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ST.  Paul's  church-yard,  and  waterloo-place,  pall-mall; 





ll'MHLE  BAR. 

(     iii     ) 




•^*  For  Remarkable  Passages  in  the  Criticisms,  Extracts,  and  Ecclesiastical 
Record,  see  the  Index  at  the  end  of  the  Volume. 


Abbess,  The;  a  Romance,  38. 

Ancient  Hymns,  from  the  Roman  Bre- 
viary ;  by  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Down 
and  Connor,  117. 

Ayre's  Mystery  of  Godliness,  255. 


Babbage  (Charles),  The  Ninth  Bridge- 
water  Treatise,  88. 

Bennett  on  the  Eucharist,  254. 

Biddutph  (Rev.  Thomas),  The  Doctrine 
of  Baptismal  Regeneration,  501. 

Bawdier  (Mrs.  H.  M.),  Essay  on  the 
Proper  Employment  of  Time,  38. 

Churton  (Rev.  E.),  The  Church  of  Eng- 
land a  Witness  and  a  Keeper  of  the 
Catholic  Tradition.     A  Sermon,  2l8. 

Cottle  (Joseph),  Early  Recollections  of 
Coleridge,  237. 

Crosthwaite  (Rev.  J.  C),  The  Christian 
Ministry,  381. 


Edinburgh  Review,  on  Articles  in  Nos. 
cvi.,  cviii.  cxxi.  and  cxxii.,  on  the  Eng- 
lish Universities,  169,  397. 

Eucharist,  The  Roman  Catholic  Doctrine 
of,  considered,  by  Thomas  Turlon,D.D. 

Franke  (Augustus  Herman),  The  Life  of, 
by  H.  E.  F.  Gueiike,  translated  by 
Jackson,  94. 


Cirdleitone's    Commentary    on    the    Old 
Testament,  254. 

Griffith  (Rev.  Thomas),  The  Christian 

Church,  381. 
Griffith's  Manual  on  Confirmation,  255. 
Gurnej/ (Joseph  John),  Sabbatical  Verses, 



Hak  (Rev.  William  Hale),  The  Antiquity 
of  the  Church-rate  System  considered, 

Hampden  (R.  D.),  D.D.  Introduction  to 
the  Bampton  Lectures  of  the  year 
1832.. 307. 

Hare  (Rev.  A.  W.),  Sermons  to  a  Coun- 
try Congregation,  183. 

Harness  (Rev.  William),  Parochial  Ser- 
mons, 254. 

Heher  (Reginald),  Sermons  on  the  Les- 
slons,  307. 

Holden  (Rev.  George),  A  Scriptural 
Vindication  of  Church  Establishments, 

Hook  (Rev.  Walter  Farquhar),  Five  Ser- 
mons, preached  before  the  University 
of  Oxford,  ib. 

— The  Church  and  the  Establishment, 

(Two  Sermons),  ib. 

Hough  (Rev.  James),  Vindication  of  Pro- 
testant Missions,  445. 

Hymns  of  the  Primitive  Church,  translated 
by  the  Rev.  J.  Chandler,  117. 


Iro7is  (Rev.  W.  J.)  Parochial  Lectures 
on  the  Holy  Catholic  Church,  254,  381. 

Jarvis     (S.   F.),   D.D.  Christian    Unity 

necessary    to    the    Conversion    of    the 

World,  439. 
Jones  (Rev.  Robert),  Lecture  delivered 



ftt  tlic   Literary  and  SciciUific  Inslilu- 
tiiin  at  Staines,  446. 


KfhU  (Ucr.  Jolin),  Primitive  Tradition 
rorognizcd  in  Holy  Scripture.  A  Ser- 
mon. 'J18. 

iMlhum's  llarnionia  Paulina,  2,'>4'. 
Lincoln  (Bisluip  of).  Sermon  on  Confir- 
inutiou,  501. 


Milium  (Lord),  History  of  Europe,  from 
llic  Peace  of  Utrecht  to  the  Peace  of 
Aix-la-Chnpcile,  47  1. 

Maiden  (Henry),  On  the  Origin  of  Uni- 
versities and  Academical  Degrees,  i69. 

Martintaii  (ILirriet),  Society  in  America, 

Mainais  (M.  F.  de  la).  Affaires  de  Rome, 


New  Covenant,  The  Booh  of  the,  a  Critical 
Revision  of  the  Text  and  Translation 
of  the  Kiiglish  Version  of  the  New 
Testament,  1. 

Korwich  (Edward,  Lord  Bishop  of),  Ser- 
mon preached  at  his  Installation,  446. 


Orlandini  (Nicholas),  Historia  Societatis 
Jesu.     Continued  by  Saccliini,  62. 

Oxford,  Legality  of  the  present  Acade- 
mical System  of,  169. 

History  of  the  Visitation  of,  in 

the  Years  1647,  1648,  ib. 


Perm's  Book  of  the  New  Covenant,  1. 

Philtilelhes  Caniabiigknsis,  Remarks  on 
Dr.  Wiseman's  Lectures  on  the  Rule 
of  Faith  and  on  the  Eucharist,  130. 

PhiUip<,'s  Trial  of  Practical  Faith,  253. 

Pou'idei-'s  History  of  the  Jesuits,  62. 

Prospectus  of  the  Society  for  Promoting 
the  Employment  of  Additional  Curates 
in  Populous  Places,  245. 

Prosprctu^  of  the  Church  of  England  Ga- 
zette, 494. 

Pnsey  (Rev.  E.  B.),  D.D.,  Churches  in 
Ix)udon,  245. 


Badnor  (Earl  of),  an  Historical  Vindica- 
tion of  the  Principles  in  his  Bill  re- 
specting the  Universities,  169. 

Raumer  (Frederick  Von),  History  of  the 
Si.xtecnth  and  Seventeenth  Centuries, 

Robinson  (David),  Remarks  on  the  Eccle- 
siastical Condition  of  the  United  King- 
dom, 471. 

Robinson's  Greek   and  English   Lexicon, 

Edited  by  Bloomfield,  501. 
Scott  (Rev.T.),  Sermons,  254. 
Sherwood  (Mrs.),  The  Monk  of  Cimi6s, 

The  Carthusian,  258. 

The  English  Martyrology,  by  Charlotte 
Elizabeth,  258. 

The  Tribute,  259. 

Turton  (Thomas,  D.D.),  The  Roman 
Catholic  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist 
considered,  130. 

Tiller  (Rev.  J.  E.),  Sermon  preached  at 
the  Consecration  of  the  Bishop  of  Salis- 
bury, 474. 

Tytler  (P.  F.),  The  Life  of  Henry  the 
"  Eighth,  284. 


Vincentius,  of  Lirins,  "  Commonitory," 

Vogaii  (Rev.  T,  S.  L.),  Sermons  on  the 
principal  Objections  against  the  Doc- 
trine of  the  Trinity,  376. 


Walsh  (B.  D.),  A  Historical  Account  of 
the  University  of  Cambridge,  and  its 
Colleges,  .397. 

Warren  (Rev.  John),  Address  to  the 
Members  of  the  Church  of  England, 
on  the  Necessity  of  placing  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  Church  in  the  hands  of 
Members  of  its  own  Communion,  474. 

Wiseman  (Nicholas,  D.D.),  Lectures  on 
the  Presence  of  the  Body  and  Blood  of 
our  Lord  in  the  Eucharist,  130. 



N°.  XLIII. 

Art.  I.  The  Book  of  the  New  Covenant  of  our  Lord  and  Saviour 
Jesus  Christ  ;  being  a  Critical  Revision  of  the  Text 
and  Translation  of  the  English  Version  of  the  New 
Testament 1 

II.  1.  Essay  on  the  Proper  Employment  of  Time,  Talents, 
Fortune,  &-c.  &c.    By  the  latt  Mrs.  H.  M.  Bowdler. 

2.  The  Monk  of  Cimies.     By  Mrs.  Sherwood. 

3.  The  Abbess  :    a  Romance.     By  the   Author  of  the 

"  Domestic  Manners  of  the  Americans,  &c." 

4.  Works  by  Charlotte  Elizabeth,  published  by  the  Re- 

ligious Tract  and  Book  Society,  Dublin 3S 

III.  I.Nicholas  Orlandini's  Historia  Societatis  Jesu.     Con- 

tinued by  Sachini. 
2.  Poynder's  History  of  the  Jesuits 62 

IV.  The   Ninth   Bridgewater    Treatise  :    a  Fragment.     By 

Charles  Babbage,  Esq S8 

V.  The  Life  of  Augustus  Herman  Franke,  &c.  Translated 
from  the  German  of  H.  E.  F.  Guerike,  by  Samuel 
Jackson.  With  an  Introductory  Preface,  by  the 
Rev.  E.  Bickersteth 9i 

VI.  1 .  Ancient  Hymns,  from  the  Roman  Breviary,  for  domestic 
use,  every  morning  and  evening  of  the  week,  and  of 
the  Holy-days  of  the  Church  :  to  which  are  added 
Original  Hymns,  principally  of  commemoration  and 
thanksgiving   for   Christ's    Holy   Ordinances.      By 




Hichanl  Maiit,  D.D.  M.ll.I.A.,  Lord  Bisliop  of 
Down  and  Connor. 
'J.  The  Ilvnnis  of  the  Primitive  Church  :  now  first  col- 
lected, translated,  nnd  arranged.  By  the  Rev.  J. 
Chandler,  Fellow  of  Corpus  Christi  College,  Oxford, 
and  Curate  of  Witlcy 117 

\  11.  I .  Lectures  on  the  Presence  of  the  Body  and  Blood  of  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,  in  the  Blessed  Eucharist.  De- 
livered in  the  English  College,  Rome.  By  Nicholas 
Wiseman,  D.D. 

'J.  The  Roman  Catholic  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist  Con- 
sidered ;  in  answer  to  Dr.  Wiseman's  Arguments 
from  Scripture.     By  Thomas  Turton,  D.D. 

.3.  Remarks  on  Dr.  Wiseman's  Lectures  on  the  Rule  of 
Faith  and  on  the  Eucharist.  By  Philalethes  Can- 
tabrigiensis 130 

\T1I.   Iiifnnluction  to  the  Second  Edition  of  the  Bampton  Lec- 
tures of  the  Year  1832.     By  R.  D.  Hampden,  D.D.   16:3 

IX.  1.  Edinburgh  Review,  No.  CVL  Art.  VL  "  Universities 
of  England,  Oxford."— No.  CVIIL  Art.  IX.  "  Eng- 
lish Universities,  Oxford." — No.  CXXL  Art.  X. 
"  Admission  of  Dissenters  to  the  Universities." — 
No.  CXXn.  Art.  IX.  "The  Universities  and  the 

2.  The  Legality  of  the  present  Academical  System  of  the 
University  of  Oxford  asserted  against  the  new  Ca- 
lumnies of  the  Edinburgh  Review.  By  a  Member 
of  Convocation. 

.3.  The  Legality  of  the  present  Academical  System  of  the 
University  of  Oxford  re-asserted  against  the  new 
Calumnies  of  the  Edinburgh  Review.  By  a  Member 
of  Convocation. 

4.  On  the  Origin  of  Universities  and  Academical  Degrees. 
By  Henry  Maiden,  M.A.  late  Fellow  of  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge. 


Art.  page. 

5.  An  Historical  Vindication  of  the  leading  Principles 

contained  in  the  Earl  of  Radnor's  Bill,  entitled  "  An 
Act  for  appointing  Commissioners  to  inquire  respect- 
ing the  Statutes  and  Administration  of  the  different 
Colleges  and  Halls  at  Oxford  and  Cambridge." 
6.  The  History  of  the  Visitation  of  the  University  of 
Oxford  by  a  Parliamentary  Commission  in  the  Years 
1647,  1G48,  abridged  from  the  Annals  of  Anthony 
kWood 169 

X,  The  Antiquity  of  the  Church-rate  System  considered. 
In  reply  to  "A  Few  Historical  Remarks  upon  the 
supposed  Antiquity  of  Church-rates,  and  the  Three- 
fold Division  of  Tithes.  By  a  Lay  Member  of  the 
Church  of  England  ;  and  printed  for  the  Reform 
Association."     By  William  Hale  Hale,  M.A 215 

XI.  1.  A  Scriptural  Vindication  of  Church  Establishments, 
M'ith  a  Review  of  the  Principal  Objections  of  Non- 
Conformists.     By  the  Rev.  George  Holden,  M.A. 

2.  Five  Sermons  preached  before  the  University  of  Ox- 

ford. By  the  Rev.  Walter  Farquhar  Hook,  M.A., 
Prebendary  of  Lincoln,  Vicar  of  the  Parish  of  the 
Holy  Trinity,  Coventry,  and  Chaplain  in  Ordinary 
to  his  Majesty. 

3.  The  Church  and  the  Establishment ;    Two  Sermons. 

By  the  same  Author. 

4.  Primitive  Tradition  recognized  in   Holy  Scripture  ;  a 

Sermon  preached  in  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Win- 
chester, at  the  Visitation  of  the  Worshipful  William 
Dealtry,  D.D,,  Chancellor  of  the  Diocese,  Sept.  27th, 
1836.     By  the  Rev.  John  Keble,  M.A. 

5.  The  Church  of  England  a  Witness  and  Keeper  of  the 

Catholic  Tradition  ;  a  Sermon  preached  at  the  Visi- 
tation of  the  Venerable  Charles  Thorp,  D.D.,  Arch- 
deacon of  Durham,  July,  1 836.   By  E.  Churton,  M.x'\. 

6.  Vincentius  of  Lirin's  Commonitory 218 

iv  CONTENTS.  , 

Art.  pace. 

XH.  1.  riniiclics  in  London  j  with  an  Appendix  containing 
Answers  to  Objections  raised  by  the  "  Record"  and 
otbcrs,  to  tbc  I'lan  of  tbe  Metropolis  Cburcbes'  Fund, 
liy  tbc  Hcv.  K.  V,.  Pn.ey,  D.D. 

2.  Prospectus  of  tbc  Society  for  Promoting  the  Employ- 

n\ont  of  Additional  Curates  in  Populous  Places 245 




N°.  XLIV. 


Art.  I.  Affaires  de  Rome.     Par  M,  F.  de  la  Mennais 261 

II.  I.  History  of  the  Sixteenth  and  Seventeeth  Centuries, 
illustrated  by  original  Documents.  By  Frederick 
Von  Raumer. 

2.  The  Life  of  Henry  the  Eighth,  founded  on  Authentic 
and  Original  Documents  (some  of  them  not  before 
published),  including  an  Historical  View  of  his 
reign  ;  with  Biographical  Sketches  of  Wolsey,  More, 
Erasmus,  Cromwell,  Cranmer,  and  other  Eminent 
Contemporaries.     By  Patrick  Fraser  Tytler,  Esq. .  .   284 

III.  1.  Sermons  on  the  Lessons,  the  Gospel,  or  the  Epistle 

for  every  Sunday  in  the  Year ;  preached  in  the 
Parish  Church  of  Hodnet,  Salop.  By  the  late  Regi- 
nald Heber,  M.  A. 

2.  Sermons  to  a  Country  Congregation.     By  Augustus 

William  Hare,  A.  M 307 

IV.  Society  in  America.     By  Harriet  Martineau 359 

V.  The  principal  Objections  against  the  Doctrine  of  the 
Trinity,  &c..  Eight  Sermons  preached  before  the 
University  of  Oxford,  in  the  Year  1837,  at  the  Lec- 
ture founded  by  the  Rev.  John  Bampton.  By  the 
Rev.  Thomas  S.  L.  Vogan,  M.  A 376 

VI.  1.  The  Christian  Church,  as  it  stands  distinguished  from 
Popery  and  Puritanism.  By  the  Rev.  Thomas  Grif- 
fith, A.  M. 

2.  The  Christian   Ministry,   and   the    Establishment   of 

(Christianity ;  two  Discourses  on  Public  Occasions, 
with  illustrative  Notes  and  an  Appendix.  By  the 
Rev.  J.  C.  CrosthwaitC;,  M.  A. 

3.  On  the  Holy  Catholic  Church.     Parochial  Lectures. 

By  William  J.  Irons,  M.  A 381 


Art.  ^A""- 

VII.  1.  Edinburgh  Review,  No.  CVr.  Art.  VI.  "Universities 
of  England,  Oxford."— No.  CVIII.  Art.  IX.  "  Eng- 
lish I'niversiiics,  Oxford."— No.  CXXl.  Art.  X. 
"  Admission  of  Dissenters  to  the  Universities." — 
No.  C.XXII.  Art.  IX.  "The  Universities  and  the 
Dissenters.  ' 

2.  A  Historical  A cconnt  of  the  University  of  Cambridge 
and  its  Cullcgcs,  in  a  Letter  to  the  Earl  of  Radnor. 
By  Benjamin  Dann  Walsh,  M.  A 397 

VIII.  Christian  Unity  necessary  for  the  Conversion  of  the 
^\'orld  ;  a. Sermon,  preached  in  St.  Thomas's  Church, 
New  York,  Sunday  Evening,  June  26,  1836.  By 
Samuel  Farmar  Jarvis,  D.  D 439 

IX.  1.  A  Sermon  by  Edward  Lord  Bishop  of  Norwich, 
preached  at  his  Installation,  on  Thursday,  August  17, 

2.  Last  Lecture  of  the  Season,  delivered  in  the  Literary 
and  Scientific  Institution  at  Staines,  on  Friday,  June 
30th,  1837.     By  the  Rev.  Robert  Jones,  D.  D 446 

X.  1.  Remarks  on  the  Ecclesiastical  Condition  of  the  United 

Kingdom.     By  David  Robinson,  Esq. 

2.  History  of  Europe,  from  the  Peace   of  Utrecht  to  the 

Peace  of  Aixe-la-Chapelle.  By  Lord  Mahon.  Vol.  II. 

3.  An  Address  to  the  Members  of  the  Church  of  England, 

both  Lay  and  Clerical,  on  the  Necessity  of  Placing 
the  Government  of  the  Church  in  the  hands  of  Mem- 
bers of  its  own  Communion.  By  the  Rev.  John 
Warren,  M.  A. 

4.  A  Sermon  preached  in  the  Chapel  of  Lambeth  Palace, 

on  Sunday,  April  IGth,  1837,  at  the  Consecration  of 
the  Right  Rev.  Edward  Lord  Bishop  of  Salisbury. 
By  J.  Endell  Tyler,  B.  D 474 

XI.  Prospectus  of  the  Church  of  England  Gazette 494 

Ecclesiastical  Record 497 





JULY,  1837. 

Art.  I.  —  The  Book  of  the  Nezo  Covenant  of  our  Lord  and 
Saviour  Jesus  Christ ;  being  a  Critical  Revision  of  the  Text 
and  Translation  of  the  English  Version  of  the  Netv  'Testament. 
2  vols.  8vo.     London:    Duncan.     1837- 

It  is  a  somewhat  startling  assertion  of  the  author  now  before  us, 
that  although  we  have,  by  public  authority,  a  standard  English 
version  of  the  Bible,  yet  there  exists  no  standard  Greek  text  for 
the  original  of  that  version.  And  yet,  strange  as  it  may  appear, 
the  assertion  is  one  which  it  would  be  much  easier  to  contra- 
dict than  to  refute.  It  is  undeniable,  that  what  is  called  the 
Textns  Receptns  furnishes  us  with  no  such  authority.  For,  what 
is  the  basis  of  the  received  text, — but  the  first  edition  of  Erasmus, 
printed  in  1516,  and  formed  on  four  manuscripts,  not  one  of 
which  was  an  uncial  manuscnipt,  nor  older  than  the  tenth  century? 
And  what  is  it  which  constitutes  the  text  subsequently  received, — 
but  the  edition  of  Erasmus,  as  successively  corrected  by  himself, 
by  R.  Stephens,  by  Beza,  and  finally  by  Elzivir,  according  as 
more  ancient  copies  were  discovered  and  consulted  ?  What 
ground,  then,  can  there  be  for  the  affirmation  of  Archbishop 
Newcome,  that  the  text  of  the  New  Testament,  as  we  now  have 
it,  has  been  transmitted  to  us  in  as  much  perfection  as  could  be 
expected  or  desired  ?  That  it  has  been  transmitted  in  as  much  per- 
fection as  could  be  expected,  nay,  in  much  greater  perfection  than, 
under  all  the  circumstances,  could  reasonably  be  hoped, — may  be 
most  thankfully  acknowledged.  But  subsequently  to  the  publica- 
tion of  the  earliest  editions,  a  vast  store  of  additional  manuscripts 
has  been  discovered  ;  some  of  them  far  more  ancient  than  those 
from  which  the  earliest  editions  were  formed.  Why,  then,  should 
we  repress  our  desire  for  such  further  approaches  to  perfection,  as 
the  use  of  these  additional  materials  may  enable  us  to  achieve  ? 

In  the  application  of  the  materials  in  question,  one  thing  must 

NO.  XLIII. — JULY,  1837.  B 


J* cim— Book  of  the  Neio  Covenant. 

Iways  be  kept  in  mind,— that  one  manuscript,  of  very  early  date, 
,;m//"lH- inc.Miiparahly  more  potential  in  authority,  than  a  whole 
series  of  maiuisi  ripts  belonij;ino-  to  a  much  later  age.  "  It  is  with 
"  manuscripts,  as  with  every  thing  else;  the  oldest  arc  necessarily 
"  till-  fewest,  from  the-  perpetual  action  of  decay  :"  while,  on 
the  other  liand,  the  later  copies  may  frequently  chance  to  be 
mere  transcripts  one  from  another  ;  and  may,  consequently,  niul- 
tiplv  number,  without  increasing  the  weight  of  testimony.  Be- 
sides, the  corruptions  which  were  perpetually  creeping  both  into 
the  (Jieek  ami  Latin  copies,  between  the  sixth  and  the  fifteenth 
ciiituries,  are  too  well  known  to  leave  the  manuscripts,  written  in 
that  interval,  in  full  possession  of  that  respect  and  confidence 
which  might,  otherwise,  be  due  to  mu/titude.  It  therefore  be- 
comes a  matter  of  extreme  importance  to  find  a  text,  "  which 
"  can  exhibit  credentials  of  the  highest  attainable  antiquity." 
And,  to  accomplish  this  purpose,  is  one  among  the  tasks  of  that 
new  science, — the  science  of  biblical  criticism, — which  has  been 
growing  up,  to  wonderful  perfection,  from  the  time  of  Erasmus 
to  the  present  day. 

It  is  possible  that  this  statement  may  fill  some  honest  hearts  with 
astonishment  and  dismay  !  What,  it  may  perhaps  be  asked,  are  we 
living  in  the  nineteenth  century  of  the  Christian  era,  and  have  we 
vet  to  seek  for  the  genuine  text  of  the  Scriptures  which  are  to  make 
us  wise  unto  salvation  ?  Are  critics  for  ever  to  be  tampering 
with  the  words  of  eternal  life  ?  Is  there  to  be  no  end  to  this 
busy  process  of  collation,  and  conjecture,  and  correction  ?  Is 
there  no  "  sure  and  firm-set"  ground,  on  which  the  faith  of  a 
Christian  man  may  rest,  without  a  sense  of  insecurity  and  vacilla- 
tion ?  Now,  to  all  this  anxious  questioning,  there  is,  happily, 
one  very  plain  and  comfortable  answer ; — namely,  that  altliough 
it  is  true  that  no  two  ancient  copies  of  the  New  Testament  have 
been  found  to  correspond,  verbatim  and  literatim,  throughout, 
yet  is  it,  likewise,  true,  that  among  all  the  multitude  of  known 
manuscripts,  there  never  yet  has  been  discovered  one  which  can 
be  called  an  heretical  manuscript.  Nay,  there  never  yet  has  been 
found  a  copy  which,  if  it  were  adopted  as  a  standard,  would  ma- 
terially darken  or  deface  one  lineament  of  God's  revealed  truth. 
In  the  midst  of  a  swarm  of  insignificant  discrepancies  and  varia- 
tions, (which,  however,  bear  no  proportion  to  the  vast  body  of 
concurrent  and  unvarying  testimony,)  the  fundamental  doctrines 
and  vital  precepts  of  Revelation  are  almost  as  clearly  legible,  as 
if  they  were  engraved,  by  the  finger  of  God  himself,  in  tables  of 
imperishable  granite.  And,  marvellous  indeed  must  this  appear 
in  our  eyes,  when  it  is  recollected,  that  "  all  those  copies  were 
"  written   in   various  and  distant  countries,  under  different  and 

Penn — Book  of  the  Neto  Covenant,  3 

"  independent  authorities,  and  not  subjected  to  any  general  and 
"  censorial  supervision." 

It  is  probable  that,  if  we  had  before  us  the  very  autographs  of 
certain  of  the  great  masters  of  classical  antiquity,  they  would  pro- 
duce no  essew/^/fl/ alteration  in  the  impression  of  themselves,  which 
those  mighty  minds  have  left  upon  all  succeeding  generations. 
The  possession  of  those  originals  would,  doubtless,  relieve  us 
from  an  enormous  load  of  critical  perplexity  and  toil;  and  it 
would,  as  certainly,  enhance  the  facility  and  the  delight  of  our 
progress  through  their  writings.  But  we  scarcely  can  imagine 
that  it  would  materially  affect  our  general  estimate  of  their 
powers,  or  greatly  improve  our  judgment  as  to  the  mould,  and 
features,  and  complexion  of  their  genius.  If  we  descend  to  later 
times,  what  writer  has  suffered  so  much  from  the  carelessness  of 
copyists  and  printers,  as  the  foremost  genius  of  all  the  world  ? 
And  yet,  if  Shakspeare  were  to  revisit  the  earth,  as  the  editor  of 
his  own  dramas,  we  doubt  whether  his  position  in  our  literature 
would  be  perceptibly  altered  by  his  labours.  Apply  these  con- 
siderations to  the  Prophets,  Apostles,  and  Evangelists.  Reflect 
on  the  vast  multitude  of  transcripts  and  of  versions,  in  which 
their  testimony  has  been  preserved ;  together  with  the  solemn 
interest  which  has,  throughout  a  long  range  of  centuries,  attached 
itself  to  the  task  of  perpetuating  the  Sacred  Record.  And  then, 
suppose  that  the  writers  were  now  on  earth,  to  correct  the  re- 
ceived text,  according  to  the  original  verity  which  was  given  un- 
der their  own  hand.  Can  any  man  believe  that  the  great  truths 
of  Christianity,  as  now  understood,  would  be  essentially  affected 
by  the  process  ?  There  might,  possibly,  be,  here  and  there,  an 
apocryphal  passage  expunged,  or  a  sentence  restored  to  greater 
propriety  and  force,  or  a  precept  more  exactly  and  intelligibly 
delivered.  Perhaps,  there  might  be  recovered  some  few  and 
minute  fragments  which,  in  the  course  of  ages,  had  casually 
dropped  from  the  context,  and  the  loss  of  which  had  partially 
disfigured  its  symmetry  and  completeness.  But,  even  though  this 
might  turn  out  to  be  so,  there  yet  is  ample  ground  for  the  most 
confident  persuasion  that  the  grand  Mystery  of  Godliness,  with 
all  its  subsidiary  truths,  would  still  present  themselves  to  our 
conceptions  with  unaltered  form  and  aspect.  They  who  are 
most  deeply  conversant  with  such  studies  and  inquiries,  will  see 
most  reason  for  grateful  wonder  at  the  actual  integrity  of  the 
Sacred  Text.  The  damage  which  it  has  suffered  from  time,  and 
accident,  and  carelessness,  and  other  causes,  is  positively  in- 
significant, when  compared  with  the  mutilations  and  corruptions 
which  have  befallen  many  of  the  reliques  of  the  profane  writers 
of  classical  antiquity.     We  really  believe  that  it  would  be  no 

B  2 

4  Ponn — Book  of  the  Neto  Covenant. 

cxa'T<»oratioii  lo  say,  that  the  errors  wliicli  have  thus  found  their 
waf  into  the  Sacred  Volume,  are  of  infinitely  less  account, 
when  consiiiered  with  reference  to  tiic  undoubted  truths  which 
the  modi  in  text  exhibits  to  us,  than  the  resitlual  phenomena  of 
the  solar  system,  in  eomi)arison  with  the  stupendous  sweep  of 
its  primarv  mov«nu'nts  and  revolutions.* 

We  are  distinctly  aware  that  there  are  some,  upon  whonj  these 
considerations  may  be  urged  almost  in  vain;  some,  who  may 
contend  that,  unless  the  text  we  have  before  us,  be,  not  only 
almost,  [)ut  altouether  and  all  over,  the  word  of  God,  we  must 
he  left  to  wander  in  a  labyrinth  of  perilous,  and  perhaps  fatal, 
uncertaintv.  Now,  whatever  may  be  the  peril  here  described,  it 
cannot,  for  one  moment,  be  denied,  that,  in  this  peril,  such  as  it  is, 
we  ilo  actually  stand.  Tor,  as  we  have  already  seen,  nothinj;  can 
be  more  certain  than  this — that  the  text  we  have  before  us  is  not, 
all  over,  the  Word  of  God.  If  it  were,  there  would  be  an  end  of 
all  the  labours  of  one  grand  department  of  Biblical  Criticism. 
A\'hatev(r  necessity  there  might  be  for  diligence,  and  sagacity, 
and  learning,  in  lixing  the  correct  interpretation  of  the  word,  there 
could  be  no  necessity  whatever  for  an  hour's  thought  or  inquiry, 
in  ascertaining  the  word  itself.  The  fact,  however,  is,  that  we 
do  not  precisely  know,  to  every  tittle  and  iota,  what  was  written 
by  God's  insj)ired  servants.  And,  therefore,  even  if  we  could  be 
secure  from  errors  of  interpretation,  we  still  cannot  be  xdiolly 
secure  from  error,  as  to  the  perfect  identity  of  the  thing  to  be 
interpreted.  Froin  errors  of  this  description  it  is  scarcely  con- 
ceivable that  any  thing  could  ever  have  preserved  us,  but  the  pos- 
session of  the  sacred  autographs  themselves,  or  of  copies  made 
and  multiplied  under  divine  guidance  and  superintendence. 

But,  further  than  this,  we  are  quite  unable  to  comprehend 
how  any  thing,  short  of  a  perpetual  miracle,  could  have  entirely 
guarded  us,  even  against  errors  of  interpretation.  We  will  sup- 
pose, for  a  mome*nt,  that  the  human  race  had  been  originally  of 
one  speech  and  one  language,  and  had  so  continued  to  the  present 
day;  that,  consequently,  the  whole  of  the  Sacred  Oracles  had 
been  recorded  in  one  and  the  same  living  tongue  ;  and  that  the 
record  had  been  preserved  to  us,  in  that  tongue,  without  the  loss 
or  change  of  a  single  word,  or  a  single  letter.  In  this  case,  we 
should  have  had  the  whole  counsel  of  God  delivered  to  us,  ste- 
reotyped, as  it  were,  in  imperishable  signs  and  symbols.  But 
still,  the  question  must  occur, — would  these  signs  and  symbols 

*  On  tliis  subject,  it  can  scarcely?  be  necessarjf  to  direct  (lie  reader  to  tlie  terrible 
castigation  intlictcd  on  the  Free-thinker,  by  Bentley,  in  liis  Phiielentherus  Lipsiensis, 
part  1,  sect.  xxxi.  And,  that  which  demoiisiies  tlie  caviller,  will,  of  course,  administer 
proportionate  assurance  to  the  luimble-niinded  inquirer. 

Penn — Book  of  the  Neiv  Covenant.  5 

have  continued  to  convey,  throughout  a  long  succession  of  ages, 
precisely  the  same  impressions  M'hich  were  conveyed  by  them  at 
the  first?  Can  we  imagine  even  a  perpetually  living  language 
to  be  so  thoroughly  and  intensely  instinct  with  life,  that  its  spirit 
and  its  magic  should  remain,  for  centuries  together,  totally  inde- 
pendent of  local  and  fugitive  associations  ;  and  of  the  ton  thou- 
sand nameless  circumstances  which  give  to  words,  and  to  phrases, 
and  to  idioms,  an  influence,  in  one  age  or  generation,  which  is 
enfeebled,  or  well-nigh  lost,  in  another?  An  incessant  super- 
human agency  might,  of  course,  maintain  a  language  in  this  con- 
dition of  unfading  youth  and  energy.  By  such  control,  the  ex- 
pressions, and  the  images,  and  the  allusions,  and  the  combinations 
which  stirred  the  heart,  and  illumined  the  understanding  of  one 
generation,  might  have  been  invested  with  an  immortal  power 
over  the  feeling  and  the  mind  of  another  generation,  ten  thousand 
years  remote.  But,  in  the  absence  of  any  such  continued  miracle, 
the  office  of  the  expositor  must,  inevitably,  have  become,  from 
age  to  age,  more  toilsome,  more  perplexed,  and  more  liable  to 
error.  The  record  which  was,  originally,  all  over,  the  Word  of 
God,  might,  gradually,  lose  something,  at  least,  of  its  distinctness. 
It  might,  now  and  then,  chance  to  render  an  uncertain  son]td :  and 
this,  purely  in  consequence  of  the  imperfect  and  perishable  nature 
of  the  instrument  employed  for  the  conveyance  of  its  utterances. 

It  so  happens,  however,  that  languages  are  indefinitely  various, 
and  changeable.  The  speech  of  one  age,  or  of  one  country,  is  a 
subject  of  laborious  study  to  another  age,  or  another  country. 
And  hence  it  is,  that  both  commentary  and  translation  are  in 
constant  requisition  for  the  general  diffusion  of  sacred  truth.  The 
illustration  of  a  dead  language  demands  the  profoundest  resources 
of  erudition.  The  effective  transfusion  of  the  sense  from  one  lan- 
guage to  another,  demands,  in  addition  to  deep  learning,  the  keenest 
sagacity,  the  most  refined  taste,  and  the  soberest  judgment.  They, 
each  of  them,  demand  qualities  and  attainments,  which  never  have 
been,  and  never  will  be  found,  in  perfection,  while  the  world 
endures.  It  follows,  therefore,  that,  to  the  end  of  time,  we  must 
be  content  with  something  less  than  a  completely  faithful  and  in- 
telligible transcript  of  the  mind  of  the  Spirit.  It  may  be  very 
easy  to  put  forth  a  tragical  exposition  of  the  danger  and  calamity 
incident  to  such  a  state  of  things.  But  volumes  of  awful  decla- 
mation will  not  alter  the  fact.  It  is  wiser,  therefore,  to  look  the 
fact  intrepidly  in  the  face  ;  and  to  estimate,  as  nearly  as  we  can, 
the  amount  of  the  difficulty,  and  the  disadvantage,  which  has  thus 
been  laid  upon  us,  for  the  trial  of  our  faith,  our  humility,  and  our 
diligence.  And  the  result  of  that  courageous  encounter  will 
assuredly  be  such  as  to  satisfy  us,  that  although  we  may  not  be 

6  'Penn— Book  of  the  New  Covenant. 

ill  possession  of  God's  revelation,  exactly,  and  in  every  point,  as  it 
came  lorlli  from  lliui,— \ve  are  in  possession  of  such  anapproxniia- 
tion  to  it,  as  will  answer  all  the  purposes  for  which  it  was  vouch- 
safed, if  we  use  the  gift  in  that  spirit  which  alone  can  make  any 
of  his  gifts  a  blessing  to  us.  It  is  highly  probable  that,  in  this, 
as  well  as  in  every  other  department  of  probationary  exertion, 

"  Pater  ipse  colendi 
Ilaud  facilem  esse  viani  voluit." 

He  has  thrown  difHculty  enough  into  the  work  of  scriptural  re- 
search to  maintain  a  constant  sense  of  our  immediate  dependence 
on  His  aid  and  guidance.  He  has  left  facility  enough  to  en- 
courage the  labours  of  the  simplest  and  most  unlettered  inquirer 
after  saving  truth. 

\Ua  to  return  to  the  matter  immediately  before  us.  The  pub- 
lication of  Mr.  Penn  consists,  Jirst,  of  "  A  Critical  Revision  of 
"  the  Text  and  Translation  of  the  English  Version  of  the  New 
"  Testament ;  with  the  aid  of  the  most  ancient  manuscripts,  un- 
"  known  to  the  age  in  which  that  Version  was  put  forth  by  au- 
"  thoritv  :"  and,  secondly,  of  a  volume  of  Annotations,  compiled 
chietly  with  a  view  to  the  vindication  of  those  changes,  or  omis- 
sions, which  liave  been  introduced  by  him  into  his  Revision.  The 
rules  adopted  by  the  author,  in  the  execution  of  his  work,  are — 
first,  to  take  the  most  ancient  copy  of  the  Christian  Scriptures 
as  the  standard  ;  secondly,  to  correct  by  authority,  whenever  au- 
thority can  be  found  ;  and,  lastly,  to  resort  to  conjecture,  only 
where  authority  is  absolutely  and  altogether  wanting.  The 
soundness  of  these  canons  will  hardly  be  disputed.  Their  value, 
however,  in  use  and  application,  will  mainly  depend  upon  the 
personal  qualities  of  the  critic  himself.  He  must  be  one,  as 
the  writer  justly  remarks,  who  "  holds  a  most  rigid  medium 
*'  between  presumption  and  timidity  :  by  the  former  of  which,  we 
"  induce  error  upon  truth ;  and  by  the  latter,  we  consent  to  re- 
"  main,  for  ever,  under  the  dominion  of  error,  and  in  the  power 
"  of  chance,  ignorance,  and  artifice."  To  these  qualifications 
another  must,  undoubtedly,  be  added.  The  biblical  critic  must 
not  only  be  endowed  with  the  soundest  judgment,  but  accom- 
plished with  the  ripest  scholarship.  He  must  be  perfectly  master 
of  the  genius  and  idiom  which  pervades  the  text  before  him.  A 
deficiency  in  this  essential  qualification  must,  at  once,  be  fatal  to 
all  hope  of  establishing  himself  in  the  confidence  of  the  literary 

Now,  we  must  frankly  avow,  that  we  have  risen  from  our  pe- 
rusal of  this  work  with  certain  grievous  apprehensions  that  Mr. 
Penn   might  find  a  rigorous  trial  by  this  standard  extremely  in- 

Penn — Book  of  the  New  Covenant.  7 

convenient.  We  have  the  most  unlimited  reliance  on  his  good 
intentions,  his  diligence,  his  integrity,  his  orthodoxy,  and  his 
piety.  We  have  not  the  faintest  doubt  of  the  sincerity  and  zeal 
with  which  he  has  addressed  himself  to  his  task.  There  is, 
throughout  the  work,  abundant  evidence  of  his  perfect  singleness 
of  heart  and  purpose.  We,  nevertheless,  must  not  hesitate  to 
declare,  Jirst,  that  he  does  appear  to  us  to  have  deviated 
much  oftener  than  could  be  wished  from  the  "  rigid  medium" 
which  he  himself  has  prescribed  ;  and,  that  these  deviations  have 
been  rather  on  the  side  of  rashness  than  timidity;  and,  secondly, 
that  there  are,  here  and  there,  certain  very  awkward  phenomena 
in  his  volumes,  which  indicate  that  his  knowledge  of  Greek  is 
very  far  from  being  distinguished  by  the  needful  accuracy  or  pro- 

But,  although  such  is  our  impression,  we  are  bound  to  add, 
that  the  labours  of  Mr.  Penn  are  not  without  very  considerable 
value.  His  volumes  must,  assuredly,  find  a  place  in  the  libraries 
of  mightier  critics  than  himself.  And  if,  at  any  future  period,  an 
authoritative  revision  of  our  great  National  Translation  should 
be  thought  expedient,  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  these  volumes 
will  be  always  respectfully,  and  sometimes  very  profitably,  con- 
sulted, by  the  persons  to  whom  that  undertaking  may  be  com- 
mitted. It  will  be  found,  more  especially,  that  excellent  use  may 
be  made  of  his  attentive  study  of  the  Vatican  manuscript.  He 
seems,  indeed,  to  have  been  smitten  with  an  almost  passionate 
devotion  for  that  venerable  document.  And,  indisputably,  if  any 
single  manuscript  could  properly  be  made  the  basis  of  a  complete 
revision,  that  is  the  copy  which  would  best  be  entitled  to  such  a 
distinction.  By  some  eminent  critics  it  has  been  assigned  to  the 
ffth  century ;  and  Hug  has  contended, — and,  in  the  opinion  of 
Schulz,  has  proved, — that  it  was  written  before  the  middle  of  the 
fourth  century.  In  the  judgment  of  Bishop  Marsh,  "  the  Codex 
"  Vaticanus  is  almost  entirely  free  from  those  undeniable  inter- 
"  polations,  and  arbitrary  corrections,  which  are  frequently  found 
''  in  certain  MSS.  adverted  to  by  Wetstein  \  and,  therefore,  may 
"  be  applied  as  a  means  not  only  of  confirming  the  genuine  read- 
"  ings,  but  of  detecting,  and  correcting,  those  that  are  spurious."* 
But,  awful  as  the  antiquity  of  this  document  may  be,  it  must  not 
be  allowed  absolutely  to  tyrannise  over  all  other  authorities.  It 
may,  justly  and  fitly,  be  exalted  to  the  amplest  honours  of  pre- 
cedency, as  the  patriarch  of  manuscripts.  But  the  Church,  as 
represented  by  her  learned  men,  will  hardly  be  prepared,  like 
Mr.  Penn,  to  invest  it  with  something  approaching  to  papal  su- 
premacy and  infallibility. 

*  Michael.  Introd.  vol.  ii.  p.  808. 

B  Pcmi— JBoy/i  of  the  'New  Covenant. 

A  complete  oxainiiialioii  of  Mr.  Pciiu's  Tentamcn,  \yould  de- 
inatid  ;i  eupious  and  clahoiatc  treatise,  rather  Uiau  a  brief  essay. 
Our  ofVue  iiuibt  be  to  select,  from  die  congeries  before  us,  such 
j>romiueut  matters  as  may  appear  to  require  the  most  patient  and 
cautious  attention;  and  so,  to  assist  the  public  in  settling  the 
degree  of  coididence,  wiUi  which  they  may  safely  venture  to 
surrender  themselves  to  the  guidance  of  this  laborious  and  sound- 
hearted,  but  somewhat  too  coidident,  investigator. 

The  very  Tnst  thing  that  strikes  us,  on  opening  the  book,  is  the 
rejection  of  the  word  "  Testament,"  and  the  substitution  of  "  Co- 
venant" in  the  place  of  it.  That  this  change  would  be  an  im- 
provement, if  its  legitimateness  could  once  be  fairly  established, 
will  scarcely  be  denied.  It  cannot  be  questioned,  that  the  Latin 
term,  Teatamentnvi,  has  brought  much  confusion  and  perplexity 
into  the  text ;  and  that,  in  our  own  version  of  the  Christian 
Scriptures,  there  is,  positively,  an  appearance  of  unaccountable 
caprice,  in  the  use,  sometimes  of  the  word  "Testament,"  and 
sometimes  of  the  word  "  Covenant,"  to  represent  the  unvarying 
original,  8(a6;^xr).*  It  may  not,  perhaps,  be  altogether  useless  to 
inquire  by  what  process  the  term  Tcstamentum,  the  origin  of 
these  vexatious  difficulties,  probably  found  its  way  into  the  text 
of  the  Latin  Church. 

'J'he  word  S(a5>)x>],  then,  does  not,  primarily,  signify  a  covenant 
or  contract,  between  two  co-ordinate  parties.  It  does  not,  ne- 
cessarily and  ex  vi  termini,  signify  a  covenant  at  all.  It  properly 
denotes  merely  an  appointment,  or  disposition,  oj  any  kind  ;  and 
this,  without  reference  to  the  question,  whether  the  disposition 
were  made  by  the  joint  act  of  two  parties,  or  by  the  sole  act  of 
one.  A  testamentary  appointment  would,  accordingly,  with  great 
fitness,  be  termed  a  Oia^Kr^.  And,  in  this  sense  the  word  actually 
came,  in  time,  to  be,  most  generally,  thongh  not.  exclusively,  em- 
ployed by  the  writers  of  classical  Greek.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  word  cruv9r'x>j,— or,  more  frequently,  the  plural  cruvSrjxa*, — was 
used  to  denote  a  contract  properly  so  called :  a  convention,  or 
treaty,  if  between  nations ;  an  agreement,  or  mutual  stipulation, 
if  between  individuals. 

Now,  there  seems  to  be  no  reason  whatever  for  believing  that 
the  Hebrew  word  JT^I^   conveyed   to  the  Septuagint  translators 

the  notion  of  any  thing  analogous  to  a  last  will  or  testament. 

*  A  similar  appearance  of  caprice  pervades  the  Syriac,  Arabic,  and  ^^tliiopic  ver- 
sions, if  they  are  rightly  represented  by  the  collateral  Latin  translations  attached  to 
each  of  them,  in  Walton's  Poljglolt,  for,  in  those  translations,  we  find  the  words 
decretiim,  lei,  fcedus,  pactum,  testamentiLvi,  used  in  various  places  respectively,  where 
the  Greek  lias  Jiafiiixij.  The  words  decretum  and  lex  correspond  to  the  sense  given  to 
KamSictSmi,  by  Euthyniius,  who  callsit  vo^uoflEcria  v£«.     See  Penn's  Annotations,  p.  5, 

Penn — Book  of  the  New  Coveiiant.  9 

And  }'et,  it  does  so  happen,  tliat,  in  the  Sepluagint,  the  word 
auvQrixYi  (so  far  as  we  are  aware),  never  once  occurs,  as  denoting 
that  which  we  habitually  speak  of  as  the  Covcnnnt  of  God  with 
his  people.  The  term,  we  believe,  will  be  found  to  be,  uniformly, 
S<a9>]x»j.  It  does  not  appear  to  us  very  difficult,  at  least,  to 
iinaghie  a  reason  for  this.  The  covenant  between  Jehovah  and 
his  people,  was  iiot  in  the  nature  of  a  contract  between  two 
equal  and  co-ordinate  parties.  Neither  was  it  an  agreement 
which  the  inferior  party  was  at  liberty  to  ratify,  or  not,  as  he 
might  be  pleased.  It  was  an  engagement ,  indeed,  on  the  part  of 
God,  to  bestow  certain  high  privileges  and  blessings  on  a  pe- 
culiar family,  and  race ;  privileges  and  blessings,  however,  the 
oft'er  of  which,  though  attended  with  manifold  conditions  and 
obligations,  could  not  be  rejected  without  the  maddest  impiety. 
The  proceeding,  though  unspeakably  gracious,  was,  nevertheless, 
imperative,  and  "without  repentance,"  on  the  part  of  God.  It 
might,  therefore,  be,  much  more  appropriately,  called  an  appoint- 
ment, than  a  voluntary  compact,  or  what  we  call  a  covenant. 
It  was  a  scheme  ordained  by  his  determinate  counsel,  and  so- 
vereign disposing  wisdom ;  and  might,  therefore,  with  signal 
propriety,  be  termed  a  8««9)3x>] ;  as  denoting,  not  a  last  will,  but 
rather  a  dispensation,  which  resembled  a  will  in  the  single  cir- 
cumstance of  its  being  eminently  sacred  and  inviolable.  We  are 
by  no  means  sure  that  the  word  am^Kr^  could  have  been  be- 
comingly or  reverentially  applied  to  a  transaction  between  the 
Omnipotent  Benefactor,  on  the  one  side,  and  his  unworthy  crea- 
tures, on  the  other.  The  inequality  of  the  two  parties  might  be 
thought  too  vast  to  admit  the  use  of  a  phrase,  which  would  seem 
to  imply  a  close  and  exact  resemblance  between  the  Covenant  of 
the  Lord  with  Israel,  and  the  dealings,  or  bargains,  which  take 
place  between  man  and  man.  The  word  §»«5jj>cr)  was  not  open 
to  the  same  objection ;  for  it  did  not  necessarili)  involve  the 
notion  of  two  independent  contracting  parties.* 

Such  may,  possibly,  have  been  the  thoughts,  which  intluenced 
the  Septuagint  translators,  in  choosing  the  word  SiaSjjxr),  in  pre- 
ference to  (Tovflrjxr],  as  the  representative  of  the  Hebrew  D'^'IB.     In 

the  next  place,  then,  what  was  the  condition  of  the  old  Latin 
translators?  Had  they  found  o-uv9){x)j  in  the  Septuagint,  it  is 
probable  that  the  woxAfoLdns,  or  pactum,  might  have  stood  for  it, 
in  their  versions.  But  they  found  lia^xri  there.  And,  ignorant 
as  they  appear  to  have  been  of  the   niceties  either  of  Greek  or 

*  The  words  oflsidor.  Pelusiot.  are  nearly  conformable  to  tliese  views:  tw  auv&wnv, 
TOUTES-Ti  rhl  lltayyiKla.v ,  Atttfliijctiv  h  Blia.  naXiT  y^a<^h,  ha  to  /3sSaiov  ual  atra^a^a.-roy.  luv- 
Qnnai  fA,iv  ya^  woXXaxi;  avaT^iirovrai,  AiaBwai  Se  v6fAf(*i>t,  <3via.fXMi.  Epist,  CxCvi.  lib.  ii. 
p.  215,  cited  in  Suic.  Thes.  toiu.  i.  col.  855. 

10  Penn — Book  of  the  ^ew  Covenant. 

Latin,  tluv  uerc,  probabiy,  betrayed  into  themistake  of  adopting 
the  term  tcstamculiim,  purely  because  it  was,  then,  most  usually 
employed  to  represent  the  Greek  word  g<«9r|x»).  Whether  testa- 
j/icutiim  were  capable,  like  8»«9»jx>3,  of  signifying  an  appointment, 
or  disposition,  gcncralh/, — or  whether  it  were  restricted  to  the 
sense  of  a  disposition  to  take  place  after  death, — they  seem  not 
to  have  known,  or  inquired.  If  this  be  not  the  true  account  of 
their  blunder,  it  is  difficult  to  imagine  any  other ;  since  there  is 
nothing  in  the  elder  Scriptures,  which  could  possibly  have  sug- 
gested any  analogy  between  the  Old  Covenant  and  an  appoint- 
ment to  be  "  o/' /one  after  men  are  dead.''  And,  that  Jerome 
rejected  the  notion  of  any  such  analogy  is  manifest  from  the  fact, 
that,  in  his  new  edition  of  the  old  Latin  versions,  he  substitutes 
/a<///,s,  or  pactum,  in  the  Old  Testament,— as  the  rendering  of 
8»aS)jx»), — instead  of  teslamentiwi. 

To  the  New  Testament,  the  word  auv^KYj  is  utterly  unknown. 
It  follows  the  Septuagint  in  the  adoption  of  Sjafijjxrj :  but,  in  the 
Latin  version  of  the  New  Testament,  the  word  testainentum 
has,  throughout,  been  suffered  to  remain,  as  the  representative  of 
l^a^y.r|.  It  may  be  difficult  to  account  for  this,  otherwise  than 
by  the  supposition  that  the  correcting  hand  of  Jerome  was  not  so 
carefully  applied  to  the  New  Testament  as  to  the  Old  Testa- 
ment.* There  is,  indeed,  one  passage  in  the  Christian  Scriptures, 
and  only  one,  which  seems  to  demand  this  rigid  adherence  to  the 
old  Latin  version,  and  to  bind  down  the  word  oiaSrjjoj  to  the 
sense  of  a  testamentary  disposition;  namely,  the  15th,  16th,  and 
17th  verses  of  the  ninth  chap,  of  the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews.  In 
our  version,  they  run  thus  :  "  For  this  cause,  he  is  the  Mediator 
"  of  the  new  testament,  that,  by  means  of  death  for  the  redemption 
"  of  the  transgressions  that  were  under  the  first  testament,  they 
"  which  are  called  might  receive  the  promise  of  eternal  inherit- 
"  ance.  [For,  where  a  testament  is,  there  must  also  of  necessity 
*'  be  the  death  of^  the  testator.  For  a  testament  is  of  force  after 
"  men  are  dead  :  otherwise,  it  is  of  no  strength  at  all  while  the 
"  testator  hveth."]  Then  follows  the  18th  verse, — '^Whereupon, 
"  neither  the  first  testament  was  dedicated  without  blood."  It 
would  be  superfluous  to  point  out  the  difficulty  and  confusion 
which  seems  to  be  introduced  into  this  passage,  by  the  words 
which  we  have  placed  between  brackets,  and  the  apparent  in- 
consequence of  the  verses  which  immediately  follow  them.  Let 
us  see,  then,  for  a  moment,  how  the  whole  would  run,  if  those 
words  were  omitted,  and  if  the  word  Covenant  were   substituted 

*  See  Walt.  Polygl.  Proleg. ;  Marsli's  Michaelis,  vol.  ii,  p,  124. 

Penn — Book  of  the  Neiu  Covenant.  1 1 

for  Testament,  in  the  remainder  of  it.     With  this  omission,  the 
original  would  stand  thus  : 

Kcii  dux  TOVTO,  Sj«9jjjo]j  KCHVYii  Me(r»T>]j  IcTTiV,  OTTftii;, — dfltvaroy  ysvo- 
[/.svou,  s]g  a7roXvTgw(7iv  toov  btt)  t^  tt^wt*)  hot.dYjX.Yi  'Tra^uSa.ascov,' — Ti^v 
eTrayysXluv  Aa^wcrjv  oJ  ;tsxAr](xevo»  TYJg  alcoviov  xKYjpovo[j,ioig.  "OQsv, 
ouS'  Y)  TTqwTYi  ^wgjj  uifxuTog  kyxsxalvKTTai '.  K.T.X,  which  may  be 
thus  rendered: 

"  For  this  cause,  He" — (who  offered  himself  without  spot, 
V.  14,) — "  is  the  Mediator  of  a  new  Covenant  (or  Dispensation)  : 
"  in  order  that, — death  having  been,  (or,  having  intervened,)  for 
**  the  ransom  of  transgressions  that  ivere  under  the  first  Cove- 
"  nant, — so,  they  which  have  noz0  been  called,  might  receive," 
(through  his  blood,  v.  14,)  "  the  promise  of  the  eternal  inherit- 
"  ance.  A7id  hence  it  is,  that  not  eve7i  the  first  Covenant  was 
**  instituted  without  blood,  8cc.  &c.  &c." 

The  statement,  now,  is  intelligible  and  complete.  As  the 
death  of  victims  was  essential  to  the  remission  of  transgressions 
under  the  Old  Dispensation,  even  so  is  the  blood  of  the  spotless 
sacrifice  essential  to  the  work  of  redemption  under  the  New. 
And  the  shedding  of  blood  was,  accordingly,  indispensable  to  the 
former  Covenant,  which  was,  throughout,  prefigurative  of  the 
latter.  One  might,  therefore,  be  almost  tempted  to  suspect  that 
the  l6th  and  17tli  verses  did  not,  originally,  belong  to  the  text; 
but  that  they  were  the  marginal  annotation  of  some  one  who 
mistook  8j«9^x*j  for  testament,  and  was  beguiled  into  his  com- 
mentary upon  it  by  the  assertion,  in  the  15th  verse,  that  the  be- 
nefits of  it  could  accrue  only  by  the  intervention  of  death,  (Savurou 
ysvoixsvou).  But, — although  it  does  appear  to  us  that  the  text 
might  well  spare  these  two  verses, — far,  very  far,  from  us  be  the 
temerity  of  proposing  their  rejection,  upon  the  mere  strength  of 
a  conjecture,  in  opposition  to  the  uniform  consent  of  manuscripts 
and  versions.  It  is  much  better  to  bow  submissively  to  the 
difficulty,  than  to  venture  on  dangerous  tamperings  with  the  text, 
as  it  has,  hitherto,  been  delivered  down  to  us. 

The  verses,  then,  being  retained,  the  question  is, — what  is  to 
be  done  with  them  ?  Must  we,  likewise,  retain  the  word  testa- 
ment, as  a  fit  rendering  of  Sja9>]jt>], — apparently  to  the  utter  con- 
fusion of  the  Apostle's  argument?  And,  if  not,  how  are  we  to 
dispose  of  the  words  which  seem  to  speak  of  the  death  of  the 
testator  ?  Mr.  Penn  is  at  no  loss,  in  this  difficult  emergency. 
The  passage  has,  hitherto,  been  coisidered  as  the  most  perplex- 
ing in  the  New  Testament.  But  he  assures  us,  that  the  per- 
plexity is  not  in  the  Apostle's  text,  but  in  the  minds  of  his  in- 
terpreters. The  following  are  his  expedients  for  our  extrication  : 
I.  He  contends,  (and  we  think  not  altogether  without  some 
fair  and  reasonable  grounds,)  that  QavaTov  ysvojjisvou  may  be   a 

]o  Poim — Booh  of  the  New  Covenant. 

saailuial  phrase-,  ileuoting  the  favourable  acceptance  of  the  pro- 
j)ilialoi}  olVeriug-. 

2.  Instead  of  hukfiivoo  {teslatorh),  on  the  authority  of  some 
mauuscripls,  he  substitutes  h(xrih\i^hou ;  and,  to  this  lie  gives  the 
siiise  of  "  interposed," — some  animal  being  understood,  as  the 
victim  iuiuiohUed  between  the  contracting  parlies. 

:).  La.stiv,  he  rejects  the  authorized  translation  of  the  words 
iTT\  vsxgol;,  "  when  men  are  dead,"  (which,  in  truth,  sounds  harshly 
and  awkwardly  enough);  and  gives,  as  the  correct  version, — 
"over  lifeless  bodies;"  that  is,  over  slaughtered  victims.  The 
cttect  of  these  changes  will  be  best  seen  from  the  whole  passage, 
as  it  stimds  in  the  licvision  : 

"  For  this  cause,  he  is  the  Mediator  of  a  New  Covenant ;  that, 
"  as  his  death  was  accepted  as  a  ransom  from  the  transgressions 
"  under  the  lirst  Covenant,  so,  they  who  are  7i02V  called,  may 
"  receive  the  promise  of  the  eternal  inheritance.  For,  where  a 
"  Covenant  is  made,  the  death  of  the  interposed  {^lUTikixevov) 
"  sacrifice  must,  of  necessity,  be  endured  :  for,  a  covenant  is 
"  confirmed  o)i/i/  over  lifeless  bodies  (h)  vixgoig) ;  since  it  hath  no 
"  force  while  the  interposed  sacrifice  is  living.  Wherefore, 
"  neither  was  the  first  Covenant  instituted  without  blood,  &c.  Stc. 
"  &c." 

It  will,  here,  be  observed  that,  according  to  the  above  trans- 
lation, the  first  part  of  this  passage  virtually  afiirms  the  death  of 
Christ  to  be  the  ransom  for  transgressions  under  the  first  cove- 
nant. But,  although  such  an  affirmation  would  contain  no  more 
than  the  truth,  we  conceive  that  it  was  not  the  precise  truth  ac- 
tually in  tiie  contemplation  of  the  Apostle.  It  appears  to  us 
that  he  had  in  his  mind  the  analogy  between  the  two  covenants, 
in  each  of  which,  death  was  the  visible  medium  of  redemption  : 
the  death  of  Christ  himself,  under  the  New  ;  and,  under  the  Old, 
the  death  of  slaughtered  animals, — not  indeed,  by  any  worth,  or 
virtue,  inherent  Jn  their  blood,  but,  purely,  as  representing  the 
full  and  perfect  atonement,  which  was  to  be  offered  when  the 
fulness  of  time  should  come.  But — be  this  as  it  may — the 
reader  has  now  before  him  the  critic's  mode  of  dealing  with  this 
"  most  perplexing  passage."  It  is,  substantially,  the  same  as 
that  which  was  suggested  by  Macnight;  to  whom  Mr.  Penu  fully 
allows  the  credit  of  being  "  the  first  to  restore  this  important 
"  context  to  its  primitive  Apostolical  perspicuity."  The  method 
is,  undoubtedly,  ingenious.  We,  nevertheless,  apprehend  that 
future  interpreters  will  hardly  venture  to  congratulate  themselves 
upon  a  deliverance  from  all  embarrassment.  Considerable  doubt 
must  still  hang  over  the  sense  here  assigned  to  the  words  Itt) 
vixgolc.     And,  much  more  must  be  done,  before  the  learned  world 

Penn — Book  of  the  Neio  Covenant.  13 

shall  be  satisfied  that  8(«Ti0sf^=vo?,  (if  it  be  allowed  to  displace 
dicide[ji,?vo:,)  may  be  used  to  denote  a  victim  interposed  between 
two  covenanting  parties.  For  ourselves, — we  are  not  ashamed 
to  confess  that  the  passage,  as  it  stands,  is  very  far  beyond  our 
skill !  And,  unless  further  light  can  be  thrown  upon  this  main 
difficulty,  we  should  hardly  deem  it  expedient  to  disturb  the 
mere  titles,  "  Old  Testament,"  and  "  New  Testament,"  which 
have,  for  so  many  ages,  been  in  possession  of  the  public  eye 
and  ear. 

So  much,  then,  for  the  title  of  the  work, — "  The  New  Cove- 
nant."    With  regard  to  the  work  itself,  we  must,  with  all  imagi- 
nable deference  for  the  judgment  of  Mr.  Penn,  protest  against 
the  form  in  which  his  Revision  is    put  forth.      The  reader  has 
before  him,   in  fact,  a  new  version  of  the  Christian  Scriptures. 
This  version,  it  is  true,  most  frequently  coincides  with  the  old. 
But,  then,  it  appears  in  a  volume  by  itself;  which  volume  con- 
tains no  notice  whatever,  to  mark  the  departures  from  the  autho- 
rized   Translation.       It   would   have    been    more    modest,    and 
infinitely  more  useful,  if  the  authorized  text  had  been  printed,  in 
its  integrity  ;  and  if  the  altered  text  had  been  introduced,  either 
at  the  foot  of  each  page,  or,  (what  might  have  been  still  better,) 
in  columns  parallel  with  the  authorized  text.     This  method,  it  is 
true,  would  have  added  something  to  the  bulk  of  the  work.     But 
that  disadvantage  would  have  been  greatly  overbalanced  by  the 
manifest  convenience  and   propriety  of  the  arrangement.     Tiie 
work  would,  in  that  case,  have  come  forth  merely  as  a  commo- 
dious prospectus  of  those  changes  which  he,  the  critic,  would  be 
inclined  to  submit  to  his  colleagues,  if  he  were  one  member  of  a 
body  solemnly  appointed  to  the  office  of  revision.     As  it  is,  the 
volume  stands  before  the  world,  as  something  which  the  public 
are  invited  to  adopt,  by  way  of  a  substitute  for  the  national  trans- 
lation ;  and  this,  not  upon   the  authority  of  a    convocation   of 
learned  men,  but  solely   upon  the   authority  of   one  individual. 
There  is,  in  all  this,  at  least  a  semblance  of  temerity  and  arro- 
gance, whicli  would  have  been  much  better  avoided,  in  this  age 
of  headstrong  innovation.     Even  if  a  revision  were  clearly  de- 
sirable, and  if  the  temper  of  the  time  were,  in  all  respects,  most 
propitious  to  the  safe  accomplishment  of  such  a  work,  it  is  a  task 
which  might  well  demand  the  associated  labour  of  a  whole  synod 
of  divines  and  scholars ;  and  which,  with  the  best  appliances  and 
means,  could  scarcely  be  completed  in  less  than  five  years,  at  the 
very  least :  and  if  ten  years  were  devoted  to  it,  it  would  scarcely 
be  too  much.     But,  it  is   a  work  which   greatly  surpasses   the 
might  of  any  one  man ;  even  though  he  should  devote  to  it  the 
Mhole  of  a  laborious  life,  and  be  gifted  with  capacities  of  the 

14  Venu— Book  of  the  Neio  Covenant. 

viiy  lil<;liost  order.  It  is  true  that  wc  are  unspeakably  indebted 
to  inaii)  illustrious  individuals  of  the  ancient  time,  for  the  won- 
ders they  have  achieved  in  this  department  of  exertion.  But,  in 
the  present  state  of  critical  science,  with  all  its  vast  accumulation 
of  materials,  nothing  ought  to  satisfy  the  public,  short  of  the  con- 
centrateil  authority  of  a  great  Theological  Board. 

But,  not  to  dwell  longer  upon  this,  let  us  proceed,  at  once,  to 
the  examination  of  some  few  of  the  experiments  which  Mr.  Penn 
has  a(lv» mured  to  make  upon  the  received  text.  And  let  us  begin 
with  Mark,  xiii.  :32,  of  our  common  version,  or  Mark,xv.  3^2,  of 
Mr.  Penn's  Revision.  In  the  Greek  textiis  receplns,  the  passage 
stands  thus ; — Tlsp)  Ss  r^s  nMpag  Ixs/vr;?,  ij  rrff  oigag,  ovh)^  oiSev,  ouSe 
o!  uyysXot  ol  sv  Tco  ovpavu),  ovde  6  vlog,  si  /xyj  o  TTUTrip.  The  authorized 
version  of  these  words  is  as  follows  ; — But  of  that  day,  and  that 
hour,  hmm-cth  no  man;  no,  not  the  angels  which  are  in  heaven, 
neither  the  Son,  but  the  Father.  The  sense  of  the  passage,  as  it 
now  stands  in  the  received  text,  will,  perhaps,  be  better  under- 
stood, if  we  throw  a  portion  of  it  into  parenthesis,  and  venture 
upon  the  freedom  of  rendering  the  words  el  j«.y),  by  "  except ;" 
and  of  substituting  the  words,  no  one,  for,  no  man  (a  freedom 
perfectly  warranted  by  the  original,  ouh\g).  And,  then,  the  sen- 
tence will  run  thus; — ''  But  of  that  day,  and  that  hour  knoweth 
no  one — (no,  not  the  angels  which  are  in  heaven,  nor  the  Son) — 
except  the  Father :"  or,  by  a  slight  transposition  ; — "  Except  the 
Father,  no  one  knoweth  of  that  day  and  hour ;  no,  not  the 
angels,  nor  the  Son."  It  would  be  utterly  superfluous  to  dilate 
upon  the  difficulty  which  arises  out  of  this  statement.  It  has 
always  been  felt  by  the  expositors  of  Scripture;  and  no  exposi- 
tion has  ever  yet  been  offered,  which  very  materially  lowers  the 
demand  upon  our  humility  and  faith.*  It  is  more  to  our  present 
purpose  to  remark  that  Mr.  Penn  has  found  the  difficulty  utterly 
indigestible ;  and  that  the  pangs  inflicted  by  it  have  driven  him 
to  a  violent  eftoFt  for  its  removal.  Having,  first,  accumulated 
the  passages,  in  which  it  is  declared,  that  the  Father  hath  com- 
mitted all  judgment  to  the  Son, — that  whatsoever  things  the 
Father  doth,  the  Son  doth  likewise, — that  the  Spirit  was  not 
given  to  the  Son  by  measure,  &c.  &c.,  he  exclaims  ; — "  And  yet 
**  we  are  called  on  to  believe,  from  this  single  sentence,  from  one 
"  word,  or  rather  one  letter,  of  this  sentence,  that  he  is  ignorant 
"  of  the  day  and  the  hour  of  that  judgment  which  he  himself  is  to 
"  execute." 

Of  course,  we  shall  be  exceedingly  thankful  to  Mr.  Penn  if  he 
can  extricate  us  from  this  perplexity.     The  procedure  by  which 

*  The  eftorts  of  the  Fathers  to  extricate  themselves  from  the  difficulty  may  be  seen 
in  Suic.  Thes.  torn.  ii.  col.  164 — 170,  in  voc.  xpls-if. 

Penn — Book  of  the  New  Covenant,  15 

he  undertakes  to  effect  our  deliverance,  is,  to  omit  a  single  letter 
and  to  read  the  material  words  of  the  passage  thus ; — ovMg  oISsv, 
ovds  ayysXoi  sv  oopavco'  ouSe  olog,  si  |x»j  6  Trari^p.  And  his  transla- 
tion, accordingly,  is  as  follows ; — "  But  of  that  day,  or  hour,  no 
"  one  knoweth,  not  an  angel  in  heaven  ;  neither  can  know,  but 
"  the  Father  :"  an  affirmation  which,  since  it  does  not  exclude 
the  Son  from  participation  in  the  knowledge  of  that  day,  gets  rid 
of  the  difficulty  at  once. 

For  this  alteration  he  has  not,  indeed,  the  authority  of  a  single 
manuscript  to  produce.  Even  the  Vatican  MS.  renders  him  no 
assistance,  save  that  of  reading  ciyy^Xog,  instead  of  o\  ayy^Xoi, 
But,  then,  he  reminds  us  that  the  words  6  uloj,  when  uncially  and 
continuously  written,  appear  thus, — 0TI02.  And  he  maintains 
that  the  insertion  of  the  T  was  probably  nothing  more  than  a 
transcriptional  mistake,  "  partly  caused  by  the  frequent  alterna- 
"  tions  of  01  and  OY,  in  the  preceding  context;"  and  that,  thus, 
the  true  and  original  reading  OIOS,  accidentally  grew  into 
0TI02.  Now,  it  cannot  be  denied  that  this  is  an  error  of  tran- 
scription which  might  easily  have  occurred :  but,  however  ingenious 
the  conjecture  may  be,  after  all  it  is  merely  a  conjecture ;  and 
we  doubt  whether  it  is  a  conjecture  which  would  have  recom- 
mended itself  very  strongly  to  any  sound  Greek  scholar.  It  is, 
indeed,  beyond  all  question,  that  oToj,  with  the  particle  ts, — ^or, 
even  without  it,  if  followed  by  an  infinitive  mood, — is  frequently 
used  by  the  Attic  writers  to  signify  ability,  or  potentiality,  or 
qualificaiion  ;  the  word  roiouTog  being,  previously,  either  expressed 
or  understood.  But,  surely,  it  must  have  far  exceeded  even  "  the 
abruptness  characteristic  of  St.  Mark,"  to  introduce  the  solitary 
dissyllable  ohg,  as  conveying  this  sense ;  stripped  as  it  is,  to  utter 
nakedness,  both  by  the  omission  of  ts,  and  by  the  triple  ellipsis  of 
ToiouTog,  ecTTiv,  and  elUvui !  Be  this,  however,  as  it  may,  we  doubt 
whether  another  instance  of  the  very  classical  phraseology  in 
question,  can  be  produced  from  any  Hellenistic  writer.  At  all 
events,  the  Septuagint,  if  Schleusner's  Lexicon  may  be  credited, 
is  without  a  single  example  of  it.  The  Greek  Testament,  indeed, 
is  supposed  by  some  interpreters  to  have  furnished  one ;  but  even 
that  one  is  extremely  doubtful.  It  occurs  in  Rom.  ix.  6,  where 
the  Apostle,  after  his  burst  of  sorrow  for  his  brethren  and  kinsmen 
according  to  the  flesh,  adds,  ovx  OION  Is,  oti  sxttstttooksv  6  Koyog 
TOO  0£oD — which  some  would  render  (as  Mr.  Penn  has  actually 
rendered  it)  thus ; — "  It  cannot  be,  that  the  word  of  God  hath 
"  failed  of  effect."  This,  however,  is  not  the  version  adopted  by 
our  own  translators.  They  understood  the  words  as  they  were 
understood  by  every  Father,  we  believe,  who  has  referred  to  the 
passage  ;  and  they  have,  accordingly,  rendered  them, — "  Not  as 

16  Venn— Book  of  the  New  Covenant. 

"  ihough  the  word  of  God  had  taken  none  effect."  And  that  this 
is  the  rt)ncct  sense,  in  our  hnnible  jndgnient,  is  indisputable. 
We  are,  therefore,  (luite  nnahk^  to  s}'mpathisc  with  the  confidence 
which  has  prompted  Mr.  Penn  to  introduce  this  momentous 
•  haii-^e  of  nuaniiit,'  into  the  text  of  his  Revision  :  and,  until  some 
niiiihtier  aulhoritv  shall  come  to  our  relief,  we  must  be  content  to 
striii;-;le  with  the  difficulty  imposed  by  the  text  as  it  now  stands  ; 
and  as  it  has  certainly  stood  from  the  time  of  Irenaeus  to  the  pre- 
sent hour. 

Hut  IMr.  Penn  has  girded  himself  up  to  another  adventure, 
still  more  hazardous,  if  possible,  than  that  which  we  have  just 
been  eunteniplating.  He  is  dissatisfied  with  the  received  reading 
of  Matth.  xi.  12.  The  text  of  which,  as  given  by  all  the  Greek 
manuscripts,  runs  thus, — 'Atto  S=  tujv  Yi[j.spwv'laoavvou  tov  'BuTtTKXTOu, 
twg  oifiTi,  r;  jSu(n\elci  rdSv  ovpavcov  BIAZETAI,  xa)  /3ja(rT«»  ap7ra?0U(7<v 
aJnj'v.  The  following  is  the  parallel  passage  in  Luke,  xvi.  16, — 
'O  vo'jtioc  xat  01  -Kpo^Yjcn  ewe  'Icuxvvou'  am  tots  rj  /3acr»Ae/«  tou  Qsov 
ETArrEAIZETAI,  xa»  7r«j  slj  «ut^v  /3ja?£T««.  A  comparison  of 
these  two  passages  with  each  other  suggests  to  Mr.  Penn  the 
absolute  necessity  of  substituting  for  the  word  |3ja?sT««  in  St. 
!Matthew,  some  w  ord  or  other  corresponding,  in  sense,  to  the  word 
vjuyyzKi^iTon  in  St.  Luke.  Now,  in  the  first  place,  we  confess 
ourselves  quite  unable  to  discern  any  such  necessity.  The  sense 
of  both  passages,  as  they  stand,  is  essentially  the  same.  The  ob- 
ject of  our  Lord  apparently  was,  to  present  a  contrast  between 
the  spirit  of  the  Jewish  Dispensation  and  the  spirit  of  the  Chris- 
tian Dispensation.  Up  to  the  time  of  John,  the  law  and  the 
prophets  were  in  the  ascendant.  During  their  predominance,  the 
elect  of  God  were  one  peculiar  race;  and,  to  them,  their  glorious 
privileges  were  in  the  nature  of  an  inheritance.  But  it  is  not  so 
with  the  kingdom  of  God.  A  very  different  order  of  things  has 
now  arisen.  They  who  seek  a  part  or  lot  in  the  Messiah's  king- 
dom, must  seek  ir  rather  in  the  spirit  of  conquerors,  than  of  heirs. 
Men  must  no  longer  think  of  stepping  into  it,  as  a  thing  to  which 
they,  exclusively,  were  born.  They  must  struggle,  as  multitudes 
are  now  struggling,  to  force  their  way  into  it.  They  must  win  it 
by  a  strong  personal  effort.  If  they  attain  to  it  at  all,  it  must  be 
(to  use  the  language  of  our  own  law)  not  by  inheritance,  but  by 
purchase.  Each  man  must  acquire  it  for  himself,  without  reliance 
on  the  merits,  or  the  privileges,  of  his  forefathers.  And,  more 
than  this,  the  whole  world,  without  distinction  of  families,  or 
tribes,  is  now  openly  invited  to  this  holy  and  blessed  enterprise. 
Such,  as  we  humbly  apprehend,  is  the  true  spirit  of  this  passage. 
And  the  only  difference  between  Matthew  and  Luke  is  this, — 
that  Matdiew  dwells,  with  emphatic  repetition,  upon  this  dis- 

Perm — Book  of  the  Neio  Covenant.  17 

tinctive  peculiarity  of  the  Gospel,  as  contrasted  with  the  Law 
and  the  Prophets;  whereas  Luke  first  introduces  the  general 
proclamation  of  the  gracious  tidings.  And,  if  so,  where  is  the 
necessity  for  a  violent  process  of  eniendatory  criticism  upon  the 
received  text  ? 

But,  secondly,  let  the  necessity  be  what  it  may,  we  greatly 
doubt  whether  any  master  of  eniendatory  criticism  will  be  pre- 
vailed upon  to  listen,  with  common  patience,  to  the  expedient 
proposed  by  Mr.  Penn.  St.  Luke,  he  tells  us,  has  the  word 
svayysKii^sTui,  in  his  report  of  this  saying  of  our  Lord.  And, 
therefore,  some  word  of  similar  import  must  be  found,  to  replace 
the  erroneous  reading  of  /Sia^sraj  in  St.  Matthew.  The  manu- 
scripts, it  is  true,  help  us  to  no  such  substitution.  But,  then,  we 
are  admonished  that  the  manuscripts  abound  in  abbreviated  forms 
of  writing;  and  that,  consequently,  we  are  at  liberty  to  supply, 
for  /3(a^;-Tai,  any  appropriate  word  which  begins  with  /3  and  ends 

with  Ta<,  (/3 Ta») !     Now,  such  an  appropriate  word,  we  are 

further  fissured,  is  irresistibly  suggested  by  certain  passages  of 
the  Evangelists,  in  which  the  Baptist  is  styled  the  voice  of  one 
crying  in  the  wilderness, — <$a)v»j  BOI2NTOS,  k.t.K.  For,  if  the 
herald  of  Christ's  sovereignty  be  thus  designated,  why  should  not 
the  jjroclamation  of  his  reign  be  adverted  to  in  similar  lan- 
guage ?  And  how  then  can  we  hesitate  to  read  the  passage  thus, 
— UTio  Tcuv  rjfJispwv  Icoavvou,  ecti^  «fT<,  r;  /3ao"iAsj«  toJv  oupavcov  BOATAI, 
— "  the  kingdom  of  heaven  is  cried  or  proclaimed?"  Now  we 
ask  once  more, — can  this  hardihood  of  change  be  brought  within 
the  due  limits  between  timidity  and  presumption?  Will  the 
critical  authorities  endure  this  daring  defiance  of  confederate 
manuscripts  ?  And,  lastly,  is  Mr.  Penn  certain,  after  all,  that 
/3oaoj«.a<  can  be  legitimately  used  in  the  precise  sense  for  which 
he  here  contends  i  The  passive  verb  may,  doubtless,  be  em- 
ployed to  denote  that  a  thing  is  loudly  and  generally  spoken  of 
by  multitudes  ;*  and  thus,  (Ss^orii^svo;  may  signify  celebrated. 
But  it  is  incumbent  on  Mr.  Penn  to  satisfy  us  that/3o«£rS«»  is  ever 
used,  where  the  meaning  is,  that  a  thing  is  openly  proclaimed  or 
taught  by  individuals. 

We  have  already  adverted  to  Mr.  Penn's  unbounded  venera- 
tion for  the  Vatican  manuscript.  One  notable  instance  of  this 
occurs  in  the  Acts,  vii.  38.  In  that  passage  the  Vatican,  and  the 
Vatican  alone,  gives  the  word  l^eAs^axo,  instead  of  the  received 
reading  lU^aro.  The  discourse  of  Stephen,  it  will  be  recollected, 
relates  to  Moses,  as  the  prophet  and  lawgiver  of  Israel ;  of  whom 

*  "  Boao-fltti  Graecis  res  dicitur,  quae  sermonibus  omnium  celebratur  :    v.  c.  Tlieopli. 
"  Charact.  viii,  ^."     Schlensner,  Lex.  Nov.  Test. 

NO.  XLIII. — JULY,   1837.  C 

Ig  Venn— Book  of  the  New  Covenant. 

it  may  be  said,  willi  unqucslioiiablc  tiiitli,  that  he  received  the 
lively  oracles,  to  give  unto  the  people.  There  is  nothing,  there- 
fore, in  the  text,  as  it  stands,  whicli  cries  out  for  alteration.,  in  obedience  to  the  Vatican,  although  not  followed 
by  a  single  other  niamiseript,  e^sXi^aro  is  substituted  for  ISg^aro, 
as  referrnig,  not  to  Moses,  but  to  the  angel  mentioned  in  the 
same  verse!  The  passage  is,  accordingly,  thus  rendered  in  the 
Revision, — "  The  same  Moses  is  he  who  was  in  the  congregation 
"  in  the  wilderness,  with  the  angel  that  spake  to  him  and  to  our 
"  fathers  on  the  Mount  Sinai,  and  that  chose  out  living  oracles,  to 
"  give  unto  us.''  The  living  oracles,  Mr.  Penn  conceives  to  be 
the  Ten  Commandments,  as  distinguished  from  the  ordinances  sub- 
sequently imposed,  the  "  statutes  which  were  not  good,  and  the 
"  juilgments  whereby  they  should  not  live."  And  these  living 
oracles,  he  maintains,  are  here  pointedly  described  as  chosen  out, 
or  selected,  by  Jehovah  himself.  Now,  undoubtedly,  the  Deca- 
logue might,  iitly  enough,  be  described  as  a  collection  of  rules, 
selected  by  the  Almighty  himself,  for  revelation  to  the  Israelites. 
And  if  the  reading,  I^sXs^«to,  were  sufficiently  supported,  the 
sense  here  given  to  the  words  would  be  altogether  unexception- 
able. But,  still,  we  are  unable  to  understand  why  the  solitary 
dictate  even  of  the  Vatican  manuscript  itself,  should  be  allowed 
to  force  such  an  alteration  into  the  text;  especially,  when  no 
essential  advantage  is  to  be  gained  by  it.  The  common  reading- 
leaves  us  in  full  possession  of  the  fact,  that  God  alone  was  the 
author  of  the  living  oracles;  although  it  points  to  Moses  as  the 
person  commissioned  to  receive  and  to  communicate  them. 

Again, — in  the  latter  part  of  v.  6,  Rom.  xi.,  the  received  text 
has,  enu  to  egyov  ouxs'tj  l(j-Tiv"EPrON.  Not  so  the  Vatican:  for, 
there,  the  reading  is,  Ittsj  to  spyov  ouxs'tj  eo-tj  XAPIS.  And,  even 
so  reads  the  submissive  and  faithful  critic  !  The  fruits  of  his 
obedience  are  manifest  in  his  translation, — ''  but,  if  it  be  of 
"  works,  then  it  is  not  of  grace,  since  the  work  is  not  a  grace;" 
that  is,  as  he  paraphrases  the  sentence  in  his  note,  the  work  is 
not  gratuitous,  but  claims  a  return.  The  passage,  it  cannot  be 
denied,  is  sufficiently  perplexed,  with  either  reading;  so  much  so, 
that  one  would  almost  be  glad  to  follow  the  Vulgate,  which  omits 
the  words  altogether,  and  concludes  the  translation  of  the  sen- 
tence with  "  alioquin,  gratia  non  est  gratia."  But  if  the  words 
are  to  remain,  we  are  unable  to  perceive  what  improvement  is 
eftected  by  the  alteration  contended  for.  The  reasoning  of  the 
Apostle  seems  to  be  this: — the  election  {hKoyij,  of  which  he  had 
been  speaking),  is  either  an  unmerited  grace,  or  it  is  the  reward 
of  meritorious  works.  If  it  be  of  grace,  it  cannot  be  in  the 
nature  of  a  recompence  for  the  doings  of  the  elect;  for,  if  it  were. 

Penn — Book  of  the  New  Covenant.  19 

then  the  boon  bestowed,  however  precious  in  itself,  would  no 
longer  be  a  favour,  properly  so  called.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  it 
is  conferred  in  consideration  of  good  works  performed,  it  cannot 
be  in  the  nature  of  a  blessing  gratuitously  vouchsafed;  for,  in 
that  case,  what  are  called  works  would  be  stripped  of  all  desert, 
and  would  no  longer  be  entitled  to  the  name.  It  is  manifest, 
that,  throughout  the  whole  passage,  grace  on  the  part  of  God,  is 
contrasted  with  works  on  the  part  of  man.  But,  if  we  are  to  obet/ 
the  infallible  manuscript,  the  word  %ap»?  must  be  introduced  at 
the  close  of  the  passage,  entirely  with  reference  to  the  acts  of 
man,  and  not  at  all  with  reference  to  the  counsels  of  God.  The 
authority  ought  indeed  to  be  overwhelming,  which  should  recon- 
cile us  to  such  strange  disturbance  of  the  order  of  the  Apostle's 

It  happens,  sometimes,  however,  that  the  critic  is  tempted  to 
rebel  against  the  Vatican  MS.  itself.  Among  other  instances, — 
his  allegiance  fails  him  at  the  9th  verse  of  Hebr.  ii.  In  common 
•with  the  received  text,  the  Vatican  reads  as  follows, — oirctig, 
XAPITI  ©EOT,  vTTsp  TTUvTos  ysvafiTai  davarou.  It  must  be  con- 
fessed that  the  words,  %ap«T<  0sou,  read  very  much  as  if  they  did 
not  originally  belong  to  the  context.  Not  that  they  convey  a 
sense  in  any  respect  objectionable  ;  but,  that  the  sense  is  conveyed 
in  an  abrupt,  and  somewhat  incoherent  manner.  But,  be  this  as 
it  may,  their  title  to  a  place  there,  rests  upon  the  authority  of  all 
the  manuscripts,  with  the  single  exception  of  Cod.  53,  Wetst. 
And  even  this  manuscript  does  not  leave  their  place  unoccupied; 
but  instead  of  XAPITI  ©EOT,  it  gives  XaV\%  ©EOT;  which 
reading  is  confidently  adopted  by  Mr.  Penn,  in  utter  disregard 
of  the  authority  of  the  Vatican.  He  is  emboldened  to  this  act 
of  resistance,  by  the  circumstance,  that  "in  Griesbach's  collation 
"  of  Origen's  readings  of  this  passage,  that  father  has  %c«;pjj,  as 
"  the  standard  reading, y/te  several  times;  though  he  observes,  in 
"  one  place,  that,  in  some  copies,  it  is  written  ^a^ni."  That  this 
latter  reading,  however,  had  pretty  generally  established  itself  in 
the  following  century,  appears  from  the  words  of  Jerome, — 
"  Christus,  grrtfrn  Dei,  sive,  ut  in  quibusdam  exemplaribiis  legitur, 
"  absque  Deo,  pro  omnibus  mortuus  est." 

Somehow  or  other,  we  feel  an  almost  insuperable  repugnance 
to  the  admission  of  this  reading,  ^wpi^  QsoU ;  in  spite  of  Origen, 
and  his  fivefold  repetition  of  it.  There  is  an  odd,  suspicious,  intru- 
sive appearance  about  it.  We  are  strongly  tempted  to  the  sur- 
mise that  its  original  position  must  have  been  in  the  margin  of 
some  very  old  manuscript;  and  that  it  was  placed  there,  as  a  brief 
note,  by  the  pious  solicitude  of  its  possessor.  The  good  man 
might  be  smitten  with  a  desire  to  guard  against  the  notion  that 

c  2 

£Q  Ponii— 7>o(»A-  oj'lhc  New  Covenant. 

the  Dcitv  roiilil  ta<^U'  of  detilh,  and  bo  party  to  the  sufferings  of 
the  man  .Itstis;  or  ilsc,  to  intimate  that,  for  some  time  during 
the  iruiifixion,  there  was  an  actual  interruption  of  the  communion 
l)tt\vrin  the  divine  and  human  natures.  The  words,  ;)(^a)|j»5  Gsoo, 
•' (ijuirt  from  doJ,''  would  he  sufficient  for  the  purpose  of  such  a 
inarsiinal  memorandum:  and,  from  the  margin,  they  might,  in  the 
course  of  successive  transcriptions,  have  easily  crept  into  the 
text  of  certain  manuscripts;  and,  perhaps,  may  have  supplanted 
the  ori«nual  reading.  That  such  things  have  happened,  seems 
bevond  all  reasonable  doubt:  although  the  severest  caution  is 
ai\va\s  necessary  in  the  application  of  this  conjectural  method  of 
cure,"  to  ti(fcctcd  passages,  [n  the  present  instance,  no  thought 
of  any  such  method  of  cure  has  occurred  to  Mr.  Penn.  Without 
the  slightest  hesitation,  he  has  re-instated  the  reading  of  Origen; 
and  has  translated  it,  accordingly,  in  his  Revision,  thus, — "  that 
"  he  might  taste  of  death,  apart  from  God,  for  every  one."  Our 
persuasion,  nevertheless,  is,  that  if  he  had  been  one  of  King 
James's  translators,  and  if  that  body  had  been  in  possession  of  all 
our  present  materials,  he  would  have  found  himself  in  a  decided 
minority  as  to  this  matter.  \\  ith  them,  the  overpowering  consent 
of  manuscripts  would,  most  probably,  have  been  irresistible;  and 
the  reading,  x^qiri  Q;o5,  would  have  retained  the  post  which  it,  at 
present,  occupies  in  their  version. 

But  we  must,  now,  proceed  to  the  consideration  of  another 
demand  on  our  obedience  to  the  authority  of  the  Vatican  manu- 
script, supported,  as  it  is,  by  the  next  most  ancient  copy,  the 
Ali'xaiuhian.  The  reply  of  Agrippa  to  Paul,  (Acts,  xxvi.  28,) 
— Almost  thou  persuadest  me  to  l)e  a  Christian — is  in  the  mind  of 
every  reader,  and  every  hearer,  of  the  Scriptures.  It  is,  as  Mr. 
Penn  observes,  one  of  "  our  favourite  texts."  Nevertheless,  he 
tells  us  tliat,  in  its  present  form,  we  must  renounce  it  for  ever. 
And  this  he  does  without  the  slightest  remorse  oi-  regret,  because 
the  sentiment  it  expresses  is  one,  to  which,  even  if  he  entertained 
it.  King  Agrippa  would  never  have  ventured  to  give  utterance,  in 
such  an  auditory;  sitting,  as  he  then  was,  with  Festus,  and  Ber- 
nice,  and  surrounded  with  the  pomp  and  circumstance  of  a  hea- 
then court. 

Now — without  stopping  to  consider  the  possible  influence  of 
Festus,  and  Bernice,  and  the  other  illustrious  personaoes  who 
might  be  present  on  tiie  occasion — we  shall  proceed  to  discuss 
the  question,  purely  as  an  affair  of  criticism  and  philolooy.  The 
reading,  then,  of  the  (extus  receptus  being, — '£y  oKIjm  /xs  tts/Ssjj 
Xgio-Tjavov  y=v=o-9«(, — the  Vatican,  instead  of  y?vso-9aj  reads  Troiijo-ai. 
So,  likew'ise,  does  the  Alexandrian;  but,  instead  of  7r=/5f(j,  it  o-jves 
iTciflr;.     Now,  says   Mr.  Penn,  only  detach  the  final  j  from  irddsti. 

Penn — Book  of  the  New  CoveiuDii.  21 

in  the  Vatican  text,  and  supply  a  dasli  over  the  o",  and  tlien  we 
shall  have  ttsISsi  cF,  which,  written  at  length,  will  be  ttsISbl  as. 
The  result  of  this  simple  process  will  be  the  following  readnig — 
'Ev  rjXlyui[x.s7:elSzi  <r=  XgJOTjavoy  7toiy\(Tai\  which  Mr.  Penn  translates 
thus, — '•  Art  thou  persuaded  that  thou  wilt  soon  make  me  a 
"  Christian?"  And  if,  with  the  Atexandrian,  the  word  <r=  is 
altogether  omitted  after  Tzilhi,  or  ttsjSjj,  the  import  will  be  just  the 
same.  The  reply  ascribed,  by  Mr.  Penn,  to  St.  Paul,  is, — 
"  I  would  to  God  tiiat,  soon  or  late,  {km  Iv  oAiyw,  xui  sv  ttoXXm), 
"  not  only  thou,  but  all  who  hear  me  this  day,  may  become  such 
"  as  I  am,  except  these  bonds." 

Here,  then,  arise  three  questions.  First,  is  the  collocation  of 
the  words,  which  this  emendation  puts  into  the  mouth  of  Agrippa, 
satisfactory  to  the  mind  and  ear  ?  To  us  it  appears  that,  in  order 
to  bear  the  sense  assigned  to  it  by  Mr.  Penn,  the  passage  should 
run  thus, — 'Ev  6\lyu)  ttsI^si  <7s  Xgia-riuyov  (xs  '!:oir\crui ; 

Secondlj/,  is  it,  after  all,  necessary  to  bow  down  before  the  au- 
thority of  the  Vatican  and  Alexandrian  manuscripts ;  and  to  read 
7ro»rjo-a»,  instead  of  ysv=a-9ai,  with  as  much  confidence  as  if  we  had 
the  sacred  autograph  itself  before  our  eyes  ^.  We,  at  all  events, 
are  by  no  means  prepared  for  capitulation.  The  Vatican,  we  will 
suppose,  was  written  about  the  middle  of  the  fourth  century. 
]3ut,  whatever  may  be  the  respect  due  to  this  venerable  antiquity, 
it  must  not  close  our  eyes  to  the  undoubted  fact  that  ysveVSaj  was 
still  a  current  reading,  at  a  period  not  much  later  than  that:  for 
yjvio-Saj  is  actually  the  reading  of  Chrysostom.*  And,  if  it  should 
appear,  that  the  Vatican  was  not  written  till  the  middle  of  the 
fifth  century,  ygv=V9aj  will  be  the  more  ancient  reading  of  the  two. 

But,  thirdli/,  there  remains  a  much  more  important  question 
still  to  be  determined  ;  namely,  whether  the  phrase  Iv  oA/yw  will 
properly  bear  the  signification  given  to  it  by  our  authorized  ver- 
sion,— "  almost  thou  persuadest,  &c.,  &c.  ?"  That  the  phrase 
is  good  Attic  Greek,  is  unquestionable :  for  it  occurs  in  Plato, 
(Apolog.  Socr.  s.  7),  where  Socrates,  in  speaking-  of  the  poets, 
observes,  syvcov  ouv  au,  x«j  Tisqi  tmv  TroirjTciov,  sv  oXlyco,  touto,  x.t.  X. 
But,  even  here,  strange  as  it  may  seem,  the  commentators  are  not 
agreed  as  to  the  import  of  the  words  sv  oklyco.  Most  usually, 
however,  it  is  supposed  to  signify,  "  in  a  short  time."  And,  if 
that  be  its  true  signification  here,  the  reply  of  Agrippa  may,  after 
all,  be  nothing  more  than  an  expression  of  somewhat  scornful 
and  splenetic  impatience,  at  the  haste  and  eagerness  of  the 
Apostle.  And,  on  that  supposition,  the  dialogue  will  run  thus: 
St.  Paul. — '"  King  Agrippa,  believestthou  the  Prophets  ?  I  know 

*  Horn.  iii.  Acts,  ad  loc. 

22  .  Penii— 7?(ioA-  of  the  New  Covenant. 

••llKiiil.oubolKvost."  Agiippa.—"  Why,  Ihou  art  for  persuading 
•'  UK'  to  become  siuUIcmiIv  a  Cluistian  :"  or,  (according  to  another 
interpretation  of  the  phrase  ev  oKlyco,)—"  In  short,  thou  art  for 
"  peisuadinu;  nie  to  become  a  Christian  !" 

It  is  remarkable,  that  Chrysostom  affirms  the  x\postle  to  have 
been  betrayed  into  a  mistake  of  Agrippa's  real  meaning,  by  his 
own  want  of  famiharity  with  the  proprieties  of  the  Greek  lan- 
guage, lie  supposes  that  St.  Paul  confounded  the  expression 
?v  6\lyu),  shortly,  with  e^  oKlyov,  almost;  and  that  he  replied  ac- 
cordingly. The  words  of  his  reply,  x«»  iv  oXlycu,  xa)  sv  ttoKKco, 
certainly  atlbrd  some  countenance  to  this  assertion ;  or,  at  all 
events,  they  seem  to  show  that  there  was  some  ambiguity  in  the 
expression,  which  the  Apostle  seized  upon,  and  turned  to  his  ad- 
vantage, in  his  answer  :  "  I  would  to  God  that,  not  only  thou, 
"  but"  also  all  that  liear  me  this  day,  were,  both  in  little,  and  in 
"  «au7?,— (that  is,  both  almost  and  altogether) — such  as  I  am, 
"  except  these  bonds."  For,  had  St.  Paul  intended  to  express 
a  wish  that  all  present  might,  "  soon  or  lute,'  become  as  he  was, 
his  words,  surely,  would  have  been  H  Iv  oXiyco,  H  sv  tvoKXco,  and 
not  KAI. 

On  the  whole,  then,  if  ever  a  revision  of  our  translation  should 
be  undertaken  by  authority,  it  may  become  necessary  to  consider, 
gravely,  whether,  or  not.  King  James's  divines  have  failed  to 
seize  the  true  sense  of  this  passage.  And  if  it  should  be  thought 
that  they  have  failed,  it  will  evidently  be  a  matter  of  comparatively 
small  importance,  whether  we  retain  the  word  yevscrQoii,  or  adopt 
the  reading,  Tj-oiijcrai,  from  the  Vatican  and  Alexandrian.  For  it 
can  signify  but  little,  whether  the  words  of  Agrippa  be, — **  Art 
*'  thou  persuaded  that  thou  canst  suddenly  make  a  Christian  of 
*'  me  ?"  or,  "  thou  wouldst  persuade  me  suddenly  to  become  a 
"  Christian  !"  The  whole  will  mainly  depend  upon  the  true  im- 
port of  the  expression,  Iv  ohlyco. 

Among  the  conjectural  attempts  of  Mr.  Penn,  there  are  few 
wliich  demand  more  cautious  consideration  than  his  dealing  with 
the  celebrated  text,  (Matt.  xvi.  18,)  which  forms,  as  it  were,  the 
chief  foundation  stone  of  the  fabric  of  Romish  supremacy.  The 
received  text  is,  Kayco  U  <toi  Asyw,  on  (tv  si  Uhpog.  Now,  the 
three  latter  words,  he  apprizes  us,  in  the  uncial,  continuous,  and 
abbreviated  form  of  writing,  would  appear  thus,  CTEIIIC.  And 
this  compend,  as  he  maintains,  is  resolvable,  either  into  CT  EI 
nC ;  or,  into  CT  EinC  :  the  one  of  these  being  equivalent  to  CT 
EI  Uet^oC  ;  the  other  to  CT  ElDaC.  If  the  former  be  the  true 
reading,  the  Romanists  will  continue  in  possession  of  a  weapon, 
whicii  they  have  most  portentously  abused.     If  the  latter,   the 

Penii — Book  of  the  New  Covenant.  23 

weapon  will  be  wrested  from  their  hands  for  ever :  since,  in  that 
case,  the  reply  of  our  Lord  will  be,  (as  Mr.  Penn  has  rendered  it 
in  his  Revision,)  "  and  I  moreover  tell  thee,  that  thou  hast  said;" 
that  is,  (according  to  the  well  known  Hebraism,)  thou  hast  said 
the  truth, — thou  hast  answered  rightly, — in  declaring  that  I  am 
the  Christ,  the  Son  of  the  Living  God  :  "  and  on  this  rock  will  I 
"  build  my  Church,  &c."  Thus,  at  least,  we  suppose,  Mr.  Penn 
would  reason.  For,  though  he  professes  to  discuss  the  question 
*'  without  any  reference  to  controversy,"  it  can  scarcely  be  ima- 
gined that  he  considers  the  issue  of  his  attempt  as  a  matter  of 
small  moment,  with  reference  to  the  claims  of  the  Pope,  as  the 
successor  of  St.  Peter. 

This  is  a  very  bold  venture  !  But  the  critic,  as  usual,  is  full 
of  confidence  ;  for  he  imagines  that  certain  traces  of  the  reading 
for  which  he  contends  are  to  be  found,  both  in  Augustine  and  in 
Jerome.  And,  first,  in  his  Sermon  In  Die  Pentecostis,  (torn.  v. 
p.  1097),  the  words  are  thus  cited  and  explained  by  Augustine, 
"  £Jt  ego  dico  tihi,  quia  tu  dixisti  ; — (mihi  dixisti,  audi ;  dedisti 
"  confessionem.  Recipe  benedictionem,  ergo  ;) — Et  ego  dico  tibi, 
"  TU  ES  Petrus  ;  et  super  ham  petram,  &c."  The  citation  and 
commentary  of  Jerome  are  much  to  the  same  eflfect, — "  Et  ego 
"  dico  tibi,  quia  tu  dixisti  (tu  es  Christus,  filius  Dei  vivi),  et 
"  ego  dico  tibi,  (non  sermone  casso,  quia  meum  dixisse,  fecisse 
"  est),  quia  tu  es  Petrus;  et  super  hanc  petram,  &c."  And,  from 
all  this,  he  infers  that  two  distinct  readings,  (CY  EIIIAC,  and  CY 
EI  OETPOC,)  must  have  grown  up,  out  of  the  one  original  and 
abbreviated  reading  CYEIIIC ;  and,  that  both  these  readings  had; 
somehow  or  other,  in  process  of  time,  established  themselves  in 
the  text.  Of  one  of  the  readings  in  question,  CY  EIITAC,  he 
fancies  that  he  sees  a  translation  in  the  words  of  Augustine,  and 
of  Jerome,  tu  dixisti.  And,  since  only  one  of  the  two  can 
really  have  been  spoken  by  our  Lord,  he  conceives  himself  at 
liberty  to  reject  that  to  which  such  lofty  importance  has  always 
been  attached  by  the  Church  of  Rome. 

Surely,  the  critic  is  walking,  here,  in  the  midst  of  shadows  ! 
The  words,  tu  dixisti  would,  undoubtedly,  be  a  correct  version  of 
cru  slTTCis.  But  the  mere  occurrence  of  those  words,  in  the  com- 
mentary of  the  two  Fathers,  can  afford  no  substantial  ground 
whatever  for  the  conclusion,  that  they  actually  had  <xv  sIttus  before 
them,  in  the  text.  In  a  strain  of  familiar  exposition,  they  are 
showing  the  connexion  between  the  confession  of  Peter  and  the 
the  reply  of  our  Lord  :  "  As  thou  hast  said  unto  me.  Thou  art 
"  the  Christ,  &c.  so  do  I  now  say  unto  thee.  Thou  art  Peter,  &c." 
As  for  the  repetition  of  the  words,  et  ego  dico  tibi,  it  is  just  nothing 
more  than  what  might  be  naturally  expected  to  occur,  where  the 

£4  Vi.\\\\—Book  of  ihc  New  Covaiant. 

ronmuntatoi  usi-s  ;i  r..llo(Hii:il  iVfcdoin,  and  explains  as  he  goes 
aloii".  1 1  is  iiilr  to  suppose  tliat  any  sucli  repetition  was  found  in 
the  tt»py  either  of  AugUf-tine,  or  of  Jerome. 

nesitk's,  even  if  the  reading  cu  iliiuc,  were  once  irresistibly 
established  to  the  exelusion  of  the  other,  we  do  not  know  that 
the  substitution  would  very  much  weaken  the  Papal  pretensions, 
so  far  as  they  can  be  founded  on  this  single  text.  In  order  to 
judg*'  of  this,  we  must  look  to  the  language  in  which  our  Lord 
"aetiiailv  .spoke,  and  not  merely  to  the  language  in  which  his  words 
are  recorded.  How,  then,  does  the  case  stand?  In  the  early 
part  of  his  ministry,  a  n)an  called  Simon  is  presented  to  our 
Lord,  who,  immediately  on  seeing  him,  said.  Thou  art  Simon,  the 
son  of  Jona :  but,  henceforth,  thou  shall  be  called  Kep/tas,  (the 
Syriac  word  for  Rock).  About  two  years  after  this,  the  same 
man,  now  known  by  the  name  of  Kep/ias,  openly  proclaims  Jesus 
to  be  the  Christ,  the  Son  of  the  Living  God.  In  reply  to  this, — 
(and  here,  for  a  moment,  we  will  adopt  the  reading  of  Mr.  Penn,) 
— Jesus  savs,  "  I  tell  thee  thou  hast  spoken  truly;  and  on  this 
"  Kephas  (Rock),  will  I  build  my  Church."  We  are  unable  to 
discern  how  the  advantages,  which  the  See  of  Rome  professes  to 
derive  from  this  dialogue,  would  be  fatally  impaired  by  this  repre- 
sentation o(  it.  We  should  still  have  our  Lord  pronouncing  his 
judgment,  by  a  significant  allusion  to  the  name  which  he  himself 
had  (ilreadi/  assigned  to  the  Apostle.  And  it  cannot  be  said  that 
the  words,  cru  =1  Uirgoc,  (Kephas),  which  Mr.  Penn  is  anxious  to 
get  rid  of,  are  absolutely  indispensable  to  the  clearness  of  that 
allusion.  And  if  so,  the  critic  has  been  tampering  with  the  pas- 
sage to  no  purpose.  We  have  only  to  add,  that  the  whole  will 
become  more  intelligible,  when  we  recollect,  that  the  one  word 
Kephas,  in  Syriac,  (like  Pierre  in  French),  corresponds  to  either 
ot  the  Greek  words,  DsTpoj,  or  TfsTpa. 

But,  lastly,  Mr.  Penn  has  hitherto  produced  nothing  but  his 
own  assertion  to  satisfy  us,  either  that  FlC  is  a  usual  compend  of 
nETPOC,  or  EinC  of  EIOAC  And,  unless  he  can  establish 
both  these  points,  his  whole  conjecture  must,  of  course,  fall  to 
the  ground.  Now,  it  is  certain  that  these  two  forms  of  abbre- 
viation are  not  among  those  which  are  enumerated  by  VVet- 
st^in  a^s  coiistantly  occurring  in  the  oldest  manuscripts  ;  such  as 
©C,  KC,  IC,  XC,  8vc.,  for  0EOC,  KTPIOC,  IHCOTC,  XPICTOC, 
&c.  And  we  would,  further,  remind  Mr.  Penn  of  the  protest 
put  forth  by  the  same  critic,  against  the  rashness  of  certain 
divines,  who,  whenever  they  met  with  a  difficulty,  which  they 
knew  not  how  otherwise  to  dispose  of,  resorted,  without  scruple, 
to  imaginary  modes   of  compendious  writing  in  the  MSS.,  as 

Penn — Book  of  the  Nezo  Cuvemmt.  25 

expedients  for  moulding  the  text  to  their  own  fancy  ;  or,  to  use 
his  own  piirase,  "  for  converting  the  Scripture  into  a  nose  of 
"  wax."  (VVetst.  Proleg.  p.  3.)  Our  conclusion,  therefore,  is, 
that  the  Pope  must  have  remained,  unshaken,  in  full  possession 
of  his  oecumenical  prerogatives,  if  they  had  never  been  assailed 
by  any  thing  more  formidable  than  this  experiment  of  our  faith- 
ful Protestant  critic  ! 

We  now  come  to  what  Mr.  Penn  himself  points  out  as  "  tiie 
"  most  important  circumstance  in  his  Revision," — the  restoration, 
to  St.  Matthew,  c.  xxvii.,  of  the  sentence  which  relates  to  the 
piercing  of  our  Saviour's  side.  His  note  upon  the  subject 
amounts  almost  to  a  dissertation  ;  through  the  whole  of  which  it 
is  impossible  for  us  to  attend  him.  The  following  are  the  prin- 
cipal grounds  on  which  he  justifies  this  startling  innovation  upon 
the  received  text: — 1.  The  passage  in  question  stands  in  this 
place,  in  the  two  most  ancient  surviving  manuscripts,  the  Vatican 
and  Ephrem.  2.  It  so  stood  in  the  copies  of  Diodorus,  Tatian, 
and  various  other  holy  fathers  ;  as  we  learn  from  Schol.  Cod.  72. 
3.  It  is  contained  in  the  ancient  Jerusalem-Syriac  and  Ethiopic 
versions.  4.  It  was  received  as  the  true  original  text  by  the  great 
Chrysostom,  whom  Barrow  entitles  the  Prince  of  Interpreters. 
5.  It  occupies  the  same  place  in  one  uncial,  and  five  other,  Greek 
manuscripts.  Its  disappearance  from  the  copies  of  the  early 
Greek  Church,  is  ascribed  by  Mr.  Penn  to  the  undue  influence 
of  a  false  criticism  of  Origen  ;  and  its  continued  banishment,  to 
the  anathema  of  the  Latin  Church  in  the  fourteenth  century. 
Lastly,  the  acquiescence  of  the  reforming  divines,  in  this  sentence 
of  expulsion,  is  attributed  by  him  to  their  want  of  acquaintance 
with  the  various  ancient  documents  which  have  since  been 
biought  to  light. 

The  text,  with  this  sentence  introduced,  appears  thus  in  the 
Revision : — "  The  rest  said.  Let  him  alone  ;  let  us  see  whether 
"  Elijah  will  come  to  save  him.  But  another,  taking  a  spear, 
"  pierced  his  side  :  and,  straightwai/,  there  came  forth  zcater  and 
'•'  blood.  And  Jesus,  crying  out  again,  with  a  loud  voice,  ex- 
"  pired."  So  that,  as  Mr.  Penn  maintains,  "  the  great  historical 
'*  tact  preserved  in  this  passage  is,  that  oiu'  Lord  received  the 
"  wound  of  the  spear  previously  to  his  death,  and  not  his  body, 
*'  after  his  spirit  had  relinquished  it." 

Now,  without  venturing  into  the  labyrinth  of  critical  research 
which  this  question  lays  open,  we  must  content  ourselves  with 
offering  one  or  two  brief  remarks.  First,  then,  it  is  extremely 
difficult  to  understand  by  what  inducement  any  bystander  could 
have  been  impelled  to  this  peculiar  act  of  violence.  One 
can  easily  comprehend  that   a  brutal  soldier,  on  finding  Jesus 

oQ  Penn — Book  of  the  Neio  Covenant. 

appaivntlv  tlcad,  should  pierce  his  side  with  a  spear,  in  order  to 
siv  ^^ht'th\•l  the  wound  \vould  be  followed  by  any  sign  of  sense 
uud  lifo;  and.  so,  to  reduce  the  matter  to  a  certanity.  But  Jesus 
was  tluii,  nianifcstlv,  alive  ;  for  he  had  recently  cried  out,  with  a 
loud  voice,— iuNokiiig  Elias,  as  the  hearers  imagined.  It  might, 
therefore,  be  naturally  expected  that  he  would  be  left  untouched, 
likr  the  'two  malefactors,  until  the  moment  should  arrive  for 
breaking  the  legs  of  all,  previously  to  their  removal   from  the 


But,  secondly,  we  are  quite  at  a  loss  to  perceive  how  the  nar- 
rative of  St.  Matdicw,  as  now  completed  and  restored,  can  be 
ntade  to  agree  with  that  of  St.  John ;  which,  in  the  common  ver- 
sion, is  as  follows  : — "  When  Jesus,  therefore,  had  received  the 
"  vinegar,  he  said,  It  is  finished  ;  and  he  bowed  his  head  and  gave 
"  up  the  ghost.  The  Jews,  therefore, — that  the  bodies  should 
*'  not  remain  upon  the  cross  on  the  sabbath  day, — besought 
"  Pilate  that  their  legs  should  be  broken,  and  that  they  might  be 
"  taken  away.  Then  came  the  soldiers,  and  brake  the  legs  of  the 
"  first,  and  of  the  other  that  was  crucified  with  him.  But,  when 
"  they  came  to  Jesus,  and  saw  that  he  was  dead  already,  they 
"  brake  not  his  legs :  but  one  of  the  soldiers  with  a  spear  pierced 
"  his  side,  and  forthwith  came  thereout  blood  and  water."  The 
difficulty,  however,  of  reconciling  this  statement  with  the  restored 
text  of  St.  Matthew,  gives  marvellously  small  embarrassment  to 
Mr.  Penn.  He  disposes  of  it  simply  by  the  substitution  of 
"for"  instead  of  *'  but"  at  the  beginning  of  the  last-cited  verse  ; 
thus — "  -For  one  of  the  soldiers  pierced"— (in  the  sense,  we  pre- 
sume, of  had  pierced) — "  his  side  with  a  spear  :"  as  if  this  ante- 
cedent fact  was  introduced  here,  by  the  Evangelist,  merely  in 
order  to  account  for  the  circumstance  that  Jesus  was  already 
dead.  Now,  in  the  original,  the  word  with  which  the  sentence 
begins  is  aXKa :  and  we  know  not  upon  what  authority  Mr.  Penn 
has  given  to  that  word  tlie  sense  expressed  by  the  English  causa- 
tive,/or.  Besides,  if  the  wound  had  been  inflicted  while  Jesus 
was  yet  alive,  it  is  inexplicably  strange  that  St.  John  should  have 
omitted  all  mention  of  so  important  and  remarkable  a  fact,  in 
the  passage  which  describes  his  dying  moments  ;  and  should  have 
introduced  it  afterwards,  in  this  indirect  and  incidental  manner, 
purely  to  explain  the  unusually  short  duration  of  the  Saviour's 
sufferings  upon  the  cross.  For  our  own  part,  therefore,  until  we 
shall  have  been  provided  with  a  satisfactory  solution  of  these  dif- 
ficulties, we  must  suspend  our  assent  to  the  insertion  of  this  pas- 
sage in  the  narrative  of  St.  Matthew. 

There  remains  a  very  ungracious  part  of  our  task  to  be  per- 
formed; namely,  the  exhibition  of  some  specimens  of  criticism. 

Venn-— Book  of  the  Neiv  Covenant,  27 

which  have  raised  up,  within  us,  certain  "  saucy  doubts  and  fears," 
relative  to  the  soundness  and  accuracy  of  our  critic's  scholarship ; 
to  say  nothing  of  the  correctness  of  his  taste.  Our  examples 
will  be  taken  almost  at  random.  And  we  shall  begin  with  his 
experiments  upon  the  Greek  verb  utts^w. 

This  verb,  he  tells  us,  in  its  genuine  and  primitive  sense,  sig- 
nifies averto,  procnl  teneo.  And  some  such  transitive  sense  does, 
undoubtedly,  belong  to  it,  when  used  to  signify  the  action  of  one 
person,  with  reference  to  others.  In  cases  of  this  description, 
its  meaning  may  be  expressed  by  the  English  word  "  withhold," 
or  "  hold  off;"  as  in  the  following  line — 008*  oys  Trgiv  Xoi[ji.olo 
^cipslag  ^eTgaj  acps^si.  But  Mr.  Penn  maintains  that  it  may,  like- 
wise, have  this  transitive  force,  when  used  to  denote  the  action  of 
a  person,  with  reference  to  himself.  And  he,  accordingly,  trans- 
lates Matth.  vi.  2,  aTTEp^oytr*  tov  [xia-Qov  uvtcuv — "  they  are  far  from 
their  reward  ;"  and  Luke,  vi.  24,  aTre^ers  tyjv  7ra^a>cA>]cr<v  u/^aJv — 
"  ye  are  far  from  your  consolation  :"  as  if  the  meaning  were,  that 
the  persons  spoken  of  kept  their  own  reward,  or  their  own  con- 
solation, at  a  distance  from  them.  Now,  to  our  ears,  this  does 
sound  absolutely  monstrous  !  We  are  extremely  curious  to  know 
how  Mr.  Penn  would  translate  the  Septuag.  Genesis,  xliii.  23, 
TO  agyvgiov  u/xcov  uTre^oo.  Would  he  say  that  the  steward  of 
Joseph's  house  meant  to  affirm  that  the  money  of  Joseph's 
brethren  was  Jar  from  him,  and  that  he  had  never  touched  a 
shekel  of  it  ?  If  he  should  say  this,  he  would  find  himself 
grievously  at  variance  with  the  original  Hebrew  ;  which,  literally 
rendered,  is,  i/oiir  money  came  to  me ;  that  is,  as  our  authorized 
translation  gives  it,  I  had  your  money. 

We  are  astonished  to  find  that  Mr.  Penn  was  not  scared  out 
of  this  strange  hallucination  by  the  following  passage,  Philipp. 
IV.  18,  'A-TTs^cu  Se  vccVTCi,  Ktxi  TTS^KTcrsvcu'  itsTrXripcoiuaij  ds^ixiJi,svos,  Traga. 
'E7rci<PpodiTov,  ra,  7r«g'  w/^wv.  But  he  faces  out  the  matter  boldly, 
and  translates  as  follows  : — **  Though  I  am  zoithout  all  things, 
"  yet  I  abound  ;  I  am  full,  now  that  1  have  received,"  &c.  Still 
more  wonderful  is  it  that  the  illusion  was  not  dissipated  by 
Philem.  15,  Ta^a.  ycig,  Sj«  toOto  s^wgla-Qri  7igo§  oogav,  hu  uimiov 
avTov  ccTTs^Yi;.  But  it  seems  clear  that  the  error  is  one  which  fire 
will  not  burn  out  of  him  :  for  thus  does  he,  most  inhumanly, 
mangle  the  beautiful  reflexion  of  the  aged  apostle  : — "  For,  did 
"  he  quit  thee  for  a  moment,  that  thou  shouldest  reject  him  for 
"  ever  ?" 

Never,  till  now,  did  we  hear  it  questioned  that  utto  gives  to  the 
transitive  verb  ex^'  ^^^  composition  with  it,  only  a  more  full  and 
emphatic  sense.  "Ep(^w  implies  possession,  simply.  ATrs^siv,  sig- 
nifies that  the  possessor  has  received  in  full,  from  the  proper 

28  1*11111  —/>(^o/.'  of'  t/ic  Mac  Covenant. 

.|ii:ii(.  1,  wliaUvii  \\;i>  due  or  expected,— that  he  has  carried  off 
with  hill)  the  whoU'  ol"  what  was  intended  for  him.  Thus,  in 
(uiiois,  the  steward  of  Joseph's  house  had  received  from  the 
Israelites  their  inonev,  to  the  hist  penny,  in  full  weight.  In 
Matthew,  and  Luke,  the  hypocrites  take  out  their  whole  recom- 
pense, and  the  wealthy  their  whole  comfort,  from  the  treasury  of 
this  world.  They  have  their  entire  portion  here,  but  there  re- 
mains no  "  bright  reversion"  for  them  hereafter.  Again,  St. 
Taul  had  got,  from  the  Philippians,  every  thing  he  could  desire. 
And,  lastly,  Philemon  had  lost  his  slave,  for  a  time,  that  he 
might  receive  him  back,  from  the  condition  of  a  fugitive,  as  his 
own  for  ever.  If  the  language  of  Matthew,  and  of  Luke,  had 
been  aTre^outri  tou  fxia-^ou,  the  verb  would  have  appeared  in  its 
neutral  sense  of  disto,  absiim  ;  and,  in  that  case,  the  passage 
would  have  been  correctly  rendered,  "  they  are  far  from  their 
"  reward."  And,  in  this  form,  too,  the  verb  might  certainly  be 
employed  to  signify  that  a  critic  or  a  commentator  was  far  trom 
the  trutii! 

The  following  passage  of  Mark,  xvi.  2,  is  read  by  Mr.  Penn, 
as  if  the  words  between  brackets  were  parenthetical, — Ka)  Xlav 
Trguit — (tj^c  fjiiuc  craSStxTcov  'ig^ovTui  stt]  to  ixvyjjj.s~iov) — avciTstXavTOs 
TOW  xjAi'ou :  which  he  renders  thus, — "  And,  on  the  first  day  of  the 
week,  long  before  tiie  rising  of  the  sun,  they  went  to  the  sepul- 
chre :"  as  if  the  word  tt^oj'/'  were  to  be  read  in  immediate  con- 
nexion with  avocTilXavTOi  to~j  yj\iou,  and,  also,  to  govern  it.  Now, 
in  the  tirst  place,  it  is  surely  quite  obvious  that  all  grammatical 
connexion  between  the  first  words  of  the  sentence  and  the  last,  is 
utterly  broken  off  by  the  interposition  of  the  parenthetic  words. 
And,  secondly,  it  is  equally  indisputable  that,  even  if  the  first 
words  and  the  last  were  in  close  juxta-position,  they  could  not 
have  been  connected  by  grammatical  regimen.  For,  who  ever 
heard,  before,  that  the  adverb  tt^coI  was  capable  of  governing  a 
genitive  case?  Mr.  Pemi,  indeed,  ventures  to  invest  it  with  this 
power,  on  the  authority  of  Pollux:  from  whom  he  produces,  in 
support  of  his  assertion,  the  expression  Trqm  TYJg  >JAjx/«$ — (trans- 
lated, by  him,  "  before  the  age  of  manhood"),  as  opposed  to  dvf/e 
TYJs  rjXtKiuc.  That  the  former  of  these  phrases  is  opposed  to  the 
latter,  is  certain.  But  it  is  equally  certain  that  their  respective 
meanings  are,  "  early  in  manhood,"  and,  "  late  in  manhood  :" 
that  is,  "  at  an  earlij,  or  a  laie,  period  of  manhood."  And,  after 
all,  what  can  be  the  necessity  for  this  defiance  of  the  Greek 
idiom  ?  The  words  Kiav  Trguit,  signify,  "  at  the  early  dawn  :"  and 
the  words,  avarr/Xavroj  tou  rjX/ou,  denote, — not,  indeed,  that  the 
sun  had  actually  appeared  above  the  horizon, — but,  that  he  had 
arrived  at  the  region  of  sun-rise  j  that  he  had  reached  the  eastern 

Penn — Book  of  the  New  Covenant.  29 

part  of  the  heavens,  in  which  he  was  soon  to  become  visible.  And 
all  this  is  expressed,  intelligibly  and  precisely  enough,  by  our  own 
version  "  very  early  in  the  morning — at  the  rising  of  the  sun." 

