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( 1911 - 12 ) 


COMPILED 

BY 

(iOVERNMENT-flENERAL OF CHOSEN 

KUO (SEOUL), DECEMBER. 1912, 


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LIBEABY OF PEINOETON UNTVEBSITY 

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ANNUAL REPORT 


ON 


REFORMS AND PROGRESS 
IN CHOSEN (KOREA) 

( 1911 - 12 ) 



COMPILED 

y 

GOVERNMENT-GENERAL OF CHOSEN 

KEUO (SEOUL), DECEMBER, 1912. 


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CONTENTS 


MAP OF Chosen (KOREA). 


PAGE 

INTRODUCTION. 1 

I. CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION. 

1. Government-General and its Affiliated Offices. 9 

2. Chusu-in (Central Council). 11 

3. Matters Concerning Foreigners. 11 

A. Consulates . 11 

B. Tax Exemption of Church Grounds . 12 

4. Land Survey . 12 

5. Investigation of Old Usages . Id 

II. LOCAL ADMINISTRATION. 

6. Conferences of Local Authorities . 18 

7. Readjustment of Administrative Divisions . 18 

8. Provincial Governments . 19 

9. Prefectural and District Magistracies . 20 

10. Men-chd (Men-chyung) . 21 

11. Local Government Expenses . 21 

12. Special Expenses for Local Needs. 23 

13. Undertakings with Imperial Donation Fund . 25 

14. Japanese Municipal Settlements . 29 

15. Japanese School Associations ... 30 

16. Census Investigation. 32 

17. Certification of Immovable Property . 34 

18. Temple Preservation Law. 35 

19. Relief for Calamity-Stricken People. 36 

20. Government Charity Asylum . 37 

OCT 151913 C .I9t>0 


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II 


III. JUSTICE. 

PAGE 

21. Effects of Extinction of Consular Jurisdiction. 38 

22. Law Courts. 39 

23. Summary Judgment bj' Police. 40 

24. “Judicial Police” . 41 

A. Criminals . 41 

B. Police Supervision of Pardoned Offenders. 41 

C. Good Offices in Civil Disputes . 42 

I). Bailiffs . 42 

25. Prisons. 43 

IV. PEACE AND ORDER. 

26. Defence. 45 

27. Police Administration. 46 

A. Police Organs. 46 

B. Police Training . 47 

28. Maritime Police Measures. 48 

29. Pacification of Insurgents. 50 

30. Control of Religious Teaching. 51 

31. Control of Meetings and Associations. 53 

32. Control of Publications . 54 

A. Press . 54 

R. Other Printing Matters . 55 

33. Control of Dangerous Articles. 56 

A. Fire-arms, Gunpowder, etc. 56 

B. Storing of Other Explosive Articles . 56 

34. Fire-Brigades . 57 

35. Control of Undue Influence and Improper Trades. 57 

A. “Credit Inquiry Bureau” . 57 

B. Game Laws . 58 

C. Other Improper Trades . 58 

V. FINANCE. 

36. Expenses Defrayed by Imperial Government for Korea ... 60 

37. The Budget for 1912 62 

38. Offices Collecting Inland Revenue . 65 

39. Land Tax. 66 


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Ill 


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A. Regulations for “ Kyel ” Registration Books . 66 

B. Compilation of Tlans of Taxable Lands . 67 

C. Encouragement of Payment of Taxes by Land 

Owners . 68 

D. Increase of “ Kyel ” 68 

40. Yoktun Lands . 69 

41. Rural House Tax . 71 

42. Urban Building Tax. 72 

43. Tax on Liquor . 73 

44. Tax on Tobacco. 76 

45. Salt Tax . 76 

46. Mining Tax. 77 

47. Fishing Tax . 78 

48. Inland Revenue Collection. 79 

49. Customs Tariff. 81 

50. Stamp Receipts. 82 

51. Receipts from Public Undertakings and State Properties... 82 

52. Public Loans . 84 

53. Investigation for Increasing Revenue Sources. 85 

A. Tobacco Industry. 85 

B. Experimental Liquor Manufacture . 87 

54. Treasuries . 88 

55. Public Audit . 89 


VI. CURRENCY, BANKING, ETC. 


56. Amalgamation of Currency System. 90 

57. Bank Notes. 91 

58. Bank of Chosen . 92 

59. Clearing House. 94 

60. Agricultural and Industrial Banks. 94 

61. “ Chiho Kinyii Kurniai” (People’s Bank). 96 

62. Note Associations . 97 

63. Ordinary Banks. 98 

A. Japanese Banks . 98 

B. Korean Banks . 99 

64. Interest Limitation Law. 100 

65. Wages. 101 


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IV 

VII. GOVERNMENT UNDERTAKINGS. 

PAGE 

66. Ginseng Monopoly . 104 

G7. Salt Manufacture . 10G 

68. Heijo (Pyong-yang) Coal Mines. 108 

69. Lumber Undertaking Station . 108 

70. Printing Office . 110 

VIII. CIVIL ENGINEERING WORKS. 

71. Unification of Civil Engineering Administration . 112 

72. Harbour Improvement Works. 112 

A. Second stage of Harbour Improvements . 118 

B. Fusan . 113 

C. Jinsen . 114 

D. Chinnampo . 114 

E. Heijo . 115 

. F. Work done during 1911 115 

73. River Improvement . 116 

74. Road Construction . 116 

75. Street Improvement.• . 120 

A. Kcijo . 120 

B. Heijo . 120 

C. Zenshu . 121 

D. Kaishii . 121 

E. Fusan . 121 

76. Expropriation of Land . 122 

77. Government Buildings . 122 

IX. COMMUNICATIONS. 

78. Railway Traffic. 124 

79. Railway Construction . 126 

80. Tramways and Light Railways . 128 

81. Channel Ferry Steamers . 128 

82. Marine Transportation . 130 

83. Communication Facilities. 131 

84 Post Services . 132 

85. Telegraphs. 135 


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PAGE 

86. Telephones. 136 

87. Hydro-Electric Power . 137 

88. Electric Business. 137 

89. The Observatory. 137 

90. Light-House Facilities . 138 

X. COMMERCE. 

91. Foreign Trade . 140 

92. Trade According to Countries. 14-2 

93. Trade According to Ports. 144 

94. Specie and Bullion . 145 

95. Shipping . 146 

96. Customs Administration . 147 

XI. AGRICULTURE. 

97. Increase of Agricultural Products . 149 

98. Cultivated Lands . 149 

99. State waste Lands . 151 

100. Water Utilizing Measures. 153 

101. Agricultural Improvement. 154 

A. Selection of Better Seedlings. 154 

B. Training in Harvesting Rice . 154 

C. Practical Guidance. 155 

D. Lectures on Agricultural Improvements . 155 

E. Competitive Exhibition of Agricultural Products ... 155 

102. Model Stations. 155 

A. Principal F'arm in Suigen . 155 

B. Branch Station in Taiko and Hcijo . 156 

C. Ryuzan Branch Station. 157 

I). The Tokuson Branch Station . 157 

103. Seedling Stations. 158 

104. Cotton Plantation . 158 

105. Sericulture . 159 

106. Live-Stock . 161 

107. Agricultural Association ... 164 

108. Oriental Development Company . 165 


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VI 


Xir. TRADE AND INDUSTRY. 

PAGE 

109. Business Corporations . 168 

110. Markets . 169 

111. Participation in Exhibition . 170 

112. Industrial Encouragement. 171 

113. Ilemp Tissue Industry . 172 

111. Weights and Measures ... .». 172 

115. Investigation of Trade and Industries . 174 

XIII. FORESTRY. 

116. Revision of Forest Regulations. 175 

117. Investigation of Forests . 176 

A. Forest Boundaries. 176 

B. . Certain State Forests . 176 

C. Forests surrounding Tombs of Prince Li's Family ... 177 

118. Investigation of I-'orest Plants. 177 

119. Preserved Forests . 178 

120. Protection of Forests. 178 

121. Afforestation . ... ..*. 179 

A. Model Plantation. 179 

B. Seedling Stations. 179 

C. Free Distribution. 180 

I). Arbor-Day . 180 

E. Afforestation by Corporations . 180 

122. Export and Import of Lumber. 181 

XIV. MINING. 

123. Expansion of Mining Undertakings. 182 

124. Mineral Products ... ’. 182 

125. Investigation of Mining Districts . 184 

126. Mining Permits. 184 

XV. FISHERY. 

127. Fishery Regulations. 186 

128. Fishery Permits. 186 


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VII 


PAGE 


129. 

Encouragement of Marine Industries . 

.. 187 

130. 

Immigration of Japanese Fishermen . 

189 

131. 

“ The Chosen Waters Marine Products Association” 

.. 190 



XVI. SANITATION. 


132. 

Hygienic Administration. 

. 191 

133. 

Supervision of Medicine and Medicine Dealers 

. 191 

134. 

Epidemic Diseases . 

. 192 

135. 

Vaccination . 

. 194 

136. 

Increase of Official Doctors ... -. 

. 195 

137. 

Medical Practice. 

. 195 

138. 

Government-General Hospital. 

. 197 

139. 

Charity Hospitals . 

. 198 

140. 

Street Cleaning. 

. 199 

141. 

Water-Works . 

. 200 


XVII. EDUCATION. 


142. 

Readjustment of Educational System 

. 201 

143. 

Grant of Educational Rescript. 

. 202 

144. 

Common Schools. 

. 203 

145. 

Government Schools of Higher Grade 

. 204 

146. 

Industrial Schools (Jitsugyu-Gakko) . 

. 207 

147. 

Agricultural and Dendrological School ... 

. 208 

148. 

Industrial Training School . 

. 209 

149. 

Medical Training School . 

. 209 

150. 

“ Kyong-hnk won ”. 

. 210 

151. 

Private Schools. 

. 211 

152. 

Old-Fashioned Schools . 

. 212 

153. 

Text-Rooks. 

. 213 

154. 

Students Sent to Japan . 

. 214 

155. 

Education for Japanese . 

. 215 

156. 

Educational Expenses . 

. 217 

157. 

Spread of National Language. 

. 218 


APPENDIX. 


A. 

The Law relating to the Bank of Chosen... 

. 221 


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B. The Ordinance concerning Education for Koreans in 

Chosen . 226 

C. Proclamation concerning the Enforcement of the Educa¬ 

tional Ordinance in Chosen . 229 

D. Regulations for Common Schools . 231 

E. Regulations for Higher Common Schools . 240 

F. Regulations for Industrial Schools. 250 


TABLES. 


No. 1. Geographical situation of Chosen Peninsula . 257 

No. 2. Area and Administrative Divisions . 257 

No. 3. Dwelling Houses and Population . 258 

No. 4. Meteorological Observations . 259 

No. 5. Estimate of Revenue of the Government-General for 

the Fiscal Year 1911 and 1912 260 

No. 6. Estimate of Expenditure for 1911 and 1912 . 261 

No. 7. Amount of Bank Notes issued (1905- 1911) . 262 

No. 8. Amount of Reserves provided for Bank Notes (1905 

1911). 263 

No. 9. Foreign Trade for Seven Years (1905—1911). 264 

No. 10. Foreign Trade, according to Countries (1905—1911). 265 

No. 11. Number and Tonnage of Vessels entered (1905—1911) 266 

No. 12. Statistics of Posts and Parcels (1905 1912) . 267 

No. 13. Money Orders (1905 1912) 267 

No. 14. Post Office Savings Banks (1905-1912). 268 

No. 15. Statistics of Telegraphs (1905—1912) 268 

No. 16. Statistics of Telephones (1905—1912) 268 

No. 17. Railway Traffic (1907—1912) . 269 

No. 18. Railway Account (1907-1912). 269 

No. 19. Number of Patients received by Provincial Charity 

Hospitals. 270 

No. 20. Schools maintained for Japanese (1907 1911). 271 

No. 21. General Statistics of Schools for Koreans maintained 

by Governments and others (1907—1911). 272 


LIST OF PLAN MAPS. 

No. 1. Construction of Pusan Harbour. 

No. 2. Construction of Jinscn Harbour. 


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No. 3. The Railway Bridge over the Oryokii River. 


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

FACING PAGE 

1. Local Government Offices. 20 

2. Undertakings with Imperial Donation Funds for Indus¬ 

trial Encouragement (A) 26 

3. Undertakings with Imperial Donation Funds for Indus¬ 

trial Encouragement (R) 26 

4. Temples Preserved . 36 

5. Law Courts and Prisons. 40 

6. Police Organs . 46 

7. Native Labourers . 102 

8. Harbour Improvement . 114 

9. Road Construction . 116 

10. Street Improvement . 120 

11. Sericulture . 160 

12. Live-stock Improvement (A) 162 

13. Live-stock Improvement (B) 162 

14. Undertakings by Oriental Development Company. 166 

la. Afforestation . 180 

16. Mining. 182 

17. Fisher}- Encouragement . 188 

18. Water-works . 200 

19. Native and Japanese Schools . 204 

20. Industrial Education for Natives . 208 


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X 


Weights, Measures and Moneys, with English 
and French Equivalents. 


Japan. 

Great Britain. 

France. 

Ri . 

2.4403382 Miles. 

3.9272727 Kilometres. 

Ri, (Marine). 

1.1500873 Miles. 

1.8618182 Kilometres. 

Square Ri . 

5.9552500 Square Miles. . . 

15.4234711 Kilometres. 
Carres. 

CAo=10 Tan . 

2.4507204 Acres. 

99.1735537 Ares. 

Tsubo . 

3.9538290 Square Yards . . 

3.3057851 Metres Carres. 

Koku — 10 To -=100 Shu \ Liquid) 

» » (Dry) 

„ (Capacity ot vessel) 

39.7033130 Gallons .... 
4.9029141 Bushels .... 

of one Ton . . 

1.8039008 Hectolitres. 

^ de Tonne. 

Ku cin — l ,000 Mommc . . . 

8.2673297 lbs. (Avoir) . . 
10.0471021 „ (Troy.) . . 

3.75<HXK)0 Kilogrammes. 

Kin . 

121227727 lbs. (Avoir.) . . 
1.6075363 „ (Troy.) . . 

0.0000000 Hectogrammes. 

Mom me . 

2.1164364 Drams. (Avoir.) . 
2.4113045 Dwts. (Troy.) . 

3.7500000 Grammes. 

Yen — 100 Sen . 

2s. Od. 582. 

2.583 Francs. 


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XI 


Name of Provinces and Principal Cities, Towns, Districts, 
Mountains, Rivers, Islands and Bays in Japanese 
and Korean Pronunciations. 


Japanese 

Koreans 

Japanese 

Koreans 

Name 

ol Provinces. 

Kijo 

Kin-syong 

Chusei-do 

Chyung-chyong- To 

Risen 

Heui-ehyon 

Heian-do 

Pyong-an „ 

Kosan 

Cap-sau 

Kciki-do 

Kyong-geui „ 

Kosho 

Hu-chyang 

Ke is ho-do 

Kyong-sang „ 

Maho 

Ma-po 

Kogen-do 

Kang-uon „ 

Ranan 

Na-nam 

Kokai-do 

Hoan-hai „ 

Roryoshin 

No-ryang-jin 

Kankyd-do 

Ham-gyong „ 

Ryugampo 

Yong-gam-po 

Zenla-do 

Chyol-la „ 

Ryusen 

Yong-ehyon 



Ryazan 

Yong-san 

Places 

where Provincial 

Sakushu 

Sak-jvu 

Government Located. 

Seiko shin 

Syo-hojin 

Gishu 

H'i-ju 

Sensen 

Syon-chyon 

Hfijd 

Pyongyang 

Shojo 

Chyang-syong 

Kaishu 

Hai-ju 

Sosan 

Cho-san 

Kanko 

Ham-heung 

Suian 

Syu-an 

Kcijd 

Seoul 

Taitlen 

Tai-tyon 

Koshii 

Koang-jyu 

Torai 

Tong-nai 

Koshii 

Kong-jyu 

Ulsan 

Ulsan 

Kyojo 

Kyong-syong 

Unsan 

Unsan 

Seishu 

Chyong-jyu 

Yeitoho 

Yong-dok-po 

Shinshu 

Chin-jyu 



Shunsen 

Chyung-chyon 

Principal Mountains. 

Taiko 

Tai-ku 

Chohaku-san 

Chyang-paik-san 

Zenshu 

Chyong-jyu 

Shohaku-san 

Syo-paik-san 



Taihaku-san 

Thai-paik-san 

Principal Seaports. 



Chinnampo 

Chinnampo 

Principal Rivers. 

Pusan 

Pusan 

Daido 

Tai-dong 

Gensan 

1 Von-san 

Kan 

Han-gang 

/insen 

Chemulpo 

Kinko 

Keum-gang 

Joshin 

Syong-jin 

Orxoku 

Yalu-gang 

Kunsan 

Kunsan 

Rakuto 

Nak-tong-eang 

Afasa/iOlosampo) Masampo 

Toman 

Tumen-gang 

Mokpo 

Mokpo 



Seishin 

Khyongjin 

Principal Islands. 

Shin-gishu 

Shin-wiju 

Kyosai 

Ko-jyoi 



SaishTt 

Chxoi-ju 

Principal Districts. 

Utsuryo 

Ul-laung 

IFkido 

Pyok-dong 



Jttnsen 

Syun-chyon 

Principal Bays. 

Kaijo 

Kai-syong 

Chinkai 

Ghin-hai 

Kainc! 

Hoi-ryong 

Koryo 

Koang-nyang 

Keiko 

Kyong-heung 

Yeiko 

Yong-heung 


PRINTED BY PRINTING OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT-GENERAL OF CHOSEN. 


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INTRODUCTION 


Important administrative measures conducted by the Governor- 
General in the Peninsula of Chosen were generally established in 
1910, simultaneously with the annexation of Korea to the Empire. 
These measures with other undertakings being steadily carried into 
effect during the year 1911, improvement and progress under the 
new regime became apparent, so that all classes grew more appre¬ 
ciative of the justice and equity prevailing in the administration 
conducted under His Imperial Majesty’s gracious rule. 

Their Highnesses Prince Li Junior and Prince Li Senior being set 
free from political responsibilities or troubles are now enjoying a 
happier and safer life, while the Heir Presumptive, receiving a good 
education in Tokyo under the gracious care of the Imperial House¬ 
hold, entered the Central Preparatory School of the Military 
Academy in 1911 after several years’ study in the Peers’ School. As 
the result of adjustment made in Prince Li's Household the expendi¬ 
ture has been considerably lessened by the abolition of numerous 
court ceremonies and by the discharge of superfluous officials and 
employees, so that the sum of 1,500,000 yen, defrayed from the 
Special Account of the Government-General as the annual grant for 
Prince Li's Household, being the same amount as granted to him 
when he was Emperor previous to the Annexation, is now more than 
ample whereas formerly’ it barely sufficed to discharge all obligations. 

The nobility too, receiving the treatment of peers and favoured 
with liberal Imperial grauts, arc properly managing their estates 
and maintaining their dignity and integrity. A Peers’ Club was 
organized in 1911 by them, the object of which is not only to 
cultivate their mutual friendship, but to make of themselves a 
bulwark of the Imperial Household of the Empire. The people 
in general being freed from the extortion practised of old arc now 
engaging in their respective peaceful avocations without anxiety, 
enjoying ample guarantee of life and property under the new regime. 
With the encouragement of industries, productive labour and the 
saving of money, the habitual idleness and spendthrift tendency of 
the people are gradually being successfully combated. 

The ill-feeling of Koreans toward Japanese and the maltreat¬ 
ment of Koreans by Japanese formerly in evidence have gradually 
become a thing of the past. Especially since the Annexation have 


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Koreans come to regard the Japanese as seniors and the latter to 
regard the former as juniors, and so their brotherhood is being 
cemented by mutual respect. Misunderstandings formerly existing 
between Japanese residents and Koreans, which often constituted 
one of the chief causes of contention, have been gradually lessened 
by mutual comprehension of each other’s language. This mutual 
understanding has stimulated the study of the new national lan¬ 
guage (Japanese). Now the Japanese language is not only taught to 
all school children, but it is eagerly studied by people in general who 
often organize national language associations. Even the yangban 
or literati class, who naturally cling to old institutions and under¬ 
rate industry, have now commenced to study the new national 
language and to engage in trade. 

Of the Extraordinary Imperial Donation Fund amounting to 
30,000,000 yen, the issue of which was authorized at the time of 
annexation, 17,000,000 yen (in addition to grants distributed among 
peers, yangban or the literati class, dutiful children, virtuous wives, 
aged persons, etc.,) has been distributed among 12 Prefectures and 
317 Districts as permanent funds for industrial and educational en¬ 
couragement as well as for providing relief during a famine or other 
calamitous event. With the annual interest, .amounting to 869,900 
yen, derived from these donation funds, Training Stations for 
sericulture, weaving and manufacture of paper, mulberry gardens and 
seedling stations were established during the year 1911. Up to the 
end of the same year, 134 public common schools were established 
by these funds, while subsidies were given to 333 private, schools. 
Relief measures for famine or other calamity-stricken people were 
also effectively carried out. In 1911, 250,000 yen from the Imperial 
Donation Fund was given to the Classical Literary Association, 
called the Kyong-hak won (tS Kt), which was formed by the re¬ 
organization of the Son-gyum Kuan. The object aimed at in estab¬ 
lishing this association is the encouragement of the old ethical 
teaching by appointing literati of ability and reputation as lecturers. 
In the same year, a sum of 3,350,000 yen having been defrayed 
from the Imperial Donation Fund, a Government Charity Asylum 
was established in Kcijo in order to take proper care of helpless 
orphans and the insane, as well as to carry on other charitable 
works. The grace and virtue of His Imperial Majesty produced a 
specially profound influence upon the mind of the general public in 
the newly-annexed territory, when it was seen how wisely and 
appropriately the Imperial grants or donations were being distri¬ 
buted. These industrial, educational and charitable undertakings 


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maintained by the above-mentioned Imperial Donation Fund show¬ 
ing good results, His Majesty’s newly-annexed subjects are beginning 
to appreciate thoroughly the material benefits and well-being result¬ 
ing from the new regime. 

The administration by the Government-General is being carried 
out more effectively than before by the uniform supervision or 
management which shows up in strong contrast to the dual 
management of the Protectorate regime existing prior to Annexa¬ 
tion. Although the central administrative systems of the Govern¬ 
ment-General were not changed during the fiscal year 1911, the 
administrative organs required modification in the course of time in 
order to meet the conditions of the Peninsula which are undoubdly 
changing year by year. Also, in recognition of the necessity of 
administrative adjustment as shown by past experience, administra¬ 
tive offices in the central government and law courts needed to be 
amalgamated or simplified to the fullest extent permitted by 
practical necessity, and the funds thus saved expended in industrial 
exploitation in those localities in which such encouragement would 
be productive of the most good. Plans drawn up with this end in 
view were to come into operation in the beginning of the fiscal year 
1912 by enforcing the organic regulations of the various offices 
concerned as amended in March, 1912. 

No significant changes took place in local administration 
during the fiscal year 1911, but well-qualified Japanese clerks, 
selected and recommended by the Provincial Governors of Japan 
proper, were appointed to important Prefectural and District 
Magistracies, and assisted native officials in improving the local 
administration. Conferences of Provincial Governors and other 
local authorities being occasionally summoned by the Governor- 
General, he thus familiarised himself with the actual conditions 
existing in the different localities, and at the same time instructed 
them in the guiding principles to be followed in local administrative 
measures, whilst the central authorities were often despatched into 
the country districts to make personal inspection. Thus, by 
bringing about more frequent consultations and consequent better 
understanding between the central and local authorities under the 
uniform direction of the Governor-General, the local administra¬ 
tion was more efficiently carried into effect. The industrial, educa¬ 
tional and other undertakings conducted by the local governments 
with moneys derived from the Imperial Donation Funds, or defrayed 
from the Special Local Expense Funds, were made the objects of 
most careful attention and supervision, as by their means the 


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development of industrial growth, extension of educational benefits, 
and improvement in highway communications in the country were 
to be effected. And thus the habitual idleness and unthinking 
prodigality of the natives were to be turned into honest desire for 
labour and thriftiness so that the prosperity of all parts of the 
Peninsula might be advanced, and a full appreciation fostered of the 
Imperial Will so magnanimously manifested toward the Empire’s 
newly-annexed subjects who, under the old regime, were in a state of 
abject and chronic impoverishment. 

The improvement in the judicial system resulted in all people— 
Japanese, natives and foreigners .alike—coming to rely upon and put 
trust in the justice and equity of the law courts of the Government- 
General, in which courts justice is administered by well-qualified 
judges with efficiency and despatch. The number of cases, civil or 
criminal, brought before these courts has a tendency to increase 
year by year. By the extinction of consular jurisdiction, foreigners 
under the Imperial jurisdiction now enjoy more positive protection 
in life and property and iu their business activities, in comparison 
with that obtaining under the negative preventive system of foreign 
consular jurisdiction. The civil cases relating to foreigners received 
during the year 1911 numbered about 21)0 and the criminal 
cases about 360. Most of the criminals were Chinese, criminals of 
European or American origin being but one Russian and one 
Austrian. Of the prisoners pardoned at the tirhc of annexation, those 
showing themselves incapable of reform .after release or again becom¬ 
ing prisoners numbering only 61 out of 1,363, it may be assumed 
that the rest are maintaining themselves in reputable callings. 

Peace and order in the Peninsula arc maintained by the garri¬ 
son army, gcndarmcry and the ordinary police force. The activities 
of insurgents or bands of brigands being gradually checked, small 
parties of fugitive insurgents in Kfikai, Kogen, Kcishfi and Kanky/i 
Provinces, indulged in desultory attacks upon inoffensive officials or 
people, but by the end of 1911 were either exterminated or driven 
out of the country. Thus peace and order being more firmly estab¬ 
lished, not only are the lives and property of the people more 
securely protected, but travellers can now journey in remote 
districts without any police escort, which was all but impossible in 
former times. Now, too, the police authorities arc participating in 
the carrying out of various administrative measures in addition to 
the maintenance of peace and order. The people previously looked 
upon the police with a great deal of fear, but now appreciate 
their presence and service and often apply to the authorities loi the 


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establishment of a police station or box in the remote interior where 
as yet the police force is still inadequate. 

The fiscal conditions of the Government-General's Special 
Account show greater promise year by year. In the ordinary 
revenue for the fiscal year 1911, the receipts from internal taxes, 
customs dues and cultivated state lands exceeded their estimate by 
about 1,500,000 yen. The budget for the fiscal year 1912 was 
compiled with a view to curtailing government expenses by 
amalgamating central offices and law courts and allotting the funds 
thus saved to industrial encouragement in the interior. The 
estimate for revenue and expenditure being the same, each is repre¬ 
sented by 52,890,000 yen. Compared with the preceding year, there 
is an increase of 4,150,000 yen both in revenue and expenditure. 
The increased expenditure was expected to be met by the natural 
increase in receipts from taxes and public undertakings, as the 
amount granted from the Imperial Treasury for the fiscal year 1912 
was the same as that granted for the preceding year, the idea being 
that the Imperial burden was not to be increased. 

Most of the public undertakings are steadily progressing. As 
the result of the adoption of various improved measures with regard 
to the ginseng monopoly, especially for the prevention of destruc¬ 
tive diseases, the area of lands devoted to the cultivation of the 
root was increased to 837,906 kan (1 kan *6 feet by 2 yi feet) and 
the revenues accruing from their products will increase in and after 
the fiscal year 1911. In the salt manufacture conducted by the 
Government, the construction of salt-pans on a large scale was all 
but completed and the salt produced during the fiscal year 1911 
reached 4,500,000 kin. Coal mining carried on in the vicinity of 
Heijo (Pyong-yang) was developed and more than 110,000 tons of 
anthracite coal are now being produced annually. The lumber 
undertaking conducted in the upper reaches of the Oryoku (Yalu) 
River is so promising that the total area of forests belonging to the 
Government Lumber Undertaking Station was, according to 
investigation made in the year 1911, estimated at as much as 
1,828,000 cho, and the total value of the trees at 17,500,000 yen. 

The readjustment of the currency system in Chosen being 
already completed, it was decided to extend the Imperial currency 
system to the Peninsula by gradually withdrawing coins issued by 
the ex-Korean Government. The more banking facilities have 
developed, the smoother has monetary circulation become, and the 
rates of interest have been considerably lowered. 

The foreign trade for the year 1911 was again immensely 


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increased. The total amount, reaching over 72,900,000 yen, showed 
an increase of 13,000,000 yen over that of the preceding year. The 
total imports amounted to 54,000,000 yen, the excess of imports 
over exports being as much as 35,000,000 yen. Such a large excess 
of imports was principally due to the expansion of public under¬ 
takings as well as to an increase in money investments in private 
undertakings. These undertakings tending to augment the produc¬ 
tive powers of the country in the future, the adverse balance of 
trade thus existing in the Peninsula is not to be regarded as 
altogether unfavourable. As to the export trade, although it has a 
tendency to increase year by year, the total exports for the year 
1911 were but 18,800,000 yen, a decrease of about 1,000,000 yen as 
compared with the previous year. But this decrease was due to 
the withholding of products in the hope of securing a better market 
later on, since, consequent upon the general prosperity enjoyed by 
the country after the Annexation, farmers were not compelled to 
sell their harvests immediately. 

With regard to communication facilities, the extension of high¬ 
ways, railways, marine transportation, harbour improvements 
providing for better connection between land and water, etc., was 
steadily carried out in accordance with the plans made after the 
Annexation. The construction of 23 highways, aggregating in 
length 587 ri, to be carried out in five consecutive years at a cost 
of 10,000,000 yen was commenced in 1911. The construction of 
the Keiju-Gensan and the Taiden-Mokpo railway lines, which was 
commenced in 1910, was also steadily carried out during the year 
1911 and will be completed earlier than estimated. The construc¬ 
tion of a railway bridge over the Oryoku (Yalu) River being complete 
on November 1, 1911, the express service between the Peninsula 
and Manchuria, connecting with the Trans-Siberian railway and the 
Imperial railways in Japan proper, was commenced the same day. 
Marine transportation has been encouraged as hitherto by giving 
subsidies to appointed lines engaged in the coasting trade. The 
harbour improvements at Fusan, Jinscn (Chemulpo) and Cliinnampo, 
which are to be carried out in six consecutive years as the second 
stage of improvement, were commenced in the fiscal year 1911. 
Not only will these improvements afford complete facilities in 
connecting the land and water traffic of the Peninsula, but Fusan 
Harbour, provided with wharves permitting the tying-up of ocean¬ 
going steamers of from 3,000 to 20,000 tons will play an important 
part in -world-transportation, it now being the terminal of a world 
route. The postal and other communication services in the 


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Peninsula arc also very steadily growing, and the total number of 
ordinary mail matters collected and delivered during the fiscal year 
1911 reached 100,265,041, showing an increase of 17,365,966, as 
compared with the preceding fiscal year. 

Agriculture being the principal occupation in the Peninsula, 
the Government is most seriously encouraging its improvement, 
along with other industries, by establishing various model farms, by 
distributing better seedlings or by granting the use of waste lands 
belonging to the State. Larger returns both in cultivation and in 
production are being obtained year by year. Among the principal 
agricultural products, the rice crops for the year 1911 amounted to 
10,000,000 koku, wheat and barley, 5,000,000 koku, beans, 2,100,000 
koku, millet, 3,000,000 koku, and so on. Cultivated lands aggregated 
over 2,727,000 cho at the end of the same year, while the grant of 
waste land belonging to the State reached over 10,000 clio by the 
end of the same year. Land cultivation in the Peninsula being still 
subject to interruption by flood, drought and other natural calami¬ 
ties, the Government did not neglect to provide for steady harvests 
by encouraging a better irrigation system and by improving rivers. 
As agricultural products are limited to a few varieties, the general 
products in the Peninsula can be augmented only by encouraging 
auxiliary farming, by improving sericulture and by the raising of 
poultry and cattle. 

Improvement and encouragement in the development of mining, 
afforestation, fishing and other productive industries were continued 
as hitherto, and the efforts thus made arc showing good results 
slowly but surely year by year. But the Government is now paying 
more attention to the measures adopted so that the development of 
these industries may be conducted with close regard to the actual 
conditions of the Peninsula, to the nature of the undertakings and 
to the standard of living of the general public, in order to secure 
the healthy development of such industries. In contrast to the 
mining exploitation hitherto often carried out by Japanese 
operators with inadequate capital, the mining undertakings begun 
by several Japanese firms possessed of adequate funds is most 
encouraging. The fishery laws and regulations amended in the 
fiscal year 1911 not only prevent indiscriminate fishing, but en¬ 
courage improvement in native fishers and permanent settlements 
of Japanese fishers. 

The new educational regulations for the newly-annexed subjects, 
which were evolved from a careful investigation and study of the 
matter from the time of the Annexation, were finally promulgated 


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in August, 1911, by Imperial Ordinances and the Governor-General’s 
Ordinance and came into force in November, 1911. Simultaneously 
with the enforcement of these new educational regulations, the 
Imperial Rescript on Education, issued for Japan proper some 
time ago, was gracefully given to the Governor-General, and thus 
the Imperial Will desiring the extension of the fundamental principles 
of the national education to the Peninsula was clearly manifested. 
The new educational system for Koreans is based on the funda¬ 
mental principles laid down in the Imperial Rescript on Education 
in order to build up in the younger generation such a character and 
knowledge as will enable them to become loyal subjects of Imperial 
Japan ; the common school system is to be primarily founded on a 
solid basis so that a healthy mental development, suited to the 
actual conditions of Korea, may be induced ; practical education, such 
as technical training, is to be encouraged, and higher special educa¬ 
tion gradually provided for. According to the foregoing principles, 
Primary Common Schools are to be established in every district, 
Higher Common Schools in the principal cities or towns, Industrial 
Schools, giving elementary technical training, in industrial, agricul¬ 
tural or commercial centres and a Higher Special School in the 
metropolis. The new national language (Japanese) and industrial 
training are to be considered important subjects in the common 
schools. Private schools, more or less inadequately maintained, are 
to be “ cordially and sympathetically led and superintended ” 
without “ radical change ” and gradually induced to adopt the 
principles laid down in the new educational system. 

As to schools maintained for Japanese children in the Peninsula, 
the educational system of Japan proper has been followed as a 
general principle. Yet several organic regulations for Common 
Schools, Girls’ Higher Common Schools and Industrial Schools were 
promulgated in March, 1912, by which special arrangements for 
teachers were made, and most of the schools have the Korean lan¬ 
guage as a regular subject of study, while industrial and other 
technical training may be added to the regular curriculum according 
to the conditions of the several localities. 

The present Report briefly deals with the general conditions of 
the administrative measures and other undertakings carried out 
chiefly during the fiscal year 1911 (April 1911—March 1912), as 
well as with the results obtained in the same year, and comparing 
them with the preceding fiscal year. 


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I. CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION 


1. Government-General and its Affiliated Offices. 

The administration of the Peninsula since the Annexation has 
been conducted through the Government-General of Chosen and its 
affiliated offices. Their organic regulations, promulgated on 
September 30, 1910, and the functions of the Governor-General and 
other important authorities were fully set forth in the last Annual 
Report. During the fiscal year 1911, no significant change took 
place in the organic regulations of the Government-General and its 
affiliated offices, with the exception of the appointment of a perma¬ 
nent Educational Inspection Commissioner and a permanent Text 
Rook Compiling Commissioner in the Government-General, which 
was done by amending its organic regulations in April, and the 
enforcement of the organic regulations of the new educational 
system in September. The details of the organization of the 
Government-General and its affiliated offices existing at the end 
of the fiscal year 1911 are shown in a synoptical table attached 
to this section. 

When Korea was annexed to Japan in 1910, the double system 
of administration hitherto maintained by the ex-Korean Govern¬ 
ment and H. I. J. M’s Residency-General was unified by establishing 
the Government-General in lieu of them. The general administra¬ 
tion in the Peninsula being brought into better shape, even in the 
short course of one year or one year and a half, the administrative 
organ was to be further readjusted in order to curtail the admini¬ 
strative expenses and to encourage industrial development in various 
localities with the money saved by such administrative readjust¬ 
ment. Having these objects in view, it was decided that adminis¬ 
trative offices in the central government and law courts should be 
unified or amalgamated as far as practicable by simplifying the 
administrative process. On the other hand, the number of officials 
or technical exjierts in the I’rovincial Governments was to be 
increased in order to encourage agricultural or industrial develop¬ 
ment in the various localities, matters most urgently needed in the 
Peninsula. These plans of administrative readjustment were to be 
carried into effect in the beginning of the fiscal year 1912 (April), 
by amending the organic regulations of the Government-General, 


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Provincial Governments, Law Courts and other offices relating to 
the administrative readjustment. 

As to the changes of personnel in the Government-General and 
its affiliated offices, the Governor-General, Count General Masakata 
Terauchi, who was also Minister of War in Japan proper, became 
the permanent Governor-General of Chosen in August, 1911, when 
the members of the Cabinet formed by Prince Taro Katsura resigned 
their portfolios. In July, Mr. Jushiro Kiuchi, Director of the 
Department of Agriculture, Commerce and Industry, resigned office 
and was succeeded by Mr. Yeizo Ishizuka who was Director of the 
Old Usage Investigation Bureau, and the Provincial Governor of 
South Zenla (Chyol-la) was changed in May. 

The number of officials and employees in the Government- 
General and its affiliated offices, at the end of the year 1911, is 
seen in the following table :— 


At the end of December, 1911. 


— 

— 

High 

High 

Subordinate 




Office 

Officials of 
Chokunin 

Officials of 
Sown 

Officials of 
Hannin 

Employees 

Total 



rank 

rank 

rank 




Secretariat. 

2 

3 

5 

ii 

21 

1 

General Affairs Department 

2 

11 

116 

133 

262 

1 

Home Affairs Department. 

3 

23 

140 

122 

288 

i 1 

Finance Department. . . 

2 

28 

142 

122 

294 


Department of Agriculture, 


21 

66 

76 

185 

O 

Commerce and Industry 


o 

IE 

1 

Judicial Department . . . 

i 

• 

16 

9 

29 

Total. 

12 

89 

485 

473 

1.059 


f Chusurin (Central Council) 

— 

— 

2 

71 

73 


Old Usage Investigation 
Bureau. 

1 

5 

8 

15 

29 


Local Governments . . . 

7 

397 

2,321 

1,529 

4.254 


Law Courts. 

16 

300 

412 

85 

813 


Police Offices. 

— 

39 

331 

2,405 

2.775 

I 

Prisons. 

— 

8 

68 

820 

896 

1 

Railway Bureau .... 

2 

63 

405 

1,445 

1,906 

Communications Bureau . 

2 

37 

1,005 

1,962 

3.006 

§ 

> 

Land Investigation Bureau 

i 

28 

1,069 

223 

1,321 

O 

Custom Houses .... 

— 

17 

245 

110 

372 

i 

Monopoly Bureau . . . 

— 

4 

43 

16 

63 

i £ 







O 

Printing Bureau .... 

— 

3 

22 

Cl 

86 

1 

cs 

Lumber Undertaking Sta- 


5 

16 

72 

93 

•— 

tion. 




< 

Government Hospital in 

i 

14 

28 

11 

54 


Keiju . 




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Affiliated Offices of Government-General 


Law Courts 


> 

o 


O 


Prisons- 


Railway Bu 


Communicat 

Bureau 

Land Survey 
Temporar 

Custom lie 


Monopoly B 

Printing Off 
Lumber Undi 
Station 
Government 
Heijo Coal A 
Station 
Model Farm 

Civil Enginei 
Council 


Government 


N.B. The synopsii 
ending Mare 


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(Continued) 



Heiju ( [Pyongyang ) Coal 
Mine. 

Model Farm. 

1 

2 

12 

5 

52 

33 

18 

40 

83 


Industrial Training School. 

— 

3 

20 

7 

30 


Keijo Academy .... 

— 

2 

3 

1 

6 


Middle School .... 

— 

5 

14 

5 

24 


\ Other Government Schools 

— 

14 

54 

10 

84 


Total. 

31 

943 

6.123 

8.906 

16.007 

Grand Total . 

43 

1.037 

6.608 

9.378 

17.066 

1912. 

42 

989 

5,300 

8,138 

14,529 


2. Chusu-in. (Central Council) 

The function and organization of the Chusu-in or Central 
Council, the members of which were chosen principally from among 
native Koreans of ability and reputation, and which was established 
as a consulting body of the Governor-General after the Annexation, 
have been fully treated in the last Annual Report. The organic 
regulations of the Council being amended by Imperial Ordinance No. 
27, issued in March, 1912, its Chief Secretary, who should be 
ex-officio a high official of the Government-General, has become a 
permanent official. 

As to the change of personnel which took place during the 
fiscal year 1911, one Councillor and seven Commissioners were 
changed, and three Assistant Commissioners were newly appointed. 
The members of the Council, as it existed at the end of the fiscal 
year 1911, were a Vice-President (having the status of Shin-nin 
rank), 13 Councillors ( Choku-nin rank), 19 Commissioners ( Choku-nin 
rank) and 35 Assistant Commissioners ( So-nin rank). While all 
members of the Council and its Vice-President arc Koreans, the 
President of the Council, who should be ex-officio the Civil Governor 
of the Government-General, Chief Secretary, Assistant Secretary and 
Interpreter-Secretary are all Japanese. 

3. Matters Concerning Foreigners. 

A. Consulates. 

At the time of the Annexation of Korea, the Powers maintain¬ 
ing consulate offices were Belgium, China, France, Germany, Great 
Britain, Russia and the United States of America. A Consulate- 


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General was maintained in Keijo by all of them, in addition to a 
British Consulate in Jins.cn (Chemulpo), Russian Consulates in Jinscn 
and Masan and a Consulate Agency at Gensan (Wonsan), and Chinese 
Consulates in Jinscn, Fusan, Chinnampo and Getisan. During the year 
1911, there was no change in the foreign consulates, except that the 
Consulate-General maintained by France in Keijo was reduced to a 
Consulate. The port of Sliin-gishu (Shin-Wiju) being formally opened 
after the Annexation and railway connection between Korea and 
Manchuria being opened in the latter part of 1911, China, taking 
these matters into consideration, opened a Consulate in Shin-gishu in 
October, 1911. Russia also opened, in the same month, a Consulate 
in the port of Seishin (Chong-jin), as her trade between the sea-board 
of Asiatic Russia and the north-eastern coast of Korea has recently 
considerably increased. 

II. Tax Kxeinption or Church UromidN. 

As there were no regulations for the levying of taxes or other 
public dues on lands employed for religious purposes, it was 
customary, by special treatment, not to tax grounds on which stood 
temples or church buildings. Nor did the provisions of the Treaties, 
formerly concluded by the Korean Government with foreign powers, 
provide for any exemption of taxes on those church grounds 
maintained by foreign missionaries. But, since the special treat¬ 
ment was also extended to Christian missionaries, their church 
grounds have been exempted from taxation. During the year 1911, 
the authorities concerned were often asked by foreign missionaries 
whether such special treatment was extended to cultivated lands 
attached to a church and the resident grounds of the missionaries. 
At such times it was officially notified that such exemption could 
not be allowed on other than church grounds, as it was not 
customary to do so. 

When the Regulations for the Registration Tax were promulgat¬ 
ed in March, 1912, in which provisions for exempting taxes on 
registering or certifying of temple or church grounds were made, the 
authorities concerned were instructed not to impose any tax or fee 
when registering or certifying church grounds used for the propaga¬ 
tion of Christianity. 


4. Land Survey. 

The land survey work inaugurated by the ex-Korean Govern¬ 
ment in the time of the Protectorate regime was continued by the 


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Survey Bureau of the Government-General after the Annexation, the 
period for completing this work being shortened to seven years, 
beginning in 1910. As stated in the previous Annual Report, a 
complete land survey of the Peninsula is of great importance in order 
to readjust the land system which, till recently, was in a most chaotic 
state, and its chief object is to secure justice and equity in the 
levying of the land tax, and to determine accurately the cadastre of 
each region as well as to protect the rights of ownership, thereby 
facilitating transactions in sale, purchase or other transfers. This 
work is to be carried out by two processes ; one, the survey of lands 
and the other, investigation. While the investigating section 
principally deals with investigation concerning ownership, location, 
boundaries and class of land and the compilation of reports on the 
results of such investigation, Tochi daiclw (registration book or 
cadastre), certificate of lands, etc., the survey section is charged 
with carrying out surveys by primary triangulation, secondary 
triangulation, plat survey, and the compilation of maps of the 
districts surveyed. 

In the investigating of ownership and boundaries of lands, 
persons are required to make a report to the Land Survey Bureau of 
the lands owned by them. The Local Land Investigation Commit¬ 
tees, which arc composed of the land-owners themselves, having 
been consulted in the examination of ownership and boundaries of 
lands, the status of the lands thus reported is to be approved and 
determined by the President of the Bureau. Should land-owners 
fail to recognize the approval of the President they may appeal to 
the Higher Land Investigation Committees. As to the period fixed 
for this undertaking, the primary triangulation survey is expected 
to be completed by the first term of the fiscal year 1914, the 
secondary triangnlation by the end of the same fiscal year, find 
other outdoor works by 1915, while the indoor work, such as 
calculation of areas, compilation of cadastre books, drafting of 
maps, etc., is to be completed within the fiscal year 1916. 

As already referred to in the last Annual Report, before the 
commencement of investigation and survey work, printed circulars 
or pamphlets, describing the object and necessity of the land survey 
and other necessary particulars with which each land-owner should 
be familiar, were distributed in order to make known as publicly as 
possible the work of the Bureau. On the other hand, short lectures 
on land surveying were often given, Secretaries or Assistant 
Secretaries of the Bureau being despatched to various localities for 
that purpose. Thus not only was possible misunderstanding on 


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the part of the people regarding land survey measures avoided, but 
land-owners themselves were brought to appreciate the security 
given by legal ownership and the advancement in land values. 

As for the work done in actual survey during the fiscal year 
1911, the surveying of the principal points of the geodetic or 
primary triangulation was carried out in Kciki and all the other 
provinces except North Kankyo, the aggregate operative zone being 
nearly 7,000 square ri in area; 187 main points were selected, 178 
signal poles erected, 93 points observed and 73 points computed, 
while the survey of subsidiary points of the geodetic triangulation 
was carried out in Kciki and five other provinces, about 4,000 
square ri in aggregate area, in which 573 main points were selected, 
432 signal poles were erected, 6G7 points observed and 118 points 
computed. 

In the plane or secondary triangulation survey extending over 
Kciki and six other provinces with an operative zone of 200 square 
ri, 5,695 main points were selected, 5,304 signal poles erected, 3,651 
points observed and 1,410 points computed. The base lines 
passing An to in North Keisho Province, Katii in South Keisho, Ycisanpo 
in South Zcnla, Hcijo (Pybng-yang) in South Heian and Hakuba in North 
lleian, aggregating 11,327 metres in length, were observed and 
computed, while the levelling lines between Taiko and Ant6, Masan 
and Kata, Rytlgampo and Hakuba, and Chinnampo and Hcijo, aggregat¬ 
ing 238,000 metres, were also observed and computed. In the 
cadastral survey of each lot of lands, the theodolite traverse and 
detailed survey were completed in one Prefecture and nine Districts 
in Kciki Province, and in one Prefecture and three Districts in North 
Kcislio Province. 

The work, carried out in the way of preparatory investigation 
during the year 1911, was completed in nine Districts in Kciki Prov¬ 
ince, seven Districts in North Keisho, and two Districts in South 
Chiisei. Inspection of individual lots was completed in one Prefecture 
and eleven Districts in Kciki and in one Prefecture and five Districts 
in North Keisho, aggregating 787,692 in the number of land lots and 
42,459,128 tsubo in area. An investigation into the amount of 
annual harvest and the class of each lot was also commenced, after 
August, 1911, in order to provide material for the adjustment of 
taxation which will be carried out at some future time with a view 
to securing justice in the tax burden, as well as to establishing a 
fundamental basis for the levying of taxes. Examination work, that 
is, the scrutiny of plans of lands and results obtained by investiga¬ 
tion of them, comparison with plans drawn by the survey section 


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and the reports submitted by land-owners, was completed in six 
Districts in Keiki Province. Of the final adjustment work of the 
investigating section, which is the compilation of the tochi daicho 
(cadastre book) and of a report on investigation only, the compil¬ 
ing of the report on investigations was commenced in October, 
1911, but that of the cadastre book had not in that year been 
begun. The necessity for readjustment in administrative divisions 
in the Peninsula, up to this time in rather a confused state, being 
keenly felt, readjustment is now being carried on side by side with 
the progress made in the land survey and in co-operation with 
the Local Governments. 

Regarding disputed lands, the good offices of those engaged in 
the outdoor work were often exerted to effect an equitable settlement. 
Any case not settled by their good offices or by compromise must be 
submitted to the Land Survey Bureau which will settle disputes by 
making re-investigation. There were 140 cases of disputed lands, 
94 of which involved state lands, the remaining cases concerning 
private individuals only. Of the 46 cases concerning private indi¬ 
viduals, 33 cases were still pending proceedings in the law courts. 

Of the force engaged in the land survey, which is so extensive 
that it embraces the whole of the Peninsula, although the staff 
engaged in the planning of the survey or in the controlling or guid¬ 
ing of the actual work or investigation is principally selected from 
among Japanese having the necessary qualifications and experience, 
yet a measure for the employment of Koreans as far as possible, by 
training them for elementary survey, has been adopted in order to 
economise expenses as well as to afford an opportunity of work to 
native young men. The force employed by the Bureau will be in¬ 
creased with the progress of the survey or investigation work, and 
more than 4,000 men will be needed when the survey is in full 
working order, of whom Japanese employees should not exceed 600. 
The total number of officials and employees so engaged was 1,646 
at the end of the fiscal year 1911, 399 Japanese and 1,247 Koreans. 
There is a combined increase of 953 in the total as against the 
preceding fiscal year. 

With regard to training Koreans as clerks and surveyors, such 
training was conducted by the Land Survey Training Schools of 
the Bureau attached to the former Seoul High School, the former 
Seoul Foreign Language School and to the Agricultural Schools of 
several Provinces. However, organic regulations for the Training 
School of the Land Survey Bureau were promulgated in May, 1911, 
by which the training of the land survey force is conducted by the 


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Bureau itself. From the time such training was first commenced, 
several years ago, up to the end of the fiscal year 1911, 1,130 
graduates—458 clerks and 672 surveyors—were turned out and 
employed, in addition to 130 surveyors who had received a short 
term training. 

The total estimate of the survey expenses amounts to 
15,986,202 yen , which is to be defrayed in seven consecutive years 
from the fiscal year 1910, and the amount defrayed for the fiscal 
year 1911 was 1,757,246 yen, as originally planned. But 700,000 
yen was deducted from the amount originally allotted for the fiscal 
year 1912 and added to the amount allotted for the fiscal year 1915. 
The following table shows the modified amounts allocated to the 
seven consecutive years :— 


Fiscal years 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1 

1915 

1916 

Total 

Amount of esti¬ 
mates for each 
year 

760,192 

1,757,240 

3,080,31 <J 

2,*180,311) 

(Modified 

amount) 

3,792,971 

3,7<i8,30o! 

*2,444,41)0' 

3,144,490 

(Modified 

amount) 

.182,078 

_ 

Yen 

15.986.202 


5. Investigation of Old Usages. 

The object of establishing an Old Usages Investigation Bureau 
of the Government-General was stated in the last Annual Report. 
The Bureau has been charged with the study or investigation of old 
usages or institutions existing in Korea, as the material obtained 
by it would be exceedingly useful in drawing up the various 
administrative measures or in administering justice to Koreans, and 
would be adopted as the basis of a family or succession law for 
Koreans which is yet to be codified. The investigation is to be con¬ 
ducted principally by referring to old books or official documents 
and to local usages or customs, at the same time observing institu¬ 
tions and usages of European and American colonics or possessions 
by way of comparison. In order to secure accurate material or 
information, Officials of the Bureau are often deputed to go into the 
interior in order to inspect in person the actual conditions existing 
in particular localities. The investigation completed up to the end 
of the fiscal year 1911, occupied itself with the history of the local 
administration existing since the period of the three kingdoms called 
Sam-kuk (37 B.C.—663 A.D.) especially in reference to local divisions, 
District or Kun (SB), Village or Men (jflf), and Ward or To (ff^), local 


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17 


committee or Hyang-yak (voluntarily organized by the yangban 

or literati class in the places where local magistracies were seated, in 
order to promote the well-being of a community) and petty clerks of 
local magistracies ( jJ£ ft yi-so), territorial changes since the Kd-ryo 
Dynasty (936—1391), land distribution in reference to the tenant 
systems in Korea and comparison with the tenant systems in foreign 
countries, comparison of the agricultural systems of Korea with 
those of Japan proper, irrigation system, etc. An old Korean law 
encyclopedia called the Tai-jun-hoi-ton (A & -fr ill), which is of great 
importance in the study of the old jurisprudence of Korea, has been 
translated into Japanese. Of 1187 volumes of the historical record 
of the Li ( Yi ) Dynasty (1392—1910), 632 volumes, bringing the 
record down to the reign of Emperor Siin-cho (H ill) (1568—1608), 
have already been investigated. 

In addition the Bureau, succeeding to the investigation work 
originally conducted by the Code Investigation Bureau of the ex- 
Korean Government, re-investigated the results obtained by the 
latter Bureau concerning old usages with regard to civil law. It 
also made a number of investigations upon other questions in 
accordance with special requests emanating from government 
offices. 

The census institution, land tax and other taxes or public dues, 
land certificate or registration, etc., are now in the course of 
investigation. 


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II. LOCAL ADMINISTRATION 


6. Conferences of Local Authorities. 

The present local administration system in the Peninsula is 
based on the Organic Regulations promulgated in September, 1910, 
soon after the Annexation, by Imperial Ordinance No. 357, and 
no change took place during the fiscal year 1911 except careful 
selection of capable subordinate officials in local governments. In 
order to secure more uniformity and efficiency in local adminis¬ 
tration, especially in District Magistracies where the Magistrates 
arc exclusively Koreans, 89 well-qualified subordinate officials were 
selected from among more than 300 candidates, having experience 
of local administration in Japan proper, who were recommended by 
Provincial Governors in the mother country. Before proceeding to 
their appointed posts, lessons were given them in local administra¬ 
tion, in the Korean language and customs, and in other subjects 
necessary to such officials. 

In order that the central government might appreciate more 
fully the peculiar conditions existing in different localities, and 
that the local authorities might become more intimate with the 
general policy and disposition of the central government, the 
Governor-General summoned conferences of different local authori¬ 
ties several times during the fiscal year ending March 31, 1912. 
A conference of Provincial Governors was summoned on July 1, 
1911, and lasted for five days, at which general questions on local 
administration were discussed, while a conference of Prefects was 
held for three days from the 10th of July. A conference of Local 
Secretaries of the Provincial Governments was held for six days 
from January 15, 1912, and one of Financial Secretaries, for 
four days in March, 1912. 

7. Readjustment of Administrative Divisions. 

The administrative divisions in the Peninsula were in a some¬ 
what confused state. Soon after the Annexation the administrative 
divisions of Provinces, Prefectures, Districts and Villages were 
determined by the administrative ordinances of the Government- 
General Nos. 6, 7, and 8, issued in October, 1910. Adopting prin¬ 
cipally the administrative divisions already existing in Provinces, 


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19 


Prefectures and Districts, sudden changes which might unnecessarily 
agitate the people were avoided as far as possible, although certain 
important alterations were made to meet the changing conditions 
in the various localities. Previously, villages were not recognized as 
administrative divisions by any specific law. But, by the Organic 
Regulations for Local Administration promulgated by the Govern¬ 
ment-General, villages are now recognized as the lowest administra¬ 
tive divisions. The names of villages and their boundaries may be 
kept as hitherto, or changed by the Provincial Governor with the 
approval of the Governor-General. 

During the fiscal year 1911, no changes toBk place in the ad¬ 
ministrative divisions of the Peninsula, except in regard to the 
adjustment of 62 villages. The following table shows the adminis¬ 
trative divisions of the Peninsula as they existed at the end of the 
fiscal year 1911. 


Province 

Scat of 
Provincial 
Government 

Area 

(Estimated) 
Square ri 

Percentage 

of 

total Area 

Divisions 

Prefectures 

Districts 

Villages 

Kciki . 

Kcijd 

7(J5.0 

5.4 

2 

36 

495 

North Chnsci . . 

Scishu 

495.0 

3.5 


18 

199 

South Chnsci . . 

Kdshil 

576.0 

4.1 

— 

37 

393 

North Zctda . . 

Zcnshii 

514.0 

3.6 

1 

27 

378 

South Zctda . . 

Kdshu 

7511.0 

5.3 

1 

28 

448 

North Kcishd . . 

TaikO 

1,133.0 

8.0 

1 

40 

524 

South Kcishd . . 

Shinshii 

833.0 

5.9 

2 

27 

458 

Kdkai . 

Kaishti 

1,102.0 

7.8 

— 

19 

3-18 

Kfigen . 

Sh unseti 

1,721.0 

12.2 

- 

25 

233 

South Hciatt . . 

Hcijd 

1,164.0 

8.2 

2 

17 

304 

North Heian . . 

Gish it 

1,636.0 

11.6 

1 

20 

260 

South Kankyd . 

Kankd 

1,671.0 

11.8 

1 

13 

189 

North Kankyd . 

Kydjd 

1,760.0 

12.5 

1 

10 

122 

Total.... 


14.123.0 

100.0 

12 

317 

4,361 


8. Provincial Governments. 

With the enforcement of the new regime after the Annexation, 
the various administrative measures in the Provinces are gradually 
showing better results. 


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20 


Sanji or honorary advisers were selected from among natives of 
ability and reputation, their function being to offer advice or to 
give their views should a Provincial Governor, Prefect or District 
Magistrate consult them on local questions. As time went on 
those inferior in ability were replaced by others better qualified, and 
in 1911, Provincial Governors often summoned them to ascertain 
their views on various matters concerning local administrative 
measures and local usages. Prefects, District Magistrates, and 
Japanese clerks socially attached to District Magistracies, were also 
summoned to conferences, at which the Provincial Governors gave 
them certain necessary instructions in local administrative measures. 
The Provincial Governors frequently dispatched officials to the 
various localities to insj>cct the business conducted by Prcfectural 
Offices, District Magistracies and other public corporations. Thus 
the control and guidance of local governments, matters which prop¬ 
erly form part of the duties of the Governors, were not neglected. 

The Provincial Government, paying special attention to educa¬ 
tion and other public undertakings carried on with the moneys 
derived from the Extraordinary Imperial Donation Fund, or from 
the special funds raised for local needs, caused Prcfectural and District 
Magistrates to exert their efforts to improve such undertakings as 
far as possible. In encouraging people to save their money and to 
develop other good habits, no less zeal was shown. 


9. Prefectural and District Magistracies. 

In the local administration conducted by Prefectural or District 
Magistracies, the business directly concerning the people being on 
the increase year by year, and the evils engendered by former mal¬ 
administration not being altogether swept away in the short space 
of time since the new regime was inaugurated, Japanese clerks 
(Han-nin rank) of ability and experience were appointed to the 
principal District Magistracies in order to assist native magistrates 
and afford guidance to native clerks. In conducting local adminis¬ 
tration in his jurisdictional districts, the Magistrate often summoned 
Village Head-men and gave them proper instruction, while officials 
of the Magistracies were often despatched to Village Offices to 
inspect the business done there. 

In the construction or repairing of local roads, especially those 
running between villages, the old-established custom which prevailed 
in many districts of labour contribution by villagers for repairing 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 














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Provincial Government Offices, Seishu 
North Chusei Province. 


Provincial Government Offices, Keijo , 
Keiki Province. 


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Village Office of Ryuzan , Keijo Prefecture. 


Municipal Office of Japanese Settlement 
in Keijo. 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 












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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



21 


ronds in spring and autumn was encouraged, the expenses required 
for bridge building or other expensive civil engineering works being 
defrayed out of the fund provided for Special Local Expenses, and 
thus much improvement was made in rural communication. 

With regard to the encouragement of productive industries and 
agriculture, various undertakings, maintained by funds derived from 
the Extraordinary Imperial Donation Fund and the Special Local 
Expense Fund, were conducted by Prefectures and Districts, 
separately or jointly, according to local conditions as well as to the 
nature of such undertakings. Thus, improvements in farming, 
sericulture, afforestation, cattle breeding, fisheries, weaving and 
other manual works are gradually being made. Efforts to promote 
education, sanitary measures, charities and other activities tending 
to the well-being of the communities, being put forth by Prefectural 
and District Magistracies, the good results of the new regime in the 
local administration carried on by these local governments are 
gradually becoming apparent. 


10. Men-cho (Men-chyung). 

As already alluded to, the Organic Regulations of Local 
Administration promulgated by the Government-General in 1910 
first recognized Villages as the lowest administrative division in 
Prefectures and Districts, and Men-chyung, or Village Head-men, as 
assistants to Prefects or District Magistrates in conducting the 
administrative business in a Village. The Village Head-man, in the 
days of the ex-Korean Government, was principally an agent for 
the collecting of taxes and had hardly anything to do with the 
general business of local administration. Under such conditions he 
seldom conducted his business in an orderly manner, so that public 
affairs were often mixed up with his own private concerns. Since 
the Annexation, Village Head-men are required to provide a separate 
room for public business, if such is conducted at their own homes. 
If villages have projjer buildings they are assigned as Public Offices 
for Village Head-men. 


11. Local Government Expenses. 

As stated in the previous Annual Report, local self-government 
not yet being recognized in Korea, the localities are not self- 
supporting. Although state revenues are collected by the local 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


no 


governments, they arc handed over to the stale treasury, and the 
administrative exjienses of the local governments arc defrayed from 
the state treasury. 

In the budget of the Government-General’s Special Account for 
the fiscal year 1912, the total expenditure of local governments was 
estimated at as much as 4,219,288 yen, being an increase of 
272,085 yen as against the preceding fiscal year. This increase is 
mainly due to the additional appointment of 13 Assistant Secre¬ 
taries, 39 Clerks, 8 Technical Experts and 3 Assistant Experts in 
Agriculture, 12 Assistant Civil Engineers, 8 Assistant Dendrological 
Experts, 2 Assistant Veterinary Surgeons, 2 Assistant Fishery 
Experts, and 3 Assistant Experts in Weights and Measures to the 
Provincial Governments, and to an increase by four in the clerks in 
Prefectural Magistracies. Increase in the travelling expenses of 
local authorities, salaries of employees, water-works expenses, and 
the management of the Yoktun lands, is also responsible for the 
growth in the cxixmditurc of local governments. 

The expenses defrayed for local governments from the central 
treasury for the fiscal year 1912, according to different local offices, 
are shown in the following table :— 


Description 

Provincial 

Governments 

Prefectural 

Magistracies 

District 

Magistracies 

Total 

Salaries. 


