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§ I. Life 


2. Motives of the Work 


3. Planof the Work . 


4. Political Complexion of the Work 


5. Sources of the Work 


6. Some Criticisms on the Work 


7. Livy's Style .... 


8. Hints on Translation 


9. Sketch of Roman History to 321 b 

. c. 





• 79 


§ I. LlFE. 

Livv was born in 59 b.c. at Patavium, the chief town 
of the Veneti in Noith Italy, and after Rome one of the 
three most important cities in the ancient world. The year 
of his birth was the year which saw in Caesar's consulship the 
fruits of the first informal compact between Pompey, Crassus, 
and Caesar, and the foundations laid for Caesar's command 
in Gaul. 

The historian's early education was received in his native 
town, where he was thoroughly trained in Greek Hterature, 
and prepared for his profession, that of a teacher of rhetoric 
or Professor of Literature. As a boy he would share the 
palpitating fears and hopes of the momentous years in which 
Caesar reduced the Gallic rebelUons, Crassus fell at Carrhae 
54 B.c, Pompey grew estranged from Caesar 52 b.c, the 
Civil War with its violent reversals of fortune was fought out 
49-45 B.c, and at last Caesar was murdered 44 b.c. His 
youth and early manhood fell in the tangled years of Brutus 
and Cassius' failure and defeat 42 b.c, of Antony's briUiant 
promise and subsequent coUapse 31 B.c, of Octavian's prudent 
revival and revision of the plan for an Empire. Coming to 
Rome about the time of the battle of Actium 31 b.c, Livy 
was busy from about 29 B.c on his Annales, a history of Rome 
from the earUest times, turning out on an average three books 
a year. The ninth book was written before 23 b.c to judge 
from 18 § 6, where it would have been natural to mention the 
Parthian embassy of that year. He reached the year 9 b.c. 
in his narrative, his i42nd book ; but died the same day as 


Ovid, January i, i8 a.d,, leaving still unwritten the story of 
the preceding 26 years. 


Besides the inward impulse which urges the historian to 
write history, as the poet to "write poetry, it is possible to infer 
special reasons from outside which led Livy to his task. The 
previous half-century had produced an extraordinary increase 
in wealth at Rome, and at the same time a terrible passion in 
men and women of pleasure to gather wealth from every 
quarter and by every means, while an equally terrible passion 
to squander and waste it in momentary and capricious pleasures 
affected the same section of society. Pompey's conquests in 
the East and Caesar's in the West, with the opening of the 
Egyptian treasure-houses, had turned the heads and hearts of 
men more disastrously than the discovery of America turned the 
Elizabethans'. This wave of frivolity and rapacity was largely 
spent by the time the Civil Wars had swept away many of the 
more dashing figures or left them stripped of their property. 
A reflux of sentiment set in from the healthy country towns 
and the sober members of the community. Augustus himself, 
though not free from the tainting infiuence of the society in 
which his youth was spent, warmly seconded the reformation, 
and its success was assured when Virgil, Horace, and Livy all 
alike gave their powers to further it. The historian then, in 
part at least, aimed at setting before his contemporaries, with 
all the attractiveness that imagination and a charming style 
could lend. the example of their forefathers, their glorious self- 
sacrifice for their country, and the providential guidance of 
her destinies. Not very dissimilarly the sons of the prophets 
wrote the history of the Hebrew kingdoms, not primarily to 
record historic facts, but to trace the Divine development of 
events, the punishment of the sinful, the success of the God- 


§ 3. Plan of the A\'ork. 

The name given by Livy himself to his work indicates the 
models he had partially in view. The pontijices had kept from 
very early times annales, plain records of the facts connected 
with each year that passed — the names of magistrates, the 
occurrence of prodigies, the breaking out or conclusion of war. 
Livy, like a true Roman, adopted such a framework for his 
history. While he tells each incident with all the reaHsm and 
picturesqueness he can command, the skeleton of the whole 
is still a bare list of dated events. To judge him from any 
other point of view is as unfair as to ignore the similar skeleton 
in the Hebrew Books ofihe Ktngs. 


Although the district north of the Po received the Roman 
franchise through the determinatio.n of Caesar in 49 b.c, 
Patavium sided with Pompey, and Livy, like others after him, 
whose fathers owed to Caesar or his successors their elevation 
from the rank of provincials, sympathized with the ohgarchic 
side in the history of the past. The plebeian struggle for 
recognition he darkened by shading it with touches taken from 
the character and conduct of such men as Catiline and Clodius ; 
and, in painting the tinies of the Civil W^ar, he held the balance 
at least so scrupulously without favour to Caesar, that Augustus 
in jest called him ' the Pompeian '. This bias may conceivably 
have originated in part from the partiaUty of the authorities 
upon whom he drew : Livy had no very deep political philo- 
sophy upon which to build a critical recombination of earlier 


From some admissions of Livy himself it is clear that his 
history is altogether of the study and the arm-chair. He did 
not go out personally to examine the sites of battle-tields or 


to decipher venerable inscriptions. He drew from earlier 
writers who had used such primary evidence. Of such writers 
there were first a succession of bare chroniclers Hke Q. Fabius 
Pictor, a faithful recorder of earUer evidence, who Hved in the 
time of Hannibal ; L. Cincius AHmentus, an honest and 
critical writer of the same date ; and L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi 
Censorinus, whose rationaHstic treatment of early traditions 
made a revolution in the Roman study of history. Most 
of these chroniclers were aristocrats. On the other hand 
C. Licinius Macer in the time of SuHa gave a Hterary form to 
his work, and made researches for himself, stating his reasons 
if his conclusions differed from the general view. His sympa- 
thies took the plebeian side, but Livy remarks that he found 
him trustworthy in his account of older documentary evidence. 
Another Hterary writer of about the same date was Q. Valerius 
Antias, who had a gift Hke Defoe's for adding circumstantial 
details, e. g. the exact numbers who fought and feU in battle. 
His reputation led Livy to foUow him impHcitly at least in the 
first ten books ; afterwards, when he took up Polybius for the 
Second Punic War, he discovered discrepancies and rightly 
concluded that Valerius' details were fabricated. Claudius 
Quadrigarius (5 § 2) also deserves to be mentioned. He began 
his history with the GaUic capture of Rome in 390 b. c. 

§ 6. SoME Criticisms on the VVork. 

To-day a very different conception prevails as to the functions 
and duties of historians from what prevailed even a hundred 
years ago. Evolution or development is the watchword for the 
study of the past. But before this conception became thus pre- 
dominant, a change had taken place from the ancient position. 
Forty years ago Professor Seeley distinguished three duties of 
the historian : two scientific in nature, viz. first to investigate 
facts, secondly to deduce from them principles ; and a third, 
Hterary in nature, to arrange and record the results in stately 


narrative. ' At Rome,' however, ' no conception existecl that 
history should hand down truth.' The great Roman Hterary 
critic Quintihan at the end of the first century a.d. declared 
' History is closely akin to poetry, and is in a sense a prose 
poem. It is designed to relate a story, not to estabhsh 
a theory '} He therefore commends in Livy his /aciea ubertas 
(i. e. his ample style which yet is pure, simple, and clear, not 
fuU of mere empty words), while pointing out that this will not 
meet the requirements of one who desires not beauty of narra- 
tive, but exactitude of facts. 

Yet it would be unfair to Livy to suppose that a brilliant, 
picturesque narrative is all his aim. If he did not understand 
the critical methods of scientific history, he yet did criticize 
in a subjective way the probabiUty of conflicting authorities. 
Comparison with Polybius, as we have seen, led him to dis- 
count Valerius' exaggerated figures. As a Hterary artist and 
a historical morahst he attained an instant fame. A Spaniard 
journeyed from Gades to Rome merely to look upon him, and 
having done so returned contented. Tacitus styles him veterum 
eloquentisswius^ and Niebuhr remarks that his work ' breathes 
a kindliness and serenity which does one's heart good to read '. 
Others have noticed his avoidance of obscure constitutional 
questions and discussions, that he may devote himself to vivid 
portraiture of the great deeds done in the past ; his pathos 
in descriptions ; his call to the imperial spirit of his country- 
men. If he is neghgent of geography and careless enough to 
put together snippets from inconsistent accounts of the same 
event, the form of his work ensures that his dates are in the 
main fairly accurate. The student should form his own judge- 
ment of his merits, but as a means to call his attention to sides 
of his work that need consideration two or three criticisms may 
be quoted. Dr. Arnold wrote : ' As to Livy, the use of reading 

1 ' Historia est proxima poetis et quodam modo carmen solutum, et 
scribitur ad narrandum non ad probandum.' 


him is almost like that of the drunken Helot. It shows what 
history should not be in a very striking manner ; and . . . the 
books of Livy, which we have, relate to a time so uninteresting, 
that it is hard even to extract a value from them by the most 
complete distillation : so many gallons of vapid water scarcely 
hold in combination a particle of spirit.' Macaulay on the 
other hand notes : ' I finished Livy, after reading him with the 
greatest deHght, interest, and admiration.' Finally a sentence 
or two of Lecky's may be quoted : ' To trace,' he says, ' the 
causes, whether for good or ill, that have made nations what 
they are, is the true philosophy of history. It is mainly in 
proportion as this is done that history becomes a study of real 
value, and assuredly no historical school is more mischievous 
or misleading than that which evades the problem by treating 
all dififerences of national character as innate and inexpHcable, 
and national crimes and virtues as the materials for mere party 
eulogy or party invective.' 

§ 7. Livy's Style. 

As we have seen, although criticisms have been levelled 
against Livy as a historical authority, the majority of readers 
have found the style in which he has told his story interesting 
and dehghtful. His view of what he should aim at would 
naturally compel him to do this within the hmits of his powers. 
His earher rhetorical training gave him a greater command of 
the language, but resulted in what at first seems to a modern 
a strange habit of constructing speeches which are put without 
documentary authority in the mouths of prominent characters. 
Even this practice, however, will be found to prove of material 
service for the vivid representation of these characters and of 
the situations in which they are placed. A century later all 
naturalness had disappeared from style, and nothing could be 
said in a plain way. But although the tendency towards this 
had begun in Livy's day, it had not yet carried men's taste 


altogether away from the sound love of noble subject-matter 
and noble words equally niatched together. The reader may 
observe certain features of Livy's style with interest, and con- 
sider how far they make towards the end he had in view. He 
introduces variety, where the continual repetition of a fixed 
phrase, however rigorously exact, would grow wearisome : it is 
instructive to observe, e. g., how deftly he rings the changes 
on cum and iibl and ablative absolutes. Not unconnected with 
this is the practice of using occasionally archaic or poetical 
turns of expression : e. g. mox of events in the past 27 § 13; 
the order of namque 25 § 2 ; the word fatalis 5 § 11 ; et iox 
etiam 2^4; adversa montium 3 § i ; adde quod 19 § 6; tem- 
pestas — tempus 7 § 15. It is hard to say whether a similar 
motive occasioned another pecuHarity — the ifnitation of Greek 
syntactical constructions, or whether such constructions were 
becoming habitual in the spoken language : e. g. the omission 
of the subject with an infinitive i § 1 1 ; the use of participles 
4 § 9, 6 § 1 2 ; the frequentative optative 6 § 2 ; future participles 
to express purpose and to condense a relative clause 5 § 1 1 ; 
and an imitation of such constructions as 01 vvv 2 § 7, 7 § 8, 
and of the uses of ovSe 7 § 14. More vital to the style is the 
imagination continually at play to call up the past vividly and 
the skill with which the language is then pressed into service 
to paint what the imagination has seen. It is here that Livy 
is perhaps best to be seen at work, not content with the word 
which, though it describes a thing, does not make it burn 
before the reader's mind, and carefully selecting some word 
whose novelty will surprise attention and make the matter Hve. 
To appreciate the merits of Livy's style in this respect the 
exact value to a Roman of his metaphorical words must be 
gauged, and in the notes attention has often been called to 
this. With the same object Livy constantly arranges his words 
in an order that will guide his readers instantly to the sense. 
Asinius PoUio, consul in 40 b.c, whose critical taste was of 


the finest, declared that he found in Livy's Latin a certain 
Patavinity. Wherein this provincialism lay it is beyond 
modern power to tell, but one or two points in Livy's grammar 
deserve notice which are not of the same character as the 
imitations just mentioned of Greek or of the poetical. 

1. For the future infinitive he keeps near to the ancient 
indeclinable form to this extent that he fiever adds esse. Cicero 
inserts and omits esse with equal readiness. 

2. He extends to the nominative case (which Cicero does 
not do) the use of a participle and noun in agreement equiva- 
lent practically in sense to an abstract noun : e. g. 1 3 § 8. 

3. Etiam in Livy sometimes precedes, sometimes foUows 
Avhat it emphasizes. In Cicero it seems always to precede. 

4. His syntax in oratio obliqua does not entirely conform 
to the rules deduced by grammarians from Ciceronian usage : 
e.g. I § 4. 2 § 5, 6 § 13. 

But it is seldom that Livy changes his construction in passing 
from one to another of two parallel words, phrases or clauses, 
as the later Latin authors delight to do. Examples are to be 
found, however, in 33 § 5 ijn vulgus qiiam optimo cuique 
gratiorem), in 6 § 4 incerti . . . et quod . . . and §11. 

The young student should notice that Livy uses mensum (not 
mensium) 33 § 6 and 43 § 21, praestaturus (not praestiturus) 
24 § 4 ,; that his employment of plerique (6 § 2) and cunctus 
(6 § 7) is Uke that of the Silver Age writers ; and (<^) he uses 
asyndeton freely, to give point or opposition (see notes on 
I § i) 3 ((^) he omits est continually ; e. g. in 5 § 5, 20 § 9 ; 
(f) and sometimes omits the subject ; e. g. in i § 11 (cf. 35 § 5). 

These three means make for conciseness, another of the 
virtues in Livy's style. The total effect of that style has been 
summed up by Quintilian in the words mira iucunditas clarissi- 
musque candor (' a wonderful charm and distinction '). 


§ 8. HiNTS ON Translation. 

As has been already hinted, the order of Livy's words is of 
great importance to the understanding of his meaning. To 
read a sentence aloud — if necessary, several times over — is of 
the utmost service for ascertaining this. But, the meaning 
once grasped, the student has the task before him of expressing 
this in English, smooth and elegant, vigorous and pictorial, 
after the manner of his original. To get some idea of what 
he should make his aim he should read widely in Macaulay, 
Froude, Napier, Prescott, Creasy, and Kinglake. He should 
also study carefully a few paragraphs which may take his fancy 
as particularly vigorous in those historians. He should observe 
how short sentences and long are interwoven to make a para- 
gfaph, how they are connected, what kind of words are used, 
or of those he is often tempted to use in translating what kind 
is avoided. He should then resolve to be dissatisfied with 
any translation which does not run as smoothly to his ear and 
read as naturally as native English. At the same time he 
should be careful not to add or subtract anything from his 
author's statements, nor to tell his story in a more simple and 
childHke nor in a more stiff and ornamented way than his 
Latin. A few special details which generally cause beginners 
difificulty may receive a word of comment. 

I. Certain common words in Latin are not represented 
naturally in EngHsh by words equally fixed. Thus res Romana = 
the Roman state, government ; rebits perditis=a. desperate 
pass, position, situation ; gloomy circumstances ; while res 
often=proposal, measure, plan ; and res repetere=\.o demand 
satisfaction, reparation. Three details deserve notice. 

{a) In Latin the imperfect occurs as frequently in the 
passive as in the active. In English it rarely occurs. Generally 
the translation ' was being ' should be avoided, either by turning 
the sentence round so that the active voice of the verb is used, 


or by abandoning the attempt to keep the exact shade of 
tense, if it is of little importance. The student should examine 
an instance or two, e. g. 37 § 7. 

{b) English uses the impersonal subject ' it ' constantly 
where Latin has a personal subject : e. g. ui viderentur— ' so 
that it seemed that they '. 

{c) English speaks of ' the country ^ — res publica. 

2. Long sentences should often, but not always, be broken 
up into short sentences. Considerable judgement and taste 
are required for deciding how and when this should be done. 
The student will find a suitable opportunity for practising this 
art of breaking up in 6 § 3 or 14 § 9. 

3. The metaphorical language of Livy often requires ex- 
pansion or transformation, and the followirig examples of 
English expression may be studied as suggestive parallels to 
the Livy passages indicated, though nothing can take the place 
of extensive study of EngUsh authors. It is to be understood 
that these parallels by no means offer ready-made turnings of 
the Latin, but they may serve as the straw which may render 
the making of bricks easier for those who have not yet read 
enough of their own literature to gather easily for themselves. 
They may furnish a hint as to how a translation may be 
framed, if the translator remembers that he must not be 
content with a loose paraphrase. ' A brilliant gleam of success 
had ht up the fallen fortunes of Lauderdale ' (10 § 2), ' the 
Church was on the brink of destruction' (7 § i), ' one parting 
beam of splendour broke through the clouded skies' (10 § 2), 
' colour over to his eyes the perfidy he meditated' (11 § 8), 
' his whole soul festering with angry passions' (14 § 9), ' inwardly 
foamed at the recoUection ' (46 § 8), ' the singular ferocity 
which was wont to animate his features ' (6 § 2, 7 § 3), ' the 
whole current of Irish feehng has been changed' (20 § 7, 
32 § 8), ' his countenance had an expression which intimated 
an unwiUingness ' (7 § 3), 'a glance which seemed to kindle 


with the fondest affection ' (6 § 2), ' those decisive moments 
when the trembling balance hung on fortune in the battle- 
field ' (32 § 8), ' the insults envenomed the niinds of a proud 
people ' (14 § 9), ' one great scene of conflagration ' (43 § 16), 
• various stains covered him with infamy ' (34 § 14), 'with 
a heart burning with resentment ' (7 § 3), ' Oxford was now in 
a ferment of discontent' (25 § 2), 'fortified by the general 
applause of his country' (13 § 2, 45 § 13), 'the stir and hum of 
men' (45 § 15), 'some alteration of circumstances is impending 
overhim'(2o § 7, 32 §8), 'generous enthusiasm' (45 § 13, 46 §6), 
'the curfew toUs the knell of parting day ' (7 § i), 'choking 
with rage ' (46 § 9), ' they foUowed events rather than created 
them ' (18 § 6), 'Wheler had gradually been relaxing in his 
opposition' (12 § 7), 'quick and vigorous as his intellect was' 
(3 § 5)j ' circumstances will draw you on inevitably' (18 § 6), 
'theproposal was received with acclamation ' (45 § 13), 'the 
day seemed to hang in doubt' (32 § 8), 'a provoking mishap 
presently impaired the efficiency of the machine' (12 § 3), 
'it diverted his sense of the horrors around them ' (12 § 7), 
'the scene of the conflict' (43 § 16), 'the determining factor 
in the situation ' (i § 11), ' he heard with a species of ecstasy 
the death of Rudolf (2 § 10), 'he was in the very zenith of 
his transcendent powers ' (3 § 5), ' led by the circumstances 
both of his private and of his pubHc career' (18 § 6), ' there 
enierges a personality genial, bracing, vigorous ' (3 § 5), ' a strange 
paralysis of will let every opportunity pass unregarded ' (2 § 10), 
' the changes and chances of this mortal Hfe ' (8 § 4), ' it is 
impossible to allow this to be glozed over' (11 § 8), 'the key 
to the situation' (32 § i), 'we perceive an intelHgence Uvely 
and acute, without attaining to cathoHcity of judgement or 
taste ' (3 § 5), ' he was now sunk under the burden of years ' 
(3 § S)» ' raised from the dead ' (6 § 3), ' a deep gloom of 
melancholy despair settled upon the assembly ' (7 §§ 6, 9), ' no 
other way may have been conceivable out of the black flood 


of difficulties in which the ship was tossing ' (lo § 4), ' the 
whole country would have been in a flame' (10 § 6), ' restored 
from the grave ' (6 § 3), ' they broke into loud cries of rage and 
lamentation ' (7 § 4), ' a hill commanded the approaches to the 
city' (32 § i), ' the fortunes of the war now took a decisive 
turn ' (20 § 7), 'the history of parties continued to present 
a singular monotony' (17 § i), ' the sight inflamed thepopulace 
to madness' (14 § 9), 'the fertile genius and serene courage of 
Hastings achieved their most signal triumph' (3 § 5), 'again 
the ship had risen from the gulf of the abyss' (10 § 4), ' the 
resentment of the people blazed fierce and high ' (10 § 6), she was 
ready to sacrifice her personal resentment to her country's 
cause' (38 § 12), 'a great legislative injustice festers in the 
social body Hke a wound ' (14 § 9), ' there was a fear lest any 
form of education should brace the energies of the negro ' 
(12 § 7), 'the innovation excited paroxysms of alarm and 
indignation ' (7 § 4), ' coming events cast their shadows before ' 
(38 § 4), ' the authority of the law was enfeebled and sub- 
verted' (27 § 6), ' it left behind a hatred which rankled for 
centuries in the Scotch mind' (14^9), 'this city, which in 
wealth, population, dignity, and sanctity was amongst the 
foremost of Asia, had long', been under the rule of a Hindoo 
prince' (39 § 11). 

§ 9. Sketch of Roman Historv to 321 B. c. 

Rome, founded in 753 b.c, was governed for two centuries 
and a half by kings. Within her walls men of Latin and of 
Sabine blood united to form a community less powerful at first 
than some of their neighbours. But, by the time that the 
king was replaced 509 b. c. by two annual consuls, Rome had 
won her way to some sort of headship of the Latin League. 
Another century passed in chequered struggles with the 
Etruscans, the Volscians, Aequians, and Sabines, and in a pro- 
longed jesistance on the part of the patricians to the plebeian 


demand of greater personal liberty, and a more equitable 
share in the pubHc honours and in the fruits of the national 
successes. The GaUic invasion in 390 b.c. was a serious but 
temporary interruption of the progress of development. After 
it the plebeians secured some further recognition — after 366 b.c. 
one consuhvas of necessityalways aplebeian, — and the extension 
of Roman power was continued by the dissolution of the Latin 
League in 338 b. c, the members becoming henceforth rather 
humble dependants of Rome than equal allies, and by the 
conquest of Campania. The practice begun in 450 b. c. of 
throwing colonies into disaffected districts riveted the links 
of Ronian dominion firmly together. But *the Romans' 
intrusion into Campania naturally disturbed the Samnites ', and 
from 326-304 B. c. the struggle for the empire of Italy raged 
incessantly. Rome wished to secure Palaeopolis and Neapolis, 
in order to complete her reduction of Campania. The 
Samnites garrisoned Palaeopolis, and the Romans accepted 
this gage of battle. Presently the besieged town was induced 
to throw over their Samnite helpers and to join Rome, and the 
Lucanians, won to the Roman aUiance, prevented Tarentum 
from assisting their Samnite friends. Thus the Samnites were 
isolated, were unable to support unaided the shock of the 
Roman arms, and begged for peace. This was refused 32 1 b.c, 
and the sequel is told in Livy's Ninth Book. 



Seqvitvr hunc annum nobilis clade Romana Caudina j 
pax T. Veturio Calvino Sp. Postumio consulibus. Samnites ^ 
eo anno imperatorem C. Pontium, Herennii filium, habue- 
runt, patre longe prudentissimo natum, primum ipsum 
bellatorem ducemque. is, ubi legati, qui ad dedendas res 3 
missi erant, pace infecta redierunt, ' ne nihil actum ' inquit 
* hac legatione censeatis, expiatum est quidquid ex foedere 
rupto irarum in nos caelestium fuit. satis scio, quibus- 4 
cumque dis cordi fuit subigi nos ad necessitatem dedendi 
res, quae ab nobis ex foedere repetitae fuerant, iis non 
fuisse cordi tam superbe ab Romanis foederis expiationem 
spretam. quid enim ultra fieri ad placandos deos miti- 5 
gandosque homines potuit, quam quod nos fecimus? res 
hostium in praeda captas, quae belli iure nostrae videbantur, 
remisimus ; auctores belli, quia vivos non potuimus, per- 6 
functos iam fato dedidimus ; bona eorum, ne quid ex 
contagione noxae remaneret penes nos, Romam portavimus. 
quid ultra tibi, Romane, quid foederi, quid dis arbitris 7 
foederis debeo ? quem tibi tuarum irarum, quem meorum 
suppliciorum iudicem feram ? neminem neque populum 
neque privatum fugio. quod si nihil cum potentiore iuris is 
humani relinquitur inopi, at ego ad deos vindices intole- 


9 randae superbiae confugiam et precabor, ut iras suas vertant 
in eos, quibus non suae redditae res, non alienae adcuniu- 
latae satis sint ; quorum saevitiam non mors noxiorum, non 
deditio exanimatorum corporum, non bona sequentia domini 
deditionem exsatient ; placariqui nequeant, nisi hauriendum 

10 sanguinem laniandaque viscera nostra praebuerimus. iustum 
est bellum, Samnites, quibus necessarium, et pia arma 

11 quibus nulla nisi in armis relinquitur spes. proinde, cum 
rerum humanarum maximum momentum sit, quam propitiis 
rem, quam adversis agant dis, pro certo habete priora bella 
adversus deos magis quam homines gessisse, hoc, quod 

2 instat, ducibus ipsis dis gesturos.' haec non laeta magis 
quam vera vaticinatus exercitu educto circa Caudium castra 

3 quam potest occultissime locat ; inde ad Calatiam, ubi iam 
consules Romanos castraque esse audiebat, milites decem 
pastorum habitu mittit pecoraque diversos, alium alibi, haud 

3 procul Romanis pascere iubet praesidiis ; ubi inciderint in 
praedatores, ut idem omnibus sermo constet : legiones 
Samnitium in Apulia esse, Luceriam omnibus copiis cir- 

4 cumsedere, nec procul abesse, quin vi capiant. iam is 
rumor, et ante de industria vulgatus, venerat ad Romanos, 
sed fidem auxere captivi, eo maxime, quod sermo inter 

5 omnes congruebat. haud erat dubium, quin Lucerinis 
opem Romanus ferret, bonis ac fidelibus sociis, simul ne 
Apulia omnis ad praesentem terrorem deficeret ; ea modo, 

6 qua irent, consultatio fuit. duae ad Luceriam ferebant viae, 
altera praeter oram superi maris, patens apertaque, sed 
quanto tutior, tanto fere longior, altera per furculas Cau- 

7 dinas, brevior ; sed ita natus locus est : saltus duo alti, 
angusti silvosique sunt, montibus circa perpetuis inter se 
iuncti ; iacet inter eos satis patens, clausus in medio, 
campus herbidus aquosusque, per quem medium iter est ; 

B sed antequam venias ad eum, intrandae primae angustiae 
sunt, et aut eadem, qua te insinuaveris, retro via repetenda 


aut, si ire porro pergas, per alium saltuni, artiorem impedi- 
tioremque, evadendum. in eum campum via alia per 9 
cavam rupem Romani demisso agmine cum ad alias an- 
gustias protinus pergerent, saeptas deiectu arborum saxo- 
rumque ingentium obiacente mole invenere. cum fraus 
hostilis apparuisset, praesidium etiam in summo saltu 
conspicitur. citati inde retro, qua venerant, pergunt repe- 10 
tere viam ; eam quoque clausam sua obice armisque 
inveniunt. sistunt inde gradum sine ullius imperio, 
stuporque omnium animos ac velut torpor quidam insolitus 
membra tenet, intuentesque alii alios, cum alterum quisque ir 
compotem magis mentis ac consilii ducerent, diu immobiles 
silent ; deinde, ubi praetoria consulum erigi videre et 12 
expedire quosdam utilia operi, quamquam ludibrio fore 
rnunientes perditis rebus ac spe omni adempta cernebant, 
tamen, ne culpam malis adderent, pro se quisque nec hor- i?, 
tante ullo nec imperante ad muniendum versi castra propter 
aquam vallo circumdant, sua ipsi opera laboremque irritum, 14 
praeterquam quod hostes superbe increpabant, cum misera- 
bili confessione eludentes. ad consules maestos, ne advo- 15 
cantes quidem in consilium, quando nec consilio nec auxiho 
locus esset, sua sponte legati ac tribuni conveniunt, milites- 
que ad praetorium versi opem, quam vix di immortales ferre 
poterant, ab ducibus exposcunt. querentes magis quam 3 
consultantes nox oppressit, cum pro ingenio quisque fre- 
merent, alius : ' per obices viarum, per adversa montium, 
per silvas, qua ferri arma poterunt, eamus, modo ad hostem 2 
pervenire liceat, quem per annos iam prope triginta vinci- 
mus ; omnia aequa et plana erunt Romano in perfidum 
Samnitem pugnanti ' ; alius : ' quo aut qua eamus ? num 3 
montes moliri sede sua paramus ? dum haec imminebunt 
iuga, qua tu ad hostem venias ? armati inermes, fortes 
ignavi, pariter omnes capti atque victi sumus ; ne ferrum 
quidem ad bene moriendum oblaturus est hostis ; sedens 


4 bellum conficiet.' his in vicem sermonibus qua cibi, qua 
quietis immemor nox traducta est. 

Ne Samnitibus quidem consilium in tam laetis suppetebat 
rebus ; itaque universi Herennium Pontium, patrem im- 

5 peratoris, per litteras consulendum censent. iam is gravis 
annis non militaribus solum sed civilibus quoque abscesserat 
muneribus ; in corpore tamen adfecto vigebat vis animi 

6 consiliique. is ubi accepit ad furculas Caudinas inter duos 
saltus clausos esse exercitus Romanos, consultus ab nuntio 
frlii censuit omnes inde quam primum inviolatos dimitten- 

7 dos. quae ubi spreta sententia est iterumque eodem re- 
meante nuntio consulebatur, censuit ad unum omnes inter- 

S frciendos. quae ubi tam discordia inter se velut ex ancipiti 
oraculo responsa data sunt, quamquam filius ipse in primis 
iam animum quoque patris consenuisse in adfecto corpore 
rebatur, tamen consensu omnium victus est, ut ipsum in 

9 consilium acciret. nec gravatus senex plaustro in castra 
dicitur advectus vocatusque in consilium ita ferme locutus 
esse, ut nihil sententiae suae mutaret, causas tantum adi- 

10 ceret : priore se consiHo, quod optimum duceret, cum poten- 
tissimo populo per ingens beneficium perpetuam firmare 
pacem amicitiamque ; altero consiUo in muUas aetates, 
quibus amissis duobus exercitibus haud facile receptura 
vires Romana res, bellum differre ; tertium nullum consiHum 

11 esse. cum fiHus aHique principes percunctando exsequeren- 
tur, ' quid, si media via consiHi caperetur, ut et dimitterentur 

12 incolumes et leges iis iure beUi victis imponerentur ', ' ista 
quidem sententia ' inquit ' ea est, quae neque amicos parat 
nec inimicos toUit. servate modo quos ignominia irritaveri- 

13 tis : ea est Romana gens, quae victa quiescere nesciat. vivet 
semper in pectoribus illorum quidquid istuc praesens neces- 
sitas inusserit, nec eos ante multipHces poenas expetitas a 

4 vobis quiescere sinet '. neutra sententia accepta Herennius 
domum e castris est avectus ; et in castris Romanis cum 


frustra multi conatus ad erumpendum capti essent et iam om- 
nium rerum inopia esset, victi necessitate legatos mittunt, qui 2 
primum pacem aequani peterent ; si pacem non impetrarent, 
uti provocarent ad pugnam. tum Pontius debellatum esse 3 
respondit et, quoniam ne victi quidem ac capti fortunam 
fateri scirent, inermes cum singulis vestimentis sub iugum 
missurum ; alias condiciones pacis aequas victis ac victori- 
bus fore : si agro Samnitium decederetur, coloniae abduce- 4 
rentur, suis inde legibus Romanum ac Samnitem aequo 
foedere victurum ; his condicionibus paratum se esse foedus 5 
cum consulibus ferire ; si quid eorum displiceat, legatos 
redire ad se vetuit. haec cum legatio renuntiaretur, tantus 6 
gemitus omnium subito exortus est tantaque maestitia in- 
cessit, ut non gravius accepturi viderentur, si nuntiaretur 
omnibus eo loco mortem oppetendam esse. cum diu silen- 7 
tium fuisset nec consules aut pro foedere tam turpi aut 
contra foedus tam necessarium hiscere possent, tum L. 
Lentulus, qui princeps legatorum virtute atque honoribus 
erat, ' patrem meum ' inquit, ' consules, saepe audivi me- 8 
morantem se in CapitoHo unum non fuisse auctorem senatui 
redimendae auro a Galiis civitatis, quando nec fossa valloque 
ab ignavissimo ad opera ac muniendum hoste clausi essent 
et erumpere si non sine magno periculo, tamen sine certa 
pernicie possent. quod si, illis ut decurrere ex Capitolio 9 
armatis in liostem Hcuit, quo saepe modo obsessi in obsi- 
dentes eruperunt, ita nobis aequo aut iniquo loco dimicandi 
tantummodo cum hoste copia esset, non mihi paterni animi 
indoles in consiho dando deesset. equidem mortem pro 10 
patria praeclaram esse fateor et me vel devovere pro populo 
Romano legionibusque vel in medios immittere hostes para- 
tus sum ; sed hic patriam video, hic quidquid Romanarum rt 
legionum est, quae, nisi pro se ipsis ad mortem ruere volunt, 
quid habent, quod morte sua servent? "tecta urbis" dicat 12 
aliquis "et moenia et eam turbam, a qua urbs incoHtur". 


immo hercule produntur ea omnia deleto hoc exercitu, non 

iSservantur. quis enim ea tuebitur? imbellis videlicet atque 

inermis multitudo. tam hercule, quam a Gallorum impetu 

14 defendit. an a Veis exercitum Camillumque ducem implora- 
bunt ? hic omnes spes opesque sunt, quas servando patriam 
servamus, dedendo ad necem patriam deserimus ac prodi- 

15 mus. "at foeda atque ignominiosa deditio est." sed ea 
caritas patriae est, ut tam ignominia eam quam morte nostra, 

16 si opus sit, servemus. subeatur ergo ista, quantacumque 
est, indignitas et pareatur necessitati, quam ne di quidem 
superant. ite, consules, redimite armis civitatem, quam auro 

5 maiores vestri redemerunt.' consules profecti ad Pontium in 
conloquium, cum de foedere victor agitaret, negarunt iniussu 
popuH foedus fieri posse nec sine fetialibus caerimoniaque 

a alia sollemni. itaque non, ut vulgo credunt Claudiusque 
etiam scribit, foedere pax Caudina, sed per sponsionem facta 

3 est, quid enim aut sponsoribus in foedere opus esset aut 
obsidibus, ubi precatione res transigitur, per quem populum 
fiat, quo minus legibus dictis stetur, ut eum ita luppiter 

4 feriat, quem ad modum a fetialibus porcus feriatur ? spo- 
ponderunt consules, legati, quaestores, tribuni militum, 
nominaque omnium, qui spoponderunt, exstant, ubi, si ex 
foedere acta res esset, praeterquam duorum fetiaHum non 

5 exstarent; et propter necessariam foederis dilationem obsides 
etiam sescenti equites imperati, qui capite luerent, si pacto 

6 non staretur. tempus inde statutum tradendis obsidibus 
exercituque inermi mittendo. redintegravit kictum in castris 
consulum adventus, ut vix ab iis abstinerent manus, quorum 
temeritate in eum locum deducti essent, quorum ignavia 

7 foedius inde, quam venissent, abituri : iHis non ducem 
locorum, non exploratorem fuisse ; beluarum modo caecos 

8 in foveam missos. aHi aHos intueri, contemplari arma mox 
tradenda et inermes futuras dextras obnoxiaque corpora 
hosti ; proponere sibimet ipsi^ ante oculos iugum hostile et 


ludibria victoris et vultus superbos et per armatos inermium 
iter, inde foedi agminis miserabilem viam per sociorum 9 
urbes, reditum in patriam ad parentes, quo saepe ipsi 
maioresque eorum triumphantes venissent : se solos sine 10 
vulnere, sine ferro, sine acie victos ; sibi non stringere 
licuisse gladios, non manum cum hoste conferre ; sibi nequi- 
quam animos datos. haec frementibus hora fataHs ignomi- 1 1 
niae advenit, omnia tristiora experiundo factura, quam quae 
praeceperant animis. iam primum cum singulis vestimentis 12 
inermes extra vallum exire iussi, et primi traditi obsides 
atque in custodiam abducti. tum a consulibus abire lictores 13 
iussi paludamentaque detracta : id tantam inter ipsos, qui 
paulo ante eos exsecrantes dedendos lacerandosque censu- 
erant, miserationem fecit, ut suae quisque condicionis oblitus 14 
ab illa deformatione tantae maiestatis velut ab nefando 
spectaculo averteret oculos. primi consules prope seminudi 6 
sub iugum missi, tum ut quisque gradu proximus erat, ita 
ignominiae obiectus, tum deinceps singulae legiones. cir- 2 
cumstabant armati hostes, exprobrantes eludentesque ; gladii 
etiani plerisque intentati, et vulnerati quidam necatique, si 
vultus eorum indignitate rerum acrior victorem offendisset. 
ita traducti sub iugum et, quod paene gravius erat, per 3 
hostium oculos, cum e saltu evasissent, etsi velut ab inferis 
extracti tum primum lucem adspicere visi sunt, tamen ipsa 
lux ita deforme intuentibus agmen omni morte tristior fuit. 
itaque cum ante noctem Capuam pervenire possent^ incerti 4 
de fide sociorum et quod pudor praepediebat, circa viam 
haud procul Capua omnium egena corpora humi prostra- 
verunt. quod ubi est Capuam nuntiatum, evicit miseratio 5 
iusta sociorum superbiam ingenitam Campanis. confestim 6 
insignia sua consulibus, fasces Hctores, arma equos, vesti- 
menta commeatus militibus benigne mittunt ; et venientibus 7 
Capuam cunctus senatus populusque obviam egressus iustis 
omnibus hospitaUbus privatisque et publicis fungitur ofificiis. 


S neque illis sociorum comitas vultusque benigni et adloquia 
non modo sermonem elicere, sed ne ut oculos quidem 
attollerent aut consolantes amicos contra intuerentur efificere 

9 poterant : adeo super maerorem pudor quidam fugere con- 

10 loquia et coetus hominum cogebat. postero die cum iuvenes 
nobiles, missi a Capua, ut proficiscentes ad finem Cam- 

11 panum prosequerentur, revertissent vocatique in curiani 
percunctantibus maioribus natu multo sibi maestiores et 
abiectioris animi visos referrent : adeo silens ac prope 

12 mutum agmen incessisse ; iacere indolem illam Romanam, 
ablatosque cum armis animos, non reddere salutem, non 
salutantibus dare responsum, non hiscere quemquam prae 
metu potuisse, tamquam ferentibus adhuc cervicibus iugum, 

13 sub quod missi essent ; habere Samnites victoriam non 
praeclaram solum sed etiam perpetuam^ cepisse enim eos 
non Romam, sicut ante Gallos, sed, quod multo beUicosius 

7 fuerit, Romanam virtutem ferociamque : — cum haec diceren- 
tur audirenturque et deploratum paene Romanum nomen 
in concilio sociorum fidehum esset, dicitur OfiUius Calavius, 
2 Ovii filius, clarus genere factisque, tum etiam aetate verendus, 
7, longe aliter se habere rem dixisse : silentium illud obstina- 
tum fixosque in terram oculos et surdas ad omnia solacia 
aures et pudorem intuendae lucis ingentem molem irarura 

4 ex alto animi cientis indicia esse. aut Romana se ignorare 
ingenia, aut silentium illud Samnitibus flebiles brevi clamores 
gemitusque excitaturum, Caudinaeque pacis aliquanto Samni- 

5 tibus quam Romanis tristiorem memoriam fore ; quippe suos 
quemque eorum animos habiturum, ubicumque congressuri 
sint ; saltus Caudinos non ubique Samnitibus fore. 

6 lam Romae etiam sua infamis clades erat. obsessos 
primum audierunt ; tristior deinde ignominiosae pacis 

7 magis quam pericuU nuntius fuit. ad famam obsidionis 
dilectus haberi coeptus erat ; dimissus deinde auxiliorum 
apparatus, postquam deditionem tam foede factam acce- 


perunt, extemploque sine ulla publica auctoritate consensum 
in omnem formam luctus est. tabernae circa forum clausae, S 
iustitiumque in foro sua sponte coeptum prius quam in- 
dictum ; lati clavi, anuli aurei positi ; paene maestior 9 
exercitu ipso civitas esse nec ducibus solum atque auctori- 
bus sponsoribusque pacis irasci sed innoxios etiam milites 
odisse et negare urbe tectisve accipiendos. quam concita- 10 
tionem animorum fregit adventus exercitus etiam iratis 
miserabilis. non enim tamquam. in patriam revertentes ex 
insperato incolumes, sed captorum habitu vultuque ingressi 
sero in urbem, ita se in suis quisque tectis abdiderunt, ut 11 
postero atque insequentibus diebus nemo eorum forum aut 
publicum adspicere vellet. consules in privato abditi nihil 12 
pro magistratu agere, nisi quod expressum senatus consulto 
est, ut dictatorem dicerent comitiorum causa. Q. Fabium 13 
Ambustum dixerunt et P. Aelium Paetum magistrum 
equitum ; quibus vitio creatis suffecti M. Aemilius Papus 14 
dictator, L. Valerius Flaccus magister equitum. nec per 
eos comitia habita ; et quia taedebat populum omnium 
magistratuum eius anni, res ad interregnum rediit. interreges 15 
Q. Fabius Maximus, M. Valerius Corvus. is consules 
creavit Q. PubHlium Philonem tertinm et L. Papirium 
Cursorem iterum haud dubio consensu civitatis, quod nulU 
ea tempestate duces clariores essent. 

Quo creati sunt die, eo — sic enim placuerat patribus— 8 
magistratum inierunt, soUemnibusque senatus consultis per- 
fectis de pace Caudina rettulerunt ; et PubUlius, penes quem 2 
fasces erant, * dic, Sp. Postumi ', inquit. qui ubi surrexit, 
eodem illo vultu, quo sub iugum missus erat, ' haud sum ,-. 
ignarus ' inquit, ' consules, ignominiae, non honoris causa 
me primum excitatum iussumque dicere, non tamquam 
senatorem, sed tamquam reum qua infeHcis beUi, qua 
ignominiosae pacis. ego tamen, quando neque de noxa 4 
nostra neque de poena rettuUstis, omissa defensione, quae . 


non difficillima esset apud haud ignaros fortunarum huma- 
narum necessitatiumque, sententiam de eo, de quo rettuli- 
stis, paucis peragam ; quae sententia testis erit, mihine an 
legionibus vestris pepercerim, cum me seu turpi seu neces- 

5 saria sponsione obstrinxi, qua tamen, quando iniussu populi 
facta est, non tenetur populus Romanus, nec quicquam ex 

6 ea praeterquam corpora nostra debentur Samnitibus. deda- 
mur per fetiales nudi vinctique ; exsolvamus religione 
populum, si qua obligavimus, ne quid divini humanive 
obstet, quo minus iustum piumque de integro ineatur 

7 bellum. interea consules exercitum scribere, armare, 
educere placet nec prius ingredi hostium fines, quam omnia 

8 iusta in deditione nostra perfecta erunt. vos, di immortales, 
precor quaesoque, si vobis non fuit cordi Sp. Postumium, 
T. Veturium consules cum Samnitibus prospere bellum 

9 gerere, at vos satis habeatis vidisse nos sub iugum missos, 
vidisse sponsione infami obligatos, videre nudos vinctosque 
hostibus deditos, omnem iram hostium nostris capitibus 

10 excipientes ; novos consules legionesque Romanas ita cum 
Samnite gerere bellum velitis, ut omnia ante nos consules 

11 bella gesta sunt.' quae ubi dixit, tanta simul admiratio 
miseratioque viri incessit homines, ut modo vix crederent 
illum eundem esse Sp. Postumium, qui auctor tam foedae 

12 pacis fuisset, modo miserarentur, quod vir talis etiam prae- 
cipuum apud hostes supplicium passurus esset ob iram 

1 3 diremptae pacis. cum omnes laudibus modo prosequentes 
virum in sententiam eius pedibus irent, temptata paulisper 

14 intercessio est ab L. Livio et Q. Maelio tribunis plebis, qui 
neque exsolvi religione populum aiebant deditione sua, nisi 
omnia Samnitibus, qualia apud Caudium fuissent, restitue- 

15 rentur, neque se pro eo, quod spondendo pacem servassent 
exercitum populi Romani, poenam ullam meritos esse neque 
ad extremum, cum sacrosancti essent, dedi hostibus viola- 

9 rive posse. tum Postumius ' interea dedite ' inquit ' pro- 


fanos nos, quos salva religione potestis ; dedetis deinde et 2 
istos sacrosanctos, cum primum magistratu abierint, sed, si 
me audiatis, priusquam dedantur, hic in comitio virgis 
caesos, hanc iam ut intercalatae poenae usuram habeant. 
nam quod deditione nostra negant exsolvi religione populum, 3 
id istos magis, ne dedantur, quam quia ita se res habeat, 
dicere, quis adeo iuris fetialium expers est, qui ignoret ? 
neque ego infitias eo, patres conscripti, tam sponsiones 4 
quam foedera sancta esse apud eos homines, apud quos 
iuxta divinas religiones fides humana colitur; sed iniussu 
populi nego quicquam sanciri posse, quod populum teneat. 
an, si eadem superbia, qua sponsionem istam expresserunt 5 
nobis Samnites, coegissent nos verba legitima dedentium 
urbes nuncupare, deditum populum Romanum vos, tribuni, 
diceretis et hanc urbem, templa, delubra, fines, aquas Sam- 
nitium esse ? omitto deditionem, quoniam de sponsione 6 
agitur ; quid tandem, si spopondissemus urbem hanc relictu- 
rum populum Romanum ? si incensurum ? si magistratus, 
si senatum, si leges non habiturum ? si sub regibus futu- 
rum ? di meliora, inquis. atqui non indignitas rerum 7 
sponsionis vinculum levat : si quid est, in quod obligari 
populus possit, in omnia potest. et ne illud quidem, quod 
quosdam forsitan moveat, refert, consul an dictator an 
praetor spoponderit, et hoc ipsi etiam Samnites iudica- 8 
verunt, quibus non fuit satis consules spondere, sed legatos, 
quaestores, tribunos militum spondere coegerunt. nec a 9 
me nunc quisquam quaesiverit, quid ita spoponderim, cum 
id nec consuHs ius esset, nec illis spondere pacem, quae 
mei non erat arbitrii, nec pro vobis, qui nihil mandave- 
ratis, possem. nihil ad Caudium, patres conscripti, humanis 10 
consiliis gestum est ; di immortales et vestris et hostium 
imperatoribus mentem ademerunt. nec nos in bello satis 11 
cavimus, et illi male partam victoriam male perdiderunt, 
dum vix locis, quibus vicerant, credunt, dum quacumque . 


12 condicione arma viris in arma natis auferre festinant. an, 
si sana mens fuisset, difificile illis fuit, dum senes ab domo 
ad cDnsultandum accersunt, mittere Romam legatos ? cum 

13 senatu, cum populo de pace ac foedere agere ? tridui iter 
expeditis erat ; interea in indutiis res fuisset, donec ab 
Roma'legati aut victoriam illis certam aut pacem adferrent. 
ea demum sponsio esset, quam populi iussu spopondissemus. 

14 sed neque vos tulissetis, nec nos spopondissemus, nec fas 
fuit alium rerum exitum esse, quam ut illi velut somnio 

15 laetiore, quam quod mentes eorum capere possent, nequi- 
quam eluderentur et nostrum exercitum eadem, quae im- 
pedierat, fortuna expediret, vanam victoriam vanior irritam 
faceret pax, sponsio interponeretur, quae neminem praeter 

16 sponsorem obligaret. quid enim vobiscum, patres con- 
scripti, quid cum populo Romano actum est ? quis vos 
appellare potest, quis se a vobis dicere deceptum ? hostis 
an civis? hosti nihil spopondistis, civem neminem spon- 

17 dere pro vobis iussistis. nihil ergo vobis nec nobiscum est, 
quibus nihil mandastis, nec cum Samnitibus, cum quibus 

^S nihil egistis. Samnitibus sponsores nos sumus rei satis 
locupletes in id, quod nostrum est, in id, quod praestare 
possumus, corpora nostra et animos : in haec saeviant, in 
haec ferrum, in haec iras acuant. quod ad tribunos attinet, 

'9 consulite, utrum praesens deditio eorum fieri possit an in 
diem differatur ; nos interim, T. Veturi vosque ceteri, vilia 
haec capita luendae sponsioni feramus et nostro supplicio 

10 liberemus Romana arma.' movit patres conscriptos cum 
causa tum auctor nec ceteros solum sed tribunos etiam 

2 plebei, ut se in senatus dicerent fore potestate. magistratu 
inde se extemplo abdicaverunt traditique fetialibus cum 
ceteris Caudium ducendi. hoc senatus consulto facto lux 

3 quaedam adfulsisse civitati visa est. Postumius in ore erat, 
eum laudibus ad caelum ferebant, devotioni P. Decii con- 

4 sulis, ahis claris facinoribus aequabant : emersisse civitatem 


ex obnoxia pace illius consilio et opera ; ipsuin se cruciati- 
bus et hostium irae offerre piaculaque pro populo Romano 
dare. arma cuncti spectant et belluni : en umquam futu- 5 
rum, ut congredi armatis cum Samnite liceat ? 

In civitate ira odioque ardente dilectus prope omnium 6 
voluntariorum fuit. rescriptae ex eodem milite novae legiones 
ductusque ad Caudium exercitus. praegressi fetiales ubi ad 7 
portam venere, vestem detrahi pacis sponsoribus iubent, 
manus post tergum vinciri. cum apparitor verecundia maies- 
tatis Postumii laxe vinciret, ' quin tu ' inquit ' adducis lorum, 
ut iusta fiat deditio ? ' tum ubi in coetum Samnitium et ad S 
tribunal ventum Pontii est, A. Cornelius Arvina fetialis ita 
verba fecit : ' quandoque hisce homines iniussu popuU 9 
Romani Quiritium foedus ictum iri spoponderunt atque ob 
eam rem noxam nocuerunt, ob eam rem, quo populus 
Romanus scelere impio sit solutus, hosce homines vobis 
dedo.' haec dicenti fetiali Postumius genu femur quanta 10 
maxime poterat vi percuHt et clara voce ait se Samnitem 
civem esse, illum legatum fetialem a se contra ius gentium 
violatum : eo iustius bellum gesturos. tum Pontius ' nec n 
ego istam deditionem accipiam ' inquit, ' nec Samnites ratam 
habebunt. quin tu, Sp. Postunii, si deos esse censes, aut 2 
omnia irrita facis aut pacto stas ? Samniti populo omnes, 
quos in potestate habuit, aut pro iis pax debetur. sed quid 3 
ego te appello, qui te captum victori cum qua potes fide 
restituis? populum Romanum appello, quem si sponsionis 
ad furculas Caudinas factae paenitet, restituat legiones intra 
saltum, quo saeptae fuerunt. nemo quemquam deceperit ; 4 
omnia pro infecto sint ; recipiant arma, quae per pactionem 
tradiderunt ; redeant in castra sua ; quidquid pridie habue- 
runt, quam in conloquium est ventum, habeant : tum bellum 
et fortia consiUa placeant, tum sponsio et pax repudietur. 
ea fortuna, iis locis, quae ante pacis mentionem habuimus, 5 
geramus bellum, nec populus Romanus consulum spon- 


6 sionem nec nos fidem populi Romani accusemus. num- 
quamne causa defiet, cur victi pacto non stetis? obsides 
Porsinnae dedistis : furto eos subduxistis ; auro civitatem 
a Gallis redemistis : inter accipiendum aurum caesi sunt ; 

7 pacem nobiscum pepigistis, ut legiones vobis captas resti- 
tueremus : eam pacem irritam facitis. et semper aliquam 

8 fraudi speciem iuris imponitis. non probat populus Romanus 
ignominiosa pace legiones servatas ; pacem sibi habeat, 
legiones captas victori restituat : hoc fide, hoc foederibus^ 

9 hoc fetiaUbus caerimoniis dignum erat. ut quidem tu, quod 
petisti per pactionem, habeas, tot cives incolumes, ego 
pacem, quam hos tibi remittendo pactus sum, non habeam, 
hoc tu, A. Corneli, hoc vos, fetiales, iuris gentibus dicitis ? 

10 ego vero istos, quos dedi simulatis, nec accipio nec dedi 
arbitror nec moror, quo minus in civitatem obHgatam spon- 
sione commissa iratis omnibus dis, quorum eluditur numen, 

11 redeant. gerite bellum, quando Sp. Postumius modo lega- 
tum fetialem genu percuHt. ita di credent Samnitem civem 
Postumium, non civem Romanum esse et a Samnite legatum 
Romanum violatum : eo vobis iustum in nos factum esse 

13 bellum. haec ludibria reHgionum non pudere in lucem 
proferre et vix pueris dignas ambages senes ac consulares 

isfallendae fidei exquirere ! i, Hctor, deme vincla Romanis ; 
moratus sit nemo, quo minus, ubi visum fuerit, abeant.' 
et ilH quidem, forsitan et pubHca, sua certe Hberata fide ab 

12 Caudio in castra Romana inviolati redierunt. Samnitibus 
pro superba pace infestissimum cernentibus renatum beUum 

2 omnia, quae deinde evenerunt, non in animis solum sed 
prope in ocuHs esse, et sero ac nequiquam laudare senis 
Pontu utraque consiHa, inter quae se media lapsos via 
victoriae possessionem pace incerta mutasse et beneficii et 
maleficii occasione amissa pugnaturos cum eis, quos potue- 
rint in perpetuum vel inimicos tollere vel amicos facere. 

3 adeoque nuHodum certamine incHnatisviribus postCaudinam 


pacem animi mutaverant, ut clariorem inter Romanos deditio 
Postumium quam Pontium incruenta victoria inter Samnites 
faceret et geri posse bellum Roniani pro victoria certa 4 
haberent, Samnites simul rebellasse et vicisse crederent 

Inter haec Satricani ad Samnites defecerunt, et Fregellae 5 
colonia necopinato adventu Samnitium — fuisse et Satricanos 
cum iis satis constat — nocte occupata est. timor inde 
mutuus utrosque usque ad lucem quietos tenuit ; lux pugnae 6 
initium fuit, quam aliquamdiu aequam, et quia pro aris ac 
focis dimicabatur et quia ex tectis adiuvabat imbellis multi- 
tudo «Te^rtamen, Fregellani sustinuerunt. fraus deinde rem ^ 
inclinavit, quod vocem audiri praeconis passi sunt, incolu- 
mem abiturum, qui arma posuisset. ea spes remisit a cer- 
tamine animos, et passim arma iactari coepta. pertinacior 8 
pars armata per aversam portam erupit, tutiorque eis audacia 
fuit quam incautus ad credendum ceteris pavor, quos cir- 
cumdatos igni, nequiquam deos fidemque invocantes, 
Samnites concremaverunt. 

Consules, inter se partiti provincias, Papirius in ApuUam 9 
ad Luceriam pergit, ubi equites Romani obsides ad Caudium 
dati custodiebantur, PubliUus in Samnio substitit adversus 
Caudinas legiones. distendit ea res Samnitium animos, 10 
quod nec ad Luceriam ire, ne ab tergo instaret hostis, nec 
manere, ne Luceria interim amitteretur, satis audebant. 
optimum visum est committere rem fortunae et transigere n 
cum PubUUo certamen ; itaque in aciem copias educunt. 
adversus quos PubUUus consul cum dimicaturus esset, prius 13 
adloquendos miUtes ratus contionem advocari iussit. ceterum 
sicut ingenti alacritate ad praetorium concursum est, ita prae 
clamore poscentium pugnam nuUa adhortatio imperatoris 
audita est : suus cuique animus memor ignominiae adhor- 2 
tator aderat. vadunt igitur in proeUum urgentes signiferos 
et, ne mora in concursu piUs emittendis stringendisque inde 


gladiis esset, pila veiui dato ad id signo abiciunt strictisque 

Z gladiis cursu in hostem feruntur. nihil iUic imperatoriae 

artis ordinibus aut subsidiis locandis fuit ; omnia ira miUtaris 

4 prope vesano impetu egit. itaque non fusi modo hostes 
sunt, sed ne castris quidem suis fugam impedire ausi Apuliam 
dissipati petiere ; Luceriam tamen coacto rursus in unum 

5 agmine est perventum. Romanos ira eadem, quae per 
mediam aciem hostium tulerat, et in castra pertuHt. ibi 
plus quam in acie sanguinis ac caedis factum, praedaeque 
pars maior ira corrupta. 