The  fifth  verse  of  John  i.  is  translated  by  Mr.  Penn — ''And 
the  light  shineth  in  the  darkness ;  and  the  darkness  overcame  him 
not."  And,  this  he  does,  partly  because  the  most  ancient  text  has 
the  masculine  pronoun  uutov,  and  not  the  neuter  auxo ;  and, 
partly,  because  xaraXajx^avo;  never  has  an  inactive  sense,  like  that 
of  comprehending,  as  equivalent  to  receiving,  or  admitting.  But 
what  is  there  in  the  words  of  the  Evangelist,  which  was  ever 
supposed  to  denote  a  mere  passive  reception,  or  admission? 
They  who,  having  once  been  darkness*  comprehend,  or  receive  ihe 
light  which  came  into  the  world,  are  surely  as  much  called  upon 
for  an  active  application  of  their  faculties,  as  St.  Paul  was,  when 
he  exclaimed  hcaxcu  Ss,  si  xa)  kutuXocSm  (Philipp.  iii.  12).  The 
whole  spirit  of  the  passage  is  extinguished  by  the  English  text  of 
the  Revision.  Look  onward  to  the  following  verses, —  He  was  in 
the  xuorld,  and  the  world  knew  him  not.  He  came  nnto  his  oicn, 
and  his  oivn  received  him  not.  And,  then  say,  whether  it  can  be 
doubted,  for  a  moment,  that  the  passage  in  question  is  correctly 
rendered  in  our  Translation.  Besides,  the  word  overcome  is 
strangely  selected  by  Mr.  Penn  to  express  his  own  sense  of  the 
words,  if  (as  he  tells  us),  it  is  similar  to  that  of  Macbeth,  when 
he  exclaims, — 

"  Can  such  things  be 

And  overcome  us,  like  a  summer's  cloud 

Without  our  special  wonder  ?" 

Or,  can  he  possibly  imagine  that  overcome  is  here  used  by  Shak- 
speare,  to  signify  the  same  thing  as  to  overpower,  or  to  ohscnre? 
Can  he  be  ignorant  that  the  wonder  expressed  by  Macbeth  is,  sim- 
ply, that  the  dreadful  sight,  which  he  had  beheld,  should  pass  over 
the  spectators,  like  one  of  the  most  ordinary  phenomena  of  nature? 
Another  peculiarity  of  the  Reviser  is,  that,  throughout,  he  in- 
sists upon  assigning  to  Six«(0(ruv»]  the  sense  of  "justification,"  and 
nothing  but  "  justification."  He  will  hear  of  no  righteousness, 
but  the  righteousness  which  is  by  faith  of  Jesus  Christ.  Accord- 
ing to  him,  it  became  the  Saviour, — not  "  to  fulfil  all  righteous- 
ness,"— but,  "  to  accomplish  the  whole  of  justification."  The 
worthies  celebrated  in  the  11th  chapter  of  Hebrews,  are  spoken 
of  by  him, — not  as  having  "  wrought  righteousness," — but,  as 
having  "  ^ai//efZ  justification."  We  cannot  plunge  into  the  laby- 
rinth of  confusion  opened  by  this  astounding  novelty.  We  must 
confine  ourselves  to  one  prodigious  instance  of  the  hardihood 
with  which  he  has  prosecuted  the  surmise  in  question.  We  have 
all  been  in  the  habits  of  believing  that  Paul  once  reasoned   before 

*  Ephes.  V.  8, 

30  Penn — Book  of  the  New  Covenant. 

Felix  of  righteousness,  of  temperance,  and  of  judgment  to  come; 

(TTJgl  hxxioa'jvrj;,  xx)  syxgxTsiag  xu\  rod  xglix,ciTog  rod  fj,sX\ovTog 
s(Tf(T$xi).  Hut  it  now  appears  tliat  we  have  been  quite  mistaken. 
St.  I'aul  reasoned  al)oiit  no  such  matters  as  righteousness  and 
temperanie.  lie  discoursed  concerning  "  his  {Christ's)  justifica- 
tion, ihtniniiw,  :i\n\  future  judgment!"  A  moment's  inspection 
of  the  original  will  show  how  utterly  inadmissible  is  the  insertion 
of  the  word  "  his,"  in  the  above  translation.  Besides, — even  if 
it  were  granted  that  itxoiio<y6vyi  may,  here,  possibly  denote  the 
juslitication  of  Christ, — how  can  it  be  shown  that  eyxgaTsla  sig- 
nifies his  dominioii^  The  only  dominion  which  this  word  implies, 
eitiier  in  Attic  or  Hellenistic  Greek,  is  the  dominion  which  a  man 
exercises  over  his  own  passions.  We,  at  least,  have  never  yet 
seen  an  instance  in  which  it  is  used  to  signify  dominion,  in  any 
other  than  this  figurative  sense.  Assuredly,  no  such  instance  has 
been  proiluced  by  Mr.  Penn.  He  tells  us,  indeed,  that  ditto, 
polenlin,  siipcrioritas,  are  among  the  numerous  significations 
assigned  to  syxgarslu.  Assigned  by  whom  ?  In  Stephen's  The- 
saurus, it  is  true,  the  word  "  ditio  "  does  occur,  as  one  meaning 
of  lyxquT-lci.  But  it  occurs  there,  without  a  single  authority  in 
support  of  that  interpretation  :  while  the  use  of  the  word  in  the 
sense  of  temperance,  or  self-control,  is  established  by  very  nume- 
rous citations ;  and  is  fully  confirmed  by  other  lexicographers.* 
Mr.  Penn,  therefore,  must  bring  forward  some  examples  to  justify 
his  version,  before  he  can  presume  to  hope  that  it  will  meet  with 
the  slightest  attention.  And  nothing  short  of  an  overpowering 
array  of  authorities  will  enable  him  to  overthrow  the  authorized 
translation  of  this  passage. 

Among  the  least  happy  adventures  of  our  Reviser,  we  cannot 
but  reckon  his  speculations  on  Acts,  i.  IS, — tt^^v^j  ysvo(isvog,  eXaxYjos 
[jiS(Toc.  These  words  are  thus  rendered  by  him, — "  casting  him- 
self headlong,  he  hung  in  the  midst.'^  In  vindication  of  this 
rendering,  he  tells  us,  that  Aaxjco  is  not  Greek;  and  that,  conse- 
quently, nothing  is  left  for  us  but  to  accept  it  as  a  Latin  word,  in 
a  Greek  disguise.  And,  since  we  find  the  verb  (^guysKKoM,  in  the 
New  Testament,  as  the  representative  oi  ftagello,  why — he  sug- 
gests— should  not  Kuxscti  stand  for  laqneo?  And,  further,  why 
should  not  s\uxyi<ts,  laqueavit,  stand  for  laqueavit  se?  And,  lastly, 
why  should  not  ju-sVoj  signify, — medius  inter  trabem  et  terram  "^ 

Of  the  controversies  which  have  been  raised  on  the  apparently 
conflicting  accounts  of  the  death  of  Iscariot,  as  given  by  St.  Mat- 
thew and  St.  Luke,  some  notion  may  be  formed  from  the  perusal 
of  the  notes  of  VVolfius  upon  the  subject.  If  we  were  under 
compulsion  to  make  our  choice,  among  the  variety  of  opinions 
*  Hesjchius,  Suidas,  Suicer. 


Penn — Book  of  the  New  Covenant.  31 

there  referred  to,  we  probably  should  select  that  which  was 
adopted  by  Casaubon,  by  Rapheliiis,  and,  also,  by  Wolfius  him- 
self;* namely,  that,  after  the  traitor  had  destroyed  himself  by 
hanging,  the  body  fell,  either  from  the  breaking  of  the  rope,  or  on 
cutting  it  asunder  for  the  removal  of  the  corpse ;  and  that  then 
followed  the  consequences  described  by  St.  Luke :  which  were 
by  no  means  very  unlikely  to  occur,  if  J  udas  were  a  gross,  cor- 
pulent, unwieldy  man,  as  some  traditions  report  him  to  have 
been.-j-  In  that  case,  as  both  Wolfius  and  Raphelius  observe, 
the  whole  matter  might  be  clearly  and  briefly  summed  up  in  the 
words  of  Gerhardus,i — "  Matthmis  supplicii  initium,  (nempe 
suspendium),  Lucas  vero  finem  et  exitum,  describit."  But,  what- 
ever may  be  the  right  solution  of  the  difficulty,  it  is  remarkable 
that  the  dissension  among  the  commentators  has  entirely  related 
to  the  signification  of  the  word  a7r>;y0aTo,  in  St.  Matthew,  and  of 
the  phrase  "rrgYjvrig  ysvojxsvog,  in  St.  Luke.  The  word  lAaxvjcre  seems 
to  have  occasioned  no  perplexity,  and  to  have  excited  no  remark. 
And  yet,  assuredly,  sAaxrja-s  is  the  most  unusual  word  in  the  sen- 
tence which  contains  St.  Luke's  account  of  the  catastrophe. 

The  above  conjecture  of  Mr.  Penn,  therefore,  has,  at  least,  the 
merit  which  belongs  to  novelty.  Neither  are  we  disposed  to 
withhold  from  it,  altogether,  the  praise  of  ingenuity.  Neverthe- 
less, for  the  following  reasons,  we  are  utterly  incredulous  as  to 
the  sea-ivorthiness  of  the  craft  which  he  has,  here,  so  confidently 
ventured  to  launch. 

L  That  a  variety  of  Latinisms  occur  in  the  New  Testament, 
is  beyond  all  dispute.  But,  still  it  may  be  doubted  whether  a 
single  Latinism  can  be  found  there,  to  which  a  corresponding 
Greek  phrase  would  be,  fulli/  and  precisely/,  equivalent.  The 
word  (Tovdagiov,  (sudarium),  is,  perhaps,  the  nearest  to  such  an 
instance.  And  yet,  as  it  occurs  four  times,  (once  in  Luke,  twice 
in  John,  and  once  in  the  Acts),  it  may  reasonably  be  presumed 
that  it  must  have  conveyed  some  peculiar  meaning,  more  dis- 
tinctly and  appropriately  than  any  Greek  word  that  could  be 
.  substituted  for  it.  We  all  know  that  nothing  is  more  customary  at 
this  day,  than  to  give  foreign  names  to  certain  particular  articles 
of  dress,  or  furniture,  or  common  use.  And,  it  is  by  no  means 
improbable,  that,  if  <Tovddgiov  was  a  word  originally  Latin,  (which 
some  have  doubted),§  it  furnishes  an  example  of  a  similar  usage 
among  the  Hebrews,  and  the  Hellenizing  Greeks.     But,  at  all 

*  Wolf.  Cur.  Philolog.  and  Crit.  vol.  i.  p.  390—392,  ad  Mattli.  xxvii.  5;  Raphe- 
lius, vol.  i.  p.  341,  &c. 

t  See  Routh,  Rel.  Sac.  vol.  i.  p.  9,  25. 

I  Harmon.  Evang.  p.  1848. 

$  See  Wolf,  ad  Luk.  xix.  20,  vol.  i.  p.  738. 

3<2  Peiin — JRook  of  the  New  Covenant. 

events,  the  conjecture  of  IMr.  Penn  can  derive  no  support  from 
the  use  of  the  verb  fgaysXXow,  as  representing  the  I^atin  word 
Ihtiicllo.  It  is  true  that  the  word  [uadTiyooi  might  have  been  used 
to  signify  the  scourging  inflicted  on  our  Lord;  as  it  actually  2S 
used'^hy  St.  John.  "  Jiut  tiie  use  of  it  has,  manifestly,  less  of 
uraphic"  force  and  historical  propriety.  It  tells  us  nothing  of 
Konian  customs,  or  of  Roman  dominion.  Whereas  <^quysKX6ui 
informs  ns,  not  only  that  Jesus  was  scourged,  but  that  he  was 
scourged  with  the  ffagel/um,  as  slaves  \vere  usually  punished 
among  the  Romans,  while  the  free  citizens  were  beaten  with 
rods.*  On  the  other  hand,  there  could  scarcely  be  any  thing 
in  the  death  of  Judas  by  suspension,  which  should  suggest  the 
propriety  of  employing  a  Latin  term,  rather  than  a  Greek  one. 
There  was  no  Roman  peculiarity  to  be  indicated.  What,  then, 
could  possibly  have  induced  the  Evangelist  to  make  a  plain 
matter  obscure,  by  resorting  to  the  Roman  language,  when  the 
Greek  would  have  supplied  him  with  phrases  equally  appro- 
priate; nay,  infinitely  more  appropriate  than  the  Latinism  here 
contended  for? 

2.  But,  it  is  asserted  by  Mr.  Penn  that  Xuksm  is  unknown  to  the 
Greek  language.  Tiiis,  however,  we  apprehend,  is  a  somewhat 
rash  assertion.  The  word  SiaXaxe'co  occurs  in  the  Nubes  of  Aris- 
tophanes (line  409.  Ed.  Kust.) — in  a  ludicrous  sense,  it  is  true — 
but,  still,  in  a  sense  substantially  corresponding  to  that  which  is 
expressed  in  the  Latin  versions  of  this  passage  of  St.  Luke.  We 
are  told,  indeed,  by  Mr.  Penn,  on  the  authority  of  the  Borgian 
manuscript,  that  we  are  to  read  SiaXaxjVacra,  instead  of  SjaX«x>]- 
cracra;  which  reading,  he  informs  us,  has  been  actually  adopted 
by  Invernezius,  the  latest  editor  of  Aristophanes.  And  it  cannot 
be  denied  that  some  countenance  seems  to  be  afforded  to  this 
change,  by  the  words  of  the  Scholiast, — iiaQgaysla-ci'  Kcix.)g  ytxg,  to 
cr^la-fjiu.  But,  then,  if  the  Borgian  MS.  be  right,  we  do  not 
quite  see  how  the  poet  <:an  well  be  acquitted  of  a  heavy  sin,  both 
against  grammar  and  prosody :  against  grammar,' — since  SiaA«x/?co 
is  not  a  neuter  but  a  transitive  verb,  which  signifies  to  tear,  or 
rend,  so  violently  as  to  produce  a  sound;  against  prosody, — 
seeing  that  the  integrity  of  his  anapaestic  verse  absolutely  de- 
mands S(«Xax»jcra(ra.  Besides, — in  Suidas,  this  very  word,  sX/xxy^o-e, 
is  interpreted,  /xsVov  s;^i'o-5r3  :  which  expresses  the  sense  in  the 
contemplation  of  the  Latin  translators,  when  they  rendered  it 
"  cicpuit  medius;  and,  of  our  own,  when  they  rendered  it  "  he 
burst  asunder  in  the  midst."  We  find  in  Plautus,  the  expression, 
"  Nihil  metuo  nisi,  ne  medius  disrumpar,  miser."  (Curcul.  ii. 
].  7-)  And,  again, — "  Edepol,  ego  illam  mediam  disruptam 
*  See  Wolf,  ad  Luk.  xix.  20,  vol.i.  p.  400. 

Venn— Book  of  the  Neiv  Covenant.  33 

velini."  (Casina,  ii.  5.  8.)  Wliicli  passages  afford  a  very  fit 
illustration  of  the  words  skciXT^as  [XBcrog.  But  what,  on  earth, 
would  Plautus,  or  any  other  Latin  writer,  or  reader,  have  been 
able  to  make  of  laqueavit  meditis;  or  even  of  laqueavit  se  medius? 
Besides,  even  if  the  Evangelist  intended  to  express  se  laqueavit, 
in  a  Greco-Latin  form,  he  surely  would  have  written  IXaxijVaTo, 
or  sciVTOv  sKcixricrev. 

As  at  present  informed,  therefore,  we  see  no  reason  to  doubt 
that  lAaxvjcre,  though  an  uncommon  word,  is  yet  good  and  suffi- 
cient Greek;  and  that  Mr.  Penn  has  put  it  to  a  most  unheard-of 
service,  by  degrading  it  into  a  Greco-barbarous  representative  of 
Latin.  It  is,  we  think,  evidently  employed  by  the  Evangelist  to 
signify  that,  which  is  expressed  in  familiar  English  by  the  word 
split,  or  crack.  And, — although  the  Greek  text  may  possibly 
appear  to  us  to  be  somewhat  strange,  and  even  coarse, — yet,  we 
have  seen  that,  after  all,  there  is  nothing  in  it,  as  rendered  in  our 
common  version,  to  impeach  the  fact,  that  Judas  hanged  hmiself  ; 
oi  the  probability  that  the  passage  may  relate  to  circumstances  which 
occurred  subsequently  to  the  act  of  suspension.  On  the  whole 
matter,  therefore,  we  must  hope  to  be  forgiven,  if  we  number  this 
attempt  to  improve  our  translation,  among  the  curious  infelicities 
of  criticism. 

On  the  authority  of  the  Vatican  and  Alexandrian  MSS.  Mr. 
Penn  inserts  the  words,  o  0soj,  in  Rom.  viii.  28,  thus, — OlSajafv 
OTi,  Tolg  ayaTTcacri  tov  0jov,  7ravT«  cruvepysl  [o  0eoj]  slj  aycuQov :  which 
he  translates, — "  We  know  that  God  maketh  all  things  2Uork  to- 
gether for  good  to  them  that  love  God."  Now  for  the  insertion 
of  0  0SO?,  (or  at  least,  for  understanding  it  as  the  nominative  case 
in  agreement  with  cryvspysT),  there  is  some  additional  authority  in 
the  Syriac  and  ^thiopic  versions.  In  the  Latin  interpretation 
of  the  Syriac,  the  passage  is  thus  rendered, — Scimus  quod  iis, 
qui  diligunt  Deum,  Ipse,  in  omni  re,  auxiliatur  ad  bonum.  The 
Latin  translation  of  the  iEthiopic  is  as  follows, — Novimus  quod 
auxiliatur  Dens  iis,  qui  diligunt  eum,  ad  omne  bonum.  But 
neither  the  Syriac,  nor  the  iEthiopic,  as  above  rendered,  affords 
the  slightest  support  to  the  version  of  Mr.  Penn.  And,  most 
certainly,  that  version  is  in  audacious  defiance  of  Greek !  We 
believe  it  would  be  very  difficult  indeed,  to  produce  an  instance 
from  any  writer,  sacred  or  profane,  in  which  a-vvepyiiv  is  used  in 
the  transitive  sense.  It  always  signifies  to  co-operate;  and  never, 
(that  we  have  heard  or  seen),  to  compel  the  co-operation  of  other 
persons,  or  things.  Mr.  Penn,  however,  seems  to  have  been 
comfortably  free   from  all   misoivings.     He  tells   us,  very  coolly, 

•  Walt.  Polygl.  vol.  v.  p.  658. 
NO.  XLIII.— JULY,    1837.  D 

34  Penn — Book  of  the  New  Covenant. 

that  cvj'.pyfi  governs  iravra  in  the  accusative  ;  as  if  it  were  an  in- 
ilispufahk-  matter  that  the  verb  might  be  used  transitively,  or  not, 
just  as  the  context  might  seem  to  require.  But  any  scholar  would 
tell  him,  that,  if  0=oj  is  to  be  the  nominative  to  <xvvipysl,  Travra 
must  be  governed  by  some  word  understood,  such  as  s\g,  or  xara. 
And  then  the  sense  will  be  that  which  appears  to  have  been 
adopted  bv  the  Si/riac  and  yL7/«'o;jic  translators ;  "  God,  in  all 
tliin<^s,  works  together  with  those  that  love  him,  for  good. 

Mi.  Ponn  is  extremely  dissatisfied  with  the  expression  which 
all  the  copies,  with  provoking  uniformity,  ascribe  to  the  Apostle, 
in  1  Cor.  vii,  25, — i^Asrjju-evoj  otto  Kvplou  ttjcttoj  slvai.  It  cannot  be 
denied  that  the  construction  is  somewhat  unusual  and  harsh.  But 
it  appears  to  us  that  the  expression  is  elliptical ;  and  that  the 
ellipsis  may  be  supplied  without  much  violence  or  difficulty.  We 
conceive  the  meaning  to  be,  that  the  writer  had  obtained  mercy, 
cwrre  ttkttoc  shai,  or,  perhaps,  eic  to  7n(7T0f  ilvxi.  The  sentiment  thus 
expressed,  at  least,  is  quite  unexceptionable.  For,  what  could 
be  more  natural  than  for  the  Apostle  to  speak  of  himself  as  having 
been  so  visited  by  the  mercy  of  God,  as  to  be  found  faithful  in 
his  office?  And,  to  what  could  he  more  fitly  ascribe  his  own 
fidelity,  than  to  the  grace  and  compassion  which  had  delivered 
him  from  the  bonds  of  malignant  unbelief?  But  Mr.  Penn,  it 
seems,  can  show  us  a  more  excellent  way.  He  reminds  us  that, 
in  1  Tim.  i.  12,  St.  Paul  speaks  thus, — %ap»v  s)(^u}  X.  I.rcS  Kvpico 
i^{iu>v,  OTJ  TTitTTov  JJ.S  r^yr^tjcixti,  x.  t.  A.  Who  then  can  doubt  that,  in- 
stead of  >]X5r5|u,='vo5',  we  should  read  rjyouptsvoj,  in  the  passage  before 
us;  and  that  we  should  translate, — "  as  one  who  hath  been  ac- 
counted by  the  Lord  to  be  faithfid  ?"  We  fear  that  every  one  Mill 
doubt  it,  who  is  at  all  familiar  with  the  usage  of  the  Greek  lan- 
guage; and  that  the  doubt  will  continue,  until  the  critic  shall 
bring  forward  at  least  one  other  example,  either  from  heathen  or 
from  Christian  Greek,  in  which  Yiys6'  bears  a  passive  significa- 
tion. Ill  the  mean  time,  we,  for  our  part,  stick  by  the  manu- 
scripts. And  so,  we  apprehend,  will  the  rest  of  the  critical 

Every  biblical  scholar  well  knows  the  torment  inflicted  on  the 
commentators  by  a  part  of  the  4th  verse  of  ]  Cor.  x., — hmv  yap 
ex  ffVju.aaTJxijj  axoMuSova-ri;  Tthpag.  It  may  seem  presumptuous  in 
us  to  suggest  that  they  have  disquieted  themselves  in  vain,  A 
locomotive  rock,  indeed,  is  an  image  far  too  unmanageable  for 
the  most  impetuous  imagination.  And  the  matter  is  not  much 
mended  by  supposing  the  stream,  which  issued  from  the  rock,  to 
have  followed  the  footsteps  of  the  wandering  Israelites.  For,  in 
the  first  place,  there  is  no  historical  warrant  for  any  such  pheno- 
menon.    And,  secondly,  no  testimony  to  that  phenomenon  could 

Penn-^Book  of  the  New  Covenant.  35 

be  extorted  from  the  language  of  the  text,  without  the  most  un- 
warrantable violence.  But  our  own  impression  is,  that  nothing 
of  the  kind  was  in  the  mind  of  the  Apostle.  His  thoughts  seem 
to  have  been  entirely  transferred,  from  the  type  to  the  antitype ; 
from  the  manna  which  came  down  from  the  air,  and  the  waters 
which  sprung  out  of  the  bowels  of  the  flint,  to  the  spiritual 
refreshment  which  they  respectively  shadowed  forth,  and  of  which, 
though  unconsciously,  the  wanderers  of  the  desert  were,  in  a  cer- 
tain spiritual  and  mystic  sense,  then  actually  partakers.  And,  if 
this  were  his  train  of  thought,  it  might,  with  perfect  truth,  though 
with  some  unusual  boldness  of  speech,  be  said  by  him,  that  the 
rock  which  supplied  them  with  their  spiritual  drink  was  never 
absent  from  them,  but  attended  them  throughout  their  pilgrimage. 
And  if  it  should  be  alleged  that  this  explanation  introduces  a 
manifest  incongruity  between  the  figure,  and  the  thing  prefigured, 
we  might  reply,  that  the  only  disagreement  is  this, — that  the 
blessings  conferred  by  the  antitype  were  such  as  infinitely  more 
than  realized  the  promise  implied  and  signified  by  the  type.  The 
earthly  rock,  which  relieved  the  carnal  thirst  of  the  people,  was 
fixed  and  stationary.  The  mystical  and  invisible  rock  which 
supplied  their  spiritual  necessities,  never,  for  a  moment,  deserted 

All  this  sort  of  interpretation,  however,  is  rejected  by  Mr. 
Penn,  as  fanciful  and  visionary;  the  growth  of  a  dark  and  super- 
stitious age.  And  even  such  we  might  possibly,  ourselves,  have 
been  tempted  to  deem  it,  if  the  Apostle  had  not  used  the  expres- 
sions, /3gcojU,a  7rvBU[xciTixcv — 7roju,«  7rv:U|x«Tj;<ov — TTErpa  irvsvix^ocTiX"^, — • 
as  if  for  the  very  purpose  of  carefully  reminding  us,  that  spiritual, 
and  not  material,  meat  and  drink,  were  the  things  more  imme- 
diately in  his  contemplation.  But,  be  this  interpretation  as 
visionary  as  it  may,  it  at  least  partially  relieves  us  from  one  diffi- 
culty, from  which  our  critic  has  laboured,  quite  in  vain,  to  deliver 
us.  He  gravely  contends  that  the  supply  of  manna  was  one 
miracle;  and  that  the  next  or  following  miracle,  was  the  supply 
of  water  from  the  rock.  And  this  succession  of  the  two  miracles, 
one  to  the  other,  he  maintains,  is  denoted  by  the  words  ocxoKou- 
6oWj)f  TTSTfug.  And  his  translation,  accordingly,  is — "  All  eat  the 
"  same  spiritual  food ;  and  all  drank  the  same  spiritual  drink  : 
"  for  they  drank  of  the  spiritual  Rock  that  followed  it  ,•  and  that 
"  Rock  was  Christ." 

Now,  to  pass  over  any  other  objections  to  this  surmise,  it  is 

*  See  Wolf.  Cur.  Philol.  and  Crit.  in  1  Cor.  x.  5,  vol.  iii.  p,  450,  who  intimates  that 
the  word  axoXouflo'ua-n;  has  been  too  closely  and  urgently  pressed,  and  that  the  words 
which  ought  to  be  understood  as  relating  to  Christ,  the  spiritual  rock,  have  been  taken 
with  reference  to  the  material  rock. 

D  2 

^(]  Venn— Book  of  the  New  Covenant, 

ver>  saK'  to  alllmi  the  Greek  language  utterly  repudiates  it. 
AxoXooSt'a;  was.  surclv,  never  known  to  bear  the  sense  which  is 
here  ascrlhed  lo  it.  'i'lie  verb  may,  indeed,  signify  lo  J  allow ;  but, 
to  follorp,  not  in  the  naked  sense  of  mere  sequence,  or  succession, 
bn't  in  the  sense  of  attendance,  or  accompaniment.  In  English,  ii 
ilansinan  mav  be  said  to  follow  his  chieftain  to  the  field;  and,  in 
(J reek,  the  Jame  thing  might  very  properly  be  denoted  by  the 
verb  axoXouOfiv.  In  l':nglish,  again,  one  event  may  be  said  to 
follow  another  event.  But,  where  is  the  Greek  scholar  who  would 
ever  dream  of  using  axoXoy9=7v,  asapplicable  to  this  latter  instance? 
'I'ruly,  therefore,  the  passage  must  remain  in  its  former  obscurity, 
for  any  thing  that  Mr.  Penn  has  done  towards  its  illumination! 

The  concise  and  somewhat  abrupt  expression  of  St.  Paul  in 
Galat.  ii.  If},— Sia  voixou,  vofAU)  «7r;9avov, — has  occasioned  some 
trouble  to  the  expositors.  The  sense  most  generally  assigned  to 
it  is  this, — that,  "  by  the  law  itself  I  was  taught  to  renounce  the 
"  observance  of  the  law,"  as  being  altogether  insuflticient  for  jus- 
tification. By  some,  however,  it  is  supposed  that  Sia  vojaou  relates 
to  the  law  of  Christ,  and  vofxco  uttsSuvov  to  the  law  of  Moses ;  as 
if  the  meaning  of  the  Apostle  were,  that,  by  the  one  law  he  was 
taught  to  renounce  the  other.  Mr.  Penn  proposes  to  escape 
from  all  difficulty,  by  reading  oi'  avopt-ov,  instead  of  Sia  vojaou;  and 
the  text,  thus  amended,  is  translated  by  him, — "  By  renouncing 
"  the  law,  1  died  to  the  law."  But,  by  what  process  he  extracts 
the  above  sense  from  the  words  8»'  av6[x,ov,  very  far  surpasses  our 
comprehension  ! 

We  iiave  room  for  only  one  more  instance.  In  our  authorized 
translation,  xuXcov  'ipym  Trpo/iTTacrSai,  is  rendered,  to  maintain,  or 
stand  up  i'or,  good  woi'ks.  And  never  before  was  the  correctness 
of  this  rendering  calleil  in  question.  But  it  is  not  satisfactory  to 
^Ir.  Penn.  He,  accordingly  substitutes  for  it, — "  to  excel  in 
"  good  works  ;"  a  sense,  in  itself,  unobjectionable  ;  but,  unfortu- 
nately, attended  with  a  manifest  violation  of  syntax  !  llgoia-Tcia-dui 
may,  indeed,  signify  to  excel.  But  then  it  must  be  followed  by 
a  genitive  case,  denoting  the  persons  excelled,  and  not  the  things 
in  which  the  excellence  is  achieved.  YluvTm  'wpota-Taa-Qut  kuXoIs 
^yo^;,  would  mean,  "  to  excel  all  men  in  good  works."  But 
xu?^v  sgym  7rpota-Toi<jQai  can  mean  nothing  but  that  which  is  ex- 
pressed in  our  common  version. 

The  above  are  but  a  portion  of  the  instances  which  we  have 
collected  from  this  work,  illustrative  of  the  vigilant  caution  with 
which  it  will  be  necessary  for  the  public  to  receive  Mr.  Penn's 
Revision  of  the  Text  and  Translation  of  the  New  Testament.  And 
here  we  must,  unavoidably,  close  our  notice  of  his  labours.  If 
our  space  were  more  ample,  there  would  still  remain  abundant 

Venn— Book  of  the  New  Covenant.  37 

materials  for   its   occupation.     Among   other  things,  we  should 
have  to  call  the  attention  of  the  Christian  world  to  the  formidable 
catalogue  of  passages  which  are,  not  merely  noted   as  doubtful, 
but  omitted,  in  the  Revision,  as  clearly  spurious  and  apocryphal ! 
Certain  of  these  retrenchments  are  such   as  will,  probably,  cause 
no   small  astonishment   and  even  consternation.      For   we   find 
among  them,  not  only  "  the  woman  taken  in  adultery,"  and  the 
"  descent  of  the  angel  to   trouble  the  waters   of  Bethesda,"  but 
the  "  bloody  sweat  "  of  the  Saviour,  which  is  dismissed   "  as  an 
"  unskilful  attempt  at  embellishment ;"  and  his  dying  prayer  for 
his  enemies,  on  the  cross,  which  is,  also,  discarded  as  the  work  of 
"  some  weakly,  pious  jy/iiloponist."     These,  however,  are  matters 
far  too  serious  and  solemn  for  such  an  imperfect  examination  as 
could  be  bestowed  upon  them  in  a  brief  and  fugitive  essay.     We 
must,  therefore,  content  ourselves  with  saying,  that  nothing  but 
the  almost  unanimous  consent  of  the  very  highest  critical  autho- 
rities, will  be  allowed  to  sweep  away,  for  ever,  from  the  Sacred 
Text,  things  that  have  been   so  long  "  nigh   unto  us,"  and  so 
deeply  w ritten  on   our  hearts.     That  Mr.  Penn  would  wilfully 
trifle  with  matters  of  such  awful  importance,  we  utterly  disbelieve. 
We  gladly  repeat  the  expression  of  our  perfect  confidence  in  his 
integrity  of  heart,  and  singleness  of  purpose.     He  must,  never- 
theless, pardon  us  for  presuming  to  intimate,  that  a  little  stern 
collision  with  the  mightiest  masters  of  biblical  criticism  may  still 
be  needful,  in  order  to  teach  him  a  salutary  distrust  of  his  own 
sagacity  and  judgment.     Having  said   thus   much,  however,  we 
willingly  finish  with  a  word  of  commendation  5 — it  does  not  ap- 
pear that  the  lust  for  change  has  tempted  the  critic  to  much  wan- 
ton tampering  with  the  style  of  our  national  translation.     The 
racy  archaism,  and  venerable  simplicity,  of  that  mighty  work,  are 
left,  for  the  most  part,  materially  unimpaired.     This  we  hold  to 
be  no  ordinary  merit ;  for  it  is  scarcely  possible  for  us  to  give  an 
exaggerated  expression  to  the  sense  we  entertain  of  the  necessity 
for  pious  caution  in  laying  our  hands  upon  the  workmanship  of 
that  time-honoured  monument.  Even  if  it  have  some  few  failings, 
still  we  may  say  of  it,  as  Burke  said  of  the  Constitution,  that  we 
should  approach  its  very  defects,  as  a  son  would  approach  the  in- 
firmities of  a  parent.     We  should  not  mangle  it,  and  toss  it  into 
the  "  caldron  of  magicians,"  in  order  to  regenerate  and  reproduce 
it,  in  a  newer  and  a  better  form.     On  this  matter,  we  trust  that 
the  national  feeling  is  all  but  universal.     Our  own  sentiments  on 
this  subject  have,  not  very  long  since,  been,  incidentally,  delivered 
in  language  which  we  here  respectfully  beg  permission  to  repeat. 
"  We  protest  that  we  consider  the  English  version  of  the  Scrip- 
'*  tures  as  among  the  most  inestimable  possessions,  not  only  of 

38  Pcnn— Book  of  the  Neio  Covenant. 

"  our  rcli.non,  but  of  our  literature.  And,  wo  cannot  forbear 
"  s   Vu  . '  tl  s  Opportunity  of  declaring  our  hope,  and  our  yarU 

-  ,W  Xn  one  ,  oint.-nan.ely,  that,  should  it  ever  be  thought  ad- 
'.     :  b  ;    o     cv  se  that  version,  two  solemn  and  strict  injunctions 

-  nnv  be  liven  to  the  persons  entrusted  with  the  task:  >s;,  that 
"  TV  c' ix'fully  saturate  their  nunds  with  the  simple  idiomatic 
.'  Son  of  the  olden  time;  and,  .co.c//^,  that  whenever  they 
"  ,nav  to  introduce  a  new  sense  o    any  passage,  they  ask 

-  thnnsches  this  question,-!.!  what  words  would  King  Janiess 

-  translators  have  expressed  this  sense,  if  tliey  Nvere  now  assembled 
"  for  the  purpose  of  putting  it  into  English  .' 

Art  II  —1.  Essaij  on  the  Proper  Employment  of  Time,  Talents^ 
Fortune,  lS^c.  cSf.  By  the  late  Mrs.  H.  M.  Bowdler.  London, 
Cadell;  Edinbuigh,  Blackwood.  1836. 

2.  The  Monk  of  Cimifs.  By  Mrs.  Sherwood,  Author  of  "  The 
Nun."  London,  William  Darton  and  Son,  Holborn  Hill. 

3.  The  Abbess:  a  Romance.  By  the  Author  of  the  "  Domestic 
^^annel•s  of  the  Americans,  &c."  in  3  Vols.  London,  Whit- 
takei,  Treacher,  &  Co.   1833. 

4.  Works  by  Charlotte  Elizabeth.  Published  by  the  Religious 
Tract  and  Book  Society,  Upper  Sackville  Street,  Dublin,  and 
Sackville  Street,  Piccadilly.     1837. 

If  any  one,  in  estimating  the  religious  state  and  prospects  of  a 
countiy.  should  fail  to  take  into  account  the  tendencies  of  the 
female  disposition,  and  the  efforts  of  the  female  intellect,  he 
would  .lecessarily  fall  into  an  egregious  erro.-,  from  leaving  out  a 
most  important  element  in  his  calculation.  Not  only  do  women, 
collectively,  form  a  good  half  of  any  population ;  not  only  have 
they,  individually,  minds  to  be  informed  and  souls  to  be  saved  as 
well  as  men;  but  their  influence,  in  a  bundled  ways,  most  sen- 
sibly and  materially  affects  the  whole  current  tone  of  morality 
and  theology,  of  both  speculative  and  practical  devotion,  through- 
out a  land.  We  are,  therefoie,  far  more  inclined  to  apologize  for 
not  having  entered  upon  the  subjects  before,  than  to  make  ex- 
cuses for  now  introducing  to  our  readers  some  religious  works 
elaborated  by  female  pens,  or  for  afterwards  appending  to  them 
a  few  general  remarks  on  the  religion  of  our  country-women, 

•  British  Critic  for  October,  1834,  vol,  xvi.  p,  385. 

Female  Religion  of  the  Day.  39 

To  the  Monk  of  Ciniies  we  have  aheady  alluded  as  evincing 
more  of  prejudice  than  knowledge.  We  now  recur  to  it,  not 
from  any  intrinsic  worth  which  it  possesses,  but  because  it  seems 
to  us  a  fair  specimen  of  a  peculiar  class  of  composition.  Its 
merits  as  a  work  of  fiction  are  intinitesimally  small.  The  style  is 
full  of  confused  metaphor,  and  speaks  of  effort  without  power. 
The  story,  besides  being  a  tissue  of  gross  improbabilities,  is  a 
most  dismal  and  unpleasant  affair  to  read  ;  composed  of  incidents 
horribly  ridiculous,  mixed  up  with  passages  of  mawkish  sentiment 
about  "  the  sweet  one"  ''  the  lost  and  lovely  one^  "  the  unhappy 
and  miserable  one"  with  much  more  of  that  drivelling  and  sickly 
cant  which  used  to  be  poured  out  in  copious  streams  from  the  Mi- 
nerva press  in  Leadenhall  Street.  The  hero  is  a  young  scoundrel, 
steeped  to  the  crown  of  his  head  in  vanity  and  arrogance,  without 
religious  principle,  without  even  high  and  chivalrous  notions  of 
worldly  honour,  false  in  love  and  friendship,  a  bad  son,  a  bad 
brother,  a  pest  and  scandal  to  his  family,  and  disgracefully 
deficient  in  all  the  relations  of  human  life.  Much  of  ail  this  is 
to  be  referred  to  his  position  and  education;  as  he  had  the 
misfortune  to  have  for  his  father  an  orthodox  dignitary  of  the 
Church  of  England,  who  entertained  "  dark  views  of  Christi- 

"  His  prejudices  were  excessively  strong,  and  they  so  affected  his 
creed,  that,  without  being  aware  of  it,  there  was  scarcely  a  doctrine 
which  he  held  which  was  not  more  or  less  tainted  with  Popery ;  or,  in 
other  words,  with  that  principle  which  gives  man  a  place  of  spiritual 
authority  over  the  souls  of  men,  as  I  shall  have  occasion  to  inake  mani- 
fest in  the  sequel  of  my  history.  But  there  is  often  much  external  de- 
cency in  the  arrangement  of  proud  families,  and  in  this  respect  my 
father's  family  was  a  pattern,  both  at  the  deanery  and  at  a  noble  living 
in  the  country,  where  we  spent  many  months  in  the  year. 

"  Our  servants  were  orderly,  our  liveries  clerical.  My  father  read 
prayers  to  his  family,  morning  and  evening  3  my  mother  attended  divine 
service  every  day  appointed  in  the  rubric  ;  and  we  were  catechised  once 
a  year,  in  the  country,  with  other  children  of  the  parish,  in  the  presence 
of  all  the  congregation, — a  piece  of  condescension  much  thought  of 
amongst  our  poor  neighbours. 

"  My  mother  caused  her  housekeeper  to  make  soup  for  the  poor,  and 
n\y  father  read  a  sermon  every  Sunday  evening  to  bis  family,  and  I  be- 
lieve was  generally  well  spoken  of,  as  a  man  who  did  honour  to  the 
cloth,  though  I  doubt  much  whether  he  was  beloved. 

"  But,  as  I  stated  before,  though  my  mother  never  justified  her  pride^ 
my  father,  who  might  probably  have  more  doubts  than  she  had  of  its 
consistency  with  the  spirit  of  Christianity,  had  many  things  to  urge  for 
the  necessity  of  upholding  the  dignity  of  the  established  Church.  His 
principles  on  the  subject  were  as  follows, — he  applied,  in  the  first  in- 

40  Female  Religion  of  ihe  Day. 

stance,  all  tl.c  passages  ul  Sc.ipluic,  in  which  the  word  church  is  used 
ill  our  tiaushitiou,  to  the  visible  church  on  earth,  and  was  particularly 
loud  ol  the  text,  I  Tiu..  iii.  15  :  '  The  house  of  God,  which  is  the  church 
of  the  living  Ciod,  the  pillar  and  ground  of  the  truth.  And  applying 
this  to  the  visible  church,  it  necessarily  followed  that  the  visible  church, 
being  the  pillar  and  ground,  and,  according  to  my  father,  the  only  pil- 
lar and  ground  of  tlic'truth,  under  the  present  dispensation,  membership 
of  this  church  was  indispensable  to  every  soul  which  was  to  be  saved. 
I  flo  not  say  thai  my  father  ever  went  so  far  as  to  derive  this  deduction 
Ironi  the  priiuiple  stated  above,  in  so  many  words,  but  1  have  seen  him 
^hake  his  head,  and  look  very  portentous  when  he  has  been  told  of  an 
infant  dying  before  baptism  could  be  administered  :  nay,  I  have  even 
heard  him  say,  that  there  was  no  security  for  the  happiness  of  such 
souls,  though  God  was  mercilul,  and  there  was  no  cause  for  actual 

"  There  were  other, — many  other  errors,  which  naturally  sprung  up 
in  my  father's  mind,  from  the  principle  above  stated,  viz.,  the  substitu- 
tion of  the  type  for  the  antitype  ;  or  of  the  visible  church  on  earth,  or  of 
any  one  visible  church  with  its  outward  forms  and  ordinances,  lor  that 
mystical  body  which  is  the  body  of  Christ.  But  who  can  enumerate  the 
deceptions  which  proceed  from  one  false  leading  principle?  I  might 
till  (|uircs  of  paper  in  tracing  to  the  source  of  this  one  root  of  bitterness, 
all  the  dark  notions  which  have  prevailed  in  the  Christian  world,  among 
all  sects  and  orders  of  nominal  Christians,  from  the  apostolic  age  to  the 
present  day." — p.  16  —  IS. 

In  addition  to  "Mr.  Dean"  himself,  there  is  a  chaplain,  one 
Mr.  Short,  who  is  also  unhappy  enough  to  be  a  High-Church- 
man, and  who,  being  such,  is  naturally,  into  the  bargain,  a  cold 
nnspiiitual  formalist,  making  religion  to  consist  of  nothing  but 
legal  rites  and  ordinances,  and  altogetlier  "  a  particuhiili/  dull 
and  incljicienl  person.""  What  wonder  is  it,  that,  when  diese  un- 
fortunate representatives  of  the  Anglican  Churcli  come  into  con- 
tact with  Dr.  Watson,  a  confident  and  over-weening  dissenting 
minister,  they  are  well  bastinadoed  in  every  argument  which  they 
venture  to  hold  ? 

But  we  must  proceed  with  the  thread  of  our  tale.  The  hero, 
precious  reprobate  as  he  is,  becomes  in  due  time  an  ordained 
minister  of  the  Church  of  England  :  he  lifts  up  his  head  with  the 
proudest  as  an  approved  High-Churchman;  he  enters  upon  the 
duties  of  a  curacy  in  the  country,  from  which,  however, — such  is 
Mrs.  Sherwood's  knowledge,  and  such  are  her  notions  of  ecclesi- 
astical discipline, — he  obtains,  or  takes,  leave  of  absence  at  dis- 
cretion, to  pursue  his  dissipations  in  the  metropolis  :  he  contracts 
acquaintance  witii  a  Jesuit,  who,  as  our  readers  might  expect,  is 
a  mere  incarnation  of  duplicity  and  vice,  and  by  him  is  straight- 
way converted  to  Popery,  as  a  matter  of  course :  Popery  being 

Female  Religion  of  the  Daj/.  41 

represented  as  the  goal  to  which  orthodox  legality  is  always  tend- 
ing, and  the  mighty  ocean  in  which  all  its  streams  are  to  be  finally 
absorbed.  After  a  scuffle,  in  which  he  is  made  to  suppose  that 
he  has  murdered  his  brother,  he  Hies  his  native  laud,  hoping  to 
take  refuge  in  Italy  from  his  remorse  and  disquietude  :  he  is  in- 
volved in  a  train  of  painful  and  revolting  circumstances  ;  he 
is  beset  by  his  friend,  the  Jesuit,  with  a  series  of  mystifications, 
which  might  be  awfully  tragic,  if  they  did  not,  instead  of  engender- 
ing pity  or  terror,  excite  either  a  smile  of  scorn  or  a  start  of  in- 
credulous surprise  :  he  arrives  at  the  dignity  of  a  Popish  priest, 
and  enacts  scenes  at  the  confessional  disgusting  to  right  feeling 
and  common  sense  :  he  is  again  compelled  to  change  his  habita- 
tion ;  he  comes  to  the  place,  "  where  stands,"  as  Mrs.  Sherwood 
says,  "the  Trophcea  Augusta ;  he  reaches  "the  holy  house  of 
Cimies ;"  and  he  there  appears  as  half-monk  and  half-hermit, 
until  he  is  discovered  and  disinterred  by  some  inquirers  anxious 
for  his  welfare:  he  is  convinced  of  "the  prejudices  and  false 
opinions  of  his  youth ;"  re-enters  the  Church  of  England  ;  flou- 
rishes as  an  evangelical  minister ;  and  "  takes  possession  of  a 
small  living  in  the  west  of  Ireland,  where  the  balmy  air  sometimes 
reminds  him  of  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean." 

Thus  probable,  thus  edifying,  is  the  main  story.  There  are  di- 
gressions, and  episodes,  more  particularly  some  interludes  with 
two  female  cousins,  on  which  we  shall  not  venture  to  touch;  but 
it  may  afford  a  melancholy  amusement  to  some  of  our  readers  to 
trace  the  development  of  die  leading  idea,  and  to  have  a  practical 
demonstration  how  orthc'J.ox  Church  of  Englandism  is  a  prepara- 
tion and  stepping-stone  for  the  doctrines  of  the  Church  of  Rome. 
They  will  bear  in  mind,  that  the  work  is  presented  as  an  auto- 
biography, composed  when  the  writer  had  at  last  derived  rest  and 
refreshment  for  his  soul  from  his  evangelical  principles. 

"  I  found  little  more  amusement  in  the  companions  of  my  father, — 
the  clerical  members  of  the  choir,  who  were  for  the  most  part  stiff  High- 
Churchmen,  who  fostered  and  cherished  their  chillness  by  refusing  to 
receive  any  idea  not  strictly  conformed  to  their  notions  of  orthodoxy — 
which  orthodoxy  consisted  chiefly  in  the  observance  of  certain  formalities, 
and  the  use  of  a  few  garbled  (juotations  from  Scripture.  But,  it  should 
be  observed,  that,  situated  as  I  then  was,  such  clergymen  of  the  Church 
of  England,  and  such  only,  as  agreed  with  my  father,  gathered  about 
him  and  formed  his  society  j  those  of  more  enlightened  principles,  natu- 
rally withdrawing  themselves,  or  only  paying  ray  father  the  attentions 
due  to  his  station.  Hence,  my  views  of  the  character  of  the  clergy  of 
the  Church  of  England  were  very  narrow  and  partial,  at  the  time  I  speak 
of,  and  for  many  years  afterwards."— p.  56. 

"  My  seriousness  gave  pleasure,  and  my  mother  failed  not  to  proclaim 
the  reformation  of  her  Edmund,  attributing  my  change  of  conduct  en- 

42  Female  Religion  of  the  Day. 

tircly  to  the  desire  of  iloing  honour  to  the  station  to  which  I  was  an 
aspirant ;  whilst  I,  hopini,'  that  my  delinquency  in  a  certain  afiair  would 
never  be  i)roil.iinic(l  amoni;  the  ddas  of  the  church,  tried  to  make  my- 
self believe  tliat  1  was  what  my  mother  thought  me,  a  truly  reformed 
character  ;  thouijh  I  had  never  been,  at  that  period,  brought  to  hate  sin, 
or  to  desire  to  be  freed  from  it,  excci)ting  from  the  dread  of  its  present 

'•  In  tlie  meantime,  the  crisis  of  my  ordination  was  approaching,  and 
1  was  to  be  subjected  to  several  examinations,  previous  to  that  which 
was  to  be  accounted  decisive  of  my  fitness  for  my  office." — pp.  Gl,  62. 

"  I  have  but  vague  recollections  of  a  great  part  of  the  instruction 
given  me  at  that  time.  But  this  I  must  confess,  that  when  in  after 
years  I  became  a  papist,  1  had  very  little  to  unlearn  of  what  the  worthy 
chaplain  had  taught  me  :  tliat  is,  that  whatever  comments  were  made 
by  him,  either  upon  the  words  of  Scripture,  or  the  Articles,  had  a  strong 
tendency  towards  those  errors  which,  in  their  following  up,  must  end  in 
what  is  called  Popery." — p.  G2. 

"  Several  years  after  this,  when,  by  the  grace  of  God,  I  was  turned 
from  the  errors  of  Popery,  and  led  to  examine  the  articles  of  the  Church 
of  England,  in,  I  trust,  a  more  humble  spirit,  I  stood  in  amazement,  in 
reflecting  how  the  Spirit  of  God  should  have  enabled  our  old  Reformers 
to  put  together  a  creed  so  pure  and  blameless  as  that  whicli  is  found  in 
these  our  articles,  wherein  I  now  discern  scarcely  a  passage  which  I 
should  desire  to  change,  or  would  wish  to  erase,  lest  a  risk  should 
thereby  be  incurred  that,  in  removing  the  imperfection,  that  which  is 
most  precious  to  the  souls  of  men  should  also  be  defaced.  The  article 
which  I  consider  most  faulty  is  the  eighth,  in  which  our  Establishment, 
in  inconsistency  with  herself,  and  with  that  which  she  had  declared  in 
her  sixth  article,  hath  given  three  creeds,  which  are  confessedly  com- 
posed by  men,  to  be  thoroughly  received  and  believed.  In  consequence 
of  this  departure  from  her  own  principles,  it  is  to  be  apprehended,  that 
she  has  done  nuich  to  hide  from  the  eyes  of  her  children,  the  heighth, 
the  breadth,  and  the  depth  of  the  work  of  salvation  wrought  by  Christ 
our  Lord." — pp.  03,  G4. 

In  these  quotations^  it  seems  difficult  to  determine,  whether 
the  knowledge,  or  "  the  humble  spirit,^'  of  the  writer  be  the  more 
conspicuous.  But  we  soon  arrive  at  notions  still  more  liberal 
than  a  disposition  to  alter  the  Articles. 

"  I  vvas,  in  fact,  too  ignorant  to  perceive  that  the  spirit  and  opinions 
of  Dr.  Watson  were  nearly  as  far  from  the  truth  as  those  of  Mr.  Short, 
inasmuch  as  neither  one  nor  the  other  was  aware  that  the  interests  of  the 
i/irisible  church  are  entireljj  independent  of  the  forms  and  ordinances  of 
anil  "^'"^i/e  church ;  though  there  is  woe  to  those  who,  having  undertaken 
to  preach  the  Gospel,  turn  aside  from  the  simplicity  of  that  Gospel  to 
throw  stumbling-blocks  in  the  way  of  the  weak  believer,  or  to  cause  the 
feeble  brother  to  err.  However,  years  passed  away  before  I  was  enabled 
to  discern  the  truth  amongst  these  various  opinions,  or  to  see  the  error  of 
those  who  pretend  that  we  are  to  look  for  perfection  in  any  earthly  esta- 

Female  Religion  of  the  Day.  43 

blishmentj  or  visible  church,  or  to  expect  that  any  forms,  or  ordinances, 
or  arrangements,  of  which  man  is  a  minister,  will  ever  satisfy  a  soul, 
whose  affections  aie  drawn  up  heavenward." — pp.  78,  7d. 

"  Having  already  as  much  Greek  as  would  serve  me  for  the  coming 
occasion,  I  fell  into  a  sort  of  reading,  the  very  worst  I  could  have  chosen 
for  the  confirmation  of  the  errors  in  which  I  had  been  educated,  viz. 
the  works  of  the  fathers,  Jerome,  Chrysostom,  and  finally  Augustin. 
Thus,  from  leaving  the  Scriptures  and  following  men's  opinions,  1 
became  from  day  to  day  more  blind  and  confused, 

''  I  learned  by  these  to  magnify  more  and  more  what  God  had  ap- 
pointed man  to  do,  in  the  work  of  bringing  his  fellow  man  to  salvation; 
and,  in  my  imagination,  I  made  the  visible  church  a  sort  of  outwork  of 
heaven,  through  which  every  man  must  needs  pass  before  he  can  ascend 
to  the  celestial  state." — pp.  81,  82. 

"  I  look  not  for  perfection  in  any  ecclesiastical  establishment  on 
earth  j  but  believe  not  only  that  every  church,  of  which  men  are  ministers, 
may  err,  but  necessarily  will  and  must  err ;  a  doctrine  by-the-bye,  to 
which  I  am  sworn  in  our  own  Articles." — p.  97. 

It  ought  to  be  uuderstood,  that  when  the  liero  of  this  pious 
romance, — whose  eyes,  as  he  tells  us,  "  had  for  some  time  past, 
been  accustomed  to  behold  only  very  ordinary  specimens  of  the 
female  human  creature," — falls  into  daily  intercourse  with  a  beau- 
tiful cousin,  she  is  made  an  instrument  of  his  seduction  by  the 
Popish  priests.     Then  we  are  told, — 

"  It  is  asserted  with  truth  of  the  ministers  of  Popery  that  they  stand 
at  nothing  to  make  a  proselyte,  and  that  for  this  purpose  they  would 
willingly  move  heaven  and  earth  ;  nay,  and  even  stoop  to  dabble  with 
the  pohtics  of  hell."— p.  12G. 

"  I  was  passing  rapidly  from  the  belief  of  one  lie  to  another,  and  ray 
diseased,  yet  excited,  mind  wanted  perhaps  only  the  circumstances  of 
pomp,  of  terror,  and  of  interest,  in  which  Popery  still  appears  in  Italy, 
to  finish  the  work  which,  I  must  honestly  confess,  had  been  commenced 
in  my  own  nursery." — p.  180. 

The  worst  of  the  matter  is,  that  we  are  told  at  page  145,  and 
in  sundry  other  places,  "  1  am  not  meriting  a  novel,  but  a  serious 
and  solemn  history"  and  the  passages,  which  we  are  compelled 
to  cite,  are  rendered,  therefore,  the  more  offensive  by  the  air  of 
reality  which  Mrs.  Sherwood  strives  to  throw  over  them. 

"  What,  t  ask  my  reader,  what  was  it  which  prepared  ray  mind  for  the 
reception  of  Popery,  and  for  actual  dereliction  from  the  established  form 
of  worship  of  my  father-land,  but  the  papistical  notions  with  which  my 
father  and  his  society  were  infected  ?  notions  which,  in  a  greater  or 
lesser  degree,  affect  all  the  high-church  party  in  this  country,  and  not 
only  the  high-church  party,  but  every  party  either  within  our  Church,  or 
dissenting  from  it,  which  assumes  any  peculiar  perfectibility  to  itself. 
Had  not  my  poor  father  taught  me,  that  there  was  one  form  of  worship 

44  FciiHilc  Religion  of  the  Dai/. 

on  carlh  .liviiicly  appoiiitcil  aiul  .superior  to  every  other,  I  never  should 
have  lost  niyscU,  as  I  did,  in  seeking  the  authorities  tor  tliese  pretended 
])reroi,Mtivcs,  coninienciiig  my  search  in  my  father's  library,  under  the 
shade  of  our  own  cathechal,  and  finishing  it  under  that  of  the  Duorao  at 
ra.hia."-  pp.  Ki!),  170. 

"  Oil  !  that  tiic  folly,  and  pride,  and  ambition  of  man  should  have  so 
tonfoiuulcd  and  obscured  the  religion  of  the  Gospel!  That  mankind 
siiould  so  long,  tlnough  so  many  ages,  have  refused  to  listen  to  the  glad 
tidings  of  salvation,  and  rejected  the  promise  of  unconditional  redemp- 
tion !  It  is  a  peculiar  character  of  I'opery  to  keep  the  eye  of  its  votary 
fixed  on  the  dead  and  dying  Saviour,— on  the  horrors  of  Cavalry,— on 
the  cross,— and  on  the  grave;  and  to  keep  back  all  images  which  ex- 
emplify the  triumphs  of  the  God  Incarnate,— the  annihilation  of  the 
condemning  power  of  the  Law,— the  operations  of  the  Spirit  in  giving  a 
uever-ilying  nature  to  the  sinner, — and  the  final  destruction  of  death  and 
the  grave  l"  But  it  would  be  well,  if  the  Roman  Catholic  were  the  only 
visible  church  which  endeavours  to  serve  her  purposes  by  the  images  ot 
the  charnel-house,  or  by  arousing  the  old  thunders  of  the  law.  I  speak 
from  my  own  terrible  experience ;  for  had  not  the  instructions  which  I 
received  in  youth,  partaken  largely  of  these  errors  of  Popery,  I  had  never 
fallen  into  the  dreadful  snares  which,  at  the  time  I  speak  of,  had  en- 
tt:nglcd  me  as  a  lion  caught  in  a  snare  of  brass." — pp.  226,  227. 

At  a  more  advanced  stage  of  tiic  story,  one  of  the  Roman  Ca- 
tholic personages  exhibits  marks  of  silly  superstition ;  and  it  is, 
therefore,  announced — 

"  I  felt  no  inclination  to  smile  at  the  folly  of  the  abbess,  but  I  could 
willingly  have  said,  it  is  such  fools  as  these  which  make  a  man  ashamed 
of  his  profession.  And  these  questions  occurred  to  me ; — had  I  con- 
versed with  such  a  Roman  Catholic  as  this,  two  years  ago,  should  I  have 
ever  renounced  my  own  church  : — and  are  there  not  fools  in  the  Church 
of  England,  also  ?  and  what  if  I  have  only  conversed  with  the  ignorant, 
and  taken  my  ideas  of  my  own  church  from  such  ?  Here  were  pregnant 
inquiries  which  would  intrude  themselves." — p.  314. 

The  evidence,  thus  adduced,  might  justify  more  sharpness  of 
castigation  then  we  are  willing  to  apply.  There  might  also  be 
abundant  room  for  fresh  animadversions  in  the  coarse  daubs  of 
contrast,  with  which  different  forms  of  religion  are  delineated  ; — 
inflicting  more  injury,  we  apprehend,  upon  the  creed  which  is  be- 
praiscd,  than  the  creed  which  is  vilified.  Tiie  Papists  first  sit  for 
their  portrait ;  and  the  High-Churchmen,  it  is  to  be  recollected, 
are  half  papists  at  the  least. 

"  It  would  be  impossible  to  give  an  idea  of  the  depraved  lives  of  these 
poor  friars,  without  entering  into  details  which  cannot  have  a  place  in 
these  annals.  Most  of  the  brethren  of  the  monastery  of  Cimies  were  so 
low,  that  had  they  been  with  their  families  they  would  have  probably 
been  labourers  or  mechanics  of  the  lowest  orders,  if  not  absolute  paupers; 

Female  Religion  of  the  Day.  45 

some  of  them  could  hardly  read,  and  their  ideas  were  as  grovelling  as 
their  habits  ;  and  as  to  their  discourse,  it  was  often  coarse  in  the  ex- 
treme, and  there  is  no  doubt  that  their  associates  without  doors  were  of 
the  worst  of  the  people."' — p.  380. 

"  The  Papist  is  unsparing  in  his  condemnation  of  others.  It  would 
seem  as  if  it  were  a  pleasure  to  him  to  send  souls  to  hell, — he  seems  to 
be  intimately  acquainted  with  all  the  secrets  of  the  infernal  regions,  and 
can  contemplate  the  eternal  tortures  of  whole  nations  of  his  fellow-crea- 
tures, not  only  without  pain,  but  with  actual  satisfaction.'' — p.  237. 

But  now  let  us  look  to  the  other  side  of  the  picture.  The 
hero  says  of  himself,  curiously  enough,  in  the  first  place,  '*  1 
thought  and  felt  as  the  most  thoughtless'^  Afterwards  it  is 
written  : — 

"■  Henceforward,  ray  reader  must  cease  to  think  of  me  as  the  gay,  the 
insinuating  Edmund  Etherington,  either  standing  in  bis  own  strength 
to  preach  that  Law  of  which  he  had  himself  broken  every  precept,  even 
in  the  simple  letter,  or  shining  in  imaginary  excellence  in  the  assemblies 
of  ladies,  many  of  whom  were  not  ashamed  to  acknowledge  their  regard 
for  him,  although  scarcely  solicited  so  to  do  ; — but  he  must  behold  me 
all  changed  and  altered,  rising  with  an  enfeebled  frame  from  the  bed  of 
sickness,-! and  assuming  the  garb  which  is  worn  by  the  pretendant  to  the 
ecclesiastical  order  in  the  Papal  Church, — viz.  a  suit  of  black  cloth, 
which  was  none  of  the  finest,  a  white  band,  a  scarf,  and  a  shovel  hat ; 
ray  hair  having  been  cut  close  during  ray  illness,  and  my  clothes  being 
fashioned  with  anything  but  an  air  of  smartness,  or  even  neatness.  Let 
the  reader  also  contemplate  the  change  of  expression  wrought  in  this 
their  hero,  by  the  change  of  mind.  A  furious  zeal  had  seized  possession 
of  ray  soul,  entirely  engaging  ray  affections  in  its  cause ;  with  love  turned, 
as  I  fancied,  into  hate,  at  any  rate  much  despoiled  by  contempt  and 
anger,  and  patriotism  embittered  by  the  feeling,  that  all  my  countrymen 
were  heretics,  and  that  eternal  misery  was  the  desert,  as  well  as  the  sure 
consequence  of  their  obstinacy." — pp.  236,  237. 

However,  towards  the  end  of  the  volume  a  very  different  strain 
is  taken  up  : — 

"  I  recommence  ray  narrative  with  awe,  although  I  know  myself  to 
be  forgiven  through  my  blessed  Redeemer,  who  has  reconciled  all  man- 
kind to  himself, — and  me,  especially,  who  am  the  chief  of  sinners  : — yet 
there  is  something  most  painful  and  distressing  to  the  mind  to  find  that 
it  is  a  duty  due  to  society  (for  such  I  consider  the  task  which  I  have  laid 
on  myself),  to  lay  open  those  various  steps  by  which  I  was  led  on  from 
one  crime  to  another,  until  the  dreadful  catalogue  filled  my  mind  with 
horror,  even  before  there  was  any  reason  to  think  that  the  light  of  life 
had  begun  to  shine  thereon,  or  to  reveal  its  secret  places  to  my  spiritual 
apprehension." — p,  270. 

In  conformity  with  the  tone  thus  assumed,  this  detestable  vil- 
lain, dismissing  all  his  anxieties,  speaks  of  himself  with  as  much 

46  Female  Religion  of  the  Day, 

complacency  as  if  he  was  already  canonized  as  a  saint.     He  tells 
us  of  another  character,  the  most  amiable  one  in  the  book : — 

''  She  applied  to  me  this  passaj^'c,  '  though  he  has  lain  among  the 
pots,  .shall  he  he  as  the  wings  of  a  dove  covered  with  silver,  and  her  fea- 
thers of  yellow  gold.'  Ah  blessed  Emmeline  !  my  lost !  my  lovely 
one."— p.  -102. 

And  of  himself  he  writes  : — 

"  I  made  many  inquiries  on  various  religious  matters,  both  of  Del 
Sarto  and  C  litlbrd,  and  their  habit,  in  reply,  was  to  refer  me  immedi- 
ately to  Scripture ;  and  through  the  divine  blessing  on  these  references, 
my  mind  opened  rapidly,  throwing  oiF  one  prejudice  after  another,  in  a 
manner  which  I  then  did  not  comprehend.  The  most  obstinate  of  these 
prejudices,  at  least  those  which  were  most  amalgamated  with  my  former 
feelings,  w-crc  not  those  which  had  been  added  to  me  by  actual  Popery, 
but  which  had  been  imprinted  on  my  infant  mind  by  such  residues  of 
Popery  as  are  mixed  up  with  the  opinions  of  the  dark  members  of  our 

"  Of  these  errors  my  first  was,  that  it  was  dangerous  to  morality  to 
admit  the  doctrine  of  justification  by  faith  alone  j  this  error  had  been 
strengthened  in  my  mind  by  papists,  but  it  was  there  from  the  period  of 
my  childliood,  even  as  early  as  when  by  the  direction  of  my  parents,  Mrs. 
Sermon  had  made  me  repeat  certain  stanzas  from  good  old  Dr.  Watts* 
hymns,  which   she  had  not  failed  to  illuminate  by  comments  nearly 
about  as  dark,  if  not  more  dark,  than  the  text  itself:  for  instance  — 
'  Then  let  me  read  and  pray 
Whilst  I  have  life  and  breath. 
Lest  I  should  be  cut  off  to-day 
And  sent  to  eternal  death.' 

"  On  this  somewhat  papistical  passage  the  worthy  dame  used  to  hold 
forth  in  the  words  or  spirit  of  that  companion  of  the  altar  which  is  often 
bound  up  with  our  liturgy,  saying:  '  Now  Master  Edmund,  you  must 
observe  that  the  benefits  and  blessings  which  the  Son  of  God  has  pur- 
chased for  us,  are  nowhere  promised  but  upon  condition  that  we  our- 
selves are  first  duly  qualified  for  them,  &c.,  &c. ;  therefore,  in  order  to 
to  be  saved,  you  must  read  and  pray,  and  be  a  good  boy  and  deserve  the 
love  of  God.' 

Could  a  better  foundation  have  been  laid  than  such  lessons  as  these, 
often  repeated  by  the  gouvernante,  and  as  often  repeated  by  the  parents, 
for  the  superstructure  of  the  great  fabric  of  the  papistical  doctrine  of 
goods  works?— a  fabric  which  is  arranged  by  the  infallible  Church  into 
an  infinitude  of  little  chambers  of  imagery ;  for  these  good  works  are 
divided  and  classed  by  her,  into  interior  and  exterior  actions,  productive 
of  merits,  performed  by  those  in  life— by  the  Saints  in  Paradise — by  the 
heretics,  and  by  the  heathen,  &c.,  &c.,  with  as  many  subdivisions  of  bad 
actions,  such  as  the  mortal,  dead,  and  mortified. 

"  From  the  first  false  principle  wrought  into  my  mind  from  infancy, 
how  many  had  branched,   I  know  not;  but  this  I  know,  that  when  a 

Female  Religion  of  the  Day.  47 

new  life  had  been  imparted  to  me,  through  God  the  Spirit,  being  hence 
enabled  to  receive  the  instructions  of  Cliflbrd  and  Del  Sarto,  this  root  of 
bitterness,  namely,  dependance  on  works,  was  speedily  extracted,  and 
all  its  ramifications  perished  with  itself. 

"  Besides  this  principle,  I  had,  till  that  period,  held  a  number  of  hor- 
rible and  unfounded  notions  respecting  hell,  the  devil,  fire  and  torments, 
&c,,  &c.,  which  had  been  put  into  me  in  my  nursery,  and  been  confirmed 
by  my  Papistical  teachers  and  books,  in  Italy.  All  these  in  their  un- 
scriptural  forms  totally  disappeared  when  I  was  brought  to  see  more 
clearly  the  work  of  salvation ;  and  though  much  yet  remained,  as  it 
were,  dark  and  unrevealed  to  me,  as  to  those  souls  to  whom  the  Saviour 
has  not  been  made  manifest  in  the  present  life,  yet  I  was  made  to  see 
plainly,  that  much  which  is  often  taught  in  Protestant  nurseries,  has  very 
little  foundation  in  Scripture,  where  the  work  of  salvation  is  declared 
to  be  more  vast  and  large,  more  deep  and  ample,  than  man  can  ever 
conceive." — pp.  418 — 420. 

He  ends  with  desiring  to  have  the  Liturgy  somewhat  purged, 
and  a  few  sentences  altered  in  the  services  of  the  Church ;  and 
for  the  rest — 

"  I  have  a  wish,  if  so  it  could  be,  when  I  do  settle,  to  settle  in  Ireland, 
where  my  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  subterfuges  of  popery  would 
render  me  most  useful." — p.  424. 

In  Ireland,  however,  there  are  already  sufficient  elements  of 
confusion.     Such  a  gentleman  may  well  be  spared. 

But  enough  of  this  disagreeable  and  ungracious  task.  Many 
will  be  of  opinion  that  we  have  already  devoted  far  too  much 
attention  to  a  very  insignificant  writer,  and  a  very  foolish  book. 
And  we  should  ourselves  quite  agree  with  them,  but  from  a  con- 
viction that  the  generality  of  our  readers  are  by  no  means  aware 
how  much  of  our  popular  theology  is  impregnated  and  poisoned 
with  this  pestilential  sort  of  trash  ;  and  how  necessary  it  is,  if  we 
cannot  at  once  correct  and  purify,  at  least  to  keep  a  strict  watch 
over  the  lighter  and  more  fanciful  department  of  religious  litera- 

It  would  be  a  mere  waste  of  time  seriously  to  refute  the  allega- 
tions, which  to  every  mind  more  fed  with  information  then  pre- 
judice, must  be  self-refuted  by  their  own  prodigious  absurdity. 
But  M'e  can  assure  Mrs.  Sherwood,  that  it  is  painful  to  behokl 
her  plunging  about,  sadly  out  of  her  depth,  in  waters  which  she 
only  troubles,  and  from  which  she  cannot  emerge. 

Mrs.  Sherwood  is  vehement  in  her  professions  of  attach- 
ment and  reverence  towards  the  Church,  and  affects  to  deprecate 
its  downfal  above  all  things:  but  the  conduct  of  her  story  often- 
times belies  her  assertions,  and  may  be  almost  said  to  weave  an 
argument  why   the  overthrow  of  the  Establishment  would  be  a 

48  Femak  Religion  of  (lie  Dm/. 

ilesirablo  ronsuminntloii :— just  as  other  novel-writers  pretend  to 
decry  superstition,  wliilo  lliey  minister  to  it  l)y  the  events  which 
they  narrate;  anil  tell  us  to  despise  omens  and  auguries,  while, 
sonu^how  or  other,  they  are  tolerably  sure  to  make  the  omens  and 
auguries  come  true. 

The  common  list  of  protestant  novels,  too  often  rude,  incorrect 
sketches  without  shadow  or  perspective,  have  been  long  consecrated 
to  the  execration  and  abuse  of  the  Pope  and  his  adherents.  So 
far.  our  chief  objection  is,  that  the  cause  of  Romanism  must  be 
ultimately  benefited  by  false  or  exaggerated  charges,  the  refuta- 
tion of  which  appears  to  many  minds  as  at  least  half  a  refutation 
of  other  accusations,  which  are  most  grievous,  and  yet  most  true. 
But  we  do  complain,  we  have  a  right  to  complain,  when  the  reli- 
siion  of  a  large  portion  of  the  ministers  and  members  of  our  own 
establishment  is  mixed  up  and  identified  with  Popery,  as  part  and 
parcel  of  the  same  system.  Mrs.  Sherwood  may  fill  volumes,  if 
she  pleases,  with  her  fantastic  and  ludicrous  crudities  about  the 
visible  and  invisible  Church  ;  she  may  prattle  about  the  Fathers, 
probably  without  having  read  a  line  in  any  one  of  them,  even  in  a 
bad  translation,  to  her  heart's  content;  but  when,  in  the  narrow- 
ness of  understanding  not  unmingled  with  an  insufferable  pre- 
sumption and  self-sufficiency  of  spirit,  she  libels  and  bespatters 
with  iniprovoked  calunniies  the  community  to  which  she  belongs, 
and  the  institutions  which  she  ought  to  cherish,  we  might  be 
tempted  to  indignant  remonstrance,  but  that  the  power  of  her 
writmgs  lags  very  far  behind  the  perniciousness  of  her  intentions. 
Mrs.  Sherwood,  as  the  title-page  informs  us,  is  the  author  of 
another  volume,  similar,  we  presume,  in  character  to  the  present. 
}5utone  such  performance  amply  contents  us;  we  have  no  curiosity 
to  behold  the  companion  picture ;  and  really  we  have  found  The 
Monk  so  hard  of  digestion,  that  we  have  no  stomach  for  "  The 
jShh."  Ourconsolatior]is,  that  the  assaults  upon  English  orthodoxy, 
with  whatever  virulence  and  pertinacity  they  are  conducted,  begin 
to  fail  in  their  effect ;  or  we  might  indeed  pity  the  unhappy  men, 
whose  fortune  it  is  to  be  pelted  upon  all  sides.  Here,  high- 
cliurchmen  are  themselves  represented  as  papists  in  disguise;  theref 
if  any  movement,  any  aggressive  demonstration,  is  made  against 
Popery,  an  outcry  is  immediately  raised  against  high-church 
bigotry,  and  intolerance,  and  sanguinary  fanaticism. — But  we 
must  return  to  the  matter  before  us,  which  is,  however,  only 
another  proof,  that  the  ignorance,  prevailing  in  many  quarters  as 
to  the  internal  distinctions  of  the  Church,  is  still  something  por- 

Such  works  as  "  The  Monk  of  Cimits"  may  exert  no  influen/:e 
at  all;  or  they  may  have  a  very  noxious  effect  upon  weak,  unre- 

Female  Religion  of  the  Day.  4y 

gulated,  and  ill-instructed  minds;  but  we  cannot  conceive  how, 
in  any  instance,  they  can  possibly  do  good.  Yet  these  books, 
we  suppose,  find  a  market ;  or  they  would  not  continue  to  be 
written.  For  whom,  then,  are  they  intended  ?  by  whom  are  the}- 
read?  We  fear,  principally  by  those  on  whom  they  are  most 
calculated  to  work  mischief:  namely,  young  persons,  and,  in 
general,  young  women,  piously  disposed,  feeling  a  kind  of  pride 
and  satisfaction  in  the  thought  that  they  can  take  part  in  religious 
discussions;  dreaming  that  they  are  admitted,  without  farther 
tiouble,  by  these  productions,  into  the  mysteries  of  theology;  but, 
at  the  same  time,  utterly  incapable,  from  many  and  very  obvious 
reasons,  of  forming  a  correct  estimate  of  the  points  on  which  they 
are  made  arbiters :  and  so  inoculated  with  views  erroneous,  un- 
wholesome, uncharitable,  while  they  fancy  that  they  are  pursuing 
their  devotional  studies;  and  filled,  at  last,  with  the  false  know- 
ledge which  puft'eth  up,  instead  of  the  sound  words  of  reasonable- 
ness and  truth.  Yet  a  parent,  who  truly  and  wisely  regards  the 
best  interests  of  his  daughter,  will  not  only  direct  into  the  proper 
channels  that  intellectual  ardour  which  might  otherwise  become 
an  indiscriminate  passion  for  all  sorts  of  publications  ;  but,  we  re- 
peat, he  will  be  especially  careful  what  religiuus  books  he  puts 
into  her  hands. 

On  this  account  we  would  make  a  passing  reference  to  another 
production.  Yet  "  The  Abbess"  may  be  soon  despatched.  Mrs. 
Trollope  is  a  clever  writer;  but  she  paints  merely  for  effect; 
and,  to  borrow  an  acute  observation,  if  she  does  not  falsify,  she 
almost  always  caricatures.  The  work  now  before  us  is  on  a  par 
in  this  respect  with  her  sketches  of  American  manners.  It  is  a 
romance  of  the  old  Schedoni  school.  For  the  principal  charac- 
ters we  have  a  monk,  afterwards  an  abbot,  named  Isidore,  who  is 
a  bigot  to  Popery,  and  a  ruthless  villain  to  boot:  who,  out  of 
the  secret  gnavvings  of  revenge  and  jealousy,  contrives  a  hundred 
schemes  of  perjury  and  murder;  and,  when  thwarted  and  de- 
tected in  his  plots,  stabs  himself  with  his  dagger,  in  the  chari- 
table hope  that,  although  he  cannot  destroy  his  enemies  in  this 
life,  he  shall  have  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  them  condemned  to 
penal  tortures  for  ever  in  the  next: — we  have  a  married  woman, 
who,  having  been  forced  to  become  a  nun  under  the  most  extra- 
ordinary circumstances,  and  by  the  most  irregular  means,  is  next 
buried  alive,  or  rather  bricked  up  in  the  wall,  for  supposed  in- 
continence, and  in  the  night  rescued  by  a  young  lady  and  a 
journeyman  carpenter : — we  have  the  abbess  herself,  who  is  so 
celebrated  for  the  strictness  of  her  discipline,  that  she  obtains  a 
marvellous  reputation  for  sanctity  with  the  Pope  and  cardinals ; 
and  all  Italy,  in  the  sixteenth  or  seventeenth  century,  rings  with 

NO.  XLTIl. — JULY,   1837.  E 

50  Female  Religion  of  the  Day. 

lui  praises ;  yet  who  is,  afU'r  all,  a  Protestant  in  masqncrade ; — 
whose  conduct  and  position  arc,  in  our  oyes,  so  equivocal,  that 
they  tlo  equal  dishonour  to  Protestantism  and  Romanism  ;  who 
is  ilcfendeil  bv  sophisms  which  might  become  the  mouth  of 
a  Jesuit,  if  Jesuitism  were  more  than  all  which  it  has  been  re- 
presented to  be ;  and  w  ho,  in  the  end,  having  abandoned  her 
nims,  and  thrown  oft',  we  suppose,  her  conventual  attire,  be- 
comes a  Lndii  (I'enildiiic  in  England,  and  lives  on  as  comfortably 
as  if  nothing  had  happened.  For  the  rest,  we  have  some  per- 
sonages subordinate  to  Isidore,  more  superstitious,  if  less  diabo- 
lical ;  the  usual  array  of  inquisitors  and  officers  of  the  inquisition  ; 
and  a  pair  of  lovers,  who,  after  sundry  and  divers  trials,  are  made 
happy  in  marriage,  according  to  the  approved  receipt  for  all 
heroes  and  heroines  of  novels.  Of  such  characters,  such  inci- 
dents, and  such  a  catastrophe,  we  may  well  be  absolved  from 
saying  more. 

In  this  case,  as  in  the  preceding,  we  should  not  have  said  so 
much, — we  should  not  have  said  any  thing, — but  from  a  wish  to 
urge  upon  our  generation,  that  religious  feelings,  however  mis- 
taken, are  yet  things  too  sacred  to  be  rendered  subsidiary  to  the 
art  and  mystery  of  book-making.  There  is  now  a  struggle,  poli- 
tical even  more  than  religious,  between  Popery  and  the  Reformed 
Faith;  and,  in  its  progress,  the  central  depths  of  human  emotion 
are  stirred  up.  But  must  idle  romances  be  written  to  take  ad- 
vantage of  it :  and  written,  too,  with  those  absurd  exaggerations 
which  can  only  injure  the  cause  of  truth  ;  and  which  may  ulti- 
mately lead  to  a  re-action,  commensurate  with  the  excitement 
which  they  at  first  help  to  produce  ?  Let  error  be  refuted ;  let 
disorder  be  put  down ;  but,  on  the  other  hand,  let  us  have  the 
courage  to  reprobate  all  attempts  at  pandering  to  that  morbid 
appetite  for  vulgar  hatred  and  vulgar  prejudice,  which  it  is  at 
once  a  prostitution  and  a  profanation  of  elegant  literature  to  feed. 

\\e  find  that  we  have  left  ourselves  no  room  for  any  detailed 
criticisms  on  the  work  of  Charlotte  Elizabeth ;— a  lady,  we  un- 
derstand, whose  style  has  many  admirers.  She  sometimes  writes 
eloquently;  but  her  eloquence  is  too  often  disfigured  by  a 
straining  and  vapid  affectation.  The  posthumous  essay  by  Mrs. 
Bowdler  is  of  a  very  different  stamp.  It  is  plain  and  sensible ; 
and  the  more  calculated  to  be  useful  in  its  sphere,  that  it  does 
not  soar  into  heights  where  it  cannot  support  itself,  or  lay  pre- 
tensions to  sublimities  which  it  cannot  achieve. 

And  here  we  must  leave  the  consideration  of  separate  pro- 
ductions. Neither  shall  we  diverge  into  any  wide  inquiry  with 
reference  to  religious  novels  and  romances,  or  to  the  share  which 
must  be  ascribed  to  women  upon  the  whole  in  religious  literature. 

Female  Religion  of  (he  Dm/.  5 1 

To  tliese  matters  we  niav  recur  on  a  future  opportunit}'.  But  in 
the  lirst  place,  and  on  this  occasion,  it  will  be  better,  we  think,  to 
devote  the  remainder  of  our  space  to  the  preliminary  and  more 
general  topic,  which  involves  the  bias  of  the  female  disposition, 
and  the  causes  which  operate  upon  women  in  society,  as  far  as 
religion  is  concerned. 

Now,  it  appears  plain  to  us,  that  female  religion,  in  any  given 
country  or  period,  is  a  larger  quantity  than  the  religion  of  men. 
This  fact  may  be  assumed ;  for  all  experience  and  observation 
confirm  it.  Many  intimations  of  it  are  scattered  through  the 
classical  writers,  and  along  the  whole  history  of  Paganism.  As 
to  Christianity,  not  only  were  women  during  our  Saviour's  abode 
on  earth, 

''  Last  at  his  cross,  and  earliest  at  his  grave  ;" 

not  only  in  his  life-time  were  they  most  anxious  to  catch  his 
words,  and  touch  the  hem  of  his  garment ;  but,  after  his  death, 
they  were  devoted  in  the  greatest  numbers  to  the  faith  which  he 
delivered,  sparing  no  efforts  and  no  sacrifices,  never  grudging 
their  substance,  and  seldom  shrinking  from  the  pains  of  martyr- 
dom. On  the  Continent  of  Europe,  the  vast  preponderance  of 
female  devotion  over  male  may  be  regarded  as  a  proverb :  nor 
has  the  new  world  at  all  reversed  the  proportion  perceptible  in  the 
old.  At  the  present  day,  too,  among  ourselves,  is  there  not  almost 
always  a  numerical  superiority  of  female  worshippers  in  our 
temples?  At  confirmation,  at  the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  sup- 
per, does  not  the  one  sex  visibly  outnumber  the  other?  In  any 
visiting  society,  is  it  not  easier  to  find  female  visitors  than  male? 
In  any  Sunday  school,  is  it  not  easier  to  find  female  teachers 
than  male? 

The  reasons,  again,  are  scarcely  less  obvious  than  the  fact. 
Women  are,  constitiitionalli/,  more  prone  to  religion  and  religious 
observances  than  men.  The  religious  fibre,  if  we  may  so  speak, 
is  stronger  and  more  sensitive  in  woman's  heart  than  in  man's. 
-The  quick  and  delicate  susceptibilities  of  the  female  spirit  are 
more  open  to  every  holy  as  to  every  tender  impression.  Perhaps, 
even  the  weakness  of  their  frames,  and  the  need  which  they  feel 
of  protection  and  support,  render  women  more  disposed  to  lean 
npon  that  aid  which  is  Almighty  and  Divine. 

But,  besides  the  natural  temperament,  there  is,  as  we  have 
already  hinted,  the  social  condition.  Men  have  grasped  earthly 
pursuits,  and  earthly  distinctions,  for  the  most  part  to  themselves, 
by  the  strong  arm  of  corporeal  and  mental  ascendancy.  They 
have  sometimes  so  monopolized  this  world,  that  they  seem  willing 
to  leave  the  other  world  to  their  sisters  in  the  creation.     Women, 



5<j  Female  Religion  of  the  Day. 

llu-  roiitrai  V.  liavc  more  leisure,  and  fewer  distractions.  They 
liss  of  till-  worst  parts  of  human  nature;  they  are  not  so 
nuuh  exposeil  to  gross  temptations  and  sordid  competitions  ;  nor 
have  ihev  so  often  to  guard  against  fraud  and  malice,  and  invi- 
dious rivahy.  The  current  of  female  existence  runs  more  within 
the  embankments  of  home.  But  home  is  the  centre  and  the 
throne  of  the  sanctities,  as  well  as  the  charities,  of  life.  The 
duties  of  a  mother,  or  of  the  mistress  of  a  family,  all  tend  to 
pietv,  by  warming  and  softening  the  intellect  and  the  affections. 
Women,  therefore,  are  usually  the  appointed  guardians  of  domestic 
reli'non;  they  are  removed,  at  a  more  salutary  distance,  from  the 
stirriu"  business,  the  absorbing  interests,  and  the  jarring  collisions 
of  mortality ;  from  the  ambitions  which  engross  the  heart  of  man, 
and  the  passions  which  devour  it,  and  the  indurating  processes 
which  lix  upon  it,  day  by  day,  a  thicker  and  thicker  crust  of  icy 

These  circumstances,  too,  if  they  apply  to  the  wives  and 
matrons  of  a  kingdom,  are  still  more  applicable  to  the  bereaved 
and  childless  widow,  or  to  women  who  are  unmarried,  and  who 
have  no  domestic  ties ;  "  unattached/'  as  it  were,  to  the  active 
concerns  and  obligations  of  this  bustling  stage  of  earth.  In  the 
immediate  drama,  which  is  hurrying  to  its  catastrophe  around 
them,  they  have  scarcely  a  part  to  play.  And  thus  the  pulsations 
of  the  soul  grow  faint  and  sluggish,  unless  they  are  quickened 
and  animated  by  religious  hopes  and  contemplations.  Happy, 
then,  are  they  who,  having  no  business,  can  make  a  business  of 
leligion.  Otherwise,  without  professional  engagements,  and 
without  household  cares,  they  have  no  sufficient  object  in  life — 
no  sufficient  aliment  for  those  manifold  emotions  and  capacities 
which  it  is  a  misery  to  possess  and  not  to  exercise.  There  is 
nothing  to  fill  up  the  vacancies  of  the  time,  in  which  there  are  so 
many  hours  to  be  counted  ;  or  to  satisfy  the  cravings  of  the  heart, 
in  which  there  are  so  m^ny  feelings  to  be  fed.  But  there  comes 
a  lisilessness  within — an  aching  void — an  empty,  hollow,  wither- 
ing dreariness,  which  by  degrees  eats  away  the  spirits,  and  is, 
perhaps,  the  source  of  the  deepest  anxieties,  which  some  women 
are  ever  doomed  to  endure.  Men,  indeed,  under  the  trials  and 
enticements  of  life,  require  religion  for  their  restraint ;  under  its 
disappointments  and  afflictions,  they  require  it  for  their  comfort; 
but  women  also  need  it  for  the  aim  and  occupation  of  their 
being.  And  if  this  fact  be  less  observable  in  the  lowest  ranks  of 
a  community,  where  poverty  almost  levels  the  distinctions  of  sex, 
and  manual  labour  must  be  the  lot  of  all,  we  cannot  fail  to  dis- 
cern it  in  the  upper  and  middle  classes,  where  artificial  and  con- 
ventional regulations,  no  less  than  physical  differences,  shut  out 

Female  Religion  of  the  Day.  53 

the  female  part  of  the  population  from  a  diversity  of  avocations 
and  excitements.  Hence  they  have  recourse  to  devotion,  and 
meditate  upon  the  image  of  God  and  the  glory  of  the  divine 
love,  even  lest  their  finest  sensibilities  and  their  highest  powers 
should  be  as  a  pang  worn  in  their  bosoms,  or  else  should  become 
dormant,  and  pine  and  die  for  lack  of  nutriment.  In  a  word, 
want  of  employment  leads  women  to  religion,  as  fulness  of  em- 
ployment carries  men  away  from  it. 

Still  another  reason  is,  that  women  are  never  suffered  to  be 
irreligious  with  impunity.  In  their  case,  the  shame  of  impiety 
is  infinitely  greater,  and  the  consequences  infinitely  worse.  A 
woman  without  religion  is  a  monster.  No  terrible  gorgons,  no 
"  chimeras  dire,"  are  half  so  hideous.  And  this  is  the  universal 
invariable  award  of  public  opinion.  Men,  who  are  the  most 
destitute  of  religion  themselves,  will  hardly  tolerate  irreligion  in 
the  other  sex.  They  feel,  if  they  marry,  that  a  religious  woman 
is  a  crown  to  her  husband;  for  this  is  one  of  the  reluctant 
homages  paid  to  religion  by  ungodliness.  But  that  impiety 
should  be  entrusted  with  their  honour,  and  sit  at  their  hearth,  and 
be  the  instructress  of  their  children,  they  cannot  bear.  Hence  it 
is  no  argument  against  religion,  that  there  is  the  largest  appear- 
ance of  it  in  the  weaker  portion  of  the  human  race.  For  men 
are  irreligious,  not  from  thought,  but  from  recklessness;  in  com- 
pliance with  the  wretched  impulses  of  passion  and  brute  lust,  and 
against  the  better  dictates  of  the  reason  and  conscience.  \et  the 
earthly  results,  as  we  have  observed,  are  not  exactly  the  same  in 
man  and  in  woman.  Men  may  have  no  religion,  and  yet  some- 
times maintain  an  external  decency  and  respectability  in  the 
world  ;  but  women  are  too  apt  to  throw  away  all  the  checks  of 
virtue  and  honour,  together  with  those  of  faith.  When  women 
have  no  religion,  as  their  character  is  disgraced,  so  their  whole 
moral  being  is  disordered.  And  thus,  very  often,  they  are  driven 
out,  like  diseased  and  spotted  animals,  from  the  common  pasture 
of  society,  and  become  as  examples  or  warnings  to  keep  others 
within  the  pale. 

But,  again,  the  circumstances  which  affect  the  quantity  of 
female  religion,  affect  also  its  quality.  It  has  oftentimes  a  depth 
and  fervour  which  the  religion  of  man  wants.  But  oftentimes, 
on  the  other  hand,  it  is  a  thing  of  impulse  rather  than  reflection. 
It  has  its  birth  and  dwelling-pUice  in  the  senses,  the  imagination, 
and  the  feelings.  It  is  a  pious  instinct,  an  enthusiastic  sentiment. 
The  education,  too,  of  women,  very  seldom  leads  them  to  reli- 
gion as  a  science  ;  there  is  a  glowing  attachment  rather  than  a 
systematic  study  ;  and  while  the  misfortune  of  men  is  to  have 
theology  without  devotion,  the   misfortune  of  women  is  to  have 

54  Fcniak  Religion  of  the  Day. 

.l,\(>iinii  witlu.i.l  iluolo-v.  They  have,  in  general,  little  relish 
for  al)sti:ul  and  ;ir';Mniontative  tiednclions,  or  for  any  form  ot 
religion  wliirli,  at  most,  is  coldly  and  soberly  didactic.  They 
rcqnire  something  immcdiaie  and  individnal  ;  something  to 
which  the  fancy  and  the  aft'ections  may  cling.  Neither  Soci- 
uianism,  therefore,  nor  Rationalism,  has  any  strong  hold  upon 
their  minds.  Hut  Popery  may  have  a  charm  for  them,  because 
thev  are  captivated  with  a  creed,  which  addresses  itself  to  the 
heail  through  the  eye  and  ear,  with  pictorial  and  gorgeous 
accompaniments  of  piety,  with  paintings  and  images,  and  tloating 
odours,  and  the  harmonies  of  sacred  music.  They  are  attracted 
likewise  by  that  other  extreme,  which  in  several  points,  however, 
touches  more  nearly  upon  Romanism  than  many  persons  are  wil- 
ling to  admit, — with  the  warm  and  breathing  shapes  of  (so-called) 
evangelical  Protestantism,  where  faith  becomes  a  passion,  and 
religion  itself  is  embodied  and  personified  in  the  human  form  of 
a  sympathizing  Redeemer. 

From  this  rapid  analysis  there  are  some  corollaries  of  import- 
ance to  be  drawn.  VVc  are  taught,  in  the  first  place,  to  look  upon 
the  religion  of  women  with  the  utmost  respect.  It  is  a  glorious  and 
a  majestic,  an  ennobling  and  a  saving  thing.  We  rejoice  at  it  as 
one  of  the  most  beneficent  dispensations  of  God's  Providence, 
one  of  the  best  preservatives  against  the  utter  degradation  and 
corruption  of  a  community.  It  is  an  almost  godlike  spectacle  to 
see  youthful  womanhood  surrounded  with  the  lustre  of  religion, 
or  to  behold  the  matron  in  her  own  appropriate  sphere  of  home, 
shedding  around  her  the  purest  and  most  exalted  of  earthly  in- 
fluences, cradling  the  infant  in  holiness,  and  rendering  the  nursery 
of  the  child  a  school  of  virtue,  and  making  the  fireside  as  an 
altar,  and  the  hearth  as  a  hallowed  shrine,  whence  the  incense  of 
habitual  piety  is  wafted  up  to  heaven.  Christianity,  in  bringing 
out  the  religious  dispositions,  develops  also  the  true  dignity  of 
woman.  God  forbid,  then,  that  we,  as  Christians,  should  say,  in 
the  old  dissolute  Anacreontic  strain,  that  "  Nature  has  given  to 
woman  beauty,"  as  if  Providence  had  given  nothing  else ;  as  if 
woman  was  an  inferior  being,  to  be  addressed  in  the  language 
either  of  frivolous  compliment  or  of  absurd  and  flippant  dis- 
paragement ;  or  a  plaything,  to  be  passionately  idolized  for  some 
eight  or  ten  seasons,  and  then  flung  into  the  corners  of  obscurity 
like  a  spoilt  toy.  Women  have  their  proper  and  peculiar  pro- 
vince in  the  intellectual  and  spiritual  domain.  We  have  always 
thought,  in  spite  of  Milton,  that  Eve  had  as  much  right  as  Adam 
to  stop  and  hear  the  whole  of  the  angel's  conversation.  And 
the  Bible  itself,  in  the  history  of  Mary  and  Martha,  seems  to 
aftbrd  the  iriost  beautiful  of  illustrations,  proving  to  us  that  it  is 
in  the  destiny  of  woman,  uot  merely  to   be,  as  in  the  days  of 

Female  Religion  of  the  Day.  55 

Paganism,  a  household  drudge,  but  to  sit  at  the  feet  of  Jesus, 
and  to  imbibe  the  most  august  truths  from  the  most  sacred  foun- 
tains. We  see  in  her  reUgious  aptitude  her  noblest  adornment, 
and  her  most  transcendant  worth  ;  nor  is  there  any  diadem  of 
splendid  fortune  encircling  her  brow,  which  can  emit  a  radiance 
so  effulgent  as  that  crown  of  the  female  character  in  which  piety 
and  purity  are  shining  together. 

It  will  not,  however,  be  expected  of  us  that  we  should  write 
in  a  romantic  or  sentimental  strain.  Yet  we  cannot  but  add 
that,  while  women  are  on  the  whole  more  religious  than  men, 
religion  never  puts  on  so  lovely  an  aspect  as  in  the  person  of  that 
sex,  in  which  any  semblance  of  impiety  is  most  frightful.  There 
are  who  have  said,  that  the  pictures  of  female  saints,  which  the 
old  painters  in  Popish  countries  have  delighted  to  pourtray,  were 
at  once  true  to  nature,  and  almost  beyond  nature,  as  presenting 
an  ideal  image  of  beauty  setting  off  devotion,  and  devotion 
heightening  beauty.  There  are,  who  even  confess  that  they  have 
seen  delineations  of  the  Virgin,  which  struck  them,  when  in  an 
imaginative  mood,  as  no  unfit  impersonation  of  the  spirit  of  reli- 
gion. These  things  are  suited  neither  to  our  personal  taste  nor 
to  our  critical  occupation.  And  yet  we  have  all  seen  women 
where  the  majesty  and  loveliness  of  religion  seemed  as  jewels 
enshrined  in  uo  unworthy  casket ;  we  may  have  all  learnt  to 
admire  the 

"  Pulchrior  apparens  in  pulchro  corpore  virtus  ■" 

nor  is  there  one  moral  feature  more  pleasing  in  our  common 
humanity  than  the  energy  of  the  fair,  the  eulogized,  and  the  flat- 
tered, devoted  to  the  highest  and  most  sacred  objects  which  can 
claim  the  mind  and  heart  of  a  rational  being. 

But  if  there  be  in  women  a  greater  energy  of  devotion,  there 
are  likewise  concomitant  dangers  and  inconveniences  arising  from 
that  energy  itself.  It  is  not  that  we  deprecate  the  exercise  of  the 
imaginative  faculty  : — the  imagination,  rightly  governed,  is,  we 
venture  to  aflSrm,  a  vast  help  in  the  discovery  and  attainment  of 
religious  truth.  It  is  not  that  we  deprecate  the  fervour  of  reli- 
gious sentiment : — without  fervour  of  sentiment  there  can  be  no 
vital  religion.  But  there  is  the  peril  that  women  may  make  reli- 
gion a  mere  tendency  of  the  heart,  in  which  the  understanding 
has  no  share  ;  a  kind  of  more  exalted  love,  and  more  sublimated 
affection,  which,  glorious  as  it  is  in  itself,  must  degenerate  into 
delusion  and  enthusiasm,  when  it  is  not  sufficiently  based  upon 
the  investigations  of  the  intellect.  There  is  the  peril,  that  wosnen 
may  rest  almost  too  much  on  the  earthly  personality  of  the  Lord 
Christ;  which  is  indeed  a  beautiful  distinction  of  our  faith,  bring- 

.')()  Female  Religion  of  the  Day. 

iii'4  it  \\o\w  to  our  .""Ciisrs  and  our  spirits,  while  it  infinitely  more 
than  tills  the  amplest  range  through  whieh  our  thoughts  can  soar; 
vet  which  is  capable  of"  misleading  into  practical  error  all  who 
dwell  upon  it  dlonc,  and  who  are  thus  habitually  removed  from 
the  awful  contemplation  of  the  inetl'able,  invisible,  and  impal- 
pable divinitv.  Hence  women — and  men  too  by  the  way — highly 
nputid  lor  their  evangelical  piety,  can  speak  of  their  Redeemer 
in  phrases  which  might  better  become  the  mouth  of  a  mere 
hiimauitarian  ;  and  certain  hymns  can  be  filled  with  the  repeti- 
tion of  "  dear  Jesus,"  ''precious  Jesus,"  and  absolutely  "  erolic" 
expressions, — to  borrow  a  word  from  Bishop  Heber,  that  we 
should  hardly  dare  to  use  for  ourselves, — which  offend  and  out- 
rage all  genuine  religion,  quite  as  much  as  they  shock  the  ear  of 

"  Then  none  the  cool  and  prudent  teacher  prize — 
Oil  him  they  dote,  who  wakes  their  ecstasies  ; 
With  passions  ready  prim'd  such  guide  they  nieet^ 
And  warm  and  kindle  with  th'  imparted  heat  : 
'Tis  he,  who  wakes  the  nameless  strong  desire, 
The  melting  rapture  and  the  glowing  fire  : 
'Tis  he,  who  pierces  deep  the  tortured  breast. 
And  stirs  the  terrors,  never  more  to  rest." 

Crabhes  Borough. 

But  we  pass  on  from  a  subject  on  which  it  must  be  painful  to 

The  religious  activities  of  women,  when  their  sphere  is  rightly 
understood,  who  would  depreciate  ?  who  would  circumscribe  ? 
Who  would  speak  of  them,  or  think  of  them,  otherwise  than  with 
admiration  and  respect?  We  might  take,  for  instance,  such 
labours  as  those  of  Mrs.  Fry  in  our  own  country,  or  the  exer- 
tions, in  other  lands,  of  the  Sisters  of  Charity,  going  among  the 
wounded,  the  diseased,  'and  even  the  destitute,  covered  with  rags 
and  filth ;— unpolluted,  and  therefore  fearing  no  pollution  ; — un- 
wearied in  that  resolute  and  healthy  benevolence,  how  different 
from  the  sentimental  pity  of  unchristian  minds,  which  can  weep 
abundant  tears  over  a  tale  of  imaginary  sorrow,  but  is  apt  to 
sicken  and  turn  away,  with  a  fastidious  shudder,  at  the  sight  of 
real,  and  naked,  and  festering,  and  urgent  penury.  Again,  who 
can  fad  to  esteem  the  comparative  sedulity  of  women  in  the  attend- 
ance upon  public  worship  and  the  services  of  the  Church,  or 
their  ready  zeal  for  the  advance  of  true  faith  and  ardent  philan- 
thropy r  Not,  however,  that  we  mean  to  applaud  that  religious 
dissipation,  that/»ss//  bustling  officiousness,  which,  in  its  interior 
motions,  and  sometimes  in  its  effects  upon  the  character,  is  only 

Female  Religion  of  the  Day.  57 

too  much  akin  to  the  busy  vanities  of  frivolity  and  fashion,  by 
which  women  who  have  renounced  the  excitements  of  the  theatre 
and  the  ball-room,  compensate  themselves  by  catching,  in  their 
stead,  at  the  excitements  of  the  pulpit;  and  hurry  from  one 
popular  jjreacher  to  another  favourite  dawning  into  popularity ; 
and  are  exhibited  at  every  religious  assembly  in  Exeter  Hall  or 
elsewhere,  be  its  object  and  purpose  what  it  may,  stimulated  by 
the  feverish  enthusiasm  of  migratory  and  fiery  oratory,  and  per- 
haps communicating  something  of  it  in  return.  Female  piety 
may  be  active,  and  yet  be  unobtrusive. 

In  the  same  spirit,  we  can  pay  our  cordial  tribute  of  approval 
to  those  works  of  love  which  are  undertaken  by  women  within 
the  parochial  circle,  of  visiting  the  poor,  relieving  the  miserable, 
encouraging  the  provident  and  industrious ;  but  we  cannot  ap- 
plaud them,  when,  not  content  with  the  offices  of  religious  charity, 
they  are  ambitious  to  bear  a  direct  part  in  spiritual  ministrations. 
We  have  known  ladies,  in  more  parishes  than  one,  interfering 
with  the  appointed  pastors,  writing  letters  about  the  doctrine 
contained  in  their  sermons,  and  the  subjects  which  they  ought  to 
choose,  raising  questions  calculated  to  engender  strife  even  by 
the  side  of  the  sick  bed,  anxious  to  determine,  whether,  or  not, 
the  sacrament  ought  to  be  administered,  and  whether  right  views 
are  entertained  respecting  it;  and,  in  short,  so  full  of  their  advice 
and  instructions,  that  young  clergymen — curates,  with  the  first 
blushes  of  their  inexperience  about  them,' — have  been  sadly  per- 
plexed between  the  politeness  which  they  felt  due  to  the  sex,  and 
a  wish  to  assert  the  proper  dignity  and  authority  of  their  own 
place  and  functions.  In  behalf  of  gentlemen  thrown  into  this 
unfortunate  predicament,  we  must  take  the  liberty  of  saying  that, 
when  they  are  thus  troublesome  and  disputatious,  theological  or 
h lack-stocking  ladies  are  no  more  likely  to  benefit  the  cause  of 
religion  than  the  vulgar  tribe  of  learned  or  blue-stocking  ladies 
benefits  the  cause  of  literature  and  science. 

Do  we  mean,  then,  to  exclude  women  from  the  region  of  reli- 
gious literature?  Far  from  it.  They  are  well,  and  usefully  and 
fitly  employed  in  the  contemplative,  as  in  the  active  duties  of 
religion.  Our  generation  owes  mucli  to  the  publications  of  Mrs. 
Hannah  More,  Mrs.  Trimmer,  Mrs.  Barbauld,  Mrs.  Carter,  and 
even  Mrs.  Chapone :  and  the  female  heart  has  been  edified  and 
purified  by  the  graceful  strains  of  Mrs.  Hemans  and  Miss  Lan- 
don,  when  the  harp  of  the  poetess  has  vibrated  to  her  inward 
feelings  of  devotion.  Among  the  manuals  of  practical  piety, 
several  have  been  written  by  women,  which,  if  not  intrinsically 
the  most  valuable,  are  the  best  adapted  for  the  improvement  of 
their  own  sex.     In  many  and  important  points,  female  writers 

58  lu->ii(i/e  Religion  of  the  Day. 

are  best  able  tu  accommodate  themselves  to  female  readers.  Their 
conscioiisiu'.ss  is  llioir  guide  ;  and  their  sympathies  render  them 
persuasive.  There  is  a  large  licld,  almost  exclusively  their  own, in 
productions,  addressed  to  the  female  heart  and  springing  out  of  a 
knowledge  of  it,  based  upon  female  habits,  female  modes  of  life, 
and  the  peculiar  sources  of  temptation  to  which  women  are  most 
exposeil.  Hut  a  woman,  who  utters  only  the  sharp  dissonances 
of  theological  ))olemics,  is  an  instrument  horribly  out  of  tune. 
We  no  more  expect  from  female  lips  or  female  pens  the  rude 
accents  of  controversy,  than  we  expect  from  a  placid  river  the 
hoarse  rough  sounds  of  an  angry  tide.  Religious  acrimony  in 
men  is  sad  enough,  and  frequent  enough;  but  it  jars  trebly  upon 
our  minds,  when  it  proceeds  from  those,  in  whom,  as  in  its  chosen 
habitation,  should  reside  every  gentler  and  kinder  emotion ;  and 
who  have  not,  and,  as  they  are  trained  and  educated  now,  actually 
cannot  have,  that  depth  of  learning,  which  alone  makes  disputa- 
tion tolerable,  or  instrumental  to  any  useful  end,  "  Far  be  it 
from  us  and  from  our  friends,"  as  Dr.  Johnson  has  said,  to 
speak  treason  against  that  sex,  which  we  sincerely  believe  to  be, 
on  the  whole,  more  virtuous  and  amiable  than  ours.  But  it  is 
not  treason,  it  is  not  even  a  slight,  to  hint  that  theological  know- 
ledge does  not  come  by  nature,  but  must  be  the  result  of  the 
same  laborious  process  by  which  other  knowledge  is  acquired. 
Women  seldom  aspire  to  instruct  a  merchant  in  the  principles  of 
trade,  or  a  soldier  in  military  tactics  ;  but  they  are  very  often 
anxious  to  instruct  clergymen  in  divinity.  In  the  soft,  the  ima- 
ginative, the  poetical,  and  even  the  practical  departments  of 
religion,  they  n)ay  be  quite  at  home  :  and  in  the  more  abstruse 
points  of  history  and  doctrine,  it  may  be  no  shame  in  them  to  be 
ignorant.  But  it  is  a  shame  in  them  to  dogmatize  without  the 
requisite  instruction.  And,  really,  when  ladies  strive  to  bring 
Christian  Ministers  into  disrepute ;  when  they  attack,  and  in  at- 
tacking misrepresent,  their  system  of  faith  and  their  management 
of  parochial  duty,  we  cannot  but  ask,  where  in  the  world  is  the 
utility  of  this  vituperation  ?  Where  is  the  good  sense  ?  Where  is 
the  good  feeling  ?  Will  it  conduce  to  truth  ?  Will  it  conduce  to 
peace  ?  Will  it  promote  brotherly  love  among  the  pastors  and 
members  of  the  Church  ?  Will  it  aid  in  establishing  Christian 
union  and  concord?  When  they,  whose  business  it  is,  not  to 
irritate,  but  to  soothe  and  embellish,  are  bristling  up  in  a  rugged 
asperity  ;  when  they  would  act  a  part,  inconsistent  with  their 
place,  their  education,  and  the  very  frame  of  their  physical  and 
mental  constitution  ;  when  they  would  dictate  in  theological 
mysteries,  and  usurp  the  chair  of  authority,  and  put  on  the  airs 
of  a  divinity  professor,  we  might  write  pages  of  censure,  but  that 

Female  Religion  of  the  Dai/.  59 

there  steals  over  us  an  involuntary  smile,  almost  less  complimen- 
tary than  the  severest  and  most  serious  reprehension.  It  is  not 
in  the  harmony  of  things.  Why,  for  instance,  must  Mrs.  Sher- 
wood pretend  to  arbitrate  upon  the  affairs  of  the  Church,  when, 
in  reality,  she  is  just  as  well  qualitied  to  write  a  Treatise  on  Con- 
veyancing, or  an  Essay  on  Decisions  in  Equity,  or  a  Digest 
of  the  Law  of  Libel ;  or  to  dabble  with  the  whole  theory  of 
Codification  ;  although  she  has  never,  as  far  as  we  know,  been 
called  to  the  bar,  or  even  paid  one  hundred  guineas  a  single  year, 
for  the  benefit  of  reading  the  newspaper  and  talking  over  the 
gossip  of  the  town,  in  a  special  pleader's  oflUce. 

It  may  be  said,  in  one  view  of  the  case,  that  practical  religion 
is  a  matter  in  which  a  heart  generally  pure,  and  an  understanding 
generally  cultivated,  can  hardly  go  wrong.  But  speculative 
theology,  which,  in  another  view,  must  be  sound,  in  order  that 
practical  religion  may  be  healthy, — speculative  theology,  we  must 
repeat,  will  never  come  by  feeling,  or  by  instinct.  It  is  the  largest 
branch  in  the  tree  of  learning ;  it  is  a  vast,  extensive,  complicated 
science :  it  requires  a  regular  course  of  study  and  discipline,  be- 
fore it  can  be  mastered.  And  ladies,  we  must  take  the  liberty 
of  observing  yet  again,  can  no  more  become  divines,  without  the 
requisite  training,  than  they  could  understand  a  trade  without  an 
apprenticeship  ;  or  be  fit  to  plead  in  a  court  of  justice,  without 
some  initiation  in  the  mysteries  of  the  law. 

It  is,  perhaps,  a  common  weakness  of  humanity,  that  we  are 
apt  to  abandon  the  duties  which  are  incumbent  upon  us,  in  order 
to  attempt  tasks  for  which  we  are  incompetent.  If  women,  there- 
fore, as  well  as  men,  exhibit  signs  of  this  infirmity,  the  fact  ought 
not  to  surprise  us.  Still  we  may  well  grieve,  although  we  have 
no  right  to  wonder. 

In  fact,  it  is  upon  the  long-established  principle  of  the  cor- 
ruptio  optimi  pessima,  that  any  perversion  of  female  piety 
seems  to  us  so  altogether  lamentable.  Religion  is  so  "  excellent 
a  thing  in  woman ;"  it  is,  besides,  so  necessary  to  the  well-being 
of  society,  as  well  as  so  great  an  ornament  of  her  individual 
nature,  that  whatever  deforms  or  mars  it  we  are  tempted  to  con- 
sider and  resent  as  an  injury  done  to  mankind. 

But  here  we  may  be  reproached,  ourselves,  with  inconsistency, 
and  peihaps  with  injustice.  We  demand,  it  may  be  alleged,  that 
women  should  be  religious ;  and  yet  we  strip  them,  one  by  one, 
of  all  the  constituents  of  religion.  We  will  not  allow  them  to 
reason;  and  we  will  not  allow  them  to  feel.  Our  answer  is,  that 
we  wish  them  to  do  both ;  and  both  in  the  right  order  and  pro- 
portion. We  only  desire  that  their  feelings  should  not  be  so 
impassioned,   as  to   run  away  with  their  reason  ;  and  that  their 

60  Female  Religion  of  the  Dai/. 

reasoning  should  nut  limiv  ihein  into  those  acerbities  of  contio- 
vnsY,  U'Tiifli  arc-  unworthy  of  thcni,  and  for  which  they  are  unfit. 
Their  very  reasonings,  we  apprcl>end,  are  too  apt  to  be  a  matter 

of  feelini;. 

l-'or  the  rest,  on  this  as  on  other  matters,  the  Bible  itself  is  our 
best,  and  surest,  and  most  sufficient  guide.  We  see,  in  the  New 
Teslament, — and  the  inferences  to  be  drawn  from  the  Old  are 
.sul).st;inlialiy  the  same, — that  women  were  fellow-labourers  in  the 
cause  of  Christ,  and  had  their  particular  parts  assigned  to  them. 
We  see  it  imi)lied,  if  not  asserted,  that  in  the  primitive  times,  the 
world  could  not  be  Christianized  without  their  co-operation  ;  and 
we  may  conclude  with  certainty,  that  the  Christian  philanthropy 
of  any  land  could  not  now  be  well  organized,  or  adequately  car- 
ried forward,  without  their  inestimable  assistance.  We  see  women 
of  experience  and  unspotted  reputation  appointed  as  deaconesses, 
and  therefore  called  to  administrative  and  distributive  offices  in 
the  early  Church  :  and  we  read  it  as  their  praise,  that  "  they 
have  brought  up  children,  and  relieved  the  distressed,  and  been 
diligently  given  to  every  good  work."  But  we  find,  too,  on  the 
other  hand,  that  their  province  was  for  the  most  part  subsidiary; 
we  find  submissiveness  and  docility  recommended  as  their  essen- 
tial and  most  becoming  virtues;  we  do  imt  find  them  sent  out  as 
apostles  or  missionaries ;  we  find  it  expressly  forbidden,  that  they 
should  "  usurp  authority;'  and  expressly  commanded  that  they 
should  "learn  in  silence  with  all  subjection:"  and  also — for- 
asmuch as  that  God  is  the  author  not  of  confusion  but  of  peace, — 
that  they  should  "  keep  silence  in  the  Churches,  for  it  is  not  per- 
mitted of  them  to  speak  ,•  but  they  are  commanded  to  be  under 
obedience,  as  also  saith  the  laze.  And  if  they  will  learn  any  thing, 
let  them  ask  their  husbands  at  home .''  But  if  it  was  then  accounted 
"  a  shame  for  women  to  speak  in  the  Church^'  if  they  were  not 
allowed  to  preach  and  to  teach  publicly,  it  is  quite  plain  from  all 
analogy,  that  they  are  nbt  now  expected  to  be  the  expounders  of 
the  faith ;  but  that  the  doctrinal,  hermeneutical,  and  spiritual 
departments  are  rather  reserved  for  those,  who  have  been  pro- 
perly authorized  and  ordained  to  the  vocation.  The  subject  is 
delicate  and  almost  invidious ;  and  it  is  difficult  to  speak  upon  it 
without  either  adulation  or  offence.  Our  statements,  in  fact, 
must  be  taken  with  certain  exceptions  and  limitations  ;  more 
especially,  perhaps,  in  a  country,  where  a  queen  may  be  recognized 
as  the  temporal  head  of  the  Church,  in  all  causes  ecclesiastical 
as  well  as  civil,  within  these  her  dominions  supreme.  Still  the 
general  deduction  is  safe  and  unambiguous  ;  and  assuredly  it  has 
seldom  fared  well  with  Christian  truth,  when  its  spiritual  direc- 
tion has  been  in  female  hands,  and  wide  cause  has  there  been  for 

Female  Religion  of  the  Day.  61 

regret,  when  a  land  has  writhed  under  the  persecutions  of  a 
Mary  ;  or  a  Fenelon  has  embraced  the  mysticism  of  a  Madame 
Guyon;  oi'  when  a  Catherine  de  Medicis  has  fostered  cruelty,  or 
a  Madame  de  Maintenon  superstition  ;  or  when,  at  home,  minis- 
ters, instead  of  belonging  to  the  establishment,  belong  to  Lady 
Huntingdon's  connexion ;  or  men  have  bowed  down  their  un- 
derstanding before  the  ravings  of  Joanna  Southcott,  or  the  unin- 
telligible rhapsodies  of  the  female  disciples  of  Irvingism. 

The  spirit  of  our  observations  may  be  summed  up  in  a  few 
words.  A  community  can  never  be  secure,  or  prosperous,  or  at 
peace,  unless  the  women  of  it  are  religious.  The  religion  of 
a  country  depends,  in  a  very  great  measure,  on  its  female  inha- 
bitants, and  no  less,  therefore,  the  happiness  and  credit  of  a 
country.  But,  on  the  other  hand,  we  by  no  means  think  that  a 
land  is  likely  to  be  wisest  and  happiest,  where  the  women  give 
the  tone  to  its  religion,  and  where  piety  is  rather  a  female  than 
a  masculine  characteristic.  For  this  evil,  if  it  be  one,  the  real 
cure  is  to  pour,  if  we  can,  over  the  matUy  intelligence,  over  the 
whole  virility  of  a  kingdom,  a  devotional  spirit,  strong,  deep,  and 
calm  in  its  deep  strength,  like  the  waters  of  the  ocean.  At 
present,  the  theology  of  a  realm,  and  most  of  all  the  theology  of 
its  pulpits,  loill  be  materially  affected  by  the  taste  and  opinions 
of  the  female  part  of  the  population  ;  because  writers,  and  still 
more  preachers,  will  mould  their  labours  so  as  to  please  and 
attract  the  largest  numbers ;  but  the  largest  luimbers  will  be 
composed  of  women.  And  here,  perhaps,  is  one  of  the  sorest 
temptations  by  which  young  clergymen  of  talent  are  beset ;  the 
alternative  before  them  sometimes  being,  either  to  deteriorate,  in 
their  own  judgment,  the  matter  and  manner  of  their  instructions, 
or  to  lose  the  favour  and  approbation  which  would  most  flatter 
and  delight  them,  and  to  see  their  usefulness  apparently  dimi- 
nished in  the  same  ratio  with  their  popularity.  Without  question, 
however,  it  is  the  solemn  duty  of  all  writers  and  all  preachers,  to 
counteract,  rather  than  stimulate  to  a  morbid  excess,  those  domi- 
nant peculiarities  which,  in  women,  and  perhaps  also  in  men, 
impair  the  force,  and  destroy  the  proportions,  of  true  holiness. 
It  were  well,  too,  if  our  countrywomen  at  some  period  of  their 
education  could  be  regularly  taught,  and  solidly  grounded,  in  the 
elements  at  least  of  Christian  theology,  not  by  scraps  and  frag- 
ments, but  as  a  whole;  if  their  religious  tendencies  could  be — 
not  checked  or  stunted — but  improved  and  corrected,  and  some- 
times pruned,  by  proper  cultivation  in  early  life  ;  for  then  they 
would  hardly  be  the  dupes  of  such  nonsense  as  Mrs.  Sherwood's, 
or  led  away  by  that  extravagance  of  doctrine  which  always  fixes 
its  strongest  and  most  tenacious  hold  upon  ignorance  combined 
with  warmth  of  feeling.     In  the  mean  time,  we  must  honestly 

59  Female  Religion  of  the  Day. 

wish  that  they  wouhl  abstain  fVoin  dogmatizing  upon  points  upon 
which  it  is  not  their  fault  tliat  they  aie  not  fully  acquanited  ;  and 
wonlil  i-ontinuaily  bear  in  mind,  that  the  world  contains  nothing 
so  beautiful  as  a  woman  meekly,  humbly,  mildly,  modestly  reli- 
gious ;  but  few  things  so  disagreeable,  and  disserviceable  to 
relitjio'n  itself,  as  a  wouuin  polemically,  arrogantly,  controversially, 
disputatiously  religious.  But  we  have  done.  If  any  should 
think  that  our  remarks  have  been  made  upon  an  unimportant 
subject,  we  entreat  them,  at  the  end  of  this  paper  as  at  the 
be«^iimino^,  to  reflect  upon  that  subject  in  all  its  shapes  and  all 
its^consequences,  a  little  more ;  for,  indeed,  how  many  of  our 
longest  arguments  and  our  most  eager  discussions,  are  upon 
matters  of  inconiparably  less  moment !  And  if  any  should  object 
that  the  language  of  remonstrance  or  apprehension  was  altogether 
uncalled  for,  we  need  only  refer  them  to  Mrs.  Sherwood's  pub- 
lication :  and  if  that  lady  is  dissatisfied,  her  dissatisfaction  ought 
to  rest  with  herself;  since  she  will  owe  her  exposure,  not  to  any 
criminatory  strictures  on  our  part,  half  so  much  as  to  the  extracts 
fairly  taken  from  her  own  volume. 

Art.  III. —  1.  Nicholas  OrlandinVs  Historia  SocietatisJesu.  Con- 
tinued by  Sachini.* 
2.  Poynder's  History  of  the  Jesuits.     2  vols.     Baldwin. 