654,220 

124,500 

1,265,.500 

Yen 

2,044,220 

Office Expenses . . . 


104,434 

24,507 

265,280 

394,221 

Travelling Expenses . 


191,098 

31,692 

324,503 

547,293 

Salaries of Employees 

and other 

243,973 

63,060 

622,142 

929,175 

Management of Yoktun lands . . 

34,858 

— 

— 

34.858 

Recovery of Taxes in Arrears . . 

— 

397 

5,029 

5.428 

Land Certification . . 


— 

1,620 

3,238 

4.858 

Local Expense Fund 
tation. 

and Sani- 

28,493 

— 

— 

28.493 

Veterinary Sanitation. 


28,472 

— 

— 

28,472 

Afforestation. 


42,581 

— 

— 

42581 



159,691 



159.691 







1.487.820 

245.778 

2.485.692 

4519.288 








1,176,410 

222,308 

2,548,485 

3,947,203 



463,119 


1,469,181 


i 



Unlike the expenditure of Provinces, Prefectures or Districts, 
that of Villages is not defrayed from the state treasury. Their 


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23 


expenses are defrayed from additional levies on the rural house tax 
or urban building tax and land tax, from fees given to villages as 
commission for collecting state taxes, and the revenue derived 
from village properties. The budget of a village, however, must 
be determined by the Prefect or District Magistrate with the 
approval of the Provincial Governor. The aggregate expenditure 
of all villages amounts to 1,781,397 yen, of which 1,608,732 yen 
was defrayed from the .additional levies, and the remainder from 
other sources. 


12. Special Expenses for Local Needs. 

As referred to in the above section, although the st.age of local 
autonomy has not yet been reached in the Peninsula, and the general 
administrative expenses of local governments are defrayed from the 
central treasury, yet it is considered proper that the local govern¬ 
ments should themselves bear, as far as possible, the outlays required 
for education, public works, sanitation, industrial encouragement, 
etc., of a local nature, the business relating to these matters having 
increased considerably in all the provinces. For these purposes 
Provincial Governments and the Kcijo Prefcctural Magistracy were 
authorized to impose an additional levy on the land tax, or to collect 
minor taxes or fees, as well as to manage public properties within 
their respective jurisdictional districts. However, the actual receipts 
from such revenues not having so far been equal to the estimates 
made, certain projected works have not often been carried out as 
fully as expected. But the revenue sources becoming steadier with 
the gradual economic growth in the country generally, the receipts 
for the fiscal year 1911 exceeded the estimated amount, and the 
estimate of these revenues for the fiscal year 1912 exceeds by more 
than 140,000 yen that of the preceding fiscal year In the fiscal 
year 1911, the subsidy from the central treasury was increased and 
shows a still greater increase for the next fiscal year, as Afforestation 
Seedling Beds, Agricultural Seedling Stations and Industrial Schools, 
all of which have so far been maintained by the Central Government, 
are to be transferred to the Provincial Governments in 1912. Thus 
public W'orks maintained by the Special Expenses for Local Needs 
are becoming more and more important. 

The budget of Special Expenses for Local Needs according to 
provinces for the fiscal year 1912, as compared with the preceding 
year, is given below. 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


24 


Revenue for the fiscal year 1912. 


Province* 

Taxes and Additional Imposts levied by 

Local Governments 

Surplus transferred 
from preceding year 

Subsidy from 
Central Government 

Other Sources 

Total 

Additional 
levy on 
Land Tax 

Abattoir 

Tax 

Market 

Tax 

Fee for Land 
Certification 

Fee for 
Mortgage 

Total 




1 







Yen 

Keiki . 

20,95V 

41,908 

10,317 

20,894 

2,035 

102.139 

40,000 

155,722 

15,630 

313,491 

North Chusei. 

18,981 

15,690 

6,926 

— 

— 

41597 

13,000 

53,986 

335 

108518 

South Chusei. 

38,292 

33,750 

11,000 

— 


81.042 

38,682 

1 

46,940 

87 

166.751 

North Zenla . 

35,090 

19,350 

9,000 

— 


63.440 

lU 

© 

s 

o 

90,995 

5,282 

199.717 

South Zenla . 

50,018 

15,000 

8,000 

- 

— 

73,018 

12,000 

97,399 

570 

182,987 

North Keishu . 

43,188 

44,985 

24,050 

— 


112.223 

28,000 

103,017 

513 

244.383 

South Keishu. 

41,250 

22,500 

14,000 

— 


77,750 

18,000 

105,939 

3,867 

205.658 

Kukai . 

31,500 

22,r>00 

9,000 

— 

— 

63,000 

49,770 

58,821 

4,737 

176,334 

South Heian . 

25,101 

19,865 

15,691 

— 

— 

60.657 

27,137 

71,386 

2,649 

161.829 

North Heian . , 

1 

14,800 

16,900 

9,300 

— 

- 

41,000 

17,000 

51,953 

676 

110.629 

Kogni .... 

0,899 

6,867 

3,975 

- 

— 

17,541 

6,249 

45,075 

1 0,556 

85,421 

South Kankyu 

18,000 

9,600 

7,000 

— 

— 

32.600 

11,961 

47,219 

4,176 

95.956 

North Kankyu 

6,320 

4,300 

— 

1 

— 

10.620 

700 

41,755 

137 

1 

53,212 

Total . . 

346.196 

273.213 

134.289 

20.894 

2.035 

| 

776.627 

302505 

970.837 

55.2152,105,184 

1911 . 

342,828 

169,544 

107,469 

11,328 

1,284 

_1 

! 

632,253659,579 

729,93V 1 

1 

101,3222,023,091 

T 


Expenditure for the fiscal year 1912. 


Province 

Civil 

Engincer- 

ing 

Sanitation 

and 

I lospitals 

Relief 

arxl 

Cliarity 

Industrial 

Encour¬ 

agement 

J 

1 

5 

Subsidies 

Other 

Expenses 

Total 

Keiki . 

111,239 

11,824 

1,900 

26,645 

12,942 

134,775 

14,166 

Yen 

313,491 

North Chusei. 

35,445 

2,485 

416 

25,490 

5,948 

32,827 

6,307 

108.918 

South Chusei . 

60,824 

2,400 

822 

24,639 

5,815 

57,705 

14,546 

166,751 

North Zenla , 

52,816 

6,640 

936 

31,793 

16,234 

70,339 

20,959 

199,717 

South Zenla . 

40,745 

4,010 

800 

48,698 

15,808 

60,434 

12,492 

182,987 

North Keishu. 

85,793 

12,3-55 

1,200 

29,222 

9,789 

87,369 

18,656 

244,383 

South Keishu. 

70,611 

11,770 

777 

17,614 

15,976' 

1 

81,473 

7,335 

206356 


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25 


(Continued) 


Kokai . 

64,435 

6,793 

630 

15,034 

9,858 

43,807 

13,495 

154.052 

South Hcian . 

55,680 

2,530 

600 

27,261 

12,763 

53,548 

9,447 

161,829 

North Htian . ^ 

34,280 

3,310 

450 

22,905 

6,830 

35,710 

7,144 

110,629 

Kogt'ii . . . . 

12,699 

2,517 

180 

27,567 

3,892 

32,957 

5,609 

85,421 

South Kankyo 

27,000 

3,242 

1,000 

15,885 

9,703 

27,270 

11,8.56 

95.956 

North Kankyo 

7,250 

1,394 

136 

16,619 

1,370 

25,706 

737 

53.212 

Total . . 

658.817 

71,270 

9,847 

329,372 

126.928 

743.920 

142,748 

2.082.902 

1911. 

833,363 

80,801 

8,405 

131,774 

91,687 

550,277 

287,603 

1,983,910 


13. Undertakings with Imperial Donation Fund. 

The last Annual Report stated that the hate Emperor of Japan, 
exceedingly desirous of fostering the prosperity of his new subjects, 
gave authority, on the eve of the Annexation, for the issue of 
bonds for an Extraordinary Imperial Donation, amounting to 
30,000,000 yen, of which 17,398,000 yen has been distributed 
among 12 Prefectures and 317 Districts as permanent funds. 
The annual interest derived from these funds is to be distributed 
yearly in order to afford means of livelihood to the Yangban, or 
literati class, many of whom have no permanent occupation or 
property, as well as to provide the means for encouraging Public 
Common Schools or Private Schools in districts where Public Com¬ 
mon Schools are not yet firmly established, and to ensure a relief 
fund in case of famine or other calamity. 

The local undertakings maintained with the Imperial Donation 
Fund by Prefectures and Districts were started during the fiscal 
year 1910 in two or three provinces, and in all other provinces 
during the fiscal year 1911. The utmost care in conducting these 
undertakings being displayed by the authorities concerned, the 
work done, though so short a time has elapsed, is already showing 
good results. 

In affording means of livelihood to the Yangban or literati 
class, the aim was not only to select such industrial training as 
might easily be acquired by them, but to stimulate the improve¬ 
ment and growth of local industries and agriculture. Consequently, 


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26 


the authorities concerned most carefully selected undertakings 
which might be varied according to local conditions. These under¬ 
takings numbered as many as 314 at the end of 1911, and in them 
285 instructors were giving an industrial training to 4,175, stu¬ 
dents as shown in the following table :— 


Undertaking 

No. of Institutes 

No. of Instructors 

No. of Students 

Sericulture. 

49 

88 

1,254 

Silkworm Breeding ...... 

44 

45 

939 

Cotton Weaving. 

33 

37 

589 

Silk Weaving. 

1 

3 

30 

Mat Making. 

2 

2 

40 

Paper Manufacture. 

8 

8 

94 

Training Undertakings Entrusted to 

21 


281 

Private Institutions. 


Fishery or Agriculture. 

72 

30 

948 

Planting of Seedlings and Mulberry 
Trees. 

57 

28 

— 

Agricultural Seedlings. 

27 

11 

— 

Itinerant Instructors. 

— 

33 

— 

Total . 

314 

285 

4.175 


In addition, seedlings, farming implements, scricultural tools 
and wagons were also distributed or hired to those receiving in¬ 
dustrial training. 

In educational undertakings the aim was principally to subsi¬ 
dize public common schools or private schools according to local 
conditions. The schools receiving such subsidies are 227 Public 
Common Schools and 106 Private Schools. Of these, 134 Public 
Common Schools were established during the fiscal year 1911 by 
the aid of such subsidies. The following tables show the general 
conditions of such undertakings. 

With regard to giving relief during a famine or other calamity, 
the interest derived from the funds is mainly used in purchasing 
and distributing seed-grain, farming tools, food stuffs, etc. Accord¬ 
ing to the locality or the nature of the calamity, medicines and 


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Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 




Seedling Station maintained with Imperial Donation 
Fund, North Heian Province. 


Sweet Potato Cultivation supported by Imperial 
Donation Fund. 



Weaving Training Station maintained by 
Imperial Donation Fund. 


jjr'/ 

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4 



Straw Rope Manufacturing Station maintained with 
Subsidy from Imperial Donation Fund. 


Making Straw Rope, ShinshO , South Kcisho 
Province. 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 













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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 




Landing Stock BuIIh for Distribution, 1: 


Income derived from Imperial D* 


raper-roanuf icture Tr. lining Station, main* n* d 
I.D. Fund b J Kcishu District, North Keishc Prc.i 


Fishing Training Boat in„,u!;iined with 
"l.D. Fund by SatiA* Ihstrict, 


Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 













Digitized by 



Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 




Landing Stock Bulls for Distribution, Expenses of which are met by 
Income derived from Imperial Donation Fund. 


Fishing Training Boat maintained 
I. D. Fund by Saishti District, 
South Zenla&% ovince. r 

Digitized by CjO QL 


Ship-building Training Station, maintained 
I. D. Fund by several Districts in 
■ovince. 


PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



27 


pecuniary donations, for rebuilding dwellings or for making clothes, 
are to be given, or loans made. During the fiscal year 1911, food 
stuffs and seed-grain were distributed in several provinces on 
account of floods and fires. 

The income derived from the Imperial Donation Funds, 
estimated for the fiscal year 1911, is shown in the following 
table :— 



Amount 



Annual Receipts 



Province 

of Fund 

allotted 

Annual 
Interest 
derived 
from Fund 

Interest 
derived 
from Bank 
Deposits 

Surplus 
transferred 
from Pre¬ 
ceding Year 

Sale of 
Articles 
made in 
Industrial 
Institutes 

Sale of 
other 
Articles 

Total 

Keiki . 

Yen 

2,637,000 

131,850 

— 

62,516 

4,335 

— 

Yen 

198,702 

North Chusei . 

791,000 

39,700 

97 

19,850 

— 

— 

59,647 

South Chusei . 

1,489,000 

74,450 

531 

37,225 

— 

— 

112,206 

North Zcnla . 

1,312,000 

65,600 

497 

9,987 

— 

— 

76.084 

South Zenla . 

1,694,000 

84,700 

— 

38,115 

— 

— 

122.815 

North Keishu. 

2,013,000 

100,650 

1,102 

50,325 

5,362 

- 

157,439 

South Keishu. 

1,606,000 

80,300 

614 

40,150 

1,100 

— 

122.194 

Kukai .... 

1,094,000 

54,700 

684 

27,350 

- 

— 

82,734 

Kogen .... 

1,125,000 

56,250 

781 

21,907 

- 

— 

78,938 

South Hcian . 

1,046,000 

52,300 

915 

26,150 

— 

— 

79.365 

North Hcian . 

1,149,000 

57,450 

217 

16,024 

330 

21 

74,042 

South Kankyo 

883 ,000 

44,150 

84 

22,075 

- 

14 

66,323 

North Kankyo 

556,000 

27,800 

253 

13,900 

— 

— 

41,953 

Total . . 

17,398,000 

869,900 

5,805 

385,574 

11.128 

35 

1.272.442 


The following table shows the estimated expenditure allotted 
for the fiscal year 1911 according to detailed objects of the Imperial 
Donation :— 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 





Estimated Expenditure for fiscal year 1911. 


28 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


Total .... 303.884 84,484 324.564 217.075 4.801 128.903 97,298 1,160.490 11,629 j 14,924 26,552 1,187.042 









29 


14. Japanese Municipal Settlements. 

There arc eleven Japanese Municipal Settlements existing in 
Keijo (Scotil), Hcijo (Pyong-yang), Jinscn (Chemulpo) and other principal 
cities and open ports. Although Japanese Settlement Municipalities 
were originally organized by Japanese residents, who had the same 
status as foreigners, they may now be amalgamated with local 
administrations proper, as a result of the Annexation, in order to 
carry out uniform administrative measures upon Koreans and 
Japanese alike. But it was decided that Japanese Settlement 
Municipalities should continue as hitherto until the local ad¬ 
ministrative system of the Government-General was properly 
readjusted. 

Public undertakings conducted by these Municipalities increasing 
of late with the growth in Japanese residents, the expenses borne 
by municipalities arc showing a tendency to increase. However, 
having the experience of past years to guide them, municipal 
authorities have become more careful in framing reliable financial 
schemes for municipal undertakings. On the other hand, the 
control and supervision of municipalities exercised by a Provincial 
Governor and Prefect being more effectively enforced, undertakings 
of an unimportant nature were checked as far as possible, and the 
collection of municipal taxes and other dues was more equitably 
enforced. The result was that a greater harmony between revenues 
and expenditures was brought about, and the individual burden of 
municipal expenditure has now a tendency to decrease. The 
following table shows the revenues and expenditures of all Japanese 
Municipal Settlements :— 


Year 


Revenues 



Expenditures 


Ordinary 1 

Extra¬ 

ordinary 

Total 

Ordinary 

Extra¬ 

ordinary 

Total 

1912 .... 

1,097,521 

878,461 

Yen 

1.975.982 

956,003 

1,019,979 

Yen 

1,975,982 

1911 .... 

992,682 

2,368,110 

3,380.692 

854,419 

2,493,143 

3.347.562 

Increase ( + ) 
Decrease^—) 

+101,939 

-1,489,649 

-1,384,710 

+ 101,584 

-1,473,164 

-1371580 


Of the expenditure for the fiscal year 1912, the expenses for 
municipal loans’ account represent the largest amount, totalling 
over 552,505 yen, with 511,538 yen for educational purposes, 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 








30 


204,416 yen for maintenance of offices, 193,243 yen for sanitation, 
and 345,738 yen for civil engineering works. The municipal loans 
approved by the authorities concerned, for the fiscal year 1911, 
amounted to 1,354,800 yen, of which 1,164,400 yen was allotted for 
the redemption of old loans, 169,400 yen for education and 21,000 
yen for public engineering works. The aggregate of municipal 
loans outstanding at the end of the fiscal year 1911 was over 
2,972,818 yen. 


15. Japanese School Associations. 

In places other than the cities or open ports in which Japanese 
Settlement Municipalities were organized, the education of Japanese 
children was conducted by the so-called Japanese Associations. 
Hut these associations having no authority to levy compulsory 
fees or contributions to carry on public undertakings in such 
communities, their educational work could not often be steadily 
pursued. Accordingly, with a view to securing the healthy develop¬ 
ment of education for Japanese residents, Regulations concerning 
School Associations were promulgated by a decree issued by the 
Residency-General in December, 1909, which provided that a School 
Assoei.ation should be recognized as a juridical person, so far as 
educational work conducted by the compulsory levy of fees and 
other public dues from residents was concerned ; the Association 
was also authorized to conduct sanitary matters to meet the needs 
of the locality. 

Since then, many Japanese associations have been converted 
into Japanese educational associations, and many such associations 
newly created, so that they had increased to 158 at the end of the 
fiscal year 1911, with a total of 5,717 students. The following 
table shows the general conditions of the Associations existing at 
the end of April, 1912 :— 


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Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 





31 


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Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



















32 


16. Census Investigation. 

To secure accurate investigation of population and dwellings, 
the people have been required to give prompt information concern¬ 
ing their movement to the police authorities since the Census Law 
was promulgated in April, 1909, by the ex-Korean Government under 
the Protectorate regime. In addition, officials from the Police Affairs 
Department were often despatched to the Provinces, and the local 
police ordered to carry out a personal inspection of the taking or 
investigating of the census of population and dwellings. The result 
was that returns of population and dwellings showed a considerable 
increase and the total native population numbered 13,832,376 and 
their dwellings 2,813,925 at the end of 1911, showing an increase 
of 703,596 in population and of 63,969 in dwellings as against the 
preceding year. However, these increases are not natural results, 
but are due to greater accuracy in census investigation, whereby 
the people and dwellings omitted in the previous investigation have 
been included. The following table shows, according to provinces, 
the population and existing dwellings at the end of 1911, as against 
the end of the preceding year :— 



1911 

1910 

Province 

No. of 


Population 

No. of ! 

Population 










lings 

Male 

Female 

Total 

lings Male 

Female 

Total 

Kciki . 

299,719 

752,784 

696,560 

1,449.344 

293,496. 716,046 

647,043 

1.363,089 

North Chfisci. . 

125,265 

313,291 

279,362 

592,653 

121,432 294,435 

252,820 

547,255 

South Chfisci . . 

197,151 

482,554 

430,339 

912.893 

194,659 468,688 

414,488 

883,176 

North Zcilia . . 

206,291 

515,641 

453,288 

968.929 

208,269 532,367 

447,513 

970.880 

South Zcnla . . 

23:1,070 

851,440 

786,375 

1,640.815 

322,550 799,828 

727,421 

1,527,249 

North Kcishu . . 

338,711 

874,455 

782,993 

1.657,448 

330,642 832,014 

731,565 

1,563.579 

South Kcishu . . 

291,715 

761,310 

693,560 

1.464,870 

293,521' 734,208 

665,898 

1.400,106 

Ki'kai . 

222,124 

529,305 

481,477 

1,010.782 218,776 513,501 

458,732 

972.293 

South He inn . . 

189,736 

476,968 

437,501 

914,469 186,455 45D, 118 

423,476 

882.594 

North Hcian . . 

185,931 

528,262 

470,760 

999.022 

179,229 505,608 

445,173 

950.681 

K"gm . 

168,724 

451,756 

395,354 

850.110 

158,904 421,701 

359,565 

7812266 

South KankyO . 

174,629 

499,309 

445,737 

945,046 

' 161,116 452,441 

399,341 

851,782 

North Kankyu . 

74,756 

228,451 

207,544 

435.995 77,907] 232,55: 

202,277 

434.830 

Total • . . 

9 

CO 

*» 

CM 

7.271.526 6.560,850 13.832.376 2.749.956 6.953.468 6,175.312 

13,128.780 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 






33 


Koreans have a propensity to change their names. After 
the Annexation, numbers of Koreans changed their names, using 
Japanese names instead. Such a tendency, though a sign of their 
assimilation with Japanese, occasioned much confusion in dealing 
with census matters. Consequently, Regulations for Controlling 
Change of Name were promulgated in October, 1911, by which 
a person was required to apply to the Director-General of Police 
Affairs, or Provincial Police Directors, for permission to change 
his name. The custom of omitting the personal name of married 
women still prevailing, an immense amount of trouble is also 
experienced in dealing with the census, and in law court proceed¬ 
ings. The police authorities are now endeavouring to encourage 
the use of proper names by married women. 

With regard to the temporary lodging or permanent residence 
of Japanese and foreigners, regulations were'promulgated in July, 
1911, by Administrative Ordinance No. 75, by which an hotel keeper 
was required to report to the jurisdictional police station the names 
and status of visitors within 24 hours of arrival. Anyone newly 
occupying a dwelling house, or residing in another person’s house, 
must report the fact within 10 days. Following on the 
promulgation of these regulations the census of Japanese and 
foreign residents in Korea has become all but perfect. The annual 
increase in Japanese residents was formerly about 20,000, and this 
advanced to 40,000 after the Annexation. This increase, however, 
is partly due to the enforcement of the above-mentioned regula¬ 
tions. The population and dwellings of Japanese and foreigners 
according to provinces, at the end of 1911, are shown in the 
following table :— 



Japanese 

Foreigners 

Province 

No. of 


Population 

No. of 


Population 




















lings 

Male 

Female 

Total 

lings 

Male 

Female 

Total 

Keiki . 

18,574 

34,490 

30,133 

64.623 

1,177 

3,762 

623 

4,385 

North Chtist'i . . 

1,242 

2,054 

1,524 

3.578 

56 

156 

9 

165 

South Chusii . . 

3,129 

5,564 

4,621 

10,185 

283 

859 

25 

884 

North Zeiila . . 

3,035 

5,679 

4,696 

10.375 

122 

4‘29 

22 

451 

South Zcnla . . 

3,678 

7,102 

5,528 

12.630 

85 

242 

28 

270 

North Keishu . . 

3,890 

6,629 

5,481 

12,110 

67 

198 

19 

217 

South Kiisfio. , 

14,155 

27,315 

23,247 

50.562 

105 

327 

40 

387 

Kokai . 

1,817 

2,893 

2,246 

5,139 

108 

458 

32 

490 


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34 


(Continued) 


Province 

Japanese 

Foreigners 

No. of 
Dwcl- 
lings 

Population 

No. of 
Dwel¬ 
lings 

Population 

Male 

Female 

Total 

Male 

Female 

Total 

South Hiian . . 

4,198 

7,660 

6,438 

14,098 

278 

1,099 

106 

1305 

North Hi ian . . 

2,390 

3,887 

2,964 

6.851 

700 

3,181 

144 

3,326 

Kogen . 

1,224 

1,804 

1,164 

2,968 

31 

53 

4 

57 

South Kankyd . 

2,630 

4,961 

4,263 

9,224 

204 

590 

31 

621 

North A ’»mkyb . 

2,673 

4,721 

3,625 

8346 

96 

355 

12 

387 

Total (1911) 

62,633 

114,759 

96.930 

210,689 

3312 

11,709 

1,095 

12304 

1910. 

50,992 

92,751 

78,792 

171343 

3,155 

11,239 

1,455 

12,694 

1909 . 

43,405 

79,947 

66,200 

146,147 

2,223 

9,672 

755 

10,427 

1908 . 

37,121 

70,145 

56,023 

126,168 

2,312 

10,041 

686 

10,727 

1907 . 

28,272 

55,669 

42,332 

98,001 

1,968 

8,056 

362 

8,418 

1906 . 

22,139 

48,028 

35,287 

83315 

1,476 

5,028 

401 

5,432 


17. Certification of Immovable Property. 

Recognition of the transference of immovable property, or the 
establishment of a mortgage right on real property, was previously 
conducted by merely handing over a kind of deed called Mun-keui 
(3tIE) or Mun-Kwon (i ®) to the purchaser or mortgagee. These 
deeds being simply of the nature of a contract concluded between 
the parties concerned, though endorsed by local magistrates in some 
localities, there was no way of publicly certifying to the right of 
immovable properties, and the circulation of many false deeds was 
the natural outcome of such a custom. With the object of publicly 
guaranteeing the legal right to real estate, laws for certifying the 
transfer oflands and buildings, and for the foreclosing of mortgages 
were promulgated in 1906. These laws were supplemented by a 
law for certifying ownership of real estate, promulgated in 1908. 
According to the provisions of these laws, for the preservation and 
transfer of real estates, or creation of mortgage rights, the appli¬ 
cation for preserving the right of holding real estate, or the contract 
for transferring real estate, should be certified by a Prefect or District 
Magistrate of the jurisdictional district in which such property is 
situated. These laws being enforced only among Koreans, laws 
and regulations of the same nature were promulgated by the late 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 








35 


Residency-General, by which the transfer or preservation of real 
estate between Koreans and non-Koreans (Japanese and foreigners) 
or among non-Koreans should be certified or approved by the Resi¬ 
dent of the jurisdictional district. These regulations becoming 
more widely known, and ownership of lands by Japanese and 
foreigners being recognized by them, the number of cases receiving 
official certification is on the increase year by year, as shown in the 
following table :— 


Description 

1907 

(July— 

December) 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

No. of Official Certifications 

13,518 

39,739 

52,731 

91,414 

121,029 

Value of Real Estate receiv¬ 
ing Official Certification 

Yen 

5,102,245 

Yen 

11,395,794 

Yen 

14,492,382 

Yen 

21,370,155 

Yen 

36,297,543 

Fees charged. 

Yen 

13,243 

Yen 

66,903 

Yen 

46,621 

Yen 

80,518 

Yen 

114,214 


18. Temple Preservation Law. 

Buddhist temples and other shrines in Korea were first estab¬ 
lished in the days of the Three Kingdoms (18 B. C.—661 A. D.). 
During the Koryu Dynasty (936—1391), these temples were exten¬ 
sively and even lavishly established as a consequence of the growth 
of Buddhism. However, the habit of extolling Confucianism and 
despising Buddhism becoming popular since the middle part of the 
Yi Dynasty (1392—1910), and the persecution of Buddhist monks 
and nuns, brought about the utter neglect of these temples and 
shrines and most of them fell into ruin. With a view to the preserva¬ 
tion and repair of temples and shrines of historic interest, the Temples 
Preservation Law and the Detailed Regulations regarding it were 
promulgated in June, 1911. These regulations provide for, (1) the 
necessary provisions for the means of preserving certain temples, 
(2) definition of the duties of the priest in charge of a temple, (3) 
the proper living of monks and nuns and (4) regulations specifying 
the methods to be employed in preventing the dispersion of 
properties and articles belonging to such temples. 

An investigation as to what temples should be preserved, and 
to what extent such should be subsidized, is now in the hands of 
Dr. Sckino, a professor of the Imperial University. 


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36 


As a result of the enforcement of this law and the regulations 
connected with it, a number of ruined temples, to each of which a 
resident priest has been appointed, have now an opportunity to 
recover their by-gone importance, while Buddhist priests, looked 
down upon for many a century, have regained the respect of the 
people and are now engaging in the propagation of their belief, on 
an equal footing with other sects, under a regime affording religious 
freedom to all. 


19. Relief for Calamity-Stricken People. 

When storms anil floods were raging in the summer of 1911 in 
Japan proper, the Peninsula was also visited to a small extent. To 
relieve the calamity-stricken jicople, the late Emperor gave a large 
sum from his private purse, 13,200 yen of which was distributed 
among the calamity-stricken people in the Peninsula. The Govern¬ 
ment-General, investigating the degree of damage inflicted in the 
different provinces, distributed the Imperial gift as shown in the 
following table. Contrasting this with the old regime, during 
which such gift was hardly ever made on such an occasion, his new 
subjects were deeply impressed by llis Majesty’s merciful conduct. 


Province 

Amount of Imperial Gilt 


Yen 

Keiki . 

64 

North Chiisci . 

275 

South Chtisci . 

1,276 

North Zcnla . 

1,1.50 

South '/enla . 

421 

North Kcisho . 

164 

South Kcisho . 

1,404 

Kokai . 

5,482 

South Hcian . 

1,467 

North Hcian . 

5:i6 

Kegen . 

580 

South Kankyo . 

290 

Total. 

13.200 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 
















Buddhas in stone oavr 


Tong-tak Monaster}-, Ryr.. « District, 


South Keisho. 
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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 










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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



Bukkoku (Pulkuk-sa) Monastery, Kcishu District, North Keis/io Province. 







Tong-tak Monastery, Rydsan District, 
South Keis/w. Province. 


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Wol-chong Monastery, Gotai Mountain, 

Kogen Province. 

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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 










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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



37 


20. Government Charity Asylum. 

Out of the Extraordinary Imperial Donation Fund which was 
raised at the time of Annexation, 500,000 yen was given in June, 
1911, to form a fund to provide for helpless orphans, the deaf, blind 
and other incurables. A sum of 113,075 yen being added to the 
fund, the Government-General established a Government Charity 
Asylum in Keiju in order to carry out fully and effectively the 
Imperial Will. Subsequently, another sum amounting to 2,855,800 
yen was given to this institution from the above-mentioned Extra¬ 
ordinary Imjjerial Donation Fund. In addition, the institution 
being authorized to receive contributions from the general public, its 
funds are increased along with the expansion of its work. 

When the institution began its work in August, 1911, 90 
inmates of the KeijO Orphanage were transferred to the Educational 
Department of the Government Charity Asylum. At present they 
are only being given an elementary education and manual training, 
but other improvements are steadily being introduced. 

The work of properly educating or training the blind and deaf- 
mutes, and of taking care of the insane, is now receiving earnest 
attention. 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


III. JUSTICE 


21. Effects of Extinction of Consular Jurisdiction. 

As alluded to in the last Annual Report, the consular jurisdic¬ 
tion maintained by Japan and foreign Powers for many years in 
the Peninsula has been relinquished, following upon the annexation 
of Korea to Japan, and foreigners, Koreans, and Japanese alike have 
been brought under the jurisdiction of the modern Law Courts of 
the Government-General of Chosen. Although the Imperial jurisdic¬ 
tion was thus suddenly extended to the Peninsula, the judicial 
system in Korea even prior to the Annexation had been improved and 
made quite reliable under the Protectorate regime of the Imperial 
Government. After the Annexation, not only were the modern 
civil and criminal laws of the Empire applied to foreigners in the 
Peninsula, but the appointment of judges was made for life, so that 
judicial administration in the Peninsula has been steadily established, 
and to-day the judicial system in Korea is so improved that it is 
second in no respect to that of Japan proper, or of other civilized 
countries, and foreigners in Korea now enjoy ample protection. 
The number of judicial cases relating to foreigners treated in the 
Law Courts of the Government-General during the year 1911 is 
shown in the following table :— 


Civil Cases 


Description 

First Instance 

Second Instance 

Third Instance 

Received 

Decided 

Received 1 

Decided 

Received 

Decided 

Foreigners. 

9 

9 

— 

— 

— 

— 

Japanese and Foreigners . 

62 

66 

6 

2 

i 

i 

Koreans and Foreigners . 

130 

108 

10 

8 

1 

i 

Total. 

201 

173 

15 

10 

2 

2 



Criminal 

Cases 




Year 

First Instance 

Second Instance 

Third Instance 

Received 

Decided 

Received 

Decided 

Received 

Decided 

1911 

360 

360 

62 

62 

— 

— 


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Of the 360 criminal cases of the first instance, 71 were for 
theft, 17, robbery, 150, gambling and lottery, 60, bodily harm, 
17, fraud or intimidation, 7, homicide, and the others included 
counterfeiting money, arson and accidental conflagration, opium 
smoking, interference with the exercise of public functions, etc. 
Classing them according to nationalities, one Russian and one 
Austrian committed theft and the others were all committed by 
Chinamen. 

22. Law Courts. 

The Law Courts of the Government-General in 1911 comprised 
one Supreme Court, three Appeal Courts, eight Local Courts with 
12 Branch Courts, and 68 District Courts. To these, 261 Justices, 
63 Procurators, 4 Chief Clerks, 4 Interpreter-Secretaries and 429 
Clerks and Interpreters were attached. 

The judicial system of the Government-General, though based 
on the “ three trial system,” comprises four different courts, so that 
not only is it too complicated for present conditions as existing in 
the Peninsula, but it often creates confusion with regard to their 
respective jurisdictions. Furthermore, even minor cases in Local 
Courts being administered by a collegiate bench, unnecessary delay 
is often caused in the administration of justice. In- order to secure 
the more speedy and effective administration of justice as well as to 
curtail judicial expenses, though at the same time taking into 
account the experience of past years and present conditions existing 
in the Peninsula, it has been planned to improve the judicial system 
still further by amalgamating District Courts or First Courts with 
Local Courts, and for the hearing in Local Courts to be conducted 
by a single justice, as a general principle, a collegiate hearing being 
limited to special cases of an important nature. This plan is to be 
enforced in the next fiscal year (April, 1912—March, 1913), the 
constitutions of the Law Courts of the Government-General being 
amended by Seirei No. 4 issued in March, 1912. 

The number of cases, civil as well as criminal, received by the 
Law Courts is yearly on the increase, and the following table gives the 
figures for the year 1911 as well as those for the preceding year :— 


Year 

Civil 

Criminal 

Criminals Proper 

Cases submittal for 
examination of Procurator 


Received 

Decided ^ 

Received 

Decided 

Received 

Decided 

1911 

34,963 

31,369 

10,866 

10,695 

19,464 

19,063 

1910 

28,648 

26,698 

8,174 

7,907 

14,687 

14,349 


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The number of Law Courts opened to the public, their judicial 
force and employees, and the number of barristers existing at the 
end of December, 1911, compared with the year 1910, are shown in 
the following table :— 



No. of Courts Opened 



No 

of Law Court Officials 



No. of 
Attorneys 
at Law 

Year 

1 

i 

Local 

Courts 

§ 


Justices 

Procu- | 
rators | 

Clerks 

Inter¬ 

preters 

Total 

CJ 

ll. 

a 

u 

I 

Cu 

< 

Proper 

Branches 

o 

u , 
8 
I 

s 

Total 

Japanese 

Korean 

Japanese 

Korean 

Japanese 

Korean 

Japanese 

Korean 

Japanese 

Korean 

Japanese 

Korean 

1911 

1 

3 

8 

12 

63 

92 

187 

62 

56 

4 

205 

74 

49 

93 

497 

233 

37 

69 

1910 

1 

3 

8 

12 

68 

92 

183 

71 

64 

6 

212 

76 

50 

99 

499 

252 

30 

51 


23. Summary Judgment by Police. 

The last Annual Report fully set forth the scope of Summary 
Judgment by the Police, the regulations of which were promulgated 
in December, 1910, and put into force in January of the following 
year. By these regulations minor offences, relating to gambling or 
causing bodily harm, or to a violation of administrative ordinances 
ordinarily coming under the jurisdiction of a District Court, are 
adjudicated by police authorities instead of by ordinary judicial 
procedure. The experience of one year only of police summary 
judgment amply demonstrated its exceeding utility, for not only did 
defendants, especially native, in such minor cases appreciate the great 
convenience afforded them by the summary judgment pronounced 
by local police authorities, obviating as it did unnecessary expense 
and loss of time, but the administration of justice in the Peninsula 
was more speedily and effectively carried on in spite of a consider¬ 
able increase in criminal cases, as the ordinary law courts entrusted 
minor criminal cases to the Police for adjudication. 

The total number of criminal cases, decided during the year 
1911 by police summary judgment, reached 18,897, of which 51 
were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment with hard labour, 10 
to confinement, 1,734 to a major fine, 924 to police detention, 
14,443 to flogging (this punishment is inflicted only on natives), 
and 2,880 to a minor fine, while 189 were acquitted. 

Of course, any defendant, native, Japanese or foreigner, not 
content with summary judgment, may freely apply for trial by an 
ordinary law court. During the year 1911, 43 appeals for trial by 
the ordinary law courts were made, 16 of which were acquitted. 


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Workshop in above Prison. 


Appeal Court and Local Court, Heijo. 



Prisoners at work, Taiku Prison 


Local Court, Kcijo. 


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41 


Moreover, in dealing with a defendant of reputable status by the 
process of summary judgment, the police concerned obtain instruc¬ 
tions from the Local Court Procurator before giving final decision. 
Thus trial by summary judgment is comparatively safe. 

24. “ Judicial Police”. 

The term “judicial police ” is a literal rendering of the German 
“justiz polizei ” by which certain police authorities are charged 
with the duty of searching criminals, of investigating criminal 
evidence as a preparatory measure for the preliminary hearing, and 
other quasi judicial measures. 


A. PriininalM. 

Criminal offenders rather increased during 1911, notwithstand¬ 
ing crimes relating to insurgency or brigandage considerably decreas¬ 
ed in comparison with the preceding year. This increase was not 
altogether due to increase in the actual damages inflicted on the 
public in general, but was in part due to the expansion and efficiency 
of the police force, and to an increase in those who reported to the 
police authorities damage inflicted on them by criminal offenders. 
Under the old regime, when police authorities were corrupt and 
official extortion prevailed, the people generally were accustomed to 
withhold such reports, because they not only entailed additional 
expense, but frequently incurred the revenge of those informed 
against. With reforms in the police organ, especially after the unifica¬ 
tion of the police system with that of the gendarmery, the people began 
to rely upon the police authorities, with the result that the number 
of people promptly reporting damage inflicted by offenders very 
considerably increased, so that criminal cases reported by the people 
reached 117 as against 100 cases instituted by the police authorities 
themselves. The total number of criminal offenders during the year 
1911 reached 33,298, of which 32,428 involved the violation of the 
criminal law and the rest that of other laws and ordinances. 

It. Police Supervision or Pardoned Offenders. 

Those pardoned at the time of Annexation by Imperial grace 
and discharged from prison were placed under the supervision of the 
Police after their release. Since that time the police authorities 
have been putting forth efforts to secure their future good behaviour 
or reform, and to affording them an opportunity to resume a respect¬ 
able calling. The total number discharged from prisons through 


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42 


the grace of such general pardon was 1,363, of whom 21 are 
dead, 108 evaded police supervision, 121 were missing after their 
release and 19 continued their criminal career. The remaining 
1,094 were still under police supervision at the end of December, 
1911. Those whose reformation is deemed hopeless, numbering only 
42 out of the 1,094, the results of such supervision may well be 
regarded as distinctly good. Of the 1,052 who are thus proving 
themselves reformed characters, 739 are engaged in agriculture, 59 
in commerce, 7 in industry, and 230 in miscellaneous occupations. 
The remaining 17, who have not betaken themselves to any 
occupation, are mostly imbeciles or chronic invalids. 


flood OIIIcch in Civil disputes. 

Police authorities often exercise their good offices to bring 
about an amicable settlement in minor civil disputes. The total 
number of civil disputes receiving such good offices during the year 
1911 reached 5,197, of which 2,510 cases were amicably settled, 
1,751 cases met with failure, 530 cases were withdrawn, 24 cases 
were indeterminate and 382 cases were still pending. The settling of 
civil disputes by the good offices of the police authorities should lie 
regarded as quite successful, since 143 cases were amicably settled to 
100 cases meeting with failure. The people generally are coming to 
appreciate this procedure for the settlement of minor civil disputes, 
as it avoids expense and unnecessary delay and is not conducted 
arbitrarily. 


IK Kail ills. 

Police authorities in the jurisdictional area of a District Court 
are also required to act ex-nfficio as executors in distraining movable 
property in the Peninsula, where the office of professional bailiff or 
huissier has not as yet been created. The police authorities of 
to-day, whether they are Japanese or Koreans, promptly and honestly 
discharge this duty, affording quite a contrast to former times when 
judicial administration was conducted by Provincial Governors or 
District Magistrates, and a distraint on movable property was 
usually executed in proportion to the amount of bribe. During the 
year 1911, the total number of distraints on property was 7,568, of 
which 3,192 cases were against Japanese and 4,376 against Koreans. 
The total number of warrants, etc., served on defendants by police 
authorities discharging the duties of a bailiff reached 12,486. 


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25. Prisons. 

The prison administration in the Peninsula is conducted 
through eight Prisons and 13 Branch Prisons of the Government- 
General. The number of officials and employees at the end of 1911 
compared with the preceding year is shown in the following 
table :— 



Following in the wake of the progress made in the administra¬ 
tion of justice, the number of prisoners, convicted or awaiting trial, 
considerably increased, so that the total number of prisoners at the 
end of the year 1911 was 9,580, being an increase of 2,559 over that 
of the preceding year. The following table gives details of prisoners 
at the end of the year 1911, and of the previous year :— 


Description 

Convicts 

Awaiting Trial 

Japanese 

Koreans 

Foreigners 

Total 

Japanese 

Koreans 

Foreigners 

Total 


Male . . 

630 

7,738 

105 

8,473 

76 

564 

9 

649 

1911 

Female. 

26 

389 

2 

417 

— 

41 

— 

41 


Total 

956 

8,127 

107 

8.890 

76 

606 

9 

690 


Male . . 

812 

5,701 

33 

62248 

111 

468 

25 

604 

1910 

Female. 

26 

118 

— 

144 

2 

25 

— 

27 


Total 

538 

5.819 

33 

6.390 

113 

493 

25 

631 


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The discipline and behaviour of prisoners having gradually 
become Ix'tter, breaking jail or committing other acts of violence 
often experienced under the old regime, have liecome practically non¬ 
existent. The good behaviour or reformation of the convicts was 
also encouraged by giving prizes or by granting temporary leave. 
Thus on an average five persons in a hundred received such prizes 
during the year 1911. During 22 months, up to December, 1910, 41 
convicts received temporary leave, i. e. an average of two per month, 
while such leave was granted to 99 convicts during the year 1911, 
i. e. an average of eight per month. 


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IV. PEACE AND ORDER. 


26. Defence. 

As stated in the previous Annual Report, the Imperial Govern¬ 
ment maintains, sinec the war with Russia, a garrison army of from 
one division to one division and a half in the Peninsula. General 

I 

Baron Haruno Okubo, who succeeded General Baron Yoshimiehi 
Hascgawa as Commander-in-Chicf of the Garrison Army on December 
25, 1908, retired from the office in August, 1911, and was succeeded 
by Lieutenant-General Arizawa Uyeda. When Lieutenant-General 
Uyeda retired in February, 1912, Lieutenant-General Ando became 
Commandcr-in-Chief. The garrison army is stationed chiefly in 
Ryazan (a suburb of Keijo), Heijo and Ramin. Yet, in order to 
provide for the preservation of peace and order in local districts, 
small detachments are in garrison at important points throughout 
the Peninsula. Organized operations of the garrison forces often 
took place in 1906, 1907, and 1908, when insurrections were most 
frequent. The insurgents being all but pacified by the year 1909, 
to effect which organized operation by' the army was needed, all the 
provinces during 1910 were practically cleared of insurgents, with 
the exception of those in North Keishu and Kokai Provinces, the 
subdual of whom was effected by a small detachment of the army 
between December, 1910 and January, 1911. Meanwhile the new 
regime inaugurated after the Annexation was making good, and 
the Koreans coming to appreciate the merciful reign of His Imperial 
Majesty, tranquillity now prevails throughout all the provinces, and 
warlike <>|>erations by the garrison army are hardly required, except 
for the occasional appearance of bands of brigands or highway 
robbers, and such ought rather to be dealt with by the gcndarmcry' 
and the police force. On the other hand a number of insurgents, 
taking refuge in Chicntao, China, and in the bordering territories of 
Asiatic Russia, constituted a menace to the northern boundaries of 
Korea, so that the garrisons in the southern provinces were trans¬ 
ferred to the northern parts of the Peninsula in order to provide 
against any possible invasion by insurgent refugees. 

For the naval defence of Korea, the Korean coasts and waters, 
including Tsushima Island, constitute the Fifth District of the Imperial 
navy, and Chinkai Bay, Korea, has been made the naval station of 


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the District. The Admiralty of the Fifth District not yet being 
established, the Admiralty of Saseho, the Third District, exercises 
supervision over it for the time being. In addition, Ycikfi Bay, 
Korea, has been made a secondary naval port. In these ports, the 
fortresses are also maintained by the army. 


27. Police Administration. 

A. Police Organs. 

In the year 1911, no significant change took place in the police 
organs of the Government-General, readjusted as they were in 1910 
by unifying the police system proper and the gendarmery system. 
The Commander-in-Chicf of the Garrison Gendarmery being ex-officio 
the Director-General of Police Affairs in the central office, and Chiefs 
of the Divisional Gendarmery, ex-officio Directors of Police Affairs in 
the provinces, the police administration of the provinces is conducted 
by bringing all the police forces and gendarmeries under uniform 
command and supervision. The unification of the police force and 
gendarmery rendered possible their better distribution, so the latter 
were quartered in those districts in which military police or other 
agents for pacifying insurgents were most needed, and the ordinary 
police were stationed in towns, open ports, or at various points along 
the railway lines. By this unification of the police organs and con¬ 
sequent distribution, peace and order in the Peninsula are firmly 
maintained. Although this principle of distribution still continues, 
it yet needed modifying in order that it might not only aim at the 
maintenance of peace and order, but also render assistance in the 
execution of the various administrative measures undertaken in 
every locality, and that the jurisdictional districts of the police 
organs should be co-existent with the administrative divisions of the 
Peninsula to a certain extent. With this object in view, the distribu¬ 
tion of the police force and gendarmeries was again readjusted in 
November, 1911, by which a reduction of one Police Station and 
one Marine Police Station was made, and one Police Branch Station, 
eleven Police Boxes in rural districts and 187 Police Boxes in towns 
were newly formed, while seven Divisional Gendarmeries and 92 
Detached Offices were abolished, and one Detachment Gendarmery 
and 352 Temporary Detachments of Gendarmes additionally created. 
The number of police organs distributed throughout the Peninsula 
and the number of those engaged in police administration at the end 
of December, 1911, are given in the following table :— 


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Geudarmery Offices 


Steam-launch for Maritime Police, 


Fire Alarm at a Police Station, 


1 



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47 



The Koreans engaged in police administration, as shown in the 
above table, include one Police Secretary, 14 Police Inspectors, 101 
Captains, 182 Constables and 3,417 Assistant-constables, making a 
total of 3,715. In the gendarmery, the assistant gendarmes, 
numbering 4,453, are exclusively Koreans. Koreans thus participat¬ 
ing in the police administration discharge principally the functions 
of assistants. Those, however, who exhibit special ability in their 
service and who are distinguished for good moral behaviour, faithful¬ 
ness and diligence, arc encouraged by being gradually assigned to 
independent service as Japanese police. 

As the result of the unification of the police and gendarmery 
forces, by which better distribution was effected, peace and order in 
the Peninsula are firmly established, and the police authorities and 
gendarmes, while discharging their police functions, are not only 
effectively carrying out sanitary administration or dealing with the 
census, but are also doing good service in other administrative 
measures and in administering justice. 


II. Police Training;. 

With regard to police training and discipline, two divisions are 
made, one for training candidates for police service and the other 
for training or disciplining those actually so engaged. The 
candidates, Japanese or native, are trained in the Police Training 
School for three months and receive instruction or training for 39 
hours per week. The curriculum for Japanese candidates embraces 
14 subjects in all, of which the Korean language, criminal law, police 
regulations, sanitary regulations, official discipline, military drill, 


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48 


financial regulations and certain other regulations are the chief. 
For native candidates, instruction in the Japanese language, and 
short courses in criminal law, sanitary regulations, police administra¬ 
tion, fencing, hand-cuffing, etc., are given. All Japanese candidates, 
and native candidates resident in Kcijd, are trained in the Police Train¬ 
ing School attached to the Police Affairs Department, while the 
training of native candidates in other localities is conducted by the 
Provincial Police Department. As for the instruction or training of 
policemen in actual service, the Chief of a Police Station has charge, 
and policemen or native constabulary, attached to a place in which 
a Police Station is located, are summoned and instructed for a few 
hours each morning in those laws and regulations necessary for the 
proper discharge of their duties. For policemen in places other 
than the above-mentioned, such instruction or training is given by 
the Chief of a Sub-Police Station once or more per month to one- 
half their number at a time. 

In training gendarmes discharging ordinary police functions, 
the necessary training or instruction in police administration, 
dealing with the census, the exercise of good offices in civil cases 
and other matters appertaining to the duties of ordinary policemen, 
is not neglected, so that the police service performed by gendarmes 
is second in no respect to that discharged by ordinary policemen. 
The training of assistant gendarmes, who arc exclusively Koreans, 
was formerly limited to a military training so that they might 
serve as assistants to garrison gendarmes, but after the unification 
of the police force proper and the gendarmery-, these native assistant 
gendarmes were given ordinary police duties, so they are now 
trained and treated the same as native assistant policemen. 

28. Maritime Police Measures. 

Two Maritime Police Stations were specially established in 1909 
in Mokpo and Reisui in South Zenla Province, for the subduing of 
insurgents, many of whom found refuge in adjacent islands off the 
southern coasts of the Peninsula. Such refuges being gradually 
swept clean of them, and the maritime policing conducted by ordinary 
police stations in ports or along the sea-board being gradually 
extended, maritime police stations of an independent nature became 
of less moment, and the Maritime Police Station in Reisui was 
abolished in 1911 and its jurisdictional district transferred to that 
of Mokpo. For some time ten steam-launches only were employed in 
policing the sca-boards, but such a small number was not adequate 


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enough to police the lengthy coast-line of the Peninsula and its 
numerous islands, especially on the southern sea-board. Further¬ 
more, these steam-launches, being of small dimensions, could with 
difficulty perform their duty in time of stress or on the high sea. 
Five steamers were accordingly borrowed from the Army Department 
of the Imperial Government and employed, since 1911, to make the 
maritime police service more effective. In addition, five more steam- 
launches were built and placed on the service, the southern and 
western coasts of the Peninsula being divided into several jurisdic¬ 
tional districts. These steam-launches and steamers were distributed 
between the Maritime Police Station and those Police Stations 
acting as maritime police on the sea-board, and afford protection to 
fishermen, help to ships wrecked or in distress, and guard against 
smugglers and poachers. 

The following table gives details of the steam-launches and 
steamers belonging to the maritime police at the end of December, 
1911 :— 


December, 1911. 






Description of Boats 





Police Station 










Jurisdictional 











having Steamers and 
Steam-Launches 


Steamers 

Steam-Launches 


Total 


District 



No. 

Tons. 

Crew 

No. 

Tons. 

Crew 

No. 

Ions. 

Crew 


1 

Fusan Police 

Station 

i 

17.88 

8 

— 


- 

i 

17.88 

6 

Fusan Harbour and 
vicinity 


Ulsan „ „ 

— 

— 

— 

1 

4.00 

0 

i 

4.00 

6 

Coasts of Ulsan 

3 

1 

Mokpo „ „ 

2 

498.25 

38 

4 

lfi.00 

24 

6 

514.25 

62 

Sea-coast of South 
Zcnla Province 


Kansan Police 




1 

4.00 

0 


7.00 

8 

Sea-coast of North 


Station 




* 1 

3.00 

•» 


Zcnla Province 


Oasan „ „ 

— 


— 

1 

4.00 

6 

1 

4.00 

6 

Sea-coast of South 
Chusci Province 

a 

Jinx* „ „ 

1 

23.29 

a 

1 

LOO 


2 

27.29 

12 

J insen Harbour and 
vicinity 

u 

Ryazan „ „ 

— 

— 

— 

* 1 

3.00 

»> 

1 

3.00 

2 

Mouth of Kan River 

§ 

3 

r-' 

Mukimpo )t >f 

— 

— 

— 

1 

4.00 

fi 

1 

4.00 

6 

Sea-coast of K'-kai 
Province 

Chinnampo „ „ 

— 

— 

— 

* 1 

3.00 

•» 

1 

3.00 

2 

Chinnampo Harbour 

Sc. vicinitv 


Ryugtmpo „ „ 

1 

170.00 

14 

1 

4.00 

fi 

2 

174.00 

20 

Coast of South Hcian 
Province 


Shingishn ,, „ 

- 

- 

- 

* 2 

fi.00 

1 

2 

6.00 

4 

Mouth of Oryoku 
River 

Total . . . 

5 

709.42 

64 

10 
* 6 

40.00 

5.00 

60 

10 

20 

764.42 

134 



N.B. The figures marked with an asterisk signify gasolene steam-launches. 


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29. Pacification of Insurgents. 

Insurgency was almost entirely suppressed by the various 
measures rigorously carried out for several years past, only a few 
insurgents, shifting round from one place to another and plundering 
as opportunity offered, still remaining. 

In the year 1911, insurgents under the leadership of Kan-Tciman 
and Kin-Tcian, appeared in Kokai Province and plundered peaceful 
citizens, but they were soon scattered by the joint action of a small 
detachment of the arm)’ and the gendarmery. Insurgents also 
appeared in other places, styling themselves “ the righteous army ” 
or calling their movement “ a crusade for the recovery of the 
independence of the Korean Empire ”, and, combining with highway 
robbers, plundered whenever opportunity offered Most of the 
leaders were captured or killed, and some of them fled to Chientao, 
China, or to Asiatic Russia. Yet a few fugitive leaders, attaching 
themselves to bands of highway robbers, carried on a kind of guerilla 
warfare, committing depredations in several provinces. The leaders 
captured or killed by the police, gendarmery or the army, during the 
year 1911, were Tei-Kcitai, Kim-Shodai and Li-Chindo in the provinces 
of Kogen and North Keisho, Bun-Taishu in South Keisho and Sai-Seigen 
in South Kankyo. 

Thus most of the leaders of fugitive insurgents being killed, and 
small detachments of gendarmes and police being stationed even in 
the remote interior, as a result of the readjustment of the distribution 
of police and gendarmes which took place in November, 1911, peace 
and tranquillity were restored throughout the Peninsula so that 
anyone, even a woman, could travel in the interior without an 
escort of police or gendarmes. 

However, a number of insurgents, who took refuge in Chientao, 
China, and Asiatic Russia, often threatened an invasion by way of the 
Toman River. Consequently the authorities concerned neglect no pre¬ 
caution against such invasion. The following table shows the num¬ 
ber of insurgents killed or wounded, and also the casualties suffered by 
those engaged in their suppression during the fiscal year 1911 :— 


Description 

i Suppressive Force 

Insurgents 

Killed 

Wounded 

Killed 

Wounded 

Captured 

.Surrendered 

Garrison Army .... 

— | 

1 

5 

— 

35 

— 

Gendarmerv. 

»> 

10 

10 ! 

12 

176 

3 

Police. 

— 

— 

1 

— 

ns 

— 

Total. 

2 

n 

16 

12 

329 

3 


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51 


30. Control of Religious Teaching. 

The proclamation issued by the Government-General at the time 
of Annexation recognized freedom in religious propagation, and 
provided for due protection of, and the giving of facilities to, 
legitimate religious undertakings, but declared that such would l)c 
treated according to the law if they intermeddled in political affairs 
or injured the public peace. However, no law or regulation dealing 
with the supervision of religious undertakings has as yet been 
enacted, except the Regulations concerning Religious Propagation 
by the Japanese Religious Association in Korea. These Regulations 
were promulgated by Administrative Ordinance No. 45 of the 
Residency-General in November, 1906, by which, .should any religious 
association— Shinto, Buddhist, Christian or other—maintained in 
Japan proper desire to engage in religious propagation in Korea, it 
must appoint a superintendent or manager, and make application 
to the Resident-General for permission, setting forth in it the methods 
of propagation and of superintending such propagation. Koreans 
and foreigners were not subjected to these regulations. 

Under such circumstances the Koreans, who have a propensity 
for new teaching or for forming new associations, often indiscrimi¬ 
nately organized religious associations without adequate funds or 
proper management. Besides Buddhism, Christianity and Con¬ 
fucianism, there are many other religions in the Peninsula such as 
Chonrto Kyo 111 DO, Shi-chon Kyo (f# % It), Kybng-cho Kyo C5t ?? DO, 
Tai-chong Kyo (A gj It), etc. Although the first three profess to 
worship a Supreme Being, yet they concerned themselves greatly with 
political affairs, and in a sense were political parties. Most of the 
members of the Il-chin Hoi, the political party led by Song Pyong-yan 
CM 3lt «8) and Yi Yang-ku (-P & X), were adherents of the Chon-to Kyo 
and Shi-chon Kyo. The last mentioned, Tai-chong Kyo, is a religious 
sect worshipping the Tan-gun Of! ft), the first Korean Emperor in the 
legendary age. The number of Korean believers in Buddhism, 
Confucianism and other religions cannot as yet be given with any 
degree of accuracy. It seems that the Korean often takes up a 
religion from a political motive, as may be seen, not only with regard 
to Christianity, but with those native religions which have existed in 
the Peninsula since early times. The authorities are now exercising 
proper su[>crvision and control over such religious work by Koreans 
as cannot be regarded as a purely religious propagation. 

The religious propagation conducted by foreigners is Christianity. 
Their denominations are 13 in all, viz., French Roman Catholic, 


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Russian Orthodox, American Methodist Episcopal Mission, North 
and South, American Presbyterian Mission, North and South, 
Australian Presbyterian, Canadian Presbyterian, English Church 
Mission, Salvation Army, Baptist, German St. Benedict’s Missionary 
Society and Young Men’s Christian Association. Putting aside the 
past history of their religious work in the Peninsula, the Government 
now trusts these foreign missionaries to confine their activities to 
purely religious work without any intermeddling in political affairs. 
With regard to protection and facilities given by the Government, the 
land tax and other public dues on church or temple grounds, as 
already alluded to, arc exempted from the levy. Government lands 
are often transferred to foreign churches on easy terms, and to the 
Young Men’s Christian Association, established in Kcijo in 1907, 
10,000 yen is annually given by the Government, while pecuniary 
donations have been granted to the Salvation Army. 

As they existed at the end of December, 1911, the total number 
of places in which Christian churches or halls were maintained was 
2,102, the foreign missionaries numbered 307 and native assistants 
2,311, while the total number of Christian converts reached 281,946. 
Further particulars are given in the following table : — 


December 13, 1911. 


Province 

No. of 

Stations 

No. of Foreign 
Missionaries 

2 

c 

§ 

No. of Converts 

Churches 

jg 

*rt - 

i 

Buildings 

English 

American 

French 

Other 

Nationalities 

Total 

< 

u 

9 

Z 

Japanese 

0 

l 

g 

Foreigners 

Total 

Kciki .... 

135 

49 

236 23 

39 

22 

31 87 

575 

908 113,505 67 

114.480 

North Chusci 

26 

11 

59 2 

3 

i 

1 7 

108 

— 4,511 — 

4,511 

South Chusci 

18 

5 

83 2 

6 

5 

— 13 

108 

1 8,661 — 

8.662 

North Zcnla . . 

<>7 

25 

32 3 

ii 

5 

— 19 

79 

3 9,421 — 

9.424 

South Zcnla . . 

79 

11 

42 — 

18 

3 

— 21 

182 

63 14,930 10 

14,993 

North Kcishu 

114 

17 

118 1 

12 

4 

— 17 

154 

— 18,562 — 

18.562 

South Kcishu 

11 

39 

133 14 

16 

5 

5 40 

156 

60 13,412 — 

13.472 

Knkai .... 

112 

36 

85 2 

23 

7 

— 32 

287 

1 16,581 1 — 

16.582 

South Hciati . . 

92 

S3 

7 — 

28 

2 

— 30 

323 

— 39,248 1 — 

39.248 

North Hcian . . 

74 

5 

52 — 

ii 

— 


120 

2 22,183 4 

22.189 

Kogcii .... 

25 

48 

53 2 

3 

2 

— 7 

133 

— 8,331 — 

8.331 

South Kankyu . 

25 

33 

27 9 

in 

i 

- 20 

69 

— 7,063 3 

7.066 

North Kankyu . 

.2 

_ 

32 3 

— 

— 

H 3 

17 

— 4,426 — 

4.426 

Total. . . 

781 

362 

959 61 

180 

57 

9 307 

2.311 

1,028 280.834 84 

281,946 


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53 


The religious undertakings conducted by Japanese in the 
Peninsula arc Buddhist, Christian and Shinto. Each of these has 
several different denominations. The total number of places in 
which temples, shrines, or other buildings were maintained was 215 
at the end of the year 1011, preachers numbered 208 and converts 
reached 90,370, of whom 4-0,707 were Japanese and the rest Koreans, 
as shown in the following table : — 


At the end of December, each year. 


Year 

Statioas 

Churches 

or Temples 

No. of 

Preachers 

Japanese 

Converts 

1 

Koreans foreigners 

Total 


✓ 1907 .... 

2 

4 

6 

1,876 

440 

— 

2,316 

g 

1908 ... . 

7 

3 

18 

2,327 

300 

1 

2.634 

2 i 

1909 ... . 

9 

13 

34 

3,826 

1,171 

3 

4.999 


1910 .... 

22 

6 

44 

7,823 

3,086 

2 

10,911 


1911 .... 

30 

13 

49 

11,018 

9,427 

— 

20,445 


/1907 ... . 

21 

42 

67 

27,955 

8,008 

6 

35.968 


1908 ... . 

37 

40 

102 

29,939 

13,208 

— 

43,147 

1 

1909 ... . 

31 

56 

118 

34,365 

16,620 

~ 

60,885 

n 

1810 .... 

40 

73 

36 

34,257 

27,392 

— 

61.649 


1811 .... 

44 

106 

140 

34,693 

a%652 

— 

68346 


1907 ... . 

— 

6 

6 

214 

M) 

— 

264 

£ 

1908 ... . 

2 

12 

12 

739 

— 

— 

739 

i 

1909 ... . 

4 

10 

10 

490 

_ 

_ 

496 

I 









V 

1910 .... 

9 

8 

7 

936 

404 

— 

1.340 


Uoil .... 