6 Exercitus alter cum Papirio consule locis maritimis perve- 
nerat Arpos per omnia pacata Samnitium magis iniuriis et 

1 odio quam beneficio ullo popuH Romani ; nam Samnites, 
ea tempestate in montibus vicatim habitantes, campestria 
et maritima loca, contempto cultorum moUiore atque, ut 
evenit fere, locis simili genere, ipsi montani atque agrestes 

8 depopulabantur. quae regio si fida Samnitibus fuisset, aut 
pervenire Arpos exercitus Romanus nequisset, aut interiecta 
inter Romam et Arpos penuria rerum omnium exclusos a 

9 commeatibus absumpsisset. tum quoque profectos inde ad 
Luceriam, iuxta obsidentes obsessosque, inopia vexavit. 
omnia ab Arpis Romanis suppeditabantur, ceterum adeo 
exigue, ut miUti occupato stationibus vigiUisque et opere 

10 eques foUicuUs in castra ab Arpis frumentum veheret, inter- 
dum occursu hostium cogeretur abiecto ex equo frumento 
pugnare. obsessis priusquam aUer consul victore exercitu 
advenit, et commeatus ex montibus Samnitium invecti erant 

1 1 et auxiUa intromissa. artiora omnia adventus PubUUi fecit, 
qui obsidione delegata in curam coUegae vagus per agros 

12 cuncta infesta commeatibus hostium fecerat ; itaque cum 
spes nuUa esset diutius obsessos inopiam laturos, coacti 
Samnites, qui ad Luceriam castra habebant, undique con- 
tractis viribus signa cum Papirio conferre. 

14 Per id tempus parantibus utrisque se ad proeUum legati 


Tarentini interveniunt denuntiantes Samnitibus Romanisque, 
ut bellum omitterent : per utros stetisset, quo minus disce- 
deretur ab armis, adversus eos se pro alteris pugnaturos. 
ea legatione Papirius audita perinde ac motus dictis eorum 2 
cum coUega se communicaturum respondit, accitoque eo, 
cum tempus omne in apparatu pugnae consumpsisset, 
conlocutus de re haud dubia signum pugnae proposuit. 
agentibus divina humanaque, quae adsolent, cum acie ?, 
dimicandum est, consuUbus Tarentini legati occursare re- 
sponsum exspectantes ; quibus Papirius ait : ' auspicia 4 
secunda esse, Tarentini, puUarius nuntiat ; Htatum prae- 
terea est egregie ; auctoribus dis, ut videtis, ad rem geren- 
dam proficiscimur.' signa inde ferri iussit et copias eduxit^ 5 
vanissimam increpans gentem, quae, suarum impotens 
reruni prae domesticis seditionibus discordiisque^ aliis 
modum pacis ac belU facere aequum censeret. Samnites 6 
ex parte altera cum omnem curam beUi remisissent, quia 
aut pacem vere cupiebant aut expediebat simulare, ut 
Tarentinos sibi conciUarent, cum instructos repente ad 
pugnam Romanos conspexissent, vociferari se in auctoritate 7 
Tarentinorum manere nec descendere in aciem nec extra 
vaUum arma ferre ; deceptos potius quodcumque casus ferat 
passuros, quam ut sprevisse pacis auctores Tarentinos vi- 
deantur. accipere se omen consules aiunt et eam precari 8 
mentem hostibus, ut ne vallum quidem defendant. ipsi 9 
inter se partitis copiis succedunt hostium munimentis et 
simul undique adorti, cum pars fossas explerent, pars 
vellerent vallum atque in fossas proruerent nec virtus modo 
insita sed ira etiam exulceratos ignominia stimularet animos, 
castra invasere, et pro se quisque, non haec furculas nec 10 
Caudium nec saltus invios esse, ubi errorem fraus superbe 
vicisset, sed Romanam virtutem, quam nec vaUum nec 
fossae arcerent, memorantes caedunt pariter resistentes 
fusosque, inermes atque armatos, servos Uberos, puberes ti 

c 2 


12 impubes, homines iumentaque ; nec uUum superfuisset 
animal, ni consules receptui signum dedissent avidosque 
caedis milites e castris hostium imperio ac minis expulis- 

13 sent. itaque apud infensos ob interpellatam dulcedinem 
irae confestim oratio habita est, ut doceretur miles minime 
cuiquam miUtum consules odio in hostes cessisse aut 

14 cessuros ; quin duces sicut belH, ita insatiabiUs supplicii 
futuros fuisse, ni respectus equitum sescentorum, qui 

^5 Luceriae obsides tenerentur, praepedisset animos, ne despe- 
rata venia hostes caecos in suppHcia eorum ageret, perdere 

16 prius quam perire optantes. laudare ea miUtes laetarique 
obviam itum irae suae esse ac fateri omnia patienda potius, 
quam proderetur salus tot principum Romanae iuventutis. 

15 Dimissa contione consilium habitum, omnibusne copiis 
Luceriam premerent, an altero exercitu et duce Apuli circa, 

2 gens dubiae ad id voluntatis, temptarentur. PubliUus 
consul ad peragrandam profectus Apuliam aUquot expe- 
ditione una populos aut vi subegit aut condicionibus in 

3 societatem accepit. Papirio quoque, qui obsessor Luceriae 
restiterat, brevi ad spem eventus respondit. nam insessis 
omnibus viis, per quas commeatus ex Samnio subvehe- 
bantur, fame domiti Samnites, qui Luceriae in praesidio 
erant, legatos misere ad consulem Romanum, ut receptis 

4 equitibus, qui causa beUi essent, absisteret obsidione. iis 
Papirius ita respondit : debuisse eos Pontium, Herennii 
fiUum, quo auctore Romanos sub iugum misissent, consu- 

5 lere, quid victis patiendum censeret ; ceterum quoniam ab 
hostibus in se aequa statui quam in se ipsi ferre maluerint, 
nuntiare Luceriam iussit, arma, sarcinas, iumenta, multitu- 

6 dinem omnem imbeUem intra moenia reUnquerent; miUtem 
se cum singuUs vestimentis sub iugum missurum, ulciscen- 
tem inlatam, non novam inferentem ignominiam. nihil 

7 recusatum. septem miUa miUtum sub iugum missa, prae- 
daque ingens Luceriae capta receptis omnibus signis armis- 


que, quae ad Caudium amissa erant, et, quod omnia 
superabat gaudia, equitibus recuperatis, quos pignora pacis 
custodiendos Luceriam Samnites dederant. haud ferme 8 
alia mutatione subita rerum clarior victoria populi Romani 
est, si quidem etiam, quod quibusdam in annalibus invenio, 
Pontius, Herennii filius, Samnitium imperator, ut expiaret 
consulum ignominiam, sub iugum cum ceteris est missus. 
ceterum id minus miror^ obscurum esse de hostium duce 9 
dedito missoque ; id magis mirabile est, ambigi, Luciusne 
Cornelius dictator cum L. Papirio Cursore magistro equitum 
eas res ad Caudium atque inde Luceriam gesserit ultorque 10 
unicus Romanae ignominiae haud sciam an iustissimo 
triumpho ad eam aetatem secundum Furium Camillum 
triumphaverit, an consulum Papiriique praecipuum id decus 
sit. sequitur hunc errorem alius error, Cursorne Papirius n 
proximis comitiis cum Q. Aulio Cerretano iterum ob rem 
bene gestam Luceriae continuato magistratu consul tertium 
creatus sit, an L. Papirius Mugilanus, et in cognomine 
erratum sit. 

Convenit iam inde per consules reliqua beUi perfecta. 16 
AuUus cum Frentanis uno secundo proeUo debeUavit 
urbemque ipsam, quo se fusa contulerat acies, obsidibus 
imperatis in deditionem accepit. pari fortuna consul alter 2 
cum Satricanis, qui cives Romani post Caudinam cladem 
ad Samnites defecerant praesidiumque eorum in urbem 
acceperant, rem gessit. nam cum ad moenia Satrici ad- 3 
motus esset exercitus legatisque missis ad pacem cum 
precibus petendam triste responsum ab consule redditum 
esset, nisi praesidio Samnitium interfecto aut tradito ne ad 
se remearent, plus ea voce quam armis inlatis terroris 
colonis iniectum. itaque subinde exsecuntur quaerendo 4 
a consule legati, quonam se pacto paucos et infirmos cre- 
deret praesidio tam vaUdo et armato vim adlaturos. ab 
iisdem consiUum petere iussi, quibus auctoribus praesidium 


5 in urbem accepissent, discedunt aegreque impetrato, ut de 
ea re consuli senatum responsaque ad se referri sineret, ad 

6 suos redeunt. duae factiones senatum distinebant, una, 
cuius principes erant defectionis a populo Romano auctores, 
altera fidelium civium. certatum ab utrisque tamen est, 
ut ad reconciliandam pacem consuli opera navaretur. pars 

7 altera, cum praesidium Samnitium, quia nihil satis praepa- 
rati erat ad obsidionem tolerandam, excessurum proxima 
nocte esset, enuntiare consuli satis habuit, qua noctis hora 
quaque porta et quam in viam egressurus hostis foret ; 

8 altera, quibus invitis descitum ad Samnites erat, eadem 
nocte portam etiam consuU aperuerunt armatosque clam 

9 nocte in urbem acceperunt. ita duplici proditione et prae- 
sidium Samnitium insessis circa viam silvestribus locis 
necopinato oppressum est et ab urbe plena hostium clamor 
sublatus ; momentoque unius horae caesus Samnis, Satri- 

10 canus captus, et omnia in potestate consuHs erant. qui 
quaestione habita, quorum opera defectio esset facta, quos 
sontes comperit virgis caesos securi percussit praesidioque 

1 1 valido imposito arma Satricanis ademit. inde ad triumphum 
decessisse Romam Papirium Cursorem scribunt, qui eo 
duce Luceriam receptam Samnitesque sub iugum missos 

12 auctores sunt. et fuit vir haud dubie dignus omni bellica 
laude, non animi solum vigore sed etiam corporis viribus 

13 excellens. praecipua pedum pernicitas inerat, quae cogno- 
men etiam dedit, victoremque cursu omnium aetatis suae 
fuisse ferunt, seu crurum vi seu exercitatione multa ; cibi 

14 vinique eundem capacissimum ; nec cum uUo asperiorem, 
quia ipse invicti ad laborem corporis esset, fuisse militiam 

15 pediti pariter equitique ; equites etiam aliquando ausos 
ab eo petere, ut sibi pro re bene gesta laxaret aUquid laboris ; 

16 quibus iUe : ' ne nihil remissum dicatis, remitto,' inquit ' ne 
utique dorsum demulceatis, cum ex equis descendetis '. 
et vis erat in eo viro imperii ingens pariter in socios civesque. 


Praenestinus praetor per timorem segnius ex subsidiis suos 17 
duxerat in primam aciem ; quem cum inambulans ante 
tabernaculum vocari iussisset, lictorem expedire securem 
iussit, ad quam vocem exanimi stante Praenestino : 'age- iS 
dum, lictor, excide radicem hanc ' inquit 'incommodam 
ambulantibus ' perfusumque ultimi supplicii metu multa 
dicta dimisit. haud dubie illa aetate, qua nulla virtutum 19 
feracior fuit, nemo unus erat vir, quo magis innixa res 
Romana staret. quin eum parem destinant animis magno 
Alexandro ducem, si arma Asia perdomita in Europam 

Nihil minus quaesitum a principio huius operis videri 17 
potest, quam ut plus iusto ab rerum ordine decHnarem 
varietatibusque distinguendo opere et legentibus velut 
deverticula amoena et requiem animo meo quaererem ; 
tamen tanti regis ac ducis mentio, quibus saepe tacitis 2 
cogitationibus volutavi animum, eas evocat in medium, ut 
quaerere Hbeat, quinam eventus Romanis rebus, si cum 
Alexandro foret bellatum, futurus fuerit. plurimum in bello 3 
poUere videntur militum copia et virtus, ingenia impera- 
torum, fortuna per omnia humana, maxime in res bellicas 
potens : ea et singula intuenti et universa, sicut ab aliis 4 
regibus gentibusque, ita ab hoc quoque facile praestant 
invictum Romanum imperium. iam primum, ut ordiar ab 5 
ducibus comparandis, haud equidem abnuo egregium ducem 
fuisse Alexandrum ; sed clariorem tamen eum facit, quod 
unus fuit, quod adulescens in incremento rerum, nondum 
alteram fortunam expertus, decessit. ut aHos reges claros 6 
ducesque omittam, magna exempla casuum humanorum, 
Cyrum, quem maxime Graeci laudibus celebrant, quid nisi 
longa vita, sicut Magnum modo Pompeium, vertenti prae- 
buit fortunae ? recenseam duces Romanos, nec omnes 7 
omnium aetatium, sed ipsos eos, cum quibus consulibus 
aut dictatoribus Alexandro fuit bellandum, U. Valerium s 


Corvum, C. Marcium Rutilum, C. Sulpicium, T. Manlium 
Torquatum, Q. Publilium Philonem, L. Papirium Cursorem, 
Q. Fabium Maximum, duos Decios, L. Volumnium, 
9 M'. Curium ? deinceps ingentes secuntur viri, si Punicum 
Romano praevertisset belluni seniorque in Italiam traie- 

10 cisset. horum in quohbet cum indoles eadem, quae in 
Alexandro, erat animi ingeniique, tum disciphna mihtaris, 
iam inde ab initiis urbis tradita per manus, in artis perpetuis 

11 praeceptis ordinatae modum venerat. ita reges gesserant 
beha, ita deinde exactores regum lunii Valeriique, ita 
deinceps Fabii, Quinctii, Cornehi, ita Furius CamiUus, 
quem iuvenes n, quibus cum Alexandro dimicandum erat, 

12 senem viderant. mihtaria opera pugnando obeunti Alexan- 
dro — nani ea quoque haud minus clarum eum faciunt — 
cessisset videhcet in acie oblatus par Manhus Torquatus 
aut Valerius Corvus, insignes ante mihtes quam duces, 

13 cessissent Decii, devotis corporibus in hostem ruentes, 
cessisset Papirius Cursor iUo corporis robore, iUo animi ! 

14 victus esset consihis iuvenis unius, ne singulos nominem, 
senatus iUe, quem qui ex regibus constare dixit unus veram 

15 speciem Romani senatus cepit ! id vero erat periculum, ne 
soUertius quam quihbet unus ex iis^ quos nominavi, castris 
locuni caperet, commeatus expediret, ab insidiis praecaveret, 
tempus pugnae dehgeret, aciem instrueret, subsidiis firmaret ! 

16 non cum Dareo rem esse dixisset, quem muherum ac spa- 
donum agmen trahentem, inter purpuram atque aurum, 
oneratum fortunae apparatibus suae, praedam verius quam 
hostem, nihil ahud quam bene ausus vana contemnere, 

17 incruentus devicit. longe ahus Itahae quam Indiae, per 
quam temulento agmine comissabundus incessit, visus iUi 
habitus esset, sakus Apuhae ac montes Lucanos cernenti 
et vestigia recentia domesticae cladis, ubi avunculus eius 

18 nuper, Epiri rex Alexander, absumptus erat. et lociuimur 
de Alexandro nondum merso secundis rebus, quarum nemo 


intolerantior fuit. qui si ex habitu novae fortunae novique, 2 
ut ita dicam, ingenii, quod sibi victor induerat, spectetur, 3 
Dareo magis similis quam Alexandro in Italiam venisset et 
exercitum Macedoniae oblitum degenerantemque iam in 
Persarum mores adduxisset. referre in tanto rege piget 4 
superbam mutationem vestis et desideratas humi iacentium 
adulationes, etiam victis Macedonibus graves, nedum 
victoribus, et foeda supplicia et inter vinum et epulas 
caedes amicorum et vanitatem ementiendae stirpis. quid ? 5 
si vini amor in dies fieret acrior, — quid? si trux ac prae- 
fervida ira — nec quicquam dubium inter scriptores refero — , 
nullane haec damna imperatoriis virtutibus ducimus ? id 6 
vero periculum erat, quod levissimi ex Graecis, qui Partho- 
rum quoque contra nomen Romanum gloriae favent, 
dictitare solent, ne maiestatem nominis Alexandri, quem 
ne fama quidem illis notum arbitror fuisse, sustinere non 7 
potuerit populus Romanus, et adversus quem Athenis, in 
civitate fracta Macedonum armis, cernentes tum maxime 
prope fumantes Thebarum ruinas contionari Ubere ausi sunt 
homines, id quod ex monumentis orationum patet, adversus 
eum nemo ex tot proceribus Romanis vocem Uberam 
missurus fuerit ! 

QuantaUbet magnitudo hominis concipiatur animo ; unius 8 
tamen ea magnitudo hominis erit, collecta paulo plus decem 
annorum feUcitate ; quam qui eo extoUunt, quod populus 9 
Romanus, etsi nuUo beUo, muUis tamen proeUis victus sit, 
Alexandro nuUius pugnae non secunda fortuna fuerit, non 
inteUegunt se hominis res gestas, et eius iuvenis, cum popuU 
iam quadringentesimum beUantis annum rebus conferre. 
miremur, si, cum ex hac parte saecula plura numerentur 10 
quam ex iUa anni, plus in tam longo spatio quam in aetate 
tredecim annorum fortuna variaverit? quin tu hominis n 
cum homine et ducis cum duce fortunam confers ? quot 12 
Romanos duces nominem, quibus numquam adversa fortuna 


pugnae fuit ! paginas in annalibus magistratuum fastisque 
percurrere licet consulum dictatorumque, quorum nec 
virtutis nec fortunae ullo die populum Romanum paenituit. 

13 et, quo sint mirabiliores quam Alexander aut quisquam 
rex, denos vicenosque dies quidam dictaturam, nemo plus 

1 4 quam annum consulatum gessit ; ab tribunis plebis dilectus 
impediti sunt ; post tempus ad bella ierunt, ante tempus 

15 comitiorum causa revocati sunt ; in ipso conatu rerum 
circumegit se annus ; coUegae nunc temeritas nunc pravitas 
impedimento aut damno fuit ; male gestis rebus alterius 
successum est ; tironem aut mala disciplina institutum 

16 exercitum acceperunt. at hercule reges non liberi solum 
impedimentis omnibus sed domini rerum temporumque 

1 7 trahunt consiUis cuncta, non secuntur. invictus ergo 
Alexander cum invictis ducibus beUa gessisset et eadem 

18 fortunae pignora in discrimen detuUsset ; immo etiam eo 
plus pericuU subisset, quod Macedones unum Alexandrum 
habuissent, muUis casibus non solum obnoxium sed etiam 

19 offerentem se, Romani muUi fuissent Alexandro vel gloria 
vel rerum magnitudine pares, quorum suo quisque fato sine 
pubUco discrimine viveret morereturque. 

19 Restat, ut copiae copiis comparentur vel numero vel 

2 miUtum genere vel multitudine auxiUorum. censebantur 
eius aetatis lustris ducena quinquagena miUa capitum. 
itaque in omni defectione sociorum Latini nominis urbano 

3 prope dilectu decem scribebantur legiones ; quaterni quini- 
que exercitus saepe per eos annos in Etruria, in Umbria 
GaUis hostibus adiunctis, in Samnio, in Lucanis gerebant 

4 beUum. Latium deinde omne cum Sabinis et Volscis et 
Aequis et omni Campania et parte Umbriae Etruriaeque 
et Picentibus et Marsis PaeUgnisque ac Vestinis atque 
ApuUs adiuncta omni ora Graecorum inferi maris a Thuriis 
NeapoUm et Cumas et inde Antio atque Ostiis tenus 
Samnites aut socios vaUdos Romanis aut fractos beUo 


invenisset hostes. ipse traiecisset mare cum veteranis 5 
Macedonibus, non plus triginta milibus hominum et 
quattuor milibus equitum, maxime Thessalorum ; hoc enim 
roboris erat. Persas, Indos aliasque si adiunxisset gentes, 
impedimentum maius quam auxilium traheret. adde, quod 6 
Romanis ad manum domi supplementum esset, Alexandro, 
quod postea Hannibali accidit, aUeno in agro bellanti 
exercitus consenuisset. arma clipei sarisaeque illis (id est 
hastae) ; Romano scutum, maius corpori tegumentum, 7 
et pilum, haud paulo quam hasta vehementius ictu 
missuque telum. statarius uterque miles, ordines servans ; 8 
sed illa phalanx immobilis et unius generis, Romana acies 
distinctior, ex pluribus partibus constans, facilis partienti, 
quacumque opus esset, facilis iungenti. iam in opere quis 9 
par Romano miles, quis ad tolerandum laborem melior? 
uno proelio victus Alexander bello victus esset : Romanum, 
quem Caudium, quem Cannae non fregerunt, quae fregisset 
acies ? ne ille saepe, etiam si prima prospere evenissent, 10 
Persas et Indos et imbellem Asiam quaesisset et cum 
feminis sibi bellum fuisse dixisset, quod Epiri regem 11 
Alexandrum, mortifero vuhiere ictum, dixisse ferunt, sortem 
bellorum in Asia gestorum ab hoc ipso iuvene cum sua 
conferentem. equidem cum per annos quattuor et viginti 12 
primo Punico bello classibus certatum cum Poenis recordor, 
vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum 
bellum ; et forsitan, cum et foederibus vetustis iuncta res 13 
Punica Romanae esset et timor par adversus communem 
hostem duas potentissimas armis virisque urbis armaret, 
simul Punico Romanoque obrutus bello esset. non 14 
quidem Alexandro duce nec integris Macedonum rebus, sed 
experti tamen sunt Romani Macedonem hostem adversus 
Antiochum, Philippum, Persen non modo cum clade ulla, 
sed ne cum periculo quidem suo. absit invidia verbo et 15 
civiUa beUa sileant : numquam ab equite hoste, numquam 


a pedite, numquam aperta acie^ numquam aequis, utique 
i6 numquam nostris locis laboravimus ; equitem sagittas, 

saltus impeditos avia commeatibus loca gravis armis miles 
1 7 timere potest : mille acies graviores quam Macedonum 

atque Alexandri avertit avertetque, modo sit perpetuus 

huius, qua vivimus, pacis amor et civilis cura concordiae. 

20 M. Folius Flaccina inde et L. Plautius Venox consules 

2 facti. eo anno ab frequentibus Samnitium populis de 
foedere renovando legati cum senatum humi strati movis- 
sent, reiecti ad populum haudquaquam tam efficaces 

3 habebant preces. itaque de foedere negatum ; indutiae 
biennii, cum per aliquot dies fatigassent singulos precibus, 

4 impetratae. et ex Apulia Teanenses Canusinique popula- 
tionibus fessi obsidibus L. Plautio consuli datis in dedi- 
tionem venerunt. 

5 Eodem anno primum praefecti Capuam creari coepti 
legibus ab L. Furio praetore datis, cum utrumque ipsi pro 

6 remedio aegris rebus discordia intestina petissent ; et duae 
Romae additae tribus, Ufentina ac Falerna. 

7 Inclinatis semel in Apulia rebus Teates quoque ApuH 
ad novos consules, C. lunium Bubulcum, Q. Aemilium 
Barbulam, foedus petitum venerunt, pacis per omnem 

8 Apuliam praestandae populo Romano auctores. id au- 
dacter spondendo impetravere, ut foedus daretur neque ut 
aequo tamen foedere, sed ut in dicione populi Romani essent. 

9 Apulia perdomita — nam Forento quoque, valido oppido, 
lunius potitus erat — in Lucanos perrectum ; inde repentino 

10 adventu Aemilii consulis Nerulum vi captum. et postquam 
res Capuae stabilitas Romana disciplina fama per socios 
vulgavit, Antiatibus quoque, qui se sine legibus certis, sine 
magistratibus agere querebantur, dati ab senatu ad iura 
statuenda ipsius coloniae patroni : nec arma modo sed iura 
etiam Romana late pollebant. 

21 C. lunius Bubulcus et Q. Aemilius Barbula consules 


exitu anni non consulibus ab se creatis, Sp. Nautio et 
M. Fopilio, ceterum dictatori L. Aemilio legiones tra- 
diderunt. is cuni L. Fulvio magistro equitum Saticulam 2 
oppugnare adortus rebellandi causam Samnitibus dedit. 
duplex inde terror inlatus Romanis : hinc Samnis magno 3 
exercitu coacto ad eximendos obsidione socios haud procul 
castris Romanorum castra posuit ; hinc Saticulani magno 
cum tumultu patefactis repente portis in stationes hostium 
incurrerunt. inde pars utraque, spe aheni magis auxiUi 4 
quam viribus freta suis, iusto mox proelio inito Romanos 
urgent, et quamquam anceps dimicatio erat, tamen utrim- 
que tutam aciem dictator habuit, quia et locum haud 
facilem ad circumveniendum cepit et diversa statuit signa. 
infestior tamen in erumpentes incessit nec magno certa- 5 
mine intra moenia compulit ; tum totam aciem in Samnites 
obvertit. ibi plus certaminis fuit ; victoria sicut sera, ita 6 
nec dubia nec varia fuit. fusi in castra Samnites exstinctis 
nocte ignibus tacito agmine abeunt et spe abiecta Saticulae 
tuendae PUsticam ipsi, socios Romanorum, ut parem 
dolorem hosti redderent, circumsidunt. 

Anno circumacto bellum deinceps ab dictatore Q. Fabio 22 
gestum est ; consules novi, sicut superiores, Romae manse- 
runt; Fabius ad accipiendum ab AemiUo exercitum ad 
Saticulam cum supplemento venit. neque enim Samnites 2 
ad PUsticam manserant, sed, accitis ab domo novis miUti- 
bus, multitudine freti, castra eodem, quo antea, loco 
posuerant lacessentesque proeUo Romanos avertere ab 
obsidione conabantur. eo intentius dictator in moenia 3 
hostium versus id beUum tantum ducere, quo urbem 
oppugnabat, securior ab Samnitibus agere, stationibus 
modo oppositis, ne qua in castra vis fieret. eo ferocius 4 
adequitare Samnites vaUo neque otium pati. et cum iam 
prope in portis castrorum esset hostis, nihil consulto 
dictatore magister equitum Q. AuUus Cerretanus magno 


tumultu cum omnibus turmis equitum evectus summovit 

5 hostem. tum in minime pertinaci genere pugnae sic 
fortuna exercuit opes, ut insignis utrimque clades et clara 

6 ipsorum ducum ederet funera. prior Samnitium imperator, 
aegre patiens, quo tam ferociter adequitasset inde se fundi 
fugarique, orando hortandoque equites proeUum iteravit ; 

7 in quem insignem inter suos cientem pugnam magister 
equitum Romanus infesta cuspide ita permisit equum, ut 
uno ictu exanimem equo praecipitaret. nec, ut fit, ad 
ducis casum perculsa magis quam irritata est multitudo : 

8 omnes, qui circa erant, in AuHum, temere invectum per 

9 hostium turmas, tela coniecerunt ; fratri praecipuum decus 
ulti Samnitium imperatoris di dederunt. is victorem de- 
tractum ex equo magistrum equitum plenus maeroris atque 
irae trucidavit nec multum afuit, quin corpore etiam, quia 

10 inter hostiles ceciderat turmas, Samnites potirentur. sed 
extemplo ad pedes descensum ab Romanis est coactique 
idem Samnites facere. et repentina acies circa corpora 
ducum pedestre proelium iniit, quo haud dubie superat 
Romanus ; recuperatumque Aulii corpus mixta cum dolore 

11 laetitia victores in castra referunt. Samnites duce amisso 
et per equestre certamen temptatis viribus omissa Saticula, 
quam nequiquam defendi rebantur, ad Plisticae obsidioneiri 
redeunt, intraque paucos dies Saticula Romanus per dedi- 
tionem, PHstica per vim Samnis potitur. 

23 Mutata inde beHi sedes est ; ad Soram ex Samnio ApuHa- 

2 que traductae legiones. Sora ad Samnites defecerat inter- 
fectis colonis Romanorum, quo cum prior Romanus exer- 
citus ad ulciscendam civium necem recuperandamque 

3 coloniam magnis itineribus pervenisset et sparsi per vias 
speculatores sequi legiones Samnitium nec iam procul abesse 

4 ahi super aHos nuntiarent, obviam itum hosti atque ad 
Lautulas ancipiti proeHo dimicatum est. non caedes, non 
fuga akerius partis, sed nox incertos, victi victoresne essent, 


diremit. invenio apud quosdam adversam eam pugnam 5 
Romanis fuisse atque in ea cecidisse Q. Aulium magistrum 
equitum. suffectus in locum Aulii C. Fabius magister equi- 6 
tum cum exercitu novo ab Roma advenit et per praemissos 
nuntios consulto dictatore, ubi subsisteret quove tempore et 
qua ex parte hostem aggrederetur , substitit occultus ad omnia 
satis exploratis consiliis. dictator cum per aliquot dies post 7 
pugnam continuisset suos intra vallum obsessi magis quam 
obsidentis modo, signum repente pugnae proposuit et, efifi- 8 
cacius ratus ad accendendos virorum fortium animos, nullam 
alibi quam in semet ipso cuiquam relictam spem, de magi- 
stro equitum novoque exercitu militem celavit et, tamquam 9 
nulla nisi in eruptione spes esset, ' locis ' inquit ' angustis, 
milites, deprehensi, nisi quam victoria patefecerimus viam, 
nullam habemus. stativa nostra munimento satis tuta sunt, 10 
sed inopia eadem infesta ; nam et circa omnia defecerunt, 
unde subvehi commeatus poterant, et, si homines iuvare 
velint, iniqua loca sunt. itaque non frustrabor ego vos 11 
castra hic reHnquendo, in quae infecta victoria, sicut pristino 
die, vos recipiatis. armis munimenta, non munimentis arma 
tuta esse debent. castra habeant repetantque, quibus operae 12 
est trahere bellum ; nos omnium rerum respectum praeter- 
quam victoriae nobis abscidamus. ferte signa in hostem ; 13 
ubi extra vallum agmen excesserit, castra quibus imperatum 
est incendant. damna vestra, miUtes, omnium circa, qui 
defecerunt, populorum praeda sarcientur.' et oratione dicta- ^4 
toris, quae necessitatis ultimae index erat, milites accensi 
vadunt in hostem, et respectus ipse ardentium castrorum, 
quamquam proximis tantum — ita enim iusserat dictator — 
ignis est subditus, haud parvum fuit irritamentum. itaque 15 
velut vecordes inlati signa primo impetu hostium turbant, et 
in tempore, postquam ardentia procul vidit castra, magister 
equitum — id convenerat signum — hostium terga invadit. 
ita circumventi Samnites, qua potest quisque, fugam per 


i^ diversa petunt ; ingens multitudo in unum metu conglobata 
17 ac semet ipsam turba impediens in medio caesa. castra 
hostium capta direptaque ; quorum praeda onustum militem 
in Romana castra dictator reducit, haudquaquam tam victo- 
ria laetum, quam quod praeter exiguam deformatam incendio 
partem cetera contra spem salva invenit. 
24 Ad Soram inde reditum ; novique consules^ M. Poetelius, 
C. Sulpicius exercitum ab dictatore Fabio accipiunt magna 
parte veterum militum dimissa novisque cohortibus in sup- 

2 plementum adductis. ceterum cum propter difficilem urbis 
situm nec oppugnandi satis certa ratio iniretur et aut tem- 

3 pore longinqua aut praeceps periculo victoria esset, Soranus 
transfuga clam ex oppido profectus, cum ad vigiles Romanos 
penetrasset, duci se extemplo ad consules iubet deductusque 

4 traditurum urbem promittit. visus inde, cum quonam modo 
id praestaturus esset percunctantes doceret, haud vana 
adferre, perpuUt, prope adiuncta moenibus Romana castra 

5 ut sex milia ab oppido removerentur : fore, ut minus intentae 
in custodiam urbis diurnae stationes ac nocturnae vigiliae 
essent. ipse insequenti nocte sub oppido silvestribus locis 
cohortibus insidere iussis decem miHtes delectos secum per 
ardua ac prope invia in arcem ducit, pluribus quam pro 

6 numero virorum missilibus telis eo conlatis ; ad hoc saxa 
erant et temere iacentia, ut fit in aspretis, et de industria 

7 etiam, quo locus tutior esset, ab oppidanis congesta. ubi 
cum constituisset Romanos semitamque angustam et arduam 
erectam ex oppido in arcem ostendisset, ' hoc quidem 
ascensu ' inquit ' vel tres armati quamlibet multitudinem 

8 arcuerint ; vos et decem numero et, quod plus est, Romani 
Romanorumque fortissimi viri estis ; et locus pro vobis et 
nox erit, quae omnia ex incerto maiora territis ostentat. 
ego iam terrore omnia implebo ; vos arcem intenti tenete.' 

9 decurrit inde, quanto maxime poterat cum tumultu, ' ad 
arma ! ' et ' pro vestram fidem. cives,' clamitans ' arx ab 


hostibus capta est ; defendite, ite '. haec incidens principum 10 
foribus, haec obviis, haec excurrentibus in publicum pavidis 
increpat. acceptum ab uno pavorem plures per urbem 11 
ferunt. trepidi magistratus missis ad arcem exploratoribus 
cum tela et armatos tenere arcem multiplicato numero 
audirent, avertunt animos a spe recuperandae arcis ; fuga 12 
cuncta complentur portaeque ab semisomnis ac maxima 
parte inermibus refringuntur, quarum per unam praesidium 
Romanum clamore excitatum irrumpit et concursantes per 
vias pavidos caedit. iam Sora capta erat, cum consules 13 
prima luce advenere et, quos reliquos fortuna ex nocturna 
caede ac fuga fecerat, in deditionem accipiunt. ex his 14 
ducentos viginti quinque, qui omnium consensu destina- 
bantur et infandae colOnorum caedis et defectionis auctores, 
vinctos Romam deducunt ; ceteram multitudinem incolu- 
mem praesidio imposito Sorae relinquunt. omnes, qui 15 
Romam deducti erant, virgis in foro caesi ac securi percussi 
summo gaudio plebis, cuius maxime intererat tutam ubique, 
quae passim in colonias mitteretur, multitudinem esse. 

Consules ab Sora profecti in agros atque urbes Ausonum 25 
bellum intulerunt. mota namque omnia adventu Samni- 2 
tiuni; cum apud Lautulas dimicatum est, fuerant coniura- 
tionesque circa Campaniam passim factae ; nec Capua ipsa 
crimine caruit ; quin Romam quoque et ad principum 3 
quosdam inquirendo ventum est. ceterum Ausonum gens 
proditione urbium, sicut Sora, in potestatem venit. Ausona 4 
et Minturnae et Vescia urbes erant, ex quibus principes 
iuventutis duodecim numero in proditionem urbium suarum 
coniurati ad consules veniunt ; docent suos iam pridem 5 
exoptantes Samnitium adventum, simul ad Lautulas pugna- 
tum audierunt, pro victis Romanos habuisse, iuventute armis 
Samnitem iuvisse ; fugatis inde Samnitibus incerta pace 6 
agere nec claudentes portas Romanis, ne arcessant bellum, 
et obstinatos claudere, si exercitus admoveatur : in ea 


7 fluctuatione animorum opprimi incautos posse. his auctori- 
bus mota propius castra missique eodem tempore circa tria 
oppida milites, partim armati, qui occulti propinqua moeni- 
bus insiderent loca, partim togati tectis veste gladiis, qui 

S sub lucem apertis portis urbes ingrederentur. ab his simul 
custodes trucidari coepti, simul datum signum armatis, ut ex 
insidiis concurrerent. ita portae occupatae triaque oppida 

9 eadem hora eodemque consilio capta. sed quia absentibus 

ducibus impetus est factus, nullus modus caedibus fuit ; 

deletaque Ausonum gens vix certo defectionis crimine, per- 

inde ac si internecivo bello certasset. 

26 Eodem anno prodito hostibus Romano praesidio Luceria 

2 Samnitium facta. nec diu proditoribus impunita res fuit : 
haud procul inde exercitus Romanus erat, cuius prinio 
impetu urbs sita in plano capitur. Lucerini ac Samnites ad 

3 internecionem caesi, eoque ira processit, ut Romae quoque, 
cum de colonis mittendis Luceriam consuleretur senatus, 

4 multi delendam urbem censerent. praeter odium, quod 
exsecrabile in bis captos erat, longinquitas quoque abhorrere 
a relegandis tam procul ab domo civibus inter tam infestas 

5 gentes cogebat. vicit tamen sententia, ut mitterentur coloni. 
duo miUa et quingenti missi. 

Eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae 

6 quoque occultae principum coniurationes factae. de quibus 
cum ad senatum relatum esset, haudquaquam neglecta res : 
quaestiones decretae, dictatoremque quaestionibus exer- 

7 cendis dici placuit. C. Maenius dictus ; is M. FoHum 
magistrum equitum dixit. ingens erat magistratus eius 
terror. itaque, sive is timor seu conscientia fuit, Calavios 
Ovium Noviumque — ea capita coniurationis fuerant — , 
priusquam nominarentur apud dictatorem, mors haud dubie 

8 ab ipsis conscita iudicio subtraxit. deinde ut quaestioni 
Campanae materia decessit, versa Romam interpretando 
res : non nominatim qui Capuae, sed in universum qui 


usquam coissent coniurassentve adversus rem publicam, 
quaeri senatum iussisse ; et coitiones honorum adipiscen- 9 
dorum causa factas adversus rem publicam esse. latiorque 
et re et personis quaestio fieri, haud abnuente dictatore 
sine fine ulla quaestionis suae ius esse. postulabantur ergo 10 
nobiles homines appellantibusque tribunos nemo erat 
auxiho, quin nomina reciperentur. inde nobilitas, nec ii n 
modo, in quos crimen intendebatur, sed universi simul 
negare nobilium id crimen esse, quibus si nuUa obstetur 
fraude, pateat via ad honorem, sed hominum novorum. 
ipsos adeo dictatorem magistrumque equitum reos magis «2 
quam quaesitores idoneos eius criminis esse intellecturosque 
ita id esse, simul magistratu abissent. tum enimvero 13 
Maenius, iam famae magis quam imperii memor, progressus 
in contionem ita verba fecit : ' et omnes ante actae vitae 14 
vos conscios habeo, Quirites, et hic ipse honos delatus ad 
me testis est innocentiae meae ; neque enim, quod saepe 
alias, quia ita tempora postulabant rei publicae, qui bello 
clarissimus esset, sed qui maxime procul ab his coitionibus 
vitam egisset, dictator deUgendus exercendis quaestionibus 
fuit. sed quoniam quidam nobiles homines — qua de causa, 15 
vos existimare quam me pro magistratu quicquam incom- 
pertum dicere melius est — primum ipsas expugnare quaestio- 16 
nes omni ope adnisi sunt, dein, postquam ad id parum 
potentes erant, ne causam dicerent, in praesidia adversario- 
rum, appellationem et tribunicium auxilium, patricii confu- 17 
gerunt, postremo repulsi inde — adeo omnia tutiora^ quam 
ut innocentiam suam purgarent, visa — in nos irruerunt et 
privatis dictatorem poscere reum verecundiae non fuit^ ut 18 
omnes di hominesque sciant ab illis etiam, quae non 
possint, temptari, ne rationem vitae reddant, me obviam 
ire crimini et ofiferre me inimicis reum, dictatura me abdico. 
vos quaeso, consules, si vobis datum ab senatu negotium 19 
fuerit, in me primum et hunc M. Folium quaestiones 

D 2 


exerceatis, ut appareat innocentia nostra nos, non maiestate 

20 honoris tutos a criminationibus istis esse.' abdicat inde se 
dictatura et post eum confestim Folius magisterio equitum ; 
primique apud consules — iis enim ab senatu mandata res 
est — rei facti adversus nobilium testimonia egregie absol- 

21 vuntur. Publilius etiam Philo multiplicatis summis honori- 
bus post res tot domi belloque gestas, ceterum invisus 

2 2 nobihtati, causam dixit absolutusque est. nec diutius, ut 
fit, quam dum recens erat, quaestio per clara nomina 
reorum viguit ; inde labi coepit ad viliora capita, donec 
coitionibus factionibusque, adversus quas comparata erat, 
oppressa est. 

27 Earum fama rerum, magis tamen spes Campanae defectio- 
nis, in quam coniuratum erat^, Samnites in Apuliam versos 

2 rursus ad Caudium revocavit, ut inde ex propinquo, si qui 
motus occasionem aperiret, Capuam Romanis eriperent. 

3 eo consules cum valido exercitu venerunt. et primo circa 
saltus, cum utrimque ad hostem iniqua via esset, cunctati 

4 sunt ; deinde Samnites per aperta loca brevi circuitu in loca 
plana, Campanos campos, agmen demittunt, ibique primum 

5 castra in conspectum hostibus data, deinde levibus proeUis, 
equitum saepius quam peditum, utrimque periculum 
factum ; nec aut eventus eorum Romanum aut morae, qua 

6 trahebant bellum, paenitebat. Samnitium contra ducibus 
et carpi parvis cotidie damnis et senescere dilatione belU 

7 vires suae videbantur. itaque in aciem procedunt equitibus 
in cornua divisis, quibus praeceptum erat, intentiores ad 
respectum castrorum, ne qua eo vis fieret, quam ad proe- 

8 Uum starent : aciem pedite tutam fore. consulum Sulpicius 
in dextro, PoeteUus in laevo cornu consistunt. dextra pars, 
qua et Samnites raris ordinibus aut ad circumeundos hostes 
aut ne ipsi circumirentur constiterant, latius patefacta stetit ; 

9 sinistris, praeterquam quod confertiores steterant, repentino 
consiUo PoeteUi consuUs additae vires, qui subsidiarias 


cohortes, quae integrae ad longioris pugnae casus reserva- 
bantur, in primam aciem extemplo emisit universisque 
hostem primo impetu viribus impulit. commota pedestri 10 
acie Samnitium eques in pugnam succedit. in hunc trans- 
verso agmine inter duas acies se inferentem Romanus 
equitatus concitat equos signaque et ordines peditum atque 
equitum confundit, donec universam ab ea parte avertit 
aciem. in eo cornu non Poetelius solus sed Sulpicius etiam n 
hortator adfuerat, avectus ab suis nondum conserentibus 
manus ad clamorem a sinistra parte prius exortum. unde 12 
haud dubiam victoriam cernens cum ad suum cornu ten- 
deret cum mille ducentis viris, dissimilem ibi fortunam 
invenit, Romanos loco pulsos^ victorem hostem signa in 
perculsos inferentem. ceterum omnia mutavit repente con- 13 
suHs adventus ; nam et conspectu ducis refectus militum 
est animus, et maius quam pro numero auxilium advenerant 
fortes viri, et partis alterius victoria audita, mox visa etiam, 
proelium restituit. tota deinde iam vincere acie Romanus 14 
et omisso certamine caedi capique Samnites, nisi qui Male- 
ventum, cui nunc urbi Beneventum nomen est, perfugerunt. 
ad triginta milia caesa aut capta Samnitium proditum 
memoriae est. 

Consules egregia victoria parta protinus inde ad Bovia- 28 
num oppugnandum legiones ducunt ; ibique hiberna egerunt, 2 
donec ab novis consulibus^ L. Papirio Cursore quintum, 
C. lunio Bubulco iterum, nominatus dictator C. Poetelius 
cum M. Folio magistro equitum exercitum accepit. is cum 3 
audisset arcem Fregellanam ab Samnitibus captam, omisso 
Boviano ad Fregellas pergit. unde nocturna Samnitium 
fuga sine certamine receptis Fregellis praesidioque valido 
imposito in Campaniam reditum maxime ad Nolam armis 
repetendam. eo se intra moenia sub adventum dictatoris 4 
et Samnitium omnis multitudo et Nolani agrestes contule- 
rant. dictator urbis situ circumspecto, quo apertior aditus 5 


ad moenia esset, omnia aedificia — et frequenter ibi habita- 
batur — circumiecta muris incendit ; nec ita multo post, sive 
a Poetelio dictatore sive ab C lunio consule — nam utrum- 

6 que traditur — , Nola est capta. qui captae decus Nolae 
ad consulem trahunt, adiciunt Atinam et Calatiam ab 
eodem captas, Poetelium autem pestilentia orta clavi figendi 
causa dictatorem dictum. 

7 Suessa et Pontiae eodem anno coloniae deductae sunt. 
Suessa Auruncorum fuerat ; Volsci Pontias, insulam sitam 

S in conspectu htoris sui, incoluerant. et Interamnam Succa- 

sinam ut deduceretur colonia, senati consultum factum est; 

sed triumviros creavere ac misere colonorum quattuor milia 

insequentes consules M. Valerius, P. Decius. 

29 Profligato fere Samnitium bello, priusquam ea cura dece- 

2 deret patribus Romanis, Etrusci belli fama exorta est. nec 
erat ea tempestate gens alia, cuius secundum Gallicos 
tumultus arma terribiHora essent cum propinquitate agri 

3 tum multitudine hominum. itaque altero consule in Samnio 
reHquias belli persequenti P. Decius, qui graviter aeger 
Romae restiterat, auctore senatu dictatorem C. Siilpicium 
Longuin, is viagistrum equituin C. lunium Bubulcum dixit. 

4 is, prout rei magnitudo postulabat, omnes iuniores sacra- 
mento adigit, arma quaeque alia res poscit summa industria- 
parat ; nec tantis apparatibus elatus de inferendo bello 
agitat, quieturus haud dubie, nisi ultro arma Etrusci in- 

5 ferrent. eadem in comparando cohibendoque bello consilia 
et apud Etruscos fuere : neutri finibus egressi. 

Et censura clara eo anno Ap. Claudii et C. Plautii fuit, 

6 memoriae tamen feHcioris ad posteros nomen Appii, quod 
viam munivit et aquam in urbem duxit eaque unus perfecit, 

7 quia ob infamem atque invidiosam senatus lectionem vere- 

8 cundia victus collega magistratu se abdicaverat ; Appius 
iam inde antiquitus insitam pertinaciam familiae gerendo 

9 solus censuram obtinuit. eodem Appio auctore Potitii, 


gens, cuius ad aram maximam Hcrculis familiare sacerdo- 
tium fuerat, servos publicos ministerii delegandi causa 
soUemnia eius sacri docuerant. traditur inde, dictu mira- 10 
bile et quod demovendis statu suo sacris religionem facere 
posset, cum duodecim familiae ea tempestate Potitiorum 
essent, puberes ad triginta, omnes intra annum cum stirpe 
exstinctos ; nec nomen tantum Potitiorum interisse sed n 
censorem etiam Appium memori deum ira post aliquot 
annos luminibus captum. itaque consules, qui eum annum 30 
secuti sunt, C. lunius Bubulcus tertium et Q. Aemilius 
Barbula iterum, initio anni questi apud populum deforma- 
tum ordinem prava lectione senatus, qua potiores aliquot 2 
lectis praeteriti essent, negaverunt eam lectionem se, quae 
sine recti pravique discrimine ad gratiam ac libidinem facta 
esset, observaturos et senatum extemplo citaverunt eo 
ordine, qui ante censores Ap. Claudium et C. Plautium 
fuerat. et duo imperia eo anno dari coepta per populum, 3 
utraque pertinentia ad rem militarem : unum, ut tribuni 
militum seni deni in quattuor legiones a populo crearentur, 
quae antea perquam paucis suffragio populi relictis locis 
dictatorum et consulum ferme fuerant beneficia ; tulere eam 
rogationem tribuni plebei L. Atilius, C. Marcius ; alterum, 4 
ut duumviros navales classis ornandae reficiendaeque causa 
idem populus iuberet ; lator huius plebi sciti fuit M. Decius 
tribunus plebis. 

Eiusdem anni rem dictu parvam praeterirem, ni ad 5 
religionem visa esset pertinere. tibicines, quia prohibiti 
a proximis censoribus erant in aede lovis vesci, quod 
traditum antiquitus erat, aegre passi Tibur uno agmine 
abierunt, adeo ut nemo in urbe esset, qui sacrificiis prae- 
cineret. eius rei reUgio tenuit senatum, legatosque Tibur 6 
miserunt, ut darent operam, ut ii homines Romanis resti- 
tuerentur. Tiburtini benigne poUiciti primum accitos eos 7 
in curiam hortati sunt^ uti reverterentur Romam ; postquam 


perpelli nequibant, consilio haud abhorrente ab ingeniis 

8 hominum eos aggrediuntur. die festo alii alios per speciem 
celebrandarum cantu epularum invitant et vino, cuius 

9 avidum ferme id genus est, oneratos sopiunt atque ita in 
plaustra somno vinctos coniciunt ac Romam deportant. 
nec prius sensere, quam plaustris in foro reUctis plenos 

lo crapulae eos lux oppressit. tunc concursus popuU factus, 
impetratoque, ut manerent, datum, ut triduum quotannis 
ornati cum cantu atque hac^ quae nunc soUemnis est, 
Ucentia per urbem vagarentur, restitutumque in aede 
vescendi ius iis, qui sacris praecinerent. haec inter duo- 
rum ingentium beUorum curam gerebantur. 

31 Consules inter se provincias partiti ; lunio Samnites, 

2 AemiUo novum beUum Etruria sorte obvenit. in Samnio 
Cluviani praesidium Romanum, quia nequiverat vi capi, 
obsessum fame in deditionem acceperant Samnites verberi- 
busque foedum in modum laceratos occiderant deditos. 

3 huic infensus crudeUtati lunius, nihil antiquius oppugna- 
tione Cluviani ratus, quo die aggressus est moenia, vi cepit 

4 atque omnes puberes interfecit. inde victor exercitus 
Bovianum ductus. caput hoc erat Pentrorum Samnitium 

5 longe ditissimum atque opulentissimum armis virisque. ibi, 
quia haud tantum irarum erat, spe praedae miUtes accensi 
oppido potiuntur. minus itaque saevitum in hostes est ; 
praedae plus paene quam ex omni Samnio umquam egestum 

6 benigneque omnis miUti concessa. et postquam praepo- 
tentem armis Romanum nec acies subsistere uUae nec 
castra nec urbes poterant, omnium principum in Samnio 
eo curae sunt intentae, ut insidiis quaereretur locus, si qua 
Ucentia populandi effusus exercitus excipi ac circumveniri 

7 posset. transfugae agrestes et captivi, quidam forte, pars 
consiUo oblati, congruentia ad consulem adferentes, quae et 
vera erant, pecoris vim ingentem in saUum avium com- 
pulsam esse, perpulerunt, ut praedatum eo expeditae duce- 


rentur legiones. ibi ingens hostium exercitus itinera 8 
occultus insederat et, postquam intrasse Romanos vidit 
saltum, repente exortus cum clamore ac tumultu incautos 
invadit. et primo nova res trepidationem fecit, dum arma 9 
capiunt, sarcinas congerunt in medium ; dein postquam, ut 
quisque liberaverat se onere aptaveratque armis, ad signa 
undique coibant et notis ordinibus in vetere disciplina 
militiae iam sine praecepto ullius sua sponte struebatur 
acies, consul ad ancipitem maxime pugnam advectus desilit 10 
ex equo et lovem Martemque atque alios testatur deos se 
nullam suam gloriam inde, sed praedam militi quaerentem u 
in eum locum devenisse neque in se aliud quam nimiam 
ditandi ex hoste militis curam reprehendi posse ; ab eo se 
dedecore nuUam rem aliam quam virtutem militum vindi- 
caturam. coniterentur modo uno animo omnes invadere 12 
hostem, victum acie, castris exutum, nudatum urbibus, 
ultimam spem furto insidiaruni temptantem et loco, non 
armis fretum. sed quem esse iam virtuti Romanae inex- 13 
pugnabilem locum ! Fregellana arx Soranaque et ubi- 
cumque iniquo successum erat loco memorabantur. his 14 
accensus miles, omnium immemor difficultatium, vadit 
adversus imminentem hostium aciem. ibi paulum laboris 
fuit, dum in adversum cUvum erigitur agmen ; ceterum 15 
postquam prima signa planitiem summam ceperunt sensitque 
acies aequo se iam institisse loco, versus extemplo est terror 
in insidiatores easdemque latebras, quibus se paulo ante 
texerant, palati atque inermes fuga repetebant. sed loca, 16 
difficilia hosti quaesita, ipsos tum sua fraude impediebant. 
itaque ergo perpaucis effugium patuit ; caesa ad viginti 
miUa hominum victorque Romanus ad oblatam ab hoste 
praedam pecorum discurrit. 

Dum haec geruntur in Samnio, iam omnes Etruriae 32 
populi praeter Arretinos ad arma ierant, ab oppugnando 
Sutrio, quae urbs socia Romanis velut claustra Etruriae 


2 erat, ingens orsi bellum. eo alter consul Aemilius cum 
exercitu ad liberandos obsidione socios venit. advenientibus 
Romanis Sutrini commeatus benigne in castra ante urbem 

3 posita advexere. Etrusci diem primum consultando, matu- 
rarent traherentne bellum, traduxerunt. postero die, ubi 
celeriora quam tutiora consilia magis placuere ducibus, sole 
orto signum pugnae propositum est armatique in aciem 

4 procedunt. quod postquam consuli nuntiatum est, extem- 
plo tesseram dari iubet, ut prandeat miles firmatisque cibo 

6 viribus arma capiat. dicto paretur. consul, ubi armatos 
paratosque vidit, signa extra vallum proferri iussit et haud 
procul hoste instruxit aciem. aUquamdiu intenti utrimque 
steterunt exspectantes, ut ab adversariis clamor et pugna 

6 inciperet ; et prius sol meridie se inclinavit, quam telum 
hinc aut illinc emissum est. inde, ne infecta re abiretur, 
clamor ab Etruscis oritur concinuntque tubae et signa 

7 inferuntur ; nec segnius a Romanis pugna initur, con- 
currunt infensis animis ; numero hostis, virtute Romanus 

8 superat, anceps proeHum multos utrimque et fortissimum 
quemque absumit, nec prius inclinata res est, quam secunda 
acies Romana ad prima signa integri fessis successerunt. 

9 Etrusci, quia nuUis recentibus subsidiis fulta prima acies 
fuit; ante signa circaque omnes ceciderunt. nuUo umquam 
proelio fugae minus nec plus caedis fuisset, ni obstinatos 
mori Tuscos nox texisset^ ita ut victores prius quam victi 

10 pugnandi finem facerent. post occasum solis signum 
receptui datum est; nocte ab utroque in castra reditum. 

11 nec deinde quicquam eo anno rei memoria dignae apud 
Sutrium gestum est, quia et ex hostium exercitu prima tota 
acies deleta uno proelio fuerat subsidiariis modo relictis, vix 

12 quod satis esset ad castrorum praesidium, et apud Romanos 
tantum vulnerum fuit, ut plures post proelium saucii deces- 

33 serint quam ceciderant in acie. Q. Fabius, insequentis 
anni consul, bellum ad Sutrium excepit ; collega Fabio C. 


Marcius Rutilus datus est. ceterum et Fabius supple- 2 
mentum ab Roma adduxit et novus exercitus domo accitus 
Etruscis venit. 

