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Full text of "Canadian machinery and manufacturing news, 1910"

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Why five years ? 

Because within the past five years there has been an 
unprecedented development in Canadian railroads. The 
steel rails have been laid north, south, cast and west. 
The building of the G. T. P., the expansion of the C. P. 
R., the miles of lines of the C. N. R. under construction 
and the inroads of other railroads have made a demand 
for larger and better tools. 

Because motor drive is being used more in railroad 
and manufacturing shops ; and because (and this is pro- 
bably the chief reason) there has been the introduction 
of new h'igh speed steel necessitating greater driving 
power, wider belts and a more substantial machine. 

Canadian companies have shown themselves very pro- 
gressive and have improved all their standard lines as 
well as increasing the number of machine tools manufac- 
tured. Others have devoted their time and attention to 
one line, improving it to give a maximum production. 
Besides carrying on experiments themselves, they have 
watched those being made by machine tool manufactur- 
ers of other countries. The result has been great im- 
provements in Canadian-made machine tools. 

Five years ago with carbon steel a very slow machine 
speed was satisfactory. The fact that machines have 
been developed to work at a speed from 2 to 5 times 
that speed according to the work, tells the story of how 
machine tools have Ijecn redesigned and more heavily 

Planers have required a great deal of attention to 
make them stand up to their work. A' few years ago, 
it was recognized that finishing cuts could be taken at a 
higher speed than roughing cuts, but now this is re- 
versed. The introduction of high speed steel has brought 
about the reversal of conditions. 

McGregor, Qourlay Shaper. 

Rack driven shai ers are subject to these conditions 
mentioned for the planer. Now a slotted arm is recog- 
nized as best because the speed is reduced at the be- 
ginning and end of stroke. Fig. 1 illustrates a Mc- 
Gregor, Gourlay Co. 16x20 inch shaper. It gives 8 
changes of speed where 4 were formerly used. It is now 
considered essential to have automatic down feed of tool 
where formerly it was a luxury. 

The machine illustrated in Fig. 1 is of modern de- 
sign and stands up well when using high speed steel. 
The ram has square slides and is worked by an improved 
adjustable crank and slotted lever, the length of stroke 
being instantly set by a dial and pointer on the opera- 
tor's side of the machine, the longitudinal adjustment 
is made quickly and positively by means of a double 
thread screw. The tool block slide has automatic feed 
up or down at any angle. The screw of this has a 
micrometer index graduated in thousandths of an inch. 

The cross feed screw is also provided with micrometer 
index, and the feed stops automatically at either end of 
the slide, preventing breakages through carelessness. 

McGregor, Gourlay Co. Lathe. 

The 20-inch lathe illustrated in Fig. 2 is built for 
modern steel requirements with increased belt power 
and variety of feeds. In increasing the width and speed 
of belt, difficulties have arisen in shifting. To overcome 
this the McGregor, Gourlay Co. designed the permanent 
belt shifter shown in Fig. 2. This works easily and 
quickly. Another point 'is the feeds. A few years ago 3 
changes were thought to be enough, but now 50 changes 
of feed are instantly available. 

In the 20-inch lathe shown in Fig. 2 the cone is made 
with three steps, large in diameter, and takes an extra 
wide belt, which is changed by the shifter mentioned. 
There arc two sets of back gears which with two fric- 
tion pulleys on the countershaft give 18 changes of speed 
in geometrical progression, instantly available. For high 
speed work this is an entirely satisfactory arrangement, 
as it gives six changes of speed for finishing and small 
diameters at much greater power than has been furnish- 
ed, direct on the spindle from the l«elt. Six changes 
.through a back gear of low ratio for roughing at a high 
speed, and six changes through a comparatively high 
ratio, back gear tor large diameter. .., ■,.. . .'■.■■, 

The feeds and screw cutting chan^'e&'*'are instaiitiy 
obtainable by the movement of a lever to the different 
positions given on the index plate. .All the gears con- 
nected with this mechanism are made of steel, and when- 
ever running on studs are bronze bushed. It is imposstn 
ble to engage either automatic oross or longitudinal feedi^'.- 



when the machine is cutting screws or vice-\eisa. The 
thread of the screw is used only for screw cutting. It is 
not necessary to reverse or stop the spindle when cutting 
screws as a dial on the saddle shows when to engage 
the nut. The feeds are instantly reversed in the apron 
by a movement of a lever. The saddle may be instantly 
clamped when cross feeding Ny a movement of a lever. 

The headstock is well ribbed, closely fitted, and so 
clamped as to insure its non-chattering. The bearings 
are made self-oiling, having deep chambers for this pur- 

Fig. 1.— McGregor, Gourlay, Gait, Redesigned IC" Sharer. 

Lathe cuts the following threads : 
2, 2i U. 2i, 2f, 3, 3i, 3i, 3J, 4, 4i, 4S, h, 5.i, 5|, 6, 
Hi, 7, 7i, 8, 9, 9i, 10, 11, lU, 12, 13, 14, 15., 16, 18, 
19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 36, 38, 40, 44, 46, 
48, 52, 56, 60, 64. 

R. McDougall Co., Lathes. 
The K. McDougall Co., Gait, is giving special atten- 
tion to lathes and in thd past two years have redesigned 
them so that they now have a greater rigidity so that 
they are more suitable for high speed steels. The head 
has been redesigned to give a more even progression of 
speed. The cone diameter has been enlarged giving 
greater belt contact. The lathes now do from 2 to 4 
times as much as previously in ten hours. 


-McGregor, Gourlay, Gait, Redesigned 20" Lathe. 

pose and oil is fed to the spindles through a felt strainer 
which acts as a filter in clearing the oil. This filter should 
be renewed at least once a year and this will insure well 
lubricated bearings. I'rovision is made for return of oil 

Fig. 4.— Bertram Interchangable Lathe Fitted for Motor Drive. 

to chamber, thus making oiling of spindles automatic. 
This is one of the new features. 

The carriage and apron have been redesigned with 
special reference to gi\ing the maximum resistance to 
the springing and strain'ing of these important parts of 
a lathe. The carriage has full bearings on V's its entire 

Fig. 3.— R. McDougall. Gait. Redesigned Gap Lathe. 


leugth, has wide cross V' reinforced with an extra amount 
of metal in cross bridge. The construction of the car- 
riage and apron and their connection with rod and 
screw are so closely fitted as to prevent all tendencies 
to unevenness of motion or springing when under; load. 

The carriage brace is a special feature. This is a 
strong brace which is connected to the apron and slides 
upon a scraped and fitted way on the bed. The upper 

ed, it can be arranged for motor or belt drive as desired, 
or for square or parallel drivei, by bolting on the proper 
attachments. A description of this new Bertram planer 
appeared in the September issue of Canadian Machinery. 
The lathe shown in the heading is a belt driven 
lathe. Fig. 4 shows the motor driven lathe. The lathes 
;ii-e made convertible, belt drive or motor being at- 
tached after the body of the lathe is completed, accord- 

Fig. 5.— Bertram Locomotive Wheel Tire Lathe of Five Years Ago. 

end is shouldered and this makes carriage very solid when 
working on gap diameters. 

Double back gears are now used on their gap lathes 
and engine lathes when ordered. This feature is a very 
important one, especially on a gap lathe where a large 
range of diameters require to be treated. With two 
speed countershaft, as provided, 18 distinct spindle 
speeds are available, the ratio of advance being equal in 
each case so that no two speeds overlap. Through the 
first or low ratio gear a high spindle speed with a high 
belt velocity makes the lathe particularly efficient on 
rough and heavy cuts on small diameters, while the 
second or high: ratio gear gives ample power for heavy 

Fig. 7.— Modern Coach Wheel Lathe. 

ing to specifications. In Fig. 4 the mechanism known 
as the "back gearing." is on the front of the lathe. 
Power is applied near the cut, taking the strain off the 
bearings. Massiveness is one of the features in the re- 
design of the lathe so that it stands well the strain of 
high speed steels. 

Locomotive Wheel Tire Lathe. 
Great advances have been made in railroad tools. 
In the Bertram locomotive wheel tire lathe several im- 
provements have been made. Fig. 5 shows the old type 

Fig. 6. — Itedesigned Locomotive Wheel Tire Lathe 

cuts on the largest diameters which can be swung in 
the lathe. 

The lathes are all carefully tested, a test sheet re- 
cord being kept and a copy is sent to the purchaser. 
The parts are made to accurate templets, and the lead 
screw is guaranteed being made to an exact standard 
master screw. 

John Bertram & Sons Co., Dundas. 

All lines built by .lohn Bertram & Sons Co. have 
undergone redesigning. The drive on all tools, including 
lathes, planers, drills, etc., have been reconstructed. 
Planers are now built so that with the body of the 
planer can be placed in stock. When an order is receiv- 

Fig. 8.— Redesigned Punch and Shears. 

tool holder and method of holding wheel in place, while 
Pig. 6 shows the redesigned machine. In the first type 
the wheels were turned with an ordinary driver, now 
patent sure grip drivers are used, the wheel being chucked 
firmly to faceplate by the arms. Th5s method is the in- 
vention of an expert of the Niles, Bement, Pond Co., and 
was patented in Canada by the John Bertram & Sons 

The tool holder used to require eight bolts and nuts 
but the new single screw tool holder shown, in Fig. 6 
reduces time. Production has now been more than 



trebled, the output being increased from 3 pair to 9 and 
12 pair per day. 

Bertram Coach Wheel Lathe. 

Tlie coach wheels used to be driven in the touch 
wheel lathe from the face by boltheads, but now the oamc 
method as for tires is used. A single tool holder has been adopted on this machine and the output has 
been increased from 5 or fi to 15 pair per day. 

Fig. 9,— Improved Punrh and Shears. 

Fig. 7 shows a modern coach wheel lathe with single 
tcol holder and modern clinch g'rips. This heavy tool hiis 
been developed to turn the high C. and Mg. steels. They 
must have g-reat power, for on account of the climate 
and heavy grades, our railroads are more severe on 
rolling stocks than southern roads. The tires get tem- 
pered and the tools must remove these parts by cutting 
under the hardened parts, when truing up coach wheels. 

Bertram Punches and Shears. 

Punches and shears have been recently redesigned 

makins: them convertible for structural steel work. The 

Fig. 10.— .Motor Driven Plate Rolls. 

one shown in Fig. 8 has a 40-inch face of ram for mul- 
tiple punching. With it 12 to 15 holes may be punched 
at once. Formerly &,000 holes per day used to be a good 
day's work, now 90,000 holes per day is considered a 
reasonable day's work. 

Fig. 9 shows one of the latest shearing machines. 
Formerly the beams were worked by cams. This method 
)v?,s flefectiv* apd when diiTerent thiclmesses of plate 

were used, they were not clamped equally. When it 
clamped thin work it would not clamp thick plate. 

The shears shown in Fig 9 are equipped with clamps 
operated by air cylinders, which give an equal pressure 
on all thicknesses of plate. Another late development, 
or perhaps it is an old method again adopted, is to use 
belt drive from the motor to the shears, as the jarring 
of the machine gave trouble with gears. 

Aiig-le shears cut 8"xS"xi4" angles where C".\6".\3/4" 
used to be thought large. This development is due to 
the increased size of structures and the demand for 
hirgor structural steel shapes. 

Bending rolls have been improved and with modern 
rolls as shown in Fig. 10. With these IJ" plate can 
be rolled where five years ago rolls would btnd up to 
B inch only. 

Hydraulic Press. 

With the development in Canadian railroads there 
has also been a development in the hydraulic press. Th(- 
machine five years ago had a single plunger pump with 
cast iron cylinders for wheel work. Xow steel resistance, 
e, pper lined cylinders and triple plunger pumps are parts 
of the improved hydraulic press. 

Three sizes of plungers are attached, one or all may 
be used, sizes -^ inch, 1] inch or 1 J inch being available. 

Fig. 11.— 20th Century Rotary Planer. 

From 150 and 200 tons was formerly considered a big 
machine ; now 300 tons for carwheels and 600 tons for 
locomotive tires is used. 

Rotary Planer. 

The rotary planer is a development caused by the re- 
cent advances in structural steel work. The motor is 
mounted on the turntable as shown in Fig. 11. The first 
Canadian machine had a capacity of 24 inches. The 
company who installed the 24-inch machine is now in- 
stalling a rotary planer of the same make, 67 inches 
in diameter. Planers are made up to 10 ft. diameter 
cutting head capacity. 

Universal Radial Drill. 

Fig. 12 shows a Bertram Universal Radial Drill, the 
latest product of the Bertram worksi, and is a new de- 
sign. This machine is driven by means of a single pulley 
through speed box, and back gears. There are 16 changes 
of spindle speeds. The spindles are counterbalanced and 
piovided with quick return- There are three changes of 
positive feed controlled by a pull pin conveniently locat- 
ed on the head. 

The drill head is of the full-swing type, being mount- 
ed on a swiveling base and can be readily turned from a 
vertical to a horizontal position- It has lateral adjust- 

30 ._ _ 


toent along the arm \>j means of rack and pinion through 
a band wheel convenient to the operator. 

The arm is of particularly rigid construction with 
vertical adjustment t«y power and is arranged to swivel. 
The inner column is rigidly bolted to the base plate and 
supports the outer column which rests on roller l>earings, 
permitting: easy swins^ing of the drill arm. 

A conveniently arranged reverse lever m front of the 
drill head is used for tapping. The position of this lever 

Kig. 12.— New Bertram Universal Radial Drill. 

up or down indicates the direction of the spindle traverse 
while the drill spindle may be instantly stopped by lift- 
ing lever to central position. These machines may be 
readily changed from belt to motor drive at any time. 

Bertram Boring Mills and Slotters. 

Boring mills have been redesigned and increased from 
42 to 100 inches. The Niles boring mill is built up to 
20 ft. 

Slotters are now made with motor drive and are con- 
vertible. Fig. 13 Sihows a 12-inch slotter with link 
slotting attachment. The worm of circular motion is 
disconnected and the bar is set to the circle required. 

Steam hammers have also been redesigned to keep 
up with the demand made by the railroads for heavier 
locomotives and therefore heavier locomotive frames. 
New Machines of Stevens Co., Gait. 

About three years ago the Stevens Co. started to rnajii;- 
facture in Canada the Jones & Lamson or Hartness typ.' 
of flat turret lathe. Although this lathe was previously 
manufactured in United States it is the first of its class 
to be manufactured in Canada. 

A new manufacturing lathe of simple design was re- 
cently placed on t'he market. It has powerful drive, being 
made for use with high speed steel. 

Bawden 20-incli Drill. 

The Bawden Machine & Tool Co., 22 Orillia Street, 
Toronto, manufacture a 20 in. drill which was placed on 
the market about two years ago. It is a pewcrful drill, 
furnished with back gear, power feed, automatic stop and 
quick return. 

London Machine Tool Co., Hamilton. 

Another company which has made great strides in 
the redesign of machine tools is the London IMachine 
Tool Co. Practically their whole line of slotters, drills, 
shapers, boring millsi, planers, lathes and railroad ma- 
chinery has been redesigned to keep pace with the de- 
mand for heavier machine tools for use in railroad shops. 

Fig. 14 shows a large slotter built in 1909 by the 
London Machine Tool Co. In designing this slotter ad- 
vantage has been taken of the largest us.ers of slotters. 
The essential features in the design are the movable head 
and the quick power adjustments to head and to all 
motions of the table. Coupled with these are other im- 
provements of extra quick return of ram, stroke indicator, 
automatic throw-out to feed, etc. 

This slotter allows work being done requiring great 
reach. The quick power feature, on certain work, means 
an increase of 200 per cent, in output. Generally it does 
■">0 per cent, more than the original designed machine. The 
machine illustrated will cut to the centre of a circle 7 ft. 
ins. in diameter, and will cut to the outside of circle 
It ft. 2 ins. in diameter. 

Heavy Wheel Lathe. 

Fig. 15 illustrates a massive Wheel lathe built by the 
Loudon Machine Tool Co., Hamilton. All parts are designed 

Fig. 13.— 12" Blotter With Link Slotting Attachment. 

for exceptionally heavy strains. It has been estimated 
that the cutting pressure on the two tools reaches as high 
as 300,000 lbs. It can therefore be imagined that the 
design of present day railroad shop machine tools must 
be in excess of everything heretofore produced to take 
care of whee's used in present day practice, and to stand 
guflh enormous preesurec. 



The face plates are 91 laches diameter, allowing wheels 
to be turned 86 iuches diameter on the tread. The bear- 
ings are 16 ins. by 22 ins.| long. The feed® vary from 
16-100 of an inch per rev., to 48-100 of an inch per rev., 
having eight impulses per revolution. By means of 
clutches and change gears, working speeds are provided 
for all wheels from 86 ins. to 34 ins. in diameter, so that 
coach wheels may be turned in the same machine. The 
weight of the maphine complete is about 102,000 lbs. 

Motor-Driven Boring Mill. 

The motor driven boring mill shown in Fig. 16 is a 
104 in. manufactured by the London Machine Tool Co., 

Fig. 14. — Improved Slotter 

Made by London Machine Tool Co.. 

Hamilton. This is operated by two D,C. motors. One 
is connected by gearing to the driving mechanism, and the 
one for raising the crossrail is located on the top of the 

Besides those illustrated the Londoii Machine Tool 
Co., Hamilton, bave redesigned their lathes, making 
several improvements in the attachments as well. A new 
radial drill, designed for using high speed siteel and for 
heavy work has also been added to tbeir line. 

, Their heavy double axle lathe is worthy of mention. 
It is designed to turning car, coach a,nd locomotive axles. 

to have entered the machine tool trad-e and convertible 
machines is one re&uH. Immediately after the introduc- 
tion of high speed steel, there was an introduction of 
geai'ed feeds. It -will be seen by a perusal of this article, 
however, that Canadian builders of machine tools as well 
as other companies have returned to belt drive, thoug'h the 
convertible machine permits the attaching of heads for 
either .belt, motor or gear drive as desired. The latest 
machines as described, have belt-driven feeds. 

Some of the best results removing metal have been 
obtained from belt driven machines so that this is not 
merely a whim of the manufacturers in adopting belt- 
driven feeds, of good width and with wide pulleys. 01<3 
patterns bave been laid aside and all the machine tools 
have been built on new plans. A machine of five years 
ag'o is entirely out-of-date. Improvements have followed 
each other, new features being rapidly added. What will 
be developed in th« next five years is hard to prophesy. 
The demand for machine tools is increasing and when the 
transcontinental railroads start equipping shops which 
will inevitably follow, still greater improvements must be 
made and new lines added to keep up with the demands 
for tools for railroad work. 


An Engineers' Standardized Publications ^Association 
was recently formed in England, having its' headquarters 
at Craven House,' Kiiigsiway; London, W.d. Its object is 
to pei-suade manufacturers to conform to mutually agreed 
standards in the size and arrangement of price lists and 
catalogues, and facilitate reference to these publications 
by seientific classification of their contents. 

Wbile, the shape and size of catalogues may, seem a 
small matter, yet anyone who has attempted the classiflca- 
tion and arrangement of the catalogues issued ,by Can- 
adian and United States, British and other manufacturers, 
will appreciate the great difficulty of making an orderly 
collection of them. The result frequently is that the 
catalogues are not carefully preserved as they should be. 
and therefore fail to carry out the full purpose of their 
mission. When one considers the outlay on these pubUea- 
tions, which are often handsomely and expensively gotten 

fwP^F'" ^l^^nr 

Fig. 15. —Heavy- Wheel Lathe. 

using high speed steels. A few of the prominent features 
of the machine are large bearing surfaces, powerful feed 
through splined rod, positive locking tool post, automatic 
stops to carriage feed, etc. 

A Review of Improvements. 
During the past few years many improvements have 
been made in all lines of machine tools. Fashions seem 

Fig. 16.— 104" Boring Mill. 

up. and the heavy expense of postage, the advisability of 
taking all possible steps to insure not merely a monetary 
welcome and appreciation, but a permanent place in a 
reference collection is self-evident. This is the age of 
filing cabinets, which are more or less of uniform size and 
all manufacturers might with profit consider the matter 
of standardizing their price lists and catalogues. 

The Work of Overhauling Electric Railway Rolling Stock 

Paper Read before the Canadian Street Railway Association, Dealing 
with the Various Operations in the Shops, to Keep Cars in Commission 

By W. R. McCREA * 

In presenting these remarks concern- 
ing the periodical overhauling o£ rolling 
stock, it is my intention to endeavor to 
convince those interested in the main- 
tenance of electric railway rolling stock 
that periodical overhauling is absolutely 
necessary to obtain the maximum o£ 
efficiency and also that when this work 
is completed, the term, general over- 
haul will be amply justified. 

Prior to three years ago very few of 
the cars on the Toronto system were 
overhauled with any degree of regular- 
ity. This neglect was responsible for 
some of the following results : Average 
daily cripple cars amounted to about 
17 p.c. of all motor-operated rolling 
stock, failures in service were very 
common, line blockades interrupted 
schedules, cars out of service when re- 
quired to fill schedules, inconvenience to 
passengers, lost mileage and revenue. 
This condition of affairs necessitated the 
introduction of a method of repairs 
whereby the average daily number of 
cripples would be reduced to a mini- 
mum. Instructions were issued by the 
management that all cars were to be 
put in first-class condition at once. 
This was done, but not without a very 
large expenditure of money ; the results 
obtained, however, were such as to 
prove without the shadow of a doubt 
the wisdom of permitting the above- 
mentioned expenditure. To-day in To- 
ronto there are comparatively speaking 
no motor breakdowns in service, and as 
a comparison I may say, that instead 
of 17 p.c. of the cars being crippled as 
before stated every 24 hours, the daily 
average is now 3.7 p.c; and it must be 
borne in mind that every car that is re- 
paired, whether large or small repairs, 
is classed in the totals from which this 
percentage 'is struck. Those not includ- 
ed are those cars repaired by the night 
and day inspectors and repair men, af- 
ter the cars are housed and have com- 
pleted their day's run ; or, in other 
words, cars which have not caused any 
interruption to service or schedules. 
This is a considerable reduction you 
will admit, but we are endeavoring to 
lower this record, and those in charge 
of the rolling stock are of opinion that 
this can be done. The vastly superior 
service which we are now enabled to 
give has secured to the company a very 
valuable asset in the citizens' good-will. 

• Master Mechanic of Toronto Railway Co. 

Encourage New Ideas Among Workmen. 

It is very necessary that the good 
work of overhauling rolling stock should 
be done in a most thorough and syste- 
matic way. The work should be laid 
out so that there will be no confusion 
of material, men or ideas. All the work 
should be done in a pre-determined 
manner. Gauges, measurements and 
tools should be supplied for the proper 
carrying out of the same. When a sys- 
tem of overhaul is finally decided upon 
as being the best suited to local condi- 
tions, it should become a law in the 
shop, and any employe departing from 
the standard of practice should be dealt 
with accordingly. The introduction of 
new methods or stunts or experiments 
should not be permitted until they are 
carefully considered by the proper offi- 
cials. I strongly recommend that em- 
ployes be encouraged to promote new- 
ideas, and if on the presentation of 
them to the proper officials, they are 
found to possess even some small merit, 
every encouragement should be given 
the originator to perfect the same, and 
on the adoption of his proposal in 
practice he should, so far as the shop is 
concerned, receive all the credit due 

Use Jigs, Patterns, etc. 

In preparing the repair material in 
the Toronto Ry. shops, carefully kept 
jigs, patterns and gauges are always 
used in production. By this means ab- 
solute accuracy is assured, and the parts 
are interchangeable. The fact that the 
pit men or fitters have no work other 
than to bolt together and put to place, 
IS a strong argument in favor of the 
repair material being properly produc- 
ed in the company's shops or by outside 

Toronto Railway Co.'s Methods. 

1 will endeavor to explain some of 
the methods in use in the Toronto Ry. 
Co.'s central shops. This system no 
doubt would be more readily understood 
by a visit to our works, which we will 
at all times welcome. The cars are 
overhauled on a mileage basis ; 50,00'0 
to 5.'), 000 miles being the limit of dis- 
tance a car travels before being brought 
to the shops and thoroughly overhauled. 
Owing to the fact that our roadbed is 
now in a very much better condition 
than it formerly was, and the oars 
standing up so much better, the matter 
of permitting cars to run 70,000 to 7.'),- 


000 miles before overhauling is now un- 
der serious consideration. 

Overhauling a Car. 
I will now trace the course of over- 
hauling a car. Owing to the fact that 
overhauliug was first started by rota- 
tion of car numbers, it is quite easy for 
us in the shops to know just about the 
car or cars due to come in, and as ac- 
curate mileage is kept on all cars, a 
glance at the mileage statements is 
sufficient to procure the proper car for 
overhauling. This done, the central car 
dispatcher is instructed to have that 
car delivered to the shops ready for the 
following morning. The car is then 
placed in a section set aside for the 
purpose, brake and cable connections 
unfastened, ear body raised and placed 
on trestles, trucks are then pulled out 
from under the body and shunted to 
truck overhaul section ; here the motors 
are removed and sent to motor over- 
hauling section. 

The truck is completely stripped down, 
except side and end frame, wheel centres 
marked, and trammil points used to 
test for truck frame being true. Journal 
boxes are stripped of brassed wedges 
and waste, and thoroughly cleansed. 
Wheels and journals are now replaced if 
necessary. The stripped material has 
been placed on one side of the truck, 
the floor on the other side is swept 
clean, the truck inspector inspects the 
old material and o.k's. that which is to 
be used again. This o.k. material is 
now moved to the clean space on the 
other side of the truck, the balance is 
taken to the shop storekeeper, who 
gives in return a new or repair part for 
every one sent in ; this is then delivered 
to the truck fitters, and is placed with 
the balance of the o.k. material. The 
trucks are now built up, the journals 
being packed with clean, oil-soaked 
waste ; the trucks having been thor- 
oughly scraped and blown off with com- 
pressed air, are now given a coat of 
mineral quick drying black paint, and 
ready for the motors. 

Repairing Motors. 
The motors are first stripped of ar- 
matures and field coils ; these with the 
brushholders are sent to the armature 
and machine departments respectively. 
The motor frame is next scraped inside 
and out, grease boxes cleaned out, bot- 
tom oiled, wells cleaned and washed 
with kerosene. The inside of motor 
frames are next painted with black in- 


sulating compound, oiled canvass liners 
are placed around permanent pole 
pieces, frames are now ready for as- 
sembling. p*ield coils are next put to 
place and magnet plates bolted home, 
finished steel bolts and hexagon nuts 
with spring lockwashers hoing used ex- 
clusively for motor and truck work. 
The motor frames are now bolted to- 
gether and a gauge inserted between the 
pole pieces to prove proper distances. 
The proper distance between magnets 
having been secured, the armature is 
next put to place and armature boxes 
l«oIted on. Equal clearance between ar- 
matures and magnets is next secured by 
use of a special gauge. 

New spring felt feeder wicks are 
placed in bottom oil pocket of both ar- 
mature and motor axle bearings, and 
oil receptacles filled with clean oil. Next 
a piece of felt is inserted in the grease 
hole at bottom of grease box touching 
the shaft, a square oil-soaked pad, half- 
inch in thickness, is then neatly fitted 
to the bottom of the box, the balance 
of space is then filled with hand-picked 
pure wool waste, the waste having pre- 
viously soaked in oil 24 hours and 
dripped for 12 hours. Brush-holder 
yokes, and brushholders completely as- 
sembled, are now bolted to place. These 
parts do not require any alteration for 
the reason that they have been built up 
in a special jig, their coreect position 
and alignment on the commutator be- 
ing both electrically and mechanically 

The overhauled motor is now subject- 
ed to a running test on the floor for 
three hours with 40 amperes of current 
for the purpose of proving the condition 
of the bearings. While the motor is 
under test it is painted with a quick 
drying mineral black paint. The gears, 
pinions and gear case having been thor- 
oughly cleaned of grease, the motor is 
now swung to place on the trucks and 
gears and pinions given an application 
of special compound, the two or four 
motors all having come through at the 
same time the overhaul truck and motor 
equipment is now ready for service. 

Just as soon as car body is placed on 
trestles, the controller, rheostats, 
trolley stand and brake cylinder are re- 
moved and sent to their respective 
repair departments ; they are at once 
replaced with new or overhauled mater- 
ial. Cable ducts on car body are open- 
ed, cleaned and repainted, renewals be- 
ing made where necessary. Car :body, 
wood and iron work repaired and paint- 
ed. Overhauled trucks and motors are 
now run under, and body put to place, 
brake and caMe connections made, 
brakes adjusted and car given a severe 
tryout under service conditions before 
being passed as o.k. by the inspector. 

Armatures are first inspected for bear- 
ings and renewals made where necessary, 

cast steel sleeves lined with babbit be- 
ing used for l«arings. Next, the entire 
armature is carefully cleaned, commu- 
tator turned and polished, string band 
carefully inspected or renewed, and sent 
to the testing department. Here the 
millovolt drop test from bar to bar is 
used and finally the armature is sub- 
jected to a six hundred volt ground 
test, armature body then shellaced and 
placed in the o.k. rack. Field coils are 
then placed in section of motor frame 
without magnet, and a millovolt read- 
ing taken, next a magnet attached to 
an air cylinder is lowered on field coil 
and another reading taken while the 
coil is under pressure. If the coil reads 
up to the standard and shows no varia- 
tion under pressure the outside tape is 
repaired and the coil dipped in air dry- 
ing compound. 

A great reduction in motor lead 
trouble has been secured by boring the 
motor frames on the axle side and bring- 
ing the leads out as near the king bolt 
as possible ; this, of course, refers to 
outside hung motors. This practically 
covers the entire performance of over- 
hauling a car. 

10 Safety appliances on ma- 

chinery 445 

11 Library, reading rooms, lec- 

ture rooms and bicycle sheds 6,206 


The following is the investment and 
maintenance in the works of Yale & 
Tnwne Mfg. Co., Stamford, Conn.: 


1 Heating and ventilating ...$74,200 

2 Sanitation, drainage and wa- 

ter supply ' 49.400 

."] Lighting, electric and gas . . 18,000 

4 General cleanliness 

5 Drinking water, filtration, re- 

frigeration and distribution 6.2O0 

6 Lavatories (included in item 


7 Locker rooms and lockers . . . 57,200 
S Emergency room and equip- 
ment 1,200 

9 Apparatus for removal of 

dust and fumes 8,000 

10 Safety appliances on ma- 

chinery 4,000 

11 Library, reading rooms, lec- 

ture rooms a,nd bicycle sheds 7,000 

Total $225,200 

Annual Operating Expenses. 

1 Heating and ventilating $14,620 

2 Sanitation, drainage and wa- 

ter supply 6,324 

3 Lighting, electric and gas ... 3,129 

4 General cleanliness 4.811 

5 Drinking water 9.32 

6 Lavatories (included in item 


7 Locker rooms and lockers . . 6 467 

8 Emergency room 1,303 

9 Apparatus for removal of 

dust and fumes 1,200 


Total $45,437 

In round figures, says Henry R. Towne, 
the foregoing statements imply an in- 
vestment for the above purposes of about 
$100 per employe and an annual expen- 
diture of abont $20 per employe. While 
admitting frankly that this expenditure, 
both fixed and current, is "good busi- 
ness," because tending to increase the 
efficiency of labor and the contentment 
of employes, it can with equal fairness 
be stated that, if limited strictly to busi- 
ness requirements, these outlays, both 
fixed and current, would largely be re- 
duced, probab'y one-half, and that the 
excess over what is necessary represents, 
on the one hand, a volutary contribution 
by the employer to the welfare, comfort 
a,nd health of the employe, and, on the 
other hand, a substitute or equivalent to 
the employe of a direct contribution to 
an insurance or pension fund, because 
serving indirectly a similar purpose by 
increasing the earning power, by pro- 
longing the activity and thus by aug- 
menting the potential savings of the em- 


The following prices supplied to the 
U. S. Consul by Daimler, of Austrian 
Daimler Works, Wiener-Neustadt, Aus- 
tria, are of interest. These tools are of 
good design and the shop is one of the 
best in Europe. 

The prices paid by Daim'er for vari- 
ous machine tools in use were as fol- 

John L. Bogert, machine for turning 
down crank pins, No. 22. $2,060. Pren- 
tice Bros. Co., lathe, 255 by 1,600 by 
3,050 mm., $860; vertical drills, w.p. Id, 
$111. Hendey Machine Co.. lathe, 250 by 
760 by 1,830 mm., $688. Gisholt Ma- 
chine Co., turret lathe, No. IL $2,647; 
vertical turret lathes. No. 0, $1,631. 
Landis Tool Co., grinders. No. 1V2- 
$926. Worner & Swasey Co., hexagnna' 
turret lathes. No. IL $1,760; hollow hfXK- 
gon revolver lathe, $1,535. Potter & 
Johnston Machine Co., automatic tunet 
lathes, No. II, $2,619. Cleveland Auto- 
matic Machine Co., 51 mm. automatics. 
.3-spindle, $1,208; No. 1^4 automatics, 5 
spindle, $2,660. Gleason Works, 
planers. No. I, $2,033. Becker-Brainard 
Milling Machine Co., vertical milling 
raaBhines, No. IV, C, $935. Cincinnati 
Milling Machine Co., universal milling 
machine. No. II, $805. Lucas Machine- 
Tool Co., press for 30 atms., $545. C. 
C. Bradley & Son, hammers, A No. IV., 
$1,133. Yahley, pneumatic hammer, II, 
Ih. IV, $1,789. 

Canadian machinery 


By H. J. McCaslin. 

The accompanying table of chords and 
angles is used by an electrical concern 
for spacing rator spiders, etc. I find 
it very handy in my shop work, and it 
may be found useful by some readers of 
Canadian Machinery. 

For tool work, chord^sine X D. Angle 
is half of angle subtended by side at 






































■ 15° 

























































































































































































































































































































































































































99 1 


' 5.45" 


100 1 




101 1 




102 1 




103 1 




104 1 





105 1 




1C6 1 




107 1 




108 1 



109 1 




110 ] 




111 1 
























































































































































































































































































































































189 . " 





































































































































































































































































































































































































































44. C8' 






































































































































































































































































































































16: 10" 
























20.78" ■ 



































































































































































































































































































. 0064245 
.OC 63723 


METAL SPINNING— By Fred. D. C'rawshaw. M. 
E.. Assistant Dean. College of Engineering. 
University of Illinois, Popular Meclianics Co., 
Ciiiicago, III. Clotli, 5x7 ins. ; 74 pages, illus- 
trations. Price 25 cents. 

This is the only book on tlie subject. Metal 
.Spinning, a very old art lianded down from 
generation to generation without the medium of 
the printed page. It is a worlting manual of 
explicit instructions which is concise, yet com- 
plete and r.dapted to the use of manual train- 
ing and industrial schools, as well as those who 
desire to spin metal as an art recreation or to 
follow this work as a trade. 
AND WAGES— By Harrington Emerson. Pub- 
lis-hed by the Eogineering Magazine. New York, 
171 pages, cloth bound, 5 x 7J ins. Price $2. 
The book is a result of a series of articles by 
Mr. Emerson published in the Engineering Ma- 
gazine. These are now issued in book form. In 
the early chapters he points out typical ineffi- 
ciencies in production and discusses the strength 
and weakness of existing systems of organiza- 
tion. Five general chapters covering the above 
ground are followed by a chapter on "The Re- 
alization of Standards in Practice." Some de- 
tails are given of the method employed in 
standardizing as to time and cost, the tasks in 
a shop employing 2,ono men, each doing an 
average of four different jobs each day, a diagram 
is made illustrating graphically the effect on 
costs and profits of an increased output due to 
staff stimulus and bonus to the line. In chap- 
ter VII on "The Modern Theory of Cost Ac- 
counting" the author diflerer.,tiates cost ac- 
counting from the work of the efficiency en- 
gineer, which is to establish standards, ascer- 
tain current efficiency and provide remedies 
which will bring low efficiency up to 100 per 
cent. Emphasas is put on the co-operation of 
the comptroller and the efficiency engineer. In 
chapter VIII "The Location and Elimination of 
Wastes " are discussed, and some examples are 
given of wide variations in costs in different es- 
tablishments engaged in the same line of work. 
An efficiency system in operation is described 

In chapter IX and then in order "Standard 
Times and Bonuses" and "What the Efficiency 
System May Accomplish." 

ijy the Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 91 pages, .5x8 ins. Flexible 
leather binding. For sale by R. S. Davis & 
Co., Pittsburgh, Price $1. 

This book is a result of a study of the open 
hearth steel furnaces for the use of the operat- 
ing department and is unique as no author's 
name i« given nor does the name of the com- 
pany appear except on the cover. Neither are 
there any advertisements. The reason for the 
book appearing in its present form was because 
of the interest shown in the data gathered to- 
gether by a number of open hearth superinten- 
dents. The book presents in a concise form the 
principles involved in the manufacture of open 
hearth steel, and it should be of interest to 
iron and steel men generally. Detailed descrip- 
tions of the construction and operation of these 
furnaces are given in simple language t at can 
be readily understood by one familiar with no 
more than the most elementary jirinciples of 
chemistry and metallurgy. 

Practical instructions are given for building 
the hearths and bottoms, front and back walls, 
bulk heads, ports, regenerators, etc., while the 
v.arious materials for the bottoms (acid, neutral 
and basic), are discussed at length. One chap- 
ter is devoted to fuels, including natural, arti- 
ficial and producer gas and oil. Simple meth- 
ods of estimating charges for both basic and 
acid open-hearth furnaces are given, and these 
should prove of tlie utmost value to both shop 
superintendents and melters. Tne elimination of 
impurities during and after melting is explained 
in detail, and also recarburization, melting, 
method of charging, removal of slag, etc. The 
special processes such as the Talbot, MoncU, 
Bertrand-Thiel and the duplex are briefly de- 

lished by Emmott & Co., 65 King St., Man- 
chester, Eng. 390 pages, 4x6 ins., illustrated. 
Price 6d or 12 cents. Postpaid 16 cents; 
In this, the twenty-third annua! issue, numer- 
ous improvements have been effected and a con- 
siderable amount of new matter introduced. The 
section on Gas Engines has been thoroughly re- 
vised by W. A. Tookey, and the same author 
has supplied an entirely new section on Oil En- 
gines, including notes on Crude Oil Engines. 
Some condensed notes on the Design of Centri- 
fugal Pumps have been contributed by B. M. 
Woodhousp. and a new section on Ball Bearings 
has been included. Among other additions are 
the following :— Dimensions of Marine Boilers : 
Tapers and Angles : Change Wheels for Cutting 
Metric Pitches ; Hobs for Cutting Involute 
Gears ; Dimensions of Ring-oiled Bearings : Notes 
on Double Helical Gears, Bevel, Spiral, and 
Worm Gears ; Emery Wheel Speeds ; etc. Va- 
rious other tables and data have been introduc- 
ed and the work revised generally. The publish- 
ers are to be commended upon their continued 

Rodger, published by "Canada," Newspaper 
Co., S4 Norfolk St., Strand. London. Eng. 72 
pages, 4i X 6 ins., illustrated. Price, one shil- 

The book is i\ result of a business trip through 
Canada in 1908, by Mr. Rodger and is a reprint 
of thirteen articles contributed to Canada. His 
report covers every line of British goods and 
manufactures for which there is a market in 
Canada. Among the subjects treated are Alu- 
minium Goods, Machinery, Electrical Goods, 
Metals and Manufactures of Metals, Metals in 
Raw State, Bolts and Nuts, Packing, etc. The 
sul)jects include also railway and shipping facil- 
ities, catalogues, cost of traveling, advertising, 
etc. The work should be of great practical va- 
lue to the British manufacturer looking to the 
Canadian market to extend the sale of his out- 


Some Pertinent Paragraphs Selected From Our Exchanges 

Many Useful Ideas Given in a Paragraph — Abstracts of Im- 
portant Subjects Being Treated in the Technical Publications. 

System in the Twentieth Century. 
The old way ior a workman to get 
the big traveling crane, by going out in 
the runway, waving his arms like a 
windmill and yelling until he was hoarse 
at the sleepy crane operator two or 
three hundred feet away, has all been 
done away with, and now the workman 
presses one of the buttons set at con- 
venient distances along the shop run- 
way, a red light is flashed in plain view 
of the crane man and, unless already 
employed, he at once runs his crane to 
where it is needed. Then, too, there is 
a messenger system in use that obviates 
the necessity of a machinist leaving his 
work to get a new jig or tool, as he 
has only to press a button close to his 
machine and an annunciator near the 
tool room indicates to a waiting mes- 
senger boy where he is wanted, as all 
machines are numbered; he then goes at 
once and finds out what is wanted, gets 
it for the man and returns to his place 
ready for another call.— Machinery. 

Making a Skilled Mechanic. 

The best way to obtain skilled labor 
is to make it. 

This is the conclusion that the C.P.K. 
has reached after trymg various me- 
thods and watching how the corpora- 
tions get their supply. It has further- 
more determined that the making of it 
shall be thorough. 

It is said that although some rail- 
ways and industrial firms which have 
entered upon elaborate schemes for the 
training of apprentices, the educational 
schemes, with one or two exceptions, 
lack continuity. They leave off where 
they practically should commence, and 
the apprentice or employe 'is turned out 
after a partial training and left to his 
own. resources. 

The question of the "Making of a 
Skilled Mechanic" is discussed In an 
article in Canadian Machinery, by Mr. 
F. C. D. Wilkes, B.Sc.who takes as 
his object lesson the scheme of the 
C. P. R. for obtaining skilled labor. — 
Montreal Herald. 

The Boss's Shadow. 

A business demands the entire time 
and attention of the proprietor or man- 
ager. A word, a friendly nod goes a 
long way. An old mechanic once said, 
"The boss's shadow is worth $5 every 
time it falls across the job. — Men's 

Tool Rooms and the Care of Tools. 

The fact has grown upon us that 
those shops where a thorough card sys- 

tem is in vogue in regard to tools and 
their uses seem to get the work done 
with less friction and less loss of time 
than is the case in those shops where 
no card system exists. The card sys- 
tem that we refer to implies a syste- 
matic method of numbering the pieces 
of work that may pass through the 
hands of the workmen. The number of 
operations in their order, the number 
of tools required and their specific 
markings, are set down, to which in a 
general way the average time taken in 
the operations may be added. The 
mere matter of storing the tools must 
necessarily remain an open question 
which will readily be solved by the in- 
telligent foreman and superintendent to 
suit the requirements of the situation^ 
Railway and I^ocomotive Engineermg. 

To Furnish Apprentices. 

"Canadian Machinery" devotes two 
pages to Hamilton Technical School 
with one page of illustrations. It re- 
gards the school as likely to furnish ap- 
prentices for many of Hamilton's great 
manufacturing industries. — Hamilton 

The Designer and Shop Costs. 