10 

12 

19 

996 

584 

— 

1380 


31. Control of Meetings and Associations. 

As stated in the last Annual Report, most of the political 
associations and similar bodies were ordered to dissolve themselves 
at the time of Annexation, as it was deemed necessary to take such 
a step for the maintenance of peace and order. Since then there has 
existed no political party or association, as such, among the 
Koreans, but certain associations, though organized for religious or 
commercial purposes, often intermeddled in political affairs during 
the year 1911. These associations were ordered to dissolve, or 
advised to dissolve on their own initiative. An association, having 


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Confucianism as its object existed in Koshil District, Kokai Province, 
and showing itself inimical to the public peace by teaching the so- 
called “ natural law or doctrine ” was advised by the authorities 
concerned to dissolve, which it did in April, 1911. Another associa¬ 
tion organized by followers of Confucius in Mosan District, South Heian 
Province, was advised in October, 1911, to dissolve on the same 
ground. The so-called Commercial Association, organized in Keijt'i 
with the object of protecting peddlers trading throughout the Penin¬ 
sula, but propagating ideas other than those relating to commerce, 
reported to the police of its dissolution in April, 1911, on advice 
being given to that effect. In July, a Branch Office of the Business 
Association in Zenshu District, South Zaila Province, was ordered to 
dissolve as its conduct was prejudicial to the public peace. 

The holding of public meetings in connection with political 
affairs, or the gathering of crowds out-of-doors, was also prohibited, 
except open-air religious gatherings or school excursion parties, 
permission for which might be obtained of the police authorities. 
Several open-air gatherings, held by school boys against teachers, 
tenants against land-owners, and an agitation against the purchase 
of land for railways took place during the year 1911. All, how¬ 
ever, were amicably dispersed. 


32. Control of Publication. 

A. Press. 

The newspapers published by Koreans or foreigners in Korea, 
or by Koreans in foreign countries, were supervised or controlled in 
accordance with the provisions of the Press Law promulgated by 
the ex-Korean Government. On the other hand, the newspapers 
published by Japanese in Korea, or published in Japan proper and 
despatched to the Peninsula, were subjected to the control of the 
Press Regulations promulgated by the late Residency-General. After 
the Annexation, these regulations were adopted by the Government- 
General, they being still necessary in maintaining peace and order. 
The newspapers published in the Peninsula are 22 in all, of which 19 
printed in the Japanese language and one in the English language 
are published by Japanese proprietors, the remaining two being 
published respectively in the Korean and Chinese languages by 
Koreans. These newspapers generally fulfil their proper functions, 
but some of them often indulge in reckless articles leading to 
misunderstanding or arousing the ill-feeling of the newly annexed 


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55 

subjects. To such official warning is promptly given. Those not 
observing such warning are suspended, or the sale of their paper is 
prohibited, in accordance with the provisions of the libel law or 
regulations. 

There are several newspapers published by Koreans resident in 
San Francisco, Honolulu and Vladivostok, and sent to the Penin¬ 
sula. These newspapers still continue to print seditious comments. 
The contents of newspapers published in Japan, though not affecting 
the public peace in Japan proper, often seriously disturb the peace 
and order in the Peninsula. Such are also treated according to the 
law. The following table shows the number of newspapers 
confiscated during the fiscal year 1911 on account of containing 
matter injurious to public peace or morality :— 



Papers 

Papers 

Papers 

Papers 


Description 

published in 

published in 

published in 

published in 

Total 


Japan 

Korea 

America 

j Vladivostok 

Confiscations .... 

70 

13 

10 

ii 

110 

Copies Confiscated . . 

60,497 

1,401 

93 

it 

52.062 


II. Otlirr Printed Matter. 

With regard to the publications of literature and other printed 
matter, if such are published bv Japanese and foreigners in the 
Peninsula, they come under the Publication Laws promulgated by 
the Imperial Government in 1893, and 1910, while the Publication 
Law, enacted by the ex-Korean Government in 1908, applies to 
Korean compilers or publishers. Rooks and other publications 
published during the year 1911, numbered 768, of which 348 were 
published by Japanese, 198 by Koreans and 222 by foreigners. The 
publications of foreigners were mostly of a religious nature. As in 
the case of newspapers, seditious literature was often circulated, and 
even text-books of a seditious nature were at one time carelessly 
used in private schools. 

Statistics of the books and other printed matter confiscated or 
prohibited sale during the year 1911, because of the seditious nature 
of their contents, are given below : — 


Description 

Compiled or 
published 
by Japanese 

Compiled or 
published 
by Koreans 

1 Compiled or 
published 
by Foreigners 

Total 

Rooks, etc., prohibited sale 

103 

4 

— 

107 

Number confiscated . . . 

107 

1,4715 

— 

1.602 


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5G 

33. Control of Dangerous Articles. 

A. Fire-arms, (•mipowdcr, etc. 

When disturbances or insurrections broke out in Korea in 
August, 1907, it was considered that fire-arms, gunpowder and 
other munitions of war owned by individuals, or scattered about in 
various localities, would encourage insurgents to increased activity 
by furnishing them with opportunities to acquire munitions of war. 
Consequently the Korean Government promulgated, on September 3, 
1907, a law relating to fire-arms, gunpowder, etc., by which certain 
restrictions were imposed upon the manufacture, sale, transfer and 
transport of, and dealings in, gunpowder and warlike munitions. 
It was also provided that the police authorities might confiscate 
fire-arms, gunpowder and other munitions owned by the people if 
such a step was deemed necessary for the maintenance of public 
peace. By the enforcement of this law, better results were obtained 
in pacifying insurgents as well as in maintaining peace and order. 
Further, the authorities concerned did not neglect any precautions 
with reference to the smuggling of fire-arms and gunpowder, which 
was often attempted by Japanese and Chinese, and such attempts 
gradually ceased. For the importation of fire-arms and gunpowder 
or for their transportation, a police |>ermit must be obtained. The 
police authorities arc also enforcing strict supervision over the 
storage of gunpowder. 

Poachers using explosives l)egan to frequent the waters of 
North and South Keisho Provinces, and the captures effected by the 
police during the year 1911 reached 110. Since then the strict 
supervision maintained has brought about the practical cessation of 
such illegal acts. 


B. Storing or Other Kxplosive Articles. 

With the object of preventing dangers or calamities liable to 
arise from the storing of explosive articles, regulations for their 
supervision were promulgated by Administrative Ordinance No. 00 
of the Governor-General issued in July, 1911. By these regulations 
a person desirous of building a storehouse for explosives, such as 
kerosene oil, alcohol, matches, gunpowder, etc., must apply to a 
Provincial Police Director (Director-General of Police Affairs in the 
case of Kciju) for permission, and such storehouses must be provided 
with adequate and pro|>er rooms for explosives. Dangers or 


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57 


calamities formerly often incurred by the storage of these explosive 
articles in ports or cities are now reduced to a minimum by the 
enforcement of these regulations. 


34. Fire-Brigades. 

Protection or preventive measures against fire in the Peninsula 
has not been attended to until very recently, except for the mainte¬ 
nance of several Japanese fire-brigades by the Japanese Settlement 
Municipalities in important cities or sea-ports. The police, after 
frequently consulting with other local authorities, encouraged people 
in cities or towns to organize volunteer brigades, or to take other 
measures necessary for the extinction or prevention of fire according 
to the conditions prevailing in such places. Appreciating their 
necessity, by the end of 1910, 21 fire-brigades had been voluntarily 
organized by the Koreans, in addition to 20 brigades, organized 
jointly by Koreans and Japanese, and 27 brigades organized by 
Japanese exclusively, making a total of 08. These had increased to 
161 brigades at the end of December, 1911, of which 35 were or¬ 
ganized by Japanese, 88 by Koreans and 38 by Japanese and 
Koreans. The growth of the city of Keiju and the density of its 
population not permitting it to rely entirely upon volunteer brigades 
or brigades maintained by the municipal settlement, a permanent 
fire-brigade, well equipped, was formed by the Police Affairs Depart¬ 
ment. 


35. Control of Undue Influence and 
Improper Trades. 

A. “Credit Inquiry Bureau'’. 

There being no law or regulations concerning the supervision of 
private information or inquiry offices, a number of such have of late 
years come into existence. Quite recently there was a tendency for 
persons, making inquiry or dealing in information concerning the 
standing and credit of other persons or corporations, to increase, 
and blackmail and evil practices often resulted from their irrespon¬ 
sible competition or indiscriminate dealings. Consequently Regular 
tions concerning the Credit Inquiry Trade were promulgated by 
Ordinance No. 82 issued by the Governor-General in July, 1911, by 
which a person engaging in making inquiries or selling information. 


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58 


regarding the property or credit of other persons must apply to the 
Provincial Police Director (Director-General in the case of Keijo) for 
permission, giving details of the projected business and other particu¬ 
lars. He is prohibited from furnishing false information, from 
supplying information to those other than bona fide applicants, and 
from charging unreasonable fees. 

Trades or occupations injurious to health or sanitation, are 
treated later on in the Chapter on Sanitation. 

B. Game I,awn. 

No game law ever having been in existence in the Peninsula, the 
game in the country has suffered considerably from indiscriminate 
shooting. In order to preserve certain species of birds and animals, 
as well as to prevent occasional dangers, the Game Law was 
promulgated by Ordinance No. 40 issued by the Governor-General in 
April, 1911. The Law provides for the protection of certain kinds 
of game, methods and implements used in hunting, period of hunting 
and other necessary matters, and requires those desirous of hunting 
or shooting to obtain a licence issued by the Government. The 
number of licences issued during the year 1911 reached 7,103 and 
377 persons were charged with violating the provisions of the law, 

C. Other Improper Trade**. 

For the control of ventures exercising a deteriorating influence 
such as the indiscriminate sale or advertisement of lottery tickets, 
coupon or prize contests, which were often productive of injury to 
the public peace, Administrative Ordinance No. 49 was promulgated 
by the Governor-General in April, 1911. This ordinance requires 
persons promoting a prize contest to apply to the Provincial Police 
Director (Director-General of the Police Affairs in the case of Keijo ) 
for permission. 

Regarding the control of extortion of money under the name of 
subscriptions or donations, the Regulation for such was promulga¬ 
ted by Ordinance No. 138 issued in November, 1911, by which any 
person desiring to solicit subscriptions from the general public must 
apply to the Provincial Police Directors (the Director-General of 
Police Affairs in Keijo) for permission. Thus the collection of money 
or other articles, practically by force, in the name of a contribution 
or donation for benevolent purposes, hitherto often practised by 
Koreans, was quickly stopped, owing to the strict supervision exer¬ 
cised by the police. 


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In order to control improper undertakings, obscure restaurants 
or cafes in the streets of KeijO, which often secretly conducted a sort 
of brothel business with the aid of their waitresses or certain of their 
inmates, were ordered by the Police Affairs Department in August, 
1910, to remove within ten months to a licensed quarter distinct 
from the business parts of the city and provided with lock-hospitals. 
By June, 1911, all these obscure houses were either closed or removed 
to the specified quarter, and the streets of the city in general have 
been cleared of such immoral traffic. In other towns or oj)en ports, 
the supervision or control of traffic injurious to public morals is 
being exercised as in the city of Keijo. Obscure restaurants or 
eating-houses in Fusan, Jinsen and Heijo, secretly conducting a trade 
in prostitution, were gradually transferred to specified licensed 
quarters. The control also of diviners, fortune-tellers or magicians, 
making a living by working on the superstitions of the people, was 
not neglected by the police authorities, as the influence exerted by 
such is often prejudicial to the public good. 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


V. FINANCE 


36. Expenses Defrayed by Imperial Government 
for Korea. 

During the Protectorate regime, the expenses incurred in the 
maintenance of H. I. J. M’s Residency-General and its affiliated 
offices, railways, postal, telegraphic and other communication facili¬ 
ties, lumbering undertakings in the upper reaches of the Oryoku ( Yalu) 
and Toman Rivers, etc., in addition to naval and military expenses, 
were defrayed from the Imperial Treasury. Funds to meet the deficit 
of the annual revenue of the ex-Korean Government, amounting 
each year to several million yen, were also furnished by the Imperial 
Treasury after 1907. With the transfer of judicial administration 
and prisons from the ex-Korean Government to the Imperial Govern¬ 
ment in 1909, the maintenance of law courts and prisons also 
devolved upon the Imperial Treasury. Thus the net exj>enscs defray¬ 
ed by the Imperial Treasury, though reduced by receipts from rail¬ 
ways, posts, telegraphs, etc., .amounted to 26,925,650 yen in 1907, 
31,121,214 yen in 1908 and 21,207,250 yen in 1909. After the 
annexation of the Peninsula by Japan, which took place on the 29th 
of August, 1910, a Special Account of the Government-General was 
established, by which all government expenses in Korea were to be 
met by taxes and receipts collected in the Peninsula, and the deficit, if 
any, to lie made good by the Imperial Treasury. Under this arrange¬ 
ment the expenditure for Korea met by the Imperial Treasury during 
the fiscal year 1910, including the army and navy expenses, reached 
25,836,760 yea. An increase of several million yea as against the 
preceding fiscal year was due to the increase in the railway and 
administrative accounts occasioned by the Annexation. The sums 
thus granted by the Imperial Treasury, to meet the deficit in the 
Government-General’s Special Account and the military expenses for 
the fiscal year 1911, amounted to 22,859,310 yen. A decrease of 
about 3,000,000 yen as against the preceding fiscal year was due 
to retrenchment in government expenses, effected by administrative 
readjustment, and to the general increase of taxes and other receipts 
collected in the Peninsula. The result was that the amount defrayed 
by the Imperial Government to cover the deficit of the Government- 
General’s Special Account, exclusive of military expenses, amounted 


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61 


to 12, 350,000 yen only, in spite of the fact that the expenses for 
exploitation of productive industries and communication facilities 
were considerably increased. 

The expenses for the Peninsula also defrayed by the Imperial 
Treasury for the fiscal years 1905 and 1906 were by no means small 
in amount. But since the expenses defrayed for these years were 
considered as extraordinary expenses, and the investigation of the 
expenses defrayed for the army and navy for these years is not yet 
completed, the exact amount of the expenses defrayed by the Imperial 
Treasury for the Peninsula, from the year when the Protectorate 
regime was inaugurated to the present year, cannot be given here 
statistically. Consequently the following table deals only with 
expenses defrayed by the Imperial Treasury in the Peninsula from 
the fiscal year 1907 :— 


Description 

1807 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

Ordinary Expenditure:— 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Garrison Army. 

1,148,097 

4,164,510 

3,994,622 

4,045,439 

3,880,704 

Naval Ports. 

70,994 

88,890 

95,193 

129,659 

170,291 

Residency-General .... 

1,367,873 

1,165,916 

1,104,109 

631,774 

— 

Law Courts and Prisons of the) 
Residency-General . . .J 
Communications Bureau and) 
Post Offices. j 

341,136 

303,875 

959,896 

119,546 

1,613,141 

— 

Total. 

2.928.100 

5.723.191 

8.273.356 

6.420.013 

4,050.996 

Extraordinary Expenditure:— 






Fund to meet Deficit of the") 
Government-General’s Spe-f 
rial Account granted from f 
Imperial Treasury . . .J 

— 

— 

— 

2,885,000 

12,350,000 

Fund furnished to meet Deficit) 
of the ex-Korean Govern-/ 
ment’s Budget.) 

1,769,503 

5,259,580 

4,653,540 

2,600,000 

— 

Residency-General .... 

477,440 

701,279 

690,494 

1,707,413 

— 

Garrison Army. 

8,826,932 

10,951,272 

6,037,627 

5,464,888 

5,619,908 

Naval Ports. 

178,100 

236,622 

230,972 

553,544 

838,407 

Law Courts and Prisons of the) 
Residency-General . . .J 
Communications Bureau and) 
Post Offices.J 

347,529 

287,737 

303,558 

7,945 

53,053 

— 

Total . 

11.599.504 

17,438,490 

11,910.191 

13,271,843 

18,808,315 

Special Account:— 

Lumbering Undertakings in) 
the upper reaches of the/ 
Oryoku and Toman 'Rivers) 

300,000 

300,000 

— 

— 

— 


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62 


(Continued) 


Description 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

Railways. 

55 

1 

7 * 

Yen 

7,661,533 

Yen 

3,017,703 

Yen 

6,144,904 

Yen 

Total. 

12,398.046 

7.961533 

3,017.703 

6,144504 

— 

Grand Total.... 

28.926.660 

31,121,214 

21507560 

25,836.760 

22.859.310 

Percentage. 

100 

116 

79 

96 

85 


37. The Budget for 1912 . 

Consequent upon another administrative readjustment which 
came into force in the fiscal year 1912, the budget of the Special 
Account of the Government-General for the fiscal year 1912 was 
framed with a view to carrying out the financial readjustment, with 
the idea that any increase in the administrative expenses in the 
Peninsula should not add to the burden of the Imperial Treasury, so 
far as it could possibly be avoided. 

The total revenue as shown by the budget, ordinary and extra¬ 
ordinary, amounted to 52,892,209 yen. The chief items of the 
ordinary revenue being land tax, customs returns, receipts from 
stamps, rents from cultivated state lands (chiefly from lands formerly 
known as Yoktun), receipts from government undertakings and 
properties, and other miscellaneous receipts, the total amount of the 
ordinary revenue reached 26,732,332 yen. The total for the extra¬ 
ordinary revenue was 26,159,877 yen, of which 12,350,000 yen was 
granted from the General Account of the Imjicrial Treasury to meet 
the deficit, while 12,596,540 yen was defrayed from public loans and 
the remaining 1,213,337 yen was transferred from the surplus of the 
revenue for the preceding fiscal year. The total expenditure, ordinary 
and extraordinary, being the same in amount as that of the revenue, 
30,232,490 yen was allotted to ordinary and 22,659,719 yen to 
extraordinary' expenditure. The details of the Special Account of 
the Government-General for the fiscal year 1912, compared with the 
preceding fiscal year, are given in the following table :— 


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63 


The Budget for fiscal year 1912 of Special Account of 
Government-General of Chosen. 


Description 

Fiscal Year 

Fiscal Year 

Comparison 

1912 

1911 

Increase 

Decrease 

Ordinary Revenue:— 

Yen 

Yen 




Land Tax .... 

6,272,619 

6,245,045 

27,574 

— 

Taxes 

Customs Duties. . . 

3,540,084 

3,122,303 

417,781 

— 


Other Taxes .... 

1,534,833 

1,529,169 

5,664 

— 

Stamp Receipts. 

744,595 

659,259 

85,336 

— 

Rent Receipts from Yoktun'l 

1,271,582 

1,261,821 

9,761 

— 

Receipts from Public Under-1 
takings and State Properties/ 

13,047,468 

10,876,599 

2,170,869 

— 

Miscellaneous. 

321,151 

373,387 

— 

52,236 

Total . 

26,732,332 

24,067,583 

2864,749 

— 

Extraordinary Revenue :—■ 

Yen 

Yen 



Receipts from issue of Public! 
Loans.J 

12,596,540 

12,324,199 

272,341 

— 

Imperial Treasury Grant . . 

12,350,000 

12,350,000 

— 

— 

Surplus of preceding years! 
transferred.J 

1,213,337 


1,213,337 

— 

Total . 

28,169,877 

24.674,199 

1,485,678 

— 

Total Revenue . . . 

52,892809 

48,741,782 

4,150,427 

— 

Ordinary Expenditure:— 

Yen 

Yen 



Prince & f s ( Yi ) Household 

1,500,000 

I,,500,000 

— 

— 

Government-General (Central! 
Office).J 

3,221,777 

3,390,297 

— 

168,520 

Local Governments .... 

4,035,817 

3,791,941 

243,876 

— 

Law Courts and Prisons . . 

2,610,244 

2,512,831 

97,413 

— 

Police 


2,965,668 

2,914,460 

51,208 

— 

Medical and Sanitary . . . 

526,763 

663,170 

— 

136,407 

Education. 

388,263 

362,502 

25,761 

— 

Encouragement of Industry 

319,400 

278,616 

40,784 

— 

Public Undertakings.... 

10,948,718 

9,275,172 

1,673,546 

— 

Building and Repairing. . . 

328,476 

310,690 

17,786 

— 

Public Loans. 

2,387,364 

1,733,497 

653,867 

— 

Miscellaneous. 

1,000,000 

1,000,000 

— 

— 

Total . 

30,232,490 

27,733,178 

2,499,314 

— 


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Description 

Fiscal Year 

Fiscal Year 

Comparison 

1912 

1911 

Increase 

Decrease 

Extraordinary Expenditure:— 

Yen 

Yen 



Central Administration . . . 

169,274 

30,000 

139,274 

— 

Police. 

1,174,786 

1,196,578 

— 

20,792 

Medical and Sanitary . . . 

62,100 

64,591 

— 

2,491 

Education. 

662,297 

466,723 

195,574 

— 

Encouragement of Industry. . 

2,612,904 

2,169,476 

443,428 

— 

Public Undertakings.... 

40,000 

78,771 

— 

38,771 

Building and Repairing . . . 

1,813,163 

1,936,536 

— 

123,373 

Assistant Gendarmery (Native) 

248,479 

248,479 

— 

— 

Land Survey. 

2,380,319 

1,757,246 

623,073 

— 

Rail wavs, Harbours, Salt Pans) 
and Other Public Works .J 

13,496,397 

13,061,206 

435,191 

— 

Total . 

22,669,719 

21.008.606 

1,861,113 


Total Expenditure . 

52,892.209 

48,741.782 

4,150,427 

— 


In the above table continuing expenses, to be spread over 
certain specified periods, arc those for road construction, harbour 
improvements, railway construction and improvements, water-works 
construction in Chinnampo and improvement work in the Akada 
(Chyok-dyon) River near Gensan. The total amounts of such continu¬ 
ing expenses and those apportioned for 1912 are shown in the 
following table :— 


Description 

Total Amount 

apportioned 

Amount 

already paid 

Amount for 

1912 

Fiscal year in 
which payment 
is to be 
completed 

Road construction. 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 


10 ,000,000 

2 ,000,000 

1,500,000 

1915 

Harbour extension. 

8,271,829 

1,824,199 

2,096,540 

1916 

Railway construction and imO 
provement.j 

65,603,392 

34,736,218 

9,000,000 

1915 

Water-works construction ini 
Chinnampo .J 

420,000 

80,000 

100,000 

1914 

Akada River improvement . . 

107,500 

82,500 

25,000 

1912 

Total. 

84,402,721 

38.722.917 

12,721,540 ( 


As shown in the budget for the fiscal year 1912, when compared 
with that for the preceding fiscal year, there is an increase of 
2,664,749 yen in the ordinary section of the estimated revenue and 


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of 1,485,678 yen in the extraordinary, thus making a total increase 
of 4,150,427 yen. When the budget for the fiscal year 1912 was 
compiled, it was estimated that the customs dues would show an 
increase of about 400,000 yen owing to the strong tendency to a 
general growth in the foreign trade, in spite of an anticipation that 
there would be a decrease of about 450,000 yen in the receipts from 
export duties, on account of the abolition of export duties on rice 
and other products, which would come into force in the beginning of 
the fiscal year 1912. It was also estimated that there would be a 
considerable increase in the receipts from public undertakings, amount¬ 
ing to about 2,000,000 yen, as the receipts from railways, posts, tele¬ 
graphs, and salt pans, and the ginseng monopoly would increase with 
their gradual growth. The increase in extraordinary revenue was 
due to the transfer of the surplus revenue of the preceding year, and to 
an increase in receipts from public loans, while the grant from the 
Imperial Treasury for the fiscal year 1912 was the same as that for 
the preceding fiscal year, the aim being not to increase the Imperial 
burden brought about by the administration of the Peninsula. 

As to the ordinary expenditure, though retrenchment in the 
Central Government expenses was effected by amalgamation, abolition 
or readjustment of administrative offices and law courts, there was 
yet an increase of about 2,499,000 yen, mainly on account of an 
increase in expenditure caused by the growth of public undertakings 
such as monopolies, railways and other communication facilities, to¬ 
gether with an increase in the amount required for payment of interest 
on public loans, and in that of local administrative expenses required 
for exploitation and improvement of productive industries and 
agriculture in the various localities. An increase in the extra¬ 
ordinary expenditure was due to the advance made in the construc¬ 
tion of, and improvement works on, railways, harbour facilities and 
land survey works, and to gradual increase of subsidies given for the 
encouragement of industries, which subsidies were to be granted as 
far as the state revenue would permit. 


38. Offices Collecting Inland Revenue. 

As stated in the last Annual Report, the administration with 
regard to the collecting of inland revenue, previously separated from 
the Local Governments and taken in hand by 234 Inland Revenue 
Offices and 7 Revenue Supervising Bureaus of the Finance Depart¬ 
ment, was again transferred to the local authorities after the 


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Annexation. Provincial Governors were charged with the respon¬ 
sibility of supervising the collection of taxes, and a provincial 
secretary was appointed Chief of the Financial Section of the Provin¬ 
cial Government, while Prefectural or District Magistrates were 
appointed ex-officio Revenue Collecting Officials. The transfer of the 
tax administration to the local government was welcomed by the 
Koreans, who, like other Oriental people, are accustomed to pay 
more respect to the local authorities than to officials coming from 
distant centres, and better results in collecting taxes, etc., are now 
being obtained. Furthermore, much expense is saved by using the 
Local Governments for collecting taxes and other public dues. 

Regarding the collection of inland revenue, Village Head-men, 
(local authorities of the lowest class), arc directly concerned in 
discharging this duty as heretofore, and two per cent, of the amount 
collected is given to them as fee or commission. In thus deputing 
the revenue collection to Village Head-men, placed as they arc under 
strict supervision, defects and evils connected with tax collecting are 
gradually being cleared away. 


39. Land Tax. 

The land tax heads all other state revenues in the Peninsula. It 
represents 23.46 per cent, of the 26,732,332 yen, which was the 
aggregate ordinary revenue as set forth in the budget of the fiscal 
year 1912. The last Annual Report treated fully the confused 
“ Kycl ”* system, under which this land tax is levied. 

A. Regulations for “K|/e/ ” Registration Rooks. 

The Kyel Registration Hooks kept by Prefectures and Districts 
are of very great importance, as they not only give the standard for 


* The land tax is levied on the basis of the so-called 11 kycl ”, which has existed in the country 
districts from ancient times. This kycl represents not only tlie unit of land tax but also the area of 
ground estimated to produce a fixed quantity of grain. The kycl was of six grades, according to the 
lertilitv of the land, irrigation facilities and the lav of the land. The first grade represented one hundred 
man-loads of unhulled rice, ten sheaves being reckoned as a man-load ; the second represented eighty 
five man-loads, or fifteen man-loads less than the first grade ; and so on to the sixth grade which repre¬ 
sented twenty-five man-loads. The land tax, thus being levied on the kycl unit, was originally paid by 
the people with the grain produced on the land. When payment in grain was replaced, in 1894, by 
that in money, the original six grades of the kyel, according to transport facilities and other economic 
conditions, varying in different districts, increased to about 20 classes, the first class being calculated at 
80 yang (about eight yen). When currency reform, commenced in 1905, was about completed, the 
above-mentioned classes of the land tax were reduced to 13 by Law' No. 10, issued in June, 1908, and 
on a yang being converted into 10 sen, the highest rate of land tax became eight yen and the lowest 20 
sen. The total number of kycl throughout the Peninsula was 1,038,974 at the end of 1911. 


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levying the land tax, but are the only record giving other particulars 
concerning lands. Lacking any legal provisions for these important 
books, great inconvenience was felt in dealing with the land tax. 
Consequently, Regulations for Kycl Registration Books were promul¬ 
gated by Ordinance No. 143, issued by the Government-General on 
November 10, 1911. 

These regulations, setting forth the necessary items of 
registration and giving specified forms, require the Prefecture, 
District and Village to provide such registration books. In case of 
transfer of land or change of ownership, such must be promptly 
reported to a competent office. Should a person neglect to make 
such report, or make a false report, he renders himself liable to legal 
proceedings. These Regulations came into force on January 1, 1912. 
But, when the Law for Certifying Immovable Properties was 
promulgated, the Regulations were modified to the effect that change 
of ownership of land already recorded in the Kycl Registration Book 
could not be re-registered, unless such change had been reported to 
the authorities charged with certifying the transfer of immovable 
properties. 


B. Compilation or Blaus of Taxable I.amis. 

The land tax is levied in accordance with the number of kycl 
recorded in the Kycl Registration Books kept by the Prefecture or 
District. However, owing to the lack of plans of these lands, it is 
difficult not only to recognize the existence of each piece of land, 
but to discover those lands evading the land tax. Furthermore, 
great inconvenience is often felt in certifying the transfer of land. 
In order to make a correct census of lands, as well as to prevent 
evasion of the land tax, Ordinance No. 20 of the Government- 
General was issued on March 4, 1912, by which each Village Head¬ 
man was directed to draft two copies of the plan showing the lands 
owned by the people of his village, and to submit one of them to the 
Prefect or the District Magistrate, and to retain the other in the Vil¬ 
lage Office. This ordinance coming into force on April 1, 1912, it was 
expected that the drafting of such plans throughout the Peninsula, 
with the exception of certain parts in northern provinces (North 
Hcian, KOgcn, North Kankyo and South Kankyo), would be completed 
within the j-ear 1912, and that, consequent upon the compilation 
of such plans of taxable lands, the number of kycl, the basis of the 
land tax, would be increased, and the lands evading the tax or 
waste lands recently brought under cultivation would be discovered. 


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f. Encouragement of Payment Of Taxes* by band Owners. 

Regarding the payment of the land tax, tenants in certain dis¬ 
tricts have often been made liable for this tax by virtue of an 
agreement xvith the land-owner, or by usage. When a tenant or 
person using the land, who is liable to pay the tax, fails to fulfil his 
obligation, the tax is ultimately collected from the land-owner. 
This proceeding is not only troublesome in collecting taxes, but 
inconvenience is often inflicted upon the tax-payers, as the land- 
owner is unexpectedly called upon to pay the tax if the tenant fails 
to do so. Land-owners having recently appreciated the convenience 
of paying the land tax themselves, and the names of owners being 
shown more accurately by the compilation of a Kyel Registration 
Book, the Provincial Governors, Prefects and District Magistrates 
were instructed, in September, 1911, to encourage land-owners to 
pay as far as possible the tax themselves. When this instruction 
was issued, there were 3,214,326 land-owners, with 820,652 of 
their tenants paying the tax. As the result of such encouragement, 
the number of land-owners paying the tax increased to 3,172,477 
at the end of the fiscal year 1911 (March 31, 1912), while the 
tenants paying the tax decreased to 62,913. 

Thus the change in the system of collecting the land tax is 
being appreciated by both land-owners and tenants, and it would 
appear that a stage has been reached at which the universal enforce¬ 
ment of such a measure can be effected without involving any 
radical economic change, and the necessary modification in the 
regulations for the levying of the land tax is now under investiga¬ 
tion. 


D. Increase of Kyel. 

As already alluded to, the land tax is levied on the basis of 
the kyel. With the complete provision of the Kyel Registration Books 
and readjustment of the land census, the so-called eun-kyel (concealed 
kyel), newly cultivated lands, and the waste lands reclaimed and 
brought under cultivation were discovered, and the total number of 
kyel at the end of December, 1911, reached 1,038,974, the land 
tax on which amounted to 6,752,313 yen. Compared with those 
existing at the corresponding date of the previous year, there was an 
increase of 11,238 in the number of kyel and of 84,126 yen in the 
land tax. The following table shows the number of kyel and taxa¬ 
tion returns according to provinces :— 


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At the end of December, 1911. 


Province 

Number of Kycl 

Amount of tax 


Kytl 

Yen 

Keiki . 

73,502 

525,795 

North Chusti . 

52,198 

307,230 

South Chusei . 

95,352 

754,655 

North Zciila . 

112,013 

881,478 

South Zenla . 

134,651 

1,070,554 

North Keishu . 

136,227 

891,056 

South Kcisho . 

110,177 

833,982 

KM . 

82,467 

026,192 

Kiigen . 

23,907 

145,028 

North Ht'ian . 

42,222 

150,250 

South Hcian . 

67,446 

264,226 

North Kankyu . 

40,048 

63,300 

South Kankyu . 

02,806 

172,564 

Total. 

1.038.974 

6,752,313 

1910 . 

1,027,786 

6,668,187 

Increase (,+ ) or Decrease (—) . . 

+ 11,238 

+ 84,126 


40. Yoktun Lands. 

The investigation and detailed land survey of the Yoktun lands 
or cultivated state lands scattered in various provinces being 
almost completed within the years 1909 and 1910, a reformed 
tcnanc)' system, by which the troublesome process of collecting 
rents in kind was to be replaced by payment in money, was 
drawn up in the second term of the fiscal year 1910. Rut, consider¬ 
ing that such a change of established usage or alteration in rate 
of rent would agitate the public mind, especially at the time of 
Annexation, when remission or exemption of the land tax and 
other allowances were liberally made, it was decided to enforce the 
new tenancy system from the fiscal year 1911. Prefects and District 
Magistrates were subsequently required to explain to tenants 
the reasons for the reformed tenancy system and for the change in 
the rate of rent. According to the new system, a certificate of 
tenancy issued by the Government-General was given, so that secret 


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sale or transfer of tenancy right, hitherto often practised, was 
prevented, and employment of nominal tenants, who used to take a 
commission for acting as agents between the Government and the 
cultivating tenant, brought to an end. The Regulations concerning 
Receipts from the Yoktun Lands were issued in October, 1911, by 
which the custom of collecting rents in kind, hitherto in vogue, has 
been replaced by money payment, except in the remote interior where 
products cannot easily be sold. When this new tenant system came 
into effect, the opportune occurrence of a rich harvest, followed later 
by a rise in price of agricultural products owing to the high price 
prevailing in Japan, brought about an increase in the incomes of 
tenants, and the enforcement of the new system was smoothly 
carried into effect. The details of Yoktun lands existing at the end 
of the fiscal year 1911, according to provinces, are given in the 
following table :— 



Receipts irom Yoktun l«ands 

Area of 
Yoktun 
Lands 


Province 

Amount 

Estimated 

Amount 

Received 

Percentage 
of actual 
Receipts as 
against 
Estimates 

Tenants 

Kciki . 

Yen 

206,440 

Yen 

203,311 

98 

Cho 

18,315.5 

49,322 

North Chusei . 

44,717 

44,528 

99 

2,921.0 

12,187 

South Chusei . 

88,160 

88,159 

100 

5,764.0 

16,724 

North Zenla . 

84,660 

81,720 

96 

4,428.1 

12,830 

South Zenla . 

133,177 

126,641 

95 

23,706.5 

54,420 

North Keisho . 

92,774 

92,447 

90 

6,578.0 

24,550 

South Keuhd . 

142,022 

139,523 

98 

6,422.2 

26,315 

Kc,kai . 

159,143 

131,048 

82 

24,197.0 

32,310 

South Heian . 

67,147 

64,710 

96 

10,779.7 

15,346 

North Heian . 

75,171 

75,171 

100 

12,169.9 

18,882 

Kogen . 

69,719 

66,170 

94 

6,680.4 

23,873 

South Kankyo .... 

68,121 

66,519 

97 

6,148.1 

21,532 

North Kankyo .... 

21,623 

21,268 

98 

3,199.1 

9,100 

Total .... 

1,262.875 

1.201.216 

96 

130.301.3 

317.391 


With a view to encouraging agricultural improvement on state 
lands, tenants were induced, as far as possible, to form guilds among 
themselves in order to promote agriculture, to facilitate money 
circulation, to help in the sale of products, and to cultivate good 
habits in the matter of money-saving. Such guilds increased to 52 


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by the end of the fiscal year 1911. According to the conditions 
existing in some localities, more guilds are expected to be formed 
within the next fiscal year. 


41. Rural House Tax. 

With regard to the house tax, every dwelling house in the 
rural districts is liable to pay 30 sett, 15 sen in spring and 15 sen 
in autumn. But a certain number of houses evaded this tax owing 
to the absence of reliable census returns. 

With the progress of census registration, the investigation of 
taxable houses has become more accurate, and now there is hardly 
any one evading this tax. Although everyone living in a separate 
dwelling house is required to pay house tax, yet there was often 
doubt in levying this tax owing to the fact that the basis of the 
taxable houses was ambiguous, as one family together with its 
relatives often occupies but one compound. Consequently, it was 
decided that any dwelling house, whether owned or leased, should 
be taxed if occupied by one maintaining an independent calling, so 
that in the case of one family occupying several dwelling houses, all 
of them are separately taxed if they are occupied by any one main¬ 
taining an independent living. As registration books for the house 
tax were not formerly kept by Prefects or District Magistrates, 
Provincial Governors were instructed, in a Communication from the 
Civil Governor, to cause Prefects and District Magistrates to keep 
registration books in their offices, and to correct the registrations 
made therein according to reports regarding the number of dwelling 
houses submitted by Village Head-men in February and July. A 
person who is in extreme poverty and unable to bear the house tax, 
or whose house is wholly or partly damaged by calamity, is 
exempted from the levy. The dwelling houses thus exempted 
during the fiscal year 1911 numbered 147,414, and their value 
amounted to 44,224 yen. The general conditions of the rural house 
tax as existing at the end of December, 1911, are given in the 
following table :— 


December 31, 1911. 


Province 

House Tax 

Exemptions during 1911 

No. of Houses 

Amount of 
Tax 

No. of Houses 

Amount of 
Tax exempted 

Ktiki . 

-201,810 

Yen 

G0|t>43 

i 

13,422 

Yen 

4,027 


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(Continued) 



House Tax 

Exemptions during 1911 

Province 

No. of Houses 

Amount of 
Tax 

No. of Houses 

Amount of 
Tax exempted 

North Chusei . 

109,812 

Yen 

32,944 

7,504 

Yen 

2,251 

South Chusei . 

106,040 

49,812 

13,080 

3,924 

North Zenla . 

179,263 

53,779 

8,702 

2,611 

South Zenla . 

260,255 

78,077 

33,438 

10,031 

North Keisho . 

299,420 

89,828 

12,283 

3,685 

South Keisho . 

201,799 

79,431 

5,762 

1,729 

Kokai . 

193,289 

57,987 

8,257 

2,177 

South Hcian . 

157,660 

47,298 

10,454 

3,136 

North Hetan . 

162,592 

48,778 

8,092 

2,428 

Kogen . 

149,077 

44,723 

8,064 

2,419 

South Kankyu . 

139,578 

41,873 

13,980 

4,194 

North Kankyu . 

64,021 

19,206 

4,376 

1,313 

Total. 

2.844.622 

704,278 

147,414 

44.224 

1910. 

2,242,303 

672,691 

181,572 

54,472 


42. Urban Building Tax. 

The house tax, mentioned in the above section as levied on each 
dwelling house throughout the Peninsula, has hitherto not been 
imposed in Keijo (Seoul) or other cities and towns where local govern¬ 
ments were seated. With the purpose of ensuring a just distribution 
of the burdens of the people in urban and rural districts, regulations 
relating to the building tax were promulgated in February, 1909. 
By them the rate of this tax is divided into four classes according 
to the size of the buildings, and each class is again divided into two 
according to the nature of the construction. Thus, the rate on stone 
or brick buildings, or on buildings having tiled roofs belonging to 
class A, is higher than that on buildings of a crude nature lielonging 
to B, which are mostly occupied by Koreans. In measuring the size 
of a building, the kan (six square shaku ) hitherto used by the Koreans 
has been adopted. The building tax is imposed on the number of 
buildings existing at the end of April, each year, and is collected half- 
yearly, in May and November. Districts in which the building tax 
is imposed were determined by Imperial Ordinances. The total 


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number of places subjected to this tax reached 307, including Keijo, 
at the end of 1911. 

The investigation of details for assessment of the tax being 
wholly entrusted to Village Head-men, when this building tax was 
first created in 1909, there were still errors or omissions in measur¬ 
ing buildings. Re-investigation being often made by authorities 
other than Village Head-men, this tax is gradually on the increase, 
as shown in the following table :— 


' 


March 31, 1912. 

Province 

No. of Buildings 

Amount of Tax 

Keiki . 

05,900 

Yeti 

65,375 

North Chusei . 

4,890 

2,742 

South Chusei . 

8,073 

6,054 

North Zenla . 

13,152 

6,534 

South Zenla . 

20,920 

10,058 

North Keisho . 

21,530 

12,623 

South Keisho . 

20,514 

12,731 

Kukai . 

10,029 

9,997 

South Heian . 

12,854 

7,748 

North Heian . 

9,505 

5,824 

Kugen . 

7.32G 

3,628 

South Kankyd . 

12,216 

8,408 

North Kankyd . 

0,095 

4,806 

Total. 


156.528 

1810. 

218,822 

140,858 

1 909 . 

191,047 

123,442 


43. Tax on Liquor. 

As stated in the last Annual Report, taxes heretofore existing 
in Korea were mostly in the nature of direct imposts, no taxes on 
spirituous liquors or tobacco, which indirectly come out of the 
pockets of consumers, being levied until the liquor and tobacco taxes 
were first established in 1909, with a view to distributing more 
equally the burden of taxation by creating indirect taxes. 

The liquor tax is levied at different rates on three kinds of 
liquors brewed liquors, distilled liquors and mixed liquors—according 


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to the processes of manufacture and the degree of alcohol contained. 
A manufacturer of liquor, whether for sale or for private use, 
has to apply to the Government for a licence, and a person 
obtaining a licence is required to report, not later than the last day 
of November, each year, to the Revenue Station (now Prefectural 
and District Magistracy) concerned, the kind of liquor and the 
amount to be manufactured during the coming year. The liquor 
tax is then imposed according to the number of koku (quantity) 
manufactured, and is paid half-yearly, in May and November. The 
rate of the liquor tax is lowest on brewed liquors, rising higher on 
distilled and mixed. 

The object of this tax being gradually understood by the 
brewers and distillers, and investigation of items for assessment being 
advanced, ]>ersons evading this tax are now exceedingly few, and the 
amount of this tax is on the increase, as shown in the following 
table :— 


At the end of fiscal year 1911. 


Province 

No. of Licencees 

Amount of Tax in Yen 

Keiki . 

34,110 

40,695 

North Chusei . 

19,356 

20,484 

South Chusei . 

26,388 

27,088 

North Zenla . 

26,693 

29,365 

South Zenla . 

24,448 

25,816 

North Keisho . 

56,014 

59,640 

South Keishd . 

50,719 

56,691 

Kdkai . 

21,458 

28,061 

South Heian . 

9,704 

17,309 

North Heian . 

8,667 

13,862 

Kogen . 

17,591 

17,957 

South Kankyo . 

9,233 

17,594 

North Kankyo . 

8,512 

9,141 

Total. 

312,893 

363.703 

1910. 

197,019 

230,588 

1909. 

156,832 

202,770 


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44. Tax on Tobacco. 

The tobacco tax first came into existence at the same time as 
the liquor tax, that is in 1909. 

The tobacco tax is divided into two kinds, i. e., a tax on tobacco 
cultivation and a tax on the sale of tobacco. A tobacco cultivator, 
whether his tobacco be for sale or for private use, must obtain a 
licence from the Government. There being two rates for the tobacco 
tax, persons planting more than 900 roots have to pay 2 yen per 
annum, and those who plant less than 900 roots, 50 sen per annum. 
This tax is paid in advance in November, each year. Tobacco 
dealers also, whether wholesale or retail, have to obtain a Govern¬ 
ment licence. V\ holesale dealers pay 10 yen per annum in January, 
each year, and retail dealers, 2 yen per annum. Several years having 
elapsed since the creation of the tobacco tax, and a working basis 
for this tax being gradually established, the revenue officers have 
commenced a rigorous search for those evading this tax. Even 
among the cultivators, those possessing licences were only about 
one-half the actual number thus engaged, so Prefeetural and District 
Magistracies were ordered to carry out close investigation in the 
tobacco season in the fiscal year 1911. Although such investigation 
or search was limited to certain districts, tobacco cultivators obtain¬ 
ing the licence considerably increased in number in comparison with 
the previous year, as shown in the following table. The number 
of tobacco dealers obtaining the licence also greatly increased. 


At the end of December, 1911. 


Province 

Tax on Tobacco 
Cultivation 

Tax on Tobacco 
Dealers 

Total 

No. of 
Cultivators 

Amount of 
Tax in yen 

No. of 
Dealers 

Amount of 
Tax in yen 

No. of 
Cultivators 
and Dealers 

Amount of 
Tax in yen 

Keiki . 

29,832 

19,062 

3,840 

8,424 

33.672 

27,476 

North Chusci . . 

17,777 

11,526 

677 

1,460 

13.454 

12.976 

South Chusei . . 

15,989 

9,432 

1,198 

2,532 

17.187 

11,964 

North Zcnla . . 

13,406 

12,764 

1,306 

2,748 

14,711 

15.512 

South Zcnla . . 

9,480 

6,341 

1,433 

3,050 

10.913 

9.391 

North Kcisho . . 

49,500 

30,369 

1,683 

3,582 

51,189 

33351 

South Kcisho . . 

50,713 

29,467 

2,019 

4,262 

52.732 

33,729 

Kukai . 

36,072 

20,922 

1,506 

4,548 

37.578 

25,470 

South Hcian . . 

20,454 

15,894 

1,244 

2,608 

27,698 

18,502 


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(Continued) 


Province 

Tax on Tohacco 
Cultivation 

Tax on Tobacco 
Dealers 

Total 

No. of 
Cultivators 

Amount of 
Tax in yen 

No. of 
Dealers 

^ Amount of 
| Tax in yen 

No. of 
Cultivators 
and Dealers 

Amount of 
Tax in yen 

North Ht'ian . . 

59,729 

30,622 

1,314 

2,716 

61,043 

33.338 

Kugen .... 

28,396 

17,054 

617 

1,482 

29,013 

18536 

South Kankyu . . 

32,950 

20,162 

1,100 

2,272 

34,060 

22.434 

North KankyG . . 

18,303 

10,055 

571 

1,190 

18,874 

11.245 

Total.... 

388,606 

233,657 

18508 

40,884 

407,114 

274521 

1910 . . . 

336,091 

203,818 

16,653 

35,906 

352,744 

239,724 

1909 . . . 

275,378 

170,409 

15,659 

34,966 

290,937 

205,375 


45. Salt Tax. 

The salt tax was previously levied according to the size of the 
kiln, and was divided into ten classes with a difference of on e yen 
between each. But existing regulations concerning the salt tax 
provide that the tax is to be levied upon actual production, the 
rate being fixed at six sen per 100 kin. Investigation of details for 
levying this tax has hitherto seemed lacking in thoroughness. It is 
expected that improvement in the levying of the tax will gradually 
be made, by supervising those evading it and by investigating the 
actual amount of production. As, however, the production of native 
salt is being handicapped by the importation of cheap Chinese salt, 
the tax cannot lie increased. The following table shows the number 
of licensed manufacturers, kilns, area of salt basin, quantity of 
production, and amount of the tax for the year 1911 :— 


At the end of December, 1911. 


Province 

No. of 
licensed 
Manufacturers 

No. of 
Kilns 

Area of 
Salt Basin 

Quantity 

Produced 

Amount 
of Tax 

Keiki . 

1,376 

G90 

Trubo 

1,298,347 

Ain 

3,9.35,300 

Yen 

2,361 

North Chusci . 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

South Chusei . 

483 

517 

932,712 

4,377,500 

2,626 

North Zcnla ., 

172 

172 

279,497 

1,259,900 

755 

South Zcnla . 

1,292 

951 

1,923,807 

8,844,600 

5,306 

North Keishu . 

148 

84 

215,960 

1,596,300 

957 


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(Continued) 


Province 

No. of 
licensed 
Manufacturers 

No. of 
Kilns 

Area of 
Salt Basin 

Quantity 

Produced 

Amount of 
Tax 

South Keishu . 

909 

427 

Ttnibo 

1,447,185 

Kin 

10,127,400 

Yen 

6,076 

Kokai . 

133 

103 

247,936 

1,348,500 

806 

South Hcian . 

180 

179 

1,621,922 

2,078,700 

1,247 

North Hcian . 

32 

32 

218,738 

356,800 

213 

Kogcn . 

251 

170 

271,969 

1,809,300 

1,085 

South Kankyo . 

320 

336 

600,414 

4,756,000 

2,853 

North Kankyo . 

244 

195 

108,757 

1,484,700 

890 

Total . 

5.546 

3.856 

9,167,244 

41.975.000 

25,175 

1911 . 

5,746 

3,965 

6,009,096 

38,354,505 

23,011 

Increase ( + ) or 1 

Decrease (—) J ' * * * 

- 200 

- 109 


-3,620,495 

+ 2,164 


46. Mining Tax. 

The tax on mining in Korea was previously in the most 
chaotic state. As stated in the last Annual Report, uniformity in 
the mining tax has been established by mining laws enacted in 
1906, which provide for three kinds of tax, namely, a tax on 
production, a tax on the area of the district in which a mining 
concession is given, and a placer tax. The tax on the mining district 
is levied at the rate of 50 sen for each 1,000 tsubo per annum ; the 
tax on production is one per cent, of the value of the mineral taken 
out, and the placer tax is one yen for each cho in length of the river 
bed for which a permit is given. 

Among concession holders there were some who obtained the 
concession simply for speculative purposes, and without any inten¬ 
tion of actually developing the mines, neglecting at the same time 
to pay the mining tax. Should mining concessions be left under 
such conditions, mines in the Peninsula can never be developed. 
Consequently, the measure providing for the annulment of the 
concession right of holders neglecting to pay the mining tax, as 
required by the mining law, being enforced, a number of such, 
having no hope of developing their mines, reported to the 
authorities concerned the abandonment of their concessions. The 
result was that, although the amount of tax on mining districts 
decreased, the amount of the tax on production increased along with 


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the development of actual exploitation, as shown in the following 
table :— 


December, 1011. 


Year 

Tax on Mining 
Districts 

Tax on 
Production 

Tax on 
Placer 

Total 


Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

1911 .... 

97,424 

39,184 

24,447 

161.056 

1910.... 

119,478 

34,103 

15,290 

168.871 

Increase ( + ) orl 
Decrease (—) J ' 

- 22,054 

+ 5,081 

4- 9,157 

- 7,816 


47. Fishing Tax. 

The fishing tax, which was created in 1909 by the ex-Korean 
Government under the Protectorate regime, was imposed on the basis 
of the value of products and the area of the fishing concession, in the 
case of a concession being given to a person. This tax on fishing 
permits or licences was levied according to gear and the nature of 
the fishing. All the fishing taxes were collected by means of revenue 
stamps. 

After the Annexation, the Fishery Regulations being amended, 
the Law of Fishing Tax was also amended by Seirci or Governor- 
General’s Decree No. 1, issued in February, 1911. The provisions 
of the new fishing tax law are practically the same as those 
provided in the previous law, but the former adopted the tax rates 
progressively differentiating in the several classes, according to 
increases of value of yield, while the latter maintained a uniform 
rate proportioned to the value of products. In addition, the new tax 
law is intended to secure greater justice and equity by applying the 
experience obtained from the operation of the old law. The general 
condition of the fishing tax obtaining for the fiscal year 1911, 
compared with the preceding fiscal year, is given below. 


Year 

Fishing 

Concessions 

Fishing 

Permits 

Fisning 

Licences 

Total 

No. of 
Fishers 

Amount 
of Tax 

1 No. of 
| Fishers 

Amount 
| of Tax 

No. ot 
Fishers 

Amount 
of Tax 

No. of ! 
Fishers 

Amount 
of Tax 

1911. ■ ■ - 

1,576 

Yen 

9,523 

1,106 

Yen 

6,403 

7,718 

Yen 

15,597 

10,399 

Jen 

31,524 

1910 . . . . 

594 

5,308 

647 

4,500 

8,437 

18,440 j 

9.678 

28.248 

Increase (+) or I 
Decrease (—) ] ' ! 

4-982 

4-4,216 

4-458 

4-1,903 

-719 

-2,843 

4-721 

+ 3,276 


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48. Inland Revenue Collection. 

The treatment of internal state taxes in the Peninsula was 
formerly conducted according to the provisions of the State Tax 
Collection Law, promulgated by the ex-Korean Government. But, 
the law being operative on Koreans only, it could not be executed 
upon Japanese neglecting to pay the tax. Furthermore, the law 
not only regarded the tax collector who, acting in an official 
capacity, failed in his duties, as being on the same footing as a tax 
payer neglecting payment, but the provisions for punishment still 
retained flogging, which is quite contrary to present conditions. 
Thus the need for the modification of this law being keenly felt, a 
Law of State Tax Collection was promulgated by Seirci No. 14, 
issued in November, 1911, and Detailed Knforcing Regulations were 
promulgated on the same date. This Law and the Regulations 
concerning it came into force on January 1, 1912, and in them the 
general provisions of the State Tax Collection Law of Japan proper 
have been adopted, so that Koreans and Japanese residents are alike 
subject to the same. The differences in the Law operating in the 
Peninsula, however, are that two per cent, of the amount of tax 
collected by Village Head-men is to go to the Village, that the 
property seized from a person neglecting payment of the tax must 
be sold on a free contract, if the value of such property does not 
exceed 50 yen, and so on. Enforcement of this law being carried 
out, the negligence often shown before in the payment of the mining 
tax has been practically done away with. The tax collection is 
being carried out very smoothly in every province, especially since 
the enforcement of the new State Tax Collection Law. The result 
of the collection of the state taxes during the fiscal year 1911, 
according to the various items, is shown in the following table :— 


Taxes 

Amount 

of 

Estimate 

Amount 
of actual 
Receipts 

Percentage of 
actual Receipts 
as compared 
with Estimate 

Percentage 
cf actual 
Receipts 
for preced¬ 
ing year 

1 

Percentage 

of Increase 

Land Tax .... 

Yen 

6)694,892 

Yen 

6,648,490 

99 

97 

2 

House Tax .... 

704,555 

699,187 

99 

91 

8 

Building Tax . . . 

161,556 

139,633 

92 

73 

19 

Liquor Tax .... 

267,630 

260,035 

99 

92 

7 

Tobacco Tax . . . 

298,441 

291,647 

97 

94 

3 

Salt Tax. 

28,063 

25,956 

92 

68 

24 


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(Continued) 


Taxes 

Amount 

of 

Estimate 

Amount 
of actual 
Receipts 

Percentage of 
actual Receipts 
as compared 
with Estimate 

Percentage 
of actual 
Receipts 
for prece¬ 
ding year 

Increase of 

Percentage 

Mining Tax.... 

Yen 

261,564 

Yen 

190,210 

72 

58 

14 

Other Taxes. . . . 

23,374 

22,207 

95 

67 

28 

Total. 

8.430.044 

8.277,375 

98 

94 

4 


Under the old regime of the Korean Government, during which 
official extortion was most commonly practised, the people generally 
were imbued with the idea that taxes were nothing but a means for 
the private enrichment of officials, and consequently paid the tax 
only under strong compulsion. Although, after the appointment of 
a Japanese Financial Adviser, a certain improvement was made in 
the Revenue Stations, and in the method of tax collection on one 
hand, and every possible effort to explain to the people their duty as 
to payment of taxes and the use of the moneys so collected, was 
exerted by the authorities concerned and the local committees specially 
appointed for that purpose on the other, yet centuries of abuse by 
local magistrates made a certain class of the people conclude that 
the Japanese appointed to the Revenue Stations simply collected the 
tax and carried the proceeds to Japan. After the Annexation, the 
transfer of the collection of inland revenue to the Local Governments 
from the Inland Revenue Stations was especially welcomed by the 
Koreans, who were accustomed to respect local authorities and were 
averse to paying taxes or public dues other than those for local 
government, and the material well-being of the people being much 
advanced by the encouragement of industries and agriculture, and by 
better administration, the people generally have come to understand 
the true nature of taxation. Now, not only has a certain class of 
the people, accustomed hitherto to pay the tax only under flogging, 
a tendency willingly to fulfil the tax obligation, but Village Head¬ 
men or other inferior officials participating in the tax collection, who 
previously often regarded their filchings from public dues as part of 
their proper income, became ashamed of their old practice and would 
frequently advance their own moneys for tax payers failing to pay 
the tax within the specified period. 


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49. Customs Tariff. 

The customs receipts arc a safe and steady source of revenue to 
the Peninsula, and stand next to the land tax. The net receipts 
from this source are mostly in excess of the estimates. The following 
table shows the customs receipts estimated, and the net receipts 
collected, from imports and exports during the six years since the 
inauguration of the Japanese Protectorate in the Peninsula. 


Year 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

Customs Duties! 

Estimated . .J 

Yen 

850,000 

Yen 

2,221,219 

Yen 

2,454,639 

Yen 

3,123,015 

Yen 

3,127(874 

Yen 

3,122,303 

Net Receipts . . 

2,112,664 

3,076,014 

3,177,837 

3,012,126 

3,596,126 

4,061,875 


The steady increase of the customs receipts is undoubtedly due 
to the immense growth of the foreign trade of the Peninsula in recent 
years, as the result of the expansion of productive industries and 
agriculture, and advancement of various public works. The con¬ 
siderable increase for the fiscal year 1911 is partly owing to the 
abolition of exemption of import duties on matcri.'ds for railway 
construction and military use. 

The customs duties are principally fixed in accordance with 
conventional rates. These rates arc specified, for the most part, in 
the Treaties concluded respectively with Japan, Great Britain, 
Germany, France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Belgium and Denmark. 
The actual conventional rates, in accordance with the most favoured 
nation clause, work out at 5, 8, 10, and 20 per cent, ad valorem. 

As to export duty, all native goods or products, other than gold or 
silver coins or bullion, coins of other metals, gold dust, plants and 
samples in reasonable quantities, are subjected to an ad valorem duty 
of 5 per cent. 

In order to encourage the investment of foreign capital in 
mining development in Korea, import duties on machinery, instru¬ 
ments, explosives and chemicals necessary for mining gold (including 
placer gold), silver or copper, and export duties on copper and 
concentrates of gold, silver or copper, were abolished by a law 
promulgated on August 19, 1908. 

As the sequel of the Annexation, the Treaties providing the 
conventional tariff being relinquished, the Imperial tariff may be 


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extended to the Peninsula in lieu of it. But a sudden change in 
the tariff would not only affect the trade interests of foreign powers 
in Korea, but would also cause a radical change in the economic 
relations between Japan and Korea. Consequently, it has been 
determined that the customs tariff and tonnage duties hitherto 
existing in Korea shall be maintained for the next ten years, by 
Seirci No. 4, issued on August 29, 1910. 


50. Stamp Receipts. 

The taxes, fees and other receipts, collected by means of stamps, 
are more than 50 in all. 

The taxes and fees of the same nature newly created during the 
fiscal year 1911 are : the company registration tax, shooting licence 
fees, census registration examination fees, application fees for a copy 
of census registration, fees required for report of temporary domicile, 
etc. The receipts from the revenue stamps arc on the increase with 
the gradual advancement of the general standard of living and 
economic growth, so that the total amount from stamp receipts for 
the fiscal year 1911 reached 920,676 yen, showing an increase of 
more than 39 per cent, over the estimate for the same fiscal year. 


51. Receipts from Public Undertakings and State 
Properties. 

Amongst receipts belonging to this category, those derived 
from railways, posts, telegraphs and telephones, for the fiscal year 
1910, were transmitted to the general account of the Imperial 
Treasury of Japan as in previous years. But the returns from 
railways, posts, telegraphs and telephones, for and after 1911, being 
included in the Special Account of the Government-General of Chosen, 
the receipts from all public undertakings and state properties in the 
Peninsula have become part of the revenue of the Government-General. 
The returns from items belonging to this category being estimated 
at 13,047,468 yen, there is an increase of 2,170,869 yen as against 
the preceding fiscal year. This increase is principally occasioned 
by the extension of the traffic line of the railway, expansion of 
post, telegraph and other communication facilities, the recovery 
of the ginseng monopoly, growth of the government salt under¬ 
taking, and the completion of the extension work of the Hcijo 


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( Pyongyang ) coal mining. The following table shows further 
particulars of the receipts from Government undertakings and State 
properties :— 


Description 

1 

Estimate 

for 1912 

Estimate 

for 1911 

Increase 

Decrease 

Railways. 

Yen 

7,.334,904 

Yen 

5,907,013 

Yen 

1,427,891 

Yen 

Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones 

2,917,480 

2,482,024 

435,456 

— 

Heijo (Pyongyang) Coal Mine . 

957,770 

864,269 

93*501 

— 

Printing Office. 

408,675 

460,352 

— 

51,677 

Water-works Undertakings. . . 

263,393 

242,110 

21,283 

— 

Hospitals. 

— 

•230,187 

— 

230,187 

Weights and Measures .... 

186,379 

167,210 

19,169 

— 

Brick and Earthen Pipe Manu-1 
facture.J 

126,525 

139,056 

— 

12,531 

Ginseng Monopoly. 

382,300 

98,298 

284,002 

— 

Salt Manufacture. 

214,098 

88,447 

125,651 

— 

Lumber Undertaking .... 

52,952 

70,54.3 

— 

17,591 

Forest Products. 

105,702 

57,000 

48,702 

— 

Publication of Text books and") 
Calendar.J 

40,255 

39,628 

627 

— 

Sale of State Properties .... 

14,080 

11,712 

2,368 

— 

Sale of Articles made by Convicts 

42,955 

18,750 

24,205 

— 

Total. 

13,047,468 

10.876.599 

2,170.869 

— 


As to the public properties belonging to the Government, lands, 
buildings and others, scattered throughout the Peninsula, were in 
rather a confused state. After the Annexation, the Government- 
General deeming it of urgent necessity to make a thorough investiga¬ 
tion and readjustment of those public properties, a plan for carrying 
out such investigation in four years’ consecutive work from the 
fiscal year 1911 was decided upon, and the actual work of investiga¬ 
tion and survey was commenced by despatching the Government- 
General surveyors to North and South Kankyo Provinces, 34,370 yen 
being defrayed from the ordinary expenditure of 1911. Such 
progress has been made that the work in North Kankyo Province and 
in half of South Kankyo Province has already been completed. For 
places thus surveyed registration books are to be compiled. 

Public properties having scientific or historical interest are to be 
specially treated with a view to their preservation after investiga¬ 
tion. 


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52. Public Loans. 

, The public loans and other debts belonging to the Special 
Account of the Government-General amounted to 21,175,422 yen at 
the end of the fiscal 3 ’ear 1910 (March 31, 1911). During the 
fiscal year 1911 two loans amounting to 10,000,000 yen were 
raised, and the total public loans and debts outstanding at the end 
of the fiscal year 1911 (March 31, 1912) reached 31,175,422 yen, 
the details of which are given in the following table :— 


Description 

Amount 

1 J 

Date of Issue 
or 

Creditors 

'oal 

■si 

Date of Complete 


C 

Borrowing 



Redemption 


Yen 




Years 


1st Public Undertakings! 
Loan.J 

5.000,(100 

64 

March, 1906 

Industrial Bank 
of Japan 

5 

March, 1916 

2nd Public Undertakings! 
Loan.J 

12,963,920 

6} 

December, 1908 

Industrial Bank 
of Japan 

Deposit Section of 

10 

December, 1933 

Public Works Loan . . 

1,000,000 

O/o 

December, 1908 

Finance Depart¬ 
ment cf Japan 

5 

December, 1923 

Loan issued for Solatium! 