Permulti anni iam erant, cum inter patricios magistratus 3 
tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant, cum ex ea familia, cui 
velut fato lis cum tribunis ac plebe erat, certamen oritur. 
Ap. Claudius censor circumactis decem et octo mensibus, 4 
quod Aemilia lege finitum censurae spatium temporis erat, 
cum C. Plautius, collega eius, magistratu se abdicasset, 
nuUa vi compelli, ut abdicaret, potuit. P. Sempronius erat 5 
tribunus plebis, qui finiendae censurae intra legitimum 
tempus actionem susceperat, non popularcm magis quam 
iustam nec in vulgus quam optimo cuique gratiorem. is 6 
cum identidem legem Aemiliam recitaret auctoremque eius 
Mam. Aemilium dictatorem laudibus ferret, qui quinquen- 
nalem ante censuram et longinquitate potestatis dominan- 
tem intra sex mensum et anni coegisset spatium, ' dic 7 
agedum ' inquit, ' Ap. Claudi, quidnam facturus fueris, si eo 
tempore, quo C Furius et M. Geganius censores fuerunt, 
censor fuisses.' negare Appius interrogationem tribuni 8 
magno opere ad causam pertinere suam ; nam etsi tenuerit 9 
lex Aemilia eos censores, quorum in magistratu lata esset, 
quia post illos censores creatos eam legem populus iussisset 
quodque postremum iussisset, id ius ratumque esset, non 
tamen aut se aut eorum quemquam, qui post eam legem 
latam creati censores essent, teneri ea lege potuisse. haec 34 
sine ullius adsensu cavillante Appio ' en ' inquit, ' Quirites, 
illius Appii progenies, qui decemvir in annum creatus altero 
anno se ipse creavit, tertio nec ab se nec ab ullo creatus 
privatus fasces et imperium obtinuit nec ante continuando 2 
abstitit magistratu, quam obruerent eum male parta^ male 
gesta, male retenta imperia. haec est eadem famiUa, Qui- 3 
rites, cuius vi atque iniuriis compulsi extorres patria Sacrum 
montem cepistis ; haec, adversus quam tribunicium auxilium 


4 vobis comparastis ; haec, propter quam duo exercitus Aven- 
tinum insedistis ; haec, quae faenebres leges, haec, quae 

5 agrarias semper impugnavit. haec conubia patrum et plebis 
interrupit; haec plebi ad curules magistratus iter obsaepsit. 
hoc est nomen multo quam Tarquiniorum infestius vestrae 

6 libertati. itane tandem, Ap. Claudi ? cum centesimus iam 
annus sit ab Mam. Aemilio dictatore, tot censores fuerint, 
nobilissimi fortissimique viri, nemo eorum duodecim tabulas 

• legit? nemo id ius esse, quod postremo populus iussisset, 

7 sciit ? immo vero omnes scierunt et ideo Aemiliae potius 
legi paruerunt quam illi antiquae, qua primum censores 
creati erant, quia hanc postremam iusserat populus et quia, 
ubi duae contrariae leges sunt, semper antiquae obrogat 

8 nova. an hoc dicis, Appi, non teneri Aemilia lege popu- 

9 lum ? an populum teneri, te unum exlegem esse ? tenuit 
Aemilia lex violentos illos censores C. Furium et M. Gega- 
nium, qui, quid iste magistratus in re pubHca mali facere 
posset, indicarunt, cum ira finitae potestatis Mam. AemiHum, 
principem aetatis suae belli domique, aerarium fecerunt ; 

10 tenuit deinceps omnes censores intra centum annorum 
spatium ; tenet C. Plautium, collegam tuum, iisdem auspi- 

11 ciis, eodem iure creatum. an hunc non, ut qui optimo 
iure censor creatus esset, populus creavit ? tu unus eximius 

1 2 es, in quo hoc praecipuum ac singulare valeat ? quem tu 
regem sacrificiorum crees? amplexus regni nomen, ut qui 
optimo iure rex Romae creatus sit, creatum se dicet. quem 
semestri dictatura, quem interregno quinque dierum con- 
tentum fore putes ? quem clavi figendi aut ludorum causa 

13 dictatorem audacter crees ? quam isti stolidos ac socordes 
videri creditis eos, qui intra vicesimum diem ingentibus 
rebus gestis dictatura se abdicaverunt aut qui vitio creati 

14 abierunt magistratu ? quid ego antiqua repetam ? nuper intra 
decem annos C. Maenius dictator^ quia, cum quaestiones 
severius, quam quibusdam potentibus tutum erat, exerceret, 


contagio eius, quod quaerebat ipse, criminis obiectata ab 
inimicis est, ut privatus obviam iret crimini, dictatura se 
abdicavit. nolo ego istam in te modestiam ; ne degenera- 15 
veris a familia imperiosissima et superbissima ; non die, 
non hora citius, quam necesse est, magistratu abieris, 
modo ne excedas finitum tempus. satis est aut diem aut 16 
mensem censurae adicere ? triennium, inquit, et sex menses 
ultra, quam licet Aemilia lege, censuram geram et solus. 
hoc quidem iam regno simile est. an coUegam subrogabis, i7 
quem ne in demortui quidem locum subrogari fas est? 
paenitet enim, quod antiquissimum sollemne et solum ab 18 
ipso, cui fit, institutum deo ab nobilissimis antistitibus eius 
sacri ad servorum ministerium religiosus censor deduxisti, 
gens antiquior originibus urbis huius, hospitio deorum 19 
inmortaUum sancta, propter te ac tuam censuram intra 
annum ab stirpe exstincta est, nisi universam rem pubHcam 
eo nefario obstrinxeris, quod ominari etiam reformidat 
animus. urbs eo lustro capta est, quo demortuo [collega] 20 
C. luHo censore L. Papirius Cursor^ ne abiret magistratu, 
M. Cornelium Maluginensem coUegam subrogavit. et 21 
quanto modestior iUius cupiditas fuit quam tua, Appi ? nec 
solus nec ultra finitum lege tempus L. Papirius censuram 
gessit ; tamen neminem invenit, qui se postea auctorem 
sequeretur ; omnes deinceps censores post mortem collegae 
se magistratu abdicarunt. te nec quod dies exiit censurae, 22 
nec quod coUega magistratu abiit, nec lex nec pudor coercet : 
virtutem in superbia, in audacia, in contemptu deorum 
hominumque ponis. ego te, Ap. Claudi, pro istius magi- 23 
stratus maiestate ac verecundia, quem gessisti, non modo 
manu violatum, sed ne verbo quidem inclementiori a me 
appeUatum veUem ; sed et haec, quae adhuc egi, pervicacia 24 
tua et superbia coegit me loqui, et, nisi AemiUae legi parueris, 
in vincula duci iubebo nec, cum ita comparatum a maioribus 25 
sit, ut comitiis censoriis, nisi duo confecerint legitima suffra- 


gia, non renuntiato altero comitia differantur, ego te, qui 
solus censor creari non possis, solum censuram gerere 
26 patiar.' haec taliaque cum dixisset, prendi censorem et in 
vincula duci iussit. approbantibus sex tribunis actionem 
collegae tres appellanti Appio auxilio fuerunt; summaque 
invidia omnium ordinum solus censuram gessit. 

35 Dum ea Romae geruntur, iam Sutrium ab Etruscis obside- 
batur, consulique Fabio imis montibus ducenti ad ferendam 
opem sociis temptandasque munitiones, si qua posset, acies 

2 hostium instructa occurrit ; quorum ingentem multitudinem 
cum ostenderet subiecta late planities, consul, ut loco 
paucitatem suorum adiuvaret, flectit paululum in clivos agmen 
— aspreta erant strata saxis — , inde signa in hostem obvertit. 

3 Etrusci omnium praeterquam multitudinis suae, qua sola 
freti erant, immemores proelium ineunt adeo raptim et avide, 
ut abiectis missilibus, quo celerius manus consererent, 

4 stringerent gladios vadentes in hostem ; Romanus contra 
nunc tela nunc saxa, quibus eos affatim locus ipse armabat, 

5 ingerere. igitur scuta galeaeque ictae cum etiam quos non 
vulneraverant turbarent, neque subire erat facile ad propio- 
rem pugnam, neque missiHa habebant, quibus eminus rem 

6 gererent ; stantes et expositos ad ictus, cum iam satis nihil 
tegeret, quosdam etiam pedem referentes fluctuantemqiie 
et instabilem aciem redintegrato clamore strictis gladiis 

7 hastati et principes invadunt. eum impetum non tulerunt 
Etrusci versisque signis fuga effusa castra repetunt. sed 
equites Romani praevecti per obhqua campi cum se fugien- 
tibas obtulissent, omisso ad castra itinere montes petunt ; 

8 inde inermi paene agmine ac vexato vulneribus in silvam 
Ciminiam penetratum. Romanus multis miUbus Etruscorum 
caesis, duodequadraginta signis militaribus captis, castris 
etiam hostium cum praeda ingenti potitur. tum de perse- 
quendo hoste agitari coeptum. 

36 Silva erat Ciminia magis tum invia atquc horrenda, quam 


nuper fuere Germanici saltus, nuUi ad eam diem ne 
mercatorum quidem adita. eam intrare haud fere quis- 
quam praeter ducem ipsum audebat ; aliis omnibus 
cladis Caudinae nondum memoria aboleverat. tum ex 2 
iis, qui aderant, consulis frater M. Fabius — Caesonem alii, 
C. Claudium quidam, matre eadem qua consulem genitum, 
tradunt — speculatum se iturum professus brevique omnia 
certa adlaturum. Caere educatus apud hospites, Etruscis 3 
inde litteris eruditus erat Unguamque Etruscam probe 
noverat. habeo auctores vulgo tum Romanos pueros, 
sicut nunc Graecis, ita Etruscis litteris erudiri soUtos ; sed 4 
propius est vero praecipuum aUquid fuisse in eo, qui se tani 
audaci simulatione hostibus immiscuerit. servus ei dicitur 
comes unus fuisse, nutritus una eoque haud ignarus Unguae 
eiusdem ; nec quicquam aUud proficiscentes quam sum- 5 
matim regionis, quae intranda erat, naturam ac nomina 
principum in popuUs accepere, ne qua inter conloquia 
insigni nota haesitantes deprendi possent. iere pastoraU 6 
habitu, agrestibus teUs, falcibus gaesisque binis, armati. sed 
neque commercium U'nguae nec vestis armorumve habitus 
sic eos texit, quam quod abhorrebat ab fide quemquam 
externum Ciminios saltus intraturum. usque ad Camertes 7 
Umbros penetrasse dicuntur. ibi, qui essent, fateri Roma- 
num ausum introductumque in senatum consuUs verbis 
egisse de societate amicitiaque atque inde comi hospitio 
acceptum nuntiare Romanis iussum, commeatum exercitui 8 
dierum triginta praesto fore, si ea loca intrasset, iuventu- 
temque Camertium Umbrorum in armis paratam imperio 
fuluram. haec cum relata consuU essent, impedimentis 9 
prima vigiUa praemissis, legionibus post impedimenta ire 
iussis ipse substitit cum equitatu et luce orta postero die 10 
obequitavit stationibus hostium, quae extra saltum dis- 
positae erant ; et cum satis diu tenuisset hostem, in castra 
sese recepit portaque altera egressus ante noctem agmen 


ri adsequitur. postero die luce prinia iuga Ciminii montis 
tenebat. inde contemplatus opulenta Etruriae arva milites 

12 emittit. ingenti iam abacta praeda tumultuariae agrestium 
Etruscorum cohortes repente a principibus regionis eius 
concitatae Romanis occurrunt adeo incompositae, ut vindices 

13 praedaruln prope ipsi praedae fuerint. caesis fugatisque iis, 
late depopulato agro victor Romanus opulentusque rerum 

14 omnium copia in castra rediit. eo forte quinque legati 
cum duobus tribunis plebis venerant denuntiatum Fabio 
senatus verbis, ne saltum Ciminium transiret. laetati 
serius se, quam ut impedire bellum possent, venisse, nuntii 
victoriae Romam revertuntur. 

37 Hac expeditione consulis motum latius erat quam pro- 
fligatum bellum ; vastationem namque sub Ciminii niontis 
radicibus iacens ora senserat, conciveratque indignatione 

2 non Etruriae modo populos sed Umbriae finitima. itaque 
quantus non umquam antea exercitus ad Sutrium venit; 
neque e silvis tantummodo promota castra, sed etiam 
aviditate dimicandi quam primum in campos delata acies. 

3 deinde instructa primo suo stare loco, relicto hostibus 
ad instruendum contra spatio ; dein, postquam detractare 

4 hostem sensere pugnam, ad vallum subeunt. ubi postquam 
stationes quoque receptas intra munimenta sensere, clamor 
repente circa duces ortus, ut eo sibi e castris cibaria eius 
die deferri iuberent : mansuros se sub armis et aut nocte 

5 aut certe luce prima castra hostium invasuros. nihilo 
quietior Romanus exercitus imperio ducis continetur. 
decima erat fere diei hora, cum cibum capere consul 
miUtes iubet; praecipit, ut in armis sint, quacumque diei 

6 noctisve hora signum dederit ; paucis milites adloquitur, 
Samnitium bella extoUit, elevat Etruscos ; nec hostem hosti 
nec multitudinem multitudini comparandam ait ; esse prae- 
terea telum aUud occultum ; scituros in tempore ; interea 

7 taceri opus esse.- his ambagibus prodi simulabat hostes, 


quo animus militum multitudine territus restitueretur ; et, 
quod sine munimento consederant, veri similius erat quod 
simulabatur. curati cibo corpora quieti dant et quarta 
fere vigilia sine tumultu excitati arma capiunt. dolabrae 8 
calonibus dividuntur ad vallum proruendum fossasque 
implendas. intra munimenta instruitur acies, delectae 
cohortes ad portarum exitus conlocantur. dato deinde signo 9 
paulo ante lucem, quod aestivis noctibus sopitae maxime 
quietis tempus est, proruto vallo erupit acies, stratos passim 
invadit hostes ; aHos immobiles, aHos semisomnos in cubiH- 
bus suis, maximam partem ad arma trepidantes caedes 
oppressit ; paucis armandi se datum spatium est ; eos ipsos 10 
non signum certum, non ducem sequentes fundit Romanus 
fugatosque persequitur. ad castra, ad silvas diversi tende- 
bant. silvae tutius dedere refugium ; nam castra in campis 
sita eodem die capiuntur. aurum argentumque iussum 
referri ad consulem ; cetera praeda miHtis fuit. caesa aut ri 
capta eo die hostium miHa ad sexaginta. eam tam claram 
pugnam trans Ciminiam silvam ad Perusiam pugnatam 
quidam auctores sunt metuque in magno civitatem fuisse, 
ne interclusus exercitus tam infesto saltu coortis undique 
Tuscis Umbrisque opprimeretur. sed ubicumque pugnatum 12 
est, res Romana superior fuit. itaque a Perusia et Cortona 
et Arretio, quae ferme capita Etruriae populorum ea 
tempestate erant, legati pacem foedusque ab Romanis 
petente indutias in triginta annos impetraverunt. 

Dum haec in Etruria geruntur, consul alter C. Marcius 38 
Rutilus AUifas de Samnitibus vi cepit. multa aHa casteHa 
vicique aut deleta hostiHter aut integra in potestatem venere. 
per idem tempus et classis Romana a P. CorneHo, quem 2 
senatus maritimae orae praefecerat, in Campaniam acta 
cum appulsa Pompeios esset, socii inde navales ad depopu- 
landum agrum Nucerinum profecti, proximis raptim vastatis, 
unde reditus tutus ad naves esset, dulcedine, ut fit, praedae 


3 longius progressi excivere hostes. palatis per agros nemo 
obvius fuit, cum occidione occidi possent; redeuntes 
agmine incauto haud procul navibus adsecuti agrestes 
exuerunt praeda, partem etiam occiderunt ; quae superfuit 
caedi trepida multitudo ad naves compulsa est. 

4 Profectio Q. Fabii trans Ciminiam silvam quantum Romae 
terrorem fecerat, tam laetam famam in Samnium ad hostes 
tulerat interclusum Romanum exercitum obsideri, cladisque 

5 imaginem furculas Caudinas memorabant : eadem temeri- 
tate avidam ulteriorum semper gentem in saltus invios 
deductam, saeptam non hostium magis armis quam locorum 

6 iniquitatibus esse. iam gaudium invidia quadam misce- 
batur, quod belli Romani decus ab Samnitibus fortuna ad 

7 Etruscos avertisset. itaque armis virisque ad opprimendum 
C. Marcium consulem concurrunt, protinus inde Etruriam 
per Marsos ac Sabinos petituri, si Marcius dimicandi po- 

8 testatem non faciat. obvius iis consul fuit. dimicatum 
proeHo utrimque atroci atque incerto eventu est, et cum 
anceps caedes fuisset, adversae tamen rei fama in Romanos 
vertit ob amissos quosdam equestris ordinis tribunosque 
militum atque unum legatum et, quod insigne maxime fuit, 

9 consulis ipsius vulnus. ob haec etiam aucta fama, ut solet, 
ingens terror patres invasit, dictatoremque dici placebat; 
nec, quin Cursor Papirius diceretur, in quo tum summa rei 

10 beUicae ponebatur, dubium cuiquam erat. sed nec in Sam- 
nium nuntium perferri omnibus infestis tuto posse nec 

11 vivere Marcium consulem satis fidebant ; alter consul 
Fahius infestus privatim Papirio erat. quae ne ira obstaret 
bono publico, legatos ex consularium numero mittendos ad 

13 eum senatus censuit, qui sua quoque eum, non pubhca 
solum auctoritate moverent, ut memoriam simultatiurn 

13 patriae remitteret. profecti legati ad Fabium cum senatus 
consultum tradidissent adiecissentque orationem convenien- 
tem mandatis, consul demissis in terram ocuHs tacitus ab 


incertis, quidnam acturus esset, legatis recessit ; nocte 14 
deinde silentio, ut mos est, L. Papirium dictatorem dixit. 
cui cum ob animum egregie victum legati gratias agerent, 
obstinatum silentium obtinuit ac sine responso ac mentione 
facti sui legatos dimisit, ut appareret insignem dolorem 
ingenti comprimi animo. Papirius C. lunium Bubulcum 15 
magistrum equitum dixit ; atque ei legem curiatam de 
imperio ferenti triste omen diem diffidit, quod Faucia curia 
fuit principium, duabus insignis cladibus, captae urbis et 
Caudinae pacis, quod utroque anno eiusdem curiae fuerat 
principium. Macer Licinius tertia etiam clade, quae ad 16 
Cremeram accepta est, abominandam eam curiam facit. 
dictator postero die auspiciis repetitis pertulit legem ; et 39 
profectus cum legionibus ad terrorem traducti silvam Cimi- 
niam exercitus nuper scriptis ad Longulam pervenit acce- 
ptisque a Marcio consule veteribus militibus in aciem copias 
eduxit. nec hostes detractare visi pugnam. instructos 2 
deinde armatosque, cum ab neutris proelium inciperet, nox 
oppressit. quieti aliquamdiu, nec suis diffidentes viribus 3 
nec hostem spernentes, stativa in propinquo habuere. * * 
nam et cum Umbrorum exercitu acie depugnatum est ; fusi 4 
tamen magis quam caesi hostes, quia coeptam acriter non 
tolerarunt pugnam ; et ad Vadimonis lacum Etrusci lege 5 
sacrata coacto exercitu, cum vir virum legisset, quantis 
numquam aUas ante simul copiis simul animis dimicarunt ; 
tantoque irarum certamine gesta res est, ut ab neutra parte 6 
emissa sint tela. gladiis pugna coepit et acerrime com- 
missa ipso certamine, quod aliquamdiu anceps fuit, accensa 
est, ut non cum Etruscis totiens victis, sed cum aUqua nova 
gente videretur dimicatio esse. nihil ab ulla parte movetur 7 
fugae ; cadunt antesignani, et, ne nudentur propugnatoribus 
signa, fit ex secunda prima acies. ab ultimis deinde sub- 8 
sidiis cietur miles ; adeoque ad ultimum laboris ac pericuh 
ventum est, ut equites Romani omissis equis ad primos 


ordines peditum per arma, per corpora evaserint. ea velut 

nova inter fessos exorta acies turbavit signa Etruscorum ; 

9 secuta deinde impetum eorum, utcumque adfecta erat, cetera 

10 multitudo tandem perrumpit ordines hostium. tunc vinci 
pertinacia coepta et averti manipuli quidam, et, ut semel 

11 dedere terga, etiam certiorem capessere fugam. ille pri- 
mum dies fortuna vetere abundantes Etruscorum fregit opes. 
caesum in acie, quod roboris fuit ; castra eodem impetu 
capta direptaque. 

40 Pari subinde periculo gloriaeque eventu bellum in Sam- 
nitibus erat, qui praeter ceteros belli apparatus, ut acies 

2 sua fulgeret novis armorum insignibus, fecerunt. duo exer- 
citus erant ; scuta alterius auro, alterius argento caelaverunt ; 
forma erat scuti : sumnium latius^, qua pectus atque umeri 
teguntur, fastigio aequali ; ad imum cuneatior mobilitatis 

3 causa. spongia pectori tegumentum, et sinistrum crus ocrea 
tectum ; galeae cristatae, quae speciem magnitudini corpo- 
rum adderent. tunicae auratis militibus versicolores, ar- 
gentatis linteae candidae. his dextrum cornu datum ; illi 

4 in sinistro consistunt. notus iam Romanis apparatus insi- 
gnium armorum fuerat, doctique a ducibus erant horridum 
militem esse debere, non caelatum auro et argento, sed 

5 ferro et animis fretum ; quippe illa praedam verius quam 
arma esse, nitentia ante rem, deformia inter sanguinemet 

6 vulnera ; virtutem esse militis decus, et omnia illa victoriam 
sequi et ditem hostem quamvis pauperis victoris praemium 

7 esse. his Cursor vocibus instinctos milites in proeHum 
ducit. dextro ipse cornu consistit, sinistro praefecit magi- 

8 strum equitum. simul est concursum, ingens fuit cum 
hoste certamen, non segnius inter dictatorem et magistrum 

9 equitum^ ab utra parte victoria inciperet. prior forte lunius 
commovit hostem, laevo dextrum cornu, sacratos more 
Samnitium miUtes eoque candida veste et paribus candore 
armis insignes. eos se Orco mactare lunius dictitans cum 


intulisset signa, turbavit ordines et haud dubie impulit aciem. 
quod ubi sensit dictator, *ab laevone cornu victoria in- 10 
cipiet ' inquit, ' et dextrum cornu, dictatoris acies, alienam 
pugnam sequetur, non parteui maximam victoriae trahet ? ' 
concitat mihtes ; nec peditum virtuti equites aut legatorum n 
studia ducibus cedunt. M. Valerius a dextro, P. Decius t2 
ab laevo cornu, ambo consulareS; ad equites in cornibus 
positos evehuntur adhortatique eos, ut partem secum capes- 
serent decoris, in transversa latera hostium incurrunt. is 13 
novus additus terror cum ex parte utraque circumvasisset 
aciem et ad terrorem hostium legiones Romanae redinte- 
grato clamore intuUssent gradum, tum fuga ab Samnitibus 
coepta. iam strage hominum armorumque insignium campi 14 
repleri. ac primo pavidos Samnites castra sua accepere, 
deinde ne ea quidem retenta ; captis direptisque ante 
noctem iniectus ignis. dictator ex senatus consulto trium- 15 
phavit, cuius triumpho longe maximam speciem captiva 
arma praebuere. tantum magnificentiae visum in iis, ut 16 
aurata scuta dominis argentariorum ad forum ornandum divi 
derentur. inde natum initium dicitur fori ornandi ab aedi- 
Ubus, cum tensae ducerentur. et Romani quidem ad 17 
honorem deum insignibus armis hostium usi sunt ; Cam- 
pani ab superbia et odio Samnitium gladiatores, quod 
spectaculum inter epulas erat, eo ornatu armarunt Samni- 
tiumque nomine compeUarunt. 

Eodem anno cum reUquiis Etruscorum ad Perusiam, 18 
quae et ipsa indutiarum fidem ruperat, Fabius consul nec 
dubia nec difificiU victoria dimicat. ipsum oppidum — nam 19 
ad moenia victor accessit — cepisset, ni legati dedentes 
urbem exissent. praesidio Perusiae imposito, legationibus 20 
Etruriae amicitiam petentibus prae se Romam ad senatum 
missis, consul praestantiore etiam quam dictator victoria 
triumphans urbem est invectus ; quin etiam devictorum 21 
Samnitium decus magna ex parte ad legatos, P. Decium et 


M. Valerium, est versum ; quos populus proximis comitiis 
ingenti consensu consulem alterum, alterum praetorem 
41 Fabio ob egregie perdomitam Etruriam continuatur consu- 
latus, Decius collega datur. (Valerius praetor quartum 

2 creatus.) consules partiti provincias : Etruria Decio, Sam- 

3 nium Fabio evenit. is profectus ad Nuceriam Alfaternam, 
cum pacem petentes, quod uti ea, cum daretur, noluissent, 

4 aspernatus esset, oppugnando ad deditionem subegit. cum 
Samnitibus acie dimicatum ; haud magno certamine hostes 
victi; neque eius pugnae memoria tradita foret, ni Marsi 
eo primum proeHo cum Romanis bellassent. secuti Mar 
sorum defectionem Paeligni eandem fortunam habuerunt 

5 Decio quoque, alteri consuli, secunda belli fortuna erat 
Tarquiniensem metu subegerat frumentum exercitui prae 

6 bere atque indutias in quadraginta annos petere. Volsinien- 
sium castella ahquot vi cepit ; quaedam ex iis diruit, ne 
receptaculo hostibus essent ; circumferendoque passim bello 
tantum terrorem sui fecit, ut nomen omne Etruscum foedus 
ab consule peteret. ac de eo quidem nihil impetratum ; 

7 indutiae annuae datae. stipendium exercitu Romano ab 
hoste in eum annum pensum et binae tunicae in miUtem 
exactae ; ea merces indutiarum fuit. 

8 Tranquillas res iam in Etruscis turbavit repentina defectio 
Umbrorum, gentis integrae a cladibus belli, nisi quod 

9 transitum exercitus ager senserat. ii concitata omni iuven- 
tute sua et magna parte Etruscorum ad rebelUonem com- 
pulsa- tantum exercitum fecerant, ut reHcto post se in 
Etruria Decio ad oppugnandam inde Romam ituros, magni- 
fice de se ac contemptim de Romanis loquenteS; iactarent. 

10 quod inceptum eorum ubi ad Decium consulem perlatum 
est, ad urbem ex Etruria magnis itineribus pergit et in agro 

11 Pupiniensi ad famam intentus hostium consedit. nec 
Romae spernebatur Umbrorum bellum, et ipsae nnnae 


nietum fecerant expertis Gallica clade, quani intutam urbem 
incolerent. itaque legati ad Fabium consulem missi sunt, 12 
ut, si quid laxamenti a bello Samnitium esset, in Umbriam 
propere exercitum duceret. dicto paruit consul magnisque 13 
itineribus ad Mevaniam, ubi tum copiae Umbrorum erant, 
perrexit. repens adventus consulis, quem procul Umbria 14 
in Samnio bello alio occupatum crediderant, ita exterruit 
Umbros, ut alii recedendum ad urbes munitas, quidam 
omittendum bellum censerent; plaga una — Materinam ipsi 15 
appellant — non continuit modo ceteros in armis, sed con- 
festim ad certamen egit. castra vallantem Fabium adorti 
sunt. quos ubi effusos ruere in munimenta consul vidit, 16 
revocatos milites ab opere, prout loci natura tempusque 
patiebatur, ita instruxit ; cohortatusque praedicatione vera 
qua in Tuscis, qua in Samnio partorum decorum exiguam 
appendicem Etrusci belli conficere iubet et vocis impiae 
poenas expetere, qua se urbem Romanam oppugnaturos 
minati sunt. haec tanta sunt alacritate militum audita, ut 17 
clamor sua sponte ortus loquentem interpellaverit ducem. 
ante imperium, ante concentum tubarum ac cornuum cursu 
effuso in hostem feruntur. non tamquam in viros aut 18 
armatos incurrunt ; mirabilia dictu, signa primo eripi coepta 
signiferis, deinde ipsi signiferi trahi ad consulem, armatique 
milites ex acie in aciem transferri^ et, sicubi est certamen, 
scutis magis quam gladiis geritur res; umbonibus incus- 
saque ala sternuntur hostes. plus capitur hominum quam 19 
caeditur, atque una vox ponere arma iubentium per totam 
fertur aciem. itaque inter ipsum certamen facta deditio ao 
est a primis auctoribus belli. postero insequentibusque 
diebus et ceteri Umbrorum populi deduntur ; Ocriculani 
sponsione in amicitiam accepti. 

Fabius, alienae sortis victor belli, in suam provinciam 42 
exercitum reduxit. itaque ei ob res tam feliciter gestas, 2 
sicut priore anno populus continuaverat consulatum, ita 

T. LIVl 

senatus in insequentem annum, quo Ap. Claudius, L. Vo- 
lumnius consules fuerunt, prorogavit raaxime Appio adver- 

3 sante imperium. Appium censorem petisse consulatum 
comitiaque eius ab L. Furio tribuno plebis interpellata, 
donec se censura abdicavit, in quibusdam annalibus invenio. 

4 creatus consul, cum coUegae novum bellum Sallentini 
hostes decernerentur, Romae mansit, ut urbanis artibus 

5 opes augeret, quando belli decus penes alios esset. Volum- 
nium provinciae haud paenituit ; multa secunda proelia 
fecit, aliquot urbes hostium vi cepit. praedae erat largitor 
et benignitatem per se gratam comitate adiuvabat miUtem- 
que his artibus fecerat et pericuU et laboris avidum. 

6 Q. Fabius pro consule ad urbem AlUfas cum Samnitium 
exercitu signis conlatis confligit. minime ambigua res fuit ; 
fusi hostes atque in castra compulsi. nec castra forent 
retenta, ni exiguum superfuisset diei ; ante noctem tamen 
sunt circumsessa et nocte custodita, ne quis elabi posset. 

*l postero die vixdum luce certa deditio fieri coepta, et pacti, 
qui Samnitium forent, ut cum singulis vestimentis emitte- 

8 rentur ; ii omnes sub iugum missi. sociis Samnitium nihil 
_ cautum ; ad septem milia sub corona veniere. qui se 

9 civem Hernicum dixerat, seorsus in custodia habitus. eos 
omnes Fabius Romam ad senatum misit ; et cum quae- 
situm esset, dilectu an voluntarii pro Samnitibus adversus 

10 Romanos bellassent, per Latinos populos custodiendi dantur, 
iussique eam integram rem novi consules P. Cornelius 
Arvina, Q. Marcius Tremulus — hi enim iam creati erant — 

11 ad senatum referre. id aegre passi Hernici ; conciHum 
populorum omnium habentibus Anagninis in circo, quem 
Maritimum vocant, praeter Aletrinatem Ferentinatemque 
et Verulanum omnes Hernici nominis populi populo 
Romano beUum indixerunt. 

43 In Samnio quoque, quia decesserat inde Fabius, novi 
motus exorti. Calatia et Sora praesidiaque, quae in iis 


Romana erant, expugnata, et in captivorum corpora militum 
foede saevitum. itaque eo P. Cornelius cum exercitu 2 
missus ; Marcio novi hostes — iam enim Anagninis Hernicis- 
que aliis bellum iussum erat — decernuntur. primo ita 3 
omnia opportuna loca hostes inter consulum castra inter- 
ceperunt, ut pervadere expeditus nuntius non posset et per 4 
aliquot dies incerti rerum omnium suspensique de statu 
alterius uterque consul ageret Romamque is metus manaret, 
adeo ut omnes iuniores sacramento adigerentur atque ad 
subita rerum duo iusti scriberentur exercitus. ceterum 5 
Hernicum bellum nequaquam pro praesenti terrore ac ve- 
tusta gentis gloria fuit. nihil usquam dictu dignum ausi, 6 
trinis castris intra paucos dies exuti, triginta dierum indutias 
ita, ut ad senatum Romam legatos mitterent, pacti sunt 
bimestri stipendio frumentoque et singulis in miHtem tunicis. 
ab senatu ad Marcium reiecti, cui senatus consulto per- 7 
missum de Hernicis erat, isque eam gentem in deditionem 
accepit. et in Samnio alter consul superior viribus, locis 
impeditior erat. omnia itinera obsaepserant hostes saltusque s 
pervios ceperant^ ne qua subvehi commeatus possent ; neque 
eos, cum cotidie signa in aciem consul proferret, elicere 
ad certamen poterat, satisque apparebat neque Samnitem 9 
certamen praesens nec Romanum dilationem belH laturum. 
adventus Marcii, qui Hernicis subactis maturavit coUegae 10 
venire auxilio, moram certaminis hosti exemit. nam ut qui n 
ne alteri quidem exercitui se ad certamen credidissent pares, 
coniungi utique passi duos consulares exercitus nihil crede- 
rent superesse spei, advenientem incomposito agmine Mar- 
cium aggrediuntur. raptim conlatae sarcinae in medium, 12 
et, prout tempus patiebatur, instructa acies. clamor primum 
in stativa perlatus, dein conspectus procul pulvis tumultum 
apud alterum consulem in castris fecit ; isque confestim 13 
arma capere iussis raptimque eductis in aciem militibus 
transversam hostium aciem atque alio certamine occupatam 


14 invadit clamitans summum flagitium fore, si alterum exerci- 
tum utriusque victoriae compotem sinerent fieri nec ad se 

15 sui belli vindicarent decus. qua impetum dederat, perrum- 
pit aciemque per mediam in castra hostium tendit et vacua 

16 defensoribus capit atque incendit. quae ubi flagrantia 
Marcianus miles conspexit et hostes respexere, tum passim 
fuga coepta Samnitium fieri ; sed omnia obtinet caedes, nec 

1 7 in ullam partem tutum perfugium est. iam triginta miUbus 
hostium caesis signum receptui consules dederant collige- 
bantque in unum copias in vicem inter se gratantes, cum 
repente visae procul hostium novae cohortes, quae in sup- 

iSpIementum scriptae fuerant, integravere caedem. in quas 
nec iussu consulum nec signo accepto victores vadunt, malo 

19 tirocinio imbuendum Samnitem clamitantes. indulgent con- 
sules legionum ardori, ut qui probe scirent novum militem 
hostium inter perculsos fiiga veteranos ne temptando quidem 

20 satis certamini fore. nec eos opinio fefelHt ; omnes Samni- 
tium copiae, veteres novaeque, montes proximos fuga ca- 
piunt. eo et Romana erigitur acies, nec quicquam satis tuti 
loci victis est, et de iugis, quae ceperant, funduntur ; iamque 

21 una voce omnes pacem petebant. tum trium mensum 
frumento imperato et annuo stipendio ac singulis in militem 

22 tunicis ad senatum pacis oratores missi. CorneUus in 
Samnio relictus ; Marcius de Hernicis triumphans in urbem 
rediit, statuaque equestris in foro decreta est, quae ante 

23 templum Castoris posita est. Hernicorum tribus popuHs, 
Aletrinati Verulano Ferentinati, quia maluerunt quam civi- 
tatem, suae leges redditae, conubiumque inter ipsos, quod 

24 aHquamdiu soH Hernicorum habuerunt, permissum. Anag- 
ninis quique arma Romanis intulerant civitas sine suffragii 
latione data, conciHa conubiaque adempta et magistratibus 
praeterquam sacrorum curatione interdictum. 

25 Eodem anno aedes Salutis a C. lunio Bubulco censore 
locata est, quam consul beUo Samnitium voverat. ab eodeni 
coUegaque eius M. Valerio Maximo viae per agros pubUca 


impensa factae. et cum Carthaginiensibus eodem anno 26 
foedus tertio renovatum, legatisque eorum, qui ad id vene- 
rant, comiter munera missa. 

Dictatorem idem annus habuit P. Cornelium Scipionem 44 
cum magistro equitum P. Decio Mure. ab his, propter 2 
quae creati erant, comitia consularia habita, quia neuter 
consulum potuerat bello abesse. creati consules L. Postu- 3 
mius, Ti. Minucius. hos consules Piso Q. Fabio et P. 
Decio suggerit, biennio exempto, quo Claudium Volumnium- 
que et Cornelium cum Marcio consules factos tradidimus. 
memoriane fugerit in annalibus digerendis, an consulto binos 4 
consules, falsos ratus, transcenderit, incertum est. 

Eodem anno in campum Stellatem agri Campani Samni- 5 
tium incursiones factae. itaque ambo consules in Samnium 6 
missi cum diversas regiones, Tifernum Postumius, Bovianum 
Minucius petisset, Postumii prius ductu ad Tifernum pugna- 
tum. alii haud dubie Samnites victos ac viginti niilia 7 
hominum capta tradunt, aUi Marte aequo discessum, et 8 
Postumium, metuni simulantem, nocturno itinere clam in 
montes copias abduxisse, hostes secutos duo milia inde 
locis munitis et ipsos consedisse. consul, ut stativa tuta 9 
copiosaque— et ita erant — petisse videretur, postquam et 
munimentis castra firmavit et omni apparatu rerum utiUum 
instruxit, relicto firmo praesidio de vigiUa tertia, qua duci 10 
proxime potest, expeditas legiones ad coUegam, et ipsum 
adversus aUos sedentem, ducit. ibi auctore Postumio Minu- n 
cius cum hostibus signa confert, et, cum anceps proeUum 
in multum diei processisset, tum Postumius integris legioni- 
bus defessam iam aciem hostium improviso invadit. itaque 12 
cum lassitudo ac vulnera fugam quoque praepedissent, 
occidione occisi hostes, signa unum et viginti capta atque 
inde ad castra Postumii perrectum. ibi duo victores exerci- 13 
tus perculsum iam fama hostem adorti fundunt fugantque ; 
signa miUtaria sex et viginti capta et imperator Samnitium 
Statius GeUius muUique aUi mortales et castra utraque 


14 capta. et Bovianum urbs postero die coepta oppugnari 
brevi capitur, magnaque gloria rerum gestarum consules 

15 triumpharunt. Minucium consulem, cum vulnere gravi 
relatum in castra, mortuum quidam auctores sunt et M. 
Fulvium in locum eius consulem suffectum, et ab eo, cum 
ad exercitum Minuci missus esset, Bovianum captum. 

i6 Eo^m anno Sora, Arpinum, Cesennia recepta ab Samni- 

tibus. Herculis magnum simulacrum in Capitolio positum 


45 P. Sulpicio Saverrione P. Sempronio Sopho consulibus 

Samnites, seu finem seu dilationem belli quaerentes, legatos 

2 de pace Romam misere. quibus suppliciter agentibus re- 
sponsum est, nisi saepe bellum parantes pacem petissent 
Samnites, oratione ultro citro habita de pace transigi po- 
tuisse ; nunc, quando verba vana ad id locorum fuerint, rebus 

3 standum esse. P. Sempronium consulem cum exercitu 
brevi in Samnio fore ; eum, ad bellum pacemne inclinent 
animi, falli non posse ; comperta omnia senatui relaturum ; 

4 decedentem ex Samnio consulem legati sequerentur. eo 
anno cum pacatum Samnium exercitus Romanus benigne 
praebito commeatu peragrasset, foedus antiquum Samniti- 
bus redditum. 

5 Ad Aequos inde, veteres hostes, ceterum per multos 
annos sub specie infidae pacis quietos^ versa arma Romana, 
quod incolumi Hernico nomine missitaverant simul cum iis 

6 Samniti auxilia et post Hernicos subactos universa prope 
gens sine dissimulatione consilii publici ad hostes desci- 
verat»; et postquam icto Romae cum Samnitibus foedere 

7 fetiales venerant res repetitum, temptationem aiebant esse, 
ut terrore incusso belli Romanos se fieri paterentur, quod 
quanto opere optandum foret, Hernicos docuisse, cum, 
quibus licuerit, suas leges Romanae civitati praeoptaverint ; 

8 quibus legendi, quid mallent, copia non fuerit, pro poena 
necessariam civitatem fore. ob haec vulgo in conciliis 

9 iactata populus Romanus bellum fieri Aequis iussit ; consu- 


lesque ambo ad novum profecti hclluni quattuor milia a 
castris hostium consederunt. Aequorum exercitus, ut qui 10 
suo nomine permultos annos imbelles egissent, tumultuario 
similis, sine ducibus certis, sine imperio, trepidare. alius 11 
exeundum in aciem, aHi castra tuenda censent ; movet ple- 
rosque vastatio futura agrorum ac deinceps cum levibus 
praesidiis urbium reUctarum excidia ; itaque postquam inter 12 
multas sententias una, quae omissa cura communium ad 
respectum suarum quemque rerum vertit, est audita, ut 13 
prima vigilia diversi e castris ad deportanda omnia tuen- 
dasque moenibus urbes abirent, cuncti eam sententiam 
ingenti adsensu accepere. palatis hostibus per agros prima 14 
luce Romani signis prolatis in acie consistunt et, ubi nemo 
obvius ibat, pleno gradu ad castra hostium tendunt. cete- 13 
rum postquam ibi neque stationes pro portis nec quemquam 
in vallo nec fremitum consuetum castrorum animadverte- 
runt, insolito silentio moti nietu insidiarum subsistunt. 
transgressi deinde vallum cum deserta omnia invenissent, 16 
pergunt hostem vestigiis sequi. sed vestigia in omnes aeque 
ferentia partes, ut in dilapsis passim, prima errorem facie- 
bant; post per exploratores compertis hostium consiliis ad 17 
singulas urbes circumferendo bello unum et triginta oppida 
intra dies quinquaginta omnia oppugnando ceperunt, quo- 
rum pleraque diruta atque incensa, nomenque Aequorum 
prope ad intemecionem deletum. de Aequis triumphatum ; 18 
exemploque eorum clades fuit, ut Marrucini, Marsi, Paeligni, 
Frentani mitterent Romam oratores pacis petendae ami- 
citiaeque. his popuHs foedus petentibus datum. 

Eodem anno Cn. Flavius scriba, patre libertino humiU 4^ 
fortuna ortus, ceterum callidus vir et facundus, aediHs 
curulis fuit. invenio in quibusdam annaUbus, cum appa- 2 
reret aediUbus fierique se pro tribu aedilem videret neque 
accipi nomen, quia scriptum faceret, tabulam posuisse et 
iurasse se scriptum non facturum ; quem aUquanto ante 3 
desisse scriptum facere arguit Macer Licinius tribunatu ante 


gesto triumviratibusque, nocturno altero, altero coloniae 

4 deducendae. ceterum, id quod haud discrepat, contumacia 
adversus contemnentes humilitatem suam nobiles certavit ; 

5 civile ius, repositum in penetralibus pontificum, evulgavit 
fastosque circa forum in albo proposuit^ ut, quando lege agi 

6 posset, sciretur ; aedem Concordiae in area Vulcani summa 
invidia nobilium dedicavit ; coactusque consensu populi 
Cornelius Barbatus pontifex maximus verba praeire, cum 
more maiorum negaret nisi consulem aut imperatorem posse 

7 templum dedicare. itaque ex auctoritate senatus latum ad 
populum est, ne quis templum aramve iniussu senatus aut 

8 tribunorum plebei partis maioris dedicaret. haud memora- 
bilem rem per se, nisi documentum sit adversus superbiam 

9 nobilium plebeiae libertatis, referam. ad collegam aegrum 
visendi causa Flavius cum venisset consensuque nobilium 
adulescentium, qui ibi adsidebant, adsurrectum ei non esset, 
curulem adferri sellam eo iussit ac de sede honoris sui 

ro anxios invidia inimicos spectavit. ceterum Flavium dixerat 
aedilem forensis factio, Ap. Claudii censura vires nacta, qui 
senatum primus libertinorum fiHis lectis inquinaverat et, 

11 posteaquam eam lectionem nemo ratam habuit nec in curia 
adeptus erat quas petierat opes, urbanis humilibus per omnes 

12 tribus divisis forum et campum corrupit. tantumque Flavii- 
comitia indignitatis habuerunt, ut plerique nobihum anulos 

13 aureos et phaleras deponerent. ex eo tempore in duas 
partes discessit civitas : aliud integer populus, fautor et 

14 cultor bonorum, aUud forensis factio tendebat, donec 
Q. Fabius et P. Decius censores facti, et Fabius simul con- 
cordiae causa, simul ne humilHmorum in manu comitia 
essent, omnem forensem turbam excretam in quattuor tribus 

15 coniecit urbanasque eas appellavit. adeoque eam rem 
acceptam gratis animis ferunt, ut Maximi cognomen, quod 
tot victoriis non pepererat, hac ordinum temperatione pa- 
reret. ab eodem institutum dicitur, ut equites idibus 
Quinctilibus transveherentur. 



§ I. nobilis : not noble. Calvino . . . Postumio : asyndeton 
is regular in this formula for dating a year. Otherwise it is usually 
found between clauses, not words ; cf. § il. consulibus : 

i. e. 321 B. c. from i July, since the consuls entered on their office 
on that day. 

§ 2. longe shows that the superlative implies comparison (' most ', 
i. e. of all the Samnites, not ' very '), as does prhmnn. 

§ 3. dedendas res (see Introd. p. 13) : the complementary 
phrase to res repetere, the first formality used amongst the Italian 
peoples before declaring war. ne . . . censeatis : i. e. ' I tell you 
" expiatum est ", ne . . .' In other words the purpose is the purpose 
of the statement, not of the atonement. foedere : of 323 B. c. 

qixidqviid . . . irarum . . . caelestium : together. 

§ 4. cordi : a predicative dative. fuit : the syntax rules 

given in our Latin grammars from observance of Ciceronian usage 
would here require a subjunctive, since the clause is suboblique 
after scio: softiej-attt below. repetitae : by the fetials, who 

acted as the heralds or spokesmen of the Roman state, and who 
were headed hy 2i pater patratus, who, for purposes of treaties, wars, 
and the like, was to the state what the father was to the family. 
So at Cambridge each CoIIege has a 'father', who presents men to 
the Vice-Chancellor for admission to degrees. 

§ 5 . ultra . . . quam : together. 

§ 6. perfunctos iam fato : i. e. their bodies were handed over. 
So' Thomas Becket's remains were condemned for treason three 
hundred years after his death, and were visited, as far as possible, 
with the proper punishment. quid . . . noxae : together. 

§ 7. Romane : an imaginary individual apostrophized as the 
representative of all. arbitris : ivitnesses rather than judges 

or umpires, since in origin the word = goer to {ar = ad, hit = 
^aiviiv). tibi . . . feram : an ethic dative ; * Shall I get, pray ? ' 

The verb is probably a deliberative subjunctive. neminem . . . 

populum . . . privatum : Cicero writes tiemo not nullus with 
nouns which express persons ; e. g. nerno puer, but nullus liber. 
neque : Latin, like Greek, constantly uses a new negative where in a 
negative sentence after a general or wide word a subdivision is 
made into parts. 

§ 8. quod si : an adverbial accusative has become a conjunction 



(= btit), its origin forgotten. It is chiefly used before si. cum 

(potentiore iuris), ' in dealing v/ith,' ' as against.' at, like 

ta)/ien, introduces here the principal clause. 

§ 9. satis sint : the subjunctive is due both to the force of {eos) 
quibiis (= such men as) and to the preceding subjunctive. 
domini : the singularof each ovvner ; ci. Romane {^j). placari : 
throvvn forward for emphasis, an arrangement Livy likes ; cf. 4 § 9. 
viscera, ' flesh'. 

§ 10. quibus: sc. eis, as its antecedent. 

§ II. quam propitiis : sc. ' dis agant homines' (from 'rerum 
humanarum ' = ' rerum hominum '), the whole clause being, with the 
next {^ quani adversis . . . dis '), the subject to '(momentum) sit'. 
magis : i. e. it would be truer to say. gessisse : Livy omits 

the subject, as writers of Greek do. dueibus ipsis dis : 

ablative absolute. 


§ I. non . , . magis quam, ' as . , . as.' quam potest 

occultissime : the full form, with historic present, of the familiar 

§ 2. ad Calatiam : the preposition is inserted to express ' to the 
neighbourhood of, ' to beneath thewallsof, 'to the lines round '. 
iam . . . esse : together. 

§ 3. ineiderint: theindirectform (perfectsubj.) ofthefuture perf. 
indic. which would be the direct speech. Here Livy gives primary 
sequence throughout after the historic present iiibet. ut . . . 

constet : after the first clause, immediately depending on iubet, 
Livy for clearness falls back on this form for an indirect command. 
Another infinitive vvould have read like a statement, and that con- 
struction is actually needed, to follovv ide77i sermo. abesse : 

Probably legiones is still the subject ; contrast with this nec niultum 
afuit quin, 22 § 9. 

§ 4. et ante : Cicero uses etiam ; Livy follows the poets' use, itself 
perhaps copied from the Greek use of /cat. eaptivi : the cap- 

tured soldiers, make-believe shepherds. 

§ 5. Eomanus : cf. i § 7. ferret has a fuiure sense ; 

the direct form would he.fert (= ' is instantly about to take'). Cicero 
would mean something else (' vvas taking 'j by this construction, and 
vvould use for Livy's sense laturics esset. In conditional clauses, of 
course, the present subj. in Oratio Obliqua or imperfect regularly 
representsthe future indicative of the Oratio Recta. simul : a 

second motive, besides the loyalty of Luceria. ad, ' in face 

of,' ' in vievv of.' ea mod6 . . . irent : indirect form (in 

historic sequence) of the deliberate subjunctive. 

§ 6. superi maris : the Adriatic (cf. 19^4 ififeri maris). 
tanto fere : the additional safety vvas practically counterbalanced 
by the additional length. 



§ 7. saltus, ' passes,' ' defiles.' circa : Livy frequently puts 

an adverb between a noun and an agreeing adjective, and makes it 
express another adjective meaning. Tiie use is like that in Greek 
of an adverb with the article to give an adjectival sense. Here the 
sense is ' which lay around '. satis, ' fairly,' * rather.' 

§ 8. anteqiiam venias ; the subjunctive, to give the prospective 
sense, ' before the traveller can come.' The second person in Latin 
of an imagined character is not famiiiar, as the corresponding use 
is in English. Older EngHsh writers use * a man ' for ' one '. 
eadem, like qiid here and in § 5, is in use an adverb, in origin a 
pronoun agreeing with 7'ia understood. insinuaveris : Latin 

uses this precise tense, where English uses a present or aorist. 
pergas : the subjunctive makesthis alternative the vaguer and less 

§ 9. via alia: opposed to the following alias angustins. 
in eum campum . . . demisso : together. 

§ 10. sua : as the pass in front also had its obex. ullius : 

used as the genitive of quisquain ; so uUo, § 13. 

§ II. magis : than himself. 

§ 12. operi : i. e. of fortifying a camp {muniencii) ', cf. 19 § 9. 
fore : for the subject omitted see i § 11. 

§ 13. culpam: of their own )( the doingof fortune. propter: 
with its poetical meaning, of position. 

§ 14. confessione : sc. that it was vain. 

§ 15. consUium : a Council of War. consilio . . . locus: 

there was no possibiHty of planning any deliverance, no way of 
escape could possibly be thought of. esset: by the mood 

used Livy gives the sense that this was in the consuls' thoughts. 
For this virtually suboblique use cf. 5 § 6. legati, * com- 

manders of divisions.' tribuni : sc. milituni. praetorium : 
one of the two praetoi-ia of § 12, in which the council was held. 
poterant: as usual with this auxiliary verb the indicative is used 
where we shouid have thought the writer might use the subjunctive. 
(That mood Livy avoids, since it would have suggested the same 
sense as we have in esset, just above.) The sense is * would have 
been able '. 


§ I. pro ingenio quisque : some temperaments being melan- 
choly and despondent, some sanguine. adversa montium : 

a poetical turn ; cf. strata 7'iaruni, opaca iugorum. 

§ 2. modo = dummodo. vincimus : the present with iam, 

as a Welshman or Irishman says ' it hasn't rained since you are 
here' (= you have been here). So with iamdudwn, iampridem. 
perfidum : so perfide Aibion, Punica fides, and the implication 
in ' Dutch courage '. 

§ 3. eamus : a good example of how the deliberative subjunctive 


is only the interrogative of the jussive (§ 2 above). moliri : a 

favourite word with Vergil, here used with an ablative of separation. 
dum . . . imminebunt : the present follows </«;;/, when the sense 
is no stronger than that given by an Enghsh present participle, or a 
clause parallel to the main clause ; but when the sense is ' so long as ' 
the tense varies. tu : apostrophizing an imaginary individual ; 

cf. I § 7, 2 I 8. armati inermes : cf. for the rule as to 

asyndeton 151. oblaturus : by fighting us. 

§ 4. in vicem : an adverb between his and sermonibJis, with an 
adjectival efifect ; cf. 2 § 7. sermonibus : an example of the 

instrumental case, merged in form into the ablative. qua 

. . . qua : cf. c!(/>i . . . cmn. ne . . . quidem, ' not . . . 

any more than to the Romans.' In English it is often best to turn 
the sentence so that the negative goes with the verb, while ' too ' 
goes with the emphasized word. 

<^ 5. iam : if with abscesserat = now (for some time). 

§ 6. ad, ' at,' 'near,' 'by.' exercitus : each consul had 

one under his command. quam primum : cf. quani (potest) 

occultissinie, 2 § l. 

§ 7. iterum : not rursus. nuntio : not regarded as an 

agent here (contrast the last section), but an instrument,— or 
the attendant circumstances are expressed by what is called an 
' ablative absolute ', i. e. really an instrumental (above, § 4) used 

§ 8. in primis : as much as any one. iam . . . con- 

senuisse : together. 

§ 9. nec gravatus : i. e. et, kaudgravatus, the negative not going 
with the principal verb. Cf. 4 § 8. ita ferme : together ; 

2 § 6. causas : for the asyndeton cf. i § i. Here it conveys 

the idea of opposition (' but '). 

§ 10. duceret : suboblique, since priore se, &c. gives the sub- 
stance of the explanation he gave. firmare : i. e. he sotight to do 
so ; cf. 2 § 5 : so differre below. quibus : expresses ' time 

within which '. receptura : sc. esset. 

§ II. exsequerentur : follow the matter up, 'persist in ' ; the 
sequence historic after inquit, cf. 2 § g apparuisset. ca- 

peretur : suboblique, in historic sequence, for the direct future 
indicative. leges, ' terms.' 

§ 12. servate modo . . . ea est: a Uvely way of putting si 
servabitis . . . ea est. nesciat : after ea . . . quae ; cf. l 


§ 13. quidquid istuo, ' whatever . . . inflicted by you.' The 
form istuc = istud-c, where the -c, as in hic, is a deictic suffix. 
ante . . . poenas expetitas : cf. ademptus Hector, ante urbem 
conditam. a vobis : for the construction (not the ablative of 

the agent) cf. 4 § 14 a Veio exercitum implorabtmt. 




§ I. in castris: in strictly logical sense goes vvith rerum inopia 
esset. The grammar of logic, however, is not with good writers the 
final test. For similar illogicality preferred for conciseness cf. ' We 
do not presume to come to this Thy table, O Lord, trusting in our 
own righteousness, but (we come trusting) in Thy manifold and great 
mercies '. rerum inopia : an abstract noun, if rerum is 

added to it, is frequently used, in all Latin, correspondently to our 
use of such words. 

§2. primum : fiiiXia-Ta fiev, ' if possible.' peterent : for 

the sequence cf. 2^9. uti : convenience dictates the change 

from gui ; cf. i §§ 3 and 9. 

§ 3. scirent : with the infinitive = ' know how to '. missu- 

rum : without esse, as originally, when it was an indecHnable form, 
not confused with the future participle ; cf. victitrum below. 
alias : than the first, stated in the previous sentence. 

§ 4. decederetur ; we should use an active verb ; cf. itiir in 
antiquam silvam (= they go). For the mood and tense cf. 2 § 5 
ferret : but it is regular in all Latin in conditional clauses in reported 
speech. coloniae : the Roman military posts in a conquered 

country, which served the same end as William the Conqueror's 
castles. suis legibus : i. e. each nation under its own. The 

pronoun does not here refer to the speaker. 

§ 5. ferire : the metaphorical use \v\th /oedus arose from the fact 
that to ratify a treaty a swine was slain ; cf. 5 §§ i, 3. displiceat : 
observe the sudden change of sequence, the more remarkable since 
vetuit is added. 

§ 6. gravius : cf. graviter ferre. accepturi . . . si 

nuntiaretur : a conditional sentence which in direct speech vvould 
take the subjunctive will, if so constructed that eitherthe subjunc- 
tive for yet another reason would be required or the main clause 
must be in the infinitive, change its form so that the future participle 
gives the hypothetical tinge. Here, it might have been said at the 
time non gravius acciperent, si nuntiaretur. (This explains why 
the imperfect not pluperfect follows si.) Livy puts this to follovv 
viderentur, so that vve have accepturi (esse). 

§ 7. tum, ' at last.' princeps, ' the first amongst.' 

honoribua : the offices he had held. 

§ 8. in Capitolio : where a remnant of Romans, it was 
patriotically represented, held out against the Gauls after they had 
captured Rome, 390 B.C. non fuisse auctorem: closely 

together ' opposed the proposal ', ' recommended the senate not '. 
civitatis = civium ; it is not the same in meaning as res publica. 
nec . . . et : the old Latin negative was ne. So in Greek oi/Vf . . . 
7-e often occurs. ad . . . muniendum : being enclosed 

betvveen the adjective iignavissimo) and its noun qualifies the 

83 F 2 


adjective ; cf. 2 § 7, and for the sense 2 § 12. essent : after 


§ 9. quod si, 'but \V\ cf. l § 8. illis ut : for the order 

cf. I § 9. quo . . . modo : together. paterni animi 

indoles, ' my fathet^s spirit.' 

§ 10. vel . . . vel : originally the imperative of volo, in classical 
Latin an adverb ; * either . . . or . . . as you will.' It expresses 
indifference, without insisting that the one alternative excludes the 
possibihty of the other. Contrast ^///just above. 