Much  has  been  written  in  favour  of  and  against  the  Jesuits,  but 
more  generally  against  them :  the  many  works  upon  this  subject 

*  Orlandini  (Nicolas)  Historia  Societatis  Jesus,  pars  prima,  Rome,  1615  ;  Antwerp, 
1620.     Tliis  volume  contains  llie  Life  of  St.  Ignatius,  divided  into  six  books. 

Sachini  (Francis),  who  undertook  to  continue  the  history  of  the  Society,  was  the 
editor  of  the  first  volume,  to  which  he  added  a  short  Memoir  of  Orlandini,  and  a  table 
of  the  contents. 

The  second  volume  contains  the  Life  of  J  .  Laynez,  Antwerp,  1620  ; — the  third,  the 
Life  of  Francis  Borgia,  Rome,  1649;  the  fourth,  that  of  Evcrard  (Mercuriano),  Rome, 
1652;  and  the  fifth,  that  of  Claude  Acquaviva,  ibid.  1661.  Sachini  dying  before  he 
finished  the  Life  of  Acquaviva,  Father  Pierre  Pepin  was  deputed  to  complete  and 
publish  it.  A  sixth  volume,  edited  by  Father  .Touvanci,  appeared  at  Rome  in  1710, 
which  contains  the  chief  proceedings  of  the  Society  between  1591  and  1616;  and  in 
1760,  a  seventh  volume  was  published  by  P.  Jules  Cordaxa,  which  takes  in  a  portion 
of  the  seventeenth  century.  The  Collection  is  scarce,  and  sought  after.  It  is  difficult 
to  procure  it  complete,  especially  in  France,  on  account  of  the  suppression  of  Jou- 
vanci's  volume  ;  which  was  ordered  to  be  destroyed  by  the  Parliament  of  Paris,  on  the 
22d  Feb.  and  24tli  JMarch  I7l3,  in  consequence  of  its  praising  Father  Guignard,  who 
was  condemned  to  death,  for  having  carried  on  a  secret  intercourse  with  Jean  Chatel, 
one  of  the  murderers  of  Henry  IV. 

Books  of  reference. 

Economies  Royales  of  Sully,  vol.  3,  ch.  xxx. 

First  and  Second  Report  on  the  Constitution  of  the  Jesuits,  par  La  Chatalois,  Soli- 
citor General  of  the  Parliament  in  Brittany,  1761. 

Essay  on  the  Spirit  and  Intluence  of  the  Reformation  of  Luther,  which  received  a 
prize  from  the  French  Institute  in  1802  (Charles  de  Villers  was  the  author). 

Critical  History  of  the  Inquisition  in  Spain,  by  Llorenti,  1820,  Paris. 

History  of  the  Jesuits.  63 

alone,  would  in  themselves  form  no  inconsiderable  library  ;  but, 
of  these,  how  few  are  there  in  which  we  do  not  find  the  opinions 
of  the  author  more  or  less  influenced  by  passion  or  prejudice; 
and  if,  on  the  one  hand,  a  blind  and  interested  enthusiasm  has 
alone  prompted  the  defence,  it  cannot  be  denied  that,  on  the 
other,  the  attack  has  but  too  often  betrayed  the  workings  of  party 
spirit,  if  not  the  rancour  of  actual  hate. 

We  are  now,  perhaps,  arrived  at  a  period  the  most  opportune 
for  offering  a  just  and  impartial  opinion  upon  the  character  of 
this  celebrated  Order.  Its  mischievous  and  intriguing  influ- 
ence, less  powerful  in  the  affairs  of  government  at  the  present 
day,  has  ceased  to  be  an  object  of  alarm  or  inquietude  to  those 
who  once  dreaded  its  power,  and  we  are  now  at  liberty  to  judge 
and  pronounce  freely  on  the  merits  of  this  Institution ;  although 
the  period  of  its  ascendancy  is  not  yet  so  far  remote  as  would 
justify  perfect  indifference  to  it.  Viewed  as  a  matter  of  history, 
and  with  respect  to  the  part  it  has  played  in  the  great  drama  of 
human  life,  the  principles  and  objects  of  this  body  may  now  be 
examined  with  that  degree  of  interest  and  impartiality,  without 
which  it  is  impossible  duly  to  appreciate,  or  rightly  to  under- 
stand, the  events  of  the  past. 

Though  admitting  to  the  fullest  extent  the  merits  of  the  work 
before  us,  and  of  many  others  on  this  subject,  still  we  may  ven- 
ture to  affirm,  that  an  impartial  and  faithful  account  of  the  cha- 
racter and  origin  of  this  Order  is  yet  to  be  written. 

The  establishment  of  the  Jesuits  takes  its  date  from  the  middle 
of  the  l6th  century.  Following,  with  an  interval  of  a  very  few 
years,  the  promulgation  of  the  tenets  of  Luther  and  his  followers, 
this  great  Romanist  institution  increased  with  the  rise  of  Protes- 
tantism, the  rapid  progress  of  which  kept  pace  with  the  most  bril- 
liant epoch  of  its  annals.  The  historians  of  this  body  remark, 
with  a  sort  of  satisfaction,  that  the  Bull  which  admitted  their  own 
order  within  the  pale  of  the  Church,  was  issued  in  the  same  year 
in  which  England  detached  herself  from  the  Papal  supremacy ; 
as  if,  say  they.  Providence  had  vouchsafed  to  provide  ample  com- 
pensation to  its  servants  for  so  great  a  disaster. 

Still  more  struck  by  this  coincidence,  the  Protestant  historians 
seem  to  regard  the  establishment  of  the  Jesuits  as  the  most  pow- 

Political  Portrait  of  the  Popes,  since  tlie  estabiisliment  of  the  Holy  See,  by  the  same. 

History  of  Paris,  by  Dulauze,  1820. 

Historical  Essay  on  the  Temporal  Power  of  the  Popes,  and  the  abuse  they  have  made 
of  their  Spiritual  Power,  by  Dannon,  Keeper  of  the  Archives  of  the  Kingdom.  4th  edit, 
in  folio.  1822. 

Petition  of  Count  Montlosier  to  the  Chamber  of  Paris,  relatively  to  the  establishment 
of  the  Jesuits,  and  referred,  on  the  Report  of  Count  Portalis,  to  the  Minister  of  the 
Interior,  by  a  majority  of  113  to  73,  in  1827. 

History  of  the  Conquest  of  England  by  the  Normans,  4th  edit,  vol,  4,  pages  280, 
by  Augustus  Thierry,  1830. 

G4  Orlandiiii  atid  Sachini — 

oiful  obstacle  that  llu>  Holy  Sec  opposed  to  the  progress  of  the 
Hrronnatioii.  Olio  of  ihcin*  goes  so  far  as  to  say  "  that  the  Re- 
formation would  have  been  established  without  u  struggle,  if  it 
had  not  been  so  closely  followed  by  the  Order  of  Jesuits,  and  that 
had  it  (that  is,  Protestantism)  been  preceded  by  that  Institution, 
it  would  never  have  triumphed." 

lliis  homage  is  indeed  Haltering,  but  it  would  be  repudiated  by 
the  pure  and  sublime  spirit  of  Christianity,  if  it  were  not  already 
so  bv  history  itself.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  Jesuits  were  set 
up  ehieriy  for  the  purpose  of  succouring  the  cause  of  the  totter- 
ing Pa})acy  ;  and  hence,  from  die  moment  of  their  appearance  in 
the  Christian  world,  they  were  the  natural  enemies  of  the  new 
doctrines ;  but  in  serving  the  Roman-Catholic  Church  with  a  zeal 
and  display  of  resources,  which  we  must  admit  to  be  incompara- 
ble, it  remains  to  be  seen  how  far  they  have  compromised  it,  by 
the  divisions  which  they  have  sown  in  its  bosom,  and  the  innu- 
merable incentives  which  they  have  furnished  to  the  Reformers  to 
attack,  at  various  times,  its  policy  and  doctrines.  All  things  con- 
sidered, we  are  not  aware  tliat  much  gratitude  is  due  to  them  for 
their  services  to  the  Holy  See. 

It  is  still  more  questionable  whether  their  existence  at  an  earlier 
period  would  have  prevented  the  revolution  of  the  l6th  century 
from  taking  place;  it  is  precisely  because  they  were  instituted  after 
its  commencement  that  they  were  enabled  to  combat  it  upon  some- 
what equal  terms.  The  fact  is,  that  the  Jesuits  must  be  viewed  in 
connexion  with  the  spiritual  wants  and  religious  ideas  of  the  age, 
to  the  influence  of  which  they  owed  their  origin  and  development; 
and  of  this  truth  we  find  ample  confirmation,  not  only  in  the 
works  of  Orlandini  and  Sachini,  but  in  all  which  treat  of  the 

The  following  is  the  account  of  their  origin  given  by  Orlandini. 

On  the  15th  August,  1534,  the  day  of  the  Assumption,  seven 
students  of  the  University  of  Paris  bend  their  way  towards  Mont- 
martre,  then  a  solitary  and  retired  place,  occupied  only  by  a  con- 
vent of  nuns.  On  their  arrival,  the  eldest  of  them,  a  priest,  says 
mass  in  a  chapel  dedicated  to  the  Virgin,  and  at  the  moment  of 
turning  towards  his  kneeling  brethren,  holding  in  his  hands  the 
celestial  nourishment  which  he  was  preparing  to  divide  among 
them,  they  all  entered  into  a  solemn  vow.  This  vow  was  nothing 
less  than  to  renounce  the  world,  to  live  henceforth  in  perpetual 
chastity  and  poverty,  not  to  profit  by  the  celebration  of  the 
Divine  mysteries,  to  go  to  Jerusalem  with  the  permission  of 
the  Holy  See,  to  employ  themselves  there  without  intermission  in 
the  consolation  of  the  Christians  of  the  East,  and  in  the  conver- 

*  Allgeraeine  Geschichte,  &c.  &c.     Histoire  generale  et  chronologique  de  FEglise 
Chr6tienne,  par  H.  P.  C.  Henke,  4th  edit.  Brunswick,  vol.  iii.  p.  198. 

Hhtory  of  ihe  Jesuisls.  63 

sion  of  unbelievers  ;  and  in  case  they  should  not  be  able  to  cany 
into  execution  this  project,  by  any  obstacle  independent  of  their 
own  will,  they  agreed  to  go  to  Rome  and  offer  their  services  to  the 
Pope,  by  placing  themselves  at  his  entire  disposal.  Mass  being 
ended,  ti)ey  leturned  thanks  to  the  Divine  Majesty,  partook  of  the 
refreshments  which  they  had  brought  with  them,  and  passed  the 
remainder  of  the  day  in  pious  communion,  seating  themselves  near 
the  fountain  in  which,  according  to  an  old  tradition,  Saint  Denis 
had  washed  his  hands,  with  the  blood  dripping  from  his  head, 
which  he  had  carried  as  far  as  the  spot  which  still  bears  his  name. 
At  sunset  they  regained  their  homes,  blessing  God,  and  full  of 
unspeakable  happiness. 

But  there  is  one  among  them  especially  whose  heart  bounds  with 
joy,  for  he  had  just  laid  the  foundation  of  diat  religious  Order,  the 
thought  of  which  lias  for  a  long  time  agitated  and  absorbed  him. 
At  last,  he  sees  the  first  stone  of  the  edifice  placed,  and  the  fervour 
of  his  zeal  and  the  conviction  of  his  own  inspiration  forbid  him  to 
doubt  of  the  result.  Here,  then,  behold  the  successor  of  St.  Benoit 
and  St.  Francis,  in  the  person  of  Ignatius  de  Loyola,  who  has 
now  united  with  him  six  adherents  devoted  to  this  great  project. 

Born  in  1491,  in  that  part  of  the  province  of  Biscay  called 
Guipuscoa,  Ignatius  belonged  to  a  noble  family;  his  father,  Don 
Bertram,  Lord  of  Ognez  and  Loyola,  was  in  the  first  rank  of  the 
nobility  of  the  country.  From  being  page  to  king  Ferdinand, 
young  Ignatius  afterwards  entered  the  army,  and  distinguished 
himself  at  once  by  his  courage  and  his  excessive  love  of  glory 
and  worldly  pleasures.  In  1521,  when  he  was  more  than  ever 
devoted  to  these  pursuits,  and  in  love  with  a  lady  of  the  Court  of 
Castile,  he  was  wounded  in  the  right  leg  by  a  cannon-ball  at 
Pampeluna,  then  besieged  by  the  French.  In  allusion  to  this 
circumstance,  one  of  his  thirty-two  historians  relates  the  follow- 
ing saying  of  his  :  "  That  he  could  not  understand  how  it  was 
possible  to  live  without  a  lofty  ambition,  or  be  happy  without  a 
great  attachment." 

This  wound,  which  terminated  his  military  career,  gave  rise  to 
his  new  and  spiritual  mission.  Condemned  to  an  unwilling  lei- 
sure, Ignatius  asked  for  books  in  order  to  dissipate  his  ennui,  par- 
ticularly books  of  chivalry ;  but  none  except  works  on  devotion 
were  to  be  found  in  the  castle  of  Loyola,  where  he  had  been 
removed  on  account  of  his  wound,  and  they  brought  him  one  of 
these,  the  "  Flower  of  the  Saints" 

This  sacred  romance,  its  religious  paladins,  their  holy  prowess, 
the  miracles  which  they  j^erformed,  all  filled  him  with  an  ad- 
miration almost  equal  to  that  which  he  had  heretofore  felt  for 
knighthood  alone. 

NO.  XLIII. — JULY,  1837.  F 

66  Oilandini  and  Sachini — 

Stimulated  by  tlieir  example,  he  soon  felt  a  desire  to  emulate 
thesr  liolv  saints  whose  sublime  virtues  spoke  so  vividly  to  his  ima- 
«Mnalion.  lie  was  particularly  seduced  by  the  glory  of  those  who 
had  been  the  founders  of  some  illustrious  order.  Bruno  Dominick, 
and  Franc^ois  d'Assise,  were  his  favourite  heroes.  With  the 
desire  therefore  of  treading  in  their  steps,  he  projected  a  journey 
barefoot  to  the  Holy  Land.  It  was  to  Montserrat  that  he 
bent  iiis  way.  One  day  having  entered  the  Church  of  this  cele- 
brated monastery,  he  recollected  having  read  in  Amaclis  de  Gaitle, 
that  the  candidates  for  the  Order  of  Chivalry  watched  their 
arms  a  whole  night  prior  to  their  being  received,  which  was  called 
watching  the  armour.  This  gave  him  the  idea  of  converting  a  pro- 
fane ceremony  into  a  holy  custom.  He  remained,  therefore,  the 
whole  night  before  the  altar  of  the  Virgin,  at  times  standing,  then 
kneeling,  always  praying,  devoting  himself  to  .Jesus  and  Mary  as 
their  chevalier.  From  Montserrat  he  went  to  Maureze,  and 
from  thence  to  Italy  and  Palestine,  from  whence  he  was  sent 
back  by  the  provincial  of  the  order  of  St.  Francis,  who  had  the 
direction  of  the  pilgrims.  We  shall  not  follow  him  to  these  se- 
veral places,  nor  to  the  different  cities  and  universities  which  he 
visited.  But  having  returned  to  Spain  in  1524,  he  resolved  to 
commence  his  studies  at  the  age  of  thirty-three. 

He  rendered  himself  everywhere  an  object  of  suspicion  by  the 
eccentricity  of  his  conduct;  and  by  an  incorrigible  mania  for  cate- 
chising others,  he  drew  upon  himself,  on  several  occasions,  the  vigi- 
lant eye  of  the  Inquisition,  and  was  twice  imprisoned  in  its  dungeons. 

This  first  part  of  his  history,  full  of  pious  extravagancies  and 
of  severe  mortifications,  of  visions  and  of  extacies,  seems  to  give  the 
indication  of  a  weak  or  unsound  mind,  rather  than  that  of  a  man 
whom  posterity,  always  just,  will  allow  to  have  possessed  some 
eminent  qualities. 

[t  was  only  at  Paris,  however,  that  he  met  with  real  patrons  and 
ardent  disciples,  and  he  'appears  to  have  gone  there  for  the  pur- 
pose of  completing  his  studies,  disgusted  no  doubt  with  the  broils 
and  dissensions  he  had  encountered  in  the  universities  of  Spain, 
and  the  little  progress  he  had  made  in  them. 

By  degrees  the  idea  of  becoming  the  parent  of  a  new  religious 
order  took  possession  of  iiis  imagination.  It  had  already  suggested 
to  him,  that  it  was  not  merely  his  own  perfectibility  that  God 
required  of  him,  but  also  that  of  his  fellow-creatures;  and  that 
his  whole  life,  and  the  employment  of  all  his  powers,  should  be 
subservient  to  this  glorious  end.  It  was  under  the  influence  of 
this  idea  that  he  composed,  or  rather  sketched,  at  Maureze,  his 
Exercises  Spirit uels,  which  are  not  simply,  according  to  Bou- 
hours,  a  collection  of  plain  Christian  meditations,  but  a  useful 
and  practicable  plan   for  the  reformation   of  manners  and  for 

History  of  the  Jesuits.  67 

the  conversion  of  sinners.  These  exercises  were  his  usual 
means  of  proselytism  and  incorporation ;  they  served  for  the 
same  purpose  after  his  death,  and  form  a  part  of  the  system  of 
trials  which  are  preliminary  to  admission  to  the  society.  But 
Ignatius  employed  more  powerful  charms  to  attract  disciples. 
He  did  not  fear  to  have  recourse  to  stratagem,  and  when  he 
had  once  succeeded  in  making  converts,  he  understood  the  art  of 
retaining  them  quite  as  well  as  he  did  that  of  attracting  them. 
With  this  view,  he  exerted  himself  to  establish  among  them  habits 
of  confidence  and  familiarity.  They  not  only  studied  and  prayed 
together  under  his  direction,  but  he  assembled  them,  sometimes 
at  the  house  of  one,  and  sometimes  at  that  of  another,  to  take 
part  in  conversations  on  pious  and  even  literary  subjects.  They 
often  also  took  their  meals  together.* 

Nor  was  this  all :  as  soon  as  he  was  assured  of  the  devotedness 
and  good  wishes  of  the  first  half-dozen,  he  sought  to  bind  them  to- 
gether for  ever  by  irrevocable  vows.  This  was  the  first  obligation, 
the  very  foundation  of  the  society,  of  which  we  know  already, 
the  scene,  the  date,  and  the  details.  The  names  of  the  new  pro- 
selytes deserve  to  be  mentioned.  They  were  Pierre  Lefevre,  of  the 
country  of  Savoy,  and  a  learned  disciple  of  the  school  of  Aristotle, 
who,  previously  to  his  being  the  companion  of  Ignatius,  had 
been  his  tutor  at  the  College  of  St.  Barbe  (at  Paris) — and  had  been 
just  ordained  a  priest ; — Francois  Xavier,  of  an  illustrious  family 
of  Navarre,  who  was  already  animated  with  that  generous  ardour 
for  spiritual  conquest  which  had  obtained  for  him  the  glorious  title 
of  the  Apostle  of  the  New  World; — Jacques  Laynez  de  Sequenga, 
and  Alphonso  Salmeron  de  Toledo,  young  Castilians  united  toge- 
ther by  the  ties  of  friendship,  and  both  of  them  gifted  with  great 
genius  ;  the  former  a  subtle  theologian,  whose  ultramontane  opi- 
nions were  to  be  the  symbol  of  the  society,  and  so  profound 
a  politician,  that  the  plan  and  the  constitution  of  the  order  which 
he  governed  after  Loyola,  have  been  considered  by  many  as  his 
work  ;  and  the  latter,  the  most  skilful  and  the  deepest  read  of  all 
of  them  in  the  literature  of  Greece  and  Rome.  The  fifth  was 
Nicholas  Bobadilla,  who  was  filled  with  apostolic  fervour,  but  of 
an  impetuosity  which  savoured  of  imprudence;  and  the  sixth 
Simon  Rodriquez,  of  Portugal,  a  model  of  every  Christian  virtue. 

After  the  vow  at  Montmartre,  Ignatius  wished  to  leave  his  com- 
panions two  years  in  Paris,  inorderthat  they  might  pursue  their  stu- 
dies. Being  himself  obliged  to  return  to  Spain  on  account  of  the 
state  of  his  health,  and  in  order  to  arrange  some  matters  of  business, 
he  left  Paris  in  1535,  with  the  intention  of  rejoining  them  at  Venice 
in  the  month  of  February,  1537.     From  thence  their  design  was 

*  "  Nee  deeiant  frequeiites  prandiorum  invitationes." — Oiland.  p.  21,  tom.i, 


(jS  Orlamliiii  and  Sacliini — 

to  cinl»:nk  to^clhcr  Tor  the  Holy  Laiul,  and  in  case  any  obstacle 
uievt-nte.l  it,  Uiey  were  to  wait  a  year  for  an  opportunity  of 
iMidiMtakiiii;  the  voyage.  In  quitting  them,  he  left  the  new-born 
sociity  uncFer  the  direction  of  Pierre  Lefevre,  who  augmented  it, 
durinij  his  absence,  by  the  addition  of  Jean  Codoure  of  the  dio- 
rcse  of  (leneva,  and  Pasquicr  Brouet  of  Embrun.  Claude  Lcjay 
had  alreadv  preceded  them  in  it.  These  nine  companions  of  Ig- 
natius reached  Venice  by  Lorraine  and  Germany.  The  occu- 
pation of  the  southern  provinces  by  the  French  and  Spanish  troops, 
then  at  war  on  account  of  the  Milanese  territory,  had  obliged  them 
to  take  that  route.  They  travelled  on  foot  as  pilgrims,  loaded 
uilh  provisions  and  books,  and  clothed  in  the  most  humble  attire, 
but  in  the  costume  commonly  worn  by  the  students  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Paris,  to  which  they  belonged.* 

On  reaching  Venice  in  the  month  of  January,  1537,  Lefevre  and 
liis  companions  found  Ignatius  already  there.    He  had  employed 
himself  without  intermission,  in  increasing   the  number  of  his 
disciples,  friends,  and  patrons.     Foreseeing  that  they  would  not 
yet  be  able  to  set  sail  for  Palestine,  they  gave  themselves  up  to 
works    of    charity,    and    the   practice    of    mortifications.     Soon 
after    reaching    Rome,    finding   that    the   league   which    at    this 
period   was  concluded  between  the  Emperor,  the  Republic  of 
Venice   and    the    Holy   See    against   the    Turks,    still    delayed 
their  voyage  to  Jerusalem,  they  adopted  the  plan  of  distributing 
themselves  among  the  several  cities  and  towns  of  Italy,  for  the 
purpose  of  preaching,  choosing  in  preference  those  in  which  there 
were  the  most  universities  and  the  greatest  number  of  students, 
such  as  Bologna,  Sienna,  Ferrara,  and  Padua.     In  these  various 
places  they  neglected  nothing  which  could  attract  the  attention 
and  conciliate  the  favour  of  the  public,  every  where  displaying  the 
greatest  activity  and  ambition.    The  year  1537  having  been  spent 
in  these  exertions,  Ignati^us  and  his  companions  abandoned  their 
previous  intention  of  sailing  for  Palestine,  and  resolved  to   ac- 
complish the  last  part  of  the  vow  of  Montmartre,  by  proceeding 
to  Rome  and  placing  themselves  at  the  disposal  of  the  Pope. 

I'he  intention  of  Ignatius  was  to  arrive  the  first  at  Rome, 
accompanied  only  by  Laynez  and  Lefevre,  whilst  the  others 
were  to  reach  it  by  other  routes.  Before  separating,  they  agreed 
to  observe  certain  rules,  which  form  the  first  sketch  of  the  consti- 
tution and  discipline  of  the  order  ;  and  these  are  for  the  most  part 
neither  orations,  nor  forms  of  prayer,  nor  pious  exercises,  but 
rather  an  epitome  of  those  precepts  which  they  enjoined  them- 
selves to  observe  in  their  intercourse  with  the  world.  It  was  then 
that  they  first  took  the  name  of  Jesuits.     They  debated  among 

*  "  Tauperi  plebeioque  cultu,  sed  tamen  oblongo,  ut  inter  Parisienses  mos  est  aca- 
demicos."— Oilaiid.  p.  21. 

.History  of  the  Jesuits.  69 

themselves  what  answer  they  should  give  to  those  who  should  ask 
them  who  they  were,  and  to  what  order  they  belonged  '.'  They 
agreed  that  there  was  no  one  among  them  worthy  to  give  his  name 
to  the  soeiety  of  which  they  contemplated  the  establishment;  and 
their  main  object  being  to  combat  heresy  under  the  banners  of 
Jesus  Christ,  it  was  suggested  to  them  by  Ignatius  that  they 
could  not  adopt  a  better  denomination  than  that  of  the  Society  of 

At  Rome,  while  Laynez  and  Lefevre  taught  the  belles-lettres  in 
the  public  schools,  Ignatius  devoted  himself  entirely  to  the  means 
of  definitively  founding  his  institution.  With  this  intention,  he  sum- 
moned all  his  companions  at  the  end  of  Lent,  1538,  and  announced 
to  them  that  the  day  had  at  length  arrived  for  them  to  incorporate 
themselves  as  an  improved  religious  order,  or,  as  it  was  then  called, 
en  religion,  and  he  proposed  to  them  to  discuss  its  fundamental  rules. 

As  they  were  occupied  during  the  day  in  works  of  piety,  they 
deliberated  during  the  night.  Orlandini  enters  into  some  interest- 
ing details  respecting  their  deliberations.  It  appears  that  the 
greatest  freedom  prevailed  in  their  discussions  :  frequently  opi- 
nions, differing  greatly  from  those  tirst  proposed,  were  linally 
adopted.  The  first  point  discussed  by  them  was,  whether  each 
in  his  particular  mission  should  be  guided  by  his  own  views,  or 
should  be  obliged  to  act  in  concert  or  co-operation  with  the  ge- 
neral body.  They  agreed  to  the  latter,  because  in  order  to  obtain 
great  results,  nothing  is  more  powerful  than  harmony  of  opinion.f 
They  next  took  into  consideration  whether  it  would  not  be  ad- 
visable, to  the  vows  of  poverty  and  chastity,  to  add  a  third,  that 
of  obedience ;  and  whether  they  ought  not  to  have  a  superior 
chosen  from  the  society,  armed  with  absolute  power.  Should 
they  agree  to  this,  the  constitution  of  the  society  would  be  com- 
pletely changed,  for  they  had  hitherto  lived  without  any  obligatory 
rule  or  acknowledged  chief.  They  therefore  thought  it  better  to 
divide  this  important  discussion  into  two  parts,  the  first  of  which 
should  be  devoted  to  the  development  of  all  those  principles  that 
should  induce  them  to  retain  the  liberty  of  acting,  which  they  had 
hitherto  enjoyed ;  and  the  second  to  the  advantages  of  obe- 
dience. The  debate  lasted  several  days,  and  it  was  not  till  after 
a  minute  examination  of  both  questions,  that  they  adopted  that 
of  an  implicit  obedience  to  the  will  of  a  chief.  They  also  re- 
solved that  his  powers  should  be  conferred  for  life,  and  not 
for  a  limited  term,  as  they  at  first  intended.  On  another  occasion 
they  agreed  that  beside  the  three  vows  already  mentioned,  and 
which   were  common  to  other  religious   societies,  they   should 

*  Orlandini  and  Bouhours. 

t  "  Prajsertini  quod  ad  res  arduas  prajclarasqiie  uioliciidas  nihil  essct  aniiiioruiii  con- 
spiratione  prsstanUu'),"— OdauU.  liv.  xi.  p.  40. 

70  Orlaudini  and  Sachini — 

adopt  one  peculiar  to  their  institution,  namely,  to  go  wherever 
the  Pope  shouhl  send  them  for  the  salvation  of  souls,  and  with- 
out any  renuineration,  iiu/lo  postidato  viatico.  They  finther  de- 
termined that  it  would  not  be  a  breach  of  their  vow  of  poverty,  to 
limit  it  to  tlie  proj'esscs,  or  the  houses  where  they  might  reside. 
It  was  not,  therefore,  to  extend  to  the  establishments  which  they 
should  found,  as  well  for  the  instruction  of  members  of  their  own 
order  as  for  youth  in  general. 

The  only  remaining  difficulty  was  to  obtain  the  consent  of  the 
Pope  ;  for  they  were  aware  that  without  the  approval  and  sanction 
of  the  Holy  See,  the  existence  of  the  institution  would  be  precarious, 
and  without  any  real  influence.  Ignatius  therefore  decided  upon 
presenting  the  plan  of  his  order  to  Paul  III.,  through  the  medium 
of  Cardinal  Gaspard  Contarini.  In  reading  it,  the  Pope  is  said 
to  have  cried  out,  "  The  finger  of  God  is  here"  {Digitus  Dei  hie 
est).  From  this  day  dated  the  affiliation  of  the  order  to  the 
interests  of  the  popedom ;  for  though  the  approval  did  not 
immediately  follow,  and  the  summary  of  the  principles  pre- 
sented by  Ignatius  was  referred  to  three  cardinals  with  instructions 
to  examine  them,  Paul  did  not  scruple  to  act  from  this  moment 
as  if  the  company  had  had  a  recognized  existence,  but  in  such  a 
way  as  to  avoid  taking  all  the  responsibility  on  himself.  In  fact 
he  surrounded  himself  with  all  the  members  of  the  order,  giving 
to  them  various  and  important  missions,  some  of  which  were  of  a 
purely  political  character.  Such  were  those  of  Nicholas  Boba- 
dilla  to  the  Island  of  Ischia,  where  he  was  to  conciliate  the  prin- 
cipal men  of  the  country  who  hated  each  other  ;  and  of  Laynez 
and  Lefevre,  who  were  ordered  to  attend  Cardinal  St.  Auge  in 
his  legation  to  Parma. 

At  the  request  of  John  the  Third,  King  of  Portugal,  Ignatius 
appointed  Francis  Xavier,  who  was  then  discharging  the  duties  of 
secretary  to  the  society,  and  Simon  Rodriguez,  to  proceed  to  the 
provinces  in  the  East  Indies  newly  conquered  by  this  sovereign, 
in  order  to  convert  them  to  the  Christian  faith.  Simon  Rodriguez, 
being  detained  in  Portugal,  laid  there  the  foundation  of  the  power 
ot  the  Jesuits,  in  which  country  they  made  a  more  rapid  progress 
than  in  any  other  since  their  origin.  A  year  had  scarcely  elapsed 
before  they  had  a  college  at  Coimbra,  the  first  they  possessed,  and 
which  was  soon  so  richly  endowed  as  to  enable  them  to  maintain 
two  hundred  students. 

In  the  meantime  the  Cardinals,  to  whom  Paul  the  Third  had 
referred  the  plan  of  the  institution  submitted  to  him  by  Ignatius, 
and  who  were  at  first  of  opinion,  according  to  the  suggestion  of 
one  of  them,  (BarthelemyGuidiccioni,)  that  a  new  religious  order, 
whatever  it  might  be,  was  useless  to  the  Church,  began  to  relax 
a  little  in  their  opposition.  Guidiccioni  afterwards  himself  felt  the 

History  of  the  Jesuits.  71 

necessity  of  a  corporation  specially  destined  to  check  the  course 
of  the  heresies  which  now  began  to  spread  throughout  Europe ; 
and  at  last  appeared  the  bull,  "  JBigemini  mditantis  ecclesia,"  of 
the  27th  September,  1540,  which  authorized  the  constitution  of 
the  Society  without  any  alteration,  excepting  an  additional  clause, 
which  limited  the  number  of  its  members  to  sixty. 

Having  thus  obtained  the  sanction  of  the  Pope  to  the  establish- 
ment of  their  Order,  they  next  turned  their  thoughts  towards  the 
election  of  a  chief.  A  general  meeting  of  all  the  members  then 
resident  in  Italy  was  called  for  the  occasion.  Those  present,  six 
in  number,  namely,  Ignatius,  Laynez,  Salmeron,  Pasquier,  Co- 
doure,  and  Lejay,  signified  their  choice  in  writing.  Rodriguez, 
Xavier,  Lefevre,  being  at  the  time  in  Germany,  had  left  their  votes 
sealed,  as  also  Bobadilla,  who  was  detained  at  Ischia  by  an  order 
from  the  Pope.  These  several  suftrages,  being  thrown  into  an  urn, 
were  found,  with  the  exception  of  his  own,  to  be  in  favour  of  Ig- 

Before  their  departure,  the  new  chief  and  his  companions 
now  become  his  servants,  wished  to  renew  publicly  their  profes- 
sion on  Easter  day,  1541,  at  the  altar  of  the  Holy  Virgin  in  the 
church  of  Saint  Paul :  he  alone  engaging  himself  personally  to  the 
Pope,  and  the  others  only  through  him  to  whom  they  directly 
pledged  their  fidelity.  This  being  accomplished,  they  again  set  out 
for  their  respective  destinations.  Ignatius  and  Laynez  remained, 
however,  at  Rome  to  employ  themselves  in  the  general  affairs  of 
the  society;  but  the  latter  was  soon  sent  to  Venice  by  the  Holy 
Father.  Before  setting  out,  he  left  to  the  care  of  his  superiors 
the  spiritual  direction  of  Marguerite  of  Austria;*  and  thus  we  find 
already  in  the  possession  of  this  yet  scarcely  formed  society  the 
consciences  of  princes  and  princesses. 

In  1642  the  apostolic  excursions  of  this  society  had  consider- 
ably increased.  They  were,  certainly,  not  all  successful.  We 
find,  indeed,  that  they  had  many  difficulties  to  surmount :  it  is 
remarkable,  moreover,  that  the  Jesuits  never  established  themselves 
any  where  without  meeting  with  great  resistance  and  having  to 
overcome  many  struggles.  Even  at  Rome,  notwithstanding  the 
favour  of  the  Pope,  they  were  under  the  necessity  of  justifying  them- 
selves more  than  once  against  very  grave  accusations,  and  in  many 
other  places  too,  besides  the  violent  commotions  which  broke  out 
against  them  at  Venice,  in  France,  and  even  in  Spain.  Yet  every 
thing  was  done  by  Ignatius,  in  order  that  his  disciples  should 
make  as  few  enemies  as  possible  in  their  mission.  Orlandini  relates 
minutely  the  instructions  which  he  gave  to  Salmeron  and  Jasquier 
on  their  departure  for  Ireland,  to  which  country  they  were  dis- 
patched as  Nuncios.  He  exhorts  them  to  be  dignified,  moderate, 
*  "  Margaritse  Austriacfe  cuia  Igiiatio  relicta." — Oiland.  liv.  11,  p,  40. 

72  Oilamlini  and  Sacliiiii — 

ami  sobiM  in  their  conversation  ;  and  above  all,  to  be  concise  in 
llieir  answers,  ;nul  to  listen  with  indeJatigable  patience,  lie  enjoins 
tin  in  to  iniitalc  the  apostle  who  was  "  all  things  to  all  men," 
(7»/  omnibus  Jicbat  omnia),  and  to  conform  themselves  as  much 
as  possible  to  the  manners  and  tastes  of  every  one,  rivalling 
in  energy  the  most  veliement,  and  in  gravity  the  most  circum- 

As  soon  as  Ignatius  was  chosen  General,  he  took  upon  himself 
to  write  the  statutes  of  the  society,  an  abridgment  of  which  he 
had  presented  to  the  Pope.  He  applied  himself  to  this  task  with 
such  zeal  and  ardour,  that  although  the  greater  part  of  his  time 
was  taken  up  in  works  of  charity,  which  he  unceasingly  prac- 
tised, they  were  completed  before  the  end  of  1541.  We  shall 
only  state  their  principal  features.  The  essential  object  of  the 
Society  is  already  known — the  salvation  and  perfection  of  its 
members  by  means  of  prayer  and  other  acts  of  piety,  and  that  of 
their  fellow  brethren  by  means  of  public  preaching,  the  conversion 
of  heretics  and  unbelievers,  the  guidance  of  faith,  and  the  gra- 
tuitous instruction  of  youth.  This  last  means  is  regarded  as  the 
most  powerful.  It  is  also  known  that  every  Jesuit  is  expressly 
interdicted  from  receiving  any  emolument  for  exercising  any  of  the 
duties  of  his  sacred  ministry.  He  is  equally  forbidden  not  only 
to  seek  for  ecclesiastical  dignities,  but  even  to  accept  them,  unless 
by  an  express  and  formal  order  from  his  general.  To  avoid 
raillery  or  remark,  and  that  they  may  have  easier  access  in  all 
places,  the  costume  of  the  order  is  the  same  as  the  ordinary 
ecclesiastical  one;  and  to  avoid  loss  of  time,  its  members  are 
neither  subject  to  the  austerities,  nor  bound  to  the  particular 
exercises  of  the  other  religious  orders,  nor  even  to  the  oidinary 
prayers  and  the  usual  services  of  the  choir. 

The  principal  requisites  for  reception  into  the  Society  are 
a  good  temper  and  disposition,  a  robust  frame,  an  agreeable 
address,  and  courteous  manners.  Without  these  qualifications, 
nobility  and  the  advantages  of  riches  are  held  in  no  account. 
The  simple  circumstance  of  having  worn  even  for  a  day  the  habit 
ut  a  hermit  or  monk  is  a  sufficient  ground  for  exclusion.  Every 
candidate,  deemed  in  other  respects  eligible  for  the  institution,  is 
not  admitted  till  after  replying  to  the  question  whether  he  is  will- 
ing to  report  to  his  superiors  the  conduct  of  his  brethren,  and  to 
allow  of  the  same  principle  being  applied  to  himself. 

The  noviciate,  properly  so  called,  lasts  two  years,  which  is  to 
be  devoted  to  piety  and  spiritual  works.  The  two  years  being  com- 
plete, the  novice  makes  a  preparatory,  though  not  solemn  pro- 
iession,  of  the  three  vows,  to  which  the  public  is  admitted,  after 
winch  he  is  received  into  the  class  of  approved  scholars,  and  com- 


Ili&lorij  of  the  Jesuits.  73 

niences  a  course  of  studies  necessary  for  an  accomplished  Jesuit, 
in  whicli  is  comprized  the  knowledge  of  languages,  poetry,  rhe- 
toric, theology,  ecclesiastical  history,  and  the  holy  Scriptures. 
Another  species  of  noviciate  follows  prior  to  promotion  to  the  su- 
perior degree,  which  is  of  a  year's  duration,  and  is  entirely  con- 
secrated to  spiritual  exercises. 

The  Society  is  divided  into  four  classes  or  degrees — the  ap- 
proved scholars,  the  spiritual  or  temporal  coadjutors,  the  professed 
disciples  of  the  three,  and  those  of  the  four  vows.  The  professed 
brethren  are  absolutely  and  solemnly  bound  to  the  Society, 
and  differ  from  the  spiritual  coadjutors,  whose  vows  are  sim- 
ple like  those  of  the  scholars.  The  latter  are  besides  exempt  from 
certain  peculiar  promises  which  are  required  only  from  the  pro- 
fessed disciples,  such,  for  instance,  as  not  to  accept  of  titles  or  pre- 
lacy without  the  direct  order  of  the  superior.  But  the  professors 
of  the  four  vows  are  the  chief  pillars  of  the  society,  as  they  are 
called  by  Snares,^  or,  its  bones  and  sinews,  according  to  the  ex- 
pression of  Sachini.f  These,  in  fact,  form  the  society.  They 
alone  deliberate  in  all  the  convocations, — they  alone  can  perform 
the  highest  duties  of  the  order, — they  alone  are  the  electors  of,  and 
eligible  to,  the  supreme  dignity  of  General. 

The  approved  scholars  differ  from  the  spiritual  coadjutors,  in- 
asmuch as  they  are  not  irrevocably  joined  to  the  Society ; — 
though  the  former  may  have  contracted  engagements  towards 
it,  the  Society  are  not  compelled  to  accept  them,  but  have  the 
power  of  releasing  them  from  their  obligation. 

For  this  reason  they  are  left  the  ownership  of  their  property, 
though  they  are  deprived  of  the  use  of  it.  The  time  of  re- 
maining in  the  class  of  approved  scholars,  or  in  any  other,  is 
not  limited,  but  depends  upon  the  will  of  the  Superior.  The 
temporal  coadjutors  are  limited  to  a  formal  co-operation,  and 
their  rank  in  the  society  corresponds  with  that  of  brothers  in  other 

The  constitution  of  the  Society  is  that  of  an  absolute  monarchy. 
The  chief,  under  the  name  of  Superior  General,  has  an  unlimited 
controul.  The  obedience  due  to  him  is  entire.  He  has  the  power 
of  making  new  laws  and  dispensing  with  the  old  ones ;  his 
opinion  decides  any  doubts  as  to  the  tenor  of  the  constitutive 
laws  ;  he  receives  into  the  order,  or  expels  from  it,  whomever  he 
chooses  ;  he  distributes  degrees,  and  nominates  to  all  the  ap- 
pointments; he  convokes  the  general  meetings,  and  presides  at 
them,  and  he  has  a  double  vote.  He  is,  in  a  word,  the  centre  and 
pivot  of  the  Society.  His  will  is  the  sovereign  disposer  of  the 
wills  of  the  general  body;  and  in  order  that  it  may  act  as  ju- 

*  "  Columnae  ct  fundaiueata." — De  Rel.  Soc.  1.  vii,  c.  2,  §  7, 
f  "  Ossa  ac  nervi." — Hist.  Soc.  J.  part  11,  J.  1,  n.  20,  p.  5. 

74  Orlaiidini  and  Sachini — 

<liciously  as  oncrgctically,  every  measure  is  taken  for  informing 
hiin  of  all  that  lakes  place  both  in  and  out  of  the  order.  Even  the 
eonsiifiues  oi  the  others  may  be  scrutinized  by  him  without 
opposition  and  without  reserve  whenever  he  requires  it.  Accounts 
are  sent  to  him  regularly  from  each  province  as  to  the  age  of  each 
of  liis  subjects,  his  natural  abilities,  his  advancement  in  lite- 
rature and  in  morals,  and  his  defects,  of  whatever  character  they 
may  be. 

'This  powerful  monarch  is  elected  by  the  whole  Society, assem- 
bli-d  in  general  convocation. 

The  qualities  required  by  the  constitution  of  the  order  to  the 
promotion  of  a  chief  are  such,  that  in  reading  them  we  are  forced 
to  agree  with  M.  de  Monclar,  that  it  is  "  not  so  much  the  por- 
trait of  a  regular  superior  as  that  of  the  chief  of  a  nation  destined 
to  cou(juer  the  world."* 

Nevertheless,  a  despotism  so  absolute  is  not  without  some 
guards,  calculated,  it  is  true,  not  to  limit  it,  but  to  atiford  a 
prompt  and  efticacious  remedy  against  any  excesses  capable  of 
essentially  compromising  the  Society.  Thus  the  four  mmisters, 
nominated  assistants,  and  chosen  by  the  company  to  assist  the 
general  in  his  functions,  can,  in  very  serious  cases,  convoke  an 
assembly,  which  may  formally  depose  him,  or  even  they  might  de- 
pose him  themselves,  after  having  taken  by  letter  the  suffrages  of 
the  provinces. 

Such  then  are  these  celebrated  statutes,  so  justly  admired  as 
c/ief-d'ccuvres  of  politics  and  human  knowledge ! !  But  it  is 
not  by  such  a  short  and  incomplete  account  that  one  can  justly 
appreciate  them,  for  the  wonderful  ability  they  discover  depends 
chiefly  upon  the  number  and  the  harmony  of  their  minute  com- 
binations, tending  all  to  the  same  end.  The  compilation  of 
them  by  Ignatius  has  been  doubted,  but  we  do  not  think  with 
reason.  That  he  may  have  been  assisted  by  his  first  compa- 
nions, and  in  particular 'byXaynez  and  Salmeron,  the  historians 
of  the  Society  are  ready  to  admit ;  it  is  also  certain  that  they 
have  been  more  than  once  modified  by  the  convocations  or 
general  assemblies  of  the  order,  who,  in  so  doing,  have  only 
exercised  their  rights. 

On  the  death  of  Ignatius  the  letters  of  convocation,  addressed 
by  Laynez  in  his  function  of  vicar-general  to  all  the  members, 
enjoining  them  to  repair  to  Rome  to  appoint  a  successor,  signi- 
fied at  the  same  time  that  they  should  review  his  statutes  with  a 
view  to  their  amendment.  They  had,  however,  been  already  pro- 
mulgated and  translated  at  this  period ;  but  Ignatius,  who  always 
auned  at  expediency,  {qui  semper  id  spectabat  quod  maximt  ex- 

*  Plaidoyer  de  M.  Ripert  de  Mouclar,  piocureur-geu6ral  du  roi  au  pailement  de 
Provence,  dans  I'affaire  des  soi-disans  Jesuites,  page  111. 

History  of  the  Jesuits.  *75 

pediret,)  preferring,  to  his  own  opinion,  to  have  the  authority  of 
those  who  shoiikl  be  the  first  to  bring  his  rules  into  practice, 
had  desired  that  they  should  not  be  definitively  settled  until 
the  entire  Society,  which  had  already  benefited  by  the  fruits 
of  experience,  should  have  approved  them  in  a  general  assem- 
bly;* and  the  first  meeting  was  not  the  only  one  which  availed 
itself  of  the  opportunity  afforded  by  the  founder  for  amending  his 

The  constitution  was  also  considerably  improved  by  the  ad- 
dition annexed  to  each  chapter  of  the  statutes  by  his  successor. 

At  the  commencement  of  ir)43,  Ignatius  obtained  the  repeal  of 
the  clause  which  limited  to  sixty  the  number  of  professed  bre- 
thren. He  was  not,  however,  in  reality  much  embarrassed  by 
it ;  for  since  the  establishment  of  the  company,  Antoine  Arnos 
was  the  only  one  who  had  been  raised  to  that  rank. 

About  this  period  Laynez  was  commissioned  to  negotiate  the 
marriage  of  the  princess  Mary  of  Portugal  with  Philip  II.,  son 
of  Charles  the  Fifth. 

Having  succeeded  in  this  object,  he  was  engaged  to  accompany 
the  new  queen  to  Spain,  where,  availing  himself  of  the  influence 
and  power  which  the  mission  gave  him,  he  succeeded  in  introducing 
the  Society  into  the  Castilian  states.  This  circumstance  became 
at  a  later  period  of  great  importance,  if  it  be  true  that  to  it  may  be 
ascribed  the  extraordinary  attachment  of  the  Jesuits  to  the  house 
of  Austria.f 

Tiie  society  obtained  another  triumph  at  the  opening  of  the 
Council  of  Trent.  Not  only  was  Laynez  recalled  to  Rome  to  give 
his  opinion  on  this  momentous  aflair ;  but  the  Pope  sent  him  there 
with  Salmeron  in  the  capacity  of  his  theologian.  Both  of  them 
assuredly  were  very  young  for  a  mission  of  this  importance, 
being  scarcely  thirty  years  of  age  :  accordingly  Ignatius,  distrust- 
ing their  youth,  which  he  took  to  be  naturally  inclined  to  applause 
and  glory,;];  gave  them  suitable  advice  respecting  their  behaviour 
in  that  august  assembly;  as,  for  instance,  never  to  mention  in  the 
discussions  the  opinions  of  any  living  individual.  On  their  arrival 
at  the  council,  the  two  Jesuits  exhibited  a  deportment,  the  cha- 
racter of  which  was  certainly  not  that  of  evangelical  simpli- 
city nor  modesty.  Laynez  requested  and  obtained  permission 
to  speak  last  on  the  several  propositions  which  were  discussed  : 

"^  "Taineii  Ignatius,  qui  semper  idspectabat  quod  niaxime  expediret,  malebatposleris 
opportunitate  utentium,  quani  nuctoiitate  sua  saiiitas  leges  relinquere,  voluerat  omnino 
ratas  liaberi  priusquam  eas  experimenti  secuta  pn«iogativam  Societas  coniiuuni  suf- 
fragio  comprobaiet." — Saccliiiii,  pars  11, 1.  1,  no.  24,  p.  4 

■\  Histoire  des  Religieux  de  la  Compagiiie  de  Jesus,  4  vol.  Soieurc,  1740,  vol.  11, 
liv.  11,  p.  61. 

X  "  Patrum  viiides  spectabat  annos,  pronos  ad  plausus,  procliviores  ad  gloriani." — 
Orlandini,  pars  1,  liv.  v.  n.  22,  p.  110. 

76  Orlaiuliiii  and  Sachini — 

"a  glorious  liumilily,"  sajs  Orlamlhii,  "  and  which  was  not  with- 
out its  advantages,"  {ncc  non  biopportuna,)  he  adds  with  a  sort 
of  naivcU',  "  for  it  gave  this  erudite  man  the  opportunity  of  dis- 
phiyin'4  ihc  ininionsc  resources  of  his  talents,  which  enabled  him 
It)  "hring  forth  fresh  arguments  on  the  most  worn-out  subjects." 
Salmeron,  on  the  contrary,  spoke  fast,  inasmuch  as  he  un- 
ilei.siood  better  the  exposition  than  the  profound  discussion  of 
a  dillieult  point.  They  soon  became  the  ardent  champions  of  the 
e.Ntreme  pretensions  of  the  Holy  See,  as  well  as  of  the  most 
ilaiirant  abuses  of  the  church,  upon  which  points  some  bishops 
we7e  disposed  to  yield  somewhat  to  the  demands  of  the  Re- 
formers :  but  Ignatius  had  instructed  them  formally  to  resist  any 
concession,  even  should  it  appear  to  them  the  most  reasonable. 

It  is  thus  that  upon  all  points  the  character  of  the  Society  ap- 
peared iu  its  full  vigour.  Its  policy,  its  ethics,  its  theology  seemed 
born  with  it.  It  can  safely  be  said  that  in  this  respect  it  had  no 
infancy,  and,  consequently,  neither  its  weakness  nor  its  innocence. 
It  started  at  once  into  maturity;  and  what  seemed  to  indicate  in- 
fancy, such  as  its  marked  inclination  to  superstition,  was  its  con- 
dition to  the  last,  whether  from  a  sincere  credulity  or  as  a  matter 
of  calculation. 

The  Society  made  continual  progress  up  to  the  death  of  Ignatius, 
always  by  the  influence  of  the  same  means,  and  the  display  of  the 
same  activity.  It  is,  indeed,  very  diflncult  to  follow  up  the  mea- 
sures and  excursions  of  this  handful  of  priests  throughout  the  whole 
of  Europe,  which  they  perambulated  in  all  directions.  They  even 
extended  themselves  to  the  New  World,  in  which  they  converted 
nations  with  as  much  facility  as  others  visited  them  ;  and  time, 
which  appears  so  long  when  unemployed,  seemed  to  fail  them  for 
the  furtherance  of  their  exertions.  Ignatius  was  the  only  one  who 
habitually  resided  at  Rome,  with  the  fathers  who  attended  to  the 
care  of  the  establishment  in  that  city.  He  was  incessantly  oc- 
cupied with  them  in  spiritual  works  and  the  general  direction  of 
the  affairs  of  the  Society.  In  his  more  advanced  age  he  was 
obliged  to  confide  a  great  part  of  his  duties  to  Jerome  Nadal. 
A  short  time  before  his  death,  which  happened  in  1556,  feeling 
himself  in  more  than  an  ordinary  state  of  weakness,  he  dictated 
to  his  secretary  his  last  wishes  on  the  duty  of  obedience,  which 
he  considered  the  soul  of  the  Society.  In  his  memorable 
epistle  written  to  his  Portuguese  disciples  on  the  occasion  of  some 
differences  which  had  unexpectedly  arisen  among  them,  he  had  al- 
ready laid  down,  that  obedience  was  the  peculiar  and  special  vir- 
tue of  a  Jesuit;  that  he  might  allow  himself  to  be  surpassed  by 
other  religious  orders  in  fasting,  watching,  or  other  austerities  ;  but 
for  submission  to  his  superiors  he  ought  not  to  allow  any  to  equal 

History  of  the  Jesuits.  77 

him.  But  it  is  in  his  last  instructions,  delivered  on  his  death- 
bed, that  he  has  bequeathed  to  his  disciples  those  celebrated 
similes  which  have  so  frequently  been  employed  as  weapons 
against  the  Society,  in  which  he  lays  down  that  every  member  oi'  it 
should  consider  himself  as  soft  wax  which  takes  any  impression, 
as  a  dead  body  which  has  of  itself  no  motion,  or  as  the  staff  used 
by  the  old  man  which  he  takes  or  leaves  according  as  it  suits  liim.* 

-At  the  time  when  Laynez  assumed  the  government  of  the 
Society,  it  was  composed  of  about  a  thousand  persons,  thirty-five 
only  of  whom  had  been  promoted  to  the  rank  of  professed 
brethren,  not  including  the  five  fathers,  the  survivors  of  the  ten 
original  companions  of  Ignatius.  These  thousand  Jesuits  were 
dispersed  among  nearly  a  hundred  localities,  divided  over  twelve 
provinces,  nine  of  which  were  in  Europe,  viz.  Italy,  Sicily,  Ger- 
many and  the  Low  Countries,  France,  Arragon,  Castile,  Anda- 
lusia, and  Lusitania  or  Portugal;  three  out  of  Europe,  the 
Brazils,  Ethiopia,  and  India.  The  most  flourishing  of  the  twelve 
provinces  was  Italy  under  the  administration  of  Laynez,  and  Por- 
tugal under  that  of  Turriannus.  The  last,  with  the  three  pro- 
vinces of  Spain,  and  those  of  Asia,  Africa,  and  America,  were 
under  the  direction  of  a  commissary-general  of  Spain  and  India,-^j- 
in  addition  to  their  peculiar  provincial.  Such  rapid  progress  is 
sufficient  proof  of  the  authority  with  which  the  Society  was  able 
to  extend  itself  from  the  very  first,  and  the  wonderful  coincidence 
that  has  existed  between  its  establishment  and  other  events  which 
took  place  at  the  same  period,  and  which  contributed  towards  its 

From  the  period  in  which  the  interest  of  the  monastic  orders 
became  connected  and  identified  with  those  of  the  Church,  they 
can  no  longer  be  regarded  as  separate  or  distinct  bodies.  Esta- 
blished in  every  direction,  the  monks  were  the  most  powerful  in- 
struments and  organs  of  the  Church,  its  most  courageous  defenders 
in  times  of  danger,  and  its  true  and  faithful  militia  in  the  protec- 
tion of  its  interests  and  privileges. 

Their  zeal  was  eminently  exhibited  when  any  pretensions  of 
the  Holy  See  were  called  in  question,  to  which  their  situation 
attached  them  in  a  still  stronger  degree ;  and  upon  a  close  ex- 
amination of  the  different  religious  associations  which  were 
established  with  the  sanction  and  approval  of  the  Pope,  we  find 
the  furtherance  of  their  object  completely  coincided  with  the 
political  views  and  designs  entertained  by  the  Romish  Church, 
and  that  this  similarity  or  community  of  purpose  had  a  consider- 
able influence  on  its  future  destinies. 

*  Bonliours,  Vie  de  Saint  Ignace,  liv.  v.  p.  415. 
t  Sachin.  pars  11,  p.  1,  et  seq. 

78  Oilandini  and  Sachini — 

To  what,  ill  lart,  must  \vc  attribute  the  influence  which  the 
Boiit'ilictiiit's  ami  tlu-  other  numerous  establishments  (which  under 
ilitVoroiit  names  ncknowlcdged  the  same  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction) 
exercised  in  the  aflairs  of  the  Church  from  the  sixth  to  the 
eleventh  century,  except  to  this  circumstance,  that  the  Church  in- 
vaded, in  common  with  the  Roman  empire,  by  the  barbarians  of 
the  nordi,  but  too  vigorous  and  sanguine  to  prostrate  herself,  like 
it,  before  them, — resolved  to  agree  with  them  at  first,  in  order  that 
she  might  the  more  easily  subjugate  them,  and  was  seconded  in 
her  desfgn  by  the  newly-established  monks,  who  proved  them- 
selves her  most  powerful  auxiliaries.  Devoted  by  their  founder  to 
the  tillage  of  the  earth,  and  to  the  cultivation  of  the  little  know- 
ledge that  survived,  they  would  naturally  obtain  the  esteem  of 
the  barbarians  by  their  excellence  in  an  art,  which  they  most 
valued  after  that  of  arms. 

It  would  be  impossible,  indeed,  to  overrate  the  services  which 
this  body  have  rendered  to  the  Church  ;  nor  is  it  too  much  to  say, 
that  it  is  to  their  efforts  that  the  Papal  power  is  mainly  indebted 
for  the  most  brilliant  epoch  in  its  history. 

Without  doubt  the  Benedictines  were  too  favourable  to  the 
encroachments  of  the  Holy  See,  which  was  supported  by  them  in 
its  most  intolerant  and  unjust  pretensions.  It  must  not,  however, 
be  forgotten,  that  it  was  in  order  to  check  the  progress  of  a  des- 
potism successively  barbarous,  military,  and  feodal,  that  they 
were  originally  set  up :  and  this  is  more  than  an  excuse — it  is  a  vin- 
dication. Indeed,  at  the  fall  of  the  Roman  empire,  when,  in- 
stead of  the  ancient  form  of  government,  in  the  midst  of  which 
the  Church  had  arisen,  and  was  connected  by  corresponding 
habits  and  ancient  ties,  she  saw  herself  brought  into  contact 
with  those  barbarian  kings,  or  rather  chiefs,  who  were  wandering 
on  the  Gallo-Roman  territory,  or  were  settled  on  their  large  es- 
tates,* and  to  whom  she  was  not  yet  united  either  by  tradition, 
common  belief,  or  sentiments,  what  must  have  been  her  danger 
and  her  consternation?  One  sole  object,  for  the  sake  of  the  world, 
and  of  humanity,  became  paramount  in  the  Church, — it  was 
to  possess  herself  of  these  new  comers,  by  converting  them. 
Nevertheless  after  they  were  settled  and   converted,   and  there 

*  A  few  leagues  from  Soissons,  on  the  banks  of  a  little  river,  is  situated  the  village 
of  Braine  ;  it  was  in  the  sixth  century  one  of  those  immense  farms  at  which  the  kings 
of  the  Franks  held  their  court.  The  royal  habitation  had  nothing  of  the  military  ap- 
pearance of  the  castles  of  the  middle  ages.  It  was  a  spacious  building  surrounded 
with  porticoes  of  Roman  architecture,  often  constructed  of  wood  carefully  polished, 
and  ornamented  with  sculpture  not  wanting  elegance.  Surrounding  the  principal  por- 
tion of  the  building  were  the  apartments  of  those  chiefs  who,  according  to  the  Germa- 
nic custom,  liad  placed  themselves  with  their  warriors  at  the  disposition  of  the  king, 
tlial  is  to  say,  under  a  specific  engagement  of  vassalage  and  fidelity. 

History  of  the  Jesuits.  79 

was  a  connexion  between  them  and  the  Church,  she  still  ran 
great  risks  and  some  danger  on  their  account.  The  ungovernable 
brutality,  the  unreflecting  caprice,  the  disorderly  and  unsocial 
manners  of  the  barbarians,  were  such,  that  the  new  religious 
doctrines  and  principles  wliich  they  had  embraced  had  very  little 
effect  upon  them.  Violence  soon  obtained  the  upper  hand,  and  the 
Church  itself  as  well  as  society  became  oppressed.  In  order 
to  restrain  this  violence  she  was  obliged  to  announce  the  principle 
which  would  alone  protect  and  preserve  Christianity,  viz.  the  se- 
paration of  the  spiritual  from  the  temporal  power  and  their  mu- 
tual independence.  She  asserted  that  her  own  existence  was  coeval 
with  that  of  the  barbarians  :  and  that  violence  had  no  power  over 
systems  of  belief,  of  hopes,  or  of  religious  promises.  The 
beneficial  consequences  which  have  flowed  from  this  principle, 
and  the  service  it  has  rendered  in  establishing  the  truths  of 
Christianity,  are  easily  perceived.  But  we  return  to  the  Bene- 

Enervated  by  the  riches  with  which  the  gratitude  of  Rome,  and 
the  superstitious  faith  of  the  great  in  the  land,  had  endowed  their 
innumerable  monasteries,  the  Benedictines  found  themselves,  in 
the  twelfth  century,  incapable  of  defending  that  Christianity  whose 
aggrandizement  they  had  so  effectually  aided,  and  they  ceded  the 
first  place  to  the  mendicant  orders.  The  power  of  the  latter 
soon  exceeded  that  of  the  children  of  Benedict  and  Robert.*  Nor 
was  this  merely  the  result  of  chance.  Instead  of  the  dissolute  habits 
universally  imputed  to  their  religious  predecessors,  they  exhi- 
bited the  most  simple  and  austere  manners;  for  they  took  avow 
of  poverty  and  lived  upon  alms.  The  fearful  heresy  of  the 
Albigenses  created  a  schism  in  the  bosom  of  the  Church  ;  an 
unparalleled  ardour  animated  them  against  all  heterodox  opi- 
nions. Not  content  with  negociating,  with  intriguing,  with  writ- 
ing, in  fact  with  setting  in  motion  all  the  machinery  of  credulity 
and  fanaticism  in  favour  of  the  Romish  Church,  they  wished  to 
signalize  their  zeal  for  the  cause  by  a  last  service  which  should 
surpass  all  the  others,  and  they  set  up  the  abominable  Inquisition. 

They  too,  however,  in  their  turn  degenerated.  Being  the 
production  of  an  epoch  still  in  a  state  of  semi-barbarism,  sprung 
from  the  bosom  of  a  debased  superstition,  and  the  representatives 
of  the  theology  and  the  sciences  of  the  middle  age,  they  expected 
to  oppose  their  traditions  to  the  refinements  of  the  modern  era, 
which  triumphantly  rose  with  its  more  polished  manners,  and  its 
new  style  of  literature,  and  was  distinguished  by  its  philosophical, 
or,  rather  scrutinising  spirit,  and  for  the  constellation  of  great 

*  One  of  the  Reformers  of  the  order  of  St.  Benoit,  and  founder,  in  1098,  of  the  ce- 
lebrated Abbaye  of  Liteaux. 

80  Orlandini  and  Sachini — 

HUM,  who  slice!  a  glory  over  this  period.  Universal  scorn  was  the 
reward  of  thrir  anogaiirc;  and  being  snrpasscd  in  science  by  the 
cniditt"  ell  igv  and  laity,  in  elegance  of  manners  and  in  dignity  by 
the  lii'dier  orders  of  the  Chnrch,tlicy  remained  a  bnrdcn  to  Clnis- 
tianitv,  and  a  general  object  of  disgnst  to  society.  Another  niis- 
f(»rtiMie  was  in  store  for  them.  It  was  from  a  monastery  of  Au- 
"Tiistiiis  that  Luther  emerged ;  and  the  first  blast  of  that  hurricane 
which  was  to  shake  to  its  very  foundation  the  Roman  Catholic 
Churcii,  was  partly  the  fruit  of  their  own  dissensions,  and  partly  the 
work  of  that  great  reformer;  so  true  is  it  that,  when  the  mind  of 
a  superior  man  rises  with  the  exigencies  of  the  age,  nothing  can 
resist  him.  Luther's  pow'cr  exceeded  that  of  Charles  the  Fifth. 
Summoned  during  four  years  to  submit  himself  to  the  exactions 
and  tyranny  of  Rome,  Luther  for  four  years  simply  replied  No. 
No,  was  his  answer  to  the  legate ;  No,  to  the  Pope ;  No,  to 
the  emperor.  In  this  heroic  and  pregnant  word  was  found  the 
liberty  of  the  world.  It  was  by  a  remarkable  coincidence,  that 
Columbus  about  the  same  period  opened  the  seas  to  the  activity 
of  man,  and  Copernicus  the  heavens  to  his  researches. 

By  attacking  "  the  sale  of  indulgences,"  Luther  vindicated  and 
defended  human  freedom.  He  covered  with  opprobrium  the  li- 
berty of  measuring  crimes  by  a  money  standard,  and  making 
them  a  matter  of  public  sale. 

To  destroy  the  Papacy  and  restore  Christianity  was  the  task 
which  this  great  Reformer  had  imposed  upon  himself.  In  fact,  the 
Pontificate  had  appropriated  Christianity  to  itself,  had  moulded 
it  into  a  new  form,  and  employed  it  solely  to  augment  its  own 
power  and  authority.  Hildebrand,  a  monk  of  Cluny,  created 
Archdeacon  by  Pope  Nicholas  the  Second,  and  having  sufficient 
influence  to  insure  the  election  of  his  successor  (Alexander  the 
Eleventh),  had  converted  the  chair  of  St.  Peter  into  the  throne  of 
a  universal  and  absolute  monarchy.  This  crowned  priest  was 
anotlier  God.  Thus  even  that  great  principle  of  Christianity, 
"  Clirist  alone  is  your  Master  ;  as  for  you,  ye  are  all  Brethren," 
was  destroyed  by  the  papacy.  Gregory  the  Seventh  created  the 
power,  and  Boniface  the  Eighth  founded  the  riches,  of  the  Church. 
Their  successors  promulgated  the  doctrine,  that  salvation  was  to 
be  obtained  by  mortification,  prayers,  and  indulgencies ;  and  the 
sins  of  the  living  and  the  dead  filled  the  coffers  of  the  Holy  Ex- 
chequer. By  rendering  crimes  taxable,  they  overturned  the  doc- 
trine of  the  Gospel,  that  "  Salvation  comes  from  God  ;"  "  God 
gave  eternal  life."  It  was  now  the  Pope  who  was  to  grant  it, 
and  who  sold  it. 

In  this  state  of  things  Luther  appeared,  and  re-established  the 
principle  and  the  doctrine  of  Christianity,  by  restoring  to  God  the 

Histon/ ^of  the  Jesuits.  8 1 

situation  usurped  by  the  priest,  by  teaching  "jastificatioii  hi/ faith  " 
and  considering  only  as  true,  obligatory,  and  infallible,  the  express 
words  of  Christ,  the  Apostles.and  the  Prophets.  Thus,  at  one  blow, 
fell  the  decisions  of  the  councils,  the  decrees,  the  bulls,  the 
theology,  the  canonical  law,  and  all  the  fabricated  tradition  and 
usurping  and  oppressive  authority  of flie  court  of  Rome  ;  thus 
fell  the  papacy,  which  inteiposed  between  God  and  man,  and  at 
the  same  instant  Christianity  resumed  its  sway,  by  placing  man 
face  to  face  with  God.  The  Papacy  had  separated  thwn  :  through 
Luther — for  we  are  here  showing  the  language  of  his  enthusiastic 
admirers — the  Gospel  reunited  them.*  The  time  however  had  not 
arrived  when  the  Romish  Church  was  to  surrender  her  authority 
without  a  stmiggle.  Her  resistance  was  long  and  arduous ;  still  it  was 
her  destiny  to  be  progressively  dismembered,  and  gradually  to  re- 
treat before  the  advance  of  the  Reformation,  though  not  without 
some  glory  even  in  her  decline.  The  monks  of  all  denominations 
took  part  in  the  struggle,  but  as  among  the  existing  orders  none 
were  of  sufficient  power  to  uphold  the  sinking  cause  of  the  Court 
of  Rome,  it  was  expedient  that  some  new  order  should  be  cre- 
ated for  the  purpose.  This  order  was  the  Society  of  Jesuits. 
The  very  circumstances  which  led  to  its  formation,  pointed  out  its 
object  and  mission. 

A  religious  order  establishing  itself  in  the  middle  of  the  six- 
teenth century,  could  not  but  be  alive  to  the  feeling  which  pre- 
vailed throuohout  Christendom  against  the  innumerable  abuses  of 
the  clergy,  and  of  the  regular  clergy  particularly. 

In  order  to  avoid  being  crushed  in  its  very  birth,  under  the 
weight  of  the  deep  aversion  felt  for  the  existing  societies,  it  was 
compelled  to  adopt  a  different  mode  of  procedure.  It  was  its 
policy  to  avoid,  with  equal  care,  the  luxurious  and  lax  life  of  the 
Benedictines,  and  the  gross  and  wandering  one  of  the  Mendicant 
monks  ;  though  at  the  same  time  it  was  not  to  leave  the  honour 
of  an  absolute  and  voluntary  poverty  to  the  one,  nor  the  advantage 
of  riches  to  the  other.  To  this  may  be  attributed  that  subtle 
distinction  between  the  professed  order,  which  was  incapable  of 
possessing  anything,  and  the  other  establishments  of  the  society 
which  were  permitted  to  appropriate  to  themselves  the  richest  en- 
dowments. To  this  may  likewise  be  attributed  that  contradiction 
so  often  remarked  upon,  between  the  vow  of  absolute  poverty  taken 
by  each  Jesuit,  and  the  wealth  which  the  body  so  rapidly  accumu- 
lated. It  was  moreover  necessary  for  them  to  unite  elegance  of  man- 
ners with  austerity,  and  the  advantages  of  worldly  science  with  their 

*  See  tlic  Histoire  de  la  Reformation  ;iu  ICe  Siecle,  par  T.  H.  Merle  d'Aubigne, 
Firmin  Didot,  freres,  1837. 

NO.  XLIII. — JULY,  1837.  G 

82  Oilandini  and  Sacliini — 

more  important  religious  duties.  Was  it  possible  at  a  learned  and 
polished  epo.  I.,  to  any  great  inflnenee  by  rendering  promi- 
nent tlu'  disgusting  spectacle  of  squalidness  and  ignorance  .'  Was 
it  desirable  to  leau'  the  science  of  theology  to  the  Reformers,  and 
profane  literature  and  erudition  to  the  Free-thinkers?  Certainly 
not ;  in  order  to  raise  again  into  public  estimation  Romanism  and 
its  digrailed  supporters  the  monks,  it  was  necessary  to  excel  at 
the  sa'ine  time  the  obsolete  universities,  and  to  rival  the  consisto- 
ries and  academies;  to  show,  in  one  word,  that  Rome  was  as 
learned  in  theology  as  Ausburgh  or  Geneva,  and  at  the  same 
time  as  polished  as  Paris  or  Florence.  For  this  purpose  a  con- 
dition, at  once  rich  and  upon  a  grand  scale,  was  required.  Nothing 
had  contributed  in  a  greater  degree  to  the  depreciation  of  the 
monks,  than  the  traficking  in  holy  things,  with  which  tliey  were 
reproached.  The  sale  of  indulgencies  being  the  first  cause 
of  the  Reformation,  and  at  all  times  an  object  of  scandal  to  the 
most  faithful  believers,  the  first  obligation  that  the  Jesuits  im- 
posed upon  themselves,  (as  we  have  already  seen,)  was  to  renounce 
all  remuneration  for  the  exercise  of  their  ecclesiastical  functions. 

The  idleness  inherent  in  a  monastic  life,  was  likewise  a  great 
subject  of  complaint.*  But  as  it  met  with  as  much  reproach  for 
the  excessive  time  it  allowed  to  prayer  and  useless  practices,  as 
for  that  which  was  passed  in  entire  idleness,  a  formal  statute 
of  the  society  of  Jesuits  dispensed  with  public  worship,  canonical 
prayers  and  other  pious  duties,  which  had  formerly  been  the 
basis  of  a  religious  life  ;  thus  leaving  to  the  newly-established 
order  full  liberty  for  an  active  career,  unexampled  in  the  his- 
tory of  religious  corporations,  or  perhaps  even  in  the  world. 

The  essential  and  predominant  aim  of  the  institution  being 
the  paramount  authority  of  the  Church,  it  could  not  escape  them 
that  the  principle  of  unity  of  belief  on  the  one  part,  and  the  papal 
supremacy  on  the  other,  were  the  great  dogmas  against  which 
were  united  the  independence  and  the  freedom  of  the  Reformers, 

Unity  of  faith  as  a  doctrine,  and  the  Holy  See  as  a  power, 
were  the  principal  objects  of  solicitude  to  the  Jesuits,  and 
to  the  maintenance  of  these  were  applied  all  their  favourite 
controversial  texts,  and  the  distinctive  points  of  their  creed. 
Thus,  they  not  only  inscribed  at  the  head  of  their  society  the 
name  of  the  Pope,  and  represented  his  service  as  that  of  the 
Lord,  and  of  his  Cross,  "  sub  crucis  vexillo  Dei  militare,  et 
soli  domino  atque    Romano   ponti/ici  ejus  in  terris  vicario   ser- 

*  Yet,  we  must  not  forget  that,  though  the  monasteries  were  places  devoteJ  to  soli- 
tude ami  tontemplation, — tiie  products  of  industry,  strictly  speaking,  were  only  acces- 
sories in  thera, —  to  these  associations  we  owe  tlie  knowledge  of  a  great  part  of  the 
literature  of  antiquity,  and  the  cultivation  of  a  large  portion  of  the  soil  of  Europe. 

History  of  the  Jesuits.  83 

^7>e;"*  but  they  engaged  themselves  to  it  by  a  peculiar  vow 
unknown  to  all  the  other  religious  orders,  which  we  have  be- 
fore adverted  to,  and  the  invention  of  which  is  generally  re- 
garded by  their  adversaries  as  the  political  master-piece  of  Ig- 
natius and  his  companions,  who  by  this  were  enabled  to  identify 
the  Popes  with  the  interests  of  the  Society, 

The  vow  of  obedience  had  no  other  aim.  Nothing  in  fact  would 
have  been  gained  by  devoting  the  Society  to  the  service  of  the 
Pope,  if  at  the  same  time  it  had  not  been  placed  entirely  at  his 
disposal.  This  vow,  however,  unlike  the  preceding  one,  was  not 
new  to  the  Church*  for  almost  all  the  monastic  rules  include  it  in 
that  of  chastity.  The  famous  similitude  of  the  dead  body  which 
fgnatius  made  use  of  to  characterize  the  really  obedient  monk, 
had  been  employed  before  by  St.  Bonaventura;  and,  if  he  com- 
pares the  Jesuit,  ready  at  all  times  to  execute  the  orders  of  his 
superior,  to  the  staff  of  the  aged  man,  always  under  his  command, 
has  not  St.  Basil  also  told  us,  that  the  monk  ought  to  be  to  the 
abbot  what  the  wedge  is  to  the  wood  splitter.f  It  must  be  allowed, 
however,  that  it  requires  only  a  glance  at  the  statutes  of  the 
Jesuits,  to  perceive  that  obedience  occupies  a  very  different  po- 
sition with  them  to  what  it  does  among  the  other  orders. 

The  vague  and  scattered  expressions  among  them  are  in  this 
Society  presented  in  a  formal  and  precise  manner,  which  entirely 
changes  their  intent  and  purpose.  The  staff  oi  Ignatius  becomes 
of  a  more  menacing  character  than  the  wedge  of  Basil ;  because  it 
is  easy  to  perceive  that  it  is  not  intended  to  remain  idle  in  the  hands 
of  him  \vho  can  make  use  of  it.  It  is  this  which  constitutes  the 
great  difterence  between  the  submission  of  the  Jesuit,  and  that  of 
all  the  other  monks.  For  the  latter  it  is  but  the  cause  of  mortifica- 
tions, of  acts  of  humility,  of  attempts  at  religious  perfection ;  for  the 
former,  the  will  and  the  understanding  are  submitted  to  a  superior 
with  a  view  to  advancement  and  power.  The  one  blindly  con- 
sents to  humiliate  himself,  the  other  in  order  to  act  with  greater 
efficacy.  The  more  difficult  the  task  which  the  society  imposed 
upon  itself,  the  more  interested  was  it  in  only  employing  in- 
struments of  the  most  perfect  docility.  Devoted  to  the  defence 
of  the  unity  of  Catholicism,  it  could  not  establish  a  too  rigorous 
submission  in  its  own  interior  organization,  more  especially  in  mat- 
ters of  doctrine. 

The  danger  to  be  dreaded  by  the  Jesuits  arose  from  the  spirit 
of  individual  independence,  from  the  recent  irruption  of  a  tendency 
to  philosophical  inquiry, — and  from  the  necessity  of  a  religious  re- 

■   Inst.  Soc.  Jes,  Pragse,  1757,  v.2,  p.  6. 

t  Apologie  generate  de  I'Tnstitut  et  de  la  Doctrine  des  Jesuites,  Part  i.  p.  130,et 
suiv.     Lausanne,  1763. 

G  2 

84  Orlancliiii  and  Sachini — 

lormalion  wliicli  was  now  begun  to  be  felt  thioughout  the  world. 
To  slitle  tlicsc  exigencies  of  a  period  of  emancipation  and  of  spi- 
ritual conquest,  it  was,  in  the  first  place,  necessary  to  establish  an 
absolute  obedience  among  the  defenders  of  the  Church. 

Yet,  it  is  not  sufficient  to  have  for  our  aim  an  object  which  we 
believe  to  be  chosen  with  a  good  design  ;  it  is  not  sufficient  to  at- 
tempt to  accomplish  it  by  means  of  ardent  Zealand  of  unexampled 
ilevotedness,  nor  to  have  the  support  of  the  most  consummate  pru- 
ilence;  it  is  furthermore  essential,  that,  approved  by  a  judgment 
at  once  rigid  and  provident,  the  object  shall  accord  with  the 
powerful  nature  of  things,  and  shall  not  be  opposed  to  the  natural 
feelings  of  humanity  ;  without  this,  the  most  persevering  efi'orts  and 
the  best  arranged  calculations  are  useless,  and  we  are  led  into  a 
series  of  errors  and  excesses  which  become  criminal.  Such  has 
been  the  case  with  the  Jesuits.  After  all,  what  was  their  ob- 
ject ?  To  defend  the  doctrines  of  Roman  Catholicism  against  the 
})rogress  of  the  Reformation  and  the  spirit  of  philosophy;  to  up- 
liold  in  Polilicai  Europe  the  doctrine  of  the  temporal  supremacy 
of  the  Holy  See  ;  in  Christian  Europe  the  dogma  of  its  doctrinal 
supremacy,  and  in  Catholic  Europe,  that  of  its  absolute  infallibility, 
as  well  as  its  unlimited  sovereign  jurisdiction  in  matters  apper- 
taining to  the  hierarchy.  Their  object,  in  a  word,  was  to  perpetuate 
the  darkness  of  the  middle  ages  in  a  season  of  comparative  light, 
and  to  give  to  the  confused  doctrines  of  a  period  of  ignorance 
and  disorder,  the  sanction  and  precision  of  an  epoch  of  reason  and 

It  was  in  fact,  as  is  easy  to  be  perceived,  to  attack  at  once 
the  independence  of  governments,  the  privileges  of  national 
churches,  the  episcopal  authority,  and  the  rights  of  human  rea- 
son ;  and  in  this  warfare  they  had  to  encounter  the  governments  of 
the  day,  the  secular  clergy,  and  the  philosophers.  But  wemustnot 
cite  the  tolly  of  the  enterprize,  as  an  argument  against  those  who 
undertook  it.  They  had  not  chosen  it  for  the  sake  of  reproach  ; 
but  the  task  was  imposed  upon  them  ;  and  nothing  more  can  be 
imputed  to  them  than  that  they  erred  in  imagining  that  a  religious 
order  could  still  serve  the  Church  in  the  sixteenth  century,  by 
taking  the  papal  authority  for  its  standard  and  symbol.  This,  if  the 
period  of  time  be  taken  into  consideration,  is  perhaps  not  even 
an  error  in  judgment.  Moreover,  having  once  taken  this  false 
view,  the  rest  followed  as  a  necessary  consequence. 

From  thenceforth  three  things  became  to  the  Jesuits  the  source 
of  all  their  errors  and  corruptions,  as  well  as  of  their  power  : — 
1st,  the  interests  of  dieir  Society  being  confounded  with  that 
of  the  Church,  or  their  esprit  de  corps;  2nd,  the  profane  being 
rendered  subservient  to  the  advancement  of  the  spiritual,  or  their 

Histori/  of  the  Jesuits.  ^5; 

policy ;  3rd,  the  flexibility  of  their  principles,  in  order  to  accom- 
modate them  to  reason  and  to  human  nature,  or  their  ethics. 
'  Let  us  consult  the  history  of  this  Society  !  How  many  in- 
trigues and  cabals  !  at  first,  to  establish  itself,  and  afterward  to 
maintain  itself  in  its  innumerable  strong  holds  I  What  subterfuges 
to  extend  the  circle  of  the  order,  to  incorporate  in  it  by  means  of 
Its  double  system  of  professed  monks  and  unprofessed  students, 
both  capable  of  increasing  its  influence  and  credit ;  what  a  tissue  of 
complaisance  and  obsequiousness,  in  order  to  insinuate  itself  into 
the  familiarity  of  princes  and  potentates  !  What  insidious  prac- 
tices and  falsehoods  to  defend  its  friends,  and  exalt  them  to 
dignity  !  On  the  other  hand,  what  impostures  and  calumnies 
to  slander  or  asperse  its  adversaries  !  In  order  to  enrich 
itself,  what  skilfully  extorted  donations,  what  intercepted  inhe- 
ritances, what  eftbrts  of  all  kinds,  so  far  as  even  to  become  traf- 
fickers in  money,  and  thus  risk,  by  their  unlimited  cupidity,  the 
esteem  and  approbation  of  those  very  people  whom  they  sought 
to  convert  by  their  precepts!  It  is  diflicult,  indeed,  to  imagine 
any  act  of  which  the  Jesuits  have  not  availed  themselves  to 
advance  the  interests  of  the  Society,  from  the  odious  murders 
imputed  to  them  to  the  burlesque  attempt,  of  which  they  are 
accused  by  Pasquier,  on  King  Sebastian,  "  whom  they  solicited  to 
pass  a  general  law,  that  no  one  should  be  called  to  the  throne  who 
did  not  belong  to  the  Society;  and  still  further,  that  he  should  be 
elected  by  their  suff"rages,  in  which,  however,  they  did  not  succeed, 
although  they  had  to  do  with  a  most  bigoted  and  superstitious 

Nevertheless,  what  they  did  on  their  own  account  with  an  indi- 
rect view  to  religion,  is  nothing  compared  with  their  direct 
interference  for  its  service.  When  in  the  course  of  time  their 
scruples  became  less,  and  their  ambition  greater;  when  they  had 
reduced  to  practice  that  worldly  science  politics,  so  extolled  by 
Cardinal  Pallavicini,  the  Jesuit  historian  of  the  Council  of  Trent; 
when  their  familiarity  with  palaces  and  the  great  had  taught 
them  its  seductions,  the  confessional  its  mysteries,  and  secret  de- 
nunciations had  informed  them  of  things  that  had  escaped  their 
observation  ;  when  either  present  every  where,  or  penetrating 
every  where,  they  possessed  such  powerful  means  to  serve  or  in- 
jure the  great,  according  as  it  suited  their  projects  ;  with 
all  these  things  before  our  eyes,  then  let  us  judge,  if  possible,  ot 
their  criminal  courses.  Let  us  follow  them  to  England,  to  France, 
to  Portugal  and  to  Italy.  One  example  will  suffice:  one  of  their 
doctrines  recommended  to  them  a  toleration  of  all  forms  of  go- 

•  Recherclies,  liv.  iii.  chap.  43,  p.  325. 

86  Oilandini  and  Sachini — 

\ciiuiRiil,  ;mii  an  cqiiai  aftectioii  loi  all  nations  ;  *  the  following  is 
the  Miaiint  I  in  wliidi  liicy  put  it  into  practice.  In  England,  under  a 
lonstitulional  gu\nnnieut,  they  strove  to  give  absolute  power 
to  the  Stuarts;  in  I'rance,  under  a  monarchical  one,  they  tomentcd 
popular  passions  and  conspired  against  the  succession  of  Henry 
the  rourlh.f  It  is  true  that  this  prince  was  then  a  Protestant, 
and  that  Janus  the  Second  was  already  converted  to  Catholicism. 

It  uoulil  be  unjust,  however,  not  to  acknowledge  that  the 
Jesuits,  pernicious  as  a  corporation,  were  in  general  honourable 
as  indiviiluals.  Their  manners  were  pure,  infinitely  more  so  than 
those  of  the  rest  of  the  Romish  clergy.  They  cultivated  the 
sciences  and  literature,  with  a  reputation  unequalled  by  any  other 
religious  community,  more  particularly  as  regards  universal 
knowledge.  Their  foreign  missions  deserve  honouraWe  notice, 
and  success  lor  a  long  time  crowned  their  zeal.  To  their  learning 
and  exertions  we  are  indebted  for  most  of  the  valuable  works  on 
the  topography,  geography,  literature,  and  customs,  of  several 
countries,  of  which,  before  their  time,  we  only  had  vague  and 
imperfect  notions.^: 

it  is  not,  however,  true,  that  in  this  respect  they  have  been 
as  fair  as  their  partisans  pretend  they  were.  According  to  their 
adversaries,  frankness  and  dignity  of  character  do  not  shine  in 
them  in  the  same  degree  as  mere  austerity.  '^  Fider/t  cL  pudo- 
rem  sunt  in  qiiibus  requiras,"  has  been  said  of  them  by  a  great 
genius  who  witnessed  their  first  appearance  in  the  world,  and  one 
more  likely  to  speak  well  than  ill  of  them.§  Their  writers  are  in 
general  deficient  in  vigour  and  elevation  of  style,  and  with  a  great 
elegance  of  language,  we  discover  at  the  same  time,  a  subtlety  or 
obscurity  of  meaning  which  well  corresponds  with  the  ambiguity  of 
their  manners  and  deportment.  These  faults  are  principally  to  be 
found  in  their  polemical  writings,  which  are  so  full  of  address  and 
skilfulness.  It  is  remarkable  that  in  literature,  if  we  except  Bour- 
daloue,  they  have  produced  no  great  name  or  considerable  work, 
and  that  the  handfid  oi' solitaires  at  Port-Royal,  have  brought  forth 
in  a  few  years  ten  times  more  pages  than  all  the  Jesuits  put 
together  during  their  long  existence.  The  same  may  be  said  of 
their  savans.  In  philosophy  they  have  taken  no  rank  vvhatever ; 
they  have   not  only  no   really    creative  mind    of  the    school    of 

*"  Natioiics  oiiiiR's  pari  alleutu  aniplecfendK."  Inst.  S.  J.  Reg.  Comm.  ii.  30,  vol.  ii. 
p.  77.  ^ 

t  Two  Jesuits,  Clement  Dupuy,  and  Odard  Mote,  took  part  in  the  assassination  of 
the  most  virtuous  and  most  learned  Durandy,  premier-president  of  Paricment  de  Tou- 
louse, under  the  reign  of  Henry  III. 

•  The  Missionary  Ricci,  of  the  company  of  Jesuits,  has  published  in  the  Chinese 
language  fifteen  works  upon  science,  theology,  and  morals:  all  considered  to  be  very 
well  written. 

^  Grotius. 

History  of  the  Jesuits.  87 

Descartes,  but  they  do  not  even  possess  a  single  metaphysical 
author  who  in  talent  or  genius  can  be  compared  to  Mallebranche. 
Thus  it  is,  that  they  have  professed  at  ditierent  times  in  their  nu- 
merous schools  the  scholastic  philosophy,  that  of  Descartes,  and 
that  of  Locke.  One  of  their  most  recent  apologists,  points  out  and 
deplores  this  deficiency  in  their  studies ;  *  he  sees  in  it  the  cause  of 
almost  all  their  misfortunes.  It  would  be  superfluous  to  state  the 
tact  that  the  Protestant  clergy  ofi'ers  an  immense  assemblage  of  pro- 
found thinkers,  of  philologists^  of  literary  and  scientific  men,  with 
whom  the  disciples  of  Loyola  cannot  be  placed  in  comparison. 
The  reason  of  this  superiority  in  the  Protestant  clergy  is,  that  inde- 
pendence is  absolutely  indispensable  to  intellectual  productions, 
and  all  subjection  of  the  understanding  is  mortal  to  intellectual 
excellence  of  any  kind. 

A  corporation  without  rank  in  literature,  without  originality  in 
the  sciences,  without  a  fitting  philosophy,  could  not  have  had  that 
didactic  superiority  which  has  been  gratuitously  ascribed  to  it, 
unless  the  Jesuits  had  made  the  education  of  tiie  young  a  means 
of  advancing  their  credit  and  influence,  which  however  tended  to 
diminish  it.  Thus  their  schools,  so  far  behind  those  of  Germany, 
England,  and  Holland,  which  are  supported  by  Protestant  liberty, 
have  not  equalled  the  University  of  Paris  in  the  classics,  nor  the 
Sorbonne  in  theology ;  nor  the  University  of  Coimbra,  in  Portugal ; 
nor  that  of  Salamanca,  in  Spain. 

Let  us  add,  in  conclusion,  that  their  much  boasted  policy 
has  been  more  restless,  more  artificial,  more  Machiavellian  than 
wise.  They  have  always  been  wanting  in  comprehensive  views. 
It  is  singular  that  this  Society,  which  has  produced  so  many 
intriguers,  has  not  produced  one  statesman  like  the  Chancellor 
Oxenstierna;  none  of  their  great  undertakings  have  met  with 
success,  though  supported  by  all  things  necessary  to  their  accom- 
plishment. On  the  other  hand  the  Reformation  still  exists  in  all 
the  freshness  and  vigour  of  youth  ;  Ilenry  the  Fourth  died  on  the 
throne,  and  his  descendants  still  reign ;  the  miserable  Stuarts  are 
exiled  from  England;  Protestant  missionaries  are  converting  at  the 
present  hour,  to  the  principles  of  Henry  the  Eighth  and  Wolsey, 
countries  formerly  preached  to  by  the  Jesuits  ;  ungrateful  Paraguay 
exists  at  the  present  period  under  the  dominion  of  a  philosophical 
despot;  the  Society  itself  is  interdicted  by  almost  all  the  states  of 
Europe ;  and  if  in  France  it  succeeded  under  Louis  XIV.,  in 
causing  the  demolition  of  Port-Royal,t  it  was  expelled  by  the 

*  Des  Jesuitcs,  par  le  Baron  d'Eckstein.     1828,  p.  10, 

t  The  pcrsecations  directed  by  the  Jesuits  against  the  establishment  of  Port-lloyal, 
have  yiveii  biitli  to  the  production  of  a  book  (/es  Provinciates,  by  Pascal)  which  may 
be  considered  as  a  master-piece  of  eloquence  and  logic,  and  a  faithful  clironicle  of  the 
crimes  of  the  disciples  of  Loyola. 

88  Babbage's  Ninth  Bridgexoalcr  Treatise. 

Piiilianient  under  Louis  XV.  To  crown  their  reverses,  if  they  are 
still  tolerated  at  the  present  day,  it  is  because  they  are  protected 
by  the  universal  liberty  of  thought. 

Art.  IV.— The  Ninth  Bridgewater  Treatise:   a  Fragment.     By 
Charles  Babbage,  Esq.      London  :  Murray.     1837.  .8vo. 

TuEKE  are  many  reasons  why  we  hold  a  "  Ninth <Bridgewater 
Treatise"  to  be  a  desideratum.  Not  eight,  nor  eighty,  treatises 
could  exhaust  the  mighty  subject:  but  one,  which  might  gather, 
generally,  into  a  single  view  the  several  and  independent  lines  of 
argument  which  have  been  taken;  and  might  give,  in  outline  at 
least,  the  whole  proof  of  natural  theology,  brought  up  to  the  last 
discoveries  of  modern  science ;  and  adduce  the  different  kinds  of 
evidence,  not  indeed  in  their  fulness,  but  in  their  unity  and  con- 
nection ;  would  be  more  useful,  perhaps,  and  more  practically  va- 
luable, than  all  the  rest.  Even  a  popular  synopsis  of  the  eight, 
which  are  already  in  print,  judiciously  linking  them  together  and 
lending  them  strength  by  union,  might  be  of  considerable  service 
to  the  young  whose  minds  are  uninformed,  and  to  the  busy 
whose  time  is  much  occupied.  But  the  "  Ninth  Bridgewater  Trea- 
tise," if  it  is  to  be  worthy  of  the  appellation,  has  yet  to  be  written. 
As  to  the  present  author,  whose  publication  is  invested  with 
that  title,  either  his  publisher  has  done  him  wrong,  or  he  has  most 
grievously  wronged  himself.  The  "  Ninth  Bridgewater  Treatise," 
by  Charles  Babbage,  Esq.,  ought  to  have  been  a  very  different 
performance.  That  Mr.  Babbage  is  quite  competent  to  the  pro- 
duction of  a  work,  which  might  have  taken  its  rank  with  those  of 
Dr.  Chalmers  and  Dr.  Buckland,  of  Sir  Charles  Bell  and  Mr. 
Whewell,  we  shall  not  think  of  disputing  :  and  he  appears  some- 
what sore  at  not  having  been  invited  to  undertake  it.  If,  too,  he 
had  styled  these  observatibns,"  Supplementary/  Hints,'"  or  "Loose 
Notes  in  connection  with  the  Bridgewater  Treatises,"  we  should 
most  cheerfully  have  allowed  that  they  were  often  ingenious,  and 
sometimes  profound  ;  and  could  only  have  proceeded  from  a  man 
of  great  abilities  and  large  attainments,  as  Mr.  Babbage  unques- 
tionably is.  But  the  brochure,  in  its  existing  shape,  is  not  a  phi- 
losophical treatise,  nor  any  thing  like  a  philosophical  treatise.  It 
is  rather,  we  are  compelled  to  say,  the  most  egregious  specimen 
of  book-making,  which  has  come  before  us  for  many  months. 
Although  it  has,  really  and  fairly,  but  just  matter  enough  for  fifty 
pages,  still,  by  such  devices  as  putting  an  island  of  type  into  a  sea 
of  margin,  and  of  beginning  at  the  bottom  of  a  page  and  ending 
at  the  top,  as  also  by  the  aid  of  a  lengthened  appendix,  and  the 

Babbage's  Ninth  ^ridgeivater  Treatise.  8& 

benefit  of  Sir  John  Herschell's  correspondence,  it  has  been 
stretched  out  into  upwards  of  two  hundred.  The  poet.has  said 
of  the  statesman,  that  his  big  soul 

"  Fretted  the  pigmy  body  to  decay, 
And  o'erinformed  the  tenement  of  clay  :" 

Mr.  Babbage's  work,  on  the  contrary,  resembles  a  tall,  stout  body 
without  a  soul  sufficiently  capacious  to  animate  its  bulk. 
•  But  this  is  not  the  worst.  If  other  persons  like  to  give  nine 
shillings  and  sixpence  for  such  a  publication,  we,  to  whom  it  has 
been  liberally  furnished  as  a  present,  can  have  no  reason  to  com- 
plain. Still  the  honour  of  our  literature,  and  our  literary  men,  is 
very  dear  to  us.  We  are  sincerely  of  opinion  that  this  production 
is  not  calculated  to  advance  it.  The  "  Ninth  Bridgeivater  Trea- 
tise, a  Fragment  T' X\\q  very  title-page  offends  us.  It  is  sadly 
deficient  in  good  sense  and  good  taste.  If  Mr.  Babbage  had  not 
leisure  to  elaborate  a  complete  essay  to  his  satisfaction,  why  does 
he  publish  it?  Why,  at  least,  does  he  call  it  a  Bridgeivater  Trea- 
tise? Does  he  mean  to  insinuate  that  his  broken  and  disjointed 
paragraphs  are  equivalent  to  the  finished  efforts  of  some  among 
the  most  celebrated  of  his  contemporaries?  Does  he  suppose 
that,  when  he  scatters  upon  paper  the  scraps  from  his  common- 
place book,  the  world  will  gratefully  receive  them  as  a  philoso- 
phical disquisition,  from  the  influence  of  his  name?  A  fragment 
too  !  What  is  the  meaning  of  a  philosophical  fragment  ?  Poetical 
fragments  are,  for  the  most  part,  heaven  knows,  conceited  and  ridi- 
culous enough  : — but  a  philosophical  or  argumentative  fragment 
is  almost  an  absurdity  in  terms.  Unless  we  see  the  entire  chain 
of  an  argument,  and  can  trace  the  dependence  of  its  links,  one 
upon  another,  what  is  it  worth  ?  Unless  it  is  a  whole  as  far  as  it 
goes,  it  is  nothing.  We  accept,  with  mingled  pleasure  and  regret, 
the  posthumous  fragments  of  great  men,  who  have  been  cut  oft" 
before  they  could  fill  up  the  harmony  of  their  design  :  but,  in  living 
authors,  it  looks  like  egregious  vanity  to  put  them  forth.  And 
Mr.  Babbage,  in  ushering  into  notice,  with  some  pomp  and  pa- 
rade, the  ninth  Bridgcwater  Treatise,  a  Fragment,  certainly  does 
not  remind  us  of  the  modesty  of  Virgil,  who  forbade  the  publica- 
tion of  the  ^^neid,  because  it  was  unfinished. 

Nay,  more.  This  volume  is  not  merely  a  fragment,  but  a 
bundle  of  fragments.  It  is  not  like  the  body  of  an  ancient  statue, 
which,  though  but  a  headless  trunk,  though  mutilated  and  dis- 
membered by  the  casualties  of  years,  yet  exhibits  an  exact  and 
regular  symmetry  in  the  part  which  remains.  It  has  no  propor- 
tions or  relations  in  itself.  It  has  no  consecutive  train  of  reason- 
ing.    It  is  not  uniform  as  far  as  it  goes.     It  is  almost  made  up, 

90  Babbagc's  Ninth  Bridgcwater  Treatise. 

il  we  may  adopt  Mr.  Cabbage's  mathematical  language,  of  "  sln- 
"ular  points  and  discontinuous  functions."  Almost  every  chapter 
Ts  a  fiagtucnlarv  thin-.  And  in  the  middle  of  several  pages,  there 
slaiul  uiwning"  gaps  and  portentous  intervals,  strewed  only  with 
breaks",  and  lines,  and  dashes,  which  may  have  in  them  a  deeper 
signilicaiice  for  the  initiated,  than  our  dull  apprehensions  are  able 
to^discovcr.  Vet  we  recollect  no  previous  instance  of  this  kiiid 
of  phdosophical  aposiopeais.  It  is,  we  think,  Lord  Burleigh,  in 
Sheridan's  '*  Critic,"  whose  silent  and  oracular  nod  is  to  speak 
unutterable  wisdom,  and  contain  in  it  more  of  sagacity  and  subli- 
mity, than  the  most  sententious  maxims  which  tongue  could  ex- 
press : — are  the  strange  and  solemn  chasms  in  Mr.  Babbage's 
work  to  serve  a  similar  purpose,  and  to  be  more  pregnant  with 
instruction  than  die  written  axioms  of  all  former  sages? 

But  we  have  not  yet  come  to  the  end  of  Mr.  Babbage's  con- 
trivances for  eking  out  a  Bridgewater  Treatise.  The  chapters 
are,  in  general,  fragments;  but  one  chapter  is  an  intention.  It  is 
literally  an  intimation  of  something  which  the  author  would  have 
done,  if  he  had  more  time,  or  more  inclination.  How  happy  is 
he,  if  he  can  satisfy  men's  intellectual  appetites, 

'.'  By  bare  imagination  of  a  feast." 

Who  would  not  be  a  philosopher  upon  such  easy  terms?  How 
delightful  to  hang  up  an  empty  frame,  and  gain  credit  for  a  mag- 
niticent  picture.  VVhy,  the  achievements  of  Michael  Angelo  or 
Rubens  are  nothing,  in  number  or  in  beauty,  to  the  wonders  that 
could  be  performed  by  this  cheap  mode  of  execution.  Upon 
such  a  process,  a  man  might  write  an  encyclopedia  before 

Mr.  Babbage  will  be  much  mistaken,  if  he  supposes  that  our 
strictures  are  made  in  an  unfriendly  spirit.  We  regard  him  as 
among  the  shining  lights  of  our  time.  To  our  eyes,  in  one  par- 
ticular department  of  sciefnce,  namely,  in  the  union  of  analytical 
and  mechanical  skill,  he  stands  unrivalled.  The  machine,  on 
which  he  has  been  so  long  employed,  whether,  or  not,  it  shall  ever 
be  turned  to  any  great  practical  utility,  we  yet  deem  to  be  a  work, 
of  which,  from  its  mere  conception  and  theory,  our  age  and  coun- 
try may  be  proud.  His  fame  is  become  national  property.  We 
are,  therefore,  the  more  vexed  and  annoyed,  that  Mr.  Babbage 
should  tritie  with  himself;  and  write,  on  any  occasion,  like  a  man 
half  spoilt  by  flattery,  and  half  soured  by  disappointment.  He 
exercises  a  considerable  authority.  Why,  then,  should  he  thus 
play  with  his  own  reputation  and  the  public  good-nature?  Why 
should  he  wantonly  throw  over  a  scientific  volume  almost  the 
appearance  of  catch-penny  charlatanism  ?     W^hy  should  he  hold 

Babbage's  Ninth  Bridgewater  Treatise.  91 

out  to  younger  aspirants  the  example  of  introducing  into  our  phi- 
losophical inquiries  the  airs  and  affectations  which  have  dis- 
iigured  our  poetry  ?  Why  should  he  teach  them  to  swell  out  a 
pamphlet  into  a  book  ;  and  make  up  for  the  tenuity  of  the  con- 
tents by  the  card-like  thickness  of  the  paper?  Why,  too,  should 
he  have  penned  his  treatise  apparently  in  such  haste,  that,  after 
having  invented  a  calculating  engine,  we  could,  now  and  then, 
almost  wish  him  to  invent  a  writing  or  composing  machine,  in 
order  to  turn  off  some  of  his  sentences  in  a  more  compact  and 
perfect  form  ? 

Having  offered  these  free  remarks  on  the  general  aspect  of  Mr. 
Babbage's  publication,  we  hardly  like  to  pursue  our  inquiry  into 
details  ;  because  we  may  be  swayed  throughout,  even  without  our 
own  consciousness,  by  a  prejudice  imbibed  in  the  first  instance. 
Otherwise  we  might  venture  to  suggest,  that  there  is  something 
too  much  like  an  attempt  to  establish  a  kind  of  analogy  between 
the  Framer  of  the  world  and  the  framer  of  the  calculatins;  machine  : 
or,  at  least,  that  illustrations  drawn  from  that  machine  are  some- 
what too  largely  mixed  up  with  the  argument  in  demonstration  of 
an  Almighty  design  throughout  the  universe.  We  might  say,  that 
the  refutation  of  Hume's  sophisms  against  th»  credibility  of  mi- 
racles, though,  perhaps,  the  most  ingenious  part  of  the  treatise,  is 
not  always  conclusive  ;  that  the  observations,  which  touch  upon 
future  punishments,  are  fanciful,  though  striking  :  that  the  boun- 
daries between  natural  and  revealed  religion  are  not  well  observed; 
and  that  the  theory  respecting  the  first  chapter  of  the  Book  of 
Genesis  would  have  been  more  correct,  if  stated  W"ith  more  cir- 
cumspection. To  be  very  brief,  this  Ninth  Bridgeivater  Treatise 
opens  to  our  intellectual  vision,  here  and  there,  the  vista  of  fine 
and  magnificent  considerations ;  but  closes  it  again,  before  any 
object  can  be  distinctly  seen  :  it  shows,  though  without  adequate 
development,  germs  or  particles  of  thought,  indicative  of  the 
highest  powers  of  mind,  at  once  broad  and  subtle,  at  once  com- 
prehensive and  delicate  :  but  the  general  impression  which  it 
leaves  is  confused  and  unsatisfactory ; — so  that  the  talent  and 
knowledge,  which  are  conspicuous  in  separate  passages,  only  en- 
hance our  sorrow  that,  being  such  as  it  is,  the  work  is  not  much 
better; — is  not,  in  fact,  what,  if  more  patient  and  less  precipitate, 
the  author  might  undoubtedly  have  made  it. 

The  subjoined  extracts  are,  we  think,  rather  favourable  ex- 
aniples  of  the  matter  and  the  style. 

"  Many  excellent  and  religious  persons  not  deeply  versed  in  what  they 
mistakenly  call  '  human  knowledge,^  but  which  is  in  truth  the  interpreta- 
tion of  those  laws  that  God  himself  has  impressed  on  his  creation,  have 
endeavoured  to  discover  proofs  of  design  in  a  multitude  of  apparent 

02  Babbage's  Ninth  Bridgewater  Treatise. 

adaptations  of  means  to  ends,  and  have  represented  the  Deity  as  perpe- 
tually intertcrin',%  to  alter  for  a  time  the  laws  he  had  previously  ordained  ; 
thus  by  implication  denying  to  him  the  possession  of  that  foresight  which 
is  the  highest  attribute  of  omnipotence.  Minds  of  this  order,  insensible 
of  the  existence  of  that  combining  and  generalising  faculty  which  gives 
to  human  intellect  its  greatest  development,  and  tied  down  by  the  tram- 
mels of  their  own  peculiar  pursuits,  have  in  their  mistaken  zeal  not 
perceived  their  own  unfitness  for  the  mighty  task,  and  have  ventured  to 
represent  the  Creator  of  the  universe  as  fettered  by  the  same  infirmities 
as  those  by  which  their  own  limited  faculties  are  subjugated.  To  causes 
of  this  kind  must  in  some  measure  be  attributed  an  opinion  which  has 
been  industriously  spread,  that  minds  highly  imbued  with  mathematical 
knowledge  arc  disrjualified,  by  the  possession  of  that  knowledge,  and  by 
the  habits  of  mind  produced  during  its  acquisition,  from  rightly  appre- 
ciating the  works  of  the  Creator. 

"  At  periods  and  in  countries  in  which  the  knowledge  of  the  priests 
exceeded  that  of  the  people,  science  has  always  been  held  up  by  the 
former  class  as  an  object  of  regard,  and  its  crafty  possessors  have  too  fre~ 
(juently  defiled  its  purity  by  employing  their  knowledge  for  the  delusion 
of  the  people.  On  the  other  hand,  at  times  and  in  countries  in  which 
the  knowledge  of  the  people  has  advanced  beyond  that  of  the  priesthood, 
the  ministers  of  the  temple  have  too  often  been  afraid  of  the  advance  of 
knowledge,  and  have  threatened  with  the  displeasure  of  the  Almighty 
those  engaged  in  employing  the  faculties  he  has  bestowed  on  the  study 
of  the  works  he  has  created.  At  the  present  period,  when  knowledge  is 
so  universally  spread  that  neither  class  is  far  in  advance  of  the  other, — 
when  every  subject  is  submitted  to  unbounded  discussion^ — when  it  is 
at  length  fully  acknowledged  that  truth  alone  can  stand  unshaken  by 
perennial  attacks,  and  that  error,  though  for  centuries  triumphant,  must 
fall  at  last,  and  leave  behind  no  ashes  from  which  it  may  revive,  the 
authority  of  names  has  but  little  weight :  facts  and  arguments  are  the 
basis  of  creeds,  and  convictions  so  arrived  at  are  the  more  deeply  seated, 
and  the  more  enduring,  because  they  are  not  the  wild  fancies  of  passion 
or  of  impulse,  but  the  deliberate  results  of  reason  and  reflection. 

"  It  is  a  condition  of  our  race  that  we  must  ever  wade  through  error 
in  our  advance  towards  truth;  and  it  may  even  be  said  that  in  many 
cases  we  exhaust  almost  every  variety  of  error  before  we  attain  the  de- 
sired goal." — p.  24 — 27. 

"  In  turning,"  says  Mr.  Babbage,  after  speaking  of  his  calculating 
engine,  "  our  views  from  these  simple  consequences  of  the  juxtaposi- 
tion of  a  few  wheels,  it  is  impossible  not  to  perceive  the  parallel  reason- 
ing, as  applied  to  the  mighty  and  far  more  complex  phenomena  of 
nature.  To  call  into  existence  all  the  variety  of  vegetable  forms,  as  they 
become  fitted  to  exist,  by  the  successive  adaptations  of  their  parent  earth, 
is  undoubtedly  a  high  exertion  of  creative  power.  When  a  rich  vegeta- 
tion has  covered  the  globe,  to  create  animals  adapted  to  that  clothing, 
which,  deriving  nourishment  from  its  luxuriance,  shall  gladden  the  face 
of  nature,  is  not  only  a  high  but  a  benevolent  exertion  of  creative  power. 
To  change,  from  time  to  time,  after  lengthened  periods^  the  races  which 

Babbage's  'Ninth  Bridgeivater  Treatise.  93 

exist,  as  altered  physical  circumstances  may  render  their  abode  more  or 
less  congenial  to  their  habits,  by  allowing  the  natural  extinction  of  some 
races,  and  by  a  new  creation  of  others  more  fitted  to  supply  the  place 
previously  abandoned,  is  still  but  the  exercise  of  the  same  benevolent 
power.  To  cause  an  alteration  in  those  physical  circumstances — to  add 
to  the  comforts  of  the  newly  created  animals — all  these  acts  imply  power 
of  the  same  order,  a  perpetual  and  benevolent  superintendence,  to  take 
advantage  of  altered  circumstances,  for  the  purpose  of  producing  addi- 
tional happiness. 

"  But,  to  have  foreseen,  at  the  creation  of  matter  and  of  mind,  that  a 
period  would  arrive  when  matter,  assuming  its  prearranged  combina- 
tions, would  become  susceptible  of  the  support  of  vegetable  forms  :  that 
these  should  in  due  time  themselves  supply  the  pabulum  of  animal  ex- 
istence ;  that  successive  races  of  giant  forms  or  of  microscopic  beings 
should  at  appointed  periods  necessarily  rise  into  existence,  and  as  inevi- 
tably yield  to  decay  3  and  that  decay  and  death — the  lot  of  each  indivi- 
dual existence — should  also  act  with  equal  power  on  the  races  which 
they  constitute ;  that  the  extinction  of  every  race  should  be  as  certain  as 
the  death  of  each  individual  ;  and  the  advent  of  new  genera  be  as  inevi- 
table as  the  destruction  of  their  predecessors  ; — to  have  foreseen  all  these 
changes,  and  to  have  provided,  by  one  comprehensive  law,  for  all  that 
should  ever  occur,  either  to  the  races  themselves,  to  the  individuals  of 
which  they  are  composed,  or  to  the  globe  which  they  inhabit,  manifests 
a  degree  of  power  and  of  knowledge  of  a  far  higher  order." — p.  44 — 40. 

We  must  conclude  as  we  began.  Mr.  Babbage  has  done  him- 
self injustice.  It  is  his  own  fault,  if  he  has  to  endure  the  severi- 
ties of  criticism,  when  it  was  in  his  power  to  have  commanded 
admiration  : — that  admiration,  we  mean,  which  genius  can  always 
ensure  by  carefulness;  though  not  even  genius  can  snatch  it  in  the 
mere  heat  of  petulance,  or  by  a  mere  hurried  and  negligent  exer- 
tion of  its  strength. 

We  cannot  refrain,  while  we  are  at  all  on  the  subject  of  natural 
religion,  from  recommending  the  late  Dr.  Macculloch's  three 
volumes,  intituled,  "Proofs  and  Illustrations  of  the  Attributes  of 
God ;" — forthey  would  not  have  been  unworthy  to  take  their  place 
among  the  real  Bridgewater  Treatises;  they  are  the  ripe  fruits 
of  long  and  earnest  study,  replete  with  interesting  research  and 
multifarious  information. 

We  should  also  be  glad  to  mention  Mr.  Whewell's  elaborate 
and  very  interesting  "  History  of  the  Inductive  Sciences ;" — but 
we  should  be  travelling  beyond  the' sphere  to  which  we  are  com- 
pelled to  confine  our  criticisms  ; — happy,  indeed,  if  we  could 
fairly  and  adequately  occupy  the  whole  ground  which  lies  within 
it.  We  may  be,  however,  allowed  to  remark,  that  the  title  seems 
to  us  illogical ;  inasmuch  as  it  is  the  mind,  or  process,  which  is 
inductive,  and  not  the  science;  or,  if  science  can  be  properly 

94  Babbage's  Ninth  BiiJgewater  Treatise. 

Urmcd  iiulucliw,  llial  tlun  the  term  belongs,  if  not  to  ail  sciences, 
iindrr  ct  rtaiii  aspccls  and  relations,  at  least  to  many  more  than 
Mr.  Wliewell  lias  eoniprehended  in  his  history.  Indnction,  for 
instance,  is  necessary,  no  less  than  dednction,  in  politics,  in  poli- 
tical economy,  in  ethics,  in  natural  theology,  and  even  in  many 
departments  of  revealed  religion. 

Mr.  >\  hewell,  we  see — for  his  pen  is  most  prolific — has  just 
written  a  short  epistle  to  Mr.  Babbage  on  some  slight  difl'erence 
of  i»i)iiiion  whi(;h  exists  between  them.  At  the  end,  speaking  of 
this  Ninth  Bridgewater  Treatise — this  precious  Fragment — these 
Sibyllin(^  leaves  of  philosophy,  which  are  to  be  the  more  valuable, 
as  they  are  the  fewer  and  the  less  entire — he  says,  that  there  is  no 
instance  *'  in  the  recent  literature  of  the  country,  in  which  the 
subject  has  been  treated  in  a  more  original  manner."  There  is 
certainly  a  sense  in  wliicii  the  compliment  is  just:  but  Mr.  Whe- 
well  is  rather  hard  upon  his  friend,  if  he  means  his  observation  to 
be  slyly  ironical. 

Art.  V. — The  Life  of  Augustus  Herman  Franke,^c.  Trans- 
lated from  the  German  of  H.  E.  F.  Guerike,  by  Samuel 
Jackson.  With  an  introductory  Preface,  by  the  Rev.  E. 
Bickersteth.     Seeley  and  Burnside. 

The  Pietists  of  Germany,  to  whom  Mr.  Bickersteth  has  directed 
our  attention  in  this  Memoir  of  Franke,  one  of  their  principal 
orjiaments,  rose  out  of  the  orthodox  Lutheran  School,  and  termi- 
nated in  the  Rationalists.  Every  history  has  its  own  moral,  and 
every  reader  draws  it  in  his  own  way.  Mr.  Bickersteth  would 
view  the  Pietists  in  contrast  with  the  orthodox  Lutherans  who 
preceded  them  ;  we  perhaps  are  rather  disposed  to  regard  them 
in  connexion  with  the  Rationalists  who  followed.  He  probably 
discerns  in  Franke  and  his  associates,  that  English  school  oV 
which  he  is  a  distinguished  member ;  and  here  we  may  on  the 
whole  agree  with  him.  But  he  would  proceed  to  liken  the 
Lutherans,  over  whom  they  triumphed,  to  what  is  commonly 
called  the  High-Church  party  in  England ;  whereas  we  should 
discover  in  the  present  state  of  what  are  called  Evangelical  opi- 
nions, the  more  than  incipient  development  of  a  double  tendency, 
which  was  realized  in  the  history  of  Pietism,  at  once  towards 
that  formalism  out  of  which  it  started,  and  to  the  free-thinking 
system  in  which  it  ended.  As  time  went  on,  Pietism  either  re- 
lapsed or  went  furtlier;  and  its  English  parallel,  following  its 
career,  is  rapidly  becoming  in  one  of  its  portions  technical,  in 

Augustus  Herman  Franke.  95 

another  latitudinal  ian.  Now,  considering  Mr.  Bickerstetli's 
publication  says  not  a  word  about  High  Church  or  Low  Church, 
we  may  be  thought  unfair  and  party-spirited  thus  to  interpret  it. 
It  may  be  said  that  he  is  simply  desirous  of  doing  good,  not  of 
making  a  controversy.  Doubtless  he  is  ;  but  then,  if  we  may  judge 
from  his  usual  turn  and  tone  of  thought,  his  notion  of  religious 
excellence  is  such  as  not  to  admit  of  being  explained  and  com- 
municated except  through  the  medium  of  such  contrasts.  His 
main  notion  of  a  religious  man  is  of  one  who  relies  not  on  what 
is  outward,  but  on  what  is  inward;  his  notion  of  the  Church's 
warfare  with  the  world,  is  of  a  contest  between  self-righteous  and 
barren  orthodoxy,  and  spiritual  faith.  Under  these  circumstances 
he  can  but  mean  Frauke's  life  to  be  a  type  of  the  history  of  every 
religious  man  in  his  contest  with  the  world ;  and,  inclusively,  of 
every  religious   man  in  the  English  Church. 

We  have  above  shown  our  willingness  to  agree  with  Mr.  Bicker- 
steth  in  considering  the  Pietists  of  the  same  religious  family  with 
his  own  friends ;  yet  though  this  may  be  granted  in  general  terms,  it 
is  by  no  means  true  on  an  accurate  comparison  between  the 
two  schools.  Spener  and  Franke  were  much  more  of  Romanists 
than  is  Mr.  Bickersteth.  Spener  re-published  the  work  of 
Tauler,  an  eminent  Roman  Catholic  Mystic  ;  Franke,  following 
his  example,  translated  two  of  the  works  of  Molinos,"  a  celebrated 
pious  Spanish  Mystic,"  as  the  work  before  us  calls  him,  "  who 
finished  his  days  at  Rome  in  the  eighteenth  century."  As  the 
circumstances  of  Franke's  publication  are  instructive,  we  shall 
present  them  to  the  reader  in  the  translator's  words. 

"  In  1G87,  Franke  was  induced,  by  a  disputation  held  in  Leipzig,  '  De 
quietismo  contra  Molinosura,'  in  which  the  antagonist  confessed  that  he 
had  never  read  Molinos'  writings,  to  translate  two  of  the  latter's  works 
■ — '  Guida  Spirituale,'  '  Manuductio  Spiritualis,'  and  'Delia  Comunione 
Cotidiana,'  or  '  De  Communione  Quotidiana,'  from  the  Italian  into  Latin. 
This  step  was  taken  amiss  of  him,  as  if  he  thereby  acknowledged  him- 
self an  adherent  of  Molinos,  and  a  friend  to  Catholicism.  To  this  he 
replied,  '  I  have  never  sought  to  justify  or  maintain  every  thing  contained 
in  Molinos.  But  I  have  been  much  dipleased  that  others  should  fall  upon 
an  author,  and  condemn  him,  without  understanding  him,  or  ever  having 
read  him,  and  attribute  sentiments  to  him,  which  probably  never  occurred 
to  him.  On  the  contrary,  I  assert  that  there  is  much  of  what  is  edifying 
and  useful  in  his  writings,  which  I  can  never  bring  myself  to  reject  or 
condemn.  Truth  must  be  esteemed  everywhere,  whether  found  amongst 
friends  or  foes.  ^Ve  ought  to  prove  all  things,  and  hold  fast  that  which 
is  good.  Am  I  necessarily  a  heathen,  when  I  say  that  many  good  things 
are  to  be  found  in  Cicero's  De  Officiis  ?  And  why  must  I  be  vilified  and 
made  out  to  be  a  Catholic,  because  I  find  many  useful  observations 
in  a  Roman  Catholic  book  ?'" 