Inefficiency in the operation of ma- 
chines, while not always readily dis- 
cernible, can be detected by experiment- 
ing with different methods, without 
adding much to the cost of production, 
even temporarily. Losses arising from 
badly arranged buildings and machines 
can be detected by close observation of 
daily operations, and the cost of pro- 
viding better facilities, as well as the 
saving to be expected by their use, can 
be ascertained within narrow limits. — 
Southern Machinery. 

Get Next and Keep Near Your Em- 

Are you an employer of men ? Get 
near them — keep next. No man who 
cannot get next and then keep next can 
control men successfully to the end of 
eternal welfare and the permanent suc- 
cess of an industry. 

"I keep my employes in their place 
during the work day. After hours they 
are my friends," said a wise old fellow 
who always had an open mind for a new 
or better idea. It keeps up a mutual 
interest that makes for harmony and 
the absence of friction. We may be 
wrong, but it is our idea that the ab- 
sence of friction is a big factor in a 
profitable business. 


Get next and don't lose your grip. — 
American Shoemaking. 

Watch the Iron Prices. 
The foundryman who has an absolute 
control over his mixtures, following up 
each detail and studying the market 
carefully, is able to work in a consid- 
erable tonnage of off grades of iron, 
including malleable, Bessemer and var- 
ious other grades which at times can 
be picked up at a special price. As the 
price of foundry iron has a tendency to 
increase, the tonnage of this class of 
iron utilized by foundrymen generally 
increases. This in turn serves to pre- 
vent the price of foundry iron from 
soaring unduly high. — Castings. 

The Devil of Debt. 

The devil of debt seems to be on the 
heels of almost everybody. The clerk, 
he's in debt. The bookkeeper's in debt. 
Ditto the typewriter. Same with the 
porter and drayman. As to the superin- 
tendent, he can't remember when he 
wasn't. The office boy would be in debt 
if anybody would trust him. And all 
of them complaining and acknowledg- 
ing the miserableness of their condi- 

Debt is a mortgage on your salary. 

Debt is a monument to a young 
man's weakness, a grown man's folly 
and an old man's failure in the univer- 
sity of life. 

Debt is discounting to-morrow's lib- 
erty for to-day's good time. 

Debt is a quitclaim to your wife's 
confidence, your children's ambitions 
and your own self respect. 

Debt is a guaranteed insurance policy 
against happiness. 

"Then what are we going to do ?" 
say a chorns of young fellows and busi- 
ness men and aspiring women and lab- 
orers and clerks and managers and 
street car conductors and hundreds 

Do without ! 

It will take some backbone. It will 
take some genuine courage. 

But you'll be able to hold your head 
up — and that's more than you can do 
now, and you know it. You won't 
have palpitation of the heart when the 
postman blows his whistle, and you 
won't tremble every time the boss asks 
you to come into the front office. 
Neither will you be ashamed to have 
your stenographer open your mail. 

Because you'll be working to-day for 
to-morrow's satisfaction, and not to 
make good on account of yesterday's 
extravagance.— Pittsburg Press. 


Unique Ways of Doing Things in the Machine Shop. Readers' Opinions 
Concerning Shop Practice. Data for Machinists. Contributions paid for. 

By K. Campbell. 

Mr. Stevens of the Stevens Co., Gait, 
Ont., has in use in the machine depart- 
ment a milling machme which he con- 
structed under his supervision. Since 
then several have been made for other 
companies, the original one being shown 
in the illustrations herewith. 

Fig. 1 shows the machine at work 
and Fig. 2 shows the driving mechan- 
ism. A piece of work is on the planer, 
and m the illustrations the miller is 
shown at work, a large casting being 
on the planer. The belt shown in Fig. 
2 connects with an overhead, and power 

the superintendent of the machine de- 
partment. The holder A is made of 
machinery steel with the end slotted 




An End Mill. 

for the cutter B, which is clamped with 
an ordinary g-inch cap screw C. The 
cutters are made from high speed steel 

By M. E. D. 
By K. Campbell. 

A simple arrangement for holding 
drills has resulted in a -saving m drill 
accounts in the shops of the Stevens 
Co., Gait. An iron plate about 1-inch 
thick is used, it being drilled to hold 
various size drills. Formerly long drills 
used to be taken and used for all work 
but with the arrangement illustrated a 
workman finds it just as handy to take 
short drills and use them for work 
where short ones can 1:«6 used. 

The drill plate contains two holes for 
each of the larger size drills and four 
holes for the smaller sizes. The holes 

Fig. 1.— Milling Machine Milling on a Planer. 


-Driving Mechanism of Milling Machine and Planer. 

is taken to the miller by the belt 
shown in Fig. 1. The machine is fast- 
ened to the planer head and is under 
full control of the planer operator. It 
has been found that with the miller, 
work can be accomplished in a short 
time that formerly took hours to do. 


By K. Campbell. 

The accompanying cut is an end mill 
used in the works of Smart-Turner 
Co., Hamilton, manufacturers of 
pumps, cranes, etc., and designed by 

blades of cutting-off tools, the top or 
widest part D being used as the back 
when in the holder. These are used on 
steel and brass with a cutting face up 
to 2 J inches. 


Under this heading it was stated that 
F. A. Rodgers devised the device shown 
on page 43 of the December issue of 
Canadian Machinery by means of which 
he turned out "25 in nine minutes." 
This should have read "25 in nine hours," 
which meant a great saving over the old 


are drilled the exact size of the drill 
and when the machine hand is finished 

§§0000 o 

Plate for Drills— Plate May be Drilled to Suit 
Drills Used. 

with a drill he returns it to the plate. 
The plate is handily situated on a 
small stand beside the drill. 



By C. J. Fensom.* 

The friction clutch shown in the il- 
lustration was designed to drive a piece 
of heavy, slow running machinery which 
was liable to become "jammed" at any 
moment. The arrangement of the ma- 
chine would not permit of the use of a 
l;«elt ; and it was feared that the ordin- 
ary form of clutch, 'if made powerful 
enough to drive when the friction sur- 
faces were smooth and oily and when 
the adjustment was slack, would be of 
little use as a relieving coupling at 
times when the adjustment was slack 
and the surfaces rough through disuse. 

The design of the clutch shown is 
such that it can only transmit power 
up to a definite pre-arranged maximum 

pull. Should the torque transmitted 
tend to exceed the capacity of the 
springs, the springs will yield, thus al- 
lowing the end friction plate "E" to 
turn slightly in relation to the driving 
casing "F." This motion allows the 
end friction plate (B) to screw back 
until the pressure between the friction 
surfaces of clutch is reduced to such an 
amount as to just allow a driving force 
to be exerted corresponding to the 
strength of the driving springs. 

This clutch can be made "reversible." 
It could be used, without hand operat- 
ing mechanism, as a relieving coupling 
in cases where the ordinary form of 
clutch would become in-operative 
through periods of disuse and conse- 
quent "freezing together" of friction 

paint as the application of relatively 
hard coats over relatively soft coats. 
This is an observation which should be 
kept in mind not only in the painting 
of metals, but in all painting. That the 
priming coat should have the power to 
adhere tenaciously to the surface is self- 

The pigment constituents of a protec- 
tive paint should be inhibitive of cor- 
rosion. This means that it should tend 
to give passivity to the particles of the 
iron itself— should by its nature tend to 
prevent that activity of molecules which 
we have described as galvanic and 
which causes corrosion. 

A protective paint .should be a non- 
conductor of electricity. The corrosion 
of iron and steel being the result of a 
galvanic action, it is necessary not only 

; VAV\^W. 



torque, regardless of the condition of 
the friction surfaces. This means that 
the driving motor, or the machinery 
driven, cannot be subjected to an un- 
due strain when the machinery is start- 
ed against a heavy inertia load, or 
should a "jam" occur. 

The clutch is operated l.y hand in the 
ordinary way. A motion of the sleeve 
"A" causes the four compressing bolts 
"B" to act on the end friction disc 
"C," thus relieving or pressing to- 
gether the four pairs of friction sur- 

The principle of the special regulating 
feature of the clutch is as follows : 
When the clutch is in action the torque 
is transmitted through the medium of 
the heavy driving springs "D," which 
arc set to yield at a certain definite 

* Consul'.ing Engineer. Toronto. 

Antomatic Relieving Friction., Clutch. 

By 0. C. Harn. 

Regai-ding preservative coatings for 
iron and steel, we find it necessary to 
point out that a paint which may be a 
good paint for the under coats may 
))rovc to be an undesirable paint for 
the outer or finishing coats, and vice 
versa. We will call the i)aint which is 
to go next to the metal the "protec- 
tive paint," and the paint which comes 
outside the "finishing paint." The fin- 
ishing paint should be, in reality, a 
"protective paint" also, but, for clear- 
ness in discussion, it is necessary "we 
should make a distinction. 

The protective paint should measure 
up to the following : 

It should form a hard, adherent found- 
ation for subseqiient coats. There is 
nothing else which tends so much to the 
cracking, checking and alligatoring of 


to put on a paint which will be inhibi- 
tive — that is, keep out those influences 
which will set up the galvanic action in 
the iron itself— but it is supremely ne- 
cessary also to bar the way to stray 
electric currents from the outside. In 
these days, when electrically charged 
wires run everywhere, under the streets, 
overhead and through all buildings, the 
leakage of electric currents is an every 
day problem. The real solution of the 
problem would seem to be to confine 
these electric currents where they belong 
instead of allowing them to run riot 
among neighboring property. Motives 
of economy itself will doubtless some 
day lead tiie owners of the runaway 
electricity to correct this evil them- 
selves, but until that day arrives we 
must do our best to protect our pro- 
perty against currents which are runn- 
ing amuck. 



By J. O. Hrouillet. 

The instrument illustrated herewith 
can readily be made by any handy man, 
and will enable him to draw ellipses of 
various sizes and o voids as well. It 
consists of a sheet-metal piece A, in 

Device for Drawing Ovoids. 

which two slots are cut crossing each 
other at right angles. A lever B is pro- 
vided with two blocks C and D, adapt- 
ed respectively to slide In the slots. A 
lever F, which is fulcrumed at the 
centre of the plate A, is connected by 
means of a lever G with the end of the 
lever B. A pencil may be fitted through 
a hole in the lever B, and as this is re- 
volved around the plate A, it will trace 
an oval or elliptical line. At the same 
time a pencil in the lever G will trace 
an ovoid, as indicated in the drawing. — 
Scientific American. 


By Robt. Buchanan. 
The accompanying sketch shows a 
tool-post plate to be used when boring 


Tool Post Plate. 

jn the lathe to prevent the tool from 
swinging round. It may be made to 
use the wedge or will give better ser- 

vice if made flat and of the right height 
to carry tools or tool holder. 

The cleats on the bottom are shaper- 
ed to fit the rest, while the set screw 
on the lug at the back is adjusted to 
the tool after it is set. 


By Charles Eisler. 

The cut shows in section a facing tool 
for inside work on the drill press. The 
operation on this work w'as always 
made in a lathe where it required a 

An Inside Facing Tool. 

skilled man. A man with very little 
skill can do the same job with greater 
output now. 

A is the body of the tool holder (a 
round piece of tool steel) in which a 
slot was made for the lacing tool B. 
C is the pivot pin. D is an adjusting 
screw. After the tool B is ground it 
can be adjusted to the required size. F 
is also adjustable to prevent the tool 
going too dne;^. ''' is a sliding stop 

collar on A (screws not shown). H is 
the spring which holds the tool B with- 
in the holder body A and strips the 
collar G down, after the work is done. 
When the faces I I I I are together the 
work is done. 

The tool B was also fitte<l to bear on 
K to prevent the quick wearing on the 
pin (.'. It will be noticed that the tool 
holder on the lower end is not cut 
through so as to make it more solid. 
The tool was used on brass, but there 
is no reason why it should not work on 
other materials.— American Machinist. 


The heating of factories, machine- 
shops, roundhouses and other buildings 
having large doors is seriously retarded 
by the leakage of volumes of cold air in 
over the doors at the top. The ordinary 
large sliding or swinging door almost 
invariably bulges at the top, making a 
a crack of considerable width through 
which the cold air blows in greater or 
less volume according to the exposure 
and the velocity of the gale. 

During the past few years tlie heat- 
ing of large shops and roundhouses has 

MOOa JO SNIT JOl^ ye^ " 


Shop Door Closing Device. 


received a great deal of attention, and 
no modern structure is considered com- 
plete without adequate means of heat- 
ing. The old idea that the men should 
keep warm by hustling has been general- 
ly discarded, f.nd now every up-to-date 
factory manager realizes the importance 
of providing as nearly as possible a 
uniform, comfortable temperature in all 
workrooms. The cost of heating large 
buildings in northern latitudes is a heavy 
item, and practical means that will shut 
out the cold air where it should not 
enter, merit attention. 

Realizing the serious loss that results 
from bulging doors in railway shops as 
well as in other works having Jarge 
doors, through the lack of close fit at 
the top, J. C. Hassett, technical instruc- 
tor of apprentices of Ihe Erie Railroad, 
Meadville, Pa., has devised the shop- 
door closing device, illustrated herewith, 
in which the action of the device and 
the details of the component parts are 

The arrangement provides means by 
which the door is clamped and forced 
solidly against the jamb at the top by 
means of the curved piece A, which is 
worked by a connection and lever con- 
veniently located on the door. The con- 
necting rod may be of any length re- 
quired to suit the door height. — Machin- 


By F. B. Kennedy. 

The accompanying sketch shows a 
very handy tool suited for all mechanics 
who find it necessary to snip small 
pieces of cottars, rivets, etc. It will 
cut with a clean fracture up to 5-16 or 
U inch soft steel or brass wire. 

The plunger should be made a good 
tit for the barrel and cupped out as 
shown, but not too sharp an edge. The 

Figs. 1, 2 and 3 illustrate a eutting-off 
tool for rapidly cutting to the same 
length rods and pins. The tool A is 
reciprocated by the lever B working on 
the fulcrum C. D is a stop for the lever 
B in the back position. The stock is in- 


By Joseph Weaner. 
I found the drawing of V-threads to be 
very trying until I thought of the fol- 
lowing scheme which makes this work 
much easier. The idea is as follows : File 





Fro. 2. 


ris. 4. 


CDTTiNO-orr Tool..— Fic. 3, 

Fio. S. 

serted through a loose bushing E, which 
may be changed for different sizes. The 
adjustable gauge F fixes the length. We 
used the tool in a small single gear hol- 
low mandrel lathe, and the shank G was 
held in the toolpost provided for the 
hand rest. The wire was drawn forward 
each time against the stop F, aftev re- 
leasing the ehiich. The chuck was then 
tightened and the parting off rapidly 
done by means of the tool and lever des- 

Fig. 4 shows a simple centreing tool 
used in conjunction with the above. It 
was made to drill exactly central, and 
all to the same depth, some thousands 
of small steel dies. The stock was held 
in the chuck of the lathe, and the lool 
was held bv the shank S in a lathe car- 

a number of 60-degree notches in the 
inner edge of the triangle, as shown in 
the illustration, for different thread 
pitches. Make the top width x equal to 
1 divided by the number of threads per 











Handy Bench Tool. 

Drawing V Threads. 

inch, and leave a small point A to stop 
the pencil. To use the triangle, place 
the pencil against the left side of the 
notch and run it down that side and up 
the other to the stop; then move the 
triangle to the right until the pencil 
is again against the left side. By re- 
peating this operation as many times 
as is required, a uniform thread can be 
rapidly drawn. Another sugestion for 
draftsmen is to have a 12-inch scale 
fastened to the T-square as shown at B. 
This is also a time-saver, as the scale is 
in a position where it is always ready 
for use. — Machinery. 

holes may be bored of course, to suit 
the convenience of the worker and good 
steel should be used for the whole tool. 


By A. Strong. 

The accomnaying sketches illustrate 

a couple of tools we have found to be 

very handy. Perhaps they are not new, 

but I have not seen them before. 

rier, and was brought up by means of 
the back centre. The ■ aperture T, of 
coinsc, exactly fitted Ithe stock. After 
drilling they were parted off with tlie 
tool described above. 

Figs. 5 and 6 show the articles we had 
to produce in some thousands, and in 
the rapid production of which thesie 
tools assisted not a little. — Mechanical 

41 . . _ 

According to a writer in the Scientific 
American, a very handy tool can be 
made from an old pair of scissors or 
shears by cutting one blade with a set 
of saw teeth inclined toward the handle. 
These teeth hold the material fast, 
and prevent it slipping toward the 
point of the shears. Rubber sheeting, 
strips, and all kinds of soft packing can 
be easily cut with square or inclined 


New Machinery for Machine Shop, Foundry, Pattern Shop, Planing 
Mill ; New Engines, Boilers, Electrical Machinery, Transmission Devices. 


Herewith are illustrated Sheldon's 
new reversible type medium blowers 
and exhausters. These fans are reversi- 

powdered coal into rotary kilns or other 
furnaces, ventilating toilet rooms in 
public buildings, etc. They are prac- 
tically noiseless), even at very high 

shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 2 shows the 
spindle which, through the reverse tum- 
bler, drives the .stud gear shaft M. On 
this is bevel gear A that meshes with 
pinion B driving shaft 11 and worm C. 

Kig. 1.— Medium Exlmusti-r (Reversible Type.) 

1,'ig, 2.~KcverBiblc Exli.iustcr, Bolted to Wall or Post, Discharging Downward. 

bio and interchangeable and can be 
bolted to the floor, wall, post of ceil- 
ing. The bolt holes around the side 
openings are drilled to a template equal 
distances apart and are alike on both 
sides, therefore the arm and circular 
plate supporting the bearings can be 
removed and attached to the opposite 
side of the fan, the inlet side plate be- 
ing interchangeable, thus reversing the 
hand of the fan. 

The circular side plates referred to 
are larger in diameter than the fan 
wheel so that the wheel can be removed 
without taking the whole fan to pieces. 
The bearings on these fans are self- 
oiling and self-adjusting and are of the 
ring oiling type, capable of continued 
operation without undue attention. 

Every wheel is carefully and accurate- 
ly balanced before mounting and all 
fans are tested before leaving the works. 
The sizes of the wheels on these fans 
are practically the same as on our 
standard type medium exhausters and 
the fans are specially adapted for 
handling gritty dust, such as comes 
from emery wheels, tumbling barrels, 
rattlers, etc., which quickly cuts into 
and destroys sheet steel. 

They are specially adapted for the 
removal of smoke from forgo fires, 
steam from cooking vats or kettles in 
dye works, breweries, packing houses or 
other factories, blowing coal dust or 

These exhausters arc manufactured by 
Sheldons, Gait, Ont. 


The Cincinnati lathe is furnished with 
an all geared device having an unlimit- 
ed range in addition to the quick 
change gear lathe for cutting screws 

Those are supported by swinging bracket 
G pivoted about shaft M. To shaft S, 
m the gear box, is splined a triple-worm 
wheel D E F, that pass constantly 
through oil held in a resevoir. Any one 
of these wheels may be shifted into 
position under worm C by fork T, oper- 
ated on outside of box. The rate of 

Fig. 3.— A Keversible Kxhaueter, Bolted to 

the Ceiling and Discharging Horizontally:. 


speed is changed at once by pulling out 
bolt P then raising arm G and shifting 
to the worm wheel giving the desired 
feed. When engaging sliding gear H I 

ing the use of the change gears also 

Twenty-two additional changes rang- 
ing from 5 to 64 per inch may be ob- 

Fig. 1.— Cincinnati Latlie With Three-Step Cone. 

with either J or K, on feed rod, permits 
six changes Instantly varying from 16 to 
100 turns per inch, a range of 

Fig. 2. — Diagram of I'ositive F<'ed. 

feeds enough on any Ki-inch lathe for 
general manufacturing, witliout requir- 

tained to suit special cases by sliding 
gear W on lead screw m mesh with gear 
J, on feed rod, which is driven direct 
from spindle. Lead screw is operated 
only when required for actual thread- 
ing. Lock bolt U and arm G are so 
placed that the former prevents gear W 
being thrown into mesh with J until G 
is raised when it is impossible to en- 
gage worm wheels. 

Both Figs. 1 and 3 are furnished 
with apron of box type construction, 
chasing dial, automatic stop, plain of 
compound rest, centre rest, follow rest, 
large and small face plates, necessary 
wrenches, self-oiling friction counter- 
shaft, etc., either five step or extra 
wide three step cone with double l«ack 
gears, and the metric system if desired. 
Taper attachment may be added to 
equipment when wanted. Drawn-in at- 
tachment, oil pan, turret on carriage, 
can be furnished, and a lathe with six 

Improved 16" Steptoe Shaper. 

Kig. 3.— Cincinnati Latiie 

With Instantaneous Change Gear. 


positive geared feeds by merely shifting 
a lever using the regular or any special 
change gears for screw cutting. 

These lathes are manulactured by the 
Cincinnati loathe & Tool Co., Cin- 


The principal feature connected with 
the drive is in the fact that the motor 
stand is set on the base of the machine, 
thus avoiding any vibration when the 
motor is running, and at the same time 
it is as close to the column of the 
machine as it is possible to get it. It 
takes up no more room than is actually 
required for the return stroke of the ram. 
This was necessary on account nf the 


fact that the machine was built for the 
U. S. Battleship, "Deleware," and as 
the space was limited, it became neces- 
sary to take only as small a space as 
possible. The controller was placed on 
the top of the motor so that the oper- 
ator would not be compelled to leave 
his position to change the speed of the 
machine. Tlie motor was manufactured 
by the Genejal Electric Co., and has a 
speed variation of 2:1. 

The new feature on this machine is 
the self-adjusting: teed rod. The table 
can be either raised or lowered by the 
operator, and the feed rod will adjust 
itself. The device is a very simple one, 
as it consists of a friction box through 
which passes the feed rod of flat cold 
rolled. The hooks on the end of the 
friction box will pull out the rod or 
shorten it as the table is raised or low- 
ered by the operator. By means of this 
device, the breakages are prevented 
which are usually due to the table feed- 
ing to the end of the cross-rail, and the 
nut on the back of the apron striking 
the end of the cross-rail. 

The shaper is manufactured by the 
.John Steptoe Shaper Co., Cincinnati, 

i inch down, or as a drill press up to 
li inch. 

The 'illustration shows the machine 
arranged as a grinder. It is manufac- 
tured by the Lancashire Dynamo & 
Motor Co., 152-4 Bay St., Toronto. 


This tool is of the same general de- 
sign as the Starrett No. 12 protractor, 
with the additional feature of having the 
head extend both sides of the blade. This 
greatly improves the usefulness of the 
tool, as the same angles may be trans- 


Following the recent consolidations of 
of various iron and steel industries under 
the head of the Canada Iron Corpora- 
tion, and the merger of twelve cement 
companies, comes the announcement of 
the consolidation of four large iron 
working companies operating six mills 
in various parts of Ontario, these being 
the Toronto Bolt & Forging Co., Toronto, 
having bolt mills at Swansea (Toronto) 
and Gananoque, and rolling mills at Sun- 
nyside (Toronto), the Brantford Screw 
Co., Brantford, the Belleville Iron & 

New Bevel Protractor. 


The portable machine, illustrated here- 
with, is made with various attachments 

ferred from either side of the frame 
without re-setting. Another improve- 
ment is that the turret is graduated to 
read both ways from to 180 degrees. 
Mecnanics will clearly appreciate this 
point, as direct readings may be had 
from the turret, indicating the supple- 
ment of the angle, as well as the angle 
required. The fact that there is but one 
zero line on the frame eliminates all pos- 
sible chance of confusion as to whether 
acute or obtuse angles are obtained. 

The head of this protractor is 7 inches 
long and is supplied with an accurate 
level attached to one side as shown by 
cut. The blades are hardened and gra- 
di:atc>d with heavy figures reading both 

Horseshoe Co., Belleville, and the Gan- 
anoque Bolt Co., Gananoque. 

These four concerns have been con- 
solidated under the name of the Canada 
Bolt & Nut Co., Ltd., with headquart- 
ers at Toronto, and having a capital- 
ization of $2,500,000. Lloyd Harris, M. 
P., of the Brantford Screw Co., is to be 
president of the new company and T. H. 
Watson, who recently resigned as man- 
ager of the Toronto Bolt & Forging Co., 
in order to give his attention to bringing 
about the present consolidation, is to be 
vice-president and general manager. 
George Glilies, president of the Toronto 
Bolt & Forging Co., has disposed of his 
interests and is retiring. 

Further details of the consolidation 
are not yet completed, but announce- 
ment will be made as to the composition 
of the board of directors after the next 
meeting. Tiie question of enlarging the 
Swansea plant is also being considered, 
but the main changes likely to be made 
are the concentration of certain lines 
of work in the different plants, there 
being at present some duplication in this 

Portable Drill, Reamer. Grinder, etc. 

so that it can be used for numerous 
operations such as grinding, drilling, 
reaming or as a tube expander or cut- 
ter, It is made as a breast drill from 

ways. The heads are made with fine 
smooth finish. 

These protractors are manufactured by 
L. S. Starrett Co., Athol, Mass. 


When the sliop surveyor proceeds to 
remove a chip or spark from a sufferer's 
eye, he generally employs a knife blade. 
If he would have the blade thoroughly 
magnetized before beginning the opera- 
tion it would often draw out the sourc j 
of pain without touching the eye. 


For Manufacturers. Cost and Efficiency Articles Rather Than Technical. 
Steam Power Plants ; Hydro Electric Development ; Producer Gas, Etc. 


The illustration shows a 10,500 H.P. 
Impulse Water Wheel, which was bui't 
in the shops of The John McDougall, 
Caledonian Iron Works Co., Ltd., Mom- 
real. It is designed to deliver 10,500 
brake horse power at 200 revs, per min. 
under a head of 380 feet of water. It 
was built for the British Columbia Elec- 
tric Railway Co., to be used at Lake 
Buntzen, driving an alternating current 
generator 5,000 K.V.A., 22,000 volt, 3 
phase, 60 cycles. 

There are four sets of buckets, all on 
the same shaft, two on each side of th^; 

aiea of the orifice and the amount of 
water discharged. The needles do not 
make a hollow stream, both are so shap- 
ed as to draw the water down to .i 
.■ioHd stream before it leaves them. Tlio 
springs on the needle spindles approxi- 
mately balance the force of the watar 
on the needles, thus taking the load from 
the governor. Underneath the wheels, at 
D, are the needle relief nozzles. These 
are so connected to the governor that 
should the main nozz'.es become sudden- 
ly closed the relief nozzles will open 
and allow the surplus water to run in- 
to the discharge pipe preventing shock 
in the inlet pipes. The needles of these 

A 10,500 h.p. Impulse Water Wheel. 

generator. These buckets are of tun 
ellipsoidal type, and are made of close 
grained east steel oTound to a smooi.i 
finish. Each set consists of 16 buckets, 
24 inches wide, forming a wheel 6 feet 
10 inches in diameter. 

The water enters the casing at A and 
B and is directed onto the buckets 
through two needle nozzles. These 
needles are connected with the Lombard 
governor through the levers, and lay 
shaft, as shown in the illusti-ation, and 
move in a longitudinal direction within 
the nozzle, thus changing the annulir 

nozzles are handled by dash pots so that 
after being wide open they will gradually 
close, thus preventing shook. 

The main shaft is 43 ft. 6 ins. long, 2J 
inches in diameter at the centre, tap- 
ering to 12 inches diameter at each end. 
It is made of nickel steel, hydraulic 
forged, oil tempered and runs in 
water-cooled bearings. The four cast 
iron inlet pipes are 36 inches in diam- 
eter, and will be bolted to a cast steel 
yoke pipe, 51 inches diameter. The hous- 
ings are of cast iron with machined bot- 
tom flanges. 



A convenient and practical means of 
handling oils and turjicntine has been 
adopted by Lockwood & Palmer, Stam- 
ford, Conn. Three floors are used in 
the system. On the second floor are five 
oil tanks holding fromi 30' to 50 gal- 
lons each. These are used respectively 
for turpentine, boiled oil, raw oil, ma- 
chine oil and kerosene. An iron pipe 
runs from each of these tanks down the 
elevator shaft and then through the 
wall partition on the first floor, where 
each end in a brass cock. The oil is 
drawn off here. The tanks are filled 
from the equipment on, the third floor. 
.4n inclined plane, fi feet long and 2.^ 
feet high at the raised end, leads to a 
sink directly above the tanks. Each 
tank has attached a length of corrn- 
ifated conductor pipe set at the right 
angle to receive the adjustable pipe 
which comes from the sink. 

When it is desired to fill a tank the 
pipes are adjusted, a barrel of oil i.s 
brought from the cellar on the elevator, 
rolled up the incline and poured into 
the sink. 


The annual report of the Department 
(if Mines. Ottawa, foi- the calendar years 
1907 and 1008. gives some interesting 
statistics regardius- the output of chrom- 
ito in C.-'-nada. Chrome iron ore is used 
chiefly for the manufacture of ferro 
chrome alloys and salts for pigments, as 
well as for linings in steel and copper 

PVrro-chrome is ;iroduced at Buckins:- 
hani. Que., by the Electric Reduction Co.. 
and shipments of the ores have been 
made to the Sydney and Soo steel plants, 
but their chief markets is in the United 
States. The ore ranges in value from 
.$17 to $20 a ton, for 50 per cent. ore. 
Chromite is mined in the Eastern Town- 
ships of Quebec. In 1907, 7,196 tons 
were mined, valued at $72,000. In 1908 
a little more was mined. 

The world's production of chromite 
in 1907 was about 90.000 metric tons. 

George C. Wells, assistant general 
passenger agent of the C.P.R. is giving 
a series of lectures this term to the stu- 
dents in the Railway Department of Mc- 
G-ill University, Montre.-,l. on "The Con- 
duct of Passenger Business." 


Practical Articles for Canadian Foundrymen and Pattern Makers, and 
News of Foundrymen's and Allied Associations. Contributions Invited. 


The annual foundrymen's convention 
will be held in Detroit, June 6 to 10, 
1910, instead of during Ihe week of May 
30, as previously announced. The change 
in date was made in view of the fact 
that May 30 is Decoration Day, and it 
is doubtful if many foundrymen would 
have been present at that time. Ar- 
rangements are already being made for 
the exhibit which will be conducted un- 
der the auspices of the Foundry and 
Manufacturers' Supply Association, and 
during this week the annual meetings of 
the American Foundrymen's Association, 
the American Brass Founders' Associa- 
tion and Associated Foundry Foremen 
will be held. 

The furnace is provided with a swing-- 
ing cover, which is moved aside by de- 
pressing the lever shown in an upright 


To meet the demands for a melting 
furnace having a removable crucible, 
the Monarch Engineering & Mfg. Co., 
Baltimore, has designed the type shown 
in Figs. 1 and 2, which is equipped 
witli a crane for setting the pot into 
the furnace and for removing the same 
after the metal has been melted. This 

Fig. 1. — Stationary Melting Furnace With Crane 
in Position to Lift Crncibln. 

furnace is especially adapted for use in 
shops where the pot is lifted out and is 
used for pouring the metal. In Fig. 1, 
the furnace is shown with the crane in 
position for lifting the crucible into the 
furnace, and in Fig. 2, the pot has been 
raised, the crane swung over, in posi- 
tion to deposit the crucible with 'its 
charge into the furnace. The crucible is 
lifted by a chain attached to the tongs, 
the chain being wound up on a small 
drum on the spindle of the hand wheel. 

American Foundrymen's 


American Brass Founders' 



On behalf of our association we 
beg to announce that the invita- 
tion so kindly issued by the Foun- 
drymen of Detroit to our respec- 
tive bodies, to hold the next con- 
vention in that city, has been 
officially accepted by our Executive 
Boards. The date has been set 
for June 7th, 8th and 9th, 1910. 

The hotel headquarters are to 
be at the Pontchartrain. Notice of 
details later on. 

With this announcement there 
are sent the Proceedings of the 
Associations, and an apology is 
due for the lateness with vvhich 
they reach you. The manuscript 
i copy was ready early in August, 
l<ut at that time the printing 
office at which our work is done 
was undergomg a complete trans- 
formation, and the monotype ma- 
chines and new presses have taken 
until now to get into the running 
order necessary to turn out our 
work properly. As our members 
have all had such experiences in 
their own shops, we trust the 
apology may be acceptable 

Detroit promises to be one of 
the big conventions, as from all 
accounts the very energetic com- 
mittee, headed by Dr. Stephenson, 
of Cincinnati Convention fame, is 
busily engaged even at this early 
da,te. The exhibition to be held 
during the week of .Tune 6th, also 
promises to eclipse everything 
heretofore shown, and hence visit- 
ing Foundrymen will be amply re- 
paid, and should make their pre- 
parations early. 

In the expectation of a very 
useful and enjoyable gathering, we 
remain, Respectfully, 


Sec. Amer. Foundrymen's Ass'n. 
Sec. American Brass Founders' 

December 10th, 1909. 

position in Fig. 1. The opening in the 
furnace cover permits the products of 
combustion to escape, and in addition 
can be used for introducing metal into 
the crucible, or for inspecting the con- 
dition of the metal as it melts. These 
furnaces can be arranged for installa- 
tion in pits or above the floor level as 

l-'ig. 2.— Crucible Raised and in Position to be 
Lowered Into Pot. 

desired, and are furnished with or with- 
out the lifting crane. Gas or oil can be 
used for fuel. 


The motor illustrated herewith is for 
use in the foundry or in dirty places. 
It is a pipe ventilated motor, the cut 
showing the intake pipe at the back. 
This pipe is connected with the ci'iside 
of the building ; the other end blows 
the air into the shop if wished, a fan 
drawing the air in and forcing it out. 

This motor is made for direct or al- 
ternating current, in all sizes. It is 
dust proof, being completely covered by 
a case. One of the features is that it 
is run with ball bearings and requires 
lubrication once in two years. Grease 
is the lubricant and is inserted by re- 
moving the small cap at the end of the 


Canadian machinery 

bearing'. A chimney cooled motor for 
outside work is built along- similar 

These motors arc being placed on the 
Canadian market by the Ijancashirc 

Enclosed Foundry Motor. 

Jlynamo & Motor Co., 152-1 Bay St., 
Toronto. G. E. Mason is manager of 
the Canadian branch of this company. 


By S. D. Sleeth.** 

When the Westinghouse Air Brake 
Co. found it necessary to enlarge their 
plant, on account of increased business, 
it was decided to move to Wilmerding, 
Pa., and install in the foundry flask and 
sand conveyors. This meant that the 
foundry would have to run so that iron 
could be poured all day, instead of two 
or three hours in the afternoon. We 
knew of no plant where this was being 
done, so it was up to our foundry to 
work it out. As it required about two 
and one-half hours to run the heat off 
at that time, we decided to see how 
much longer we could hold the metal in 
the cupola and still keep it hot. The 
first day we put the blast on one-half 
hour earlier and melted the iron with 
the same blast pressure, but would shut 
the blast off for five or ten minutes and 
then start to blow again. This we found 
to work satisfactorily for that day. The 
second day we put the blast on one hour 
earlier, but this did not work so well, 
we, therefore, added more coke, which 
kept the metal hot but the melting was 

When we started work in the new 
foundry at Wilmerding we ran two cu- 
polas, one in the morning, and one in 
the afternoon. We were afraid to hold 
over dinner hour. After running for 
some time in this way we decided to run 
one cupola all day; at 11 o'clock, or a 
lillle later, we added 200 lbs. of coke 
for two or three charges so that we 

• Paper read before the American Foundrymcn's 
Association. In the Febru-ary issue will bo given 
a discussion on this subject by Geo. K. Hooper, 
M.F,., New York City. 

•• Address : Wllmerdlnp, Pa. 

would have an extra amount of coke 
to hold over the dinner hour. Our great 
trouble at this time was with the cupola 
man, as he insisted that the iron would 
freeze at the tapping hole, but we final- 
ly persuaded him that he would not be 
held responsible should this occur. We 
drained all the iron out at 12 o'clock and 
closing the slag hole wifh sand, stop- 
ping the tapping hole, and shutting all 
other openings tight, so there would be 
no draught. About ten minutes before 
starting time we tapped out all that was 
in the cupola and pigged it, then put the 
blast on full, so as to be ready when 
the starting whistle blew. Sometimes 
we have to pig two or three hundred 
pounds on account of the metal not being 
hot enough. 

We had two sizes of cupola — 48 in. 
and 60 in. inside the lining. When the 
heats were heavy we would run the 60 in. 
We had to enlarge the plant again so we 
took out the 48-in. cupola and installed 
two new cupolas, the shells being 90 
in., so that we could line them up to 78 
in. if required. We have them lined at 
the present time to 70 in. When run- 
ning full, i.e., night and day, we melt 
280 tons, running each cupola about ten 
hours. We have operated one cupola 
from Friday night at 6 o'clock until 
Saturday noon of the following day, clos- 
ing down at 11 p.m. for one-half hour 
for lunch, and again at 6.30 in the 
morning for three-quarters of an hour 
for breakfast. This is rather hard on 
the lining so we do not make a practice 
of it. 

We have tried a great many experi- 
ments with cupolas, but as yet have been 
unable to find any that will give better 
results than the double row of tuyeres 
— the upper row about 10 in. above the 
lower. It is not necessary to keep the 
upper ones open all the time. Our 'blast 
pressure is about 11 ounces in the cupola 
bustle. We use a fan for blast. When 
running full we melt ten to eleven lbs. 
of iron to one pound of coke. 

In charging the cupola we are very 
careful to have the charge level. We 
fharge the pig by hand and the scrap is 
dumped in from a buggy through a door 
above the regular charging door. All 
the charges are the same from beginning 
to the end of the heat. As the irou 
must come very soft and uniform we 
do not charge more than 4,'000 lbs, at 
one time. For a sraallef cupola the 
charge would naturally be less. 

To sum up our experiences. I would 
advise: See that the coke bed is burn- 
ing even all around, then charge just as 
you would for an ordinary run, allow- 
ing an extra amount of coke for the 
dinner hour. After running about one 
hour, open the slag hole and keep it 
open, except during the dinner hour. 


Use about 40 to 50 lbs. of limestone lio 
one ton of molten metal — ^better to use 
too much than too little. Have the 
cupola shell large enough, as it is easy 
to put in an extra lining for smaller 


The following unique scheme of teach- 
ing English in the Cuban public schools 
of Habana Province, instituted by the 
supervisor of English, Miss Abbie 
Phillips, is reported from Habana : 

Miss Phillips has asked all the repre- 
sentatives of English and American 
manufacturers in Habana to supply her 
with their catalogs, and especially those 
which are profusely illustrated. These 
catalogs are distributed among the 
schools and students, and a large part 
of the time devoted to English instruc- 
tion is used in explaining the names 
and uses of the articles illustrated. 

This seems to offer a rare opportun- 
ity for a great deal of free advertising 
for those manufacturers who are will- 
ing to send their illustrated catalogs 
and pamphlets to the supervisor. The 
great value of th'is method of teaching 
is that the rising generation of Cuban 
youth will learn the names and uses of 
the articles illustrated at the most im- 
pressionable age, which in the near fu- 
ture will reflect to the advantage of 
those manufacturers. Miss 'Phillips 
states that any kind of catalog is wel- 
come, whether dealing with office sup- 
plies or machinery. 

It is suggested that interested manu- 
facturers and exporters send a half 
dozen sets or more of their illustrated 
literature to Miss Abbie Phillips, Su- 
pervisor of English, Obrapia, 57, Ha- 
bana, Cuba. 


Polished steel work may easily be pro- 
tected from rust by the application of 
the following compound : 

Lard 6 parts 

Rosin 1 part 

The two ingredients are melted to- 
gether and stirred until cold. The rosin 
prevents the mass from becoming rancid 
and also acts as an air-tight film. If 
rubbed upon a polished steel surface, 
even very thinly, it effectually preserves 
and protects the polish. It is easily 
removed by gasoline or kerosene — ^Brass 

W. G. Lotte, instructor in forge prac- 
tice at the college of engineering, Un- 
iversity of Wisconsin, for 17 years, has 
been granted one year's leave of absence. 
He will spend the time as special inspec- 
tor of steel for the International Harves- 
ter Co., visiting its various plants in the 
United States and Canada. 


Steel Foundry of Vancouver Engineering Works 

This New Steel Foundry is the Only One in Canada West of the Great 
Lakes — Equipment Includes Up-to-Date Cupola, Converter, Cranes, Etc. 

The demand for steel castings m the 
western part of Canada has increased 
with the rapid development of that sec- 
tion. Machinery used in the lumber 
and mining industries must be con- 
structed to withstand very heavy work. 

portion of the Dominion, early in 1909, 
the directors of the Vancouver Engin- 
eering Worlcs decided to add a steel 
foundry to their plant at Vancouver. 
The side blown converter for making 
steel was adopted. 

I ^i.i*r sr^"€ 

.oMmi si^as 

Ar«K«A«& r-fn^cn 

IFig. 1. — Layout of .Stcfl Plant. Vancouvnr EngineiTing Works 

.Steel castings, which enter largely into 
the manufacture of this class of ma- 
chinery, had to be shipped from the 
eastern part of Canada, or imported 
from the Fnited States, or Elngland. 
This was expensive because of high 
freight rates and long deliveries. 

Realizing the growing need in that 

Tn May, 1909, the Whiting Foundry 
Equipment Co., Harvey, 111., was com- 
missioned to design and equip the steel 
foundry according to the most up-to- 
date practice. Erection of the plant 
was commenced in .Tune, and the equip 

ryinnf i ,•> of ', 1 1 orl /^iiflnnr +-liD f r»l 1 r^ AA7 1 n f 


installed during the following 

September. The first Mnw of steel wa'^ 

successfully made October 12th, under 
the supervision of the Whitiug Foundry 
Equipment Company's Steel Foundry 

The plant has a present capacity of 
eight tons per day, and is so designed 
that extensions for handhng double 
that capacity can be made as required, 
without interrupting the operation of 
the present foundry. It is of steel con- 
struction throughout, having a main 
bay 120 feet long, and 50 feet wide, 
with a side bay 120 feet long, and 30 
feet wide,— as shown on the ground 
plan— Fig. 1. The side bay 'is designed 
to provide the most compact grouping 
of the melting and converting depart- 
ment, tiie core room, sand mill, and 
cleaning department, without in any 
way interfering with the economical 
operation of each. In the design, every 
effort was made to .secure a continuous 
system, in order that the raw material 
might be converted into finished cast- 
ings without any reverse movements. 
The steel foundry is so arranged in the 
plot of the general plant, that the 
movement of all departments is in the 
direction of the castings store house. 

The Cupola. 

The cupola is the standard Whiting 
No. 4, and the height from floor level to 
top of the stack is 35 feet. In order 
to properly charge the converter, the 
melting capacity is about seven tons 
per hour. The cupola charging floor is 
22 feet long, and 20 feet wide, and is 
served h«y a 2-ton electric elevator, hav- 
ing a lift of 16 feet. In order to facili- 
tate the handling of melting stock, an 
industrial track of 24 inch gauge con- 
nects the elevator with the stock yard. 

