of Knowledge—for 
in it you will find a great store of truth—a cache such 
as you make of your meat when you have it in plenty 
after the walrus hunt. It will fill you with understanding 
which will strengthen you on the journey of life. Let 
those of you who can read, recite the book to those who 
cannot read. In your camps discuss the book; talk of it 
in your igloos at night time when your pipes are lit. Teach 
it to your children; this book will help them. 

You know that when you trade a rifle with the Com- 
pany, that rifle is good; it shoots straight. You know that 

*'The Eskimo of Labrador refer to themselves as “’The Innuit ”— 
literally meaning The People. 



jomik aKKunaksoarme. Kenersarasuarpox aputemik 
iglovigaliorvigijungnartaminik, takamanelo utakivok aK- 
Kunaksub sorairninganik sexinerublo tabligutininganik, 
tapsomalo Kaumaningane ingergalerivox Kanoelugane. 

Taimak inuit indsingita apxutiksangat tachitausimavok 
ilusernut nutanut, apertsutinullo suna pitjutaungmangat 
taimailinganexKalermat, Kanorlo atsuilinex Kuviasungnerlo 
atatapta pigilauxtangak utertitaujungnarmangangnik nu- 
naptingnut, pilorigutexarungnarKovluta piloringnermik 
niuverniarnerub Companine kaitanganik. 

Makilauritse arnaujose iglipsingnit, angutipselo an- 
noraksangit 4Kiksorsigik! ‘Tupalauritse pinasuarteotsiar- 
tose! ‘Tupaleritse sorusiojose! Apxotiksase tachitau- 
jungnairpok akKunaksoarnut. Sexinerub Kaumaningata 
apkotiksase nelonailarpa. 

Aglait ukkua—Aglait Ilisimatiksat—xaumatiksauvut 
seKinertut; unertutjivigijungnarpd4se apKotiksamik indt- 
sib okumainingitigut;  illisimavaliatiniarpase xablunat 
ilusinginik; nelojungnaitiniarpdselo Kanox ilipse Kitorng- 
aselo pilorikpaliajungnarmangapse. 

Taimaimat aglait makkoa—Aglait [Illisimatiksat— 
atuarsigik, tapkonane nagvarniarapse _ ilisimatiksanik 
unuktunik miksexartunik; Kematuliviovut, sorlo aivevi- 
nek Kematuliutigapsiuk sulitsiarsimagupse aivexKsiorving- 
me. Ilumerniarpdse silatunermik pitsartutiginiartapsing- 
nik ingerarnipsingne indtsekut. Ilipse atuarsiséngojose 
aglait ukkua atuarsigik atuarsijungnangitut nalaktilugit. 
Aglait ukkua oxausingit oxautigisigik tupipsingne; oKau- 
tigisigik iglupsingne unnungne suppérusijartiluse. Ajo- 
Kerttitigisigik kitorngapsingnut, aglait tamakkoa taipkoa- 
taux ikajorniarmagit. 

Kaujimavose xukkiutisigupse Companinit, Kukkiut 
tamna piojéngmat; illulingmik tukkimuartitsitsiarmat. 
Kaujimavose mikkigiaksigupse Companinit, mikkigiak 



when you trade a trap with the Company, that trap closes 
_ securely, when the fox places his foot in it. You know 
that the boats which you trade with the Company are good 
boats. ‘They carry you and your family and your dogs in 
safety to your hunting grounds. Know then also that in 
the Book of Knowledge which has been written at the wish 
of the Governor of the Company for you and for your 
children there are good words. The things which are 
revealed are good things, and in the same way that you 
benefit by the proper use of your guns, your traps and 
your boats, so will you also benefit by the proper use of 
the Book of Knowledge. 

That was a poor hunter who possessing a new rifle went 
out on to the ice after a seal lying by the side of its hole. 
Being impatient and unwilling to take much trouble he 
approached the seal without stooping or crawling; and 
the seal perceiving its danger swiftly dived into the water. 
Had the hunter been more careful and had he been 
prepared to undergo some discomfort for the sake of 
obtaining the seal, he would not have gone hungry, 
neither would the other hunters have laughed at him. 
Even so with the Book of Knowledge—it is a very good 
weapon; but of what use is the very best weapon if the 
hunter does not perform his share of the task? 

The Book of Knowledge is a token of friendship provided 
for you and for your family 
by the Governor of the Company. He is a man of great 
understanding and wisdom who decides the difficult 
problems of the Company and directs the traders in their 

Being a good citizen, loyal to the King and to those who 
rule the British Empire for the King, he wishes that you 
and your children, who are also citizens of the British 
Empire, should learn more of this Empire to which you 



tamna xésitsiarmat terrianiab tutitsiarpago. Kaujima- 
vose umiat Companinit pisiarijase umiatsiangongmatta. 
Adjarpase ilaselo kingmiselo pinasuarvipsingnut nang- 
iartuiluse. Taimaimallo Kaujileritse ‘Aglait [lisimatik- 
sat’ ukkua aglaktaumajut Companit angajoxaKsoangata 
perkojanga maliklugo pivluse kitorngaselo pivlugit Oxau- 
siongmatta piojut. Nelonaijartaujut tapkonane piojévut, 
sorlolo idluarkutiksarsigapse Kukkiutise mikkigiaselo 
umiaselo atutsiarupsigik taimaktaux idluarxutiksarsi- 
niarivose ‘Aglait Ilisimatiksat’ atutsiarupsigik. 

Omajoxsiorteotsialaungilak imna nutamik Kukkiusi- 
jarlune Otoxsioriartortox. Kenuesdrnekanginame erKa- 
sunginamelo 6tok Kanilerasuarpa tachilugane aungnialu- 
ganelénét; dtorlo kangésuklune tépsominga axkxarsar- 
pok. Otoxsiortox udjertornersaulaurune kunulaungiku- 
nelo siorniogalaklune 6tok pinasuarlugo, kAgiaKaraja- 
laungilak imaxka, pinasuarkatimelo ijoralautiginajalau- 
ngilat. ‘Aglait Ilisimatiksat’ taimailingaluatsiarivut; 
sakkutsiangovut. Kanorle pinasfitit pionerpaugalloartut 
sulijungnarkat pinasuartib namaktomik piniaraksarijane 
pinialungipagé ? 

‘Aglait Ilisimatiksat’ ilandrnauteovut atuinarutaujut 
ilipsingnut Kitorngapsingnullo Companit angajoxangata 
perkojanga maliklugo. ‘Tamna angutiovox silatunelik 
issumagiktorlo, Companit kajusijutigijaksarixattartangit 
oxilungitut kajusijox, aulatsilunelo niuvertit piniarnin- 
ginik piniaraksanginiglo. 

Atanerijeogame iggisimajox, naleklune atanermik aulat- 
sijuniglo Britishit atanioviksoanganik atanex simerd- 
lugo, tussudlarpox ilipse Kitorngaselo, atanerijexateojose 
atanioviksoarme, iliniarpaliakovluse atanioviksoak atavi- 
gijase pivlugo, ilangiutixovluse piojoriniptingnik atanip- 
tingnik indjomik nuname andnaunerartauvaktome imar- 
biksub akiane; tussuvorlotaux ilangiutixovluse atanipta 



belong, so that you may fully share our pride in the King 
who lives in the Mother Country far beyond the seas, 
and he wishes that you should also share the King’s pride 
and our pride in those parts of the British Empire called 
Canada and Labrador of which you inhabit the northern 
regions. Furthermore he wishes that by your good 
actions and by your mode of life you should add your 
share of honour to the British Empire. 

Being also a happy man rejoicing in his children and in 
the love of his family, he shares with you the cares and the 
joys of your family; and by this Book of Knowledge he will 
surely diminish the cares of your family and add to your 
joys, if you are wise enough to pay heed to his advice. 

In the first part of this book the Company will 
tell you and your children about the British Empire and 
about Canada and Labrador and of how you are entitled 
to the privilege of regarding our King as your King. 

In the second part of the book the Company, which has 
consulted with many T raders and the most learned Doctors 
and the Men of God, will explain to you the change 
which has come to your mode of living and will show you 
by what means you will bring better health and therefore 
greater happiness to your children and to yourselves. 

In the third part of this Book of Knowledge will be shown 
to you the means whereby you may gain greater posses- 
sions in trade for the benefit of your children and your- 

Let those of you who can read, recite the book to those 
who cannot read. In your camps discuss the book; talk 
of it in your igloos at night when your pipes are lit. It 1s 
a good book and a true book—this Book of Knowledge. 


piojorininganik piojoriniptingniglo atanioviksub nuna- 
ngita apsimautijut ilanginik atserartaujunik Canadamik 
Labradoremiglo; tapkoa tachat nunagivase. Tussudlar- 
porlo sulle ilipsetaux ikajoxatauxovluse piniarnipsingnut 
idluartunut indésipselo ilusinginut apornangitunut Bri- 
tishit atanioviksoangata nertortaujutiksanganut. 

Piloriktégamelo kitorngane ilamelo naglingningat Ku- 
viasfitigilugit, ilangiutixatigivase ilapse Kitorngapselo 
Kuviasitigijanginik kiksautigijanginiglo; aglaktigullo 
ukkutigina miklilertitsiniarpok kiksautigixattartapsing- 
nik, Kuviasfitigijaselo angijororlugit, silatuluse kamatsiar- 
upse atanertuininganik. 

Aglait ukkua sivorlingine, Companit unipkautiniarpase 
Kitorngaselo Britishit atanioviksoangat Canadalo Labra- 
dorelo pivlugit, Kanorlo ilipsetaux idluarkutigimangap- 
siuk atanivut atanerilugo. 

Aglait ukkua aipaingine, Companit—niuvertit unuktut 
Aniasiortillo illisimanerpat Gudiblo ajoxertuijoxotingit 
oKakatigisimak4rdlugit—tukkisitinas 1arniarpase indsipse 
ilusingita ablatsangorpalianinginik, unertutjiviginasuar- 
niarpaselo Kanok tigusijungnarmangapse timipse atsuili- 
valianinginik, taimaimallo Kanox tikiutijungnarmangapse 
ilipse Kitorngaselo pilorikpalianermut. 

Aglaillo ukkua pingajuangine oxautijauniarpose Kanok 
niuverniarnekut akluilivaliajungnarmang4pse ilipse xit- 
orngapselo idluarkutiksapsingnut. 

llipse atuarsisOngojose aglait ukkua atuarsigik atuarsi- 
jungnangitut nalaktilugit. Aglait makkoa oxausingit 
oKautigisigik tupipsingne, oxautigisigik iglupsingne un- 
nungne suppérusijartiluse. Aglatsiangovut mikseKartév- 
lutiglo—‘Aglait [lisimatiksat.’ 

PARA 4. 




OU should know that there are many 
different races of people in the world. 
Some are white skinned like the traders, 
others are brown skinned like yourselves 
and others have skin as black as the soot 
which forms on your lamps. 

As sees are many different races, so there are many 
different rulers, but the greatest ruler of all, who governs 
with justice White Men, Brown Men and Black Men in 
very many countries, is Kinc Gzorce the ruler of the 
British Empire. He is your King. 

He lives far away across the seas towards the rising of 
the sun on an island named Great Britain, the northern 
part of which is called Scotland and the southern part 
England. With your komatik and dogs you could 
travel from one end of this island to the other end in 
fourteen sleeps and across the island in five sleeps; but 
albeit it is a small island, yet in one encampment of 
moderate size there live more White Men than are 
numbered among all the Eskimo tribes. 






JJ AUJIJUKSAUVOSE  inéxatigéksoaxar- 
mat unuktunik adsigéngitunik silaxsoar- 
me. Ilangit uvinekarput kaKortamik 
Kablunatitut, assingit uvineKarput ker- 
nangajomikilipsetut, assingillo ama uvine- 

<j} xarputkolliub paungatut kernertigijomik. 
Sorlo inéxatigéksoakarmat unuktunik adsigéngitunik 
taimaktauxk atanekarpoxk unuktunik adsigéngitunik, angi- 
nerpaujorle tamainit, idluartomik ataniortox inungnik 
Kakortanik Kernangajuniglo Kernertaniglo, tagva atanex 
George, ataniojox Britishit atanioviksoanganut. Tamna 

Indvok unane Kaningitome imarbiksub akiane, Kiker- 
tame Great Britainemik—tagva Britainersoarmik—tai- 
jame. Britainersub tacha taijauvox Scotlandemik, sexer- 
ngalo Englandemik taijauvox. Englandiblo kangiane 
nunakarivok Walesemik taijaujomik. Kemuksikut inger- 
arungnarajarpose kiglinganit tachane kiglinganut sexer- 
ngane I4ertorluse siniktarluse, Kikertarlo itibjorajarpase 
kangianit kitanut telimairtorluse siniktarluse. Kikertarle 
mikijégaloartilugo iglugasaksoarne atautsine anginerpau- 
lungimariktunelénét xablunaxarpok ununersaungijaid- 
lartunik inungnit tamaitaksoarnit nanemangatalénét. 


In the largest encampment of all, called London, King 
George lives with Queen Mary his wife in a great house 
built of stone, attended by many officers and servants both 
men and women. 

The King and Queen have four sons and one daughter 
and they also have grandchildren as two of their children 
have married. Indeed that is a fine family—a good 
example to the Innuit. 

King George is a ruler of great wisdom spending 
much time in consultation with the leaders of the people 
and with the ministers whom he appoints to govern the 
people for him. In all his actions and in all his words 
he thinks only of the benefit of the British Empire. He 
rules for the benefit of you and your children and of all 
other members of the Empire. 

One day he will visit the sick and the poor and cheer 
them with kind words and with gifts. The next day he 

will receive the messengers of a foreign Ruler and will 
speak words of welcome to them, and on another day he 
will consult with one of his Governors who rules a part of 
the British Empire for him beyond the seas, or he 
will meet the chief traders and merchants of the 
country to give encouragement to them and to their 

Yes, indeed, he works with greater energy than your 
best hunters, and he thinks not only of things of to-day 
but also of the things which will result in the future from 
the actions of to-day. 

It is a good thing that a Ruler should excel in many 
things. Not only is King George a man of great prudence 
and a hard worker; he is also a great hunter. Whether 
it be in the hunting of fierce animals like the bear, or in 

the crafty stalking of the deer or in the shooting of 


Atanex George aipane Mary ilagilugo inévox iglox- 
soarme, ujarkanut senamajome, iglugasaksuit anginerpa- 
ngane, Londonemik taijane, ilumajauvlune kivgartortauy- 
luneloikajortenut pijenullounuktunut,angutinutarnanullo. 

Atanikput ernekarpuk sittamanik panixarlutiglo ataut- 
semik, erngutakarpuglotauk, Kitorngaktik magguk aipa- 
tarsimangmanik. ‘Tapkoa xitorngaréngovut piojut, ig- 
jaraksaujut inungnut. 

Atanex George ataniovox silatujox, ilanganelo inéxa- 
tigéxsuit aulatsijingit atanerusillo simertigijane aulatsi- 
juksangortitane atanerijiminik, akunit Kaggimioxatigi- 
vait. Piniarnermine tamaine oxKauserminelo tamaine 
Britishit atanioviksoangata idluarkutiksangit issumagija- 
tuarivait. Atanionerminut ilipse Kitorngapselo ataniovik- 
sublo inungita ilinamaritik idluarkutiksanginik pinasuad- 

Uvlut ilangane takojartorpok kanimajunik aklujuniglo, 
okautsinullo pitsiarnartunut piliutinullo Kuviasuktinasu- 
arpait. Uvlub aipangane ilaliorpox ataniub ungasik- 
tométub tilijanginik oxausexarvigilugillo ilanarnartomik, 
ama uvliik tapkoa assiane atanerusime ilangat aulatsixo- 
jaujox Britishit atanioviksoangata nunakutingita ilanganik 
imarbiksub akiane oxkakatigiva, ubvalo nelipsartauvox 
niuvertit pisiniartillo anginerpat ilanginut, tapkoalo ika- 
jortingillo maksuatinasuarpait. 

Ahaila, émaridlarlune suliakarnersauvox pinasuartip- 
singnit 6maridlarnerp4nit, uvloménitallo issumagijatuari- 
lungilait, uvlomele piniarniojut Kanox maliktoxalarma- 
ngata Kaijomartome issumagikasiutijaksarigivait. 

Sunatuinarne atanex piluangojuksauvox. Atanexk 
George silatudlartuinalungilax angijomiglo suliaxarpak- 
lune, 6majoxsiorteogivorletauk Kakiarnaitok. Omajox- 
sioraloarune nujoartunik erxsinartunik aklaktut nanox- 

tullo, itaktorlunel6nét tuktuniarasuaraloarune, tingijunig- 


partridges while they fly, no man in the British Empire 
takes surer aim than our King. 

He is likewise a great sailor, which is a fitting thing for 
a man who lives on an island. He sails his boat faster than 

all other boats of the same size. 

You know how exciting it is to match the swiftness of 
your dog team against the dogs of another hunter, This 
sport also King George shares with you; for it is a game 
in many parts of the British Empire to race with big four 
legged animals driven by men riding on their backs. 

Queen Mary, the wife of King George, is the chief 
woman of the British Empire, and while the King spends 
much time discussing with his ministers the grave matters 
which concern the Empire, the Queen is equally busy 
among the women of the Empire, encouraging them to be 
good mothers to their children, to be patient nurses of 
their children, and to sew warm clothes for them, even as 

your wives sew warm clothes for your children. 

Queen Mary also visits the poor and the sick with the 
King and cheers them with her smile and with kindness. 
She remembers too the old widows and the orphans at 
feast times and brings them happiness, when they least 
expect it. 

Of all good works with which the Queen is busy, the 
greatest is the care of the children of the Empire; for the 
time will come when we grow old and when our children 
must take our places and carry out our duties towards the 
Empire. It is therefore a good thing for the Empire that 
your children and our children should be strong, healthy 
and well taught; and these things Queen Mary teaches 
to all mothers by her example. 



lénét axiginiarasuarune, atanivut orlertornerme pitikitau- 
lungilax kimullénét Britishit atanioviksoangane. 

Umiaxtorteodlarpoxtaux, tamannalo namatuinarpokK 
kikertamiongogame. |Umiaktorkatautinermelo sukali- 
nersaujomautitilutik tapsoma umianga tingergausijartokK 
sukalinerpauvoxk angikatigijanginit tamainit. 

Kaujimavose uimamas6ngonipsingnik Kingmise assip- 
selo Kingmingit kemukserluse sukalinersaujomautitilugit. 
Kuvianartox tamanna ataniub Georgib kuviagigiva ilipse- 
tulluatsiak sukalinersaujomautinex horselijartoxartilugo 
atudlarmat atanioviksub nunangita ilGnainekasak. 

Ataniub Georgib aipanga, Mary, pijariaxortonerpau- 
voK arnanit tamainit atanioviksoarme, atanerlo sunatuinar- 
nik kamagijaksaxartilugo ikajortine aulatsijoxotinelo oKa- 
Katigixattarlugit pijarialit sunatuinait atanioviksoarmut 
ilingajut pivlugit, aipanga Mary suliakakattarpok atanio- 
viksub arnangit akorngane, maksuatilugit andnautsiarKov- 
lugit Kitorngamingnut, Kenuesarlutik pairksixovlugit Ki- 
torngamingnik, annordliutsiarkovlugit oxortunik, sorlo 
arnapse Kitorngase annordliormagit oxortunik. 

Ataniub aipangata Marib kanimajut aklujullo takojar- 
torivait atanexk ilagellugo, Kkuviasuktitsomavlugit Kunga- 
nerminut pitsiarnerminullo. Erkaumavaittaux uigar- 
nerit iliarsuillo neliutune uvloxsiorviojune, Kuviasukti- 
Kattarlugit nerriuktinagit. 

Suliaminille tamainit ataniub aipangata sorutsit atanio- 
viksoarme pairijaugiangat anginerpariva, uvlut neliutilar- 
matta uvagut inuxoarsinnalarapta, sorusiptalo inigijavut 
inigijaksarilarpait piniartavullo atanioviksoax pivlugo 
piniariakalarivait. ‘Taimaimat atanioviksub idluarkutik- 
sanganut ilingamarikpox sorusivut sorusiselo sangijét- 
siarpatta, atsuililutiglo, ajoxertortautsiarlutiglo; ataniub 
aipangata Marib ananaujut ildnatik taimak ajoxertorpait 
oKauserminut piniarnerminullo. 



On certain occasions of great feasting King George and 
Queen Mary ride through the paths of London with their 
children and with the chief ministers of the land, accom- 
panied by a great band of servants. Then both the King 
and the Queen wear robes of surpassing richness, such as 
were worn in the days of old by the Kings and Queens of 
England. Part of their dress is made from the skins of 
ermine trapped by the Innuit. Likewise the great 
women of the country, who attend the ceremonies, 
cover themselves with the skins of ermine as white 
as snow and very clean; and some wear round their necks 
the skins of foxes which have been caught in your traps 
—the whitest and cleanest skins, caught by the most 
careful hunters. 

At such times the people from many encampments 
gather together in London to do honour to their beloved 
King and Queen. They bring their children with them, 
so that they too may cast their eyes upon the ruler of the 
British Empire. The people throng the paths along 
which the King drives with his wife; and as they approach, 
the men lift up the children on their shoulders so that they 
may see above the heads of the crowd. O, there is such 
joy and shouting as the King and Queen drive by! The 
men wave their hats in the air (for it is a sign of disrespect 
for a man to keep his head covered in the presence of the 
King and Queen), the women wave their shawls, and the 
children are so excited as almost to be speechless. As 
they pass by, the King and Queen smile and bow to their 
loyal subjects, who redouble their cheering, until their 
voices are hoarse with shouting. Yes—that is a great 
excitement among the people—more thrilling even than 
the arrival of the Company’s ship at your post in the 
summer time. 


Queen Mary (with a blue fox skin round her shoulders) visiting a child in a 
Home for the sick. 

Atanerub aipanga Mary, terrianiab aminganik ananauluartomik attilune, 
sorrusermut kannimajomut pullarpok. (p. 23) 

King George steering his sailing boat in a race. 

Atanek George umiaminik sukalijomik akképok, (p. 23) 

Edward, the eldest son of King George, racing across country on a large four- 
legged animal called * horse’ which eats grass like a deer. 

Edward, Atanerub Georgib erninga, omajoarmik horsemik attelingmik attorlune, 

natername ingeravok sukalivlune. Horsit ukkoa ivitorsuarput, tuktutut sorlo. 

(p- 23) 

Bing George and Queen Mary riding in their great komatik through the paths 
of the encampment of London. 

Atanek George aipangalo Mary iglugasaksoab Londonib apkutingitigut 
ingerarput, kammutemik aksalloalingmik atorlutik. (p. 25) 


Uvloxsiorviksoarne pijariaxortoluartune atanex George 
aipangalo Mary aksaloalingmut ikimavlutik xemuk- 
sersOngovuk iglugasaksuit Londonib apxosinidlungita 
ilangitigut, ilagijauvlutik xitorngamingnut ikajortigi- 
luartamingnullo, ilumajauvlutiglo kivganut unuktunut. 
Neliutunelo taimaitune atanek aipangalo annordlijarsé- 
ngovuk ananaudlartunik takoranidlartuniglo, sorlo Eng- 
landib ataningit nuliarilauxtangillo atorpalaungmatta 
neliutune KangerKamerungnaitune. AnnorAngita ilangit 
senamavut terriat aminginit inuit mikkigiaxktitavininginit. 
Nunablo tapsoma arnarsoangita ilangit ilaujut pinnarnar- 
sitiput nangminermingnik terriat aminginut aputitut 
Kakortigijunut salumarsartautsiartunullo; ilangillo kong- 
esélitalijarput terrianiat aminginik mikkigiapsingnut 
pijaumajunik—amingnik pionerpanik salumanerpaniglo, 
terrianianiartit kamatsiarnerpat pijavininginik. 

Neliutune taimaitune inuit iglugasaksoarnit unuktunit 
katimaséngovut Londoneme atanitik aipangalo nagligi- 
jaktik opgijomavlugik. Neksaxattarput Kitorngamingnik 
tapkoataux takojungnarkovlugit Britishit atanioviksoa- 
ngata ataninganik. Inuit nimniorput apKosinerne atane- 
kuk aiparék apxotiginiartangangne; atanekuglo allakar- 
manik angutit Kitorngatik tuimikpait takonatsiarKovlugit 
inugiartoksuit Kolatigut. Atanekuk aiparék Kangertilu- 
gik kuviasuktokadlarpoxk kaggudlartoxadlarlunelo, Ang- 
utit nullorarput nessangmingnut (angutit nessalijarunik 
ataniub sangane nelonaijaituinarmatta opiguktailinermik) 
arnallo nullorarput Kongesélitamingnut, sorutsillo uima- 
mamut nipliajungnangikasakput. Kdangertilugik atane- 
kuk aiparék atanerijitik opiguktut okkualavigixattarpait 
Kungalugillo, taimailitilugiglo inuit nipliavaliatuinarput 
katjaréksimaxartinagit. Ila, inuit uimamadlarput neliu- 
tune taimaitune, uimamaluarput aglat ilipsingnit Com- 
panit umiaxsoangat tikitilugo nunapsingnut aujarme. 



You should know that when the King dies, his eldest 
son becomes King; if it happens that the King has no 
children, then the King’s brother or some other relation 
becomes King. It has always been thus in Britain. 

With such respect do the people treat the King that 
after they have spoken to him, they walk backwards 
out of his sight rather than turn their backs towards 

This is the hymn all men, women and children of the 
British Empire sing in his honour. When they sing it, 
they stand up straight, and the men keep their heads 

God Save our Gracious King, 

Long Live our Noble King, 
God Save the King. 

Send him victorious, 

Happy and glorious, 

Long to reign over us, 

God Save the King. 
O Lord our God arise, 

Scatter his enemies, 

And make them fall. 
Confound their politics, 
Frustrate their knavish tricks, 
On Thee our hopes we fix, 

God save us all. 

Thy choicest gifts in store, 

On him be pleased to pour, 
Long may he reign, 

May he defend our laws, 

And ever give us cause 

To sing with heart and voice, 
God Save the King. 


Kaujijuksauvose ama atanek indjungnaipat erninga 
angajuklek ingergat ataningormat; atanerle KitorngaKa- 
ngipat tagva nukanga ilangalénét kaninerpak (angullénét 
arnarlénét) ataningorpok. 

Taimak angitigijomik inuit taunanémiut atanex opigi- 
vat inuk oxakatekarsimaxa4rtilugo tapsominga kingupiar- 
torlune anisOngovox tapsoma najug4nit, atanex tunuklugo 

Tamadja tuksiarutsit angutit arnallo sorutsillo Britishit 
atanioviksoarmiut tuksiaruserivaktangat atanek opigijo- 
mavlugo. Tuksiartilugillo tapkoninga nikovitsiarsOng- 
ovut angutillo nessairséngovut. 

1. Gddib saimarliuk 

2. Pinnarnadlartunut 
Uvlut tamat. 

3. Akunidlartomik 




ERY many years ago the merchants and 
j ) traders of the island of Britain sent out 
YIN j : 
an their ships across the unknown seas to 
find new lands and new people with whom 
@)| to trade, in the same way that your 
hunters, when they find a scarcity of deer 
or foxes in one region, look for fresh hunting grounds 
where the deer and the foxes are more plentiful. 

These were wise merchants; for they commanded the 
captains of their ships and their traders to deal civilly and 
fairly with the new people whom they might find and to 
trade justly with them. For thus the people of the un- 
known countries would think well of the men of England 
and trade with their merchants in preference to the 
merchants of other countries. 

And so the ships of the English merchants sailed to the 
North and to the South and to the East and to the West to 
the uttermost corners of the earth—to regions where it 
is very hot and to the cold places where the ice never 

melts. Some of these ships were overwhelmed in great 

storms, other ships struck unknown rocks and sank, 

other ships were plundered by robbers of the sea and 



ARIT unuktut mattoma sivorngane niuver- 
niartit pisiniartillo kikertamétut Britaine- 
mik taijame umiaxksoatik aulartilauxpait 
ikarkovlugit imarbingnik ilitarijaulungi- 
tunik, angajokangit Kenerkovlugit nuna- 

= nik nuténik inungniglo nutanik niuver- 
viojungnartunik pisiniarviojungnartuniglo, sorlo pinasu- 
artise naipitsijungnaipatta tuktunik terrianianiglo nunane 
piviovaktune Kenermatta nunanik nutanik pinasuarvio- 
jungnartunik tuktutaxarnersaujunik terrianiaktaKarner- 

Tapkoa aulartitsijovinit pisiniarteolauxput silatujut; 
umiaksoarmik angajoxangit niuvertillo ilaujut perKo- 
laungmagit pitsiarnartomik idluartomiglo piniarvexar- 
Kovlugit inungnik naipiniartanginik, idluartomiglo niu- 
verniakatigilugit. Taimak kissiane nunab nagvartau- 
tainartub inungita Englishit Kuviaginajarmagit pisiniar- 
tingillo pisiniarvigivlugit, Englishillo assingita pisiniar- 
tingit ndmaginersarinagit. 

Taimaglo Englandib niuverniartingita umiaxKsoangit 
aularput avunga aungalo ununga paungalo silaxsub kig- 
linginut, nunanut kiakadlartunut nunanullo itjelidlartunut 
sikkoxainartunullo. Umiaxsuit makkoa ilangit asseror- 
taudlalaukput akkunaksoarnut, assingit ikkarilauxput 
ikkaronut kaujijaungitunut kivilutiglo, ilangit ama salau- 
laukput arxtaijunut imarbiksiortunut, amalo assingita 


on other ships the sailors died from disease. Yet the 
merchants remained fearless of their losses and the sailors 
remained fearless of their lives, and so long as the sails 
remained intact on the masts, the captains drove their 
ships onwards to unknown lands. And when they had 
found one new land and traded there with the people, they 
were still not content: they looked for other lands and 
more trade, being anxious to discover new places for the 
glory and prosperity of Britain. 

In the same way your best huntersare not content to go 
a small journey to hunt for deer, and to return empty 
handed to the camp. It is always better to go on to the 
next valley: for who knows that the herd is not grazing 
there. If the deer are not in that valley, who knows that 
they are not in the valley beyond? Poor hunters have no 
courage; they turn back discouraged. Good hunters go 
onwards and they laugh when they find the deer only two 

sleeps after the poor hunters have returned. They rejoice 
not only at the taste of the good meat but because they 
have prospered through their courage and perseverance 
where others failed. 

Yes, those old sailors and traders of Britain were men 
after the heart of your best hunters. Your best hunters 
are always looking for better trapping grounds and for 
better hunting. How fine it is to have reached the summit 
of a great range of mountains, and on the far side to spy 
herds of deer and the track of many foxes and, on the ice 
of the sea beyond, to see those tell-tale black marks dotted 
on the ice. They are either seals or walrus—but who can 
tell from so great a distance ? 

Sometimes our old sailors and traders were thus 


kipalungit toxolauxput Kanimasedlungnut. Niuverniar- 
tille kapiasuktitaulaungilat assiojijamingnut, umiaxtor- 
tullo ivlersilaungilat indsermingnik, umiaxsuillo tinger- 
gautaijartaungituarpatta angajokangita umiaksoatik sivu- 
muartituinarpait nunaaut ilitarnangitunut. Nagvarsima- 
gamiglo nunamik nutamik nunablo tapsoma inungit 
niuverniarvigivlugit, ndmaksilaungilat sulle, Kkenerpulle 
nunat assinginik niuverviojungnartunik, naipitsijomav- 
lutik nunanik ilangiutititaujungnartunik Englandib ner- 
tornarninganik piloringninganiglo. 

Taimaluatsiak tuktusiortise nimaksilungilat kanitomu- 
tuinak tuktusioromaviutik susimanatiglo angeraromang- 
mivlutik. Naxsamut ungardlermut takojartungaromavut, 
Kaujimajokangimat tuktut nerrinasugviksarsisimangi- 
mangata tagvane. Tagvanéngipattalo kina Kaujijung- 
narka ungardlianéngimangata. — Pinasuartitsiangolu- 
ngitut maksuanekangilat; mungungavlutik angerartuinar- 
put. Pinasuartitsiangojulle sivumuarput, kKuviasudlar- 
pullo tuktuligunik maggoertortuinarlutik siniktarlutik 
pinasuartitsiangolungitut uteriartorvinganit. Kuviasud- 
larput tuktuviniub mamadlarninga pivlugo kissiane- 
ungitok, maksuanermikkulle inneroinermikkullo sulisi- 
magamik assitik sulisimangitilugit. 

Ila, ipkoa Englishit umiaxktortovinit niuvertovinillo 
inutsiangolaukput pinasuartipse piloringnerpat omating- 
ita Kuviagijangit. Pinasuartise piloringnerpat kenitsai- 
narput pinasuarviksanik pitakarnersanik, sulinersaujoma- 
gamik pinasuarnerme, Kuvianadlarpoxk tikiutilune KaK- 
Kalub Kanganut tuktusilunelo unuktunik KakKab unga- 
tane, tumesilunelo terrianianik unuktunik, taganelénét 
takoniarlune millaujartunik siamangajunik imarbiub sik- 
kungane. Puijeongmangata aiveongmangatalénét oxar- 
tokarungnangilaxk taimak Kaningitigijomit. 

Ilangane umiaktoriovinivut niuvertovinivullo taimak 



rewarded after many months of danger and difficulty. 
They found the things for which they sought. 

And so it happened that in many parts of the world our 
English merchants built their trading posts; and the 
traders exchanged with the natives of those countries the 
things which were made in Britain for the things which 
were made in those countries, even as to-day the Company 
exchanges with you the things which are made in the 
encampments of Canada and Britain for the produce of 
your land and your seas. It is a good thing for you to 
obtain from us rifles and ammunition which are of little 
account in our land; it is equally a good thing for us 
to obtain fox-skins and other pelts which are of little 
value in your land, after you have used such of them 
as you require for your clothes. 

So it happened that the English merchants traded with 
the people of distant lands; and they said to the people 
in Britain, ‘ Work for us well and supply us with many 
goods, for we can trade these supplies to the people 
beyond the seas.’ Thus there was much work for the 
people, and whereas there were many starving before, 
the merchants gave work to all, so that all workers 
could provide themselves with food and clothing in 


Now the merchants of other countries likewise sent their 
ships and traders across the unknown seas north, south, 
east and west to the most distant parts of the world. But 
many of these merchants neglected to command their 
captains and their traders to deal civilly and fairly with 
the new people whom they might find and to trade justly 
with them. For a short time the merchants of other 
countries received great gain from the dealings of 



akkiniartaulaurivut taxKit unuktut nasimatilugit umiax- 
torkarsimatilugit nangianartutigut siorniornartutigullo. 
Naipitsilaukput Kenertamingnik. 

Taimaglo pijokarpok niuvertit pisiniartillo Englishit 
niuverviliormatta silaxsub nunangita ilangine sunatui- 
narne, niuvertillo tauxsiutjikattalauxput perkutinik Eng- 
landeme senamajunik perkutinut nunab aiviotainartub 
pitanginut, sorlo uvlome Companit aulaingmatta ilipsing- 
nut perkutinik Englandeme Canadamelo senamajunik 
pisiniarlutiglo nunapse imarbiksoapselo saxxertanginik. 
Ilipsingnut idluadlarpox pisijungnarapse Kukkiutinik 
sakkoniglo nunaptingne erkagijaulualungitunik; uvap- 
tingnullo namadlarivoxk pisijungnarapta terrianiat assing- 
italo aminginik nunapsingne atulualungitunik, tigusisi- 
maka4rtiluse atoromajapsingnik tapkonangat annoraksap- 

Taimak niuvertit Englandemit pijut inuit nunanétut 
sunatuinarne niuverkatigingmagit angerarlutik senajit 
sunatuinarnik Englandemétut oxautitsungnarpait: ‘ Pik- 
saptingnik unuktunik niorvgutiksalioritse piojunik, sena- 
jase aulaijungnaraptigik inungnut imarbiksub akiané- 
tunut.’ Taimaimallo senajit Englandeme suliaksaxat- 
sialerput. Sivorngane ajoxsartoKakattalaukpox Englan- 
deme, niuvertille suliaxartitsingmatta amigangitunik suli- 
jut indgutiksarsijungnarput annoraksarsijungnarlutiglo 

Niuvertille nunanétut Englandib assingine umiaksoatik 
pisiniartitiglo aulartixattalerivait imarbiktigut Kaujijau- 
ngitutigut avunga aungalo, taununga paungalo silaxsub 
kiglinginut. Unuktulle perxojitailiklilauxput umiak- 
soarmik angajokanginik pisiniartingmingniglo idluarto- 
mik ilanarnartomiglo niuverniarkovlugit inungnut nuta- 
nut naipilartanginut. Anikitomik niuvertit tapkoa nuna- 
nit Englandib assinginit pijut akluililauxput angijomik 

c 33 


some of their traders. But the people of the new lands 
soon learned wisdom; and they found that they could 
depend upon the fair dealing and the justice at the 
English posts and upon the goodness of their merchan- 
dise. So they traded with the English merchants, which 
placed evil thoughts into the minds of the merchants and 
the rulers of other countries. Often were the posts of the 
English merchants attacked by the men of other countries, 
and sometimes the English posts were burned and the 
traders were killed; but more often were the posts kept 
safe by the brave men who defended them with the help 
of the people of the new countries: they respected the 
English traders, because they had traded with them not 
only in times of plenty like the merchants of other 
countries, but helped them in times of famine in the 
lean years. 

It seemed good to the Kings of Britain and to their 
ministers to protect the trading posts of their merchants; 
for if the merchants could not trade their goods to the new 
countries beyond the seas, then it was useless for the 
workers in Britain to make their goods for trade. The 
workers being thus deprived of their work and wages 
would be unable to buy food. And seeing that in 
England there are no walrus and very few seals on the 
coast and very few deer or other wild animals, the 
workers would have starved. 

So the King and his counsellors decided to protect 
the English traders in the new countries beyond the sea; 
and for many years big ships and sailors armed with guns 
were sent out to protect the trading posts. It seemed 
proper to all men in Britain to protect the fair trading 
of the merchants. Had it been otherwise the honour of 
Britain would have been greatly despised in the eyes of 
the world. 



niuverniarnermit nelagéngitomit. Inuille nunanétut nag- 
vartautainartune silatusisarailerput; missigilerpullo sung- 
ertuteKarungnaramik Englishit nelagérninginik tunga- 
narninginiglo niuverniarnerme, pisiaksallo Englishene 
ananaunersaungmatta assinginétunit. ‘Taimaimat Eng- 
lishenut niuverniariartorput, tamattomungalo Englishit 
assingita niuvertingita aulatsijingitalo Englishit issuma* 
lugvigivait. Englishit nunagijangit nunane nutane opa- 
luktortauxattalauxput akkeranginut, ilanganelo niuver- 
vingit iglungillo ikkitauvut niuverniartingillo toxotauy- 
lutik. Akulaitomigle Englishit nunagijangit iglungillo 
saputijauvut niuverniartingillo ikajortauvut nunab aivio- 
majub inunginut, inuit tapkoa opigosungmatta English- 
enik, Englishit niuverKatigingmagit aulaijaksaxatsiarti- 
lugit kissiane-ungitox, ikajormagilletaux neliutune ajox- 

Englandib ataningita tapkoalo ikajortingita idluarixat- 
tarpat niuvertit taipkoalo nunangit niuvervilit saputilugit 
serngnigilugillo; niuvertit aulaijungnangipatta niuviaksa- 
mingnik nunat nutat imarbiub akkianétut inunginut, 
niuviaksaliornek Englandeme tukkexarajangimat. ‘Tai- 
mailingatilugolo senajit Englandeme suliaksaxarajangilat, 
suliaksakaratiglo indégutiksarsiniutiksaxarajangilat. ‘Tai- 
maimallo aivekangimaringmat Englandib imangine, pui- 
jillo  ikkitétuinaungmatta, tuktuxatsiangimaringmallo, 
senajuksat ajoxsarajarput perlerlutiglo. 

Tamanna pivlugo atanex ikajortingillo kajusivut niu- 
veriartortut nunanut nutanut imarbiub akianetunut serng- 
nigijomavlugit; jarillo unuktut navlugit umiaxsuit kipa- 
lungillo xKukiutsoalijartut tilijauvut nunat niuvervilit 
serngnigivlugit. Idluarijaumarikpox Englandemiunut 
tamainut niuveriartortut niuverningit idluartut serngni- 
givlugit. Taimak serngnigijaungipatta Englande nacho- 
narajarpoK nertornautiksaxaranelo indxatnatiggéksuit 
akorngane. 35 


Little by little the trading posts became safe from the 
attack of the men of other countries. It then happened 
that the traders were glad to bring their wives to the new 
countries; and other traders who were not married 
invited the women of their heart to come out to the new 
countries to become their wives. And they had big 
families, and in their time their children had big families 
and likewise their children’s children, so that there were 
many people speaking the English tongue and using the 
English customs in these new countries. 

And the native people finding the people of Britain 
to be just and fair in their dealings invited them to settle 
their disputes and to make new laws for them. These 
things were gravely done by the traders and the settlers 
in the name of their King. ‘Thus many races both 
white skinned and brown skinned such as yourselves and 
black skinned learned to respect the King of Britain, to 
use him as their King, and to enjoy the protection and the 
freedom of his rule. It became known that wherever he 
ruled, there would be justice and safety for the honest 
workers, and that for the idle wrongdoers there would 
be punishment. 

As time went by and as the English speaking people 
increased in these new lands, the King of Britain in his 
wisdom sent out to these new lands men after his own 
heart, wise, strong and just, to act as the Governors of 
these new lands. To these Governors the King gave his 
commands; and these commands were handed to the 
people by the Governors who were treated with the respect 
which is due to the officers who act for the King. 



Niuvertit tapkoa ilimasugungnaipaliavut opaktortau- 
nermik nunagilungitamik inunginut. Niuvertillo Kuvia- 
suteKalersinnarput aipatik neksarlugit nunanut nutanut; 
niuvertillo nullétut aglaktigut inatsivut uigasungnik pijo- 
majamingnik tapkoa ikarkovlugit nunanut tapkonunga 
nutanut aiparijaukovlugit nuliaréngnerme. Kitorngata- 
lerpullo unuktunik, Kitorngangillo Kitorngatarivut unuk- 
tunik, erngutangillo taimailerivut jarit anigormatta, tai- 
maimallo inukarsinnarpok unuktunik Englishetut oxa- 
stinik Englishillo ilusinginik ilusexartunik nunane tap- 
konane nutane. 

Nunallo nutat inungita, malugosugamik Englishit 
idluartomik namaktomiglo iliormatta niuverniarnerme, 
innapait Englishit ulapirksaixovlugit tapkoa Kuvianailio- 
rutigikattartanginik issumakakatigégutigingitanginiglo, 
Axiksoixovlugillo maligaksariniartanginik. ‘Tamakkoalo 
piniarutauvut Kuksasungnerme niuvertinut nunalitartu- 
nullo Englandib ataningata attingane. ‘Taimaimallo ind- 
Katigéksuit unuktut, Kakortat, Kernangajullo ilipsetut, 
Kernertallo, iliniarput Englandib ataninga opigilugo 
atanerilugolo, tépsomalo saputsininga aulatsiningatalo 
kipalotitautailititsininga kuviagilugik idluarxutigilugiglo. 
Kaujijaulerporlo nunane tamaine, atanioviojune England- 
ib ataninganut, tagvane idluarnex aulatsingmat, sulijut 
nelagértut serngnigijaungmatta, idluitulijulle erkeasuktut 
erKasungitullo pidlartaungmatta. 

Jarit anigormatta Englishetullo oxarpaktut unuksing- 
matta nunane tépkonane nutaéne, Englandib ataninga 
silatunermine tiliklilerpox angutinik omatimitut omati- 
lingnik, angutinik silatujunik, atangusertuniglo, idluar- 
tuniglo, atanerusingorKovlugit nunane tapkonane nutane. 
Ataniub atanerutsit perkojakartipait; atanerutsillo perKo- 
jat tapkoa tunivait nunat inunginut; atanerusillo opigi- 
jauvut sorlo ataniub simertingit pijuksaungmatta. 



You know how it is with your children. When they 
are young, you teach them the things which you know. 
It is well that they should learn to drive dogs and to build 
a snow-house and to glaze the runners of a komatik, and 
to be skilful hunters. But when they have grown to 
manhood and have their own family, then they have 
learned the things which you can teach them. You are 
old, greyheaded and experienced; your son is strong, 
courageous and a good hunter. If he has more to 
learn in life, it can only be taught to him by his own 

So it is between Britain and the great countries which 
are her sons. In the past these sons were children. 
Then they were taught the wisdom which the King of 
Britain knew. They learned that a country can only be 
ruled with justice to all men and women and that pros- 
perity only results from fair traders and from hard 

One other great truth they learned which is common to 
the sons and daughters of all men. It is the kindred 
spirit between the members of a family. The people of 
these new countries knew that they were greatly loved by 
their father, the King of Britain. And in their turn they 
have learned to love and to honour both their father and 
one another. 

The time has now come that these sons, who were once 
small children, have grown to full manhood. Strong sons 
they are, full of courage, hard working and prosperous. 
And so in his wisdom the King of Britain said to the 
people of these new countries beyond the seas—his sons : 
‘ You have always loved me and the things which I love. 
You are now grown to full manhood, you have learned the 
things which I can teach you, you have your families and 
your children. It is right that you should direct your ways 



Kaujimavose Kanok ilingaséngomangat xitorngap- 
singne. Mikijdtilugit ajoxertorséngovase Kaujimajap- 
singnik. Idluartuinarpox iliniarkovlugit kemukseriamik 
iglovigaliornermiglo nennuérnermiglo, omajoxsiorteo- 
kovlugillo pikariktut. Tikiutigunigle inumarionermut 
nangminerlo xitorngakarlutik ililerérput ajoxertttigi- 
jungnartapsingnik tapkoninga. Inuxoarpotit Kértojév- 
lutillo sunatuinarniglo oksisimavlutit; ernit sangij6vox 
émaridlarlunelo omajoxsiorteovlunelo pikariktox. Tamna 
iliniaraksaxarpat sulle indtseme, iliniarungnarpa kissiane 

Taimailingagivut uvlome Englandelo nunaxsuillo tap- 
soma erneringoartangit. Ipsomane erningoat tapkoa 
sorusiolauxput sorlo. Ajoxertortauvulle ilisimanermik 
Englandib ataningata Kaujimajanganik. Iliput nunak- 
soak aulataujungnarmat idluartomik kissiane inuit ta- 
maita idluartulivigivlugit, indtsiarnerlo pitakaloringnerlo 
perormanik kissiane niuverniarnermit suliakarnermillo 

Ililauxpullo miksexarnersoarmik assianik inungnut 
tamainut ilingajomik, imaitomik: Katangutigét anerne- 
Kakatigéngninginik. Nunat tapkoa inungit Kaujilerput 
nagligijaugamik atatangoamingnut, tagva Englandib ata- 
ninganut. Akkiniklutiglo iliput atatangoatik ungagilugo 

Mana neliutisimavok ernit tapkoa, sorusiolauxtut, 
tikiutisimangmatta inumarionermut. Erniovut séngojut, 
maksuatsiartut, katsungaitut suliaxarnerme, pitaxalorik- 
lutiglo. Taimaimallo silatunermine, Englandib atanin- 
gata nunat taipkoa nutat imarbiub akianétut inungit— 
tagva erningoane oxautivait: ‘ Ungagitsainarpaptigut 
uvangalo ungagijakkalo. Angumarionermut tikiutisima- 
vose, ilikauvose ajoxertitigijungnartamnik ilipsingnik, 
Kitorngaréksoangovoselo. Idluartuinarporlo aulatsigupse 



for the benefit of your children. I will appoint a Governor 
for your lands, but he shall be guided by your wishes, 
For are not your wishes my wishes?’ 

