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pLL. REG. 



Assistant Professor of Pharmacy to the Royal Caroline Institution, and to the Pharmaceutical 

Institution of Stockholm. 




V . 

' V 


[From the Pharmaceutical Journal/o/ November, 18. r >l.] 



As the Pharmaceutical Journal already contains various articles upon the 
state of Pharmacy in different countries, and as the Editor has expressed a wish 
to have an article upon Pharmacy in Sweden, I have very great pleasure in 
communicating my knowledge upon the subject, hoping, that if the notice is in 
some degree incomplete, it will be excused, inasmuch as it is written from 

In Sweden, as well as in many other countries, it has been the object of 
Government, by laws and other regulations, to provide that the people for a 
fixed moderate price, should obtain unadulterated medicines ; and by means of 
limiting the number of shops, and preventing quacks or other incompetent 
persons from interfering in the Pharmaceutical trade, have secured for the 
Apothecaries or Dispensing Chemists ( Apothekare ) a sufficient competence. 

That the attention of the Swedish Government for a long time has been 
directed to Pharmacy is plain, from a royal resolution passed in the year 1663, 
which commands the publication of a Pharmacopoeia ( Pharmakope ) and a price 
list of medicines ( Medicinal Tcixa). The first Pharmacopoeia was published 
some years afterwards (1686), under the name of “Pharmacopoeia Galeno- 
chymica,” and about the same time a price list of medicines. 

The first edition of Pharmacopoeia Svecica was published in 1775, and new 
editions according to the progress of science from that time to 1845, which is 
the sixth and last edition, The Swedish Pharmacopoeia is written only in Latin. 

Collegium Medicum. — The superintendence and inspection of the Pharma- 
ceutical as well as of the Medical establishments in Sweden are committed to 
the charge of a Collegium Medicum ( Konglig Sundliets Collegium), whose 
members (Medicinal Had) are nominated by the King ; and every candidate for 
this office must be a Doctor of Medicine, whose degree has been obtained by 
passing an examination. 

Apprenticeship — Any youth who may wish to enter as apprentice in an 
Apothecary’s shop, must be fifteen years of age, and ought to have gone 
through a school-course of History, Geography, Mathematics, Latin, and 
Modern Languages. 

Assistant, or Pharmacies Studiosus. — The Apothecary must announce the 
name of the apprentice for registration in the Collegium Medicum, and provide 
for his instruction in Botany, Chemistry, and Pharmacy during the apprentice- 
ship, which lasts from three to four yeai’S ; and after which time the student is 
authorized to pass an examination in Botany, Chemistry, Pharmacy, Latin, and 
Modern Languages. This examination must be passed in Stockholm, in the 
Apothecaries’ Society ( Apothekare Societeten ), and in the country before the 
official Physician of the province, together with the Apothecary who is the 
master of the apprentice. After this examination his oath is taken in com- 
pliance with the law and the official Pharmaceutical regulations, and he is now 
declared “ Pharmacies Studiosus ,” and capable of exercising the functions of an 
Assistant in a shop, and also answerable for the prescriptions prepared by him ; 
and by way of a check he must always sign his name to the label of the pre- 

(The apprentice or scholar is not answerable, and in consequence not allowed 



to prepare any prescriptions, he may sell innocent medicines only, as elder and 
chamomile flowers, juniper-berry, gumrni acaciae, &c.) 

Pharmaceutical Institution. — After serving as an Assistant in a shop for 
three years, and producing a testimonial of the fact, he may now enter as Pupil 
at the Pharmaceutical Institution ( Pharmaceutiska Institutet) in Stockholm, and 
there attend the lectures which are read in Botany, Materia Medica, and 
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, from the beginning of October to the end of May, 
with a few weeks vacations at Christmas. At the same time he must work two 
days a week in the operations of the laboratory. 

The fees for the lectures and the course in the laboratory are together about 
<£1. I he Pupil has free admission to the lectures in Zoology, Botany, Materia 
Medica, and Chemistry at the Royal Caroline Institution ( Konglig Carolinska 
Institutet'), and to the excursions of the Assistant Professor of Botany, which 
take place during the summer months, May, June, July, and August, in the 
environs of Stockholm. 

After finishing the course in the laboratory, the duration of which depends 
upon the capacity of the Pupil, he may request a private trial ( tentamen ) by the 
Professors in the prescribed branches of science, viz., Botany, Zoology, Materia 
Medica, Theoretical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, and Toxicology. 