Iron is tapped from the cupola into a 
(),000 i)ound ladle, carried by a pneu- 
matic jib crane of 4 tons capacity, as 
shown in Fig. 2. Two taps are made 
to obtain a full charge for the conver- 
ter. This is done to avoid holding the 
nKjlton iron iii the hearth of the cupola, 

Fig. :;. Jib Crane of 4 Tons Capacity. 

Fig. 4. — I.,adle Lowt;rfd to Jlcccivcd Fii;i.shnl StLL], 


where it is exposed to the incandescent 
coke from which it will absorb sulphur, 
especially if the manganese content is 
low. After the ladle is filled, the jib 
crane hoists it to the pouring position, 
shown in Fig. 3, and the iron is trans- 
tered to the converter, to be blown 
into steel. 

Since no phosphorus or sulphur can 
be removed, owing to the acid lining of 
the converter, it is necessary to melt 
an iron running low in these elements, 
the maximum limit being 0.04 per cent, 
for each. The manganese content 
ranges from 0.60 per cent, to 1.50 per 
cent. The cupola charge is so propor- 
tioned as to give about 1.00 per cent. 
of manganese, this limit being set be- 
cause it counteracts the affinity of the 
iron for the sulphur in the coke, and 
also minimizes the wear upon the con- 
verter lining. As the percentage of sili- 

A large hood is susi.enued abo.e the 
converter, to carry the fumes outside 
the building. The height of the con- 
verter is 10 feet, when in blowmg posi- 
tion. It is lined with a composition of 
ganister, sand and fire clay, rammed 
around a wood form. This lining, if re- 
paired when necessary, will give at 
least 180 or 200 blows. 

Iron from the cupola is poured into 
the converter, which is then turned to 
an upright position for blowing. The 
air pressure ranges from 3 to 5 pounds 
a square inch, it being regulated by a 
valve at the operator's platform. The 
l>low4ng operation requires from 15 to 
20 minutes, varying with the percentage 
of metalloids in the iron. It is neces- 
sary that the time be as brief as pos- 
sible), as upon the rapidity of the blow 
depends the temperature of the bath. 
Fig. 5 shows the converter during the 

pipe connects the cupola with the 
blower. Regulation of the blast for the 
cupola is accomplished by means of a 
standard blast gate. 

Core Room. 

The core room, core oven and mold 
drying oven are in the side bay, ad- 
joining the cupola room, and cover an 
area 40 feet long, and 30 feet wide. The 
mold drying oven, which holds two 
cars, is 18 feet long and 10 feet wide, 
and is fitted with a Kinnear roller cur- 
tain door. The core oven is 10 feet 
by 10 feet, equipped with side shelves 
for cores, and has a swinging steel plate 
door. Coal is used for fuel. 

Adjoining the core room, is the sand 
mill room, with a 72 inch mill, built 
by the Vancouver Engineering Works, 
Ltd. This mill is of the undergeared 
type, and is belt driven by a 25 h.p. 
A.-C'.-B. alternating current motor. A 

Fig. .'i.- I'ouring I'osi.i.n '!'i';i[isfi'rriii{^ Iron l(;% Collverlrr' 

C(jn in the cupola charge should be from 
1.80 per cent, to 2.00 per cent, in the 
iron it ranges from 1.20 per cent, to 
3..")0 per cent. The extensive manufac- 
ture of boilers, tanks, etc., gives this 
company a heavy stock of punchings 
and clippings to draw upon for the 
cupola charge. In order to produce 
steel castings of high grade, careful at- 
tention is given the sul|)hur and phos- 
phorus limitations. 

The Converter. 
The converter, having a capacity of 
2 tons, is of the standard Whiting 
type. It occupies a floor space 20 feet 
by 12 feet, and is separated from the 
rimainder of the side bay by a steel cur- 
tain wall. It is carried on cast steel trun 
nions, which revolve in heavy cast iron 
standards, and spans a concrete pit into 
which the ladle is lowered to receive 
the finished steel, as shown in F*ig. 4. 

progress of the blow. Reduction in the 
weight of metal is about 18 per cent. 
The steel comes from the converter at 
1,700 degrees, centigrade, — a tempera- 
ture insuring sufficient fluidity to yield 
sliarp, sound castings of light section. 

Hack of the converter), and on a level 
with the foundry floor, is the blower 
room, which is equipped with a pos'itive 
pressure blower for the converter, and 
a steel pressure blower for the cupola. 
The positive pressure blower built by 
the P. H. & F. M. Roots CIo., is a No. 
f). It is belt connected to a 75 h.p. 
Alli.s-Chalmers-Bullock alternating cur- 
rent motor. The steel pressure blower, 
built by the B. P. Sturtevant Co., is a 
No. «, belted to a 10 h.p. A.-C.-B. al- 
ternating current motor. 

The blast main to the converter is in 
a' straight line to insure the minimum 
loss due to friction. A 14-inch blast 

-Converter Ituririfj I'rogrcss of the Blow. 

pneumatic sand shaker, built by the 
Hanna Engineering Co. is between the 
sand mill and core room. 

The cleaning room adjoins the blower 
room, and opens into the main bay. 
The equipment consists of a cold saw 
of the 2-B type, and two power hand 
saws, built by the Quincy, Manchester 
Sargent Co. Two type C Diamond 
emery grinders, built by Diamond Ma- 
chine Co., piovide ample facility for 
grinding the present out-put of the 
foundry.. Provision has been made for 
the future installation of an annealing 

The Vancouver Engineering Works, 
Ltd., manufacture an extensive line of 
logging and saw-mill machinery, all 
types of boilers, burners for saw-mills, 
and mining machinery. F. L. Leighton 
is general manager and instalations were 
made under his supervision. 



L. L. Anthes, of the Toronto Foundry 
Co., has returned from a trip to Cal- 
gary and Ekimonton, during which he 
was a member of two hunting parties. 
While in Winnipeg he, along with Alex, 
and Garnet Irvine, of the Standard 
Plumbing Co., and Sam Tait, manager 
of the plumbing department of the J. 
H. Ashdown Co., made up a duck 
shooting party, which visited Findlay, 
Man., Bob Green, master plumber, of 
Winnipeg, also being along. He later 
on went after big game south of Port 
Arthur, getting a deer, and Alex Cam- 
eron, Fort William, a moose. H. An- 
derson, Port Arthur, also got a shot 
at a moose, but failed to bring him 
down. The best Ed. Higginbotham, of 
Fort William, could get was a snap- 

While at Calgary "Lawrie" was in- 
itiated into the society, which has re- 
cently gained many members in the 
west, "The Native Sons," the passwoixl 
to whose meetings is the "Indian Sign." 
Several members of the society came 
down to the depot to see "Lawrie" off 
on his trip east, and while waiting for 

passed, "Why didn't you make the first 
casting like this ?" The answer will of 
course depend on many circumstances, 
but taking a case in point — that of a 
valve seating shown in Fig. 1, having 
three machined faces, L, K, and M, — 
the answer is that, not knowing the 
parts to be machined were as shown 
on the sketch, no precautions were 
taken to ensure these parts coming out 
clean. It is only when viewing the re- 
turned casting that the molder knows 
anything about these machined faces, 
as the pattern supplied (Fig. 2) gives 
no information in this respect. It would 
be a great help to the foundry if en- 
gineers who get their castings made 
out were particular in having their pat- 
terns marked plainly where they are 
machined, either by printing, say, the 
word "Bright," or painting all machin- 
ed parts a different color, attention be- 
ing drawn to this point on the oixler 
accompanying the patterns. 

The remedy in this instance is to 
cast the piece on its side, so that all 
bright faces are vertical. Fig. 3 is a 
sectional view of Fig. 4, which latter 
is a cross-section of the mold complete. 

equipment, in issuing a catalogue have 
included in it useful information for 
foundrymcn. While the "Steel-Harvey" 
Crucible Tilting Furnace, the Monarch 
I'ortable Tilting Furnace, Monarch Non- 
Tilting Furnace, blowers, etc., are used 
as illustrations, and the catalogue is an 
advertisement for these special lines, yet 
there is a lot of useful information 
which should be perused by those inter- 
ested. An article on "The 'Use' and 
'Abuse' of Crucibles," contains sugges- 
tions worth perusing. The footnote of 
the opening page, "All goods manufac- 
tured and shipped by us are guaranteed 
as represented, otherwise subject to re- 
turn at our expense," gives a reader of 
the catalogue, an impression of genuine- 
ness in the contents of the catalogue, 
and in the goods described. 


The chairmen of the different com- 
mittees, which will be in charge of the 
various arrangements for the annual 
convention of the American P"'oundry- 

W f^'^^i'rl^Wi^y^rf!:^-^^^ 

'k .!^^f;ff::;t.^: >, a;i!;;r^»;?y-iv ^ 

,...1 .•■■■:., ..:,>> '■ K' ■■■.: .:■:■ 


Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2.— Molding a Valve Seating, Fig. 3. 

the train, some one suggested that they 
have a cigar, so the party went across 
the road. On the return trip, however, 
Anthes and his suit case got separated, 
but he took the train on condition that 
his friends would send the baggage 
along on the next train. 

"The best laid plans" oft go astray, 
however, and though "Lawrie" tele- 
graphed from Winnipeg, and went on his 
hunting trip at Port Arthur, that suit 
case hasn't arrived yet, and as it con- 
tained his camera his friends have to 
take his word for it that he got "all 
the law allows" on his shooting expedi- 


By G. Buchanan. 
It sometimes happens that the mold- 
er turns out some piece of work for 
which he is really not responsible, al- 
though, when the casting is returned to 
the foundry and another piece is made 
which turns out good, the remark is 

A is a dry-sand core ; B, B are plates 
which are bedded on to the bottom and 
top parts of the flask when the mold 
is being rammed up. These plates are 
clamped as shown in Fig. 4. Two holes 
are cut in the flask at the joint, H for 
a riser and L for the runner. N, N, N, 
N are dummy risers which tak« any 
dirt out of the top flange. 

The mold is made in the same way 
as before when the casting was re- 
turned, the same tackle being used. The 
alterations needed were the holes cut 
in the flask joint and the two plates 
bedded as shown to enable the mold to 
withstand the side pressure when being 
poured. These pieces weigh 300 lbs., and 
are made in batches of twelve at a 
time. — Mechanical World. 


The Monarch Engineering Co., Balt- 
imore, Md., engineers and specialists in 
general oil and gas fuel for plant furnace 

men's Association at Pittsburg in 1911, 
were announced as follows at the regu- 
lar monthly meeting of the Pittsburg 
Foundrymen's Association, Monday 
evening, Dec. 6 — General committee, 
Jos. T. Speer, of the Pittsburg Valve, 
Foundry & Construction Co.; reception, 
E. A. Kebler, M. A. Hanna & Co.; 
smoker and get-together, E. D. Froh- 
man, S. Obermayer Co.; finance, J. S. 
Seaman, Seaman, Sleeth Co.; plant vis- 
itation, W. A. Bole, Westinghouse Ma- 
chine Co.; convention, H. E. F^ield, 
Mackintosh, Hemphill & Co.; ladies' 
entertainment, O. W. Mason, Midland 
Steel Co.; boat ride, F. H. Zimmers, 
Union ^ Foundry & Machine Co.; press, 
W. B. Robinson, The Iron Trade Re- 

Louis Ijavoie, formerly on the per- 
sonal staff of the general manager of 
the I. C. R., has been appointed gen- 
eral purchasing agent of the road with 
headquarters at Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 





Tnd improvement, and to all useis of power developed from steam, gas, elec- 
tricity, compressed air and water m Canada. 

The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

lOHN BAYNE MACLEAN. President W. L. EDMONDS. Vice-President 

junn o/i .j-Yi^RELL, Toronto - Business M.nager 

g"c KEITH, M.E.,B.Sc., Toronto - Editor 
F."C. D.WILKES, B.Sc, Montreal - Associate Editor 



Montreal Rooms 701-702 Easfern 

Townships Bank Bldg 

Toronto - 10 Front Street East 

Phone Mam 2701 

Winnipeg, 511 Union Bank Building 

Phone 3726 

F. K. Munro 

British Columbia - Vancouver 

H. Hodgson, 

Room 21, Hartney Chambers 


London - 88 Fleet Street. E.G. 

Phone Central 12960 

J. Meredith McKim 

Cable Address 



New York - - R. B. Huestis 

1109-1111 Lawyers' Title. Insur. 

ance and Trust Buildmg 

Phone. 1111 Cortlandt 

John F. Jones & Co.. 
31bis, Faubourg Montmartre, 
Paris. France 



Louis Wol 
Orell Fussli & Co 

Macpubco, Toronto. 

Atabek, London, Eng. 

Canada. United States. $1.00. Great Britain. Australia and other colonies 
4s. 6d., per year ; other countries, $1.50. Advertising rates on request. 
Subscribers who are not receiving their paper regularly will 
confer a favor on us by letting us know. We should be notcfied 
at once of any change in address, giving both old and new. 

tinually arriving and great improvements have been made 
to tlie rolling stock. The Grand Trunk Pacific has com- 
pleted its line between Fort William and Winnipeg, the 
line being now complete from Lake Superior to Edmonton. 
Nor is the Canadian Northern less progressive. That 
road increased its equipment by 25 locomotives, 1,950 
box cars, SOO flat cars, 125 stock cars, 40 cabooses, 16 
baggage and mail cars and 15 passenger cars, every one of 
which was built in Canada. The Ontario division of the 
road will build during this winter a line to Ottawa, giving 
thereby a through line between Toronto and Quebec; and 
the bridging of the gap between Sudbury and Port Arthur 
(now under construction) will connect the eastern and 
western divisions, and give the Canadian Northern en- 
trance to the larger centres of the country. West from 
Edmonton the same line is surveying a route that will 
take it to New Westminster, so that it is but a matter 
of months until the third transcontinental railway will 
connect the Atlantic seaboard with the Pacific. 

There cannot be much doubt as to the confidence of 
the railroads in the future business conditions of the 
country. The most sceptical can take heart when the 
shrewd business men controlling these interests make 
preparations for a greater strain on their rolling stock, 
for there is this evident fact that unless the country is 
prosperous, traffic cannot be. 

Vol. VI. 

January, 1910 

No. 1 


No better indication of the prosperity of a country 
can be found than in the equipment buying of its rail- 
roads. When the corporations are launching out into 
fresh rolling stock, and are providing for increased traffic 
then there can be no doubt that the trade barometer is 
favorable. But if the buying is shut down, as was the 
case last year, then there is no doubt as to the conditions 
being unfavorable. If railroad economizing tends further 
to depress trade, railroad liberality has the opposite effect. 
Not only does it mean that money will be circulating more 
freely, but that others are encouraged by the action of 
aien who are recognized as leading guides of trade pros- 

For some time now our railroads have been buying 
heavily, confident in the prosperity wave that has arrived 
and anxious to be prepared for further improvement. The 
rolling stock has been greatly added to during the summer 
and the winter is to be no exception. The C.P.B. are 
making extensive preparations at their Angus shops, 
Montreal, to prepare for next year's traffic. They have 
commenced by placing an order for 15 freight engines and 
three passenger engines of the Pacific type. Upwards of 
150 passenger cars are also to be renovated, and eight new 
sleepers constructed. A record winter of work is antici- 
pated at the Angus shops, and it is evident that apart 
from the benefit of this money circulating we have the 
satisfaction of knowing that much heavier traffic is ex- 
pected next year. 

The Grand Trunk and Grand Trunk Pacific are also 
making strenuous arrangements as to equipment. During 
the past four months they have added to their rolling 
stock at the rate of about $1,000,000 a month, while 
orders for new engines and cars have now been given, 
which will ensure an even greater rate of progress during 
the balance of the year. Locomotives and cars are con- 


There appeared in a recent issue of the Toronto Globe 
what appeared to be an authentic aeeount of aai investi- 
gation of certain charges of graft in connection with the 
administration of the Oxford county roads system. The 
article was published under the somewhat startling cap- 
tion, "Graft and Good Roads Seem Strange Bedfellows." 
In the course of the evidence reported it was stated that 
one Jas. A. Vance, "agent of the Hamilton Bridge Works 
Co.," had sworn that he paid Reeve Sutherland, of East 
Zorra, $50 to secure his signature to a contract for a 

The Hamilton Bridge Works Co. affirm that this man 
Vance was not an agent, is not an agent, and will never 
be an agent, of the Hamilton Bridge Works Co., and while 
the Globe is to be congratulated om any steps it takes to 
expose graft, it would seem that steps should be taken to 
verify statements made. 

It seems that Jas. A. Vance for a number of years was 
a broker or contractor, going out and taking contracts on 
his own hook and then buying the steel where h€ chose. 
During the past few years the steel for a number of 
bridges was purchased from the Hamilton Bridge Works. 
This company on a few oecasions gave him contracts to 
erect some small bridges when he happened to have work 
in the neighborhood and when it was inconvenient for the 
company to send its own gangs. 

A letter received by the Hamilton Bridge Works Co. 
from Judge Finkle, chairman of the investigating com- 
mittee, says that there was no evidence whatever brought 
out to show that this man was connected with the Hamil- 
ton Bridge Works Co. It was therefore unfair, to say 
the least, for the Globe to publish such an article before 
endeavoring to find out the full facts. It is a great in- 
justice to th« company mentioned to connect them even 
indirectly with shady dealings. This company has a repu- 
tation for fair dealings, not having to resort to any mean 
or petty acts to secure contracts. 




Canadian Machinery Las entered the sixth year of 
publication, having, we believe, the confidence of the me- 
chanical men of Canada. From the first, when Canadian 
Machinery was launched into a distinctly new field, the 
paper has been a success. From a sixty-four page paper, 
it has grown to a ninety-six page paper. It is recognized 
that the support a paper receives from its advertisers is 
positive proof of its value. In December, 1905, there were 
thirty-four pages of advertising, while four years later, in 
December, 1909, there were fifty-eight pages. 

When Canadian Machinery was started in January, 
1905, there was no machine tool paper in Canada. It is 
still the only paper in Canada catering exclusively to the 
machine tool and foundry trades. The quick and ready 
response with which Canadian Machinery was received 
by the mechanical men of the Dominion showed that its 
future was assured. That their interest has not flagged 
is shown by the fact, that not only have practically all 
the original readers renewed their subscriptions, but the 
list has grown until now Canadian Machinery reaches over 
90 per cent, of the machine shops and foundries of Canada. 

The industrial life of Canada has awakened and fac- 
tories have been erected by the score during the past year, 
while a great number more 
have been planned for 1910. 
More than twenty salaried 
subscription men are covering 
'Canada simultaneously, from 
coast to coast, every city, 
town and village being visited 
each year. These men must 
show results or we want to 
know the reason why. Be- 
sides these men we have a 
great number of shop agents, 
and every industrial con- 
cern, superintendent, foreman, 
purchasing agent and master 
mechanic has the paper 
brought regularly before his 
attention. The directors of 
embryo concerns are also ap- 
proached, so that we are 
maintaining a list of paid-up subscribers in Canada, which 
includes the men who can influence the buying of machine 
shop and foundry equipment and supplies. 

* * * 

With the growth of the paper and its increase in popu- 
larity among Canadian mechanical men generally, the edi- 
torial staff has been increased and greater efforts are being 
put forward to increase the value of the paper. Results 
speak for themselves and comparisons of issu^ as they 
appear, with previous ones, show a growth in the class of 
editorial matter published. This hag been accomplished 
by the most diligent efforts on the part of the publishers 
and by the suggestions received from time to time from 
friends of the paper. We are always on the outlook for 
these suggestions whereby the paper may be made of 
greater interest, and we value the criticisms of our readers. 

Among our oontributers during the past year we have 
noimbered some of the best known mechanical men of 
Canada and numerous excellent articles will appear dur- 
ing 1910. We spare no expense to get the mechanical 
public what they want and we are ever looking for good, 
live, reliable articles. In every issue is a good fund of 

information and ideas for manufacturers, superintend- 
ents, foremen and mechanics. As a result, subscriptions 
continue to come in from all over Canada and our repre- 
sentatives in- the various provinces are meeting with ex- 
cellent results.' 

Discriminating advertisers who know where to get 
results are placing their business with us and each year 
has shown a growth over the one previous, showing the 
confidence our patrons have in the advertising power of 
Canadian Machinery. 

While the main function of our advertising pages is 
to provide a place wherein the advertiser may print his 
message, wo realize that many advertisers, lacking time 
or inclination to produce good "copy," fail frequently to 
make the most of the opjMDrtunity which Canadian Ma- 
chinery provides. For that reason we maintain an Art 
and Advertising Department whose business it is to co- 
operate with such of our advertisers who desire it, in pre- 
paring good advertising copy. 

Perhaps the most striking illustration of the efficiency 
of this departmenfciscontainedinthefactthatmany of our 
advertisers are using the copy prepared for them by the 

Art and Ad. Department, in 
other publications besides Can- 
adian Machinery. 


A few kind expressions of 
opinion received at our office 
during the past few days, en- 
tirely unsolicited, are illustra- 
tive of the position held by 
Canadian Machinery among 
mechanical men. 

W. Da'lgheish, Sidney, Man., 
writes: "I look forward to its 
monthly visits with a good 
deal of pleasure, and' enclose 
$1 to place to my credit. 
Wishing you continued suc- 
cess. ' ' 
The following letters were 
received recently from British Columbia subscribers, at 
our Vancouver office, 11 Hartney Chambers by H. Hodg- 
son: "Canadian Machinery is a credit to Canada. It is 
one of the best machinery papers I have seen. It is of 
interest to every mechanical man whether he be employee 
or employer." 

"Yes, I got the paper all rig'ht and like it fine. If 
every issue is like the October number you can count on 
me as a permanent subscriber. Moreover, I will get others 
for you. When you were talking to me I must confess 
I had no confidence in the paper, but it is ahead of Eng- 
lish a,nd United States papers for Canadian mechanical 

David Williams, one of our eastern representatives, 
after a tour of New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island 
and Nova Scotia writes: "There are very few managers 
or foremen who are not on our list. All of them speak 
well of Canadian Machinery, especially lately. I have 
told a number of them that we propose enlarging the de- 
partment of "Machine Shop Methods and Devices," and 
they all approve of it. That department has been good 
■lately. The article on the Moncton shops was very much 
appreciated down here." Mr. Williams is no,w making a 
complete tour of the British West Indies for us. 


New Interesting Type of Boring and Turning Mills 

The Colburn Machine Tool Co., Franklin, Pa., Have Just Brought Out An En- 
tirely New Line of Vertical Boring and Turning Mills, the " New Model." 

The "New Model" vertical boring and 
turnings mills recently placed on the mar- 
ket include many new features in their 
design. There are five sizes in the entire 
line, 42, 48, 54, 60 and 72-inch swing. 
With the exception of the method of driv- 
ing the table, the same features are in- 
corporated' in all sizes and a description 
of any one size practically describes all 
the others. All sizes are built with two 
swivel heads,- and the three smallest 
sizes with turret heads as desired. 

Referring to Fig. 1, the table spindle 
has a massive angular thrust bearing 
which makes it self-centring, and, to- 
gether with the large, straight, upright 
bearings, effectually resists vertical, an- 
gular and horizontal strains. All bear- 

ated with one hand, the belt caji be 
changed from one step of the cone pul- 
ley to another with great rapidity and 
without any injury to the belt. la ac- 
tual operation the entire range of speeds 
obtained with the cone pulleys, from the 
slowest to the fastest and back again, 
stopping momentarily on each step, has 
been made in eight seconds. By chang- 
ing the back gear lever Z, which is in 
close proximity to the handle which 
operates the belt shifter, another run of 
five additional speeds is obtained. A 
speed index plate, located on the hous- 
ing directly above the back gear lever 
Z, indicates t'ne right step on cuiie pul- 
ley for belt and position of clutches in- 
side of speed box to give the correct 

hand wheel one revolution, five changes 
of feed are obtained. A movement of 
the multiplying lever changes the com- 
bination of gears, and another revolution 
of the hand wheel gives five more 
changes, making ten in all. The vertical 
feed shaft extending upward from each 
feed case engages with mechanism on 
each end of rail, which conveys motion 
to the horizontal rods and screws in 
cross rail, which operate the heads ver- 
tically and horizontally. Quick-adjust- 
ing positive clutches are used, as s^hown 
by D in Fig. 3, which enable the operator 
to instantly change feed from vertical 
to horizontal and vice versa. Either feed 
can be reversed instantly by the feed 
reverse lever, shown at each end of rail. 

Fig. 1.— Dftail of Tuble Spindle Bearing and Internal Drive( as Used on BO 
and 72 Inch New Model Mills. 

Fig. 2. — Rear Viewi New Model Mills, 
Machine Tool Co. 


ing surfaces of the spindle are lubricated 
from one sight feed oil cup. 
Driving Mechanism. 

The drive is by means of five-step 
cone pulleys of large dimensions, thence 
through tihe speed box, which contains 
the back gears and positive clut<;hes, 
which are constantly immersed in a bath 
of oil. The back gears are engaged and 
disengaged by means of positive clutches 
inside of speed box and operated by lever 
Z, conveniently located at sides of ma- 
chine, shown in Fig. 2. Five speeds are 
obtained with the back gears out, and 
five more with the back gears in, mak- 
ing ten speeds in all in geometrical pro- 

A belt shifter (Fig. 2) is furnished 
on these mills, by means of which, oper- 

speed of table in revolutions per min- 

Fig. 3 shows some of the details of the 
new model boring and turning mills. A 
is the right-ihand ram and tool holders, 
B is the friction cone used on foot brake. 
This has three hard maple i^hoes or 
wedges, which are specially prepared by 
being treated in paraffin. C is a fric- 
tion cone with cork inserts used on pow- 
er rapid traverse. These frictions are 
on the upper end of the vertical feed 
shafts. D is a quick-adjusting feed 
clutch, used on the ends of both feed 
rods and screws on the ends of both 
rods and screws in cross rail. 

The feeding mechanism for each !head 
is contained in a separate case, one on 
each side of the mill. By turning the 


Rapid traverse of the tools, horizontal- 
ly, vertically, and in angular directions, 
is obtained from the same vertical shafts 
as the feed, the manipulation being by 
a vertical lever attached to the front of 
the feed case, marked "Rapid Traverse 
Lever" on Fig. 2. This lever has two 
operating positions: forward and back. 
The gear feed is always engaged when 
the lever is in the back position, and 
the tool will feed in the direction de- 
termined by the position of the feed re- 
verse lever at the end of cross rail. 

The rapid traverse is always engaged 
when the lever is in the forward posi- 
tion, and the t-ool will travel rapidly in 
the opposite direction from the gear feed. 
It is impossible for the operator to throw 
the rapid traverse in the wrong way, and 


there is no chance for an accident to oc- 

The motion for the rapid traverse is 
obtained from the horizontal shaft at 
the top through friction cones havin!,' 
corlc inserts, (see C, Fig. 2). The rapid 
traverse in connection with the final ad- 
justing collars does away with the neces- 
sity of hand cranking, although the ends 
of the rods and screws in cross rail are 
squared so that a crank can he used in 
an emergency or when preferred. 

Final Adjusting Collars. 

Although the rapid traverse is an in- 
dispensable feature, enabling the opera- 
tor to quickly move the tools in ajiy di- 
rection, it does not allow a fine adjust- 
ment to be made. In the Colburn mill 
both feed screws and rods in the cross 
rail are splined and each has a capstan 
collar slida:bly fitted thereto with keys, 
which fit the spline so that by turning 
the capstan collars with a small lever 
furnished for this purpose, the rods and 
screws are turned also, (see detail, Fig. 

A safety shear pin device, Fig. 5, 
placed on the rear of each end of the 
cross rail prevents injury to feed me- 
chanism in case the heads are acci- 
dentally run together. 

Figure 6 shows a new model mill equip- 
ped with constant speed motor, mounted 
on bracket and belted to friction clutch 
pulley on jack shaft. Friction clutch al- 

lows mill to be stopped^and started with- 
out stopping motor. 


4.— Rear View of Saddle for Swivel Head 
on New Model Mill. 


The regular November meeting of the 
Western Canada Railway Club was held 
in the Royal Alexandra Hotel, Winni- 
peg, Nov. 8. H. H. Vaughn, assistant 
to vice-president, C.P.R., Montreal, read 
a papei on "Fuel Economy on Testing 
Plants and Railroads." Grant Hal', 
superintendent motive power, C.P.R., 
Winnipeg, occupied the chair. On Dec. 
13, H. B. Lake, chemist, C.P.R., Winni- 
peg, presented a paper on "Water Sup- 

The next regular monthly meeting of 
the club will be held in the Royal Alex- 
andra Hotel, Winnipeg, on January 10th, 
at 8 o 'clock. A paper will be read by 
A. E. Cox, storekeeper, Canadian North- 
ern Railway, on "The Stores Depart- 
ment and its Relation to the Other De- 
partments." Therewill also be the con- 
tinued discussion on "Water Supply," 
and "Copper versus Steel Fireboxes." 

John Stewart, heretofore locomotive 
engineer on the I. C. R., has been ap- 
l)ointed acting master mechanic of the 
Eastern Division with olfices at Monc- 
ton, N.B., vice Mr. N. L. Rand, master 
mechanic, placed on the pension list. 

Fig. 6.— View of Safety Shear Pin Device. 

Do your work well to-day and you 
won't have to do it over again to- 

Fig. 3.— Details of New Model Boring and Turning Mills, Colburr Fig. 5.— Constant Speed Motor Drive as Apiilied to 54, 60 and 72 inch 

Machine Tool Co. Now Model Mills. 



Establishment or Enlargement of Factories, Mills, Power Plants, Etc.; Construc- 
tion of Railways, Bridges, Etc.; Municipal Undertakings; Mining News. 

Foundry and Machine Shop. 

The telephone machine factory at Watcrlord 
has begun operations. 

The Wabi Iron Works, Temlskaming, plan 
extensions for this year. 

The C.P.R. will probabtlyi build a new round- 
house at London, in the spring. 

The Parkin Elevator Co., Gait, have decided 
to open a branch office in Winnipeg. 

It is officially announced that the CjP.R. will 
enlarge their Montreal roundhouse next spring. 

The Stewart Machinery Co. has applied for a 
permit to erect a f30.000 warehouse at Winnipeg. 

Extensive improvements have been made to 
the office floor of the Thos. Davidson Mfg. Co., 

The Ontario Engine & Pump Co. have decided 
to locate at Calgary and will buy a big block 
ncx't spring. 

The Regina Machine & Iron Works will have a 
solid brick or reinforced concrete building put up 
next spring. 

John Dennis, one of Lindsay's pump manufac- 
turers, has moved into his new premises, a mo- 
dern building. 

Work has been commecjced on a 13 -foot ad. 
dition to the Provincial Steel Company's plant 
at Cobourg. 

The Page-Hersey Steel Tube Works, Welland, 
are expected to start work next month with 
two hundred men. 

The Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co. has struck 
a 30-foot seam of iron ore on their Wabana pro- 
perty in Newfoundland. 

Bonuses aggregating $300,000, have been offer- 
ed to any shipbuilding company erecting a 
plant on Halifax harbor. 

The Western Stove Mfg. Co., with head<juarters 
in Portland, Ore., is likely to build a plant at 
Calgary, for their Western Canadian trade. 

The Ontario Iron & Steel Co.'s plant at Wel- 
land, which lormerly imported its steel billets 
from the States, are now making their own. 

The 1000 Island Boat & Engine Co., Morris- 
town, has ?10,791.27 worth of orders for spring 
delivery. They have now a force of over fifty. 

The National Iron Works have secured a permit 
for their first building on the Ashbridge Bay 
site, Toronto. It is a brick foundry estimated to 
cost $20,000. 

The first range manufactured by the new stove 
f\rm. The Stanford Steel Range Co., Brantford, 
was recently on exhibition in Howie .& Teely's 
window there. 

The Dominion Iron & Steel Co. will have built 
for next season two 10.000-ton steamers for 
carrying ore from their iron deposits at Wabana, 
Nfld.. to Sydney. 

The Gurney Foundry Co. has been granted a 
permit to erect a three-storey warehouse to 
cost $.36,000 on Adelaide Street close to their 
Toronto works. 

The Canada Furnace and Iron Co. burned out 
a week ago at Three Rivers, are anxious to lo- 
cate at Farnham, Que. From 300 to 500 men 
would be employed. 

The warerooms of the R. Watt Machine" Works, 
at Ridgetown, Ont., were destroyed by fire on 
Dec. 10., at a loss. )f about $50,000. The machine 
shops were also damaged. 

The Dominion Nail & Tack Co., Gait, have 
moved into their new factory. Wire nails and 
drawn market wire will likely be made by the 
company in the near future. 

Mr. Moorehead, U.S. Consul at St. John, is 
making inquiries at that city lor a Wisconsin 
saw-making concern, which proposes locating a 
branch factory in Canada. 

The Goold, Shapley & Muir Co., Brantford. has 
decided to erect a large new machine shop on 
Wellington Street, will enlarge the capacity of 
the plant for traction engines. 

The Union Irorj Works Co. is a new concern 
which j>roposes to locate at Parry Sound. John 
Youngson of the Huntsville Engine Works Co., 
is interested in the new concern. 

The Doty Engine Works, Goderich, started its 
private electric light plant for the first time re- 
cently. There are at present about severjty-fivc 
incandescent lamps on the system. 

McFarlane & Douglas have purchased the pro- 
perty in the rear of their present sheet metal 
factory, at Ottawa, and plans are in preparation 
tor an extension to the building. 

Hudson. Howell, Ormond 6 Marlett. of. Winni- 
peg, have applied to Regina .'or a building site 
on behalf of a client who proposes to erect a 
large foundry to employ 700 men. 

The Canadian Iron Corporation and Mackenzie 
& Mann intend spending during the coming year 
$120,000 on the Big Pier at Port Wade, N.S.. lor 
the loading and export of iron ore. 

The Ontario Brass Rolling Mills. New Toronto, 
are again In operation, the plant having been 
thoroughly overhauled by the new proprietors. 
Brass rods and sheets will be produced. 

The Vulcan Iron Works, Vancouver, have let 
the contract for the erection of their new plant 
on the city water lots to W. R. Gllley. It is the 
intention of the firm to increase their stall. 

A by-law to partially exenip from taxation 
the property of the BurrcU Rock Drill Co., 
manufacturers of rock drills and other mining 
machinery, will be voted on by Thurlow, Ont., 
ratepayers on Jan. 4. 

The railway Board has dismissed the applica- 
tion of the Grand Trunk Railway for an order, 
authorizing a connection between the tracks of 
the G.T.P. and of the Canada Iron & Foundry 
Co., at Fort William. 

T. McAvity & Sons, who have been in the 
foundry business in St. John, N.B.. for a century, 
associated with the McLean, Holt Co., manufac- 
turers, of the same city, intend to establish a 
foundry in Fort William. 

The sheet steel works at Morrisburg have re- 
sumed operations, having been partially shut 
down owing to making repairs at the power 
house. Two new rolls have been installed as 
well as two new furnaces. 

D. D. Mann states that the C.N.R. will erect 
repair shops and a roundhouse in " Toronto next 
summer Should they be given the right of en- 
try, Ashbridge's marsh will probably be the site 
on which they will be built. 

The Widespread Implement Co., Buffalo, has 
been negotiating with the municipality of Port 
Do%'er. regarding the establishment of extensive 
v/orks there, consisting of a planing mill, 
foundry and machine shop. 

A report Is current that debentures are being 
floated to the extent of $2,000,000 in England for 

55 . . 

extensive shipbuilding yards and a floating dock 
at Esquimalt. The B. C. Marine Railway Co(. is 
said to be Interested in the venture. 

A communication received from Mr. Tennant. 
financial man for the syndicate which proposes to 
eslablish large wire nail and rolling mill plants 
at Fort William, indicates that the plants are to 
be established In the immediate future. 

McDonald Bros., Lf Grand Forks, the successful 
tenderers for supplying the steel piping to be 
used in conveying the water from Coquitlam 
Lake to New Westminster, have commenced work 
on their new factory at the latter place. 

J. H. Glover, manager of the Aylmer Pump 
& Scale Co., was in Toronto recently purchas- 
ing a lot of new machinery for the manufac- 
ture of scales, which will be placed in the old 
pork factory building recently purchased. 

The Thomas Davidson Co., Moutrc.-.'., !f.''e 
purchased a block of property adjacent to the 
works and will extend their plant. The land is 
at present occupied by dwelling houses, and the 
price paid was in the neighborhood of $15,000. 
The Ontario Iron & Steel Co., Welland, have 
let a contract to the Hamilton Bridge Co., to 
build an ex-tension 170 by 50 feet ; also a wing 
which must be completed by Feb. 1. The com- 
pany wiHl Increase its present pay roll 25 per 

Barnett & McQueen will build a large machine 
shop and warehouse next spring at Fort William. 
The machine shop will be of reinforced concrete, 
50 feet by 135 feet, and two storeys in height. 
Work on a temporary structure will be started 
at once. 

The Canadian Northern is said to be behind 
the large purchase of property on the south bank 
of the Eraser, and a semi-official intimation has 
been made that immense car shops will be es- 
tablished on the 200 acres held by a subsidiary 

T. F. Black, Winnipeg, Is In Vancouver look- 
ing for a site for a wire factory. He may find 
a location on the Eraser river. Should the pro- 
position go through, it will be financed by a 
company composed principally of British Colum- 
bia men. 

George A. Clare, M.P., head of the firm of 
Clare Bros., stove manufacturers. Preston, Ont., 
was in Winnipeg lately, and acting in conjunc- 
tion with his local agents, Clare & Brockest, 
Ihey secured a site for a large warehouse to be 
erected shortly. 

Four firemen were injured at a fire which 
broke out at the works of the Canadian Iron 
& Foundry Co., on Dec. 23. The building was 
badly damaged, and the loss will be about $40,- 
000 to the Canadian Iron & Foundry Co.. which 
is covered by insurance. 

The Berry. Transformer Co.. of Helspy. Eng- 
land, one of the largest concerns of the kind 
in England, is lookingf or a location In Can- 
ada, perhaps Ir.i London. This firm will employ 
500 men. Sherbrookc. Toronto, Hamilton, Gait 
and other cities are after this concern. 

At a recent meeting of the Medicine Hat Water 
Commissioners it was decided to equip a machine 
shop at the power house with a lathe, drill, 7 
h.p. gas engine and small tools. It was further 
decided to accept the offer of the A. R. Wil- 
liams Machinery Co.. Winnipeg, for above. 

At a cost of $1,000,000, the Montreal Street 
Ry. Co. is about to commence the erection of 


a plant, consisting of car-building shops, ma- 
chine shops, electrical and winding shops, black- 
smith and paint shops, and a large building 
for the stores and material of the company. 

The Jordan-Wells Railway Supply Co. propos- 
es to establish a plant either in North Van- 
couver or New Westminster, with an expenxiiture 
of $50,000, the plant to employ 30 skilled men. 
Sites are now being looked over. A proposition 
has been made to the North Vancouver council. 

The Morrlsburg Tack & Mfg. Co. is now a 
fully organized concern, with Wm. Eager, pres- 
ident ; Irwin HilUard. secretary, George N. 
Hickey, treasurer, and C. B. Russell, manager. 
These officers were chosen at fi meting held 
last month. The company is capitalized ut $40,- 

The Hayes Mfg. Co., of Erie, Pa., has secur- 
ed an option on a large piece of land at 
Montreal on which they will construct a Can- 
adian branch for the manufacture of waterworks 
supplies, thus escaping the 3S per cent. duty. A 
$.i0,00O plant is to be erected on this land next 

The Western Drydock & Shipbuilding Co. have 
filed plans and specifications of the proposed 
buildings to be erected on their site at Bare 
Point, Port Arthur. The buildings include a 
warehouse, blacksmith shop. foundry, pattern, 
shop and storage, office, power house, machine 
shop, boiler shop and joiner shop. 

The Cockshutt Plow Co. is commencing exten- 
sions on their plant at Brantford, which, it is 
said, may result in an outlay of $100,000, next 
spring. It is also stated Frost & Wood concern 
may go to Brantford, owing to recent selling ar- 
rangements entered into with the firm by the 
Cockshutt Co., which may result in a merger. 

The Bedford Stove Co. are making extensive 
improvements to their buildings and manufactur- 
ing works at Bedford, Que. They have moved 
their offices and store rooms into their recently 
acquired property across the street, which have 
been fitted up for the purpose, and are re- 
modelling the former offices into a tinshop and 
show rooms. 

It was rumored at I^ondon that the Canadian 
British Insulating Co., of Montreal, (would estab- 
lish a plant there. The company asks for free site, 
free taxes and free water, for a period of 15 
years. In return, they would employ 500 men 
and use 500 horsepower. They have a capital- 
ization of $5,000,000, and are looking for a suit- 
able site in Ontario. 

R. E. Cushman, representing the Canadian 
Lead Mining and Smelting Co., has asked the 
Kingston city council for the lowest cash price 
the city will make for a smelter site. If the 
price is satisfactory: and exemption from taxes 
for ten years is given, the company will guar- 
antee to erect on the site, a sm^Uer, jin-t have 
it in operation in eighteen L'-inths a*T'.v the 
property is purchased. 

The construction work of the new steel-casting 
plant at the Londonderry. N.S., Iron Works is 
nearing completion. The open-hearth furnace is 
practically completed, also the coke ovens. Af- 
ter the Instalation of a sand-mixer, a traveling 
crane, a nietal saw, and some other machinery, 
the work of casting will commence. The plant 
will use oil in place at coal for fuel. 

W. E. Redway, Toronto, submitted a propo- 
sition looking to the ratablishment of a ship- 
building industry at Belleville. He wants a free 
site, $10,000 worth of dredging done by the city, 
a loan of $25,000 without interest, to be repaid 
at the rate of $1,COO a year, and exemption from 
taxes other than school taxes. In return he pro- 
poses to build a plant valued at $30,000. 

The Canadian Bond Hanger & Coupling Co., a 
Canadian branch of the Bond Co., operating In 
Manhelm, Pa., and capitalized at $75,090, will 
start operations in February at Alexandria. The 
directors arc : President, Charles Bond. Phila- 

delphia : vice-president, John Mcintosh, Alexacr 
dria ; directors, Hugii Munro, Alexandria : Mar- 
tin G. Hess, and M. T. Williams, of Manheim, 

Dr. Becktel, of Cleveland, representing manu- 
facturers in the wire business in that city, says 
the Standard Chain Works, of Sarnia, the Can- 
adian branch of the American Standard Chain 
Co., is to be bought by the company which he 
represents. The present building is to be imme- 
diately enlarged, and a staff of KoTty or fifty 
first-class chainmakers will be employed from 
the outset. 

The Waterous Engine Works Co., Brantford.. 
has purchased the Seagrave Fire Apparatus 
Works at Walkerville, and will remove them to 
Brantford. where they will be merged with the 
Waterous works, which will be extended. The 
company has already secured additional space, 
including the plant of the Waterous Wire Nail 
Works which will locate elsewhere. About fifty 
additional hands will be employed. 