96  The  Life  of 

IJut  to  ritiiin.  It  scorns  from  what  has  been  said,  we  are  at  issue 
with  Mr.  HickcMstoth  on  u  sntlicicnt  luuubciof  points,  as  regards  the 
history  of  I'iclisin,  more  indeed  than  it  is  possible  to  treat  in  this 
article; — on  wliat  is  life  in  religion,  what  is  deadness,  whether  the 
Lntlierans  of  the  seventeenth  century  were  like  the  so-called 
orthodox  among  ourselves,  how  far  the  Pietists  are  like  the  so-called 
I'lvannelical,  how  far  German  Pietism,  how  far  English  Pietism, 
how  far  in  short  what  is  called  t;/Yrt/  religion,  tends  on  the  one  hand 
to  formal  religion,  on  the  other  hand  to  freethinkitig  religion,  as 
being  a  transition  state,  vacillating  between  one  or  other  of  two 
inevitable  issues.  Out  of  these  ample  topics,  we  shall  set  apart  j 
a  very  small  field  for  discussion,  still,  as  we  hope,  not  an  unpro- 
fitable one.  We  mean  to  say  a  few  words  on  the  character  of  the 
formal  Lutheranism  which  preceded  the  Pietists,  and  to  inquire 
whether  there  be  not  alarming  signs  among  our  English  Pietists  I 
at  the  present  moment  of  a  tendency  to  a  similar  formalism.  J 

The  history  of  the  rise  of  Pietism  may  be  sketched  as  follows : 
Luther  died  A.D.  154.5.  His  contemporaries,  who  had  acted 
upon  his  idea  of  doctrine  and  preaching,  such  as  Chemnitz, 
Bugenhagcn  and  Brentius,  were  removed  from  this  scene  of 
trouble  and  error  before  the  end  of  the  same  century.  What 
Luther's  own  idea  of  Christianity  was,  we  shall  not  attempt  to  de- 
lineate ;  the  opinions  of  so  great  a  mind  are  not  lightly  and 
cursorily  to  be  handled.  But  without  definitely  ascertaining  the 
views  of  this  or  that  individual,  the  idea  then  floating  and  preva- 

ilent  among  the  Lutherans  seems  to  have  been  this,  that  it  was  a 

\life  in  the  heart,  quickened  by  the  Spirit,  manifested  in  faith  ;  that 
words  were  of  use  merely  as  instruments  of  implanting  this  life, 
that  such  especially  was  the  office  of  the  word  of  God,  which  was 
the  divinely  vouchsafed  instrument  of  conveying  this  supernatural 
life  to  the  inward  man ;  moreover,  that  spiritual  life,  consisting  in 
faith,  the  word  of  God  was  the  means  of  spiritual  life,  as  being 
the  means  of  kindling  faith  and  similar  religious  feelings,  disposi- 
tions, and  habits.  From  this,  two  conclusions  might  follow; 
first,  that  words,  being  the  means  of  imparting  religious   ideas, 

iwere  only  of  use  so  far  as  they  did  convey  them,  that  they  were  de- 
pendent on  and  subservient  to  the  ideas  they  communicated  to  the 

/hearer;  that  they  had  their  proper  scope  in  their  effect  upon  him, 
and  might  be  fairly  estimated  by  that  effect.  Words  then  were, 
from  the  nature  of  the  case,  of  a  variable  and  multiform  nature, 
springing  up,  doing  their  work,  dying,  reproduced,  according  to 
the  occasion ;  in  a  word,  there  could  be  no  creed  in  Christianity, 
that  is,  no  announcements  such  as  to  have  their  end  in  them- 
selves, to  stand  on  their  own  ground,  to  be  contained  in  and  de- 
pend upon  the  words  conveying  them,  not  on  the  intelligence  of 

Augustus  Herman  Franke.  97 

those  who  used  them,  as  being  from  the  first  beyond  the  human 
mind,  and  beingsimply  the  wordsof  God,  with  prototypes  inheaven, 
and  addressed  essentially  to  faith,  presupposing,  not  producing  it. 
Next  it  might  follow  that  sacraments  also,  not  being  addressed  to 
the  reason  or  intelligent  mind,  or  calculated  to  produce  faith,  but 
being  of  the  nature  of  rites,  having  little  or  no  power  to  teach, 
convince  or  comfort, — were  no  part  of  Christianity;  or  at  least 
belonged  to  it  only  so  far  as  they  did  teach,  convince  or  comfort, 
so  far  as  they  did  tend  to  produce  or  reassure  faith,  as  signs, 
tokens,  pledges,  seals,  not  means  of  grace.  These  two  conclu- 
sions however  seem  not  to  have  been  consistently  drawn  out  by 
the  school  in  question,  which  occupied  an  intermediate  position  ; 
maintaining  the  supremacy  of  the  Mental  Life  as  the  essence  and  \ 
end  of  all  true  religion,  and  the  measure  by  which  all  other  parts 
of  Christianity  were  to  be  valued  and  adjusted,  and  again  the  power 
of  the  Divine  Word,  that  is,  of  the  intellectual  meaning  or  spirit 
of  Scripture,  as  the  Holy  Spirit's  main  instrument  in  the  produc- 
tion of  this  Life;  but  not  going  on  to  deny  the  divine  origin  of 
dogmatic  statements,  for  it  admitted  the  Catholic  Creeds ;  nor  the 
true  virtue  of  sacraments,  for  it  maintained  the  benefit  as  well  as 
the  necessity  of  infant  baptism.  As  naturally  follows  from  what 
has  been  said,  its  characteristic  doctrine  was  justification  by 
faith  only  ;  which,  while  in  the  first  instance  it  was  the  doctrinal 
symbol  of  a  great  truth,  viz.  the  imperative  necessity  of  an 
awakened  mind,  a  tender  conscience  and  a  reasonable  service,  yet 
might  be  readily  perverted  to  the  denial  of  all  real  virtue  in  sacra- 
nients,  all  divine  mysteries  in  creeds.  Such  an  incomplete  theory, 
it  was  plain,  could  not  remain  many  years.  A  bold  and  original 
mind  had  insisted  upon  some  great  truths,  which  were  at  the  time 
depreciated  and  neglected,  in  a  way  which  tended  to  peril  other 
great  truths,  which  he  recognized  also,  yet  did  not  defend,  nor 
secui'e  from  the  force  of  his  own  arguments.  He  had  taken  the\ 
practical  side  of  the  Gospel,  and  thrown  his  mind  into  it,  but  left  the; 
doctrinal  and  ecclesiastical  side  standing,  but  not  prominent.  What 
was  left  to  his  successors,  but  either  from  the  love  of  these  latter 
truths  to  relinquish  the  principle  by  which  he  enforced  the  former, 
or  to  carry  out  his  principle  to  their  overthrow  ?  to  discard  alto- 
gether or  to  acknowledge  implicitly  the  supremacy  of  the  letter 
and  the  ritual  ?  Under  these  circumstances  they  fell  into  a  line 
of  conduct,  which  might  be  called  ingenious,  were  it  not  so  natu- 
ral, as  to  be  almost  spontaneous  in  their  case,  and  in  which  indeed 
the  Reformers  themselves  had  led  the  way.  They  retained  the 
principle  of  dogmatism,  but  substituted  the  Lutheran  doctrines 
for  its  subject-matter  in  the  place  whether  of  the  Roman  or  the 
Catholic  Creed.  Instead  of  the  Pope's  supremacy  as  the  centre 
NO.  xmi. — JULY,  1837.  h 

08  Tlw  Life  of 

tlocti  iiK'  of  tlio  cluiicli,  another  had  been  already  assumed  as  its  vital 
principle,  justification  hy  faith  only.  Unless  men  believed  that 
they    were  justilied  on    believing,   they    were   not  in    a    saving 

I  state.     A  "leat  luunber  of  other  points   of  faith  was  added;  till 
in  a  short  tinte  a  theology  arose,  as  minute,  as  imperative,  not  as 

'  plausible,  not  as  venerable  as  the  Roman  ;  a  theology,  appealing 
not  to  the  unanimous  voice  of  the  Fathers,  but  to  Luther,  in  a 
njanncr  quite  inconsistent  with  that  great  Reformer's  own  resist- 
ance to  the  Ciuuch  in  which  he  was  born.  Instead  of  following 
out  Luther's  principle,  they  left  Babylon  only  to  erect  the  old 
city  on  a  now  site.  The  formula  concordia  1580,  fixed  the 
character  of  the  Lutheran  system,  and,  in  fixing,  formalized  it. 
After  an  interval  of  about  two  generations  the  free  principle  of 
Luther's  original  movement  awoke,  especially  about  l65() — I66O; 
but  its  chanipions  were  but  as  single  voices  in  the  desert,  which 
found  hearers  here  and  there,  but  excited  no  general  interest  or 
opposition.  At  length,  towards  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
it  developed  itself  in  the  school  of  the  Pietists,  of  which  Spener 
and  Franke,  both  eminently  pious  and  practical  men,  are  the 
chief  luminaries.  Here  then  matters  were  brought  back  pretty 
much  to  the  same  point  in  which  they  stood  in  Luther's  time. 
J>Words  and  forms  were  pronounced  to  be  subject  to  mind,  that  is, 
to  the  intelligent,  reflective  principle  of  the  soul.  Again  the  time 
came  when  his  school  must  determine  whether  they  would  go 
forward  or  backward,  whether  they  would  carry  out  his  principle 
of  the  sovereignty  of  reason  and  the  heart  in  religious  matters  to  its 
furthest  limits,  or  whether  they  could  modify  without  destroying- 
it.  And  the  event  took  place  on  the  whole  contrariwise  to  what 
had  happened  at  the  former  crisis.  Then  the  Lutheran  Church 
relapsed  into  scholastic  formality  ;  now  it  dissolved  itself  in  the 
licence  of  freethinking  and  scepticism.  The  school  of  Pietists 
indeed  itself  drew  back,  and  underwent  the  same  transformation 
into  rigid  and  narrow  dogmatism,  which  had  befallen  the  suc- 
cessors of  Luther.  But  it  was  otherwise  with  the  Church  in 
which  they  had  laboured.  The  spirit  they  had  kindled  in  it  did 
its  work  and  proceeded  onward  to  rationalism.  What  had  hap- 
pened in  the  preceding  age  at  Geneva  was  now  repeated  ;  Cal- 
vin had  become  in  his  lifetime  the  involuntary  parent  of  Socinian- 
ism  and  burned  Servetus  in  disgust.  Rationalism  was  in  another 
country  the  posthumous  offspring  of  a  kindred  spirit. 

Now,  if  this  outline  be  tolerably  correct,  we  do  not  think  Mr. 
Bickersteth  would  gain  much,  though  the  English  school  which 
he  admires  were  ever  so  like  the  Pietists ;  and  that  he  holds  their 
resemblance,  must  be  inferred  from  his  editing  in  his  "Christian's 
Family  Library,"  on  the  one  hand,  the  life  of  Franke,  on  the 

Augustus  Herman  FrankL  99 

other,  those  of  Mr.  Scott,  and  Mr.  Richmond.  If,  we  repeat,  the 
spirit  of  Pietism  is  the  inchoate  state  either  of  formalism  or  of 
rationalism,  in  whatever  degree  it  is  revived  in  the  Low  Chnrch 
School  among  us,  (and  that  it  is  in  many  respects  paralleled  in 
them  we  by  no  means  deny,)  the  piety  of  its  adherents,  whatever 
it  is,  is  no  set-off  against  its  tendencies.  That  it  tends  to  ration- 
alism is  not  here  to  be  discussed.  It  is  far  too  large  a  field  to  be 
traversed  within  the  limits  which  we  propose  to  ourselves.  Be- 
sides, persons  entitled  to  all  deference  have  differed  in  their  views 
on  the  subject.  Mr.  Rose  imputes  the  rationalism  of  Germany 
to  the  iiLidirected  movement  of  the  intellect  in  that  country,  to 
foreign  infidelity,  and  the  total  want  of  guiding  principles  of 
church  government.  Dr.  Pusey  attributes  it  mainly  to  the  ante- 
cedent stiff  orthodoxism,  and  to  the  natural  tendency  to  decay 
inherent  in  any  system  of  man's  device  and  distinct  from  the 
Catholic  faith,  such  as  was  Lutheran  theology  in  its  developed 
form.  Leaving  this  part  of  the  subject,  let  us  turn  to  the  picture 
which  history  presents  of  that  developed  Lutheranism,  and  see 
whether  its  lineaments  are  not  discernible  in  the  English  school, 
which  thinks  its  freedom  from  formalism  and  its  protest  against  for- 
malism in  the  High  Church  divinity  one  of  its  especially  strong 

The  German  author  whom  Mr.  Bickersteth  recommends  to 
our  notice,  speaks  as  follows  in  the  translation,  or  rather  abridg- 
ment, which  his  editor  has  sanctioned. 

"  The  light  of  the  Reformation  had  not  long  dawned  upon  Germany, 
before  it  became  obscured  by  the  pernicious  controversies  which 
were  carried  on  in  the  bosom  of  the  Lutheran  Church  ;  so  that 
towards  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  and  beginning  of  the  seventeenth 
centuries,  a  formal  and  lifeless  orthodoxy,  and  a  mere  historical  belief, 
took  place  of  the  true  and  living  faith,  which  the  reformation  had 
diffused.  People  contented  themselves  with  a  strict  but  merely  outward 
adherence  to  the  established  articles  of  belief,  instead  of  regarding 
with  Luther,  the  practical  application  of  the  simple  doctrines  of  the 
Gospel  as  the  chief  and  primary  object."— pp.  1,  2. 

Now,  so  far,  this  description  may  plausibly  be  made  apply 
to  the  history  of  our  own  Church  in  the  17th  and  18th  centuries 
— plausibly,  but  not  truly.  For  though  no  one  who  knows  the 
writings  of  our  great  divines  will  tolerate  even  for  a  moment  the 
attempt  to  fix  on  them  the  charge  of  formalism  here  imputed  to 
the  Lutherans,  yet  the  many  have  not  looked  into  them ;  those, 
who  have,  sometimes  only  turn  over  the  pages,  and,  not  under-k- 
standing  them,  call  them  scholastic  and  technical  in  self-defence,! 
— look  for  what  they  consider  eloquence,  and  find  nothing  popular 
or  attractive— look  to  be  informed  without  their  own  exertion, 


i(X)  The  Lije  of 

;md  iiiul  lliciii  nu  tliodioul,  dcllbeiatc,  and  accurate.  It  is  plau- 
sil)K-  tlR'ii  to  speak  of  Laud,  Hammond,  Bull,  and  Butler,  as  for- 
mal and  lifeless;  nor  would  Hooker  escape  if  he  had  only  writ- 
ten his  work  on  I'leclesiastical  Polity.  So  far,  then,  they  may  be 
conveniently  conipared  to  the  Lutherans  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury ;  hut  as  our  author's  description  proceeds,  general  as  it 
necessarily  is,  some  differences  begin  to  show  themselves. 

'"i'lic  smallest  deviation  in  doctrinal  points  from  the  creed  of  the 
clnnch  was  punislicd  with  an  ardent  zeal,  which  not  unfreqiiently  over- 
stcpju-d  the  hounds  of  propriety  ;  and  in  short,  the  substance  w^as  neg- 
lected and  forgotten  whilst  contending  for  the  form.  Every  part  of  di- 
vinity received  a  polemical  tinge  ;  whilst  biblical  exposition,  the  chief 
object  of  theological  science,  was  regarded  as  completely  of  secondary 
consideration.  Olcarius  was  unable  to  introduce  an  exegetical  course  of 
lectures  at  Leipzig;  and  the  learned  Carpzovius  was  compelled  to  con- 
clude his  lectures  on  the  prophecy  of  Isaiah  with  the  very  first  chapter. 
The  consequence  of  such  a  mode  of  study  at  the  universities  was,  that 
the  preachers  they  sent  forth,  instead  of  expounding  the  Bible  to  the 
people,  as  the  means  of  communicating  instruction,  edification,  and  sanc- 
tification,  disseminated  only  scholastic  dogmas  and  controversial  senti- 
ujcnts,  and  being  mostly  destitute  of  feeling  for  things  divine,  frequently 
promulgated  from  the  pulpit  things  of  a  completely  extraneous  and  ri- 
diculous nature ;  so  that  the  Holy  Scriptures  were  an  unknown  and  a 
sealed  book  to  the  uninstructed  people." 

Now  let  us  illustrate  the  text  thus  given  us  from  a  work  on  the 
subject  of  Lutheran  theology,  published  in  this  country  some  years 
since,  and  then  the  reader  shall  he  judge  which  of  the  two  schools 
most  resembles  those  Lutherans  whom  the  Pietists  opposed — the 
High  Church  or  the  Low  Church  of  this  day.  The  work  we  al- 
lude to  is  Dr.  Pusey's  Essay  on  German  Rationalism. 

This  autlior  observes,  "  It  was  a  natural,  though  injurious  con- 
sequence of  the  great  superiority  of  liUther,  that  every  expres- 
sion of  his  upon  controverted  points  became  a  norm  for  the  party, 
which,  at  all  times  the  largest,  was  at  last  co-extensive  with  the 
Church  itself.  This  almost  idolatrous  veneration  was  perhaps 
increased  by  the  selection  of  declarations  of  faith,  of  which  the 
substance,  on  the  whole,  was  his,  for  the  symbolical  books  of  his 
Church.  Even  in  the  earlier  Lutheran  controversies,  the  ques- 
tion is  often,  not  whether  the  tenet  agree  with  Scripture,  but 
"  w  hether  it  be  a  deflection  from  Luther's  doctrine," — "  whether 
the  individual  be  fallen  away  from  Luther," — whether,  "  if  the 
expression  be  the  same,  it  be  used  precisely  in  the  sense  of  Lu- 
ther."* The  Lutherans  then  were  remarkable  for  their  strict 
adherence  to  the  doctrines  of  the   Reformation,  justification  by 

*  Theology  of  Germany,  part  1,  p.  81,  note. 

Augustus  Herman  Fraiike.  101 

faith  only,  and  the  rest.  On  the  other  hand,  the  especial  offence 
in  their  eyes,  committed  by  Spener,  the  chief  writer  of  the  Pietists, 
M'as  his  protesting  against  this  strictness,  and  appealing  to  the 
spirit  of  the  Gospel  rather  than  to  the  bare  letter  of  formulze  and 
confessions.  The  author  just  quoted  speaks  of  Spener's  ven- 
turing to  omit  "assertions,  which  were  abused  by  fleshly  minded- 
ness  and  indolence,  but  to  the  letter  of  which  an  indiscriniinating 
orthodoxy  clung,"  such  as,  that  "  no  one  can  attain  to  the  per- 
fection which  the  divine  law  requires," — "  in  the  act  of  justifi- 
cation on  the  part  of  man,  faith  alone  is  concerned  without  good 
works," — and  of  his  refusing  to  "dwell  exclusively  on  favourite 
doctrines,"  instead  of  the  whole  of  Christianity. 

What  is  thus  instanced  as  regards  some  of  the  more  charac- 
teristic doctrines  of  Lutheranisni,  intruded  into  those  also  still 
more  sacred,  which,  for  the  most  part,  lay  beyond  its  attention. 
In  one  of  the  dialogues  of  Andrea,  the  theologist  of  the  day  is 
introduced  as  "  devising  fornuilse  that  he  may  for  the  future  be- 
lieve as  circumspectly  as  possible,"  — and  insisting  on  the  neces- 
sity of  knowing  "  the  mode  of  union  of  the  two  natures"  in 
Christ, — of  determining  whether  his  passion  '*  had  its  origin  in 
the  preceding  or  following  divine  will," — 'or  whether  "the  coun- 
sel of  God"  respecting  it,  "  in  the  order  of  causes,  preceded  or 
followed  the  Creation."* 

As  to  the  study  of  Scripture  at  the  same  period,  the  chief  sub- 
ject of  exposition  is  said  by  Schrockh  to  have  been  the  book  of 
Revelations,  and  that  principally  in  reference  to  the  Church  of 
Rome.  Except  in  this  instance,  exposition  was  almost  unknown. 
Scripture  being  used  rather  as  a  storehouse  of  texts,  to  be  adduced 
pro  re  nata  in  defence  of  the  Lutheran  dogmas,  than  studied  and 
interpreted  in  its  context  and  in  course.  "  Since  Luther  and 
Melanchthon,"  as  Planck  observes,t  "had  compelled  doctrinal 
theology  again  to  have  recourse  to  Scripture  alone,  or,  at  least, 
principally  for  its  truths,  it  should  have  been  the  first  object  to 
form  a  new  system  of  scriptural  interpretation."  But  the  actual 
effect  of  their  struggle  had  been  to  subject  Scripture  to  the  word 
of  man,  revelation  to  reason, — to  shred  the  inspired  message 
into  minute  portions,  and  to  apply  ihem  to  the  maintenance  of 
controversial  positions.  The  chief  use  of  the  great  river  of  divine 
truth  seemed  to  lie  in  its  feeding  the  canals  and  the  broken  cis- 
terns of  men.  "  Doctrinal  theology,"  continues  the  same  writer, 
"  permitted  polemical  theology  to  dictate  to  it  the  meaning  of 
Scripture, — found  in  each  passage,  which  this  deemed  useful,  a 
convincing  scriptural  proof,  and  thus  admitted  a  number  of  very 

*  Part.  2,  p.  173,  4,  t  Part  2,  p.  170. 

102  The  life  of 

auibli^uous  proofs,  which  were  yet  further  swelled  through  the  er- 
rors t^o  which  the  ease  of  bringing  such  proofs  together  soon  led 
Ihein,  namely,  of  laying  an  especial  value  on  the  number  ot  these 
proofs."*     Accordingly,  as  Spencr  tells  us,  many,  even  very  dili- 
gent students  of  theology,  M'ho  readily  followed  the  guidance  of 
Sieir  preceptors,  had   never  in  their  life  gone  through  a  single 
book  of  the  l)ible.     Franke  also  avers,  that  in  all  his  university 
years  he  did  not  hear  any  lecture  upon  Scripture.f     It  is  said  to 
be  one  only  out  of  many  instances,  that  at  Leipzig,  Carpzov,  af- 
ter completing  in  the  course  of  one  half  year  the  first  chapter  of 
Isaiah,  did  not  again  lecture  on  the  Bible  for  twenty  years,  while 
Oloarius  suspended  his  for  ten.    It  is  illustrative  of  the  character 
of  the  biblical  exposition   then  given,  that  Franke's  defence  of 
his  reading  theological  lectures,  when  it  was  objected  to,  lay  in 
this,  that   his  lectures  being  confined  to  practical   explanations, 
omitting  the  theological  controversies,  were  not  theological,  but 
l)hilological.    It  is  a  more  painful  fact,  that  in  Leipzig,  the  great 
mart  of  literature  as  well  as  of  trade,   at  one  time  in  no  book- 
seller's shop  was  either  Bible  or  Testament  to  be  found.     It  will 
be  observed,  that  in  this  ignorance  of  Scripture  we  are  speaking, 
not  of  the  laity,  but  their  teachers.    Catechising  of  the  young  was 
neglected,  equally  with  exposition  of  Scripture  in  the  case  of  the 
more  advanced.     Spener  speaks  of  its  being  considered,  in  his 
day,  ridiculous  to  maintain  its  value  as  co-ordinate  with  preach- 
ing ;  and  he  had  himself  to  encounter  derision  and  opposition  for 
attempting  it. 

These  traits  of  the  Lutheran  divinity  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury certainly  do  not  apply  to  what  has  been  called  the  orthodox 
party  among  ourselves.  VVhatever  be  its  characteristics,  it  cannot 
be  said  to  have  neglected  catechism  in  comparison  of  sermons,  or 
to  have  insisted  on  the  peculiar  doctrines  of  the  Reformation,  as 
oi' first  and  almost  exclusive  impurtance  in  the  circle  of  Christian 
truths,  or  to  have  chosen  one  or  two  favourite  doctrines  to  the  ex- 
clusion of  the  rest.  Nor  has  it  shown  any  tendency  to  limit  the 
knowledge  of  Scripture  to  the  use  of  a  few  texts  or  postages,  nor 
to  absorb  all  exposition  in  attempts  to  interpret  and  apply  to  the 
Roman  Church  the  sacred  mysteries  of  the  book  of  Revelation, 

The  following  points  of  character  still  less  belong  to  the  High 
Church.  "  It  was  inferred  by  Edgardi,"  says  Dr.  Pusey,  "  that 
since  Breitkaupt,  in  two  sermons  on  the  Lord's  Supper  from 
1  Cor.  X.  and  xi.,  had  not  refuted  the  Reformed  Churches,  he 
7nust  needs  hypocritically  hold  with  them.  The  Pietists  were  re- 
proached by  Loscher  for  neglecting  the  office  of  refutation.  In 
u  sermon  on  a  public  fast  day,  we  have  it  hinted  that  the 
♦  P.  145.  t  P.  148. 

Augustus  Herman  Franke.  103 

Pietistic  error  should  not  be  tolerated,  it  being  neither  hot 
nor  cold,  but  lukewarm — nay,  a  mixture  of  religions  ; — heretics 
they  do  not  refute,  but  rather  excuse  then,  the  usiis  elenchticas 
is  banished  from  their  pulpits."*  So  technical  and  sapless 
was  the  creed  of  this  era,  that  because  Spener  urged  practical 
Christianity,  he  had  to  defend  himself  against  the  charge  of 
preaching  mere  morality.  "  It  is,"  he  says,t  "  an  atterly  jdlse  im- 
putation on  the  parts  of  opponents,  that  loe  forget  faith,  and 
erect  only  the  moral  side  of  good  zoorks"  Elsewhere  he  retorts 
the  following  charge  upon  the  pseudo-orthodox.  "  I  have  often 
observed  in  many  well-disposed  persons,  and  some  have  even 
owned  to  me,  that  it  has  been  a  considerable  hindrance  to  them 
in  their  course, — that  they  constantly  heard  and  thought  of  this 
only,  hoio  that  lue  roere  poor  weak  men,  who  could  not  advance 
to  the  highest  point ;  they  consequently  became  indolent,  and  did 
not  set  decidedly  about  that  which  they  held  it  impossible  to  at- 
tain, and  began  to  think  that  they  might  remain  children  of  God, 
although  thty  did  not  apply  themselves  earnestly  to  good.''  And 
no  wonder;  for  in  the  received  system  the  simple  position,  "  good 
works  are  present  at  the  time  of  justification,"  was  at  times  thought 
sufficient  wholly  to  invalidate  the  orthodoxy  of  the  holder  ;  and  a 
professor  of  theology  objected  to  the  Pietists,  "  that  bi/  making 
holiness  of  life,  a  part  of'  the  essence  of  Christianitij,  they  min- 
gled it  up  with  the  covetiant  of  grace,  and  with  the  matter  of 
justification  and  salvation. "t  Among  the  283  errors  which  the 
University  of  Wittenberg  charged  upon  Spener's  writings,  one 
was  "  that  he  considered  a  holy  life  as  absolutely  necessary,"  as 
the  test  of  faith ;  another,  "  that  the  new  man  was  not  less  nou- 
rished by  the  bread  and  wine  in  the  Lord's  Supper  than  the  na- 
tural man  by  the  natural  bread  and  wine  ;"  and  another, ''that  the 
Lord's  Supper  was  the  chief  means  of  becoming' partakers  of 
the  divine  nature."  Consistently  with  these  notions,  it  seems  to 
have  been  considered,  that  such  doctrine  as  Spener's  was  fatal 
to  the  eternal  prospects  of  those  who  held  it.  Arndt,  who  in  the 
beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century  had  been  the  precursor  of  the 
Pietists,  and  whose  work  on  "  True  Christianity"  was  intended  to 
show  that  it  "  consists  in  the  manifestation  of  a  true,  living,  active 
faith,  in  genuine  piety  and  the  fruits  of  righteousness,"  was  ac- 
cused "  of  the  heresy  of  requiring  from  Christians  angelic  per- 
fection,  and  of  practising  alchemy,"  and  "  his  extensive  benevo- 
lence was  attributed  to  the  discovery  of  the  philosopher's  stone." 
"  The  clergy  of  Brunswick  issued  warnings  against  his  'poison."' 
L.  Osiander  pronounced  that  his  writings  could  not  be  read  bif 
the  ignorant  without  risk  of  salvation  ;  that  they  were  full  of  he- 

*  P.  200.  t  P.  209.  +  P.  298. 

104  T/te  Life  of 

ictirnl  pol-'^on,  and  pestilential;  that  lie  lias  blasphemed  against 
till-  IK)lv  Spiiil;  that  /w  used  expressions  hclojigiiig  to  the  mi/stics 
or  faiKiiics  of  an  earlier  period.  Calixtus,  who  liouiishctl  a  few 
veai\s  later,  ii  man,  accoiiliiig  to  Wcisman,  "  of  great  talent  and 
compreliensive  views,"  gave  great  offence  to  the  upiiolders  of  the 
degenerate  system  under  review  by  "  alloiving  to  the  fathers  of 
the  five  first  centuries  a  secondary  authority  in  fundamental  arlicles 
of  faith."*  "  This,"  continues  the  writer  of  whom  we  have 
ava'ilcd  ourselves  all  along,  "  which  in  no  respect  differed  from 
the  practice  of  all  Protestant  writers,  who  have  uniformly  referred 
to  the  agreement  of  the  early  fathers,  as  witnesses  of  the  primitive 
faith,  was  imputed  to  him  as  involving  the  Romanist  error  of  set- 
ting human  authority  co-ordinate  with  Scripture.f  Though  his 
office  as  teacher  of  theology  was  conferred  on  him  for  his  success 
in  controversy  with  a  Romanist,  and  though  by  one  of  them  he  is 
named  as  their  ablest  antagonist,  his  Lutheran  brethren  charged 
him  with  secretly  favouring  them."  Even  Mr.  Bickersteth's  pub- 
lication speaks  favourably  of  Calixtus,  as  commencing  that  move- 
ment which  issued  in  Pietism,  and  seeking  "  to  redirect  the  at- 
tention of  the  students  of  divinity  to  its  historical  department."^ 
Of  Arndt  also  it  speaks  as  one  of  the  "pious  and  learned  divines," 
w  ho  came  forward  to  "  provide  for  the  spiritual  necessities  of  the 
people  ;"  while  in  Spener,  as  might  be  expected,  it  declares  "  the 
new  epoch  of  evangelical  vitality  began."  Far  different  was  the 
reception  which  these  individuals  met  with  from  the  religionists  of 
their  day,  loud  clamourers  as  the  latter  were  in  praise  of  the  Re- 
formation, and  idolators  of  the  dicta  of  Luther.  Professor  Pecht, 
a  learned  theologian  of  the  age,  justified  the  refusal  of  the  title  of 
"  beatus"  or  "  der  selige,"'^  "  of  blessed  memory,"  to  Spener, 
(though  he  asserted  it  was  applicable  even  to  Lutherans,  who 
had  led  notoriously  irreligious  lives,  and  on  their  death-beds  had 
not  given  the  slightest  indication  of  repentance,)  because  Spener 
had  not  revoked  his  many  grievous  errors,  or  repented  of  the  con- 
fusions he  had  caused  in  the  Church.  And  Calov,  ui  like  manner, 
denied  it  might  be  given  to  Calixtus,  on  the  ground,  that  if  so, 
we  must  in  consistency  say  Beatus  Bellarminus,  B.  Calvinus,  and 
B.  Socinus. 

We  are  far  from  supposing  that  Mr.  Bickersteth  would  not  de- 
nounce and  condemn  formalism  wherever  it  is  to  be  found.  He 
is  too  candid,  too  reasonable,  too  experienced,  not  to  know  and 
allow  that  it  can  exist  under  the  strictest  profession  of  Calvinism, 
Lutlieranism,  or  of  any  still  more  spiritual  religion.  We  have 
drawn  out  the  above  account  of  the  Lutheranism  of  I6OO — 1700 
by  no  means  as  a  reductio  ad  absurdum  against  him,  as  if  he  were 
•  Part  1,  p.  59.  t  Ibid.  $  P.  2,  3.  §  P.  164, 

Augustus  Herman  Fiankt.  105 

himself  advocating  a  creed  which  in  other  cases  had  become  for- 
mal and  technical.  He  would  admit  that  every  creed  might  so 
become.  Nay,  perhaps  he  would  object  in  toto  to  creeds  being 
made  the  essence  of  religion,  when  they  were  but  the  accidental 
development  of  it.  He  would  say  with  the  Reformers,  that  the 
heart  and  the  spirit  were  everything;  that  they  naturaili/  developed 
in  a  certain  outward  form,  but  that  the  existence  of  that  fornj, 
however  accurate,  was  no  voucher  or  safeguard  of  the  inward 
principle.  How  far  we  agree  with  him  in  this,  and  where  we 
begin  to  differ,  is  not  now  the  question  ;  but  this  he  would  cer- 
tainly say.  He  would  say,  that  if  our  orthodoxy  in  England  has 
been,  or  is,  technical  or  formal,  it  matters  not  of  what  nature  it 
IS,  and  that,  though  it  be  formalism  on  Laud's  or  on  Tillotson's 
basis,  the  formalism  of  bigots  or  of  latitudinarians,  it  may  be 
viewed  as  in  a  type  in  the  formalism  of  Lutheranism  in  the  se- 
venteenth century.  We  admit  all  this  ;  and,  as  admitting  it,  have 
had  a  different  purpose  in  the  above  account  of  Lutheranism, — a 
purpose  which  the  reader  may  have  discerned.  We  would  main-| 
tani,  not  that  what  is  familiarly  (but  improperly)  called  at  this  day/ 
evangelical  religion  7nay  become  technical,  but  that,  in  a  greatj 
measure,  it  has  so  become  ;  that,  whether  or  not,  the  Higii  Churchl 
system  has  ever  fallen  into  the  type  of  Lutheran  formalism,  Mr.l 
Bickersteth's  own  particular  creed  is  fast  running  into  formalism! 
in  Great  Britain  at  the  present  moment.  « 

This  day,  indeed,  has  far  too  much  of  kindly  and  polite  feeling 
to  imitate  the  excesses  of  the  Lutherans  in  Calixtus'  and  Spener's 
age,  to  scatter  about  curses  in  open  words,  to  persecute  the  body, 
or  to  exhibit  the  grosser  forms  of  technicality  and  superstition. 
The  same  causes  which  hinder  the  development  of  Romanism  in 
image  worship,  restrain  the  energies  of  Ultra- Protestantism  also; 
yet,  if  we  make  due  allowance  for  the  influence  of  the  resisting 
medium,  we  shall  be  able  to  detect  in  the  LTltra-Protestantism  of 
our  own  Church  many  signs  of  the  bigotry  and  narrow  pedantry 
of  that  continental  theology,  which  equally  prided  itself  in  the 
name,  and  thought  it  understood  the  principles  of  Luther. 

We  cannot  help  giving  these  titles  to  some  of  Mr.  Bickersteth's 
own  well-meant  efforts  to  purify  (as  he  considers  it)  the  publications 
of  the  Society  for  promoting  Christian  Knowledge.  In  his  little 
book  against  Popery,  which,  as  Mr.  Barter  truly  observes,  seems 
really  levelled  against  those  publications  and  the  views  they  em- 
body, he  objects  (p.  27,  note)  to  it  being  said  that  "  a  life  of  ever- 
lasting happiness  after  death"  is  to  be  "expected"  upon  the  "con- 
ditions" of  "  doing  those  things  which  our  godfathers  and  god- 
mothers promise  for  us  in  baptism."    He  says,  "  Here  everlasting 

106  The  Life  of 

liapp'mcss  is  iiiado  to  dcpciut  on  the  righteousness  of  the  sinner, 
anil  not  on  the  righteousness  of  Christ ;  it  is  no  longer  the  gift  of 
eternal  life  to  us  in  Christ  Jesus:"  antl  this  he  maintains,  though 
sliortly  after,  as  he  (|uotes,  the  same  work  from  which  this  is  an 
extract  declares  that  **  the  performance  of  these  conditions,"  the 
serviu"-  and  obeying  God,  and  living  according  to  the  Gospel  of 
Christ^,  will  not  ''  obtain  eternal  life"  on  account  of"  the  doer's" 
own  deserts,  but  for  the  sake  and  tiirough  the  merits  of  Jesus 
Christ.  He  argues  as  if,  because  Cinist  is  the  meritorious  cause  of 
eternal  life,  there  can  be  no  other  cause  of  it  at  all,  or,  at  least,  that 
the  individual  receiving  it  cannot  be  in  any  sense  a  party  in  the  even- 
tual acquisition  of  it;  as  if  the  righteousness — not  "of  the  sinner,"  as 
he  words  it, but  of  the  regenerate,  and  that  not  his  own, but  wrought 
ill  him  bi/  the  grace  of  Christ,  cannot  be  made,  not  a  meritorious 
j)rice,  but  a  necessary  condition  of  eternal  life,  without  excluding 
the  glory  of  that  grace.  "  Thus  the  glory  of  the  Gospel,"  he 
says,  "  free  salvation,  is  shut  out,  and  the  true  place  of  good  works, 
as  the  fruit  of  faith  through  the  Spirit,  and  real  holiness,  as  flow- 
ing from  the  belief  of  God's  love  in  Christ  and  our  union  with 
him,  are  wholly  unknown  and  undescribed.  It  is  the  law,  and  not 
the  Gospel  ;  and  though  '  for  the  merits  of  Christ'  is  added,  it  is 
still  in  reality  '  do  this  and  live.'  O  miserable  exposition  of  the 
Protestant  faith,  teaching  all  our  scholars  the  very  elements  of 
Popery,  &c. !"  Now,  is  not  this  something  like  the  Lutheran 
divines,  who  accused  the  Pietists  of"  forgetting  faith"  and  "  preach- 
ing mere  morality"  because  they  urged  practical  Christianity  ? 
Has  not  the  Gospel  two  sides  ?  Is  there  not  both  an  efficient 
cause  of  salvation  and  a  sine  qua  non — a  positive  and  a  negative 
requisite,  God's  part  and  our  part  ?  Is  it  not  true  that  we  are 
saved  through  Christ,  yet  true  also  that  we  are  saved  not  without 
our  own  exertions .'  Must  we  be  excluding  ihe  former  of  the  two 
because  we  mention  both  the  former  and  latter  ?  It  is  bad  enough 
to  be  accused,  as  the  Pietigts  were,  of  denying  faith,  because  they 
were  not  led  to  mention  it ;  but  it  is  worse  fortune  still  to  be 
considered  to  deny  it  merely  for  mentioning  works  also.  Mr." 
Bickersteth  will  not  allow  works  to  be  directly  preached  at  all. 
They  may  just  be  hinted  at,  as  virtually  existing  in  faith,  but  as! 
cautiously  and  briefly  as  possible,  as  if  it  were  a  dangerous  secret,/^ 
scarcely  safe  to  breathe, — as  if,  though  the  mother  were  fruitful,!  ''i4 
the  birth  was  sure  to  be  fatal,  or  the  offspring  unnatural,  andj 
destined  to  be  a  matricide.  According  to  him,  to  mention  works^ 
is  to  deny  faith,  even  though  in  the  same  sentence  one  enforces  it. 
Surely  this  is  technical,  and  unlike  the  largeness  of  the  Apostlesj 
St.  James  and  St.  John,  not  to  say  St.  Paul,  do  not  thus  fetter 
and  formalise  the  free  spirit  of  the  Gospel. 


Augustus  Herman  Frarikt.  107 

Soon  after  he  takes  notice  of  the  following  sentences,  in  the 
same  work  from  which  the  foresoing  are  taken.     "  Think  on  the 
acconnt  thou  must  give  hereafter,  and  thou  wilt  never  do  amiss,' 
**  O  grant  that  when  I  depart  hence,  to  appear  before  thee,  in 
the  other  world,   I  may  give  a  good  account  of  myself,  and  be 
received  into   thy  favour  and  the  kingdom  of  heaven,   through 
Jesus  Christ  our  Lord."     On  these  he  observes,  "  a  mind  at  all 
enlightened  by  the  truth,  brought  home  to  his  heart  by  the  spirit 
of  God,  will  be  deeply  pained  by  such  exhibitions  of  human  selj- 
sufficienci/  and  self-righteousness/'  as  if  he  would  say.  This  is  a  case 
in  which  there  is  no  need  of  reasoning,  in  which  reasoning  will 
be  of  no  service,  where  the  defect  is  at  once  perceived  by  the 
spiritual  mind  without  analyzing  it  logically,  and  where  an  analy- 
sis,  however  correct,   would  not  persuade   those  who   are  not 
spiritual.     There  are  such  cases  doubtless;  the  perplexity  and 
mistakes  of  persons  who  have  not  in  their  minds  the  principle  of 
a  certain  science,  taste,  or  character,  their  hopeless  struggles  to 
be  correct,  their  failures  where  they  thought  to  be  most  correct, 
their  infringing  upon  words  and  phrases  which  those  who  have 
the  principle  in  them  reject  as  alien,  and  which  at  once  detect 
them  as  pretenders,  and  their  complaints,  in  consequence,  against 
the  particular  science  in  question,  are  technical,  unintelligible, 
and  absurd;  all  this  may  happen  and  the  science  not  be  to  blame. 
Doubtless ;  let  us  grant  to  the  full  that  spiritual-mindedness,  as  it  is 
called,  may  be   such  as  to  develop  itself  only  in  certain  peculiar 
and  recondite   phrases,  and  this,  moreover,  with  what   appears 
caprice  and  fantastic  nicety  to  those  who  are  not  spiritual.     Let 
us  grant  it;  but  then  how  comes  it  that  the  Apostles  are  not 
possessed  of  this  delicate  sensibility?     How  is  it  that  St.  John 
or  St.  Peter  do  not  shrink  from  phrases  in  which  Mr.  Bickersteth 
would  scent  death  ever  so  far  off  ?     But  it  is  too  serious  a  matter 
merely  to  view  in  that  character   of  strangeness  which    really 
attaches  to  it.     It  is  most  serious  and  painful  to  think,  that  did 
such  a  thinker  as  Mr.  Bickersteth  meet  by  chance  the  following 
words,  not  knowing  whence  they  came,  "  By  works  a  man  is 
justified,  and  not  by    faith    only;"  "  Blessed   are  they  who  do 
his  commandments,  that  they  may  have  right  to  the  tree  of  life  ;" 
or  "  Work  out  your  own  salvation,  for  God  worketh  in  you;" — he 
would  not  argue  about  them,  nor  go  to  jyrove  they  were  wrong. 
No — he  would  quietly  put   them  aside;  he  would  calmly  and 
silently  disallow  them,  without  discussion,  without  effort,  without 
misgiving,  confiding  in  the  inward  feeling  of  his  mind  that  they 
were  unspiritual ;  he  would  trust  in  his  own  heart  against  those 
who  knocked  there,  thus  rejecting  angels  unawares.     He  would 
know  and/ee/himself  to  be  superior  to  them;  to  have  that  which 

108  Tlie  Life  of 

tluv  liad  nol;  to  have  a  gift  within;  and  he  would,  in  liis  own 
words,  "  be  dccp/i/  pained  by  siicli  exhibitions  of  human  selfsufti- 
ciencv  and  .self-righteousness :"^ — and  all  this  without  arrogating 
any  "reat  spirituality  or  faith  to  himself, — no,  though  he  thought 
himself  the  lowest  of  the  low,  the  weakest  and  feeblest  saint  that 
walks  the  earth,  (and  we  have  no  wish  or  thought  of  saying  that 
he  considers  himself  higher  than  the  lowest  and  weakest;)  but  pro- 
vided he  did  but  think  he  was  in  God's  favour  at  all,  thus  must  he 
judge  of  those  Apostles,  thus  he  could  not  but  judge,  for  as  if  to 
allow  himself  no  loop-hole,  he  speaks  expressly  of  "  a  mind  at  ad 
enlightened  by  the  truth,  brought  home  to  his  heart  by  the  spirit 
of  God."     Alas !  we  have  no  wish  at  all,  we  say  it  sincerely  and 
sorrowfully,   to  impute  any  thing  wrong  or   sinful  to  Mr.  Bick- 
ersteth  personally.    No,  it  is  his  creed;  it  is  his  technical,  arrogant, 
boastful  creed — which,  equally  with  that  of  the   degenerate  Lu- 
therans of  Germany,  relies  on  itself  that  it  is  right,  and  despises 
1  others,  and   is   scrupulous  about   mint,  anise  and  cummin,  and 
I  tyrannizes  over  that  great  gift  of  God,  speech  and  utterance,  load- 
{  ing  it  by  fetters,  and   subjecting  it  to  rules  which  God  has  no 
where  imposed,  not  in   Scripture,  not  by  antiquity,  not  by  the 
Church;  nay,  rules  which,  as  is  undeniable,  would  convict  the 
w  hole  college  of  apostles  of  heresy  and  spiritual  blindness,  and 
that,  all  upon  the  secret  confidence  of  the  individual's  heart  that 
he  knows,  as  if  infallibly,  the  savour  of  true  and  untrue  statements 
_of  Christian  doctrine. 

One  or  two  instances  of  formalism,  such  as  the  above,  are 
more  than  enough  to  convey  our  meaning  to  readers  of  this  day, 
who  will  see  others  in  abundance  before  their  eyes,  without  the 
trouble  of  looking  out  for  them.  Another  age,  indeed,  might 
not  understand  or  believe  what  the  real  state  of  the  case  is  with- 
out a  thousand  We  have  certainly  been  viewing  the  ultra-Protes- 
;  tantism  now  current  in  the  most  favourable  light,  in  taking  a  man 
(like  ISIr.  Bickersteth  for  our  specimen  of  its  religious  fruits;  a 
man  of  kindly  and  amiable  feelings  and  candid  mind,  and  conci- 
liatory bearing;  who,  we  are  persuaded,  thinks  as  charitably  of 
others,  and  approaches  as  nearly  to  them  as  his  creed  allows  him. 
We  have  viewed  it  to  the  greatest  advantage,  in  assigning  as  the 
explanation  of  its  pedantry  and  technicality,  that  it  considers 
words  as  developments  of  a  certain  internal  spirit  or  temper,  which 
is  itself  one,  definite,  and  discriminating.  This  is  to  view  it  as 
coinciding  in  theory  with  Luther  or  Spener,  in  maintaining  the 
practical  infallibility  of  the  regenerate  mind,  in  its  judgments 
between  truth  and  falsehood;  whereas,  in  truth,  the  great  mass 
of  ultra-Protestants  are  fast  sinking  into  that  unmeaning  and 
superstitious  adherence  to  words  and  phrases  which  characterised 

Augustus  Herman  Franke.  109 

the  successors  of  each  of  tliose  reformers.  Indeed  the  fantastic 
and  strange  distinctions  between  word  and  word,  phrase  and 
phrase,  and  the  portentous  judgments  passed  on  individuals,  in 
consequence  of  their  nse  of  them,  in  what  is  improperly  called 
the  religious  world,  rival  in  their  own  line,  any  the  most  extrava- 
gant codes  of  honour,  usages  of  chivalry,  or  absurdities  of  fashion, 
which  the  world  of  arms  or  the  gay  world  has  ever  sanctioned. 
The  Norman  baron's  punctiliousness,  when„  in  consequence  of  an 
idle  word  of  promise,  he  sallied  out  of  his  strong-hold  to  be 
slaughtered  by  an  overpowering  enemy,  or  the  pilgrimage  of 
high-born  knight  or  lady  to  the  Holy  Land,  whatever  may  be  im- 
puted to  it  on  the  score  of  good  sense,  is  abundantly  compensated 
by  the  seriousness  of  purpose,  the  courage  and  the  suffering  therein 
manifested.  But  there  is  nothing  great  in  "  strifes  of  words," 
arbitrary  definitions,  and  subtle  distinctions.  There  is  nothing 
in  nature  to  ennoble,  or  in  reason  to  defend,  or  in  Scripture  to  i 
hallow,  or  in  antiquity  to  reconmiend,  nor  in  Church  authority 
to  enforce,  the  miserable  squabbles  about  the  miserable  subtleties 
which  choke  up  the  thoughts,  and  hinder  the  religious  advance- 
ment of  this  Christian  people; — we  say  it  deliberately,  which 
hinder  our  advancement  in  religious  truth  and  obedience.  Spener 
complained  that  in  his  age  men  heard  they  were  ^'  poor  weak  men, 
who  could  not  advance  to  the  highest  point,"  and  became  in  con- 
sequence indolent,  and  "  did  not  set  decidedly  about  that  which 
they  held  it  impossible  to  attain;"  and  surely  a  similar  complaint 
lies  against  the  popular  system  of  our  own  times.  Men  have 
contrived  to  block  up  the  way  to  higher  excellence,  by  forbidding 
it  to  be  preached.  So  it  is,  a  Christian  minister  cannot  find 
words  to  enforce  it,  which  are  unexceptionable  to  ultra-Protest- 
ants. All  the  words  of  the  language,  by  which  he  might  enforce  it,  ( 
are  forbidden,  bought  up,  forfeited,  as  damaged  or  unlawful.  Ifj 
he  says,  "Workout  your  own  salvation,"  he  is  self-righteous.  1 
If  he  says,  "  God  will  render  to  you  according  to  your  works,"  he  j 
is  legal.  If  he  says,  "  Have  respect  unto  the  recompence  of  the 
reward,"  he  has  fallen  from  grace.  If  he  enlarges  on  the  beauty 
of  moral  excellence,  he  is  heathen.  If  he  enters  into  those  de- 
tails, which  are  the  very  life,  the  sole  conceivable  channel  of  obe- 
dience, he  is  forgetting  Christ.  He  is  forbidden  to  speak  of 
"  gaining  God's  favour,"  of  "  receiving  a  reward,"  of  "  securing 
his  love,"  of  "  observing  the  conditions  of  salvation,"  nay,  of 
"  acceptance  by  faith."  The  vision  of  the  saints  of  God,  as  an 
angelic  creation,  as  great,  and  noble,  and  supernatural,  is  con- 
sidered a  mere  earthly  dream,  is  gravely  censured  as  the  idle 
romance,  the  carnal  poetry,  of  minds  who  never  tasted  the  truth 
of  the  Gospel.     Two  or  three  phrases  comprehend  the  whole  of 


110  The  Life  of 

reliffion.  If  a  man  lias  not  learned  the  due  use  of  them,  it  is  as 
if  he  "  had  not  charity,"  he  is  "  nothing;"  if  he  has  them  well  by 
heart  ho  may  do  any  thing.  One  cannot  specify  them  without 
usin<'  sacred  words  in  a  like  irreverent  way  with  the  persons  we  are 
censuring;  the  reader  therefore  must  supply  for  himself  instances, 
which  indeed  will  readily  occur  to  him.  There  is  no  doubt  at 
all  that  Spener's  and  Franke's  language  would  have  subjected 
them  to  the  suspicion  of  our  ultra-Protestants,  in  spite  of  those 
points  in  which  they  really  resemble  them,  such  as  their  unsettling 
tliino-s  established.  They  were  called  Romanists  in  their  day; 
they  would  be  called  Romanists  now.  If  men  so  candid  as  Mr. 
Bickersteth  can  detect  in  Mr.  Grossman's  or  in  Bishop  Wilson's 
lan<^uage  a  latent  Popery,  surely  others  less  considerate  may 
account  Franke  or  Spener  hopelessly  dark  or  dangerously  incon- 
sistent. What  indeed  could  Spener  be  in  the  judgment  of  such 
reli<yionists  but  very  ignorant  of  the  truth,  when  he  declined  say- 
in"-,  that  "in  the  act  of  justification,  faith  alone  is  concerned  on 
our  part  without  good  works?"  As  to  Franke,  the  work  which 
heads  our  present  article  contains  sufficient  grounds  for  suspicion 
and  exception,  unless  the  spirit  of  ultra- Protestantism  shows 
towards  him  most  unusual  indulgence.  The  following  passage 
might  be  taken  for  the  words  of  a  Romanist,  had  not  Mr.  Bick- 
ersteth  put  his  iinprimatur  upon  it;  there  is  nothing  in  it  of  faith, 
I  of  human  corruption,  of  Christ,  or  of  the  warfare  of  flesh  and 
I  spirit.  It  is  upon  love;  and  the  tone  is  exactly  that  of  a  Roman 
I  writer. 

"  '  Love  to  God  is  a  thing  which  a  person  must  himself  taste  and 
experience  in  his  heart,  in  order  rightly  to  know  what  it  is.  Hence, 
although  one  may  describe  to  a  person,  what  love  to  God  is — yet  he  can- 
not duly  and  salutarily  understand  it  as  he  oughtj  unless  his  heart  be 
really  wjiamed  •with  love  to  God.' 

"  But  perhaps  you  thfnk,  '  Can  you  then  give  us  no  description  what- 
ever of  that  love,  with  which  we  ought  to  love  God  V  I  answer,  'Yes; 
some  description  may  be  given  of  it ;  but  experience  is  requisite  duly  to 
understand  the  description.  When  I  tell  you  that  love  to  God  is  that 
real  angelic  sxveetiiess,  which  entirely  fills  the  heart,  you  cannot  under- 
stand ine,  till  God  gives  you  to  taste  a  drop  of  this  sweetness ;  but  if  you 
had  only  tasted  a  single  drop  of  it,  your  eyes  would  become  as  bright  and 
clear  as  those  of  Jonathan,  (1  Sam.  xiv.  2;)  so  that  you  would  see  and 
know  what  love  to  God  is. 

"  '  This  love  to  God  is  a  fruit  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  by  which  we  regard 
God  as  our  supreme  good,  feel  a  cordial  desire  after  him,  seek  our  joy 
and  sole  delight  in  him,  endeavour  to  please  him  alone,  and  long  to  be 
viore  intimately  united  with  him,  and  cleave  continually  to  him,  that  we 
may  become,  as  it  were,  one  heart  and  soul,  and  as  the  Scriptures  express 
it,  one  spirit  with  him.' 

Augustus  Herman  Franke,  Hi 

"  See,  my  dear  children,  that  you  have  tiojv  such  a  description  of  it, 
as  is  suitable  for  the  present  Hfej  for  in  heaven — if  you  abide  in  Christ 
and  thus  attain  to  it — no  description  will  be  requisite.  Duly  consider 
this  description  of  it,  and  you  will  perceive  what  an  extremely  excellent 
thing  love  to  God  is;  yes,  you  will  then  at  the  same  time  understand 
how  very  different  it  is  from  the  love  of  self  and  the  world." — pp.  189, 

After  this,  he  proceeds  to  speak  of  our  Saviour's  merits ;  but 
this  is  no  excuse  in  ultra- Protestant  eye,".,  for  his  not  having  ex- 
pressly mentioned  that  most  sacred  subject  before;  and  after  all, 
he  says  not  u  word  about  faith;  but  proceeds,  instead,  in  the 
passage  which  follows,  to  speak  again  of  "  the  Holy  Spirit's 
peculiar  work,  to  shed  abroad  the  love  of  God  in  the  heart;"  the 
very  text  which  is  the  main  stay  of  Romanism. 

Or  take  again  the  following  passage  of  Franke's  from  Mr. 
Bickersteth's  Appendix: — 

"  What  more  could  be  possibly  desired,  O  my  soul,  which  thou  mayest 
not  find  in  this  love?  That  the  Son  of  God  should  be  thy  Creator, 
should  be  thy  life,  thy  light,  which  illuminates  thee;  that  commands  his 
word  to  be  revealed  to  thee  by  the  prophets  and  apostles,  as  a  testimony 
of  himself,  the  true  light ;  that  the  angels  themselves  should  bring  thee 
glad  tidings,  and  rejoice  to  minister  unto  thee ;  that  thou  shouldst  be- 
come a  true  believer,  obtain  pardon  for  thy  sins,  and  be  again  born  of 
God,  and  from  the  fulness  of  his  grace  and  truth,  such  in  all  divine 
riches  :  that  he  hath  brought  forth  to  thee  the  know^ledge  of  God  from 
the  bosom  of  his  heavenly  Father,  from  the  inmost  and  most  secret 
divinity ;  that  he  hath,  as  the  true  Immanuel,  led  thee  into  communion 
with  God;  that  thou  being  baptized  in  the  name  of  the  Holy  Trinity, 
admitted  into  an  eternal  covenant  with  God,  shouldst  be  anointed  with 
the  Holy  Spirit,  and  illuminated  with  his  gifts,  be  sanctified,  and  by 
him  preserved  in  the  true  faith,  and  be  powerfully  strengthened  in  all 
conflicts  against  sin,  the  world,  death,  the  devil,  and  hell;  that  nothing 
should  ever  be  able  to  withdraw  and  separate  thee  from  the  love  of  him ; 
nay,  '  That  thou  art  come  unto  Mount  Sion,  and  unto  the  city  of  the 
living  God,  the  heavenly  Jerusalem,  and  to  an  innumerable  company  of 
angels ;  to  the  general  assembly,  and  church  of  the  first-born,  which  arc 
written  in  heaven,  and  to  God  the  judge  of  all,  and  to  the  spirits  of  just 
men  made  perfect,  and  to  Jesus  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant,  and 
to  the  blood  of  sprinkling,  that  speaketh  better  things  than  that  of  Abel,' 
(Heb.  xii.  22 — 24.)  That  thou  mayest  obtain  all  these  felicities,  here 
indeed  by  faith,  and  a  comfortable  foretaste;  hereafter,  by  a  most  per- 
fect intuition,  and  everlasting  glory :  and  when  Christ  thy  life  shall  be 
made  manifest,  thou  also  mayest  be  manifested  with  him  in  glory.  I  say, 
all  these  things,  and  whatsoever  else  can  be  entitled  to  the  name  of  sal- 
vation and  blessedness,  thou  entirely  owest  to  this  infinite  love,  which 
manifested  itself  to  the  world  in  this,  that  the  Son  of  God  himself  be- 
came the  Saviour  of  men,  in  such  a  manner,  that  he  was  made  man  ;  and 
his  most  exalted  Majesty  dwelt  in  flesh,  as  in  his  temple,  among  mortals : 

lie  The  Life  of 

of  which  St.  John  says,  *  He  dwelt  among  us,  and  we  beheld  his  glory, 
the  glory  as  of  the  only  begotten  of  the  Father,  full  of  grace  and  truth.'  " 
— p|).  *_\S  I,  'JS:,. 

This  is  not  ultra-Protcstant,  but  rich  and  glowing  Catholic 
lan«aia'>o,  as  far  as  it  goes.  Of  this  our  amiable  editor  seems 
soniewiiat  sensible,  and,  accordingly,  in  his  preface  says — 
"  There  is  much  that  is  very  instructive  in  the  account  of  his  conversion, 
and  in  tlic  description  which  he  gives  of  that  faith  by  which  he  was  led  to 
the  knowledge  and  enjoyment  of  the  true  and  living  God;  and  the  editor 
hopes  tliat  the  reader  may  find  real  help  from  this  statement  of  Franke's 
spiritual  experience.  .  .  .  It  might  have  been  well  to  have  opened  more  the 
t>tru2.iile  between  our  fallen  nature  and  divine  grace,  which,  it  is  very 
clear  from  his  own  confession,  Franke  deeply  felt,  lest  any  should  think 
too  highly  of  a  man  whom  God  so  greatly  honoured  with  extended  use- 
fulness, and  either  be  led  to  despair  or  to  glory  in  man," — pp.  iv.  v. 

Still  dwelling  on  the  sin  and  misery  of  our  unrenewed  nature! 
still  anxiously  turning  to  the  corruption  and  odiousness  of  the 
tlesli,  and  refusing  to  contemplate  the  work  of  the  Spirit,  lest 
grace  should  fail  of  being  exalted,  lest  glory  should  be  given  to 
man,  lest  Christ's  work  should  be  eclipsed !  What  a  strange  and 
capricious  taste,  to  linger  in  the  tomb,  to  sit  down  with  Job 
among  the  ashes,  by  way  of  knowing  him  who  has  called  us  to 
light,  to  liberty,  to  perfection  !  How  eccentric  and  how  incon- 
sequent,— how  like,  (unless  sometimes  seen  in  serious  and  well- 
judging  men,)  how  like  an  aberration,  to  argue  that  to  extol  the 
work  of  the  Spirit,  must  be  to  obscure  the  grace  of  Christ  ?  Yet 
this  is  firmly  held, — held  as  if  in  the  spirit  of  confessors  and 
martyrs, — held,  mordicns,  as  a  vital,  sovereign,  glorious,  transport- 
ing truth,  by  the  dominant  ultra-Protestantism.  Regenerate 
man  must,  to  the  day  of  his  death,  have  in  him  nothing  better 
than  man  unregenerate..  In  spite  of  the  influences  of  grace, 
there  must  be  nothing  in  him  to  admire,  nothing  to  kindle  the 
beholder,  nothing  to  gaze  upon,  dwell  on,  or  love,  lest  we  glory 
I  in  man.  Grace  must  do  nothing  in  him,  or  it  is  not  duly  up- 
held. The  triumph  of  grace  is  to  act  entirely  externally  to  him, 
not  in  him.  To  save  and  sanctify  is  not  so  great  a  work  as  to 
save  and  leave  sinful.  There  must  be  nothing  saintly,  nothing 
super-human,  nothing  angelic  in  man  regenerate,  because  man 
unregenerate  is  the  child  and  slave  of  evil.  Sin  must  be  his  sole 
characteristic,  his  sole  theme,  his  sole  experience ;  or,  as  Mr. 
Bickersteth  words  it,  "  the  struggle  between  fallen  nature  and 
divine  grace"  must  be  "  opened,''  that  is,  like  "  wounds,  bruises, 
and  putrifying  sores,"  as  the  most  acceptable  sacrifice,  the  no- 
blest, pleasantest,  fittest  return  to  God  for  the  great  gift  of  rege- 
neration.     raith  is  to  be  made  everything,  as  being  the  symbol 

Augustus  Hermati  Fra?ike.  113 

and  expression  of  this  negative  or  degraded  state ;  and  charity, 
which  is  the  fulfilling  of  the  law,  the  end  of  the  commandment, 
and  the  greatest  of  Christian  graces,  must  not  be  directly  contem- 
plated or  enforced  at  all,  lest  it  be  thereby  implied  that  the 
Christian  can  be  better  with  grace  than  he  is  without  it.  Suchj 
is  supposed  to  be,  xar'  e^o^iiv,  spiritual  religion,  the  religion  in 
which  the  Spirit  is  supposed  to  do  little  or  nothing  for  us.  I 

Here  we  shall  part  with  Mr.  Bickersteth,  whom  we  heartily 
wish  we  could  agree  with  better  than  v.e  do.  It  may  be  well, 
however,  before  parting  with  the  subject  he  has  introduced  to  our 
notice,  briefly  to  obviate  a  misconception  which  may  arise  of  what 
has  been  above  said  on  the  subject  of  dogmas.  A  dogma,  in  the 
objectionable  sense  of  the  word,  is  a  doctrinal  statement  of  man's 
making,  imposed  by  man's  authority  as  necessary  to  salvation. 
Such  are  not  those  statements  of  doctrine  which  we  hold  by  the 
right  of  private  judgment,  without  enforcing  them  upon  others; 
as,  for  instance,  the  doctrine  of  justification  by  faith  only,  which, 
though  true,  is  a  human  deduction  from  Scripture,  and  is  not 
made  a  condition  of  church-membership  among  ourselves.  On 
the  other  hand,  neither  are  those  in  any  respect  dogmas,  which, 
though  imposed,  have  a  divine  origin,  for  this  is  a  sufficient  rea- 
son or  call  for  such  imposition.  Such,  for  instance,  are  the 
catholic  doctrines  of  the  Trinity  and  the  Incarnation,  which  can 
be  proved  to  come  from  God,  as  stated  in  the  creeds,  in  the  same 
sense  in  which  the  Gospels  are  proved  to  come  from  God.  Nei- 
ther then  human  statements,  if  private,  nor  enforced  statements, 
if  divine,  are  dogmas  in  an  objectionable  sense ;  but  a  dogma  is 
a  human  doctrine  enforced,  such  as  the  doctrine  of  purgatory  as 
enforced  by  the  Roman,  or  consubstantiation  as  enforced  by  the 
Lutherans  of  I6OO,  or  justification  by  faith  only  as  enforced  by 
the  ultra-Protestants,  or  the  millenium  as  enforced  by  one  party 
in  the  present  religious  world,  or  personal  assurance  by  another. 
Nothing  then  that  has  been  above  said  about  the  dogmatism  of 
Germany  interferes  at  all  with  the  due  strictness  incumbent  on  us 
in  maintaining  the  Catholic  Faith.  It  is  when  men,  rejecting  their 
Divine  Master,  make  themselves  the  servants  of  men — when  they 
will  not  have  "  the  Lord  for  their  King,"  and  fall  under  the 
Philistines — when  they  supersede  or  encumber  the  true  creed 
with  their  self-devised  additions — when  they  hide  the  atonement 
with  purgatory  and  pardons,  or  the  incarnation  with  justification 
by  faith  only,  then  they  become  dogmatical.  We,  of  the  English 
Church,  hold  justification  by  faith  only;  we  do  not  hold  purga- 
tory; but  we  neither  anathematize  those  who  do  hold  purgatory, 
nor  those  who  do  not  hold  justification  by  faith.     Thus  we  dififer 

No.xLiir. — JULY,  1837.         i 

1 14  The  Life  of 

wiilcly  from  the  stiff  oitliodoxisni  of  Germany,  and  the  present 
Low  Church  school  among  us  approaches  towards  it,  inasmuch 
as  we  arc  not  dogmatists,  and  our  Low  Church  brethren  are. 

We  say  the  same  of  ordinances.  It  is  a  bigoted  and  schisma- 
tical  spirit  which  enforces  them  for  their  own  sake,  on  human 
authority.  Such  as  are  of  human  origin  may  be  adopted  by  par- 
licuhir  Churches  at  their  discretion,  but  not  imposed  upon  other 
Churches;  but  over  those  ordinances  which  come  from  Christ  and 
His  Apostles,  we  have  no  power,  either  to  alter  or  dispense  with 
tlicm.  We  are  obliged  to  keep  and  to  impose  them.  Hence  we 
mifht  change  our  postures  in  devotion,  the  ministerial  vestments, 
our  saints' days,  our  times  and  forms  of  prayer;  or  again,  the 
constitution  of  our  chapters  or  schools  ;  and  ought  to  bear  with 
differences  as  to  these  points  in  other  Churches.  We  may  not 
dispense  with  the  sacraments,  or  the  ministerial  succession,  or  the 
sacramentals,  or  social  worship,  or  the  Lord's  day,  or  the  visible 

One  word,  before  concluding,  as  to  the  author  and  the  trans- 
lator of  the  work  which  has  been  under  review.  The  author 
was,  when  his  work  appeared  (1827),  a  very  young,  but  able 
man,  (probably  about  twenty-one,)  and  he  has  since  given  proof 
of  his  sincerity  by  being  put  out  of  his  office  in  the  university, 
rather  than  give  up  the  strict  Lutheran  doctrine  which  in  Prussia 
is  now  proscribed,  Lutherans  being  in  Prussia  allowed  individu- 
ally to  retain  their  opinions,  but  not  to  exist  as  a  body. 

In  its  English  dress  the  character  of  the  work  is  of  necessity 
much  altered  by  the  omission  of  nearly  five-eighths,  these  omis- 
sions being  larger  or  smaller,  from  passages  or  pages  down  to 
members  of  sentences.  We  do  not  suppose  that  in  so  doing  the 
translator  has  been  guilty  of  wilful  garbling;  his  object  was 
doubtless  to  produce  a  popular  book,  which  should  inculcate 
the  views  which  he  thought  usefid  for  the  Church;  and  so  he 
has  omitted  what  bore  especially  on  the  Lutheran  body.  Yet  if 
history  is  to  be  of  any  use,  it  must  manifestly  be  as  a  whole ;  a 
fragment  of  history,  however  small,  is  instructive,  if  complete : 
even  details  of  single  facts  are  useful  in  their  way,  as  illustrative 
/  of  principles ;  but  a  view  of  a  period,  if  incomplete,  is  worse 
I  than  useless.  Thus  the  following  passages,  omitted  in  page  2, 
were  certainly  a  desirable  addition,  when  the  character  of  a  cen- 
tury is  condensed  into  a  single  page,  at  the  same  time  that  they 
tend  to  destroy  any  similarity  which  might  be  wished  to  be  esta- 
blished between  the  rigid  Lutherans  and  any  body  which  ever 
existed  among  ourselves.* 

*  We  have  marked  the  omissions  by  inverted  commas. 

Augustus  Herman  Franke,  115 

"  The  favourite  theological  study  everywhere  was  controversy." 
Biblical  exposition  was  made  altogether  secondary,  "  because 
"  they  confined  themselves  to  the  doctrinal  system  once  esta- 
"  blished  by  church  authority;  and  this  they  treated  only  in  the 
"  logical  manyier  of  the  schoolmen.^''  "At  some  of  the  most  cele- 
"  brated  universities,  the  only  lectures  given  or  heard  were  on 
"  doctrinal  systems,  controversy,  and  the  art  of  preaching."  Ca- 
lixtus  sought  to  bring  back  theology  to  a  more  historical  basis, — 
(this  is  translated  "  to  re-direct  the  attention  of  the  students  of 
divinity  to  its  historical  department,") — "  whilst  most  theologians 
"  of  his  time  would  only  admit  of  one  form  of  doctrine,  that 
"  established  by  the  Church,  by  which  means  an  unhistorical 
"  tendency  might  easily  be  given,  which  will  pay  no  regard  to 
"  the  historical  tradition  of  that  which  belonged  to  true  Christi- 
'"  anity,  in  varied  forms,  through  all,  and  especially  the  first,  cen- 
"  turies,  and  which  threatened  to  rend  the  Lutheran  Church 
*'  entirely  out  of  its  connection  with  the  development  of  the 
"  whole  church  from  its  first  apostolic  foundation  onwards." 

These  passages,  whether  as  illustrative  of  the  character  of  the 
times,  of  the  individuals,  or  of  the  author,  ought  not  to  have  been 
omitted.  Again,  at  p.  3  is  omitted  a  chronology  of  Spener's 
life,  which,  if  history  had  been  any  object,  of  course  would  have 
beau  necessary,  and  also  the  following : — 

"  Spener  made  many  propositions  for  the  improvement  of 
"  theological  study  in  his  excellent  work,  Pia  Desideria,  which 
"  first  appeared  in  1675,  as  a  preface  to  J.  Arndt's  Homilies. 
"  But  Spener  naturally  wished  to  influence  not  the  theologians 
"  only,  but,  and  that  principally,  the  non-theologians,  and  the 
"  members  of  his  own  congregation :  he  wished  religion  to  be 
"  the  chief  concern  of  every  individual  Christian.  With  this 
"  view  he  brought  out  again,  in  especial  prominence,  the  primi- 
"  tive  notion  of  a  priesthood  common  to  all  Christians,  which, 
"  through  the  erroneous  way  of  handling  theology,  had  almost 
"  wholly  sunk  into  oblivion  the  notion,  namely,  that  all  Christians 
"  had,  through  their  common  union  with  the  one  High-Priest 
"  and  Atoner,  Christ,  received  equally  free  access  to  God,  so  as 
"  to  be  admitted  to  consecrate  their  whole  life  as  an  offering  of 
"  thanksgiving  to  God." 

Again,  p.  4,  on  the  meetings  in  Spener's  house,  there  is  added 
in  the  original,  "  The  evil  principle  which  readily  creeps  into 
"  such  assemblages,  namely,  that  those  who  take  part  in  them 
"  account  themselves  better  than  other  men,  or  consider  the 
"  attendance  on  them  as  a  work  which,  by  its  very  performance, 
"  sanctifies  men,  he  set  himself  to  counteract  with  great  wis- 
"  dom."     Certainly  a  very  necessary  caution. 


1  \G  The  Life  of  Augustus  Herman  Frnnke. 

A«;ain,  the  (losciiplion  of  the  rigid  Lutheraiiism  is  gene- 
ializ»<(l,(il)iil.);  '-ind  for  "  a  dialectic-scholastic  theology  and  letter 
"  of  an  orthodox  system  of  doctrine,  a  dead  faith/'  we  have  only 
"  the  letter  of  a  lifeless  orthodoxy  of  scholastic  controversy;"  as 
in  p.  3  we  have  "  divests  the  study  of  divinity,"  for  ''  bring  it 
*'  back  from  the  scholastic  path  which  it  was  pursuing." 

A\'e  said  that  we  did  not  accuse  the  translator  of  wilful  gar- 
bling, but  we  think  that  he  is  probably  a  person  deficient  in  prac- 
tical character,  and  so  has  inadvertently  given  a  colour  to  things. 
Thus,  p. 3,  "much  which  is  fanatical,"  is  stronger  than  the  trans- 
lation, "  something  of  an  imaginary  and  fantastic  nature  ;" — 
"  Christian  life,"  more  practical  than  "  evangelical  vitality." 
P.  4, — "  Spener,"  we  are  told,  *'  wished  to  enter  into  closer  con- 
"  nection  with  those  of  his  hearers  who  were  most  susceptible  of 
"  divine  truth,  that  they  might  be  a  salt  to  the  Church.'"  In  the 
original,  certainly  with  a  more  Church  notion,  it  is,  "  those  mem- 
"  bers  of  his  congregation,  that  they  might  become  as  salt  to  the 
"  whole  congregation."  Again, — "  those  who  attended  these 
'*  meetings,"  for  '*  those  members  of  his  congregation."  "  The 
"  great  truths  of  religion  and  the  state  of  their  souls,"  is  substi- 
tuted for  "  cases  of  conscience  and  Christianity."  P.  1 1, — "  hold 
"  religious  converse,"  for  "  edify  himself  (build  himself  up)  in 
"Christianity;"  "first  impressions,"  for  "first-fruits  of  grace." 
P.  12, — "grant  him  a  real  change  of  heart  and  make  him  His 
"  child,"  for  "  fully  to  alter  him,  and  make  him  ivhoUy  His 
"  child."  P.  13, — "  I  began  to  come  to  myself,"  for  "  to  enter 
"  into  myself;"  "  to  place  me  in  another  state  of  mind"  for 
"  character  of  life."  P.  15, — "a  zealous  professor  of  religion" 
for  "  Christian,"  (as  "  religion"  seems  to  be  throughout  substi- 
tuted for  "  Christianity.")  P.  l6,— "  I  felt  that  I  myself  was  still 
"  devoid  of  that  faith  which  would  be  required  in  my  sermon," 
for  "  it  came  into  my  mind  that  I  could  find  in  myself  no  such 
"  faith"  [i,  e.  such  degree  of  faith]  "  as  in  my  sermon  I  should 
"  require  of  others."  P. 32,— "a  mere  outwardly  moral  walk," 
for  "  reputable."  In  other  places  the  translator  is  either  imper- 
fectly acquainted  with  German,  or  has  translated  very  carelessly. 

(     117    ) 

Art.  VI. —  1.  Ancient  Hymns,from  the  Roman  Breviary,  for  do- 
mestic use,  every  morning  and  evening  of  the  week,  and  on  the 
Holy-days  of  the  Church:  to  which  are  added.  Original  Hymns, 
principally  of  commemoration  and  thanksgiving  for  Christ's 
Holy  Ordinances.  By  Richard  Mant,  D.D.  M.R.I.A.,  Lord 
Bishop  of  Down  and  Connor.      Rivingtons,  London.     1837. 

2.  The  Hymns  of  the  Primitive  Chvrch :  now  first  collected, 
translated,  and  arranged.  By  the  Rev.  J.  Chandler,  Fellow 
of  Corpus  Christi  College,  Oxford,  and  Curate  of  Witley. 
Parker,  London.    1837. 

At  the   beginning   of  a  judicious   and    candid   preface,    Mr. 
Chandler  observes — 

"  On  putting  forth  these  Hymns  to  the  world,  I  find  a  few  words  are 
necessary  to  explain  the  nature  of  the  compilation,  and  the  views  I  had 
in  forming  it.  Some  time  ago,  feeling  the  want  of  a  collection  of 
Christian  Hymns,  as  an  accompaniment  to  (not  a  substitute  for)  the 
Psalms  of  David  in  the  Service  of  the  Church,  I  looked  around  to  those 
already  published,  to  select  one  from  among  them,  thinking  that  of 
course  there  could  not  possibly  be  any  occasion  to  add  another  to  the 
already  too  numerous  list  of  Hymn-compilers,  But  in  the  first  place, 
there  was  the  difficulty  of  fixing  a  choice  amidst  the  immense  multitude 
of  rival  collections,  each  claiming  the  preference,  there  being  almost  as 
many  different  Hymn-books  as  there  are  churches  wherein  a  reforma- 
tion of  Psalmody  has  been  effected.  And  then  there  was  the  recollec- 
tion that,  from  first  to  last,  they  are  all  of  them  unauthorized  ;  neither  are 
they  sanctioned  by  proper  Episcopal  authority,  nor  is  their  introduc- 
tion into  our  churches  legalized  by  statute  or  order  in  council,  so  that  a 
collection  allowed  by  one  diocesan  might  be  forbidden  by  another  ;  and 
if  a  clergyman  attempted  to  introduce  any  one  of  them  into  his  church, 
contrary  to  the  prejudices  of  his  choir,  not  only  would  the  law  not  support 
him,  but  positively  decide  against  him.  Moreover,  thirdly,  the  actual  con- 
tents of  these  hymn-books  are  anything  but  satisfactory ;  not  that  they  do 
not  all  of  them  contain  a  certain  number  of,  in  themselves,  very  beautiful 
hymns,  but  even  of  these  many  are  quite  unfit  for  public  use  ;  many  are 
from  sources,  to  which  our  Primitive  Apostolic  church  would  not  choose  to 
be  indebted  ;  many  have  been  subjected  to  such  rude  alterations,  that  their 
original  authors  would  hardly  know  them  again  ;  while  they  are  gene- 
rally mixed  up  with  a  great  deal  that  is  objectionable  in  taste,  doctrine, 
and  expression  :  they  speak  no  certain  language,  they  contain  no  defined 
system  of  religious  feeling; — in  a  word,  they  are  not,  for  purposes  of 
praise,  what  our  Liturgy  is  for  purposes  of  devotion.  The  fact  is,  there 
is  not,  what  there  surely  ought  not  to  be,  in  our  establishment — a  standard 
book  of  Christian  Hymns,  set  forth  by  the  spiritual  authorities  of  our 
Church,  and  recognised  by  the  temporal  government  of  the  State  ;  and 
it  certainly  seems  incongruous,  that  whereas  the  doctrines  ol  our 
Church  are  fixed  by  her  articles,  and  our  devotional  spirit  regulated  by 

lis  Ancient  Hymns. 

»>iir  Litiiri;y,  ami  i)osscssiiij,s  as  wc  do,  in  our  homilies,  an  outline  tor 
our  prcacli'iiig,  wc  should  be  left  entirely  to  our  own  private  judgment 
and  discretion  to  provide  that  whereon  so  much  depends,  in  the  way  of 
rousing  the  religious  feelings,  and  fixing  the  religious  impressions  of  our 
congregations,  and  any  mismanagement  in  which  nmst  be  productive  of 
such  c\il  consequences.  Moreover,  not  only  docs  mischief  arise  from 
the  want  of  a  fixed  standard  of  hymns,  but  uniformity  also,  in  this  part 
of  our  service,  is  thereby  put  entirely  out  of  the  question." — p.  iii. — v. 

We  have  touched  upon  this  subject  so  often,  that  we  are 
really  glad  to  have  an  opportunity  of  saying  the  same  things  in 
the  words  of  another  person,  instead  of  repeating  them  in  our 
own.  Mr.  Chandler  in  fact  makes  strictures  more  severe  than  we 
have  felt  justified  in  using,  on  the  present  state  of  our  Psalmody; 
and  then  adds  : — 

"  It  may  be  said,  in  answer  to  this,  that  we  have  the  Psalms  of  David, 
translated  into  English  verse  by  Tate  and  Brady.  But  in  the  first 
place,  it  would  not  be  difficult  to  show  that  their  version  has  not  a 
single  good  point  to  render  it  worthy  of  the  monopoly  it  has  so  long 
enjoyed  ;  and,  in  the  second  place,  even  if  it  were  as  faithful,  simple, 
and  interesting,  as  it  is  too  confessedly  unfaithful,  vulgar,  and  uninter- 
esting, yet  of  itself  the  Psalter  alone  would  be  as  insufficient  for  the 
purposes  of  Christian  praise,  as  the  Old  Testament  would  be  for 
Christian  instruction  without  the  New.  To  discard  the  Psalter,  as 
some  have  done,  is  one  extreme — to  use  it  exclusively  is  the  other — to 
alternate  the  Psalm  and  the  Hymn,  the  song  of  Moses  and  the  song  of 
the  Lamb,  is  the  medium  to  which  we  would  wish  to  attain.  So  long, 
then,  as  so  legitimate  a  want  as  that  of  a  body  of  Christian  Hymns  is 
not  regularly  supplied,  it  is  sure  to  supply  itself,  as  it  has  in  fact  done, 
irregularly  and  inadequately. 

"  It  appears,  moreover,  that  these  same  opinions  very  generally  pre- 
vail— all  seem  to  agree  that  the  present  state  of  things  is  bad,  and  loudly 
calls  for  some  effectual  remedy — all  seem  to  allow  that  the  hymn-books 
which  are  at  present  in  vogue  are  only  for  the  present  exigency,  as  just 
better  than  nothing,  and  that  of  course  no  one  ought  to  think,  and  very 
few  people  would  think,  of  keeping  on  with  them,  if  a  proper  hymn-book 
was  put  forth  by  proper  authority,  by  the  rulers  of  the  Church.  But 
meanwhile  all  seem  to  be  aware  of  the  difficulties  that  lie  in  the  way, 
and  none  seem  exactly  to  know  how  they  are  to  be  got  over,  or  what  is 
to  be  done." — pp.  vi.  vii. 

The  matter  is  confessedly  delicate  ;  and  it  is  far  easier  to  dis- 
cern the  mischief  than  to  provide  the  remedy,  or  even  exactly  to 
ascertain  \\hat  remedy  is  best  to  be  provided.  Many  plans  have 
been  proposed.  It  has  been  suggested,  for  instance,  more  than 
once,  that  a  collection  of  Psalms  and  Hymns  should  be  put  forth 
by  the  '^ Society  for  Promoting  Christian  Knowledge^  V¥e  can- 
not at  all  assent  to  this  scheme.     It  labours,  we  conceive,  under 

Hymns  of  the  Primitive  Church.  119 

the  two-fold  objection  so  fatal  to  many  specious  devices.     It  is 
neither  desirable  nor  practicable.     It  is  not  practicable ;  for  the 
members  of  that  Society,  as  it  is  now  constituted,  could  not  be  in- 
duced cordially  to  agree  upon  either  of  the  preliminary  points ; 
namely,  to  what  hands  the  task  should  be  intrusted  ;  and  what 
sort  of  hymns  should  be  admitted  and  what  excluded  from  the 
list.     And  even  if  the  subject  should  be  referred  to  the  Tract 
Conmiittee,    Mr.   Cunningham   has   ingeniously   remarked,  that 
"  no  harp  with  seven  strings  could  be  brought  into  harmony  on 
such  a  theme."     Nor  is  the  project  desirable,  even  if  its  practica- 
bility were  as  apparent  as  we  believe  its  impracticabilitT/  to  be. 
The  advantage  supposed  to  belong  to  a  collection  issuing  from 
the  Society  for  Promoting  Christian  Knoioledge  is,  that  it  would 
come  with  authority.     But  if  a  collection  of  Psalms  and  Hymns 
is  to  be  published  by  authority,  that  authority,  we  must  venture 
to  say,  ought  not  to  be  the  authority  of  any  mixed  Society,  how- 
ever venerable  and  however  influential.      Such  authority  resides 
only  in  the  Church  itself]  as  the  great  religious  Society  or  com- 
munity of  the  kingdom.     Such  a  collection,  therefore,  ought  to 
emanate  from  the  heads  of  the  Church,  and  be  one,  for  which 
they,  in  their  o^c2«/ character  and  capacity,  are  to  be  held  responsi- 
ble.    No  Society  is,  or  can  be,   accredited  for  such  a  purpose. 
No  Society,  as  such,  can  be  entitled  to  decide  what  is  to  be  used 
in  our  Churches,  or  to   frame   a  compilation  which  should  be 
almost  equivalent  to  a  new  portion  of  our  Liturgy.     It  would  be 
a  most  dangerous  precedent  to  invest  atiy  production   issumg 
from  a7i7/  promiscuous  association  with  any  shadow  or  semblance 
of  what  is  properly  to  be  called  ecclesiastical  or  spiritual  aulhority. 
But,  unless  the  ivork  came  with  authority,  its  end  would  not  be 
attained.     A  mere  recomtnendation  would  be,  if  not  utterly  nuga- 
tory, at  least  quite  insufficient.     It  would  not  ensure  uniformity. 
Individual  clergymen  must  be  left  at  liberty  to  receive  or  reject 
it :  they  must  be  left  as  free  as  they  are  now,  to  prefer  any  other 
of  the  hundred  extant  compilations,  or  to  form  a  fresh  one  ex- 
pressly for  themselves  and  their  flocks.     Or,  if  a  collection  put 
forth  by  the  Christian  Knowledge  Society  should  acquire,  as  it 
probably  might,  a  kind  of  imperfect  or  half-authority,  which  some 
would    recognize,    and   some  would    repudiate,  we  can   hardly 
imagine  a  state  more  inconvenient  than  the  position  into  which 
matters  would  be  thrown.     There  would  then  be  neither  one 
thing  nor  the  other  ;  we  should  have  a  collection,  which  could  not 
reach  the  goal  itself,  yet  which  might  lie  as  an  obstacle  in  the 
way  of  some  other  collection  by  which  the  goal  might  he  reached 
— some  other  collection  to  which  complete  and  rightful  authority 
might  legitimately  be  annexed. 

120  Ancient  Hymns. 

Tlie  time,  liowever,  may  not  yet  be  ripe  for  a  compilation  to 
uhicli  the  prelates  of  our  Church  could  give  their  sanction  as  a 
body.  Tor  the  present,  therefore,  we  must  look  to  individuals 
for  gathering  materials  together,  which  may  hereafter  be  pared 
and  moulded  into  an  authoritative  shape.  Our  thanks  are  well 
due  to  Mr,  Chandler,  among  the  rest  of  the  pioneers. 

•*  It  has  long  struck  me,"  he  says,  "  that  as  our  Liturgy  is  compiled, 
in  a  great  measure,  from  ancient  materials,  so,  if  there  were  any  ancient 
liymns  still  extant,  of  the  same  date  and  character  with  the  prayers,  they 
would  be  most  suitable  for  our  purpose ;  for  they  would,  from  their  an- 
tiquity, carry  more  weight  with  them  than  any  modern  ones  could  do, 
and  the  precedence  they  claimed  would  more  readily  be  granted  to 
them  ;  if,  then,  there  could  be  a  foundation  laid,  and  the  general  mass 
of  the  work  constructed  out  of  these  ancient  materials,  then  the  best  of 
the  modern  ones  might  be  very  advantageously  brought  in  to  finish  it 
oflP,  and  this  would  be  in  accordance  with  what  was  done  in  the  case  ot 
the  Liturgy,  where  some  of  the  prayers  and  collects  are  ancient,  and 
some  modern,  but  the  additions,  and  insertions,  and  restorations,  are  so 
carefully  contrived,  that  the  whole  is  blended  together  in  the  most  per- 
fect harmony.  I  was  not  aware,  however,  till  very  lately,  of  there  being 
any  such  ancient  hymns  extant :  it  certainly  seemed  most  likely  that  if 
there  had  been  any  genuine  primitive  ones  good  for  anything,  they 
would  have  been  brought  into  notice  long  since,  and  therefore  1  con- 
cluded that  there  was  nothing  in  that  way  superior  to  those  rhyming 
jingling  hymns  which  are  found  in  the  Popish  missals,  as  barbarous  in 
their  latinity,  as  defective  in  their  doctrine." — pp,  vii.  viii. 

Mr.  Chandler's  attention,  however,  was  directed  to  some  transla- 
tions which  appeared  in  the  British  Magazine ;  and,  in  conse- 
quence, he  procured  a  copy  of  the  Parisian  Breviary,  and  one  or 
two  other  old  books  of  Latin  Hymns,  especially  one  compiled  by 
Georgius  Cassaiider,  printed  at  Cologne,  in  the  year  1556;  and 
regularly  applied  himself,  as  he  tells  us,  to  the  work  of  selection 
and  translation.  The  result  is  the  collection  which  he  now  lays 
before  the  public. 

"  AVith  respect  to  the  originals,"  he  informs  us,  "  they  bear  decided 
marks  of  very  remote  antiquity  ;  some  may  have  been  very  much  altered  : 
some,  perhaps,  entirely  reconstructed,  but  still  as  several  of  them  are 
known  to  be  the  work  of  St.  Ambrose  and  St.  Gregory,  and  other  Pri- 
mitive Fathers,  and  as  all  the  rest  bear  internal  evidence  of  being  about 
the  same  age,  they  may  well  deserve  the  name  affixed  to  them  of  '  The 
Hymns  of  the  Primitive  Church.'  To  them  are  added  all  the  hymns 
which,  from  the  beginning  of  the  Reformation  to  the  present  day,  have 
been  inserted  into  our  prayer-books  ;  these  are  few,  but  mostly  well 
worth  preserving.  Thus  are  set  forth  in  one  view  the  Hymns,  ancient 
and  modern,  which  are  the  peculiar  property  of  the  Church  of  Christ — 
those  which  she  had  before  the  Papal  apostasy,  and  those  wbich  have 

Hymns  of  the  Primitive  Church.  121 

been  added  to  her  collection  since — the  Hymns  for  the  Divisions  of  the 
Day,  the  Hymns  for  the  Seasons  of  the  Church,  the  Hymns  for  Parti- 
cular Occasions.  Here  is  a  nucleus  which,  in  proper  hands,  may  be 
added  to,  and  amended  in  such  a  way  from  more  modern  sources,  as  to 
form  a  Hymn-Book  in  every  respect  worthy  of  our  Church.  It  will  not, 
I  trust,  be  unpleasing  or  unedifying  to  her  members  to  see  a  Morning 
Hymn  by  a  Bishop  of  Milan  of  the  fourth  century  joined  to  one  on  the 
same  subject  by  a  Bishop  of  Salisbury  of  the  seventeenth.  Perhaps,  if 
the  authorities  of  our  Church  carry  on  the  design,  we  may  see  next  to 
them  a  hymn  by  a  Bishop  of  Calcutta  of  the  nineteenth.  For  it  should  be 
remembered,  that  it  was  a  particular  wish  of  Bishop  Heber,  that  there 
should  be  a  Hymn-book  for  our  Church,  and  all  his  Hymns  were  writ- 
ten with  the  view  of  forming  one.  Most  happy,  indeed,  shall  1  be,  if 
the  present  compilation  can  contribute,  in  the  smallest  degree,  towards 
the  accomplishment  of  so  desirable  a  work." — pp.  ix.  x. 

Such  being  the  materials  of  the  compilation  before  us,  it  is 
divided  into  Hymns  for  the  days  of  the  week,  and  Hymns  for  the 
Seasons  of  the  Church.  At  the  end  of  the  first  part  is  a  curious  notice 
on  the  ancient  "  divisions  of  the  dayT  VVe  can  only  extract  a 
part,  having  been  already  almost  too  liberal  in  our  quotations. 

"  In  the  arrangement  of  these  Hymns  for  the  different  periods  of 
daily  worship,  I  have  preserved,  as  far  as  possible,  the  original  order  in 
which  I  found  them  ;  I  will  add  a  few  words  in  explanation  of  the  man- 
ner in  which  each  day  was  parcelled  out,  in  the  primitive  times,  into 
seasons  for  devotion.  It  appears  there  was  a  service  at  the  end  of  every 
three  hours,  or  eight  services  in  the  course  of  the  twenty-four.  To  wit, 
first,  Nocturn,  12  at  night  ;  second.  Matins,  3  in  the  mornings  third. 
Ad  Primam,  6  a.m.  ;  fourth.  Ad  Tertiam,  9  a.m.  3  fifth,  Ad  Sextam,  12 
in  the  day ;  sixth.  Ad  Nonam,  3  in  the  afternoon  ;  seventh.  Vespers,  or 
Evensong,  6  p.m.  ;  eight,  Completorium,  or  Conclusion,  9  p.m. 

"  This  would  give  seven  out  of  the  eight  divisions  to  the  day,  and 
only  one  to  the  night,  and  thus  agree  with  Psalm  cxix.  164,  '  Seven 
times  a  day  do  I  praise  Thee  5'  and  Psalm  cxix.  62,  '  At  midnight  will 
I  rise  to  give  thanks  unto  Thee ;'  or  by  counting  the  '  Completorium' 
and  the  Matins  with  the  night,  it  would  make  three  Nocturns,  which  is 
the  most  usual  division.  These  divisions  were  evidently  made  originally 
in  a  country  where  the  length  of  days  is  more  uniform  than  in  ours ;  and 
I  may  add,  at  a  time  Avhen  men's  minds  reverted  with  more  uniform 
tiequency  to  their  religious  exercises  than  appears  to  be  the  case  at 
present." — pp.  35,  36. 

We  quite  agree  with  Mr.  Chandler,  when  he  observes,  tiiat 
"  in  the  present  days,  these  systematic  subdivisions  may  stand  a 
ciiance  of  being  objected  to,  as  formal  and  old-fashioned  ;  or  be 
condemned  as  tending  to  cramp  the  energies  of  the  awakened 
soul  with  unwarrantable  shackles."  The  temper  of  the  age  has, 
indeed,  very  little  sympathy  with  "  Nocturn'i,"  "Matins"  or 
"  Lands"  "  Evensong"  and  "  Completorium.''     The  very  men- 

J (2*2  Ancient  Hymns. 

tloii  of  tlieni,  uc  suspect,  may  be  regarded  as  an  undisguised 
.symptom  of  attachment  to  Popery. 

Hut  our  readers  may  be  impatient  to  see  some  specimens  of  these 
Primitive  llvmns.  In  Mr.  Chandler's  volume  the  originals  are 
printed  at  the  end  of  the  translations;  but  we  shall  put  them  side 
by  side  in  order  that  a  fairer  and  readier  judgment  of  the  English 
Version  may  be  formed  ;  and  also  that  some  opinion  may  be  en- 
tertained of  the  actual  merit  and  value  of  the  Hymni  Ecclesiastici 
themselves.  We  say  the  actual  merit  and  value  ;  because  their 
authenticity,  their  claim  to  veneration  from  their  mere  age,  and 
the  appropriateness  of  the  mode  in  which  Mr.  Chandler  has  distri- 
buted them,  we  shall  not  on  this  occasion  examine.  It  may  be  a 
future  task  to  canvass  one  or  more  of  these  points ;  and  likewise 
to  inquire  into  other  and  long-neglected  sources,  from  which  pre- 
cious matter  for  Psalmody  may  be  drawn. 

The  following  is  given  as  Wednesday,  Nocturn. 

"  Miraraur,  Oh  Dens,  tuae  "  The  wonders  of  th'  Almighty  baud 

Recens  opus  potentia;.  Devoutly  we  admire, 

Qu£B  scripta  scintillautibus  Inscribed  upon  the  vault  above 

Refulgent  astrorum  globis.  In  characters  of  fire, 

Ut  sol  diei,  Candida  The  sun  is  ruler  of  the  day. 
Sic  luna  nocti  praesidet :  The  moon  controls  the  night ; 

Exercitu  totum  novo  The  starry  host  adorn  the  sky 
Discriminant  stellae  polum.  With  varied  streams  of  light. 

At  ipse,  coelorum  dccus.  This  ruler  of  the  day  must  set, 

Sol  novit  occasus  suos.  And  hide  his  dazzling  rays. 

Sunt  certa  lunae  terapora  The  moon  and  starry  hosts  observe 

Statique  lapsus  siderura.  Their  own  appointed  da^'s, 

Jugi  rotata  turbine  Thus  still  revolves  each  orb  of  light, 
Furantur  et  reddunt  diem  :  Now  hidden,  now  displayed  : 

Tu  semper  idem,  nescius  Thou,  Lord,  for  ever  art  the  same  ; 
Mortalium  spem  fallcre.  Thy  mercy  knows  no  shade, 

Turbata  quid  mens  fiuctuat?  Oh!  fear  not,  doubt  not,  that  our  God 

Curii  paternd  nos  regis  :  Hath  all  a  father's  care  ; 

JEteraa  sit  cordi  salus  ;  With  joy  to  heaven  your  hearts  uplift, 

Sterna  nos  salus  mauet.  For  endless  joys  are  there. 

Suprema  laus  et  gloria  All  glory  to  tlie  Three  in  One, 

Uni  sit  et  trino  Deo,  The  God  of  joy  and  peace, 

Suo  reponi  qui  jubet  Who  comforts  those  who  trust  to  Him, 

Curas  et  angores  sinu."  And  bids  their  sorrows  cease." 

A  morning  hymn,  said  to  be  by  St.  Ambrose,  which  stands  as 
No.  35,  is  a  pleasing  ode ;  and  there  is  some  poetical  beauty  in  a 
hymn  on  "  Innocents'  Day,"  No.  46,  which  commences  "  Sal- 
vete,  fores  Martyrum.'"  "  The  Circumcision,''  No.  48,  is  skil- 
fully turned. 

"  Felix  dies,  quam  proprio  "  Oh,  happy  day,  when  first  was  poured 

Jesu  cruore  consecrat !  The  blood  of  our  redeeming  Lord  ! 

Felix  dies,  qua  gestiit  Oh,  happy  day,  when  first  began 

Opus  salutis  aggredi.  His  sufferings  for  sinful  man ! 

Hymns  of  the  Primitive  Church. 


Vix  uatus  ecce  lacteum 
Profundit  infaiis  sanguineiu : 
Libamen  est  hoc  fuiieris, 
Amoris  hoc  prailudiuin. 

Intrans  ia  oibeni,  jam  Patris 
Mandata  jussus  exsequi, 
Statiitn  prjeoccupat  diem, 
Et  quil  potest,  fit  Victima. 

Quo  Christus  ictu  la^ditur. 
Lex  abrogata  concidit : 
Et  incipit  lex  saiictior, 
Mansura  semper  caritas. 

Tu  Cbriste,  quod  non  est  tuum, 
Nostro  recide  pectore ; 
Inscribe  nomen,  intirais 
Inscribe  legem  cordibus. 

Qui  natus  es  de  Virgine, 
Jesu,  tibi  sit  gloria, 
Cum  Patre,  cumque  Spiritu, 
In  sempiterna  secula." 

Just  entered  on  this  world  of  woe, 
His  blood  already  learned  to  flow  : 
His  future  death  was  thus  expressed. 
And  thus  His  early  love  confessed. 

From  heaven  descending,  to  fulfil 
The  mandates  of  his  Father's  will. 
E'en  now  behold  the  victim  lie. 
The  Lamb  of  God,  prepared  to  die ; 

Beneath  the  knife  behold  the  Child, 
The  innocent,  the  undefiled  ; 
For  captives  He  the  ransom  pays,        « 
For  lawless  man  the  law  obeys. 

Lord  circumcise  our  hearts,  we  pray  ; 
Our  fleshy  natures  purge  away  ; 
Thy  name,  thy  likeness  may  the^'  bear : 
Yea,  stamp  thy  holy  image  there  ! 

The  Father's  name  we  loudly  raise. 
The  Son,  the  Virgin-born,  we  praise 
The  Holy  Ghost  we  all  adore, 
One  God,  both  now  and  evermore." 

Among  the  hymns  given  for  Saints'  Days,  we  must  content 
ourselves  with  No.  91. 

"  Sinaj  sub  alto  vertice 
Coelo  tonante,  lex  data  : 
Inter  tubas  et  fulgura 
Prffisens  minabatur  Deus. 

"  The  law  on  Sinai's  fiery  height, 
'Mid  thunderings  was  given  : 

The  lightning  flash,  the  trumpet  clang 
Bespoke  the  God  of  heaven. 

But  now  a  veil  of  human  flesh 
Around  his  brightness  thrown, 

Our  God  in  milder  beams  arrayed, 
To  favoured  man  is  shown. 

Nunc  temperate  numine 
Per  vela  carnis  blandius 
Amat  videri,  ianguidis 
Se  lumen  aptans  sensibus. 

Insculpta  saxo  lex  vetus 
Praecepta,  non  vires  dabat  : 
Inscripta  cordi  lex  nova 
Dat  posse  quidquid  imperat. 

Scripsistis  hanc  fida  manu, 
Hanc  voce,  voci  consonis 
Hanc  pra3dicastis  moribus, 
Signastis  hanc  et  sanguine. 

Afflante  Divo  Spiritu 
Qua;  verba  vilse  traditis, 
Hcec  iile  nostris  rmprimat 
Delenda  nunquam  cordibus. 

Sit  laus  Patri,  laus  Filio, 
Qui  nos,  triumphata  nece. 
Ad  astra  secum  dux  vocat, 
Compar  tibi  laus,  Spiritus." 

The  translations,  in  general,  are  neat;  but  do  not  rise  to  a 
very  high  level.  They  are,  for  the  most  part,  faithful  to  the  sense 
of  the  original  poems ;  but  while  some  parts  are  impregnated 
with  grace  and  spirit,  others  are  flat  and  tame.  Of  this  defect 
Mr.  Chandler  seems  himself  to  be  aware  ;  for  he  urges,  by  way  of 
anticipative  apology,  "  my  aim  in  translating  has  been  to  be  as 

The  stone-writ  law  no  strength  could  give 

Its  precepts  to  fulfil  ; 
The  Gospel  law  converts  the  heart, 

And  sanctifies  the  will. 

This  Gospel  law  your  faithful  hands 

And  faithful  lips  revealed  ; 
Commended  by  your  holy  lives. 

And  by  your  life-blood  sealed. 

And,  oh  !  may  these  j'our  words  of  life, 
Which  God's  own  hand  hath  traced. 

By  him  be  written  on  our  hearts. 
And  never  be  effaced  ! 


J04  Ancient  JLymns. 

simple  as  possible,  thinking  it  better  to  be,  of  the  two,  rather 
ball!  anil  prosaic  than  fine  and  obscure."  To  that  greatest  of  all 
i)caiitios  in  composition,  which  consists  in  simplicity  without 
baldness,  he  has  not  always  arrived. 

Mr.  Chandler's  publication,  we  tiiink,  would  have  better  pre- 
served unity  and  originality  and  character,  if  he  had  given  us 
more  of  the  Ancient  Hynnis,  and  iio7ie  of  the  Modern.  Even  the 
Morning  and  Evening  Hymns  of  Bishop  Ken — by  the  way,  we 
never  see  them  printed  on  any  two  occasions  in  quite  the  same 
words — beautiful  as  they  are,  appear  to  us  out  of  place.  In  the 
Ijatin  poems  now  presented  to  us,  there  is  a  great  same- 
ness. Might  not  Mr,  Chandler,  in  adhering  to  unity,  have  also 
atibrded  a  much  larger  variety  .?  Almost  all  these  hymns  are 
(li/netcr  iambics — with  a  very  few  irregular  trochaics  interspersed 
— but  without  any  sapphic  and  alcaic  measures,  and  with  only 
the  old  "  Dies  inc,  dies  ilia,"  which,  in  spite,  nay,  perhaps, 
partly  in  consequence  of  the  unclassical  jingle  of  the  rhymes, 
though  chiefly  of  course  from  the  sublimity  of  the  subject  and  the 
simple  sternness  with  which  it  is  treated,  affects  us  more  power- 
fully than  almost  any  other  composition.*  Mr.  Chandler's  ver- 
sion is  creditable  ;  but  no  translation  can  convey  its  full  effect. 

The  volume,  however,  upon  the  whole,  is  one  which  we  would 
recommend  to  notice,  because  it  dives  into  a  mine  of  inquiry 
which  has  not  been  much  worked  ;  also  because  it  contains  very 
favourable  evidence  of  the  research  and  talent  of  the  author ;  and 
because  it  is  unexceptionable  in  its  tone,  as  being  without  false 
divinity,  without  sentimental  affectation,  and  without  fantastic  or 
prurient  expressions. 

It  but  remains  to  say^  that  although  we  should  be  sorry  to 
vouch  for  the  remote  antiquity,  and  the  absolute  genuineness  of 
every  stanza  in  these  "  Hymns  of  the  Primitive  Church/'  Mr. 
Chandler's  labours  form  a  valuable  contribution  to  a  great  and 
necessary  work  5  namely,  the  ultimate  attainment  of  a  really  good 

*  Upon  this  point,  we  find  our  opinion  in  some  measure  corroborated  by  Sir  Wal- 
ter Scott;  — as  our  readers  may  see  in  Lockhart's  Memoir,  &c. — that  most  delightful 
and  interesting  work,  every  succeeding  volume  of  which  we  devour  with  a  more  eager 
appetite  than  those  which  had  come  out  before  it.  In  answer  to  Crabbe,  who  had 
made  some  communication  to  him  respecting  a  projected  collection  of  Hymns,  Scott 
writes,  "  I  think  those  hymns  which  do  not  immediately  recall  the  warm  and  exalted 
language  of  the  Bible,  are  apt  to  be,  however  elegarit,  rather  cold  and  flat  for  the 
purposes  of  devotion.  You  will  readily  believe  that  I  do  not  approve  of  the  vague 
and  indiscriminate  Scripture  language  which  the  fanatics  of  old  and  the  modern  me- 
tiiodists  have  adopted,  but  merely  that'  solemnity  and  peculiarity  of  diction,  which 
at  once  puts  the  reader  and  hearer  upon  his  guard  as  to  the  purpose  of  tj:ie  poetry. 
To  my  Gothic  ear,  indeed,  the  Stahat  Mater,  the  Die^  ira:,  and  some  of  the  hymns  of 
the  Catholic  Church,  are  more  solemn  and  affecting  than  the  fine  classical  poetry  of 
Buchanan  ;.  the  one  has  the  gloomy  dignity  of  a  Gothic  Church,  and  reminds  us  in- 
stantly of  the  worship  to  which  it  is  dedicated  ;  the  other  is  more  like  a  Pagan  Tem- 
ple, recalling  to  our  memory  the  classical  and  fabulous  Deities." — vol.  iii.  pp.  24,  25. 

Hymns  of  the  Primitive  Church.  125 

and  unobjectionable  collection  of  psalms  and  hymns  for  public 
worship.  They  are  as  another  stone  brought  towards  the  mate- 
rials of  a  sacred  temple,  which  may  hereafter  be  erected.  Whe- 
ther it  shall  lise  in  our  day,  with  its  full  size  and  its  right  propor- 
tions, is  a  question  which  we  cannot  decide.  We  can  only 
express  our  hope,  that  our  Church  may  at  length  possess  a  body 
of  hymns,  as  well  as  psalms,  worthy  to  be  put  side  by  side  with 
her  incomparable  Liturgy.  Much  has  been  already  done.  The 
names  of  several  of  our  authors,  either  living  or  but  lately  dead, 
such  as  Heber,  Mant,  Keble,  Milman,  Montgomery,  Dale,  with 
many  others,  will  occur  to  all  who  are  interested  in  the  improve- 
ment of  religious  poetry  :  the  muse  of  Wordsworth  has  been 
often  dedicated  to  ecclesiastical  and  holy  themes :  the  mind  of 
Southey  is  too  high  and  fine  not  to  be  devotional ;  and  even  Mr. 
Moore,  like  Lord  Byron,  has  attuned  the  breathing  spirit  of  verse 
and  music,  which  was  always  within  him,  to  Scriptural  melodies; 
and  Mr.  Bowles,  in  his  first  and  second  series  of  the  Villagers 
Verse  Book,  has  furnished  us  with  pious  compositions,  in  which 
he  appears  to  much  greater  advantage  than  when  he  is  launching 
the  fulminations  of  his  fierce,  but  somewhat  feeble  wrath,  against 
the  Church  Commissioners.  But  for  the  completion  of  all  that 
is  requisite,  several  other  qualifications,  besides  poetical  genius, 
are  imperatively  needed  :  nor  can  we  perhaps  expect  it  to  be  ac- 
complished, or  even  systematically  begun,  until  the  public  mind 
shall  have  been  not  merely  awakened,  but  in  some  measure 
settled,  on  the  subject. 

And  here  we  should  have  finished,  but  that  another  collection 
of  sacred  Odes  has  just  arrived,  to  demand  our  immediate  atten- 

We  have  put  Bishop  Mant's  publication  first  at  the  head  of 
this  article  ;  but  the  fact  is  that  we  did  not  receive  it,  until  the 
preceding  mention  of  Mr.  Chandler  had  been  made.  Our  re- 
marks, therefore,  must  come,  awkwardly  enough,  in  the  way  of 
an  Appendix.  The  similarity — and,  in  some  respects,  the  coin- 
cidence— of  these  two  contemporaneous  works,  the  Primitive 
Hymns,  and  the  Ancient  Hymns,  in  name,  origin,  design,  and 
mode  of  arrangement,  although  this  last  feature  must  have  been 
determined,  in  some  degree,  by  the  common  sources  from  which 
both  were  drawn,  is  really  curious.  The  Bishop  of  Down  and 
Connor  has  introduced,  together  with  many  of  the  Odes  selected 
and  translated  by  Mr.  Chandler,  a  version  of  a  few  Hymns  in 
the  Sapphic  and  other  common  Horatian  metres,  although  he  has 
not  printed  the  originals  ;  and  this  version  is  exquisitely  done. 
Instead,  however,  of  putting  the  translations  together  with  an 
invidious  comparison,  we  shall  afford  ourselves  the  pleasure  of 


Ancient  ITi/mns. 

liansciibiiif?  two  or  three  of  the  original  Hymns,  by  Bishop 
iSlant,  which  will  breathe  their  own  recommendation  into  the 
heart  of  every  pious  and  poetical  reader.  These  Hymns,  we 
out'ht  to  say,  are  now  and  then  interspersed,  but  for  the  most  part 
added  at  the  end  of  the  translated  pieces.  We  could  have 
wished,  we  confess,  tiiat  a/l  had  been  added,  and  7iO}ie  inter- 
spersed, that  so  the  two  main  divisions  of  his  Lordship's  work 
might  have  been  kept  distinct.  It  is  nevertheless  true,  that  the 
original  hymns  harmonize  admirably  well  with  the  translated  ; 
and  so  over  the  whole  is  cast  an  antique  and  primitive  character, 
which  might  almost  have  befitted  the  days  of  St.  Ambrose  or  St. 


Praise  we  our  God!  our  voices  raise 
The  Lords  of  Hosts,  our  God,  to  praise! 
To  Him,  by  whom  our  lips  unclose. 
The  moutli  her  ricliest  homage  owes. 

Who,  mid  glad  anthems  pealing  high, 
Would  wait  in  lifeless  silence  by  ? 
When  worship  claims  the  posture  fit. 
Who  in  irreverent  ease  would  sit  ? 

Rise,  rise,  and  act  the  angel's  part. 
In  gesture,  voice,  and  lioly  heart ; 

Who  loud  their  Hallelujahs  sing, 
Willi  crowns  cast  off,  and  folded  wing. 

O  may  we  here  our  homage  pay. 
Like  angels  in  the  realms  of  day ; 
That  we  in  future  worlds  may  hymn 
God's  praises  with  the  Cherubim. 

Praise  Him,  adored  in  ages  past ; 
Praise  Him,  whose  praise  sliall  ever  last: 
Praise  Him  amid  his  heavenly  host ; 
Praise  Father,  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost." 


Of  frail  and  fluctuating  mind 

Is  man,  and  apt  to  stray  ; 
And  baseless  objects,  ill  defined, 

His  sight  and  steps  betray. 

And  though  Thy  word,  O  God,  be  true. 
And  beam  with  heavenly  light. 

Of  those  it  oft  deceives  the  view. 
Who  scan  it  not  aright. 

We  deem  it  then  Thy  act  of  grace 

And  providential  care, 
That  not  alone  we're  left  to  trace 

Thy  truths  unfolded  there : 

Which  widely  scatter'd  o'er  Thy  roll. 
And  thence  in  one  combined. 

Thy  Church  presents,  unmis'd  and  whole, 
Arranged,  secured,  defined. 

Hence  raised  she  in  her  ancient  days 

The  symbols  of  her  creed. 
To  guard  her  sons  from  error's  maze. 

Their  feet  aright  to  lead. 

And  we  those  forms  of  wholesome  words 

Maintain  from  days  of  old  ; 
And  what  the  Church  her  faith  records. 

We  still  unshaken  hold. 

Then  glory  to  our  gracious  God, 

The  Three  in  One,  be  paid, 
As  ever  by  His  Church  avow'd. 

And  by  His  word  display'd." 


Oft  as  in  God's  own  house  we  sit, 

and  hear  the  Preacher  there, 
Precursive  to  the  grave  discourse, 

the  holy  text  declare  ; 
Bethink  we  well,  whose  name  he  bears, 

and  whence  his  word  is  given. 
The  steward  of  God's  m^'steries, 

the  minister  of  heaven. 

Away  then  with  the  itching  ear, 
that  craves  the  pleasant  tongue  ; 

Away  the  eyes  that  for  the  sight 
of  art  theatric  longj 

Away  for  simple  phrase  severe 

the  judgment  too  refined  ; 
But  most  away  the  o'erweening  heart 

and  self-sufficient  mind. 

Be  rather  ours  to  bear  our  part 

with  awe  and  godly  fear ; 
O'erlook  the  frailties  of  the  man, 

and  God's  high  message  hear : 
Be  from  our  hearts,  howe'er  disguised, 

the  pride  of  life  exiled  ; 
And  heaven's  best  gift  ingraft  instead, 

the  meekness  of  a  child. 

Hymns  of  the  Primitive  Church.  1£7 

O  God,  to  Thy  ambassador  To  listen,  ponder,  and  digest 
thus  speaking  in  Thy  name,  each  truth  and  law  divine. 

Aid  us  to  show  tlie  deep  respect  And  prize  Him  for  His  office  sake, 
thy  messenger  may  claim ;  and.  Lord  of  all,  for  Thine !" 


While  for  Thy  Saints,  who  pour'd  abroad  Hence  in  Thy  truth  Thy  Church  delights, 

Thy  Gospel's  glorious  lighc  From  old  corruptions  freed  ; 

Through  heathen  lands,  we  bless,  0  God,  Unblemish'd  worship,  spotless  rites, 

Thy  wisdom,  love,  and  might ;  And  unadulterate  creed  : 

We  fain  would  their  loved  names  unite.  Hence  Thy  pure  words  her  children  lead 

Who  pierced  the  clouds  obscure.  To  speak  the  united  prayer. 

Which  hid  from  our  forefathers'  sight,  Their  Saviour's  name  alone  to  plead. 

That  Gospel's  radiance  pui'e.  His  cup  of  blessing  share. 

To  clear  Thy  truth  their  heart's  desire,  0  God,  whose  love  our  country's  guides 

Their  life's  pursuit  and  aim.  Once  nerved  with  courage  strong, 

They  mark'd  unmoved  the  martyr's  pyre,  And  still  o'er  us  their  sons  presides, 

Unmoved  they  felt  the  flame :  Accept  our  grateful  song. 

There  lit,  the  fire  a  sign  became  And  O  the  truth,  revived  among 

Through  all  the  land  to  prove,  Our  sires  from  times  of  old, 

How  they  could  bear  Thy  cross  and  shame,  Do  thou  to  future  times  prolong. 

Who  for  Thy  glory  strove.  And  grant  our  sons  to  hold!" 

It  is  observable,  from  these  brief  specimens,  that  the  Bishop 
of  Down  and  Connor,  in  addition  to  other  objects  which  will 
presently  be  seen,  has  acted  upon  two  excellent  ideas ;  of  which 
the  one  is  to  describe  in  verse  the  different  states  of  Christian 
feeling,  and  the  different  stages  of  Christian  progress,  whether 
actual  or  desirable ;  and  the  other  to  connect  the  history  of  the 
Church  with  the  hymns  of  the  Church,  and  to  commemorate,  in 
sacred  song,  the  most  remarkable  and  illustrious  events  in  its 
sacred  annals. 

This  is  not  the  first  time  that  Dr.  Mant  has  kindled  the  flame 
of  poetry  on  the  altar  of  religion.  The  country  is  already  in- 
debted to  him  for  many  delightful  strains,  connecting  the  glories 
of  revelation  with  the  beauties  of  nature.  Nor  can  we  well  con- 
ceive a  more  worthy  employment  for  the  tempora  subseciva  of  a 
Christian  prelate  than  this  dedication  of  the  talents,  given  by 
God,  to  the  celebration  of  His  praise.  And  surely  all  that  Cicero 
has  said  of  poetry,  in  his  oration  for  Archias,  is  true,  in  a  pecu- 
liar degree,  of  poetry  sublimed  and  hallowed  by  Christian  devo- 
tion. Not  only  is  it,  in  such  a  case,  the  charm  of  youth  and  the 
solace  of  old  age;  but,  at  the  most  troublous  period,  and  in  the 
most  distracted  land,  it  may  carry  the  imagination  into  purer  and 
nobler  regions,  which  the  storms  of  mortality  can  never  reach; 
and  tranquillize  the  mind,  without  deadening  its  sympathies.  We 
therefore  heartily  congratulate  the  Bishop  of  Down  and  Connor, 
that,  amidst  the  turbulence  of  factions  and  the  fatigues  of  official 
business,  he  can  devote  his  hours  of  relaxation,  for  we  will  not 

128  Ancient  Hymns. 

call  them  his  hours  of  leisure,  to  the  cultivation  of  pursuits, 
which,  while  they  entirely  accord  with  the  tone  of  his  graver 
stiulios  and  occupations,  can  soothe,  and  calm,  and  elevate  the 
soul,  raising-  it  above  the  world,  lyid  even  above  itself. 

As  it  has  been  our  fortune  to  go  backward  throughout  this 
article,  we  shall  conclude  it  by  giving  one  or  two  citations  from 
Jiishop  Mant's  Preface  to  his  "  Ancient  Hynms" — in  which,  by 
the  way,  he  does  us  the  honour  of  alluding  to  our  former  notice 
of  an  excellent  pamphlet,  which  we  did  not  know  at  the  time  to 
have  proceeded  from  his  Lordship.  They  will  aft'ord  the  proper 
explanations,  relating  to  his  present  production,  better  than  any 
other  words  which  we  could  use:  — 

"  To  those  who  are  acquainted  with  the  history  of  our  Book  of 
Common  Prayer,  it  is  well  known  that  our  excellent  Reformers,  studious 
of  goodness  rather  than  of  novelty,  constructed  their  provisions  for  the 
public  worship  of  the  Church  upon  the  foundation  of  previously  existing 
forms.  Accordingly  our  Common  Prayer  Book  has  derived  a  large  por- 
tion of  its  contents  from  the  Breviary,  or  Daily  Service  Book,  of  the 
Romish  Church,  purified  from  corruption,  and  reduced  to  the  standard 
of  Holy  Scripture,  as  professed  by  the  Catholic  Church  of  Christ. 

"  Together  with  its  other  voluminous  provisions,  the  Breviary  contains 
a  considerable  number  of  Hymns,  used  in  the  regular  course  of  its  daily, 
weekly,  or  occasional  services ;  one  of  which,  known  by  the  name  of 
'  Veni  Creator  Spiritus,'  from  its  first  verse,  has  been  adopted  by  our 
Church  in  her  '  Ordering  of  Priests'  and  '  Consecration  of  Bishops.' 
Of  these  Hymns,  some  are  altogether  scriptural  and  unexceptionable  in 
doctrine  and  expression  ;  others  debased  by  a  sprinkling  of  error  and 
corruption ;  others  again  corrupt  and  unsound  throughout.  From  the 
two  former  of  these  classes,  especially  from  the  first,  it  appeared  to  me 
some  years  ago  that  a  selection  might  be  made,  which,  rendered  into 
English  verse,  (for  it  is  hardly  necessary  to  observe,  that  these  Hymns, 
as  well  as  the  other  provisions  of  the  Breviary,  are  in  Latin,)  would  be 
an  acceptable  and  useful  Manual  to  many  individuals  and  families  of  our 
reformed  Church,  who  are  pleased  with  a  metrical  form,  as  an  eligible 
vehicle  of  their  devotions." — pp.  iii.  iv. 

"  Some  other  original  Hymns  have  been  added,  with  especial  refer- 
ence to  the  holy  ordinances  of  our  Lord  in  His  Church ;  and  to  the 
Church's  provisions  for  carrying  those  ordinances  into  effect.  For  both 
of  these  ought  at  all  times  to  be  kept  in  the  memory,  to  constitute  the 
principles,  and  to  actuate  the  conduct,  of  all  God's  people,  who  are 
blessed  in  being  members  of  our  part  of  Christ's  Holy  Catholic  and 
Apostolic  Church  :  and  the  mention  of  them  is  accordingly  fit  to  be  in- 
corporated with  our  devotions,  in  verse  as  well  as  in  prose,  in  the  way 
of  commemoration  and  thanksgiving.  Thus  in  each  of  these  Hymns  it 
has  been  my  object  to  fix  in  the  mind  some  article,  important  to  the 
well-being  of  Christ's  body,  and  of  his  members  in  particular ;  arranged 

Hymns  of  the  Primitive  Church.  129 

so  as  to  give  something  like  a  compendious  sketch  of  practical  Theology, 
as  exemplified  in  the  Christian  means  of  grace.  Shouhl  any  families  or 
individuals  be  disposed  to  make  them  a  part  of  their  devotions,  it  is  sub- 
mitted that  they  might  occasionally  be  adopted  on  the  Sunday,  or  might 
be  used  in  succession  as  daily  exercises  throughout  a  week. 

"  I  have  said  that  this  Book  of  Hymns  is  designed  in  aid  of  family  or 
personal  devotion  :  with  respect  to  public  worship,  I  do  not  presume  to 
offer  any  materials  for  its  use  ;  because,  as  I  know  no  consideration 
which  will  justify  the  act  or  sanction  of  an  ndividual  in  contributing  to 
the  introduction  of  Forms  of  Singing,  any  more  than  of  Forms  of  Pray- 
ing, into  our  churches  and  chapels,  without  public  legal  authority,  so  I 
am  persuaded  that  every  new  attempt  of  the  kind  only  tends  to  aggravate 
the  evils  of  such  a  practice." — pp.  v.  vi. 