§ II. pro se ipsis: )( any other precious possession they might 
vaiue. Unless they care to fight for their own freedom, they have 
no motive to fight at all. 

§ 12. tecta . . . moenia, ' houses . . . walls.' dicat 

aliquis, ' some one or other will be likely to say ' ; dixerit qtiis, 
' let us suppose some one may say.' immo hercule, ' no, 

. . . certainly.' Hercules was the god by whom bloods and 
braggarts swore, two centuries earlier : now this was the only oath 
— an oath only in form— used in elevated literature. tuebitur : 

i. e. will be left (alive) to do so. 

§ 13. videlicet: ironical. tam hercule . . . quam, * yes, 

as well (successfully) as.' defendit : 69 years before. 

§ 15. at: i.e. again, diatt aliquis. ea : attracted to the 

gender of the subject caritas ; cf. hic labor, hoc opus est. Its sense 
necessitates the subjunctive with the following quac: cf. 3 § 12. 
tam . . . quam, 'as willingly, readily . . . as.' sit : for 

one subj. depending on another by attraction cf. i § 9. 

§ 16. necessitati : the theory that a righteous and inscrutable 
Fate controlled even the gods, often capricious and unrighteous, was 
perhaps first enunciated in literature by Aeschylus, to meet the 
moral difficulty of acknowledging such gods. armis : by 

surrendering them. 


§ I. iniussu populi : generally they would ratify by tacit 
acceptance at any rate what their officials did for them ; but no 
people could allow the ultimate voice to be in all cases taken from 
it. So King John's acknowledgement that he held England as a fief 
from the Pope was immediately repudiated by us as ultra vires. 
nec : qtie connects, and ne merely continues the negative in nego ; 
cf, 3 § 9, 4 § 8. caerimonia : oaths and imprecations were 

uttered, and a swine slain with a stone knife. 

§ 2. credunt : especially with the adverb vulgo, the third person 
plural in Latin gives the idea expressed by the French on ; cf. ' they 
say ' in English. per sponsionem : with less solemn sanction 

than Sifoedus, as a civil contract of marriage than the religious 
mystery of marriage. It is likely that the assertion there was no 



/oedus is due to a belief that the Roman subsequent victory proved 
that there was no offence against the gods on the Romans' part. 

§ 3. esset : the condition implied is virtually contained in the 
words infoedere (= sifoedus esset). For the tense (not pluperfect) 
cf. 4 § 6. Contrast below si . . . acta res esset, . . . exstaretit. 
ubi = in qtio, {oWowmo foedere. per quem : the antecedent 

is («/) eu7n (sc. populum) {luppiter feriat). fiat : suboblique 

iorfiet, 4 § 4, and below staretur. quo minus : here foUows 

fiat, which suggests ' impediments shall be caused '. legibus : 

the case as 1 1 § 2. ut : the substance of the prayer ; cf. 4 § 3. 

§ 4. quaestores : the paymasters, young men who were specially 
under the consuls' care, and attached to his staff. ubi, 

' whereas.' 

§ 6. deducti essent : virtually suboblique ; i. e. the mood con- 
veys the men's reflections ; cf. 2 § 15. 

§ 7. fuisse : not esse, which would be used of time contempo- 
raneous ivith the principal verb ; cf. 19 § lo. modo : cf. quo 


§ 8. intueri : an example of what is called the historic infinitive, 
where the writer hits oft" a picture with rapid strokes without 
troubling to inflect the verb. The effect is not unlike that of 
Mr. Alfred Jingle's telegraphic style, and it is used either for vivid 
descriptions or for rapid narrative. The subject is in the nomina- 
tive {ipsi, below). 

§ 9. sociorura : see the map for the route taken. parentes : 

the men in the armies would be from 17 to 46 years old. In Greek 
and Latin the district is mentioned first {h&rtpatriam), and then the 
particular place to which motion takes place. Cf. the German mode 
of addressing a letter. quo : i. e. to their country and their 

parents. Logically the addition oi niaiores is a little loose, and so 
is eoruni grammatically ; contrast se directly after. 

§ 10. animos, ' courage.' 

§ II. hora fatalis : poetical ; Introd. p. 1 1. tristiora : 6 § 3. 
factura: a poetical use of the future participle ; Introd. p. 11. 

§ 12. iam primum . . . tum are parallel ; cf. for iam 16 § I. 
primi : before anything was done in regard to the others. 

§ 13. a consulibus : not the ablative of the agent ; cf. 3 § 13. 
ipsos : sc. eos. eos : sc. the consuls. exsecrantes agrees 

with the subject of censuerant. 


§ I. ita : in that order ivere they sent under the yoke, not so the 
tnore insults were heapedon them. deinceps singulae : i. e. a 

legion at a time. 

§ 2. plerisque : Livy uses this word, as writers later than he did, 
to mean ^?nany' not ^ tnost\ si . : . offendisset : this use 

of the subjunctive is copied from the Greek optative of indefinite 



frequency ; Introd. p. ii. indignitate rerum = an English 

abstract noun ; cf. 4 § l. 7-es = their ' treatment' ; cf. Introd. p. 13. 

§ 3. traducti . . . evasissent : English would use short sentences, 
not a period, here ; Introd, p. 14. tristior, ' bitter,' ' miserable.' 

§ 4. incerti . . . et quod : for the change of construction 
cf. Introd. p. 12. corpora, ^" theinselves' 

§ 5. sociorum . . . Campanis : the Capuans. They felt that 
the Romans were only superior barbarians. For Livy's patriotic 
interpretation of their feeling cf. Introd. p. 6 

§ 6. sua : closely with cofisiilibiis ; cf. 4 § 4. Thtir paludajnenta 
are intended. benigne, 'lavishly,' )( maligne\ cf. snb luce 

maligna (' scanty '). 

§ 7. cunctus : in Cicero and earlier Latin used only in the 
plural (originally coniuncti). iustis : a noun here. officiis, 

' courtesies.' 

§ 8. neque : an English mind thinks it logical to say ' Yet . . . 
not ' ; a Roman felt that this was an additional symptom of the 
soldiers' despair. The negative as usual is thrown forward, the 
niore so, since otherwise, unless immediately before pote7-ant, it 
would give the sense ' it luas possible tJiat they should not ', ' they 
fnight not\ ne . . . quidem : the negative is logically 

redundant after rieque. Eor English, non modo . . . sedne . . . quidem 
must be carefully turned, with due regard to the way in which 
neque is translated. The force of the ne . . . quidem extends in 
emphasis to the whole clause ut . . . intuerentur, but, again in 
spite of logic, Livy is content to enclose between them one or two 
notable words of the clause. contra, ' in the face.' 

§ 9. adeo : a favourite tum in Livy at the conclusion of some 
episode, to give a reflection ; ' so true was it that,' ' to such an 
extent,' ' so completely, utterly.' pudor quidam, ' a species 

of shame,' 'a feeling of disgrace,' 'their sense of honour howeyer 
fantastical,' ' a superfine sensitiveness.' 

§ 10. cum : since the principal clause is many lines on, the 
sentence should be broken up ; Introd. p. 14. a Capua : the 

preposition is inserted when the sense is 'from the authorities of, 
almost ' by ' ; cf. 2 § 2, 9 § 12. finem : Livy uses the singular, 

where Caesar and Cicero would have the plural ; cf. Introd. p. il. 
revertissent : notice with the changing sense the change of tense 
in referrent and dicerentur below. 

§ II. natu multo : if the sentence be read aloud, it will be seen 
whether these words go together or not. adeo : put here in the 
young nobles' indirect speech, with the same sort of sense as § 9 above. 

§12. illam, ' the old' (proverbial, well-known, familiar) ; cf. 
' true British cheers '. reddere . . . potuisse : the present 

infinitive (indirect for the present indicative only) could not mean 
anything but that, while the nobles spoke, these things were 
occurring (as in habere below) ; hence reddere must not be taken 



as the main verb. It should be noticed that 7ion negatives poiutsse 
(cf. § 8), its position being due to the desire for rhetorical repetition. 
tamquam ferentibus : Cicero would have taviqKam si and the 
subjunctive ; this construction, like the Greel^ participle with o)?, is 
common in Silver Latin. 

§ 13. ante = antea, in 390 B. C. bellicosius fuerit, ' showed 

greater knowledge of war.' The tense in Cicero would be imper- 
fect or pluperfect; cf. 7 § 5 and Introd. pp. 11, 12. ferociam, 

* independence' 


§ 2. etiam : contrasting aetate with what precedes. 
§ 3. ingentem . . . cientis : for the metaphorical language 
cf. Introd. p. 15, 

§ 4. ingenia : pkiral, of the Roman people ; the singular is 
necessary in describing one man's nature. Samnitibus : 

ethic dative ; we might say 'amongthe Samnites '. aliquanto, 

' far,' with tristiorem (6 § 3). 

§ 5. quippe, 'of course,' ' undoubtedly,' *for.' suos does 

not refer to the speaker, 6 § 5. congressuri sint : Livy copies 

perhaps the Greek vivid construction, giving the present in place 
of the regular imperfect, 6^13. The careful future liere should be 
compared with 2 § 5. saltus : we should join this clause 

closely (e. g. by * while ') to the preceding. In sense both attach to 

§ 6. sua : as if Romae etiam were the subject : 4 § 4. in- 

famis clades, "■ the shameful news of the defeat.^ magis : not 

duphcating the sense of tristior, but quahfying the character of the 
second message. 

§ 7. ad, ' at,' ' upon.' eoeptus erat : with a passive verb 

in dependence the passive forms are regular, by a natural if 
illogical confusion of thought. dimissus . . . apparatus : 

the noun is of course the subject ; for the est omitted see Introd. 
p, 12. consensum in . . . est : for the impersonal passive 

cf. 4 § 4. The preposition may be represented by ' to adopt '. 

§ 8. circa forum : for the imitation of such Greek constructions 
as ai TTepl Ti]v ayopav aKr]vai cf. 2 § 7. indictum : by the 

praetor, in the consuls' absence (cf. publica aucto?-itate above). 

§ 9. esse : the historic infinitive ; cf. 5 § 8, and agere, § 12 
below. nec . . . solum, ' and not . . .' ; cf. 3 § 9. atque, 

^ and also' (cf. 19 § 4 and § 11 below), since the advocates or 
supporters and the sureties were less responsible than the generals. 

§ 10. sero : in the day. 

I 1 1 . publieum : a noun ; ' outside their houses.' Cf. in 
privato. We should have expressed ourselves naturally by the 
passive : ' they would not be seen in pubhc' 

§ 12. pro magistratu, ' as magistrates' we should say, Latin 



regularly using the singular in such cases ; e. g. for ' they spent 
their lives\ vitam agebani. expressum . . . est : sc. ' out 

of them ' ; cf. 9 § 5. comitiorum causa : to hold the 

elections of the next year's magistrates. 

§ 14. vitio, ' irregularly,' the smallest mistake or oversight in 
the formalities of appointment invalidating it from a strictly 
fechnical point of view. For the sociative case cf. 9 § 7. nec : 
the knovvledge of the uses in Greek of ohhi afifected later Latin 
writers' use of 7iec, which they made do the work of ne . . . gtiidei/i ; 
cf. Introd. p. il. ad interregnum rediit : a constitutional 

survival from the times of the monarchy, when, unlike the modern 
English rule that a new king succeeds at the moment of another's 
death, the theory and practice was that the royal powers became 
vested in the whole body of patres, who acted by an inte7-rex. He 
held office for five days, and under the Republic he nominated a 
successor who nominated the dictator, under whose presidency 
the new consuls were elected. So the English use was for the 
witan to elect a new king ; and even now on a bishop's death the 
dean and chapter of the cathedral city administer the spiritualities 
of the see. 

§ 15. creavit : he p7-oposed the names, held the election, and 
declared the result. nulli : the plural for the sense ' no other 

pair '. tempestate : an archaic use, found also in Sallust 

= tempore. essent : of the people's feeling ; cf. 5 § 6. 


§ I. patribus : the name for the senate from the monarchical 
age when they vvere the heads of citizen families. consultis : 

e. g. sanctioning a levy and assigning the consuls' spheres of duty 
{•provinciae). rettulerunt, ' introduced t/ie question,^ ' bronght 

the matter before the senateJ' 

§ 2. penes quem : each consul in turn was supreme, vvhen both 
were in Rome or elsewhere at the same time. The elder—Publilius 
here— had the first turn. The presiding consul called on senators 
to e.xpress their views ; generally he called first on consuls designate, 
then on past consuls, and so through their various ranks, but 
inside each grade making vvhat order he pleased of individuals. 
Here qne of the last consuls is first called on. 

§ 3. ignominiae, non honoris : cf. l § i for the asyndeton. 
excitatum iussumque : cf. Introd. p. 12 for the omission of the 
copulative verb. qua . . . qua : 3 § 4 ; cf. cum . . . cum. 

§ 4. esset : i. e. if I had to make it ; cf. 5 § 3. paucis : 

sc. verbis. mi hin e an legionibus : an alternative : ' ivhether 

it %vas I or . . . whom.' 

§ 5. qua tamen : the antecedent is spoftsione, but the insertion 
of tamen does not shovv that the relative clause ranks as quite 
parallel to the preceding adjectives turpi and necessaria, for tamefi 


may be used = ofioos no less than fjLtvroi ; cf. the use of a/ below, § 8. 
Thus gua = sed ea. Latin vvriters, however, have examples of 
a construction like that used by Addison and some loose writers 
to-day : e. g. 'I have witnessed siinilar phenomena, and ivhich 
r will explain '. exea: under the contract. debentur: the 

number is affected illogically but naturaliy by corpora, which 
is nearer than the subject ; cf. by way of contrast, ^" Tve fottnd hitn 
to be one of those tnen (= the sort of man) %uho doesn^t hesitate to 
break his word, if there 's something to gain by it.' 

§ 7. placet, ' / 7nove, propose' nec, ' but not ' ; cf. 7 § 9. 

in : in regard to. 

§ 8. quaeao ; an archaic use ; Ciceronian Latin hardly used it 
except parenthetically { = please). fuit : the sentence is con- 

structed so as not to depend on precor qiiaesoque, otherwise the 
mood would be different. at, ' yet,' begins the apodosis, after 

the if-clauses; cf. i § 8. 

§ 9. habeatis : optative, hke velitis below. videre : this 

is still to come. capitibus : instrumental ; cf 3 § 4. 

§ 10. ante nos consules: cf. ab iirbe condita, 3 § 13. 

§ II. modo . . . modo : according as admiration or pity was 

§ 12. iram . . . pacis : the enemies' rage at . . . . 

§ 13. modo : they did not discuss the proposal, but confined 
themselves to eulogy of Postumius. pedibvis irent: the 

senate voted by an actual division {discessio), not by cries of ' Aye ' 
and ' No ', nor by show of hands. tribimis plebis : now 

ten in number. 

§ 14. Bua = an objective genitive. fuissent, restituerentur : 
oblique in historic sequence ior fiierunt, restitnentur; cf 2 § 5. 

§ 15. pro eo, quod : together. meritos esse . . . posse : 

observe the difference in sense expressed by the tense. 


§ I. dedetis, 'you shall . . .,' perhaps as often with a jussive 
sense. et = etiavi ; cf. 2 § 4. istos : often with some 

contempt or dishke ; cf. istatn, § 5 below. 

§ 2. audiatis : the future would have brought the flogging into 
line with the surrender, as equally certain future events ; the 
change of mood makes the flogging a possible addition only ; so 
dedantur. iam, ' at once,' ' immediately ' ; cf. the use of r]br]. 

§ 3. quod . . . negant : for English quod (which is a develop- 
ment of the adverbial acc. = 'as to the fact that ') should be 
omitted, and the clause made a separate sentence. dicere : 

dependent on ignoret. iuris fetialium : nearly ' international 

§ 4. infitias eo : one of the few phrases in classical Latin which, 
without containing the name of a town, &c., retain the accusative 


without a preposition after a verb of motion. sancta agrees 

with the nearer noun ; cf. 8 § 5, 

§ 5. an : i. e. if you dispute that rule (that nothing can bind the 
nation which the nation has not sanctioned). expresserunt 

nobis : together. eoegissent . . . diceretis : the difference 

in tense must be observed ; cf. 8 § 15. templa, delubra : 

the former are sacred spaces, whether those selected in the 
heavens by the aiigurs for taking auspices, or those permanently 
marked out on earth (and often built upon) for the worship of the 
gods ; the latter are places of purification, where religious impurity 
was washed away {de-\-lavo). 

§ 6. quid tandem: sc. diceretis. Notice the sense of tandem 
with an interrogative. relicturum : without esse ; cf. 4 § 3. 

meliora : sc. dui?it or dent. inquis : for the imaginary 

second person cf. i § 7. 

§ 7. rerum, ' the conditions ' ; cf. 6 § 2. illud : as often, 

preparing the way for a following clause. refert : perhaps in 

origin = ' it tends {fert) with interest (advantageous or disadvanta- 
geous),' where ?-e will be an instrumental or sociative case (as in 
cmoAiTo fi vavs aiiTols dfSpucri). It is always impersonal and is 
followed only by an indirect question or, as here, by one in 
apposition to a neuter pronoun subject. 

§ 8. quibus . . . coegerimt: Latin rarely expresses a second 
relative (as if here we had ^ui) ; generaliy the proper part of is 
is inserted ; here it is understood. English as a rule is more 
logically regular in this matter, ' who were not satisfied . . . but com- 

§ 9. nec . . . quaesiverit = et ne . . . qtiaes. ; cf. 11 § 13. 
This form of prohibition in the second person has a peremptory 
tone, and is accordingly very rare ; but in Greek, where it is called 
the aorist subjunctive, it is regular. quid = ' why '. spopon- 
derim : aorist subjunctive, its own tense unaffected, since guae- 
siverii is a primary tense, yet perhaps makes esset historic, if esset 
expresses a general rule. Possibly, hke posse??i, it refers only to 
the time of the compact. id : although belonging only to this 

clause is thrown forward for emphasis before nec ; cf. i § 9. 

§ II. nec . . . et : ?iec does not connect probably ; cf. 4 § 8. 
male partam, ' ill-got,' though here httle more than a cursing of 
the event, is an echo of an old proverb, ??iale parta ??iale dilabu?it?ir. 
dum . . . eredunt : best got by an EngHsh present participle ; cf. 
3 § 3. quacumque : used = quavis, while early Latin felt it 

to be a relative requiring a relative clause after it. 

§ 12. an : cf. above, § 5. diffieile fuit: strict syntax would 

require /uisset, but Livy here treats the phrase as in all Latin such 
auxiliary verbs as possu??i were treated ; cf. 2 § 15. Latin, how- 
ever, regularly followed logic in such phrases, e. g. longurn est 
dicere = ' it would be a long story '. senes : the plural is 



contemptuous. ab domo : when an adverbial phrase is used 

adjectivally to qualify a noun {senes) the preposition is inserted ; 
cf. 6 § 10 perhaps. 

' § 13. tridui iter : the distance is 146 miles. res : things, the 
position, matters would have stood. ab Roma legati : cf. above, 
ab domo. adferrent, ' could bring ' ; cf. 2 § 8. ea demum : 

that (and that) only ; cf. tum demum. esset . . . spopondis- 

semus : now . . . then ; cf. § s, above. 

§14. vos : patres conscripti, or perhaps rather ' who were at 
Rome ' )( nos at Caudium. nec fas = et nefas, cf. 3 § 9 ; and 

for Livy's attitude towards Providence in Roman history, cf. 5 § 2. 

§ 15. impedierat )( cxpediret. vanam . . . sponsio : 

a double asyndeton. 

§ 16. actum est : like Trpdaa-ew, often of negotiations, trans- 
acting business, making overtures or proposals, discussing issues. 
appellare: sc. to remember your promises or oaths. civem 

neminem : not 7iullu7n ; cf i § 7. 

§ 17. nihil . . . vobis . . . nobiscum, ' we have no claim on 
you, you are not involved, concerned . . .' 

§ 18. rei: nom. plural. in id, ' over, to the extent of that.' 

§ 19. in diem : to another day, a proper time. diflferatur : 

unlike possit, this is the oblique of a deliberative subjunctive. 
capita, ' lives.' luendae sponsioni : a dative of work con- 

templated, common with e.g. constituo; cf. 11 § 12. liberemus 
arma : i. e. set our fellow citizens free to fight without scruple. 


§ I. plebei = plebis; cf. Ulixei = Ulixis. 

§ 2. quaedam modifies the vigour of the metaphor ; cf. 6 § 9. 

§ 3. in ore erat : i. e. every one was talking of him. devo- 

tioni ; the expression is illogically condensed for neatness, as in 
the ordinary comparatio compettdia7'ia, cf. 18 § II. P. Decius Mus, 
consul in 340 B.c, after vowing to death himself, and with him the 
Latin army whom he was about to engage, rushed into their midst 
to certain death. facinoribus : in Ciceronian Latin = ' crim.e ', 

but the old neutral sense is found in Sallust, Livy, and later writers. 

§ 4. obnoxia, ' humiliating.' opera : services, energy. 

§ 5. spectant : cf. exspectant. en : in Plautus and Terence 

(p. II) found only in such rhetorical questions with umquam, here 
introduces a pensive wish. futurum : the mood is to be 

explained in the same way as emersisse above, ' would the time 
ever come .' ' The periphrasis is more effective than umquam 
Hciturum ? Cf. 4 § 3 for this alternative to fore. armatis : 

sc. sibi. liceat : for the sequence cf. 2^3. 

§ 6. ardente : temporal and causal, so that it is a participle 
rather than an adjective ; hence -e, not -/ in the ablative. prope 
omnium voluntariorum : scarcely any had to be pressed to 



serve. eodem : as had just been disgraced at Caudium. 

milite : for the singular cf. Samnitey § 5. ad Caudium : 

for the preposition inserted cf. 2 § 2. 

§ 7. tergum : English would use the plural ; cf. anivii, 7 § 3, 
and/r<? magistratu, 7 § 12. iusta, 'properly.' 

§ 9. quandoque : used only in formulae. hisce : archaic. 

populi Romani Quiritium : cf. legatum fetiale^n, § 10 below. 
quo : final, usually found with comparatives. sit solutus : 

little different from solvatur. 

§ 10. quanta . . . vi : cf. quatn {potest) occultissime, 2 § i. 
legatum fetialem : together, in apposition. eo, ' by that 

amount, on that account, therefore.' 


§ I. habebunt, * will regard it as.' 

§ 2. omnia irrita faeis : treat the compact as void, without 
going through any mummery. 

§ 3. cum qua potes fide, * as honourably and loyally as possible.' 
quem si . . . paenitet, restituat = qui, si eum . . . paen., resti- 

§ 4. deceperit, * let both sides be honest ' ; cf. 9 § 9. pridie . . . 
quam : as if pi-iore die quam. For the locative (of time) cf. also 
postridie. tum : but not in this dishonest fashion. 

§ 6. defiet : archaic, where Cicero used the active deficiet. 

§ 7. aliquam, ' some or other,' in accordance with its origin 
from alius quis. 

§ 8. non probat . . . paeem sibi habeat : a vigorous turn for 
' if . . . not . . ., then let . . . '. In sense we can hear after the 
first clause ' well and good ; but . . .'. fide, ' promise.' 

erat : where English would use more naturally a subjunctive ; 
cf. difficile fuit, 9 § 12. 

§ 9. ut : explanatory of hoc below. quidem emphasizes the 

clause (='indeed'), with an almost ironical effect ('forsooth '). 
ego : for the asyndeton cf. i §1. iuris gentibus : the genitive 
is partitive or descriptive ; ' as consistent with, as your interpre- 
tation of; cf. 19 § 5. The dative depends upon itiris probably, 
thus avoiding a string of genitives, but dicitis doubtless makes its 
use easier. Cf. in English ' the cost of^ and 'the charge/<?r '. 

§ lo.' ego vero, *■ No .' I . . .'. istos, 'these vvith you.' 

moror: transitive with the sense oi impedio. 

§ II. ita : after this pretence no doubt— ironical. factum 

esse : still after di credent. 

§ 12. pudere : exclamatory infinitive, as in mene mathematicis 
setnper servire magistris ! fallendae fidei : probably dative ; 

ci. gentibus, § 9, and 2 § 15 ; but it is hard sometimes to distinguish 
whether a Roman would have felt he was using a genitive or 



§ 13. moratus sit : cf. inoror, % 10. For the tense cf. dece- 
perit, § 4. fuerit : probably perfect subjunctive representing, 

in dependence on another subjunctive, a future perfect indicative. 
et publica : sc. liberata Jide, sua following by asyndeton. et 
= etiam. ab Caudio : for the preposition to give the 

sense ' the neighbourhood of, the lines round', cf. 2 § 2. 


§ I. deinde, 'next afterwards,' * presently.' esse : historic 

infinitive ; cf. 5 § 8. 

§ 2. inter quae : dependent on media. mutasse : the 

infinitivc here and in pugnaturos expresses their reflections, any 
verb of thinking being omitted for brevity. pugnaturos : i. e. 

will have to fight. potuerint : for this leaving of the tense 

unchanged, as if in primary sequence, cf. 6 § 13. vel . . . 

vel, ' as they chose ' : cf. 4 § 10. 

§ 3. adeo . . . mutaverant ut: the verb is here intransitive. 
nullodum : cf. nonduNi. animi : i. e. of the two sides ; 

otherwise singular as in 7 § 3. 

§4. Romani : the order enables the reader at once to group 
the words geri posse bellum together as the object, with pro vict, 
cert. haberent similarly together, governing that object. simul 

rebellasse et vicisse : cf. no sooner said than done, and the use 
of tantamount. 

§ 5. et Satricanos : cf. 2 § 4 for this imitation of Kai. inde : 
after the assault. utrosque : the plural of the two parties 

(not single ?;/£'«)— the defenders and the assailants. 

§ 6. aliquamdiu, '^ for many hours ' : cf. the use of aliqtianto. 

§ 7. posuisset : indirect in historic sequence for posuerit ; cf. 
II § 13- passim arma iactari: they flung their arms down 

carelessly. coepta ; for the passive cf. "] %"]. 

§ 8. fuit, '^ proved' eis . . . ceteris : ethic datives ; in English 
we might use a genitive. incautus ad credendum : cf. in- 

victi ad laborem corporis, 16 § 14. igni : cf. navi = nave. 

fidemque : the gods' ' faithfulness ', and so ' protection ' ; but the 
idea is almost personified. 

§ 9. Consules . . . Papirius . . . Publilius : a natural construc- 
tion, catalogued by grammarians as axi][ia Kaff oKov km Kara fiepr]. 
ad Luceriam : cf. ad Caudium below and 2 § i. Caudinas 

legiones : the copias of § 11. 

§ II. optimum visum est : Cicero would say visum est alone. 


§ I. concursum est : for this impersonal passive use cf. 4 § 4. 

§ 2. animus memor (ign.), ' niemory of : as gratus animus 
= ' gratitude '. vadunt, ' rush^ mora in concursu 

. . . esset, ' the engagement be delayed.' pilis . . . gladiig : 



instrumental (ablative) of manner and cause ; cf. 9 § 7. inde, 

' the7i ' : i. e. post pila emissa. 

§ 3. nihil . . . artis . . . fuit : i. e. it was not called into play ; 
no demand was made upon it. ordinibus . . . locandis : the 

dative of work contemplated here following artis\ cf. 2 § 15. 

§ 4. coacto (in unum) : not ' compelled ' of course. 

§ 5. et = Kal : cf. 2 § 4. plus . . . sanguinis . . . factum : 

together, ira : instrumental (ablative) of cause. 

§ 6. locis : instrumental of the line of route. per omnia 

pacata, ' finding the whole country now tranquil.' 

§ 7. tempestate: archaic = tempore (7 § 15). Those who had 
settled in the plains had been modified by their neighbours, e. g. 
those at Capua by the Greeks. cultorum . . . genere : in the 

Middle Ages the word is used to describe the class of ' husband- 
men ' or ' (tenant-)farmers '. ut evenit fere : one of the 

tenets apparently in Livy's philosophy of history. 

§8. interieeta: sc. regio\ ' its position between . . .' Cf. 
ademptus Hector = Hector's death. penuria rerum: where 

Enghsh uses only the abstract noun ; cf. 6 § 2. 

§ 9. tum quoque: even with the support of the inhabitants )( 
the imagined horror of § 8. ad Luceriam : for the 

preposition cf. 2 § i ad Calatiam and ab Arpis below. militi : 

for the singular used where to us the plural seems proper cf. 2 
§ 5 Romanus and eques below. opere : of entrenching and 

tortifying a camp. 

§ 10. interdum : for the asyndeton cf. 2 § 12. victore 

exercitu : the instrumental or sociative case, rare in Latin without 
cum, but common in Greek, where it is sometimes called the 
' mihtary dative '. 

§ II. cuncta infesta fecerat : together. 


§ I. utrisque : cf. 12 § 5, for the plural of two sides or parties. 
per utros . . . pugnaturos : after the admonition {ut belium 
omitterent) we pass to the substance of what the ambassadors said 
further, and this is as usual in the infinitive. The antecedent of 
utros is [adversus) eos below. stetisset quo minus : cf. 5 

§ 3, the sense being ' any stoppage occurred to prevent '. The 
direct speech would be stetcrit (fut. perf. indic). 

§ 2. perinde ac, ' as (if) ' ; cf. the use of the participle after 
tamquam, 6 § 12. dictis : in Ciceronian prose = 'jests' ; this 

is a poetical or archaic use. tempus : i. e. till Publilius arrived. 
re haud dubia : both consuls were clear that a battlc must be 

§ 3. divina humanaque : offering sacrifice ; giving orders ; 
making wills. cum = ' whenever ' ; hence the indic. follows, 



occursare : the historic infinitive in giving a rapid impressionist 
picture ; cf. 5 § 8. 

§ 4. auctoribus dis : cf. Nil desperandtim Teucro duce et 
auspice Teucro, Hor. Od. i. 7. rem gerendam : often tech- 

nically of battle ; cf. our ' engagement '. 

§ 5. ferri, ' advanced, carried forward.' aliis modum 

. . . facere, ' limit others' (hberty to make) peace or war ' ; ' dictate 
to others when they should make peace '. aequum censeret : 

together ; 'claimed, ' presumed.' For the mood in a virtually sub- 
oblique clause cf. 2 § 1 5. 

§ 6. aut . . . aut : the two possible reasons are thrown more 
into opposition as distinct and mutually exclusive things than they 
would have been if vel . . . vel had been used ; cf. 12 § 2. 

§ 7. vociferari: d. occursare, § 3. potius always implies 

choice and preference in the subject of the verb. ferat . . . 

videantur: for the 'vivid' primary sequence cf. 7 § 5, 12 § 2, 
ut follows passuros: contrast § 16, where the subjunctive without 
ut follows. 

§ 9. pars, with a plural verb, as often, by the natural influence 
of the sense ; cf. our use vvith ' crowd '. nec . . . modo = et 

non t/todo ; cf. 3 § 9. 

§ 10. haec : not attracted, since the three predicates are of 
different genders. vicisset : for the mood in the suboblique 

clause cf. arcerenf ]\jiSi below and tenerentur, § 14, 

§ 12. ullum : contrast cuiquam miiitum, §"13. 

§ 13. itaque : since they had called the soldiers back. dulce- 
dinem irae : cf. ' revenge is sweet '. odio : ablative ; ' in . . . ' 

§ 14. futuros fuisse, ni . . . praepedisset : the oblique form, 
in which the future participle is regularly used to represent a 
potential clause needing the subjunctive in the direct form ; cf. 
4 §6. 

^ 15. desperata venia : cf. interiecta regio, 13 § 8. 

§ 16. laudare : cf. § 7 vociferari. obviam itum . . . esse : 

cf. for this impersonal passive use 13 § i. 


§ I. consilium, ' a Cotuicil of War . . . {to consider): altero 
. . . duce : the instrumental (without ab) is proper with exercitu 
(cf. 13 § 10), and this carries duce with it here. Apuli circa 

= 01 7re'pt| ; cf. 2 § 7, Introd. p. 11. ad id, ' up to that tinte: 

§ 2. aliquot . . . populos : ' a considerable number of . . : 

§ 3. Luceriae : locative. restiterat : not from resisto. 

qui . . . erant : sc. eos, as object to {legatos) misere. essent : 

probably the mood follows that of absisteret ; cf. i § 9, but it may 
be an example of a virtually suboblique clause. 

§ 4. debuisse : not debere, which would refer to a time contem- 
porary with the principal verb. 



§ 5. cetermn, ' hovvever, be that as it may, but without discussing 
that aspect of the question ' ; cf. § 9 below. in se, ' in regard 

to, upon, for them.' ferre, 'to propose.' maluerint : 

for the sequence cf. 14 § 7. relinquerent : this part of the 

message {tiuntiare) being an order ; cf. 2 § 3 ; and contrast mis- 
surujn below. 

§ 6. missurum : without essc ; cf. 4 § 3. 

§ 8. haud ferme alia, ' perhaps no {other) . . . ever' ; cf. 3 § 9. 
mutatione . . . rerum, ' revolution in the fortunes {of the two 
peoples).' clarior : sc. ' than this '. 

§ 9. id minus . . . id magis, ' while . . . , another circumstance 
is.' For the asyndeton cf. i § i. missoque: by a common 

instinct of style sub iugum is not repeated. 

§ 10. inde, ' then,' 'afterwards.' haud sciam an (. . . 

Camillum) : \\nna.\\Y =^' perhaps' ; but the subjunctive gives a 
milder tone even than hatcd scio an, and is rather ' I should hardly 
like to say whether '. Papirii praecipuum : together. 

§ II. errorem, ' uncertainiy,' though erratuni sit ~ 'a blunder, 
mistake has been made '. 


§ I. eonvenit : )( ambigi, 15 § 9. iam inde (per consules), 
' after that, from this date onwards' )( dictator . . . cwn magistro 
equitum, 15 § 9. urbem : the name is not certain ; perhaps 


§ 2. cives Homani : a Roman colony had twice been thrown 
into the town. After the first colonization, it again fell into the 
hands of the Volscians ; then, at some unknown date, a second 
colony was sent, and in 320 B. C. it went over to the Samnites 
(12 § 5). rem gessit, 'fought' : cf. 14 § 4. 

§ 3. triste, ' stern.'' nisi . . . tradito : subordinate to re- 

mearent. ne . . . remearent : an order ; cf. 1 5 § 4. 

§ 4. exsequuntur (quaerendo), ' follow the matter up,' ' persist 
in.' quonam pacto = quomodo ; cf. 7iullo pacto. ab 

iisdem : not with iussi. 

§ 5. impetrato : the same use, impersonal passive, as in 14 
§ 16, but here in the instrumental (abl.) absolute. senatum : 

not of Rome. ad se : i. e. Papirius. 

§ 6. utrisque, ' both parties ahke ' ; cf. 14 § 1. eonsuli: 

with opera jiavaretur. 

§7. nihil (satis) praeparati: together. enuntiare : i. e. 

to reveal, betray, the secret design. 

§ 8. altera, quibus . . . aperuerunt : for the sequence of 
number cf. 14 § () pars explerent. 

§ 9. circa viam . . . locis : cf. 15 § i for this imitation of the 
Greek turn with the article. momento unius horae, ' in one 

crowded hour,' ' one decisive hour saw,' ' in one hour the scale 



was turned ', Introd. p. 15. Samnis : cf. 2 § 5 for the 


§ 10. quaestione, ' inquiry' ; almost technical, cf. qiiaesHo -per- 
petua. quos : for the antecedent omitled cf. 15 § 3 and below 

scrihtinf, qui. 

§ II. inde : presumably if Cursor was not consul then, he was 
in his namesake's army. ad triumphum : on 21 August 

(of the Roman calendar) 320 B. c. decesaisse : technical, of 

a commander leaving his province to come home. auctores 

sunt takes the construction that might follow scribunt. 

§ 13. et, ' and in fact' ; we might use ' He was a man indeed\ 

§ 13. eundem, as often to an EngUsh mind, merely connects, 
as if = 'and also '. 

§ 14, cum, ' under the command of ' : cf. 13 § 6. ullo : the 

regular ablative from quisqitam ; cf. 2 § 10. 

§ 15. etiam introduces a fact confirmatory of the last state- 
ment ; cf. et just above. 

§ 16. ille . . . inquit : Livy not unnaturally finds it convenient 
to drop the construction after fenatt, and to adopt direct speech 
again. utique, 'at any rate, at least.' dorsum : i. e. of 

the horses. vis . . . imperii ingens . . , in, ' a commanding 

influence over.' 

§ 17. praetor : the presiding magistrate of Praeneste, who 
would command the contingent sent by that town to serve with 
the Roman forces. 

§ 18. multa (dicta) : not the adjective. 

§ 19. res Romana, ' the Roman state, government ' ; cf. Introd. 
p. 13. staret : the subjunctive regularly follows such a phrase 

as nenio erat qui. destinant animis : together. si . . . 

vertisset : the apodosis is contained in pareni . . . duceni, which 
= 'as the man who would have been '. In Greek, which has 
a participle of ft/xt ( = suni) and which can attach ov to a participle, 
this sense can be tersely expressed by av ovra. Latin writers of 
this date wished to secure an equally terse form of expression in 
their own language, and resorted to the turn used here by Livy, 


§ I. quaesitum, sc. 'by me'. No one could think Livy had so 
far travelled outside his subject. The history of Rome was in itself 
interesting enough and full enough of chequered episodes and 
dramatic scenes, to need no interludes, plus iusto, ' un- 

necessariiy.' varietatibus, ' digressions.' et legentibus . . . 
et . . . meo : observe the chiasmus. 

§ 2. quibus . . . volutavi animum: English (and Latin gene- 

rally) speaks of 'revolving thoughts in the mind'. taeitis 

cogitationibus . . . eas : English puts adjective and noun with 

the antecedent, not with the relative. (evocat) in medium, 

Liw IX 97 G 


' out ' ; ' leads me to express, give expression to '. futurus 

fuerit : the regular suboblique form, whether in primary or in 
historic sequence of the pluperfect subjunctive in the apodosis of 
a conditional sentence. 

§ 3. ingenia : the pkiral with the plural imperatoriim ; cf. 
7 § 4. per omnia humana : sc. potens ; for the asyndeton 

cf. I § I. 

§ 4. ea, ' these factors in the problem,' subject to praesiant, 
though understood also as the object to infiienti. hoc: i. e. 

Alexander. invictum : for this conveniently terse imitation 

of a Greek form of expression cf. l6 § 19. 

§ 5. iam primum : together; cf 5 § 12 and § lo belovv. 
facit : the clauses that follow are the subject, but a pkiral verb 
would be hable to be misunderstood. in incremento rerum, 

' while his power was still growing, his fortunes still in the ascen- 
dant ; his power was not yet on the wane.' alteram : sc. than 


§6. Graeci : Xenophon, e.g., in his Ki'poi; TraiSeia. Magnum 
Pompeium : when ^^ praenomen of a Roman's name is omitted 
the }iomen and cognomen are regularly inverted ; cf. 15 §§ 10, li; 
16 § II. modo : if Livy was writing this in 25 B. C, Pompey 

had been dead twenty-three years. vertenti : here intransi- 

tive. praebuit, ' handed over to, exposed to.' 

§ 7. recenseam : here Livy turns from his one point nofiditm 
alteratn fort. expej-tus to the other quod unus ftiit. The arrange- 
ment is natural ; grammarians call it chiastic. fuit bellan- 

dum : an Engkshman would cdn^x^&x fuisset more logically correct ; 
cf. 9 § 12 difficile fuit and dimicandum erat below. 

§ 9. si . . . bellum : if he had first turned his arms against 
Carthage, and then come against Rome. 

§10. horum in quolibet should logically follow t"«w. indples 
. . . animi ingeniique, ' moral and mental virtues,' iam inde 

ab initiis, ' from the very first beginnings.' per manus, 

' from one to another.' artis . . . ordinatae modum, ' an 

organized system, science.' perpetuis, ' hanging together, 

systematic, comprehensive.' 

§ II. iuvenes, ' in their younger days.' 

I 12. opera: not here, as in 2 § 12, but, as is shown by 
pugnafido, ' personal service in the field.' videlicet : ironical. 

oblatus par, ' if he met him, hand to hand.' 

§ 14. qui . . . dixit : Kineas, the ambassador sent to Rome by 
Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. speciem . . . cepit, '■formed an idea.' 

§ 15. vero, ' but, I suppose,' ironical. 

§16. non: i. e. ' but . . . not ' ; cf. i § i for the asyndeton. 
dixisset : i. e. ' he would have found '. nihil . . . contemnere : 
the means to Alexander's victory. He only had to make up his 
mind that Darius' host was worthless, and to disregard it. 


§ 17. Italiae . . . habitus, ' the configuration of Italy, the cha- 
racter of its scenery, the Itahan landscape.' domesticae 

cladis, ' disaster to his own house ' ; explained in the words that 


§ I. et, 'moreover' ; cf. 16 § 12. intolerantior : intoxi- 

cated by success, he soon deteriorated in character. 

§ 2. ex . . . spectetur, ' be judged by.' This is not the protasis 
to vetiissef. The full expression might be si spectetur, appai-eat 
etim, si venisset, ventianin fi/isse si/nile/n. fortunae, 'en\'iron- 
ment, surroundings, circumstances, pomp and state.' ut ita 

dicam : since a man cannot really change his ingeniiini. 

§ 4. desideratas, ' which he required.' victis : i. e. si victi 

essent. supplicia : the allusion is to Philotas' execution. 

amicortim : the allusion is to Clitus. stirpis : he claimed 

to be born of Olympias by Zeus, not Philip. 

§ 5. quid? ' again, besides.' ira : repeat the predicate 

from the previous clause. nulla . . . damna virtutibus : cf. 

for the dative after the noun corpori teguj/ientu//i, 19 § 7. The 
apodosis to si . . . fieret is understood (e. g. futwa fuisse ; cf. 14 

§ 14). 

§ 6. levissimi : all Greeks were volatile and unbalanced. Livy 
is probably thinking of one Timagenes, who after Augustus in 
30 B. C. began to consider the Parthian question, seems to have 
argued that Rome was too weak to cope with Parthia, and then 
to have taken the occasion to magnify AIexander's exploits. 
notum : but there is a tradition that ambassadors were sent from 
Rome to Alexander and from him to Rome. potuerit : in 

this auxiliary the indicative would be used but for the ne ; cf. 
17 § 7 and 1/iissurus fuerit below. 

§ 7. adversus quem: for the antecedent following cf. 15 § 3. 
in : regularly inserted with such words as urbe in apposition to 
a place-name in the locative. Thebes was burnt in 338 B. c. 
tum maxime prope : together, 19 § 2. sunt : many read 

sint (suboblique) ; cf. l § 4. homines : e. g. Deinosthenes, 

Lycurgus. missurus fuerit : but for the tte we should have 

niisisset; cf. 17 § 7. 

§ 8. hominis = ' his '. vmius . . . hominis erit : the pre- 

dicate, as is shown by the prominence of unius. collect^. 

. . . felieitate : plus is often used indeclinably and with gua?n 
omitted, where numbers follow. 

§ 9. victus sit : the subjunctive of these critics' way of putting 
the case ; cf. 2 § 15. Alexandro : for the asyndeton cf. 17 

§ 16. et eius = Ka\ tovtov, ' and that too.* iam quad- 

ringentesimum : i. e. in AIexander's day. rebus : for the 

gestis not repeated cf. 15 §9. The combination it is to be noticed 

99 G 2 


was so felt to express a single noun-idea that it could govern 
a genitive. 

§ 10. saecula: not 'centuries* but ' generations ', three of which 
are reckoned to a century. From the founding of Rome in 753 to 
the death of Alexander in 323 we have 430 years, practically 
thirteen generations. 

§ 1 1. quin tu . . . confers : equivalent to an imperative ; a lively 
way of putting a protasis {si confers). Cf. 10 § 7. cum ho- 

mine : this ' brachylogy of comparison ' {coviparatio compendiaria) 
is due to the same motive as has been noticed in § 9 7-ebus. Cf. 
uhi non Hymetto Mella deccdunt viridique certat Baca Venafro, 
Horace, Od. ii. 6. 14 sqq. 

§ 12. nominem = ' could I' (if necessary). annalibus : 

libri lintci kept in Juno Moneta's temple on the Capitol, giving 
Jists of magistrates. fastis: ahnost equally bald chronicles 

kept by the pontifices, and recording the dates of battles, eclipses, 
triumphs, and the Hke. consulum dietatorumque : not in 

apposition to 7nagistratuu?n, but with paginas — ' whole pages of ', 
' pages fuU of the names of.' 

§ 13. quo sint mirabiliores : Livy does not notice that this 
point may be pressed the other way— these magistrates' short 
office made possible their claim to unchequered success. vice- 

nosque : the Roman mind found this logical, the English thinks 
' or twenty ' is so ; cf. § 19 below. 

§ 14. tempus : cf. ifi tempore. 

\ 15. alterius: for the genitive cf. § 9 above. successum 

est: for the impersonal passive cf. 14 § 16. 

§ 16. at hercule, ' on the other hand' ; cf. 4 § 12. This is 
probably a recollection of Demosthenes. 

§ 17. fortunae pignora : i.e. his previous successes, which were 
an earnest of further success, 

§ 19. vel . . . vel : not the same as aut . . . aut ; cf. 4 § 10. 
rerum, ' achievements.' quorum . . . viveret : consecu- 

tive, hence not vixisset. 


§ 2. lustris : the censors (and before them the consuls) every 
five years took a census of the people, and before laying down their 
office performed certain rites of purification for them. It is notice- 
able that Livy had access to the tabulae censoriae of that time, 
though he does not record the figures each lustrum ; cf. Introd. p. 7. 
omni : i. e. when all the Latins were in revolt ; cf. § 4. urbano 
prope: apart from the Latins, the Roman forces were almost 
entirely drawn from Rome ilself, dilectu : instrumental case, 
giving the manner or circumstances of the levy. § 3. quaterni 

quinique : this number of legions fought in each of the two 
great seats of fighting at that time, viz. (i) the north, i.e. Etruria, 



Umbria, and the Gauls ; (2) the south-east, i. e. Samnium and 
Lucania. in Etruria, in Vmbria : for the asyndeton see 


§ 4. Latium . . . invenisset (sc. Alexander) : together. The 
sentence is a good instance of Livy's power to avoid monotony 
by variety of expression. \Ve may say that que unites words 
closely so as to make them express one composite conception ; et 
unites them in a level catalogue ; ac or atque (= 'and also ') lays 
emphasis on the following word. adiuncta omni ora Grae- 

corum : cf. § 2 in omni. The ancients' grasp of geography was 
less secure than ours (cf. Introd. p. 7 ff.), and Livy speaks of the 
whole stretch of coast where Greeks were to be found as if it 
fringed one sea, which is hardly true when that sea is not called 
the Mediterranean but i)iferi (cf. 2 § 6 supe7'i viaj'is). a Thuriis : 
to be explained by the fact that the town is really the name of its 
inhabitants ; cf. the old ' Bishop of the Sumersaetan ', now of Bath 
and Wells. Antio . . . tenus : together. The original use 

(an adverbial accusative.of extent = ' the stretch ' or ' reach of) 
with a genitive or with an ablative of the point from which the 
measurement starts has quite developed into a prepositional use. 
Ostiis : generally the singular form is found. Livy perhaps 
chooses this for variety ; cf. Neapolini et Cuinas, where the selection 
of places named may be determined by the same consideration. 
aut socios validos . . . aut fractos . . . hostes : chiasmus. 

§ 5. hominum =/^^/z"///w. hoe roboris (partitive gen 

II § 9) erat (sc. ei): belonged to, constituted, the flower of his 
troops. maius : not niagis. traheret : i.e. vi^ith him. The 

imperfect = ' in that case he would have been bringing ' ; cf. 17 § 16. 

§ 6. adde quod : a poetical turn for ' moreover '. esset : 

potential subjunctive like traheretahove ; soconsenuisset. Roma- 
nis . . . Alexandro : see § 3. qu.od = id quod. agro 

bellanti : not together. 

§ 7. ietu missuque : a hendiadys, two ways of regarding the 
hurling of the pilu))i (which is not used for thrusting like the 

§8. partibus : (i) \n \ir\G.s, hastati, prijtcipes, triarii; (2) longi- 
tudinally, maniples. partienti : if the general wished to sub- 

divide his forces ; cf. 17 § 4. esset : an imitation of the Greek 

optative, for which Cicero would have used the indicative; cf. 6§2. 

§ 9. iam, ' again, finally.' opere : the Romans knew that the 

trenching spade was perhaps even more important than the sword ; 
cf. 2 § 12. Cannae : where Hannibal, 216 b. c, defeated 

Aemilius Paulus and Terentius Varro. 

§ 10. ne : like vnl. saepe . . . quaesisset : used here 

like requi)'o of ' sighing for ', ' regretting '. fuisse : before 

coming to Italy ; otherwise esse ; cf. 5 § 7. 

§11. sortem, ' circumstances, conditions, chances.' hoc 



ipso : i. e. Alexander the Great. sua : i. e. sorte bellorum 

suorum, abbreviated for elegance. 

§12. primo : 265-241 B. c. certatum : i. e. a Romanis 

esse. suffeeturam : representing after reor an independent 

suffecisset ; cf. 4 § 6. 

§ 13. foederibus vetustis : this is probably historically true. 
adversuB . . . hostem duas . . . urbis armaret : together. 
The verb gives the sense ' would have been likely ' or ' certain to 
arm' ; cf. 2 § 5. 

§ 14. quidem, ' it is true ' : sc. experti sunt Romani Macedonem 
hostem. Antioehum : King of Syria, fought Rome, 197 B. C. 

Philippum : King of Macedon. Persen : Perseus, last king 

of Macedon, succeeded Philip, 178 B. C, was defeated at Pydna, 
168 B. c, and lost his throne. non modo . . . sed ne . . . 

quidem : in a negative sentence, where the verb is common to 
both parts, non modo constantly is used for the logical ?wn modo 

§ 15. absit invidia verbo : since the vvords that foUow sound 
boasttul. sileant, ' not arise,' since they might so weaken 

Rome as to refute the soundness of Livy's generahzation, especially 
in view of Crassus' defeat by the Parthians, 53 B. C, and of Antony's 
in 36 B. C, during the period of the Civil Wars. utique, ' and 

certainly.' nostris : when the ground favoured us. labora- 
vimus replaces victi sumus, leaving ab equite, iSic., without 
a proper construction. 

^ 16. equitem sagittas : cf. § 7 ; an allusion to the Parthians. 

§ 17. civilis . . . concordiae : together. 


§ 1. facti : parts of csse are constantly omitted by Livy ; 
Introd. p. 12. 

§ 2. ab ... populis . . . legati : an adjectival phrase, quali- 
fying a noun like the Greek use with the arlicle, in e. g. o\ iv tjj 
TToXei. frequentibus, * many, one after another.' 

§ 4. et = etiam : a use probably influenced by that of Kai in Greek. 

I 5. praefecti : one probably was sent yearly. Capuam : 

a natural, but not strictly logical or grammatical construction. 
Thfe pracfccius was appointed [creari) and sent thither. coepti : 
the passive is usual when a passive infinitive follows. legi- 

bus . . . datis : when allies were governed in this way their 
local laws were revised and assimilated to Roman law before being 
continued. Not very dissimilar is our treatment of hidian law. 
utrumque : the sending of a praefcctus, and the codification of 
laws. aegris rebus : the dative here instead of a genitive 

foUows remedio : cf. 40 § -^pectori tegumentum. 

§ 6. tribus : this addition raised the number to thirty-one. 

§ 7. Teates : the same people as the Teanenscs above. Livy 



working with two authorities, who used differcnt forms of thc 
name, has made two embassies out of one. petitum : not 

the passive participle. praestandae populo : together. 

§ 8. id . . . impetravere : explained by ut . . . aequo 

foedere : an instrumental (ablative) of manner or attendant 

§ 9. Apulia perdomita : together. perrectum : for this 

impersonal passive use cf. ztur (= they go) zn mttiquam silvani. 

§ 10. disciplina, ' institutions, pohtical arrangements, consti- 
tution.' agere, ' Hve.' ipsius : instead of a praefectiis 

and a praetor who had no connexion with the place, as had been 
the case with Capua (§ 5 above), the patroni of Antium itself were 
commissioned to the work. patroni : prominent Romans, 

whom a place abroad invited to undertake the duty of watching its 
interests at Rome. nec = et . . . 7ion. 


§1. creatis : returned as elected. The construction is not 
ablative absolute. 

§ 3. hinc . . . hinc : in opposition. Samnis : the singular 

is often used for variety, one individual being spoken of as repre- 
senting the nation. coacto : not ' compelled' here. 

§4. inde : of time, as in 20 § i. alieni : i. e. Samnite 

and besieged, each from other. suis : the order gives the 

emphasis needed by the contrast. iusto proelio, ' a regular, 

pitched battle.' mox : in Livy of succession in past time ; 

cf. Introd. p. 11. anceps : referring to duplex tcrror\ so 

diversa below. tutam, ' protected, secured,' to be distin- 

guished from incoluinis. cepit . . . statuit : to us the plu- 

perfect would seem natural. diversa : facing different ways, 

to meet both enemies. 

§ 5. tamen : though he fought both enemies at once. nec 

magno: for the negative cf. 20 § 10, and nec gravatus, 3 § 9- 

§ 6. varia, ' partial ' : i. e. in one part of the line and not in 
another. fusi in castra : together. 


§ I. deinceps ab dietatore : not by consuls. ad Sati- 

culam : the preposition inserted gives the sense ' to the neighbour- 
hood of, to the lines round, to beneath the walls of '. 

§ 2. nequ.e enim : the reason for Fabius' coming cuin supple- 
mento. In this combination the -que is constantly indistinguishable 
if e7iini is given its full sense (' For . . . not 'j. Sometimes it is 
like ' strangely enough ' in English. lacessentes : nominative. 

§ 3. eo, ' on that account ' : a construction somewhat carelessly 
repeated at the beginning of § 4. intentius . . . in (moenia) 

. . . versus, ' devoting his attention more to.' (id) tantum 



(quo), ' (that) only.' dueere, ' considered it to be (real) war. 

The historic infinitive rapidly strikes out a picture without the 
trouble of verb-inflexions. The subject it will be noticed is in the 
nominative. securior ab : together. agere : cf. 20 

§ 10, ' he felt easy.' 

§ 4. ferocius, ' more boldly^ otium pati, ' bear to do 

nothing, support sitting still.' nihil = non. 

§ 5. fortuna exercuit opea, ' fortune showed her power.' 
et = etiam : cf. 20 § 4. ederet, ' cause, occasion.' 

§ 6. quo . . . inde : correlative. adequitasset : the subjunc- 
tive, since it is virtually suboblique — an idea in the generars mind. 

§ 7. infesta cuspide, ' with his lance (couched) at rest.' 
equo : without a preposition, a poetical construction ; Introd. 
p. II. nee . . . -nnsu^iB = sed non . . . magis (^ so much'). 

ut fit, ' as is usually the case.' 

§ 9. deeus ulti (imperatoris), ' the honour of avenging ' ; 
cf. 28 § 6. 

§ 10. descensum . . . est : cf. 2o%<^ perrectuiii. repentina: 
i. e. hurriedly formed. 


§ I. ad Soram : the preposition is to be explained, as ad 
Saticiclam, 22 § l. 

§ 2. prior : before the Samnite forces came. 

§ 3. alii super alios : one set of scouts after another coming in. 

^ 4. obviam itum : cf. 22 § 10 descensicm est. ad Lau- 

tulas, ' near,' ' by.' alterius = ' either '. victi victoresne : 

after incertos ; cf. 32 § 3. C icero writes, as a rule, victin^. an victores. 

§ 6. ab Roma : the preposition perhaps because the words go 
■^^Caexercitu 7iovo,2,?,\nio\i\ butcf. 6§io. subsisteret : the 

oblique form, in historic sequence, of the deliberative subjunctive. 
ad omnia . . . consiliis : he learnt fully enough Q. Fabius' plans. 

§ 7. aliquot, ' a (considerable) number of.' modo governs 

obsessi and obsidentis. 

§ 8. e£Q.caciu3 : sc. esse, the subject being the clause nullam 
. . . spem. semet ipso : not referring to the dictator. 

§ 9. viam, nullam : cf. for the noun kept in the relative clause 
urbem quam statuo vestra est. 

§ 10. tuta, ' strong, secure, protected' ; cf. 21 § 4. eadem 

iufesta, ' at the same time dangerous.' circa omnia : cf. for 

this Greek use 20 § i. si . . . velint . . . sunt : the 

irregularity in the condition corresponds vvith the sense. 