At the annual meeting if t' e SilLkfr Car 
Co.. held at Halifax recently the fmin':!al state- 
ment showed a net profit of St. 000 on ll'O year's 
operations, whichi. with a balance of $14,000 
from last year, made appro-vimately $18,fltO of 
net profits carried forward. The report of the 
directors recommended the increasing of the 
capital stock from $500,000 to $750.0no. This it 
proposed to do by authorizing the issue of 
$250,000 In 5 per cent, cumulative preferred stock. 
Of this amount it is proposed at this time to 
Issue $125,000. 

.Arrangements have just been completed at 
London. Eng.. for the erection of a dry dock 
at Levis. The interests involved are the Can- 
adian Pacific, the Allans. Harland and Wolff. 
Sir Charles MacLaren. representing the John 
Burn Co., of Sheffield ; Mr. Davie, of Levis, 
who conducted the present salvage and dry 
dock business there, and the Mc.\rthur Perks Co., 
of Canada. The same Interests have made a 
definite proposal to the Canadian government 
which they expect will be accepted for a dry 
dock at St. John. 

The Canadian branch of the Crocker-Whepler 
Mfg. Co., of Ampere. N.J., will be located at 
St. Catharines. The firm has one contract on 
hand now for the City of Winnipeg in connec- 
tion with the big power works. This contract 
alone amounts to $250,000. The machinery will 
be made in St. Catharines, and it will be ne- 
cessary to greatly enlarge the factory building 
the company have purchased from the city. 
While they agree to start with a hundred first- 
class mechanics, the company say that within 
a few years tliey will be employing perhaps a 

The Newfoundland Smelting Co., with a capi- 
tal of $100,000, has just been registered at St. 
John's. The intention of the company is to 
erect a smelter at York Harbor. Bay of Islands, 
with a capacity of about one hundred tons a 
day. The company wil|l get their supply of ore 
from the York Harbor property, having already 
one year's supply ahead of them. They also 
hope to get a quantity of ore from outside 
concerns, and anticipate that with it will give 
a boom tqf the copper mining Industries in 
.Vewfoundland. The company will export the 
copper to Swansea and New York. 

At a meeting of the directors of the Nova 
Scotia Steel & Coal Co. held in Montreal, re- 
cently, it was decided that as the profit and 
loss account on Dec. 31. 1908, showed a .bal- 
ance of $1,219,221 of accumulated profits, a 
stock bonus or dividend of 20 p.c. to common 
shareholders be recommended. Each shareholder 
will receive one share of common stock for 
every five shares now held by him. It was also 
resolved to pay a cash dividend of 1 per cent. 
on the common stock of the company. It was 
stated that business for 1909 has been fairly 
good, and notwithstanding the dcprespsion which 

has existed, the profits wiH exceed those of last 
year by at least $100,000. 

Work is rapidly progressing on the new sewer- 
pipe plant of the Alberta Clay Products Co., 
Medicine Hat, Canada. All concrete work in con- 
nection with the dry-press, brick-machinery room 
is completed and the machinery for making brick 
has been set. The plant will be placed in oper- 
ation as soon as possible so that the remainder 
of the brick construction work can be done with 
brick made on the job. As planned, the build- 
ings to be constructed will be as follows : boiler 
room, 48 x 48 ft. ; engine room, 30 X' 48 It. ; clay 
storage house. 140 x 45 ft. ; machine room, 50 x 
60 ft., and dry-press room 40 x 40 ft. The main 
building will be four stories high and will mea- 
sure 80 X 256 ft. in dimensions. The power plant 
will develop 450 h.p. The drier will use the 
steam exhaust from the engines during the day 
and labor steam at night. 

Chatham's, Ont., new stove company was 
formally organized last month. The concern will 
be known as the Modern Malleable RaDge Co., 
and is capitalized at $40,000. The officers are : 
President, W. R. Landon. Chatham ; vice-pres- 
ident and general manager, Fred Relssner, Lea- 
mington ; secretary-treasurer, R. Ross, Leaming- 
ton : factory the Reissner Bros.' stove works at 
Leamington ; directors, Robert Gray, Manson, 
Campbell and John G. Kerr, Chatham. The 
company takes over the business of the Reissner 
Bros., stove works at Leamington, having 
bought that concern's machinery, and will 
manufacture the "Modern" steel range hitherto 
manufactured by the Reissner concern. The fac- 
tory will be situated on St. George Street, im- 
mediately opposite the Gananoque Spring & 
Axle Co.'s plant. The management will remain 
largely in the hands of Louis and Fred Reissner. 
They hope to be turning out stoves from the 
Chatham factory in the course of a couple of 

Structural Steel. 

Three bridges are to be built at Melfort, 
Sask., by the Government. 

Plans have been outlined for a bridge 
across the Elbow Elver at Calgary. 

The Hull council awarded the contracts for 
the bridge over Brewery Creek to the Trust 
Concrete & Steel Co. at $1,115. 

Saskatoon citizens have voted to issue $18,- 
000 of bonds for the erection of a footbridge 
on Twentieth Street. 

The B.C. Provincial Government is about to 
construct a suspension bridge at ChiUiwack 
to replace the one washed away. 

The contract for the ornamental Iron work 
on the Chateau Laurler, Ottawa, has been 
awarded to the Canada Foundry Co. 

Sherbrooke ratepayers are petitioning the 
city council for a new bridge across the St. 
Francis River to replace the old Aylmer 

The contract for the structural steel in con- 
nection with the addition to the Montreal 
Arena skating rink has been awarded to the 
Dominion Bridge Co. 

The Canadian Bridge Co., Walkerville, has 
been awarded the contract for the super- 
structure of the Gamble Street bridge at 
Vancouver at $439,210. 

H. C. Stone, Montreal, has awarded the con- 
tract for the steel work on the extension of 
the Beardmore building to the Dominion 
Bridge Co., of Lachine. 

The contract for the extension to stores at 
1133 St. Catherine street west, for the David 
Ouimet Estate, have been awarded. The steel 
work goes to the Phoenix Bridge Co. 

The Montreal City Council will ask the 
C.P.E. Co. to construct a bridge from La- 
croix to Montcalm streets, in order to main- 
tain the traffic on Notre Dame street. . • 

Work has begun on the pile driving In pre- 
paration for an Iron bridge to be placed 
over the Dudgeon Creek, on the Salisbury 
and Albert Railway at Hopewell Hill, N.B. 
The bridge Is to be a SO-foot span. 



The tender from the Jenks-Dresscr Co., of 
Sarnia, for $1,000, for the supply, erection 
and completion of steel floor beams and 
posts for the new engine room at the main 
pumping station at Toronto was accepted. 

It is understood that the C.P.E. has made 
Guelph a most important proposition to pro- 
tect the Eramosa road and Heffernan street 
crossings by the erection of overhead bridges 
if the city will undertake the responsibility 
of protecting Allan's crossing. 

The Ontario Railway and Municipal Board 
ordered the City of Guelph and the Guelph 
Radial Railway Co. to forthwith construct a 
new four-span steel bridge over the Speed 
River on the Dundas road, in accordance 
with the report of F. L. Somerville, C.E. 

P. II. Barnes, C.E., has made au examina- 
tion of the proposed bridge sites at Victoria 
for the Trinity Valley road, finding the sug 
gested locations suitable and estimating the 
cost of the bridge at $5,000. It is believed 
that the bridge will be built by the Govern- 
ment this season. 

The Western Iron Works Co. are complet- 
ing the ornamental work on the new Canada 
Permanent building at Winnipeg, and have 
commenced the erection of elaborate orna- 
mental work on the new McArthur building. 
They are also filling many important con- 
tracts in Calgary and Edmonton. 

Tenders for the substructure of the new 
Quebec bridge, of which the estimated cost is 
to be $10,000,000, and which is to be completed 
in four years, were delivered to the Depart- 
ment of Railways and Canals in Ottawa. 
November 30. The weight of the superstruc- 
ture to be carried will be 130,000,000 lbs., 
whereas the weight of the superstructure of 
the bridge that collapsed was to be but 70,- 
000,000 lbs. The cost of the steel in the new 
bridge is to be about $7,500,000. Nickel-steel 
is to be largely used. It is expected that 
tenders for the steel work will be called for 
about May 1. 

Planing Mill News. 

The Bruce Mines Sawmills Co. have just 
completed a new plant. 

Russell & Son are erecting a heavy port- 
able sawmill at Thornloe, Ont. 

Hewson-Campbell & Dail have started a 
shingle mill at Aldergrove, B.C. 

A permit has been granted Elliott A Son, 
for a furniture factory at Toronto. 

Keenan Brothers, Owen Sound, are build- 
ing a sawmill at Miller Lake, Ont. 

The Golden Lake Lumber Co., Eganville, 
Ont., are making additions to their mill. 

A new planing mill and sash and door fac- 
tory is to be erected shortly at Vancouver. 

A. and F. Fraser are about to construct a 
sawmill at the head of Hazley's Bay, near 

An up-to-date shingle mill is being added 
ti the Harriston Lake, B.C., plant of the Eat 
Portage Lumber Co. 

The Globe Furniture Co., of Walkerville, 
Ont., have sold their plant and are planning 
to continue elsewhere. 

The Brooks-Scanlon Lumber Co. are plan- 
ning to erect a large sawmill on the Fraser 
River at New Westminster. 

The Saginaw Salt & Lumber Co. are to 
expend about S15,000 in improvements on 
their sawmill at Thessalon. 

Hugh Baird & Son, Markdale, Ont., intend 
to erect a sawmill at Thornbury, with a 
capacity of 50,000 feet daily. 

U.S. capitalists have about completed ar- 
rangements for the erection of a large basket 
and box works at New Westminster, B.C. 

Donald Fraser & Sons will erect another 
mill at Fredericton, to take the place of the 
Aberdeen mill which was destroyed some 
years ago by fire. 

The Canadian Pacific Lumber Oo.'s saw and 
shingle mill at Port Moody, B.C., which has 
been closed down for some months, will re- 
sume cutting early in January. 

The Hunting Lumber Co. whose sawmill 
was recently destroyed by fire, will build a 
new mill on a site recently secured on Bur 
rard Inlet, between Barnet and Port Moody, 


Mount Forest ratepayers will, on January 
3, vote on a by-law to aid the enlargement 
of Leslie Brothers' planing mill and factory, 
in that town, by granting them free water 
for the use of the factory, and a limited 
assessment and taxes. 

Negotiations have been in progress for 
some time with Senator Thompson for secur- 
ing the Estey mill, site near Fredericton, 
for the erection of the new mill which a 
company that is being organized intend to 
erect there next spring. 

The Royal City Shingle Mills, New West- 
nrinster, B.C., have been temporarily closed 
down while the machinery is receiving its 
annual overhauling. New boilers and smoke- 
stacks are being installed. 

The dry kiln and heading mill at the Wal- 
lareburg Cooperage Co.'s plant, Wallaceburg, 
Ont., have been destroyed by fire. The ad- 
joining mills were saved through the efforts 
of the fire department. The heading mill is 
a complete loss, but will be rebuilt. 

Irwin & Sons, of Hornings Mills, have pur- 
chased the building formerly occupied by S. 
Hill as a sash and door factory at Markdale, 
and will fit up the building with modern 
machinery for the manufacture of skewers, 
fork handles, etc. They will employ 20 
hands or upwards. 

The Canada Woodenware Co., whose plant 
at Ossekeag, N.B., was burned in June, 1907, 
is being reorganized, and sufficient capital is 
being secured to build an up-to-date plant 
at South Bay, N.B. George C. Weldon, presi- 
dent of the S. Hayward Co., is president of 
the company, and William Brown, of Hamp- 
ton, will be in charge ot the business. 

Statistics of the lumber industry in British 
Columbia show that the total number of 
sawmills is 204; capacity, approximate aver- 
age, 8,080,000 feet a day; shingle mills, 45, 
with a capacity of 2,250,000 yearly, logging 
cnmps, 265; donkey engines and logging 
locomotives, 267; horses employed, 1,500; 
men emploj'ed, 17,000; number of mills 
closed, 17. 

John Bell, of A. G. Lambert & Co., Nelson, 
B.C., and Thomas B. White, of Johnson, 
White & Co., manufacturers of hardwood 
lumber, staves and hoops, Kolapore, Ont., 
have acquired from the Boundary Develop- 
ment & Exploration Co., of Greenwood, B.C., 
a ten-acre mill site near Midway, in the 
Boundary district, and will erect a good- 
sized sawmill before spring. 

The North Pacific Lumber Co., of Barnet, 
B.C., who were burned out recently, are re- 
building their plant and are expected to use 
electric drive. They have placed their order 
with the Vancouver office of the AUis-Chal- 
mers-Bullock, Limited, for one 600 k.w., 3- 
plase, 60-cycle, 2,200-volt standard engine 
type alternating current generator, one en- 
gine type direct Current exciter generator, 
and a three-panel switchboard for the con- 
trol of generator, exciter and power circuits. 

Upon the re-opening of traffic in the North 
Arm, which is now blocked by the construc- 
tion of the new bridge, the Westminster 
shingle mill on Lulu Island, B.C., will com- 
mence operations. The mill will have a 
daily capacity of 150.000 shingles. Six shingle 
machines are included in the plant. It is 
the intention of the company to erect a 
large lumber mill shortly, to which the 
shingle mill will be an auxiliary. Construc- 
tion will probably be started in the spring. 

The B.C. Gazette gives notice of the in- 
corporation of the following companies: 
Christie & Co., capital $40,000, incorporated 
to construct, build and operate sawmills, 
shingle mills, sash, door and box factories 
and operate the same; J. A. Dewar Co., 
capital $250,000, incorporated to carry on the 
business of timber merchants, sawmill pro- 
prietors, shingle mill proprietors, lumber- 
men, manufacturers of woodenware in all or 
any of its branches, pulp or paper manufac- 
turers, etc.; Sechelt Logging Co., capital 

Another large deal in Newfoundland lum- 
ber ha-^ been closed by American capitalists. 
Canadians are also interested. The National 
Vi Icanization Corporation, of the United 
States, and the Lumber Securities Corpora- 
tion, are associated with the purchasing in- 
terests, and pulp and saw mills and vulcan- 

57 . . _ 

izing plants will be put into operation as 
soon as possible. Some of the principals of 
these companies were in Toronto recently to 
consider the establishing of Canadian plants 
controlled by a Canadian company, which is 
now in process of formation. The Newfound- 
land operations would have in view only the 
market of the Atlantic seaboard. Other 
plants may be erected in Ontario and British 
Columbia. The Newfoundland undertaking is 
capitalized at $5,000,000, and the Canadian 
company, with head offices in Toronto, at 

General Manufacturing News. . . 

The Manitoba Pump & Windmill Co., Bran- 
don, is extending its premises. 

The J. B. Snowball Co. will erect a grist 
mill at Chatham, Ont., next fall. 

The construction of the Welland glass 
works will be commenced next spring. 

The Tudhope Carriage Co.'s works at 
Orillia started operations last month. 

The San Francisco Stone Co., is considering 
a proposition of starting a plant at Calgary. 

The manufacturers of the Chamberlain 
weather strip propose locating a branch fac- 
tory at St. John. 

J. Scott, of Port Huron, Mich., proposes 
establishing a refrigerator manufacturing 
plant at Camrose, Alta. 

Joseph Little, of Blairmore, B.C., contem- 
plates establishing one of the largest lime 
burning industries in Canada, at Frank, 

The pulp works at Swanson Bay (Prince 
Rupert) of the Canadian Pacific Sulphite 
Pulp Co., are now working to their fullest 

A Vancouver syndicate, Auld, Gwynn & 
McLarty, representing the Northern Oil Co., 
are looking for a site for an oil refinery near 

Aid. Martin, Cobalt, will erect a $50,000 
hotel before next spring, the building to be 
six storeys in height, of fireproof construc- 
tion throughout. 

Prescott ratepayers will on January 3 vote 
on the question of granting aid to the 
Ogdensburg Soda Pulp Co. to establish a 
branch factory there. 

The Collins Mfg. Co., Toronto, have moved 
into their new factory on Symington Avenue, 
adjoining the C.P.R. tracks, in the north- 
western part of the city. 

Mr. Sterett, of the Independent Asphalt 
Co., Seattle, is looking into the possibilities 
for locating a branch plant at Vancouver, 
to cost in the neighborhood of $40,000. 

M. Townsley & Son, Minneapolis, manufac- 
turers of cable lightning arresters, are look- 
ing over the ground at Brandon with a view 
to finding a location for a branch. 

The Winnipeg Oil Co. have made applica- 
tion for a site at Moose Jaw, where they will 
erect a plant, with storage, cooperage, bar- 
reling and also a tank, capacity, 12,000 

The new plant of the Sydney Slag Brick 
Co., at Sydney, C.B., which has been under 
construction the past several months, is now 
completed and the manufacture of brick has 
been commenced. 

The Brandon Shoe Co., whose factory was 
destroyed at Aylmer by a boiler explosion, 
will go to Brantford, backed by local capi- 
tal. A site has been secured and a new 
factory will be erected as soon as possible. 

The D'Israeli Asbestos Co., Que., have placed 
a contract for locomotives and cars in New 
York, necessary for their railroad. The equip- 
ment is expected in February, when every- 
thing will be ready for starting operations. 

The People's lee Co., financed b,y well- 
known business men of Toronto, with the 
assistance of practical ice manufacluVcrs, 
have decided to erect a plant at that' place 
to produce "Absopure" ice, under rigid sani- 
tary conditions. 

A creosoting plant will be erected jn Bur- 
rard Inlet, B.C., at a cost of several hundred 
thousand dollars. In association with several 
Vancouver capitalists, H. E. Eood. mad of 


the Pacific Cieosoting Co., of Seattle, will be 
in charge of the undertaking. 

Among the British concerns which intend 
to locate branches in Canada are Doulton & 
Co., makers of the famous Doulton ware; 
Maw & Co., one of the largest makers of 
fancy tiles, and Hope & Co., of Birmingham, 
manufacturers of locks and ornamental iron 

The new fuel testing plant of the Depart, 
ment of Mines at Ottawa has been completed, 
and it only remains to instal the machinery. 
The first use which will be made of the build- 
ing will be to demonstrate that peat is an 
ideal fuel for the production of power gas. 
Already 70 tons of peat have been delivered 
at the building. 

Two new industries will commence opera- 
tions in Berlin during the next few weeks. 
The Berlin Fuel Savers Co. have leased part 
of the old market building and will make 
the new fuel saver and h,eat generator, which 
has been patented; and Wm. J. and Fred. 
Witte have returned from Newark, N.J., and 
have leased a flat, where they will manufac- 
ture high-grade buttons. 

The West Canadian Co., which operates coal 
mines at Lille and Bellevue, and is opening 
a new mine at Blairmore, has under way 
the construction of an entire new operating 
plant at its Bellevue collieries, which, when 
completed, will constitute probably the finest 
mining equipment yet installed in The Pass. 
The plant will include the most modern ap- 
pliances for the expeditious and economical 
handling of coal, and when ready for opera- 
tions will enable the company to put on 
the cars 2,000 tons of coal on an eight-hour 
shift. The improvements complete will en- 
tail an expenditure of approximately 

Port Arthur's industrial committee has 
closed an agreement with the Canadian Linen 
& Paper Co., represented by E. P. Bender, 
Winnipeg; Dr. Phar, Winnipeg; H. F. Forest, 
Winnipeg, and Prof. Meygret, France, to 
locate a manufactory there for the making 
of linen and paper from flax. The company 
gets 50 acres site free, but no bonus, except 
tax elimination. It will start May 1, 1910, 
on the erection of a $50,000 plant, and will 
spend .^250,000 in iive years and employ at 
least 150 men. The company will use an en- 
tirely new and secret process, making linen 
at a greatly reduced cost. One of the prin- 
cipal reasons in coming here is to get water 
and air free from alkali. 

Trade Notes. 

The Canadian Inspection Co.. have removed 
their Toronto offices from 37 Melinda St., to 
Stair Bldg., cor. of Adelaide and Bay Streets. 

Smith, Kerry & Chace, consulting engineers. 
Toronto, have opened up an office in the Winch 
Bldg., Vancouver, which will be the head office 
for Western Canada. 

J. L. Goodhue & Co., Danville. P.Q., makers 
of the brands "E.^tra." "Standard" and "Acme 
Waterproof" of leather belting, have been in- 
corporated under the name .1. L. Goodhue & 
Co., Limited, with capital of $190,000. There 
will be no change in the management. 

G. E. Mason, representing the Lancashire 
Dynamo & Motor Co., has opened up offices at 
152-4 Bay St., Toronto and will manage the 
Canadian business of this company. They spe- 
cialize in motors and dynamos ; motors being 
constructed for machine tools, foundries, etc. 

The Soledad Mining & Milling Co., Mexico, 
have Installed complete mills for amalgamation 
and cyanldation, the machinery consisting of 
four NIssen Stamps, machinery complete tor re- 
grlndlng, steam power plant, electrical equip- 
ment, the complete order being placed with 
Fairbiuiks-Morse & Co. 

The Standard Engineering Co., 47 Wellington 
St., Toronto, have installed in the works of the 
Montr(.a! Mills Co., 1— No. 6, type R stoker 
horseshoe furnace ; 1 — No. 6. type R stoker holt 
furnacG'; 1 — No. 6, type R stoker nut furnace, 
niaklsg the fifth order from this work. In ad- 

dition the Standard Engineering Co. have made 
a number of large instalatlons of stoker fired 
steel heating furnaces In the United States. 

The Mumford Molding Mch. Co., has been or- 
ganized and will sell the foundry molding ma- 
chines heretofore sold by the E. H. Mumford 
Co., Philadelphia. The machines will be manu- 
factured by the Q.M.S. Co., at Plalnfield, N.J.. 
and the Mumford Molding Mch. Co., will have 
its sales office at 30 Church St., N.Y. W. D. 
Sargent is president, and B. H. Mumford, Is 
vice-president and general manager of the new 

The Canadian Fairbanks Co.. announce that 
they have been appointed the exclusive sales 
agents for Canada for Dicks' Balata Belting 
and have purchased the business of J. S. 
Young. All orders in the future should be sent 
direct to their nearest branch house. Large 
stocks are carried at the present time at Mont- 
treal and Vancouver, and stocks are on the 
way to the branches at St. John, N.B.. To- 
ronto and Winnipeg. 

New Companies, 

Jones Hardware Co., Uxbrldge ; share capital 

Cassiar Coal Co.. Toronto ; capital, ?2,0D0,- 
COO ; to develop coal and mineral properties. 
Incorporators. A. Dods, R. McKay and G. 
Grant, Toronto. 

Colonial Transportation Co., Ltd., Toronto ; 
share capital, $100,000 ; provisional directors, A. 
M. Boyd, M. P. Arnold, M. McPhee, R. B. Hen- 
derson, and W. W. Sloan. 

Canada Pipe and Steel Co., Toronto : share 
capital, $100,000 ; provisional directors, J. L. 
Ross, A. W. Holmsted, 0. R. Blckerstafl, W. L. 
Carr, and E. M. Carruthers. 

The Universal Electric Economy Co., Mont- 
real ; capital, $20,000 ; to manufacture electrical 
appliances. Incorporators, E. F. Surveyer, G. 
V. Cousins and C. A. Hale, Montreal. 

The Thetford Asbestos Syndicate, Montreal ;■ 
capital, $100,000 ; to develop asbestos properties 
Irj Quebec province. Incorporators, G. V. Cou- 
sins, C. A. Hale and P. F. Brown, Montreal. 
The F. and L. Co., Toronto, capital, $75,000 : 
to manufacture and deal In products of iron 
and wood. Incorpotators, Jas. Fowler, Toronto, 
and Jas. Wilson and W. B. Campbell, Detroit. 
The Electro-Steel Co., of Canada, Toronto ; 
capital, $100,000 ; to treat, smelt and refine 
mineral ores by electric process. Incorporators, 
J. S. Lovell, W. Bain and R. Gowans, Toronto. 
The Stratford Carriage & Motor Co., Strat- 
ford : capital, $100,000 ; to manufacture car- 
riages and automobiles. Incorporators, M. L. 
Evely, P. J. Walker, and Alex. FalU, Strat- 

Morrisburg Tack Mfg. Co., Morrlsburg ; capital 
$40,000, to manufacture and deal In tacks, 
brads and small nails. Incorporators, Wm. 
Eager, G. N. Hickey and Andrew Broder, Mor- 

The Automatic Gas Co.. Montreal ; capital, 
$100,000 ; to manufacture and deal In gas en- 
gines, etc. Incorporators, W. Farwell, Sher- 
brooke ; and F. Paul and W. G. McConnell, 

The Shawinigan Cotton Co., Montreal ; capi- 
tal, $1,000,000 ; to construct and operate cotton 
and woollen factories. Incorporators, A. C. 
Calder, T. E. Gadbois, and Oscar Gagnon, all 
of Montreal. 

Canadian Bond Hanger and Coupling Co., Ot- 
tawa : capital, $45,000 ; to carry on business of 
founders, machinists, millwrights, etc. Incor- 
porators, W. C. Perkins, M. C. Edey, and A. 
W. Fraser, Ottawa. 

Calgary Power Co., Montreal ; capital, $3.- 
000,000 ; to build and operate an electric light, 
heat and power company throughout Canada. 

Incorporators, E. F. Surveyer, G. V. Cousins 
and C. A. Hale, Montreal. 

Lethbridge Collieries, Ltd., Montreal ; capital. 
$3,000,000 ; to take over the Lethbridge Collieries 
Co., and operate coal, oil and mineral proper- 
ties. Incorporators, E. F. Surveyer, G. V. 
Cousins and C. A. Hale, Montreal. 

The British Columbia Gazette contains notice 
of the incorporation of W. J. Pondray Co., 
with a capital of $500,000 to take over the busi- 
ness carried on by W. J. Pendray under the 
trade name of the B.C. Soap Works and the 
British American Paint Co. 

McKinnon, Holmes & Co. 

McKinnon, Holmes & Co. have formed a 
limited company under the above title with 
J. W. Bowman. President; G. D. McKinnon, 
B.A.Sc. Vice-President and General Man- 
ager; and A. E. Holmes, C.E., Secretary and 
Treasurer. Their offices and works are 
located at Sherbrooke, their specialty being 
steel plate and structural work, including 
construction of bridges, water tanks, water 
wheels, boilers, elevators, etc. Steel shapes 
will be carried in stock for immediate ship- 

An Industrious City. 

"Turn Wellandward," is one of the neatest 
recent booklets issued by any industrial 
centre. In Welland, at least a dozen branches 
of United States Industries have been estab- 
lished during the three past years. Its 
population has increased over 300 per cent, 
in the past five years. Among the industries 
illustrated are M. Beatty & Sons, Ontario 
Iron & Steel Co.; Robertson Machinery Co.; 
Canada Forge Co.; Canadian Billings & 
Spencer; Plymouth Cordage Co.; Supreme 
Heating Co., etc. Welland is in the electric 
zone and is one of Canada's growing cities. 
The interesting booklet, full of information, 
is issued by J. D. Payne, Secretary Board of 
Trade, and B. J. McCormick, Industrial Com- 
missioner. Welland. 

New Wire and Nail Plant, 

Negotiations are in progress for the erec- 
tion of a wire and nail plant at Fort Wil- 
liam. Prominent Montreal capitalists, in- 
cluding H. S. Holt, president of the Montreal 
Light, Heat & Power Co., and F. W. Thomp- 
son, second vice-president and managing 
director of the Ogilvie Milling Co., are in- 
terested. Interviewed on the project, Mr. 
Holt said that they were progressing as 
rapidly as possible, but it was impossible to 
say how soon they would commence the erec- 
tion of the plant. Mr. Holt further said. 
"The advantages of a plant at Fort William 
are threefold. There is cheap fuel, and cheap 
raw material, for the Soo Corporation will 
soon erect a steel rod mill at their plant, 
which will give us raw material practically 
at our doors. We will also have cheap water 
power. No definite plans have yet been 
drawn up, but we are progressing as fast as 
possible with negotiations." 

New Coke Ovens at Soo, 

The Lake Superior Corporation has placed 
a contract for the instalation of a system of 
by-product coke ovens, at the Soo plant. 
The apparatus will consist of a series of 110 
ovens, arranged in two batteries, each of 55 
ovens. The type of oven will be the same as 
is being erected at Gary, Ind. The cost of 
the plant will be about SI. 500,000. The charge 
of coal for each oven will be about 13 tons, 
making a total charge for the 110 ovens of 
over 1,400 tons of coal. The yield of coke 
per oven will be about 10% tons, or nearly 
1,200 tons per day. For the generation of 
industrial power nearly 10,000,000 cubic feet 
of surplus gas will be available. Indicated 
by heat units, the quality of this gas repre- 
sents a heat value of about 200 tons of good 
coking coal. The distinguishing feature of 
this system is the extraction of ammonia 
direct from the gas in the form of sulphate 
of ammonia, without the employment of a 



water ecrubbing process. An improvement 
in the coke quenching arrangement will also 
be instituted, so that instead of having a 
coke bench the coke will be pushed into a 
coke quenching car. It is expected that the 
plant will be in operation by January, 1911. 

cent, of the world's itotal produodion of 
aluminum. Last year, however, the company 
did not output more than 8,000,000 lbs., and 
at the present time is not operating more 
than half its capacity. Through reductions 
in price the company expects to popularize 
the use of aluminum and greatly increase its 

Tallman Brass & Metal Co. 

Tallman Brass &, Metal Oo., which occu- 
pied quarters en Wellington street north 
for 13 years, have opened up their large new 
factory and foundry on Wilson street, east 
of Sanford avenue, Hamilton, and are quick- 
ly getting down to hard work to execute the 
many orders they have on hand for the 
winter trade. Tallman Brass & Metal Oo. 
manufacture Arctic metal, and in their new 
establishment have more than doubled 
every branch of their business. The Arctic 
metal department has been increased to four 
times its previous canacity. The metals used 
by this enterprising firm are imported direct, 
and the company does a iine jobbing busi- 
ness in tin, lead, copper and aluminum 
ingots and antimony. Brass castings are a 
specialty and the instalment of new and up- 
to-date machinery and equipment enables the 
company to turn out orders in quick time In 
the best of style. 

The very latest machinery, including an 
ore crusher, which effects a great saving in 
metal, has been installed, and the brass 
furnaces are of the latest pattern. All gases 
and fumes are carried outside of the building 
by special blowers. 

Type metals, all grades of solder and ingot 
metals are manufactured in the new plant. 
A fireproof pattern storage vault has been 
bvilt and the whole place is practically 
fireproof and equipped with Are and burglar 

Another Canadian Industry. 

The Northern Aluminum Co., which recently 
established ofHces in the Traders Bank build- 
ing, Toronto, and which has secured large 
orders for aluminum wire for the Hydro- 
Electric power svstem, intends to inaugurate 
an active campaign to introduce their cook- 
ing utensils to the retail hardware trade in 
Canada. For the present the stock will be 
imported but a site has, it is understood, 
been selected for a Canadian factory at 
cither Niasara Falls or Brockville, near their 
existin? plants at Niagara Falls and Mas- 
sena. New York. The company already has 
furnaces and a wire plant at Shawinigan 
Falls, Quebec. The Northern Aluminum Co. 
has already introduced its kitchenware in 
Toronto, and other cities. 

The Northern Aluminum Co. is a branch 
of the Aluminum Company of America, 
whose headouarters are at Pittsburg, and 
which recently declared a stock dividend of 
500 per cent, and gave notice that it would 
increase its capital from S3,200.000 to $25,000.- 
000. The company is now paying the equi- 
valent of 24 per cent, per annum on its com- 
mon stock, which sold some months ago as 
high as S350 per share and in 1907 at 11500 
per share. The declaration of a stock divi- 
dend has been expected lor the last three 
years, but was delayed by the 1907 panic and 
is part of the general plans of the company 
to enlarge the scope of its operations. The 
stock dividend entails the issuance of $16,000.. 
000 additional stock, bringing the outstand- 
ing common up to .?19.200.000. In 1904 the 
company had but $1,600,000 common out- 
standing, but declared a 100 per cent, stock 
dividend in that year. 

The company, through one of its subsidi- 
aries, recently applied to the Canadian Gov- 
ernment for the privilege of damming the 
St Lawrence Kiver below Brockville, so as 
to create 80.000 horse-power to be used at 
Massena, where the company has a $5,000,000 

In spite of the expiration in February last 
of the patents under which aluminum has 
been made in the United States, the Alum- 
inum Company has not as yet met with any 
new competition. 

The present capacity of the Aluminum 
Company is understood to be about 20,000,- 
000 lbs. per annum, which is nearly 40 per 


list with sizes ol turnbuckles from Canadian 
Billings & Spencer, Welland. 

from Canada Foundry Co., Toronto, describes 
the Underwriter Steam Pumps from 600 to 1,500 
gal. per min. capacity. 

from the Hamilton Bridge Works showing a 
bird's-eys-view of their works, including the new 
buildings recently constructed. 

describing the high duty type of Hyatt stand- 
ard bushings, has been issued by the Hyatt Rol- 
ler Bearing Co., Newark, N. J. 

data is sent with the compliments of Ernest 
McCullough, C.E., chief engineer Northwestern 
Expanded Metal Co., 930 Old Colony Bldg., 
Chicago, 111. 

Catalogue on bond paper, describes punches and 
shearing machines, universal boilermakers' tools, 
rolls, etc., manufactured by the Covington Ma- 
chine Co., Covington, Va. 

from the Fosdick Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati, 
Ohio, gives the features of No. and 2 Horizontal 
Boring, Drilling and Milling Machines recently 
described iij Canadian Machinery. 

FIRE CLAY, BRICKS— James Dougall & Sons, 
Bonnyside Fire Clay Works, Bonnyside, Scot- 
land, represented in Canada by S. Galbraitb, 73 
Dupont St., Toronto. The catalogue contains 
134 illustrations of firebrick shapes, etc. 

ELECTRIC FURNACES— A catalogue issued 
by the American Electric Furnace Co., 45 Wall 
St., New York, and Niagara Falls, Ont., de- 
scribes and Illustrates in large half tones the 
Kjellin. Colby and Rochling-Rodenhauser sys- 

sued by the Bristol Co., Waterbury, Conn., deals 
with recording Instruments for blast furnace, 
plants for steam and blast pressures. Record 
charts are illustrated, besides a number of other 
recording instruments. 

PORTABLE TOOLS-S. Obermayer Co., 641 
Evans St., Cincinnati, Ohio, have issued a 
catalogue of their Peerless A.C. and D.C. elec- 
tric tools. These include illustrated descrip- 
tions of chipping hammers, hand drills, breast 
drills, reamers, grinders, etc. 

MOLDING MACHINES— Catalogue 23 from the 
Arcade Mfg. Co., Freeport, HI., describes the 
modern molding machine. The catalogue is an 
Interesting article on the molding machine il- 
lustrated throughout with the Arcade machine. 
The jolting machine is also described. 

STANDARD GAUGES— Accuracy is the keynote 
of the catalogue describing the "Johansson" 
combination standard gauges manufactured by 
Gronkvist Drill Chuck Co., 18 Morris St., 
Jersey City, N.J. Different gauges are described 
and illustrated with their applications. 

EMERY WHEELS— No. 20, from Prescott 
Emery Wheel Co., Prescott, Ont. The catalogue 
deals with emery wheels, grinders and polishers 
ol all kinds and various attachments for grind, 
ers. Prices are given for the different machines. 
This is a good reference catalogue which should 
be kept on file. 

W. N. Bruntoci & Son, steel wire manufacturers, 

__ _ 59 

Musselburgh, Scotland, have issued a catalogue 
of cast steel drill rods and silver steel rods for 
drills, taps, etc. Sizes, prices and directions for 
hardening are given. Steel wire in any size is 
made by this company, the many shapes being 
illustrated in their catalogue. 

from the Vilter Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis., de- 
scribes refrigeration and ice making machinery. 
The catalogue is well illustrated showing the 
progress of work through their shops and com- 
pleted machinery for various systems. Systems 
are also given. The catalogue is full of inform- 
ation in regard to Ice machinery. 

CHUCKS— The Skinner Chuck Co., New Brit- 
ain, Conn., 1909 Price List, 4 x 7J, 48 pages. 
Lathe, drill and planer chucks, face plate jaws, 
reamer and assembling stands, and drill press 
vises. Each different style of chuck is illustrat- 
ed by half-tone cuts. The company also makes 
special chucks for holding automobile gears and 
parts. In addition to those shown in lijt. 

—The W. S. Rockwell Co., 50 Church Street, 
New York City, is sending a pamphlet to the 
foundry trade, which illustrates a few of the 
latest types of Rockwell furnaces, fuel oil and 
gas burning appliances. A number of views of 
fuel oil and gas burners, as well as Rockwell 
fuel oil pumping system are also Included. 

NEW TOOLS-The L. S. Starrett Co., Athol. 
Mass., have issued a booklet describing the new 
tools for machinists and engineers recently plac- 
ed on the market. These include protractors, 
gauges, verniers, micrometer, calipers, dividers, 
etc. Descriptions of a number of these appear- 
ed In recent Issues of Canadian Machinery. 
Copies of this booklet will be sent on request. 
MILLING MACHINES— Catalogue 11 from 
Kearney & Trecker, Milwaukee, Wis., is a hand- 
some volume, 80 pages, 6x9 Ins., printed on 
bond paper. The catalogue is very complete, 
showing the growth of the Kearney & Trecker 
milling machine. Following this is a descrip- 
tion in detail of their millers, each part being 
illustrated. Instructions are given for their 

W. S. Rockwell, Hudson Terminal Building, 50 
Church St., New York, have issued a pamphlet 
dealing with furnaces suitable for annealing, 
hardening, tempering or case-hardening of tools, 
taps, dies, punches, machine parts, etc. The 
furnaces can be operated with either gas or oil 
■ as fuel. Full information as to size, gas or oil 
consumption, etc.. Is given. 

TOOL HOLDERS— Armstrong Bros.. Tool Co., 
339 N. Francisco Ave., Chicago, have issued a 
new catalogue No. 18, listing, with prices, tool 
holders for turning, planing, boring, slotting, 
threading, cutting off and drilling metals. 
Among the new goods listed In this catalogue 
are automatic drill drifts, pages 68 and 69, plain 
drill drift, page 67 and standard reversible 
ratchet drills, pages 60 and 61. 

GEAR CUTTING MA CHINES— 1909 catalogue 
No. 1, of machines designed and manufactured 
by Newark Gear Cutting Machine Co., 66 Union 
St., Newark. This company was formerly Eber- 
hardt Bros. The catalogue contains illustrated 
descrlptlonu of automatic spur, bevel, skew and 
face gear cutting machines, bobbing "machines, 
etc. Tables and rules of gearing are Included, 
making a very complete reference catalogue. 

General Chain Catalogue from the Jeffrey Mfg. 
Co., Columbus, Ohio. Contains full description 
and price lists of their various types of chains 
and conveying machinery, trucks, hoists and 
other accessories contingent on the rapid hand- 
ling and transmission of raw and finished pro- 
ducts. The book contair.* 368 pages and is pro- 
fusely Illustrated. They have also Issued bulle- 
tin No. IS descriptive of the Jeffrey electric and 
air power coal cutters. This Illustrates the cut- 


ters In actual service and describes fully the 
method of operation. Copies on request, If this 
paper is mentioned. 

Co., Providence, R. I., catalogue of grinding 
and polishing macUnery, comprises floor grind- 
ing machines, motor driven grinders, wet tool 
grinders, automati* face grinders, locomotive 
guide bar grinders, roll grinders, surface grind- 
ers, gun barrel machinery, internal grinders, 
latho grinder attachments, drill grinders, polish- 
ing and buffing machines, polishing wheels, 
emery wheels, strapping machines, disc grinders, 


Knoeppel, Foundry Specialists, Erie, Pa., have 
Issued an Interesting booklet, "Foundry Effi- 
ciency Through Betterments in the Engineering 
and Accounting Branches." As stated on the 
front of the booklet, "Chemistry of results is 
just as important to the success of the foundry 
as a business, as chemistry of iron Is to the 
success of the melting operations." The book- 
let deals with the betterment of foundry ser- 
vice and may be had by mentioning Canadian 

MACHINERY— The Waterbury Farrel Foundry 
& Machine Co., Waterbury, Conn., have issued 
a general catalogue of 205 pages, 6x9 Ins., 
hard covers, printed on bond paper and well il- 
lustrated. It forms a general reference book, 
briefly reviewing their most prominent types. 
These are divided into several classifications 
from A to U. Separate catalogues have been 

Issued giving detailed Information, these cata- 
logues being indicated by a letter. Section A 
deals with automatic cold press nut, bolt and 
rivet machinery, B machinery for manufacturing 
hinges and butta irom sheet steel and brass, C 
cartridge machinery lor making metallic cases, 
etc., D drop presses, F foot presses and screw 
presses, Q chain draw benches for tubing and 
rods, H hydraulic draw benches, K knuckle 
joint embossing presses, L lathes for burnish- 
ing, knurling, etc., M single acting open back 
power presses, N single acting blanking and 
drawing presses, P double acting power presses, 
R rolling mills, S shear presnes and alligator 
shears, T finishing machinery, U muffles, cast- 
ing shops and furnaces. 


DENTS. By Frank E. Law, M.E.. and Wil- 
liam Newell. A.B., M.E. Published by the 
Fidelity and Casualty Co., New York. Price 
25 cents. 

This is a paper covered book of 190 pages and 
contains 72 illustrations. It contains a large 
amount of useful information in regard to the 
prevention of accidents in various kinds of 
manufacturing and includes boilers, engines, ele- 
vators, together with wood-working and metal- 
working machinery. Every manufacturer, his 
superintendents and his foremen should read this 
book for the information and suggestions that 
it contains. 

Canadian Machine Tool Markets 


Despite the usual dullness of trade in De- 
cember, very fair buying has characterized 
the metal markets. Stocks being low, except 
in the case of the larger interests, metal is 
being wanted all the time, and thus trading 
keeps busy. From inquiries received it is 
evident that all classes of consumers are 
keeping a very close watch on the markets. 
A very strong tone has developed in all 
metals, and it looks as if 1910 will show 
higher prices all the way round. 

The homo pig iron and steel situation has 
continued firm through the month. Al- 
though there has naturally been some falling 
off in new business, orders on the books are 
so heavy that this is not regretted. Delivery 
is behind hand, and furnaces and mills are 
contracted away ahead. Imported business 
is on the quiet side as the larger users filled 
up their stocks before the close of naviga- 
tion, but it is evident that before long they 
must come into the markets again, and pay 
the enhanced prices. Steel billets are hard 
to procure. The home plants are out of the 
open market, and in consequence Continental 
billets are finding ready sale. The billet 
situation promises to be a serious one in 

Tin has been fairly active, and the rising 
prices towards the end of December brought 
in some extra business. The primary markets 
were marked by a strong jump in London, 
caused by some heavy buying on the part, 
it is said, of a syndicate. This buying is 
probably to anticipate a good consumption 
demand later on. 

