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Full text of "Eastern geography. A geography of the Malay peninsula, Indo-China, the Eastern archipelago, the Philippines, and New Guinea"

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Augustus Henry 

(Columbia Statoe raff tp 



ological Society of Aiaeric 




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Prof. A. H. KEANE, B.A., F.R.G.S., 


(■Sixth a iHap. 


. . • • «•-.»•» * \ 

» • - » ■ i * ' *, i i . < 

26 & 27 COCtS'Pt/rs.STKEEr, CHARING CROSS, S.\V\ 

3 &9.1 

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This work, it is hoped, may be only the first of a series on 
Eastern Geography, the idea, and to some extent the plan, of 
which are due to the enlightened public spirit of the Hon. A. 
M. Skinner, President (1885) of the Straits Branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society. During his official connection with the 
Administration of Singapore, that gentleman has practically 
co-operated in supplying a want which the Governor, Sir F. 
Weld, had long desired to supply. Under these auspices there 
appeared in 1884 at Singapore a treatise on the Malay Peninsula 
which has served as the groundwork of the first part of the 
present volume. Some materials collected on the spot were also 
kindly placed at my disposal, of which I have gladly availed 
myself in the treatment of other sections. 

For the general plan and composition of the volume in its 
present form I must in other respects accept the entire responsi- 
bility. My primary aim has been to produce a work which 
may meet the requirements of teacher and pupil in the Straits 
Settlements, and in the other colonies directly interested in 
the regions here dealt with. At the same time, these regions, 
notwithstanding their growing political and commercial import- 
ance, continue to be handled in such a perfunctory manner in 
popular works at home, that English students may also perhaps 
be glad to welcome a work which can at least claim to be the 
first exclusively devoted to those remote lands. 


A glance at the Contents, where by a process of double 
pagination facility of general reference has been consulted, 
will at once reveal the general arrangement of the subject 
matter. Here clearness and uniformity have been the main 
considerations, while in the treatment especially of the physical 
and biological sections an attempt has been made to break away 
from the crude methods still lingering in our schools, and to 
bring the matter more into harmony with the views of the 
Bitters, Peschels, Reclus and the other illustrious exponents 
of the true scientific method. Thus the present conditions are, 
as far as possible, treated in the light of the past, so that a 
relation between cause and effect takes the place of a bald 
statement of facts. In this way the slow decay of the marvellous 
Cambojan culture becomes intimately associated with the slow 
subsidence of the waters, or the upheaval of the land, which 
converted a former marine inlet into a mere fishing-pond 
(p. 102-3). So also the local phenomenon of the " Sumatras " 
is brought into direct connection with the climatic, and the.^e 
again with the geological conditions of North Sumatra (p. 141), 
and so on. 

Another feature is the reference to recent explorers (Forbes, 
Chalmers, Guillemard, Gill, &c), in those still little known 
regions, and even occasional short quotations from their writ- 
ings. This inspires the teacher with confidence in his guide, 
and perhaps helps to awaken the interest of his pupiL All the 
information is as recent and correct as possible, and for that 
reason the book appeals to many besides pupils and teachers, for 
whom it was originally intended. 

The division of the Eastern Archipelago into three instead of 
two natural regions (an Asiatic, Oceanic, and Australian) may 
possibly challenge criticism. But if it teaches teacher and 
student to think, its purpose will be served, even though the 
theory itself be rejected. 

The orthography was of course a troublesome question, 
the solution of which has been sought in an eclectic system 

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leaning towards the suggestions lately published by the Royal 
Geographical Society. The indefinite Malay vowel (e) will be 
found generally marked in important names (Kedah, Seng- 
gdra, &c), but its consistent adoption throughout would have 
needlessly overcrowded the pages of the Malay section with 
unsightly diacritical marks. For some useful information on 
this and other points I have to thank Mr. D. F. A. Hervey of 
Malacca, though unable to adopt all his suggestions. The Rev. 
James Chalmers has also kindly looked over the proof sheets cf 
the section on New Guinea. 

A. H. K. 

University College, London. 
March 1887. 

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Preface ui » « » in uj ui » ui S 



General Survey — Physical Features — Mountain and 
River Systems — Seaboard — Islands — The Isthmus of 

Kra 1 

Fosition —Extent, p. 1 ; Mountain Systems, p. 1; Mineral Wealth, 
p. 2 ; River Systems, p. 3 ; Seaboard, Islands, p. 4 ; Isthmus 
of Kra, p. 4. 


Climate— Flora— Fauna .,, .„ ... 6 


Inhabitants — The Negritoes — Sam- Sams and Malays — 
Religion — Language 7 

The Negritoes, p. 7 ; the Siamese and Sam-Sams, p. 7 ; the 
"" Malays, p. 8 ; the Malay Language, p. 11 ; the Chinese, p. 12 ; 
the .tilings, &c, p. 12. 


Political Divisions— Siamese and British Divisions — 
Resources — Trade — Government 18 

Northern or Siamese Division, p. 14 ; Kra, Puket, Redan, 
). 15 ; Ligor, SenggSra, p. 17 ; Patani, p. 18 ; Reman, 

telantan, p. 19; Trengganu, p. 20; Southern or British 
Division, p. 22 ; the Three Protected States, Perak, p. 22 ; 
Selangor, p. g ; Sunjei Ojong, p. W, the fllegri SemHIan 



States, p. 30 ; Jelebu, p. 31 ; Johol, p. 32 ; Rembau, p. 34 ; 
Pahang, j>. 35; Johor, p. 38 ; the Straits Settlements, 
p. 40 ; Singapore, p. 43 ; Penang, Malacca, p. 44. 

Statistics of the Malay Peninsula 45 



General Survey — Physical Features— Mountain and 
River Systems — Seaboard— Islands 49 

Position, Boundaries, Extent, p. 49 ; Mountain Systems, p. 50 ; 
" Mineral "Wealth, p. 51 ; River Systems, p. 52 ; Seaboarcl, 
p. 55. 


Climate— Flora— Fauna 55 


Inhabitants— Burmese — Talaings — Siamese — Annamese 
— Cambojans 57 

MopgoUc Races, p. ,57 ; languages, p. 58 ; Non-Mongolic Races, 

g j 59 ; Table of Mongolic and Non-Mongolic RacesVp. 60 ; the 
urmese and Talaings, p. 61 ; the Siamese, Shans and Laos, 
p. 02 ; the, p. 65 ; the Cambojans, p. C6. 


Political Divisions — Burmah — Siam — Annam— Camboja 67 

1. British Division ; Burmah, p. 68 ; Burmah Proper, 
~ p. 69 ; Physical Features, p. 69 ; Arts and Industries, p. 71 ; 

Geographical and Political Divisions, p. 72 ; Topography, 
p. 74 ; Auakan, p. 77; Physical Features, p. 77 ; Natural 
Resources, p. 78 ; Inhabitants, p. 78 ; Administration, p. 79] 
Topograph}', p. 80 ; TEX a ss e r i m , p. 80 ; Physical Features, 
p. 80 ; Topography, p. 82 ; Administration, p. 83. 

2. Native Division : Siam, p. 83 ; Upper Siam, p. 83 ; 
Physical Features, p. 84 ; Climate, p. 86 ^Products and Natural 
Resources, p. 86 ; Industries, Trade, p. 88 ; Communications, 
p. 89; Political Divisions p. 90 ; Administration, p. 91; 
Topography, p. 91 ; Historical Notes, p. 93. 

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3. French Division : Axxam and Camrqja, p. 93 ; General 
"" Survey, p. 93; Position, Extent, Population, p. 94; Physical 
Features, p. 95 ; Climate, p. 97 ; Natural Resources, p. 97 ; 
Trade and Industries, p. 98 ; Political Divisions, p. 100 ; 
Tonkin, p. 98; Cochin-china, p. 100 ; Lower Cochin - 
China, p. 101 ; Camhq.ta, p. 102 ; Administration, p. 102 ; 
Topography, p. 103 ; Historical Notes, p. 105. 

Statistics of Indo-China ... 107 



General Survey — Distribution of Land and Water — 
Main Insular Groups — Volcanic Formations- 
Geology — Extent — Population 110 

General Survey, p. 110 ; Volcanic Formations, p. 112 ; Geology, 
~ ~p. 113; Extent, Population, p. 114. 


Climate — Flora — Fauna 115 


Inhabitants — Malays — Indonesians — Negritoes — 

Papuans . .» . « . . . . «« » «. . » . » » .» »>» 118 

The Malays, p. 119 ; Malayan Groups, p. 120 ; the Indonesians, 

Geographical and Political Divisions — Asiatic, Austra- 
lian, and Oceanic Natural Divisiona — Dutch, Spanish, 
English, German, and Portuguese Territories 126 

L Asiatic Division : The large Sunda Group with Bali and 
Islands adjacent to Sumatra— the Philippine and Stilu Archi- 
pelagoes, p. 127 ; Borneo, p. 128 ; Kivers, p. 131 ; Lakes, p. 
131 ; Climate, p. 132 ; Flora and Fauna, p. 132 ; Inhabitants, 
p. 133 ; Dutch Possessions, p. 134 ; Banjer-Masin, p. 135 j 
Kutei, p. 135 ; British Settlements in Borneo, p. 136 ; Sara - 
wak, p. 136 ; British North Borneo, p. 137 ; Labuan, p. 138 ; 


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Native Territory, Brinei, p. 139 ; Historical Notes, p. 139 : 
Sumatra, p. 141 ; U^anis, p. 141 ; Phvsical Features, p. 
142 ; Rivers, p. 143 ; Like*, p. 144 ; Flora, Fauna, p. 145 ; 
Mineral*, Trade, Inhabitant*, p. 146 ; Political Divisions, 
p. 147 ; Chief Towns, p. 143 ; Historical Notes, p. 149 : 
Java and Madura, p. 150; Coastline, p. 150; Physical 
Feature*, p. 151 ; Volcanoes, p. 151 ; Rivers, p. 152 ; Climate, 
p. 152 ; Flora, Fauna, p. 153 ; Inhabitants, p. 154 ; Govern- 
ment, Trade, p. 155 ; Topography, p. 156 ; Historical Notes, 
p. 157 ; Bali, p. 155 ; the Philippine Archipelago, p. 158 ; 
General Survey, p. 15* : Physical Features, p. 159 ; Rivers 
and Lakes, p. 160 ; Climate, p. 161 ; Flora, p. 161 ; Fauna, 
p. 162 ; Inhabitants, p. 162 ; Government, Trade, Topograph v, 
p. 164 ; Sola, Bashi, p. 165. « 
2- Oceanic Division : Celebes — the Molucca and Banda Groups, 
p. 165 ; Celebes, p. 166 ; General Survey, p. 166 ; Rivers 
and Lakes, p. 167 ; Climate, Minerals, Flora, Fauna, p. 167 ; 
Inhabitants, p. 16S ; Political Divisions, p. 163 ; Agriculture, 
Trade, Industries, p. 169 ; Molucca and Banda Groups, 
p. 170 ; Flora and Fauna, p. 171 ; Jilolo (Halmahera), p. 171 ; 
Moluccas Proper, p. 172 ; Oram, Ke, p. 172 ; Burn, p. 173 ; 
Amboyna, p. 173 ; Banda, p. 174 ; Political Divisions, p. 174. 

3. Australian Division : The Lesser Sundas — Timor, Timor 
Laut — New Guinea, p. 175 ; General Survey, p. 175 ; Lombok, 
p. 176 ; Sumbawa, p. 177 ; F.oris and Comodo, p. 178 ; 
Sumba or Sandalwood, p. 178 ; Timor, p. 178 ; Timor Laut or 
Tenimber, p. 180 ; New Guinea, p. 181 ; General Survey, 
p. 181 ; Islands, p. 181 ; Physical Feataregjjp, 182 ; Rivers, 

^183 ; Geological Formations, p. 183 ; Climate, p. 184 ; 
ora, p. 184 ; Fauna, p. 185 ; Inhabitants, p. 185 ; Political 
Divisions, p. 187 j Historical Note, p. 188. 

Statistic* of Eastern Archipelago ... 189 

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Position— Extent.— The Malay Peninsula, the Tdnah Maldt/u, 
or " Malay Land" of the natives, forms the southernmost extension 
of the great peninsular region of Indo-China, with which it is con- 
nected by the Isthmus of Kra (Kraw). At the narrowest point of 
this isthmus the river Pakshan marks the natural and political bound- 
ary towards British Burma on the west side ; but on the east the 
frontier towards Siam is indicated by no physical or conventional line. 
South of Kra the Peninsula projects for about 600 miles first south, 
then south-east nearly parallel with Sumatra, terminating at Cape 
Tanjong Bulus in 1° 16' 12" N. latitude. Here is the southernmost 
extremity of the Asiatic continent, which, however, is geologically 
continued to the island of Billiton (Bilitong), and includes the 
neighbouring archipelagoes of Bentan, Lingga, and Banka, all now 
severed from the mainland. The Peninsula, which is washed by the 
Bay of Bengal and Strait of Malacca on the west, by the Gulf of 
Siam and China Sea on the east, gradually widens from about 40 
miles at Kra to about 200 miles between the Dindinga and Tring- 
g&nu, again contracting further south to a mean breadth of under 
100 miles in Johor. The total area is somewhat over 75,000 square 
miles, with an estimated population of at least 2,000,000, or about 
26 inhabitants to the square mile. 

Mountain Systems.— Malay land forms geologically a southern 
extension of the mountain system, which separates the Salwin and 
Menam river basins. It consists mainly of continuous ranges running 


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in a line with the continental axis and forming a distinct water-parting 
between the streams flowing east and west to the surrounding seas. 
The western range continues unbroken from the interior of Kedah 
(6° N.) to the interior of Malacca (2° N.), reappearing at intervals 
further south in Johor and even in the insular peaks beyond. The 
central upland region is skirted on either side by low-lying coastlands 
of varying breadth and of recent formation, which alone are cultivated 
and inhabited by settled populations. 

The height of the main central range increases towards the wider 
parts of the Pensinula, culminating in Kedah and Perak, where 
several peaks are known to range from 5000 to 8000 feet and upwards. 
The principal summits, some of which have been ascended in recent 
years, are Mount Robinson or Riam (about 8000 feet) in south Perak ; 
Titi Wangsa (6840) between Kedah and Perak ; Ulu Temeling 
(6435) and Bubo (5650) near the right and left banks of the Perak 
river respectively ; the Slim range (6000 to 7000) in south-east Perak ; 
Chimbera8 (5650) in Selangor ; Berembun (about 4000) in Sungei 
Ujong ; Ledang, or Ophir (4200) in Moar, until recently supposed 
to be the highest point in the Peninsula ; Blumut (3200) in south 
Johor, at the source of the river Johor. 

East of the central range, and many miles inland from Perak, on 
the east 6ide of the river Pahang, near the west frontier of Tringganu 
and Kelantan, stretches the still unexplored Tahan chain, which was 
described in 1875 by the traveller Miklukho-Maclay as the loftiest 
crest in the whole Peninsula. Recent information tends to confirm 
this view, and it now seems probable that the highest of the peaks 
exceeds 10,000 feet. 

Apart from the low-lying coastlands, which vary in breadth from 10 to 
25 miles, the whole peninsula is broken and hilly, and everywhere covered 
with dense forests. The formation is mainly granitic, traversed by veins of 
stanniferous quartz, and overlaid by sandstone, unfossilised clay slates, 
laterite or ironstone, and in a few places, principally towards the north, by 
limestone. Although no trace has been found of recent volcanic action, 
there are several isolated and unstratified limestone masses from 500 to 2000 
feet high of a highly crystallised character with no fossils of any kind. 

Mineral Wealth —The most remarkable geological feature is 
the prevalence of tin, in some places associated with gold and galena. 
The tin occurs throughout the Peninsula, reaching as far north as 
Tavoi (14° N.) in British Burraah, andas far south as the Carimona 
(Kerimun) and Lingga on the equator, and after a break of about 140 
miles reappearing in Banka and Billiton islands (3° S.). Where it has 
been observed in situ, the bed of the ore, which occurs nowhere else 
in the Eastern Archipelago, is the quartz, which is found penetrating 

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the granite at every elevation. The whole country has been described 
as "a vast magazine" of this metal, and is now admitted to be the 
most extensive tin-producing region in the world. But mining 
operations have hitherto been confined to the deposits near the foot 
of the hills, in the alluvial ground formed by the decomposition of 
the encasing rocks. Mines are worked at present in about twenty 
different localities on both sides, and throughout the length of the 
Peninsula. The most productive are those of Intan, Sel&ma, Larut, 
Kinta, Kwala Lumpor, Sungei, Ujong, Pahang, Kelantan, and 

Gold occurs in several of these districts, but especially in Chendras, 
Taong (near Mount Ophir), Kelantan, and Jelei in the interior of Pahang, 
the produce of the last-mentioned place commanding a higher price by 
3 per cent, than the best Australian gold. Rich galena ore occurs in Patani. 
Silver also, the presence of which had been doubted, although the Perak 
river is named from the Malay word perak, " silver," has recently been 
found in Larut associated with the tin ores of that district. Rich galena 
ore occurs in Patani, while iron is more abundant even than tin, especially 
in the southern provinces. Coal has also been found to the south of Era, 
in Perak, and a few other places. But neither coal nor iron has hitherto 
been worked in any part of the Peninsula. 

River Systems.— Owing to the formation of the land and the 
somewhat central disposition of the main water-parting, the rivers 
although numerous are necessarily of short length, and as their mouths 
are generally obstructed by bars and coral reefs, they are on the 
whole more useful for irrigation than as highways of communication. 
Nevertheless some are navigable by light craft for considerable 
distances, and small steamers have ascended the Bernam between 
Perak and Selangor for a distance of about 80 miles from the coast. 
But by far the largest river basins are the Perak on the west and the 
Pahang on the east slope, each of which comprises an area of drain- 
age over 5000 square miles in extent. The Perak with its chief 
tributaries, the Plus, Kinta, and Batang Padang, presents a total 
navigable watenvay of perhaps 2000 miles. 

The other chief streams, following the coast from north to south, 
are the Pakshan on the northern frontier ; the Muda, flowing between 
Kedah and the province of Wellesley ; the Krian and Larut in Perak ; 
the SelSngor, Klang, Langat, Linggi, and Moar, all on the west coast ; 
the Johor, whose estuary faces Singapore ; the Patani, the Kelantan, 
with its large tributary the Lebih, the Kemaman, Cherating, Rumpen, 
and Endau, all on the east coast. 

Most of these rivers have their course, not east and west, but more or 
less synclinal with the mountain-ranges from north-east to south-west on 

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the west side, and from south-west to north-east on the opposite side of 
the Peninsula. A consequence of this disposition of the river basins is, 
that at some of the principal points of the system the streams flowing from 
the same water-parting north to the China Sea and south to the Bay of 
Bengal have their upper waters almost contiguous. Such is the case, for 
instance, with the rivers Pahang and Slim in 5° North, and the rivers 
Serting and Moar in 3° North. 

Seaboard — Islands. — The coast on both sides, but particularly 
on the west, is almost invariably marshy and alluvial. The flat, 
unbroken seaboard, scarcely raised above sea level, is generally over- 
grown with mangroves for some four or five miles inland. In some 
parts these low-lying plains expand to a breadth of 25 or 30 miles, 
but they are usually much more contracted. On the east coast the 
hills approach at several points close to the shore, a disposition 
partly due perhaps to the influence of the north-east monsoon. Here 
the chief headlands are Capes Carnom, Patani,Tringano, and Romania, 
to which correspond on the opposite side the promontories of Salang, 
Kalang, Rachado, and Bolus (Bulus). 

In the extreme North both sides of the Peninsula are fringed by 
clusters of innumerable reefs and islets lying close to the shore. 
Farther seawards in a second barrier of larger islands in the Gulf of 
Siam, of which the chief are Taw, Carnam (Samai), and Quin. In 
the Bay of Bengal there also runs a second chain, forming a southern 
extension of the Mergui Archipelago. But beyond this insular 
region the coast is generally free from islands, except at the southern 
extremity of the Peninsula, where are clustered the Singapore, 
Bintang (Bentan), Bulang, and Carimons (Kerimon) groups. Else- 
where the largest islands are Junk Ceylon (Ujong SAlang), Lengkawi, 
and Penan* (Pinang) on the west side ; Tantalam, the Great and 
Little Redangs, Tioman, and Tinggi on the east side. Their 
geological formation and general disposition parallel with the 
seaboard show that all these groups are mere fragments of the 
mainland, with which some of the largest, such as Salang, Singapore, 
and Tantalam, are almost contiguous. The Strait of Singapore 
presents the aspect rather of a river than of a marine channel, run- 
ning for over 30 miles transversely with the main peninsular axis, 
with a mean breadth of little over 1500 yards. 

Isthmus of Kra. — These islands thus bear somewhat the same 
relation to the whole Peninsula that this region will present to the 
Asiatic mainland whenever the projected canalisation of the Isthmus 
of Kra is effected. By a ship canal at this point the voyage from 
Calcutta to China would be shortened by 660 miles, and that between 
Burmah and Bangkok by 1300 miles. The original scheme, proposed 

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by Tremenhere, was to dredge the river Pakshan as fur at? the 
village of Kra, and then tunnel the highest point, thus reuching the 
Gulf of Siam by the alluvial plain of the Chumpong river. Others 
suggested a point farther south, where the Pakshan is everywhere 
at least 30 feet deep ; while the French engineers Deloncle and Dru 
prefer an intermediate route from the Pakshan below the rapids to 
Tasun on the Tayung, or Upper Chumpong. But none of the 
schemes hitherto proposed have been found quite practicable, and 
since the more definite surveys of 1882-3, the project has been 



Climate.— The climate is everywhere moist and hot, though 
seldom malarious, even along the low muddy banks near the coast. 
Nor is the heat so intense as in South Arabia and other regions much 
farther removed from the equator, the mean annual temperature 
even on the lowland plains not exceeding 80° F. There is, strictly 
ppeaking, no winter, nor even any very distinctly marked rainy 
season, the alternate north-east and south-west monsoons distributing 
the moisture over the east and west slopes throughout most of the 

The average number of rainy days is about 190, giving for the 
whole Peninsula a mean rainfall of from 90 to 130 inches. The 
west coast is generally well sheltered, although exposed to sudden 
squalls of short duration, known as 11 Sumatras," from the direction 
whence they blow. On the other hand, the east coast is entirely 
closed to navigation for about five months, during the prevalence of 
the north-east monsoon sweeping over the Gulf of Siam and China 

Flora. — Except in some limestone tracts, especially in Perak and 
Kedah, the soil is not very rich. But although not at present yield- 
ing sufficient rice for the local demand, the Peninsula appears to be 
capable of growing almost every tropical plant The land is almost 
everywhere clothed with a magnificent tropical vegetation, in which 
the most characteristic and useful growths are several varieties of 
gutta-percha (getak, here first discovered), the camphor tree, ebony, 
eaglewood, sapan, ratan, nibung, bamboo, nipa-palm, cocoa-nut, 

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areca, and gomuti. The nutmeg, cinnamon, and clove have been 
introduced, and thrive well, although the nutmeg is subject to a leaf 
disease. Indigo, gambier, pepper, the sugar-cane, tea, coffee, and 
tapioca have also been acclimatised. A species of climbing indigo 
and the wild nutmeg are indigenous, as ore also the characteristic 
durian and mangosteen fruit trees. The most generally cultivated 
plants are rice, sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, yams, batata, cocoa and 
areca palms. With the spread of agriculture and mining operations 
the primeval forests tend to disappear, and in many districts extensive 
tracts have already been cleared by the Chinese miners, who reck- 
lessly cut down the finest trees to serve as fuel for smelting the tiu 

Fauna. — The Fauna of the Peninsula, which is unusually rich, 
is allied, like the flora and the inhabitants, partly to that of the 
Eastern Archipelago, partly to the Asiatic mainland. Here are the 
one-horned rhinoceros, Malay tapir (teno'), elephant, and hog, all of 
the same species as those of Sumatra. Here are also a small bear 
(bruang), found elsewhere only in Borneo, and the Sunda ox of 
Java, besides two kinds of bison, said to be peculiar to the Peninsula. 
On the other hand, the Asiatic tiger has extended his range throughout 
the whole region, even crossing over to Singapore and other adjacent 
islands. Of quadrumana there are no less than nine species, in- 
cluding the kukang {Lemur tardigradus), a so-called chimpanzee 
(Simia troglodytes), the black and white ungkn, but apparently not 
the orang-utan, although the term is in common use, and applied 
by the Malays in its natural sense of " wild men " to the wild tribes 
of the interior. 

Of birds perhaps the most characteristic are the rhinoceros hornbill 
(Buccros), the bangau or Javanese stork, the argus and pencilled pheasants, 
some birds of paradise {Paradisea rcgia and P. gularis), the myua or 

frackle (Gracula religiosa), the murei or dial bird (Gfracula saularis), 
esides kingfishers, fly-catchers, doves, and pigeons in endless variety. 
The islands are frequented hy the Jfiruiido esculeata, or swallow that builds 
edible nests, and the forests swarm with coleoptera, lepidoptera, and other 
insects, including the magnificent butterfly, Omithoptcra Brookcana, till 
recently supposed to be peculiar to Borneo. The surrounding waters are 
inhahited by the halicore, or "mermaid," a sirenian, whose Malay name 
of duyong has been corrupted to dugong in English. 

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The Negritoes— Apart from the Chinese, Klings (Indians), and 
other recent settlers, the inhabitants of the Peninsula belong to three 
distinct ethnical stocks— the Negrito, Tai or Siamese, and Malay. 
The Negritoes, now reduced to a few fragmentary groups scattered 
over the more inaccessible parts of the interior, represent the true 
aboriginal element, and appear to belong to the same primitive typo 
as the so-called " Mincopies " of the Andaman Islands, and the 
Aetas of the Philippine Archipelago. Their presence in the penin- 
sula, long doubted by ethnologists, has been fully confirmed by 
the researches of Miklukho-Maclay, and other recent explorers. 
North of the Perak they are known by the name of Semany 
(Samang), south of that river by that of S&kei, and south of Malacca 
as Orang Benilay or " Men of the Soil." At the same time, these and 
other terms, such as the local Besisi and the more comprehensive 
Mentra, are applied by the civilised Malays somewhat vaguely to all 
the wild tribes of the interior, whether of Negrito or Malay origin 
Nor is this surprising, seeing that the two races themselves, who 
have been in contact for ages, have become largely intermingled and 
assimilated in appearance, customs, and even in speech. u Purely an- 
thropological observations," remarks Miklukho-Maclay, "lead me to 
accept the supposition of a Melanesian [Negrito] element, a remnant 
of the original race, which through intermixture with the Malays is 
being more and more supplanted. In the mountains of Pahang and 
Kelantan,a8 far as Senggdra and Ligor,I have discovered a Melanesian 
population. This people undoubtedly belongs to the Melanesian 
stock " {Ethwlogical Eoccursion in Johor). All the Negrito tribes 
are in an extreme low state of culture, holding aloof from the settled 
populations, living entirely on the chase, and pursuing the game 
with poisoned arrows. 

The Siamese and Sam-Sams. — Excluding the Negrito element, 
insignificant numerically, and without social or political influence of 
any kind, the whole of the Peninsula is occupied by the Siameso 
and Malay races. The former, intruders from Siam in comparatively 
recent times, hold the northern division as far south as the borders 

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of Kedah and Pat&ni, or about 7° N. latitude. The latter, also 
doubtless intruders from the North in remote pre-historic times, 
prevail throughout the southern and much larger division, to which 
alone the term " Malay Land " is strictly applicable. The transition 
between the two races is effected by the Sam-Sams, a half-caste 
Malayo-Siame8e people, lying mainly between the 7th and 8th 
parallels. These Sam-Sams appear to be mostly Buddhists like the 
Siamese, whom they also resemble in their customs, traditions, and 
national aspirations. In speech also they are at least as much 
Siamese as Malay, both languages being equally current amongst 
them. The pure Siamese themselves differ in no material respect 
from the rest of the inhabitants of Siam, and need not here be 
further considered. 

The Malays. 

The Malays (Orang Mal&yu, "Malay men") are the dominant 
people, not only in the southern section of the Peninsula, but 
throughout the Eastern Archipelago, where they are diversely inter- 
mingled with other races, and where they have represented the local 
cultured element for over two thousand years. The Malays proper, 
that is, those who call themselves by this name, who speak the 
standard Malay language, and who possess a common sentiment of 
national unity, are found in compact masses chiefly in the Malay 
Peninsula, in the adjacent islands of Pinang, Bintang, Lingga, 
Biliton, Bangka, and in Sumatra, of which they occupy about one 
half, mainly in the south, along the east coast, and on parts of the 
west coast. In these lands alone they are really indigenous, and 
regard themselves as the aboriginal population. Elsewhere they are 
met in scattered communities, chiefly round the coast of Borneo, in 
the Sulft Archipelago, in Tidor, Ternate, and some other members of 
the Molucca group, where they are held to be intruders, or immigrants 
from Sumatra. 

Long considered as an independent division of mankind, the 
Malays are now more generally affiliated to the Mongol stock, of 
which A. R. Wallace, De Quatrefages, and other eminent naturalists 
regard them as a simple variety more or less modified by mixture 
with other elements. In fact, the typical Malay can scarcely be 
distinguished anthropologically from the typical Mongolian. He is 
described by competent observers as of low stature, averaging little 
over 5 feet, of olive-yellow complexion, inclining to light brown or 
cinnamon, brachycephalous or round-headed, with somewhat flat 
features, prominent cheek-bones, black and slightly oblique eyes, 

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small but not flat nose, dilated nostrils, hands and feet small and 
delicate, legs thin and weak, coarse black hair always lank and 
round in section, scant or no beard. 

The departure from this description so frequently noticed in the 
Archipelago must be attributed to intermixture with the black Papuan 
stock in the east, aud with a distinct pre-Malay Caucasic element in the 
west. The presence of this "Indonesian" element, as it is called by 
Logan and Hamy, may now be regarded as an ascertained fact, the recog- 
nition of which will help to remove many of the difficulties connected with 
the various relations of the Malays to the surrounding races. 1 1 at once 
explains, for instance, the apparent discrepancy between the foregoing 
description of the ordinary Malay and that of the Battas, Orang Kubu, 
and many other Sumatran and Bornean peoples described as tall and robust, 
with regular features, symmetrical figure, light complexion, brown and 
wavy hair, and general European appearance. 

These considerations also enable us to fix the true centre of 
dispersion of the Malay race rather on the mainland than in 
Sumatra, contrary to the generally received opinion. If they are 
physically allied to the Mongol stock, it is obvious that the earliest 
migration must have been from high Asia southwards to the 
peninsula, and thence to Sumatra, possibly at a time when the 
island still formed part of the continent. The national traditions 
of a dispersion from Menangkabau or Palembang in south Sumatra 
must accordingly be understood to refer to late movements, and 
more especially to the diffusion of the civilised Malay people, who 
first acquired a really national development in Sumatra in com- 
paratively recent times. From this point they spread to the 
Peninsula, to Borneo, Sftlu, and other parts of Malaysia apparently 
since their conversion to Islam, although other waves of migration 
must have reached Further India, if not from the same region at all 
events from Java, at much earlier dates. The impulse to these 
earlier movements was due to the introduction of Indian culture 
through the Brahman and Buddhist missionaries perhaps two or 
three centuries before the Christian era. 

During still more remote pre-historic times various sections of the 
Malay and Indonesian stocks were diffused westwards to Madagascar, 
and eastwards to the Philippines, Formosa, Micronesia, and Polynesia. 
This astonishing expansion of the Malaysian people throughout the 
oceanic area is sufficiently attested by the diffusion of a common 
oceanic (Malayo-Polynesian) speech from Madagascar to Easter 
Island, and from Hawaii to New Zealand. 

The Malays proper have long been divided into three distinct social 
groups :— The Orang Bcntia, or *' Men of the Soil," that is, the uncivilised 
wild tribes of the Peninsula ; the Ora?ig-laut, or "Men of the Sea," that 

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is, the semi-civilised floating population; and the Orang Maldyu, or 
Malays in a pre-eminent sense, that is, the civilised Malays with a culture, 
a literature, and a religion. The Orang Benua, called also Orang-Gunung, 
or " Highlanders," and even Orang-Utan, or "Wild Men," constitute the 
aboriginal Malay element, which has hitherto remained unaffected by 
foreign influences, and which is still grouped in small tribes at a very low 
stage of culture, living mainly by the chase, and almost destitute of social 
organisation. They are found chiefly in the more inaccessible wooded 
uplands of the peninsula and Sumatra, in the former region more or less 
intimately associated for ages with the Negrito tribes, and in the latter 
island apparently the sole occupiers of the land from the first. 

Intermediate between the Orang-Benua and Orang-Malayu are the 
Orang-laut, or " Sea Gipsies " of former English writers, the " Cellates " 
of the early Portuguese explorers. But they are no longer the ' ' vile 
people dwelling more on the sea than on the land," and " living by fishing 
and robbing ; for piracy has been almost entirely suppressed in these 
waters, and the Orang-laut have risen considerably in the social scale since 
the spread of English power and influences throughout Malay land and 
North Borneo. 

This remark is equally applicable to the Orang-Malayu, or civilised 
Malays, who first under Hindu and afterwards under Arab influences 
developed a national life and culture, and founded more or less powerful 
political States in various parts of the Archipelago and throughout the 
Peninsula. At one time there was an impression that they were losing 
ground, and becoming gradually displaced by the Chinese immigrants into 
Malaysia. But statistics have shown that this view was groundless, and 
during the present century the whole Malay race has everywhere displayed 
an unexpected vigour and vitality. The native populations of Java, 
Sumatra, and the peninsula, far from showing any tendency to dwindle 
away before the Chinese intruders, have multiplied considerably, and are 
at present probably four times more numerous than at the beginning of 
the century. In the British possessions of Pinang and Malacca the Malay 
element has increased from 30,000 in 1800 to about eight times as many at 
the census of 1891. 

In their temperament no less than in their physical features the 
Malays still betray their Asiatic origin. They are described as of 
a taciturn, undemonstrative disposition, little given to outward 
manifestations of joy or sorrow, yet extremely courteous towards 
each other, and as a rule kind to their women and children. Slow 
and deliberate of speech, neither elated by good nor depressed by 
bad fortune, normally impressive and indolent, they are nevertheless 
capable of the greatest excesses when their passions are roused. 
Under the influence of religious excitement, losses at gambling, 
jealousy, or other domestic troubles, they are at times seized by the 
so-called "amok" fever, when they will rush wildly through the 
crowded bazaar armed with their sharp krisses, cutting down all 
who cross their path with incredible fury and without the least 

The Orang-Benua are still nature-worshippers ; but the civilised 

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Malays, together with some of the northern Sam-Saras, universally 
profess the Mohammedan religion. Until about the year 1250 they 
were pagans, or followed some corrupt form of Hindu idolatry. 
But the powerful Sultan Malnnud Shah, having adopted Islam in the 
13th century, spread the new doctrine throughout his dominions 
during his long reign of 57 years. His rule extended over 
the provinces of Malacca, Johor, Patani, Kedah, and Perak on the 
mainland, the neighbouring islands of Lingga and Bentan, and 
apparently several districts in Sumatra. The Mussulman faith was 
thus rapidly diffused throughout the Peninsula, and at the beginning 
of the 16th century the Portuguese found all the Straits Malays 
zealous followers of the Prophet, while a large portion of south- 
east Malaysia was still pagan. 

Apparently to the Malay stock must be affiliated the primitive 
community of troglodytes, who occupy the ten small islands iu the 
inland sea of Tal£-sab, recently, for the first time, explored by Mr. 
Davidson and MM. Deloncle and Macey. The archipelago every- 
where abounds in caves, in which the natives are born, live, and die, 
occupied exclusively in collecting and preparing for the Chinese 
market the edible swallows' nests covering the walls of their rocky 
dwellings. In gathering the nests, from which a revenue of nearly 
£30,000 is derived, they display extraordinary agility and hardihood. 
At one time they seem to have been brought under Hindu influences, 
for in one of the caves there is a shrine furnished with Brahman 
religious emblems, and containing two rudely-carved wooden images 
of great antiquity, representing the king and the queen of the 

The Malay Language —The Malay language is the most 
important of the many dialects composing the Malayan section 
of the Malayo-Polynesian or oceanic family. The area over 
which it is spoken comprises the Peninsula with the adjacent 
Rio-Lingga Archipelago and other islands, the greater part of the 
coast districts of Sumatra and Borneo, the Moluccas, the seaports of 
Java, and to a less extent those of Celebes, besides Tidor, Ternate, 
and parts of Jilolo. It had already become the general medium of 
communication throughout Malaysia from Sumatra to the Philippine 
Islands when the Portuguese first appeared in that region nearly 
400 years ago. But before that time there appears to have 
been no written standard : nor have any monumental records 
been found with inscriptions written in Malay before the adoption 
cf the Arabic character. 

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It is not a little remarkable that Malay should have remained unwritten, 
while the Javanese, the Rejangs and Battas of Sumatra, the Bugis of 
Celebes, and even the Tagalas of the Philippines all possessed peculiar 
characters, all doubtless of Hindu origin. But with the Mohammedan 
conversion the Perso-Arabic alphabet was introduced amongst all the 
civilised Malays. Malay is essentially a dissyllabic language, harmonious, 
and of simple structure. From the Hindus, who appear to have settled 
in Sumatra, Java, and Bali about the 3rd century, if not earlier, tho 
native dialects adopted a large number of Sanskrit terms ; and since the 
13th century many Arabic words and expressions have, under the 
religious influence of Islam, found their way especially into the literary 
Malay language. No real distinction can be drawn, as is sometimes 
done, between High Malay and Low Malay, as between Kawi and 
modern Javanese. Low Malay is not a distinct dialect, but merely a 
colloquial form serving as a medium of intercourse between the natives 
and Europeans. 

Malay is said to bespoken with the greatest elegance in the Rio-Lingga 
Archipelago, and among the Malay States along the south-west coast of 
the Peninsula. 

The Chinese. — Besides the indigenous ethnical groups of 
Negritos, Malays, and Siamese, the Peninsula is inhabited by a 
large number of immigrants from the surrounding regions and 
from Europe. By far the most numerous of these foreign peoples 
are the Chinese, who are already in an absolute majority in some 
districts, and who form about one-third of the whole population. 
Many of them have married Malay women, and their offspring 
while remaining Chinese generally adopt the local speech and 
usages. With the characteristic versatility of the race, they adapt 
themselves to all conditions of life, and are specially noted for their 
skill and enterprise as miners, artisans, traders, and agriculturists. 
If treated with justice and kindness, they are on the whole a peaceful 
and law-abiding people ; but troubles have occasionally arisen, 
especially through the influence of their secret societies, the 
members of which often bind themselves to recognise no civil 
jurisdiction except the authority of these associations. Peace, 
however, has hitherto been maintained, partly by the policy of 
dividing these dangerous elements into hostile groups, partly 
by securing the co-operation of the wealthy Chinese capitalists and 
traders, who are admitted under various titles into the British 

The Klings, &c— Next in importance to the Chinese are the 
Hindus, or natives of British India, who are also divided into 
distinct groups according to the countries whence they have 
immigrated. The term Kling, a contracted form of Kelinga, or 
Telinga,that is, "Teluga,"is commonly applied to all the Dravidian 
communities of Telugu and Tamil speech, those speaking Hindustani 

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being called " Benggali," the Gujuratis u Orang Bombei," and the 
Cingalese " Orang Selon." Amongst the Indians must be included 
some Santhals, Kols, and other low caste tribes employed on the 

Other foreign elements are the Arabs, generally intermingled with their 
Malay co-rcligionists ; the Jews and Armenians, mostly traders who keep 
aloof from the surrounding populations; the so-called "Portuguese" of 
the Straits Settlements, who nave become darker and often far more 
degraded than the Malays themselves, while claiming descent from the 
Albuquerques, Castros, Souzas, and other famous pioneers of European 
culture in the far East ; lastly the English, chiefly merchants, officials, 
and planters, but nowhere forming permanent local communities. 




Politically the Peninsula is partly held directly by Great Britain 
and Siam, and partly divided amongst a number of petty Malay 
States, either tributary to or in treaty with these paramount 

The influence of Siam extends over the whole of the Northern 
Division, although south of the 7th parallel, where the Siamese race 
gives place to the Malayan, this influence is little more than a 
nominal and traditional ascendancy, such as a great power must 
necessarily exercise over a small neighbouring State, symbolised by 
the old custom of presenting a triennial gold flower to the king of 
Siam. But even this custom never extended south of a line drawn 
from Kedah Peak on the west coast (5° 40' N.) to the northern 
frontier of Pahang (4° 35' N.), which defines approximately the 
southern limits of all the land more or less tributary to Siam. 

The rest of the Peninsula, which alone belongs to the British 
political system, is occupied partly by the British possessions, 
grouped under the collective name of the " Straits Settlements " ; 
partly by Perak and some other protected States on the west coast, 
which are now in effect under British administration ; partly by some 
more or less independent Malay States, which must also be regarded 
as forming part of the general British protectorate over the whole of 
the Southern Division of the Peninsula. 

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The northern or Siamese section is nearly 40,030, the southern or 
British nearly 35,000 square miles in extent. But although the 
former has a larger area, it contains only about one-third of the whole 
population, and a still smaller share of the trade of the Peninsula. 

Northern or Siamese Division. 

The Siamese have for some centuries been connected with the 
northern districts of the Peninsula, first apparently as settlers, and 
subsequently, down to quite recent times, as conquerors. Since the 
decline of the Pegu power they have claimed the suzerainty over 
the littoral of the narrow portion of the Peninsula north of 7° N. lat, 
which is approximately the southern limit of the race. They also 
exercise a less defined ascendancy over Kedah on the west, and the 
Malay States on the east side between Senggora and Pahang (4° 35' N.). 

Some confusion prevails regarding the nomenclature and sub- 
divisions of the various States and territories comprised in the 
Northern Division of the Peninsula. But the subjoined table, which 
is based on high Siamese authority, appears to contain all the adminis- 
trative provinces, sub-divisions, and more or less independent States 
forming part of the Siamese political system. 

Provinces administered by Siam— 


Kra with Renong 

Puket (Junk Ceylon) 

Satun (Setul) 








Kamchonedit (Bandon) 

Plean with Patching 

Siamese and Malay Tributary States — 
Ligor (Lakhon) 
Senggdra (Songkla) 

'Chana (Chenai) 
Nong-chik (Nochi) 
Tani (Pat&ni) 

Ran a 

k Jalap (Jalo) 

Kedah west coast. 


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Guaranteed Malay States — 

Kelantan j EAST 

Tringganu with Kcmaman ) 

Subjoined is a brief account of the more important of these pro- 
vinces and States, many of which are under Siamese or Chinese rulers, 
who bear the Siamese title of " Phya." The population, which is 
estimated at about one million, consists mainly of Siamese, Chinese, 
and Sam-Sams in the northern, and Malays in the southern districts. 

KrawithBenong.— The isthmus, forming the Northern Division 
of Lower Siam, lies between 12°— 9° N. lat., with an average breadth 
of about 60 miles. Near the centre on the north bank of the river 
Pakshan is the town of Kra, whence it takes its name. In the neigh- 
bourhood coal has been discovered. 

Renong, one of the chief places on the west coast, is a tin-pro- 
ducing district, inhabited chiefly by Chinese. It is situated on the 
south bank of the R. Pakshan. Jointly with Trang it forms a feudatory 
State under a Penang-born Chinaman, who takes the title of Raja. 

Puket or Junk Ceylon {Ujong Sdlang), a large island occupy- 
ing a conspicuous position in 8° N. lat. at the north-west elbow of 
the Peninsula, is separated from the mainland by the narrow Papra 
Strait. It is 40 miles long by 15 broad, and comprises the two 
sub-divisions of Talang and Tongka, which formerly belonged to 
the Raja of Kedah, but are now administered by Siam. The chief 
place is Puket, on the sheltered east side, where the Siamese com- 
missioner usually resides. A large Chinese population is here 
engaged in tin-mining, the produce of which is brought chiefly to 
Penang in return for opium and piece-goods. Other exports are 
edible birds'-nests, beche-de-mer, and elephants' teeth. The strait 
and harbour of Papra are accessible at spring tides to ships drawing 
20 feet of water. 

Kedah, the Portuguese Quedah and Siamese Sai, is the only 
Malay State tributary to Siam on the west coast. It lies between 
Trang and Perak, stretching for 120 miles between 7°— 5° 30' N. 
lat., and for 25 to 30 miles inland, with an estimated area of nearly 
4000 square miles, or probably 5000, including the adjacent islands 
of Lengkawi, Trutao, and a few smaller groups. It comprises three 
provinces named after the rivers Setul to the north, Perlis in the 
centre, and Kedah to the south. The land is less mountainous than 
most parts of the Peninsula, the chief eminence being Jerei, or 
Kedah Peak (4000 feet), and it is watered by 26 rivers, six of which 
are considerable, but all of them obstructed by bars at their mouths. 
Between the mainland and the Lengkawi islands there is also an 

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extensive mud bank preventing vessels from approaching nearer 
than four miles to the coast. 

The old town, called "Quedah" by the Portuguese, was situated in 
latitude 6° North upon one of the largest rivers, supposed to be the Merbu, 
which was navigable for vessels of 300 tons burden. 

The geological formation of Kedah, generally speaking, is granite, and 
in places tin is found and, it is believed, gold. But the more important 
tin mines are just beyond the Kedah frontiers ; and this holds true both 
to the north, the east, and the south. Limestone crops out in a remark- 
able manner at Gunong Wang, on the river Giti, a tributary of the Muda, 
and at Gunong Geriyang, or Elephant Mount. The vegetable products 
are the usual ones of the Peninsula, the country being particularly well 
adapted for growing rice. Fruit trees of all kinds, especially the man- 
gostin and durian, grow to great perfection. Among its wild animals, the 
elephant is common, and is used as a beast of burden. Cattle and buffaloes 
are abundant in the domestic state. 

The inhabitants consist of Malays; of a few Sam-Sams or mixed 
Siamese in the north, who are usually Mohammedan here, and speak both 
Malay and Siamese ; of the Peninsular Negritos ; of half-caste Telingas 
(Klings), speaking both Tamil and Malay ; aud of a few Chinese. 

The capital is Kota Star, or Alor Star, on a river of no great size, 
though one of the largest of the country, to the north of the conspicuous 
Mount Jerei. It has for some years been connected, by the rough road 
already mentioned, with Senggora on the east, the nearest Siamese town 
of importance. This is at present the only road across the peninsula. 
The river Muda, the frontier of Province Wellesley, is navigable for small 
boats to Baling, distant about 60 miles east. This place is of some 
importance as the frontier station, near the point where Kedah, Perak, and 
Patani meet ; and from Baling the Muda river is used to carry to market 
at Penang the tin which is found in unusual abundance at Klian Intan 
and Kroh, on the east or Patani side of the dividing range of Titi 

The country at the back of Province Wellesley is also known to be rich 
in tin at Serdang and Killim, but it has not yet been fully developed. 

It follows from the position of Kedah that its trade is almost exclusively 
with Penang, with which port communication by steamer is now easy and 
frequent. The exports consist principally of tin, rice, bats' manure (from 
the lime-stone caves), and jungle produce. 

The history of this State, as of all the others of the Peninsula to the 
north of Malacca, is full of obscurity. Colonel Low discovered in the 
forests some remains of what he supposed to be Buddhist temples, and 
some inscriptions in the Pali character, indicating not Malay but Siamese 
culture. It seems probable that even so late as the beginning of the 
sixteenth century the Malays here had been but partially converted 
to Mohammedanism. The earliest authentic information we have of 
Kedah is from the Portuguese writer Barbosa, whose manuscript is dated 
" Barcelona, 1512," and he describes it as " a place of the kingdom of 
Siam," and makes mention of a "Seaport called Qiieclah, to which an 
iufinite number of ships resort, trading in all kinds of merchandise." 
Kedah, in common with all the other northern states of the peninsula, 
has probably been always more or less tributary to Siam, and being, 
with Pat&ni, the most northern of all the Malay States, it has been 
most subject to its direct influence. But the policy of the Siamese 

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Government here, as elsewhere, 1ms been to leave the extraneous races, 
comprised within the dominion it assumes, to the administration of their 
own rulers ; the Malayan Raja of Kedah is thus an hereditary and quasi - 
independent sovereign. In token of his dependence on Siam he has 
always sent the King, once in three years, an offering consisting of an 
artificial flower of gold. Notwithstanding this, the Raja alienated to the 
Indian Government in 1786 (Captain Light being the Agent) the island of 
Pinang, and subsequently, in 1800, Province Wellesley on the mainland, 
without reference to Siam, whose alleged suzerainty was neither well 
understood nor much enforced at that time. By the cession of Pinang, 
Kedah lost some of its trade, and though the Raja seems to have acted 
within his rights, he evidently incuired Siam's displeasure. In 1821, the 
Siamese from Ligor invaded the country, overran it, and after an occupa- 
tion of several years, abandoned after ruining it. The prince fled to 
Pinang for protection, and there received an asylum. His line was 
restored after many years ; but the tendency of the Government at Bang- 
kok to interfere in Kedah affairs has since been accentuated, the King of 
Siam even claiming to nominate as well as confirm the Raja. 

Ligor, the Siamese Lakhon, is the chief Siamese province in the 
north-east part of the isthmus. It was founded four centuries ago 
by the King of Ayuthia, and nearly three-fourths of the inhabitants 
are still Siamese. The capital is Ligor, on the north side of Lakhon 
Bight, 8° 17' N. lat, 100° 12' E. long. Here resides the Chow Phya, 
or governor, who rules almost absolutely, with power of capital 

Senggora, the Siamese Songkla, forms the most southerly 
Siamese province on the east coast. It borders on the Malayan 
States of the Peninsula, and through its Chinese governor, the King 
of Siam has hitherto exercised occasional interference with his 
Malayan tributaries. The capital lies under the shelter of TentSlam, 
a large flat island stretching along the coast, from which it is separ- 
ated by a deep and narrow channel of sweet water fed by the Telung 
(Patelung) river, from the Kao Luang mountains. 

Inland from this channel are the small and semi-independent 
Sam-Sara States of Patelung and Plean, under a Chinese Raja. 

The east coast being a completely lee shore, there is scarcely any 
communication between these smaller provinces of Siam and the 
capital. Nor is there any overland route from Sengg6ra to Bang- 
kok ; but a road was opened in the opposite direction across the 
Peninsula to Kedah in 1871, at the time of the King of Siam's visit 
to the Straits. 

This northern group of provinces and petty states, comprising 

altogether some 15 separate divisions, mainly inhabited by Siamese 

and Chinese, has a coast line of about 200 miles on the east, and a 

little more on the west side, with a total area of some 17,000 square 

miles, and a population vaguely estimated at from 300,000 to 800,000. 


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Pat&ni. — The country, still commonly known as Patani, lies 
between Senggora and Kelantan (7° — 6° 20' N.), with n coast- 
line of about 50 miles on the east side, and an estimated area of 
6000 square miles. But, except as applied to the river of that 
name, the term Patani is merely a historical expression, under 
which are now comprised as many as nine distinct petty Siamese- 
Malayan States or provinces. These administrative divisions, 
together with some other districts, are under the general but ill- 
defined control of SenggCra, the seat of government for the south- 
eastern section of the Siamese system, so far as any administrative 
suzerainty exists. 

Since its invasion and subjugation by Siam in 1832, Patani has been 
broken up into the four sea-board States or divisions, lying from north 
to south in the following order :— Nong-chik or Tujong, Patani, Jering, 
Sai ; and the five interior divisions — Tipah, Chenai, Jalo, Reman, Ligei. 
Of these, Reman is, even excluding any part of the Perak watershed, 
the most extensive, and Patani with its seaport, is probably still 
the most populous. Jalo and Ligei are believed to bo the richest in 

The principal physical features of the province are the two considerable 
rivers — the Patani and the Telupin — which rise in the same hills and flow 
nearly parallel to the sea, through a country for the most part flat, but 
with isolated cliffs and hills. 

The Patani is a long but shallow river which retains the same name 
throughout its whole length. Its source is said to be in the mountain 
Jambul Merak (peacock's crest) about 5° 35', from which also the northern 
tributaries of the Perak flow ; thence it has a northerly course and falls 
into the Gulf of Siam in 6° 55' N. The upper waters of the rivers 
Patani and Perak are a labyrinth of streams forming the head-waters of 
the river system of this part of the Peninsula ; the river Kelantan is also 
said to take its source in the same region. 

The Patani has an extensive delta, intersected by numerous creeks. 
Kwdla TQjong to the north is the most important estuary, and is navi- 
gable as far as Kwala Nong-chik (Nochi), where it bifurcates from the 

The Bay of Patani is formed by the projection of a narrow strip of land 
about seven or eight miles in length, which, connected with the mainland 
to the eastward, bends round to the north-west like a horn, and protects the 
roadstead, so that vessels can at most seasons ride in safety. The western 
extremity of this projection is called Cape Patani. The town and port of 
Patani is almost all that is left unchanged of the former important State 
of that name. It was and still is the chief town of the whole of this 
country. It is situated about two miles from the river's mouth, on the 
south-east side ; a fair amount of trade is carried on with Singapore and 
Bangkok, as also with the neighbouring Siamese and Malayan States. 
The exports arc tin, lead, gutta, salt-fish, tiles, earthenware, and timber. 
The population of the town consists of Malays, Chinese, and Siamese, and 
is supposed to be from 3000 to 4000. The Malay race preponderates, 
the Raja himself being a Malay. The active commercial and shipping 
business is controlled by a " Captain China." 

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Reman.— The largest and perhaps the most important of the 
provinces at present is Reman, lying to the south-east of the river 
and bordering on Perak, with which it is closely connected by ties 
of intercourse and common interest. It is the most Malayan of all 
these States ; but its Malay Raja is, like the rest, responsible to the 
Chow Kun, or Governor of Senggora, and must look to be confirmed 
by the King of Siam. K6ta Bharu, some miles on the east side of 
the Patani river, is his residence ; and the population of the country 
is to be found chiefly in this neighbourhood and near the upper 
valley of the Perak, which river the Reman people use for exporting 
tin, &c. The boundary with Perak, near which are the valuable tin 
mines of Kroh and Intan, already mentioned in connection with 
Kedah, has yet to be determined. 

Jalo, situated principally to the north-west of the river Patani, near 
the head-waters of the Perak, lies under the eastward cliffs of the bold 
range of Bukit Besar. Jalo is believed to be one of the richest mineral 
countries in the whole Peninsula, having abundant galena, tin, and gold 
already worked at some points by the Chinese. Like the other mineral 
countries, it is intersected by remarkable limestone formations. 

The galena mines of Patani, which a few years ago attracted much 
attention in Singapore, lie near the small town of Banisita. This is 
situated in a picturesque amphitheatre of hills, through which the river 
flows, about 45 miles distant from the town of Patani in a straight line, 
but double that distance by river. 

In 1786, the year of the first Siamese invasion, there were said to be 
115,000 inhabitants in the State of Patani. In 1832, after the second 
invasion, there were computed to be only 54,000 people in these provinces, 
and the population has probably not increased since then, except in regard 
to its Chinese miners, who now number several thousands. 

The southernmost of all the nine provinces collectively termed '* Patani " 
is Sai, beyond which lies the large and important Malayan State of 

Kelantan. — South of Pat&ni on the east coast lie the Malayan 
States of Kelantan and Trengg5nu, whose position is one of 
independence guaranteed by treaty with the British Government, 
though nominally under some sort of subordinate relation to 

Kelantan is situated to the south of the Patdni States, the river 
Banara being the boundary, between 6° 20' and 6° 40', with 60 
miles of coast on the east side, and an area of about 7000 square 
miles; but so little is known of the interior that there is no great 
certainty about either area or population. It is in a prosperous 
condition, surpassing in population all the Native States on the 
east coast, and in natural resources and mineral wealth vying 
with Pahang. 

c 2 

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It is bounded to the south by Trengg&nu, the river Besut separat- 
ing them. It has the States of Reman, Perak, and Pahang to the 
west, the eastern ridge of the peninsular chain being considered 
the boundary. The interior is believed to have a great extent of 
open country, traversed by the long but shallow river Kelantan 
and its tributaries, which, like the river Pat&ui, flow north. Here 
there is grown an immense quantity of rice, some of which is 
exported to Singapore ; cattle also are kept in large herds. 

The town of Kelantan is situated near the river's mouth, and is a large 
and flourishing settlement with considerable trade. Its population is said 
to be over 20,000 ; and that of the whole state is estimated by the natives 
at 600,000, and on good authority as high as 200,000. 

Its mineral resources comprise tin and gold. Even so far back as 18.37 
it was stated that 3000 pikuls of tin were exported annually, and that 
Kelantan gold, next to that of Pahang, was the most celebrated among 
Malays. Lead is also supposed to exist. Much pepper and other articles 
of export are also cultivated here by the Chinese, and a good deal of 
jungle produce is collected. The principal trade is with Singapore, and is 
mainly conducted by the Chinese during the south-west monsoon. 

Kelantan is known to have existed as an integral State at the close of 
the 15th century and before the arrival of the Portuguese ; and in the 
Malay Annals it is specially stated that during the time of Mahmud II., 
of Malacca, a.d. 1477, Kelantan was a kingdom "more powerful than 
that of Patani." Like Trengganu, Kedah, and Patani, it has, from time 
immemorial, been harassed by the demands of Siam ; and, according to 
the official statement of Mr. Anderson, Political Agent in 1825, it 
repeatedly solicited, in the early days of Pinang, the protection of the 
British Government and the establishment of an English factory, offering 
very considerable advantages. It has never submitted to Siam further 
than that, although practically under its own Malay Raja, it has made a 
customary acknowledgment of inferiority by periodically sending to 
Bangkok a tributary token called " the gold flower. " 

In 1832, the chief of Pat&ni, upon the invasion of his country by 
Siam, fled to Kelantan, but was delivered up to the Siamese PraJclang, 
who repeatedly summoned the Raja of Kelantan into his presence. With 
these mandates the Malay chief did not deem it prudent to comply, but 
was eventually compelled, it is said, to propitiate his foe, by a large 
present of specie and gold dust. Newbold pointed out at the time that 
this was a violation of the 12th Article of Major Burney's treaty of 
1826, which stipulates that "Siam shall not go and obstruct or interrupt 
commerce in the States of Trengganu and Kelantan. English merchants 
and subjects shall have trade and intercourse in future, with the same 
facility and freedom as they have heretofore had ; and the English shall 
not go and molest, attack, and disturb those States upon any pretence 
whatever." What little trade and intercourse now exist have passed 
from the hands of English merchants to those of Chinese and native 
, traders. 