Within 20 years 

given to Superintend- ( 
ents of Estate of ex-L 

116,825 

5% 

June, 1910 

Chosen Bank 


from the date of 

Imperial Household .) , 
Temporary Loans for) 






Within 3 years 

Government-General’s ? ] 

2,094,677 

5% 

March, 1911 

Chosen Bank 


from the date of 

Special Account . .' 




borrowing 

Public Works Loan . . 

2,500,000 

54 

September, 1911 Chosen Bank 


» i 

Public Works Loan. . 

7,500,000 

6% 

March, 1912 

1 

Chosen Bank 


»r 

Totals . . . . 

31.176.422 






Of the loans raised during the fiscal year 1911, 2,500,000 yen 
was borrowed from the Chosen Bank at the interest of five and a 
half per cent, and 7,500,000 yen from the same bank, but at the 
interest of 6 per cent, owing to the general rise in the market price 
of the loan. The moneys raised by these loans were to be employed 
in road construction, railway construction and improvement, and 
harbour improvements. Although the total of loans to be raised 
for the fiscal year 1911 was fixed at 12,324,199 yen in the budget 
for the same year, the amount actually raised was only 10 , 000,000 
yen, a sum proportionate to the degree of advancement of the above- 
mentioned public works. 


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53. Investigation for Increasing Revenue Sources. 

As often alluded to in the previous Annual Reports, even the 
annual ordinary expenditure of the Government is hardly met by 
the revenue raised in the Peninsula. 

However, measures to create new revenues for the State by 
investigating possible sources, and thereby encouraging natives to 
undertake suitable industries, have not been neglected. Taxes on 
liquors and tobacco, which constitute very important items of 
revenue in most countries, were entirely unknown in Korea until 
very recently. Yet the Koreans consume much home-made tobacco 
and liquor, besides a considerable amount of similar imported 
products. The Koreans annually consume 300,000,000 kin of salt, 
200,000,000 kin being produced in the Peninsula, the deficit being 
met by importing foreign salt. But, owing to the infancy of the 
salt industry in Korea and its costly process of manufacture, the 
domestic salt would soon be replaced by the importation of Chinese 
salt unless some measures were taken. The first stage of investigat¬ 
ing the tobacco, liquor and salt .industries being completed, the 
liquor tax and tobacco tax were created in 1909, and the manufac¬ 
ture of salt by natural evaporation on a large scale was inaugurated 
by the Government. In order to foster revenue sources by 
invigorating the above-mentioned industries, investigation and 
improvement of these industries are still being pursued. 


A. Tobacco Industry. 

An investigation of the principal tobacco cultivating districts 
throughout the Peninsula was completed in 1911, when investigation 
of the quality and amount of annual production in several districts 
of the provinces of South Zenla, North Keisho and Kogcn was made. 
With regard to the investigation of the manufacture and sale of 
tobacco, a commission having been despatched to the principal 
Prefectures and Districts, such as Gishil ( Wijti), Kunsan, Mokpo, Anshii, 
Zenshu, Koshil, Gensan, Seishin, Junten, etc., a minute investigation of the 
tobacco manufacture and dealers in it has been steadily carried out. 

On the other hand, in order to stimulate improvement in 
tobacco cultivated by private individuals, 22 districts in the various 
provinces were selected, by the end of the fiscal year 1911, as special 
tobacco cultivation districts, in which 302 of the best cultivators were 


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specially appointed as models for others. These districts were again 
divided into 12 tobacco cultivation districts, to each of which a 
Government technical expert was appointed. Under his guidance 
and instruction the model cultivators have to plant improved 
seedlings and carry out manuring and drying, and, as model 
cultivators, arc also expected to show the improved method of 
cultivation to their fellow villagers. Model cultivators are also 
encouraged to improve their methods by monetary awards being 
given to those producing tobacco of a better quality, and 284 model 
cultivators received such awards in 1911, the value amounting to 
719 yen in all. Tobacco cultivators in other principal tobacco 
districts were led to form guilds, by which improvement in cultiva¬ 
tion, greater facility in securing funds, consignment sales, accom¬ 
modation with improved tools, etc., are to be obtained by mutual 
assistance. Thus, improvement in the tobacco cultivation in the 
Peninsula, by creating model cultivators and forming guilds, is 
being effected. 

As to experimental work in tobacco cultivation, an Ex¬ 
perimental Tobacco Farm was established in Taiko and Taiden 
several years ago, with a view to improvement of the native tobacco 
and the acclimatizing of the American yellow Orinoco and improved 
Japanese seed. In the fiscal year 1911, the area devoted to 
experimental cultivation was extended, and the varieties of experi¬ 
ments were also increased. Special attention was paid to increasing 
the quantity of leaf from the native tobacco, and to advancing the 
qualities in the case of that of Japanese origin. The results obtained 
by this experimental work arc to be introduced to the individual 
cultivator. American yellow Orinoco proving adaptable to the Korean 
soil and climate by experiments carried on for several years, the 
authorities concerned are now preparing to appoint certain dis¬ 
tricts for the plantation of the American species. Other tobaccos 
of foreign origin, such as Egyptian or Turkish, have also l)een 
experimented with and are showing fairly good prospects. 

With the object of testing the quality of tobacco cultivated on 
the Experimental Farm, as well as of stimulating individual tobacco 
manufacturers, nine kinds of cigarettes were made—three with mouth¬ 
pieces, three with gold tips, and three plain. These cigarettes were 
distributed among the Monopoly Bureau of Japan proper and 
Government Offices in Korea, in order to obtain the views and 
criticisms of their technical experts. Besides the above-mentioned 
experimental plantation and manufacture, trial fermentation of 
tobacco leaves was also conducted in 1911 by a modern process. 


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Although the disagreeable smell and taste peculiar to native tobacco 
could not be thoroughly overcome by fermentation, a better lustre 
was obtained in the colouring. However, it is expected that the 
objectionable smell and taste will be destroyed on further experiments 
being made. 


B. Kxpcrimcntnl Liquor Manufacture. 

An Experimental Brewing Station, which was established in 
1909 at Maho, in the vicinity of Keijo, by the Finance Department, 
with a view to studying out improved processes for the manufacture 
of liquors and thereby augment a source of revenue for the State, is 
conducting experimental work in the improvement of native 
liquors— Yakuchu (brewed liquor), So-chu (distilled liquor), unrefined 
brewed liquor ( Takn-chu) and mixed liquor ( Hon son-chu) —which 
quickly become sour and unhealthy, and on the brewing of fruit 
wines and other liquors. 

In these experimental works, special attention is paid to 
improvement of yeast or ferment of liquors, reduction of cost of 
manufacture, increase of duration, removal of unpleasant smell, etc. 
As to whether the liquors made by the improved process conducted 
by the Experimental Station will meet the popular taste, further 
experiments will show. 

With the increase of Japanese residents and of Koreans drinking 
Japanese sake, the consumption of this liquor has been considerably 
increased, so that the amount of production reached 30,000 koku in 
1911, besides an import of 29,800 koku. 

Japanese sake manufactured in Korea being often affected by 
the climatic conditions, the Japanese manufacturers in the Peninsula 
meeting bankruptcy are by no means few in number. Furthermore, 
the cost of production being very high, the Experimental Station is 
also making experiments in the manufacture of sake with a view to 
furnishing reliable information to sake manufacturers in the Penin¬ 
sula. The Station is now experimenting with the preparation of 
“moto", or sake yeast, its mashing process, and sterilization, to 
discover which is best suited to the climatic conditions and the 
water of the Peninsula. Other experiments in wines from fruits are 
also giving better results. During the fiscal year 1911, 404 koku of 
Japanese sake, 72 koku of so-chu (distilled liquor), 5 koku of apricot 
wine and several koku of strawberry wine were produced. 

Investigation and experimental work in salt manufacture will 
be treated later on under the heading, Government Undertakings. 


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54. Treasuries. 

The handling of cash in connection with the revenues and 
expenditure of the Government is conducted by the Bank of Chosen 
and its branches, by the Agricultural and Industrial Banks and their 
branches, and by certain Post Offices. 125 Post Offices were newly 
authorized to deal with government cash during the fiscal year 
1911. Thus the treasury organs in the Peninsula existing at the 
end of the fiscal year 1911 (March 31, 1912) were, a central 
treasury conducted by the Bank of Chosen, 23 sub-treasuries conduct¬ 
ed by the Branch Offices of the Bank of Chosen and the Agricultural 
and Industrial Banks and their branches, and 396 Post Offices 
acting as treasury agencies in places where sub-treasuries are not 
yet established. The following table shows the amounts thus 
handled during the fiscal year 1911 as compared with the preceding 
fiscal year : — 


Description 

1911 

1910 

r Banks. 

24 

24 

Treasuries . .) 



(Post Offices .... 

396 

271 


Yen 

Yen 

(Handled by Banks . . 

44,052,158 

13,985,419 

Revenue . . < 



(Handled by Post Offices 

8,231,307 

7,993,283 

Total . 

52,284,466 

21*978.702 

(Handled by Banks . . 

40,878,831 

15,709,968 

Expenditure .) 



( Handled by Post Offices 

5,293,480 

2,105,G87 

Total . 

46.172511 

17.815,655 

(Handled bv Banks . . 

84.921.989 

29,696.387 

Total .] 



(Handled by Post Offices 

13524,787 

10,098.970 

Grand Total. 

98.466,776 

39.794.357 


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55. Public Audit. 

The system employed in auditing the State Accounts during the 
Protectorate regime was somewhat complex. The financial accounts 
of the Residency-General and its affiliated offices were subjected to 
the examination and verification of the Audit Board of the Imperial 
Government; those of the ex-Korean Government and its affiliated 
offices to the auditing of an Audit Bureau which was created in the 
Finance Department of the ex-Korean Government. This dual 
system of State auditing in the Peninsula being unified as a sequel of 
the Annexation, verification of all financial accounts of the Govern¬ 
ment-General and its affiliated offices and corporations receiving state 
subsidies have been brought under the charge of the Third Division of 
the Audit Board of the Imperial Government. The auditing of 
financial accounts in the Peninsula is carried out by submitting 
documents of accounts and their appended vouchers for examination 
and verification by the Audit Board, and by personal examination of 
the Auditing Officials of the Board occasionally despatched to the 
Peninsula. 

However, the Governor-General may, by virtue of his discretion¬ 
ary power or of the authority specially delegated to him, exercise 
the power relating to the audit of financial accounts of the govern¬ 
ment offices in the Peninsula. When the Special Account of the 
Government-General was established in October, the Audit Board of 
the Imperial Government entrusted to the Governor-General the 
auditing of accounts for articles belonging to the Government, or 
of cash accounts other than those belonging to accounts of revenues 
or expenditures of the Government-General and its affiliated offices. 
The Governor-General in turn entrusted directors of important 
affiliated offices with the auditing of accounts relating to articles 
belonging to their respective offices, and of cash accounts other than 
those apportioned in the estimate submitted by their respective 
offices. 


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VI. CURRENCY, BANKING, etc 


56. Amalgamation of Currency System. 

As full)' stated in the last Annual Report, the reform of the 
Korean currency, which was in the most chaotic state, was commenced 
in 1905 and completed in February, 1911. The metallic coins of the 
reformed currency, except the copper cash, minted in the Imperial 
Mint at Osaka according to the currency regulations promulgated by 
the ex-Korean Government, are similar in quality and size to the 
Japanese coins, except that the national emblems and era of Korea 
replace those of Japan. In the sequel of Annexation, it was decided 
that, as the currency system of Korea is identical with that provided 
by the Currency Regulation of the Imperial Government, the coins 
based on the Currency Regulation of the ex-Korean Government 
should not be minted after February, 1911, and that those already 
in circulation should be withdrawn by exchanging them against 
Imperial Currency. Thus the Korean currency system being merged 
into that of the Imperial currency system, all expenses incurred for 
the Korean currency reforms, which formerly found place in the 
Special Account of the Government-General of Chosen, have been 
transferred to a Special Account of the Currency Readjustment Fund 
of the Imperial Government proper by Law No. 11, issued in March, 
1911. 

The Korean coins withdrawn from circulation are to be 
re-minted in Osaka as Imperial coins and reshipped to the Peninsula. 
The coins thus withdrawn during the ten months from March to 
December, 1911, arc shown in the following table :— 


March - December, 1911. 


Description 

Gold coins 

Silver coins 

Nickel coins 

Copper cash 

Total 

Value of Korean coins) 
withdrawn . . .) 

Yen 

1,944,600 

Yen 

941,124 

Yen 

76,194 

Yen 

421,600 

Yen 

3.383.418 


With the general economic growth in the Peninsula, especially 
after Annexation, the demand for subsidiary coins in the interior 
increased, and in October, 1911, subsidiarj- coins amounting in value 


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to 500,000 yen were deposited by the Imperial Treasury with the 
Chosen Bank, which distributed them among the Agricultural and 
Industrial Banks, and People’s Co-operative Banks. Furthermore, 
the extension of the circulation of the Imperial coins by substituting 
them for the Korean being very smoothly carried out, the amount of 
Korean subsidiary coins and copper cash, circulating at the end of 
1911, decreased by more than 1,555,000 yen as against those 
circulating at the end of the preceding year, while the circulation of 
the new subsidiary coins increased by more than 2,324,000 yen, as 
shown in the following table :— 


I 

Year 

New subsidiary 
coins 

Korean subsidiary 
coins 

Old copper 
cash 

Total 

1911. 

Yen 

2,593,920 

Yen 

4,947,826 

Yen 

583,715 

Yen 

8.125,461 

1910. 

209,024 

0,152,595 

934,070 

7.358,295 

Increase ( + ) or"! 

Decrease (—) J ’ * * 

+ 2,324,890 

- 1,204,709 

- 350,961 

+ 769,166 

1 


57. Bank Notes. 

Side by side with the economic and financial growth of the 
Peninsula, the issue of bank notes increased year by year, although 
their volume often fluctuated temporarily with the varying economic 
conditions. 

Especially during the year 1911, the active transaction in grain 
caused by the abundant crops of agricultural produce, redemption 
of Imperial Donation Funds belonging to those preferring cash 
payment, and the progress of public engineering works, accelerated 
the issue of bank notes so much that at one time it reached over 
27,000,000 yen. But, in the latter part of the year, the retention of 
crops by farmers in the hope of a better market later on, and the 
returning of funds employed in the import trade to the bank, caused 
the bank gradually to decrease the issue of bank notes. Yet the 
total issue at the end of December, 1911, amounted to 25,006,540 
yen, showing an increase of 4,842,640 yen, as compared with the 
figures at the end of the previous year. The issue of bank notes 
existing at the end of December, each year since 1905, is shown in 
the following table :— 


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92 


Year 

Amount of 

Amount of Reserves in yen 

Notes issued 

Specie 

Securities 

Total 

1 905 . 

Yen 

8,125,207 

2,828,000 

5,297,267 

Yen 

8,125567 

1 906 . 

9,224,400 

3,266,000 

5,958,400 

9.224.400 

1 907 . 

12,805,300 

4,-582,506 

8,222,794 

12.805,300 

1 908 . 

10,.385,900 

3,504,673 

6,881,227 

10.358,900 

1 909 . 

13,439,700 

5,046,500 

8,393,200 

13,439.700 

1910. 

20,163,900 

7,025,750 

13,138,150 

20.163.900 

1911. 

25,006,540 

8,836,990 

16,169,550 

25.006.540 


Such a considerable increase in the issue of bank notes is 
undoubtedly due to the general advance in the standard of living of 
the people. This is particularly true with the issue of one yen notes. 
The total amount of this note at the end of 1911 reached 10,501,700 
yen, or 40 per cent, of the total amount of all bank notes, a bank 
note of small amount being best fitted to the standard of living of 
present-day Koreans. 


58. Bank of Chosen. 

The new organic regulations of the Bank of Chosen, promulgated 
by Law No. 48 in March, 1911, and coming into force in August, 
replaced those enacted by the ex-Korean Government in July, 1909. 
The name “ Bank of Han-kuk ” has been changed to “ Bank of 
Chosen ” ; and the bank has been authorized to conduct the functions 
of a central bank in the Peninsula as hitherto, and has been brought 
under the control and supervision of the Government-General of 
Chosen, and the Minister of Finance of the Imperial Government of 
Japan proper. 

Regarding the issue of bank notes, the Bank of Chosen is 
authorized to issue any amount of notes against a corresponding 
reserve of specie and bullion, gold or silver, or against bank notes 
issued by the Bank of Japan. But the silver reserve must not exceed 
one-fourth of the total reserve. In addition, bank notes issued on 
the security of State bonds, or other bonds and commercial bills of a 
reliable nature, originally limited to 20,000,000 yen, have been 
extended to the limit of 30,000,000 yen by the new regulations. In 
case of necessity, the Bank is permitted to issue notes beyond the 
maximum above-mentioned, with the proviso, however, that all such 
notes are subject to a tax of at least five per cent, per annum. 


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The authorized capital of the Bank is 10,000,000 yen , out of 
which 2,500,000 yen was called for as the first payment in 1909, 
when the Bank was first created. The economic growth in the 
Peninsula, especially after Annexation, and the conditions of the 
money market caused the Bank in April, 1911, to call for the second 
payment amounting to another 2,500,000 yen. In December, when 
the financial world demanded larger money supplies, as is customary 
at the close of each year, the Bank borrowed 2,000,000 yen from the 
Bank of Japan in order to steady the money market. 

The Bank has its head office in Kcijd and branch offices or 
detached offices in the principal towns in which provincial govern¬ 
ments are seated, or in open ports. They numbered 14 in all 
(including a branch office in Osaka, Japan, and Antung, China) at the 
end of 1911. With the permission of the Governor-General, the 
Branch Office of the Yokohama Specie Bank at London was assigned 
in December, 1911, the English agent of the Bank of Chosen. As 
already referred to in the section on the currency system, the Bank 
also arranged in the same year with the Agricultural and Industrial 
Banks and their branches or detached offices, and the People’s Co¬ 
operative Banks to act as its agents, so far as the distribution of 
Japanese subsidiary coins was concerned. 

The general features of the Bank of Chosen at the end of 
December, each year since its establishment, are as follows :— 


Year 

No. of 

Capital 

Government Subsidies 

Deposits by 

Branches 

Authorized 

Paid up 

Shares sub¬ 
scribed for 

Advances 

made 

Government 

1909 

13 

Yen 

10,000,000 

Yen 

2,500,000 

Yen 

750,000 

Yen 

1,230,000 

Yen 

6,625,183 

1910 

14 

10,000,000 

2,500,000 

750,000 

1,220,000 

5,000,000 

1911 

14 

10,000,000 

5,000,000 

1,-500,000 

1,210,000 

— 


(Continued) 


Year 

Ordinary 

Loan 

Loan to 

Ordinary 

Bills 

Reserve 

Profit or Loss 

Deposits 

to Bank 

Government 

Loans 

Discounted 

Fund 

First 

term 

Second 

term 

1909 

Yen 

7,631,639 

Yen 

500,000 

Yen 

7,979,911 

Yen 

1,931,809 

Yen 

1,824,156 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

1910 

5,960,651 

— 

7,329,355 

2,542,419 

4,729,093 

2,650 

26,240 

39,857 

1911 

6,978,281 

2,000,000 

4,594,677 

4,435,617 

5,668,129 

16,150 

7.3,830 

135,170 


Regarding the dividend, the Government guaranteed for a fixed 
time a dividend of six per cent, by providing that, should the dividend 
on the shares owned by persons other than the Government not 


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94 


reach six per cent, per annum, the Government would make good the 
deficit for five years after the establishment of the Bank. The bank 
began business in November, 1909, and received 110,714 yen from the 
Government as subsidy toward the dividend for the second term of 
the business year 1909, 31,010 yen and 19,642 yen for the first and 
second terms of the business year 1910, and 10,170 yen for the first 
term of the business year 1911. The bank, however, so successfully 
conducted its business that it was able to dispense with government 
aid when declaring the dividend for the second term of the business 
year 1911, i. c., two years after its establishment. 


59. Clearing House. 

As a result of the economic and financial growth, the use of bills 
of exchange in trading circles increased year by year. Therefore, 
in order to facilitate commercial transactions as well as to prevent 
the abuse of an indiscriminate issue of bills, a Clearing House was 
established in Kcijo on July 1, 1910. A Clearing House Association 
was also created in April, 1911, in the port of Fusan, while several 
branches of banking houses in Chemulpo organized an association of 
the same nature in the same year. The following table shows the 
general features of the work conducted by the above-mentioned 
clearing house or associations during the year 1911 :— 


Name of Clearing House 

Number of 
Checks & Bills 

Amount 

Balance 
of Exchange 

Kcijo Clearing House. 

167,050 

Yen 

50,527,294 

Yen 

17,015,109 

Jinscn Clearing House Association 

21,921 

9,412,814 

4,171,921 

Fusan Clearing House Association 

58,953 

12,615,433 

3,403,793 

Total. 

247.924 

72355,541 

24 £90,823 

1910* . 

59,416 

20,489,581 

7,649,447 


60. Agricultural and Industrial Banks. 

The gradual progress of industries and agriculture in the 
various localities stimulated the expansion of the business conducted 
by the Agricultural and Industrial Banks, and vice versa. The 
working funds of the Banks were at first supplied by the calling in 

* Figures relating to 1910 belong exclusively to the Kcijo Clearing House. 


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of instalments of the authorized capital, but more funds being 
urgently needed, debentures amounting to 1,000,000 yen were issued 
in 1911 through the Oriental Development Company. The main 
business functions of these Banks are primarily to furnish loans, 
redeemable by annual instalments during a long term or a fixed 
period, for the purpose of encouraging agricultural and industrial 
undertakings. However, as monetary organs are not yet sufficiently 
developed in the Peninsula, these banks have been authorized to 
engage in discounting commercial bills or others appertaining to 
ordinary banking functions as auxiliary business, with the permis¬ 
sion of the Governor-General. The agricultural methods of the 
Korean people being rather elemental, loans made for agricultural 
or industrial undertakings did not reach any considerable amount 
at the beginning. But recently, especially since the Annexation, an 
increasing demand has arisen for funds for irrigation, civil engineer¬ 
ing, and other agricultural undertakings, so that loans made for 
these purposes have grown to a considerable amount, as shown in 
the following table. This feature proves that the economic condition 
of the Peninsula has reached a stage requiring the funds furnished 
by banks of this nature. 


Year 

Loans Redeemable by 
Annual Instalments 

Loans Redeemable 
at Fixed Periods 

Ordinary 

Bills 

Balance 
overdrawn 
in current 

Total 

Agricultural 

Purposes 

Industrial 

Purposes 

Agricultural 

Purposes 

[ . 1 

Industrial 

Purposes 

Loans 

Discounted 

deposit for 
commercial 
purposes 

1908 

Yen 

86,262 

ien 

17,060 

Yen 

43,464 

Yen 

7,765 

Yen 

1,394,639 

Yen 

1,102,251 j 

Yen 

30,134 

Yen 

2,681,575 

1909 

124,764 

309,475 

68,401 

31,745 

1,648,720 

1,898,592 

35,258 

4.116,949 

1910 

392,728 

556,495 

92,137 

46,882 

1,740,839 

3,45 / ,8 / 0 

57,773 

8.344,724 

1911 

865,927 

400,257 

149,206 

207,379 

2,031,801 

1 

4,803,182 

51,435 

8,509,467 


During the year 1911, there was no change in the number of 
Head Offices of the Agricultural and Industrial Banks, but there was 
an addition of three branch or detached offices. The general state 
of these banks at the end of the year 1911, as compared with that 
at the end of previous years, is shown in the following table :— 


Year 

No. of Banks 

Capital 

Government Subsidy 

Debentures 

Head 

Offices 

Branch or De¬ 
tached Offices 

Authorized 

Paid up 

Shares sub¬ 
scribed for 

Advances 

made 

issued 

1908 

6 

22 

Yen 

1,200,000 

Yen 

555,250 

Yen 

329,960 

Yen 

1,214,680 1 

Yen 

1,050,000 

1909 

6 

26 

1,200,000 




1,050,000 

1910 

6 

27 

1,200,000 



1,134,680 


1911 

6 

30 

1,200,000 

848,575 

329,960 

1,134,680 

1,870,000 


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96 


(Continued) 


Year 

Reserve Funds 

Balance of 

Balance of 

Balance of 

Profit 

Deposits 

! 

Loans 

Bills 

First term 

Second term 

1908 

Yen 

84,‘268 

Yen ' 

752,286 

Yen 

1,579,324 

Yen 

1,102,251 

Yen 

67,722 

Yen 

40,442 

1909 

114,889 

1,650,120 

2,218,353 

1,898,592 

28,059 

50,948 

1910 

144,925 

3,205,389 

2,886,854 

3,457,870 

29,406 

54,008 

1911 

185,238 

4,100,099 

.3,706,272 

4,803,183 

35,633 

86,848 


In the control or supervision of the business conducted by these 
banks, the Provincial Governor of the jurisdictional district also 
participated. Rut, in order to maintain uniformity in the supervi¬ 
sion of all banking business, the control or supervision of the 
business of the Agricultural and Industrial Banks has mostly been 
transferred to the Governor-General, the Detailed Regulations of the 
Agricultural and Industrial Banks being amended by an administra¬ 
tive ordinance, issued by the Governor-General in December, 1911. 


61. “ Chi ho Kinyu Kumiai.” 

(PEOPLE'S BANK) 

In order to facilitate the circulation of money, and thereby to 
encourage agricultural improvements among small farmers in the 
interior, the so-called “ Chiho Kinyu Kumiai,” or “ Local Monetary 
Circulation Associations ” were established as organs auxiliary to 
the Agricultural and Industrial Banks, in accordance with an 
Imperial Edict issued by the ex-Korean Government in July, 1907. 
These Associations were increased to 130 by the end of 1910, and 
30 more were established during the year 1911. That is to say, 
one association is now found to ever)' two districts on an average. 
Their undertakings, showing better results year by year, have already 
been effective in bringing about a comparatively low rate of interest 
in the local money markets, and an improvement in agricultural 
localities. In order to encourage consignment sale of agricultural 
products, the joint purchase of agricultural implements and fertilizers, 
and the warehousing conducted by Associations as a collateral 
business, 41 warehouses on a small scale were built in 1910 by the 
Government in important districts and rented to the nearest associa¬ 
tion, while 35 more were established during 1911. The general 
state of the business conducted by all the Associations existing at 
the end of 1911, compared with preceding years, is shown in the 
following table :— 


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December, 1911. 


Province 

No. of 
Associa¬ 
tions 

No. of 

Members 

Capita! 

Balance 

of 

Loans 

Reserve 

Funds 

Profits 

No. of 
warehouses 
lent by the 
Govern¬ 
ment 

Kciki . . . 


.7 

4,656 

Yen 

170,000 

Yea 

108,728 

Yen 

12,861 

Yen 

12,366 

7 

North Chfisci . 


7 

2,424 

70,000 

55,180 

6,848 

8,739 

5 

South Chnsci . 


14 

5,180 

140,000 

92,779 

17,740 

10,254 

8 

North Zcnla 


13 

6,193 

130,000 

113,048 

9,782 

11,919 

7 

South Zcnla . 


16 

6,773 

160,000 

173,846 

25,534 

17,858 

5 

North Kcisho . 

• 

15 

0,44(1 

150,000 

111,253 

10,520 

8,166 

8 

South Kcisho . 


12 

:ywo 

120,000 

81,819 

14,302 

8,062 

7 

Knkai . . . 


11 

4, 249 

110,'HH) 

99,597 

10,530 

9,950 

8 

South Hcian . 


11 

2,918 

110,000 

05,800 

14,709 

4,779 

3 

North Hcian . 


11 

3,075 

110,000 

32,123 

0,832 

5,582 

5 

Kogcn . . . 


y 

2,867 

90,000 

82,175 

11,030 

10,122 

4 

South Kinky >. 


n 

.‘1,77(1 

110,0(H) 

80,590 

9,426 

6,469 

7 

North Kinky 0 . 


5 

1,517 

50,000 

31,596 

2,924 

1,029 

•) 

Total . 


152 

51,933 

1,520.000 

1,178,594 

159.044 

115.891 

78 

1910. . . 


130 

43,747 

1,300,000 

762,816 

59,785 

103,073 

41 

1909. . . 


1(H) 

30,9% 

1,000,000 

492,697 

16,493 

47,688 

— 

1908. . . 


50 

1(1,993 

500,000 

210,878 

13,537 

16,593 

- 

1907. . . 


1) 

3,610 

90,000 

30,612 

— 

- 005 

— 


With regard to the control of these associations, although the 
Governor-General exercises the principal control, the Provincial 
Governors also participate in the preliminary supervision. In order 
to improve these associations still further, the control or supervision 
of these associations was more clearly defined by an administrative 
ordinance issued in December, 1911, by which permission of the 
Governor-General must be obtained, through the Provincial Governor, 
for making a change in the regulations of the associations, raising 
debentures, using reserve funds, etc. But the guiding and sujxrrvising 
of the business of the associations have been entrusted to Provincial 
Governors. 


62. Note Associations. 

With a view to preventing the abuses arising from the issue of 
Oum-pho [($* ff w) a kind of promissory note of crude form extensively 


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98 


used by native traders] as well as to facilitate money circulation 
among members, by mutually guaranteeing the promissory note or 
bill of exchange issued by a member, several Note Associations have 
been established under the Regulations of Note Associations 
promulgated in 1905 by the ex-Korean Government. The establish¬ 
ment of associations of this kind was very important in those days 
when banking facilities were not adequately provided. 

With the gradual growth of economic conditions, the volume of 
notes issued by members of the Associations is increasing year by 
year, in spite of the increase in banking houses, and the habit of 
using notes of modern form is gradually becoming general among the 
Korean trading classes in the important cities. At the end of 
December, 1911, the number of members of these Associations reached 
649, the amount of the bills guaranteed by the Associations was 
4,747,082yen, and the amount of the bills paid, 4,572,810 yen. The 
general condition of this business during the last six years is shown 
in the following table :— 


Year 

No. of 
Associa¬ 
tions 

No. of 
Members 

Capital. 

Reserve 

Funds 

Total 

Amount of 
Bills 

guaranteed 

Amount 

of 

Bills paid 

Amount of 
outstanding 
Bills 

guaranteed 

1906. . . . 

4 

201 

Yen 

260,000 

Yen 

5,550 

Yen 

1,363,879 

Yen 

823,729 

Yen 

539,590 

1907. . . . 

6 

433 

340,000 

18,920 

3,733,289 

3,245,069 

1,027,810 

1908. . . . 

6 

530 

330,000 

41,420 

3,857,430 

3,991,300 

893,940 

1909. . . . 

6 

580 

313,300 

51,683 

3,483,4.39 

3,573,014 

804,365 

1910. . . . 

8 

029 

313,300 

00,850 

3,762,484 

3,623,151 

943,697 

1911. . . . 

(j 

049 

313,300 

73,111 

4,747,082 

4,572,810 

1,117,970 


With the growth of banking facilities in recent years, the 
existence of these associations has become of less importance. 


63. Ordinary Banks. 

A. Japanese Banks. There arc two kinds of ordinary banks; 
those maintained by Japanese, and those by Koreans. The banking 
establishments conducted by Japanese in the Peninsula, at the end of 
the year 1911, were branches of the Dai-ichi Ginks, Hyakusanju Ginko, 
Juhachi Ginko and Suo Ginko, and the Mitsuyo Ginko which was 
established independently in Mitsuyo, South Keisho Province. These 
branches of Japanese Banks were originally established chiefly to 
facilitate money circulation among Japanese merchants in Kcijd and 


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the Treaty Ports. Koreans and Chinese transacting business with 
these Japanese banking houses are, however, increasing in number 
year by year. 

In addition, permission to establish an ordinary bank by 
Japanese in Taiko was given in 1911, which, however, was not opened 
during that year. The general business conditions of these banks at 
tbe end of December, 1911, as compared with preceding years, can 
be seen in the following table :— 


Year 

No. of Bank 

No. of [ No . of 

Capital 

Amount 
of cash 

Deposits 

Loans 

Profits 

Head Offices 
In In 

Japan Korea 

Branch 
| Offices 
!in Korea 

I 

Authorized 

Paid up 

provided 
in Korea 

1908 

4 1 

28 

Yen 1 
19,.'(00,IKK) 

Yen 

13,762,500 

Yen 

4,360,000 

Yen 

12,704,721 

Yen 

12,505,754 

Yen 

459,103 

1909 

4 1 

16 

19,300,000 

15,031,250 

4,850,000 

8,112,376 

8,090,756 

450,964 

1910 

4 1 

lti 

19,300,000 

15,706,250 

3,650,000 

7,484,652 

8,783,4:19 

180,259 

1911 

4 1 

16 

19,300,000 

16,300,000 

3,650,000 

7,316,182 

9,960,024 

171,243 


B. Korean Banks. The number of ordinary banks maintained 
by Koreans at the end of 1911 was three, namely, the Han-sang Bank, 
the Commercial Bank and the Han-il Bank, as was the case at the 
end of the preceding year. Each of these banks has several branches 
in the provinces. Among these banks, the Han-sang and Commercial 
Banks, being accommodated by a loan from the Government, have 
been placed under the control and supervision of the Government. 

The Han-sang Bank was authorized, by the Administrative 
Ordinance issued by the Governor-General in January, 1911, to increase 
its capital from 300,000 yen to 3,000,000_ycw, and to use the bonds 
granted to the Korean peerage from the Imperial Donation Fund 
at the time of Annexation as the capital stock of the bank. At the 
same time, the permission of the Governor-General, for the appoint¬ 
ment of Directors, treatment of dividends and reserve funds, is 
necessary. Thus, under the strict supervision of the Governor-General, 
it aims to expand the business of the bank as well as to afford 
appropriate protection for the property of native peers. 

The business conditions of these banks existing at the end of 
December, 1911, as compared with preceding years, are shown in the 
following table :— 


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100 


Year 

Banks 

Capital 

I 

Government 

Loans 

by 

Government 

Head Offices 

Branch 

Offices 

Authorized 

Paid up 

Shares 

1908 . . . . 

3 

5 

Yen 

950,000 

Yen 

251,500 

Yen 

Yen 

340,000 

1909. . . . 

3 

4 

1,300,000 

325,000 

29,813 

230,097 

1910. . . . 

3 

4 

1,300,000 

325,000 

29,813 

280,097 

1911.... 

3 

7 j 

| 4,000,000 

1,122,813 

29,813 

265,097 


(Continued) 


Year 

Reserve Funds 

Balance of 
Deposits 

Balance 

of 

Loans 

Bills 

discounted 

Profits 

1908 . . . . 

Yen 

90,339 

Yen 

738,666 

Yen | 

360,721 

Yen 

938,919 

Yen 

44,247 

1909 . . . . 

177,800 

1,376,123 

552,504 

1,175,617 

58,306 

1910 . . . . 

211,280 

2,195,112 

762,452 

1,741,336 

61,918 

1911.... 

140,000 

2,227,900 

692,025 

2,386,321 

75,727 


64. Interest Limitation Law. 

Hitherto an exorbitant rate of interest on money lent has 
prevailed in the Peninsula, so that 5 to 20 per cent, per month on 
an ordinary loan was commonly charged, especially in the interior 
where the rate was comparatively higher than in cities. Not only 
did this excessive rate of interest discourage money investment in 
productive industries, but those who “ respect their honest debts ” 
mostly became victims of usurers or pawnbrokers. This state of 
affairs could not be held altogether blameable as, in those days, 
banking or other money lending facilities, and measures for the protec¬ 
tion of property, were extremely inadequate. During the Protectorate 
regime, banking facilities were considerably increased by the establish¬ 
ment ol Agricultural and Imperial Banks with country branches, 
People’s Co-operative Banks and others, as well as by the reform of 
the currency system which was then in the most chronic state of 
debasement, and as the result of all this the credit system came to be 
more extensively' employed than before ; the circulation of money 
became much smoother, and the interest on loans gradually fell. 
Higher rates of interest still prevailing in money lending transactions 
among individuals, the so-called Interest Limitation Law was 
promulgated by Seirci No. 13 issued by the Governor-General in 
November, 1911. This law provides that the interest on a contract 


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loan below 100 yen (except a loan of less than 50 yen made by a 
pawnshop, and that of less than 30 yen made in a trading market) 
should not exceed 30 per cent, per annum, the interest on loans from 
100 yen to 1,000 yen should not be more than 25 per cent, per annum 
and that on a loan above 1,000 yen should not exceed 20 per cent, 
per annum. Any demand for interest exceeding the above-mentioned 
limits is not recognized as legal. This law coming into force as late 
as the first of November, 1911, the time elapsing has been too short 
for any marked results to manifest themselves, though doubtless by 
its means the evil practice of usury will be greatly checked, and the 
local money market become much smoother than before. 


65. Wages. 

The wages formerly paid to labourers in Korea were miserably 
low. These low wages, though due to the lowness of the standard 
of living, were the natural results of the uncertainty of payment. 
The wages were not only reduced by the large commission taken by 
an agent, but were often cut down by an employer after employ¬ 
ment, if not altogether unpaid. As a matter of fact, nobi ($ $), 
male and female slaves or serfs, existed until very recently.* Thus, 
labour or physical work was despised on account of the social status 
of the labouring classes, and as payment of wages was also very 
uncertain, most of the people became accustomed to being idle, and 
bore their consequent impoverishment quite contentedly. 

With the growth of various civil engineering works, following 
in the wake of the inauguration of the Protectorate regime, industrial 
expansion and development of communication facilities, wages had a 
tendency to increase, and labour was encouraged by the sureness of 
payment of wages, the authorities concerned in railway or road 
construction being especially careful to pay wages directly to the 
labourers themselves. After the Annexation, with the establishment 
of peace and order, life and property came into the enjoyment of 
more effective protection even in the remote interior, and farmers 
have been enabled to labour on public civil engineering works in 
addition to cultivating their own lands. 

As to female labour, Korean women generally dislike to engage 
in outdoor work or to leave home for work except laundry work 

* Although the sale of slaves was formally prohibited in Korea in June, 180-1, soon after the out¬ 
break of the Chino-Japanese war, when administrative reforms were carried out bv Japanese advisers, the 
slaves existing were still kept in bondage until much later. 


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102 


on the banks of rivers, brooks, or streams, principally because of the 
long-standing custom of confining themselves to their homes. When 
the Printing Office required female labour in the manufacture of bank 
notes or stamps, great difficulty was experienced in securing female 
workers other than married women who had a definite status as 
wives. But, with encouragement and proper guidance, even 
young girls formerly confined to their homes by their parents are 
now being sent to the workshops, and the total number of female 
workers, numbering only 21 in 1907, increased to 72 in 1911. The 
Oriental Tobacco Factory in Keijd employs a number of female 
workers, and as a young girl, 16 or 17 years old, can often obtain 
better wages than her father, should he be a policeman of the 
lowest grade, the applicants answering an advertisement for 50 
women-workers totalled more than ten times the number required. 

In connection with the encouragement of sericulture, especially 
since the Annexation, even young ladies of well-to-do family or of 
good birth, in striking contrast to the old usage of disdaining 
physical employment, are now attending the sericulture training 
institutions maintained by the Imperial Donation Funds. 

At any rate, a tendency to take up work and to save money 
obtained as wages is gradually permeating all classes, as the 
opportunities for labour arc increasing, and facilities for saving amply 
provided. 

With the expansion of various public works undertaken by the 
Government as well as with the growth of private undertakings, 
wages in general, acted upon by the gradual advance in the standard 
of living, have also shown a tendency to increase year by year, 
although occasional fluctuations may be experienced. Taking for 
example the wages of nine of the principal classes of labourers, 
Japanese and Korean, for several years past, the wages of jitirikisha 
men, both Japanese and Korean, have increased, while the daily 
earnings of cliigc kun, or carriers (exclusively Koreans) have 
decreased. The wages of common labourers or coolies have a 
tendency to increase for both Japanese and Korean. Skilled 
labourers, such as carpenters, plasterers, or stone-masons, are 
receiving much better wages owing to the increase in building and 
civil engineering works. While Japanese jinrikisha pullers enjoy 
higher earnings by about 50 per cent, than Korean pullers, Japanese 
skilled labourers command wages double those given to Koreans. 
The following table shows the wages of nine of the principal classes 
of labourers ruling in the chief cities since 1906 :— 


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Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 




Native Workers. Oriental ToImao P» 


Coolies Diggiitp 


Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


Digitized by 











i . * ••rise oi t'le 
.• - Will"! 

\ • ■ •! !Miik 

- ■ C in'ile 

■■ -t ‘1. 1 * .1' 

e Veil 

• ' • M,i> are 

• >i li 'll. lie 

• i lie 

•• kulak* 

- • • > obl.'iiii 

' llic 

: ' : for ."•> 

•' .i-vil. 

• . ' • - »vi il!v 

1 i • ' ! %*•»»*!•! 

• • • * I BlttiPi* 


. ‘ . pv t!u- 

*-. ■ i . 1. by tl.o 

• • « ! ' 1 l ■*, 

.* ..i • : v"e i ** 

in i* •— yi.u bv year, 
■ !. i 11 :ii. t ' lor 
... i! • • • -1 lulu 11: «.*i 

. ll.e ...:e> ><f jin // 
iv.t -i .i v i i 1 • ti.e i! li y 
->iveU Is. •i‘i'>) li.e 
• ircr- or >•.uitie.-. ii:;\e a 
ai:' 1 . Ki-eiil ''Ai'.leil 

i.r i.| 'sMU*:, *1 | 0 

in. i .!<• in ii.n'i!.\;i .im! 

• >• , 1 / . j etijov 

!\i ill ;• : r:l. J..,. .i.i-m* 
:!" • in Is. re'll:.'., 

’i • I" ll.e i : .j•. 1 1 c'; -ses 
Hi - 


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Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 




1 . 

Met 





iiWMLEiBum 


Coolies Digging. 


Farm Hands Threshing. 


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103 


December, 1911. 




Jinriki - 

Chi go- 

Com- 

Civil En- 

Carpen- 

Plast- 


Stone- 

Shoe- 

Description 

sha 

mon 

ing Lar 
bourers 


[Sawyers 





kttn 

Coolies 

ters 

erers 


masons 

makers 



Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 


(Japanese 

1.4o 

— 

.76 

1.45 

1.48 

KE71 

1.80 

2.00 

1.10 

Keiju . . 











(Korean 

1.10 

.40 

.40 

.80 





.90 


(Japanese 

2.00 

_ 

1.50 

1.20 

1-50 

1.50 

1-50 


1.60 

Kunsatt 

(Korean 

1.00 

.50 

.50 

.50 

.90 

.90 

.60 

.90 

1.00 


(Japanese 

1.50 

_ 

.60 

.80 


1.28 

1.25 

1210 

1.00 

Fusati . . 











(Korean 

1.50 

.46 

.45 

.60 

.80 

2(0 


.70 

.36 


r Japanese 

1.30 

_ 

.80 

.80 


1-30 

1.00 


1.30 

Taiku . , 











(Korean 

1.30 

.36 

.30 

-35 


-35 



.50 


(Japanese 

1.S0 

_ 

1.00 


1-58 

1-53 

1.88 

12(8 

12)0 

Heijli . , 











(Korean 

.80 

.40 

.50 


.80 

.80 

.70 


.80 


(Japanese 

_ 

_ 

.80 


1250 

1.50 



.66 

Gcusan 











(Korean 

— 

.51 

.50 

.45 

2(5 

.88 

1.15 

1.15 

.66 


(Japanese 

1.61 

_ 

.91 

1.03 

1.43 

1.44 

1.54 

1.76 

1.15 

Average , 











(Korean 

1.14 

.43 

.43 

-51 

2(6 

.82 

.81 

2(3 

.69 


(Japanese 

IAS 

_ 

.83 


1.42 

1.45 

12>2 

1.75 

1.27 

1910 . 











(Korean 

.88 

— 

.49 

— 

.79 

— 

.90 

.92 

— 


(Japanese 

1.60 

_ 

.80 

_ 

1.73 

1.45 

1.61 

1.75 

1.46 

1909 . 

(Korean 

.72 

— 

.48 

— 

.78 

— 

.79 

.87 

— 


(Japanese 

1.59 

_ 

.88 

.95 

1.41 

1.43 

1.47 

1.62 

1.05 

1908 . . 

(Korean 

1.11 

.65 

.66 

.60 

2(2 

.66 

.77 

.70 

.70 


(Japanese 

1.68 

_ 

O0 

t'; 

.95 

1.40 

1.63 

1.58 

1.70 

1.28 

1907 . , 

(Korean 

.76 

.48 

.47 

.49 

.78 

.61 

.95 

.81 

.66 


(Japanese 

.98 

_ 

.80 

.97 

1.43 

1.47 

1.52 

1257 

.71 

1906 . . 

(Korean 

.60 

.50 

.43 

.52 

.94 

.90 

.78 

1.00 

— 


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VII. GOVERNMENT UNDERTAKINGS 


66. Ginseng Monopoly. 

The history of the ginseng monopoly and the measures carried 
out for its reform since 1908, were given in the last Annual Report. 
The various measures for improvement in the administration of this 
monopoly, especially those for the prevention of diseases destructive 
to the plants, and the encouraging of ginseng growers by giving 
them proper instruction and protection, being gradually and 
steadily carried out, the area devoted to the cultivation of ginseng 
is increasing year by year. However, the growers, handicapped by 
the lack of necessary funds, were not able to carry out to the 
fullest extent improved plantation or other improvements, so the 
Government-General in 1910 made certain arrangements whereby 
the Industrial and Agricultural Banks were enabled to assist the 
growers by lending them funds at low interest and on easy terms. 
The Regulations for Encouragement of Ginseng Cultivation were 
promulgated by the Ordinance issued by the Governor-General in 
February, 1911, by which pecuniary prizes arc given to ginseng 
growers or their employees, who by faithfully observing the instruc¬ 
tions and regulations become, as it were, model cultivators. Prizes 
of 50 yen and under are given to such growers according to merit, 
and of 5 yen and under to their employees. Through these various 
improvements and encouragements the area under cultivation for 
ginseng has been greatly increased. As existing in July, 1911, the 
total number of growers was 183, with 916 ginseng holdings, the 
aggregate area of which was 837,906 kan (One kan = 6 feet by 2}4 
feet). Comparing these figures with those of the preceding year, 
it will be seen that there was an increase of 50 in the number of 
growers, and of 410,032 kan in area, the aggregate area being thus 
almost doubled. 

The following table shows the area of the land under ginseng, 
the quantity of roots purchased by the Government and the receipts 
from the sale of prepared ginseng for each year since the transfer of 
this Monopoly to the State :— 


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105 



Ginseng Plantation 

% 

Ginseng Roots 


Prepared Ginseng 






1 * 



1 — 



Sold 


Revenue 

Obtained 

Year 

No. of 
Growers 

No. of 
Plantation 

Area 

Area 

yielding Rot 

Quantity 

Purchase 

Amount 

Paid 

Average 
Value per A 

Quantity 

Prepared 

tl 

3 C/J 

o> 

Value 

Average 
Price per Am 

1908 

123' 

210 

Kan 

140,091 

Kan 

40, .222 

Kin 

13,242 

Yen 

71,041 

Yen 

5JM 

Kin 

4,173 

Kin 

12,004 

Yen 

561,000 

Yen 

46.50 

Yen 

561,000 

1909 

102 

278 

197,357 

22,514 

7,903 

31,910 

4.0.2 

2,394 

4,148 

207,091 

04.53 

207,091 

1910 

H 

028 

427,871 

7,350 

2,771 

12,383 

4.40 

804 

2,023 

175,808 

07.04 

175,870 

1911 

183 

_J 

910 

837,900 

14,345 

7,719 

30,700 

4.07 

2,299 

1,662 

119,459 

71.87 

121,484 


As shown in the above table, while the area of ginseng planta¬ 
tions was greatly increased, the production rapidly decreased year by 
year, the lowest point being reached in the year 1910. This was 
principally due to the bad management of the ginseng monopoly as 
previously conducted by the late Imperial Household.of Korea, to 
negligence in preventing destructive diseases, and to robbery. The 
Ginseng Monopoly Bureau is making ever} - effort to improve the 
industry, especially since December, 1907, at which time the control 
of the monopoly was taken from the Imperial Household and given 
to the Finance Department. The revenue from the monopoly, how¬ 
ever, could not be increased till the year 1911 or 1912, as the 
ginseng roots from which the drug is prepared must be five or six 
years old. However, in the year 1911, the area yielding ginseng 
roots and the quantity of roots taken, were doubled, and the 
amount of ginseng prepared for the market was more than twice 
that of the preceding year. 

In selling the ginseng thus prepared by the Monopoly Bureau, 
it was the custom to sell the product of one year in the year 
following. However, that sold in the fiscal year 1911 was the 
product of 1910, and part of that of 1911, the total quantity being 
1,662 kin, which was sold for 119,459 yen to the Mitsui Firm according 
to the contract concluded with the firm in July, 1909. 

With regard to diseases attacking and destroying ginseng 
plants, preventive and curative measures and various improvements 
in planting have been tried in an experimental nursery belonging to 
the Ginseng Monopoly Station in Kaijo (Kai-song). Of the numerous 
experiments carried out, the disinfecting of the soil by using liquid 
formalin, and the curing of slightly unhealthy roots by the use of 
bordeaux liquid, have been found most effective. Since 1911, all 
ginseng farms undergo inspection, and if plants affected by disease 


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106 


are found to be incurably so, they must be replaced with healthy 
ones. The ginseng growers, regarding destructive diseases as a 
natural calamity, and consequently almost incurable, were rather 
slow to apply modern disinfecting measures in the beginning, but 
are now gradually becoming more appreciative of the beneficial 
results of disinfection, results brought home to them by the 
continued efforts of the authorities concerned, and disinfecting of the 
soil by using liquid formalin, and the curing of slightly unhealthy 
roots by the use of bordeaux liquid, are now generally adopted by 
the growers. 

As already stated, the production of manufactured ginseng by 
the Monopoly Bureau is also on the increase, side by side with the 
expansion in the growth of the plant. But the market for this 
product being limited to China only, over-production of prepared 
roots would not only bring about the manufacture of an inferior 
quality, but would injure the established popularity of the Korean 
ginseng in the Chinese market. Consequently, the Government, by 
limiting the maximum of future production to 30,000 kin annually, 
is taking measures to prevent the expansion of its cultivation 
beyond that amount, and is paying more attention to securing an 
advance in quality by the distribution of better seedlings to the 
growers, and by other measures. 


67. Salt Manufacture. 

As related in the previous Annual Report, the Government 
planned to construct natural evaporation basins covering 1,000 cho 
at KoryO Bay near Chinnampo, and Shttan near Jinsen (Chemulpo), at an 
estimated cost of 1,164,287 yen, and the work on these basins was 
to be carried out as a consecutive enterprise, extending over three 
years, by dividing the basin at KoryO Bay into 8 sections and the 
basin at Shuan into 5 sections. But the work could not be 
completed in the fiscal year 1911, as originally expected, owing to 
the heavy rainfalls experienced in that year. However, the work 
remaining was expected to be completed in the following year. The 
general condition of the work completed at the end of the fiscal year 
1911, ending March 31, 1912, is seen in the following table :— 


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107 


At the end of March, 1912. 



Section 


Proportion 



Basin 

to be finished at the end 

Remarks 



of December, 1912 




Cho 




Section I ... 

61.00 

Completed 

(Commenced in June, 1910 
(Completed in July, 1911 


Section II . . . 

218.47 

85% 

Commenced in August, 1910 

« 

« 

Section III . . . 

160.89 

80% 

Commenced in August, 1910 

•o 

Section IV . . . 

128.79 

Completed 

(Commenced in April, 1910 
(Completed in July, 1911 

rt 

Section V . . . 

67.14 

Completed 

f Commenced in June, 1909 
(Completed in November, 1910 

n 

1 

Section VI . . . 

201.82 

Completed 

f Commenced in April, 1910 
(Completed in July, 1911 


Section VII . . . 

40.04 

Completed 

fCommenced in November, 1909 
(Completed in April, 1911 


Section VIII . . 

78.39 

00% 

Commenced in July, 1911 


Total . . . 

933.18 




'Section I. . . . 

1.00 

Completed 

(Commenced in April, 1907 
(Completed in September, 1907 

] 

S ( 

Section II . . . 

4.58 

Completed 

fCommenced in July, 1908 
(Completed in Dewmber, 1909 

Section III . . . 

10.77 

Completed 

(Commenced in December, 1908 
(Completed in May, 1910 

< 

Section IV . . . 

16.30 

Completed 

fCommenced in July, 1909 
(Completed in June, 1910 


^ Section V . . . 

05.51 

Completed 

fCommenced in August, 1910 
(Completed in July, 1911 


Total . . . 

98.17 



Grand Total. . 

1,031.35 




The salt obtained from these basins each year, since the com¬ 
mencement of the undertaking, is shown in the following table :— 



Kuryu Bay 

Shu-an 

Total 

Year 

Area of 

Quantity | 

Quantitv 

Area of 

Quantitv 

Quantitv 

Area of 

Quantity' 

Quantitv 


Basin 

Produced 

Sold 

Basin 

Produced 

Sold 

Basin 

Produced 

Sold 


Cho 

Kin 

Kin 

Cho 

Kin 

Kin 

Cho 

Kin 

Kin 

1907 

— j 


— 

1.00 

6,997 

168 

1.00 

6,997 

168 

1908 

— 

— 

— 

1.00 

132,753 

45,689 

1.00 

132,753 

45,689 

1909 

— 

— 

— 

5.58 

202,049 

290,588 

5-58 

202,049 

290,588 

1910 

57.14 

258,043 

216,000 

32.65 

737,580 

78,297 

89.80 

995,623 

294,297 

1911 

479.41|2,983,308 

1,591,138 

98.17 

1,506,369 

1,506,369 

577.58 

4,494,737 

3,097,507 


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108 


68. Heijo (Pyongyang) Coal Mines. 

The mining of powdered anthracite coal along the Dai do 
( Taidong) River in the vicinity of Heijo was begun by the Government 
in 1907. Although the mines were damaged by the flood which 
took place in the summer of 1911, they were promptly repaired at a 
cost of 30,000 yen ; and over 110,000 tons being taken out during 
the same fiscal year, the output for the year exceeded the estimate. 
In accordance with the contract for supplying powdered anthracite 
coal to the Tokuyama Coal Briquet Manufacturing Station of the 
Imperial Navy, 90,000 tons were despatched to the Tokuyama 
Station during the year 1911, while 2,000 tons were made into 
briquets by the Heijo ( Pyong-yang) Coal Mining Station of the Govern¬ 
ment-General and 6,000 tons were sold to the general public. The 
business done by the Heijo Coal Mining Station during the fiscal 
year 1911, as compared with the preceding fiscal year, is as 
follows :— 


Year 

Output 

Quantity 

Sold 

Receipts 

Operating 
Expenses and 
Extension 
Works 

Number of 
Employees 
engaged by 
the day 

1911 . . . 

Ton 

110,108 

Ton 

99,850 

Yen 

813,662 

Yen 

806,107 

348,666 

1910 . . . 

100,17.'! 

99,460 

701,045 

1,246,182 

291,185 

Increase ( + ) orl 
Decrease (—) J 

+ 9,935 

+ 390 

+ 52,017 

- 440,075 

+ 57,481 


The total receipts of the Heijo Coal Mining Station for the fiscal 
year 1911 were 814,529 yen, derived from the sale of products, 
except for 867 yen derived from miscellaneous receipts. The total 
cxjienditure of the Station for the same fiscal year amounting to 
733,814 yen, there was a net profit of 80,715 yea obtained from this 
government undertaking. 

The extension of the mine which was planned as a second stage 
of the work at an estimated cost of 760,000 yen being completed, 
more than 100,000 tons of coal per annum can now be taken out at 
a much less cost than estimated. 


69. Lumber Undertaking Station. 

The area of the forests along the upper reaches of the Oryoku 
(Yalu) and Toman (Tomen) Rivers, in which lumber undertakings are 


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109 


carried oil by the Lumber Undertaking Station of the Government- 
General, is so extensive that a reliable and comprehensive investiga¬ 
tion would require considerable expense and time. Therefore, as it 
was decided that the investigation for making a distinction between 
preserved forests and forests for felling, state forests and private 
forests, and for other details, should be carried out from the' fiscal 
year 1912, the investigation made during the fiscal year 1911 was 
limited to the preliminary examination of the state forests, along the 
Oryoku and Toman Rivers, maintained by the Lumber Undertaking 
Station of the Government-General. The following table shows the 
results of investigation made during the year 1911 : — 


Location of Forests 

Area of Forests 

Quantity of 
Timber estimated 
in cubic Shaku 

Value of Timber 

in Yen 

Species of 

Trees 

Upper basin of Oryoku 
River. 

Cho 

1,722,863 

298,077,310 

14,903,866 

Larch, Red 
Fine, Yew, 





Birch, etc. 

Upper basin of Toman 
River . 

I0S,024 

52,107,960 

2,605,398 

Larch, Yew, 
etc. 

Total .... 

1.828.887 

350.185.270 

17,609.264 



The business done by the Lumber Undertaking Station of the 
Government-General in the felling of trees during the fiscal year 
1911, the logs rafted, and the logs arriving at the station, can be 
seen in the following table :— 



No. of Trees felled 

No. of Logs rafted 

No. of Logs arriving 
at Station 

Year 

Oryoku 

River 

Toman J 
River 

Total 

Oryoku 

River 

Toman 

River 

Total 

From 

Oryoku 

River 

District 

From 

Toman 

River 

District 

Total 


District 

District 


District 

District 



Cable 
1911 nhaku 
Tree* 

128,252 

_] 

128.252 

151,002 

_ 

151.002 

217,178 

_ 

217,178 

43,871 

— 

43,871 

43,871 

— 

43.871 

425 

— 

425 

Cubic 
1910 tAaku 
Tree* 

131,493 

— 

131,493 

114,674 

_ 

114.874 

167,705 

19,945 

177.650 

21,085 

— 

21.085 

21,085 

— 

21.085 


— 

— 

Increase ( + ) 

- 3,241 

_ 

- 32241 

+ .36,328 

_ 

+ 38.328 

+ 59,473 

-19,945 

+ 39.528 

Decrease (—) 

+ 22,786 


+ 22,786 

+ 22,786 

~ 

+ 22,786 

1 

+ 425 

~ 

+ 425 


In 1.911, as in the previous year, private persons also were 
permitted to fell trees in the upper reaches of both the Oryoku and 
the Toman Rivers, or transport them. If such were required by the 
station, fees were paid for the felling or transportation. Where the 
station sold these trees, onl\- the bare value was asked, and sales 
amounting to 55,159 yen were made in the Oryoku River district and 
to 733 yen in the Toman River district, making a total of 55,892 yen. 


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110 


The station is also conducting wood sawing at Shin-gishU 
(Shin-WijH) at the mouth of the Oryoku River. The growth of the 
lumber markets in the Peninsula is keeping this section busy all the 
year round. One of the saw-mills having been destroyed by fire in 
March, 1912, it was decided that a larger mill equipped with 
improved modern machines should be erected the following year. 
Lumber cut and sold during the fiscal year 1911, as compared with 
the preceding year, is shown in the following table :— 



Lumber 

Quantity of Timber 
or Lumber Sold 

Amount realized by Sale 

Fiscal Year 

No. ot 
Trees 
used for 
Lumber 

No. of 
I-ogs 

Trees 

Lumber i 
Logs 

Total 

Trees 

Lumber 

Logs 

Total 

Cubic 

1911- «*' | *» 

Logs 

221,542 

#11 

135,213 

45,3.V> 

21,518 

99,573 

144.928 

21.518 

206,502 

712,454 

Yen 

918.966 

Cubic 

1910* ehaJtu 
Logs 

240,598 

131,282 

46,418 

7,042 

120,557 

168.975 

7.042 

151,333 

994,028 

1.145.381 

Increase ( + ) orl 
Decrease (—) J 

-19,056 
+ 911 

+ 3,931 

- 1,06.1 
+ 14,476 

-20,984 

-22.047 
+ 14,478 

+ 55,169 

-281,574 

-228.406 


The number of employees engaged at the Lumber Undertaking 
Station for felling, rafting, sawing, etc., during the fiscal year 1911, 
as compared with the preceding year, is as follows :— 


Year 

No. of Day Employees according to Nationality 

Total 

Japanese 

Korean 

Chinese 

1911 .... 

70,927 

172,781 

99,803 

343.611 

1910 ... . 

85,145 

121,634 

77,737 

284.516 

Increase ( + ) orl 
Decrease (—) J * 

- 14,218 

+ 51,147 

+ 22,066 

+ 58,995 


The capital value of the Lumber Undertaking Station was 
estimated at 1,132,199 yen, at the end of the fiscal year 1911. 
Compared with the previous fiscal year, there is a decrease of 
30,307 yen owing to loss caused by the burning of one mill. 

In the business account of the Station for the same fiscal year, 
the total income being 2,476,990 yen and the total expenditure 
2,401,825 yen, the net profit of the Station amounted to 75,165 yew. 


70. Printing Office. 

The principal business conducted by the Printing Office of the 
Government-General during the year 1911, was the printing of the 


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Ill 


Official Gazette, bank notes to be issued by the Bank of Chosen, 
forms for commercial bills, vouchers of official payments or receipts, 
certificates of Government approvals or permits, printing and binding 
of text-books compiled by the Educational Bureau, printing of 
periodical reports compiled at various Government Offices, shares of 
various banking corporations and other ordinary documents, even 
lithographic work also being carried out. The work done during 
the year 1911 by the Printing Office, as compared with that done 
during the preceding year, is shown in the following table : — 


Description 

1911 

1910 

Increase ( + ) or 
Decrease (—) 


|Sheets. 

32,078,806 

8,020,161 

+ 24,058,645 

Printed Matter 

1 Copies. 

2,611,232 

78,740 

+ 2,532,402 


1 Volumes .... 

Sheets 

1,061,74! 

- 1,061,744 

Manufacture of Special Paper . . . 

30,015 

347,8ft', 

- 317,850 

Books Bound (Book keeping) . . . 

730 

3,fi28 

2,898 


The accounts of the Office for the fiscal year, and the number 
of its employees at the end of December, 1911, as compared with the 
preceding year, are shown in the following table : — 


Year 

Capital 

Revenue 

Expend¬ 

iture 

No. of Employees 

Working 

Fixed 

Receipts 

from 

Treasury 

Receipts 
from Un¬ 
dertakings 

Japanese 

Korean 


Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 



1911 . . 

— 

— 

— 

368,939 

343,538 

316 

401 

1910 . . 