Copper has been rather quiet, but steady 
business has been done. Prices were ad- 
vanced under the rumor of the great billion- 
dollar merger, and although the merger re- 
port seems to have lost ground somewhat, 
prices have not. Producers have not abated 
their output, and heavy stocks are over- 
hanging the market. Spelter has remained 
under very strong control both in London 
and St. Louis, and the firm prices in these 
markets have been reflected in Canada. The 
domestic galvanizing interests have bought 
heavily, and are expected to be in the mar- 
ket again before long, owing to the good 

trade in the finished articles. Lead has been 
fluctuating, and is the least satisfactory of 
all the metals. The demand has been fair, 
but prices, although advancing, have not 
done so in a confident way. Imported and 
Trail lead are now commanding the same 


With the advent of the holidays the gen- 
eral machinery trade in this district hag dis- 
played a tendency to simmer down. This 
fact, however, must not be taken to indicate 
that deliveries will be hastened. The fac- 
tories hereabouts and those supplying the 
dealers here have plenty of orders that will 
keep them busy for a long time to come 
without any new business at all. 

For a great many machine tool makers and 
dealers this is inventory time, and the time 
of the year when most travelers are in from 
"the road." Many buyers defer placing of 
business until after stocktaking time, and 
this, too, has a quieting effect on the trade. 
Records and inventories show that the past 
year has been a very good one, particularly 
the last six months. Regarding the prospects 
for next year, even the most conservative 
men in the trade are sanguine that 1910 will 
be a record-breaker in machinery lines. 

Power equipment has felt the same influ- 
ence as machinery, although a good volume 
of business was signed this month, par- 
ticularly in small units. Inquiries are num- 
erous, but the actual orders resulting from 
these will probably be held over into the 
new year. Steam specialties are enjoying 
marked activity, in fact, the last two 
months' business has yeen exceptionally 
good, and 1910 is expected to continue In the 
same satisfactory manner. 

Prices in both machinery and power sup- 
plies show a tendency to ease a little, this 
being due to the fact that the large volume 
of work, such as is on hand, lowers the cost 
of production proportionately and salesmen 
are able to quote better discounts. 

Increased business is leading to increased 
facilities for handling the same. One of the 


larger of the extensions contemplated is that 
of the Montreal Steel Works. They have 
secured a splendid tract of land of about 36 
acres in Longue Pointe, East Montreal. The 
land is bounded in front by the St. Lawrence 
River. The tracks of the Montreal Terminal 
Railway, and the Canadian Northern cross at 
the north giving first-class shipping facili- 
ties. It is expected that ground will be 
broken as soon as the frost allows. 


While business is a little dull around the 
holiday season, yet the year closed with a 
good volume of business. The Government 
trade returns show large increases of each 
month in 1909 over the corresponding month 
in 1908. It is expected that the opening of 
the year will see a great increase in the 

Canadian railroads will soon be on the 
market, placing some large orders. The 
C.N.R. and G.T.P. are [.rranging terminal 
facilities and repair shops, and some good 
orders for heavy machinery will no doubt 
be the result. It is expected that the first 
of the C.N.R. shops will be located in To- 
ronto. This road has been rapidly extend- 
ing its lines, and has yet no repair shops. 
Attention must soon be given therefore to 
repair shops for rolling stock. 

In the United States the leading manufa(v 
turers of lathes recently announced an ad- 
vance in prices. The reason given is that 
many impro\'oments have been made in 
lathes. Sensitive drill.s have also been in- 
creased. There is no question about the re- 
cent improvements made in lathes, the one 
of to-day having more than double the 
capacity for work over the one of two or 
three years ago. 

Industries generally in Ontario are busy 
and there is a good demand for foundry sup- 
plies and equipments. The jobbing foun- 
dries are busy supplying eastings, and ma- 
chine shops are busier than they have been 
for two years. 

The municipalities in the Hydro-Electric 
zone in Western Ontario are working to- 
gether and as soon as the transmission line 
is ready for delivery, large orders will be 
placed for electrical eouipment. Several 
British companies have opened up offices in 
Toronto and are getting a share of the 
orders for electrical machinery and equip- 
ment now being placed. 


The Northern Electric Co., of Reg^ina, 
has been awarded the contract for the 
wiring of the public building at .$1,098. 

IngersoU ratepayers will vote on a 
by-law for a civic power distribution 
plant in January. It is estimated that 
the plant will cost $26,000. 

Aylmer, Ont., town council has decided 
to rebuild the water and light plant de- 
stroyed in the explosion some weeks ago, 
and will instal steam driven machinery 
as before. 

Ottawa electors will on January 3 
vote on a by-law to grant the Metro- 
politan Electrical Co. the right to con- 
struct and operate an electric heat and 
power distribution system. 

On March 1, 1910, the Ontario Power 
Co. must begin the delivery of current 
to the Hydro-Electric Commission, which 
has contracted with the company for 
30,000 h.p., at $10 a horsepower. The 
company is now generating 72,000 horse- 
power. The second tube will just double 
the output of the plant. The charter of 
the Ontario Power Company permits it 
to develop 200,000 horse-power. 


It was agreed by the Hamilton board 
of works to instal 52 street lamps in the 
Crown Point and Kenliworth districts. 
The lamps will be taken under the con- 
tract with the Cataract Power Co. at the 
contract price of $47.50 a lamp a year. 

At a special meeting of the Bridge- 
burg Board of Trade which considered 
the proposed franchise to be given the 
Canadian-Niagara Power Co., allowing 
them to transmit electricity through the 
village, the submission of a by-law to 
the people was favored. 

The Canadian Niagara Power has ap- 
plied to the Council of Bridgeburg for 
the privilege of using the streets, high- 
ways and public places for the purpose 
of supplying electricity for light, heat 
and power. The electors will vote on 
this question on January 3. 

Prince Rupert will shortly have elec- 
tric light again if negotiations now pro- 
ceeding between the people of the nor- 
thern town and the Prince Rupert Sash 
& Door Co. reach a successful issue. Re- 
cently the mill of the B.C. Tie & Timber 
Co. at Prince Rupert was burned and 
the electric light plant, which was in 
the mill, was a total loss. 

The Canadian General Electric Co. 
was awarded the contract for supplying 
the civic power house at Woodstock, 
Ont., with a complete five panel switch- 
board with instruments and regulators; 
3 300-kw. transformers; two 1,500- 
gallon per minute turbine pumps, each 
driven with one 175-horse-power motor 
and one 500-horse-power motor to drive 
the present generator for the sum of 

Contracts for supplies were recently 
awarded at London. The Northern Elec- 
tric Co. was awarded the contracts for 
5-16-inch guy wire for $122.50; J-inch 
wire strand at $76.50; light strain in- 
sulators, in three sizes, at $105, $120 and 
.$107.50, a total of $332.50, and the Can- 
adian General Electric were awarded the 
solid guy wire. No. 9, at $26.30; anchors, 
medium, at $58.41; heavy anchors at 
$26.93, and guy wire clamps at $20.80. 

The Dominion Government have under 
construction at Chambly Canton, One., 
a new power house to take the place of 
the present one. The capacity will be 
about 150 horse power generated by a 
turbine water wheel. The power will bo 
used in the Chambly canal workshops at 
Chambly Basin and for lighting the canal 
and government property. The super- 
intendent in charge is Mr. E. Duches- 
neau. At the time of writing (Dec. 20) 
no appropriation has been made by the 
government for the equipment but it will 
probably go through this session. 

The St. Johns, Que., Electric Light 
Co. have placed a proposition before the 
town council anent the better lighting 
of the streets. The company offers to 
change all the 32 c.p. lamps for 60 c.p. 
To do this the town would be required 
to purchase new brackets and lamps,' 
wliich would amount to $600 or $700. 
The company would supply the wiring 

and defray the cost of erecting them, the 
lamps then to become the property of 
the company. Under this arrangement 
it would cost the town $13 per 60 c.p. 
lamp per year, instead of $12 per 32 
c.p., as now paid. 

The East View Council has given the 
first reading to the by-law for an agree- 
ment with the Ottawa Electric Com- 
pany. There will be practically two 
contracts. One is for ten years, for 
lighting houses and stores, etc., in East 
View. The company is to have an ex- 
clusive franchise for five years and the 
rates charged are to be the same as 
those paid by Ottawans for lighting of 
stores, dwellings, etc., here. There is 
also an agreement for lighting the streets 
of East View with 100 watt Tungsten 
lamps at $13 each a year. It is claimed 
that Ottawa now pays $15 annually for 
a 6-watt light, so it is asserted that the 
new contract is a fairly good one for 
East View. The property owners will 
vote on this on January 3. 

The work that the Ontario Power Cn. 
is doing in the Park at Niagara Falls 
is almost as big as the original venture. 
Superintendent H. H. Wilson now has 
350 men on the job and in the course 
of a month will have many more in his 
force. Work will be continued through 
the winter and Mr. Wilson expects to 
have it completed some time in July of 
1910. In round flarnres the work means 
an outlay of $1,500,000. The second 
tube in which the company is working 
represents an engineering feat that is 
unique. The first tube was of steel 
eighteen feet in diameter, 6.500 feet in 
length. The second tube will be of re- 
inforced concrete and of the same di- 
mensions of the first tube. So far as is 
known no concrete tube of that diameter 
has ever been built. 

is described in detail, with the following 
general conclusions. The saving due to 
changing ten 2 7-16-inch plain ring-oiling 
babbitted bearings running at 214 revolu- 
tions per minute to ball bearings in- 
creases with increasing belt tension from 
14 to 36 per cent. With the usual belt 
tensions of good practice ranging from 
44 to 57 pounds per inch of width of 
single belt the saving amounts to 36 per 
cent, and 35 per cent. 

The paper concludes with a comparison 
between the use of ring-oiling and ball 
bearings on a dollars and cents basis. 
Here it is shown that taking; electric 
current at a cost of 3 centA per kilowatt- 
hour for 3,000 hours, the ball bearing re- 
turns a saving of 37 per cent, on the ex- 
cess of their cost over the ring-oiling- 


The annual meeting of the Americ<»n 
Society of Mechanical Engineers was 
held in New York, Dec. 7 to 10. A list 
of the papers presented appeared ii 
the December issue of Canadian Ma- 
chinery. The officers for 1910 are: Geo. 
W. Westinghouse, president; G. W. 
Baker, E. D. Meier. W. F. M. Goss, vice- 
presidents; J. S. Bancroft. J. Hartness, 
H. G. Reist, managers; W. H. Wiley, 
I reasurer. 

Among the papers presented was one 
by Henry Hess, on "Line-shaft Ef- 
ficiency, Mechanical and Economic," 
which states that the co-efficient of fric- 
tion of plain babbitted or cast iron shaft 
bearings ranges from y-ji of 1 per cent, 
to 8 per cent., and that a plant having 
a coefficient of 3 per cent, is one to be 
proud of. The remedy for this excessive 
friction is stated to lie in using ball- 
bearing hangings on line shafting. 

A test conducted by Dodge & Day on 
a line of 2 7-16-inoh shaft 72 feet long 

A ^ -.. 6i 


The regular monthly meeting of the 
Central Railway and Engineering Club 
was held at the Prince Geor^ i'otel, 
Toronto, Dec. 21. The business of the 
evening consisted of an address on "The 
Manufacture of Commercial Gas," by C. 
J. Herring, and the election of officers 
for the ensuing year. C. JeReris, the re- 
tiring President, occupied the chair. 

The following were elected officers for 
1910 : President, J. Duguid, general 
foreman G. T. R. ; first vice-pres., G. 
Baldwin, general yardmaster Canada 
Foundry Co. ; second vice-pres., J. Ban- 
non, chief engineer, city hall, Toronto. 

Executive Committee— Messrs C. A. 
Jefferis, W. R. McRae, O. A. Cole, A. 
M. Wickens, A. E. Till and A. Taylor, 
Toronto, and Mr. Patterson, Stratford. 


A can of gasolene can be handled as 
safely as a can of oil, for liquid gaso- 
lene does not explode. It is the gaso- 
lene vapor that is highly explosive when 
properly mixed with air. The Scientific 
American recently published three illus- 
trations showing the safety with which 
burnmg gasolene may be handled. One 
showed a man pouring burning gasolene 
from one can into another. In a second 
he was blowing into the spout of a can 
of gasolene to which a match had been 
applied. The little blue flame that or- 
dinarily plays around the mouth of the 
can was transformed into a burning 
torch. The third showed a pool of burn- 
ing gasolene on the floor, and two gaso- 
lene cans aflame, but there was no ex- 

There is all the difference in the world 
between an attempt to study by mere 
reading and a real study through the 
actual doing of work.— Prof. John Perry. 





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The Art of Welding Metals 

The use of the Oxy-aeoty/ene blow'ptpe in welding has greatly ex- 
tended the field in this class of work. 

Simple or complicated fractures and breaks in all kinds of machinery may 
be repaired and made almost equal to new in strength and appearance ; the 
broken edges of iron, steel, aluminum and other metals are melted together 
with the addition of more metal under a temperature of 6,000 to 7,000 degrees 

This plan is much superior to brazing or riveting and may be used for an 
infinite variety of new and repair work hitherto done by less efficient methods. 

We have installed a plant for the purpose of welding by this process, and 
shall be glad to send particulars and quote prices. 

Enquiries and correspondence solicited. 



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MONTREAL, Eastern Townships Bank Blilg. TORONTO, 10 Front Street East. WINNIPEG, 511 Union Bank BuilHlng. lONCON, ENC, SB Fleet Street, ( t. 

Vol. VI. 

Publication Office : Toronto, February, 1910. 

No. 2 

Bertram Planers 

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Sales Agents — The Canadian Fairbanks Company, Limited, Montreal, St. John, Toronto, Winnipeg, CaUary, Vancouver 

First Aid to Injured on a Great Canadian Railroad 

The System Used in the Angus Shops, Montreal, Giving Full Information 
as to the Carrying Out of the Scheme on the C.P.R., with Illustrations. 


One of the most popular movements on 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, of recent 
organization, is that of First Aid to the 
Injured, as carried on under the auspices 
of the St. John Ambulance Association. 

First of all, in order that the reader 
may understand the importance and va- 
lue of first aid both to employer and 
employe it. may be well to give a brief 
outline showing what "First Aid" really 
is ; what its objects are and the results 
of proper and improper first aid treat- 
ment, and I think the question, "What is 
first aid ?" is best answered by stating 
what its objects are. 

1st. To teach all people, outside of 
the medical profession, to render assist- 
ance to any person suffering accident or 
sudden illness until the arrival of the 

2nd. To teach people what not to do 
in case of accident, so that there shall 
lie no likelihood of a sympathetic but 
ignorant public causing unnecessary pain 
and suffering through improper treat- 

3. That in case of emergency, that is, 
bleeding, poisoning, choking or drowning, 
a life may not be sacrificed for the want 
of a little elementary knowledge on the 
part of the bystander. 

The following particulars of an acci- 
dent which occurred some little time ago 
show what terrible harm can be done 
by improper first aid treatment : 

"A man was knocked down by a 

street car causing a simple fracture 

of the left thigh bone, that is to 

say, the bone only was broken and 

none of the parts adjacent thereto, 

such as the tissues or artery, were 
injured or cut. The onlookers, with 
the idea of getting the poor fellow 
out of the way of passing traffic, 
lifted the man to a perpendicular 
position with the weight of his body 
on the broken leg, thereby causing 

Fig. 1. — S. A. Gidlow. General Secretary. 

the broken bones to become further 
displaced and to pierce the femoral 
or main artery of the thigh. As a 
result of this well meant action on 
the part of the public the man died 
from loss of blood in a few minutes. 

He was killed by a well meaning but 
ignorant public. Had the driver or 
conductor in charge of the street car 
in question been instructed in the 
elementary principles of first aid, 
and made use of such knowledge, the 
man would no doubt have been alive 
to-day, and the street car company 
saved heavy claims for damages. 
Compare the above with an accident 
which occurred in a machine shop re- 
cently, and where proper first aid was 
rendered as below : 

"A man was caught by machinery 
and had his arm so lacerated that 
all the muscles were torn off and the 
brachial (arm) artery severed. He 
would have died of hemorrhage in 
a few minutes had it not been for 
the valuable aid afforded by a mem- 
ber of a First Aid Corps, who 
caught up the artery and controlled 
the bleeding by digital pressure until 
a tourniquet was procured, which 
he placed in position. The man was 
then removed to the hospital, where 
the arm had to be amputated at the 
shoulder. The assistance rendered by 
the first aid man was highly spoken 
of by the medical officer of the hos- 
pital, as there was no doubt it sav- 
ed the other man's life." 
1 hese are only two of hundreds of 
cases where life has been lost, or, on the 
other hand, saved, depending on the 
ability of the bystander to render 
proper or improper treatment just 
when the accident occurred. 

One can readily see from the instances 
given above what incalculable benefit 




■ I ■ 

1 1, 11 IB 


m , -«■ mm^*i\mr 1 


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t f 1 • ■ 










_ m 

, -. 


^__... _,_._._; _. 

Fig. 2.— A First Aid I'lass at tlie Angus Siiops. 


first aid is to the railroad employe and 
the public generally. 

The Need of Instruction. 

The success of present day surgery is, 
in a great measure, due to the atten- 
tion given to simple details in the pre- 
paration of the case prior to operation. 
Now, if preliminary care means success- 
ful operation, why should it not have 

have, for some time past, realized the 
value of this movement to their em- 
ployes and to themselves, as is seen 
from the fact that they have a large 
and complete organization at their 
works in Montreal, both in the car and 
locomotive departments, and now every 
shop has its quota of ambulance men, 
so that no matter in what part of the 
works an accident may happen there you 

Fig. 3. — A First Aid ("liiss Composed of Lady Clerks at Angus, the 
tary for Montreal District C.P.R. and a Boy 

General Secretary, 


every consideration in tlie treatment of 
accidents constantly happening in all our 
works and on the streets ? 

If an ambulance man, by reason of his 
ability to render immediate attention, 
can sustain life until such time as med- 
ical assistance can be obtained, surely 
he is rendering great service, not only 
to the medical profession but to the per- 
son who suffers accident, also to the 
firm for whom he may be working and 
whose employe he is aiding. The need- 
less suffering caused by the ignorance of 
unskilled persons is as undoubted as it 
is deplorable. By rough handling, or for 
want of the slight knowledge necessary 
to enable one to support an injured limb, 
very serious consequences may ensue. To 
arrest bleeding from an artery is quite 
easy, yet thousands of lives have been 
lost in the presence of helpless spec- 
tators who had not been taught that 
little knowledge necessary to enable 
them to give intelligent first aid to the 

Accidents are of daily occurrence in 
all large works, yet, how many of their 
employes are capable of rendering first 
aid pending the arrival of the doctor. 

All the great railroads in the Colonies 
(outside of the Dominion) have had many 
thousands of their employes instructed 
in First Aid to the Injured, which goes 
to show that it pays, aside from the 
humanitarian standpoint, to have men 
around our works who can give imme- 
diate assistance in case of accident or 
sudden illness. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway Centre 
of the St. John Ambulance Association, 


will find an ambulance man, ready 
willing to give immediate help. 

The cost of instruction, and the books 
and first aid material necessary, are fur- 
nished by the management free of charge. 
A lecturer is provided who gives one 
lecture per week to the men until the 
full course of five lectures has been giv- 

The syllabus of instruction is as fol- 
lows : 

First Lecture. 

A. Preliminary remarks, objects of in- 
struction, etc. 

B. A brief description of the human 

skeleton, bones, joints, and the muscular 

C. Signs, symptoms and treatment of 
fractures, dislocations sprains and 

D. The triangular bandage and its ap- 

Second Lecture. 

A. The heart and blood vessels. The 
circulation of the blood. 

B. The general direction of the main 
arteries indicating the points where the 
circulation may be arrested by digital 
presssure or by the application of the 
tourniquet, or by other means. 

C. The difference between arterial, 
venous and capillary bleeding, and the 
various extemporary means of arresting 

D. The triangular bandage and its ap- 

The Third Lecture. 

A. A brief description of the nervous 

B. First aid to persons suffering from 
shock or collapse after injury, injury to 
the brain, collapse from drink, epilepsy, 
fainting, hysteria, sunstroke, electric 
shock, effects of lightning, and convul- 
sions in children. 

C. First aid in cases of frost bite, 
burns or scalds, injury by vitriol throw- 
ing, wounds, bites of animals, stings of 

D. What to do when the dress catches 

E. The triangular bandage and its 

Fourth Lecture. 

A. A brief description of the organs 
and mechanism of respiration. 

B. The immediate treatment of the 
apparently drowned, or otherwise suf- 
focated. Artificial respiration, treat- 
ment for choking. 

Fig. «.— Ambulance Instructors. Back Row (Left to Right)— T. Pattison. Instructor ; T. Pemberlon, 

Instructor. Front Row (Left to Right)-W. Reid, District Secretary; S. A. Gidlow, 

General Secretary: J. H. Britton, Instructor. 



C. First aid to those poisoned. 

D. The immediate first aid treatment 
of injuries to the internal organs, and 
to those suffering- from internal hemor- 

E. Foreign bodies in the eye, ear and 

Fifth Lecture (for Males Only). 

A. Improvised melliods of lifting and 
carrying the sick or injured. 

carrying the injured on stretchers, etc. 
The reader may not think the placing of 
a man on a stretcher of much import- 
ance, but it is really a very 
part of the work, as a great deal of 
damage may be done in placing a man 
on a stretcher. 

Before the instructor allows his class 
to go up for final examination they are 
expected to answer a series of test ques- 

Fig. 5.— Treating a Broken Leg. 

B. Methods of lifting and carrying the 
sick or injured on stretchers. 

C. The conveyance of such by rail or 
in country carts. 

As soon as ever the lectures arc fin- 
ished the men are then taken in hand by 
one of the company's ambulance instruc- 
tors. No man is allowed to give in- 
struction in the practical work before 
he is himself fully qualified, and before 
any such man is fully qualified to act as 
instructor he must hold the certificate, 
voucher and medallion of the St. John 
Ambulance Association, and these hon- 
ors can only be obtained alter three 
years, at least, constant application to 
first aid work, during which time he 
must attend three courses of lectures 
and undergo three examinatios in first 
aid, each examination more exacting and 
more difficult to pass than the previous 
one before he obtains the coveted me- 
dallion or full qualifying badge of the 
Association, and one year must elapse 
between each first aid examination, so 
that it is impossible to obtain the me- 
dallion under three years. 

The class then, as I said before, is 
taken in hand by one of the Company's 
instructors, whose duty it is to teach 
the practical work, such as the proper 
application of bandages and splints to 
various parts of the body and lifting and 

tions and to dO the practical work in 
connection with them. 

Below arc a few of the questions tak- 
en from each test paper as given prior 
to the last examination at the Angus 
Works in Mantreal : 

First Test. 

1. What is first aid to the injured"? 

2. What are signs and symptoms? 

3. Wihat is the history of a case ? 

4. What is a fracture? 

5. How many kinds of fracture are 
there ? 

6. Name .the different fractures. 

7. What color is arterial blood? 

8. What color is venous blood f 

9. Where is the brachial artery, etc.? 

10. Wiiere are the carpus bones, etc.? 

Second Test. 

1. What are the signs and symptoms 
of fracture? 

2. How would you treat simple frac- 
ture ? 

3. What is the first thing to do in 
treating complicated fracture? 

4. How would you distinguish frac- 
ture of the lower jaw? 

5. What are the signs of dislocation ? 

6. How would you treat a dislocation? 

7. What are the signs and treatment 
of fracture of the ribs? 

8. What are vai-icose veins and ihow 
would you treat them? 

9. What are the signs and treatment 
lor internal hemorrhage ? 

10. What are the general rules for 
treatment of insensibility, etc.? 

Third Test (Practical). 

1. Treat this man for compound frac- 
ture of the left humerus. 

2. Treat this man for hemorrhage 
from the left palmar arch. 

3. Man is found lying on left side 
with knees and hips bent. There is free 
spurting bleeding from wound in right 
palm; besides the above injuries there 
are evidences of a ruptured spinal cord 
due to a fall of heavy rubbish on the 
patient's back. Place on stretcher, 
march home and put to bed. 

4. This man is suffering from electric 
siiiick and wound on forehead. Place on 


stretcher, march to a given point and 

5. A man repairing an electric •cable 
receives a shock which causes him to lose 
his hold and fall from the top of the 
pole to the ground. He receives a com- 
pound fracture of the right leg with se- 
vere hemmorhage, fractured ribs and 

Work of First Aid. 

One thing strictly impressed on all 
ambulance men is, the exact relative 
position first aid has to the medi- 
cal profession. The ambulance man 
is given to clearly understand that 
he is not expected, or in a position, 
to supplaiil the doctor, or to treat any 

Fig. 7.— Practical Work in First Aid at Angus Shops. 

collar bone on left side. Treat him, 
place on stretcher, carry home and put 
to bed. 

6. This man has broken his right thigh, 
you have only one splint. How would 
you treat him, etc.? 

As soon as the instructor considers 
the class ready for exa,mination he makes 
his report to tae proper quarter and a 
medical officer of the Canadian centre of 
the St. John Ambulanee Association is 
appointed to examine the class as, for 
obvious reasons, no lecturer is ajlowed 
to examine his own class. After the ex- 
amination the men are given one hour 
per week in which to meet together for 
practice, and are by this means kept up 
to a proper state of efficiency, also, at 
stated intervals the men are inspected by 
a medical officer appointed by the man- 
agement so that the company can find 
out for themselves if their men xn up 
to the mark and able to do the work re- 
quired of them. 

Ambulance man's report in Connection with ac- 
cident at the Angus Locomotive Shops. 

Name of person injured 

Description of injury 

How accident was treated 

Material used 


Ambulance man. 

Supt. Loco Shops. 
Note : — The above is to be filled in by the am- 
bulance man who renders "First Aid" and sent 
to the Office of the Supt. of Angus Loco Shops 
as soon as possible after the accident. 

Fig. 8.— Form to be Sent in by Ambulance Man 
After Attending Personal Injury. 

accident to its final solution, for the 
simple reason, the work of the ambulance 
man ends w'here the doctor's commences, 
that is to say, the duty of the ambulance 
man is to prevent personal injury being 
made worse by the ignorant but sym- 
pathetic attention of has colleagues or 
fellow workmen. He would, if neces- 
sary, apply splints ajid bandages, ad- 
minister simple remedies, place the suf- 
ferer in the most safe and comfortable 
position, and await the arrival of the 
doctor. In a less serious case he would 
give su«h treatment as was necessary 
and convey or send his patient to the 
doctor, and there his responsibility ends. 
Every accident attended by an am- 
bulance man is reported on a form spe- 
cially provided for the purpose so that 
the management can see for themselves, 
bv the manner in which the form is 

made out, that proper and efficient first 
aid is rendered, as it is also a check on 
the material used. 

A record is kept showing the value of 
each "First Aider's" services to the 
company after he has quaiified for the 
certificate of the association. 

As an incentive to employees to ob- 
tain the certificate, the management 
grant certain privi'eges. For instance, 
other things being equal, the man hold- 
ing a first aid certificate has preference 
of employment, preference for promotion 
and also granted an extra pass over and 
above the usual annual pass and on the 
same conditions. 

Value of the Classes. 

Of course, howevei- much to be de- 
sired, it is scarcely to be expected that 
everyone should have the time or the 
inclination to join such organized bodies 
of "First Aiders" as the St. John Am- 
bulance Association or the St. John 
Ambulance Brigade, but certainly every 
person should devote the time to attend 
at least one course of lectures, because, 

St. 3obn Hmbulance Hssocfation, 

XEbw ii to certitvtw.^ . a 

tirtilrattt ptipil, ma j tKexjramlnct) tor ttt flcsl tirnt 

oil Jiret 9i1i ill tbt moiitl) of .- 100 , 

^t aiit utsitt tl)e Cramuur. 

Fig. 10. — Voucher Given to Men Passing Second 

from the poorest laborer to the presi- 
dent, we are all liable to accident and 
all are dependent on the same first aid 
principles, so that it is easy to realize 
the risk we run, one and all, every day 
of our lives by reason of the general 
ignorance which prevails of the merest 

Zbe <Sraiib prioirp of tbe CrDcr of Ibe fjcspltal ot St. 3obn of 3cru9alcm In Euslanb. 

patron : 

(Bo-rtnigtk B—A ud PitroD «f Xh» Otdtt' 

preei&ciit : 

Ormnd Mor of Cha Ori»t). 

IHrMtor of lk« ADibilBBM Dtpftrtmmt tnd CbtlnDU t1 CimmlttM . 
AnMuI DtTOTtOr ud DipatT Ck»lnnu . Dcpstr CbklnBU : 

UBQT.CaU>MBL SI" HICHAHD TKUFLB. BARI., C.I B. Bl« «H» rUBLST. C B. ( NfBihf o( lh» rpmmtlW M«n> Cmwfl. 

ChUf BtcrtMrT AMonnunt ud •UrikMHT: 


l^bl6 Is to certif^g that 

fias atten&cD a tanvst of Snstrnction at tbe (lentrc 

of the St. 3obn Hmbulance Hssociation, anD is qualifbb to «n&«r"JFirsi 
^ib to the Injttrrfi." 

Fruidml vf Ctntn. 
Sttrgttm Iitttntetor. 

8t. Josm'b Qatb, Ct-HKnittRix, 


SutrftMt ixamintr. 
Loeai ffen. Steretary. 

Fig. 9.— First Aid Certificate Issued 

by Head Office to Men Who Pass the E.xamlnationa. 


rudiments of first aid treatment. As 
stated previously, every pei-son should 
attend, at least, one course of first aid 
lectures, and then we should remove for 
ever those old time notions which are so 
hard to kill: 

1st. Children after sustaining a severe 
blow on the head through a fall, being 
kept awake by their mothers tor fear 
they should die if allowed to sleep. 

2nd. Kind people forcing neat brandy 
down the throat of an un-conscious per- 

Fig. 11.— Medallion Given to Those Who. After 
Three Years' Work, Pass the Third Exam- 

3rd. Kind people rushing about madly, 
and then carrying an unfortunate suffer- 
er to the nearest doctor or hospital or 
else putting the patient hurriedly into a 
hack without any regard to the nature 
of the injuries sustained. 

4th. Kind people picking up a person 
who has had 'his leg run over by a pass- 
ing vehicle, and trying to see if he can 
walk, or else dragging or lifting him out 
of the road to the pavement apparently 
with the idea of making the sufferer feel 
more comfortable, by placing him out of 
the way of the vehicular traffic. 

5th. Kind people standing helpless by 
a friend or one of their own family see- 
ing the life blood ebbing away. 

Every medical man could, from his 
own experience give instances 'where the 
want of a little knowledge has led to 
increased suffering and subsequent harm 
to the injured person, and even to un- 
necessary loss of life. Now if there ds 
one fact more recognized than another 
by medical men, it is this, viz., that the 

Fig. 12.— C.P.K. Ambulance Badge Worn by Men 
Qualified to Render First Aid. 

immediate treatment adopted in the case 
of any severely injured person has a 
positive influence, and a most importiuit 

bearing upon the progress of the ease. 
The first aid treatment is given dn that 
interval which intervenes between the 
occurrence of the accident and the ar- 
rival of the medical man ; that anxious 
a.nd trying moment (which most of us 
know so well) before the patient can be 
taken to the doctor or the doctor brought 
to the patient, when we feel that some- 
thing should be done, and when that 
something is the right thing done, by one 
not only qualified, but who is acting un- 
der the teaching of the medical man who 
will subsequently attend the case, it not 
only aids the speedly recovery of the 
unfortunati T)erson, but brings a great 
sense of rehef to those looking on. 

Officers of Angus Shops Association. 

Patrons— The Right Hon. Lord Strath- 
cona and Mount Royal, K.C.M.G. ; Sir 
Thomas Shaughnessy, K.C.V.O.; R. B. 
Angus, Esq. 

President — D. McNicoll, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents — J. W. Leonard, Esq.; 
H. H. Vaug-han, Esq.; G. P. Girdwood. 
Esq., M.D., M.R.C.S.. Eng. 

Chairman — Major Lacey R. Johnson. 

General Secretary — S. A. Gidlow, Esq. 


A large party of railway and machin- 
ery men visited the London Machine 
Tool Co., Hamilton, to witness a test 
on a 42 inch coach wheel lathe, on 
Jan. 24. This machine is driven by a 
40 h.p. motor, two 6 h.p. motors driv- 
ing the tailstocks. During the rou-^h- 
ing operation a speed of 22 ft. per 
minute was maintained. 

The party visited the Berlin Machine 
Works, manufacturers of wood-working 
machinery. They were then entertai:iad 
at luncheon at the Hamilton Club. In 
the afternoon the party visited the 
Canadian Westinghouse and the Hamil- 
ton Steel & Iron plants. 

Among the visitors were R. Patter- 
son, G.T.R., Stratford ; Tho.s. Trele- 
ven, J. H. Phillips, G.T.R., London ; 
Wm. Pitts, G.T.R., W. Petersen, C.P. 
R., H. Marengo, C.P.R., Montreal ; 
W. Flynn, M.C.R., St. Thomas ; C. M. 
Murray of Chapman Double Ball Bear- 
ing Co., M. R. Ferguson of Crucible 
Steel Co. (expert dept.), A. E. Juhler, 
G. C. Keith, editor Canadian Machin- 
ery, Toronto ; W. J. Press of Mussens, 
C. M. Rudel of Rudel-Yeates Co., A. 
E. Tyler, Crucible Steel Co., Montreal ; 
Mr. Usher, Mr. Adams and J. Christo- 
pher of T. H. & fl., W. K. Pearce of 
Dominion Bank, W. Currie of Hamilton 
Steel & Iron ; G. W. Robinson and D. 
Ryan of Berlin Machine Works ; C. H. 
Pook and B. Elshoff of Canadian West- 
inghouse, Hamilton. 



A company has been incorporated un- 
der the Ontario Companies Act to man- 
ufacture high-grade steel, such as is 
used in making edge tools, for planes, 
lathes, drills, cutlery, etc., and for 
dental and surgical instruments, which 
require a very fine high-grade material. 
The company is known as the Interna- 
tional Tool Steel Co., capitalized at 
$750,000, with its head office in the 
Traders Bank Bldg., Toronto. The 
directors of the company are John J. 
Main, who is vice-president and general 
manager of the Poison Iron Works ; J. 
E. Murphy, lumberman ; A. F. Mac- 
Laren, ex-M.P., who is also director of 
the Trusts and Guarantee Co., Manson 
Campbell, Chatham, president of the 
Chatham Waggon Co., and the Manson 
Campbell Co., and W. J. Chapman, 

The company has secured 351 acres 
of magnetic iron oxide sands in Quebec. 
It is intended to locate this plant in 
Welland, the ores being transported by 

The furnace to be used is of special 
design used in batteries of ten, each 
furnace being capable of producing 400 
lbs. in ten hours. The furnace includes 
a combined reduction and crucible fur- 
nace with an 8-inch melting zone. It 
is intended that these furnaces should 
furnish power for forge hammers, rolls, 


The regular monthly meeting of the 
Central Railway and Engineering Club, 
Toronto, was held on Jan. 18, with J. 
Duguid in the chair. J. Bannon, chief 
engineer, Toronto City Hall, rend a paper 
on Themostats and Mechanical Regula- 
tions of Heat. A feature of the evening 
was the presentation of a past-presi- 
dent's jewel to C. A. Jeffries. Friday, 
February 25 will be a social evening. 

On January 19, the S.P.S. Engineering 
Society, Toronto, entertained members 
of the Canadian Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion at their twenty-first annual banquet. 
About 1,000 were in attendance, Louis 
Simpson, Ottawa, referring to electric 
smelting, reviewed the work of produc- 
ing iron from ores and pointed out the 
value to Canada of this method of reduc- 

Robert W. Angus, Professor of Me- 
chanical Engineering, gave a lecture on 
Turbine Pumps, before the Engineers' 
Club, Toronto, on January 20. The lec- 
ture, which was given in the New Uni- 
versity Hydraulic Laboratory, was il- 
lustrated by numerous lantern slides. 


A Neglected Factor in Canada's Industrial Life 

The Giving of Fellowships by Manufacturers to Stimulate Re- 
search Work will Assiit Investigations of Principles Underlying 
Specific Industries in the Interests of which they are Working. 

In an address delivered to the mem- 
bers of the Canadian Manufacturers' 
Association on April 25th, 1901, by Pro- 
fessor W. R. Lang, of the University of 
Toronto, on the subject of chemistry and 
its relation to the arts and manufactures 
of the country, he said : 

"In discussing a subject such as you have asl<- 
ed me to bring before you to-night, it is only 
possible for me to take up the matter in a gen- 
eral way, more with reference to the industries 
of Canada, and, at the same time, to consider 
how best these industries may be benefited and 
developed by the application to them of sound, 
general and scientific training. Chemistry may 
be defined as the science which deals with the 
composition of matter, and, as all industries of 
whatever nature involve chemical processes of 
one kind or another, it may salely be said that 
no industry can succeed without chemistry." 

In closing, the lecturer added : 

If the various companies were to combine to 
establish a research laboratory, they would have 
to place themselves and the problems entirely 
in the hands of the chemist whom they appoint- 
ed chief, and who might or might not be capa- 
ble of bringing their research to a practical is- 
sue. Is this not a case in which it is better to 
invite chemists at large to take up the re- 
search 7 Are the chances of finding the right 
man for the work not enormously greater in 
this way than they would be in any other sys- 
tem of selection 7 

In order to carry out this idea. then, let me 
suggest that when difficulties occur recourse be 
had to those whose special training and circum- 
stances permit of careful investigation of the 
subject. Where no secrecy is required and the 
services of the professional man consequently not 
called for, why not ofler a prize for the satis- 
factory solution of the problem ? At our uni- 
versities there is always a sprinkling of gra- 
duates carrying on original research and who 
would be glad of the additional financial incen- 
tive to exercise their ingenuity and skill in 
clearing up the difficulty. At the same time 
they would be benefiting the manufacturer and in- 
directly the country while improving their own 
tiualifications for an appointment in a sphere of 
future usefulness. 

During the nine years that has elap- 
sed since the above suggestion was 
thrown out practically no response has 
come from the manufacturers of Can- 
ada; but our neighbors to the south have 
acted on similar advice given by another 
University of Toronto man. Professor R. 
Kennedy Duncan of the University of 
Kansas, and two years ago various firms 
instituted fellowships in the chemical 
department of that University, varying 
ill value from $.500 to $1,500 per annum. 

The successful candidates for these fel- 
lowships, who are all university grad- 
uates that have specialized in chemistry, 
hold their appointment for two years 
and devote themselves entirely to the 

study and investigation of the principles 
underlying the specific industry in the 
interests of which they are working. 

Subjects Treated. 
Some idea of the nature of these in- 
dustries may be gathered from the fol- 
lowing list of subjects, whose import- 
ance in the manufacturing world has 
prompted liberal subscriptions for the 
elucidation of the many problems met 
with in the factory: — Cements, casein, 
bread, laundry work, enamels, diatase, the 
preservation of wood, borax, boracie 
acid, glass — the relation between its 
physical properties and it chemical com- 

Each fellow must, of course, familiar- 
ize himself with the present conditions 
of his particular industry. He is in- 
formed as to the direction in which pos- 
sible improvements may lie, and must 
make himself master of the rationale of 
each process. Then he tackles the real 
problems, with the knowledge of meth- 
ods of investigation that his college 
training has given him, aided by such 
advice as the head of the laboratory can 
give him, and anything he may discover, 
improve on or invent he conveys to the 
firm whose fellowship he holds. 

Professor Duncan has seen, also, that 
the interests of the investigation are not 
neglected, and the receipt of a percent- 
age of the profits from any invention or 
improvement encourages the fellow to 
further efforts. 

So far, the scheme has been highly 
successful, and it is safe to say that the 
chemist who devotes two years of his 
time to investigation of some industry, 
with the facilities that a university lab- 
oratory gives, must become a valuable 
asset to the firm paying the scholarship, 
and is more than likely to be given a 
responsible position in the firm's works. 

To the writer's knowledge, one firm 
already has benefited largely from the 
work done by its fellow, and an almost 
new class of scientific manufacturers 
bids fair to result from the institution 
of these industrial fellowships. 

Would it not be well for some of 
our Canadian manufacturers to seriously 
consider a similar line of action — work- 
ed out with the assistance of the heads 
of the chemistry department of our own 



In the Rundschau for Technologie 
Kolben states that pure silicon has a 
very high electrical resistance in com- 
parison with metals, and approximates 
in this respect closely to carbon. A 
further point of similarity is found in 
the effect of warmth on the resistance, 
both temperature co-efficients being neg- 
ative, whilst those of all metals are pMwi- 
tive. The thermoelectric force between 
pure silicon and antimony is more than 
thrice as great as that between bismuth 
and antimony. The electrical resistance 
of iron is heightened by an addition of 
silicon, th« maximum increase being at- 
tained in presence of 4 per cent, of sili- 
con. At the same time, this alloy ex- 
hibits the valuable property that the 
resistance is practically independent on 
temperature, so that the alloy is ex- 
cellently adapted for the construction of 
resistances. As regards the question of 
magnetic losses, so important in the con- 
struction of transformers, iron with 
about 3.5 per cent, of silicon gives about 
the same loss by hysteresis as slightly 
silicised iron ; but the losses by vortical 
currents are far smaller, owing to the 
high electrical resistance. 


Those interested in the subject 
of grinding, and living in Mont- 
real and Toronto, will be given 
an opportunity of hearing two 
experts on this subject at the fol- 
lowing places:^ 

Technical High School, 
Montreal, February 8th; En- 
gineering Building, McGill 
University, Montreal, on Feb. 
9th and 10th; at University 
of Toronto on Feb. 11th. 
The lecturers will be C. H. Nor- 
ton, of the Norton Grinding Co., 
and E. W. Dodge, of the Norton 
Co., both of Worcester, Mass. 

Mr. Norton will talk on ' ' Cylin- 
drical Grinding," and as there is 
probably no man on this contin- 
ent better posted on this subject, 
this will undoubtedly be a most 
interesting talk. 

Mr. Norton will explain the 
manufacture and uses of grinding 
wheels; the origin and process of 
manufacture of the abrasive ma- 
terials and various styles of ma- 

These talks will be illustrated 
by upwards of one hundred lan- 
tern slides and cover the subject 

The Design of|Bevel Gears with Shafts at Right Angles 

The Design and Manufacture of Gear$, whether Spur, Bevel or Spiral, 
Giving Information and Tables of Great Use to Mechanical Men. 

In this article and the one to follow, 
it is the intention to introduce a method 
for the calculation of all bevel gears, 
mitre gears, bevel gears with shafts at 
right angles, and bevel gears with shafts 
at acute and obtuse angles. In 
part I. I shall deal with shafts 
at right angles, and will introduce first 
a table of tooth formulae, the careful 

Fig. 1.— 90 Degree Bevel Gear. 

consideration of which enters largely 
into the successful design of all gears 
whether spur, bevel, or spiral. 