Thus in every country where the King of Britain 
rules there is happiness and justice, and the people love 
and honour the King and are willing to lay down their 
lives to protect him against danger. 

Of all the countries which thus love and honour the 
King of Britain, none is greater or richer than Canada, 
in the northern parts of which most of you dwell. 

Those of you who live on the coast of Labrador come 
under the rule of Newfoundland which is the oldest of 
all the many sons of Britain. 


apKotigijomajapsingnik Kitorngapse idluarkutiksanginut. 
Taimaimat atanerusekartitsomavapse nunapsingnut, tam- 
nalo aulatauniarpox tussugijapsingnut. Tussugijase tus- 
sugilunginaptigik ? ’ 

Tamanna pivlugo nunane tamaine, Englandib atani- 
ngata ataniotivigijangine, piloringnexarpox idluarnexar- 
lunelo, inuillo atanitik ungagivat opigilugolo, atuinauvullo 
indsitik tunijomavlugit atanex saputijomavlugo nangia- 

Nunanit tamainit taimak ungajunit opiguktunillo Eng- 
landib ataninganik, anginersaxangilax akluinersaxaranelo 
Canadamit nunapse kangianétomit. 

Ilipse nunaxartose Labradoreme Newfoundlandib ta- 
Kanepose, Newfoundlandelo angajuklerpauvox Englandib 
erningoanginit unuktdjunit. 



OU should know that very many years ago 

in the days before there was a British 

Empire, certain merchants of England 

sent out their ships northwards across the 

ocean in order to discover a shorter path 

: for their trading ships to the far side 

of fhe world. When these ships came to the regions in 

which you live, the ice-floes, the fogs, the rocks and the 

storms made their voyage difficult, even as to-day the 

path of the Company’s great vessels is made difficult 

by the same causes. The ships were unable to find the 

sea passage to the far side of the world, and it was not 

until recently that a ship after many delays and dangers 

was steered through the northern sea passage which 
leads to the other side of the world. 

But the captains of the old ships, who first came to your 
shores long ago, brought back accounts of many great 
whales, walrus, seals and bears, and they likewise brought 
back to the merchants pieces of rock taken from your 
shores which contained precious metal. And they told 
the merchants about the passage of water which divides 
Baffin Island from Canada, which we call Hudson Strait 
after the name of the brave captain who first sailed through 
it, and of the big sea which lies beyond Hudson Strait and 
stretches far to the south. This sea is called Hudson Bay 




toma sivorngane Britishit atanioveKarKar- 
tinagit Englandib niuvertingita ilangit 
aulartitsilaukput umiaKsoamingnik taka- 
mut imarbikkut nautsertorKoylugit umi- 
aksuit sivikinersamik apKutiksarsinajar- 
manganik nunanut silaxsub ittivianétunut. Umiaksuit 
tapkoa tikingmatta nunapse erK4nut, siorniormariklutik 
kissiane ingerarungnarput, agviarutakadlarmat sikkonik, 
taktomiglo, ikkaroniglo, akKunaksoarniglo, sorlo uvlome 
Companit umiaksoangit tapkoningatsainakK siorniorute- 
Karmatta. Umiaksuit naipitsingilat taipsomane apxotik- 
samik silaxsub ittivianut, manakamek kissiane umiaksuit 
atautsit ingerarlaukput imarbikkut taxardlekut silaxsub 
ittivianut, agviartauxattarlutik nangiarnartoxKsioxattar- 
lutiglo kissiane. 

Umiaksuille taipkoa itsarnitat angajoxangit, tikerka- 
lauxtut nunapse erkanut, unipkautexalauxput arversoar- 
nik, aiverniglo, puijeniglo, nanorniglo; tikiutjilauxpullo 
ujarkanik serkomakunik pivianartunik akkitudlartota- 
lingnik nagvartaujovinernik nunapsingne. Unipkaute- 
Karivullo ikerasalungmik aviksijomik xKikertaxsoarmik, 
Baffin Landemik taijamik, illuilermit Canadamit, Hudson 
Straitemik (tagva Hudsonib ikerasanganik) taijamik, 
umiaksub tagvdna ingergariortub angajoxangata attinga 
maliklugo, imarbiksoarmiglo Hudson Straitemik paxar- 


in memory of the same gallant captain who first crossed 

its waters. 

When the merchants of England first heard of these 
new places and of your people and of the Indians who live 
to the south of your people in the warmer country, it 
seemed better to them to send their ships to trade in other 
parts of the world where the winds were less fierce and 
where there was no ice or fog to hinder the journeys. 

But within about sixty years of these first voyages to 
your northern country certain merchants of London 
asked the King of Britain to grant them the right to 
trade with the people who inhabit the land surrounding 
the big sea called Hudson Bay and to build trading posts 
in convenient places along the shores of Hudson Bay. 
It pleased the King and his ministers that the English 
merchants should be willing to send their ships and 
their merchandise through the stormy seas, the ice and 
the fog in order to establish trade and friendship 
between the people of these far-off lands, so difficult to 
reach, and Britain. 

He therefore gave permission to the merchants to 
trade in these far-off lands and to build their trading posts 
so that the traders might live according to the customs of 
England. The King also commanded the merchants 
to rule the new lands firmly and justly, as in those 
days there was much bloodshed and murder among the 
Indians and the Eskimos. 




tomik, anelo kaningitome kiglexartomik. Imarbik tamna 
atserartauvok Hudson Bayemik (Hudsonib kangerdlu- 
nganik) angajoxab tépsominga ikariortub erkaumajauju- 

Niuvertit Englandemétut tussartainarmatta nunanik 
tapkoninga nutanik inungniglo sivorlipsingnik Allaniglo 
nunakartunik indxKatipse sexKerngane nuname kiaxarner- 
same, nakoxsaluarput umiaxsoatik niuveriartortitsomav- 
lugit nunab téapsoma assianut aKKunaKsoakanginersanut 
agviarutakangitunullo sikkomik taxtomiglo. 

Jarille 60 kasaktut ingergarnerit tapkoa sivorlerpat 
nunanut takardlernut kingorngane niuvertit ilangita 
Londonemétut Englandib ataninga kenuvigivat niuveriar- 
torkojaujomaylutik inungnut taipkonunga nunakartunut 
imarbiub, Hudson Bayemik taijaujub, sidjangine, niuver- 
viksaliorkojaujomavlutiglo nunane idluarijaulartune Hud- 
son Bayib sidjangane. Englandib ataningata ikajortingi- 
talo idluarivat niuvertit Englandemiut Kunungimatta 
umiaksoatik pisiaksatiglo ingerartitsomavlugit imarbik- 
soatigut aKKunaksoakakattartutigut, sikkoliktigullo tax- 
toliktigullo, tungatitsijomavlutik ilanaréngnermik niuver- 
katigéngnermiglo inungnut nunanétunut ungasiktune 
tikitautsiarungnangitune Englishenullo. 

Taimaimat niuvertit taipkoa ataniub perxkovait niuver- 
Kovlugit nunane tapkonane ungasiktune niuverviksalior- 
Kovlugillo, niuvertit indétsiarungnarkovlugit iluserijatik 
Englandeme maliklugit. Englandib ataningata niuvertit 
perkovaittaux atangusivlutik idluartomiglo aulatsixov- 
lugit nunanik téapkoninga nutanik, neliutune taipkonane 
inuarnek aungmiglo kovisinex atuluadlarmanik Allanut 
Inungnullo erkanétunut tapkonane. 




And it pleased the merchants to appoint the brother of 
the King as the first Governor of the Company; and the 
second Governor of the Company was the King of 
Britain himself. 

From that far-off time to this day, for 260 years, the 
trading ships of the Company have passed through the 
ice-floes and the storms of Hudson Strait to the Com- 
pany’s trading posts at the mouths of the great rivers in 
Hudson Bay, and for 260 years the Indians have brought 
their furs down the rivers in their boats to trade with the 
Company. In those days the Indians fought among 
one another and they fought against the Innuit. The 
rulers of other countries jealous of the trade of our 
merchants sent ships to destroy the trading posts of the 
Company ; but the Traders of the Company were strong 
men and fearless of the enemies of the King. They 
brought about peace between the Indian tribes, they 
stopped the wars between your people and the Indians, 
and they increased the trading in spite of the rival traders 
from other countries. Not only round the shores of 
Hudson Bay, but southwards and westwards were the 
Posts of the Company built; and wherever the Indians 
found a Post of the Company, they knew that the goods 
traded with them were of value, that the Company’s 
blankets were strong and warm, and that the Company’s 
guns were good guns. This much also they knew: 
the Company’s Trader was a just man, stern with the 
evil doers, fair with the honest workers. ‘Thus it came 
about that the Indians regarded the Company’s Trader 
as a father, they sought advice from him, they brought 
their sick to him to be healed. In times of famine and 
of shortage of fur he saw that no man starved. 



Niuvertillo kuviasitigivat ataniolauxtub taipsomane 
nukanga angajokaksoangortitsomavlugo sivorlerpak Com- 

Neliutomit tapsomangat Kanilungitomit uvlome tikid- 
lugo, tagva jarit 260 navlugit, Companit umiaxsoangit 
niuviaksanik adjarsijut ingerarsimavut Hudsonib ikerasa- 
lungata sikkungitigut aKKunaxsoangitigullo Companit 
niuvervinginut Hudson Bayib kéksoangita panginétunut, 
jarillo 260 navlugit Allat adjarsisimavut pisuktit amingi- 
nik umiakut kéktigut aulaijomavlugit Companinut. Uv- 
lune taipkonane Allat unatautixattalaukput inuxotivullo 
unatarvigivlugittauk. Nunaptalo assiata aulatsijungit, 
igvinégosuklutik niuvertipta niuverninginik, tiliklixatta- 
laukput umiaksoanik Companit niuvervingit asseroro- 
mavlugit; Companille inungit sangijolauxput erxsiluga- 
tiglo ataniub omigijinginik. Inuxotipta Allat ulapirx- 
sauteKakatigéktipait, noxartitsivut indKatipse Allallo una- 
tartigéngninginik, niuvertillo akkerkat nunapta assianit 
pijut pitsarkejarinagit niuverniarnex angijororpaliatipat. 
Hudson Bayib sidjangane kissiane-ungitok sexKernganele 
kangianelo Companit niuverviksalioxattarput; Allallo 
naipitsituarunik Companit niuvervingita ilanganik Kau- 
jimavut Companit niuviaksangit piojongmatta, Companit 
Kebingit sangij6ngmatta nerromiktévlutiglo, Companit 
kukkiutingit kukkiutsiangongmatta, Companillo mikki- 
giangit késitsiarséngomatta annailugatiglo pisuktinik 
tutijunik tépkoninga. ‘Tamannalotaux xKaujimagivat: 
Companit niuverniartingat angutaungmat idluartok, idlui- 
tulijut pidlartailinagit, suliaxartulle nelagértut pitsiarvi- 
givlugit. ‘Tamannalo taimailingangmat Allat Companit 
niuvertingat atatatut ilingavigivat. Atanertortaujomavut 
tapsomunga, Atsivigivallo kKanimajiamingnik indlijauKov- 
lugit. Ajoxsarnartilugo pisuktexatsiartinagolo Companit 
niuvertingit kamatsiarput perlertoxarKonago, 



In those days there were other traders who came among 
the Indians, but their guns were not always good guns 
and their traps were not always good traps and in times 
of famine they cared not for the Indians. They said, 
‘You have not brought us your fur; how can we provide 
you with food?’ They were like the ice-floes drifting into 
your bays one month and drifting out the next month 
when the wind blew, or melting in the warmth of the 

It was not until recent years that the Company placed 
their Posts on the shores of your land, for in former days 
the skin of the white fox was of little value for trade, 
Therefore you and your fathers have little knowledge of 
the Company. But this much you should know: for 
two hundred years the Company ruled a great part of 
Canada for the King of Britain. The Traders of the 
Company were few in number, the natives were many; 
yet by their justice and kindness the Traders, who were 
few, made peace where before there was bloodshed among 
many and trade where before there was no trade. 

During the many years in which the Company was 
trading with the Indians before they placed their trading 
Posts along your shores, the people who lived in Britain 
greatly increased in numbers. You know how it is among 
your people: the trapping grounds are sufficient for 
perhaps thirty hunters, but when fifty hunters place their 
traps over the same ground, there are not sufficient foxes 
to be trapped and it is necessary for some of the hunters 
to remove their traps to more distant places. In like 
manner it was necessary for some of the people who lived 
close together in the small island of Britain to move to 
more distant lands where there were few people. There 
they could enjoy greater prosperity, 


e at Nt 

pany V 

ir tral 

in Br 

is at 


ace he 

ent fo 


Neliutune taipkonane pisiniat Companit assingit tiki- 
Kattalaukput Allanut, tapkoale xukkiutingit piojétsaina- 
laungilat, mikkigiangit mikkigiatsiangotsainalaungilat, 
neliutunelo ajoxsarnartune Allat erxagitsialaungilait. O- 
Karput: ‘Aulaivigilungilaptigut pisuktit pijapse aminginik, 
taimaimallo patangaititsungnangilapse!’ I[lingalauxput 
sikkutitut saptaujutitut, mana kangerdlunut iterajarput 
amalo mana kangerdlunit anniavut annorib nakingarninga 
maliklugo, auxsititaujutitull6nét sexinerub onarninganut. 

Manaxamekasak kissiane Companit niuverviliolauxput 
nunapsingne, neliutune Kangersimajune Kakortarsub 
aminga akkexatsiarungnalaungimat. Taimaimat ilipse 
atatasel6nét Kaujimatsialungilase Companinik. ‘Tamat- 
tomingale Kaujijuksauvose: jarit 200 navlugit Companit 
aulatsilauxput Canadab ilinakasanganik Englandib atan- 
inga simerdlugo. Companit niuvertingit ikkitélauxput, 
nunab inungit unuktdlauxput; idluarsainermingnulle 
pitsiarnermingnullo niuvertit ikkit6galoartut ulapirKsau- 
texartitsilaukput sivorngane aungmik koviviolauxtune, 
pisiniakatigéngnexartitsivullo sivorngane niuverveKa- 

Jarine ipkonane unuktune Companit Allat niuvexati- 
gingmagit, sulle niuverveKarKartinagit nunapsingne, 
inuit Great Britaineme unuksivaliadlalauxput. Kaujima- 
vose Kanox ilingamangat indxatipse akorngane; mikki- 
giakarvit ndmagaloarput imaka mikkigitjertunut 3onut, 
mikkigitjertulle 50 mikkigiaxarasuarpatta nuname tapso- 
manétsainak, terrianiat amigaluarput, pinasuartullo ilangit 
nitsijuksauvut mikkigiamingnik Kaninginersamut. Tai- 
maluatsiak inuit unuktovaksuit ilangit, nimniorlutik ind- 
jut Kikertame mikkijome Britainemik taijame, nfigiaka- 
laukput nunanut kKaningitométunut inuKanginersanut. 
Tagvane sulinersaujungnarput pitaxaloringnersauvlu- 

D 49 


Many men from England and from Scotland, which 
lies to the north of England crossed over the great sea 
and settled with their families in the southern parts of 
Canada. They cut down trees and built houses, they 
cleared the rocks and trees away from the land and planted 
the seed which yields the grain from which your flour 
is made. Others caught fish in the lakes and the rivers 
and in the sea and traded their fish for the flour made 
by the other workers. Others made boots and cloth- 
ing and traded these things with the fishermen and 
the sowers of grain, while others cut paths between the 
encampments, and others looked for iron and precious 
metals in the rocks and traded these things to be used for 
the making of knives, axes, fish hooks, needles and the 

Your land is a barren land, cold and windswept; your 
soil is not fertile, and even the moss and the grass grow 
with difficulty in some places; yet in the south of 
Canada the land is fertile, and the grass and the plants 
grow to a great height. The newcomers to Canada 
prospered exceedingly; they built large encampments, 
and where in the old days the foxes and the deer 
roamed, many men had their houses, and the deer and 
the foxes stole away to the more silent places. 

In those days the Company only traded fur with the 
Indians, and therefore they moved their Posts from the 
south to the more silent places where the foxes and the 
deer remained. 

In the course of time there were many settlers in Canada 
from Britain, and their children grew up strong and 
married; they were not traders of fur with the Indians; 
they busied themselves with the growing of the plant 
from which flour is made and with much other work 
which brought them riches. 



; and 


nd pr 
» bes 
les a 


e gray 
he soit 
a the 
to Ce 


nd the ¢ 
the det 


Angutit unuktut Englandemit Scotlandemillo (tagva 
Englandib taxanétomit) imarbiksoak ikarpat nunatarlu- 
tiglo aipatik Kitorngatiglo ilagivlugit Canadab ilangane 
sekerngane, Napdartunik nakatsilutik igloliorput, ujarait 
napartullo péjarpait nunamit perorséviliorlutik Karnga- 
soilutiglo senaugaksanik. Assingit mingeriarniarput 
tesserne kéngnelo imarbingmelo tauxsiutigilugillo senau- 
gamut assimik senajanginut. Assingit ama Kamiliorput 
annoraliorlutiglo aulailugillo»mingerianiartunut perorsé- 
vilerijunullo. Assingit ama apkotiksaliorput iglugasang- 
nit iglugasangnut, assingillo kikkiaksiorput ujaraxksior- 
pullo pivianartunik aulailugillo senajénut sénaxovlugit 
savingnik, ulimautinik, kargjusanik, merkutinik, assingi- 
niglo sunatuinarnik unuktunik. 

Nunase sunatakalualungilak, itjelidlarpox, anoremullo 
sannertauvok sorlo; nunapse ibjunga perorvionatsialun- 
gilax, aglat perxapijat ivillo siorniorlutik sorlo kissiane 
perorput nunab ilangane, Canadable sexerngane nuna 
perorvionatsiarpox, ivillo perortullo perutsiarput poxto- 
joniarlutik. Tikerxamertut Canadamut sulitsiarput angi- 
jomik; iglugasaksoaliorput, uvlunelo sivorliojune terria- 
niat tuktullo arvertarvigivalauxtangine inuit unuktut 
igloxalerput mana, tuktullo terrianiallo annakput pervaluk- 

Uvlune taipkonane Companit pisuktit aminginik kis- 
sianik pisisOngolauxput Allanit, taimaimallo ndtsilauxput 
niuvervingmingnik 4ngat nunanut pervaluktoxanginer- 
sanut terrianiat tuktullo inigijanginut. 

Jarit anigoxattartilugit nitut Canadamut Englandemit 
Scotlandemillo unuksidlarput, xitorngangillo angijoror- 
put aipatarlutiglo. Pisiséngolungilat pisuktinik Allanit; 
perorsévilerijévulle perorsailutik senaugaksanik suliaxar- 
lutiglo assianik sunatuinarnik akluijutigijamingnik. 



It seemed good to the Queen of Britain—in those 
days there was no King of royal blood—that the many 
settlements and encampments of workers, with whom the 
Company was not concerned, should rule their own 
settlements and make their own laws. For they were 
honest men, hard workers and proud of the new settle- 
ments which they had made; and they loved the Queen 
of Britain and wished to make Canada a corner stone of 
the British Empire. Seeing that there were many new 
settlers, and that the Traders of the Company were few 
and that they lived-away from the big settlements, the 
Queen of Britain asked the Governor of the Company to 
relinquish the Company’s rule, so that the many settlers 
could form their own laws for the benefit of all people 
living in Canada. 

The things which the King or Queen of Britain 
desire are wise and for the benefit of the British Empire. 
Therefore the Company gave up their rule over that 
great part of Canada which had been entrusted to them 
by the Kings of Britain for two hundred years. 

The Company gave up its rule fifty-three years ago 
when your fathers were young men during the rule of 
Victoria, Queen of Britain. 

The Queen then chose from among her ministers a man 
after her own heart, strong, wise and just, and sent him 
across the waters to the people of Canada to be their 
Governor General and to be the chief spokesman between 
the Queen and her people in Canada. And she com- 
manded him to be guided by the wishes of the people 
of Canada; for the Queen said, ‘Are not the wishes 
of the people of Canada my wishes ?’ 

From that time to this day Canada has increased in 
wealth and strength, and the people of Canada are proud 



Englandib ataningata arnaub—taipsomane ataneKa- 
nginapta angumik—idluariva iglugasaksoarmiut igluga- 
sangmiullo tapkoa suliakatsainartut Companinullo iling- 
angitut aulatsixovlugit iglugasaksoarmik piksanginik 
axiksoilutiglo maligaksauxojamingnik. Inutsiangong- 
matta nelagértut, katsungaivlutik suliaxarnerme, igluga- 
saksuillo senajatik pijoridlarlugit, ungadlarmattalo Eng- 
landib ataninganut, atanerub Canada avatingortitaukova 
Britishit atanioviksoanganut. Nunatartut unuktdng- 
matta, Companillo inungit niuvertingillo ikkiténgmatta 
igloxarlutiglo apsimavlutik iglugasaksoarnit, Englandib 
ataningata arnaub Companit angajok4Ksoanga Kenuvigiva 
sapkojikovlugo Companit angajokauninganik Canadab 
ilanganut mikkijélungitomut, Kablunat 4xiksoijungnar- 
Kovlugit maligaksauxojamingnik Canadamiut ilinatik 
idluarkxutiksanginut ilinganiartunik. 

Englandib ataningata tussugijangit namamarikput 
Britishillo atanioviksoangata idluarkutiksanganut ilingay- 
lutik. Taimaimat Companit sapkojivut angajoxauner- 
mingnik Canadab ilanganut ilfinakasanganut aulatauxo- 
jautsainalauxtomut tapkonunga Englandib ataninginut 
jarit 200 navlugit. 

Jarit 52 mattoma sivorngane atatase indsuktotilugit 
sulle atanex Victoria ataniotilugo Englandeme Companit 
sapkojilauxkput angajokaunermingnik. 

Ikajortime akornganit atanex Victoria anerosukpok 
angumik omatimitut omatelingmik, séngojomik, silatud- 
lartomiglo, idluartomiglo, tililugolo Canadamut ataneru- 
siokovlugo pijitserteokovlugolo Canadamiunut ataner- 
mullo. Ataneruserlo aulataukova Canadamiut tussugi- 
janginut; atanex oxarmat: ‘Canadamiut tussugijangit 
tussunerilunginapkit ?’ 

Neliutomit tapsomangat uvlome tikidlugo Canadamiut 
akluilivaliavut _ pitsartusivaliavlutiglo, Kujalidlarpullo 



that of all the lands of the British Empire their land is the 
richest, and that their people are a strong people and that 
their rule is a just rule for all men. 

King George of Britain is the grandson of the Queen 
who gave to the people of Canada the right to rule them- 
selves; and the people of Canada and Newfoundland still 
ask the King to send his Governor across the waters to 
them. For they are a loyal people, proud of the King 
and the British Empire of which they are a part. 

The policemen who visit some of your Posts are 
officers of the Government of Newfoundland who are 
commanded to maintain the laws of Newfoundland 
among all men even in those distant lands where you 
live. Thus throughout Canada and Newfoundland and 
throughout all the British Empire the Laws give pro- 
tection to the honest worker who lives rightly and the 
Laws punish ruthlessly the dishonest man who does 
harm to any man. 

Since the Company gave up its rule in Canada in the 
days when your fathers were young men, it has increased 
in strength and greatness. In the old days the Company 
traded only with the Indians and with those of your 
people who brought their skins to the Posts. To-day the 
Company trades with all men throughout Canada and im 
Newfoundland also. 

In the big encampments where many men live, the 
Company has Posts a hundred times the size of the Posts 
at which you trade. And men and women are glad to 


A view of the great encampment of Ottawa where dwell the Canadian Ministers 
of the King, seen as it were through the eyes of a bird, 
Iglugasaksoak Ottawa ; pangat takkojauvok, sorlo tingmiab ijingagut. 
Ottawame Atanerub ikkajortingit inniksakarput. (p. 51) 

Hudson’s Bay Company’s Trading Post seen by night at Vancouver, the great 

harbour of western Canada. 
Hudson’s Bay Companib niuverviksoangat, Wancouvereme, unnuarme 
takkojaksauvlune. Igluga ak Vancouver kissarviksoarpok Canademe 
ngitome. (p. 55) 

Child suffering from neglect of its mother. 

Sorrusek kamagijautsiarlungitok ananaminut. (p. 123) 

Same child after the care of proper nursing. 

Sorrusek tamnatsainak pairijautsiarkarlune namaktemik. 

A school of children, who suffer from the disease of the lungs, exposing their 
bodies to the healing rays of the sun. 

ukapiat niviarsiallo puvalerijut, sillame sekkinerarnerme inulititsijome illiniartitauvut. 

(p. 139) 


Britishit ataniovingata nunaxkutinginit tamainit nunatik 
akluinerpaungmat inuxotingit indKxatigéksoangongmatta 
sOngojut, ataniotivionerijangallo idluadlarmat inunginut 

Victoriab, Canadamiut nangminermingnik nunamiglo 
piksanginik ilinganinginiglo aulatsixojilauxtub, Englan- 
dib ataninga George V erngutariva; Canadzmiullo New- 
foundlandemiullo atanex George Kenuvigivit sulle tilik- 
lerkovlugo atanerusernik tépkonunga. Inuit tapkoa 
nalekteongmatta, atanerlo atanioviksoarlo atavigijangat 

Polisit nelipsaixattartut nunapsingnik kivgartorput 
Newfoundlandib atanerusinganik aulatsijinginiglo, kamat- 
siarkojauvullo Newfoundlandib maligaksauxojangit na- 
lektautsiarmatta nunagijapsingnetauk ungasiktoméga- 

Taimaglo Canadame Newfoundlandemelo Britishillo 
ataniovingata nunangine ingmigolingajune tamaine ata- 
niub perKojangit maligaksauxojangillo inub idluartulijub 
nelagértublo saputijauninganut ilingavut, pidlartautaili- 
titsingilalle katsungaitomik idluitulijunik tamainik indxa- 
timik idluikxutiksanganut ilingajomik piniarnexartunik. 

Taimangat Companit sapkojilaungmattanit aulatsiner- 
mik Canadab ilanganik ilfinakasanganik atitase indsuk- 
totilugit, Companit angijororpaliasimavut sdngosivaliay- 
lutiglo. Uvlune taipkonane nutaungiture Companit 
niuvekateKasOngolauxput Allanik Inungniglo 4tsipak- 
tunik pisuktit aminginik niuvervinginut kissianik, uvlo- 
mele Companit niuvervexarput unuktunik iglugasak- 
soarne unuktune Canadame Newfoundlandemelo kina- 
tuinarmit pisiniarlutik kinatuinarmullo aulaivlutik. 

Iglugasaksoarne angijune unuktovaksoarnik inulingne 
Companit niuvervexarput anginersaungijaiclartunik niu- 
vervingnit nunapsingnétunit. Inuillo Kujaidlarput niu- 



trade with the Company; for they say that the things 
which the Company provides are good things, even as you 
and the Indians know that the things which the Company 
provides are good things,—they last a long time. 

The Company also sells to the people land on which 
they grow the seed from which flour is made, and land 
on which the people build their houses. 

The Company also owns many ships and boats by 
which both people and freight are moved from one place 
to another place in Canada and Newfoundland. 

The Company also buys much fish from the fishermen. 
The fish is then frozen and carried across the waters to 
England where it is traded with many people. 

This much also you should know: the Traders of the 
Company have great pride in Canada, which was held for 
the British Empire by the Company for 200 years, and 
likewise great pride in Newfoundland. They are loyal 
subjects of King George who rules the British Empire. 



verungnaramik Companine, Companit niuviaksangit pio- 
jodlarmattagéx, sorlo ilipse Allallo Kaujigapse Companit 
pingit piojéngmatta sujusarailugatiglo. 

Companit aulaixattarivuttaux nunanik perorséviksanik 
nunaniglo igloliorviksanik. 

Companit ama umiaksoakuteKarput umiaxkutexarlu- 
tiglo unuktunik adjarsixattartunik ikkimajunik igluga- 
saksoarnit iglugasaksoarnut Canadamelo Newfound- 

Ama Companit pisikattarput mingerianik unuktunik 
mingeriarniartenit. Mingeriat koaxtitauxardlutik A4tau- 
vut Englandemut, tagvanelo aulaijauvut unuktunut. 

Tamattomingatauk Kaujijuksauvose: Companit Can- 
ada, jarit 200 navlugit pairilauxtangat Britishit ataninga 
simerdlugo, Newfoundlandelo pijoridlarpakit, nalekteo- 
vullo nelagértut Britishit ataniovingata atanersoanganik, 
atanermik Georgemik. 




@iN all the countries of the world there are 
Laws to protect the honest worker against 
dishonest men and to protect the weak 
man against the attack of the stronger 
man. In those countries where White 

“< JoN}} Men live, most people hold the Christian 
belief, a the things which they do are guided by the 
Laws of God and of His Son Christ, which are set forth 
in the New Testament. But no man is forced to be- 
lieve in the God whom we worship. He may believe in 
other Gods or no God. That is a private and personal 
matter on which every man must think earnestly for 

Supposing therefore one man should murder another 
man, it would be vain to accuse him of breaking the Law 
of God. For the murderer might say, ‘ I am not a believer 
in the God whom you worship, and I am not bound by the 
Laws made by your God.’ 

Therefore in all parts of the British Empire there is a 
code of Laws which all men are commanded to observe 
by the King. If a man breaks these Laws he is pun- 
ished by the servants of the King. In this manner you 
and your children are protected against the wrong doing 
of others. 

In the old days if one man did wrong to another man, 



7\ILAKSUB nunaksoangine tamaine perKo- 
jaKarpox inuit nelagértut saputijauniksan- 
ginut inungnit nelagdngitunit, inuillo 
sangétut saputijauniksanginut inuit pitsar- 
tunersat oKkumaiksartitsininginit. Nu- 
nane Kablunaxtalingne inuit unurningit 
okpertévut, piniarningillo aulatauvut Gidib tapsomalo 
Erningata Kristusib perKojanginut, aglaksimajunut Tes- 
tamentetame. Kinalénélle aksorornermut okpertitaulu- 
ngilak Gaidemut tuksiarvigijaptingnut. Gddib assianut 
Gideungitomullénét okperungnarput pijomagunik. I[s- 
sumamingnik kajusijuksauvut kinamut okperomama- 
ngarmik, ndmaktomik issumaksarsiorx4rdlutik. 

Inuk toxotsinajarpat indKxatiminik tukkexaluarajangi- 
lak passilugo serkomitsigiamik Gfdib perkojanginik, 
inuartok kigligiutjijungnarajarmat: ‘ Okpilungilangale 
Gidemut tuksiarvigijapsingnut, Kelaksortaulungilangalo 
perkojanut Giddipse 4xiksortanginut.’ 

Tamanna pivlugo Britishit atanioviksoangata nuna- 
ngine tamaine maligaksakarpok ataniub maliktautsiarKo- 
janginik inungnut tamainut. SerkomitsijoKarpat perKo- 
janik tapkoninga pidlartauvok ataniub kivganginut. Tai- 
maglo inuit Kitorngangillo saputijauvut assimik idluitu- 

Uvlune nutaungitune inub inéxatine idluitulivigilaux- 


he was punished by the friends of the man who had been 
wronged. But it sometimes happened that the man who 
had suffered evil made a mistake and accused an innocent 
man of harming him, and the friends of the man who had 
been harmed punished an innocent man for the guilt of 
another. In this manner it has happened that innocent 
men have been killed for the crimes of others. What 
profit is there for the widow of the innocent man or for 
his children, when it is afterwards discovered that he has 
been killed unjustly ? It is not possible to bring back the 
dead to life or to undo so great an injury. 

Therefore the King entrusts to certain men of great 
wisdom the administration of the Laws. All men accused 
of wrong doing must be brought before the officer of the 
King appointed to keep the Laws. In grave cases he 
appoints eleven men to hear the charge against the 
prisoner and to hear the defence of the prisoner. If the 
eleven men, after hearing the things which are said by 
both sides, agree that the prisoner is guilty, then they 
declare to the officer of the King that he is guilty, and the 
officer of the King decides the nature of the prisonet’s 
punishment according to the Laws. 

You should know therefore that if one of your people 
is accused of committing a serious crime against the Laws 
of Newfoundland and Labrador, on mo account should 
that man be punished by your people in any way. For if 
you punish that man, you also are guilty of a crime, and 
you are likely also to be punished for breaking the Law. 

It is your duty to report to the policeman or, if there 1s 

no policeman, then to the Company’s Trader or to the 


pago pidlartauséngolauxpox idluituliviojub ilanginut. 
Taipsomanele ilangane idluituliviojox tamarlune pasikli- 
Kattalaukpoxk inungmik pasijaksaungitomik idluitulilau- 
ngitomik, idluituliviojublo ilangita pasijaksaungitox pid- 
larpat assiata idluitulininga pitjutigivlugo. Taimaglo 
ilangane pasijaksaungimariktox toKotausimavoxk assiata 
idluituliningit pivlugit. Kanox tagva pasijaksaungitub 
uigarninga Kitorngangillo akkilertaujungnarkat, kingor- 
ngane Kaujijaulerpat inuk tamna idluangitomik toxotau- 
laungmat? ‘Toxotaujoxk utertitaujungnangilak indtsemut, 
idluinerlo taimak angitigijok Axingmilugo  ajornar- 

Taimaimat ataniub inuit ilangit silatudlartut kamatsiar- 
Kovait perKojat nalektautsiarmatta, tapajullo nimaktomik 
idluartomiglo pidlartaungmatta. IlGnatik tapanermik 
perkojanik pasijaujut Ataujuksauvut idluarsaijub, ataner- 
mut idluarsaijungortitaujub, sdnganut. Sugaluluartuli- 
joxarpat idluarsaijub angutit elevenit annerivait nalaxoy- 
lugit pasijaujub pasijaujutigijanganik, nalaxovlugittaux 
pasyaujub akkiorninganik. Angutit tapkoa elevenit, 
nalatsiarsimaxkardlutik pasiklertut pasiklerutigijanginik 
pasijaujublo akkiorninganik, angexatigégunik pasijaujox 
sulijomik pasijaungmat taimaimallo pidlaraksaungmat, 
kigligiutjivut idluarsaijomut pasijaujub pidlaraksauni- 
nganik, idluarsaijorlo tagva kajusivox kanok pidlartaujuk- 
saungmangat Newfoundlandib perxojangit maliklugit. 

Tamanna pivlugo xkaujitsiartuksauvose ilapse ilangat 
pasijaulerpat tapanermik nunapse maligaksauxojangiink, 
ilipsingnut ilingajunik, inuk tamna Kanorlénét pidlartau- 
juksaungilax ilipsingnut. Nangminex pidlarupsiuk, ilipse - 
tagva idluitulivose, pidlaraksautiposelo perkojat tapagi- 
gapsigik pidlarningnipsingnut. 

Inéxatipse ilangata sugaluluartomik nunab perxojangit 
tapagikpagit tapaginasuarpagilldénét, ilipse polise Kaujiti- 



Man of God any serious crime which one of your people 
may have committed or may have attempted to commit. 
Then the policeman will take the accused man and lead 
him before a wise man appointed by the King to uphold the 
Laws of Newfoundland; and if it can be proved that the 
prisoner has committed or has attempted to commit the 
crime of which he has been accused, then the officer of the 
King, who knows the Laws, sternly orders the prisoner to 
be punished. But if it cannot be proved that the prisoner 
has broken the Laws of Newfoundland, then the wise man 
who knows the Laws declares the prisoner to be ‘not 
guilty,’ and he commands the policeman to release him, 
This is Justice. Throughout all parts of the world men 
of all countries admire British justice, whereby honest 
men are protected against dishonest men, whereby weak 
men are protected against the attacks of stronger men, 
and whereby wicked men are sternly punished and 

The officers appointed by the King to uphold the Laws 
are wise men after the heart of King Solomon. Do 
you know the Bible story of King Solomon? Two 
women appeared before King Solomon, each claiming to 
be the mother of a certain baby. Each woman declared 
that the other woman had stolen the baby from her. How 
could King Solomon decide to which mother the baby 
really belonged ? He declared to the two women that the 
fairest test would be to cut the baby in two, and to this 
suggestion one of the women agreed. But the other 
woman (the real mother of the baby) was overcome with 
grief that the little baby, whom she loved, should thus be 
killed, so she implored King Solomon to give the baby 
alive to the other woman, rather than that the baby should 
lose its life. Then King Solomon saw that she was indeed 
the mother of the baby and he restored it to her; and 



taksarivase, polisexangipalle tagva niuvertise ajoxertui- 
josel6nét kaujitilugo. Polisib tagva pasijaujok tiguniarpa 
unertutilallo ataniub idluarsaijunganut, nelonaijartauk- 
pallo pasijaujox piniarsimangmat piniarasuarsimangmal- 
I6nét pasijaujutigijanganik, tagva idluarsaijub ilungertor- 
lune tapajox pidlartauxova. Nelonaijartaujungnangi- 
palle pasijaujok tapasimangmat Newfoundlandib perko- 
janginik, tagva idluarsaijub unertutijaujox pasijaksaungi- 
nerarpa, poliselo aulartitsixova tigujaminik. Tamanna 
idluarniovox. Silaxsoarme ilfindne nunaxsoarmiut ilfina- 
tik pijoridlarpat Britishit idluarsaitsiarningat saputsijok 
inungnik indétsiarasuartunik inungnit nelagdlungitunit, 
saputsijorlo inungnik sangétunik inuit pitsartunersat 
okumaiksartitsininginit, katsungaitomiglo pidlarniktox 
idluitulijunik kangusuktilugillo. 

Idluarsaijut, ataniub kamajungortitangit nunab perko- 
jangit nalektauxovlugit, omatexarput silatujunik ataniub 
Salomob omatingatut. Unipkausex Testamentetoxar- 
métok atanek Salomo pivlugo kaujivisifik ? Arndk mag- 
guk tikipuk atanermut Salomomut, atunit nutaraxarlu- 
tik. Aipatale nutaranga toxungavox, aipangata nutaranga 
omatilugo. Tamarmik nutarak omajox pigijomavak. 
Pasiutilutik aipangata aipa tigliksimanerarpa nutaramik 
omajomik, Atanex Salomo Kanox kaujijungnark4 arnak 
neliata nutarak omajok pigimangamiik ? Arnak oxauti- 
vak idluartuinarniarmat nutarak omajox Kopijaukpat 
maggolivlugo, atunillo kopamik tigusiniarlutik. Idluar- 
sainek tamanna arnaub aipangata namagiva, aipale (nuta- 
raub omajub anananga) tikitauvox kiksarnermut angijo- 
mut nutararsuk nagligijanga toKotauniarmat taimak, 
taimaimallo atanex Salomo Kenuvigiva nutaraK omay- 
lune tunijauxovlugo arnamut aipaminut. Sapkojo- 
mangarpa omatilugo nutaraub indsinga tigujaungituarpat. 
Atanex Salomo kaujitsiarpox tagva arnak neliak ana- 



he sternly punished the wicked woman who had wrongly 
claimed the baby. 

So it is with the officers of the King, the wise men who 
know the Laws. They seek to find out the truth and to 
mete out justice to all men and women. 

Of the many Laws of the’King which have been made 
to protect all men, women and children in Newfoundland 
and in Labrador, there are eleven Laws which in particular 
concern your people. Mark these Laws well. For if you 
break the Laws of the King, you are liable to be punished 
sternly by the officers of the King, and to become a dis- 
grace to your family and to your community. 

Here are the eleven Laws of Newfoundland and Lab- 
rador which should be known among all your people. 

1. Murder. 

It is against the Law to kill intentionally any man, 
woman or child however much that man, woman or child 
may have wronged you. The man who is guilty of this 
crime is a murderer. It is the Law of the King that a 
murderer shall be destroyed by the servants of the King 
after he has been proved guilty. Likewise if any person 
assists a murderer in his crime, or contrives that another 
person shall commit murder for him, that person is also 
a murderer in the eyes of the King. He too shall be con- 
demned to death, if he is found guilty, and shall be 

Likewise if any man knows that a murder has been 
committed and assists the murderer to escape, he is also a 
murderer in the eyes of the King and shall be con- 
demned to death if he is found guilty, and shall be 






naungmangat, arnarle saglojok perkuteKarnerartoK nuta- 
ramik omajomik pidlartaudlarkova mikkilungitomik. 

Taimailingagivox ataniub kivgangine idluarsaijune, 
angutine silatujune perkojanik Kaujimajune, Kiglisiniar- 
put miksexarnex nagvaromavlugo, inuit ilfinatik angutit 
arnallo idluartomik piniarvioxovlugit. 

Ataniub perkojanginit unuktunit Axiksortaumajunit 
inuit iltinatik saputijauniksanginut Newfoundlandeme 
Labradoremelo perxkojaxarpox elevenenik ilipsingnut 
ilingaluartunik. PerKojat tapkoa naipertutsiarsigik. Ata- 
niub perKojangit tapagigupsigik pidlaraksautipose ilip- 
singnik s6ngojomik ataniub kivganginut, ilapselo indKa- 
tipselo kangusfitiksanginut ilingavose. 

Tamadja perkojat elevenit Newfoundlandemut Labra- 
doremullo ilingajut Kauiijaksauluartut ilipsingnut. 

1. Jnuarnermik. 

Toxotsinek angumik arnamiglénét sorusermiglénét 
pijarijomik tapaniovok perkojanik, angijoxsoarmik inub 
sorutsibl6énét tépsoma idluitulivigisimagaloarpatillonét. 
Piniarnermik taimaitomik piniartox inuartévox. Ataniub 
perkojanga maliklugo inuartok toxotaujuksauvox ataniub 
kivganginut pasijaksauninga nelonangitomik nelonaijar- 
tausimaxkartilugo. ‘T’aimaktaux ikajortox inuartomik inu- 
arningane, aulatsijorlénét simertauvlune inuartoKarKoy- 
lugo, taimaitut tamarmik inuartévuk ataniub ijingane. 
Taimaituttauk toxomut pititaksauvut, pasijaksauningit 
nelonangitomik nelonaijartaukpat kiglisiniartausimaxKar- 

Amalotauk Kaujimajoxkarpat inuarsimajomik, Kaujima- 
jorlo angigutjilune Kaujimajaminik ikajorpat inuartub 
annangninganik, tamnatauk inuartovok ataniub ijingane, 
toxomullo pititaksauvox kiglisiniartauxardlune paskija- 
sauninga nelonangitomik nelonaijartaukpat. 

E 65 


When a murder has been committed among you, it is 
your duty to bring the murderer to the policeman, or if 
there is no policeman to the Trader of the Company who 
will guard him until he can be handed over to the officers 
of the King. 

If you are frightened of the murderer and dare not take 
him to the policeman or to the ‘Trader of the Company, 
then you must bring to the policeman or the Trader the 
name of the murderer and the nature of the crime. 

2. Attempted Murder. 

It is against the Law to attempt to kill any man, woman 
or child, however much that man, woman or child may 
have wronged you. The person who commits this crime 
or who engages another man to commit this crime for him 
is guilty of a very serious offence in the eyes of the Law, 
and is liable to be taken away from his family and from his 
country to be imprisoned for the rest of his life. 

3. The Unintentional Killing of « Person. 

It is against the Law to cause the death of a man, 
woman or child by some act of folly or neglect. The per- 
son who commits this crime is guilty of a very serious 
offence in the eyes of the Law, and is liable to be taken 
away from his family and his country to be imprisoned for 
the rest of his life. 

Thus, for instance, if two men ight, and if one of them 
throws the other to the ground and if the man who falls 
strikes his head against a rock and is killed, then the man 
who survives may be accused of the killing of the dead 
man, and may be punished for his death, although he had 
no wish to kill him. 

Thus also if a man is careless with his rifle and shoots a 

person so that he dies, he may be accused of the killing of 


Inuartoxarpat akunipsingne, inuartox unertutijaksari- 
vase polisemut, polisexangipallo Companit niuverniar- 
tinganut unertutijaksauvox, tapsomalo kamagilarpa uner- 
tutijaujungnarKartinago ataniub kivganginut. 

Inuartok erksigigursiuk saperupselo polisemut niuver- 
temullénét alugo, tagva polise niuvertelénét Kaujititaksa- 
rivase inuartub attingaaik sumiglo piniarsimaninganik. 

2. Inuarasuarnermik. 

Inuarasuarnex inumaringmik sorusermiglénét tapanio- 
givoK perkojamik, angijoxsoarmik inub sorutsibl6nét 
tapsoma idluitulivigisimagaloarpatillénét. Piniartox pini- 
arnermik taimaitomik, tiliklertorlénét assiminik simméy- 
lune inuarasuarKovlugo, tamnatauk angijodlungmik tapa- 
tojoxsédlarpok perkojet ijingane, aularutijaujungnarporlo 
neu ilaminit nunaminillo parngnanairsortauniardlune indsine 
in navlugo. 

3. Pijarinane Tokotsinermik Inungmik. 

Toxotautitsinex inumaringmik sorusermiglénét Kuk- 
af salainekut erkasunginekullénét tapaniovok ataniub perxKo- 
| janginik. Taimaitomik piniarnelik séngojomik tapavox 
TY perxojanik, aularutijaujungnarporlo ilaminit nunaminillo 

be parngnanairsortauniardlune indsine navlugo. 
ont Imailingavox. Angutik magguk ningautigunik aipa- 
ngatalo aipa ochotikpago nunamut, ochotitaujorlo aporpat 
ft ujarkamut niakomigut toxoniardlune, ochotitsilauxtox 
ink tapsominga pasijaujunznarpok toxotsinermik indxatimi- 
jes nik, pijaringikaloartomik, _ pidlartaujungnarniardlune 
ied tokungajub toxunga pivlugo, toxotsigiamik issumaxka- 
i! laungikaloartilugo. 

Imailingagivox. Iruk Kukkiusijartox udjertutsiangi- 
nerminut kamatsiangiaerminullo indxatine Kukkerpago 

tokolugolo, pasijaujunznarpok toxotsinermik inungmik, 


the dead man and may be punished for his death, although 
he had no wish to kill him. 

If, however, a man attempts to murder you, you must 
protect yourself; if during the course of that fight, in 
which you are protecting your life, you kill by accident the 
man who has attacked you, then the Law will absolve you 
from the guilt of taking his life. But in no other circum- 
stances whatever is a man innocent who deprives a person 

of his life or of her life. 

4. The Striking of a Man or Woman. 

It is against the Law to strike a man or a woman with 
the intention of causing an injury to them. The guilty 
person is liable to be deprived of a part of his possessions 
or to be imprisoned. 

5. Laws relating to Sex. 

Here follows, with explanation suitable to the Eskimo, 
those Laws relating to sex which are common to all civilized 


pidlartaujungnarniarporlo toxotaujub toxunga pivlugo, 
issumaxalaungikaloartilugo ketamiglénét toxotsijomagia- 
mik indxatiminik. 

Inuarasuartoxkarajarpalle tokotsinasuartokarajarpal- 
lénét ilingnik serngnigijuksauvotit ilingnik. Parutiti- 
lutik saputsinasuartilutit indésernik, pijarinak ubvalo 
tamarlutit toxotsinajaruvit opaktortingnik, tagva perKkojat 
pasijaksaunginerarajarpatit tokotsinermik indxatingnik. 
Ilinganermele taimaitome kissianemarik inuk tigusijox 
indkatime indsinganik pasijaksaunginerartauniarpok. 
Ilinganermelo taimaitome inuk nelonangimariktomik 
idluarsaijublo n&magijanganut nelonaijaigiaKarniarpok 
ilungertomaringnerminik toKotsijariakalaungnerminiglo 
indKatiminik indsine unangmijaujok saputijomavlugo. 