40,000 

1,245,184 

70,000 

229,314 

329,388 

239 

387 


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VIII. CIVIL ENGINEERING WORKS 


71. Unification of Civil Engineering Administration. 

The administration of civil engineering works was formerly 
conducted by different offices according to the nature of the work. 
Road construction, river and harbour improvements, or water-works 
was placed under the supervision of the Internal Affairs Department. 
Harbour improvements in places in which Custom Houses are located 
or having customs facilities, however, were conducted by the Customs 
Civil Engineering Section of the Finance Department, while the 
Building and Repairing Section of the Account Bureau was respon¬ 
sible for erecting and repairing all Government buildings and official 
residences. The Railway Bureau was charged with the construction of 
Government railways and supervision of the light railway and street 
cars. On the other hand, the Communications Bureau was charged 
with the work of constructing telegraph, telephone and light-house 
facilities, and with the supervision of the electric business. Although 
various civil engineering works were thus conducted by different 
offices, most of them had to be submitted to the investigation and 
examination of the Civil Engineering Council, which is presided over 
by the Civil Governor of the Government-General and is a committee 
composed of Directors of the different Departments of the Governmcnt- 
General, including Directors of Police Affairs Department, Communi¬ 
cations Bureau, Railway Bureau and Account Bureau. But, profit¬ 
ing by the experience of past years, it was found better that most 
of these civil engineering works should be placed in charge of a 
single office, and by the organic regulations of the Government- 
General, amended in March, 1912, a Civil Engineering Bureau in the 
Governor-General’s Secretariat was created, and is to take charge of 
all civil engineering works, except those belonging to the Railway 
Bureau and Communications Bureau, from the fiscal year 1912. 


72. Harbour Improvement Works. 

With the object of improving customs facilities and harbours at 
open ports, reclamations or dredgings, building of Custom House 
offices or godowns, and other engineering works were commenced 


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113 


in 1906, soon after the establishment of the Japanese Protectorate 
in the Peninsula. These improvement works in eleven sea-ports 
and three inland cities, viz., Jinsen, Fusan, Gensan, Kunsan, Mokpo, 
Chinnampo, Seishin, Joshin, Masan, Shin-gishu, Kciju, Hcijo, and Taiko, 
were to be carried out in eight years from 1906 at an estimated 
cost of 4,951,823 yen. These works were nearly completed by the 
end of the fiscal year 1910, except certain parts of those undertaken 
in Jinsen , Fusan and Chinnampo, and 3,817,022 yen out of the 
4,951,823 yen had been spent up to March 31, 1911. 

Second Stage of Harbour Improvements. The above improve¬ 
ment of customs facilities and harbour construction were conducted 
as a first stage. But, with the gradual growth of foreign trade 
in the Peninsula, and the development of the railway system, further 
extension of harbour improvements in Fusan, Jinsen, Chinnampo, and 
Hcijo, such as would offer full facilities for connecting land and 
water traffic, was planned after the Annexation, as the second stage. 
This extension programme, which was approved in the 27th session 
of the Imperial Diet, was to be carried out in six years’ consecutive 
work from the fiscal year 1911, at an estimated cost of 8,271,829* 
yen, as shown in the following table :— 


Description 

Estimate 
f or each 
Port 

Amount defrayed in consecutive Years 

19 11 

1912 

1913 

19 14 

1915 

1916 


i'en 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Fusan .... 

3,824,000 

902,845 

1,090,125 

857,220 

973,870 


— 

Jinsen .... 

3,483,394 

533,394 

600,000 

600,000 

650,000 

650,000 

450,000 

Chinnampo. . . 

835,000 

325,000 

340,000 

170,000 

— 

— 

— 

Heijo .... 

129,375 

62,960 

66,415 

— 

— 

— 

— 

Total . . . 

8.271.829 

1.824.199 

2.096,540 

1.627.220 

1,623.870 

650.000 

450.000 


Fusan. For the improvement of Custom House compounds 
and the harbour of Fusan, 1,143,482 yen was spent in the first stage, 
and a large wharf to accommodate two ocean steamers (of 3,000 
tons), connecting with the railway, was built. However, the com¬ 
pletion of the Antung-Mukden line caused Fusan to become the 
terminal of a world route, so the extension of the harbour on a 
large scale was urgently needed. Consequently, in the second stage of 
habour improvements, dredging to a depth of 36 feet at the deepest 
point, construction of a second wharf with an iron pier to berth four 

* The balance of the estimate for the harbour improvements of the first stage amounting to 
688,394 yen is included in the estimated cost of harbour improvements of the second stage. 


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114 


ocean steamers from 7,000 to 20,000 tons at one time, extension 
of landing facilities so as to connect with railways and wharfs, and 
extension of a break-water with a double line of stone embankments 
from Soryo in the direction of Fusanchin, so as to constitute a basin 
with an area of 110,000 tsubo for the safe anchoring of small 
steamers and junks, arc to lie carried out during four years from the 
fiscal year 1911, at a cost of 3,824,000 yen. 

Jimcn. In reconstructing the Custom House compounds by 
reclaiming a lot measuring 17,978 tsubo and by building offices, 
landing piers, warehouses, etc., and by extending the railway to the 
harbour, over 900,000 yew was spent in the first stage up to the end 
of 1910. This port is still important as it leads all the other ports 
in the import trade. The second stage of extension, which will cost 
3,483,394 yen, consists chiefly of engineering work in the shape of 
harbour reconstruction, and in providing a wet dock system, as the 
mouth of the harbour is constantly silted up by the deposits of the 
Kan (Han ) River. This wet dock is to lx- large enough to provide 
anchorage for three steamers, of 4,500 tons each, at one time. For 
the construction of this wet dex-k, ground, extending from the present 
Customs compound to ShatO (an island) along the sea-coast of the 
settlement street up to the foot of the Japanese Park, is to be re¬ 
claimed, and in the middle of the reclaimed ground a wet dock, 
having a water area of 30,000 tsubo and a minimum depth of 26 
feet, is to lx- built in a north-easterly direction. A lock on the 
double-gate system is to be built with a length of 420 feet and a 
width of 60 feet, so that it can maintain a depth of 32 feet at neap 
tide or 43 feet at spring tide. A navigable route to the open sea 
from the lock is to lx dredged to a depth of 14 feet at ebb-tide, and 
a training wall, 2,070 feet long, to keep the water level of flood tide, 
is to lx built along the cast side of the navigable route. The 
harbour improvement work in Jimcn is to be carried out in six years’ 
consecutive work from the fiscal year 1911. 

Chinmmpo. To improve customs facilities and harbour equip¬ 
ment in the port of Chinnampo, 1,129,380 yen was apportioned for 
the first stage, out of which about 474,385 yen was spent up to the 
end of the fiscal year 1910. A railway between Heijo and Chinnampo 
being now in full operation, the lack of connection between land and 
water traffic in this port is keenly felt, so that the original plan of 
harbour improvements has had to be enlarged. Consequently, 
180,000 yen having been added to the balance of the fund originally 
set aside for it (655,000 yen), the total, amounting to 835,000 yen, 
was devoted to the further extension of Chinnampo Harbour as the 


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Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 




Construction work, Chinnampo Harbour. Improved Wharf, Fusan Harbour. 






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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



115 


second stage of harbour improvement. In addition to the wet dock 
which was constructed in the first stage, an extensive landing basin 
of concave form is to be built by reclaiming 2,600 tsubo of land on the 
east coast of Hippa Island, and in order to connect the railway and 
the harbour, a space between the railway station and the harbour 
district, covering 25,000 tsubo, is to be reclaimed. A landing pier is 
also to be built at the extreme end of the landing basin. These 
harbour extension works in Chinnampo are to be completed in two 
consecutive years, beginning with the fiscal year 1911. 

Hcijo. Although land traffic between Hcijo and Chinnampo is 
maintained by a railway, the water traffic between these places is 
largely carried on by junks along the Daido ( Tai-dong ) River. In 
order to make this transport by river easier, the so-called Unan Shoal 
is to be dredged to a depth of 44 feet and a width of 120 feet ; a 
landing pier running up-stream from the Customs Office is to be 
rechiimed by means of a stone wall ; and the navigable route 
between the Customs Office to Unan Shoal is to be dredged to the 
depth of six feet at ebb-tide. The railway is to be extended for 
about one mile, to connect the station with the Customs Office com¬ 
pound. 

Works done during 1911. The works carried out in harbour 
improvement during the fiscal year 1911 were principally prepara¬ 
tory for the harbour improvements of the second stage, and for the 
completion of the remaining work of the first stage. In preliminary 
work, considerable time was spent in investigation and survey, and 
in acquiring more pump dredging boats, bucket dredgers, crane 
dredgers and other machinery necessary for dredging harbours, or 
navigable routes in front of the piers. The civil engineering work 
of laying the foundation of the second wharf, and of the stone break¬ 
water in Fusan Harbour was commenced in 1911. Also dredging 
around the first and second wharfs was commenced with one bucket 
dredger and two “ Priestman ” dredgers. As to harbour improve¬ 
ment in Jinscn, the work of damming up the high tide, by building 
an embankment for the proposed wet dock, was commenced in 1911, 
while dredging a navigable route to the open sea from the dock was 
begun by means of a pump dredger steamer bought from Germany 
and two “ Priestman ” dredgers. Similar improvement works in 
Chinnampo Harbour and in the Daido River fronting Hcijo were also 
carried out as proposed during the fiscal year 1911. For the 
above-mentioned harbour improvement works of the second stage 
1,824,199 yen was to be spent during the same fiscal j’ear, as the 
figures given in the above table show. 


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116 


In addition to the harbour improvement works carried out as 
the second stage, 195,863 yen was spent in building an extension of 
the Customs OfRee, quarantine stations, inspection offices, sheds, 
etc., all of which were necessitated by the growth of the foreign 
trade in Fusan, Chinnampo, Hcijd, Shin-gishu, Kunsan, Gensan, etc. Also, 
6,000 yen was spent for further investigation and survey of the 
physical features of the harbours of Jinsen, Shin-gishu, Kunsan, Mokpo, 
Jushin, etc., and of the depth of these harbours and other particulars. 


73. River Improvement. 

Rivers of considerable length arc by no means few in the Penin¬ 
sula. But proper care of, or improvement in most of the river systems 
being neglected, together with the deforestation of mountains, vast 
tracts of lands along rivers are not only left wasted, but many " 
thousand cho of cultivated lands arc subjected to natural calamities. 
Furthermore, occasional floods not only caused the loss of thousands 
of lives, but damaged navigable streams and serviceable harbours. 
Although the need for river improvement was felt, such could not be 
commenced owing to financial limitations, and the conduct of other 
undertakings of a more urgent nature. 

But the need for improvement of the Akada, a river running 
into the centre of the harbour of Gensan, was keenly felt. Occasional 
floods not only shallowed the harbour by forming a sandbank, but 
often inflicted considerable damage upon the town, both old and 
new, of Gensan. Consequently, the Government decided to carry’ out 
improvements of this river in two consecutive years from the fiscal 
year 1911, at an estimated cost of 107,500 yen. The general plan 
of this improvement is to change the river mouth by making a new 
channel for it, which will run outside the town of Gensan and enter 
the sea on the northern side of the harbour. 

Improvements of other principal rivers in the Peninsula are 
being planned, and an appropriation for investigation will be made 
in the next fiscal year. 


74. Road Construction. 

The highway system in the Peninsula was in a most hopeless 
state. The necessity of exploiting productive industries and 
agriculture being most keenly felt during the Protectorate regime, 


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r; 


Excavating on Seishin-Kaitut Road, 
North Kankyo Province. 


Bridge over Toktn River, Shinikit—Sii>/'i 
Road, Keisho Province*. 


Completed Section of Scishin-K k 1 


Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



Excavating oil Seishin-Kainci Road 
North Kanh'o Province. 


Road-making on Mountain Slope, Risen—Koryo 
Road, Keiki Province. 


Completed Section of Seishin-Kainci Road 


Completed Section of Shinshu—Shoshu Road 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


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117 


the construction and repairing of 25 highways in the provinces, and 
several streets in three cities, aggregating 208 ri 6 cho in length, were 
planned at an estimated cost of 2,982,863 yen. The civil engineering 
work on these roads was commenced in 1907, and the total length 
completed up to the end of the fiscal 3 ’ear 1910 was 198 ri 32 cho. 
These roads served only a very limited part of the provinces, and in 
order to provide adequate transport facilities throughout the 
Peninsula, roads amounting to at least 2,600 ri in aggregate length 
should ultimately lie built. After the Annexation, the Government- 
General adopted a plan to advance highway facilities still further by 
constructing 23 roads, measuring over 587 ri, at an estimated cost of 
10,000,000 yen. This work is to be carried out in five consecutive 
years, beginning with the fiscal year 1911, as shown in the following 
table : — 


Year 

Description - - 

1911 

1912 

I 

1913 1 

1914 

1915 

Totals 

Construction . . . 1 

Yen 

1,740,000 

Yen 

1,305,CO.) 

Yen 

2,175,000 

Yen 

1,740,000 

Yen 

1,740,000 

Yen 

8,700.000 

Office Expenses . . 

260, OOO 

195,000 

325,000 

260,000 

260'000 

1.300.000 

Total . . . 

2 , 000.000 

1.500,000 

2500,000 

2.000.000 

2 , 000,000 

10,000,000 


The above-mentioned plan obtained the approval of the Imperial 
Diet in its 27th session. 

The following table shows the general programme of road 
construction planned by the Government-General, to be carried out 
from the fiscal year 1911. 


Name of Road 

Province served 

Class of Road 

Width 

Length 

RisetirChokoin . 

Keiki . 

First 

Ken 

4 

m 

7.5 

Risen-Kiiryo . 

f KeiU . 1 

l Kigen . J 

Second 

3 

48.5 

Seishu-Injyd . 

North Chusri . . . 

.• 

3 

12.0 

Zmshu-Junten . 

(North Zenla . . \ 

(South Zenla . . . j 

it 

3 

32.0 

Sh ush u-Sh i nsh u . 

(North Keisliu . . .1 

(South Keishn . . .] 

- 

3 

44.0 

Kaishu-Saiwi . 

Kokai . 


3 

15/j 

HcijC-Gcnsan . 

fSouth Heian , . . 1 

(South KankyO . .) 

First 

1 

4 

55.0 


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118 


(Continued) 


Name of Road 

Ansh u-Manfx'nhin 

Joshin-Keisanthin 

Seishin-Kainei . . . 

Yuki-Keiko .... 
Keijo-Risen .... 
Chushu-Inju . . . 

Koshfi-Roman . . . 

Kato-Indm .... 
Unsan-Shuju . . . 

Hokusei-Jfishin . . 

Kainci-Onju . . . 

Chushu-Shoshu . . 

Onjo-Mosan . . . 

Nsihtn-Unsati . . . 

Kotcn-Suinan . . . 

Kainei-Kuyei . . . 

KeijirGensan line. . 

C hushu-Chokuiti line. 
TaikdShoshu. . 


Total 


Province served 

Class of Road 

Width 

Length 




Ken 

Ri 

(South bh ian . . 

(North Hrian . . 

:) 

Second 

3 

80.5 

fSouth Kankyo 
{ North Kankyo 

:} 

»> 

3 

40.0 

North Kankyo 


First 

4 

‘23.3 

North Kankyo 


M 

4 

9.0 

Kciki .... 


II 

4 

12.3 

North Chusei . . 


Second 

3 

6.5 

South Chusei . . 


First 

4 

10.0 

South Keisho . . 


Second 

3 

7.0 

North Heian . . 


n 

3 

19.0 

fSouth Kankyo 
(North Kankyo 

i 

./ 

First 

4 

35.0 

North Kankyo . 


it 

4 

18.0 

f North Chusei . . 
(North Keisho . . 

:} 

ii 

4 

22.5 

North Kankyo 


Second 

3 

23.0 

North Heian . . 


ii 

3 

6.0 

North Kankyo 


First 

4 

9.0 

North Kankyo 


Second 

3 

6.6 

(Keiki .... 

•i 




\Kogen .... 
(South Kankyo 

:! 

— 

— 

30.0 

North Chusei . . 


-- 

— 

5.0 

North Keisho. . 


— 

— 

10.0 

Keiki .... 


— 

— 

— 




587.6 


Of the 23 roads above-mentioned, eleven of the first and second 
class, aggregating 117 ri in length, were to be constructed during the 
fiscal year 1911. But not more than 13 per cent, of the work was 
completed owing to interruption by floods, which took place in the 
season of the year most suitable for road construction. Furthermore, 
most of the year was spent in constructing the unfinished roads 


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119 


planned by the ex-Korean Government prior to the Annexation. 
The road or street construction planned by the ex-Korean Govern¬ 
ment, and taken over by the Government-General, amounted to about 
8 ri 10 cho (20.2 miles) in length, spread over eleven districts, and 
1,007 ken of street adjustment. This work was entirely completed 
during the fiscal year 1911. 

The construction of local roads was conducted 1 h t the local 
governments out of the Special Local Expense Funds, to which 
subsidies were annually granted from the state treasury. The 
subsidies, set down in the budget of the Government-General for the 
fiscal year 1911, amounted to 300,000 yen. 

In addition, the custom of repairing village roads by labour 
contribution of villagers called puyok (K«), which was in existence 
in the Peninsula, was encouraged, and by this means man} 7 minor 
roads running between villages were repaired. For costly works of 
civil engineering, such as bridge building, or cuttings through hills or 
mountains, subsidies were often granted from the Special Local 
Expense Funds. 

As no regulations concerning road construction had been drawn 
up, it was feared that uniformity in road construction could hardly 
be maintained. Consequently, the so-called Road Regulations were 
enacted by the administrative ordinance of the Government-General 
issued in April, 1911, by which roads to be constructed are divided 
into four classes. Roads of the first class have a width of four ken 
or more, and include those running between Keiju and the seats of 
Provincial Governments, garrison towns, fortresses, naval stations, 
important ports, and railway stations, and such as are important 
from a military and economic point of view. Roads of the second 
class have a width of three ken or more, and are those running 
between seats of Provincial Governments, or those running from such 
seats to places in which Prefectural or District Magistracies arc 
located, or to important ports or railway stations. Third class 
roads, with a width of two ken, arc those running between 
Prefectures and Districts, and arc determined by the Provincial 
Government with the approval of the Governor-General. Roads, 
other than those belonging to the first, second and third class, come 
under the heading of fourth class, and their construction is 
determined only by the Local Governments. The maintenance and 
suj)ervision of the first and second class roads arc undertaken by the 
Government-General, while Provincial Governments maintain those of 
the third class, and Prefectural and District Magistracies those of the 
fourth class. 


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120 


75. Street Improvement. 

Cities and towns in the Peninsula rarely maintained the 
modern form of streets. Most of the streets, even in the city of 
Kcijo, the capital, developed very irregularly, so that great in¬ 
convenience has hitherto been felt in street communications and 
sanitation. Although the necessity for street improvement was felt, 
very few improvements were made in Kcijo, Fusan and other towns 
during the Protectorate regime, owing to limitation in financial 
sources. After the Annexation the Government decided to carry out 
street improvement by defraying funds from the state treasury, or by 
giving subsidies to the municipalities as far as the revenues would 
permit. 

A. Keijo. With regard to street improvement in the city of 
Kcijo, part of the city wall on both sides of the South Gate was 
demolished in 1909, in order to provide better access to the main 
railway station. In 1910, the street on which the railway station 
fronts was widened between that station and the South Gate, a 
distance of 240 ken, and made into a modern street having a width 
of 19 ken and provided with concrete sidewalks. The improvement 
of Koganc Street, which will have a width of 12 Ken and be 
traversed by a tramway, was commenced in 1911. In addition, 
parts of Honmachi and Kotobuki Streets have been improved since 
1910, while the city wall on both sides of the East Gate has been 
demolished and the road widened. Thus, about 357,000yew has been 
spent in street improvement in Kcijo since 1910. In the city of Kcijo, 
which is the capital of the Peninsula and inhabited by more than 
250,000 people, street improvement of a more general character is 
needed. The Government decided to carry out in the future a general 
street improvement, by reconstructing one street with a width 
of 30 ken, three streets of 15 ken, five of 12 ken and nineteen 
of 10—8 ken. 

B. Heijo. The city of Heijo (Pyongyang), with a population 
of about 40,000, is not only the seat of the Provincial Government, 
but is one of the old capitals of the Peninsula, and its need of street 
improvement has been felt for some time. Improvement work on 
Yamato Street and seven other streets, aggregating 1,770 ken in 
length, with their concomitant drainage, was commenced in August, 
1910, at an estimated cost of 70,929 yen. A street outside the 
Scikai Gate and one other street have 1 >een improved during the 
fiscal year 1911, at a cost of 5,023 yen. The street in front of the 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



An Improved Street, Keijo. 


Road-making 


Sewer Construction and Street Improvement, Keijo. 


Sewer Construction. 




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121 


Provincial Government Offices will lie improved in the following 
year at an estimated cost of 18,000 yen. To meet the above- 
mentioned street improvement in the city of HcijO, a subsidy of 
40,000 yen was granted by the state treasury in the fiscal year 

1910, 2,725 yen in the fiscal year 1911, and 9,675 yea in the fiscal 
year 1912. 

C. Zenshu. The city of ZenshU, with 15,000 inhabitants, is the 
seat of the Provincial Government of North Zenla Province. The 
street improvement work in this city was commenced, in 1911, as a 
consecutive work for two years by the Provincial Government, at an 
estimated cost of 29,400yea, of which a sum of 17,647 yen was to be 
subsidized by the state treasury. 

D. Kaishu. The city of Kaishu is the seat of the Provincial 
Government of Kokai Province. The improvement of the city streets 
was commenced by the Provincial Government in July, 1910, at an 
estimated cost of 12,273 yen, including a subsidy of 5,000 yeti 
granted from the state treasury', and was completed in August, 

1911. 

E. Fusan. The Port of Fusan is a very rapidly growing city 
especially with regard to Japanese, the total number of whom 
reached 24,700 at the end of December, 1911. Street improvement 
was partly commenced in 1908 by the Municipality of the Japanese 
Settlement. But the limited space occupied by this growing town, 
partly surrounded as it is by mountains and hills, prevented 
expansion of the streets. After the Government commenced extensive 
reconstruction of the Customs compound and harbour improvement, 
the Japanese Settlement Municipality also decided to level part of 
the Yeizen mountain, by removing 105,054 tsubo of earth and rock, 
and to reclaim the sea-coast between Fusan proper and Suryo, covering 
an area of 30,465 tsubo. For this undertaking the Municipality had 
to raise a fund amounting to 1,075,000 yen, under the guarantee of 
the Government, and the expense incurred is expected to be 
reimbursed by the sale of street-lots, after the levelling and 
reclamation works arc completed. This enterprise, being entrusted 
to the charge of the Construction Office of the Harbour Improve¬ 
ment, was expected to be completed in three years, commencing 
May, 1909. Up to the end of the fiscal year 1911, 104,011 tsubo of 
earth and rock had been dug and removed, and an area of 30,112 
tsubo of sea-coast reclaimed, at an outlay of 888,419 yea. Side by- 
side with these levelling and reclamation works, street readjustment 
was to lie carried out, and provision made for modern streets with 
a width of 12 ken. 


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122 


76. Expropriation of Land. 

There being no regulations for expropriation of land, or the law 
of eminent domain, obstacles or hindrances frequently arose in 
carrying out public undertakings or works of public interest, as an 
exorbitant price for private land was often demanded. Expropria¬ 
tion of private lands having a tendency to increase, especially after 
the Annexation, as a consequence of the growth in railway or road 
construction, harbour improvement, street readjustment, establish¬ 
ment of schools, charitable institutions, etc., Regulations for 
Expropriation of Lands were finally promulgated by Seirei No. 3, 
issued by the Governor-General in April, 1911. According to these 
Regulations, private lands can be expropriated or employed for 
undertakings of public interest on reasonable compensation being 
made. Any undertaking requiring expropriation of land should 
obtain approval of the Governor-General through the Provincial 
Governor. Should the expropriation of land be urgently required, as 
in the case of a natural calamity, it may lx 1 approved by Urban 
Prefects or District Magistrates. If the parties concerned in the 
expropriation or employment of land can not agree, the case should 
be submitted to the Provincial Governor for decision. Those not 
satisfied with the Provincial Governor’s decision may appeal to the 
Governor-General, whose decision is final. 


77. Government Buildings. 

Government Buildings constructed, repaired, or extended 1 ) 3 ' the 
Government-General during the fiscal 3 'ear 1911, numbered 230 in all. 
The offices, official residences, warehouses, etc., of the Government- 
General, Local Governments, Law Courts, Prisons, Police Stations, 
Hospitals, Schools, Model Farms, etc., formed the majority of these 
buildings. The following table shows particulars of these Govern¬ 
ment buildings March 31, 1912. 


Description 

OtHces built, 
repaired or extended 

Official Residences built,■ 
repaired or extended 

Total 

No. of 
Buildings 

1 Expenses 

1 deirayed 

No. of 
Buildings 

Expenses j 
defrayed 

No. of 
Buildings 

Expenses 

defrayed 

Government-General . . . 

2 ; 

Yen | 

117,168 

2 

Yen 

8,410 

4 

Yen 

125.578 

Provincial Governments . . 

5 

11,686 

10 

56,595 

15 

68.280 

Prefectural & District Magis-1 
trades.J 

C 

18,803 

— 

- 

6 

18.803 


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123 


(Continued) 


Law Courts. 

25 

Yen ' 

167,670 

5 

Yen 

46,711 

30 

Yen 

214,381 

Prisons. 

20 

189,852 

1 

3,012 

21 

192.364 

Police Stations. 

18 

82,486 

6 

19,291 

24 

101.777 

Police Boxes. 

18 

13,259 

— 

— 

18 

13,259 

Hospitals. 

12 

121,438 


— 

12 

121.438 

Schools. 

2 

90,109 


— 

2 

90.109 

Hostel for Students sent to) 
Tokyo .J 

i 

17,322 

— 

— 

1 

17322 

Industrial Training School . 

i 

9,150 

— 

— 

1 

9,150 

Model Farms. 

7 

35,121 

6 

10,497 

12 

46.618 

Seedling Stations .... 

17 

16,469 

— 

— 

17 

16.469 

Warehouses. 

58 

86,280 

— 

— 

68 

86380 

Other works. 

9 

15,393 

— 

— 

9 

15393 

Total. 

201 

991.706 

29 

144.516 

230 

1.138321 


With the object of securing supplies of building materials at the 
lowest cost, and to avoid depending upon foreign imports, bricks 
are manufactured at the Government brick-yard at Maho in the 
vicinity of Keijo, while tiles and earthen pipes are made at its branch 
yard as Yeitoho. The output during the fiscal year was 7,198,000 
bricks, of which 5,888,700 were disposed of. The total number of 
tiles manufactured during the same period was 409,900, and that of 
earthen pipes 51,100, while those used were 339,000 tiles and 
21,300 pipes. 


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IX. COMMUNICATIONS 


78- Railway Traffic. 

The report annually published ?>y the Railway Bureau deals so 
fully with the railway returns in the Peninsula that any analysis of 
details is out of the question here, so this Report confines itself merely 
to a few general remarks. 

The total length of the railway lines open to traffic, passenger 
or freight, was 7(57.0 miles at the end of the fiscal year 1910, show¬ 
ing an increase of 93 miles, as compared with the preceding fiscal 
year. This increase was principally due to the ojiening of portions 
of the Kciju-Gcnsan and Taiden-Kunsan lines, a branch line running 
from Pyung-yang to the Government Coal Mine, and the railway 
bridge over the Oryoku ( Yalu) River. On examining operating results, 
the total train mileage is found to have been 2,307,607 miles, and the 
total traffic receipts, 5,629,850 yen, showing an increase, respectively, 
of 205,545 miles and of 011,525 yen. Transportation traffic 
conducted during the fiscal year 1911, as compared with the prece¬ 
ding fiscal year, can be seen in the appended table :— 


Description 


1911-12 

1 91 0—11 

Increase 



ifi/is 

Miles 

.Miles 

Length of Lines open to Traffic . 


767.6 

674.6 

93,0 

Total Train Mileage. 


2,307,607.0 

2 ,102,122.0 

205,545.0 

Total Number of Passengers . . 


‘2,429,087 

2,024,490 

405,197 

Total Amount of Luggage . . 


Kin 

10/126,41 S 

Kin 

9,057,591 

Kin 

1,208,827 

Total Amount of Freight . . . 


Tons 

1,063,111 

Tons 

888,723 

Tons 

174,388 



Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Total Receipts from Passengers . 

• • 

3,008,891 

2,013,452 

394,939 

Total Receipts from Freight . . 


2,021,465 

2,404,879 

216,586 

Total . 


5,629.856 

5,018.331 

611.525 

Average Receipts from Passengers 


Yen 

10.48 

Yen 

9.88 

Yen 

0.60 

Average Receipts from Freight . 

per 

( dav 

P<=r 

9.53 

9.23 

0.30 

Total Average Receipts .... 

mile 

19.90 

_ 

19.00 

_ 

0.84 


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125 


In spite of the fact that traffic was often interrupted by floods in 
the summer time, passengers and freight, and receipts from both, as 
shown in the above table, increased owing to the general economic 
growth in the Peninsula. 

As to the improvement of traffic, with the completion of the 
improvement work on the Keijd-Shingishu (Scotd-Shinwiju) line, the 
train service on this line, hitherto taking 14 hours, 15 minutes, was 
shortened to 12 hours, 20 minutes in April, 1911. When the railway 
bridge across the Oryoku (Yalu) River was completed on November 1, 
1911, the trunk line running between Fusan and Shin-gishU was con¬ 
nected with the Antung-Mukden line of Manchuria, and a tri-weekly 
express service, equipped with sleeping, dining and first class cars 
known as “ the Choscn-Manchuria Express,” was inaugurated. This 
service connects with the trans-Siberia Express by way of the Chang- 
chun-Harbin section of the Chinese Eastern Railway, and with the 
express train of the Imperial Railway in Japan projier by the Fusan- 
Shimonoseki ferry steamers. This express service taking only first 
class passengers makes an extra charge, called express extra ticket, 
in addition to the ordinary fare. The night train running on the 
Keijd-Fusan line every other evening was made a nightly service after 
December, 1911. In order to advance the convenience of passengers 
and shippers, the so-called joint services with the Imperial railways 
in Japan proper and the Manchuria railways were maintained by 
the railways of the Peninsula, and these services are increasing year 
by year. A similar service was also opened with the Nippon Yiiscn 
Kaisha and Osaka Shosen Kaisha which have steamship lines plying 
l>etween Japan projjer, Chosen and China. 

The general account of the railway traffic for the fiscal year 
1911, compared with that of the preceding fiscal year, shows much 
better results as may be seen from the following table :— 


Items 

1911-12 

1910—11 

Increase 

Amount 

Percentage 

Receipts from Traffic , . 

Yen 

5,629,850 

Yen 

5,018,331 

Yen 

611,525 

12.2 

Receipts from miscellane¬ 
ous Sources .... 

128,262 

124,115 

4,147 

03.3 

Total Receipts • 

5.768,118 

5.142,448 

615,672 

1 

12.0 

Expenses. 

5,124,168 

4,804,066 

320,102 

06.7 

Profits. 

633,950 

338,380 

205,570 

08.3 


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126 


The total receipts from the railways for the fiscal year 1911 reach¬ 
ed 5,758,118 yen, being an increase of 615,672 yen, or 12 per cent., 
as compared with the figures for the preceding fiscal year, while the 
total cxjxmse of operating the railways, including the expenses of the 
Railway Bureau, amounted to 5,124,168 yen, being an increase of 
320,102 yen or 6.7 per cent. Thus the net profits of the railways 
amounted to 633,950 yen for the fiscal year 1911 against 338,380 
yen for the preceding fiscal year (1910). Under such circumstances 
the railways in the Peninsula are now gaining financial stability. 
As to the capital account of the railways, the increase for 1911 was 
about 9,2-10,889 yen. Adding this amount to the capital transferred 
from preceding years, the total capital reached 105,076,962 yen, of 
which 700,000 yen belongs to the account of the purchase of materials. 


79. Railway Construction. 

The general plan of the construction of two railways—the 
Keijo-Gensan line measuring 138 miles, and the Taiden-Mokpo line with 
a branch to Kunsan measuring 175.8 miles—and the estimates of 
their cost were stated in the previous Annual Report. In the construc¬ 
tion of the Keijo-Gensan line, the survey of which was commenced 
in April, 1910, 19.8 miles running between Ryuzan (suburb of Keijo) 
and Gisci/u were completed up to August, 1911, and traffic along 
this distance was commenced at the same time. The civil engineer¬ 
ing work on the section between Giscifu and Hciko, measuring 55.2 
miles, was partly completed during the fiscal year 1911. On the 
other hand, in the construction commenced from the Gensan side, the 
distance between Gensan and Kdsan measuring 28.8 miles was 
surveyed during the same year, and construction of the first 13.6 
miles starting from Gensan was begun. The construction of this 
line is expected to be completed by November, 1914. In the 
construction of the Taiden-Mokpo line of 161 miles with 14.8 miles 
branching out to Kunsan, the survey was commenced in May, 1910, 
and the civil engineering work in October. Up to the end of the 
fiscal year, 69 miles—38 miles of the Taidcn-Kokei section, 17 miles 
of the Kokei-Riri section and 14.8 miles of the Kunsan branch—were 
constructed and opened to traffic. The construction of this line is 
not expected to be completed until April, 1914. 

The building of a steel bridge over the Oryoku (Yalu) River 
connecting the Antung-Mukden line of Manchuria was commenced in 
August, 1909, and completed as estimated in October, 1911, in spite 


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of the fact that the work was often interrupted by floods. The total 
length of this bridge is 3,098 feet, consisting of 12 spans of about 
200 or 300 feet each. A span of 310 feet in the middle of the bridge 
is capable of being opened to permit the passage of ships. For the 
construction of this bridge an estimate of 2,000,000 yen was made, 
but the actual cost did not exceed 1,750,000 yen. 

As to improvement of railway tracks, work on the Keiji 5— Shin- 
gishil line was completed in October, 1911, simultaneously with the 
completion of the building of the bridge over the Oryoku River. The 
improvement work on the Heijo-Chinnatnpo line, such as adjustment of 
sharp curves and grades, or replacing temporary bridges with perma¬ 
nent ones, etc., was more than half completed by the end of the fiscal 
year 1911. Another improvement on the Fusan-Keiju line, viz., making 
a short cut between Iin and Yokusen and replacing a steel bridge on 
the Kan (Han) River, was commenced in the fiscal year 1911, and more 
than half was completed during the same fiscal year, while the re¬ 
mainder was expected to be completed in the fiscal year following. 

For the account of railway construction and improvement 
works, 8,500,000 yen was apportioned for the fiscal year 1911. 
The surplus of the account for the previous fiscal year amounting to 
189,086 yen being added to that amount, the total provided for the 
fiscal year 1911 was 8,689,086 yen, of which 8,625,257 yen was 
actually expended during the same fiscal year, leaving a balance of 
63,829 yen. The following table shows the accounts for railway con¬ 
struction and improvement, apportioned according to fiscal years:— 


Expenses defrayed during 1906-7— 1911-12 


Description 

Estimate 

Net Expenses 

Balance 

Construction Expenses :— 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

General Expenses . . 

73.1,275 

711,396 

81,879 

Kcijd-Fusan Line . . 

2,198,687 

2,279,754 

118,9.13 

Keijd-Shitigishfl Line . 

20,723,614 

22,028,574 

- 1,104,960 

Masan Line .... 

357,275 

659,146 

- 301,871 

Hciju-Chinnampo Line . 

1,886,040 

1,003,961 

882,079 

TaiiL n-Mukpo Line . . 

1,892,500 

2,547,133 

654,833 

Keijo-Gensan Line . . 

2,607,000 

3,195,952 

- 588,952 

Engines, Passenger 
Freight Cars . . . J 

4,746,397 

2,927,298 

1,819,099 

Railway Hotel . . . 

— 


— 

Total. 

35.404.788 

35.353.414 

51,374 

Improvement Expenses 

605,230 

592,630 

12,600 

Grand Total . . 

38.010.018 

35,946.044 

63.974 


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(Continued) 


Estimates apportioned after 1912-13 


Description 

1911-12 

1912-13 

1913-14 

1914-15 

Total 

Construction Expenses :— 

yen 

Yen 

yen 

Yen 

Yen 

General Expenses . . 

138,423 

141,995 

141,996 

138,424 

560.838 

Keijo-Fusan Line . . 

332,415 



— 

332.415 

Keijo-Shingishu Line . 

2,025,486 

— 

— 

_ 

2.025,486 

Masan Line .... 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

Heijo-Chinnampv Line. 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

TaidairMokpo Line . . 

1,733,336 

2,892,053 

3,241,963 

2,922,462 

10,789.814 

Kcijo-Gmsan Line . . 

2,985,891 

4,07.3,095 

3,114,371 

1,283,414 

11,456.771 

Engines, Passenger 
Freight Cars . . . f 

720,800 

890,000 

1,022,400 

866,446 

3.499.646 

Railway Hotel . . . 

146,429 

502,857 

479,270 

156,428 

12284.984 

Total . 

8.082.780 

8.500.000 

8.000.000 

6367.174 

29.949.954 

Improvement Expenses . 

917,220 

— 

— 


917.220 

Grand Total . . 

9.000.000 

8.500.000 

8.000.000 

5.367,174 

30.867.174 


80. Tramways and Light Railways. 

As alluded to in the last Annual Report, tramways and light 
railways maintained by private corporations in the Peninsula were 
brought under the uniform control of the Railway Bureau of the 
Government-General after the Annexation. During the fiscal year 
11 )11, six applications for construction of tramways and light 
railways were submitted to the Railway Bureau for permission, of 
which the following three were sanctioned. 

1. The Nikkan Gas and Electric Company, which maintains a 
tramway in the city of Kcijo, applied for permission to extend the 
tramway 1.4 miles. 

2. The Chosen Electric Company applied for permission to 
construct a,n electric tramway running 12.1 miles between the port 
of Seishin (Chong-ching) and Ranan (Nanam). 

3. A private individual applied for permission to construct a 
tramway (human power) running 0.7 miles between Waikan station 
and the Raktd (Nak-tong) River in South Keisho Province. 


81. Channel Ferry Steamers. 

The ferry steamer traffic, undertaken by the Board of Imperial 
Government Railways across the channel between Japan proper and 


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Chosen, has close relations with the railway traffic in the Peninsula 
and is yielding better results year by year. Since the Annexation 
especially, the number of passengers has increased considerably. 
Since the connection of the Chosen trunk railway with the Manchuria 
railway, the ferry service shows a tendency to increase still more. 
The following table sets forth the general features of the traffic, and 
the accounts of the ferry steamer service for the fiscal year 1911, 
compared with the preceding year :— 


Description 

1911—12 

1910-11 

Increase 

Number of Voyages . . . 

1,254 

1,080 

171 


1 st class . 1 

i 

4,968 

4,117 

851 

No. of Passengers 

2 nd class. 

28,539 

20,172 

3,'t67 


,‘ird class . 

147,007 

123,965 

23,042 

Total- . 


175,514 

148,254 

27,260 



Kin 

Kin | 

Kin 

Ordinary Cargo . 

.... 

3,151,669 

2,453,669 

698,000 



Ton 

Ton 

Ton 

Baggage . . . 


81,051 

78,518 

3,133 

Mail matter . . 


170,182 

147,848 

22,334 


With the growth in passengers, the ferry service has been greatly 
improved. After August, 1911, the fares of passengers were reduced, 
the first class ticket now costing ten yen, the second, six yen and the 
third, three yen. The Sakura mam of 21 knots (3,20-1 tons), sister 
ship of the Umcgaka mam, Ix'ing added to the ferry service since 
December, the day trip hitherto run every other day is now run daily. 
The steamers engaged in the channel ferry service, at the end of the 
fiscal year 1911, were the Iki mam (1,691 tons), Tsushima mam 
(1,679 tons), Umcgaka mam (3,272 tons), Sakura mam (3,20-1 tons) 
and Satsuma mam (1,9-16 tons), their aggregate tonnage amounting 
to 11,792 tons. 

In addition, another steamer (977 tons) was specially chartered 
from October, 1911, to January, 1912, for the cargo traffic, as that 
part of the business increased considerably in the winter season as 
usual. 


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82. Marine Transportation. 

The marine transportation of the foreign trade in the Peninsula 
is almost exclusively conducted by ships registered in Japan proper 
and foreign countries, as seen later in the section “ Shipping ”, 
Chapter X. But coastwise transportation was encouraged by 
appointing certain ships, registered in the ports of Chosen, to call 
regularly Jit specified ports, and certain subsidies were granted to 
such. 

The general conditions of these contract navigation services, 
existing at the end of December, 1911, can be seen in the following 
table :— 


Navigation Lines 

No, of 
Voyages 

Ports of Call 

Period of 
Contract 
Services 

Owners 

Fusan-Sa suiyci 

Line .... 

More than 
six 

ChoshOho, Mazan, TCyci , 
Sanzcnpo, 

Dec. 1908- 
Dec. 1911 

Fusan Steamship 
Co. 

Fusan-Mokpo Line. 

More than 
four 

Choshoho, Sazuiyci, Kyobun - 
to, Saishfito, Shushito, 
Kaiito and eight other 
places. 

Fee. 1908— 
Dec. 1911 

Fusan Steamship 
Co. 

Fitsan-Gcime hiiva n 1 
Line . . . . 1 

More than 
four 

Ulsail, Hogyoshin. 

IX-c. 1908- 
Dec. 1911 

Fusan Steamship 
Co. 

Mokpo-Stppo Line . 

More than 1 
seven 

Chito , Hosciho. 

Jan. 1909- 
Dec. 1911 

Mokpo Resident 

Mokpo-Saishuto 

Line .... 

More than 
six 

Usuiyci , Shfishitn, Choten. 

Jan. 1909- 
Dec. 1911 

Mukpo Resident 

Mokpo-Chukd Line. 

More than 
four 

Usuiyei, Kanto . 

Jan. 1909- 
Dec. 1911 

Mokpo Resident 

FusaurYnki Line . 

Above *20 | 

Ulsan , Gcinichiwan, Koryo , 
Chosen, Gcnsan , Seiko* 
shin , Shimpo, Joshin, 
Seishin and eleven other 
places. 

Sept. 1908 — 
Dec. 1911 

Gcnsan Resident 

Gcnsan-Yuki Line . | 

Above 36 j 

Seiknshin, Shimpo, Tanseti, 
Joshin, Mcisen, Seishin, 
and six other places. 

Sept. 1908— 
Dec. 1911 

Gcnsan Resident 


The business conducted by these contract services during the 
year 1911 is shown in the following table :— 


Contractors 

Number of 
Vessels 

Gross 
Tonnage I 

Number of ^ 
Voyages | 

Mileage 

Amount 
of Cargo ! 

Number of 
Passengers 

Fusan Steamship Co. . 

273 

Tun 

45,505 

273 

Mile 

81,495 

Ton 

123,706 

18,716 

Mokpo Resident . . . 

227 

18,707 

227 

42,74-1 

50,890 

8,975 

Gcnsan Resident . . . 

59 

*2*2,259 

59 

47,222 

150,895 

11,354 

Total .... 

559 

86.471 

559 

171.461 

337,551 

39.045 


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These contract navigation services, expiring in December, 1911, 
were continued till the end of the fiscal year 1911 (March 31,1912). 

Prom the fiscal year 1912, these contract services arc to be 
renewed for the next three years. But, in order to maintain a more 
uniform management of the coastwise transportation, the above- 
mentioned owners engaging in the contract services are to 
amalgamate and form one steamship company only. At the same 
time, the supervision of the shipping, hitherto conducted by the 
Customs Section of the Finance Department of the Government- 
General, will be brought under the charge of the Communications 
Bureau. 

In addition, coastwise transportation other than that done by 
contract service, was carried on by twenty other lines owned by 
various proprietors, including those engaging in the contract service. 

Several steamship companies of Japan proper also engaged in 
coastwise navigation of the Peninsula in the course of their regular 
lines to China and Vladivostok. 

Business relating to pilotage in the mouth of the Oryoku River 
was commenced in the year 1911, during which year (except in the 
ice-bound season) the number of vessels piloted in or out of the river, 
according to nationality, is shown in the following table : — 



Japanese 

Chinese 

English 

1 Trench 

Norwegian ^ 

Total 

Description 

No. of 
Vessels 

i r 

No. of 
Vessels 

Gross 

Tonnage 

No. of 
Vessels 

Gross 

Tonnage 

No. of 
Vessels 

Gross 

Tonnage 

No. of 
Vessels 

Gross 

Tonnage 

No. of 
Vessels 

Gross 

Tonnage 

Vessels enteral. 

94 

59,62*1 

12 

10,108 

a 

19,430 

i 

1,120 

10 

22,224 

134 

112,508 

Vessels cleared . 

81 

5i,:«i9 

n 

7,708 

12 

20,819 

2 

2,240 

19 

20,391 

125 

108.527 

Total.... 

175 

110,996 

23 

17,816 

23 

40.249 

3 

3.360 

35 

48.615 

259 

221,035 


83. Communication Facilities. 

With the growth of local development and increase of Japanese 
residents, the communication facilities of the postal, telegraphic and 
telephone service are being expanded and improved as far as the 
expenditure of the budget permits. The general growth of these 
communication facilities for several years past can be seen in the 
following table :— 


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Fiscal 

Year 

No. of Offices 
dealing with 
Ordinary Mail 

No. of Offices 
dealing with 

Parcel Post 

No. of Offices 
dealing with 
Money Orders 
and Savings Bank 

No. of Offices dealing 
with Telegrams 

No. of Offices 
dealing with 
Telephones 

No. of 
Offices 
dealing 
with 
Treasury 
Accounts 

Japanese 

English 

Korean 

Exchange 

Office 

Communica¬ 
tions Office 

1908 

427 

275 

272 

172 

115 

110 

20 

44 

150 

1909 

•m 

203 

290 

259 

203 

199 

24 

49 

150 

1910 

447 

338 

334 

309 

250 

248 

32 

185 

271 

1911 

465 

465 

463 

370 

303 

303 

43 

235 

396 


When the communication facilities in Korea were first trans¬ 
ferred to the Imperial Government from the ex-Korean Government, 
the expenditure of the Communications Bureau and Post Offices 
considerably exceeded the revenues derived from the posts, 
telegraphs, telephones, and other services conducted by the Bureau. 
But the earnings gradually increasing owing to improvements and 
reforms, the receipts for the fiscal year 1910 exceeded the expenditure 
for the first time. Far better results were obtained for the fiscal 
year 1911. The following table shows the receipts and expenditure 
of the communications services according to the fiscal years follow¬ 
ing their transference to the Bureau :— 


Fiscal Year 

Ordinary 

Revenues 

Ordinary 

Expenditure 

Excess ( + ) or 
Deficit C—) of 
Revenue 

Expenditure 
against 100 
yen of Revenue 

Extraordinary 

Expenditure 

1906 . . . 

Yen 

1,044,471 

Yen 

1,479,575 

Yen 

- 435, 503 

Yen 

141.69 

Yen 

816,103 

1907 . . . 

1,494,999 

1,836,135 

— 341,130 

122.81 

347,529 

1908 

1,712,091 

2,015,967 

- 303,876 

117.74 

287,737 

1909 

2,007,045 

2,126,591 

- 119,546 

105.95 

303,558 

1910 . . . 

2,520,694 

2,278,075 

+ 242,619 

90.37 

295,673 

1911 . . . 

2,593,316 

2,285,124 

+ 308,192 

88.11 

488,182 


84. Post Services. 

With the growth of correspondence, public as well as private, 
postal routes were more extended during the fiscal j'car 1911, and 
the number of collections and deliveries was also increased. The 
postal communication between Kcijo and the scats of Provincial 


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Governments is now maintained da}- and night. Night • deliveries 
l>eing also increased on other important routes, the postal routes 
maintained day and night were increased to 32 lines aggregating 
368 ri. In addition, the postal routes maintained daily were 
increased to 119 lines, aggregating 985 ri, and the postal routes 
maintained every other day were decreased to 13 lines only, 
principally in KankyO Provinces (the northern part of the Peninsula) 
and Saishu (Quelpart) Island. With the growth of railway and 
marine communications, postal services through these agencies were 
also immensely increased. The following table shows the average 
postal routes per day during the fiscal year 1911, as compared 
with the preceding fiscal year :— 


Year 

Postal routes by 
railway 

Postal routes by sea 

Postal routes by road 


Milt 

Mile 

Rl 

1011. 

4,396 

3,414 

4,885 

1910. 

3,300 

2,880 

3,904 

Increase ( + ) or| 

Decrease (—) j • ■ • • 

+ 1,030 

+ 034 

+ 981 


In connection with the extension of the postal routes many 
improvements in handling mails and parcels have been made. 

The remittance of money by the so-called “book transfer saving 
accounts” system, hitherto conducted only with Japan proper, was 
further extended on April 1, 1911, to post offices of the Government- 
General of Kwantung Peninsula, South Manchuria. 

The general business conducted by the post offices of the Govern¬ 
ment-General in the matter of ordinary mails, parcel post, postal 
money order, and post office savings banks is increasing considerably 
year by year as shown in the following tables :— 


A. Ordinary Mails and Parcel Post. 


Fiscal year 

Ordinary mails 

Parcels 

No. of 
Offices 
open 
to Public 

Collected 

Delivered 

No. of 
Offices 
open 
to Public 

Collected 

Delivered 

1 9 0 8-9 . • 

427 

35,659,758 

37,614,979 

276 

362,768 

601,765 

190 9-10. . 

438 

40,722,812 

43,277,820 

203 

489,173 

750,967 

1910—11. . 

447 

47,083,570 

53,181,471 

338 

661,625 

928,097 

1911-12. . 

465 

54,209,410 

03,421,597 

465 

787,236 

1,116,352 


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B. Money Orders. 


Fiscal year 

No. of | 
Offices open 
to Public 

| Domestic Money Orders 

Foreign Money Orders 

Issued 

Paid 

Issued 

Paid 

18089 ... 

272 

Yen 

22,607,990 

Yen 1 

10,120,371 | 

Yen 

32,825 

Yen 

38,196 

1 9 0 9 - 10 .. 

290 

24,498,778 

18,799,689 

35,521 

49,180 

1910 - 11 .. 

384 

28,2311,880 

22,481,489 

55,313 

77,470 

1911 - 12 .. 

463 

29,173,786 

23,978,750 

70,961 

110,990 


C. Post Office Savings Banks. 



No. of 

Ordinary Savings Account 

Book Transfer Savings Account 

Fiscal year 

Offices 
open to 
Public 

No. of 

Depositors 

Amount of 

Deposits 

Average 
amount of 
Deposit per 
person 

No. 

opening 

Accounts 

Amount of 
Deposits at 
end of 
fiscal year 

Amount 
received and 
paid during 
fiscal year 

1908 9 . . 

272 

80,587 

Yen 

1,675,658 

20.79 

— 

Yen 

Yen 

1,199,223 

1909 10 . 

290 

106,644 

2,331,003 

21 X6 

279 

.31,391 

4,460,323 

1910—11 . 

334 

138,986 

3,206,465 

23.07 

401 

186,640 

9,833,110 

1911-12 . 

463 

223,599 

4,366,990 

19.53 

750 

242,345 

20,380,137 


For the encouragement of saving by Koreans, pass-books for 
savings deposits written in the native language were provided, and 
guide-books of post-office savings banks were also distributed 
among a certain class of the people. Especially after the Annexation 
were books of this kind extensively distributed among the general 
public, particularly among the labouring class, and post-masters, in 
co-operation with the Prefect or District Magistrate, were urged 
to exert all possible influence to encourage postal savings by the 
people, and so wean them from their habitual spendthrift tendency. 
The result was that the Koreans, appreciating the security of their 
deposits in the postal savings banks, abandoned their custom of 
hoarding up their money and began to bank it. The total number 
of Korean depositors in the post office savings banks reached 
99,958, and the aggregate amount of their savings 459,800 yen, 
at the end of the fiscal year 1911, showing an increase of 186.0 
per cent, in depositors and of 142.0 per cent, in deposits, as against 
the preceding fiscal year. 

The extent to which Koreans avail themselves of the use of 
communication facilities is steadily on the increase year by year, as 
shown in the following tables :— 


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Table A 


Fiscal year 

No. of Ordinary Mails 

No. of Parcels 

No. of Telegrams 

No. of 
Telephone 
Users 

Collected 

Delivered j 

Collected 1 

Delivered 

Messages 

sent 

Messages 
received 1 

1908 9 . .. 

0,540,100 

5,597,354 

50,181 

80,079 

157,099 

158,817 

298 

1909-10 . 

7,002,792 

7,507,142 

104,832 

105,852 

204,947 

204,907 

508 

1910-11 . 

7,025,173 

10,370,705 

151,588 

172,073 

231,303 

231,384 

254 

1911-12 . 

8,947,422 

12,787,354 

214,140 

251,000 

220,050 

220,883 

418 


Table B. 


Fiscal year 

Money Orders 

Post Office Savings 

Bank 

No. of Orders 
issued 

Amount 

issued 

No. of 
Depositors 

Amount of 
Deposits 

Average Amount 
of Deposit per 
person 

1 9 0 8—9 ... 

53,543 

Yen 

1,900,090 

10,999 

Yen i 

75,814 

Yen 

0.89 

19 0 9-1 0 .. 

90,090 

3,791,008 

19,430 

117,227 

0.03 

1910—11 . . 

113,342 

4,278,345 

34,913 

190,045 

5.44 

1911 — 12 .. 

392,908 

7,859,305 

99,958 

459,881 

4.00 


85. Telegraphs. 

The telegraphic business is increasing year by year, especially so in 
that between the Peninsula and Japan proper, and soon after the An¬ 
nexation, direct communication with Japan was opened by constructing 
a direct line between Keiju and Shimonoseki, simultaneously with the 
purchase of the submarine cable between Tsushima and Fusan from the 
Great Northern Telegraphic Company of Denmark in October, 1910, 
and the rates of telegraphic messages between Chosen and Japan 
proper were considerably reduced. In May, 1911, direct communica¬ 
tion with Japan was further extended to Osaka. A cable between 
the port of Gcnsan and UtsuryO Island and that between Utsuryo 
and Matsuye of Japan proper being connected by installing siphon 
recorders, another direct communication between the north-eastern 
part of the Peninsula and Japan proper was opened in July. Thus 
most of the telegraphic messages between Chosen and Japan proper, 
instead of taking three or four hours as was formerly the case, now 
take only two or three hours. Another cable between Fusan and 
Shimonoseki being laid down in March, 1912, by the Communications 
Department of Japan proper, the despatch of telegraphic messages to 
Japan proper was further cjuickened. 


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During the fiscal year 1911, the telegraphic lines in the 
Peninsula were further extended, and the number of post-offices 
dealing with telegraphic messages was increased by GO. The progress 
made in the telegraphic service for several years past is tabulated 
below : — 



Telegraphic Lines 

No. of Of- 

No. of Messages 

Fiscal year 

Length of i 
Lines 

Length of 
Wires 

fices open 
to Public 

Sent 

Received 

Messages in 
transit 

1908 9 . . 

in 

1,317.05 

III 

2,880.33 

172 

1,302,147 

1,328,002 

2,189,012 

1909 10 . 

1,370.25 

3,170.14 

259 

1,020,433 

1,587,689 

2,505,388 

1910-11 . 

1,389.05 

3,172.01 

309 

2,059,048 

2,008,920 

3,058,007 

1911—12 . 

1,407.21 

3,392.17 

370 

2,201,085 

2,132,547 

3,101,373 


86. Telephones. 

With the gradual growth of country towns, telephone facilities 
also were gradually extended. During the fiscal year 1911, telephone 
services were commenced in Scishu, Gishil (Wiju), and Shunsen where 
Provincial Governments are seated, and four other places, by opening 
exchange stations in these places. Temporary telephone facilities 
provided in Shinshu, KankyO and Kyoju where Provincial Governments 
are seated and two other places were made permanent, while com¬ 
munication stations were created in 61 important places. The long 
distance service between important cities and sea-ports was further 
extended, and the rates for long distance and for automatic 
telephone messages were reduced at the same time. The “ police 
telephones,” which were provided for giving quick warning of the 
movement of insurgents under charge of the Police Affairs Depart¬ 
ment, were transferred to the charge of the Communications Bureau 
and converted into the ordinary telephone service. The general 
state of progress made in telephone facilities and services for the 
past few years is shown in the following table: — 



Telephone Lines I 

No. of Offices dealing 
with telephones 

No. of 

0 

a S3 

C * 
1-2 

No. of 

Communi¬ 
cations in 
fiscal year 


Fiscal year 

Length 
of Lines 

Length ! 
of Wires 

Exchange 

stations 

Communi¬ 

cation 

stations 

Total 

Users 

*4 g 

■s-g. 

g* 

Receipts 

1908 9 . 

111 

81.09 

Jli 

2,244/29 

20 

44 

64 

4,031 

21 

12,502,848 

Yen 

286,407 

1909 10. 

101.35 

3,192.30 

24 

49 

73 

fy p ,(X> 

27 

10,781,141 

408,752 


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137 


(Continued) 


1910—11 

m 

124.17 

Ri 

4,148.20 

32 

185 

217 

6,448 

30 

21,200,918 

532,229 

1911—12 

1,012.28 

0,412.13 

43 

235 

278 

8,024 

_ 

35 

29,071,310 

007,409 


87. Hydro-Electric Power. 

As mentioned in the last Annual Report, supervision of the 
business relating to electricity in the Peninsula was charged to the 
Communications Bureau of the Government-General. In order to 
stimulate growth in industries utilizing hydro-electric power, the 
Bureau commenced in this fiscal year to investigate the systems of 
the important rivers in the Peninsula. Extensive inspection of five 
great rivers—the Kanko (Han), Daidu (Tai-dong), Kinko(Kungan), Rinshin 
(Im-jin gang) and Rakuto (Naktong )—being made, it was found that 
39 streams could be made to furnish hydro-electric power, that power 
stations could be established in 57 places, and that about 126,000 
horse-power could be generated by them in the aggregate. 

The rain-fall having close connection with the water-power of 
a river, rain gauges or pluviometers were provided in 40 places 
along the banks of these five rivers, while poles to measure varia¬ 
tions in height of the water were erected in eleven places. 


88. Electric Business. 

Although supervision of the electric business is in charge of the 
Communications Bureau, permission to undertake an electric business 
must lie sent in for approval to the Governor-General. During the 
fiscal year 1911, fifteen applications were made, of which, four 
received permission, five failed to gain approval, and the remaining 
six are still in the course of examination. 


89. The Observatory. 

The general system of meteorological observation in the Peninsula 
was set forth in the previous Annual Report. During the fiscal year 
1911, one branch observatory having been created, and an increase 
by three made in the stations charged with the duty of conducting 
observations, there were one central observatory, nine branch 


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138 


observatories, and forty-nine stations for conducting simple observa¬ 
tions existing at the end of the year. The observatories, three in 
number, making reports of storm forecasts were increased to twelve 
by the end of the fiscal year 1911, while storm signals, of which 
there was formerly only one at the central observatory at Jinsen, 
were installed at branch observatories in Pusan and Gctisan. In 
order to secure more exact observation, improved instruments and 
apparatus have been installed, while investigation of results of 
observations made at meteorological stations, and especially of old 
observations still on record, was carried out. An astronomical 
observatory was conducted as early as the period of the “ Three 
Kingdoms” (37 B.C.—663 A.D.), and a ruined tower for astronomical 
observation, still existing in the town of Kyong-jyu, the capital of the 
Shitila Kingdom, was a celebrated one. The results of investigation 
are to be printed and distributed among the general public. 

In order to communicate meteorological observations, arrange¬ 
ments have been made with the Japanese steamers engaged in 
navigating between Nagasaki and Shanghai, and Nagasaki and Dairen , 
whereby they communicate with the observatory stations of the 
Peninsula by wireless telegraphy three times each trip. In this way 
material for observation of the sea-coast of the Kokai or Yellow Sea 
has greatly increased. The sextant hitherto used for measuring 
time in astronomical observation being replaced by the theodolite, 
observation of the time became more accurate. 

The standard time hitherto adopted in Korea was thirty 
minutes later than the central standard time of Japan proper. 
The relations and communications between the Peninsula and 
Japan proper becoming closer, especially after Annexation, the 
necessity of unifying the standard time was keenly felt, so the 
standard time of the Peninsula is to be based upon the central 
standard time of Japan proper on and after January 1, 1912. 


90. Light-House Facilities. 

As stated in the previous Annual Reports, side by side with the 
work of extending the customs compounds, and of improving harbour 
facilities, the ex-Korean Government, under the Protectorate regime, 
was caused, in March, 1906, to make considerable improvements 
in light-house facilities along the several water-routes, and a plan 
of establishing light-houses, light-buoys, beacons, buoys, fog-signals, 
etc., during five years, beginning 1906, at an estimate of one and a 


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139 


quarter million yen was drawn up. The improvement work of tlic 
first stage being completed by the fiscal year 1910, the second stage 
was commenced in the fiscal year 1911 by allotting 120,000 yen for 
that purpose. The light-house facilities along the Korean coasts 
existing at the end of each year since 1907 can be seen in the follow¬ 
ing table :— 



Night Signals 

Day Signals 

Fog Signals 


Year 

I 

3 

O 

-C 

tc 

u 

Post Lights 

Leading Lights 

Lighted Beacons 

Lighted Buoys 

Buoys 

Beacons 

Land Marks 

Leading Marks 

Fog Homs 

Fog Guns 

Total 

1907 

(December) 

17 

4 

2 

4 

2 

49 

r> 

14 

— 

5 

i 

103 

1908 

(December) 

21 

4 

2 

4 

3 

57 

0 

21 

i 

7 

i 

127 

1909 

(December) 

29 

4 

2 

7 

0 

62 

8 

15 

9 

10 

2 

144 

1910 

(Fiscal year ending 
May, 1911) 

40 

2 

i 

8 

<; 

54 

ii 

13 

22 

14 

2 

173 

1911 

(Fiscal year ending 
May, 1912) 

4r» 

2 

i 

13 

8 

GO 

12 

— 

36 

15 

2 

200 


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X. COMMERCE 


91. Foreign Trade. 

As the political and economic relations of Korea with Japan 
have become closer and closer, the trade of the Peninsula both with 
Japan projicr and foreign countries has increased. The following 
table gives particulars :— 


Year 

Fxports 

Imports 

Total 

Iixcess of 
Imports 

1902 . 

Ten 

8,468,503 

Ten 

13,692,842 

Yen 

22.161.346 

Yen 

5,224,339 

1 903 . 

9,809,131 

18,410,711 

28,079.842 

8,741,580 

1 904 . 

7,V1<>,715 

27,402,591 

34533306 

19,871,870 

1 905 . 

7,918,571 

32,971,852 

40.888.423 

25,055,281 

1 908 . 

8,902,500 

30,304,522 

39.207.031 

21,402,01.3 

1 907 . 