Table or Tooth Fof! 

N~numimr of Teeth. N^. -^'t''*'" A/-n w 

P—Jiametral p.tch. P- ^ 
U — pifrh Jiameter. H—N.s 

fl — c-rcul<ir f»teh. p™*^ p.v 

a —addeajon'-ieearn.n^ depth of foatt,. 
c — deatetia at bottom of tooth. c- 
f —lull depth of tooth, /~(t.i>}t c 

I — •ri'M of tooth on p,tch crde. t- 

<^- p C- p .OS 

These fornmhie have been compiled 
from standard authorities and represent 
the relative proportions which exist be- 
tween the diametral pitch, number of 
teeth, pitch diameter, circular pilch, ad- 
dendum, etc., the diametral pitch being 
llie number of teeth to eacii inch of pitch 
diameter. Tlie pitch diameter is tlie 
•liameter of the pitch circle, which is al- 
ways described through the centre of 
the working depth of teeth. In bevel 
gears, it will be found on tlie edge line 
or upper slant of teeth, and on it is 
measured the circular pitch, or distance 
from the centre of one tooth, to the 
centre of the tooth adjoining. The ad- 
dendum is equal to the addenda; and is 
always one-half the working depth of 
liioth. The diameter of blank is readily 
found in spur gears, by adding the work- 
luk depth of tooth or twice the adden- 
'lum, to the pitch diameter, but in bevel 
gears it must be calculated as ihe fol- 
lowing diagram. Fig 2, indicates, since 
the calculated dimensions of teeth are 
on the edge line. 

By G. D. MILLS. 

In the right hand corner of Fig. 2 will 
be found a small right triangle, which 
has for its hypothenuse the addendum 
and its corner angle is equal to the 
centre angle, or angle of edge. The base 
of this triangle is the distance which 
must be added to the pitch diameter on 
each side of the gear, in order to deter- 
mine the diameter of blank, and from 
which is derived the formulae 0^ and 0,. 

Fig 2 contains all the angles and di- 
mensions which are necessary to proper- 
ly prepare the blanks, and cut the teeth 
of bevel gears. If a pair of bevel gears 
are both of the same size they are said 
to be mitre gears ; and the calculations of 
one serve for both, since the speed of 
the shaft is neither increased nor de- 
creased, but simply transmitted at right 
angles. If, however, it is necessary to 
increase or decrease the speed in one 
of the wheels, it is evident the gears 
will have unequal dimensions and both 
wheels must be calculated. Before going 
into the actual operation of calculating, 
I shall enter into a brief explanation 
of the angles, etc., in Fig. 2 and the pur- 
pose they serve. 

The angle included between the centre 
line of shaft, and a line drawn through 
the centre of the working depth of tooth, 
is the centre angle, and being first in 
imixirtance its tangent may be readily 
delennined by dividing the half pitch 
diameter of one gear, by the half pitch 
diameter of its mate, when shafts are 
at right angles. In the formulae which 
follow, however, I have substituted the 
number of teeth since they bear equal 
proportions to the pitch diameters, thus 
securing round numbers in calculating. 

Fig. 2.— Illustrating Tooth Formulae. 

The angle of edge is equal to the centre 
angle, since the edge line or upper slant 
of teeth is at right angles with centre 
line of teeth. The angle of small tri- 
angle in right hand corner is also equal 


to the angle of edge, all three being 
found with one operation. 

The angle increment or angle of the 
addendum is next to be determined. Its 
tangent could be found by dividing the 
addendum by length of centre line of 
teeth, which length is first found by di- 
viding the half pitch diameter of wheel 
by sine of centre angle. However, a 
shorter method is to be had in the form- 
sine C 
ula tangent A= which gives the 

same result. These two angles, the 
centre angle and the angle increment are 
the only angles which require calcula- 
tion in bevel gears with shafts at right 
angles, as all the other angles are readily 
tletermined from them. 

The cutting angle of gear is found by 
deducting the angle increment from the 
centre angle of gear, and the cutting 
angle of gear is the angle of blank of 
pinion, while the cutting angle of pinion 
is the angle of blank gear. 

In the manufacture of bevel gears it 
is first necessary to determine the diam- 
eter and angles of blanks that they may 
be turned correctly, after which we are 
ready to cut the teeth and unless the cut- 
ting angle is correct and the machine set 
true we shall have half a tooth at the last 
cut, which is a loss of time and material. 
It is also important to select correct 
cutters, and in the list of formulae fol- 
lowing will be found two which are pre- 
pared for tliis purpose. 

Selection of Tooth, 
lu the selection of a tooth form the 
involute or single curve tooth is now al- 
most universally used for bevel gears, 
in place of the cycloidal or double curve 
tooth and it may be well to also stale 
that the number of teeth and diametral 
pitch or the pitch diameters, must be 
selected in the design of a pair of bevel 
gears, which selection is largely influ- 
enced by the existing conditions. In 
ordinary machine design the available 
space is a large factor from which we 
may determine the pitch diameters. The 
number of teeth in each wheel is deter- 
mined by the speed ratio required. If 
the wheel driven is to have 3 revolu- 
tions to one of the driver, the number 
of teeth could be 30 and 10, 36 and 12, 
24 and 8, etc. Following, are three form- 
!ae from table of tooth formulae which 


aid materially in detormining: tlie miin- 
ber of teeth and diametral pitch : 

N N 

N=J)P P=— D=^. 

D P 

Let us design a pair of bevel gears 

V = 


^ - 


p - 


> = 


s ' 


e • 


/ • 


f ' 



f-Gvmr re 

. «-«./« 

?^ig. 3.— Pair of Bevel Gears, Shafts at Right 

with shafts at right angles. Fig. 3 is a 
gear and pinion, and following are a 
list of formulae necessary for their cal- 
culation, the angles and dimensions are 
lettered for convenience. 


HTable of Formulas for so' Shaftb. 

Gmm center «n^U of ^^ar—„.,^:f o/ ejyr ttf ^ear H ten GW-^ G-Slf-C 

C- .. . . f,„,i„_ .... ^,„.„H_ "-'^■/S*, C-SlT'e 

A—an^le ritereme„f ton A — fl£L\ imA-V^ 

f — evHinj allele o( ijear — angle et btanK of pmion E-G-A 
E~ ^ .. . p;<u,„ — . , • , ^ear fyC-A 

B—on^lo of t/otrH al ^ar — c««<ny en^t of p<nlen B-30'-{G*-A) 

8,~ i><n,o<,~ ~ - . ,,,ar ^=SO'-(C+A) 

O— dmmeter a! bianJi of tfeor Cl-fi sm G)tl? 

q~ - - ■ r'-" o_-(o.„,c)tl{, or »«/;, /. „:„• C,".'„ A,C-„-;^ 

. ,. r.:..:.. ^'„ 

N — nornbrr of fritti in ijeor . . . .«. fo^( of *ooth fomiultio 

^— ' BitrJi diornrfrr «/ foor , • . . 


In the design of a machine, we have 
an available space of 10 inches, and have 
decided to use 8 inches as the pitch 
diameter of gear, and as the speed ratio 
is to be 2 to 1 Ave shall select 32 and 16 

The diametral pitch may at once be 
determined by the tooth formula 

N 32 

Pi= — • or P= — =4 and our pitch di- 

D 8 

ameter of pinion found by the formula 

N 16 

D= — or D^ — =4 inches our gears will 

P 4 

therefore be 32 and 16th teeth, 4 pitch 

from which we shall proceed to calculate 
the balance of tooth dimensions. 

The circular pitch 

3.1416 3.1416 

= = =.7854". The adden- 

P 4 

dum is readily found by the formula 

1 1 

s==— =— =.2.5". The width of tooth is 

P 4 
found by the formula 

p ".78,54 
t=— = =..3927". Clearance is 

2 2 

t ..3927" 
(■=—= =.0.39" and the full depth 

10 10 
of tooth=(2.s)-)-c=(2x.2,5)+.0.3ft=..539 
in. The foregoing will be found noted on 

' -i J 

Fig. 4. — Bevel Gears, Finding the Diameters. 

Fig. 3, and we shall proceed to calculate 
the angles. 

The tangent of centre angle of gear 

N^ 32 
or tangent G.^ — = — =2. 

N, 16 
and its angle is 63° — 26\=H, the centre 
angle of pinion or C=90"— G=90°— 63" 
— 26'=26°— •34=H,. The tangent of the 
angle increment is found by the form- 
sine c .4472 

ula tangent A= = ^.0559 

i N, 8 

and its angle is 3° — 12'. The cutting 
angle of gear which is the angle of 
blank of pinion is found by deducting 
the angle increment from centre angle 
of gear or E,=G— A=63''— 26"— 3°— 12' 
=60°— 14=B,. The cutting angle of 
pinion which is the ang'e of blank of 
gear is found in the same way or 'E,^=C 
— A=26°— 34'— 3°— 12 =23° — 22' = B,. 
These angles will be found noted in their 
proper place on Fig. 3. 

We have yet to determine the diam- 
eter of blanks and size cutters to use, 
as these formulae are calculated with 
cosine G and cosine C. We have been 
obliged to leave them until the angles 
were calculated. The diameter of blank 
of gear will be found by the formula 0, 
=(2.s cos G)+D,=(2X-25"X-4472) + 
8 "=8.224 in., and the diameter of blank 
of pinion 0^=(2.s. cos C) 4-D,p= (2X 
.25X-8944") + 4 "=4.447 inches. With 
respect to the cutters, the number of 
teeth to select cutter for gear 
N, 32 

= = =18 teeth or an 

Cos, G .4472 
volute 4-pitch bevel gear cutter, which 
will cut 72 teeth, and the number of 

teeth to select cutter for pinion 
N, 16 

= = =:18 teeth or on 

Cos, C .8944 
involute 4 pitch bevel gear cutter which 
will cut 18 teeth. It is evident that two 
cutters will be required to cut these 
wheels, as gear cutters are usually ar- 
ranged in sizes, and each size has a 
certain range of teeth to cover. The 
calculated numbers of teeth, are the 
numbers of teeth of an equivalent spur 
gear and pinion having the same profile. 
One cutter will often do for both wheels, 
but the formulae readily determine this. 
These quantities have been noted on Fig. 
3, which practically completes the cal- 
culations. The size of hub will, of 
course, be goverened by the diameter of 
shaft it is to be fastened to, and the 
length of teeth is largely influenced by 
the power on shaft and particular pur- 
pose of the gears. 

Machining Blanks. 

If we are to have correct, smooth, and 
easy running gears, we must provide cor- 
rectly turned blanks. A method to fa- 
cilitate the turning of blanks, may be 
briefly described as follows. After the 
disc is turned to conform to the diameter 
of blank, we are ready to turn the lower 
slant or face of teeth. In order to de- 
termine how much metal to remove, we 
must define the end of teeth on bottom 
of disc by a circle, which can be scribed 
by the compasses, and its diameter found 
as in the following diagram Fig. 4. 

The diameter of circle should be cal- 
culated to insure greater accuracy, also 
the height; if we decide to make length 
of teeth li inches, the diameter of scrib- 
ed circle=0— (2.1" cos BJ=8.224" 
— (2X11"X-918)=5.929 inches and 
our height=ll" sin B,=li"X-3966 
=.496 inches. This distance should 
be laid off on the side of disc 
from bottom and a line scribed all 
around tlie blank to define it, and after 
the circle is scribed on the bottom we 
iiave two lines to turn to. This opera- 
tion completed we are ready to try the 
angle with a protractor, which is il- 
lustrated in Fig. 5. 

Fig. 5.— Trying Angle With Protractor. 

If the slant conforms to angle B, we 
may proceed to cut the edge line or top 
slant of teeth, and shall have a similar 
diagram to the one before (Fig. 4) ex- 
cept it is reversed. The angle of top 
slant is the angle of edge Hi, or centre 


anyle, and I he length of edge line is the 
full depth of tooth .539 inches plus suflS- 
cieuc margin to insure proper strength 
to the wheel. We shall call the full 
length of edge line, one inch in this case, 
and calculate diameter of top circle to 
turn to, which equals 0^ — (2XlXccs Hj) 
=8.224"— (2X1X-4472) = 7.33 inches, 
and our height is l"Xsin H,=1"X 
.894=.894 inch. After the operation of 
turning the edge line is completed, we 
are ready to try the angle with a pro- 
tractor, which is illustrated in Fig. 6. 

This slant should conform to the angle 
of edge or angle H,, after which we are 
ready to cut the teeth. This operation 
may be performed with an automatic 
gear cutter, or a milling machine. The 

cutting angles as calculated are correct 
for both machines. We have, however, 
neglected to properly proportion our 
disc, which is the starting point of our 

Fig. 6. — Trying Angle With Protractor. 

turning operations. These preceding 
calculations are necessary to determine 
its thickness, which is the sum of the 
two heights, as calculated, .496 "+.894" 

^1.39 inches for the gear, providing the 
wheel is" to have no hub. If a hub is 
required, we must add its height to 1.39 
inches. The diameter of disc is the di- 
ameter of blank 8.224 inches. These 
turning operations may be reversed, and 
the top slant turned first, if such a 
course seems desirable, also the included 
angle of the finished blank is readily 
found by adding together angles H and 

In article 2, which is to follow, will 
be described a method for the calcula- 
tion of all bevel gears other than those 
with shafts at right angles, or bevel 
gears with shafts of acute and obtuse 

A Great Saving Effected by the Use of the Disc Grinder 

Figures Given Herewith by the Gardner Machine Co., Beloit, Wis., 
Show Great Savings in the Auto, Marine and Stationary Motor Industry 

The Disc Grinder has found an in- 
ci-eased usefulness in the auto, marine 

parts being finished on a No. C Gardner 

I'^ig. 1. — Grinding Jacket Plates, Siiowing Si)ecial Jig. 

and stationary motor industry, whereby 
the time of accomplishing certain work 
has been considerably reduced. In most 
work the grinder is used in conjunction 

Fig. 1 shows- a jacket plate being 
ground. Each piece was finished in 2i 
minutes. A special jig was used to 




. ^^^^Bp «- ^^q^H 


Fig. 3. — Grinding Exhaust Connections. 

with a planer, shapet or lathe, but the 
time given for the parts mentioned in 
tills article is for grinding alone, the 

hold the jacket-plate during the opera- 
tion. Fig. 1 gives an idea of the belt 
power and the heavy type grinder, equip- 
ped with 23-ineh disc wheels and lever 
feed table. 

Fig 2 shows the arrangement for 
grinding cylinder covers, which required 
only 1} minutes each. J'ig. 3 shows the 

Fi^. 4.— Grinding Intake Manifolds. 


Fig. 2. — Grinding Cylinder Co\ers. 

grinder equipped .for exhaust connec- 
tions, which were gr(nind at the rale ol' 
3 minutes each. 

Fig 4 shows the grinding of intake 
manifolds at the rate of 3J minutes each. 
Tliis time includes grinding the large area 
and the single flange at a given angle, 
completing it in the time mentioned. 


The grinding of pump-cases is shown 
in Fig. 5. The time required is 2 min- 
utes each, which includes grinding large 
area and the bracket area parallel. 

The pieces shown in Fig. 6 are univer- 
sal joints. The grinding operation takes 

Fig. 5.— Grinding Pump Chscs. 

1^ minutes each. These pieces are malle- 
able iron eastings, about 6 inches in di- 

In addition to the operations mention- 
ed there are a great many more in the 
engine factory to which a modern disc 
grinder is adapted, flange seats, push 
rods, cams, piston rings, thrust collars, 
crank cases, gear eases, manifolds, coup- 
lings, etc. The adoption of the grindei- 
lias assisted in producing a greater out- 
put with an equal or superior finish. 

F. W. Cowie is giving a course of 
lectures at McGill University on Har- 








Fig. 6. — CIr'nding Universal Joints. 

bor Engineering. The course includes 
instruction in the building of docks 
and wharves, the preparation of ap- 
proaches, and all the general features 
of port development. 

Electric Lifting Magnet Now in Use in Canada 

Magnets ate Now Used in the Canadian Locomotive Works, Kingston, and in 
the Angus Shops, Montreal — Used for Lifting Plates, Pig, Iron, Scrap, etc. 

The magnet that boys of yesterday 
used for a toy to-day as men they are 
employing as a useful instrument in 
their workshops. Within the last few 
years particularly, it is being adapted 

to six at a time, one under the other, 
the number depending upon their thick- 
ness. These may be dropped by the 
magnet one at a time at the desire of 
the operator provided he is clever in 

Fig. 1. — Front View. 

to handle many shapes of metal, all 
forms of iron and steel, from iron dust 
to scraps, or small junk to weights of 
20,000 pounds. In fact, the world's 
largest magnet will lift as much as 50,- 
000 pounds. 

The magnet is employed to break up 
imperfect castings, to hold sheets of 
metal in position while they are being 
riveted in the building of ships, to lift 
a "sow and piffs" at the furnaces, also 


-Side View. 

adjusting the switch at precisely the 
right intervals. 

Canadian Locomotive Works. 

Probably the first instalation made in 
Canada was that at the Canadian 
Locomotive Works, Kingston, where a 
maget was delivered by the Browning 
Engineering Co., Cleveland, on March 
1.3, 1908. 

This instalation includes a standard 
No. 8, Browning Locomotive Crane, 
which is designed to carry a 7i or 10 


-Magnet Handling Machine Scrap. 

as a gigantic broom to sweep both the 
large and small pieces of iron, and in 
numerous other ways. 

The flat style of magnet is available 
for picking up metal sheets, from two 


h.p. steam generating set to operate 
our lift magnets. For this purpose it 
is equipped with extra large boiler, 54 
in. diamter and 8 foot 6 inches high, 
with corresponding increase in water 


and coal capacity. Coalbunker holds 1 
ton of coal. Watertank holds 300 gal- 
lons, and engines have 8 by 10 inch 

Fig. 1 shows a front view of the 
magnet beside a new C. N. R. locomo- 
tive which is being tested. Fig. 2 
shows a side view of the crane. When 
used on a locomotive crane the current 
for operating the magnet may be 
brought from an outside source, using 
flexible cable or other convenient means 
to connect to the magnet controller, so 
as to allow the crane to perform all 
its functions freely, or it may be gen- 
erated on the crane itself by a steam 
driven generator set. 

Angus Shops Instalation. 

An instalation of an electro-magnet 
and crane was made at the Angus 
Shops, Montreal, early in 1909, many 
uses being there found for it, loading 
scrap, unloading pig iron, etc. It also 
was made by the Browning Engineer- 
ing Co., Cleveland. It is found to do 
the work cheaply and efficiently. Fig. 
■i shows the electro-magnet handling 

Description of Magnet. 

The frame of the magnet is of open 
hearth steel of special analysis and 
treatment suitable for electric magnet 
use. The top of the frame is deeply 
corrugated to provide radiating surface. 
The outer ring and inner pole are made 
of the same special steel as the frame, 
and are so designed as to be easily and 
cheaply replaced when worn. The innci' 
faces of the magnet frame and ring are 
machined to exact dimensions so that 
the coils fit closely, and the heat gen- 
erated in the coil is quickly transmitted 
to the metal on every side. 

The coils are wound with copper wire 
which is covered with special fire-proof 
non-absorbent insulating material The 
coil is a homogeneous cushion havint; 
the requisite number of turns of wire 
imbedded in it at uniform spaces from 
each other. The coils are made of such 
size as to completely fill the space in 
the frame and when the several parts 
of the magnet are bolted together ?re 
tightly clamped in place. 

Two coils are used in standard mag- 
nets which are connected in scries for 
220 volt circuit, but which may be con- 
nected in parallel and used on circuits 
i.f 110 volts. For 500 or 550 volts 
special coils are furnished. 

after his men he ran the shafting lathe 
— or rather the shafting lathe ran itself 
even when he was looking after the men, 
or when he was dozing on the top of 
his tool-chest, for in that shop there 
was no tool-room and each man kept 
his own special fancies in the way of 


Mr. William Collis, affectionately 
known amongst the boys as "Billy," 
was the foreman of the turning shop 
some twenty years or so ago. He was 
a working foreman too — not one of the 
kind who was afraid to dirty his hands 
— and to fill in his time between Mon- 
day morning and Saturday noon, when 
he was not giving out work or looking 

Fit{. 1- — "Now Billy's Method of Centering 
Shafts was Primitive." 

tools, etc., under lock and key. High- 
speed steel was in the dim and distant 
future, and a cut over a shaft lasted a 
long timt. 

Now Billy's method of centreing was 
as primitive as could be, the usual 
tools consisting of a centre punch and 
hammer only. A square centre was 
used sometimes, but this gave trouble 
in changing centres, putting something 
in the tool-post to ))ress the shaft, and 
other little worries which could be 
avoided ; therefore, by placing the centre 
punch where he guessed the centre of 
the .shaft should h«e, and hitting it sev- 
eral good smart blows the thing was 
done — except, of course, when he had 
miscalculated as to the exact position 
of the centre. It was then necessary to 
try the shaft in the latlie, and if too 
much eccentricity was found he would 
mark the "high side" with chalk, re- 
move the shaft and "draw" the centre 
by means of the punch, the shaft being 
swung in and out of the lathe by means 
of pulley blocks. 

Fig. 2.— ("Our Regret is that wo Don't Know the 
Tool-Smith who Forged that Centre-Punch and 
the Concern that iVladc the Hammer. " 

His assistant on the operation was 
generally one of the newer lads knock- 
ing around, and for the particular shaft 
in the story the services of Harry had 
been secured. Now Harry's sense of 
humor (f) was strongly developed, and 
he hated this particular job just as 
much as he was afraid of Billy, but his 
love of a joke overcame his fears one 


day, and here is the story as told in 
Machinery : 

Billy had made a particularly bad 
guess as to the position of the centre of 
the shaft and had followed his usual 
practice up to the point of swinging the 
shaft out of the lathe, when he was 
called away to attend to some other 
duty. As Harry lolled around waitmg 
for the work to proceed again, the little 
chalk mark persistently stared him in 
the face in such a manner that finally 
an idea struck him, that it would be 
funny if he rubbed it out and placed 
another on the opposite side. Of course, 
as in most things of importance, the 
main thing was to have the idea, the 
rest was easy and was soon accomplish- 
ed. It was too good a joke to be en- 
joyed alone and several others soon 
knew what had been done, amongst 
them bsing one of Billy's own particular 
cronies. Billy returned soon afterwards, 
and resuming operations, drew the 
centre towards the mark. His surprise 
was very pronounced when he saw the 
result of his latest efforts and the re- 
marks he made about shafts in general 
and this one in particular are unprint- 
able, but he fairly lost his temper when 
caught sight of someone smiling, ap- 
parently at him. 

Poor Harry wanted to laugh, too, 
but dared not, so offered what consola- 
tion he thought would meet the case, 
suggesting that Billy had perhaps made 
a mistake, and should have drawn the 
centre away from the mark, but Billy 
said he might do that when he started 
his second appreticeship and knew no 
better. From his manner towards his 
assistant the next day it was clear he 
had learned over night what had oc- 
curred, but he was not vindictive, and 
afterward enjoyed the joke as much as 

How Billy Didn't Centre Shafts. 

This startling sketch. Fig. 2, illus- 
trates an amateur artist's weird con- 
ception of a shafting lathe and a ma- 
chinist's way of handling centreing 
tools. He was asked to make a draw- 
ing for "How Billy Centred Shafts" and 
the result exceeded our wildest expecta- 
tions. We are impressed particularly 
with the lathe legs. How well they 
don't harmonize with modern ideas of 
machine design ; they appear to us to 
belong to the 1« lldog typo of architec- 
ture ! Note the "(latent" head-stock 
and the "unpatent" foot-stock, and the 
doleful expression of the cub, who can't 
for his life see how to swing an eight- 
foot shaft between five-foot centres. 
The carriage is a gem — but why proceed 
further ? The makers are unknown and 
we don't care. Our regret is that we 
don't know the toolsmith who forged 
that centre-punch and the concern that 
made the hammer. 

An Effecting of Savings by Studying Steel Heating Costs 

A Review of the Most Economical Methods for Heating Steel in 
the Manufacturer's Plant, Giving Tables of Costs of Various Systems 

By W. ALMON HARE, B. A. Sc. 

Producer Gas. 

Producer gas from soft coal finds its 
special field in regenerative furnaces for 
re-heating- billets and slabs for the finish- 
ing mills and for the soaking pits of the 
blooming mill. 

Although some installations have been 
made in which a number of different 
sizes of small furnaces have to be heat- 
ed, the system has many drawbacks and 
in such instances has no advantages over 
direct fired coal, either on the ground 
of economy or output. 

To those who consider the matter im- 
partially, this conclusion is at once seen 
to be correct. In the first place with the 
bituminous coal producer, the same fuel 
IS burned as is required when the fur- 
naces are fired direct by mechanical 
■Ktokers. It is evident that whatever 
losses occur in the producer are entirely 
lost by the system and that the gases 
arriving at the furnaces are poorer by 
this amount. In the case of direct fir- 
ing by mechanical means the heat units 
in the coal are all liberated in the fire 
box of the furnace. 

From a theoretical standpoint the 
losses in the furnace itself arising from 
radiation, stack ga,ses, chemical re- 
actions, etc, represent an enormous pro- 
portion of the heat units delivered in 
the coal, but these losses do not differ 
very much if at all with the different 
methods of heating, and within certain 
limitations, cannot be very much re- 
duced. The losses which occur in the 
producer are very much greater than 
those occurring in the fire box — and in 
this way the ultimate economy will be 
higher with direct fired coal than with 
sras producers. 

Prof. J. W. Richards, of Lehigh Uni- 
versity, has made a very extended in- 
vestigation into the bituminous coal gas 
producer, and in a paper written by him 
on the subject gives the following as the 
losses which take place. 

B.t.u. P.O. 

Lost by carbon in ash 284.05 2.17 

Lost by Radiation and Conduction 659.81 5.0T 
Lost by Sensible Heat in Hot Gas- 
ps and Steam 1,866.73 U.35 

Total Heat Lost in Producer 2,810.59 

Caloriflc Value of Gas Produced.. .10,189.41 


In the Nov. 1909 issue. Mr. Hare gave tables 
of the various systems and fuels. Tables of costs 
were also given comparing the cost of heating 
steel by stoker fired coal furnaces and natural 
gas furnaces. 

In an early issue Mr. Jacobs of the Francis 
Hyde Co., Montreal, will give an article with 
tests on steel heating and will discuss costs of 

Calorific Value of one n>. of Coal 13,000.00 100.00 

By the above it will be seen that there 
is a direct los.s of 21.6 per cent, in the 
]>roducer itself, and this loss cannot 
by any present means be prevented, 
hence the coal consumption per ton of 
steel will be 27.5 per cent, higher than 
with direct mechanical firing. 

In large plants this loss is partly over- 
come by the use of regenerative cham- 
bers for heating the air and by the 
greater distiibntion of the flame, but 
in moderate sized furnaces these feat- 
ures offer nothing to offset the loss of 
heat in the producer itself, and as a re- 
sult much better economy can be secured 
by firing the coal direct, and especially 
if automatic stokers are used. 

In large plants, where one or two pio- 
ducers are supplying gas to a number of 
furnaces, fairly good results can be ob- 
tained with all furnaces in operation, 
but in times of depression when some of 
the furnaces are out of commission, the 
coal consumption per ton of steel heated 
on the remaining furnaces is much in- 
crea.sed, and when the amount of gas 
reqired is very much below tlie capacity 
of the producers, the coal consumption 
is prohibitive. It will be noticed that 
this increase in coal consumption takes 
place at times when the management ai-e 
most desirous of reducing operating 
costs, and therefore this system is very 
disadvantageous on that account. 

Anthracite Coal. 

This fuel possesses one advantage in 
that it is smokeless and also in the fact 
that the design of the furnaces does not 
involve anything very difficult, but apart 
from these points there is nothing to 
commend it, for at the prices now being 
paid for hard coal, the cost of operation 
is very high. Usually the type of fur- 
nace adopted for this fuel would con- 
sist of a flat grate with a closed ash pit, 
bricked up at the sides, and with a roof 
sprung across. The steel bars to be 
heated are laid on the fire and are heat- 
ed in this way. The coal burned per 
ton of steel varies very much in differ- 

ent plants, principally due to the nature 
of the work in hand and the output of 
the furnace. It is not unusual to find a 
coal consumption of 600 to 800 lbs. per 
ton of steel which with coal costing $"> 
per ton, means a fuel cost per ton of 
steel of from $1.50 to $2. 

With furnaces burning soft .slack coal 
and mechanically fired, very much lower 
costs are obtained, as will be seen from 
the figures given below. 

Tests of a track bolt furnace burning 
bituminous slack coal, and fired auto- 
mntically by an American mechanical 

No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 
Total weight of steel heated. 

Its 7,500 8,000 10,200 

Total weight of coal burned, 

lt>s 1,445 1,590 1,875 

Pounds of coal per ton of steel 

heated, lbs 386 398 370 of slack coal per ton $3.60 3.60 3.60 

Fuel cost per ton of steel J0.69 0.72 0.67 

Average of three days run $0.69 

The hard coal furnaces operating in 
the above plant will not average better 
than 700 lbs. of coal per ton of steel. 
and with hard coal at $5 per ton, fuel 
cost per ton of steel would be $1.75. 
The saving due to the change is, there- 
fore, $1.06 per ton of steel or 60 per 
cent. In addition to the reduction of 
cost, the output has been very much in- 
creased as the operator does not have 
to wait for the steel to heat up, and with 
the stoker the fire can be forced if de- 

Crude or Fuel Oil. 

Much has been said or written regard- 
ing the advantages of liquid fuel, but 
after all the final test is cost of Jieating 
a ton of steel and while it is quite true 
that fuel oil will .show a considerable 
reduction in cost over other fuels in 
some instances, it cannot be said that 
this is to be taken as being true for all of heating. 

It is not to be denied that for certain 
operations in railroad or other shops 
where it is necessary to carry the heat 
to the work, that the portable oil fur- 
naces is by a long way the most desir- 
able, but in these cases, the actual cost 
of the fuel is completely overehadowed 
by other practical considerations. For 
such work as tool tempering, especially 
in very small furnaces, no fuel, unless 
it be gas, can be used with the same 
cleanliness and complete control as fuel 
oil, but where a large output is required 


agKi-egatino: over 1,000 lbs. of stec' per 
day, a properly designed slack eoal 
furnace mechanically fired will show 
much lower costs of operation. 

The reason for this is due entirely 
to the hig'h cost of the oil, for in the dis- 
tribution of the heat units in the furnace 

One dollar's wortli of oil at 4 cents per 
Imperial gallon, will generate 3,950,000 
B.t.u., taking the sp. gr. at .79, and the 
calorific value at 20,000 B.t.u. per lb. The 
ratio, therefore, of coal to oil in heat 
units for the same cost is as 2.42 to 1. 
In the test given below it will be not- 

Carriage Axle Furnace 

and the efficiency of the furnace itself 
apart from the source of heat, oil or gas 
will operate the furnace more econ- 
omically than by any solid fuel. By 
this is meant that, owing to the less 
volume of air passing through the fur- 
nace and consequently the nearer ap- 
proach to exact theoretical requirements, 
the higher the furnace temperature will 
be for the same number of British ther- 
mal units liberated, and as a further 
result, less waste will be passing up the 
stack. Notwithstanding this advantage, 
the final result of a trial between oi' 
and soft slack coal, stoker fired, is very 
much in favor of the coal. Taken on a 
basis of B.t.u. purchasable for $1, the 
difference is considerable. Soft slack 
coal iiaving the following analysis can 
be purchased for $3 a ton (2,000 lbs.) 
and is known as Pittsburg gas slack: 


Volatilo Matter 

. 62.64 p.c. 
31.09 p.c. 
6.41 p.c. 

100.14 P.O. 

Sulphur 1.00 P.O. 

Calorific value 14.468 B.t.u. 

One dollar's worth of this coal will 
when burned, generate 9,6.50,156 B.t.u. 

iced that the coal furnace burning slack 
at $3 per ton, heated 1,274 lbs. of steel 
for one dollar, while the oil furnace 
burning oil at 4ic per Imperial gallon, 
heated 579 lbs. for the same cost, or in 
the ratio of 2.2 to 1. 

In both tests the economy was very 
poor, but they are both from the same 
furnace, being taken before and after 
a change of fuels. 

Test of a nut furnace fired by oil anil 
at'lei'wards changed to stoker firing, 
l>ui-ning soft slack coal: 
Mut Furnace Coal Oil 

Output per day of nuts. Ihs 2.460 2.316 

Output per day of nuts. tons... 1.23 1.156 
Inc. of coal fnce over oil, lt)s.... 144 
Inc. of coal fnce over oil. p.c. 6.3 
Cost of fuel per ton or per gal. $3.00 ?0.045 
Quantity of fuel burned per day 

tbs. and gals 1,333 90 

Cost of fuel per day $2.00 $4.05 

Fuel burned per ton of steel ' 

heated, lbs. or gallons 1.093 77.8 

Cost of fuel burned per ton of 

steel heated $1.57 $3.49 

Labor for handling coal and 
ashes, one man for 4 furnaces 
at $1.40 per day, cost per day 

per furnace $0.36 

Total cost labor and fuel per 

day $2.35 4.05 


Additional fixed charges on 
stoker furnace in interest 
and depreciation per day.... 0.18 

Total cost of fuel, labor and 

fined charges per day $2.53 $4.05 

Total ditto per ton of output... $2.05 $3.50 

Relative cost of coal and oil... 68 p.c. 100 p.c. 

Saving per annum of 300 days 

in favor of the stoker fnce. $456.00 

Weight of steel heated for one 

dollar, fuel only. It)s 1,274 579 

Ratio of coal and oil in out- 
put at same cost 220 100 

In a recent test, conducted in one of 
the largest plants in Pennsylvania, a 
coal furnace fitted with a No. 5 stoker, 
averaged during 3 days a daily output 
of 11,400 lbs. of steel with a coal con- 
sumption of 288 lbs. of slack coal mi 
ton of steel. This coal would cost ^ . 
that location about -$1.50 per ton. With 
fuel oil at 3J cents per gallon, an oil 
furnace would have to heat one ton of 
steel with a consumption of 6.1 gallons, 
in order to show the same fuel cost per 
ton as with coal, i.e. 21.6 •cents. 

In Ontario, where the coal will cost 
$2.75 per ton, and the oil 4i cents a 
gallon, the oil consumption per ton of 
steel would have to be as low as 8.8 
gallons in order to equal the fuel cost 
with coal, or 39.6 cents per ton of steel 

Taking everything into consideration, 
the oil system has a number of advan- 
tages over coal, such as the ability to 
get up the heat without extra labor, no 
liandling of coal and ashes, etc., but 
when this is all considered, and every- 
thing accounted for, the cost of heat- 
ing large quantities of steel will be 
higher than with a properly proportion- 
ed coal furnace, fired automatically by 
a mechanical stoker. 

Bituminous Stoker Furnaces. 

The reverberatory furnace fired by 
hand with lump coal is perhaps one of 
the most popular type of furnace in 
use to-day, especially in the larger units, 
such as are used for billets, axles, 
slabs, etc. It possesses the advantage 
of being self-contained and not depen- 
dent on the operation of any other part 
of the plant, with the exception of the 
forced blast blower, and unlike the gas 
fired furnaces the economy is not in- 
fluenced by the number of furnaces in 

By hand firing, however, the best re- 
sult is not obtained from the coal, 
though it was only within the last few 
years that furnaces of this type could 
be automatically fired by mechan- 
ical stokers, as it required a great deal 
of experimenting to determine the best 
proportions of the furnace when stokers 
were installed. Previous to ascertain- 
ing the correct data for building stoker 
fired furnaces, many failures resulted, 


clue to inability to distribute the beat 
where required. Happily a considerable 
advance has been made recently, and a 
great deal of accurate data secured, 
which places the problena within the 
field of easy solution. 

The results obtained by the applica- 
tion of stokers to furnaces of this type 
are summed up under the following 
Steady uniform heat, resulting from 

continuous firing. 
Increased output, as less time is lost 
between heats, and as the furnace 
can be forced. 
Lower grades of fuel possible, as slack 
coal is burned instead of lump, and 
at a proportionately lower cost per 
Smokeless combustion and clear flame, 
thus reducing the proportion of car- 
bon monoxide escaping up the stack. 
A reduction of labor where a number 
of furnaces can be attended to by 
one fireman, as the stokers are oper- 
ated automatically. 
Easy regulation of the character of the 
flame, owing to independent con- 
trol over both coal and air supply. 
Reduction in amount of slag or scale, 
due to non-oxidizing nature of the 
In a test of a furnace fitted with me- 
chanical stokers in comparison with one 
of practically the same general dimen- 
sions, and fired by hand, resulting in 
the following figures: 

Hand Stoker 

Date of test Sept. 29, '08 Sept. 29, '08 

Duration of test, hours 23.75 23.00 

Furnace number 2 1 

Method of Firing .- Hand Stoker 

Make of stoker "American" 

.Size of stoker No. 9 Type M 

Total weight of coal used, lbs. 9,880 9,720 
Total weight of steel heated, lbs. 50,010 58.140 
Steel heated per pound of coal... 5.065 5.93 

Pounds of coal per ton of steel 

heated 394.8 337.2 

J-'a ' f^^ coil per ton of steel 

heated, lbs 57.8 

Saving of coal per ton of steel 

heated, p.c 14.33 

Total weight of scale, lbs 1.447 1,435 

Pounds of scale per ton of steel, 

lbs 58 49.5 

Reduction in scale in favor of 

stoker, p.c 14.7 

Total ash, p.c 2,277 815 

Per cent, ash 23 8.38 

Total tons of steel per year 5,800 7,000 

Total tons of coal per year 1,147.5 1,170 

Inc. outuut of stoker face, p.c. 20.7 

Increased economy of stoker fnce. 

p.c 14.33 

Cost per ton of steel on basis of 

?3.00 coal $0.59 ?0.50 

In the above instalation the applica- 
tion of the stokers resulted in an in- 
crease of output of 20.7 per cent., and a 
reduction of fuel cost per ton of output 
of 14.33 per cent. In addition to these 
savings, the stoker furnace was paying 
less for its coal, which resulted in a 

still greater financial return than the 
above figures indicate. 

If the above test had been conducted 
in Canada, where in some parts, prin- 
cipally in Ontario, a difference between 
the cost of lump coal and slack amounts 
to nearly $1 per ton, the saving from 
the use of the stoker would have been 
very considerable, amounting to about 
$5 per day, or $1,500 per year, thus re- 
turning the entire investment in a few 
months operation. 

The following test was made on a 
Guide mill furnace, after fitting same 
with two mechanical stokers : 

Type of furnace — Guide mill, rever- 


Length of hearth ft. 16'— 0" 

Width of hearth ft. 6'— 2" 

Grade of "coal" — West Virginia Nut 

Number of stokers 2 

Type and make of stokers — "Amer- 
ican" Mechanical No. 9, Type M 

Time of run 5 turns of 11 hrs each, 

hrs 55 

Total weight of steel charged per 

heat, lbs. 8,200 

Total weight of finished steel ...lbs.206.298 

Total weight of coal burned Its. 29,272 

Coal burned 'per ton of steel heated. 

lbs 284 

Fuel cost per ton of steel heated @ 

$3.00 per ton $ 0.426 

.sin.ill watertube boilers, which will ex- 
tract fully 60 per cent, to 70 per ant 
of the heat units remaining in the stack 
gases, and it is shown by the results of 
many instalations of this kind, that the 
steam so generated will be sufficient to 
supply all the necessary power for the 
operation of the forging machinery, and 
perhaps in some larger instalations, leave 
a margin for other purposes. 

In this way, in a properly designed 
plant, where furnaces, boilers, engines, 
etc., have been carefully laid out as a 
whole, it is possible to operate the plant 
with no further expenditure for fuel or 
other power than the soft slack coal 
necessary for the furnaces alone. 

It must not be assumed that this hap- 
py result can be arrived at by purchas- 
ing equipment at random, for there are 
certain conditions that must be met, 
which can only be successfully sur- 
mounted by proportioning the different 
units to one another. 

Several U. S. railways are experi- 
menting with mechanical stokers for 
locomotives. In very few cases have ac- 
curate tests been taken, and those that 
have show results unfavorable to the 

Axle Furnace, with Stoker. 

The economy shown in this test is 
very much better than that obtained 
ers, and at which time the furnace was 
hand fired. 

Saving Waste Heat. 

In connection with the coal fired steel 
heating furnaces there can be installed 

stoker. Where the firing is well within 
the capacity of one man without mech- 
anical aid there does not appear to be 
much reason for installing mechanical 
stokers, although in America it is 
hoped that they will help to abate the 
black smoke nuisance. 


Unique Ways of Doing Things in the Machine Shop. Readers' Opinions 
Concerning Shop Practice. Data for Machinists. Contributions paid for. 


In one of the machine shops oi (he 
Canadian Locomotive Works, Kingston, 
experiments have been made in the 

Fig. 1. — Making the Shop Brightor. 

painting of the machines wliich esulted 
in a considerable brightening of this 
shop. Fig. 1 shows a planer and Fig. 2 
a Blotter. These give an idea of the ap- 
pearance of the machines when . ainted 
Ordinary painl cannot be used ;..s the 


* MiiBl 

' n 

r 1 

^^Bk -^^ ji^ 




Fig. 2. — Making a Shop Brighter. 

oil used to lubricate the machine, viU 
in time dissolve the paint so that the 
machine would soon be left in the same 

condition as before without prodacing 
any increased light in the shop. The 
machines shown and the others in the 
shop are enamelled. It is an expansive 
operation but it gives excellent results. 
Besides, the workmen can easily clean 
their machines without fear of removing 
the paint. In Fig. 2 the be- 
tween the white and dark machines may 
be seen, the one at the left not being 


By Frank E. Booth. 

As is well known, a large belt is 
usually put in its place by tieing it to 
the drive wheel rim and turning engine 

The objection to this method is that 
the belt gets twisted and crumpled verv 
often, which might shorten its life of 

While instaling an engine in an elec- 
tric power house up the country, the 
writer saw the engineer work a hrsi- 
class scheme for putting on a large drive 
belt, which is illustrated by the accom- 
panying sketch. 

A piece of wrought iron pipe was plac- 
ed across the face of the wheel, as 
shown, being tied with a piece of rope 
to the wheel arm (', at one end, whUe 
a longer rope was run to the arm. A, 


The William Hamilton Co., Peterboro, 
had to machine two large gear wheels of 
large size. The pitch diameter was 66} 
inches and each gear was 11 inch face 
with 52 teeth of 4 inch pitch. These 
















^g^te_; i 



^^if'* I 


Machining Two Large Gears. 

were for driving pump for the Peterboro 
water supply. 

In order that they should be ex;ic'uiy 
the same they were fastened together in 
the manner shown. The gears were thiM; 
treated as one gear with a 22 inch face 
and llie machining' was proceeded with 
in the regular way. 