4. Tiglungningnermik Inungmik. 

Inuk tigluklugo, pijarijomik aniatitsomavlugo, tamanna 
tapaniogivoK perkojanik. ‘Taimailiortox akkilétitaujung- 
narpoK parngnanairsimavingmullénét pititaujungnarlune. 

5. Assiniarnermik AuKattemut. 

Auxatte assiniakatigilugo, tagva uvinexkakatigilugo, 
inerterutaumarikpok perKojanut. Imak: atatab panine 
uvinekakatigijaksarilungila; angutib Katangutine arnak 
pikatigijaksarilungila; ernerub ananane uvineKakatigi- 
jaksarilungila; atdtab andnablénét Katangutinga (angu- 
telénét arnarl6nét) sinikatekartuksaungilak Kangiaminik 
ujoruminiglé6nét, tagva atataujub ananaujublénét erning- 
anik paninganiglénét; atatatsiablénét andnatsiablénét 
erngutane arnarlénét angullénét uvinexaxatigijaksarilu- 
ngila. ‘Tamakkoa makojungnarnerartaumarikput perKoja- 
nut, taimailiortullo Kaujijaugunik aularutijaujungnarput 
ilamingnit nunamingnillo parngnanairsimavingmut piti- 
tauniardlutik indsitik navlugo. 



6. The Destruction of Another Man’s Property. 

It is against the Law to set fire to or to cause any 
malicious damage to the property of another man. This 
is a serious crime in the eyes of the Law; and the guilty 
person is liable to be taken away from his family and his 
country to be imprisoned, and his possessions may be 
confiscated by the police for the recompense of the man 
whose property he has destroyed or damaged. 



Angutit arnallo taimak idluitulixatigéktut adsigékto- 
mik pasijaksauvut pidlaraksauvlutiglo, kissiane aipa in6- 
suluarnine pivlugo Kaujimangipat idluartulinerub idluitu- 
linerublo adsigénginigingnik pasijaksaunajangilax pidlar- 

Idluitulinex tamanna akkerartorpox inub pingortitau- 
jutingata ilusiksanganik, pingortitsijub ingergat sorutsit 
pingortitauxolungimagit uvinekakatigéngnermut taimai- 
tomut; sorutsillo indlertut pikatigéngnermit taimaitomit 
Kanoetokakattarput timekut, issumakatsiakattalungilallo. 

Pidlartaunarpok ama angutib arnax aksorornekut 
uvinekakatigikpago, arnak Kunumariktilugo. 

Sulle angutit idluitulivigivut nangminermingnik atani- 
ublo perkojangit tapagigivait uigasuit niviarsiallo jarekitut 
uvinekakatigilugit, tikitausOngoxk4rtinagit arnab ilusing- 
anut Kitorngatérungnarkartinagillo. Piniarnex tamanna 
makojungnamarikpok, inuillo kinguvangita idluixutik- 
sanginut ilingavox, sorutsib timinga atortitaungmat 
atoraksarilungitanganik sulle, maliktoxarungnarmallo 
timib sangélininganik, sunatuinarniglo kanoetoKarninga- 
nik, soruserlo taimailiorviojok inukoarsarailuarpox pijuk- 

6. Inoxatiuh Perxutinginik Asserorsainermik. 

Ataniub perkojangit tapagijauvut ama indxatiub per- 
Kutingit asserortaukpatta, pijarijomiglo sujuktauvlutik 
ikomamut sumullénét, asserorsaijok aulataukpat omisung- 
nermut. Tapanek tamanna pidlartaunamarikpoxk perko- 
jat maliklugit, taimailiortorlo aularutijaujungnarpox ila- 
minit nunaminillo pititauniardlune parngnanairsimaving- 
mut, taimailiortublo perkutingit tigujaujungnarput poli- 
senut aulaijauvlutiglo perkutairtaujox akkilertautsiarKov- 



7. Stealing. 

It is against the Law to deprive a man of his rightful 
possessions. ‘The person who is guilty of this crime is 
liable to be taken away from his family and from his 

country to be imprisoned. 

8. The Obtaining of Goods by False Statements. 

It is against the Law for a man to attempt to obtain or 
to obtain goods from another man by means of lies or 
deception. He is guilty of a serious crime and is liable to 
be taken away from his family and his country to be im- 
prisoned or to be deprived of a part of his possessions by 
the police. 

Thus if a man falsely tells a trader that in his camp he 
has many fox-skins which he wishes to trade and 
persuades the trader to supply him with goods which 
are to be paid for by these fox-skins, which in fact he 
does not possess, then he is guilty of obtaining goods 
by false statements. 

9. To Swear Falsely before an Officer, a Fudge or Magistrate 
of the King Concerning a Crime. 

It is against the Law for a man to take an oath before an 
officer, a judge or magistrate of the King that he will give 
a true account of his knowledge of some crime, and for 
that man then to attempt to mislead the officer of the 
King with lies or with concealment of part of the truth. 
He is guilty of a serious crime, and is liable to be 
taken away from his family and his country to be im- 

If a man lies to an officer of the King (either judge or 
police) concerning a crime, then he is attempting to 
mislead the course of justice, so that either an innocent 


7. Tiglingnermik. 

Perxojat ama tapagijauvut inub indxatine tiglivigik- 
pago aksarlugolo perxutinginik, inuk tamna perkutelik 
Kaujitinago angertinagolo. ‘Tigliktox aularutijaujung- 
harpok ilaminit nunaminillo parngnanairsimavingmut 

8. Perxutetarnermik Saglonikut Uiveriklernekullo. 

Perkutetarasuartok perkutetartorlénét assiminit sag- 
lonekut uivériklernekullo tapalerivox perkojanik. Idlui- 
nermik angijomik piniarpox, aularutijaujungnarporlo 
ilaminit nunaminillo parngnanairsortauniardlune, perku- 
tingill6nét axsdrnigarijaujungnarput polisenut. 

Imailingavox. Inub pisiniarte niuvertelénét oxautik- 
pago terrianiakarnerminik assianiglénét najorteKxarnermi- 
nik iglome pisiniutigijomajaminik, pisiniartorlo niuver- 
telonét kajungersarlugo kaitsixovlugo perkutinik akkiler- 
tauniartunikg6x terrianiat assingitalénét akkigijanginut, 
najorteKartinago taimaitunik aulaijaksanik, taimaitox 
perkutetarpox saglonekut uivériklernekullo. 

9. Angermaringnermik Nelagongitomik Idluarsaijub Sangane 
Perxojat Tapagijauningat Pivlugo. 

Perkojat ama tapagijauvut inuk angermarikpat idluar- 
saijub sangane, Giidib attinga taivlugo Testamentelo 
kuniklugo, miksexarnermik kigligiutsijomagame perKo- 
jat neliata tapagijauninga piniarutaujoxk pivlugo, king- 
ornganelo idluarsaijoxk uivérinasuarlugo terliarasuarlugolo 
angigutjivigivlugo miksekarnerub ilanganik. ‘Tamanna 
pidlartaunamarikpox, taimailiortorlo aularutijaujungnar- 
pok ilaminit nunaminillo parngnanairsimavingmut piti- 

Inuk saglokitsilerpat ataniub kivganganik, idluarsaijo- 
miglénét polisemiglénét, perKojat tapagijauningat pini- 



man may be found guilty, or a guilty man be found 

10. The Trapping of Foxes and Ermine in the Wrong 
Season of the Year. 

It is against the Law to trap Foxes and Ermine and 
other fur-bearing animals, save during the appointed 
trapping season. A man guilty of this offence is liable to 
be deprived of part of his possessions or to be imprisoned. 

If a man traps foxes during the breeding season, he 
stops the young foxes from being born and causes a 
shortage of foxes for many hunters. 

It is necessary for every man to ‘ strike-up’ his traps 
on the day appointed by the Law; and if aman is in doubt 
on which day he must stop trapping, let him ask the 
policeman or the Company’s Trader. 

Likewise if the Law prohibits the shooting of deer for 
a season, or only allows each hunter to shoot a certain 
number of deer, then again it is necessary to obey the 
Law implicitly; for those who break the Law will be 

11. The Keeping Apart of Families Suffering from Certain 
Serious Diseases. 

In cases of certain very serious diseases which one 
family catches from another family, it is commanded by 
Law that those families which are suffering from the 
disease should be kept apart from those who are free from 
the disease. It is therefore against the Law for any one 
who on account of such an illness has been set apart from 
other people in the encampment by the order of a police- 
man or of a doctor (or if there is neither a policeman nora 




arutaujok pivlugo, idluarsaitsiarnek agviarasuarpa senia- 
gortinasuarlugolo, pasijaksaungitorlo pidlaraksangénerar- 
tautipa, pasijaksaujorlo pidlaraksaungiténerartautipa. 

10, Mikkigitjernermik Terrianianik Terrianiglo Taxxerne 

Mikkigitjernex terrianianik terrianiglo takKerne per- 
Kojat mikkigitjerviksaungikojangine tapaniovoK perko- 
janik. Inuk perkojamik ominga tapajox pidlartaulerlune 
aksartaujungnarpok perkutime ilanginik, akkilétitaujung- 
narlunelénét, parngnanairsimavingmullénét pititaujung- 

Inuk terrianiartox piaraxkalertilugit toxotsivoxk terria- 
niat piaraksanginik, taimaimallo terrianiaxartailititsivox 
pinasuaraksaunajartunik Kailertome. 

Mikkigiat ilanatik péjartaujuksauvut uvlorme, perko- 
jat pinasuarviksaujungnaixkojangine, inuglo Kaujimatsia- 
ngipat mikkigitjerungnaiviksak Kanga neliutimangat ape- 
rijuksauvok polisemiglénét Companillénét niuvertinga- 

Taimaktauk perkojat tuktuniarungnaixojikpatta taK- 
Kit ilangine, tuktuxojikpattalénét Kapsituinarnik, nAletsi- 
artaujuksauvut, tapajut perkojanik pidlartauniarmatta. 

11. Kitorngarét Iglomiokatigéllonét Aitornadlartomik Kan- 
imaselit Ingmigolingatitaugianginik. 

Kanimasedluit piungitut aitornadlartut ilangit atorti- 
lugit Kitorngaréngne iglomioxatigéngnermel6nét, perKo- 
jat perkojivut Kitorngarét iglomioxatigéllénét tapkoa ap- 
tersimajuksaungmatta inungnit Kanimasermik ominga 
atulungitunit. Taimaimat perkojat tapagijauvut inuk 
Kanimasealuk tamna pitjutigilugo aptersimatitaujox polli- 
senut Aniasiortemullénét Companillénét niuvertinganut 
(polisexangipat Aniasiortexangipallénét) ilagéngnexarpat 



doctor, by the order of the Company’s Trader or the 
Man of God) to mix with the other people of the encamp- 
ment for the period of time ordered. He is guilty of a 
serious crime and is liable to be imprisoned or to be 
deprived of a part of his possessions. 

This Law is for the protection of yourselves and your 
families against death from certain very serious diseases. 
You know how the dogs catch certain diseases from one 
another and die. Likewise men and women pass on to 
one another certain diseases which can only be prevented 

by keeping the sick apart from the healthy. 

A Magistrate and a policeman usually visit all the 
Labrador Posts during the summer, and they are 
instructed by their officers to uphold the Laws of New- 
foundland among all men. It is the duty of all men 
strictly to observe these Laws, so that they have no reason 
to fear the policemen. In every part of the world it is the 
duty of the policemen by their own actions to set a good 
example to the people. 

In addition to these eleven Laws which are enforced by 
the officers of the King, there are other Laws relating to 
marriage and to the things which concern marriage. The 
Men of God rightly preach to you these Laws, which are 
observed by all decent White Men and Women. 




—ubvalo pullarpat pullarviokpallonét—inungnut atulu- 
ngitunut Kanimasermik tapsominga neliutoK perkojaujok 
nakartinago. ‘Tapajok taimaitok séngojomik tapavok, 
nangminerminiglo pidlaraksautipox, akkilétitaujungnar- 
porlo aksartaujungnarporlénét perxutime ilanginik. 

Perkojak tamanna saputijauniksapsingnut indxatipselo 
saputijauniksanginut toKomit Kanimasealuit piungitut 
aitornadlartut ilangita maliktinginit. Kaujimavose King- 
mit ilangane aituijigés6ngomatta Kanimasernik toxorar- 
lutiglo. ‘Taimaluatsiax inuit aituijigékattarivut Kanima- 
serit ilanginik, tamannalo agviartaujungnarpok Kanimajut 
aptersimagunik Kanimalungitunit. 

Idluarsaijox poliselo nelipsaisOngovut iglugasangnik 
tamainik Labradoreme aujarme, tapkoalo kamatsiarKo- 
jauvut Newfoundlandib maligaksauxojangit perkojang- 
illo nalektaungmatta inungnut tamainut. ‘Taimaimat 
inuit ildnatik naletsiartuksauvut perkojanik, sivoragiaxar- 
Konagit polisenik. Nunaxsoarnelo tamaine silaksoarme 
polisit ilusitsiaringnermingnut igjaraksautsiarKojauvut 

Perkojat ukkua elevenit ataniub kivganginut nalektau- 
titaujut tapilugit, perkojaxarpox sulle nuliaréngnermut 
nuliaréllo ilusiksanginut ilingajunik. Ajoxertuijut per- 
Kojat tapkoa idluadlartomik oxalautigivait ilipsingnut, 
perkojallo tapkoa nalektauvut xablunanut tamainut ilusit- 



>IN all countries it is the custom to be respect- 
ful to the Men of God whoteach the words 
of Jesus Christ who is believed to have 
died on behalf of all mankind. Most 
White Men spend their lives in striving 

z i] after power and possessions by their 
work, but the Men of God give up their life’s work to 
teach the Christian Faith to all men and women who 
will listen to them. ‘Therefore they are respected for 
their good work. 


There are certain things about the Christian belief of 
which you should have better understanding. 

While nearly all White Men believe in the Christian 
Faith, yet there are many different versions of their belief, 
and men and women of the Christian Faith divide them- 
selves up into sections, some having a different form of 
worship from others; but they all believe in the survival 
of the spirit after death. 

There are many different types of rifle, but all are 
for the same purpose; so all Missionaries and White Men 
worship the same God, but choose different ways, as 
you choose different rifles. 

When your hunters journey from one encampment to 
another they do not always follow the same path. Some 
hunters prefer to take one path because it is a little 


UNANE tamaine Gfdib inuxotingit ajo- 
KertuteKarpaktut Jesusib Kristusib oxau- 
singinik opigijaudlarséngovut. Okper- 
pogut Jesusib silaxsoarmiut tamaita toKo- 
jutigilaungmagit. Kablunat unurningit 
najisOngovut indsermingnik pitsartunitik 
perkutitiglo unuksititsomavlugit suliamingnut, Gidible 

inukotingita ajokertuijut indsitik tunivait Kristusemiut 

okperusingit ajokertutigivlugit inungnut tamainut tusaro- 
majunut tapkoninga. Taimaimallo opigijauséngovut 
sulijatik idluarkutaujut pivlugit. 

Kristusemiut okperusingita ilangit pivlugit tukkisiva- 

Kablunat ilfnakasatik okperaloartilugit Kristusemiut 
okperusinginik, okperusexarput adsigéluatsialungitunik 
sutaijartunik, okpertullo aviput nangminermingnik ing- 
migolingajunut ilagéngnelingnut, ilangit ilusexarlutik 
katimaniksamingne assianik assimingnit, ilinatigle okper- 
put tarnib indganilarninganik toxub ungatane. 

Imailingavox. Kukkiutexarpox adsigéngitomik sena- 
majunik, ilfinatigle tépsomingatsainaK pitjutexarput. 
Taimaktaux ajoxertuijut ildnatik kablunallo opigosukput 
Gidemik tipsomingatsainak, annerosukpulle ilusenik 
adsigéluatsialungitunik, sorlo ilipse annerosugapse Kuk- 
kiutinik adsigélungitunik. 

Pinasuartise aularxattartilugit pinasuarvingmit pina- 
suarvingmut tépsomingatsainak apkuteKasOngolungilat. 
llangit apkut una apkutigivat sivikinersarsOnasugijaung- 


shorter, others prefer to take another path because it is 
easier going for the komatiks. The destination is safely 
reached by both paths. Who can tell which is the better 
path ? In their various ways of worshipping White Men 
are like your hunters. 

This much also you should know. In some parts of 
your country the Men of God complain that because you 
attend their services and profess yourselves to be Chris- 
tians, some of you expect to receive gifts of food from the 
Men of God who are not rich in their possessions. Thisis 
a disgraceful thing, unworthy of the Christian belief 
which you profess. 

When the doctor comes at shiptime to heal your sick, 
you do not expect him also to provide you with food. 
Yet some of you expect the Men of God, who sacrifice 
their lives to work among you and to heal your souls, also 
to give you food or other gifts. ‘This indeed is a disgrace- 
ful thing in the eyes of all White Men. 

It is a hard thing for many of you, who have not been 
taught the words of the Gospel by your mothers and 
fathers in your childhood, to think of the teachings of 
Christ as we have been taught to think of them. 

For instance in the Lord’s Prayer we ask God to ‘ Give 
us this day our daily bread.’ By this we mean ‘ Give us 
the opportunity of earning our daily bread by our work 
or by our hunting.’ God has provided seals, foxes and 
deer in your country; if you want them for food, then you 
must hunt them and earn your daily bread. You cannot 
expect God to do your hunting for you while you sit at 




mat, assingita apxutib oma assia apKutigingarpat siorni- 
ornanginersaungmat Kemuksertunut. Nunale torarviojoxk 
tikitaus6ngovok apxkutingnut tamangnut. Kinalo oxa- 
rungnarka apkutik neliax idluarnersaungmangat ? Kati- 
maningita ilusingine Kablunat ilingavut pinasuartititut. 

Tamattomingalotauk Kaujimajuksauvose. Nunapse 
ilangine Gidib inuxotingit 4rusukput ilaujut katimanik- 
sanut nangminermingniglo Kristusemionerartut ilangit 
pilitaujomangmatta nerxkiksanik ilaugamik Kristusemiu- 
nut, ajoKertuijut akluilungimariktilugit silaxsub tamat- 
toma perkutinginik. Tamannale kangunadlarpox, Kris- 
tusemiullo okpervigijangita kigligiutjutigijapse nertortau- 
jutiksanganut ilingalungimarikpox. 

Aniasiortib nelipsarpase Kanimajose inflijomavlugit, 
nerriulungilase tapsoma nerxiksaliniarmasetaux. Ilap- 
sele ilangit nerriukput Gadib inuxotingita, tunijut indser- 
mingnik suliakaromavlutik akunapsingne tarnipse in(li- 
jauniksanginut, nerxiksaliniarmase, pilitsiviginiarmase- 
l6nét nerxiksat assinginik. ‘T'amannale xKuvianalungi- 
marikpok kangunadlarporlo Kablunanut tamainut. 

[lapse ilanginut, sorusionermingne ajoxertortaulau- 
ngitunut Gidib oxausinginik angajoxamingnut, oxilungi- 
lak Kristusib ajoxertusingit tukkisilugit issumagilugillo 
sorlo uvagut sorusioniptingnit ajokertortaumagapta tuk- 
kisilugit issumagilugillo. 

Imak. Nalekab tuksiarutauxojangane Gide Kenuvigi- 
vavut: ‘Uvlome piksaptingnik tunidjivigitigut.’ Tai- 
maglo tuksiartiluta issumakarpogut imak: ‘ Piviksaxarti- 
tigut suliniptingnut pinasuarniptingnullo nerxiksarsiniu- 
tiksarsijungnarkovluta.’ Gidib nunase puijexartipa 
terrianiaxartilallo tuktuxartilugolo, taimaitunigle ner- 
Kiksakaromagupse tagva i/ipse nangmineK pinasuarak- 
sarivase nerkiksarsiorluse. Nerriugungnangilase Gfidib 

pinasuarutiginiarmase kikkartiluse iglome. 
F 81 

Thus also some people are taught to fear Godas though 
He were an enemy of mankind, when the true meaning 
of the Scripture is that a man should /ove God and 

reverence Him. 

You know how times have changed with you since the 
coming of the White Man, how there are different 
problems to-day compared with the problems of your 
fathers and your grandfathers. So also the times have 
changed since Christ was on earth, and many problems 
of life are different to-day. Therefore most Christian 
men and women do not attempt to live their lives 
according to the actual words of the Gospel, but according 
to the spirit of the Gospel teaching. 

In your simple lives in the north country Christian faith 
is shown less in your words than in your deeds. The 
hunter who loves his family, who works hard for their 
benefit, who is kind to his neighbours, who is truthful, 
who keeps the Laws of the King, that hunter is living 
after the manner of a good Christian, and when he reaches 
the end of his life, let him be comforted with the thought, 
that God judges all men and women according to their 
deeds and according to the condition of their lives 

The good actions which you do should be from your 
love of God, who is the good Father Spirit of all men, and 
from your love of the Men of God; not from your fear of 
God or from your fear of the Men of God. 




Taimaktauk inuit ilangit ajoxertortauvut Gide erxsi- 
giviugo, tagva Gide issumagivlugo sorlo omisuktotut 
silaxsoarmiunik, Gidible oxausingita tukkingata nelagor- 
tub ajoxertorpatigut Gide ungagijaksarigaptigo nagligi- 
lugolo opigilugolo. 

Kaujimavose sunatuinait assiangongmatta ilipsingne 
mana taimanganit Kablunat tikitainarninginit nunapsing- 
nut. Issumagijaksat sunatuinait assiangovut uvlome 
issumagijaksaulauxtunit atatapse atatatsiapselo uvlungi- 
nit. Taimaluatsiak issumagijaksat indtseme uvlome assi- 
angovut issumagijaksaulauxtunit Kristusib nunaméni- 
nganit. Taimaimat Kristusemiut unurningit indnasualu- 
ngilat oxautsit tusarnertut oKausingit ubvalo tittangit 
maliklugit, oxautsille tusarnertut ajoxertusingita aner- 
ningat maliklugo. 

Indésipsingne issumalingasuertune nunane takardline 
Kristusemiut nelagértut okperningat sax xKijarnersaulungi- 
lak oxausipsigut, allakaluarpulle piniarnipsigut. Angut 
aipaminik Kitorngaminiglo ungajox, ajugaringitaminik 
sulijok tapkoa idluarkutiksarsijomavlugit, napkigosuktox, 
pitsiartorlo indkatiminik, miksexartunik oKauseKartox, 
ataniub perkojanginik nalektox, angut tamna ila indvox 
Kristusemiut nelagértut ilusiksangit maliklugit, tikiutik- 
pallo indsime naggatiksanganut manigorungnarpox nang- 
minerminik issumanut imaitunut: Gadib tuksiarvigijapta 
inuit tamaita erkartormagit piniarnitik indserilauxtamiglo 
Kanoelinganingit maliklugit. 

Piniarnerit ajungitut piniarnerijase aulataujuksauvut 
naglingnipsingnut Gfidemik, silaxsoarmiut ilGnamaritik 
Atatanganik ajungitomik anerniojomik, naglingnipsing- 
nullo Giidib inuxotinginik ajoxertuijunik, erxsinipsing- 
nu-ungitorlo Gtdemik, erxsinipsingnu-ungitorlénét Gtdib 
inukotinginik ajoKertuijunik. 




5]OU know that if you give your dogs too 
“| much walrus meat, they grow fat and 
slack and that you frequently have to use 
the whip on them when you are driving 
your komatiks. It is the same thing in 
or trade among people of all countries: if 
the Traders are easy-going, then the people become 
easy-going. ‘The Company, therefore, commands its 
Traders to be resolute with all people and forbids them 
to be easy-going; but you know that in times of famine 
and in times of illness, the Company never allows you ot 
your families to come to harm for want of food or 
employment, or for want of care when you are sick. 

Beyond this, you should also know that the Company 
employs men of learning whose only work is to study your 
welfare and to provide means whereby you and your 
children shall enjoy greater strength, prosperity and 

Do not think, therefore, that the Company and its 
Traders do not love your people and do not sympathise 
with your troubles. The love you have for your children, 



AUJIMAVOSE kingmise aivevinextc- 

luarKattarpatta KoinisOngomatta Kemua- 
\| Jailutiglo, Kemukseromagupselo xingmit 
iperartoxattarlugit kissiane sivumuatsia- 
rungnarpose. ‘Taimaitomik ilinganexa- 
sOngovok niuverkatigéngnerme, adsigék- 
pok Kablunangongmangata xKerndngajéngmangitalénét 
ilipsetut. Niuverte Kasukpat erkasugungnailunelo inuit 
Kasungalerivut erkasugungnailutiglo. Taimaimat Com- 
panit niuvertitik katsungaitsiarKovait xasuktaililutiglo, 
inuille tamaita idluartomik piniarvigivlugit; Kaujima- 
vosele neliutune ajoxsarnartune Kanimajoxartiluselénét 
Companit tikitauxolungilase kanoetomut nerxiksairuti- 
gapse ikajorveKarungnaigapselénét, patangaitexanginap- 
sel6nét Kanimatiluse. 

Tamannalo tapilugo Kaujijuksauvose Companit inuxu- 
tekarmatta ilisimajunik suliatuaxartunik Kenitsainarlutik 
idluarkutiksapsingnik, apKutiksarsiutsainartuniglo ilipse 
Kitorngaselo nukkexarpaliajungnarkovluse sulitsiarpalia- 
Kovluselo Kuviasukpaliaxovluselo. 

Taimaimat issumakarniarase Companit niuvertexuti- 
ngillo nagligosulungimatta ilipsingnik, ikpigixatigilungi- 
masselénét kiksautigixatartapsingne. Naglingningnise 


your happy smiling faces, the courage of your good 
hunters, the skill of your women with the needle and your 
faithfulness; these things are spoken of throughout the 
world and are an example in every country. Because of 
these things the Company loves you and provides you 
with the means to help yourselves in your difficulties. But 
remember that a man’s best helper is himself, once he has 
learned the right way to help himself. The Company 
can supply you with a rifle to shoot deer and seals, but 
this rifle cannot save you from starvation unless you 
hunt patiently and aim straight. 

Very many years ago indeed, the whole face of the earth 
was different. Some of you will have seen the forms of 
plants and shells, and the bones of animals carved, as it 
were, out of rock. Many many ages ago, these plants and 
animals were living, and many many years ago also we 
know that there were trees in the most northern lands 
which are now treeless. ‘Those were the days before 
there was ice in your waters, and before ice covered 
most of your land, and before the winters were cold. 
In those days so long ago, that the only record of 
them is the form of plants and bones fashioned, as it 
were, in the rock, the sun brought continual warmth 
to your land, and there were great trees and the animals 
were not covered with fur to protect them against 
the cold. In some parts of the North where the land 
is still covered with ice, the bodies of great animals, 
unknown to the age in which we live, have been found 
with their skin and flesh protected for countless years 
by the ice which formed over them. These animals had 

no fur or fat, so that we know positively that in those 


Kitorngapsingnik, kénase Kuviasuktut Kungajullo, pina- 
suartipse piojut merngortorsarainginingat, arnapse merk- 
sutsiarsOngoningat, nelagdrniselo, tamakkoa oKautigijau- 
vut silaksoarme ilfinane maligaksauvullo nunane tamaine. 
Tamakkoalo pitjutigellugit Companit nagligivase, pivik- 
sakartipaselo ikajorungnarkovluse ilipsingnik siorniornar- 
tunut tikitaugupse. Erkxailauritsele inub ikajortinga pio 
nerpak nangminiovok, inuk ilisimatuarpat kKanox ndmak- 
tomik ikajorungnarmangarme nangminerminik. Com- 
panit aulaivigijungnarajarpase Kukkiutemik tuktuniute- 
mik puijeniutemiglo, kukkiutible tapsoma piulinajangi- 
lase perlernermit pinasuariartolungikupse Kenuesarluse, 

Jarit unuktovaksuit mattoma sivorngane, nunaxsub 
tautua assiangolaukpok manamit. Ilapse ilangit takosi- 
maniarpalukput perortungoarnik ammémajullo assingitalo 
saunangoanginik omajovinillo sauningoanginik senasima- 
jojartunik Kairtune, Jarit unuktovaksuit mattoma sivorng- 
ane perortut tapkoa omajullo tapkoa omalauxput, Kauji- 
mavogullo napartoxalaungmat nunane tachardlerne mana 
napartoKkangimariktune. Neliutune tapkonane imase 
sikkoxalaungilat, nunase uliktaulaungilax sulle sikkonut, 
itjeKalualaungilarlo okiorne. Uvlune tapkonane itsarsoa- 
vaksoarme, Kaujijaujune kissiane perortut saunivinillo 
ilutsiviningitigut Kairtune, sexKinerub nunase seKKinerat- 
sialaukpa, nunaselo napartoKsoakalauKpox, nunapselo 
omajoxotingit merkukatsialaungilat Keujagéxutinik. Nu- 
nat tachardlit ilangine, sikkoxainartune sulle mana, 
omajoksoavinit silungit, Kaujijaungimariktut neliunip- 
tingne, naipitauvut ilangane, amingit uviningillo jarit 
unuktovaksuit navlugit sujuktailititaumariklutik sikkonut 
uliksimajunut tapkoninga. Omajoxsoavinit tapkoa mer- 
KuKalaungimarikput orksuxkaratiglo, taimaimallo Kauji- 



days there was warmth and vegetation where now there 
is ice and barren land. 

All the creatures and all the plants which lived in your 
country in that age of warmth were destroyed by the 
Ice Age which followed, and for a great period of time 
there was no life whatever in the lands which you now 

Gradually, in the course of many years, there came a 
milder climate, and the sun began to melt the ice from the 
ground, so that the deer wandering from the South found 
new pastures in this north country, and the wolves followed 
the deer to the North; and the mice also found their 
food in your country, and the foxes followed the mice. 
The bears also came from the South and found seals on the 
ice; and when the foxes could find no mice, they followed 
the tracks of the bears and ate the remains of the seals 
which the bears had left. 

In those early days many of the animals died because 
they were unaccustomed to the northern climate. But the 
children of the surviving animals were bred to cold winters, 
and Nature began to protect them by providing them with 
warmer fur in the winter, which they shed when the sun 
was hot in the summer; and Nature helped to protect them 
against their enemies by turning their fur white when the 
snow lay on the ground, and by turning their fur dark 
during the summer, so that they were hard to distinguish 
from the ground on which they walked. 

It is for this reason that there are so few blue foxes in 
the north country compared to the number of white 
foxes; for the colour of the blue fox makes him an easy 
prey to his enemies in the snow. 

In the course of time Nature adjusted the balance 
between the animals of the North. At first, the birds built 

their nests on the mainland, but the greedy foxes and 


mamarikpogut xKolarnangimariktomik neliutune taipko- 
hane perortoKatsialaungmat kiaxkatsiarlarmelo nunane 
sunataKangitune sikkoxatsainartunelo manaulertome. 

Omajut ildnatik perortullo ilfnatik naipitaulauxtut 
neliutome tapsomane kiaktalingme asserortaulaukput ne- 
liutome sikkoliksoarme malilauxtome tapsominga, neliu- 
torlo sivitomariktox navlugo omajoxalaungimarikpox 
perortokalaungimarikporlo mikijomigl6nét nunane nuna- 
gijapsingne mana. 

Jarit unuktovaksuit anigorsinnarmatta kiakarpaliavox 
sukaitomik pivaliajomiglo, sexKinerublo sikko auksitilerpa 
nunamit, tuktullo nunanit sexinerdlernit tachamuarpalia- 
jut nerrisugviksarsilerput nunane tachardlerne, amaruillo 
tuktut malikpait tacharmut; nunivakkat ama nerxiksar- 
sivut nunapsingne, terrianiallo malikput nunivakkanik. 
Nanuit ama tikilerput sexinermit naipitsilutiglo puijenik 
dtunik sikkome, terrianiallo naipitsijungnaigamik nuni- 
vakkanik nanuit udlapait nerrilutiglo puijevinernik— 
nanuit simnikogijanginik. 

Neliutune tapkonane omajut unuktut toxolauxput su- 
ngiusimanginamik tachab itjedluanik. Omajullo tapkoa 
piarangit inulertut perortullo itjelingme ametdlerput mer- 
Kulingnik okioxsiutinik, péjarstinik aujarme sexKinex 
onartilugo, saputijauvullo pinasuartimingnit, Kakortamik 
merkutaramik okiorme aputexartilugo nuname, Kernanga- 
joniarlutiglo aujarme nuna aputekarungnaitilugo, takuk- 
sauluarkonagit nuname pisugvigijangine. 

Tamanna pitjutauvox terrianiajusat ikinersaungijai- 
dlarmatta kakortarsungnit nunane tachardlerne; terriania- 
jusat tautukarmatta takuksauluartomik pinasuartinginut 

Sukaitomik sukaimariktomigle kissiane ilinganerit 
sunatuinait 4Kiutivut nunane tachardlerne. Sivorlermik 
tingmiat auktortakaséngolaukput nunamaringme, terria- 



ermine despoiled their nests, so many of the birds gradu- 
ally learned to build their nests on small islands in the sea, 
where there were fewer foxes and ermine looking for food. 

Do not think that in the very early days the wolves, who 
are the ancestors of your dogs, had long furry tails. When 
the wolves followed the deer to the north country, they 
found that they had no means of keeping their noses from 
freezing when they slept on the snow at night; in the 
course of time their tails grew longer and were well covered 
with fur, so that now both the wolves and the dogs can 
keep their noses warmly tucked away under their tails 
when they sleep in the cold. 

Do you not see from these examples that in the course of 
time, as one generation succeeds another generation, nature 
helps all living things to adapt themselves to the different 
conditions of life which exist in every part of the world ? 

There are still traces in parts of your country of the 
‘ Tunnit,’ * who are supposed to have lived in the stone 
houses. Those were the people who had not learned how 
to build snow-houses, and they were, therefore, unable 
to hunt much or to travel much in the winter time: 
and so in times of scarcity they starved. Now, there 
are no Tunnit left. They could not adapt themselves to 
the way of living which is necessary in your country. 
Instead of increasing in number, they dwindled until 
none remained. 

With your people it is a different story; your ancestors 
adapted themselves to the conditions of the country in 
which they lived. They learned to build snow-houses, so 
that they could travel and hunt throughout the winter in 
any regions where there was snow. In this way they 
helped to guard themselves against famine. ‘The seals 

* An extinct tribe reputed to have lived among the Eskimo, although 
descended from different origin. 



nialle terriallo uningartut uivesdxattalaukput tingmiat 
auktotanginik, tingmiallo ilangit unuktut ilinialilauxput 
auktotalioriamik kikkertarsungne imarbingme terriania- 
Kanginersane terriakanginersanelo nerkiksarsiortunik. 

Issumavisé uvlune ipkonane itsarsoarme, amarkut, 
Kingmipse sivorlingit, pamioxalaungmatta takijunik mer- 
Kulingnik ? Amarkut malingmatta tuktunik nunanut 
tachardlernut missigivut Kingatik Kkoagékutexangimatta 
sinigamik aputeme unnuarme; jarillo anigoxattartilugit 
pamiungit takilivaliavut merkutarlutiglo, manalo amar- 
Kullo Kingmiselo xingatik matutsiarungnarpait pamiu- 
mingnut sinigamik itjeme. 

Makkonangat oxautigijaujunit takolilungilasé ilinga- 
nerit sunatuinait 4xiutivaliangmatta unét sukaimariktomik 
tagvainarlungimariktomiglo kinguvangoxatigét malikti- 
lugit kinguvangoxatigénik, omajut ilfinatik sungiutivalia- 
jungnarkovlugit indtsib ilinganerijanganik adsigélungi- 
mariktunik silaxsub nunangine sunatuinarné ? 

Nunapse ilangane ‘ Tunnit’, indlaurasugijaujut iglone 
ujarkanut senamajune, pitangita amiakoviningit malung- 
narput sulle. ‘Tunnit tapkoa ilisimalaungilat iglovigalior- 
nermik aputemut, taimaimallo omajoxsiorungnalaungilat 
arvertatsiarungnalaungilallo okiorme. Mana Tunnixa- 
rungnaimarikpox. Sungiutijungnalaungilat Kanok indt- 
siariamik pijarialingmik nunapsingne. Unuksivalialau- 
ngimarikput, kiglormulle ikitlivaliavut amiakoxarungnai- 

Assiangovox ilipsingne;  sivorlise sungiutilauxput 
nunab indvigijariaxartangata ilinganinginik. liput iglo- 
vigaliornermik ingerarungnarkovlugit omajoxsiorungnar- 
Kovlugillo okiox navlugo nanetuinax aputelingme. Tai- 
maidlutiglo saputijungnarput nangminermingnik perler- 
nermit. Puijit, toxotatik naulangmingnut saunermit 
togamillénét senamajunut, nerxiksatsiangolauxput timi- 



which they killed with their bone or ivory-headed spears 
gave them a rich food on which their bodies thrived; the 
seal-skins were used as clothes for the summer, or for the 
making of boots or kayaks * or tents. The deer also pro- 
vided good meat and warm clothing and rugs for the 
winter, while the women used the deer sinew for the thread 
with which they sewed your clothes. The breasts of birds 
they made into warm socks for the feet, and likewise the 
hare-skins and the fox-skins were used as towels or clothing. 
The eggs of birds, the muktuk f of the white whale, the 
flesh of the bears and the walrus—all these things provided 
rich food for your ancestors on which they thrived. The 
runners of their komatiks were made from whale-bone, 
their bows and arrows and their spears were made from the 
bone and the ivory of the creatures which they hunted. 

In other ways Nature also helped your ancestors. 
You have noticed that most White Men who come from 
the warm climates in the South are taller than your people. 
It is good that you are a short people, for there is less 
surface on your bodies to feel the cold in the winter; 
and when you are travelling against a strong wind, you 
offer less resistance to the wind. You have also noticed 
that many White Men have light coloured eyes, while 
your eyes are dark. It is good to have dark eyes; for it is 
said that men with dark eyes suffer less from the blindness 
which comes from the snow. 

In those days there were no trading posts, no rifles and 
no flour. Yet your ancestors thrived; they had clothing 
and food in plenty and healthy children. 

The reason was because your ancestors, unlike the 
Tunnit, had learned to adapt themselves to those 

* Eskimo canoes. 

TA gelatinous substance (tasting like the white of egg) which covers 
the hide of the white whale (beluga). 



mik nukkesautiksanginik; puijit kissingit annoraksau- 
laukput aujaksiutinik, atulauxpullénét kamingnut xka- 
jangnullo tupingnullo. ‘Tuktut ama nerxkiksatsiangolaux- 
put amingillo annoraksaulauxput Kepiksauvlutiglo okioxk- 
siutinik, arnallo ivaluksarivait tuktut ulliutingit, tapko- 
nungalo annordse kamiselo merksorpait. ‘Tingmiat sag- 
vingit allertiksatsiangolaux put ittigaijarnangitut, ukkalillo 
terrianiallo amingit atulaukput annoraksanut allarutiksa- 
nullo. ‘Tingmiat manningit, xellaluxat mattangit, aklat 
nanuit aivillo nerxingit, makkoa ilfinatik sivorlipse nerkik- 
sarilauxpait nukkesautigilugillo. Kamutingita pergangit 
senajaulaukput arviub sauninginit, pitiksingillo Karg- 
jungillo Kalugiangillo senajauvut omajut toKotaviningita 
sauninginit toganginillo. 

Sivorlipse ilutsitik idluarxutigilaurivait. Naipertulauxk- 
simaniarpalukpose Kablunat unurningit nunanit seKinerd- 
lernit kiaktalingnit pijut anginersaungmatta ilipsingnit. 
Idluartuinarpox mikijégapse, timipse Kaliningit itjemik 
ikpigijungnartut okiorme mikinersaungmatta; akKunak- 
siortiluselo aggomut anoremut pijaunginersauvose. Nai- 
pertorsimavosetauk Kablunat unuktut ijexarmatta Kakoa- 
nganersanik tungujoanganersanik ilipsingnit, ilipse kerna- 
nganersanik ijexartiluse. Kernangajunik ijekariak idluar- 
tuinarpok, KernAngajunik ijelit illuisarainginersauséngo- 
mattagox aputiub Kaumadlarninganit. 

Taipsomaneniuverniarvexalaungilax, kukkiutekalaung- 
ilak senaugaxalaungilax. Sivorlisele sulitsiarséngolaux- 
put; annoraksaxalauxput nerkiksaKalauxpullo amigangi- 
tunik, Kitorngakalauxpullo sukkélungimariktunik. 

Imaitox pitjutaulauxpox; sivorlise, Tunnititut piluga- 
tik, ililaungmatta sungiutigiamik indgiaxarnerub ilinga- 
niksarilauxtanginik taipsomane nunapsingne. 

Agverniartit tikilauxput nunapsingnut; ajoxKertuijut 
Companillo niuverniartingit tikigivut. Tapkoa indsipse 


conditions of life which existed until recently in your 

The whalers came to your country; the Men of God 
came and the Traders of the Company came. They altered 
the conditions of your lives. The bows and arrows which 
your fathers used, you have discarded for rifles: the kayak 
and umiak * which your fathers used, many of you have 
discarded for the wooden boats with engines: the rich seal 
meat and the deer meat which were the life blood of all your 
people, some of you have discarded for White Man’s flour. 

When you first see a hunter very far away on the ice 
with his dogs, it is some time before you can tell for certain 
in which direction he is moving. 

It was the same way with the officers of the Govern- 
ment and with the officers of the Company who could not tell 
at first whether your people derived good orevil fromthe use 
of the things which the White Men brought to your country. 

In those days also White Men knew not of the things 
which are likely to happen when a people such as your- 
selves suddenly begins to use the things which White Men 
gradually \earned to use over a great period of time. 

Take heed to what is written here, all you men and 
women of the North. Your people have not derived good 
from the use which you have made of the White Men’s 
things. The things which have been brought to you are 
good things in themselves, but you have misused some of 
these things, so that to-day you are a feebler people than 
in the old days when your fathers did not know the White 
Men. Your sons are less hardy, your wives bring forth 
fewer children. ‘There is sickness among some of you. 

Here you shall learn how you have brought this weak- 
ness about. 

If you allow a young child to play with a loaded rifle, 

* Large Eskimo rowing-boat usually manned by women. 




ilinganingit ilusiksangillo assiangolertipait. Pitiksit karg- 
jungillo atatagilauxtapse atortangit iperarsimavase, Kuk- 
kiutinik atungarluse; Kajat umiallo atatapse atuséngo- 
lauxtangit ilapse ilangita unuktut iperarsimavait umianik 
Kejuinarnik erkavilingnik atungarlutik; puijevinek nuk- 
kesautsiangojox tuktuvinerlo indésipse nakoxsijutigijangit 
ilapse ilangita iperarsimavait Kablunat senaugangat atung- 

Ingergajox kemuksikut allakkarx4rupsiuk Kaningito- 
mit sikkome oxatsiarungnangilase tagvainak namut torar- 
mangat, Kanilivaliangmangat xKaningilivaliangmangallé- 

Companit inukotingit Governmentiblo pijingit taimai- 
lingaluatsialaukput sivorlermik, oKatsiarungnalaungilat 
tagvainak niuviaksat Kablunat Atangit nunapsingnut inuit 
idluarkutiksanginut ilingalarmangata idluixutiksanginul- 

Taimagletaux xablunat ilisimalaungilat taipsomane 
sumik maliktoxalarmangat inuit, sivorlipsetut sungiusi- 
mangitigijut, atuliaxilermatta Kablunaxtanik sunatuinar- 
nik, Kablunat akunit atorsimagaloartanginik, sukaitomigle 
ilinialauksimax4rdlutik Kanox atutsiarlugit. 

Tamakkoa aglaksimajut naipertutsiarsigik, ilipse ilt- 
nase angutaujose arnaujoselo tachamidjose. Kablunat 
pingita ilangita atoriangit idluarxutigisimangilase. Kab- 
lunat Atangit ilipsingnut idluaraloarput ingmingne, ilang- 
ille atornerluksimavase, taimaimallo uvlome sangéner- 
sauvose taipsomanenit atatapse Kablunat Kaujimaxk4rna- 
ginit. Ernise mainersauvut, arnaselo Kitornginginersau- 
vut. Kanimasexarpullo ilapse ilangit. 

Ovane iliniartuksauvose Kanoxk sangénexk tamanna tikiu- 
tisimangmangat ilipsingnut. 

Sorusek pingoaruteKarkogupsiuk Kukkiutemik iluler- 
simajomik, sukutsiane Kelulilarpa, Kaujimanane nangiar- 



sooner or later he pulls the trigger, not knowing that it is 
a dangerous thing to touch. If the rifle happens to be 
pointed towards him when he touches the trigger, then the 
child will probably kill himself. So also you have found 
some of the White Men’s goods to be of great interest to 
you, but you have not used them in the manner in which 
the White Men have learned to use them. You have made 
these things dangerous to the welfare of your people by 
your misuse of them. 

Look, people! The rifle enabled you to secure your 
food with greater ease than in the old days when your 
fathers hunted with their spears. This was a benefit; but 
you were not satisfied. You must kill with the rifle every 
living thing you saw. The deer you killed in hundreds 
with the rifle when it was only necessary to killafew. The 
seals you killed in hundreds with the rifle, and most of 
them were of no benefit to you, because they sank beneath 
the water before you could reach them, where in the old 
days you caught them securely in your nets or speared them 
at their holes in the ice. Now, in many places, the deer are 
few; you have not enough deer-skin clothes for the winter; 
you rarely taste the good deer meat. The seals too are not 
so numerous and have been frightened away by the noise 
of rifles. Thus you have made the rifle into a curse. Had you 
used it sparingly and with wisdom, it would have been a 

The wooden boats with engines have also brought you 
ease,——for in the old days you travelled over the water 
with the labour of paddles and oars. But to-day, you sit in 
your boats at ease while the engine carries you along. You — 
were accustomed to hard labour and to effort in the old 
days, which made your bodies stronger and harder, but 
to-day many of your young men prefer to sit at ease than to 
work hard. They are becoming a softer people. Thus 



narninganik. Kukkiut torarpat tapsomunga kelulertilugo 
tapsominga, sorusek toKoniarpalukpox nangminerminik. 
Taimaglo ilipse Kablunat pingita ilangit Kuviagigaloar- 
pase, ilisimatsialungilasele kanox atutsiarlugit sorlo Kab- 
lunat ilisimangmatta atorlugit. ‘Taimaimallo xablunaxtat 
tapkoa nangiarnautingortisimavase indxKatipsingnut ator- 
nerlungnipsingnut tapkoninga. 

Oxoxse, indjose! Kukkiutiub  sappingitilauxpdse 
nerkiksarsiluse siornioriaxanginersaxut atatagilauKtapse 
piuserilauxtanginit uvlune nutaungitune omajoxsiolaung- 
matta kalugiamut. Tamanna idluarxutaugaloarpox. ‘Ta- 
mannale namagilaungilase. Kukkiusijarapse toxotsiséng- 
ovose omajunik tamainik takojapsingnik. Tuktunik 
hunderteoxattartunik toxotsilaukpose Kukkiumut, ikitu- 
nik kissiane toxotsijuksautiluse atoriakartapsingnik, Pui- 
jenik hunderteoxattartunik toxotsilaukpose Kukkiumut, 
unurningille piloriutigilaungilase kivilaungmatta piulik- 
lerungnarkartinase tapkoninga. Uvlune nutaungitune 
nulluanut pikattalauxkpase, aglokullénét kappilugit. 
Mana, nunat ilangine sutaijartune tuktuxkatsiarungnaipok; 
annoraxkatsiarungnaipose tuktujanik okioxsiutinik; tuk- 
tuvinektokattarungnaipose. Puijit ama _ ikinersauvut 
sivornganemit, Kukkiutit pervalungninginut nftitauvut. 
Taimaglo xukkiut piungilutangortisimavase. Silatovlusele 
namatuinartomiglo atorajarupsiuk idluarkutaunajarpox. 