Trengganu is situated at the widest part of the Peninsula, 
between 5° 40' and 4° 35' N., and has an area of under 4000 
miles, with a population of 20,000. Trengg&nu has, for some time 

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past, included Kemaman, wliich lies to the south along the coast of 
the Gulf of Siain. Its coast-line extends along the Gulf of Siam 
for 80 miles, and is bounded on the south and west by the 
principality of Pahang, and on the north and north-east by that 
of Kelantan. The river Besut is its boundary with Kelantan, and 
the river Cherating with Pahang. To the interior, the high ranges 
forming the east boundary of Pahang form a natural frontier, but 
the boundary is believed to be otherwise quite undefined. Of its 
area nothing certain is known; nearly the whole country is one 
continuous jungle, with less development, either of its minerals or 
its commerce, than perhaps any other of the Malay States. The 
inhabitants consist almost entirely of Malays and some wild tribes, 
with a very few Chinese, who carry on the little that is now done in 
the way of trade or mining. The total population of the State was 
computed at 37,500 in 185G. Of this number, the town of Trengganu, 
situated in the northern part of the State, near the mouth of a not 
very large river, latitude 5° 25' N., longitude 103° E., was 
then estimated to contain from 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, or 
more than half of the population of the State. A most destructive 
tire took place in August 1883, which is said to have destroyed 
nearly 2000 habitations. The place is but little visited, and the 
small quantity of gold and tin produced come, it is said, from the 
Pahang mountains, wliich are not so far removed from the coast at 
this point. This State is claimed as one of the hereditary tributaries 
of Siain, but has always resisted to the utmost the assumption of 
any authority by the Siamese, the population being almost entirely 
Mahomedan and Malayan. A " gold flower " is sent periodically to 
Bangkok, through S r mgg6ra, in token of its nominal dependence, 
but it has a treaty right to independent and unrestricted trade with 
the British. 

Kemdman (river and district) was, according to Malay tradition, 
formerly a province of Pahang, and, on this ground, still considers itself 
free from even nominal allegiance to Siam. This recognition is, however, 
admitted by Trengganu, with which country Kemaman seems to be now 
]K)litically incorporated. It is a place of no importance, lying midway 
between Pahang and Trengganu. The town is only a mile or two from 
the mouth of the river of the same name, in lat. 4° 15' N. It is a 
settlement of modern origin, and probably owes its existence to the tin 
mines, discovered early in the century, in the neighbourhood. The district 
is scarcely 1000 square miles in area ; and is, or until recently was, under 
the direct control of a separate chief, under Trengganu. Its population 
was estimated in 1839 at 1000 Malays and Chinese. It produces tin, a 
little gold, camphor, ebony, &c. According to a Mr. Medhurst, who 
visited the place in 1828, Kemaman at first yielded a considerable revenue 
to the Sultan of Trengganu, but afterwards the niiues fit led, and the 

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Chinese dispersed. It is believed to be scarcely more prosperous at the 
present time than it was in 1839. 

Between the rivers Kemaman and Trengganu lie the smaller districts 
of Paka, Du,ngun % and Marang, which, like Kemaman, are each under a 
chief, subordinate to Trengganu. 

Southern or British Division. 

The British, as distinguished from the Siamese section of the 
Peninsula, is a purely political division, corresponding with no 
physical, ethnical, or other natural boundary. The two divisions 
are separated merely by an arbitrary or conventional line drawn 
from Kedah Peak on the west coast to the north frontier of Pahang, 
and running with the southern boundaries, whatever they may be, 
of Kedah, IfSman and Trengg£nu. But the northern limits of the 
Malay race lie considerably to the north of this line, south of which 
the administrative interference of Siam is scarcely at all permitted. 

The British division, which, excluding the Straits Settlements, is 
even more thinly peopled than the Siamese, comprises rive distinct 
political groups, as under : — 

1. The three protected States of P£rak, Sel&ngor, and Sungei 
tjjong, occupying the west coast from Kedah to Malacca. 

2. The so-called " Negri Sembilan " group of petty inland States 
behind Malacca. 

3. Pahang, on the east coast 

4. Johor, comprising the whole southern extremity. 

5. The British colony of the Straits Settlements. 


This group completes the British administration of the west coast 
from Pinang to Malacca. It comprises the Malay States of P£rnk, 
Selangor, and Sungei Ujong, ranking in importance in the order in 
which they here stand. 

Perak. — This State stretches for nearly 100 miles north and 
south between 5° 10'— 3° 15' N. hit., and 100° 22'— 102° E. long., and 
for probably a somewhat less distance inland, with an area approxi- 
mately estimated by Mr. Deane at 7900 square miles, excluding the 
disputed district beyond Bukit Naksa. It is bounded north by 
Province Wellesley (Trans-Krian district) from Sungei Bakau on 
the const to Pint Buntar, the boundary thence running to the source 
of the Krian river, which forms the frontier line towards Kedah. 
Between the T&sek swamp or lake (the northernmost point at which 

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Perak and Kedah touch), and the source of the Krian, the mountain 
range forming the water-parting of the Perak river constitutes the 
western frontier. From Tfcsek eastwards PSrak is conterminous on 
the north and east with the Patani States of Jalo and Reman ; but 
here the exact course of the boundary-line is at present the subject 
of negotiations with Si am. On the east the inner range forming the 
divide of the Plus, Kinta and Kampar, B&tang Padang and Bidor, 
with the other tributaries of the Perak, constitutes the frontier of 
Perak as far as the sources of the river Slim. On the south it is 
bounded by the river Bernam, and thence to Sungei Bakau by the 

For commercial purposes Pdrak enjoys the advantage of proximity 
to Pinang, which is at present its chief outport, and with which 
daily steam communication is maintained. The chief harbours are 
the new Port Weld, Telok Kert&ng at the mouth of the L&rut river, 
and Telok Anson on the P£rak river. 

The surface is almost equally divided between hill and plain, an 
extent of about 2000 square miles being occupied with uplands 
ranging from 1500 to 8000 feet above sea-level. The chief mountains 
are the Titi Wangsa and Gunong Hijau (Larut), the Gunong Bubo, 
and the inland ranges, of which Gunong Besar, Mounts Robinson 
and Tengah (Tangga) are respectively the central peaks. Here rise 
the rivers Plus, Kinta, Kampar. Bidor, Songkei, Slim, and the 
Sembilan, flowing to the Pahang. 

The mountain ranees are generally of granitic formation, hut, in strong 
contrast to their usually round surfaces, sharp peaks and crags of limestone 
formation crop up here and there throughout the country. The principal 
of these are Gunong Kenderong, Gunong Kernei, and Bukit Kajang in 
the north ; Batu Kurau and Gunong Pondok ; some unnamed hills in 
the Plus ranges, and numerous peaks in the Kinta valley. 

The caves in the limestone mountains furnish bats' guano — an excellent 
manure, which, as well as lime, is available for both mountain and low 
country cultivation. 

The Residency.— The seat of the Government of the British Resident 
is the small village of Kwdla Kangsar, on the upper waters of the Perak, 
about 23 miles from the port of Teluk Kertang, on the Larut river, with 
which it is connected by a good road. It lies about 100 miles up the 
Perak river, the Larut route thus giving the most direct access to 

The country can best be described as consisting physically of three 
principal water-systems — that of the Krian to the north, that of the 
Perak in the centre, and that of the Bernam to the south. Each will he 
described in turn. But the tin-mining district of Lftrut, which belongs 
to neither of these physical divisions, has played and still plays so im- 
portant a part in the development of the State, that it deserves first 

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Larut is situated about midway between the river Krian and 
the river Perak. 

For about thirty years, Chinese miners have worked the exten- 
sive tin deposits of great richness at the base of tiie high mountain 
range called Giinong Htjau, and on each side of a small river called 
Sungei Larut. This place was found by the early pioneers to be 
not only rich in tin, but most advantageously situated in respect of 
commercial intercourse with the British port of Pinang, some sixty 
miles distant. Tin-deposits are rarely found so near the sea as in 
Larut, which is under the immediate charge of an Assistant 

Thaipeng, the principal town, and the largest place on the west coast, 
Malacca not excepted, is the centre of the mining industry, and is about 
eight miles from the sea-coast. It is the head-quarters of the chief 
departments of the State, and is connected with Kwala Kangsar by a 
carriage -road, and by a line of telegraph. The main road to the sea has 
hitherto been from Thaipeng to Teluk Kertang, but a short line of rail- 
way, intended to connect Thaipeng with Port Weld (eight miles), is now 
completed, as well as a road from L&rut to the Krian river, which will 
open up communication by land with Province Wellesley. There is also 
telegraphic communication with Pinang 

Owing to the proximity of the mountains to the sea in this part of the 
Peninsula, the rainfall in Larut is heavier than elsewhere along the Straits, 
amounting in 1884 to 166 inches. 

The Krian Basin. — Krian is an agricultural district adjoining 
Province Wellesley, the seat of extensive sugar and rice cultivation. 
It has a large Malay population, consisting principally of settlers 
from Pinang, Province Wellesley, and Keiiah. A good many 
Chinese and Tamil planters have also recently settled there. 

SSlama, 70 miles up the Krian river, on a large tributary of that 
name, forms a tin-mining settlement, which a few years ago was 
more flourishing than at present. It is situated near the principal 
bifurcation of the Krian. There is a colony of Sumatran Malays 
at SSlama, besides Chinese miners. 

The Perak Basin,— The P6rak, perhaps the largest, and cer- 
tainly the most important, river on the west slope, drains not only 
the extensive valley of the State to which it gives its name, but also 
receives the drainage of the considerable Kinta district, compris- 
ing together at least half the area of the State. It is navigable 
for small steamers as far as TSluk Anson, the capital of Lower 
Perak. Its source is said to be in the frontier mountain Jambul 
Merak, from which the TOupin and Pat&ni also take their rise. Its 
whole length is about 250 miles. At first it flows in a south- 
westerly direction towards the sea, receiving, from the west, the 

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Rui, the Kenderong, an 1 the Kenering ; and from the east, the 
Sengo and the Temangan. From Kwala KSnBring to Bandar its 
course is due south, and all its main affluents flow into it from the 
east. Such are the Plus, the Kinta at Kota Lumut, the B&tang 
Padang, and Bidor at Durian Sabatang, and near its estuary the 
small river Sungei Jandarfita, which almost connects the streams 
of the PSrak and Bernam rivers, here flowing parallel at no great 
distance from each other. The Perak empties itself into the Straits, 
a few miles to the south of the Dindings. It has a wide estuary, 
but here, as in other rivers in the Peninsula, shallow water on the 
bar at the mouth impedes navigation. The principal places on this 
river are : — K6ta Setia, Teluk Anson, Durian Sabatang, Bandar Kota 
Lumut, Bandar Bh&ru (the former Residency near tlm junction of 
the Kinta), Pulau Tiga, Lamboh, Bota, Blanja Kwdla Knmjmr (the 
present Residency), Sayong (the residence of H. H. the Regent), 
KSta Lama, Chegar Gfilak, and Kota Tampan. 

Tin is found almost throughout the valley, but in greatest quantity 
near the east bank of the Perak and in the Kinta district. The Kinta 
district includes the territory watered by the river of that name and its 
tributaries. A Collector and Magistrate has charge of it, and resides at 
Batu Gajah on the Kinta river. Other places of importance in the district 
are Lahat, Papan, Ipoh, Pengkalan Pegil, Kota Bharu, Pengkalan Bharu 
(Sungei Ray), GOpeng (a large Chinese mining settlement), Kainpar, and 

The Bernam Basin. — The southernmost district of the state is 
that of the river Bemam, probably the largest river, in regard to 
volume of water, to be found in the Peninsula. It is about two 
miles wide at the mouth, and navigable for large steamers for many 
miles. Though draining a very different district, its mouth is less 
than twenty miles from that of the Pe'rak. 

Proceeding up the Bernam, almost due east, the chief places (though 
none of them are of any size) are b&bak, about 20 miles from the mouth ; 
Telok Kwdli, about 73 miles from the sea, where the river is still 
about 120 yards wide and very deep ; Changkat Ilgrtam, 85 miles by river 
from the sea, a small rising ground planted with durian trees, and occu- 
pied by a colony of a few Malays. Above this spot stretches an immense 
expanse of unhealthy swampy country for miles on both sides of the 
river. Through this swamp the Bernam winds down from Gcdanrytn, 111 
miles by river from the sea, where the land again becomes higher. A 
series ot canals or cuttings, shortening the navigation of the river, and 
making it available for steam-launches, have recently been made from this 
point, through the Changkat Bertam swamp. The distance for boats is, 
it is computed, thus reduced from 111 to about 50 miles. 

Kv:dla Slim, about 130 miles up the river, was formerly the principal 
station and the Collectorate of the district. It is situated at the bifurca- 
tion of the main stream, where it divides into two branches of similar size 

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— the Slim running down from the direction of Perak in the north-east, 
and the Bernam from Selangor in the south-east. A hilly region called 
Changkat Lela divides these branches. 

&lu Slim lies about 30 miles higher, at the confluence of the Slim 
and Geliting. It is described as very picturesque— "it might almost be 
in Switzerland." From here there is a short overland path to the Perak 
waters (river Songkei) ; and some of the nearest affluents of the Pahang 
river, flowing into the Gulf of Siam, have their source in the same moun- 
tains, which are the source of the Slim branch. The watershed of the river 
Bernam, which flows from the south, is to be found near the Selangor- 
Pahang boundary. At Olu Slim land has been successfully opened up by 
English coffee-planters within the last few years. 

The highest station on the Bernam river is Ulu Bernam (Tanjong 
Malim), a fertile, well-cultivated station at the foot of the dividing range. 
The main road to Selangor and Bernam passes through Tanjong Malim, 
which has quite recently been made the head-quarters of the Bernam Col- 
lectorate. A trunk-road from Kwala Kangsa to this point will soon be 
opened. Here it will join the road recently made by the Selangor Govern- 
ment, thus completing an unbroken highway of nearly 300 miles from 
Malacca to Butterworth in Province Wellesley. 

Trade of Perak. — The chief export is tin, amounting, in 1889, 
to £1,650,000 ; and the abundance of this metal is the most important 
economic feature of the State at present. The other exports amount 
to £550,000 (including sugar, £120,000) ; and the whole trade, 
imports and exports, now exceed £3,500,000. There is now daily 
communication by trading steamers between Pinang and Larut. A 
steamer also touches at Durian Sabatang on her fortnightly voyages 
between Singapore and Pinang, and there is a separate service 
between Pinang and Teluk Anson. There is also regular steam 
communication between Pinang and Bernam. 

Government— The government is carried on under the Raja 
Mu.da, as Regent, aided and advised by a British Resident, and a 
Council consisting of the Resident and Assistant Resident, and 
Native Chiefs of rank and influence. 

A military police force of 700 men, mainly Sikhs, is maintained 
to secure order, with half a battery of Artillery. 

The Collectorates are at Ldrut ; at Pdrit Buntar and SHdma 
(for Krian) ; Kwdla Kangsar, the seat of the Residency ; Ttlok 
Anson (for Perak river) ; B&tu Gajah (for Kinta district) ; Ulu 
Bernam (for the Bernam). 

History. — Perak is one of the oldest States in the Peninsula, and its 
history has been maintained with scarcely a break for 300 vears. It was 
subject to Achin in the days of the Portuguese, and until the close of the 
17th century, but otherwise it appears to have maintained its independence 
throughout. It was overrun and occupied by Kedah during the Siamese 
hostilities in 1821 ; but the invaders were induced to withdraw by agree- 
ment with the Pinang Government in 1825. The Dutch had coutiuually 

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tried, with varying success, to maintain a trading monopoly of the tin for 
150 years, but their attempts to obtain a footing were unsuccessful, and all 
European interference with Perak ceased until 1818. In consequence of 
the cession of Malacca to the Dutch in that year, the Pinang Government 
entered into commercial treaties with Perak, among other Native States, in 
order to forestall any fresh attempts at Dutch monopoly. 

This alliance proved useful to Per.ik a few years later, when the Siamese 
attempted to overrun the country, but were checked by the British 
authorities at Pinang. 

The recent development of events dates from the rise of L&rut into 
importance under Ngan Jafar, in 1852, consequent upon the discovery of 
the rich tin deposits there. The Chinese then came in great numbers, and 
before long the Malay Government naturally fell to pieces. After some 
years of anarchy, Governor Sir Andrew Clarke interfered in Januaiy 
1874, and the Pangkor Treaty was made, introducing the *' Protected 
States " experiment. The small rising that brought upon Perak a military 
occupation, after the assassination of the first Resident, Mr. Birch (1875), 
led to the adoption of the more robust policy under which Perak has made 
its subsequent rapid advances. Here was opened the first railway in the 
Peninsula ; it runs from Port Weld through Thaipeng to Kamunting. 

Selangor.— The Protected State of Sel&ngor adjoins Perak along 
its whole southern frontier. It is situated between the parallels of 
3° 45' and 2° 40' N., with a rather greater extent of coast-line on the 
east shore of the Straits than its northern neighbour Perak. Area 
between 3000 and 4000 square miles. Population (1890) 82,000. 

Selangor is separated from Perak by the B£rnam river, which 
forms its northern boundary. Its extent alone: the coast is about 
100 miles, as far as the river Nipah to the south (since the 1877 
boundary was fixed), and then by a line drawn in 1884 to the north 
and east as far as the hills which divide it from Jelebu. 

Sel&ngor is a comparatively recent State, the western part of its 
territory having apparently been left unoccupied from time out of 
mind, to a greater degree than any other portion of the Peninsula. 
The southern division was formerly a separate State— Klang (Kglang) 
—one of the four original States of the " Negri Sembilan " con- 

Under the name of SSl&ngor are included six main districts : 
Kw&la Lumpor (the capital), Klang, Ulu Selangor, Kw&la Selangor, 
Ulu Langat and Kw&la Langat. Bernam, formerly independent, now 
forms part of Ulu Selangor. With the exception of Klang and the 
mouth of the river Selangor, the whole territory of the State was 
absolutely terra incognita until quite lately. Lukut, now comprised 
in the Sungei Ojong frontiers, was formerly part of Sel&ngor. Being 
rich in tin found close to the shore, and being situated at a distance 
of only 40 miles from Malacca, this district was, under a former 
Raja, the most thriving in SeMangnr. 

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The greater part of Selangor is an extremely level country, stretching 
inland about 30 miles in the south, and nearly 50 miles in the north, ami 
as yet but little cleared and very thinly inhabited. In its wide versa nt it 
presents a marked contrast to Perak, its rivers flowing almost due west 
instead of southward. In the interior are some high spurs thrown out 
from the greit mountain chain, especially between Ulu Selangor and Ulu 
I^angat, and in the neighbourhood of Kwala Lumpor, the present capital. 
These spurs have an altitude of about 2000 feet, with numerous high 
peaks, where they join the chain, reaching to more than 5000 feet. The 
highest is Bukit Tengah (6200 feet), in the Gunong Kali spur. 

At Genting Bidei, 22 miles north-east of Kwala Lumpor, there is a pass 
into Pahang at the junction of two important spurs, one running due 
south behind Kwala Lumpor, the source of the river Klang ; the other 
trending away inland, leaving a valley which widens to about 10 or 12 

this group rise to above 5000 feet. 

Further north, the river Selangor rises among even higher summits in 
the central chain, which is here at its nearest point to the river Pahang, 
whose tributaries flow down to the east from the same hills. The highest 
peaks after Bukit Tengah are : — Gunong Raja, 5450 feet ; Gunong Chim- 
beras, 5650 feet ; Gunong Pecheras, 5650 feet ; and Bukit Kanohing, 
from which rises Sungei Buoh, south of SSlangor. 

Jn Sel&ngor the chief towns are : — 

Kwdla Lumpor is, and has been for many years, the centre of the tin- 
mining of the country. In 1879 it was made the capital, instead of Klang. 
I ts distance from the nearest navigable waters (24 miles) is its principal 
drawback ; but it is well placed for inland communications. The track 
distinctively known as the " Pahang Road " rims duo cast from Kwala 
Lumpor, which is now connected by rail both with Klang and with Kwdla 
Kubu, the chief town of Ulu Selangor. Klang, the principal port of the 
country, 12 miles up the river, former seat of Government and the first 
Residency. It is situated near the sea, and many miles from the vicinity 
of the tin-mines at the foot of the mountains, but is favoured with a navi- 
gable river which, owing perhaps to Kalang island lying across its mouth, 
is without the almost invariable bar. At the mouth of the shallow Selan- 
gor river is the small port of Kwdla SSldngor, where the Dutch had for- 
merly an establishment for the monopoly of the tin ; and a stone fort of 
their construction is still a conspicuous object, having formerly been, next 
to Malacca, the most formidable stronghold in these waters. The other 
towns of Selangor are Langai, Bandar Kanching, Jugra (where the Salt in 
resides), and ulu Langai. This latter lies more inland than any other 
part of the State. 

A good bridle road is now completed from Beranang to Ulu Bernam, 
connecting Sungei tJjong with Perak by means of a main road through the 
whole length of Selangor from south to north. 

Population. — The native inhabitants are believed to be the descendants 
of a colony of Bugis, from Goa, in Celebes, who settled here and at Kwala 
Linggi under their Chief, Aron Passarai, towards the commencement of 
the last century. The population about ten years ago had fallen away to 
a minimum, in consequence of the incessant quarrels and misrule of its 
princes. It has been much increased of late years, both by Chinese settlers 
and miners, and by the immigration of Malays from less prosperous States 
in its neighbourhood, including not a few from Jambi and other places in 
the east of Sumatra. 

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Products. — Selangor produces tin of excellent quality, and the deposits 
at Ulu Langat and Kwala Lumpor Jiave proved extremely rich, the latter 
under the name of Klang tin having attracted much attention for the last 
twenty years. For some years past, it has stood second only to that of 
L&rut. The mining is carried on almost entirely by Chinese. The mines 
opened by European enterprise in 1883-4 have all been unsuccessful except 
that at Rawang, in Ulu Selangor. Besides tin, there is little else but 
jungle produce, though important plantations of coffee, pepper, sugar, &c, 
have been commenced. 

Government. — An incessant quarrel, chiefly as to the rights over the tin 
duties levied in Klang ami Selangor, prevailed from 1867 to 1873. At 
the time when Governor Sir Andrew Clarke was settling the affairs of 
the Native States in 1874, he undertook to assist the Government of 
Selangor. The Government of this State has since been carried on under 
the same system as Perak. 

The railway, 22 miles long, running from Kwala Lumpor to Klang, has 
been extended (1892) to the Pahang frontier, and Selangor is also connected 
by good roads with Peiak, Sunjei Ujong, and Malacca. It may confident ly 
be expected that a country with such mineral resources, and such fine hills 
and plains, drained by abundant rivers like the Bernam, Klang, Selangor, 
and Langat, will, under a peaceful rule, become populous and wealthy. 


Sungei Ujong, the smallest of the three Protected States, lies to 
the south of Selangor, between that State, Jelebu and Rembau, to 
the north-west of Malacca. It was one of the four original States 
out of which grew the " Negri Sembilan." Including the districts 
of Lukut and Sungei Raya, it has an area of about 500 square miles, 
mainly on the north bank of the river Linggi. Sungei Ujong 
suffered for many years from the Selangor disturbances, which 
owed their origin to the same cause — quarrels over the tin-royal- 
ties. But Sungei Ujong has always been, especially since the 
development of its mines, the leading State of the Negri Sembilan. 

The Linggi river, its one large stream (the highway to Sungei Ujong 
and much of Rembau), had, in 1873, been rendered impassable by constant 
border fights between these two States. After repeated complaints on the 
part of the British subjects in Malacca of the violence and extortion that 
put a stop to all traffic on the river Linggi, Sir Andrew Clarke, 
Governor in 1874, went personally to Sempang on the Linggi river, and 
re-opened trade and suppressed disturbance. A Residency was established 
in Sungei Ujong shortly after, to prevent further disturbance, and to 
protect the large number of Chinese miners working there. 

The mountains of Sungei Ujong approach the sea more nearly than 
those of Selangor, the interval being, however,, even more uncleared and 
swampy than in the northern State. In former times, Sungei Ujong seems 
to have been a wholly inland State, but since Residents have been stationed 
in Selangor and Sungei Ujong, the frontier line between them has been 
modified ; and now the river Lukut and district, formerly renowned for its 
tin, but since 1860 almost deserted, are included in Sungei Ujong, thus 
giving it 20 miles of coast, between Sungei Nipah and Kwala Linggi. 

The tin workings, and the best inhabited portion of this small State, 
lie in a sort of semicircular valley, between the hills Btjiembun (4000 feet), 

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in which the Linggi rises, Tangga (1800 feet), the Jelebu boundary, and 
Perhentian Rimpun (2000 feet), at the Selangor boundary. Mount 
B.-rembun is, in some respects, the key to this State, and, it may be said, 
to the whole of this part of the country. On the south side of this moun- 
tain flows the Moar, and on the east a feeder of the Pahang river — Triang. 

Through a gap called Bukit Putus, between this mountain and Guuong 
Angsi, to the south, is a pass leading to Sri Menanti and the other Negri 
Sembilan States. 

Population, Products, Ac. — The Malay population is almost entirely 
agricultural, and is mostly found near the mountains, as at Pantei. The 
whole population is probably about 25,000 souls. Sungei tfjong ha* 
abundance of water, and its land is considered suitable for the cultivation 
of coffee, cocoa, cinchona, &c, which are being grown both on the hills 
and plains. On the lowest ground, tapioca is now cultivated. Tin-mining 
is still carried on to a considerable extent by the Chinese at Ampangau, 
near the Residency, and its neighbourhood. These Chinese miners in 
Sungei ujong, as in L&rut, have been the real sinews and wealth-producing 
power of the country. 

A road now connects Seremban with Pengk&lan Kempas, the newly- 
opened port near the mouth of the Linggi, and there is regular communi- 
cation by steam-launch between Malacca and the Linggi. Not far above 
Pengkalan Kempas are Permatang Pasir, the former inconvenient "port," 
and Linggi village. The Residency is at Seremban, about 22 miles higher 
up the country. Two miles nearer the port is Rasa, the Customs' station 
at the bridge over the Linggi river ; to which place the stream is, or was 
before this new road was made, navigable and clear for small boats. From 
Seremban a road has been made through Pantei to Selangor on the one side, 
and Malacca on the other ; and upon this the first instalment of the future 
road up the Peninsula, Seremban, and Sungei Ujong generally, have a fin*; 
central position. 

Government. — The residential system was introduced here shortly after 
its adoption in Perak and Selangor (December 1874), and with a short 
break, at the time of the Perak war, that form of government has since 
been peacefully carried on in the manner already described. 


These small States, formerly a kind of confederacy of Nine States, 
of which the name alone now survives, occupy about 2000 square 
miles of the interior between the Protected States on the north, 
Malacca on the west, Johor on the south, and Pahang on the east. 

This confederacy has since Sir F. Weld's treaty of 1883 been 
under British protection, and roads have been made connecting 
Johoi and Rembau respectively with Malacca. 

Apart from Klang, which has long fonned part of Selangor, 
and Sungei t)jong, which, as a separate Protected State, is now 
on a different footing, the Negri Sembilan contain a total population 
of not more than 42,000, mostly to be found in Rembau and Sri 

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Originally there appear to have been four States, which were 
afterwards broken up and modified as shown below : — 

At present. 


Inas or JSlei. 
Ulu Moar or Sri Menanti. 

(Six States.) 

Of these six States, those of sufficient importance to deserve 
special description are Jelebu, Johol, Sri Menanti and RSmbau. They 
had their origin most probably in the organisation introduced by 
the Menangk&bau tribes, who have emigrated at different times 
from Sumatra to this part of the Peninsula. In the days when 
Johor was powerful, the Negri Sembilan were under the Sultan 
of Johor ; but about 1773, Johor being indifferent about the 
government of these remote tribal States, allowed the Dutch to 
obtain for them, at their request, a Prince of true Menangkabau 
descent (Raja Melewar), who, as Yang-di-PertAan Besar, ruled over 
the Confederacy. The States were thus formally federated, each 
retaining, however, its own PSnghulu or Dato'. The real power is 
vested in the Penghftlu, that of the suzerain being nominal only. 

This Sumatran immigration, and the political intercourse of the 
independent Princes of Sumatra with those of the Peninsula, deservedly 
attracted the attention of scholars like Marsden, Leyden, and Raffles ; 
but the whole arrangement was of too artificial a kind to last long, and 
after five accessions of Menangkabau Princes, they ceased to be invited 
over (1820). It is noteworthy, however, that even the more civilised 
Malays, especially in Rembau, still hold to the tribal organisation : the 
very names of many of their tribes, such as " Anak AcJwh " (children of 
Achin) and " Sri Llmak MSiianykdbau" betray their comparatively recent 
migration from Sumatra. 

JelSbu is a small State lying to the north and east of Sungei 
"frjong, and containing about 400 square miles, and under 1000 
inhabitants. It belongs politically to the west coast, though 
physically to the east coast. It has thus a peculiarly central 
position in regard to this region of the Peninsula, being situated 
at the great water-parting of the southern portion of it. JelSbu 
had, until the year 1884, remained unexplored. It lies between 

Sungei Cjong. 


(Four States.) 

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Sungei Cjong and the valley of the river Pahang, having Sel&ngor 
to the north and Jeinpol to the south. The country is a succession 
of narrow valleys between hills of no great height, except in the 
south, where they culminate towards Gflnong Berembun. These 
hills are the sources of many of the principal rivers on both sides 
of the Peninsula — the Linggi and the Moar flowing to the west, 
and the Serting and Triang to the east, both feeders of the Pahang. 
Genting Pireh is the boundary towards Sel£ngor. It is about 28 
miles from tjlu Langat, and not far from the mining settlement at 
Sungei Lui. Bukit Tangga (1800 feet), at the head of the KlAwang 
valley, lies between JSlfibu and Sungei Ujong, and deserves notice 
as the furthest western point of the east coast watershed. Jawi- 
Jawi Betuub, on the Triang, is claimed by Jelebu as the eastern 
boundary towards Pahang, but this has still to be settled. Mean- 
while Sungei Dua has been- adopted (1884) as the provisional 
boundary. At the point where Selangor, Sungei ftjong, and Jglebu 
meet is the hill Perfientian Rimputo, said to be so named from 
the assembly (Berhimpun) of the Chiefs of the old "Four 

Hitherto communication has been maintained chiefly with Sungei Ujong, 
a bridle-path connecting Seremban with Jelondong, centre of the mining 
districts. Some parts of Jelebu will probably be found most accessible 
from Sungei Lui in Selangor, while others may be more easily approached 
from Malacca by way of the valley of the Langkap, one of the head- 
waters of the Ulu Moar, which runs down the southern side of the 
Berembun towards T erachi. The geology and physical geography of this 
state alone are of any present consequence. 

The only industry, beyond the cultivation of a little rice chiefly in the 
Kl&wang valley, is some tin-mining carried on by Chinese at Jelondong, 
near the Triang and close to the Penghftlu's place, Kwala Glami. The 
tin-deposits lie on the Pahang side, and are said to be easily worked. 

The Triang, of which the head-waters may almost be said to form the 
State of Jelebu, is an important feeder of the Pahang, and both the main 
stream and its largest tributary (the Kenabui) are deep and navigable for 
most of the year. Rice is thus imported easily from Pahang. The tin- 
deposits in Ken&bui, Jelondong, and Kw&la Olftmi, are unusually rich. 

The State has always been one of the Negri Sembilan, ruled like the 
rest by an elective Dato' Penghulu, with a Yam Tuan whose only function 
seems to be to represent the hereditary and monarchical principle. A 
Collector and a small detachment of Sungei Ujong police have recently 
been established at Jelondong. 

Johol, which formerly included the whole country to the interior 
of Rgmbau, Malacca, and Segfimat, is now broken up into ti e 
separate States of Jelei or Inas, Sri Menanti, and Jempol. 

The four Batins, or aboriginal chiefs, were those of Klang, 
Jelebu, Sungei Ujong, and Johol (see p. 31). 

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According to the natives, the former boundaries of Johol were 
Mount Ophir (Gtbiong Ledang), and from there Ilantau Pait on the 
Moar a little above Kw&Ia P&long (towards Johor), thence to Lubok 
Serampang on the Serting (towards Pahang), thence to the JelSbn 
boundary at J&wi-Jawi Bet4ub on the Triang, and thence to Sungei 
Langkap in tflu Moar, and along Gunong Brimbun (towards 
Sungei U jong) to B&tu Gfijah in the P£bei pass (towards Rembau). 

The present State of Johol, which has little political importance, 
is an undulating country without either large streams or high hills, 
and though known to contain much gold, especially on the GSmas 
(Sungei Mas or gold river?), there are no workings at present. 
Its chief or Penghulu resides at Kwala Tumang. 

One of the principal districts is Inas or Jelei, at one time perhaps 
a separate State of the Negri Sembilan, with which it may now be 
considered to be incorporated. 

The Johol and the Inas both flow into the Jelei, which falls into 
the Moar. The lower part of the Jelei is claimed by Johol, so that 
it is a sort of little Switzerland, enclosed by Rembau, Sri Menanti, 
Johol, and Tarn pin. The direction is south-east of Sri M£nauti. 

Johol has been ruled by its Penghulu, Dato' Eta, since abo«it 
1845, but since the arrangement of 1876 he has been under the 
nominal authority of the Yam Tuan of Sri Menanti. 

Sri Menanti, as recognised by the British Government in 
1876, contains about 300 square miles, and a population of about 
3000. It is the old State of Olu Moar with the addition of Jempol 
to the east The open valleys of Bandul and Teriichi, watered by 
the upper Moar, lead from Bukit Putus, the frontier of Sungei 
Ujong, to Sri Menanti This was formerly the seat of the Yam 
Tuan or Menangkabau Prince, whose titular pretensions formed a 
bond between the Negri Sembilan free S ates. 

The country is chiefly flat, with some hilly districts about the 
sides of Gunong Pasir and Perhentian Tinggi, which is the natural 
boundary towards Rembau. The pass across it, connecting the two 
States, is about 1150 feet high. 

Sri Menanti is tolerably prosperous, though, as in all the Negri 
Sembilan, its rice-crops have, for many years, been deficient About 500 
Chinese carry on tin-mining at Beting and Kuala Pilah. Sir F. Wold, who 
visited the district in 1885, found the Moar river at Ku&la Pilah, probably 
over 150 miles from its mouth, still 20 yards wide. But some obstructions 
having been placed in the stream, boats no longer ascend to this place. A 
few miles lower down the Moar is separated only by a narrow space from 
the head-waters of the Sungei Hilir Sereting, a head-stream of the Pahang 
river. Hence from its central position this district is of great political aud 
commercial importance. 


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If Jelebu is of more consequence in regard to its physical than its 
political relations, it is just the opposite with Sri Menanti, the position 
of which is essentially political, it was without a Chief for some years 
before the treaty of 1876. But after our military occupation iu 1876, and 
upon the withdrawal of our troops, the office of Yam Tuan, which seems 
to have been in abeyance, was re-established. By the treaty of that year, 
Tunku Antah obtained the administration of Sri Menanti, with a general 
authority over some of the other small States. 

Rembau, originally an offshoot of Sungei ttjong, has an area 
of about 400 square miles. It is not only the best known, but is, 
in every respect, at present the most important of all these small 
States. Physically speaking, Rembau is but an extension of the 
plain of Malacca, with no natural boundaries, except at one or two 
points, to separate the two countries. In fact, until fifty years ago, 
the portion of Malacca nearest to RSmbau, called N fating, was itself 
an independent State. 

The boundaries of Rembau are not very well defined. Those 
with Malacca territory are the places named in the Treaty of the 
9th January, 1883, and the RSmbau branch of the Liuggi, above 

The boundary with Sungei Ujong was fixed in 1881 as follows : — 
From Sempang to Bukit Mandi Angin, Perhentian Tiuggi, and 
Gunong Angsi. 

The boundaries with Sri Menanti are said to be Gunong Tujoh, 
and Gunong Ltpat K&jang, and those with Johol, Batu Gajah and 
Gunong Dato'. 

The inhabitants are now mainly of Sumatran race, having 
immigrated principally in the 17th century. The almost exclusive 
industry of the country has always been padi-planting, for which 
its heavy rainfall is an advantage. In recent years, tapioca has 
been cultivated by the Chinese, which has materially increased 
the prosperity of its people. Tin is known to exist in some 
quantity, especially in the river Pedas, but the prejudices of the 
people have hitherto prevented mining. 

The soil and physical configuration of Rembau generally 
resemble those of Naning. The country is of an undulating 
character, the depressions being mostly planted with "sfiwah," or 
wet padi-fields. Bukit Besar is the only mountain, exclusive of 
the frontier ranges towards Sungei tJjong, Sri Menanti and Johol. 

Of the towns Sempang deserves first mention. Here the Rembau and 
Penar join and form the Linggi, and a Police Station stands in the angle 
thus formed, on some land ceaed to Government in 1874. It was formerly 
Rue of the chief places in Rembau. Kwala Pedas, a few miles up the 
eonibau on the right bank, was another j but both these districts have 

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oeen deserted. Nor is the capital easy to define, for each successive 
Pensjhulu seems to have his own. Bandar Rasau was the residence of 
the Yam Tuan Muda, and latterly of the ex-Penghulu, Haji Sail. In 
1S37, Newbold said the Penghulu resided at Chembong : the present 
Penghulu resides at Gemayun near Chengkau. 

The Government of Rembau is the best type of the tribal system to be 
found in the Peninsula. In something like its present form, it probably 
came over with the earliest immigrants from Sumatra, and has since been 
maintained with great conservatism among the twelve Sukus or tribes It 
is by and among the L&mbdga, or hereditary chiefs of these tribes, that 
the Penghulu must be elected. This election follows very minute and 
elaborate rules, grafted by the Sumatran immigrants upon the aboriginal 
system, of one feature of which the following is a summary : — 

" Beduanda is the name of one of the chief aboriginal tribes in the 
south of the Peninsula, and two of the chief Rembau clans bear the same 
name — the Beduanda Jawa, and the Beduanda Jakun — from which the 
Penghulu is alternately elected. 

" This alternate election is said to be due to a dispute between the two 
branches of the Beduanda, over the right to elect the Penghulu, which was 
settled by the sovereign of Johor giving each the right alternately. 

" At the same time, he gave distinctive titles to the Penghulus — to the 
one elected from the ' Beduanda Jawa ' that of * SSdia Raja,' to him of the 
' Beduanda Jakun ' that of ' Lela Maharaja.' " 

The office of Lembaga, or electoral chief, is hereditary, descending on 
the side of the sister, as in Naning and all the Menanagkabau States. 

3. — PAHANG. 

Pahang, between Tringgami and Johor, extends along the eastern 
side of the Peninsula from 2° 40' to 4° 35' N., and has about 130 
miles of sea-coast on the Gulf of Siam. Its boundaries are the river 
Cherating, with Tringganu ; the river Endau, with Johor ; and a 
line along the eastern frontier of JSlebu, Sel&ngor and P6rak to the 
west To the north-west the boundary is not defined, but may 
be taken as following the watershed of the Ulu Pahang. 

Its area scarcely exceeds 10,000 square miles, and its line of 
greatest length, from Ulu findau to Ulu P£rak, approaches 200 miles, 
far exceeding that of any other State in the Peninsula. Besides the 
territory on the mainland, Pahang includes two chains of islets run- 
ning parallel to its coast, generally at about 25 miles distance. The 
State of Pahang. apart from these islands, is almost identical with 
the basin of the river of the same name, in an even greater degree 
than is the case with PSrak. This river is shallow and, therefore, 
not the largest in volume ; yet, as regards its position in the very 
centre of the Malay Peninsula, and the extent of country it drains — 
from 3° to 5° N.— the river Pahang may fairly be considered the 
principal stream in the whole region. 

D 2 

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Pahang is, in many respects, the least known, geographically and 
otherwise, of all the the Malay States, and it offers a most interesting 
field for exploration. Here are found both the highest mountains 
and the widest extent of lakes and marshes in the Peninsula. 

The highest summit in the Peninsula is believed to be Gunong Tahan, 
which has not been ascended, or even seen by Europeans except at a 
great distance, but which almost certainly reaches a height of between 
10,000 and 12,000 feet. This central chain of the Peninsula at its widest 
point, is situated to the east of the upper waters of the Pahang, and can 
probably be best reached from the Ulu Temling, a feeder of the Pahang, 
near Jelei. The geological formation of the hills consists, so far as is 
known, of granite, sandstone, shale, and clay. Some of the islands, ad 
Tioman and Tinggi, consist partly or entirely of trap rock. 

The next highest summit is to be found on the opposite side of the 
Pahang valley, in the neighbourhood of Gunong Raja, near the Selangor 
boundary. Other high hills are found in the eastern chain, from which 
flows the river Cherating (called the Serting near its source), the DUngHn 
in Tringgftnu, and the LSbih in Kelantan ; and the G timing Cheni south 
of the Pahang, which is believed to supply the Cheno lakes. Still further 
South is the lofty Gunong Gayong, source of the Rumpen. 

The Cheno lakes, and the others in the neighbourhood, as, in fact, the 
water system generally, are peculiar to Pahang. The Pahang river drains 
a great length of country, and, in its course, receives important feeder 
from all directions— from the mountains to the north, south, and west. 
The lower part of the stream, below Kw&laBera, flows for nearly 100 miles 
due east, through a very flat and marshy country. The river and its 
feeders here become wide and shallow, opening out into spaces like small 
lakes. The country between Pahang and Rumpen is particularly level, 
and the three main tributaries from that region — the Ber&, the Chfcno, and 
the Cheni — are all noted for such lakes. That of the Ber& is the largest 
sheet of inland water in the Peninsula, but its shores, like the Cheni, 
are only inhabited by Sakci, while the Cheno lakes are inhabited by 

The shallowness of the Pahang rivers makes them navigable for small 
craft only, except in the rainy season. Unlike those on the west aide, 
their banks are sandy, often high, and mostly free from mangroves. The 
Pahang is formed by the Lipis and the Jelei flowing respectively from the 
north-west and north, and uniting a few miles below the Penium river. 
One day's journey lower down the main stream is joined by the copious 
Temelin from the north-east Below the Temelin confluence it takes the 
name of Pahang, and before reaching the coast receives several other large 
feeders, such as the Semantan, Triang, and Bera, all from the west and 

Like most of the eastern sea-board the coast of Pahang is mainly an 
uninhabited forest ; but it has the advantage of a fine sandy shore with 
numerous Ru trees (Casuarina Uttorea), forming a natural highway, 
practicable even during the north-east monsoon. Such a coast route no- 
where occurs on the west side, where the muddy foreshore is everywhere 
overgrown with dense mangrove jungle. 

Pahang is far from being a populous country, even according to the low 
standard of the Peninsula, although there aie a good many flourishing 
Malay settlements, especially in the interior. Here the valleys of the 

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Kanb and Lipis, tributaries of the Pahang from the Ulu Selangor hills, 
together with the Jelei and Tending districts lower down the main 
stream, appear to be more tliiekly inhabited than any other part of the 

Pahang owes its chief importance to its rich gold and tin deposits, 
which for productiveness and quality are unrivalled in the Peninsula. 
The chief gold mines are, or have been, in the Pahang basin at Lipis, 
Semantan, and Luet ; and the same metal is also found as far south as the 
Bern river. A mine of galena is found at Sungei Lembing on the K wan- 
tan, and tin everywhere near the gold-diggings, and in places like the 
Triang and Bentong valleys where gold is not worked. 

Recent explorations (1885) show the country to be very poor at the 
present time. The Luet valley is now almost depopulated, not more than 
tifty able-bodied men being found in the whole district. Here there is no 
auriferous quartz, although a great deal of surface-mining appears to have 
been formerly carried on, traces of extensive Chinese diggings having been 

Of the " mineral " States the Malays rank Pahang first, Kelantan 
next, and Pat&ni third ; these territories alone yielding galena as well 
as gold and tin. It is noteworthy that the chief gold-workings lie 
almost entirely along a somewhat narrow zone running northwards 
from Mounts Ophir and Segamat through the very heart of the 
Peninsula to the Kalian Mas (gold diggings) of Patani and Telepin. 
The best tin-workings of Pahang lie on the river Bentong, and near 
the auriferous district of Jglei. In whiteness and pliancy the tin of 
Pahang rivals that of PSrak and SSlangor on the west coast. 

Pahang is said to grow sufficient rice for its own consumption, 
besides exporting a little to JSlSbu. It is mostly wet rice, the 
buffalo being employed here instead of the bullock as in the north- 
ern States. Neither is the elephant here domesticated, so that 
Pahang belongs, in these respects, rather to the southern than to the 
northern section of the Peninsula. The only other vegetable pro- 
ducts are jungle produce, which has of late years been exported 
mainly by the *' Pahang road " (a mere bridle track) to Kwala Lumpor. 

The capital of the State is Pekan, which lies a few miles from the mouth 
of the Pahang. Other settlements are ChJhio, some way up the main 
river ; Temerloh, near the river Semantan ; Tanjong Bcsar and Pcnjam on 
the river Lipis ; Jllci, centre of the gold industry ; and Temelin, noted for 
its earthenware. 

The inland communications are chiefly by means of the wide-branching 
river system. There are few roads, and the jungle tribes are mainly con- 
fined to the inland connections with Kelantan and Tringg&nu ; a path 
crossing from Ulu Kwantan through Perim to Ulu Luet, and another from 
Ulu Bern through Paso to Ulu Keratong. There is also a way from Geliting 
to the K. Lipis, used by Malays passing between Perak and Pahang. This 
route was explored in 1884 by the Perak officials. A road has also been 
made by the Selangor Government, connecting the frontier at Ginting Bidei 
(2300 feet) with Kwala Lumpor. 

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The Government of Pahang is practically independent and arbitrary. 
It has always looked to the south, formerly to Johor, and of late years to 
Singapore, for support and protection, especially against Siam. But the 
Bendahara, who has recently assumed the title of Sultan, always exercises 
despotic power within his jurisdiction. The revenue appears to be small, 
the great national wealth of the country being entirely undeveloped. 
There are but few Chinese settlers, and the trade is chiefly in the hands of 
the Bendahara. 

The local history is obscure, and appears to have been mainly concerned 
with invasions and threats from Siam. To a great extent Pahang escaped 
the troubles from which Johor suffered through its Portuguese and Dutch 
neighbours. Unlike the Malay States, it has of late years been growing 
more rather than less independent. The present ruler, then styled Wai: 
Ahmed, obtained possession by force in 1862, when a treaty was made with 
Johor under the sanction of the Straits Government. In virtue of this 
treaty the long-disputed boundary with Johor at the river Endau was 
settled in 1868 by the arbitration of the British Governor. The right of 
protection thus assumed by the Colonial Government received prompt effect 
during the disturbances of 1891-92 under the rebel leader, Orang Kyah. 


Johor (Jeh6r), which since 1877 comprises Moar, includes the 
whole of the southern end of the Peninsula, from 2° 40' N. hit. to 
Cape Romania, together with the adjacent islets. It is surrounded 
on three sides by the sea, the inland boundaries being Malacca, Jehol 
and the river Endau towards Pahang. Although the area must bo 
nearly 9000 square miles, the population, chiefly agricultural, is 
probably little over 200,000, mostly confined to the districts lying 
near Singapore on the one side and Malacca on the other. 

The interior, still mainly under virgin forest, and but partially 
explored, is on the whole less mountainous than any other part of 
the Peninsula. The hills form detached groups or portions of two- 
interrupted chains running along the west and east sides, one from 
Mount Ophir by Penggalam, and Mount Formosa to Pulei and the 
Carimons group, the other from the Seg&mat Hills and Mount Janin^ 
to the Blumut and neighbouring heights beyond Menhahak and 

The Blumut Hills (3300 feet) are the chief mountain range, giving 
rise to the river Johor flowing south, to the Sedili flowing east, and 
to the Kahang, which runs north to the Sembrong, an affluent of the 
Endau. Mount Ophir in Moar (4050 feet) is probably the highest 
peak in the State, and was long regarded as the highest in the 
Peninsula. Its shape and position near the sea are remarkable, and 
although it gives rise to no large rivers, two of its streams, the 
Chohong and Gemas, have some importance as forming the northern 
frontiers of Johor towards Malacca and Johol. Ophir was so named 

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by the earlier European explorers everywhere in search of the region 
whence Solomon obtained his gold. 

There are three considerable rivers in Johor, the Endau, Johor, 
and Moar, of which the last-named is the largest and most important 
in the southern extremity of the Peninsula. It takes its rise in the 
Negri Sembilan territory, and after collecting numerous waters from 
the inland uplands flows from Brinibun (Berembun), south-west- 
wards to the west coast below Malacca. The Endau, which forms 
the boundary towards Pahang, runs from the Seg^mat Hills in a 
north-easterly direction to the east coast, while the Johor flows from 
Mount Blumat southwards to a wide estuary opposite Singapore. 

The majority of the inhabitants of Johor are Chinese, who are 
concentrated, as cultivators of gambier and pepper, mainly in the 
extreme south over against Singapore, of which Johor has been 
called the "back country." From Singapore they cross over to the 
mainland ; the capitalists for whom they work are Singapore traders, 
and their produce, with most of their earnings, finds its way back to 
the same place. Of late years European speculators have begun to 
plant sago, tobacco, coffee, tea, and cocoa, on a large scale in Bdtu 
Pahat, and some other districts. The collection of gutta for the 
Singapore market, after the discovery of its useful properties by Dr. 
Montgomerie in 1842, was carried on actively till the supply was 
exhausted. Saw-mills have also been worked with some success ; 
but at present the chief exports are gambier, pepper, tapioca, timber, 
rattans, and damar, for which Singapore is the chief outport. 

The only mineral found in abundance is iron, which, although 
occurring almost everywhere, is nowhere worked. Gold is known 
to exist in one or two places, and tin in several districts, but no tin- 
mining is actively carried on except in the Carimons Islands, which 
belong geologically to Johor, although now politically separated 
from that State, and under the Dutch flag. 

The present capital is Johor Bhdru, or New Johor, which has taken the 
place of Johor Ldma, or Old Johor, situated a few miles up the Johor 
estuary. The new town is a flourishing little place, lying about 14 miles 
north-east of Singapore city, in 1° 26' N. lat. There are no other towns 
properly so called ; but on the south bank of the Moar stand the populous 
villages of Lenga, Bandar Mdhardni, and Bukit Kepong. Further south 
is the populous Javanese settlement of Padang, which, unlike most places 
in the Peninsula, lies not on a river, but on the sea-shore, which is here 
open and sandy. 

Although the Government is of the usual autocratic character, the 
freedom and enlightenment of its administration contrast favourably with 
the systems prevailing in most other Malay States. For the last thirty years 
the country has been ruled wisely by the Maharaja (now Sultan) Abubakar, 
K.C.S.L. who visited England in 1866, 1878, and 1886, and who has done 

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1878, nnd 1886, and who has done much to develop the resources of the 
land. His Chinese subjects, by nature indifferent to their rulers, provided 
their personal independence is secure, have hitherto given little trouble 
to the authorities, even where they are in a large majority. This is gener- 
ally true of other States, with the exception of disturbances in certain 
mining districts, such as the troubles at Lukut in 1834, and Larut in 1872. 

Johor, whose history extends back to the Portuguese days, took an 
important part in the 140 years' struggle over Malacca between the Portu- 
guese and the Dutch. At the beginning of this century, the central 
authority having been removed from the mainland to the Lingga and 
Riau archipelagos, little cohesion remained among the different feudatories, 
and the hereditary princes of Pahang and B&lnng became virtually inde- 
pendent. At the restoration of the Dutch possessions at the peace, all the 
former dependencies of Johor, including Bulang and the Carimons, were 
unfortunately assigned to Holland, the Jobor rule being thus henceforth 
confined to the mainland and contiguous islets. 

Since then the principal changes have been those resulting from the 
establishment of Singapore ; from the Treaty of 1855 with the British 
Government, by which the Temenggong's de /ado administrative rights in 
Johor were acknowledged ; and lastly, from the temporary administration 
of Moar by the ruler of Johor. Since 1868 the ruler has enjoyed the title 
of Maharaja. 


The Colony of the Straits Settlements, which comprises Singa- 
pore, Penang (with Province Wollesley and the Dindings), and 
Malacca, now contains nearly 1500 square miles, and over 500,000 
inhabitants. The settlements were transferred from the control of 
the Indian Government to that of the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies on the 1st April, 1867, by an Order iu Council issued under 
29 & 30 Vict. c. 115. 

The earliest settlement was Penang, which was founded in 1786. 
Its foundation is something more than the commencement of the 
Colony, for it marks the beginning of the enormous trade, and was 
in some sense the forerunner of all the colonising enterprise, in the 
parts beyond India— Malaya, China, and Australasia. It may be 
noticed that, within a few months of the time Captain Light firRt 
anchored in Penang harbour, the earliest expedition to Botany Bay 
arrived at Port Jackson. When in 1796 Penang became the Penal 
Station for India, there was some superficial resemblance between 
the two infant settlements and the two enterprises, whi«h have both 
developed so enormously during the present century. The imme- 
diate prosperity of Penang, and its superiority to the Company's 
trading station at Bencoolen, attracted Chinese traders, and still 
more Chinese settlers, and gave an early impulse to the expansion 
of iU commerce. The troubled times of the great European war, 

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which commenced seven years after the foundation of Penang, 
brought special opportunities to this outlying station ; and at the 
close of a single generation the little Settlement had become a 
power in Malaya, under the direct and indirect influence of which 
the " Dutch monopoly system" had been completely overthrown. 
The British possession of the Straits, after 1795, became secure, 
first through our holding Malacca, and when that was given back by 
the establishment of Singapore. 

The settlements were not formed into one Government till 1826. 
But the Straits have, since 1795, been, in every sense, a British 
possession, our power being paramount on the western or navigable 

The colony has hitherto been little more than a place of trade ; 
and though it is now beginning to show some development in other 
directions, yet, from its circumstances, trade must always be its 
principal feature. As a market alone, it ranks, with Hongkong and 
Malta, not only above all other Crown colonies, but with a gross 
total of imports and exports which, excluding those two trade 
centres only, exceeds that of all other such colonies put together. 
For 1890 its total trade was at the extraordinary rate of above £90 
a head of the population, a rate exceeding that of the United 
Kingdom and its most prosperous colonies in Australia, and prob- 
ably of any other country in the world. 

The early prosperity of the colony resulted from its central 
position as a port of call for European, Indian, and Chinese trade. 
The local trade, for which both Singapore and Penang are so well 
placed, and which now forms so much more 6ecure a basis of future 
prosperity, has taken time to develope. But within the last few 
years it has rapidly assumed increased proportions, and already far 
exceeds the ocean-going trade. 

At the Transfer, the United Kingdom trade with the colony was 
£3,476,000, and the local trade (including Netherlands India and 
the Malay peninsular), £2,669,000 ; but now the position is reversed ; 
that of the United Kingdom for 1890 amounting to only £9,650,000, 
while there is a local and colonial trade of over £45,000,000. 

A similar change has been in progress, on a smaller scale, in the 
trade with India, as compared with the essentially local trade with 
the Malay Peninsula. With these facts established, there can be 
little to fear from any change in ocean routes. The colony will find 
its surest guarantee of continuing prosperity in the growing propor- 
tions of the trade done with its immediate neighbours, for which its 
situation makes it the natural metropolis. 

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The population of the colony was, according to the census of 1891, 
506,000 ; in 1856 it was 248,000, and has thus more than doubled itself in 
a generation. The Chinese and Indian population have greatly increased, 
but can only be maintained at their present figures by immigration, for 
the women number but a fourth of the men. Among the Malays, the 
sexes are almost equal in number ; and the increment, which in their case 
amounts to 2 per cent, per annum, is a natural increase, due to a high 
birth-rate, and not dependent on immigration. 

Vegetable Products. — The flora of the colony is very rich in variety of 
forms. The number of flowering plants has been estimated at about 
5000, and the flowerless kinds at about 300 ; but a great number of the 
flowerinc kinds produce inconspicuous blossoms, and so are commonly 
supposed to be without flowers. The trees producing valuable timber 
may be put at 100 kinds, of which the best are the balau, tampinis, 
seraya, meranti, darn, kladang, kulim, petaling, rengas, merbau. 

Of native fruits there are about nine varieties in daily use, supple- 
mented by about six introduced kinds, including the pineapple and 
orange. The culinary vegetables are chiefly acclimatised Chinese kinds, 
comprising lettuces, beans, radishes, &c. of a much inferior sort to the 
similar European vegetables. The vegetable products which form part of 
the exports of the colony are about 40 in number, of which pepper, sugar, 
tapioca, indigo, coffee, cocoa-nuts, sago, gutta-percha, caoutchouc, and 
canes are the principal. The well-known Malacca cane is not, however, 
found in Malacca, but only in Sumatra and Borneo. 

Gutta percha (GStah) deserves special mention. The plants that pro- 
duce it, of a commercial standing, are about 20 in number ; about ten of 
which are trees, and 10 creepers, GStah Taban, the produce of a tree, being 
the best known. 

The Straits sago is chiefly produced by a large palm which grows in 
swampy places, and from the pith of which sago is made. The kinds of 
oil exported are five in number, among which an essential oil, extracted 
from the lemon-grass, is the most important. Tea, coffee, and chocolate 
are not yet produced in any large quantity, but Liberian coffee promises to 
do well. Among spices, nutmegs, cloves, pepper, and cinnamon are ex- 
ported, the pepper in large quantities, though most of it is not grown in 
the colony. 

The grape-vine is not found native in the colony, and only succeeds 
with great difficulty under cultivation. Native vines with clusters rival- 
ing those of the grape-vine in beauty, but uneatable, are, however, found 
in great plenty. 

Of late years, both public and private enterprise have been active in 
introducing various foreign plants which yield valuable foreign products : 
among more recent ones may be enumerated the teak tree of India, the 
Brazil-nut tree, and American and African india-rubber-producing trees, 
the Queensland nut-bush, the croton and castor-oil plants, cubebs, Maltese 
oranges and lemons, mahogany, and two species of eucalypti. 

A curious feature of the vegetation of the colony is the appearance of 
many Australian plants on the higher hill-tops. The beautiful Victoria 
regia lily of the Amazons grows well, and many other introduced plants 
have become acclimatised in gardens and by the way-side ; but owing to 
the stimulating nature of the climate, few of them produce flowers or fruit 
as freely as in their native habitat, while leaves and branches flourish much 
more freely. 

Many products, once abundant in the colony, have become compara- 

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tively rare, through wasteful habits and the want of any systematic 
conservation ; in fact many have retired considerably beyond the limits of 
the Settlements, and the Government of the colony has taken steps to 
re-establish some of these by growing young plants on waste-lands and 
in forest reserves. 

Mineral*. — No minerals are found in any workable quantities, except 
a little tin in the south of Malacca. This is natural from the situation of 
the Settlements, lying as they do upon the coast of the Straits. Almost 
immediately beyond the frontier it happens that both in Province Welles- 
ley and Malacca valuable tin deposits have been worked, and in the latter 
Settlement some gold-diggings also at Chinderas, near Mount Ophir. The 
Paleozoic rock occurring so frequently throughout the Settlements is 
largely charged with iron ores, which under the action of weathering are 
converted into a red liraonite or laterite, forming a most durable building 

Government. — The Government is of the usual type in British Crown 
colonies. It is ranked as a "first class" colony, i. e. the Governor's 
salary comes within the category "£5000 and upwards." The Governor 
has also general control over the Protected Native States, and since 1890 
he acts as Consul-General for British Borneo. 