To Put on Drive Belt. 

from the other end. The belt had ap- 
proximately the location, as shown Ly 
heavy line B, when the engine was turn- 
ed over ; the long rope being underneath 
belt. The belt will slide on quite smooth- 
ly when the wheel is moved in the di- 
rection shown by arrow. 

43 . 


A writer in the Brasis World gives the 
following formula for a solution for 
making an acid test to distinguish 
wrought iron from steel: water, 9 parts; 
sulphuric acid, 3 parts; muriatic acid, 1 
part. These acids are poured into the 


water and allowed to cool in a glass or 
porcelain dish. The tesit is made by 
immersing the samples in t'he solution 
for 15 or 20 minutes. After being rinsed 
and dried, the specimens, if iron, will 
show a series of fibres, with the slag in- 
terspersed between the fibres. Soft steel 
dissolves uniformly and without the 
fibrous structure found in wrought iron. 
Commenting on this kind of a test, 
T. N. Thomson, principal of the School 
of Sanitary Engineering at the Inter- 
national Correspondence Schools, Scran- 
ton, Pa., says this shows that the cor- 
rosion of steel is different from the cor- 
rosion of wrought iron, t'he steel being 
uniform an-d smooth as compared with 
the jagged, fibrous character of the 
wrought iron corrosion. It also shows 
the reason why a piece of steel pipe 
should last longer than a piece of 
wroug'ht iron pipe. The difference, how- 
ever, in favor of the steel — as far as 
corrosion by that process was concerned 
— was so slight t'hat good steel pipe can 
be considered to be at least equal to 
modern wrought-iron pipe in durability. 


By F. A. Rodgers. 

I have a boring bar holder that will 
perhaps be of good service to some ore. 
Herewith is a sketch illustrating it. The 
length A should be the length of top of 
compound rest. The bottom should be 
planed and lug B fitted to T-slot on top 
of compound rest ; C is a T-headed bolt 
which fastens sam*. D is hole for bar 
and should be carefully laid out as the 
centre of the bar must be in line with 
the lathe centres, 1 15-16 is what I use. 
E is a cap screw which tlaiiips the bar. 

For boring small holes bars can be 
turned down to any size desired or bush- 
ings may be used. This holder grips 

End View. Boring Bar Holder. 

very fast and gives the bar a solid sup- 
port. There is only one nut to tighten 
and no clamps or packing blocks are re- 


In grinding valves and valve seats, 
great care must be taken to have the 
two parts fit closely together thus com- 
pletely eliminating any chance of steam 
leakage. By a simple contrivance at the 

Canadian Locomotive Works, Kingston, 
this is accomplished, a jig to hold the 
valve port being constructed, and driven 
by an ordinary compsessed air motor. 
Both parts fit perfectly after the valve 
and seats are thus ground to fit. 

The jig consists of three arms attach- 
ed by bolts to a centre pin. The shape 

Valve Grinding Machine Parts. 

of the arm is shown at A in the illus- 
tration. These three arms grip the seat. 
Underneath the arms is a triangular 
plate, B, having three slots in which the 
three arms rest. A nut on the c'ltre 
pin squeezes the triangular plate up, 
thus holding the valve part tight while 
the grinding operation is removed. 


By D. A. McLean * 

Considerable annoyance and delay lias 
been experienced by manufacturing con- 
cerns in transmitting messages from one 
department to another, and as these are 

of an important nature care must he 
taken that they do not become lost or 
buried on some busy desk where they do 
not belong. The envelope system is pro- 
bably the best in use to-day, a copy of 
which is shown on this page and the in- 
structions at the top show for what it is 

The envelope may be of any vi/.c de- 
sired, but about 6" x 8" is a convenient 
size. The paper should be of p-)od qual- 
ity and the best suited for erasing. 

In each department where messages are 
delivered and received boxes or baskets 
are placed marked "inward" and "out- 
ward." The messenger arranges a time 
table which is posted in each department 
showing the time he will call at that 

In directing your envelope, simply 

place a pencil mark thus opposite 

the name of the department or party 
you wish it delivered to and place it in 
the "outward" box where the messenger 
receives it, leaving the mark on until he 
reaches the station it is to be delivered 
to where he erases the mark and drops 
it in their "Inward" box. 

This system will be found very con- 
venient to every manufacturer and espe- 
cially where there is a cost system in 
use, there being numerous time tickets, 
requisitions, etc., sent from the factory 
to the office. 

* Cliief Cost Clerli, 

WattTous Knginc Works. 

'I Waterous, Brantford, Canada. 

'lo direct envelope place a check mark with a lead pencil, not liuleliblc, oppo- 
site the Department name in the Ijlank. 

All envelopes are to be sent to the departments, the memos they contain being 
plainly marked for the parties for whom they are intended in the departments. 


Andrews, VV. (Accounting Dept.) 

Campbell,- D. (Customs, etc.) 

Cost Office 

Engineering Dept. 

Fux, J. A., (Chief Engineer) 

Large, D. S., (Sales Dept.) 

Mair, Walter T., (Treasurer) 

Order' Dept. 


Specification Dept. 

Waterous, C. H 

PMre Engine 
Main Stock Boom 
Saw Mill 
(Pres. & Gen. Mgr.) shipper 

Waterous, D. .1. (Vice-Pres. & Secy.) 
Waterous, C. A. 
Waterous, L. M. 

Stock Shed 
Tool Room 


By Frank C. Perkins. 
A novel lift system utilizing an in- 
cline plane is shown in the accompany- 
ing illustrations Figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 1 
shows the inlined plane elevator car 
loaded with a heavy engine casting, 
while Fig. 2, shows the car platform of 
the lift in its lowest position. 

Very heavy engine castings had to be 
transferred between the two floors of 
two workshops, where there was a con- 
siderable difference of level. This form 
of elevator was constructed as the 
most practical and economical on ac- 
count of the castings in many cases 
being very long and producing unequal 
weights on the car. 

It will be noted that the car provid- 
ed IS very lono-, moving on an incline 
plane of concrete with rails on the 
platform and a track telow with a 
hydraulic cylinder placed on the in- 
cline between the rail. 

By this construction there was no 
trouble encountered in loadmg very 
long pieces or placing the same on one 
side as the difference in weight on the 
various portions of the car had no in- 
fluence on the proper working of the 
machine. The hydraulic cylinder on 
the incline in the centre of the track 
communicates with a vertical tank 
placed near the wall in the background 
and supplying the necessary power for 
raising the car. There is a valve pro- 
vided in the piping connecting the cylin- 


compressed air piping of the factory 
and the working of the elevator is ex- 
tremely simple. 

In order to lower the car when the 
platform is at the top of incline the 
compressed air is allowed to escape 
and the valve between the inclined 

If a closed tension spring is wanted 
the piece A is left out entirely. The 
wooden tension blocks are clamped with 
the proper tension in a vise. If no vise 
can be procured, an ordinary clamp 
wiil answer the purpose.-Scientiflc 

l.OULSt I'osilioil. 

cylinder and vertical tank is opened by 
lifting a counterweight on the level of 
the cock. The car and platform 
reaches the bottom of the incline in 
about 30 secomls when the operation 
drops the counterweight and the valve 
is closed. If desired the air cock is 
then opened in order to be ready for 
immediate hoisting when desired, at the 
proper moment it only being necessary 
to again raise the counter-weight. 


An easy way to wind a spring of the 
compression type will be found in the 
accompanying illustration. The mandrel 
on which the spring is wound is select- 
ed according to size of spring wanted. 
In this case the mandrel and the end of 

Fig. l.-Inolinc i'Lir.e Elevator Car 

der with the tank, which is shut off in 
order that the car remains stationary 
wherever it is stopped. By closing this 
valve when the loaded car has reached 
the top of the incline, there is no pos- 
sible way for the platform to slide 
down the incline. The vertical tank 
near the wall is connected with the 


Vanadium steels, their classification 
and heat treatment with directions for 
application of vanadium to iron and 
stee IS the subject of an 84 page book- 
let by J. Kent Smith and issued by 
the American Vanadium Co. Frick 
Bldg., Pittsburg. Its toughening effect 
on steel is pointed out. Tables are 
given with regard to composition and 
heat treatment, the results given being 
deduced from experience with chrome- 
vanadium steels. 

The use of vanadium steel for rail- 
road work is dealt with, tables being 
given showing the application of vana- 
dium steel with the type of metal and 
heat treatment. It is claimed that lo- 
comotive axles, springs, etc., may be 
made much lighter than now in com- 
mon use and yet possess better tenacity 
and longer life. These steels are also 
applied to bridge work. 


How to Wind an Open Spring. 

the wire were fastened in the chuck of 
a carpenter's brace. The piece A is a 
narrow strip of metal, the thickness of 
which regulates the spacing of the coils. 



A School of Locomotive Instruction 
was recently started in Truro N S in 
connection with the I.R.C. mechanical 
department. A large room in the Rest 
House at the Round House is used. The 
room is provided with railway appli- 
ances, regular classes are held and the 
men take a great interest in the dis- 
cussions. Among the classes are those 
in mathematics, repair, care and des- 
patch of locomotives, best methods, etc 
Among those interested in the organi- 
zation are : (Jharles McCarthy, a brake 
instructor, and James D. Turner, chief 
car inspector, and Superintendent of 
wrecking appliances of Moncton and 
M. M. McLaren, chief train despatcher 
of Truro. 


The faculty of science at McGill Uni- 
versity have arranged for a course of 
lectures with a view to giving engineer- 
ing students some knowledge of busi- 
ness. R. A. Ross, M.P., secretary of 
Ross & Holgate, has been secured to 
erive a course of 25 lectures on business 
engineering or engineering economics 
to third year students. For all depart- 
ments but electrical engineering this 
course will be obligatory. Some of the 
subjects included in the course will be : 
Property currency, documents, securi- 
ties, bonds, the Bank Act, the Com- 
panies Act, company financing and 
trust companies. 


For Manufacturers. Cost and Efficiency Articles Rather Than Technical. 
Steam Power Plants ; Hydro Electric Development ; Producer Gas, Etc. 


By A. W. Spotton.* 

The Goldie & McCulloch Co., Limited, 
Gait, Ont., have recently supplied some 
marine boilers for use in British Col- 
umbia. These boilers were built for a 
working pressure of 200 pounds. The 
accompanying cut shows the boiler in 
course of erection and as will be noted 
the wagon top is of larger radius than 
the barrel and joined to it by a taper 
course. The fire box is exceptionally 
deep and provided with two fire doors, 
the upper one used when burning wood 
and the lower one w'hen burning coal. 
The ash pit and smoke box are detach- 
able and are bolted to the body of the 
boiler. The smoke box is provided with 
a spark hopper and spark arrester. The 
barrel of the boiler is 60 inches diameter 
and the wagon top 67 inches diameter. 
The fire box is 56 inches wide by 7 feet 

• Mechanical Engineer, Goldie & McCuUoch 
Co., Gait, Ont. 

long and the boiler contains 156 tubes 
two inches diameter by 14 feet long. 

The longitudinal seams are double butt 
strapped and double riveted, while the 
circumferential seams are lap and double 


The following table gives the principal 

Diameter of barrel 60 in. 

Diameter of wagon top 67 in. 

Width of fire box 56 in. 

Length of -fire box 7 ft. 

Number of tubes 156 

Diameter of tubes 2 in. 

Length of tubes 14 ft. 

Length of smoke box 4 ft. 

Overall length of boiler.... 25 ft. 5 in. 

Thickness of barrel shell 21-32 in. 

Thickness of wagon top .... 32-32 in. 

Thickness of tube sheet 9-16 in. 

Thickness of crown s'heet.... 7-16 in. 

Heating surface 1,300 sq. ft. 

Grate surface 32.5 sq. ft. 

Ratio of heating to grate surface 40 
Working pressure. . . . 200 lbs. persq. in. 


The Dodge Mfg. Co., Toronto, are fill- 
ing some large contracts at the present 
time, including a complete machinery 
ecjuipment for the C.P.R. million bushel 
grain elevator at Victoria Harbor. The 
contract covers over 400 tons of iron 
work. Several carloads of this have 
been delivered and the rest is nearing 
completion in the shops. 

Reproduced on the page opposite are 
three views of a large pulley recently 
completed in the Dodge shops, for a 
continuous rope drive, in one of the 
mines in British Columbia. Fig. 1 shows 
the 2fl-ft. wheel on the boring mill. The 
man on the centre will give an idea of 
the size of the wheel. An extension arm 
is used in boring large pulleys, and was 
used in this case. 

Fig. 2 shows half of the same pulley 
with a number of men from the works. 
This gives a good idea of the size of the 
pulley. Fig. 3 shows the 20 [ rope wheel 
on the balancing ways. 

Heavy Locomotive Type Marine Boiler, Goldie & McCulloch Co., Gait. 



Fig. 3— 20' Rope Wheel. 




A monthly newspaper devoted to machinery and manufacturing- interests 
mechanical and electrical trades, the foundry, technical progress, construction 
and improvement, and to all useis of power developed from steam, gas, elec- 
r icity, compressed air and water in Canada. 

The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

JOHN BAYNE MACLEAN, President W. L. EDMONDS. Vice-President 

H. V. TYRRELL, Toronto - Business Manager 

G. C KEITH, M.E., B.Sc. Toronto - Managine Editor 
F.C. D.WILKES, B.Sc, Montreal Associate Editor 



Montreal Rooms 701-703 Eastern 

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Toronto - 10 Front Street East 

Phone Main 2701 

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Phone 372b 

F. R. Monro 

British Columbia - Vancouver 

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Room 21, Hartney Chambers 


London - 88 Fleet Street. B.C. 

Phone Central 12960 

J. Meredith McKim 

Macpubco, Toronto. 


New York - - R. B. Huestis 

1109-1111 Lawyers' Title, Insur. 

ance and Trust Building 

Phone, nil Cortlandt 


Paris John F. Jones & Co.. 

.31bis, Faubourg Montmartre, 
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Address ; 

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Canada, United States, $1.00. Great Britain. Australia and other colonies 
4b. 6d., per year ; other countries, $1.50. Advertising rates on request. 
Subscribers who are not receiving their paper regularly will 
confer a favor on us by letting us know. We should be notified 
at once of any change in address, giving both old and new. 

Vol. VI. 

February, 1910 

No. 2 


We, the editors of Canadian Machinery, would veiy 
much like to have a ten-minute chat with each and every 
one of our readers at least twice a year. We want to do 
this because we want you to get confidential and tell us 
how you like the paper, what you would criticize about 
it, etc. It is in this way, and, we believe, only in rhis 
way, that we can make Canadian Machinery of greatest 
use to you. 

The trouble is that if each of you were to pass 
through our office, stopping only for ten minutes, it 
would take over tour months to go from A to Z, and in 
the meantime where would Canadian Machinery be ? So 
what we want you to do is to sit down some evening, 
when you have ten or fifteen minutes to spare and write 
us a letter containing your views, criticisms, etc. Call 
us down, if you think we ]»eed it. It will probably do 
us both good— you, to get it out of your system, and 
us, to have our weak spots sho'-n up. Sometimes, you 
know, editors like us are apt to get the idea that our 
paper is just about perfect, when in reality there is loads 
of room for improvement. We will admit that we do 
think Canadian Machinery IS a pretty good paper for 
its field, but it can be made much better and we want 
your help. 

If you don't want your letter published, say so, and 

that settles THAT question. If you have any ideas about 

machine shop and foundry management, labor-saving 

■ dodges, iigs,< systems, etc., tell us about them, because 

we pay real- money for those sort of letters. 

Another thing : If you are interested in any line of 
machinery, -w.iftjie to Canadian Machinery advertisers and 
get their catalogues. They will be glad to send them if 
you mention-jtCanadian Machinery, and a good library 
of up-to-data'catalogues is a mighty good thing to have. 
Tliey grneirally contain a fund of useful information that 

every man connected with a machine shop should have. 
It's cheap information, too — only a two-cent stamp and 
a few minutes' time per catalogrue. 

But, whatever you do, we want you to write to us 
about Canadian Machinery. We are making a frank con- 
fession to you, that we are aware of the room 
for improvement, and we reiterate : we want your 
co-operation. After all, it is the readers' co-operation 
that makes or breaks a paper. You pay for the publish- 
ing indirectly, because you make it pay the advertisers 
to use our columns, and therein is the paper's revenue. 
So, you see, we are anxious to "get in right" with you, 
and the only way for us to know when we have reached 
this stage is to have you tell us (without gloves on) 
when and how we are in wrong. Won't you ? 


Readers will be interested in the bill introduced in 
Parliament this week by Hon. Mackenzie King with the 
object of preventing the formation and continuance of 
organizations controlling the market on any commodity 
in a oionopolistie manner. 

It is proposed that any six persons who believe that 
a combine exists may send a request for an investiga- 
tion. The judge then orders a hearing, and if he finds 
that there is a prima facie case, he may direct an in- 
vestigation to be made through the machinery provided 
by the Act. The Board of Investigation will consist of 
three members, one to be appointed on the recommenda- 
tion of the complainants, another on the recommenda- 
tion of the defendants, and the third by these two. If it 
is found that an unfair combination exists, the duty 
upon the article concerned may be removed or decreased, 
or a fine of a thousand dollars a day may be imposed. 

Provision is also made that in case the owner or 
holder of a patent makes use of the exclusive rights he 
controls so as to unduly limit the manufacture or supply 
of such article in a manner to injure trade or commerce 
such patents shall be liable to be revoked. 

Weakness of Bill. 

Every fair-minded man, every business man and every 
student of economics recognizes that one of the conditions 
of modern business methods is the development of mergers 
and combinations ; in other words of agreements between 
various classes of mercantile enterprises. 

Some combinations are no doubt based on illegitimate 
grounds. Their sole aim is to bleed the public. But they 
are not all of this type. On the contrary we believe the 
majority of these mergers or agreements are not only 
based on sound business principles, but on sound moral 
principles as well. They are merely created with a view 
to rectifying evils or curtailing cost of doing business. 

But as the law now stands the legitimate merger, 
combination, agreement, or whatever we may choose to 
call it, is subject to irritating, costly and unjust legal 
proceedings. This ought not to be, and could easily be 
obviated it the Government would provide proper safe- 
guards which would at the same time protect the public 
as well as the members of the combinations which were 
legally and morally sound. 

It appears to us that the most simple way of doing 
this would be for the Government to create a permanent 
board similar to that of the Railway Commission, which 
is doing such good work in the interests of the shippers 
and traveling public of the country. This board could 
make a tentative examination of any charges made, and 
if a prima facie case was made out take such steps as 



would lead to a thorough investigation and the punish- 
ment of the parties it found guilty. 

No one denies to-day the right of labor to combine 
for legitimate purposes. No one would probably deny 
that in theory business men enjoy the same right. 
But in practice they do not enjoy the same right. Wher- 
ever and whenever business men combine, merge, or or- 
ganize in any way the fact is heralded by the daily press 
as a menace to the public welfare, and the authorities are 
forced to prosecute and the members of the .combination 
to protect themselves in a costly, and usually long-pend- 
ing suit, whether they are innocent or guilty. 

A permanent board such as suggested would protect 
the public, and at the same time prevent pernicious and 
unjust prosecutions of business men, whose organizations 
are founded upon equity and justice. 

The weakness of the bill now before the House of Com- 
mons, is that it does not provide for this much needed 


In spite oil the rigorous provisions of the Secret Com- 
missi'ons Act, which proixi'bits the giving cf secret rebates 
and eommisions, there are still some salesmen who in tbeir 
desire to get business are resorting to practiees which are 
forbidden by the Act. 

Our attention is frequently drawn to flagrant breaehes 
of the Act and one o'f the most common practices in this 
regard appears to be the passing from the pocket of the 
salesman to the palm of the customer a sum of money 
sufficient to induce the latter to place an order for goods 
on w'liieh there is a fixed selling price. 

Aside altogetiher from the moral aspect of such prac- 
tices they are proofs of poor rather than good salesman- 
ship. When a salesman resorts to secret rebates and other 
dishonest practices in order to secure business it is an 
acknowledgement of his own inefficien'cy to sell goods in 
the ordinary way. 

The true salesman is he who relies upon the merits of 
his goods, plus his own personality, to effect sales; not 
he who is so unwise as to run the risk of incurring 
severe legal penalties in order to accomplish that which 
he cannot do by legitimate means. 

One thing that perhaps can be said in favor of the 
salesman who is ready to break the law in order to effect 
a sale is that he is at least courageous in view of the fact 
that he is running the risk of a maximum penalty of a 
$2,500 fine or two years' imprisonment. 

Those w^ho have to substitute crookedness for efficiency 
should either learn the secret of true salesmanship or 
embark in some vocation in which dishonesty rules all 

Some day somebody will be caught, when there will 
be wailing and gnashing of teeth. 


Those who have watched the development ot the ma- 
chine shop cannot fail to be struck with the great im- 
l)rovcmcnt in the present day shops over those of only 
a few years ago. Improvements in mechanism have kept 
pace with improvements ia systems, factories are better 
designed, they arc more fireproof, cost systems have been 
installed, work is handled with greater facility by means 
of cranes, tracks, etc., and perhaps better than all these 
is the fact that the near sighted policies of dealing with 
men are being eliminated and forgotten, and mechanics 
are being taught to stand on their own feet. Instead of 

the "old man" glowering around to see where he can 
find fault, there is the utmost harmony between me- 
chanics, foremen, superintendent and proprietor. 

The system that leads to this harmonious end should 
be encouraged. Trusting the men will go a long way 
towards harmonious relationships. The benefit societies 
installed in many shops, the rest and recreation rooms, 
the educational systems, first aid to injured, etc., are 
developments in factory system and management which 
cannot help but draw out the best in every conscientious 

The forman or superintendent of a few years ago. 
who ruled by fear would look in wonder at the machine 
shop of to-day where the superintendent, foremen and 
workmen are all friends. The care of the workmen is an 
important feature in machine shop management which, 
with the educational features, has united the managers 
and workmen better than any forcible means could ever 
accomplish. In this issue is described the system of 
First Aid in the Angus Shops, Montreal. This system 
can be applied to any shop where the management and 
workmen co-operate. 

One thing that the machine shop management, except 
in a few cases, have neglected is the protection of ma- 
chinery. Canadian Machinery has, in almost every 
issue, brought to the notice of managers, superinten- 
dents, foremen and other readers, the necessity of pro- 
tecting machinery. We are rewarded by many methods 
being adopted — cages are used to protect belting, fioor 
countershafts are being boarded over and other means 
are being used. There is still a large field for improve- 
ment along this line. 

Other things, if adopted, will also increase the effi- 
ciency of the shop. Toilet rooms, tool rooms and store 
rooms are often arranged at great distances. To concen- 
trate these, toilet rooms should be arranged so that the 
men will not lose time by walking unnecessary distances. 
Tool rooms and store rooms have been concentrated in 
some shops by using boys to deliver tools, etc., thus 
saving the time of expensive men. In this case a private 
telophone exchange is necessary. It can be computed in 
dollars and cents, the loss of time caused by the average 
man to walk one hundred yards and return. The man- 
agement should not keep their view concentrated on 
direct expenses, but the indirect expenses should receive 
attention. A close following up ot these items will 
greatly increase the efficiency of the workmen and largely 
increase the output of the .shops, even more than at the 
present time. 


The French Treaty has been ratified by both the 
French and Canadian governments and will shortly be- 
come operative. 

• • • 

The people of Toronto recognize the value to Canada 
of the Canadian National Exhibition, and have voted 
$320,000 to provide new buildings, and other improve- 
ments at the Fair. These will be completed during the 
next three years and will include : Live Stock Arena, 
$110,000; Machinery Hall, $73,000; Women's Building, 
$(i0,()00 ; Poultry Building, $30,000 ; Dog Building, $25,- 
000 ; Lavatory accommodation, $20,000 ; Women's rest 
building, $7,000 ; Band Stand, $350. It is sincerely 
hoped that the new Machinery Hall, which will be one 
of the most educative features of the F.xhibiyion, will be 
started at once. 



New Machinery for Machine Shop, Foundry, Pattern Shop, Planing 
Mill ; New Engines, Boilers, Electrical Machinery, Transmission Devices. 


The Universal Dividing Head is per- 
haps the most delicate and important 
mechanism connected with the milling 
machine. It is subjected to frequent 
and varied use, and the work done by 
it must, as a rule, be thoroughly ac- 
curate. The ideal dividing head there- 
fore must be essentially accurate ; must 
be of such tonstruction as best to pre- 
serve that accuracy, both by its rigid- 

ism. Large diameter worm wheel is 
essential to the best work. On this 
dividing head the worm wheel is 
mounted centrally inside the head block, 
between the front and rear spindle 
bearings. It is keyed and pressed to 
spindle, insuring positive movement to 
spindle when engaged by worm. The 
worm is located at an angle, the worm 
shaft being at an angle of 36 degrees 
from the horizontal. This brings the 

Fig. 1. — Kempsmith New Style Universal Dividing Head. 

it^y and by its method of adjustment ; 
must be compact and convenient, and 
universal in its scope. In Jheir new 
and improved Universal Dividing Head, 
the Kempsmith Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, 
Wis., have embodied these considera- 
tions in a marked degree. Its substan- 
tial and compact construction is well 
indicated by Pig. 1. 

The most important feature of the 
dividing head is the dividing mechan- 

point of mesh of worm with worm 
wheel correspondingly around to an 
angle from the vertical. This makes it 
possible to utilize a great deal of extra 
space for the worm wheel, otherwise 
occupied necessarily by the worm, when 
located directly over or under the 
worm wheel. The result is that the 
worm wheel can be made extremely 
large in proportion to the size of the 
head — 3J inches diameter on the ,10^ 

inch swing head, and 0^ inch diameter 
on the 13:^^ inch swing head. 

The worm is in one piece with the 
worm shaft which runs in a long and 
liberal bearing. This bearing extends 
up to the shoulder formed by the worm 
proper, and consequently affords strong 
bearing support close to the point of 
mesh. The worm runs constantly in 
oil. The wear between the worm and 
worm wheel is very easily taken up 
through outside adjusting screw shown. 
This adjustment is in a straight line, 
perpendicular to the axis of the worm 
wheel, and thus preserves the align- 
ment and accuracy in repeated adjust- 
ments. The worm is easily disengaged 
from the worm wheel for quick index 
through worm wheel direct. This is 
through means entirely independent of 
its adjustment, which therefore is not 
disturbed. Another advantage is that, 
in the common necessity of tightening 
the nut on arbors which have been put 
in the spindle, the strain is relieved 
from the worm wheel teeth. 

The index plunger is mounted on the 
worm shaft, therefore indexing directly 
to the worm wheel, leaving no chance 
for error or inaccurancy. The tact that 
the worm shaft is set at an angle as 
already described, likewise locates the 
index plate at an angle from the verti- 
cal. This makes it easy for the opera- 
toi- to read in indexing, because it is 
directly in his line of vision in his 
natural operating position. Two index 
plates are regularly furnished, providing 
all division changes up to 60, all even 
numbers and multiples of 5, up to 120, 
and a very liberal number of division 
changes between 120 and 400. Three 
special high number index plates can be 
furnished, which provide 122 additional 
division changes between 61 and 400. 

Fig. 2— Head Showing Work Passed Through Spindle. 

Fig. 3. — Head Arranged for Cutting Ordinary Spiral. 



including all divisions up to 200, not 
obtained through the standard index 
plates. This fact of the index plate be- 
ing at an angle will also permit of still 
larger plates being mounted in extreme- 
ly special individual instances without 
requiring increase in the swing of the 
dividing head. 

Direct indexing is easily accomplished 
with worm and worm wheel disengaged. 
The plunger engages the circle of holes 
in the front of the worm wheel. The 
spindle is graduated to correspond, on 
the front shoulder. 

The spindle is large with liberal taper 
bearings, and has a simple and power- 
ful locking device, and is furnished with 
the same size taper hole and threaded 
nose as on the main spindle of the 
universal millers on which the head is 
regularly furnished, making all tools 
interchangeable, has a Urge hole runn- 

the worm is driven direct from the 
change gear shaft. Fig. 3 shows the 
dividing head set up with a train of 
change gears in the usual manner for 
cutting an ordinary spiral, the job 
shown being a standard spiral milling 
cutter 3 inch diameter, 18 teeth, with 
48-inch lead of the spiral. On this 
dividing head a very interesting depar- 
ture is provided for short leads, by 
which the gear train is led direct from 
lead-screw to the dividing head spindle, 
an extension stud being provided on the 
spindle as already described. This is 
shown in Fig. 4, and this also shows 
the use of the Universal Milling Attach- 
ment where the angle between cutter 
and work is greater than can be ob- 
tained through the swivel table. In the 
charts which accompany this dividing 
head, data is given for leads from .120 
to li inches through gearing direct, and 

top. This allows the use of large dia- 
meter shank or end milling cutters in 
squaring shafts, and similar work, as 
shown in Fig. 2. The centre is firmly 
fixed in the tailstock and has rapid and 
easy adjustment. It can be elevated by 
rack and pinion for milling tapers, and 
can be tilted and clamped into align- 
ment with the work. This Universal 
Dividing Head is furnished in two sizes, 
to swing 104 and 13^ inches. 


The camshaft of an automobile or 
marine engine is an all essential factor. 
Its cams, differing in angle one from 
another, must be exact of form and 
exact of angle. The desirability of hav- 
ing them made in one piece with their 
shaft is evident. For grinding the cam 
forms on a cam.shaft The Norton Grind- 
ing Co., Worcester, Mass., has develop- 



RRiiMHil^r^H^ 1 



1^^ >,^ i^HH^^^^^^^^H 

:SAIW ^ "WA 

^^^Slt 1^ 





~^^ ' ^ 

~ •'".■^-- :" "^ 

Fig. 4.— Short Lead : the Gear Train is Led Direct trom Lead .Screw. 

FiK- 5. — Testing Accuracy ot Worm Teeth. 

ing through, an idea of which can be 
gathered from Fig. 2, which shows the 
work passed through the spindle. The 
rear end of the spindle is arranged to 
receive an extension stud for use in 
gearing direct from the lead-screw to 
the spindle for cutting fine leads as de- 
scribed later. The rotating block 
carrying the spindle swings through an 
arc of 150 degrees, from 10 degrees be- 
low the horizontal to 50 degrees beyond 
the perpendicular. It is powerfully 
clamped in a horizontal or vertical or 
angular position by two bolts. These 
bolts clamp the whole surface of flanges 
around the periphery at both front and 
lear sides of the head. 

This dividing head is furnished with 
a series of 12 change gears for spiral 
milling. The change gear bracket is 
i'ety easily attached or removed. The 
mitre gear on this meshes with the 
mitre gear attached to the index plate ; 

for leads from 1.550 to 100 inches for 
gearing through the worm. 

Fig. 5 shows a method employed in 
testing the accuracy of the worm wheel 
in every tooth. The master plate is 
mounted in the spindle and has 40 per- 
fect divisions. It is therefore possible 
to test the relative and cumulative 
error for the teeth individually. The 
maximum relative error allowed is 
.0005 on the master plate, and the 
maximum cumulative error at any point 
is .002 on the master plate. The aver- 
age is less than half of this. The mas- 
ter plate is 1 1 inch diameter, and worm 
wheel 5J inch diameter, consequently 
errors on the master plate are corres- 
pondingly reduced on the worm wheel 

The tailstock is of the side centre 
type. The centre is set into the tail- 
stock at an angle, bringing the centre 
within i-inch of inner side of the tail- 


ed an attachment to be used on its 
standard type of machine. 

The fixture, as may be seen in Fig. 1, 
is fastened on the machine in the same 
manner as the head and tailstock and 
is arranged to have a rocking motion, 
that the line of the cam form may be 
followed in the grinding. The work is 
mounted on centres and is held by a 
special dogging device, the dog being 
held tight between two pins on a face 
plate. The end of the work is splined 
and keyed into the dog, so that exact 
alignment is maintained, until the last 
operation, the grinding of the last cam 
completed. Upon the shaft of the at- 
tachment, in which is the head centre, 
is mounted a group of master cams, 
corresponding in number and form and 
angle to the cams to be ground. This 
shaft is driven by gears from the main 
driving plate of the machine. Fastened 
to the table, like a back rest, is a 


bracket which carries a rod upon which 
slides a roll carrier. The rod is drilled 
to receive a pin in the roll carrier, 
there being a pin position to bring the 
roll opposite each of the master cams. 
The cam is held against the roll by 
spring pressure. This is accomplished 

wheel tnounted in a fixture. This wheel 
takes the place of the roll and is in the 
same relative position that the roll 
occupies to the master cams during the 
grinding of camshafts, and in the final 
operation is sized to micrometer to the 
exact size that the roll will be. Con- 

the regular type is that it is equipped 
with an adjustable collar provided with 
integral keys, which slide in longi'tudinal 
keyways in the arbor. The arbor is also 
threaded for a short distance to receive 
an ail.jnstiim- nut, which bears on the 

Fig. 1.— Cam Grinding Attiichmtnt. 

t'ig- 2.— Grinder Arranged for Grinding Master Cams. 

by a spring plunger, consisting of a 
heavy casing with a plunger backed by 
a powiirful spring, which is always act- 
ing to keep the master cam in full con- 
tact with the roller. As the roller is 
fixed in position the camshaft is con- 
strained to oscillate as it rotates in 
definite relation to the form of the 
master cam. In doing the work the 

sequently the conditions attending the 
grinding of the master cams are iden- 
tical with those which exist when these 
cams are employed in commercial work, 
and a corresponding degree of reliance 
may be placed upon the accuracy of 
the product. Fig. 3 shows a typical 
solid camshaft ground with this attach- 

Fig. .1. — A Solid Cranksliaft Ground in liie Cam Siiaft Grinder 

roll is pinned in position against the 
first master cam, and the grinding con- 
tinues until the first cam of the work 
has been finished. The roller then 
passes to its second position and the 
second cam to the grinding wheel, and 
so on until the shaft is completed. 

The master cams themselves are pro- 
duced in much the same manner, a 
model cam being used to give the re- 
quired form. The group of blanks is 
mounted in the attachment, as shown 
in Fig. 2. A stationary steel arc of the 
same radius as the grinding wheel takes 
its place and is maintained in contact 
with the model cam which for the time 
being is the master. Spring pressure is 
applied to accomplish this function, but 
the plunger is arranged to act in the 
reverse direction. The grinding of the 
master cam blanks is done by a small 


The Cleveland Twist Drill Co., Cleve- 
land, has secured the patents and is about 
to place on the market a new arbor for 

collar. The collar engages the shell 
reamers in the usual way. 

Perhaps the chief advantage of the 
new arbor is the quickness and ease with 
which it releases the shell tool, no mat- 
ter how tightly it may have become jam- 
med on the arbor; a turn or two of the 
adjusting nut does the trick, with no 
necessity for removing the arbor from 
tlie spindle, and no excuse for 'the vise 
and hammer methods which often cause 
I'onsiderable damage. 

Another decided advantage is the fact 
that the collar ean always be set so as 
to allow the shell tool to fit snugly on 
the arbor, and yet fully engage with its 
slots the collar keys. 

A. S. Herbert, manager of Canadian 
branch of Siemens Bros., Dynamo Works, 

Patent Releasing Arbor of Cleveland Twist Drill Co. 

sheii tools. As is indicated in the ac- 
companying illustration, the essential 
difference between this patent arbor and 


Stafford, England, sailed for England on 
Jan. 6, and will spend about two months 
in the Old Country. 



The E. W. Bliss Co., 20 Adams Street, 
Brooklyn, N.Y., have recently designed 
and built a large double-double-crank 
press, shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration. The large machine is of the 
double-crank type, of a special design, 
being in realily a double-double-err. nk 
press. The machine is especially ada[)re(i 
for the operation of very long and nar- 
row dies, for punching, forming, piercing, 
bending and similar operations which re- 
quire great pressure. It embodies certain 
improvements in detail which adapt il to 
the special work it has to do. The ma- 
eliine, which is double-geared, is Jrive:i 
by power friction clutch located dn tne 
driving shaft, which clutch is engaged 
and disengaged by means of the treadle 
running along the entire front of the 
press; the treadle being connected by 
treadle levers with a treadle shaft lo- 
cated at the rear of the press, to which 
is attached ilie counter weights and con- 

and weight is the adjustment of the 
slide. In the press shown, this is taken 
off in a very effective and simple way 
by a chain drive — the chains running 
from the shafts carrying the adjusting 
bevel pinions back to a small driving 

quickly doing what would otherwise be 
slow and laborious work, insures the per- 
fest alignment of the side in relation to 
the bed. By shifting the lever to the 
right, the slide is raised, and by shift- 
ing to the left it is lowered. 

Lang'fi New Tool Holder. 

shaft, which runs the entire width of 
the press. This shaft which derives its 
power by means of a belt from the main 
driving shaft, is fitted with two friction 
clutches. In order to raise or lower the 
slide, it is only necessary for the operator 
to shift tlie lever located above the slide 

Jiliss l.ari;t' lloulili' Double Cralik I'rcs.s 

nections which operate directly upon liie 

In the construction of large presses oC 
the double-crank type, an important 
consideration on account of alignment 

between the two cranks at the left-liaiid 
side of tlie press, which engages the 
clutch which operates the chain drive. 
This, in turn, operates the four adjust- 
ing screws in unison, and in addition to 

S3 . . . 


The principal feature of advantage 
claimed for Lang's new tool holder is 
that it will take a much heavier cut 
than is possible with the ordinary tool 
holder. The cutter is of triangular sec- 
tion, and is held rigid in tlic "V" slot, 
which insures a perfect fit between the 
(.utter and holder. It is also backed up 
clear to the cutting end with a support 
which prevents the cutter from spring- 
ing down or back away from the work. 

The tools are made in right and left 
hand and are intended to be used exactly 
as the solid forged tool. One of the 
great disadvantages heretofore in using 
an inserted cutter of this kind has been 
the tendency of the cutter to slip back 
in the holder. This is especially notice- 
able on lieavy, long cuts. This fault has 
been overcome in this bolder bv the in- 

Lang's New Tool Hrilder. 

scrtion of an ordinary steel ball at the 
rear of the cutter. These balls are ad- 
vanced from pocket to i)ocket as the end 
of the cutter is worn away and moved 
forward. The pockets are connected to- 
gether by a slot as shown, and when the 
cutter is loosened, the balls are easily 
changed from one pocket to the other 
l)ut after the cutter is back in position, 
it is impossible for the ball to drop out, 
as the cutter hits it above the center, 
forcing it against the bottom of the 
pocket where the entire thrust is taken. 
This positive stop is not intended to be 
used on ordinary work, as the clamping 
bolt holds the cutter sufficiently tight 
for all ordinary purposes for which tool 
holders are usually used. These holders 
are manufactured by (i. K. Lang Co., 
Meadville, Pa. 


Practical Articles for Canadian Foundrymen and Pattern Makers, and 
News of Foundrymen's and Allied Associations. Contributions Invited. 


The convention in Detroit, June 6-10, 
promises to be a greater success than 
ever. The American Foundrymen's As- 
sociation, the American Brass Associa- 
tion and the Foundry and Manufactur- 
ers' Supply Association have well or- 
ganized local committees for making 
the convention a success. 

From present indications the Supply 
Men will use twice the space used at 
the previous events to house the ex- 
hibits, and it is urged that all who in- 
tend to exhibit complete their plans at 
an early date and at the same time in- 
form Secretary C. E. Hoyt as to the 
amount of space they desire, etc. The 
permanent buildings will have concrete 
floors on the ground level, and exhibits 
requiring foundations and pits 
will have to be placed in the 
temporary buildings. The main 

building space will not be laid out or 
temporary building plans made until 
information is received concerning mem- 
bers' requirements. The cost of space 
will be 50 cents per square foot. The 
Cadillac hotel has been chosen as head- 
quarters for the Foundry and Manufac- 
turers' Supply Associations. 

The following are the secretaries : Dr. 
Richard Moldenke, Watching, N..J., 
American Foundrymen's Association ; 
W. M. Corse, Detroit, American Brass 
Founders' Association ; C. E. Hoyt, 
Chicago, American Foundry Foremen. 
and Foundry and Manufacturers' Supply 


The Dominion Foundry Supply Co.. 
Montreal and Toronto, are remembering 
their friends with a handy and useful 
souvenir in the shape of a fifteen inc^h 
office rule. On the front in addition to 
the name are the words, "Everything 
you need in the Foundry." On the re- 
verse side is a list of the wide range of 
equipment carried by the Dominion 
Foundry Supply Co. 


The Hamilton Facing Mill Co., foun- 
dry outfitters, Hamilton, remembered 
their customers on Christmas with one of 
the handsomest calendars yet issued for 
advertising pui-poses. It is a reproduc- 
tion of that beautiful home scene of Al- 
bert Herter, "Just a Song at Twilight." 
The effect of the light from the fireplace 
is very marked, it greatly increasing the 
romantic, twilight sentiment of the 

scene. The lady is at the piano, her 
face veiled in shaidow, while the medi- 
tative features of the father and the 
face of the sleeping child are illumined 
by the firelight, the whole effect being 
one of soft peaeefulness and solemn joy. 
The managers of the Hamilton Facing 
Mill Co. are to be congratulated on their 
a.esthetic taste. 


Jarring machines have been steadily 
growing in favor for the last five or 
six years, prior to which, this method 
of ramming sand, although not new by 

Fig. 1.— Tabor Shocklcss Jarring Machine. 

any means, was not recognized or ap- 
preciated beyond a very limited field. 
Like many other good things which 
have not been pushed commercially or 
advertised extensively, the jarring ma- 
chine has had a long period of respose 
since its original conception by Hains- 
worth in 1869. Improvements were 
made from time to time by various in- 
ventors, notably by Jarvis Adams in 
1878, but the machines were not ex- 
ploited and were confined in their use 
chiefly to the foundries controlled or 
operated by their inventors. 

In the last decade, however, the pub- 
lic has gradually awakened to the ad- 
vantages possessed by this method of 


ramming sand, and the development of 
the jarring machine has been corres- 
pondingly rapid, until to-day it is re- 
cognized as a most practicable method 
of ramming large bodies of sand by 
power. It is probably safe to say that 
ten years ago no one would have 
thought of a jarring machine for molds 
any larger than those used on a power 
squeezer which one or two men could 
handle, but it has since been found 
that large molds can be rammed as 
readily as small ones and to-day it is 
not uncommon to hear of jarring ma- 
chines capable of ramming molds weigh- 
ing ten to twenty tons. But with this 
increase in capacity has come the very 
serious complaint of damage due to 
foundation shocks when such heavy 
masses fall upon their anvil. These 
shocks are destructive to molds set up 
in the neighborhood of the machine and 
the ground waves sometimes travel far 
enough to cause serious annoyance in 
other departments of a manufacturing 
plant. Chemists complain that they 
can not use their sensitive balances 
while the jarring machine is running 
and the efficiency of offices and drawing 
rooms is impaired by the distracting 
and disturbing influence of the jarring 
machine near by. 