16,983,938 

41,611,5.30 

58.595.466 

24,027,594 

1908 

14,113,310 

41,025,523 

55.138.833 

28,912,213 

1 909 . 

10,248,888 

30,848,770 

52.897.658 

20,399,882 

1910. 

19,913,843 

39,782,750 

59.696.599 

19,888,913 

1911. 

18,858,9.55 

54,087,882 

72.944,637 

35,230,727 

Increase ( + ) or Decreases 
(— ) of Foreign Trade for( 
11)11 against 11)10 . .) 

— 1,056,888 

+ 14,304,928 

+ 13548.038 

+ 15,381,814 


As shown in the above table, the foreign trade of Korea increased 
considerably during the Russo-Japanese War (1904—1905). Nor 
was the tendency to increase checked by the termination of the war; 
on the contrary, as soon as the war was over, and a Protectorate 
regime in Korea established by Japan, the exploitation of the natural 
resources of the country, especially the opening of mines, and develop¬ 
ment of transportation facilities, following the reform measures of the 
administration, caused a gradual increase in exports, while imports 
of foreign goods were augmented by the purchase of various 
materials required for public undertakings, such as the construction 
of railways and roads, harbour extension, water-works, government 
buildings and other undertakings, and by the development of the 
purchasing power of the Koreans, who obtained larger incomes in the 
form of wages derived from the above-mentioned public undertakings. 


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Moreover, an increase in the monc 3 ’ spent by Japanese officials and 
immigrants, together with the growth of administrative expenses 
defrayed from the Japanese Imperial Treasury, was to some extent 
responsible for a development in imports of foreign goods. Under 
such circumstances the foreign trade for each year after 1907 
increased and swelled to double that for 1903, the year before the 
war. Especially docs the foreign trade for 1911 show immense 
increase, so much so that it is treble that for 1903, owing to the 
establishment of public peace, and the further extension of public 
undertakings after the Annexation, and to growth of various 
productive undertakings. 

• In the foreign trade of Korea for the year 1911, the total value 
of exports and imports being 18,856,955 yen and 54,087,682 yen 
resj>cctivcly, their aggregate amount reached 72,944,637 yen. There 
was .a decrease of about 1,056,800 yen in exports, in contrast to a 
considerable increase in imports, amounting to over 14,304,900 yen, 
as against the preceding year. The export trade of the Peninsula, 
though occasionally fluctuating, is advancing in general. The small 
decrease in exports for 1911 as against 1910, the record year for the 
export trade, was principally caused by the people refraining to a 
great extent from disposing of the 1911 crops—especially rice and 
beans, the chief export products—in the hope of obtaining higher 
prices in the following year. 

As for the considerable growth in the import trade, although 
good crops of agricultural products and better wages derived from 
various public works were responsible for an increase in the imports 
of foreign goods, the purchasing power of the people was also consider¬ 
ably augmented by the liberal distribution of the Imperial Donation, 
and by exemption from, or remission of land taxes as a consequence 
of the Annexation. Moreover, a great proportion of the adminis¬ 
trative expenditure continued to be defrayed by the Japanese Treasury, 
which moneys directly or indirectly came into the people’s pockets. 
Thus the purchasing power of the Koreans being strengthened, the 
import of cotton goods for 1910—cotton yarns, shirtings, sheetings, 
cotton satins, cotton tissues, etc.—increased in the aggregate to about 
2,500,000 yen over the previous year, while there were also increases 
of 496,655 yen in hemp tissues, of 320,000 yen in wheat flour, and 
an aggregate increase of 1,275,000 yen in salt, sugar, paper, porcelain 
wares, umbrellas, petroleum, etc. The increase in imports was also 
largely augmented by expansion in public works and certain produc¬ 
tive undertakings. An aggregate increase in rails, locomotives, and 
railway fittings amounted to about 824,000 yen, while there were 


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142 


increases of 539,993 yen in coal, of 645,000 yen in machinery and 
iron materials, and of 267,810 yen in timber. In addition, there 
was an increase of several million yen in the importation of various 
miscellaneous articles, and articles imported through the parcel post. 

The large excess of imports over exports still continued in 1911, 
and amounted in that year to over 35,000,000 yen. The imports 
into the Peninsula are not determined exclusively by the exports, in 
other words, not by the purchasing power of the people, which 
elsewhere is generally derived from the proceeds of exports, but 
are greatly influenced by the political and economic relations with 
Japan. After the Russo-Japanese war especially, the very great 
excess of imports was due to large purchases of materials required 
for various public undertakings conducted as reform measures, 
and to appreciation of wages, which naturally augmented the 
purchasing power. Moreover, certain administrative expenses, 
defrayed from the Japanese Treasury from the time of the establish¬ 
ment of the protectorate, and distributed throughout the Peninsula, 
as well as an increase in the Japanese residents, were to some extent 
responsible for the excess of imports. The excess of imports was 
partly counter-balanced by the excess of sjiecie export, annually 
amounting to several million yew. Thus, since it is apparent that the 
growth of imports has at present little connection with exports, the 
balance of trade existing in the Peninsula can not lx; regarded as 
altogether unfavourable. 


92. Trade According to Countries. 

In the foreign trade of Korea for 1911, Japan leads all other 
countries as heretofore. Her share represents about 65 per cent, of 
the total trade of 72,944,637 yen, or 63.0 per cent, of the imports 
and 70.7 per cent, of the exports. In the imports, Great Britain 
comes next with 14.6 per cent, of the total imports of 54,087,682 yen, 
China taking 10.1 per cent., the United States 7.9 per cent., and so 
on. In exports, China comes next to Japan, her share representing 
16 per cent, of the total 18,856,955 yen, and Asiatic Russia stands 
at 8.0 per cent. Germany sold goods to Korea amounting to 
1,311,394 yen in 1911, as compared with 488,281 yen in the prece¬ 
ding year, and bought Korean products to the extent of 20,444 yen 
in 1911. 

The details of the foreign trade of Korea for 1911 according to 
countries can be seen in the following table :— 


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143 


Country 

1911 

1910 

Increase ( + ) 

Percentage 

1 ° r 

1 Decrease (—) 

1911 

1910 

1 

| Exports 

Yen 

13,340,551 

Yen 

15,378,643 


Yen 

2,038,092 

70.7 

77.2 

Japan . . . 

Imports 

H 0.58,434 

25,348,085 

+ 

8,710,349 

63.0 

63.7 

’ 

i Total 

47.398.985 

40.728.728 

+ 

6.672.257 

85.0 

68.2 


r Exports 

8,009,012 , 

3,026,836 

- 

16,824 

16.0 

15.2 

China . . . .1 

Imports 

5,442,4-13 

3,845,274 

+ 

1,597,169 

10.1 

09.7 


1 Total 

8.451.455 

6.871,110 

+ 

1580.345 

11.6 

11.5 


f Exports 

1,510,940 

1,166,367 

+ 

3.55,58.3 

08.0 

055 

Asiatic Russia ^ 

Imports 

49,368 

17,970 

+ 

31,398 

00.1 

(X1.0 


1 Total 

1.660.308 

1,173.327 

+ 

386.981 

02.1 

02.0 


r Exports 

1,217 

24,719 

- 

23,502 

00.0 

00.1 

Great Britain . .1 

Imports 

7,923,505 

6,226,524 

+ 

1,696,981 

14.6 

15.7 


i Total 

7,924.722 

6251.243 

: + 

1.673.479 

10.9 

10.5 


r Exports 

20,444 

12,972 

+ 

7,472 

00.1 

(Kt.l 

Germany . . .1 

Imports 

1,311,394 

488,281 

+ 

823,113 

02.4 

01-3 


l Total 

1.331.838 

501553 

J 

+ 

830.585 

01.8 

00.8 


/ Exports 

953,344 

304,867 

+ 

648,477 

05.1 

01.5 

United States of 
America . . . 

Imports 

4,200,903 

3,204,668 


1,056,235 

07.9 

08.1 


l Total 

5.214,247 

3509.535 

+ 

1.704,712 

07.2 

06.9 


r Exports 

21,447 

11,449 

+ 

9,998 

00.1 

00.1 

Other Countries 

Imports 

1,041,635 

651,954 

+ 

389,681 

01.9 

01.5 


1 Total 

1.063.082 

663.403 

+ 

399.679 

01.4 

01.1 


. Exports 

18.856.955 

19513.843 


1.056.888 

100.0 

100.0 

Grand Total | 

' Imports 

54.087.682 

39,782.756 

+ 14.304.926 

100.0 

100.0 

• 

; Total 

72.944.637 

59,696.599 

+ 13.248.038 

100.0 

100.0 


Reviewing the reasons for the fluctuation in the foreign trade 
according to countries, the exports to Japan for 1911 showed a net 
decrease of 2,038,092 yen, in spite of an increase in marine products, 
manure, etc., owing to a large decrease in rice (over 1,300,000 yen), 
beans (over 1,100,000 yen), hides, coal, gold ore, iron ore and other 
mineral products. The increase in imports, amounting to 8,710,349 
yen, was due to a considerable inflow of cotton goods (over 2,000,000 


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144 


yen), and to general increases in sugar, coal and other imports. As 
to the trade with China, the increase in imports is attributable to 
an increase in millet, salt, hemp or ramie tissue, and goods imported 
by parcel post. The increased imports from Great Britain were due 
chiefly to an advance in the trade in cotton goods, rails, wrought 
iron and other metallic articles. The increase in the trade with the 
United States of America was due to an increase in exports of bullion 
of old coins withdrawn in the course of the currency reform, and to 
a considerable increase in imports of wheat flour, locomotives, and 
kerosene oil. The trade with Germany greatly advanced, and the 
imports from that country for 1911 trebled those for the preceding 
year, owing to increase in the importation of aniline dyes, machinery, 
vehicles, ships, and other articles. The trade with Asiatic Russia for 
the year 1911 has advanced both in exports and imports ; especially 
was there an increase in the export of Korean cattle and rice to 
Vladivostok amounting to 335,000 yen. 


93. Trade According to Ports. 


The amounts of exports and imports for 1911 according to ports, 
compared with those for the previous year, and the percentages of the 
total trade according to ports arc shown in the following table :— 


Port 

Exports 

Imports 

1911 

1910 

1911 

1910 


Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Jinscn . 

3,907,913 

4,055,204 

16,525, U06 

12,606,523 

Fttsatt . 

5,804,745 

6,049,834 

12,457,801 

9,830,178 

Gnisan . 

907,339 

1,019,301 

3,534,219 

2,503,092 

Chinnampo . 

2,.330,038 

2,565,937 

2,257,205 

1,994,174 

Kciju . 

181,709 

200,754 

8,515,085 

6,338,215 

Kunsan . 

1,153,370 

2,210,150 

1,909,514 

1,180,489 

Mokpo . 

1,151,958 

1,334,615 

1,460,390 

963,877 

Taiko . 

— 

— 

1,050,251 

— 

Masan Sc Kogan . . . 

121,800 

158,834 

1,002,922 

566,869 

Sc i shin . 

24,905 

38,128 

988,671 

600,086 

Joshin . 

677,750 

548,330 

694,222 

448,857 

Shingishu Sc Ryngumpo . 

1,293,749 

1,120,090 

1,215,308 

698,949 

Hi'ijo . 

381,617 

612,048 

2,476,128 

1,979,447 

Total . 

18.856.955 

19.913.843 

54.087,682 

39,782,756 


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145 


(Continued) 


Port 

Total 

Percentage 

1911 

1910 

Increase (+)or 
Decrease (—) 

1911 

1910 

J insen . 

20,433,878 

Yen 

16,721,727 

Yen \ 

+ 3,712,162 

28.0 

28.0 

Fusan . 

18,322,548 

15,886,012 

+ 2,438534 

25.1 

26.6 

Gensan . 

4501548 

3522,393 

+ 979,155 

06.2 

05.9 

ChinnamfH) . 

5.087,243 

4,560,111 

+ 627,132 

07.0 

07.6 

Keijo . 

8,696854 

6538369 

+ 2,157385 

11.9 

11.0 

Kunsan . 

3.362.890 

3.396.645 

- 33,755 

04.6 

05.7 

Mokpo . 

2,612348 

2398,492 

+ 313.856 

03.6 

03.9 

Taiko . 

1,060351 

— 

+ 1560351 

01.4 

— 

Masan & Kogan . . . 

1,124,728 

725,703 

+ 399.025 

01.6 

01.2 

Seishin . 

1313576 

638314 

+ 375,382 

01.4 

01.1 

Joskin . 

1371,972 

997.193 

+ 374,779 

01.9 

01.7 

Sitingishu & Ryugampo . 

2,609.067 

1319.645 

+ 689.412 

03.4 

03.0 

Hcijo . 

2357,745 

2591.495 

+ 286350 

03.9 

043 

Total. 

72,944,637 

59.696599 

13348538 

100.0 

100.0 


Although the foreign trade of Fusan has increased largely in 
recent years so that the exports there have exceeded those at Jinsen . 
(Chemulpo) since 1908, Jinsen still leads all other ports in imports. 
Notwithstanding the cities of Kcijo (Seoul) and Hcijo (Pyongyang) are 
located in the interior of the Peninsula, the import trade through 
these cities is on the increase year by year owing to the advancement 
of railway facilities, and the considerable increase in their Japanese 
population. 


94. Specie and Bullion. 

In 1911, the exports of specie and bullion amounted to 
12,857,023 yen, and the imports to 4,739,245 yen, showing an excess 
of 8,117,778 yen in the former. Comparison of these figures with 
those for the previous year is shown in the following table :— 


Description 

Exports 

Imports 

1911 

1910 

Increase ( + ) 
or 

Decrease (—) 

1911 

1910 

Increase ( + ) 
or 

Decrease (— ) 

Gold Coin . . 

Yen 

1,944,500 

Yen 

20 

Yen 

+ 1,944,480 

Yen 

1,900,187 

Yen 

600,000 

Yen 

+1,400,187 

Gold Bullion. . 

9,099,796 

8,833,609 

+ 266,187 

2,252 

— 

+ 2,252 


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14-fi 


(Continued) 


Description 

Exports 

Imports 

1911 

1910 

Increase ( + ) 
or 

Decrease (— ) 

1911 

19 10 

I nc.ease ( + ) 
or 

Decrease (—) 

Silver Coin . . 

Yen 

1,778,260 

Yen 

187,263 

Yen 

+1,590,997 

Yen \ 

2,806,246 

Yen 

1,306,107 

Yen 

+ 1,440,139 

Silver Bullion . 

34,467 

178,746 

- 144,279 

30,660 

10,013 

+ 20,-547 

Total • • 

12.857.023 

9,199.638 

+ 3,857386 

4,739246 

1.876,120 

(2.863.125 


In the above table, the exports of gold coin, amounting to 
1,944,500 yen, consisted of Korean coins sent to the Osaka mint for 
reminting into new coins. The imports of gold coins, amounting to 
1,900,187 yen, were occasioned by sending the new coins to the 
Peninsula as reserves for the bank notes issued by the Bank of 
Chosen. A large export of gold bullion, valued at 9,099,796 yen, 
showing an increase of more than 966,187 yen over the previous 
year, due to increased output from mines in operation, was principal¬ 
ly sent to Japan proj)cr. The considerable increase in imports or 
exports of silver coins was due to replacement of the Korean coins 
with the Imperial coins, brought about by the extension of the 
•Imj)crial currency system to the Peninsula. 


95. Shipping. 


Owing to the considerable growth of foreign commerce in Korea, 
the number and tonnage of vessels touching at Korean ports is on 
the increase, as shown in the following table :— 


1 

Vessels and Flag 

No. of Vessels 

Tonnage 

1911 

1910 

Increase(+) 

or 

Decrease'— 

19 11 

1910 

Increase ^ +) 
or 

Decrease —' 

Steamers; 







Japanese .... 

4,184 

4,132 

+ 52 

3,369,418 

3,143,321 

+ 226,097 

British. 

28 

16 

+ 13 

85,008 

37,932 

+ 47,676 

Chinese. 

3 

3 

— 

1,704 

2,903 

- 1,199 

German. 

3 

10 

- 7 

7,647 

14,693 

- 7,046 

Others. 

1 

9 

- 8 

557 

12,-501 

- 11,944 

Sailing Vessels; 







Japanese . . . . 

1,793 

1,061 

+ 742 

66,559 

43,908 

+ 22,651 

Chinese. 

— 

B 

- 6 

- 

60 

- 60 


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14-7 


(Continued) 


Junks; 


1 

+ 473 1 




Japanese .... 

1,990 

1,517 


22,845 

18,412 

+ 4,433 

Chinese. 

1,950 

1,582 

+ 368 

35,679 

22,742 

+ 12,937 

Total. . . . 

9.952 

8.325 

+ 1.627 

3,590.017 

3,296,472 

+ 293,545 


Compared with the preceding year, there is an increase of 1,627 
in the number of vessels, and of 293,545 iti the tonnage. 


96. Customs Administration. 

As the foreign trade through the port of Masampo was becoming 
less important, outside of the trade with Japan proper, it was 
declared that the port would be closed on or after January 1, 1911, 
and on the eve of the Annexation the Imjicrial Government com¬ 
municated the declaration to the Powers concerned. Still, much 
inconvenience being felt by vessels engaging in the trade between the 
Peninsula and Japan proper, vessels touching the Ports of Japan 
proper, Chosen, Formosa, and Japanese Saghalien are also permitted 
to touch at Masampo and Kogan Bay for trading purposes. While 
the Port of Masampo has a Branch Office of the Custom House, the 
trade conducted in Kogan Bay is supervised by the Branch Office of 
the Custom House in Chinnampo. 

When the direct railway traffic between Chosen and Manchuria 
was opened on November 1, 1911, with the completion of the 
railway bridge over the Oryokii River, customs examiners of the 
Government-General were stationed at the Antung station on the 
Chinese side in order to facilitate the convenience of passengers and 
shippers, so that they can now deal with the transportation of articles 
imported or exported by railway in bond, or can examine hand 
baggage or parcels carried by passengers within the cars. 

The customs administration in the Peninsula being hitherto 
conducted principally according to the provisions of Treaties and 
Trade Regulations concluded by the ex-Korean Government with 
different Powers, great inconvenience was felt in its operation owing 
to the confused proceedings of the administration. In order to 
maintain more uniformity in the customs administration, to secure 
more justice in levying customs duties, and to deal with the examining 
of trade articles more speedily and simply, several Ordinances 


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concerning customs tariff, tonnage dues, bonded warehouses, and 
other affiliated matters were promulgated in March, 1912, and were 
to be put into force from the fiscal year 1912, beginning April 
1, 1912. The customs tariff provided in Treaties still being in 
operation, no change has been made in rates. The tariff rates, 
however, of dutiable goods were arranged under a more uniform 
classification, so that the troublesome levy of duties, caused by 
observing the different tariff rates provided in the several Treaties, 
can be avoided. At the same time the customs tariff' on all export 
goods except wheat, beans, cattle, hides, coal, iron ore, etc., is to be 
abolished from the fiscal year 1912. 


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XI. 


AGRICULTURE 


97. Increase of Agricultural Products. 

Agriculture being the principal occupation in Korea, the welfare 
and prosperity of the Peninsula are affected by an increase or 
decrease in the agricultural products. Therefore, with the object of 
improving agriculture in Korea, a Model Agricultural and Industrial 
Farm, a Cotton Planting Station, a Horticultural Garden, Seedling 
Stations, Sericulture Training Stations, etc., were established during 
the Protectorate regime. From these stations Ix'tter seeds, and 
superior seedlings and plants are being distributed among the 
agricultural class. The farmers are further encouraged to correct 
their lack of knowledge by having distributed among them improved 
agricultural tools, mulberry trees, silkworm eggs, etc. Also the 
improvement of irrigation has been encouraged. By these various 
progressive measures the agricultural products of the Peninsula are 
gradually on the increase, as shown in the following table :— 


Description 

1909 

1910 

1911 

Percentage of Increase 

For 1011 

Against 

1910 

Against 

1909 

Rice. 

Koku 

7,467,916 

Koku 

8,142,862 

Koku 

10,103,370 

24.8 

30.3 

Wheat and Barley . . . 

3,042,023 

3,548,441 

5,024,291 

41.0 

384) 

Beans (white) .... 

1,633,027 

1,810,582 

2,124,900 

174) 

38.0 

Beans (red). 

013,203 

667,097 

721,049 

09 JJ 

17.7 

Millet. 

2,404,538 

2,040,890 

2,989,835 

13.0 

2145 

Cotton (native) .... 

Kan 

2,300,375 

Kan 

1,700,462 

Kan 

3,195,059 

87.9 

38.9 

Cotton (upland species ,1 
American origin) . .J 

72,020 

136,265 

437,928 

2234! 

608.0 

Cocoons. 

Koku 

11,984 

Koku 

13,931 

Koku 

20,211 

45.1 

08.7 

Cattle. 

028,142 

703,844 

900,067 

28.7 

44.2 


98. Cultivated Lands. 

Of the cultivated lands in the Peninsula the area of paddy-fields 
(for rice cultivation) amounted to 992,897 cho, and that of uplands 


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to 1,734-,262 cho, making a total area of 2,727,159 cho, at the end of 
the year 1911. Comparing these with the preceding year, there was 
an increase of 18 per cent, in the area of paddy-fields and of 11 per 
cent, in that of uplands. These increases, though partly due to 
results of more accurate investigation, have been made by the 
gradual conversion of waste lands into a state of cultivation. 
The following table shows cultivated lands according to 
provinces :— 

At the end of December, 1911. 


Province 

Paddy-field 

Upland 

Total 


Clio 

Cho 

Cho 

Keiki . 

134,595 

122,597 

257,192 

North Chusci . 

48,314 

42,635 

90.949 

South Chusci . 

125,722 

51,448 

177.170 

North Zcnla . 

108,249 

31,370 

139.619 

South Zcnla . 

125,911 

121,650 

247561 

North Kcisho . 

115,738 

87,175 

202,913 

South Kcisho . 

91,3-18 

51,989 

143,337 

Kukai . 

80,818 

216,897 

297,715 

South Hcian . 

41,390 

234,384 

275,774 

North Hcian . 

47,711 

304,940 

352,651 

Kugen . 

37,794 

129,672 

167,466 

South Kankyo . 

31,597 

197,751 

229,348 

North Kankyd . 

3,710 

141,754 

145,464 

Total. 

992.897 

1.734.262 

2,727,159 

1910. 

840,988 

1,558,8.54 

2,399,842 

1 90 9 . 

781,097 

1,521,177 

2,302,274 


The cultivated lands extend just over 12.4 jier cent. of the whole 
territory of the Peninsula which amounts to 21,964,090 cho. They 
are distributed in the ratio of 0.42 cho of paddy-field to 0.73 cho 
of upland (making a total area of 1.15 cho) per agricultural 
family. 

With the object of augmenting the cultivated area, measures for 
utilizing waste lands and encouraging irrigation have been carried 
out by promulgating a Law relating to the Utilizing of Waste Land, 
and Regulations concerning Water Utilization Associations, which 
will be treated of in the following sections. 


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99. State Waste Lands. 

The waste land of the Peninsula, estimated at 1,185,000 chn, 
covers nearly GO per cent, of the total arable area. Most of the 
waste lands belong to the State, and in order to develop these vast 
tracts a law concerning the utilization of waste land was promul¬ 
gated in July, 1907, by which the land might lie rented to any 
applicant, native, Japanese, or foreign, for utilization. If any 
persons succeed in developing the State waste lands within a certain 
period, such lands are to lie finally sold or given to them. 

However, reliable investigation as to the location of these waste 
lands, their area, method of utilizing these lands, etc., not having 
yet been made, not only has it discouraged applicants for waste 
lands, but difficulties were often experienced in executing this law. 
Consequently, the investigating force, appointed in April, 1911, by 
ImjK'rial Ordinance No. 82, was also charged with determining the 
status of all State waste lands. Such investigation was commenced 
in Keiki and Kokai Provinces and completed over an aggregate area 
of 5,000 cho during the year 1911. The taking-up of waste land 
less than three cho in extent was granted without observing the 
waste land utilizing law, but evils and abuses often arising from 
such grants, it was determined that even an application for utilizing 
land of less than 3 cho was to be subjected to the State Land 
Utilizing Law by amending this law in June, 1911. The permit for 
utilizing such waste land is granted by the Provincial Governor, in 
the name of the Government-General. 

During the year 1911, 103 applications were made by Japanese 
and Koreans, of which 38 were approved by the Government, the 
total area of land affected being 2,012 cho. Adding this to the 
waste lands reclaimed since the enforcement of this law up to the 
end of the preceding year, the area at the end of December, 1911, 
aggregated 11,952 cho. 

The following table shows the number of applications for utiliz¬ 
ing waste lands of the State, received and approved during 1911 :— 


Nationality 

Applications for 
leases received 

Permits given 

Applications for 
renewal of lease * 

Leases 

renewed 

No. of 
cases 

Area | 

No. of 
cases | 

Area 

No. of 
cases 

Area | 

No. of 1 
cases 

Area 

Japanese . . . 

62 

5,838 

IS 

Cho 

1,671 

— 


— 

Cho 

Korean . . . . 

41 

3,230 

20 

341 

— 

| 

i 

39 

Total . . 

103 

L_ 

9.088 

38 

2,012 

— 

— 

i 

39 


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The general state of the waste lands, treated since the enforce¬ 
ment of the Utilization Law lip to the end of Decemt)er, 1911, can 
be seen in the following table :— 


Nationality 

Applications for 
leases received 

Permits granted 

Applications for 
renewal of lease * 

Leases 

renewed 

No. of 
cases 

Area 

No. of 
cases 

Area 

No. of 
cases 

Area 

No. ot 
cases 

Area 

Japanese . . . 

9X7 

Cho 

89,231 

113 

Cho 

5,597 

12 

Cho 

2,171 

— 

Cho 

Korean .... 

1,217 

78,143 

142 

6,355 

60 

6,940 

24 

3,680 

English .... 

2 

28 

— 

— 

— 


— 

— 

Total - . 

2.206 

187.402 

255 

11,952 

72 

9,117 

24 

3.686 


The following table shows the nature of the waste lands granted 
and objects of their utilization. 

At the end of December, 1911. 




Japanese 

Korean 

Total 


Class 








No. of 

Area 

No. of 

Area 

No. ot 

Area 







cases 




(1,0 


Cho 


Cho 

T3 

1 

/Field. 

12 

296 

i 

2 

13 

298 


Barren Land .... 

15 

329 

6 

318 

21 

647 

a 

£ 

Grass Land .... 

53 

2,073 

50 

1,136 

103 

3.809 










Swamp. 

4 

189 

2 

28 

6 

217 

u 

v Dry sandy Beach . . . 

21 

3,069 

59 

3,898 

80 

6.967 


Total . 

106 

6.556 

118 

5.381 

223 

11.937 


rPaddy-Field .... 

25 

2,425 

81 

4,552 

106 

6576 


Upland. 

46 

2,403 

27 

699 

73 

3,002 

o 

•fl 

rt 

Afforestation .... 

12 

466 

9 

2*24 

21 

690 

•c 

Cattle Breeding . . . 

5 

1,211 

— 

— 

5 

1511 

<*- 

o 

Fishing Basin .... 

14 

31 

— 

— 

14 

31 

Fish Culture . . 

1 

3 

1 

i 

2 

10 

O 

Estates. 

1 

0.4 

— 

— 

1 

0.4 


k Salt Basin. 

1 

17 

— 

— 

1 

17 


Total. 

105 

6556 

118 

5.381 

223 

11.937 


* In addition, there are also waste lands of which the use had been granted prior to the enforce¬ 
ment of the above regulations. These leases have to be re-approved in accordance with the present 
law, and application for such approval should have been submitted to the Minister of Agriculture, 
Commerce and Industry within three months after the law came into operation. 72 applications have 
been received, namely 00 from Koreans and 12 from Japanese, their aggregate area amounting to 9,117 
cho , of which 3,680 cho were approved up to the end of 1911. 


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100. Water Utilizing Measures. 

Agriculture being the principal occupation of the people from 
remote ages, irrigation systems existed even in mediceval times, so 
that barrages in rivers and irrigation reservoirs, thoroughly’ service¬ 
able, were at one time provided in many places. These barrages 
and irrigating ponds were gradually neglected, however, until most 
of them were washed away or became deserted swamps. In July, 
1908, an instruction was issued to all District Magistrates to 
investigate the existence and names of these irrigating barrages, 
dams or ponds, .and about 4,000 have been reported. Subsidies 
being given by the Government for repairing these neglected reservoirs, 
those repaired to a serviceable degree, chiefly in the provinces in the 
southern part of the Peninsula, reached G3 up to the end of the year 
1911. 

As stated in the last Annual Report, with the object of improving 
water utilization measures, the Government caused those interested 
in irrigation in any one district to form a water utilizing association, 
as far as circumstances permitted, by promulgating Regulations 
concerning Water Utilizing Associations in March, 1906. Such 
Associations are authorized to levy from their members the necessary 
funds, labour contributions or articles, and to raise a loan for the 
construction ur improvement of barrages or reservoirs, and their 
maintenance or protection is to be conducted by the association. 
Up to the end of the year 1911, six associations were formed in the 
agricultural districts of North Xenia, South Zcnla and South Kcisho 
Provinces. During the year 1911 the Rinyoku Water Utilizing Asso¬ 
ciation was formed in Kunsan Prefecture, North Zcnla Province. The 
districts to be irrigated cover an aggregate area of 3,300 cho. The 
following table shows further particulars of these associations :— 


Name of Association 

Location 

Date of 
Formation 

Amount 
of Loan 
raised 

Area to 
be irrigated 

Yokuko Western Water Utilizing 
Association. 

Kunsan , North Zcnla 

Dec. 

1908. 

Yen 

Cho 

277 

Rinyeki Water Utilizing Association 

Kunsan , North Zenla 

Feb. 

1909. 

299.600 

3,000 

Mitsuyo Water Utilizing Association 

Mitsuyo , South Kcisho 

Feb. 

1909. 

100.000 

633 

Rcnsan Water Utilizing Association 

Rcnsati } South Chusei 

March, 

1909. 

52.500 

272 

Zenycki Water Utilizing Association 

Yekisan , North Zcnla 

Jan. 

1910. 

15.000 

1,000 

Rinyeki Southern Water Utilizing 
Association. 

Kunsan , North Zcnla 

Dec. 

1909. 

250.000 

2,384 

Rinyoku Water Utilizing Association 

Kunsan, North Zcnla 

April, 

1911. 

— 

3,300 


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101. Agricultural Improvement. 

With the object of improving the backward agriculture of the 
Korean people, the Government exerted the utmost efforts in the 
encouraging of agricultural improvement by distributing better seeds 
or seedlings, by giving practical instruction or training, or by opening 
competitive exhibitions of agricultural products. 

A. Selection of better seedlings. In order to distribute better 
seeds or young plants, local agriculturists, assiduous in their 
efforts for agricultural improvement, were caused to create model 
rice-fields or other farms in 462 places, subsidies being granted 
them from the State Treasury and Special Local Expense Funds, 
and model agricultural farms of the same mature were created in 
six places. In addition, the Model Farm and its Branch Farms 
maintained by the Government-General, and the Seedling Stations 
maintained by the Provincial Governments and other Local Govern¬ 
ments, distributed their selected seeds or seedlings in 1911, as in 
previous years. The quantities so granted are shown in the 
following tabic :— 


Description 

1911 

1910 


(hi 

Go 

Rice. 

1,155,722 

000,108 


Go 

Go 

Barley. 

00,405 

125,247 


do 

Go 

Other grains. 

112,32! 

106,927 


Go 

Go 

Beans. 

130,241 

07,409 


Mom me 

Mom me 

Sweet Potatoes. 

f 3,101,100 

( 41,900 

l 383,782 

( 321,980 

Potatoes. 

2,220,710 

206,(1(13 

Fruit Trees. 

25,742 

17,809 


Kin 

Kin 

Upland Cotton. 

475,760 

280,224 

Momme 

Momme 

Fodder. 

f 70,320 

( 32,310 

l 0.1 

02 


Go 

Green Manure.. 

11,498 

190 


10,310 

— 

B. Training in Harvesting 

Rice. The native process of rice 

cultivation and harvesting 

hitherto practised 

was so crude that 


Korean rice was often mixed with sand, stones, or seeds of weeds. 
Consequently, the farmers were encouraged to take out the weeds 
while the rice was still growing, and to use mats for husking 


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unhulled rice instead of the beaten ground. Other improvements 
in rice cultivation or harvesting were encouraged by granting 
subsidies, or by providing improved implements. 

C. Practical Guidance. Agricultural improvements were also en¬ 
couraged by giving farmers practical instruction or personal 
guidance, technical experts attached to the Government Model 
Farms and Seedling Stations being often despatched to agricultural 
localities. In 1911, so-called circuit instructors of agriculture being 
appointed, their salaries being met by the Special Local Expense 
Funds and Imperial Donation Funds, they were charged to carry 
on instruction or guidance by travelling in the interior, so that 
agricultural improvements might be made more general. 

D. Lectures on Agricultural Improvement. On the other hand, 
series of lectures were often given in order to stimulate agricultural 
improvement. During 1911, these lectures were given more than 6(5 
times in different places, and the aggregate numl>er of hearers was 
3,491. 

F. Competitive Exhibition of Agricultural Products. With a view 
to aiding agricultural improvement, competitive exhibitions of agri- 
cultural products were often held in several of the provinces. During 
1911, such exhibitions were held 55 times in different places, and 
the total number of exhibits came to more than 57,000, showing 
not only an immense increase in number, as compared with previous 
years, but also a tendency to exhibit a better quality of products. 
The Koreans, accustomed to live under the old practice of official 
extortion, hesitated to exhibit products, and even those not so 
reluctant, sent most inferior products. In contrast to former practices, 
exhibits were safely returned to their exhibitors along with the prizes 
gained, and the Koreans, understanding the true nature of competitive 
exhibitions, are now showing a tendency to send exhibits of their 
best products. 


102. Model Stations. 

A. Principal Farm in Stiigen. Nothing is more important for 
the advancement of material prosperity in Korea than to give 
the people every opportunity to improve the old-fashioned methods 
of agriculture and industry by showing them improved methods, and 
by distributing better seedlings, or better specimens of live-stock. 
For these purposes a Model Agricultural and Industrial Farm 
was established in 1906 at Sitigen, about 25 miles from Kcijo. The 


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Farm chiefly conducts works of investigation or experiment relative 
to the improvement of agriculture; analytical or laboratory 
work connected with the agricultural industry; distribution of 
seeds, seedlings, silkworm eggs, poultry and live-stock; gives lectures 
or personal instruction, and furnishes information concerning agri¬ 
cultural matters. 

The Farm paying special attention to rice cultivation, many 
kinds of seeds, Japanese and native, have been experimented with, 
and it has Iteen proved that a Japanese species called Shin-riki not 
only easily adapts itself to the climatic and soil conditions of the 
southern part of the Peninsula below Keijo, but also yields the 
largest crop, an increase of more than 30 per cent, being obtainable, 
as compared with the yield of the native species. But, in some 
localities in the southern provinces, the Kokuryo Miyako (Japanese 
origin) was found better than the Shin-riki. On the other hand, 
another Japanese species of rice called Hinodc finds the soil and 
climate of the northern part, where the climate is much cooler 
than in the south, more congenial, and yields a much fuller crop 
than any native species. Seeds of Shin-riki distributed during 
the year 1911 amounted to 250 koku (1,340.72 bushels), an 
increase of 84 koku as compared with the preceding year, while 
the total area of rice-ficlds planted with Shin-riki seedlings reached 
4,535 cho. 

In addition, the Farm is experimenting in the cultivation of 
upland rice, beans, fruit-bearing trees, tobacco, hemp, American 
upland cotton, German sugar-beet and other staples. 

The Farm conducting also improvement of sericulture, 25,202 
mulberry trees, Ichilici, Tako-wase and Roso, 729 sheets of silkworm 
eggs and 6,380 wild silk moths were distributed by it during the 
year 1911. 

With the object of improving live-stock in the Peninsula, the 
breeding of cattle, pigs and sheep is being experimented in by 
importing Berkshire pigs, Simmenthal cows and Merino sheep, and they 
arc showing gradual improvement. • As for poultry, Barrett, Plymouth 
Rock and Nagoya Cochin, and their crosses with native kinds, are 
showing better results. The distribution of seeds or seedlings of 
grains, vegetables, or industrial plants, and of live-stock raised on 
the Farm, being more and more appreciated by the Koreans, the 
quantity or number is gradually increasing year by year, while 
visitors to the Farm for personal inspection have increased in number 
likewise. 

B. Branch Station in Taiko and Heijo. These branch stations 


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of the Model Farm conducted various experimental works relating 
to agricultural improvement according to their respective local 
conditions. The Taiko Branch Station also carried out agricultural 
civil engineering work, and furnishes the necessary investigations 
and plans of civil engineering or agricultural undertakings, when 
applications are submitted to the station by individuals interested 
in such work. The Ileijo Branch Station principally conducted 
experimental work in stock farming. This station distributed 
many eggs of better-quality hens in 1911. 

C. Kyuzan Branch Station. This station was originally the 
Women’s Sericulture Training Station established in Ryazan, a suburb 
of Keiju, by the late Korean Government. Since the Annexation, 
this station, having become one of the branch stations of the Model 
Agricultural and Industrial Farm of • Suigcti , Is training Korean 
women in sericulture as hitherto, in addition to experimenting in 
raising mulberry trees. The training term, which was formerly 
eight months, was extented to ten months from the year 1911. In 
April, 1911, 21 students were received by this station, of whom 17 
graduated from it in January, 1912. The aggregate number of 
graduates from this training section is now 42. Most of them are 
at present teaching what they have learned at the Ryazan Station in 
various sericulture stations established by Provincial Governments, 
or with the lmj)crial Donation Fund. 

I). The Tokuson Branch Station. This station has continued the 
ex[)crimental work in horticulture, hitherto conducted by the Model 
Horticultural Farm which w£is established in 1907 by the late 
Korean Government in Tokuson (Tukson), 5 miles from Kcijo. Better 
results in experimental culture of vegetables and fruit-trees having 
gradually been obtained, as the reward of several years’ work, the 
station became more successful in selecting or discriminating between 
species of improved vegetables or fruit-trees adapted to the Korean 
climate and soil. Kaising apples was generally successful, esjiecially 
a species of Japanese origin called the Yamato-nisliiki, a four-year old 
tree of which bore 237 apples in the year 1911, also the Kogyoku of 
Japanese origin with 172 apples, the Ordlcy of European origin with 
66 and the Bismark of German origin with 46. The culture of 
grapes had bright prospects at the beginning, but the severe cold 
in January, 1911, damaged most vines of European origin. The 
Naslii or Japanese pear gives better results year by year, while the 
American pear, though fairly inured to the physical conditions in 
the Peninsula, did not bear much fruit in the year 1911, owing to 
the sudden fall in temperature at the time of blooming. The 


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Japanese and Koreans engaging in vegetable or fruit eulturc after the 
models shown by this station, and using the seeds or seedlings raised 
there, arc gradually increasing year by year. 

Cotton planting at the Mokpo Rranch Station will be described 
in section 104 which deals with the subject of cotton plantation. 


103. Seedling Stations. 

With a view to improving agriculture in Korea on a more 
general scale, by distributing seeds and young plants showing a 
greater tendency to adapt themselves to the varying climatic and 
soil conditions existing in different localities, seedling stations were 
established, in 1908, in several provinces. Such stations numbered 
nine prior to the Annexation, and they were maintained by the 
Central Government and supervised by the central authorities. After 
Annexation, supervision of these stations was transferred to those 
Provincial Governments in whose confines they were situated, the 
money for their up-keep still being defrayed from the central treasury. 
These stations, working a fixed area, arc chiefly conducting experi¬ 
ments in the culture of mulberry trees, the testing of rice and other 
agricultural staples, the growth of various vegetables suited to local 
conditions, and in distributing seeds and seedlings raised at the 
stations. In addition to investigating the agricultural conditions 
existing in their respective localities, the stations arc guiding farmers 
by giving practical instruction in, and important lectures upon 
handling improved agricultural tools, mat making or other industrial 
training, planting mulberry trees, cultivating and utilizing waste 
lands, preventing destructive diseases among vegetables and plants, 
and in manuring and other important matters connected with agri¬ 
cultural development. These stations also conduct live-stock fiirming 
and distribution. 

In addition, Seedling Stations in North Heian and Kankyo 
Provinces were formed in 1911 with the income derived from 
Imperial Donation Funds. 


104. Cotton Plantation. 

The upland cotton of American origin, plantation of which is 
being encouraged in the southern part of the Peninsula under the 


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supervision of the Mokpo Branch Station of the Model Farm, giving 
far better results in quality, as well as in quantity of product, than 
the native cotton, the cultivation of this species has increased year 
by year as shown in the following table :— 


Year 

Area of Plantation 

1 

Production 

Number of Planters 


ffio 

Kin 


1 90 6 . 

45 

24,979 

247 

1 907 . 

65 

79,188 

921 

1 908 . 

196 

141,265 

4,476 

1 909 . 

412 

450,160 

8,336 

1910. 

1,123 

845,342 

20,987 

1911. 

2,683 

2,737,060 

43,185 


105. Sericulture. 

Sericulture not only proving suitable to the climatic conditions 
of the Peninsula, but being easily undertaken by every class of people 
as a side occupation, the Central and Local Governments are 
exerting the utmost efforts to encourage this industry by granting 
subsidies to various serieultural associations, and by despatching or 
appointing serieultural experts to various localities. For the year 
1911, the Provincial Governments defrayed 51,000 yen out of the 
Special Local Expense Funds in subsidies for the establishment of 
various associations interested in sericulture—serieultural training 
associations, silkworm rearing associations, model mulberry 
orchards, or sericulture lecture associations, wild-silkworm serieultural 
associations, etc. The Central Government also granted subsidies 
amounting to 13,507 yen in order to assist the Provincial Govern¬ 
ments in their encouragement of sericulture, while a permanent 
technical expert on sericulture was appointed to the Model Farm. 
In addition, 277,800 yen out of the interest derived from the Imperial 
Donation Funds was allotted to encouragement of sericulture. The 
number of mulberry seedlings and silkworm eggs distributed during 
the year 1911, by the Model Farm and its branch stations, Provincial 
Seedling Stations, or Provincial Governments, is given in the follow¬ 
ing table :— 


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Year 

Domestic Silkworm eggs 

Wild-silkworm 

Mulberry Trees 

Spring 

Brood 

Summer 

Brood 

Autumn 

Brood 

Total 

Spring 

Brood 

Autumn 

Brood 

Total 

Seedlings ! 

Seeds 


Sheet 

STuet 

Sturt 

Sheet 

Moth 

Moth 

Moth 


Go 

1911 

13,345 

1,702 

1,862 

16.899 

3,318 

28,500 

4,004 , 

7.422 

28.500 

2,283,832 

702 

1910 

7,633 

418 

313 

8.364 

3,000 

36,000 

_J 

39.900 

1,262,072 

570 


In addition, implements used in sericulture and silk-thread 
spinning wheels or machines were distributed. 

Under such encouragement, sericulture in the Peninsula is gradually 
developing as shown ill the tables below :— 


Domestic Silkworm Sericulture. (1911) 


Province 

Area of Lands planted 
with Mulberry Trees 

Number of Families 
engaged in Sericulture 

Production in koku 

1 

Other 

Area 

Estimated 

3 

o 

Spring 

Summer 

Autumn 

Total 

Spring 

Summer 

Autumn 

Total 




Cho 









Kciki . 

04 

251 

345 

8,750 

568 

245 

9.563 

1,154 

124 

68 

1.336 

North Chuui . 

60 

132 

192 

4,218 

312 

13 

4,543 

697 

70 

5 

772 

South Chtlsci . 

56 

144 

200 

6,754 

129 

73 

6.956 

1,22*2 

33 

30 

1285 

North Zenla . 

78 

OO 

168 

8,581 

113 

529 

9223 

632 

18 

73 

723 

South Zenla . 

165 

292 

447 

11,572 

129 

145 

11246 

1,613 

13 

40 

1.666 

North Keisho . 

223 

383 

606 

24,544 

512 

811 

25287 

3,688 

89 

129 

3206 

South Keisho . 

100 

105 

214 

3,411 

24 

90 

3225 

690 

6 

26 

728 

Kukai . . . 

42 

63 

106 

3,336 

261 

140 

3,737 

365 

42 

28 

435 

South Heian . 

37 

435 

472 

9,676 

1,105 

205 

10286 

2,418 

310 

32 

2,760 

North Heian . 

45 

313 

358 

7,602 

548 

133 

8.283 

1,924 

72 

20 

2216 

Kogm . 

64 

540 

594 

10,347 

707 

536 

11290 

3,328 

204 

119 

3.651 

South KankyO. 

23 

170 

193 

3,980 

668 

59 

4.707 

745 

107 

15 

867 

North Kankyu. 

15 

19 

34 

211 

178 


389 

42 

26 

— 

68 

Total. . . 

991 

2,937 

3.928 

102.982 

5.254 

2,979 

111215 

18223 

1,114 

574 

20211 






-^- 







1910 ... . 

802 

2,452 

3,344 


76,037 



12,960 

788 

183 

13,931 

1909 ... . 

627 

1,804 

2,431 


69,342 



11,048 

903 

33 

11,984 


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U 49§J(frf>‘ w 


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* 


Silk-Thread Spinning, Sericulture 
Training Station. 









• «•'» 



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Shunscn Sericulture Training Station, 
Kogcti Province. 


Native Ladies collecting Mulberry Leaves at a 
Sericulture Training Station, maintained 
by I. D. Fund. 


Silk-Thread Spinning, Sericulture 
Training Station. 


Sericulture Training Station, Reigan District, 
South Zenla Province. 


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161 


Wild-Silkworm Sericulture. (1911) 



Area of 
Forests used 

No. of Families 
engaged in Sericulture 

Production in koku 


for 

Sericulture 

Spring 

Brood 

Autumn 

Brood 

Spring 

A utumn 

Total 

Kciki . 

Cho 

84 

os 

76 

791,676 

378,470 

1,170.146 

North Chnsei. . . 

87 

48 

50 

254,720 

162,240 

416.960 

South Chnsei . . . 

133 

56 

32 

436,900 

244,220 

681.120 

North Zcnla . . . 

— 

— 


— 

— 

— 

South Zcnla . . , 

4 

2 

— 

300 

— 

300 

North Keishu . . . 

162 

98 

175 

298,849 

1,125,877 

1.424,728 

South Keisho . . . 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

Kukai . 

155 

333 

165 

998,474 

2,026,605 

3.025.079 

South He ion . . . 

102 

22 

61 

159,300 

344,300 

503.600 

North lid an . . . 

3,065 

163 

268 

25,284,820 

39,906,160 

65.190.980 

Kugcn . 

674 

496 

318 

2,930,762 

1,176,620 

4.107.382 

South Kankyn . . 

114 

92 

61 

369,000 

555,500 

924.500 

North Kankyo . . 

— 

— 

1 

— 

5,000 

5.000 

Total . . . 

5.180 

1.398 

1,207 

31.524.801 

45.924.992 

77.449,793 

1910 . . . . 

1,677 

1,020 


— 

35,759,047 

1909 . . . . 

— 


39 

— 

— 

— 


106. Live-Stock. 

With regard to the improvement of live-stock, the measures 
taken in previous years by the authorities concerned being pursued 
more extensively, cattle, hogs, fowl, etc., not only increased in 
number, but gradually improved in cjuality. Among the improve¬ 
ments carried out during the year 1911, were, (1) native bulls, if 
superior in constitution, were selected and kept entirely for service ; 
(2) most of the cattle in the south being inferior to those bred in the 
northern parts of the Peninsula, 76 bulls were selected from the 
northern provinces and sent to the south to serve cows owned by 
farmers in the southern provinces ; (3) subsidies were given by the 
Central and Provincial Governments in order to make it easier for 
local farmers to purchase stock bulls to improve the strain of cattle 
bred by them ; (4) the custom of slaughtering gravid cows was 


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162 


discouraged ; (5) live-stock associations were created with a view to 
encouraging a uniform improvement in cattle breeding ; and so on. 
The method of skinning practised by Koreans being also very crude, 
a number of knives better suited for that purpose were distributed. 

The cattle and other principal live-stocks existing at the end of 
December, 1911, as compared with the preceding year, arc shown in 
the following table :— 


At the end of December, each year. 


Year 

Cattle 

Horses 

Donkeys 

Mules 

Sheep 1 

Goats 

Pigs 

Fowls 

19 11 ... 

90tt,0. r >7 

40,976 

9,823 

1 

883 

88 

8,361 

572,840 

3,421,311 

1910 ... 

703,844 

39,860 

8,264 

812 

— 

7,322 

566,767 

2,796,259 

Increase (+) 
or 

Decrease (—) 

+ 202,213 

4-1,116 

4-1,559 

- 421) 

+ 88 

4-1,039 

4-7,083 

+ 625,053 


The following table shows the numbers and kinds of live-stock 
of better strain distributed, during the year 1911, by the Government 
and Model Stations :— 


Description 


Distributed 

Distributed 

Distributed 

bv 


General 

by Model 
Farms 

by Seedling 
Stations 

Provincial 

Governments 

Total 


" Native Bulls. 

82 

— 

— 

—- 

82 


SimmctUhal Bulls .... 

— 

3 

— 

— 

3 

JX 

Ayrshire Bulls. 

— 

1 


— 

1 


Berkshire Pigs. 

— 

16 

27 

— 

43 

□ 

Berkshire crossed Pigs . . 

— 

— 

18 

— 

18 


Merino crossed Sheep . . 

— 

3 

— 

— 

3 


> Malta crossed Goats . . . 

— 

7 

— 

— 

7 


Total. 

82 

30 

46 

— 

157 


' Nagoya Cochin China . . 

— 

39 

41 

— 

80 


Plymouth Rock .... 

— 

31 

79 

108 

218 

| 

foghorn . 

— 

3 

20 

— 

23 

£ 

Minorca . 

— 

7 

— 

— 

7 


Chinese. 

— 

— 

16 

— 

16 


* Peking ducks. 

— 

3 

— 

— 

3 


Total. 

— 

83 

156 

108 

347 


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Sim merit hal Bull imported for Service. 


Stock Bulls lent to P arm era to improve Strain 
of Cattle. Bred in Capsa a District, 
South KatJtyo Province. 


Bulls, bought with Imperial Donation Fund, for 
free Service in North Kankyo Province. 

Winner of Pinrt. F'nw *i»d V**T%ipfc, 
Cattle Show irM in Dm 

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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 




Stock Bulls lent to Farmers to improve Strain 
of Cattle. Bred in Capsan District, 
South Kankyd Province. 


Cattle Show held in Gun-i District, 
North Keisho Province. 


Bulls, bought with Imperial Donation Fund, for Winner of First Prize and Champion Flag at 


free Service in North Kankyd Province. 


Cattle Show held in Kinsan District, 
North Keisho Province. 


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Cross-Bred Pigs, Kyosho District, 
South Keisho Province. 


Cross-Breds of native Pigs with Berkshire Boar, 
Mitsuyd , South Keisho Province. 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


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163 


(Continued) 



f Nagoya Cochin China . . 

— 

463 

1,282 

— 

1,735 


Plymouth Rock .... 

— 

902 

1,521 

— 

2,423 


Leghorn . 

— 

116 

19 

— 

135 


Minorca . 


329 

23 

— 

352 


White Wyandotte .... 


113 

— 

— 

113 

1 

w 

Buff-Orpington .... 

— 

25 

— 

— 

25 

Andalusian . 

_ 

48 

— 

— 

48 


Cam pine . 

— 

6 

— 

— 

6 


Barn-yard fowl .... 

— 

265 

— 

— 

265 


Selected native Duck . . . 

— 

14.3 

— 

— 

148 


Goose. 

— 

12 

73 

— 

85 


Total . 

— 

2,417 

2.918 


5,335 


The export of Korean cattle is very promising so that the returns 
for 1911 amount to about 700,000 yen. Most of them were 
exported to Asiatic Russia from the northern provinces of the 
Peninsula. It is peculiar to note that those exported to Russian 
territory were bulls of larger size for slaughter, as Russians seem 
rather to prefer quantity’ to quality. On the other hand, those 
exported to Japan were principally cows for use in ploughing, as 
Japanese farmers prefer meek and handy cows of smaller size. The 
following table shows the returns for cattle and products exported 
to Japan, Asiatic Russia and China during 1911 :— 


De¬ 

scription 

Japan 

Asiatic Russia , 

China 

Other Countries 

Total 

Quan¬ 

tities 

Value 

Quan¬ 

tities 

Value 

Quan¬ 

tities 

Value 

Quan¬ 

tities 

Value 

Quan¬ 

tities 

i Value 

Cattle . 

Hides . 

Fat . . 

Bone . 

Total 

2,139 

Kin 

3,197,513 

625,251 

Picul 

21,575 

Yen 

32,433 

311,573 

66,372 

26,107 

lllg 

Yen 

537,915 

983 

1,010,473 

40,656 

175 

it .* 

33,182 

252,644 

4,314 

175 

16,490 

Ye J 

•1,538 

19.697 

4,224.478 

665.907 

21.850 

Yen 

703581 

1.068857 

70.686 

26882 


936.537 


637,916 


290,315 

4.638 


1.869,406 

1 


Cattle plague broke out during the year 1911 in the form of 
rinderpest, anthrax, foot and mouth disease, “ schweine rothlauf,” 
hog-cholera, rabies, symptomatic anthrax, etc. When rinderpest 
broke out in a bull engaged in the traffic between Mosati District, 
North Ktinkyo Province and Chientao District, North China, the spread 


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164 


of this plague was successfully prevented by rigorous precautionary 
measures. On the other hand, anthrax broke out from time to time 
in almost every province and 876 cases were reported during 1911. 
The authorities concerned did not neglect to take preventive measures 
such as isolation, slaughter or inoculation, and those receiving 
inoculation during the same year reached 9,881 head. The general 
features of cattle plagues occurring during the year 1911 are given 
in the following table :— 


Description 

Rinder- ( 
pest 

Anthrax 

Black 

quarter 

Glanders 

and 

farcy 

!l*'oot and 
| mouth 
disease 

Hog 

cholera 

Rabies 

! 

Total 

Outbreak.I 

i 

«S7(» 


3 

4 

10 

08 

1.005 


f Death . . j 

i 

872 

13 

3 

1 

10 

y 

909 

Results | 

Slaughter 

— 

3 

— 

— 

— 

— 

82 

85 


l Recovery 

— 

1 

— 

— 

3 

— 

— 

4 


107. Agricultural Association. 

In order to promote reforms and improvements in agriculture 
and forestry in the Peninsula, a Central Agricultural Association 
was established several years ago by Japanese and Koreans interest¬ 
ed in agricultural affairs, annual subsidies being given to the Associa¬ 
tion by the Government in order to encourage its valuable work. 
The Association having its main office in Kcijo and 15 branches in 
principal places of the Peninsula, its members totalled over 3,000 
at the end of December, 1911. 

The work done by the Association, under the protection and 
guidance of the Government, has been by no means small in nature 
or extent. A monthly periodical on agriculture, forestry and other 
matters is published in the Japanese as well as the Korean language 
and, being distributed among the members, not only facilitates 
scientific research and investigation in agriculture or forestry, but 
also exerts a constant effect in improving agricultural and industrial 
undertakings in Korea. Among many other works the Association 
often acts as an agent in distributing better species of cattle. 


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165 


108. Oriental Development Company. 

As stated in the previous Annual Report, in order to participate 
in developing the natural resources of the Peninsula, the Oriental 
Development Company was established, under the protection of the 
Imperial Government, to engage in agricultural and industrial under¬ 
takings, by inviting and selecting skilled farmers and others as 
immigrants, and by furnishing them with necessary funds. In addi¬ 
tion, the Company may engage in forestry or other undertakings 
which commend themselves for exploitation as accessory to the main 
enterprise. The business conducted by the Company being so ex¬ 
tensive and complex cannot lie carried on independently, and a subsidy 
of 300,000 yen annually is granted to the Company by the Imperial 
Government for eight years, beginning from 1908. Of the authorized 
capital, amounting to 10,000,000 yen, one half or 5,000,000 yen was 
paid up in two instalments up to the end of the year 1911. The 
Government agreed to transfer, in lieu of cash payments, a certain 
area of paddy-fields and uplands from the projicrty of the State. 
This represented 60,000 shares having a face value of 3,000,000 yen. 
Of these lands 3,706 cho of paddy-fields and 1,116 cho of uplands 
were transferred up to 1911 to the Company as first and second 
payments of the shares owned by the Government. In addition, 
3,350 cho of paddy-fields and 1,655 cho of uplands, chosen in several 
provinces and designed as the remaining payment on the shares 
owned by the Government, were rented by the Company for so long as 
the third and fourth instalments were not called for. The Company 
also bought 22,908 cho of cultivated forest and other lands, and the 
total area of lands owned or managed by the Company aggregated 
32,733 cho at the end of the year 1911, as shown in the following 
table :— 



Lands given in return , 
for Government Shares 

Lands rented by Company 

Lands purchased by Company 


Year 

Paddy- 

field 

1 

£ 

3 

o 

Paddy- 

field 

Upland 

it? 

— 

Total 

Paddy- 

field 

-a 

e 

rt 

*E, 

Forests 

jgl 

Total 

es 

Oh 

1909 

1,8.31 

G0f> 

Cho 

2,436 

8,308 

1,782 


Cho 

7.290 

2,094 

207 

- 

l 

Cho 

2.361 

12.088 

1910 

1,8.31 

oor. 

2.436 

5,237 

2,107 

SO 

7,486 

0,813 

1,095 

69 

22 

8.600 

18,520 

1911 

3,700 

1,110 

4.821 

•W 

1|055 

— 

5.004 

15,058 

5,387 

1,823 

549 

22.908 

32.733 


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166 


In conducting agricultural and immigration undertakings, lands 
thus appropriated are to lx. 1 rented to Korean farmers and Japanese 
immigrants, or to be used directly by the Company for its own 
undertakings. With a view to encouraging improvement in agri¬ 
culture, especially that of rice cultivation, nursery beds for rice 
seedlings were formed 43 places in several provinces, from the 
year 1910, and the best seeds raised in such beds were distributed 
among more than 4,000 farmers in 1911. The Company also lent 
on hire 351 cows to farmers interested in cattle breeding. An agri¬ 
cultural station under the direct management of the Company having 
been established at Tokuson, the planting of various fruit trees, 
vegetables and beans, and the distribution of seeds and young plants 
arc being undertaken there, and about 3,000 fruit trees or seedlings 
were distributed gratis, or sold at the lowest possible price. The 
company has been preparing for the work of afforestation since 
1909 by establishing seedling stations in Ryazan, Suigen, and Tokuson, 
and more than 340,000 seedlings of quercus serrata, a species of oak, 
were planted in the spring season of 1911 on waste lands, aggregat¬ 
ing 160 clto, leased from the State. In addition, the Company also 
commenced bamboo afforestation by appropriating land measuring 
62 clio in area. 

With regard to encouragement of immigrants, the immigration 
regulations of the Company being officially approved in September, 
1910, this business was begun in October of the same year. In 
receiving immigrants the Company adopted a rather conservative 
measure so as not to run the risk of introducing into the Peninsula any 
kind of mauvais sujets. Consequently, of 1,235 applications received 
from agricultural families only 160 were sanctioned in 1910, and 720 
of the applications from 1,714 families in 1911. Regarding the allot¬ 
ment lands to these immigrants, 212.8 clio of paddy and 39.1 cho of 
upland were allotted to those brought over in 1910, and 611 cho of 
paddy and 103.4 cho of upland to those introduced in 1911. 

One of the main businesses of the Company is to provide funds 
necessary for exploitation to settlers, farmers, and others in Korea, 
and in 1911, 778,000 yen was lent to 255 applicants, being an 
increase of 296,000 yen and 180 borrowers as against the preceding 
fiscal year. At the end of the fiscal year 1911 the total amount of 
funds loaned to farmers and others was 1,137,000 yen to 267 
borrowers, being an increase of 549,000 yen and 135 cases as against 
the preceding year. Of these funds, 468,000 yen was loaned for 
agricultural enterprises, 402,000 yen for industrial undertakings and 
the rest for other purposes. 


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Farming bj Immigr «*<n n.* 









I 



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Horticulture by Immigrants introduced by 
the O.D.C. at Toksoti , near Keijo. 


School maintained bv the O.D.C. for 
Children of Immigrants. 


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167 


The following table shows the general business condition of 
the Compan 3 r for the last four years :— 


Year 

Capital 

Reserve 

Business Account 

Dividends 

Authorized 

Paid up 

Fund 

Receipts 

Expendi¬ 

ture 

Profit 

Amount 

1 

Percentage 

1 908 . 

Yen 

10 ,000,000 

Yen , 

2,500,000 

Yen 

15,300 

Yen 

311,975 

Ten 

159,754 

Yen 

162,221 

Yen 1 
26,600 

6 

1909 . 

10 ,000,000 

2,500,000 

65,500 

601,407 

260,700 

400,707 

1.50,000 

6 

1910. 

10 ,000,000 

2,500,000 

120,000 

1,268,569 

664,714 

703,854 

150,000 

6 

1911 . 

10 ,000,000 

5,000,000 

207,800 

2,013,678 

1,055,242 

958,436 

270,000 

6 


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XII. TRADE AND INDUSTRY 


109. Business Corporations. 

The last Annual Report full}' dealt with the necessity of enacting 
Company Regulations, and of the principal provisions contained 
therein. The Regulations came into force in January, 1911, and 70 
applications for establishing companies were submitted for official 
permission by the end of the fiscal year 1911, ending March 31, 1912. 
Of these, 4-7 were sanctioned, 1-4 were rejected and the rest were 
undergoing investigation. Applications, approval of which was 
rejected, were principally those sent in by Koreans simply looking for 
unjust enrichment by inducing ignorant people to believe that official 
sanction of a proposed corporation would authorize such corporation 
to monopolize all trades in the same line, or were such as would 
injure public interests, or would evidently be incapable of conducting 
business on account of inadequacy of capital or poor management. 

One application for establishment of a main office in Chosen by a 
foreign corporation, and nineteen applications for establishment of 
branch offices in Chosen by corporations formed in Japan and foreign 
countries, were .'ill sanctioned. 

On the other hand, six of the corporations existing in Chosen 
were ordered to dissolve in accordance with the Company Regulations, 
as they were acting contrary to public interest, or for unjust 
enrichment. 


The following table shows the number and capital of the 
corporations, the establishment of which was approved during the 
fifteen months following the enforcement of these regulations :— 




Ordinary 

Partnership 

Limited 

Partnership 

Joint Stock 
Company 

Total 


No. of 
Co. 

Capital 

No. of 
Co. 

Capital 

No. of 
Co. 

Capital 

No. of 
Co. 

Capital 


Japanese. . 