Umiat erxavilit ama siornioriaxarungnairutigivase, uv- 
lune nutaungitune ingerarsOngolaurapse imakut eputsai- 
narluse kissiane. Uvlomele iksivatuinarpose umiapsingne 
siorniorungnailuse umiat ingerartitautilugit erKavinginut. 
Suliaksanik oxumaitunik sungiusimalauxpose uvlune 
nutaungitune, tamattomalo timise sangijdtilauxpait 
nukkexatsiartilaitalo. Uvlomele inésuktose suliaksanik 
okumaitunik KuviasuteKarungnaiput siornioriak Kuviagi- 
jungnailugo. ‘Taimaimallo axilivaliavut. Taimaimallo 

G 97 


also the ease which the wooden boats with engines have 
brought you, while in some way of benefit to you, is 
becoming a curse to your people. 

White Man’s flour and the other foods which you can 
trade in the store were harmless when the deer and the 
seals were still plentiful and provided you with the 
strengthening meat which is necessary to your lives. But 
many of you have found it easier to buy flour than to hunt 
the deer and the seals which you have frightened away and 
diminished by the misuse of your rifles. The flour lacks 
the strength-giving qualities of the blood and the meat; 
therefore to some of you the flour has also become a curse; 
for you have grown weak by its over-use. 

Do not hide from yourselves that Ease has proved a 
dangerous thing to your people who for countless years 
have toiled day and night to maintain your encampments 
and your families from cold and starvation. 

In the history of the World, many nations which were 
once strong and healthy have dwindled to nothing. Why 
have these nations dwindled ? Because of the ease which 
came to them from their prosperity. 

The snow does not last for long when the season changes 
under the warmth of the sun, neither will your people last 
for long under the changed condition of your lives, unless 
you learn to use properly the things of the White Man. 

Even as a doe protects her kid from the attack of wolves 
and guides it to safety, so will the Company and the Men 
of God protect you against this great danger and guide your 
people to renewed health and vigour. But the doe cannot 
drag its kid: the kid must follow in the footsteps of its 
mother. So must your people be willing to follow 



StornioriaKanginex umiat erKavilit Kaitangat ilipsingnut 
idluarkutaugaloartilugo ilangane piungilutangolerpox 
ilangane ilapse ilanginut. 

Senaugak nerkiksallo xablunaxtat tapsoma assingit 
pisiarikattartase niuvervingnit idluilaungimarikput tuktut 
puyillo amigangimariktilugit nerrixattartiluselo tapkoa 
nerKinginik nukkesauteojunik inésipse pijariakartanginik. 
Senaugaksilutigle niuvervingnit okinersauvox ilapse ilang- 
inut tuktusiornermit puijesiornermillo, tapkoa ikitlititau- 
tilugit KemAtitautilugillo koaxksartitauvlutik xukkiutipse 
atornerlungninginut. Senaugax nukkesautiksaulungilax 
nerkéjatut auktullo; taimaimallo senaugak ilapse ilangita 
piungilutarimarikpat; atuluarlugo sangélisautigivat. 

Miksexarnek angiariniarasiuk ilipsingnit siornioria- 
KangineK idluarKutautsiarlaungimat indkatigéksoango- 
nipsingnut, jarit unuktoxsuit navlugit siornioriaxatsainar- 
lauxtunut uvlok unnuarlo navlugo igluse aipaselo Kitorng- 
aselo saputijaukovlugit Keujanermit perlernermillo. 

Silaxsub unipkautauningane indkatigéksuit—sivorng- 
ane sangijétsialauxtut Kanoengitsiartullo—nunguvaliasi- 
mavut amiakoxarungnailutiglo. Suna pivlugo indxati- 
géksuit tapkoa nunguvalialaukat ? SiornioriaKkarungnaineK 
akluisimaxardlutik pitjutaulauxpox. 

Operngangovaliangmat sexinerub  onarsivalianinga 
maliklugo aput akunéséngojungnaipok; taimaglo ilipse 
indsipse soKoserpalianinga maliklugo akunénialunginivose 
iliniatsialungikupse kanok kablunat pingit namatsiartomik 

Sorlo tuktub arnaub nochane saputinasuarmago amar- 
Kunit opaktortunit taamak Companit ajoxertuijullo saputi- 
nasuarniarivase nangiarnartomit angijomit mattomangat, 
tessiorasuarluselo atsuilinermut nukkexarnermullo nuta- 
mut. Tuktuble nochane uniarungnangila, nocharle malik- 
tuksauvox, ananane tupjarlugo. Taimailijuksaugivose. 


ij » = 


4 N the last chapter you saw the causes which 
have begun to affect the health of your 
people. You saw how the conditions of 
your life have been changed by the 
presence of White Men among you, and 
AP FX} by your misuse of the new things which 
they brought to your country. 
It is, therefore, necessary that you should learn the 
secrets of Health that you may restore to your children 
the strength and hardihood of your ancestors. 

When the hunter goes out in the fall to his trapping 
grounds, he takes with him an outfit of necessary things 
so that he can trap successfully. He takes food for 
himself and his family and his dogs: he takes traps: he 
takes oil for his lamp: he takes snow-knives: he takes 
winter clothing: he takes cartridges for his rifle. If a 
hunter goes out without this outfit, he cannot trap 

Likewise Health is the outfit of Life; for in your 

country a man cannot live successfully and preserve the 


pJIAPTER sixeme takotitaulauxpose xKa- 
nOK inuit timingita atsuiliningat asseror- 
tauvaliangmangat. Takotitaulauxpose 
KanoK inuit indsingita piusingit soKoser- 
paliangmangata xablunat tikiningat aku- 
napsingnut maliklugo, inuit atutsialungi- 
matta Kablunat xaitangita ilanginik. 

Taimaimat mana atsuilinerub piusingit nelonaijartau- 
ningalo iliniaraksarivase, ilipse Kitorngaselo nukketarner- 
saukovluse ajornangipat, sorlo sivorlise nukkexalaung- 

Atsuilinex ilingavox inungmut sorlo sakko ilingangmat 
ta Mikkigitjeriartortox aularmat mikkigiaKarniarvingmi- 
yt nut okiarme, neksarséngovox ilfinainik atoriakarniartami- 
fa nik, sulijomik pinasuarungnarKovlugo. Neksarpox nang- 
ri minime ilamelo nerkiksanginik; mikkigiagipox; Kollime 
int orksuksanganik neksarivox; saviksoarmik neksarpox; 
fe | annoragipok okioxsiutinik; Kukkiutimelo sakkuksang- 
nt anik neksarivok. Omajoxsiortok kemailerpat taimaitu- 

nik sapermarikpox omajoxsiorlune sulijomik. 
Taimaluatsiak atsuilinex ilingavox indésipsingnut. Ne- 
lonalungimat, atsuililungitok nunapsingne, piusiniglo 
atsuilinermut ilingajunik atulungitox, nukkingérutivalia- 
niarmat, saperniarporlo namaktomik omajoxsiorlune. 

Mana taijomavakka piusit atsuilinermut ilingajut, 




strength of his own body and keep sickness from his 
wife and children unless his outfit includes 

Wholesome food, 

Marriage with a healthy and suitable partner, 
The exercise of the body with hard work, 
Proper clothing for each season of the year, 
Proper housing for each season of the year, 
Prevention and cure of illness. 

Health of the body is the gift of God. It is the most 

precious possession of every man and woman. 

What do you do with your other precious possessions f 
You take good care of them so that they remain of service 
to you. You keep your knives well sharpened. You alter 
the sights of your rifle until they suit your eye exactly. 
You keep your cartridges from the wet because you know 
that the powder will not fire if itis damp. You take great 
care in the building of your houses so that they protect 
you from the cold of the wind and the blizzard. 
What great care also your wives take in the sewing of 
skin boots so that no water comes through and wets 
the feet! In all these possessions which can be re- 
placed when they are worn out, your people take great 
care and trouble. 

How much greater care should you take with the 
possession of health which cannot be replaced! 

Health enables the husband to beget strong children. 
Health gives to the wife the fertility to produce strong 
children. Health turns strong children into hardy hunters. 
Health enables the hunter to provide food for his wife and 
children and for the old people. Health is indeed the 


ton i 


atoraksaungmatta ilipsingnut Kitorngapsingnullo. Imai- 

Nerxiksak piojox. 

Katititauvlune nuliaréngnermut aipamut Kanoeto- 

Suliaksax nukkenik pitsartutitsijox. 

Annorat sillakimut  sillarnilungmullénét ilingajut 

Iglullo tuppillo naémaktut. 

Kanimagékutit Kanimaserublo 4niasiutiksanga. 

Timib Kanoengitsiarninga tunergusiangovox Giidemit; 
akkitudlarlunelo pigijaksauvox ilfinainut angutinut arna- 

Assinginik akkitudlartunik perkutekarupse Kanok ator- 
Kisé tapkoninga ? ‘Taimaitut ivlerivase pairitsiarlugillo, 
atoraksaukovlugit ilipsingnut. Kamatsiarpose savise ké- 
nakatsiarkovlugit. Kukkiutipse torautingit 4xiksorpase, 
ijipsingnut ndmatsiarkovlugit. Kukkiutipse sakkungit 
Kausertailitipase Kaujimagapse argjat sipkernialungimatta 
xausertilugit. Taimaktaux udjertorpose iglupsingnik, 
igloliorasuarluselo piojunik, itjemillo axKunaxsoarmillo 
saputijaukovluse. Arnaselo kamatsiarasuarséngovut kam- 
miortilugit, kammit imagukonagit ittigaselo KauserKonagit. 
Taimaitut nungusaraitut assetarungnartulle ivlerivase 
pairitsiarlugillo, Anginersaungijaidlartomigle timib Kano- 
etoxartailitigianga issumagijaksauvok, time Kanoetokarpat 
Axiktausaraijungnakattangimat | 

Atsuilinerub angut sappingitipa Kitorngatarlune sangi- 
jotsiartunik aiparéngnerme. Atsuilinerub arnak sappi- 
ngitipa singaivlune Kitorngilunelo sangijétsiartunik. At- 
suilinerub sorutsit sangijut aglivaliatipait omajoxsior- 
teotilugillo nukkelingnik. Atsuilinerub omajoxsiorte 

sappingitipa nerxiksarsiutsiarlune aipame xKitorngamelo 


maker of happiness and prosperity, and bad_ health 
begets misery and poverty among you. 

Therefore you must take the utmost care of Health, 
remembering that a body without Health is as useless as a 
rifle without cartridges. At the same time do not forget 
that while you can trade cartridges from the Company, 
you cannot trade Health, which is the gift of God. 

Look around the tents of the encampment. Ask your- 
self why this hunter is so weak with the cough, why that 
hunter is in such pain and spits blood, why this woman is 
barren of children, why that woman has the pain in her 
chest. Ask yourself why three children died in the en- 
campment this spring, why two mothers who were preg- 
nant had a miscarriage with their babies. 

The answer is plain—You neglect the health of your- 
selves and of your children. You neglect the care of your 
bodies so that illness takes hold of them. You neglect the 
illness so that the sufferer often dies. 

Under the rocks and earth which keep the bodies of the 
dead safe from the wild animals, many men and women 
and children lie buried who would be alive and thriving 
to-day had they learned to follow out the Laws of Health. 

When the Company was first formed in the island of 
Britain 260 years ago, there were not many people in 
our encampments. Where there was one family in those 
days, there are thirty families to-day in spite of many wars 


nd weet 
of Het 

rm we 


inukoartullo piksanginik. Atsuilinex ila Kaitsivox Kuvia- 
sungnermiglo piloringnermiglo, atsuilinginerle malikto- 
Kakattarpok kapiasungnermiglo ajoxsarnermiglo akunap- 

Taimaimat timipse atsuiliningat pairijaksarivase ivleri- 
lugolo ajugaringitapsingnik, erkaumavluse time atsuili- 
lungitox ilingangmat Kukkiutitut sakkoxangitotut. Pui- 
gorniaraseletauk sakkosijungnaraloartiluse Companinit 
pisiniarungnalunginapse timib atsuilininganik tapkona- 
ngat; tamanna Giidib tunergutigiva. 

Tuppit pinasuarvingmétut Kemergotsiarsigik. Apert- 
soritse nangminipsingnik suza piv/ugo inuk una taimak 
sangétigimangat xkoertutsainarlune, sua piv/ugo imna 
taimak Aniatigimangat oriarKattarlune aungmik, sua 
piviugo arnaK taimna Kitorngisuimangat, suna pivlugo 
arnak una sagvilerimangat Aniadlarlune. Apertsoritse 
nangminipsingnik suza pivlugo sorutsit pingasut ipkoa 
indjungnailaungmangata operngasame, sunalo pivlugo 
arnak magguk singaisimalauxtik alliptolaungmang4ng- 

Apertsutit tamakkoa kigusingit nelonalungilat lA; 
imaiput: Udjertulunginapse ilipse xitorngapselo timi- 
ngita atsuilininginik. Timipse pairigiangat erxagilungi- 
lase, taimaimallo kanimaserub opaktorpait. Kanimasex 
erkagitsialungilase, taimaimallo kanimajut toKoxattarput. 

Nunab iluane, ibjub ujaraillo, saputsijut toxungajut 
timivininginik omajunit nujoartunik, atane iluvertauvut 
angutit arnallo sorutsillo unuktut indnajalauxtut Kanoe- 
ngitsiarlutik uvlome sulle malitsialaurunik atsuilinerub 

Companit pigiartainarningane xKikertaxsoarme Eng- 
landeme jarit 260 mattoma sivorngane, inuxalualaungilax 
iglugasaksoaptingne. ‘T'aipsomane atausénarnik xitorng- 
aréktotalit mana Kitorngaréktotakarput 3onik, taimangat 



in which a great number of our strongest men were 

Our people have greatly increased both in number and 
in prosperity, because they have lived according to the 
Laws of Health. 

The Laws of Health are as necessary to the welfare of a 
people as are the Laws of the King which protect the 
honest worker from the evildoer. 

In every possible way the Company will encourage you 
to live according to the Laws of Health, so that your 
people regain the strength and vigour of old time. 



unatarnersoakalauxksimagaloartilugo sutaijartunik, angu- 
tiptalo séngonerpaujungit unuktut toxotaumatilugit. 

Englandib inungit aglivaliasimavut angijomik unurni- 
ngit akluiningillo maliklugit, inénersaugamik atsuilinerub 
maligaksauxojangit maliklugit. 

Atsuilinerub maligaksauxojangit pijariakinersaulungi- 
marikput indxatigéksuit idluarkutiksanginut, atanerub 
maligaksaukojanginit saputsijunit idluartomik suliaxar- 
tomik inungnit idluitulijunit. 

Ajugaringitamingnik Companit kajungersaromadlar- 
pase indtsiarkovluse atsuilinerub maligaksauxKojangit 
maliklugit, inuit tigusilermixovlugit nukkemik omarit- 
siarnermiglo sorlo sivorlise pikalaungmattatut. 



JEIE body is like the engine of a motor boat. 
You feed the engine with gasoline from 
the tank. The gasoline is changed into 
gas and provides the power with which 
all the parts of the engine are forced to 
move. After the gas has lost its power, 
it is forced out of the engine through the exhaust pipe. If 
you cease to feed the engine with gasoline, it stops. If you 
feed the engine with impure gasoline, it runs badly and 
causes damage to the engine. Ifyou feed the engine with 
too much gasoline, it chokes: if you feed it with too little 
gasoline, it runs weakly. If the weather is cold, it is 
difficult to keep the engine warm. If the weather is hot, 
it is difficult to keep the engine cool. If the spark fails, 
no amount of exertion will bring life to the engine. If 
you want the engine to work regularly day-in day-out, 
you must give constant care to it. 

You feed the body with meat. When the meat reaches 
the stomach, it is changed into blood and provides the 
power with which all the limbs of the body are kept active. 
After the goodness of the food has been absorbed by the 
blood, the waste leaves the body. If you cease to feed 
the body, it starves. If you feed the body with impure 

food, it causes sickness and damages the health of the 


NUB timingata umiab métaliub erkavingit 
adsigivait. Umiab erxavingit nerritipase 
sorlo orksumik orksuKautemit. Orxsuk 
ablatsangortitauvok pujormut takuksau- 
ngitomut ubvalo anernermut, (Kaktaung- 
mat ubvalo sipkertitaungmat Koaxksarnar- 

tub ikomanganut), tapsomalo pitsartuninganut, ubvalo 
Karninganut, erkavit ingergartitauvut. Anernek tamna 
pitsartuerutingmat anititauvok erkavit iluanit suvlokut. 
Erxavit orksuerutikpat nokKarpok. Erkavit orksuKarpat 
piungitomik, imermiglénét ilalingmik, ingergatsialungi- 
lax, erxavillo sujuktauvox. Erxavit angiluartomik orKsu- 
Karpat ippivok; mikiluartomigle orksukarpat, sangévlune 
kissiane ingergarpox. Silla Keujanarpat, erKavit onarti- 
gianga oxilungilax; sillalo onaluarpat erKkavit nerromik- 
tigianga oxilunginivox. Koaxksarnartokangipat erKkavit 
tokungavok, angijodlungmiglo sulivigigaloarungne omati- 
nialungilat. Erxavit ingergatsiarkogungne kamagitsiat- 
sainariakarpat Kaut tamat. 

Time ama nerritipat nerkemik. Nerke axearomut 
pilune ablatsangortitauvox aungmut, tapsomalo pitsartu- 
ninganut timib avatingit ilGnatik aulajartitauvut. Ner- 
kiub pitsartuninga ilaliortaungmat aungmut, amiakunga 
annauvlune anititauvoxk timemit. Time nerritailitigungne 
perlerpox. ‘Time nerritigungne nerkemik piungitomik 

Kanimalerpox, timelo atsuilijungnaipox. Time angiluar- 


body. If you feed the body with too much food, the 
stomach rejects the food. If you feed the body with 
too little food, the limbs become weak in their movement, 
If the weather is cold, it is dificult to maintain the warmth 
of the body with food. If the weather is hot, it is difficult 
to feed the body in such a way that the blood remains cool. 
If the heart fails, the spark of life is gone and nothing 
will restore life to the body. If you want the body to 
work regularly day-in day-out, you must give constant 
care—particularly to the food which provides the body 
with the blood of life. 

In two ways you allow food to harm your bodies 

Here follows counsel concerning the function of the bowels 
and the need of regular habits in order to maintain a 
healthy system. 

In this other way you also allow food to harm your 
bodies seriously. Many of you are feeding your bodies 
with weak food which does not strengthen your blood. 
Many of you eat too much white flour and white biscuit. 
These things being pleasant to eat satisfy the hunger of 
the stomach, but they do not help to support your bodies 
with rich blood. 

If you were to feed your dogs on white biscuits and 
bannocks, you would find that, while the dogs appeared to 
be well filled at first, they would soon grow weak on a 
komatik trip and would die of exhaustion before many 



hart 10 
ur i 
our ba 
ite bs 
out tn 



tomik nerritigungne merriarpox nerrijaminik; mikiluar- 
tomigle nerritigungne sangélivox, avatingillo aulajatsia- 
rungnalungilat. Itjelidlarpat timib onartigianga nerkemut 
oxilungilak, sillale onaluarpat timib nerritigianga nama- 
tuinartomik auk onaluarkonago oxilunginivox. Omate 
tiglerungnaikpat time toxungalerpox, omartigiangalo 
ajornarpox. ‘Time sulitsiatsainarkogungne kamagitsiat- 
sainariakarpat Kaut tamat, piluartomiglo nerke—auksalit- 
sijok omanartomik timemik—kamagitsiarlugo. 

Maggungnik nerke sujuitipase timipsingnik. 

Sivurlermik, nerkiub amiakoa atornangitok anititsaina- 
lungilase timemit Kaut tamat. Amiakoa tamna piungitok 
timipsingnéxopase, téapsomalo ause sujukpa. Kablunat 
Kitorngangit nunane tamaine ajoxertortauvut sorusioner- 
mingnit annak anititaujuksaungmat timemingnit uvlaxsiu- 
tetor€rtuaramik Kaut tamat. Taimaidlutiglo timingit 
oxitévlutik omaridlarput, aungillo piovox. Ilusex taman- 
na atutsainartuksauvox Kaut tamat indsex navlugo, tattui- 
nek ubvalo annaxtailinex amangongmat xKanimasernut 
sangénernullo unuktunut, timiblo avatingit iltinatik, pi- 
luartomigle Kitornginermut ilingajut, omaludlartitauvut. 
Taimaimat ilipse ilinase atunit iluserijaksarivase Kaut 
tamat uvlaxsiutetorértuarupse annagiartortuksauvluse; 
Kitorngaselo taimak ajoxertoraksarivase. 

Amalo aipanganik nerke sujuitipase timipsingnik. 

lapse ilangita unuktut timise nerritipase nerxemik 
aupse nukkesautigilungitanganik, nerriluarapse senaugar- 
mik kaxxdjaniglo. Tamakkoa mamagigaloarpase, namak- 
sititsivullo aKearob kangninganik, namaktomigle pitsar- 
tutitsilungilat timipsingnik aungmut piojomut. 

Kingmise nerripkarupsigik KaxxK@janiglo senaugar- 
miglo malugosusaraidlarpose Kingmit axeartorkéraloarti- 
lugit nerrijarértuaramik, manakullukut merngortudlarniar- 

matta, ajulerniarmattalo uvlut unukténgitut naxartinagit. 
uD EY 


It is the same thing with human beings; if their food 
consists mostly of white flour and bannocks, they appear 
to be in fair health until they have to make some effort with 
their bodies. ‘Then they find that their bodies are not 

In the years when the foxes cannot find sufficient mice 
to eat, they grow weak and die. ‘The foxes usually do 
not die of starvation, but of a disease which attacks them 
when their bodies are weak. 

Again, it is the same thing with human beings; very 
few people die of starvation, but their bodies grow weak 
from lack of proper food; then when they are in a 
condition of weakness, disease attacks them, and they have 
not the strength to free themselves of it. 

In this way your men, women and children contract the 
disease of the lungs, which filches their health and wastes 
their limbs. From this disease many of your people die, 
particularly those people who feed too much on bannock 
and biscuit. 

The feeding of the body on the wrong food is also one 
of the causes why Innuit women produce so few children. 
The bodies both of the husband and wife must be well 
nourished for the production of children. Where a well 
nourished pair can produce a family of four healthy 
children, to a poorly nourished pair no children may be 
born, or only children of weak health. 

Again, it is necessary for a mother to be well nourished 
to provide rich milk for her baby. If the mother is poorly 
nourished, her milk is poor, and her baby is likely to die, 
unless another woman who has richer milk nurtures the 



Inuit taimailingaluatsiarivut; senaugarmiglo KaKKOja- 
niglo nerketuakarunik aipiujakatsialugatik, Kanoekérlu- 
ngilat aksororiakarxartinagit. Aksororiakaramiglo malu- 
gosudlarput timitik nukkexatsialungimatta. 

Jarit ilangine nunivakkaxatsialungitune terrianiat sang- 
élikattarput toxovlutiglo. Terrianialle toKoKattarséngo- 
lungilat perlernermut, sdlauvulle kanimasermut opaktor- 
timingnut timitik sangétilugit. 

Amalo, inuit taimailingaluatsiarivut; toKojut perlerner- 
mut unuktdngimarikput, timingille sangélivut nerKexKa- 
nginamik namatsiartomik; sangédlartilugillo kanimaserub 
opaktorpait, nukkexalungilallo kanimasex iperarlugo, 

Taimailingatilugillo angutipse, arnapselo, Kitorngap- 
selo ilangit puvalerivut, kanimaserublo tamattoma arxtar- 
pait atsuilinermik, avatingillo nukkingérutilugit. Kani- 
masermut tamattomunga ilapse ilangit sutaijartut toxovut, 
piluartomik senaugarmik KaxxK6janiglo nerKetuaxartut. 

Timib nerritigianga nerkemik tamnautsiangitomik pit- 
jutauxattarivox arnase ikkitotuinartunik xitorngilermatta. 
Aiparék Kitorngakaromajuk amigangitunik sangijétsiar- 
tuniglo timexartuksauvuk tamarmik atsuilitsiartungnik 
uvinekatsiartungniglo. Aiparéx atsuilitsiartuk nukkexat- 
siartuglo saxKéniarpuk xitornganik sittamanik, aiparék 
sangétuk uvinexatsialungituglo sappertilugik xitornga- 
tarlutik, Kitorngakatuinarlutiglonét sukkdjunik. 

Amalo, ananax patangaititautsiartuksauvox patanga- 
juksauluganelo amAmakatsiaromagune piojomik amiga- 
ngitomiglo nutaraminut. Andnax patangajok uvinexat- 
sialungitorlo amamakarniarpox piotsiangimariktomik kis- 
siane, nutarangalo ajulerlune indjungnaituinariaKarniar- 
pok amamakartitaungikune anfname assianut_pitsar- 
tunersamik amdmaxartomut. 

H 113 


Many Innuit mothers feed their children at the breast 
for too long a period. The mothers of white children 
only feed their babies thus for about nine months or for 
a year at the most. The conditions of life are more 
dificult in your country for babies, but a baby should 
be weaned after eighteen months at the most. Also 
‘t+ is harmful for a mother to nurture one child while 
there is another baby in her bosom. 

From these examples you will see that there is nothing 
more important to the health of your children and of 
yourselves than to nourish the body with food which 
brings strength to the blood. 

In some parts of the world where there is great warmth 
from the sun, the people eat very little meat because it 
provides the body with too much heat. But in your country 
where there is great cold in the winter and where the sun 
gives little warmth in the summer, the body can only be 
sustained in health by plenty of rich meat. 

The best food of all is fresh seal meat. The meat, the 
blood and the liver of the seal give strength to the body. 
This strength protects the body against illness, and builds 
up a weak body with new life. 

So valuable to the life of the body is the liver of the seal 
that in other parts of the world seal livers are collected for 
the use of doctors, who give the livers for food to sick 
and feeble people. 

The seal is the most precious food for your people. Eat 
the meat while it is fresh. Eat it raw; or if you prefer to 
cook it, do not cook it too long. Otherwise the goodness 
will escape from the meat. If any member of your family 
is ill or weak, give him the fresh seal liver and a soup made 
from the seal blood. That will strengthen him. 

The fresh meat of all the creatures in the North is good 


Arnapse ilangita sutaijartut nutaratik sivituluartomik 
amamaktipait. Kablunat arnangita nutaratik am4masén- 
gotipait taxxinik gnik, jarelo iluitox navlugo sivituner- 
pauvox. Nunapsingnele indgiak okumainersauvox 
nutaranut, ananable nutarane amAmaktitaksarilungila 
sivitunersamik taKKinit 18nit. Sujungnarpok arnamut 
amamaktitsigune nutaramik singaimatilugo assianik. 

Oxautigijaujunit makkonangat takoniarpose pijariakor- 
tonersaujokangimat ilipselo Kitorngapselo Kanoengitsiar- 
nipsingnut timib nerrititautsiarninganit nerkemik pitsar- 
tutitsijomik aungmik. 

Silaxsub nunangita ilangine kiaxadlartune, inuit keta- 
kullutuinarmik kissiane nerKejaktorsOngovut, nerKkejab 
time onaluattingmago. Nunapsingnele itjelidlartome 
okiorme, kiakarpadlalungitomelo aujarme, time atsuilit- 
siarungnarpox kissiane nerKejaktorupse pitsartujomik 

Puijevinerlo nutax pionerpauvoxk nerxkiksanit tamainit. 
Puijib nerkinga aungalo tingungalo pitsartutitsivut time- 
mik nukkexatsiartilugolo. Nukke tamanna saputsivok 
timemik Kanimasermit, timelo sangétok pititsivigiva 
indtsemik nutamik. 

Silaxsub nunangita ilangine puijib tingunga taimak 
atornartiginasugijauvok timib inésinganut niasiortit 
tinguit katersortaukongmagit nerxkiksautilugillo Kanima- 
junut sukkéjunullo. 

Puijevinek nerkiksauvox pionerpak ilipsingnut. Ner- 
risiuk nutangotilugo. Mikkigauvlune nerrisiuk; ésima- 
tilugolénét nerring4romagupsiuk sivituluartomik xalla- 
niarane, angiluartomik Kallakpat nerke pitsartuerutivox. 
Ilapse ilangat kanimalerpat sangélerpallénét tingutortisiuk 
nutamik, allupsartisiuglénét puijib aunganit senamajomik, 
Tamattoma pitsartutiniarpa. 

Omajut ilinatik tachamétut nerxingat nerxkiksatsian- 



to eat and provides the body with strength; but the meat 
of the creatures which live in the sea is particularly good— 
bear meat, whale meat, seal meat and walrus meat. They 
fortify the body against the cold and against sickness, The 
muktuk of the white whale is also good for the body in 
other ways. Deer meat is good also, but there is 
greater strength in the tallow of the deer than in the 
meat itself. 

It is a good thing to extract the marrow from the bones 
of these creatures, for marrow adds strength to the blood 
and helps to build the bones of the body. 

Those of you who live on the coast of Labrador should 
eat the fresh livers of codfish; for there is great benefit 
in this food. The doctors always give the oil of cod 
livers to those who have bad lungs and to those whose 
bodies are wasting away with disease. Cod liver is a 
very precious food for children and for all people who are 

The salmon and the trout and the birds provide good 
food in the summer, and in the spring birds’ eggs give 
health. Seal oil and whale oil are nourishing at all times 
of the year, but the oil lacks certain good things which 
fresh meat and blood possess. 

There is most illness amongst you during the spring 
and the fall of the year. For in the spring the sun often 
melts your snow-house, before it is warm enough and dry 
enough to live comfortably in your tents: in the fall of the 
year it is often too cold to live comfortably in your tents, 
yet there is not sufficient snow for the building of an igloo. 
At these periods of the year your bodies are exposed to 
most hardship, and are more likely to be attacked by illness 
than at other times of the year. ‘Therefore in the spring 
and fall you should take great care to strengthen your 
bodies with good food. 


reat bat 

e ald 
opl wi 


p thes 
the sun 
gh a 
the fila 
re exp 

i te? 

gt d 


govok nukkesautsiangovorlo timemut; imarbiksiutille 
herkingat nerxiksatsiangonerpauvox, tagva nanorvinex, 
arvevinexK, puijevinex, aivevinerlo, Tamakkoa time sapu- 
tivat itjemit Keujanermit Kanimasermillotaux. Mattax 
atutsiarivok timemut assiagut. Tuktuvinex piotsiarivox, 
tunnorlo pitsartunekaluarpox nerKejanganit. 

Idluartuinarporlo pattex péjartaukpat omajut tamakkoa 
sauninginit, pattex pitsartutitsingmingmat aungmik, pit- 
sartutitsigivok timib sauninginik. 

Ilipse indjose Labradoreme nerrijuksaugivose ogait 
tingunginik, nerkiksatsiangongmatta piojomik. Ania- 
siortit ogait sivangat tunivat inungnut puvalerijunut sallé- 
junullo Kanimasermut. Siva ama nerkiksatsiangovok 
sorutsinut ilfinainullo sangétunut. 

Kavisilit exaluillo tingmiallo nerxiksatsiangogivut au- 
jarme, operngamelo tingmiat manningit ikajutsiarivut. 
Puijib orksunga Kelalugaublo orksunga nakoxsinatsainar- 
puk, orxsulle pitaxangilat mikkigab aublo pitangita ilan- 

Kanimasexarnerpauséngovox akunapsingne opernga- 
simelo okiaksamelo. Operngasdme sexinerub iglovigase 
apullo iglupse avatane auksitipa onatsiarK4rtinago pani- 
natsiarkartinagolo aularungnarxArtinaselo indtsiarniarluse 
tuppine; okiaks4melo Keujanaluarpox intsiariamut tup- 
pine, aputexatsialungilarle sulle iglovigaliorungnarKov- 
luse. Neliutune makkonane timese siorniornersaujaria- 
Karput pijausarainersauséngovullo Kanimasermut jarib 
neliuningita makkoa assinginit. ‘Taimaimat kamatsiar- 
nersaujuksauvose operngas4melo okiaksAmelo timise nako- 
Ksijautsiarkovlugit nerxiksamut piojomut. 



to eat and provides the body with strength; but the meat 
of the creatures which live in the sea is particularly good— 
bear meat, whale meat, seal meat and walrus meat. They 
fortify the body against the cold and against sickness. The 
muktuk of the white whale is also good for the body in 
other ways. Deer meat is good also, but there is 
greater strength in the tallow of the deer than in the 
meat itself. 

It is a good thing to extract the marrow from the bones 
of these creatures, for marrow adds strength to the blood 
and helps to build the bones of the body. 

Those of you who live on the coast of Labrador should 
eat the fresh livers of codfish; for there is great benefit 
in this food. The doctors always give the oil of cod 
livers to those who have bad lungs and to those whose 
bodies are wasting away with disease. Cod liver is a 
very precious food for children and for all people who are 

The salmon and the trout and the birds provide good 
food in the summer, and in the spring birds’ eggs give 
health. Seal oil and whale oil are nourishing at all times 
of the year, but the oil lacks certain good things which 
fresh meat and blood possess. 

There is most illness amongst you during the spring 
and the fall of the year. For in the spring the sun often 
melts your snow-house, before it is warm enough and dry 
enough to live comfortably in your tents: in the fall of the 
year it is often too cold to live comfortably in your tents, 
yet there is not sufficient snow for the building of an igloo. 
At these periods of the year your bodies are exposed to 
most hardship, and are more likely to be attacked by illness 
than at other times of the year. ‘Therefore in the spring 
and fall you should take great care to strengthen your 
bodies with good food. 


radon ht 
reat he 
€ oll 
id lie 

opl mM 


govok nukkesautsiangovorlo timemut; imarbiksiutille 
nerKingat nerxiksatsiangonerpauvox, tagva nanorvinex, 
arvevineK, puijevinex, aivevinerlo, Tamakkoa time sapu- 
tivat itjemit Keujanermit Kanimasermillotaux. Mattak 
atutsiarivoxk timemut assiagut. Tuktuvinex plotsiarivok, 
tunnorlo pitsartunexaluarpox nerKejanganit. 

Idluartuinarporlo pattex péjartaukpat omajut tamakkoa 
sauninginit, pattex pitsartutitsingmingmat aungmik, pit- 
sartutitsigivok timib sauninginik. 

Ilipse indjose Labradoreme nerrijuksaugivose ogait 
tingunginik, nerxiksatsiangongmatta piojomik. Ania- 
siortit ogait sivangat tunivat inungnut puvalerijunut sallé- 
junullo Kanimasermut. Siva ama nerkiksatsiangovok 
sorutsinut ilfinainullo sangétunut. 

Kavisilit exaluillo tingmiallo nerxiksatsiangogivut au- 
jarme, operng4melo tingmiat manningit ikajutsiarivut. 
Puijib orksunga Kelalugaublo orksunga nakoxsinatsainar- 
puk, orxsulle pitaxangilat mikkigab aublo pitangita ilan- 

Kanimasexarnerpauséngovox akunapsingne opernga- 
simelo okiaksamelo. Operngasdme sexinerub iglovigase 
apullo iglupse avatane auksitipa onatsiarKartinago pani- 
natsiarKartinagolo aularungnarxArtinaselo inétsiarniarluse 
tuppine; okiaks4melo Keujanaluarpox indtsiariamut tup- 
pine, aputexatsialungilarle sulle iglovigaliorungnarKov- 
luse. Neliutune makkonane timese siorniornersaujaria- 
Karput pijausarainersausOngovullo xKanimasermut jarib 
neliuningita makkoa assinginit. ‘Taimaimat kamatsiar- 
nersaujuksauvose operngasamelo okiaksAmelo timise nako- 
KsijautsiarKovlugit nerkiksamut piojomut. 




Your people do not always care whether your meat is 
fresh or whether it is putrid. You should know that 
rotten food of any kind is not so good for the body as 
fresh food, and may prove harmful. For this reason White 
Men will never eat rotten meat or rotten fish, nor will 
they allow their children to eat food in this condition. 

In the winter the cold preserves everything from 
turning putrid; but flesh or fish caught in the spring or 
summer and not eaten while it is fresh should be preserved 
in a healthy manner, so that it retains its goodness when it 
is eaten, 

Eggs are best preserved by placing them in a hole in the 
ground and by covering them with earth and stones. To 
preserve fish they should be split and gutted, and placed in 
the sun and wind until they are hard and dry. To preserve 
meat, cut it into thin strips and dry it in the sun and in the 
wind in a place which is out of the reach of your dogs. 
Meat or fish preserved in this way is a good substitute for 
fresh meat and is far more wholesome for the body than 
rotten meat. 

The Company will provide you with different baking 
powder for making bannocks. For you do serious harm 
to your stomachs by using too much baking powder in 
your flour. Where a White Man uses a single measure 
of baking powder, many of you are accustomed to use as 
much as four measures. 

Of the other foods which you can obtain from the 
Company, molasses is excellent; for it helps to strengthen 
the body. Lard also strengthens the body, being similar to 
the tallow which you obtain from deer. Both molasses and 
lard help to provide the body with heat. 

When a hunter is tired after a hard day’s work, tea 

revives him but it does not help to build up new strength 

your dy 
body te 

port ! 
le met 
d to use 
from 0 

y te? 


lapse ilangit erkasulualungilat nerkejak nutangong- 
mangat igunaungmangallénét. Kaujijuksauvosele timib 
nerke igunak idluarkutigilungimago idluixutigijungnar- 
magole. Tamanna pivlugo xablunat igunaktoromalu- 
ngilat nerkejamiglénét mingeriavinermiglénét, taimaitullo 
nerrijaukolungilait Kitorngamingnut. 

Okiorme nerke igunaxtailititauvok itjemut, omajovi- 
nerle mingeriarlénét operngdme aujarmelonét pijaujox 
ingergainarlo nerrijaungitok tagvainax kamagijaujuksau- 
vok piulijaukovlugo sujuKartinago, pitsartuningalo assio- 

Tingmiat manningit piulimajaujungnarput sujuktaili- 
titauvlutik ilijaugunik itersamut nuname, uliktauvlutik 
ibjomut ujarKanullo. Mingeriat piulijaujungnarput tijalu- 
git erkavéjarlugit panerlugillo anoreme sexinermelo Kera- 
taxovlugit. NerKejax avgortaujuksauvox panertauniarlune 
anoreme sexinermelo, inniukavingmele, Kingminut pijau- 
jungnangitome. Nerke mingeriallénét taimak panertau- 
jok mikkigaxtut 4nanautigikasakpox idlualuarporlo time- 
mut nerKemit igunaujomit. 

Companit ama pudjusaut senaugaujak atorpaktapse 
assia atuinarupa niakojaliorutiginiartapsingnik. Axearose 
sujugapsigik pudjusaut angiluartox akulugo senaugarmut. 
Kablunat atortilugit pudjusaumik senaugaujarmik oktit 
tatelugo atausiardlugo, ilapse ilangita oktiit tatelugo sitta- 
mairtorlugo atorkattarpat. 

Nerxiksat tamakkoa assingit pisiarijungnartase Com- 
paninit akorngane, erngautaujak taijaujungnarpox. Erng- 
autaujak piojédlarpox, ikajormat timib nakoxsijauni- 
nganut. Kallunex ama pitsartutitsivok timemik, tuktub 
tunnunga adsigikasakpa. Erngautaujab xallunerublo 
tamarmik time kiaksalipax. 

Omajoxsiorte okumaitomik suliaxarsimavlune uvlox 
navlugo merngortorpox, angerarlunelo titorpox; tiblo 



in his body. Itisa good thing to drink plenty of water or 
soup: for liquid things help the food to pass through the 
body more easily, in the same way that lubricating oil 
makes it easy for the pistons of an engine to move in the 

Milk is a food much used among White Men. It is 
the chief food which is given to children; for it helps to 
strengthen the blood, to make bone and to build the body. 
Your people are not accustomed to use milk, except when 
a baby is suckled by its mother. The Company provides 
powdered milk which you should mix with clean warm 
water for the daily use of your children, after the mother 
has ceased to suckle them. It is also good to provide preg- 
nant mothers with a daily drink of milk. You should also 
feed with milk people who are sick: for it will greatly help 
to restore strength to their bodies. 

While your people greatly love your families, and 
grieve much when sickness overtakes your children or 
your wife, yet in some ways you do serious wrong to your 
families. Certain foods are essential to restore health to a 
sick person. Yet you do not always exert yourselves to 
secure those foods; a hunter is often content to idle away 
his time while his wife is suffering from the disease which 
wastes away the body. If that woman is to be saved from 
death, she must be provided with the proper kind of food. 
Milk should be traded from the store. Seal meat must be 
secured, so that she may have the benefit of the seal liver 
and the tenderest parts of the meat. Therefore the hunter 
must work extra hard to secure the proper food. When 
these things are secured, it often happens that they are 
shared equally among every member of the family. That 
is wrong in the eyes of God. Those who are strong and 
well should give their share of the most strengthening 
foods to the sick and to the young children, so that they 


any pi 
clean te 
tthe mi 



nakoxsigaloarpa, pititsilungilarle nukkemik nutamik time- 
mut. Imetuinarmik alupsdmiglénét imerlune piojévox. 
Imexpallajut nerxke sittornersautipat timekut, sorlo orksub 
motab ilangit ingergatsiartingmagit. 

Kablunat immuk atudlarpat nerxiksarilugo. Sorutsit 
nerkiksariluarpat, immuk pitsartutitsingmat aungmik, 
sauniksaliorpox, pitsartutitsivorlo timemik. Ilipse sung- 
iusimalualungilase immuk atorlugo, kissiane nutarax 
amamaktitaungmat ananaminut. Companit niuvervingit 
immukasongovut panertomik senaugaujartomik akusima- 
juksaujomik imermut nerromiktomut sannixangimarik- 
tomut, tamannalo sorutsit Kaut tamat imeraksarivat 
amamagungnaininginit. Idluartuinarporlo ananat sing- 
aimajut immuktorpatta xKaut tamat. Kanimajuttaux 
imertitaugunik immungmik nakutuinarpox. Immuk 
ikajutsiarniarmat timit sangélijut nukketarianginik. 

Angijomik nagligosudlaraloartiluse Kitorngapsingnik, 
kiksadlaraloartiluselo xitorngase aipaselo_tikitautilugit 
Kanimasermut, ilangane Kanimajiase idluatsiartomik pi- 
niarvigilungilase. Kanimajut 4xiktautsiarianginut nerxik- 
sat ilangit pijariaxaluarput. Ilanganele ilungertulungilase 
nerkiksat tapkoa pinasuaromavlugit, omajoxsiortele erkea- 
suklune ndmaksituinarpok ajornarmarlune aipane xani- 
masexartilugo nukkingerutititsijomik timinganik. Ar- 
narle tamna kellujaujuksaulerpat toxomit namatsiartomik 
nerkiksakartitaujuksauvox. Pisiniartuksauvose immung- 
mik niuvervingmit. Puijesiortuksauvose puijevinextor- 
ungnarkovlugo mamagijaminik tingutorungnarKovlugolo 
nakoxsijutiginiartaminik. ‘Taimaimat omajoxsiorte angi- 
luartomik pinasuartuksauvox nerKiksax pionerpak angu- 
jomavlugo. Angujoxarpalle iglomioxatigét ilfinatik adsi- 
géktomik ilangiutjivut angujamik. Tamannale idlualu- 
ngilax Gidib ijikita sangangne. Séngojut Kanoengitsiar- 
tullo nerxiksat nakoxsinarnerpat tunijaksarivait sorutsinut 



can be fed every day on the foods which will help to bring 
strength to them. 

At the same time the Doctors who have worked among 
you say that in many cases of illness (particularly among 
children) you give the sick people too much food and that 
there would be a greater chance for them to recover 
quickly if during certain phases of their sickness they were 
given very little to eat. To feed sick people according to 
the right measure is indeed a difficult thing, and the wise 
father or mother will consult the White Man on this score. 

Here is the food which you should give to young 
children from the time their mothers cease to suckle them 
until they are eight years old :— 

Powdered Milk mixed with clean warm water. 

Blood soup with bone marrow. 

Fresh Seal Liver (or fresh Cod Liver). 

The breasts of birds. 

The tenderest parts of fresh meat. 

Biscuit dipped in molasses or fresh seal oil or cod liver oil, 
Fresh Eggs. 

Fresh Fish. 

It is good also to sprinkle the milk and the blood soup 
with small pieces of biscuit or to soak the biscuit in them. 

People suffering from bad lungs or from any other form 
of the sickness which wastes away the limbs should be fed 
as follows :— 

Raw Seal Liver. 

Cod Liver Oil or fresh Seal Oil. 

Fresh Seal Blood or Whale Blood. 

Fresh Meat not cooked. 

Fresh Eggs. 

Powdered Milk mixed with warm water. 

It is harmful to feed any one with food which is not 
clean; for dirt is likely to have in it the germs of disease 
which will infect the body. 


ed an 
Ty any 


to Yow 
rele tes 


ich 8? 

| af qs 


Kanimajunullo, tapkoa Kaut tamat nerrijungnarKovlugit 
nerkiksanik nukkesautiginiartamingnik. 

Taimaitillugo Aniasiortit sulilauxtut akunapsingne imak 
isumakalauxput. Kanimajoxartillugo (Sorutsit piluar- 
lutik) nerxe angiluarlune tunijausongovox kanimajunut, 
tapkoa axisarainersaunajarmata kétamik nerititauvlutik. 
Namatsiartomik nerititsinermik Kanimajunik ochilungi- 
marikpox, atatat andnallo taimailinganingine kablunak 
takojartortuksauvut tukisijomavlutik Kanox isumakarning- 

Tamadja nerxiksangit amamagungnaininginit jarexar- 
ninginut 8nik: 

Immuk panertok senaugaujartok akusimatilugo imermik 
nerromiktomik sanneKangitomik. 

Alupsax aungmik punnermiglo ilalik. 

Puijib tingunga nutax, ogaublonét tingunga nutak. 

‘Tingmiat sagvingit. 

Nerkejak nutax. 

Kakk6jak missuksimajok erngautaujarmut orKsumullénét 

‘Tingmiat manningit nutat. 

Mingeriat nutat. 

Alupsax immuglo ilakarpat kakx6janik serkalisimajunik 
idluamarikpox, Kaxk6jarlénét kinitsiutilugo alupsamut. 

Inuit puvalerijut Kanimaselillénét nukkingerutititsijo- 
mik timib avatinginik nerrititaujuksauvut imaitunik: 

Puijib tingunganik mikkigarmik. 

Sivamik puijiblonét orksunganik nutamik. 

Puijib Kelalugaublénét aunganik nutamik. 

Nerkejamik nutamik kallasimangitomik. 

Manninik nutanik. 

Immungmik senaugaujarmik akusimajomik imermut_ ner- 


Nerxe sunaugaloartox salumatsiangitox nerrilugo ilima- 
narpoK, ipeK ilakarungnarmat Kanimaserit omajokullun- 
ginik karngasutikullunginik Kanoetoxartitsijunik timemik. 



Follow out these simple laws of feeding the body. 
Provide your wife and your chil ldren and those dependent 
upon you with as much fresh meat as possible, and show 
yourself to be both a good hunter and a father who is 
striving to restore to his children and to the Innuit the 
strength and the health of a thriving race. 