§ II. frustrabor . . . vos, ' raise idle hopes in your hearts.' 
infecta : not from itificio. recipiatis : final in sense. 

§ 12. quibus operae est, 'who have time to . . .' 

§ 13. quibus : the antecedent ei is not expressed, but is the 
subject to incendettt. eirca : again the Greek use; cf. 2^7. 



§ 14. vadunt : always of rapid movement ; 13 § 2. proxi- 

mis tantum : which alone would be visible. 

§ 15. in tempore, 'at the proper moment.' qua : sc. via. 

per diversa, ' in every direction.' 

§ 16. turba : ' its disorder'. in medio : between the two 

Roman armies. 

§ 17. quorum praeda onustum militem : together. For the 
singular cf. Sa?nnis, 2 1 § 3. 


§ I. reditum : sc. est. 

§ 2. nec . . . et : cf. ov-ri . . . re ; and 4 § 8. tempore 

longinqua . . . praeceps perieulo : the language is rather 
strained for conciseness and point. With a long siege victory was 
distant ; a storm would be quicker, but dangerous and rash. The 
chiasmus is to be noticed. 

§ 4. inde . . . perpulit : cf. 21 § 4 for the temporal use of the par- 
ticle. ut by its position makes the grouping of the other words 

clear, dividing the attributes of the subject from the predicate. 

§ 5. fore : for the change of construction due to the passing into 
oblique statement after oblique request cf. 2 § 3. ardua, ' steep 
ground, path.' pluribus . . . conlatis : see Introd. pp. li and 14. 

^ 6. ad boc, ' besides (this).' 

§7. vel tres, ' three if you like, even three'; cf. 4 § 10. 
arcuerint : a potential perfect subjunctive ; cf. dixerit qids. 

§ S. quae omnia : not together. ex incerto, ' in conse- 

quence of the dimness, the obscurity ' : a use of the neuter adjective 
something like the Greek, equivalent to an abstract noun. 

§ 9. pro vestram fidem, ' help, help ' ; look out pro (not the 
preposition) and fides : cf. 12 § 8. 

§ 10. incidens . . , foribus : together. 

§ II. pavorem, ' ///^ rt/arw.' tela et armatos tenere : an 

intelligible but illogical turn. multiplicato numero : the 

scouts exaggerated. 

§ 12. praesidium : the cohorts of § 5 above. 

9 13. reliquos (ex . . . ) fecerat : together. 

^ 14. infandae, ' abominable, atrocious.' 

§ 15. cuius . . . intererat: this construction was developed 
under the influence of the almost synonymous refert. The reader 
should turn to 9 § 7 for an account of the construction foUowing 
refert, and should observe that with interest the construction 
cannot be rigorously analysed and construed. 


§ 3. inquirendo : an instrumental or sociative (ablative), of 
attendant circumstances — ' in the course of ' ; cf. 3 § 1 1 per- 
cunctando exsequeretitur. 



§ 5. simul : used by Livy = siinul ac ; cf. the Devonshire use 
of ' like ' = '{like) as\ audierunt : here Cicero would have 

a SLibjunctive (cf. l § 4). Many read audieritit. iuventute 

armis : for the double asyndeton cf. i § i . 

§ 6. incerta pace : explained by 7iec . . . admoveaiur. 

§ 7. sub lucem, 'towards, shortly before' ; cf. 28 § 4 sub ad- 

\ 8. simul . . . simul : parallel, emphasizing the idea. 

§ 9. absentibus dueibus : the consuls did not go with these 
troops from the camp. 


§ I. Samnitium facta : i. e. fell into their hands. 

I 3. Romae quoque : as well as the army in the field. 

§ 4. quod exsecrabile . . . erat : cf. 23 § 9 for the adjective 
in the relative clause. 

§6. quaestiones, ' tribunals of investigation ' ; cf. 16 § 10. 
dici, ' to be nominated, appointed.' 

§ 7. eius : a possessive genitive depending on a subjective 
genitive {iiiagistratus). is : for the attraction cf. hoc opus, 

Iiic labor cst, and ea below. nominarentur : i. e. for trial ; 

cf. hc\o\w postulabantur. For the mood see Q § 13 ; 29 § i. 

§ 8. interpreta,ndo : possibly instrumental "or sociative ; cf. in- 
guircndo, 25^3; but better taken as a dative of work contemplated ; 
cf. II § 12. iussisse : the statement of the case, which 

needed authoritative interpretation — the answer, in fact, from 
Rome to the question referred thither. 

§ 9. eoitiones : i. e. at Rome. fieri : the historic infinitive ; 

22 § 3. quaestionis, with ius. 

§ 10. nemo : i. e. of the tribunes. quin : since auxilium 

would be by veto. § 11. simul, with universi. 

§ 12. adeo : a favourite particle with Livy to summarize a reflec- 
tion at the end of a narrative : ' so true was it that, so completely, 
so utterly, to such an extent ! ' 

§ 13. enimvero, ' (however) . . . indeed.' 

§ 14. quod saepe alias : sc.factum est. tempora, ' needs, 

exigencies '— often used of a crisis. esset . . . egisset : the tenses 
must be distinguished. 

§ 15. qua de causa : sc. ita fecerint. pro magistratu, ' in 

view of my official position, being in otfice, officially.' 

§ 16. postquam . . . erant : postquam usually takes the aorist ; 
for the force of the tense cf. 30 § 7. causam dicerent : 

technically of defendants on their trial. 

§ 17. adeo gives the reason that in nos irruerunt ; cf. § 12 
above. omnia, ' anything and everything.' privatis 

. . . verecundiae non fuit : the predicative dative is found in the 



case of abstract nouns generally with the verb csse, and with no 
qualification except at tinies a single adjective. 

§ 18. etiam quae non possint : sc. facej-e ; we should probably 
resort to the word * impossibilities '. me : the asyndeton used 

in strong contrasts. 

§ 19. quaeso: an archaic use ; Cicero hardly uses the word 
except parenthetically { — please). negotium, ' the task'; 

sc. qicaereftdi or quaestiones exercendi {^ I4). 

§ 22. nec diutius . . . viguit : generally the negative flies 
forward in Latin. 


§ I. versos : of the attention ; cf. 22 § 3. § 2. ex propinquo : 
cf. ex incerto, 24 § 8. aperiret : virtually suboblique. 

§ 3. eo : to Capua. utrimque ad hostem via . . . cunetati : 

i. e. either side hesitated to approach its enemy. 

§5. periculum : not 'danger' here. eventus eorum: 

i.&. leviuin procliornin. trahebant : the pkiral is natural, if 

strictly ungrammatical, after Romatiuin. 

§ 7. in cornua (divisis) : to serve on the two wings. inten- 

tiores . . . starent : without ut, as often. eo vis : cf. eo, § 3. 

pedite : instrumental, with iutain. (Perhaps Livy spelt it pediti.) 

§ 8. consistimt : the number is noticeable, after consuluin (not 
consulcs), but it is natural enough. et = etiain. 

§ 9. universis . . . viribus : together, the order emphasizing 
the adjective ; cf. § 10 universani . . . aciein. 

§ 10. ea pai"te : i. e. the left. 

§12. tenderet: intransitive, apoetical use = ttf«/<?;;(7V;v/. loco, 
' from their ground.' 

§ 13. ceterum, ' however.' auxilium : in apposition Kofortes 
viri. audita . . . visa . . . restituit : cf. adetnptus Hector — 

the loss of Hector, a use confined in Cicero to the oblique cases. 

§ 14. iam : as often, can best be got in English by using such a 
periphrasis as * begah to '. vincere : a historic infinitive. 

Maleventum : the city was a Greek colony MdXofi?. As often, the 
accusative was the form mostly heard by the Romans (in answer 
e. g. to the question ' Where does this road go to?'), and this they 
made into Rlaleventum (cf. sparrowgrass for asparagtis,crayfish for 
ccrevisse), and then thinking the name sounded ill-omened altered 
it into Beneventum. ad triginta . . . caesa : the verb agrees 

with inilia, although this is qualified by ad triginta. 

§ I. egregia victoria parta : together. 

§ 2. hiberna egerunt, ' passed the winter,' ' remained in winter 

§ 3. unde . . . fuga, ' in consequence of, after the flight . . . ' 
reditum : sc. est. maxime qualifies Nolam. 



§ 4. moenia . . . muris : to vary the vvords merely ; Introd. 
p. II. sub, *just before.' Samnitium : i. e. probably 

the garrison. 

§ 5. ibi : i. e. outside, round the walls. ita multo, ' (so) very 

tnuch ' ; cf. the English coUoquial use ' he's so nice '. 

§ 6. captae . . . Nolae : where we should use an abstract noun ; 
cf. 27 § 13. clavi figendi: in Jupiter's temple, yearly. 

§ 7. Suessa : where colonies are sent to sites not then occupied 
generally the name is put in the nominative in apposition to coloniae ; 
where to existing towns the accus. is used, as hiteramnam below. 

§8. &t^etiam. Observe the words thrown before ut for 
emphasis, and so to effect a connexion with the previous sentence 
without using a connective particle. senati = senatus ; cf. 

plebei =plebis. sed: instead of the consuls in the year of the 

decree carrying it out. 


§ I. decederet, 'could be removed ' ; cf. 2 § 8 for the mood. 

§ 2. tempestate : archaic for temporc. seeundum : the 

Gauls were most dreaded of all. essent : the subjunctive is 

regular after a negative clause like ?iec erat gefis ; cf. 16 § 19. cum 
. . . tum : parallel. 

§ 3. persequenti : Madvig changes the MSS. here, according to 
the rule given 24 § 5. But euphony after three e sounds in the word 
perhaps determines Livy's choice : cf. 27 § 7. restiterat : not 

from resisio. 

§ 4. is: i.e. Sulpicius. omnes : emphatic. quae alia, not 
agreeing with res, which has the same sense as rei just before. 
de . . . agitat, ' think of.' quieturus : for this use of the 

future participle, so convenient for brevity, and copied from the 
Greek participle with av, but influenced by the Latin use to represent 
in Oratio Obliqua the conditional subjunctive, cf Introd. p. 11. 
ultro : of something unprovoked ; ' taking the offensive.' in- 

ferrent : virtually suboblique, for the future indicative. 

§ 5. eohibendo : i. e. not letting it break out. et = ctiam. 

neutri : the plural of two parties (not individuals). 

§ 6. viam : from Rome to Capua through the Pomptine marshes 
— the first public road. aquam : he built an aqueduct 8 miles 

long from the East of Rome. ea : the neuter plural, referring 

here to two feminine nouns (generally to nouns of different genders) 
which are the names of inanimate things. 

§8. iam inde antiquitus : with i/isita/n ; 'from the very 
earliest times ' ; cf 17 § 10. pertinaeiam . . . obtinuit : 

together, solus : for the case cf 34 § i p/ivatus and § 16. 

§ 9. cuius . . . familiare : practically together. eius sacri, 


§ 10. quod, 'a thing which,' cf. 6^4, but here ' of such a sort 



as '. posset : i.e. to-day, were \ve not so stubborn. demo- 

vendis statu suo (sacris), 'disturbing ' ; cf. loco, 27 § 12, and 
for thc dative case after religtonein cf. 9 § 19. puberes ad 

triginta omnes : together ; cf. 27 § 14, but perhaps \ve might 
supply essent, and make piib. ad trig. follow by asyndeton ; cf. 
I § I. cum stirpe, 'and so (therewith) the entire stock.' 

^ 1 1. memori deum ira : instrumental ; cf. 27 § 7. 


§ I. questi . . . deformatum: ?,c.esse. 

§ 2. aliquot leetis : the lex Ovinia about 360 B. c. directed 
ui censores ex onini genere optiniiiin queinque legerent. recti 

pravique : probably neuter. ad gratiam ac libidinem, ' to 

please others or to gratify personal caprice,' ' to curry favour (secure 
popularity) or for a whim.' citaveiunt : i.e. to the senate. 

§ 3. utraque : each kind of iinperiziin being bestowed on several 
recipients, the plural is correct ; cf. neutri, 29 § 5. quae, 

' posts, offices which' ; cf. 29 § 10 quod. fuerant beneficia, 

' had been in the gift of.' plebei : for the form cf. 28 § 8 ; but 

plehi sciti below. idem merely gives the sense of ' also '. 

§5. proximis censoribus : i.e. Appius Claudius and Gaius 
Plautius. agmine : i. e. ' in a body '. sacrificiis 

praecineret : besides tibicines pi-ivati there were tibicines publici 
for the sacrificia publica, and these are meant here. Cf. Ovid, 
Fasti vi. 653 Cantabatfanis, cantabat tibia ludis, Cantabat inaestis 
tibia fiineribus. The tibicines were probably not Roman citizens, 
but Etruscan immigrants. 

§ 7. postquam . . . nequibant, ' finding that they were not 
likely to succeed,' gives the force of the tense ; cf. 31 § 6. 

§ 10. impetrato : for this impersonal neuter ablative absolute 
cL 16 § 5. ornati: they put on masks and motley robes. 

licentia : on 13 June they might go about drunk. in aede : 

the lovis of § 5 is omitted for brevity. 


§ I. novum bellum Etruria : for this apposition cf. 42 § 4 
novtiin belluin Sallentini hostes. 

§ 3. antiquius, ' the old is good.' 

§ 5. haud tantum : sc. as against Cluvianum. omnis : 

sc. praeda. 

§ 6. eo . . . (intentae, ut) : the adverb replacing in id. si 
qua : sc. via ; cf. el' Tj-ajf. 

§ 7. quidam . . . oblati : explaining captivi. congruentia 

. . . adferentes : for the point of this cf. 2 §§ 2, 3 milites deccin 
pastoruni habitu mittit . . , ut idem oinnibus sermo constet. 
pecoris vim : cf. odora canuni vis. 



§ 9. nova res, 'the sudden, unexpected attack, surprise.' 
militiae, with disciplma. 

§ II. eo . . . dedecore : of bringing his men into this danger. 

$ 12. modo, * only.' 

^13. quem esse . . . locum: a rhetorical question, expecting 
no answer, and equivalent to a negative statement. successum 

erat : cf. ittcr in aniigua/n silvam. 

§ 14. laboris : almost = ' fighting '. 

I 15. summam, ' on the crest ' of the hill. acies : i. e, the 

Roman line. palati, ' scattered, in broken sections.' 

§ 16. ipsos . . . sua fraude impediebant : cf. Psahns xxxv. S 
* Let . . . his net, that he hath laid privily, catch himself '. itaque 
ergo : not unhke the Enghsh ' and therefore '. 


% I. orsi : contrast orio^ § 3 below. 

I 4. dicto paretur : cf. dicto audiens, and for the voice 31 § 13 
successwn erat. 

§ 6. meridie : possibly ablative of separation with inclinavit, 
but niore probably locative of time (originally medi(i) die). 

§ 7. superat, ' has the advantage.' 

^ 9. ante signa circaque : one line fought before the colours. 

§ II. (quicquam) . . . rei (gestum est) adds the sense of 
' fighting '. quod = id quod, referring to subsid. mod. relictis. 

Observe the order of vix quod, so common in Livy ; cf. 4 § 9. 

§ 12. decesserint: the aorist subjunctive is used generally in a 
negative clause ; here it gives the same efifect as the insertion of 
' positively ' or ' actually ' would have in EngHsh. 


§ 2. Etruscis : i. e. to help them. 

§ 3. cum = in quibus. cum : the ' inverse ' use, regularly 

followed by the indicative. 

§ 4. Aemilia lege finitum . . . erat : the first censors, elected 
in 443, probably held office till they had carried out the quinquennial 
lustratio, i.e. for an undefined period. During the next censorship, 
it was e'nacted 434 B. C. that 18 months should be the major limit of 
the censor's office. 

§5. actionem, 'question.' popularem: Ap. Claudius, 

like Clodius later, was really the demagogue. in vulgus : 

Introd. p. 12. 

§ 6. (laudibus) ferret = ' speak of ' (with) ; cf. laudibus efferret. 
dominantem, ' tyrannous ' ; cf. doniitiatio. 

§ 8. (negare) . . . m.agno opere . . . pertinere : an ironical litotes. 

I 9. tenuerit : aorist subjnnctive, oblique for the aorist indica- 
tive ; the sequence is noticeable by the side of the other tenses. 



quod postremum iussisset, id : one of the laws in the Twelve 
Tables (34 § 6). For the tense cf. 14 § i. ius ratumque : 

together, as the predicate to esse/. non . . . teneri . . . 

potuisse : the negative can be separated from the verb possuin 
when it is throvvn forvvard so as to affect at once the vvhole sen- 
tence. post . . . latam : Appius' argument seems to be that 

the people in nominating censors subsequently to the Aemihan 
law and not expressly Hmiting their powers (cf. 34 § 1 1 ) ipso facto 
repealed that law so far as those censors vvere concerned. 


§ I . inquit : sc. P. Se/npromus. 

\ 2. ante . . . quam obruerent : the subjunctive as in 29 § i. 

§ 3. Sacrum montem : vvhen Menenius Agrippa persuaded 
them to return (see Shakespeare's Coriolajius) 494 B. c. 

§ 4. duo exercitus : in apposition to the subject. This was in 
449 when the Decemvirs vvere put down. faenebres : this led 

to the secession in 494. agrarias : as to the disposal of the 

'common lands ', at the same dates. 

^ 5. nomen, ' family ' ; cf. 29 § 11. 

§ 6. itane tandem .' ' Really 1 ' An indignant question, vvhere 
tandem = ' pray '. cum, ' although.' duodecim 

tabulas: since Appius' contention claimed to be a true, though 
novel, inference from the rule quoted in the next sentence, 
Sempronius appeals against it to the improbability that the true 
sense had hitherto escaped men. The XII Tables were dravvn up 
451 B. c. iussisset: this sequence, in contrast to that in .$•//, 

fueriftt above, is probably due to a wish for variety ; Introd. p. ll. 
sciit : the only perfect used by Livy, who uses scivi for the perfect 

§ 9. quid . . . mali : together. ira fmitae potestatis : 

cf. for the sense 2>Z § 4- The genitive is objective, and gives the 
cause of the annoyance. aerarium : a proletarian without vote. 

§ 10. auspiciis : instrumental or sociative (ablative) of attend- 
ant circumstances. 

§ II. utquioptimo iure . . . : part of the old formula used in 
the lex directing the appointment of magistrates. It was intended 
to secure to the nevv magistrates all the rights of their office : each 
vvas to be appointed 'as one who vvith fullest powers, with complete 
right, has (creatus est) been appointed '. After the dictatorship 
vvas made liable to an appeal to the people this formula vvas 
omitted in appointing dictators, on the ground that their povvers vvere 
less than those of earlier dictators. Had the same change been made 
for the censorship, Ap. Claudius vvould have had no handle for his 
argument. hoc . . . singulare, ' this peculiar privilege.' 

§ 12. quem . . . crees ? ' whom vvould you (venture to) make?' 
If Claudius' reasoning holds, other magistrates might argue that the 



terms of their appointment revoked all limitations ever imposed on 
their office, so that they would have all the powers once associated 
with the name of that office. Three cases are quoted in which this 
view would recall the monarchy. regem sacrificiorum : 

vvhen the monarchy was replaced by a repubhc, while two consuls 
took over the important functions of the king, the formal duties of 
rehgion wcre entrusted to a powerless rehgious functionary, whose Hfe 
was narrowly circumscribed but who represented the State before 
heaven. Cf. the (BaaiXevs at Athens. 

§ 13. isti : i. e. Claiidio. vitio : i. e. with some fault in the 

auspices or formalities ; ' with some irregularity '. 

§ 14. intra decem annos : Livy here follows another authority 
for the date of Maenius' dictatorship than he adopted in his narra- 
tive ; 26 § 7, quibusdam : dative. 

§ 15. modestiam : '1 don't expect similar self-denial, not L' 
ne degeneraveris : a rare form of prohibition, with a somewhat 
abrupt tone, though it is in origin identical with the Atticprohibition 
by an aorist subjunctive. non . . . abieris = ' you need not '. 

S 16. iam : when we come to this, when you go to this length. 

§ 18. paenitet enim . . . nisi: you are not satisfied apparently 
with the variouG misdemeanours you have committed, but you must 
needs crown them with something worse. cui, ' in whose 

honour ' ; see 29 § 9. 

§ 19. hospitio deorum : they entertained Hercules. ab 

(stirpe), 'beginning with, right from' ; cf. 29 § 10. nefario : 

here a substantive. 

§ 21. se auctorem, ' his example, lead.' 

§ 23. non modo . . . sed ne . . . quidem . . . vellem : where 
the verb is common to two clauses of this character, noti niodo is 
used where logic would have required non niodo non. incle- 

mentiori : notice the form, perhaps chosen for euphony (most of the 
neighbouring vowels are e), The word is archaic. The compara- 
tive = ' at all hard ', ' hard rather {than not) '. 

§ 24. egi, ' said ' ; cf. actio. pervieacia tua et superbia : 

are felt to be one idea, and hence the number of the verb. 

§ 25. comitiis censoriis : i. e. a meeting of the centuries to elect 
censors. duo : sc. censores (accusative). legitima 

suffragia : cach censor must have an absolute majority of centuries 
for him. altero : if one only had such a majority, and among 

the other candidates there was only a relative order, the one with 
the majority was not declared elected, but another election-meeting 
or more had to be held, till two men were absolutely elected at one 
and the selfsame meeting. qui . . . possis : i.e. if you 


§ 26. appellanti . . . fuerunt : for the dative of the person 
interested, together with the predicative dative, cf. 26 § 10. 
omnium ordinum : but the truth comes out in 46 § 11. 




§ I. ducenti : without an object ; cf. supe}-af, 32 § 7. muni- 

tiones : i. e. the beleaguering hnes. 

§ 2. subiecta : below the hills, which Fabius had just descended. 

I 4. ingerere : a poetical turn ; Introd. p. 11. 

§ 5. scuta . . . ictae : cf. 27 § 13 aiidita, etc. ; for conciseness 
this is left to be the grammatical subject of vulneravenifit. 

§ 7. per obliqua campi, ' diagonally across the plain ' ; cf. 2)7 
§ I for this poetical neuter plural. petimt : equites Romani 

is subject to the subordinate verb only, so that the main subject 
remains unchanged. 


§ I. Germanici saltus : Caesar's conquestsfrom 58 b.c. onwards 
had opened up this region. nulli : cf. the dative with the 

gerundive. It gives properly the person interested rather than the 
agent. diem, ' time, hour,' not ' day ', and therefore feminine. 

audebat: i. e. at first ()( tuin below) ' had the heart to, was bold 
to ' ; almost in its old sense ' was eager to '. 

§ 2. Caesonem : these writers merely dififered as to the prae- 
nomen ; yet others thought him a half-brother of the consul. 
consulem : attracted to the case of C. Claudiuin . . . genituin. 

§ 3. Caere : cf. rurc. hospites : Etruscan friends of his 

family. auctores : sc. ' who statc that . . .' litteris : Cicero 
declares that the Etruscans gave Rome her science of augury. 

§ 4. propius vero : together. praecipuum aliquid : i. e. 

some special knowledge of Etruscan. qui . . . immiscuerit : 

probably a causal sense is in the pronoun. 

§ 5. ne . . . possent, 'to save them from being found out.' 
qua . . . insigni nota, ' any noticeable blemish,' ' any glaring 
sign, instance ' (of defective knowledge, of ignorance). 

§ 6. abhorrebat ab fide : the subject is the following clause, in 
which queiiiquain is due to the negative implication of this 

§ 7. (eonsulis) verbis, ' in the name, on behalf of . . .' 
egisse : from dicuntur we must supply dicitur or the like. 

§ 8. iussum : sc. esse. paratam imperio : together ; 

imperio not ablative. 

I 10. saltum : cf. § 14 below. § H- emittit : i. e. to plunder. 

§ 12. praedarum : of several raiding parties. praedae : 

predicative dative. fuerint : cf. for this aorist 32 § 12. 

§ 14. forte, like Tvyx^v<s> in Greek, gives a sense not properly 
represented by the English ' by chance ' or ' happened '. It draws 
attention to the coincidence in time, and is something like ' just at 
that moment '. serius : the comparative is never used except 

when its meaning is extended by such an addition as here. Sero = 

LIVY IX 113 H 


* too late '. revertxmtur : the subject is continued from 



§ I. quam = niagis quat/i ; it does not follow latms. ora, 

' district.' 

§ 2. neque . . . tantummodo . . . sed etiam : parallel. 
quam primum : cf. quam inaxime. § 3, primo )( dein, 

§ 4. die : the form of the genitive till later Latin. 

§ 5. nihilo quietior : they vvere as restless (from fear, cf. § 7) 
as the enemy (from eagerness) ; cf. 39 § 3 qtiieti = ^fTvx^i^ovTi^. 
decima hora : 3-4 p.m. in March and September ; 3.45-5 in June. 
dederit : perfect subj. oblique for fut. perf. indic. 

§ 6. paucis : sc. verbis. esse : sc. sibi. telum : 

metaphorical. scituros . . . taceri : i. e. about this ielum. 

§ 7. quo : final, generally with a comparative. erat : i. e. 

to the soldiers' minds. quarta vigilia : in June, 2.15-4.30 a.m. ; 
in March or September, 3-6 a.m. 

§ 10. eos ipsos, ' but even these.' aurum argentumque: 

probably not coin. 

§ 1 1. civitatem : i. e. the Romans at home. 

§ I. alia: cf. in English ' Of all men else I have avoided thee ' ; 

and in Greek fjyouTO 8e Koi eTepoi KaKovpyot 8vo dvv avTa avuipi6r)vai . 

§ 2. acta = ducta. socii navales : marines and rowers, 

drawn from the allies, poorer citizens, and libet-titii. esset : 

since unde has a general (cf. 6 § 2) and perhaps a final sense. 

S 3. possent : the subject must be drawn out of neino. 

§ 4. (quantum terrorem) . . . tam laetam famam : as if tan- 
tam laetitiamfamae. cladis imaginem, ' as a parallel to the 

disaster (that might be expected).' 

§ 5. avidam ulteriorum semper : zi. proximis above. 

§ 6. iam gives the sense of ' was beginning to '. avertisset : 
for the mood giving their thoughts and feelings cf. 22 § 5. 

§ 8. equestris ordinis : where the adjective precedes the noun, 
it is, as a rule, emphasized. 

§ 9. aucta fama : to which ut solet belongs in sense. place- 
bat : the tense is changed, because this resolution took consider- 
able time to carry through. diceretur : for the tense for which 

strict grammar would ask futurtini fuerit ut diceretur cf. 2 § 5. 

12. § sua quoque . . . non publica solum : another variant 
form ; cf. 37 § 2. 

§ 14. animum, 'feelings, inclinations.' ut: consecutive, 

not final. 

§ 15. legem euriatam de imperio : just as religious form made 
a rex sacri/iciorum necessary under the republic, so after the 



comiiia centuriata and tribitta arose and held the reality of power, 
the formal vesting with iinperium of those by them elected was done 
by the ancient patrician cotmtia cnriata. principium : in the 

various curiae the votes were taken simultaneously ; then the order 
in which the results from the several curiae should be announced 
was determined by lot, that which came first being called prin- 
cipium. eiusdem curiae fuerat : in 390 and in 321 B. C. this 

curia had been drawn first, when the lex ctiriata was to be passed 
for the various magistrates of those years. 

§ 16. ad Cremeram : a stream near Veii where 300 Fabii were 
slain by an ambush, 477 B.C. facit: in his history. 


§ I. auspiciis : i. e. for another comitia cujiata to pass the lex. 
ad. terrorem, ' at,' ' on ' ; cf. 22 § 7 ; defined by tradueti . . . exer- 
citus. nuper scriptis : as a reserve army in case Fabius' 

march ended in disaster {2,7 ^ 11, 38 § 8). 

§ 4. nam : here has been lost an account of incidents in Sam- 
nium and Etruria. 

§ 5. lege saerata coacto : they raised a ' holy war ', the army 
binding itself by a solemn oath to fight to the death. simul 

. . . simul : cL et . . . et, tum . . . tum. 

§ 6. emissa sint : see below evaseriiit. accensa est: i.e. 

the fight grew hotter as it went on. 

§ 7. nihil . . . movetur fugae, ' no (hint of) flight was attempted.' 

§ 8. per . . . evaserint, ' made their way over,' to fill up the 
gaps in the triarii now in the hne. This aorist sequence is com- 
moner than the imperfect even in Cicero, when the clause is 
negative ; but Cicero does not use it, as Livy does here, in an 
affirmative clause. It is believed to be an attempt to represent 
the Greek uia-T€ with an aorist infinitive. 

§ 9. utcumque adfecta erat : even though weary, wounded, or 

§ 10. pertinacia coepta : i. e. of the Etruscans. etiam cer- 
tiorem, ' still more unmistakable.' For certiorem Drechsler sug- 
gested ceteri o?imes. et . . . et : parallel. 

§ II. quod roboris fuit, ' all the troops they had.' 

§1. gloriae : the genitive here = an adjective ; cf. na-Tpav 
(='starry') eKXeXonrev evcppovr]. fecerunt : we should have 

thought a pluperfect more logical. 

§ 2. fastigio aequali : a descriptive ablative (not after /atius). 
cimeatior : sc. /orma. The word is used by poets before Livy. 

§ 3. auratis : with ))iilitibus, a poetical boldness of expression ; 
cf. caelatu)» below, 

115 H 2 


§ 4. horridum : i. e. in workmanlike accoutrement. 

§ 5. illa : not attracted \o firaedmn because of arnia following. 

^ 8. non segnius : sc. certamen in a different sense, 

$ 9. sacratos : cf. 39 § 5. 

§ 10. alienam : taking the place of the genitive of alius. 
trahet: cf. 18 § 16. 

§ II. equites: cf. 10 § 3, 18 § 11, for the coniparatio com- 

§ 12. in transversa (latera) : ' obHquely, diagonally against.' 

§ 14. iam, ' soon.' 

§ 16. tantum magnificentiae : cf. 39 § 11 qiiod roboris 
fiiit. argentariorvim : slaves (or freedmen) who exchanged 

the silver money from Etruria and Southern Italy for Roman 
(Rome had no silver coinage yet). ornandum : i. e. for the 

triumphal procession. 

§ 17. ab superbia: the preposition is due to quasi-personifica- 
tion of the abstract noun, common in later authors, and not unlike the 
love of some English writers for writing such words vvith a capital. 


§ 3. noluissent : for the mood to give Fabius' statement or 
thought cf. 38 § 6. 

§ 4. Marsi : hitherto friendly to Rome, though of the same 
stock as the Samnites. eandem fortunam : sc. as is con- 

tained in victi above. 

§5. Tarquiniensem : cf. for the singuJar Saiiinis, 22 §11. 
subegerat . . . praebere : the same construction follows, since 
the sense is the same, as if we had cocgerat. 

§ 7. exercitu : cf. for the case 5 § 6. exactae, ' were 

required by the Romans from the enemy.' 

§ 8. integrae . . . nisi quod : cf. for the imitation from the 
Greek of the participle, understood with integrae, Introd. p. 11. 

§ 10. ad famam intentus hostium, ' waiting for any rumour 
of their approach.' . 

§ II. (expertis) quam . . . (sc. Rotnanis or ctvtbus dative), 
' how.' 

§ 12. esset : sc. ei. § I5- plaga : cf. ora, 37 § ^- 

§ 16. prout . . . ita (instruxit) : together. praedicatione 

. . . partorum decorum : together. sunt : cf. 25 § 5. 

§ 17. concentum: just before a battle the tubae and cormia 
were sounded together. 

§18. mirabilia: the plural— referring to the several occur- 
rences mentioned immediately after— is unusual ; 29 § 6 ea. sig- 
niferis : the dative, as in Greek after Sexofxm. transferri, 

' went over,' ' deserted.' ala : see the Dictionary. 

§ 19. aciem : sc. Umbroruni. § 20. et ceteri = Kin o\ liWoi. 




§ I. alienae sortis . . . belli : cf. for the sense 41 § 2, and for 
the words 40 § 10 : )( suam ■provijuinm (cf. 38 § 8 for the order). 

§ 3. abdicavit : if correct, cf. sunt 41 § 16 ;" if Ruperti's abdi- 
carit, the subjunctive gives the prospective timc named by Furius. 

$ 4. urbanis artibus : e. g. his knowledge of law ; cf. 46. 

I 6. pro consule : i. e. as proconsul. 

§ 7. pacti . . . ut : for the order cf. 4 § 9. They might other- 
wise have been sold as slaves, since they would be prisoners of war. 

§ 8. veniere : cf. pcrdo and pcrco for this way of forming a 
quasi-passive. qui : one man. 

§ 10. per . . . dantur, ' distributed amongst various . . . ' eam 

. . . rem : the question of their ultimate fate. 

§11. concilium ... Anagninis in eirco: similarly all the 
Latins met at Alba. populorum omnium = Hernici noniinis. 


§ 4. ageret : cf. for this use of the word 20 § 10, 25 § 6. We 
should have strictly {anibo) agerent. subita rerum : cf. for 

this poetical neuter plural, 35 § 7. iusti : cf. iustuni belhim. 

§ 5. nequaquam pro, ' not correspondent to, quite unworthy of.' 

§ 6. trinis : not tribus. stipendio : instrumental (ablative) 

of price. 

§ 7. permissum de H. erat, ' the question, fate of . . . had been 
left.' et only applies to the statement superior viribus. 

§ 10. matiiravit . . . venire : a prolate use of the infinitive 
common in Greek and poetry ; not unlike peais egit altos Visere 

§ II. ut qui: cf. quippe qiii. Cf. below, § 19. passi = si 

passi essent. §12. in eastris = in stativis. 

§ 14. ad se sui : oblique for ad nos nost7'i. 

§ 18. malo : i. e. they must pay for their hanseling, it must be to 
their cost. tiroeinio : since they were just enlisted. im- 

buendum : constantly of the first experience in, the first tincturing 
\\-ith, anything. Cf. Quo se^nel est imbuta recens, servabit odorem 
Testa diic. 

§ 19. temptando . . . certamini : the dative after satis fore 
(= will be equal to). 

§ 20. et : as well as the Samnites. 

pacis oratores : the fetials of the enemy— an old use of 

decreta est : sc. ei ; cf. 34 § 18 cui. 

23. maluerunt : supply an object from the sense of suae leges 

redditae. civitatem: sc.of Rome. aliquamdiu, ^formanyyears.'' 

§ 24. quique = eisque qui\ cf. 29 § 4. eivitas sine s. 1., 

they were simply Aera7-ii \ cf. 34 § 9. coneilia : cf. 42 § 11. 



curatione : they retained their titles, but were allowed powers only 
for religious functions ; cf. 28 § 6. 

§ 25. viae : foUowing Ap. Claudius' example. ■■ 

§ 26. tertio : the historicity of these early treaties between 
Carthage and Rome was formerly questioned, but there seerns 
reason to think that there really were concluded (i) a treaty in 
509 B.C., (2) one before the subjugation of Latium 339, not men- 
tioned by Livy, and (3) this. 


§ 3. Piso : one of Livy's authorities. 

I 4. memoria fugerit : sc. eion. binos : not duo. 

\ 8. d.isceBSum : sc. esse ; cf. the use of nbire. milia : of 


§ 10. de vigilia tertia : cf. de iiocte. qua : not with 

vigilia, ' by the shortest way possible.' 

§ II. in multum diei : for the neut. adj. cf. 39 § 8, 42 § 6. 

I 12. fugam quoque : no less than fighting and conquering. 

I 13. fama: i.e. of the other army's defeat. mortales : 

common for homines. utraque : both that where aequo 

Marte discesstwi and that where they were dtw inilia inde. 

§ 16. Herculis : perhaps as atonement for the proceeding men- 
tioned in 29 § 9. 


§ 2. ultro eitro : cf. i § i for the asyndeton, transigi 

potuisse : in the auxihary the indicative replaces in Oratio Recta 
the pluperfect subjunctive ; cf. posse just below. ad id locorum, 
' hitherto ' ; a partitive genitive. rebus standum esse, ' the 

Romans had to, were driven, to rely on action.' 

§ 3, paeemne: cf. 23 § 4 for tbis Livian use, so distinct from 

§ 6. postquam . . . venerant : for the efifect of this tense 
(regularly used only when the exact length of time after the event 
is stated) cf. 46 §11. res repetitum : cf. the use in res 

repetendae and l § 3 dedendas res. 

§ 7. temptationem esse, * it (the fetials' coming) was an attempt 
(to get them) to.' Romanos se fieri : i. e. to receive the 

Roman civitas. quod : i. e. receiving the franchise. Her- 

nicos docuisse : cf. 43 for the allusion. quibus : masculine. 

§ 8. legendi = eligendi, almost saying (their preference), hence 
quidmallent. mallent: observe the sequence,///^/'// being 

aorist. fore : cf. 43 § 24. The tense is made future to give 

the sound of a general rule. 

§ 10. suo nomine )( such proceedings as in § 5 above. per- 

multos annos : since 388 B. c. imbelles : perhaps nomina- 

tive ; cf. 22 § 3 securior agere. 



§ 13. prima vigilia : in June, 7-30-9.45 p.m. ; in March and 
September, 6-9 p.m. deportanda : sc. into safety. moe- 

nibus comes in oddly ; we should have expected praesidiis (' to 
garrison their respective cities'). 

§ 16. ut in, ' as was natural in the case of . . . , natural when 
they had.' 

§ 18. exemplo eorum : not together. oratores pacis 

petendae : a genitive of quality, in origin distinct from, in use 
similar to, the dative of work contemplated ; cf. 46 § 3. 


§ I. scritaa: first private secretary to Ap. Claudius, then scriba 
aedilicitis, a sort of permanent under-secretary to some body of 
magistrates. libertinus : a man descended from a slave, a 

member of a class who were neither servi nor liberi. 

§ 2. appareret : the scribae ranked first amongst magistrates' 
apparitores. pro tritau : i. e. the resuh to be returned for his 

tribe was that he was elected so far as their vote vvent ; cf. 38 § 15. 
accipi : i. e. by the aedile presiding at the election, scriptum : 
a masculine noun. faceret : practise (a profession) ; cf. 

histrioniam (an actor's '^xoit.ssxoxi) facere . 

§ 3. arguit: he took it that the other offices mentioned would 
have been closed to one who was still a secretary. nocturno : 

the triuniviri nocturni had to provide for the security of Rome 
during the night. 

§ 4. quod hauddiscrepat)(thedisputed question whetherhe was 
still a scriba. contumacia : instrumental (ablative) of manner. 

§ 5. civile ius : i. e. the rules of procedure to be followed, the 
formulae to be used, the days permissible for suits betvveen citizen 
and citizen. penetralitaus, ' the (secret, innermost) chambers ' 
— a poetical turn found in Vergil. in albo : contrast ' black-board '. 

§ 6. Concordiae : for his choice of the goddess cf, Flavius 
vovit aedem Concordiae, si poptilo reconciliasset ordines. area 

Vulcani : an open space overlooking the comitium. verba 

praeire : he would know the proper form of words, and would 
prompt the dedicating magistrate as the clergyman prompts the 
bridegroom and bride at a wedding. more maiorum : not 

in sense with nej(aret, but brought forward for emphasis. im- 

peratorem : when not a consul this would be a praetor or dictator. 

§7. partis maioris : with tribunorum plebei; the senate's 
resolution was always by a majority, but a single tribune might 
strictly run counter to all his colleagues. 

§ 8. haud memorabilem . . . nisi : for the construction cf. 41 § 8. 

^ 9. adsidebant : often of attendance on invalids. eo : in 

the doorway, it is said, so that they could not go out, anxios : 

for the vigorous metaphor {ango, dyx<^) see Introd. p. 14. 



§ 10. ceterum carries the reader back to § i, after the digres- 
sion. forensis factio : this would include mechanics, artisans, 

&c., who, having no landed property, were counted with ■proletarii., 
and were capite censi, voting at the coinitia centjcriata in the last 
century. They were probably without any vote in the coniitia 
tributa until this time. The effect of Appius' innovation was 
similar to that of our own Reforni Bills passed in 1867 and 1884. 
primus: in Caesarian times the same promotion offreedmen was 
seen. libertinorvim must here mean ' freed-slaves ' ; libertifiis 

in its general use would include the sons of such men, but they 
are here distinguished from them. It was the custom to expect, 
even for a knight's rank, a freeman's status in the knight himself, in 
his father, and in his grandfather. But no law had specifically stated 
that this was a sine qtia non, and Appius, in the absence of such 
a law, acted on the general instructions of the lex Ovinia (30 § 1). 
So in the English Constitution no law, it has been said, has 
specifically withdrawn from women the right to vote at the election 
of Members of Parliament. 

§ II. habuit, ' regarded, treated as.' adeptus erat : the 

pluperfect gives the sense, ' he found that he had secured ' ; cf. 
45 § 6. per omnes tribus : he allowed them to select any 

tribe they liked, and put them on the list of voters from that tribe. 
forum : where the coinitia tributa met. campum : where 

the comitia centuriata met. Once these men were members of 
a tribe (the more ancient and exclusive coinitia voting by tribes) 
they began to vote in the centuries (more recently instituted and 
less exclusive), not amongst the proletarii, but in that one of the 
five classes to which their property entitled them to belong. 

§ 12. Flavii comitia, ' the coniitia at which Flavius was elected ; 
his election.' habuerunt, ' occasioned.' 

§ 13, bonorum: masculine. aliud . . . tendebat; an 

example of the common development in language by which an 
originally intransitive verb becomes transitive. In this word the 
construction is first found in poetry. 

§14. excretam: a Vergilian word. urbanas : previously 

not specially distinguished from the rusticae tribus. Henceforward 
they were of less importance than the others, their large numbers 
for one thing making the individual vote in them less weighty than 
that in the country tribes. So an Irish vote is worth more than 
a vote in many English constituencies. 

§ 15. acceptam (sc. esse): not the adjective here, but the verb, 
so"that aniinis is not dative. transveherentiu' : the trans- 

vectio tquituin was from the temple of Honos before the porta 
Capena through the foruiii to the Capitol. The knights wore the 
trabea and any badges of honour they had won in war. It \vas 
only in every fifth year at the census that there was a recognitio 




abL^ ablative. 
abstr., abstract. 
acc, accusative. 
adj., adjective. 
adv., adverb. 
c, common (gender% 
card., cardinal. 
comp., comparative.. 
concr., concrete. 
conj., conjunction. 
dep., deponent. 
dini., diminutive. 
distrib., distributive. 
esp., especially. 
_/"., feminine. 
freq., frequentative. 
gen., genitive, 
incept., inceptive. 
iinpf., imperfect. 
indecl., indeclinable. 
indef.. indefinite. 
interj,, interjection. 
interrog., interrogative. 

intr. V., iritransitive verb. 

locat., locative. 

ni., masculine. 

«., neuter. 

noni., nominative. 

num., numeral. 

ord,, ordinal. 

/. /., perfect participle. 

part., participle. 

perf., perfect. 

//., plural. 

prep., preposition. 

pres., present. 

pron., pronoun. 

reflex., reflexive. 

relat., relative. 

sing., singular. 

subj., subjnnctive. 

subst., substantive. 

sup., supine. 

super/., superlative. 

tr. V., transitive verb. 

A, = Aulus, Roman praenomen. 

a, ab (a before consonants ; ab 

before vowels, h, and any conso- 

nants) prep. with ahl. from, on the 

side of, by ; a tergo, in the rear. 
ab-dico, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

reject, resign. 
ab-do, -ere, -didi, -ditum, tr. v. hide. 
ab-diico, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. lead, 

or take away, withdraw. 
ab-eo, -Ire, -Ivi or -W, -itum, intr. v. 

go away, retire from. 
ab-liorreo, -ere, -ui, intr. v. shrink 

back from, am averse to. 
ab-ieio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum, tr. v. 

throw, cast away, abandon. 

abiectus, -a, -um, pa7-t. of abicio ; 

as adj. downcast. 
ab-igo, -ere, -egi, -actum, /;-. v. 

steal and carry off. 
ab-niio, -ere, -ui, intr. and tr. v. 

ab-olesco, -ere, -levi, i^itr. incept. v. 

decay little by little, fade away. 
ab-6minor, -ari, -atus, tr. dep. v. 

put from one as an evil omen. 
abs-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, intr. 

V. retire, withdraw. 
abs-cido, -ere, -cldi, -cisnm, tr. v. 

cut off. 
absens, -ntis, part. of absum"; adj. 




ab-sisto, -ere, -stiti, intr. v. with- 

draw, cease or desist from. 
ab-solvo, -ere, -vi, -solutum, tr. v. 

ab-sum, -esse, a-fui, am away, am 

wanting ; abest quin, is wanting 

absumo, -fire, -mpsi (-msi), -mptum 

(-mtum), tr. v. destroy. 

ac. See atque. 

ac-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, intr. 

V. go or come up to or near, 

ae-cendo, -ere, -ndi, -nsum, /;'. v. 

set on fire, inflame, incite. 
accerso = arcesso. 
ac-eio, -ire, -ivi or -li, -itum, tr. v. 

summon, invite. 
ac-eipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, tr. v. 

receive, accept ; hear, learn. 
B,ccii\xs, pf. part. o/^accio. 
ac-ciimiilo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

pile np, accumulate, add. 
ac-eiiso, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. call 

to account, accuse. 
acer, -cris, -cre, adj. vehement, fierce ; 

co?iip. acrior, sicp. acerrimus. 
acies, -ei and -z,f. battle. 
acriter, adv. fiercely ; comp. acrius, 

snp. acerrime. 
actio, -5nis, f. negotiation ; (legal) 

action, indictment. 
actus, -a, -um. See ago. 
acuo, -ere, -ui, -iitum, tr. v. whet. 

ad, prep. with acc. (.Space) to, to- 
wards, at ; ( = apud) in face of, 
before (of persons). (Time) up to. 
(Number) up to; ad eam aeta- 
tem, ad id, up to that time ; wilh 
regard, reference, or respect to : 
for the purpose of, for, to (esp. 
with gerund and gerundive) ; ac- 
cording to (a standard), for (of 
aim) ; compared with. 

ad-do, -ere, -didi, -ditum, tr. v. add ; 

adde quod, add the fact that, 

ad-diieo, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. puU 

towards one. 
ademptvLs, peff. part. o/"adimo. 
ad-.eo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, /;-. 

and intr. v. approach. 

ad-eo, adv. to such an extent, so ; 

(emphasizing word it follows^ 

indeed, nay more, so long. 
ad-equito, -are, -avi, -atum, intr. 

V. ride up to. 
B,A.f eclMa, perf. part. «y^adficio. 
ad-fero, (aff-), -ferre, attuli (adt-), 

adlatum (all-), tr. v. bring to ; 

bring (news). 
ad-ficio (afif- , -ere, -feci, -fectum, 

tr. V. do something to, work upon 

(aperson); /./. adfeetus, -a,-um, 

weakened, impaired, wearied out. 
ad-fulgeo (afif-), -ere, -fulsi, intr. 

V. shine upon. 
ad-gredior (agg-), -gredi, -gressus, 

tr. dep. V. attack. 
adhortatio, -onis, f. exhortation. 
adhortator, -oris, w. exhorter, 

ad-hiie, adv. hitherto, still. 
ad-ieio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum, tr. v. 

add to, state in addition. 
ad-igo, -ere, -egi, -actum, tr. v. 

ad-imo, -ere, -emi, -emptum, tr. v. 

take away. 
ad-ipiscor, -i, -eptus, /;-. dep. v. 

aditus, -us, m. an approach, access. 
adiunetus i adj-), -a, -um, part. of 

adiungo ; as adj. joined to. 
ad-iungo (adj- ', -ere, -nxi, -nctum, 

tr. V. join or unite to, add to, 

ad-iiivo (adj-), -iire, -iuvi, -iiitum, 

tr. V. help. 
adloquium (all-), -li, n, address, 

ad-16quor (all-), -i, -locutus, tr. 

dep. V. address. 
ad-moveo, -ere, -movi, -motum, tr. 

V. raove, bring. 
ad-nitor -i, -nisus or -nixus, intr, 

dep. V. press upon, strive after. 
ad-6rior, -iri, -ortus, tr. dep. v. 

attack, undertake, attempt (esp. 

anything difficult). 
adparatus (app-), -us, tn. prepara- 

ad-pareo (app-), -ere, -iii, -itum, 

intr. V. appear; wait upon. 


adparitor app- , -oris, m. a servant 

^esp. of an official), a lictor. 
adpellatio, -6nis,y. appeal. 
ad-pello (app-), -are, -avi, -atum, 

tr. V. address, appeal (esp. to a 


tr. V. bring to land. 
ad-probo (app-), -are, -avi, -atum, 

ir. V. approve. 
adsensus (ass-), -us, w. assent, 

ad-sequor -i, -secutus, tr. dep. v. 

follow after, pursue, overtake. 
ad-sideo, -ere, -sedi, -sessum, intr. 

V. sit by or near, hence attend, 

ad-s61eo, -ere, intr. v. am ac- 

customed, wont. 
ad-spicio, -ere, -spe.\i, -spectum, 

tr. V. look at, upon ; behold ; see. 
ad-sum, -esse, -fui, intr. v. am pre- 

sent, at hand. 
ad-surgo, -ere, -surrexi, -surrectum, 

intr. V. rise or stand up. 
adiilatio, -onis,/. adulation, abject 

adulescens, -entis, c. young man or 

woman, youth (betw. 15 and 30 

years, but often older). 
ad-veho, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. 

conduct, or bring to ; pass. ride. 
ad-venio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, intr. 

V. arrive at. 
adventus, -us, m. approach, arrival. 
adversarius, -li, m. an opponent. 
adversus, -a, -um, pa7't. of adverto ; 

as adj. opposite, adverse, unfavour- 

able. As snbst. adversa montium, 

the barrier of the mountains. 
adversus, cuiv., prep. with acc. 

ad-v6co, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

aedes, -is,/. temple, 
aedif icium, -Ti, «. a building. 
aedilis, -is, tn. an aedile. 
aeger, -gra, -grum, adj. sick, ill. 
aegre, adv. with trouble (?r difficulty, 

reluctantly, with regret or displea- 

sure ; comp. aegrius, stip. aeger- 


Aelius, -a, ihe name of a Roman 

gens, see Paetus 7 § 13. 
Aemilius, -a, -um, nameof aRoman 

gens, see (i) Barbula 20 §§ 7, 9, 

21 § I, 30-32; (2) Mamercinus 

21 § i; (3) Mamercus ; (4) 

Papus, 7 § 14. 
aequalis, -e, adj. equal, like. 
aeque, adv. equally. 
Aequi, -orum, m. pl. a people living 

near Rome, 19 §4, 45. 
aequo, -are, -avi, -atum tr. v. make 

one thing equal to another ; place 

on an equality with, compare. 
aequus, -a, -um, adj. level, equal, 

aerarius, -ii, ;«., ■nsn. pl. aerarii, 

citizens of the lowest class. 
aestivus, -a, -um, adj. of the 

aetas, -atis, /. period of life, age, 

affatim ( = ad fatim), abundantly, 

to satisfaction. 
afflcio = adficio. 
age, agedum, see under ago. 
agens, -entis, pres. part. of ago ; as 

adj. effective, powerful. 
ager, -gri, m. field, land, territory 

(usu. in pl.). 
aggredior, -gredi, -gressus, tr. dep. 

V. attack. 
agito, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. freq. 7'. 

agmen, -inis, n. body of troops on 

the march, column. 
ago, -ere, egi, actum, tr. v. lead, do, 

transact, achieve ; treat, spend, 

discuss ; agedum, come then ! 

now ! 
agrarius, -a, -um, ad/. of the fields 

or lands, agrarian. 
agrestis, -e, adj. countrylike, rustic ; 

stidst. agrestis, -is, /«. rustic, 

aio, defect. v. say, assert. 
ala, -2ie,f. wing ; shoulder, 41 § 19. 
alacritas, -atis, f. briskness, eager- 

album, -i, n. a white object (esp. 

a white tablet on which official 

lists or announcements were made). 

23 I 2 


Aletrium, -li, n. town seven miles 
from Ferentinum ; Aletrinas, 
-atis,a^'. of Aletrium, 42 § ii, 43 
§ 2. Aletrinates, m. pl. inhabit- 
ants of Aletrinm. 

Alexander, -dri, tn. (i) the son of 
Philip, lived 356-323 B.c. sur- 
namedtheGreat; 16-19; (2)King 
of Epirus, uncle to Alexander the 
Great, aided Tarentum against 
the Lucanians, but slain 332 ; 17 

§7. I9§"- 
Alfaterna, see Nuceria. 
alias, adv. at another time. 
alibi, adv. elsewhere; alius alibi, 

one in one place, another in 

alienus, -a, -um, belonging to an- 

other, another's, foreign, strange. 
aliquamdiu, adv. for some time. 
aiiquando, adv. at some time or 

other, sometimes, now and then. 
aliq.uant6, adv. considerably. 
aliqui, aliqua, aliquod, indef.pron. 

adj. some. 
aliquis, aliquid, indef. pron. some 

one or other. 
aliquot, indef. indecl. mim. adj 

some, several. 
alius, -a, -ud,/r^«. adj. other ; alii 

. . . alii, some . . . others ; another 

Alllfae, -arum,/. //. town of Sam 

nium, 38 § I, 42 § 6. 
alter, -era, -erum, theone^rtheother 

(of two) ; the other ; as subst. a 

altus, -a, -um, high, deep. 
ambages, -ium, /. //. quibbles, 

rigmarole, ambiguity. 
amb-igo, -ere, intr. v. am in doubt ; 

impers. pass. ambigitur, it is dis- 

ambigiius, -a, -um, adj. changeable, 

fluctuating, uncertain. 
ambo, -ae, -o, num. adj. both. 
ambiilo, -are, -avi, -atum, intr. v. 

Ambustus, (i) Q. Fabius, chap. 7 : 

(2) C. Fabius, chap. 23. 
fimicitia, -ae,/. friendship, league, 


a-mitto, -ere, -mlsi, -missum, tr. v. 

let slip, lose. 
amoenus, -a, -um, adj. pleasant (to 

the eye, usu. of scenery), charming. 
am-plector, -i, -plexus, tr. dep. v. 

embrace, grasp. 
an, conj. (in second half of disjunctive 

interrogations or sentences imply- 

ing doubt), ' or, or whether,' direct 

or indirect; elliptically (almost = 

nonne), before a single question, 

with first alternative understood. 
Anagnia, -ae, / town in Latium, 

Anagninus, -a, -um, adj. of 

Anagnia. Anagnini, -orum, m. 

pl. its inhabitants, 42 § 1 1, 43 § 2. 
anceps, -cipitis {abl. sing. ancipiti), 

adj. doubtful, ambiguous (of 

battle), with doubtful issue. 
ango, -ere, v. tr. throttle; distress. 
angustiae, -arum, / pl. defile, 

angustus, -a, -um, adj. narrow, 

animadverto, -ere, -ti, -sum, tr. v. 

animal, -alis, n, a living creature. 
animus, -i, m. mind, wrath, will, 

annalis, -e, adj. of a year ; as subst. 

annales, -ium, m. pl. (sc. libri), 

rarely sing. chronicles, annals. 
annus, -i, m. a year. 
anniius, -a, -um, adj. lasting ayear. 
ante (of space), before, in front of, 

before, previously ; antequam, 

conj. before. 
antSa, adv. formerly, before. 
ante-signanus, -i, vi. {lit. one 

before the standard) ; in pl. men 

who fought in front of the standard 

and protected it. 
Antias, Antiatis; phir. Antiates, 

inhabitants of Antium, 20 § 10. 
Antiochus, -i, w. Syrian king, 
fought with the Romans ; died 
187 B. c, 19 § 14. 
antiquitiis, adv. from ancient 

antiquus, -a, -um, adj. ancient ; 
comp. antiquior, first in import- 
ance, more famous. 



antistSs, -stitis, c, chief priest or 

Antium, -li, «., a town on the 

coast of Latium, 19 § 4. 
anulus, -i, m. a ring, finger-ring. 
anxius, -a, -um, adj. anxious. 
aperio, -ire, -erui, -ertum, tr. v. 

unclose, open. 
apertus, -a, -\\m, part. ^aperio; 

open, clear; comp. apertior. 
appfi.ratus, -us, m. preparation, 

appareo, -ere, -ui, -itum, intr. v. 

become visible, appear ; appear as 

servant before, wait upon, serve. 
apparitor = adparitor. 
appendix, -icis,y. appendage. 
Appius, -ii, m. Roman praenomen. 