The colony's revenue is now about £900,000 a year, and a municipal 
revenue of al.out £120,000 more is collected separately. The rate con- 
tr.buted is thus nearly £2 a head of the population, which, though lower 
than the rate in the Australian colonies, stands highest among the Crown 


Singapore is an island about 27 miles long by 14 wide, containing 
an area of 206, or, with the adjacent islets, 223 square miles, situated 
at the southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula, within 80 
miles of the equator. Time, 6 hours, 55 minutes before that 
of Greenwich. The island is separted from the continent by a 
narrow strait (Stlat Ttbrau) about three-quarters of a mile in 
width. All the small islands within ten miles of its shores form 
part of the Settlement. 

The seat of Government, for the whole colony as well as the 
Settlement, is the town of Singapore, at the south of the island, in 
lat. 1° 17' N., and long. 103° 50' E. 

Singapore was occupied by Sir Stamford Baffles, with the 
consent of the Governor-General, in February 1819, under an 
agreement with the Princes of Johor. In 1823, it was transferred 
to the direct Government of Bengal, and in 1826, incorporated with 
Penang and Malacca, and placed under the Governor and Council 
of the incorporated Settlement. It became the recognised seat of 
Government in 1837. 

The surface of the island is undulating, nowhere over 500 feet 
high, and consisting of laterite resting on sandstone. Granite is 
found in a few places, principally to the north and east. Gumbier, 

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indigo, pepper, and many local fruits and vegetables grow well; 
but the Settlement depends for rice on the neighbouring countries 
of Java, Camboja, Burma, and Bengal. 


Penang is the name both of an island, and of the Settlement for 
which it is the seat of local administration. 

The Settlement has altogether an area of about 600 square miles. 
The island, officially called Prince of Wales' Island, is about 15 miles 
long and 9 broad, containing an area of 107 square miles, situated 
Oif the west coast of the Malay Peninsula in 6° N. latitude, and 
at the northern end of the Strait of Malacca. 

On the opposite mainland, from which the island is separated by 
a channel a few miles broad, lies Province Wellesley, a strip of 
territory containing 270 square miles, and forming part of the 
Sattlement. The province averages 7 miles in width, and extends 
45 miles along the coast; it includes, since the Pangkor Treaty 
(1874), about 25 square miles of newly-acquired territory to the 
south of the Krlan. About 200 square miles of land in the Pangkor 
Islands and opposite coast are also comprised in this territory, and 
form the so-called Dinding Settlements. The chief town is George 
Town, in 5° 24' N. lat and 100° 21' E. long. The local government 
is administered by a Resident Councillor, who since 1888 exercises 
consular jurisdiction over all the provinces (K&dah, Kra, &c.) lying 
between Bunnah and the Straits Settlements. 


Malacca is situated about one-third of the way up the western 
coast of the Peninsula, between Singapore and Penang, about 110 
miles from the former and 240 from the latter, and consists of a 
strip of territory 42 miles in length, and from 8 to 25 miles in 
breadth, containing an area of 659 square miles. 

Tin is found at the Linggi sands and a few other places, and 
cold on the slopes of Mount Ophir. Hot springs, noteworthy as 
being the only sign of volcanic agency in the Peninsula, occur at 
Ayer Panas and near Pulau Sebang, some 20 miles from Malacca. 
They are said to possess salubrious qualities. 

The principal town, called Malacca, is in 2° 10' N. lat. and 
102° 14' E. long. The local government is administered by a 
Resident Councillor. 

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Malay Peninsula 
Siamese Malaya 
British Malaya . 

Siamese Division : 

Ligor and Senggora 

Patani States 
Kelantan . 
Tringganu with ) 
Kemaman J 

British Division: 

Selangor with Klang 
Sunjei Ujong 
Negri S&nbtlan 

Straits Settlements 

Area in Sq. Miles. 





2,000,000 (?) 


250,000 (?) 
250,000 (?) 
300,000 (?) 


213,000 (1890) 

82,000 (189J) 



506,000 (1890) 


Siamese Division: 

Sam-Sams # 


Negrito Wild Tribes 

Chinese . .... 


British Division : 

Negrito Wild Tribes 

Klings (Indians) . 

Total Malays . 
Total Chinese . 
Malays in the Straits Settlements 




140,00 0 


850,000 (1891) 
570,000 || 

174.326 (1881) 

174.327 „ 

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Population (1820) over 50,000 

(1839) 21,000 

(1889) 220,000 

„ According to Carl Bock (excessive) 525,000 


Population (1786) 


(1832) . 
(1889) . 
According to 

ccording to Carl Bock 



Population (1856) 

According to the natives 
of Kelantan town . 
Annual export of tin . 


3000 pikuls 


Population (1856) 

(1889) . 
„ Triugganu town (1856) 

„ (1886) 


Malay population (1884) 
Chinese „ ,, 
Thaipeng town, pop. „ 
Tin exported (1889) „ 
Other exports „ „ 
Total imports and exports (1889) 
Revenue (1889) 
Expenditure (1889) . 


Malay population (1889) 
Chinese „ 
Exports (1889) 
Revenue „ 






Population (1890) 
Revenue (1889) 


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Jelebu, population 1200 

Johol „ J 9,000 

Sri Menanti „ 5,000 

Kembau . „ . 15,000 


Malay population (1889) . . . 60,000 

Sakei (Negritoes) „ .... 3,000 

Chinese „ 500 


Malay population (1886) .... 80,000 (?) 

Chinese „ „ 120,000 (?) 

New Johor „ „ 15,000 

Padang „ „ 2,000 


Pop. 18S1. 

Singapore : 

Chinese 86,766 

Malays 22,114 

Klings (Indians) 12,104 

Europeans 2,769 

Miscellaneous 15,455 

Total 139,208 

Penang : 

Chinese 67,820 

Malays 84,724 

Klings 27,115 

Europeans 674 

Miscellaneous 10,264 

Total 190,597 

Malacca : 

Chinese 19,741 

Malays 67,488 

Klings 1,887 

Europeans . .... 40 

Miscellaneous 4,423 

Total 93,579 

Total pop. Straits Settlements (Census 1881) 423,384 
„ n „ „ 1891 507,000 

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Penang with Dindings . 

206 Sq. Miles 

Total 1470 

Fop. 1891. 



Trade and Finance* 

Total trade with Gt. Britain (1868) . £3,476,000 
local trade „ . . 2,669,000 

(1890) nearly 59,000,000 

(1884) . . 1,500,000 
Malay Peninsula (1868) 139,000 

(1890) 7,000,000 

„ trade with Gt Britain 
„ India (1868) 

11 11 

11 11 
11 11 


Exports to Gt. Britain. 
1880. £3,698,030 
1889. 5,400,000 

Impoiis from Ot. Britain. 

Imports. ] %m 

„ , ( 1880. 
Lxports. j im 

Singapore. Penang. Malacca. Total. 

£10,872,000 3,534,000 644,000 15,050,000 

22,150,000 8,770,000 450,000 31,370,000 

9,779,000 3,554,000 651,000 13,984,000 

19,510,000 8,200,000 450,000 28,220,000 

Shipping (1889). 

Foreign vessels entered 8,084 

Native „ „ 14,135 

Foreign „ cleared 8,084 

Native „ „ 12,336 

Tonnage 4,855,000 



1880. £327,000 
1890. 882,000 

Public debt (1890), £251,000 



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Position— Boundaries— Extent.— The term Indo-China, for 
which alternative expressions are Farther India and Transgangetic 
India, was originally proposed by Malte Brun for the easternmost 
of the three great Asiatic peninsulas, forming the south-eastern 
limb of the continent. It thus corresponds in position and some 
other respects with the Balkan Peninsula of the European Continent, 
and, like it, is continued south and south-eastwards by numerous 
insular groups, through which it gradually merges in the Australian 

Washed on the west by the Bay of Bengal, which here develops 
the Gulf of Martaban, on the south and east by the China Sea, with 
the corresponding Gulfs of Siam and Tonkin, Indo-China abuts on 
its north-west frontier with India, and on the north with China. But 
the term Indo-China was suggested not so much by this geograph- 
ical position, as by the twofold origin of its religious and social 
culture, derived partly from China, but to a much greater extent 
from India. Hence the alternative expression Transgangetic India, 
strictly correct in a geographical sense, may also be justified on 
historic grounds. 

Excluding from consideration its extreme southern prolongation 
through the Malay Peninsula, which is treated separately in this 
work, Indo-China presents a somewhat compact oval form disposed 
in the direction from north-west to south-east, and comprised almofct 
entirely between 10° N. lat. and the Tropic of Cancer, but projecting 
in the extreme south-east to Cape Camboja (9° N. lat.), and in the 
extreme north-west to about 27° N. lat. to the Patkoi Mountains here 

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separating it from Assam. The longitudes of 92° and 109° E. mark 
its extreme western and eastern limits on the Bay of Bengal and 
China Sea, the total length in the direction from north to south 
being about 800 miles, from the Chinese frontier to the Isthmus 
of Kra, and 950 at its broadest part, between the Ganges delta and 
Gulf of Tonkin, with an approximate area of about 800,000 square 

Mountain Systems.— The salient physical features of this 
region present a certain simplicity of outline, as shown especially 
in the uniform and nearly parallel disposition of its mountain 
ranges and river valleys, which run mainly in the direction of its 
long axis from north-west to south-east. Projecting like Southern 
China, with which it forms a geographical unit, from the elevated 
Tibetan plateau, the peninsula is of an extremely rugged character 
in its northern section, where it begins to fall rapidly towards the 
centrul plains. Here the slope of the land is clearly indicated by 
the numerous falls and rapids obstructing the upper courses of the 
main streams and their chief affluents. But the mountain chains 
forming the water-partings between these river basins, although 
seldom exceeding 7000 or 8000 feet, maintain a mean elevation of 
from 5000 to 6000 feet throughout their whole course to the Malay 

In the north-west the Arakan Yoma range, separating the Arakan 
coastlands from Upper Burmah, has several crests from 6000 to 7000 feet 
high, culminating in the Malselai Mon or "Blue Mountain" (7100 feet) 
in the Lushai country. This range, which terminates at Cape Negrais at 
the western angle of the Irawaddy delta, is crossed by several passes, of 
which one of the most frequented is that of Ayeng (under 4000 feet) 
leading from the coast to Upper Burmah. The prevailing formations are 
limestones and sandstones of the chalk and tertiary periods, interspersed 
with some eruptive rocks, but no active volcanoes. But on the coast and 
adjacent archipelago are grouped a large number of mud volcanoes, aa 
many as fifteen in the island of Ramri alone, all subject to frequent and 
violent eruptions. 

Parallel and east of the Arakan Yoma is the Pegu Yoma range, 
forming the divide between the Irawaddy and Sittang basins, but seldom 
exceeding 2000 feet. Southwards it merges in the extensive plain of 
Pegu, formed by the united lower valleys and deltas of the Irawaddy and 
Sittang, and stretching from Cape Negrais to Martaban west and east. 
The Pegu Yoma, one of whose crests, the Puppa or Pappa Dung (3000 
feet), presents the character of an extinct volcano, is continued northwards 
by the Shan-Yoma, which separates the waters flowing west to the 
Irawaddy and Sittang basins from those draining east to the Salwin. This 
range, which rises in the north to over 10,000 feet, and even in the south 
has one peak, the Nattung, 8000 feet high, appears to consist mainly of 
slaty clays alternating with sandstone, and nere and there assuming a 
basaltic character. Stratified sandstones interspersed with veins of quartz 
are also a prevailing feature of the Tenasserim hills, which form a southern 

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prolongation of the northern "Yoma*" or "Mountains," and which in- 
some places attain an elevation of 5000 or 6000 feet. Beyond Tenas^erim 
the system is continued thiough the Malay Peninsula as far as the island 
of Billiton below the equator. 

The general geological structure of Bnrmah is described by M. K. 
Hainan is as very simple, the chief formations running north and south 
in great mountain ranges. The tertiary formations of Pegu reach north- 
wards to the great bend of the Irawaddy at KyGuta-lung below Ava, while 
the metamorphic rocks of the Martaban hills are continued in the Shan 
Yoma east of Mandalay. In the same way the limestone of the Salwin 
and Kacbin hills corresponds with that of the Dawna range east of 
Maulmein, and the general features of the country much resemble those 
of the north-west provinces of India. 

E;>st of the Burmese and western Siamese ranges the orographic sys- 
tem becomes more irregular and less elevated, I he central Siamese plains 
being broken only by low and short ridges or isolated eminences, such 
as the Koh Sabap east of Shantabun (2100 feet), the Prabat and Bassac 
hills (3800 feet). But the regular and parallel disposition of the Indo- 
Chinese ranges reappears farther north and east, in the chain separating 
the Mekhong from the Sor g-koi basin, and in the Cochin -Chinese coast 
range. North-west of Hue the main range rises to a height of from 6000 
to 7000 feet. Farther south is developed to lofty Sara van or Bolovek 
Plateau (about 3000 feet), which is enclosed between the Mekhong and 
Don rivers on the west and i-orth-west, and by the Kong on the east and 
south-east. This extensive tableland, which has been explored by Thorel, 
Harmand, and other French naturalists, presents in some places the aspect 
of a grassy or swampy steppe, and in others is covered with dense forests 
of conifers, oaks, chestnuts, intermingled with palms, bamboos, and other 
subtropical species. The soil consists of a ferruginous clay resting on 
sandstones interspei'sed with lavas and scoriae, which combined with the 
presence of hot springs and several cone-shaped crests, show that this 
region was formerly the scene of igneous activity. 

In the extreme south-east the hills and plateaux merge everywhere in 
the low-lying plains of Camboja, which are interrupted in the east by the 
granitic Tionlai (over 3000 feet) about the sources of the Donnai, in the 
west by the Prabat and Pursat Hills between the Tonle-Sap basin and 
the Gulf of Siam, culminating in the Elephant Peak (3000 teet) west of 


Mineral Wealth.— The Shan uplands and the ranges separating 
the Irawaddy and Salwin basins contain rich iron, lead, copper, tin, 
and silver deposits. The Sliurili river washes down golden sands 
from Yunnan; rubies (spinels?), sapphires, emeralds, topazes, and 
other precious stones were for ages collected in the hills to the 
north-east of Ava for the royal treasury of Burmah. This is also 
one of the few regions containing deposits of jade, which occurs 
chiefly in the Mogung district north of Bhamo. Saline springs and 
petroleum are found in great abundance at the eastern foot of the 
Arakan Yoma, where over 500 wells have been sunk near Yay-nan- 
gyung, on the left bank of the Irawaddy. The yield now exceeds 
12,000 tons yearly, some of which is exported to Great Britain. 

£ 2 

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"This petroleum was one of the royal monopolies, and large 
quantities used to be shipped to Rangun to be manufactured into 
pagoda candles ; but the American rock-oil and the development 
of the Baku wells (in Caucasia) interfered greatly with the sale."— 
(J. G. Scott, p. 59.) Coal, slaty and bituminous, occurs both in 
Tenasserim, where it has never been worked, and on the Irawaddy, 
where it has been long worked by the Burmese, especially at Think- 
adaw, some 30 miles above Myin-gyan, at Shin-pagah, midway 
between Mandalay and Bhamo, and in the Shan hills east of Manda- 
lay. From Payen-tung, 150 miles north of Bhamo, come large 
quantities of amber, which is much used for ear-plugs, necklaces, 
Buddhist rosaries, and similar objects by the natives. Platinum also 
is said to occur near Kanni on the Chindwin river, and iron and 
silver mines were once largely worked, but are now abandoned. 

In Siara occur rich deposits of copper, tin, antimony, and magnetic 
iron, and in the mountain range between the Mekhong and Red River iron, 
tin, copper, silver, and gold. Near the delta of the latter river the 
French engineer, M. Tucks, discovered in 1881 an extensive coalfield over 
40 square miles in extent. It also seems probable that the valleys of both 
head streams of the Song-koi (Red and Black Rivers) abound in all manner 
ot mineral ores, which, however, cannot at present be utilised, owing to 
the unsettled and inaccessible character of the country. 

River Systema. — The disposition of the river systems is 
marked by even greater uniformity than that of the mountain 
ranges. Excluding the smaller streams flowing independently to 
the coast in Arakan, Tenasserim, and Annam, the whole of the 
peninsula drains to the surrounding waters through five great fluvial 
basins, all pursuing a more or less parallel southern or south- 
eastern seaward course. Thus going eastward, the Irawaddy and 
Sittang collect in a common delta nearly all the waters of Upper 
and Lower Burmah ; the Salwin takes up all the drainage of north- 
east Burmah and the borderlands between Lower Burmah and west 
Siam ; through the Menam all the streams of Central Siam find their 
way to the Gulf of Siam ; the whole of the Lao country (North and 
East Siam), Camboja, and Lower Cochin China are comprised in the 
basin of the Mekhong (Camboja) river; lastly, the Song-koi (Red 
River), with its many-branching delta, carries to the China Sea all 
the surface waters of Tonkin. 

Two only of these basins, the Irawaddy-Sittang and the Menam, 
belong entirely to the peninsula. Of the others the Salwin and 
Mekhong have their source on the Tibetan pleateau far away to the 
north-west, while the Song-koi takes its rise on the rugged Yunnan 
tableland in south-west China. 

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Above BhamO the Irawaddy forks off into two head-streams, the 
Myit Gney ("Little River") to the east, and the Myit Gyi ("Great 
River ") to the west, both flowing from the still unexplored region about 
the Tibeto-Chinese frontier. But so great is the volume of water at 
Bhamd (24° N. lat.) that the western branch was long supposed by Elisee 
Reclus, Robert Gordon, and others to be identical with the great Sanpo 
river of Tibet. This important hydrographic question, however, has at 
last been settled by the Indian pandit known as A. K., who has shown 
that the Sanpo cannot possibly flow to the Irawaddy, and Mr. J. F. 
Needham's still more recent exploration (1885) has identified it beyond all 
doubt with the Dihong (Brahmaputra). At the junction of the two forks 
the Irawaddy is already 500 yards across, but Capt. Barwick's expedition 
of 1890 showed that both branches are obstructed by rapids 4 or 5 miles 
above the confluence. In any case the Irawaddy is one of the finest streams 
in the world, navigable for steamers of considerable sue from its delta in the 
Gulf of Martaban for over 800 miles to Bhamd, near the Chinese frontier. 
But about 20 miles higher up it passes through a dangerous defile, where 
the stream, suddenly narrowing from 1000 to 150 yards, rushes with 
great velocity between sheer rocky walls, and where the whirlpools and 
backwaters render all navigation impossible except for very small craft. 
The Irawaddy has a probable length of 1000 miles, with a mean discharge 
of 480,000 cubic feet per second in the delta, rising during the floods to 
nearly 2,000,000 cubic feet. 

The Sittang, which drains an area of over 20,000 square miles in the 
quadrangular district formed by the Pegu Yoma and Punglung Hills, 
belongs, strictly speaking, to the Irawaddy basin. It flows in exactly the 
same direction as the main stream between Bhamd and Mandalay, and 
after a course of some 330 miles unites with it in a common delta. During 
the rainy season this low-lying watery region presents an intricate maze of 
channels and backwaters stretching round the Gulf of Martaban from Cape 
Negrais to Maulmain, and here intermingling with the waters of the 
Sal win. 

Although containing a much smaller volume, the Salvrin has a far 
longer course than the Irawaddy. It has been clearly identified with the 
Lu-Kiang (Lutze-Kiang), which rises on the Tibetan plateau, probably 
about 34° N. lat. 92° E. long., flowing thence for hundreds of miles in its 
deep and narrow rocky valley between the Irawaddy and Mekhong basins 
first south-east, then due south through eastern Burmah to its mouth at 
Maulmain on the Gulf of Martaban. Below the Thung-Yang confluence 
its lower course is obstructed by dangerous rapids, practically barring all 
navigation for the greater part of the year. Hence, notwithstanding 
its great length ana depth, the Salwin is of little use as a water high- 
way. It has a mean discharge of from 300,000 to 400,000 cubic feet per 

The Menam, or "Mother of Waters," stands in the same important 
relation to Siam that the Irawaddy does to Burmah. Throughout the 
greater part of its course from the Lao uplands to its mouth at the head of 
the Gulf of Siam it is navigable for small craft, while steamers ascend the 
main channel with the tide as far as Bangkok. During the rains the 
Menam floods its banks for miles in all directions, ever depositing fresh 
alluvial soil, irrigating the rich paddy fields on the surrounding plains, 
and affording a large navigable area for native craft throughout the flooded 
tracts. The sedimentary matter thus washed down has already advanced 
the shore-line many miles seawards, and is still continually encroaching 

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on the gulf, where the deep water is separated from the plains of Bangkok 
by extensive mud-banks stretching for 60 miles east and west, and access- 
ible to large vessels only at high water. 

By far the longest river in the peninsula is the Mekhong, familiarly 
known as the Camboja, which under the name of the Laiitzan-Kiang, or 
Kinhng-Kiang, has its source on the Tibetan tableland about 34° N. 
lat., 94° E. long. Throughout its upper course it Hows in a narrow, deep 

region inhabited by the Lyssu, Mosso, and other semi-civilised peoples on 
the borderland between Tibet and China. Below the confluence of its 
great affluent, the Semun from the west, the lower course of the Mekhong 
is obstructed by the Khong rapids, which are scarcely surpassed in extent 
by those of any other river in the world. 

At Pnom-penh about the head of the delta, some 180 miles from the 
sea, it receives the overflow of the Tonle-sap, an extensive sweet-water 
reservoir commonly known as the " Great Lake of Camboja." During the 
floods between June and October this lacustrine basin is nearly 70 miles 
long by 15 broad, with a depth of over 40 feet, and an area of about 
1000 square miles. At this time the lake is fed by a backwater from the 
Mekhong ; but at low water the current is reversed, and the lake dis- 
charges into the river. It teems with fish, of which about 10,000 tons 
are annually cured and exported to the surrounding lands. 

Below Pnom-pefih the main stream ramifies into two channels, the 
Han-giang, or "River of Bassac," in the west, and the Tien-giaug in the 
east, which flow in a nearly parallel course for about 120 miles through the 
delta. The eastern river develops numerous secondary branches, of which 
the most important are the Donnai (Dong-nai) and the river of Saigon ; 
from the western river several channels are also thrown off, some of which 
now flow west to the Gulf of Siara. Thus the greater part of Lower 
Cochin-China belongs to the Mekhong delta, which has a coast-line of 360 
miles, besides shallows and sandbanks stretching for some 30 miles sea- 
wards. It has a mean discharge of 420,000 cubic feet per second, falling 
at low water to 50,000, and rising during the floods to upwards of 2,300,000. 

The basin of the Song-koi (Song-kai, Song-tha), properly Shong-kai, 
that is, the M Great River," the " Red River of European writers, com- 
prises, with its two chief tributaries, the Song- bo or u Black River, and the 
Mi-lei-ho, nearly the whole of Tonkin, and a considerable part of south-east 
Yunnan. On the Chinese frontier, 360 miles from the coast, it is already 
about 1000 yards wide and navigable for boats ; but both the main stream 
and the Song-bo, which joins it below Hung-hoa, nlso from Yunnan, are 
much obstructed by rapids. M. d'Augis, who ascended the Black River 
in 1881, counted fifty-four rapids up to Wan-Giom, and at Thac-Keu 
found all further canoe navigation arrested by a chaos of rocks and debris 
rising 23 feet above the current. Thus the expectations of the French to 
reach Yunnan and establish trading relations with Southern China through 
this artery have been doomed to disappointment. 

Some 90 miles from the coast the Red River throws off the two main 
channels of the delta, both of which again branch off into a vast system of 
intricate streams, backwaters, and artificial canals, continually shifting their 
beds. From the northern arm, which retains the name of Song-koi, several 
channels flow northwards to the still more intricate delta of the Thai- 
bifth, which descends from Lake Babe in a still unexplored frontier district. 
The joint delta has a coast-line of about 90 miles, and a total area of 
probably not less than 6000 square miles of rich alluvial land. 


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Seaboard.— The Indo-Chinese seaboard develops a far greater 
diversity of outline than any other Asiatic region, in this respect also 
resembling the corresponding Balkan Peninsula in south-east Europe. 
Below Akyab the north-west coast is fringed with several clusters of 
islands, including the volcanic Ramri and Cheduba, and presenting 
an almost fjord*like appearance. Farther down the Irawaddy delta 
projects far seawards, terminating at Cape Negrais in the south-west, 
and enclosing on the east side the deep bight of the Gulf of Mar- 
taban. Below this point the coast is again broken into several little 
headlands, and diversified with the extensive Mergui Archipelago, 
which stretches for nearly four degrees of latitude (10° — 14° N.) 
from below Tavoi to the Isthmus of Kra. On the east side Lower 
Siam, with Camboja and Lower Cochin-China, forms a secondary 
peninsula, projecting between the vast Gulf of Siam and the China 
Sea for over 250 miles in a south-easterly direction. Here also the 
coastline is broken by several conspicuous headlands, while to the 
Gulf of Siam on the south-west corresponds the Gulf of Tonkin in 
the extreme north-east. Thus the seaboard, even excluding the 
Malay Peninsula, has a total length of considerably over 2000 miles, 
which is relatively far more than that of any other maritime region 
in Asia. Distinct indications of upheaval have been noticed at 
several points, and especially along the coast of Artkan and Lower 
Burmah as far as the Irawaddy delta. The movement, centred 
about Cheduba island, is continued seawards in the Nicobar group, 
although the intervening Andaman Archipelago appears to be the 
scene of the opposite phenomenon of subsidence. 



Climate.— Lying almost entirely within the northern torrid 
zone, Indo-China has an essentially tropical climate, with two well- 
defined seasons determined by the regular succession of the two 
monsoons. That of the south-west, prevailing from May to 
September, brings the moisture-bearing clouds and heavy storms 
from the Indian Ocean, with a rainfall of 200 inches and upwards 
on the Arakan coast and in the Irawaddy basin. From September 
to March these winds are replaced by the north-east monsoon, which 

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is accompanied by dry weather and cool breezes. During the months 
of March and April, between these two seasons, the heats are most 
oppressive. Yet even at this period the thermometer seldom rises 
above 93° F. at Bangkok, usually oscillating between 82° and 86° F., 
and in the dry winter season falling occasionally as low as 54° at 
night. At Hue", in Annam, the lowest recorded has been 62°, and at 
Saigon 64°, the mean temperature of the latter place being as high 
us 80°. Tonkin and the interior of Siam are much cooler, the glass 
falling in both regions to 47°, and even 45° in winter. On the other 
hand, these countries are subject to more intense heats, so that the 
farther we proceed north the climate becomes more continental, that 
is, presents greater extremes of heat and cold from season to season. 

The mean rainfall, heaviest on the west coast (200 to 240 inches), 
diminishes to 70 at Saigon and 60 at Bangkok. A great contrast is also 
presented between the two slopes of the range separating the Mekhong basin 
from Annam and Tonkin. The east side, exposed to the drier north-east 
monsoon, is in many places arid and bare of timber, while on the opposite 
slope a rich vegetation is supported by the moist south-western trade 

Flora. — On the whole the Indo-Chinese flora corresponds with 
that of India proper. The forests and jungle of Burmah present 
the same variety of plants, and yield for human food and industry 
nearly the same cereals, fibres, gums, and other essences. Here the 
chief cultivated species are rice, of which Burmah is one of the 
great Btore-houses ; dani, a kind of palm which yields all the sugar 
required for the local consumption ; maize, millet, sessamum, pulse, 
cotton ; bananas and other fruits ; tea, coffee, cinchona, and tobacco, 
the cultivation of which is steadily increasing. Whenever the 
country is opened up the Burmese forests will yield an inexhaustible 
supply of all kinds of useful timber to human industry. Here 
flourish the close-grained teak, various plants yielding gums, lacquer, 
and oil, and on the coastlands the magnificent Amherstia nobilis, 
with its red and golden flowers. 

The Siamese flora, substantially the same as that of Burmah, also 
includes a considerable number of Chinese species, thus showing a 
gradual transition between the vegetable kingdoms of the northern 
and southern regions. In the eastern uplands, between the Mekhong 
basin and Annam Himalayan, Chinese and even Japanese varieties 
are found intermingled with those of the peninsula, and here are 
also met anemones, saxifrages, and violets like those of western 
Europe. The flora of Tonkin and Cochin-China is altogether ex- 
tremely rich, the botanical explorations organised since the French 
Conquest having already discovered over 12,000 species. Pandanes 

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frnd various kinds of palms fringe the low-lying coastlands, while 
paddy fields and garden plots cover the plains stretching inland to 
the foot of the hills, which are in many places clothed with dense 
forests of teak, ironwood, lacquer, and other gum-yielding species, 
ebony and the precious eaglewood, burnt only in the palaces and 
temples of the gods. The natives, however, cultivate little except 
cotton, maize, bamboo, which is turned to endless domestic and 
industrial uses, rice, of which there are some forty varieties, and a 
vine, which yields a sour wine. 

Fauna — Most of the Indian animal species reappear in the region 
beyond the Ganges. Here elephants are very numerous, especially 
in Burmah ; those of the Lao country are noted for their intelligence, 
and the natives everywhere display great skill in capturing and 
taming them. The rhinoceros also, of which three varieties are 
known in Burmah, is sometimes tamed, as in Assam. The tiger, 
which roams the Annamese forests, and reaches down to the ex- 
tremity of Malaya, is seldom openly attacked, but mostly taken in 
snares. The Annamese fauna includes, besides the wild buffalo, 
the dzin, a species of ox perhaps allied to the Chinese mithun. The 
Burmese breed of horses is highly esteemed, while those of Cochin- 
China are too small and weak to serve as pack-animals. In Tonkin, 
Annam, and Camboja poultry, ducks, and geese are more numerous 
than in Europe, and every house has its pig. In Burmah rats are 
a great scourge, and the insect world is represented by innumerable 
species both here and throughout the peninsula. All the rivers and 
marine inlets, as well as the great Cambojan lake, teem with fish, 
which is a staple of food amongst all the inhabitants of Indo-China. 




Mongolic Races.— From the anthropological standpoint the great 
bulk of the Indo-Chinese people belong to the Mongolic family of 
mankind, and more directly to the Tibeto-Chinese sub-division of 
that group. Amid a multiplicity of national, historical, and tribal 
names, a substantial unity both in the physical and linguistic types 

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is almost everywhere apparent, and it seems evident that nearly all 
the present inhabitants ol the peninsula came originally either from 
the Central Tibetan plateau, following the parallel valleys of the 
Irawaddy, Sulwin, and Mekhong rivers, or else from China, crossing 
the intervening highlands by passes that have been frequented from 
pre-historic times. Of the three main groups the western Burmese 
still show the closest affinity to the Tibetans, especially in their 
speech, while the Central Siamese and eastern Annamese are more 
nearly related to the Chinese both in type and speech. All present 
the same fundamental Mongolic characteristics, shown in their low 
stature, ranging from 5 to 5 feet 6 inches, yellowish or yellow-brown 
complexion (olive, old wax, leathery or cinnamon), long black hair, 
round in section, thick on the head, elsewhere very scanty or alto- 
gether absent, somewhat flat features, with almond-shaped, oblique 
eyes, broad, short, and concave nose, rather prominent cheek-bones, 
small hands and feet, weak lower extremities, head mesaticephalous, 
that is, intermediate between the round and long forms. 

Languages. — The Indo-Chinese languages belong also to the 
same morphological order of speech as the Chinese and Tibetan, 
commonly described as monosyllabic or isolating. But the former 
designation must be rejected, since it has recently been shown that 
monosyllabism is not the original condition, but the result of 
phonetic decay in this group. In consequence of this gradual 
decay words originally quite distinct in form, and composed of two 
or more syllables, have been reduced to words of one syllable no 
longer distinct in form, but in pronunciation distinguished by the 
different tones with which they are uttered. Grammatical inflection 
has also been mostly rejected, words being thus reduced to the 
condition of crude and unchangeable roots standing isolated from 
each other, and acquiring their meaning mainly from their position 
in the sentence. Hence a better designation for this group would 
be that of isolating toned languages. The process has been carried 
furthest in Chinese and Annamese, which may be taken as the 
typical members of the family, and which have necessarily developed 
the greatest number of tones, ranging from four to six, and in some 
dialects even to eight or ten. In this respect Siamese occupies an 
intermediate position between Annamito-Chinese on the one hand, 
and Tibeto-Burmese on the other, having preserved more gram- 
matical inflections and developed fewer tones than the former, 
while the Burmese, and especially the Tibetan, have retained the 
greatest number of grammatical forms, and are consequently spoken 
with the least number of tones. 

The three dominant Indj- Chinese languages have long been 

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cultivated — Annamese under Chinese, Siamese and Burmese under 
Hindu influences. Hence Annamese has borrowed a large number 
of Chinese words, and is written in characters derived directly from 
the Chinese hieroglyphic system. In the same way, most of the 
Siamese and Burmese loan-words are taken indirectly from Sanskrit 
through the Pali, the sacred language of the Buddhists, and are 
written with alphabets derived from the same source. Here 
again we see how completely appropriate to this region is the term 

Non-Mongolic Races. — Besides the Mongolic, recent French 
exploration has revealed the presence of a second element, centred 
mainly in Camboja and the Champa country, in the extreme south- 
eastern corner of the peninsula. This element, represented by the 
old Camboja (Khme'r) stock, by the Chams (Tsiams), Kuys, Stiengs, 
Charays, and some other semi-civilised aboriginal tribes, is distin- 
guished by physical characteristics approaching the Caucasic type 
of Western Asia and Europe. The same Caucasic type occurs 
amongst the Lolo, Mosso, and many other aboriginal peoples in the 
borderlands between China, Indo-China, and Tibet, possibly indi- 
cating the route followed by this stream of Caucasic migration from 
Central Asia to the south-eastern extremity of the Continent. The 
Kuys (Khmer-dom, or primitive Cambojans of west Camboja), the 
Charays, Stiengs, and other non-Mongolic tribes of this region, are 
described generally as above the middle size, often with wavy hair, 
light brown or fair complexion, and more or less regular European 
features, in a word, " white savages of Caucasian type" (C. E. 
Buillevaux). Their untoned speech also is fundamentally distinct 
from that of the toned isolating group, in some respects betraying 
marked affinities with the Oceanic, or Malayo-Polynesian linguistic 
family. This is true especially of the dialects spoken in the 
uplands between Annam and the Mekhong basin by the Chams 
(Tsiams), Sheveas, Charays, Radehs, and other tribes whom some 
writers regard as scattered fragments of the Champa State, which 
formerly comprised most of Cochin-China and the Mekhong delta 
region. But whether these peoples represent a comparatively recent 
immigration of true Malays from Malaysia, or the original stock 
whence the Malays passed from the mainland to the Eastern 
Archipelago, is a question which cannot here be discussed. 

In the subjoined table are comprised all the Indo-Chinese races 
with their chief sub-divisions. 

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Mongolic Stock of Toned Speech. 


( Tungtha ) "Highlanders": Lushai, Shendu, Chin 

Rakbaingtha 1 or Yoma j [Khyeng] Kuki, Kumi. 

( Arakanese) jifryimgrtAa" Lowlanders" ) Mag, Chakma, &c, in 

( or " River People" ) the Arakan lowlands. 

Burmese Proper : Upper Burmah and Lower Burmah. 

Talaings or Mons: Lower Burmah (Pegu), now mostly assimilated 

to the Burmese in speech and type. 

Si ho ( the Kahhyen of the Burmese ; N. Burmah south to 

7>i v < Tagoung midway between Bhamd and Mandalay. 

(Cbingpau) I £% yen ^ Yau fa tQ 24 o N kt 

, <> ^ Highlands between the Irawaddy, Sittang, and 
i' <vJ )5f aw jSalwin basins, from the latitude of Mandalay 
[jfoSLi [ to Tenasserim, but chiefly in the Sittang-Salwin, 
J water-parting. 


Sino-Skan: Chinese or Northern Shans, throughout S. 
Yunnan and thence to Bham6. 
j Ngiou : Southern Shans, Kiang-hung, Kiang-tung, and 
other districts N. E. Burmah and N. W. Siam. 

Lao \ Lau-pang-hah ) N. and E. provinces of Siam between the 
( Lau- pang-dun ) Siamese and Shans. 

Siamese Proper: Men am basin and Malay Peninsula south to 7° 

N. lat. 

Palung : Muang-lem and Maing-Kaing districts, and S.W. Yunnan, 
Khamti : Upper Irawaddy and borderlands towards Assam. 


Annamese : Dominant race in Tonkin and Cochin-China. 
Muong : Neutral zone between Tonkin and Yunnan. 

Mongolic and Non-Mongolic Stock of TJntoned Speech. 

jr » rMahai * 

Sc«v nrnlrlJ Manh (Compong-Soay (Camboja proper); provs. 
Khmeri \ ^ orrk \ Mulu-Prey and Tonle-Repan (Siamese 
' ^Damrey J Camboja). 

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Khmer proper ) The dominant race in the kingdom of 
(Cambojans) ) Camboja. 

Cham proper^ 

Stieng i South Cochin China, East Camboja, and intervening 

Bannar J uplands. 
Charay j 

However interesting to the student of ethnology, none of these 
numerous peoples possess much historic importance or political 
influence except the three leading Mongolic races — the Burmese of 
the Irawaddy basin, the Siamese of the Meuam basin, and the 
Annamese of the Sjng-koi basin and Cochin Chinu. 

The Burmese and Talaings. 

The Burmese, all of whom since the close of the year 1885 have 
become British subjects, betray a curious combination of qualities, 
in which, however, the good seems greatly to outweigh the evil 
elements. Mr. J. G. Scott, who knows them well, declares that 
"their very faults lean to virtue's side," and their general indolence, 
overweening national vanity, and extreme sensitiveness to real or 
imaginary slights, are certainly more than balanced by a remarkably 
genial, cheerful, and kindly disposition. These characteristics are 
shown not only in their somewhat excessive love of pleasure, but 
also in their friendliness and hospitality towards strangers, in their 
boundless liberality to their Buddhist priests and teachers, and 
especially in the gentle treatment of their women, who enjoy a 
degree of personal freedom scarcely to be elsewhere paralleled 
amongst Asiatic peoples. Like all genuine Buddhists,. the Burmans 
are of course slaves to the strangest superstitions, and like the 
Chinese, Malays, and other south-eastern Mongolic races, they are 
one and all reckless gamblers. But, on the other hand, they are 
generally of sober and frugal habits, their innate kindness, good 
humour, and consideration for the feelings of others making them 
general favourites with all who have any dealings with them. 

Education, at least to the extent of reading the Buddhist texts ami 
writing their own language, is widespread amongst the men, most of whom 
are brought up in the sehools attached to the temples. The women also, 
thauks to their social freedom, betray an unusual degree of intelligence 
and aptitude for business. Hence it is probable that, once for all relieved 
from the cruelty and exactions of the capricious and autocratic sovereigns 
of the native Alompra dynasty, the Burmese nation will readily accept 
European culture, and soon take a prominent part in the diffusion of 
western ideas amongst the semi-civilised peoples of the Indo-Chinese 

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Peninsula. Here they form a compact nationality, which has long been 
dominant throughout all the riverain parts of the upper and middlo 
Iiawaddy basin, and which has gradually crowded out or absorbed the 
Talaing (Mon) race, now nearly extinct as a separate ethnical element in 
Pegu and the Irawaddy-Sittang delta. 

The Takings, who at one time held almost exclusive possession 
of this region, from Prome to Maulmein, can no longer be dis- 
tinguished physically from their Burmese neighbours. But their 
language is totally different from all the surrounding idioms, and 
affinities have been sought for it on the one hand in the Kolarian 
of Central India, on the other, in the Annamese of Tonkin. Tim 
natives recognise there divisions: the Mmt Thie of Pegu, the Man Di 
of Rangfin and Tavoy, and the Mon Myat Lawa of Myawndi. The 
term I'alaing is the same as Telinf/a (Telugv), pointing at the 
Indian origin, not of the race, but of its former rulers. 

The Burmese national name, always written Myamma, and formerly 
pronounced Byamma or Bamma, for Brahma, there being no letter r in 
the language, is associated by the natives with the "nine Brahmas," 
from whom they claim descent. But it is obviously derived from a root 
myo for mro, meaning "people," "men," a term by which some of the 
primitive members of the race are still known in the Arakanese highlands. 

The Siamese, Shans, and Laos. 

Under a general uniformity of type the Siamese present in 
their outward appearance and mental characteristics some marked 
differences from their western neighbours. They are on the whole 
a less vigorous race both physically and morally, of shorter stature, 
and less robust frames, less independent and more subservient to 
despotic rule. In Siam slavery, little practised in Burma, is a wide- 
spread national institution, and the people, although in some respects 
more cultured and refined, are at the same time more effeminate. 
These differences may perhaps to some extent be accounted for by 
the different origin of the two races, the Burmese coming directly 
from the lofty Tibetan tableland, the Siamese from the low-lying 
plains of Eastern China. Recent ethnological research has revealed 
the fact that the Chinese people are not the primitive inhabitants of 
the Yangtse-Kiang basin, which on their comparatively recent arrival 
from the north they found already settled by a semi-civilised 
agricultural race that has been identified with the modern Shans. 

This term Shan is probably the same as Siam, which comes to 
us through the intermediate Portuguese form Sido. But in any 
case there can be no doubt that the Siamese are a southern branch 
of the great Shan nation, the transition bstween the two being 

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effected by the Lao people of the Upper Menam and Middle 
Mekhong basins. All affect the general designation of Thai (Tai), 
that is, " Free/' "Noble," and their long contact with the present 
inhabitants of the " Middle Kingdom " is shown by the constituent 
element 8 of the Chinese language, of which fifty per cent, are of 
Shan origin. The cradle of the Shan race has even been traced 
by Terrien de Lacouperie, with some show of probability, to the 
Kiulung highlands north of Sechuen and south of Shensi in west 
and north-west China. 

But at present the chief home of the Shans proper aro the border- 
lands between Yunnan, Burmah, and Siaiu. East of the Moping (Upper 
Menam), and generally in North and East Siam, they are grouped as Laos in 
two great divisions — the Lau-Phun-Ham, or " White- Paunch Lao," who 
do not practise tattooing, and the Lau-Phun-Dam, or M Black-Paunch 
Lao," who, like their Burmese neighbours, cover the body with wonder- 
fully intricate tattoo designs, thus giving it a dark or black appearance. 
They are an historical people, who were formerly constituted in an ancient 
and powerful kingdom, whose capital, Vinh-Khianh (Vien-shan), was taken 
and destroyed by the Siamese about the year 1828. The western and 
northern Shans have also forfeited their independence to China, Siam, or 
Burmah, although the Shan country between North Siam and Yunnan 
(20° to 23° N. lat.) is practically autonomous. They are a semi-civilised 
people, engaged chiefly in trade and agriculture, with a knowledge of 
letters, and Buddhists, like all the settled populations of Indo-China. 
They have domesticated the ele pliant and buffalo, are peaceful and 
industrious, and skilled in the production of lacquered wares, and of 
silk and cotton fabrics for local use. Trading relations have long been 
established with China, Siam, Burmah, and Camboja, with which 
countries their ivory, gold dust, tin, gums, lac, benzoin, raw silk, skins, 
and sapan-wood are bartered for cotton cloth, chintzes, silk, opium, hard- 
ware, and porcelain. At present much of this trade is carried on by 
itinerant Shan and Burmese hawkers, who are met everywhere between 
the Irawaddy and Mekhong rivers, organised in small caravans, and 
well armed, like the Povindahs of Afghanistan. 

Although nominal Buddhists, most of the Shans and Laos, and even 
many of the Siamese, are in reality still nature-worshippers, who make 
offerings of sticks and stones to the local genii, and guard their homes 
against evil spirits by means of brooms, cotton threads, bunches of herbage, 
or other curious devices. Some are quite as savage as the wild tribes, and 
although acquainted with the use of fire-arms, still use the national cross- 
bow, a formidable weapon, which will kill a buffalo with a simple bamboo 
arrow at considerable distances. In some districts the confusion of types 
and usages is so great that the true wild tribes can be distinguished from 
the Shans and Laos only by the large bone, ivory, or wooden ornaments 
worn in the lobe of the ear, as amongst so many of the Oceanic, African, 
and American races. In European accounts of these wild tribes the con- 
fusion is increased by the generic designations mistaken for tribal names 
applied to them by their civilised neighbours. Such are Moi in Cochin- 
China, Muong in Tonkin, Pnom (Penong) in Cambo ; a, KM in the Lao 
districts, Trao in Lower Cochin-China, Lolo on the Yunnan frontier, all 
of which terms mean little more than savage, wild, or hill tribe in general, 

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and have no ethnical value whatsoever. The wild tribes were long exposed 
to the constant attack especially of the Lao princes, who organised regular 
expeditions against them in order to procure slaves for the Siamese and 
Cambojan markets. But apart from the passions fostered by this infamous 
traffic, the Laos, like all the Thai-Shan poples, are an inoffensive, unwar- 
like, and peace-loving race, fond of music, aud living chiefly on a diet of 
rice, vegetables, fruits, fish, and poultry. The love of music especially is 
veiy general amongst all the Siamese peoples, and Lord Lamington, who 
passed through the northern Shan states in 1891, remarks that "in every 
party of these people I came across there were one or two who carried 
musical instruments in the form of a hollow gourd in which are five 
bamboos, both gourd and bamboos having holes bored to give the notes. 
The music is weird and melancholy." {Proc. R. Geographical Soc. t Dec. 

The Siamese language is a cultivated member of the Indo-Chinese 
linguistic family, of which the other chief branches are Chinese, Anna- 
mesc, Burmese, and Til>etan. They constitute a separate group radically 
distinct from all other forms of speech, and commonly designated by the 
name of Isolating or Monosyllabic languages. The term ''Isolating" has 
reference to the fact that the words, being destitute of all inflection, stand 
isolated one from the other, and show their mutual relations mainly by 
their position in the sentence, as, for instance, in the English sentences 
it saw you, you saw it. The term "Monosyllabic" implies not only that 
the words are mostly of one syllable, but also that monosyllabism is the 
original and essential condition of this group. Such, however, is not the 
case, and it is now kno.\n that this feature, so far from being original, is 
the outcome of profound disintegration and phonetic decay, by which the 
primitive dissyllabic and polysyllabic words have in the course of ages 
been reduced to one syllable, as in the Chinese i = to doubt, which was 
originally tadaka, a word of three syllables. The disintegration neces- 
sarily resulted in a vast number of homonyms, that is, terms of like sound 
but different meaning, such as the English bear (verb), bear (noun) and 
bare (adjective). From the few English homonyms no inconvenience arises; 
but where their number is indefinite, as in this group, conversation would 
be impossible unless they were distinguished by their several tones, as in 
the Siamese lan, white ; lan, to tell ; Ian, a tale ; Idn, to soften ; Idn, to 
flatter. Thus tone forms the characteristic feature of the "Tonic" 
languages, as they might best be called, and although only the four or five 
chief tones are distinguished by special signs, spoken Siamese possesses 
probably more intonation than any other member of the group. It is 
written in a character derived from that of the Khmer inscriptions, which 
is itself of Indian origin. The Phasa-thai, or Siamese proper, differs little 
from the Shan or Lao, and is current throughout the whole kingdom as far 
south as Kedah and Perak in the Malay Peninsula. The sacred books are 
written either in Pali or Khmer (Cambojan), a reminiscence of the time 
when the Cambojan empire extended over the Menam basin. The verna- 
cular is tolerably rich in poems, dramas, and novels based on Sanskrit, 
Javanese, or Malay originals, besides works on astronomy or astrology, law, 
medicine, philosophy, and other scientific subjects. 

All the pagodas, or Buddhist temples, possess a more or less complete 
set of the sacred writings written in Pali, and comprising 402 distinct 
works, or 3680 volumes altogether. The most popular of these works is 
the Somanakhodom, that is, the Sanskrit Sramana Gautama, concerned 
with the legendary history and traditional moral teachings of Buddha, 

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For centuries the Siamese, as well as all the other southern Lao peonies, 
were subject to the political sway of the Cambojans, who had already at 
that time adopted Hindu culture and religion. Hence it was mainly 
through the Cambojans that Indian influences were spread throughout 
Siam, which received from its political masters its civilisation, religion, 

?olitical institutions, and a knowledge of the learned languages (Sanskrit, 
ali, and Khmer). 

The Annamese. 

Under the general name of Annamese are now usually comprised 
all the settled inhabitants both of Tonkin and Cochin-China. They 
constitute essentially one homogeneous people, nowhere presenting 
any marked differences in type, speech, usages, or religion. Of all 
the civilised nations of Indo-China they are certainly the least 
favoured, both physically and morally, presenting so many disagree- 
able traits that few observers have anything good to say for them. 
To the Chinese they have been for ages known by the designation of 
Giao-shi (Kiao-shi), occurring so early as the year 2285 B.C., and 
supposed to mean "Bifurcated," or "Crossed Toes," from the 
abnormal space between the great toe and all the others, a peculiarity 
by which they are still distinguished. The Annamese are described 
as the ugliest and most ungainly race in the peninsula, with a coarse 
dirty yellow skin, broad head, flat, angular features, small snub nose, 
thick lips, small pig eyes, and bow legs. The moral picture is 
scarcely more flattering, and the Abbe Gagelin, who lived for years 
in their midst, tells us that they are at once insolent and dishonest, 
and dead to all the fine feelings of human nature. There is so little 
affection amongst them that the nearest kindred never think of 
embracing even after an absence of years. The missionaries are not 
allowed to fondle the little children, nor is the slightest gesture 
tolerated in the pulpit. M. Mouhot, who is nevertheless inclined to 
speak well of them, confesses that " they are headstrong, revenge- 
ful, deceitful, thieves and liars. Their dirty habits surpass anything 
I have ever seen, and their food is abominably nasty, rotten fish and 
dogs being their favourite diet." Hence on recently noticing the 
absence of the Annamese element amongst the highland populations 
towards the Chinese frontier, Mr. J. G. Scott not unnaturally ex- 
claims : " This is satisfactory from one point of view. The fewer 
Annamese there are the less taint there is on the human race." 

Nevertheless, the same observer tells us that at least in one respect the 
Tonkinese (Northern Annamese) are almost without rivals. They are 
surprisingly skilful in the construction of embankments, and the dykes 
built to guard the Hat delta of the Song-koi against floods in the rainy 
season are most admirably constructed— as a national work, far more astonish- 


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ing in the patient labour they imply than the Wall of China, or even than 
the Grand Canal itself. Other redeeming features are their love of home 
and of their native land. The children also, who are intelligent and fond 
of instruction, flock eagerly to the new French schools opened in Cochin- 
China, where most of the rising generation have learnt to read and write 
in the Roman character. Their own writing system is based on the 
Chinese, and, like their northern neighbours, they are merely nominal 
Buddhists or Confucians, the lettered classes concealing a scoffing spirit 
beneath fine moral maxims, the masses still worshipping the natural forces, 
ancestry, and the genii of the circumambient spaces. Amongst them the 
Roman Catholic missionaries had great success, especially during the 17th 
century, and notwithstanding subsequent persecutions and the recent 
wholesale massacres, there are still considerably over 100,000 Christians in 
the country. 

Although polygamy is legally permitted, it is little practised except 

is so common that an interchange of wives may be almost regarded as a 
national institution. The Annamese are a short-lived people, a generally 
unhealthy climate, poor diet, and indolent habits, combined of late years 
with opium-smoking, causing them to age rapidly. Men fifty years old 
are already in a decrepit state, and few sexagenarians are met in the 

The original stock of the Cambojan race are probably the rude 
Kuy people of western Camboja (province of Com pong Soay) and 
south-eastern Siam (Mulu-Prey and Tonle Repan), to whom the 
civilised Cambojans still give the title of Klmier-dom, that is, 
"Primitive Cambojans." Tho national name Khmer, in Siamese 
Kamm&n, has been identified with the Pali Camboja, an older form 
of which is Kampushea, according to M. Aymonier, the original 
name of the country. It is explained to mean the land of the Kam 
people, and in any case has nothing to do with the Kamboja of 
Sanskrit geography, with which it has been wrongly connected. 

The Kuy aborigines are distinguished from the surrounding 
Mongolic peoples, both by their speech, which is untoned, and by 
their physical type, which may be described as almost Caucasic. 
The Cambojans proper also speak an untoned, polysyllabic language, 
which shows certain affinities with the neighbouring Cham, and with 
the more remote Oceanic group. But in their physical appearance 
the modern Cambojans have become through intermixture largely 
assimilated to the Siamese. They are descended of illustrious 
ancestors, who at one time ruled over a great part of Indo-China, 
and erected on the shores of Lake Tonhj-sap stupendous Brah- 
manic and Buddhist temples and other monuments, such as those of 
Angkor- Vat and Indapathaburi, rivalling in size and magnificence 
those of Java itself. But the modern Cambojans are a feeble, 

On the other hand, divorce 

TriE Cambojans. 

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decrepit race, unmindful <_f their past greatness, without national 
aspirations for the future, satisfied to accept a present French 
protectorate as the only escape from further encroachments on the 
part of their Siamese and Annamese neighbours. Although more 
honest, they are scarcely less indolent than the Annamese, whom 
they also resemble in their unfriendly attitude towards strangers, 
and in some other unamiable traits. On the other hand, they cultivate 
the arts of music and poetry, accompanying their somewhat mono- 
tonous songs and duets on simple primitive instruments. 

The ancient Cambojan culture, introduced and developed under Hindu 
influences, seems never to have penetrated far below the surface. It failed 
to eradicate many of the older usages, such as the practice of building the 
houses on piles, which still largely prevails. In the different burial rites 
are perpetuated the traditions and religious ideas of the several primitive 
peoples merged in one nationality during the period of Cambojan pros- 
perity. Some, especially of the poorer classes, burn their dead either 
immediately, or three days after death ; others first bury and then disinter 
the body, burning the bones years afterwards ; others again preserve it for 
months and even years in their dwellings, injecting quicksilver, and 
allowing the gases to escape through a tube which passes from the coffin to 
the roof of the house. Polygamy, although legalised, is mainly confined 
to the wealthy classes, and the women enjoy on the whole a considerable 
share of respect and independence. They are even described as haughty, 
jealous, and vindictive. Instead of ear-rings they often wear wooden, bone, 
or ivory plugs in the lobe, which thus becomes distended to a monstrous 
size. This custom, very general amongst many other primitive peoples in 
various parts of the world, has persisted from pre-historic times in spite of 
the foreign influences, under which were developed the Cambojan culture 
and former political ascendancy in the lower Mekhong basin. 



Recent events have considerably simplified the political relations 
in the Indo-Chinese Peninsula, which has now been brought under 
the exclusive sway of one native and two foreign powers. The 
three great political divisions thus constituted correspond very 
accurately with the main physical divisions of the country. Thus 
the British power, supreme in the west, comprises, besides the 
coastlands on the Bay of Bengal, the Irawaddy and Salwin basins. 
The French in the extreme east hold in the same way the Mekhong 
and Song-Koi valleys; while the central region, drained by the 

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Menam river, constitutes the native Stale of Siam. Certainly the 
boundaries between these political divisions are in many places 
ill-defined, or not at all laid down with any claim to accuracy. 
Nor do the great river valleys, always excepting the Menam, lie 
wholly within the respective territories, their furthest sources and 
head streams being found beyond the conventional frontiers, either 
on the Tibetan or the Yunnan plateau. But on the whole the tendency 
to bring the political and physical relations into complete harmony, 
has in recent times manifested itself as conspicuously in Indo-China 
as in most other quarters of the globe. 

Amongst these political systems the peninsula is distributed in 
somewhat equal proportions — Burmah, in its widest extent, com- 
prising nearly 300,000, Siam probably 290,000, and the French 
domain nearly 230,000 square miles. But if the estimated 
statistics can be trusted, the bulk of the population would appear 
to be concentrated in the eastern division, where the Song-Koi 
Valley (Tonkin) is said to contain about 12,000,000 souls, which 
would be more than half of all the rest of the peninsula, if the 
usual estimate of 6,000,000 for Siam could be accepted. Little 
reliance, however, can be placed on any statistical data, except 
from those English and French districts, where regular census 
returns are taken. 


At the beginning of the present century the native State of 
Burmah, or Ava, as it was then called, comprised the whole of 
Indo-China lying between Siam and the Bay of Bengal east and 
west. Since then all the coastlands, including the three separate 
provinces of Arakan, Tenasserini, and Pegu, were successively 
ceded to England after the disastrous wars of the years 1825 and 
1852, the independent territory being thus reduced to the position 
of an inland State. Lastly, towards the close of 1885, all that 
remained of the native kingdom was incorporated in the Anglo- 
Indian Empire. King Thebaw, last of the native Alompra dynasty, 
was deposed, and soon after the sovereign rights over his possessions 
of " Upper Burmah " were officially declared to be vested in the 

Thus it happens that Burmah proper, with all its outlying 
dependencies, is once more united under one sovereign power, 
this political division of Indo-China again comprising exactly the 
same limits as it did before the war with England in the year 1825. 
The term " British Burmah," as distinguished from u Independent " 

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or " Upper Burmah," lias ceased to have any value, and on the 
latest maps the red line marking off British territory runs from 
Assam along the western and south-western frontiers of Yunnan 
eastwards nearly to Tonkin, and thence along the northern and 
western frontiers of Siam southwards to the Malay Peninsula. The 
region enclosed between this vast semi-circle and the Indian Ocean 
comprises three distinct physical divisions — Burmah proper, embracing 
nearly the whole of the Irawaddy and the greater part of the Sahvin 
basin ; Arakan, between Burmah proper and the Bay of Bengal ; 
Tenasserim, between Siam and the same waters. 

Burmah Proper. 

Physical Features. — In this division must now be included 
both Upper Burmah, that is, the recently annexed native State, and 
Lower Burmah, that is, the district of Pegu, hitherto comprised 
with Arakan and Texasserim in the province of British Burmah. 
Between Upper and Lower Burmah there are no natural frontiers, 
and since the assimilation of the Talaing inhabitants of Pegu to the 
Burmese in speech and physical appearance, both form in all respects 
a perfectly homogeneous region, copiously watered by the great rivers 
Irawaddy, Sittang, and Salwin, and traversed by the parallel Arakan 
Yoma, Pegu Yoma, and Shan Yoma ranges. 

Towards the north and north-west it is limited by the rugged and 
still little known Patkai highlands, separating it in this direction 
from the Brahmaputra basin. Nominally Burmah is here conter- 
minous with the British province of Assam. But with the exception 
of the somewhat settled territory of Manipur, the intervening hills 
are mainly occupied by the Nagas, Lushais, Singpos, Khamtis 
and other wild or semi-civilised peoples who have only quite recently 
(1890-91) been incorporated in the Anglo-Indian empire. The Patkai 
range was crossed in 1886 by Col. Woodthorpe, who reached the 
settlements of the friendly Bor Khamtis on the western branch of 
the Irawaddy, after traversing some districts formerly exposed to 
the raids of the unruly Singpo tribe. In the territory of the peaceful 
Kunnungs silver mines occur, which supply all the surrounding peoples 
with coin and ornaments. But just as the Khamti traders suffered 
from the attacks of the Singpos, the Kunnung communities were 
often plundered by the neighbouring Singlengs, who carried off the 
captives and sold them as slaves to the Tibetans. Near the village 
of Langdao the Irawaddy, here crossed by Col. Woodthorpe, was 
found to be only eighty-tive yards broad and not very deep. 