Maligaksat makkoa issumalingasuertut malilauxsigik. 
Aipase kitorngaselo patangaititseriaxartaselo patangaitit- 
siarasuarsigik ajungitapsingnik nerkejakartilugit nutamik, 
nelonaijaritselo ilipsingnik omajoxsiorteotsiarapse atataut- 
siarapselo pinasuarapselo Kitorngase ilaselo nukkexarner- 
sautitsomavlugit, indKatigéksoangoxovluse sukkénexa- 




2=S—0 every long journey there are different 

“Xs || stages, even as there is a beginning and an 
(S| end to every journey. 

So on the trail towards Health, you will 

have passed the first stage when you have 

= adopted in your family the rules of feeding 

your bodies with food which gives strength. 

On the second stage of your journey you must learn the 
rules which govern a healthy marriage. For some 
marriages produce strong children, while other marriages 
produce weak children. : 

The Laws of the King sternly punish incest ; for it is 
an abominable thing; but there are no laws, other than 
the Laws of Health, to deter marriage between relations. 

In your smaller encampments where there are no more 
than fifteen families, nearly every family 1s connected by 
marriage with the other families, and therefore the young 
men marry the young women who come from the same 

For a healthy marriage it is best that a man should 
wed a woman of different stock: then the children of 



Kangagalavexaséngovok atausiungitomik, 
sorlo ingergarnersuit iltnatik pigiarve- 
Karlutik sorairvekarmatta. 

Taimaglo apxosinerme atsuilitsiarner- 

at mut torartome, nokangavingoarlo sivor- 
lerpak Kangertauvox ilaliorsimagupse Kitorngaréngnip- 
Singnut maligaksanik ajoxertusexartunik Kanox timise 
nakoksijaujuksaungmangata nerkemut pitsartutitsijomut. 

Noxangavingoarlo tamna Kangertaumangmat iliniaria- 
Karpose maligaksanik aulatsijunik nuliaréngnermik Kuvia- 
natsiartomik Kanoengitsiartomiglo. Nuliarét ilangit Kit- 
orngakasOngomatta sangijunik, nuliarélle ilangit Kitorng- 
akasOngovut sangétunik sukkdjunik. 

Atanerub maligaksauxojangit inerteriklerput Katangu- 
tigét uvinekakatigéngninginik; tamanna maxojungnar- 
mat. Atsuilineruble maligaksangita assinginik maligak- 
sakangilak inerteriklertunik ilagét—tagva Katangutigét 
assingita—katititauninginik nuliaréngnermut. 

Iglugasapsingne xitorngaréktotakanginersane 1 nit, 
Kitorngarét ilfnakassatik ilagéngnekarput kitorngaréng- 
nut assimingnut, taimailingatiluselo nullétut aipatarséngo- 
vut uigasungnik katangutearsugijamingnik, tapsominga- 
tsainak sivorlexalauxtunik. 

Nuliaréngnerle kinguvaxartuksaulerpat Kanoengitsiar- 

tunik sukkdlungituniglo, angut tigusijuksauvox arnamik 


that marriage have in their bodies one strength from their 
father and another strength from their mother. When 
a man and his wife are of the same stock, then their 
children only have in their bodies a single strength, so that 
they are likely to be weaker than the children of parents 
who are of different blood. 

It is the same thing with your dogs. When you are 
visiting another encampment, sometimes a bitch will be 
mated with a strange dog. Her litter will have the added 
strength of the strange dog. It happens also that when a 
stray wolf mingles with your dogs, he gives the strength 
of his strain to the bitch whom he chooses as his mate. 
Her litter makes a splendid team for the komatik. 

Therefore, if you wish to have healthy children, you 
would be wise to seek a wife in some other encampment, 
if your own encampment is small. 

Again, it often happens in the encampment that there 
are fewer young women than there are young men. And 
so some young men cannot find wives. Likewise in other 
encampments there are too few young men, and therefore 
some young women cannot find husbands. j 

For these people also it is wise to seek their marriage 
partners in other encampments. But some of your 
people are loath to leave the encampments of your families. 
Certainly it is a good thing for children to remain with 
their parents, but when a girl has grown to womanhood, 
it is only right that her family should allow a young 
man to take her as his wife to another encampment, if the 
family think that the young man will take good care of 

Among White People it is always the custom for the 

husband to take his wife away from her encampment to 


aipariniartaminik ilagilungitame akornganit, sivorlexa- 
Jauxtomik sivorlime assinginik;  sorutsillo tagva nulia- 
réngnermit tapsomangat nukkexarniarput timimingne 
atatamingnit pijomik amalo nukkexarniarput ananaming- 
nit pijomik. Aiparégle sivorlermit tapsomangatsainaK 
pigunik, Kitorngangit atausénarmik sorlo nukkexarniar- 
put, taimaimallo sangénersautuinariakarniarput sorutsinit 
angajokaxartunit tapsomingatsainak auKangitunik pijunit. 

Taimailingaluatsiarivok Kingmipsingne. Niorgutiluse 
nunapse assianut Kingmek arnak piaraksalitauvok king- 
mimut takorngartamut. Piarangit tagva nukkexarniarput 
nutamik Kingmimit takorngartamit. Ilangane kingmex 
malixataértox piaraliksalitauvok amaromut, amarKublo 
tagva Kingmiub piarangit ilangiutitipait nukkiminik. 
Piaraillo tapkoa piodlarput kemukseriarmut. 

Taimaimat Kitorngakaromajut atsuililingnik silatutui- 
narput aipaksaxsiorunik nunamik asianit, ilagingitaming- 
nillo, nunaxatitik ikit6tuinaukpatta. 

Amalo, ilangane iglugasait ilangine uigasuit ikinersau- 
vut nullétunit, taimaimallo nullétut aipaksarsijungna- 
ngilat. Ianganelo nullétut ikinersauvut uigasungnit, tai- 
maimallo uigasu:t uiksarsijungnangilat. 

Taimaitut issumagilugit aipaksarsijokaxKattarpat iglu- 
gasapse assinginit idluartuinarpoxk. 

Ilapsele ilangit kuviasutexalualungilat nigiarmik ilagi- 
jamik nunanganit. Sorutsit ntingipatta angajoxamingnit 
idluartuinarpox, uigasugle tikiutisimakpat arnamarioner- 
mut, ubvalo jaringit naémaksikpatta katititaujungnarKov- 
lugo nuliaréngnermut, nAamatuinarpokK ilangit angerpatta 
tigujaukovlugo angumut iglugasapse assianit pijomut, 
ilangit xolalungipatta pairijautsiarlarninganik angumut 

Kablunat ako:ngane ilusiovox angutib aipane aularu- 
tingmago nunanaganit nunaminut suliakarvigijaminut; 

I 129 



live with him in his encampment; and White People 
produce many babies and increase greatly in number. 

If you wish to find a marriage partner in another 
encampment, you should consult with the Men of God or 
the Company’s Trader. They will make inquiries with 
the traders in other places, and will arrange for you to be 
carried on the Company’s ship to the encampment where 
it is likely that you will find a suitable marriage partner. 
At that encampment also the Company’s Trader will help 
you in every way to attain the object of your visit; for by 
such marriages new blood will be brought to all the en- 
campments and stronger babies and more babies will be 
born. This will prove a great benefit to the Innuit in 
years to come. 

See! we have passed yet another stage on the trail of 

In the old days when your fathers possessed neither 
rifles nor motor-boats, they lived more strenuously and 
worked harder to provide food and clothing for their 
families. ‘The harder a man works when he is in good 
health, the stronger his body becomes and the greater 
resistance le offers to sickness. 

Nowadays, many of your hunters have grown slack 
because the rifle and the motor-boat have given them ease. 
When they should be working or hunting, they are idling 
round the Post. 

As their bodies are not exercised so strenuously, their 
muscles become flabby and their bodies become soft, and 
they lose the will to work hard. Thus in every way they 
grow weak. [Illness swiftly attacks people in such a 
condition and destroys them. 

In other parts of the world whole races of people have 


kablunallo xitorngakas6ngovut sutaijartunik, unuksidlar- 

Aipaksarsioromajoxarpat nunapse assianit, oKaxkatte- 
Karkartuksauvok ajoxertuijomik Companillénét niuver- 
tinganik, ‘Tapkoa nautsertularput ajoKertuijutigut niu- 
vertitigullonét nunapse assinginétutigut nulliaksaxarman- 
gat pijaksamik, niuvertelo kamalarpox Kenertox ataujung- 
narmangat Companit umiaksoangagut nunamut nagvar- 
vioniarpalaijomut aipaksamik. ‘Tagvanelo Companit niu- 
vertingata ajungitaminik ikajularpa niorgojutigijanga 
sulitsiarkovlugo; nuliaréngnernut taimaitunut auk nutak 
atauniarmat iglugasangnut, nutaraillo inflertut ununer- 
sauniarlutik sanginersaularput. ‘Tamannalo inuit idluar- 
Kutiksanginut ilingalarpox jarine Kailartune. 

Takuitse! noxangavingoab assia K4ngilerivavut ap- 
Kome atsuilitsiarnermut torartome. 

Uvlune kaéngerkammerungnaitune atatase xukkiute- 
Karkartinagit umiakarkartinagillo métalingnik, ilunger- 
tornersauvlutik siorniornersaujariakalauxput patangaitit- 
siomavlutik ilamingnik annoraxartitsomavlugillo. Inuk 
atsuilijomik timelik okumaitomik suliakariakartox séngo- 
sivaliajomik timexariakarpok, sapinginersauniarporlo 
Kanimasek ajaktorlugo. 

Uvlunele manaulertune omajoxsiortipse ilangit sutai- 
jartut Kasungalerput, Kukkiutexarlutik kingomigértunik 
umiakarlutiglo métalingnik siornioriakanginersaugamik, 
Suliviksautilugo omajoxsiorviksautilugol6énét xikkartui- 
narput niuverviub Kanitangane. 

Timingit ilungertorlutik siornioriakanginersaugamik, 
nukkingit Kassuvut timingillo axitélerput, katj4arungnai- 
paliavullo suliaxaromalutik. ‘Taimaimallo ilfnaine sang- 
élivut. Inuit taimaitomik ilinganelit opaktortausaraid- 
larput salausaraidlarlutiglo kanimasermut. 

Silaxsub nunangita ilangine nunapse assingine in6xati- 



dwindled and died out. Once they were a fine healthy 
people, but as soon as laziness set in among them, they 
grew weaker and weaker, until none were left. If your 
people lose their energy and hardihood, they also will die 
out; for their lives will be to no purpose. Therefore 
avoid laziness as you would avoid the gall-bladder of the 
bear. It is poison to you. 

See! we have passed yet another stage on the trail of 

It is important to nourish the body with good food; it 
is important to make a healthy marriage in order to 
produce strong children. It is important to keep the body 
and the mind fit with hard work. It is also important to 
protect the body from the wind and the damp, with proper 
housing and with proper clothes. 

There is more sickness among the Innuit who live in 
Labrador than among the people in other places. This is 
not due to a lack of seal meat, for there are plenty of seals 
in those waters. It is partly due to laziness, for many 
hunters prefer to idle than to work; but it is mostly due 
to the unhealthy houses in which many of the people 

They have built for themselves wooden houses in which 
they live throughout the year. The houses are dirty. 
In one room many people live and sleep together, 
and they quickly make the air foul with their breath- 
ing. The air also grows very hot from the stoves; 
the doors and the other openings of the houses are 
tightly shut, so that no fresh air can take the place 
of the foul air. 

You should know that foul air and hot air do great 
harm to the lungs and are likely to cause the sickness 

which wastes away the limbs; and when many people live 

géksuit iluéngarlutik nipaksimamarikput. Indéxatigék- 
soatsiangolauxput atsuilingnik, erkeasungneruble opak- 
tormagit sangélivaliasaraidlarput amiakoxarungnaisinnar- 
lutiglo. Nukkingérutigupse siorniorungnarungnailerup- 
selo nipatuinalarivose, indsise sulinialungimatta. T'aimai- 
mat erKeasungnek uloreagisiuk sorlo tokonartok ulorea- 
gigapsiuk; erkeasungnexk tokonarmat ilipsingnut. 

Takuitse! nokangavingoarmik assianik apKome atsui- 
litsiarnermut sangmijome Kangiutjivogut. 

Timib nakoxsijaugianga nerkemut piojomut pijariaKor- 
tudlarpok; Kanoetoxangitsiartut nuliaréngningat pyaria- 
Kortudlarivok sorutsit sangijotsiavait saKKerKovlugit. 
Timib sangélitailigianga issumallo ilakematailigiangit 
suliaksanut okumaitunut pijariaxortogivox. Amalo pija- 
riakortogivok time saputijautsiarkovlugo anoremit Kau- 
sertomillo iglunut naémaktunut annoranullo namaktunut. 

Inuit Labradoremiut Kanimasexarnersauvut akuner- 
mingne inungnit Labradorib assianétunit. Putjevinexang- 
inek pitjutaulungilak tamattomunga, puijeKatsiarmat 
amigangitunik Labradorib imangine. Ilanganele erKea- 
sungnek pitjutauvok; omajoxsiortit ilangit KuviasuteKa- 
luarput xikkariamik suliaxariamit. Anginersamigle Lab- 
radoremiut igloxatsialunginingit pitjutauvox. 

Igloliorsimavut xKejungnik, tapkonanelo indvut jare 
navlugo. Iglut salumaiput. Iglome (roomeme) ataut- 
seme sutaijartut indKatigékput tagvanelo  siniklutik, 
iglublo illunga, ubvalo anoringa, ubvalo anerterisiutinga 
piungititausaraidlarpok inuit katimajut anerninginut, 
anerteritailijungnangimatta. Illunga ama onarsivox kiak- 
sautemit; iglub upkoanga angmarvingillo (tagva igalang- 
it) upkoarsimavut, upsiktauvlutik sorlo, illolo nutak 
ubvalo anore anerterisiut nutax iterungnangilax illo 
piungitox anerterisiutaumajarértok inangérlugo. Kauji- 
juksauvosele illo anerterisiut tamna mamaitok kiakpaluk- 



together under these conditions, the healthy are likely to be 
infected with the sickness of the weak. 

Among White Men, when a person is suffering from 
the disease of the lungs, he is sent by the Doctor to live on 
a mountain, where the air is fresh. He sleeps out of doors, 
with his body exposed to the warmth of the sun, and his 
lungs breathe in the pure air. 

It is a good thing that most of the Eskimo live in snow- 
houses during the winter and in tents during the summer; 
otherwise there would be as much sickness among them as 
among the Innuit of Labrador. 

Usually there is little sickness among you in the winter, 
because it is healthy to live in a snow-house, and because 
your bodies are warmly clad in deer-skin clothes; but 
in the spring and the summer, when you are living in 
tents, some of you take sickness. Very often the ground 
on which you pitch your tents is damp: this dampness 
affects your limbs. The ground also becomes foul when 
it is deprived of the sun and the fresh air; and when many 
of you are sleeping together in a tent, the foulness of the 
ground and the foulness of the air may harm your lungs 
unless you allow fresh air to enter the tent. 

Therefore you should move your tents frequently from 
one piece of ground to a clean piece of ground, and you 
should always allow fresh air to enter the tent. 

Some of your families keep their tents or their houses 
very clean. In one part of the tent the skins and bedding 
are neatly kept, in another part the food is kept clean, and 
in another part the pots and pans are kept apart. This is 
excellent. But in other tents the things are placed anyhow; 


torlo sujuingmat inub puvanginik, xaitsingmallo kanima- 
sermik uvinérutinartomik. Iglomioxatigét unuktékpatta 
ilinganerne taimaitune Kanoetoxangitut aitortaujungnar- 
put Kanimajut Kanimaserijanginik. 

Kablunane 4niasiortib inuk puvalerijox tiliva KakKanut, 
sillamérkovlugo tippelukangitome. Sillatuinarme sini- 
sOngovok, timinga ussingakasaklune sexinerartaujungnar- 
kovlugo aktortaujungnarkovlugolo sexinerub onarning- 
anut, puvangillo ullipkixattarungnarkovlugit anoremik 
ubvalo anerterisiutemik ilakangitomik anerterisiutausi- 

Nakudlamarikpox inuit unurningit igloKsoarmiong- 
matta okiorme tuppimiongmattalo aujarme; taimaingi- 
patta kanimasekadlarajarput akunermingne sorlo pikarmat 
inuit Labradoremiut akorngane. 

Kanimasexaluarsongolungilak akunapsingne okiorme, 
indgiak igloxsoarme atsuilinarmat, timeselo mattujautsiar- 
matta annoranut tuktujanut. Operngdmele aujarmelo 
tuppimiongotiluse ilapse ilangit kanimaxattarput. Aku- 
laitomik nuna tuppervigijase Kauserpok. Kausertomut 
tamattomunga avatise pijauvut. Nunalo tippalulerpox 
aktortaujungnaingmat seKinermut anoremullo; siniktullo 
tupperme unuktokasangotilugit nunab  tippadlarninga 
tuppiublo illungata ubvalo anerterisiutingata tippaludlar- 
ninga piungititsijungnarpok puvapsingnik tuppek tip- 

Taimaimat tuppit nuktarkattaraksarivase nunamut salu- 
mailungitomut, tupperlo tipangersijiutijauxattartuksau- 

Kitorngarét ilangit tuppekasOngovut salumatsiartunik 
A4xiksortaumatsiartuniglo, perkutit patsalungatinagit. 
Tuppiub makutsiane Kaksat Keppillo taimaitullo iniksa- 
Karput Axiksimatsiarlutik, tuppiub tapkutsiane ama 
nerkiksat iniksakarput salumaitailititauvlutik, amalo ikane 



the bedding is made dirty with the food; the pots and pans 
are filthy. Everything is evil-smelling. Even the dogs 
pollute the floor of the tent. In such tents, which are a 
disgrace to your people, disease is bred from the dirt and 
infects the occupants. 

From such tents all the Eskimo have gained the 
reputation throughout the world of being a dirty people. 
This is unfair to many families, who keep their tents clean. 
You should, therefore, persuade the owners of dirty tents 
to live in greater cleanliness, in order to blot out the bad 
reputation which they give you. 

The canvas tents which you trade from the Company 
are healthier and lighter to carry than the seal-skin or 
deer-skin tents which some of your families still use. 

To show you how important proper clothing is to the 
health of the body, you shall learn the story of a people who 
live in a hot climate far away across the seas, to the South. 
These people were very sickly and dwindled in numbers. 
They wore no boots on their feet because of the heat. They 
had plenty of food. No one could discover why they were 
dying out, until a Doctor found that a poisonous worm 
entered the soles of their feet and caused great sickness in 
their bodies. These people were then provided with 
boots; and once more they became strong and thrived. 

For the health of your bodies it is necessary that you 

should wear deer-skin clothes in the winter. But because 


ukkusit pogutallo taimaitullo iniksakarput. "Tamanna 
piovox. Tuppille ilangine perxutit sunatuinait slamanga- 
tuinarput, namutuinarmarik ilijauvlutik. Kaksat xeppillo 
salumaititauvut aungmut nerkemullo; ukkusit pogutallo 
salumaidlarput. Ilfinatik tippaludlarput. Kingmit aglat 
nettex salumaitipat. Tuppine taimaitune, inungita kang- 
usutigijaksarijangine, Kanimasek perorpox salumaitunit 
mamaitunillo, tuppimiullo Kanimalerput. 

Tuppit taimaitut pitjutigivlugit inuit oxautigijauvut 
sillaxsoarme ilfinane indxatigéksoangovlutik ippelit. ‘T’a- 
mannalo tuppexartut igloxartullo salumatsiartunik ner- 
tornautigilungilat. Taimaimat salumaitunik tuppelit 
kajungersaraksarivase 4nanaunersanik salumanersanik ip- 
peKanginersanik tuppexkarasuarxKovlugit, oxarnerlutigi- 
jaunex tamanna sorairkovlugo nelautsijungnaititauxovlu- 

Tuppit tingergautaksajat pisiarijungnartase Companinit 
atsuilinarnersauvut indtsemut, adjartoriangillo oxinersau- 
vut kissijanit tuktujanillo, ilapse ilangita atorpaktanginit 

Nelonaijaivigijomavluse annorat ndmatsiartut pijaria- 
Kortoninginik timib Kanoengitsiarninganut, unipkauti- 
vapse inungnik nuname kiaktaliksoarme indjunik imarbik- 
sub akiane sexinerdlerme. Inuit tapkoa kKanimaxattar- 
lutik ikitlivalialauxput. Kiab angijoxsddlarninga pivlugo 
kamilasuséngalauxput. Amigangitomik nerkiksakarput. 
Suna pivlugo ikitlivaliamangata Kaujimajoxangilak, 
pitjutingalo nagvartaungilax, kissiane Aniasiortit ilangat 
nagvarmat Kopergumik toxonartomik Kaimisémik allung- 
inut, timingillo kanimatilugit. Inuit tapkoa atorKojauvut 
kamialungnik, sunaubvalo songosivalliavut sangijoniarmi- 

Timise atsuilitsiarkovlugit, annoralijartuksauvose tuk- 
tujanik okiorme. Nunapsele ilangine, toxotsilualaurapse 



you have slaughtered the deer so wantonly in the past, in 
many parts it is now difficult for you to secure sufficient 
deer-skins for your clothing. Therefore the Company is 
trying to secure for you skins of deer from other parts of 
the world, where they are plentiful. In this way the 
Company will help you to be properly clad in the winter. 
These deer-skins the Company will trade to you at the 

In the spring and in the fall it is necessary to wear 
warm clothes and to keep them from getting damp. For 
damp clothes often bring about sickness of the body, 
especially when the weather is cold. 

You should know that the greatest healer of sickness is 
the Sun. The rays of the sun upon the body are as good 
a medicine for the sickness of the lungs as the eating of seal 
liver and the drinking of the oil made from the cod liver. 
Owing to the thickness of clothes the rays of the sun 
cannot reach the body. Therefore on warm days it is an 
excellent thing to expose the naked body to the rays of the 
sun. ‘The lives of many people suffering from the sickness 
of the lungs have been saved in this way. It is an excellent 
thing for healthy people also to expose their bodies to the 
rays of the sun while they work. The sun gives strength 
to all things living. Do not the seals and the walrus bathe 
themselves in the sun? Do not the plants of the earth 
grow and flower in the warmth of the sun ? 

See! we have passed yet another stage on the trail of 
Health; we are not far from the end of our journey 

Now you know that it is not very difficult to gain 
Health; but you must also learn how to retain health 

when you have secured it, and how to restore health 


tuktunik unuluartunik neliutune Kangersimajune, tuk- 
tuisarpok, taimaimallo tuktujanik annoraksapsingnut 
namaktunik nagvarluse oKilungimarikpok mana. ‘Ta- 
manna pivlugo Companit pisiniarasuarput tuktut amingi- 
nik nunapse assinginit pitaxatsiartunit, tuktujallo tapkoa 
pisiarijungnalarpase Companit niuvervinginit. ‘Tamatto- 
munalo tagva Companit ikajorniarp4se annoraxatsiarKov- 
luse okiorme. 

Operngame okiarmelo annoraxartuksauvose oxortunik, 
Kausertailititaksarivaselo. AnnorAt Kausertut pitjutauxat- 
tarmatta timib Kanimaninganut, piluartomik silla Keuja- 

Kaujijuksauvoselo sexinex inulinarnerpaungmat Ania- 
siutinit tamainit. Sexinerub issagutingit akkingmigunik 
timemut inuliklernanginersaulungilat puvat KanoetoKar- 
ninginut nerrinermit puijib tingunganit imernermillénét 
ogait sivanganik. AnnorAlle ibjuj6ngmatta maptovlutiglo 
seKinerub issagutingit kibléjungnangilat timemut uviner- 
mut. Taimaimat sillakidlartilugo sexinex onartilugo 
idluartuinarpok time ussingajoK sexinerartautilugo, ak- 
kingmiktautilugo sexxinerub issagutinginut. Puvalerijut 
unuktut indsingit piulijausimavut taimak. Inuillo Kanoe- 
tokangitut Kanimalungitut timingit seKinerartaugunik 
suliakartilugit nadmamarikpox. Sekinex pitsartutitsing- 
mat omajunik tamainik. Puijit aivillo sikkub Kangandér- 
Kattalungilat sexinerartaujomavlutik ? Nunablo peror- 
tungit perorlungilat nuvugulaxtarlutiglo nakoxsijaugamik 
seKinerub onarninganiit ? 

Takuitse! KAngiutilerivogut nokangavingoarmik assia- 
nik apkome atsuilitsiarnermut torartome, tikikasakpogullo 
ingergarnipta nalerninganut. 

Tukkisivoselo timib atsuiliningata tigugianga okumai- 
lungimat; tukkisijuksauvoseletauk Kanox timib atsuili- 
ninga sapkotautailititaujungnarmangat tigujaumatilugo, 



after certain illnesses which may attack even the strongest 

To prevent illness in your family you should do the 
following things: 

(1) Provide your family with wholesome food. 

(2) Teach your family to be regular in their daily 

(3) Teach your family to pollute neither the encamp- 
ment nor the fresh water in its vicinity. 

(4) See that your tent is clean, that the food in your tent 
is free from dirt, and that the air in your tent is 

(5) Do not allow anyone to feed off the plate or to use 
the cup of a sick person. For in this way disease 
is often carried from one member of a family to 

(6) Do not allow a sick person to breathe or to cough 
into the face of anyone, or to spit on the floor of 
the house. For in this way also disease is carried 
from one to another. 

(7) If the Doctor or the Trader tells you to isolate a 
very sick person from the other members of the 
family, do as you are instructed to do for the 
benefit of the healthy people. 

(8) Here follows a warning on the dangers of venereal 



Kanorlo time pitsartunerpaujox aglat opaktortaujok Kani- 
masernut sunatuinarnut inulijautsiarungnarmangat. 
Ilase saputijaukovlugit Kanimasernit kamatsiartuksau- 
vose oKautigijaulertunik maliktunik: 
(1) Ilase patangaititaksarivase nerxiksanut pionerpa- 
(2) Kamatsiartuksauvose ilase iliniarkovlugit sorusio- 
| nermingne annagiartortuksaugamik kaut tamat. 

(3) Ilase ajoxertoraksarivase nuna imerlénét iglut 
Kanitanginétut salumaititaujuksaungimatta an- 
narmut itterungmullénét. 

(4) Kamatsiartuksauvose igluse tuppiselénét salumat- 
siarkovlugit, nerxiksallo salumaititaulungimatta, 
iglublo tuppiublénét illua anerterisiutinga nu- 

(5) Kanimajub xajutanga pégutangalénét alupsauting- 
alénét atortaujuksaungilat assianut. Taimaitut 
atorianginut Kanimasexk aitutigijaukattarmat Ka- 
nimajomit KanoetoKangitomut. 

(6) Kanimajub indxatine supértailijaksarivait Koertor- 
tailijuksauvorlo kénanginut, oriartuksaungilar- 
ldnét iglub nettinganut. Taimaitutigut kanima- 
seK aititaungmat inungmit inungmut. 

(7) Niuvertib Aniasiortiblénét oxautikpase Kanimad- 
lartox aptertaujuksaungmat ilaminit ingmigo- 
lingatitauvlune, angitsiartuksauvose, Kanoeto- 

Kangitut aitortautailigiangit pitjutigivlugit. 

(8) Arnapse aitortaugiangit Kanimasernik piungitoK- 
sdjunik kangunarningitigut uvineKaxatigéng- 
nermut Kablundnut taimaitomik Kanimaseling- 
nut ajornalungimarikpox. Taimaimat arnase 
uvineKakatigéngnekartailititaksarimarikpase Ka- 
blunanut. Arnapse Kanimasex tamna aitutigi- 
niarmatsuk aipamingnut, taimaglo Kanimasex 



There is a wise saying among White Men, that it is 
easier to prevent illness than to cure it. But the Company 
cannot prevent you from becoming sick if you are careless 
of your bodies and it can only help to cure you, if you are 
careful to follow the advice of the Doctor, the Trader or 
the Man of God. 

When a member of your family is sick or has hurt his 
body, it is your custom to fetch the Trader, or the Man of 
God, or the Doctor, to heal the sick person if possible. 
This is an excellent custom among you, for the Company 
provides medicine at every Post. 

The Traders, the Men of God and the Doctors com- 
plain that very often you do not follow out the instruc- 
tions which they give you to heal the sick person. Thus 
the Trader may give you a bottle of medicine for the 
sick person and may instruct you to give him a certain 
measure of the bottle each day ; but unless the Trader 
himself administers the medicine to the sick person every 
day, the bottle remains unopened in your tent, and the sick 
person derives no benefit from it. By this neglect you do 
harm to the sick person whom you wish to cure. This is 
indeed a foolish thing to do. You do not expect to catch 
foxes unless you set traps for them. Do you then expect 
to cure sick people without giving them the things which 
will cure them ? 

When one of your people cuts his hand, the Trader 
covers the wound with a bandage and instructs the man to 
keep the wound covered. Often the man throws away the 
bandage and wonders why the wound grows worse instead 



tamanna siamarungnarpok, iglugasangmiut ag- 
lallo indxatigéksuit iluengardlutik aitortaulaux- 
simavut Kanimasermik ominga. Kanimaserub 
oma axiktaugianga okumaidlarpox, toxotsisin- 
narporlo inungmik. 

Kablunat akorngane oxausiovaktokarpok Kanimasexkar- 
tailititsinek oxiluarmat Kanimaserub 4xiktaugianganit. 
Companille kanimatailititsungnangilase udjertulungikupse 
timipsingnik, ikajorungnarpaselo inflijauxovluse kissiane 
naletsiarupse niuvertib Aniasiortiblénét perKojanginik. 

Ilapse ilangat Kanimalerpat tikitaukpallénét Kanoeto- 
mut KaikojisOngovose niuvertemik, ajokertuijomiglénét, 
aniasiortemiglénét, KanimajokK Aniasiortauxovlugo indli- 
jauxovlugolo ajornangipat. Tamanna ilusiovox piojox, 
Companit 4AniasiutiksakasOngomatta niuvervingine ta- 

Niuvertille, ajoxertuijullo, Aniasiortillo sinaungajuteKa- 
Kattarput naletsialunginapse perkojanik Kanimajut axik- 
taugianginut torartunik. 

Imaka Aniasiortib tunidjivigivase 4niasiumik publaujar- 
métomik oxautiluselo Kanoxk angitigijomik kanorlo aku- 
laitigijomik Kanimajox ésititaujuksaungmangat Kaut ta- 
mat. Aniasiortible nangminek Kanimajoxk ésitingipago, 
publaujax aktortaulugane kikkartuinarkattarpox iglome, 
Kanimajublo Aniasiut soxKotigilungimarikpa. Nalengi- 
nipsingnut taimaitomut Kanimajok 4xixojase idluitulivi- 
givase. Taimailiortut silatulungilat. Nerriulungilase 
terrianiarniarapse mikkigitjelungikupse. ‘Taimaimallo 
nerriuktuksaungilase Kanimajut Axigianginik ésitilungi- 
kupsigik Aniasiutiksanginik. 

Ilapse ilangat killerpat aggangminik Aniasiortib mang- 
ipserpa ajoxertorpaselo_ killex mangipsertautsainartuk- 
saungmat. lIlanganele killertub mangiptax péjarpé, 
kingornganelo tataminiarpox killex Axivalialugane piu- 


of better. Do you'expect the Trader to hold the bandage 

round the man’s hand for two or three days until the wound 
is healed ? 

(1) The first rule then in curing sickness or injury is 

(2) However sick or however badly hurt a person 
may be, you should always make him believe 
that he is likely to regain his health. If the sick 
person gives up hope of life, he will not fight 
against death, and is all the more likely to die. 

(3) The sickness of the lungs or the wasting away of 
the limbs can only be cured if the disease is 
checked in its early stages. Good food, rest, 
fresh air and the warmth of the Sun upon the 
limbs are the ways in which you can fight this 

(4) If a man is wounded, the wound should be very 
carefully washed in clean water, so that no poison 
enters the blood, and it should be bound up with 
a clean rag of plain linen. If the wound is 
serious, the man should be taken at once to the 

(5) It is sometimes necessary to cut the flesh in order to 
release pus from under the skin. It is very 
dangerous to use a rusty or a dirty knife. Before 
cutting the flesh, scrape any rust off the knife and 
place the blade into boiling water, so that the 
wound cannot be infected with dirt. 


Marriage with a healthy partner. 

Kattititaunek nulliarengnermut aipamut kannoetokangitomut. (p. 127) 

‘Every Mother thinks that her children are the best.’ 

Arnat illunatik atunit pionerpanik kitorngakarasugiklerput.’ (p. 149) 

Same child after three years’ care of a doctor. 

Child suffering from the disease which wastes the body. 

Sorrusek tamnatsainak, pairijautsiarkarame kammagijautsiarlunelo 

Sorrusek kannimajok kannimasermut uvinerutijomut AL Ke J 
jarit pingasut navlugit aniasiortemut. (p. 145) 

nukerutivalliajomullo.  (p. 145) 


ngilivaliatuinarmat. Nerriukkisé Aniasiortib mangiptax 
najumitsainarniarmago uvlut magguk pingasull6nét nav- 
lugit killex mamitsiarKartinag6 ? 

(1) Taimaimat Kanimajut Aniasiortauningine maligak- 
sat sivorlerpangat imaipok: ANIASIORTIB PER- 

(2) Kanimajox piungitodlaralloarpat, angijomiglonét 
anersimajoxaraloarpat, pijungnartapsingnik ok- 
pertitaksarivase axilarmingmat. Kanimajox 
sapkojikpat nerriungnermik indgiamik Axina- 
suarnialungilax, taimaimallo sAlausarainersaular- 
pok tokomut. 

(3) Puvalerinex sallovalianerlo Axiktaujungnarpok kis- 
siane Kanimasex kamagijautsiarpat pigiartainar- 
ningane. Nerxiksat piojut, merngoersernek, 
anerterisiutekarnek nut4mik inub puvanginut 
anerninganullo piungititaumalungitomik, sexi- 
nerub akkingmingninga timemut_ timiblénét 
avatinginut, tamakkoangovut ikajutiksat Kani- 
maserub salauninganut. 

(4) Inuk killerpat, killex ubvartautsiartuksauvox imer- 
mut salumailungitomut, sunalénét_piungititsi- 
jungnartox akkutaukonago aungmut, nimmer- 
taujuksauvorlo Kablunaxtajarmut merkoxangi- 
tomut ippexangimariktomut. Killex angijékpat 
ilimanarpallénét inuk ingergainax Ataujuksauvox 
Aniasiortemut niuvertemullénét. 

(5) Ilangane uvinex séktaujariaxarpox marngnex pé- 
jartaujungnarkovlugo amiub atanit. Saviuble 
salumaitub mangertorneliublénét atorianga tai- 
maitomut nangianadlarpox. Uvinex séktau- 
Kartinago, savik salumarsartautsiartuksauvox 
mangertornerlo killigarlugo, saviglo ililugo imer- 
mut tertitomut, piungitox tapsomunga nipinga- 

K 145 


(6) When you are obtaining your outfit at the Post, 
you should provide yourself with a supply of 
medicine which will help you to keep the 
bowels free. 

Sometimes you bring to the White Man a sick person 
whom it is not possible to cure, but whose suffering tt 1s 
possible to relieve. When that person dies, you sometimes 
blame the White Man for his death. Nothing could be 
more ungrateful or more foolish, than to blame him for 
the death of a man already doomed to die. 

Both the Government of Canada and the Company 
intend to maintain houses in the north for the benefit of 
your sick people. Men, women and children who are 
seriously ill will be cared for in these houses by a Doctor, 
and if it is possible they will be restored to health ; but for 
a time it will be necessary for these sick people to be away 
from their own families, and to be taken by ship to the 
home for the sick. When they have regained their health, 
they will be brought back to their families. 

Many of you will not wish to part with members of 
your family even for a short time; but if you will not allow 
them to go to the house of the sick, you deprive them 
of the chance to regain their health. 

While they are away in the house of the sick, the 
Company’s Trader will obtain news of them for you, and 
will also see that the sick receive news of their families. 

By maintaining these homes the Government and 
the Company will bring great benefit to the health of 
your people. 

Learn well the trail of Health; for it will lead you from 

sadness to gladness and from sickness to strength. 


joK tokotaukovlugo, killex saviub toxonarto- 
tanganut piungititauxonago, 

(6) Parngnailerupse aularomavluse, Keneriartoritse niu- 
vertemit Aniasiunik annarnartunik neksaraksap- 
singnik, annarnartorlo atorsiuk annarungnangi- 

Ilangane Atsivose niuvertemut Kanimajomik Axiktau- 
jungnangitomik, dniangale ikublatitaujungnarpokK sulle. 
Kanimajox taimaitox indjungnaipat, Aniasiorte niuverte- 
l6nét pasivase ilangane, Niuverte Aniasiortelénét pasilugo 
inub toKomut opaktortaujub indjungnaininga pivlugo 
tukkexangilak, sakkétuinarporlo Kujalinginermik. 

Canadab aulatsijingit Companillotaux issumakarput 
iglolioromalutik Kanimajoxkautenik nunapsingne Kanima- 
jiapse _ pairijautsiarviginiartanginik. Angutit, arnallo, 
sorutsillo Kanimamariktut pairijaularput Kanimajoxautine 
tapkonane Aniasiortenut, Kanimajullo axiktaularput ajor- 
nangipat. Kanimajulle taimaitut apsimagiaxalarput ila- 
mingnit, atauniarlutiglo kanimajoxautemut umiaxsoakut. 
Axigunigle angergautijaularput ilamingnut. 

Hapse ilangit KuviasuteKarniangilat avitaugiamik ila- 
mingnit, unet akuniungikaloartomik, Kanimajoxaute- 
mulle Ataukojomangikupsigik Axiktauviksaxartailitiniar- 

Apsimatilugit Kanimajokauteme Companit niuverting- 
ata pijungnartaminik tussartilarpase Kanimajut Kanoe- 
linganinginik, Kanimajullo tussartilarivait ilamik Kanoe- 

Igloliornermut Kanimajokautemik taimaitomik nunab 
aulatsijungit Companillo idluarkutiksarsiorasualarpase. 

Iliniatsiarasuaritse apkomik atsuilitsiarnermut torarto- 
mik, tessiorniarmase kiksarnermit Kuviasungnermut, Kani- 
manermillo Kanoengitsiarnermut. 



==<=H\y|O not think, Innuit wives, that, because the 
AWAD NY Book of Knowledge speaks mostly to your 
) menfolk, you are forgotten. Who pro- 
vides the Innuit with their children ? 
Who sews the clothes and makes the 
boots for the Innuit ? Who cares for the 
children and looks after the encampment when the 
hunters are away? Who cooks the food for the weary 
hunters on their return? 

Indeed the happiness of the family depends on you, 
while the prosperity of the family depends upon your 
husband; for if your husband is a lazy hunter, then your 
family will lack many things, which the good hunter 
provides for his family. You will lack the skins to be 
sewn into warm clothes: you will lack the supplies which 
the good hunter trades from the Company. 

A hunter has pride in many things apart from his 
children. He has pride in his fame as a hunter, he has 
pride in his gun and in his dogs. But the good wife has 
so much pride in her children and so strong a love for them, 
that other things in life matter little to her. In all parts of 
the world this is the same thing among women. Every 
mother thinks that her children are the best. 

Which mother has the healthiest child in your encamp- 
ment? Here is something which the Company will 
decide for you every year. 

At the end of the trapping ‘ape when you bring your 


SSUMAKARNIARASE, arnaujose ilipse, 
puigortaumagapse. Aglait ukkoa Ilisima- 
tiksat oKausexaluarmatta angutipsingnut 
ilingajunik. Kia inuit Kitorngalipagit ? 
Kia inuit annorAliorpagit kammiorlugillé? 

Kia sorutsit pairivagit iglolo tupperlo 
kamagilugik omajoxsiorte aularsimatilugé ? Kia omajoxK- 
siortit merngortudlarlutik angerartut nerxiksaliorpagit ? 

Ila, iglomioxatigét KuviasuteKakatigéngningat aggap- 
singnépok, iglomioxatigét patangaititaugiangit angutinut 
ilingatilugo; angulle omajoxsiorteogune erkeasuktox 
ilatit kingumaklerniarput sunatuinarnik omajoxsiortib 
omaridlartub pisijungnartanginik ilaminut. Kissixar- 
niangilatit annoranut oxortunut atorungnartunik, suna- 
tuinarniglo ajoKsarniarpotit omajoxsiortib omaridlartub 
pisijungnartanginik Companinit. 

Omajoxsiortib sunatuinait Kitorngame assingit piojori- 
jutigivait. Omajoxsiorteoluarnine piojorijutigiva, Kuk- 
kiutine kingminelo piojorijutigivait. Arnable aipatsiang- 
ojub Kitorngane plojorijutigivait, taimaglo angitigijomik 
nagligivait assingit indtseme sunajorilungimagit sorlo. 
Arnat taimailingavut silaxsoarme ilfinane. Arnat ildnatik 
atunit pionerpanik kitorngaKarasugiklerput. 

Arnat neliat iglugasapsingne KitorngaKarkaé 4nanauner- 
panik xkanoengitsiarnerpanigl6 ? ‘Tamanna Companit 
kajusijutigilarpat pivluse jarit tamat. 

Mikkigiarniarviub naningane atsigupse pisuktit pijapse 


fur to the Post, the Trader will inspect every child and 
will judge which of all the children at the Post is the 

The Trader will give a prize to the mother of the 
healthiest baby who is still fed at the breast. 

The Trader also will give a prize to the mother of the 
healthiest baby between the age of a year and a half 
and three years. 

The Trader also will give a prize to the mother of the 
healthiest child between the age of three years and six 

In judging which child is the healthiest in each group, 
the Trader will learn the weight of each child; he will 
take stock of the cleanliness of their bodies and the 
health of their limbs. Of the children between the age 
of three years and six years he will also consider the 
cleanliness and the tidiness of their clothes, before he 
decides which mother is to receive the prize offered by 
the Company. 

If you have carefully read the words of the Book of 
Knowledge, you will know that milk is a food of great value 
to pregnant wives, to mothers who give suck and to 
children and to those who suffer from the sickness of the 
lungs. In order to help your families to be strong and 
healthy the Company has decided to provide milk for you 
at less cost than before, so that it will always be possible 
for you to provide milk for every child, for the sick, and 
for mothers before and after child-birth. 

Innuit women, show yourselves to be mothers worthy 
of fine children by giving them the blessing of health! In 
anything which is for the benefit of your children the 
Company will help you. 



aminginik niuvervingmut, niuvertib sorutsit iltnatik 
Kemergutsialarpait idluarsaivlunelo sorutsit neliat Kano- 

Niuverte piliusiamik tunidjilarpox ananamut nutaramik 
Kanoengitsiarnerpauk6rtomik amamaktitsijomut. 

Amalo sorutsit ilinatik jarexartut atautsemik abvamiglo 
jarexartullo pingasunik akorngane Kemergoxardlugit 
Kanoengitsiarnerpaukortub andnanga  tunidjivigilarpa 

Amalo sorutsit jarelit pingasunik jarelillo pingasujor- 
tunik akorngane xkanoengitsiarnerpauxértub andnanga 
tunidjivigilariva piliusiamik. 

Nautsertortilugo sorutsit neliat Kanoengitsiarnerpau- 
Kormangat ingmik6rtartune tapkonane, niuverte kamalar- 
pOK sorutsit okumaininginik; naipertularpox timingita 
salumaninginik avatingitalo uvinekatsiarninginik. Sorut- 
sit farelit pingasunik pingasujortuniglo akorngane Kemer- 
golugit kamalarpox annorangita Kanoelinganinginik salu- 
maninginiglo, kajusikarane andnat neliat tunidjiviolar- 
mangat Companit piliutinganik. 

Kamatsiarsimagupse Aglait ukkua Ilisimatiksat oKauseri- 
janginik Kaujiniarpose immuk nerxiksatsiangongmat pio- 
dlartok arnanut singaimajunut, arnanullo andnaujunut 
amamaktitsijunut nutaranik, sorusearsungnullo, puvaleri- 
junullo. Kitorngaselo nukkexkatsiarkovlugit Kanoengitsi- 
arkovlugillo, Companit aulaivigilarpase immungmik 
akkikinersautilugo sivornganemit, pisiniatsainarungnar- 
Kovluse sorutsit Kanimajullo singaimajullo amamaktitsijullo 

Ilipselo arnaujose, nelonaijaileritse andnaksautsiarapse 
sakkéjungnartunik xKitornganik piotsiarmariktunik, Ki- 
torngiarigapsigik aitorlugit Kanoengitsiarnermik saima- 
nadlartomik. Kitorngapse idluarxutiksanginut ilingajune 
tamaine Companit ikajorniarpase. 



m|AY heed to these words, all you Innuit 
of Labrador who dwell in houses of wood: 
for the things which are written in this 
part of the Book of Knowledge concern 
you greatly. You will have heard tell how 
in the days of long ago, before the Men of 
God came to your coast, your forefathers dwelt in snow- 
houses during the winter and in tents during the summer. 
Then came the Men of God and built on your shores their 
dwelling-houses and churches; and it seemed good to 
your forefathers likewise to build houses of wood for 
themselves, that they might live after the fashion of White 
Men. Therefore they fetched wood from the forests and 
built up houses close to the Mission on those parts of the 
land which were given to the Men of God by the King of 
England. ‘The Men of God earnestly wish that you 
should benefit from living on their land after the fashion 
of White Men. But your houses are very unlike the houses 
of White Men: you do not paint the outside of your 
houses, and the wood becomes rotten like the flesh of a 
seal left in the sun for a long time: your houses are likewise 
dirty within, for you do not clean the floors or the walls as 
the White Men do. The dust and the dirt lies thick, and 
the air is heavy with the smell of uncleanness. The 
windows of your houses are so small that the light of the 
sun, which brings health to all mankind, cannot enter 
within your rooms. 



yIKAUTSIT ukkua kamagitsiarsigik, ilipse 

indjose Labradoremiongojose, Kejungnik 
iglokartose; oxkautigijaujut Aglait Ilisi- 
matiksat makutsiane ilipsingnut ilinga- 
luarmattaa. ‘Tuslauxsimaniarpose atata- 
gilauxtase iglovigamiongolaungmatta 
okiorne tupermiongolaungmattalo aujarne uvlune Kanger- 
Kamerungnaitune Giidib inuxotingit tikerkaratik nunap- 
singnut. ‘Tapkoale tikisinnalauxput igloliorlutiglo iglo- 
giniartamingnik katimavingniglo;  sivorlipselo  tagva 
idluarivat nangminex iglolioromavlutik nangminiksari- 
niartamingnik, indjomavlutik xablunat ilusingit malik- 
lugit. Taimaimat xejuktarput adjarsilutik igluksanik 
napartunit igloliorlutiglo Missionib Kanitangane nuname 
tunijaujome Missionemut Englandib ataninganut. Ajo- 
Kertuijullo tussudlarput indnise nunangine xKablunat 
ilusingit maliklugit idluarxutiksapsingnut ilingaxovlugo. 
Iglusele kablunat iglungit adsigilungilait; iglupse silati- 
ngit mingoarséngolungilase, Kejuktangillo auniolerput, 
sorlo puijevinexk sekinermut akunit seKinerartaujox; 
iglupse ilungit salumaidlarivut, nettingit Karmangillo 
salumarsarsOngolunginapsigik sorlo Kablunat pingmatta. 
Sannexadlarpok, iglublo ilua tipanga okumaipok salumai- 
nerub tipelungninganut. Imglupse igalangit taimak miki- 
tigivut seKinerub issagutingit, atsuilinermik xkaitsijut in- 
ungnut, iterungnangimatta iglonut. 