4 

IV* 

90,000 

8 

Yen 
135,000 1 

16 

Yen 

3,117,000 

27 

Yen 

3.348.000 

Establishment 

Korean . . 

‘2 

i 

8 ,(XX) | 

C 

90,500 

(» 

805,000 

14 

969500 

of Company 

Japanese & i 
Korean 1 
joint under-[ 
taking J 


- 

i 

36,000 

6 

4,412,000 

6 

4.447.000 


Total - . 

e 

104.000 

15 

266.500 

|_ 

26 

8.394.000 

I 

8.764£00 

|_ 


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169 


(Continued) 


Establishment 1 
of main office] 

f Japanese& 

| American 
| joint under- 
[ taking 

— 

- 


- 

1 

2,000,000 

1 

2.000,000 

Establishment | 
of branch - 

j Japanese. . 

— 

- 

1 

500,000 

10 

12,702,000 

17 

J 

13402.000 

office . . . J 

[ Foreign . . 

— 

— 

1 

12,000 

1 

1,000,000 

2 

1512.000 


Total. . 

- 

— 

2 

512.000 

17 

13.702500 

19 

14414.000 

Grand Total ■ ■ ■ 

6 

104.000 

17 

778500 

44 

24.096500 

67 

24.978.500 


The following table shows the companies and capital according 
to the nature of the business :— 


Description 

Company 

Main office 

Branch office 

Total 

No. of 
Co. 

Capital 

No. of 
Co. 

Capital 

No. of 
Co. 

Capital 

No. of 
Co. 

Capital 

Agriculture .... 

o 

)'rn 

41,000 

— 

Yen 

7 

Yen 

1,472,000 

9 

Yen 

1513.000 

Commerce .... 

17 

2,016,000 

- 

- 

3 

5,512,000 

20 

7528.000 

Industry. 

12 

1,551,000 

- 

— 

2 

1,300,000 

14 

2551500 

Mining. 

1 

500,000 

i 

2,000,000 

2 

1,500,000 

4 

4.000.000 

Fishing. 

- 

— 

- 

— 

3 

2,180,(8X1 

3 

2.180500 

Transportation . . 

0 

3,081,500 

— 

— 

1 

1,250,000 

7 

4531500 

Gas & Electric under-) 
takings . . . .J 

9 

1,575,000 

- 

- 

- 

— 

9 

1575500 

Insurance .... 

- 

— 

- 

— 

1 

1,000,000 

1 

1.000.000 

Total. . . . 

47 

8.764500 

i 

2500,000 

19 

14.214.000 

67 

24,978500 


110. Markets. 

Markets in the principal towns and cities play an important 
part in the commercial life of natives in Korea. Food products, 
clothing materials and cattle are almost wholly dealt in at these 
markets. The total number of markets existing at the end of the 
year 1911 was 1,084. The transactions carried on through markets 
during the year 1911 reached 56,182,644 yen. Further particulars 
of the transactions done in these markets can be seen in the table 
below :— 


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Value of Products or Articles sold in Markets 


Province 

°.ji 

°.E 

1 o’2 

•s o 

Agricultural 

Products 

1 Marine 
| Products 

Textile 

Products 

Cattle 

Miscellane¬ 
ous Articles 
& Products 

Total 

Keiki .... 

no 

10,620 

4/181,132 

1 540,276 

357,300 

1,062,192 

1,646,148 

Yen 

8.496.048 

North Chusei 

56 

' 3,720 

237,240 

120,120 

277,068 

423,888 

206,940 

1.274.256 

South Chusei 

83 

5,/84 

1,663,428 

555*888 

2,601,468 

1,094,832 

1.568,604 

7,484,280 

North Zenla . 

83 

4,656 

301,812 

224,796 

852,072 

781,092 

570,924 

2.730.696 

South Zenla . 

125 

8,304 

560,004 

352,296 

1,466,544 

1,149,552 

1,690,440 

5.218,836 

North Kcishn 

139 

9,540 

701,772 

751,572 

1.581,204 

1,410,312 

1,269,756 

6.714.616 

South Kcishn 

107 

6,636 

1,035,984 

837,060 

1,254,570 

1,411,284 

818,232 

5.357,138 

Kukai .... 

97 

6,336 

2,132,952 

1,003,020 

1.569,108 

1,713,648 

602,496 

7,021/224 

South Htian. 

82 

6,144 

725,100 

154,908 

406,608 

759,060 

198,324 

2/244.000 

North Htian . 

43 

3,312 

2,343,204 

260,832 

1,334,760 

2,744,160 

1,296.336 

7.979292 

Kugcti .... 

73 

4,824 

54,276 

140,256 

292,260 

438,456 

205,164 

1.130.412 

South Kankyn 

59 

5,364 

158,448 

187,164 

193,164 

472,704 

154,404 

1,165284 

North Kankyn 

28 

1,944 

21,540 

13,992 

16,128 

290,748 

23,556 

365.964 

Total . . 

1.084 

1 

77,184 

14.816.892 

5.160.180 

12,202.260 

13.751.928 

10.251.384 

56.182.644 


Although no regulations regarding these markets have as yet 
been provided, the granting of permission for the formation of new 
markets, or for alteration in existing markets, has been entrusted to 
Provincial Governors. 

During the fiscal year 1911, 74 applications regarding markets 
obtained official approval, of which 53 were permission to form new 
markets, 3 for amalgamation of several markets, 9 for change in 
location and 9 others for change in market days. 


111. Participation in Exhibition. 

Although no exhibition was held in the Peninsula in the year 
1911, Korea participated in an exhibition in Japan proper. 
Especially in order to introduce or properly make known the 
agricultural and industrial conditions of the Peninsula to the general 
public in Japan proper, miniature models of Korea showing com¬ 
munication facilities, 137 articles of natural products, 480 articles of 
industrial fine arts, 224 articles of industrial staples made at the 
Monopoly Bureau, Model Farms and Industrial Training School, 
pictorial and statistical illustrations, the whole making a total of 


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1,048, were exhibited at the Kyoto Forticth Exhibition held from April 1, 
to May 31, 1911. Guide books, describing the industrial life and 
other conditions of Chosen, to the number of 50,000 copies, were 
printed and distributed to visitors to the Exhibition. By the 
participation of Korea in this Exhibition, the interest of the general 
public in Japan proper was considerably stimulated in the industrial 
life in the new colony. 


112. Industrial Encouragement. 

In order to encourage industrial crafts as well as improvement 
in industrial skill, the Government-General continues to grant sub¬ 
sidies to associations or individuals conducting weaving, paper 
making, bamboo work, pottery or other industries. The subsidies 
for such industrial, encouragement consist not only of pecuniary 
grants, but weaving implements are also often furnished by the 
Government, as shown in the following table :— 


March 31, 1912. 


Description 

Subsidy 

Provinces 

Pecuniary grants 

Implements 

receiving Subsidies 

Weaving Training. 

Yen 

4 

Keiki 

Weaving Encouragement .... 

— 

13 

2(H) 

North Chnsei 

Weaving Encouragement .... 

— 

400 

South Chnsei 

Weaving, Dyeing and Bamboo work! 
Training ........ .J 

coo 

- 

. South Zcnla 

Rope Manufacture. 

1,000 

— 

South Zcnla 

Weaving Encouragement .... 

— 

200 

160 

North Keisho 

Mat-making Training. 

500 

— 

North Keisho 

Weaving, Paper Making, etc. . . . 

2,700 

— 

South Keisho 

Net Manufacture. 

— 

2 

South Keisho 

Weaving Training. 

300 

- 

South Keisho 

Weaving Training. 

300 

- 

Kogen 

Weaving Encouragement .... 

— 

10 

Kugcn 

Weaving Encouragement .... 

- 

12 

50 

South Hit an 

Weaving Training. 

300 

— 

South Ha an 


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(Continued) 


Description 

Subsidy 

Provinces 

Pecuniary grants 

Implements 

receiving Subsidies 

Pottery Manufacture. 

Yen 

1,000 

— 

South Heian 

Wild silk thread & Spinning Training . 

000 

10 

North Heian 

Total. 

7.300 

57 


1810. 

7,240 

33 



113. Hemp Tissue Industry. 

South Chusei Province was at one time celebrated for producing 
hemp tissue. This staple was also extensively produced in North 
Kcishii and North Kankyu Provinces. Dishonest practices in dealing 
with this staple gradually arose, along with indiscriminate produc¬ 
tion, which resulted in the ruin of this industry, so that Chinese 
grass cloth called “ ramie ” is to-day ruling the market in textile 
products of this nature. This Chinese fabric has also entirely ousted 
Manchester lawns, which were once in fair demand in Korea, but 
are now displaced owing to their higher cost. The import of 
grass-cloth from China rose from 90(5,000 yen to 1,402,000 yen in 
1911. 

With a view to recovering the home industry of this fabric, 
certain measures calculated to improve this staple have been made 
since 1910 by stationing technical experts in the industry in South 
Chusei Province. In dealing with the resultant products, the Local 
Monetary Circulation Associations in these districts are also 
rendering good assistance 


114. Weights and Measures. 

As alluded to in the previous Annual Report, the Law of 
Weights and Measures in the Peninsula, adopting practically the 
system existing in Japan proper, was to be enforced by the Governor- 
General at such times as he deemed proper, according to local 
conditions. Up to the end of the year 1910, the districts in which 


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this law was enforced were, the six southern provinces in their 
entirety, as commercial transactions are more frequent in them than 
in the northern provinces, and 30 Prefectures and Districts in other 
provinces. This law being extended to 77 Prefectures and Districts 
in the provinces of Kciki, Kokai, North Hcian, South Heian in April 
and July, 1911, the total number of Districts and Prefectures having 
new weights and measures at the end of the year 1911, reached 289 
out of the 329 Districts and Prefectures, as shown in the following 
table :— 


Province 

No. 

of Prefectures and Districts where new 
Weights and Measures are enforced 

No. of Prefectures and 1 
Districts where new 
Weights & Measures 
are not vet enforced 

No. of authorized 
consignees 

Enforced since 
November, 

1909 

Enforced since 
January, 

1910 

Enforced since 

July, 

1910 

Enforced since 
April, 

1911 

Entorcsd since 
July, 

19 11 

Total 

Japanese 

Korean 

Total 

Kciki . 

10 

i 

— 

27 

— 

38 

— 

19 

9 

28 

North Chilsci . 

12 

6 

— 

— 

— 

18 

- 

4 

0 

10 

South Chilsci . 

9 

- 

28 

— 

- 

37 

— 

16 

3 

19 

North Zcnla . 

»> 

1 

25 

— 

— 

28 

— 

13 

2 

15 

South Zcnla . 

5 

- 

24 

— 

- 

29 

— 

18 

2 

20 

North Kcisho . 

. 

■10 

- 

— 

- 

41 

- 

12 

14 

26 

South Kcisho . 

3 

14 

12 

— 

— 

29 


13 

9 

22 

Kokai . 

f> 

— 

- 

13 

— 

19 

— 

16 

i 

16 

South Hcian . 

2 

— 

— 

- 

17 

19 

- 

14 

3 

17 

North Hcian . 

i 

- 

- 

— 

20 

21 

- 

19 

3 

22 

Kogcn . 

— 

- 

4 

— 

- 

4 

21 

3 

1 

4 

South Kankyo. 

2 

- 

— 

- 

- 

2 

12 

3 

- 

3 

North Kankyo. 

•> 

»> 


- 

— 

4 

7 

2 

4 

6 

Total . . 

65 

64 

93 

_1 

40 

1 

37 

289 

_1 

40 

_] 

151 

57 

208 


In the remaining 40 Districts, the new weights and measures 
are to be enforced in the coming year. The number of authorized 
consignees selling or distributing new weights and measures was 
also increased to 208 in 1911, as against 169 in the preceding year. 

With the object of encouraging people in the interior to adopt 
the new weights and measures, and to abandon the old system, the 
authorities concerned were often despatched to the interior to explain 
the enforcement of the Law of Weights and Measures and other 
particulars, and the distribution of new weights and measures was 
considerably increased, so that 220,989 measures, 154,870 cubic 


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measures and 31,638 weights making a total of 407,497, have been 
sold, a mow n t ing in value to 172,902 yen. 


115. Investigation of Trade & Industwts. 

With a view to investigating records or usages of the common 
cial or industrial life in the Peninsula, their existing conditions, and 
the furnishing of material or results of such investigation to the 
authorities concerned, or to persons who might use these results 
most advantageously with reference to their undertakings, such 
investigation was commenced about April, 1909, and was expected 
to be completed within two years. Although thorough investigation 
throughout the Peninsula could not be completed within the 
estimated period, owing to the limited official force, the investigation 
of important commercial and industrial districts in nine provinces 
—South Keisho, North Keisho, South Zcnla, Kciki, Kogcn, North Hciatt, 
South Hcian, North Kankyo and South Kankyo —was almost completed, 
and the results regarding the districts of Fusan in South Keisho 
Province and of Gensan in South Kankyo Province were printed find 
distributed to the general public. The results of investigation of 
other places will be distributed, one by one, as soon as they arc 
printed. 


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XIII. FORESTRY 


116. Revision of Forest Regulations. 

The total area of mountains and plains termed “ forests ”, 
amounting to about 10,000,000 cho, embraces 73 per cent, of the 
whole Peninsula. Owing to the indiscriminate felling of trees without 
public supervision, which had been practised for a long time past, 
most of the mountain slopes, except those along the Oryoktt (Yalu) 
and Toman Rivers, the Chiyci (Chili) Range, dividing the provinces of 
South Keishd and South Zcnla, and the Island of Saishu (Quclpart), 
have been denuded of trees. Thus, the people not only suffer from 
lack of fire-wood, but are also unable to build houses better than 
mere huts. Further, this general deforestation of the mountains 
and plains is one of the principal causes of injury to agriculture, 
owing to floods in the rainy season, and lack of water lor irrigating 
purposes in the dry season. Thus, improvement in the forestry 
conditions in the Peninsula being of urgent necessity for the promotion 
of its well-being, soon after the establishment of the Japanese Protect¬ 
orate, the late Korean Government began to encourage afforestation, 
and from 1907, established model plantations on the mountains near 
Kcijo and other places, and seedling beds in different localities, the 
seeds and young plants thus raised being distributed among the 
people as widely as possible. 

On the other hand, by the promulgation of several forest 
regulations in 1908, the Government did not neglect to take proper 
measures for the protection or supervision of forests, private or 
public. In the course of time, the necessity of revising these regula¬ 
tions being felt, so that the local people might have assistance more 
generally in their forestry undertakings, as well as to readjust the 
state forests more thoroughly, the new forestry regulations were 
promulgated by Seirei No. 10 issued by the Governor-General in July, 
1911, to come into force in October, the old regulations being 
rescinded therewith. The principal points of the new regulations 
are, (1) state forests, not required for preservation, may be leased 
to private applicants desiring to undertake afforestation in accordance 
with the measures laid down by the Government, and permanently 
transferred to them if they successfully conduct such afforestation, 
(2) though most of the state forests are preserved, yet local people 


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may be permitted to gather branches or bushes in certain state 
forests for fuel, the usage of the so-called “ common entrance ” into 
the state forests being thus officially recognized, (3) to the people 
residing on the borders of state forests is assigned the responsibility 
of guarding such forests, on the consideration that the branches or a 
portion of certain other products of the forests be given to them as 
a reward, and (5) certain forests, state or private, shall be preserved 
if such preservation is deemed necessary for the public good. In 
short, the vital object of the revised forestry law aims not only at a 
continuance of the government undertakings in afforestation, but 
also at stimulating the people in general to undertake afforestation 
as far as possible on their own initiative. 


117. Investigation of Forests. 

A. Forest Boundaries. The general features of the forests, public 
and private, have been made clear by the investigation of the forest 
cadastres which were carried out during the year 1910. The 
boundaries of forests especially between public and private ones being 
yet confused, so that many difficulties will no doubt arise when the 
question of ownership comes up, the Government has decided to 
carry out an investigation of their boundaries as soon as possible. 
Deeming it better to begin such investigation in important locations, 
and thence gradually extend it to the whole Peninsula, such investi¬ 
gation and survey of forests or mountains in Keijd Prefecture and its 
suburbs were commenced in October, 1911. In the five months 
ending in December, most of the mountains and forests surrounding 
the city of Keijd, covering an aggregate area of 1,549 cho, with 
boundary lines measuring 90,032 ken, have been surveyed. 

B. Certain State Forests. Most of the state forests, especially the 
common mountain or kong-san (ft ill) forests, open to the people for 
their use, were practically denuded of trees, but the forests called 
reserved mountain or pong-san (It ill), i.e., forests kept to supply timber 
for the use of the ex-imperial Household of Korea, mountains 
surrounding the royal tombs, mountains surrounding important 
cities, or mountains reserved for military purposes, called san-song 
(llitS), being well protected, as the people were prohibited from 
entering them under penalty' of severe punishment, green forests were 
often seen dotting otherwise denuded mountains. With a view to 
preserving these forests on account of their scenery, historical interest, 
sanitation, etc., the Provincial Governments were caused to investi- 


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gate the above-mentioned state forests in their respective provinces. 
These state forests were found to the number of 141 spread over 
nine provinces (except South Chusei, North Heian and South Zenla 
Provinces and the Keijo Prefecture), their aggregate area amounting 
to 6,404 cho, and the value of the trees in them was estimated at 
127,753 yen. 

C. Forests surrounding Tombs of Prince Li's Family. A royal 
tomb being usually situated in a forest, its extensive area was 
lavishly appropriated for the tomb. The tomb is surrounded, first 
by the inner boundary or fence called the nai-hai-cha (ft •-£), and 
next by the outer boundary called the wai-hai-cha (fttg'-je). The 
forests surrounding the royal tombs were formerly under the control 
of the ex-imperial Household of Korea. However, by an Imperial 
Ordinance issued in June, 1908, the forests within the inner boundary 
being secured to the Royal Household, the rest of the forests, i. e., all 
outside the inner boundaries were wholly transferred to the State. 
However, most of these forests, except those in the vicinity of Keijo, 
show hardly any distinction between inner and outer boundaries, so 
that the state forests cannot easily be distinguished from the forests 
belonging to Prince Li’s Household. Consequently, investigation 
and survey of forests surrounding the Royal tombs were carried out 
during the year 1911, and those forests directly surrounding royal 
tombs were transferred to Prince Li’s Household. 


118. Investigation of Forest Plants. 

An investigation relating to the species or varieties of forest 
plants existing in Chosen has not yet been completed. According to 
researches made up to the year 1911, there are about 300 species. 
Of these, large trees growing more than 20 feet high include, conifer¬ 
ous trees of 10 genera with 17 species, deciduous trees of 70 genera 
with 150 species and bamboos of one genus with three species. 
Should they be classified according to geographical zones, most of 
them are of Manchurian and Japanese stocks, the native stocks being 
rather limited in number. 

There are about 40 species of important trees for afforestation 
found among the native plants, while about 15 species of Japanese 
or foreign origin easily adapt themselves to the physical conditions 
of the Peninsula. Among these s{>ccics, alnus incana, pseudo acacia, 
nara oak, qucrcus serrata, poplar, and chestnut are not only easily 
grown, but also give good results even in a short space of time. 


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178 


The poplar growing very rapidly in Chosen, though it may not be a 
very valuable tree in other countries, is exceedingly useful in the 
Peninsula, as the people are so greatly in need of wood for fuel. 


119. Preserved Forests. 

Since the Forest Regulations were enforced in April, 1908, 
mountains surrounding the city of Kcijo, several mountains in Suigen 
District, Keiki Province, and certain mountains in North Keisho, 
North Heian, and South Kankyo Provinces have been converted into 
preserved or protected forests, and the felling of trees on these 
mountains was strictly prohibited in order to prevent land-slides, 
sand blasts, floods, etc. However, certain parts of the preserved 
forests in Keijo were cleared, as the land was needed for use as seed¬ 
ling stations or for railway construction. During the year 1911, 
forests in one place in North Zcnla Province, two places in North 
Keisho, one in South Heian, one in Kogen, and one in North Kankyo, 
aggregating 388 cho in all, were included among the preserved 
forests. 


120. Protection of Forests. 

As to the protection of preserved forests surrounding the city of 
Kcijo, these regions, hitherto divided into three districts, were reformed 
and made into four in the year 1911, and to each district a Japanese 
mountain superintendent and four Korean assistants are detailed as 
guard. The duty of guarding the forests in which royal tombs are 
situated, scattered about in South Kankyo, Kogen and South Zcnla 
Provinces, aggregating 7,400 cho in area, was entrusted to officials 
of the Household Office of Prince Li. But, as already stated, part 
of these forests being transferred to the private ownership of Prince 
Li’s Household as the results of adjustment of forests surrounding 
royal tombs, the force of rangers of the Princely Household was also 
readjusted, so that at the end of the year 1911, 115 persons were 
engaged in guarding these forests. In state forests, other than the 
above-mentioned, police authorities are also sharing in the duty. 
Regulations concerning protection of forests, which will be generally 
applied, and which will authorize the Provincial Governor to act as 
a responsible authority, will certainly be enacted sooner or later. 


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With a view to the protection of forests against injurious 
insects, the Provincial Governments were caused to encourage the ex¬ 
termination of such insects or worms by purchasing them of the people. 


121. Afforestation. 

Although most of the mountains in the Peninsula are denuded 
of trees, as already stated, yet climatic and soil conditions give good 
promise for successful afforestation. The Government-General not 
only continued the afforestation measures initiated by the ex-Korean 
Government during the Protectorate regime, but also encouraged 
the people to carry out afforestation more generally arid effectively. 
Especially since 1911, by fixing April 3, the anniversary of the 
Demise of the First Emperor of Japan, as the day for universal 
plantation or arbor-day, has the Government caused officials and 
people alike to plant young trees in public lands. The forest 
regulations were revised in 1911 solely to encourage the people in 
afforestation. Various measures of afforestation hitherto conducted 
are described below. 

A. Model Plantation. With the object of showing the people a model 
plantation, as well as of experimenting in the raising of certain 
forest trees, Model Plantations have been formed on the suburban 
mountains of Keijo, Suigen, Hcijft and Taiko since 1907 by the State 
Treasury. These model plantations, except that in Keijo, were all 
transferred to the Provincial Governments after 1910. The total 
area of mountains appropriated for model plantations reached 1,916 
cho at the end of the year 1911, and the number of trees planted 
amounted to 4,230,000. Of various trees planted, red pine, black 
pine, alnus incana, robinia pseudacacia, chestnut, poplar, various oaks, 
etc., arc the principal ones. Among these, robinia pseudacacia and the 
pine are best adapted to the Korean climate and soil conditions, 
and the chestnut, poplar and alnus incana come next in order. In 
afforestation by sowing, seeds of oak ( quercus serrata ) were exclu¬ 
sively used. 

B. Seedling Stations. Prior to the Annexation, six seedling 
stations were established and maintained by the Central Government 
in order to raise better seedlings, and to distribute them for encour¬ 
agement of afforestation. Simultaneously with the Annexation, 
these seedling stations were transferred to the charge of the Provin¬ 
cial Governments. In addition, more seedling stations were establish¬ 
ed with funds defrayed from Special Local Expense budgets and 


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180 


interest derived from the Imperial Donation Funds given to various 
districts at the time of the Annexation, with a view to distributing 
better seedlings as extensively as possible. The total number of 
public seedling stations reached 134 at the end of the year, their 
aggregate area amounting to 177 cho. The following table gives 
more particulars of the seedling stations carried on since 1909 :— 


Description 

No. of 

Seedling Stations 

Area appropriated 

No. of seedlings raised 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1909 

1910 

1911 

Seedling Stations 

maintained by State 

6 

6 

14 

Cho 

51 

Cho 

59 

Cho 

100 

9,210,000 

12,950,000 

21,140,000 

Treasury .... 

Seedling Stations 

maintained bv Local 


5 

7fi 


5 

46 


110,000 

1,340,000 

Expense Fund . . 

Seedling Stations 

maintained by 



44 



32 



810,000 

Imperial Donation 
Fund. 







Total .... 

6 

11 

134 

51 

64 

l__ J 

177 

1 | 

9.210.00013.060,00023,290,000 


Those raised at these stations arc qucrcus serrata, pseudo 
acacia, red pine, poplar pyramidalis, chestnut, etc. The number of 
seedlings distributed among applicants yearly increasing, 11,720,000 
plants were sold to 316 persons at the lowest possible price. The 
Oriental Development Company is also raising seedlings, more than 
13 cho of land being appropriated as seedling beds. 

C. Free Distribution. In order to encourage people in general in 
afforestation, 4,820,000 seedlings and 249 koku of seeds were dis¬ 
tributed during the year 1911, free of charge. Since free distribution 
was commenced in 1909, a total of 6,400,000 seedlings and 605 
koku of seeds have been so given. 

D. Arbor-Day. With a view to stimulate in the people an interest 
in, or love of afforestation, the Government-General, selecting the 
anniversary of the Demise of the First Emperor of Japan as Arbor- 
day, caused a universal plantation to be carried out for the first 
time on April 3, 1911, and the trees or shoots thus planted on this 
memorial day. aggregated 4,650,000, over 70 per cent, of which 
seemed likely to grow. 

E. Afforestation by Corporations. Of the aforesaid undertakings 
conducted on a large scale by others than the Government, there arc 
as yet very few. The Japanese Municipality at Fusan commenced 
afforestation work as carl}' as 1904, in order to enrich water sources 


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Tree-planting by Pupils of (iithu Common School 
on the second Arbor-Day. 


The First Arlwr-Dav, April 3, 1911. held und' 
auspices of the Goveroor-Gcuci .d. 


Afforests'ton and Terracing on Mountain Stu|<rs, Keijo. 


Acacia planted on Mount K-> ■ 
in Spring, 1911. 


Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


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Afforestation and Terracing on Mountain Slopes, Keijo, 



Acacia planted on Mount Nio, Keijo, 
in Spring, 1911. 


Acacia Forest on Getsubi Island, /insert, 
planted in 1904. 


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181 


as well as to increase the municipal income. The area thus afforested 
reached 414 chn at the end of the fiscal year 1911, and the total 
number of trees planted was 4,310,000. The Oriental Development 
Company also leased 400 chn of state forests in 1911, and bought 
200 cho of private lands for afforestation. 


122. Export and Import of Lumber. 

Of the forests in the Peninsula, many are still found along the 
upper reaches of the Oryoku, Toman, Daido and Kan Rivers. The 
lumber obtained from trees taken from the upper reaches of the 
Oryoku and Toman Rivers being handled by the Lumber Undertaking 
Station of the Government-General, the station is meeting the greater 
part of the demand for lumber in the Peninsula and also, to some 
extent, that of the Chinese markets. Yet, accompanying the growing 
demand for lumber in Korea, that imported from Japan proper and 
foreign countries during 1911, reached 1,940,000 yen in value, 
as against the export of Korean lumber to China amounting to 
160,000 yen, showing an excess of imports amounting to 1,780,000 
yen. The following table shows the movement of the luml)cr trade 
for the last three years :— 


Year 

Japan 

China 

Asiatic 

Russia 

America 

Other 

Countries 

Total 

1 

[Exports . 

4,207 

179,719 

13 

_ 

_ 

Ttn 

183,939 

1 909* 

| 







{ 

< Imports . 

829,859 

243,542 


21,224 

1,226 

1,096,861 


[Exports . 

3,605 

216,085 


_ 

_ 

219.690 

1 9 1 o| 

| 







• Imports . 

1,035,987 

73,059 

— 

73,904 

2,554 

1,186,504 

1 

[Exports . 

2,931 

163,159 

_ 

_ 

_ 

168.090 

19 11 

1 





( 

Imports . 

_ 

1,676,700 

169,892 

1 

99,080 

3,174 

1.948.846 


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XIV. MINING 


123. Expansion of Mining Undertakings. 

The general growth in mining undertakings in the Peninsula 
can be seen from the various tables attached to this chapter. In the 
year 1911 especially, the fact that a number of experts were sent by 
corporations, or individual large concerns, to prospect certain districts, 
would seem to show brighter prospects for mining undertakings. 
With regard to applications for mining concessions, those for 24 gold 
and silver mines covering 20,248,000 tsubo in aggregate area in Kiju 
District, North Heian Province, for 5 gold and silver mines covering 
4,076,000 tsubo in Gishtl Prefecture in the same province, for 13 gold 
and silver mines covering 12,041,000 tsubo bordering on Shojo and 
Taiscn Districts in the same province, for an iron mine covering 
5,000,000 tsubo in Kaisen District, South Heian Province, and for an 
iron mine covering 960,000 tsubo in Kasha District, Kokai Province, 
were the principal ones filed in the year 1911. Actual exploitation 
of gold and silver mining districts, covering 1,700,000 tsubo in Kosen 
District, Kogen Province, concession for which had already been 
given, was commenced in 1911, while four iron-producing districts 
covering 1,800,000 tsubo were purchased for amalgamation. The 
above-mentioned applications for mining concessions, and actual ex¬ 
ploitation of mines conceded, being all submitted or commenced by 
capitalists or corporations of repute in Japan proper, such as Messrs. 
Mitsui, Furukawa, Asano, or other prominent firms possessed of 
adequate funds, these mining undertakings are to be conducted on a 
large scale, thus opening up brighter prospects for mining enterprises. 


124. Mineral Products. 

Following on the various measures for improvement in, and 
encouragement given to mining development, by promulgating 
uniform mining regulations in September, 1906, and by exempting 
from import duties mining machinery, or from export duties mining 
products, in 1908, etc., the annual output of minerals is increasing. 
The total returns for the year 1911 reached 6,151,801 yen in value, 
an increase of about 12,000 yen over the preceding year. This 


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183 


insignificant sum does not represent the actual increase in mineral 
products taken out during the 3 'ear 1911, as the method of valuation 
has been changed since that year. The following table shows the 
mineral products of the Peninsula according to years since 1907 :— 


December 31, 1911.* 


Description 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

Gold and Gold ore . . 

Yen 

2,508,197 

Yen 

2^70,181 

Yen 

3,256,268 

Yen 

4,006,333 

Yen 

4,380,810 

Placer Gold .... 

84,573 

241,352 

626,971 

821,614 

591,452 

Gold and Silver ore . . 

- 

4,280 

42,835 

76,389 

38,378 

Gold and Copper ore 

- 

— 

— 

246,631 

230,210 

Silver. 

— 

— 

4,096 

6,555 

7,114 

Silver, Copper and Lead) 
ores.j 

4,429 

739 

- 

— 

— 

Copper ore .... ; 

— 

9,042 

2,727 

21,488 

133 

Iron ore. 

7,200 

376,093 

327,613 

421,462 

182,081 

Coal. 

13,179 

213,386 

225,866 

385,131 

556,500 

Graphite. 

15,528 

162,789 

181,577 

153,477 

165,117 

Total .... 

2,633,106 

3,566,882 

4,567,952 

6.139.080 

6,151,801 


The mineral products used in the Peninsula being very small in 
amount, the majority is exported to Japan proper and foreign 
countries. The products exported during the year 1911, amounting 
to 12,280,000 yen, showed an increase of about 2,030,000 yen over 
those of 1910, and double those exported in 1907, as shown in the 
following table :— 


Description 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1 

1910 

1911 

Gold Specie and ores , 

Yen 

4,638,956 

Yen j 

4,815,165 

Yen 

6,185,542 

Yen 

9,351,040 

11,464,687 

Iron ores. 

61,756 

162,883 

249,064 

339,861 

278,692 

Silver. 

33,640 

156,730 

256,071 

78,746 

34,467 

Coal. 

15,968 

45,326 

223,357 

362,419 

376,427 

Graphite. 

19,389 

96,935 

160,575 

114,206 

132,299 

Copper and Copper ores 

60,107 

74,771 

64,181 

6,357 

788 

Total. 

4,819,816 

5351,810 

7,128,790 

10352,829 

12387380 


As shown in the above tables, there is a difference between 
annual production and annual exportation, which is due to the fact 

* All the figures in this table were taken from reports submitted by mining and placer operators. 


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1S4 


that part of the exports is obtained by the owner of the mine employ¬ 
ing a coolie gang [called the Tok-tai (& ^c)], the gains of which are not 
usually reported to the proper authority, and part from proceeds 
brought back from neighbouring countries by coolies, which also 
goes unreported. 


125. Investigation of Mining Districts. 

Although the Peninsula of Chosen is rich in mineral resources, 
the mining districts or zones of the country not yet being known, 
mining development has encountered man}' hindrances. Soon after 
Annexation, a plan to investigate all mining districts in the Peninsula 
was decided upon, and investigation was commenced in April, 1911, 
by forming three survey parties, each of which consists of one 
technical expert and one assistant. During 1911, investigations 
were earned out in important mining districts, such as the western 
parts of the Keijo-Shingishu railway line in Kokai and South Heian 
Provinces, Sh6jo, Unsan and Risen Districts in North Heian Province, 
and Teihci District, South Kankyo Province. As soon as the result of 
these investigations is printed, pamphlets are to be distributed to 
those interested in mining undertakings. 


126. Mining Permits. 

The total number of applications for concessions for mining 
proper and placer mining, submitted during 1911, was 692, of which 
358 for gold, 30 for graphite, 166 for placer, 74 for iron and 36 for 
coal were the chief. Of these applications, the number approved by 
the Government during the year 1911 was 402, as shown in the 
following table, together with those granted since the Mining and 
Placer Regulations came into force on September 15, 1906 :— 


Description 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

_i 

1910 

1911 

Mining proper . . 


108 

132 

242 

218 

170 

Placer mining . . 

14 

74 

33 

63 

71 

232 

Total. . . 

30 

182 

165 

305 

289 

402 


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185 


The total mining concessions granted to various nationalities 
reached 744 up to the end of December, 1911. They are shown in 
the following table according to nationalities :— 


Description 

_| 

Japanese 

Korean 

Joint Undertakings, 
Japanese & Korean 

English 

American 

Joint Undertakings, 
Japanese and 
American 

Joint Undertakings, 
Korean & American 

German 

■§ 

§ 

CL. 

Italian 

Total 

Mining proper . 

2H7 

173 

19 

8 

16 

2 

2 

5 

3 

i 

516 

Placer mining . 

on 

151 

31 

1 

3 

1 

- 

- 

1 

i 

285 

Total. . . 

383 

324 

50 

9 

19 

3 

2 

5 

4 

2 

801 

1910 . . 

404 

249 

' 

46 

11 

22 

F 

1 

7 

2 

o 

744 


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XV. FISHERY 


127. Fishery Regulations. 

The fishery regulations hitherto in force were enacted by the 
ex-Korean Government. Not only were these regulations unsuited 
to the present fishery conditions, but much inconvenience was 
experienced in dealing with these regulations, so the Fishery Law 
and the Regulations concerning Control of Fishing Industries were 
newly promulgated by Seirci No. 6, and Administrative Ordinances 
Nos. 67 and 68, issued in June, 1911. This law and its regulations 
guarantee the pursuit of fishing to the natives, and encourage the 
permanent settlement of Japanese fishers instead of them making 
irregular visits to the Korean coast, so that the fishing industries of 
the Peninsula may lx* steadily extended. Furthermore, the law aims 
at the permanent protection of the fishing interests of the Peninsula 
by prohibiting the indiscriminate capture of fish. 

In addition to the Regulations for the Fishing Tax promulgated 
in February, 1912, and the Regulations concerning the Marine 
Products Associations and the Fishing Industry Associations 
promulgated at the same time, other regulations relative to fishing 
being enacted, the laws and regulations for fishery in the Peninsula 
are now nearing completion. 


128. Fishery Permits. 

Three sides of the Korean Peninsula are washed by the sea, 
and its coast line extends to about 6,000 nautical miles, so that the 
marine products of the Peninsula should be abundant, but their 
comparative scarcity as articles of commerce is undoubtedly due to 
the backwardness of fishing industries, and the lack of fishery 
regulations. Unless Japanese fishermen are permitted to engage 
freely in fishing in the territorial waters of Korea, and brought under 
uniform control and supervision together with native fishermen, the 
fishing industry in the Peninsula will not be developed. The existing 
fishery regulations authorize the Japanese and Koreans alike to 
apply to the authorities concerned for fishery rights. The following 
table shows the number of applications for fishery concessions, and 


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187 


the number of permits or licences issued and approved during the 
year 1911, compared with the preceding year : 


Description 

No. of Applications received 

No. of Applications approved 

Japanese 

0 

Joint Appli- 
cations, 
Japanese 
and Korean 

| 

Total 

Japanese 

Korean 

Joint Appli¬ 

cations, 

Japanese 

and Korean 

Total 

Fishery Concessions 

408 

720 

GO 

1.194 

308 

838 

23 

1.169 

Fishery Permits . . 

218 

25 

— 

243 

216 

12 

- 

228 

Fishery Licences. . 

3,395 

5,377 


8.772 

3,395 

5,377 

— 

8.772 

Total. 

4.021 

6.128 

60 

10.209 

3.919 

6.227 

23 

10.169 

1810. 

3,234 

7,607 

270 

11,111 

2,426 

5,764 

54 

8.244 


129. Encouragement of Marine Industries. 

Encouragement and protection of marine fishery industries 
conducted by natives of the Peninsula are effected not only by 
subsidies granted by the Central and Provincial Governments, but by 
the income derived from the Imperial Donation Funds, as shown in 
the following table : 


April, 1911—March, 1912. 


Province 

Subsidies granted 
by 

Central Treasury 

Subsidies defrayed 
from Special 
Local Expense 
Fundis 

Subsidies defrayed 
from Income of 
the Imperial 
Donation Funds 

Total 


Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Yen 

Keiki . 

600 

3,184 

— 

3,784 

South Chusei .... 

600 

1,000 

GOO 

2,100 

North Zenla .... 

300 

673 

335 

1,208 

South Zenla .... 

2,500 

7,605 

17,828 

27,833 

North Keishu .... 

600 

1,464 

— 

1.964 

South Keishu .... 

2,500 

4,227 

. 1,817 

8544 

South Heian .... 

500 

900 

1,250 

2.650 

North Heian .... 

150 

400 

- 

550 

Kugen . 

1,000 

2,068 

4,080 

7,148 

South Kankyu .... 

1,000 

1,560 

1,092 

3.652 

North Kankyu .... 

1,200 

3,003 

998 

6.201 

Total . 

10,750 

25984 

28.000 

64,734 


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188 


Encouragement or improvement of the fishing industry bv 
natives is to be conducted by distributing improved fishing boats 
and fishing nets or other gear, by giving short lectures on fishing or 
pisciculture, by showing results of experiments in, or model methods 
of manufacturing salt fish or dried fish, by preparing sea weed, etc., 
according to local conditions. Native fishers, appreciating the 
subsidies and patronage given by Imperial Donation Funds and 
(Government aids, are gradually showing improvement in their 
backward fishing industries. The Government also did not neglect 
to take proper measures against trawlers which often appeared in 
the vicinity of the Islands of Quelpart and Utsu-ryo, and by their illegal 
methods inflicted injury on the finny tribes frequenting the territorial 
waters of Chosen. The Chinese poachers hitherto often appearing in 
the territorial waters of North and South Heian Provinces being 
controlled, the fishing interests in those regions are now pretty well 
protected. The activity of the native fishers has hitherto been 
limited to inland waters or sea-boards, only a few engaging in deep 
sea fishing, as shipwrecks often took place on account of the rude 
construction of the fishing boats. But, fishing boats being improved 
by replacing those of small dimensions with larger ones, although 
the total number of fishing boats decreased in the year 1911, as 
shown in the following table, the catch during the same year greatly 
increased :— 


Year 

No. of 

Fishing Boats 

No. of 

Fishermen 

Value of Catch 

Average Income 
per boat 

1 908 . 

12,411 

08,520 

Yen 

3,139,100 

Yen 

252 

1 909 . 

12,567 

75,063 

3,690,300 

294 

1910. 

12,749 

76,900 

3,929,260 

308 

1911 . 

10,883 

118,920 

4,320,883 

399 


Thus, the fishing industries conducted by the Koreans are 
improving year by year. Yet, comparing them with those conducted 
by the Japanese fishermen, the Koreans are far behind, and although 
the number of both Korean fishers and boats is more than double 
that of the Japanese, the total products obtained by the Koreans 
were 10 per cent, less than those obtained by the Japanese, while the 
annual income per Korean fishing boat hardly reaches one half of 
that obtained by a Japanese boat, as shown in the following 
table :— 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 




Native Fishers arranging Improved 
Fishing Lines under Japanese 
Instructors. 


Improved Gear made by Native 
Fishers under Japanese 
Instructors. 


Training Boat made by Japanese 
Expert for Native Fishers with 
Income derived from Imperial 
Donation Funds. 


Improved Fishing Training Boat 
in Operation. 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 




189 


Description 

No. of Boats 

| 

No. of Fishers 

1 

Value of Catch ^ 

1 

Average per 

Boat 



- 1 

Ye* 

Ye* 

Japanese. 

5,02!) 

20,72.'! 

4,714,562 

937 

Korean. 

10,833 

118,920 

4,320,883 

399 

Total. 

15.862 

139.643 

I 

9.035.445 

569 


The total fishery products obtained by Japanese and Korean 
fishers during the year 1911 amounted to 9,035,000 yen. If to that 
amount is added the whaling products amounting to 418,300 yen, 
(exclusively obtained by Japanese whalers) the total amount of the 
marine products obtained in Korean waters reached 9,450,000 yen, 
showing an increase of 1,110,000 yen as compared with the prece¬ 
ding year. 


130. Immigration of Japanese Fishermen. 

Although, from of old, Japanese fishermen individually often 
immigrated to the Korean coast, immigration in bodies did not 
take place until quite recently. Since the establishment of the 
Residency-General, encouragement of such immigration being given 
by furnishing subsidies defrayed from the several Provincial Govern¬ 
ments of Japan proper, immigration of Japanese fishermen in groups 
or bodies is gradually on the increase. At the end of the year 1911, 
there were 62 villages of Japanese fishermen in the Peninsula, 
containing 2,400 families with an aggregate population of 9,200. 
These figures compared with the preceding year, according to the 
different provinces, are given in the following table :— 


December, 1911. 


Province 

No. of Villages 

No. of Families 

Population 

Keiki . 

1 

39 

97 

North Chusei .... 


— 

- 

South Chusci .... 

2 

47 

102 

North Zmla .... 

3 

35 

35 

South Zmla .... 

« 

261 

2,416 

North Keishfi .... 

3 

355 

510 


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190 


(Continued) 


Province 

No. of Villages 

No. of Families 

Population 

South Kcisho .... 

32 

1,269 

4,763 

Kokai . 

2 

2 

5 

South Hcian .... 

1 

24 

29 

North Hcian .... 

2 

10 

15 

Kugcn . 

2 

2 

23 

South KanJtyo .... 

1 

427 

1,105 

North Kankyo .... 

6 

25 

136 

Total. 

62 

2,488 

9,236 

1910. 

45 

1,656 

6,277 


131. “The Chosen Waters Marine 
Products Association 

This Association was established by Japanese interested in the 
fishing industries in the Peninsula, in accordance with the “ Law 
relating to Marine Products Associations which engage in fishing in 
foreign territorial waters,” promulgated in 1902. That the Associa¬ 
tion is participating in the encouragement and improvement of the 
fishing industries in the Peninsula, especially by facilitating the 
procuring of capital by Japanese and Korean fishers, by appropriat¬ 
ing lands on the sea-coast for Japanese immigrant fishers, by acting 
as arbitrator in disputes between fishers, by relieving shipwrecked 
fishermen or giving aid in other disasters, etc., has been fully shown 
in previous Annual Reports. At the end of 1911, the Association 
was maintaining 9 branches and 12 detached offices throughout the 
Peninsula, and 9 inspecting boats. The Association annually receives 
a subsidy amounting to 40,000 yen from the Government-General for 
its services. The membership of the association, hitherto confined to 
Japanese, was extended to Koreans on the revision of the Fishery 
Law and the Regulations of Fishery Associations. 


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XVI. SANITATION 


132. Hygienic Administration. 

The general measure for hygienic administration in the Penin¬ 
sula was put into operation during the Protectorate regime. Yet 
many important laws and regulations concerning sanitation not 
having been enacted, the Government decided to provide the statutes 
relating to supervision of food and drinks, and other sanitary 
regulations. The Law for Supervising Food, Drinks, and other 
Articles, enacted in 1900 in Japan proper, was extended to the 
Peninsula by the Imperial Ordinance No. 272, promulgated on 
October 28, 1911. In November, the detailed regulations for super¬ 
vising food, unwholesome drinks, and other articles injurious to 
health were promulgated, while several regulations concerning the 
supervision of liquors containing salicylic acid, and of the trade 
dealing in soft drinks, ice-cream, milk, etc., were promulgated by 
several Seirei and Furci (Administrative Ordinances) of the Governor- 
General, and by the Ordinance of the Director-General of the Police 
Affairs Department. T(ic regulations for cleaning dwelling houses 
twice a year, in spring and autumn, were also issued by an 
Ordinance of the Police Director-General. After the Annexation, 
hygienic administration was conducted by the Home Affairs Depart¬ 
ment of the Government-General, side by side with the Police Affairs 
Department. Rut all sanitary administration, except that concerning 
the Central Government Hospital and Provincial Charity Hospitals, 
was transferred in and after August, 1911, to the latter Department, 
in order to secure the uniform management of hygienic measures in 
the Peninsula. 


133. Supervision of Medicine and 
Medicine Dealers. 

Up to this time there were no regulations for dealing with 
adulterated or impure medicines or drugs, except those controlling 
the use of opium or morphine. Now the time being ripe for the 
promulgation of regulations to supervise general medicines and 
drugs, the Act concerning the supervision of medicines and drug stores, 


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and its detailed regulations were promulgated by Seirei No. 22 and 
Furei No. 55, issued by the Governor-General in March, 1912, and 
coming into force on July 1, 1912. According to these regulations, 
pharmacists must obtain an official certificate, druggists, medicine 
manufacturers or vendors must obtain a licence issued by the police 
authorities, and so on. A chemical laboratory being attached to 
the Police Affairs Department, strict watch for adulterated medicines 
is exercised. During the fiscal year 1911, 905 applications were 
submitted for permission to manufacture medicines, of which 214 
obtained the necessary sanction, 


134. Epidemic Diseases. 

The epidemic diseases that generally break out in the peninsula 
are cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, diphtheria, small-pox, etc. Of 
epidemic diseases, cholera and pest in Korea, as in the case of Japan, 
were often brought from China by communication. The total 
number of epidemic cases, reported during the year 1911, was 6,604, 
of which 1,226 proved fatal. Compared with the previous year,, 
there was an increase of 1,179 in cases reported, and a decrease of 
294 in the number of deaths. The following table shows the general 
conditions of epidemic diseases in the year 1911, compared with the 
three preceding years :— 




Cholera 

Typhoid Fever 

Dysentery 

Diphtheria 


Year 










Patients 

Deaths 

Patients 

Deaths 

Patients 

Deaths 

Patients 

Deaths 

oo 

Japanese. . . 

54 

87 

639 

103 

168 

38 

34 

12 

o 

a> 

Korean . . . 

58 

47 

310 

112 

220 

37 

7 

2 


Total. . 

112 

84 

849 

215 

388 

76 

41 

14 


Japanese. . . 

204 

120 

347 

95 

224 

63 

35 

8 

<33 

o 

Korean . 

1,594 

1,262 

342 

74 

424 

88 

22 

5 

<33 









Total. . 

1,798 

1382 

689 

169 

648 

151 

57 

13 


Japanese. . . 

22 

15 

572 

221 

691 

178 

43 

14 

o 

Korean . . . 

464 

3<> 7 

285 

64 

744 

161 

24 

11 

<33 











Total- . 

488 

382 

857 

285 

1.438 

339 

67 

25 


Japanese. . . 

4 

2 

749 

203 

939 

207 

70 

23 


Korean . . . 

— 

— 

509 

102 

479 

120 

20 

14 

<33 











Total. . 

4 

2 

1.258 

305 

1.418 

327 

90 

37 


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(Continued) 


Year 

Typhus Fever 

Small-Pox 

Scarlet Fever 

Total 

Patients 

Deaths 

Patients 

Deaths 

Patients 

Deaths 

Patients 

Deaths 

oo 

Japanese. . . 

6 


435 

99 

3 

2 

1.239 

292 

o 

03 

Korean . . . 

- 

- 

1,443 

377 

12 

9 

2.060 

584 


Total. . 

6 

i 

1.878 

476 

15 

11 

3.289 

876 

03 

O 

03 

Japanese. . . 

Korean . . . 

3 

1 

— 

196 

4,260 

60 

902 

25 

15 

8 

7 

1.034 

6.658 

354 

2338 


Total. . 

4 

_ 

4,456 

962 

40 

15 

7,892 

2.692 


Japanese. . . 

— 

— 

111 

36 

38 

7 

1,480 

471 

03 

Korean . . . 

- 

— 

2,425 

445 

3 

i 

3,946 

1.049 


Total ■ • 

- 

- 

2,536 

481 

41 

8 

5.425 

1320 


Japanese. . . 

15 

i 

109 

32 

37 

— 

1.923 

468 

03 

Korean . . . 

13 

2 

3,653 

519 

7 

1 

4.681 

758 


Total • . 

28 

3 

3,782 

551 

44 

1 

6.604 

1.228 


The last Annual Report fully treated of the precautionary 
measures rigorously carried out on the frontier of the Peninsula, 
when pest was prevailing in Manchuria in the winter of 1910. 
These rigorous precautionary measures were not relaxed till May, 
1911. However, when several cases of lung pest breaking out in 
Shanghai, China, were reported in August, the authorities concerned 
immediately caused the proper authorities in sea-ports on the western 
coast of the Peninsula to take precautionary measures against the 
introduction of this dreadful infectious disease (by purchasing rats, 
which often become the means of communicating disease) since it 
might easily be brought into these ports through the foreign trade 
with China. This measure and others were not suspended until the 
end of the year. Thus, introduction of this dreadful disease from 
China was again successfully prevented in 1911. With regard to 
cholera, as soon as its breaking-out in Lu-tung Peninsula, South 
Manchuria, was reported by the Government-General of Japan at 
Port Arthur, the Police Affairs Department of Chosen immediately 
despatched technical experts to Manchuria to investigate the condi¬ 
tions of this plague, and at the same time precautionary measures 
against the introduction of this disease, especially by inspecting junks 
and steamers coming to Shin-gishil from Dairen, were put into opera¬ 
tion. This measure was not given up until December 23, when the 
plague in Dairen ceased. 


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135. Vaccination. 

Until very recently, not only was small-pox an epidemic 
disease in Korea, but nearly all Koreans were swayed by prejudice 
against vaccination. With the gradual spread of vaccination, 
almost universally enforced as it is by the authorities concerned, the 
people are coming to appreciate this preventive measure against 
small-pox. In addition to regular vaccination which takes place in 
spring and autumn, each year, it is enforced whenever this infectious 
disease breaks out. With the transfer of sanitary administration to 
the Police Affairs Department, compulsory vaccination became more 
rigorously enforced, and the total number of those receiving vaccina¬ 
tion during the year 1911 reached 2,906,877, that is more than 
double those receiving vaccination during the preceding year. The 
following table shows the considerable increase in those vaccinated 
in each year since 1908 :— 


Province 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

Kciki . 

145,035 

146,390 

169,188 

218,416 

North Chusei .... 

20,050 

13,800 

78,605 

110,357 

South Chusei .... 

44,490 

39,760 

33,177 

268,488 

North ZenJa .... 

50,000 

39,600 

224,881 

138,902 

South Zenla .... 

28,850 

42,125 

95,529 

272,350 

North Keishn .... 

16,150 

96,970 

128,722 

201,190 

South Keishii .... 

70,760 

103,800 

171,806 

350,326 

Kokai . 

31,685 

52,000 

83,479 

348,668 

South Heian .... 

.54,350 

30,550 

20,174 

123,471 

North Heian .... 

28,180 

28,700 

59,044 

124,503 

Kfigen . 

15,500 

43,500 

35,384 

261,408 

South Kankyo .... 

20,945 

18,750 

99,783 

429,558 

North Kankyo .... 

11,700 

23,300 

22,37.5 

59,240 

Total. 

544.595 

679,235 

1.222.146 

2.806.877 


The manufacture of vaccine, conducted since 1910 by the 
Sanitary Section of the Home Affairs Department of the Govern¬ 
ment-General, was transferred to the Police Affairs Department in 
August, 1911. The amount of vaccine manufactured in the year 
1911 was 735,800 tubes, an increase of 320,000 tubes as compared 


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with the previous year. Of these, 721,200 tubes were distributed 
among the various provinces and in Cliicntao, China, and about 
14,300 tubes were sold to applicants. 


136. Increase of Official Doctors. 

General remarks upon official doctors, i. e., certain Japanese 
physicians attached to important police stations on account of the 
lack of competent native physicians in Korea, were made in the 
previous Annual Report. The function of these physicians attached 
to Police Stations is principally to participate in sanitary adminis¬ 
tration, especially in supervising vaccination, and in their spare 
time they extend medical aid to the people in general. In the case 
of Korean patients, medicine is furnished free or at the lowest price. 
The service done by these physicians showing good results, Imperial 
Ordinance No. 191, promulgated in June, 1911, authorized the 
Governor-General to increase the number within the limits of the 
budget of the salary accounts of the police authorities. To the 
gendarmery stations discharging ordinary police functions, Official 
Doctors of this kind are also to lie attached. The number of these 
Official Doctors to be appointed in 1911 was determined at 182, in 
addition to the physicians of the Arm)' Hospitals and Provincial 
Charity Hospitals, these being assigned thS same duties ex-officio 
without payment of additional salary or allowance. At the end of 
the fiscal year 1911, the total number of Official Doctors was 140, 
including those stationed in the city of Kcijo, besides 50 physicians 
discharging the same functions ex-officio. 


137. Medical Practice. 

Medical Institutions maintained by the Government or Public 
Corporations in the Peninsula arc, the Government-General Hospital 
in Kcijo, 13 Charity Hospitals maintained by Provincial Governments, 
and certain Hospitals maintained by the Municipalities of Japanese 
Settlements. In addition, there are Official Doctors attached 
to Police or Gendarmery Stations. Private Hospitals arc also 
maintained by individuals or associations, Japanese, Korean and 
foreign. Most of the hospitals conducted by foreigners have been 
established by foreign religious associations. Among those practis¬ 
ing medicine are numerous natives who know only Chinese methods, 


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and nothing of modern medical science, using principally ginseng or 
other dried roots of plants for medicines. They number more than 
1,300 against 482 physicians who have received modern medical 
training. The establishment of the Medical School attached to 
the Government Hospital was simply for the purpose of training 
competent Korean physicians. But graduates from this School 
being very few in number, the Government decided to recognize 
even graduates of a private medical school, if considered competent. 
A certificate of official recognition for the practice of medicine was 
given to graduates of a Medical School maintained in Keijo by an 
American Missionary Hospital, called Severance Hospital. With 
regard to Japanese practising medicine in the Peninsula, they also 
should be those having proper qualifications in Japan proper. But 
certain Japanese having medical training in Korea, though lacking 
in proper qualifications, were permitted to practise medicine in 
the localities in which they were then residing. The following table 
shows the medical agencies existing at the end of the year 1911 :— 



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138. Government-General Hospital. 

The general work of this hospital and its history were treated 
of in the last Annual Report. For the further expansion of this 
hospital, the land appropriated to its use was increased to 54,000 
tsubo up to the fiscal year 1911, while the erection of buildings for an 
X-ray laboratory, electrical treatment, bacteriological laboratory, 
nurses’ quarters, etc., was completed. A separate building was also 
built in the same year within the woods in the hospital compound, 
and provides accommodation for patients convalescing, sufferers from 
nervous complaints, or women recovering from child-birth. Thus 
the hospital was so extended that the aggregate area covered by its 
buildings reached 2,892 tsubo, and its wards can accommodate more 
than 290 patients. 

The work of the hospital becoming gradually appreciated by 
the Koreans, native patients are increasing considerably ever)' year. 
Hitherto ordinary patients and dispensary patients were treated in 
the same general consultation rooms. In order to maintain better 
order and cleanliness, however, dispensary patients were treated in 
consultation rooms provided in a separate building, in and after 
1911. The fee for in-patients being modified, the charge for native 
patients was reduced, and patients can have free choice of food 
according to taste, provided it meet the approval of the physicians. 
In addition, flowering plants being placed in the halls of the wards, 
and barber’s shops and other necessities being provided, the comfort 
and convenience of in-patients were greatly enhanced. Koreans, 
though appreciating the work of the hospital in modern surgical 
treatment, which generally brings about visible results in a short 
time, were rather slow to yield themselves to modem medical treat¬ 
ment, as the results are not, or may not be, so quickly apparent as 
those of the former, and still exhibit a tendency to frequent the old- 
fashioned doctor of the Chinese school instead of making use of the 
hospital. So too was it the case with women who, disliking to 
appear before a male, unless it be father or husband, often regarded 
their sickness as incurable, and refused to attend the hospital. 
Obtaining information of the good work done by the hospital from 
those receiving successful treatment, women desiring medical treat¬ 
ment in the hospital are also increasing, and female patients out¬ 
number the males, especially in the dispensary. 

The following table gives more details as to the hospital :— 


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198 




| 

Medical Staff 

Number of Patients 


Year 

Ordinary 

Dispensary 

Total 



Doctors 

1 Phar¬ 
macists 

| Nurses 

Actual 

1 Number 

No. of 
Visits 

Actual 

Number 

No. of 
Visits 

Actual i 
Number 

No. of 
Visits 


Japanese . 

20 

4 

1 

84 

15,889 

104,761 

490 

5,683 

16.319 

110,444 

03 

Korean . . 

- 

1 

4 

15,89.8 

90,057 

12,068 

70,034 

27,961 

160.691 

▼H 

Total . 

20 

5 

88 

31.782 

194.818 

12.498 

76.317 

44,280 

271,135 


Japanese . 

17 

4 

60 

10,152 

104,124 

224 

5,146 

10,376 

109.270 

o 

03 

Korean . . 

— 

— 

7 

4,179 

34,516 

3,318 

59,892 

7,497 

94.408 


Total . 

17 

_ 

4 

67 

14331 

138.640 

3.542 

65.038 | 

17,873 

203.678 


While Koreans are given dispensary treatment gratis, Japanese 
must pay unless their poverty is vouched for by the police authorities. 


139. Charity Hospitals.* 

Although charity hospitals maintained in each of the provinces 
are of recent establishment, dating only from the time of the An¬ 
nexation, they are already becoming popular. These hospitals, 
thirteen in number, received 294 patients per day on an average 
during 1911, as against 223 for the preceding year. Especially did 
dispensary patients, who arc chiefly Koreans, greatly increase, so 
that the aggregate number of visits of dispensary patients reached 
1,083,425 in 1911, as against 401,757 in the preceding year. The 
work done by these Charity Hospitals during the year 1911, as 
compared with the preceding year, is shown in the following 
table :— 





Number of Patients 

Description 




Ordinary 

Dispensary 

Total 

Physi¬ 

cians 

Assistant 

Physi¬ 

cians 

Nurses 

Actual 

Number 

No. of 

Visits 

Actual 

Number 

No. of 

Visits 

Actual 

Number 

No. of 

Visits 


Japanese . 

28 

14 

41! 

35,613 


043 

— 

36556 

— 

03 

Korean . . 

— 

12 

— 

4,921 

— 

165,158 

— 

170.079 



Total. 

28 

26 

41 

40.534 

312.649 

166.101 

1.083.425 

206.6351,396.074 


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199 


(Continued) 


Japanese . 

25 

11 

29 

9,714, 

84,845! 

614 

6,115 

10.328 

90.960 

Korean . 

— 

9 


747 

5,927 

52,109 

395,642 

52.856 

401.569 

Total- 

25 

20 

31 

10,461 

90,772 

52,723 

401,757 

63.184 

492,528 


140. Street Cleaning. 

Sanitary measures in the Peninsula were formerly altogether 
neglected, except in the Japanese or foreign settlements. Even the 
streets of Keiju, the capital of the Peninsula, were in a chronic state 
of filth, and swarmed with flies and mosquitoes. In most of the 
streets, sewage drains were hardly ever provided. After the estab¬ 
lishment of the Protectorate regime, the police authorities encouraged 
the people to clean the streets, to keep the drains free, to have the 
well-water pure, and so forth, or to use water from the water-works 
as far as possible, while the KeijO Sanitary Association, organized by 
Japanese and Korean residents, conducts sanitary measures by 
cleaning the streets of KeijO, and by removing night soil and dirt, by 
means of the money collected from the Japanese and Korean residents 
of KeijO, and a subsidy annually given by the Government-General. 
The work done by the Association proving of great value, even the 
native towns, hitherto characterized b}’ their filthiness, are no.w kept 
fairly clean. In the year 1911, the Association also commenced to 
plant trees on the main streets,, and to water the streets. An 
isolation hospital for patients suffering from epidemic diseases was 
also built in 1911 by the Association. The following table shows 
the work done by the Association in 1911, as compared with the 
preceding years :— 


Year 

No. of houses visited 

length of 
Ditches 
cleaned 

No. of 

Expenses 

Japanese 

Korean 

Employees 

1908 . . . 

5,322 

29,704 

Ken 

120,354 

50,769 

Yen 

45,901 

1909 . . . 

10,148 

38,794 

1,082,646 

216,918 

156,491 

1910 . . . 

10,839 

33,923 

2,200,169 

242,751 

230,886 

1911. . . 

12,927 

33,814 

1,525,082 

200,358 

159,560 


Similar associations were created in cities or towns in which 
Provincial Governments, Japanese Settlement Municipalities, or 
Japanese School Associations existed. In other places, where no such 


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200 


associations arc yet to be found, the police or gendarmery are 
encouraging the local people to take proper sanitary measures. 


141. Water-Works. 

Well-water in Korean towns is often a cause of epidemic 
diseases, owing to infiltration from stagnant drains and uncleaned 
cess-pools. The construction of water-works in the Peninsula, the 
people of which are still lacking in general knowledge of sanitary 
matters, is very important. Urged especially by the necessity of 
supplying clean water in sea-ports, and in places thickly populated, 
the Residency-General caused, in 1906, the late Korean Government 
to build water-works at Jinsen , Hcijo and Fusan, by appropriating 
funds from the Public Undertakings Loan. The water-works of 
Fusan was a joint undertaking of the Government and the Japanese 
Settlement Municipality, while that of Mokpo was commenced and 
carried out, in 1908, by the Japanese Settlement Municipality, aided 
by a Government subsidy. The water-works at Chinnampo is to be 
built by the Government-General as a four years’ consecutive under¬ 
taking from the fiscal year 1911, at an estimated cost of 420,000 
yen. The water-works in Kcijo, hitherto maintained by a foreign 
syndicate, being purchased for 2,806,152 yen by the Government- 
General after the Annexation, .all water-works in the Peninsula were 
brought under the uniform supervision of the Government. The 
subjoined table shows further particulars of water-works in Korea 
as they existed at the end of the fiscal year 1911, ending March 31, 
1912 :— 




No. of 
Dwellings 
Supplied 

with 

Water 

Capacity 


Account 


Time when 

Name of 

Proprietor 

Names 

of 

places 

Plant 

of Water- ( 

supply | 
per 

hundred I 
Dwellings 

Receipts 

Expendi¬ 

ture 

Profits 

Water- 
supply was 
commen¬ 
ced 

Kcijo . . . 