See Claudius. Hence Appius, 

-a, -um, and Appianus, -a, -nm, 

adj. Appia Via, the Appian 

Way, the great S. road from 

Rome through Capua to Brun- 

disium, begun by the censor Ap. 

approbo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

assent (to). 
apto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. freq. v. 

&piid (apiit), prep. with acc. at, in 
_ the eyes, in the opinioii of. 
Apulia, -ae, /'. region in SE. of 

Italy ; Apiilus, -a, -um, adj. 

Apulian, 15 § i, 19 § 4. 
aqua, -ae,/! water, river, springs. 
aquosus, -a, -um, adj. well-watered. 
ara, -ae, /. an altar. 
arbiter, -tri, >n. eye-witness. 
arbxtrium, -ii, ;/. decision, au- 

arbitror, -ari, -atns, tr. dep. v. am 

of opinion. 
arbor (arbos), -oris,/". a tree. 
arceo, -ere, -cui, -ctum, tr. v. keep 

arcesso (accerso), -6re, -ivi, -itum, 

/;■. V. send for, invite, fetch. 
ardeo, -ere, -rsi, intr. v. am on fire. 
ardor, -5ris, m. eagerness, im- 

area, -ae./i courtyard. 
argentarius. -a, -um, adi. of or 

belonging to silver or money ; as 

subst. argentarius, -li, m. money- 

changer, banker. 
argentatus, -a, -um, adj. orna- 

mented with silver ; milites, 

whose shields were silver-plated. 
argentum, -i, n. silver, plate, money. 
arguo, -ere, -iii, -utum, tr. v. prove. 
arma, -orum, n. pl. arms, warfare, 

armed men, troops. 
armatus, perf. part. of armo; as 

adj. armed, subst. armatus, -i, m> 

an armed man. 
armo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. arm, 

Arpi, -orum, m. pl. city in Apulia, 

13 §§ 6, 8, 9. 
Arpinum, -i, n. a town in Latium, 

44 § 16. 
Arretini, inhabitants of Arretium, 

32 § I.' 
Arretium, a town in Etruria, 

37 § 12, 
ars, artis,y. skill, art. 
artus, -a, -um, adj. narrow, con- 

fined, straitened ; covip. artior. 
Arvina, the cognomen of a 

patrician family in the gens 

Cornelia (i ) chap. io§8; ii§9; 

(2) 38 § 2 ; 42-4. 
arvum,-i, n. ploughed or cultivated 

land, arable field. 
arx, arcis,/". citadel. 
Asia, -ae, f. the continent of Asia, 

16 § 19, 19 §§ 10, 11; Asiani, 

-orum, m. inhabitants of the 

province Asia. 
asper, -era, -erum, adj. mgged^harsh, 

distressing ; comp. asperior, sup. 

aspernor, -ari, -atus, tr. dep. v. 

reject, contemptuously repel. 
aspicio = adspicio. 
aspretum, -i, n. an uneven or rough 

at, cottj. yet. 
Athenae, -a.r&ra,/. pl. Athens,i8 § 7. 

Atheniensis, -e, adj. Athenian ; 

Atbenienses, -lum, m. pl. the 

Atilius, plebeian tribune 311 B. c. ; 

chap. 30 § 3. 



Atina, -ae, f. a town in Latium, 

28 § 6. 
atque or ac, conj. and also, and 

besides, and. 
at-qui (adqui), conj. but yet. 
atrox, -ocis, adj. cruel, severe. 
at-tineo,-ere,-tinui,-tentum,^r. a«(/ 

iiitr. V. concern. 
at-tollo, -ere, tr. v. raise up. 
auctor, -oris, c. originator, authority 

for statement, instigator, adviser, 

promoter, voucher, spokesman. 
auctoritas, -atis, /. will, pleasure, 

authority, right of possession. 
audacia, -ae, /. boldness, //. absfr. 

for concr. daring deeds. 
audacter, adv. boldly. 
audax, -acis, adj. conrageous, rash ; 

comp. audacior, sttp. auda- 

audeo, -ere, ausus tr. andintr. senii- 

dep. V. ( = avideo), dare. 
audio, -Ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, tr. v. 

hear, listen to. 
au-fero,-ferre, abstuli,ablatum,//'. v. 

take or bear off or away. 
augeo, -ere, auxi, auctum, tr. v. 

increase, strengthen, exaggerate. 
Aulius, sce Cerretanus. 
auratus, -a, -um, adj. ornamented 

with gold, gilded. 
aurum, -i, n. gold, coin, money. 
Aurunci, -orum, m. pl. people of 

Latium on the Liris, 28 § 7 ; 

Auruncus, -a, -um, adj. 
Ausona, -ae, /. town of the 

Ausones, near Minturnae, 25 § 4. 
Aiis6nes,-um, m. pl. the Ausonians 

(the primitive inhabitants of 

Central and Southern Italy). 

AuBonia, -ae, / the country of 

the Ausonians, 25 §§ i, 3, 9. 
auspicium, -Ti, ;;. divination by 

observing flight of birds, auspices, 

aut . . . aut, conj. either . . . or. 
autem, conj. but. 
auxilium, -li, n. aid, assistance, 

succour; //. avixilia, -orum, 

auxiliary troops. 
a-vSho, -ere, -vexi, -vectum, /;-. v, 

carry off. 

Aventinus, -i, m. also Aventinum, 

-i, 71. the Aventine (one of the 

seven hills of Rome), 34 § 4. 
aversus, -a, -um, part. of averto, 

adj. with back turned, /. e. in 

flight, in the rear. 
a-verto, -ere, -ti, -sum, /;-. v. turn 

away, drive avvay, alienate- 
avide, adv. eagerly, greedily. 
aviditas, -atis, / eagerness. 
avidus, -a, -um, adj. longing 

eagerly for, greedy. 
avis,/ a bird. 
avius, -a, -um, adj. untrodden, un- 

avunculus, -i, m. dim. a mother's 

brother, maternal uncle. 

Barbatus, a cognomen in the Scipio 

family, 44 § i , 46 § 6. 
Bastula, consul 317 and 311; 

chapters 20, 21, 30-32. 
bellator, -5ris, iit. warrior. 
bellicosus, -a, -um, adj. warlike. 
bellicus, -a, -um, adj. relating to 

war, military. 
bello, -are, -avi, -atum, intr. v. 

wage war. 
bellum, -i, n. (old form duellum, 

contest between two, duo) war; 

locat. belli, in time of war. 
belua, -ae, f. beast, monster. 
bene, adv. well, honourably. 
beneficium, -li, n. kindness, bene- 

fit, favour. 
Beneventum, -i, n. town in Sam- 

nium, 27 § 14. 
benigne, adv. in a kindly manner, 

willingly, abundantly. 
benignitas, -atis, / kindness, 

bSnignus, -a, -um, adj. kind, well- 

biennium, -ii, n. a period of two 

bimestris, -e, abl. -i, adj. (bis, 

mensis), lasting two months, two 

months old ; stipondium, pay 

for two months. 
bini, -ae, -a, distrib. ntim. adj. two 

apiece, two each. 
bis, num, adv. twice. 



bonum, -i, «. advantage ; bona, 
-orum, n. pl. property, goods. 

bonus, -a, -um, adj. good ; siip. 
optimus ; subst. boni, m. pl. 
noble, of good birth ; optimi, 
the aristocratic party. 

Bovianum, a tovvn of the Pentri 
in Samuium, 28 §§ 1,3; 31 § 4 ; 

bi'evis, -e, adj. short ; brevi, in a 
short time. 

Biibulcus, consul 317, 313, 311; 
magister equitum 312, 309; cen- 
sor 307; dictator 302, when he 
defeated the Aequians ; chapters 
20, 21, 28-31, 38,40, 43. 

C, abbr. = Gaius. 

cado, -ere, cecidi, casum, itilr. v. 

fall, fall dead, perish (in battle). 
caedes, -is,y. carnage. 
caedo, -ere, cecidi, caesum, tr. v. 

beat, kill, slay, slaughter (victims). 
caelestis, -e, adj. heavenly, divine. 
caelo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. work 

in relief on metals, carve in relief. 
caelum, n. the heavens, the sky. 
Caere, n. indecl. city of Etruria, 

36 § 3. 
caerimonia, -ae,/. sacred rite. 
Calatia, -ae, /". a town in Campania, 

2 § 2, 28 § 6, 43 § I. Calatini, 

-5rum, ni. pl. inhabitants of 

Calavius , the name of a distinguished 

family at Capua ; chapters 7, 26. 
callidus, -a, -um, adj. experienced, 

calo, -onis, m. soldier's servant. 
Calpurnius, a Roman annalist, 

44 § 3, Introd. p. 8. 
Calvinus, consul 334 and 321; 

chapters i, 8, 9. 
Camerinum, -i, n. town inUmbria; 

Camers, -ertis. aw^Camertinus, 

-a, -um, adj. of Camerinum ; 

Oamertefe, -ium, m. pl. the 

Camertes, 36 §§ 7, 8. 
Camillus, censor 403 ; dictator 396, 

when he took Veii ; dictator 390, 

when he defeated the Gauls after 

their victory on the Allia ; dictator 

389, when he conquered the 

Volscians ; dictator 367, defeated 

the Gauls ; chapters 4, 15, 17. 
campester (-tris), -tris, -tre, adj. 

of a plain, level. 
campus, -i, tn. plain, open country ; 

= Campus Martiiis at Rome, 46 

§ II. 
candidus, -a, -um, adj. bright or 

dazzling white. 
candor, -oris, m, dazzling whiteness, 

Cannae, -arum, y. //. a village in 

Apulia, on the Aufidus, famous 

for Hannibars victory over the 

Romans, 216 B.c. 
cantus, -us, m. singing. 
Canusium, -li, n. a town in Apulia; 

Caniisinus, -i, m, a Canusian, 

20 § 4. 
capax, -acis, adj. able to hold much, 

capable of ; coiiip. capacior, sup. 

capesso, -ere, -Ivi, -itum, tr.freq. v. 

catch at eagerly, strive to reach. 
capio, -ere, cepi, captum, tr. v. 

seize ; adopt, try ; harm, maim, 

deprive {with abl., e. g. oculis) ; as 

siihst. captus, -i, m. a captive. 
Capitolium, -ii, n. the Capitol at 

Rome on which stood a temple lo 

Jupiter, 4 §§ 8, 9; 44 § 16. 
captivus, -a, -um, adj. taken inwar; 

siibst. captivus, -i, m. ; captiva, 

-ae,/. a captive, prisoner. 
capto, -are, -avi, -alum, tr. freq, v. 

try to catch. 
captus, -us, m. capacity. 
Capiia, -ae, / chief city of Cam- 

pania, 6, 20, 25-27. 
capiit, -itis, }i. head, a person, in- 

dividual, a chief person, leader, 

chief town, capital. 
careo, -ere,"-iii, -itum, intr. v. with 

abl, be without, be free from. 
caritas, -atis, / affection. 
carpo, -ere, -psi, -ptum, /;-. v. 

weaken, enfeeble. 
Carthago, -inis, / Carthage, in N. 




Carthaginiensis, inhabitant of 

Carthage, 43 § 16. 
Casiniim, town in Latium close to 

the frontier of Campania ; chap. 
eastellum, -i, n. dim. fort, strong- 

Castor, -oris, in. son of Leda and 

Tyndariis (really of Jupiter) and 

twin-brother of Pollux, 43 § 22. 
castra, -orum, n. pl. camp. 
casus, -us, w. accident, chance. 
Caudium, -ii, n. a town in Sam- 

nium ; Caudinus, -a, -um, adj. 

oausa (caussa), -ae, /. cause, suit ; 

adv. abl. causa, ivith poss. pron. or 

gen. of siibst. for the sake of, on 

account of. 
caveo, -ere, cavi, cautum, tr, and 

intr. V. take care, be cautious, witk 

dat, take precautions for (a person 

or thing),look after the interestsof. 
c&villor, -ari, -atus, tr. and intr. 

dep. V. ; intr. quibble, cavil. 
cavus, -a, -um, adj. hoUow. 
cedo, -ere, cessi, cessum, v. intr. 

yjeld, give place to. 
celebro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

celer, -eris, -ere, adj. swift. 
celo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. keep 

in the dark or in ignorance about. 
Censennia, a town unknown, 44 § 

censeo, -ere, -iii, -sum, tr. v. take 

an account of the names and 

property of Roman citizens, 

register; be of opinion, think, 

judge, hold. 
censor, -oris, m. a censor. 
censotius, -a, -um, adj. of a cen- 

censiira, -ae,/". censorship. 
centesimus, -a, -um, ord. nuin. the 

centum, num. indecl. a hundred. 
cerno, -ere, crevi, cretum, tr. v. 

Cerretanus, chapter 15 § 11, 22, 

23 §§ 5. 6. 
certamen, -Tnis, /;. contest, combal. 


certe, adv. at any rate. 

eerto, adv. with certainty, for cer- 

certo, -are, -avi, -atum, freq. v. ; 

inlr. contend, strive. 
certus, -a, -um, adj. to be depended 
upon, trustworthy, certain ; pro 

certo habere, regard as certain. 
cervix, -icis,/. neck. 
ceterum, adv. but yet, however. 
ceterus (caet-), -a, -um, adj. the 
rest, the other ; 7iom. inasc. sing. 
is notfound. 
cibaria, -orum, n. pl. food, rations, 

cibus, -i, m. food. 
cieo, -ere, civi, cTtum, tr. v. put in 

motion, e.xcite, summon. 
Ciminius, -a, -um,«^'. ^Ciminus, 

-i, m. a lake and mountain in 

Etruria, 35, 37, 39 § 1. 
Cineas, minister of Pyrrhus, king 

of Epirus, 17 § 14. 
ciTca,, prep. with acc. round about, 

around, near; adv. around, all 

around, in the neighbourhood. 
circuitus, -us, ?n. detour. 
circum-ago, -agc-re, -egi, -actum, 

tr. V. turn round; (of time) se or 

rejlex. pass. pass away, be spent. 
circum-cido, -ere, -cldi, -cTsum, 

tr. V. cut around. 
circum-do, -are, -dedi, -datum, tr. 

V. with acc. o/person and aU. of 

thing, surround, enclose. 
circiim-eo, -Tre, -Tvi, circuitum, /;-. 

and intr. v. encompass. 
circum-fero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum, 

/;■. v. spread around, diffuse 

(panic, war, &c.). 
circum-icio, -Tcere, -ieci, -iectum, 

tr, V. surround. 
circum-sedeo, -ere, -sedi, -sessum, 

tr. V. lie encamped round, be- 

circum-sido,-ere, -sedi, -sessum, tr. 

V. encamp around, lay siege to, 

circum-spicio, -ere, -spexi, -spe- 

ctum, tr. survey. 
circum-vado, -ere, -vasi, tr. v. 

attack on all sides, beset. 


circum-vSnio, -Ire, -veni, -ventum, 

tr. V. surroimd. 
Circus Maritimus, chap. 42 § 11. 
citatus, -a, -um, part. ofciio; as 

adj. stirred to swift motion, quick. 
cito, adv. quickly ; comp. citius, 

sup. citissime. 
cito, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. freq. v. 

put into quick motion, summon. 
citro, adv. (dat. siiig. ofciitv, on this 

side), to this side, hither : never 

found except combined witli ultro. 
civilis, -e, adj. civic, relating to 

public life. 
civis, c. citizeu. 
civitas, -atis, /. citizenship, i. e. 

condition, privilegcs, or rights of 

a citizen ; state. 
clades, -is,/". damage, destruction, 

esp. disaster in war,defeat,havoc. 
clam, in secret, secretly. 
clamito, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. and 

intr. freq. v. call or shout loudly 

or repeatedly ; shout out. 
clamor, -5ris, m. shout, loud noise, 

clarus, -a, -um, adj. loud, illus- 

trious ; comp. clarior. 
classis, -is, f. fleet, iucludingtroops 

in it. 
Claudius, name of a Roman gens. 

(1) Appius Claudius Caecus, 

censor 312 B. C, induced the sen- 

ate to reject the terms of peace 

conveyed by Tyrrhus through 

Cineas, 29, 30, 33, 34, 42 § 2, 

44 § 3> 46 § 10, (2j 36 § 2, (3) 

5 § 2, Introd. p. 8. 
claudo, -ere, -si, -sum, tr. v. shut, 

close, block up, enclose. 
claustrum, -i, n., «j«.//. claustra, 

-orum, lock ; barrier ; key. 
clavus, -i, m. nail ; stripe of purple 

down front of tunic. 
clipeus, -i, m. large round melal 

shield of Roman soldiers. 
clivus, -i, m. hilL 
cliipeus, see clip-. 
Cliivianum, towii of Samnium, 

„3i§J2, 3-. 
c6-eo, -ire, -Ti, -iuun, mtr. v. come 
toc:ethcr. combinc. 

coepi, -isse, coeptum, perf. with 

pres. signif. , ir. and intr. v. begin ; 

in pass. only perf. and plup. ooe- 

ptus sum and eram. and perf. 

part. coeptus, begun, under- 

coeptum, -i, n. beginning. 
c6-erceo, -ere, -cui, -citum, tr. v. 

control, curb. 
coetus or coitus, -us, m. assem- 

cogitatio, -onis, /. thought, re- 

cognomen, -inis, n. a Roman 

family-name, surname. 
cogo, -ere, coegi, coactum, tr. v. 

drive together, collect, restrict, 

confine, force, urge. 
c6-hibeo, -ere, -biii, -bitum, /;-. v. 

c6hors, -rtis, y. cohort of infantry, 

tenth part of legion. 
c6itio, -6nis,y". conspiracy. 
collega, -ae, m. coUeague. 
col-ligo (conl-j, -ere, -legi, -lectum, 

tr. V. assemble, contract, com- 

col-16co, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

place, station. 
eolloquium, -li, n. conversation, 

col-16quor, -loqui, -locutus, intr. 

dep. V. talk or converse with. 
colo, -ere, coliii, cultuin, /;• v. 

c616nia, -a.e,f. a colony. 
c616nus, -i, m. colonist. 
c6mes, -itis, c. companion. 
comis, -e, adj. courteous, friendly. 
comissabundus, -a, -um, adj. 

revelling, carousing. 
comitas, -atis,/. courteousness. 
c6miter, adv. courteously, ob- 

c6mitia, -orum, n. pl. an assembly 

of the Roman people for electing 

magistrates, passing laws, &c. ; 

the elections. 
commeatus, -us, ni. provisions, 

com-mercium, -ii, n. intercourse, 




com-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, 
tr. V. engage iii ; sponsionem 
committere, to incur the obliga- 
tion to fulfil a treaty or promise, 
by committing some ofTence which 
is the condition for the promise to 
become binding ; to make the 
treaty binding; to forfeit a bond, 

II § 10. 

com-moveo, -ere, -movi, -m5tum, 

tr. V. shake ; (mil.) cause to give 

commiinico, -are, -avi,-atum, tr.v. 

inform (rem cum aliquo). 
com-paro (conp-), -are, -avi, 

-atum, tr. v. unite, match against, 

compare, draw comparisons. 
com-paro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

prepare, make ready, establish. 
com-pello, -ere, -piili, -pulsum, /;'. 

V. drive together. 
compello, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

com-perio, -ire, -peri, -pertum, /;-. 

V. find out with certainty, ascer- 

tain ; /. /. compertus, -a, -um, 

found out, well authenticated. 
com-pleo (conp-), -ere, -evi, -etum, 

tr. V. fill up. 
com-pos, -otis, adj. master of, 

possessing ; with gen. compos 

mentis, in fuU possession of 

mental faculties. 
com-primo, -ere, -pressi, -pressum, 

tr. V. restrain. 
conatus, -ias, m. undertaking, 

con-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, v. 

intr. yield to ; tr. grant. 
concentus, -iis, m. a playing har- 

moniously together, blare, sound- 

con-cieo, -ere, -civi, -citum, and 

concio, -ire, -itum, /;-. v. stir up, 

concilio, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

win over. 
concilium, -ii, n. assembly, council. 
con-cino, -ere, -cinui, v. intr. 

sound together. 
con-cipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, tr. 

V. conceive, imagine. 

concitatio, -6nis,y. excitement. 
concitatus, -a, -um, />art. of con- 

cito ; as adj. quick, at fuU speed 

or gallop. 
concito, -are, -avi, -atum, tr.freq. 

V. put in violent or quick motion, 

stir or rouse up, urge (horse) to full 

concordia, -ae, /. harmony, union ; 

Coneordia, -ae, f. the goddess 

Concord, 46 § 6. 
con-cremo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

burn up. 
con-curro, -ere, -curri, -cursum, 

intr. V. run together, flock to- 

gether in crowds ; join battle. 
con-curso, -are, freq. v, intr. 

rush together. 
concursus, -us,;«. running together, 

collision ; onset, charge. 
condicio,-onis,/ agreement, terms. 
con-fero, -ferre, -tuli, collatum, tr. 

V. bring together, collect ; set 

together (manum, signa), en- 

gage, join battle. 
confertus, -a, -um, part. of con- 

fercio ; as adj. closely pressed or 

packed, in a solid or close body. 
confessio, -onis, f. acknowledge- 

confestim, adv. immediately. 
conficio, -erC; -feci, -fectum, tr. v. 

make completely, bring to an end. 
con-fiigio, -ere, -fugi, intr. V. flee 

to for refuge. 
con-fundo, -ere, -fudi, -fusum, tr. 

V. bring into disorder. 
con-gero, -ere, -gessi, -gestum, tr. v. 

pile up. 
con-globo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

crowd together. 
congredior, -gredi, -gressus, intr. 

dep. V. encounter (in fight). 
congriiens, -ntis, part. of congruo ; 

as adj. suitable, accordant. 
congriio, -ere, -iii, i^ttr. v. corre- 

spond, agree. 
con-icio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum, tr. v. 

throw or bring together. 
c6-nitor, -i, -nisus or -nixus, intr. 

dep. V. put forth all one's strength , 

strive hard. 



con-iungo, -ere, -nxi, -nctum, tr. v. 

join together, unite. 
coniuratio, -onis,/'. conspiracy. 
coniCiratus, past part. (in active 

sense) of 
con-iuro (conj-), -are, -avi, -atum, 

intr. V. conspire, plot. 
conl-. See under coU-. 
conn-. See under con-. 
conscientia, -ae, f. consciousness, 

conscience (evil). 
con-sciseo, -ere, -scivi, -scltum, tr. 

V. resolve, inflict on (oneself). 
con-scius, -a, -um, adj. aware of. 
oon-scribo, -ere, -scripsi, -scriptum, 

tr. V. enrol ; Patres Conscripti 

(= Patres et Conscripti, Fathers 

and Elect). 
con-senesco, -ere, -senui, intr. 

incept. V. grow weak, decay. 
consensus, -us, m. agreement. 
con-sentio, -ire, -si, -sum, intr. v. 

agree, unite (upon). 
con-sero, -ere, -serui, -sertum, tr. v. 

join, join battle. 
con-sido, -ere, -sedi, -sessum, intr. 

V. encamp. 
consilium, -ii, n. consultation, 

plan, judgement. 
con-sisto, -ere, -stiti, -stitum, intr. 

V. take up one's stand. 
conspectus, -us, m. view. 
con-spicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectum, 

tr. V. descry, see. 
constans, -ntis, part. of consto ; as 

adj. {tvith ex) consisting of. 
con-sto, -are, -sliti, -statum, intr. 

V. correspond, be consistent, be 

established ; {with ex) consist of ; 

esp. impers. constat, itisadmitted. 
consuetus, -a, -um, part. of con- 

suesco ; as adj. customary. 
eonsul, -ulis, m. a consul, one of 

the two chief magistrates of the 

Roman Republic. 
consularis, -e, adj. of consular 

rank ; stibst. eonsularis, -is, m. 

an ex-consul. 
eonsiilatus, -us, m. consulship. 
consiilo, -ere, -iilui, -ultum, v. tr. 

ask the advice of, take counsel 

with, consult. 

consultatio, -onis, f. deliberation, 

inquiry, question. 
consulto, abl. n. of part. (con- 

sultus) as adv. designedly, deliber- 

consulto, -are, -avi, -atum,y>-^^. v. 

intr. deliberate ; tr. ask advice 

of, consult. 
consultum, -i, n. decision, decree 

of senate. 
con-siimo, -ere, -sumpsi, -sumptum, 

tr. V. (of time) spend, pass, 

oon-surgo, -ere, -surrexi, -suiTectum , 

intr. V. rise up together. 
contagio, -onis, /. contact, con- 


tr. V. despise. 
con-templor, -ari, -atus, tr. dep. 

V. survey, gaze upon. 
contemptim, adv. scornfully. 
eontemptus, -us, m. contempt, 

contentus, -a, -um, part. of con- 

tineo ; as adj. satisfied. 
con-tineo, -ere, -iii, -tentum, tr. v. 

continiio, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

make continuous, renew. 
eontio, -onis,/". assembly. 
contionor, -ari, -atus, inlr. dep. v, 

deliver a harangue to a public 

contra, adv. on the other hand, in 

the face ; prep. with acc. against. 
con-traho, -ere, -xi, -ctum, /;-. v. 

bring together, coUect. 
contrarius, -a, -um, adj. opposed 

to, contrary. 
contumacia, -ae, /. stubbornness, 

conubium, -li, n. the right of 

conveniens, -nX\s, pres. part. con- 

eon-venio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, v. 

intr. assemble ; am adapted to ; 

often impers. eonvenit, it is 

c6-6rior, -Iri, -ortus, intr. dep. v. 

rise simultaneously. 



copia, -ae, /. abundance, opportu- 

nity ; //. forces, troops. 
copiosus, -a, -um, adj. vvell supplied 

with, rich, plentiful. 
cor, cordis, ;;. the heart ; cordi esse, 

be pleasing. 
Cornelius, -a,nameof agens, [i)see 

Arvina ; (2) j^e Lentulus, 4 § 7, 

15 § 9 ) (3) ^^^ Maluginensis ; 

(4) see Barbatus ; (5) perhaps 

Ai'vina, 38 § 2. 
cornu, -iis, n. wing (of army). 
corona, -ae, f. garland, cordon (of 

troops) ; sub corona, by auction. 
corpus, -oris, n. body. 
cor-rumpo, -ere, -rupi, -ruptum, 

tr. V. destroy, corrupt. 
Oortona, -ae, f. town in Etruria, 

37 § 12. 
Corvus, born about 371 ; fought 

single-handed a Gallic champion 

349 ; defeated the Samnites 343 ; 

took Cales 335 ; defeated the 

Marsi and Etruscans 301 ; died 

about 271 ; chapters 7, 40, 41. 
cotidie (cottid-), adv. every day, 

crapula, -ae,y. intoxication. 
credo, -ere, -didi, -ditum, tr. and 

intr. V. believe, have confidence 

creo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. create, 

elect, appoint. 
crimen, -inis, n. charge,accusation. 
criminatio, -onis,/! accusation. 
cristatus, -a, -um, adj. crested. 
cruciatus, -us, ;//. torture. 
criidelitas, -atis,/ cruelty. 
crus, cruris, n. leg (below knee), 

shank, shin. 
ciibile, -is, «. couch, bed. 
culpa, -ae, f. criminal neglect. 
cultor, -5ris, tn. cultivator, husband- 

man, supporter, fosterer. 
cxua., prep. with abl. with, in con- 

nexion or dealing with. 
cum, conj. when ; ivith subj. since, 

Ciimae, -arum,/ //. city on coast 

of Campania, 19 § 4. 
cunctor, -ari, -atus, intr. dep. v. 


cunctus, -a, -um, usu. //. cuncti, 
-ae, -a, adj. all. 

ciineatus, -a, -um [adj. prop. part. 
of cuneo (make wedge-like)], 
wedge-shaped ; comp. cuneatior. 

ciipiditas, -atis,/". ambition. 

ciipio, cupere, -Ivi or -ii, -Itum, 
/;■. V. desire. 

ciir, adv., relat., and interrog. for 
what reason, wherefore, why. 

ciira, -ae, f. regard for, charge, 

curatio, -onis, f. a taking care, 

ciiria, -ae, f. one of the 30 curies, 
each containing 10 gentes, into 
which the Roman people were 
originally divided ; the senate- 

curiatus, -a, -um, adj. of the curiae, 
the thirty wards into which 
Romulus was said to havedivided 
the Roman people ; comitia 
euriata, an assembly in which 
the people voted by curiae. 

Curius, -a, nam.e of a Roman gens. 
M'. Curius Dentatus, conquered 
the Samnites 290, and Pyrrhus, 

275; 17 § 8- 
ciiro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. take 

care of, heal ; curati cibo, re- 

freshed with food. 
Cursor, dictator 325 conquered the 

Samnites, chapters 7, 12-17, 28, 

38, 40; (2) censor 393, 34 §§ 

20, 21. 
cursus, -us, VI. running. 
ciiriilis, -e, adj. sella curulis, 

curule chair, inlaid with ivory, 

official seat of consuls, praetors, 

censors, and curule aediles, 

hence called magistratus curules ; 

curule, of or belonging to the sella 

cuspis, -idis,/. pointed end of any- 

thing, spear, javelin. 
custodio, -Ire, -Ivi or -ii, -Itum, tr. 

V. watch over, keep in custody. 
custos, -odis, c. watchman. 
Cyrus, -i, ;;;, founder of the Persian 

monarchy, 560-529 E. c, 17 § 6. 



damnum, -i, n. injury, loss. 

Darius, King of Persia, 336-330 
B.c. ; conquered by Alexander, 17 
§ 16, 18 § 3. 

d&tus, perf. part. of Ao. 

6.e, prcp. with abl. oiily, about, con- 
ceming, (manner) according to ; 
7)1 ihe adv. phrase : de industria, 
on purpose. (time) beginning 
in, in the course of, at, in. 

de-bello, -are, -avi, -atum, v. intr. 
bring a war to an end. 

debeo, -ere, -iii, -itum, tr. v. owe, 

de-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, intr, 
v. withdraw, die, abate, cease. 

decem, num, adj. ten. 

decem-viri, -orum or -um, w. //. 

de-cerno, -ere, -crevi, -cretum, tr. 
and intr. v. decide, decree {esp. of 
judge, magistrate), vote for, re- 
solve, make up one's mind. 

deoimus, -a, -um, ord. num. tenth. 

de-cipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, 
tr. V. deceive. 

Decius, name of a Roman gens, 
17 §§ 8, 13; (0 P- Decius Mus, 
tribunus militum 343, when he 
made a great victory over the 
Samnites possible ; consul 340, 
when he devoted himself to death 
near Vesuvius in the Latin war, 
10 § 3 )■ (2) his son with the 
same name devoted himself to 
death at .Sentinum, 295 ; consul 
312, 308, 297, 295; censor 304; 
supported the lex Ogulnia ; one of 
the first plebeian pontifices; 28 
§ 8, 29 §3, 40-41, 44 §3, 46 § 14; 

(3) 30 § 4- 
de-claro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

declare, announce publicly. 
de-clino, -are, -avi, -atum, /;-. 

and intr. v. tum or bend aside, 

de-curro, -ere, -curri or -cucurri, 

-cursum, intr. v. run or hasten 

down ; (milit.) charge. 
decus, -oris, «. ornament, glory, 

de-decus, -oris, n. disgrace. 

de-dico, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

deditio, -onis,/. surrender. 
de-do, -ere, -dldi, -ditum, tr. v. 

give up, surrender. 
de-diico, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. 

draw down, lead, plant a colony, 

bring down, reduce. 
defectio, -onis,/! revolt. 
de-fendo, -ere, -di, -sum, /;-. v. 

guard, defend. 
defensor, -oris, 7n. protector, de- 

de-fero, -ferre, -tiili, -latum, tr. v. 

bring or carry down or away, 

hand over, offer. 
defessus, /«r/. ^defetiscor. 
de-fetiscor (-fatiscor), -i, -fessus, 

intr. dep. v. become tired, weary, 

faint, exhausted ; usti. in p. p. 

defessus, weary. 
de-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum, v. intr. 

revolt, be wanting. Also in pass., 
defit, -lieri, be wanting. 
de-formatio, -onis,y. disfiguring. 
de-formis, -e, adj. hideous. 
deformo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

deform, disfigure. 
degenero, -are, -avi, -atum, v. intr. 

degenerate, deteriorate. 
deiectus (dej-), -us, ;;/. throwing 

dovvn, fall. 
deinceps, adv. one after another, 

deinde (dein), adv. thereafter, 

afterwards, next in order, then. 
delectus, -us, ;;z. (milit.) levy ; 

delectu, under conscription. 
de-lego, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

delegate, commit to. 
deleo, -ere, -levi, -letum, /;-. v. 

wipe out, annihilate. 
de-ligo, -ere, -legi, -lectum, tr, v. 

pick out, choose. 
deliibrum, -i, ;;. shrine. 
de-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, /;-. 

V. send down, lower ; (milit.) 

march soldiers into lowercountry. 
demo, -ere, -mpsi, -mptum, tr, v. 

take away, remove. 
de-morior, -mori, -mortiius, intr, 

dep. V. die off, die (in office). 



de-moveo, -ere, -movi. -mStum, 

tr. V. move away. 
de-mulceo, -ere, -mulsi, -mulctum, 

tr. V. stroke down. 
demum, adv. precisely. 
deni, -ae, -a, distrib. num. adj. ten 

de-nuntio, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

announce officially, declare, order. 
de-pl6ro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

mourn, regard as lost. 
de-p6no, -ere, -posiii, -positum, tr. 

V. set or place down or aside. 
de-p6pulatus, past part., is found 

with the passive sense, but 
depopulor, -ari, -atus, tr. dep. 

pillage, ravage, waste. 
de-porto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

carry away. 
de-pr8hendo (-prendo), -ere, -di, 

-sum, /;-. V. detect, discover. 
de-pugno, -are, -avi, -atum, intr.v. 

fight it out. 
de-scendo, -ere, -di, -sum, intr. v. 

march down ; descendere in 

aciem, give battle. 
de-scisco, -ere, -scivi,(-ii), -scTtum, 

intr. V. revolt. 
de-sero, -ere, -riii, -rtum, ir. v. 

desertus, -a, -um,/flr/. ^ desero; 

as adj. deserted. 
de-sidero, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

long, yearn, crave for some thing 

or person lost or absent. 
de-silio, -Tre, -silui, -sultum, intr. 

V. leap down. 
de-sino, -ere, -sii, -sTtum, v. tr. 

leave oflf. 
desperatus, -a, -um, pf. part. of 

despero ; ai' at^'. hopeless. 
de-spero, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr. 

give up for lost. 
de-stino, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

fix, determine upon, choose, aim 

de-tracto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

decline, refuse. 
de-traho, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. 

take off. 
d§us, -i, m. {pl. nom. dei, dii, di ; 

gen. deum ; dat. dis) god, deity. 

de-v§nio, -Tre, -veni, -ventum, intr. 

V. come or go down or to. 
deverticiilum, -i, n. by-road, di- 

de-vinco, -ere, -vici, -victum, tr. v. 

conquer completely, subdue. 
dev6tio, -onis, f. devoting, con- 

de-v6veo, -ere, -vovi, -votum, tr. v. 

consecrate to ; devote to destruc- 

(fexter, -tera, -terum, more usu. 

-tra, -trum, adj. on the right 

hand, right. 
di, see deus. 
dicio, -onis,/. dominion. 
dico, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. say, 

declare, appoint ; dicere causam, 

dictator, -oris, m. dictator, elected 

by the Romans in grave dangers 

to act as supreme magistrate with 

the absolute powers of a king, for 

six months. 
dictatiira, -2iC,f. dictatorship. 
dictito, -are, -avi, -atum, //-. freq. 

V. say often or emphatically, re- 

dictum, -i, n. saying, word, order. 
dies, -ei and -e, m. a day, a set day, 

dajliime;/. asettime,hour, period. 
dif-fero, -ferre, distuli, dilatum, 

V. tr. postpone. 
dif-ficilis, -e, adj. difficult. 
difficultas, -atis,/". difficulty. 
dif-fida, -ere, -fisus sum, semi- 

dep. intr. v. distrust. 
dif-flndo, -ere, -fidi, -fissum, /;'. v. 

cleave or split asunder. 
di-gero, -ere, -gessi, -gestum, tr. v. 

set in order, arrange. 
dignus, -a, -um, adj. worthy (abl. 

= of). 
di-labor, -i, -lapsus, ititr. v. fall 

away, dissolve ; (of persons) dis- 

dilatio, -5nis,y. delaying. 
dilectus, -us, m., see delectus. 
dimicatio, -onis,y. fight. 
di-mico, -are, -avi, -atum, ititr. v. 

di-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, tr. v. 



send off, break up, or dismiss meet- 

ing, discharge. 
dir-imo, -ere, -emi, -emptum, t7\ v. 

break off. 
di-ripio, -ere, -ui, -reptum, tr. v. 

tear in pieces ; (milit.) lay waste. 
di-ruo, -ere, -rui, -riitum, tr. v. 

Dis, see deus. 
dis-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, intr. 

V. go different ways, withdraw, 

retire; (milit.) march away ; (of 

result) come off. 
disciplina, -ae,y. training. 
discordia, -ae,/". dissension. 
dis-cors, -cordis, adj. disagreeing, 

at variance. 
dis-crepo, -are, -ui, intr. v. dis- 

agree ; impers. it is a matter of 

discrimen, -inis, n. distinction, 

dangerous moment, hazard. 
dis-curro, -ere, -ciicurri a7id -curri, 

-cursum, intr. v. run different 

dis-pliceo, -ere, -iii, -itum, intr. v. 

dis-pono, -ere, -posiii, -positum, tr. 

V. place or set in different places, 

dis-similis, -e, adj. imlike. 
dissimfilatio, -onis,y! a dissembling. 
dis-sipo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

dis-tendo, -ere, -tendi, -tum, tr. v. 

dis-tineo, -ere, -tiniii, -tentum, tr. 

V. divide, distract. 
di-stinguo, -ere, -nxi, -nctum, tr. 

V. {lit. markoff)spangle,decorate. 
[dis], ditis, not in tto?n. sing. ; //. 

dites, ditia, adj. rich. See dives. 
dito, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. z^, enrich. 
diu, adv. for a long time, long ; 

cotnp. diutius. 
diurnus, -a, -um, adj. by day. 
diversus, -a, -um, perf. part. 

turned different ways, in different 

dives, -itis, also [dis], ditis, q. v. adj. 

rich ; siip. divitissimus (ditissi- 

- mus). 

di-vido, -ere, -visi, -vlsum, tr. v. 

divide, distribute. 
divinus, -a, -um, adj. divine. 
do, dare, dedi, datum, /;-. v. 

docSo, -ere, -cui, doctum, tr. v. 

documentum, -i, n. proof. 
dolabra, -ae,/". mattock, pick-axe. 
dolor, -oris, m. distress, resent- 

domi, adv. locat. at home, see 

dominor, -ari, -atus, intr. dep. v. 

bear rule. 
dominus, -i, w. master, ruler, 

domo, -are, -iii, -itum, tr. v. siibdue. 
domus, -us, y. home; adv. form: 

domi, at home. 
donec, co7tj. until. 
diibie, adv. doubtfully; haud (nec) 

dubie, undoubtedly, certainly. 
diibius, -a, -um, adj. doubtful, un- 

duceni, -ae, -a, distrib. mim. two 

hundred each, two hundred. 
diicenti, -ae, -a, card. niim. two 

duco, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. lead, 

conduct, bring ; consider. 
ductus, -us, ni. command, general- 

dulcedo, -inis, /. sweetness, attrac- 

tion, delight. 
dum, conj. while. 
duo, -ae, -6, card, num. two. 
diio-decim, cai-d. num. twelve. 
du6-de-quadraginta, card. }mm, 

duumvir, t?i. member of a board 

consisting of two persons. 
dux, ducis, c, guide; esp. military 

leader, commander, general. 

eadem, adv. by the same way. 
e-do, -ere, -didi, -ditum, tr. v. give 

or put forth, bring about, cause. 
e-duco, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. lead 

out, educate {esp. of physical 




edueo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

educate {esp. of mental training^. 
ef-fero, -ferre, extuli, elatum, tr. v. 

carry out, lift up, exalt ; perf. 

pa7-t. elatus, as adj. elated. 
efficax, -acis, adj. effectual. 
efifugium, -li, «. escape. 
ef-fundo, -ere, -fiidi, -fusum, tr. v. 

pour forth. 
egenus, -a, -um, adj. in want. 
e-gero, -ere, -gessi, -gestum, tr. v. 

carry out. 
ego, me, mei, mihi, me ; //. 

nos, nobis ; I. 
e-gredior, -gredi, -gressus, dep. v. 

hitr. go or come out, march 

out ; tr. go beyond. 
egregie, adv. excellently, ex- 

ceedingly, admirably. 
eius, gen. s. of is. 
e-labor, -i, -lapsus, intr. dep. v. 

slip or glide away. 
elatus, -a, -^xm.part. ofeWevo,adj. 

e-levo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. dis- 

e-licio, -licere, -liciii, -licitum, /;■. 7: 

draw, lure forth. 
e-ludo, -ere, -si, -sum, /;-. and intr. 

7K evade, escape, mock. 
e-mentior, -iri, -Itus, tr. dep. v. 

utter or assert falsely. 
e-mergo, -ere, -si, -snm, intr. v. 

emerge, get clear. 
e-minus, adv. at or from a distance. 
e-mitto, -ere, -mlsi, -missum, tr. v. 

throw, send out or forth. 
en, interj. behold ! see ! 
enim, conj. in fact (often elliptical, 

with ref. to a clause which must 

be mentally supplied) why, why 

then, &c. 
enimvero, however, as might be 

expected, for. 
eo, ire, Ivi or ii, itum, go, march ; 

imperat. i. 
86, adv. therefore, on that account, 

for that reason. (Of measure 

with comparatives), by so much, 

so much the more &c., foUowed 

by quo; best trans. by the 

(more) . . . ihe{vaoK): (of place) 

to that place. thither ; to that 

eorum, see is. 
Epirus, the NW.district ofGreece, 

now Albania. 
epiilae, see epulum. 
epiilum, -i, n. heteroclite pl. 

epulae, -arum, sumptuous food ; 

sumptuous meal, feast (in sing. 

of relig. or solenm public banquet). 
eques, -itis, 7n. horseman, cavalry; 

//. Equites, the order of Knights 

(holding rank between Senate and 

equester or equestris, -tris, -tre, 

adj. of the order of Knights. 
equidem, adv. (related to quidem 

as enim to nam), st7-e7igthening 

particle, indeed; (usu. with first 

pers.) for my part, 
equitatus, -us, 771. cavalry. 
equus, -i, ;;/. horse. 
ergo, adv. therefore. 
e-rigo, -ere, -rexi, -rectum, tr. v. 

raise or set up; (milit.) march 

troops to high gronnd. 
e-ripio. -ripere, -ripui, -reptum. 

tr. V. pull or force away. 
erro, -are, -avi, -atum, r». 7)itr. be 

mistaken, be in error. 
error, -oris, ;;/. a wandering about, 

wavering, mistake, imcertainty. 
eriidio, -Ire, -Ivi or -li, -Itum, tr. v. 

educate ; /. part. eruditus. 
eruditus, -a, -um, p. p. erudio, as 

adj. leamed. 
e-rumpo, -ere, -rupi, -ruptum, tr. v. 

force one's wav out of ; i7tir. sally 

et, conj. and, also, even. 
%tiam, C071J. also. 
Etrihria, -ae, f. a country of West 

Central Italy ; Etruscus, -a, -um, 

adj. Etruscan ; Etrusci, -orum, 

771. pl. the Etruscans. 
et-si, C071J. although. 
Europa, -ae, /. the continent of 

Europe, 16 § 19. 
e-vado, -ere, -vasi, -vasum, v. intr. 

and tr. go ovX, issue, mount, 

e-veho, -ere, -vexi, -vectum, tr. v. 



carry out ; se or rejlex. pass. rush 
or sally, ride forth. 
e-venio, -Ire, -veni, -ventum, intr. 

V. happen, result, fall by lot. 
eventus, -us, m, result. 
e-vinco, -ere, -vici, -victum, tr. v. 

vanquish utterly. 
e-v6co, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. call 
out or forth, challenge, call forth, 
e-vulgo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

publish abroad. 
ex or e, prep. (of space) out of, from, 

from or of (a certain country) ; 

(of the place from which a thing 

is done) ex loco superiore ; (of 

time) immediately after; (cause 

or origin) from, through, on ac- 

count of ; (to indicate transition) 

out of. 
exactor, -oris, m. an expeller. 
exactus, /«r/. o/"exigo. 
exanimatus, -a, -\xm,p.p. exanimo, 

as adj. dead. 
ex-animis, -e, adj. dead, half dead 

with fear. 
ex-animo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

ex-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, v. 

intr. go out or forth, retire ; tr. 

surpass, exceed. 
excellens, -ntis, part. of excello ; 

as adj. surpassing, pre-eminent, 

ex-cello, -ere, (-cellui), -celsum, 

intr. V. be eminent, distinguished, 

ex-cerno, -ere, -crevi, -cretum, ir. v. 

sift out, separate. 
excidium, -Ti, n. destruction. 
ex-cido, -ere, -cidi, -cisum, tr. v. 

cut out or off, hew down. 
ex-cieo, -ere, -citum, and ex-cio, 

-ire, -ivi or -li, Itum, tr. v. rouse. 
ex-cipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, 

tr. V. take, cut off, succeed. 
excito, -are, -avi, -z.\.\yca.,tr.freq.v. 

rouse, make stand up, make rise. 
ex-cludo, -ere, -si, -sum, tr. v. cut ofF. 
ex-cxirro, -ere, -cucurri (-curri), 

-cursum, intr. v. run or hasten out 

or forth ; (milit. ) sally forth. 

exemplum, -i, n. example. 
ex-eo, -Ire, -ii, -itum, v. intr. go 
out or away, depart; (of time) 
ex-erceo, -ere, -ciii, -citum, tr. v, 
practise, exercise (an employ ment)^ 
carry into effect. 
exercitatio, -onis,/! exercise, prac- 

exercitus, -fls, ;;/. army. 
ex-igo, -ere, -egi, -actum, tr. v. 

drive out ; measure, dole out. 
exigiie, adv. scantily. 
exigiius, -a, -um, adj. scanty ; 

subst. exiguum, -i, n. small 

eximius, -a, -um. adj. special, dis- 

ex-imo, -ere, -emi, -emptum, tr. v. 

remove, release. 
ex-istimo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr, v. 

exitus, -us, m. place of egress, out- 

let, result, issue, end, close. 
ex-lex, -legis, adj. beyond the law. 
ex-opto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

long eagerly for, desire greatly. 
ex-6rior, -orlri, -ortus, intr. dep. v. 

rise forth, arise. 
expedio, -Ire, -Ivi (-ii), -Itum, tr. v. 

extricate, get ready ; itfipers. 

expedit, it is advantageous, ex- 

expeditio, -onis, f. military cam- 

paign, expedition, 
expeditus, -a, -um, part. of ex- 

pedio, unencumbered, prompt, 

in light marching order. 
ex-pello, -ere, -puli, -pulsum, tr. v. 

drive out. 
ex-perior, -Iri, -pertus, tr. dep. v. 

try, put to the test, find or know 

by experience, experience. 
ex-pers, -pertis, adj. having no 

part in, unacquainted with. 
ex-peto, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -Itum, 

tr. V. aspire to. 
expiatio, -onis, / atonement, satis- 

ex-pio, -are, -avi, -atum, . tr. v. 

makesatisfaction or atonementfor, 

expiate, make amends for. 



ex-pleo,-ere, -evi, -etum, ty. v, fill up. 
explorator, -oris, m. scout. 
ex-p6no, -ere, -posui, -positum, 

tr. V. expose to view, leave un- 

protected, expose. 
ex-posco, -ere, -poposci, ir. v. 

earnestly beg. 
ex-primo, -ere, -pressi, -pressum, 

tr. V. squeeze out, extort. 
ex-probro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

reproacli, taunt. 
ex-pugno, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

storm, gain by pertinacity, effect. 
ex-quiro, -ere, -sivi, -sltum, tr. v. 

ex-satio, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

satisfy, satiate. 
exslcrabilis, -e, adj. full of curses, 

clamorous, loud. 
ex-sloror, -ari, -atus, tr. and intr. 

dep. V. curse. 
ex-sequor, -sequi, -secutus, tr. dep. 

V. pursue, follow up. 
ex-solvo, •ere, -solvi, -solutum, 

tr. V. release. 
ex-specto, -are, -avi, -atum, /;-. v. 

look out for, long for, desire, 

ex-stinguo (ext-), -ere, -stinxi, 

-stinctum, tr. v. put out, quench, 

destroy, annihilate. 
ex-sto, -are, intr. v. stand out, be 

still in existence. 
extemplo, adv. immediately, 

externus, -a, -um, adj. of another 

extinguo, exto, see exst-. 
ex-tollo, -ere, tr. v. elevate, exalt. 
extorris, -e, adj. exiled, banished. 
extra, adv. on the outside ; prep. with 

acc. outside of, beyond, without. 
ex-ulcero, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

make sore, exasperate. 
ex-iio, -iiere, -iii, -utum, tr. v. strip 

off, deprive of. 

F&bius, -a, name of a gens. (i) 
7 § 13) 33 § 6, j« Ambustus ; 
(a) 36 § 2, (3) princcps senatus, 
six times consul from 322-296; 

7 § 15, 17 § 8, 22 § I, 24 § I, 

33 § 1,35 § I. 38, 40-43, 46 § 14- 
facilS, adv. easily. 
facilis, -e, adj. easy to do, easy. 
facinus, -oris, n. deed. 
facio, facere, feci, factum {pass. 

fio, fieri, factus), make, do; ut 

fit, as usually happens. 
factio, -onis, f. party, faction, 

factum, -i, n. deed. 
facundus, -a, -um, adj. eloquent. 
faenebris, -e, adj. of or relating 

to interest or usury. 
Falerii, -orum, m. pl. the capital 

of the Falisci, in Etruria. 
Falernus, -a, -um, adj. Falernian, 

20 § 6. 
Fa,lisci, -orum, w.//.ancientpeople 

of Etruria, connected with the 

Aequi. Faliscus, -a, -um, adj, of 

fallo, -ere, fefelli, falsum, tr. v. 

deceive, break one's word. 
falx, falcis,/. scythe, sickle. 
fama, -ae, /. report, rumour, reputa- 

fames, -is, /. {abl. s. -e) hunger. 
familia, -ae,/ family. 
familiaris, -e, adj. of a family. 
fas, n. indecl. what is allowed (by 

divine law or conscience, usu. to be 

transl. by adj.), lawful, right, per- 

fascis, -is, m. bundle, //. fasces, 

-ium, bundle of rods, with an axe 

projecting, carried by lictors be- 

fore the chief Roman magistrates, 

as a symbol of the power of life 

and death. 
fasti, see under fastus. 
fastigium, -ii, n. the top of agable, 

fastus, -a, -um, adj. {sc. dies) a (day) 

on which judgement could be pro- 

nounced, court day, business day ; 

stibst. fasti, -orum, m. pl. court 

days, a list of court and business 

days, calendar, almanac. 
fatalis, -e, adj. fated, decreed by fate. 
f&teor, -eri, fassus, tr, dep. v. con- 

fess, acknowledge. 



f&tigo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v, 

weary, fatigue, importune. 
fatum, -i, «. destiny, fate, deatli. 
Faucia, chapter 38. 
fautor, -oris, w. supporter. 
favSo, -ere, favi, fautum, inO: v. 

fecimus, see facio. 
felicitas, -atis, f. good fortune, 

happiness, success. 
felix, -Icis, adj. fortuuate ; coinp. 

fgmur, -oris or -inis, n. upper part 

of thigh. 
fSrax, -acis, adj. fertile, 
fere, adv. almost, about, for the 

most part. 
Ferentinas, -atis, adj. Ferentine ; 

Ferentinates, inhabitants of Feren- 

tinum, 42 § II, 43 § 23. 
Ferentinum, a town on the Via 

Latina, eight miles from Anagnia. 
ferio, -ire, tr. v. strike, slay; 

ferire seeuri, behead. 
ferme, adv. superlativc offeve. 
fero, ferre, tiili, latnm, tr. irreg. v. 

carry, bring, extol, talk of, move, 

lead, endure, direct, present ; 

ferre legem, propose a law ; 

ferre judicem, offer or propose 

as judge. 
ferocia, -ae,y'. high spirit, courage. 
ferociter, adv. courageously, in- 

solently ; eo/np. ferocius ; sup. 

ferox, -ocis, adj. high-spirited, bold, 

insolent ; comp. feroeior, szip. 

ferrum, -i, n. iron, anything made 

of iron, sword. 
ferus, -a, -um, adj. savage, cruel. 
fessus, -a, -um, cid/. wearied. 
festino, -are, -avi, -atum, intr, v. 

make haste. 
festus, -a, -um, adj. festal. 
Fetiales, -lum, m. pl. college 

of priests who conducted cere- 

monies connected with treaties, 

declaring war, &c. 
fetialis, adj. of the Fetiales. 
fidelis, -e, adj. faithful. 

fides, /. faith, belief, promise, help. 
fido, -ere, flsus sum, intr. semi- 

dcp. V, believe. 
fidus, -a, -um, adj. faithful, stead- 

figo, -ere, fixi, fixum, tr. v. drive in. 
filius, -ii, m. son. 
finio, -Ire, -Ivi or -li, -Itum, tr. v. 

set bounds to, put an end to. 
finis, -is, w., buty. in old Latin and 

poetry {Inirod.p. 11), from which 

it survived esp. in combination 

with ulla 26 § 9, boundary, 

border, end. 
finitimus, -a, -um, adj. bordering 

upon, neighbouring. 
fio, see facio. 
firmo, -are, -avi, -atum, ir. v. 

strengthen, establish. 
Flaccina, see Folius. 
Flaccus, chapter 7 § 14. 
flagitium, -li, n. outrage, disgrace. 
flagro, -are, -avi, -atum, intr. v. be 

on fire, burn, glow. 
Flavius, chap. 46. 
flebilis, -e, adj. lamentable, moving. 
flecto, -ere, flexi, flexum, tr, v. 

bend ; intr. turn aside. 
fluctuatio, -onis, f. wavering (ot 

mind), vacillation. 
fluctuo, -are, -avi, -atum, intr. v. 

focus, -i, m. hearth. 
foede, adv. horribly. 
foedus, -a, -um, adj. horrible, dis- 

foedus, -eris, n. league, treaty, 

agreement, covenant. 
folliculus, -i, m. little bag. 
Folius, chapters 20, 26, 28. 
fore, see sum. 

forensis, -e, adj. of the forum. 
Forentum, -i, n. town in Apulia, 

20 § 9. 
foris, -is, usu. pl. fores, -um, f. 

gate or door (of house or room), 

forma, -ae,/". shape. 
fors, f. chance, ail. forte, adv. by 

forsitan, adv. perhaps. 
forte, adv,, see fors. 


K 2 


fortis, -e, adj. brave ; sup. fortissi- 

fortuna, -s.e,f. fortune. 
forum, -i, «. market-place, forum. 
fossa, -ae,/. trench. 
f6v6a, -ae,y. pitfall. 
fractus, -a, -um. part. offt-ango ; as 

adj. weak, faint ; disheartened, 

frango, -ere, fregi, fractum, tr. v. 

break in pieces, overpower, subdue ; 

p. part. fractus, see above. 
frater, -tris, m. brother. 
fraus, fraudis, /. deceit, fraud, 

Fregellae, -Sixxym, f. pl. town of the 

Volsci, in Latinm, on the Liris, 
.12 § 5, 28 § 3. FrSgellanus, 

-a -um, adj. of Fregellae, 28 § 3, 

31 § 13. Fregellani, -orum, 

m. pl. inhabitants of Fregellae, 

12 § 6. 
fremitus, -us, m. a dull roaring 

fremo, -ere, -iii, -itum, v. intr. 

Frentani, a tribe in Samnium near 

the Adriatic, 16 § i, 45 § 18. 
frequenter, adv. in large numbers. 
fretus, -a, -um, adj. relying on. 
frvimentum, -i, n. corn. 
frustror, -ari, -atus, tr. dep. v. 

fiiga, -ae,/. flight. 
fugio, fugere, fugi, fugitum, fiee 

from, shun. 
fiii, perf. of sum. 
fulcio, -ire, fulsi, fultum, Ir. v. 