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The Singpo and Khamti highlands merge eastwards in the Kak- 
hyen (Kachyen) hills, which form the frontier towards Yunnan 
(south-west China), and which are held by the Kachyen (Chin) tribes, 
over whom both China and Burmah have always claimed political 
supremacy. Since the annexation of Upper Burmah the rival claims 
of the two powers have led to diplomatic negotiations, by which it is 
hoped that the boundaries between the two empires may soon be 
clearly determined. Towards the west Burmah proper is bounded 
by the district of Arakan, and on the south it develops an extensive 
coast-line washed by the Bay of Bengal from Cape Negrais to Maul- 
main. Eastward it is supposed to be everywhere conterminous with 
Siam ; but, except in Pegu, the frontiers are not very clearly laid 
down, and appear to have frequently shifted with the uncertain 
allegiance of the intermediate Shan States. 

Within its conventional limits Burmah propeT is comprised 
between ten degrees of latitude (26° — 16° N.), stretching from the 
Patkai range for about 700 miles southwards to the Gulf of Martaban, 
with a breadth of over 400 miles at its widest part, and a total area 
of some 220,000 square miles. Of this space 190,000 square miles 
belong to the late kingdom of Burmah (Upper Burmah), and 30,000 
to the British district of Pegu (Lower Burmah). The upper or 
northern section forms a hilly plateau of moderate elevation traversed 
in its entire length by the Irawaddy, and intersected by the lateral 
valleys of the Kyen-dwen (Chin-dwin) and Tapeng, the former 
flowing from the Maniptiri hills in the north-west and joining the 
right bank of the main stream below Mandalay, the latter descending 
from the Kachyen highlands to the left bank above Bhamd. 

The Pegu or southern section consists mainly of the Irawaddy- 
Sittang delta, a vast low-lying alluvial plain intersected by the innu- 
merable branches, channels, and backwaters of the Irawaddy and 
Sittang, and during the rainy season exposed to frequent and wide- 
spread inundations. Since the British occupation extensive works 
have been undertaken to protect the plains from these periodical 
floods, which attain their greatest height towards the end of July 
and in August, when the discharge is sixteen or seventeen times 
greater than at low water in February and March. The head of the 
delta above Henzada, 150 miles from the coast, is now protected by 
a semi-circle of embankments, which skirt the left bank of the 
Kawun (river of Bassein), and the right bank of the eastern or main 
branch, which retains the name of the Irawaddy. Even above the 
delta a dyke 60 miles long follows the right bank of the main stream, 
intercepting the torrents from the Arakan-Yoma, and deflecting 

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them to the Nawun branch. But these works have unfortunately 
had the effect of raising the bed of the river, and thus increasing the 
extent of the inundations, which in 1877 converted into a temporarj" 
lake a tract of some 500 square miles on the east side of the Nawun. 

Arts and Industries. — Burmese culture, as represented by the 
local arts and industries, has always been far inferior to that of India 
and China. The artistic sense has found its chief expression in the 
practice of tattooing, which has been developed to an extraordinary 
extent, displaying considerable taste in the combinations of colour, 
and in the execution of intricate designs covering a large part of the 
body. But little progress has been made in the useful arts, which 
are restricted chiefly to cotton and silk weaving, pottery, metal work, 
and jewellery. The cotton fabrics, woven by the women on looms 
of a primitive type, are much inferior to those of India ; and the 
silks, the raw material for which comes from China and the Lao 
country, are of a coarse texture, although certainly strong and 
durable. Everybody except the lowest classes wears silk, the finer 
qualities of which are imported from China. The earthenware often 
combines elegant forms with good quality, and the workers in metal 
produce rude cutlery, arms, and various implements, and domestic 
utensils in iron, tin, and copper. Gold and silver ornaments are 
much worn in all the large towns, but are more remarkable for rich- 
ness and solidity than for delicacy of design and execution. A large 
government gun foundry, fitted with all modern appliances, was 
founded some years ago in the neighbourhood of Mandalay, but does 
not appearto have flourished under its French managers. In Pegu cutch, 
used for dyeing purposes, is manufactured for export, and here there 
are numerous steam mills for sawing timber and cleansing rice also 
for export. Boat-building employs numerous hands along the river 
banks, and in some districts salt and gnapi, a preparation of fish, are 
produced in considerable quantities. A good deal of paper is manu- 
factured from the fibre of young bamboos, and the towns of Sillay 
and Nyung-u below Pagan are important centres of the lacquer 
industry. The Burmese lacquer-ware in some respects rivals that of 
Japan, and with improved methods of production would command a 
ready sale in the European markets. 

Trade.— Hitherto most of the inland trade has been carried on 
with China chiefly through Bhamo on the Upper Irawaddy. Chinese 
caravans, in which the camel is replaced by the horse, mule, and ox, 
convey large quantities of raw silk ami fine silken stufl's from Yunnan 
to this emporium, taking in exchange Burmese cottons, besides some 
Indian and British wares. The nearest Chinese station lies some 

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five or six days' march beyond Bhamd ; but hitherto all attempts to 
establish a regular trade between India and south-west China by this 
route have ended in failure. More success may attend these efforts 
now that Upper Burmah is pacified, and the intervening Kachyen 
border tribes reduced. But Col. Woodthorpe's expedition to the 
Khamti country seems to show that the best and most direct trade 
routes between the two empires will still be found to lie further 
north, that is, from East Assam over the Patkai range directly to 
the vast and populous province of Se-Chuen. 

The trade of Lower Burmah, which has its chief outlets in the 
ports of Bassein, Rangun, and Maulmain, has acquired great expan- 
sion in recent years. Through these ports large quantities of British 
and Indian wares are introduced into the Irawaddy basin, and thence 
widely distributed throughout the peninsula. The chief articles 
taken in exchange are rice and timber (ironwood, teak, and other 
valuable woods). But to these staples of the export trade will soon 
probably be added the petroleum, rubies, jade, cottons, and other 
produce of Upper Burmah. 

Geographical and Political Divisions. — For the geographical 
and administrative divisions of the former kingdom of Burmah our 
chief source of information is still the late Colonel Henry Yule's 
account of the British Mission of 1855 to the court of Ava. There 
are also extant two historical documents of great interest — an 
inscription preserved in a temple near Ava, and another inscribed 
on the great bell at Rangun, the former giving a complete list of the 
nine royal provinces with their several districts or territories as in 
1650, the latter a list of the sixteen provinces with all their sub- 
divisions in 1776 ; that is, after the maritime districts of Tavoy and 
Tenasserim had been added to the empire by Alompra. Col. Yule, 
who reproduces the Ava document, enumerates as under the more 
important territorial divisions on the right or west side of the 
Irawaddy basin :— 

Ha-Khong, a rich valley about the upper course of the Kyen- 
dwen at the southern foot of the hills towards the Assam frontier 
Here are some amber mines ; natives chiefly Kachyens, a branch of 
the Singpo family. 

Mogung, with a river and ancient city of like name, in the 
extreme north-west, beyond Bham6, between 25° — 26° N. lat. This 
is the Mongmaorong of the Chinese, peopled by the Kubo (Shan) tribe. 

Muchobo, Alun Myo, and Dibdien, districts between the Ira- 
waddy and the lower Kyen-dwen, due west and south-west of 

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Ka'e Myo, town and district in the K) T en-dwen valley north- 
west of the foregoing. 

Pakhan, on the Irawaddy, just below the Kyen-dwen confluence. 

Yo or Yau, a large canton between the Irawaddy and the Arakan- 
Yoma hills, 21° to 22° N. lat., inhabited by the Yaus, of Burmese 
ptock and speech, itinerant dealers, met everywhere in North 

T&alen, south of the Yau territory. 

Maldn and Taindah, south of Tsalen as far as the Pegu frontier. 
On the opposite or left side of the Irawaddy basin the chief 
districts are : 

Bhamd, with town of like name, a hilly country towards the 
Yunnan frontier, about the lower course of the Tapeng, and in- 
habited by Kachyen wild tribes, Burmese nnd Chinese. 

Myaditng, Tagung, Tsampenago, Tsengu, Madey, districts 
following from north to south along the left bank of the Irawaddy 
between Bhamo and the capital. 

Ava, Tarur, Myo, Pagan, Tsile, Magwe, Myingiin, districts 
following along the left bank from the capital to Pegu. 

Yemesen, Nyenghyan, Tungdwen, west of the Sittang river as far 
as the Pegu frontier. 

East of Burmah proper there are altogether about fifteen petty Lao 
and Shan States which have hitherto been subject to the crown of Ava, 
and which must consequently now be regarded as forming part of 
British Burmah. Nearly all lie beyond the Irawaddy basin, being 
watered by the Upper Sittang and the Salwin, and stretching east- 
wards along the north frontier of Siam to the Mekhong river. 

West of the Salwin are Mobye, Mofane, Mone, Nyung-yove, 
Legya, Thein-ni, Thibo, Thung-ze, and Momeit, administered from 
the town of Mon£, former residence of the Burmese governor. They 
are collectively comprised under the name of Kamboza (Kamboza- 
taing), a term of Hindoo origin not to be confused with the Cam- 
boja of the Lower Mekhong basin. 

East of the Salwin are the six States of Maing-leng-ghyi, Muang- 
ting, Kaing-ma, Liang-hung, Kiang-tung, and Kiang-lchen, which 
appear to have been comprised amongst the twenty-six royalties said 
to have been formerly subject to the kingdom of Pegu. Some have 
since transferred their allegiance to Siam, while, according to Carl 
Bock and A. R. Colquhoun, others have constituted themselves 
autonomous States independent alike of Burmah, Siam, and China. 
On the map of Indo-China accompanying Colquhoun's work, 
1 Amongst the Shans ' (1885), the late kingdom of Burmah is reduced 

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to the Irawaddy basin, the whole region stretching thence between 
Siam and Yunnan eastwards to about 103° E. longitude being 
indicated as the " Independent Shan Country." But this appears to 
be going back to the thirteenth century, when the extensive Shan 
empire embraced all the Kamboza States on the plateau between the 
Irawaddy and Salwin rivers, besides many other parts of Indo-China. 
And although the statement (p. 321) that "the Burmese Shan States, 
which are now independent, contain about 80,000 square miles," 
may be an exaggeration, it seems certain that Kiang-hung and one 
or two other Shan States have been independent both of China and 
Burmah at least since the Mohammedan rebellion in Yunnan. 

To these must be added the semi-independent territory of the 
Karen-ni, or " Red Karens," which forms an enclave between the 
Sittang and Salwin on the north-east frontier of Pegu. Like their 
kindred in Tenasserim, many of the Karens have accepted the teach- 
ings of the Christian missionaries, and will probably prefer the 
British administration to the capricious government of their Burmese 
rulers. But many of the wilder tribes between Lower Burmah and 
Siam still lead nomad lives, and are described as " a frequent source 
of trouble, committing highway robberies on British as well as 
Siamese subjects " (C. Bock). Hence the Karen-ni territory, some 
50 miles by 30 broad, has hitherto obstructed the regular trade 
between Pegu and the Shan countrv west of the Salwin. Matters 
were made worse by a treaty, in which both the Burmese and the 
English agreed not to annex the district, the reduction of which 
will certainly remove a great obstacle to the development of com- 
mercial intercourse between Burmah and the neighbouring Shan 

Topography. — Both in Upper and Lower Burmah nearly all 
the large towns lie in the Irawaddy basin, and generally on the left 
bank of that river. In the extreme north the only place of any 
importance is fihamd, just below the Tapeng confluence, a group of 
COO or 700 houses protected by a stout bamboo palisade from the 
raids of the surrounding Kachyen hillmen. One quarter is occupied 
exclusively by Chinese artisans, and nearly all the overland trade 
with Yunnan is in the hands of the local Chinese dealers. 

Bhamo is distant some fifty miles to the north of the point, about 
22° N. lat, where the Irawaddy bends suddenly westwards, and 
where is situated the cluster of royal towns, Sagain, Ava, Amara- 
pilra, and Mandalay, which have been the successive capitals of the 
empire during the last 600 years. Nothing is so puzzling in the 
history and geography of Burmah as this shifting of the imperial 

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residence, a practice which appears to have prevailed ever since the 
introduction of Buddhism some 400 years before the Christian era. 
During the early period the centre of authority lay far to the south, 
gradually moving from Prome through Pagan and Panya northwards 
to Sagain on the left bank, and thence in 1361 to Ava, at the con- 
fluence of the Myitngai at the opposite side of the Irawaddy. 

Ava, which often gives its name to the whole country, remained 
the metropolis for nearly five centuries (1364 — 1837), except from 
1783—1819, when it was replaced in the royal favour by Aniara- 
pura, which stood five miles farther north on the same side of the 
river. In 1837 the Court was again removed to Am&rapura, and in 
1857 to the present capital, Mandalay, a little farther north, but 
about two miles from the bank of the river. The two places are 
connected by a long line of houses, magazines, and dockyards, and 
both are laid out on the same plan, forming a regular square with 
brick wails, and in the centre a second quadrangular space containing 
the royal quarter. The mathematical centre of Mandalay is occupied 
by a seven-storied gilded tower marking the spot where stands the 
royal throne, representing the sacred Mount Meru of Hindu myth- 
ology. Mandalay lies so low that by the burs' ing of the embankment, 
in August 1886, it was flooded to a depth of from 10 to 20 feet It 
is readied by large steamers, while vessels drawing three feet ascend 
to the Tapeng confluence above Bhamd. 

Below Mandalay there is no town worthy of the name until we 
reach Myi Kyan, opposite the Kyen-dwen confluence, in a rich rice- 
growing district, and at present the most flourishing trading place in 
Upper Burmah. The Kyen-dwen, by far the largest tributary of 
the Irawaddy, gives access from this place to the fertile plain of 
Manipur, a British vassal State near the Assam frontier, while its 
farthest head streams penetrate far into the Singpo and Khamti 
hills far to the north-west of Bhamd. A few miles below Myi- 
Kyan the left bank of the Irawaddy is strewn with the ruins of the 
historical city of Pagan, covering a space of over 16 square miles, 
and including nearly 1000 pagodas, many still in a good state of 
preservation, a statue over 160 feet long, and other objects of great 
interest. According to the local tradition the shrines originally 
numbered 9999, but some 6000 had to be destroyed in order to 
strengthen the defensive works when Pagan was besieged by the 
Chinese in 1284. This place, although founded about the year 850, 
is sometimes called New Pa/jan, to distinguish it from the still more 
ancient Old Pagan, 210 miles higher up the Irawaddy, which was 
already a royal capital in the second century of the new era. 

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Below Pagan follow Yenan-gyong, centre of the petroleum 
industry, J/enWa, one of the few places of any importance on the 
right bank of the Irawaddy, and Thaxjetmyo, just within the former 
British frontier. 

Facing Thayetmyo is the health-resort of Allan-myOy a station 
on the railway running from Rangftn up the Irawaddy valley through 
Prome, one of the oldest cities in Indo-China. Prome, which lies 
in an extremely rich agricultural district, is said to have been founded 
about 480 B.C., and was already a royal residence in the third century 
before the present era. Although destroyed over 1700 years ago it 
soon rose again from its ashes, and is still the most flourishing place 
in Pegu north of the Irawaddy delta. 

In the delta itself the chief ceutres of trade and population are 
Bassein on the western branch of the Irawaddy, 75 miles from the 
sea, probably the Besynga of Ptolemy, and Rang&n on the eastern 
branch, less than half that distance from the coast Since its occu- 
pation by the British in 1852, Rangftn, present ciipital of British 
Burmah, has made rapid strides in material and social progress, and 
already ranks as one of the great centres of trade, population, and 
general culture in Southern Asia. At that time a mere collection of 
wretched bamboo hovels enclosed by a log stockade and fosse, it is 
now a stately city of nearly 200,000 inhabitants, well laid out with 
good streets, parks and gardens, fine warehouses, schools, hospitals, 
factories, and numerous public buildings. Confident in its future 
destinies, and already claiming the proud title of " Queen of the 
East," it forms the southern terminus of the railway which skirts 
the left side of the delta to and beyond Prome, and which is 
gradually creeping up the Irawaddy basin to Myi-kian and Man- 
dalay, if not to BhamS, towards the north-west Chinese frontier ; it 
is frequented by large sea-going steamers, and is the centre of an 
ever-increasing import and export trade with all the surrounding 
lands and with England. The most noteworthy native monument 
is the famous pagoda of Shway Dagohn, yearly visited by thousands 
of pilgrims from the neighbouring Buddhist regions. It is a lofty 
structure, whose gilded spire rises to a height of nearly 400 feet 
above the ground. 

Besides the Prome railway, another line runs from Rangun 
north-eastwards through Tung-nyu, the chief town in the Sittang 
basin, to Mandalay. The most important intermediate station 
is the once famous town of Pegu on the Pegu river, which 
communicates through separate branches westwards with the Ira- 
waddy, eastwards with the Sittang delta. But these channels being 

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inaccessible to large vessels, most of the local trade has been diverted 
to Rangun, and since its capture and destruction by Alompra in the 
last century, this ancient capital of the Takings has sunk to the 
position of an obscure inland town. Its former importance, how- 
ever, is attested by the fact that from it the whole of Lower Burniah 
takes the name of Pegu. 


Physical Features. — The westernmost and second in import- 
ance of the three divisions of British Burmah, Arakan constitutes 
a clearly-defined geographical region confined east and west by the 
Arakan Yoma range and the sea, and stretching from the Chittagong 
division of Lower Bengal southwards to the watery plains of the 
Irawaddy delta. It thus forms a long narrow maritime zone, skirt- 
ing the east side of the Bay of Bengal for 350 miles, from Cape 
Elephant, 21° 10' N. lat., just above the Naf estuary, to Pagoda Point 
below Cape Negrais, 16° 2' N. lat. In the north the Arakan Yoma 
range, separating it from Burmah, is distant from 80 to 90 miles 
from the coast, towards which it gradually approaches southwards, 
while diminishing from 6000 or 7000 feet in height in the same 
direction, until it merges at last in the Irawaddy delta, within 13 or 
14 miles of Cape Negrais. Total area rather over 19,000 square miles. 

Towards the centre the coast is fringed by a large number of 
islands, islets, and reefs, of which the largest are the volcanic Ramri 
and Cheduba. In the north also the seaboard is indented by several 
inlets forming the estuaries of the Myo, Naf, Koladyne, Lemru 
(Lemyu), and other streams, flowing in a southerly direction from 
the Arakan Yoma, and converging in a network of channels and low 
islands, through which the chief branch reaches the sea under the 
name of the Arakan river in 20 Q 5' N. lat. Vessels of considerable 
size ascend the Koladyne, Myo, and Lemru for 30 or 40 miles, but 
the other coast streams are accessible only to the native craft 

Physically speaking Arakan constitutes little more than the 
western slope of the coast range, which forms the water-parting 
between the rivers flowing east to the Irawaddy basin, and west or 
south-west to the Bay of Bengal. This slope is much broken, 
especially in the north, by parallel terraces and deep river gorges 
densely clothed with magnificent forests of teak and other valuable 
timbers. Near the sea the soil is sandy, but about the Koladyne and 
Lemru estuaries the surface is occupied with extensive tracts of 
extremely fertile alluvial lands. In the interior also the argillaceous 

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riverine valleys are foil ml to be highly productive, wherever the 'and 
has been cleared of the dense growth of primeval jungle. But even 
since the British occupation in 1825 comparatively little land has 
been reclaimed and brought under regular cultivation. 

Natural Resources. — Indigo, sugar-cane, and cotton are either 
indigenous or have been thoroughly acclimatised. More or less 
successful attempts have also been made to lay out tea plantations 
on the higher grounds, but rice will always probably form the chief 
agricultural crop in the well-watered lowlands. Melons, cucumbers, 
pine-apples, mangoes, and many other fruits thrive well, while 
tobacco promises to become a staple product in the northern districts, 
where it yields over 500 lbs. per acre in a soil so rich as to need no 
rotation of crops. Next to agricultural produce the chief resource 
of the country are its teak and other forest growths, which have 
developed a large and increasing timber trade, exported chiefly from 

Of mineral wealth there is very little, or very little has hitherto 
been discovered. Iron probably exists, and mention has been made of 
coal. Limestone also abounds, the prevailing geological formations 
being chalk and tertiary limestone and sandstone. Old plutonic 
rocks occur, but there is little trace of recent igneous action beyond 
the already-mentioned mud volcanoes of the Cheduba and Ramri 
islands. In this neighbourhood and in the Akyab district farther 
north petroleum springs bubble up, and it is noteworthy that the 
petroleum region in the Irawaddy basin lies under the same latitude 
as Akyab. Here also there is distinct evidence of upheaval, and 
Round Island, lying between Cheduba and the mainland, is said to 
have been raised several yards during an earthquake in the middle 
of the last century. 

Inhabitants. — The great bulk of the Arakanese natives belong 
undoubtedly to the same stock as their Burmese neighbours. They 
speak a Burmese dialect of a somewhat archaic type, and some of the 
tribes bear the common national name of Mro, that is, " Men,* 1 
a word that has been identified with the Burmese Mijamma 
(Mramma). In the Burmese chronicles the Rakhaintka, as the 
primitive inhabitants of the country are collectively called, receive 
the title of M'ramm^krih, " Great Mrammas," or Elder Burmese, and 
their traditions point to Rakhaing, that is, Arakan, as the cradle of 
their race. 

The Rakhaintha are commonly divided into two groups— the 
Tungtha, or "Highlanders," and the Khyungtha y or "River 
People," that is, Lowlanders. The former, comprising the Mros, 

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Bangis, Pankhos, Kumis, and many other hill tribes, are still mostly 
in a wild state, living by the produce of the chase, and worshipping 
the powers of nature as manifested in all outward phenomena. In 
this respect, as well as in physical type, they appear to be closely 
allied to the Shendns, Nagas, Mishmis, and other wild tribes occupy- 
ing the Chittagong and Assam highlands as far as the Tibetan fron- 
tier. The Khyungtha, comprising the Mugs (Mags), Khamis, and 
other more civilised communities settled on the middle and lower 
course of the rivers, constitute the agricultural element. Like the 
other cultured people of Burmah, they are chiefly Buddhists ; but 
the type has become considerably modified by intermixture with 
Hindu immigrants from Lower Bengal. Many of these immigrants 
belong to the low caste Mug tribe of east Bengal, whence the term 
Mug is now commonly but wrongly applied by the Bengalcse to all 
the lowland or settled inhabitants of Arakan. 

These settled populations, amongst whom are a few Moham- 
medans originally from Delhi and other parts of the Ganges basin, 
are engaged almost exclusively in agricultural pursuits. The local 
industries have either been arrested in their natural development or 
completely extinguished by the competition of Indian and European 
wares introduced from Chittagong, or through the port of Akyab. 
At this port are also shipped the rice and timber which form the chief 
articles of the export trade. Formerly a large transit trade was 
carried on with Burmah along a fine highway constructed by the 
King of Ava at the beginning of the present century over the inter- 
vening Arakan Yoma range. Along this route silks, cottons, and 
other European and Indian goods, besides such local produce as salt 
and betel nuts, were forwarded in exchange for ivory, silver, copper, 
precious stones, and other Burmese products. A railway constructed 
from Akyab along this route to Mandalay would tend to develop the 
vast resources of the Irawaddy basin almost more rapidly than a 
northern extension of the Rangftn-Prome line. 

Administration. — Forming one of the three divisions of British 
Burmah as constituted before the recent occupation of Independent 
Burmah, Arakan is administered by a commissioner, who exercises 
the functions of civil and criminal judge, and controls all matters con- 
nected with the revenue, trade, and navigation. Under him are deputy 
commissioners in charge of the several districts. Under the native rule 
there were four districts, two on the mainland (Arakan proper in the 
north and Thandwai or Sandoway in the south), and two for the 
islands of Ramri and Cheduba. The number of districts is still the 
same, but the distribution is different, there being now three for the 



mainland (North Arakan, Akyab, and Sandoway), and one for Ramri 
and the adjacent islands. 

Topography.— Arakan, the former capital, now known by the 
name of Wrobung, or "Old Town," stood some fifty miles up a main 
branch of the Koladyne in a fertile rice-growing district. But owing 
to its unhealthy climate the seat of government has been transferred 
to Akyab at the mouth of the Koladyne, which has become the chief 
outlet for the trade of the country. Large quantities of rice are 
shipped for Europe and India, and a considerable export trade is 
also carried on in timber, especially ironwood, much used for railway 
sleepers in India. It is a cheerful place, with several public build- 
ings, and broad streets lined with fine trees. Since its occupation 
by the English in 1827, Akyab, which the natives call Tsethoai, has 
grown from an obscure fishing village to a large and flourishing 
town of over 30,000 inhabitants. Farther south are the small 
trading ports of Khyuk Hpyu (Ramri), at the northern extremity 
of Ramri Island, and Sandoway on the mainland below Cheduba, 
both capitals of districts. 

There are no other noteworthy centres of population in Arakan, 
which, notwithstanding the progress made under British rule, still 
continues mostly under dense primaeval forest on the slopes of hills, 
and in the lowlands under water during the south-west monsoon. 
At this period almost the only dry road is the recently constructed 
highway running from Sandoway across the hills to Prome in Pegu. 
Being exposed to the full fury of the monsoon, with a rainfall never 
under 120 and often exceeding 240 inches, Arakan, like the Assam 
lowlands, must always depend on water as a chief means of com- 
munication throughout all the low-lying districts. 


Physical Features. — In its physical constitution, Tenasserim 
presents in many respects a striking analogy with the northern 
division of Arakan. It comprises the whole of the maritime region, 
stretching from Pegu along the east side of the Bay of Bengal for 
seven degrees of latitude (17° — 10° N.) southwards to the Isthmus of 
Kra. It thus stands in the same geographical relation to Siam on 
its eastern border that Arakan does to Burmah ; and as the Arakan 
Yoma forms the divide between the Irawaddy basin and the Bay of 
Bengal, the Tenasserim coast range separates the streams flowing 
east to the Menam from those flowing west to the same marine 
basin. The Tenasserim water-parting, however, is less regular and 

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also less elevated, seldom rising above 5000 feet, and approaching at 
eome points close to the west, at others close to the east coast, that is, 
to the Gulf of Siam. The average distance from the Bay of Bengal 
varies from 30 to 40 miles, with a coast line of about 500 miles, and 
a total area of nearly 47,000 square miles. 

The sea-board is even more diversified than that of Arakan, being 
broken by the estuaries of the Salwin, Tenasserim, Tavoy, and some 
other considerable streams, and thickly studded throughout its entire 
length by the innumerable islands, rocks, and reefs of the Moscos 
and Mergui Archipelagoes. These insular groups which skirt the 
coast for over 300 miles, appear to be the scattered fragments of partly 
submerged mountain ranges, running parallel with the inland range, 
and, like it, consisting of conglomerates, porphyries, and granites. 
The inland range itself must be regarded as a northern extension of 
the Malayan mountain system, and also abounds in tin, which is now 
worked by Chinese miners. Elsewhere stratified sandstones, inter- 
spersed with quartz veins, and containing crystals of great beauty, 
are a predominant geological feature, replaced in the north by 
extensive tracts of rich alluvial soil, and in the lower hills by 
laterite. Besides tin, other useful metals, such as lead, iron, copper, 
and antimony occur in the metalliferous districts of Mergui and 
Tavoy. Coal of an inferior quality has also been discovered in the 
lower Tenasserim river basin. 

Although rising near the coast, the Tenasserim rivers acquire a 
considerable development by flowing, not directly to the Bay of 
Bengal, but in long valleys disposed mainly north and south parallel 
with the backbone of the country. Thus the Atteran flows north to 
the Salwin estuary, and the Tavoy winds south for about 120 miles 
to its mouth opposite Tavoy Island in the Mergui group, while the 
Tenasserim develops a total length of 300 miles during an erratic 
course, first north-west parallel with the Tavoy estuary, then south 
to the town of Tenasserim, and again north-west to its delta at 
Mergui, opposite King Island. The Tenasserim is navigable for 
about 100 miles, and the Tavoy estuary affords good anchorage for 

Being exposed, like Arakan, to the full fury of the south-western 
monsoons, Tenasserim has an extremely moist climate, with a rain- 
fall seldom less than 120 inches in the year, and often exceeding that 
amount But notwithstanding this excessive moisture, the climate 
is not unhealthy on the hills, where the temperature ranges from 
70° to 90° F. ; even on the plains the glass seldom rises higher than 
98° or 100° F. 




The uplands are still covered with dense forest growths, chiefly 
of teak, sapan, ironwood, rattan, bamboo, and several species of 
gummiferous plants. Lower down the alluvial plains are well suited 
for the culture of cotton, indigo, tobacco, sugar-cane, rice, and all 
kinds of tropical fruits. But owing to the scanty population, 
scarcely fifteen per square mile, very little of the land has been re- 
claimed, and the primeval jungle still continues to afford a refuge to 
the elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, wild boar, and large numbers of deer. 

The great bulk of the lowland population appears to be of 
Burmese and Talaing origin, speaking the Burmese language, and 
practising Buddhist and Jain rites. There is, however, a large inter- 
mixture of natives of India, probably not less than 40,000, who are 
in about equal proportions Mohammedans and Hindus, and who 
usually speak Bengali. The hills are still occupied by a few scattered 
aboriginal communities, mainly of Karen stock, conterminous on the 
east side with the Siamese, and reaching northwards to the kindred 
tribes in East Pegu and the Karen-ni country. Along the coast are 
met a primitive race of fishers known as Silongs (Selongs), who also 
occupy most of the Mergui archipelago, encamping during the mon- 
soons on the islands, and at other times living in their boats or on 
the beach. They appear to be an outlying branch of the Malay race, 
in the same low state of culture as the Orang-laut or seafaring 
Malays of the pre-Mohammedan epoch. 

Topography— By far the most valuable part of Tenasserim is 
the northern division of Amherst, which borders on East Pegu, and 
comprises the fertile alluvial plain of the Lower Salwin and its 
delta. Here is situated the formerly important but now much 
reduced town of Martaban, which gives its name to the neighbouring 
gulf. Facing it on the Salwin estuary lies the present capital, Maul- 
main, a flourishing seaport, sheltered from the south-west monsoons 
by the adjacent island of Belu, or Belugyun (Bhilu-ghaiwon). The 
motley Burmese, Indian, Chinese, and European inhabitants of 
Maulmain are mostly engaged in trade, exporting rice, teak, cotton, 
and other local products in exchange for European and Indian wares. 
Some thirty miles down the coast lies the little health resort and 
watering-place of Amherst, which gives its name to the northern 
district of Tenasserim, and affords a refuge to the rich traders of 
Maulmain during the oppressive summer heats. 

The only other noteworthy centres of population are the small 
inland town of Tenasserim, on the lower Tenasserim, whence both 
the river and province take their name, and the small ports of 
Mergui, on the delta of the same river, and Tavoy at the head of 

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the Tavoy estuary. Both have steam navigation with Maulmain, 
Rangun, and Calcutta. 

Administration.— From the time of its occupation by the 
British in 1828 till 1862 Tenasserim was governed by a separate 
Commissioner under the Supreme Government. But in 1862 the 
three divisions of British Burmah were united under a Chief Com- 
missioner, dependent on the Government of India, but with full 
control over all local departments. Since then Tenasserim, like 
Pegu and Arakan, has been administered by a Commissioner and 
Deputy Commissioners, subordinate to the central authority at 
Rangun. For administrative purposes it forms six districts, with 
forty-one sub-divisions. 


Encircled west, north, and east by the British and French 
divisions, the native territory of Siam occupies the very heart of 
Indo-China, with a southern seaboard sweeping round the Gulf of 
Siam from Malay-land to Camboja. The south-western portion, com- 
prising the Isthmus of Kra, and the Siamese section of Malay-land, 
and usually spoken of as Lower Siam, has been described in Part 1. 
Malay Peninsula, of which region it forms a natural geographical 

Upper Siam, or Siam proper, comprises the whole of the Menam 
basin, and the section of the Mekhong valley lying between Upper 
Burmah and Camboja, besides the valleys of the smaller streams 
flowing to the left bank of the Lower Sal win. It forms a compact, 
irregular square mass stretching from Kiang-tsen on the Mekhong, 
across over eight degrees of latitude (20° 15' — 12° N.), for 560 miles 
southwards to the Gulf of Siam, and for about the same distance 
west and east between the Salwin and Cochin-China, with a total 
area of somewhat more than 290,000 square miles. The estimates of 
population vary enormously from 6,000,000 to four or five times that 
number. Carl Bock, who recently travelled through the most densely 
populated part of the country, from Bangkok up the Menam valley to 
the Mekhong and Kiang-tsen, is inclined to believe that the 7,000,000 
of Palle'goix and others represents only the male adult population, 
" women and children under age not being counted." Mr. Colquhoun 
also, a still more recent explorer, clearly shows that the country is far 
more densely peopled than is generally supposed, although the esti- 
mate of 25,000,000 made by the Siamese Ambassador in London must 

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be regarded as greatly in excess of the truth. The constituent ele- 
ments are the Siamese proper in the southern provinces, the kindred 
Shans and Laos in the north-western and north-eastern districts, 
some Cambojans, half- assimilated to the Siamese type, towards the 
Cambojan frontier, and the Chinese, who are very numerous, especi- 
ally in the capital, and about the lower Menam valley. 

Physical Features. — Except in the central parts, watered by 
the middle and lower Menam, Siam is essentially an upland region, 
everywhere diversified by isolated hills, broken ridges, or long moun- 
tain ranges. A prominent feature of this irregular and little known 
orographic system is the transverse Dong Phriya-fei chain, which 
north of Siam proper runs east and west, intersecting the course of 
all the streams flowing southwards to the Menam. Here the Bleping 
fork of the Menam itself traverses a deep rocky channel, which in a 
space of about 90 miles between Zimrai (Xieng-mai), and Raheng 
is interrupted by over thirty rapids, mostly, however, accessible to 
steamers at high water. The elevated land presents the general 
aspect of plateaux all disposed north-east and south-west between 
the river valleys, but nowhere exceeding 3500 feet in height, except 
close to the Yunnan frontier. From the lofty summit crowned by 
the city of Xieng-tung the eye sweeps over a boundless prospect of 
peaks and domes covering a great part of the Lao country. From 
this point branch off two ranges, one running at a height of about 
5000 feet between the Menam valley and Burmah southwards to 
Tena8serim, the other towards the Battambang and Pursat highlands 
between Siam and Cauiboja. 

In the southern and eastern Lao country, along the course of the Me- 
khong, the relief of the land has been largely caused by the upheaval of 
the Devonian system subsequently to the development of the thick triassic 
deposits resting on the limestone formations. Further modifications are 
due to the eruption of the porphyries cropping out here and there, to post- 
triassic denudation, to the erosive action of running waters, and to alluvial 

The alluvial formation finds its widest development in the great 
central plain of Indo- China, which constitutes Siam proper, and 
which is abundantly watered by the Menam and its numerous 
affluents from the east and west. Rising in the Shan country, near 
the converging point of the Salwin and Mekhong basins, at a height 
of some 900 feet above sea-level, the Meping, or western branch, 
usually but wrongly regarded as the true upper course of the 
Menam, flows mainly in a southerly direction to Raheng, where it 
is joined by the Menam-vang, a large affluent from the north-east. 

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The united stream, which now first takes the name of Menam, trends 
from this point south-eastwards to Paknam-Po, about 16° N. lat., 
where its volume is more than doubled by the Menam-yai, or " Great 
Menam," which comes al30 from the north-east, and which is rightly 
regarded by the natives as the true upper course of the Menam. The 
Menam-yai, or eastern branch, is described by Colquhoun as much 
larger and better navigable than the Meping, or western branch ; 
and as its valley lies also in the same direction as that of the lower 
Menam, it seems to be in every way entitled to be considered the 
main head stream of the great Siamese artery. It rises in an almost 
unknown region, enclosed north and east by the great bend of the 
Mekhong, and after collecting the waters of the Pre', Nan-kot, and 
other unexplored affluents, pursues a winding course through a fertile 
and thickly-peopled country to the confluence. Beyond this point the 
"Nile of Siam," as it has been happily called by McCarthy, meanders 
sluggishly through a more open region, which gradually assumes the 
aspect of a rich, alluvial, low-lying plain, forming one of the great 
rice-growing districts of Further India. But from the banks of the 
river itself little is seen of the cultivated paddy-fields, which are in 
many places entirely concealed by a tangled growth of palms, bam- 
boos, and other tropical vegetation fringing both sides of the stream. 

Menams develop an intricate system of channels and backwaters, all 
subject to wide-spread floodings during the periodical summer risings. 
To these annual inundations the fertility of the soil is mainly due. Even 
as far as the Lao States the water rises from eight to ten feet during the 
rainy season, and, as in the Nile valley, an insufficient rise would be 
followed in Siam by a corresponding failure of the rice crop. 

Towards the Menam delta converge two large streams, the Me- 
klong from the north-west, and the Bang-Pak-Kong from the Korat 
highlands in the north-east, both reaching the head of the gulf about 
20 miles to the east and west of Bangkok respectively, and both con- 
nected with the Menam by artificial or natural canals. The alluvial 
character of this region, which in some places contains extensive 
permanent swamps or lagoons, often overgrown with tall grasses, and 
frequented by numerous herds of wild elephants, is clearly shown 
by the borings for a well sunk in Bangkok to a depth of 25 feet 
through marine beds abounding in sea-shells and Crustacea. The 
sea, which evidently at one time penetrated far inland to the foot of 
the Korat hills, has been gradually encroached upon by the sedi- 
mentary matter washed down with the numerous streams converging 
in the Menam delta. As the movement still continues, the time is 

united waters of all the 

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approaching when the narrow inlet at the head of the Gulf of Siam 
will be entirely filled in, and when it will be possible to pass over- 
land from Mergui in Tenasserim directly eastwards to Shantabun in 
south-east Siam. 

As seen from the summit of the isolated Mount Patavi some 50 
miles north-east of the capital, the eastern section of Siam, draining 
towards the Mekhong basins, presents a striking contrast to the level 
or slightly undulating plains of the middle and lower Menam valley. 
The view from Patavi, which stands over against Prabat, the sacred 
mountain of the Siamese Buddhists, reveals a vast prospect of rugged 
highlands to the north and east, and towards the south-east merging 
in the Xong and Pursat coast ranges between Siam and Camboja. 
But although crossed at different points by MacLeod, McCarthy, 
Lamington, and a few other European explorers, this upland region 
between the Menam and Mekhong still continues to be one of the 
least known tracts in the peninsula. The forest-clad hills are mostly 
occupied by independent wild tribes formerly exposed to the attacks 
of the more civilised Lao communities, who organised regular slave- 
hunting expeditions to supply the slave-markets of Bangkok and 

The seaboard, which, including Lower Siam, develops a vast semi- 
circle of about 1000 miles round the Gulf of Siam, is mostly of a mono- 
tonous character, destitute of any deep bays, inlets, or other prominent 
features, and broken only by the mouths of the Menam, Shantabun, and 
a few other streams. Along the coast the depth varies from 40 to 60 feet, 
increasing to over 350 in the centre of the gulf, with a current of three 
miles an hour, which sets from south to north during the southern, and 
in the opposite direction during the northern monsoon. 

Climate.— As in the Malay Peninsula, these alternating mon- 
soons determine the distribution of moisture and the general aspect 
of the climate. The dry north-easterly trade-winds, prevailing from 
October to May, are followed for the rest of the year by the rain- 
bearing south-western currents, with a mean annual rainfall of 60 
to 70 inches. Owing to the invigorating character of the northerly 
breezes, the climate is on the whole fairly healthy, the malaria on 
the low-lying coast-lands being less virulent than in the Ganges 
delta and other parts of south-eastern Asia. Although in the lower 
Menam valley the mean temperature is over 80° F., the heat is seldom 
oppressive except in the spring months towards the end of the 
northern and beginning of the southern monsoon. 

Products and Natural Resources. — Of forest growths the 
most valuable are teak, sappan, eagle wood, garcinium yielding the 

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gamboge of commerce, two species of cardamom, gutta-percha, lac, 
and several other gummiferous varieties. Amongst cultivated plants 
the leading place is taken by rice, which supplies the great staple 
of food, and of which as many as forty varieties are found. Next in 
importance is cotton, which seems to be indigenous in the upland 
regions, and which after supplying the native looms is exported to 
China. Other economical plants are sugar of excellent quality, 
tobacco widely cultivated on the plains, maize, the cocoa-nut and 
areca palms, black pepper in the Shantabun district, the soybean 
and ground pea. Fish, a chief article of diet, abound in the rivers 
and gulf, and large quantities of ngapi, a favourite dish at every 
table, are prepared from fermented fish and shrimps. Much bees'- 
wax comes from Battambang. 

Siam is not deficient in mineral resources. In the western section 
of the Dongrek, near the hills clothed with the "Fire King's Forest" 
(Dong-Paya-Pai), the surface is covered for a space of eight or ten 
miles with iron ores, strewn over the ground in the form of blocks 
resembling meteorites in appearance. But the true metalliferous 
region lies farther north, along the western edge of the Lao table- 
land. Here argentiferous lead, copper, tin, antimony and magnetic 
iron occur, though the last-mentioned alone has hitherto been worked 
by the natives. This region probably forms part of the vast mineral 
zone stretching from the extremity of the Malay peninsula through 
Siam as far north as the Chinese provinces of Yunnan and Sechuen. 
In Siam this zone is crossed by another running west and east 
between the southern escarpments of the plateau and the coast, and 
penetrating into Camboja. Elsewhere also numerous deposits have 
been reported; but hitherto scarcely any of these underground 
treasures have been utilised. The ancient and modern mining 
operations of the inhabitants have been limited to scratching the 
surface for the little metal or precious stones that might be extracted 
by dry diggings, and stopping when water was reached. Even the 
modern speculators who have received mining concessions have 
done little towards developing the mineral wealth of the country, 
having restricted their operations to two or three of the old works. 
Gold and tin alone have hitherto yielded profitable returns; auri- 
ferous sands have been washed from remote times, but chiefly by 
forced labour to procure a little gold-dust as tribute for the king. 
Silver mines occur in the neighbourhood of Xieng-Mai and in the 
upper Meping valley, iron ores in the Utai, Lorn and Melu-Prey 
districts, antimony at Rapri, lead at Pak-Phrek and Suphan, copper 
at Pechabun, rubies and sapphires in abundance in the south-eastern 

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provinces of Shantabun and Battambang. The rich sapphire mines 
discovered near Shantabun in 1874 and worked by the Burmese 
have had to be abandoned, owing to the unhealthy climate of the 
district. At present the ruby, sapphire, topaz, onyx and jade works 
are concentrated at Payrinh, midway between Battambang and 
Shantabun, although rubies occur also in the province of Raheng 
and in some of the Shan states. In 1891 some diamantiferous 
deposits were discovered near the frontier of French Camboja. 
Numerous oil springs exist on the Lao plateau, and a seam of good 
coal has been found in the isthmus of Kra. A concession to work 
this mine was lately granted to several princes of the royal family. 
Similar concessions have also recently been granted to several 
English and French companies for the purpose of working the 
alluvial gold which is found in many river basins of the interior. 
But all these mineral treasures, in their present undeveloped state, 
are of slight economic importance compared with the rich tin 
deposits of the northern or Siamese section of the Malay Peninsula. 
The numerous tin mines of this region, worked mainly by Chinese 
coolies, are productive enough to bear an annual Government tax 
averaging from £85,000 to £90,000. 

Industries — Trade.— In the useful arts of life the Siamese 
have scarcely advanced much beyond the somewhat low level of 
their Burmese neighbours. From the native cotton they weave 
fabrics of coarse and finer texture for the local requirements, and also 
prepare their own earthenware. Formerly both the Siamese and 
Laos displayed considerable skill in bronze casting for the Buddhist 
temples ; but at present the smelters and workers in iron appear to 
be mainly the resident Chinese. The national taste and in- 
ventive faculty have been chiefly exercised in the design and struc- 
ture of their sacred edifices and royal palaces. The finest monuments 
of past times are found in the ruined city of Ayuthia. But the 
group of temples visited by Crawfurd in 1821 still covered a square 
of C50 feet on each side. The temples within the enclosure, disposed 
round a large central building, contained altogether 1500 images of 
Buddha, some of which were of colossal size. The ground storey of 
these structures is usually of plain brick and mortar, all ornament- 
ation being reserved for the elaborately carved upper portion and 
teak roof, richly gilt on both sides, or covered with a coat of bright 
vermillion. The etchings also, whether of brass, bronze, or brick, 
are usually gilt all over. Some of the large effigies of Buddha stand 
beneath lofty pyramidal spires attached to the temples, the most 
noteworthy of which still towers to a height of some 400 feet 

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amid the rank tropical vegetation concealing the silent ruins of 

Occupying the centre of the peninsula, with a seaboard lying 
midway between the Bay of Bengal and the China Sea, Siam is 
admirably situated for the purposes of international trade, and when- 
ever the Isthmus of Kra is pierced by a navigable canal Bangkok 
must become one of the great emporiums of the Asiatic world. A 
considerable traffic has for ages been maintained overland through 
the Menam valley and Zimme' with China, and by water with all 
the surrounding insular and peninsular lands. The chief staples 
of export are rice, pulse, cocoa-nut oil, resin, cardamoms, pepper, 
gamboge, sappan, dyewoods, teak, eaglewood, indigo, stick-lac, ox 
and buffalo hides and horns, ivory, salt fish, and salt. The salt i3 
partly mineral and partly derived from extensive salines at the 
mouth of the Meklong. In exchange for these commodities Siam 
imports tea, raw and woven silks, paper, earthenware from China ; 
opium and cotton fabrics from India ; hardware, machinery, arms, 
cutlery, glass, woollen and cotton goods from Europe. 

The trade of the fertile Shan and Lao districts is with Yunnan to the 
north and Coehiu-China to the east, to which it sends elephants, precious 
stones, gold, musk, ivory, wax, stick-lac, bamboos, cotton, and the so- 
called "Pegu ponies," which are really bred in the Shan country. In 
exchange are imported salt, fish, oil, silken stuffs, fire-arms, and gun- 
powder. There is also some trade with Burmah to the west, which will 
pobably be much developed with improved communications, and the 
introduction of law and order into that hitherto distracted region. 

Communications. — At present the only means of inland com- 
munication are the great waterway of the Menam, the trade route 
leading thence north to China, and the forest tracks over the hills 
east to Camboja, west to Burmah. Recently, however, the whole 
of the Menam valley has been carefully surveyed by Mr. Colquhonn, 
w ho strongly advocates a railway from Bangkok through Rahine 
(Raheng), to Zimme\ to be ultimately continued along the historic 
"Golden Road" through Zimme' to Esmok, within the Chinese 
frontier, and with a branch from Rahine westwards to the Burmese 
railway system. The ground has been examined and plans drawn 
out for these works, which might be executed as far as Kiang-tsen on 
the Mekhong at an estimated cost of about ,£3,288,000. No engineer- 
ing difficulties would be encountered as far as Rahine, and few above 
it, as the line would run mainly through a plain studded with villages, 
and with a fall of not more than 900 feet for 5C0 miles from the 
north frontier of Siam to the capital M The natural richness of the 

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country," writes Mr. Colquhoun, "is remarkable, and when the rail- 
way from Bangkok to Rahioe is built it will certainly be carried on 
to Zimme' in a short time. Whoever has not visited this place can 
with difficulty estimate the importance which the trade has already 
won, and how great its future prospects are." Meantime the surveys 
have been completed of other lines, to run from Bangkok east and 
north-east to the Mekhong. In 1891 tenders were invited for the 
construction of the Bangkok-Korat section (165 miles), to be finished 
by 1896. 

Political Divisions.— Like the late kingdom of Burmah, Siam 
comprises regions partly administered directly by the central govern- 
ment, partly held by the looser tie of vassalage and real or nominal 
tribute. To the former category belongs Siam proper, including the 
greater part of the Menam valley, and the provinces during the pre- 
sent century wrested from the kingdom of Camboja ; to the latter 
the Shan and Lao States occupying the northern section of the Menam 
basin between 17° — 20° N. lat., and the region stretching thence 
eastwards to Annam. 

Siam proper comprises forty-one separate provinces, each governed by 
a phya, or functionary of the highest rank, appointed by the central 
government. They are distributed as under : — 

Northern provinces, five : Sang-Kalok, Phitsanulok, Phixai, Raheng, 
and Kampheng Pet. 

Eastern provinces, ten : Pechabtin, Bua-Xum, SarabuH, Pashin, 
Kabin, Nophaburi, Ndkhon-Nayok, Sasong-Sao (Petrui), Battabong, and 

Western provinces, seven : Muang-Sing, Suphanaburi, Kan-Shana- 
buri (Pak-Phrek), Raxaburi, Nakfwn Xaisi, Sakhonburi (Tha-Shin), 
Samut-Songkram (Meklong). 

Central provinces, nine : Pak-pret, Nantaburi, Patum-matani, Ayuthw 
(Krung-Kao), Aug- Thong, Mvang-Phrom, Muang-In, Xainat, Nak/wn 

Southern provinces, ten : Paklat, Paknam, Bangplasoi, Jiajong, Shan- 
taMn, Thung-jai, Pechaburi, Xumphon, Xaiya, and Xalang. 

The Cambojan provinces now under Siamese rule, and also admin- 
istered by high Siamese functionaries, are as under : — 

Battambang, west of the Great Lake, with extensive Buddhist remains 
at Basset and other places ; centre of the bees'-wax industry. 

Korat, a large and rich district north from Battambang. 

Angkor, on the north side of the Great Lake, where stood the ancient 
capital of Camboja, whose site is still marked by the stupendous ruins of 
Angkor- Vaht. 

JShukan, north-west of Angkor, also containing some remarkable ruins, 
such as those of Bantey-Shumar and the great bridge of Stung-lStreng. 
Suren, a forest country north of Shukan. 

Sankca, \ wooded and hil i y districts to the east of Suren and 
Ku/cau, r shukan . st ill largely occupied by wild tribes, and veiy 

Melu-prey, i mu kuown to Euro -peans. 
Tuly-rcpVy J L 

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The Lao country is partly tributary, partly divided into provinces 

six Lao States directly tributary to Siam : Lakon, Lamplln, Chengmai t 
{Xiengmai or Zimmi), Muang-nan, Hiuang-Prabang, and Muang-Prai. 
These lie chiefly in the north between the Mekhong and Salwin, thus 
including all the head waters of the Menam. 

Of the Lao provinces ruled by Siam, often through governors chosen 
from the ancient royal family, the chief are : Ubon and Bassac, whose 
rulers bear the title of king ; Kemmarat, Nong-kai, Xieng-kang, Ken-too, 
Xieng-kong, and Xieng-hai. 

Administration.— All the Lao States are absolutely independent 
of each other, their rulers being autocratic and elected for life, 
although the office is not hereditary, but filled by the King of Siam 
on the recommendation of the people. Each of these States has two 
chiefs, like Siam itself, the first with the title of Chow Hiuang, the 
second called Chow Operat. The tribute to Siam consists of pre- 
sents, such as gold and silver trees, gold and silver betel-boxes, ruby- 
studded vases, and the like, paid triennially. 

Although bearing the official designation of Muang-Thai, or 
if Land of the Free," Siam lias hitherto been a land of abject servi- 
tude. Theoretically the whole population, from the highest official 
to the lowest subject, were slaves of the Crown, whose power was 
limited only by custom. A number of distinct classes were, how- 
ever, recognised, from the nobles and military down to the slaves 
properly bo called. Since 1874 the legislative functions are exercised 
by the king jointly with a Council of Ministers of War, Home and 
Foreign Affairs, Justice, Agriculture, the Koyal House, and Finance. 
These ministers, with six royal princes and others appointed by 
the king, form the Council of State, which is preparatory to the 
creation of a Cabinet of responsible ministers. The present king, 
whose title is Somdetch Phra Paramindr Maha, is the ninth son 
of his father and predecessor, King Mongkut, whom he succeeded 
on October 1, 1868, in his fifteenth year. He is a wise and enlight- 
ened sovereign, who has profited by the liberal education which his 
father was careful to give him. His earnest desire to elevate 
the social condition of his people was shown by the abolition of 
domestic slavery, an act which began to take effect in 1872. The 
children of slaves are free, as well as all persons born since the 
king's accession. 

Topography. — Bangkok, the capital of Siam since the year 
1769, lies on both banks of the Lower Menam, about 20 miles from 
the sea, in 13° 45' N. hit., 100° 34' E. long., the river being navigable 
to this point for vessels of 350 tons. The striking appearance of the 

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city, with its picturesque buildings and large floating population, has 
earned for it the title of the "Venice of the East." The palace of 
the " First King," enclosed by lofty white walls over a mile in circum- 
ference, forms a group of detached structures, such as temples, public 
offices, seraglios, the stalls for the sacred elephant, an arsenal, a 
theatre, and accommodation for some thousands of soldiers, cavalry 
and infantry. The hall of audience lies in the middle of the chief 
court, and in one of the temples is the famous jasper statue of Buddha. 
The population, estimated at over 600,000, includes natives of Burmah 
and Camboja, Annamese, Malays, Laos, Indo-Portuguese, and Euro- 
peans, besides the predominant classes of Siamese and Chinese. 
Bangkok is the commercial centre of the whole kingdom, the chief 
articles of export being rice, 6ugar, pepper, forwarded in exchange 
for European manufactures. Of late years machinery has been 
extensively introduced, and steam-mills set up for various purposes. 
Gas is used in the royal palaces, and houses of many of the nobility. 
A considerable number of European firms carry on business in the 
city, which is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and the head- 
quarters of several Christian missions. 

Ayuthia, the former capital, lies about 45 miles farther up the 
river. It was founded in 1350, a date marking the dawn of authentic 
Siamese history, and was destroyed by the Burmese in 1766. It is 
now partly laid out as an elephant park, round which are strewn the 
remains of temples and other monuments embowered in the foliage 
of a rank tropical vegetation, but still attesting its former splendour. 

On the coast the chief seaport is Skantabun, some miles south- 
east of the capital, with a mixed Siamese, Chinese, and Annamese 
population, and a considerable export trade in pepper (25 piculs = 
3350 lbs. yearly), precious stones from the neighbouring Xong dis- 
trict, some cardamoms, and ivory. The French are endeavouring to 
establish a line of steamers between Saigon and Bangkok, touching 
at Shantabun. 

In the interior are several important places, many of which, from the 
reports of the latest explorers, appear to be more extensive and populous 
than had hitherto been supposed. Such are Korat, the largest town in 
Siamese Camboja, east from Mount Patavi, near the source of a western 
affluent of the Mekhong ; Xieng-Kang, Hluang-Prdbang, Xieng-Kong, and 
Kieng-tsen, on the Mekhong, the last-named being the northernmost town 
• in Siamese territory ; Haheng in the Menam valley, north from Bangkok, 
a probable future centre of railway communication between Siam, Burmah, 
and Yunnan ; lastly Zimm4 y or Xieng-mai (Cheng-mai), the great capital 
of the Siamese Shans, on the Meping branch of the Menam, 180 miles north 
of Raheng, and 500 miles from the capital. Zimme\ which lies on the 
right bank of the Meping, about 800 feet above sea-level, is by far the 

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largest and most flourishing place in the interior, comprising an inner and 
outer town, each with separate fortifications, and a total population of pro- 
bably over 100,000. Like Raheng, it is destined to become a great centre 
of railway traffic in the near future. 

Historical Notes. — Siam appears to have no place in recorded 
history prior to a.d. 638, and the authentic annals date only from 
the foundation of Ayuthia, the old capital, in 1350. The first notice 
of the country by European writers occurs in an account of an over- 
land expedition against Malacca in 1502. In 1612 an English ship 
ascended the Menam as far as Ayuthia, and eight years afterwards 
the Portuguese sent thither their first missionaries. 

In 1683 Constantine Phalcon, a Cephalonian Greek, became 
prime minister, and introduced some knowledge of European culture. 
Mutual embassies were exchanged at this period between Siam and 
France, Louis XIV. sending in 1685 the celebrated M. de la Loubere, to 
whom we are indebted for a graphic description of the country. But 
the expulsion of the French in 1690 was followed by a long period 
of civil strife and disastrous foreign wars, during which Alompra, 
founder of the late Burmese dynasty, seized Martaban, Tavoy, and 
Mergui, and overran the whole Menam basin. The loss of the 
Tenasserim provinces in 1759 was, however, compensated early m 
the present century by the extension of Siamese rule over a large 
portion of Camboja and the north Malay States of Kedah, Patani 
Ligor, and Kelantan. 

About the middle of the eighteenth century a Chinese mandarin 
succeeded by bribes in obtaining a monopoly of nearly every article of 
commerce, the result being the almost total extinction of trade. To 
remedy this evil, which was severely felt, especially by Great Britain and 
France, Sir John Bowling, British plenipotentiary in China, was com- 
missioned to the Siamese court to induce the king to grant free trade. 
The result of the embassy was a treaty of commerce concluded in 1855 
between England and Siam abolishing all monopolies, opening up the 
trade of the country on liberal principles, guaranteeing the security of 
European traders, and establishing a British consulate in Bangkok. In 
1856 a commercial treaty w T as also concluded with France, and since then 
more intimate relations have been established with these two rival western 
powers, which seem to foreshadow the ultimate partition or extinction of 
the ancient kingdom of Siam. 


General Survey. — The French, or eastern, presents several points 
of analogy with the British, or western, division of the peninsula. 
Both are overshadowed in the north by the lofty plateaux of southern 

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China, from which they project southwards, presenting a coast-line 
of from 1000 to 1200 miles, the one towards the Bay of Bengal, the 
other towards the China Sea. Both also are traversed by extensive 
coast ranges, breaking up each region into several distinct physical 
sections, and watered by two great rivers flowing southwards and 
terminating in the vast Irawaddy and Mekhong deltas respectively. 
This curious parallelism extends even to the ethnical and political 
relations, the western Burmese and Takings finding their counter- 
part in the eastern Annamese and Cambojans, all of which elements 
have been only quite recently and almost simultaneously brought 
under the direct sovereignty of the two powers contending for 
absolute supremacy in the Indo-Chinese peninsula. But here the 
analogy ceases, or is rather replaced by a violent contrast, for while 
British Burniah can be regarded only as a natural and almost inevit- 
able expansion of the adjacent Indian Empire, the French conquest 
seems like an aggressive movement, unmotived by any political 
urgency, commercial or colonial interests. 

As in the west since the extension of British rule to the whole of the 
Irawaddy basin, the distinction between Upper and Lower Burmah has 
ceased to have any significance, so in the east the French occupation of the 
whole region has much simplified its somewhat intricate geographical and 
political nomenclature. By the forced retirement of the Annamese emperor, 
and the king of Camboja's voluntary surrender of his regal functions, the 
terms Tonkin and Cochin-China as "opposed to Annam, Lower or French 
Cochin-China as distinct from Camboja, have ceased to possess much more 
than an historical value, and the whole region thus merged in one political 
system may now be conveniently treated as a single geographica' area. 