If he can present in the Collegium Medicum a certificate from the Professors 
of their satisfaction with the trial, a day will be appointed for examination, 
which is conducted by two Professors at the Royal Caroline Institution, and 
two of the Apothecaries in Stockholm before a member of the Collegium Medi- 
cum. During the examination, whoever wishes, is allowed to be present, and 
all the questions are registered in a book kept for that purpose, and a note 
made whether or not the answers are correct. And the examiners express the 
merits of the candidates by the following different terms : laudatur, cum laude 
approbcitur , approbatur , cum approbation admittitur, and last of all, admittitur. 

The examination is not passed unless the candidate receive the approbatur of 
all the examiners. 

Provtsor and Apothecary. — After the examinee has taken an oath before 
the Collegium Medicum to comply with the laws and pharmaceutical regula- 
tions, he is declared “ Provisor and Apothecary,” and obtains a diploma to that 
effect. He is now at liberty to purchase by agreement an Apothecary’s shop, 
if one becomes vacant, or through nomination, if a new one is required in any 
part of the country. 

The right ( privilegium ) of dispensing medicines in a shop, properly procurable 
by personal permission from the Government, and which should cost only about 
4 or £5 for the diploma, has become a traffic, and the price has gradually risen 
to such an extent, that at the present time the privilegium, or good-will of one 
of the best shops, is sold for about £3000— a sum beyond the reach of a poor 
though clever student. 

Those who have been interested in the success of Pharmacy in Sweden, have 
proposed to mortgage ( amortisera ) the privileges by a loan ; but their benevolent 
endeavours have been stranded by the difficulty of procuring so large a sum of 
money necessary for mortgaging the privileges over the whole of Sweden. 

When a person through purchase or inheritance has become possessed of an 
Apothecary’s shop, he must announce it in the Collegium Medicum in order to 
obtain from the Government confirmation of the privilege for himself. 

If in any part of the country a new shop is required, the Collegium Medicum 
announce it, and propose three of the most deserving candidates. The Govern- 
ment nominates one of them. It is for the most part in country places, at a 
distance from any town, that new Apothecaries’ shops are allowed for the con- 
venience of the public. In the larger towns, on the contrary, they are rarely 

The number of Apothecaries’ shops in Stockholm is fourteen, to a population 
of 90,000. No new shop has been permitted during the last twenty years, as 
the number has been found more than sufficient. For in Sweden, as in many 



other countries, it is observed that the larger number of inhabitants and the 
fewer shops the better are the medicines. 

The Apothecaries have, in consequence, a sufficient competence ensured in 
their calling, and are not compelled to enter into other trades. Hence it is 
they love their profession, and by dispensing medicines of the best quality, strive 
to obtain the confidence of the authorities and the public. On the contrary, if 
the number of shops is very large — or, still worse, unlimited — the Apothecary 
or Chemist cannot gain a subsistence from his profession, and is, therefore, 
obliged to seek in other trades what he cannot find in his own ; and Pharmacy, 
instead of being the main object, is reduced to an insignificant rank, and reflects 
no credit upon its followers. 

Under such a system, if each Apothecary train up one or more Assistants, 
the number of candidates for shops will in time become extravagantly large, 
and the difficulty of controlling them increases in the same proportion. 

(Some of the Apothecaries in Sweden have endeavoured in consequence, to 
employ Assistants only, and no Apprentices, in order to obviate too great com- 

The Apothecaries’ Shops (Apothek). — The shops in the towns are for the 
most part large, and internally are often arranged with considerable elegance. 
The laboratory, according to the regulations, must contain a steam apparatus 
for preparing decoctions, extracts, aromatic oils and waters, &c. 

Decoctions and infusions must be prepared extempore. 

Tinctures must be kept in a room in which the temperature is not under 
15° Celsius, in order that the dissolved materials may not be precipitated by the 

Native vegetables must be renewed every year, and the old stock destroyed. 

The best medicines, if there are several kinds in commerce, must always be 
written for. 

Every shop has a sign of its own, derived from some animal or other object. 

T o each medicine prepared according to a prescription must be attached a label, 
on which is the name of the shop, 

The so-called homoeopathic Apothecaries’ shops do not exist in Sweden. 