Fulvius, chap. 21 § 2 ; 44 § 15. 
fumo, -are, intr. v. smoke. 
fundd, -ere, fudi, fusum, tr. v. 

overthrow, rout. 
funus, -eris, n. funeral, death. 
furciila, -ae, /. fork-shaped prop, 

narrowpass,ravine; F.Caudinae, 

Caudine Forks. 
Furius, ^i)Camillus, 4 § 14, 15 §10, 

17 §11 : (2) 20 §5: (3) 33 § 7, 

34 § 9 : (4) 42 § 3- 
furtum, -i, n. secret action, trick, 

gaesum, -i, n. long heavy Gaulish 

Gaius, a Roman praenomen. 
g&lea, -ae,/. helmet, /;-(?/. (j/skin or 

leather {ppp. to the metal cassis) ; 

also brazen helmet. 
Gallus, -a, -um, adj. of Gaul ; subst. 

Gallus, -i, m. a Gaul ; 4 §§ 8, 13, 

6 § 13, II § 6, 19 § 3 ; Gallicus, 

-a, -um, adj. Gallic ; 29 §2,41 

gaudium, -ii, n. joy. 
Geganius, censor 435 ; chap. 33 

§ b, 34 § 9- 
Gellius, chap. 44 § 13. 
genitus, /ar^. of gigno. 
gens, gentis, / a race or clan ; 

(contemptuous) tribe, crew ; in //. 

the people of the world, mankind. 
genu, -us, n. the knee. 
genus, -eris, n. race, stock, species, 

Germani, -oram, m. pl. the Ger- 

mans ; Germanus and Germani- 

cus, -a, -um, adj. German ; Ger- 

mania, -ae,/ Germany, 36 § i. 
gero, -ere, gessi, gestum, tr. v. 

accomplish, urge, bear, have, carry 

(on) war. 
gessi, perf. of gtxo. 
gigno, -ere, geniii, genitum, tr, v. 

beget, bring forth. 
gladius, -ii, i?i. sword. 
Gnaeus, a Roman praenomen. • 
gradus, -us, m. step, pace. 
Graeci, -oram, m. pl. the Greeks ; 

Graecus, -a, -um, adj. Greek ; 

17 § 6, 18 § 6, 19 § 4 ; Graecia, 

-ae,/ Greece. 
Graius, -a, -um. adj. Greek. 
gratia, -ae, / influence, gratitude ; 

gratias agere, relurn thanks. 
grator, -ari, -atus, intr. dep. v. 

manifest joy, rejoice, congratulate. 
gratus, -a, -um, adj. pleasing, 

grSviter, adv. seriously. 
gravo, -are, -avi, -atum, /;-. z'. burden, 

pass. as dep. gravor, -ari, -atus, feel 

habSo, -ere, -ui, -itum, tr. v. have, 



hold or regard in any liglit ; con- 

sider, hold, utter, pronounce. 
habito, -are, -avi, -ix\ixa,freq. tr, v. 

live or dwell in. 
habitus, -us, m. dress, attire. 
haesito, -are, -avi, -atum, intr.freq. 

V. hesitate. 
Hannibal, -alis, w. son of Hamilcar 

Barca, leader of the Carthaginians 

in the second Punic war (219-202 

B.c.) 19 § 6. 
hastatus, -a, -um, adj. armed with 

a spear ; siihst. hastati, -orum, w. 

//. the pikemen, first line of a R. 

army in battle array. 
haud, adv. not ; haudquaquam, by 

no means whatever. 
haurio, -ire, hausi, haustum, tr. v. 

drain, drink up. 
herbidus, -a, -um, a£^'.grassy. 
Hercules, -is, -ei, avd •\, m. Greek 

Heracles, son of Jupiter and 

Alcmena, 29 § 9, 44 § 16; 

meherciile, herciile, for ' me, 

Hercule (= Hercules like Gk. 

"Hpa/cA.ej), iuves,' so help me, 

Hercules; by Hercules. 
Herennius, i § 2, 3 § 4, 4 § i, 12 

§ 2, 15 §§ 4, 8. 
Hernici, -orum, m. pl. warlike 

people of Latium ; Hernicus, 

-a, -um, adj. Hemican. 
hiberna, -orum, n. pl. winter- 

hlc, haec, hoc {gen. huius), demon- 

str.pron. this. Originally hice. 
hic, adv. here. 
hinc, adv. fiom this side. 
hisce, old nom. phiral viasc. ofhxo.Q, 

7. e. hic. 
hisco, -ere, incept. v. intr. gape 

open, utter. 
homo, -inis, c. ahuman being, man. 
honor or honos, -oris, ;;/. public 

office ; personified, Honor 

(Honos), as a deity. 
hora, -ae,_/". an hour. 
horrendus, -a, -um, gerundive of 

horreo, quake ; adj. dreadful, 

horridus, -a, -um, adj. hideous, 


hortator, -oris, tn. an encourager. 
hortor, -ari, -atus, tr. dep. v, insti- 

gate, spur on, urge. 
hoBce, old acc, plnr. masc. ofhlce — 

hospes, -itis, m. a host, entertainer. 
hospitium, -li, n, hospitality, the 

relation or bond between host and 

hostilis, adj, of or belonging to an 

enemy, enemy's. 
hostiliter, adv, in hostile fashion. 
hostis, -is, c. a foreign enemy, 

enemy of the state ; the enemy, 

hiimanus, -a, -um, adj. oiorhtXong- 

ing to mankind, human, mortal. 
hiimi, adv. on the ground. 
humilis, -e, adj. lowly, humble; 

r^;;;/.humilior. j^^^/.humillimus. 
hiimilitas, -atis, /. (of condition) 

hiimus, -i, /. the earth, ground; 

locative humi. 

iaceo, -ere, -ciii, -citum, intr. v, 

lie, be situated, lie, lie prostrate. 
iacto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr.freq. v. 

throw away, fling out (threats), 

iam, adv. by this time, now, al- 

ready; after that, forthwith; 

iam-pridem or iara pridem 

adv. long ago. 
ibi, adv. there. 
[ico and icio], ici, ictum, /;-. defect, 

V. strike ; (of treaty) make, ratify. 
ictus, -iis, 7)1. a blow. 
idem, eadem, idem, dem.pron. the 

same, consistent. 
identidem, adv. again and again. 
idoneus, -a, -um, adj, suitable. 
igitur, adv. and conj. therefore, 

ignarus, -a, -um, adj, unacquainted 

ignavus, -a, -um, adj. careless, 

ignis, -is, m. fire. 
ignominia, -ae,/. disgrace. 



ignominiosus, -a, -iim, adj. dis- 

ignoro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v, not 

illatus {irx\-),pf. pari. ofmitro, 
illic, adv, there. 
illinc, adv. from that sicle. 
imago, -inis, _/. compaiison, re- 

imbellis, -e, adj, iinwarlike, non- 

imbiio, -ere, -lii, -iitum, tr. v. wet, 

moisten ; (fig.) initiate. 
im-memor, -oris, adj. unmindful, 

forgetful, heedless, with geft. 
imminens, -ntis, adj, threatening, 

pres. part. of 
im-mineo, -ere, intr. v. overhang. 
im-misceo, -ere, -miscui, -mixtum 

and -mistum, tr. v. mix in, mingle. 
im-mitto,-ere, -mlsi, -missum, tr,v. 

let go into, discharge at, urge on. 
immo, adv. on the contrary ; immo 

vero, nay rather, much more. 
im-mobilis, -e, adj. immovable, 

making no attempt to escape. 
im-mortalis, -e, adj. deathless, 

impedimentum, -i, «. a hindrance ; 

//. luggage ; esp. baggage of 

im-pSdio, -Ire, -ivi or -li, -ituni, 

/;-. V. entangle, impede, hinder; 

impeditus, -a, -um, p.p. em- 

barrassed ; (of place, journey, 

etc.) difficult ; (of troops) encum- 

bered with baggage, whilst in 

difficulties ; co7>ip. impeditior, 

sup. impeditissimus. 
im-pello, -ere, -piili, -pulsum, ir. v. 

push, urge forward, force to give 

way, break. 
im-pendo, -ere, -di, -sum, ir. v. 

expend, lay out money. 
impensa, -ae, /. [impensus, sc. 

pecunia], outlay, cost, charge, 

imperator, -oris, 7n. a commander- 

in-chief, general. 
imperatorius, -a, -um, adj, belong- 

ing to a general. 
impSriosus, -a, -nm, adj. domineer- 

ing, tyrannical ; comp. imperi- 

osior, sitp. imperiosissimus. 
irapSrium, -Ti, ;/. office, command, 

order, supreme power. 
impSro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. and 

intr. V. order. 
impltro, -are, -avi, -atum, /;'. v. 

obtain, procure, esp. by exertion 

or request. 
impetus, -lis, ;;;. attack, onset. 
impius, -a, -um, adj. impious. 
im-pleo, -ere, -evi, -etum, tr. v. fill 

im-pl6ro, -are, -avi, -atum, ir. v. 

call upon for aid. 
im-p6no, -ere, -posiii, -positum, tr. 

7'. place, set in, impose upon. 
im-p6tens, -ntis, adj. with gen. 

unable to control. 
imprimis, adv. among the first. 
im-provisus, -a, -um, adj. unfore- 

seen, unexpected; adv. impro- 

viso, unexpectedly. 
im-piibes, -puberis, impiibis, -is, 

adj. youthful. 
im-pugno, -are, -avi, -atum, ir. v. 

attack, assail, oppose. 
im-piinitus, -a, -um, adj'. un- 

imus,-a, -um, siip. adj. the lowest; 

subst. imum, -i, ;/. the lowest 

part, bottom. 
in, prep. tvith abl. of rest within ; 

(place) in, on, among ; (time, 


CUMSTANCE, etc.) in, among, in 

the way of, in the case of; 

•vith acc. of motion into or on to ; 

(place) into ; upon, against, 

among ; (time) for, lasting to ; in 

dies, from day to day (of growth) ; 

(manneb) in the manner of ; (of 

the object of feeling or action) 

to ; (of the purpose or object in 

view)for; (of distribution) for. 
in-ambiilo, -are, intr. v., walk to 

and fro. 
in-cautus, -a, -um, adj. incautious, 

unwary, off one's guard. 
in-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, v. 

intr. advance ; tr. befall. 
incendo,-ere, -di, -sum, tr. v. burn. 



inceptum, -i, «. or inceptus, -iis, 

»1. beginning, attempt. 
in-certus, -a, -um, adj. uncertain, 

iloubtful, without certain know- 

ledge, not sure. 
incessi, -eram, of emotions seizivg 

upon men, probably tenses of in- 

cesso, -ere, v. tr. in Livy gener- 

ally, and later, seize, fiU. 
in-cido, -6re, -cidi, •casum, i^itr. v. 

fall upon, fall in with, fall upon, 

in-cipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, v. 

intr. begin. 
in-clemens, -entis, adj. unmerciful, 

harsh ; comp. inclementlor. 
inclinatus, -a, -um, part. of in- 

clino, bent down, broken, turned. 
in-clino, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr. 

incline, turn in any direction, 

cause to give way ; intr. decline. 
in-c61o, -ere, -colvii, v. tr. dwell 

in, inhabit. 
in-colQmis, -e, adj. uninjured, un- 

in-commodus, -a, -um, adj. incon- 

venient, troublesome. 
in-compertus, -a, -um, adj. un- 

in-comp6situs, -a, -um, adj. dis- 

incrementum, -i, n. growth. 
in-crepo, -are, -crepiii, -crepitum, 

V. intr. make a noise ; tr. taunt, 

exclaim loudly against. 
in-cruentus, -a, -um, adj. blood- 

in-cursio, -onis, /. hostile inroad, 

incutio , -cutere, -cussi, -cussum , tr. v. 

strike or dash upon or against. 
inde, adv. (of place) thence, from 

this ; (of time) thereupon, then. 
India, -ae,/. India, 17 § 17 ; Indi, 

-orum, the Indians, 19 § 5. 
indicium, -ii, n. information, dis- 

closure, indication. 
in-dico, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

point out, put a price on a thing, 

in-dico, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. pro- 

claim, fix. 

in-dies, adv. in dies, from day to 

indignatio, -onis, f. indignation. 
in-dignitas, -atis, /. oulrage, in- 

dignity, indignation. 
indoles, -is,/. natural disposition. 
in-dulgeo, -ere, -dulsi, -dultum, v. 

intr. with dat. favour, give way 

induo, -ere, -iii, -utum, /;-. v. put 

on, assume. 
industria, -ae,/. aciivity; de indu- 

stria, on purpose, intentionally. 
indiitiae, -arum,/.//. truce, armis- 

in-eo, -ire, -ii, -itum, v. tr. enter ; 

intr. begin. 
inermis, -e, and inermus, -a, -um, 

adj. unarmed. 
in-expugnabilis, -e, adj. impreg- 

nable, proof against. 
in-famis, -e, adj. of ill repute, in-. 

in-fandus, -a, -um, adj. unspeak- 

able, horrible. 
in-fectus, -a, -um, adj. (in, factus) 

not made, or done, unfinished, in- 

infensus, -a, -um, adj. hostile. 
in-fero, -ferre, -tuli, illatum, carry 

in, into; inflict ; (milit. terms) in- 

ferre signa, bear the standards 

against ; inferre arma, inferre 

pedem (gradum) advance, at- 

tack ; inferre se, hasten to. 
inferus, -a, -um, adj. that is below, 

lower; subst. inferi, -orum, m. 

pl. the dead. 
infestus, -a, -um, adj. beset with 

danger, bitter, hostile. 
in-fidus, -a, -um, adj. not to be 

trusted, faithless. 
infitiae, -z.xvxa, denial. 
ingenium, -li, n. character, natural 

capacity, ability. 
in-gens, -ntis, adj. huge, remark- 

ingrenuus, -a, -um, adj. bom of 

free parents, freebom, of gentle 

in-gero, -ere, -gessi, -gestum, tr. v. 

(of weapons)hurl at, shower upon. 



in-gigno, -ere, -genui, -gemtum, 

tr. V. engender ; ingenitus, /. 

part. inborn, innate. 
in-gredior, -gredi, -gressus, /;-. and 

intr. dep. v. go into, enter. 
in-ieio (in-iicio), -icere, -ieci, 

-iectum, tr. v. cast, fling, or hurl 

inimicus, -i, tn. enemy, foe. 
iniquitas, -atis, f. unevenness, 

iniquus, -a, -um, adj. uneven, un- 

fair, adverse, unfavourable, disad- 

initium, -ii, n. beginning. 
iniiJria, -a.e,f. wrong, injustice. 
in-iussus, -iis, m. (in the abl. 

only) without command. 
iniuste, adv. unjustly. 
inl-, see Jinder ill-. 
inm-, see under imm-. 
in-nitor, -i, -nlsus and -nix-, intr. 

dep. V. lean upon, support oneself 

in-nocens, -ntis, adj. innocent. 
innocentia, -ae,/. innocence. 
in-noxius, -a, -um, adj. innocent. 
inopia, -ae,/". want, scarcity. 
in-ops, -opis, adj. helpless, destitute 

poor (man). 
inquam, -is, -it, defed. v. say, usu. 

parenthetic, ' said he.' 
inquino, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

pollute, corrupt. 
inquiro, -ere, -quislvi, -quisTtum, 

tr. V. search for. 
in-satiabilis, -e, adj. insatiable, 
in-sequor, -sequi,-seciitus,z'. dep. tr, 

follow ; ititr. come next after. 
in-sero, -ere, -sevi, -situm, tr. v. 

implant ; p.p. insitus, see belozv. 
insessus, perf. part. ^insideo. 
in-sideo, -ere, -sedi, -sessum, tr. v. 

be in occupation of, occupy. 
insidiae, -axum, f.p/. ambush. 
insidiator, -oris, w. one who lies 

in ambush. 
insidior, -ari, -atus, intr. dep. v. 

lie in ambush. 
in-sido, -ere, -sedi, -sessum, intr. and 

tr. V. occupy, take possession of. 
insigne, -is, ;/. distinctive mark. 

insignis, -e, adj. conspicuous, 

striking, noted. 
in-sinuo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 
introduce by windings ; insinuare 

se, work one's way in, enter. 
in-sisto, -ere, -stiti, intr. and tr. v. 

tread upon, pursue, follow, press 

insitus, -a, -um, petf. part. of insero, 

as adj. innate. 
in-solitus, -a, -um, adj. unusual. 
in-speratus, -a, -um, adj. ; ex in- 

sperato, unexpectedly. 
in-stabilis, -e, adj. unstable, not 

keeping its ground. 
in-stinguo, -ere, -nxi, -nctum, tr. 

V. instigate; class. otily iti p. p. 

instinctus, -a, -um, instigated, 

incited, animated. 
institiio, -ere, -iii, -iitum, tr. v. 

institute, found, teach. 
institiitum, -i, n. an arrangement, 

in-sto, -are, -stlti, -statum, ititr. v. 

stand upon, draw near, approach, 

instructus, -a, -um, perf. part. of 

instruo ; as adj. drawn up in 

battle array. 
instriio, -ere, -struxi, -structum, 

tr. V. draw up in battle array. 
insiila, -ae,/". island, isle. 
in-sum, -esse, -fiii, intr. irreg, v. 

be in, be contained in, belong to. 
in-teger, -tegra, -tegrum, adj. un- 

touched, unexhausted, uninjured, 

fresh, undecided, undetermined : 

de integro, anew, afresh. 
integro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

renew, begin again. 
intel-lego, -ere, -lexi, -lectum, tr. 

V. understand. 
in-teado, -cre, -tendi, -tentum, tr. 

V. bring (a charge), direct to- 

intente, adv. [intentus], earnestly, 

intently, strictly ; comp. intentius. 
in-tento, -are, -avi, -s.Xvixn,tr.freq. 

V. direct threateningly towards. 
intentus, -a, -um, part. ^intendo, 

adj. eager, intent ; comp. in- 




inter, prep- ivith acc. between, 

ainongst, during, inthecourse of; 

with rejiex. pron. se, between, 

Interamna, -ae, /. [inter, amnis, 

between two rivers] Suocasina, 

a town in Latium, on the Liris. 
inter-cS.lo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

intercalate, defer. 
intercessio, -5nis, f. protest, veto. 
inter-cipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, 

tr. V. intercept, cut off. 
inter-cliido, -ere, -cliisi, -clusum, 

/;-. V. hem in. 
inter-dico, -ere, -dixi, -dictum, tr. 

V. forbid, prohibit (aliquid alicui). 
inter-dum, adv. sometimes. 
inter-ea, adv. meanwhile, in the 

inter-eo, -Ire, -ii, -itunj, ititr. -■. 

inter-ficio, -ficere, -feci. -fectum, 

tr. V. kill. 
inter-icio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum, /;-. v. 

set between. 
interim, adv. in the meantime, 

internecivus, -a, -um, adj. deadly, 

internecio, -onis, /. general 

slaughter, extermination. 
inter-pello, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

interrupt in speaking, interrupt. 
inter-pono, -ere, -posiii, -positum, 

tr. V. interpose. 
interpretor, -ari, -atus, tr. dep. v. 

inter-regnum, -i, it. the office of 

interrogatio, -onis, f. a question- 

inter-rumpo, -ere, -rupi, -rnptum, 

tr. V. break asunder or off. 
inter-sum, -esse, -fui, intr. v. : im- 

personally, be of interest to. 
inter-venio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, 

intr. V. come between, interrupt. 
intestiniis, -a, -um, adj. domestic, 

in-tolerandus, -a, -um, adj. un- 

in-tolerans, -ntis, ad^'. thajt cannot 

enduie, impatient ; with gen. 

cotnp. intolerentior, sup. intole- 

intra,/rf/. within. 
intro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. enter. 
intro-diico, -ere, -duxi, -ductura, 

tr. V. lead or bring in or into. 
intro-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, 

tr. V. send or let in or into. 
in-tiieor, -tiieri, -tiiitus, tr. dep. v. 

look at, consider. 
in-tiitus, -a, -um, adj. unguarded, 

defenceless, dangerous. 
in-iiro, -ere, -ussi, -ustum, tr. v. 

in-vado, -ere, -vasi, -vasum, tr. v. 

attack, rush into. 
in-veho, -ere, -vexi, -vectnm, tr. v. 

carry, bring into. 
in-venio, -ire, -veni,-ventum, tr. v. 

invicem, adv. by turns. 
in-victus, -a, -um,a(//.unconquered, 

invidia, -ae,/. jealousy, sometimes, 

of the gods, = Nemesis; unpopn- 

invidiosus, -a, -um, adj. unpopular. 
in-violatus, -a, -um, adj. unhurt. 
invisus, -a, -um, part. o/invideo ; as 

adj. hated, odious. 
invito, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

invitus, -a, -um, adj. against one's 

will, unwilling. 
invius, -a, -um, adj. pathless, im- 

in-v6co, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

call upon, invoke. 
lovis, see luppiter. 
ipse, -a, -um, ipsius, dem. pron. 

self, he himself, &c. ; mere. 
ira, -ae,y. anger, wrath. 
iratus, -a, -um, part. of irascor ; 

adj. angry. 
ire, from oo. 
irritamentum, -1, n. provocative, 

irrito, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. pro- 

irritus, -a, -um, adj. of no effect, 

vain, useless. 



irrumpo, -ere, -rijpi, -ruptum, tr. 

and int7-. v. break or burst in. 
irruo (inr-), -ere, -rui, tr. and inir. 

V. rush in or upon. 
is, ea, id, demonstr. pron. he, 

that, such ; eo, abl. as adv. q. v. 
iste, -a, -ud, ge7i. islius, dem. pron. 

that of yonrs, that of which you 

ita, adv. m such a way, so, thus. 
Italia, -ae,y. Italy. 
ita-que, conj. and so, consequently. 
iter, itmeris, n. journey, day's 

march or journey, way, road, 

itero, -are, -avi, -atuin, tr. v. re- 

peat, renew. 
iterum, adv. a second time, again. 
iubeo, -ere, iussi, iussum, tr. v. 

order; designate, appoint; decree, 

iiidex, -icis, c. judge, arbitrator. 
iiidico, -are, -avi, -atum, /;•. and 

intr. V. judge. 
iugum, -i, n. mountain ridge, yoke 

formed by two upright spears and 

one transverse, under which con- 

quered enemies were made to 

liilius, -a, name of a gens, 34 § 20. 
iumentum, -i, ;/. draught animal, 

horse, mule, or ass. 
iirngo, -ere, iunxi, iunctum, tr. 7>. 

join together, unite. 
lunius, -a, name of a R. gens, see 

luppiter, lovis, m. Jupiter, 5 § 3, 

30 § 5, 3i_§ lo- 
iiiro, -are, -avi, -atum, intr. v. take 

an oath, swear. 
ius, iuris, n. riglit, law ; ius 

gdntium, the law of nations. 
iussus, -us, VI. command. 
iiistitium, -li, w. a cessation from 

business in the law-courts. 
iustus, -a, -um, adj. just, righteous, 

lawful, proper, regular ; cojJip. 

iustior, stip. iustissimus. 
iiivenis, -is, adj. young ; comp. 

iuventiis, -iitis, f. men of military 

age, chivalry. 

iuvo, -are, iuvi, iutum, tr. and intr. 

V. aid. 
iuxta, adv. in like manner, equally, 

alike ; prep. ivith acc, next to, be- 


Kineas, Latinized into Cineas. 

L, as abbrev. = Lucius. 

labor, -i, lapsus, intr. dep. v. de- 

scend, slip. 
labor, -5ris, m. toil. 
laboro, -are, -avi, -atum, intr. v. 

be in danger, distress, be anxious. 
lacero, -are, -avi, -atum, tr, v. 

lacesso, -ere, -Ivi, -itum, tr. v. pro~ 

voke, assail. 
lacus, -us, VI. lake. 
laetor, -ari, -atus, intr. dep. v. 

laetus, -a, -um, adj. joyful, cheer- 

ful, pleasing, pleasant. 
laevus, -a, -um, adj. on the left 

side, left. 
lanio, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. tear 

in pieces, mangle. 
largitor, -oris, vi. a lavish be- 

lassitiido, -inis, /". weariness. 
late, adv. far and wide. 
latebra, -ae, f. nsii. pl. latebrae, 

-arum, hiding-place. 
latio, -onis, f. bringing; latio 

suflfragii, voting or right of 

voting ; latio legis, proposing 

of a law or bilL 
Latium, -li, n. country of Italy, S. 

of Tiber, 19 § 4 ; Latius, -a, 

-um, adj. Latian, Latin ; Latinus, 

-a, -um, adj, Latin, 42 § 9. 
lator, -oris, m. proposer of law or 

latus, -a, -um, adj, wide, extensive. 
latus, -firis, n. side, flank (of men or 

animals), flank (of army). 
laudo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

laus, laudis,y'. praise, glory. 
Lautiilae, -arum,y. //. a place in 

Latium, 23 § 4, 25 §§ 2, 5. 



laxamentum, -i, «. relaxation. 

laxe, adv. loosely. 

laxo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. relax, 

laxus, -a, -um, adj. loose. 
lectio, -onis,/. selection. 
legatio, -onis,/". embassy ; legatio- 

nem (renuntiare), result of an 

legatus, -i, ni. an envoy, ambassa- 

dor, an official assistant given to 

the general, a lieutenant, ad- 

legio, -onis,/. legion, consisting of 

lo cohorts of infantry and about 

300 cavalry. 
legitimus, -a, -um, adj. allowed or 

prescribed by law, lawful. 
lego, -ere, legi, lectum, tr. v. 

pick out, choose, read. 
Lentiilus, -i, m. a Roman cogno- 

men, 4 § 7, 15 § 9- 
levis, -e, adj. trivial, slight, light- 

minded, fickle ; comp. levior, sup. 

levo, -are, -avi, -atum. tr. v. make 

lighter, free from. 
lex, legis,y. a proposal in comitia 

made to the people by a magi- 

strate, a bill, a law, condition, 

liber, -era, -erum, adj. free, not a 

libere, adv. freely, boldly ; comp. 

libSro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. free, 

free from an obligation. 
libertinus, -a, -um, adj. of or 

belonging to the condition of 

a freedman ; subst. libertinus, 

-i, m. a freedman. 
libido, -Tnis,y. caprice. 
libo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. take a 

little, taste. 
licentia, -ae, /. freedom. 
licet, -ere, -ciiit and -citum est, 

itttr. impers. v. it is lawful, or 

permitted ; one may or can. 
Licinius, -a, name of Roman gens, 

^ee Macer. 
lictor, -oris, m. a lictor. 
lingua, -ae, / language. 

linteus, -a,-um, adj. made of linen. 

lis, litis,/ strife. 

lito, -are, -avi, -atum, v. intr. sacri- 

fice with favourable omens. 
littera, -ae,y., a letter ;//. litterae, 

-aruni,/ literature. 
litus, -oris, n. the sea-shore, coast. 
Livius, -a, name of a Koman gens, 

8§ 13- 
loco, -are, -avi, -atum tr. v. place, 
put, put out to contract, contract 

locuples, -etis, adj. wealthy, re- 
sponsible, trustworthy, able to 
fulfil an engagement. 
locus, -i, m. {pl. loci or n. loca) 

a place, spot, locaHty, opportu- 

nity, situation. 
longe, adv. greatl)', very much, by 

far, esp. witk sztp. 
longinquitas, -atis,y. distance; (of 

time) length. 
Longiila, -ae, / a Volscicin city, 

near Corioli, 39 § 1 . 
Longus, 17 § S, 24 § I, 27 § 8. 
longus, -a, -um, adj. long, far, 

of long duration ; comp. longior. 
loquor, -i, lociitus, dep.v. intr. speak. 
lorura, -i, n. thong. 
Lucaui, -orum, vi. pl. the Luca- 

nians, a people of S. Italy ; 

Lvicania, -ae, /. their co;;ntry; 

Lueanus and Liicanicus, -a, 

-um, adj. Lucanian. 
Luceria, -ae, / ancient city of 

Apulia ; Lucerinus, -a, -vxs\, 

adj. Lucerian ; Liicerini, -orum, 

m. pl. the Lucerians. 
Liicius, -i, m. Roman praenomen, 

abbr. L. 
luctus, -us, w. grief, mouming 

liidibrium, -li, n. a mockery, a 

liidus, -i, m. game. 
liimen, -inis, 71. the eye. 
Ivio, -ere, liii, tr. v. atone for. 
lustrum, -i, n. purificatory sacrifice, 

lustration, made after completing 

the census by censors every fifth 

j'ear ; a lustre, period of five years. 
lux, lucisj/ light. 


M, = Marcus, R. praenomen. M'.= 

Manius, another praenomen. 
Macer, 38 § 1 6, 46 § 3 ; Introd. 

p. 8. 
Macedo, -onis, w. a Macedonian, 

usu. pl. Macedones, -um ; 

Macedonia, -ae. f. their country 

between Thessaly and Thrace ; 

Macedonicus, -a, -um, adj. Mace- 

macto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr.freq. v. 

offer, sacrifice. 
Maelius, -a, Roman gens, 8 § 13. 
Maenius, -a, a Roman gens, 26 

§§ 7. 13;. 34 § M- 
maeror, -oris, 7n. mouming. 
maestitia, -ae, f. melancholy. 
maestus, -a, -um, adj. sorrowful. 
magis, conip. adv. more, rather. 
magister, -tri, m. master. 
magisterium, -li, n. the ofTice of a 

magistratus, -us, ;;/. magistracy, 

a magistrate. 
magnifice, adv. magnificently, 

magnifieentia, -ae, /. splendour, 

magnittido, -inis, f. size, magni- 

magnopere, or magno opere, adv. 

magnus, -a, -\i.m.,adj. great ; (of rank 

or dignity) head, chief; co^np. 

maior, stip. maximus. 
maiores, -um, ;;/. //. ancestors, 

maiestas, -2X1%, f. grandeur,dignity. 
male, adv, badly, ill, wickedly. 
maleficium, -li, n. injury, wrong. 
Maleventum = Beneventum, a 

town in Samnium, 27 § 14. 
malo, malle, maKii, intr. irreg. v. 

malum, -i, w. evil, calamity. 
Maluginensis, censor 393, 34 § 20. 
Mamercinus, consul 341 and 329, 

when he captured Privemum ; 2 1 

§ I. 
Mamercus, dictator 433; chapter 

33 §6, 34 §.6. 
mandatum, -i, w. commission. 

mando, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

commission, command, entrust. 
maneo, -ere, -nsi, -nsum, intr. v. 

manipulus, -i, m. a company of 

Manlius, -a, the name of a Roman 

gens, 17 §§ 8, 12 ; see Torquatus. 
mano, -are, -avi, -atum, ititr. v. 

trickle ; (of rumour, fear) spread 

manus, -us, _/"., a hand ; the hand 

as used for fighting, armed band. 
Marcianus, belonging to Marcius. 
Marcius, -a, name of a gens, see 

Rutilus, Tremulus. 
Marcus, a Roman praenomen. 
mare, -is, n. the sea. 
maritimus, -a, -um, adj. belonging 

to the sea. 
Marriicini, -orum, m. pl. a people 

of Central Italy, 45 § 18. 
Mars, -tis, 111. god of war, 31 § 10 ; 

Marte aequo, drawn battle, 44 

§ 8; Martius, -a, -um, adj. of the 

Campus Martius. 
Marsi, -orum, m. pl. the Marsians, 

ancient and warlike nation of 

Ceutral Italy, 19 § 4, 38 § 7. 41 

§4, 4.S§i8- 
Materina, 41 § 15. 
materia, -ae, f. matter, subject- 

matiiro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

hasten ; intr. make haste, hasten. 
maxime, ai/z'. sup. (for pos. magn- 

opere, for co7>ip. magis are used) 

in the highest degree, especially, 

very, with tum, cum, precisely, 

Maximus, a Roman cognomen ; 

(2) see Pabius. 
maximus, stip. ^magnus. 
medius, -a, -um, adj. in themiddle ; 

medium, -Ti, «. the middle, 

midst, the preseiice of all, public ; 

media via, middle course. 
melior, comp. ^bonus, q.v. 
membrum, -i, n. a limb. 
memor, -oris, adj. mindful. 
memoria, -ae, f. recoUection, 




memoro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. call 

to reraembrance, remind of, re- 

mens, mentis, f. mind, understand- 

ing ; mind, purpose. 
mensis, -is, in. a month. 
mentio, -onis,/". mention. 
mercator, -oris, ;«. trader, mer- 

merces, -edis, /] wages, salary, 

mergo, -ere, -si, -sum, tr. v. dip in, 

immerse, plunge in, overwhelm. 
meridies, -ei, m. midday, noon. 
mersus, part. of mergo. 
-met, suffi.K attached to personal 

pronouns, egomet, memet, mihi- 

met, &c, 
metus, -us, >n. fear, apprehension. 
meus, -a, -um, poss. prn. my. 
Mevania, a town on the Flaminian 

Way near the Clitumnus ; 41 § 13. 
miles, -itis, c. soldier, soldiery. 
militaris, -e, adj. of soldiers, 

military, martial. 
militia, -ae,_/! warfare. 
mille, indecl. num. adj. a thousand; 

in pl. as siibst. milia, -lum, 

thousands : in partic. with pas- 

suum (often understood), a Roman 

mile, \\ of an English. 
minae, -arum,/'. pl. threats. 
minime^ sup. adv. very little, not 

at all. 
minimus, sup. adj., see parvus. 
ministSrium, -Ti, n. office of mini- 

ster, service, function. 
minor, -us, comp. adj. see parvus. 
Minturnae, -aram, /". //. city of 

Latium on the Liris, 25 § 4. 
Minucius, -a, R. gens, chap. 44. 
minus, comp. adv. less; quo minus, 

quominus (^lit. by which the 

less) (after vbs. of hindering) that 

not, lest, from ^doing). 
mirabilis, -e, adj. marvellous, 

comp. mirabilior. 
miror, -ari, -atus, tr. dep. v. 

marvel at. 
misceo, -ere, miscui, mixtum, tr. v. 

mix, mingle. 
misSrabilis, -e, adj. pitiable. 

miseratio, -6nis,_/. a pitying. 
miseror, -ari, -atus, tr. dep. v. 

express pity for, sympathy with, 

missile, -is, «. a missile, javelin. 
missito, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. freq. 

V. send repeatedly. 
missus, -us, m. a sending, dispatch'- 

mitigo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

soothe, appease. 
mitto, -ere, misi, missum, tr. v. 

send, dispatch, send forth, utter 

mobilitas, -atis, f. mobility, 

activity, iickleness. 
modestia, -ae, f. modesty, un- 

modestus, -a, -um, adj. moderate ; 

comp. modestior, stip. modestis- 

modo, adv. only, just ; with suhj. 

provided only that ; just now. 
modus, -i, 7n. bound, limit, manner, 

moenia, -lum, defensive walls, 

city walls. 
moestitia, f. = maestitia. 
moestus, -a, -um, adj. = maestus. 
moles, -is,f. massive pile (of cliffs). 
molior, -iri, -Itus, dep. v. exert 

oneself; uproot. 
moUis, -e, adj. effeminate ; co/np. 

momentum, -i, n. [for movimen- 

tum], a particle sufficient to turn 

the scales, influence, weight, 

mons, -ntis, w. mountain. 
montanus, -a, -um, adj. belonging 

to a mountain ; montani, -orum, 

m. pl. mountaineers. 
monumentum (moniiuentum), 

-i, n. a memorial, written monu- 

ment or record. 
mora, -ae,y". delay. 
morior, mori, mortiius, intr. dep. 

V. die. 
moror, -ari, -atus, dep. v. tr. delay ; 

■with neg. not detain a person, i. e. 

let him go. 
mors, mortis,/. death. 



mortalis, -e, adj. mortal : as subst. 

a human being. 
mortifer or mortiferus, -era, 

-enmi, adj. deadly. 
mortuus, -a, -um, part. of morior ; 

as adj. dead. 
mos, moris, m. custom, 
motus, -iis, vi, disturbauce, re- 

bellion, rising. 
moveo, -ere, movi, motum, tr. v. 

move, set in motion, influence, 

make an impression on. 
mox, adv. soon, directly. 
Mugillanus, a Roman cognomen. 
millier, -eris,/". a woman, married 

or not ; esp. wife. 
multa (miilcta), -ae, f. a fine, 

penalty, involvingloss of property. 
multiplex, -icis, adj. manifold. 
multiplico, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

multitudo, -inis, /! multitude, 

multus, -a, -um, adj. much, great, 

pl. many ; multa nocte, late in 

the evening ; comp. plus, pluris ; 

//. plures, plura, more (in sing. 

both as subst. and as adv.) ; with 

part. gen. (honoris, hostium, &c.) ; 

pluribus (praesentibus), a num- 

ber, several ; sup. plurimus, -a, 

-um, most, very much ; pluri- 

mum, most, very mnch, &c. 
miinimentum, -i, n, fortification. 
miinio, -Ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, tr. v. 

fortify, entrench ; make a road. 
munitio, -onis, t. fortification. 
miinus, -eris, n. office, employment, 

miirus, -i, m. wall, esp, city wall. 
Mus, a Roman cognomen in the 

gens Decia. 
miitatio, -6nis,y! a changing, 
miito, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v, alter, 

change, exchange. 
miitiius, -a, -um, adj. mutual. 

nam, conj. for. 

nam-que, conj. [strengthened iorm 

of nam] , for. 
nanciscor,-sci, nactus awrfnanctus, 

/;'. det. V. obtain. 

nascor, nasci, nalus, intr. dep. v, be 
born, begotten, arise, derive its 

natiira, -ae,/ character. 

natus, part. of nascor, born, 

Nautius, 21 § I. 

navalis, -e, adj. naval. 

navo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr, v. do or 
accomphsh zealously : navare 
operam {with dat.'), lend (vigor- 
ous) help to. 

1 . ne, adv, and conj, (final) in order 
that not, lest ; ne . . . quidem, 
not even. 

2. ne, interj, indeed (only before 
ego, tu, ille, iste, hic, aud their 
adverbs, and usu. with a con- 
ditional clause). 

-ne, interrog, encHtic particle in 

direct or indirect questions. 
Neapolis, -is,/. city in Campania, 

now Naples, 19 § 4. 
nS3, see neque. 
necessarius, -a, -um, adj. unavoid- 

able, inevitable. 
necesse, n, adj. indecl, necessary. 
necessitas, -atis,/ necessity. 
nec-opinato, adv. unexpectedly. 
nec-opinatus, -a, -um, adj, unex- 

ne-dum, conj, much less, not to 

say ; much more. 
nefandus, -a, -um, adj. abominable. 
nefarius, -a, -um, adj. impious ; 

subst. nefarium, -li, n. a crime. 
neglego, -ere, -lexi, -lectum, tr. v, 

nego, -are, -avi, -atum, tr, and 

intr. V. deny. 
negotium, -ii, n. affair ; a matter. 
nemo, -inis, c. no one. 
ne-que =et non, and not ; neque 

. . . neque, neither . . . nor. 
ne-queo,-ire, -ivi, intr. v. beunable, 

ne-quiquam, adv. in vain. 
Nerulum, a town between Capua 

and Rhegium, 20 § 9. 
ne-scio, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, /;•. 

V. be ignorant of. 
neuter, -tra, -trum, adj, neither the 



one nor the other, neither (of 

nex, necis,/". violent death. 
n\,conJ. =nisi, ifnot, unless. 
nihil, n. indecl. nothing. 
niJiilo, with comparatives, by 

nothing, no. 
nimius, -a, -um, adj. too great. 
ni-si, conj. unless, except. 
nitens, -ntis, pres. part. ^niteo, 

glittering ; as adj. bright, 
nobllis, -e, adj. well-known, fa- 

mous, renowned, of noble birth. 
nobilitas, -atis,/ the nobles. 
nobis, see ego. 
noceo, -ere, -cui, -citum, intr. v. 

harm, injure. 
nocturnus, -a, -um, adj. belonging 

to the night, by night. 
Nola, -ae, f. ancient city in Cam- 

pania ; Nolanus, -a. -um, adj. 

28 § 4. 
nolo, noUe, noliii, intr. irreg. v. 

be unwilling. 
nomen, -inis, ti. a name, all those 

bearing a certain name, a stock, 

nominatim, adv, by name. 
nomino, -are, -avi, -atum, //-. v. 

give a name to, name, nominate 

(to office). 
non, adv. [for ne oenum {or unum) 

not one whit] not. 
non-dum, adv. not yet. 
nos, see ego. 
nosco, -ere, novi, notum, tr. incept. 

V. get to know; perf. novi, have 

become acquainted with. 
noster, -tra, -imm, poss. pron, our, 

nota, -ae,y. mark, sign. 
notus, -a, -\xm,perf.part. of no&co ; 

as adj. well-known. 
novus, -a, -um, adj. new; novus 

homo, a man newly ennobled, 

nox, noctis, /. night ; nocte, by 

night ; sub noctem, towards 

noxa, -ae,/. hurt, offence, guilt. 
noxius, -a, -um, adj. guilty. 
Nuceria, -ae,/ a city in Campania, 

41 § 3 J Niicerinus, -a, -um, adj. 

38 § 2. 
niido, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. strip, 

nullus, -a, -um, adj. no ; nullus» 

dum, none as yet. 
num, adv. interrog. particle ; in 

direct interrog. usu. implying that 

neg. answer is expected ; num . . . 

paramus, we surely are not to 

prepare, are we ? 
niimen, -inis, n, divine majesty, 

numero, -are, -avi, -atum, tr, v. 

count, number. 
niimerus, -i, m. number. 
numquam, adv. never. 
nunc, adv, now. 
nuncupo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

pronounce or offer (public vows). 
nuntio, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

nuntius, -ii, ni. messenger, tidings. 
niiper, adv. lately, recently. 
nutrio, -ire, -ivi and -ii, -itum, tr. 

V. rear. 

6b, prep. with acc. on account of. 
6b-eo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, intr, 

and tr, v. go or come to, go to 

meet, apply oneself to, engage in. 
6b-equito, -are, -avi, -atum, intr. 

V. ride up to. 
obex, -icis and -jicis, c, barrier. 
ob-iaceo, -ere, -iii, intr. v. liebefore. 
ob-iecto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. freq, 

V. reproach, upbraid with. 
ob-ligo, -are, -avi, -atum,/r. v, bind. 
obliquus, -a, -um, adj. sideways, 

obliviscor, -sci, -litus, tr. dep, v, 

be unmindful of, forget. 
ob-noxius, -a, -um, adj. exposed to, 

mean-spirited, abject, dishonour- 

ob-rogo, -are, -avi, -atum, /;'. v, 

invalidate, abrogate (a law by pro- 

posing new one). 
ob-ruo, -ere, -lii, -utum, tr. v. 

ob-saepio, -ire, -psi, -ptum, tr, v, 

render impassable, close, bar up. 



obscurus, -a, -um, adj, Jn the) dark. 

obsepio, see obsaepio. 

ob-servo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

obses, -idis, c, usu.//. hostage. 
obsessor, -oris, m. besieger. 
ob-sideo, -ere, -edi, -essum, tr. v. 

obsidio, -6nis,y; siege, blockade. 
obstinatus, -a, -nm, J>art. ^/"obstino, 

adj. resolute, stubborn, obstinate. 
ob-sto, -are, -stlti, -statum, zntr. 

V,, 'vith dat. stand in the way of, 

ob-stringo, -ere, -strinxi, •strictum, 

tr. V. involve (lit. bind or tie up). 
ob-tero, -ere, -trlvi, -trltum, tr. v. 

crush, destroy. 
ob-tineo, -ere, -tinui, -tentum, v. tr. 

hold, maintain. 
ob-venio, -Ire, -veni, -ventum, intr. 

V. fall to one's lot. 
ob-verto, -ere, -ti, -sum, tr. v, turn 

ob-viam (ob viam), adv. in the 

way ; obviam ire, meet, resist. 
obvius, -a, -um, adj. in the way, so 

as to meet, to encounter. 
occasio, -onis,/. opportunity. 
occasus, -us, m. setting (of sun). 
occidio, -6nis,_/". extermination. 
oo-cido, -ere, -cldi, -clsum, tr. v. 

occulo, -ere, -ui, -cultum, tr. v. hide. 
occulte, adv. (occultus), privately, 

in secret. 
oocixltus, -a, -um {part. o/"occulo), 

as adj. hidden, secret. 
occiipo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

seize, occupy. 
oc-curro, -ere, -curri, -cursum, 

thtr. V. to meet, meet or fall in 

oc-curso, -are, -avi, -atum, itttr. 

freq. v. hasten to meet. 
occursus, -us, m. coming in con- 

tact with, skirmish. 
ocrea, -ae,/". a greave. 
Ocriciilum, -i, n. town in Umbria. 
Ocriculanus, -a, -um, adj. 41 § ao. 
octo, card. adj. eight. 
oculus, -i, m. eye. 

odium, -ii, n. hatred. 

of-fero, -ferre, obtiili, oblatum, tr. 

V. present, offer ; pass. encounter. 
Omiius, 7 § 2. 
omen, -inis, m. sign, omen, 
ominor, -ari, -atus, tr. and intr. 

dep. V. forebode, augur. 
6-mitto, -ere, -mlsi, -missum, tr. v. 

abandon, pass over, leave off. 
omnis, -e, adj. all. 
onero, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. load, 

onus, -eris, n. load. 
onustus, -a, -um, adj. laden. 
opem, opis, f. {iiom. and dat. s. nct 

fotind) help, assistance. 
opera, -ae, f pains, service, care ; 

day's work, time : archaic operae 

(part. gen.) est, there is time, 

opinio, -5nis, /. opinion, supposi- 

tion, conjecture. 
op-peto, -ere, -\\ior -li, -itum, ir.v. 

encounter ; oppetere mortem, 

perish, die. 
oppidum, -i, n. a town (other than 

Rome, wh. was usu. called Urbs). 
opportunus, -a, -um, adj. con- 

venient, suitable, advantageous. 
op-primo, -ere, -pressi, -pressum, 

tr. V. overwhelm, fall upon sud- 

denly, surprise. 
oppugnatio, -onis,/. assault. 
op-pugno, -are, -avi, -atum,- tr. v. 

optimus, stip. adj., see bonus. 
opto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. choose, 

opiilentus, -a, -um, adj. rich, 

wealthy ; sup. opulentissimus. 
opus, -eris, n. military work, forti- 

fication, performance ; n. indeel., 

in phrase opus est, it is needful, 

wanting, there is need of ; wilh 

dat. of person, and with nom., 

abl., or gen. of thing needed, or 

inf., acc. and infin., orabsol. 
ora, -ae,y! sea-coast. 
oraculum, -i, n. oracle, prophecy. 
oratio, -5Dis,/. speech. 
orator, -6ris, m, speaker ; (archaic) 

ambassador, pleader, spokesman. 



Orcus, -i, m. the Lower World, the 

abode of the dead ; (personified) 

the god of the infernal regions, 

Orcus, Pluto, 40 § 9. 
ordino, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

regulate, arrange. 
ordior, -iri, orsus, intr, and tr. 

dep. V. begin. 
ordo, -inis, ;«. proper order, line or 

rank of soldiers in battle array, 

order, rank. 
Orlcos, -i, f. seaport of Illyria, 

now Ericho ; Oricini, -urum, vi. 

pl. inhabitants of Oricos ; Oricius, 

-a, -um, adj. 
6rigo, -inis.y". the beginning, origin. 
orior, -iri, ortus, intr. dep. irreg. v. 

rise, appear (esp. of heavenly 

ornatus, -iis, w. military equip- 

ment, armour. 
orno, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. fit 

out, equip, adorn. 
6s, oris, n. mouth. 
ostendo,-ere,-di, -sum ^r-tuni, tr. v. 

(stretch out before),show,exhibit, 

give to understand, declare. 
ostento, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. freq. 

V. display. 
Ostia, -ae,y. and Ostia, -orum, n. 

pl. seaport of Rome, at mouth of 

Tiber, 19 § 4. 
otium, -ii, n. leisure, inactivity, re- 

pose (opp. to bellum). 
6vius, 7 § 3, 26 § 7. 

paciscor, -sci, pactus, intr, and 

tr. dep. V. stipulate (for). 
paco, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. pacify. 
pactio, -6nis,/I bargain. 
pactum, -i, n. agreement, compact ; 

adv. abl. pacto, in a (certain) man- 

ner or way. 
Paeligni, people of Central Italy ; 

19 §4,41 §4, 45 § 18. 
paenS, adv. almost. 
paeniteo, -ere, -lii, intr. v. repent, be 

sorry ; impers. paenitet, it repents 

me, with acc. of person and gen. 

of thing ; it displeases me ; it dis- 

Paetus, 7 § 13. 

pagina, -ae,/! a written page or leaf. 
palor, -ari, -atus, intr. dep. v. be 

dispersed, straggle. 
paliidamentum, -i, n. military 

cloak, esp. a generaFs cloak. 
pango, -ere, pnnxi, panctum, tr. v. 

fasten ; {in fig. sc7tse pepigi, 

pactum) settle, agree upon. 
Papirius, see Cursor. 
Papus, 7 § 14. 
par, paris, adj. { usti. -ium), 

equal ; as stibst. a match, op- 

ponent, adversary. 
parco, -ere, peperci, intr. v. spare. 
parens, -entis, c. {prop. aor. part. of 

pario), parent, father. 
par§o, -ere, -iii, -itum, intr. v. obey. 
pario, -ere, pfipeii, partum, tr. v. 

bring forth, acquire, gain, procure. 
pariter, adv. equally, as well. 
paro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. pre- 

pare ; also witk itif. 
pars, partis, f. a part, detachment ; 

pars, some ; ex parte altera, on 

the other hand. 
Parthi, -orum, Parthians, 18 

partim, adv. in part, some of, some. 
partio, -ire, -ivi or -li, -itnm, tr. v. 

and partior, -iri, -itus, tr. dep. v. 

divide, distribute. 
parum, indecl. siibst. n. and adv. 

too little, not enough ; ^vith adj. 

parvus, -a, -um, adj. small. 
pasco, -ere, pavi, pastum, ir. and 

intr. V. pasture, feed. 
passim, adv. in all directions, far 

and wide. 
pastor, -oris, vi. herdsman, shep- 

pastoralis, -e, adj. of a herdsman, 

of shepherds. 
pate-facio, -ere, -feci, -factum, tr, v. 

open, throw open. 
patens, part. of pateo ; as adj. 

open, unobstructed. 
pateo, -ere, -ui, intr. v. lie open. 
pater, -tris, w. father. 
patior, pati, passus, ir. dtp, v. un- 

dergo, suffer, permit, allow, sub- 

mit to. 



patria, -ae, /. fatherland, (mother-) 

patricius, -a, -um, adj. patrician, 

patronus, -i, m. protector, patron 

(of individuals, cities, provinces ; 

also = master of former slave). 
paucitas, -atis,/! fewness. 
paucus, -a, -um, adj. (rare in sing.) 

few, little ; subst. pauci, -orum, 

rn. pl. few, a few ; pauca, -orum, 

n. pl. a few words. 
paulisper, adv. for a little while. 
paululum, adv. a very little, some- 

paulus, -a, -um, adj. little ; pau- 

lum, -i, n. a little; paulo, abl. 

adv. ^paulus, by a little, a little ; 

paulo ante, a little before. 
pavidus, -a, -um, adj. panic-struck. 
pavor, -oris, m. panic. 
pax, pacis,y. peace. 
pectus, -oris, n. the breast. 
pecus, -oris, n. cattle, a herd, 

pedes, itis, m. foot-soldier, infantry. 
pedester, -tris, -tre, adj. infantry. 
Peligni, sce Paeligni. 
pello, -ere, pepuli, pulsum, tr. v, 

pendo, -ere, pependi, pensum, tr. v. 

pay, pay out. 
penes, frep. with acc. (with names 

of persons) in the possession of, 

penetrale, n. the inner part. 
penetro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr, and 

intr. V. penetrate, make one's 

way into. 
Pentri, an important tribe of the 

Samnites, 31 § 4. 
penuria, -ae,/. scarcity. 
per, prep. with acc. (space) through ; 

per (oeulos), past, before ; per 

manus, from hand to hand ; (time) 

during; (instrument) by means 

of ; (causej through, by. 
perago, -ere, -egi, -actum, tr. v. go 

through with, execute, describe, 

detail, state. 
per-agro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

travel through or over, traverse. 

per-cello, -ere, -ciili, -culsum, tr. v. 

overturn, strike, strike with con- 

percont- (percunt-), j-^^percunct-. 
percunctor, intr. and tr. dep. v. 

ask particularly, inquire. 
per-curro, -ere, -cucurri and -curri, 

-cursum, tr, v. run or hasten 

through, scan briefly. 
per-cutio, -ere, -cussi, -cussum, /r. v. 

strike, kill. 
perditus, -a, -um, perf. part. of 

perdo ; as adj. desperate. 
per-do, -ere, -didi, -ditum, tr. v. de- 

stroy, lose. 
per-domo, -are, -ui, -itum, tr. v. 

subdue thoroughly, vanquish. 
per-eo, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -itum, intr. v. 

be destroyed, perish. 
per-fero, -ferre, -tiili, -latum, tr. v. 

bear, carry, convey news, com- 

per-f icio, -ere, -feci, -fectum, tr. v. 

perfidus, -a, -um, adj. faithless. 
per-fiigio, -ere, -fugi, intr. v. flee. 
perfiigium, -ii, n, refuge, shelter, 

per-fundo, -ere, -fudi, -fusum, tr. v. 

pour over, imbue, fiU (metu). 
per-fungor, -fungi, -functus, intr. 

dep. V. perform, go through, en- 

pergo, -ere, perrexi, perrectiim, v. 

iiitr. and tr. go on, proceed. 
periciilum, -i, n. trial ; danger. 
per-inde, adv. with atque (ac), ex- 

actly as, just as if. 
per-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, tr. 

V. entrust, permit. 
per-multus, -a, -um, adj. very much 

or mnny. 
pernicies, -ei,/. destruction. 
pernicitas, -atis,/! swiftness. 
perpauci, -ae, -a, //. adj. very few. 
per-pello, -ere. -puH, -pulsum, tr.v. 

drive, constrain, prevail upon. 
perpgtiius, -a, -um, adj. continu- 

ous, unbroken, perpetual. 
perquam, adv. extremely, exceed- 

perrectus, TpeTve^i,/rom pergo. 



Persae,-arum,w. //.Persians ; 1 8 § 3, 

19 § 5- 

per-sequor, -sequi, -ciitus, tr. dep. v. 
foUow perseveringly, pursue, press 
upon (an enemy), chase, overtake. 

Perses, -ae, vi. Persian, see Per- 
sae ; Perses «jrPerseus, -ei, last 
king of Macedonia, conquered by 
Aemilius Paulus, 169 B. c; chap. 

19 § 4- 
persona, -ae, f. mask, character, 

per-tinaoia, -ae,/] perseverance. 
per-tinax, -acis, adj. firm, stead- 

fast, obstinate, stubborn. 
per-tineo, -ere, -iii, intr. v. per- 

tain (to). 
Periisia, -ae,/. towTi in Etruria, 37, 

40 § 20. 
per-vado, -ere, -si, -sum, intr. v. 

come, pass, or spread through, 

arrive at, reach. 
per-venio, -ire, -veni, -\eni\xm,infr. 

V., arrive (at), reach. 
pervicacia, -ae,/, obstinacy. 
per-vius, -a, -um, adj. tbat may be 

passed through, passable. 
pes, pedis, w. foot ; in sententiam 

pedibus ire, vote (without speak- 

ing) in favour of a proposal. 
pestilentia, -ae, / pestilence. 
peto, -ere, -ivi or -li, -itum, tr. v. 

phalanx, -ngis, / band of soldiers, 

host (in battle order), esp. the 

Macedonian phalanx (50 abreast 

and 16 deep) ; any similar forma- 

tion of troops. 
phalerae, -arum, / //., metal 

bosses worn by men on breast as 

niilit. decoration ; similar decora- 

tions for forehead and breast of 

Philippus,-i, )?t. Philip V, contemp. 

with Hannibal, defeated at Cynos- 

cephalae by Flamininns 197, 19 

§ 14- 
Philo, consul 339, triumphed over 
the Latins ; dictator 339, carried 
laws making the plebeians prac- 
tically on a level with patricians ; 
first plebeian praetor 337, consul 

327, and first proconsul 326, took 
Palaepolis ; consul again 320 and 

piaciilum, -i, n. sin-offering, an 

atonement (for). 
Picenum, -i, n. district of Central 

Italy, bordering on Adriatic ; 

Picentes, -ium, w. //. Picentines. 
piget, -ere, piguit and pigitum est, 

impers. v. it troubles, displeases 

(with acc. of person and gen. of 

pignus, -uris, n. pledge, security. 
pilum, -i, II. iieavy javelin of R. 