Position — Extent — Population. — Taken in this comprehensive 
sense, French Indo-China, as it must now be called, describes an 
extremely graceful curve in the form of a letter S round the China 
Sea, the two extremities expanding into the great deltas of the Red 
River and Mekhong (see p. 54), while the connecting shaft is formed 
by the intermediate coast range. It thus comprises three separate 
geographical areas — the alluvial plains of Tonkin and Camboja (with 
Lower Cochin-China) in the north and south, and the coast region 
of Cochin-China proper in the centre. Bounded on the north by 
the Chinese provinces of Kwang-si and Yunnan, on the west by 
Siam, and elsewhere by the China Sea, it stretches across fifteen 
degrees of latitude (23° 30'— 8° 30') for about 1000 miles between the 
Chinese frontier and Cape Camboja. In breadth it varies enormously, 
from over 400 miles in the south (103°— 109° E. long.) and 280 in 
the north (102°— 108° E. long.) to little over 50 in the central partR, 
where the Siamese frontier advances to a short distance of the China 

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Sea. With a coast-line of over 1500 miles, sweeping round from 
Cape Paklung on the Gulf of Tonkin to the Siamese frontier on the 
Gulf of Siam, it is so contracted in the central parts of Cochin-China 
that the total area cannot be estimated at much more than 220,000 
square miles, with a population of probably less than 20,000,000. 
The great bulk of the inhabitants, say five-sixths altogether, belong 
to the Annamese stock, the rest being chiefly Cambojans and Malays 
in the lower Mekhong basin, Chinese numerous in all the trading 
places, and wild tribes, here collectively known as Moi and Muong, 
thinly scattered over all the hilly districts of the interior. 

Physical Features. — The carefully cultivated and abundantly 
watered alluvial plains of Tonkin, studded with large towns and 
populous villages, and everywhere intersected by natural or artificial 
canals, present a striking resemblance to the more prosperous pro- 
vinces of the Chinese empire about the lower courses of the Hoang- 
ho and Yangtse-Kiang. Hence this region, mainly comprised in the 
Song-koi and Thai-binh basins, has often been regarded as little more 
than a southern extension of China proper, of which it has for ages 
formed an outlying tributary or protected State, and to which it has 
been indebted for its arts, letters, religion, and general culture. 
Nevertheless, Tonkin is completely severed from the Middle King- 
dom by an almost unknown highland region, which appears to merge 
gradually in the Kwang-si and Yunnan tablelands, but which, in 
accordance with the jealous policy of its northern neighbour, has long 
constituted a sort of neutral zone between the two States. This is 
the home of several semi-civilised Muong tribes, who are com- 
missioned by the imperial government to guard the two chief frontier 
passes of Bien-Kwong and Nam-Kwan, and otherwise prevent all 
regular intercourse between the populations on either side. This 
rugged tract, through which the head-streams of the Song-koi flow in 
deep rocky beds down to the plains, is also the refuge of the unruly 
elements of Southern China, and notably of the famous "Black 
Flags" who figured so conspicuously during the military operations 
of the French in Annam before the year 1884. 

The irregular range of hills skirting the Tonkin plains on the 
west at a height of about 5000 feet, branches off from the Yunnan 
tableland between the Mekhong and Song-koi basins, and under the 
general name of the Cochin-Chinese Coast Mange is continued parallel 
with the coast southwards between Annam and Siam. It throws off 
several advanced spurs terminating in bold headlands on the coast, 
which thus becomes disposed in a number of bays and deep inlets, 

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including the commodious and well-sheltered harbour of Turane. 
One of these spurs to the south of the Song-Koi delta serves as the 
natural frontier between the ancient kingdoms of Tonkin and Cochin- 
China. But the coast-range itself, which appears to bear no general 
native name, comes almost to an abrupt termination towards the 
frontier of Lower or French Cochin-China forming part of the Lower 
Mekhong basin. Beyond this point its further extension southwards 
is indicated only by some isolated eminences, such as the wooded 
headland of Cape St. James at the south-eastern extremity of the 
mainland, and farther seawards by the small Pulo Condor insular 

Although now inhabited chiefly bv the Annameso race, Lower Cochin- 
China should more properly be called Lower Camboja. Till its conquest 
by the Cochin-Chinese about the middle of the last century it formed an 
integral part of the ancient kingdom of Camboja, and it belongs physically 
altogether to the same region. It comprises the greater part of the 
Mekhong delta, which is itself nothing more than a comparatively recent 
southern extension of the low-lying alluvial plains of Camboja proper. 
The whole region as far as and including Lake Tonle-san (see p. 54) con- 
stituted, probably within the last 3000 years, a marine basin penetrating 
far inland between the Cochin-China coast range on the east and the Pursat 
Hills on the west. The rapid seaward extension of the land in this 
direction, by which the " Great Lake " has become a land-locked basin, 
still inhabited by porpoises and other marine animals, is due partly to the 
alluvial deposits of the Mekhong, but probably still more to the gradual 
upheaval of the land, a movement evidently still going on, as shown by 
the recent conversion of the island of Cape St. James into a part of the 

Both the delta and still more the inland parts of Camboja are 
subject to extensive annual floodings, which last from June to Sep- 
tember, and which rise high enough to convert all the low-lying 
tracts into a vast inland sea, studded here and there with wooded 
islets serving as refuges for the inhabitants and their domestic 
animals. But after the subsidence of the waters, the whole country 
presents the aspect of a boundless sandy plain, diversified with 
numerous glittering lakes, and traversed in its entire length by 
the various ramifications of the Lower Mekhong fluvial system. 
The main stream and the Tonl6-sap emissary converging at Pnom- 
penh, present capital of Camboja proper, again branch off at this 
point into two divergent channels, which follow a nearly parallel 
course through the half-submerged plains of the delta to their junc- 
tion near the coast with the no less intricate system of the Donnai, or 
" River of Saigon." The converging point of the four great branches 

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of the Mekhong takes the native name of Shddo Mtihk, that is, the 
M Four Arms," or Quatre-Bras of the French. 

Beyond the low-lying area of periodical inundations, Camboja presents 
several elevated lands, chains of hills and isolated eminences concentrated 
especially in the region enclosed between the Great Lake and its emissary 
on the north-east and the Gulf of Siam on the south-west. These uplands, 
which have not yet been systematically explored,seem to form the southern 
limit of the orographic system stretching from the Yunnan tableland south- 
wards between the Menam and Mekhong basins. They develop an irregular 
series of three somewhat parallel ridges, running from the Xong hills above 
Shantabun along the Gulf of Siam south-eastwards to the Mekhong delta. 
Within the Siamese frontier they are known as the Prabat hills, and in 
Camboja take the name of Pursat or Krevant, that is, the Cardamum 
Mountains, apparently culminating in the Elephant Mountain (3000 feet), 
the Pnom Popok Vil of the natives, one of the highest peaks in Camboja. 

Climate. — As in other parts of the peninsula, the year is divided 
into a wet and dry season, which, especially in Tonkin, succeed each 
other very abruptly. Here the monsoon, which arrives in April, is 
accompanied by tremendous thunderstorms, and followed by terrific 
cyclones, which sweep the Gulf of Tonkin, and often cause wide- 
spread ruin on the surrounding plains. In the Song-Koi delta the 
moist summer heats are most oppressive even to the natives, while 
the marshy fever-stricken districts are almost uninhabitable by 
Europeans at this season. 

Along the Cochin-Chinese seaboard the north-east monsoon sets 
in about the end of October, and the south-west in the middle of 
May. The heavy rains which sometimes cause the coast streams to 
overflow their banks, last usually from September to December. The 
glass, which in Tonkin falls as low as 45° F., seldom records less than 
63° F. at Hu6, capital of Cochin-China, rising in the dry season to 
102° and 104° F. Yet although it never freezes or snows, the cold 
is acutely felt on the elevated lands in the northern provinces above 
the 15° N. lat. 

In the Lower Mekhong basin (Camboja and Lower Cochin-China), 
the wet season lasts from June to November, the dry from December 
to May. Here the moist sultry atmosphere, especially in the Donnai 
district about Saigon, is most enervating for Europeans, who after a 
protracted residence become easy victims to ague, anaemia, and other 
local ailments. 

Natural Resources. — The advanced spurs of the Tonkin moun- 
tains, which have alone been explored, contain rich deposits of iron, 
tin, copper, coal, and the precious metals, and the whole of these 
highlands probably abound in mineral wealth. Gold and silver 

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mines also occur in the Cochin-Chinese coast range, and here the 
mountain streams are washed for gold. Carboniferous limestones 
prevail in the central provinces, where coal of a good quality lies in 
some places close to the surface. In Camboja occur mines of gold, 
argentiferous lead and copper, besides iron ores in great abundance, 
which have been worked for ages by some of the semi-civilised Kuy 
tribes in the region to the north-east of Lake Tonle-sap. 

Speaking of the great mineral resources of Tonkin, General W. Mesney 
remarks : "That country is the centre of vast deposits of coal, in addition 
to which the ordinary as well as the precious metals are there abundant. 
I know of no less than seventeen districts in which there are flourishing 
gold-fields. Silver and copper mining occupy a great deal of native and 
Chinese labour. The Chinese are the proprietors of most of the larger and 
more productive mines ; but the output of metal by mines surreptitiously 
worked in order to avoid payment of the usual royalties is very considerable. 
. . . Nearly the whole of these well-known mineral deposits are worked by 
purely Chinese companies, most of the shareholders being Cantonese, many 
of whom realise handsome fortunes from their mining speculations. Most 
of the men employed in the mines are Kwang-si miners, who of course can 
work only in their own primitive way, which reminds one of a hen scratch- 
ing up the surface of the ground " (Tongking, Hongkong, 1884, p. 97). 

Since the reduction of Tonkin French botanists have been study- 
ing its flora, and the collections already forwarded by them to Paris 
show that on the uplands the vegetation is of an extremely rich and 
diversified character. Both here and in Cochin-China most of the 
wild flora has given place on the plains to a great variety of culti- 
vated plants, such as cotton, sugar, rice, indigo, pepper, cinnamon, 
pulse, and tropical fruits, besides the areca and cocoa-nut palms, 
tea inferior to that of China, and tsai, a dye-wood which yields an 
excellent emerald green. The forests covering the eastern slopes of 
the hills contain several other dye-woods, teak, ebony, and many 
other valuable plants. 

Still more rich in economic products is Camboja, where the rich allu- 
vial plains yield abundant crops of cotton, indigo, tobacco, rice, sesame, 
replaced on the uplands by lac and oil-yielding trees, gutta-percha, vanilla, 
cardamoms of prime quality, besides numerous cabinet and dye-woods. 
Other products of this favoured region are raw silk, ivory, jerked buffalo 
and elephant meat, hides and horns of the buffalo, ox, and rhinoceros ; 
lastly fish, of which the Great Lake forms an inexhaustible reservoir. 

Trade and Industries. — The Annamese are above all an agri- 
cultural people, devoting nearly their whole energy to the cultivation 
of the soil, and leaving the pursuits of commerce and the arts mainly 
in the hands of the Chinese and other foreigners. On the slopes 
overlooking the plains to the usual field operations are added seri- 

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culture and the preparation of cotton ; but the silk and cotton fabrics 
woven with the raw material are much inferior to those of China. 
Gold and silver work displaying little taste in the designs is exten- 
sively practised, and from the Europeans in the service of the native 
princes during the last century some knowledge was acquired of gun- 
casting, engineering, and architecture. 

In Annam the chief imports are cotton woven goods, salt, dried fish> 
tobacco, crockery, and all kinds of manufactured waves, taken in exchange 
for rice, opium, copper, tin, dried fungi, the edible lily, mostly for the 
Chinese market To these must be added pine, largely used for coffins in 
China, teak, and other durable timber, eagle wood, and several other species 
of fragrant woods, numerous drugs, and cinnamon, regarded by the Chinese 
as the finest in the world. M The tusks, horns, bones, hides, and sinews of 
elephants, rhinoceroses, and deer are also in great demand for medicinal 
purposes. Honey is sent in considerable quantities to the provinces of 
Kwang-tung and Kwang-si, whilst a very large trade item is included 
under the head of various reptiles, principally snakes, which are credited 
with powerful medicinal properties (Mesny, p. 99). 

While the export trade with China, Siam, Singapore, and Europe 
is entirely monopolised by foreigners, the local traffic has been but 
little developed, owing partly to the indolence of the people, partly 
.to the absence of highways of communication. In Tonkin inter- 
course is carried on mainly by water, and in Cochin-China there 
is only one highway, running from the Tonkin frontier along the 
coast through Hue' to the Mekhong delta. But even this is kept 
in bad repair, and owing to the absence of bridges the rivers 
intersecting its track have to be forded or crossed in ferry-boats. 
Recently, however (1886), the French Government has invited con- 
tracts for the construction of a railway, which it is proposed to run 
from Hanoi for twenty-two miles to Bac-Ninh, and thence through 
the delta to the " Seven Pagodas." 

In Camboja the chief industry is the capture and curing of fish round 
the shores of Lake Tonle-sap and neighbouring waters. After supplying 
all the local wants, sufficient of this commodity is left for a yearly export 
trade, valued at nearly £300,000. Rice and fish are the staples of food 
amongst all the Annamese and Cambojan populations. Sericulture also 
forms an important branch of industry, and the Cambojans have long 
been noted for the excellence of their cotton and silken fabrics used in the 
preparation of the langutis, which form the chief feature of the national 
costume. Pagodas, where all the children receive their education from 
the bonzes, as in most other Buddhist countries, are very numerous in 
Camboja. But none of these modern structures can compare in size or 
splendour with the grand monuments of the flourishing period of Cambojan 
history, whose ruins are scattered over the plains and slopes stretching 
round the western and northern shores of Lake Tonle-sap. 

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Political Divisions. — The whole region, which recent events 
have practically converted into French territory, comprises four 
distinct political divisions : Tonkin in the north ; Cochin-China 
in the centre ; Lower Cochin-China and Camboja in the south. 
The first two, formerly separate States, have since 1802 constituted 
a single kingdom, commonly spoken of as the empire of Annam, 
This term Annam (properly An-nan) appears to be a modified form of 
Ngan-nany that is, " Southern Peace," first applied to the frontier 
river between China and Tonkin, and afterwards extended not only 
to Tonkin, but to the whole region south of that river after its con- 
quest and pacification by China in the third century of the new era. 
Hence its convenient application to the same region since the union 
of Tonkin and Cochin-China under one dynasty, and since the 
transfer of the administration to France in 1883, is but a survival of 
the original Chinese usage, and fully justified on historic grounds. 

Tonkin (Tongking, Tungking), that is, " Eastern Capital," a term 
originally applied to Ha-noi when that city was the royal residence, 
has in quite recent times been extended to the whole of the north- 
ern kingdom, whose true historic name is Yueh-nan. Under the 
native rulers Tonkin was divided into provinces and sub-divisions 
bearing Chinese names, and corresponding to the administrative 
divisions of the Chinese empire. A native map shows the country 
at one time parcelled out into twenty-eight isheng, or provinces, each 
sheng being again grouped into a number of hsien, or districts. But 
this arrangement was subject to frequent modifications by the various 
Tonkinese sovereigns, and since its conquest by Cochin-China the 
country has been administered in much the same way as the southern 
kingdom. From this State Tonkin is separated partly by a spur of 
the coast range projecting seawards, partly by a wall built in the 
sixteenth century and running in the same direction. After the 
erection of this artificial barrier, which lies about 18" N. lat., 
between Hatinh and Dong-koi, the northern and southern kingdoms 
came to be respectively distinguished by the titles of Dang-nyoai 
and Dang-trong, that is, "Outer" and "Inner Route." 

The term Cochin-China, by which the Inner Route is best 
known, has no more to do with China than it has with the Indian 
city of Cochin. It appears to be a modified form of Kwe-Chen-Ching, 
that is, the "Kingdom of Chen-Ching," the name by which this 
region was first known in the 9th century of the new era, from its 
capital Chen-Ching. Another although less probable derivation is 
from the Chinese Co-Chen-CJring, meaning " Old Champa," a remin- 

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iscence of the time when the Cham (Tsiani) nation was the most 
powerful in the peninsula, their dominion comprising the whole 
region between the China Sea and Menam basin. Originally Cochin- 
China proper reached very little south of Tonkin, with which it 
frequently formed one territory. But according as the Annamese 
race spread southwards they gradually absorbed the whole of the 
Cham domain as far as the extremity of the peninsula, besides a large 
part of the kingdom of Camboja about the Mekhong delta. Hence 
before the arrival of the French, Cochin-China comprised the whole 
of the coast lands from Tonkin nearly to the foot of the Pursat hills 
in South Camboja. 

After the occupation of the Mekhong delta district (Lower Cochin- 
China) by the French in 1862-67, Cochin-China proper still comprised 
three main divisions : Upper, Central, and Southern (Champa) Cochin- 
China, which were and still are divided into nine provinces, which going 
southwards are as under : — 

1. Quang-binh, separated from Tongkin by the above-mentioned Lui- 
Sai, or "Great Wall.** 

2. Quang-tri, a somewhat inland district. 

3. Quang-duc, where is situated the present capital, Hue\ 

4. Quang-nam, including the fine harbour of Turane. 

5. Quang-ngai, a rugged hilly district still partly held by wild tribes. 

6. Binh-dinh (Qui-nhon), one of the finest and most productive pro- 
vinces in the kingdom. On the coast is the port of Quinnon, one of the 
best on the Annamese coast. 

7. Phu-yen, also a highly-cultivated district yielding large quantities 
of rice, sugar, maize, and pulse. 

8. Binh-hoa, mostly a well-wooded upland district. 

9. Binh-thuan, large, low-lying, thinly-peopled district, comprising 
with the foregoing the former territory of Champa. 

Each of these provinces is sub-divided into two or three phu, and these 
usually into two huyen, which are again divided into a number of tong, or 
groups of villages and hamlets. 

Lower or French Cochin-China comprises the common Me- 
khong-Donnai delta, which was wrested by the Annamese from the 
ancient kingdom of Camboja between the years 1689 — 1750, and 
which was ceded by the Annamese to the French partly in 1862, 
partly in 1867. Before the cession it was divided into six provinces, 
which in 1876 were reduced to four administrative circumscriptions, 
as under : . 

1. Saigon in the east, with Saigon on the Donnai river, capital of the 

2. Myiho, west of Saigon, as far as the eastern mouth of the Mekhong. 

3. Vinh-long, about both mouths of the Mekhong. 
i. Bassae, thence to the Cambojan frontier. 

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Camboja. At one time embracing a great part of Farther India 
between the China Sea and Gulf of Siam, the ancient and flourishing 
empire of Camboja has been gradually reduced by Siamese encroach- 
ments on the north and west, and by Annamese conquests on the 
south and east to a territory of scarcely 40,000 square miles on both 
sides of the Great Lake and its emissary, with a contracted seaboard 
of some 80 miles between the Mekhong delta and Siam. To save 
this remnant of his possessions from complete absorption by those 
rival States, the feeble descendant of the royal builders of Ankhor- 
Vat was fain to accept the proffered protectorate of France in 1863. 
But this protectorate was practically converted into annexation by 
the treaty of 1886, in virtue of which the king constituted himself a 
pensioner of France, abdicating all his royal functions, and handing 
over the administration of the kingdom to the Governor of Saigon. 

As constituted at the date of this treaty, Camboja comprised the five 
subjoined dey, or historic divisions, which possessed no administrative 
character, but served rather as appanages for the five ministers composing 
the Royal Privy Council : 

1. Compong-Svai, north of the Great Lake and its emissary. 

2. Treang, between tho western branch of the Lower Mekhong and 
the coast. 

8. Tbang-KIvmun, on the Mekhong. 

4. Ba-Pnom, east of the Mekhong. 

5. PtirscU, south of the Great Lake. 

These appanages were divided into fifty-six khet, or provinces, each 
administered by a governor who was appointed by the king. Since thu 
French occupation the whole of Camboja has been divided into thirty-two 

Administration. — The Annamese government has hitherto been 
an absolute despotism, tempered only by a few traditional formula*, 
and recently by treaties with France. Finance, war, justice, home 
affairs, religion, and public works form so many ministries, with a 
president, two vice-presidents, two councillors, and a vice-chancellor. 
But over all, overshadowing the throne itself, stand the Chief-Censor, 
head of the lettered classes, assisted by two or three vice-censors, for 
civil affairs ; and for war the marshall-in-chief, assisted by four mar- 
shalls, all these dignitaries forming the " Columns of State." 

Notwithstanding the absolute character of the central Govern- 
ment, Annam enjoys extensive communal rights, and here, as in 
China, there is no hereditary aristocracy, all imperial functions being 
reserved for successful candidates at the public academy, correspond- 
ing in some respects to our Civil Service examinations. The whole 
population is further grouped in two main divisions : the inscribed, 

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including all paying a poll-tax, and whose names figure in the sche- 
dules of taxation ; and the non-inscribed, including day labourers, 
the poor, and all living from hand to mouth. But the native admin- 
istration appears to have been practically set aside in 1886, when a 
Resident General with almost absolute jurisdiction was appointed to 
control the civil and military affairs of Annam. The first person 
chosen to fill this high office was the distinguished French savant, 
M. Paul Bert, member of the Academy of Sciences. Soon after his 
arrival M. Bert issued a proclamation to the people, assuring them of 
his intention to afford them every protection in his power, but giving 
them indirectly to understand that the management of affairs had 
been transferred from the native to the French authorities. M. Bert 
fell a victim to the treacherous climate in November 1886. 

The social organisation of the people into two classes has been main- 
tained in French Cochin-China, which is under the administration of a 
governor assisted by a Privy Council. Since the treaty of 1886, Cam- 
boja has been brought within the jurisdiction of the French governor, 
whose residence is at Saigon. The king of that country, now a pensioner 
of France, has finally surrendered all his regal functions, and at nis death 
Camboja will probably be merged with Lower Cochin-China in one colonial 
settlement, both districts forming part of the same geographical area. 

Topography. — There are but few large towns in Annam, where 
the agricultural population is somewhat evenly distributed in rural 
villages and hamlets thickly scattered over all the arable lands. 
Here the northern capital Hanoi (Ho-nei), first known as Ton-kin, 
or the " Eastern Capital," stands on the main navigable branch of 
the Song-koi, near the head of the delta, and about 100 miles from 
the coast. Hanoi, also called Kesho, was first opened to the trade of 
the world by a treaty concluded with France in 1874. But the 
expectations that through it an important trade route might be 
opened to Yunnan and Southern China along the Song-Kai seem 
doomed to disappointment, owing to the numerous rapids obstructing 
the main head waters of that river. Hanoi is well built with brick 
or stone houses, marble pavements, and a vast citadel nearly four 
miles in circumference, built by French engineers at the close of the 
last century. The proper outport of Hanoi is Haiphong (Haipong), 
also opened to European trade in 1874. It stands at the mouth of a 
northern branch of the Song-koi delta, communicating by a navigable 
channel with the populous and strongly fortified town of Haidzuong 
in the Thai-bifih delta. Near the Chinese frontier lies the important 
ptrategical post of Langson {Lang-shOn), memorable for a signal defeat 

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of the French during the military operations against the "Black 
Flags " in the year 1884. 

Hid (Thua-Thien), present capital of Cochin-China and of the 
whole of Annam, lies on the coast some miles north-west of the Bay 
of Turane, and, like Hanoi, boasts of a vast citadel constructed by 
French engineers early in this century, and comprising barracks, 
arsenals, granaries, and artillery grounds. On a neighbouring hill 
stand the glittering domes of the royal mausoleum, containing the 
tombs of many kings lavishly ornamented with gems and the pre- 
cious metals. Yet in the fourteenth century Hue* was still spoken 
of as comprised within the limits of the Champa State, showing how 
very recent has been the spread of the Annamese race south of its 
true home in Tonkin. It is connected northwards with Hanoi, and 
southwards through Tourane with Saigon by a postal service along 
the imperial highway, with stages at intervals of ten to twelve miles. 

Saigon, at the confluence of the Saigon and Donnai rivers a few 
miles from the coast, has almost assumed a European aspect since 
its occupation by the French in 1859. Although situated in an 
extremely hot and unhealthy district, its favourable position on 
navigable waters, communicating by a deep channel with the fortified 
port of Vinh-long and Mytho on the eastern branch of the Mekhong 
delta, has caused it to be chosen as the seat of government for all the 
French possessions in the Donnai-Mekhong basin. Chaudoc, the 
chief place on the western branch of the Mekhong within French 
Cochin-China, has also the advantage of water communication with 
the coast by a navigable canal running southwards to Hatien on the 
Gulf of Siam near the Cambojan frontier. 

Beyond this frontier stands Kampot, the only seaport in Camboja 
proper, with a deep and well-sheltered harbour, which has been 
frequented for many ages by Malay and Chinese traders. Within 
the last few years the seat of the Cambojan government has been 
transferred from Udong on the Tonl6-eap emissary to Pnom-pefihy a 
little farther down, at the meeting of the " Four Waters." Eut the 
still older capital, Angkor^ which stood at the north-western margin 
of the Great Lake, and which appears to have flourished when that 
basin was still the head of a marine inlet, has long been a city of the 
dead, whose glorious past is attested only by the ruins of its stupend- 
ous monuments. For the ancient Cambojan culture " seems to have 
subsided with the subsidence of the waters. The Great Lake with- 
drew from Angkor, the marine inlet became gradually filled in, the 
surrounding plains were converted into marshes, the population 

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melted slowly away, and to the busy cities and thronged temples 
succeeded the scattered hovels of a decrepit people, who have lost 
the very traditions of a glorious past" (Keane's Rectus, viii. p. 484). 
They have even surrendered the very site of these monuments, a 
lacustrine district profusely strewn with the vestiges of cities, tem- 
ples, and fortresses, all included within the Siamese frontier by the 
treaty of 1864, determining the extremely conventional limits of the 
conterminous States. 

Historical Notes. — Mention occurs of the Annamese people under the 
name of Giao-shi (Kiao-shi, Chiao-chih), and of the country under that of 
Yiteh-nan in the Chinese legendary records as early as 2285 B.C. Subse- 
quently it was known by various other names, such as Lo-yueh-ti, Nan- 
chiao, Lu-liang, &c, until in 1175 a.d. An-nam (properly An-nan) became 
the official name of the whole region by order of the Emperor Hsiao-tsung 
of the southern Sung dynasty. The terms Tonkin ana Cochin- China in 
their modern acceptation are of comparatively quite recent origin, just as 
the severance of the country itself into two distinct States is a comparatively 
recent historic event. It may be assumed that the Annamese domain was 
originally restricted to the region of the Song-koi delta, where it was 
encircled on the north by China, on the west by the Moi and Muong hill 
tribes, on the south by the Champa (Tsiarapa) territory. Its historic 
growth took place almost entirely in a southerly direction along the strip 
of low-lying coast-lands between the coast range and the China Sea, where 
it gradually encroached upon and finally absorbed the whole of the Champa 
domain. Then the coast-lands became constituted into a separate State 
distinct from and independent of the northern kingdom, an artificial 
barrier being constructed between them in the sixteenth century, and 
separate names, such as Tonkin and Cochin-China, coming gradually into 
use to distinguish the two Annamese kingdoms. 

From the remotest times China claimed, and intermittently exercised, 
suzerain authority over Annam, whose energies have for ages been wasted 
partly in vain efforts to resist this claim, partly in still more disastrous 
warfare between the two rival States. Almost the first distinctly historic 
event was the reduction of Lu-liang, as Tonkin was then called., by the 
Chinese in 218 B.C., when the country was divided into prefectures, and a 
civil and military organisation established on the Chinese model. On this 
occasion a large number of Chinese emigrants are said to have settled in 
the country, where they amalgamated or became gradually assimilated 
with the aboriginal Giao-shi stock, leaving, however, traces of their influ- 
ence perceptible to the present day in the mixed character of the Annamese 
current speech. 

Early in the ninth century of the new era the term Kwe-Chen-Ching 
(Cochin-China) began to be applied to the southern, which had already 
asserted its independence of the northern, kingdom. In 1428 the two 
States freed themselves temporarily from the Chinese protectorate, and 
200 years later the Annamese reduced all that remained of the Champa 
territory, driving the natives to the uplands, and settling in the plains. 
This conquest was followed about 1750 by that of the southern or maritime 
provinces of Camboja since known as Lower (now French) Cochiu-China. 

In 1775 the King of Cochin-China, who had usurped the throne in 1774, 

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reduced Tonkin, and was acknowledged sovereign of Annam by the Chinese 
emperor. But in 1798 Gia-long, son of the deposed monarch, recovers the 
throne with the aid of some French auxiliaries, and in 1802 reconstitutes 
the Annamese empire under the Cochin-Chinese sceptre. From this time 
the relations with France become more frequent, and French preponderance 
is firmly established when through the efforts of Pigneau de Behaine, 
Bishop of Adran, effect is given to the treaty of 1787, ceding to France the 
Bay of Turane and the Pulo Condor islets, in return for her assistance in 
restoring the old Cochin-Chinese dynasty under Gia-long. French officers 
are now employed in drilling the native troops, fortifying the royal 
palaces, erecting formidable citadels at Hue\ Hanoi, and other important 
strategic points, and affording the restored king the moral force by which 
he triumphs over ail his adversaries. 

But after his death in 1820 the anti-European national party acquires 
the ascendant, the French officers are dismissed, and the Roman Catholic 
religion, which had made rapid progress during the reign of Gia-long, is 
subjected to cruel and systematic persecution. Notwithstanding the 
protests and occasional intervention of France, this policy is persevered in, 
until the execution of Bishop Diaz in 1857 by order of Tu-Duc, third in 
succession from Gia-long, calls for more active interference. Admiral 
Rigault de Genouilly captures Tourane in 1858, followed next year by the 
rout of the Annamese army at the same place, and the occupation of the 
forts at the entrance of the Donnai and of Gia-dinh (Saigon), capital of 
Lower Cochin-China. This virtually established French supremacy, which 
was sealed by the treaty of 1862, ceding the three best, and that of 1867 the 
three remaining, provinces of Lower Cochin-China. It was further strength- 
ened and extended by the treaty of 1863, securing the protectorate of 
Camboja and the important strategical position of " Quatre-Bras " on the 

Then came the scientific expedition of the Mekhong (1866-68), which 
dissipated the hopes entertained of that river giving access to the trade of 
Southern China. Attention was accordingly now attracted to the Song- 
koi basin, and the establishment of French interests in Tonkin secured by 
the treaties of peace and commerce concluded with the Annamese Govern- 
ment in 1874. This prepared the way for the subsequent diplomatic com- 
plications with Annam and China, followed by the military operations in 
Cochin-China and Tonkin, which led up to the treaties of 1883 and 1884, 
extending the French protectorate to the whole of Annam, and forbidding 
the Annamese Government all diplomatic relations with foreign powers, 
China included, except through the intermediary of France. Lastly, the 
appointment in 1886 of a French Resident-General, with full administrative 
powers, effaced the last vestige of national autonomy, and virtually reduced 
the ancient kingdoms of Tonkin and Cochin-China to the position of an 
outlying French possession. But here again the commercial speculation 
was doomed to disappointment, the recent exploration of the Song-koi and 
its head waters having shown that it is as little suited as the Me-khong for 
cpening up the trade of Southern China to the political masters of Annam. 

On the other hand, the French authorities were everywhere soon suc- 
cessful in stopping the wholesale massacres of Christians which had broken 
out afresh during the late international troubles. Christianity, which was 
originally introduced by the Portuguese Jesuits in the seventeenth century, 
ana which had spread rapidly during the early years of the present century, 
has since received a fresh impetus under the French missionaries, who have 

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organised five vicariates under the Missions Etrangtres of Paris, and three 
under the Dominicans. The movement is favoured by the anti-religions 
French officials, who are aware that in the East the native Roman Catholic 
is first a Frenchman and then a patriot. 



Area in Sq. Miles. Approx. Pop. 

British Indo-China \ qaa nnn n < -»/» ^ 

(Burmah) { ' ***> m 8,126,000 

Native Indo-China ) orw% ^ 

(Siam) f * 290 ' 000 12,000,000 (?) 

French Indo-China) 

(Annam and Cam- \ . 223,000 19,000,000 (?) 

boja) ) 

Total Indo-China 813,000 39,120,000 


Burmese, Takings, and Karens . . . 8,000,000 

Annamese (Tonkinese and Cochin-Chinese) 16,000,000 

Siamese, Shans, and Laos .... 10,000,000 

Chinese 3,000,000 

Cambojans 2,000,000 

Kachyens, Mois, and other wild tribes . 750,000 
Malays and Chams 50,000 

Total 39,800,000 


Upper Burmah and Shan States 

B= }&e1 m Ira . Waddy 

Area in Sq. Miles. 

Total 297,500 



Pop. (1891). 

Thayetmyo . 
Allanmyo . 
Kyan-ghin . 

Pop. (1891). 




Pop. (1891). 

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Myi Kyan 
Toung-ngu . 

Exports from Burmah (1890) 
Imports to „ „ 
Revenue, Burmah (1889) . 
Expenditure „ 










Mone . 


Shwegyeng . 



Pegu . 






Mucbabo . 






Nakhon-Savan 12,000 

Petrin . 
Korat . 


Bangkok . 600,000 
Ayuthia . 50,000 
Zimme . 50,000 
Lakhon . 25,000 
Hluang-Prabang 15,000 
Pre . . 15,000 
Labong . 12,000 

Bangkok, Imports (1890) . 
„ Exports „ 

Total average exports of Siam . 

1880. Exports to Great Britain, £341,000 
1890. „ „ „ 193,000; 

1890. Bangkok, shipping : 477 vessels of 384,000 tons, 
of which British 315 „ 259,000 „ 

Mercantile Marine : 60 vessels of 21,000 tons. 

Navy : 14 steamers of 5,815 tons, and 51 guns. 

Average Revenue of Siam, £2,000,000. 




Imports, £23,000 



Area in Sq. Miles. Population.* 

Tonkin . . 120,000 (?) 10,000,000 

Cochin-China . 46,000 6,000,000 

Lower Cochin-China 24,000 1,914,000 

Camboja. . 33.000 1,000,000 

Total 223,000 18,914,000 

• The population of Tonkin, usually given at 18 and even 20,000,000, appears 
certainly not to exceed 12,000,000. Bouinnais and Paulus (L'Indo-Chine ftansuise, 

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Hanoi (Kesho) 150,000 

Cholon . 
Saigon . 


Mytho . 
Udong . 
Hakoi . 


Annamese . 
Cambojans . 

Chains and Malays 
Hill-men and others 

Lower Cochin-China. 



Total 1,900,000 



Saigon, Imports, average .... £2,750,000 
„ Exports, „ .... 3,500,000 

Shipping : 850 vessels of 700,000 tons 
British Shipping : 336 vessels of 284,750 tons 

Haipong, Imports (1890), £1,110,000; Exports, £533,000 
„ Shipping (1890) : 763 vessels of 112,000 tons 
„ British Shipping (1890) : 40 per cent. 

Hanoi, Trade with Yunnan by the Red River (1880) £140,000 

Lower Cochin China, Revenue (1890) £1,240,000 

Expenditure „ 1,250,000 

Camboja, Average Revenue 




Note. — The whole of French In Jo-China was united in 1887 in a 
Customs Union, the imports of which amounted in 1890 to £2,400,000 ; 
exports £2,295,000. 

1885) estimate it roughly at from 9 to 12,000,000. adding that an exaggerated idea was 
formed of its density from the fact that the delta is thickly settled, while all the 
rest of the country is very thinly peopled. J. G. Scott also states that the population 
is probably not more than 12,000,000.— {Proc. Geo. Soc., April, 1886.) The figures 
given in the above table are those of Wagner and Supan, Bevolkerung der trde, Gotha. 

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General Survey.— Like the other great continental masses in 
the northern hemisphere, Asia is continued seawards at its south- 
eastern extremity by a vast insular region, which is variously known 
as the Eastern, the Asiatic, the Malay, and even the East Indian 
Archipelago. Although now too firmly established to be conveni- 
ently set aside, none of these expressions can be accepted as entirely 
adequate, being either too vague, or else implying half truths, or 
even suggesting erroneous views. Thus, while " East Indian " cjin 
scarcely be justified at all, it will be seen that " Asiatic " and " Malay " 
are applicable only to one section of this oceanic world ; so that, 
notwithstanding its somewhat indefinite character, the title here 
adopted seems on the whole the least objectionable. 

It was formerly assumed that the Eastern Archipelago constituted 
a homogeneous physical region, forming a natural connecting link 
between Asia and Australia, or rather representing the remnants of 
a continuous tract by which those continents were at one time united. 
But George W. Earl and Alfred Russel "Wallace, basing their induc- 
tions on a more accurate knowledge of the oceanic depths and of the 
geology and natural history of the islands themselves, have clearly 
shown that they comprise at least two main divisions, a Western, or 
u Indo-Malayan," and an Eastern, or " Austro-Malayan," which may 
be safely regarded as respectively forming a southern extension of 
the Asiatic, and a northern extension of the Australian continent. 
A ship sailing from the head of the Gulf of Siam southwards will 

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traverse extremely shallow waters, scarcely anywhere exceeding 40 
fathoms all the way to Bali, at the eastern extremity of Java. But 
here the sounding line plunges suddenly into great depths, which, 
beginning with the narrow passage 15 miles wide between Bali and 
Lombok, are continued northwards and eastwards through Macassar 
Strait and the Celebes Sea to the Pacific Ocean. Hence the dividing 
line is drawn in the same direction between Bali, Borneo, and the 
Philippines on the one hand, and Lombok and Celebes on the other, 
all the land to the left or west of this line being assigned to Asia, all 
the rest to Australia. 

Ab the western (Wallace's 11 Indo-Malayan ") division lies mainly on a 
shallow sub-marine plateau, which seldom exceeds 40, and nowhere reaches 
more than 100 fathoms, and as its flora and fauna also correspond on the 
whole to those of southern Asia, it seems in every way reasonable to regard 
this division as belonging to the Asiatic mainland, whether detached from 
it by subsidence, or loosely attached to it by upheaval in post-miocene 
times. It comprises the Philippines and the Greater Sunda Islands, that 
is, Borneo, Sumatra, and Java, with all the adjacent isles, together with 
Bali, westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, or considerably more than 
half of the whole region. 

But there are weighty reasons which militate against the view that 
assigns the eastern (Wallace's " Austro-Malayan") division indiscriminately 
to Australia. Here many of the islands, notably Celebes and its numerous 
dependencies to the east, lie not on a submarine plateau in shallow waters, 
but in a very deep inner basin, ranging from some 500 to 4000 fathoms 
and upwards. In fact, the Celebes and Banda Seas, north and south of 
Celebes, are by far the deepest of all these inland waters, jointly constitut- 
ing a profound abyss, in some parts over 700 miles wide, which flows from 
the Indian to the North Pacific Ocean, between the Asiatic and Australian 
submarine plateaux west and east. It stretches from Bali eastwards to 
Timor, and even to Timor-laut, so that the 100 fathom line indicating the 
extreme limits of the Australian submarine plateau runs at a comparatively 
short distance from the mainland in this direction. Farther east, however, 
the Arafura Sea, between Australia and New Guinea, comes entirely within 
these limits, and as their fauna and flora also largely correspond, New 
Guinea and its dependencies must in any case be assigned to the Australian 
world. In the same division may further be conveniently included all the 
Lesser Sunda Islands except Bali, for although washed by deep seas, this 
volcanic and no doubt comparatively recent group has received most of 
its animal and vegetable species not from the neighbouring Asiatic, but 
from the more remote Australian section. In the Austro-Malayan division 
will therefore be comprised New Guinea, with the adjacent western islands 
of Waigioti, Salwatty, Mysol, Am, &c. ; and of the Lesser Sunda group, 
Lombok, Sumbawa, Floris, Chandana, Timor, Timor-laut, and intervening 

There remains the great island of Celebes, with its immediate and more 
remote eastern dependencies, Muna, Bouton. Sula, Buru, Ceram, Jilolo, 
Bachian, &c, that is, the Molucca and Banda groups. These occupy the 
very centre of the Eastern Archipelago midway between the Asiatic and 

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Australian worlds, from which they are severed not only by some of the 
deepest waters on the globe, but also by a fauna, and to a large extent by 
a flora, presenting a surprising number of absolutely independent forms. 
Here it will suffice to mention the spices (nutmeg, clove, &c.) of the 
Banda Isles, the Babirusa, or Hog-deer, the Sapi-utan (Anoa depressicornis), 
half ox, half antelope, and the curious maleo, or brush turkey, all peculiar 
to Celebes and adjacent isles. When it is added that Celebes forms the 
eastern limit of range for the squirrel and lemur, and the western for the 
cuscus, or eastern opossum of the marsupial order, and further that its 
geological formation appears to be far older than that of the surrounding 
volcanic Sundanese groups, the inference seems irresistible that these 
islands form a separate oceanic division independent alike of the Asiatic 
and Australian worlds. They appear to be the last eastern fragments of 
a vanished miocene continent, to which Sclater has given the name of 
Lemuria, and whose farthest western extension is indicated by the great 
island of Madagascar. Here have survived certain early organic types, 
which were doubtless at one time diffused over a far wider range through- 
out a miocene continent, whose subsidence has made room for the more 
recently-appeared volcanic formations in the Eastern Archipelago. The 
comparatively modern appearance of these volcanic lands has been noticed 
by all careful observers ; amongst others, by H. 0. Forbes, who speaks 
of fossil plants and of shells (Ostraea and Pecten) in West Java closely 
resembling those in the adjacent seas, "and showing that an elevation of 
some 200 to 300 feet had taken place here at a recent period." — A 
Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago, p. 63. 

Volcanic Formations. — These constitute one of the largest and 
most active igneous regions in the world, sweeping in a continuous 
chain from near the northern extremity of Sumatra, through Java 
and all the Lesser Sunda group, eastwards to Timor and Wetter, 
thence curving round to Nila (130° E. long.), and back to Buru, and 
thence northwards to Tidor, Ternate, and Jilolo. Here the volcanic 
belt shifts suddenly westwards to the northern extremity of Celebes, 
whence it is continued northwards through Siao, Sanguir, and the 
Philippines to the north end of Luzon. Yet this chain is itself but 
a link in a still vaster system, which, through Formosa, Japan, 
Kamchatka, the Aleutian Islands, and west coast of America, encircles 
the whole of the Pacific, and which may be traced at intervals round 
the Indian Ocean through Barren Island (Andaman), Ramri, and 
Cheduba on the Arakan coast, the submarine volcano off the 
Coromandel seaboard, Kenia, Kilima-Njaro, and the Komoro Islands 
in East Africa, and neighbouring waters. 

In the Eastern Archipelago many of the burning mountains attain 
considerable altitudes. In the Philippines and North Celebes none appear 
to rise higher than 6000 or 7000 feet ; but in Java and Sumatra several 
have an elevation of over 10,000, while two even exceed 12,000 feet. 
The3e however, are not the culminating points of the whole Archipelago, 

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as is generally supposed, for the granitic Kini Balu in North Borneo con- 
siderably exceeds 13,500 feet But by far the highest summits are found 
in New Guinea, where some of the Owen Stanley peaks reach 13,000, and 
those of the Charles Louis Mountains 17,000 or 18,000 feet above sea-level. 
This is the highest land which occurs anywhere between the Himalayas in 
the west, and the Cordilleras de los Andes in the east. 

Throughout the whole of the volcanic belt in the Eastern Archi- 
pelago, which has a total length of not less than 5000 miles, and 
which contains some sixty active and hundreds of extinct volcanoes, 
earthquakes of varying intensity are still of almost constant occurrence. 
These are at times accompanied by tremendous eruptions, causing 
wide-spread ruin over vast spaces, and changing the very aspect of 
the land. The most recent, and one of the most memorable of these 
outbursts, occurred on August 26, 1883, when the island of Krakatao, 
in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra, was almost blown 
to pieces, both sides of the strait wasted far and wide, the surrounding 
waters strewn with floating lavas for hundreds of miles, and the 
atmosphere filled with such a prodigious quantity of impalpable 
dust, that to it were attributed the remarkable crepuscular lights 
visible in almost every part of the world for months afterwards. 
Although since this event the Javanese volcanoes have been com- 
paratively quiet, Smeroc, the highest in the island, and its neigh- 
bours, Bromo and Lamonyon, show constant signs of disturbance. 
In 1 885 Smeroc overwhelmed plantations and villages with eruptive 
matter, and lavas are continually flowing from Merapi, in the centre 
of Java. — Van Geuns. 

Geology. — Throughout the whole of the northern section of the 
Archipelago, from Sumatra to the Philippines, the salient geological 
features seem to resemble those of the Malayan Peninsula, where an 
elevated granite axis is flanked at the base by palaeozoic schists and 
slates underlying detached masses of crystalline and other limestones. 
The main axis of Sumatra, running in the same direction, appears to 
be also granitic, if not stanniferous, like the neighbouring islands of 
Biliton, Bintang, and Banca. In South Sumatra Forbes found 
eocene tertiary rocks underlying more recent pumicestone tufla. 
Granitic insular groups, such as the Natunas, are also thickly strewn 
in the " sea of the twelve thousand islands " flowing between Sumatra 
and Borneo. The latter island presents the first extensive develop- 
ment of stratified rocks, carbonaceous of various ages, brown and 
yellow sandstones and shales, with intercalated grits and conglomer- 
ates, and occasional granitic outliers. Coalfields, some evidently 

much older than those of Labuan, and allied, perhaps, to the raesozoic 


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carboniferous formations of East Australia, are widely diffused 
throughout Borneo, where gold and tin also occur in the Kinebe- 
tungen basin, and diamonds in the Landak district on the west coast. 

Although Luzon, Mindoro, and some of the other larger islands in the 
Philippines are mainly volcanic, there are also some stratified areas with 
coral and other marine fossils, probably of miocene and pliocene age. Gold 
is found in Mindanao, which also contains limestones and eocene rocks. 
In the Calamiane group, between Mindoro and Palawan, limestones akin 
to those of the Malay Peninsula are found associated with more receut 
eruptive rocks. Here the island of Coron "presents to the sea a magnifi- 
cent rampart of limestone cliffs and pinnacles from 600 to 1500 feet. The 
aspect is grandly picturesque, the bluish-gray rocks, with patches of 
brilliant red, yellow, pink, dark and light green, descending precipitously 
into forty fathoms or water. The outline of the island is magnificently 
rugged and irregular, weathered into needles and pinnacles of the most 
fantastic shape, in the recesses of which there is much pale green grass, 
with patches of darker jungle." — Tenison- Woods. In general the sub- 
stratum of the Philippines appears to be formed of crystalline schists, 
above which rise extensive eruptive rocks of an arehseic type, in many 
places subsequently modified by the action of sulphurous emanations. — 
A. F. Renard. 

New Guinea, like Borneo, occupies a quiescent area apparently quite 
free from active if not from extinct volcanoes. Crystalline rocks, how- 
ever, occur on the north coast, and the Arfak range behind GeeMnk Bay 
seems to be mainly granitic. But elsewhere stratified formations are the 
prevailing feature. Horizontal sandstones weathered into fantastic forms 
cover many of the islands along the south-east coast, where some limestone 
hills are found underlying auriferous quartzose sands. 

Gold, as well as iron, tin, and copper, is also found in several parts of 
Celebes, where granitic rocks no doubt largely prevail. But the extreme 
southern peninsula is traversed by basalt and limestone ranges, while the 
extreme north-eastern point is igneous, and occupied by several active 
volcanoes. The clusters of islands at the extremities of the peninsulas, 
both in Celebes and Jilolo, evidently at one time formed part of the 
mainland, so that the peculiar form of these islands — a central nucleus, 
with four limbs radiating to the north, south, and east — is probably due 
to subsidence of the eastern valleys, now replaced by deep marine inlets. 

Some of the rivers are also washed for gold in Timor, where crystalline 
limestones are found interspersed with rough grey crystalline sandstones, 
the latter in some places cropping out or embedded in horizontal masses 
of sand and small gravel. This black shingly detritus points to a not very 
remote time when the whole of East Timor formed the bed of a marine or 
lacustrine basin, which was afterwards slowly upheaved, and may still bo 
rising. — H. 0. Forbes. From this point westwards to Java all the Lesser 
Sunua Islands, except, perhaps, Kotti and Sumba (Sandalwood), are 
essentially volcanic, and also of comparatively recent origin. 

Extent— Population. — The Eastern Archipelago is by far the 
largest insular group in the world. It contains two islands, Borneo 
and New Guinea, each larger than the British Isles and France taken 

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together ; three others, Celebes, Java, and Luzon, all as large as 
Ireland ; another, Sumatra, about equal to Great Britain ; " eighteen 
more on an average as large as Jamaica ; more than a hundred as 
large as the Isle of Wight ; isles and islets of smaller size innumer- 
able." — Wallace. Including land and water, it covers a space far 
larger than Europe, while the absolute extent of land cannot be 
estimated at much less than 1,300,000 square miles. Stretching from 
the westernmost point of Sumatra across fifty-six degrees of the 
meridian (95° — 151* E. long.), eastwards to the furthest extremity of 
New Guinea, and from the north end of the Philippines across nearly 
thirty degrees of latitude (18° N. — 11° S.) southwards to Roti, south 
of Timor, it has a total length of about 4000 miles from west to east, 
and an extreme breadth of over 2000 from north to south. The 
population, consisting mainly of Indonesian, Malay, and Papuan 
elements, and roughly estimated at some 40,000,000, is most un- 
equally distributed, considerably more than half being concentrated 
in the rich and highly cultivated island of Java, while of the 
remainder rather more than one half are centred in the northern 
Philippine group. For the respective areas and populations of the 
three great divisions— Asiatic, or Western, Oceanic, or Central, and 
Australian, or Eastern— the reader is referred to the Statistical 



Climate. — Intersected by the equator, about which most of the 
land is disposed in nearly equal proportions between 10° N. and 10* 
S. lat., the Eastern Archipelago enjoys, like all equatorial regions, an 
essentially tropical climate characterised by great heat and moisture. 
Owing to the generally high temperature of the surrounding waters, 
and the regular recurrence of the periodical wet north-west monsoons, 
these elements prevail more uniformly in this oceanic world than in 
any other part of the globe. But the south-east monsoon, which 
comes from the arid plains of Australia, and lasts from March to 
November, is necessarily of a somewhat dry character. Hence the 
islands exposed to its influence, that is, the Lesser Sundanese 

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group, with the eastern extremity of Java, are drier than other 
parts of the Archipelago. That this contrast is due to the in- 
fluence of the Australian continent appears evident from the fact, 
that here the rainfall increases in abundance according as we proceed 
from Timor westwards to Java, the greater part of which island 
comes within the range of the wet monsoons from the Indian Ocean. 
East of Java and Bali very little moisture is precipitated during the 
prevalence of the south-eastern trade winds, and " towards the latter 
end of this dry season the drought is so great that many streams run 
out, and most of the trees lose their leaves. The heat is then intense; 
and were it not that the nights are cool and the breeze always blow- 
ing, the climate would approach in severity that of Australia itself." 

In Sumatra also great heats prevail, especially on the extensive 
open plains, such as that of Pertibi in the Batta country, which are 
exposed for months together to dry scorching winds, raising the 
temperature to 95° or 97° in the shade. But in Java the glass seldom 
rises above 90° F. even at Batavia, while on the uplands from 3000 
to 5000 feet it ranges from 50° to little over 70° throughout the year. 
Java, however, suffers at times from long droughts, followed by 
excessive rains, causing disastrous inundations in one part of the 
country, while other places are suffering from an absolute want of 
water. This anomaly is attributed to the monsoons, which blow 
irregularly, and which cause more anxiety to the Javanese than their 
everrestless volcanoes. — Van Geuns. At Manila in the Philippines, 
with a heavy rainfall of 98 or 100 inches, the variations of tempera- 
ture are limited to 72 a and 95° F., the greatest heats occurring in the 
months between April and August. The northern parts of these 
islands are exposed to the south-west and to the still more violent 
north-east monsoons, the changes in the direction of these winds 
being accompanied by terrific typhoons, which are most dreaded in 
October, but which never reach further south than about 10° N. lat 
Hence the numerous inner seas separating the various secondary 
archipelagoes— the Celebes Sea, between Mindanao, Borneo, and 
Celebes, the Banda Sea, between Ceram and Timor, the Java Sea, 
between Java and Borneo, the Arafura Sea, between New Guinea 
and Australia— are mostly still-water basins, freely navigated in their 
open praus by the Malays, Bugis, Sundanese, and other seafaring 

The climate of North Borneo is also described by Dr. Walker as 
remarkable especially for its equable character and the absence of extremes. 

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The temperature, rainfall, winds, natural phenomena generally, and the 
diseases, are, for a tropical country, of the most mild and temperate types. 
The country is visited by the regular monsoons at the ordinary times ; the 
rainfall near the coast ranging from 156 to 101, and averaging 124 inches, 
and the temperature lying between 67° and 94° F. As might be expected, 
there are neither typhoons nor earthquakes, the only present indication of 
volcanic action being a hot spring reported to exist in an islet off the coast. — 
North Borneo Herald, July, 1886. 

Flora and Fauna. — Thanks to its position in the midst of a vast 
sea heated by the tropical sun, the Eastern Archipelago presents almost 
everywhere the aspect of a forest region overgrown with a rich and 
varied vegetation, from sea-level to the summits of its highest mountain 
ranges. This is mainly true of Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines, the 
Moluccas, and New Guinea, as well as Java and Celebes, in all their 
unreclaimed districts. The chief exceptions are Timor and the 
Lesser Sunda group, where forest tracts are rather the exception than 
the rule, a contrast sufficiently explained by the proximity of the 
Australian mainland, and the hot, dry south-east winds blowing from 
that region for the greater part of the year. 

Another and more striking contrast is that presented by the 
vegetable forms respectively characteristic of the Asiatic and 
Australian divisions of the Archipelago. Here all resemblance and 
analogy cease abruptly, a narrow marine channel being sufficient to 
separate the two organic worlds in some places, and notably between 
Bali and Lombok, where the Asiatic sub-marine tableland suddenly 

Nor is the contrast limited to the vegetation, but also extends to 
the animal kingdom, and even in some respects to man himself. 
The elephant and tapir of Sumatra and Borneo, the rhinoceros of 
Borneo, and the allied Javanese species are also found in the neigh- 
bouring Asiatic lands, pointing to a time when these gTeat islands 
still formed part of the continent. These analogies, which extend to 
birds and insects, may also be traced as far as the Philippines, 
although here longer isolation has greatly diminished resemblances 
and intensified divergencies. 

But when we pass over to the Australian division all is different, 
and the contrasts become more marked at every step. Here no 
elephants, no members of the canine and feline groups, no urangs, 
gibbons, or other apes, no deer, sheep, or oxen, in a word, no large 
mammals of any sort ; but in their place the lower mammals and 
marsupials, or pouched animals, of which the kangaroo is typical. 
Here also the lorie and flying fox, and still more curious ornitho- 

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rh ynchus, half bird half mammal, all common to New Guinea and 
neighbouring islands, and extending through Timor and the Lesser 
Sundanese isles to Bali, where the Australian fauna ceases and the 
Asiatic begins. 

As already remarked by Wallace, these great contrasts are entirely 
independent of climate, which is nearly the same everywhere. The 
sudden changes in the organic world must be traced back to former changes 
in the distribution of land and water, for they take place without any 
corresponding modifications of the present environment. They are even 
independent of the volcanic belt, which strikes across both sections without 
determining any appreciable differences in their living forms. Borneo and 
New Guinea, again, both belong to quiescent or non-volcanic areas, and 
both are exposed to the same climatic conditions. Yet the contrast 
between their animal and vegetable species is extreme. 

Fresh contrasts in the Oceanic division of the Archipelago, where the 
plants, and still more the fauna, present numerous tvj>es absolutely dis- 
tinct from those both of the Asiatic and Australian divisions. Reference 
has already been made to the spices of the Moluccas, which, however, 
appear at some remote period to have invaded the Indo-Chinese Peninsula. 
But there are no counterparts anywhere to be found to the Babirusa, Sapi- 
utan, and Maleo of Celebes. In the same island Wallace finds 80 out of 
128 species of birds, 11 out of 14 terrestrial mammals, 86 out of 118 
butterflies, and a very large number of beetles quite peculiar, and occurring 
nowhere else in the archipelago. " The student oi geographical distribu- 
tion," observes this distinguished naturalist, "must see in the extra- 
ordinary and isolated productions of Celebes proofs of the former existence 
of some continent, whence the ancestors of these creatures and of many 
other intermediate forms could have been derived." — Malay Archipelago, 
ch. xviii. 



To some extent the distribution of the human races throughout 
the archipelago conforms to that of the lower organisms. Thus the 
light types, of undoubted Asiatic origin, have their home in the 
Asiatic or western, the dark in the Australian or eastern, division. 
But the former, being more intelligent and enterprising, have some- 
what encroached upon the domain of the latter. Hence the dividing 
line between the two has been shifted considerably to the east, and 
is drawn by Wallace in such a way as to transfer Lombok, Sumbawa, 
Celebes, parts of Bum and Jilolo, with Tidore and Ternate, from the 

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eastern to the western division. But all along the frontiers of both 
worlds there are blendings, overlappings, and intermixtures of all 
sorts, while in the Philippines, in other respects mainly Asiatic, the 
aboriginal element was clearly not light but dark. It is obvious that 
man appeared much too late on the scene to be affected by the 
original distribution of land and water ; as, for instance, in miocene 
times. Hence the Oceanic division cannot here be taken into 
account, and the presence of a dark people so far west as the 
Andaman Islands, and till quite recently also in Java, might lead 
us to suppose that the whole area was originally the exclusive 
domain of this race. On this supposition the light-coloured people 
would have to be regarded as everywhere intruders from the Asiatic 
mainland, a conclusion which seems also to be justified on broader 
anthropological considerations. In general it may be assumed that 
the dark is the aboriginal, the light the intruding element through- 
out the whole of the Oceanic world, and consequently also in the 
Eastern Archipelago. 

It is commonly supposed that this region is at present occupied 
by one light and one dark race only— the Malays in the west and 
the Papuans in the east. But more careful observation has recently 
shown that these are only the predominant races, and that beneath 
them are two others, also respectively light and dark — the Indone- 
sians in the west, and the Negritoes, now restricted to the Philip- 
pines, and perhaps to some parts of New Guinea. 

The Malays. — The affinities, general characteristics, and range 
of the Malay peoples have been somewhat fully discussed in the first 
part of this work, and here it will be sufficient to determine their 
position in the Eastern Archipelago. The Orang Maldyu, or typical 
Malays, who speak the standard Malay language, and who everywhere 
recognise themselves as belonging to a distinct nationality, are 
centred chiefly in the southern parts of Sumatra. Here alone they 
form large and compact communities, such as those of Menangkabau 
and Palembang : here they first rose from the condition of rude and 
savage tribes, developing a national culture under Hindu and more 
recently under Mohammedan influences ; here, therefore, is the 
true home of the Oceanic as opposed to the continental Malays, and 
from this region they spread with the growth of trade and navigation 
to various other parts of the insular world, which from them often 
takes the name of the Malay Archipelago. Beyond South Sumatra 
they are at present found settled chiefly round the coast of Borneo ; 
in Tidore, Ternati, and opposite coast of Jilolo ; in Batavia, Singa- 

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pore, and all the large seaports of the archipelago ; lastly, at a few 
trading stations in Western New Guinea. 