Windows are made in houses not only to trap the rays 
of the sun, but to allow the fresh air to enter, when the 
windows are opened, and to drive away the stale air which 
is harmful to the lungs. You have often seen on your deer 
hunts a sparkling pool of water in the hills: a current 
constantly carries the water into one end of the pool and 
out at the other end downwards towards the sea: thus the 
water always remains fresh in the pool, and often is the 
time when tired and thirsty you have laid down by the side 
of it and drunk the cool clean water with a glad heart. If 
there were no current, the water would be stagnant and 
dirty, and while it would still quench the thirst, it would 
probably poison the body. Even as men drink water, so 
do they drink in air through their nostrils and fill their 
lungs with it. When the windows and doors of a house 
are completely shut, there is no current to bring in fresh air 
and to expel the foul air. In this respect your houses are 
like stagnant pools, and you drink foul air into your lungs, 
so that they become poisoned. Do you wonder then that 
your wives and children become sick with the disease of 
the lungs and with other illness ? 

The Company’s Traders and the Men of God not only 
keep their houses tidy and spotless both inside and outside, 
but they allow the fresh air of heaven to pass into their 
rooms through the open windows, so that the stale air is 
expelled and is not breathed into the lungs. They keep 
their houses free from dirt and dust because all dirt is very 
friendly to the germs of disease, which multiply in dirty 
and badly-kept houses. In this way and in other ways the 
Traders of the Company and the Men of God take great 


Iglut igalaxarput sexinerub issagutingit iterungnarKov- 
lugit kissianeungitox, iglole ilutarungnarKovlugo igalax 
upkoersimatilugo, ilulo nutaungitox, inub puvanginut 
piungitok, anijungnarkovlugo. Tuktusiortiluse takoxat- 
tarsimavose tessekullungnik KaKxat naksangine; imex 
Kakkaub atsangajanganit pijox kétsainarpox tessekullung- 
mut issuane pane, kéngmilunelo tessermit igluane unane 
imarbingmut kéklune; taimaimallo tessekullub imanga 
nutangotsainarpok mamatsainarlunelo, akulaitomiglo 
merngortudlartiluse kédlartiluselo pamangasimavose imer- 
luselo imermik issungitomik niglitsiartomiglo Kuviasuk- 
luse omatekut. Tessekulluk ingergarnexangipat imanga 
noKangatsainartok salumainajarpoK, imerosugungnaitit- 
sigaloartilugolo inungmik, Kanimanarajarpok timemut, 
aglat tokonarungnarajarlune. Sorlo inuit imerséngo- 
matta imermik taimak puvangit imersOngogivut sorlo 
silab ilanganik kingangmikkut puvangit tatalugit. Iglub 
igalangit upkoangillo upkoarsimatilugit ingergarnekang- 
ilax silamik ubvalo anoremik 4tsijomik ilumik nutamik 
péjaijomiglo ilumik nutaungitomik tipaludlartomik. Tai- 
maidlutiglo tessekulluktitut ingergarnexangitutitut iling- 
avut, anerteritiluselo imerpose sorlo tipalungmik puvap- 
singnut, puvaselo Kanimatitauvut. Taimailingatilugo 
tataminiarxKisé arnase Kitorngaselo Kanimalermatta puva- 
lerilutik assianiglo Kanimasexarlutik ? 

Companit niuvertingita ajoxertuijullo iglotik Axisut- 
siartuinalungilait salumarsarlugillo ilukut silatagullo, iga- 
laktigulle upkoersimajutigut xKilaub silanga ubvalo anor- 
inga ingergartipat iglokut, ilo nutaungitok anijungnar- 
Kovlugo anerterkusautaukonagolo puvangnut.  Iglotik 
salumaitoxartailitipait sannexartailitilugillo, salumaitut 
ilfinatik ilakarmatta Kanimaserit omajokullunginik ubvalo 
karngasutikullunginik, unuksisaraidlartunik perorsaraid- 
lartunik iglune salumaitune 4Axiksortautsialungitune. 




care of their bodies, and thus they rarely suffer from 
sickness and live in health and happiness to a ripe 

old age. 

In the great encampment of London and in the other 
great encampments in the island of Britain certain men are 
appointed by the King to inspect the houses of the people, 
so that the health of all may be protected from the germs 
of disease which live in dirty houses and are spread about 
thence into the air. The King’s inspector will visit the 
owner of such a house, and will command him as follows: 
—‘ Sir, your house is a rotten house; its walls are crumb- 
ling with decay: the roof lets in the rain: the floor is damp 
with mould: the windows are so small that the light of the 
sun cannot enter the house, and likewise the windows 
cannot be opened so as to bring the fresh air into the house. 
Your house is a danger to the health of those who dwell in 
it and to those who dwell nearby. Therefore your house 
must be destroyed.’ Then do men come and destroy that 
house for the benefit of all. 

After the house has been destroyed, he who owned it 
asks leave of the officer of the King to build a new house in 
its place. The King’s officer then carefully examines the 
design of the new house so that it may conform with the 
Laws of Health, which are made to protect all men, women 
and children against sickness and the spread of disease. 

Likewise there are certain Laws in the building of 
houses to protect the people against the danger of Fire. 
There is a wise saying among White Men that Fire is a 
good servant but a bad master, as indeed some of you know 
who saw the tongues of flame burn to the ground the fine 
Mission buildings at Nain, which your ancestors helped to 
build. When the Company builds a Post, the buildings 
are placed so far apart that if one building is attacked by 


Taimailiorlutik assingitigullo ama Companit niuvertingit 
ajoKertuijullo pairksivut timimingnik, taimaimallo Kani- 
makattalungilat, Kanoetokaratiglo Kuviasuklutiglo indvut 

Iglugasaksoarne Londoneme iglugasaksoarnelo Lon- 
donib assingine xikertaksoarme Britaineme anguteKarpok 
atanermut tilijaujunik Kemergojuksanik inuit iglunginik, 
iglugasaksoarmiut ilfinatik saputijauxovlugit Kanimaserit 
omajokullunginit karngasutikullunginit omaséngojunit 
iglune salumaitune siamangasdngojunillo tagvangat sila- 
kut. Ataniub Kemergojungortitanga nelipsaivox iglub 
taimaitub inuanik oxautilugolo imak: ‘ Sir, iglut aunio- 
lerpok; kKarmangit ocholerput aunermut; xolla kusser- 
pox silalulerangat; netinga Kauseangavok sapKarmut; 
iglub igalangit mikiluarput, sexinerublo issagutangit 
kaumaningalo iterungnangilat iglomut, igalat ama upko- 
ersOngolungilat iglo ilutarungnarkovlugo. Iglut nangiar- 
narpoK takamane igloxartut indsingita atsuilininginut 
iglublo Kanitanganétunut. ‘Taimaimat iglut péjartaujuk- 
sauvok.’ ‘Taimaglo angutit péjaigiartorput iglomik tap- 
sominga, inuit ilinatik idluarkutiksanginut. 

Iglo péjartaukpat inuata ataniub kamajunga Kenuvigi- 
jartorpa nutamik igloliorkojaujomavlune tapsoma tunga- 
viviningane. Kamajib tagva iglub ilutsiksangata adsing- 
oanga Kemergotsiarpa, Kaujijomavlune iglo malilarmang- 
at perkojanik iglomiut timingita atsuiliniksanginut 
saputijauniksanginullo Kanimasernit ilingajunik. 

Perkojakarivok ama igloliornex pivlugo torartunik 
inuit saputijauniksanginut ikomamit. Silatujomik oxau- 
siovaktokarpok Kablunane oxartomik ikoma pijeovlune 
piojéngmat angajoxauvlunele piungiténgmat. ‘Tamatto- 
minga tukkisiniarput ilapse ilangit takonalauxtut Mis- 
sionib iglungit Naineme nungutautilugit ikomaksoarmut. 
Iglut tapkoa senajautilugit sivorlipse ilangit ikajuxatau- 




fire, the flames will not be carried by the wind to the next 
building. Your houses are built so close together that if 
one house catches fire the wind is likely to carry the fire to 
many houses. ‘Then will there be great destruction and 

The Governor of the Company and those who are chief 
among the Men of God are sorely troubled over the state of 
your houses, and they declare that your houses are like the 
thin strips of snow which you place over your fox-traps. 
Those strips of snow, which cover your traps, are indeed 
dangerous places for the fox, if he only knew it... in 
time. ‘Too late he discovers the danger, too late he tries to 
save himself from his fate. It seems to the Governor of the 
Company that your houses are very like those strips of 
snow which cover the fox-traps. Under the roof of your 
houses there lurks the danger of illness and disease. You, 
like the foxes, do not realise the danger of this trap, until 
you suffer the illness which brings death to you or to those 
whom you love. 

After taking counsel with those who are chief of the Men 
of God the Governor of the Company has decided to help 
you in this matter. At Hebron the Company has already 
built several new houses in place of the old houses in which 
it was not fit for people to dwell. The old houses have 
been destroyed, and in their place there now stand new 
houses, painted green and white with roofs of red after the 
fashion of all houses which belong to the Company. How 
clean and sweet-smelling these new houses are! How 
proud are the families which dwell in them—prouder even 
than the young hunter who has killed his first bear. 

‘The Company has also decided sooner or later to build 
new houses at Makovik, Hopedale, Nain and Nutak, which 
lies close to Okak, for the benefit of those families who 

wish to order their lives according to the Laws of Health. 


lauxput. Companit nunatarpatta igloliors6ngovut Kani- 
tarélungitunik, iglut ilangat ikoalakpat ikoma anoremut 
dtaukonago assianut. Igluse taimak xKanitaréséngovut, 
ilangat ikoalakpat ikoma Ataujungnarpox tagvainax 
assinginut, taimaglo angijomik assiojivose ikoma nungut- 
singmat unuktunik. 

Companit angajokaxKsoanga ajoxkertuijullo angajoxang- 
it issumajadlarput iglupse ilinganingit pivlugit, oKar- 
pullo igluse adsiutitaujungnarmatta aputemut sdtomut 
mattuksarikattartapsingnut mikkigianik. Apute témna 
satox, mikkigiab mattunga, nangiarnarpok terrianiarmut, 
terrianiak kingurailugane Kaujituarajarpat tamattominga. 
Kinguraivlunele kissiane kangésus6ngovok nangiarnarto- 
mik, kinguraivlunelo piulinasuarpok nangminerminik 
mikkigiarmit. Companit angajoxangata igluse adseona- 
sugivait aputemut satomut mikkigiab mattunganut. Ig- 
lupse kolangita atane Kanimasexk Kanoetoxarnerlo ijerpuk. 
llipse, terrianiatitut, kangésulungilase mikkigiab tapsoma 
nangiarnarninganik, pijaukartinase Kanimasermut tikiut- 
jijomut toxomik ilipsingnut ungagijapsingnullénét. 

Oxakattekarsimax4rdlune ajokertuijut angajokanginik, 
Companit angajoxdnga kajusimavox ikajoromavluse ta- 
mattomane. Hebroneme Companit igloliorsimajarérput 
sutaijartunik, iglovinit iniksautsialaungitut inungnut 
iningine. Iglovinit tapkoa serkomitaumavut, ininginelo 
iglokarpox nutanik, mingoartaumajunik iviujamiglo Ka- 
Kortamiglo, aupaluktanik Kolaxarlutik, Companit ilusing- 
at maliklugo. Iglut tapkoa salumatsiarput tippitsiarlu- 
tiglo. Inungitalo iglut pijoridlarpait, piojoriluarput aglat 
indsuktomit nanoriortomit. 

Companit kajusivut iglolioromangmilutik Makkéving- 
me, Hopedalemelo, Nainemelo, Nutamelo Oxaub xani- 
tanganétome, indjomajut atsuilinerub maligaksangit malik- 
lugit idluarxutiksanginut. 


ce tins 


These houses will as far as possible be built in a straight 
line, so that the villages will appear neat to the eye. Each 
house will be built at a set distance from the next house, so 
that there will be less danger of fire destroying many 
houses at once and leaving you homeless. ‘The site on 
which they are built will be carefully chosen, and the 
water will be drained from the land so that the foundations 
and the land surrounding the houses are dry: for it is 
unhealthy to live in a house which is surrounded with mud. 
The houses will be built as near to the shore as possible, so 
that it will be convenient for you daily to place your refuse 
on a part of the shore, where it will be carried away by the 

For every new house that is built an old house will be 
destroyed, in order that the whole community may benefit 
by the destruction of these disease-traps. ‘The land on 
which the new houses are built will remain the property of 
the Men of God; the new houses will be built by the 
Company and will belong to them. The Company’s 
Trader will be in charge of these new houses and will 
arrange with you which house your family will occupy. 

The headman of each family will be required every year 
to pay a certain sum of money to the Company for living in 
one of the Company’s houses. For is it not right that each 
family should pay a share of the cost of building the house, 
and a share of the cost of keeping the house in good repair ? 

If the family to whom the new house is assigned does 
not take care of that house and keep it clean, then the 
Company’s Trader will warn him that, unless he is more 
careful of the house entrusted to him, it will be handed 
over to another family who use greater care with the things 
which belong to the Company. Ifa hunter lends his rifle 
to a friend, he expects him to take good care of that rifle, to 

keep it clean and safe from damage. In the same way the 


Iglut tapkoa ilGnatik tamaungatsainak sAnganiarput 
naggojévlutik, ajornangipat, iglugasait takoranidlarKxov- 
lugit ijemut. Ilfnatik adsigéktomik xanitaréngitigilarput 
aktorutilugatik, unuktut atautsikut nungutaugiangit iko- 
mamut ilimananginersaukovlugo igloméviksairutixona- 
selo. Tungaviksangit Kenertautsiarasualarput, nunangillo 
kékulloxalarput tungavit avatingillo panitsainarKovlugit, 
indgiak iglome imaxsulingme atsuilinalungimat indtse- 
mut. Iglut sidjab Kanitanganélarput ajornangipat, aksi- 
viksakarkovluse Kanitomik ulutjauniartomiglo imAnut, 
sannit saptaukovlugit. 

Nutamik igloliortoxarangat péjaijoxalarpox iglomik 
nutaungitomik, iglugasangmiut idluarkutiksarsixovlugit 
mikkigiat tapkoa kanimasexKautit serkomitauninginut. 
Nuna iglut nutat tungavingit perkutauniarpox sulle 
Missionemut; iglulle nutét senajauniarput Companinut 
perkutauniarpullo tapkonunga. Companit niuverniarting- 
ata iglut nutat aulalarpait, angixatiginiarpaselo iglut 
neliane inekarniarmangapse. Iglomioxatigét Companit 
iglungita ilangane inexkartut angajoxangat akkilégiaxalar- 
pox attausermik Companinut jarit tamat. Idluartuinalu- 
ngimat kitorngarét ilfinatik akkiléngmatta iglub senajau- 
ningata akkingata ilanganik iglublo Axiktaugiaxarningata 
ilaktaugiakarningatalo akkingata ilanganik ? 

Aiparék iglo attartortaujox kamagitsialungipakko salu- 
masatsialugolo, Companit niuvertingata  kaiblalarpak, 
iglolo kamagijautsianersaulungipat tunijaularpox aipar- 
éngnut kamatsiarnersaujingnut Companit perkutinginik. 
Omajoxsiortib Kukkiutine attartortautikpago indxatimi- 
nut, nerriukpox attarsijub kxukkiut pairitsiarniarmago 
salumarsarlugo — sujuktautailitilugolo. Taimaluatsiak 
Companit nerriukput iglut Companit senajangit ilipse 

L 161 


Company expects you to take good care of the houses which 
they will build for the benefit of you and of your families. 

Among White Men it is the duty of the housewife to 
keep every thing clean and tidy within the house, while the 
husband or the sons take care of the outside work and see 
that the walls are well painted and that the roof does not 
let in the water. So also you should arrange among your 
own families that each member of the household fulfils his 
or her share of the duty of keeping the house in good order 
both inside and outside. You will be proud to possess 
clean and healthy villages and bright homes like the 
White Men. How the strangers, who come from the 
South in ships, will admire the new condition of your 

At an appointed time the Company and the Men of God 
will call your elders together to discuss with them how 
best to carry-out these things which will help to bring new 
health and happiness to the people. But remember that 
neither Nain nor Hopedale nor Hebron were built in a 
day: neither can they be rebuilt in a day. These things 
cannot be accomplished by the Company and the Men 
of God alone. You people of Labrador must do your fair 
share of the work, when the time is ripe. We must all 
work together. 


Kitorngapselo idluarkutiksanginut kamagitsiarniarapsi- 

Kablunane imaitunik ilusexarpox: arnab _perxutit 
iglométut kamagiséngovait salumarsarlugillo sujuktautai- 
litinasuarlugillo, angutingatalo ubvalo erningita iglub 
silatanétut kamagivait, kKarmangita mingoarutekatsiarni- 
ngit Kollatalo kussertailigianga kamagilugit. Taimaglo 
ilipse angikatigéktuksaugivose iglométut atunit kamagija- 
ksaxarkovlugit, atunillo piniarkovlugit piniaraksarija- 
mingnik iglo Axiksimatsiarkovlugo iluanelo silatanelo. 
Piojorilarpose iglugasakarupse salumajunik indtsemullo 
atsuilinartunik igloxarluselo Kaumatsiartunik Kablunati- 
tut. Tujormiat, angat pijut, iglupse ilinganingat nutax 

Sukutsiane Companit inukotingita ajoxertuijullo anga- 
jokauxatigése katimaxolarpait oxakatigijomavlugit Kanok 
tamakkoa idluarkutiksapsingnut kuviasutiksapsingnullo 
ilinganasuartut piniartaujungnarmangata. Erxailaurit- 
sele Nainelénét Hopedalelénét Hebronelénét uvloinarme 
senajaulaungimatta, nutdngortitaujungnarniangilall6nét 
uvloinarme. ‘Tamakkoalo piniarutaujungnangilat Com- 
paninut ajoxertuijunullo kissimetévlutik. Ilipse Labra- 
doremiojose suliaksab tamattoma ilanga piniaraksarilar- 
pase, ikajortigékluta, neliutikpat. 

PART ig 



N all parts of the world men work to pro- 
vide food and clothing for their families, 
and for themselves. In the old days when 
there were no traders in the world, every 
man worked for himself. He hunted and 
trapped the wild animals and the fishes in 

seataia to — back to his family the only things which 

they needed—food and clothing. If he was a bad hunter, 
then he and his family starved. In those days it was 
necessary to be a good hunter in order to live. In this 
manner men lived on the island of Britain many years 
ago; in this way also your fathers lived before the Men of 
God came and before the Company came. 

In those very early days every man fashioned his own 
weapons for hunting, and each family sewed their own 
clothes. But some men were better hunters than others, 
and some men made better weapons than others, and some 
families made better clothes than others. Therefore the 

best hunters said to the best weapon makers and to the 





ILAKSUB nunangine tamaine angutit suli- 
akasOngovut nangminitik ilatiglo patang- 
aititsomavlugit nerkiksanut annoraksa- 
nullo. Itsarsoarme niuverniartoKarKarti- 
nago silaxsoarme ilfinatik atunit nangmi- 
niksamingnik kissiane kamas6ngolauxput. 

Omajoxsiorlune angut pinasualaukpok omajunik nujoar- 
tunik tokotaminik mingerianiglo angergautijaksaxaro- 
mavlune ilame pijariaKatuarijanginik—tagva nerkiksanik 
annoraksaniglo. | Omajoxsiortelutuinaugune _ pitsuitox 
tamna nangminex ilangillo ajoxsadlarput. Taimaimallo 
uvlune tapkonane angut indtsiaromagune ajoxsarlugane 
omajoxsiorteotsiariakalauxpox pitsortox. ‘Taimailingav- 
lutik inuit indlauxput Kikertaksoarme Englandeme jarit 
unuktut mattoma sivorngane; taimailingavlutiglo sivor- 
lise indlaukput ajoxertuijut Companillo tikerxkartinagit 

Taipsomanelo angutit ilanatik atunit senaséngolauxput 
pinastitimingnik, xKitorngaréllo ilGnatik merKsorséngo- 
lauxput annorangmingnik. Angutille ilangit omajoxsior- 
teluangolauxput assimingnit, arnallo ilangit merxsulu- 

angolauxput assimingnit. Taimaimallo omajoxsiortit pit- 


best clothes makers, ‘ We will supply you with a certain 
amount of meat and skins, if you will provide us with a 
certain number of weapons and a certain number of 
clothes.’ In this way men began to trade with one another. 
The hunters who procured the most meat and the best 
skins for the weapon makers and the clothes makers 
received in exchange the best weapons for hunting and the 
best clothes: and likewise the best makers of weapons and 
of clothes received in exchange from the hunters abund- 
ance of meat and skins. 

Thus, thanks to trade, men learned that the best 
hunters were able to provide their families with better food, 
better clothes and better weapons than the poor hunter 
who gained little meat and few skins to trade with the 
makers of clothes and weapons. Men also discovered that 
the hunter, who worked hardest and most skilfully, was 
able to provide his family with comforts which the poor 
hunter or the lazy hunter was unable to provide for his 
family. ‘Thus men began to work not only in order to avoid 
nakedness and starvation but also to provide comfort for 
their families and a sufficient store of supplies against the 
sickness or the old age of the hunter. 

In those very early days every man worked with his 
hands and by the sweat of his body; but those who were 
wise among them learned to work more cunningly than 
others, so that with /ess labour they made for themselves 
greater gain. Thus your forefathers learned how to make 
nets from seal-hide: these nets they set for the seals, 
because, once a net has been set, it is always ready to catch 
seals; although the net yawns with open mouth, it is a 
tireless hunter, unlike the man who grows weary waiting 
for many hours with his spear above the seal hole. The 

net catches more seals than the hunter, and enables the 


sortut pikkaringnerpat pinasfteliortit annorAliortillo pi- 
luangonerpat oxautivait: Tunidjivigijomavapse nerkemik 
amingniglo kissingniglo, senajomagupse pinastitiksap- 
tingnik annoraksaptingniglo, Taimailingavlutik inuit 
niuverniarkatigélerput. Omajoxsiortit toxotsiluartut 
omajunik taungniuteKkarput nerkemik kissingniglo aming- 
niglo pionerpanik taungniutigilugit pinasdtinik annorang- 
niglo pionerpanik; taimaglotaux pinasiteliortit annora- 
liortillo pisOngonerpat senajatik taungniutigivait nerKik- 
sanik amerniglo, 

Tauxséjut taimaitut Kujagijaksauvut, tapkutiguna inuit 
ilimatta omajoxsiortit pikkaringnerpat patangaititsijung- 
narmatta ilamingnik nerxiksalilugit annoraksalilugit pina- 
sitiksalilugillo, omajoxsiorte pikkarluktox taungniutik- 
saKartinago nerkiksanik amerniglo, Inuit nagvarivuttaux 
omajoxsiorte omaridlartox pikkariktox pisijungnarmat 
sunatuinarnik ilame idluarKkutigijanginik omajoxsiortib 
erkeasuktub pikkarluktub pisiarijungnangitanginik ila- 
minut. ‘Taimaimallo inuit suliaxalerput annoraxanginex 
perlernerlo alingitarijomavlugik kissiane-ungitox ilatigle 
idluarkutiksalijomavlugit, katersoijomavlutiglo Komiutik- 
sanik, ajoKsartoKarkonago omajoksiorte Kkanimalerpat 
sapilerpallénét inukoarnermut. 

Uvlune tapkonane itsarsoarme angutit suliséngolaux- 
put aggangmingnut timimiglo kidjijarningine, silatuner- 
salle iliput Kanox sulinersaujungnarmangdrmik aksoror- 
nersaugiakalugatik. Sivorlise iliput nulloaliorungnara- 
mik aklunanit kissijanit. Nulloallo tapkoa ningitipait 
imanut puijenik nulloartitsijomavlutik, nulloat 4xiksimat- 
siartuarpatta atuinautsainarmatta nulloartitsinermut. Nul- 
loat omajoxsiorteojarput merngortorungnangitut, Kane- 
Kartut sorlo aitangatsainartomik, ilingalungilallo angutitut 
naulalijartotut utaxingudlarsinnartotut puijib agloane. 

Nulloat angunersaungijaidlarput angumit, taimaimallo 


hunter to be doing other things while it is catching seals 
for him. Yes—your forefathers were wise to use the net: 
but some learned to use the net more skilfully than others; 
those who were most skilful gained the greatest store of 
possessions, even as to-day the more skilful trappers 
among you gain greater possessions than the careless 

In all parts of the world a man’s wealth depends 
upon his fitness as a worker. ‘There are three kinds of 

(1) Men who labour with the strength of their arms to 
provide food and clothing for their families. 

(2) Men who combine séi// with the strength of their 
arms, to provide food, clothing and comforts for 
their families. 

(3) Men who by their wisdom and skill in directing the 
work of others, provide food, clothing and 
comforts for their families. 

There are very many people in the world who only 
labour with the strength of their arms. For these men and 
for their families there is little wealth, because the work 
which they do requires little skill. 

There are fewer workers who combine skill with the 
strength of their arms. ‘They are rewarded for the skill 
of their work with greater wealth than those who only 
labour with their arms. 

There are still fewer workers who have the wisdom and 
skill to direct the work of others and to improve the 
methods of working. These men gain great wealth by 

their wisdom and skill. Such men often begin to earn 

Men in western Canada combining skill with the strength of their arms to 
gather the plant from which flour is made. 

Angutit Kanademiut, kangitomedlutik, nukkiminut sillatunermullo ivimik 
kakkojaksamik kattersoijut. (p. 169) 

Albert, the second son of King George, watching a band of White Women 
sewing boots with great care. 

Albert, Atanerub Georgib erninga aipangat, kamagijok kannok arnat 
(Kablunat) kammiliormatta utsertutsiarlutik. (p. 217) 

Our great care is for the future of the Innuit, and we are therefore the special 
protectors and helpers of all Innuit boys and girls.’ 

“Issumagiluarpavut inuit sivuniksangat ; taimaimallo angiluartomik 
nukappiat niviarsiallo serngnigiluaromavavut ikajorlugillo,’ (p. 237) 


angut assianik suliakarungnarpok nulloat angutilugit 
puijenik angutib piksanginik. Ila, sivorlise silatulauxput 
atulermatta nulloanik. Adsigélaunginivulle, ilangit sila- 
tunersat sulinersaulaungmatta nulloanut assimingnit, sila- 
tunersallo perkutexarpalianersauvut assimingnit, sorlo 
uvlome mikkigiarniarte silatujox sulinersauvlune perxute- 
Karnersaungmat mikkigiarniartemit erkasutsialungitomit. 

Silaxsub nunangine tamaine inub akluininga perxKute- 
Karninga atavok sulitsiarungnarninganut. Suliaxartut 
avitaujungnarput pingasdlivlugit: 

1) Inuit sulijut tallermik nukkinginut, ilatik taimak 
iy g ) 
patangaititsomavlugit nerkiksanullo annoraksa- 

(2) Inuit sulijut tallermik nukkinginut si/atunermik 
pikkaringnermik ilaxartilugo, taimaglo _ ilatik 
patangaititsomavlugit nerxiksanut annoraksa- 
nullo idluarkutiksanullo sunatuinarnut. 

(3) Inuit silatujut pikkariktut assimingnik aulatsijung- 
nartut suliningine, taimaglo ilatik patangaitilugit 
nerkiksanut annoraksanullo idluarKutiksanullo 

Inuxarpox unuktunik silaxsoarme tallermik nukkingi- 
nut kissiane sulijut. TAapkoa ilangillénét akluilualungilat 
suliakaramik suliaksatuinaujunik, tamattomungalo silatu- 

Sulijut tallermik nukkingat atorlugo ilaKartilugo sila- 
tunermik pikkaringnermik ikinersauvut. ‘Taimaitulle 
akilertauvut suliningit pikkaringningillo maliklugo, akki- 
tuluarpullo tallermingnut kissianut sulijunit. 

Amalo ikinersaulerivut tapkonangat silatujut pikkarik- 
tut aulatsijungnartut assimingnik, ajokertuijungnartullo 
assimingnik Kanok sulinersauvlutik sulijungnarmangata. 

Taimaitut akluilerput silatunermikkut pikkaringnermik 


possessions by combining ski// with the strength of their 
arms. ‘They are soon found to be so clever that they are 
no longer required to work with the strength of their arms, 
but to spend all their time in directing the work of others. 

Innuit hunters are most likely to gain possessions by com- 
bining ski// with the strength of their arms. It is easy for any 
man to place his traps down in the snow with the work of 
his hands and his legs; but it is another matter to arrange 
the traps in such a way as to deceive the cunning of the fox. 
The hunter who has placed his traps without skill often 
returns to find the bait gone, but no foxin the trap. The 
skilful hunter has learned to deceive the fox, and when 
he visits his traps, he brings back more skins and thereby 
gains greater wealth than the man who has hunted without 

Each of your tribes has a headman or a head woman 
who directs with wisdom the doings of your tribes. All 
difficulties and problems of the tribe are brought to the 
headman for his advice. But if every man of the tribe was 
equally wise as the headman, then there would be no need 
to have a headman. Men are not equally wise: men are 
not equally skilful workers: men are not equally hard 
workers in any encampment. 

You know how different your dogs are one from another: 
each dog has its own traits: some dogs pull better than 
other dogs: some dogs are stronger than other dogs: 
some dogs pretend to work hard, but are idle when their 
driver dozes on the komatik. There is only one leader 
to each dog team. He with the effort of the good dogs and 



kullo. Pigiarnerme taimaitut akkiliutiksarsixattarput 
atoramik tallermik nukkinganik  si/atévlutik, taimaglo 
nelonaijaisinnarput silatunexarnermingnik issumaxarner- 
mingniglo, taimaimallo atuluariakarungnaiput tallermik 
nukkinganik, aulatsijungortitauvulle assimingnik sulini- 

Inuille omajoxsiortit akkiliutiksarsixattarput tallermik 
nukkingat atorlugo si/atujomik. Oxumailungikalloarpox 
mikkigiat axiklugit apume aggangmik niungmiglo sulia- 
nginut, assiangovorle mikkigiat taimak silatutigijomik 
axiklugit terrianiak ilinex uiverijauxovlugo. Omajox- 
Siorte silatunine atornago Axiksoijox mikkigiaminik tako- 
sailerune malugosukattarpok narriak nerrijaungmat ter- 
rianiarle mikkigiarsimangimat. Omajoxsiortele silatujox 
pikkariktox ilisimavok Kanox terrianiak uiverijaujung- 
narmangat, takosailerunelo sunaubva angergaujijungnar- 
pok aminik ununersanik omajoxsiortemit silatunermik 
atulungitomit, taimaimallo akkiliutiksakarnersauvox tap- 

Iglugasapsingne tamaine (Labradoreme-ungikaloar- 
tome mana) angajoxaKasOngovose angumik arnarmiglénét 
silatujomik aulatsisdmik inokatime piniarninginik. Oxu- 
maitut nelonartullo ilfinatik atauvut oxautigijauvut anga- 
joxamut, tapsomalo ataniorutigivait. Iglugasangmiulle 
ilinatik angajox4xtut silatutigigunik atanexariaKarajangi- 
lase. Inuit ilinatik adsigéktomik silatutigilungilat, ilana- 
tik adsigéktomik pikkariktigilungilat, ilfinatiglo igluga- 
sangne adsigéktomik suliséngolungilat ilungertorlutik. 

Kaujimavose Kingmise adsigélungimatta, ildnatik atunit 
ilusekarput nangminerijamingnik. Ilangit xemuluarput 
assimingnit; ilangit nukkexarnersauvut assimingnit; ila- 
ngit Kemualaxérput kemukserte kamatilugo, Kemualaipulle 
Kemukserte sinisilerpat Kamutime. Kemuksit atautsit 
issuraktunetuakasOngovut, issuraktunerlo ikajortauvlune 



the poor dogs drags the komatik over the snow and ice. 
One dog is not strong enough to drag a loaded komatik 
by his own efforts: nor are two dogs strong enough: it 
requires the effort of a whole team of dogs and the skill of 
the leading dog to drag a komatik to the end of the 


It is the same thing with the efforts of men to provide 
food, clothing and comforts for their families and for 
themselves. In these days men combine in their efforts to 
earn their food. If the Company had no Posts in your 
country, there would be no gain to you in trapping foxes; 
for there would be no Traders with whom you could ex- 
change your skins for trade-goods. By trade the Company 
provides a livelihood for you and for many other people: 
the Company provides you with goods in exchange for the 
skins which you trade with the Company’s Traders; the 
Traders in turn earn their food and comforts from the 
Company by trading with you; the sailors also who man 
the Company’s big ships earn their food and comforts by 
safely bringing the supplies to the Company’s Posts and 
by safely carrying back to the island of Britain the furs 
which you have traded at the Post. 

In the island of Britain other Traders of the Company 
sell the furs, which you have trapped and traded at the 
Post, to merchants and thus earn their food and comfort, 
and by their trading of your skins pay for the ships 
and for the supplies which in turn are traded to you. 

The Governor of the Company directs the tasks of the 
Chief Officers and of the Traders with whom you 
work, and likewise he directs the captains of the ships, 


Kemualajunut kemualaitunullo kamutik uniarpat aputekut 
sikkokullo. Kingmiub atautsib pitévlune, nukkexatsia- 
ngimut, Kamutik usselik uniarungnangila, Kingmiglonét 
magguk namalungilak, sangéluarmanik; ununersaugia- 
Karput; Kingmillo ilfinatik ikajortigéklutik, ikajortauvlu- 
tiglo issuraxtunerub ilisimaninganut, Kamutik uniarpat 
ingergarnerub naninganut. 

Taimailingaluatsiarivok inuit pinasuarningine ilatik 
patangaititsomavlugit nerxiksanut annoraksanullo idluar- 
Kutiksanullo sunatuinarnut. Uvlune makkonane inuit 
ikajortigékput indgutiksarsijomavlutik. Companit niu- 
verniarveKarajangipatta nunapsingne  terrianiarniarnise 
tukkexaluarajangilax; aulaiviksakarajanginapse pisuktit 
aminginik taungniutigilugit niuviaksanik sunatuinarnik 
niuvervingmit. Niuverniarnekut tagva Companit indgu- 
tiksarsiviksaxartipase; Companit perkutit sunatuinait 
aulailugit ilipsingnut pisuktit amingit 4tase Companit 
niuvertinginut pisiarivait; niuvertit ama indgutiksarsivut 
Companinit niuverniarkatigingmase; kippalut ama Com- 
panit umiaksoanginétut indgutiksarsivut kamatsiarlutik 
udjertutsiarlutiglo adjarsigamik perkutinik niuviaksanik 
Companit nunanginut angergautjigamiglo Englandemut 
pisuktit aminginik assinginiglo aulaisimajapsingnik Com- 

Kikertaxsoarme Englandeme ama Companit kivgangita 
ilangita pisuktit amingit dlauxtase aulaijaselo niuverving- 
nut aulailerivait pisiniartenut, taimaglo tapkoa kivgartor- 
lutik Companinik akkilertauvut indgutiksarsivullo, niuver- 
niarnekullo taimaitokut Companit pisiniarungnarivut 
umiaxsoanik adjarsijuksanik niuviaksanik aulaijaksaniglo 

Companit angajoxa4xsoanga (Governor) aulatsivox 
niuverniartekotingita sulianginik, niuvertillo angajoxa- 
ngita angajoKarsungitalo sulianginik, umiaxsuillo angajo- 



who in turn direct the work of the sailors. Thus the 
workers of the Company are like a team of dogs all toil- 
ing together to haul a mighty komatik by their combined 
efforts. If some of the dogs fail to do their share of the 
work, then the komatik goes slower and there may not be 
sufficient food for the journey. If the Company’s Traders 
in the island of Britain cannot sell to the merchants 
those skins which you trade at the Posts, then the Company 
cannot supply those trade-goods which you need at the 
Posts. If you do not trade skins to the Company, then 
the Company’s Traders in the island of Britain have no 
skins to trade with the merchants; and again they cannot 
supply trade-goods to your Posts. Thus you see that in a 
large measure you depend for your livelihood and comforts on 
the Company and the Company also depends on you. 

In the same way that there are many workers of the 
Company who strive together to provide the merchants 
with fur, throughout the world there are many bands of 
men who work together to make flour, to make rifles, to 
build ships, to build engines, to make clothes and to 
provide men and women with all things which they 
require for the comfort of their lives. 

In order to build motor-boat engines, metal is needed. 
Therefore a band of men is sent out to find metal in the 
rocks. When they have found the right kind of metal, 
another band of men is sent out to extract the metal from 
the rocks: other bands of men are sent out to load the 
metal into ships and to bring it to the big encampments 
where the motor-boat engines are made. The metal is 
then traded to the makers of the engines, who employ 
large bands of men to fashion the metal into the right shapes 
and to build the engines. The engines are then traded 
to big merchants such as the Company; the Company 
then trades these engines to you. 



Kangita kippalungitalo sulianginik. Taimaglo Companit 
kivgangit inub Kingmingititut Kkemuktutitut ilingajojar- 
put, ikajortigéklutik uniarput sorlo Kamutiksoangojarto- 
mik. Kingmit ilangit ikajutsialungipatta tagva kemuksit 
sukailivut, taxoaksarlo amigadlaroarpoxk ingergarnermut. 
Companit kivgangit Englandeme aulaijungnangipatta 
pisuktit aminginik aulaijapsingnik niuvervingnut pisiniar- 
tunut assimingnut, tagva Companit pisiniarungnangilat 
perkutinik niuviaksanik adjartoraksanik niuvervingnut. 
Aulailungikupselo aminik Companinut, tagva Companit 
kivgangit Englandeme aulaijaksaxangilat pisiniartenut, 
taimaimallo ama pisiniarungnangilat niuviaksanik niuver- 
vingnut Ataksanik. Taimaimallo tukkisiniarpalukpose 
aulainise Companinut Companillo  aulaijaksaxarningit 
ilipsingnut atajigéluatsiarmanik. 

Sorlolo suliakartut unuktut ikajortigéklutik Companit 
aulaijaksakartingmagit pisuktit aminginik pisiniartenut, 
taimaluatsiak silaksub nunangine sunatuinarne suliaKartut 
ikajortigéklutik senavut senaugarmik, Kukkiutiniglo, 
umiaxksoaniglo, umiaxsuillo umiallo erkavinginik, inuillo 
annoraksanginik sunatuinamaringniglo inuit idluarkutik- 
sanginut ilingajunik. 

Umiat erxavingit métat senajaujungnarkovlugit, senajit 
kikiakariakarput. ‘Taimaimallo angutit Keneriartortitau- 
vut kikiaksanik kairtune. Tapkoalo nagvarpatta Kairtunik 
kikialingnik, assingit tilijauvut kikiaksax péjarlugo xair- 
tunit; assingit ama tilijauvut adjarsixovlugit kikiaksanik 
umiaksoatigut iglugasaKsoarnut senaviojunut mdtanik. 
Kikiaksak aulaijauvok tagva médtaliortunut, tapkoalo 
kikialerijut suliakartipait kikiaksax auksitilugo senalugolo 
m6taliorutigilugolo. Métat tagva pijarertut aulaijauvut 
pisiniartoxsoanut Companitut, Companillo ama aulaileri- 
vait ilipsingnut. 


When you build snow-houses in the winter, every 
member of the family has a certain task to perform. Some 
cut the snow into slabs, others carry the slabs to the place 
where you have decided to build the snow-house; others 
place the slabs in position, others fill-in the chinks between 
the slabs with snow, others cut thin pieces of ice to provide 
a window for the house. ‘Thus in a short space of time a 
fine warm snow-house is built, each member of the family 
contributing his share of the work. 

Whether a band of men is making rifles or flour or 
motor-boats or cloth or houses, the method of labour is the 
same. Each man contributes a share of the work, each 
man depends on the skill of the other workers as much as 
on his own skill, and all are directed by the chief man, so 
that everything is done in order. 

Among all bands of workers there are certain laws 
which govern their work. The merchants who govern 
the bands of workers know that they can only trade 
things which are well made by their workers. They 
also know that bands of men make things well, when 
they are well cared for by the merchants for whom they 

Therefore it is the rule among wise merchants to treat 
their good workers well, in order to encourage them to use 
all their skill in the making of the trade-goods, which by 
reason of their excellence are easily traded to other 

In the old days before men learned how to make 
rifles and cartridges, there was a great trade in bows and 
arrows and in spears. But as soon as men were banded 
together to make rifles and cartridges, then the makers of 
bows and arrows and spears became poor, because every 
one preferred to use rifles and cartridges and there was no 

trade for their bows and arrows. 


Iglovigaliorupse okiorme iltinase ikajortigékpose iglo- 
vigak pijarerkovlugo. Ilapse ilangita aput saviujarpat, 
ilangita ama aput saviujartaujox 4pat iglovigaliorving- 
mut. Assingit ama iglovigaliorput, aput saviujartaujox 
axiklugo xkaleréktilugit, ama assingit sikkosiorput igalak- 
samik, assingillo ama killangit simikpait. Taimaglo 
iglovigatsiak Keujanangitok senajauvok, i/dnatik ikajorti- 

Inuit Kukiuteliormangata, senaugaliormangata, méta- 
liormangata, annoraksaliormangata, igloliormangatalonét, 
tapsomingatsainak ilusexarput. Suliaksax avitauvox, 
ikajortullo ildnatik piniariakarput piniaraksarijamingnik 
ilungertorlutik, ilGnatiglo aulatauvut angajoxamut aulat- 
sijomut, pijarialit ildnatik namaktomik piniartauxovlugit. 

Suliaxaxatigét ilfinatik aulatauvut perKojanut maligak- 
sanut suliamingnut ilingajunut. Angajoxat aulatsijut 
senajunik Kaujimavut aulaijungnaramik perxkutinik sena- 
matsiartunik kissiane. Kaujimavuttauk senajit senatsiar- 
sOngomatta pairijautsiaramik pitsiarviogamiglo angajoxa- 

Taimaimat angajoxatsiat ilfinatik iluserivat senajitik 
ikajortitik pitsiarvigivlugit, senajit KuviasutekarKovlugit 
piojunik senajomavlutik, senamajut aulaigiangit pisiniar- 
tunut ajornarKonago. 

Uvlune nutaungitune inuit ilisimaxartinagit Kukiute- 
liornermik sakkoliornermiglo, pitikseliortoxadlalauxpox 
Kargjunginiglo xKalugianiglo. Senajille ikajortigéklutik 
Kukiuteliormatta sakkoliorlutiglo pitikseliortit Kargjulior- 
tillo xalugialiortillo aklulerput, Kukiutit sakkungillo 
namagijauluarmatta, pitikseliortillo suliaksairutivut. 

M be ir 


This is the same among all bands of workers and among 
all merchants to-day. Men of wisdom and skill find out 
new things every day, and every merchant tries to make 
a better article at less cost than the rival merchants can, so 
that men will buy his goods in preference to the goods 
of other merchants. 

Who is there among your people who will find a better 
way of trapping foxes than is known to-day ? There is a 
saying among White Men that ‘nothing is perfect’. In 
every trade-article, in every piece of work, a man of 
greater wisdom and skill than other workers can make 
some improvement. ‘Therefore the merchants and traders 
seek not only the things which will satisfy people to-day, 
but the things which are likely to satisfy them in the 


Iluserlo tamanna atudlarivox uvlome sulle suliaxaxati- 
géktune pisiniartunelo tamaine. Inuit silatujut pikkarik- 
tullo nagvarput wuidnik Kaut tamat, pisiniartillo niuviak- 
saKarasuarput dnanaunersanik akkikinersaniglo akkera- 
mingnit, pisijomajut pisingarKkovlugit tapsoma niuviak- 
sanginik akkerame pinginit. 

Kina akunapsingne nagvarniarxa ubvalo senaniarKa 
mikkigiarmik ubvalo terrianianiutemik pionersaujomik uv- 
lome atortomit ? Kablunat akorngane oxausiovaktoxkar- 
poK innersimamariktokangimat ubvalo KanoetoKangito- 
Kangimat. Niuviaksane tamaine, senajaujunelo tamaine, 
inuk silatunersak assiminit nagvarKattarpok sunamik 
pioluartomik pilauxtomit. ‘Taimaimallo niuvertit pisi- 
niallo nagvarasuarput perkutinik namaksititsijunik inung- 
nik uvlome kissiane-ungitok, perKutinigle inuit nama- 
gilartanginik Kaijomartometauk. 



SaGIRAVO! ‘The first snow has come and the 
ice is forming on the lakes. Soon it will 
be time to put out the traps. There are 
mice in plenty and the signs of foxes are 
everywhere—bravo! This winter we 
shall trade many skins with the Company 
and we shall gain many possessions. 

But many of the Innuit, alas, are less skilful and patient 
hunters than the Indian hunters or than the White Men 
who trap in the North. For often Innuit hunters make 
very little effort to secure many fox-skins. 

No wonder your beautiful damsels prefer to marry a 
good hunter, a man who is an honour to his camp and can 
provide for his family comforts and new possessions! In 
all parts of the world such men are favoured by fair 

When you are making a long journey in the winter, 
there is much work to be done every morning before 
starting on the day’s march. Food is warmed up, skin- 
boots are softened, the runners of the komatik are exa- 
mined and are covered with mud or are glazed again. The 
deer-skins and the remaining food are firmly lashed on to 
the load and the dogs are placed into their harness. Then 

at length the journey starts again. 



SJUVIANAK! Kanigiolerivox tessillo sik- 
|| koxalerput. Manakut mikkigitjervexa- 
larpox. Nunivakkaxadlarpox ilfinanelo 
tumekadlarpoxk terrianianik. Kuvianar- 
mék! Okiorme tamattomane aulaijung- 
nalarpogut terrianianik unuktunik Com- 
paninut Gibilintilewasiadl Mensandllc: 

Sinaungamégle! Inuit ilangit unuktokasait omajox- 
siorteolungilat taimak silatutigilutik taimaglo inneroitigi- 
lutik Allatitut kablunatitull6nét avane tachane terrianiak- 
siortutitut. Inuit terrianiaxsiortit ilungertorKattalungilat 
unuktunik terrianianiaromavlutik. 

Tatamnalungilak uigasuse kénatsiariktut aipakaroma- 
gamik pinasuartemik sulitsiartomik! Angut taimaitox 
nunagijame nertortaujutiksanganut ilingangmat, ilanelo 
patangaititsiarungnarpait tunidjivigivlugit perkutinik nu- 
tanik manigornartuniglo unuktunik. Silaxsub nunangine 
tamaine angutit taimaitut Kuviagijauvut uigasungnut. 

Kaningitoliarasuarupse okiorme sunatuinarnik suliak- 
saKasOngovose Kaut tamat uvlakut parngnailertiluse aula- 
romavluse. Nerxiksak atuinarutauvok, kammit tessiter- 
tauvut, Kamutiub pergangit Kemergojauvut pijariaxar- 
pallo nennuertauvut. Tuktujat xingmisullo taxoaxsallo 
nakkitartauvut Kamutime Kingmillo annujauvut. Taima, 

atuinauvogut aulartuinariakarpogut! 



Likewise it is necessary to make careful preparations 
for the trapping season, long before the time arrives to set 
the traps on your hunting grounds. In the first place the 
hunter will prepare to leave the Post as soon after ‘ ship- 
time’ as possible, and having provided himself and his 
family with a good outfit both of food and of traps will seek 
a hunting ground a long way from the Post, where there 
are likely to be more seals and more foxes, than are found 
in the neighbourhood of a big encampment. 

He will be a wise hunter who says to the Company’s 
Trader, ‘ Last year I used fifty traps and brought to you 
fifty fox-skins; this year give me seventy-five traps and 
I shall try to bring you at least seventy-five fox-skins.’ 
Do you not see that the more traps you set, the more 
foxes you are likely to catch? Do you not see that by 
trading a greater number of foxes with the Company, you 
will secure greater possessions for your family and for 
yourselves? ‘Therefore provide yourselves with more 
traps than you used before. 