"  I  will  only  add,  that  should  it  ever  be  determined  by  those,  who 
have  the  requisite  authority  in  the  Church,  to  take  the  subject  into  their 
grave  consideration,. and  encounter  some  difficulty  for  the  purpose  of 
remedying,  by  God's  blessing,  great  and  unquestionable,  and  continually 
increasing  evils ;  and  should  the  result  of  their  deliberations  be  a  reso- 
lution to  adopt  the  necessary  steps  for  providing,  under  the  proper  legal 
sanction,  a  Book  of  Hymns  for  the  use  of  the  United  Church  of  Eng- 
land and  Ireland  :  the  application  of  the  precedent  established  by  our 
Reformers  in  the  construction  of  our  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  and 
accordingly  the  adapting  of  such  compositions,  as  form  the  leading  con- 
tents of  this  little  volume,  to  the  use  of  public  as  well  as  of  private  devo- 
tion, might  possibly  be  deemed  not  unworthy  of  a  thought.  And  pos- 
sibly also  it  might  be  not  unworthy  of  inquiry,  how  far  it  would  be  well 
to  apply  the  principle,  which  has  for  |he  most  part  regulated  the  com- 
position of  the  Original  Hymns  in  the  latter  part  of  this  volume :  the 
principle,  namely,  of  introducing  into  this  department  of  divine  worship 
thankful  commemorations  of  the  constitution  and  ordinances  of  the 
Church  ;  and  thus  taking  occasion  for  impressing  on  her  members  a 
sense  of  the  blessings  which  they  enjoy  in  her  communion  j  as  the 
spiritual  privileges  of  the  chosen  people  of  old,  their  Salem  and  their 
Zion,  their  temple  and  ark  of  the  covenant,  their  priesthood,  their  fes- 
tivals, and  their  religious  solemnities,  were  no  doubt  endeared  to  the 
hearts  of  the  members  of  the  Jewish  Church,  by  being  commemorated 
in  their  sacred  songs." — pp.  vii.  viii. 

It  remains  to  be  said  that  we  have  received  other  metrical  col- 
lections of  Psalms  and  Hymns  : — but  we  do  not  like  even  to  par- 
ticularize them,  as  they  form  a  descent  some  five  thousand  fathoms 
deep  from  the  Bishop  of  Down  and  Connor. 

NO.  XLMl. — JULY,   1837. 

(     130     ) 

Art.  VII. 1 .  Lect lives  on  the  Presence  of  the  Body  and  Blood  of 

our  Laid  Jesus  Christ,  in  the  Blessed  Eucharist.  Delivered  in 
the  En(^lish  College,  Rome.  By  Nicholas  Wiseman,  D.  D. 
\ol.  I.^    Scriptiual  Proofs.     London,  183G. 

2.  The  Ro7nan- Catholic  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist  Considered  ; 
in  anszcer  to  Dr.  Wisema)i's  ylrguments,  from  Scripture.  By 
Thomas  Turton,  D.  D.,  Regius  Professor  of  Divinity,  Cam- 
bridge; and  Dean  of  Peterborough.     1837. 

3.  Remarks  on  Dr.  Wisemans  Lectures  on  the  Rule  of  Faith  and 
on  the  Eucharist.  By  Philalethes  Cantabrigiensis.  (Reprinted 
from  the  British  Magazine.)     Rivingtons.      1837. 

In  the  year  787  was  assembled  the  Second  Council  of  Nice,  to 
the  dismay  and  confusion  of  all  impious  Iconoelasts.  Among  the 
propositions  condemned  by  that  assembly,  was  one,  affirming  that 
the  Eucharist  was  the  only  image  of  Jesus  Christ  which  could  be 
permitted  to  the  Church  ;  and  that,  consequently,  all  other  images 
were  to  be  banished,  as  manifest  temptations  to  idolatry.  This 
notion,  it  was  replied,  was  altogether  intolerable  :  seeing  that  the 
Eucharist  was  the  body  itself,  and  the  blood  itself;  and  that, 
therefore,  it  could  with  no  propriety  be  spoken  of  as  an  image  or 
representation  of  Jesus  Christ.  From  this  it  appears  that,  in  the 
language  of  the  Church,  the  consecrated  elements  were,  at  that 
period,  clearly  identified  with  those  things  of  which  they  were, 
sometimes,  called  the  figure,  or  the  symbol.* 

In  the  year  1215,  the  still  fluctuating  and  unstable  notions  of 
men,  respecting  the  presence  of  the  Saviour  in  the  Sacrament, 
were  condensed  and  consolidated,  by  the  decrees  of  the  fourth 
Lateran  Council,  into  the  form  of  a  doctrine,  and  enshrined  in 
that  imperishable  word — Transubstantiation.  According  to  this 
doctrine,  the  bread  was  changed  into  the  body  of  Christ,  and  the 
wine  into  his  blood  ;  but,  as  the  flesh  and  blood  together  make 
up  the  integral  body,  and,  so,  are  inseparable  from  each  other,  it 
Avould  seem  to  follow  that  communion  in  either  kind  must,  of 
itself,  be  perfect.  In  1414,  the  Council  of  Constance  attempted 
to  banish  all  uncertainty  as  to  that  matter,  by  the  following  por- 
tentous canon  :- — "  Licet  Christus  sub  utraque  specie  instituerit, 
"  eundemque  administrandi  modum  Ecclesia  Primitiva  retinuerit, 
"  his  tamen  non  obstantibus,  consuetudo  Ecclesise,  qua,  sub  panis 
"  specie  tantummodo  a  laicis  suscipiatur,  est  observanda."  This 
desperate  decree  was  confirmed  by  a  canon  of  the  Council  of 
Basil,  in  1437,  viz. — "  Eucharistiam  sub  una  specie  a  laicis  sus- 

*  Fleiiry  ad  aim.  787. 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist,  131 

"  cipiendam;    Christum  integrum  esse,  sub  alterutra  specie  :  et 
"  consuetudinem  Ecclesis  pro  lege  habendam."     All   this  while, 
the  Christian  world  had  been  deeply  and  violently  agitated  by  so 
outrageous  a  mutilation  of  the  Saviour's  Institution  :  and  the  dis- 
pleasure continued  to  accumulate,  till  the  jnessure  from  without 
compelled  the  Council  of  Trent  to  grapple  with  the  question.  By 
those  who  contended,  in  that  assembly,  for  communion  in  both 
kinds,  the  6th  chapter  of  St.  John  was  considered  as  a  fortress  of 
impregnable  strength  :  for  it  declares — "  except  ye  eat  the  flesh  of 
"  Christ,  and  drink  his  blood,  ye  have  no  life  in  you."     On  the 
contrary,  the  abettors  of  the  Church's  infallibity  maintained  that 
this  strong-hold  could  afford  the  remonstrants  no  protection ;  for 
that  the  whole  of  the  sixth  chapter  of  St.  John  was  capable  only 
of  a  spiritual  interpretation.     The  Fathers  of  the  Holy  Synod, 
however,  were  far  too  wise  to  abandon  either  of  these  modes  of 
explanation  :  for,  why  should   they  not  keep  possession  of  two 
strong  positions,  each  of  which  might  be  eminently  useful  against 
the  common  enemy  ?     Their  decision,  accordingly,  was  as  fol- 
lows : — "  Cum,  eii  geminse  interpretationis  opulentia,  de  Sancti 
*'  Johannis  testimonio,  Ecclesia  frueretur,  quarum  iitraque  pro- 
"  bationem  ab  haereticis  inde  deductam  impugnabat,  ad   unius 
"  tantummodo  paupertatem  non  esse  redigendam." 

Now  this  really  does  appear  to  us  a  most  consummate  master- 
piece of  what  we  may  venture  to  call  double-barrelled  theology. 
It  is  absolutely  perfect,  and  inimitable.     Here  are  two  exposi- 
tions, widely  different  from  each  other,  of  which,  the  first  may  be 
useful  against  one  class  of  heretics,  and  the  second  against  another 
class  of  heretics.     The  Church  abstains  from  giving  her  solemn 
canonical  sanction  to  either,  exclusively:  but  leaves  her  champions 
at  full  liberty  to  employ  whichever  of  them  may,  from  time   to 
time,  be  found  most  serviceable.     Is  the  claimant  of  communion 
in  both  kinds  to  be  silenced  ?     He  is,  straightway,  reminded  that 
the  Church  affords  him  no  authority  for  a  literal  interpretation  of 
the  words  of  the  Evangelist,  when  he  speaks  of  the  flesh  and  blood 
of  Jesus  Christ,  or  even  for  any  application  of  those  words  to  the 
blessed  Eucharist.     Is  the  rebel  against  Transubstantiation  to  be 
put  down  ?     He  is  told  that  the  spiritual  sense  of  the  words  is 
utterly  inadmissible,  and  that  they  can  indicate  no  less  than  the 
substantial  presence  of  the  Saviour,  under  the  semblance  of  the 
consecrated  material.  And  thus  it  is  that  the  Mother  and  Mistress 
of  all  Churches,  without  committing  her  infallibility  to  the  truth 
of  either  exposition,  exults  and  revels  in  the  power  and  the  opu- 
lence of  both ! 

It  may,  possibly,  be  alleged  that  the  Anglican  Church  abstains, 
with  equal  caution,  from  a  dogmatical  application  of  the  sixth 


1 32  Dis.  Wiseman  ami  Tiirton — 

chapter  of  John,  to  the  Sacrament  of  Christ's  body  and  blood. 
With  equal  a/z/Z/o//,  perhaps  ;  but,  certainly  not  with  equal  craft. 
Ilcr  laii<i-uai;e,  in  eiVect,  is  simply  this — ''Take  your  choice; 
"  interpret  the  pinaseology  of  John  vi.  either  with  especial  re- 
"  forence  to  the  Eucharist,  or,  merely  with  reference  to  the  beiie- 
"  fits  of  the  Saviour's  Advent,  generally, — in  either  case,  we  main- 
"  t:iiu  that  our  doctrine  is  safe.  We  deny  not  that  our  Lord  mai/, 
"  on  that  occasion,  have  spoken  with  a  view  to  the  future  institu- 
"  tion  ;  and  many  of  us  conceive  it  to  be  highly  probable  that  he 
"  did  so.  But,  whether  he  did  or  not,  our  persuasion  is,  that  his 
"  words  afford  no  support  whatever  to  the  sacramental  doctrines 
"  peculiar  to  the  Church  of  Rome." 

Dr.  Nicholas  Wiseman,  indeed,  is  very  far  from  parading  the 
Church's  opulence  of  interpretation.  On  the  contrary,  he  seems 
to  think  of  nothing  but  the  exemplary  moderation  and  abstemious- 
ness of  the  Council,  in  forbearing  to  appropriate  the  texts  ill  ques- 
tion to  the  settlement  of  the  grand  sacramental  verity.  ''  See," 
he  exclaims,  "  how  false  are  the  assertions  commonly  made,  that 
"  the  Council  blindly  decreed  whatsoever  it  listed,  without  any 
"  consideration  of  grounds  or  arguments.  So  far  from  wishing, 
"  at  any  cost,  to  seize  upon  a  strong  confirmatory  proof,  such  as 
"  it  might  have  drawn  from  John  vi.,  it  prudently  refrained  from 
"  defining  any  thing  regarding  it,  because  the  tradition  of  the 
"  Church,  however  favourable,  was  not  decided  for  it."  And  then 
he  adds,  "  Although,  when  arguing  with  Protestants,  we  waive 
•'  the  authority  of  the  council,  and  argue  upon  mere  hermeneutical 
"  grounds,  and  can  support  one  proof  on  these  as  strongly  as  the 
"  other,  yet,  to  the  mind  of  the  Catholic,  who  receives  his  faith 
"  from  the  teaching  of  tlie  Church,  the  evidence  of  the  dogma  is 
"  in  the  argument,  on  which  we  are  now  entering — (viz  :  from  the 
"  words  of  the  Institution) — and  which  has  been  pronounced,  by 
"  her,  definitive  on  the  subject."     (Lect.  p.  l60.) 

It  appears,  then,  that  Dr.  Wiseman,  being  here  engaged  in  the  task 
of  etlifving  the  students  of  the  English  College  at  Rome,  relative 
to  the  sacraniental  controversy,  rejoices  in  the  comfortable  liberty 
provided  for  him  by  the  modesty  and  prudence  of  the  Holy  Synod  ; 
and,  accordingly,  employs,  without  hesitation,  a  formidable  appa- 
ratus of  hermeneutical  science,  for  the  purpose  of  pressing  into 
the  service  of  the  Romish  doctrine  a  certain  portion  of  the  sixth 
chapter  of  St.  John.  And  we  have  very  little  doubt  that  his  la- 
bours herein  will  meet  with  most  gracious  acceptance  at  the 
V' atican.  As  little  can  it  be  doubted  that,  if  some  other  master 
of  Romish  theology  should,  at  any  time,  find  it  needful  to  sup- 
press the  scruples  of  the  faithful,  or  tlie  gainsaying  of  the  heretic, 
respecting  the  practice  of  connnunion  in  one  kind,  the  science  of 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  133 

hermeneutics  would,  still,  be  found  abundant  in  resources  for  that 
purpose  also.  The  words  which  relate  to  eating  the  flesh,  and 
drinking  the  blood,  of  Christ,  would  then  be  invested  with  a 
purely  spiritual  sense;  and  this,  without  one  syllable  of  disappro- 
bation from  the  infallible  Church.  In  fact,  Dv.  Wiseman  himself 
has  told  us,  that  "  the  Church  always  decides  the  dogma,  and,  in 
*'  son)e,  though  few  instances,  has  decided  the  meaning  of  texts  : 
''  but,  generally  speaking,  it  leaves  the  discussion  of  individual 

passages  to  the  care  of  theologians  ;  who  are  not  at  liberty  to 
"  adopt  any  interpretation  which  is  not  strictly  conformable  to 
"  the  dogmas  defined." 

Every  person  will  perceive  how  unspeakably  difficult  it  must 
always  be  to  encounter  a  theology,  which  holds  it  lawful  to  adopt 
one  interpretation  of  Scripture,  for  the  purpose  of  illustrating  one 
dogma,  and  a  directly  opposite  interpretation  for  the  purpose  of 
illustrating  another  dogma  !  We  know  not  well  whereto  to  liken 
such  a  system,  but  to  a  flaming  sword  which,  literally,  turns 
every  way — east  and  west,  north  and  south— to  keep  the  way 
of  Church  authority  and  tradition.  Or,  perhaps  we  may  be  par- 
doned for  describing  it  by  help  of  another  similitude  ;  and  saying, 
that  it  reminds  us  of  one  of  those  toys,  resembling  the  human 
lorm,  which,  being  duly  loaded,  is  sure  to  assume  an  erect  posi- 
tion, in  whatever  direction  or  manner  it  may  be  thrown.  Is  it  not 
true,  that  the  Romish  controversial  divinity  is  neither  more  nor 
less  than  a  sort  of  artificial  tumbler,  which  is  always  sure  to  light 
upon  its  feet  ?  The  infallible  authority  of  the  Church  is  the 
Ulterior  loading.  The  hermoieutical  apparatus  is  the  lighter  ma- 
terial ot  the  visible  figure.  And,  between  the  two,  permanent 
overthrow  or  prostration  is  absolutely  impossible. 

But,  now,  a  word  or  two  upon  the  hermeneutical  apparatus  itself. 
The  whole  science  of  hermeneutics,  as  understood  by  Dr.  Wise- 
man, depends  upon  one  simple  and  obvious  principle,  applicable 
alike  to  the  writings  of  all  authors,  whether  sacred  or  profane; 
namely,  that  "  the  true  meaning  of  a  word  or  phrase,  is  that  which 
*'  was  attached  to  it,  at  the  time  when  the  person,  whom  we  in- 
"  terprct,  wrote  or  spoke."  (p.  20.)  Well— there  scarcely  needs 
either  ghost  from  the  grave,  or  oracle  from  Rome,  to  tell  us  this. 
Undoubtedly,  all  words,  and  forms  of  speech,  must  be  understood 
according  to  the  notorious  usage  of  the  period  in  which  they  were 
uttered,  or  written.  And,  since  dift'erent  meanings,  or  ditlerent 
shades  of  meaning,  will  frequently  gather  round  the  same  word, 
111  the  lapse  of  ages,  it  becomes,  of  course,  an  important  province 
ol  philology  to  ascertain  the  power  of  that  word,  at  the  precise 
time  when  the  author  or  the  speaker  flourished.  All  this  is  true, 
and  obvious  enough.     But,  surely,  this  one  exiguous  proposition 

1 54  Drs.  Wiseman  and  Turton — 

call  liartlly  be  llic  parent  of  that  giant  brood  of  wonders,  which 
our  hcrmcncutical  show-man  is  here  exhibiting  to  the  world  !  The 
moment  wo  looked  upon  it,  we  were  haunted  by  certain  suspi- 
cions that  more  must  be  meant  than  meets  the  ear.  We  felt  as  if 
our  fooling  was  on  very  slippery  ground.  We  began  to  appre- 
hend— like  Dr.  Turton — that  our  conductor  might  be  carrying 
us,  by  a  gentle  and  gliding  transition,  from  "  the  meaning  of  a 
"  word,  or  phrase,  to  the  impression  made  by  an  entire  address, 
"  or  section  of  an  address;"  seeing  that"  a  word  or  phrase  might 
"  be  understood  by  one,  who  mistook  the  import  of  the  sentence  ; 
"  and  the  sentence  by  one,  who  misapprehended  the  whole  dis- 
*'  course."*  As  we  proceeded,  we  perceived,  at  every  step,  fresh 
cause  for  vigilance  and  circumspection.  And  yet,  with  all  our 
care,  we  found  it  unspeakably  difficult  to  see  our  way  an  inch 
before  our  face  ; — such  were  the  windings  and  doublings  of  our 
guide  !  The  following,  as  nearly  as  we  can  discern  and  describe 
it,  is  his  line  of  exposition.  He  first  tells  us  that  words  and 
phrases  are  to  be  understood,  according  to  their  current  import, 
at  any  given  time.  He,  next,  informs  us,  that  tuords  may  chance 
to  be  misunderstood  :  and  that,  therefore,  "  the  science  decides, 
"  not  by  the  impressions  actually/  made,  but  by  those  which  the 
"  words  were  necessarily  calculated  to  make."  And  yet,  he  ends 
by  declaring  that  "  the  only  true  interpretation  of  any  person's 
"  words,  is  that  which  must  necessarih/  have  been  affixed  to  them" — ■ 
(and  which,  conserjuently,  was  affixed  to  them) — "  by  those  whom 
"  he  addressed,  and  by  whom  he,  primarily,  desired  to  be  under- 
*'  stood."  And,  finally,  to  complete  our  confusion  and  perplexity, 
he  confesses,  that  "  when  he  speaks  of  our  Saviour's  discourses 
"  being  understood,  he  "does  not  mean  that  they  were  compre- 
"  /tended!" 

And  this  is  the  science  of  hermeneutics  !  Well  might  Dr.  Tur- 
ton exclaim — "  That  person  is  not  a  little  to  be  envied,  for  his 
"  understanding,  or  his  comprehension,  or  both,  who,  after  winding 
"  through  Dr.W'iseman's  labyrinth  of  sentences,  can  flatter  himself 
"  that  he  emerges,  with  even  the  slightest  notion  of  the  bearings  of 
"  his  position,  at  any  single  pointof  his  course."  One  thing,  indeed, 
we  do  fancy  ourselves  able  to  perceive  ;  and  that  is,  that  we  liave, 
all  this  while,  been  sliding  on,  from  one  position  to  another.  For, 
although  the  lecturer  begins  by  simply  contending  for  that  sense 
of  tuords  and  phrases  which  was  conformable  to  the  nsus  loquendi 
of  the  age,  the  tendency  of  his  whole  disquisition  is,  to  make  the 
audience  of  our  Saviour  the  interpreters  of  much  more  than  words 
and  phrases.     However,  as  it  is  not  impossible  that,  in  our  deep 

•  Turton,  p.  62. 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  135 

bewilderment,  we  may  have  mistaken  his  meaning,  we  shall  only 
say,  that  he   is  quite  welcome  to  the  proposition  with  which  he 
sets  out,  so  long  as  it  remains  in  its  original  imbecility  and  naked- 
ness.    But  if,  as  we  hugely  suspect,  he  aims  at  more  than  this, — 
if  his  design   is,  to  impose  upon  us  the  sense  in  which  the  dis- 
courses of  our  Lord  were  taken  by  the  Jewish  multitude, — then, 
we  have  nothing  to  do  but  to  appeal,  at  once,  to  the  language  in 
which  our  Lord  himself  speaks  of  his  infatuated  countrymen  : — 
The  hearts  of  this  people  are  waxed  gross;  their  eyes  are  blinded; 
so  that  they  can  neither  see  with  their  eyes,  nor  hear  with  their  ears, 
and  that,  seeing  they  see  not,  and  hearing  they  do  not  understand. 
To  these  hermeneutical  principles,  Philalethes  Cantabrigiensis 
suggests   the   addition  of  another,  which,  of  course,  all  Roman- 
Catholic  expositors  will  indignantly  reject ;  viz. — that  "  when  a 
"  passage  relates  to  a  fact,  falling  within  the  cognizance  of  our 
"  senses,  any  interpretation  of  that  passage  which  contradicts  their 
"  evidence,  is  to  be  rejected  as  false."    For  ourselves,  we  should, 
perhaps,  be  content  to  say  that,  where  the  evidence  of  the  senses 
is  contradicted,  the  interpretation  contended  for  must  sink  under 
the  presumption  which  instantly  arises  against  it,  unless  such  in- 
terpretation be  supported  by  proof,  of  irresistible  and  overpower- 
ing cogency.     And,  in  this  form,  we  do  maintain  that  the  canon 
of  Philalethes  ought  to  be  engraved  in  marble,  and  placed  con- 
stantly before  the  eyes  of  every  interpreter  of  Scripture.     We  are 
distinctly  aware  that  this  principle  has  been  disputed,  not  only  by 
Romanists,    but,  occasionally,   by  Protestants    also.      We   have 
clearly  in  our  recollection,  the  profound  metaphysics  of  a  certain 
lay-divine,  who  has  gravely  reminded  us  that  the  senses  take  no 
cognizance  of  substances,  separately  from  their  qualities  or  acci- 
dents ;  and  that,  consequently,  their  testimony  may  be  safely  and 
legitimately  disregarded.     But,  in  spite  of  all  this  sage  admoni- 
tion, we  still  affirm,  with  entire  confidence,  that  the  maxim  in 
question  is  worth  a  whole  cart-load  of  hermeneutics.    It  may,  per- 
haps, simplify  our  inquiries,  if  we  seize  the  present  opportunity 
of  attempting,  once  for  all,  to  set  this  matter  right. 

Let  us,  then,  imagine  that  a  small  copper  coin  were  presented 
to  us  by  a  person,  who  affirmed  it  to  be  an  ingot  of  gold.  What 
should  we  think  of  that  person,  if  he  endeavoured  to  beat  down  our 
incredulity,  by  telling  us  that  we  were  unpardonably  rash  and  hasty 
ni  our  resistance  to  his  assertion, — that  we  might  very  easily  be 
deceived  by  the  report  of  our  senses, — that  the  piece  before  us 
might,  indeed,  be  invested  with  all  the  sensible  properties  of  cop- 
per,— but  that,  beneath  these  appearances,  for  any  tiling  that  we 
could  tell,  the  very  substance  of  the  more  precious  metal  might  lie 
concealed, — and,  lastly,  that   the  detection  of  substances  \vas  a 

136  Drs.  Wiseman  rtwrf  Turton — 

matter  wholly  beyond  tlie  province  of  llie  senses  ?  Should  we  not 
instantly  reply  that  every  man  is  so  born,  or  so  taught,  that  the 
testimony  of  the  senses  is  absolutely  conclusive  as  to  the  ditierence 
between  one  material  and  another ;  or,  at  least,  so  far  conclusive, 
that  nothing  short  of  some  irresistible  evidence  to  the  contrary, 
could  ever  be  allowed  to  nullify  that  testimony? 

Let  ns,  next,  suppose  that  the  person  making  this  affirmation, 
were  one,  who  had  already  astonished  the  world  with  an  over- 
powering display  of  miracles, — all  of  them,  however,  appealing  to 
the  senses, — all  of  them,  without  exception,  involving  some  change 
or  other,  the  reality  of  which  had  been  ascertained  by  the  faculties 
of  seeing,  hearing,  touching,  tasting,  and  handling.  What,  in  that 
case,  is  the  demeanour  which  would  become  us  ?  Undoubtedly 
it  would  then  be  our  duty  to  pause,  before  we  ventured  to  reject 
his  averment.  But,  even  so,  we  assuredly  might  venture,  humbly 
and  reverentially,  to  say  to  him,  "  How  can  these  things  be?  We 
"  have  been  present  when  the  blind  received  their  sight,  and  the 
"  deaf  heard,  and  the  lame  walked,  and  the  lepers  were  cleansed 
"  with  a  touch,  and  thousands  were  fed  from  a  few  loaves  and 
"  fishes.  And  we  know  that  all  these  mighty  works  were  done, 
"  in  order  that  the  very  senses  of  men  might  condemn  them,  if 
"  they  persisted  in  disbelieving  that  a  messenger  from  God  had 
'*  come  into  the  world.  But,  now,  for  the  first  time,  we  are  re- 
"  quired, — not  to  consult  our  senses, — but  to  cast  our  senses 
"  aside;  and,  with  them,  every  faculty  by  which  men  can  judge 
"  whether,  or  not,  a  miracle  has  been  wrought.  Again,  therefor?, 
"  we  ask,  how  can  these  things  be  !  And,  why  are  we  required  to 
"  believe  that  a  total  change  has  been  wrought,  where  all  appears 
"to  be  precisely  as  it  was  before?  Surely,  we  cannot  have 
"  rightly  understood  the  saying:  or,  surely,  the  words  must  have 
"  some  hidden  sense,  different  from  that  which  they  seem  to  ex- 
"  press."  Now,  if  the  person  so  questioned,  should  distinctly 
return  for  answer,  that  the  hand  of  Omnipotence  had  been  se- 
cretly and  invisibly  at  work,  although  the  effect  of  the  operation 
was  concealed  from  us,  it  may  safely  be  conceded  that  nothing 
would  be  left  for  us,  but  to  lay  the  finger  upon  our  lips,  and  to 
bow  in  silence.  But  we  contend,  without  hesitation,  that  nothing 
short  of  some  such  imperative  reply,  could  reasonably  be  ex- 
pected to  suppress  our  misgivings.  And  we  further  contend,  that 
the  most  stupendous  series  of  antecedent  wonders, — every  one  of 
which  had  been  tested  and  verified  by  the  senses  of  all  who  wit- 
nessed them, — could  never,  of  itself,  have  prepared  our  minds  for 
another  wonder,  which  contradicted  every  faculty  we  possessed. 

It  will  be  observed  that,  in  the  above  imaginary  case,  the  words 
asserting  the  supposed  miracle  are  such  as  seem  scarcely  capable 

The  Duel  line  of  the  Eucharist.  137 

of  ;jny  but  a  strictly  literal  interpretation.  And,  in  this  respect, 
they  differ  materially  from  any  words  of  Scripture  which  have 
ever  been  relied  npon,  in  support  of  the  Komish  doctrine  of  tran- 
substantiation,  Bellarmine  himself — in  his  "  magnificent  con- 
troversies," as  they  are  termed  by  Dr.  Wiseman — cautiously  ab- 
stains from  asserting  that  there  is  a  single  passage  in  Scripture 
sufliciently  express  to  compel  us  to  the  admission  of  that  doc- 
trine, independently  of  the  declaration  of  the  Church.*  We  re- 
peat, therefore,  that  until  it  shall  be  shown  that  Bellarmine's 
caution  is  wholly  misplaced, — ^until  it  shall  be  rigorously  demon- 
strated  that  the  words  of  institution,  or  the  words  in  John  vi., 
can  be  no  otherwise  than  literally  understood, — the  testimony  of 
the  senses  must  remain  conclusive.  It  is  their  natural  office  to 
arbitrate  in  all  such  cases;  and,  from  that  office  nothing  can  de- 
pose them,  save  the  word  of  Omnipotence  itself, — and  that,  so 
clearly,  positively,  and  indubitably  pronounced,  as  to  leave  no  pos- 
sibility of  doubt  as  to  the  import  of  it.  Dr. Wiseman, of  course,  will 
tell  us  that  the  declaration  of  the  infallible  Church  is  equivalent 
to  the  sure  word  of  Omnipotence.  This  assertion,  however,  ma- 
nifestly involves  another  and  a  distinct  controversy.  In  the  mean 
time,  we  certainly  shall  not  surrender  the  testimony  of  our  senses, 
to  the  hermenetitics  of  Dr.  Wiseman  ! 

While  we  are  about  it,  we  may  as  well,  perhaps,  despatch  the 
whole  of  this  portion  of  the  subject,  out  of  hand.  We,  accord- 
ingly, ask  Dr.  Wiseman,  does  he  contend,  or  does  he  not,  that  the 
Apostles,  when  they  heard  the  words,  this  is  my  body,  S^c,  dis- 
tinctly understood  our  Lord  to  mean  that  the  thing  which  he  pre- 
sented to  them  with  his  own  hands — (for  we  suppose  we  must 
not  call  it  bread) — was  his  own  body,  divested  as  it  was  of  all  the 
corporeal  attributes  which  address  the  senses?  If  Dr.  Wiseman  con- 
tends that  they  did  so  understand  him,  we  then  tell  him  that  he 
contends  for  that  which  is  not  only  without  evidence,  but  against 
evidence.  It  is  without  evidence  ;  for  there  is  not  one  syllable  in 
the  Evangelical  narratives  which  points  to  any  such  impression,  or 
any  such  suspicion,  on  the  part  of  those  who  sat  at  table  with  our 
Lord.  It  is  against  evidence;  because  it  is  beyond  all  credibility, 
that  the  very  men  who  had  repeatedly  questioned  him  when  he 
uttered  hard  sayings — the  very  men  who  were  staggered  when  he 
said,  a  little  tuhile  ye  shall  see  me,  S^c.  8^c. — that  these  same  men 

*  The  words  of  Bellarmine  .ire, — "  Secundo  dicit  [Duns  Scotus]  non  extarc  locum 
"  ulluiii  Scripturse  tain  expressuni,  ut,  sine  Jjccle8ia3  decliiratione,  evidenter  coyat  Tran- 
"  suljstiiiit'uitioncm  adinittere.  Atque  id  non  est  omnino  improbabile.  Nam,  eisi  Scrip- 
"  lura,  quaiii  iios  supra  adduxiraus,  videatur  nobis  tain  clara,  ut  possit  cogere  homineiii 
"  non  protervum  ;  tamen,  an  ita  sit,  merito  dubitari  potest,  cum  homines  doctissinii  et 
"  acutissimi,  quaiis  imprimis  Scotus  luit,  contrariutu  sentiant."  (Dc  Sac.  Jlucliar.  lib.  iii. 
c.  '23),    See  Tiirton,  p.  S85. 

138  Drs.  Wiseman  atid  Tuitoii — 

should  sit,  ill  undisturbed  silence,  when  they  were  required  to 
believe,  that  the  rraginent  of  something  or  other  which  was  placed 
in  the  hands  of  each  of  them,  was  no  other  than  the  identical  body 
of  the  person  by  whom  that  fragment  was  presented  to  them.  We 
say,  that,  to  afFirni  this,  is  to  affirm  that  the  Apostles  were,  not 
merely  ditl'erent  from  all  other  human  beings,  but  dift'erent  from 
themselves.  We  say,  that  to  suppose  the  Apostles  to  have  taken 
the  words  in  their  literal  sense,  and  yet  to  have  listened  to  this, 
the  hardest  and  most  astounding  of  all  the  sayings  of  their  Master, 
without  a  syllable  of  inquiry, — without  the  slightest  expression  of 
surprise  or  doubt, — is  to  betray  the  most  monstrous  ignorance  of 
human  nature,  and  the  most  prodigious  forgetfulness  of  the  Apos- 
tolic history.  We  say,  in  short,  that  to  affirm  this,  is  to  offer 
positive  affront  to  the  understandings  of  all  sane  and  reasonable 
men.  And,  lastly,  we  say  that,  if  this  matter  oi  fact  had  ever  been 
dogmatically  asserted — (which  it  has  not,  that  we  know  of) — by 
the  infallible  Church,  she  then  would  virtually  have  arrogated  to 
herself  a  dominion,  not  only  over  our  doctrinal,  but  over  our  his- 
torical, faith.  She  would  have  said,  in  effect, — ^You  must  read 
every  tittle  and  iota  of  the  Scriptural  narratives,  precisely  as  1 
read  them,  or  else  remain  destitute  of  all  hope  of  salvation.  If, 
however,  on  the  other  hand,  it  should  be  conceded  that  the 
Apostles  did  not  thus  literally  understand  the  words  of  institu- 
tion,— then,  as  it  seems  to  us,  the  controversy  must  soon  be  over. 
For,  we  presume,  the  infallible  Church  herself  will  scarcely  pre- 
tend that  things  have  been  revealed  to  her,  which  it  never  entered 
into  the  hearts  of  the  Apostles  to  conceive. 

We  honestly  avow,  that  we  always  find  it  inexpressibly  difficult 
to  bring  our  intellectuals' into  a  fit  condition  for  encountering  the 
perverse  artifices  with  which  the  transparent  simplicity  of  this 
subject  has  been  rendered  opaque  and  turbid.  However,  we 
must  do  our  best  to  screw  up  our  patience  to  the  mark;  and  so 
proceed  to  examine,  briefly,  the  hernieneutical  experiments  of 
Dr.  Wiseman  upon  the  sixth  chapter  of  St,  John. 

Thus,  then,  the  matter  stands  : — From  the  26th  verse  to  the 
end,  that  chapter  is  occupied  with  the  celebrated  discourse  of  our 
Lord,  subsequent  to  the  miraculous  repast  of  five  thousand  per- 
sons, and  with  a  narrative  of  the  effects  produced,  both  by  the 
miracle  and  the  discourse,  upon  the  minds  of  the  multitude  in 
general,  and  of  the  disciples  in  particular.  From  v,  32  to  v.  48, 
after  mentioning  "  the  true  bread  from  heaven," — "  the  bread  of 
"  God  that  giveth  life  unto  the  world,"— -our  Lord  describes  him- 
self, as  "  the  bread  of  life,"  first  in  v.  35,  and  then  again  in  v.  48. 
Inv.  51,he  repeats,  "  I  am  the  living  bread  which  came  down 
**  from  heaven :  if  any  man   eat  of  this  bread,  he  shall   live  iot 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  ]  39 

"  ever."  And  then  he  adds, — "  the  bread  which  I  will  give  is  my 
"  flesh,  which  I  will  give  for  the  life  of  the  world."  Here,  then, 
h\sjiesh  is  spoken  of  by  our  Lord,  for  the  first  time.  And  here, 
accordingly,  one  would  imagine,  the  line  of  division  must  be 
drawn,  if  any  transition  was  intended  by  our  Lord,  from  the 
"  bread,"  of  which  he  had  been  speaking  in  the  former  part  of 
the  chapter,  to  his  own  "flesh,"  which  is  repeatedly  referred  to,  in 
the  latter  part.  With  this  division,  however,  though  generally 
adopted  by  Roman  Catholics,  Dr.  Wiseman  declares  that  he  is 
"  not  satisfied."  He  contends  that,  in  the  earlier  part  of  our 
Lord's  discourse,  the  language  is  to  be  understood  in  a  metapho- 
rical sense  ;  and,  throughout  the  latter,  in  a  rigorously  literal 
sense.  \n  the  former  portion,  *'  the  bread  of  life"  is  no  other  than 
the  doctrine  of  our  Lord,  to  be  received  hy  faith.  In  the  remain- 
ing portion,  the  bread  of  life  is  the  flesh  of  our  Lord — his  real 
corporeal  substance — which  is  to  be  veritably  manducated  by  the 
receiver;  and  to  the  due  reception  of  which,  the  principle  of  love, 
or  charity,  is  the  one  thing  needful.  Now,  it  so  happens,  that 
the  47th  verse  is  that,  in  \^\nc\\  faith  is  adverted  to  for  the  last 
time,  previously  to  any  mention  of  the  "  flesh"  of  Jesus  Christ. 
His  words  in  that  verse  are,  ''Verily,  verily," — (or,  as  Dr.  Wiseman 
will  have  it,  Amen,  Amen)—"  I  say  unto  you,  he  that  believeth  in 
"  me,  hath  everlasting  life."  And  heie,  as  the  lecturer  maintains, 
we  have  "  an  appropriate  close  to  a  division  of  discourse" — "  a 
"  manifest  summary  and  epilogue  of  the  preceding  doctrine" — 
namely,  the  doctrine,  that  the  "  bread  of  life"  is  something,  the 
reception  of  which  requires  only  the  principle  of  belief,  and,  con- 
sequently, can  be  no  other  than  the  teaching  of  our  Lord.  The 
48th  verse,  however,  he  tells  us,  commences  a  new  section  in  the 
chapter.  At  that  point,  the  principle  oi faith  may  be  considered 
as  dismissed,  and  a  new  internal  principle  introduced  in  the  place 
of  it :  and  the  "  bread  of  life  "  which,  before,  had  been  identified 
with  Christ,  as  a  teacher  of  divine  truth,  is  henceforth  to  be  iden- 
tified with  Christ,  as  the  giver  of  his  own  material  bodily  frame, 
to  be  actually  eaten  by  those  who  are  one  with  him  in  love.  This, 
if  we  rightly  comprehend  him,  is  the  scheme  of  Dr.  Wiseman. 
And  manifold  and  bewildering  are  the  subtleties,  by  which  he  has 
laboured  to  transfer  the  line  of  demarcation  from  the  51st  verse 
to  this  more  convenient  position.  And,  in  our  estimation,  most 
consunnnate  is  the  success  with  which  Dr.  Turton  and  Phila- 
lethes  have  swept  away  his  "  thin  designs,"  and  have  shown  that 
a  *'  barricado  of  gossamer"  is  not  more  unsubstantial  than  the 
visionary  land-mark,  set  up  by  the  hermeneutical  ingenuity  of  this 
great  surveyor.  We  cannot,  however,  enter  deeply  into  the  ques- 
tion.     We  could  scarcely  convey  any  distinct  conception  of  it  to 

140  Drs.  Wiseman  and  Tiirton — 

our  readers,  in  all  its  detail,  otherwise  than  by  transferring  to  our 
own  pa^es  a  very  considerable  portion  of  their  masterly  disquisi- 
tions. Tliev  who  are  curious  about  the  matter,  cannot  possibly 
do  better  tlum  follow  these  steady  and  clear-sighted  guides, 
throughout  the  mazes  of  the  investigation.  For  our  own  parts, 
if  there  is  to  be  mnj  line  of  transition,  we  hesitate  not  to  confess 
that  we  care  not  one  rush  where  that  line  is  to  be  drawn.  We, 
really,  do  not  see  why  we  should.     For, 

In  the  first  place,  the  mighty  surveyor  himself — albeit  he  has 
expended  a  vast  deal  of  sagacity  and  toil  in  fixing  the  new  boundary 
— nevertheless  allows  distinctly,  in  another  part  of  his  writings,* 
that  the  point  of  division  is  altogether  "  immaterial."  And,  if  so, 
why  should  time  or  patience  be  wasted  on  the  discussion  ? 

In  the  second  place,  let  the  line  be  drawn  where  it  may,  we 
shall  still  ask,  with  Dr.  Turton,  "if  an  interpreter  is  allowed," 
(not  only  "to  divide  a  discourse  where  he  pleases,  without  the 
"  concurrence  of  a  single  commentator,  good,  bad,  or  indifferent," 
but  also)  "  to  decide  that  the  word  on  which  the  import  of  the 
"  discourse  mainly  depends  has  one  signification  above  the  line  of 
"  division,  and  another  signification  below  it  ?  What  is  such  a 
"  process,  but  the  means  of  extracting  from  the  pages  of  Holy 
"  Writ  any  doctrine  that  may  be  agreeable  to  the  fancy  of  the  in- 
"  dividual  r"  We  say,  once  more,  that  it  matters  comparatively 
little  through  what  point  the  line  of  intersection  is  to  run.  The 
grand  question  is,  whether  the  artist  shall  be  allowed  to  fence  off 
a  continuous  discourse  like  this  into  two  distinct  compartments, — 
to  leave  one  of  those  compartments  open  to  the  common  sense  of 
mankind, — and  to  fix  upon  the  other  for  a  process  of  hermeneutic 
alchemy,  employed  for  the  purpose  of  effecting  the  most  porten- 
tous transmutations.  Again,  like  Dr.  Turton,  we  protest  against 
any  such  plan  of  operation,  "  as  one  of  the  most  extraordinary 
"  moral  phenomena  which  have  been  exhibited  in  modern 
"  times."t 

Thirdly,  nothing,  within  the  whole  range  of  scriptural  interpre- 
tation, appears  to  us  clearer  than  this — that,  whether  the  wall  of 
partition  be  raised  at  the  end  of  v.  47,  or  at  the  end  of  v.  50, 
m  either  case  it  can  do  nothing  to  protect  the  position  of  Dr. 
Wiseman.  That  the  reader  may  perceive  this,  we  would  beseech 
of  him  to  peruse  attentively  that  portion  of  the  chapter  which  lies 
between  the  beginning  of  v.  20  and  the  end  of  v.  57.  And  we 
would,  more  particularly,  request  of  him  to  fix  in  his  recollection 
the  remark  of  the  Jews  in  v.  31 — "  Our  fathers  did  eat  manna  in 
"  the  desert:  as  it  is  turitten,  He  gave  them  bread  to  cat;"  and> 

*  Discourses,  vol.  ii.,  p.  142,  cit.  in  Turton,  p.  142. 
t  Turlon,  p.  79. 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  141 

with  it,  the  subsequent  language  of  our  Lord,  in  which  he  de- 
clared that  the  bread  to  whicii  they  alluded  was  not  the  true  bread 
from  heaven, — that  he  himself  was  come  to  give  them  the  true 
bread, — nay,  that  he  was  himself  that  bread  which  giveth  life 
unto  the  world.  With  these  things  clearly  in  his  remembrance, 
let  him  proceed  to  the  58th  verse,  in  which  (after  having  men- 
tioned— first,  his  flesh  and  blood,  and  then  himself,  as  the  meat 
and  drink  which  imparts  life)  he  adds — "  This  is  the  bread  which 
"  came  doivnfrom  heaven  :  not  as  your  fathers  did  eat  manna,  and 
"  are  dead :  he  that  eateth  of  this  bread  shall  live  for  ever."  And 
now,  let  him  ask  himself,  is  it  credible  that  the  words  of  our  Lord, 
in  reply  to  the  cavil  of  the  Jews  respecting  the  manna,  are  to  be 
spiritually  understood,  and  yet,  that  the  words  in  the  58th  verse 
are  not  to  be  spiritually  understood  ?  Is  it  to  be  believed  that 
the  bread,  as  opposed  to  the  manna  in  v.  32,  &c,  is  Christ,  as  the 
giver  of  life,  to  be  received  purely  by  faith;  and  that  the  bread, 
still  as  opposed  to  the  manna  in  v.  58,  is  Christ,  as  the  giver  of  his 
own  flesh,  to  be  received  by  carnal  manducation?  Are  we  to  en- 
dure a  scheme  of  hermeneutics,  which  exacts  the  submission  of 
our  faculties  to  this  sort  of  double-faced  and  arbitrary  exposition? 
If  this  is  not  to  be  endured,  then,  two  things  are  evident : — First, 
that  Dr.Wiseman  may  safely  enough  be  left  to  take  his  own  choice, 
as  to  which  of  the  two  is  the  fittest  point  for  his  shadowy  line  of 
division,  seeing  that  (let  him  place  it  where  he  will)  he  never  can 
succeed  in  amputating  one  member  of  the  discourse  from  the 
other.  Secondly,  that  if  v.  58  is  to  be  figuratively  and  spiritually 
understood,  there  must  be  an  end  of  the  controversy,  so  far  as 
John  vi.  is  concerned  ;  for  the  58th  verse,  beyond  all  question, 
relates  to  the  flesh  and  blood  of  Christ,  which  had  been  spoken  of 
in  the  verses  immediately  preceding. 

It  may  here  possibly  be  asked,  what  says  Dr.  Wiseman  to  the 
58th  verse?  And,  in  reply,  all  we  have  to  say  is,  that  we  really  can- 
not tell  ;  for  not  one  syllable,  good  or  bad,  does  Dr.  Wiseman  say 
of  the  58th  verse !  It  will  scarcely  be  credited — but,  nevertheless, 
such  is  the  fact — that  the  58th  verse  appears  to  have  utterly  es- 
caped his  notice,  even  while  engaged  in  a  laboured  analysis  of 
our  Lord's  reply  to  the  Jews,  when  they  strove  among  themselves, 
saying, "  How  can  this  man  give  us  his  flesh  to  eat  r" — which  re- 
ply, be  it  observed,  extends  inclusively  from  the  53rd  verse  to  the 
58th.  We  very  willingly  leave  to  Dr.  Turton  the  office  of  a  com- 
mentator upon  this  strange  lapse  of memory  !     "  Some  peo- 

"  pie,"  he  observes,  "  would  dwell  upon  the  disingenuousness  of 
"  such  a  proceeding.  My  disposition  leads  me  to  lament  the 
"  unhappy  condition  of  the  individual  who  has  recourse  to  such 
"  an  expedient.     To  him,  truth  in  religion  must  have  become  as 

142  Drs.  Wiseman  and  Turton— 

"  nothing — the  support  of  an  opinion,  everything.  Literary  at- 
"  tainnients,  I  would  hope,  have  a  tendency  to  cherisli  higher 
"  feelings  and  better  principles.  If  we  can  discover  no  such  feel- 
"  ings  and  principles  in  the  case  under  review,  let  us,  before  we 
"  entirely  condemn  the  individual,  reflect  npon  the  sort  of  eccle- 
**  siastical  training  to  which  he  owes  the  character  of  his  mind." 
Of  that  training,  it  will  be  remembered,  one  invariable  principle 
has  been  stated  by  Dr,  V\  iseman  himself,  namely,  that  dogmas  are 
delined  by  the  Church,  and  individual  passages  left  to  the  care  of 
theologians,  with  this  condition  however,  that  the  theologians, 
under  peril  of  the  anathema,  must  adopt  no  interpretation  but 
what  is  rigorously  conformable  to  the  dogmas  so  defined. 

So  nnich  for  Dr.  Wiseman's  favourite  line  of  division.  So 
nuich  for  the  momentous  transition  from  Christ,  the  teacher,  as 
the  spiritual  repast  by  which  we  are  nourished  into  everlasting- 
life, — to  Christ,  as  the  provider,  who  sustains  us  by  our  carnal 
manducation  of  his  own  body  and  blood.  But  here  it  may  pos- 
sibly be  inquired,  do  we  maintain  that  there  is  no  transition  what- 
ever throughout  the  whole  discourse  ?  Do  we  affirm  that,  from 
the  beginning  to  the  end  of  that  discourse,  our  Lord  is  speaking 
of  his  doctrine,  and  of  nothing  but  his  doctrine,  as  the  bread  of 
life?  And  to  this  we  reply,  that  we  contend  for  no  such  thing. 
We  conceive  it  to  be  highly  probable  that  the  earlier  portion  of 
the  discourse  was  delivered  by  him  chiefly  with  reference  to  the 
truth  which  he  came  to  reveal ;  and  that  the  latter  portion,  in  which 
he  says  that  he  will  give  his  flesh  for  the  life  of  the  world,  was 
spoken  with  reference  to  the  future  sacrifice  of  himself  upon  the 
cross,  and  to  the  inefifable  and  mysterious  blessings  to  be  derived 
from  that  precious  blood-shedding  to  the  souls  and  bodies  of  the 
faithful.  We,  moreover,  allow  it  to  be  not  at  all  improbable  that 
the  future  institution  of  the  Eucharist  was  in  his  thoughts,  when 
he  declared  that,  unless  v;e  eat  the  flesh  of  the  son  of  man,  and 
drink  his  blood,  we  have  no  life  in  us.  What  we  do  maintain  is 
this, — that,  whatever  may  have  been  the  transitions,  in  the  course 
of  our  Lord's  exposition,  they  were  transitions  resembling  those 
by  which  the  morning's  light  shineth  more  and  more  unto  the 
perfect  day.  There  was  no  abrupt  movement  from  a  figurative 
manner  of  speech,  to  a  statement,  the  letter  of  which  must  have 
shaken  to  pieces  the  whole  fabric  and  contexture  of  human  feel- 
ing and  conviction.  There  was  no  sudden  vaulting,  as  it  were, 
over  an  iron  frontier-line,  from  the  ground  of  intelligible  meta- 
phor, into  a  region,  not  only  full  of  mystery,  but  absolutely  full  of 
horror.  Let  the  change  of  subject  be  what  it  might,  it  was  only 
that  sort  of  change  which  is  implied  in  a  gradual  expansion  and 
development  of  one  and  the  same  class  of  truths.     First,  we  have 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  1 43 

the  doctrine,  as  the  bread  of  life.  Then  we  have  that  from  which 
the  doctrine  itself  may  be  said  to  derive  all  its  vital  influence  and 
power — the  passion  of  our  Lord,  with  all  its  mighty  consequences 
and  unspeakable  eft'ects  upon  the  hearts  and  final  destinies  of 
mortal  men  !  And  lastly,  we  have,  perhaps,  the  holy  mysteries  to 
be  instituted  for  a  perpetual  remembrance  of  that  awful  propiti- 
ation, and  in  which  we  are  to  feed  upon  the  Saviour  by  faith  with 
thanksgiving.  In  short,  we  contend  with  Philalethes,  that,  al- 
though Christ  may  pass  "  from  his  doctrine,  first  to  his  passion, 
"  and  then  to  the  Eucharist,  there  is  an  easy  and  natural  transition 
"  from  one  topic  to  the  other,  and  a  connection  between  all  the 
"  parts  of  the  discourse."  If  any  one  doubts  this,  we  would  re- 
commend him  to  peruse  the  whole  chapter,  as  he  would  peruse  it 
if  it  were  laid  before  him  for  the  first  time  in  his  life,- — to  dismiss, 
as  much  as  possible,  all  recollection  of  the  monumental  contro- 
versies beneath  which  the  ^ilain  sense  of  the  matter  has  been  over- 
whelmed, and  well  nigh  buried, — and  then,  to  ask  himself  whe- 
ther he  should  ever  have  discovered  the  barrier,  which  is  now 
supposed  to  separate  the  discourse  into  distinct  compartments. 
Does  he  still  doubt?  We,  then,  would  again  beg  of  him  to  con- 
sult for  himself  the  luminous  discussions  of  our  two  critics,  to 
which  we  could  do  no  justice  by  a  selection  of  specimens  and 
fragments.  If,  after  this,  he  remains  unsatisfied,  we  scarcely 
know  what  merely  human  aid  could  extricate  him  from  his  diffi- 

Of  these  difficulties,  indeed,  there  is  manifestly  but  one  which 
could  give  him  any  serious  pause;  and  that  one  is,  the  strange 
and  apparently  unnatural  phraseology,  by  which  our  Lord  ex- 
presses the  benefits  to  be  derived  from  all  that  he  was  to  do  and 
suff'er  for  mankind.  That  a  teacher  of  the  truth  should  be  the 
*'  bread  of  life"  to  his  faithful  followers  and  disciples,  was  a 
saying  which,  perhaps,  the  most  ignorant  of  his  hearers  might 
well  be  prepared  to  receive.  The  figure  is  one  with  which 
men  have  always  been,  more  or  less,  familiar;  as  Dr.  Wiseman 
has  taken  immense  pains  to  satisfy  us.  That  he  would  give  his 
flesh,  or  sacrifice  his  body,  for  the  good  of  the  world — though 
more  remote  from  common  apprehension — is,  nevertheless,  an 
assertion  which  might  be  listened  to  without  any  violent  insur- 
rection of  prejudice  or  feeling.  It  might  convey  the  notion  that 
the  speaker  was  prepared  to  endure  the  most  fatal  extremities, 
in  order  to  accomplish  the  purposes  for  which  he  visited  the 
earth.  But  when,  in  addition  to  all  this,  he  declares  that  his 
coming  will  be  in  vain  to  all,  save  those  who  shall  "  eat  his 
*'  flesh  and  drink  his  blood,"  it  can  scarcely  be  thought  wonder- 
ful that  such  a  mode  of  speech  should  throw  the  hearers  into 

144  Drs.  Wiseman  o}7d  Tiuton. 

some  commotion.  It  is  suggested  by  Dr.  Turton,  indeed,  that 
persons,  of  less  carnal  minds  might,  without  farther  elucidation, 
have  understood  his  meaning  (p.  116.)  We  confess,  however, 
that  we  are  not  quite  prepared  to  allow  the  probability  of  this. 
It  was  scarcely,  we  think,  to  be  expected,  that  any  persons  then 
present  should  interpret  such  language  as  this,  with  reference  to 
the  vital  doctrines  which  the  Saviour  came  to  teach :  and  it  was 
absolutely  impossible  that  they  should  interpret  them  with  refer- 
ence either  to  the  Crucilixion,  or  the  Eucharist.  And,  if  so,  we 
apprehend  that  the  question,  "  How  can  this  man  give  us  his 
Hesh  to  eat  ?"  might,  naturally  enough,  rush  into  the  minds  even 
of  an  unprejudiced,  teachable,  and  sober-minded  hearer.  But 
then,  we  further  contend  that  such  a  hearer,  instead  of  turning 
away,  in  disgust  and  unbelief,  would  probably  have  reasoned 
thus, — "  This  is  a  hard  saying !  If  literally  understood,  it  conveys 
"  a  sense  from  which  human  nature  recoils  with  abhorence;  a 
"  sense,  therefore,  which  cannot  possibly  have  been  in  the 
"  thoughts  of  the  speaker.  Nothing,  then,  is  left  for  us,  but  to 
"  conclude  that  some  deep  and  gracious  spiritual  mystery  is 
*'  concealed  beneath  these  startling  expressions.  It,  accordingly, 
"  becomes  us  to  wait  submissively,  till  time  and  circumstance 
"  shall  bring  the  true  import  of  these  words  to  light ;  or  else,  to 
"  resort  to  the  speaker  himself,  and  humbly  implore  him  to  set 
"  our  doubts  at  rest."  And  when,  we  would  ask,  did  our 
blessed  Lord  refuse  to  administer  relief  to  the  meek  and  lowly 
spirit,  when  labourniig  under  the  weight  of  his  awful  and  mys- 
terious declarations?  Ought  we  to  question,  for  a  moment,  that, 
if  thus  solicited,  he  would  have  given,  at  once,  a  full  exposition 
of  the  matter;  or  else,  that  he  would  have  admonished  the 
inquirers  to  possess  their  souls  in  peace  and  faith,  until  the 
season  should  arrive  for  the  revelation  of  all  such  dark  and 
hidden  things?  It  would  appear,  from  the  sequel,  that  the 
Apostles  exhibited, — on  this  occasion  at  least, — precisely  that 
tractable  and  obedient  temper,  which  was  always  of  so  great 
price  with  their  Divine  Master.  For,  when  our  Lord  said  unto 
the  twelve.  Will  ye  also  go  away?  Simon  Peter  replied.  Lord,  to 
whom  shall  zee  go?  thou  hast  the  ivords  of  eternal  life.  And  we 
believe,  and  are  sure,  that  thou  art  the  Christ,  the  so7i  of  the 
Living  God:"  thus  wrapping  up  all  their  perplexities,  as  it  were, 
in  the  mantle  of  a  full  assurance,  that  He,  who  came  forth  from 
God  to  speak  the  words  of  eternal  life,  would,  in  his  own  good 
time,  make  the  rough  places  smooth,  and  the  crooked  things 
straight,, before  their  face. 

This  simple  view  of  the  matter,  of  course,  does  not  suit  Dr. 
Wiseman.     His  own  opinion,  and  the  judgment  of  the  Infallible 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist,  145 

Church,  demanded  a  very  different  line  of  exposition.  And  we 
cannot  but  admire — (though  our  admiration  is  unmixed  with  one 
particle  of  envy) — the  desperate  fidelity,  and  the  microscopic 
subtlety,  and  the  untiring  perseverance,  and,  withal  the  bland 
and  commendable  gravity,  with  which  he  has  laboured  to  apply 
his  hermeneutical  dynamics  to  the  whole  sixtli  Chapter  of  St. 
John.  His  zeal  appears  to  have  deprived  him  of  all  conscious- 
ness of  the  manifold  dangers  of  his  position.  He  commits  him- 
self, headlong,  to  assertions  and  principles  which  must  not 
only  appear  positively  monstrous  to  all  Protestants, — but  which 
are,  for  the  most  part,  destitute  of  all  sanction  or  support  from 
the  Doctors  of  his  own  Church.  He  tells  us,  that  we  must  under- 
stand the  first  part  of  the  chapter  figuratively,  and  the  remainder 
literally, — why?  even  because  they  were  actually  so  understood 
by  the  Jewish  multitude,  who  )ni(st  have  been  good  and  sufficient 
judges  of  the  current  phraseology  of  their  own  tongue.  In  other 
words,  he  exalts  to  a  most  important  office — the  office  of  inter- 
preting to  all  future  ages,  the  hardest  sayings  of  Jesus  Christ — 
those  very  people,  whom  Jesus  Christ  himself  had  pronounced 
to  be  under  judicial  blindness  and  infatuation.  He  sees  in  the 
people  of  Capernaum,  '"  a  crowd  of  ardent  and  enthusiastic 
hearers,"  who  listened  ''with  admiration  and  reverence"  to  the 
discourses  of  our  lord ;  of  Capernaum,  respecting  which  our 
Lord  declared  that  it  should  be  more  tolerable  for  the  land  of 
Sodom,  in  the  day  of  judgment,  than  for  her.  He  invests  these 
men  of  dull  ears,  and  sluggish  hearts,  with  the  faculty  of  clearly 
discerning  the  spiritual  import  of  the  former  portions  of  that 
discourse,  when  nothing  can  be  more  irresistibly  evident  than  the 
fact,  that  they  misunderstood  the  whole  of  it  from  first  to  last, — 
that  the  only  thing  in  their  thoughts  and  wishes  was  a  repetition 
of  the  miracle  by  which  their  necessities  had  been  relieved, — 
and  that  whether  our  Lord  spoke  of  the  bread  of  life,  or  of  his 
own  flesh  and  blood,  they  were  equally  destitute  of  any  other 
key  to  his  language,  than  their  own  impatience  for  a  continued 
supply  of  mere  physical  sustenance.  He  dwells  on  the  notable 
distinction,  that,  in  the  first  part,  the  bread  of  life  is  spoken  of 
without  any  intimation  that  this  bread  was  to  be  eaten;  whereas, 
in  the  latter  part,  where  his  fiesh  is  affirmed  to  be  the  bread,  it  is 
declared  that  they  who  eat  of  it  shall  live  for  ever :  and  all  this 
he  advances  in  utter  oblivion,  or  utter  disregard,  of  v.  35,  where 
Jesus,  having  said  that  he  was  the  bread  of  life,  declared  that 
the  believers  in  him  should  neither  hunger  nor  thirst ;  and  all  this, 
too,  he  affirms  in  defiance  of  the  obvious  consideration,  that, 
where  a  spiritual  repast  is  spoken  of,  a  spiritual  consumption  of 
that  repast  is  necessarily  involved  and  implied  in  the  same  figure 
NO.  XLIII. —  JULY,  1837.  L 

146  Dis.  Wiseman  and  Turton — 

of  spoorli.  jAiiotlicr  of  his  ingenious  distinc^tions  is  this,  that 
throiighoul  tilt"  lirst  part,  tl>e  broad  of  life  is  spoken  of  as  given 
by  till'  I'alher,  and  in  the  second  part,  as  given  by  Jesus  Christ 
himself:  a  ilislinction  to  which  there  is  one  mortal  objection  ; 
namely,  that  it  has  no  foundation  in  fact;  seeing  that,  as  early  as 
the  'J7lh  verse,  the  Son  of  man  is  said  to  give  "  the  meat  which 
"  endurelh  unto  everlasting  life  ;"  which  meat,  of  course,  can  be 
no  other  than  the  bread  of  life.  The  argument,  therefore,  recoils 
upon  himself.  For,  as  Dr.  Turton  very  justly  observes,  "  Our 
*'  Loid  is  the  giver  of  the  spiritual  food,  as  well  as  the  Father, 
"  no  less  in  the  former  part  of  the  discourse,  as  well  as  in  the 
"  latter.  If,  therefore,  according  to  Dr.  Wiseman's  views,  a 
"  diversity  of  gifts  implies  a  diversity  of  givers,  an  identity  of 
"  givers,  in  the  two  parts  of  the  discourse,  indicates  an  identity 
"  of  gifts  in  those  parts."  From  which  it  follows,  that  for  both 
parts,  the  same  method  of  interpretation  is  manifestly  requisite. 
But  there  is  no  end  to  the  resources  of  Dr.  Wiseman.  He 
next  reminds  us,  that  if  to  eat,  S^c.  ^c.  signifies  believing  in  Jesus 
Christ,  to  eat  his  flesh  must  signify  to  believe  in  his  flesh.  Well 
— and  what  then  ?  Dr.  Wiseman,  indeed,  tells  us  that  this 
would  be  absurd.  We  suspect  that  the  Apostle  who  wrote 
these  words,  would  pronounce  a  very  difierent  judgment.  For, 
what  is  believing  in  the  flesh  of  Christ,  but  believing  in  his  real 
humanity,  a  matter.  Dr.  Wiseman  must  allow,  of  no  light  import- 
ance in  the  estimation  of  the  Apostle,  and  the  whole  Catholic 
Church,  from  the  Apostolic  times  to  the  present  day;  and  of 
such  transcendent  importance,  in  the  judgment  of  the  Church  of 
Rome,  that,  when  the  words  Homo  fact  as  est,  are  sung  or  recited 
in  the  Mass,  the  people  kneel  down  or  prostrate  themselves, 
conformably  to  the  tradition  of  the  Fathers.*  Besides,  to 
believe  in  Christ  is,  in  fact,  to  rely  upon  Christ,  as  the  Messiah  : 
and,  in  the  same  manner,  to  believe  in  the  flesh  of  Christ,  may, 
very  properly,  signify  to  rely  upon  his  flesh ;  or,  in  other  words, 
to  rest  our  hopes  of  salvation  on  his  meritorious  cross  and  pas- 
sion. On  every  account,  therefore,  we  are  inexpressibly  asto- 
nished to  hear  this  exercise  of  faith  stigmatised  as  an  absarditi/ ; 
and  this,  too,  by  a  faithful  Champion  of  the  Infallible  Church  ! 
Where  are  the  thunders  of  the  Vatican,  if  they  are  silent  now  ! 
And  how  potent  must  have  been  the  influence  of  the  hermeneutic 
"  poppy  and  mandragora,"  to  render  even  Dr.  Wiseman  deaf  to 
the  roar  of  the  anathema ! 

But,  not  merely  slumber,  but  delirium,  seems  to  have  come 

over   him.     F'or  he,   here,  springs   upon   us  with  an  argument, 

"which   was,  doubtless,  meant  to  be   utterly  exterminating:  and 

destructive  enough  it  certainly  is  to  the  whole  hypothesis  of  our 

»  Rhem.  Test,  ad.  John  i.  14;  Turton,  p.  89. 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist,  147 

interpreter!  His  words  are  these:  "  Protestants  say,  that  as,  to 
"  feed  on  Christ,  signifies  to  believe  on  him,  so,  to  eat  the  flesh 
"  of  Christ,  and  drink  his  blood,  means  to  believe  in  his  passion. 
"^  But  they  do  not  bring  a  single  argument  to  show  that  such  a 
"  phrase  was  in  use,  or  luould  have  been  intelligible  to  his  hearers." 
— "  I  have  never  yet  known  an  instance,"  says  Dr.  Turton,  "  in 
"  which  excessive  subtlety  did  not  entail  disastrous  consequences 
"  upon  a  controversial  writer."  (p.  9I.)  And,  in  truth,  most 
fatally  disastrous  are  the  consequences  in  the  instance  now 
before  ns  !  Why,  what  is  the  main  object  of  Dr.  Wiseman's 
elaborate  process  of  hermeneutics  ?  What,  but  to  show  that  the 
phrase  in  question  is  applicable  to  the  blessed  Eucharist, — that 
is,  applicable  to  a  solemnity  which  was  not  instituted  at  the  time 
when  the  words  were  spoken,  and  any  reference  to  which  must, 
of  course,  have  been  unintelligible  to  the  hearers  ?  And  yet  this 
same  Dr.  Wiseman,  in  his  blind  impatience  to  damage  his  adver- 
saries, now  gravely  saws  away  his  own  argument  from  under 
him :  for  he  condemns  the  Protestants  for  applying  the  same 
phrase  to  the  Passion  of  Christ,  not  yet  undergone ;  that  is,  to  a 
subject  not  a  whit  more  unintelligible  than  the  other  !  When  will 
they,  who  wield  that  ponderous  and  rather  unmanageable  instru- 
ment, the  flail  of  polemical  theology,  remember  the  caution 
which  is  needful  to  avoid  its  aggressions  on  the  cranium  of  the 
performer !  When  will  they,  who  are  intently  busy  in  digging  a 
pitfall  for  their  adversaries,  be  duly  careful  that  they  fall  not  into 
it  themselves!  The  condition  of  Dr.  Wiseman  recalls  to  our 
mind  the  calamitous  fate  of  an  individual,  who  (as  we  have 
somewhere  read)  was  desirous  of  concealing  and  securing  some 
precious  treasure  in  his  cellar.  He,  accordingly,  took  with  him 
a  lantern  and  a  hammer:  and  having  safely  deposited  his  biuden, 
applied  himself  vigorously  to  the  task  of  nailing  up  the  door. 
The  business  was  most  efl'ectnally  accomplished  ;  so  eff"ectually, 
that  it  cost  the  adventurer  his  life.  For,  while  he  was  intent 
upon  his  work,  he  forgot  that  he  was  standing  inside  the  door, 
instead  of  at  the  outside.  And,  being  unable  to  undo  his  own 
job,  he  perished  miserably  in  the  prison  he  had  closed  upon 
himself!  Of  a  truth,  Dr.  Wiseman  has  fairly  nailed  himself  in, 
with  his  own  hermeneutical  hammer ! 

Nevertheless,  for  our  parts,  we  are  not  disposed  to  deal  inhu- 
manly with  him.  We  shall  be  content  to  let  him  out  of  his  con- 
finement, upon  a  fair  compromise.  If  he  will  allow  us  to  apply 
the  words  in  question  to  the  Passion,  we  shall  have  no  great  objec- 
tion to  his  application  of  them  to  the  Eucharist;  retaining  to 
ourselves,  of  course,  full  liberty  to  protest  against  the  peculiar 
transubstantiating  application,  for  which  he  is  under  the  necessity 


148  Drs.  Wiseman  and  Turton — 

of  contending.  We  have  already  stated,  that  many  of  our  own 
divines  are  satisfied  that  the  huiguage  of  our  Lord,  throughout  this 
ehaptor,  was  framed  by  iiim  vvith  a  sort  of  prophetic  reference 
both  to  tlie  crucifixion,  and  to  the  sacramental  institution.  They 
conceive  that  Clirist  is  the  bread  of  life,  iirst  as  the  teacher  of  tiie 
words  of  eternal  life;  secondly,  as  the  sacrifice  by  which  we  are 
redeemed  from  death  ;  and,  thirdly,  as  the  nourisher  and  sancti- 
fier  of  our  souls,  by  that  most  powerful  of  all  the  instruments  of 
grace, — the  great  commemorative  rite.  It  is  true  that  a  reference 
to  the  sacrifice,  or  a  reference  to  the  commemoration  of  it,  must, 
each  of  them  alike,  have  been  wholly  "  unintelligible  to  the 
hearers."  But  it  is  also  true  that,  if  the  faith  of  the  hearers  were 
sufficient  to  embrace  the  sayings  of  Christ,  so  far  as  they  were 
intelligible,  their  faith  might  likewise  have  prepared  them  to  wait, 
in  patience  and  humility,  for  the  full  elucidation  of  that  which 
still  was  left  in  darkness  :  for,  faith  is  a  principle,  which  is  always 
ready  to  expand,  in  proportion  as  the  objects  of  it  emerge  into 
more  distinct  and  plenary  development.  If,  however,  it  should 
be  the  pleasure  of  Dr.  Wiseman  to  persist  in  denying  to  us  this 
reasonable  freedom  of  exposition,  then  we  really  must  leave  him 
to  his  own  self-inflicted  incarceration  ;  there  to  make  the  most  of 
the  treasure  buried  with  him. 

But  the  most  adventurous  enterprize  of  Dr.  Wiseman  still  re- 
mains to  be  told.  Most  persons,  we  presume,  would  be  apt  to 
conclude,  from  the  repidsive  strangeness  of  the  expressions,  in  the 
second  part  of  the  discourse,  that  a  literal  interpretation  of  those 
expressions  could  not  possibly  be  safe  or  right.  The  persuasion 
of  Dr.  Wiseman,  on  the  contrary,  is,  that  because  the  expressions 
are  strange  and  repulsive,  they  cannot  be  otherwise  than  literally 
interpreted.  And,  the  following  is  the  process  by  which  he  la- 
bours to  reach  this  most  portentous  of  all  conclusions. 

He  begins  by  quoting  Burke  ! — who  (in  his  description  of 
those  great  "  artificers  of  mischief,"  the  members  of  the  2'iers 
Eiat  of  revolutionary  France, — the  men  who  were  "  actuated  by 
"  sinister  anibition,  and  a  lust  of  meretricious  glory")  has  the  fol- 
lowing reflexion, — "  In  all  bodies,  those  who  will  lead,  must  also, 
"  in  a  considerable  degree,  follow.  They  must  conform  their 
"  propositions  to  the  taste,  talent,  and  disposition,  of  those  whom 
"  they  conduct."  The  application  of  this  maxim  is,  then,  smoothly 
insinuated.  "  A  kind  and  skilful  teacher" — says  Dr.  Wiseman — 
"  will  ever  select  words  and  phrases  which,  while  they  are  most 
*'  intelligible,  may,  at  the  same  time,  least  shock  the  natural  feel- 
"  ings,  and  just  prejudices  of  his  audience.  He  will  never  study 
"  to  make  his  doctrines  as  repulsive  and  odious  as  possible.  He 
"  will,  on  the   contrary,  divest  them  of  these  qualities,  if  they 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  149 

"  appear  to  liave  them,  so  far  as  is  compatible  with  their  sub- 
"  stance."*  Having  thus  laid  before  us  a  representation  of  the 
address  and  art,  with  which  the  political  orator  wins  his  way  to 
the  public  confidence,  by  adapting  himself  to  the  weaknesses  and 
prejudices  of  his  audience.  Dr.  Wiseman  next  exhibits  to  us  a  cor- 
responding element  in  the  character  of  tlie  popular  and  successful 
preacher,-f  who,  as  Dr.  Whately  reminds  us,  when  "  intent  upon 
*'  carrying  his  point,  should  use  all  sucii  precautions  as  are  not 
"  inconsistent  with  it,  to  avoid  raising  unfavourable  impressions  in 
"  his  hearers. "I  The  reader  will  perceive  in  a  moment  the  object 
for  which  these  instances  are  produced.  They  who  would  lead, 
must  needs,  occasionally,  follow.  We  see  that  this  is  the  unavoid- 
able course"  of  things,  in  the  senate,  and  in  the  pulpit.  Without 
this  spirit  of  wise  acconmiodation,  both  orator  and  preacher  would 
speak  in  vain.  The  inference  is  obvious.  The  purpose  of  Jesus 
Christ  being  to  "  persuade  men,"  it  may  naturally  be  supposed 
tjiat  he  would  not  disdain  to  employ  the  caution  and  the  skill  by 
which  all  eminent  orators  and  preachers  are  distinguished.  "  He 
"  would  propose  his  doctrines  to  the  Jews,  in  the  manner  most 
"  likely  to  gain  their  attention  and  to  conciliate  their  esteem." 

Dr.  Turton  protests  that  he  is  melancholy  and  heart-sick  at 
this  spectacle  of  a  Christian  minister,  thus  presuming  to  assimi- 
late the  proceedings  of  Him,  in  zv/wm  mere  hidden  all  the  trea- 
sures of  xoisdorn  and  knowledge — of  Him,  in  whom  dwelt  all  the 
fnlness  of  the  Godhead,  bodily — to  the  artifices  of  human  dema- 
gogues, and  lecturers,  and  ihetoricians.§  And  heart-sickening 
and  melancholy  enough  the  spectacle  undoubtedly  is !  With  us, 
however,  we  confess,  that  all  other  emotions  are  well-nigh  lost  in 
astonishment,  not  merely  at  the  irreverence  of  this  illustration,  but 
also,  at  the  prodigious  disregard,  which  it  betrays,  for  all  the  facts 
and  phenomena  of  the  case.  Let  any  man  review  the  Evangelical 
narratives ;  and  then  let  him  tell  us  where  he  finds  any  thing  to 
correspond  to  the  picture  held  up  to  us  by  Dr.  Wiseman, — the 
Son  of  God  condescending  to  follow,  in  order  that  he  might  lead  ; 
conforming  his  propositions  to  the  taste,  talent,  and  disposition, 
of  those  whom  he  would  conduct ;  studiously  consulting  the  na- 
tural feelings  and  prepossessions  of  his  hearers !  In  one  respect, 
indeed,  he  did  adapt  himself  to  the  dispositions  of  men  :  he  was 
always  willing  to  instruct  the  ignorant,  when  he  knew  that  they 
brought  with  them,  an  "  humble,  lowly,  penitent,  and  obedient 
heart."  But  we  will  venture  to  affirm,  that  if  there  is  any  one 
thing,  which,  more  than  another,  would  be  likely  to  arrest  the 
attention,  and  sometimes  even  to  excite  the  surprise,  of  a  reader 

*  Lcct.  pp.  28,  29.       t  lb.  pp.  85,  86.       |  El.  of  Rlict.  p.  152.         §  Turloii,  p.  106. 

150  Drs.  Wiseman  and  Tuiton — 

\\lio  sliuiilil  pnuso  llie  Gospels  for  the  tirst  time,  it  would  be, 
pit cibd)  tlie  scMcnc  absliiience  of  our  Lord  from  those  very  arli- 
liccij,  wlikh  :irc  here  ascribed  to  him  by  the  master  of  hermeueu- 
tics.  Ill  lliis  respect,  as  in  all  others,  lie  spake  as  never  mail 
spake,  lie  spake  with  authority,  and  not  as  did  the  Scribes,  or 
the  wise,  or  the  disputers  of  this  world. 

Hiere  is  nothing,  that  we  can  remember,  in  the  whole  course 
of  his  ministry,  which  indicates  any  thing  like  an  liabitual  desire 
to  avoid  collision  with  the  prejudices  and  feelings  of  the  perverse 
and  crooked  generation,  in  the  midst  of  which  he  walked.  On 
the  contrary,  lie  openly  denounced  a  woe  against  the  masters  of 
Israel.  He  said  that  the  Scribes  and  Pharisees  were  fools,  and 
hypocrites,  and  extortioners,  and  blhid  guides,  who  made  their 
proselytes  the  children  of  Gehenna.  When  beset  by  the  Jews, 
he  told  them  that  they  were  of  their  father,  the  devil,  and  the 
lusts  of  their  father  they  would  do.  He  professed  to  speak  in 
parables,  and  dark  sayings,— not  that  he  might  gently  win  the 
contumacious  to  the  truth, — but,  (if  we  may  believe  Himself,) 
because  the  doom,  foretold  in  prophecy,  had  fallen  upon  them, — 
because  all  their  moral  and  spiritual  faculties  were  darkened  and 
obstructed, — because,  having  nothing,  even  that  nothing  should 
be  taken  from  them.  In  short,  in  the  midst  of  all  that  can  com- 
mand the  reverence,  and  awaken  the  affections  of  the  candid 
hearer,— there  was,  likewise,  in  the  teaching  of  our  Lord,  much 
to  give  the  assault  to'the  presumptuous  thoughts  of  man, — much 
to  stir  up  the  liercest  enmity  of  an  infatuated  race.  But,  of  all 
the  peculiarities  that  can  be  ascribed  to  it  by  human  ingenuity, 
the  very  last — as  we  should  imagine — is  that  which  has  been 
selected  by  Dr.Wiseman.  However, — to  adopt  tiie  phrase  of  Dr. 
Turton, — he  has  seen  •*  with  hermeneutical  spectacles  :"  and  these 
implements  have  produced  the  strangest  of  all  optical  delusions. 
They  have  invested  the  Saviour  of  the  world  with  certain  of  the 
popular  attributes,  which  frequently  belong,  in  ample  measure,  to 
the  h/ind  leaders  of  the  blind,  among  the  sons  of  men  ! 

Having  thus  got  into  his  head  the  image  of  a  great  master  of 
political  and  rhetorical  address.  Dr.  Wiseman  proceeds  to  assail 
us  with  divers  overwhelming  considerations.  Our  Saviour  being 
gifted  with  all  the  highest  arts  of  persuasion, — "  it  is  repugnant" 
— we  are  told — *'  to  suppose  him  selecting  the  most  revolting 
"  images  wherein  to  clothe  his  dogmas ;  disguising  his  most 
"  amiable  institutions  under  the  semblance  of  things  the  most 
"  abominable  in  the  opinion  of  his  hearers ;  and  inculcating  his 
"  most  saving  and  most  beautiful  principles,  by  the  most  impious 
"  and  horrible  illustrations.  Yet" — he  adds — "  in  such  manner 
"  we  must  consider  him  to  have  acted,  if  we  deny  him  to  have 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharht.  151 

"  been  teaching  the  doctrine  of  the  real  presence,  and  supposing 
"  him  to  have  been  simply  inculcating  the  necessity  of  faith." 
(Lect.  p.  8fj). 

The  next  step  of  Dr.  Wiseman  is  to  show  that  the  phrases  and 
images  in  question  deserve  all  the  hideous  epithets  which  he  has 
been  pleased  to  lavish  upon  them.  He  had  already  collected  a 
heaj)  of  superfluous  erudition, — from  the  Old  Testament,  the 
Arabic,  the  Syriac,  the  Greek,  and  the  Latin, — to  prove  that,  in 
its  figurative  acceptation,  to  eat  the  flesh  of  any  person,  usually 
implied  the  notion  of  tearing  him  to  pieces  by  slander,  or  perse- 
cution. And  he  now  labours,  quite  as  superfluously,  to  show  that 
nothing  could  be  more  frightful  to  a  Jew  than  the  notion  of  lite- 
lally  devouring  human  flesh,  and  drinking  human  blood.  What, 
then — he  asks — could  have  impelled  the  Saviour  to  use  these 
horrible  expressions,  as  appropriate  to  "  the  most  cheering  and 
consoling"  of  all  his  doctrines,  but  the  stress  of  absolute  neces- 
sity ?  The  argument,  therefore,  is  now  brought  to  its  consum- 
mation. The  language  is  so  abominable,  that  it  would  never 
have  been  used,  if  the  use  of  it  could  have  been  possibly  avoided  : 
and  nothing  but  the  certainty  of  its  literal  fulfilment  could  render 
it  unavoidable.  Hence  it  follows  that  the  very  strangeness  and 
lepulsiveness  of  the  language,  is,  itself,  sufficient  to  prove  that  it 
must  be  literally  understood  ;  and  that  the  vert/  flesh  and  blood 
of  our  Lord,  are  to  be  truly  and  physically  eaten  by  the  faithful, 
in  the  sacramental  mystery. 

Now,  we  really  cannot  tell  how  our  Protestant  brethren  will  be 
affected  by  this  most  extravagant  and  most  audacious  line  of  com- 
mentary. But  we  can,  most  honestly,  say  for  ourselves,  it  has 
only  aggravated  our  contempt  for  the  Romish  hermeneutics.  The 
truth  is,  than  an  infinity  of  fraud  lies  hidden  under  the  plausible 
contrast  between  the  figurative,  and  the  literal,  interpretation  of 
the  phrases  we  have  been  considering.  The  use  of  such  phrases 
by  Jesus  Christ,  may,  perhaps,  seem  unaccountable  to  us ;  but, 
be  this  as  it  may,  the  Romish  hypothesis  is,  to  say  the  least,  quite 
as  unfit  as  the  Protestant  hypothesis,  to  get  rid  of  that  difficulty. 
Dr.  Wiseman  maintains  that  the  Jewish  multitude  understood  the 
words  literally  ;  and  that  they  were  right  in  so  doing.  Were  they 
so  ! — Why,  then,  we  confidently  affirm  that  the  Romanist  is  wrong 
—quite  as  wrong  as  we.  The  phrases,  if  literally  interpreted  by 
the  Jews,  could  have  conveyed  to  their  imaginations  no  other 
notion  but  that  of  a  meal  of  cannibals,  in  which  the  solid  flesh 
was  to  be  actually  torn,  or  cut,  in  pieces,  and  devoured  ;  and  the 
liquid  blood  to  be  poured  out,  and  swallowed.  They  could  have 
conveyed  nothing  resembling  the  sacramental  manducation  of  the 
Church  of  Rome.     The  hearers  who  took  them  according  to  the 

152  Drs.  Wiseman  and  Turton — 

letter,  could  have  nothing  in  their  mind  but  a  sanguinary  repast, 
which  human  nature  shudders  at  the  very  thought  of.  The  un- 
bloody, unseen,  imperceptible  sacrifice  of  the  mass,  was  a  thing 
quite  as  remote  from  all  their  apprehensions  and  capacities,  as 
the  spiritual  reception  of  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ  by  faith. 
If,  therefore,  the  words  were  improper,  with  reference  to  the  Pro- 
testant solenmity,  they  were  equally  improper  with  reference  to 
the  Romish  solemnity.  And,  in  that  case,  where  was  that  over- 
powering necessity  for  their  use,  which  Dr.  Wiseman  so  vehe- 
mently labours  to  establish?  What  was  there  to  drive  our  Lord 
to  the  employment  of  phrases,  which  were  never  to  be  fulfilled, 
in  the  only  sense  which  presented  itself  to  the  understandings  of 
the  hearers  ?  That  our  Lord  had  good  reasons  for  the  use  of 
such  words,  will  never  be  disputed.  But,  most  assuredly,  the 
Church  of  Rome  is  quite  as  far  from  the  discovery  and  develop- 
ment of  those  reasons,  as  any  other  church  on  earth. 

Dr.  Wiseman  is  pleased,  in  the  course  of  his  lectures,*  to  ad- 
vert to  what  he  calls  the  "  shigular  enigma  which  Protestants 
**  suppose  our  Saviour  to  have  uttered."  Now,  if  we  are  to  talk 
of  enigmas,  we  must  beg  to  come  to  a  distinct  comparison  of 
the  Protestant  exposition  with  the  Romish  oracle.  Let  us,  then, 
suppose  that  one  of  the  Jewish  multitude  had  humbly  approached 
our  Lord  himself,  to  implore  of  Him  an  explanation  of  his  words; 
and  that  He  had  graciously  consented  to  answer.  And,  since 
there  are  two  principal  expositions  of  his  words  at  this  moment 
before  the  world,  let  us  hope  that  we  may  be  allowed,  without 
the  imputation  of  unbecoming  presumption,  first,  to  imagine  Him 
replying,  according  to  one  of  those  expositions ;  and,  next,  ac- 
cording to  the  other.  First,  then,  let  us  conceive  Him  to  answer 
in  this  manner : — "  It  is,  indeed,  most  true,  that  the  time  will 
"  soon  come,  when  the  faithful  shall  eat  my  flesh,  and  drink  my 
"  blood.  But  be  not  affrighted,  or  ofifended,  with  the  saying. 
"  There  shall  be  nothing  whatever  in  the  repast  to  trouble  their 
*'  hearts,  or  even  to  give  them  notice  of  the  presence  either  of  flesh 
"  or  blood.  The  things  which  shall  pass  their  lips,  shall,  to  all 
"  outward  seeming,  be  no  more  than  a  small  round  wafer,  and  a 
"  drop  of  wine.  Nevertheless,  remain  firmly  assured  that,  under 
"  these  simple  appearances,  the  substance  of  my  whole  person 
"  shall  lie  mysteriously  concealed  ;  nay,  more, — that  the  whole 
"  substance  of  my  person  shall  be  contained  under  each  of  the 
"  appointed  elements,  the  wafer  and  the  wine  ;  and  that,  thus,  I, 
"  who  now  stand  before  you,  shall  be,  actually  and  really,  eaten 
"  by  each,  and  all,  who  are  assembled  at  the  altar." 

*  Lect.  p.  127. 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  153 

And,  now, — having  imaged  to  ourselves  the  reply  of  the  Sa- 
viour, such  as  it  might  be,  if  the  Romish  doctrine  were  conform- 
able to  the  truth  of  his  sayings,  let  us,  on  the  other  hand,  assume 
the  Protestant  doctrine  to  be  right.  In  that  case  we  might  con- 
ceive of  Him,  as  replying  to  the  inquirer,  on  this  wise  : — "  The 
"  hour  is  at  hand  v^hen  the  Son  of  Man  shall  give  his  body  to  be 
"  broken,  and  his  blood  to  be  shed,  that  they  who  believe  on 
"  Him  should  not  perish,  but  have  everlasting  life.  And  then 
"  shall  the  saying  be  fulfilled,  that  my  flesh  is  the  bread  which  I 
"  give  for  the  life  of  the  world.  Moreover,  for  a  perpetual  re- 
"  membrance  of  my  death,  my  will  is,  that  hereafter  the  faithful 
"  shall,  in  company  together,  eat  bread  and  drink  wine,  as  the 
"  symbols  and  emblems  of  my  body  and  my  blood.  And,  as  oft 
"  as  they  do  this,  I  will  so  be  present  with  them,  that  they  shall 
"  be  truly  said  to  feed  on  me,  in  their  heart,  by  faith.  And  thus, 
"  again,  shall  the  saying  be  fulfilled,  that  my  flesh  is  meat  indeed, 
"  and  my  blood  is  drink  indeed." 

Here  then,  we  have  the  Romish  doctrine,  and  the  Reformed 
doctrine,  expressed,  as  nearly  as  we  may  presume  to  conjecture, 
in  words  which  might  have  been  used  by  our  Lord  himself,  to  ex- 
press either  of  those  doctrines,  had  it  been  his  pleasure  to  satisfy 
a  lowly  and  teachable  inquirer.  Or, — if  we  must  resort  to  the 
phraseology  of  Dr.  Wiseman, — we  have  here  before  us  two 
enigmas.  And  now,  the  question  is,  which  of  these  two  enigmas 
would  have  been  most  likely  to  perplex  and  confound  the  honest 
seeker  after  truth?  Whichever  of  the  two  might  have  been  deli- 
vered by  Jesus  Christ,  the  seeker  would,  of  course,  have  been 
bound  to  receive  it,  whatever  might  be  its  difficulties.  But  still, 
the  point  is  this, — which  of  the  two  would  have  tasked  his  faith 
more  heavily  ; — the  spiritual  interpretation,  which  the  Protestant 
believes  to  be  according  to  the  mind  of  Christ, — or,  what  may  be 
called  the  metaphysico-mystical  interpretation,  contended  for  by 
the  Romanist.  The  Protestant,  we  are  told,  puts  an  enigma 
into  the  mouth  of  the  Saviour.  We  ask,  then,  confidently,  does 
not  the  Romanist  put  into  his  rnouth  an  enigma,  beyond  all  com- 
parison more  dark,  and  more  bewildering  ?  We  dwell  on  this 
point  the  more  emphatically,  because  it  appears  to  us  to  involve 
nearly  the  whole  essence  of  the  dispute,  so  far,  at  least,  as  it  de- 
pends on  the  sixth  chapter  of  St.  John.  There  is  an  appearance  of 
simplicity  about  the  so-called  literal  interpretation,  which  is  likely 
enough  to  recommend  the  Romish  scheme  to  many  an  honest 
and  submissive  heart.  But,  after  all,  the  whole  is  really  an  affair 
of  false  pretences.  To  swallow  a  morsel  or  a  drop  of  something 
— (whatever  that  something  may  be) — which  is  destitute  of  every 
sensible  attribute  of  flesh  or  blood,  is  as  far  as  any  thing  that  can 

1  ai  Di s.  Wiseman  and  Tiirton — 

hv  imagined  IVoin  a  iilviiil  fuUilineiit  ol  the  saying,  tliat  real  flesh 
and  blood  are  to  be  actually  eaten  and  drunk.  It  may  be  a 
iiuiiiiail  ruliilnient  of  that  saying.  But  it  is  not,  most  certainly, 
a  ruliilnient  at  all  corresponding  to  that  notion  of  the  phrase 
which,  Dr.  Wiseman  tells  us,  the  Jews  were  right  iu  entertaining. 
The  llesh  and  blood  which  they  had  in  their  thoughts,  were 
neither  more  nor  less  that  the  visible  and  tangible  cotnpages  of 
the  human  frame.  And  it  is  a  gross  delusion  to  pretend  that  their 
literal,  conceptions  of  the  matter  could  be  answered  by  the  pre- 
sence of  an  invisible,  intangible,  undiscernible  something,  which 
we  call  substance,  stripped  of  every  accident  or  quality  by  which 
their  faculties  might  distinguish  it  from  all  other  substances.  We 
repeat  it,  therefore, — (and  we  earnestly  implore  attention  to  our 
words), — to  say  that  the  Jews  understood  the  phrases  literally, 
and  were  right  in  so  understanding  them,  is  utterly  to  overthrow 
and  shake  to  pieces  the  sacramental  hypothesis  of  the  Papal 
Church.  To  sum  up  the  matter  in  a  single  word, — the  Protes- 
tant interpretation  may  have  its  difficulties  :  but  the  Romish  in- 
terpretation is  all  over  difficulty  ! 

VV^e  are,  here,  compelled  to  dismiss  this  department  of  the 
subject,  and  to  leave  unnoticed  a  multitude  of  things  which  have 
been  admirably,  and,  as  it  seems  to  us,  quite  irresistibly  written, 
both  by  Philaiethes  and  the  Regius  Professor.  We  now  come  to 
the  Second  Part  of  the  work,  which  relates  entirely  to  the  words  of 
Institution  ;  and  which  involves  the  discussion  of  two  main  ques- 
tions ;  first,  whether  the  words  mai/  be  taken  figuratively  ;  and, 
secondly,  whether  they  must  be  taken  figuratively. 

Dr.  Wiseman  proceeds  to  this  portion  of  his  task  with  an  air 
of  triumphant  confidence.  He  seems  to  feel  as  if  the  herme- 
neutic  axe  had  done  its  work,  and  had  cleared  the  ground  before 
him,  throughout  the  region  over  which  he  has  been  travelling. 
And,  having  performed  this  good  service,  he  marches  boldly  into 
the  fortress  and  citadel  of  the  Truth,  where  he  is  sure  of  a  cordial 
welcome  from  the  Sovereign  Infallibility  which  presides  there. 
"  The  Council  of  Trent" — he  tells  us — "  has  expressly  defined  that 
"  the  words  of  Institution  prove  the  real  presence  of  Christ's  Body 
"  and  Blood,  in  the  adorable  Sacrament."  Here,  then,  strictly 
speaking,  is  an  end  of  the  hermeneutical  office.  Nevertheless,  he 
appears  to  think  that  its  aid  may  still  be  graciously  accepted,  if  it 
be  only  for  the  benevolent  purpose  of  winning  back  the  wanderers, 
who  have  strayed  from  the  fold  of  the  universal  shepherd.  Ac- 
cordingly, Dr.  Wiseman  still  goes  on  with  the  business  of  inter- 

Our  limits  positively  forbid  us  to  attend  him,  step  by  step, 
throughout  the  train  of  his  disquisition.     We  can  do  little  more 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  155 

than  briefly  to  indicate  the  line  of  argument  and  reply.  The 
question,  as  every  one  knows,  is  simply  this, — Are  we  to  under- 
stand the  words — this  is  my  hodij — this  is  my  blood — in  a  literal, 
or  a  figurative  sense.  And,  first,  we  can  have  no  hesitation  in 
contending  that,  at  least,  there  is  every  presumption  in  favour  of 
the  figurative  sense.  We  abstain  from  afiirming  that  the  literal 
interpretation  involves  an  absolute  impossibility,  remembering 
the  question.  Is  <int/  thing  too  hard  for  God?  But  we  do  main- 
tain that  it  involves  a  most  stupendous  improbability  ;  so  stupen- 
dous, that  any  one,  who  should  hear  or  read  the  words,  for  the 
first  time,  would,  instantly,  look  out  for  some  interpretation  which 
would  relieve  him  from  the  almost  intolerable  pressure  of  the 
literal  sense.  Now,  such  an  interpretation,  the  Protestants  hold, 
may,  without  difficulty,  be  found.  And,  in  order  to  show  this, 
they  produce  a  multitude  of  other  passages,  similar  in  form; 
all  of  which,  not  only  are  capable  of  a  metaphorical  explanation, 
but  absolutely  demand  it.  And,  here  it  is  that  Dr.  Wiseman 
displays  "  the  sharp  fence,  and  active  practice"  of  the  Herme- 
neutic  School.  He  endeavours  to  parry  all  these  thrusts  by  a 
succession  of  nimble  shifts  and  movements,  of  which  we  cannot 
stop  to  give  any  detailed  account.  The  chief  force  and  virtue 
of  his  defence,  however,  lies  in  the  notable  averment,  that  the 
passages  in  question  do  not,  properly,  fall  under  the  description 
of  ^9or«//e/ passages,  and  that,  consequently,  they  can  be  of  no 
weight  or  value,  towards  the  decision  of  the  matter  in  debate. 
Of  no  weight  or  value  ?  And  why  not  ?  The  passages  un- 
doubtedly are  parallel,  in  the  only  sense  of  parallelism,  for  which 
we  are  contending.  They  are  passages,  in  which  the  structure 
of  phraseology  is  precisely  similar  to  that  which  is  found  in  the 
words  of  Institution  ;  and  they  are  passages  incapable  of  any  but 
a  metaphorical  sense.  They  are,  therefore,  of  weight,  abundantly 
sufficient  for  our  purpose ; —namely,  to  show  that  Scripture 
abounds  in  sayings,  which  seem,  on  the  face  of  them,  to  predi- 
cate certain  things  absolutely,  although  it  is  quite  notorious  and 
undeniable,  that  they  predicate  those  things  only  in  a  metapho- 
rical manner.  And  then  comes  the  question,  whether  the  words 
— this  is  my  body,  8cc. — may  not  be  one  among  the  number  of 
such  sayings.  Whether,  in  any  technical  sense,  such  passages 
can  be  called  parallel,  or  not,  is,  to  us,  a  matter  of  the  pro- 
foundest  indifference.  At  all  events,  they  are  similar  passages; 
similar,  that  is,  in  the  only  particular,  in  which  the  similarity 
is  of  any  importance  to  the  question. 

But,  then.  Dr.  Wiseman  (it  will  hardly  be  believed)  com- 
plains of  the  passages  produced  by  us,  because  those  passages  arc, 
all  of  them,  beyond  question,  clearly  figurative  and  metaphorical. 

156  Drs.  Wiseman  and  Turton — 

He  tells  us  tliat,  before  we  can  "  thrust  the  words,  this  is  my 
*'  body,  into  the  same  category,  and  treat  them  as  parallel,  we 
"  must  show  them  to  contain  the  same  thing — the  explanation  of 
"  of  a  symbolical  instruction."  In  other  words,  you  must  lirst 
show  the  words  of  Institution  to  he  symbolical ;  for,  until  you 
have  done  this,  there  can  be  no  similarity  between  them,  and  the 
other  instances  !  Why — if  it  can  be  proved,  by  other  means, 
that  those  words  fall  under  the  symbolical  category,  our  work  is 
already  done  ;  and,  then,  to  collect  passages  parallel  or  similar, 
would  be  altogether  a  needless  and  superfluous  toil.  We  should 
like  very  much  to  know  what  Dr.  Wiseman  would  have  said,  if 
our  collection  had  consisted  of  passages,  the  figurative  significa- 
tion of  which  was  at  all  doubtful.  Surely,  he  would  have  had 
his  answer  ready  :  he  would  have  said — "  these  instances  are 
*'  nothing  to  the  purpose.  They  are  not  clearly  and  undeniably 
"  figurative.  For  any  thing  that  you  know,  they  may  be  just  as 
"  literal  as  we  hold  the  words  hoc  est  corpus,  &c.  to  be.  \ou 
"  must  establish  them  in  the  metaphorical  category  ;  or  else  they 
"  can  render  no  service  to  your  cause."  "  Whether" — says  Dr. 
Turton — "  this  perplexity  of  thought  is  voluntary,  or  involuntary, 
"  1  know  not.  It  would  be  thought  strange  in  most  writers. 
*'  But,  for  some  reason,  it  does  not  appear  extraordinary  in  Dr. 
"  Wiseman."— (p.  207.) 

Having  thus,  for  a  time,  hovered  over  the  flank  of  our  battle, 
the  polemic  directs  a  terrible  attack  against  its  main  body.  He 
seeks  to  bear  us  down  with  a  tremendous  charge  of  heresy. 
You  deny  transubstantiation — he  says — and  your  denial  drags 
after  it  an  abandonment  of  one  main  article  of  the  Catholic  faith. 
You  tell  us  that  the  passage,  this  is  my  body,  S)C.,  is  not  to  be 
literally  understood.  \Vell  then — now  look  at  the  sentence — the 
Word  nas  God:  and  tremble  at  the  consequences  of  your  own 
rashness.  For,  what  is  to  hinder  the  Socinian  from  using  the 
same  freedom  with  the  latter  of  these  passages,  which  the  Pro- 
testant has  ventured  to  use  with  the  former  ? 

Xow,  we  are  by  no  means  disposed  to  go  off  into  King  Cam- 
byses'  vein,  or  to  "  make  all  split,"  Otherwise,  we  could  easily 
vent  some  sonorous  periods  of  astonishment  and  wrath,  at  this 
monstrous,  and,  we  must  add,  most  stupid  imputation.  We  shall, 
however,  content  ourselves  with  sedately  asking  Dr.  Wiseman 
whether,  while  he  was  penning  this  charge,  he  did  not  himself 
distinctly  know  the  answer  to  it?  Was  he  not  clearly  aware  of 
the  utter  dissimilarity  of  the  two  cases?  Did  he  really  believe 
that  the  Protestant,  by  his  interpretation  of  Christ's  words,  had 
disqualified  himself  for  all  future  conflict  with  the  Socinian  ? 
Does  he  not  feel  that  the  words,  this  is  my  body,  if  literally  un- 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  157 

derstood,  point  to  something,  on  the  face  of  it — we  will  not  say 
impossible — but  to  something  so  utterly  astonishing,  as  to  have 
nearly  all  the  effect  of  a  physical  impossibility,  on  any  mind  which 
has  not  been  prepared  for  it,  by  some  very  peculiar  mode  of 
discipline  ?  But,  will  he  venture  to  affirm  that  any  man's  know- 
ledge of  the  divine  essence  is  such  as  to  drive  him,  or  vehemently 
to  tempt  him,  from  the  literal  to  the  figurative  interpretation  of 
the  saying — the  Word  was  God?  A  man  may,  surely,  be  excused 
for  striving  against  the  assertion  that  a  morsel  of  something  that 
looks  like  bread  is,  in  fact,  the  body  of  the  very  person  who  had 
just  placed  the  morsel  in  his  hand;  and  yet  he  may  be  left  utterly 
without  excuse  from  presuming  to  deny  that  the  Word  can  be 
sharer  in  the  essence  of  the  deity.  In  the  one  case,  we  have  an 
appeal  to  the  whole  constitution  of  our  sensitive  and  intellectual 
nature;  an  appeal  which  nothing  can  put  down,  save  the  manifest 
and  unquestioned  declarations  of  the  God  of  nature.  In  the 
other,  we  have  an  appeal  to  nothing,  but  our  own  proud  igno- 
rance, which  is  too  apt  to  dress  itself  up  in  the  robes  and  attri- 
butes of  sovereign  Reason! 

If  we  were  inclined  to  retort,  means  would  not  be  wanting,  to 
thrust  the  Romanist  headlong  into  heresy,  as  he  fain  would  thrust 
the  Protestant.  Upon  the  strength  of  the  words,  this  is  my  body, 
the  Romanist  affirms  that  the  bread  is  transubstantiated  into  the 
body  of  Christ.  Be  it  so.  We  then  insist  that,  upon  the  strength 
of  the  passage — the  Word  became  jiesh — (6  Aoyoj  aaq^  lysvsTo), 
he  must  hold  that  the  divine  Word  was  transubstantiated  into 
flesh,  that  is,  into  mere  humanity.  Perhaps,  the  Romanist  will 
say, — no;  the  thing  is  incredible.  And,  even  so  say  we.  But 
he  has  shut  himself  out  from  this  defence:  for  he  will  hear  no- 
thing, about  incredibility,  or  impossibility,  when  we  object  to  the 
sacramental  transubstantiation. 

But  why  should  we  waste  our  time  on  any  further  discussion  ? 
Seeing  that  Dr.  Wiseman  has  delivered  himself  up  into  the  hands 
of  his  adversaries,  by  the  concession,  that  ''  two  material  objects 
"  cannot  be  identical;  that  when  there  is  a  definite  object  which 
''  is  said  to  be  something  else,  the  literal  meaning  cannot  be 
"  maintained;  and  that,  therefore,  we  are  compelled  to  fly,  by  a 
positive  repugnance  and  contradiction,  to  another  sense."*  Dr. 
AV^iseman,  indeed,  does  not  seem  to  be  at  all  conscious  of  the 
destructive  nature  of  this  concession.  It  is  manifest  that  he  con- 
siders the  postulate  as  entirely  innocuous;  and  utterly  incapable 
of  any  inconvenient  bearing  upon  his  own  argument.  But,  alas! 
he  will  soon  find  himself  egregiously  mistaken.     In  the  mean 

*  Lect.  p.  179. 

158  Drs.  Wiseman  and  Turton — 

time,  llio  manner  in  wliicli  he  contrives  to  deceive  himself,  is  as 
follows,  lie  assures  us  that  "  Christ  does  nut  say  In'ead  is  my 
"  boJi/ — Tcitte  is  mi/  blood."  But  he  says,  "  this  is  my  hodif, — this 
"  /s-  nil/  blood.  The  this,  is  nothing  but  the  body,  and  the  blood. 
"  It  represents  nothing,  it  means  nothing,  till  identified,  at  the 
"  close  of  the  sentence,  with  the  substances  named."  And  then  he 
adds — '*  This  is  even  more  marked  in  the  original  Greek,  than  in 
"  our  language;  because  the  distinction  of  genders  shows  clearly 
"  that  the  bread  is  not  indicated;  but  only  a  vague  something,  to 
"  be  determined  by  the  remainder  of  the  sentence." 

The  original  Greek,  referred  to  by  Dr.  Wiseman,  is,TouTO  !$■'  to 
cra;ju,a  ju.ou — toDto  eg-i  to  cu^a  \j.ou:  which,  to  make  his  meaning 
more  clear  to  English  readers,  we  will  freely  turn  into  English, 
for  him,  thus,  "  What  I  hold  in  my  hand,  is  my  body,  &c.  &,c.:" 
in  which  sentence,  Dr.  Wiseman's  "  vague  something"  is  repre- 
sented by  the  indefinite  and  gender-less  monosyllable  what.  So 
that  Dr.  Wiseman  shall  not  have  to  complain  that  we  have  not 
generously  done  the  best  we  can,  to  help  him,  in  his  evil  case. 
But,  now,  we  must  go  back  to  the  Greek — to  the  demonstrative 
neuter  pronoun  touto — which,  by  itself,  according  to  Dr.  Wise- 
man, demonstrates  nothing,  but  a  vague  nescio  quid.  And,  here, 
we  have  to  thank  Philalethes  for  directing  our  attention  to  the 
pages  of  a  writer^  at  whose  feet  even  Dr.  Wiseman  might  not 
disdain  to  sit;  which  writer  will  remind  him  of  something  which 
he  never  seems  to  have  suspected;  namely,  that  "  the  pronoun 
"  ooToj,  when  it  is  demonstrative  of  any  thing  which  has  no  per- 
"  son,  and  which  the  writer  would  not  personify,  is  often  put  in 
*'  the  neuter  gender,  although  the  noun,  which  it  represents,  be 
"  masculine."*  One  instance  produced,  in  support  of  this  canon, 
is  the  very  instance  before  us.  But,  any  reliance  on  this,  for  our 
present  purpose,  would,  of  course,  be  stigmatized  as  a  pelitio 
principii.  We,  accordingly,  put  it  aside;  and  beg  the  attention 
of  Dr.  Wiseman,  to  a  few  words  of  heathen  Greek,  referred  to 
by  the  same  writer.  In  his  third  Olynthiac,  Demosthenes  had 
been  speaking  of  certain  laws  (vojotoj),  which  he  desired  to  have 
repealed.  And  then  he  goes  on  to  say,  "  when  you  shall  have 
"  repealed  these — (sTrsjSav  TATTA  Auci^ts),  then  will  be  the  time 
"  to  look  out  for  one  who  will  propose  more  beneficial  and 
"  salutary  measures."  Here,  the  masculine  noun,  laws  (voftoi), 
is  referred  to  by  the  gender-less  pronoun  tuuto..  And,  even  so, 
we  opine,  may  the  masculine  noun  Ǥtoj,  be  referred  to  by  the 
neuter  pronoun  touto.  A  more  familiar  acquaintance  with  the 
Greek  idiom  nught,  perhaps,  have  abated  the  confidence  of  the 

*  Horsley's  Tracts,  Append.  No.  11,  p.  334,  ed.  1812. 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  1 59 

henneneutical  doctor,   in  this,  his  pahnary  exploit  in  philology 
and  criticism. 

And  yet,  we  are  by  no  means  sure  !  For  what  has  an  exposi- 
tor to  dread  from  the  grammarians,  wlien  once  he  is  under  the 
wing  of  the  infallible  Church  ?  Unfortunately,  however,  the  gram- 
marians are  by  no  means  the  worst  enemies  with  whom  he  has  to 
contend.  It  does  so  chance,  that  both  St.  Luke  and  St.  Paul 
withstand  him  to  the  face !  For,  St.  Luke  and  St.  Paul  have, 
each  of  them,  these  words:— TOTTO  TO  nOTHPION  vj  xaivi 
S<a9)jj£>j  I5-JV,  Iv  Tw  ajjo-ar/  jw-ou.* — This  cup  is  the  Nezv  'Testament, 
in  my  blood.  This,  really,  is  very  untoward !  But,  for  these 
testimonies,  how  pleasantly  might  Dr.  Wiseman  have  laughed  at 
the  grammarians  and  the  critics,  with  nothing  before  him,  but  the 
words  of  St.  Matthew,  and  St.  Mark,  tovto  !?■»  to  aT|aa  jw,ou.t  As 
it  is,  we  greatly  fear  that  tovto  to  Trori^piov  must  condense  the 
vague  and  indefinite  something  into  the  wine  within  the  chalice; 
and,  by  inevitable  consequence,  that  the  neuter  pronoun  touto,  in 
the  preceding  sentence,  will — without  any  assistance  from  the 
grammarians — compel  Dr.  Wiseman  to  think  upon  the  bread  ! 
If  so,  we  have,  here, — as  Dr.  Turton  remarks, — in  separate  in- 
stances, "  two  material  objects,  which  cannot  be  identical."  If 
the  cup,  or  the  wine  in  it,  cannot  be  human  blood,  surely,  the 
bread  cannot  be  the  human  body.  iVnd  thus,  after  all,  *'  we  are 
"  compelled  to  fly,  by  a  positive  repugnance  and  contradiction, 
"  to  another  sense."  And  what  sense  can  this  be,  but  a  figurative 
and  symbolical  sense? — Well  may  Dr.  Turton  say — "the  argu- 
"  ment  is  at  an  end" — seeing  that  "  on  Dr.  Wiseman's  own  prin- 
"  ciples,  the  M'ords  of  institution  are  fatal  to  the  doctrine  of 
"  transubstantiation."|: 

We  have  already  adverted  to  the  argument  of  the  Romanists, 
and  their  champion  Dr.  Wiseman,  that,  when  the  Almighty  con- 
descends to  work  a  miracle,  man  has  no  right  to  withhold  his 
credence,  because  he  is  unable,  by  his  senses,  to  perceive  whether 
a  miracle  has  been  wrought  or  not.  Nothing  more,  therefore, 
needs  to  be  said,  on  that  subject,  except  briefly  to  state,  that  only 
two  ways  can  be  imagined,  by  which  we  can  possibly  ascertain 
whether,  or  not,  there  has  been  any  preter-natural  operation. 
The  first  is,  by  the  application  of  our  senses.  If  the  senses  give  us 
no  information, — or,  if  their  testimony  is  adverse  to  the  assertion 
that  a  miracle  has  been  performed, — the  presumption  against  the 
miracle  is  all  but  absolutely  overpowering.  In  that  case,  the  only 
other  evidence  for  its  performance,  must  be  sought  for  in  some 
direct,  express,  and  positive  declaration,  to  that  eff"ect,  from  the 

^  Luke,  xxii.  20.— 1  Cor.  xi.  25.  f  Mattli.  xxvi.  28.'-Mark,  xiv,  24. 

t  Turt.  p.  278. 

ino  Drs.  Wiseman  and  Tmton — 

Alini^litv  himself.  Now  the  Protestant  contends  that  the  use  of 
words  \vhich  maij  be  capable  of  a  figurative  sense,  cannot  amount 
to  a  declaration  sufficiently  potential,  to  overbear  the  testimony 
of  the  senses.  And,  we  have  already  seen,  that,  in  this  view  of 
i\\c  matter,  the  Protestant  is,  virtually,  supported  by  certain  of  the 
hiohest  authorities  in  the  Roman  Catholic  Church.  Neverthe- 
less it  is  the  pleasure  of  Dr.  Wiseman  to  tell  us, — in  defiance  of 
Duns  Scotus  and  Bellarmine, — that  the  words  in  question  "  can 
have  but  one  meaning;"  and  that  they  who  reject  that  meaning, 
must  reject  it"  solely  on  account  of  the  philosophical  difficulties 
with  which  it  is  surrounded.  Now — to  use  the  language  of  Dr. 
Turton, — "  We  repel  this  insinuation  with  unspeakable  scorn." 
True  it  is,  that  all  our  faculties,  both  of  sense  and  intellect,  do 
join  in  reclamation  against  the  alleged  miracle  of  the  Romish 
Sacrament;  and  true  it  is,  that,  in  resorting  to  Scripture  in  search 
of  the  truth,  we  do  not  think  it  necessary  to  leave  those  faculties 
behind  us.  But  it  is  most  foully  false  that,  in  so  doing,  we  reject 
the  witness  of  God,  and  betake  ourselves  to  the  oracles  of  this 
world's  wisdom.  We  reject  nothing,  but  the  hermeneutics  of  the 
Romish  schools,  and  the  imperious  decrees  of  the  Romish 
Church.  We  do  not  trample  under  foot  the  word  of  God;  but 
we  do  trample  under  foot  the  insolent  dictations  of  men.  And 
^vho — we  must  t^ike  the  freedom  to  demand — who  is  Dr.  Wise- 
man, that  he  should  take  upon  himself  to  say  to  us — Behold,  I, 
even  I,  have  shown  that  tliis,  or  that,  is  infallibly  the  word  and 
mind  of  God;  and, whosoever  shall  reject  my  exposition,  thereby 
proclaims  himself  the  pupil  of  philosophy,  and  not  the  disciple 
of  Jesus  Christ  ?  "  Is  it  for  him" — we  ask,  in  the  words  of  Dr. 
Turton—'*  is  it  for  him,  who  is  scarcely  ever  right,  even  by  acci- 
"  dent,  to  decide  that  the  literal  meaning  of  certain  texts  is  so 
"  indubitable,  that  to  accept,  or  refuse  them,  is  to  choose  be- 
"  tween  belief,  or  disbelief,  of  the  Saviour  of  the  world?"  Is  it 
for  him  to  set  up  certain  canons  of  correct  interpretation ;  and 
then  to  demand  for  them  a  reverence  and  submission,  which 
some  of  the  mightiest  masters  of  Romish  theology  have  forborne 
to  claim  for  any  thing,  less  than  the  infallible  authority  of  the 
Catholic  Church  ?  There  may,  indeed,  as  Dr.  Turton  remarks, 
be  something  sublime  and  "  grand,  in  this  kind  of  superiority 
"  over  the  laws  of  the  moral  and  intellectual  world  ! "  But, 
truly,  it  is  a  very  dangerous  sublimity;  a  sublimity,  from  which 
there  is  but  one  short  step  to  a  very  different  region.  And  that 
this  step  has  been  taken  by  Dr.  Wiseman,  must  be  manifest  to 
all  who  will  but  patiently  survey  his  present  position. 

In  that  region  we  must  now  leave   him ;  which  we  do,  witli 
sentiments  of  profound  respect  and  gratitude  to  the  two  conduc- 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  I6l 

tors  who  have  brought  him  thither.  Of  them,  and  of  their 
labours,  we  scarcely  know  how  to  speak  in  terms  sufHciently 
expressive  of  our  high  estimation,  it  will  be  found,  by  those 
wlio  will  resort  to  their  pages,  that  Philalethes  has  thrown  upon 
the  discussion  the  pure,  serene,  and  steady  light,  of  a  wise  and 
excellently-disciplined  mind;  and  that  the  Regius  Professor  has 
done  honour  to  his  chair,  by  a  patience  and  closeness  of  investi- 
gation, which  is  altogether  admirable.  Between  them,  they  have 
thoroughly  and  minutely  demonstrated  the  morbid  anatomy  of 
their  stihject.  There  never,  we  believe,  was  a  dissection  more 
complete.  And,  we  only  regret  that  we  have  been  unable  to  do 
them  justice,  by  a  more  perfect  exhibition  of  the  process. 

Of  the  subject  himself  we  must  say  a  word  or  two.  He  is  an 
extremely  curious  specimen  of  a  controversial  divine!  He, 
really,  is  the  glossiest  and  most  silken  of  polemics  ;  "  quite  a 
jewel  of  a  man."  In  style  and  manner,  he,  frequently,  reminds 
us  of  notliing  so  much,  as  of  an  exceedingly  well-powdered,  well- 
dressed,  fair-spoken,  voluble,  and  most  accomplished  empiric, 
with  the  brilliant  on  his  finger,  and  the  cambric  in  his  hand. 
And,  then,  he  has  such  winning  ways  with  him;  there  is  so  much 
blandness  and  complacency;  such  captivating  appeals  to  the 
sense  and  candour  of  a  discerning  public ;  so  much  abstinence 
from  all  provoking  and  ill-bred  forms  of  speech ;  so  much  of  the 
plausibilities  of  logic  and  induction ; — that  it  is  quite  impossible 
to  wonder  at  his  success.  Sometimes,  it  must  be  confessed, 
there  is  a  good  deal  of  sonorous  pomposity;  and,  occasionally, 
there  do  occur  some  slight  indications  of  supercilious  contempt 
for  his  adversaries.  But  all  this  sort  of  thing  is  in  admirable 
keeping  with  the  rest.  So  that,  taking  him  for  all  in  all,  we 
scarcely  may  hope  to  look  upon  his  like  again.  But  we  gladly 
turn  over  the  description  of  him  to  a  hand  incomparably  more 
able  than  our  own  : — 

"  Phiusibility" — says  Dr.Turton — "  is  the  characteristic  of  the  learned 
author's  labours.  On  their  surface  there  is  a  smoothness — a  gloss — 
which  can  scarcely  fail  to  beguile  the  individual,  who  is  content  with  a 
hasty  perusal.  And  how  few,  of  those  who  read  and  pronounce  an 
opinion,  have  the  leisure  or  the  inclination — even  supposing  them  to 
have  the  requisite  attainments — to  examine  such  a  work  with  sufficient 
attention  to  enable  them  to  form  a  correct  judgment  on  the  subject. 
Without  the  slightest  wish  to  depreciate  the  lectures  or  their  author,  I 
cannot  help  here  stating,  that  I  have  never  met  with  another  production 
so  abounding  in  petty  criticism  on  small  portions  of  text  apart  from 
their  contexts — in  herm&sieutical  devices  of  every  kind  — and  in  argu- 
ments which,  being  directly  opposed  to  each  other,  serve  only  to  cause 
perplexity.     The  author  is  subtile,  but  not  sagacious  3   he  is  dextrous, 

NO.XLIII. — JULY,  1837.  M 

lG'2  Dis.  Wiseman  and  Tiirton — 

but  not  circumspect ;  he  is  learned  after  the  manner  of  a  controver- 
sialist, not  after  that  of  a  student.  It  would  have  afforded  me  real  plea- 
sure, if  I  could  have  pointed  out  a  single  instance  of  fair,  manly  investi- 
gation in  tiie  course  of  his  lectures;  and  I  sincerely  regret  that  he  has 
not  enabled  nic  to  pay  him  the  compliment." — p.  322. 

\\c  cannot  conclude,  however,  without  expressing  our  cordial 
acknowledgments  to  Dr.  Wiseman  :  for,  in  trutli,  we  have  found 
in  liim  a  most  j)otent  auxiliary  to  our  own  Protestant  persuasions. 
Stupitl  heretics  tliat  we  are ! — we  do  solemnly  declare  that  we 
Iiave  risen  from  the  Lectures  of  the  great  professor  of  herme- 
neutical  science,  with  an  augmented  intensity  of  conviction,  that 
tlie  Komish  doctrine  of  the  Eucharist  is  the  most  portentous  of 
all  the  delusions,  which  have  ever  abused  the  credulity  of  the 
human  race.  Yes, — it  is  our  deliberate  belief,  that,  if  any  doubts 
had  been  lingering  in  our  mind  before,  these  Discourses — (which 
may  have  entranced  the  English  College  at  Rome) — woidd  have 
swept  them  all  away.  Now,  this — it  must  be  acknowledged — is 
no  ordinary  weight  of  obligation.  For,  we  entirely  agree  with 
Dr.  Turton,  that  "  those  persons  totally  mistake  the  matter,  who 
"  fancy  that  the  doctrine  of  Transubstantiation  is  but  of  minor 
"  importance ;  constituting  an  unessential  difference  of  opinion, 
"  between  persons  of  difl'erent  persuasions  in  religion."  Thus 
much,  indeed,  wq  have  no  hesitation  to  confess, — that,  if  this 
were  a  vierc.  ophiion^  wandering  about  among  certain  members  of 
the  Catholic  Church,  we  should  feel  but  little  alarm,  or  disturb- 
once  about  the  matter.  We  really  see  nothing  in  it,  considered 
as  a  mere  ovinioii  entertained  by  individuals,  which  should  con- 
stitute an  element  of  schism.  We  cannot  discern  anything  in 
the  simple  abstract  persuasion,  which  should  hinder  us  from 
going  to  the  communion  table  with  any  one  who,  here  and  there, 
might  happen  to  entertain  it.  We  might  regard  it,  to  be  sure,  as 
a  most  astounding  absurdity,  whether  physically  or  metaphy- 
sically considered.  Theologically  considered,  however,  it  implies 
nothing,  so  far  as  we  can  discern,  which  tends  to  lower  the  effi- 
cacy or  the  dignity  of  the  sacrament.  Why,  then,  should  it  be 
allowed  to  separate  between  us  and  our  brother,  when  about  to 
approach  the  table  of  the  Lord  ?  Unhappily,  however,  it  has 
grown,  by  a  sort  of  forcing  process,  into  something  infinitely 
more  formidable  than  a  mere  private  opinion.  It  has  acquired  all 
the  strength  and  solidity  of  a  dogma.  It  is  among  the  massicist 
portions  of  the  masonry,  whereof  the  church  of  Rome  has  built  a 
wall  up  to  heaven,  between  herself  and  all  the  rest  of  Christen- 
dom. It  has  become  the  very  centre  and  citadel  of  a  vast  empire 
of  superstition.  It  is  the  tower  and  the  fortress  which  the  papal 
tyranny  has  made  so  strong  for  herself.     It  is  the  grand  chamber 

The  Doctrine  of  the  Eucharist.  16:) 

of  imagery,  which  forms  the  mysterious  recess  of  her  most  potent 
and  pernicious  sorceries.  It  is  the  element  which,  of  all  others, 
imparts  an  irresistible  and  superhuman  might  to  the  whole  body 
of  the  Romish  hierarchy.  It  invests  the  ministers  of  the  Church 
with  a  mysterious  and  theurgical  character,  before  which  all 
human  faculties  and  energies  bow  down  in  the  dust.  So  long, 
therefore,  as  the  Church  shall  be  militant  here  in  earth,  so  long- 
must  there  be  no  truce  or  compromise  with  this  tremendous  de- 
ception. For  upwards  of  six  centuries,  the  warfare  has  been 
carried  on  against  it ;  and  the  controversy  has  often  been  "  by 
fire  and  by  blood."  At  this  day,  the  conflict  has  assumed  a 
more  mitigated  aspect.  But  the  principles  to  be  encountered 
are  unchanged,  and  unchangeable.  Whether,  therefore,  the 
genius  of  the  Church,  which  has  canonized  this  opinion,  be  repre- 
sented by  an  inquisitor,  or  by  a  doctor  of  hermeneutics,  the  duty 
of  those  M'ho  contend  for  truth,  and  freedom,  will  be  compre- 
hended in  one  syllable — Watch! 