L hey are not necessary, inasmuch as homoeopathy does not seem likely to be 
long-lived there, and will soon become an historical curiosity. It is verv 
probable — indeed, 1 believe it — that in Sweden as in other countries, many 
hysterical ladies, or malades imaginaires, male as well as female, have perhaps 
derived comfort from the potential homoeopathic sugar-grains and interesting 
conversations with the homoeopathic long-suffering Physician. But Swedes, in 
general, do not like this kind of medicine ; no foreign, and only one Swedish 
L hysician practises homoeopathy in Stockholm, and, in the country, I believe, 
not a single one. 


Iaxa.) lhe Chemist must put on every prescription the price, which must be 
according to tlrn rate of the price-list at that time. The Swedish price-list of 
medicines is revised every year, and the price of medicines is changed according 
to the market price of the drugs. ° 

Medicines for external use ought to have a coloured label, and powerful 
medicines are to be sealed. 

Swedish Pharma- 

'lhe Chemist must prepare medicines according to the u » CU i 6 ii x uarm 
copoeia, unless the Physician has (expresses verbis') prescribed otherwise. T 
Chemist is forbidden to prepare prescriptions of other than Physicians who are 
allowed to practise in Sweden ; and a list of them is every year published by 
Collegium Medicum. J 

As a Physician is not allowed to keep an Apothecary’s shop, because he has 
no Pharmaceutical diploma, so the Chemist is not allowed to practise in medi- 
cine . the privilege of that is granted only to such persons as have gone through 
a complete medical course at any of the Swedish Universities in Upsala or 
Lund, or at the Medico-Ghirurgical Academy of the Royal Caroline Institution 



in Stockholm. To gain admission into the last-mentioned Academy, the student 
must have passed at some of the Universities a philosophical and philological 
e animation. 

Foreign Physicians, unless they can present a diploma as Doctor of Medicine 
from a well-known University, are not allowed to practise medicine in Sweden 
without a so-called colloquium familiare in the Collegium Medicum, or medical 
course at the Royal Caroline Institution. 

As the time of the Apothecary is not employed in medical practice, and as 
his competence is sufficient, he can, if he loves science, employ his spare hours 
with tranquillity in working in that branch of science which he most affection- 
ately embraces. 

If, in general, a greater scientific activity of the Pharmaceutical profession in 
Sweden is to be desired, we must, however, with pleasure remember that private 
individuals, distinguished in other countries for original scientific researches, 
have been met with and are still to be found in Sweden. I will only here 
mention the most distinguished: — For about a century ago lived in Ivdping (a 
very small, and, for the greatest part of the world, unknown town in Sweden) 
an Apothecary and Chemist, who, with great eagerness, was labouring in Che- 
mistry. The good burghers in Kdping very likely thought him a clever 
Apothecary, but none of them could foretell that their diligent friend the 
Chemist, Carl Wilhelm (Charles William) Scheele, in his small insignificant simp, 
was operating with experiments the I’esult of which should astonish the whole 
scientific world. 

Inspection of the Shops. — The Chemists’ shops in Sweden must, according 
to the regulations, be inspected every year. These inspections are performed 
in Stockholm by two professors or assistant-professors to the Royal Caroline 
Institution, in presence of two Members of Collegium Medicum, and in the 
country of the official Physician of the province, together with a magistrate. 

As the official Physician of the province has not time enough for Pharma- 
cognosy, the Collegium Medicum has of late proposed to the Government a 
change^ in inspecting the shops in the country, so that, as in some part of 
Germany, the whole country will be divided into a certain number of districts, 
and every district obtain a travelling inspector. 

Should the inspector find any adulterated or bad medicine it must be imme- 
diately destroyed. 

If an Apothecary is three times found to have sold adulterated medicines, he 
directly loses his privilege, and must give up his shop to another person. . 

It is at the same time a duty and a satisfaction for me to state, that medicines 
in Sweden are commonly very good, and when adulterated articles are met 
with are usually such as are imported. 

Poisons, or other noxious medicines, which in the Swedish Pharmacopoeia 
have this mark must not be sold without a sufficient prescription, which 
ought to be retained by the Chemist, and not repeated without a note from the 

Physician. ' .... 

Poisoning is, consequently, very rare in Sweden, and when practised it is 

commonly by means of white arsenic, which has probably been obtained fiom 

a glass manufactory. . . 

Secret medicines are forbidden in Sweden, in spite of which charlatans try 
to sell secretly their all-relieving medicines, but they seem more and more to 
lose the confidence of the public, and their credit, too, sinks in the same pio- 
portion as the reputation of the scientific 1 liysician inci cases. 

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