Pumping 

14,954 

23.0 

Ten 1 

156,464 

I'm 

102,380 

Yen 

54,074 

August, 
1908 j 

Government- 

General 

Jinscn . . 

Pumping 

2,170 

31-5 

39,470 

38,916 

554 

December, 

1910 

Government- 

General 

Hcijo . . 

Pumping 

3,160 

30.5 

44,916 

15,844 

29,072 

J»iy, 

1910 

Government- 

General 

Fusan . . 

Gravitation 

3,995 

70.0 

49,533 

20,906 

28,628 

May, 

1902 

Joint underta¬ 
king of Govern¬ 
ment-General 
and Fusan 
Japanese Muni¬ 
cipality 

Mokpo . . 

Gravitation 

907 

1 

77.6 

L _ 

14,906 

8,964 

6,942 

May, 

1910 

1 

Mokpo Japanese 
Municipality 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 










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• ••• *•*-. •• ■:! i| identic 

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*•*111 , m* •» *it f 


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Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 





Part of the 
Water-works 
for Port of 
Fusa/i. 


Water-works in course of Construction for Port of Chinnampo 


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Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 





Digitized by 



Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



XVII. EDUCATION. 


142. Readjustment of Educational System. 

The new educational system for natives, which was evolved 
from a careful investigation and study of the matter from the time 
of the Annexation, finally came into being by the promulgation of 
Imperial Ordinance No. 229 in August, 1911. This educational 
system being founded on the fundamental principle set forth in the 
Imperial Rescript on Education, issued for Japan proper some years 
ago, its vital aim is to give the younger generations of Koreans such 
moral character and general knowledge as will make them loyal 
subjects of Imperial Japan, at the same time enabling them to cope 
with the present conditions existing in the Peninsula. The school 
education being roughly classified into three kinds, i.e., common, 
industrial, and special, common education along with that a little 
more advanced is carried on by the Common School, Higher Common 
School and Girls’ Higher Common School, and aims at imparting 
common knowledge and art indispensable to daily life, special atten¬ 
tion being paid to arousing national characteristics, the extended use 
of the national language, and especially to fostering in girl students 
feminine virtues such as constancy and domesticity. Industrial 
education aims at cultivating knowledge of, and training in agricul¬ 
ture, commerce, and technical industries according to local conditions, 
by means of industrial schools, while special education endeavours to 
furnish knowledge of the higher branches of science and art through 
a special school. The Government adopted the measure of 
emphasizing common education and industrial training at the outset 
in order to build up a solid basis in the people, to encourage their 
industrial development, and gradually to extend special education, 
imparting knowledge of the higher branches of science and art along 
with the advancement of the standard of living and condition 
of the people. For the training of a teaching force for common 
schools, normal schools were created, not as independent institutions, 
but as adjuncts to other schools, and a Normal Section or Teachers’ 
Short Term Training Section was established in Higher Common 
Schools and Girls’ Higher Common Schools. 

In October, 1911, various regulations concerning Common 
Schools, Higher Common Schools, Girls’ Higher Common Schools, 


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202 


Industrial Schools, and Private Schools, being promulgated, the 
approval of the Governor-General must be obtained for the establish¬ 
ment or abolition of these schools. 

With regard to text-books, the schools for Koreans, public or 
private, are required to use text-books compiled by the Government- 
General, or those that have received official recognition, if such have 
been compiled by private individuals. 

The Regulations for the above-mentioned schools also setting 
forth the curriculum, teaching methods, conditions of entrance, 
term of graduation, etc., a uniform system for schools for Koreans, 
public or private, is expected to be gradually established. These 
regulations for the new educational system being enforced on and 
after November 1, 1911, the educational system for natives was by 
them generally readjusted. 

With regard to schools maintained for Japanese children in the 
Peninsula, the educational system of Japan proper has been applied, 
yet several organic regulations for Common Schools, Girls’ Higher 
Schools, and Industrial Schools were promulgated in March, 1912, 
by which special arrangements for teachers were made, and most of 
the schools have the Korean language as a regular subject of study, 
while industrial and other technical training may be added to the 
regular curriculum according to the conditions of the several 
localities. These schools can be established by the Japanese Settle¬ 
ment Municipalities and School Associations, but approval of the 
Government-General must be obtained. 

As to the supervision of school work, a permanent Educational 
Inspection Commissioner and several permanent Inspectors of 
Han-nin rank were appointed by the Government-General in May, 
1911. In the fiscal year following, educational inspectors are 
expected to be attached to each Provincial Government. 


143. Grant of Educational Rescript. 

When the new educational system in the Peninsula was formed, 
the Imperial Rescript on Education, issued for Japan proper twenty- 
one years ago, was gracefully granted to the Governor-General, and 
the Imperial Will, desiring the extension of the fundamental 
principles of the national education to the Peninsula, was thus 
clearly' manifested, and Koreans and Japanese alike regarded as His 
Majesty’s loyal subjects. Receiving this Imperial Rescript with 


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203 


reverence, the Governor-General distributed copies of it among the 
Government Schools and other Public Schools. 


144. Common Schools. 

The common school for the Koreans, provided by the new 
educational system, is an institution in which primary education is 
given , especially in cultivating the moral character and national 
spirit, teaching the new national language, and imparting common 
knowledge and art necessary- for their national life. The term of 
study for this school is four years, but it may be shortened to three 
years according to local conditions. Children eligible for admission 
to the school must not be less than eight years of age. In the 
curriculum of this school, moral teaching, the new national language, 
the native language, Chinese literature, and arithmetic are subjects 
of study compulsorily taught. In consideration of local conditions, 
however, physical science, drawing, singing, handicraft, elementary 
agriculture, or commercial training may be dispensed with for the 
time being. Fees are not charged by Government or Public Common 
Schools as a rule, but may be charged by Public Common Schools if 
approved of by the Provincial Governor. 

As to the maintenance of Public Common Schools, such schools 
can hold property as funds, and their expenses are defrayed out of 
the interest derived from the Imperial Donation Funds given to each 
Prefecture and District, Special Local Expense Fund, State subsidies, 
School I'und, private donations, tuition fees collected at the school 
and the Fund provided for the Hyang-gyo (the old-fashioned school). 
Should there be any deficit, an additional levy may be collected from 
the Korean residents of the school district. 

A common school education being urgently needed by Koreans, 
134 schools were newly established in the fiscal year 1911, principal¬ 
ly with the interest derived from the Imperial Donation Funds. If 
these be added to those established during the Protectorate regime, 
the total number of Government or Public Common Schools reaches 
236. At least one Public Common School is to be maintained in 
each district by creating an additional 102 schools in the fiscal year 
following. In addition, Private Common Schools receiving govern¬ 
ment aid, to each of which a competent Japanese teacher was 
appointed, increased to 70. The following table shows the general 
condition of Common Schools, public or private, at the end of the 
fiscal year 1911, ending March 31, 1912 :— 


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Description 

No. of 
Schools 


No. 

of Teachers 

No, 

, of Students 

jT 

°.g 


Japanese 

' Korean 

'Total 

Bovs 

j Girls 

Total 


Government Common) 
School. J 

2 

12 

12 

9 

21 

217 

109 

326 

74. 

Public Common School 

234 

734 

288 

737 

1.025 

25,454 

2,162 

27.616 

2,803 

Private Common School 

70 

170 

70 

142 

212 

4,311 

.132 

4,443 

282 

Total. . . . . 

306 

916 

370 

888 

1.258 

29.982 

2.403 

32,385 

3.159 

1910. 

173 

588 1 

165 ; 

584 

749 

18,847 

1,274 

20,121 

1,870 

1909 . 

134 

332 

105 

469 

574 

14,904 

546 

15,450 

1,037 

1 908 . 

98 

212 | 

on 

313 

379 

10,614 

130 

10,744 

— 


By the new educational system, the principal and instructors of 
a common school arc treated as petty officials of Han-nin rank, and 
most of the principals appointed were qualified Japanese instructors. 

The common school education being appreciated by the natives, 
applicants for admission exceed the fixed number every year. 


145. Government Schools of Higher Grade. 

The Government Schools of higher grade for Koreans hitherto 
maintained were a Law School, a Normal School, a Foreign 
Language School, two High Schools and a Girls’ High School. In 
accordance with the new educational system, they have been reduced 
to a Special School, Higher Common Schools and Girls’ Higher 
Common Schools. 

The Higher Common Schools giving a liberal education to boys 
not less than twelve years of age, graduation from such a school 
requires at least four years. 

The curriculum comprises 14 subjects-ethics, national 

language, Korean and Chinese literature, history, geography, 
mathematics, science, writing, drawing, manual training, singing, 
gymnastics, English, and industry, economics and elementary law. 
Science here includes natural history, physics and chemistry, while 
mineralogy is included in physics and chemistry. On the other 
hand, the grouping of law, economics and industry as one subject of 
study is to simplify their teaching, and to maintain a connection 
between them, in order to secure practical use of them as far as 
possible. 


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PftlNCETON UNIVERSITY 










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Governor-General giving Brief Inst faction to Teachers and School Children of 
Japanese Common Schools in AVi/e, numbering about t.fiOO. 






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Seishu Public Common School, 
North Chusei Province. 


A Japanese Common School, Keijo. 



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Native Higher Common School, Keijo. 


Japanese Middle School, Keijo. 


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205 


For the training of a teaching force for common schools, the 
Higher Common School is made use of by attaching to it a Normal 
Course and a Teachers’ Short Term Training Course. Those 
desiring to be teachers may take the Normal Course for one year 
after graduating from the Main Course of the Higher Common 
School, or may take the Teachers’ Short Term Training Course for 
one year, on the completion of two years in the Main Course. In the 
case of the latter, the course in industry, economics and elementary 
law is replaced by one in pedagogy, and other educational training. 

The Girls’ Higher Common School aims at giving young girls 
higher common education, with the object of fostering in them 
“ feminine virtues and instructing them in the knowledge and art 
useful in making a livelihood, especially cultivating their moral 
character and equipping them as good housekeepers ”. The subjects 
of study in this school are similar to those in a Higher Common 
School for boys. However, with the view of making the education 
of girls as far as possible useful in their practical daily life, more 
hours have been allotted to the teaching of such subjects as science, 
house-keeping, sewing and handicraft, instead of devoting them to 
economics, elementary law and industrial training, as in Roys’ Higher 
Common Schools. The period of study in the Girls’ Higher Common 
School is three years, and those desiring entrance must be twelve 
years of age or above, and graduates of a common school, or those 
having the same qualifications. The Girls’ Higher Common School 
maintained by the Government may provide a Normal Course of 
one year for training female teachers for common schools. 

Only one Special School, in which education in higher branches 
of science and art, especially laws and economics, is given to Korean 
young men, is recognized at present, one established in Keijo. The 
period of study in this school is three years, and students admitted 
to the school must be full eighteen years of age or above, and be 
graduates of a Higher Common School, or those having the same 
qualifications as such graduates. The subjects of study in this 
school are 14, viz., ethics, the national language, elementary law, 
constitutional and administrative law, civil law, commercial law, 
criminal law, civil proceedings, criminal proceedings, international 
public law, international private law, economics, legal training, and 
gymnastics. This school aims at educating young men so as to fit 
them to be useful in the state service, or to establish themselves in 
the higher professions. 

The graduates from the Higher Common Schools, and the Kctjd 
Special School, have the privilege of appointment as civil officials of 


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206 


Hati-nin rank in the Government-General and its affiliated offices by 
Imperial Ordinance No. 55, promulgated in March, 1912. On the 
other hand, the principals of these government schools of higher 
grade are treated as higher officials of So-nin rank, while instructors 
of these schools are treated as higher officials of the same rank and 
petty officials of Han-nin rank. 

When the new educational system came into force in November, 
1911, the Kcijo Law School was converted into the Kcijo Special 
School, the Normal School and High School in Kcijii into the Kcijo 
Higher Common School, the High School in Hcijo into the Hcijo 
Higher Common School, and the Girls’ High School in Kcijo into the 
Kcijo Girls’ Higher Common School. The following table shows 
further particulars of the above-mentioned schools as they existed at 
the end of the fiscal year 1911 :— 


Name of School 

2 & 

o 

No. of Teaching Force 

No. of 

No. of 

* 1 

1 * 

o I 
z a 




Japanese 

Korean 

Total 

Students 

Graduates 



Yrnr 







Keijn Special School .... 

3 

3 

5 

i 

6 

(54 

24 

c 

Main Course. 

4 

9 

' 



312 

18 

E 

o 

jl, 

Teachers’ Training Course . 

i 

i 




57 

57 

Teachers* Training Course 





45 




maintained by old Normal 


7 

31 

14 

210 

82 

X 

£ 

Schools. 

Teachers’ Short Term Train- 








ing Course attached to 
old Normal School . . 

* 

2 




81 

81 


j! 

/Main Course. 

4 

3 




83 

12 

I s 

Teachers’ Training Course . 

1 

i 

5 

2 

7 

37 

37 

:'§>! 

£ § 
u 

Teachers’ Short Term Train¬ 
ing Course. 

Mouth 

3 

i 




30 

30 

jj - 

Main Course. 

3 

3 




95 

24 

“X 









It 









— C 

Handicraft Course.... 

3 

1 

9 

2 

11 

lfi 

— 

0 E 









si 









£ u 

Special Handicraft Course . 

i 

1 




15 

— 


Total. 


32 

50 

19 

69 

1.000 

345 


Applications for admission to these schools of higher grade 
being greatly on the increase, there were more than 4,000 applicants 
for 748 places. 


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207 


There are two private schools of higher grade readjusted 
according to the new educational system. One is Suk-myong Girls’ 
Higher Common School established in Keiju, and the other Ham-heung 
Higher Common School maintained in the city of Kanku, South Kankyo 
Province. The former school has 86 students and the latter, 66 
students. 


146. Industrial Schools. 

(Jitmigf/o-fiatitio) 

According to the new educational system, the Industrial Schools 
giving necessary instruction to native boys wishing to engage in 
agriculture, commerce or technical industry, may be classified as 
Agricultural, Commercial, Technical, and Elementary Industrial 
Schools. The period of study in the first three schools may be fixed 
within the limits of two to three years, and those eligible for 
admission must be above twelve years of age, and be graduates 
from a Common School, or those having the same qualifications. 
In these Industrial Schools, except Elementary Industrial Schools, 
the five subjects—moral teaching, industries and practical training 
therein, the national language, Korean and Chinese literature, 
mathematics and science—must be taught. Other subjects of study 
may be added to meet local needs. 

The Elementary Industrial School, aiming at giving industrial 
education in the simplest way, is to be established as an affiliated 
institute of a Common School or some other Industrial School. The 
school is expected to furnish practical training in industries to any 
one, irrespective whether such be a graduate of a Common School or 
not, at any time, for instance in the evening, or on Sundays, and 
during the summer or winter vacation, or during a particular season 
according to local conditions or particular purposes. 

Agricultural, Commercial or Industrial Schools, or similar 
schools previously existing, were remodelled according to the new 
educational system which came into force in November, 1911. The 
following table shows the general conditions of the various Industrial 
Schools and Elementary Industrial Schools, existing at the end of the 
fiscal year 1911 :— 


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208 


Description 

No. of 

No. of 

No. 

of Instructors 

No. of 

No. of 

Schools 

Classes 

Japanese 

Korean 

Total 

Students 

Graduates 

f Government. 

.3.2 

% 5 { Public. 

1 

3 

4 

3 

7 

127 

22 

16 

31 

72 

27 

99 

862 

329 

' Private. 

2 

3 

6 

2 

8 

106 

23 

Total. 

19 

37 

82 

32 

114 

1.095 

374 

Elementary Industrial Schools . 

17 

22 

34 

22 

56 

479 

294 

Grand Total .... 

38 

69 

116 

54 

170 

1.574 

668 

19 10. 

25 

33 

91 

51 

142 

1,011 

22 

1909 . 

7 

10 

IK 

11 

29 

271 

46 


Of 19 Industrial Schools, three belong to the Commercial School, 
one to the Agricultural and Dendrological School, and the rest to the 
Agricultural School. On the other hand, in 17 Elementary Industrial 
Schools, two give commercial training, two others, agricultural 
and commercial training, and the remainder, agricultural training 
only. 


147. Agricultural and Dendrological School. 

This school, attached as it is to the Model Agricultural and 
Industrial Farm of the Government-General, provides native young 
men rather more advanced instruction and training in agriculture 
and industry than the Agricultural Schools mentioned in the prece¬ 
ding section. The curriculum of this school and other particulars 
were given in the last Annual Report. The following table shows 
the general state of the school at the end of the fiscal year 1911, as 
compared with preceding years. 


Year 

No. of Instructors 

No. of 

No. of 

Japanese 

Korean 

Total 

Students 

Graduates 

1907 . . . 

5 

2 1 

7 

64 

12 

1908 . . . 

5 

2 

7 

72 

28 

1909 . . . 

10 

4 

14 

101 

40 

19 10 . . . I 

9 

3 

12 

94 

29 

1911 . . . 

7 

3 

10 

91 | 

28 


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Trade Training Section, Jinsen 
Commercial School. 


Students of Shunscn Agricultural School 
Collecting Cocoons. 



Sericulture by students of Saitlo 
Common School. 


Poultry Breeding Section attached to Suigen 
Common School. 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


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209 


148. Industrial Training School. 

The Industrial Training School now maintained by the Govern¬ 
ment-General was established in 1907, with the object of giving the 
Koreans technical training in the manufacture of industrial arts, so 
that their lost arts might be recovered. This school, not being affect¬ 
ed by the new educational system, is supervised by the Department 
of Agriculture, Commerce and Industry as hitherto. As stated in the 
previous Annual Report, the school maintains several training sections, 
viz., dyeing and weaving, keramics, metal work, manual work, and 
applied chemistry. Most of the students are supported by the 
Government. In the year 1911, experiments were made by the applied 
chemistry section in paper-making by using the bark of the mulberry, 
the willow, a species of arundo, and reeds, in addition to the tanning 
of hides which has been conducted in the school for some time. The 
general state of the school at the end of December, 1911, compared 
with the previous years, can be seen in the following table :— 


Year 

No. of Instructors 

No. of 

No. of 

Japanese 

Korean 

Total 

Students 

Graduates 

1907 . . . 

16 

4 

19 

so 

— 

1908 . . . 

21 

4 

25 

124 

6 

1909 . . . 

22 

4 

28 

178 

41 

1910 . . . 

17 

6 

23 

08 

145 

1911 . . . 

17 

0 

23 

32 

130 


149. Medical Training School. 

The organic regulation of the medical training school attached 
to the Government-General Hospital was modified in February, 
1911. The section of pharmacy being abolished, the school has three 
courses, viz., medical training proper, midwifery and nursing. To 
complete the medical course takes four years, midwifery two years, 
and nursing one year. All the regular students are supported by 
the Government, while special students have to pay a tuition fee. 
The total number of students attending in the year 1911 was 151, 
i.e., 134 in the medical course, 11 in the midwifery course and 6 in 
the nursing course. Seventeen of the 134 medical students are self- 
supporting. The native language, hitherto used in lectures, gave 


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210 


place to the new national language in 1911. Not only are the 
students admitted to the school graduates of high schools, in which 
the Japanese language is thoroughly taught, but additional lessons in 
the Japanese language being given after entrance to the school, 
students found less difficult}’ in understanding a lecture in the 
Japanese language. 

There were six graduates from this school in 1911. Added to 
those graduated in previous years, the total graduates of the 
medical training course number 87, among whom 58 are practising 
medicine, 4 are prosecuting further stud}’ in Japan proper and 22 
are serving on the staff of the Government-General’s Hospital, Charity 
Hospitals and other institutions. 


150. “Kyong-hak won”. 

The Koreans, though now enjoying the blessing of modern 
education and civilization under the new regime, should also be 
encouraged to pursue their old ethical teaching, under which not 
only have they lived for centuries, but upon which they have also 
founded their social constitution. Otherwise the healthy develop¬ 
ment of their moral character will not be advanced. By the 
Administrative Ordinance of the Governor-General issued in July, 
1911, the Kyong-hak won (Classical Literary Institution or Associa¬ 
tion) was created, and the Son-gyum Koan, the highest institution of 
the old-fashioned school, hitherto maintained, was done away with. 
The new institution, providing the public with lectures on the old 
classics, especially with reference to the teachings of Confucius and 
Mencius, and conducting religious festivals twice a year, in spring 
and autumn, in commemoration of Confucius and other sages, is 
designed to promote good habits and moral character, and to treat 
known literati of advanced age with honour by appointing them 
as lecturers of the institution. These lecturers are appointed by the 
Governor-General from among literati of good fame in the provinces. 
In addition, the staff of the institution consists of a President, two 
Vice-Presidents, five Commissioners, and a number of clerks and 
assistant clerks. As a maintenance fund for this institution, 
250,000 yen was given out of the Imperial Donation Funds which 
were granted to Korea at the time of Annexation. The Governor- 
General issued an instruction at the time of the establishment of this 
institution, in which he clearly pointed out the object of the 
institution and earnestly advised all connected with it to engage in 


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211 



promoting good morals among the general public, to observe 
faithfully the Imperial Will, and to act as an example to those 
with whom they came in contact. 


151. Private Schools. 

The new educational system also provides Regulations for 
Private Schools, and these replace the old regulations for the same 
schools. According to the new regulations, private schools must 
obtain recognition of the Government-General, and should use text¬ 
books compiled by the Government-General, or those examined and 
approved by the Governor-General, if they are compiled by other 
than the Government-General. Should the equipment of a private 
school, teaching method, and other matters, be deemed inappropriate 
or improper, the school is ordered to correct such failings. A 
private school will be compulsorily closed, should the school violate 
the provisions of laws and ordinances, should its work be considered 
injurious to peace and order, or to the public morals, or should it 
disobey the order given regarding the correction of the above- 
mentioned matters. In drawing up the new Regulations for Private 
Schools, the provisions contained in the old regulations were 
generally adopted. 

Several years ago the establishment of private schools became 
popular among the Koreans, so that at one time there were more 
than two thousand private schools in the Peninsula. Numbers of 
them could hardly be called educational institutions, as they were 
without adequate funds, or proper equipment, and had not 
a capable teaching staff. Instead of participating in sober 
educational work, some of them often meddled in political 
agitation against the Government, and used text-books of a 
seditious nature. After the enforcement of the Private School 
Regulations in 1908, these private schools somewhat improved 
by obtaining Government recognition, by amalgamating incapable 
schools with better ones, and by using text-books compiled by 
the Government, or books officially approved. By the end of the 
fiscal year 1911, the number of private schools, except those on 
the same level as Common Schools or Industrial Schools, had 
decreased to about 1,700. Although 39 schools received recogni¬ 
tion by the Government during 1911, the number closed during the 
same year, on account of financial difficulty, reached 461. As to 
private schools maintained directly or indirectly by foreign 


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212 


missionaries, they account for about 700 of the 1,700 private 
schools. Most of these not only applied for government recognition, 
but gradually introduced the use of officially approved text-books. 
After the Annexation these private schools added the national or 
Japanese language to the regular curriculum, Japanese teachers often 
being appointed to these schools. 

As already alluded to, educational inspectors having been 
appointed in 1911, it is expected that the proper guidance and 
inspection of private schools will be carried out more effectively. 
Simultaneously with the enforcement of the new educational system 
in November, 1911, Provincial Governors were instructed to exert 
their efforts in sympathetically leading and supervising the private 
schools within their respective jurisdictions, especially with reference 
to selecting proper instructors and text-books. Meanwhile, private 
schools are expected to observe the fundamental principles laid 
down in the new educational system as far as possible. 


152. Old-Fashioned Schools. 

With regard to old-fashioned schools, a literatus in a village 
gives lessons to boys in the reading and writing of Chinese characters 
and in family etiquette, this kind of school being known as 
Kculpang. For a more advanced study of Chinese, Korean boys go 
to the Han-gyo, where the image of Confucius is venerated, and one 
Han-gyo was maintained in each District or Prefecture with the 
income derived from rice-fields granted by the Government, or 
donated by private individuals. One candidate was selected from 
each Han-gyo to enter the Son-gyutn Koan in Keijo, which is merely a 
high educational institution for the study of the Chinese Classics. 
Graduates of the Han-gyo were also eligible to attend the old- 
fashioned civil service examination. But the educational work of 
the Han-gyo was ended simultaneously with the abolition of the 
old-fashioned civil service examination, some 20 years ago, leaving 
only religious functions to be performed, and these are now conduct¬ 
ed by the superintendent of the institution. Yet, as it was deemed 
necessary to retain the religious functions in order to promote 
ethical teaching in the community, the superintendent was recognized 
by the Government, and is charged with managing the affairs of the 
institution under the supervision of Prefects or District Magis¬ 
trates by the Ordinance issued by the Government-General in 
October, 1911. The management of the properties belonging to 


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213 


these Han-gyo, was in a most confused state. With the growth of 
common schools, some districts took the buildings of the Han-gyo for 
school-rooms. Other properties belonging to the Han-gyo being 
brought, since 1910, under the management of Prefects or 
District Magistrates, they are now yielding fairly good incomes, so 
that the aggregate income from properties belonging to these 
institutions reached 100,182 yea for the fiscal year 1911, of which 
60,390 yen was allotted to defray part of the expenses of modern 
common schools, and the rest to the maintenance of Confucian 
temples, and the performance of religious functions. 

Sohtang or Kcul-pung (old-fashioned village schools), which give 
instruction to boys in nothing but reading and writing of Chinese 
characters, and in family etiquette, are still to be found all over the 
Peninsula. These institutions having existed for many years, and 
modern schools for common education not yet being established in 
adequate numbers, any attempt aimed at their reform or abolition 
might not be advisable under present conditions. Their real eondf- 
tion, therefore, must be studied, and they should be gently urged to 
add to their curriculum that of a modern school until such a time 
as their services are no longer necessary owing to the more extensive 
provision of modern common schools. 


153. Text-Books. 

As already alluded to, most of the Korean schools, public or 
private, are required to use text-books compiled by the Government, 
or those receiving official recognition, if such have been compiled by 
private individuals. Simultaneously with the enforcement of the 
new educational system in November, 1911, the need for new text¬ 
books, revised or compiled to meet the demand of the readjusted 
schools, was keenly felt. But, limited by time, the Government 
could not compile more than one volume of a text-book for common 
schools, and two volumes of a text-book for higher common schools, 
up to the end of the fiscal year 1911. The new educational system for 
Koreans being based upon the fundamental principle of the Imperial 
Rescript on Education, the necessity of making Koreans familiar 
with the spirit and nature of the Imperial Rescript was of vital 
importance. Consequently, the interpretation of the Imperial 
Rescript, compiled by the late Dr. Shigeno, ex-professor of the Imperial 
University, was condensed and printed for the use of Koreans in 


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214 


February, 1912, and copies of it have been widely distributed among 
schools, both Government and Public. 

As to the distribution of text-books compiled by the Govern¬ 
ment, those given, sold, or lent during the fiscal year under review 
reached 592,485 copies, an increase of 323,009 copies against the 
preceding fiscal year, as shown in the following table :— 


Description 

Fiscal year 11)11, ending 
March, 1912 

Fiscal year 1910 

No. sold 

No. lent 

No. sold 

No. lent 

Moral Teaching. 

40,652 

25,625 

18,677 

14,576 

National Reader (Japanese) . . 

112,383 

46,937 

32,589 

27,020 

Korean Reader. 

76,233 

61,403 

34,050 

28,547 

Chinese Reader. 

53,292 

19,639 

22,960 

26,088 

Penmanship. 

12,320 

39,295 

3,797 

13,211 

Arithmetic ....... 

17,337 

1,407 

3,059 

148 

Science. 

14,049 

4,712 

4,913 

6,717 

Drawing. 

17,856 

19,419 

7,692 

12,467 

Singing. 

6,269 

8,401 

2,783 

8,484 

National Language Supplement . 

2,878 

6,082 

— 

— 

Elementary Pedagogy .... 

1,564 

161 

2,074 

2 

Gymnastic Instruction .... 

1,776 

79 

623 

— 

Condensed Interpretation of the 
Imperial Rescript of Education . 

72 

2,654 

— 

— 

Total. 

356,881 

235,804 133,217 

138,269 


154. Students Sent to Japan. 

With regard to the Korean students sent to Japan for advanced 
stud}’, the new regulations which were promulgated by the Governor- 
General’s Ordinance issued in June, 1911, replaced the old ones. 
According to the new regulations, those candidates to be sent by the 
Government should be selected by the Governor-General from among 
the graduates of Government or Public Schools, the Government 
Industrial Training School, and the Government Medical Training 
School, recommended by the principals of those schools, and being 
proved of good ability, good morals and healthy constitution. 
Candidates may also be selected from schools other than those 
above-mentioned, should the Governor-General deem it necessary ; 
but such candidates must pass the required competitive examination. 


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Regarding students to be sent to Japan by private individuals, the 
matter should be reported to the Governor-General through the 
Provincial Governor. Students sent to Japan, either by the Govern¬ 
ment or individuals, should be supervised and protected by the 
two Student Supervisors—one Japanese and one Korean—residing 
in Tokyo. 

Those hitherto sent to Japan, being often distracted from their 
studies, or pursuing them unwisely or desultorily, and without 
proper oversight, frequently failed to be useful after returning 
home and became discontented. Hence, Regulations concerning the 
Supervision of Students sent to Japan were provided in June, 1911, 
and the Student Supervisors were charged to submit to the Governor- 
General a report on the result of the work and moral behaviour of 
each student, twice a year. The total number of students sent by the 
Government was 44 at the end of the fiscal year 1911. Of these, 2 
were studying law and political science, 13 agriculture, 4 sericulture, 
8 industry, 4 commerce, 7 medicine, 1 fishery, 4 moral training, and 
1 English. In addition, there are about 400 students sent to Japan 
by private individuals. 


155. Education for Japanese. 

All the above sections in this chapter treat of educational 
matters concerning the Koreans only. This section deals very 
briefly with the education for Japanese children in the Peninsula. 

With the growth of the Japanese population, common schools 
steadily increased, and numbered 176, and their students 19,098, at 
the end of the fiscal year 1911, showing increases of 48 schools and 
3,589 students as against the preceding fiscal year. Funds required 
by schools other than those maintained by the Japanese Settlement 
Municipalities being inadequate, 150 yen for building expenses and 
480 yen for salaries for teachers for each school was granted by the 
Government, such grants aggregating 78,800 yen in the fiscal year 
1911. It was decided that all common schools must be maintained 
by the Japanese Settlement Municipalities or School Associations as 
public schools from the fiscal year 1912, Japanese Associations 
hitherto maintaining common schools being converted into School 
Associations, and that grants given to common schools will be 
increased to 125,700 yen in the fiscal year 1912. With regard to 
the text-books used in the Japanese Common Schools they must be 
those compiled by the Educational Department of Japan proper. As 


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hitherto no uniform method of distributing these text-books has 
been followed, two text-book agents specially appointed in Kcijo and 
Fusan respectively will be charged with the duty of distributing text¬ 
books among Japanese common schools. 

As to Higher Grade Schools for Japanese, there are one Middle 
School, three Girls’ High Schools, and two Commercial Schools. 
The Middle School is directly maintained by the Government-General, 
and had 319 students at the end of the fiscal year 1911. The 
natural increase in graduates from the Japanese Common Schools 
swelled the number of applicants for entrance into the Middle School, 
so that 274 candidates presented themselves for the entrance 
examination held in the year 1911, of whom 175 were admitted. 
A Teachers’ training course for instructors of common schools being 
attached to the Middle School, as mentioned in the last Annual 
Report, 28 students were admitted to this course in May, 1911, 
and the first graduation, with 27 graduates, took place in March, 
1912. 

Girls’ High Schools in Kcijo, Fusan and /insen are maintained by 
their respective Japanese Settlement Municipalities, the number of 
students being 625 in all at the end of the fiscal year 1911, and 112 
graduated in the same fiscal year. Three Commercial Schools are 
also maintained in Fusan, Jinsen and Gensan by the Japanese 
Municipalities, with 313 students at the end of the fiscal year 1911, 
and 72 graduates in the same fiscal year. For these Higher Grade 
Schools maintained by the Japanese Municipalities, 13,000 yen was 
granted as subsidy by the Government-General, which sum will be 
increased to 23,360 yen in the next fiscal year. In addition, an 
Academy, a branch of the Sernmon Academy maintained by the 'fOyo 
kyokai of Tokyo, established in Kcijo in 1907, held its fourth gradua¬ 
tion ceremony, bringing up the number of graduates to 113 up to 
the end of the fiscal year 1911, most of whom are employed in the 
government offices as subordinate officials, and in banking houses 
and peoples’ banks as clerks or managers. There are still several 
other private schools for commercial training, those doing good 
work receiving Government subsidies. 

The general state of the various schools maintained for Japanese 
in the Peninsula at the end of the fiscal year 1911 (ending March 
31, 1912), compared with the previous fiscal years, is shown in the 
following table :— 


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Description 

No. of Schools 

No. of 
Teachers 

1 No. 

. of Students 

No. of Classes 

Government 

School 

Schools 
appointed by 
Government 

Schools not 
officially 
appointed 

Total 

_ 

s 

Female 

3 

o 

H 

Common School .... 

- 

29 

147 

176 

578 

10,179 

8,919 

19.098 

497 

Middle ( Main Ccu ”*. •) 






f 319 


319 

8 

c , , < Teachers Training V 

School j Course. • . .) 

1 



1 

28 

( 27 


27 

i 

Girls’ High School . . . 

1 _ 

3 

— 

3 

44 

— 

625 

625 

21 

Commercial School . . . 

— 

1 

2 

3 

30 

313 

— 

313 

13 

Academy. 

- 

— 

i 

1 

14 

43 

— 

43 

1 

Other Schools. 

— 

— 

3 

3 

21 

190 

68 

248 

12 

Kindergarten. 

— 

_ 

8 

8 

17 

304 

310 

614 

17 

Total. 

i 

33 

161 

196 

732 

11,375 

9,912 

21,287 

670 

1910. 

i 

28 

120 

149 

592 

9,252 

8,012 

17,264 

446 

1 909. 

- 

22 

93 

116 

469 

7,310 

6,559 

13,869 

360 

1 90 8. 

— 

17 

74 

91 

368 

5,703 

5,170 

10,873 

281 

1907. 

— 

15 

61 

66 

291 

4,411 

3,841 

8,252 

225 


156. Educational Expenses. 

With the expansion of the educational works undertaken by the 
Government, educational expenses allotted in the budget increased 
considerably each year. In the year 1910, the ex-Korean Govern¬ 
ment apportioned about 500,000 yen for educational expenses besides 
200,000yew allotted as office expenses of the Educational Department, 
while 92,200 yen was apportioned in the budget of the late Residency- 
General to maintain the Japanese Middle Schools and give subsidies 
to other Japanese schools. In the fiscal year 1911, all educational 
expenses, both for Koreans and Japanese, apportioned in the budget 
of the Government-General amounted to 829,225 yen, and this was 
increased to 1,050,560 yen in the following fiscal year, as shown in 
the table below :— 


Description 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1911 

Increase ( + ) or 
Decrease (—) 


Government School Expenses . . 

Yen 

279,163 

Yen 

263,049 

Yen 

+ 16,114 

£ 

Text-Book Expenses. 

82,324 

75,000 

+ 7,324 

_c 

1 

Expenses required for Students sentl 
to Japan.J 

26,776 

24,453 

+ 2,323 


Total. 

388.263 

362502 

+ 25,761 


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(Continued) 


Description 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1911 : 

Increase ( +-) or 
Decrease (—) 



Subsidies granted to Common 1 
Schools (Korean) . . .] 

Yen 

382,038 

Yen 

265,213 | 

Yen 

+ 116,825 


1 

Subsidies granted to Industrial! 
Schools (Korean) . . . j 

74,523 

60,523 

+ 14,000 


3 

3 

Subsidies granted to other! 
Schools (Korean) . . .] 

15,760 

15,400 

+ 360 


3 

° . 

Subsidies granted to Japanese! 
Schools.J 

149,060 

91,800 

+ 57,260 


> o 
o > 

Subsidies granted to Hostel . 

3,174 

— 

+ 3,174 

1 

G 

Subsidies given to the confer -\ 




> 

'5b 1 

ence of Korean Common! 
School Principals . . .) 

10,260 

6,000 

+ 4,260 

X 

W 

1 

l 

T. 

Subsidies given to Summer! 
School.j 

3,900 

3,927 

27 


Total . 

638.715 

442.863 

+ 196852 


Other Educational Expenses . . 

23,582 

23,860 

278 



Total . 

662,297 

466.723 

+ 195574 

Grand total . 

1,050560 

829,225 

+ 221,335 


In addition, a sum of 331,000 yen, taken from the incomes 
derived in the fiscal year 1911 from the Imperial Donation Funds 
granted to each Prefecture or District, was allotted chiefly to Common 
Schools for Koreans, and more than 90,000 yen was defrayed from 
the Special Local Expense Funds for the same purpose. 


157. Spread of National Language. 

The authorities concerned paying greater attention to the more 
general use of the new national language by Koreans, especially 
after the enforcement of the new educational system, greater efforts 
were exerted in teaching the national language in Government and 
Public Schools, and these were attended with good results. Private 
schools, too, not being slow in teaching the national language, some 
of them adopted it as a regular subject of study, and there is a 
tendency shown by them to appoint Japanese instructors. 

There are also numbers of people, other than school children or 
students, who are anxious to learn the Japanese language. Police¬ 
men and gendarmes in the remote interior, where no Japanese teachers 
appear, often give lessons in the national language to those interested 


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in studying it, and as a result, not only is the national language 
spreading, but misunderstandings with the natives are less frequent. 
In places where Common Schools are located, Japanese teachers being 
invited to assist in Japanese night schools, or in language associa¬ 
tions organized by Koreans anxious to learn Japanese, the national 
language is now more easily studied. To those night schools or 
associations, text-books on the Japanese language are most liberally 
supplied. 


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APPENDIX 


A 

The Law relating to the Bank of Chosen. 

(Law No. 45, Promulgated March, 191 I.) 


CHAPTER I. 

General Provisions. 

Art. 1.—The Chosen Ginko (M M SB fr) or the Bank of Chosen shall be a 
joint stock company with its head office at Kcijd (Seoul), Chosen. 

Art. 2.—The Bank is authorized to establish branches or agencies, or to 
open correspondence with other banks, with the sanction of the Governor- 
General of Chosen. 

The Governor-General of Chosen may order the Bank to establish 
branches and agencies when deeming it necessary. 

Art. 3.— The duration of the Bank shall be fifty years from the day on 
which its establishment is registered. Such duration, however, may be 
prolonged with the sanction of the Government. 

Art. 4.—The capital of the Bank shall be ten million yen divided into one 
hundred thousand shares of one hundred yen each. Such capital, however, 
may be increased with the sanction of the Government. 

Art. 5.—The share certificates of the Bank shall always bear the names 
of the holders, and none but the Imperial subjects shall be entitled to become 
shareholders of the Bank. 

Art. 6. — The Government shall subscribe for thirty thousand of the 
shares of the Bank. 

The shares thus subscribed b}' the Government shall be inalienable. 


CHAPTER II. 

Directors. 

Art. 7. —The Bank of Chosen shall have one Governor, three directors or 
more, and two auditors or more. 

Art. 8. — The Governor shall represent the Bank and control all the 
business of the Bank. 

When the Governor is prevented from attending to his duties, one of the 
directors shall act for him, and when the office of Governor is vacant, the 
latter shall attend to the duties of that office. 

The directors shall assist the Governor, and undertake the sectional 
management of the Bank under his direction under the provisions of the By- 
Laws. 


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The auditors shall inspect the business of the Bank. 

Art. 9.—The Governor shall be appointed by the Government, and his 
term of office shall be for five years. 

The directors shall be appointed by the Governor-General of Chosen from 
among twice as many candidates, elected at a general meeting of shareholders 
from among shareholders holding one hundred shares or more, and their term 
of office shall be for three years. 

The auditors shall be elected at a general meeting of shareholders from 
among shareholders holding fifty shares or more, and their term of office shall 
be for two years. 

Art. 10.—The Governor or directors shall not be allowed to attend to 
any other duties, or engage in any other mercantile business under any 
pretence whatever, save that for which the sanction of the Governor-General 
of Chosen has been given. 


CHAPTER III. 

The General Meeting of Shareholders. 

Art. 11.—The ordinary general meeting of shareholders shall be called by 
the Governor at such times as are prescribed in the By-Laws. 

Art. 12.—The extraordinary general meeting of shareholders shall be 
called by the Governor at any time when necessary. 

Art. 13.—All the auditors as a body, or shareholders holding one-fifth or 
more of the capital, may apply to the Governor to call an extraordinary 
general meeting of shareholders, specifying the objects for which the meeting 
is to be convened. 

When the Governor has received such application as mentioned above, he 
shall call an extraordinary general meeting of shareholders. 

Art. 14.— A shareholder shall have one vote for each share, but a person 
holding eleven shares or more shall have his voting power increased by one 
vote for every ten shares above that number. 

Art. 15. —A shareholder shall not be allowed to exercise his right of 
voting by giving proxy to a person who is not a shareholder of the Bank, 
unless such person is his legal proxy. 

Art. 16.—Any alteration in the By-Laws shall be resolved upon only by 
a majority vote of shareholders present, holding at least half the amount of 
the capital. 


CHAPTER IV. 

Business. 

Art. 17.—The Bank of Chosen shall engage in the following business : 

1. Discounting of bills of exchange and other commercial bills ; 

2. Collection of bills for companies, banks, or individual merchants who 
are regular customers of the Bank ; 

3. Making remittances and discounting documentary bills ; 

4. Making loans on security of a reliable nature ; 


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5. Receiving deposits and making advances in current accounts ; 

6. Safe custody of gold and silver coin and other precious metals, and 
of documents ; 

7. Buying and selling of gold and silver bullion and exchange of 
coins. 

The Bank may, in addition, purchase, according to the requirements of 
business, National Loan Bonds, Local Loan Bonds and other negotiable 
bonds of a reliable nature as defined by the Governor-General of Chosen. 

Art. 18.—The Bank may undertake the following business subject to the 
sanction of the Governor-General of Chosen : 

1. Making loans to public corporations without security ; 

2. Undertaking of agency for other banks. 

Art. 19.—The Bank shall not be allowed to possess any movables or 
immovables, except those necessary to business, or those which have come 
into the possession of the Bank in satisfaction of its claims. 

Art. 20.—The Bank shall not be allowed to engage in any business not 
provided for in the present Law except under orders of the Governor-General 
of Chosen. 


CHAPTER V. 

Bank Note. 

Art. 21.—The Bank of Chosen may issue bank notes : Provided , That the 
sanction of the Governor-General of Chosen shall be obtained in regard to the 
form, style and denomination of such notes. 

The bank notes mentioned above shall be exchanged for gold coins or 
notes issued by the Bank of Japan any time during business hours. The 
exchange at the branch offices, however, may be postponed pending arrival 
of reserves from the head office. 

Art. 22. — The Bank shall provide the same amount of reserve in gold 
coins, gold and silver bullion and Bank of Japan Notes as that of the notes 
issued : Provided , That the silver bullion shall not exceed one quarter of the 
whole amount of the reserve. 

Besides issuance on the securities prescribed above, the Bank may issue 
bank notes on the security of National Loan Bonds, and of other bonds and 
commercial papers of a reliable nature, to the extent not exceeding thirty 
million yen. 

In addition to the issue provided in the last two clauses, further issue 
may be made on the security of National Loan Bonds and of other bonds and 
commercial papers of a reliable nature, subject to the sanction of the 
Governor-General of Chosen , when such issue is necessitated by the condition 
of the market : Provided always , That, in such case, the Bank shall pay to the 
Government an issue tax of at least five per cent, per annum on the amount 
of such issue in pursuance of the order of the Government. 

Art. 23.—The bank notes issued by the Bank shall be circulated within 
the jurisdiction of the Governor-General of Chosen without restriction. 

Art. 24.—The Bank shall publish in the Official Gazettes a weekly 
average return on the amount of the notes issued and of the reserves held 
against them. 


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Art. 25.— Such procedures as relate to the manufacture and issue of the 
bank notes or exchange and cancellation of damaged notes shall be fixed by 
the Governor-General of Chosen. 


CHAPTER VI. 

Reserve Fund and Payment to the Government. 

Art. 26.—The Bank shall, at the end of each business term, set apart 
eight per cent, or more of the profit to provide for the loss that may be 
incurred on its capital, and two per cent, or more for equalizing dividends. 

Art. 27. — When the amount of the profit to be distributed to share¬ 
holders exceeds twelve per cent, per annum on the paid up capital, half the 
amount of such excess shall be paid to the Government. 


CHAPTER VII. 

Government Supervision and Subsidy. 

Art. 28. —The Government shall supervise the business of the Bank. 

Art. 29. — The Bank must have the sanction of the Governor-General of 
Chosen before any alteration can be made in its By-Laws. 

Art. 30. — The Bank must have the sanction of the Governor-General of 
Chosen for distribution of its profit to the shareholders. 

Art. 31. The Governor-General of Chosen may, when deeming it 
necessary, make restrictions in regard to the amount and denomination of 
bank notes, amount and method of loans and of bills to be discounted and 
the rate of interest thereon, to exchange fee, and to specie and security 
reserves held by the Bank. 

Art. 32. — The Governor-General of Chosen may interdict any business 
operation of the Bank violating the provisions of the Laws, Ordinances or 
By-Laws, or deemed prejudicial to the public interest. 

Art. 33. — The Bank shall make a report to the Governor-General of 
Chosen upon the state and condition of the Bank’s business and upon its 
accounts in accordance with the rules fixed by the Governor-General. 

Art. 34.—The Governor-General of Chosen shall appoint a special Govern¬ 
ment Commissioner to the Bank, who shall supervise the affairs of the Bank. 

Art. 35. The Government Commissioner may examine at any time the 
safes, books and documents of any description of the Bank. 

The Government Commissioner may also, when deeming it necessary for 
supervisory purposes, order the Bank to produce at any time a report upon 
the Bank’s accounts and state of affairs. 

The Government Commissioner may attend general meetings of share¬ 
holders and other meetings and give his opinion, but cannot participate in 
the voting. 

Art. 36.—Until the dividend by the Bank has reached the rate of six per 
cent, per annum at the end of each business term on the shares other than 
those taken by the Government no dividend need be paid on the latter. 


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Art. 37.—If the dividend by this Bank does not reach the rate of six per 
cent, per annum at the end of each business term on shares other than those 
taken by the Government, the Government shall subsidize the Bank by the 
amount lacking to enable the dividend to reach that rate for a period of five 
years from the last day of the inaugurating term. 


Penal Regulations. 

Art. 38.—If any or either of the following offences lie committed by the 
Bank, the Governor or the director who attends to the duty of the Governor 
or acts for him shall be fined not less than one hundred yen and not more 
than one thousand yen. If such offence be committed in respect to the section 
of business managed by a certain director, the same penalty shall be inflicted 
upon the director in charge. 

1. Violation of the provisions set forth in Articles XIX, XX, XXII 
Clause 1 and XXVI. 

2. Neglect to obtain the sanction of the Government when such 
sanction is required by the provisions of the present Law. 

Art. 39.—If the Governor or the director who attends to the duty of the 
Governor or acts for him does not call a general meeting of shareholders in 
contravention of the provisions of Art. XI or Art. XIII, Clause 2, he shall be 
fined not less than one hundred yen and not more than one thousand yen. 

Art. 40. — If the Governor or directors act in contravention of the 
provisions of Art. X, he or they shall lie fined not less than twenty yen and 
not more than two hundred yen. 

Art. 41.—In regard to the fine mentioned in the foregoing three Articles, 
provisions of Articles 206, 207 and 208 of the Procedures for Voluntary 
Jurisdiction shall be applied. 


Supplementary Provisions. 

Art. 42.—The date of enforcement of the present Law shall be fixed by 
an Imperial Ordinance. 

Art. 43.—The Bank of Korea, established by the Bank of Korea Act, 
Law No. 22 of the 3rd year of Yung Heui (promulgated by the ex-Korean 
Government), shall be renamed the Bank of Chosen , and be regarded as 
established on the day the Bank of Korea was established, and any act 
performed by the Bank of Korea shall be regarded as performed by the Bank 
of Chosen. 

Any registration made in respect of the Bank of Korea shall be regarded 
as done in respect of the Bank of Chosen , and the name of the Bank in the 
Register regarded as naturally changed. 

Art. 44.—Governor, directors and auditors of the Bank of Korea shall 
lie regarded as installed as such for the Bank of Chosen. 

Art. 45.—The Bank Note issued by the Bank of Korea, as well as the 
note of the Dai Tchi Gitiko regarded as issued by the Bank of Korea, shall 
both be regarded as issued by the Bank of Chosen. 


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B 


The Ordinance concerning Education for 
Koreans in Chosen. 

(Imperial Ordinance No. 229, promulgated 
on August 23, 191 I.) 


CHAPTER I. 

General Plan. 

Art. I. Education for Koreans in Chosen shall be given in accordance 
with the present Ordinance. 

Art. II. The essential principle of education in Chosen shall be the 
making of loyal and good subjects by giving instruction on the basis of the 
Imperial Rescript concerning Education. 

Art. III. Education in Chosen shall be adapted to the needs of the times, 
and the condition of the people. 

Art. IV. Education in Chosen is roughly classified into three kinds, i.c., 
the common (ff jjl), industrial CK %~) and special (i£ |"3). 

Art. V. Common education shall aim at imparting common knowledge 
and art, special attention being paid to the engendering of national character¬ 
istics, and the spread of the national language. 

Art. VI. Industrial education shall aim at imparting knowledge and 
art concerning agriculture, commerce, technical industry, and so forth. 

Art. VII. Special education shall aim at imparting knowledge and art 
of higher branches of science and art. 


CHAPTER II. 

Schools. 

Art. VIII. A Common School ^ #f) is an institution in which 

children are given the common education forming the basis of national 
education. Attention shall be given to the proper development of their 
bodies, the national language shall be taught, and moral training given, so 
that national characteristics be fostered, besides imparting to them the 
knowledge and art indispensable to daily life. 

Art. IX. The period of study for a Common School shall be four years. 
This, however, may be shortened by one 3 r ear subject to the conditions of 
the locality in which the school is established. 

Art. X. Children not less than full eight years of age are eligible for 
admission to a Common School. 

Art. XI. A Higher Common School CIS 3? I? >1. ® gives boy students 
higher common education, by which is understood training in common sense, 


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and in national characteristics, and instruction in knowledge and art necessary 
for the gaining of a livelihood. 

Art. XII. The period of study for a Higher Common School shall be 
four years. 

Art. XIII. Those eligible for admission to a Higher Common School 
must be boys not less than full twelve years of age, and graduates of a 
Common School, the period of study in which is four years, or boys whose 
qualifications are recognized as equal or superior to those of the aforesaid. 

Art. XIV. A normal course or a short course for training of teachers 
may be established in a Government Higher Common School, with the object 
of giving education to students wishing to become teachers of Common 
Schools. 

The period of study for the normal course shall be one year, and that for 
the short course less than one year. 

Graduates of a Higher Common School are eligible to enter the normal 
course, and those who are not less than full sixteen years of age and have 
finished the second year course of a Higher Common School, or those whose 
qualifications arc recognized as equal or superior to those of the aforesaid, are 
eligible for the short course. 

Art. XV. A Girls’ Higher Common School (-fc T JK {} K) is an 
institution for giving girls higher common education, in order to foster in 
them feminine virtues, cultivate national characteristics, and instruct them in 
the knowledge and art necessary for making a livelihood. 

Art. XVI. The period of study for a Girls’ Higher Common School shall 
be three years. 

Art. XVII. Girls not less than full twelve years of age, who have 
graduated from a Common School, the period of study in which is four years, 
or those whose qualifications are recognized as equal or superior to those of 
the aforesaid, are eligible for admission to a Girls’ Higher Common School. 

Art. XVIII. An arts course may be instituted in a Girls’ Higher Com¬ 
mon School. In the course sewing and manual work shall be specially 
taught, and girls eligible for it shall be not less than twelve years of age. 

The period of study shall be less than three years. 

Art. XIX. A normal course may be instituted in a Government Girls’ 
Higher Common School to train girls wishing to become Common School 
teachers. 

The period of study for the course shall be one year. 

Girls eligible for the course shall have graduated from a Girls’ Higher 
Common School. 

Art. XX. An Industrial School ($f Dfc trains students wishing to 

engage in agriculture, commerce and technical industry, giving them the 
necessary education there-for. 

Art. XXI. Industrial Schools include Agricultural, Commercial, Technic¬ 
al, and Elementary Industrial Schools. 

Art. XXII. The period of study for an Industrial School shall be two 
or three years. 

Art. XXIII. Those eligible for an Industrial School shall be not less 
than twelve years of age, and graduates of a Common School, the period of 
study in which is four years, or those whose qualifications are recognized as 
equal or superior to those of the aforesaid. 

Art. XXIV. With regard to the period of study, and requirements of 
students eligible for an Elementary Industrial School, the foregoing two 


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articles are not applicable, but these will be determined by the Governor- 
General of Chosen. 

Art. XXV. A Special School (# H R) gives to boy students education 
in higher branches of science and art. 

Art. XXVI. The period of study for a Special School shall be three or 
four years. 

Art. XXVII. Those eligible for a Special School shall be more than 
sixteen years of age and graduates of a Higher Common School, or those 
possessing scholarly attainments equal or superior to them. 

Art. XXVIII. For the establishment or abolition of Common Schools, 
Higher Common Schools, Girls’ Higher Common Schools, and Special Schools, 
whether public or private, permission of the Governor-General of Chosen must 
be obtained. 

Art. XXIX. Provisions concerning the subjects of study, their standard, 
staff, text-books, and tuition fee of Common Schools, Higher Common 
Schools, Girls' Higher Common Schools, Industrial Schools, and Special 
Schools, shall be determined by the Governor-General of Chosen. 

Art. XXX. Provisions for schools not included in the present Regula¬ 
tions shall be determined by the Governor-General of Chosen. 


Supplementary Rule. 

The date of putting the present Ordinance into force shall be determined 
by the Governor-General of Chosen. 

The Common Schools, High Schools, and Girls’ High Schools, which have 
existed hitherto, will be recognized as Common Schools, Higher Common 
Schools and Girls’ Higher Common Schools established in compliance with 
this Ordinance ; also Agricultural Schools, Commercial Schools and Industrial 
Supplementary Schools, which have existed hitherto, will be recognized as 
Agricultural Schools, Commercial Schools and Elementary Industrial Schools 
established in accordance with this Ordinance. Concerning those schools 
existing at the time of the enforcement of this Ordinance, irrespective of its 
provisions, the Governor-General of Chosen may make or take necessary 
arrangements or measures. 


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Proclamation Concerning the Enforcement of 
the Educational Ordinance in Chosen. 

(Issued by the Governor-General of Chosen 
under date November I, 1911.) 


When I, at Imperial command, assumed the direction of the government 
of Chosen last year, 1 began with the publication of the outlines of the 
administrative policy. 1 then gave instructions on the principle of education 
to be pursued. Now that the Educational Ordinance for Chosen has been 
promulgated and is to be enforced, I deem it necessary to elucidate once more 
the policy for education and the essential points of provisions thereanent, 
that they may be fully understood. 

The fundamental principle of the education of the Empire is clearly set 
forth in the Educational Rescript granted many years ago by His Imperial 
Majesty. It stands unalterable in view of our State system and of our 
national history. The principle of education in Chosen too is found therein. 

Conditions in Chosen, it seems to me, are not yet wholly identical with 
the state of affairs in Japan Proper. Thus it behoves education in Chosen to 
devote its energy particularly to the cultivation of moral character and 
thorough propagation of the national language, and thereby inculcate the 
quality and character becoming a loyal subject of the Empire. If, on the 
contrary, it suffers empty speculation to be preferred to practical action, 
diligence to give way to indolence, and unstable and dissolute habits to super¬ 
sede the beautiful virtues of decency and probity, then the proper object of 
education will not only be lost, but the personal careers of many will be 
spoilt, and indirectly much damage done to the State. In enforcing education, 
therefore, all endeavour shall be made to secure the best fruits by adapting it 
to the times and to the standard of popular civilization. 

Education in Chosen is roughly divided into three kinds, namely, common, 
industrial and special education. The proper object of common education 
rests in that children shall be taught in the national language, moral 
virtues inculcated, the acquisition of a personal character suitable to a member 
of our nation, and additionally in the giving of such knowledge and art as 
are essential for the gaining of a livelihood. In the education of girls, special 
care shall be taken in nursing the virtues of chastity, fidelity and goodness. 
The industrial education shall have as its aim not only the training in know¬ 
ledge and art required in the branches of industry concerned, but also under¬ 
take to accustom pupils to the habit of diligence. The special education is 
intended for the turning out of men proficient in the higher knowledge and 
art required in the various professions. It scarcely need be stated that 
education by private schools ought to be undertaken in accordance with the 
Law and Ordinance of the State, and not be permitted to deviate from the 
fundamental principle underlying the Empire's educational policy. Freedom 
of religion is assured to each and all. But as the educational administration 


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of the Empire maintains, and has maintained from early times, the principle 
that the education of the people shall stand independent of religion, no 
Government or Public schools, nor those schools whose curriculum is fixed 
by the Law and Ordinance of the Empire, can be allowed to enforce 
religious education or conduct any religious ceremonies. The functionaries 
concerned ought always to bear in mind the statement in the Proclamation 
and beware of being led into a wrong course. 

The welfare of Chosen incidental to the prosperity of the Empire must 
depend upon the education of later generations. The people in Chosen, 
therefore, should be made to perceive this fact and induced to educate their 
sons and daughters according to their means and status, and thus place the 
latter on the high road to worthy and useful careers. In this way, I hope, 
the people in Chosen will be able to enjoy the blessings of the highly benevo¬ 
lent reign of his August Majesty, lead a happy family life, contribute to the 
advancement of general civilization, and discharge their duties as citizens of 
the Empire. 


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Regulations for Common Schools. 

(Ordinance of the Governor-General No. 110, 
promulgated on October 20, 1911.) 


CHAPTER I. 

Establishment and Abolition. 

Art. I. Those desiring to obtain permission to establish a Common 
School shall apply to the Governor-General of Chosen by submitting the 
following particulars. 

1. Name and site of the school. 

2. Period and subjects of study. 

3. Fixed number of pupils. 

4. Date of opening of the school. 

5. Ground plan of the school ground and buildings (giving the area in 
tsubo and description of the neighbourhood) and the name of the owner. 

6. Annual estimates of revenues and expenditures. 

7. Ways and means of maintenance. 

Art. II. When a Common School intends to introduce changes in item 
No. 2 or No. 7 of the foregoing article, permission shall be obtained from the 
Governor-General of Chosen , and when alterations are made in items No. 1 and 
No. 3 to No. 5 they shall be reported to him. 

Art. III. When permission for the abolition of a Common School is 
desired, it shall be applied for to the Governor-General of Chosen by submit¬ 
ting the reason for that step, the disposal of its pupils, and the date of its 
abolition. 

Art. IV. The number of pupils admitted to a class in a Common School 
shall be about sixty. 

Art. V. The term “ Common School ” shall be used to designate a 
school established in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance. 

No school is allowed to call itself Common School other than one 
established in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance. 


CHAPTER II. 

Subjects of Study, Rules of Teaching and Course. 

Art. VI. The subjects of study in a Common School shall be morals, the 
national language, the Korean language and Chinese literature, arithmetic, 
nature study, singing, physical exercises, drawing, manual work, sewing and 
handicraft, elementary agriculture and elementary commerce. Of these, 
however, in consideration of local conditions, nature study, singing, physical 


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exercises, drawing, manual work, sewing and handicraft, elementary agricul¬ 
ture and elementary commerce may be dispensed with for the time being. 
Manual work is taught to boys and sewing and handicraft to girls. Either 
elementary agriculture or elementary commerce is taught to boys. 

Art. VII. In a Common School attention shall be paid to the following 
items in giving instruction : — 

1. The essential object of a Common School being the elevation of the 
moral character of pupils and the making of them into loyal and hard¬ 
working people, instruction in whatever subject must be given with this in 
view at all times. 

2. As it is very important to cultivate the habit of order and discipline, 
pupils must be taught in whatever subject with this in view at all times. 

3. The national spirit lies in the national language, and the language is 
indispensable in acquiring knowledge and art. Consequently, in teaching 
whatever subject of study, the aim should be to enable the pupils to use it 
correctly and freely. 

4. In imparting knowledge and art, selection should be made of those 
indispensable to daily life. These should be repeatedly taught, so that the 
pupils may freely apply their acquirements to practical purposes. 

5. In teaching whatever subject of study, care must be taken to 
accommodate it to the mental and physical development of the pupils. 

6. Instruction must not fail to attain its object or in its method, and 
each subject of study taught must have connection with and complement the 
others. 

7. In giving instruction, the difference of sexes must of course be borne 
in mind, and further, the individual characteristics of each must be taken into 
account. 

Art. VIII. In teaching morals, the principal aim should be the fostering 
of moral ideas and sentiments on the basis of the Imperial Rescript on 
Education, and the encouragement of personal action and practice of what 
has been taught. Attention should be paid to the preservation of existing 
good manners and customs. 

The teaching of morals should begin with simple and immediate items, 
and instruction in the essential points of moral principles. Subsequently 
responsibilities and duties towards the State and society should be taught, and 
the spirit and habit of abiding by the law, of respecting public spiritedness 
and of showing willingness to work for the public good should be fostered. 
In addition to these, common etiquette should be taught. 

Girls should specially be taught so as to cultivate the virtue of chastity 
and modesty. 

Art. IX. In teaching the national language, common spoken and written 
language should be taught. The principal aim should be to let the pupils 
acquire the ability to understand clearly what is told them, as well as to 
express themselves freely, in that language, besides imparting to them know¬ 
ledge indispensable to daily life and contributing to the elevation of moral 
character. 

The teaching of the national language should be commenced with 
instruction in kana characters and proceed to the teaching of common spoken 
language, culminating in that of simple written language. As material, 
matters concerning morals, history, geography, nature study, industry and 
other things indispensable to daily life should be adopted. For girls, matters 
concerning house-keeping should specially be put in. 


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