Art.  VIII. — introduction  to  the  Second  Edition  of  the  Bampton 
Lectures,  of  the  Year  1832.  By  R.  D.  Hampden,  D.D.,  Re- 
gius Professor  of  Divinity  in  the  University  of  Oxford,  Canon 
of  Christ  Church,  Sic.     London  :  Fellowes.     1837. 

Dr.  Hampden  having  published  this  "  Introduction,"  and  having 
done  us  the  honour  of  forwarding  a  copy  for  our  perusal,  we  do 
not  like  to  be  altogether  silent.  We  propose,  therefore,  to  make 
one  or  two  remarks;  but  almost  literally  one  or  two  :  because,  if 
any  one  thing  be  farther  from  our  wishes  than  all  others,  it  is  to 
open  those  wounds  of  controversy  which  time,  with  reference  to 
all  parties,  may  have  done  somelhing  to  heal. 

The  pamphlet  before  us,  which  is  printed  in  a  separate  shape, 
contains  a  brief  development  or  explanation  of  the  views  put 
forth  in  the  Bampton  Lectures  of  1832.  As  such,  it  has  its  use, 
and  is  well  worthy  the  attention  of  the  theological  student.  At  the 
same  time,  we  cannot  but  observe,  that  there  is  prima  facie  evi- 
dence of  the  obscurity  at  least  of  these  Bampton  Lectures,  and 
the  misconceptions  to  which  some  statements  contained  in  them 
were  liable,  in  the  fact  that,  iSve  years  after  their  delivery,  their 
author  feels  it  necessary  to  offer  this  explanation  and  develop- 
ment. We  might  show,  too,  if  we  were  inclined  to  pick  holes, 
that  some  propositions  in  this  development  itself,  although  not 
exactly  explaining  the  "  obscurum  per  ohscurius,"  are  yet  either 
doubtful  as  to  their  meaning,  or  questionable  as  to  their  truth ; 

M  2 

lG4      luirodiiction  to  Dr.  Hampdenh  Bampton  Lectures. 

and  that  others,  again,  cannot  be  made  consistent,  by  any  fair 
niethod  of  grammatical  construction,  with  the  letter  of  his  pre- 
ceding works.  On  the  whole,  however,  it  certainly  exhibits  Dr. 
Hampden's  system  in  a  more  favourable  light,  and  ought  to  be 
taken  as  the  expression  of  the  iixed,  ripened,  and  deliberate  opi- 
nions of  a  man,  whose  personal  sincerity,  as  well  as  whose  per- 
sonal amiability,  no  one  has  ever  disputed.    Dr.  Hampden  says — 

"  It  is  well  known,  that,  as  an  author,  or  rather  particularly  as  the 
Bampton  Lecturer  of  the  year  1832,  I  have  been  the  object  of  no  com- 
mon or  measured  attacks.  Such  has  been  my  singular  infelicity ! — or, 
perhaps  I  should  say,  felicity;  when  I  look  to  the  advantage  that  must 
result  to  the  truth,  from  general  attention  being  drawn  to  that  track  of 
theology  on  which  I  have  entered.  It  is  not  necessary  to  describe  how 
I  have  been  assailed,  not  only  by  angry  publications,  but  by  the  more 
open  polemics  of  ungentle  and  disrespectful  acts.  All  this  being  known 
to  the  world,  some  perhaps  have  wondered  that  I  have  not  been  stirred 
up  to  the  conflict." — p.  I. 

After  stating  his  reasons  for  "  not  entering  into  personal  con- 
troversy with  his  adversaries,"  Dr.  Hampden  proceeds: 

"  I  would  first  point  out  what  is  the  object  proposed  in  the  Bampton 
Lectures.  There  has  been  much  misrepresentation  on  this  head.  The 
work  has  been  held  up  as  an  attempt  to  explain  away  Christian  truths  — 
to  leave  nothing  of  Christian  doctrine — to  reduce  the  creed  of  the  Chris- 
tian to  a  few  historical  events,  or  else  to  certain  abstract  general  points 
in  which  the  various  opinions  of  discordant  sects  may  be  found  to  agree 
— and  generally  to  unsettle  the  minds  of  believers  as  to  what  is  Chris- 
tian truth,  and  what  is  not.  Unfair  objection  to  my  line  of  argument 
has  thus  been  raised  ;  and  persons  have  been  prevented  from  giving  that 
calm,  unprejudiced  attention  to  the  subject,  which  it  strictly  requires. 
It  is  not  only  true  that  men  condemn  what  they  do  not  understand  ;  but 
they  are  disabled  from  understanding  what  they  have  been  taught  to 

"Let  me  premise,  then,  that  the  inquiry  pursued  in  the  Bampton  Lec- 
tures leaves  the  matter  of  Christian  doctrine  untouched.  It  is  one  thing 
to  inquire  into  the  mode  of  statement,  supposing  the  substance  of  the 
statement  to  be  true ;  and  another  thing  to  inquire  into  the  matter  or 
substance  of  the  truth  stated.  A  truth,  whether  we  call  it  a  fact  or  a 
doctrine,  is  quite  independent  of  any  particular  mode  of  statement." — • 
pp.  4,  5. 

Again — 

"  So  far  respecting  the  general  design  of  my  Bampton  Lectures. 
Agreeably  to  what  I  have  here  said,  I  have  in  that  work  described  my 
business  there,  as  an  inquiry  into  the  nature  of  theological  terms.  And 
as  the  philosophy  of  the  schools  of  the  middle  ages,  or  the  scholastic  phi- 
losophy, as  it  is  called,  presented  copious  and  fresh  materials  for  tracing 
the  history  of  the  statements  of  doctrine,  I  selected  that  particularly  as 

Introduction  to  Dr,  Hampden's  Bampton  Lectures.       16 j 

the  field  of  my  observation.  Not  that  I  confined  my  observation  strictly 
to  the  authors  properly  denominated  scholastic  3  but  I  took  their  writ- 
ings, as  the  crisis  of  a  method  of  philosophizing  antecedent  to  them- 
selves;  as  displaying  at  its  maturity  a  mode  of  thinking  and  reasoning, 
which  had  exerted  a  very  considerable  influence  in  the  formation  of  our 
theological  language.  For  we  may  speak  of  scholasticism  before  the 
proper  age  of  the  schoolmen,  as  we  may  speak  of  Manicheisni  before  the 
Manicheans,  and  of  Calvinism  before  Calvin." — p.  22. 

We  subjoin  one  other  specimen,  which  will  sufficiently  denote 
the  nature  of  this  "  Introduction" 

"  In  pursuing  my  inquiry,  I  have  been  led  to  speak  of  the  truths  of 
religion  rs  facts.  To  persons  who  have  thoroughly  entered  into  the 
spirit  of  the  inductive  philosophy,  it  would  be  unnecessary  to  explain 
wliat  I  n)ean  by  this  term.  Such  persons  would  know,  that  this  term  is 
not  to  be  restricted  to  mere  events  or  occurrences,  or  what  may  be  called 
historical  or  singular  facts,  but  denotes,  as  I  have  elsewhere  said,  what- 
ever IS, — universal,  as  well  as  particular,  truths,  whether  founded  on 
experience,  or  on  the  authority  of  divine  revelation ;  and  that  it  is  op- 
posed to  theory  or  hypothesis.  Thus  the  divinity  of  our  Lord  is  a  fact  ; 
His  consubstantiality  with  the  Father  and  the  Holy  Spirit,  His  atone- 
ment. His  mediation,  His  distinct  personality.  His  perpetual  presence 
with  His  Church,  His  future  advent  to  judge  the  world,  the  communion 
of  saints,  the  corruption  of  our  nature,  the  efficacy  of  divine  grace,  the 
acceptableness  of  works  wrought  through  faith,  the  necessity  of  repent- 
ance,— though  stated  in  abstract  terms,  are  all  facts  in  God's  spiritual 
kingdom  revealed  to  us  through  Christ.  So  I  might  proceed  to  enume- 
rate, one  after  the  other,  all  the  Christian  verities.  But  these  instances 
may  show,  that  it  is  not  merely  such  truths  as  our  Lord's  birth,  and  cru- 
cifixion, and  resurrection,  and  ascension,  and  the  miracles  which  He 
wrought,  and  the  descent  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  or  the  call  of  Abraham,  and 
the  thunders  of  Sinai,  and  the  dedication  of  the  temple,  that  come  under 
the  appellation  of  facts,  in  the  philosophical  sense  of  that  term. 

"Tliese  last  indeed  are  facts  in  a  sense  in  which  fl//theChristian  truths 
cannot  be  said  to  be.  They  are  events ;  and  are  accordingly  facts  in  the 
popular,  as  well  as  the  philosophical,  sense  of  the  term.  They  form  an 
historical  basis  to  the  other  truths  joined  with  them  in  the  Christian 
scheme  ;  not  only  being  important  in  themselves,  but  also  serving  as  oc- 
casions for  the  development  by  the  pen  of  inspiration,  of  truths  beside 
and  beyond  themselves.  This  relation  between  the  two  classes  of  Chris- 
tian truths  is  the  foundation  of  my  observation,  that  the  truths  declared 
in  Scripture  are  to  be  understood  in  their  reference  to  the  doings  of  God 
in  the  world.  Nothing  was  further  from  my  thoughts  than  to  say  that 
Christianity  is  made  up  wholly  of  mere  events,  and  has  no  doctrinal 
truths  in  it.  I  have  wished  only  to  point  out  strongly  a  great  charac- 
teristic of  our  religion,  by  which  it  is  distinguished  from  all  other  reli- 
gions professing  to  have  their  sacred  books.  Our  revelations,  we  may 
say,  were  not  the  literary  work  of  some  sage  or  legislator,  or  put  forth  as 
a  mere  writing  or  collection  of  writings  :  but  they  are  a  series  of  histo- 

IGG     Int  rod  lid  ion  to  Dr.  Hampden^  s  Brampton  Lectures. 

ileal  revcliitions  given  at  dift'crent  times,  and  in  different  manners,  and 
by  (lilVcreut  messengers  ;  each  for  its  special  purpose,  in  connexion  with 
what  was  then  jiassing  in  the  world  ;  and  yet  all  having  reference  to  one 
great  Evangelical  purpose.  Not  so,  for  example,  the  Koran.  Here  is 
the  work  of  one  man,  dealt  forth  to  the  world  by  himself  as  so  many 
divine  communications  to  him,  and  having  no  connexion  in  its  parts  with 
the  history  of  the  world." — pp.  24,  25. 

Now,  if  we  were  polemically  disposed,  we  might  prove  without 
any  difficulty  that,  so  far,  "  this  connexion  of  the  doctrinal  trutiis 
of  Christianity  with  the  historical,"  is  by  no  means  an  original 
notion  of  Dr.  Hampden;  but  has  been  urged,  with  great  force  and 
clearness,  as  a  glorious  characteristic  of  the  Bible,  by  many  reli- 
gious controversialists.  We  might  also  contend  that  this  explana- 
tion does  not  quite  do  away  the  confusion  about  facts  and  doc- 
trines to  which  Dr.  Hampden,  partly  at  least,  has  given  rise.  We 
feel,  as  strongly  as  the  Oxford  Professor  of  Divinity  himself,  the 
impossibility  of  marking  an  absolute  line  of  distinction  between 
facts  and  doctrines;  just  as  we  hear  men  saying,  "  that  one  fact 
is  worth  a  hundred  arguments ;"  and  yet  we  never  knew  a  fact 
that  was  not,  in  the  highest  sense,  an  argument ;  or  an  argument 
deserving  a  moment's  consideration,  that  was  not,  in  some  sense, 
also  a  fact.  Y^i  to  use  popular  words,  without  sufficient  notice, 
in  a  philosophical,  or  rather  an  uncommon  signification,  is  to  lay 
a  snare  for  the  unwary,  and  even,  perhaps,  to  lead  the  most  cau- 
tious into  error.  We  might  enlarge  upon  the  ambiguity,  certain 
to  accrue  from  employing  the  same  identical  term,  without  ade- 
quate intimation  of  its  comprehensiveness,  as  an  event,  and  as  a 
proposition ;  as  Vi  particular  transaction,  and  as  an  universal  truth; 
as  a  thing  done,  and  as  a  reality,  or  entiti/,  of  any  kind  whatsoever. 
This  ambiguity,  too,  has  been  enhanced  in  the  present  case ;  be- 
cause, on  the  one  side,  it  has  been  argued  that  the  doctriiies  of 
the  Bible  are  all  in  all,  and  that  i\\G  facts  recorded  in  it, — that  is, 
the  physical  and  historical  events, — are  not  necessarily  a  part  of 
the  matter  of  inspiration  ;  and,  on  the  other  side,  it  has  been  ar- 
gued, that  the  Bible,  in  strictness,  contains  no  doctrines,  but  only 
facts ;  and  the  explanation  is,  when  men  have  started  with  wonder 
at  the  hardihood  of  this  assertion,  that  a  fact,  philosophically 
conceived,  includes  every  thing  that  is  properly  a  doctrine. 

Our  harshness,  if  we  have  ever  been  harsh  towards  Dr.  Hamp- 
den, has  been  produced  by  our  deep  conviction  of  the  disastrous 
and  manifold  evils  which  must  result  from  vagueness,  or  lubricity, 
of  language,  in  theological  investigations.  It  renders  peace  and 
unity  unattainable  ;  it  diverts  the  minds  of  Christian  inquirers 
trom  the  calm  pursuit  of  truths  to  logomachies,  at  once  endless 
and  profitless ;  it  aff'ords  a  triumph  to  the   sneering  sophist  who 

LUroduction  to  Dr.  Hampden  s  Bampton  Lectures.        iO? 

finds  in  the  disputes  among  believers  an  excuse  for  his  infidelity ; 
and  it  heats  the  minds  of  men,  who  might  otherwise  be  firm 
friends  and  mutual  admirerS;  with  acrimonious  and  angry  contro- 
versy, while  there  is  really  no  essential  difference  of  opinion  be- 
tween them.  Our  contempt  is  unspeakable  for  those  who  are 
determined,  at  all  events,  to  misunderstand  an  author's  meaning  : 
but  the  author,  too,  is  fairly  subject  to  expostulation  and  remon- 
strance, if  be  is  so  careless,  or  so  unfortunate,  as  to  write  in  a 
manner  which  it  is  difficult  not  to  misuncerstand.  If  allowances 
ought  to  be  made  for  Dr.  Hampden,  because  his  creed  has  never 
been  so  heterodox  as  some  of  his  expressions,  they  ought  also  to 
be  made  for  other  men,  not  less  estimable  than  Dr.  Hampden 
himself,  who  have  been  led,  by  some  of  his  expressions,  to  mis- 
take the  nature  of  his  creed. 

But  we  purposely  abstain  from  saying  more : — or  we  might  be 
tempted  to  oft'er  some  strictures  on  what  Dr.  Hampden  has  said 
concerning  "  tradition ;"  and,  likewise,  on  the  extent,  and  on  the 
manner,  in  which  the  inductive  process  is  applicable  to  biblical 
study. — For  our  own  parts,  as  we  look  back  on  the  whole  of  this 
Hampdenian  controversy,  we  see  much  reason  for  regret,  but 
little,  or  none,  for  self-reproach.  We  spoke  of  Dr.  Hampden 
and  his  works  with  the  utmost  impartiality  :  for  we  had  not  the 
advantage,  or  rather,  in  this  particular  case,  the  disadvantage,  of 
any  private  acquaintance  with  him  ;  and  our  observations  could 
not  be  tinctured  either  with  the  bitierness  of  jealousy,  or  with  the 
more  generous  injustice  of  personal  friendship.  Our  criticisms, 
too,  were  hazarded,  before  Dr.  Hampden  was  lifted  into  the  dis- 
quietudes of  his  conspicuous  station;  before  political  feelings, 
whether  of  attachment  or  aversion,  could  be  connected  with  his 
name ;  and  while  his  speculations  seemed  scarcely  more  likely  to 
be  invested  with  a  paramount  importance,  than  any  work  of  Mr. 
A.,  or  Dr.  B.,  forming  part  of  that  multitudinous  flood  of  new 
productions  which  rolls  in  upon  us  from  quarter  to  quarter. 

But,  dismissing  the  past,  we  would  look  only  to  the  future. 
And,  painful  as  the  dispute  has  been,  we  do  sincerely  hope  that 
good  may  yet  be  evolved  out  of  the  evil. — The  use  and  abuse  of 
technical  terms  in  theology,  and  the  changes  of  meaning  which 
they  have  undergone,  amidst  the  fluctuations  of  thought  and  lan- 
guage;— the  nature  and  history,  the  origin  and  progress,  of  the 
scholastic  philosophy; — and,  generally,  the  labours,  and  errors,  of 
men,  who  have  been  equally  the  subjects  of  absurd  blame  and 
extravagant  encomium  ; — these  are  topics  on  which  the  Christian 
divine  ought  not,  surely,  to  be  quite  in  the  dark.  It  will  be  a 
benefit,  therefore,  to  some  of  Dr.  Hampden's  opponents,  if  they 
are  induced  to  read  systematically,  and  to  think  closely,  upon  the 

ins      Itilrodnction  to  Dr.  Hampden's  Bampton  Lectures. 

nialteis  which  he  has  brought  under  discussion.  And  Dr.  Hump- 
don,  on  his  part,  will  have  learnt,  since  he  really  entertains  no  sort 
of  antipathy  against  creeds,  symbols  and  formularies  of  faith, 
never,  in  inadvertency  or  haste,  to  speak  of  them  in  terms  oiiten- 
sive  of  necessity  to  those,  who  regard  them  with  an  affectionate 
reverence  :— he  will  have  learnt  to  mature  his  scheme  of  divinity, 
and,  in  maturing,  to  soften  it ;—  to  surround  liis  sentiments  with 
the  requisite  qualifications,  to  express  them  in  guarded  and  well- 
considered  phrases,  and  to  rub  away  from  the  fabric  of  his  com- 
positions those  rough  and  salient  points  on  which  it  was  so  un- 
pleasant to  touch.  The  religion  of  the  land  is  partly  entrusted 
to  his  keeping;  and  he  will  be  mainly  indebted  to  his  inipugners, 
if  his  guardianship  of  it  is  approved.  A  career  of  usefulness  and 
honour  is  open  before  him  ;  and  he  will  be  mainly  indebted  to 
his  inipugners,  if  he  fultils  it  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  Church  and 
country.  He  will  be  mainly  indebted  to  them  for  a  lesson  the 
most  valuable  to  a  man  of  his  intellectual  habits  and  capacities  : 
he  will  be  mainly  indebted  to  them  for  any  improvement  in  his 
future  etforts  ;  and,  yet  farther,  for  the  extended  circulation  which 
is  given  to  his  present  opinions  ;  for  the  opportunity  of  writing 
this  explanatory  Introduction,  which,  although  it  comes  rather 
late,  and  is  "  born  somewhat  out  of  time,"  would  not  otherwise 
have  appeared  ;  for  a  larger  number  of  readers  than  would  else 
have  been  attracted  to  his  works ;  and,  very  probably,  for  the  cir- 
cumstance, that  he  is  now  presenting  to  the  world  a  second  edi- 
tion of  his  Bampton  Lectures. 

Art,  1X.~1.  Edinburgh  liemew,  No.  CVI.  Art.  VI.  «  Uni- 
versities of  England,  Oxford."— No.  CVIII.  Art.  IX.  "  Eng- 
lish Universities,  Oxford." — No.  CXXI.  Art.  X.  "  Admission 
of  Dissenters  to  the  Universities." — No.  CXXI  I.  Art,  IX. 
*'  The  Universities  and  the  Dissenters." 

1.  The  LegalitT/  of  the  present  Academical  Sy stein  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Oxford  asserted  agauist  the  neiu  Calumnies  of  the 
Edinburgh  lieview.  By  a  Member  of  Convocation.  8vo. 
Oxford,  18.31. 

3.  The  Legality  of  the  present  Academical  System  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Oxford  re- asserted  against  the  neio  Calumnies  of  the 
Edinburgh  Review.  By  a  Member  of  Convocation.  Svo. 
Oxford,  183'2. 

4,  On  the  Origin  of  Universities  and  Academical  Degrees.  By 
Henry  Maiden,  M.A.  late  Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cam- 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  169 

bridge.  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  University  of  London.   1  Snio. 
London,  1835. 

5.  JJn  Historical  Findicaiion  of  the  leading  Principles  contained 
in  the  Earl  of  Radnor  s  Bill,  entitled  "  A)t  Act  for  appointing 
Commissioners  to  incjuire  respecting  the  Statutes  and  Adminis- 
tration of  the  different  Colleges  a)id  Halls  at  Oxford  and  Cam- 
bridge.''     8vo.     London,  1837. 

6.  The  History  of  the  Visitation  of  the  Uviversitij  of  Oxford  by 
a  Parliamentary  Commission  in  the  lears  l647,  1648,  abridged 

front  the  Annals  of  Anthony  a  Wood.     Svo.     Oxford,  1837- 

"  This  is  the  age  of  I'cform  :  next  in  importance  to  our  religions  and 
political  establishments,  are  the  foundations  for  public  education  ;  and 
having  now  seriously  engaged  in  a  reform  of  '  the  constitution,  the  envy 
of  surrounding  nations,'  the  time  cannot  be  distant  for  a  reform  in  the 
schools  and  universities,  which  have  hardly  avoided  their  contempt. 
Public  intelligence  is  not,  as  hitherto,  tolerant  of  prescriptive  abuses,  and 
the  country  now  demands  that  endowments  for  the  common  weal  should 
no  longer  be  administered  for  private  advantage.  At  this  auspicious 
crisis,  and  under  a  ministry  no  longer  warring  against  public  opinion,  we 
should  be  sorry  not  to  contribute  our  endeavour  to  attract  attention  to 
the  defects  which  more  or  less  pervade  all  our  national  seminaries  of 
education,  and  to  the  means  best  calculated  for  their  removal.  We  pro- 
pose, therefore,  from  time  to  time,  to  continue  to  review  the  state  of 
these  establishments,  considered  both  absolutely  in  themselves  and  in 
relation  to  the  other  circumstances  which  have  contributed  to  modify  the 
intellectual  condition  of  the  different  divisions  of  the  empire." 

It  is  now  just  six  years  since  the  Edinburgh  Review  thus  an- 
nounced its  intention  of  taking  under  its  paternal  inspection  and 
superintendence  the  Universities  of  England.  Nor  has  it  proved 
unfaithful  to  the  office  thus  charitably  undertaken.  About  once  in 
three  years  it  seems  to  perform  a  kind  of  visitation.  The  first* 
was  in  June,  1831;  there  was  another  in  October,  1834;  it  is 
now  about  the  time  for  a  third ;  and  we  feel  convinced  therefore, 
independently  of  the  disposition  shown  in  certain  quarters  at  the 
present  moment  to  adopt  the  suggestions  of  the  Edinburgh  Re- 
view, that  no  apology  is  necessary  for  recalling  the  attention  of 
our  readers  to  articles  of  so  old  a  date.  They  are  even  now  pro- 
bably preparing  to  make  their  appearance  again  before  the  ad- 
miring public  in  some  new  dress. 

"  In  proceeding  to  the  Universities,"  said  the  northern  visitor, 
when  he  entered  with  befitting  solemnity  upon  the  duties  ol  his 
office,  '*  we  commence  with  Oxford."  And,  doubtless,  there  were 
very  good  reasons.     "  This  University,"  it  seems,  "  is  entitled  to 

*  There  had  not  been  one  since  1810;  long  ago,  however,  as  that  is  in  the  history 
of  ephemeral  literature,  the  circumstances  are  not  yet  quite  forgotten. 

170  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

j)rccc(loncc  from  its  venerable  antiquity,  its  ancient  fame,  the 
wealth  of  its  entlownients,  and  the  importance  of  its  privileges;" 
all  very  solid  and  substantial  reasons  doubtless,  but  it  seems  there 
is  "  another  reason,"  and  one  still  better  and  more  cogent,  for  this 
"  preference." 

"  Without  attempting  any  idle  and  invidious  comparison,  without  as- 
serting the  superior  or  inferior  excellence  of  Oxford  in  contrast  with  any 
other  British  University,  we  have  no  hesitation,"  says  the  Edinburgh 
Review,  "  in  affirming  that,  comparing  what  it  actually  is  with  what  it 
jiossibly  could  lie,  Oxford  is,  of  all  academical  institutions,  at  once  the  most 
imperfect  and  the  most  perfectible.  Properly  directed,  as  they  might  be, 
the  means  which  it  possesses  would  render  it  the  most  efficient  Univer- 
sity in  existence  ;  improperly  directed,  as  they  are,  each  part  of  the 
apparatus  only  counteracts  another;  and  there  is  not  a  similar  institution 
which,  in  proportion  to  what  it  ought  to  accomplish,  accomplishes  so 

"  But  it  is  not  in  demonstrating  the  imperfection  of  the  present 
system/'  proceeds  the  Review,  "  that  we  principally  ground  a 
hope  of  its  improvement;  it  is  in  demonstrating  its  illegality." 
This,  it  must  be  admitted,  was  a  judicious  proceeding.  The 
former  method  had  been  tried  before,  and  had  signally  failed;  it 
Mas  hisrh  time  'to  have  recourse  to  some  other  mode  of  attack. 
"  But  in  the  reform  of  an  ancient  establishment  like  Oxford,  the 
great  ditiiculty,"  as  Edinburgh  Reviewers  were  destined  to  dis- 
cover, and  as  wise  men  had  discovered  long  before,  when  they 
took  into  consideration  how  to  move  bodies  still  larger,  and  which 
had  been  still  longer  established,  "  the  great  difficulty  is  to  ini- 
tiate a  movement."  Aoj  7r«  <ttm'.  Give  me  the  fulcrum, — and  1 
will  move  the  world.  "  In  comparing  Oxford  as  it  is  with  an 
ideal  standard,"  experience,  it  seems,  has  taught  the  wise,  "  there 
tnaij  be  differences  of  opinion  in  regard  to  the  kind  of  change  ex- 
pedient, if  not  in  regard  to  the  expediency  of  a  change  at  all '^ 
for  even  this,  it  seems,  is  just  possible;  "  but  in  comparing  it 
with  the  standard  of  its  own  code  of  statutes  there  can  be  none." 
Here  then  was  an  opening  for  the  engines  of  assault.  "  It  will 
not  surely  be  contended,"  said  the  Reviewer,  with  sufficient  plau- 
sibility, "  that  matters  should  continue  as  they  are,  if  it  can  be 
shown  that,  as  now  administered,  this  University  pretends  only  to 
accomplish  a  petty  fraction  of  the  oids  proposed  to  it  by  law,  and 
attempts  even  this  only  by  illegal  means.  But  a  progress  being 
determined  towards  a  state  of  right,  it  is  easy  to  accelerate  the 
momentum*  towards  a  state  of  excellence: — afx^  jjy/cru  Travroj." 

*  Quer^-.  Is  it  quite  so  easy,  philosophically  speaking,  to  "  accelerate  iDomentum?" 
"  Velocity,"  we  all  know,  is  very  easily  "  accelerated,"  but  something  more  is  neces- 
sary to  make  ij[)  the  "  niomentuni."  And  this,  perhaps,  there  may  be  round  a  diffi- 
culty in  supplying. 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  171 

This  was  indeed  a  very  plausible  scheme ;  the  "  illegality"  of  the 
system  established  in  our  Universities  was  a  banner  under  which 
parliamentary  forces  would  be  found  ready  enough  to  march. 
Eureka!  Eureka!  we  would  that  we  had  seen  the  hecatombs  of 
the  srrateful  sasie. 

At  ail  events  he  betook  himself  most  strenuously  to  his  task. 
He  laid  the  plan  of  his  campaign  in  due  order,  but  the  work  un- 
dertaken was  great. 

*'  Did  the  limits  of  a  single  paper  allow  us  to  exhaust  the  subject,  we 
should,  in  the  Jirst  place,  consider  the  state  of  the  University,  both  as 
established  in  law  and  non-existent  in  fact,  and  as  established  in  fact  but 
non-existent  in  law  ;  in  the  second,  the  causes  which  have  determined 
the  transition  from  the  statutory  to  the  illegal  constitution  ;  in  the  third, 
the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  the  two  systems  5  and  in  the  fourth^ 
the  means  by  which  the  University  may  be  best  restored  to  its  efficiency. 
In  the  present  article,  however,  we  can  only  compass,  and  that  inade- 
quately, the  first  and  second  heads.  The  third  and  fourth  we  must  re- 
serve for  a  separate  discussion,  in  which  we  shall  endeavour  to  demon- 
strate, that  the  intrusive  system,  compared  with  the  legitimate,  is  as 
absurd  as  it  is  unauthorized — that  the  preliminary  step  in  a  reform  must 
be  a  return  to  the  Statutory  Constitution — and  that  this  constitution, 
though  far  from  faultless,  may,  by  a  few  natural  and  easy  changes,  be 
improved  into  an  instrument  of  education,  the  most  perfect  perhaps  in 
the  world.  Tlie  subject  of  our  consideration  at  present  requires  a  fuller 
exposition,  not  only  from  its  intrinsic  importance,  but  because,  strange 
as  it  may  appear,  the  origin,  and  consequently  the  cure,  of  the  corruption 

of  the  English  Universities,  is  totally  misunderstood It  is  generally 

believed  that,  however  imperfect  in  itself,  the  actual  mechanism  of  edu- 
cation organized  in  these  seminaries,  is  a  time-honoured  and  essential 
part  of  their  being,  established  upon  statute,  endowed  by  the  national 
legislature  with  exclusive  privileges,  and  inviolable  as  a  vested  right.  AVe 
shall  prove,  on  the  contrary,  that  it  is  new  as  it  is  inexpedient— not  only 
accidental  to  the  University,  but  radically  subversive  of  its  constitution, 
— without  legal  sanction,  nay,  in  violation  of  positive  law, — arrogating 
the  privileges  exclusively  conceded  to  another  system,  which  it  has  super- 
seded, and  so  far  from  being  defensible  by  those  it  profits,  as  a  right, 
that  it  is  a  flagrant  usurpation  obtained  through  perjury,  and  only  tole- 
rated through  neglect." — p.  385,  386. 

The  Reviewer  proceeded  to  state  his  theory,  and  to  set  forth, 
tirst  generally,  and  then  in  detail,  the  contrast  between  his  two 
systems,  the  "  statutory"  and  the  "  illegal,"  the  professorial  and 
the  tutorial ;  the  result  of  which  was,  that,  though  it  was  to  be 
admitted  that  "  there  is  much  of  good,  much  worthy  of  imitation 
by  other  Universities,  in  the  present  spirit  and  present  economy  of 
Oxford,  which"  the  Reviewer  was  "  happy  to  acknowledge,  and 
might  at  another  time  endeavour  to  demonstrate,"  yet  that  "  this 
good  is  occasioned  not  effected,  and  that,  as  at  present  organized, 

J  72  Allack  on  lite  Universities — Oxford. 

it  is  a  doublful  i)roblein  whether  the  tutorial  system  ouglit  not  to 
be  abated  as  a  miisaiiee."  (p.  3[)S.)  Next  the  Reviewer  pro- 
ceeded to  his  "  second  subject  of  consideration, — to  inquire  by 
what  causes  and  for  what  ends  this  revolution  was  accomplished; 
iiow  the  English  Universities,  in  particular  Oxford,  passed  from  a 
legal  to  an  illegal  state,  and  from  public  Universities  were  de- 
graded into  private  schools  ?  The  answer  is  precise,"  says  the 
Reviewer,  "  this  was  effected  solely  by  the  influence,  and  exclu- 
sively for  the  advantage  of  the  Colleges."  But  seeing  that  it  re- 
quired '*  some  illustration  to  understand,"  amidst  the  profound 
ignorance  of  the  public,  "  how  the  interests  of  these  private  cor- 
porations was  opposed  to  that  of  the  public  institution,  of  which," 
according  to  the  Reviewer,  "  they  were  the  accidents ;  and  how 
their  domestic  tuition  was  able  gradually  to  undermine,  and  ulti- 
mately to  supersede  the  system  of  academical  lectures,  in  aid  of 
which,"  he  informs  us,  "  it  was  established  ;"  there  followed  a 
learned  "  sketch  of  the  collegial  system  as  variously  organized  and 
as  variously  aifecting  the  academical  constitution  in  foreign  Uni- 
versities," in  order  to  "  afford  a  clearer  conception  of  the  distinc- 
tive character  of  that  system  in  those  of  England,  and  of  the  para- 
mount and  unexampled  influence  it  had  exerted  in  determining 
their  corruption." — (pp.  39S,  399-)  It  remained  only  to  explain 
more  particularly  "  how  a  revolution  so  improbable  in  itself,  and 
so  disastrous  in  its  effects,"  was  accomplished,  by  showing,  with 
reference  to  Oxford,  **  1st.  How  the  students,  once  distributed  in 
numerous  small  societies  through  the  halls,  were  at  length  collected 
into  a  few  large  communities  within  the  colleges;  2d.  How  in  the 
colleges,  thus  the  pen-folds  of  the  academical  flock,  the  fellows 
frustrated  the  common  right  of  graduates  to  the  office  of  tutor; 
and  3d.  How  the  fellow  tutors  supplanted  the  professors — how 
the  colleges  superseded  the  University." — (p.  407.)  This  last,  it 
appears,  was  the  crowning  effort,  the  grand  master-piece  of  policy. 

"  Could  the  professorial  system  on  which  the  University  rested  be 
abolished,  the  tutorial  system  would  remain  the  one  organ  of  academical 
instruction  J  could  the  University  be  silently  annihilated,  the  colleges 
would  succeed  to  its  name,  its  privileges,  and  its  place.  This  momentous 
revolution  was  consummated.  We  do  not  affirm,  that  the  end  was  clearly 
proposed,  or  a  line  of  policy  for  its  attainment  ever  systematically  fol- 
lowed out.  But  circumstances  concurred,  and  that  instinct  of  self-in- 
terest which  actuates  bodies  of  men  with  the  certainty  of  a  natural  law, 
determined,  in  the  course  of  generations,  a  result,  such  as  no  sagacity 
would  have  anticipated  as  possible.  After  the  accomplishment,  however, 
a  retrospect  of  its  causes  shows  the  event  to  have  been  natural,  if  not 
necessary," — p.  413. 

"  The  subversion  of  the  University"  then,  it  appears,  7nirabile 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  273 

fJictu,  "  is  to  be  traced  to  that  very  code  of  laws  on  wliich  its  con- 
stitution was  finally  established."  "  The  statutes  ratiiied  under 
the  Chancellorship  of  Laud,  and  by  which  the  legal  constitution 
of  the  University  is  still  determined,  changed  this  republican  polity 
into  an  oligarchical."  The  heads  of  houses  were  "  now  first 
clothed  with  an  authority  such  as  rendered  them  henceforwai  d  the 
principal — in  fact,  the  sole  administrators  of  the  University  weal." 
(pp.  4 IS,  414.)  "  And  whereas,  in  foreic>n  Universities,  the  Uni- 
versity governed  the  Colleges,"  but  "in  Oxford  the  Colleges  were 
enthroned  the  governors  of  the  University;"  and  whereas  "  corpora- 
tions never  blush,"  (p. 415);  and  whereas,  under  the  peculiar  cir- 
cumstances of  the  case,  **  it  would  have  been  quite  as  reasonable  to 
expect  that  the  heads  of  colleges  should  commit  suicide  to  humour 
their  enemies,  as  that  they  should  prove  the  faithful  guardians  and 
the  zealous  promoters  of  the  professorial  system"  (p.  417);  and 
whereas,  seeing  that  the  hebdomadal  meeting  of  the  heads  of 
colleges  and  halls  "  had  the  charge  of  watching  over  the  due 
observance  of  the  statutes,"  and  "  the  heads  had  only  to  violate 
their  duties,  by  neglecting  the  charge  especially  entrusted  to 
them,  and  the  dowufal  of  the  obnoxious  system  was  inevitable" 
(pp.  417,418) — "  this,"  of  course,  "  they  did,"  and  the  system 
fell.  *'  The  great  interests  of  the  nation,  the  Church,  and  the 
professions,  were  sacrificed  to  the  paltry  ends  of  a  few  con- 
temptible corporations  :  and  the  privileges  by  law  accorded  to 
the  University/  of  Oxford,  as  the  authorized  organ  of  national 
education,  were,  by  its  perfidious  governors,  furtively  transferred 
to  the  unauthorized  absurdities  of  their  college  discipline."— (p. 

The  Review^er  had  now  only  to  put  the  finishing  hand  to  his 
work  by  the  charitable  labour  of  involving  the  heads  of  houses  as 
a  body  in  the  sweeping  charge  of"  converting  the  great  seminary 
of  the  English  Church  into  a  school  of  perjury."  "This  griev- 
ous charge,"  says  the  Review,  "  though  frequently  advanced  both 
by  the  friends  and  enemies  of  the  Establishment,  we  mention  with 
regret;  we  do  not  see  how  it  can  be  rebutted,  but  shall  be  truly 
gratified  if  it  can."  On  the  other  hand,  if  it  could  not,  the 
"  fact "  was  to  be  employed  to  complete  the  theory  of  aca- 
demical corruption,  by  proving  "  that  the  representatives  of 
the  collegial  bodies,  as  constituting  the  hebdomadal  meeting, 
were  the  authors  of  this  radical  subversion  of  the  establishment 
of  which  they  were  protectors, — that  the  greatest  importance  was 
attached  by  them  to  its  accomplishment, — and,  at  the  same  time, 
that  they  were  fully  conscious  of  sacrificing  the  interests  of  the 
University  and  public  to  a  private  job."  "  All  this,"  it  seems, 
was  "  manifested"  by  the  fact,  that  "  the  whole  statutes  that  con- 

174  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

stitute  the   being  and  well-being  of  the  University,  as  an  esta- 
blishment of  education  in  general,  and  in  particular  of  education 
in  the  three  learned  professions, — that  these  fundamental  statutes 
were,  one  and  all,  absolutely   reduced  to  a  dead  letter.     And 
why.'  because  they  established  the  University  on  the  system  of 
professorial  instruction."      But,  perhaps,  "  dispensation  aft'ords 
a  postern  of  escape."     No.     Besides  that  "  the  statutes  bestow 
this  power  exclusively  on  the  houses  of  congregation  and  convo- 
cation, and  the  limits  of"  dispensable"  and  "  indispensable  matter," 
we  are  told,  "  are  anxiously  and  minutely  determined,"  beside  all 
this,  "  of  itself  the  very  fact  that  there  was  aught  indispensable  in 
the  system  at  all,  might  satisfy  us,  without  farther  inquiry,  that  at 
least  the  one  essential  part  of  its  organization,  through  which 
the  University,  by  law,  accomplishes  the  purposes  of  its  institu- 
tion, could  not  be  dispensed  with  ;  for  this  would  be  nothing  else 
than  a  dispensation  of  the  University  itself." — (p.  421).     Still 
further,  it  appeared  that  the  University  itself,  in  its  "  Epinomis, 
or  explanation  of  the  oath,"  had  declared  "  the  magistrates"  to 
be  "  guilty  of  broken  faith  and  perjury,"  if  they  suiFered   any 
statutes  whatever  to  fall  into  desuetude."     Now,  whom  could  the 
University  mean  by  these  **  magistrates,"  said   the   Edinburgh 
Reviewer  to  himself,  but  the  heads  of  colleges  assembled  at  the 
hebdomadal  meeting? — a  most  gratuitous  assumption,  and  one 
utterly  erroneous,  as   might  easily  be  shown. — "  It  must,"  how- 
ever, the  Reviewer  proceeded,  by  an  irrefragable  a  priori  argu- 
ment, "  it  must,  as  we  observed,  have  been  powerful   motives 
which  could  induce  the  heads  of  houses  originally  to  incur,   or 
subsequently  to  tolerate,  such  opprobrium  for  themselves  and  the 
University;  nor  can  any  conceivable  motive  be  assigned  for  either, 
except  that  these  representatives  of  the   coliegial  interest  were 
fully  aware   that  the  intrusive  system  was  not  one  for  which  a 
sanction  could  be  hoped  from  the  academical  and  civil  legisla- 
tures, while,  at  the  same  time,  it  was  too  advantageous  for  them- 
selves not  to  be  quietly  perpetuated,  even  at  such  a  price."     It  is 
equally  evident,  that  "  no  body  of  men  would,  without  induce- 
ment, sit  down  under  the  brand  of  'violated   faith  and  perjury.' 
Now  this  inducement,"  it  is  equally  clear  to  logic,  "  must  have 
been  either  a  public  or  a  private  advantage.     The  former,"  it  is 
equally   clear,   "  it   could  not   have  been."     For,  "  there  is  no 
imaginable  reason,  if  the  professorial  system  were  found  abso- 
lutely or  comparatively  useless,  why  its  abolition  or  degradation 
should  not  have  been  openly  moved  in   convocation ;  and   why, 
if  the  tutorial  system  were  calculated  to  accomplish  all  the  ends 
of  academical  instruction,  it  should,  at  .first,  either  have  crept  to 

AttacJi  oti  the  Universities — Oxford.  175 

its  ascendancy,  through  peijury  and  treason,  or,  after  approvhig 
its  sufficiency,  have  still  only  enjoyed  its  monopoly  by  precarious 
toleration,  and  never  demanded  its  ratification  on  the  ground  of 
public  utility."  All  this  is  clear  to  the  plainest  understanding, 
even  south  of  the  Tweed.  And  thus  "  we  are  driven,"  reluc- 
tantly as  it  may  be,  "  to  the  other  alternative  of  supposing,  that, 
in  the  transition  from  the  statutory  to  the  illegal,  the  change 
was  originally  determined  and  subsequently  maintained,  not  be- 
cause the  surreptitious  system  was  conducive  to  the  public  ends 
of  the  University,  but  because  it  was  expedient  for  the  interest  of 
these  private  corporations,  by  whom  this  venerable  establish- 
ment has  been  so  long  administered." — (pp.  424 — 426.) 

It  is,  in  its  degree,  satisfactory  to  find  that  the  genus  that  per- 
petrated these  atrocities  has  now  passed  away;  and  that  some 
kind  of  reform  has,  in  some  mysterious  manner,  found  its  way 
into  Oxford  during  the  last  half-century,  even  without  a  parlia- 
mentary commission. 

"  The  strictures,"  says  the  Reviewer,  "  which  a  conviction  of  their 
truth,  and  our  interest  in  the  honour  and  utility  of  this  venerable 
school  have  constrained  us  to  make  on  the  conduct  of  the  hebdomadal 
meeting,  Ave  mainly  apply  to  the  beads  of  houses  of  a  former  genera- 
tion, and  even  to  them  solely  in  their  corporate  capacity.  Of  (he  late 
and  present  members  of  this  body  we  are  happy  to  acknowledge,  that 
during  the  last  twenty- five  years,  so  great  an  improvement  has  been 
effected  through  their  influence,  that,  in  some  essential  points,  Oxford 
may,  not  unworthily,  be  proposed  as  a  pattern  to  most  other  universi- 
ties. But  this  improvement,  though  important,  is  partial,  and  can 
only  receive  its  adequate  development  by  a  return  to  the  statutory 
combination  of  the  professorial  and  tutorial  systems." — (p.  426.) 

Due  care,  however,  is  taken,  before  the  Reviewer  and  his 
readers  part,  that  this  admission  shall  not  extend,  nor  be  con" 
strued  to  extend,  to  any  thing  incompatible  with  that  great  prin- 
ciple of  reform  which  ''  all  experience  proves,  that  universities, 
like  other  corporations,  can  only  be  reformed  from  without." 
And  on  this  point  our  friend  and  well-wisher  gives  us  good 
hopes  from  the  North.  "  A  committee  of  visitation,"  he  informs 
us,  "  has  lately  terminated  its  labours  on  the  Scottish  Universi- 
ties: we  should  anticipate  a  more  important  result  from  a  similar, 
and  far  more  necessary,  inquiry  into  the  corruptions  of  those  of 
England." — p.  4£7. 

This  sweeping  attack  on  the  University  of  Oxford  produced  an 
immediate  reply  in  the  pamphlet  which  stands  second  at  the  head 
of  our  present  article :  and  it  is  no  unworthy  successor,  though  in 
a  dift'erent  way,  to  the  "  Reply  to  the  Calumnies  of  the  Edinburgh 

176  jlttack  on  the  Universities  ^Oxford 

Review  a<*alnst  Oxford,"  vvhicli,  in  1810,  iiiHicted  on  the  Northern 
A  isitor  so  nieniorable  a  chastisement.  The  new  article  in  the 
iulinbrn-'h  Review,  was  found  to  consist  of  Arguments  and  Arti- 
fices. Accordingly,  the  Reply  was  divided  into  two  parts,  in  the 
first  of  wliich  the  Arguments,  in  the  second  the  Artifices  were  to 
be  considered  ;  the  object  of  the  first  part  was  to  be  Refutation-,  of 
the  second.  Detection  and  Exposure.  And  most  complete  were 
both  the  refutation,  and  the  detection  and  exposure.  In  the  first 
part,  the  legality  of  the  system  de  facto  was  laboriously  shown 
on  various  grounds,  e.  g.  "  from  the  general  principles  of  human 
law;"  •*  from  the  principles  of  municipal  incorporation,  and  the 
right  of  making  bye-laws  (the  University  being  proved  to  have 
that  right,  and  not  to  be  "  a  national  institution  in  the  sense 
in  which  the  Reviewer  labours  to  inculcate") ;  "  from  the  ex- 
press words  of  the  statute-book;"  **  from  the  usage,  or  im- 
memorial practice  of  the  University;"  "  from  the  principle  upon 
which  the  Laudian  code  was  compiled,"  &c.  In  the  second 
part  were  exposed  "  the  artifice  of  attributing  false,  that  is, 
defective  and  inadequate  ends  to  an  university  education ;"  "  the 
artifice  of  misrepresenting  the  state  of  the  University  previous  to 
the  foundation  of  the  colleges;"  *'  the  artifice  of  misrepresenting 
the  nature  of  the  old  academic  preelections  or  readings  in  the 
schools,  in  order  to  detract  from  the  excellence  of  the  tutorial 
system ;"  "  the  artifice  of  saying  that  the  limits  of  dispensable 
and  indispensable  matter  are  minutely  determined  ;"  "  the  artifice 
shown  in  the  misrepresentation  of  the  object  of  the  Epinomis;" 
and,  finally,  "  the  artifice  of  saying  that  every  master  or  doctor 
continued  to  possess  the  right  of  reading  lectures  in  the  schools 
after  the  Laudian  code,  by  tit.  iv.  s.  1,"  whereas  "  no  such  decla- 
ration, express  or  otherwise,  is  to  be  found  in  that  statute  ;" — the 
author  concluding  with  the  promise  of  adding  some  more  sec- 
tions of  "  artifices,"  whenever  the  Reviewer  should  produce  his 
farther  demonstration  of  the  absurdity  of  ''  the  intrusive  system." 
(p.  142.) 

This  speedy,  thorough-going  reply,  was  by  no  means  agree- 
able to  the  Reviewer,  as  may  be  sufficiently  seen  from  the  tone 
of  the  opening  paragraph  of  his  review  of  this  pamphlet  in  the 
Number  for  December,  1831.  It  appears,  he  had  not  expected, 
he  had  "  hardly  hoped,"  as  he  informs  us,  "  that  the  advocates  of 
the  present  order  of  things  would  be  so  ill-advised  as  to  attempt 
a  defence  which  could  only  terminate  in  corroborating  the 
charge."  The  sequel  of  the  discussion,  (in  which  it  was  *'  pro- 
posed to  consider  in  detail  the  comparative  merits  of  the  statutory 
and  illegal  systems,  and  to  suggest  some  means  of  again  elevating 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  177 

the  University  to  what  it  ought  to  be,)  might  be  expected," 
he  thought,  "  to  afford  a  wider  field  for  controversy;"  and, 
accordingly,  he  "  anticipated  that  the  objection  oi  illegality,  now 
allowed  to  pass,  would  be  ultimately  slurred  over,  a  reply  to  his 
whole  argument  being  pretended  under  cover  of  answering  a 

'.*  In  this,"  however,  he  was, — "  agreeably,"  as  he  would  fain 
have  us  believe, — "  mistaken."  The  ground  of"  legality  "  was 
at  once  taken  up:  and  the  Reviewer  felt  himself  "  bound  to 
accord  it  a  reply,"  though  he  would  have  his  readers  under- 
stand, (while  he  admitted  at  the  same  time  it  might  "  sound 
like  paradox  to  say,")  that  this  pamphlet  was  no  answer  to  his 
paper.  He  asserted  boldly  that  he  "  had  no  interest  in  disprov- 
ing its  statements;"  for  that  it  was,"  in  truth,  no  more  a  rejoinder 
to  his  reasoning  than  to  the  principles  of  Newton.  Nay,  less," 
he  says,  "  for  that,  in  fact,  his  whole  proof  of  the  illegality  of 
the  present  order  of  things  in  Oxford,  and  of  the  treachery  of  the 
college  heads,  would  be  invalidated,  were  the  single  proposition 
which  his  antagonist  had  vindicated  against  him  not  accurately 
true."  He  admits,  that  if  he  held  what  his  antagonist  refutes  as 
his,  his  position  would  be  "  not  only  false  but  foolish  :  nay,  that 
if  he  had  not  established  the  very  converse,  as  the  beginning, 
middle,  and  end  of  his  whole  argument,  that  argument  would 
not  only  be  unworthy  of  an  elaborate  answer,  but  of  any  serious 
consideration  at  all."  He  asserted,  accordingly,  that,  in  so  far 
as  it  had  any  reference  to  his  reasoning,  the  whole  pamphlet  was, 
•■'  from  first  to  last,  just  a  deliberate  reversal  of  all  his  state- 
ments." He  was,  therefore,  as  he  tells  us,  "  compelled  to  reca- 
pitulate the  principal  momenta  [?]  of  his  argument,  of  which  he 
felt  that  he  must  not  presume  that  his  readers  retained  an  ade- 
quate recollection."  Necessity,  however,  he  pleaded,  must  be  his 
"  excuse  for  again  returning  on  [to?]  a  discussion  not  less  irk- 
some to  himself  than  others;"  to  which,  however,  he  was  "  re- 
conciled by  the  consideration,  that  though  he  had  no  errors  to 
correct" — how,  indeed,  should  he,  for  when  was  a  Reviewer  other- 
wise than  infallible? — "  he  had  thus  the  opportunity  of  supplying, 
on  this  important  subject,  some  not  unimportant  omissions." 
This  "  irksome"  discussion,  however,  being  most  conscientiously 
"returned  on,"  and  these  "not  unimportant  omissions"  duly 
supplied,  the  "  three  great  propositions  which  the  former  paper 
was  intended  to  prove,"  re-asserted,  and  the  suggestion  kindly 
offered  that,  "  in  this  conflict  of  delicacy,  interest,  and  duty,  the 
heads  themselves  ought  to  desire, — ought  to  invoke, — the  interpo- 
sition of  a  higher  authority  ;"  that,  in  short,  "  a  royal  parliamen- 
tary visitation  is  the  easy  and  appropriate  mode  of  solving  thfr 

NO.  XLIII. — JULY,  1837.  N 

178  Attack  on  the  Univemties — Oxford. 

difficulty" — all  this  duly  gone  througli,  it  was  necessary  to  take 
some  notice  of  the  argument  of  his  opponent.  With  him,  how- 
ever, he  made  "  brief  work."  And  thus  it  is  that  he  dispatches 
his  opponent. 

"  Ilis  whole  argument  turns  on  two  cardinal  propositions:  the  one 
of  which,  as  maintained  by  us,  he  refutes :  the  other,  as  admitted  by 
us,  he  assumes.  Unfortunately,  however,  we  maintain,  as  the  very 
foundation  of  our  case,  the  converse  of  the  proposition  he  refutes  as 
ours;  and  our  case  itself  is  the  formal  refutation  of  tlie  very  proposi- 
tion he  assumes  as  conceded.  The  proposition  refuted  is,  that  the 
legitimate  constitution  of  the  University  of  Oxford  was  finally  and 
exclusively  determined  by  the  Laudian  code,  and  that  all  change  in 
that  constitution,  by  subsequent  statute,  is  illegal.  The  proposition 
assumed  is,  that  the  present  academical  system,  though  different  from 
that  established  by  the  Laudian  code,  is,  however,  ratified  by  subse- 
quent statute, 

"  (This  refutation  and  assumption,  taken  together,  imply  the  con- 
clusion, that  the  present  system  is  legal.) 

"  The  former  proposition,  as  we  said,  is  not  ours ;  we  not  only 
never  conceiving  that  so  extravagant  an  absurdity  could  be  maintained, 
but  expressly  asserting,  or  notoriously  assuming,  the  reverse  in  almost 
every  page,  nay,  establishing  it  even  as  the  principal  basis  of  our  argu- 
ment. If  this  proposition  were  true,  our  whole  demonstration  of  the 
interested  policy  of  the  heads  would  have  been  impossible.  How 
could  we  have  shown  that  the  changes  introduced  by  them  were  only 
for  the  advantage  of  themselves  and  of  the  collegial  interest  in  general, 
unless  we  had  been  able  to  show  that  there  existed  in  the  University  a 
capacity  of  legal  change,  and  that  the  voluntary  preference  of  illegal 
change  by  the  heads,  argued  that  their  novelties  were  such  as,  tliey 
themselves  were  satisfied,  did  not  deserve  the  countenance  of  convo- 
cation, that  is,  of  the  body  legislating  for  the  utility  and  honour  of  the 
University?  If  all  change  had  been  illegal,  and,  at  the  same  time, 
change  (as  must  be  granted)  unavoidable  and  inexpedient ;  the  con- 
duct of  the  heads  would  have  found  an  ample  cloak  in  the  folly— in  the 
impossibility  of  the  law." — p.  50. 

Now  this  is  nothing  but  a  mere  mystification  of  the  question. 
The  Reviewer  had  contended  that  there  did  not  exist  in  the  Uni- 
versity "a  capacity  of  legal  change,"  such  as  that  which  had  taken 
place  in  its  system  of  education  ;  and  that  system  was  illegal,  not 
(mainly)  because  it  had  not  received  the  sanction  of  Convocation, 
but  because  it  was  a  departure  from  "  the  statutory  system/'  en- 
acted once  and  for  ever;  because  it  was  "  radically  subversive  of 
its  constitution,"  as  well  as  "  without  legal  sanction,  nay,  in  vio- 
lation of  positive  law."  And  this  is  repeated  even  in  this  supple- 
mentary article.  For  though  in  one  place  the  Reviewer  admits  that 
"i/"the  former  academical  system  has  been  repealed,  and  the  pre- 
sent ratified  by  convocation,  the  actual  order  of  things  in  Oxford 

Attack  on  the  Univo'sities-^Oxford.  179 

is  legal,  and  the  heads  stand  guiltless  in  the  sight  of  God  and 
man/'  (p.  502);  yet  a  few  pages  before,  after  saying  that  "  as 
not  snnctmied  by  convocation ,  the  illegahty  of  the  present  system 
is  flagrant,"  he  proceeds ;  "  but  had  it  been  so  sanctioned,  it  would 
still  he  Jimdamen tally  illegal;  as  that  body  would  have  thus 
transcended  its  powers,  by  frustrating  the  ends  for  the  sake  of 
which  alone  it  was  clothed  with  legislative  authority  at  all.  The 
public  privileges  accorded  (by  king  or  pa'-liament,  it  matters  not) 
to  the  education  and  degrees  of  a  University,  are  not  granted  for 
the  private  behoof  of  the  individuals  in  whom  the  University  is 
realized.  They  are  granted  solely  for  the  public  good,  to  the 
instruction  of  certain  bodies  organized  under  public  authority, 
and  to  their  certificate  of  proficiency,  under  conditions  by  that 
authority  prescribed.  Tf  these  bodies  have  obtained,  to  any  ex- 
tent, the  right  of  self-legislation,  it  is  only  as  delegates  of  the 
state;  and  this  right  could  only  be  constitutionally  exercised  by 
them  in  subservience  to  the  public  good,  for  the  interest  of  vhich 
alone  the  University  was  constituted  and  privileged,  and  this 
power  of  legislation  itself  delegated  to  its  members.  If  an  aca- 
demical legislature  abolish  academical  education,  and  academical 
trials  of  proficiency  in  the  several  faculties,  it  commits  suicide,  and 
as  such,  the  act  is,  ipso  facto,  illegal.  "  In  the  case  of  Oxford," 
the  Reviewer,  indeed,  says  "  Convocation  is  not  thus  felo  de  se." 
(p.  483,  note.)  But  whether  convocation  had  indeed  committed 
suicide,  or  the  heads  of  houses  murder,  the  University  of  Oxford 
de  jure,  according  to  the  Edinburgh  Review,  was  dead  in  law — 
entirely  defunct  and  without  a  spark  of  life  ;■ — because  it  had  lost 
that  which  was  essential  to  the  existence  of  an  University,  viz.  a 
certain  form  of  "  academical  education,"  and  certain  "  academical 
trials  of  proficiency  in  the  several  faculties ;"  because  the  end, 
the  means,  and  the  conditions  of  its  being,  had  utterly  disappeared. 
There  was  an  entire  suspension  of  "the  University  proper:"  the 
tree  was  dead,  and  nothing  was  to  be  seen  with  any  signs  of 
vegetation  but  the  parasitic  fungus; — "  the  collegial  interest,"  its 
corrupt  heads  and  governors,  with  their  respective  societies,  "  fel- 
lows by  chance  and  tutors  by  usurpation."  In  direct  opposition 
to  this  view  of  things,  the  "Member  of  Convocation,"  having 
first  proved  the  strict  legality  of  the  system  at  present  established 
under  the  several  heads  of  argument,  of  which  some  have  been 
already  specified,  had  proceeded  to  argue  the  matter  on  the  broad 
grounds  of  the  true  ends  of  an  University  education,  and  the 
subservience  of  ineans  and  conditions.  Proceeding  from  his  an- 
tagonist's "  pretended  demonstrations"  to  his  "  real  deceptions," 
from  his  "  arguments"  to  his  "  artifices,"  he  charged  him  in  the 
first  place,  as  we  have  seen,  with  "the  artifice  of  attributing  false, 

N  2 

180  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

that  is,  defective  and  inadequate  ends  to  an  University  educa- 
tion," and  making  its  essence  to  consist  in  those  accidental  cir- 
cumstances which  must  necessarily  vary  in  the  course  of  ages. 

"  There  is  not,"  lie  observes,  "  in  the  whole  circle  of  arts  sophistic, 
a  contrivance  more  clever,  and,  generally  speaking,  more  successful  than 
that  of  setting  up,  and  assigning  to  a  matter  or  thing  in  question,  some 

particular  end Nothing  more  is  necessary  than  to  assign  an 

end,  (id  libitum,  and  reason  up  to  it,  and  the  thing  is  done 

"  The  Reviewer  maintains  throughout  this  Barringtonian  character. 
In  the  present  instance  he  has  recourse  to  the  ruse  of  misrepresenting 
the  ends  of  academic  institutions,  and  of  calling  those  '  the  mighty,  '  the 
comprehensive,'    '  the  essential'  ends  which  craft  supposes  to  be  most 

conducive  to  its  scheme  of  delusion To  tell  us,  as  the  Reviewer 

has  told  us,  that  education  in  the  seven  arts  and  three  philosophies  is 
the  end  of  University  residence,  lectures,  honours,  is  to  tell  us  that  a 
ship  is  the  end  of  ship-building,  that  the  opus  operatum,  be  it  what  it 
may,  is  the  end  of  the  particular  art  or  science,  handicraft,  or  profession, 
by  which  it  was  effected.  Such  petty  philosophy  is  too  much  occupied 
upon  the  idola  specus  and  the  idola  tribus,  to  enlarge  or  enlighten  the 
understanding.  Let  us  see  what  statesmen  have  declared  to  be  the 
great  ends  of  an  University  Incorporation,  and  its  whole  system  of  (hs- 
cipline  moral  and  religious,  literary  and  scientific.  Let  us  read  them  in 
the  preambles  of  our  charters,  in  the  records  of  legal  and  parliamentary 

declarations What  were  the  ends  of  University  residence  and 

instruction  entertained  by  a  Burghley  and  a  Cecil  ?  Perhaps  some  mi- 
nute philosopher  will  answer  from  his  virepibov  Education  in  the  seven 
arts  and  three  philosophies.  But  the  men  who  guide  the  counsels  of  a 
great  nation,  and  look  for  the  ends  of  academic  institutions  beyond  the 
corners  and  cobwebs  of  a  garret,  will  reply  that  a  knowledge  of  the  arts 
and  philosophies  is  valuable  only  in  its  subordination  and  subserviency 
to  ulterior  ends,  in  its  furtherance  of  the  temporal  and  eternal  happi- 
ness of  man.  Speak,  ye  Privy  Councillors  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  let 
these  men  of  the  fourth  age  of  Scholasticism  unlearn  the  small  prin- 
ciples which  they  are  endeavouring  to  revive.  '  Whereas  the  two  Uni- 
versities of  Oxford  and  Cambridge  are  the  nurseries  to  bring  up  youth 
in  the  knowledge  and  fear  of  God,  in  all  manner  of  good  learning  and 
virtuous  education,  whereby  after  they  may  serve  their  prince  in  divers 
callings,  for  which  respect  a  special  care  is  to  be  had  of  those  tvA'o  Uni- 
versities, that  all  means  may  be  used  to  further  the  bringing  up  of  youth 
that  are  bestowed  there,  in  all  good  learning,  civil  education,  and  honest 
manners,  whereby  the  state  and  commonwealth  may  receive  hereafter 
great  good.'  Such  were  the  sentiments  of  the  Privy  Council  of  Queen 
Elizabeth,  in  their  address  '  to  the  Vice-Chancellor  of  the  University  of 
Oxenforde,  and  to  the  Masters  and  Heads  of  the  several  Houses,  July  29, 
1593.'  So  spake  Lord  Buckhurst,  its  Chancellor,  in  the  year  following, 
in  his  letter  to  the  convocation,  recommending  a  reformation  of  the  sta- 
tutes, as  Sir  Christopher  Hatton,  Lord  Leicester,  Cardinals  Pole  and 
Wolsey,  had  done  before,  and  as  Archbishop  Bancroft,  Lord  Pembroke, 
and  Archbishop  Laud,  did  afterwards.     In  that  letter  he  presses  it  upon 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  181 

the  attention  of  Convocation,  that  '  the  good  estate  and  quiet  govern- 
ment oF  the  realm,    both  in  Church  and  coramonwcalth,   dependeth  not 
a  little  upon    the  good   proceedings  and   careful   government  of  Uni- 
versities,  as  being  the  very  well-springs  from  which  religion,  teaming, 
virtue,  and  good  discipline,  should  flow  over  all  the  realm.'     To  the  same 
effect   spake  Edward  III.  our  great  Protector,    in    the  preface    to  his 
charter,   2.9  Ed.  3.  *  Whereas  the    University  of  Oxford^   as  the  foun- 
tain and  chief  stream  of  these  studies,    has  in  an  eminent  manner  dis- 
persed the  dew  of  learning  throughout  the  realm  of  England,   and  as  a 
fruitful  vine  sent  forth  many  useful  branches  into  the  Lord's  vineyard, 
most  learned  men,  by  whose  abilities  both  Church  and  state  are  many 
ways  adorned  and  strengthened.'     In  consideration  of  these  benefits  the 
king   proceeds   to  grant  privileges.     It  is  true  that  this  is   an  enumera- 
tion  of  effects  produced,  and  not  of   ends  proposed  ;    but   it   equally 
serves  to  illustrate  the  views  entertained  by  statesmen  of  the  use  and 
purposes  of  an  University.     King  Henry  VIII.,  in  the  preface  of  that 
ample  charter,  granted   through   the  intercession   of  Cardinal  Wolsey, 
expresses  himself  in  the  same  way.     The  act  of  parliament  (13  Eliz.  29), 
which  confirms  the  ancient  privileges,   liberties,    and  franchises  hereto- 
fore   granted,    ratified,    and    confirmed    by  the  queen's    highness,  and 
her  most  noble  progenitors,  makes  the  mighty,  the  comprehensive,  the 
essential  end  of  our  academic  incorporation  to  be  '  the  maintenance  of 
good  and  godly  literature,  and  the  virtuous  education  of  youth,'  and  '  to 
give  greater  force  and  strength  for  the  better  increase  of  learning,  and 
the  further  suppressing  of  vice.'     Without  carrying  on  citations  without 
end,  I  shall  consider  these  as  the  true  and  faithful  expositions  of  the 
great  public  purposes  of  an  University  education  ;   purposes,  which  are 
as  much   beyond   the  Reviewer's  capacity  to  comprehend,  as    they  are 
beyond  the  compass  of  his  patriotism  to  embrace,  and  the  little  scheme 
of  his   casuistry   to  make  the  final  causes  of  academical  incorporation. 
But  taking  these  to  be  the  great,  and  publicly  recognized,  ends  of  all  our 
academic  establishments. .  .  .it  follows,  as  a  consequence,  that  the  means 
and  methods  to  be  resorted  to  for  the  accomplishment  of  those  ends, 
must  be  such  as  have  a  right  constitution  ;   they  must  have  such  powers 
and  proportions  as  will  make  them  fit  and  able  to  effect  the  ends  which 
have  been  propounded  to  the  ambition,  and  required  of  the  loyalty  and 

Christian   faith  of  the  University The  claims  of  piety  as  well 

as  patriotism  are  to  be  satisfied  ;  the  wants  of  the  Church  as  well  as 
the  state  are  to  be  supplied.  Whatever  tends  to  the  advancement  of 
true  religion  and  useful  learning  must  be  consulted  and  provided  for. 
Whatever  changes  may  take  place  in  the  opinions  of  men  as  to  the  best 
method  of  effecting  these  ends — still  in  respect  of  the  ends  themselves, 
it  is  not  in  the  power  of  any  revolution  or  reversal  of  human  opinion, 
to  change  their  nature  ;  these  venerable  realities  will  for  ever  retain  their 
primaeval  characters  of  great,  necessary,  and  fundamental  truths.  They 
will  still  remain  as  fresh  in  complexion,  as  vigorous  in  strength,  as  royal 
in  port  and  dignity,  as  they  were  six  hundred  years  ago.  They  have  for 
ever  formed,  and  will  continue  to  form  for  ever,  the  great  polar  constel- 
lation of  our  hemisphere  ;  they  will  serVe  to  guide  the  navis  academica  in 

182  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

safety  through  strcights  too  nanow  to  admit  of  any  but  a  direct  course, 
and  through  ch\ngcis  too  numerous  to  be  avoided  without  such  starry 
guidance  3  and  through  those  waves  of  adverse  opinions  and  conflicting 
theories,  and  angry  feehngs  and  slanderous  imputations  which  may 
threaten  but  cannot  overwhehn,  may  strike  but  cannot  injure  us.  Such 
ends  as  these  endure  for  ever,  like  Him  who  gave  them  their  nature 
and  their  law  ;  unchanged  and  unchangeable  by  Anno  Domini ;  in  prin- 
ciple, the  elements  of  our  health  ;  in  guidance,  the  motives  of  our 
exertioii ;  in  operation,  the  means  of  our  safety,  and  the  instruments  of 
our  usefulness ;  in  eflect,  the  guarantees  of  our  fame  and  the  securities 
of  our  charters.  But  with  respect  to  the  means  and  instruments  by 
whicii  those  great  ends  are  to  be  accomplished,  with  respect  to  the 
agencies  and  offices  and  operations  which  are  to  be  employed  in  the 
undertaking,  the  same  great  things  cannot  with  truth  be  predicated  of 
them.  These  are  not  only  changeable,  but  have  been  often  changed. 
From  the  very  nature  of  the  things,  and  by  the  ready  concession  of  every 
reasonable  person  but  this  Reviewer,  the  means  of  bringing  about  ob- 
jects so  great  and  numerous  must  for  ever  continue  subject  to  the  vari- 
ations which  time  produces  in  the  number  and  kind  of  man's  wants  j 
in  his  wants  natural  and  moral,  civil  and  religious,  literary  and  scientific  j 
in  the  compass  of  man's  duties  in  respect  of  such  wants,  and  in  the 
force  of  his  obligations  in  respect  of  such  duties;  in  short,  in  the  na- 
ture of  those  provisions  which  are  necessary  for  '  the  due  supply  of 
persons  qualified  to  serve  God  in  Church  and  state.'  All  these  things 
have  respect  to,  and  are  to  be  governed  by,  the  great  ends  of  an  Uni- 
versity education.  The  same  great  ends  are  to  govern  all  its  corporate 
acts  of  legislation  or  repeal,  of  limitation  or  restriction,  of  change  or 
dispensation,  its  studies  and  instructions,  its  tests  of  improvement,  its 
criterion  of  sufficiency,  its  measures  of  honour  and  reward.  These  must 
all  have  a  clear  and  direct  reference,  not  to  the  ends  proposed  by  crafty 
philosophists  or  ignorant  literators,  but  to  those  which  the  wise  and  the 
good  of  all  ages  have  asserted  and  defended,  and  which  the  wise  and 
good  of  all  ages  have  adopted  and  applied." — pp.  101  —  113. 

We  make  uo  apology  for  the  length  of  this  extract ;  it  sets  the 
question  at  once  on  the  broad  principles  by  which  alone  it  can 
be  decided,  in  the  judgment  of  sound  common  sense  and  en- 
lightened Christian  wisdom. 

In  reply  to  all  this,  the  Reviewer,  shifting  the  question,  as  has 
been  already  observed,  from  that  of  the  alleged  illegality  of  the 
change  itself,  which  had  been  introduced  at  Oxford,  to  the  ques- 
tion of  the  illegality  of  any  sucii  change  being  carried  into  effect 
without  the  authority  of  convocation,  declares  that,  inasmuch  as 
this  was  just  the  matter  in  question,  and  instead  of  the  afSrmation 
being  granted  by  him,  the  whole  nisus  of  his  reasoning  was  to 
demonstrate  the  negative,  he  must  hold  that,  since  the  asserter 
had  adduced  nothing  to  invalidate  his  statements  on  this  point, 
he  had  left  the  controversy  exactly  where  he  found  ij.  "  To 
take  a  single  instance,"   says  the    Reviewer, — "  has  he  shown. 

Attack  0)1  the  Universities — Oxford.  183 

or  attempted  to  show,  that  by  any  subsequent  act  of  convocation 
those  fundamental  statutes  which  constitute  and  regulate  the  pro- 
fessorial system,  as  the  one  essential  organ  of  all  academical 
education,  have  been  repealed  ?  nay,  that  the  statutes  of  the 
present  century  do  not  on  this  point  recognise  and  enforce  those 
of  the  preceding?" — (p.  503.)  He  had  shown  much  more.  He 
had  shown  that  there  were  no  such  "  fundamental  statutes,"  and 
that  "  the  professorial  system,"  which  they  were  supposed  so  un- 
changeably to  "  constitute  and  regulate,'^  was  not  to  be  looked 
upon  as  "  the  one  essential  organ  of  all  academical  education." 
The  Reviewer  takes  very  little  notice  of  the  second  part  of  the 
pamphlet.  He  enumerates  duly  all  the  eleven  sections  of  "  Part  i., 
concerning  the  Reviewer's  arguments,"  observing  upon  it  simply 
that  "  this  elaborate  parade  of  argument  (the  pamphlet,"  he  says, 
"  extends  to  150  mortal  pages),  is  literally  answered  in  two 
words — Qiiis  dubitavit?" — (p.  502.)  But  no  notice  is  taken  of 
the  seven  sections  of  "  Part  ii.,  concerning  the  Reviewer's  arti- 
fices;" though  nearly  50  out  of  the  150  "  mortal  pages"  are  de- 
voted to  them.  And  certainly  the  question  of  the  ends  of  an 
University  education,  those  ends  for  which,  looking  to  it  as  an 
historical  question,  the  Universities  were  actually  chartered,  was 
a  very  important  one,  and  one  on  which  there  was  evidently  not 
merely  room  for  "  doubt,"  but  open  variance  of  opinion  between 
the  Reviewer  and  his  antagonist.  However,  the  Reviewer  was 
pleased  to  declare  that,  in  the  propositions  he  had  now  con- 
sidered, the  whole  pamphlet  which  had  been  written  against  him 
was  confuted — (p.  503.)  So,  after  noticing  (what  he  says  he 
could  not  "  condescend  to  disprove"),  some  of  the  "  subaltern 
statements"  of  his  opponent,  he  declares  that  "  enough  has  been 
now  said,"  and  that  he  has  "  proved  that  his  positions  stand  un- 
confuted — uncontroverted — untouched." — (p.  504.) 

We  must  own,  however,  if  we  too  may  be  permitted  to  give  our 
judgment,  that  we  are  "  disposed  to  think,"  with  the  "  Member 
of  Convocation,"  not  only  "  by  reason  of  the  Reviewer's  '  Quis 
dubitavit,'"  (Legality,  &c.  re-asserted,  p.  8,)  but  also  by  reason 
of  his  avoiding  altogether  the  question   treated   of  in  the  first 
section  of  Part  ii.  of  his  antagonist's  former  pamphlet;  viz.,  that 
which  concerns  the  ends  for  which  the  University  was  incorpo- 
rated, that  he   found  the  whole  argument  "  rather  an  awkward 
one  to  deal  with."     There  are  certainly  strong  symptoms  of  his 
having   "discovered    by   experience    that  the   ten    positions"  of 
Part  i.  "  were  ten  bones  too  hard  even  for  his  practised  tooth— 
*  Fragili  quserens  illidere  dentem 
OfFendit  solido' — 
for  certainly,"  says  his  opponent,  "  he  has  not  ventured  to  gnaw 

184  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

one  of  tlicni,  but  tiuding  them  njiinfringihle  (Ed.  Rev.  June, 
p.  390),  gives  them  hard  uames,  calls  what  really  is  an  argument 
vi  priori  a  mutatio  elenchi,  and  then  grants  in  a  lump  the  whole 
contents  of  Q'l  out  of  my  150  once  mortal,  but  now  immortal 
pages ;"  and  accordingly  that  he  thought  it  best  not  to  try  the 
powers  of  his  teeth  upon  the  tile  which,  in  the  opening  of  the 
Second  Part,  was  laid  in  the  way  of  his  further  progress.  The 
*'  ^Member  of  Convocation"  was  thus  left  in  possession  of  his 
main  ground  his  "  master  principle"  of  "  the  accommodation  of 
means  and  conditions  to  the  one  great  end  of  all  education,  the 
duly  qualifying  men  to  serve  God  in  Church  and  State  ;  while 
the  nibbling  which  had  been  so  diligently  practised  upon  the 
technicalities  of  his  argument  respecting  the  strict  '  legality'  of 
the  present  academical  system,  had  served  but  to  suggest,  as  the 
motto  for  his  second  pamphlet,  the  appropriate  quotation  from 
the  high  legal  authority  of  Co.  Litt.  (ii.  34.)  '  Glossa  viperina 
est  qua3  corrodit  viscera  Textus.'"  In  "  The  Legality,  8tc.  re- 
asserted," he  thus  reviewed  the  ground  of  which  he  was  left  in 
possession': — 

"  I  have  hitherto  called  my  argument  simply  an  assertion  of  the 
legality  of  our  present  academic  system  j  but,  under  the  authority  of  my 
adversary's  '  quis  dubitavit,'  I  may  henceforward  be  disposed  to  imitate 
Thraso,  and  call  it  a  demonstration  ;  for  he  has  admitted  the  truth  of  all 
its  points  and  principles,  premises  and  conclusions,  facts  and  opinions. 
....  He  has  granted  that,  upon  every  principle  of  general  or  munici- 
pal legislation,  it  is  fit  and  proper  that  academic  corporations  should 
possess  and  exercise  those  powers  of  self-adjustment,  vvhich  are  neces- 
sary appurtenances,  or  rather  inherent  properties,  of  their  constitution  ; 
that  they  ought,  from  time  to  time,  and  at  all  times  necessary,  to  adapt 
the  kind,  course,  and  order  of  their  studies  and  exercises,  to  the  wants 
and  interests  of  the  Church  and  country,  and  in  furtherance  of  those 
great  ends  which  have  been  prescribed  to  them  in  the  preambles  of  their 

acts  and  charters  of  incorporation I  showed,  and  the  Reviewer 

has  conceded,  that  the  principle  has  been  in  full  operation  for  194 
years  :  that  it  has,  in  particulars  too  numerous  to  be  stated,  too  various 
to  be  described,  modified  the  form,  softened  the  rigour,  and  corrected 
the  discrepancies,  of  the  statutes,  not  as  this  gratuitous  slanderer  would 
have  it,  for  the  base  purpose  of  helping  on  personal  or  collegiate  in- 
terests, but  with  the  Christian,  patriotic,  and  truly  academic  design  of 
adapting  things  old  to  things  new ;  the  provisions  of  old  laws  to  the 
new  relations  and  new  necessities  of  life,  and  always  with  a  view  to 
bring  out  of  the  treasury  of  the  ancient  code,  things  both  old  and  new, 
some  for  the  more  effectual  advancement  of  true  religion,  some  for  the 
increase  of  useful  learning,  and  all  for  the  more  ready  and  abundant 
supply  of  men  qualified  to  serve  God  and  their  country,  by  a  well-prin- 
cipled, as  well  as  able  discharge,  of  their  duties  towards  both." — p. 

Attach  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  185 

The  question  of  "  legality"  being  thus  made  to  rest  on  the 
broad  basis  of  the  constantly  varying  adaptation  of  means  to  the 
one  great  end  for  which  the  Universities  were  chartered,  the 
charge  of  perjury  which  the  Reviewer  had  brought  against  the 
heads  of  colleges  in  a  body,  falls  at  once  to  the  ground.  For 
according  to  the  "  doctrine  of  the  academic  oath,"  laid  down  on 
Sanderson's  authority  by  the  Member  of  Convocation — a  doctrine 
in  which  the  Edinburgh  Review /«%  coihcides,  (the  italics  are 
the  Reviewer's,) — "  it  is,  and  always  will  betaken  and  kept  with  a 
safe  conscience,  as  long  as  the  taker  shall  faithfully  observe  the 
academic  code  in  all  its  fundamental  ordinances,  and  according 
to  their  true  meaning  and  intent."— (p.  503.)  The  only  question 
then  is,  what  are  "fundamental  ordinances?"  "  In  the  case  ad- 
duced," says  the  Reviewer,  **  the  unobserved  professorial  system 
is  a  'fundamental  ordinance.'"  But  this  the  Member  of  Con- 
vocation takes  the  liberty  to  question. 

"  What  are  fundamentals?"  he  asks.  "What  is  it  to  observe  the 
statutes  in  fundamentals  ?  What  is  it  to  keep  the  academic  oath  so 
far  forth  as  it  relates  to  the  observance  of  the  statutes  in  funda- 
mentals ? 

"  The  adversary  is  sophist  enough  to  know,  that  there  is  no 
method  more  likely  to  embarrass  a  question  than  to  shift  it  from 
particulars  to  generalities ;  the  more  indefinite  the  subject-matter, 
so  much  the  better  for  fraud;  dolosiis  versatur  in  generalibus ;  and  if 
there  be  any  one  generally  better  adapted  than  another  to  the  pur- 
poses of  delusion,  it  is  this  very  question  about  fundamentals 

The  Reviewer,  in  his  last  article,  has  shown  himself  very  skilful  in 
this  tactic  of  throwing  himself  into  the  strong-hold  of  a  generality. 
He  lately  took  part  Tjehind  the  generality  of  ends  ;  he  now  has  re- 
course to  the  generality  of  fundamentals. 

"  But  if  there  be  any  one  thing  clearer  than  another,  it  is  this,  that 
the  ancient  professorial  or  prselectorial  system  of  teaching  up  stairs 
and  down  stairs,  out  of  little  square  deal  boxes,  placed  in  some  twelve 
or  fourteen  very  cold  unfurnished  rooms  called  schools,  is  not  a  fun- 
damental in  any  sense  of  the  word.  Teaching  is  a  fundamental ; 
teaching  by  every  method — synthetic,  analytic,  inductive — is  a  fun- 
damental. So  is  the  duty  of  teaching.  Order  and  regularity,  energy 
and  perseverance,  in  teaching,  are  fundamentals  ;  because  without 
these  things,  all  informations  of  academic  youth,  all  scholastic  studies 
and  disciplines,  would  fail,  and  become  fruitless.  ....  What  are  the 
fundamentals  which  Sanderson  says  are  necessary  to  be  observed,  to 
prevent  the  violation  of  the  academic  oath  ?  The  Reviewer  makes 
the  delivery  of  school  lectures,  and  attendance  upon  them,  funda- 
mentals, and  adduces  the  passage  I  had  cited  to  prove  it ;  but  then, 
as  usual,  he  cites  falsely  and  fraudulently  ;  he  leaves  out  Sanderson's 
explanation  of  what  he  meant  by  fundamentals;  viz.,  •  such  things  as 

1^  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

have  an  immeiliate  and  necessary  tendency  to  preserve  the  public 
order,  polity,  and  honour  of  the  whole  body  corporate  ;'  '  quae  neces- 
sario  et  proxime  tendunt  ad  conservandum  publicum  statuni,  ordinem 
et  lionorcni  totius  corporis  sive  comniunitatis.'  Here  we  have  the 
autlior's  explanation  of  what  he  means,  but  that  would  have  spoiled 
the  Thrasonism  of  the  Reviewer's  retort ;  he  has  therefore  suppressed 
it.  I  assert  then,  again,  upon  the  authority  of  the  Statute  Book — I 
assert  it  upon  the  evidence  of  the  mind  and  purposes  of  our  legis- 
lators themselves,  and  of  that  principle  of  discreet  accommodation  to 
tlio  times,  upon  which  our  code  was  constructed,  and  of  those  facili- 
ties which  it  has  provided  for  carrying  the  principle  of  accommodation 
into  full  effect — I  assert  it  upon  the  warranties  of  our  charters  and 
acts  of  parliament;  and  upon  the  authority  of  every  academic  prin- 
ciple— that  the  mode  of  reading  pointed  out  by  the  good  and  wise 
men  of  163G,  according  to  the  doctrines  of  certain  venerable  text 
books,  in  a  certain  course  and  order,  as  to  time,  place,  and  person,  is 

not,  and  ought  not  to   be  called  a  fundamental Nothing  is 

absolutely  a  fundamental  in  the  economy  of  teaching,  but  that  which 
is  necessary  for  a  full  and  effectual  conveyance  of  the  best  and  surest 
knowledge,  in  the  shortest  time,  to  the  greatest  number  of  students. 
It  matters  not,  upon  this  question,  whether  the  person  communicating 
the  knowledge  be  called  professor,  prselector,  or  tutor.     If  the  thing 

be  done,  the  title  of  the  doer  is  of  very  inferior  consequence 

In  spite,  however,  of  all  these  assaults  upon  tutors  and  tutorial  in- 
structions, I  assert,  that  these  are  the  collegial  elements  which  best 
deserve  the  name  of  fundamental.  Upon  these  foundations  were 
reared  the  men,  famous  in  their  generation,  who  have  gone  forth  from 
Oxford  to  support  the  dignity  of  its  name,  and  with  it  the  honour  of 
their  Church  and  country,  as  statesmen,  and  senators,  jurists,  phy- 
sicians, and  divines  ;  and  these  still  continue  the  foundations,  upon 
which  the  present  and  future  fame  of  the  University,  as  a  place  of 
education,  depend,  upon  which  mainly  depends  the  attainment  of 
those  great  ends  which  our  charters,  our  statutes,  our  act  of  incor- 
poration, propose,  or  rather  prescribe,  to  the  teachers  and  teachings 
of  Oxford.  Such  has  been  the  culture,  and  such  the  labourers  em- 
ployed and  bestowed  upon  our  olive-tree,  '  qucs  in  Dorno  Domini  f ruc- 
t  if  era,  qumn  pluritnos  palmites,  viros  scilicet  jfriicfiiosus,  in  scientiis  libe- 
ralibiis  itnbutos,  in  singulas  partes  regjii  disperses,  protulit  et  produxit.' 
Chart.  Hen.  VII."— p.  57—66. 

The  charges  of  "  illegality"  and  "  perjury"  being  thus  dis- 
patched, the  "  Member  of  Convocation"  proceeded  to  enumerate 
some  "  Bynkershoeks,"  as,  he  remarked,  the  late  Mr.  Canning 
used  to  call  the  "  making  a  false  citation  from  some  writer  of 
authority  to  help  on  a  lame  argument ;"  cited  some  additional  tes- 
timonies to  these  corrected  citations,  in  favour  of  the  tutorial 
system ;  and,  threatening  the  Reviewer  with  a  republication  of 
some  "  terrible  Alcaics"— 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford,  187 

*  Si  non  redibis  turpis  in  Arcticas 
Scotus  eavernarum  latebras, 
Et  patriae  loca  fceda  noctis;' 

and  giving  him  to  understand,  before  he  parted  with  him,  that 
this  was  the  last  time  he  should  permit  him  to  indulge  his  latu- 
riency,  so  took  his  leave. 

And  thus  rested  the  question  of  the  "  Universities  of  England," 
and  "  Oxford,"  which,  by  the  special  favour  and  "  preference"  of 
our  northern  neighbours,  had  been  selected  as  the  first  point  of 
attack ; — we  beg  pardon,  we  should  rather  say,  as  the  most  hope- 
ful subject  of  reform,  among  those  "  foundations  for  public  educa- 
tion" which  had  "  hardly  avoided  the  contempt"  of  "  surrounding 
nations:" — thus  the  matter  rested,  till  the  question  of  the  **  ad- 
mission of  Dissenters  to  the  Universities"  gave  occasion  to  a 
renewal  of  operations  in  the  Edinburgh  Review  for  October, 
1834.  The  old  note  was  sounded  again,  and  the  Reviewer  thus 
resumed  his  former  labours. 

**  The  whole  difficulty  of  the  question,  in  regard  to  the  admission 
of  Dissenters  into  the  English  Universities,  lies  in  the  present  anoma- 
lous state — we  do  not  say  constitution — of  these  establishments.  In 
them  the  University  so  called,  i.  e.  the  necessaiy  national  establish- 
ment for  general  education,  is  now  illegally  suspended,  and  its  func- 
tion usurped,  but  not  performed,  by  a  number  of  private  institutions 
which  had  sprung  up  in  accidental  connexion  with  it,  named  col- 
leges."— No.  cxxi.  p.  202. 

Not  however  that,  during  the  intermediate  period,  our  self- 
appointed  visitor  had  altogether  lost  sight  of  our  universities, 
especially  of  Oxford.  In  the  Number  for  April,  1833,  some 
"  Recent  publications  on  logical  science,"  which,  with  one  excep- 
tion, it  was  observed,  "  emanated  from  that  University,"  awoke 
again  his  fond  recollections  of  "  the  scholastic  ages,"  when 
"  Oxford  was  held  inferior  to  no  university  throughout  Europe," 
"  more  especially  for  its  philosophers  and  dialectitians ;"  and  re- 
newed his  lamentations  over  the  unhappy  time  when,  though  logic 
had  its  place  preserved  among  the  subjects  of  academical  tuition^ 
"  the  kindred  branches  of  philosophy,  with  other  statutory  studies, 
were  dropt  from  the  course  of  instruction  actually  given," — the 
time  "  when  the  system  under  which  they  could  be  taught  was, 
for  a  private  interest,  illegally  superseded  by  another  under  which 
they  could  not" — "  when  the  college  fellows  supplanted  the  uni- 
versity professors,"  and  "  the  course  of  statutory  instruction 
necessarily  fell  with  the  statutory  instruments  by  which  it  had 
been  carried  through."  (No.  cxv.  p.  196.)  Then  followed, 
in    order   due,   a   pathetic    description    of   the   downward   pro- 

18S  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

gress  of  things,  by  which,  when  "  the   one  unqualified  fellow- 
tutor  could  not  perform   the  work  of  a  large  body  of  qualified 
professors,"  it  was  "  evident  that,  as  he  could  not  rise  and  expand 
himself  to  the  former  system,  the  present,  existing  only  for  his 
behoof,  must  be  contracted  and  brought  down  to  him,"  and  "  this 
minimum  was  to  be  made  less,"  and  there  was  "  a  lower  deep 
beneath  the  lowest  deep,"  till,  at  length,  "  when  even  the  Heads 
could  not  much  longer  have  continued  obstinate,  and  logic  seemed 
in  Oxford  on  the  eve  of  following  metaphysic  psychology  to  an 
academic  grave,   a  new  life  was  suddenly  communicated  to  the 
expiring  study,  and  hope  at  least  allowed  for  its  ultimate  conva- 
lescence under  a  reformed  system."     "  This,"  says  the  Review, 
"  was  mainl}'  effected  by  the  publication  of  the  Elements  of  Dr. 
Whately,  then  Principal  of  Alban  Hall,  and  recently  (we  rejoice) 
elevated  to  the  archiepiscopal   see  of  Dublin."     "  The  success 
and  ability  of  the  '  Elements,' "  it  appears,  "  prompted  imitation 
and  determined  controversy.     Mr.  Bentham  (nephew  of  Mr.  Je- 
remy Bentham)  published  his  Outline  and  Examination,  in  which 
Dr.  Whately  is  alternately  the  object  of  censure  and  encomium." 
Mr.  Lewis's  '*  Examination  of  some  passages  in  Dr.  Whately's 
Elements  of  Logic,"  though  "  on  two  points  only/'  was  "  like- 
wise controversial."    "  The  Principal,  as  becoming,  was  abridged 
and  lauded  by  his  Vice,  (Mr.  Hinds)  :"  and  other  treatises  had 
been  published,  "  all  more  or  less  relative  to  Dr.  Whately's,  and 
all  so   many  manifestations   of   the    awakened   spirit  of  logical 
pursuit,"  so  that  the  logic-loving  Visitor  had  tiie  satisfaction  of 
making  his  report,  that  "  the  last  decade"  had  "  done  more  in 
Oxford  for  the  cause  of  this  science  than   the  whole    130  years 
preceding."     Yet  after  all,  when  he  came  to  the  important  ques- 
tion, "  at  what  value  are  we  to   rate  these  new  logical  publica- 
tions," it  was  not  much  that  could  be  said  for  the  revival  of  scho- 
lastic learnino.     '*  Before  looking  at  their  contents,  on  a  know- 
ledge  only  of  the  general  circumstances  under  which  they  were 
produced,  indeed,  we  had  formed  a  presumptive  estimate,"  says 
the  Reviewer,  "  of  what  they  were  likely  to  perform:  and  found 
our  anticipation  fully  confirmed,  since  we  recently  examined  what 
they  had  actually  accomplished.     None   of  the  works  are   the 
productions  of  inferior  ability;  and  though  some  of  them  pro- 
pose only  an  humble  end,  they  are  all  respectably  executed.     A 
few  of  them  display  talent  rising  far  above  mediocrity;   and  one 
is  the   effort  of   great   natural  power.      But"  even   here,  alas  ! 
"  when  we  look  from  the  capacity  of  the  author  to  his  acquire- 
ments, our  judgment  is  less  favourable."     "  Even  Dr.  Whately," 
it  appears,  "  '  walks  in  the  trodden  ways.'  .  .  .     His  work  never 
transcends,  and  generally  does  not  rise  to  the  actual  level  of  the 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  189 

science;  nor,  with  all  its  ability,  can  it  justly  pretend  to  more 
than  a  relative  and  local  importance.  Its  original  and  most  va- 
luable portion"  being  "  but  the  insufficient  correction  of  mistakes 
touching  the  nature  of  logic,  long  exploded,  if  ever  harboured, 
among  the  countrymen  of  Leibnitz,  and  only  lingering  among  the 
disciples  of  Locke."  Its  own  dejiciencies  meanwhile  would  have 
opened  too  wide  a  field  of  discussion,  amidst  the  universal  igno- 
rance in  this  country  of  logical  philosophy,  uid  of  a  high  logical 
standard :  "  omitting  imperfections,"  therefore,  the  Reviewer  was 
obliged  to  confine  himself  "  to  an  indication  of  some  of  Dr. 
Whately's  positive  errors."  And  many  and  great  they  were  : — 
"  matter  of  controversy  even  in  the  first  page  :  in  the  very  passages 
where  he  formally  defines  the  science,  we  find  him  indistinct,  am- 
biguous, and  even  contradictory  ;  and  it  is  only  by  applying  the 
most  favourable  interpretation  to  his  words,  that  we  are  able  to 
allow  him  credit  for  any  thing  like  a  correct  opinion."  (p.  207.) 
Alas !  poor  ghost  of  Oxford  !  Again,  "  nothing  can  be  more  meagre 
and  incorrect  than  Dr.  W/s  sketch  of  the  history  of  logic  :"  and 
"  the  same  unacquaintance  with  philosophical  literature  and  Aris- 
totelic  criticism  is  manifested  by  every  recent  Oxford  writer  who 
has  alluded  to  the  subject:"  whether  we  "  refer  to  the  Excerpta  ex 
Organo,  iniisum  Academiccejuvent litis — to  the  Oxonia  purgata  of 
Dr.  Tatham— to  Mr.  Hill's  Notes  on  Aldrich — to  Mr.  Huyshe's 
Logic,  or  to  the  Phi/osophi/  of  Aristotle,  by  Mr.  Hampden. 
This  last  even  makes  the  Stagirite  derive  his  moral  system  from 
the  Pythagoreans,  although  the  forgery  of  the  fragments  preserved 
by  Stobeeus,  under  the  name  of  Theages,  and  other  ethical  writers 
of  that  school,  has  now  been  for  half  a  century  fully  established  !" 
And  "  Dr.  Whately's  errors  relative  to  Induction" — errors  in 
which  he  "  exceeds  all  other  logicians,"  (p.  232,)  "  are,  however, 
surpassed  by  those  of  this  able  writer;  errors  the  more  incon- 
ceivable, as  he  professes  to  have  devoted  peculiar  attention  to  the 
subject."  But  unfortunately,  it  appears,  he  had  "  so  misconceived 
so  elementary  a  point"  as  "  the  two  grand  methods  of  investi- 
gating the  definition,"  as  to  have  "  actually  reversed  the  doctrine, 
not  only  of  Aristotle,  but  of  all  other  philosophers !"  The  misfor- 
tune, it  seems,  was,  that  "  in  his  extemporaneous  study  of  the 
subject,  and  not  previously  aware  that  there  were  two  opposite 
methods  of  investigating  the  definition,"  he  "  took  up  the  notion 
that  these  were  merely  a  twofold  expression  for  the  same  thing ! 
Mr.  Hampden  is  an  able  man,  but  to  understand  Aristotle  in  any 
of  his  works,  he  must  be  understood  in  all;  and  to  be  understood 
in  all,  he  must  be  long  and  patiently  studied  by  a  mind  disci- 
plined to  speculation,  and  familiar  with  the  literature  of  philoso- 
phy." (p.  1SS.)    But  alas !  where  can  such  a  "  mind"  be  found  ? 

190  Attach  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

Say,  Father  Tweed  :  for  "  Father  Thames"  and  Isis,  cheu !  A  Ima 
Mater,  are  profoundly  silent. 

This  article  might,  at  first  sight,  appear  to  be  upon  a  distinct 
subject  unconnected  with  the  rest;  but  if  any  of  our  readers  are 
disposed  to  think  so,  let  them  carefully  study  it  in  connexion  with 
the  descriptions  given  in  the  first  article  on  Oxford,  respecting 
the  study  of  logic  in  early  days,  and  the  "  constant  disputations 
to  which  the  highest  importance  was  not  unwisely  attributed 
through  all  the  scholastic  ages,"  together  with  the  remarks  on 
the  same  subject  by  the  "  Member  of  Convocation,"  in  the 
introduction  to  his  pamphlet.  The  Reviewer's  special  patronage 
of  dialectics  is  no  accident  of  the  system. 

In  April,  1834,  the  English  universities  were  again  favoured 
with  a  passing  notice  in  an  article  on  the  "  Patronage  of  Univer- 
sities," containing  a  review  of  the  •'  Report  made  to  his  Majesty, 
by  a  Royal  Commission  of  Inquiry  into  the  state  of  the  Univer- 
sities of  Scotland."  This  report  was  "  ordered  by  the  House  of 
Commons  to  be  printed  7th  October,  1831."  In  the  outset  of 
this  article,  "  universities"  having  been  defined  as  "  establish- 
ments founded  and  privileged  by  the  state  for  public  purposes," 
to  which  it  was  added,  that  "  they  accomplish  these  purposes 
through  their  professors,"  a  friendly  asterisk  guided  the  reader  to 
a  note  in  which  the  tomb  of  the  English  universities  was  dutifully 
pointed  out  to  him,  by  the  following  brief  notice.  "  Oxford  and 
Cambridge  are  no  exceptions.  Inasmuch  as  they  now  accom- 
plish nothing  through  their  professors,  they  are  no  longer  univer- 
sities;  and  this  even  by  their  own  statutes."  (No.  cxix.  p.  197.) 
It  was  satisfactory,  however,  to  hear  the  result  of  a  comparison, 
made  towards  the  close  of  the  Review,  between  Scotland  and 
England,  in  regard  to  theology.  It  was  incidentally  remarked  that 
"  in  the  latter,  the  clergy  have  a  tolerable  classical  training," 
which  is  found  more  than  to  compensate  for  their  having  had 
"  for  ages,  we  may  say,"  says  the  Reviewer,  "  no  theological  edu- 
cation at  all. — In  Scotland,  on  the  other  hand,  the  clergy  must 
accomplish  the  longest  course  of  theological  study  prescribed  in 
any  country,  but  with  the  worst  and  shortest  classical  preparation. 
Yet,  in  theological  erudition,  what  a  contrast,"  exclaims  the  Re- 
viewer, "  do  the  two  Churches  exhibit !  And  this,  simply  because 
a  learned  scholar,"  as  he  very  judiciously  observes,  "  can  easily 
slide  into  a  learned  divine,  without  a  special  theological  educa- 
tion ;  whereas,  no  theological  education  can  make  a  man  a  learned 
divine,  who  is  not  a  learned  scholar;  theology  being,  in  a  human 
sense,  only  an  applied  philology  and  history." — (p.  225.)  These 
remarks  are  especially  satisfactory,  when  taken  in  connexion  with 
the  discussion  respecting  ^'  classical  education"  and  certain  points 

Attach  on  the  Universities — Oxford,  191 

connected  with  "  philology''  and  "  history,"  which  arose  in  1810, 
out  of  a  certain  article  in  the  Edinburgh  Review,  on  "  Edge- 
worth's  Professional  Education."* 

But  on  the  21st  of  this  same  month  of  April,  1834,  there  was 
brought  into  the  House  of  Commons,  "  a  Bill  to  remove  certain 
disabilities  which  prevent  some  classes  of  his  Majesty's  subjects 
from  resorting  to  the  Universities  of  England,  and  proceeding  to 
degrees  therein."  Then  it  was,  as  we  have  already  seen,  that  the 
okl  argument  of  "  illegality"  was  to  be  brought  up  again ;  for  at 
the  close  of  that  session  of  Parliament,  it  was  found,  to  the  great 
sorrow  of  the  friends  of  the  supposed  "  de  jure"  system  of  our 
imiversities,  that  "  neither  in  the  bill  itself,  nor  in  any  of  the 
pamphlets  and  speeches  in  favour  of  the  Dissenters,  or  agahist 
them,  was  any  attempt  made  to  grapple  with  the  real  difficulties 
of  the  question;  and  the  opponents  of  the  measure  were  left  to 
triumph  on  untenable  ground." 

**  O  CorydoUj  Corydon  :  quae  te  dementia  cepit  ?  " 

"  The  sum  of  all  the  arguments  for  exclusion,"  says  the  Re- 
viewer, looking  back  on  the  campaign  of  the  summer,  "  amounts 
to  this.  The  admission  of  the  Dissenters  is  inexpedient,  as  incon- 
sistent with  the  present  state  of  education  in  the  universities, 
which  is  assumed  to  be  all  that  it  ought  to  be;  and  unjust,  as 
tending  to  deprive  those  of  their  influence  who  are  assumed  to 
have  most  worthily  discharged  their  trust.  In  reply  to  this,  it  is 
feebly  attempted,  admitting  the  assumptions,  to  evade  the  right, 
and  to  palliate  the  inconveniences,  instead  of  contending  boldly 
— in  the  1st  place,  that  the  actual  state  of  education  in  these 
schools  is  entitled  to  no  respect,  as  contrary  at  once  to  law  and 
reason  ;  and  that  all  inconveniences  disappear  the  moment  that 
the  universities  are  in  the  state  to  which  law  and  reason  demand 
that  they  be  restored  ;  and  in  the  2nd,  that,  so  far  from  unjustly 
degrading  upright  and  able  trustees,  these  trustees  have,  for  their 
proper  interest,  violated  their  public  duty  ;  and,  for  the  petty 
ends  of  their  own  private  institutions,  abolished  the  great  national 
establishment,  of  whose  progressive  improvement  they  had  so- 
lemnly vowed  to  be  the  faithful  guardians." — (pp.202,  203.) 

The  former  lucubrations  of  the  Reviewer  were  now,  therefore, 
to  be  brought  up  again,  and  one  more  effort  made  to  awaken  the 
public  attention  to  "  the  present  preposterous  state  of  the  Uni- 
versities," and  to  enlighten  "  the  utter  ignorance  that  prevails  in 
regard  to  their  natural  condition,  (p.  205.)  His  readers  were  then 
referred  to  the  "  two  former  articles,"  which  were  duly  "  recapi- 
tulated, because,  in  considering  the  consequences  of  the  proposed 

*  See  "  A  Reply  to  the  Calumnies  of  the  Edhiburgh  Review  against  Oxford,  con- 
taining an  account  of  studies  pursued  in  that  University."  Chap.  iii. 

19a  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

measure,  it  was  requisite  to  bear  in  mind,  not  only  what  is  the 
actual,  but  what  the  legal  system  of  these  Institutions." — (p.  204.) 
First,  however,  "  with  the  view  of  simplifying  the  question, 
and  removing  all  unnecessary  confusion,"  the  Reviewer  volun- 
teers to  "  make  at  once  certain  preliminary  admissions."  Of 
these,  the  first  is,  "  that  the  Colleges  are  foundations  private  to 
their  incorporated  members  ;  that  their  admission  of  extranet, 
or  independent  members,  is  wholly  optional ;  and  that,  as  that  they 
may  exclude  all,  they  consequently  may  exclude  any.  The  legis- 
lature cannot,  therefore,  without  a  subversion  of  their  constitu- 
tion, deprive  them  of  this  fundamental  right."  The  fifth  and  last 
of  these  admissions  is,  that,  in  the  actual  state  of  the  English  Uni- 
versities, they  exist  only  in  and  through  the  Colleges;  that  as  these 
Colleges  are  private  foundations,  the  Universities,  in  their  actual 
state,  are  not  national  establishments  ;  and  that,  as  it  is  unjust  to 
force  the  Dissenters  on  the  Colleges,  consequently,  either  unjust 
or  idle,  as  things  at  present  stand,  to  bestow  on  Dissenters  the 
right  of  entering  the  Universities."  But  then  it  is  argued, 
"  these  admissions,  though  the  points  mainly  contended  for 
by  the  opponents  of  the  bill,  do  not  however  determine  the 
question.  It  is  certainly  true,  that  if  in  Oxford  and  Cambridge 
the  colleges  constitute  the  university,  the  Dissenters  have  no 
claim  to  admission  :  because,  in  that  case,  the  university  is  not  a 
national  foundation  " — (pp.  205,  206) :  but  then,  on  the  other 
hand,  "  the  Dissenters,  and  all  other  citizens,  are  entitled  to  de- 
mand, that  the  Universities  be  restored  to  an  efficient — to  a  legal 
state  ;  and  that  the  guardianship  of  the  reformed  school  be  con- 
fided to  worthier  trustees  than  those  who  have  hitherto  employed 
their  authority  only  to  frustrate  its  end.  We  gladly  join  issue," 
says  the  Reviewer,  "  with  the  Bishop  of  Exeter  and  Sir  Robert 
Inglis,  on  this  point." — (p.  207.) 

Let  us  see,  then,  what  ground  was  actually  taken  by  the  de- 
fenders of  the  "  system  de  facto."  Did  they  shrink  from  the 
questions — What  is  the  system  "  dejure  T' — What  is  the  original 
and  essential  character  of  our  Universities,  and  for  ivhat  end  they 
were  incorporated  ?  No:  nor  did  they  fear,  in  their  turn,  to 
charge  the  opponents  of  the  system  "  de  facto,"  with  utter  igno- 
rance of  the  true  character  of  an  English  University. 

"  The  fact  is,"  said  Sir  Robert  Inglis,  "  that  very  little  is  known  to 
those  who  speak  upon  this  subject,  of  what  an  English  University  is. 
We  were  told  this  night  by  one  hon.  member,  comparing  the  English 
Universities  with  those  of  foreign  countries,  that  they  were  of  the  same 
general  class.  If,  by  being  of  the  same  class,  it  is  meant  that  they  bear 
the  same  name,  then,  but  only  then,  do  I  concur  in  the  statement ;  but,  in 
other  respects,  there  exists  in  the  whole  world  nothing  at  all  approach- 

Jttack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  J  93 

ing  the  system  of  the  two  universities  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge :  and 
even  they  themselves  (hffer  essentially  from  what  they  w^ere  300  years 
ago.     The  real   distinction   between   the  two  English    Universities   on 
the  one  hand,   and  those  of  Scotland  and    Ireland,  France,   Germany, 
and  Italy  on  the  other^  is,  that  there  is  domestic  education  in  the  former, 
and  not   in  the   latter.     The  young  men  are  brought  together,  almost 
under  the  same  roof,  during  their  residence  in  the  Universities  :   under 
these  circumstances,  there  is  given  to  them  a  domestic  character,  and  to 
the  Universities  themselves  a  character  of  domesticity  which  does  not  exist 
in  any  other  institution.     It   is   that  which   constitutes,  not  only  their 
distingu'ishhig  feature ,   but  their  prevai/i/ig  tncrit.     There  is  a  re-union 
every    morning,    as   in  a  family,   of  the   members   of  every  college  at 
prayers.  .  , .      Almost  every  college  was  founded    '  in  honorem  Dei.'.  .  . 
Religion  was  connected  with   every  endowment.     The  charters  of  our 
kings  refer  to  the  supply  of  the  Church  from  the  Universities  3   the  act  of 
1570,   -which    incorporates  us,  and   confirms    all  our  ancient   privileges, 
makes  the  end  of  our  incorporation  to  be  '  the  maintenance  of  good  and 
godly   literature,   and   the  virtuous  education  of  youth.'  ....      On  the 
29th  of  July,  1593,  the  council  of  Queen  Elizabeth  say,  '  Whereas  the 
two  Universities  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge  are  the  two  nurseries  to  bring 
up  jrouth  in   the  knowledge  and  fear  of  God,' &c.    (vide  sup.  t^.  181,). 
This  was  the  great  object   of  the  statesmen  of  those  days,  and  of  every 
other  day  till  the  present,  that  the  Universities,  always  connected  with 
religion,  nnght  provide  a  due  supply   of  persons  qualified  to  serve  God 
in  Church.     Another  set  of  men,   with   another  set   of  principles,   has 
arisen.     Their  attack  on  the  Universities  will,  if  successful,  terminate  in 
one  of  two  calamities — either  it  will  render  them  scenes  of  godless  in- 
difference, or  of  bitter  disputation." 

Not  less  pointedly  did  the  Bishop  of  Exeter  meet  the  grand 
argument  of  the  Edinburgh  Review. 

"  Of  the  bill  itself,"  said  the  Rt.Rev.  Prelate,  "  I  must  say  that  it  seems 
to  me  to  be  almost/c/o  de  se.  It  says  that  education  should  be  given  to 
all  the  subjects  of  the  realm.  Now,  let  me  ask,  what  is  education  ?  It 
is  not  merely  a  scheme  of  instruction  in  any  of  the  precise  sciences,  or 
even  in  the  range  of  classical  literature.  No  ;  education  is  that  which 
is  to  make  men  good  Christians,  and  good  citizens.  Education,  there- 
fore, cannot  be  given  without  instruction  in  religion, — nay,  it  must  be 
founded  upon  religious  instruction.     Religion  is  the  pervading  principle 

ol  true  education But  allow  me  to  remind  your  lordships,  that 

when  I  ascribe  this  general  importance  to  religion — the  existing  system 
ot  teaching  religion  at  the  Universities  is,  I  repeat,  strictly  in  accordance 
with  the  otyjects  for  xvhich  those  great  bodies  were  founded,  and  fur  which 
they  secured  their  charters.  The  Noble  and  Learned  Lord  (Chancellor)  has 
not  (as  I  was  sure  he  could  not)  at  all  attempted  to  invalidate  the  claim 
made  by  the  Noble  Duke  (of  Wellington)  for  these  great  chartered  cor- 
porations. The  Noble  Duke  said,  '  Are  not  these  bodies  chartered  ? 
Do  they,  or  do  they  not,  discharge  well  and  truly  the  objects  for  which 
they  were  chartered"?     If  they  do,  has  parliament,  as  contradistinguished 

NO.  XLIII. — JULY,  1837.  o 

194  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford, 

from  the  C^rown,  any  right  to  interfere,  and  to  drive  tliem  to  the  adop- 
tion of  a  course  of  action  different  from  that  which  they  have  hitherto 
pursued  ?  I  contend  they  have  a  distinct  right  to  decide  for  themselves, 
/low  they  will  carri/  into  eff'cct  the  objects  for  which  they  were  founded, 
and  unless  you  can  show  that  they  have  in  any  \vay  departed  from  these 
objects,  you  cannot  interfere." 

And  no  body  could  show  il. 

"  We  have  been  told,''  continued  the  Bishop,  "  that  these  are  national 
institutions, — I  admit  that  they  are  national  institutions,  but  in  what 
sense?  They  are  national,  because  they  are  the  two  great  seminaries  for 
instruction  in  the  national  religion — they  arc  national,  inasmuch  as  they 
aflbrd  that  high  glory  for  Avhich  England  is  so  much  honoured  in  all 
foreign  parts — namely,  of  being  possessed  of  two  such  institutions." 

The  Bishop  of  Exeter  concluded  his  speech  with  observing, 
that  the  pretensions  of  the  Dissenters  were  not  new  in  the  his- 
tory of  this  country. 

"  We  have  a  very  remarkable  precedent  for  them,"  observed  the 
Right  Reverend  Prelate.  "  Two  centuries  ago,  I  find  that  in  the  year 
1647,  a  Parliamentary  Order,  No.  74,  was  passed,  by  which  visitors 
were  appointed  for  the  better  regulation  of  the  University  of  Oxford. 
They  were  especially  empowered  and  authorized  '  to  examine  into  and 
consider  of  all  such  oaths,  rules,  and  regulations,  as  were  enjoined  by 
such  University,  and  of  the  respective  Colleges  and  Halls  of  the  said 
University,  and  to  present  their  opinions  concerning  the  same  to  the 
Lords  and  Commons,  in  order  that  such  only  may  be  required  as  should 
be  agreeable  to  the  intended  reformation  of  the  said  University.' 
Now,  this  is  what  is  sought  by  the  Dissenters  of  the  present  day. 
They  have  told  you  what  they  wish,  and  it  is  for  your  lordships  to  say, 
whether  you  will  comply  with  it.  Will  you  be  their  dupes  ?  .  .  .  .  Will 
you  be  their  accomplices  ?  No,  my  lords,  that  is  equally  impossible  ; 
for  being  an  accomplice  implies  some  communion  of  interest,  some 
unity  of  end  and  aim.  Now,  what  possible  interest  can  you  have,  in 
common  with  these  persons  who  aim  to  seize  upon  the  Universities,  and 
thus  to  pull  them  down  ?  And  what  end  and  aim  can  you  have  in 
adopting  that  change  ?  Will  you  be  their  instruments — their  tools — the 
poor  ministers  of  their  sordid  hatred  against  these  Universities  ?  Will 
you  be  the  betrayers  of  the  very  sanctuaries  of  British  honour  ?  Will 
you  be  the  corrupters  of  these  nurseries  of  British  virtue  ?  Will  you  be 
the  poisoners  of  these  religious  wells  of  Christian  knowledge  ?  Will  you 
be  all  this  ?  No  ;  it  is  impossible  ;  and  I  beg  pardon  of  your  lordships 
for  putting  the  case  even  as  a  supposal.  I  am  sure  it  is  impossible  to 
contemplate  such  a  supposition,  as  that  you  can  join  with  parties  who 
have  thus  disgraced  themselves  before  their  country,  by  demanding  an 
act  of  injustice,  which  will  be  the  destruction  of  the  most  venerable 
of  the  institutions  of  the  land.  I  will  not  trespass  further  upon  the  at- 
tention of  your  lordships." 

Thus,  after  a  few  words  of  reply  from  Lord  Radnor,  ended  the 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  195 

debate  in  the  House  of  Lords  on  the  Ijill  for  the  admission  of 
Dissenters  to  the  Universities,  August  1,  1834;  when,  by  a  large 
majority,  the  bill  was  "  ordered  to  be  read  a  second  time  this  day 
six  months."  The  reference  to  historical  precedent,  which  the 
Bishop  of  Exeter  supplied,  was  not  lost,  as  we  shall  presently 
see,  on  the  noble  Earl;  but  there  is  yet  another  instance  to  be 
noticed  of  the  watchful  superintendence  of  our  Scotch  visitor 
over  our  university  system.  The  Bishop  of  Exeter  and  Sir  Ro- 
bert Inglis  published  their  speeches  ;  and  this  raised  to  its  highest 
pitch  the  indignation  of  the  Reviewer,  in  the  retrospect  of  the 
session  of  1834.  '  The  subject  of"  the  Universities  and  the  Dis- 
senters," was  thus  taken  up  again  in  January,  1833. 

"■  The  opponents  and  supporters  of  the  recent  measure  for  restoring 
the  English  universities  to  their  proper  character  of  unexclusive  schools, 
may  pretend  indifferently  to  the  honour  of  having  argued  their  cases  in 
the  worst  possible  manner ;  and  in  the  cloud  of  pamphlets  (we  have  seen 
nearly  thirty),  and  throughout  the  protracted  discussions  in  Parliament, 
which  this  question  has  drawn  forth,  the  reasons  most  confidently  urged  are 
precisely  those  which,  as  suicidal,  they  ought  especially  to  have  eschevved  ; 
and  these  same  reasons,  though  cautiously  avoided,  as  unanswerable, 
by  the  latter,  are  the  very  grounds  on  wliich  the  necessity  not  only 
of  this,  but  of  far  more  important  academical  reform,  were  to  be  tri- 
umphantly established.  So  curious  in  fact  was  the  game  at  cross-pur- 
poses, that  the  official  defenders  of  things  as  they  are  in  Oxford  and 
Cambridge,  do,  on  the  principle  of  their  own  objection  to  this  partial 
restoration  of  the  ancient  academic  order,  call  out  for  a  sweeping  overthrow 
of  the  actual  administration  of  these  establishments  ;  and  we  are  confident 
of  proving,  before  the  conclusion  of  the  present  article,  that,  unless 
apostates  not  only  from  their  reasoning  on  th^s  question,  but  from  their 
professions  of  moral  and  religious  duty,  we  have  a  right  to  press  into  the 
service,  as  partisans  of  a  radical  reform  in  Oxford,  (besides  the  Chancellor 
of  that  University,  his  Grace  of  Wellington,)  the  Bishop  of  Exeter  and 
Sir  Robert  Inglis  themselves.'' — p.  423. 

The  Reviewer  now  informed  his  readers,  that,  in  the  article  on 
this  subject  in  the  preceding  Number,  though  he  had  been  "  com- 
pelled to  omit  or  hurry  over  many  important  matters,"  yet  "  one 
portentous  error,  common  to  both  sides,"  he  had  "  indeed  (for  the 
second  time)  exposed, — that  the  English  universities  are  the  com- 
plement or  general  incorporation  of  the  colleges ;"  that  "  there 
was,  however,  another  not  less  important  error  on  which  he  could 
only  touch  ; — the  argument,  attempted  to  be  drawn  from  the  injus- 
tice of  interfering  with  trustees  in  the  faithful  exercise  of  their 
duty,  so  confidently  advanced  by  the  Bishop  of  Exeter  and  Sir 
Robert  Inglis."  Then  follow  quotations  from  their  speeches,  in 
which,  as  the  Reviewer  observes,  "  the  whole  leasoning  is  drawn 
from   two   places ;  the  one,   the   rights  of  public  trustees  ;  the 

o  2 

]()C)  Attack  on  tJie  Universities — Oxford. 

other,  the  obligation  of  the  academic  oaths."  We  will  transcribe 
a  portion  of  the  extracts  from  each. 

T/ic  Bishop  of  Exder — "  My  Lords,  it  is,  I  apprehend,  an  admitted 
principle,  that  where  a  corporation  has  received  its  charter  for  a  specific 
purpose,  tiic  law  of  England  repels,  and  the  legislature  of  England  has 
hitherto  repelled,  every  attempt  to  break  in  upon  that  corporation,  except 
on  an  allegation  that  its  members  have  omitted  to  perform  the  duties  for 
which  the//  -.cere  incorporated,  or  that  the  purposes  for  which  they  were 
incorporated,  were  originally,  or  have  been  declared  by  subsequent  en- 
actments, to  be  illegal,  immoral,  or  superstitious.  Such,  I  will  venture 
to  say,  is  the  principle  of  the  law  of  England  in  respect  to  corporations  ; 
and  even  if  a  lawyer  could  devise  any  plea  in  derogation  of  it,  I  am  quite 
sure  that  there  is  no  Englishman  of  plain  understanding,  who  would  not 
proclaim  his  assent  to  the  reasonableness  of  that  principle.  Noxv  is  it, 
can  it  be  alleged,  that  either  of  the  universities,  or  that  any  of  the  colleges 
within  than,  have  violated  the  duties  of  their  corporate  character,  or  that 
they  have  abused  the  powers  entrusted  with  them  for  the  performance  of  those 
duties  ....  My  Lords,  no  man  has  ventured,  nor  will  any  manvenlure, 
to  say  any  of  these  things." 

Sir  Robert  Inglis — "  Tell  me,  if  you  please,  that  the  gift  was  a  trust, 
and  that  the  trust  has  been  abused,  and  then  I  can  understand  you.  Until 
it  can  be  proved,  however,  that  the  two  Universities  have  betrayed  their 
trust,  you  cannot  in  good  faith,  or  common  honesty,  require  us  to  restore 

the  boon  which  you  gave cmd  nnle&s  [which,  in  his  speech  of 

the  2Gth  March,  Sir  Robert  says,  .  ...  is  not  even  alleged^]  it  can  be 
proved  that  the  trust  has  been  abused,  I  contend  that  it  ought  not  to  be 
disturbed.  Is  the  House  prepared  to  take  away  the  jights  and  privileges 
of  this  University,  without  any  proof  of  delinquency  ?  " 

"  The  Bishop  of  Eseter  and  Sir  Robert  Inglis  not  only  ob- 
ject," says  the  Reviewer,  "  that  no  abuse  of  trust  can  justly  be 
alleged  against  the  Universities  .  .  .  but  that  no  one  has  dared  to 
hazard  such  an  allegation  ....  Defiance  like  this,"  he  goes  on, 
"  from  such  a  quarter,  was  alone  wanted  to  carry  to  its  climax  the 
history  of  that  official  treason  of  which  the  University  of  Oxford 
has  been  the  prey ;  for  not  only  has  the  abuse  of  trust  in  this 
venerable  school  been  denounced  by  us  as  unparalleled  in  the 
annals  of  any  other  Christian  institution,  but  our  exposure  of  it 
has  been  so  complete,  that  those  interested  in  its  continuance — 
those  on  whom  defence  was  a  necessity,  moral  and  religious — 
have  been  unable  to  alleoe  a  single  word  in  vindication.*  "  It  is 
now,"  says  the  Review,  "  above  three  years  and  a  half  since  we 

*  In  a  note  we  are  informed  that,  "  in  deference,"  as  is  said,  "  to  tlie  common  sense 
and  common  lionesty  of  tlie  coUegial  inlercst,"  the  Edinburgh  Review  "  will  not  con- 
sider two  uiipar;iileled  [janiplilcls,"  as  it  terms  tlieni,"  publislied  (by  one  of  its  Fellows 
we  presume)  under  the  name  of '  A  Member  of  Convocation,' as  representing  more 
than  ilie  mora!  eccentricities  of  an  individual." 