When you have reached your hunting grounds, spare 
no effort to make many caches of meat both along the 
coast-line and inland. For these meat-caches not only 
provide food for your family and for your dogs, but they 
also attract the foxes to your neighbourhood, especially 
when there is a scarcity of food for them. The carcass of 
a whale or of a walrus drawn up onto the shore beyond the 
ice gives off a smell which the wind will carry to the 
nostrils of many a hungry fox. Often many foxes will be 
caught round these caches when the time is ripe for setting 
your traps. 

Often your hunters do not take enough care of the skins 
which they have trapped. They bring their furs to the 



Taimaluatsiak terrianiarniarviub sivorngane parngnai- 
leriaKarivose atuinaukovluse mikkigiat 4xiksoromavlugit 
mikkigitjeriartorvik neliutisinnarpat. Sivorlermik, oma- 
joxsiorte aularasuarniarpox Companit nunanganit umiak- 
soak aularsimatuarpat, takoaksarsimavlunelo amigangi- 
tomik nangminerminut ilaminullo ikilualungituniglo 
mikkigialijarlune pinasuarviksarsioriartorniarpoK niu- 
verviub xanilungimariktangane, puijekarnersauniarK6r- 
tome terrianiaKarnersauniark6értomelo. 

Silatuj6niarpok omajoxsiorte Companit niuverniarti- 
nganut oxartox: ‘’Takuk! Achane mikkigiaxalauxpunga 
sonik 4tsivigilauxpagillo terrianianik sonik. Okiorme 
tamattomane tunidjivigilaunga mikkigianik 75nik oktor- 
niarpungalo Atsivigijungnangimang4pkit terrianianik 75 
nik.’ Tukkisilungilasé ununersanik mikkigiaxarupse 
ununersanik terrianianialarpalugapsé ? Tukkisilungilasé 
terrianianik ununersanik aulaigupse Companinut, akki- 
liutiksaxarnersaularapse  perkutisinersaujungnalarapselo 
piksapsingnik ilapselo piksanginik ? Taimaimat mikki- 
giaKarnersaunasuartse ununersanik atulauKktapsingnit 

Tikisimagupselo pinasuarvigijomajapsingnut ilunger- 
toritse nerkejanik Kematulijomavluse sidjamelo nunama- 
ringmelo. Kematuliosimajut taimaitut nerKiksatuinau- 
nialungimatta ilipsingnut Kingmipsingnullo, narriaksau- 
niarpulletaux terrianianut, piluartomik terrianiat nerKik- 
sarsitsiarungnangipatta. Arviub aiviublénét sillungata 
nunamut Ataumajub sikkub timerpasiktanganut tippinga 
anoremut Atauniarmat terrianiat uningddlartut unuktut 
Kinganginut. Ilangane terrianiat unuktut mikkigiartau- 
niarput Kematulivit taimaitut Kanitangine mikkigiaKarvik 

Ilangane terrianianiartit kamatsialungilat mikkigianut 

pijangita aminginik. Axattarpait niuvervingmut merku- 


Post spotted with blood, grease or oil. If these skins had 
been kept clean, the Trader would have paid as high a price 
for them as he pays to the careful hunter who brings to 
the Post pelts clean-scraped and covered with spotless fur. 
The prudent hunter places his skins in a clean sack, where 
they can come to no harm. 

You must know that in the country to the South of your 
land, where there are many trees, the foxes and the other 
creatures which the Indians trap are more cunning than 
the white foxes. Why should these foxes be more cunning 
and more difficult to trap than your foxes? It is because 
the Indians have trapped foxes and other creatures for 
many hundreds of years, and therefore the foxes have 
learned wisdom which often protects them from the traps 
which the Indians set for them. There is a saying among 
White Men that a child who has once burned his fingers 
will not play with fire. Likewise among foxes or among 
other animals, once they have learned that men are their 
enemies and seek to capture them, they become by nature 
more wary of human beings, and avoid the traps which 
men set for them. It is the same thing with wolves and 
with seals in your country. For the wolf was always an 
enemy to your fathers, and the seal was always the food of 
your people. Often you see wolves prowling in the dis- 
tance, but the wolf has learned that men have dangerous 
weapons, and that if he approaches too close, he is likely to 
receive a bullet. The seal, too, often shows great caution; 
and many a hunter returns to his igloo empty-handed, 
because the seal showed more cunning than the hunter. 

In the old days very few white foxes were trapped 
because they did not provide food for your ancestors. 
Therefore there was less need for the white fox to be 
frightened of men and their traps. But nowadays the 
white fox is learning to be crafty, because he has good 


ngit aungmut orKksumull6nét pujarmull6nét salumaivlutik. 
Amit tapkoa salumaitailititaulaurunik niuvertib akkexar- 
tinajarpait sorlo kamatsiartub Atangit Kabjartautsiartut 
salumatsiartullo akkexartingmagit. ‘Terrianianiartiblo 
kamatsiartub amit pdxpait pdngmut ippeKangitomut 

Kaujijuksauvose nunaksoarme nunapse seKerngané- 
tome, napartoxadlartome, terrianiat pisuktillo sunatuinait 
Allat pinasuartangit ilinioluarmatta Kakortarsungnit. Suna 
pivlugo ilinionersauvat mikkigianullo pijaujarnéluarKat 
terrianianit pinasuartapsingnit ? Imaipox: Allat Allallo 
assingit jarit hunderteoxattartut navlugit pinasuarsimat- 
sainarmatta pisuktinik sunatuinarnik, taimaimallo pisuktit 
silatusisimavut, tamattomungalo udjertortitauvut mikki- 
giarkonagit Allat 4xiksortanginut. Kablunat akorngane 
oKausiovaktoKarpok sorusekK aggangminik 6tok pingoa- 
rungnainiarmat ikomamik. Taimaktauk terrianiat pisuk- 
tillo sunatuinait ilituarpatta pinasuartaugamik inungnut, 
ingergat ilimasukput inungnik, mikkigiallo inuit axiksor- 
tangit alingitarivait. Nunapsingne amarkut puijillo tai- 
mailingavut, atatapse amarok omigitsainalaungmatsuk, 
puiillo nerkiksautsainalaungmatta indxatigéksoangonip- 
singnut. Ilangane amarox takojungnaralloarpase Kani- 
ngitomit, amarorle ilipok inuit erKsinartunik sakkolijar- 
matta, Kaujimavorlo Kaninarune inungnik pijaujungna- 
rame ilulingmut. Puijetaux ilimasuklune udjertutsiara- 
suarpoK; omajoxsiortillo unuktut angerarput angergauti- 
jaksaxaratik, puijit silatunersaukattarmatta inungnit. 

Uvlune nutaungitune Kaxortarsuit pinasuartaulualau- 
ngilat, nerrijausOngolaungimatta sivorlipsingnut. ‘T'aimai- 
mat Kakortarsuit erksigiakalaungilat inungnik mikkigia- 
niglo, Méanale kaxortarsuittaux silatusilerput, tange- 
lingmik erksigiakarmatta inuit mikkigianginik. ‘Taimai- 
mat Axiksoitiluse mikkigianik  silatunersaujuksauvose 



reason to fear the traps of men. Therefore in setting your 
traps you must be more cunning than the fox; otherwise 
the fox will eat your bait, but he will avoid your trap. In 
the old days one could set a trap without even covering it 
with snow; for the fox was ignorant of the nature of traps: 
he had never heard the clang of the iron, when thetrap closes. 
But the white fox is becoming as clever as your hunters 
and laughs at the clumsy traps which are often set for him. 

There are still among you certain carvers of ivory, men 
who rub the ivory delicately and with great patience and 
fashion it into one shape or another. These men know 
that if they are impatient with their work and rub the ivory 
too hard or attempt to finish their task too swiftly, they will 
break some brittle portion of the image which they are 
carving. Then their labour will be to no avail and they will 
have wasted much time to no purpose. 

Should not your hunters have the same patience and 
care in the setting of traps? Often a hunter will go far 
away from his encampment to set his traps, but his labour 
is likely to be in vain, if he does not use the greatest skill 
and patience in placing his traps in the right place and in 
setting them with great cunning. When he returns he 
will find his bait gone, but there will be no fox lying dead 
in the trap. ‘The fox will be licking his lips and laughing 
over the good meal which the hunter gave him. 

Since the hunter has now obtained from the Post- 
manager a larger number of traps than before, it 1s 
necessary that his trap-lines should be longer, and there- 
fore he is a wise hunter who arranges that other members 
of his family visit the traps which lie nearest to the 
encampment, while he visits the more distant line of traps. 
Let the women and the children also trap hares and the 
lemmings* when their fur has turned pale in the winter; 

* Subject to conditions of trade. 



terrianianit; taimaingikupse terrianiab narriaksax nerri- 
niarpa, mikkigiamulle pijautailivlune. Uvlune nutaungi- 
tune mikkigiaxk Axiksortauvlune mattujaujariakalaungi- 
larl6nét apumut, terrianiak ilisimalaungimat mikkigiat 
Kanoelinganinginik, tussarsimalaungilarlénét kikiab siva- 
nerninganik mikkigiax késitilugo. Manale xaxortarsuk 
silatunginersaulungilak terrianianiartemit, mikkigiallo 
axiksortautsialungitut ijoralautigituinarpait. 

Ilapse ilangita sauneleriséngovut sulle, Kenuesarlutik 
kamatsiarlutiglo t6g4x niogarpat sunangoaliovlutik. Ang- 
utit tapkoa Kaujimavut Kenuesarungnaituarunik sulia- 
mingnik tégarlo okumailuartomik niogarunitsuk tuavilua- 
rasuaruniglénét senangoak pijareromavlugo, senangoab 
sukutsia amitok serkomisaraitok serkomilaramitsuk. ‘Tai- 
maglo suliangit sulinajangilax, situndillo atorsimajut 
tamattomunga asserkejautuinarput. 

Omajoxsiortiselo taimak Kenuesartigijuksaungilat kam- 
atsiartigijuksaungilallo Axiksoilutik mikkigiamingnik? 
Ilangane omajoxsiorte Kaningitoliaromavox mikkigitje- 
riartorlune, suliangale suliniatsangilax kamatsialungipat 
Kenuesarmarilungipallo mikkigiaxarvik Kenerlugo mikki- 
giallo 4xiksutsiarlugit silatunine atorlugo. ‘Takosaigune 
malugosungniarpok narriakK nerrijaungmat terrianiaKa- 
lungimalle mikkigiaksimajomik. Terrianiab Kangasi- 
nangne alluktorniarpak, nerrimararlo omajoxsiortib tuni- 
janga tapsomunga kungautigilugo. 

Sivornganenit omajoxsiorte mikkigianik ununersanik 
tigisisimangmat niuvertemit, takinersamik sivitunersamik 
mikkigiakarveKariaKarniarpok, taimaimallo silatutuinar- 
niarpok mikkigiat Kaninersat kamagijauxopagit ilaminut, 
tamna nangminek xkaninginersanik kamatilugo. Arnat 
sorutsillo mikkigiaxarlit ukkalerniutinik avinganiutiniglo* 
tapkoa merkuxarpatta okioxsiutinik, amit taimaitut 

* Agviartoxangipat niuverviub ilinganingine. 



for you can trade these skins also with the Company. By 
trapping these other creatures and by looking after the 
fox-traps near to the encampment your women and chil- 
dren will help to provide for themselves those comforts 
and possessions which should belong to the best Innuit 

When a family is building a snow-house, some of its 
members employ their time in dragging the blocks of 
snow by komatik from the digging-pit to the threshold of 
the house, where the builders are working. Otherwise it 
would be a slow task for the builders to fetch their own 
blocks of snow. 

In the same way during the short trapping season, there 
should always be people to bring food to the hunters, 
rather than that the hunters should desert their traps in 
order to fetch supplies from the Post. How can your 
family gain wealth from fox-skins, if for a period of the 
trapping season your traps are deserted ? The crows and 
the wolves will devour the fox carcasses which remain in 
the traps. 

After the trapping season—that is the time for feasting 
and merriment at the Post, that is the time for sports and 
games and races. Among White Men there is a saying 
that ‘ there is a right time for work and a right time for 
play ’; among the Innuit it is right to work during the 
whole of the trapping season with great vigour and to play 
after the work has been finished. 

When the trapping-season has come to an end, the wise 
hunter will collect all his traps and place them away safely, 
but many hunters pay no heed to the future, and forget 
that they will need to catch more foxes during the next 

Some Labrador hunters prefer to shoot foxes rather 

than to trap them, but they should remember that the hole 


aulaijaksaungmattataux Companinut. Pisuktinik taimai- 
tunik pinasuarunik kamaxasiutjitilugit terrianianiutinik 
Kanitométunik arnat sorutsillo akkiliutiksarsijungnarput 
pisiniutiginiartamingnik perkutinik atorungnartunik 
manigornartuniglo sunatuinarnik kitorngarét piloringner- 
pat pigijomajanginik. 

Kitorngarét iglovigaliorunik ilangita aput saviujartau- 
jok adjartorpat kamugakut iglovigakarvingmut. ‘Taimai- 
liolungipatta, iglovigaliortelo nangminex aiklerKattaria- 
Karpat apumik, sukaitomik kissiane iglovigaliorungnar- 

Taimaluatsiak, mikkigiarkarvik  sivikituinaungmat, 
atsijokakattartuksauvok nerkiksanik omajoxsiortenut, 
tapkoa KemaigiakarKonagit mikkigiamingnik nangminek 
niuverviliariakarlutik nerxiksarsiorlutik. Kanox ilase 
akkiliutiksarsijungnarkat terrianianik mikkigiat Kemak- 
tautuinarpatta kamagijaugatik mikkigiaxarviub ilangagit? 
Terrianiat mikkigiarsimajut nerrijautuinarniarput tullu- 
kanut amarungnullo péjartaungipatta mikkigianit. 

Mikkigiaxarviub kingorngane—tamanna neliuniovox 
nerrimarkatigéngnermut KuviasuKkatigéngnermullo Com- 
panit nunangane, tamanna neliuniovokK pingoarnermut 
pitikisautinermullo. Kablunat akorngane oxausiovak- 
toKarpok neliunekarmat idluartox suliakarnermut neliu- 
nexarmallo idluartok pingoarnermut; inuit akorngane 
idluarpox ilungertormariklutik suliakarunik mikkigiaKar- 
vik navlugo pingoaruniglo suliaksat pijarerpatta. 

Mikkigiakarvik nakpat, omajoxsiorte silatujoK kater- 
soiniarpok mikkigiaminik Kematuliutilugillo, omajox- 
siortille ilangita Kaijomartok issumagilungilat puigorlu- 
tiglo terrianiaksioriaxalaramik okiorme Kailartome, 

Omajoxsiortit ilangit Labradoreme KuviasuteKaluarput 

terrianiat kukkerlugit mikkigitjernermit, erkaijuksauvulle 


caused by the bullet damages the pelt and the blood stains 
the fur. Such skins are of less value than those which are 
free from blemish. It is therefore wiser to trap foxes than 
to spoil their pelts with bullet holes. 

Finally you should know that White Men and White 
Women are loath to cause pain to any creatures or to see 
them in agony; for animals feel pain in the same way that 
human beings feel pain. A worthy hunter will therefore 
take much trouble at all times to protect animals against 
unnecessary pain, and will despise the cruel hunter. We 
know that you must kill animals both for your food and 
for your livelihood, but it is your duty to protect them from 
the agony of a slow death. Therefore be merciful and 
swift in taking away animal life, even as you wish the 
end of your own life to be merciful. Both Innuit and 
White Men are sadly grieved at the sight of a suffering 
child; all mankind should feel the same sadness at the 
suffering of a poor animal, and should strive to prevent it. 
Remember these words, Innuit brothers. 


iluliub amex sujungmago aublo merxut takoranéting- 
magit. Amit taimaitut amititut Kanoetokangitutitut akki- 
tutigijungnangilat. Taimaimat silatulerpose terriania- 
niarasuarupse mikkigianut sujuinermit aminginik ilulit 

Amalo xaujijuksauvose xablunat Kuviasutexangima- 
ringmatta omajut sunaugalloarpatta Anilakteradlartilugit 
Aniajullénét takonarlugit, omajut ikpigingmatta Anianer- 
mik sorlo inuit 4nianermik ikpigingmatta. Taimaimat 
omajoxksiorte napkigosuktox udjertutsainarniarpox omajut 
pijariakangitomik AniatitauKonagit, nachoniarporlo oma- 
joxsiortemik napkigosujuitomik. Kaujimavogut toxot- 
sijuksaugapse omajunik nerxkiksakarkovluse akkiliutik- 
sakarkovluselo, ajugaringitapsingnigle omajut serngnigi- 
jaksarivase Anianermit pijariakangitomit aulaumajarner- 
millo, ‘Taimaimat sorlo nerriugapse napkiginartomik 
najijomavluse indsipsingnik, taimak napkigosuleritse 
tigusitiluse omajut indsinginik toxosarailugillo. Inuit 

Kablunillo iltinatik adsigéktomik sorusex Aniajox kiksauti- 
givat, ilfinatiglo taimaluatsiak omajox aniajok kiksautigi- 
jaksarivat,  ajungitamingniglo aniatitautailitiniarpat. 
Oxautsit tamakkoa erkaumalersigik, indjose Katangutit. 


N many ways the Innuit are an example to 
White Men. The happiness and the 
laughter of your people and the love 
which you bear to your children and to 
one another—are not these things an 
example to all nations of the world? But 

in some other ways the Innuit would gain great benefit if 

they followed the example of White Men and Women. 

In every part of the British Empire the fathers and 
mothers of White children are compelled by the Law of 
the King to have their children taught how to read and to 
write. They learn from their teachers knowledge con- 
cerning the world and concerning the great events 
which have happened in the world, and concerning the 
great men and women who have lived and worked in the 

From the age of six to the age of sixteen every White boy 
and girl is carefully taught the things which it is necessary 
to know concerning life. Every day, except Sunday and 
except certain holidays, the boys and girls come to their 
teachers at the appointed time and work under them 
throughout the day. The teacher, who is a learned man 
or a learned woman, watches over the work of each child 
and explains the things which seem difficult and corrects 
the mistakes which children make in their work. Some 
children are lazy; their teacher trains them to work hard. 

Other children are careless with their work; their teacher 

UNATUINARNE Inuit igjaraksauvut 

Kablunanut. Kuviasuxatigéngnise kung- 
ajigéngniselo nagliktigéngniselo nag- 
lingningniselo Kitorngapsingnik—tamak- 
koa ilfnatik maligaksaulungilat indxati- 
——— géksoarnut tamainut silaxsoarmé? ‘Ta- 
makkoale assingine inuit idluarkutiksarsinajarput angijo- 
mik malinajarunik Kablunft ilusingita ilanginik. 

Britishit atanioviksoangata nunangine tamaine ataniub 
perkojangata Kablunat atdtaujut andnaujullo ildnaita 
tiliklerkovait Kitorngamingnik iliniarvingnut ajoxertor- 
tauxovlugit aglalerinermik, tagva atuarsinermik aglang- 

nermiglo. Iliniartitimingnullo sorutsit ajokertortauvut 
sunatuinarnik silaksoax pivlugo pijoxalauxtullo pijaria- 
Kortoluartut silaxsoarme pivlugit, angutillo arnallo erkau- 
manaluartunik piniarnekarsimajut silaxsoarme pivlugit. 
Jarexarnermingnit 6nik jarexarnermingnut 16nik 
Kablunat sorusingit ilfinatik ajokertortauvut sunatuinarnik 
Kaujijaujariakartunik indsex pivlugo. Kaut tamat, Son- 
tagit uvloxsiorvillo pinagit, sorutsit, nukappiallo niviar- 
siallo, iliniariartoriakarput, uvlorlo navlugo iliniartitsijut 
ilisimajut sorutsit ajoKertorpait iliniartaujariaxartunik, 
sorutsit ilinatik suliangit iliniarvingme kamagitsiarlugit, 
oKumaitut oKautigitsiarlugit kKanox tukkexatsiarmangata, 
sorutsillo tamarningit 4xiksorlugit. Sorutsit ilangit erKea- 
sukput, iliniartitsijut tagva sungiutisariakarpait katsungai- 
tomik suliaxarnermik. Ama sorutsit ilangit kamatsialu- 
N 193 


trains them to be more careful. Other children are too 
slow with their work; their teacher trains them to be 
quicker. At the end of the training the young man or 
young woman has not only been taught the knowledge 
which it is necessary to learn about the world, but has 
also been trained to work hard and to work with skill. 

For what reason do you think that parents are com- 
manded to send their children to the teachers? The 
answer is simple: a boy in time becomes a man: a man 
must work in order to provide food for himself: almost 
every man wishes to marry: he must then provide food 
and comfort both for himself and for his wife and children; 
therefore he must earn a bigger livelihood not only by hard 
work, but by skill and by knowledge. He must also set 
aside a store of wealth: for otherwise it would be an evil 
day for his family should that man be stricken with illness 
or should he die. 

If a boy is not trained in hard work and is not taught 
wisdom and skill, it is indeed difficult for him in later years 
to become a successful worker, and to become a good 
father and a credit to the British Empire. For these 
reasons all British and Canadian parents are compelled by 
the Law of the King to send their children to the teachers. 
Wise Innuit parents will also send their children to be 
taught in the schools of the Men of God: for knowledge is 
a thing more precious than all the fox-skins in Labrador. 
Even as a mother seal teaches her young to swim, or as a 
mother bird teaches her young to fly, so should your 


ngilat erxasutsialungilat suliarijamingnik, tagva iliniartits:- 
Jut ajoxertoriakarpait Kanox udjertutsiarlutik suliaxartuk- 
saungmangata. Assingit ama sukailuartomik suliséngo- 
vut, iliniartitsijullo taimaitut sungiutisariakarpait sukali- 
nersamik suliakarkovlugit. Taimaimallo inugoijauningit 
ajoKertortauningillo iliniarvingme nakpat inosuktut ilisi- 
matuinalungilat sunatuinarnik Kaujijaujariaxartunik silax- 
soak pivlugo, sungiutisartauvulle ilungertorlutik kamat- 
siarlutiglo suliakarKovlugit. 

Suna pivlugo angajoxat tiliklerkojaunasugivisigik Ki- 
torngamingnik iliniarvingnat ? Aperkut tamanna issu- 
malingasuertomik kigusekarpok, imaitomik: nukappiak 
inumarionermut tikiutisinnalarpox; inumarik suliaxar- 
tuksauvok patangaitijungnarkovlugo nangminerminik; 
angutit ildnakasatik aipatarosukput, taimaimallo aipata- 
rame patangaititsijuksauvox aipaminik xitorngaminiglo 
nerkiksanut atorialingnullo sunatuinarnut idluarkutiksau- 
junut; taimaimallo akkiliutiksarsinersaujuksauvox indgu- 
tiksarsijuksauvlunelo suliakarnermut okumaitomut kis- 
siane-ungitok, ilisimanerminulle ajoxsainerminullo. Pio- 
risarlunelo katersoijuksauvox akkiliutiksanik kénaujanik 
komergutiksanik, ilangit tikitaukonagit ajoxsarnermut 
angut tamna opaluijaukpat Kanimasermut toxomull6nét. 

Nukappiak sungiutisartaungikune suliakarnermik kat- 
sungaitomik inédsungnermine, oxigilungila kingorngane 
sungiutisarlune suliakarnermik ilungertortomik, atatau- 
niarlunelo patangaititsisOmik nertornartomik, indniarlu- 
nelo atanerijeovlune Britishit ataniovingata nertortaujutik- 
sanganut. Tamakkoalo pitjutigivlugit Englishit Canada- 
miullo ilinatik akkerartortaujungnangitomik tiliklerko- 
jauvut Kitorngamingnik iliniarvingnut. Inuillo angajo- 
Kaujut silatujut ilfinatik tiliklerniarivut Kitorngamingnik 
Missionib iliniarvinginut, ilisimanex sunatuinarnik pijo- 
minarnersaungmat pisuktit aminginit tamainit Labrador- 


children be taught to read the books wherein is to be found 

knowledge of the world, and to write after the manner of 

White Men. 

It is hard for parents to be parted from their children 
for a time; yet for the sake of gaining knowledge White 
mothers and fathers send their children away to school for 
a number of months each year, and those of you who bear 
true love towards your children will ask the Men of God to 
take them for a time and teach them the things which will 
be helpful to them in their lives. 

In the old days before the White Men came to your 
country, your fathers worked at all seasons of the year in 
order to provide food and clothing for their families and 
for themselves. If they did not work, then they starved. 
Therefore they worked and they trained their children to 
work at all seasons of the year. Those were the good old 
days, of which your old hunters speak, when the Innuit 
were a lusty people. 

Within the last twenty years you have traded your fox- 
skins either with the Men of God or with the Company, so 
that you have gained many things which in the old days 
you fashioned with your hands or for the possession of 
which you worked hard. Your womenfolk sewed skins in 
the old days for your clothing: now you buy from the store 
many clothes already sewn. In the old days you worked 
hard in making kayaks; now you buy from the Trader 
boats and engines with which to work your boats. In the 
old days you worked hard in making bows and in shaping 
arrow-heads and spear-heads, but to-day you buy rifles and 
you kill the deer and the seals with great ease, 



emétunit. Sorlo puijib piaraliub piarane puibjornermik 
ajokertormago, sorlolo tingmiab piarane tinginermik 
ajoKertormago, taimaluatsiak Kitorngase ajoKertortaujuk- 
sauvut aglalerinermik atuarsijungnarkovlugit aglangnik 
silaxsub ilisimaninginik oxautexartunik, aglagungnarkov- 
lugillo sorlo kablunat aglangmatta. 

Kuvianarlungikaloarpok sorutsit avitaujariakarpatta 
angajokangmingnit akuniungikaloartomik, Kablundlle x1- 
torngatik aulartixattarpait iliniarvingnut taxxit sutaijartut 
navlugit jarit tamat, ilipselo nelagértomik naglingniktose 
Kitorngapsingnik ajokertuijut Kenuviginiarpase xkitorn- 
gase tigujaukovlugit ajoxertortauniarlutik sunatuinarnik 
ikajitaulartunik tapkoninga indsingine. 

Uvlune nutaungitune xablunat tikerxarlaunginingine 
nunapsingnut, sivorlise suliakaséngolauxput jare navlugo 
patangaititsijungnarKovlugit ilamingnik nerKiksanut an- 
nordksanullo. Suliakartailiguniglo ajoxsarséngolauxput. 
Taimaimallo suliakatsainariakarput, Kitorngatiglo inugo:- 
lauxpait tapkoatauk suliakainarkovlugit. ‘Taipkoa uvlut- 
siangolaukpu-g6K, omajoksiortiselo inukoartut oKautigi- 
Kattarpait sulle, inuillo tatpsomane nukkexatsialauxput. 

Jarinele nutaunersane, 2oungitunelénét, pisuktit 
amingit aulaisimavase ajoxertuijunut Companinullénét, 
pisiniarluselo sunatuinarnik sivorngane senasOdngolauk- 
tapsingnik aggapsingnut, sdngojomiglénét suliakaséngo- 
laukpose taimaitut perkutigijomavlugit. Uvlune nutau- 
ngitune arnase annoraliulauxput kissijanik; mAnale senasi- 
majunik annoraxsisOngovose niuvervingnit pisinianil- 
lénét. Uvlune nutaungitune oxumaitomik suliakaséngo- 
lauxpose Kajaliorluse; m4nale umiaksikattarpose pisinia- 
nit, mdtasivoselo umiat aulautiksanginik. Uvlune nu- 
taungitune okumaitomik suliakaséngolauxpose pitikse- 
liorluse naxxoliorluselo Kalugialiorluselo, manale Kukiu- 
tesivose siorniorlugaselo toxotsivose tuktuniglo puijeniglo. 



White workers gain their possessions and treasures by 
dint of wisdom, of skilful work and of hard toil from the 
beginning of the year to the end of the year. They never 
cease to work. But possessions have come to you not by 
dint of your hard toil throughout the year, but because it 
pleases the White damsels to wear round their necks the 
skins of foxes which you trap during four months of the 
year. During the other eight months of the year, you do 
not work hard to gain possessions after the manner of 
White workers. ‘Therefore in years when there are few 
foxes there is poverty among your people. 

The Company wishes to provide work for you at a// 
seasons of the year, so that at no time need there be poverty 
among you, even though the foxes are scarce in the winter. 
For work will not only provide you and your children with 
greater wealth, but also with better health; for a man 
keeps his body hard and fit by working throughout the 

At the end of the trapping season along many parts of 
your coast it is possible to hunt young seals while they yet 
remain on the ice. You can trade these skins with the 
Company, and if you already have sufficient blubber for 
your own use, then you should also trade the blubber at 
the Post. It is better for you to trade the fresh blubber 
than to trade the oil which you render from the blubber; 
for the oil which you render is dark, while the merchants 
to whom the Company sell the seal-oil prefer the lightest 
coloured oil. You should take great care of the white 
skins of the young seals. It is necessary to scrape the skin 
clear of all blubber and to keep the white hair free from 
spots of oil. Stretch these skins in the same manner as you 
stretch other seal-skins. 

When the ice is fast you should put out your nets for 

the seals, and likewise when the ice has left the bays, your 


Kablunat perkutetarput silatujomik okumaitomiglo 
suliakasOngogamik jarib pigiarninganit jarib naninga 
tikidlugo. Kikkalungimarikput. Ilipsele perkutetarpose 
jare navlugo suliaxaséngogapse-ungitok, Kablunalle ar- 
nangit Kuviasutekarmatta terrianialijarlutik Kongeser- 
mingne, terrianiallo tapkoa pinasuarpase jarib taxKinginc 
sittamatuinarne. Jarib takkingita amiakungine sittamau- 
jortune, oKumaitomik suliakaséngolungilase perkutetaro- 
mavluse Kablunatitut, taimaimallo okiorne terrianiaKat- 
sialungitune ajoKsarkattarpose. 

Companille tussudlarput suliaxartitsomavluse jare nav- 
lugo, Kangalénét ajoxsarKonase, aglat terrianiaKatsialu- 
ngikaloartilugo okiorme. Suliakarnerub ikajorniarmase 
akkiliutiksaxarnersauxovluse ilipsingnut kitorngapsing- 
nullo kissiane-ungitok, timisele atsuilinersauxovlugittaux, 
inub timine atsuilitingmago suliaxatsainarlune jare nav- 

Mikkigitjeriartorviub sorairvingata kingorngane nun- 
apse ilangine sutaijartune pinasuarungnarpose puijearang- 
nik sikkométilugit sulle. Tapkoa kissingit aulaijungnar- 
pase Companinut, namaktomiglo orksukarupse atoriaKar- 
tapsingnut amiakoa aulaijungnarivase Companinut. Ork- 
suk nut4k aulaigupsiuk nakuluarpox aulainermit orKksu- 
mik kinajomik; orksuk kinajox senajase Kernangajéng- 
mat, pisiniallo Companit aulaivigijangit puijib orksunga- 
nik kakkiaktomik orksusing4romavut.  Puijit piarait 
kissingit KaKortat kamagitsiaraksarivase. Kissit Kabjar- 
tautsiartuksauvut, merkungillo orKsukartailititaksauvut, 
innertaujuksauvullo kissiktitut assingititut. 

Sikkoxalerpat nulloat ningititaujuksauvut anguKovlu- 
git, amalo tuvairpat Axiktaujuksaugivut anguxovlugit. 


nets should be in waiting for the seals. For you can 
always trade with the Company the blubber and the skins. 

The net is a more patient hunter than the Innuit who 
await the seal with loaded rifle or with spear. The net is a 
tireless hunter who never sleeps. The seals do not sink 
when the net catches them. ‘Therefore each Innuit family 
should possess at least two nets for the catching of seals. 
If the nets are skilfully used, they will bring to each family 
many more seals than are caught now. In future the 
Company will make it easier for you to secure the twine 
for the making of nets; and to families who are careful of 
their possessions the Trader will loan other nets which 
belong to the Company; thus both you and the Company 
will secure greater advantage than before, by working with 
nets during those months of the year when the waters are 
free from drift-ice. 

A seal net is a thing of big value. It can easily be torn 
from moorings, which are not fast, and lost in the sea. It 
can rot while lying idle. Therefore each family should be 
watchful over their nets and should set them with great 
care in those channels where the seals are most likely to 
swim. Long experience has taught you to preserve your 
victuals from the teeth of your dogs: you must learn also 
to preserve your nets from the teeth of rot and from the 
sea which has an hungry belly. 

By using nets for the catching of seals you will obtain 
more possessions from the Company and you will also gain 
a greater supply of meat. This extra supply of meat 
should on no account be wasted. The meat which you do 
not need for immediate use should be cut into thin strips 
and should be dried in the sun in some place safe from the 
mouths of the dogs. ‘The meat will then retain its good- 
ness and will be of service to you during the trapping 

season when other food grows scarce. 



Aulaitsainarungnarpose orKsumiglo kissingniglo -Com- 

Nulloat omajoxsiorteovut Kenuesarnersat inungnit uta- 
Kijariakartunit puijenik i ilulersimajomiglo Kukiusijartomit 
naulalijartomillénét. Nulloat omajoxsiorteovut mer ngor- 
torungnangitut sinijuitullo. Puijillo kiviséngolungilat 
nulloartisimagamik. Taimaimat Kitorngarét ilfinatik 
atunit nulloakuteKarasuartuksauvut puijeniutinik ikiner- 
saulungitunik maggungnit. Nulloat axiksortautsiarpatta 
ununersanik angularput mana pijaujunit. Manamit Com- 
panit nulloaksarsinex oKinersautilarpat sivornganenit; 
niuvertiblo kitorngarét kamatsiartut perkutimingnik attar- 
tortilarpait nulloanik Companit perxutinginik; tamatto- 
mungalo ilipselo Companillo idluarkutiksarsilualarpogut 
sivornganenit, nulloat atularmatta taxxerne sikkoxalungi- 
tune imarbingme. 

Nulloat puijeniutit akkitudlarput ivlernarlutiglo, Kik- 
kartuinarlutiglo aunerungnarput sujuklutiglo sorlo assio- 
jungnarmatta imarbingme kissautingit atsungersortaut- 
sialungipatta. ‘Taimaimat Kitorngarét ilGnatik kamatsiar- 
tuksauvut nulloamingnik, ningititaksarivaillo puijit apKu- 
tiginiarpaluktangine. Oksisimanekut ilipose nerxiksase 
piulimajautsiartuksaungmatta Kingmit kigutinginit.  Ili- 
niartuksauvosetauxk nulloat piulimajautsiartuksaungmatta 
aunerub kigutinginit imarbingmillo aKKearoKartomit 

Nulloat puijeniutit atorupsigik pisiniarnersaujungna- 
larpose Companinit, puijevinexarnersaularposelo. Puije- 
vinit tapkoa asserkejaujuksaungimarikput. Nerkingat 
ingergainak atulungitox avgortauvlune nipkoliutaujuk- 
sauvoK, inniorKavingmele kingminut pijaujungnangitome. 
Nerkejak tagva sujungniarungnaipox atoraksaularporlo 
mikkigiarniarvexartilugo Kangatuinarlénét assianik ner- 



It is necessary to take the very greatest care of seal-skins 
if you wish to gain full value for them. Above all things 
you must keep the hair of the seal free from the stains of 
oil. ji 

After you have skinned the seal and have carefully 
removed all the blubber without slashing the skin, you 
should wash the skin in clean water, so that no oil is left 
upon it. ‘Then you should dry and stretch the skin as is 
the custom, taking care that the seal-hair is not burned by 
the heat of the sun. 

In many parts of your country the waters teem with 
salmon and trout, which enter the rivers during the 
summer months. It is against the laws of Canada and of 
Newfoundland to place fish-nets in the rivers; for if the 
fish cannot swim up the rivers to spawn, those rivers will 
be without fish in years to come. But you may place nets 
beyond the mouths of the rivers in the channels where the 
fish ‘run’. The Company will provide you with nets in 
order that you may obtain large supplies of fish, and will 
trade from you the fish which you do not need for your own 
use, or for dog-feed, or for drying for use in the winter. 

Listen to these words about salmon and trout with keen 
ears, Innuit! You know that in time gone by White 
damsels preferred other furs to white fox-skins, and in 
those days a white fox-skin was of little value to you 
because no one greatly desired to possess it. But as soon 
as it pleased White damsels to adorn their necks and 
shoulders with the soft white fur of the fox, then there were 
many young men eager to make glad the hearts (and the 
vanity) of their damsels with gifts of white fox-skins; and 
when their wives were sad, husbands learned to make them 
happy with gifts of white fox-skins. Fox-skins therefore 
became things of value, and thus the Company was able to 

give you greater value for the skins which you trapped. 


Pijariaxortudlarmarikpox puijit kissingit pairijautsiar- 
matta akkigimariktanginik pijomagupse. Piluartomik 
merkungit pujakartuksaungilat. 

Puije pilaktaujarerpat kissingalo Kabjartautsiarpat, ud- 
jertorluse kissik kilaktauxonago, kissik ubvartaujuksauvok 
imermut salumajomut, orksuerutimarikovlugo. Kissiglo 

innertaujuksauvox iluserijase maliklugo panerKovlugo, 
kamatsiartuksauvoselo merkungit é6xonagit seKinermut. 

Nunapse ilangine unuktune imarbik kavisilixadlarpox 
exaluxadlalarmelo, tapkoalo kongnut majuarput aujarme. 
Canadab Newfoundlandiblo perxojangit maligaksauxo- 
jangit maliklugit nulloat axiksortaujuksaungilat kéngne; 
mingeriat majuarungnangipatta suvairomavlutik, kot ming- 
eriakarungnailarput jarine Kailartune. Nulloalle ningi- 
titaujungnarput két pangita imarbikpasiktangine minge- 
riat apKutigivaktangine. Companit xaitsivigilarpase nul- 
loanik, ununersanik mingeriarKovluse, pisilarpullo kavisi- 
lingnik exaluniglo atulungitapsingnik nerxiksapsingnut 
Kingmikautiksapsingnullo, pipsiliorutigilungitapsingniglo 

Siutinut tuss4junut oKautsit tamakkoa kavisilit exaluillo 
pivlugit nalatsialauxsigik, indjose! Kaujimagaloarpose 
uvlune Kangersimajune Kablunat arnangita, uigasuit pilu- 
artomik, terrianiatuinait Kakortarsu-ungitut pijorilua- 
laungmagit, taipsomanelo Kakortarsuk akkexatsialaungi- 
lax, taimaitut pijomajaulaungimatta. Arnalle uigasuit 
Kuviasutekaleramik A4nanausijomavlutik nangminerming- 
nik kongesélitalijarlutik kakortarsungnik, angutit nullétut 
katjalerput uigasuit omatingit (piojoriningillo) ilumero- 
mavlugit Kuviasungnermik, taimaimallo _pilitsivigivait 
Kakortarsungnik 4xiksortautsiartunik, arnallo nuliangojut 
kiksaleramik uingita saimarsarpait tunidjivigilugit KaKor- 
tarsungnik. Taimangallo xaxortarsuit akkitusivut, Com- 
panillo akkitunersautilugit pisijungnarpait ilipsingnit. 



Likewise men and women who in the old days were 
content to eat salmon and trout which had been salted and 
dried in the sun or had been tierced in pickle now prefer 
to eat salmon and trout which still retain the fresh flavour 
of life. ‘Therefore there is greater value to trade fresh 
salmon and fresh trout to the fish merchants in the great 
encampment of London. If the Company can retain the 
freshness of life in your Labrador salmon and trout, then 
the fish merchants will give the Company greater value for 
it, and you in your turn will receive greater value from the 
Trader for the fresh fish which you bring to the Post.* 

The Company are Fur Traders, not Fish Traders, yet in 
order that the fish which you catch in your nets may be of 
greater value to you, the Company has at great cost 
planned to build fish stations along your coast, where sal- 
mon and trout can be frozen by machines which make ice 
even though the sun is hot and the weather is warm.* Then 
the Company will send ships to collect the frozen fish: and 
these ships will likewise have ice machines, so that the 
salmon and the trout will remain frozen while they are 
carried across the ocean to the island of England. Then 
when men and women grow hungry for fresh salmon and 
trout, they will go to the merchants of fish, in order to 
trade salmon and trout, and the merchants of fish will 
trade your frozen fish from the Company; and when the ice 
is melted from them, the fish will be found as fresh as when 
you took them from the water, and those who eat them in 
the island of England will smack their lips and ask for more. 

Thus it will come about that men and women will give 
greater value for your fish that is frozen than for your salt 
fish that has lost the savour of freshness; and the Company 
will receive greater value for it, and in turn will give you 
greater value than before. ‘Thus the Company will help 

* Subject to conditions of trade. 


Taimaluatsiak uvlune nutaungitune inuit xablunat 
nanaksilauxput kavisilit exaluillo sioraujarsimajut paner- 
taumajullénét sexinermut nerrilugit, méanale_ kavisilit 
exaluillo nutangotilugit sioraujarsimatinagit pingaroma- 
vait. ‘Laimaimallo kavisilit exaluillo zur aulailugit 
mingeriarniartinut Londoneme namaluarpox, akkexar- 
nersaujungnarmatta. Companit kavisilit exaluillo Labra- 
doreme nulloartisimajut assiojitailititsungnarpagit nuta- 
ngotsainartojarninginik, akkitunersautilugit aulaijungna- 
larpait mingeriarniartenut, taimaimallo akkexarnersauti- 
lugit aulaijungnalarivase Companit niuvervinginut.* 

Companit pisukteniarteogaloarput mingeriarniarteolu- 
gatk, mingerialle nulloartitase nulloapsingnut akkexar- 
nersaujungnarkovlugit Companit issumaxalerput minge- 
riainiarvilioromavlutik nunapse ilangine, tagvanelo kavi- 
silit exaluillo xKoaxtitaularput sikkoliorutinut sexinex 
pitsartudlaraloartilugo sillalo onartilugo.* Companillo 
umiaksoanik mingeriaitortunik tiliklilarput Labradore- 
mut, umiaxsuillo tapkoa KoaxtisiuteKalarput, kavisilillo 
exaluillo Koangotsainarlutik Ataularput imarbiksoakut 
Englandemut. Inuillo Englandemétut ikligukpatta kavi- 
silingnik exalungniglo nutanik mingeriarniartelialarput 
kavisiliksijomavlutik exaluksijomavlutiglo, mingeriarniar- 
tillo aulaivigilarpait kavisilingnik exalungniglo koaksima- 
junk Companinit pijunik; tavalo sikko aukpat mingeriat 
nutingojamarilarput sorlo immanit  tigujautainarlutik, 
nersijullo tapkoninga Englandeme mamagidlalarpait 
taimaitotoromalarmilutik kingorngane. 

Taimaglo Englandemiut mingeriat nulloartitase koaK- 
titaajullo akkitunersautilugit pisiarilarpait mingerianit 
sioraujarsimajunit assiojisimajunit nutaét mamarninginik, 
Companillo akkitunersautilugit. aulaivlugit akkitunersau- 
tilugit pisiarijungnalarivait ilipsingnit. ‘Taimaglo Com- 

* Agviartoxangipat niuverviub ilinganingine. 


you to gain greater value for the good of your wives and 

Few countries in the whole world have greater abun- 
dance of fish than Labrador. But many of the Innuit of 
Labrador are poor fishermen; they do not trouble to catch 
many fish, and remain therefore in poverty, although 
they could easily gain many possessions by fishing with 
energy and skill. Every summer the White fishermen sail 
their boats along your coast to catch the cod-fish; they use 
the same fishing gear as the Innuit;’ but the White fisher- 
man, who works hard, catches ten codfish for every one 
fish caught by an Innuit fisherman. Why? The White 
fisherman works hard for the benefit of his wife and chil- 
dren, but the Innuk * of the Labrador yawns often and 
forgets that his wife and children require comforts and new 

In the autumn there are many berries on the hills of 
Labrador, which the Company will trade from Innuit 
women and children who pick them.+ Let the women and 
children pick these berries and secure for themselves from 
the store the things which please them. Thus they will 
gain possessions for themselves while their husbands are 
tending the seal-nets, or are preparing for the trapping 

It is a wise custom among you to bring. back to the 
Company’s Trader pieces of rock and metal which you 
find during your journeys along the coastline or inland. 
Any piece of strange-coloured rock or of strange-coloured 
earth or of gleaming metal which you may find, you should 
bring back with you to the Post. Do not take a loose piece 
of rock or metal which you may find lying on the ground, 
but cut out from the firm rock a sample the size of your fist, 
which will be of greater interest to the men who have 

* Singular form of Innuit. + Subject to conditions of trade. 


panit ikajularpase akkiliutiksarsinersauxovluse aipapse 
kitorngapselo idluarkutiksanginut. 

Silaxsub nunangita ilainangit kissimik mingeriaxarner- 
sauvut Labradoremit, Labradoremiulle ilangit unuktut 
mingeriarniarteotsialungilat, ilungertulungilat unuktunik 
mingeriarniaromavlutik, taimaimallo aklunermétsainarput, 
akluinersauvlutik perkuteKarnersaujungnarajaraloartilugit 
katsungaivlutik mingeriarniarajarunik. Aujat tamat ogar- 
niat avungarput nunapsingnut sikdnakut ogarniaromay- 
lutik; tapkoa pinasutekarput ta4pkoningatsainak sorlo 
inuit pekarmatta; ogarnialle Kablunat katsungaitomik 
ogarniarasuartut, ogars6ngovut ununersanik roertorlutik 
inungnit. S6x taimailivat? Ogarniat xablunat ilunger- 
tors6ngomatta aipatik Kitorngaitglo pivlugit, inugle Lab- 
radoremiox aitaukattarpok puigorlunelo aipane xkitorn- 
ganelo perkutekariakarmatta nutanik manigornartoxkaria- 
Karlutiglo indtseme. 

Okiaksarme paungakadlarpox unuktunik sunatuinarni- 
glo kaxkane Labradoreme, Companillo taimaitut pisiari- 
larpait inuit arnanginit sorusinginillo nunivagiartortunit.* 
Arnat sorutsillo nunivagiartorlit niuvervingmullo aulailu- 
git nunivaktangit, pisijungnarkovlugit nangminiksariniar- 
tamingnik Kuviagijamingiglo. ‘Taimaidlutik nangminik- 
sarsijungnalarput, angutingit kamatilugit nulloanik puije- 
niutenik atuinaruteritilugillénét mikkigitjernermut. 

Silatutuinarniarpose 4tsis6ngogupse Companit niuver- 
tinganut ujarKanik xairtullo serkomakunginik akkitujo- 
Karkortunik nagvarKattartapsingnik arvertarnipsingne 
sidjakull6nét nunakullénét. Ujarax serkomakko takorng- 
artamik tautulik, ibjorlénét takorngartamik  tautulik, 
ujararlnét Keblertax nagvartase 4tuinarsigik niuvertemut. 
Ujarak méanétuinartox saksartuinartox tiguniarasiuk, 
Kairtomarigle ilangersiuk aggaktitut erkingajutitut angi- 

* Agviartoxangipat niuverviub ilinganingine. 

knowledge of rocks and metals. Many such pieces of rock 
and mineral are of no value, but it is likely that someone 
will bring to the Post a sample of precious metal or 
precious rock. He will indeed bea fortunate Innuk. If 
there is a good store of this metal or rock in the place where 
the sample has been found, the Company will cause men 
to dig it out of the earth and will carry the precious stuff 
away in ships. Then the Innuk who first found the place 
will receive very great reward from the Company, and he 
and his family will become the most prosperous Innuit in 
the world, with wealth and possessions of which you have 
never dreamed; and should that Innuk die, his widow and 
his family will be well provided for. 