The so-called "High" or Standard Malay language has also been the 
chief medium of trade and geueral intercourse throughout the Eastern 
Archipelago, at least for the last four hundred years. This was due, not 
to any superiority of the Orang Malayu over other members of the Malay 
family, but partly to the rapid spread in recent times of the Mohammedan 
religion through Malay traders and missionaries, partly to the softness and 
simplicity of the Malay language itself. The adoption of the general 
Arabic character, however otherwise unsuitable, was also a point in its 
favour, and it thus ultimately superseded the Javanese, Macassar, Bugis, 
and all other claimants for supremacy ii the archipelago. 

It is noteworthy that, with the exception of the Malays proper, all the 
cultured Malayan peoples, such as the Kejongs of Sumatra, the Javanese, 
the Bugis of Celebes, and even the Tagalas of the Philippine Islands, make 
use of peculiar writing systems, which are certainly antecedent to the 
introduction of the Arabic letters by the Mohammedans. While differing 
greatly in appearance, the alphabets resemble each other in their general 
characteristics, all running from left to right in horizontal lines, and being 
somewhat of a syllabic type. This points at a common origin of these 
orthographic systems, which have in fact been traced to an Indian source. 
The prototype are probably the Buddhist letters as seen especially on the 
rock inscriptions of King Asoka, dating from about the third century B.C. 

To the same fundamental Malay stock belong several other groups, 
which have had an independent historic evolution, which speak 
languages more or less intimately connected with the common Malay 
speech, and which in their physical appearance still betray their 
common descent from the Mongoloid peoples of Southern Asia. All 
stand thus related to each other much in the same way, for instance, 
as the various members of the Aryan family are related one to the 
other. They form the bulk of the population in North Sumatra, 
Java, the Lesser Sunda Isles as far as Sumbava, Celebes, the Philip- 
pine and Sulu Archipelagoes. Thus are constituted altogether five 
more or less distinct Malayan groups, which may be tabulated as under : 

Orang Malayu (Malays Proper) : Menangkabau, Palembang, 
and Lampong in Sumatra ; Rhio-Lingga Isles ; Singapore, Bintang, 
Lingen, Banca, Biliton, Bornean Seaboard, Tidore Ternate, and 
West Jilolo, scattered communities in all the trading places through- 
out the Archipelago. 

Sumatran Group : Atjinese, Rejangs, Passumahs. 

Javanese Group: Javanese proper, Sundanese (West Java), 
Madurese, Balinese, with the natives of Lombok, who call themselves 

Celebes Group : Bugis, Mangkassaras, and others in Celebes, 
Muna, Bouton, Sumbawa, Sula (?). 

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Philippine Group : Tagalas, Bisayas, and others of the Philip- 
pines, the natives of Palawan and the Sulu Islands. 

In all these the distinctly Malay physical type decidedly predominates. 
They are not, however, to be regarded as subordinate members of the 
Malays proper, but rather as independent branches of the common Malay 
stock. The Javanese group especially boasts a far older and far higher 
civilisation even than that of the Menangkabau Malays. Although now 
mostly Mahommedans, they had already adopted some form of Hinduism, 
probably three or four centuries before the new era, and under Indian 
influences had developed a very advanced state of culture nearly two 
thousand years ago, that is, at a time when the oldest of the Orang 
Malayu" were still little removed from the savage state. Under a com- 
pletely organised although despotic government, the arts of peace and war 
were brought to considerable perfection, and the natives of Java became 
famous throughout the East as accomplished musicians and workers in 
gold, iron, and copper, none of which metals were found in the island 
itself. They possessed] a regular calendar with astronomical eras, and a 
metrical literature, in which, however, history was inextricably blended 
with romance. Bronze and stone inscriptions in the Kawi, or old Javanese 
language, still survive from the 11th or 12th century, and to the same dates 
may be referred the vast ruins of Brambanan and the stupendous temple 
of Boro-budor in the centre of the island. There are no statues of Hindu 
divinities in this temple, but many are found in its immediate vicinity, 
and from the various archaeological objects collected in this district, and 
illustrated by A. B. Meyer of Dresden, it is evident that both the Budd- 
hist and Branminical forms of Hinduism were introduced at an early date. 
But all came to an end by the overthrow of the chief Hindu power in 
1478, after which event Islam rapidly spread over the whole of Java and 
Madura. Brahminism, however, still holds its ground in Bali and Lom- 
bok, the last strongholds of Hinduism in the Eastern Archipelago. 
From the Malayan groups must carefully be distinguished— 

The Indonesians, who, although usually grouped with the Malay 
branch of the yellow Mongolic division of mankind, present rather 
the fair or light brown complexion and regular features character- 
istic of the Caucasic races. Such are the Battak in North Sumatra ; 
the Kubus and Passumahs in Central and South Sumatra ; the Ment- 
awey Islanders, west coast of Sumatra ; the Buludupies of North 
Borneo ; probably most of the indigenous inhabitants of Celebes ; the 
Galelas of North Jilolo ; many of the natives of Burn, Ceram, Savu, 
and Rotti ; some of the Philippine Islanders, and the red-haired com- 
munity recently met by H. 0. Forbes in East Timor. They are 
everywhere found in the more inaccessible districts, and occupy a 
uniformly lower state of culture than the Malays, whom they appear 
to have preceded in the archipelago. Hence the term " Pre- Malay " 
applied to them by Dr. Hamy, although " Indonesian," originally 
suggested in a somewhat different sense by Logan, seems to be a 

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more suitable designation. It serves to connect them with the 
brown Polynesian of the Eastern Pacific (Samoa, Tahiti, Hawaii, 
Tonga, Maori, &c), who may be regarded as their descendants. 

The relations of these two now widely-severed branches of the light- 
coloured Oceanic peoples become more ana more evident according rs more 
accurate knowledge is accumulated regarding them. Typical Indonesians 
are the Mentawey islanders, of whom Von Rosenberg remarks, that "as 
regards physical appearance, speech, customs, and usages they stand almost 
quite apart. They bear such a decided stamp of a Polynesian tribe, that 
one feels far more inclined to compare them with the natives of the South 
Sea Islands."— Malay Archipelago, I. p. 189. These and the other Indo- 
nesians are described as of a somewhat light ruddy-brown and even fair 
complexion, with long wavy or curly hair, black or inclining to a brown 
shade, beard often fairly developed, well-modelled torso, large muscular 
frame, rather above the middle size, dolichocephalic, or long head, full, 
open, and horizontal eyes, high forehead, straight nose, and regular, oval 
features. This description at once separates them from the low-sized, 
round-headed, oblique-eyed, lank-haired, short-nosed, yellow Mongoloid 
Malays, and seems to affiliate them, on the one hand, to the large, brown, 
eastern Polynesians, on the other, to the swarthy or fair and regular- 
featured western Caucasic peoples. To account for these resemblances it is 
only necessary to assume a remote migration of the Caucasic race to south- 
eastern Asia, of which evidences are not lacking in Camboja and else- 
where, and a further onward movement, first south to the archipelago, and 
thence east to the Pacific. The problem is fully discussed in A. H. 
Keane's Relations of the Indo-Chinese and Inter-Oceanic Races and 

Negritoes.— The Negritoes, that is, in Spanish, " Little Negroes," 
are now confined mainly to the Philippines, and even here survive 
only in the five large islands of Luzon, Mindoro, Panay, Negros, 
and Mindano, numbering altogether probably not more than 20,000 
souls. They are collectively known by the name of Afta, or Ita, 
which in Tagala means " black," answering to the Malay HStam. 
Their affinities are with the Samangs of the Malay Peninsula, the 
Andamanese Islanders, the Karons of New Guinea, and the Badui 
and Kalangs of Java, with whom they have in common a dwarfish 
stature, seldom exceeding four feet six or seven inches, a brachy- 
cephalic or round skull, very short frizzly or woolly hair, said to 
grow in separate tufts (?), short nose, thickish lips, and generally a 
somewhat infantile Negroid expression. Further exploration may 
reveal the existence of true Negrito tribes in Celebes, Jilolo, Timor, 
and Borneo, although it now appears that none survive in Formosa, 
where their presence had long been suspected. De Quatrefages finds 
traces of a Negrito element in Southern India, on the slopes of the 
Himalayas, and as far west as Sistan on the Perso- Afghan frontier. 

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But in any case their survival at such widely separated points as the 
Adamans, the Philippines, and New Guinea seems to justify the 
commonly-received opinion that they are the scattered fragments of 
an aboriginal dwarfish Negro race, formerly diffused over the Eastern 
Archipelago and adjacent Asiatic seaboard. Before the total sub- 
sidence of the Lemurian continent, their range may have even 
extended to Africa, where dwarfish Negroid peoples, such as the 
Akkas, Obongos, and Bushmen also still represent the disjecta 
membra of a primitive black pigmy element at one time spread over 
a great part of the African mainland. 

Characteristic of the Aetas, as of all Negrito peoples, is an extremely 
low stage of culture, which has never advanced beyond the hunting and 
fishing state. They have no fixed abodes, or any dwellings beyond frail 
structures of branches and brushwood ; their weapons are the bow and 
poisoned arrow ; their food the products of the chase, roots, berries, and 
vermin ; their costume necklets and armlets of beads and shells. Where 
unaffected by Malay influences, their speech appears to be extremely rude 
aud undeveloped, broken into as many mutually unintelligible dialects as 
there are tribes, and incapable of expressing any abstract idets. But the 
only Negrito language of which we have any adequate knowledge is the 
Andamanese, which nas been carefully studied by Mr. Man. Religious 
notions are restricted to a dread of the surrounding spirits, which are 
endowed with human faculties, though more powerful than ordinary 
mortals. They lurk in the recesses of the hills, ana flit about in the gloomy 
forests, shaking the ground when angry, causing volcanic outbursts, anil 
bringing down the lightning from heaven. Of an after life there is no 
thought, of the past no knowledge, all care being absorbed in the imme- 
diate present. 

The Papuans. — The parallelism above suggested between the 
African and Oceanic Negritoes applies with even greater force to the 
African and Oceanic Negroes. The latter, familiarly known as 
Papuans, from the Malay papmoah = frizzled, in reference to their 
characteristic " mop-heads," are essentially a negro race, whose diffu- 
sion eastwards to the Pacific can also be best explained by the theory 
of a Lemurian continent, or at least a chain of Lemurian islands 
stretching across the Indian Ocean down to late tertiary times. The 
disappearance of these lands, except at the two extremities, Madagascar 
and Celebes, necessarily broke up the Negro family into two great 
sections, and the separation took place at a sufficiently remote epoch 
to account for the comparatively slight subsequent divergence of the 
Western and Eastern types. This is perceptible chiefly in the nose 
and mouth, which in the African have mostly retained the primitive 
negro characteristics, but in the Papuan have become somewhat more 
shapely and more conformable to a higher standard of physical 

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beauty. The Papuan nose is long, regular, arched or aquiline rather 
than concave, and tipped downward at the base rather than upturned. 
The nostrils also are narrower, the lips thinner and less protruding 
than those of the African Negro. In most other respects the types 
are similar, the Papuan having, like his Western congener, a long 
head, woolly hair, medium stature, or rather above the average, con- 
siderable muscular vigour, a light, cheerful disposition, and also 
unfortunately a decided taste for human flesh. 

The present Papuan domain stretches across sixty degrees of the merid- 
ian (120°— 180° E.), from the island of Flores (Sunda group) to the Fijian 
Archipelago, and lies mostly between the equator and the Tropic of Capri- 
corn. It thus comprises most of the islands east of Celebes, New Guinea, 
with all the adjacent groups (Key, Aru, Waigeou), the Louisiade Isles, 
New Britain, New Zealand, and the whole of Melanesia (Solomon, New 
Hebrides, New Caledonia, Loyalty, and Fiji Islands). In the Eastern 
Archipelago the dark populations between Florea and New Guinea are 
seldom of a pure Papuan type, almost everywhere betraying evidences of 
intermixture with the surrounding Malayan and Indonesian peoples. 
Hence they are called "Negro-Malays" by Crawfurd, who, however, 
unnecessarily regards them, not as the outcome of a fusion of these two 
elements, but as a separate race distinct from both. To them many writers 
apply the term " Alfuro," which is written in a variety of ways (Arfuro, 
Arafura, whence the Arafura Sea, &c), but which has no real ethnological 
significance at all. In the mouth of a Malay " Alfuro "means simply 
wild, uncivilised, pagan, hence is indiscriminately applied to all unsettled, 
non-Mohammedan tribes at a lower stage of culture than the ordinary 
Mh lay an standard irrespective altogether of racial differences. The Galelas, 
for instance, of Jilolo, are " Alfuros," although, so far from being dark, 
they are a distinctly fair people of almost Caucasic type. 

In the Papuan islands are current a very large number of languages, 
many of whicn also afford clear proof of Malayan influences. The numer- 
als and words connected with trade, the arts, and industries are mostly of 
Malay origin. But the substratum is certainly distinct, as shown in the 
harsher phonetic system, the totally different structure, and the large 
number of independent terms expressing simple primitive ideas. The 
Malayo-Polynesian tongues certainly stretch from Madagascar across the 
two oceans eastward to Easter Island, and are spoken not only by most of the 
Indonesians in the Eastern Archipelago, but also by nearly all the Melan- 
esians, or Papuans, of the Pacific. But it is not to be supposed, with Mr. 
Codrington, that, excluding Australia and the Negritoes, there are no 
other stock languages in this vast watery domain. The exploration of New 
Guinea and Borneo, scarcely yet seriously begun, will probably bring to 
light many fundamental forms of speech, and enough is known of the idioms 
current amongst the Papuan natives of Timor, Aru, Mysol, Nufor (Geel- 
wink Bay) to show that several languages radically distinct from Malayo- 
Polynesian still survive in the Eastern Archipelago. 

The Papuan populations have been carefully studied in recent times, 
especially by Wallace, A. B. Meyer, H. 0. Forbes, and Miklukho-Maclay. 
From the varying and occasionally even contradictory statements of these 
and other observers it is evident that, with a certain general uniformity of 

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physical type and mental qualities, there prevails a considerable diversity 
in the appearance, social usages, and general culture of the various brandies 
of this race. Such discrepancies are to be attributed partly to the wide 
range occupied by them, but much more to the influence of the Malays, 
Polynesians, and other peoples with whom they have been in contact from 
the remotest times, especially on the smaller islands and around the sea- 
board of New Guinea. Thus it happens that while some are described as 
fairly intelligent, skilled husbandmen, endowed with some artistic taste 
shown especially in their curious wood-carvings, and altogether enjoying a 
considerable degree of culture, others appear to be very little or not at 
all removed from the purely savage state, land and sea nomads living 
entirely on the products of the chase, or on captives taken in the tribal 
wars, without fixed habitations, and ignorant of tne most rudimentary arts. 
Miklnkho-Maclay resided some time a few years ago amongst some com- 
munities on the north-west coast of New Guinea, who had no knowledge 
of the metals, all their implements being made of stone, bones, and wood. 
They did not even know how to make fire, so that when extinguished in a 
hut it had to be brought from another, or from a neighbouring village if 
extinguished in all the huts of the tribe at once. Their grandfathers told 
them of a time when they had no fire, and ate their food cjuite raw. They 
do not bury their dead, but place them in a sitting position covered with 
leaves of the cocoa-palm, the wife keeping a fire close to the corpse for two 
or three weeks till it is quite dried. 

But apart from extremes, Wallace's classical description of the average 
Papuan may be accepted as fairly accurate. " The moral characteristics 
of the Papuan appear to separate him as distinctly from the Malay as do 
his form and features. He is impulsive and demonstrative in speech and 
action. His emotions and passions express themselves in snouts and 
laughter, in yells and frantic leapings. Women and children take their 
share in every discussion, and seem little alarmed at the sight of strangers 
and Europeans. Of the intellect of this race it is very difficult to judge, 
but I am inclined to rate it somewhat higher than that of the Malays, 
notwithstanding the fact that the Papuans have never yet made any 
advance towards civilisation. The Papuan has much more vital energy, 
which would certainly greatly assist his intellectual development. Papuan 
slaves show no inferiority of intellect compared with Malays, but rather 
the contrary, and in the Moluccas they are often promoted to places of 
considerable trust. The Papuan has greater feeling for art than the Malay. 
He decorates his canoe, his house, and almost every domestic utensil with 
elaborate carvings, a habit which is rarely found among tribes of the Malay 
race. " — Malay Archipelago, ch. xl. Forbes also speaks of the high artistic 
ability of the Timor-laut Papuans, "very deft-fingered and clever carvers 
of wood and ivory. The figure-heads of their outrigger praus, dug out of 
single trees, especially attract attention by the excellence of the workman- 
ship, carefully and patiently executed, and the elegance of their furnish- 
ings ; while the whole length of their houses are also most elaborately 
carved with intricate patterns and representations of crocodiles and other 
animals. Their appreciation of beauty is a characteristic of them, which, 
absolutely wanting in the Malay people, I was surprised to find among a 
less advanced race.' — A Naturalist's Wanderings, p. 317. 

Of foreign nations by far the most numerous and socially influen- 
tial are the Chinese, who are numerous especially in Sumatra, Java, 

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Borneo, and the Philippines. They find employment as miners and 
cultivators in Borneo, as petty dealers and labourers in all the large 
coast towns, and as traders and seafarers almost everywhere. But 
although a large share of the general commercial movement is in 
their hands, and although their relations with the archipelago are of 
long standing, they appear to have formed very few settled commu- 
nities of a permanent character beyond Singapore and the Malay 
Peninsula. Even where alliances of a more or less temporary 
nature are formed with the native women, their chief ambition is 
to make enough money to retire and spend their remaining years 
amongst their friends at home. Even when these hopes are thwarted 
by the incurable national vice of gambling, they still endeavour to 
leave sufficient to have their bodies brought back for burial in their 
native land. Hence the fears at one time entertained that the archi- 
pelago might become an Oceanic China are not likely to be realised. 

Next in importance are the Klinos (Telingas) from the Madras Presi- 
dency, whose position in the archipelago is somewhat analogous but less 
commanding than that of the Banians of Bombay in Zanzibar and the other 
trading places round the shores of the Indian Ocean. Some Arab com- 
munities are also found at various points, as in the Sulu Islands, where 
M. Montano came across a small group of nearly pure Arabs, but so 
long settled in the country that they had lost all memory of their distant 
homes. — La Nature, Apnl, 1880. The Europeans, political masters of the 
whole region, are nowhere numerous, and nowhere form permanent settle- 
ments in these tropical lands. They belong almost exclusively to the 
official and military classes, and, like the Chinese, hasten to quit the 
country as soon as they become entitled to retiring pensions. 



Politically the whole of the Eastern Archipelago is distributed 
amongst the five European States of Holland, Spain, Great Britain, 
Germany, and Portugal. Some districts, such as parts of North 
Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, and New Guinea, are no doubt practically 
beyond the control of any foreign power ; but their autonomy is 
scarcely anywhere recognised, so that for administrative purposes 
the archipelago must be regarded as a dependency of Europe. The 

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distribution, however, is effected in an extremely irregular manner, 
for while Portugal claims only a section of the comparatively unim- 
portant island of Timor, the preponderance of Holland is so great, 
that the expression " Dutch East Indies " might almost be applied to 
the whole region in the same way that " British India " is understood 
to comprise the whole of the Indian Peninsula. On the other hand, 
the political arrangement so completely over-rides all natural or 
physical considerations, that it cannot be attended to in any intelli- 
gible description of this insular world. To do so, Borneo and Timor, 
for instance, would have to be treated under two, and New Guinea 
under no less than three separate heads. Hence in the subjoined 
detailed account of the archipelago the three geographical divisions — 
Asiatic, Australian, and Oceanic, as explained in chapter I., will be 
adhered to, political interests being consulted by the full tabulated 
statements of the several European possessions, which will be found 
in the statistical tables. In supplement to these tables it may here 
be stated, in a general way, that to Spain belong exclusively and 
solely the Philippine and &ulu groups ; to England the northern 
section of Borneo, the islet of Labuan off the North Bornean Coast, 
Keeling Islands, and the south-eastern section of Ne%0 Guinea east of 
the 141° E. longitude ; to Germany the north-eastern section of New 
Guinea east of the same meridian; to Portugal the eastern and 
smaller section of Timor; to Holland all the rest. The relative extent 
and population of these possessions are as under : — 

Area in Sq. Miles. Population. 

740,000 30,000,000 

115,000 7,000,000 

113,000 1,060,000 

70,000 H0,000 

6,000 300,000 

Dutch . 

Total 1,044,000 Total 38,470,000 


The Large Sunda Group, urith Bali and islands adjacent to Sumatra 
— The Philippine and Sidu Archipelagoes. 

This division, comprising considerably more than half of the 
Eastern Archipelago, or about 570,000 square miles, lies mainly in 
shallow waters, seldom exceeding 100 fathoms, except towards the 
north-east. Here a deep trough in the China Sea, combined with 

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other indications, shows that the Philippines were detached from the 
Asiatic mainland at a much more remote geological epoch than the 
large Sunda group, that is, the great islands of Borneo, Sumatra, and 
Java. The shores of these insular masses facing the Malay Penin- 
sula and Indo-China are elsewhere washed by shallow inland seas, 
which were probably dry land so recently as early pleistocene times. 
But on the opposite sides great depths are soon reached, so that the 
original Asiatic coastline is indicated by the chain of the Nias and 
Mentawey islands running parallel with the west coast of Sumatra, 
and thence by a line drawn within twenty miles of the South Javan- 
ese and East Bornean seaboards. All the lands enclosed by this 
curved line rest upon a submarine plateau with a mean depth of 
little over thirty fathoms, so that a slight upheaval of about 200 feet 
would suffice again to connect them with the mainland, to which 
their geological and biological features also show that they originally 



Borneo, the most central and next to New Guinea the largest 
island in the Eastern Archipelago, has no general native designation, 
although by the Malays sometimes called Tanah or Pulau KeU- 
mantan, "Land or Island of the Mango." The name by which it 
has been known to Europeans since its discovery is merely a corrupt 
form of Briitiei (Br&nai, Brftni), capital of a still existing Malay 
State on the north-west coast, which was the first place visited by 
the Magellan expedition inl521. It is nearly bisected by the equator, 
lying between 7° N. and 4° S. lat., 109°— 119° E. long., with the China 
Sea to the north and west, Macassar Strait to the east, and the Java 
Sea on the south. Its greatest length, 690 miles, is almost exactly 
indicated by the 115th meridian running from Point Sampan-Mangio 
at Marudu Bay southwards to Tanjong Selatan near the Banjer 
River in the Banjer-Massin Residency. Its greatest breadth, 605 
miles, lies in lat. 1° N. between the mouth of the Sambas river below 
Sarawak and Point Kanyungan in Macassar Strait. It presents a 
somewhat massive quadrangular form unlike that of any other large 
island in the world, with a total area of 263,000 square miles as 
measured on Brinkman's large map of 1879, but by other authorities 
estimated as high as 290,000 and even 300,000 square miles. The 
estimates of the population, based largely on mere conjecture, present 
still greater discrepancies, varying from about 1,750,000 to 2,50D,00O 
and upwards. 

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With a somewhat irregular coast-line of over 2000 miles, but less 
indented than that of most other large islands in the archipelago, 
Borneo offers few spacious bays or deep-water havens, except in the 
north, where the seaboard is higher and more abrupt. Elsewhere 
the shores are mostly fringed by a broad margin of low-lying and 
marshy lands from 30 to 50 miles wide, mainly of recent alluvial 
formation. New land, as in Landak on the west side, is known to 
have been gained from the sea during the last four hundred years, 
and the coast-line appears from other signs to be extending seawards. 

The generally uniform outlines are relieved chiefly by Datu 
Bight on the west ; Brunei and Marudu Bays with Kudat harbour 
on the north ; Paitan, Labuk, and Darvel Bays with Sandakan 
harbour in the extreme north-west ; Adang, Pamukan, and Klum- 
pang Bays on the east, and Sampit Bay on the south coast. The 
most conspicuous headlands are Capes Datu, Sirak, and Baram on 
the east side ; Sampan-Mangio and Unsang on the north ; Kan- 
yungan on the east ; Sungei-Bharu, Malang-Layer, Flat Point, and 
Samba on the south. 

There are few important islands on the Bornean seaboard, those 
which formerly existed having apparently been joined to the main- 
land by the process of upheaval, or creation of new alluvial land now 
going on. The largest are Pulau Laut, close to the south-east coast ; 
Caramata, which gives its name to the channel between the south- 
west coast and Billiton ; the Tambilan and Natuna groups far to sea- 
ward of the west coast ; Banguey (Banggi) and Balambangan, ten 
miles from the northern extremity of Borneo. Some historic interest 
attaches to Balambangan, where the East India Company made its 
earliest settlement in these waters in 1763, over twenty years before 
the occupation of Pinang. Since the recent creation of British North 
Borneo, Balambangan has again become British territory. 

Of the interior of Borneo a large part stiU remains to be explored, 
so that of its general configuration little is known beyond the more 
salient features. The mountain system seems to be so disposed that, 
were the land submerged a few hundred feet, it would present some- 
what the same curious outlines as the more westerly islands of Celebes 
and Jilolo. From a central nucleus lying much nearer the west than 
the east coast there radiate north, east, and south four main ranges, 
enclosing three broad plains, or slightly elevated tablelands, corre- 
sponding to the three great marine inlets on the east side of Celebes. 

Under the various names of Kelingkang (Bayang-Miut), Madi, 
and Anga-Anga, the largest and loftiest of these ranges traverses 


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130 ' 


Borneo from Cape Datu on the west coast to Mount Kina Balu 
(13,698 feet?) in the extreme north-east, which is usually supposed to 
be the culminating point of the whole island. But Carl Bock heard 
from the Kutei Dyaks of a great central chain called the Tibang, 
which is the common source of the Kapuas, Mahakkam, and other 
great rivers, and which may contain peaks higher even than Kina 
Balu. This explorer also heard of a Mount Tepu-Purau, "so high 
that it is said to be within a trifle of reaching heaven, " — Head- 
Hunters of Borneo, p. 176. 

From the central nucleus diverge other ranges, such as Eaminting 
southwards, Sakuru and Meratu towards the south-east, enclosing 
wide lowland plains and in some parts rising to a height of 6000 
feet. The prevailing rocks are limestone, slate, sandstone conglom- 
erates, and on the mountain tops syenitic granite. Of active volca- 
noes there is no trace, although the southern and western coasts are 
little over 200 miles distant from the great volcanic belt passing 
through Sumatra and Java. Many of the Bornean peaks, however, 
bear distinct evidence of former igneous activity, and some of the 
cones appear to have been regular craters in remote geological times. 
They were probably active during the paleozoic and early mesozoic 
periods, to which Mr. Tenison- Woods refers the vast coal measures 
forming a leading geological feature of the island. 

" There are few countries in the world," says this naturalist, "except, 
perhaps, Eastern Australia, where coal is so extensively developed as in 
Borneo. Thick seams crop out in innumerable places on the coast and on 
the banks of the rivers. In some of the streams of North Borneo I have 
seen water-worn and rounded fragments of coal forming the entire shingle 
of the channel. In some places, again, there are outcrops with seams of 
good coal twenty-six feet thick. The coal-formation is the one prevail- 
ing rock of the coast. It forms the principal outcrop at Sarawak ; at 
Labuan, also, no other rock can be seen. All the grand scenery of the 
entrance to the port of Gaya is made up of escarpment of coal rocks. At 
Kirdat it is the same, and* so I might go on with a long list of coal-bear- 
ing localities." — Nature, April 23, 1885. In many places the coal is of 
excellent quality, quite bituminous and not brittle, and the mines now 
being worked by two Scotchmen in the Brunei district are of great value. 

Other mineral products are gold, occurring especially in the west (Sara- 
wak, Sambas, and Pontiftnak), antimony found in great abundance in 
Sai&wak, mercury and iron, the latter in Kutei and elsewhere ; lastly, 
diamonds in Sarawak, Pontianak, Landak, and Martapfira. Borneo is the 
only island of the archipelago which has yielded these crystals, the largest 
in the world being one of 367 carats, if it be a genuine diamond, belonging 
to the Rajah of Matan. The doubt which rests on this famous stone is due 
to the fact that its owner will not have it cut, and refuses to submit it to 
the examination of experts. It was found about the year 1787 in the 

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Landak mines near the west coast, which are amongst the oldest and most 
productive in the world. 

Rivers. — Borneo is abundantly supplied with rivers, which may 
be disposed in five main fluvial basins. Of these the least extensive 
comprises the north-western slope of the Kelingkang range, draining 
the Brunei and Sarawak districts through the Tewaran and Tampa- 
suk rivers, having their sources in Kina Balu ; the Limbang (Bru- 
nei), Baram, Bintulu, Rejang (navigable for 140 miles), Seribas, 
Batang-Lupar, and Sarawak. But by far the largest rivers are 
those of the south-western basin, where the Kapuas, rising in 114° 
E. long., reaches the coast between Mempawa and Sukadana, and the 
Bartto (Banjer-Masin), the great fluvial artery of the island, flows for 
hundreds of miles nearly due south to the Java Sea in 114° E. long, 
over against Madura. Both of these streams appear to have a com- 
mon source near the unexplored Lake Ku.tei-Lama. 

Next in importance is the Kutei, or Mahakkam, which rises in 
Mount Lasan-Tula, and flows with a rapid course mainly eastwards 
to Macassar Strait, which it enters through several mouths. Ita 
delta, projecting considerably seawards, and embracing 50 miles of 
coast, presents great difficulties to navigation, although the main 
channel is accessible as far as Mura Pahou (116° E. long.) for steamers 
drawing 10 feet of water. According to Carl Bock, the Mahakkam 
has a total length of not less than 600 miles. North of the Kutei 
basin is that of the Bulangari, which has also an easterly course, with 
a delta in the Celebes Sea at the entrance of Macassar Strait. Besides 
these there are hundreds of smaller streams reaching the coast in 
independent channels, but mostly inaccessible to vessels of heavy 

Lakes. — No large lakes, strictly so-called, are known to exist in 
Borneo, those spoken of by travellers being rather temporary lagoons, 
or expansions of the rivers in the low-lying or level plains. Even 
the existence of the much-disputed Lake Balu, south-east of Kina 
Balu, has recently been disproved. Mention, however, is made of a 
Lake Danau-Malayu, in 1° 5' N. lat., 114° 20' E. long., said to be 
over 20 miles long, and 10 or 12 broad, with a depth of 18 feet. 

The formation of the Bornean lakes, or "danaus," as they are called 
by the natives, is thus described by Dr. Schwaner : 

11 By danau is to be understood an inland sheet of water in the deepest 
pirt of a marshy district in the immediate vicinity of rivers. Their mode 
of formation often resembles that of the canals, such as those ot the 
Martapura, and other Bornean streams, which are used for shortening the 
water route, and sometimes dug by hand, but mostly formed by the rush 

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of water during the floods. Channels thus fo med eventually expand to a 
danau, the water at every flood flowing in and enlarging its margins. The 
lakes have no determined shores, the ground sinking imperceptibly to its 
greatest depth, while the constant shifting of the land surface causes a 
corresponding expansion or contraction of the lacustrine area" (Borneo). 
Some of the Mahakkam lagoons are over 15 miles in length, and figure on 
our maps as true lakes of old geological formation. 

Climate. — The rainfall is remarkably heavy in most parts of 
Borneo, but especially in the north-west, where it averages 180 inches 
at Sarawak. The climate, however, owing to the influence of the 
sea breezes, is milder and healthier than in most other islands of the 
archipelago, although Bock found it very insalubrious in some parts 
of the interior, where hot land-winds probably prevail. The west 
coast has no really dry season, being refreshed by heavy and con- 
tinuous rain throughout the year, and especially from December to 
March. The mean reading of the thermometer is 82° F. at Pontianak, 
where it never exceeds 92°. But in North Borneo, Guillemard 
recorded 95°, and found the heat in the Sigaliud valley " almost as 
trying as that of New Guinea or West Africa." (Cruise of the Marchesa, 
ii. p. 95.) 

Flora and Fauna. — Except in some alluvial districts, the soil 
of Borneo appears to be less fertile than that of the volcanic islands. 
Much of the surface is still covered with a primeval forest growth, 
including not only the gigantic timber, such as ebony, ironwood, 
sandalwood, &c, which the poorest soil will produce in equatorial 
regions, but many of the most useful tropical species, such as benzoin, 
camphor, gutta, the sago-palm, and the rattan. The latter thrives 
especially in the south-west, the rattan of Banger-Masin having a 
higher value than that of any other country in Malaya. The chief 
cultivated plants are rice, maize, cotton, opium, pepper, yams, and 
indigo. The mangosteen, durian, and many other delicious fruits 

The most remarkable feature in the zoology of Borneo is the absence or 
rarity of many large animals found in the adjacent islands. Thus the 
tiger and leopard of Java and Sumatra are unknown, their place being 
supplied by a smaller species, the Felis Afacroscelis. Scarcely less remark- 
able is the absence both of the elephant and rhinoceros from by far the 
greater part of the country. Of large animals, the most interesting are 
the orang-outan (next to the gorilla the largest anthropoid ape), the wild 
cattle, and the proboscis monkey. Deer, wild swine, and squirrels ar; 
everywhere abundant. Other characteristic mammals, not, however, 
peculiar to Borneo, are the honey-bear (Ursus Malayanus), the binturong, 
intermediate between the civet and bear, the tiger-cat (Felis planiccps), 
the Kubury, or flying lemur ( TaleopUhecus volans), the curious aaat, or 
gobang (Mydans meliceps), a kind of badger with a pig's snout, and the 

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scaly ant-eater (Manis javanica, or tangiling of the Malays), which rolls 
up like a hedge-hog. In its birds Borneo agrees very closely with Sumatra, 
the peacock being absent, while the argus and fire-backed pheasant abound. 

Inhabitants. — Of the inhabitants of Borneo probably one half, 
or about a million, belong to the aboriginal stock collectively known 
as Dyaks, and usually regarded as a branch of the Malay race. But 
many are of such fair complexion and regular features that they 
should perhaps be grouped rather with the Indonesian family. They 
are divided into a vast number of tribes, speaking more or less 
distinct languages, mostly of the Malayo- Polynesian type ; but they 
differ greatly from the Malays in other respects, being much more 
lively and active, and of a more trusting disposition, while many 
"have, notwithstanding their high cheek-bones and broad noses, a 
type of face which is quite in accordance with European ideas of 
beauty." — C. Bock. The Dyaks of Long Wai, Long Wahou, and 
many parts of Kfttei are above the average height, while the Kayans 
of the interior, about the headwaters of the Rejang and Bintulu and 
elsewhere, present peculiarities distinguishing them both from the 
Malays and ordinary Dyaks. They are supposed to be an intruding 
race, which came originally from Celebes, and penetrated from the 
east coast far into the interior. Although considered one of the most 
advanced of uncivilised races, they are addicted to head-hunting, 
which, however, is prevalent amongst most of the native tribes. 
Apart from this propensity, the Dyaks are described as very honest, 
respectful, and kind to their women, fond of their children, and of 
temperate habits. But some of the tribes in Kutei and elsewhere 
are decided cannibals, and at Muera Pahau Carl Bock made the 
acquaintance of Sibau Mobang, chief of a man-eating community, 
who had slaughtered and devoured as many as seventy victims. 
He stated, however, that his people did not eat human meat every 
day, that being a feast reserved for head-hunting expeditions. At 
other times their food consisted of the flesh of various animals and 
birds, rice and wild fruits, to which the ordinary Dyak adds fish and 

Owing to its universality and intimate association with religious rites, 
head-hunting is the most distinctive feature, as well as the plague-spot of 
Dyak society. Births and " namings," marriages and burials, besides many 
less important events, are all accompanied by marauding expeditions to 
some neighbouring tribe for the purpose of securing a few heads to add 
solemnity to the festivity. Hence, in the more inaccessible districts of 
the interior, the practice has full sway, and is regarded as a chief cause of 
the steady diminution of the population. No youth can be married, or 
associate with the opposite sex, until he has taken part in one or more 

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head-hunting expeditions, and the more heads he can lay at the feet of his 
beloved, the more he is admired by her and feared by his fellows. The 
practice is not confined to Borneo, or even to the neighbouring islands, 
but has flourished from remote times among many of the wild tribes in 
Further India, and so far attests the continental origin of the " fair " races 
in the archipelago. 

Besides the Malays, who are restricted to a few centres near the coast, 
several other peoples have settled in Borneo, which, from its central posi- 
tion, has naturally been made a resort for all the surrounding lands That 
the Javanese formerly made regular settlements in the south is shown by 
monuments still existing as far north as the Kfttei Valley. The Bugis of 
Celebes have long maintained considerable settlements in the southern and 
eastern districts. Further north are some communities from the Sulu 
Archipelago, who formerly held a considerable tract of country about Cape 
Unsang, and whose sultan till recently claimed jurisdiction over that part 
of the island. 

But the most important intruders are the Chinese, who are found 
in every centre of population as traders, miners, mechanics, or 
agriculturists. They are most numerous in the western districts, 
where gold and diamonds are found, and there are said to be nearly 
350,000 in the Dutch territories alone. The trade of Pontianak, 
Banjer-Masin, Sarawak, North Borneo, and Labuan is to a great 
extent in their hands. But from old records of travel, the north- 
eastern districts would seem at one time to have been even more 
permanently occupied by the Chinese than at present. 

Political Divisions. — Politically Borneo is distributed in very 
unequal proportions amongst the Dutch, British, and a few protected 
native states as under: — 

Dutch Possessions in Borneo. 

The Dutch claim sovereignty over the greater part of the island, 
including the whole region south of a line drawn from Sarawak 
north-eastwards to the source of the Sibuko river, about 4° N. lat, 
and thence eastwards to the coast a little above that parallel. Their 
possessions are divided administratively into the three residentships, 
of Pontianak, Banjer-Masin, and the semi-independent State of 
Kutei, with the usual system of residental government over the coast 
districts of the west and south. But probably not more than one- 
fifth of this region is under their direct control, a great part of the 
interior being unoccupied and even unexplored. 

Pontianak. — In this residency are comprised the western dis- 
tricts of Sambas, Montrado, Sintang, and Pontianak proper. The 
town of Pontidnak, which lies on the west coast under the equator, is 

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the oldest trading settlement in Borneo ; but the district still remains 
under the nominal rule of a native sultan. Tin, gold, and diamonds 
are obtained from the numerous mines of this district worked by the 
Chinese. Sintang on the Upper Kapuas river is the seat of an 
assistant-resident, whose jurisdiction extends over the numerous 
Dyak tribes of the interior. 

Banjer-Masin.— This is by far the largest residency, including 
the greater part of Borneo south of the equator, the Kwun country, 
and the sub-residencies of Amuntai and Martapura, with a total 
population of about 600,000, mostly Dyaks. The capital, Banjer- 
Masin, lies some fifteen miles up the estuary of the Barito river, 
which is occupied by Dutch forts for 200 miles as far as Lutontur, 
at the Teweh confluence near the equator. Thus the whole of the 
extensive Barito basin is securely held, although in many places the 
direct authority of the Dutch extends very little beyond the range of 
the strategical stations. In the interior, the most important trading 
place is Bakowpai, one of these stations about sixty miles up the 
Barito at the confluence of the Nagara, its great atlluent from the 
north-east. Here are collected most of the timber, gold-dust, gutta, 
resin, wax, edible birds'-nests, rattans, damar, and other local pro- 
duce forwarded for export through Banjer-Masin. To the latter 
place the neighbouring district of Martapura also sends its diamonds, 
the chief commodities received in exchange being European wares, 
such as coloured prints, cotton cloths, beads, and copper wire, 
besides tobacco, opium, salt, gambier, and Chinese earthenware. 
Although not so populous as Pontianak, Banjer-Masin is at present 
the largest, as well as one of the oldest trading ports in Borneo. On 
the south coast the chief seaport is Tabunian, not far from the 

Kutei, or Coti, the eastern residency, comprises the extensive 
fluvial basin of the Kutei (Mahakkam) river, with a total area of 
little less than 40,000 square miles. There is an assistant-resident 
at the Bugis settlement of Tengdrong, thirty miles up the main 
stream, and the whole east coast from Sebamban in Tanah Bumbu 
to Kanyungan in 1° 3* N. Jat. is directly under the Dutch Govern- 
ment. Nevertheless, the native Malay sultan, Mohammed Solim&n 
Kalifat ul Mumenin, who resides at Tengarong, still exercises the 
royal functions, and even possesses autocratic jurisdiction over his 
Mohammedan and Dyak subjects. While recognising the Dutch 
suzerainty, he keeps his own court, surrounds himself with various 
functionaries, levies taxes, and even inflicts capital punishment in a 

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somewhat summary manner on his unruly subjects. Owing to 
personal antipathy to the Chinese, he encourages immigration of the 
enterprising Bugis from South Celebes, who are slowly developing 
the resources of the country. Along the low and swampy east coast 
there are no natural havens, so that Samerinda and Tengarong, the 
only trading places of any importance in the Kutei residency, are 
both situated somewhat inland above the Mahakkam delta. 

British Settlements in Borneo. 

Sarawak. — This territory, which now extends 400 miles east and 
west from Mount Mulu (9000 ft.) to Mount Poi (6000) with a mean 
breadth inland of nearly 100 miles, has a total area of some 45,000 
square miles, with a mixed population of 300,000 Dyaks, Dusuns, 
Malays, Chinese, and others. It lies on the north-west coast, and is 
watered by the Rejang, Baram, Batang-Lupar, and several other 
streams, some of which are navigable for a considerable distance 

The government of this territory, which has now lasted over fifty 
years, and seems firmly established, was acquired from the sultan of 
Brunei in 1841 by Sir James Brooke, better known as Rajah Brooke 
of Sarawak. In 18G1 a second cession of territory was obtained 
including all the rivers and land from the Samabaran river to 
Kadurong Point ; and in 1882 a third cession of 100 miles of coast- 
lands, with all the riverain tracts between Kadurong Point and the 
Baram, or rather three miles to the north-east of that river. The 
present rajah, H. H. Charles Johnson Brooke, who is a nephew of 
Sir James, succeeded in May 1868. 

The success of this undertaking was shown during the Chinese insurrec- 
tion in 1857, when the whole indigenous Dyak and Malay population 
rallied round the English Rajah, drove out the unruly miners, and 
triumphantly restored his power. By persevering in a liberal and 
enlightened policy, the rajah s government has brought peace and safety 
and comparative prosperity in the place of piracy, tribal warfare, and 

Kdching, the chief town, is a thriving place of some 20,000 inhabitants, 
with the "Astana," or rajah's palace, and the bishop's house, the 
ordinary residence of the Diocesan of Singapore, Labuan, and Sarawak. 
It lies about twenty- three miles up the Sarawak river, which has a bar 
like other streams, but is accessible to this point for small steamers. The 
trade is chiefly with Singapore, to which it exports gold, silver, diamonds, 
antimony, quicksilver, coal, gutta, india-rubber, canes and rattans, cam- 
phor, wax, Dirds'-nests, sago, tapioca, pepper, gambier, and other local 

The government of Sarawak may be termed constitutional, resembling 

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in its main features that of a crown colony. The rajah is the absolute 
head of the State, with full power of spontaneous and independent action, 
which, however, he rarely exercises, being usually advised on local matters 
by his Legislative Council of two Europeans and five Malay chiefs. A 
general triennial assembly of the principal native and European represent- 
atives of the several districts is held, and sometimes specially summoned 
on urgent occasions. Any important change in the law or modification of 
native custom would be referred to this General Council. 

The government of the various districts, outposts, and riverain forts is 
mainly entrusted to European Residents, aided by Assistant-Residents, 
native, Eurasian, or Chinese clerks. The European staff now numbers 
about twenty altogether. Although a mild system of slavery still exists, 
the general tendency of the government has been to gradually reduce it 
within the narrowest limits, with a view to its total abolition. In 1888, 
Sarawak was placed under British protection. 

British North Borneo. — Another remarkable experiment in the 
administration of uncivilised communities is exemplified in British 
North Borneo, or the territory of Sabah, lately acquired by a chartered 
trading company from the sultans of Brunei and Sulu. Origin- 
ally stretching from the Kimanis to the Sibuco river on the east 
coast, with a seaboard of about 500 miles, it has been subsequently 
extended towards Brunei, so as to include the river Padas, with 
an area of 31,000 square miles, and a mixed population of 200,000 
Dusuns (half-caste Chinese and natives), Dyaks, Bajaus, llanos, 
Buludupies, Sulus, Malays, and Chinese. Occupying the north- 
eastern corner of Borneo, between 4° and 7° N. lat, and 116° — 119° E. 
long., it is washed on three sides by the China and Celebes Seas, and 
bounded southwards by Brunei and Dutch territory; but only a 
comparatively small part of this extensive region has yet been 
settled, chiefly round Sandakan Bay on the east side. Here is the 
town of Sanddkan (Eloptira), present seat of government, other 
rising stations being Kudat on Marudu Bay ; Abai on Tampasuk 
Bay ; Papar, Kimdnis, and Oaya on the west coast. The last- 
mentioned gives its name to one of the finest natural harbours in the 
archipelago, said to comprise ten square miles of good anchorage in 
depths of from five to twenty fathoms. It is well sheltered from all 
winds, might be easily defended from attack, and occupies a con* 
venient commercial position near the trade route between Honkong 
and Singapore, about midway between those great seaports. But at 
present most of the export trade is centred in Sandakan Bay, which, 
though much shallower than Gaya, is even better sheltered, being for 
twenty miles almost completely landlocked. 

North Borneo enjoys a much cooler climate than most places so 
near the equator, the extreme summer heat rarely exceeding 85° F. 

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in the shade, while in the cool season the glass fails to 65". The country 
is well watered by the Segama, Kim&nis, Papar, Tampasuk, and many 
other streams, and its fertile soil yields good crops of rice, yams, sago, 
arrow-root, pepper, betel, and tobacco. Cacao, coffee, the cocoa, palmyra, 
and areca palms, are also cultivated, while the forests abound in 
ebony, camphor, bilian (ironwood), gutta-percha, india-rubber, rattans, 
and cinnamon. Although it is less rich in minerals than Sarawak, 
gold is reported to abound, especially in the Segama river basin, 
while coal appears to exist both on the east and west coasts. Traces 
of tin have also been discovered, and several extensive pearl fisheries 
are comprised within the company's boundaries. But at present the 
export trade is mainly restricted to camphor, ebony, rattans, sago, and 
edible birds'-nests. A powerful saw-mill is now at work at Elopura, 
which has become the company's chief trading place. It stands on 
a headland commanding the approach to Sandakan Bay. 

In connection with this promising enterprise will always be prominently 
associated the names of two persons — Baron Overbeck, to whom is due the 
first conception of the scheme, and Mr. Atfred Dent, who supplied the 
means of carrying it out. The Provisional Company was formed in 1877, 
and her Majesty's Charter was signed on November 1, 1881. Three prin- 
cipal establishments or residencies have already been organised, on the 
north-west coast, on the Papar and Tampasuk rivers, and at Sandakan 
Harbour on the east coast. The government is conducted by a governor, 
assisted by a council and by residents, the usual administration of a 
British Crown colony being adhered to as far as practicable. On May 12, 
1888, North Borneo was formally recognised as a British protectorate 
under a Governor, subject to the approval of the Secretary of State. 

Xabuan. — This island, which was purchased by the British 
government from the sultan of Brunei in 1847, lies six miles off the 
north-west coast of Borneo in 5° 16' N. lat., 115* 15' E. long. It is 
twelve miles long and five or six wide at its broadest part, with an 
area of a little over thirty square miles. The settlement was formed 
mainly on account of the rich coal deposits, which have nevertheless 
proved the ruin of three companies, and are now little worked. The 
output, however, rose from 6000 tons in 1876 to 8800 in 1889. 

Labium has a fine port, and has become a market for the produce of the 
neighbouring coasts of Borneo and the Sulu Archipelago, sucn as camphor, 
ffutta, india-rubber, wax, pearls, tortoise-shell, birds'-nests, and tupang, 
forwarded mainly to Singapore. To the same place is sent the sago-flour 
prepared at three factories in the island from the imported raw material. 

In 1889, Labuan was placed under the government of the British North 
Borneo Company. 

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Native Protectorate in British Borneo. 

BrUnei, which gives its name to the island, is probably the oldest 
and one of the few native States still enjoying a show of autonomy. 
It is a Malay principality on the north-west coast, bounded east and 
west by the British settlements of Sabah and Sarawak, and stretching 
from 100 to 160 miles inland, but with little authority beyond the 
coast. The natives are mostly Mohammedans, governed by a sultan, 
who is now under British protection, but who formerly ruled over 
the whole north-west coast from Sar&wak to beyond Marudu Biiy. 
On the east side his territory was limited by the district round Cape 
Unsang, over which the sultan of the Sulu Archipelago claimed 
jurisdiction. But this potentate is himself now a vassal of Spain, 
while the Bornean portion of his territory is incorporated in British 
North Borneo. The present sultan's father died in 1884, in his 
hundredth year. 

The largest and only important town in BrUnei is the capital of like 
name, which lies fourteen miles up the navigable river Limbang. Brunei, 
described by Sir James Brooke as " a Venice of hovels," was seized by the 
British in 1846, but soon after restored uuon the cession of Labuan. The 
population, more Malayan than that of other coast towns, was at that time 
stated to be 40,000, but had fallen in 1835 to some 25,000. 

The State of Brunei had become so disintegrated, that in 1888 its ruler 
was easily induced to surrender most of his royal prerogatives, and accept 
the position of a vassal under the English Crown. The whole of North 
Borneo from Cape Datu to and beyond Cape Unsang will doubtless be 
eventually consolidated into a single British possession, capable of indefinite 
expansion under an enlightened administration. Its position on the great 
highway of trade between India and China could not fail to secure a per- 
manent market for its abundant and varied natural resources. 

Historical Notes. 

The growth of European influence in Borneo has been less steady and 
more intermittent than was the case in the Straits or in Java. The island 
was first visited by Lorenzo de Gomez in 1518, and by Pigafetta with the 
ships of Magellan's expedition in 1521. Both named it Brunei from the 
sea-port on its north east coast, where they happened to touch, and this 
term, written by the Malays Bruni or Burni, assumed the form of Borneo 
amongst Europeans, by whom it was commonly applied to the whole island 
in the 17th century. The alternative Malay expression,Tanah Kelamantan, 
or " Mango Land," may perhaps be current especially in the Dutch terri- 
tory ; but the native tribes have never had any general name for the 
whole island. 

Commercial relations were soon formed with the natives by the Portu- 
guese, at first in Brunei itself, and then in the other maritime States. In 
1573 the Spaniards, recently established in Manila, endeavoured to open a 
connection with Brunei, whose sultan had sought their aid, and was rein- 
stated by them in 1580. But neither Spain nor Portugal ever exercised 

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much real influence in the island, and the only missionary effort recorded 
in the sixteenth century ceased with the death of its promoter, the 
Theatine monk, Antonio Vintimigli. 

Early in the seventeenth century the Dutch and English begin to appear 
on the scene, and in 1608 Samuel Blommaert was appointed Dutch resi- 
dent in Landak and Sukadana. The English, who first visited Borneo 
about 1609, had a factory at Banjer*Masin in 1706. But from this they 
were soon expelled, apparently by the influence of the Dutch, who shortly 
after obtained a monopoly of the trade. The Dutch power became pre- 
dominent round the west and south coast, when the rajah of Bantam had 
ceded his sovereign rights to their Company, and especially when the sultan 
of Banjer surrendered his territory about 1787. 

The attention of the English was iu the latter part of the eighteenth 
century turned towards North Borneo, then subject to the sultan of Sulu, 
from whom, in 1756, Alexander Dalrymple had obtained formal possession 
of Balambangan Island and all the north-eastern promontory. But the 
military post stationed here in 1763 was surprised and destroyed in 1775 
by dolus, or subordinate native chiefs dissatisfied with the cession of their 
territory. The Dutch also were overtaken by a series of misfortunes caused 
by their own mismanagement, and in 1809 all their settlements were aban- 
doned by order of Marshal Daedels. The natives along the coast now 
resorted more and more to piracy, rendering legitimate trade so impossible 
that the settlement which the English East India Company had again made 
at Balambangan in 1804 was abruptly abandoned within a few weeks. 
But in 1811 an embassy from the sultan of Banjer-Masin to the British 
Government then established in Java, secured the appointment of a com- 
mander and resident. An expedition was at the same time sent against 
Sambas, and a post established at Pontianak. 

On the restoration of the Dutch possessions in 1816 ail these arrange- 
ments were cancelled, and until 1842 a free and undisputed field was left 
to the enterprise of the Dutch Government. About half the kingdom o 
Banjer-Masin was ceded by the sultan in 1823, followed by further con- 
cessions in 1825. On the east coast also the sultan of Kutei acknowledged 
for a time the Dutch authority, but soon retracted, and has ever since 
maintained a semi-independent regal state. About 1830 the Dutch sipre- 
macy was generally repudiated, their troubles in Java having diverted their 
attention from Borneo. On the opening pf Singapore nearly all the Bngis 
trade, formerly centred in Amboyna, was diverted to the Straits, and 
direct relations established with Sarawak and Brunei. Then the neces- 
sity of suppressing piracy became so urgent that Mr. Brooke, aided by the 
British traders, at last succeeded in procuring the co-operation of English 
cruisers for that purpose. This led to political intervention, and in 1846-7 
Labuan was ceded by the sultan of Brunei, who also agreed to make no 
cmion of territory to any nation or individual without British consent. 
The Dutch, thus checked in the north, concentrated their attention on 
the development of their influence on the south and east coasts. In 1844 
the sultan of Kutei acknowledged their protectorate, and the area of their 
administration has since then steadily increased round the southern sea- 
board. At present they have a nominal suzerainty over two-thirds of the 
island, although scarcely one-tenth appears to be under their direct control 
or administrative influence. 

The establishment of an organised government by Sir James Brooke 
in Sarawak, followed by the recent occupation of North Borneo by a 

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chartered English trading company, secures the exclusive predominance of 
British influence throughout all the districts not actually claimed by 
Holland. Henceforth these two States will be held jointly responsible for 
the material development of Borneo, and the intellectual progress of its 
indigenous populations. 


Next in size to Borneo of the Great Sunda group, Sumatra 
stretches for 1070 miles north-west and south-east between 6° N. — 
6° S. lat, and 95°— 106° E. long. It is thus, like Borneo, nearly 
bisected by the equator, and with an average breadth of over *20O 
miles, has a total area of about 128,000 square miles, or 8000 more 
than that of Great Britain and Ireland together. Washed on the 
west by the Indian Ocean, it is separated on the north-east by 
Malacca Strait from the Malay Peninsula, and at its southern 
extremity by the Sunda Strait from Java, 

Islands. — Sumatra is fringed on both sides by numerous islands 
and insular groups, all of which appear to have originally formed 
part of the mainland. But while on the west Si Malu (Hog), Nias, 
Batu, North and South Pora (Mentawey), North and South Pagey 
(Nassau), and Engano clearly indicate the primitive Sumatran coast- 
line towards the Indian Ocean, on the east side Bintang, Lingga, 
Sinkep, Banca, and Biliton belong, on the contrary, to the Malay 
Peninsula, of which they form a geological extension southwards. 
But a slight upheaval of perhaps about 50 fathoms would suffice 
again to connect all these groups with Sumatra itself to the Asiatic 
Continent, of which they are merely detached fragments. 

Bintang and Lingga, with all the circumjacent islands and islets, form 
collectively the Dutch Residency of Riou-Lingga. They are mostly fertile, 
and carry on an active trade in pepper and timber through the chief town 
Riou, on an islet off the south coast of Bintang, the largest of the group. 
Here also resides the sultan of Riou, now a dependent of the Dutch 
Government. But of all the Sumatran islands, the largest and most 
important are Banca (180 miles Ion*;), separated by the strait of like name 
from the south-east coast, and Biliton, of circular form, 40 miles across, 
separated from Banca by Caspar Strait. Both of these islands, which 
resemble each other in fonnation, appearance, and inhabitants, form 
Dutch Residencies, and are noted for their rich tin mines, which have 
been worked for the Dutch Government chiefly by Chinese miners since 
1709, yielding about 10,000 tons of metal yearly. The great tin fonnation, 
which commences in Tenasserim, and extends almost uninterruptedly 
through the Malay Peninsula to Banca and Biliton, here comes to an end. 

In the extreme south-west, considerably beyond the geographical or 
natural limits of the Eastern Archipelago, lies the small but interesting 
coralline group of the Keeling or Cocoa Islands, now attached to the 

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Government of the Straits Settlements. When officially visited in August 
1885 by Mr. E. W. Birch, this group, memorable in connection with 
Darwin' 8 studies of atoll formations, was found to have already recovered 
from the efFects of the terrific cyclone of 1875. All the islands (over 20 
in number) are thickly planted with cocoa-nuts, and their Malay and 
Javanese inhabitants, 516 in 1885, do a brisk export trade in copra, cocoa- 
nuts, cocoa-nut oil, beche-de-mer, and menduku, a bark used for dyeing 

Physical Features.— In its physical constitution Sumatra has 
much in common both with the adjacent mainland and with Java, 
while also presenting some features of an independent character. 
Along its west side it is traversed by the Barisan mountain system, 
parallel with but much more elevated than the main axis of the 
Peninsula. Lying in the line of the great volcanic belt, this range 
contains recent eruptive rocks like those of Java, and older plutonic 
and crystalline formations like those of the mainland. But Sumatra 
differs from both of these regions in the vast development of its 
plains, which mostly stretch from the western uplands right across 
the island to the eastern seaboard. In its general configuration it 
thus appears to be cast in broad and simple lines, mountainous and 
volcanic in the west, elsewhere level, and even low-lying and alluvial. 
" One may travel in some parts in a straight line westwards from the 
east coast for 150 or 200 miles without reaching an elevation of over 
400 or 500 feet, while some 30 miles farther the Barisan peaks may 
ascend to over 10,000 feet"— H. O. Forbes, op. ctt. 

The culminating point appears to be Mount Kassoumba (15,000 feet ?), 
under the equator, other lofty summits being Indrapura (12,255) in 
Korinchi ; Luse (11,000) in Achin ; Abong-Abong (10,000) ; Telamon, or 
Ophir (9940) ; Salamanga (6,825). The volcanic cones are even more 
numerous than in Java, and the recent Dutch explorer, Verbeek, states 
that sixty-seven are known to exist, although two only (Merapi, 9640 
feet, and Talang or Soelau, 8470) are still active. Other lofty cones are 
Kaba (9000?) and Dempo, in Palembang, both ascended in 1881 by 
H. O. Forbes, who determined the elevation of Dempo at 10,562 feet. 
This traveller also visited the Besagi and Tengamus volcanoes in the 
Lampongs district, both over 7000 feet. Thus the volcanic area is not 
confined to a small tract north and south of the equator, as is supposed, 
but extends from the extreme north to the extreme south of the island. 

The great alluvial plain on the east side, lying not many feet 
above sea-level, and often extensively flooded, has a total length of 
600 miles, with an average breadth of 60 to 1 10, and an area of over 
40,000 square miles. But although this region is mostly under 
primeval forest, the eastern section of Sumatra is by no means of 
such uniform aspect as is generally supposed. The plains, table- 

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lands, and higher valleys, often of great extent, differ much in their 
natural features, some being forest-clad and extremely fertile, others 
arid and destitute of timber. Such especially is the already described 
Pertibi plain in the Batta country, the aridity of this and other tracts 
being no doubt due to the great elevation of the western highlands, 
which are in some places lofty enough to intercept the rain-bearing 
clouds rolling up from the Indian Ocean during the south-western 
monsoons. As might be expected, the parched lands occur especially 
in the north-east, where the mean elevation of the western range is 
greatest, and where the uplands of the Malay Peninsula again form 
a barrier against the moisture-laden clouds from the China Sea. 
Hence, also, in the northern lowlands the intensely heated dry air 
becomes rarified and replaced by cooler atmospheric currents, causing 
violent local disturbances, and generating those sudden gusts and 
squalls known as " Sumatras," which are so dangerous to navigation 
in the Strait of Malacca. 