Piso, a Roman annalist, 44 § 3, 

Introd. p.%. 
pius, -a, -um, dutiful (to country, 

&c.), patriotic. 
placeo, -ere, -ciii and -citus sum, 

-citum, intr. v. be agreeable, 

satisfy ; it is decided, determined. 
placo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. appease, 

plaga, -ae,/ region, district. 
planities, -ei,/. level ground, plain. 
planus, -a, -um, adj. level ; as siibst. 

planum, -i, n. a plain. 
plaustrum -i, 71. wagon. 
Plautius, -a, name of a R. gens, 

S2C Venox. 
plebiscitujn, -i, n. a decree of the 

plebs, -bis (-bei, 10 § i, 30 § 3 ; -bi, 

30 § 4), / the common people, 

plebeians, masses. 
plenus, -a, -um, adj. full ; pleno 

gradu, at full speed. 
plerusque, -aque, -umque, «^'.,sing. 

V. rare, usu. pl., plerique,-aeque, 

-aque, the greater part or number ; 

adv. pleraque, for the most part, 

mostly {Introd.p. 12 ; 6 § 2 note). 
Plistica, an unknown town, 21 § 6, 

22 §§ 2, II. 
plus, see iinder multus, 
poena, -ae,/ punishment. 
Poeni, orum, tn, pl. the Carthagin- 

ians (Phoenicians) ; Punicus, -a, 

-um, adj. Carthaginian ; 17 § 9, 

19 §§ 12, 13. 
Poetelius, (i) 24 § 1 ; (2) 27, 28. 

IS5 L2 


polleo, -ere, inir. v. be strong, 

polliceor, -eri, -itus, ir. and inir. 

V. promise. 
Pompeii, -orum, w. //. city in S. of 

Campania; 38 § 2. 
Pompeius, the triumvir ; 17 § 6. 
pono, -ere, posui, positum, tr. v. 

set, place, (fig.) cause to rest or 

depend upon, reckon, consider ; 

lay dovvn ; pai-t. positvis, -a, -um, 

of localities, placed. 
pons, -ntis, ni, bridge. 
Pontiae, an island nearly opposite 

the Circeian promontory, 28 § 7. 
pontifex, -icis, m. R. high priest. 
Pontius, (i) the Samnite general, 

victorious again in 292, but soon 

defeated and beheaded, i § 2, 4 

§ 3) 5 § I, 10 § 8, II § 1, 12 § 3, 

^5 §§ 4) 8- (2) see Herennius. 
Popillius, 21 § I. 
popiilaris, -e, adj. popular, of the 

people ; devoted to, acceptable 

to the people. 
pSpulatio, -onis, /. laying waste, 

popiilor, -ari, -atus, ir. dep. v. and 

popiilo, -are, ir. v. ravage. 
popiilus, -i, m. a people,the people, 

region, district. 
porro, adv. forward, farther on. 
Porsinna, -ae, ni. king of Clusium 

in Etruria, who made war against 

Rome in the cause of the banished 

Tarquins; 11 § 6. 
porta, -ae, /. gate. 
porto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. carry, 

posco, -ere, poposci, tr. v. demand. 
possessio, -onis,/. possession. 
pos-sum, posse, potui, irreg. intr. v. 

be able, can. 
post, adv. andprep. with acc, behind, 

post-ea, adv. hereafter, afterwards. 
posterus, postera, posterum, adj. 

(nom. s. masc. not found) follovv- 

ing; postero dio, on the morrow; 

posteri, -5rum, posterity ; 

comp. posterior ; stip. postremus, 

last ; adv. postremo, at last, finally. 

postquam <?rpost quam, conj. after. 
postremo(-um,-us), see posterus. 
postiilo, -are, avi, atum, tr. v. ask, 

demand, impeach, charge (vvith de 

and abl., gen., or abl.). 
Postiimius, (i) i § t ; 8-12. (2) 

44 § 2. 
potens, -ntis, as adj. powerful ; comp. 

potestas, -atis,/. power, authority, 

potior, -iri, -itus, irreg. intr, dep. v. 

take possession of, acquire. 
potior, comp. (T^potis. 
p6tis,p6te, fTrt^'. capable; comp. p6- 

tior, -ius, preferable, better. 
Potitius, -ii,'/«. name of a R. gens ; 

a sacerdotal family, priests of 

p6tius, comp.adv. rather, preferably, 

prae, prep. ivith abl, before, in ad- 

vance of; prae se ferre, show, 

exhibit, betray ; because of, by 

reason of (to denote a hindering 

cause after a neg.), 
praebeo, -ere, -lu, -itum, tr. v. \_for 

praehibeo] hold out, proffer, pre- 

sent, give, furnish, permit, suffer. 
prae-caveo, -ere, -cavi, -cautum, tr. 

V. guard against beforehand ; intr. 

use precaution, be on one's guard ; 

praeeavere ab insidiis, guard 

praeceps, -cipitis, adj, headlong. 
praeceptum, -i, n, maxim, order. 
prae-cino, -ere, -ciniii, -centum, 

intr. V. sing or play before. 
prae-cipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, 

tr. V. anticipate, give rules to, ad- 

vise, instruct. 
praecipuus, -a, -um, adj, peculiar, 

praa-clarus, -a, -um, adj, noble. 
praeco, -onis, m. herald. 
praeda, -ae,/. booty, plunder. 
praedator, -oris, m. plunderer. 
praedicatio, -onis, f, a public pro- 

praedor, -ari, -atus, tr, and intr, 

dep, V. plunder. 
prae-eo, -ire, -ivi or -li, -itum, /r. 



atid intr. v. go before, repeat 
words of formula first, dictate. 

praefectus, -i, m. president, com- 

prae-fervidus, -a, -um, adj. glow- 

prae-ficlo, -ere, -feci, -fectum, ti: v. 

place in command of. 
prae-gredior, -gredi, -gressus, //•. 

aiid intr. dep. v. go before, pre- 

prae-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, 

tr. V. send forward. 
Praeneste, -is, n. ancient town in 

Latium, on a lofty hill, with tem- 

ple and oracle of Fortune ; Prae- 

nestinus, -a, -um, adj. of Prae- 

prae-opto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr, v. 

choose rather, prefer. 
prae-paro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

get or make ready beforehand, 

prepare, equip; part. praepa- 

ratus, -a, -um, prepared, provided. 
prae-pedio, -ire, -ivi or -li, -Itum, 

tr. v. hinder. 
prae-potens, -ntis,/^;/. very power- 

praesens, -ntis, part. of praesum ; 

as adj. that is before one, in sight, 

at hand ; (of time) present, im- 

praesidium, -li, «. protection, guard , 

garrison, fortification, post. 
praestans, -ntis,/;w. part.o/pTne- 

Sto, as adj. pre-eminent, distin- 

guished ; comp. praestantior. 
praesto, adv. at hand, ready. 
prae-sto, -are, -stiti, -statum aiid 

-stitum, intr. v. stand out before, 

be superior, excel ; tr. surpass,. 

vouclifor, warrant. {Introd.p. ii.) 
praeter, prep. with acc. past, be- 

yond, more than, besides. 
praeter-ea, adv. besides. 
praeter-eo, -Ire, -li, -itum, tr. v. 

pass over, reject. 
praeter-quam, adv. besides, except. 
praetor, -oris, in. (prae-itor) presi- 

dent ; esp. a praetor, R. magistrate 

charged with administration of 


praetorium, -li, n. a generars 

prae-vehor, -vehi, -vectus, intr. and 

tr. dep. V. ride past. 
prae-verto, -ere, -ti, tr. v. precede, 

outstrip, turn one's atlention to or 

do first, principally, or by prefer- 

prandeo, -ere, -di, -sum, intr. v. 

pravitas, -atis,y. perverseness. 
pravus, -a, -um, adj. vicious, bad. 
preoatio, -5nis,y". a praying. 
precor, -ari, -atus, tr. and intr. v. 

pray, beseech. 
prendo, -ere, -ndi, -nsum, tr. v. 

premo, -ere, pressi, pressum, tr. v. 

pridem, adv. long ago ; see also 

pridie, adv. on the day before. 
primus, -a, -um, adj. first, the 

first (part of), most excellent, 

most distingnished ; adv. pri- 

mum, first ; primo, at first, at 

the beginning. 
princeps, -cipis, w. the first, chief, 

most distinguishedperson ; (milit.) 

//. principes, second line of R. 

army, betw. hastati and triarii ; 

princeps, -cipis, in. (a) company 

of the principes. 
principium, -ii, n. beginning ; (of 

tribe) that votes first. 
prior, -us, gen. -5ris, comp. adj. 

former, previous ; adv. , conip. 

prius, before ; ivith quam, often 

priusquam, conj. before that, 

pristinus, -a, -um, adj. former, 

prius, priusquam, 5tr nnder-pvior. 
privatim, adv. as an individual. 
privatus, -a, -um, part. of privo 

(deprive) ; as adj. apart from the 

State, private ; nent. used abso- 

lutely, 7 § 1 2 ; w. a man in private 

life, citizen, opp. to magistrate. 
pro, prep. with abl. before, in front 

of, on behalf of, in the place of, 

for, on account of, for the sake of, 



in comparison with, in proportion 

to, conformably to ; pro se quis- 

que, each according to his ability 

or for himself pro eo quod, for 

this (reason) that, becavise. 
pro, iiiterj. Oh ! 
probe, adv. thoroughly, well. 
probo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. ap- 

prove of. 
probus, -a, -um, «i^'. upright, honest. 
pro-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, intr. 

V. proceed, advance. 
procer, -eris, tn. nni. pl. proceres, 

-um, the leading men, chiefs. 
prociil, adv. {with abl.) far from, 

at a distance, afar off, far. 
proditio, -6nis,y. betrayal. 
proditor, -oris, tn. traitor. 
pro-do, -ere, -didi, -ditum, tr. v. 

betray, hand down. 
proelium, -ii, «. battle. 
profectio, -onis.y. setting out. 
pro-fero, -ferre, -tiili, -latum, tr. v. 

carry forth ; proferre signa, ad- 

vance the standards, i.e. march 

on ; bring forth, reveal. 
pro-ficiscor, -sci, -fectus, intr. dep. v. 

set out. 
pro-fiteor, -eri, -fessus, tr. dep. v. 

declare publicly, avow. 
pro-fligo, -are, -avi, -atum, /;-. v. 

overthrow, bring almost to an 

progenies, -ei,f. offspring- 
pro-hibeo, -ere, -iii, -itum, tr. v. 

pro-mde, adz<. therefore, accord- 

pro-moveo, -ere, -movi, -motum, 

/;-. V. move forward. 
prope, adv. nearly, almost ; conip. 

propius, nearer ; snp. proxime, 

propinquitas, -atis,/! nearness. 
propinquus, -a, -um, adj. near, 

neighbouring ; (in) propinquo, 

(in) the neighbourhood. 
propior, -ius, gen. -oris, conip. adj. 

ncarer; sup. proximus, -a, -um, 

nearest, next. 
propitius, -a, -um, adj. favourable, 


pro-pono, -ere, -posiii, -positum, tr. 

V. set out, place before, display. 
propter, prep. ■with acc. near, close 

to, on account of 
propugnator, -oris, m. a defender. 
pro-rogo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

pro-ruo, -ere, -riii, -rutum, tr. v. puU 

or throw down, overturn. 
pro-sequor, -sequi, -seciitus, /;-. dep. 

V. accompany, attend. 
protinus (pro-tenus), adv. straight- 

forwards, onwards, forthwith, im- 

pro-iit, adv. according as, just as. 
provincia, -ae,/". official duty ; a pro- 

vince, /. e. territoiy oittside Italy, 

brought itnder Romangovemment. 
pro-voco, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

challenge, exasperate. 
proximus ; see tmder propior. 
prudens, -ntis, adj. wise, discreet, 

sagacious, sensible, judicious. 
piibes and piiber, -eris, adj. of 

ripe age, adult. 
piiblicus, -a, -um, adj. belonging 

to the state or people, public, 

common ; piiblTcum, -i, n, a 

public place. 
piidet, inipers. v. it causes shame, 

one feels ashamed. 
piidor, -oris, ;;/. shame. 
piier, -eri, m. boy. 
pugna, -ae,y. battle. 
pugno, -are, -avi, -atum, intr. v. 

pullarius, -ii, w. the chicken-keeper, 

who fed the sacred chickens. 
pulvis, -eris, m. dust. 
Piinicus, Punic, Carthaginian, 17 

§ 9, 19 §§ 12, 13. 
Pupiniensis (ager), Pupinian, not 

far from Tusculum. 
purgo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. clear, 

purpiira, -ae,/! purple. 

Q,, q, n. indecl. sixteenth letter of 
L. alphabet ; as abbr. = QuiiUus. 

qua, adv..ahl. fem. ^'qni, by which 
road ; qua . . . qua, both . . . and; 



qua-cumque (-cunque), adv.whti- 

ever, by whatsoever means. 
quadringentesimus (-tensimus), 

-a, -um, ord. adj. four hundredth. 
quaero, -ere, -sivi or -sii, -sltum, 

ir. V. seek, seek to learn, ask, 

inquire into judicially. 
quaesitor, -oris, m. inquisitor, esp. 

in criminal trials, commissioner. 
quaeso, -cre, -Ivi or -ji, /;-. v. be- 

quaestio, -onis, /. investigalion, 

subject of inquiry. 
quaestor, -oris, m. quaestor. 
quam, adv. how, how far (in dep. 

clauses), than (with comparatives 

and after ultra), as (with superla- 

tives, esp. with possum) quam 

potest occultissime, as secretly 

as he can; pridie quam, the day 

quamprimum or quam primum, 

adv. as soon as possible, forth- 

quam-quam, conj. although. 
quam-vis, adv. as much as you 

will, ever so ; conj, however much, 

although (with subjunct. before 

quando, conj. when, since. 
quando-que, adv. inasmuch as. 
quanto, adv. [quantus] by as much 

as, as ; quanto magis, the more. 
quanto opere, adv. how greatly, 

how much. 
quantus, -a, -um, adj. how great; 

(corresp. with tantus), as. 
quantus-cumque, • tacumque,-tum- 

cumque, adj'. how great soever. 
quantus-libet, -talibet, -tumlibet, 

adj. as great as you please. 
quartus, -a, -um, ord. adj. fourth ; 

quartum, adv. for the fourth 

quaterni, -ae, -a, distrib. adj. four 

each or at a time, by fours. 
quattuor, card. adj. four. 
-que, enclitic fo«/'.and; -que . . . -que, 

both . . . and. 
quemadmodum or quem ad mo- 

dum, adv. in'what manner ; (with 

sic, ita, etc), just as, as. 

queror, queri, questus, tr. and intr. 

dep. V. complain, lament, deplore. 
qui, quae, quod, gen. cnius, dat. cui, 

pron. interrog. {adj.), who ? which j 

what ? >v/. who, which, that ; 

(with subj. causal) because ; (con- 

secutive = ut is) dignus qui im- 

peret, worthy to rule ; (final = ut 

is) in order that ; ( = demonstr. and 

conj.^i and this, etc. ; neut. sing. 

quod, as much as, as far as ; abl. 

quo.(with comp.), by how much 

the (more) ; iftde/. subst. and adj. 

any one, any (after si, num, ne). 
quiS., conj. because, usu. with indic. 
qui-cumqu§, quaecumque, quod- 

cumque, rel. pron. whoever, what- 

ever ; = quilibet. 
quidam, quaedam, quoddam {subst. 

quiddam), indef. pron. a certain ; 

//. some. 
quidem, adv. indeed ; ne . . . qui- 

dem, not . . . even. 
quies, -etis, /. rest. 
quiesco, -ere, -evi, -etum, intr. v. 

keep quiet. 
quietus, -a, -um, part. of quiesco , 

adj. quiet. 
qui-libet, quaelibet, quodlibet, 

indef. pron. any you will, no 

matter who, any one. 
quin conj. [qui-ne] (interrog.) why 

not ? (relative), that not ; (esp. 

after words expressing doubt with 

a negative), but that, that; non 

est dubium quin, there is no 

doubt but that ; indeed, truly ; 

esp. with etiam : quin etiam or 

quinetiam, nay. 
qui-nam, quaenam, quodnam, in- 

ierrog. pron. who, pray ? 
Quinctllis, see Quint-. 
quingenti, -ae, -a, card. adj. five 

quini, -ae, -a, distrib. adj. five 

quinquageni, -ae, -a, distrib. adj, 

fifty each. 
quinque, card. adj. five. 
quinquennalis, -e, adj. quinquen- 

nial, /. e. taking place every five 

years, lasting five years, 



Quintilis, -is, m. with or ivithoiit 

mensis, the fifth month (counting 

from March), July. 
quintus, -a, -um, 07-d, adj. fifth ; 

quintum, adv. for the fifth time. 
quippe, adv. andconj. certainly, to 

be sure ; (ironical) forsooth ; be- 

cause, inasmuch as. (with indic.) 
Quirites, -ium, tn. after union of 

Sabines and Romans a title taken 

in addition to Populus Romanns, 

describing them in a civil capa- 

city ; hence Quirites = citizens. 
quis, quid, i>tterro§. pron. who ? 

what ? 
quis (qua), quid, ifidef. pron. any 

one, -body, -thing. 
quis-nam, quaenam, quidnam, 

interrog. proti. who, which, or 

what, pray ? 
quis-quam, quaequam, quicquam 

or quidquam, indef.pron. any one, 

quis-que, quaeque, quodque, indef. 

pron. each; ivith stiperl., e.g. op- 

timus quisque = all the best men . 
quis-quis, quidquid, 7-el. pron. who- 

ever, whatever, all. 
quo, adv. for which reason, where- 

fore, whither, to the end that, in 

order that. 
quod, conj. that, in that, because ; 

ivith si, but. 
quo-minus, co7ij., see minus. 
quoniam, adv. since. 
quoque, enclitic conj. also, too. 
quot, indecl. adj. how many, (as 

many) as, correl. to tot. 
quotannis, every year. 
quotidianus, quotidie, see co- 


radix, -Tcis, f. root, foot of hill. 
raptim, adv. hastily, hurriedly. 
rarus, -a, -um, adj. far apart, thin. 
ratio, -onis,y. account. 
ratus, -a, -um, part. of reor, adj. 

fixed by calculation, hence settled, 

rebellio, -5nis,y". revolt. 
r§-bello, -are, -avi, -atum, ?w/. v. 

revolt, rebel. 

re-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, inlr. 

V. depart. 
recens, -ntis, adj. fresh, recent. 
re-censeo, -ere, -sui, -sum and 

-sltum, tr. V. count, reckon. 
rSceptaculum, -i, n. place of refuge. 
receptus, -us, m. retreat. 
re-cipero, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

re-oipio, -cre, -ccpi, -ceptum, tr. v. 

recover, regain ; recipere se, 

withdraw any-whither ; recipere 

nomen, receive or entertain a 

charge (against a man). 
re-cito, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

read out, recite. 
re-concilio, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

rectus, -a, -um, part of rego, adj. 

upright, just. 
rS-cuso, -are, -avi, -atum, /;-. refuse, 

protest against. 
recupero, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

red-do, -ere, -didi, -ditum, tr. v. 

put back, return, restore; render. 
red-So, -Tre, -ii, -itum, intr. v. 

go back, return. 
red-imo, -ere, -emi, -emptum, tr. v. 

red-integro, -are, -avi, -atum, /;-. v. 

reditus, -iis, m. return. 
re-fero, -ferre, rettuli, relatuni, tr. 

irreg. v. bear, carry, or give back ; 

referre pedem (milit.), retire, 

retreat ; relate ; ad senatum de 

aliqua re, make a motion in the 

senate, move; alsoofother bodies; 

ascribe or refer anything to any- 

refert, -ferre, -tiilit, intr. impers. v. 

is of importance. 
re-ficio, -cre, -feci, -fectum, tr. v. 

restore,renew, repair, reinvigorate. 
re-formido, -are, -atum, tr. v. fear 

greatly, dread, shrinlc from. 
re-fringo, -ere, -fregi, -fractum, tr. v. 

break open. 
refugium, -li, 7i. refuge. 
regio, -finis^y; region. 
regnum, -i, w. kingly government. 



rS-Tcio (reilcio, rejicio), -ere, 

-ieci, -iectum, tr. v. thiow, cast, 

or fling back ; refer (matter or 

person to some authority). 

re-lego, -are, -avi, -alum, tr. v. 

send away. 

religio, -onis,/. reverence for gods, 

religion ; religious scrnple ; re- 

ligious awe ; sanctity. 

religiosus, -a, -um, adj. religious. 

r§-linquo,-ere, -llqui, -lictum, tr.v. 

leave; leave remaining, allow lo 

remain ; quit, relinquish. 
reliq,uiae, -arum, f. pl. remains, 

reliquus, -a, -nm, adj. that is left, 

that remains, remainiiig ; subst. 

reliquum, -i, n. rest. 
re-maneo, -ere, -mansi, iutr. v. be 

left, remain. 
remedium, -li, w, remedy, cure. 
re-meo, -are, -avi, intr. v. go or 

come back, return. 
re-mitto, -ere, -mlsi, -rnissum, tr. v. 

send back ; relax ; give back, re- 

store ; slacken, abate ; give up. 
re-nascor, -sci, -natus, i^itr. dep. v. 

be renewed. 
re-nuntio, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

bring back word, state officially, 

declare elected. 
reor, reri, ratus, intr. dep. v. think, 

suppose, ratify ; p.p. ratus. 
re-pello, -ere, reppiili, repulsum, 

tr. V. drive back, repulse. 
repente, adv. suddenly, unex- 

repentinus, -a, -um, adj. sudden. 
re-peto, -ere, -Ivi or -li, itum, tr. v. 

seek again, go back to, renew, 
_ask or deraand back, claim. 
re-pleo, -ere, -evi, -etum, ir. v. 

refiU, fill ; pa7-t. repletus, -a, 

-um ; as adj. filled, full, 
re-p6no, -ere, -posiii, -positum, tr. 

V. lay aside (for preservation), 

store up. 
rS-prehendo, -ere, -di, -sum, tr. v. 

rSpiidio, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

re-quigs, -etis, /. {acc. -etem or 

•iem, abl. -ete or -e), repose (from 

labour), recreation. 
res, rei, /. a thing, case, property ; 

(milit.) battle ; res Romana, 

Roman state. {Introd. p. 13.) 
re-scribo, -ere, -psi, -ptum, tr. v. 

(milit. t.) enroll anew, re-enlist, 
re-sero,-are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. open. 
re-servo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

keep back, reserve, 
re-sisto, -ere, -stiti, intr. v. with- 

stand, resist. 
respectus, -us, >n. a looking back, 

regard, consideration. 
re-spondeo, -ere, -di, -sum, intr. 

and tr. v. answer to, correspond 

responsum, -i, n. answer, reply. 
re-stitiio, -ere, -lii, -utum, tr. v. 

restore, revive. 
re-sto, -are, -stiti, ititr. v. be left, 

re-tineo, -ere, -iii, -tentum, tr. v. 

^hold back, retain, preserve. 
retro, adv. backwards, back, 
reus, -i, tn. defendant, surety, debtor, 

person responsible, criminal. 
re-verto, -ere, -verti, intr. v. ; re- 

vertor, -i, -versus, intr. dep. v. 

turn or come back, return. 
re-v6co , -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. recall, 
rex, regis, w. king. 
r6bur, -oris, n. hard oak, strength. 
rogatio, -onis, f. a proposal to the 

people (for passing a law or de- 

cvee), a bill. 
Roma, -ae, f, Rome ; Homanus, 

-a, -um, adj. Roman. 
riilna, -ae, /. a falling down ; pl. 

building that has fallen, ruins. 
riimor, -oris, w. rumour, report. 
rumpo, -ere, rupi, ruptum, tr. v. 

break, violate. 
riio, -ere, -iii, -iitum, intr. v. fall, rush. 
rxipes, -is,f. rock, cliff. 
rursus, adv. again. 
Kutilus (t:i 17 § 8; (2) 30 § 3, 33 

§ I, 38-39- 

Sabini, -orum, m. pl. Sabines, 
ancient people of Central Italy ; 
adj. Sabinus, -a, -um, Sabjne. 



sS,3er, s&cra, sScrum, adj. con- 

secrated to a divinity, sacred ; 

Sacer Mons, a hill abt. 3 miles fr. 

Rome, to which the people retired 

during their controversy with the 

sScerdotium, -ii, n. priesthood. 
sacramentum, -i, «. military oath 

of allegiance. 
sacratus, -a, -um, perf. part. of 

sacro ; as adj. hallowed, con- 

secrated, holy, sacred. 
sacrificium, -ii, «. sacrifice. 
sacro, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. con- 

secrate, devote to destrnction, de- 

clare accursed. 
sacro-sanctus, -a, -um, adj. invio- 

lable, sacred. 
sacrum, -i, n, religious act. 
saeciilum, -i, n. a lifetime, genera- 

tion (abt. 33 years), an age. 
saepe, adv. often ; comp. saepius. 
saepio (sepio), -ire, -psi, -ptum, 

tr. V. hedge, fence in, enclose 
saevio, -ire, -li, -itum, intr. v. rage ; 

saevire in aliquem, vent one's 

rage upon, show cruelty towards. 
saevitia, -s.t,f. cruelty. 
saevus, -a, -um, adj. raging, furious, 

sagitta, -ae,/. arrow, shaft, bolt. 
Salentini, -orum, 7n. pl., a people 

in SE. extremity of Italy ; Salen- 

tinus, -a, -um, adj. Salentine. 
Sallentini, -inus, see Sal-. 
saltus, -us, m. narrow pass, defile. 
salus, -utis,y; safety, greeting. 
salvus, -a, -um, adj. unharmed. 
Samnium, -ii, n. a country of 

Central Italy ; Samnis, -itis, 

Sajnnite ; //. Samnites, ihe Sam- 

sancio, -ire, -nxi, -nctum, tr. v. 

render sacred or inviolable, ratify. 
sanctus, -a, -um, perf. part. of 

sancio ; as adj. sacred. 
sanguis, -inis, m. blood, blood- 

sanus, -a, -um, adj. sound in mind, 

sarcina, -ae, /. package ; tisu. pl. 

baggage (of soldiers). 

sarcio, -ire, sarsi, sartum, tr. v. 

sarisa, -ae, /. a long Macedonian 

Saticiila, -ae, /. town of Samnium. 

Saticiilanus, native of Saticula. 
B&iis, ifidecl.adj. enough, sufficiently, 

quite well, fairly, moderately. 
Satricvun, -i, «., town in Latium ; 

Satricani, -orum, w. //. inhabi- 

tants of Satricum. 
saucius, -a, -um, adj. wounded. 
Saverrio, a cognomen of a patrician 

family in the Gens Sulpicia, 45 

saxum, -i, n. large stone. 

scelestus, -a, -um, adj. wicked. 

scelus, -eris, n. a crime. 

scio, -ire, -ii, ritum, tr. v. know. 

Scipio, -onis, see Barbatus. 

scisco, -ere, scivi, scitum, /;-. v. ap- 

prove, enact, decree. 
scitum, -i, n. decree. 
scriba, -ae, m. official clerk or 

scribo, -ere, -psi, -ptum, tr. v. write, 

enlist, levy soldiers. 
scriptus, -us, m. post of secretary, 

sciitum, -i, n. oblong shield of 

wood covered with leather. 
se, see sui. 
secundum, prep. ■with acc. (space) 

after; (time, rank, etc.) ' next 

secundus, -a, -um, adj. second, 

favourable, fortunate. 
seciiris, -is, abl. -\,f. axe. 
seciirus, -a, -um, adj. free from care, 

unconcerned ; cornp. securior. 
sed, conj. but. 
sedeo, -ere, sedi, sessum, intr. v. 

be seated, sit ; (milit.) remain en- 

camped, keep the field, sit still. 
sedes, -is,f. seat, place, foundation. 
seditio, -onis,/". civil discord. 
segnis, -e, adj. slow, comp. segnior; 

adv. segniter, slowly, comp. se- 

gnius (esp. with neg.), with 

diminished zeal. 
sella, -a.t,f. dim. seat, chair. 
semel, adv. num. once. 



semestris, -e, adj. of six months, 

semet, s,efr. sui, with sufiix -met. 
semi-nudus, -a, -um, adj. half- 

semi-somnus, -a, -um, adj. half- 

semita, -a.e,f. narrow way, path. 
Sempronius, a name of R. gens, 

see Sophus. 
senatus, -us (rarely -i , vt. the 

Council of the elders, i. e. the 

Senate at Rome ; senatus con- 

sultum, -i, 11. a decree of the 

senesco, -ere, -nui, intr. incept. v. 

grow weal<, waste away. 
senex, senis, adj. old, aged ; comp. 

senior ; sid)st. senex, -is, c. an 

old man {pr woman). 
seni, -ae, -a, distrib. nn7n. si.x each. 
sententia, -ae, f., opinion, judge- 

ment, proposal, motion, 
sentio, -Ire, -si, -sum, tr. v. perceive, 

seorsum (seorsus), cuiv. separately. 
septem, card. mtm. seven. 
sequor,-i, -ciitus, tr. dep. v. follow. 
sermo, -onis, m. talk, tale, language. 
sero, adv. (too) late ; comp. serius. 
serus, -a, -um, adj. late, too late. 
servo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. save, 

preserve, keep. 
servus, -i, m. slave. 
sescenti, -ae, -a, card. adj. six 

seu ; see sive. 
severe, adv. gravely, severely ; coinp. 

sexaginta, card. adj. sixty. 
si, conj. if. 
sie, adv. so. 
sic-iit, adv. just as. 
signifer, -eri, m. standard-bearer. 
signo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. mark 

out, indicate. 
signum, -i, n. signal, military stan- 

dard ; signa conferre, engage 

silentium, -li, n. stillness, silence. 
sileo, -ere, -rii, iiitr. v. be still, 

silent, rest, cease. 

' silva, -ae,/. wood. 
silvestris, -e, adj. of a vvood or 

forest, vvoody, 
silvosus, -a, -um, adj. vvoody, 

similis, -e, adj. like, similar ; 

comp. similior, stip. simillimus. 
simul, adv. at the same time. 
simulacrum, -i, w. image. 
simiilatio, -onis,/] a feigning, false 

simiilo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

pretend a thing lo be what it is 

not, feign, counterfeit. 
simultas, -atis,/. hostile encounter 

betvveen tvvo ; rivalry, hatred. 
sine, prep. with abl., without. 
singularis, -e, adj. singular, unique. 
singiili, -ae, -a, distrib. adj. one 

sinister, -tra, -trum, adj. left, on 

the left (hand or side). 
sino, -ere, sivi, situm, tr. v. let, 

suffer, allow ; situs, see below. 
sisto, -ere, stiti, statum, tr.v. cause 

to stand, stop, check ; sistere 

gradum, halt. 
Bitus, -a, -um, part. of sino ; adj. 

(left) lying, situate. 
situs, -us, m. situation. 
si-ve, conj. or if; sive (seu) . . . 

sive (seu), whether . . . or. 
socigtas, -atis,/. alliance. 
socius, -a, -um, adj. allied ; sidst. 

socius, -li, m. ally. 
socors, -ordis, adj. silly, senseless. 
sol, -solis, m. the sun. 
soleo, -ere, -itus, intr. seini-dep. v. 

be accustomed, wont. 
sollemnis, -e, adj. annual, solemn, 

vvonted ; stibs. sollemne, -is, n. 

religious rite. 
sollers (solers), skilful, dexterous ; 

comp. soUertior, sup. sollertis- 

simus ; adv. soUerter, skilfully. 
solum, adv. only ; non solum . . . 

sed . . . quoque, not only . . . 

but also. 
solus, -a, -um, adj. alone. 
solritus, -a, -\xxii,part. ofsolvo ; free. 
somnium, -li, n. dream. 
somnus, -i, m. sleep. 



sons, sontis, adj. guilty. 

Sophus, cognomen of P. Sempro- 

nius, 33 § 5, 45 §§ i, 3- 
sopio, -ire, -Ivi or -ii, -Ttum, tr. v. 

put or luU to sleep, calm. 
Sora, -ae, f. town in Latium, still 

Sora ; Soranus, -a, -um, adj. 

of Sora. 
8or3,,-tis,/. lot, decision by lot, duty 

assigned (by lot). 
Sp. = Spurius. 
spado, -onis, m. a eunuch. 
spargo, -ere, sparsi, sparsum, tr. v. 

scatter, disperse. 
spatium, -li, n. room, space, period, 

time to do anything. 
species, -ei, /. appearance, sem- 

blance, pretence. 
spectaculum, -i, «. show, esp. play, 

shovv, spectaclein theatre or circus. 
specto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. look 

at, have in view, meditate. 
spSculator, -oris, vi. spy, scout. 
speculor, -ari, -atus, tr. dep. v. spy 

sperno, -ere, sprevi, spretum, tr. v. 

despise, reject, scorn. 
spes, -ei,/. hope ; chance. 
spondeo, -ere, spopondi, sponsum, 

tr. V. promise solemnly, engage 

oneself, become security. 
spongia, -ae, f. open-worked coat 

of mail. 
sponsio, -onis,/. a solemn promise, 

sponsor, -oris, m. surety. 
sponte,/. abl. of obsol. spons (spon- 

deo), 7tsii. with mea, tua, sua, 

&c., of one"s own accord. 
av^etMS. perf part. ^sperno. 
Spurius, a Roman praenomen. 
stabilio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, tr. v. make 

firm, fix, establish. 
statarius, -a, -um, adj. stationarj^ 
statio, -onis,/. (milit.) post, station, 

ustt. pi. sentries. 
Statius, 44 § 13. 
stativa, -5rum, /;. pl. stationary 

statiia, -ae,/. image, statue. 
stJttuo, -cre, -iii, -utum, tr v. station, 

pitch tents, decide, determine. 

st&tus, -a, -um, part. of sisto ; adj. 

status, -iis, m. position, condition, 

Stellatis campus, district in South 

Campania, near Cales. 
sterno, -ere, stravi, stratum, tr. v. 

spread out, strew, stretch out, 

stimulo, -are, -avi, -atum,/;-. v. spur 

on, incite. 
stipendium, -ii, n. salary, soldier's 

stirps, stirpis, /. stock, lineage ; 

ab stirpe, utterly. 
sto, stare, steti, statum, intr. v. 

stand, abide by ; stare per ali- 

q,uem, be owing to one, be one's 

fault (followed by a negative 

stolidus, -a, -um, adj. senseless, 

strages, -is, / overthrowing, con- 

fused mass, slaughter. 
stratus,/t?;« sterno. 
stringo, -ere, -inxi, -ictum, tr. v. 

striio, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. arrange. 
stiidium, -li, n. zeal, eagerness. 
stupor, -oris, m. amazement. 
siib, prep. under ; (with acc.) under, 

sub-do, -ere, -didi, -dltum, tr. v. 

place nnder. 
sub-duco, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. 

withdraw, take away secretly. 
sub-eo, -Ire, -ii, -Itum, tr. and intr . 

V. ; intr. come up to ; tr. approach 

secretly, steal upon, undergo. 
subiectus, -a, -um, part. ^subicio 

(place under) ; adj. lying under. 
siib-igo, -ere, -egi, -actum, /;-. v. 

bring under, overcome, conquer, 

force, compel. 
sub-inde, adv. immediately after, 

siibitus, -a, -um, part. of subeo ; 

adj. unexpected. 
subsidiarius, -a, -um, adj. belong- 

ing to the reserves, subsidiary. 
subsidium, -ii, n. reserve, auxiliary 

forces, support in battle. 



sub-sisto, -ere, -stiti, intr. v. halt, 

sub-traho, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. 

Bub-veho, -ere, -vexi, -vectnm, tr. v. 

convey up. 
Succasinus (i.e. near Casinum; ; 

sce Interamna, 28 § 8. 
suc-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, intr. 

V. march up to, follow after, take 

the place of, succeed, prosper. 
Suessa,,/". (i) S. Aurunca, now 

Sessa (town in Latiuni), 28 § 7 ; (2) 

S. Pometia (old town in Latium, 

destroyed 502 B.C.). 
suf-ficlo, -ere, -feci, -fectum, /;-. v. 

supply, substitute for ; esp. elect in 

the place of (of magistrates) ; intr. 

be sufficient, suffice for. 
suffragium, -li, n. vote. 
8ug-gero, -ere, -gessi, -gestum, tr. v. 

assign, place next in order. 
sui, se, rejle.x. pron. himself, her- 

self, itself, themselves ; inter se, 

Sulpicius, -a, name of a R. gens ; 

(i) see Longus, {2)see Saverrio. 
sum, esse, fui, irreg. i^itrans. v. 

be ; sunt qui, there are those 

who ; tuith gen. be of, belong to 

(a class) ; {witkgen.) it belongs to, 

is the duty of, the characteristic of ; 

{with predicative dat.) hoc erat 

subsidio, this was an assistance ; 

fut. part. fiitiirus. 
summa, -ae, /. main thing, chief 

point ; summa rei bellicae, the 

issue of the whole war. 
summatim, adv. cursorily. 
summe, sttp. adv. (summus), in 

the highest degree. 
sum-moveo (subm-), -ere, -movi, 

-motum, tr. v. drive off. 
summus, -a, -um, siiperl. _of su- 

perus, highest, the top of, most 

distinguished, most important. 
siiper, prep. with (abl. and) acc. 

over, upon, over and above, in 

addition to, after. 
siiperbe, adv. haughtily, insolently, 

siiperbia, -ae,_/^ haughtiness, pride. 

stlperbus, -a, -um, adj. proud, 

glorious ; comp. superlDior, sup. 

superior, sup§rius, set superus, 

siipero, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. sur- 

pass, exceed. 
siiper-sum, -esse, -fui, irreg. intr. 

v. be left, survive. 
siipSrus, -a, -um, adj. upper ; comp. 

superior, -ius ; (of place) higher, 

victorious, stronger. 
suppedito, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. and 

intr.freq. v. be in store ; fumish. 
sup-peto, -ere, -Ivi or -li, -Itum, 

intr. V. be forthcoming, be ready. 
supplemeutum, -i, n. reinforce- 

suppliciter, adv. humbly, sup- 

supplicium, -li, «. punishment, 
_^penalty, suffering. 
siipra, adv. and prep. on the top, 

surdus, -a, -um, adj. deaf 
surgo, -ere, surrexi, surrectum, 

ititr. V. rise. 
sur-rogo (subr-), -are, -avi, -atum, 

tr. V. substitute (collegam). 
sus-cipio, -ere, -cepi. -ceptum, tr.v. 

sus-pendo, -ere, -di, -sum, tr. v. 

hang up ; make uncertain, keep 

in suspense. 
suspensus, -a, -um, part. of sus- 

pendo, adj. uncertain, in suspense. 
sus-tlneo, -ere, -tinui, -tentum,/>'.f. 

uphold, sustain ; hold out against. 
Siitrini, inhabitants of Sutrium, 32 

§ 2. 
Siitrium, a town onthe Via Cassia, 

32 miles from Rorae, 32, 35 § i, 

11 § 2. 
siius, -a, -um, reflex. poss.pron. its 

own, tlieir ovvn. 

T, t, abbr. T. = Titus. 
taberna, -ae,y. shop. 
tabernaciilum, -i, n, tent. 
tabiila, -ae,y; writing-tablet ; table 
(of laws). 



tSceo, -ere, -cui, -citum, intr. and 

tr. V. be silent (about). 
taeitus, -a, -\xm, perf.part.oftSkCeo, 

adj. silent. 
talis, -e, adf. such, the like. 
tam, adv. so. 

tamen, conf. nevertheless, still. 
tandem, adv. at length, pray. 
tanto, see tantus. 
tantum, adv. only. 
tantum-modo, adv. only, merely. 
tantus, -a, -um, adj. so great ; n. 

tantum, so much (with gen.) ; 

(with comp.) so much the (more 

or less). 
Taventum, -i, n. Gr. city on W. 

coast of Calabria ; Tarentini, 

the Tarentines, chap. 14. 
Tarquinii, -orum, m. pl. ancient 

town of Etruria ; Tarquinius, 

-a, -um, and Tarquiniensis, -e, 

adf. people of T. Tarquinius, 

-ii, m. (i) Priscus, fifth king of 

Rome ; (2) Superbus, seventh and 

last king of Rome, 34 § 5. 
Teanum, -i, n. T. Apiilum, town in 

Apulia ; Teanenses, -ium, 

inhabitants of Teanum ; Teates, 

the people of Teanum, 20 § 7. 
tectum, -i, n. (tego), roof, dwelling. 
tego, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. cover, 

tegiimentum, n. a covering, cover. 
telum, -i, n. missile, javelin. 
tSmere, adv. (in the dark) blindly, 

at random, casually. 
temeritas, -atis,y. rashness. 
temperatio, -onis,/'. due mingling, 

combination, organization. 
tempestas, -atis,y". time, period. 
templum, -i, n. temple. 
tsmptatio, -onis,y. trial, proof. 
tempto, -are, -avi,-atum, tr.v.freq. 

attack, attempt. 
tempus, -oris, n. (a) time. 
temiilentus, -a, -um,a^'. drunken. 
tendo, -ere, tetendi, tentum and 

tensum, v. tr. stretch out or forth ; 

intr. bend one's course (any- 

teneo, -ere, tLnui, tentum, /;-. v. 

hold, keep, bind. 

tensa, -ae, f. the chariot (in which 

the images of the gods were borne 

at the Circensian games). 
tenuis, -e, adf. slight, poor. 
tenus, prep. as far as (with abl., 

somelimes gen. plur. ; always 

after its case). 
tergum, -i, «. the back, rear. 
terra, -ae,/'. the earth, country. 
terreo, -ere, -iii, -itum, tr. v. 

terribilis, -e, adj. terrible ; comp. 

terror, -oris, m. alarm, terror. 
tertius, -a, -um, ord. adj. third ; 

tertium, adv. for the third time ; 

tertio, adv. for the third time. 
tessera, -ae, f. (milit. term) square 

tablet (on which watchword was 

testimonivun, -ii, n. testimony, 

testis, -is, c. a witness. 
testor, -ari, -atns, tr. dep. v. invoke 

as witness. 
Thebae, -arum,/.//. Thebes, capital 

of Boeotia, 18 § 7. 
Thessalia, -ae, /. Thessaly (district 

in N. Greece) ; Thessali, -orum, 

m. pl. Thessalians, 19 § 5. 
Thurii, -orum, city on Taren- 

tine gulf, nr. site of ancient 

tibi, see tu. 

tibieen, -inis, m. flute-player. 
Tibur, -uris, nt. town of Latium on 

the Anio, 7iow Tivoli ; Tibvirs, 

-urtis, adf. Tiburtine ; subst. n, 

theTiburtineterritory ; Tiburtes, 

-um, VI. pl. the Tiburtines ; Ti- 

burtinus, -a, -um, adj. of Tibur. 
Tifernus, -i, m. a mountain in the 

heart of Samnium, tlie sonrce of a 

river of the same name, 44 § 6. 
timor, -oris, m. (timeo), fear, appre- 

tiro, -onis, vt. newly-levied soldier, 

tirocinium, -ii, n. first military 

togatus, -a, -um, adj. wearing the 




tolero, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

tollo, -eie, sustiili, sublatum, tr. v. 

lemove, destroy. 
torpor, -oris, m. numbness. 
Torquatus, -i, in. T. Manlius, who 

wore the chain collar of a Gaul 

whom he slew 361 B, c, 17 §§ 8, 

tot, indecl. imm. adj. so many, 
totiens, adv. so oftcn. 
trado, -ere, -didi, -ditum, tr. v. 

hand over, deliver, transmit, hand 

down to posterity, narrate, tell. 
tradiico, -Ore, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. lead 

across; (of time) spend, pass. 
traho, -ere, -xi, -ctum, tr. v. draw ; 

ascribe to ; get, obtain ; protract. 
traicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum, tr. and 

intr. V. throvv over, cross or pass 

over, cross. 
trans, prep. with acc. across, on the 

farther side of. 
transcendo or trans-scendo, -ere, 

-di, -sum, tr. v. omit, pass over. 
transfuga, -ae, c. deseiter. 
trans-gredior, -gredi, -gressus, tr. 

and intr. dep. v. pass over, cross. 
trans-igo, -ere, -egi, -actum, tr. v. 

settle, dispatch business, maive an 

cnd of. 
transitus, -us, m. a going or pass- 

ing over, passage. 
trans-veho, -ere, -xi, -ctiim, tr. v. 

carr)', conduct, or convey across ; 

{rejlex. pass.) ride past. 
transversus, -a, -um, adj. athwart, 

tredecim, card. adj. thirteen. 
Tremulus, a plebeian, consul 306 

and 288 : 42-44. 
trepidatio, -onis, /'. consternation. 
trepido, -are, -avi, -atum, intr. v. 

bustle about anxiously, hustle. 
trepidus, -a, -um, adj. alarmed, 
tres, tria, card. adj. three, 
tribunal, -alis, «. tribunal. 
tribunatus, -us, m. tribuneship, 

tribiinicius (-tius), -a, -um, adj. 

of a tribune. 
tribiinus, -i, m. a tribune ; tribuni 

militares or militum, military 

tribunes, officers,six toeach legion. 
tribus, -us, f. a tribe, one of the 

divisions of the people. 
triduum, -i, n. the space of three 

days, three days. 
triennium, -li, n. the space of three 

years, three 5'ears. 
triginta, card. adj. thirty. 
tristis, -e, adj. mournful, gloomy. 
triumpho, -are, -avi, -atum, intr. v. 

celebrate a triumph. 
triumviratus, -us, m. office of 

triumviri, -orum, m. pl. a board of 

three commissioners. 
trucido, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

trux, -licis, adj. ferocious, 
tii, Ixxi, pers. pron. thou. 
tiiba, -ae, /. trumpet, esp. war- 

tueor, -eri, -itus, tr. dep. v. watch, 

tum, adv. then. 
tiimultuarius, -a, -um, adj. done 

in a hurry, hasty, disorderly. 
tiimultus, -iis, m. uproar, sudden 

outbrealc of war, esp. civil war, 

rebellion (in Italy or Gaul). 
tiinica, -ae, /. tunic, R. under- 

garment of both sexes. 
turba, -ae,y. disturbance, crowd. 
turbo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. throw 

into confusion. 
turraa, -ae,/. troop, squadron of R. 

cavalry, j^^ of an ala, at first 30, 

later 32 men. 
turpis, -e, adj. disgraceful. 
Tusci, -orum, ;//. pl. (= Etrusci), 

the Tuscans, Etruscans, inhabitants 

of Etruria ; Tuscus, -a, -um, adj. 

tiito, adv. safely ; comp. tutius. 
tiitus, -a, -um, part. ^tueor ; as adj. 

safe, secure ; comp. tutior, siip. 

tuus, -a, -um, pron. adj. thy, your. 

ubi, adv. where, when, as soon as> 
ub!-c\imque, adv. wherever, where- 
soever, everywhere. 



ftbi-que, adv. everywhere. 
Ufens, -eiitis, w., small river in 

Latinm ; Ufentinus, -a, -um, adj. , 

20 § 6. 
\ilciscor, -sci, ultus, tr. dep.v. avenge. 
ullus, -a, -um, gen. uUius, adj. any 

ulterior, -ius, comp. adj. farther, 

on the farther side ; n. pl. things 

farther, beyond ; siip. ultimus, 

-a, -uni, last. 
ultor, -oris, m. avenger. 
ultra, adv. farther, besides, more. 
ultro, adv. to the farther side, be- 

yond, usu. in phrase ultro citro, 

to and fro ; of one's own accord. 
ultus, /. part. qf ulciscor (some- 

times used as passive). 
umbo, -onis, m. boss of shield. 
Umbri, -urum, m. pl. Umbrians ; 

Umbria, -ae,/. district of Central 

umerus, -i, m. shoulder. 
umctuam (unquam), adv, ever. 
iina, adv. together. 
unde, adv. whence. 
undique, adv. on all sides. 
unicus, -a, -um, single, sole. 
universus (-vorsus), -a, -um, adj. 

all together, whole, entire ; in 

universum, in general. 
iinus, -a, -um, gen. -lus, card. adj. 

one, a single, alone ; ad unum, to 

a man ; in unum, into one, to one 

place; unusquisque, each one. 
urbanus, -a, -um, adj. proper to 

or of the city, or a city man. 
urbs, urbis,/. city. 
urgeo, -ere, ursi, tr. v. urge. 
usquam, adv. in any place, any- 

where, in anything, in any way. 
usque, adv. as far as ; (of time) 

until (with prep.), even (to). 
iisvira, -ae,/ interest. 
iit or ut!, in the manner that, as, = 

eo modo quo ; (in comparisons) 

just as, as, with correl. ita or sic ; 

(introducing examples) as, such as, 

forinstance ; (in explan. orparenth. 

clauses) inasmuch as, as being; 

ut qui, as (is natural for one) 

who, like one who, since he ; 

{conj. with subj.) that, in order 
that ; (concessive) granting that, 
even if; (after verbs of wish- 
ing, asking, advising, command- 
ing, endeavouring, striving) that. 

uter, utra, utrum, gen. -lus, rel. 
which of tvvo, which. 

iiter-que, utraque, utrumque, pron. 

iiti, see ut. 

iitilis, -e, adj. serviceable. 

uti-que,«ffe. in any case, certainly. 

vitor, Uti, usus, dep. v. ivith abl. 
make use of, accept. 

utrlmque, adv. on one side and on 
the other, on both sides. 

utrum, adv. whether. 

vaciius, -a, -um, adj. empty, void, 

free, clear; without(absol. t^^-abl.). 
Vadimon, -onis, ;;/. a small lake in 

Etruria, famous for two Roman 

victoriesin 309 and 283B.C.,39§5. 
vado, -ere, intr. v. go, rush. 
vagor , -ari, -atus, intr. dep. v. ramble, 

vagus, -a, -um, adj. roving, vagrant. 
valeo, -ere, -iii, -itum, intr. v. 

be strong, applicable, valid ; avail. 
Valerius, see Corvus, Flaccus. 
vSlidus, -a, -um, adj. strong. 
vallo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. en- 

vallum, -i, n. rampart (i. e. earthen 

wall with palisades). 
vanitas, -atis,/ vanity, vainglory. 
vanus, -a, -um, adj. empty, vain, 

vainglorious, boastful ; comp. 

vanior, sup. vanissimus. 
varietas, -atis,/. variety. 
vario, -are, -avi, -atum, v. intr. 

be diversified, alter. 
varius, -a, -um, adj. changing, in- 

vastatio, -onis,/. ravaging. 
vastitas, -atis,/. devastation. 
vasto, -are, -avi, -atum, /;•. v. lay 

vaficinor, -ari, -atus, /;-. and intr. 

dep. V. [vates = prophet], predict. 
ve-cors, -dis, adj. senseless, mad. 
veho, -ere, -xi, -ctum, /;'. v. carry. 



Veii, -orum, m.pL city of Etruria, 

1 2 miles from Kome. 
vel, conj. or ; vel . . . vel, either . . . 

vello, -ere, vulsi, vnlsum (volsum), 

tr. V. puU or tear out, up, or 

vSl-fit (vSlfiti), adv. as, as it were, 

as if. 
veneo, -Tre, -i\a or-\\, -Ttum [venum, 

eo], be sold, as pass. ^vendo. 
venia, -ae,/'. pardon. 
venio, -ire, veni, ventum, intr. v. 

Venox(i)20 §§ i, 4 ; (2) 29 § 5, 30, 

§ 2, 33-4- 
verber, -eris, «. blow, stripe. 
verbum, -i, n. a word, words ; 

verbo, in one word, briefly ; meis 

(tuis, &c.) verbis, in my (your, 

&c.) name. 
vere, adv. truly, really. 
vSrecundia, -ae, f. bashfulness, 

modesty ; respect for ; shame. 
vero, adv. even, indeed, but, but 

versic61or,-oris, adj. [verto, color], 

of changing or various colours. 
versus, perf. part. qfverto. 
verto,-ere,-ti ,-sum,/;-. z'. turn ; (/«'.fj',) 

be engaged in ; intr. turn, change. 
verus, -a, -um, adj. tme ; verum, 

-i, n. the truth, reality ; veri, 

witk similis, probable. 
Verulae, 42 § 11, 43 § 23. 
Verulanus, -a, -um, adf of Venilae. 
ve-sanus, -a, -um, adf mad, in- 

Vescia, -ae, f. town in Latium, 25 

vescor, vesci, /;-. a}id intr. dep. v. 

feed, eat. 
vester (voster), -tra, -trum, poss. 

pron. your. 
vestigium, -li, n. footprint, trace. 
Vestini, a people of Central Italy, 

19 § 4.. 
vestis, -is,y. clothing. 
veteranus, -a, -um, adj. veteran ; 

seasoned ; as sttbst. m. (sc. miles), 

a veteran. 
veto, -are, -ui, Itum, tr. v. forbid. 

Veturius, scc Calvinus. 

vetus, -cris, adj. old, of former time. 

vetustas, -atis, /. nge, long dura- 

tion, great age. 
vetustus, -a, -uni, adj. aged, old, 

vexo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr.freg. v. 

distress, harass. 
via, -ae, /. way, road, path, street, 

way, method. 
vicatim, adv. through the villages, 

in hamlets. 
viceni,-ae, -a, distj-ih. adj. twenty 

vicesimus, -a, -um, ord. adj. twen- 

vicis {gen., no vom.^, vicem, inter- 

change ; in vicem, by turns. 
vietor, -oris, m. victor. 
victoria, -ae,/". (victor), victory. 
vicus, -i, m. village. 
vide-lieet, adv. clearly, plainly. 
video, -ere, vidi, vTsum, tr.v. see ; 

pass. videor, seem. 
vigeo, -ere, -iii, intr, v. be vigorous, 

vigilia, -ae, f. guard (esp. in city or 

camp) ; a watch, i. e. the time of 

keeping watch, among ' the Ro- 

mans a fourth part of the night ; 

the watch, i. e. watchmen. 
viginti, ca7-d. adj. twenty. 
vigor, -oris, m. activity, force. 
vilis, -e, adj. worthless, mean. 
vincio, -Tre, vinxi, vinctum, tr. v. 

vinco, -ere, vTci, victum, tr. andintr. 

V. conquer, prevail over, overcome. 
vinciilum (vinclum), -i, w. bond, 

fetter ; esp. pl. prison. 
vindex, -Icis, c. defender ; avenger, 

vindico, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. 

claim ; deliver ; punish. 
vinura, -i, ;/. wine. 
violatio, -onis,y". injury. 
violentus, -a, -um, adj. violent. 
violo, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. treat 

with violence. 
vir, vlri, 7n. a man. 
virga, -ae,y. rod (for flogging), esp. 

in pl. the rods (in 1ictor's fasces\ 

169 M 


virtus, -utis, /. valoiir. 
vis, vim, vi, vires, -ium, -ibus,_/. de- 
fective, strength, vigour, energy, 

force, military forces. 
viscera, -um, n. pl. intemal organs, 

heart, lungs ; the flesh. 
viso, -ere, -si, -sum, ir. freq. v. go 

to see, visit. 
vita, -ae,/ life. 
vitium, -ii, n. fault ; vitio creatus, 

informally appointed. 
vivus, -a, -um, adj. alive. 
vix, adv. scarcely. 
vociferor, -ari, -atus, tr. and ititr. 

dep. v. cry out, exclaim. 
voco, -are, -avi, -atum, tr. v. sum- 

volo, velle, voliii, tr. and inir. 

irreg. v. will, be willing ; wish, 

Volsci, -orum, ancient people 

in S. of Latium. 

Volsinienses, the inhabitants o£ 

Volsinii, 41 § 6. 
Volsinii, an Etruscan town. 
Volumnius, 1 7 § 8, 42 §§ 2, 5, 44 § 3 
voluntarii, -orum, in.pi. volunteers, 
voluntas, -atis,/ disposition. 
voluto, -are, -avi, -atum, tr.freq. v. 

roU, turn about ; consider, ponder 
voveo, -ere, v5vi, votum, tr. and 

intr. V. vow, dedicate (to a deity) 
vox, vocis,/. voice. 
Vulcanus (Volc-), -i, m. the fire 

god, son of Jupiter and Juno, 

46 § 6 ; Vulcanius (Volc-), -a, 

-um, adj. of Vulcan. 
vulgo, adv. commonly, generally. 
vulgo, -are,-avi, -atum, tr. v. make 

general or common, spreadamong 

the multitude, spread. 
vulgus, -i, n. {rarely acc. vulgum) 

the vulgar herd, mob. 
vulnus, -eris, n. wound. 

Oxford : Trinted at the Clarendon Press by Horace Ilart, M.A. 

P^ Livius, Titus 

^^^^ ^b urbe condita, liber IX