There are many White Men who spend their lifetime 
searching in the wild parts of the world for the precious 
rocks and metals which are hidden away in the earth; often 
they fail to find the rocks which they seek and are sad; but 
sometimes good fortune smiles upon them, and the man, 
who yesterday was poor, gains great possessions and riches 
to-day to the happiness and joy of his wife and children. 
Thus also it will be among you; some Innuit will suddenly 
gain great possessions, because they find the metals and 
rocks which are most precious to White Men. Therefore 
you are wise to keep your eyes open for all strange rocks 
and pieces of metal; and you will also be wise to bring 
these things to the Company’s Trader. For you know 
well that the Company will treat you fairly and will reward 
you according to the value of the things which you discover 
in the earth or in the rocks. 

The wise hunter lays up caches of meat on his trapping 
grounds for his own use and for the use of his dogs when 
food is scarce, and in order to attract the foxes to the places 
where he thinks best to set his traps. Likewise the wise 

father sets aside for himself and his family a cache of riches 


tigingoartomik, taimaitox takojominarnersaungmat tunga- 
narnersaungmallo ilisimajunut ujaralerijunut saksartuinar- 
tomit. Taimaitut unuktut akkexarnialungikaloarput ato- 
raksauniangimatta, sukutsianele imaxa nagvartoKarajar- 
pok akkitojuksajamik pivianartotalingmik. T'aimaito- 
miglo atsijox piloridlarajarpox ; nagvarviglo ilangertau- 
jok pitaxatsiarajarpat akkitojomik, Companit ujaralerijut 
suliakartiniarpait, akkitojuksajarlo aularutijaunajarpox 
umiaksoakut. Inuglo nagvarKartox tapsominga akkiler- 
tautsiarajarpox Companinut, t4mnalo ilangillo akluiner- 
paulerajarput inungnit tamainit, perkutexarlune akluine- 
karlunelo sinnatomajutigijaulauxsimangitomigl6nét. In- 
uglo témna indjungnaikpat, uigarninga Kkitorngangillo 
pairijaunajarput Companinut. 

Kablunaxarpox inésitik navlugo silaxsub inuxangitu- 
ngine Kenitsainartunik kairtunik akkitujuksajatalingnik, 
Versimajunik nunab iluane; akulaitomik nagvdlungika- 
loarput Kairtunik Kenertamingnik, taimaimallo kiksarput; 
ilanganele kungatauvut sulitsiarnermut, tavalo inuk ikpex- 
sak aklulauxtox uvlome akluidlarpox perkxutekadlarlune 
akluinexadlarlunelo, aipame xitorngamelo xuviasutiksa- 
nginut piloriutiksanginullo. ‘Taimailingalarpox ilipsingne; 
inuit ilangat akluiliaxilarpox, nagvarame xairtunik ujara- 
niglo kablunat pivianartoxutigijanginik. 'Taimaimat sila- 
tuniarpose arvertartiluse uitatsainarupse (kamatsiarupse) 
ujarkanik xairtuniglo akkitujuksajanik takojomavluse, 
silatuniarposetauk taimaitut 4gupsigik Companit niuver- 
niartinganut. Kaujimatsiarapse Companit idluarmarik- 
tomik piniarvigilarmase akkilerluselo nagvartapse nuname 
kaittunelénét akkigijungnartangit maliklugit. 

Omajoxsiorte silatujok Kematulivok omajovinermik 
mikkigiakarvigijamine nerkiksarilartaminik nerripkautik- 
sarilartaminiglo nerxiksakatsiarungnailerpat, narriaksau- 
niartomiglo terrianiat naimaniartanginik. Taimaluat- 

PS 2.09 


by working hard throughout the whole year. The 
Company’s Trader will keep that cache of riches safe 
for him, so that in times of scarcity or in times of illness 
or if death overtakes him, his family will not be stricken 
with poverty and will not need to live on the charity of 

White children are trained by their parents and by their 
teachers to work skilfully and to work hard throughout 
the year, so that they may provide comforts and possessions 
for their wives and children, and so that they may be 
honoured for the work which they accomplish in life. 
Innuit fathers will also train their children to work 
skilfully and to work hard throughout the year if they 
love their children and wish to see them in good health 
and prosperity. 


siarlo atata silatujox katsungaitomik pinasuarlune sulia- 
karlunelo jare navlugo katersoivox Komerguserporlo 
akkiliutiksanik, kematulilugit sorlo, nangminerminut ila- 
minullo atulartunik. Companit niuverniartingata kenau- 
jat tapkoa piulilarpait najortigilugit, inuata ilangit, inuk 
pitakatsiarungnaikpat sukutsiane Kanimakpallénét toxo- 
mullénét tikitaukpat, ajoksarKonagit indgiaKarKonagil- 
l6nét assimik aitortuigosungningat sungertutigivlugit. 

Kablunat sorusingit sungiutisartauvut angajoxaming- 
nut ajoKertortimingnullo iliniartitimingnullo katsungaito- 
mik silatujomiglo suliaxatsainartuksaugamik jare navlugo, 
patangaititsijungnarkovlugit ilamingnik, aipamingnik 
Kitorngamingniglo, perkutexkartitsungnarlugit manigor- 
nartoxkartilugillo, nertoraksauxovlugillo suliatik inédtseme 
pivlugit. Inuillo atataujut, nagligosogunik Kitorngaming- 
nik takojomagunigillo ajoxsarlugatik pitaxatsiarlutiglo 
Kanoengitsiarlutiglo, taimaluatsiak Kitorngatik sungiuti- 
sarniarivait sulitsiarkovlugit, katsungaitomiglo suliaxat- 
sainarkovlugit jare navlugo. 


N all sides one sees the tracks of lemming 
on the surface of the winter snow: and 
likewise on the white pages of this book 
you have often seen the imprint of the 
word Care. 

You are glad to see plentiful signs of 
the lemming; for the foxes and the ermine thrive when 
there are many lemming on which to feed—and it is well 
for you when the foxes and the ermine thrive. In the 
same way the leaders among White workers rejoice when 
they see the signs of Carz among those men who work for 
them: for Care nourishes work as milk nourishes a child. 
When much Care is given to work, it thrives—and it 
is well for all men that their labours should thrive. 

Many White workers who live in the big encampments 
have never seen the tracks of lemming, and if they came 
to your country they would at first know nothing of the 
story which you read so plainly from the tracks in the snow. 
In the same way you Innuit have hardly learned the secret 
of the word Carr. Look at the parts of your gun and you 
will see how exact is the craft of the gunsmith: every 
piece of the gun was made to fit exactly with the other 
pieces. Had he fashioned some part too little or too big, 

even by the breadth of a fox’s eyelash, it would have 


LUNANE aputiub Kangane okiorme tako- 

vogut avingat tuminginik; taimaktaux 

aglait makkoa makpatangine kaxortane 
akulaitomik takosimavose oxkautsimik 


Kuviasudlarpose takojarangapse aving- 
at tuminginik unuktunik, Kaujimagapse avingakatsiar- 
tilugo terrianiat terriallo aglivaliatsiarniarmatta nerKiksa- 
Katsiarlutik, ilipsingnullo idluarmarikpox terrianiat ter- 
riallo aglivaliatsiarpatta. ‘Taimaluatsiarlo Kablunat sulia- 
Kartut angajoKangit Kuviasudlarivut naipertorunik ikajor- 
tingit udjertutsiarmatta suliamingne, UDJERTUTSIARNEK 
nakoxsititsingmat suliakarnermik sorlo immub sorusek 
nakoxsitingmago, suliaxarnerlo nakoxsijaukpat udjertut- 
siarnermut suliakarnek aglivaliatsiarpox sulitsiarpox, inu- 

illo iltnatik idluarxutigimarikpat sulijatik sulitsiarpatta. 
Kablunat unuktut iglugasaksoarne indjut takolaux- 
simangimarikput avingat tuminginik, nunapsingnullo 
tikinajarunik tukkisinajangimarikput ingergainak unip- 
kausermik ilipse oxitomik atuartapsingnik tumisigapse 
apume. ‘Taimagletaux ilipse indjose namaktomik ilit- 
sialungilase sulle okaustub oma—vUDJERTUTSIARNERUB— 
tukkigijanganik. Kukkiutise Kemergolersigik, takoniar- 
pose tagva ilangit ilfinatik senamatsiarmatta nablisijigét- 
siamariklutik. Senajib Kukkiutib ilanga angindrajalaux- 
pago mikkindrajalaux pagol6nét mikkijokullutuinarmik, 



jammed and have been useless to you. And so the gun- 
smith who fashioned your gun worked delicately and with 
patient Care so that you might have a good weapon upon 
which to rely at all times. Even as the gun was made 
carefully in the great encampments, so it also received 
Care at the hands of the Company from whom you traded 
it; and unless you bestow on the gun that same Carg, 
unless you keep it clean and oil it to ward off the rust from 
eating the metal, it will soon be spoiled and will lose its 

And this much also you should know about the handling 
of guns and rifles. Itis the custom among White Men in 
the island of Britain to invite their friends to hunt with 
them on their lands; and they shoot deer, or ducks, or 
grouse or other birds which fly fast and are good to eat. 
Should a man be careless with his gun during the hunt and 
endanger the life of his friends, at once he is sent home in 
disgrace by the other hunters; and should it become 
known that the man is dangerous with his gun, then no 
man will shoot with him lest he should receive harm from 
the gun of the careless hunter. Among White folk lads 
are first taught to shoot about the age of fourteen, and 
until they have learned to carry their gun so that it never 
points towards another man, they are not allowed to 
possess cartridges or to fire the gun. It is indeed an 
excellent thing to teach your children to take the greatest 
Care with rifles and guns, which are deadly weapons. 

It is easy to see why Care should be taken with guns 
because a gun used carelessly can, in the flash of a moment, 
deal death to a man’s closest friend or to his wife or his 
child who may be standing near. 



aglat Kemeriab silingningatutuinax, séminajarpox, ato- 
rungnarajangilarlo. ‘Taimaimat xukkiuteliorte upjer- 
TUTSIARLUNE kukkiutelioriakarpox, Kukkiut sungertu- 
tautsainarungnarkovlugo., Sorlolo xukkiut senajautsia- 
laungmat iglugasaksoarne, taimak uDJERTUTSIARTAUVOK 
Companit inunginut aulaijunut tapsominga ilingnut; 
kukkiullo uDJERTUTSIALUNGITUARUNGNE, salumasatsiar- 
lugo mingoarlugolo orksumut sujuktaukonago manger- 
tornermut, asserortausarainiarpoxk atoraksaujungnailune. 
Imaitomiglotaux Kaujijuksaugivose kukkiutit tigumiar- 
tauningit pivlugit. Kablunat xikkertame Britaineme 
inatsisOngovut ilamingnik kukkerkataugiartorkovlugit 
nunakotimingne; tuktuniarput, tingmianiarpullo imaxk- 
siutinik nunasiutiniglo, tagva akiginik assinginiglo suka- 
lijomik tingisfinik nerrijausiniglo. | Kukkerxataujut 
ilangat kamatsialungipat kanok Kukkiutine tigumiarmago 
omajoxsiorvingme tingmiaksiorvingmelénét, ilamelo ila- 
ngata indsinga nangiarnartométikpago, ingergainak ange- 
rarkojauvoK kangusuktitauvlune xKukkerkatigijaminut; 
inuglo ilitarijaulerpat nangiarijaksauvlune kukkiusijarlune, 
tagva kialénét kukkerxatigijomalungila, kukkertaujoxa- 
dlaroarmat udjertutsiangitub Kukkiutinganut. Kablunat 
akorngane nukappiat ajokertortauséngovut Kukkiarner- 
mik jarexaramik 14nik, ilixartinagille xukkiusijartuk- 
saunginamik inungmut torartomik, nangminek sakkoli- 
jarxojaungilat kukkerxojaulugatiglénét. Namamarikpox 
ila Kitorngase ajoxertorupsigik uDJERTUTSIARMARIKTUK- 
SAUGAMIK Kanok kukkiutit tigumiarlugit, xukkiutit 
sakkéngmatta tokonamariktut. 
Tukkisiniarpose Kukkiut UDJERTUTSIARTOMUT tgu- 
miartaujuksaungmat, udjertutsiangitomut tigumiartauk- 
pat, kukkiut ijib sikkungilarningane aituyyungnarmat 
tokomik inub ilanarijanganut aipanganullénét Kitornga- 

nganullénét Kanitométoxatuarpat. 


Likewise it is easy to see why a man who builds a kayak 
or a wooden boat takes the utmost Care to sew the skins 
tightly or to caulk the seams: that man would indeed be 
in a sorry pass if he were at sea and the water entered his 
boat so that it sank. Alas for that man! It would be too 
late for him to learn to use more Carz in building his boat. 

All men have gradually learned from the misfortunes, 
which have happened to others, to take Care in matters of 
life and death. ‘Thus when you cross over ice with your 
komatik in the spring of the year, you watch very carefully 
lest the ice should prove too thin and you and your dogs 
be plunged into deep waters; and you watch very care- 
fully lest the wind should change and should bear you 
away from the shore as you cross over the sea-ice, for you 
know that death will soon overtake you if you are cut off 
from the land. What is more dangerous than the claws of a 
wounded bear? You take the utmost Carz to avoid them 
lest they should rend your flesh. In all such things you 
have learned prudence, for you understand the penalties 
which attach to danger, and it seems better to you and to all 
men to be living and laughing in your encampments than to 
suffer death before you have enjoyed the full span of life. 

With most things which clearly affect your comfort you 
have learned to take Carg. Thus if your wife makes a pair 
of seal-skin boots for you, she uses only the best skins. She 
chooses a good piece of Square-flipper skin for the sole, 
and for the upper part she uses a Bedlamer or a Jar skin 
without blemish, taking Care that the skin retains its 
glossy black surface after the hair has been scraped away. 
In shaping the foot of the boot she sews a narrow tongue, 
even in shape, and she cuts the heel high so that it will fit 
the shape of her husband’s heel, and strengthens the back 

of the heel with sinew so that it will not sag. In shaping the 

leg she leaves enough room to enable the boot to be put 



‘Taimaktaux tukkisinadlarpox inuk xKajaliortox umia- 
liortorlénét upjerrursiarLune sulilermat, kamatsiarlune 
umiab perningit upsersortautsiarmatta Kajablo amingit 
merksortautsiarmatta; inuk kappianartomik ilinganeKa- 
rajarmat imarbiksiorlune malugosunajarune umianga 

imagudlarmat kiviniarlunelo. Kappianarmék ila inuk 
taimna, kinguraivlune kissiane ilinajarpoK UDJERTUTSIAR- 
NERSAUVLUNE umialiortuksaulaurame! 

Inuit ilfinatik assimik Kanoetoxarningit ilivaliajutigi- 
tokomullo ilingajune. Kemukserupse sikkokut operng- 
ame kamatsiars6Gngovose sikko ingerarvigijase sdluar- 
mangat, ilipse kingmiselo nakkarxonase iménut ittijo- 
mut; kamatsiarposelo anore sangumangat, sAptaudlar- 
Konase nunamit imarbingmut sikkosiortiluse, Kaujimag- 
apse tokomut tikitaularapse nunamit saptaugupse. Suna 
nangiarnarnersauva nanub ikkiliub kukkinginit ? uDJER- 
TUTSIARPOSE tapkonunga pijaukonase uvinise aliktortauko- 
nago. ‘Taimaitune tamaine ilijarérpose silatunermik, 
tukkisigapse Kanok nangiarnartut maliktokarungnarma- 
ngata, ilipselo inuillo ilfinatik KuviasuteKarnersauvose 
indgiamik kungakatigéngnermiglo iglugasapsingne to- 
Kogiamit ndmaksititsisimaK4rtinase indtsib uvlunginik 

Inétsiarutiksapsingnut ilingajune tamainekasak ilijarér- 
pose UDJERTUTSIARNERMIK, kamatsiarnermik. Aipavit 
kammiorpatit Kissit 4nanaunerpanganik kissiane atoro- 
mayvox. Anerosukpoxk atungaksanik ugjujanik, kammik- 
tanginullo xKairolingmik netsemiglénét KanoetoKangi- 
mariktomik atoromavox, kamatsiarlune Kissiub erkaK- 
tinga Kernertatsiangongmat takoranéluganelo. Kam- 
miorlune ittiksakaromavok amitomik iliktersimatstar- 
tomik, kammiublo kingminga ilutsexartipa angutime 

kingminganut ndmatsiartomik, ivalomullo matsusertor- 


on or to be taken off with ease, and yet the leg is not over- 
wide or clumsy to the eye. Shame on the woman who 
finishes off the top with cloth, when a good wife would 
neatly fringe it with a strip of seal-skin! Every stitch of 
that boot has been tightly sewn with deer sinew, or if there 
is no deer sinew, then with seal sinew; but on no account 
would the good wife use thread. Such a boot is strong 
and watertight and gives comfort to the wearer. It was 
fashioned by a careful wife. 

When she makes you a pair of seal-skin mitts, she takes 
Carer to make the thumb-piece of sufficient length and to 
allow ample stretch between the thumb and fingers 
according to the size of the hand: and she remembers that 
often a man wears a woollen or a duffle glove next to the 
skin of the hand and that therefore the mitt must be large 
enough for both the hand and the glove. 

In order that you may gain greater riches, the Company 
has encouraged your women-folk to trade seal-skin boots 
and mitts at the Post, and in turn the Company trades 
these boots and mitts among White Men. Very often your 
wives take too little Carz in sewing these boots for trade: 
they forget that White Men are bigger in stature and have 
larger feet than the Innuit. They forget that White Men 
also need boots which are strongly sewn, and without 
blemish and which are pleasing to the eye and which give 
comfort to the feet. And when your women-folk sew 
mitts for trade, they often forget that White Men have 
thumbs and that thumbs grow very cold if no snug home 
is provided for them in the mitt. 

White Men take the greatest Carr even as the Innuit 
do in choosing their seal-skin boots and mitts and there- 
fore it is useless for you to hope to trade to the Company 
boots and mitts which were made without Care. If you 

have a twelve bore gun, the Company trades to you twelve 



pait sittorkonagit. Ilikterlune kammikt4gingnik nerroki- 
luartailitipak atijautsiarungnarxovlugik, nerrotoluartaili- 
tipagletaux takoranélerkonagik. Arnak ungerviksaKar- 
titsijok kablunaxtajamik kangusuktuksauvox, kammit 
ananat ungervexartuksaungmatta kissijamik! Kammit 
merksortauvut tuktub ivalunganut, puijiblénét ivalunga- 
nut tuktujakangipat, arnagle kammiornine piojorijutelik 
atulungilak ivaluksamik kammiornermut. Kammillo 
taimak merksortaujut sangij6vut imagulungilallo Kuvia- 
gijauvullo atortomut tapkoninga.  Iliktertaulauxput 
merksortaulutiglo arnamut kamatsiartomut. 

Arnablo pualuliorpatit Kissijanik, kamatsiarpox kubla- 
gik nailualungimanik nerrokilualungimaniglo kublublo 
tikiublo akorngangne, aggait anginingit maliklugit, 
erkaivorlo inuk pualulijarxattarmat illupiarutanik Kebik- 
sajamik, taimaimallo kissijat airkavaugallonét taimak 
angitigijuksaungmatta aggait illupiarutallo pullarungnar- 

Kénaujaxarnersaujungnarkovluse Companit arnase 
maksuatipait aulaixovlugit kammingniglo pualoniglo 
niuvervingmut, Companillo ama kammit pualullo tapkoa 
aulailerivait kablunanut. Ilangane arnase kamatsiangi- 
luarput kammiliornermingnik niuviaksanik; puigorput 
Kablunat kammikaromangmatta merksorsimatsiartunik 
takoranélungituniglo nablisitsiartuniglo ittiganut. Puigor- 
puttauk kablunat anginersausOngomatta inungnit ittiga- 
Kortonersaungmattalo inungnit. Arnaselo pualuliormatta 
airkavaugaliormattalo puigorKattarkérput Kablunat kublo- 
Karmatta, kublungillo keujasbngomatta iniksaxatsialung1 
patta pualune. ; 

anerosugamik kammimingnik pualomingniglo, taimai- 
mallo nerriuktuksaulungimarikpose aulaijungnarapse 
kammingnik pualoniglo Kissijanik senasimatsialungitunik 



bore cartridges. What use are sixteen bore cartridges to 
a twelve bore gun? What use are ‘ sixteen bore boots’ 
for a ‘twelve bore foot,’ or ‘ sixteen bore mitts’ for a 
“twelve bore hand?’ ‘The White Man has a careful eye 
and will only give good value for things which are made 
with Care. 

Likewise White damsels have a very careful eye for the 
furs with which they adorn their necks, for they fear lest 
the other damsels at a feast should whisper among one 
another and say ‘ Look at the fox-skin which is round her 
neck—the fur is spotted with dirt.’ Thus it is that the 
White damsels choose their furs very carefully from the 
merchants, and the merchants must therefore choose their 
furs with great Carr from the Company, and the Com- 
pany’s Traders must grade and value with great Care the 
skins which you bring to the Post. 

The Company’s Traders who value 
your fur at the Post, 

The Company’s Sailors who carry 
your fur by ship, | 

The Company’s Workers who sort ALL use the 
your fur in the great encampment grea test 
of London, CARE sO 

The Merchants who trade your fur ‘l Lad 
from the Company, se Cte TEe 

The Men who dress the pelts of your; COmes to 
fur for the Merchants, no harm. 

The Men who trade your fur from the 
Merchants for their damsels, 

The Damsels who wear your fur round 
their necks, 

If you hunters used half the Carr of the White Men in 

setting your traps skilfully and in keeping your furs free 


Companinut. Kukkiutexarupse No 12mik Companit 
aulaivigivase sakkonik illulingnik No 12nik. Sakkut 
illulit No 16 Kanox atorungnarKxat kukkiumut No 12- 
mit? Kanorlo kammit No 16 atorungnarxat ittizamut 
No 12miat? Pualullénét No 16 aggangnut No 12nftt ? 
Kablunat ijexarput kamatsiartunik, pisiniaromavullo 
perkutinik senasimatsiartunik kissiane. 

Taimaktaux xablunat arnat ijexarput kamatsiartunik 
pisuktit aminginik kongeselitarijomajamingnik, arnauKa- 
titik nerrimarkatigijatik issibjorKatigéxonagit: ‘ Omat! 
Terrianiak ipsoma Kongeselitarijanga salumaipok, taKsa- 
Karpok pujavinermik.’ ‘T’aimaimat arnat kablunat upJjErR- 
TORMARIKLUTIK anerosukput pisuktit aminginik pisiari- 
jomajamingnik Companinit, Companillo niuvertingit 
UDJERTUTSIARMARIKLUTIK akkiléjuksauvut pisuktit aming- 
inik Atapsingnik niuvervingnut akkigijungnartangit malik- 

Companit niuvertingit pisiniartut ] 
amingnik aulaijomajapsingnik niu- 

Companit kippalungit umiaKsoarnétut Makkoa 
adjarsijune amingnik imarbiksoa- | ., . : 
keut, ilanatik 

Companit inungit Londoneme ana- | UDJERTUT= 
nausiniartut pisuktit aminginik, ¢ ¢)AMARIKPUT 
avilugit Ananauningit maliklugit, 

Pisiniat pisiniartut amernik Compani- 


Niuvertit pisijut amernik pisinianit 
aulaijomangmilugit arnanut, 

Arnallo amernik Kongeselitalijartut, | 

llipse pisuktiniartose UDJERTUTSIARAJARUPSE mikkigit- 
jerluse amillo salumaititautailitilugit sorlo Kablunat 


amit su] uk- 
| taukonagit. 


from dirt, every Innuit family would gain greater posses- 
sions from the Company’s Trader. 

What use is there in setting a trap for a fox if, when he 
places his foot upon it, the covering of snow is so thick or 
so hard that the spring is not released? Or if you cover 
the trap with moss, see that it is dry, for damp moss will 
freeze and the trap, which lies beneath it, will not close 
when touched. In setting his traps the careful hunter will 
choose places where the snow is least likely to drift, for a 
trap lying beneath a bank of snow is as useless as a gun 
lying at the bottom of the ocean. And it is well to stake 
your traps firmly in the ground or to freeze them firmly 
to rock, even as you stay a boat with an anchor. Visit your 
traps often, or the crow or the wolf or the wolverine will 
forestall you and will spoil the skins of your foxes. When 
you take furs from your traps, use them with the same Care 
with which White Men use them, keeping them free from 
dirt and damage. 

You know that White Men and Women will not eat food 
which is stale or rotten, and it is therefore useless for you 
to bring stale fish to the Post for the Company to freeze 
and to carry across the sea to the merchants of fish in the 
island of Britain. For if the fish is not fresh when it is 
frozen at the Post, it will not be fresh when it is melted in 
the island of Britain and cooked for food. The salmon 
and the trout which you catch in your nets must therefore 
be handled with great Care to prevent them from 
spoiling before they are frozen. ‘The flesh of a fish is very 
tender and if the fish is roughly flung into the boat, or is 
trodden upon or is crushed in any way, the flesh becomes 

bruised, and when it is cut up to be eaten the flesh appears 


udjertormatta, ila abvatuinanganiglonét udjertorajarupse, 
akkiliutiksarsinersaunajarpose Companit niuvertinginit. 
Mikkigitjernexk xanox tukkexarKa_ terrianiarasuar- 
omavlune, aput mikkigiab Kanganétox taimak ibjutigipat 
taimaglo sittitigipat terrianiab tuttipago serKominiangi- 
mago, taimaimallo mikkigiax késititsungnarnagé ? Mik- 
kigiarlénét mattugungne perkappijanut, kamatsiarit per- 
Kappyjat panitsiarmatta, perkappijat Kausertut Koarniar- 
matta, mikkigiarlo perKappijat atanétox késinialunginivox 
terrianiarmut tuttijaugaloartilugo. Mikkigitjerlune ter- 
rianiarniarte udjertutsiartok mikkigiakarviksarsiorasuar- 
poK saujauniangitomik perktomut, mikkigiak aputiub 
atanétok ilingangmat mikkigiaxtut imarbiksub erKané- 
totut. Namatuinarporlo mikkigiax atsungersortaukpat 
Kejungmut nappajomut, nippingatitaukpallénét Kairtomut 
sikkomut, sorlo umiak atsungersortaungmat kissarmut. 
Takosaixattaritselo; pingikupse tullukab amarublénét 
Kabviublénét nelipsarkarniarpait mikkigiase, terrianiarlo 
mikkigiarsimajok sujuklugo. Péjaigupselo pisuktinik 
mikkigianit amit uDJERTUTSIARSIGIK sorlo Kablunat udjer- 
tormagit, salumaititaukonagit KanoetokartitauKonagillo. 
Kaujimavose kablunat angutit arnallo nerrijomangimatta 
nerkemik nutaungitomik igunaujomiglénét, taimaimallo 
Companit niuvervinginut Atsijuksaungilase mingerianik 
nutangolungitunik Koaxtitaksanik ikartitaksanik pisinianut 
mingerialerijunut Kikertame Britaineme. Mingeriat (Ka- 
visilit exaluillo) nutaluatsiangongipatta Koaxtitaulertilugit 
Companit niuvervingine (mingerialerivingine), nutango- 
nialungilat auksititautilugit igajauniartilugit Britaineme. 
Taimaimat kavisilit exaluillo nulluartitase uDJERTORMA- 
RIKLUSE tigumiaraksarivase sujuktaukonagit Koaktitau- 
Kartinagit. Mingeriab nerKinga maitédlarpox, umia- 
mullo egitautuinarpat, tullerartaukpallénét, sémiktauk- 

pallénét, nerxinga tiglujarnexalerpox, atuinarutitaukpallo 


dark, and the White Men and Women will accuse the fish 
merchant of having traded bad fish tothem. Again, ifa fish 
is taken from the water and is left lying in the sun even for 
a short time, it will become stiff, lose its moisture and grow 
stale. As soon as fish are taken from the net, they should 
be covered with a cloth to ward off the rays of the sun, and 
if they cannot be taken straight to the freezing-house they 
should be carefully stored in wooden boxes packed round 
with snow or small lumps of ice which will not crush or 
bruise the flesh. ‘The sooner the fish can be frozen hard in 
the ice-house, the fresher their flesh will remain and the 
greater their value to you. Handle every fish with the 
greatest Carr from the moment you take it from the 
water; for White Men and Women will only eat the best 
fish which has been carefully and cleanly kept. 

You will notice that most White Men shave the beard 
from their faces: they use a very sharp knife and cut the 
hair from the surface of their chin and cheeks, and though 
the knife be very sharp and though the flesh of the face be 
soft and though they cut quickly, yet they very rarely gash 
the skin so that blood flows. White Men have learned to 
use the utmost Carz in cutting away the beard, for if they 
were careless they would harm themselves. Likewise in 
cutting away the blubber from a seal-skin, one must use 
the utmost Cars. If one cuts too deeply, then the skin is 
gashed and loses its value ; if one does not cut deeply 
enough, then part of the blubber still remains and the skin 
becomes rotten. If the skin is to retain its value, not only 
must it be free from blubber on the flesh side, but the hair 
must be washed free from all traces of oil: for if oil is 
allowed to dry in the hair of a seal-skin, the stain will 

always remain, and the merchant who trades the skins will 



igajauniarlune Kernangavox, pisijublo tapsominga pisi- 
niarte aulaijox tapsominga passiniarpa aulaivigingmago 
mingeriamik piungitomik. Amalo, mingeriat péjartau- 
patta imanit ilijautuinarlutiglo sexinerartauvlutik aglat 
akuniungimariktomik, Kerrataniarput panersarniarlutiglo 
nutaungitdjarlutiglo. Nulluanit péjartautuarpatta ming- 
eriat ulliktaujuksauvut xablunaxtajamut saputijauKxov- 
lugit sexinerub issagutinginit, ataujungnangipattalo inger- 
gainak Kkoaktitsivingmut ilijaujuksauvut iklervingnut 
ilumajauvlutik mattujauvlutiglo apumut sikkonullo ser- 
Kalisimajunut tiglujarnexartitsiniangitunut nerKinganik. 
Manakullukut mingeriat Koaktitaujungnarpatta sittijé- 
niarlutik Koaktitsivingme nutdngojarniarput, sokiarlo 
akkitunersaularput. Imdanit péjartuarupsigik mingeriat 
kamatsiarmarikluse tigumiarsigik, kablunat mingerianik 
salumajunik kamagijautsiartuniglo kissiane nerrijomang- 

Naipertorsimaniarpose xablunat angutit unurningit 
umgijaramik nangminermingnik; umgijautemik kéna- 
Katsiartomik ators6ngovut umit péjarlugit erksamingnit 
tablumingnillo, umgijaullo ipidlaraloartilugo kénablo 
aminga axkitdgaloartilugo, sukkalijomiglo umgijaigaloar- 
tilugit, killerkattalungilat auk saxxertilugo. Kablunat 
ilisimavut UDJERTUTSIARTUKSAUGAMIK umegijaitilugit, 
udjertorajangikunik killidlarajarput nangminermingnik. 
Taimaluatsiax pilaksitiluse puijenik upJjEeRTUTSIARTUK- 
sauvosE. Puijib kissinga kilaktaukpat akkigijungnar- 
tanga mikkijororpox; orksulle péjartautsialungipat ilan- 
galo Kissiub maminganékpat sulle, tagva Kissik sujung- 
niarivoK aunioniarlune. Kissik akkitugijungnartangatut 
akkexarkojaukpat orksukartuksaungilak mamingane, 
ergortortauvlunelo merkungit orksuerutijaujuksauvut, 
orksuk Kissiub merKungine pujauniarmat péjartaujung- 
narlugane, pissiniartiblo pissijub Kissinik Companinit 

P 225 


shrug his shoulders and give the Company little value for 
them. He will say that the Innuit are careless folk and 
that it is difficult to use the skins which they prepare. 

The twine which is used for making seal-nets and fish- 
nets is spun by White workers, and there are watchers set 
over them to see that the twine is spun with Carg, so that 
it will have great strength. Surely it is of no avail that 
these workers should take great Care with the twine for 
your nets, if you do not use the same Care in setting them 
in the best berths, in mooring them safely and in drying, 
mending and storing them safely. Being a faithful hunter 
a net is of big value to you: it asks not for a share of what 
it catches: it asks not for food: it pleads only that you 
should use it with the greatest Care so that it may serve 
you for many years. 

Some of the older men and women among you and 
cripples who cannot hunt are wont to carve out of 
ivory images of bears and walrus and little komatiks 
drawn by dogs and figures of Innuit hunters: such 
things can also be carved from soap-stone. Others 
fashion models of kayaks from seal-skin: others sew seal- 
skins into mats or into fancy bags: others weave mats 
from long strands of grass: others again dress deer-skins 
or seal-skins and make from them moccasins or slippers 
which they adorn with bright beads. Such these 
cunningly made delight the eyes of strangers who gladly 
take them back to their homes and show them to their 
friends: for the craft of the Innuit is a strange thing, and 
folk who live in the great encampments are curious to see 
things which are made by your hands. 

Among White Men also many such things are made, and 
when a White Man visits a strange encampment he often 
brings home to his family some little gift fashioned by a 

cunning craftsman. ‘To please the fancy of a stranger 


tuine Kagvalatiniarpak akkikitomiglo kissiane akkilero- 
mavlugit. Oxarniarporlo inuit indngmatta udjertutsian- 
gitut, okilungimallo xissit inuit 4xiktangit atorlugit. 

Nulluaksat atorpaktut puijiniutinut mingerianiutinullo 
senajauvut Kablundnut nulluaksaliortunut, tapkoalo sulia- 
kartilugit kamagijauvut kamaxojaujunut, nulluaksat sena- 
jautsiartuksaungmatta, ningoxovlugit. Tukkexaluara- 
jangilax nulluaksaliortit tapkoa UDJERTUTSIARMATTA sulia- 
Karnermingne ilipse UDJERTUTSIALUNGIKUPSE ningititsiti- 
luse nulluapsingnik, nulluarniarviksat pionerpat Kener- 
lugit, nulluat kissatsiarlugit panertitsiarlugit ilaktorlugit 
Kematuliotitsiarlugillo. Nulluat pinasuarteongmatta ner- 
tornartut ivlernadlarput ilipsingnut, ilangiutititaujomangi- 
mattalénét angujangita ilanganik, nerrititaujomangilat; 
Kenutuinarput idluartomik UDJERTUTSIARLUTILLO atorniar- 
angne piniarviginiarangnelo kivgartorungnarKovlugit 
ilingnik jarit sutaijartut navlugit. 

Ilapse ilangit inuKoarnersat tussiaktullo nanungoalior- 
séngovut toganit aivingoaniglo Kamutingoaniglo King- 
mingoarnut uniartaujunik, inungoaliorlutiglo aiviub toga- 
nit; taimaitut senajaujungnarivut ukkusiksajamit. Inuit 
tapkoa assingit ama kajangoaliorput Kissijanik; assingit 
ama ikpiarsuliorput alleraksaliorlutiglo Kissijanik; assing- 
it ibviogaliorput; assingit ittigamaliorput | tuktujanik 
puijijaniglo 4nanausilugit sapanganut. Taimaitut sena- 
jautsiarpatta takoranidlarput tujormiat ijinginut, pisiari- 
lugillo angerautivait takojautilugillo ilamingnut; inuit 
suliangit takorngartaungmatta, xablunallo iglugasakso- 
arne indjut takojomadlarput aggapse senajanginik. 

Taimaitulle senajausOngogaloarivut Kablunane, angullo 
nelipsaigune iglugasaksoarme assinginik angerautjijoma- 
Kattarpok — piliusianik senajaujunik — senajitsiartomut. 

Kuviagijauxovlugille tujormianut piliusiaksat tapkoa 


these little gifts must needs be made with great Care; for 
the thing that most delights his heart is to possess some- 
thing which has been fashioned with surpassing skill, 
something which he could not make with his own hands. 
Thus if you are carving an ivory figure to trade at the Post, 
fashion it true to life in every feature. If you are carving 
a dog, take Care that the head is of the right size: strangers 
laugh when you carve a large head on to a small body, or 
when you give a hunter feet as large as the paws of a bear: 
strangers laugh and say one to another, ‘ Surely the crafts- 
man who made this image was born with the flippers of 
a walrus instead of fingers.’ 

When you make gifts for strangers from seal-skin or 
from other material, take great Care to keep them clean 
throughout and free from smell; for the eye of the stranger 
will detect dirt on the surface and the nose of the stranger 
will detect dirt which cannot be seen by the eye. Things 
which are dirty or to which there clings the smell of seal- 
oil are not received gladly as presents, and White Men will 
not trade them from the Company to take back to their 

White Men sometimes wonder why of late years CarE 
has vanished from among the Innuit. In the old days 
when your forefathers hunted with spears and with bows 
and arrows, the hunter who was careless and impatient 
often went hungry, for the seals and the bears and the 
deer got wind of him before he was close enough to use 
his weapons. In those days hunters were men of Carg; 
but when you began to hunt with rifles, it was not necessary 
to be so careful or patient, for the rifle has a long range and 
even though a hunter misses with the first shot, he often 
has time to fire again before the creature has gone. Then 
again, in the old days long ago, there were no Mission 

Stations or Trading Posts along your Coast to provide 



senajautsiartuksauvut; inub omatinga xKuviasuktitaung- 
mat perkutisijungnarune sunamik  senajautsiartomik, 
aggame senajungnangitanganik. ‘T’aima tdgamit suna- 
ngoalioruvit Companit niuvervinganut aulaijomavlugo, 
inuk omajorlénét sunalénét adsiliorasuatsiaruk ilfinaine. 
Kingmingoalioruvit kamatsiarit niakungata angininga 
nelautsingmat. Tujormiat ijorséngovut niakungoalioruvit 
angijomik timemut mikkijomut, inungoarlénét ittigaKarti- 
gungne nanub ittigangititut angitigijunik; ila tujormiat 
ijukatigékput oxakatigéklutiglo: ‘ Inuk senalauKtoK 
tipsominga aggakarpalukpok aggatuinarni-ungitoK aivi- 
uble tallinganik.’ 

Sunaliorupse Kissijanik kablunaktajamigl6nét tujormiat 
pisiarijaksarijanginik kamatsialauritse salumatsiarmatta 
tippexaratiglo, tujormiab ijinga takosaraidlarniarmat salu- 
maitunik, Kingdgiglo Kangésusaraidlarniarpuk salumaito- 
mik ijib takojungnangitanganik. Salumaitut orksusung- 
nitullo piliutigijauvlutik Kuviagijaulungilat, Kablunallo 

pisiarinialungilait Companinit angerautijomavlugit ila- 

Kablunat issumajaxattarput manaulertome suna pivlugo 
UDJERTORNEK nipaksimamangat inungnit. Uvlune sivor- 
line sivorlise sakkoxalaungmatta Kalugianik pitiksiniglo, 
omajoxsiorte udjertungitok Kenuesarnekangitorlo ajox- 
sakattalaukpok, puijit nanuillo tuktullo publaxattalaung- 
matta tapsominga Kanitanginut tikixarane. Uvlune 
tapkonane angutit UDJERTORNEKALAUKPUT, xukkiutinulle 
omajoxsiolerapse _ taimak udjertortigijariakalungilase 
Kenuesartigijariaxalungilaselo, xukkiutiub ilulex Kani- 
nginersamut tikiutititsungnarmago, ilulingmullo sivorler- 
pamut toxotsilungikupse, aipanganik Kukkerxattarung- 
narpose omajok Kaningiluarkartinago. Amalo, uvlune 

nutaungitune Missionexalaungilax niuverviksakalaungi- 


food or other help in times of hardship: thus your fore- 
fathers took greater Care in all things which they did, lest 
through lack of Care they and their children fell upon 
evil days. 

Care is the shadow of the White Man and whatever he 
does, the shadow of Cars is behind his deed. If your race 
is going to prosper, then must Care also cast its guiding 
shadow from year end to year end over your work and over 
the path of your lives, 


larlo nunapsingne sungertutaujungnartunik neliutune 
ajoksarnartune, taimaimallo sivorlise UDJERTORNERSAU- 
tikitaukonagit ajoKsarnermut. 

Kablunat upjEerToRNEK tachagivat sorlo, UDJERTOR- 

nERLO tachisimavok sorlo xKablunat piniarninginut 

tamainut. Indxatigéngnise aglivaliajuksaulerpat UDJER- 
TORNEK ilagijaksarivase jaremit jaremut piniarnipsingnelo 
apkotigijapsingnelo tamaine. 




HIS Book of Knowledge written by the 
|] wish of the Governor of the Company for 
the good of all Innuit families has told 
you the difficulties which beset your 

Before, you journeyed through life 
ignorant of many things which you should know, like the 
hunter who journeying along the sea coast in the winter 
knows not whether there is land or water beneath the 
runners of his komatik. 

Now you have learned certain true facts which are 
landmarks in the long and difficult journey from childhood 
to old age. These true facts concerning Health and con- 
cerning Work and concerning Habits of Life are the 
landmarks which have guided the people of all White 
nations and many other nations from their childhood to 
their last day on earth. 

In the long history of the World nations have prospered, 
and nations have dwindled and have died out (even as the 
Tunnit have) by reason of those vital Laws which govern 
the Health and the Work of all mankind. White Men 
have wrought such changes to the old condition of your 
lives that the Laws which now govern the fortunes of your 

race are a mystery to you; and because your race has been 


GLAIT ukkua Ilisimatiksat indtsemullo 
ilingajut, aglaktaumavlutik Companitang- 
ajokaksoangata tussuninga maliklugo, 
inuit il(inatik idluarxutiksanginut, oKauti- 
vase oKumaijutaujunik ulapitsijunik iné- 

Sivorngane, ingergarlauxpose indtsekut Kaujimanase 
sunatuinarnik Kaujimajaksarijapsingnik, ilingavluse oma- 
joxsiortotut sidjakut ingergajotut Kaujimanane nunaxar- 
mangat immakarmangallénét sikkub, kamutime ingergar- 
vigijangata, atane. 

Manale ilixauvose miksex4rtunik sunatuinarnik nelu- 
naikutaujunik apxome sivikilungitome siorniornartotaling- 
melo ingergarvigijapsingne sorusionermit inutoKauner- 
mut. Miksexarnerit tamakkoa timib atsuilininga pivlugo 
suliakarnex pivlugo indtsiblo ilusiksangit pivlugit nelu- 
naikutauvut indKatigéksuit unuktut Kaxortallo Kernanga- 
jullo nelunaikutigisimajanginik sorusionermingnit uvlor- 
mut kingorlerparijanginut nuname. 

Silaxsub unipkautauningane indxatigét aglivaliasima- 
vut assingillo ikitlivaliasimavut aglat nipakasaklutik (sorlo 
Tunnit pisimangmatta) maligaksat sokoserungnangitut 
aulatsijut silaxsoarmiut iltnatik atsuilininginik suliaKar- 
ninginiglo pitjutigivlugit. Kablunat akunapsingnorlutik 
indsipse ilinganingit taimak angitigijomik soxosertisima- 
vait, maligaksat aulatsijut indsipse ilingalarninginik tuk- 



in darkness and has not adapted itself to the new 
conditions, your health and vigour have been impaired. 

Take heed, Innuit, for the future will bring even greater 
changes than have taken place in your country in the past 
twenty years. There will be White trappers who will trap 
the foxes of your country; strange ships will visit your 
harbours and strange traders will come among. you 
seeking only your furs. Many White Men will explore 
your lands in search of precious rocks and minerals. 
These traders and these trappers and these wanderers 
are like the drift-ice; to-day they come with the wind; 
to-morrow they are gone with the wind. Of these 
strangers some will be fairer than others, as is the nature 
of men; but whosoever they be, they cannot at heart 
possess that deep understanding of your lives through 
which our Traders have learned to bestow the care of 
a father upon you and upon your children. 

Remember, then, in your dealings with strangers these 
three things: 

The things which the Company trades are good 

In times of sickness and of scarcity the Company 
stands by you and helps you. 

There is no firmer or more faithful friend to the 
Innuit than the Company. 

It is a good thing that there should be a pledge given by 
the Company to the Innuit, so that all men and women, 
when they see the Company's flag at the head of the flag- 
staff at the Post, may bear in mind that the Company not 

kisijungnanginapsigik mana; taxsiolaurapselo indxati- 
géksoangovluse, nablisitisimanginapselo ilipsingnik iling- 
anernut nutanut, timipse atsuiliningat nukkingallo ilang- 

Kamatsiaritse, indjose, Kaijomartome sunatuinait soKo- 
serpalianersaujomarmatta nunapsingne, anginersamik ag- 
lat pisimalauxtunit jarine Kangersimajune 20ne. Kablu- 
nat tikkilarput nunapsingnut terrianianik mikkigitjeriar- 
torlutik; umiaxsuit takorngartat nelipsailarput umtako- 
vipsingnik, pisiniartullo takorngartat akunapsingnorlarput 
pisuktit aminginik pijapsingnik kissiane Kenerlutik. Kab- 
Junat unuktut nautsertoriartularput nunapsingnik ujarka- 
nik akkitujuksajaniglo xenerlutik. Pisiniat tapkoa mik- 
kigitjeriartortullo ujaraxsiortullo arvertartut kagvatitut 
ilingavut; uvlome iterajarput anoremut, Kaupallo saptauv- 
jutik aulartitauvut anoremut. Takorngartat tapkoa ilangit 
pitsiarnersaularput assimingnit, silaxsoarmiut ilusingit 
maliklugit; pitsiarmangatale pitsiangimangatalénét tuk- 

kisiniangilat indsipse ilinganinginik sorlo niuverniartipta 
tukkisingmagit, tamakkoalo tukkisilugit niuvertivut ilisi- 
mavut Kanoxk pairksijuksaungmangarmik ilipsingnik Ki- 
torngapsingniglo sorlo atatab Kitorngane pairingmagit. 

Taimaimat takorngartat piniarKatigigupsigik makkoa 
pingasut erkaumalersigik: 

(1) Niuviaksat Companit aulaijangit piotsiarput. 

(2) Neliutune ajoxsarnartune Kanimajoxartiluselénét 
Companit ililertorpase ikajorluselo. 

(3) Inuit nertornarnersanik tunganarnersaniglo ilana- 
xalungilat Companinit. 

Idluartuinarpox Companit angerutekarunik [nungnut, 
ilanatik takonarpatta Companit saimatinganik saimaser- 
viub nuvuane Companit nunangine erKaixovlugit Com- 
panit inuit niuverniakatigituinalungimagit angerviging- 



only trades with the Innuit but also is pledged to be their 
protector and helper. This pledge therefore the Company nl 
gives to you for all time. 

‘— ¥ 


Let those of you, who can read, recite this book to those r 
who cannot read. In your encampments discuss the 
book: talk of it in your igloos when your pipes are lit. It 
is a good book and a true book—this Book of Knowledge. 


magilletaux serngnigijomavlugit ikajoromavlugillo, Tai- 
maimat angerut tamanna Companit angerutigivat inung- 
nut soraijuitomik. 



Akunapsingne atuarsisit aglait ukkua oKausertangit 
atuarligit atuarsijungnangitunut. Iglugasapsingne aglait 
ukkoa oxkausertangit oxautigisigik; oxautigisigik iglup- 
singne supérusijartiluse. Aglatsiangovut miksexartovlu- 
tiglo—Aglait ukkoa Lhisimatiksat. 


Acknowledgment and thanks are due to the Cana- 
dian National Railways, The Canadian Gazette 
and the National Council for Maternity and Child 
Welfare for the loan of illustrations. 


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