Rivers. — Owing to the westerly position of the uplands, and a 
general easterly tilt of the land, all the large watercourses necessarily 
flow in the direction from west to east. On the west side the only 
important river is the Singkel, which develops a winding course 
through the Achin and Singkel districts to the north-west coast over 
against the Banyak Islands. But on the opposite side a large number 
of considerable streams make their way from the western ranges 
across the lowlands eastwards to the China Sea. As the island 
broadens perceptibly southwards between 2° N.— 4° S. lat., so the 
rivers increase in amplitude in the same direction, the largest being 
the Siak and Indragiri respectively north and south of the equator, 
the Jambi, about 2° S., and the Palembang (Musi), most voluminous 
of all, between 3° — 5° S. All are navigable for vessels of considerable 
size, although somewhat obstructed by shoals, bars, and intricate 
deltas about their lower course. Their numerous headwaters, con- 
verging from various points on the main stream, give them a fan- 
shaped appearance, and cause extensive floodings of their low-lying 
banks during the rainy season. The Siak, one of the most useful for 
navigable purposes, is accessible to large vessels for 80, to ships of 
200 tons for 100, and to boats for 150 miles from its mouth. But 
the Palembang with its great tributaries, the Kawas on its left, the 
Lamatang and Ogan on its right bank, presents a far more extensive 
water system, navigated for some hundred miles, especially by large 
bamboo " rakits," 40 feet and upwards in length. On one of these 
rafts Mr. H. 0. Forbes in 1881 floated down the Rawas from Pulu- 

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Kida, near its source, in 102° E. long., for over 200 miles all the way 
to the city of Palembang, still 50 miles from its mouth in Banca 
Strait. The trip occupied over three weeks in November and 
December during the wet season, when the banks of the main stream 
were flooded for some miles in many places to the great depth of 60 
or 70 feet. A vast trade with the interior is carried on with these 
rafts, which, like those on the Tigris, are broken up and sold for 
their valuable material at their destination. 

To its numerous eastern watercourses, combined perhaps with a slight 
upheaval of the land, Sumatra is indebted for its present ample dimensions. 
Originally probably not more than 100 miles broad, it expanded east- 
wards according as the mountain torrents encroached upon the China Sea, 
depositing the detritus of the Barisan highlands in its shallow waters, and 
thus gradually raising the marine bed above sea-level. In this way were 
created the gre*it Sumatran alluvial plains, which for 200 miles inland are 
seldom over 400 feet hi<ih, and which are still constantly advancing 
seawards. The time is approaching when the 30 feet of water, now 
flowing between the east coast and the chain of eastern islands (Lingga, 
Sinkep, Banca), must be filled in, and then the east Sumatran seaboard 
will fall in a direct line with the southern extension of the Malay Penin- 
sula. Thus the Asiatic mainland tends again to gather up its scattered 
insular fragments through the action of the Sumatran streams, which 
from short impetuous upland torrents have become great navigable arteries, 
winding sluggishly through the flat alluvial plains of their own creation. 

Lakes.— Sumatra differs from most of the Malayan islands in the 
lacustrine character of its upland scenery. It possesses several 
romantic mountain lakes, the largest of which are TobaJt in the 
Batta Country, about 3000 feet above sea-level, 20 miles long, source 
of the Singkel, and itself fed by numerous streams, chiefly from the 
north ; Shigharay on the Padang plateau, 20 miles by 12 to 15, 
source of the Indragiri ; Danau Sapuloh Kotah, or " Lake of the ten 
forests," at the foot of Mount Singalang in the north-west ; Korinchi, 
in the Korinchi country, near the Indrapura Peak, unsurveyed ; 
Banau at the foot of the quiescent iminung volcano, in the 
Lampongs, 1700 feet above sea-level. This lake, visited in 1881 by 
H. O. Forbes, is of great depth, and teems with fish (one species, the 
semah or Leobarbus, as large as the largest salmon), which often 
perish in the hot water of the thermal springs of 127° F. bubbling up 
round the margin. 

Climate.— The climate, especially on the uplands, is remarkably 
cool and salubrious. Frost, snow, and hail are unknown phenomena ; 
but dense fogs and thunderstorms are of frequent occurrence. In 



the southern districts rainy days occur throughout the year, and in 
1879 a rainfall of 282 inches was recorded at Padang. 

Flora. — Sumatra being largely alluvial and volcanic, most of the 
soil is highly fertile, and suited for the growth of most tropical 
plants. Large tracts, however; are still held by rude tribes, who 
possess little knowledge of agriculture, depending for their existence 
nearly altogether on the spontaneous products of nature. The soil 
on the west side of the island is a stiff, reddish clay, while extensive 
districts, especially towards the south, are still under primeval 

Although still comparatively little known, the researches of Raffles, and 
more recently of von Rosenberg and H. 0. Forbes, show that the Sumatran 
flora abounds in a great variety of tropical and sub-tropical species, on the 
whole more allied to those of Borneo than of Java or tne mainland. 
Amongst the most useful are rice, sago, camphor, dammar, gutta, benzoin, 
dragon's blood, yielded by a species of rattan, bamboos, pepper, and 
tobacco. Peculiar to this region is the curious Rajiesia Arnoldi, discovered 
by Sir Stamford Raffles, a parasitic plant, with a flower over three feet in 
diameter, with very large brick red petals, but possessing neither stem nor 
leaves, ami simply adhering by minute fibres or roots to a species of vine. 
Other curious plants described by Forbes are a species of Sambucus, 
producing near its florets, little cups full of rich yellow honey, and the 
giant Arum {Amorphophallus titanum), with enormous tubers over six feet 
round, and forming '* a load for twelve men." But, notwithstanding tho 
presence of Mclastonuis and some other beautiful flowering sjhrubs, the 
forest vegetation is remarkable rather for its orient green, pink, or scarlet, 
and autumn-tinted foliage, than for its gay floral adornments. 

Fauna.— The Sumatran fauna present far more numerous points 
of contact with those of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo than with 
the Javanese. Here are represented all the great mammalian forms 
of the mainland, such as the elephant, rhinoceros, and tiger, besides 
the tapir, the Siamang, a large ape found elsewhere only in Malaya, 
and the Bornean orang-utan ; this last confined to the wooded plains 
opposite Malacca. Of large domestic animals the most valuable is 
the buffalo, which as live stock takes the place of the European ox. 
There are several varieties of the monkey tribe, and Sumatra also 
possesses nearly all the beautiful and remarkable forms of birds, 
common to Malacca and Borneo, besides a few species peculiar to 
itself. Very characteristic are the lovely Argus pheasant, which 
here takes the place of the peacock in Java ; the Bhododytes diardi, 
a species of cuckoo, with green bill and velvet scarlet eye- wattle ; 
green and black barbets ; scarlet Pieridae, and the Buceros. Butter- 


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flies, beetles, and other insects are found in as great variety, perhaps, 
as in any other part of the Archipelago. 

Minerals.— Sumatra is probably rich in minerals, as coal, 
naphtha, sulphur, iron, and gold have been found, as well as indica- 
tions of copper. The ore is of fine quality, and the iron and steel 
produced in Menangk&bau have been noted from time immemorial. 
Tin also exists, and is worked in Kampar, nearly opposite Malacca. 

Trade. — The chief exports are black pepper, shipped in great 
quantities for Batavia and Singapore, maize, sago, cocoa-nuts, camphor, 
benzoin, dammar, tobacco, cotton, gold-dust, and various tropical 
fruits. In exchange are taken rice, opium, salt, piece-goods, iron 
and copper ware, pottery, Chinese goods, dried fish, &c. The foreign 
trade of the country is carried on through the ports of Padang, 
Palembang, Benc&len, Serdang, Deli, Muntok, Telok, Betong, Beng- 
kalis, and Achin, recently taken by the Dutch. Steam communica- 
tion is maintained between several of these ports and Singapore, 
Penang, Batavia, and other places in the Dutch colonies. 

Inhabitants.— Apart from the still undetermined Indonesian 
element, both the cultured and uncivilised people belong to the 
Malay stock, which, under different names, and with varying lan- 
guages, customs, and religions, is found diffused throughout the 
whole island. Hence many ethnologists have regarded Sumatra as 
the principal home of this race, and in any case it must be looked 
upon as the chief centre of dispersion for the civilised Malay people 
throughout the Archipelago during the last eight or ten centuries. 
No dark or woolly-haired race, analogous to the Negritos of Malaya 
and the Philippines, has ever been discovered in the island, which 
from the remotest times has been entirely occupied by Malay peoples, 
affected, especially in the north, by contact with immigrants from 
India, Arabia, and Indo China. The result of these interminglings 
has been a considerable diversity of type and speech, as shown in 
the Achinese and Battas of the north, the Menangkabaus of the west, 
and Jambis of the east central districts, the Sarawis, Palembangs, 
Rejongs, and Lampongs of the southern regions. Still more divergent 
types are those of the Kubus, Lubus, and other rude tribes scattered 
over the interior, many of whom should probably be grouped with 
the Indonesian family. 

The Achinese of the extreme north, who have for many years main- 
tained a war of independence against the Dutch, are regarded by Dr. Van 
Leent as true Malays with a mixture of Indian blood, presenting affinities 
w ith the natives of the Malabar and Coromaudel coasts. Like so many 


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other Sumatran peoples, they have developed a local culture, and have 
long been Mohammedans, writing their peculiar Malayan dialect with the 
Arabic characters. Their southern neighbours, the Sottas {Batta, plural 
BaUak), also continue to enjoy political autonomy, and are specially remark- 
able as the only known people who, although undoubted cannibals, possess 
a written language. They are a semi-civilised pagan nation, whose territory 
lies between Achin on the north, and the true Malay lands of Siak and 
Menengkabau on the south. Their very peculiar culture seems to have 
had its earliest seat on the table-land of Lake Tobah, and was evidently at 
one time affected by Hindu influences, as shown by some Sanskrit elements 
in their language, and by the written character, obviously of Indian origin. 
Their cannibalism, which is of a mild form, appears to be a survival from 
still more ancient times, connected probably with the primitive rites of 
their rude ancestry. 

Excluding the Kubus and some other little known wild tribes of the 
interior, all the other natives may be regarded as of pure Malay stock, with 
an admixture of Javanese blood, especially in Palembang. Those of 
Menangkabau on the west coast appear to be the earliest distinctly Malay 
people who developed a national culture, and to this district many of the 
inhabitants of the Peninsula, of Borneo, and other parts of the Archipelago, 
directly trace their descent. The people of Jambi (Indragiri and Jambi 
basins), those of Palembang (Musi basin), the Rejongs fartner south, and 
the Lampungs in the extreme south, are also more or less civilised com- 
munities, possessing a knowledge of letters with several peculiar writing 
systems, and professing the Mohammedan religion. But, like their brethren 
in the Peninsula, they seem to attach more importance to the Mat, or 
national customs having the force of law, than to the precepts of the Qoran. 
Beneath an outward acceptance of Islam, shown especially in their reluc- 
tant Friday attendance at the mosques, they cherish numerous superstitions 
surviving from Hindu and still older Pagan times, and a belief in the 
occult powers of nature is still universal. The people of Kissam in Palem- 
bang are even said to be still pagans (Forbes), and the richly decorated 
"Balai," or public assembly-room, conspicuous in every Palembang and 
L:impung village, is more highly venerated than the mosque itself, fn the 
Passumah lands farther north are some curious relics of a former culture, 
huge monoliths carved in the likeness of human figures, with strange non- 
Malay and non-Hindu features, although doubtfully ascribed by some to 
an Indian source. The present inhabitants, who would be quite incapable 
of executing such works, know nothing of their true origin, attributing 
them to certain mythical beings, who wandered over the land, turning all 
their enemies into stone. They are probably the work of the same for- 
gotten race, who executed somewhat similar monuments in Easter Island 
and other places in the Pacific Ocean. 

PoHtical Divisions— With the exception of Achin in the 
north, and the Batta territory south of it, the whole of Sumatra is 
under the direct or indirect control of the Dutch. All the southern 
section, as far as the Jambi river, and a broad tract along the west 
coast as far as Sinkel, in about 3° N. lat., are comprised within the 
residencies, or organised provinces dependent on the central govern- 

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ment of the " Dutch East Indies." North of the Jarabi river are the 
native States of Jambi, Indragiri, Kampur, Siak, Assakan, Batu-Bara, 
Serdang, Deli, Langkat, and Riah, which acknowledge the suzerainty 
of Holland, while the Batta and Achin lands are still unreduced. 

The Dutch possessions are administered by a Lieutenant-Governor 
resident at Padang, aud under his jurisdiction are six separate Residencies, 
as under : 

1. Padang, on the west coast. 

2. The Padangse-Bovenlanden, or "Padang Plateau." 

3. Tapanuli, including Singkel, north-west coast. 

4. Benc6len, south-west coast. 

5. Lampungs, the southern extremity of the island. 

6. Palembang, with Lambi, east coast. 

Chief Towns. — Padang, capital of the west coast government, on 
the Padang river, the most important town in Sumatra, was founded 
in 1660, when the Portuguese were driven from a neighbouring 
factory. It is defended by a fort standing one mile up the river, and 
does a brisk export trade in pepper, camphor, benzoin, and coffee. 
Padang was first visited by the English in 1649, seized by them in 
1781, and restored to Holland at the general peace of 1814. Palem- 
bang, next in importance, and a larger place than Padang, occupies 
both banks of the Musi, about fifty miles from its mouth, and 
accessible to large vessels. It is the great emporium of the inland 
trade, and has a large mixed population of Malays, Javanese, and 
Chinese, with some Dutch officials and soldiers. Here are the 
palaces occupied by the native princes before the kingdom of 
Palembang was reduced by the Dutch. Siak, a busy trading place 
in the north-east. Benc&Un, capital of a Dutch Residency, on the 
south-west coast, in an unhealthy district at the mouth of the 
Benculen river; occupied by the English from 1685, when they 
quitted Batavia, till 1825, when they ceded it to the Dutch in 
exchange for Malacca. Although now a small place with an exposed 
roadstead, it still exports some pepper and camphor. Other seaports 
are Acltin, Deli, Muntok } Bengkalis, Telok Betong, and TapamdL 

Achin (properly Ache, from the Hindustani Achchd, u good," <! fine "), 
the northernmost town in Sumatra, gives its name to the independent 
Malay State, occupying the northern extremity of the island, whose extent 
is variously estimated at from 900 (Veth) to 1200 (Anderson) square miles. 
This State rose to great power under Sultan Iskander Muda (1607 — 1636), 
whose sway extended for 1100 miles round the coast from Aru opposite 
Malacca to Padang, and whose supremacy was also acknowledged by the 
island of Nias, and by the continental Malay States of Johor, Pahang, 

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Kcdah, and Perak. At present its limits are, on the east coast, the 
Tamiang, 4° 25' N., separating it from Siak territory ; and on the west, the 
frontier of the petty State of Trumon, in 2° 48' N. But Achin proper is 
now understood to be limited by a line drawn from Pedir Point on the 
north-east to Kwala Lambesi on the west coast. The inhabitants, who are 
akin to the neighbouring Battas, are chiefly occupied with the cultivation 
of rice, pepper, and betel, which they export in exchange for opium, 
salt, iron, and copper-ware, piece-goods, pottery, Chinese goods, dried fish, 
fire-arms, and ammunition. The capital lies close to Achin Head at the 
northern extremity, and west of the "Golden Mountain," a volcanic 
peak 6000 feet high. Achin was occupied by the Dutch in 1874, two 
years after the commencement of the hostilities which still continue, and 
which have for their object the complete reduction of this warlike and 
independent people. Since 1204 a.d. they have been zealous Moham- 

Historical Notes. — Of the ancient history of Sumatra little is 
known beyond the fact that many of the natives adopted some form 
of Hinduism at an early date, as is sufficiently attested by the 
Sanskrit elements present in their languages, and by some of the 
local monuments and inscriptions. The Javanese also seem to have 
largely influenced the southern populations, as shown by inscrip- 
tions in the Javanese character occurring as far north as Menan^- 
kabau, and by many purely Javanese names of places both here and 
in Palembang. 

The most important subsequent event is the comparatively recent 
spread of Islam throughout nearly the whole island. In the north it 
appears to have been adopted early in the thirteenth century, and in 
Marco Polo's time (about 1360) the people of the eastern seaboard were 
already followers of the Prophet. Menangkabau was the first Mussulman 
State that acquired political supremacy, and this district soon became the 
chief centre for the diffusion of the civilised Malay race and language 
throughout the Peninsula and Archipelago. All earlier migrations must 
be referred to Hindu and prehistoric times, the former from Java chiefly, 
the latter most probablv from the Asiatic mainland. 

Sumatra was first visited by the Portuguese in 1509, by the Dutch in 
1600, and two years later by the English, who appeared at Achin with five 
merchant ships under Sir James Lancaster, bearer of a letter from Queen 
Elizabeth to the Sultan. The English continued to establish factories and 
settlements in the island during the seventeenth century, but principally 
in 1685-6. These settlements were retained till 1825, when they were all 
ceded to the Dutch in exchange for Malacca. Since that time the British 
have ceased to maintain any diplomatic relations with Sumatra, over 
which Holland now claims complete supremacy. 

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Sixth in size, and by far the richest and most populous of all the 
East Indian Islands, Java rivals the most favoured regions of the 
world in its fertility, natural beauties, and exuberant vegetation. It 
lies between 105° 10'— 114° 34' E. long., and between 5° 52'— 8° 46' 
S. lat., stretching from the Sunda Strait for 622 miles eastwards to 
the Bali Strait, with an extreme breadth of 121 miles from Cape 
Bugel in Yapara to the south coast of Jokjokarta, and an area of 
about 52,000 square miles. Both physically and administratively 
Madura forms a dependency of Java, from which it is separated at 
its western extremity by the navigable Surabaya Strait, less than two 
miles wide. It is 96 miles by 18, and consists mostly of chalk, the 
cretaceous hills on the north side forming a geological continuation 
of those of Rembang and Surabaya on the opposite side of the strait. 
Hence it seems probable that it formed an integral part of the main- 
land before the epoch of the great upheavals, of which Java was the 
chief centre. It has some extensive forests, but the soil is generally 
poor, yielding insufficient rice for the local consumption. 

Other natural dependencies are Pulau Panitau (Prince's Island), lying 
off the westernmost promontory ; Krakatao, in the Sunda Strait, scene of 
the memorable eruption of August 26th, 1883 ; the small Carimon Java 
group, about 50 miles north of Yapara ; Bavean, some 60 miles due north of 
Surabaya Strait ; and Deli, Tinjil, Nusa Kambangan, Sempu, and NtLsa 
Bartmg, off the south coast, making altogether a total area of nearly 52,000 
square miles. 

Coast-line. — Java, which is washed north and south by the Java 
Sea and Indian Ocean, has a coast-line of 1400 miles, diversified by 
several open bays on the north side, but with no deep inlets or 
natural havens, so that the only commodious harbour is that of 
Surabaya, formed by the adjacent island of Madura. The still less 
indented south coast has no safe anchorage except under the shelter 
of Kambangan, and is moreover exposed to the heavy and dangerous 
surge rolling in from the Indian Ocean throughout the year. The 
coast-line is otherwise broken by a number of bold headlands with 
intervening bays, such as Java Head and St. Nicholas Point at the 
southern and northern entrance of Sunda Strait ; Wyncoop's, 
Welcome, and Pepper Bays at the west end of the island ; Cape 
Bugel over against Carimon Java, and Cape Sedano commanding the 
northern approach to Bali Strait 

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Physical Features. — Java is traversed throughout its whole 
length by two mountain ranges, which in some places converge and 
again separate, throwing off numerous spurs, which fall gently down 
to the coast. Both are thickly set with about forty-six volcanoes, 
from 6000 to over 12,000 feet high, twelve of which are still active. 
The loftiest is Semeru (12,238 feet), but the largest crater is that of 
Tenger (8000 feet), which rivals in size those of Japan and Hawaii. 
The highlands are almost everywhere intersected by lovely valleys 
watered by torrents and perennial streams, and mostly overgrown 
with a magnificent tropical vegetation. There is, however, a singular 
absence of lacustrine basins, the only formations of this sort being a 
few small but romantic upland lakes in the provinces of Cheribon, 
Pasarutan, and one or two other places. The Danau, or " lake," in 
a pre-eminent sense, is now dry, like several others in different parts 
of the island. 

Volcanoes. — Apart from the cretaceous and more recent alluvial 
deposits, the formation is essentially volcanic, Java forming, perhaps, 
the most important section of the great igneous zone, which traverses 
the whole Archipelago from Sumatra to the Philippines. But of all 
the larger islands it appears to be the poorest in useful minerals. 
Coal or lignite occurs in small "pockets" in many parts both of 
Java and Madura, as well as in the neighbouring islets ; but all 
attempts have hitherto failed to utilise it to any great extent. A 
variety of clays suitable for bricks, earthenware, and porcelain ; ampo, 
an edible earth, regarded as a delicacy by the natives ; good limestone 
and marble, petroleum and sulphur, abound in many places, while 
salt is obtained from the mud wells of Kudwu and Selo (Samarang), 
and saltpetre from Sutyi in the Gresik district. 

Thermal wells also abound, and the volcanoes yield at every eruption 
large quantities of sulphur. The crater of Tashem, at the east end, 
contains a lakelet one-fourth of a mile long strongly impregnated with 
sulphuric acid, whence flows a stream of acid water so destructive to lifo 
that no fish can live in the sea near its mouth. The widespread myth of 
the deadly "upas tree" originated probably with the extinct volcano of 
Guevo Upas ("Vale of Poison"), in the Batar district, whose crater, 
about half a mile round, is justly held in horror by the natives. All 
living things approaching it drop down dead, and the ground is strewn 
all round with the remains of deer, birds, and even men, killed by the 
carbonic acid gas rising from the bottom of the valley. The mud volcanoes 
of the low-lying Grobogan district in Yapara yield a considerable supply 
of the muriate of soda useful for cnlinary purposes. In the neighbourhood 
of the Bromo (Tengger) volcano the fire used for cooking is always taken 
from the incandescent matter ejected by that venerated mountain during 
eruptions. This fire is religiously preserved for years, and whenever it 

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goes out is kindled anew from that of the nearest village obtained origin- 
ally from the volcano. The 6 res in use up to the late outburst were all 
procured from the Bromo eruption of 1832. — Straits Times, 1886. 

Earthquakes are frequent, but seldom violent, and mostly of a local 
character. Nor do they now appear to have any intimate connection with 
the eruptions ; of 143 recorded by Junghuhn, not more than 24 have been 
in any way associated with these disturbances. But the memory survives 
of tremendous convulsions formerly accompanying the explosions, such as 
that of Ringghit in 1586, when that giant was rent asunder, involving in 
the ruins 10,000 persons ; and that of Galung-gung in 1822, which swept 
away 115 villages with their 4000 inhabitants. 

Rivers.— The northern versant of Java differs from the southern 
in the great development of its alluvial formation, which in some 
places forms plains of considerable extent. Hence the streams 
llowing to the Java Sea greatly exceed in length and volume those 
falling into the Indian Ocean, none of which are navigable for large 
vessels. Most of the tyi, or " rivers," as they are called in the western 
districts, are, moreover, obstructed by shoals or sandbanks at their 
mouths. The largest, and in some respects the most useful, is the 
Bengawan, or Solo, which flows by the city of Surakarta for 350 
miles eastwards to Surabaya Strait, and is navigable for large boats. 
Next in magnitude is the Brantas, called in its lower course the 
Kali mas, and by Europeans the river of Surabaya, which after a 
winding course round Mount Arjuna, falls through two mouths into 
the same strait The rapid formation of alluvial deposits at their 
mouths gives abundant proof of their disintegrating agency. Similar 
accretions of land are taking place all along the north coast, where 
steam-dredges have to be kept at work in all the large harbours. 

Owing to their generally rapid course and perennial character, the 
innumerable streams and torrents on both slopes of the island are, on the 
whole, far more useful for irrigation than for navigation. To the extensive 
practice of this art, combined with the rich character of the volcanic and 
alluvial soil, are mainly due the magnificent crops which enable Java 
to support considerably more than half the population of the whole 

Climate.— The Javanese year is divided into a wet and a dry 
season, the former lasting from October till March, when the moist 
westerly winds prevail, the latter for the rest of the year, when the 
cloudless east monsoon predominates. The driest months are July 
and August, when the days are hottest and the nights coolest. At 
Batavia the glass ranges from 70° — 74° F. in the morning, to about 
83°, and occasionally even 90° at noon. But on the uplands of the 

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interior tlie extremes lie between 60° and 70°, falling to 50° and 62° 
on the hills behind Samarang, and to 27° or 5° below freezing point 
on the summit of Mount Sindoro. On all the highlands the climate 
may be regarded as healthy for Europeans, who become enervated in 
the hot and often insalubrious low-lying districts along the northern 

Flora. — Rice, the staple of food for all classes, is grown not only 
along all the coast-lands, but on all the lowlands and valleys where 
water is available. It is replaced on the uplands by coffee, which 
lias become the chief article of export. During the ten years ending 
1888 the average annual produce of the Government plantations was 
900,000, that of the private planters, 170,000 piculs. The export of 
coffee is entirely in the hands of the " Netherlands Trading Society." 
Other vegetable products are sugar, raised chiefly in the Batavia 
district where numerous sugar-mills are now at work ; tobacco, 
maize, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, sago, indigo, tea, and 
pimento. Palms and cocoa-nut trees abound in great variety, and 
are distinguished by their luxuriant growth, sometimes reaching the 
height of 150 feet. Fruits of exquisite flavour, such as the mangosteen, 
durian, rambutan, mango, plantain, guava, pine-apple, are largely 
grown, and of late years the cinchona has been successfully cultivated 
by the Government, which now possesses over 2,000,000 trees. Tho 
cultivation of tea, begun by Du Bus, has also attained a considerable 
development, the production amounting in 1879 to over 5,700,000 lbs. 

A characteristic forest plant is the far-famed Upas, that is, "Poison," 
whose sap is fatal to all animal life. Extensive forests ofjati (teak) occur, 
especially between Samarang and Sidayu,- and yield a timber of finer 
quality than that of Burmah. The spices thrive well, but are not much 
cultivated, and the vine, formerly extensively grown, was stopped by the 
old Dutch East India Company for fear of prejudicing the South African 
vineyards. In the central and western forests are found many valuable 
trees, including as many as sixteen varieties of the oak. But the wood- 
lands are everywhere exposed to two destructive agencies — the alang alang 
cane, an ineradicable exhauster of the soil, highly injurious to all other 
vegetation ; and the upland peasantry, who clear the land for tillage in the 
most reckless manner. On the lowlands a better method of cultivation 
prevails, known as the "culture system," introduced by Governor-General 
Van den Bosch over 50 years ago. Under this system the great staples of 
agriculture have increased wonderfully, and although scarcely more than 
one-third of the land is under cultivation, Java now produces not only 
enough grain for its own teeming populations, but has also become a chief 
source of supply for the whole Archipelago. 

Fauna. — The domestic animals are the horse, cattle, sheep, goats, 
6wine, and buffaloes, the last-mentioned being almost exclusively 

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employed in field operations. The Javanese fauna is in other respects 
mainly Asiatic, including the tiger, panther, leopard, jackal, polecat 
(mydaus meliceps), rhinoceros, wild ox, deer, two species of wild 
boar, the wau-wau gibbon, and other members of the ape family. 
But the elephant and tapir are absent, or have long been extinct, if 
their range ever extended so far south. Of reptiles the most formid- 
able are the crocodile and python, both numerous and of large size, 
besides upwards of twenty venomous snakes. The ornithology is 
very rich, including the cassowary, peacock, weever, two species of 
parrot, the minute butterfly hawk, falcon, golden oriole, yellow 
crowned bulbul, fairy blue-bird, jungle-fowl, and many other rare 
and beautiful species. The rivers also and neighbouring seas are 
well stocked, and the fisheries along the coasts highly productive. 
But the rivers' mouths are infested by alligators, and the surrounding 
waters by still more voracious sharks. 

Inhabitants. — All the natives belong to the Malay stock, speak- 
ing three distinct but allied languages : Sundanese in the west ; 
Javanese proper in the central and eastern provinces ; Madurese in 
Madura and adjacent parts of the larger island. In physical appear- 
ance they present little differences, except that the Javanese are 
somewhat taller and perhaps more refined than most other branches 
of the Malay race. All are naturally inoffensive, peaceful, docile, of 
frugal habits, truthful and straightforward. They bear the impress 
of a people that has long enjoyed the benefits of a stable government, 
of social order, and a considerable degree of general culture. Their 
husbandry is careful and orderly, and they betray much skill and 
taste as workers in wood, iron, and other metals. Their boats and 
canoe3 are unsurpassed for speed and elegance, their krisses of 
excellent temper and graceful design, their woven fabrics of fine 
quality, with tasteful patterns and harmoniously blended colours, 
derived from a few simple vegetable and other dyes. As musicians 
they have always excelled amongst Malay peoples, with whom, how- 
ever, they share the love of gambling, of cock-fighting, and some 
other characteristic vices. 

The Javanese language, current in the greater part of the island, is 
derived directly from the Kavi, a highly developed form of Malay speech, 
of which there are inscriptions and records dating from the twelfth cen- 
tury. It is written in a peculiarly elegant syllabic character, which was 
introduced in an older form from India, and which has held its ground 
even after the Hindu religions were supplanted by Islam in the fifteenth 
century. Since that time the bulk of the people are reputed Mohammedans, 
although really believers in the primitive animism of their forefathers. 

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Many Brahmanical and Buddhist ideas also survive, and the number of 
hyangs, or spirits, still worshipped is limitless. Every village has its 
patron deity, who presided at its foundation, and to whose beneficent or 
malignant influence are ascribed all its fortunes. Under a broad- branching 
tree stands the altar, on which the worshipper lays his offering of flowers 
and incense, uttering meanwhile in broken Arabic the Moslem formula — 
*' There is no god but God, and Mohammed is his prophet." The national 

Joseph, and others, introduced through European influences, although 
their Protestant rulers have hitherto done little to evangelise these 
"Mohammedan and Hindu Nature worshippers." More zeal has been 
shown by the Roman Catholic Church, which has a Vicar-Apostolic 
resident in Batavia, and subordinate to him many missionaries scattered 
over Java and other parts of Netherlands India. At Batavia and Samarang 
there are religious establishments for the education of the young on 
Christian principles. A spark of the old Hindu religions is still kept 
alive by the Jelma (Badui) hill-men in the Lebah district, Bantam, and 
by the more numerous Tengger people, who occupy the slopes of the 
Tengger volcano. 

Government. — The only native princes still retaining a sem- 
blance of regal state are the rajas of Surakarta and Jokjokarta, who 
are mere pensioners of the Dutch, with no power to levy taxes, 
but with absolute jurisdiction in purely religious matters. For all 
practical purposes Java and its dependencies are now directly 
administered by the Dutch, who have parcelled out this region into 
twenty-four Residencies, enumerated in the statistical tables, p. 187. 
These Residencies, each of which is governed by a European Resident, 
assisted by a secretary and a number of sub-residents, are subdivided 
into arrondissements, or "regencies," so called because entrusted, 
especially in police matters, to native chiefs named "regents." Over 
all stands the Governor-General, who resides at Batavia, and exercises 
almost absolute authority over all the Dutch possessions in the 
Archipelago. He is Commander-in-Chief of the land and sea forces, 
and is assisted by a Secretary-General and a Colonial Council of four 
members named by the King of Holland. 

Trade. — Java is the centre of a large and increasing local and 
foreign trade, which has been greatly facilitated by an excellent 
system of roads, and a network of railways connecting all the chief 
towns along the north coast with each other, and with several points 
of the interior. Regular lines of steamers also ply between Batavia 
and Europe, Singapore, Padang, and all the chief ports of the 
Archipelago. The exports from Java include rice, sugar, coffee, 
indigo, tobacco, cotton, pepper, spices, camphor, teak, sago, and edible 
birds'-nests. Through Batavia are also forwarded to Europe many 


other products of the Archipelago, such as gambier, tin, gold-dust, 
diamonds, rattans, beeswax, tortoise-shell, nutmegs, cloves, mace, 
kajupati, and other oils from the Moluccas. The total yearly exports 
now exceed sixteen, and the imports thirteen, millions sterling. The 
latter comprise linen, woollen, and cotton goods, provisions, wine, 
spirits, hardware, glass from Europe and America ; opium from 
India ; tea, porcelain, and silks from China. All the Government 
exports to the Netherlands are forwarded by the " Dutch Trading 
Company " established in 1824 at Amsterdam. 

Topography. — Batavia, capital of Java, and of all the Dutch 
East Indies, occupies a marshy site on the Yakatra, near the head of 
the spacious Bay of Batavia. It comprises a native and a European 
quarter, the latter rivalling Calcutta and Bombay in splendour, and 
containing the residences of all the Government officials, all the chief 
hotels, clubs, museums, and theatres. But business is centred chiefly 
in the old town, which is intersected by canals, and rendered as 
salubrious as most tropical cities by extensive drainage works. 
Nearly all the import and export trade of Java passes through 
Batavia, which has a mixed population of over half a million natiyes, 
Chinese, " Moors " claiming Arab descent, Dutch, English, Portuguese, 
and other Europeans. It was founded in 1619, and occupied by the 
British in 1811, but restored to Holland at the general peace. 

About 40 miles south of Batavia, in a healthy district nearly 1000 feet 
above the sea, lies the village of Buitenzorg, where the Governor-General 
has a fine palace, and many Europeans reside a part of the year. Here is 
a famous botanical garden, in which are cultivated all the finest vegetable 
products of the Archipelago. Sitrabaya, next in importance to Batavia, 
and the chief port for the export of sugar, stands at the mouth of the Brantos 
liver, over against the western extremity of Madura. Its harbour is the 
finest in Java, and here are situated the Government dockyards and 
arsenals. The fertile province of Surabaya sends down a vast quantity of 
rice, sugar, and other produce by the river, which is navigable for large 
boats far into the interior. Sainarang, at the mouth of the river of like 
name, some 220 miles east of Batavia, enjoys the advantage of railway 
communication with the native capitals of Surakarta and Jogjokarta, thus 
drawing large supplies of cotton, sugar, coffee, and indigo from one of the 
richest districts of the interior. Anjer, a fortified town at the narrowest 
part of the Sunda Strait, and an important port of call for ships proceeding 
to Batavia, Singapore, or Manilla, was totally destroyed by the terrible 
Krakateo eruption of August 26-7, 1883. Surakarta (Solo), capital of the 
kingdom of Susuman, the so-called " Emperor of Java," is the largest city 
still nominally governed by a native prince. He keeps a ceremonial state,' 
and is surrounded by a degree of magnificence scarcely surpassed by that 
of any Indian raja. Another important native city is Jokjokarta, capital 
of a province of like namej and also governed by a Javanese sultan. 

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Historical Notes. — Like that of India, the early history of Java 
lacks all satisfactory chronological data. The first known records, as 
well as the oldest monuments, are associated with the ascendancy of 
the Hindus through three successive periods of pure Buddhism, an 
aggressive Sivaism, and an apparent compromise. Of the various 
Hindu States the most powerful was that of Majapahit, with many 
tributaries in Java and other parts of the Archipelago. Under 
Buddhist and Brahmanical influences the peaceful arts, and especially 
architecture and sculpture, attained a degree of almost unparalleled 
splendour, as still attested by the sumptuous monuments of Boro- 
budor and other places. But Hinduism was almost entirely displaced 
in the fifteenth century by Islam, which, as a political power, had in 
its turn soon to give way to Christian influences. 

Java was first visited in 1511 by the Portuguese, who were followed 
in 1595 by the Dutch. For over a hundred years the Dutch East 
India Company owned only a few forts and factories at Yakatra 
(Batavia) and other places ; but in 1705 they obtained possession of 
Preanger by treaty with Mataram, and in 1745 extended their 
authority over the whole north coast from Cheribon to BanyuwangL 
In 1755 Mataram was divided into the two States of Surakarta and 
Jokjokarta, which still retain a semblance of independence, and in 
1808 the kingdom of Bantam was finally reduced. By the British 
occupation (1811-18) European ascendancy was strengthened, and 
the great Java war (1 825-30), in which a last struggle was made by a 
native dynasty, resulted in the complete triumph of the Dutch. 
Since then the whole island has fallen under their sway, and under 
their able administration has rapidly increased in population and 
general prosperity. A great military road 600 miles long and other 
highways have been opened in every direction, the railway system is 
gradually extending to all the great agricultural centres, life and 
property are as safe as in any part of Europe, and the natives are as 
contented as any people are likely to be under the rule of an alien 

Of the numerous monuments left by the early Hindu conquerors, the 
most remarkable is the great temple of Borobodo (Boro-Budur), about 80 
miles west of Brambenam, in the province of Kedu. It crowns a small 
conical hill, and consists of a lofty central dome, and seven ranges of ter- 
raced open galleries, regularly built round the hill, with numerous com- 
munications by steps and stairs. The dome is 50 feet in diameter, and 
the whole building 620 feet square and about 100 feet high, representing 
an amount of labour as great as that expended on the Great Pyramid. Of 
inhior antiquities the most valuable are the inscriptions on stone and 

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copper in a variety of characters, rendering their decipherment a work of 
great difficulty. Some of these relics appear to have been removed to the 
Raflles Museum, Singapore. 


Last of the lands belonging physically to the Asiatic division of 
the Archipelago, this westernmost of the Lesser Sunda group lies 
between the shallow Bali Strait now separating it from Java and the 
deep Lombok passage, by which it has always been severed from 
Lombok and the whole Australasian world. It has a circumference 
of about 200 miles, and is mostly hilly and even mountainous, cul- 
minating in the north-east with the volcanic Gunong Agung, or Peak 
of Bali (11,400 feet). From this and other hills flow numerous 
streams in all directions, supplying abundant water to its fertile soil, 
which yields rich crops of rice, cotton, and tobacco. The native*, 
akin to the Javanese in type and speech, are a finer and a more inde- 
pendent race than their neighbours, as shown by their stout resistance 
to the Mohammedan invasion. Here the Hindu forms of religion 
have found a last refuge in the Archipelago, most of the people being 
sectaries either of Brahmanism or Sivaism, as in India itself. There 
are also a few Buddhist communities, but scarcely any followers of 
the Prophet except amongst the Malays of the trading places. The 
institution of castes even still prevails, and 8atti y or the immola- 
tion of widows on their husband's funeral pyre, has not yet been 

The island is divided into eight principalities (Beleling, Karang-asam- 
Klong-kong, Tabanan, Bangli, Mangiri, Gyan<ar, and Badong), whose 
here litarv rulers retain the title of raja. But since 1849, when Bali was 
completely reduced by the Dutch, these potentates enjoy the mere sem- 
blance of authority, and the island now forms with Lombok a Residency* 
administered by an official stationed at Beleling on the north coast, the 
chief seaport of Bali. 


General Survey.— The Philippines occupy the whole of the 
north-eastern section of the Archipelago, with the central parte of 
which they are physically connected by three chains of islands — 
Palawan with Balabac, running from Mindoro to north-western 
Borneo, the Sulu group from Mindanao to north-eastern Borneo, and 
Carcarolong with the Talautse (Sanguir) and Siao groups, also from 
Mindanao to Celebes. These chains all lie on more or less elevated 

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marine beds, enclosing the two deep basins of the Sulu and Celebes 
Seas, while farther north flow the deep waters of the China Sea, now 
completely severing the Philippines from the Asiatic mainland. 
Again, Palawan and Sulu appear to consist mainly of very old 
sedimentary rocks, while Talautse and Siao are exclusively volcanic, 
the Philippines themselves partaking of both formations in more 
equal proportions than any other section of the Eastern Archipelago. 
This twofold aspect, partly oceanic, partly Asiatic, is also presented 
by their fauna, flora, and inhabitants, which, moreover, offer many 
peculiarities, distinguishing this region from all others in the eastern 
seas. Stretching north and south across 15 degrees of latitude 
(5°— 20° N.)i with a total area of 115,000 square miles, it forms, next 
to Great Britain and Japan, the largest compact insular group in the 
world ; and so closely are its various members connected, that they 
produce the impression of a continuous mass of land broken into 
fragments by the convulsions and subsidence so often associated with 
igneous disturbances. Thus all the broad features here indicated 
seem to point at one conclusion — that the Philippines represent a 
vast area at one time contiguous with the continent and with Borneo, 
then at a very remote period severed from both, and again partly 
united with the Oceanic world through the more recent volcanic 
(agencies, of which Sanguir and Siao have long been an active scene. 

The group comprises, 1. the two great islands of Luzon and Mindanao 
in the north and south, the former somewhat larger than Java, the latter 
one-fifth smaller ; 2. the intervening islands of Mindoro, Panay, Negros, 
Zebu, Bohol, Leyte, 3fasbate, and Samar, ranging from 1200 to 6000 snuare 
miles in extent ; 3. the outlying Palawan with the Calamians and Balabac 
groups between the Mindoro and Balabac Straits ; 4. the Dabuyan, Catan- 
duanes, Surigao, and other smaller groups, making altogether over 400 in- 
habited isles and islets, besides some 600 uninhabited islets and reefs. 

Physical Features.— Throughout its whole extent the Archi- 
pelago seems to be traversed by two somewhat parallel volcanic 
zones, but gradually converging southwards, so that the space of over 
100 miles separating them in Luzon is reduced in Mindanao to 55 
miles, while both merge in one system towards Sanguir and Siao. Of 
the western and less elevated zone the chief cone is that of Taal in 
the province of Batangas, rising 530 feet above lake Bombon and 
1600 above sea-level. In the eastern zone the most important range 
is that of Mayon, terminating at Point Engano in the extreme north- 
east of Luzon, and reappearing in the Babuyan isles. Southwards 
this range culminates in Mount Albay, at the south end of Luzon, 

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passing thence through Leyte, where there are large deposits of 
sulphur, to the volcanic islet of Camiguin off the north coast of 
Mindanao, and so on to Apo and the Sarangani mountain and islets at 
the southern extremity of Mindanao. 

Albay is one of the most remarkable volcanoes in the whole world, 
forming a regular cone 9100 feet high, with a circular base 12 miles in 
diameter, constantly emitting from its flanks thousands of jets of heated 
sulphurous vapour, but without a trace of any true crater. But during the 
eruptions of 1767 and 1814 it ejected torrents of lava which swept away 
many villages with all their inhabitants. Farther north the volcanic 
region is sharply limited by the course of the river Bicol, south of which 
nothing occurs except calcareous marls and rich fos^iliferous deposits. Here 
the Mayon system is continued north-westwards through Mounts Iriga 
(4000 feet) and Isarog (6500 feet), whose eruptions appear to have filled 
in the channel between the former island of Caramuan and the province of 
South Caramines. In North Luzon the eastern and western volcanic belts, 
which here enclose the Tajo river basin, take respectively the general 
names of the Sierra Madre and Northern Cordilleras. In Mindanao the 
still active Mount Apo, near Davao, was ascended in 1882 by Koch and 
Schadenberg, who found the highest of its three peaks to be 11,000 feet, 
consequently the culminating point of the whole Archipelago. The more 
southern Sarangani has been quiescent since 1645. 

The presence of very old crystalline rocks in both of the large islands 
is attested by the occurrence of gold in Mindanao, and of auriferous 
quartz, lead and copper ores in the southern districts of Luzon. Similar 
formations occur in Masbate, whose streams are washed for gold, in 
Zebu, Leyte, and other members of the Archipelago, where igneous and 
sedimentary rocks are found almost everywhere intermingled. 

Rivers and Lakes. — Few tropical lands are better watered than 
the Philippines, which, besides innumerable perennial streams, also 
differ from Java and Borneo in the possession of several large and 
romantic upland and lowland lakes. Of the Luzon rivers, which 
flow mostly to the north and west coast, the largest is the Tajo (Aparri), 
which flows from Mount Lagsig for about 200 miles through the 
great Cagayan plain to Aparri on the north coast. Farther south the 
still larger Pampanga plain is traversed by a large number of streams, 
flowing some to the Gulf of Lingayan, some to Manila Bay on the 
west coast. Here is presented the somewhat rare phenomenon of a 
lake, the Laguna de Canaren, draining in two opposite directions to 
both of these inlets. Numerous streams also converge from the sur- 
rounding hills in the beautiful Lago de Bay, largest of the Luzon 
lakes, which sends its overflow through the Pasig river to Manila 
Bay near the capital. 

Other large sheets of water in Luzon are Lake Cagayan in the extreme 
north, the temporary Pinag de Cauda va, formed during the rainy season 

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by the overflow of the Pampanga, and Bombon, a large lake 15 miles 
by 10, out of which rises the Taal volcano, whose deep crater is itself 
flooded by a lakelet three miles in circumference. The greater part of 
Mindanao is drained by two large rivers— the Butuan, flowing from near 
Mount Calalan northwards to Butuan Gulf, and the Rio Grande, which 
traverses a series of lakes on its westerly course to Illana Bay. Between 
the two, and in the very heart of the island, lies the extensive but little 
known lake Maguindanao, which, like the Laguna de Canaren, is also said 
to discharge its surplus waters in opposite directions to both of these 
river basins. Several other lakes are dotted over the interior of Mindanao, 
the largest of which appears to be Malanao, draining to Iligan Bay, on the 
north coast. 

Climate. — Three seasons are distinguished, at least in the northern 
section of the Archipelago, which alone is exposed to the terrific 
typhoons that sweep with such destructive force over the China Sea. 
The cold and dry season, ushered in by the north-east monsoon in 
November, is followed by the seear, or period of heat and drought 
prevailing from March till June, when the heat on the lowlands is 
sometimes almost unbearable. The third, or rainy period, accompany- 
ing the south-west monsoon, prevails generally from June till October, 
when the typhoons are most frequent and violent. But they extend 
no farther south than about 10° N. latitude, so that Mindanao and 
the Sulu group lie beyond the range of their devastations. The rain- 
fall exceeds 100 inches in many places, and as most of the moisture 
is precipitated during the wet period, the lowlands are periodically 
flooded by the tremendous downpours of the summer and autumn 
months. In the north the greatest heats appear to prevail from 
April to July, or August, when the glass rises to 96° or even 100° F., 
while at other times falling to 75° and 72°. Owing to the absence of 
storms, the climate is more equable in the south, so that the distinc- 
tions between the seasons are much less perceptible in Mindanao 
than in Luzon. 

Flora.— With the progress of exploration the number of indi- 
genous forms is constantly increased. Thus the 2729 species and 
910 genera already recorded in 1879 had risen in 1883 to 4583 species 
and 1163 genera. Most of the latter are common to Malacca, Borneo, 
and other parts of the Indo-Malayan region, while some belong 
to the Australasian world, and a few are indigenous. But owing 
to their long isolation, the Philippines have developed a greater 
number of species and varieties than any other insular group in 
the Archipelago. 

The splendour of the highland scenery, which all travellers describe in 
enthusiastic language, is largely due to the magnificent forests of ebony, 

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ironwood, cedar, sapan, teak, and many other valuable species, clothing all 
the slopes to a height of some thousand feet In general the vegetation 
from 5000 feet upwards is identical or closely analogous to that of Borneo 
at the same altitude. Conspicuous amongst the cultivated plants are the 
sugar-cane, of which over twenty varieties are enumerated, tobacco, rice, 
hemp, coffee, all of excellent quality and great economic value. The 
bamboo, especially the so-called Canayang-tatoo variety, is also of great 
importance for the endless social and industrial uses to which this 
indispensable graminaceous plant is put. 

Fauna.— The Philippine fauna is remarkable especially for the 
total absence of rhinoceros, elephant, tiger, tapir, and all the larger 
animals common to other parts of the Indo-Malayan world. On the 
other hand, amongst the smaller forms special types are met in con- 
stantly increasing numbers. These indigenous varieties are in fact 
numerous enough to impart a peculiar stamp to the local fauna 
(Jordana y Morera). Thus the presence of many mammals akin to 
those of the adjacent lands shows that the isolation of the Archi- 
pelago cannot date from extremely remote geological times, while 
the absence of others of the same group may be due to the devasta- 
tions caused by the tremendous volcanic and seismatic convulsions, 
as well as by the subsidence and upheavals, of which these islands 
have always been a chief centre. 

Characteristic animals are the macacos cynomolgus, a species of ape 
spread over the whole group, a small panther, confined to Palawan, a wild 
cat, a mouse-deer, and flying mammals, which are exceptionally numerous, 
including a squirrel, a lemur, and over twenty species of bats. Many kinds 
of birds common to other parts of Malaya are also wanting, and partly 
replaced by a largo variety of parrots and pigeons, besides cockatoos and 
mound-builders. The reptile class includes crocodiles, lizards, an enormous 
python over 40 feet in length, and many other snakes. "Some of the 
butterflies are remarkable for their intense and variable metallic gloss, and 
the Philippines are celebrated above all other eastern countries for the 
variety and beauty of their land-shells, of which there are about 400 dis- 
tinct species, of varied form, and often of exquisitely delicate colouration " 

Inhabitants.— Excluding the already described few surviving 
AetaSy or Negrito aborigines (see p. 120), the whole of the native 
population belongs fundamentally to the Malay stock, which, how- 
ever, here presents a far greater variety of type and speech than in 
any other Malay region proper. Besides the larger nations, such as 
the Tagalas of Luzon and Mindoro, the Bisayans widely diffused 
throughout the central islands, the Bicok of South Luzon and 
Matbate, the Mandayas and Manobos of Mindanao, there are many 

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other tribes, especially in Luzon, who differ greatly in physical 
appearance, usages, language, and general culture. Thus while the 
Tagalas and Bisayans possessed a knowledge of letters, and rose to 
a certain degree of civilisation in comparatively remote times, the 
cruel and ferocious Ilongotes of the Caraballo highlands, Luzon, 
are described as the most degraded of beings, destitute of all the 
finer sentiments of humanity, and incapable of any generous act. 

In Luzon there are no less than fifteen, and in the whole Archipelago some 
forty languages, often presenting profound differences, although ultimately 
reducible to the common Malayo.-Polynesian stock. The cultivated Tagala 
and Bisayan are far more highly developed than either the Malay or 
Polynesian proper, and have evolved many curious and intricate forms of 
speech, which seem to place them in an intermediate state between the 
agglutinating and inflecting linguistic families. This surprising diversity 
of* types and languages must be attributed partly to the long isolation of 
the Philippines, attested also by their animal and vegetable forms, partly 
to the frequent contact with Asiatics and other peoples to which this 
group has been exposed from prehistoric times, and partly to intermixture 
with the Negritoes already in possession of the whole Archipelago before 
the arrival of the first Malay intruders. The endless variety of races 
resulting from all these causes is well illustrated by the ' Album of 
Philippine Types' issued in 1885 by Dr. A. B. Meyer of Dresden, and 
containing about 250 figures, showing every shade of transition from the 
pure and half-caste Negrito and Malay to the Hispano-Malayan Mestizo. 

A peculiarity of these populations is the resistance they have offered to 
the spread of Islam, contrasting in this respect with their susceptibility to 
Christian influences. Of the total population nearly six and a half millions 
are classed as " reduced," the majority of whom are members of the Roman 
Catholic Church subject to the Spanish Government, leaving scarcely more 
than 600,000 Negritoes, Chinese, and Igorrotes, a term commonly applied 
collectively to the pagan and uncivilised Malay tribes, in contradistinction 
to the Ilotes, or native Christians. The Christianity, however, of these 
Ilotes is often purely formal, a mere outward cloak, beneath which heathen 
rites and the lower phases of Romanism meet as on common ground. 

These remarks do not apply to the Stilus of the Suhl Archipelago, who 
are of purer Malay descent, although also to some extent affected by 
Chinese and perhaps Arab elements. All are zealous Mohammedans, ami 
were till recently notorious corsairs, a terror to the more peaceful seafaring 
populations of the China Sea. But since the reduction of this group by 
the Spaniards in 1876, their piratical expeditions have almost entirely 
ceased, while the Sulus long settled in North Borneo have mostly become 
orderly British subjects, somewhat indolent and restless, but on the whole 
" well behaved, courteous, and intelligent" (W. B. Pryer). Palawan 
(Paragua) also is partly inhabited by heathen Malays, the Tagbanuas, and 
Tinitianos, who nave many features in common with the Mohammedan 
Malays of Mindanao. Farther north and in the neighbouring Calamianes 
group live the Bulalacaunos, a ruder people, whose aquiline nose, crisp or 
wavy hair, and somewhat full beard, separate them from the Malay stock, 
and affiliate them probably to the Galelas and other Indonesians of the 

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Eastern Archipelago. Palawan is only nominally under the authority of 
the Spaniards, who maintain a solitary military establishment at Porto 
Princesa on the east coast. 

Government. — For administrative purposes the Archipelago is 
divided into forty-three departments or provinces, governed by 
Alcaldes or Commandants, under the general control of a Governor- 
General and Captain-General. These officials are practically absolute 
in their respective jurisdictions, the great bulk of the population 
being still unripe for civil or communal rights. A large degree of 
authority is also beneficially exercised by the ministers of the Roman 
Catholic Church, which here boasts of more numerous congregations 
than in any other part of the Asiatic world. The hierarchy com- 
prises an archbishop (Manila), three bishops, and nearly 500 parish 
priests, supported by a small poll-tax levied on all Christians, and 
by the revenue of large landed estates. The public revenue is also 
derived to a great extent from a capitation tax, supplemented with 
custom-dues, a tobacco monopoly, an excise on palm-wine, and a few 
other sources. 

Trade. — In the absence of railways, or even good roads and 
bridges, the natural resources of the Archipelago still remain to a 
large extent undeveloped. Nevertheless, a considerable export trade 
is supported by the produce of the sugar, tobacco, hemp, and coffee 
plantations. Cotton and rice are mostly required for the local con- 
sumption, but other articles of export are timber, especially sapan, 
indigo, gums, hides, and mother-of-pearl. The chief imports are 
cottons, hard-ware, crockery, China goods, and provisions of all sorts. 

Topography. — Nearly all the foreign trade of the Archipelago 
passes through the capital, Manila, founded in 1571 near the mouth 
of the river Pasig, on the east side of Manila Bay, west coast of 
Luzon. Manila has extensive commercial relations with China, 
Europe, and America, and enjoys telegraphic communication with 
the rest of the world through the cable to Hong-kong, laid down in 
1880. As the centre of the Spanish possessions, and next to Goa, 
the oldest European town in the East, Manila possesses numerous 
public buildings, scientific, charitable, and religious institutions. 
The climate, although hot (mean temperature 82° F.) f is not un- 
healthy ; but the place is exposed to terrific hurricanes (typhoons), 
thunderstorms, and earthquake* 

Next in importance to Manila is the seaport of Jloilo, on the south 
coast of Panay, the outlet of the best hemp-growing district. Other small 
centres of trade and population are Zebu, on the east side of the island of 


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like name, where Magellan was killed in 1521 ; Zatnboanga, at the western 
extremity of Mindanao ; SttcU, on the west, and Aparri on the north 
coast of Luzon. 


This Archipelago, stretching for 200 miles in a geutle curve from 
Mindanao to the north-east extremity of Borneo, comprises the three 
groups of Basitan in the east, SAM proper in the centre, and Taioi- 
Taim in the west. Until 1876 the whole chain formed an inde- 
pendent State under a Mohammedan sultan ; but in that year the 
Spaniards occupied Basilan, incorporating it with the Philippines, 
and at the same time compelled Sultan Mohammed- Yamalal-Alam 
to accept their protectorate. He now resides at MaXbun, his former 
capital, Tianggi, having been destroyed by the Spaniards, and since 
replaced by a new station in a more healthy site. The district of 
Sulu claimed by him in North Borneo now forms part of the British 
settlement in that region, his territory being thus reduced to the 
insular groups of Sulil and Tawi-TawL The two largest islands, 
both about 35 miles long, and from 3 to 10 broad, are fertile and 
partly covered with teak, sapan, cocoa and areca palms. Tobacco, 
recently introduced by the German Borneo Company, thrives well. 


To the Philippines also belongs politically the small Bashi, or 
BataneSj group between Babuyan and Formosa. Discovered by 
Dampier in 1687, it was occupied in 1783 by the Spaniards, who 
maintain a small establishment on Grafton islet. There is a con- 
siderable Malay population, who cultivate yams, batatas, pineapples, 
and other fruits of fine flavour. The Dominicans have a station on 
Batan, a high pyramidal island, which gives an alternative name to 
the whole group. 



The reasons for constituting this region, which fills up nearly 
the whole space between Borneo and New Guinea, a separate division 
of the Eastern Archipelago, distinct both from the Asiatic and 

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Australian sections, are fully set forth at pp. 109, 110, and need not 
here be repeated. Whether the lands of which it is composed be 
regarded as a remnant of the vanished Lemuria, formerly stretching 
south-westwards to Madagascar, or of a submerged Pacific continent, 
which, with the Philippines, extended eastwards and south-eastwards 
to the Marshall group and New Zealand (for this theory has also 
been advocated), it seems evident that Celebes and the Moluccas 
can have formed no part of the Asiatic or Australian mainland, at 
least since Miocene times. 


General Survey. — Lying almost exactly in the centre of the 
Archipelago, of which it is the fourth largest member, exceeding in 
size both Luzon and Java, Celebes stretches two degrees north and 
nearly six south of the equator, between 119° and 125° E. longitude. 
This strangely-shaped island, roughly resembling a starfish that has 
lost one of its rays, consists of a central nucleus, whence radiate north, 
east, and south four great limbs, traversed by four mountain-ranges, 
and enclosing the three great marine Gulfs of Tomini, Tolo, and 
Boni. Owing to this peculiar configuration, paralleled only by its 
eastern neighbour Jilolo, no part of it is over 50 miles from the sea, 
although it has a total length of about 800 miles, and an area of over 
70,000 square miles, with an enormous coastline of over 2000 miles. 
All the limbs terminate in islands, or insular groups, such as Salayer 
in the south ; Muna and Buton in the south-east ; Peling, Bangay, and 
further seawards the Sula Group in the east ; Tagolando, Siao, 
Sanguir, and others in the north-east— all evidently at one time form- 
ing part of the mainland, and indicating a former extension of Celebes 
towards the Sunda, Molucca, and Philippine Archipelagoes. 

Although the interior still awaits systematic exploration, sufficient is 
known of its structure to conclude that it almost everywhere consists of 
very old crystalline, carboniferous, and sedimentary rocks, except in the 
extreme north-east. Here is a remarkable cluster of 11 volcanoes, several 
of which have been in eruption during the present century, and one of 
which, Klabat, attains an elevation of nearly 7000 feet. Elsewhere there 
are several peaks, ranging from 8000 to 10,000 feet and upwards, such as 
Donda (9500 ?) at the north entrance of Macassar Strait ; Lompobatang 
(8200), and Bonthain (apparently about 10,000), at the south end of the 
southern limb ; Latimojong, Tukala, Tampoki, and Tjinrana in or near the 
central nucleus. But although the country is generally mountainous, with 
a mean elevation of perhaps not less than 2000 feet above sea-level, ex- 
tensive level or slightly rolling plains occupy a large space between the 

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uplands and the sea. These plains are in some places covered with dense 
primeval forest, and elsewhere overgrown with herbs and grass, affording 
excellent pasture for horses and cattle. (Temminck.) 