'Attack  0)1  the  Unicersities — Oxford.  197 

published  a  principal,  and  above  three  years  since  we  subjoined 
a  supplementary  article  on  the  subject.  In  these  we  stated," 
&c.  &c.  &c.  Then  came  the  old  charges  of  "  illegality"  and 
"  perjury,"  repeated  for  the  third  time,  only  in  more  violent  and 
coarser  language,  pointed  by  the  reflexion,  "  lahut  must  be  the 
conviction"  of  the  importance,  the  truth,  and  the  evidence  of  the 
charge  of  "  a  betrayal  of  trust,  self-seeki  ig,  and  perjury,"  when 
the  Reviewer  had  "  not  been  deterred  from  the  painful  duty  of 
such  an  accusation,  by  the  dread  of  so  tremendous  a  recoil "  as 
that  which  must  be  looked  for,  if  the  charge  could  not  be  sub- 
stantiated "  against  a  body  of  men,  the  presumption  of  whose 
integrity  is  founded  on  their  sacred  character  as  clergymen,  on 
their  hallowed  obligations  as  the  guides,  patterns,  instructors  of 
youth,  and  on  their  elevated  station  as  administrators  of  the  once 
most  venerable  school  of  religion,  literature,  and  science,  in  the 
world."  It  must,  indeed,  have  been  a  most"  painful  duty;"  but 
public  duty,  we  all  know,  must  be  performed,  however  "  deeply" 
we  may  "  feel"  on  the  subject:  and  so  the  Edinburgh  Review 
put  on  the  black  cap,  and  delivered  over  the  heads  of  houses,  in 
due  form,  to  the  secular  arm,  due  time  having  now  been  allowed 
for  their  amendment,  and  allowed  in  vain  !  Thus  the  Edinburgh 
Review  tenderly,  and  at  the  same  time  firmly,  passes  final  sentence. 

"  And  in  reference  to  the  actual  heads,  it  is  now  nearly  four  years  since 
we  first  exposed  tlie  fact  and  the  illegality  of  the  present  suspension  of 
the  university,  with  the  treason  and  perjury  through  which  that  suspen- 
sion was  effected,  and  is  maintained.  In  our  exposition  we  were,  how- 
ever, anxious  to  spare,  as  far  as  possible,  the  living  guardians  of  the  uni- 
versity and  its  laws,  and  to  attribute  rather  to  an  extreme,  an  incredible 
ignorance  of  their  duty  what  would  otherwise  resolve  into  a  conscious 
outrage  of  the  most  sacred  obligations.  But  since  that  period  the  be- 
nefit of  this  excuse  has  been  withdrawn.  The  heads  cannot  invalidate 
the  truth  of  our  statements  or  the  necessity  of  our  inferences  ;  they 
have,  therefore,  in  continuing  knowingly,  and  without  necessity,  to  hold 
on  their  former  lawless  course,  overtly  renounced  the  plea  of  ignorance 
and  bonajidcs,  and  thus  authorized  every  executioner  of  public  justice  to 
stamp  the  mark,  wherewith  the  laws,  by  which  they  are  constituted,  and 
under  which  they  act,  decree  them  to  be  branded." — pp.  444-.5. 

And  so  from  January  1,  1835,  any  one  had  full  authority,  with- 
out scruple  or  proof,  to  call  the  present  system  of  academical  edu- 
cation at  Oxford  by  the  style  and  title  of  "  illegality"  and  "  per- 
jury;" and  its  administrators,  aiders,  and  abettors,  as  pejjured 
knaves  and  rogues  :  this  article  of  the  Edinburgh  Review  (No. 
cxxii.)  being  their  "  sufKcient  warrant." 

We  may  now  proceed  to  trace  tlie  progress  of  hostilities  against 
the  Universities,  as    renewed  in  the    present  session  of  parlia- 

198  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. ' 

ment.  The  reference  to  the  parliamentary  commission  of  lG47, 
with  which  the  Bishop  of  Exeter  supplied  Lord  Radnor,  was 
not  lost,  as  we  have  already  said,  upon  the  noble  lord,  ilow 
accurately  the  noble  lord  had  studied  the  precedent,  and  how 
essentially  lie  had  improved  upon  it  in  several  important  particu- 
lars, may  be  seen  in  the  "  Historical  Vindication  of  the  leading 
principles  contamed  in  the  Earl  of  Radnor's  Bill,  intituled  '  An 
Act  for  appointing  Commissioners  to  inquire  respecting  the 
Statutes  and  Administration  of  the  difterent  Colleges  and  Halls 
at  O.xford  and  Cambridge.'  "  The  parallel  between  the  two 
connnissions,  in  their  several  provisions,  is  very  well  traced;  the 
advantage,  however,  being  shown  to  be  on  the  side  of  Lord 
Radnor's  commission,  as,  indeed,  might  be  expected  from 
the  improvements  in  legislation  during  the  last  two  hundred 
years.  The  writer  refers  to  the  well-known  story  of  the  Quaker 
and  the  dog,  to  whom  he  so  kindly  said,  with  all  the  tenderness 
of  a  modern  reformer,  "  I  will  not  hurt  thee,  but  I  will  give  thee 
a  bad  name,"  observing  that  this  worthy  individual  "  only  availed 
himself  of  a  principle,  well  understood  and  acted  upon  by  astute 
calculators  of  every  age  and  country,  who  always  find  it  more 
easy  to  effect  their  purposes  of  injustice  if  they  can  but  succeed 
in  fastening  some  stigma  upon  the  objects  of  their  bad  offices. 
As,  however,"  he  says,  *'  it  is  our  happiness  to  live  where  liberty 
is  too  highly  prized,  and  the  rights  of  all  classes  too  jealously 
protected,  to  admit  of  injustice  being  practised  by  the  legislature 
of  the  present  day" — we  will  only  say,  may  that  "  present  day  " 
last  long  !  —  "  the  object  of  the  following  pages  is  rather  to 
supply  the  lovers  of  antiquity  with  matter  of  speculation,  than 
to  moderate  the  truly  liberal  principles  which  pervade  the  bill 
intituled  '  An  Act,'  &c."  (pp.  5,  6).  To  such  "  lovers  of  anti- 
quity" we  would  also  recommend  a  careful  study  of  "  The 
History  of  the  Visitation  of  the  University  of  Oxford  by  a  Par- 
liamentary Commission,  in  the  years  l647,  l648,  abridged  from 
the  Annals  of  Anthony  a  Wood."  And  a  singular  history  it  is. 
"  It  is  presumed,"  says  the  editor,  "  that  such  a  narrative  could 
hardly  fail  to  be  interesting  at  any  time ;  but  the  reader  will  best 
judge  for  himself,  how  far  a  parallel  may  be  drawn  between  the 
present  and  the  past;  and  whether  any  thing  can  be  discerned  in 
the  peculiar  circumstances  of  the  day,  to  justify  the  endeavour 
here  made  to  circulate  more  widely  a  record  of  courage,  modera- 
tion, and  Christian  temper,  on  the  part  of  our  ancestors,  on  which 
few  can  look  back  without  gratitude  and  admiration,  and  which 
may  serve,  when  occasion  requires,  to  be  a  guide  and  precedent 
for  the  future." 

But  to  return  to  events  of  "  the  present  day,"   Lord  Radnor, 

Attack  on  the  (Universities — Oxford.  199 

it  seems,  when  moving  the  second  reading  of  his  bill,  found  him- 
self met  by  the  suggestion,  "  that  previous  investigation  should 
precede  the  adoption  of  any  legislative  measure  on  the  subject." 
This,  which  the  noble  lord  found  "  the  principal  argument  urged 
against  the  proposal,"  induced  him  to  withdraw  it,  though  he 
"  still  thought  a  commission  the  best  means  of  attaining  the  end  : 
and  he  had  now  to  propose,  as  appeared  to  him,  the  next  best 
mode  of  acquiring  information."  And  ihis  was,  "  that  a  com- 
mittee be  appointed  to  inquire  into  the  state  of  such  of  the  col- 
leges and  halls  in  the  Universities  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  as 
have  statutes  enjoined  by  their  respective  founders  and  benefac- 
tors, in  so  far  as  relates  to  the  provisions  of  the  said  statutes  and 
the  practice  relative  thereto,  the  oaths  by  which  the  members  of 
the  institution  are  bound  to  obey  the  same,  and  the  power  which 
may  be  vested  in  their  respective  visitors  to  alter,  modify,  and 
amend  them ;  and  to  report  to  the  House  their  opinion  of  the 
expediency  or  necessity  of  a  legislative  measure  on  the  subject." 
It  was  pointed  out  at  the  time,  as  rather  a  remarkable  coinci- 
dence, that  the  same  day  of  the  month  on  which  the  Parliament 
issued  their  ordinance  for  the  visitation  of  the  Universities 
(May  1),  1647,  was  the  very  same  day  of  the  month  that  Lord 
Radnor,  19O  years  after,  gave  notice  of  his  intention  to  move  for 
a  committee  of  visitors,  viz.  Monday,  May  1,  1837. 

In  this  new  act  of  the  drama,  it  will  be  observed,  the  scene  of 
battle  is  transferred  from  the  University  to  the  Colleges ;  and  it 
is  scarcely  possible  to  get  rid  of  the  recollection  of  the  former 
attempts  in  behalf  of  the  admission  of  Dissenters,  or  of  the 
impediment  which  was  theil  found  to  lie  in  the  way  of  "  liberal " 
principles  in  the  constitution  of  the  "  collegial  system."  Now, 
however,  the  colleges  were  destined  to  be  the  special  object  of 
attack;  but,  on  the  11th  of  April  last,  when  Lord  Radnor  was  to 
move  the  second  reading  of  his  bill  in  the  House  of  Lords,  peti- 
tions having  been  presented  from  almost  every  college  in  Ox- 
ford, there  was  presented  also  by  the  Duke  of  Wellington  a 
petition  from  "  the  chancellor,  masters,  and  scholars  of  the 
Universily  of  Oxford."  Lord  Radnor  could  not  conceal  his 
amazement.  "  The  University  of  Oxford,"  his  lordship  said, 
"  had  petitioned  against  the  bill,  and  upon  a  ground  which 
appeared  to  him  as  rather  extraordinary, — viz.  upon  the  ground 
that  those  colleges  were  public  branches  of  the  University.  That 
they  were  not  so,  he  thought  was  quite  as  manifest  as  that  they 
were  not  branches  of  the  corporation  of  Oxford.  The  Univer- 
sities had  existed  long  before  the  colleges,  and  as  independently 
of  them  as  did  the  corporation.  If  all  the  property  of  all  the 
colleges  were    confiscated,   it  would   not   in    the    least    degree 

200  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

iinpair  the  Universities,  whicli  would  continue  to  exist  as  liere- 
totore.  'J'lic  petition  lie  alluded  to  stated  that  those  colleges 
were  pul)lic  l)odies.  Now,  those  colleges  had,  over  and  over 
again,  atlirnied  that  they  were  private  bodies,  private  benefac- 
tions, and  that  they  owed  nothing  whatever  to  the  state.  In  that 
they  were  correct,  at  least  as  regarded  their  fundamental  position. 
They  were  private  eleemosynary  foundations." 

Doubless,  this  was  very  mysterious,  and  to  a  student  of  the 
Edinburgh  Review  hopelessly  perplexing.  And  the  Edinburgh 
Review  had,  evidently,  been  studied  with  much  diligence  by  the 
supporters  of  Lord  Radnor's  motion.  Lord  Melbourne  was 
soon  ready  at  his  side  with  the  remark  that,  "  even  if  it  were  so," 
that  the  colleges  in  our  Universities  were  private  foundations, 
"  yet  that  the  character  of  the  Universities  themselves,  which  it 
would  not  be  denied  were  public  institutions,  had  become 
greatly  changed.  The  old  plan  of  general  education  in  them  no 
longer  existed,  by  which  any  man  could  set  up  a  school  and 
teach.  This  could  be  done  now  only  in  one  of  the  colleges, 
which  the  petitioners  called  private  foundations.  On  this  subject 
he  would  read  a  short  extract  from  a  very  sensible  and  clever 
writer,  whose  work,  had  lately  fallen  in  his  way.  That  writer 
said,  '  that  if  public  institutions  had  private  establishments  so 
connected  with  them,  that  a  man  could  not  belong  to  the  public 
unless  he  was  a  member  of  one  of  the  private  foundations,  that 
would  not  make  the  public  institution  private,  but  would  raise 
the  private  into  a  public  institution,  which  the  country  had  a 
right  to  deal  with  as  such.'  If  their  education  was  to  be  carried 
on  in  those  colleges,  or  private  foundations,  as  they  were  called, 
the  argument  he  had  quoted  would  show  that  they  might  be 
made  subjects  of  investigation  on  public  grounds.  Another 
ground  on  which  he  would  rest  the  proposed  inquiry  was — that 
those  institutions  had  not  the  power  to  correct  the  abuses  which, 
from  time  to  time,  had  grown  up  in  them.  This  assertion  did 
not  imply  any  thing  offensive  to  them.  It  was  not  to  be  ex- 
pected, that  the  resident  directors  of  those  establishments  could 
be  the  most  fit  judges  of  any  errors  or  abuses  which  had  been 
the  growth  of  time.  These  things  required  a  fresh  eye,  and  an 
external  one — one  which  would  not  be  dazzled  by  the  new 
atmosphere  into  which  it  might  be  brought.  It  was  by  such 
only  that  errors  could  be  eifectually  discovered.  He  repeated, 
that  the  proposed  commission  could  not  be  considered  as  meant 
offensively  to  our  Universities  or  to  any  of  the  Colleges.  A 
commission  had  been  appointed  to  inquire  into  the  system  of 
education  in  the  Scotch  Universities,  and  that  had  received  the 
sanction  of  the  noble  duke  (Wellington)  opposite.     Now,  it  was 

Attack  on  the  Unwersities — Oxford.  201 

not  conceived  that  any  offence  was  meant  to  them  by  the  ap- 
ponUment  of  the  commission.  Why,  he  would  ask,  should  it  be 
so  considered  with  respect  to  the  English  Universities?  He 
admired  the  talents  which  the  Universities  nurtined  and  pos- 
sessed ;  he  admitted  that  of  late  years  they  had  done  much  of 
themselves  to  remedy  the  evils  that  had  crept  into  their  institu- 
tions, but  he  nnist,  nevertheless,  maintain  that  they  were  not 
without  blemish ;  that  there  was  a  great  deal  in  their  institutions 
to  remedy,  and  that  they  had  not  force  of  themselves  to  apply 
that  remedy.  He  therefore  thought  that  this  inquiry  would  be 
advantageous  to  their  interests,  and  should  consequently  suj)port 
the  motion  of  his  noble  friend," 

Thus  faithfully  was  the  view  of  our  University  system,  which 
had  been  painted  in  such  dark  colours  on  the  "  fresh "  and 
'*  external"  eye  of  our  Polyphenie,  the  "  gentle  shepherd"  of  the 
North,  reflected,  though  in  somewhat  softer  shades,  yet  with  most 
exact  correspondence,  in  the  optic  mirrors  of  Parliament.  It  is 
unnecessary  to  compare  the  debate  and  the  Review,  to  trace,  step 
by  step,  how  well  the  lesson  had  been  learnt,  and  how  accurately 
it  is  repeated. 

The  work  of  the  "  sensible  and  clever  writer  "  to  which  the 
noble  Premier  referred,  is  that  which  stands  fourth  at  the  head 
of  the  present  Article,  "  On  the  Origin  of  University  or  Aca- 
demical Degrees,  by  Henry  Maiden,  M.A.,  late  Fellow  of 
Trinity  College  Cambridge,  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  Univer- 
sity of  London."  This  "  short  essay  "  originated,  it  appears,  in 
the  application  made  by  "  the  University  of  London  "  for  a 
charter.  An  intention  was  entertained  in  1834,  of  publishing 
the  whole  argument,  as  it  came  before  the  Committee  of  the 
l^rivy  Council,  and  Mr.  Maiden  "  was  requested  to  write  a 
preliminary  discussion  on  the  antiquities  of  the  subject."  The 
essay  having  been  written  "  hastily,"  and  without  the  opportu- 
nity of  consulting  many  books,  partly  while  the  author  was  con- 
fined to  a  sick  room,  partly  when  he  was  a  convalescent  in  the 
country,  he  laid  it  aside,  when  the  intention  was  dropped  of 
publishing  the  whole  argument.  But  "  after  a  while,"  the  writer 
informs  us,  when  he  "  called  to  mind,  that  not  only  the  question 
of  the  charter  of  the  University  of  London  had  been  brought 
before  Parliament,  but  the  much  more  important  question  of  the 
admission  of  Dissenters  to  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  and  that  the 
discussion  was  sure  to  be  renewed,  and  when  he  considered  the 
very  great  ignorance  of  the  nature  and  primitive  constitution  of 
the  Universities,  which  had  been  shown  on  all  sides,  in  and  out 
of  parliament,  by  those  who  had  spoken,  and  those  who  had 
written  on   the  subject ;  it  appearecl  to  him,  that  even  a  short 

'202  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

essay,  whicli,  imperfect  as  it  was,  he  believed  to  be  correct  as  far 
as  it  lioes,  nii^lit  give  some  useful  iuformatiou,  and  might  prevent 
some  mischievous  mistakes.  In  this  hope  of  doing  good  he  made 
up  his  mind  to  publish  it."  Among  his  "  chief  authorities"  is  our 
old  friend  the  "  Edinburgh  Review,  No.  CVl.  Art.  VI.  '  On  the 
Universities  of  England — Oxford.'  "  In  describing  "  the  revolu- 
tion which  has  taken  place  at  Oxford  in  the  words  of  the  Edin- 
burgh Reviewer,"  (pp.  :39->,  394,)  the  writer  adds, "  This  descrip- 
tion comes  from  an  unfavourable  observer,  and  I  should  be  glad 
to  separate  the  statement  of  facts  from  the  tone  of  accusation  in 
which  it  is  conveyed,  and  in  which  1  am  by  no  means  disposed 
to  concur.  Rut  I  think  it  safer,  on  the  whole,  to  borrow  this 
account,  after  guarding  it  by  this  preface,  than  to  run  the  risk  of 
errors,  which  might  be  conmiitted,  even  in  interpreting  evidence, 
by  one  who  has  not  been  a  resident  in  the  University."  (p.  125.) 
The  concluding  words  we  do  not  quite  understand.  Rut  thus  it 
is  that,  by  dint  of  bold  assertion,  repeated  again  and  again,  the 
theories  of  the  Edinburgh  Reviewer  have  come  to  be  regarded 
as  undoubted  facts  ;  and  "  the  collapse  of  the  University"  is  sup- 
posed to  be  the  "  death-like  "  thing  that  he  describes  {Maiden, 
p.  126).  Mr.  Maiden,  at  the  same  time  that  he  "  makes  use  of 
the  authority"  of  the  writer  of  that  "  learned  article,"  expresses 
his  anxiety  that  it  should  be  observed  that  he  and  the  Reviewer 
are  actuated  by  very  different  motives. 

"  The  writer  in  the  Review,"  says  Mr.  Maiden,  "  denounces  every 
departure  of  the  University  from  its  statutable  form  as  a  corruption 
and  abuse,  and  stigmatizes  the  collegiate  heads,  under  whose  influence 
the  change  which  he  describes  was  gradually  wrought,  with  the  guilt 
of  perjury,  fraud,  and  wilful  betrayal  of  trust.  I,  on  the  other  hand, 
am  willing  to  admit,  that  much  of  the  change  is  due  to  the  altered  cir- 
cumstances of  society,  and  was  operated  by  a  force  to  which  the 
Universities  might  have  yielded  in  a  different  way,  but  which  they  could 
not  altogether  resist ;  and  though,  in  some  points,  I  should  be  glad  to 
see  their  ancient  constitution  restored,  with  such  modifications  only  as 
the  state  of  society  may  manifestly  require,  yet,  in  other  points,  and 
especially  in  the  examinations  for  the  first  degree,  it  is  impossible  to 
deny  that  most  essential  and  vital  improvements  have  been  eflfected. 
And  least  of  all  do  I  desire  to  sit  in  judgment  upon  those  under  whose 
authority  the  revolution  was  effected.  My  purpose  is  altogether  dif- 
ferent."— (pp.  142,  143.) 

This  difference,  however,  between  the  London  professor  and 
his  Edinburgh  authority,  serves  only  to  make  his  deference  to  it 
more  dangerous  to  the  cause  of  the  Universities  of  England :  as 
he  is  content  to  admit  that  their  "  ancient  constitution"  has  been 
departed  from; — that  there  has  been  a  "  revolution;" — and  wishes 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  203 

to  show,  that "  in  their  present  state,  they  are  very  different  from 
their  original  form — very  different  from  the  form  in  which  they 
were  ultimately  established  by  their  statutes — and  very  different 
from  all  other  universities  in  Europe."  The  impression  left  on 
the  minds  of  his  readers  will  be  that  of  the  "  illegality  "  which 
the  Edinburgh  Review  labours,  after  its  own  way,  to  enforce,  by 
charges  of  "  perjury,  fraud,  and  wilful  betrayal  of  trust." 

We  will  now  turn  to  the  passage  which  Lord  Melbourne 
quoted  in  the  House  of  Lords.  The  context  in  which  it  occurs 
is  important,  as  Lord  Radnor  was  very  indignant  at  the  supposi- 
tion that  there  was  any  connexion  between  the  inquiry  which  he 
recommended  into  "  the  statutes  by  which  the  two  Universities 
were  at  present  governed,"  and  his  former  bills  for  the  admission 
of  Dissenters  and  the  abrogation  of  tests  in  the  Universities. 

"  The  necessity  of  entering  at  some  college  or  hall,  and  the  difficulty 
interposed  in  the  way  of  opening  new  halls  like  those  of  old  time,  are 
points  which  deserve  the  most  attentive  consideration,  in  connexion  with 
the  question  which  has  been  recently  revived  of  the  abolition  of  religious 
tests  and  subscriptions,  and  the  admission  of  Dissenters  to  the  Universi- 
ties. The  late  discussions  have  made  it  notorious  that  at  Oxford  the 
student  is  required,  at  his  matriculation,  to  subscribe  the  Thirty-nine 
Articles.  This  subscription  was  originally  imposed  by  the  Earl  of 
Leicester.  It  may  be  removed  by  the  authority  of  Parliament,  along 
with  all  similar  subscriptions  and  oaths  required  upon  taking  a  degree  ; 
and  thus  the  University  may  be  nominally  opened  to  those  who  dissent 
from  the  Established  Church :  and  yet  it  is  evident  that,  even  if  this 
were  done,  the  design  of  the  legislature  might  be  frustrated  by  the 
separate  colleges.  They  might  go  so  far  as  to  require  subscription  from 
all  who  entered  them.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  they  would  require  it 
from  members  on  their  foundations,  if  something  equivalent  be  not 
required  already.  But  without  putting  the  case,  it  is  clear  that  by 
strictly  insisting  upon  attendance  on  the  prayers  in  the  college  chapel 
and  at  the  administration  of  the  holy  communion,  and  by  lectures  and 
examinations  directed  to  the  peculiarities  of  the  theological  system  of 
the  Church  of  England,  they  might  deter  conscientious  Dissenters  from 
joining  them,  or  render  their  college  residence  exceedingly  irksome  : 
and  yet  there  is  no  access  to  the  University  but  through  colleges.  The 
colleges  might  thus  debar  the  Dissenters  from  the  advantages  which  the 
legislature  is  supposed  to  have  conceded  to  them  ;  and  at  the  same  time 
they  might  argue  plausibly  that  they  themselves  are  exempt  from  legisla- 
tive interference.  Though  the  Universities,  beyond  all  doubt,  are  public 
and  national  establishments,  and  their  public  character  is  emphatically 
recognized  by  their  sending  members  to  Parliament,  the  colleges  in  both 
Universities  (with  perhaps  one  exception)  are  strictly  private  founda- 
tions.. .  Now,  so  long  as  private  institutions  obey  the  directions  of  their 
founders,  and  do  no  positive  evil,  it  may  be  fairly  argued  that  the  legis- 
lature has  no  right  to  interfere  with  them.  No  doubt,  if  they  do  harm, 
the  legislature  may  stop  them  5  but  it  would  be  a  strong  doctrine  to 

<204  jJtlack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

argue  tliat  It  may  liglitfully  compel  tbcra  tu  do  more  good  than  they 
otherwise  would  do.  And  thus  the  colleges  might  suppose  that  Parlia- 
ment would  not  intermeddle  with  their  internal  discipline. 

"  If  the  billi which  was  rejected  in  the  last  session  of  Parliament 
should  be  passed  in  any  future  session,  and  if  any  colleges  should  be 
inclined  to  manifest  their  opposition  in  the  way  supposed,  it  would  be 
prudent  in  them  to  reflect,  that  if  private  institutions,  by  their  influence 
in  the  government  of  a  public  institution,  so  incorporate  themselves  with 
it  that  no  one  can  belong  to  the  public  institution  without  at  the  same 
time  belonging  to  some  one  of  the  private  institutions,  the  public  does 
not  become  private  by  this  union,  but  the  private  make  themselves  pub- 
lic, and  in  this  respect  may  rightfully  be  dealt  with  as  public  bodies. 
Put  it  would  be  wise  to  avoid  the  occasion  for  such  exertion  of  authorityj 
and  I  would  suggest  to  those  persons  who  are  exerting  themselves  to 
remove  the  legal  impediments  to  the  admission  of  Dissenters  to  the  Uni- 
versities, that,  to  make  their  measure  efl'ectual,  it  will  be  necessary  to 
remove  the  obstacle  to  the  erection  of  new  halls ;  that  is,  to  repeal  the 
statute  by  which  the  absolute  nomination  of  the  principal  is  vested  in 
the  chancellor  or  his  deputy,  and,  as  in  old  time,  to  allow  any  master  or 
doctor  to  open  a  hall,  and  to  become  the  principal  of  it,  subject  to 
removal  only  by  the  act  of  the  whole  University  on  specific  cause  shown 
against  him.  If  the  ancient  system  be  thus  revived,  the  dissenting  stu- 
dents, who  are  desirous  of  entering  the  University,  may  have  their  inde- 
pendent halls.  In  process  of  time,  any  sect  that  wishes  it  may  have  a 
hall  of  its  own,  in  which  it  may  assemble  its  students  for  its  peculiar 
religious  exercises,  and  instruct  them  in  its  peculiar  religious  tenets. 
The  existing  colleges  may  thus  remain  seminaries  of  the  Church  of 
England,  and  be  preserved  from  that  intermixture  which  they  deprecate 
as  inconsistent  with  the  discipline  and  the  system  of  education  which 
they  think  themselves  bound  in  conscience  to  uphold.  1  have  addressed 
this  suggestion  in  the  first  place  to  the  advocates  of  the  Dissenters ;  but 
I  would  address  it  with  equal  earnestness  to  their  opponents  in  the  Uni- 
versities, as  an  easy  and  beneficial  compromise,  under  a  pressure  which 
it  requires  no  spirit  of  prophecy  to  foretel  that  they  will  not  long  be 
able  to  resist."* — pp.  86 — 90. 

This  passage,  quoted  by  Lord  Melbourne,  as  we  have  seen,  to 
prove  the  right  of  making  colleges  "  subjects  of  investigation  on 
public  grounds,"  connects  the  movements  of  the  present  session 
with  those  of  1834  and  1835  by  a  link  which  it  is  very  difficult 
to  sever.  Lord  Radnor,  however,  was  exceedingly  indignant 
when  the  Duke  of  AV^ellington  recalled  these  measures  to  the 
recollection  of  noble  lords,  "  in  order  that  they  might  see  the 
animus  with  which  the  present  bill  had  been  brought  under  their 
consideration, — a  bill  which" — the  noble  duke  proceeded — "  he 
must  say,  was  neither  more  nor  less  than  a  bill  of  pains  and 
penalties  against  the  two  Universities."  "  And  this  was  a  bill," 
the  duke  went  on  to  observe,  "  brought  in  by  a  noble  earl,  whose 

*  It  is  added  in  a  note,  "  Since  this  passage  was  written,  the  same  suggestion  has 
been  made  in  the  Edinburgh  Review,  No.  CXXI,  October,  1834." 

Attack  on  t/ie  Universities — Oxford.  205 

object,  on  two  former  occasions,  had  been  to  put  an  end  to  the 
two  Universities,  or  at  least  to  put  an  end  to  the  oaths  and  tests 
by  which  a  system  of  education,  founded  on  the  religion  of  the 
Church  of  England,  was  established  therein.  Now,  when  he  saw 
and  reflected  upon  the  conduct  of  that  noble  earl  in  the  three 
last  sessions  of  parliament,  and  when  he  recollected  that  he 
heard  the  noble  viscount,  in  the  session  of  1 8 Jo,  declare  that  his 
object  was  to  establish  in  the  Universities  a  system  of  disputa- 
tion on  religious  matters,  he  could  not  have  the  slightest  doubt 
as  to  what  the  real  object  of  the  present  measure  was;  and  under 
such  circumstances  he  recommended  their  lordships  to  concur  in 
the  motion  of  the  right  reverend  prelate,  that  this  bill  be  read  this 
day  six  months."  Lord  Radnor  might  most  honestly  disclaim  all 
"  covert  intentions,"  and  any  "  design  to  further  the  sinister  views 
of  others ;"  he  might  most  "  distinctly  disclaim  that  he  had  ever 
been  actuated  by  any  such  views ;"  he  might  maintain  "  that  his 
bill  was  simply  for  inquiry,  whether  there  was  any  ground  for 
altering  the  statutes  by  which  the  two  Universities  were  at  pre- 
sent governed."  All  this  may  be  perfectly  true ;  yet  the  question 
for  the  country  is,  what  are  those  "  sinister  views  of  others," 
which  Lord  Radnor,  though  he  knows  it  not,  is  employed  in 
furthering  ?  where  are  the  weapons  forged,  with  which  he  and 
those  who  are  fighting  on  his  side  are  carrying  on  their  warfare? 
Who  are  the  master-spirits  that  preside  over  that  smithy? 

The  Duke  of  Wellington's  reference  to  Lord  Melbourne's 
avowal  of  his  "  wish  to  establish  in  the  Universities  a  system  of 
disputation  on  religious  matters,"  will  derive  illustration  from 
the  logical  tendencies  of  the  Edinburgh  Review,  its  perseverino- 
attachment  to  the  ancient  exercises  of  the  schools,  and  to  those 
"  constant  disputations  to  which  the  greatest  importance  was  not 
ujiwisely  attributed  through  all  the  scholastic  ages,"  and  the 
satisfaction  with  which  it  "  snuffed  the  scent"  afar,  when  the 
appearance  of  the  "  Elements  of  Logic"  *'  prompted  imitation 
and  determined  controversy .^'  But,  in  reference  to  this  point,  we 
must  request  our  readers'  attention  to  an  article  in  the  number  of 
the  Edinburgh  Review  for  Sept.  1831,  the  intermediate  number 
between  that  which  contained  the  article  on  the  English  Univer- 
sities, with  which  the  discussion  commenced,  and  that  which 
contained  the  review  of  the  Member  of  Convocation's  pamphlet. 
The  article  is  on  "  the  State  of  Protestantism  in  Germany,"  and 
may  be  looked  upon  as  a  kind  of  continuation  of  that  on  the 
"  English  Universities,"  showing  how,  when  the  supposed  "  ille- 
gal" system  was  overthrown,  matters  would  stand  in  England. 
The  former  article,  in  its  survey  of  the  chief  universities  of 
Europe,   had  exhibited  two   systems   at   work,  that  of  Paris, 

COG  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

Louvain,  and  Oxford,  on  tlie  one  hand, — that  of  the  German 
universities  on  the  other.  In  Paris,  to  mention  the  leading  spe- 
cimen of  the  one  class,  the  colleges  "  formed,  in  fact,  so  many 
petty  universities,  or  so  many  fragments  of  a  university:"  in 
Germany,  on  the  other  hand,  while  "  in  the  older  universities  of 
the  empire,  the  academical  system  was  not  essentially  modified 
by  these  institutions,"  "  in  the  universities  founded  after  the  com- 
mencement of  the  sixteenth  century,  they  were  rarely  called  into 
existence."  Now  let  us  look  to  the  working  of  this  system  :  the 
Edinburgh  Reviewer  himself  shall  describe  it. 

"  The  philosophical  controversies  which,  during  the  middle  ages, 
divided  the  universities  of  Europe  into  hostile  parties,  were  waged 
with  peculiar  activity  among  a  people,  like  the  Germans,  actuated, 
more  than  any  other,  by  speculative  opinion,  and  the  spirit  of  sect. 
The  famous  question  touching  the  nature  of  universals,  which  created 
a  schism  in  the  University  of  Prague,  and  thus  founded  the  University 
of  Leipsic,  which  formally  separated  into  two  the  faculty  of  arts  in 
Ingoldstadt,  Tubingen,  &c.,  and  occasioned  a  ceaseless  warfare  in  the 
other  schools  of  philosophy  throughout  the  empire, — this  question  modi- 
fied the  German  bursse  (which  corresponded  to  the  ancient  halls  of 
Oxford  and  Cambridge)  in  a  far  more  decisive  manner  than  it  affected 
the  colleges  in  the  other  countries  of  Europe.  The  effect  of  this  was  to 
place  their  institutions  more  absolutely  under  that  scholastic  influence 
which  swayed  the  faculties  of  arts  and  theology :  and  however  adverse 
were  the  different  sects,  when  a  common  enemy  was  at  a  distance,  no 
sooner  was  the  reign  of  scholasticism  threatened  by  the  revival  of  polite 
letters,  than  their  particular  dissensions  were  merged  in  a  general  resist- 
ance to  the  novelty  equally  obnoxious  to  all — a  resistance  which,  if  it  did 
not  succeed  in  attaining  the  absolute  proscription  of  classical  literature 
in  the  universities,  succeeded  at  least  in  excluding  it  from  the  course 
prescribed  for  the  degree  in  arts,  and  from  the  studies  authorized  in  the 
bursse,  of  which  the  faculty  had  universally  the  controul.  In  their  rela- 
tions to  the  revival  of  ancient  learning,  the  bursae  of  Germany,  and  the 
colleges  of  France  and  England,  were  directly  opposed ;  and  to  this 
contrast  is,  in  part,  to  be  attributed  the  diflference  of  their  fate.  The 
colleges,  indeed,  mainly  owed  their  stability  in  England  to  their  wealth, 
in  France  to  their  coalition  with  the  university.  But  in  harbouring  the 
rising  literature,  and  rendering  themselves  instrumental  to  its  progress, 
the  colleges  seemed  anew  to  vindicate  their  utility,  and  remained,  during 
the  revolutionary  crisis  at  least,  in  unison  with  the  spirit  of  the  age. 
The  bursae,  on  the  contrary,  fell  at  once  into  contempt  with  the  anti- 
quated learning  which  they  defended  j  and  before  they  were  disposed  to 
transfer  their  allegiance  to  the  dominant  literature,  other  instruments 
had  been  organized,  and  circumstances  had  superseded  their  necessity.  . . . 
No  wealthy  foundations  perpetuated  their  existence  independently  of 
use  ;  and  their  services  being  found  too  small  to  warrant  their  mainte- 
nance by  compulsory  regulations,  they  were  in  general  abandoned." — 
pp.  404,  5. 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  207 

And  now  we  will  pass  on  to  the  next  number  of  the  Edin- 
burgh Review,  and  see  what  was  the  effect  of  this  system  on  the 
theology  of  Germany.  Again,  the  story  shall  be  told  in  the  Re- 
viewer's own  words.  Speaking  of  what  he  is  pleased  to  call 
the  "  blind  and  uninquiring  orthodoxy  of  the  English  Church," 
he  says, 

"  Very  different  from  all  this,  and,  it  must  be  owned,  bordering  on  the 
opposite  extreme,  is  the  state  of  such  matters  in  Germany.  The  imme- 
diate effect  of  the  Reformation  upon  the  clergy  of  that  country  was  to 
render  them  at  once  poor  and  polemical,  to  despoil  them  of  their  princely 
abbeys  and  bishoprics,  and  to  give  them  the  choice  of  about  fifty  new 
creeds  instead. 

"  The  fierce  divisions  of  the  German  Reformers  among  themselves,  and 
the  polemical  spirit  which  was  thereby  engendered,.  . .  .were,  it  cannot 
be  doubted,  the  original  source  of  those  abuses  and  corruptions  of  theo- 
logy, which  the  warfare  of  neighbouring  creeds  is  always  sure  to  gene- 
rate; and  which,  in  this  instance,  by  making  Christianity  subservient  to 
the  passions  and  purposes  of  party,  had  the  effect  of  gradually  lowering 
her  divine  character,   and  placing  her  on  ground  where  she  was  within 

easy  reach  of  her  enemies The  only  branches  of  theology  then 

cultivated,  were  those  that  ministered  to  the  factious  spirit  of  the  day, 
till  at  last  the  page  of  Scripture  was  referred  to  but  as  a  sort  of  armoury, 
from  whence  the  weapons  of  the  respective  combatants  were  to  be  fur- 
nished. Hence  arose  a  vain  and  verbal  school  of  divinity — or,  as  one  of 
their  own  better  divines  characterised  it,  '  an  armed  theology,  pointed 
with  mere  thorns  of  logic,"  —to  the  utter  neglect,  both  of  Christian  prac- 
tice and  of  the  enlightened  knowledge  which  should  be  the  handmaid  of 
Christian  truth.  Ignorant  of  history,  of  sound  biblical  criticism,  of  all 
those  branches,  in  short,  of  learning,  from  which  a  prepared  champion 
of  the  faith  draws  his  resources  of  defence,  the  divines  of  Germany  were, 
on  the  first  approaches  of  scepticism,  taken  by  surprise; — those  scrip- 
tural proofs,  founded  chiefly  upon  scholastic  subtleties,  which  they  had 
found  so  potent  against  each  other,  fell  powerless  before  the  common 
foe,  and  they  were  at  last  compelled  to  submit  to  a  compromise  with  the 
infidel  even  more  ruinous  than  defeat. 

"  It  will  be  perceived,  from  what  we  have  here  stated,  that  it  was  by 
no  means  from  any  want  of  religious  zeal,  but  fi'om  the  wrong  channels 
through  which  that  zeal  was  directed,  and  the  wfinite  varieties  and  whims 
of  opinion  into  which  the  right  of  private  judgment  wantoned,  that  the 
public  mind  in  Germany  came,  at  last,  to  lose  all  standard  of  orthodoxy, 
and  to  be  at  the  mercy  of  every  '  wind  of  doctrine'  by  which  poor  human 
reason  was  ever  yet  '  carried  about.'  So  entirely,  indeed,  had  they  ex- 
changed the  substance  of  Christianity  for  the  shadow,  that  the  Bible 
itself,  the  professed  oracle  of  all,  was  in  reality  but  rarely  consulted  by 
any.  The  orthodox  teachers  had  substituted  their  own  scholastic  theology 
for  that  of  the  Scriptures ;  and  '  many  very  diUgent  students  of  theo- 
logy,' says  Spener, '  who  readily  followed  the  guidance  of  their  preceptors, 
and  so  were  well  versed  in  other  portions  of  theology,  and  held  diligently 

208  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

lectures  on  Thetlca,  Antithctica,  Polcmica,  and  the  like,  bad  never  in 
their  life  gone  through  a  single  book  of  the  Bible It  is  not  won- 
derful that,  in  a  country  where  religion  was  left  thus  wild  and  unfenced, 
intersected  by  so  many  cross-ways  of  doctrine,  and  without  any  fixed 
frontier  of  faith,  the  inroads  of  sceptics  should,  on  their  first  appearance, 
be  successful,  and  at  once  '  win  their  easy  way.' " 

^\^e  cannot  help  thinking  that  the  Edinburgh  Review  might  as 
well  have  abstained,  for  a  few  more  mouths  at  least,  from  point- 
ing out  so  clearly  what  was  to  be  expected  at  the  end  of  that 
system  of  "  constant  disputations,"  which  we  were  called  upon 
to  re-establish  out  of  the  ruins  of  "  the  scholastic  ages."  How- 
ever little  Lord  Radnor  might  contemplate  such  a  consequence, 
the  reform  which  the  Edinburgh  Review  desires  to  see  as  the 
result  of  an  examination  of  the  supposed  "  statutory  system," 
would  surely  be  that  which  Lord  Melbourne  desires  and  the  Duke 
of  Wellington  deprecates,  viz.  "  to  establish  in  the  Universities 
a  system  of  disputation  on  religious  matters." 

We  will  now  follow  the  noble  duke  into  his  remarks  on  the 
main  charges  brought  against  the  University  and  its  several  col- 
leges, of  "  illegality"  and  "peijury." 

•'  In  the  course  of  the  discussion  on  this  subject,  various  asser- 
tions had  been  made  in  respect,  first,  to  the  breach  of  the  statutes; 
and  secondly,  to  the  breach  of  their  oaths,  by  the  persons  at  the 
head  of  the  several  colleges What  he  (the  Duke  of  Wel- 
lington) insisted  on  was  this — that  the  working  of  all  these  col- 
leges, and  of  the  system  on  which  they  were  regulated,  was  for 
the  benefit  of  the  public,  and  that  in  each  and  every  college  the 
object  of  the  governing  authorities  was  to  carry  into  execution 
the  will  of  the  founder,  just  as  he  would  have  done  had  he  been 
living  at  the  present  day.  In  every  case  the  common  object  of 
the  governing  authorities  was  the  benefit  of  the  youth  who  resorted 
to  those  institutions  for  education  and  instruction."  This  is  a 
reply  to  what  the  Edinburgh  Review  told  us  at  starting,  viz.  that 
"  the  country  now  demands  that  endowments  for  the  common 
weal" — aye,  and  endowments  for  particular  families,  dioceses, 
counties,  or  so-called  "  private  institutions,"  as  well  as  so-called 
"  national  establishments" — "  should  no  longer  be  administered 
for  private  advantage."  However,  if  this  is  what  the  countiy 
demands,  the  defenders  of  our  Universities  reply,  that  the  coun- 
try has  it.  **  The  noble  viscount  himself,"  as  the  Duke  of 
Wellington  observed,  "  could  not  avoid  admitting  that  these  in- 
stitutions had  worked  well,  and  that  latterly  a  great  improvement 
had  taken  place  in  the  system  of  education  pursued  under 
their  auspices."  The  Edinburgh  Reviewer  had  made  the  same 
admission.      But    then    it   appears    "  the   noble    viscount   had 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  209 

also  spoken,"  said  the  duke,  "  of  the  great  improvement  in  the 
system  of  education,  pursued  in  the  new  university  of  Durham, 
and  in  other  new  universities  elsewhere."  How  indeed  could  he 
do  less;  for  this,  too,  the  Edinburgh  Review  had  taught  him  suf- 
ficiently. "  But  nevertheless,"  said  the  duke,  "  the  noble  viscount 
could  not  help  admitting,  that  the  old  universities  of  Oxford  and 
Cambridge  possessed  the  merit  of  having  established  in  England 
an  excellent  system  of  education,  which  \v;  s  in  point  of  fact  the 
envy  and  admiration  of  the  world."  This  was  a  slip,  and  a  griev- 
ous one;  for  in  the  very  first  sentence  of  its  first  article  on  the 
subject,  the  Edinburgh  Review  had  pronounced  that  the  schools 
and  universities  of  England  had  "hardly  avoided  the  contempt"  of 
surrounding  nations.  Alas  !  alas !  the  lesson  must  be  begun  all 
over  again;  for  Lord  Melbourne  has  forgotten  the  first  sentence, 
and  the  Duke  of  Wellington  takes  from  us  the  benefit  of  the  last. 
"  The  noble  viscount,"  said  the  duke,  "had  compared  the  inquiry 
proposed  to  be  established  by  this  bill,  with  the  inquiry  instituted 
into  the  universities  of  Scotland,  by  the  government  of  which  he 
(the  Duke  of  Wellington)  had  the  honour  of  forming  a  part.  It 
was  true  that  a  commission  of  inquiry  into  the  state  of  the  Scotch 
universities  had  been  issued  by  that  government,  but  the  noble 
viscount  had  forgotten  that  his  majesty,  as  sovereign,  was  the 
visitor  of  all  universities  in  Scotland.  His  majesty  was  not  so  in 
the  universities  of  England,"  And  then  as  to  the  grand  unsta- 
tutory  illegality  of  the  "  coUegial"  tutorial  system: — "  The  noble 
viscount  had  been  pleased  to  complain  of  those  statutes  which 
required  that  every  person  resorting  to  the  university,  should  be- 
long to  one  of  its  colleges  or  halls.  He  must  say,  that  he  con- 
sidered that  rule  formed  one  of  the  greatest  merits  of  our  univer- 
sities, and  that  the  marked  distinction  between  our  universities 
and  those  of  foreign  countries — that  distinction  which  rendered 
oin-  system  of  education  superior  to  that  of  the  foreigner — was, 
that  our  youths  must  reside  within  the  walls  of  their  respective 
colleges,  and  were  not  suffered  to  reside  at  large  in  the  town.  ,  .  . 
The  noble  earl  had  also  been  pleased  to  state  that  these  colleges 
had  no  relation  to  the  universities,  and  that  the  universities  had 
nothing  to  say  to  this  bill.  Now  to  that  statement  he  begged 
leave  to  reply,  that  in  consequence  of  residence  in  the  different 
colleges  being  forced  upon  the  students,  the  colleges  formed 
themselves  into  universities,  and  that  the  relationship  between 
them  commenced  in  that  manner.  There  was  therefore  a  natural 
connexion  between  the  universities  and  their  colleges;  and  he 
maintained  in  consequence,  that  the  university  of  Oxford  was 
right,  when  it  stated  that  it  had  an  interest,  and  took  an  interest, 
in  every  thing  which  related  to  the  affairs  of  the  colleges  within 
it.  The  statutes  of  both  our  universities  had,  he  believed,  rela- 
MO.  LXIII. — JULY,  1857.  P 

210  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

tion  to  every  member  of  every  college  within  their  precincts.  It 
was  iiDpossible  that  the  regulations  imposed  by  the  noble  earl — 
regulations  which  bore  a  close  relationship  to  the  bills  wiiich  his 
lordship  had  introduced  into  that  House,  in  the  course  of  the  last 
three  sessions — it  was  impossible,"  he  said,  *'  that  those  regulations 
could  be  carried  into  eftect  without  atiectnig  all  their  statutes, 
and  every  part  of  the  system  under  their  superintendence.  .  .  . 
It  was  impossible  to  let  the  noble  earl  carry  any  such  thing. 
The  object  of  his  bill  was  evidently  to  overturn  the  system  on 
which  the  two  universities  now  stood.  It  had  been  tried  twice 
by  direct  means.  A  third  trial  was  now  made,  in  which  it  was 
attempted  to  accomplish  it  by  indirect  means.  It  could  not  be 
denied  that  these  commissioners  were  to  propose  this  new  n)ode 
of  proceeding,  which  was  to  overturn  all  the  old  system  of  the 
universities,  to  establish  a  new  one  in  their  stead.  Under  these 
circumstances,  he  recommended  their  lordships  to  accede  to  the 
amendment  proposed  by  the  right  reverend  prelate,  that  the  bill 
be  read  this  day  six  months."  And  this  amendment  was  finally 
agreed  to  without  a  division.  And  since  this,  the  motion  for  a 
committee  of  inquiry  has  been  brought  forward ;  and  this,  too, 
has  been  withdrawn ;  and  the  colleges  have  been  left  to  look  into 
their  own  statutes.  So  that  we  may  expect  very  soon  another 
article  in  the  Edinburgh  Review,  taking  up  the  strain  of  its  former 
article,  declaring  how  "  all  experience  proves  that  universities, 
like  other  corporations,  can  only  be  reformed  from  without,"  and 
quoting  again  its  old  authority,  Crevier,  for  the  "  maxime  daire  en 
soi,  que  les  compaguies  ne  se  re  ferment  point  elles-memes,et  qu'iine 
entreprise  de  reforme  oil  nintervient  point  tine  autorilt  superienre, 
est  manque e"  {Ed.  Rev.  June,  1831,  p.  427-)  We  shall  then 
be  obliged  to  borrow  again  from  the  Member  of  Convocation, 
who,  to  match  the  "  French  authority,"  with  which,  as  he  ob- 
served, the  Reviewer  closed  his  "  miserable  lucubrations,"  closed 
his  "  reply  to  his  arguments  and  exposure  of  his  artifices,"  by  a 
parallel  quotation  from  a  French  periodical  of  very  extensive  cir- 
culation, and  an  "  appeal  from  the  judgment  of  the  Edinburgh 
Review  to  that  of  La  Revue  Encyclopedique  for  Sept.  1823, 
where  we  find  it  most  truly  stated  that  I' univeisite  d' Oxford  se 
gouverne  par  ses  propres  autorites,  sans  qii'aucune  injiuence  exte- 
rienre  entrevienne  dans  les  affaires  de  son  administration."  {Lega- 
lity, S^c.  asserted,  p.  133.) 

Widely,  however,  as  we  are  compelled  to  differ  from  the  Edin- 
burgh Review  on  most  points,  on  one  we  quite  agree  with  him; 
viz.  that  the  subject  is  one  which  "  the  limits  of  a  single  paper 
will  not  allow  us  to  exhaust."  We  could  indeed  sketch  out  a 
plan  of  operations,  in  the  form  of  a  discussion,  underybw;'  heads, 
(comp.  Edinb.  Rev.  sup.  cit.  p.  385,  June,  1831,)  to  correspond 

Attack  on  the  Universities— Oxford,  £1 1 

with  the  ''  quadripartite  work"  which  the  "  Member  of  Convoca- 
tion" begged  the  Edinburgh  Reviewer  not  to  "  leave  broken  off 
in  the  middle,  like  the  Torso  of  Anthony  Pasquin,  all  covered 
over  with  libellous  paragraphs,  but  without  a  leg  to  stand  upon." 
{Legality,  ^c.  asserted,  p.  143.)  For  we,  too,  propose  "  from  time 
to  time,  to  continue  to  review  the  state  of  these  establishments," 
considered  both  in  relation  to  themselves,  and  in  relation  to  the 
"  new  calumnies"  with  which  from  time  lo  time, — every  seven 
years  or  so,  at  the  least,  oftener  now  probably, — we  may  expect 
to  find  them  assailed. 

"  Stulta  est  dementia,  cum  tot  ubique 

Vatibus  occurras,  periturae  parcere  chartae." 

Following,  accordingly,  the  example  which  has  been  set  us,  we 
might  propose,  in  i\iejirst  place,  to  consider  the  Universities  sim- 
ply as  bodies  chartered  and  incorporated  by  the  State,  inquiring  for 
what  ends  they  were  thus  chartered  and  incorporated,  and  whe- 
ther those  ends  are  fulfilled.  It  would  follow,  in  the  second  place, 
to  examine  the  charges  brought  against  them,  and  trace  the  pro- 
cess of  impeachment  through  its  various  and  constantly  changing 
articles.  We  might  inquire,  in  the  third,  what  these  bodies  were 
when  they  were  thus  incorporated  :  what  they  were  originally, 
how  they  arose,  and  at  what  period ;  whether  they  are  properly 
"  national,"  or  not  rather  "  cosmopolite  and  Christian  schools" 
(Edinb.  Rev.  Jan.  1835,  p.  431)  ;  whether  that  original  state 
to  which  the  Edinburgh  Review  would  reduce  them,  Avas  indeed 
their  natural  state,  or  was  itself  a  corruption  ;  and  how  they 
were  affected  by  the  introduction  of  those  "  constant  disputa- 
tions "  to  which  it  appears  "  the  highest  imnortance  was  not  un- 
wisely attributed  through  all  the  scholastic  ages."  In  the  fourth, 
we  might  examine  what  was  actually  the  defocto  system  at  the  time 
when  the  Universities  were  ir.corporated,  historically  compared 
with  the  "  statutory  system"  of  the  "  Laudian  code  :"  under  which 
last  head,  if  we  mistake  not,  it  might  be  made  pretty  plainly  to 
appear,  that  the  bodies  which  were  incorporated  by  parliament 
in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  were,  in  all  their  essential  fea- 
tures, of  "  collegial "  system,  tutorial  instruction,  and  heads  of 
houses  government,  what  they  are  at  the  present  day.  "  In  the 
present  article,  we  could  only  compass,  and  that  inadequately," 
we  confess  with  the  Edinburgh  Review,  "  the  first  and  second 
heads."  And,  doubtless,  with  ihe  Edinburgh  Review,  we  shall 
find  we  have  "  some  not  unimportant  omissions"  to  supply, 
though  no  reply  should  afford  us  tlie  plea  of  "  necessity,"  as  "  our 
excuse  for  again  returning  on  a  discussion,"  which,  however  it 
may  prove   to  our  readers,  will   be   any  thing   but  "  irksome  to 

P  3 

212  Attach  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

ourselves."  For  it  is  indeed  a  most  grateful  task  to  trace,  througli 
successive  ages,  the  course  of  bountiful  Christian  charity,  and  en- 
lightened Christian  wisdom,  providing  for  tiie  preservation  of  the 
truth  committed  to  the  Church,  and  the  careful  training  of  her 
children  in  "  true  religion  and  useful  learning,"  from  age  to  age. 
I'or  the  present  we  shall  content  ourselves  with  reasserting  "  the 
legality  of  the  present  Academical  system  of  the  University  of 
Oxfoicl,"  on  the  simple  ground  taken  up  by  the  "  Member  of 
Convocation,"  by  the  defenders  of  the  University  in  parliament, 
and  by  the  University  itself.  That  ground  is  sufficiently  obvious 
and  intelligible  to  the  plain  sense  of  every  unsophisticated  under- 
standing. The  University,  whatever  was  its  previous  character, 
was  made  by  the  national  legislature  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  reign 
a  body  corporate  in  law  ;  and  the  ends  of  its  incorporation  were 
declared  to  be  for  "  the  maintenance  of  good  and  godly  literature, 
and  the  virtuous  education  of  youth."  By  this  standard  it  is  to 
be  tried ;  and  we  have  seen  that  it  does  not  shrink  from  the  trial. 
And  if  it  is  laid  to  its  charge  that,  "  as  now  administered,  this 
University  pretends  only  to  accomplish  a  petty  fraction  of  the 
Olds  proposed  to  it  by  law,  and  attempts  even  these  by  illegal 
means,"  let  these  charges  be  substantiated  by  a  reference  to  the 
ends  proposed  by  its  charter,  and  the  means  which  that  charter 
can  be  shown  to  define.  But  common  sense  and  common  justice 
protest  against  its  being  tried,  on  the  one  hand,  by  the  "  ideal 
standard  "  of  some  abstract  notion  of  a  University,  derived  from 
the  records  of  the  twelfth  century,  as  interpreted  by  a  Reviewer  of 
the  nineteenth  ;  or,  on  the  other  hand,  "  by  the  standard  of  its 
own  code  of  statutes,"  digested  since  the  period  of  its  incorpo- 
ration by  the  exercise  of  its  rights  of  self-legislation  vested  in  it — 
nay  rather,  recognized  and  guarded  by  its  charter  of  incorporation. 
By  this,  and  not  by  the  scholastic  definition  of  an  University, 
nor  by  the  details  of  "  the  Laudian  code,"  common  sense  and 
common  justice,  we  repeat,  demand  that  the  University  be  tried. 
The  Universities  of  England  may,  perhaps,  be  found  to  propose 
to  themselves  different  ends  from  those  of  any  other  Universities 
in  Europe,  or  in  the  world  ;  and  to  attempt  their  accomplish- 
ment by  dififerent  means.  But  then,  it  may  possibly  be  found 
also,  that  those  ends  were  specially  in  the  view  of  those  who 
gave  them  their  privileges,  and  that  these  peculiarities  were  re- 
garded by  them  as  their  peculiar  and  distinguishing  excellence. 

Meanwhile,  during  the  last  few  years,  there  have  been  several 
"  untoward  events"  for  the  advocates  of  change.  In  taking  up 
the  ilefence  of  the  colleges,  and  making  common  cause  with  them, 
the  University  of  Oxford  has  identified  itself  with  "  the  collegial 
interest,"  and  thus  virtually  given  its  sanction  to  that  system, 
which  we  were  told  was  so  palpably  illegal,  '*  that  the  heads  of 

Attack  on  the  Univcrsilies — Oxford.  213 

houses  dared  not  bring  it  under  the  immediate  eye  of  convoca- 
tion." And  still  worse,  in  parliament  "  tiie  bill  (for  the  admis- 
sion of  Dissenters)  and  its  supporters,"  as  the  Edinburgh  Review 
feelingly  deplored,  "  first  recognized  the  conversion  of  the  na- 
tional Lniversities  into  a  complement  of  colleges,  and  then,  of 
course,  were  fairly  defeated  in  their  summary  attempt  to  deal 
with  these  private  and  sectarian  colleges  as  with  cosmopolite  and 
Christian  schools."  —  {Edinb.  Rev.  Jan,  1835,  p.  431.)  And 
worse  than  all,  the  University,  in  a  body, — its  Hebdomadal  Meet- 
ing by  preparing,  and  its  House  of  Convocation  by  adopting, 
the  petitions  which  have  been  laid  on  the  tables  of  the  two  Houses 
ol  Parliament, — has  proved  most  eflfectually,  that  whatever  may 
be  the  turpitude  of  its  conduct,  it  is,  at  least,  not  alive  to  that 
consciousness  of  guilt  which  it  was  most  conlidently  supposed  to 
leel.  It  is  true,  indeed,  that,  though  the  Edinburgh  Review,  in 
"  a  principal  article,  published  above  three  years  and  a  half  before," 
and  "  a  supplementary  article,  above  three  years  before,"  had 
"  shown,  in  the  first  place,  that  a  great  breach  of  trust  had  been 
committed f  had  "  shown,  in  the  second  place,  by  whom  the  breach 
of  trust  had  been  committed  ;"  had,  "  in  the  third  place,  exposed 
the  interested  motives,  and  the  paltry  means  which  determined, 
and  the  circumstances  which  rendered  possible,  the  universal 
frustration  of  the  constitutive  statutes,  and  consequent  suspension 
of  the  University,"  and,  "in  the  fourth  place,  had  proved  that  the 
collegial  heads  themselves  were  fnlly  conscious,  that  the  change 
from  the  statutory/  to  the  illegal  si/ stem  was,  at  once,  great li/  for 
their  private  advantage,  and  greatly  tor  the  advantage  of  the 
University  and  nation  :" — it  is  perfectly  true  that,  though  "  such 
was  the  burden  of  the  accusation" — though  "  the  accused  were 
the  collegial  interest  and  its  heads,  the  reverend  governors  of  the 
University" — though,  "  in  such  circumstances,  where  silence  was 
tantamount  to  confession,  confession  to  disgrace,"  the  taunting 
question  was  ready,  "  What  does  such  unwonted,  such  unnatural 
torpidity  proclaim  ?"  and  the  answer  tauntingly  supplied,  which 
"  alone,"  it  was  supposed,  could  "  explain  or  excuse  their 
quiescence" — 

*  Pudet  bsec  opprobria  nobis 

Et  dici  potuisse,  et  non  potiiisse  refelli.' 

with  all  this,  it  is  yet  perfectly  true,  that  they  "  held  their  tongue 
and  spake  nothing  :"  it  is  perfectly  true,  that  this  *'  School  of  the 
Church"  (comp.  Edinb.  Rev.  Oct.  1834,  p.  218,)  found  grace, 
as  in  former  trials,  so  now  again  in  this  later  "  day  of  trouble  and 
rebuke,  and  of  blasphemy,"  so  far  to  learn  of  Him  who  is  our 
One  Master  and  Heavenly  Teacher,  that  he  who  was  set  down  on 
the  seat  of  unrighteous  judgment,  when  she  ''  yet  held  her  peace, 

214  Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford. 

nuirvclk'tl  "icatly."  But  when  the  time  was  come  that  she 
could  littinoly  bear  witness  to  the  truth,  she  kept  silence  no 
longer.  In  referring,  however,  to  the  appeal  to  the  legislature 
of  the  realm,  which  is  contained  in  *'  the  humble  petition 
of  the  Chancellor,  Masters  and  Scholars  of  the  University  of 
Oxford,  to  the  right  honourable  the  Lords  Spiritual  and  Tem- 
poral of  the  united  kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland, 
and  to  the  honourable  the  Commons  of  the  United  Kingdom,  in 
Parliament  assembled,"  bearing  date  "  from  their  liouse  of  Con- 
vocation, April  29,  1834,"  we  will  only  remind  our  readers,  that 
the  body  of  College  tutors  had  already  (April  24)  come  forward 
as  "  members  of  the  University  of  Oxford,  immediately  connected 
with  the  instruction  and  discipline  of  the  place,"  **  stating  it  to  be 
their  solemn  duty  to  provide  for  a  Christian  education,"  "  their 
bounden  duty  to  Almighty  God,  and  to  those  committed  to  their 
charge,  to  continue  their  present  system  of  religious  instruction  ;" 
and  declaring  it  to  be  "  their  determined  purpose,  to  the  utmost 
of  their  power,  to  maintain  the  same  inviolate."  Our  readers 
■will  also  recollect  that,  upon  the  putting  out  of  this  declaration,  a 
"  Declaration  of  Approval  and  Concurrence  "  was  immediately 
(April  2d)  set  on  foot  by  members  of  Convocation,  and  signed  by 
the  vast  majority  of  the  body ;  and  that  the  declaration  of  the 
tutorial  body  was  soon  responded  to  by  thousands  of  voices 
united  in  petitions  to  parliament,  against  any  interference 
^vith  the  system  of  education  established  in  the  University.  We 
will  now  sum  up  our  argument  in  the  words  of  part  of  the  Uni- 
versity petition. 

"  That  your  petitioners  are  incorporated  by  Royal  Charters, 
confirmed  by  Act  of  Parliament,  for  the  maintenance  of  good 
and  godly  literature,  and  the  virtuous  education  of  youth. 

"  That,  by  a  power  necessarily  incident  to  every  corporation, 
they  have  from  time  to  time  framed  bye-laws  and  statutes,  for 
the  promotion  of  the  objects  of  their  institution,  and  the  govern- 
ment of  their  members ;  nor  have  they  abused  this  power,  but 
have  always  exercised  it  faithfully,  and(except  during  one  calami- 
tous period,)  without  any  interference  from  the  legislature 

"  But,  while  your  petitioners  deprecate  the  proposed  measure 
as  an  infringement  upon  their  chartered  and  acknowledged  rights, 
they  also  anticipate  from  its  adoption  the  most  disastrous  results. 
It  will,  by  an  immediate  and  necessary  consequence,  subvert  the 
present  mode  of  academical  education,  and  render  impracticable 
any  system  of  religious  instruction, —  it  will  unsettle  the  minds  of 
the  young, — promote  disunion  and  a  spirit  of  controversy,  where 
uniformity  of  sentiment  is  peculiarly  desirable,  and,  moreover,  it 
will  have  a  direct  tendency  to  impair,  or  altogether  exclude,  the 
ancient  form  of  Divine  worship. 

Attack  on  the  Universities — Oxford.  215 

"  With  all  humility,  therefore,  but  most  earnestly,  your  peti- 
tioners implore  your  lordships  not  to  disturb  those  salutary  pro- 
visions, under  which,  by  the  blessing  of  Almighty  God,  the  Uni- 
versity has  long  and  succesfully  laboured  in  the  cause  of  useful 
learning  and  Christian  education." 

Art.  X. —  The  Antiquity  of  the  Church-^rate  System  considered. 
In  replij  to  "  A  Few  Historical  Remarks  upon  the  supposed 
Antiquity  of  Church-rates,  and  the  Threefold  division  of 
Tithes.  By  a  Lay  Member  of  the  Church  of  England ;  and 
printed  for  the  Reform  Association."  By  William  Hale  Hale, 
M.A.,  Prebendary  of  St,  Paul's,  Preacher  at  the  Charter 
House,  and  Chaplain  to  the  Lord  Bishop  of  London.  Lon- 
don.     1837. 

The  Church-rate  question,  among  other  evils,  has  brought  upon 
the  land  a  plague  of  pamphlets.  We  select  one  from  the  num- 
ber, which  the  spoilers  of  the  Church,  and  the  unsettlers  of 
property,  will,  probably,  abominate  as  a  sorer  plague  than  all  the 
rest  of  the  swarm  together;  seeing  that  it  has  well-nigh  stung  to 
death  an  importunate  insect,  whose  bite,  as  they  fondly  hoped, 
the  Church  would  find  incurable. 

To  speak  prosaically, — we  conceive  that,  by  this  publication, 
Mr.  Hale  has  set  at  rest,  for  ever,  the  points  which  have  been 
stirred  by  his  nameless  antagonist,  the  "  Lay  Member  of  the 
Church  of  England."  Who  this  person  may  be,  we,  of  course, 
have  no  business  to  know.  But  we  hear  it  rumoured  that  he  is 
all  over  Anglo-Saxon  lore.  He  is  mighty  in  the  language  of  the 
Heptarchy.  And  this  accomplishment  appears  to  have  bred  in 
him  a  conceit,  that  he  must  likewise  be  at  home  in  all  the  secrets 
of  our  ecclesiastical  antiquity  :  a  conceit  which,  henceforth,  as  we 
suspect,  he  is  likely  to  have  all  to  himself.  Habeat  securn,  ser- 
vetque !  We  care  not  to  break  his  own  dream  of  complacency. 
We  shall  be  satisfied  if  the  rest  of  the  world  are  wide  awake. 

We  have  no  space  for  such  an  exhibition  of  the  arguments  of 
Mr.  Hale  as  may  do  them  any  thing  like  justice.  Our  principal 
object,  in  this  brief  notice,  is  to  invite  the  public  to  become  familiar 
with  the  whole  of  his  masterly  disquisition,  which  could  only  be 
injured  by  a  process  of  abridgment.  We  must  content  ourselves 
with  adverting  to  one  or  two  matters,  which  are,  more  especially, 
worthy  of  the  public  attention. 

In  the  first  place,  then,  Mr.  Hale  has  expressed  his  regret  that 
so  pointed  an  appeal  should  have  been  made  to  the  practice  of 
antiquity.  All  antiquity,  indeed,  as  Mr.  Hale  has  shown,  will 
be  found  to  be  in  our  favour.  But  the  inquiry  is  somewhat  rugged 

216  Hale  u}i  l/ie  Anlif/iiily  of  C/iiuch-rates. 

;iii(l  ob.sciiic:  ami,  wliciicvir  llic  .scinblancc  of  a  doubt  can  be 
raised,  in  liavelbiig  lliioii;j,b  the  twilight  oi'  those  remote  ages,  a 
shout  of  triumph  is  raised  by  the  adversary,  as  if  the  cause  ol  the 
Church  were  lost.  Mr.  Hale  (though  coutkleut  in  the  voice  of 
antiquit))  is,  rather,  for  appealing  to  the  law  of  our  country,  afs 
it  has  notoriously  existed  for  centuries,  and  '*  the  authority  of 
"  which" — he  observes — "  any  man,  who  has  not  sold  his  con- 
"  science  to  his  party  or  his  interest,  will  readily  admit."  Let  us 
then  begin  at  the  point  where  the  law  speaks  with  a  voice  too 
clear  and  too  potential  to  be  mistaken.  **  It  is  right" — says  the 
hnw  of  Canute — "  that  all  people  should  assist  in  repairing  the 
"  Church."  And  this  law  stared  the  master  of  Anglo-Saxon  too 
broadly  in  the  face  to  be  passed  over  by  him  without  notice.  He 
does  notice  it,  accordingly;  and  marvellously  short  work  does  he 
make  of  it!  All  people — says  Canute — shall  assist  in  repairing 
the  Church ; — "  but,  ho2V  they  are  to  assist,  he  does  not  say," — 
observes  the  professor  of  Anglo-Saxon  jurisprudence!  Why, 
how  does  he  suppose  they  were  to  assist?  Does  he  imagine  that 
they  were  to  assist  by  their  wishes,  or  by  their  prayers,  or  by  sit- 
ting cross-legged,  for  good  luck,  while  the  work  of  repair  was 
going  on  .''  How  all  people  were  to  assist,  in  obedience  to  the 
triuoda  iiecessitas,  is  perfectly  well  known  ;  that  is,  how  they  were 
to  assist  in  repairing  bridges,  and  upholding  castles,  and  perform- 
ing military  service.  And,  it  so  happens,  that  the  Law  of  Canute, 
which  enforces  this  threefold  duty,  is  immediately  followed  by  the 
law  for  enforcing  Church  repair  (or  cijric-bole).  The  mode  of 
assistance,  therefore,  might  easily  enough  be  collected  from  the 
very  position  of  the  law.  The  secular  duties — (with  the  exception 
of  that  which  involved  personal  service) — could  be  enforced  only 
by  a  County-rate;  the  religious  duty,  only  by  a  Church-rate. 
The  only  difference  between  the  two  cases  amounts  to  this, — that 
the  County-rate  was  to  be  levied  by  the  secular  arm;  the  Church- 
rate  by  the  spiritual  arm. 

But,  to  proceed  to  later  times. — The  Trpuirov  4/st}8oj  of  the  man 
of  Anglo-Saxon, — which  pervades  the  whole  of  his  work, — is  the 
progeny  of  his  own  ignorance.  He  confounds  monastic  Churches, 
and  cathedral  Churches,  with  parochial  Churches.  He  collects 
a  host  of  authorities  to  show  that  the  repair  of  certain  conventual 
Churches  was  a  burden  to  which  none  but  the  Clergy  were  liable  : 
and,  all  the  while,  he  seems  to  fancy  that  he  has  iixed  upon  the 
Clergy,  too  firmly  to  be  ever  shaken  off,  the  duty  of  repairing  all 
the  palish  Churches  throughout  the  realm.  The  manner  in  which 
iSIr.  Hale  has  exposed  this  egregious  blunder,  is  really  quite  ex- 
terminating. He  tells  his  adversary  that  he  might  produce,  almost 
by  the  thousand,  authorities  like  those  which  have,  so  unaccount- 
ably, filled  him  with  triumphant  confidence.  Such  authorities  can 

Hale  on  the  Aidiquit^  of  Chiirch-ratea.  217 

establish  uolhiiig  but  what  was  already  notorious  and  unquestion- 
able;— namely,  that  conventual  and  cathedral  Churches,  bcino-  the 
sole  property  ot"  the  Clergy,  have  always  been  uj)held  out  ot  the 
clerical  revenues;  whereas, — (with  the  exception  of  the  ciiuncel, 
which  is  the  property  of  the  rector,) — the  parochial  Churches  have, 
inmiemorially,  been  upheld  by  the  people  ;  who  have  a  right,  by 
the  common  law,  to  seats  in  those  Churches,  and  a  further  light 
to  sepulture  in  the  Church-yard. 

Mr.  Hale  has  further  shown,  that  this  great  antiquarian  and 
philologist,  irrefragable  as  he  may  be  in  Anglo-Saxon,  is  but 
very  poorly  furnished  forth  with  knowledge  of  the  old  documental 
Latin  phraseology.  His  mistakes,  as  to  the  meaning  of  the 
phrases,  onera  ecclesice,  and  pensiones  coinpetentes,  are  absolutely 
ludicrous.  But  the  most  diverting  specimen  of  his  self-compla- 
cent ignorance,  is  the  solemnity  with  which  he  demands  that  an 
act  of  the  legislature  may  be  pointed  out,  which  lays  upon  the 
people  the  duty  of  Church  repair!  And  here,  says  Mr,  Hale, 
*'  what  more  agreeable  or  suitable  introduction  can  we  offer  him, 
"  than  one  to  a  highly  distinguished  lawyer, — no  less  a  person 
"  than  his  Majesty's  Attorney-General,  who  will,  doubtless,  di- 
"  rect  him  to  the  fourtii  page  of  his  pamphlet ;  in  v>hich  he  will 
"  rind  it  recorded  that,  by  an  Act  of  the  wJiole  Legislature,  from 
"  the  year  1285,  the  Bishops  were  authorized,  by  ecclesiastical 
"  censures,  to  compel  the  parishioners  to  repair  and  to  find  orna- 
"  ments  for  the  Church."  The  act  in  question  is  no  other  than 
the  statute  of  Circiimspecte  agatis ;  which,  in  effect,  recognizes 
and  establishes  the  right  of  tlie  Spiritual  Courts  to  enforce  the 
payment  of  Church-rates,  since  it  prohibits  the  Temporal  Courts 
from  interfering  with  their  known  jurisdiction. 

But  here  we  must  conclude,  with  an  urgent  recommendation  to 
every  Clergyman,  that  he  will  make  himself  master  of  this  admirable 
pamphlet;  by  which  Mr.  Hale  has  added  to  the  signal  obliga- 
tions conferred  upon  the  Church  by  his  previous  treatises  on  the 
tripartite  and  quadripartite  division.  With  regard  to  his  antago- 
nist, we  certainly  have  no  intention  to  call  his  integrity  in  question. 
He  may,  for  aught  we  know,  be  "  indifferent  honest:"  but  we  are 
quite  sure  that  he  is  insufferably  flippant  and  conceited.  And  we 
know  not  how  to  express  our  opinion  of  him,  better  than  in  the 
words  of  a  most  intelligent  friend  of  ours— (a  gentleman  very  far 
indeed  from  the  infamy  of  illiberal  opinions) — who,  after  perusing 
the  pamphlet  now  before  us,  exclaimed, — "  Mr.  Hale  has  done  a 
"  good  work.  He  has  demolished  a  coxcomb  ;  whose  deliberate 
"  adjustment  of  his  own  cap  and  bells,  when  he  soleujuly  calls 
"  for  an  Act  of  the  whole  Legislature,  is  most  supremely  amus- 
"  ing." 

(     218     ) 

Art.  XI. —  1.  A  Scriptural  Vindication  of  Church  Establish- 
ments, with  a  Review  of  the  principal  Objections  of  Non- 
conformists. By  the  Rev.  George  Holden,  M.A.  London: 
J.  G.  ik  F.  Rivington.      1836. 

2.  Five  Sermo7is  preached  before  the  Universittj  of  Oxford.  By 
the  Rev.  Walter  Farquhar  Hook,  M.A.,  Prebendary  of  Liu- 
cohi,  Vicar  of  the  Parish  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  Coventry,  and 
Chaplain  in  Ordinary  to  his  Majesty.  Oxford  :  D.  A.  Tal- 
boys.     1837. 

3.  The  Church  and  the  Establishment ;  Two  Sermons.  By  the 
same  Author.     Third  Edition.     Leeds.      1837. 

4.  Primitive  Tradition  recognized  in  Holt/  Scripture ;  a  Sermon 
preached  in  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Winchester,  at  the  Visita- 
tion of  the  Worshipful  William  Dealtry,  D.D.,  Chancellor  of 
the  Diocese,  Sept.  '^Hth,  1836.  By  the  Rev.  John  Keble, 
M.A.,  Vicar  of  Hursley,  and  Professor  of  Poetry  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Oxford.     London  :  J.  G.  8c  F.  Rivington. 

5.  The  Church  of  England  a  Witness  and  Keeper  of  the  Catholic 
Tradition;  a  Sermon  preached  at  the  Visitation  of  the  Vener- 
able Charles  Thorp,  D.D.,  Archdeacon  of  Durham,  July  18, 
1836.  By  Edward  Churton,  M.A.,  Rector  of  Crayke,  in  the 
County  and  Diocese  of  Durham.  Durham  :  Printed  by  F. 
Humble.      1836. 

6.  Vincentius  of  Lirins  Commonitory .  Oxford  :  J.  H.  Parker. 
Rivingtons,  London. 

The  above  are  among  the  numerous  publications  which  the 
various  and  ever-changing  exigencies  of  the  times,  and  the  in- 
creasing difficulties  of  the  Church,  have  called  forth  within  these 
few  months. 

The  arguments  contained  in  the  first  are  daily  and  hourly 
diminishing  in  importance.  Indeed,  it  may  fairly  be  doubted  if 
the  worthy  author,  sound  and  right  as  he  is  in  many  points,  and 
throughout  evidently  well  intentioned,  would  have  thought  it 
worth  while  to  spend  so  much  time  and  trouble  on  the  line  of 
argument  he  has  pursued,  could  he  have  clearly  anticipated  the 
present  position  of  the  Church  in  this  country.  He  would  then 
have  seen  that  our  real  difficulties  are  not  so  truly  from  without, 
perhaps,  as  from  within.  Every  day's  experience  proves,  that  the 
real  dangers  of  the  Church  are  not  so  properly  caused  by  those 
who  are  opposed  to  its  establishment,  as  from  the  very  fact  of  the 
establishment  itself  on  its  present  terms.  Undoubtedly  it  has 
not  been  the  plain  duty  of  any  to  say  any  thing  to  overthrow  the 


Holden  on  Church  Establishments.  219 

principle  of  Church  Establishments,  when  rightly  understood  ; 
nor  perhaps  have  many  been  able  or  willing  to  see  their  way  so 
clearly,  as  to  point  out,  in  all  its  intricate  and  distant  bearings, 
the  application  of  that  principle  to  our  own  case.  We  cannot 
take  up  a  book  with  the  title  of  Mr.  Holden's,  without  deeply 
and  earnestly  wishing  we  could  agree  with  him  ;  but  a  vindication 
of  Church  Establishments  is  a  work  which  keener  and  more  ap- 
prehensive minds,  however  painful  the  consideration,  may  have 
considered  as  more  or  less  questionable  ever  since  the  year  1829; 
not  indeed  for  state  reasons,  with  which  the  clergy  have  little  or 
nothing  to  do,  but  on  which  Mr.  Holden  has  dwelt  rather  too 
fully ;  but  for  reasons  which  concern  them,  and  all  serious  and 
thoughtful  persons,  most  nearly  and  vitally,  of  the  most  dear  and 
sacred  nature  ;  not  for  political,  but  for  Christian  reasons.  Had 
Mr.  Holden  seen  more  clearly  the  real  and  full  bearings  of  the 
question,  he  would  have  heen  led  to  consider,  not  so  much  what 
the  civil  magistrate  may  do  in  establishing  a  religion  ;  i.  e.,  what 
the  waywardness  of  sectarianism,  or  the  factiousness  of  infidelity, 
may  at  any  time  allow  a  weak  and  wavering  government  to  adopt; 
but  what  the  Church  herself  will  bear ;  he  would  have  thought 
less  of  the  will  of  the  people,  and  more  of  the  mind  of  the 
Church  ;  and  thus  would  have  inverted  his  argument,  and  trans- 
posed what  we  shall  see  presently  is  the  order  of  the  two  divi- 
sions of  his  book  ;  he  would  have  defined,  first,  the  constitution 
of  the  Church,  and  would  have  thus  saved  himself  infinite  trouble 
and  confusion  in  defining  the  principles  of  the  alliance  between 
Church  and  State. 

In  proportion,  however,  as  arguments  of  this  nature  are  dimi- 
nishing in  importance,  those  which  are  put  forward  in  the  four 
last  publications  alluded  to,  will  increase  :  as  the  broken  reeds  of 
establishments  on  which  the  Church  of  England  has  so  long  and 
so  unhappily  rested,  and  which  have  pierced  and  crippled  her 
hands,  are  withdrawn,  if  we  be  yet  worthy  of  it,  her  strength  may 
be  seen  and  felt ;  in  proportion  as  human  enactments  either 
desert  her  or  intrude,  her  independence  may  be  seen,  and  her 
spiritual  nature  acknowledged — she  will  be  thrown  back  from 
acts  of  parliament,  on  that,  which  these  works  serve  to  explain 
and  illustrate,  on  her  sacred  fundamental  charter. 

The  times  in  which  we  live  are  assuming  daily  more  and  more 
the  character  of  sifting  times  :  great  principles  are  being  deve- 
loped, and  truths  which  have  lain  hid  for  ages  are  being  brought 
to  light ;  but  these  great  effects  will  not,  so  far  as  human  eyes 
can  see,  be  brought  about  without  severe  trial  and  perplexity.  It 
cannot  be  without  deep  pain  and  distress  that  the  most  earnest 
and    serious  minds  are    led   to  contemplate   any  thing   like   a 

>2'Z0  Iloldcii  on  Church  Edalili^lDiiotls. 

possible  inconipatibilily,  between  the  Climeli  and  the  State  in 
this  country  ;  it  cannot  be  without  great  thoughts  of  heart,  that 
(.Christians  must  begin  to  feel  themselves  inclined  to  transler  their 
atVcclion  from  the  country  to  the  Church,  and  find  a  difficulty  in 
loving  each  as  hitherto  for  the  sake  of  the  other.  Yet  it  cannot 
l)e  doubtful  to  any  reflecting  mind,  but  that  we  may  very  shortly 
be  called  upon,  (if,  indeed,  those  who  so  see  things  are  not  called 
upon  now,)  to  sacrifice  much  worldly  comfort  and  convenience, 
and  forego  veiy  near  and  dear  ties  and  interests,  as  we  hope  to 
maintain  our  Christianity.  In  proportion  as  any  incompatibility 
between  the  Church  and  the  State  is  seen,  and  various  real  and 
great  inconsistencies  in  their  alliance,  two  ways  may  be  placed 
ilistinctly  before  us.  There  remains,  at  present,  a  strange  but 
undoubted  coherence  between  the  two,  in  the  temporalities  as 
they  are  called ;  if  this  should  need  to  be  foregone,  then  it 
may  remain  for  our  choice  whether  we  will  cling  to  the  one  or 
the  other.  Jt  is  indeed  the  peculiar  blessing  of  our  state,  that 
we  cannot  see  our  way  ;  but  should  all  the  miseries  of  schism 
thus  seem  to  threaten  us,  it  may  one  day  be  for  thoughtful  per- 
sons to  consider  which  will  be  the  safer  and  sounder  course,  to 
desert  the  Church  for  the  world,  or  the  world  for  the  Church. 
Time  was  when  questions  like  these,  as  it  is  stated  in  one  of  the 
sermons  above  quoted,  were  "  mere  historical  curiosities;"  now 
they  are  vital  and  practical  questions,  which  meet  us  at  every 
turn.  They  must  be  felt  to  be  vital  and  practical  questions  by 
those  we  are  most  bound  to  revere,  and  warn  them  how  far  they 
should  suffer  themselves  to  become  implicated  in  political  legis- 
lation for  the  Church  of  Christ ;  and  they  are  at  this  moment 
vital  and  practical  questions  for  the  consideration  of  the  parochial 
clergy  from  one  end  of  the  country  to  the  other.  Not,  of  course, 
that  in  the  perplexities  which  surround  them,  they  are  to  be  in 
any  way  over-hasty,  and  to  anticipate  Providence,  but  to  wait 
God's  time,  and  prepare  themselves,  not  perhaps  to  act,  but  cer- 
tainly to  protest  and  to  suffer  ;  to  take  cheerfully  the  spoiling  of 
their  goods ;  and,  as  great  and  good  men  have  done  before,  if  need 
be,  to  *•'  resign  all  which  they  cannot  keep  with  a  good  con- 

Facts  now  constantly  before  us  in  the  course  of  public  events, 
arguments  commonly  occurring  in  conversation,  and  a  sort  of 
universal  apprehensiveness  of  such  a  state  of  things  as  we  have 
described,  all  combine  to  force  upon  us  these  things,  in  spite  of 
ourselves,  as  great  and  fearful  realities ;  but  they  contain  comfort 
for  all  those  who  are  cojitent  to  see  it,  apart  from  every  earthly 
consideration.  If,  as  the  Church  and  the  State  are  more  glaringly 
divided,  men  will  be  divided  also ;  if  some  will  still  cling  to  the 


Holden  on  Church  Estahlishments.  221 

Establishment,  as  it  is  called,  and  others  to  the  Church,  the  com- 
parative value  of  the  two  will  be  seen. 

A  very  few  remarks  on  the  books  before  us  may  enable  us,  in 
some  particulars,  to  find  our  way. 

When  Mr.  Holden  gives  his  book  the  title  of  "  A  Scriptural 
Vindication  of  Church  Establishments,"  if  we  rightly  understand 
his  meaning,  he  assumes,  we  conceive,  the  existence,  the  scrip- 
tural existence  of  a  Church,  before  that  Church  can  be  scrip- 
turally  established  ;  and  if  such  be  the  case,  we  cannot  but  wish 
he  had  inverted  the  order  of  the  two  divisions  of  his  book.  The 
Church  being  assumed  to  exist  as  a  perfect  and  independent  body 
before  it  comes  under  the,  so  called,  protection  of  the  State,  the 
Jirst  thing  to  be  considered  is  the  ^brm  a)id  coiistilutioii  of  the 
Church.  As  it  is,  Mr.  Holden  has  argued  about  the  alliance 
before  he  has  defined  the  Church,  and  in  so  doing  has  tended,  in 
no  small  degree,  to  raise  an  impression  which,  in  various  parts, 
he  directly  or  indirectly  cancels,  but  which  he  had  done  well  not 
to  have  raised  at  all,  that  the  Church  is  in  some  way  almost  the 
creature  of  the  State  ;  at  all  events,  more  dependent  on  it  than 
it  ever  can  be.  It  is  true  we  have  been  brought  up  with  all  these 
notions  and  prejudices  about  us,  of  which  Mr.  Holden,  in  com- 
mon widi  very  many  other  excellent  persons,  finds  it  difficult  to 
divest  himself;  but  he  bears  incidental  evidence  to  die  truth  of 
what  we  are  saying,  by  beginning  his  preliminary  observations 
with  the  obvious  question,  "  Why  am  I  a  Churchman?"  This  is 
his  lirst  question,  and  naturally  requires  his  first  answer. 

ft  is,  as  he  rightly  apprehends,  "  a  serious  question  to  all  who 
are  not  content  to  remain  in  a  communion  merely  because  they 
have  been  brought  up  in  it,  and  especially,"  he  adds,  "  at  present, 
when  the  Establishment  is  assailed  with  an  hostility  which  avow- 
edly aims  at  its  destruction." 

Now,  we  have  said,  no  one  can  have  any  doubt  of  the  sincere 
intention  of  the  author  to  defend  and  maintain  the  truth;  but  we 
cannot  help  feeling  more  than  doubtful  whedier  it  can  well  be 
maintained  and  defended  on  the  ground  assumed  in  the  very  out- 
set. The  confessedly  serious  question  "  Why  am  I  a  Church- 
man?" can  have  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  the  dangers  and 
difficulties  of  the  Establishme)it,  unless  the  word  establishmeiit 
is  used  in  an  equivocal  sense.  As  the  word  is  often  thus  used, 
and  more  frequently  used  on  the  whole  than  it  should  be,  we  will 
dwell  a  few  moments  on  this.  We  should  do  well  to  get  rid  of 
the  word  perhaps  altogether.  However,  that  Mr.  Holden  has 
used  the  word  in  more  than  one  sense,  will  be  sery  obvious  to  any 
one  on  reading  the  first  few  pages  of  his  work. 

222  Holdeii  on  Church  Establishments. 

"  Wherever,"  be  says,  "  Cluistianity  is  nationally  professed,  religious 
societies  will  arise,  and  in  process  of  time  they  naturally  and  necessarily 
establish  themselves  ;  nor  is  it  in  the  power  of  the  civil  magistntte  to 
r)revcnt  it,  even  where  he  disapproves  of  their  formation,  without  a  total 
destruction  of  that  liberty  of  conscience  which  all  have  an  indefeasible 
right  to  enjoy.  It  is  trifling  to  dispute  about  a  name  ;  by  whatever 
designation  they  may  be  called,  they  are  to  a  certain  extent  religious 
establishments.  Governments  must  ailoxo  them,  and  therefore  it  is  an  idle 
dispute  whether  they  be  or  be  not  established  by  the  country.  A  variety 
of  sects  have  sprung  up  and  established  themselves;  have  formed  rules 
for  their  internal  regulation  ;  have  raised  funds  for  the  support  of  their 
institutions ;  all  which  they  will  continue  to  do.  Whether  they  can  be 
legally  said  to  be  establishments  or  not,  they  are  so  to  all  intents  and 

Now,  in  tliis  sense,  the  Church  itself  has  ever  been  an  establish- 
7nent,  and  the  very  fact  of  its  being  an  establishment  with  inherent 
powers  of  government  proves  its  independence.  It  was  an  esta- 
blishment in  this  sense  from  its  Jirst  foundation  to  the  reign  of 
Constantine.  But  this  certainly  is  not  what  we  mean  in  any  way 
when  we  speak  of  the  "  Establishment."  The  Church  did  not 
become  an  establishment  in  the  sense  in  which  we  use  the  term  till 
the  reign  of  Constantine.  And  this  sense  of  the  word  establish- 
ment our  author  arrives  at  innnediately  after,  and  most  strangely 
connects  it  with  the  other.  In  so  doing,  he  unquestionably  pre- 
pares us  for  supposing  the  "  civil  establishment"  of  religion  to 
be  of  more  authority  and  importance  than  it  is. 

"  Such  societies  or  religious  institutions  arise  by  an  inevitable  process 
in  Christian  nations ;  but  to  some  one  the  magistrate  may  give  the  pre- 
ference, and  annex  to  it  certain  temporal  privileges.  It  is  this  which 
constitutes  the  civil  establishment  of  religion." 

W' ithout  entering  further  into  the  confusion  which  the  evidently 
equivocal  use  of  the  word  has  produced,  we  may  elicit  one  truth 
of  some  value,  that  as  the  Church  has  become  established  in  this 
latter  sense,  it  has  more  or  less  lost  its  existence  as  an  establish- 
ment in  the  former.  Its  inherent  power  of  government  and  self- 
regulation  which  it  possessed  as  an  independent  "  establishment," 
in  Mr.  Holden'sy^rs^  sense,  it  has  merged  by  becoming  more  de- 
pendent in  his  second.  And  according  to  his  first  and  best  sense 
of  establishments,  all  the  multifarious  sects  in  England  are  more 
truly  establishments  than  the  Church  with  its,  so  called,  privilege 
of  civil  establishment.  They  have  ail  their  powers  of  internal 
regulation  and  government,  which  it  is  the  "  privilege"  of  the 
Church  to  have  lost.  They  are  all  more  protected  than  the 
Church,  they  are  themselves  independent,  and,  as  things  now  are, 
have  further  a  voice  in  the  regulations  and  government  of  the  so- 
called  "  established"  Church,  which  is  forbidden  to  the  Church 

Holden  on  Church  Establishments.  223 

herself.  It  matters  little,  then,  how  the  "  Establishment  be  assail- 
ed." Tliose  from  within,  who  from  cowardice  or  for  sake  of  ex- 
pediency would  defend  and  maintain  it,  are  more  to  be  dreaded 
than  all  the  attempts  of  avowed  and  open  enemies  from  without, 
to  overthrow  it.  However  awful  the  matter  be,  so  far  as  the 
Christian  responsibility  of  the  country  is  concerned,  and  the  wel- 
fare of  an  hitherto  Christian  nation,  its  loss  might  be  a  gain  to 
the  Church,  though  it  be  brought  about,  as  seems  probable,  by 
avowed  and  open  sacrilege,  and  at  the  expense  of  her  sacred  en- 

When  Mr.  Holden  speaks  of  the  Establishment  being  assailed, 
&c.  he  seems  to  mean  by  it,  not  what  we  apprehend  it  usually 
means, — the  principle  upon  which,  or  the  act  by  which,  the 
Church  is  established,  &c.  i.e.  secured,  protected,  and  upheld  by 
the  state, — the  establishment  of  the  Church  by  the  state ;  but  what 
we  know  he  does  not  mean,  the  "  Church,  so  established,"  itself. 
And,  therefore,  we  cannot  but  regret  that  he  should  have  made  his 
question  "  Why  am  I  a  Churchman?"  obscure,  by  merging  the 
Church  altogether  in  the  word  establishment.  We  have  become 
indeed  so  used  to  the  word,  and  parliamentary  language  and  news- 
papers have  made  it  so  familiar,  that  to  many  what  we  are  saying 
may  savour  of  unnecessary  refinement ;  but  we  are  likely  to  see 
every  day  more  and  more  forcibly  the  importance  of  what  we  are 
here  urging,  and  the  necessity  of  discontinuing  the  use  of  various 
words  which  can  only  tend  to  great  practical  confusion.  The  use 
of  the  term  "  establishment,"  in  this  sense,  has  led  many  well 
meaning  people  to  look  upon  the  Church  as  only  the  religion  of 
the  state,  and  as  owing  its  existence  almost,  at  least  its  stability, 
to  the  mere  accident  of  its  being  established  ;  and,  therefore,  we 
confess  we  should  have  been  glad  to  have  seen  the  word  Church 
in  the  place  of  the  word  establishment — at  all  events  it  should  not 
have  been  entirely  merged  in  it;  at  least,  the  way  should  have 
been  in  some  degree  cleared  by  the  less  equivocal  but  not  entirely 
unobjectionable  term  "  the  Church  established." 

That  this  is  what  Mr.  Holden  means  is  evident,  by  his  heading 
affixed  to  the  whole  tirst  part,  "  The  Alliance  between  Church 
and  State,"  and  by  the  sound  manner  in  which,  in  p.  26,  he  states 
the  distinct  nature  of  the  two.  The  word  "  alliance"  and  the 
word  "  Jinion,"  which  are  both  frequently  used  as  applied  to  the 
case,  both  assume  on  the  very  face  of  them  the  independent  ex- 
istence of  the  two  bodies  ;  but  the  word  establishment  has,  so  to 
say,  absorbed  the  idea  of  the  Church,  and  that  both  in  theory  and 

We  cannot  indeed  expect  that  mere  politicians  should  see  more 
than  a  mere  establishment ;  but  it  is  probable  that,  had  the  term 

224  Holdcn  on  Clnirrh  Establishments. 

been  less  used,  tlie  language  and  views  both  of  the  legislature  and 
of  the  people  at  large  would  have  been  far  difl'erent  from  what 
thev  now  aie.  We  repeat,  then,  our  tirm  conviction,  that  it  has 
been  productive  of  more  mischief  than  we  may  think,  that  the 
name  of  estahUshment  should  have  been  so  long  used  as  a  syiio- 
vinnc  for  Church.  That  a  mere  accident  should  have  been  taken 
at  length  for  the  essence. 

Mr.  Holden  well  and  piously  observes  that, 

"  To  the  sincere  believer,  nothing  can  be  unimportant  which  the 
Scriptures  reveal,  nothing  a  matter  of  indifference  whicli  they  prescribe. 
If  onr  liord  has  instituted  a  particular  Church-state,  it  cannot  be  lawful 
to  depart  from  it  ;  nor  is  it  reasonable  to  suppose  that  vital  religion  can 
be  maintained  and  diffused  in  any  other  way,  or  that  internal  and  spiritual 
grace  will  be  conveyed  through  any  other  medium." 

These  remarks  well  follow  up  the  original  question  "  Why  am 
I  a  Churchman?"  and  form  no  slight  portion  of  the  answer,  for 
surely  the  question  must  be  determined  by  facts  involved  in  this 
hypothesis,  which  are  widely  different  from  any  thing  like  an  esta- 

Nothing  can  be  more  sound  than  the  passages  following,  which 
occur  in  the  second  part : 

"  The  Church  is  independent  of  all  human  power,  being  totally  dis- 
tinct and  deriving  none  of  its  authority  from  the  kingdoms  of  this  world. 
It  is  an  institution  complete  in  all  its  internal  regulations,  subsisting  and 
exercising  its  jurisdiction  without  the  aid  of  secular  power.  This  fol- 
lows from  its  being  a  spiritual  society,  which  as  such  cannot  be  depend- 
ent on  worldly  governments  ;  and  from  its  being  founded  by  Christ,  who 
is  its  only  supreme  governor  and  legislator.  As  a  religious  corporation 
it  is  not  altered  in  its  nature  by  the  magistrate's  admission  into  it  or  his 
patronage  of  it.  His  station  gives  him  no  additional  powers  in  it,  but  he 
is  equally  with  other  members  subject  to  the  same  conditions,  and  is  under 
the  same  rules  and  orders  of  the  society.  The  Christian  Church  owes 
its  establishment  to  a  divine  origin,  derives  its  laws  from  the  same  source, 
and  aims  alone  at  spiritual  and  heavenly  objects;  in  every  point  of  view 
in  short  it  is  a  distinct  society,  separate  from  the  state,  and  must  in  con- 
sequence be  independent  of  it  in  regard  of  its  holy  offices,  ministry,  and 
spiritual  jurisdiction." 

There  are  passages  equally  good  on  the  Apostolical  commission 
and  succession.  When  we  read  passages  like  this  and  others 
equally  explicit,  we  cannot  but  wish  they  were  to  be  found  in  the 
first  instead  of  in  the  second  part;  they  would  have  gone  far 
towards  removing  the  first  impression  which  we  cannot  get  over, 
of  an  over-anxiety  to  uphold  the  theory  of  an  alliance,  and  to 
maintain  the  right  of  the  civil  magistrate  to  establish  a  religion ; 
and  they  would,  if  so  placed,  have  brought  out  no  doubt  a  more 

Holdeii  on  Church  Estahlkhments. 

distinct  principle,  and  have  given  a  more  uniform  direction  to  the 
\vhole  work. 

According  to  the  latter  part  of  his  title-page,  Mr.  Holden  con- 
trasts the  opinions  of  the  former  and  later  non-conformists. 
"  Many  of  the  former,"  he  says,  "  were  favourable  to  a  national 
establishment,  and  some  of  them  to  a  moderate  kind  of  episco- 
pacy. The  great  body  of  Dissenters  now  mainly  coincide  with 
the  tenets  of  our  public  formularies,  and  justify  their  separation 
from  the  Church  on  account  of  her  episcopal  government  and 
her  alliance  with  the  State."  This  last  sentence,  again,  would 
suggest  the  right  order  in  which  the  argument  should  have  been 
conducted.  First  prove  the  constitution  of  the  Church  to  be 
scriptural,  and  then  the  establishment  of  that  Church,  or  its  alli- 
ance with  the  State  to  be  not  unscriptural;  and  in  laying  down 
the  principle,  consider  tohat  the  Church  will  hear  in  consenting  to 
be  thus  established  or  allied.  We  say  advisedly,  riot  unscriptural; 
for  whatever  may  have  been  Mr.  Holden's  precise  view  in  adopt- 
ing his  title,  it  has  been  well  remarked  by  Mr.  Keble,  in  his 
paragraph  on  the  danger  of  Erastianism,  i.  e.  the  Church  betray- 
ing to  the  civil  power  more  or  less  of  the  good  deposit  which 
our  Lord  had  exclusively  put  into  her  hands;"  that  it  is  "  a  form 
of  compromise  with  the  world  for  which  no  occasion  was  given 
by  the  circumstances  of  the  Aposfles,  a  trial  peculiar  to  times  like 
ours,  when  the  governors  of  the  world  profess  to  have  become 
the  servants  of  the  Lord  and  his  Christ.  We  cannot,  therefore, 
look  into  the  New  Testament  for  literal  instruction  how  to  be- 
have with  regard  to  this  delicate  and  dangerous  part  of  our  duty," 

The  question,  however,  at  issue,  is  limited  to  the  "  lawfulness 
of  an  establishment,  and  the  form  and  constitution  of  the  Chris- 
tian Church."  This  order  is  remarkable,  because  the  book  is 
designed  as  a  "  manual  for  churchmen,"  according  to  the  ques- 
tion stated  in  the  very  outset.  If,  instead  of  that  question,  the 
question  of  the  non-comformist  had  been  asked,  Why  am  I  not 
a  churchman?  it  might  perchance  have  been  more  properly  or 
less  improperly  answered  in  this  order,  because  the  alliance  is  a 
very  frequent  reason  alleged  for  non-conformity :  but  when  a 
positive  question,  as  here,  is  asked,  not  a  negative  one,  a  positive 
answer  seems  required  at  once,  and  that  answer  should  have 
stated  that  deep  principle  which  the  subject  happily  contains. 
This  Mr.  Holden  would  undoubtedly  have  done,  had  he  not  been 
led  aside  so  often  to  consider  the  ten  thousand  objections  which 
ever  have  been,  and  so  far  as  we  can  see,  ever  will  be  urged 
against  it,  and  which  lie,  aJas,  ou,t  of  t,h,e  reach  pf  Mr,  Holden, 
NO.  xuii. — JULY,  1837.  9 

226  Ilolden  on  Church  Establishments. 

and  are  too  deeply  seated  for  any  power  of  argument  or  versatility 
of  genius  to  remove. 

The  source,  however,  of  the  inverted  order,  is  tolerably  evi- 
dent; it  has  arisen  from  the  notion  naturally  enough  inculcated 
upon  us  from  our  infancy,  that  we  are  being  brought  up  in  the 
religion  of  our  country  :  nurtured  in  the  bosom  of  the  *'  Esta- 
blished Church,"  but  the  error  may  soon  be  corrected  by  the 
very  first  line  of  the  Catechism  which  that  Church  herself  puts 
into  our  mouths,  which  tells  us  that  we  "  are  made  members  of 
Christ,  children  of  God,  and  inheritors  of  the  kingdom  of 
heaven."  \\  hatever  then  becomes  of  the  alliance  or  union,  or 
the  "  religion  of  the  country,"  here  we  are,  at  once  on  sacred 
ground  exclusively.  In  arguing  with  Dissenters,  were  it  ever 
profitable  to  do  so,  we  should  surely  take  this  method;  we  should 
put  the  mere  establishment  at  once  out  of  sight,  as  merely  acci- 
dental, and  not  dependent  on  our  will,  and  therefore  beside  the 
question.  I  am  neither  more  nor  less  "  a  member  of  Christ,  a 
child  of  God,  and  an  inheritor  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven,"  whe- 
ther the  Church  be  united  to  the  State  or  not.  Why  am  I  a 
churchman  ?  is  the  main  question,  if  the  state  or  establishment 
has  no  hand  in  making  me  so,  I  do  not  depend  upon  it  for  pre- 
serving me  so,  and  if  I  thus  enjoy  privileges  of  which  no  state 
can  deprive  me,  practically  I  am  not  touched  by  the  state. 

This  is  so  obvious  that  it  may  appear  trifling,  yet  this  self- 
evident  truth,  in  some  of  its  remoter  bearings,  is  strangely  lost 
sight  of. 

Now  it  is  to  be  confessed,  that  the  question  of  an  established 
religion  is  a  very  vital  one,  as  far  as  the  principles  of  Christian 
governments  are  concerned,  and  the  welfare  of  every  Christian 
country.  This  point  it  would  become  Dissenters  to  consider 
Avell;  if,  instead  of  unreasonably  making  opposition  to  they  know 
not  what,  they  would  look  to  the  realities  of  things.  If  7ione  be 
established,  the  government  is  in  principle  infidel ;  it  matters  not 
who  they  are  who  may  be  at  any  time  entrusted  with  its  admi- 
nistration; if  the  sincerest  Christians,  and  the  soundest  officers  to 
be  found  be  employed  in  its  administration,  it  is  itself  still,  in 
principle,  infidel.  If  a?ii/  be  established,  it  must  be  upon  the 
ground  of  its  being  the  true  one,  not  of  its  being  the  religion 
of  the  majority,  but  of  its  being  the  true  one.  It  is  the  duty  of 
the  civil  magistrate  to  command  for  truth ;  yet,  if  any  form  of 
religion  be  so  established  as  to  give  up  any  of  its  independent 
power  and  distinct  functions,  then,  however  true  it  may  be,  it 
becomes  at  once  in  the  power  of  the  civil  magistrate  to  destroy 
the  truth.     If  primitive  and  Catholic  religion  be  established,  it 

H olden  07i  Church  Establishments.  227 

must  be  so  in  all  its  fulness.  Indeed,  one  cannot  see  how  the 
notion  of  "  establishment  "  be  otherwise  than  a  mere  contradic- 
tion, if  it  be  not  so. 

The  whole  question  of  establishment,  of  alliance,  and  of 
union,  is  one  on  which,  so  far  as  any  supposed  benefit  accruing 
from  such  source  to  the  Church  is  concerned,  the  churchman 
may  be  content  to  be  indifferent ;  if  he  be  serious  and  in  earnest 
he  cannot  but  wish  and  pray,  for  the  sake  cf  the  country,  that  it 
should  confess  and  maintain  the  faith,  and  protect  and  uphold 
the  Church  as  the  guardian  and  divinely-authorized  dispenser  of 
the  blessings  of  the  Gospel ;  but  no  less  will  he  see,  that  it  is  of 
far  more  consequence  to  the  Church  that  its  sacred  functions 
should  not  be  interfered  with,  than  that  it  should  receive  any 
countenance,  much  more  any  civil  privilege,  at  the  expense  of  its 

There  are  one  or  two  remarks,  further  bearing  on  this  subject, 
concerning  more  immediately  the  civil  establishment  of  religion 
in  the  reign  of  Constantine,  which  seem  to  deserve  some  little 
attention,  with  which  we  shall  close  our  observations  on  Mr. 

In  adverting  to  the  argument  so  frequently  urged,  that  the 
establishment  of  Christianity,  and  its  external  splendour,  detracted 
from  its  internal  purity,  and  that  much  of  its  loss  of  spirituality 
may  be  dated  from  the  reign  of  Constantine,  he  says, — 

"  Though  it  is  unnecessary  to  dwell  longer  on  a  matter  not  coming 
within  the  design  of  this  work,  it  may  not  be  improper  to  observe,  that 
the  civil  establishment  of  Christianity  in  the  earlier  ages,  was  super- 
seded by  the  miraculous  powers  vouchsafed  to  the  primitive  Church. 
In  the  first  planting  and  propagation  of  the  Gospel,  there  was  a  super- 
natural agency,  which,  if  at  all  compatible  with  the  agency  of  the  secular 
power,  disdained  its  use,"  &c. — p.  48. 

Surely  it  is  rather  more  than  questionable,  that  the  civil  esta- 
blishment of  the  Church  has  supplied  the  place  of  miracles,  and 
supernatural  agency.  It  would  seem  rather,  that  so  far  as  the 
Church  has  been  preserved  in  its  integrity,  it  has  been  preserved, 
in  a  degree  by  the  same  supernatural  agency,  not  by  means  strictly 
speaking  of  this  world's  friendship,  one  had  almost  said  in  spite 
of  it.  However,  what  use  may  have  been  made  of  human 
governments  is  another  part  of  the  question,  which  is  plainly  this, 
whether  they,  properly  speaking,  have  superseded  the  divine 
agency :  for  the  statement  of  the  argument  by  Mr,  Holden  is,  to 
say  the  least,  unguarded.  Whenever  miraculous  powers,  strictly 
so  called,  were  withdrawn,  and  we  are  disposed  to  favour  that 
evidence  which  assigns  to  them  the  latest  date,  and  to  admit  that 


(228  Holdcn  on  Church  Estahlisliments. 

they  exlcnded  so  far  towards  the  reign  of  Constanthie  as  to  give 
all  the  colour  that  timy  be  to  Mr.  Ilolden's  remark;  still  we 
object,  in  th.e  ilrst  place,  to  the  expression,  "  the  civil  establish- 
ment of  Christianity  in  the  earlier  ages  wns  superseded  by  the 
miraculous  powers ;"  and,  in  the  next  place,  whatever  use  may 
have  been  made  of  the  secular  power  in  the  scheme  of  God's 
providence,  we  feci  more  than  unwilling  to  entertain  the  notion 
that  the  arm  of  flesh,  against  which  we  are  so  expressly  warned, 
stood  in  the  place  of  the  signs  and  wonders  and  outstretched  arm 
of  Almighty  God. 

"  They  were  continued,"  says  Mr.  Holden,  "  at  least  suffi- 
ciently, till  Christianity  had  gained  a  firm  footing  in  the  world." 
"^J'rue ;  but  that  footing  was  not  in  the  civil  establishment  of  the 
Church,  but  in  the  consistency  of  the  Church  itself;  its  growth  in 
the  midst  of  the  Roman  empire  in  its  perfect  and  consistent 
form,  not  in  its  dependent,  but  i?<dependent  existence,  with 
its  government  and  discipline,  its  standing  ministry,  its  creeds 
and  liturgies,  and  full  canon  of  Scripture,  "  making  increase  of 
the  body  unto  the  edifying  of  itself  in  love."  It  would  seem 
more  true  to  say  it  was  not  until  it  had  attained  this  itidcpendent 
consistency  that  it  was  allowed  to  be  in  any  way  connected  with 
the  powers  of  the  world.  Whether  it  w^ls  Jijst  corrupted  by 
Constantine,  and  how  far,  is  another  matter;  it  is  enough  for  us 
to  observe,  that  no  sooner  was  it  established  than  Christians  were 
intelligibly  warned  of  the  necessity  of  maintaining  its  Catholic 
principles,  and  asserting  its  independent  existence;  for  that  it 
might  stand  in  greater  danger  from  its  Christian  protectors  than 
from  the  malice  of  the  heathen,  from  the  very  fact  of  their  pro- 
fessing themselves  Christians,  and  claiming  on  that  score  some 
influence  or  authority  over  the  Church,  at  the  same  time  that  they 
themselves  kept  in  their  own  breasts  the  form  of  Christianity, 
"^rhe  Church  was  in  greater  danger  under  Constantius  andValens, 
and  other  Arian  and  heretical  emperors,  than  under  the  persecu- 
tors, from  the  very  fact  of  its  establishment ;  and  maintained  its 
Catholic  principles,  and  the  faith  once  delivered  to  the  saints,  by 
tirm  and  frequent  protest  against  the  intrusions  resulting  from  it. 

The  sacred  duty  of  the  Church  is  to  preserve  and  dispense  the 
truth,  to  keep  the  sacred  deposit  inviolate  from  age  to  age.  The 
State  establishes  the  Church  to  tell  the  country  the  truth,  and  it 
really  fails  alike  in  its  duty  to  its  Founder,  and  to  the  country, 
unless  it  maintains  its  independence.  Its  connection  with  the 
world  is  as  much  to  be  feared  as  its  persecution  by  human  go- 
vernments, and  its  defence  and  protection  amidst  the  temptations 
of  man's  friendship,  as  wonderful  as  its  preservation  amidst  the 
trials  inflicted  by  his  hatred. 

Hook's  Sennons,  See.  229 

The  same  Hue  of  argument  will  correct  another  statement,  with 
which  we  will  take  our  leave  of  Mr.  Holden.  We  do  not  wish 
to  overlook,  but  as  Christians  we  must  not  overrate,  the  benefits 
of  a  civil  Establishment.  Mr.  Hoklen  observes,  "  The  tradi- 
tioiiary  evidence  would  for  a  while  be  so  strong  and  irresistible 
as  would  suffice  for  the  spread  of  religion,  till  it  pleased  Provi- 
dence to  call  in  the  aid  of  those  external  means  which  the  piety 
of  rulers  can  so  beneficially  employ  in  its  support." 

Now,  as  the  civil  establishment  of  religion  does  not  stand  in 
the  place  of  miracles,  so  neither  does  it  supersede  or  stand  in 
the  place  of  traditionary  evidence.  It  is  true,  indeed,  that  this 
traditionary  evidence,  and  its  force  and  value,  has  been  obscured 
and  overlaid  by  the  circumstance  of  the  Church  becoming  esta- 
blished; but,  after  all,  on  what  does  the  Church  mainly  rest 
up  to  this  moment,  but  upon  this  very  truditkmary  evidence, 
which  is  not  ''for  a  while''''  only  strong,  but  embodies  that 
deep  and  broad  principle  which  we  call  Catholic  in  its  lull  and 
true  sense,  and  is  realized  to  us  in  that  infallible  rule,  quod 
semper,  quod  ubique,  quod  ab  omnibus,  which  connects  us  at 
this  moment  with  the  Apostles,  which  carries  us  back  at  once  to 
the  divine  charter  of  foundation  on  which  the  Church  rests,  fur- 
nishes us  with  those  very  creeds  (which  are  not  only  witnesses  of 
the  truth  as  opposed  to  error,  but  are  in  some  sort  witnesses 
also  against  the  intrusions  of  the  Arian  emperors  on  the 
Church,)  by  means  of  a  standing  ministry,  which  in  various  ages 
and  countries  has  itself  been  a  practical  protest  against  the  inter- 
ference of  the  state  with  functions  of  the  Church. 

Of  the  depth  and  extent  of  this  tradit'ionarij  principle,  as  we 
may  call  it,  the  four  last  publications  mentioned  furnish  ample 
proof.  In  proportion,  as  it  is  seen,  the  Church,  as  a  stupendous 
whole,  will  be  thrown  forward  in  its  breadth,  and  length,  and 
depth,  and  height,  and  seen  in  such  a  way,  perhaps,  that  the 
value  of  all  relative  arguments  will  diminish  ;  it  will  be  seen 
how  far  it  may  or  may  not  be  necessary  or  desirable  to  make 
contrasts,  to  view  it  with  reference  to  the  opinions  of  non- con- 
formists, or  to  be  over  anxious  in  these  days,  and  under  present 
circumstances,  about  the  right  of  the  civil  magistrate  to  establish 
a  religion;  but  to  go  straightforward,  without  turning  our  eyes 
to  the  right  hand  or  to  the  left,  to  give  neither  to  the  Dissenter 
nor  to  the  state  too  prominent  a  place,  to  say  the  least  of  it,  m 
the  ''  Churchman's  Manual."  "  Let  him  take  heed  to  himself 
and  to  the  doctrine." 

And  such  is  the  noble  and  straightforward  view  taken  in  the 
works  before  us.  The  volume  of  ]Mr.  Hook  exhibits,  as  we 
should  expect,  a  thorough  consistency  of  principle,  and  contains 

230  Hook's  Sermons,  &c. 

a  fuiul  of  wholesome  tloctriiie  most  necessary  for  these  days.  It 
hivs  down  tliosc  principles  wliich,  without  any  laboured  contrast, 
of  themselves  throw  aside  liomanism  and  Dissent;  and  it  as- 
sumes in  those  principles  that  inherent  and  intrinsic  strength 
which  must  ever  make  the  protection  of  the  civil  magistrate, 
however  natural  and  desirable  in  every  professedly  Christian 
country  for  that  country's  sake,  still  in  the  eyes  of  the  Church- 
man a  secondary  matter. 

We  cannot  but  consider  it  to  be  one  of  the  most  satisfactory 
and  encouraging  signs  of  these  evil  times,  that  Mr.  Hook,  so  long 
known  and  regarded  by  all  true  sons  of  the  Church  of  England, 
as  one  of  the  most  earnest  and  uncompromising  of  her  Clergy, 
should  have  been  called  to  so  extensive  a  field  of  usefulness  as 
the  Vicarage  of  Leeds.  We  may  be  sure  that  in  our  large  ma- 
nufacturing towns,  overgrown  as  they  are  in  most  cases  with  Sec- 
tarianism, no  one  can  be  so  really  inHuential,  and  so  well  appre- 
ciated, as  one  who  without  any  attempts  at  compromise,  shows  at 
the  same  time  all  possible  forbearance  to  those  who  differ  from 
him;  whose  principles  are  so  firmly  grounded,  and  whose  line  of 
action  is  so  clearly  defined,  that  his  whole  character  is  fully  un- 
derstood, and  his  judgment  on  all  practical  matters  readily  anti- 
cipated. It  is  only  by  useless  attempts  at  compromise,  and 
hopeless  endeavours  to  find  a  middle  course,  where  there  is  none, 
that  debateable  ground  is  admitted,  and  the  door  opened  to  end- 
less and  fruitless  dispute,  and  all  sorts  of  uncharitable  imputa- 
tion. Those  only  are  truly  and  intelligibly  charitable,  who  see 
how  deeply  the  foundation  of  charity  is  laid,  that  it  is  based  on 
the  love  of  God,  and  subordinately  to  this  descends  to  man,  and 
consequently  that  it  is  based  in  a  love  of  truth,  and  cannot,  there- 
fore, consist  in  a  mere  tenderness  to  error,  or  in  consulting  for 
peace  at  the  expense  of  truth. 

There  can  be  no  real  peace  in  any  sense  either  for  the  Church 
at  large,  or  for  its  individual  members,  but  in  the  truth ;  and  they 
best  estimate  the  views  of  the  Church  of  England  on  this  subject 
who  observe,  that  instead  of  entering  into  any  idle  calculations 
on  individual  sincerity,  as  if  it  were  a  substitute  for  truth,  she  de- 
nounces expressly  those  who  say  that  each  man  "  shall  be  saved 
by  the  law  or  sect  which  he  professeth,  so  that  he  be  diligent  to 
frame  his  life  according  to  that  law;"  who  remember  that  in- 
stead of  making  perilous  allowances  for  conscientious  error,  she 
teaches  us  to  pray  that  it  will  please  God  to  "  bring  into  the  way 
of  truth  all  those  who  have  erred  and  are  deceived;"  "that  Jews, 
Turks,  Infidels,  and  Heretics,  may  not  merely  find  mercy,  but  be 
brought  home  to  the  flock;"  and  lastly,  who  remark,  that  she 
does  not  speak  of  peace  where  there  is  no  peace,  nor  recom- 


Hook'5  Sermons,  &c.  231 

mend  unity  without  a  principle,  but  prays  that  all  "  who  profess 
and  call  themselves  Christians  may  be  led  into  the  way  of  truth, 
and  thus,  hold  the  faith  in  unity  of  spirit,  and  in  the  bond  of 
peace;  that  all  who  do  confess  God's  holy  name  may  agree,"  in- 
deed, but  how?  on  no  slighter  terms,  and  in  no  easier  way,  in 
nothing  short  of  "  the  truth  of  His  holy  word,"  and  so  may  "  live 
in  unity  and  godly  love."  Truth  is  not  ours  to  give  away,  or  to 
barter,  nor  are  Christians  to  be  content  to  take  a  lower  ground 
in  maintaining  God's  truth  than  that  which  he  has  himself 
pointed  out.  If  the  end  and  object  of  His  mysterious  dealings 
with  us,  and  the  object  He  would  have  us  one  and  all  aim  at  be 
the  promotion  of  His  own  glory,  every  thing  else  must  be 
strictly  and  entirely  subordinate  to  this.  If  in  promoting  this 
end,  truth  may  be  spoken  consistently  with  what  this  world  calls 
"peace,''  it  is  well ;  if  not,  it  must  not  be  withheld  or  tampered 
with  in  order  to  procure  it,  or  maintain  it.  We  know  that  when 
some  of  those  whom  we  are  most  bound  to  reverence,  rose  up  in 
defence  of  a  sacred  cause  not  long  since,  they  were  rebuked  for 
doing  so,  as  a  thing,  forsooth,  little  to  be  expected  from  them  as 
"  the  ministers  of  peace,"  whereas  we  were  then  ready  to  hail 
them,  and  rally  round  them,  as  most  truly  ministers  of  peace, 
when  they  rose  up  as  witnesses  for  the  Truth. 

Closely,  again,  connected  with  the  duty  of  maintaining  and 
*'  contending  for  the  truth,"  or,  indeed,  more  properly  speaking, 
almost  identical  with  it,  is  the  duty  of  maintaining  and  contend- 
ing for  the  "  authority  of  the  Church"  as  the  divinely  appointed 
guardian  and  dispenser  of  it ;  and  naturally  again  connected  with 
this  is  the  wisdom,  and  indeed  the  necessity,  of  looking  to  "  pri- 
mitive and  Catholic  tradition,"  as  at  once  realizing  to  us,  and  ex- 
plaining and  illustrating  that  authority. 

Such,  in  few  words,  will  be  the  method  of  thoughtful  and 
earnest  persons  who,  without  regard  to  consequences,  are  anxious 
to  follow  the  ways  marked  out  for  them  with  sufficient  clearness 
by  the  Almighty  to  attain  his  own  ends,  instead  of  taking  self- 
chosen  methods  of  compassing  self-chosen  ends  of  their  own. 
And  if  in  so  doing,  whether  as  regards  the  end  to  be  promoted, 
or  the  appointed  means  of  promoting  it,  the  way  of  life  be  not 
quite  so  broad  as  many  would  wish  to  make  it,  and  more  would 
wish  to  think  it,  then  we  must  be  prepared  to  take  it  as  it  is ;  we 
must  be  prepared  to  find  the  old  paths  and  the  good  way,  not 
such  as  modern  latitudinarians  would  wish,  but  in  many  senses 
from  which  we  might  be  inclined  to  shrink,  strait  and  narrow  as 
our  Lord  has  described  them. 

We  do  not  mean,  indeed,  to  charge  Mr.  Hook  with  the  whole 
of  this  theory,  nor  literally  to  connect  his  system  in  the  way  in 

030  Hook's  Sermons,  &c. 

which  wc  have  seemed  to  do.  Ikit  though  we  do  not  venture  to 
do  quite  so  much,  wc  believe  we  liiive  made  no  very  incorrect 
inference  of  his  meaning,  nor  have  put  any  construction  on  his 
Sermons,  which  the  very  order  of  his  subjects,  and  the  details  of 
his  argument,  do  not  convey. 

\\  hen  we  look  at  the  very  titles  of  the  Sermons  preached  be- 
fore the  University,  and  find  them  thus  arranged. —  1.  On  Pro- 
moting the  Glory  of  God;  2.  On  the  Duty  of  Contending  for  the 
Truth*  3.  On  the  Authority  of  the  Church;  4.  On  Tradition; 
5.  The  Strait  Gate;  we  see  such  a  series  as  we  have  described. 
In  one  or  two  instances  connection  of  subject  is  professed  as  de- 
signed, and  though  it  is  not  in  all,  there  is  what  is  far  better  than 
])rofessed  coherence,  natural  consistency  throughout,  and  that 
uniformity  which  is  produced  by  deep  principle  alone. 

Again,' when  we  look  at  the  titles  of  the  two  Sermons,  "  The 
Church  and  the  Establishment,"  we  are  warned  by  the  order,  nay, 
by  the  very  type,  of  the  distinctness  of  the  subjects,  and  their 
comparative  importance. 

These  latter  having  run  through  several  editions,  are  probably 
now  in  the  hands  of  most  of  our  readers  ;  but  we  will  briefly  ad- 
vert to  them  here,  because  from  their  order  and  distinctness  they 
entirely  clear  the  question  we  have  been  discussing,  as  touched 
by  Mr.  Holden.  The  one  defining  the  essence  and  constitution 
of  the  Church — the  other  the  circumstance  of  its  civil  establish- 

Thus,  all  is  made  clear.  The  Holy  Catholic  and  Apostolic 
Church,  ''  the  pillar  and  ground  of  the  Truth,"  being  first  traced 
from  its  very  foundation  hi  the  commission  given  to  the  Apostles, 
by  the  Lord  Jesus,  through  the  apostolical  succession,  with  its 
threefold  order  of  ministers,  thus  extending  into  its  several 
branches  throughout  the  world  ;  the  subject  is  then  contracted 
to  the  consideration  of  our  own  Church,  as  one  of  those  aposto- 
lical branches,  that  Catholic  Church  existing  in  this  country  from 
the  remotest  antiquity,  and  tracing  its  descent  by  an  unbroken 
line  of  ordinations  to  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul,  ''  the  Apostles  of 
the  Circumcision  and  of  the  Gentiles."  After  a  few  sentences 
of  sound  and  sensible  remark  on  the  interest  and  influence  of  the 
Bishop  of  Rome  over  the  Church  in  England  in  the  7th  century, 
which  Mr.  Hook  well  parallels  with  the  right  of  the  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury  with  respect  to  India  at  the  present  time,  and  a 
few  more  on  the  effects  of  the  Reformation,  he  claims  for  our 
Church,  according  to  the  satisfactory  and  interesting  statement  of 
Mr.  Palmer,  the  name  of  the  "Old  Catholic  Church  of  Eng- 
land;" and  whatever  be  the  views  and  opinions  of  those  who 
seem  strabgely  anxious  to  e.xplode  this  doctrine  of  the  apostolical 

Hook',s  Sermons,  &c.  9,53 

succession,  we  cannot  envy  that  spirit  which  does  not  see  in  these 
investigations  the  probable  source  of  those  signal  blessings  which 
have  been  showered  upon  this  Church,  or  which  can  fail  to  re- 
cognize a  sacredness  attaching  to  the  whole  subject. 

However,  having  thus  defined  the  Church,  and  shown  how  the 
Church  of  England  is  a  true  and  apostolical  branch  of  it,  the 
author  feels  he  may  thus  safely  and  surely  proceed  to  state  the 
office  of — "  Kings  as  its  nursing  fathers,  and  Queens  as  its  nurs- 
ing mothers."  He  observes,  that  that  brunch  of  the  Church 
which  exists  in  this  country  has  always  been  connected  with  and 
closely  allied  to  the  State ;  it  was  the  case,  we  know,  with  the 
Anglo-Saxon  ;  it  was  probably  so  before  the  conversion  of  the 
Saxons  with  the  ancient  British  Church.  He  next  touches  on 
the  formation  of  our  English  dioceses  and  parishes,  and  the  en- 
dowment of  the  cathedral  and  parochial  Churches,  which  he 
clearly  vindicates  to  tlieir  present  possessors  ''as  having  descended 
in  an  unbroken  line  from  the  Clergy  to  whom  the  Church  pro- 
perty was  originally  granted." 

"  And  thus,"  says  Mr.  Hook,  "  was  the  Church  established, 
and  the  state  consecrated,  and  for  many  years  there  appears  to 
have  been  a  good  understanding  between  the  civil  and  ecclesias- 
tical authorities,  the  powers  of  which  were  in  most  respects,  as 
ill  these  days,  blended."  The  interruption  of  this  harmony  he 
traces  to  the  ambition  of  Hildebrand,  and  his  successors,  who 
soon  perceived  that,  in  order  to  secure  their  dominion,  it  was 
necessary  to  sever  the  alliance  which  had  hitherto  subsisted  be- 
tween Church  and  State.  "  No  sectarian  of  the  present  day  can 
be  more  hostile  to  an  alliance  between  Church  and  State  than 
were  those  divines  who,  in  the  middle  ages,  were  devoted  to  the 

However  true  this  may  be,  however  truly  we  may  trace  up  to 
Popery,  and  to  the  time  of  Hildebrand,  when  perhaps  it  assumed 
its  most  distinct  form  as  a  system,  no  slight  portion  of  the  con- 
fusion amidst  which  we  live,  it  is  matter  for  consideration  whether 
there  might  not  be  more  truth  and  soundness,  apart,  of  course, 
from  their  mere  Romanism,  in  the  arguments  of  some  of  those 
divines,  than  may  be  generally  admitted  ;  not,  indeed,  in  so  far  as 
they  protested  against  the  alliance,  but  in  so  far  as  they  defined 
the  independence  of  the  Church.  One  of  our  own  writers, — who 
was  evidently  no  friend  either  to  the  character  or  policy  of  Hil- 
debrand, and  who  has  remarked  the  *'  mutual  concurrence  of  the 
spiritual  and  secular  powers,  according  to  their  several  stations 
and  their  useful  and  just  offices,"  during  the  eight  hundred  years 
which  intervened  between  the  time  of  Constantine  and  Hildebrand, 
and  has  pointed  of  course,  as  Mr.  Hook  has  done,  to  Hildebrand's 

234  Hook's  Sermons,  &c. 

assumption  of  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical  supremacy,  as  the  time 
when  that  understanding  and  concurrence  was  broken  oft"; — this 
writer  (Dr.  Brett)  has,  nevertheless,  found  thus  much  to  be  said 
for  Ilildcbrand  and  his  successors,  that  "  though  they  usurped 
the  rest  of  the  Bishops'  spiritual  rights,  and  subjected  them  solely 
and  singly  to  the  Bishop  of  Rome,  and  also  invaded  the  imperial 
rights  with  a  witness,  making  their  own  decretals  laws,  and  as- 
suming the  whole  coercive  powers  ;  yet,  they  kept  the  execution 
of  the  merely  spiritual  power  within  its  own  channel,  and  not 
once  pretended  to  it  by  virtue  of  their  worldly  sword,  though 
they  barred  the  other  Bishops  of  their  just  rights  in  several  in- 
stances in  the  execution  of  it." 

"  It  seems  to  be  reserved  for  our  late  Erastians,"  he  continues, 
"  that  they  subject  the  spiritual  vestitures  and  deprivations,  to 
say  nothing  of  the  power  in  and  over  synods  in  the  secular  ma- 

We  know,  indeed,  how  endless  and  intricate  this  question  has 
ever  been;  but  we  are  sure  that  if  any  saw  its  end,  and  could  dis- 
entangle it,  they  were  those  who  were  providentially  thrown  into 
that  position  by  the  clashing  of  the  ecclesiastical  and  civil  power, 
which  rendered  them,  in  almost  every  light  in  which  they  could 
be  contemplated,  witnesses  of  Primitive  and  Catholic  Truth — of 
a  class  almost  peculiar  to  the  Church  of  England.  We  shall  see, 
doubtless,  more  and  more  clearly,  the  value  of  the  witness  of 
the  Non-Jurors,  and  the  principles  which  they,  more  than  any 
others,  contributed  to  explain, — that  of  the  independence  of  the 
Church, — which  they  rightly  proved  to  be,  not  Romish,  but 
Primitive  and  Catholic. 

For  what  is  our  position  at  this  moment?  we  have,  as  Mr. 
Hook  reminds  us,  inherited  from  the  very  earliest  times,  as  it 
were,  the  alliance.  "  The  Church  in  this  country  has  come 
down  to  us  established  and  endowed,  and  the  first  question  we 
have  to  ask  is,  whether  in  this  alliance  between  Church  and  State 
there  be  any  thing  unscriptural  and  unholy."  Of  course,  we 
know  there  is  not,  when  rightly  understood,  so  far  as  the  right 
and  the  duty  of  the  State  is  concerned;  but  the  interests  of  the 
Church  may  render  her  consent  to  it  on  certain  terms  *'  very  un- 
scriptural and  unholy." 

Of  the  blessings  of  such  alliance,  so  long  as  the  interests  of 
the  two  bodies  coincide,  and  of  the  probable  increased  efficiency 
of  the  Church  by  means  of  it,  we  cannot  be  unaware,  and  enter 
into  all  that  Mr.  Hook  has  said  of  its  influence  on  the  country; 
perhaps  we  can  see  enough  of  this  to  make  us  silent  on  so  deli- 
cate and  dangerous  a  subject ; — but  we  cannot  help  quoting  his 
few  words  in  which  so  many  will  feel  sympathy  with  him,  as 

Hook's  Sermons,  &c.  235 

hardly  knowing  how  to  adjust  his  love  for  the  Churcli  and  the 
country.  Speaking  of  the  influence  of  Christianity  on  society, 
and  of  this  aUiance  as  instrumental  in  promoting  it — 

"  It  is  true,"  he  says,  "  that,  to  a  certain  extent,  this  might  be  accora- 
phshed  though  the  Church  were  not  estabhshed.  ReUgion  would  have 
its  influence.  I  will  go  even  further,  and  add  that,  so  far  as  regards 
those  who  are  Churchmen  in  deed  and  in  truth,  the  Church  itself  would 
be  benefited  by  a  separation  from  the  State ;  for  she  would  regain  those 
undoubted  rights  from  which,  for  the  sake  of  harmony,  she  now  recedes — 
the  right,  for  instance,  of  legislating  for  herself  on  all  occasions,  and  of 
electing  Bishops  without  the  interference  of  the  civil  power.  The  ques- 
tion with  the  legislator  is,  vot  whether  the  Church  would  do  much  good, 
though  unconnected  with  the  State,  but  whether,  by  an  alliance  with  it, 
she  cannot  do  more  good  ;  and  the  question  with  the  Churchman  is, 
whether,  for  placing  in  abeyance  some  of  its  spiritual  rights,  the  Church 
does  not  receive  compensation  by  the  indirect  influence  it  is  enabled  to 
exert.  The  Church  may  be  less  free,  but  is  it  not  more  efficient  ?  The 
Church  may  be  unduly  controlled  in  the  exercise  of  its  authority  over  its 
own  members,  but  does  it  not  possess  greater  means  of  purifying  society? 
— and  to  purify  society,  to  act  as  the  salt  of  the  earth,  is  one  of  the  pur- 
poses for  which  the  Church  was  instituted.  It  is  not,  indeed,  as  Church- 
men, but  as  patriots,  that  we  deprecate  the  desecration  of  the  State  ; 
that  is  to  say,  we  deprecate  it  for  the  sake,  not  of  those  that  are  within 
the  pale,  but  of  those  that  are  without ;  we  deprecate  it,  not  because  the 
Church  would  be  a  less  efficient  minister  of  grace  to  the  faithful,  if 
driven  from  her  glorious  Cathedrals,  she  summoned  her  children  around 
her  in  the  upper  room  of  an  hired  house,  or  the  caves  of  the  desert,  but 
because  she  would  be  a  less  effectual  preacher  of  morality  to  the  unen- 
lightened and  the  unbeliever." 

These  are  questions  which  will  vary  with  the  varying  aspect  of 
human  aff'airs,  and  perhaps  the  very  interval  which  has  elapsed 
since  the  Sermons  were  written,  has  not  diminished  the  difficulty 
of  the  dilemma.  For  ourselves  we  should  say,  that  the  change 
thus  produced  by  changed  circumstances  and  a  new  aspect  of 
things,  so  far  as  our  thoughts  and  feelings  are  concerned,  seems 
to  be  well  expressed  in  a  few  sentences  of  the  Visitation  Sermon 
of  Mr.  Keble,  which  leans  rather  to  that  view  which  calls  upon 
the  Churcli,  at  all  hazards,  to  "  keep  that  good  thing,  that  good 
deposit  committed  to  her,  that  *  charge'  or  'trust'  left  jointly  in  the 
hands  of  St.  Paul  and  Timothy,  and  in  the  hands  of  all  commis- 
sioned as  they  were,"  which  warns  her  rather  to  be  careful  how 
she  may  best  maintain  this  in  days  of  difficulty  and  danger,  than 
over  anxious  about  those  human  means,  which,  however  providen- 
tially, have  been  made  instrumental  in  dispensing  it  to  others. — 
Alluding  to  the  text :  "  That  good  thing  committed  unto  thee, 
keep  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  which  dwelleth  in  us,"  and  the  state  of 
Timothy's  mind  when  the  words  were  addressed  to  him,    "  We 

23G  Hook's  Sermons,  he. 

arc  so  far,"  says  Mr.  Keblo,  "  in  Timothy's  case,  tliat  we  are  fwW 
of  sorrow  and  perplexity  at  tlie  condition  in  which  we  find  the 
Cliurch  and  body  of  Christ  Jesns:  we  would  fain  lay  hold  of  Ti- 
mothy's and  St.  Paul's  consolation :  let  us  first  see  to  it  that  we 
neglect  not  the  warning  given.  To  the  companion  of  Apostles, 
that  warning  was  plain  and  simple.  The  duty  imposed  upon  him 
paramount  to  all  others,  was  simply  to  keep  safe  and  entire  a  cer- 
tain trust  committed  to  his  charge;  to  that  one  vital  object,  all 
considerations  of  present  expediency,  temporal  comfort,  visible, 
apparent  edification  were  to  give  way." — We  are  to  look  before 
all  things  to  the  integrity  of  the  good  deposit,  the  orthodox  faith, 
the  creed  of  the  apostolical  Church,  guaranteed  to  us  by  Holy 
Scripture  and  the  consent  of  pure  antiquity,  "  present  opportu- 
nities of  doing  good,  external  quietness,  peace, and  order;  a  good 
understanding  with  the  temporal  and  civil  power  ;  the  love  and 
co-operation  of  those  committed  to  our  charge  ; — these,  and  all 
other  pastoral  consolations  must  be  given  up,  though  it  be  with  a 
heavy  heart,  rather  than  we  should  yield  one  jot  or  one  tittle  of 
the  faith  once  delivered  to  the  saints." 

How  far  this  may  really  be  at  all  in  jeopardy  in  the  present 
theory  and  practice  of  Church  government  and  legislation,  this  is 
not  the  place  to  inquire ;  it  is  enough  if  we  again  state  it  to  be 
such  as  has  caused,  we  believe,  in  very  many,  that  transition  of 
feeling  which  we  have  described,  and  to  make  us  more  anxious  to 
look  to  the  foundation  of  the  Church,  and  to  mark  well  her  bul- 
warks, than  to  calculate  on  her  influence  through  her  civil  esta- 
blishment on  the  country. 

Of  one  thing  we  may  be  sure,  that  the  only  way  of  preserving 
our  allegiance  as  good  subjects,  is  by  insisting  on  the  indepen- 
dence of  the  two  powers,  as  sound  churchmen.  This  was  the 
theory  of  the  Non-jurors,  that  they  may  be,  and  properly  speaking 
are,  co-ordinate.  And  by  Non-jurors,  we  do  not  of  course  mean 
on  the  one  hand,  the  mere  political  Jacobites,  nor  on  the  other, 
the  turbulent  followers  again  of  Sacheverell,  but  those  who  at  the 
same  time  that  they  held  the  sacredness  of  both  ecclesiastical  and 
civil  government,  did  not  confound  the  two.  Papists  we  know 
may  be  rebels  ;  sectarians  of  all  sorts  may  be  rebels  ;  the  Erastian 
must  be  a  rebel,  if  he  care  for  the  truth,  for  if  he  hold  the  depen- 
dence of  the  Church  on  a  state  which  becomes  apostate  or  infidel, 
and  still  legislates  for  the  Church,  he  must  give  up  either  his  alle- 
giance, or  the  truth.  The  sound  primitive  and  catholic  churchman 
alone  can,  at  all  times,  under  all  circumstances,  render  "  unto  Caesar 
the  things  that  are  Caesar's,  and  to  God  the  things  that  are  God's." 
So  that  when  we  come  to  the  truth  of  things,  the  best  security  of 
government  will  be  found  to  lie  in  preserving  to  the  Chujch,  not- 

Hook's  Sermons,  &c.  237 

withstanding  her  alliance  or  establishment,  what  the  Church  is 
most  vitally  concerned  in  preserving,  her  independence  as  far  as 

This  subject  is  no  where  perhaps  more  beautifully  or  aftectingly 
handled  than  in  Leslie's  "  Case  of  the  Regale  and  Pontiiicate," 
and  in  that  passage,  especially,  where  the  verse  in  Isaiah  is  discussed 
from  which  the  text  of  the  Sermon  called  "  The  Establishment" 
is  taken,  and  which  Mr.  Hook,  who  is  no  Erastian  happily,  will 
forgive  us  for  quoting.  After  mention  made  of  the  Church  of 
Sweden  as  an  instance  of  a  Christian  Church  where  neither  of  the 
regales  do  obtain,  neither  that  of  the  Pope  nor  of  the  kino-,  but 
where  the  Reformation  was  made,  as  others  should  have  been, 
upon  the  foot  of  the  primitive  episcopate,  not  of  the  regale  ;  and 
a  few  words  to  prove  how  the  Church  would  thus  be  the  greatest 
support  to  the  crown,  and  the  king  a  true  nursing  father  to  the 
Church,  the  conversation  is  made  to  turn  upon  this  word, 

"  '  But,'  said  one,  '  can  the  king  be  a  nursing  father  to  the  Cburcli, 
and  yet  have  no  authority  over  her.  If  he  be  a  father,  where  is  his  ho- 
nour ?  I  have  heard  this,'  said  he,  '  much  insisted  upon  to  prove  the 
king's  authority  over  the  Church  ;  and  it  should  seem  to  infer  some  spi- 
ritual authority  or  other  over  her  as  a  Church ;  for  as  they  are  subjects, 
they  are  in  the  same  class  witli  laymen,  all  equally  liable  to  the  temporal 
government ;  but  if  the  king  have  no  authority  over  her  constitution,  as 
a  Church,  how  is  he  a  father  to  the  Church  ?  or,  is  he  a  father,  and  yet 
has  no  authority  ? ' 

"  This  turned  the  company  to  the  consideration  of  that  text,  Isaiah 
xlix.  23,  whence  the  authority  of  kings  over  the  Church  had  been  so 
often  inferred.  But  that  objection  soon  vanished  when  the  whole  verse 
was  read  out,  '  Kings  shall  be  thy  nursing  fathers,  and  queens  thy  nursing 
mothers  :  they  shall  bow  down  to  thee  with  their  face  towards  the  earth, 
and  lick  up  the  dust  of  thy  feet.' 

"  '  These,'  said  one, '  are  strange  marks  of  fatherly  authority  !'  There- 
fore it  was  concluded  that  the  office  liere  ascribed  to  kings  and  queens, 
must  be  an  office  of  service  and  most  profound  reverence  3  and  withal  of 
the  greatest  love  and  affection,  such  as  nurses  have  for  the  children  com- 
mitted to  their  care  ;  as  likewise  of  protection  and  provision  for  them  : 
and  the  children  here  said  to  be  committed  to  the  care  of  kings  and 
queens,  are  the  sons  and  daughters  of  God  ;  therefore  their  protection 
of  them,  and  provision  for  them,  their  love,  reverence,  and  service  to 
them,  must  be  proportionable." 

The  very  office  of  nursing  father,  which  means  the  same  as  the 
English  "  foster-father,"  implies  an  office  of  reverential  service, 
and  affectionate  protection,  that  office  rendered  by  those  who  were 
called  foster-fathers,  to  the  children  of  the  great  and  noble.  It  is 
remarked  that  our  margin  reads  it  "  nourishers,"  and  the  Latin 
''  nutritii,"  and  that  in  no  one  translation  is  the  word  "fathers" 

238  Hook's  Sermons,  Sec. 

found,  only  that  this  old  English  word,  nursing  father,  stands  in 
our  translation,  which  yet  it  explains  in  the  margin. 

It  is  the  object,  indeed,  of  Mr.  Hook  chiefly  to  point  out  the 
benefits  of  the  establishment,  and  not  so  much  to  insist  on  the 
point  here  argued  ;  but  we  have  inserted  this  to  draw  attention 
to  the  writings  of  Leslie,  and  to  that  in  particular  which  we  have 
been  quoting,  as  amongst  the  most  truly  instructive  and  even 
affecting  of  them,  which  is  becoming  daily  more  and  more  so.  No 
one,  doubtless,  knows  and  feels  more  entirely  the  force  of  this 
argument  of  Leslie's  tlian  Mr.  Hook,  or  understands  more  fully 
how  at  the  same  time  that  it  establishes  the  power  and  authority 
of  the  Church,  it  gives  a  singular  sacredness  to  the  office  of  Chris- 
tian kings,  and,  it  may  be,  of  Christian  governments,  and  guards 
on  both  sides  the  theory  of  the  alliance  or  establishment. 

We  have  to  regret  that  our  remarks  on  this  subject,  which  is  so 
full  of  interest  to  all,  and  so  clearly  stated  in  the  two  Sermons 
before  us,  and  touched  upon  in  various  parts  of  the  University 
Sermons,  directly  or  indirectly,  will  leave  us  but  small  space  to 
follow  out  our  previous  remarks  on  the  latter.  They  were  de- 
signed chiefly  for  the  benefit  of  the  undergraduate  members  of 
the  congregation,  and  we  cannot  doubt  but  that  the  earnestness 
of  the  preacher,  and  the  entire  disinterestedness  of  his  principle, 
must  have  had  their  weight.  If  popularity  were,  in  any  way,  or 
on  any  ground  desirable,  truly  we  might  rejoice  to  find  one  po- 
pular, whose  principles  run  counter  to  the  whole  popular  system 
of  religion,  of  ethics  and  politics;  but  no  one  condemns  more 
uncompromisingly  the  whole  popular  system;  and  that  too,  on 
the  very  score  sometimes  of  its  being  popular  ;  no  one  therefore 
would  be  less  careful  of  popularity,  or  more  suspicious  of  being- 
popular,  than  Mr.  Hook.  One  great  source  of  his  popularity  no 
doubt  is  that  flow  of  natural  eloquence  which  is  peculiarly  his 
own :  indeed  so  peculiarly  his  own,  that  were  we  to  venture  to 
express  so  much,  we  might  say  that  it  would  be  less  desirable  that 
those  whom  he  addressed  as  one  day  about  to  tread  the  same 
steps,  should  attempt  to  imitate  his  style,  than  that  they  should 
most  closely  follow  his  principles.  We  say  so,  because  the  young 
above  all  are  tempted  to  be  imitators,  and  above  all  things  to  be 
imitators  of  style,  which,  in  this  case,  would  almost  as  certainly  be 
unnatural  to  others,  as  it  is  natural  to  him,  would  as  truly  help  to 
destroy  their  identity  as  it  forms  a  part  of  his :  it  may  be  his  ex- 
cellence, it  might  be  their  defect.  And  this  caution  is  the  more 
necessary,  because  this  very  characteristic  is  that  which  most  ad- 
mire, and  with  which  many  have,  we  believe,  owned  themselves 
carried  aw'ay — it  is,  however,  strictly  characteristic. 

Yet  we  do  not  envy  those  who  would  not  feel  the  enthusiastic 

Hook's  Sermons,  &c.  239 

force  of  it,  when  employed  against  the  popular  and  prevailino- 
errors  of  the  time,  in  condemning  for  instance,  the  selfish  and 
utilitarian  systems,  and  various  forms  of  latitudinarianism. 

"^  If  (as  is  the  case  in  most  modern  systems  of  ethics,  not  based  on 
Scripture)  a  perpetual  reference  in  all  our  actions  be  made  to  self;  if 
we  are  bribed  to  benefit  society  by  having  it  pointed  out  to  us  how  par- 
ticular interests  are  involved  in  the  general  welfare,  if  we  accustom  our- 
selves, whenever  we  reason  on  our  conduct,  to  say.  '  I  will  abstain  from 
this,  or  do  that,  because  though  it  occasion  a  temporary  inconvenience, 
I  see  how  it  will  tend  to  my  eventual  good  ;'  if  self  be  thus  the  centre 
round  which  our  thoughts  are  taught  to  revolve ;  if  self  be  thus  en- 
shrined as  the  God  of  our  idolatry,  is  it  not  clear  that  we  are  acting  upon 
a  principle  which  must  sooner  or  later  terminate  in  the  most  cold  and 
narrow-minded  selfishness,  which  will  effectually  prevent  our  grovelling 
souls  from  ever  rising  to  the  performance  of  a  generous  act,  or  the 
formation  of  a  disinterested  wish  ?  And  therefore  it  is  that  we  are 
directed  by  Him,  who,  having  made  man's  heart,  must  know  what  is 
best  adapted  to  the  exigencies  of  our  nature,  best  calculated  to  give  bold- 
ness, consistence,  and  dignity  to  human  nature  to  keep  self  as  much  as 
possible  out  of  view.  He  who  takes  for  his  guide  the  worldly  philoso- 
pher will  ever  be  found  to  become  more  and  more  sordid  as  he  advances 
in  years.  His  generous  impulses  habitually  checked,  he  will  think  that 
knowledge  of  the  world  consists  in  hardness  of  heart,  and  he  will  pass 
from  this  life  with  feelings  which  never  can  be  elevated  to  the  love  of 
God  whom  he  hath  not  seen,  because  never  exercised  in  the  love  of  his 
brother  whom  he  hath  seen.  Whereas  in  the  renovated  heart  of  him 
who  walks  according  to  the  Scriptures  of  truth,  the  principle  of  disin- 
terested benevolence  such  as  angels  feel  for  the  work  of  their  Creator's 
hands,  will  grow  with  his  growth  and  ripen  for  eternity.  For  the  glory 
of  his  Saviour  and  his  God,  he  will  be  prepared  to  renounce  the  dearest 
enjoyments ;  his  character  will  gradually  assume  an  elevation  which 
breathes  of  heaven,  and  after  a  life  of  self-denial,  he  will  be  prepared  to 
glorify  God  even  in  his  death,  if  by  attesting  his  faith  through  a  martyr's 
death,  he  can  strengthen  those  convictions  without  which  there  can  be 
no  obedience." — pp.  6,  7. 

Again,  in  speaking  of  the  character  of  David,  as  devoted  to  the 
promotion  of  the  glory  of  God. 

"  Under  the  holy  influence  of  this  principle  he  descended  from  his 
throne  to  dance  before  the  ark  ;  he  arranged  all  the  services  of  the  sanc- 
tuary according  to  the  beauty  of  holiness  ;  and  he  designed  the  erection 
of  a  temple  which  might  declare  to  all  the  nations  of  the  earth  the  de- 
votion of  himself  and  his  people  ;  and  when  prohibited  from  executing 
his  design,  he  rejoiced  to  anticipate  its  completion  by  his  son,  and  con- 
soled himself  by  laying  up  in  store  for  the  holy  work  his  hundred  thou- 
sand talents  of  gold,  and  his  thousand  thousand  talents  of  silver,  his  brass 
and  iron  without  weight,  timber  also  and  stone. — Doubtless  in  the  age 
of  Doeg  and  Shimei  there  were  not  wanting  cold  calculating  utilitarians, 
who,  though  dwelling  in  their  houses  of  cedar,  would  be  ready,  never- 

'240  Hook's  Sermons,  &c. 

theless,  to  put  tlic  Judas  question,  to  what  purpose  was  this  expendi- 
ture? and  to  suggest  the  distribution  of  the  collected  treasures  of  the 
pious  sovereign  among  the  poor." 

We  cannot  but  regret  that  our  space  will  not  allow  us  to  carry 
on  the  obvious  application  to  our  own  country,  and  Mr.  Hook's 
animated  transition  to  the  spirit  in  which  our  Cathedrals  were 
raised,  and  the  Church  established  and  endowed,  and  the  Univer- 
sities and  several  Colleges  founded,  all  for  the  honour  and  glory 
of  their  God,  to  whom  our  pious  ancestors  consecrated  their 
money  or  their  labour,  or  their  science,  or  their  art. 

The  sermon  on  the  duty  of  contending  for  the  truth  well  fol- 
lows up  the  subject  of  the  preceding  one,  on  the  duty  of  pro- 
moting the  glory  of  God.  "  We  are  to  promote  glory  to  God  in 
the  highest,  by  propagating  his  truth  without  regard  to  conse- 
quences; and  it  is  part  of  our  faith  to  believe  that  peace  on  earth 
and  good-will  among  men  will  follow  ultimately/,  even  though  the 
immediate  consequence  be  not  peace  but  a  sword." 

In  remarking  on  the  declaration  of  our  Lord,  "  Think  not,  I 
come  to  send  peace  on  earth,"  as  a  subject  for  cavil  to  the  infidel, 
and  a  source  of  not  unfrequent  perplexity  to  the  advocate  of  re- 
velation, "a  source  of  perplexity,"  says  Mr.  Hook  ''it  must  con- 
tinue to  be  so  long  as  the  Christian  concedes  what  the  infidel 
quietly  assumes,  that  the  immediate  end  of  all  religion  is  the  pro- 
motion of  peace  upon  earth.  If  this  be  the  immediate  end  of  all 
religion,  it  is  vain  to  contend  that  of  all  religions  Christianity  is 
the  best." — "  Our  answer  then  to  the  adversary  is  not  by  denying 
that  Christianity  has  been  productive  of  dissension,  discord,  and 
dispute,  but  by  referring  to  the  text  to  show  that  the  Divine 
Author  of  our  faith  did  not  introduce  into  the  world  a  new  prin- 
ciple of  action,  did  not  for  the  first  time  establish  a  dogmatic 
theology  without  clearly  foreseeing  the  consequence  of  what  he 
was  doing;  without  being  able  to  foretel  the  incidental  and  oc- 
casional evil  it  could  not  fail  to  produce  in  a  wicked  world  ; 
without  warning  his  followers,  that  although  peace  upon  earth 
and  good-will  among  men  was  to  be  the  final  end,  it  would  not 
alway  or  of  necessity  be  the  immediate  result  of  the  preaching 
of  the  Gospel."  In  connection  with  this  argument  the  latitudi- 
narian  theory  of  Paley  is  condemned,  that  if  there  is  an  established 
religion,  that  religion  ought  to  be  the  religion  of  the  majority, — 
that  we  ought  in  other  words  to  inquire  not  what  is  the  true  re- 
ligion, but  what  is  the  most  popular, — and  its  falseness  exem- 
plified with  reference  to  the  common  current  opinions  about  the 
true  Catholic  cause  in  Ireland,  so  earnestly  pleaded  elsewhere  by 
our  author. — On  this  question  of  peace,  however,  we  have  had 
occasion  to  speak  before. 

hlook's  Sermons,  ^c.  241 

We  may  thank  tlie  author  for  his  Appendix  to  this  second 
Sermon,  in  which  he  recon)mends  the  perusal  of  Bingham  as  an 
introduction  to  ecclesiastical  history.  To  bring  a  young  man  to 
Bingham  is,  indeed,  to  teach  him  how  much  he  has  to  learn,  and 
how  important  often  the  minutest  knowledge  is  in  order  to  a 
proper  understanding  of  the  truth.  For  surely  the  caution  of  the 
last  sermon  is  far  from  unnecessary,  and  contemplates  no  unreal 
state  of  things. 

"  That  men  do  not  think  their  sloth  sinful  when  truth  is  the  object  of 
their  pursuit,  is  evident  from  the  multitude  of  little  tracts  and  pamphlets, 
in  which  it  is  to  be  feared  the  pastor,  as  well  as  his  flock,  finds  bis  in- 
struction. However  indefatigable  as  a  student  he  may  have  been  at  the 
University,  bow  often  do  we  find  him,  when  preparing  for  holy  orders, 
resorting  to  tbose  easy  helps,  which  in  the  study  of  the  classics,  because 
leading  only  to  superficial  acquirement,  he  would  have  despised.  Instead 
of  drinking  deeply  at  the  original  cisterns  ;  instead  of  preparing,  by  the 
study  of  the  history,  the  doctrines,  the  discipline  of  the  primitive  Church, 
and  the  early  fathers,  to  become  a  governor  (as  to  a  certain  extent  every 
presbyter  is)  of  the  modern  Church,  how  many  are  there  who  content 
themselves  with  drinking  at  the  muddy  fountain  of  some  tract  society, 
to  which  they  have  been  recommended  by  chance,  and  where  perhaps 
the  latitudinarian  dissenter  lays  the  first  foundation  of  the  divinity  of  him 
who  is  henceforth  to  become  a  churchman,  it  may  be,  but  a  churchman 
of  most  unstable  principles.  The  greater  caution  is  necessary  on  this 
point,  since  it  has  always  been  one  of  the  objects  of  the  heretic  to  win 
proselytes  by  a  professed  simplification  of  the  truth, — and  the  whole  pro- 
gress of  error  is  the  result  of  that  false  principle  with  which  so  many 
men  start, — the  desire  of  saving  themselves  trouble  of  making  their  way 

That  the  way  to  sound  knowledge  on  these  points  is  neither 
very  broad  nor  very  easy,  will  be  evident  to  those  who  read  atten- 
tively the  two  sermons  on  the  "  Authority  of  the  Church,"  and 
"  Tradition,"  the  most  valuable,  perhaps,  and  laboured  of  them 
all.  And  here  again  Mr.  Hook,  in  common  with  other  inde- 
pendent witnesses  of  the  same  good  cause  in  other  parts  of  the 
country,  concentrates  his  energies,  in  maintaining  in  its  fulness, 
that  sacred  system  from  which  we  derive  all  our  spiritual  bless- 
ings as  Christians.  That  these  subjects,  of  all  others,  are  in 
various  ways  necessary  for  these  times,  is  evident  from  the  fact 
6f  their  having  struck  so  many  independent  witnesses. 

We  hail  with  pleasure  the  new  edition  and  translation  of  the 
invaluable  Commonitorium  of  Vincentius,  with  its  preface  from 
Bishop  Beveridge,  and  a  catena  of  English  Fathers,  from  Arch- 
bishop Cranmer  to  Bishop  Jebb.  Mr.  Churton  has  appended 
to  his  sermon  a  short  catena  of  Reformers,  and  it  is  remarkable, 
that  the  full  catena  on  the  subject  just  published  amongst  the 

NO.  XLIII. — JULY,  1837.  R 

!24C  Ki'ble'A'  Sermon. 

Tracts  for  the  Times,  takes  it  up  to  their  express  exclusion,  in 
order  to  show  that  the  succession  of  our  standard  divines,  ever 
since  their  tinir,  understood  tiie  Reformers  to  have  held  primitive 
and  Catholic  tradition  ;  thus  making  them,  as  it  were,  interpreters 
of  the  doctrine  of  the  Reformers  ;  as  the  Reformers,  as  links 
only  ill  a  chain,  were,  on  the  whole,  the  means  of  rendering  the 
Church  of  England,  notwithstanding  the  Reformation,  "  a  wit- 
ness and  a  keeper,"  as  Mr.  Churton  has  ably  shown,  "  of  the 
Catholic  tradition,"  as  distinguished  from  the  tradition  of  the 
Church  of  Rome. 

"  The  tradition  of  the  Church  of  Rome  is  such  as  evidently  stands 
above  and  in  the  place  of  Scripture.  It  allows  no  appeal  from  the  pre- 
sent Church  to  the  Church  of  past  ages ;  it  requires  the  assent  of  her 
children  to  doctrines  not  pretended  to  be  contained  in  the  written  word. 
The  preachers  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  therefore,  are  justly  characterized 
as  '  Ambassadors,  whose  credential  letters  are  the  Scriptures,  but  tra- 
ditions are  their  private  instructions.'  Tradition  is  declared  to  be  of 
equal  authority  with  Scripture  ;  but  if  they  seem  to  clash,  the  living 
judge  is  to  be  preferred  to  the  dead  letter. 

"  The  tradition  which  the  Church  of  England  sanctions  is  an  appeal 
to  the  doctrine  and  practice  of  the  Primitive  Church  5  from  that  she  has 
received  her  canon  of  Scripture,  her  creed,  her  liturgy,  her  ecclesiastical 
form  of  government.  She  looks  to  the  Fathers  of  the  first  ages,  and  to 
the  ecclesiastical  memorials  of  every  age,  as  witnesses  and  expounders 
of  true  doctrine  ;  knowing  that  this  evidence  cannot  be  shaken,  for  her 
Redeemer's  promise  cannot  fail,  who  has  engaged  to  guide  his  Church 
by  his  Spirit  into  all  truth,  and  is  with  her  always,  even  unto  the  end  of 
the  world." 

Of  the  visitation  sermon  of  Mr.  Keble,  little  need  be  said, 
because  it  ought  to  be  read  by  all  wdio  wish  to  see,  in  one  com- 
prehensive view,  the  actual  and  possible  bearings  of  the  whole 
traditionary  principle,  so  to  call  it,  of  the  Holy  Catholic  and 
Apostolic  Church  ;  the  preservation  of  its  ministry,  its  govern- 
ment, and  discipline,  its  creeds  and  liturgies,  its  doctrine  and 
practice,  through  a  grand  traditionary  system,  recognized  in 
Scripture  itself  as  subsidiary  to  Scripture,  and  ascertainable  still, 
in  many  most  important  practical  points,  by  the  infallible  rule  of 
Vincentius.  The  more  this  sermon  is  examined,  the  more  its 
entire  bearing  on  the  present  state  of  the  Catholic  Church  in 
England  will  be  seen.  And,  therefore,  without  quoting  any  part, 
we  will  be  rather  content  to  point  it  out  as  exhibiting,  that  rare 
thing  in  these  days,  a  perfect  identity,  and  as  shewing  the  entire 
coherence  and  connexion  of  various  points  in  the  Church  systetn, 
at  tirst  sight  apparently  unconnected,  and  independent  on  each 
other.  That  its  depth  and  various  bearings  are  not  at  first  sight 
obvious,  is  not  to  be  wondered  at ;  nor  again,  should  we  be  sur- 

Keble's  Sermon.  24J 

prised  that  the  whole  question  is  one  for  which  many  are  little 
prepared.  But  we  shall  do  enough,  if  we  express  our  convic- 
tion that  the  importance  of  the  whole  principle  contained  in  it, 
and  numberless  hints  thrown  out,  will  he  seen  more  and  more 
clearly  every  day,  that  it  contains  the  rudiments  of  a  system 
which  the  increasing  difficulties  of  the  Church  will  perhaps  serve 
more  and  more  clearly  to  develope,  and  in  which  the  strength  of 
the  Church  of  England  will  be  found  to  lie.  The  sermon  is,  for 
various  reasons,  scarcely  a  proper  subjec.  for  discussion  in  a 
Review  ;  but  rather,  according  to  the  design  of  the  author,  in 
publishing  it  at  the  request  of  the  clergy  who  heard  it,  "  for 
examination  at  leisure."  It  requires,  what  they  felt  it  required, 
carefid  and  patient  examination.  It  evidently  was  not  written  in 
haste,  nor  will  it  admit  a  very  hasty  perusal ;  and  above  all,  it 
demands  a  serious  apprehension,  in  some  degree  of  keeping  with 
the  earnest  conviction  of  the  writer,  of  the  depth  and  compre- 
hensiveness, as  well  as  of  the  sacredness,  of  the  subject. 

Certain  it  is,  that  the  only  examination  which  we  have  seen  of 
it,  and  which  it  is  not  our  design  here  to  enter  upon,  evinces  a 
very  slight  sense  of  its  depth  and  comprehensiveness ;  and,  we 
are  sorry  to  add,  almost  an  entire  rejection  of  its  possible  sacred- 
ness. Had  Dr.  Wilson  seen  its  depth  and  comprehensiveness, 
he  would  not  have  argued  against  Mr.  Keble's  view  of  tradition, 
as  he  would  argue  against  that  of  the  Romanists,  because  he 
would  have  seen  that  the  "  yet  ascertainable  parts  of  the  primi- 
tive unwritten  system  being  ascertainable  by  the  application  of 
the  well-known  rule,  antiquity,  universality,  catholicity,"  this  view 
of  tradition  itself,  even  of  unwritten  tradition,  makes  it  that  very 
test  which  Romanism  cannot  bear.  Dr.  Wilson  would  further 
have  done  well  to  have  taken  notice  of  a  remark  of  Mr.  Keble, 
which,  because  obvious,  and  allowed  on  all  hands,  is  not  dwelt 
upon  ;  but  which,  if  observed,  would  have  saved  Dr.  Wilson 
much  of  his  apprehensiveness,  and  many  of  his  remarks.  "  The 
fact,"  says  Mr.  Keble,  "  is  clearly  demonstrable  from  Scripture, 
that,  as  long  as  the  canon  of  the  New  Testament  was  incom- 
plete, the  unwritten  system  served  as  a  test  even  for  the  Apostles' 
own  writings.  Nothing  was  to  be  read  as  canonical,  except  it 
agreed  with  the  faith  once  for  all  delivered  to  the  first  generation 
of  the  saints  :"  and  p.  28,  "  On  the  other  hand,  it  is  no  less  evi- 
dent, that  Scripture  being  once  ascertained,  became  in  its  turn  a 
test  for  every  thing  claiming  to  be  of  apostolical  tradition."  This 
latter  statement  would  seem  to  have  been  overlooked,  if  we  may 
judge  from  the  general  drift  of  the  reviewer's  arguments.  How- 
ever, it  is  evident  that  Mr.  Keble  has  been,  on  the  whole,  either 
not  understood   sufficiently,  or  greatly  misunderstood  ;  and  this 

K  2 

244  Keble's  Sermon. 

probably  partly  from  his  own  entire  fainiliurity  with  the  subject, 
whicl)  always  leads  him  unconsciously  to  assume  a  greater  pre- 
paredness in  his  hearer,  and,  in  a  great  degree  also  no  doubt  Ironi 
the  prepossessions  and  bias  of  the  hearer,  and  the  habit  of  at- 
tach in-^  a  far  narrower  meaning  to  the  word  tradition,  and  conse- 
quently an  inferior  importance  to  the  thing.  Dr.  Wilson  himself 
confesses  that  "  his  position  in  controverting  many  statements 
contained  in  the  sermon  is  rendered  the  more  difficult  by  the 
absence  of  a  full  development  of  the  author's  system."  We 
repeat  our  belief,  that  the  exigencies  of  the  times,  and  the  cir- 
cumstances of  the  Church,  will  contribute  to  throw  increasing 
li<j;ht  upon  it;  but  we  shall  rejoice,  if  any  hint  thus  thrown  out 
should  induce  the  author  to  contribute  still  further  to  the  deve- 
lopment of  that  system  which  he  is  thus  anxious  to  illustrate  and 
hand  on,  not  as  any  system  of  his  own,  nor  any  mere  theory,  but 
as  the  catholic  and  apostolic  system  of  the  Church,  as  realized  to 
us  of  these  latter  days. 

It  is  not,  we  may  add,  without  considerable  pain  that  we  ob- 
serve, in  the  latter  part  of  Dr.  Wilson's  pamphlet,  so  little  appre- 
hension of  the  possible  sacredness  of  the  subject,  which  he  appears 
throughout  to  have  much  mistaken.  We  speak  of  his  remarks 
on  Mr.  Keble's  connection  of  the  catholic  tradition  with  the 
doctrine  of  the  apostolical  succession.  Surely  there  is  some- 
thing singularly  distressing  in  such  a  series  of  questions  as  those 
in  p.  46,  commencing  with  the  words,  "  But  what  is  apostolical 
or  episcopal  grace?"  Now,  it  is  stated  or  implied  as  a  truth, 
that  the  catholic  tradition  has  been  ever  t/ius  preserved,  in  the 
passage  quoted  from  Mr.  Churlon's  sermon,  who  closes  his 
words  on  tradition  with  a  reference  to  our  Lord's  promise  to  his 
apostles,  of  his  spirit  to  guide  them  into  all  truth,  and  of  his  own 
special  presence  with  them  to  the  end  of  the  world.  Mr.  Keble 
further  points  to  it  as  a  means  of  preserving  the  good  deposit, 
and  transmitting  it  on  as  a  trust  to  others.  Whatever  Dr.  Wilson 
may  think  of  the  ordination  and  consecration  services,  however  the 
entirely  political  aspect  (which  these  things  unhappily  have  with 
us,  who  have  to  look  up,  through  the  medium  of  a  parliamentary 
commission,  to  our  spiritual  Fathers,)  may  have  lessened  in  the 
eyes  of  him  and  others  the  sacredness  of  this  subject,  still  we 
should  have  thought  any  serious  minister  of  Christ  would  rejoice 
at  any  hint  which  should  remind  the  stewards  of  the  mysteries  of 
God,  that  they  have  yet  more  sacred  trusts  than  the  endowments 
of  the  Church,  and  higher  and  better  securities  for  the  truth  than 
the  countenance  of  the  civil  government.  We  should  not  have 
expected  to  see  an  ordained  minister  of  God's  word  and  sacra- 
ments in  the  Church  of  England,  excluding  the  idea  of  the  apos- 


Keble'A  Sermon.  245 

lolical  succession,  by  reference  to  the  indeiiniteness  of  the  23rd 
Article,  and  claiming  for  it,  we  know  not  what  expansiveness,  in 
the  comment  of  the  latitudinarian,  Bishop  Burnet,  instead  of 
interpreting  that  article,  as  in  duty  bound,  by  the  known  doctrine 
and  practice  of  the  Church  to  which  he  belongs. 

Certain  it  is,  from  an  illustrious  chain  of  testimonies  of  "  faith- 
ful men,"  who  seem  in  fact  to  illustrate  the  point  in  question, 
that  the  Church  of  England  preserves  the  apostolical  succession 
in  the  most  unequivocal  way,  and  is,  as  consistently  with  this,  a 
witness  and  keeper  of  the  catholic  tradition.  In  this  traditionary 
system  we  seem  to  find  her  identity.  It  is  thus  she  enables  us  to 
look  through  all  the  religious  innovations  of  Romanism  on  the 
one  hand,  and  Puritanism  on  the  other  ;  and  again,  through  all 
the  political  difficulties,  whether  between  our  own  days  and  those 
of  Hildebrand,  or  still  upward,  between  the  days  of  Hildebrand 
and  those  of  Constantine ;  and  thus,  in  the  words  of  her  own  Ken, 
to  live  "  and  die  in  the  holy  catholic  and  apostolic  faith,  pro- 
fessed by  the  whole  Church  before  the  disunion  of  the  East  and 
AVest,  and  more  particularly  in  the  communion  of  the  Church  of 
England,  as  it  stands  distinguished  from  all  Papal  and  Puritan 
innovations,  and  as  it  adheres  to  the  doctrine  of  the  cross." 

And  thus  we  are  furnished  with  the  soundest  view  of  Christian 
faith  and  duty,  whether  the  Church  be  allied  or  unallied  with  the 
State,  with  principles  which  will  protect  us  alike  against  its 
enmity  and  its,  so  called,  friendship,  and  help  us  perhaps  to 
regain  and  maintain  the  truth,  while  we  acquiesce  in  what  seems 
to  be  now,  even  in  this  our  own  country,  a  state  of  judicial  cap- 

Art.  XII. —  1.  Churches  in  London;  wilh  an  jJppendix  coitlain- 
ing  Anszeers  to  Objections  raised  by  the  "  Record  "  and  others, 
to  the  Plan  of  the  Metropolis  Churches'  Fund.  By  the  Rev. 
E.  B.  Pusey,  D.  D.     London  :  Rivingtons.     1837. 

2.  Prospectus  of  the  Society  for  Promoting  the  Employment  of 
Additional  Curates  in  Populous  Places. 

We  had  prepared  a  series  of  remarks, — founded  upon  a  variety  of 
books  which  are  now  lying  before  us,  and  which  it  is,  indeed,  a 
matter  of  regret  to  leave  unnoticed, — on  the  ecclesiastical  condi- 
tion of  the  kingdom,  on  the  education  of  the  people,  and  on  the 
means  at  once  of  connecting  the  Church  with  social  improvement, 
and  identifying  the  cause  of  social  improvement  with  the  cause  of 
the  Church.      It  was  our  wish  to  follow  up  into  some  detail  an 

246  More  Churches  and  More  Clergymen. 

article  in  our  last  number,  which  was  written,  we  confess,  with 
considerable  misgiving  as  to  the  populariti/  of  the  argument,  but 
which  has  met,  we  are,  therefore,  the  more  glad  to  find,  with  a  far 
lar«Ter  share  of  encouragement  and  approbation,  than  we  had  ven- 
tured to  expect.  The  two-fold  principle,  on  which  we  would 
have  based  our  observations,  is— first,  the  primary  necessity  of  spi- 
ritual things,  and,  then,  the  sccoiidari/  necessity  of  adding  other 
things  to  spiritual,  for  the  sake  both  of  vital  holiness  and  of  secu- 
lar advantage,  both  of  true  religion  and  of  useful  learning.  But, 
amidst  the  absorbing  thoughts  which  must  be  awakened  by  the 
death  of  one  sovereign  and  the  accession  of  another,  and  the  fe- 
verish distractions  inseparable  from  a  dissolution  of  parliament, 
we  cannot  but  feel  that  the  time  would  be  most  unpropitious  tor 
any  wide  and  calm  inquiry  into  the  general  laws  of  ecclesiastical 
polity,  or  into  projects  of  comprehensive  philanthropy,  resting 
upon  the  pillar  and  ground  of  Christian  faith. 

These  few  words  we  have  been  anxious  to  say ;  because  we 
would  not  be  supposed  to  have  neglected  or  forgotten  subjects 
which  we  have,  on  the  contrary,  most  deeply  and  earnestly  at 
heart ;  and  to  which  we  should  deem  it  a  happiness  to  be  enabled 
to  dedicate  our  thoughts  and  lives. — For  the  present,  nevertheless, 
we  shall  only  turn  to  two  or  three  topics,  which  cannot  with  either 
propriety  or  convenience  be  reserved,  but  press  upon  us  for  an 
immediate,  though  brief,  consideration. 

Almost  all,  however,  may  be  comprehended  in  the  Bishop  of 
London's  declaration,  that  "  ive  ivant  more  churches  and  more 
clergymen.'' — The  want  of  more  churches  induces  us  to  direct 
attention  to  the  excellent  pamphlet  just  put  forth  by  Dr.  Pusey, 
to  the  "  Report  of  the  Committee  of  the  Metropolis  Churches' 
Fund  ;"  and  to  the  fact,  that,  with  the  means  of  more  exact  calcu- 
lation, it  has  been  ascertained  that  the  expenses  of  building  will 
amount  to  25  or  30  per  cent,  beyond  the  original  estimate.  Dr. 
Pusey  has  given  three  tables,  "  as  some  indication  of  what  the 
Committee  are  preparing  to  do;"  but  he  shows  also,  how  much 
more  requires  to  be  done. 

The  want  of  more  clergymen  has  led  to  the  formation  of  a  new 
Society  for  promoting  the  Employment  of  additional  Curates  in 
populous  places.  Now,  as  to  the  multiplication  of  societies  in 
general,  some  very  striking  remarks  are  to  be  found  in  pages  18 
and  19  of  Dr.  Pusey's  recent  publication.  And  we  have,  our- 
selves, more  than  once  pointed  out  the  danger,  that,  without  great 
prudence  and  circumspection,  the  influence  of  associations  may 
interfere  and  clash  with  the  regular  functions  of  the  Church  and 
its  office-bearers.  To  take  a  very  recent  instance,  we  see  it 
announced,    not   merely  in    the    newspapers   but   in   an    official 

A  few  Wurda  on  ihe  present  Jtuulnre.  247 

circular,  that  under  the  anspiecs  of  some  new  association,  called 
the  Christian  Influence  Society,  Dr.  Chalmers  is  to  give  lectures 
at  Freemason's  Hall,  in  this  immediate  July,  on  the  general 
question  of  Church  Establishments;  and  that  Mr.  Benson  is  to 
follow  them  up  in  an  early  part  of  next  season  by  lectures  on 
the  excellence  of  the  English  Church  Establishment;  and,  like- 
wise, on  the  best  modes  of  supplying  or  remedying  its  defects. 
Our  respect — we  may  venture,  perhaps,  to  say,  our  respectful 
regard  and  admiration — for  Mr.  Benson,  as  for  Dr.  Chalmers, 
it  might  sound  like  flattery  to  express.  But  principles  must  be 
dearer  to  us  than  persons.  We  would  seriously  ask,  then,  is  it 
expedient,  is  it  safe,  is  it  of  good  example,  that  the  Master  of  the 
Temple  should  deliver  public  lectures  in  Freemason's  Hall  on 
subjects  so  peculiarly  delicate,  under  the  direction  of  this  Chris- 
tian Influence  Society,  or  at  all  in  connexion  with  it?  Is  it  not 
far  better,  either  that  such  matters  should  be  dealt  with  by  the 
Legislature  and  the  heads  of  the  Church,  or  that  the  suggestions 
of  individuals  should  be  thrown  out  in  the  usual  form,  and  on 
their  own  private  and  personal  responsibility? 

Far,  indeed,  however,  are  we  from  denying  that  associations  in 
their  proper  sphere,  and  under  proper  regulations,  constitute  an 
excellent  feature  of  what  we  may  call  the  combinative  system. 
They  belong  to  it  generally,  and  they  make  a  kind  of  combinative 
system  in  themselves.  And  among  the  societies,  which  fit  into  a 
general  system  of  useful  combinations,  is  the  one  lately  established 
*'  for  Promoting  the  Employment  of  Additional  Curates  in  Popu- 
lous Parishes,"  or,  more  shortly,  "  The  Additional  Curates' 
Fund,''  or,  *'  The  Clergy- Aid  Society,"  which  has  already  at- 
tracted to  itself  a  large  amount  of  donations  and  subscriptions. 

"  The  object  of  this  Society  is,  to  increase  the  means  of  pastoral  in- 
struction and  superintendence  at  present  possessed  by  the  Church ;  and, 
in  order  thereto,  to  provide  a  Fund  for  contributing  to  the  maintenance 
of  additional  clergymen  in  those  parishes,  within  the  several  dioceses  of 
England  and  Wales,  where  their  services  are  most  required. 

"  The  rapid  growth  of  the  population  in  many  of  the  great  towns  and 
manufacturing  districts  of  the  kingdom,  without  any  commensurate  in- 
crease in  the  number  of  churches  and  clergymen,  has  been  of  late  so 
frequently  brought  under  the  notice  of  the  public,  that  it  is  needless  to 
enlarge  upon  it.  There  are  also  many  places,  even  in  the  agricultural 
districts,  where,  owing  to  the  great  extent  of  the  parishes  and  the  poverty 
of  the  benefices,  considerable  numbers  of  persons  are,  of  necessity,  but 
imperfectly  supplied  with  the  advantages  of  pastoral  visitation  and  teach- 

"  If  it  be  said,  that  it  is  the  duty  of  the  State,  rather  than  ot  an  Asso- 
ciation, to  make  provision  for  these  wants,  this  is  readily  admitted  ;  and 
it  is  confidently  hoped  that  the  day  is  approaching,  when  that  duty  will 

'24S  More  Churches  atul  More  Clergymen. 

be  ackno\vlc(l2;o(l  and  fiilHUcd.  But,  in  the  mean  time,  the  evil  of  such 
a  state  of  spiritual  destitution  is  so  fearful,  that  an  immediate  effort  must 
be  made  to  lessen  it:  and  such  an  evidence  of  the  public  feeling,  as  would 
be  afforded  by  a  liberal  Subscription  in  aid  of  that  effort,  would  be  likely 
to  awaken  the  attention  of  the  Government,  and  to  hasten  their  taking 
the  work  into  their  own  hands.  The  readiness,  with  which,  in  different 
parts  of  the  country,  a  call  for  contributions  towards  additional  churches 
has  been  answered,  encourages  a  hope,  that  a  Society  for  promoting  the 
employment  of  additional  clergymen,  will  not  appeal  in  vain  to  any 
member  of  the  Church  who  possesses  the  means  of  extending  its  useful- 
ness. Upon  all,  therefore,  according  to  the  ability  which  God  has  given 
them,  is  the  call  made  :  but  the  Laity,  more  especially,  are  invited  to 
come  forward,  and  imitate  the  piety  and  wisdom  of  their  forefathers,  to 
whom  the  country  owes  the  foundation  and  endowment  of  so  many  of  its 
churches.  The  object  which  this  Society  has  in  view  is  as  important  to 
them  as  it  is  to  the  clergy ;  and  it  is  by  contributing  to  the  attainment 
of  such  objects,  that  they  will  most  effectually  fulfil  the  sacred  duty  of 
ministering  to  others  the  gifts  received  by  themselves." 

Again,  the  rules  and  regulations  are  as  follows  : — 

*'  I.  That  the  Archbishops  of  Canterbury  and  York  be  joint-presidents 
of  this  Society. 

"  II.  That  the  bishops  of  the  two  provinces,  together  with  an  equal 
number  of  noblemen  and  gentlemen,  be  vice-presidents. 

"  III.  That  the  business  of  the  Society  be  conducted  by  a  committee, 
consisting  of  the  presidents,  the  bishops,  the  treasurer,  and  twenty-four 
other  members,  to  be  named  by  the  presidents,  one  half  being  clergymen. 

"  IV.  That  the  Committee  be  empowered  to  make  annual  grants  of 
money,  towards  the  maintenance  of  additional  clergymen  in  those  pa- 
rishes and  districts  which  are  most  in  need  of  such  assistance  ;  strict 
regard  being  in  all  cases  had  to  the  spiritual  wants  of  the  parish  or  dis- 
tricts, the  rights  of  the  incumbent,  and  the  authority  of  the  bishop  of  the 

"  V.  That  no  such  grant  be  made,  except  upon  application  from  the 
the  incumbent  of  the  parish  or  district,  for  aid  towards  the  payment  of 
a  curate,  to  be  nominated  by  him  to  the  bishop  for  his  approval  and 

Thus  far  we  cordially  agree  with  the  propositions  so  clearly  and 
forcibly  enunciated  in  the  prospectus.  We  cordially  assent  to  the 
principle  o(  providing  a  fund:  it  being,  as  we  iiave  already  argued, 
the  province  of  a  religious  Association  to  supply  means  rather  than 
agents,  and  money  rather  than  men.  We  assent  to  the  principle, 
that  i\\\%  fund  should  be  provided  by  a  Society,  so  long  as  it  can- 
not, or  shall  not,  be  provided  by  the  State.  We  assent  to  the 
principle,  though,  perhaps,  after  some  little  hesitation,  of  one 
central  Society  for  the  whole  kingdom  ;  although  we  would  not 
thereby  disparage  the  establishment  of  separate  Societies  for  the 
several  Dioceses.     For  it  is  evident  that  one  general  Clergy-aid 

yi  few  Words  on  the  present  Juncture,  24y 

Society,  like  one  National  Society  for  the  Education  of  the  Poor, 
may  be  necessary,  in  order  to  equalize  the  distribution  of  good 
throughout  the  empire ;  since,  otherwise,  the  assistance  might  be 
in  an  inverse  ratio  to  the  need ;  and  the  proper  appliances  would 
be  least  furnished  where  they  were  most  required ;  and  destitute 
places  would  be  deprived  of  the  means  of  extrication  by  the  same 
circumstances  which  rendered  them  destitute. 

In  short,  we  see  more  than  one  guarantee,  that  this  projected 
Association  will  be  really  a  Clergy-aid  Sociecy,  and  not  a  Clergy- 
annoi/ance  Society.  Of  the  importance — the  magnitude — and  the 
value  of  its  object,  there  cannot  be  two  opinions  ;  and  we  admire 
the  simplification  and  definiteness  of  its  plan,  unclogged  by  a 
cumbrous,  complicated,  and  incongruous  machinery,  which  could 
not  be  worked  without  embarrassment  and  difficulty,  and  which 
must  introduce  the  elements  of  early  confusion  and  eventual  dis- 
solution. With  the  more  pleasure,  too,  do  we  hail  the  appearance 
of  this  new  Society,  because  it  is  not  calculated  to  create  around 
itself  an  atmosphere  of  religious  ambition,  or  religious  Quixotism. 

There  may  be  practical  reasons,  founded  on  immediate  expe- 
diency, with  which  we  are  unacquainted,  but  which  may  im- 
peratively recommend  the  adoption  of  the  sixth  rule  of  this 
Society.  To  us,  however,  who  can  only  argue  the  matter  on 
general  considerations,  it  appears,  we  confess,  that  it  could  have 
well  been  spared.     It  runs  as  follows  : — 

"  That  the  Society  undertake  to  receive  any  sums  of  money  subscribed 
for  the  specific  purpose  of  supplying  the  spiritual  wants  of  a  particular 
Parish  or  District,  as  well  as  contributions  for  its  general  purposes." 

We  shall  not  insist  on  the  inconveniences  which  may  arise  from 
the  attempt,  on  the  part  of  the  same  Association,  to  be  at  once 
general  and  particular; — we  shall  not  pretend  to  plunge  into  the 
philosophy  of  the  question  of  centralization  and  localization,  and 
the  difference  of  their  respective  spheres;  but  we  would  simply 
state  our  impression,  that  the  best,  as  we  believe  the  most  usual, 
method,  is,  that  sums  intended  for  a  local  purpose  should  be  lo- 
cally given  or  locally  collected  ;  as,  for  instance,  to  or  bij  the  in- 
cumbent of  a  parish,  who,  stating  what  he  has  received  in  his  own 
district,  might  then  come  upon  the  general  fund  to  supply  any  de- 
ficiency. The  practice  of  giving  sums  to  a  general  Society  for  a 
specific  application,  may  become  at  least  invidious, — may  fetter, 
in  some  degree,  the  operations  of  its  directors," — and  may  virtually 
oppose  the  spirit  of  the  preceding  regulation.  Such  sums,  we 
apprehend,  especially  if  they  are  to  be  received  without  the  know- 
ledge of  the  minister  of  a  district,  may  be  contributed,  now  and 
then,  to  a  great  and  influential  Society,  with  the  Sovereign  for  its 
patron,  and  the  Archbishops  for  its  presidents,  by  way  of  a  gentle 

0.50  More  CJiurchcs  and  more  C/ergt/nien. 

intimation  that  such  or  snch  a  phicc  is  peculiarly  destitute  or 
peculiarly  neglected.  Clergymen  must  be  more  than  angels,  if, 
by  their  doctrines  or  their  parochial  ministrations,  they  afford 
entire  satisfaction  to  all  about  them ;  but,  if  they  should  be  so 
unfortunate  as  to  create  any  oftence,  we  can  conceive  small  do- 
nations or  subscriptions  being  sent  up  to  London,  with  the  express 
view  of  application  to  their  parishes,  almost  entirely  in  order  to 
exhibit,  or  at  least  hint,  their  inefficiency.  We  neither  say  nor 
think,  that  such  a  thing  would  often  happen;  but  we  see  no  rea- 
son why  opportunity  should  be  furnished  for  it  at  all;  and  we  are 
quite  sure  that,  whenever  it  should  happeii,  a  great  soreness  would 
be  felt;  and  a  wound  would  be  inflicted  under  the  pretence  of 
imparting  a  beneflt.  We  would  respectfully  suggest,  that  if  this 
scheme  is  to  work  smoothly  and  comfortably,  as  we  hope  and 
trust  it  will,  there  ought  to  be,  above  all  things,  a  simple  and  in- 
telligible plainness  of  instrumentality  and  end  ;  the  statements  of 
spiritual  need  ought  to  be  communicated  by  the  clergy — the  de- 
mands for  spiritual  supply  ought  to  be  made  by  the  clergy — the 
general  and  the  local  ought  not  to  be  kept  apart — the  proceedings 
of  the  central  managers  ought  not  to  be  hampered  by  specific  in- 
structions ;  but  contributions  for  a  local  object  ought  to  be  carried 
either  to  some  local  establishment,  or  to  some  diocesan  or  paro- 
chial Sub-committee  of  the  present  Association.  The  plan,  every 
one  must  see,  is  intended  for  the  advantage  of  clergymen  and 
laymen  alike;  but  if,  through  any  mistake  or  inadvertence,  a  large 
and  mixed  Society,  settled  in  the  metropolis,  should  encourage, 
whether  directly  or  indirectly,  complaints  or  exaggerated  state- 
ments from  individuals  among  the  laity,  and  seem  to  step  forward 
as  the  arbiter  of  spiritual  wants,  it  might  interfere  with  the  regular 
jurisdiction  of  the  several  Bishops,  and  be  converted,  in  time,  from 
a  vast  good  to  an  almost  intolerable  nuisance. 

Whether  the  seventh  regulation  may  not  militate  against  that 
transparent  iinitij  of  design,  which,  we  are  more  and  more  con- 
vinced, is  the  first  essential  towards  the  practical  usefulness  of  an 
extensive  society ;  and  whether  a  separate  association  would  not, 
in  any  case,  be  more  adviseable  for  the  noble  object  which  it 
contemplates,  are  also  questions  which  may  admit  of  debate. 
But,  strong  as  is  our  sense  of  the  inexpediency  and  mischief  of 
complicating  the  business  of  societies,  and  so  entangling  them, 
perhaps,  in  serious  and  almost  inextricable  perplexities,  we  should 
now,  instead  of  saymg  more,  be  fearful  of  having  already  said  too 
much,  if  we  had  not  an  assurance,  that  our  motives  will  not  be 
misapprehended,  and  that  our  remarks  will  not  be  deemed  wanting 
in  that  deference  which  is  eminently  due  to  the  founders  of  this 
great  and  beneficent  undertaking.    VVe  sincerelv  trust,  that  it  will 

A  few  Words  on  the  present  Juncture.  2.51 

help  to  spread  throughout  the  country  an  adequate  and  equable 
supply  of  clerical  ministrations,  and  obviate  the  lamentable  mis- 
chief, that,  in  places  once  destitute,  there  should  exist  a  self-per- 
petuating and  self-augmenting  element  of  destitution. 

Once  more,  then,  we  adopt  for  a  watch-word  the  dictum  of 
the  Bishop  of  London — "  More  Churches  and  more  Clergymen." 
For  our  creed  is  this — The  land  zvill  be  politicalli/  saved  by 
being  religiously  cultivated,  as  it  will  be  religiously  improved  by 
being  intellectiiully  advanced  and  enlightenefi. 

This  leading;  maxim  we  would  take  for  our  guide  at  this  mo- 
mentous  juncture.  A  new  £era  is  openmg  upon  us.  The  sky  is 
already  reddening  with  the  dawn  of  unwonted  fires,  whether  aus- 
picious or  portentous.  The  fate  of  the  empire  will  soon,  hu- 
manly speaking,  be  in  the  hands  of  the  different  constituencies. 
Vast,  indeed,  will  be  their  responsibility.  May  every  elector  do 
his  duty  wisely  and  well;  and  remember,  as  he  exercises  his  fran- 
chise, that  he  is  bound  by  iiis  solemn  obligation  as  a  Christian,  to 
"  Fear  God  and  honour  the  King."  May  we  all  be  enabled,  by 
God's  grace,  to  perform  our  parts  firmly,  resolutely,  and  un- 
dauntedly, as  recollecting  how  mighty  are  the  interests  at  issue, 
and  how  all-important  are  holiness  and  truth  ;  yet,  at  the  same 
time,  temperately,  kindly,  and  charitably,  as  recollecting,  that, 
whatever  be  the  amount  of  individual  corruption,  the  masses  of 
mankind  are  never  moved,  as  masses,  by  principles  altogether 
vicious;  that  there  are  good  men  of  all  parties,  and  a  right  side  to 
almost  every  opinion. 

Thus  shall  we  best  promote  the  cause  of  Conservatism  ; — the 
real  Conservatism,  we  mean,  which  must  not  be  dissociated,  even 
in  thouoht,  from  real  amelioration  and  real  reform.  That  cause 
is,  we  believe,  destined  to  trmmph  ; — provided,  on  the  one  side, 
that  treacherous  friends  shall  not  desert  it,  that  unstable  friends 
shall  not  misrepresent  it,  and  that  cold-hearted  friends  shall  not 
remit  all  pains  in  its  behalf; — provided,  on  the  other  side,  that  the 
Reformation  Society,  and  certain  similar  associations,  shall  not 
embarrass  and  embroil  it ;  and  that  zealous  and  ardent,  but  mis- 
judging men,  shall  not  put  it  into  jeopardy,  while  they  waste  their 
strength  and  irritate  their  spirits,  by  looking  back,  in  vain  re- 
pining, to  the  irreversible  past,  and  by  directing  their  future 
efforts,  with  a  futile  and  self-tormenting  vehemence,  to  the  pro- 
secution of  objects  which  are  unattainable;  but  shall  learn  to 
adapt  their  views  to  the  circumstances  which  surround  them,  and 
to  combine  a  staunch  maintenance  of  ecclesiastical  institutions 
and  spiritual  privileges  with  a  full  recognition  of  the  broad  prin- 
ciple of  civil  and  religious  liberty. 


And  is  auotlier,  then,  of  our  Sovereigns  added  to  tlie  list  of  the  departed?  Is 
the  grave  about  to  close  over  all  tliat  is  mortal  of  the  kind,  the  true-hearted,  the 
warm-hearted  William  the  Fourth?  Are  his  unconscious  remains  awaiting, 
as  we  now  write,  ere  they  be  surrendered  to  fouler  things,  the  empty  magnifi- 
cence of  regal  obsequies?  And  have  we  to  say,  even  in  the  mean  time,  "the 
King  is  dead,  long  live  the  Queen.'"  Well :  it  is  needless  for  us  to  moralize  on 
the  shortness  of  life  and  the  nothingness  of  empire ;  or  to  urge,  with  this  solemn 
spectacle  before  us,  how  all  human  majesty  must  bow  and  crumble  before  the 
breath  of  the  Omnipotent.  But  we  throw  down  our  pen,  as  the  thoughts  come 
upon  our  minds; — for  all,  that  we  could  offer  in  the  way  of  history,  has  become 
as  a  broken  and  inteiTupted  thread  :  and  all  that  we  could  offer  in  the  way  of 
speculation,  has  been  rendered  idle  and  nugatory.  We  have  no  inclination,  we 
confess,  to  enter  into  controversy  upon  legislative  projects,  of  which  some  may 
be  arrested  in  their  progress,  and  others  may  be  almost  immediately  repealed. 
At  the  commencement  of  a  fresh  reign,  and  on  the  eve  of  a  general  election, 
matters  will,  as  it  were,  begin  again  under  new  auspices.  We  can  hardly  con- 
ceive that  important  and  much-contested  measures  will  now  be  pushed.  Instead, 
therefore,  of  discussing  the  Irish  Municipal  and  Poor  Law  Bills,  the  Irish  Church 
Bill,  and  the  Commission  of  Inquiry  into  Ecclesiastical  Leases,  we  pause  to 
see  what  the  next  three  months  may  bring  forth.  The  position  of  the  Esta- 
blished Church  may  be  materially  changed.  The  clouds  may  have  passed  away ; 
or  the  sky  may  be  overcast  by  a  gloom  ten  times  more  menacing.  The  ener- 
getic, but  not  fierce  or  turbulent  exertions  of  every  Christian  patriot,  will  be  im- 
peratively needed.  Every  vote  will  be  of  value.  Every  opinion  will  be  some- 
thing in  the  scale.  It  is  a  time  for  action,  and,  even  more,  it  is  a  time  for 
prayer,  rather  than  for  disquisitions.  May  God  grant  that  our  new  rulers  shall 
adopt  such  principles  and  measures  as  may  conduce  to  the  best  interests  of  the 
country,  to  the  combined  stability  and  improvement  of  its  institutions,  and  to 
the  temporal  and  eternal  welfare  of  its  inhabitants !  May  God  grant  that  the 
Church  and  the  Government  shall  move  on  harmoniously  together  in  their  re- 
spective spheres  of  sacred  utility ! 

We  had  hoped  that  those  clauses  of  the  Lord's  Day  Bill  which  would  put 
an  effectual  stop  to  Sunday  Trading,  might  immediately  become  law.  We  Avould 
still  hope,  and  the  speech  of  the  Bishop  of  London  gives  us  reason  to  expect, 
that  the  new  Cemetery  Bills,  in  claiming  to  promote  tlie  public  convenience 
will  not  be  allowed  to  perpetrate  gross  and  almost  intolerable  injustice  ujiou 
individual  Clergymen. 

Ecclesinslical  Record.  233 


The  quarter  just  past  is  the  great  season  for  the  annual  meetings  of  the  principal 
Societies  in  London.  But  we  are  not  aware  that  any  thing  remarkable  has  oc- 
cuiTed  with  the  exception  of  two  or  three  points,  which  have  been  already  no- 
ticed in  our  preceding  pages.  The  Pastoral  Aid  Society,  by  refusing  overtures, 
proffered  from  the  most  influential  quarters,  under  conditions  which  would  have' 
been  most  beneficial,  has  been  partly  the  means  of  giving  rise  to  another  Society, 
which  is  daily  receiving  fresh  accessions  of  strength.  We  might  almost  say, 
that  the  Pastoral  Aid  Society  has  committed  suicide.  The  Society  for  the  Pro- 
pagation of  the  Gospel,  as  also,  we  believe,  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  has 
been  directing  especial  attention  to  the  vast  and  interesting  colony  of  Australia  ; 
and  the  ultimate  amount  of  good,  which  may  be  the  result  of  its  efforts,  is  far 
beyond  all  present  calculation.  We  shall  not  now  touch  farther  upon  the  matter, 
without  having  space  to  enter  into  details :  but  we  may  mention  here  that  some 
curious  information  is  to  be  found  in  a  short  account  sent  over  from  Sidney, 
where  it  was  printed,  intituled,  A  Statement  of  the  Objects  of  the  Committee 
of  the  Societies  for  the  Propagation  oj"  the  Gospel  in  Foreign  Parts,  and  for 
Promoting  Christian  Knowledge.  Established  in  the  T>iocese  of  Australia,  June 
20th,  1836.  With  a  Copy  of  the  Rules  and  Orders,  a  Catalogue  of  Books, 
and  a  List  of  Contributions. 

With  regard  to  the  Society  for  Promoting  Christian  Knoicledge  at  home,  we 
are  unwilling  to  utter  one  syllable  which  has  a  polemical  sound.  Our  cry  is 
still  for  peace.  But  the  Rev.  Mr.  Robinson  and  others,  who  have  addressed  the 
Standing  Committee  more  than  once,  have  now  published  both  their  own  Me- 
morials and  some  letters  received  from  the  Secretaries  of  the  Society ;  and 
threaten,  in  no  equivocal  terms,  ulterior  proceedings  at  the  Board,  which  must 
inevitably  lead  to  vexatious  controversy.  We  shall  wait  as  long  as  we  can  :  but, 
if  silence  is  misunderstood,  and  forbearance  is  thrown  away,  we  shall  be  com- 
pelled in  our  next  number  to  discuss  the  subject  in  a  fearless  examination,  founded 
upon  these  very  extraordinary  documents. 


Our  object,  although  we  must  acknowledge  that  we  have  not  hitherto  been  able 
to  attain  it,  is  to  give  a  panoramic  view  of  the  theological  literature  of  the  day, 
both  English  and  Foreign.  The  two  great  obstacles  are,  the  necessary  limits  of 
our  space,  and  the  late  or  irregular  anival  of  publications.  We  hope,  however, 
by  degrees,  if  we  cannot  afford  a  separate  criticism  of  each  particular  book,  to 
give  an  arranged  exhibition  of  them  according  to  subjects  or  classes.  At  present, 
we  reserve  for  future  review, — "  The  Book  of  the  Patriarch  Job,  by  Professor 
Lee."  "  The  Trinities  of  the  Ancients,  by  R.  Mushet,  Esq."  "  Dr.  Vogans 
Bampton  Lectures  ;"  and,  if  we  can  find  room,  "  Mr.  Melvill's  Sermons  preached 
at  Cambridge  in  February,  1837,"  the  Strictures  of  the  Christian  Advocate  upon 
the    Oxford    Tracts,    Mr.  Woodgate's  Late  Sermon  before  the   University   of 

254  Ecc/esiiistical  Record. 

Oxford,  ''  Robinson's  Ecc/csiustical  Condition  of'  the  Kingdom."  The  New 
Volumes  o/'  the  collected  Works  of'  Dr.  Chalmers ;  Lingard's,  Lord  Mahons, 
and  other  Histories  of  England :  and  Mr.  Tyler's  admirable  Consecration  Ser- 
mon ''on  the  Union  of' Truth  and  Love." 

The  season,  we  think,  has  not  hitherto  been  prolific  of  standard  or  elaborate 
works  in  Divinity.  We  are  bound,  however,  to  mention  as  exceptions,  the  con- 
tinuation of  Mr.  Girdlestone's  Commentary  on  the  Old  Testament ;  the  Har- 
monia  Paulina  of  ]\Tr.  Latham ;  and  Mr.  Be7melt's  excellent  volume  on  the 

Parochial  Sermons.     By  the  Rev.  Wm.   Harness,  Minister  of  Regent  Square 

Parochial  Chapel,  St.  Pancras.  London  :  Rivingtons,  and  F.  Crew. 
We  much  regret  that  these  Sermons  did  not  reach  us  in  time  for  a  more  elabo- 
rate and  adequate  review  than  we  can  now  afford  them.  They  are  worthy  to 
be  put,  side  by  side,  with  tlie  parochial  discourses  of  Bishop  Heber  and  Mr. 
Hare,  being  plain,  practical,  affectionate,  and  earnest,  at  once  fervent  and  tem- 
perate, spiritual  and  well-reasoned,  sound  in  theology  and  eloquent  in  language. 
When  works  are  printed  for  a  charitable  purpose,  we  have  frequently  to  praise 
rather  the  object  of  the  publication  than  the  publication  itself:  but  Mr.  Harness's 
volume  contains  its  own  eulogium ;  although  it  is  an  additional  praise,  and  one 
which  ought  to  increase  its  circulation,  that  it  is  published  for  the  benefit  of  the 
Infant  and  National  Schools  of  the  District  to  which  Mr.  Harness  is  attached. 

Sermons  by  the  late  Rev.  T.  Scott,  Rector  of  Wappenham.     Edited  by  the  Rev. 

S.  King.  Seeley,  Fleet  Street. 
The  name  of  Scott,  whatever  may  be  our  opinions  on  some  peculiar  shades  of 
doctrine,  is  a  distinguished  name  among  English  divines.  The  author  of  these 
Sermons  was  the  second  son  of  the  venerable  commentator  on  the  Bible ;  and 
far  from  disgracing  his  parentage,  tliey  do  honour  to  one  who  must  have  richly 
benefited  by  the  instmctions  of  so  learned  and  pious  a  father.  They  ai-e  faithful 
appeals  to  the  mind  and  conscience,  spiritual,  searching,  and  awakening.  Mr. 
King  appears  to  have  well-performed  the  duty  of  editorship  ;  and  has  prefixed 
to  the  present  volume  an  interesting  memoir,  reprinted,  with  a  few  necessary 
alterations,  from  the  Christian  Observer. 

Parochial  Lectures  on  the  Holy  Catholic  Church.     By  William  J.  Irons,  Curate 
of  Newington. 

These  Lectures  are  like  a  London  imitation  of  the  Oxford  Tracts ;  and  some  of 
the  congregation  at  Newington  must,  we  fancy,  have  admired  rather  than  under- 
stood them,  according  to  the  old  adage  of  omne  ignoium  pro  magnifico.  They 
are,  however,  quite  worth  reading  in  themselves ;  and  they  are  particularly 
curious  as  coming  from  the  son  of  a  Dissenting  Minister.     Yet  we  cannot  help 

Kcclesiastical  Record.  255 

tliinking  tliat  Mr.  Irons  has,  now  and  tlien,  screwed  up  the  principles  of  Church 
authority  to  a  higher  pitch  than  the  evidence  warrants,  or  than  the  state  and 
tendencies  of  modern  society  are  likely  to  hear. 

Among  other  discourses  eloquent  and  valuable,  although  containing  some  par- 
ticular opinions,  with  which  we  cannot  coincide,  are  Sermons  preached  at  Trinity 
Church,  Chelsea,  by  the  Rev.  H.  Blunt.  Pastoral  Sermons,  preached  at  St. 
Mathews,  Denmark  Hill,  by  the  Rev.  T.  Dale.  The  Apostolical  Benediction, 
in/our  Discourses,  by  the  Rev.  E.  Bickersteth.  Lectures  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Laurie. 
Finder  s  Sermons  on  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer.  A  Vieio  of  the  Life  and 
Ministry  of  St.  Peter,  by  the  Rev.  S.  P.  Dodd :  and  Practical  Sermons,  by  the 
Rev.  Denis  Kelly,  Curate  of  St.  Bride's,  Fleet  Street.  Nor  ought  we  to  omit, 
without  at  least  a  passing  commendation,  the  Manual  on  Confirmation,  by  Mr. 
Griffiths;  or  the  Mystery  of  Godliness,  by  Mr.  Ayre,  or  the  Trial  of  Practical 
Faith,  by  Mr.  Phillips. 


The  number  of  Pamphlets  to  which  these  ti'oubled  times  give  birth,  is  sonietliing 
quite  astonishing.  Fourteen,  for  instance,  are  now  lying  together  before  us  on 
the  subject  of  Church-rates.  We  have  already  selected  Mr.  Hale's  from  the 
rest :  because  it  is  something  more  than  a  fugitive  brochure  on  a  transient  occa- 
sion :  because  it  is  solidly  learned,  and  will  have  an  enduring  interest  and  value 
when  the  present  excitement  on  the  matter  shall  have  passed  away.  Many 
of  the  others  also  have  been  most  serviceable  to  the  Established  Church.  We 
might  specify  those  of  Dr.  Nicholl,  Mr.  Deacon,  and  the  Rev.  William  Goode ; 
but  it  is  perhaps  invidious  to  proceed,  because  we  must  still  omit  some  which 
ought  to  be  inserted  in  the  catalogue.  The  Attorney  General  and  Mr.  Manning  are 
also  no  mean  champions  on  their  side.  With  regard  to  the  conscientious  scruples 
which  some  Dissenters  entertain  we  extract  some  sentences  from  pp.  179,  180, 
of  a  recent  publication  called  The  opinions  of^  Lord  Brougham,  and  which,  mti- 
tatis  mutandis,  are  not  inapplicable  to  Church-rates.  The  passage  is  headed 
curiously  enough.  "  When  a  Conscience  can  be  dispensed  with."  If  a  witness 
were  allowed  to  plead  the  tenderness  of  his  conscience  as  an  excuse  for  not  giving 
his  evidence,  there  would  be  an  end  of  all  inquiry.  What  would  be  said  if  one 
of  the  Society  of  Friends  were  to  come  into  a  court  of  justice,  and  say  that  his 
conscience  not  only  precluded  him  from  taking  an  oath ;  but,  because  he  had 
strong  feelings  on  the  subject  of  capital  pimishments,  also  prevented  him  from 
giving  evidence  which  might  affect  the  life  of  an  individual.  The  answer  which 
would  be  given  to  such  a  person  would  be  this  : — "  Sir,  you  have  no  right  to 
have  a  conscience  on  such  a  subject  at  all ;  the  legislature  is  the  only  judge  of 
the  necessity  of  taking  away  a  man's  life,  and  your  notions  of  jurisprudence  must 
not  stand  in  the  way  of  justice." 

Several  Pamphlets  have  also  reached  U5,  in  answer  to  the  Article  on  Evangeli- 

*2oG  Ecclesiastical  Record 

cat  Preaching  in  tlio  Edinburgli  llcview.     But  from  tliis  delicate  topic  we  pur- 
posely abstain  at  the  present  moment. 

Sabbatical  Verses.  By  Joseph  John  Gurney.  Arch,  Cornhill. 
If  we  had  not  read  the  "  Adveriisemenf  prefixed  we  should  have  wondered 
much  and  long  why  this  thin  book  of  fifty-eight  pages  was  published.  But  that 
curious  document,  dated  London,  5th  Month,  2Ath,  1837,  explains  the  matter. 
It  runs  as  follows  : — "  The  following  essays  in  verse  have  been  composed  during 
a  period  of  niucli  affliction,  and  have  helped  to  soothe  some  of  my  solitary  hours 
of  sorrow.  In  the  prospect  of  leaving  my  native  land,  in  order  to  pay  a  visit,  in 
the  capacity  of  a  minister  of  the  Gospel,  to  some  parts  of  America,  I  venture 
to  present  them  to  the  Christian  public  of  this  country,  as  a  farewell  token  of 
affectionate  respect  and  regard."  Our  readers  may  be  anxious  to  know  what 
kind  of  legacy  Mr.  Gm-ney  has  bequeathed  to  poor  Old  England  :  and  we  there- 
fore subjoin  two  stanzas  from  the  last  poem,  called  "  Christ  the  Bridegroovi." 
Psalm  xlv. 

"  My  thoughts  a  glorious  theme  indite, 

And  ready  is  my  pen  to  write. 
Thou  fairest  of  the  fair ; 

And  swifter  still  my  tongue  to  raise. 

To  thee  an  orison  of  praise, 

For  grace  beyond  compare. 

O  Lady,  bow  the  listening  ear. 
My  counsel  condescend  to  hear — • 

The  people  once  thy  own. 
Thy  father's  house,  forget  to  love. 
So  shall  the  king  thy  charms  approve, 
Ah !  worship  him  alone  ! 
Such  strains  as  these  may  almost  console  the  country  for  the  absence  of  Joseph 
John   Gurney ; — the   loss  sustained  by   whose   departure,    as  we  have  really 
no  acquaintance  with  him,  we  can  only  calculate  from  his  Sabbatical  Verses. 

There  are  some  pretty  poems  in  the  little  unpretending  volume,  called  the 
Christian  Compaiiion. 

Among  educational  works,  or  documents  furnishing  information,  more  or  less 
valuable,  on  the  subject,  we  have  before  us  "  The  Durham  University  Calen- 
dar ;"  "  The  first  book  of  the  Central  Society  of  Education ;"  "  The  Third 
Report  of  the  Glasgow  Educational  Society's  Normal  Seminary;"  "  The  first 
Annual  Report  of  the  Home  and  Colonial  Infant  School  Society ;"  "  Practical 
Remarks  on  Infant  Education,  by  Dr.  and  Miss  Mayo ;"  and  Dunn's  "  Popu- 

Ecclesiastical  Record.  257 

lar  Education,  or  the  Nannul  School  Mtmual."  We  feel  that  the  whole  matter 
demands  from  us  again,  although  we  have  not  been  hitherto  inattentive  to  it,  a 
careful  and  elaborate  investigation  at  the  earliest  possible  opportunity;  and 
certainly,  when  that  time  can  be  found,  these  are  not  publications  to  be  neg- 


Earli/ Recollections  of  Coleridge.     By  Joseph  Cottle.    2  vols.    Longinan&Co. 

Hamilton,  Adams,  &  Co. 
We  cannot  pretend  that  these  volumes,  on  the  whole,  ai'e  very  valuable  or  very 
well  written.  But  they  contain  some  curious  information  respecting  an  extraor- 
dinary man  and  many  of  his  associates  ;  and  a  picture  is  presented  to  us,  which, 
if  in  some  parts  melancholy,  is  not,  on  that  account,  the  less  interesting  and  in- 
structive. Attention  may  be  usefully  directed  to  the  circumstances  and  trains 
of  thought,  through  which  Coleridge,  from  being  a  candidate  for  a  ministry 
among  the  Socinians,  became  so  earnest  and  uncompromising  an  advocate  of  the 
doctrine  of  the  Trinity.  A  most  impressive  warning,  too,  may  be  derived  from 
the  unfortunate  poet's  habit  of  taking  opium  and  the  other  habits  to  which  it  led. 
Some  of  the  details  are  absolutely  terrific  ;  and  the  following  letter,  which  Mr. 
Cottle  seems  quite  justified  in  publishing,  is  monitory  indeed. 

"Bristol,  June  26th,  1814. 
Dear  Sir, 

For  I  am  unworthy  to  call  any  good  man  friend — much  less  you,  whose  hos- 
pitality and  love  I  have  abused  ;  accept,  however,  my  intreaties  for  your  forgive- 
ness, and  for  your  prayers. 

Conceive  a  poor  miserable  wretch,  who  for  many  years  has  been  attempting 
to  beat  off  pain,  by  a  constant  recurrence  to  the  vice  which  reproduces  it.  Con- 
ceive a  spirit  in  hell,  employed  in  tracing  out  for  others  the  road  to  that 
heaven,  from  which  his  crimes  exclude  him !  In  short,  conceive  whatever  is 
most  wretched,  helpless,  and  hopeless,  and  you  will  fonn  as  tolerable  a  notion  of 
my  state,  as  it  is  possible  for  a  good  man  to  have. 

I  used  to  think  the  text  in  St.  James  that  '  he  who  offended  in  one  point, 
offends  in  all,'  very  harsh;  but  I  now  feel  the  awful,  the  tremendous  truth  of  it. 
In  the  one  crime  of  opium,  what  crime  have  I  not  made  myself  guilty  of! — In- 
gratitude to  my  Maker !  and  to  my  benefactors — injustice  I  and  unnatural 
cruelty  to  my  poor  children  ! — self  contempt  for  my  repeated  promise — breach, 
nay,  too  often,  actual  falsehood  ! 

After  my  death,  I  earnestly  entreat,  that  a  fidl  and  unqualified  narration  of  my 
wretchedness,  and  of  its  guilty  cause,  may  be  made  public,  that,  at  least,  some 
little  good  may  be  effected  by  the  direful  example. 

May  God  Almighty  bless  you,  and  have  mercy  on  your  still  affectionate,  and, 

in  his  heart,  grateful — 

S.  T.  Coleridge." 

NO.  XLllI.— JULY,    1837.  S 

Q.58  Ecclesiastical  Record. 

The  English  Marti/rologt/.     By  Charlotte  Elizabeth.     Vol.  I.     Seeley,  Fleet 

This  volmne  did  not  reach  us  until  we  had  made  mention  in  another  place  of 
the  name  of  Charlotte  Elizabeth.  It  is  an  abridgment  of  Fox,  forming  part  of 
the  Christian's  Family  Lifcror;/,  dedicated  to  Queen  Adelaide;  and  certainly 
not  done  without  talent.  Of  Fox  himself  and  his  labours  we  may  speak  on 
another  occasion.  To  the  present  work  Mr.  Bickersteth  has  prefixed  some 
^'  introdiichny  remarks,"  conspicuous  for  great  fervour  and  sincerity;  but  we 
should  hardly  say  for  much  discretion.  It  is  indeed  written  in  the  Book  of  Re- 
velations, "thus,  with  violence,  shall  that  great  city,  Babylon,  be  thrown  down,  and 
shall  be  found  wo  more  at  all:"  it  is  indeed  written  by  St.  Paul,  in  his  first 
Epistle  to  the  Thessalonians,  "  The  Lord  shall  consume  the  wicked  with  the 
spirit  of  his  mouth,  and  shall  desti'oy  him  with  the  brightness  of  his  coming:" — 
but  we  do  not,  therefore,  see  why  Mr.  Bickersteth  should  have  printed  the 
words,  "  WITH  VIOLENCE,"  iu  small  capitals ;  or  why  he  should  dogmatically  say, 
"  Popery,  and  all  adhering  to  it,  will  be  visibly  and  suddenly  overthrown  by 
Almighty  Power."  Is  there  no  danger  in  language  thus  solemnly  exciting? 
Is  there  no  danger,  if  it  spreads  from  men  like  Mr.  Bickersteth  to  other  persons 
far  less  able  and  less  truly  pious,  that  it  will  work  like  fire  in  some  men's  hearts, 
till  it  persuades  them  that,  in  departing  from  Christian  charity,  they  are  doing 
the  special  will  of  God,  and  even  agitates  them  with  the  fearful  conviction,  that 
they  are  the  destined  instruments  of  "  Almighty  Power,"  commissioned  to  de- 
stroy WITH  VIOLENCE,  and  achieve  this  "  visible  and  sudden  overthrow."  Let  us 
beware  of  that  spirit,  by  which  the  gloomy  but  conscientious  Covenanters  made 
some  text  of  the  Bible,  not  merely  a  justification,  but  a  command,  for  their 
own  deeds  of  fanaticism  and  ferocity.  It  is,  perhaps,  a  spirit  not  very  dissimilar, 
through  which  the  Papists  themselves  set  light  to  theiaggots  of  Smithfield,  and 
bound  their  victims  to  the  stake.  For  man  can  deem  it  a  species  of  impiety  to 
deal  tenderly  with  his  fellow  men,  if  he  has  once  imbibed  the  notion,  as  an  ele- 
ment of  his  religious  creed,  that  they  are  already  under  a  judicial  sentence  of 
heaven, — a  sentence  which  human  means  may  be  required  to  execute. 

Politics  of  another  World.     By  Mordecai.     Effingham  Wilson. 
By  sending  to  us  these  precious  Politics  of  another  World,  the  author,  we  sup- 
pose, intended  to  force  them  upon  our  serious  notice.     We  can  only  say,  that 
Mordecai  must  be  disappointed ;  for  his  work  is  too  contemptible  to  provoke  it. 

The  Carthusian.  Nos.  I.  II.  S.  Walker,  Barbican. 
This  is  an  enterprise  to  which,  on  many  accounts,  we  must  wish  well.  And 
indeed  it  is  impossible  to  contemplate,  without  a  deep  and  lively  interest,  the 
development  of  youthful  ability ;  whether  it  displays  itself  in  prose,  now  spark- 
ling with  gaiety  of  spirit,  as  yet  unsubdued  by  times  and  human  vicissitudes, 
now  breathing  loftier  aspirations,  and  giving  promise  of  a  maturity  of  excel- 
lence ;  or  in  poetry  replete  with  graceful  feeling  and  classical  expression.     The 

Ecclesiassical  Record.  259 

contributions  are  of  com-se  unequal ;  and,  if  the  subjects  came  legitimately 
within  our  sphere,  we  might  hazard  a  few  criticisms  on  one  or  two,  which 
hardly  rise  above  the  level  of  boyish  mediocrity.  But  the  young  adventurers, 
we  doubt  not,  are  already  beginning  to  feel  that  there  are  some  pains,  and  even 
some  disappointments,  connected  with  the  eclat  and  the  pleasure  of  authorship ; 
and  the  editors,  we  are  sure,  recollecting  that  they  have  taken  the  literary 
honour  of  a  distinguished  school,  in  some  measure  under  their  guardianship, 
Avill  be  taught  by  experience  to  be  more  and  more  careful  in  their  selections. 
Here  our  confidence  is  the  stronger,  because  the  second  number  is  certainly  an 
improvement  on  the  first.  For  the  rest,  of  every  thing  Carthusian,  we  would  say 
in  one  word  "Jloreat!"  We  only  trust,  that  these  youthful  aspirants  will  not 
be  diverted  by  any  golden  ball  which  may  roll  before  them  fi-om  the  regular 
prosecution  of  severe  and  masculine  studies.  These  are  times,  they  may  be 
assured,  when  such  is  the  competition,  that  they  who  would  win  the  race,  must 
not  swerve  from  the  course. 

The  Rector  of  Aubttrn,  in  two  volumes,  is  a  well-intentioned  story ;  but  we 
cannot  conscientiously  award  any  high  praise  to  the  execution. 

The  Widow's  (Jffering,  a  collection  of  miscellaneous  pieces,  also  in  two 
volumes,  contains  much  interesting  and  amusing  matter;  and  clearly  shows 
that  the  late  William  Pitt  Scargill  must  have  been  a  man  of  most  varied  and 
considerable  talent.  On  every  account,  we  must  wish  to  the  work  an  extensive 

We  see  advertised  a  memoir  of  the  Rev.  Edward  Smedley,  and  also  a  collec- 
tion of  poems,  called  "  The  Tribute,"  to  be  written  by  various  authors,  and 
published  for  the  benefit  of  his  family.  Lord  Northampton  has  kindly  under- 
taken the  task  of  editorship  :  and  from  the  celebrity  of  the  writers  who  furnish 
contributions,  we  should  look  for  a  rich  harvest  merely  from  the  intrinsic  merits 
of  the  work.  But  there  are  other  grounds  why  we  trust  that  it  will  find  a 
large  number  of  piu-chasers.  Mr.  Smedley  was  one,  who  more  than  reahzed 
the  heathen  idea  of"  a  good  man  struggling  with  the  ills  of  fate:"  he  was  a 
Christian,  who,  under  a  very  severe  visitation  of  God's  providence,  still  pa- 
tiently, cheerftilly,  uncomplainingly,  exerted  his  real  abilities  in  the  only  way 
which  remained  open  to  him,  for  the  good  of  mankind,  and  the  maintenance  of 
those  who  depended  on  him  for  support.  Under  the  painful  circumstances  with 
which  he  was  visited  he  did  more,  perhaps,  than  almost  any  other  man  could, 
or  would,  have  done :  and  we  entertain  a  confident  expectation,  that  the  friends 
who  admired  him,  and  the  public  who  were  benefited  by  his  labours,  will  do  the 

There  are  many  works  which  we  could  wish  to  notice,  such  as  Air.  Mont- 
gomery Martin's  Histoiy  of  the  British  Colonies ;  Mr.  Twiss's  excellent  abridg- 
ment of  Niehuhr  ;  Bulwer's  Athens  and  the  Athenians;  Dr.  Lardner's  Letter  to 
Lord  Melbourne,  on  Steam  Comwunication  with  India  by  the  Red  Sea;  and  a 
vast  number  of  single  sermons  and  pamphlets.  There  are  others,  such  as  Spar- 
tacus,  a  Tragedy,  and  Bcrhund,  a  Tragedy,  which  arc  quite  out  of  our  sphere  . 
there  are  others,  again,  and  some  among  them  of  real  value,  of  which  only  parts 

260  Ecclesiastical  Record. 

Lave  been  sent,  and  which  we  reserve  for  examination  until  the  whole  is  com- 

The  various  illustrative  works  of  the  day  seem  almost,  with  each  successive 
number,  to  increase  in  beauty  and  attractiveness.  Mr.  R.  Mimpriss,  the  author 
of  the  Pictorial  and  Geographical  Chart  of  the  Gospels,  "  has  published,  toge- 
ther with  an  explanatory  key,  a  companion  chart  of  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles." 
It  is  an  elaborate,  useful,  and  magnificent  work ;  and  will,  we  sincerely  hope, 
amply  repay  the  toil  and  expenditure  of  the  undertaking.  Of  these  some  notion 
may  be  formed,  when  we  say,  that  the  chart  is  beautifully  coloured,  and  orna- 
mented with  a  variety  of  figures ;  that  its  "  size  is  five  feet  by  four  feet  six 
inches,"  and  that  "  the  geography  is  compiled  from  the  latest  authorities,  having 
both  ancient  and  modern  names  of  places. 

The  first  number  of  the  Fathers,  to  be  published  under  the  superintendence 
of  Dr.  Pusey,  Mr.  Keble,  and  Mr,  Newman,  has  not  yet  made  its  appearance ; 
and,  when  we  consider  the  magnitude  and  difficulty  of  the  undertaking,  far 
from  wondering  at  the  delay,  we  must  be  glad  that  such  a  work,  instead  of  being 
precipitated  in  any  respect,  has  every  part  of  its  details  most  carefully  considered. 
Our  own  intention  is  first  to  give  an  article,  written  generally,  as  introductory  to 
the  study  of  the  early  Fathers,  and  removing  some  of  the  popular  misapprehen- 
sions on  the  subject ;  and,  afterwards,  as  the  several  treatises  come  out,  to  afford 
separate  articles  to  some  of  the  more  eminent  Fathers  of  the  third  and  fourth 
century,  as  "  Cyprian,"  Origen,"  Chrysostom,"  "  Augustin." 

We  have  been  anxiously  expecting,  but  hitherto  in  vain,  the  first  number  of 
the  New  Episcopal  American  Review.  To  such  a  publication,  undertaken  as 
we  know  it  to  be  under  the  best  auspices,  and  securing  to  itself  conductors  and 
contributors  in  whose  principles  and  abilities  full  confidence  can  be  reposed,  we 
cannot  but  wish  and  anticipate  a  wide  and  influential  success. 

We  have  again  to  regret  that  many  publications  have  reached  us  at  a  period 
in  the  quarter  quite  too  late  for  any  thing  more  than  a  bare  enumeration  of  their 
titles.  Among  them,  are  the  "  Remains  cf  Alexander  Knox,  Esq.,  Vols.  111.  4" 
IV.;"  "  The  Christian  Church,  as  distinguished  fiom  Fopery  and  Puritanism. 
By  the  Rev.  T.  Griffith ;"  "  The  Progress  of  Creation.  By  Mary  Roberts;" 
"  T'he  Rev.  H.  B.  Draper  on  the  Miracles;"  and  "  Investigation,  or  Travels 
in  the  Boudoir.     By  Caroline  Halsted." 

The  same  cause,  namely,  extreme  lateness  of  arrival,  precludes  us,  we  are 
sorry  to  add,  from  inserting  a  very  interesting  statement,  which  has  been 
kindly  forwarded  respecting  the  last  examinations  and  general  progress  of  the 
Durham  University.     May  that  noble  institution  flourish  as  it  deserves ! 

I.uiidoii:    Primed  by  (,',  Ruwoiili  aiij  Sods,  Bell  Yard,  Temple  Bat. 



<!^uavterl|)  ©ficological  SteUteU). 



OCTOBER,  1837. 

Art.  I. — Af aires   de    Rome.       Par   M.    F.   de   la    Mennais. 

Bruxelles.      1836. 

This  is  a  very  curious  and  instructive  work;  and,  though  coming 
from  the  pen  of  an  acknowledged  partisan,  and  therefore  not  im- 
plicitly to  be  trusted,  it  deals  too  largely  in  facts,  and  has  too  much 
the  air  of  truth,  not  to  demand  the  attention  of  all  Churchmen, 
That  great  and  ancient  power,  the  Ciuirch  Catholic,   which  dates 
her  origin  from  the  first  preaching  of  the  Gospel,  was  founded  by 
its  inspired  teachers,  and  claims  to  be  indissolubly  connected  with 
its  fortunes,  has  been  taken  captive  by  her  enemies,  blinded,  and 
set  to  servile  employments — to  make  men  good  citizens,  and   to 
promote   the   enlightenment  and  comfort  of  the  world  ;  except 
when  she  is  brought  out  of  the  prison-house  on  some  great  pa- 
geant, "  to  make  sport,"  to  invest  the  institutions  of  earth  with 
something  of  a  religious  character,  and  to  pay  homage  to  its 
mighty   men,  as   her  creators   and   governors.     Such  at  least  is 
M.  de  la  Mennais's  opinion ;  and  this  is  the  curious  circumstance, 
that  the  Roman  Church,  so  high  and  apostolic,  as  her  champions 
in  these  parts  would  represent  her,  so  voluntary,  so  law-less,  so 
unshackled,  is  after  all,  according  to  this  foreign  witness,  but  an 
established  thing,  up  and  down  the  countries  in  which  it  ought  only 
to  sojourn,  as  much  or  more  of  a  Law  Church  in  practice,  than  our 
own.      Indeed,   the   main  difference  between    it    and    ourselves 
seems  to  be  this  ;  that  we  have  hitherto  been  well-treated,  and  Ro- 
manists ill-treated  by  the  civil  power; — that  we  have  received  bread, 
and  have  obeyed  through  gratitude  ;  and  they  have  been  robbed 
and  beaten,  till  they  fawned  upon  their  oppressors  out  of  sheer 
exhaustion.     Certainly,  of  the  two,  ours  has  been  the  better  bar- 
gain.    Tlie   consequences  are  natural;    two  parties    at   present 
NO.  XLIV. — OCT.  1837.  T 

Q.G'2  Affairs  of  Rome. 

wish  our  (lowiifnll ;  our  ill-stancd  foreign  brethren,  to  level  us 
to  tlienisclves,  anil  our  own  masters,  to  rival  foreign  spoliations. 
Whigs  and  Papists  combine,  the  one  from  ambition,  the  other 
from  envy;  the  one  cry  out,  '*  I  will  ascend  into  heaven  ;  I  will 
exalt  njy  throne  above  tiie  stars  of  God :  I  will  sit  upon  the 
mount  of  the  congregation :"  and  the  others  begin  to  sav,  "  Art 
thou  also  become  weak  as  we?  Art  thou  become  like  unto  us?" 

JSI.  de  la  Mennais's  book  then  is  curious  and  instructive,  as 
setting  before  us  the  actual  state  of  the  Roman  Communion,  both 
ecclesiastically  and  morally  ;  and,  in  consequence,  as  holding  out 
to  us  some  warning  of  what  may  come  on  ourselves.  It  is  curious 
moreover,  as  indicating  the  existence  of  a  party  within  it,  at  va- 
riance with  the  present  policy  of  its  rulers,  living  upon  historical 
recollections  and  ancient  principles,  and  ripe  for  insurrection. 
Moreover,  it  is  curious  as  exhibiting  the  pr?;<c//j/es  of  this  insurgent 
party,  which  is  faithful  to  the  same  mixture  of  truth  and  error, 
right  and  bad  feeling,  which  has  been  the  inheritance  of  its  church 
for  many  centuries.  It  will  be  our  endeavour  to  put  the  Abbe's 
volume  before  the  reader  in  some  of  these  various  lights. 

When  good  churchmen  in  England  have,  of  late  years,  in  our 
presence  exclaimed  against  the  various  successful  encroachments  of 
the  State  upon  that  liberty  which  was  their  birth-right,  it  has  been 
our  wont  to  counsel  them  patience,  by  referring  to  the  state  of 
the  Greek  Church,  in  which  the  Great  Turk,  a  mere  heathen, 
or  rather  an  antichrist,  appoints  the  patriarch  ;  under  the  feeling 
that  we  had  no  right  to  complain  yet,  when  our  rulers  were  ap- 
pointed, not  by  pagans,  only  by  schismatics,  latitudinarians,  pro- 
fligates, socinians,  and  infidels.  But  the  work  before  us  suggests 
comfort  nearer  home ;  the  poor  Gallican  Church  is  in  a  captivity, 
not  only  doctrinal,  which  we  all  know,  but  ecclesiastical,  far 
greater  than  ours.  M.  de  la  Mennais  mentions  the  following  in- 
stances of  it. 

In  1801,  Buonaparte,  as  consul,  negociated  a  concordat  with 
the  Pope,  by  which  the  government  had  secured  to  it  the  right  of 
presenting  to  the  French  sees,  on  the  condition  of  its  "  professing 
the  Catholic  religion."*  It  was  stipulated,  at  the  same  time, 
that  if  the  consuls  or  their  successors  ever  ceased  such  profession, 
a  new  concordat  should  settle  the  mode  of  nomination.  This 
arrangement  was  acknowledged  and  acted  on  under  the  Resto- 
ration, the  kings  beings  by  profession,  *'  most  Christian,"  and 
guardians  of  Catholicism.  But  after  the  events  of  the  Three 
Days,  the  state  could  no  longer  fulfil  its  own  part  of  the  compact. 
Louis  Philippe  was  king  "  by  the  grace  of  the  people  ;"  and  was 
obliged,  according  to  one  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  the 

♦  P.  3. 

Affairs  of  Rome.  <lQ3 

Revolution,  whatever  he  might  be  in  his  own  person,  to  become 
an  infidel  by  profession.  It  follows,  in  our  author's  words, — that 
"  the  government  had  no  longer  the  right  to  present  to  the  sees  ; 
and  the  danger  was  obvious  of  allowing  ministers,  who  might  be 
Deists,  Protestants,  Jews  or  Infidels,  to  choose  the  successors  of 
the  apostles  of  Jesus  Christ."*  However,  the  government  con- 
tiimes  to  (qjpoint  the  bishops  as  before  ;  and  has  availed  itself  of 
its  privilege,  to  introduce  into  the  hierarchy,  persons  who  have 
justified  the  fears  with  which  such  a  prerogative  naturally  in- 
spired all  pious  men.f 

An  attempt  has  been  made  to  encroach  upon  the  rights  of  the 
Church  in  her  inferior,  as  well  as  her  highest  appointments.  The 
government  has  interfered  in  the  appointment  of  parish  priests. 
On  a  vacancy  in  a  living  the  bishop  of  the  diocese  nominates  the 
new  incumbent ;  he  has  been  expected  by  the  new  government 
to  take  his  choice  out  of  persons  named  to  the  minister  of 
religion  by  the  local  magistracy.  In  the  diocese  of  Nimes,  in- 
stances have  occurred  of  the  government's  taking  the  absolute 
nomination  into  their  hands.  One  parish  went  without  a  clergy- 
man for  many  months,  because  the  bishop's  nominee  was  opposed 
by  a  nominee  of  a  colonel.  In  another,  the  appointment  was 
given  to  a  nominee  of  a  Protestant  mayor.  M.  de  la  Mennais 
adds :  "  Since  the  nomination  of  canons  and  vicars-general  also 
was  in  the  hands  of  the  government,  it  followed,  that  the  whole 
hierarchy  fell  directly  or  indirectly  into  the  hands  of  enemies  of 
the  Church,  who,  after  having  all  their  life  had  the  vision  of  her 
ruin  before  their  ei/es,  found  themselves  all  at  once  in  a  situation  to 
give  her  unsound  ministers  as  many  as  they  chose. "1^  It  is  an 
edifying  comment  on  this  fact  that  M.  Montalivet,  when,  as 
minister  of  religion,  he  had  the  disposal  of  all  the  government 
church  patronage,  avowed  it  his  wish  so  to  manage  the  education 
of  the  people  as  to  destroy  superstition. 

The  following  acts  are  instances  of  interference,  with  still  less 
regard  to  law  or  usage ;  political  necessity  being  of  course  in  part 
their  excuse.  A  circular  from  the  minister  of  religion  to  the 
bishops,  enjoined  them  to  add  the  name  of  Louis  Philippe  in  the 
sentences  in  the  service  where  "  the  king"  is  prayed  for,  **  con- 
trary," says  our  author,  "  to  the  immemorial  usage  of  the  Church 
of  France,  respected  even  under  Napoleon. "§  By  another  cir- 
cular they  were  ordered  to  interdict  the  observance  of  certain 
festivals,  declared  not  obligatory  by  the  concordat ;  with  a  view 

*  P.  64. 

t  The  Abbe  mentions  M.  I'Abbe  G.,  bishop  of  B. ;    M.  I'Abb^  R.,  of  D. ;  and 
M,  l'Abb6  d'H.,  of  M. 

t  P.  66.  §  P.  67. 


Gfi4  Affairs  of  Rome. 

of  hindering  the  attendance  at  chnrch  on  those  days.  Another 
circnhir  ordered  the  clergy  to  warm  the  water  used  in  baptism 
dnring  the  winter.  In  the  dioceses  of  Lyons  and  Grenoble,  the 
names  of  children  are  demanded  for  registration  before  baptism. 

On  the  Abbe  Gregoire's  death,  though  he  died  in  separation 
from  the  Catholic  Church,  the  government  took  possession  of  a 
parish  church,  in  Paris,  and  caused  a  solemn  service  to  be  per- 
formed over  the  body  by  some  separatist  priests.  A  like  outiage 
occurred  on  the  death  of  the  Abbe  Berthier,  who  died  in  schism; 
and  the  government  intimated  its  intention,  as  a  matter  of  right 
and  duty,  always  so  to  act  in  parallel  circumstances.  Aristotle, 
if  we  mistake  not,  has  been  represented  as  inclining  to  the  notion 
that  pity  is  the  long-scented  presage  of  one's  own  participation  in 
another's  misfortunes.    We  sincerely  pity  the  French  Church. 

The  clergy  are  paid  by  the  State,  by  a  yearly  budget.  This 
salary  was  originally  an  indemnity  in  part  of  the  immense  spolia- 
tions of  the  church  at  the  first  Revolution,  and  was  settled  by 
the  concordat  of  1801.  It  has  ceased  to  be  considered  a  debt, 
as  might  easily  be  anticipated  ;  and  is  increased  or  diminished  at 
pleasure  by  the  government,  who  claim  the  right  of  suppressing 
it  altogether. 

Instances  have  occurred  of  clergy  being  refused  the  bills  due 
to  them  on  the  treasury,  for  their  salaries,  because  the  underlings 
of  government  have  been  dissatisfied  with  their  mode  of  going 
on.*  What  sets  off  this  proceeding  is  the  circumstance,  that  ac- 
cording to  French  law,  government  cannot  withhold  a  public 
functionary's  pay,  without  proceeding  to  displace  him  :  and  if 
he  cannot  be  displaced,  without  action  in  a  court  of  law. 

Lastly,  the  parish  priests  are  under  the  immediate  surveillance 
of  the  mayors,  and  for  every  day's  non-residence  are  fined  a  por- 
tion of  their  stipend. f 

Such  is  the  state  of  the  Church  under  a  government  which  pro- 
fesses no  religion  ;  it  is  paid  by  the  state,  enslaved  and  insulted. 
No  wonder ;  one  is  only  surprised  that  it  has  fared  no  worse, 
from  those  who  would  get  religion  out  of  the  world  altogether,  if 
they  could.  But  what  is  surprising  is,  the  hard  treatment  which 
religion  has  received  from  those  who  are  commonly  considered  its 
best  friends — the  Bourbons  of  the  Restoration,  and  the  great 
conservative  party  who  attached  themselves  to  them.  They  re- 
tained Buonaparte's  concordat  of  1801,  though  formed  on  those 
prmciples  of  tyranny  which  he  exercised  towards  all  over  whom  he 
extended  his  patronage.  The  bishops  were  not  permitted  a  free- 
dom of  intercourse  with  each  other, or  with  Rome;  and  punish- 
ments, up  to  banishment,  were  assigned  to  any  priest  for  correspond- 

♦  P.  75.     ,  t  P.  68. 

Affairs  of  Rome.  2o5 

ing  with  what  is  to  them  the  centre  of  Christendom.  In  spite  of  pro- 
vincial and  diocesan  synods,  and  ecclesiastical  conrts,  the  Council 
of  State  was  the  sole  judge  of  all  disputes  relative  to  religion  and 
conscience.*  Education  was  entrusted  to  a  lay  body,  to  the  ex- 
clusion of  the  clergy ;  the  religious  management,  and  even  teach- 
ing in  schools,  subjected  to  civil  authority ;  religious  fraternities 
legally  permitted,  only  under  a  license  revocable  at  pleasure. 
Much  of  this  might  be  excused,  on  the  pka  that  the  Bourbons 
did  but  take  what  they  found  established  ;  nay,  even  justified,  on 
the  plea  of  their  Christian  profession.  But  what  shall  we  say  to 
the  two  celebrated  ordinances  of  June  16,  1828,  which,  though 
forced  upon  the  reigning  prince,  attest  thereby  so  much  the  more 
strikingly  the  slavery  of  the  Church,  under  the  system  over  which 
he  nominally  presided?  By  these  all  colleges  were  suppressed 
which  remained  in  the  hands  of  the  clergy,  and  all  ecclesiastical 
schools  were  put  under  the  civil  authority  ;  the  number  of  candi- 
dates for  orders  was  limited,  they  were  obliged  to  wear  a  parti- 
cular dress,  and  their  masters,  having  been  previously  approved 
by  government,  took  an  oath  not  to  belong  to  any  religious 
society  not  recognized  by  the  state.  Such  was  the  legislative 
patronage  extended  by  the  Bourbons  to  the  Church,  in  spite  of 
their  attachment  to  it.  They  did  what  they  could, — favours,  that 
is,  which  for  the  most  part  were  personal  only,  and  came  to  an 
end  with  themselves  ;  or  political  favours  which  would  come  to 
an  end  with  the  civil  power.  They  increased  the  number  of  the 
bishops,  gave  then»  seats  in  the  chamber,  increased  their  stipends, 
encouraged  the  ceremonies  of  religion,  favoured  its  missions  (as 
they  were  called) ;  they  did  all  but  restore  to  the  Church  its  own 
proper  power — power  over  itself,  over  its  members,  or  what,  in 
the  case  of  individuals,  is  liberty  of  person. 

There  is  not  much  to  choose,  then,  for  the  French  Church,  be- 
tween friends  and  foes;  except  that  friends  are  better  behaved : — but 
how  to  account  for  this  unanimity  between  them?  At  first  sight,  it 
seems  obvious  to  attribute  it  to  the  present  miserably  irreligious 
state  of  France,  which  makes  it  impossible  for  its  rulers,  however 
well  inclined,  to  do  any  real  service  to  the  Church.  But  M.  de  la 
Mennais  has  no  difficulty  in  showing  that  the  phenomenon  is  in- 
dependent of  the  age  and  the  place  in  which  it  has  occurred.  In 
France,  it  is  as  old  at  least  as  the  reign  of  Louis  XIV.  and  is,  as 
he  maintains,  the  working,  not  of  infidelity,  but  of  Gallicanism ; 
which  is,  as  it  would  really  appear,  but  the  surrender  to  the  king  of 
that  illegal  power  over  the  Church,  which  had  heretofore  been  pos- 
sessed by  the  Pope.  The  Gallican  principle  is  the  vindication  of 
the  Church,  not  into  independence,  but  into  state  patronage.   The 

*  Pp.  46,  47. 

oQQ  Affairs  of  Rome. 

liberties  of  tiie  Gallican  Church  arc  its  establishment,  as,  in  Scrip- 
ture lan«^uagc,  *'  the  servant  of  man."  These  liberties  were  so- 
Icnuily  recognized  in  the  articles  of  the  famous  council  held  iu 
Paris  in  l(i82,  in  which  was  confirmed  the  king's  claim  to  exer- 
cise in  all  churches  within  his  kingdom,  a  right  which  he  pos- 
sessed but  in  portions  of  it,  viz.  that  on  a  vacancy  in  a  see,  he 
should  enjoy  its  revenues  and  its  patronage  till  it  was  filled  up. 
On  the  Pope's  resisting  the  innovation,  and  refusing  to  confirm 
the  bishops  nominated  by  Louis,  the  latter,  zealous  for  his 
church's  liberty,  caused  them  to  be  consecrated  and  inducted 
into  their  sees  on  his  own  authority.  Next,  he  summoned  the 
council  in  question,  in  which  it  was  decreed, —  I.  that  the  Pope 
could  not  interfere  with  the  temporal  concerns  of  princes,  directly 
or  indirectly;  2.  That  in  spiritual  matters,  he  was  subject  to  a 
general  council ;  3.  That  the  rules  and  usages  of  the  Gallican 
Church  were  inviolable;  and  4.  That  the  Pope's  decision,  in 
points  of  faith,  was  not  infallible,  unless  attended  by  the  consent 
of  the  Church.  It  matters  little  what  is  the  wording  of  such  re- 
solutions, or  what  their  precise  doctrinal  signification  :  they  were 
aimed  at  the  assistance  afforded  to  religion  by  an  external  power 
against  the  pressure  of  the  temporal  power  within,  and  they  suc- 
ceeded in  making  the  king  the  head  of  the  French  Church,  in 
much  the  same  sense  in  which  he  is  its  supreme  governor  among 
ourselves.  On  the  restoration  of  the  Bourbons,  Gallicanism 
returned  with  them,  and  its  four  articles  were  made  the  rule  of 
the  government  schools.  At  first  the  clergy  were  little  disposed 
to  co-operate  with  the  court,  but  a  judicial  decree  in  1826