Rivers and Lakes. — Owing to its fragmentary character, Celebes 
affords no space for the development of great rivers. The largest is 
the Sadang, which enters Mandhar Bay on the west coast, after a 
southernly course of 160 miles ; but the most useful for navigation is 
the Chinrana, accessible for good-sized native craft to the large Lake 
Luboya, some 20 miles from its mouth on the west side of the Gulf 
of Boni. Besides the Luboya, there are several other lacustrine 
basins of considerable size in every part of the island, Celebes in this 
respect resembling Sumatra and the Philippines. Tondano in 
Minahassa, and Limbotto in the Gorongtalo district farther west, 
send their overflow to the Celebes Sea and Gulf of Tomini re- 
spectively, and most of the lakes stand at a considerable elevation in 
the midst of wild and romantic scenery. 

Climate.— Notwithstanding its equatorial position, Celebes en- 
joys a relatively cool and healthy climate, thanks partly to the high 
relief of the land, partly to the sea-breezes, by which the tropical 
heats are everywhere tempered. But for the violent earthquakes and 
volcanic eruptions of the northern peninsula, this island would be 
in every respect one of the most favoured regions in the world. 

Minerals. — Iron, salt, and gold are found in abundance, the 
latter being widely disseminated throughout the northern districts, 
and more extensively exported than from any other island except 
Borneo. Tin and copper also occur, and mines of both are worked 
in several places. But although the carboniferous strata are well 
developed, they have hitherto yielded nothing but coal of poor 

Flora and Fauna. The chief vegetable products are maize, 
rice, cassava, tobacco, coffee, yams, sugar, and sago, while the forests 
contain a great variety of valuable trees, from one of which the well- 
known badean or Macassar oil is extracted. Other useful species are 
the oak, teak, cedar, ebony, sandalwood, pepper, betel, areca, besides 
the clove and nutmeg, which grow wild, and the upas or " poison " 
tree, and bamboos in great abundance. 

The Celebes fauna differs from those of Borneo and Java in the absence 
of tailed monkeys, feline and canine animals, insectivora, the elephant, 
tapir, and rhinoceros. They are replaced by a large black tailless baboon, 
two kinds of cuscus (an opossum-like marsupial), two rats, five squirrels, 
and the already-described babirusa and sapi-utan, altogether peculiar to this 

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island. Of the 160 species of land-birds, as many as 90 are also peculiar 
to Celebes and adjacent islands, while of the remainder 50 come from the 
Asiatic and 20 from the Australian regions. Three remarkable genera of 
starlings {Basilomis, Enodes, and Seissorostrum), two indigenous magpies 
{Strepto-citta and Charitornis), and an anomalous kingfisher (Ceyeopsis), have 
no near allies in the Archipelago, and are only remotely connected with 
groups now inhabiting the Asiatic or African continents. The insects 
also differ largely from those of the Sundas and Moluccas, presenting certain 
peculiarities of form and colour occurring nowhere else. Thus, the more 
its living organisms are examined in detail, the more it becomes necessary 
to d3tach this remarkable region from the rest of the world. 

Inhabitants. — Although usually classed as Malays, the bulk of 
the inhabitants, both wild and cultured, seem to belong rather to the 
Indonesian group. Not only the "Alfuros," a collective term 
applied by the Malays to the rude and pagan natives, but also the 
civilised people, such as the Mangleassars and Biighis of the southern 
peninsula, are described as tall, well-proportioned, with regular 
features, and comparatively fair and even white complexion, and 
altogether resembling the Samoans, Tahitians, and other eastern 
Polynesians far more than the Malays. (Dumont d'Urville.) 

In general those described as Alfuros, such as the Galelas, Tarajas, Za ili, 
and many others, are heathens at a very low stage of culture, while the 
civilised communities, numerous especially in the south, profess a mild 
form of Mohammedanism, modified? by many local rites and traditions. 
The Bughis especially are an intelligent, energetic, and daring race, given 
more to trade and seafaring than to agriculture, and renowned throughout 
the Archipelago for their commercial qualities, vigour, and enterprise. Long 
before the Mohammedan period they had attained a certain degree of culture, 
derived probably from the Hindus of Java, and were distinguished by their 
courteous habits, hospitality to strangers, and knowledge of letters. Both 
Mangkassars and Bughis have a peculiar writing system, somewhat resem- 
bling that of the Sumatran Rejongs, and doubtless received from the same 
common Indian source. Their languages belong fundamentally to the 
Malayo-Polynesian family, but possess many independent forms, and 
foreign or unknown elements, derived probably from an original Indonesian 
form of speech, diffused throughout the Archipelago before the arrival of 
the Malays from the Asiatic mainland. 

Some of the wild tribes, especially in the central and northern districts, 
are head-hunters, and even cannibals, and in other respects betray a marked 
resemblance to the Bornean Dyaks, from whom they are probably 

Political Divisions. — Celebes is claimed entirely by the Dutch, 
and is divided by them into the Residencies of Manghassar (Macassar), 
which embraces the southern peninsulas, besides Salayer, Sumbawa, 
and part of Floris in the Lesser Sunda group, and Menado, which 
comprises the northern peninsulas, with the Siao, Sanguir, and Tulur 

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islets between Celebes and Mindanao. A third division, extending 
round the north and west sides of the Gulf of Tolo, is included in the 
Residency of Ternate in the Moluccas. The chief Dutch settlements 
are at Meixado and Gorongtalo in the northern, and at Mangkassar 
( Vlaardingen) at the southern extremity of the south-western penin- 
sula ; but very little of the country is really occupied, or directly 
administered by them, being still mostly held either by unreduced 
wild tribes, or by native rajas, who, however, recognise their political 
supremacy. Mangkassar is the largest town and chief seaport in 
Celebes, its trading relations extending to Java, Singapore, the Aru 
Islands, and New Guinea. The district produces abundance of rice, 
besides some cotton, with which the native women make large 
numbers of " sarongs," universally worn by Malays of both sexes. 
The Dutch Governor resides at Fort Rotterdam. Menado, capital of 
the Northern Residency, is a small place of scarcely 3000 inhabitants, 
near the north-east extremity of the island. On the opposite side of 
the peninsula is the station of Kema; and on the same side, but much 
further west, the little port of Gorongtalo, almost the only settlement 
in the district of like name, which is inhabited by rude tribes under 
rajas supervised by a Dutch Assistant-Resident. 

The south-western peninsula comprises nine petty Mohammedan States, 
constituting a sort of bughi confederacy, with capital at Boni, near the 
head of the gulf of like name, and in alliance with the Dutch. To the 
north-west is the smaller Mandhar confederacy of seven Mohammedan 
States, comprising the western portion of the island, where it projects into 
Macassar Strait, north of Mandnar Bay. The Mandhar people, who, like 
their Bughi neighbours, have developed a native culture, are daring trepang 
fishers, and enterprising traders. 

The large islands of BUon and Af&na, forming a southern extension of 
the south-eastern peninsula, constitute a Mohammedan State under a sultan 
subject to the Dutch. In the same way, the eastern islands of Peling, 
Bangay, with the Sulla (Xulfa) group, belong nominally to the Sultan of 
Ternate, who also recognises the supremacy of the Dutch. The inhabitants 
of all these islands are Mohammedan Malays, or Indonesians, speaking 
several distinct Malayan dialects. 

Agriculture, Trade, Industries. — Except where Dutch influ- 
ence has made itself felt, very little attention ha9 been paid to 
husbandry. The soil is much inferior to that of Java in fertility, 
and the only part of Celebes yielding surplus corn for exportation is 
the eastern or volcanic portion of the northern peninsula. Eecently 
the culture of coffee and cocoa has been introduced, but the staples of 
agriculture are maize, sugar, tobacco, cotton, and especially rice, of 

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which three varieties are grown. The inhabitants excel in the 
manufacture of the sarong, or national garment, woven by the women, 
and together with variegated mats largely exported. 

But the chief pursuit of the civilised communities is trade and maritime 
enterprise. The Bughis and Mangkassars are at present the most adven- 
turous and skilful seafarers in the Eastern Archipelago. With their little 
craft of peculiar build, and from 40 to 50 tons burden, they have acquired 
a large snare of the local carrying trade, making long journeys as far east 
as New Guinea, and westwards to Sumatra, in the track of the monsoons. 
The outward cargoes are chiefly cotton cloths (sarongs), edible birds'-nests, 
trepang, coffee, rice, gold-dust, tortoise-shell, sandal-wood, matting, bees- 
wax, gomuti cordage, sugar, and cocoa-nut oiL In exchange for these 
commodities, thev snip to Batavia, Singapore, and other places, cotton and 
silk fabrics, steel and iron ware, China goods, birds of paradise. The 
people of Celebes have numerous settlements in Borneo, Sumatra, and 
many other parts of the Archipelago. 

Molucca and Banda Groups. 

Under the term Moluccas (Malucos) or Spice Islands, are now 
generally comprised most of the groups lying between Celebes and 
New Guinea, and divided politically into the three Dutch Residencies 
of Amboyna, Banda, and Ternate, with a total area of over 20,000 
square miles. They form two distinct geographical groups : the 
Moluccas proper, with Jilolo to the north ; the Bandas, with Ceram 
and Burn in the south, separated from Celebes, the former by 
Molucca Passage, the latter by Pitt Passage. Northwards, the Tulur 
islets, lying in comparatively shallow water, serve to effect a transition 
to the Philippines, while in the south they are severed by the deep 
basin of the Banda Sea, from Timor and Timor Laut. They are 
almost exactly bisected by the equator, north and south of which 
they extend in Tulur and the Bandas a little beyond the fourth 
parallel of latitude. 

Physically the two large islands of Jilolo and Ceram appear to consist 
mainly of crystalline and old sedimentary rocks, while all the smaller 
groups are essentially igneous, forming an important section of the volcanic 
belt, which traverses the whole Archipelago from Sumatra to the Philip- 
pines. Many of the volcanoes are still active, and several were in eruption 
when these waters were visited by the Challenger expedition in 1874. On 
that occasion Ternate, a huge volcanic mass, with three suj>erimposed 
cones, 5600 feet high, was ascended by Moseley and Balfour, who found 
that the neighbouring Tidor, one of the highest points in the whole group, 
attained an elevation of 5900 feet. Other conspicuous cones are Metir 
(2800), a little north of the equator ; Hieri (2200), north of Ternate ; and 

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Gunong-Api (1860), in the Banda group, one of the most active in the 
whole Archipelago, and the scene of at least seven violent eruptions during 
the last two centuries. The outburst of 1825 was accompanied by tremend- 
ous earthquakes, which nearly destroyed Great Banda and the neighbour- 
ing islet of Neira. Many of the volcanoes are of comparatively recent date, 
and it seems evident that for many ages the whole region has been the 
scene of continuous disturbances, which have reduced it to its present 
fragmentary state. During Eocene, if not even Miocene times, it probably 
formed continuous land with Celebes and the Philippines, the natural 
history of all these groups having many features in common, which are 
also best explained on this supposition. 

Fauna and Flora. — The fauna of this region is connected with 
that of Celebes by the babirusa, found also in Buru. Other charac- 
teristic forms are the bird of Paradise and monkeys of Bachian, 
the civet, bats, and swine, besides the marsupial cuscus and flying 
opossum. Of birds, parrots, pigeons, and kingfishers are the pre- 
vailing species, including the rare green-fruit dove, and racket- 
tailed kingfishers. The crimson lori, ground-thrush, fly-catcher, 
cassowary, and mound-builders, are also met Here, as elsewhere 
in the Archipelago, are found butterflies of the largest size and most 
vivid hues. The beetles also are remarkable for their size and beauty ; 
the long-armed beetle of Amboyna being one of the giants of the 
insect world. 

This region is the native home of the nutmeg, clove, and other spices, 
which appear to have spread thence to various parts of the Archipelago and 
Indo-China. But in the Moluccas proper the clove is no longer produced, 
the plant having been extirpated by the early Dutch rulers, who desired 
to enhance the value of the spices by restricting their cultivation to the 
Banda Islands. Other valuable vegetable products are cardamoms, the 
kanary nut, Cayaput oil, dammer, pandani, and sago, the last-mentioned 
forming the staple of food in most of the islands. 

Jilolo, properly Halmahera, largest of the whole group, is of 
an extremely irregular form, curiously resembling that of Celebes, 
and like it developing three spacious inlets on its east side. The 
interior, which still awaits thorough exploration, is generally rugged 
and mountainous, culminating in the northern peninsula with the 
volcanic Gamokonora, said to have been upheaved in 1673. Jilolo, 
which has a total length of some 200 miles, with an extreme breadth 
of 90, and an area of about 6500 square miles, is mostly occupied by 
peoples of Malay stock, akin to those of the adjacent islands of 
Ternate and Tidor. But the northern parts are still held by the so- 
called " Alfuros," wild tribes betraying both Papuan and Indonesian 

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affinities, and representing the aboriginal elements before the arrival 
of the intruding Malays from the west. 

In the north-west lies the large island of Mortal (Moro), now separated 
by Mortai Strait from the northern peninsula, union with which would 
greatly increase the resemblance already noticed between Jilolo and Celebes. 
But a striking difference is presented by the aspect of the West Coasts, 
that of Celebes being destitute of islets, while that of Jilolo is fringed by 
the chain of the 

Moluccas Proper, stretching from the central nucleus south- 
wards to Bachian, which corresponds at the southern with Mortai at 
the northern extremity. Taking them in their order, from north to 
south, the members of this highly volcanic and fertile chain are 
Ternate, Tidor, Makyan, with the coralline Kaioa, besides some 
uninhabited islets and reefs. Still farther south is the totally unin- 
habited Oby group (Great and Little Oby, &c), midway between 
Sulla and Misol. The natives of the true Moluccas and Bachian are 
all Mohammedans of Malay stock, speaking several distinct Malay 
tongues, and governed by sultans under Dutch supervision. Great 
Oby is 45 miles long and mountainous, with peaks 5000 feet high. 

The Sultans of Ternate and Tidor were formerly amongst the most 
powerful in the Archipelago, ruling over scattered territories, which com- 
prised large tracts in east and north Celebes, Jilolo, west New Guinea, and 
intervening insular groups. But the Dutch are now virtually masters of 
both States, with a Resident at the town of Ternate, where is centred all 
the trade of the Moluccas in the eastern seas. This trade consists chiefly of 
tortoise-shell, trepang, beeswax, massoi-bark, and birds-of-paradise. 

Ceram — Ke. — Next in size to Jilolo, and scarcely better known, 
Ceram stands in somewhat the same relation to the other islands of 
the southern, that Halmahera does to those of the northern group. 
Stretching 160 miles east and west, with an average breadth of 35 
miles, and an area of nearly 7000 square miles, it fills up much of 
the space between Burii and New Guinea, and towards the west is 
nearly divided into two unequal parts by deep inlets on the north 
and south coast The surface is very mountainous, the whole island 
being traversed by a densely-wooded range running from east to west, 
at 6000 to 10,000 feet high. The sago-palm, which grows wild, 
supplies abundance of food for the local consumption and export, 
sago-cake being much used, like our " sailor's biscuits," by the native 
seafaring populations. 

The bulk of the inhabitants are of Papuan type and speech, with a 
considerable intermixture of Malay elements, especially on the coast. 

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Here are a few scattered Mohammedan and Christian settlements ; but 
the only place of any importance is Wahai, a fortified station on the north 
side over against Misol. 

Ceram is continued south-eastwards, in the direction of Am, by a chain 
of islands, of which the most important are Ceram Laut, Goram, Man- 
iwlko, Afatabello, Teor, and the K4 group (Great and Little Ke), all mostly 
unsettled, and inhabited by people of mixed Papftan and Malay descent, 
the dark element almost everywhere predominating. In Ke there are 
some Mohammedan Malay, or Indonesian communities; but the majority 
of the people are distinctly Papuans in type and speech, and like most 
Papuans skilful wood-carvers. They also excel in boat-building, the 
materials being supplied by the forests of fine timber covering extensive 
tracts in this group. Ke may be regarded as the south-eastern extremity 
of our Oceanic division, for immediately beyond it the deep marine basin 
terminates at the 100-fathom-line indicating the north-western limits of 
the Australian world. 

BuriL — Ceram is separated on the west by Buru Strait from the 
large island of Buru, which is 85 miles by 40, with an area of nearly 
2C00 square miles. Although somewhat sterile, the northern dis- 
tricts produce the plant whence is extracted the far-famed Cayaput- 
oil. This part of the island is occupied by a people of Malay type, 
while in the south the Papuan is the dominant element. Buru con- 
sists mainly of old sedimentary rocks, but touches the great volcanic 
belt at its western extremity, where Cape Palpettu is dominated by a 
lofty cone still active or quiescent. At Caydi, on the north side, is 
a strong Dutch fort, with a Commandant under the supervision of 
the Resident of Amboyna. It exports considerable quantities of 
fish, sago, Cayaput-oil, and swine, which, being fed on sago, have a 
finer flavour than any other. The island is divided into several 
petty States, whose rajas spend most of their time in Cayeli, under 
the influence of opium. 

The chief physical feature of Buru is Lake Wakolo, a fine sheet of 
water, situated near the centre of the island, some 1900 feet above sea-level, 
and surrounded by high hills, except where it seems to escape through the 
Wai Nipe river. Wakolo, which was visited in 1883 by H. O. Forbes, 
looks like a flooded crater, several miles in diameter, and 240 to 300 feet 
deep. It is remarkable that no fish except eels live in its waters, which 
are very little navigated by the timid or superstitious natives dwelling on 
its shores. 

Some recent ethnologists have on Somewhat shadowy grounds pointed to 
Buru as the cradle of the large brown Polynesian race (Samoans, Tahitians, 
Hawaiians, &c), or at least the land whence these Indonesians started on 
their long migrations from the Archipelago eastwards to the Pacific. 

Amboyna. — This historical island, where the Dutch and English 
long contended for supremacy in the eastern seas, lies south from the 

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west end of Ceram, and is little over 30 miles long, by 10 or 12 
broad, with an area of 210 square miles. The surface is billy but 
fertile, yielding large quantities of cloves, of which a million pounda 
have been exported in favourable years. The clove plant, which 
resembles the pear-tree, grows to a height of 40 feet, bearing fruit for 
100 seasons after its ninth year. Other products are cinnamon, 
cotton, coffee, indigo, pepper, and sago, the latter being the chief food 
of the Malayan and Ceramese Mohammedan natives. Amboyna, 
like all coraline islands in these waters, is noted for its beautiful 
shells, corals, and sponges, which completely carpet the bed of the sea. 

The town of Amboyna, capital of the Dutch possessions in the Moluccas, 
carries on a brisk trade in cloves, cabinet wood from Ceram, and other 
local produce, through the Netherlands Trading Company. The adjacent 
islets of Haruka, Sapurua, and Misa Laut, also produce cloves, and form 
with Amboyna the far-famed clove-gardens of the Dutch Government. 
Many of the native Mohammedans have become "Orang Sirani," that is, 
"Nazarens," or Christians, although their new religion "seems to lie on 
them like an awesome thraldom." (Forbes.) 

Ban da. — The small but valuable Banda group, which gives its 
name to the neighbouring waters, was long the exclusive nutmeg 
garden of the world, and here this beautiful plant still grows in the 
greatest perfection. The islands, which lie some 60 miles south of 
Ceram, are all volcanic, one of them forming the superb Gunung 
Api (2000 feet), with a still active crater. The group consists alto- 
gether of twelve islets, with a collective area of not more than 18 
square miles. But here is concentrated some of the most enchanting 
scenery in the whole Archipelago. 

The produce, including sago and cocoa-nuts, besides the staple exports, 
nutmeg and mace, "is grown in beautiful bowers, and garnered round its 
umbrageous bayleted snores in long, gaudily-painted praus, which are 
constantly darting about, propelled by little rowers, who plunge and flash 
their paddles in the sun to a buoyant merry tune. The atmosphere is 
charged with aromatic exhalations ; its wharfs and streets are the picture 
of tidiness, and the very water that laps its coral shores is brighter and 
purer than almost anywhere else in the world." (Forbes.) But eruptions 
and earthquakes are frequent, and often very destructive. The chief town 
and centre of trade is Nassau in Banda Neira. 

The Perkeniers, descendants of Europeans, settled in this group since 
1621, enjoyed a monopoly of the nutmeg trade till 1860. 

Political Divisions. — The whole of this region, officially named 
the Moluccas, comprises three separate Dutch Residencies as under : — 

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1. Amboyna, so named from its central island, embraces all the neigh- 
bouring islets, the large island of Buru, and the western portion of Ceram. 
It is one of the oldest Dutch settlements in the East. 

2. Banda, includes the western half of Ceram, the Banda group proper, 
the Ke and Am groups, Timor Laut, and the Serwati Archipelago, between 
that island and Timor. 

3. Ternate, comprises Jilolo, with all the adjacent islands ; a part of 
Celebes bordering on the Gulf of Tomini, with all the intervening islands ; 
Misol, Salawati, w aijiu, and the western section of Nevr Guinea as far as 
141° E. longitude. 



General Survey. — This division falls naturally into two groups 
— a volcanic and a non- volcanic — the former washed by deep waters, 
and comprising all the Lesser Sundas with Timor ; the latter com- 
prising New Guinea, with Salawati, Waijiu, Misol, Aru, with Timor 
Laut, and washed by shallow waters. Exceptions to this symmetrical 
disposition are, in the first division, the Sumba group, which appear 
to be non-volcanic ; and in the second, Timor Laut, which lies beyond 
the 100-fathom-line, and consequently in deep water. For reasons 
already stated, Bali is here separated altogether from the Lesser 
Sundas, and treated in the Asiatic division, as in every respect 
forming a geographical dependency of Java. 

Of the two groups the non- volcanic belongs beyond all doubt physically 
to the Australian mainland, from which it became detached at probably a 
not very remote period. On the other hand, the volcanic group is con- 
nected with Australia, not physically so much as in its animal and 
vegetable forms. It is apparently of recent formation, upheaved through 
igneous agency after the subsidence of Lemuria, of which Sumba, Timor, 
and Timor Laut may, like Celebes, be possibly surviving fragments. 
Hence, in a strictly scientific grouping, these somewhat abnormal islands 
should perhaps be treated in our Oceanic division, although more con- 
veniently reserved for this place. 

The two groups lie altogether south of the equator, the volcanic mainly 
north of the 10th parallel, the non-volcanic occupying the whole space 
between the equator and the same parallel. They stretch for over 3000 
miles west and east across 45 degrees of longitude (106—151° E.), and 
have a collective area of some 365,000 sguare miles. But this space is 
very unequally distributed, over seven-eighths being comprised in the 
non- volcanic, and less than one-eighth in the volcanic group. 

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The Lesser Scndas, with Timor and Timor Laut. 

All the members of this group, except Sumba and Timor Laut, 
form so many links in one of the most remarkable chains of volcanic 
islands on the globe, stretching from Java and Bali just under the 
eighth parallel of south latitude, due eastwards to the islet of Moa, 
128° E. longitude, off the eastern extremity of Timor. They are 
separated by the narrow but deep Lombok Strait from Bali, western 
limit of the Asiatic world, and like that of Java, their long axis is 
disposed in the direction from west to east in all cases except Timor, 
which is only partly volcanic, and which runs south-west and north- 
east Owing to the influence of the predominant wind from the 
arid plains of North Australia, the climate is much drier than in 
most other parts of the Archipelago, and in its animal and vegetable 
forms the whole group resembles the same region far more than any 
other of the surrounding lands. Here the line is drawn very sharply 
between Bali and Lombok, although separated from each other by a 
marine passage not more than 15 miles wide. 

Lombok, so designated by Europeans from the name of the 
southern district, is usually called Selaparan by the Balinese, and by 
the Bughis Tanah Samfc, that is, " Land of the Sasaks," as its native 
inhabitants are called. It is of rhomboidal shape, 55 miles by 45, 
with an area of 2100 square miles, and a population of some 400,000, 
all Sasaks (Mohammedans of Malayan stock), except about 20,000 
Hindu Balinese, and 5000 Malays confined to the seaports. 

Recent calcareous formations prevail in the south, which is traversed 
west and east by a limestone range, with an extreme altitude of 1000 feet. 
But the north is wholly igneous, with a parallel but much loftier volcanic 
range, culminating in the Lombok Peak (Gilnung Renjani), a remarkable 
mountain, with four cones encircling a crater, above which rises a fifth cone, 
Api, continually emitting sulphurous vapours, Sangkarejan, the loftiest 
of these cones, is 12,460 feet nigh, and between it and Vayan (6500 feet) 
lies the upland Lake Segara, 7900 feet above sea-level. The northern and 
southern ranges are connected near the centre of the island by the volcanic 
Sessan hills, which are clothed with a dense vegetation of shrubs and 
grasses, and which form a waterparting, whence flow numerous unnavi- 
gable but perennial streams, contributing much to the fertility of the 

Marking the extreme eastern limit of the Australian animal and 
vegetable forms, Lombok lacks the Areng palm, the lontar (Borassus 
JlabelUformis), and many other characteristic Javanese plants, and is also 
relatively poor in orchids, ferns, and mosses. Here are no tigers or other 
felidre, while the Oriolus horsjieldi, and other binls common to Indo- 
Malaya, are replaced by cockatoos, the tHpodorhyncus timorieTisis, and 

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several species of honey-suckers, belonging to the Australian avifauna. 
Similar contrasts are presented by the butterflies and beetles of Lombok, as 
compared with the Javanese and Balinese insect world. 

The natives cultivate rice, which is largely exported, besides maize, 
cotton, tobacco, sugar-cane, indigo, and coffee. They also rear numerous 
herds of cattle, buffaloes and horses, and occupy themselves with metal- 
work, linen-weaving, and the manufacture of bamboo and palm fibre 
matting. Politically the Balinese are the dominant class, the Sasaks 
presenting a rare instance of a Mohammedan population controlled by 
Hindu masters. But all alike are under the direct supervision of the 
Dutch ; Lombok, since 1849, forming with Bali a Residency, with seat of 
Government at Mataram, three miles from the west coast. The chief sea- 
port is the neighbouring Ampdnam, which has a mixed population of 
Sasaks, Balinese, Bughis, and Malays. Besides rice it exports coffee, 
cotton, hides, and horses ; the chief imports being salt, areng sugar, arac, 
opium, palm oil, hardware, and European goods. The Balinese conquest 
dates from the first half of the 18th century, and the Brahmanical rajas 
were absolutely independent of the Dutch till about 1840. 

Sumbawa.— Lying between Lombok and Comodo, from which 
it is severed by the narrow straits, Alias and Sapi, Sumbawa is 170 
miles long, varying greatly in breadth from five or six to 50 miles, 
with a total area of 5000 square miles. Its peculiarly irregular form 
is due to the deep indentations on the north coast, one of which, the 
Bay of Bima, penetrates 15 miles inland, thus nearly severing the 
island into two parts. It is essentially volcanic, with several cones 
over 5000 feet and culminating in Tomboro, or Tambora, 9040. 
Tomboro, at the entrance of Dompo Bay, was the scene of a tremend- 
ous eruption in 1815, when most of the land was w T asted, and 12,000 
of the inhabitants involved in the general ruin. The climate is much 
drier than that of the more westernly islands, and few of the streams 
are perennial, but rather resemble the Arabian wadies, rushing 
torrents during the rainy season, waterless saudy river-beds for the 
rest of the year. Hence, much of the land is unproductive ; but the 
forests yield the valuable sapan and sandalwood, besides teak, which 
appears here sporadically, being absent from the islands intermediate 
between Sumbawa and Java. 

The chief mammals are swine, deer, and a much-prized breed of ponies, 
exported to Java and Mauritius. The natives are mainly Malayan Moham- 
medans, somewhat resembling the Bughis of Celebes, but speaking several 
distinct languages, and grouped into four petty States (Sumbawa, Dompo, 
Sangar, and Bima), under the control of a Dutch Assistant-Resident, 
stationed at Bima, on the north-east coast. They cultivate rice and 
tobacco ; other articles of export being wax, birds -nests, gold, pearls, 
sulphur, sapan, and sandalwood. 


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Floris and Comodo.— The transition from Sumbawa to Floris is 
effected by the little uninhabited volcanic group 0 f Comodo, with an 
area of about 300 square miles, and separated from Floris by Man- 
gerai Strait. Mangerai and Ende are alternative native names for 
Floris, a European term unknown to the natives. Floris, which is 
about 230 by 30 to 35 miles, with an area of 9200 square miles, is 
mainly volcanic, with two active cones and several peaks, ranging 
from 6000 to 10,000 feet. Copper ores appear to abound, and sulphur 
as well as gold also occur. The soil is fertile on the coasts, yielding 
good crops of rice and maize, while cinnamon, sapan, and sandalwood 
are amongst the most valuable forest growths. These, with beeswax 
and ponies, form the staple of the export trade. 

The bulk of the inhabitants are Papuans, Floris forming the western 
limit of this race. On the coast are some Bughis settlements from Celebes, 
and the former occupation of the island by the Portugese is still attested 
by some half-caste Christian communities in the Larantuka district on the 
north coast. Here was the Portuguese station, and here now resides the 
Dutch administrator. The interior of the country is very little known ; 
its resources remain undeveloped, and there is little local and no export 

Floris is continued eastwards to Timor, through a continuous chain of 
islets, including Solor, Adanara, Lomblem, Pantar and Ombai, which are 
also under the administrator of Larantuka, himself dependent on the 
Resident at Kupang in Timor. 

Sumba, or Sandalwood, which lies some 35 miles to the south 
of Floris, and beyond the volcanic zone, is 130 miles by 50, with an 
estimated area of 5000 square miles. With Savu, Rotti, and Samao, 
it forms a loop-line of non- volcanic islands, sweeping round from 
the west end of Floris to the west end of Timor, and, like Celebes, 
probably representing so many fragments of a submerged Miocene 

Lying off the beaten track, and visited only by Bughis traders, the 
group is very little known ; but it appears to be inhabited by a fine race of 
Malayan or Indonesian Mohammedans, practically independent of the 
Dutch, although occasionally visited by officials from Timor. They grow 
rice, maize, and tobacco, ana" have herds of buffaloes, ponies, sheep, and 

foats. This group also yields for exportation sandalwood, birds' -nests, 
eeswax, and tortoise-shell Savu is rocky and mountainous, with an area 
of about 200 square miles. Samao, within three miles of Timor, is 20 miles 
by seven, with an area of 150 square miles, while Rotti, also close to Timor, 
and 60 miles by 38, has an area of over 500 square miles. 

Timor.— Physically occupies an intermediate position between 
the Lesser Sundas proper and the " loop-line," allied to the former 

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in its slightly volcanic, to the latter in its more highly developed 
sedimentary formations, different from both in the lie of its main 
axis, which is not west and east, but south-west and north-east. The 
great prevalence of old rocks, such as schists, slates, sandstones, and 
carboniferous limestones, combined with the fact that it lies mainly in 
very deep waters, seems to indicate a former connection with the 
vanished Lemurian continent, of which it may perhaps be regarded 
as the eastern limit in this direction. Timor is the largest of all the 
Lesser Sundas, being 300 miles by 60, with an area of over 1 1 ,000 
square miles. The surface is everywhere rugged and mountainous, 
with numerous irregular ridges from 4000 to 8000 feet, and peaks 
rising considerably higher. Mount Kabalaki, in the eastern district 
of Manufahi, has an altitude of over 10,000 feet (Forbes), while 
Gunung Alias, near the south coast, appears to be the culminating 
point, with an elevation of 11,500 feet. 

Iron, copper, and gold occur in several places, and the uplands yield 
excellent wheat and potatoes. The woodlands, which nowhere develope. 
into true forests, contain much sandalwood of fine quality, which forms, 
with ponies, a chief staple of export. 

The substratum of the population appears to be Papuan, but inter- 
mingled in the most varied proportions with Malayan, Indonesian, and 
other elements. They are divided into a large number of more or less 
hostile tribes, speaking as many as forty distinct Papuan and Malayan 
languages or dialects. Some of the tribes are extremely rude, and still 
addicted to head-hunting, at least during war, and to other barbarous 
practices. In their Uma-Luli, or sacred (tabooed) enclosures, rites are 
performed resembling those of the South Sea Islanders. 

Politically Timor belongs partly to the Dutch, and partly to the Por- 
tuguese. The western and larger section is nominally administered by a 
Dutch Resident stationed at Kupang, a pretty little town, with a mixed 
Timorese, Malay, Chinese, and European population, at the western ex- 
tremity of the island. It exports sandalwood, beeswax, ponies, and 

The eastern section is ruled by the Portuguese, whose chief settlement 
is at Dili, a group of hovels and wretched houses, with a ruined fort, in a 
fever-stricken district on the north coast. Its chief exports are wheat, 
potatoes, coffee of fine quality, ponies, sandalwood, and beeswax. But 
there are a large number of practically independent petty States ; as many 
as forty-seven in East Timor alone. These " Renos," or "kingdoms," are 
under absolute "Leoreis," or chiefs, and subdivided into Sickus, or dis- 
tricts, each under a Dato, dependent on the Leorei, and assisted by a Cabo 
and Tenente. (Forbes.) 

Scattered over the Banda Sea, between Timor and Timor Laut, are 
several islands and insular groups — Wetter, Roma, Moa, the Serwaii islets, 
and Babbar— which are mostly volcanic, and consequently form a natural 
eastern extension of the Lesser Sundas in the direction of Timor Laut. 

Wetter, which is considerably larger than all the rest put together, lies 

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40 miles north of Timor, is 80 miles long, largely volcanic, rugged, and 
nearly treeless, and inhabited by a mixed Papuan race, akin to the 
Timorese. East of it is the lofty island of Roma, and the volcanic Moa, 
both occupied by Malayan peoples. These, with Babbar, lying much 
farther east, are sometimes regarded as outlying members of the Serwati 
group, which in its widest sense also includes Kissa, between Wetter and 
Moa ; Nila and Serua in the extreme north-east ; Damma, midway between 
Nila and Roma ; Sermatta, east of Moa. The natives are partly of Malayan 
or Indonesian, partly of Papuan stock, and many are nominal Christians. 
All these islands are now included in the Dutch Residency of Banda. 

Timor Laut, or Tenimber. — Until recently the very outlines of 
this group were unknown. It was figured on all maps as a continuous 
piece of land running south-west and north-east, nearly parallel with 
Timor, whereas it really consists of three considerable islands ; Yam- 
dena in the centre, separated by Wallace Channel from Larat in the 
north, and by Egeron Strait from Selaru in the south, with a cluster 
or chain of smaller islets on the west and north sides. Thus, the con- 
jecture made by Captain Owen Stanley in 1841, that " when the island 
is properly examined, it will be found to consist of several islands, 
separated by narrow channels," has been fully verified by the sub- 
sequent explorations of Mr. Hartog, who first sailed through Egeron 
Strait in 1877, and of Mr. H. 0. Forbes, who surveyed Wallace 
Channel and the northern districts in 1882. 

Timor Laut, i.e. " Seaward Timor," is a low coralline group, the land 
seldom rising over 100 feet, except at Egeron Strait, where the cliffs are 
400 feet, and at Laibobar, apparently a volcanic islet on the west coast, 
with an extinct crater 2000 feet high. There are no streams, and the poor 
soil, covered with a typically coral island flora, yields little beyond maize, 
the staple of food, manioc, sweet potatoes, tobacco, some sugar-cane and 
cotton, and a little rice. The fauna includes buffaloes in a wild state, a 
cuscus (marsupial), some bats, the beautiful scarlet lory, here indigenous, 
new or rare varieties of the ground-thrush, honey-eater, and oriole. The 
birds seem to have come mainly from New Guinea, the insects from Timor ; 
a few of both from Australia. 

The aborigines are evidently Papuans, with a language like that of the 
Ke islanders ; but there is a large intermingling of Malayan and Indonesian 
(Polynesian ?) elements. They are a fine, nandsome people, often over six 
feet high, noted, like all Papuans, for their high artistic sense, betrayed 
especially in their wood and ivory carvings. In other respects they are 
pagans in a low state of culture, mostly divided into hostile communities, 
and addicted to piracy. There is a Dutch official (" Postholder ") stationed 
at Ritabcl, on the west coast of Larat, a trading station of the Bughis from 

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General Survey. — This great island, exceeded in size by Aus- 
tralia alone in the eastern hemisphere, lies entirely south of the 
equator ; but while almost touching the line at its western, it reaches 
at its eastern extremity nearly to 11° South latitude. The main 
axis thus lies in the direction from north-west to south-east, stretch- 
ing across 20 degrees of the meridian (131°— 151' E. long.) with a 
total length of some 1500 miles, and area roughly estimated at 
310,000 square miles. Owing to its curiously irregular form, resem- 
bling in outline some extinct saurian, with head facing Jilolo and 
tail touching the Louisiades, the breadth varies enormously from 
about 20 miles at the neck to 480 at the widest part of the body. 
This greatest width coincides exactly with the 141° E. long, which 
divides the island into two nearly equal parts, and which forms the 
conventional line separating the Dutch, or western, from the lately- 
formed British and German sections. Here the central mass bulges 
out southwards in the direction of York Peninsula, northernmost 
point of Australia, from which it is separated by the shallow waters 
of the island -studded Torres Strait, only 80 miles wide and nowhere 
over 20 fathoms deep. From this central mass the head and tail 
project north-westwards and south-eastwards as two peninsulas, the 
former formed by the deep inlet of Geelvink Bay on the north coast, 
the latter by the broader bight of Papua Gulf on the south coast. 
The western peninsula is again disposed in two secondary peninsulas 
by McCluer Inlet running in the opposite direction from Geelvink 
Bay, while the eastern tapers gradually towards the Louisiades. But 
here also McCluer Inlet finds its counterpart in Huon Gulf indenting 
the coast opposite Papua Gulf. Recent exploration has also shown 
that the central parts of the seaboard are far less uniform than had 
been supposed, being diversifiel by numerous little bays and head- 
lands, as well as by the mouths of many streams, whose existence 
had not hitherto been suspected. 

Islands. — Grouped round the western extremity of New Guinea 
are several insular dependencies of the mainland, which they closely 
resemble in their physical constitution, natural history, and inhabit- 
ants. The most considerable are Jobi, Biak, Silky and Mafor 
(properly Nuf&r) in Geelvink Bay ; Waij in, Batanta, Salawati, and 
Alisol, forming a westerly continuation of New Guinea in the direc- 
tion of the Molucca and Banda Archipelagoes ; lastly, the Am group 
on the south-west coast, noted for its birds of paradise and pearl 

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fisheries. Here is the port of Dobbo, "the Nislini Novgorod of 
Malaysia" (Guillemard), much frequented by Bughis and Chinese 
dealers. The large island of Frederick Henry on the south coast almost 
forms part of the mainland ; and Torres Strait, further east, is thickly 
strewn with numerous islets, partly coralline, partly of old formation, 
probably fragments of the miocene land which at this point form- 
erly connected New Guinea with Australia. Of these the largest 
ore Thursday, Banks, York, Damley, and Murray, which are all 
politically attached to the government of Queensland. 

The coralline islets of Torres Strait are often wrongly described as a 
western continuation of the Great Barrier Reef of East Australia. Bt-tween 
these groups there flows deep water mostly free of islands, while the 
sunken Barrier Reef of south-east New Guinea, about 140 miles in length, 
reaches no further west than Cape Possession near Hall Sound, 146° 20' 
E . Here it is arrested by the copious fresh-water streams, which discharge 
into Papua Gulf, and destroy the work of the coral zoophytes. The north 
coast of New Guinea east of Geelviiik Bay is almost destitute of reefs and 
islands ; but numerous groups, such as the D' Entrecasteaux and Louisiade 
Archipelagoes, are clustered round the south-eastern extremity of the 
mainland. Off the north-east coast are the large islands of New Britain 
and New Ireland now occupied by the Germans, and by them re-named 
the " Bismark Archipelago.'' But all these groups belong rather to the 
Pacific insular world, and are most commonly included in the Melanesian 
Division of the South Sea Islands. 

Physical Features.— Till recently New Guinea was a terra 
incognita in the strict sense of the term, and even still by far the 
greater part of the interior remains to be explored. Hence any 
attempt at a detailed account of its relief would be premature. It 
is known, however, to be essentially a highland, partly even an 
Alpine region, developing plains, or low-lying tracts, chiefly along 
the lower courses of the rivers, and elsewhere traversed by lofty, and 
in some places snowy, ranges running mostly north-west and south- 
east in the line of the main insular axis. These ranges appear to 
form more or less continuous single chains in the north-west and 
south-east, while in the central region they diverge into parallel 
systems, at some points approaching close to the seaboard and enclos- 
ing extensive plateaux and even low-lying level tracts. The best 
known sections are the Arfak hills (9000 to 10,000 feet) back of 
Geelvink Bay in the north-west, and in the south-east the Sir 
Arthur Gordon, Albert, Yule, and Owen Stanley ranges, the latter 
culminating with the double-crested Mount Owen Stanley (13,205 
feet), approached, but not yet ascended, by Chalmers and Forbes. 
In the vast unvisited central region other great rarges, such as the 

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Charles Louis (17,000 to 18,000 feet), are traced on the maps, and 
described as towering above the line of perpetual snow by geograph- 
ers relying on the somewhat indistinct reports of travellers. At 
the same time the existence of such Alpine heights is rendered highly 
probable by the presence of copious perennial streams flowing in 
independent channels to the coast, and which are found to be far 
more numerous than had till lately been supposed. 

Rivers. — The largest river in New Guinea appears to be the 
Fly, which enters the west side of Papua Gulf through a large and 
intricate delta, and which D'Albertis ascended in 1876 for 500 miles 
in a steam-launch. It drains a vast swampy region diversified with 
wooded mountains and treeless plains broken by isolated hills, the 
scenery in many places presenting an Australian aspect. Another 
large river, the Empress Augusta, was discovered so recently as 1886, 
on the north-east coast, by Dr. Finsch, and navigated for 40 miles 
by Captain Dallman, who reported it navigable for a much longer 
distance. Mr. Morris, Dutch Resident of Ternate, also surveyed in 
1883-84, several hitherto unknown rivers on the north coast, such 
as the Wiriwaai and Witriwaai, apparently two branches of the same 
stream, and the much larger Aiberan (Amberno or Mamberan), that 
is " Great River," which he ascended for 60 miles, and found to be 
800 yards wide and seven fathoms deep near its mouth. Two large 
rivers, the Davadava and Hadava, not marked on any map, also 
reach the sea at Milne Bay, the latter with an intricate delta 12 to 
16 feet deep, and apparently leading into the heart of the country. 
But owing to the action of the south-west monsoons the mouths of 
the coast streams are mostly silted up with sand and mud, hence 
unnavigable. Altogether it may be anticipated that the more the 
interior is opened up the more it will be found covered with 
M mountains, north, east, south, and west " (Chalmers), and traversed 
by copious perennial streams flowing from the central water-parting 
to the northern and southern seaboards. 

Geological Formations. — The salient formations appear to be 
a substratum of granite and gneiss cropping out in the Arfak hills 
and elsewhere ; stratified clay slates, and both old and recent lime- 
stones and calcareous Lower Miocene clays with fossil shells identical 
with those of south-east Australia. Quartz, greenstone, and jasper- 
oids also occur on the south-east coast, resembling those of the 
Silurian and Devonian series of the New South Wales gold-fields. 

Gold will probably be found both here and in the Hadava river-basin 
as well as on the uplands and north-east coast. It is usually asserted that 

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no active volcanoes, or even any external cones, occur in New Guinea ; but 
this is a mistake due to hasty generalization from imperfect surveys, for 
the spurs projecting on either side from Mount Owen Stanley contaiu 
several craters said to be formed by recent volcanic action. Pumice, also, 
and other igneous matter, cover the slopes of the Finisterre hills, while 
earthquakes are of frequent occurrence in many places. 

Climate. — On all the low-lying coast-lands and about the river- 
mouths the climate is malarious, and unsuitable for European 
settlers. On the uplands the tropical heats are tempered by the 
marine breezes, which in the northern and western districts accom- 
pany the north-west, and in the southern and eastern the south- 
east, monsoon. The latter prevails from July to September, and is 
often very violent, arresting all navigation in Torres Strait. 

The heats are rendered more oppressive by the heavy rainfall, and 
Guillemard, who lately visited the north coast, found the climate more 
trying than that of any other region except the Persian Gulf in summer. 
" Bathed in perspiration from morning till night and from night till 
morning, we woke utterly unrefreshed by sleep. The temperature, which 
in a dry climate would not have been unpleasant — for it was rarely above 
90° F. — was intolerable. Everything to which damp could cling became 
mouldy, and our boots, if put on one side for a day or two, grew a crop of 
mildew nearly half an inch in thickness " (ii. p. 291). 

Flora. — The original vegetation appears to have been mainly 
Malayan, which still largely prevails in most districts. But numer- 
ous Polynesian, Asiatic, and Australian species have also invaded 
the island, and all these different floras are found in some places 
intermingled. Thus W. Wyatt Gill speaks of taro, yams, gigantic 
aroids, the ivory nut palm, cotton, tobacco, the oak tree, capsicums, 
strawberries, raspberries, and the nutmeg, all occurring in and about 
the Laroki valley near Port Moresby on the south-east coast. Else- 
where on the same coast, J. Chalmers met during a single stroll, " a 
strange profusion of cocoanut, sago, and betel palms, numerous bread- 
fruit, and large tamanu trees,, and crotons of various kinds, 
ferns in abundance, and mangroves." The Australian eucalypti and 
acacias and the Oceanic cocoanut are everywhere familiar sights 
along the south coast, and the immense variety of vegetation is 
further attested by the presence of the pandanus with its strange 
aerial roots ; the costly red cedar (Cedrda Australia) ; the potipoti, 
growing to a height of 60 feet and yielding a much-prized fruit ; the 
Cordyline terminal^ jack fruit, and banana all widely diffused ; the 
zamia, forming a curious link between palms and ferns ; the Eryth- 
r 'rna, Barringtonia specio&a, and other flowering forest trees ; lastly, 

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the native jute plant, with edible root, and stalk yielding the finest 
jute fibre in the world (Gill). 

The subalpine flora is represented by oats, rhododendrons, araucarias, 
umbelliferse, &c, while the chief cultivated plants are maize, millet, sugar 
cane, taro, rice, pumpkins, yams, and the sago-like sali. The sago palm 
itself, although yielding a staple of food, appears not to be cultivated, 
but to grow wild in the marshy districts. The natives till the land with- 

Seat skill and neatness ; but the few patches thus reclaimed in the more 
voured localities are of no account compared with the rest of the land, 
which is still mostly overgrown with dense primeval forests diversified in 
some places with grassy and treeless tracts of limited extent. 

Fauna. — While the flora is to a large extent Malayan, the fauna 
is in some respects essentially Australian, the older marsupials still 
everywhere holding their ground against the higher mammals, which 
appear to be represented almost exclusively by the pig, the dingo, 
mice, the flying-fox, and other members of the bat family. There 
are at least three species of cuscus, two of the wallaby, and several 
varieties of the true kangaroo and other marsupials, besides three 
species of the spiny ant-eater, allied to the Australian Echidna, 
which, like the Platypus, are now known to be oviparous, thus 
supplying a further link between reptiles and mammalians (W. H. 
Caldwell). Of true reptiles by far the largest and most formidable 
is the crocodile, which infests nearly all the rivers, attaining a length 
of over nine feet, and both devouring and is devoured by the natives. 
Snakes, which occur in great variety, are also eaten, and even by the 
cannibals preferred to pig or any other except human flesh. 

The avifauna, which is specially rich and beautiful, presents nearly 
500 indigenous species, mostly belonging to Australian genera, besides 
many locally-developed varieties. Malayan forms also occur, together with 
others common to the whole Oceanic domain. But the special glory of 
this avifauna are the birds of Paradise, of which there are at least twenty 
species, all restricted to New Guinea and its islands, with the single 
exception of the standard-wing found in Jilolo and Bachian. Other more 
or less characteristic forms are the cockatoos, parrots, lories, the spur- 
winged plover, kingfishers, mound-builders, honeysuckers, flycatchers, 
crested and other pigeons, comprising altogether about forty genera of 
exclusively Papuan land-birds (Wallace). The gorgeous plumage of the 
feathered tribe is rivalled by the resplendent colours and metallic lustre 
of the numerous local varieties of butterfles and beetles. A curiosity of 
the shell world is the kima, a gigantic clam, often measuring 32 inches 
by 19 (Gill). 

Inhabitants. — The great bulk of the natives belong undoubtedly 
to the Papuan stock ; but such are the discrepancies presented by 

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the different tribes in their physical appearance, mental qualities, 
and grades of culture, that D'Albertis and some other observers have 
felt inclined to doubt the existence of a Papuan type at all. These 
points, together with a general account of the Papuan populations, 
have been discussed at page 123, and need not be further dwelt upon 
in this place. As regards New Guinea more particularly, it will 
suffice to observe that the numerous and often profound departures 
from the normal Papuan standard may be attributed mainly to long 
isolation in separate tribal groups, and to constant crossings with 
oilier peoples, such as the Karons and other Negritoes in the interior, 
Malays and " Alf uros " along the western seaboard, and Indonesians 
(brown Polynesians) especially on the south-east coast. But not- 
withstanding these diverse interminglings there is a general preval- 
ence of the more salient Papuan characteristics — mop-head, arched 
nose, long and high skull, sooty-black complexion — from Misoi and 
Aru in the extreme west to the Louisiade Islands in the extreme east . 
The same features are found diffused throughout Melanesia in the 
Pacific, and as far west as Floris in the Eastern Archipelago. Hence 
New Guinea has been regarded as the natural, as it certainly is the 
geographical, centre of the Papuasian world. But from this it does 
not follow that here the type first became specialized, and there is 
even reason to suppose that the earliest inhabitants of New Guinea 
were not Papuans but Negritoes. This, however, is a point that can 
be determined only by further exploration in the interior, where 
some Negritoes have already been found (Dr. Hamy). The 
general movement of Papuan migration may, consequently, not have 
been from New Guinea west and east ; but either from Melanesia 
westwards, or from the eastern Archipelago eastwards. And so far 
as New Guinea is concerned this diffusion of the race must be 
referred to a period posterior to the separation from Australia, for 
the indigenous populations of these two regions belong to totally 
different branches of the Negro family. The transition from the 
true Papuans of Torres Strait to the true Australians of the main- 
land is extremely abrupt, and for this and other reasons it seems 
evident that the two great islands were peopled by independent 
waves of migration at some time subsequently to the subsidence of 
the land now flooded by Torres Strait and the Arafura Sea. Probably 
both were uninhabited till very late tertiary or early quaternary 

The New Guinea natives have been hitherto carefully studied only at a 
few points on the seaboard, such as rouud the shores of Geelvink Bay, at 

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Humboldt Bay, and especially along the south-east coast. The result is 
on the whole unfavourable, their general social condition appearing to 
be much lower than had been supposed. Some of the practices associated 
with their treatment of the dead, as alluded to bv the English missionaries 
about Port Moresby and Redscar Bay, are indescribably revolting, and 
seem to place these savages at the very lowest stage of human culture. 
Apart from provocation from Europeans, they are also found to be natur* 
ally false and treacherous, of filthy habits, and unclean eaters, devouring 
vermin and all things digestible, while giving a decided preference to 
reptiles, pig, and man. In some places cannibalism in its most repulsive 
form is universally practised, and to attend one of their periodical cannibal 
feasts an invitation was sent to the Rev. James Chalmers, who found the 
guests strutting about " with pieces of human flesh dangling from their 
neck and arms." A child destined for this banquet "was spared for a 
future time, it being considered too small." (IVork and Adventure in 
New Guinea, 1885.) Needless to say that amongst these communities 
Christianity has not made much progress. Some of the north-eastern 
tribes are so backward that they use nothing but shell implements ; they 
could hardly be made to understand the purpose of a tomahawk, and were 
scared by a match being struck by a member of Captain Bridge's surveying 
party (1884). Yet of good augury for the luture is the fact that both the 
true Papuans and the half-caste Polynesians manufacture some articles, 
and especially pottery, not only for local use, but for the express purpose 
of trading with their neighbours. 

Political Divisions. — While most of the country remains in 
the hands of the natives, the whole island has since 1885 been nomi- 
nally distributed amongst three European powers. The claims of 
the Dutch to the western half, as far east as 141° E., long., claims 
ba ; ed on the former rights or pretensions of the Sultan of Tidor, are 
now fully recognized. The eastern half is divided in unequal pro- 
portions between England and Germany, a conventional line drawn 
from the Dutch frontier eastwards forming the boundary between 
the British protectorate on the south-east and the German on the 
north-east coast. New Guinea is thus parcelled out in the following 
proportions amongst these three States : 

Sq. Miles. 

Dutch New Guinea .... 148,000 
British „ .... 90,000 

German „ .... 72,000 

Total 310,000 

There is no Dutch settlement in New Guinea, Dorey at the north- 
west entrance of Geelvink Bay being only a missionary station, noted 
in the records of local exploration as the starting-point of many 
expeditions to the interior. The German New Guinea Company has 

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already founded three small settlements, at Finsch Harbour, Haizfeldt 
Harbour (4° 24' S., 145° 9' E.), and Constantine Harbour (5° 30' S., 
145° 45' E.), while the British posts at Yule Island, Port Moresby, 
and Eedscar Bay continue to be chiefly centres of missionary enter- 
prise. The varied mineral and vegetable resources of the country 
must remain undeveloped pending the construction of roads along 
the coast and to the interior. From the Report of the late Sir Peter 
Scratchley, first Special Commissioner to British New Guinea, it 
appears that, owing to the unfavourable climate, the development of 
these resources will even then have to depend almost exclusively on 
coloured labour. In 1892 the German administration was completely 
paralyzed, nearly all the officials having been carried off by an 
epidemic of malarious fever. 

Historical Note. — New Guinea was probably first sighted by A. Dahren 
in 1511, and first visited by the Portuguese Don Jorge de Meneses (1526 ?) 
and the Spaniard Alvaro de Saaverda (1528), receiving its name in 1546 
from Ortiz de Retez (Roda), either from the appearance of its negroid 
inhabitants, or from a fancied resemblance of the northern seaboard to 
that of Upper Guinea on the West Coast of Africa. It was "annexed " by 
two commanders in the East India Company's service in 1793, when the 
island of Manasoari in Geelvink Bay was occupied for some months by 
British troops. But in 1814 the English Government admitted the Dutch 
claims to the Raja Ampat, or " Four Kingships " of Waijiu, Salawati, 
Misol, and Waigamma, including certain tracts on the mainland. As 
suzerain of the Sultan of Tidor, the Dutch also claim the western half 
of the islaud, to the remaining portion of which British and German 
protection were extended in the year 1884. The British protectorate ceased 
in September 1888, when formal possession or sovereignty was proclaimed 
over the whole of British New Guinea with the adjacent D'Entrecasteaux 
and Louisiade Archipelagoes. The territory is divided into a Western, 
Central, and Eastern Division, each in charge of a Deputy Commissioner, 
the general administration being placed under an Administrator. By the 
New Guinea Act of November 1887, a sum of £15,000 is secured for 
the administration, New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland each 
contributing towards this amount. 

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Area in Sq. Miles. Pop. (1888). 

Borneo . . . 290,000 (?) 1,740,000 

Sumatra with dependencies 150,000 3,572,000 

Java with Madura . 54,000 22,818,000 

Banka . . . 5,200 78,000 

Biliton . . . 2,600 38,000 

Lesser Sunda Group . 40,000 2,100,000 

Celebes and dependencies 75,000 1,500,000 

Molucca and Banda Groups 25,000 (?) 490,000 

Philippines with Sulu . 116,000 7,000,000 

Ne I,?" iDea WUh depeDd " \ 310,000 840,000 

Total Eastern Archipelago 1,067,800 40,176,000 




Area in Sq. Miles. 

Pop. (1888). 

Bantam . 



Batavia . 



Kravang . 



Cheribon . 



Preanger . 







700 ' 


Samarang . 






Banjumas . 



Ba^elen . 









Surakarta . 



Rembang . 



Surabaya . 









Pasuruan . 







Banjuwanghi . 

1,600 ) 
1,800 { 





Java and Madura 

. 54,000 





West Coast 
East Coast 
Benculen . 

Area in Sq. Miles. 

Sumatra with, dependencies 149,560 

Pop. (1888.) 




Riau-Lingga . . 17,330 
Banka and Biliton . 7,800 
Borneo, West Coast . 58,900 
Borneo, South and East 145,000 



Menado . 




} • 


Timor (part of) 
Savn, Rotti 
Bali ) 
Lombok J 
Timor Laut, ) 
Am, and K6 f ' 
West New Guinea 






Total Dutch Possessions 727,340 






Total population (1891), estimated 31,000,000. 

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Chief Towns. 

Surakarta . 



Meester Cornelis 
Jokjokarta . 
Pekalongan . 
Tuban . 
Bangkalan . 


Pop. (1888). 


Progress of Population 





1891 (est.) 


Achin . 
Padang . 


Pop. (1888). 


20,000 (?) 


Menado . 
Ternate . 
Kupang . 

Pop. (1888). 



Population of Java, according to races (188*8). 
J avanese ) 

Sundanese \ 22,400,000 
Madurese ) 

Chinese 300,000 

Europeans .... 40,000 

Arabs and sundries . . . 78,000 

Average net Revenue, £9,000,000. 

Yearly exports (Java), £12,000,000 to £15,000,000. 

Exports to Great Britain (1889), £2,234,000. 

Imports from Great Britain, £1,525,000. 

Nutmegs exported from Banda (1889), £83,000. 

Shipping (1889), 4540 vessels of 3,026,000 tons cleared. 

Railways (Java, 1889), 790 miles. 

Telegraph Lines (1889), 6,000 miles ; messages, 429,000. 
Post Offices, 288 ; letters carried (1889), 7,700,000. 
Army, 33,000, of whom 15,000 Europeans: 


Area in Sq. Miles. 
North-east New Guinea 72,000 

East Timor 


Area in Sq. Miles. 






Philippines : 
Luzon . 
Visayas . 
Adjacent Islands 
Calamianes j 
and Palawan j 
Sulu Islands 

Area in Sq. Miles. 




Total 124,130 

Pop. (1887). 





Manilla, Pop. (1880), 270,000. 

Total exports to Great Britain (1889), £2,332,000. 

„ imports from „ „ £1,543,000. 

Telegraph lines (1884), 720 miles. 


Area in Sq. Miles. 

Pop. (1891). 

Sarawak . 



North Borneo . 



Labuan . 



South-east N. Guinea 90.030 


Total 166,030 


Sarawak . 







• Imports 






North Borneo 






























Based on Hellwald's Die Erde und Ihre VOlker. Translated by 

Professor A. H. Keane, M.A.I. 

A Series of Six Volumes descriptive of the Great Divisions of the Globe. 

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