The present machine has therefore 
been designed to eliminate these objec- 
tionable foundation shocks and to put 
upon the market a jarring machine 
which can be used in any position and 
under any conditions where an ordinary 
power squeezer would be practicable. 
Even in brass foundries on the upper 
floors of high buildings it is practical 
to instal a Tabor Shockless Jarring 
Machine if the building is strong enough 
to carry its weight. 

To demonstrate this fact a small ma- 
chine with 8 inch jarring cylinder has 
been built by The Tabor Mfg. Co. and 
the illustrations herewith are made 
from photographs of this machine, ex- 
cept the sectional view which has been 
taken from the design for a twenty-five 
ton machine on order. 

Fig. 1 shows the machine as it ap- 
pears ready to instal. Fig. 2 shows 
the same machine set up in a pit made 
to receive it with linkage connecting 
the operating valve on the machine to 
the operating levers as conveniently ar- 
ranged near the jarring table. 

Fig. 3 shows in section the jarring 
table the anvil cylinder and a simpler 
arrangement of connections to the op- 
erating valve than it was possible to 


improvise for the photograph from 
which Fig. 2 was made. 

Fig. 4 shows the bell cranks con- 
trolling the variable stroke of the jarr- 
ing table and the automatic cut-off of 
the piston valve. This valve is of the 
differential pressure type operated by 
constant and intermittent pressure 
through the pilot valve, shown connect- 
ed by link to bell crank in front of 
photo. The position of stop which 
controls length of stroke is designated 
by an arrow, and is shown in its mini- 
mum position, when the latch lever on 
the operating stand is in the lowest 
notch. See Fig. 3. 

Fig. 5 shows the stop which controls 
the variable stroke in its maximum 
position. This machine consists of a 

the supporting springs beneath the 
anvil carry the entire load of anvil, 
table and mold, and they do this under 
static conditions and also while the 
table is rising, but when the table 
reaches the upward limit of its travel, 
and when the air is exhausted to let it 
drop, the anvil is suddenly relieved of 
the air pressure, which supported the 
table, and as a natural result the 
springs beneath the anvil expand and 
accelerate its upward movement, while 
the table is falling. As a result, the 
momentum of the falling table and load 
is substantially equal to the momentum 
of the rising anvil at the instant of 
impact. These momentums neutralize 
each other, and the table is brought to 
rest without shock or jar upon any 

anvil cylinder while the table is falling. 
When the operating valve is again 
shifted to lift the table, the valve is 
opened to exhaust and the anvil is, 
therefore, free to drop. 
Use of Air. 
In this machine attention has been 
given to the economical use of air and 
the operating valve is designed to use 
it expansively in the jarring cylinder as 
well as to expand it- again in the anvil 
cylinder, thus obtaining the benefit of 
two expansions. Of course, it is not 
possible to use the air expansively in 
the jarring cylinder when the load car- 
ried on the table approaches the maxi- 
mum capacity of the machine, but when 
the machine is used on lighter loads, 
full air pressure can be admitted for a 

fr. Air ""/f^f rtiftM 
3?. Ofufif/ififf /rrrr 

3. Lii er /•>! c/iniyiiig /riiyth i^sffoke 

4. Lever /or triljuatitig ciif-uff 

5. Cwuieclioii Jar rtir sitpfity 
S. £x/iat>!te 

J", flighjirraeiure air inlet iojorrinj r^fitiiier aiiii aiif/rt 
S. I.f»e pres»urr air inlet to attest rg/imfer amiai/f/et 
9. Btow nr/irevmtie^tiifn. 

Floor h'tte 

Fig. 2.— Jarring Machine Installed in Pit With Linkage to Operate Levers. Fig. 3.— Seetion of Jarring Table, Anvil Cylinder and Connections. 

jarring table made in one piece with 
the cylinder and mounted upon a cylin- 
drical anvil, which in turn is guided by 
a cylindrical base and rests upon sup- 
porting springs calculated to give the 
anvil a substantial upward velocity 
while the table is falling. 

Foundation Shock Eliminated. 

The evil effects of foundation shocks 
in jarring machines have been recogniz- 
ed and deplored, and various attempts 
have been made to reduce the amount 
of shock transmitted to the founda- 
tion, but hitherto nothing has been done 
to effect its complete extinction, which 
is now accomplished by this machine. 

Tt will be seen from the drawing that 

surrounding objects, as completely as 
if it had dropped upon an anvil of in- 
finite weight. In order to do this the 
springs beneath the anvil have a very 
long compression, so that their loss in 
supporting power, as the anvil rises, 
will not materially affect its velocity. 

Ordinarily, the springs are sufficient 
to give the desired momentum to the 
anvil, but in large machines, where the 
consumption of air is an important 
item, it is advantageous to utilize the 
air discharged from the jarring cylin- 
der in augmenting the momentum of 
the anvil. This is done by making an 
additional port in the operating valve 
which connects the jarring cylinder and 


short distance and then . cut off abso- 
lutely and expanded in the cylinder. 

When the table reaches its maximum 
travel, the operating valve is automa- 
tically shifted to exhaust, and the air 
from it may pass directly into the at- 
mosphere, or into the anvil cylinder, if 
the machine is large enough to make a 
second expansion worth while. 

The cut-off is operated directly 
through the bell-crank lever acting as 
an adjustable stop upon an arm at- 
tached to the valve stem. The yalve is 
reversed through the action of a niiot 
valve actuated by a similar bell-crank 
lever. There are, therefore, two adjust- 
able stops on the table of the machine, 


the positions of which are controlled Vy 
latch levers on an operating stand. 

The cut-off can be adjusted to suit the 
load carried on the table, and the oper- 
ating valve can be reversed by the pilot 
valve when the maximum uplift desired 
has been reached. It is possible, of 
course, to substitute compressed air 
for the supporting springs under the 
anvil in the simpler type of machine, 
where no attempt is made to use air 
expansively from the jairing cylinder 
to the anvil cylinder. 

The use of compressed air to sup- 
port the anvil necessitates some provi- 
sion for keeping pressure adjusted to 
the total load carried, without causing 
undue variation in the height of the 
jarring table, as it is more or less 
loaded, and as air may leak in or out. 

The use of long compression springs 

Fig. 4.— Stroke Control and Automatic Cut-ofl. 

somewhat simpliftcs the construction, 
and has the further advantage of mak- 
ing it possible to utilize the complete 
expansion of the air. 

The effect of impact between the table 
and anvil in jar ramming is measure'] 
by the change in velocity of the table, 
and the square of this change in veloc- 
ity is proportional to the work dono 
upon the sand for any assumed condi- 
tion of the sand. Of course, the maxi- 
mum work is done in the first few 
blows when the sand is loose, and as 
the operation is continued, the sand be- 
comes more and more firmly compacted 
together, until finally it acts as one 
solid mass, and no further work can be 
done upon it until the severity of the 
blow has been increased. A short 
sti'oke indefinitely repeated will com- 
pact sand up to a certain Jensitv, a 
long stroke will compact it to a greater 
degree of density, and very hard 

ramming such as is frequently required 
in steel foundries, can only be effected 
by a considerable length of stroke. A 
variation in the length of stroke from 
1 inch to 4 inches is, therefore, pro- 
vided, depending upon the conditions 
to be met, and if any case should re- 
quire more than 4 inches drop, it could 
easily be provided for in the valve con- 
trolling mechanism. 

Attention is called to the simplicity 
of the construction, the enormous 
strength and stiffness of the cast steel 
table, ribbed around a central cylinder 
and acting as a beam of great depth to 
distribute the central force of impact 
applied to it equally in all directions. 

The anvil is solid, and the blow de- 
livered in this way by impact between 
two masses having approximately the 
same momentums, is far more efficient 
than can be obtained from a table 
dropping freely upon a stationary anvil. 

Parts exposed to wear are protected 
by sand guards and provision is made 
for the renewal of such bearings as may 
in time become more or less worn. 
The accumulation of sand in the pit 
cannot affect the operation of the ma- 
chine until it has attained great depth. 
At the same time, very little sand can 
find its way into the pit during the 
normal operation of the machine, and 
it will not be necessary to dig out the 
accumulation of sand very often. 

The small machine of this type, 
weighing about three tons, which has 
been built and tested, demonstrates 
that no shock whatever on the founda- 
tion is at all perceptible. This machine 
was mounted upon two 8-inch channel 
beams in a pit about ten feet wide, the 
beams resting upon the sides of the 
pit and the machine resting in the mid 
die of the beams. A man standing or 
these floor beams, wTiile the machine 
was running, could not detect any vi 
bration whatever, and although there 
was necessarily a slight change of load 
as the table rose and fell, the effect on 
the floor beams was no greater than it 
would be for an ordinary power squeez- 
er operating in the usual way. 

Ordinarily supporting springs under 
about 8 inch compression are used to 
carry the full load and with 4 inch 
stroke on the table the anvil movement 
would probably not exceed 2 inches, 
and ordinarily it would be very much 
less. Tlie maximum variation in floor 
load would, therefore, not exceed 25 per 
cent, of the total load resting on the 
supporting springs, and this variation 
is so gradual that it does not partake 
of the nature of a shock at all. At 
the moment of impact the supporting 
springs simply cease to expand and 
therefore, cease to reduce the load on 
the foundation. Following this they 
again compress and gradually increase 
the load on the foundation by a com- 

S6 ., _, , 

paratively small percentage of the total 
load carried. 

Ordinarily the shock of impact in the 
common type of jarring machines, 
which rest upon a solid foundation, 
with or without the interposition of 
cushioning material, is followed by an 
enormous increase in the foundation 
load. In one type of machine, the table 
drops upon an anvil of comparatively 
little weight, resting upon a wooden 
crib, which rests in turn upon a con- 
crete block. The momentum of the 
anvil and table is arrested in a very 
short distance by the compression of 
the wooden cribbing, and the founda- 
tion load is immediately multiplied 
many times, perhaps a hundred times 
the weight of the loaded table. 

Fig. 5. — Stop ol Varialjle Strolio in Maximum 

The Tabor Shockless .larring ma- 
chine is manufactured by the Tabor 
Mfg. Co., Philadelphia. 

By Geo. K. Hooper, M.E., New Voik 

I am very glad lo be able to discuss 
the subject of Continuous Melting, as it 
is one in which I am deeply interested 
and one with which in my experience of 
the last ten years in designing and 
building foundries, I have been intimate- 
ly eoniieeted. My first piece of work, in 
fact, as an engineer was the develop- 
ment of a very complete continuous 
foundry system, and I have since de- 
signed several others and been connect - 

* A discussion on Mr. Sleetli's paper presented 
at Cincinnati Foundrymen's Convention and re- 
produced in tlie January issue of Canadian Ma- 


ed with other foundries containing sys- 
tems more or less continuous and am at 
present building for a well known in- 
terest a very large malleable foundry, 
embodying quite a complete system of 
mechanical handling, it being impossible 
in this case, of course, to carry on con- 
tinuous pouring although the melting 
proper goes on practically all day. 

Out of this experience I am enabled to 
enlarge somewhat upon the answers to 
questions asked Mr. Sleeth, for in- 
stance, that of, "on how small a ton- 
nage can continuous melting be made to 
pay." He answered that this depends 
upon the work in any particular found- 
ry upon which I would enlarge by say- 
ing that the tonnage has less influence 
on the economies (o be gained by oper- 
ating continuously than the number of 
molds to be handled, as it is at once ap- 
parent that a few molds may contain a 
large tonnage to wliieh continuous meth- 
ods would be entirely unsuited, while a 
less tonnage frequently is distributed 
in a a very large number of flasks, the 
handling of which, with the sand, cast- 
ings, cores, etc., would undoubtedly 
yield lare economies if carried on 
mechanically and continuously. The 
mold, therefore, is the unit which must 
be used when considering whether the 
continuous method can be applied to any 
particular production, but it is not nec- 
essary to feel that if many sizes of molds 
are used, the system is inapplicable 
since, as the sand is handled mechanical- 
ly, it may be a considerable saving to 
standardize flasks to a few sizes and 
adapt the patterns to these standardized 
flasks, thus enabling a larger range of 
work to be handled with a minimum of 
difference in equipment in flasks, ma- 
chines, etc. 

Hot Sand. 

Again Mr. Sleeth was asked if the hot 
sand has any effect in causing loss of 
castings, his answer very truly being that 
generally it has no such effect if the 
pattern plate be suitably wanned. He 
spoke of a twenty-minute period as the 
time in which his sand is in circuit. I 
am able to enlarge upon this by saying 
that by means of large cooling and mix- 
ing riddles it is possible to considerably 
shorten this time and consequently the 
amount of sand handled and I am fam- 
iliar with systems where the sand is 
actually in use again in a much shorter 
time than this, the first system with 
which I had to do, having the sand in 
transit less than three minutes from the 
time when it was dumped out hot, rid- 
dled, cooled, tempci'ed, mixed and again 
deposited in the hoppers over the ma- 
chines for reuse, going again into the 

mold undoubtedly within another three 

Since the proof of the pudding lies 
in the eating, I am able to say that the 
foundry loss in this system was much 
less than when the molds were made 
on the floor, and this is, I And, the gen- 
eral experience of all who have these 
continuous systems, viz.: that they oper- 
ate with less foundiry loss than the 
same work when made on the floor even 
though a lower rate is paid for labor in 
operating such system than is custom- 
arih' paid in floor work. 

It is proper at this point to speak of 
methods of handling molding sand by 
means of conveyors, and I will say of 
this that in my experience, belts are 
the most suitable for this purpose. Can- 
vas belts can be efficiently used where 
the sand is dry as in shaking out or 
dumping conveyors, but with tempered 
sand a rubber belt is preferable, as the 
sand will more freely discharge from it, 
and the moisture of the sand will have 
less effect on the belt's surface. Flat 
belts are superior to troughed belts for 
this service, and wide belts movinj; 
slowly than narrow fast-running belts. 

A drag or scraper conveyor may be 
used in distributing sand to hoppers ovei 
molding machines, and is in fact, the 
best device for this service, and it also 
should be large and slow moving, both 
to avoid wear and to preserve the con- 
dition of the sand since the tempered 
molding sand has a tendency to "ball," 
and once in that condition must be 
crushed or dried to again render it suit- 
able for use. The drag conveyor is 
preferably made with a wooden trough 
and wood conveyor flights. 

Netting on riddles and sieves is pre- 
ferably made of phospha bronze wire. 
Tap bolts and nuts on apparatus requir- 
ing renewals should also be of bronz . 

One and Two Storey Foundry. 

A type of "continuous foundry" has 
attracted considerable attention the past 
few years in which the moulding and 
pouring is done on one floor, the shaken 
out sand falling through gratings into 
a basement, where it is suitably prepared 
and sent again by elevators to the floor 
above for reuse. I have failed to dis- 
cover any advantage in a foundry con- 
structed in this way and it possesses, in 
fact the very serious disadvantages of 
high cost of instalation and operation, 
since a two-storey building costs at least 
three times as much as a one-storey 
building — probably the difference is 
greater than this, where a floor is filled 
with gratings and supports for machin- 
ery, a large expense is involved in dup- 
lication of equipment for screening and 


retempering sand, and more labor than 
is necessary is employed in this latter 

It is entirely possible to handle all of 
the sand required by productions up to 
100 tons of castings per day and over 
with two men although as much as 100 
tons of sand per hour may be passing 
through the systems. 

The users of a very successful system 
hahdling a large tonnage have informed 
me that they use no men at all on their 
sand-handling system, but it is difficult 
for me to believe that it is not given some 
attention during the day. I believe though 
that two inexpensive men can handle the 
largest sand conveying system. 

Such two-storey foundries are there- 
fore in my opinion and experience much 
more expensive to build and operate than 
modern practice makes necessary. 

Mold Conveyor. 

Mr. Sleeth was further asked if any 
damage is noted to molds from the move- 
ment of the mold conveyor to which 
he suitably responded that none is not- 
iced. This would, in fact, be predicated 
by the fact that the foundry loss iu 
these systems is generally less than in 
floor work, but I can go a step farther 
than this and say that molds may be 
subjected to what would be considered 
very rough treatment and yet suffer no 
damage, as I have repeatedly loosened 
up all connections on a mold conveyor 
and shaken the car conveying a mold 
with all my strength while it was being 
poured, banging the carriage against its 
supports hard enough to slop the iron 
out of the sprue and found no apparent 
defect by sufficient commercial test in 
the casting. 

The easting made in these molds was 
a hollow casting of varying lengths and 
thin section poured from one end, the 
core held by a pivot at one end only, 
resting upon wire chaplets bearing 
against tin "spots" in the core for the 
remainder of its length. 

I am familiar with mold conveyors in 
which the carriage is suspended from an 
overhead track and allowed to swing 
free except at the point where the pour- 
ing is done and no trouble is experienc- 
ed by damage to the molds. A gain is 
in fact made by building a mold con- 
veyor in this way as less power is re- 
quired for driving it, less wear is entail- 
ed, and the supporting frame work is 

I have learned of a continuous foun- 
dry in which the molds when made are 
cr.rried to the cupola upon trucks pro- 
vided with springs, poured and then car- 
ried on to a cooling and dumping point 
and I am advised that the loss in this 


foundry is less than it was when the 
same molds were poured upon the floor 
by bringing the iron to them. 

Cupola Operation. 

The opei'ation of the cupola was also 
touched upon. My experience goes to 
show that this is perhaps the most easily 
managed. function of the whole system 
since, if the blower — and I think the 
positive blast blower is best for the pur- 
pose — be driven by a direct connected 
engine with its valve easily accessible 
from the pouring platform, great var- 
iations in melting speed may be obtain- 
ed with little detriment to the quality of 
the iron, and by thus handling the blow- 
er and having means of communicating 
at the same time with the charging floor, 
the cupola may be easily held for con- 
siderable periods, such as for changing 
patterns, etc., etc., and operation start- 
ed immediately when desired. I have 
spoken of stopping for changing pat- 
terns on purpose, as there is little need 
for extended stops on any other account, 
as a suitably designed system will oper- 
ate on less than 2 per cent, loss of run- 
ning time from accidents. 

The cupola is preferably run with an 
eye to the production of castings rather 
than the savin? of coke, but this, of 
course, settles itself and a ratio devel- 
ops itself which may. easily be as hieh 
as the best cupola practice affords. Mr. 
Sleeth has told you, in fact, that his is 
between 10 and 11 to one. It is much 
better, though to produce castings than 
try to save coke. 

I am a little surprised to find among 
foundrymen, otherwise so well informed. 
an impression that this continuous meth- 
od is in an experimental stage. Nothing 
could be farther from the fact, as the 
method is so aged that the "Mother" 
patents upon it have expired, and the 
former owner of them, who is here, has 
just told me that his original system 
has been running for eighteen years, and 
is still in use. I had the privilege of 
building quite a complete plant some six 
years ago for his company, in which 
three systems were installed, one en- 
tirely continuous and two intermittent, 
that is, in one the molds are carried, 
and in the others, only the sand is handl- 
ed by conveyors, the molds being pour- 
ed on the floor from iron brought on 
overhead tracks, and these systems have 
been in continuous operation. His com- 
pany is now building a foundry con- 
taining four continuous systems. My 
own experience with this method began 
ten years ago with a system which was 
put into successful operation. 

Mr. Sleeth 's has been runninsr for un- 
doubtedly fifteen years, perhaps longer. 

I am familiar with it for about twelve 
years, and there are a sufficient number 
of others in successful and every day 
operation to put the scheme entirely out 
of the class of experiment. 

There have, of course, been some at- 
tempts which have been notable failures, 
several systems having been devised and 
installed by builders of conveying ma- 
chinery, who have attempted to handle 
molding sand as they would other and 
very different materials, and who have not 
had a sufficiently adequate comprehen- 
sion of the comparative relations of the 
foundry operations involved, and on the 
other hand, many capable foundry men 
have designed systems which they have 
tried to make too automatic. I can re- 
call one generally on the lines of Mr. 
Custer's design, but which failed through 
not having his permanent mold. 

He has put the continuous method 
very far forward and is entitled to great 
credit for his success. 

Elasticity is very essential in every 
function in the continuous method with 
the sand mold and plenty of "elbow 
room" where the different operations 
are brought together. 

Finally then it appears to be demon- 
strated by the considerable number of 
successful systems in use that by means 
of mechanical handling systems in the 
foundry the efficiency of the workman 
is increased from 10 to 50 per cent, (this 
increase having been duly charged, with 
what additional non-productive labor is 
necessary), the average wage can often 
be reduced somewhat, the foundry loss 
is decreased, the floor space reduced 
sometimes by as much as one-half, this 
also taking account of necessary addi- 
tional power plant, etc., and by mechan- 
ical handling only, can the full capacity 
of molding machinery be realized. 

The increase in capacity available 
from molding machinery is considerable, 
even though sand handling machinery 
only be employed, as in some classes of 
work, sand handling machinery only is 
possible, malleable work for instance, 
in which the melting is done in the air 
furnace, while investment charges are 
not seriously increased when the saving 
in equipment due to increased efficiency 
is considered. 


Bermann (Zeitschrift des Vereins 
Deutscher Ingenieure) finds that the 
sparks emitted by the different kinds of 
steel when ground on an emery wheel 
afford a means of diffeientiation. For 
instance, the sparks from carbon steel 
take the shape of spiny tufts, the num- 
ber of spines increasing with the car- 

S8 _ 

bon content. In manganese steel the 
individual rays of the tuft exhibit ter- 
minal branchings, whilst in tungsten 
steel the individual rays are difficult to 
detect, except that the ends show decid- 
ed nodes. The sparks themselves consist 
of particles of metal abraded by the 
emery granules, which have become heat- 
ed to whiteness or even above the melt- 
ing-point partly by the oxidation of the 
iron, carbon, and silicon, but chiefly by 
recalescence through the conversion of 
the contained carbon into different modi- 


The machine-shop foreman rushed into 
the foundry just as the iron began to 
come down. His words were few for 
time was scant. 

"I want a casting in an awful hurry 
and I want it bad. I've had a break- 
down. Put someone at it who knows 
Wow to get a move on." 

He got what he asked for. The cast- 
ing was bad enough to please anybody 
who wanted that kind. For all that, he 
was not satisfied. Some people don't al- 
ways say what they mean. 


A non-shrinking alloy, according to 
The Metal Industryi, is composed of the 
following : Tin, 50 lb.; zinc, .50 lb. This 
gives a tough, hard metal that runs 
well if a good grade of zinc is used. The 
addition of 2 pounds of bismuth will 
render it even more fluid and enable it 
to be poured at a lower temperature. 
By using heavy sprues and pouring cold 
the shrinkage, which is slight, may be 
to a very large extent overcome. 


The largest locomotive ever manufa'- 
tured in Canada has gone west over the 
C. P. R. to work on the company's 
grades in British Columbia. This engine 
was constructed in the Angus shops at 
Montreal, and was especially designe<l 
as a type for a series of large engines 
particularly adapted for heavy grades. 
This engine can pull an ordinary freight 
train of 1,140 tons over a 1 3-5 per 
cent, grade with ease, while any engine 
now in use would have to take a simi- 
lar train over this grade in two sections 
or else use two engines. 

It has been estimated that a square 
foot of uncovered pipe, filled with steam 
at 100 pounds pressure, will radiate and 
dissipate in a year the heat obtained by 
the economic combustion of 398 pounds 
of coal. Ten square feet of bare pipe 
corresponds aproximately to two tons 
of coal per annum. 


Growth of the Canadian Iron and Steel Industry 

Eight Years' Progress, Showing the Output of Iron and Steel, En- 
largement of Plants, the Increased Market, and the Future Outlook. 


The early part of 1909 was naturally 
lean, but as the months went by and 
people began to realize that they were 
more frightened than hurt, confidence 
' g-rew, and buyers began to come into 
the market. Construction projects that 
had been held back were taken up again 
and from the second half of the year, 
confidence has grown day by da.y, an<i, 
notwithstanding the early slackness, I 
believe that the produelion of pig iron — 
the base of all iron and steel work — has 
reached its Mgh-water mark in Canada 
at the close of 1909, with an output of 
about 800,000 tons. 

It is best to commence with pig iron. 
While a total annual production of 800,- 
000 tons of pig iron may seem insigni- 
ficant, still from a Canadian point of 
view it is satisfactory as an evidence 
of growth in the face of the many ini- 
tial difficulties, and as a promise of the 

Prior to 1900 Canada's necessities in 
pig iron and steel had been to a very 
large extent eared for by import from 
the United States, Great Britain, Ger- 
many and Belgium. Honest attempts 
had been made by private efforts and 
Government encouragement to establish 
t'lic industry, starting (as it should, to 
be successful) from the ore up, and while 
in tJie base industry very little progress 
was apparent, it was the pioneer work 
of the late years of the 19th century 
that has made possible the success of 
the first decade of the 20th. 

Canadian Pig Iron Record. 

In no single year up to and including 
1900 had Canadian blast furnaces pro- 
duced as much as 100,000 tons of pig 
iron, and the steel production had been 
less. In 1895 only 37,825 tons of pig 
iron were produced in Canada, and the 
year 1900 showed only 86,090 tons, an 
advance, it is true, but a very slow 
one. With the growth of confidence in 
Government encouragement, advance- 
ment became more apparent, old works 
were enlarged, and new plants installed, 
notably at Sydney, Sault Ste. Marie, 
Hamilton and Midland. 1901 showed a 
production of 244,976 tons of pig iron, 
and 1902, 319,557. Since then the 
growth has been steady, and we find 
1907 showing 651,962 tons, 1908 (an off 
year), 630,835, and, as already stated. 

•President of the Lake Superior Corporation. 

it is expected that the 800y0O0-ton mark 
will be reached when the figures of 1909 
are totaled. 

Plants Being Enlarged. 

With confidence in the future of our 
country, we of the iron industry are con- 
tinuing to develop and extend our opera- 
tions. Important additions are now be- 
ing made to the blast furnace plants of 
the Dominion Iron & Steel Co., Sydney, 
the Lake ■ Superior Corporation, Sault 
Ste. Marie, and the Canadian Iron Cor- 
poration at Midland, 'which will bring 
the capacity of the Canadian furnaces 
up to about 1,250,000 tons of pig iron 
per annum before the close of 1910, and 
in 1911, with these new plants in opera- 
tion, we should have a production of at 
least that quantity. 

That there is warrant for these addi- 
tions is evidenced by the fact that, not- 
withstanding the increase in Canada's 
production, pig iron continued to be 
purchased abroad in large quantities, 
1908 sh'O'wing 207,053 tons as having 
been imported. 

While pig iron is naturally the baro- 
meter by which a country's position in 
the iron and steel industry is judged, 
still, it is interesting to note what is 
happening in some of the more finished 
products of iron and steel. 

The Steel Production. 

Previous to 1900 Canada produced less 
than 100,000 tons of steel per annum, 
and the first considerable advance came 
with the opening up of the Sault Ste. 
Marie rail mill in 1904. quickly follow- 
ed by that of the Dominion Iron & Steel 
Company's mill at Sydney. Prior to 
1904 steel rails for steam railway pur- 
poses were on the free list. The Govern- 
ment had, however, in 1903 taken power 
to direct, by order in Council, that a 
duty should be imposed on rails when 
the Governor-in-Council was satisfied 
that rails of the best quality were be- 
ing made an Canada in sufficient quan- 
tity to meet the ordinary requirements 
of the market. In 1904 the Algoma 
Steel Company demonstrated at the Soo 
that these requirements were being met, 
the duty went into force, and Canada 
made its first great stride in the in- 
crease of steel production. In 1902 we 
had imported 179,591 tons of rails, and 
in 1903, 203,751 tons. Since 1904, 
however, the two Canadian mills have 


cared for all rail requirements, -which at 
present mean about 350,000 tons per an- 

Ingots, blooms and billets still are im- 
ported in moderate quantities, but the 
Canadian steel industry is gradually 
overhauling the demand. In the face of 
the increasing market, in wire rods the 
imports have decreased from $792,078 in 
1905 to ,$295,122 in 1908, and when the 
new rod mill ns installed at the Soo 
Canada will be able to care for its full 
requirements in this important article. 
On the whoie the growth of steel pro- 
duction in Canada is as marked as in 
pig iron. With less than 100,000 tons 
before 1900 we produced 706,782 tons in 
1907, and in the poor year of 1908, 588,- 
763, and will probably reach the 800,- 
OOO-ton mark before the close of 1909. 

In comparing the total production of 
steel with that of pig iron it may he 
well to point out that in the manufac- 
ture of steel varying quantities of steel 
and iron scrap are used in conjunction 
with pig iron, so that, while the produc- 
tion of pig iron and steel is to-day prac- 
lieally equal in tonnage, a considerable 
portion of pig iron produced goes into 
the foundry trade, which has made al- 
most as great progress as the steel in- 

Growth of the Market. 

To capture the growing trade new and 
larger mills must be erected to care for 
the heavy structural and other sections, 
plates, etc. The extension of the tariff 
so as to give equal protection on the 
heavier sections to that now afforded the 
lighter ones will help towards an increase 
in home steel production, and it seems 
safe to assume that this will be done 
either by extending the clauses now, or 
by the Government following the same 
procedure as in the case of steel rails, 
i.e., by providing for the extension of 
clauses 'when the heavier sections are be- 
ing made in Canada. With this in view 
the Lake Superior Corporation is erect- 
ing at Sault Ste. Marie two mills, which 
should be in operation by 1910, and 
which, under favorable conditions, should 
add materially to Canada's output of 

Future of the Industry. 

In the future of the industry I have 
every confidence. With increasing con- 
fidence, the demand for our products 
will increase. Natural conditions are 
daily improving through the discovery 
and opening up of iron and steel de- 
posits, and we are also being greatly 
aided by the influx of new capital, es- 
pecially from Great Britain, and the 
growth of the knowledge not only in 
Canada, but abroad, that the iron and 
steel industry of Canada is making 


Establishment or Enlargement of Factories, Mills, Power Plants, Etc.; Construc- 
tion of Railways, Bridges, Etc.; Municipal Undertakings; Mining News. 

Foundry and Machine Shop. 

The Toronto Wire Nail & Tftck Co. will erect 
a $4,500 factory. 

The National Wire Co. has purchased a factory 
site at Toronto. 

.facie & Hay. machinists, Dauphin. Man., are 
succeeded by J. H. Johnston. 

The Reddington Rock Drill Co., St. Cath- 
arines, has obtained a charter. 

The Munro Steel & Iron Works, at Winnipeg, 
were damaged by fire recently. 

The Kingston Shipbuilding Co. is planning to 
erect a repair shop, costing $1.")0,000. 

The Dominion Corrugated Steel Pipe Co., St. 
Johns, Que., has been incorporated. 

Chas. A. Colville, machinist, Hamilton, has 
sold his business to Rothwell & Hall. 

Quality Beds Ltd., Welland, will enlarge this 
year, greatly increasing their capacity. 

The R. Watt Machine Works, recently burned 
at Ridgetown, will rebuild at Chatham. Ont. 

The Verity Plow Co., Brantlord, will erect an 
addition of 100 feet to the foundry department. 

A big company is being formed at Sussex. 
N.B.. to manufacture the Acme steel ladder on a 
large scale. 

The Canadian Safe Co.. recently incorporated, 
tor the manufacture of office safes, is looking to 
locate at Windsor, Ont. 

The Dain Manufacturing Co., of Welland, are 
perfecting plans for the addition of an automo- 
bile factory to their plant. 

The Michigan Central Railway has in contem- 
plation the early erection of new shops and 
roundhouse at St. Thomas. 

The six-storey factory of the Munro Steel & 
Wire Works, at Winnipeg, was badly gutted by 
fire on January 12. loss $60,000. 

Port Dover has voted unanimously to give as- 
sistance to the Wides[iread Implement Co., the 
vote being 198 to in its favor. 

Plans arc being prepared for an annex to the 
pipe shop of the Canadian Iron Corporation at 
Fort William, to cost approximately $50,000. 

The Disston Saw Works at Toronto have mov- 
ed their factory and office from Adelaide Street 
to their new premises on p'raser Avenue. 

Fire which broke out in the cupola of a fur- 
nace of the Canadian Iron & Foundry Co., 
Montreal, did damage to the extent of some 
$40,000 early in January. 

The Canada Iron Corporation have definitely 
decided to rebuild their iron pipe foundry, which 
was completely destroyed by lire about two 
months ago at Three Rivers. 

Samuel Trees & Sons are rapidly pushing 
along the repairs to the Fraser Foundry at 
Whitby, preparatory to reopening the industry. 

The Armbrust Canadian Brake Shoe Co. have 
purchased some land at Toronto. They purpose 
building a factory, and operations will start at 

The Cossitt Co., makers of harvesting ma- 
chinery at Brockville, sustained some loss 
through fire at their premises about the middle 
of January. 

The new C.N.R. roundhouse at Ottawa, will 
be finished shortly when a complete mechanical 
equipment capable of handling twelve engines, 
will be installed. 

Chas. Pickard, Chas. W. Fawcett, (both stove 
manufacturers of Sackville, N.B.,) and others 
have formed an electric machinery and develop- 
ment company at Sackville. 

Welland has granted a fixed rate of taxation 
of $10,000 to the Electro Steel Co. This plant 
is now under construction and will be as an ex- 
perimental plant before erecting a larger one. 

H. H. Smalley, Hartland. N.B., has taken over 
the farm machinery business of Hagerman & 
Baird, together with a lease of their large hall, 
and will conduct a general machinery agency. 

It is understood that the Dominion Iron and 
Steel Co. will add a plate mill to their estab- 
lishment at Sydney, the product to enter into 
the construction of war vessels to be built at 
Montreal and Halifax. 

A company capitalized at $150,000 has been 
formed in Vancouver to manufacture the auto- 
matic car fender, crude oil burner, automatic 
dump car release and other inventions of Henry 
Clay Jordan, of Vancouver. 

A building permit has been granted to the 
Canada General Electric Co. for the erection of 
a large brick warehouse at Vancouver. The 
structure will cost over $30,000. Murray & Mc- 
Millan are the contractors. 

The Lee Mfg. Co., Pembroke, manufacturers of 
'ncubators, refrigerators, kitchen cabinets, etc., 
have purchased a foundry and will take up the 
manufacture of stoves and ranges. Patterns arc 
now being prepared for next fall's trade. 

According to the terms of a contract just 
closed Windsor will add a third automobile fac- 
tory to its list of industries with the next two 
months. All tne companies are branches of De- 
troit concerns. 

The Grand Trunk Pacific Dock Co.. with a 
capital stock of $150,000. has been organized in 
British Columbia to undertake the construction 
of the new docks at Seattle, Victoria, and ad- 
ditional docks at Prince Rupert. 

Partridge & Son. of the Crescent Wire Works, 
Kingston, are to establish a plating department 
doing all kinds of silver, nickel and gold plat- 
ing. The new plant is being installed, and will 
be in operation within a couple of weeks. 

The B.C. Marine Railway Co. are making ar- 
rangements to greatly enlarge their shipbuilding 
plant at Victoria. Capital has been subscribed 
by English financiers and the enlargement of 
the works is considered practically assured. 

A charter has been granted the International 
Dredge & Dock Co., Toronto, capitalized at 
$50,000, to manufacture and deal in machinery 
and supplies. W. A. Lydon, W. Cahill, and H. 
C. Wild, all of Chicago, are provisional direc- 

Swan & Hunter, the great English shipliuilders 
are said to have purchased a site at Dartmouth, 
N.S.. and that they will spend a million dollars 
on a plant there. In one year's time they ex- 
pect to be able to construct first class cruisers 
as well as merchant ships. 

The Canadian Car & Foundry Co.. Montreal, 
elected the following directors recently : N. Cur- 
ry, president, James Redmond, chairman of the 
executive ; H. S. Holt, Geo. E. Drummond, I. 
H. Benn. T. J. Drummond, executive : W. W. 
Butler, first vice-president ; N. S. Reder, second 
vice-president, and W. M. Aitken, executive. 

The boiler and maehinory have been installed 
by the Schaake Machine Works of New West- 
minster, in the new steamer which is to run on 


Lake Harrison for the Brooks-Scanlon Lumber 
Co. The machinery for the Paystreak, made by 
the same company, is now ready and it will be 
installed as soon as the boat is brought to the 

Citizens of Sydney voted almost unanimously 
in favor of the establishment of rolling mills 
there. Construction of the buildings will, it is 
expected, start early in April, and the amount 
to be expended by the company will not be less 
than $550,000. while the amount to be expended 
during the construction in wages will be in the 
vicinity of 5150.000. The plant will employ about 
500 men. 

The municipality of North Vancouver has 
agreed to guarantee the interest on $200,000 of 
debentures of the Imperial Power Shipbuilding 
and Dock Corporatian, for a period of ten years, 
and will exempt the company from taxcation for 
a like period. The company agree to spend the 
sum of $300,000 on construction and plant alone. 
The manufacture of railroad cars will be under- 

Justice Clute made an order at Toronto a 
fortnight ago staying the winding-up proceedings 
ordered on September 8 last in the matter of 
the Atikokan Iron -Co., and discharging the 
liquidation. The stay was asked by Mackenzie 
& Mann, who are large shareholders, and say 
they have secured sufficient to pay off all the 

George T. Rosselle. of Cincinnati, acting on 
behalf of Geo. H. Paine, a Cincinnati capitalist, 
has completed the purchase of the stock and ma- 
chinery for the manufacturing of the Sunlight 
gasoline light from the Sylvester Mfg. Co.. Lind- 
say. A company for the manufacturing of gas- 
oline lighting and heating devices exclusively will 
be organized and an industry started in Canada. 

The machinery for the Modern Malleable Range 
Co.'s stove and range factory, which will short- 
ly start operations at Chatham, Ont., is being 
shipped in from Leamington and will be instal- 
led in the premises formerly occupied by the 
Chatham Motor Car Co. These buildings will 
be used till the completion of the proposed large 
factory, the contracts for which are now in the 
hands of John Piggott & Sons. 

George McCrae. superintendent of the Goold, 
Shapley & Muir factory. Brantford. was in 
Dunnville recently, endeavoring to form a stock 
company for the manufacture of gas. gasolene 
engines and mining machinery there. The toy-n 
is being asked for a loan of $30,000, and the 
citizens of Dunnville are being asked to sub- 
scribe $25,000. The company will employ 50 
hands to start, and eventually 100 hands. 

The Blair Engineering Co.. which is opening a 
branch at Montreal and which hns a capital of 
$100,000, is handling an invention which is being 
installed in open-hearth furnaces in several steel 
companies in the Sjates, and is being inspected 
by Canadian concerns. The directors are William 
Johnson. Alfred Ln Uocque. Michel Bcnot. Thom- 
as G. Blair, jr., J. S. Andrews and Koswell F. 
Munday. of Chicago. The American company 
has shown large profits. 

Charles McDonald, manager of the St. John 
Iron Works ; Stanley K. Klkin. of the Maritime 
Xail W'orks. and Janus Pender, of Jaraes Pend 
er & Co.. wire nail manufacturers, visited Ot- 
tawa recently to meet the railway commission. 
They protested against an increase in the G.P.R. 
freight rates on iron, steel and wire nail, ship- 
ped from St. John to points in Central Quebec. 


tt was claimed that the increase wa unwar- 
ranted. The commission after hearing the dele- 
gation announced their decision to have the old 
rate restored. 

The annual meeting of the shareholders of the 
Coold. Shapley & Muir Co., manufacturers of 
gas engines, windmills, etc., was held recently, 
when the officers elected were : E. L. Goold. 
president ; W. H. Shapley, vice-president ; John 
Muir, manager ; W. H. Whitaker, secretary, and 
Henry Yeigh, treasurer. In order that they may 
cope with the demand for the new gas traction 
engines, plans have been drawn up, and tenders 
asked for up-to-date engine and machine shops, 
180 X 50, 180 X 50, 32 x 50 respectively, which will 
be modern in every respect. 

The Vulcan Iron Works. New Westminster, have 
arranged with the Willamette Iron Works Co., 
of Portland, Ore., whereby the former company 
will make all the boilers for locomotives built 
by the American firm for use in Canada. The 
Willamette Co. has found it impossible to manu- 
facture at its plant in Portland boilers to meet 
the requirements of the B.C. Boiler Inspection 
Act and make any profit after paying duty into 
British Columbia. This means a big business, as 
all the large lumbering and logging concerns use 
locomotives and many that are now ordered will 
have their boilers built at New Westminster. 

The by-law authorizing an agreement between 
Fort William and the Superior Rolling Mills Co. 
was carried by the ratepayers at the municipal 
elections early in January. This means the es- 
tablishment at Fort William of what is believ- 
ed will develop into one of the largest plants in 
Canada. According to the agreement, the com- 
pany is to erect a thoroughly up-to-date wire 
and nail factory, employing at least one hundred 
men for 250 days in the year at ten hours each, 
day. The names of those to the agreement are : 
F. W. Thompson, managing director of the Ogil- 
vie Co. : H. S. Holt, president of the Montreal 
Light, Heat & Power Co., Montreal ; T. Drum- 
mond, vice-president of the Dominion Steel Cor- 
poration ; W. T. Fhippen, general counsel of the 
Canadian Northern Railway ; W. A. Black, Win- 
nipeg, western manager of the Ogilvies. 

Municipal Enterprises. 

Montreal council has been asked to vote $1,- 
000,000 for a filtration plant. 

Nanaimo ratepayers will vote on a by-law to 
raise $100,000 for a sewerage system. 

The Works Committee of the Regina city coun- 
cil recommend the spending of $363,000 on a 
trunk sewer. 

At a recent meeting of the Hull city council the 
tender of the Will am-Hamilton Co., Peterboro, 
was accepted for the pumps and water-wheel, for 
which tenders were sent in at the last meeting 
of the council. The price to be paid for the 
pump is $14,850 and $2,065 for the water-wheel. 

C'ontracts for the annual supplies required by 
lets at 30 cents each ; James Robertson Co.. 
granted to the Dominion Sewer Pipe Co.. for 
sewer pipe ; N. L- Piper Ry. Supply Co., metal 
house numbers ; McClary Mfg. Co.. street tab- 
lets at 38 cents each ; James Robertson Co., 
lead pipe, at $5.29 per hundred pounds ; Canada 
Metal Co.. brass and bronze castings ; Canada 
Foundry Co., cast iron pipe {12-inch), at $16.75 
per length ; hydrants and stop valves, Gulta 
Pcrcha Rubber Mfg. Co., and Dunlop Tire & 
Rubber (loods Co., rubber valves ; Keith & Fitz- 
simons Co., Somerville, Ltd., and Dean Bros.. 
hrass work for house services ; Reid & Brown, 
iron valve and stop cock boxes, and special cast- 
ings at $2 per hundred ; Portland cement. Na- 
tional Portland Cement Co. . $1 .57 per 350 lbs. 

Structural Steel. 

A bridge will be built over the Lottridge inlet, 
at Hamilton, at an estimated cost of $2,000. 
The Ontario Iron & Steel Co., of Welland, has 

given a contract to .the Hamilton Bridge Works 
Co., to build an extension to its plant, 170 by 
of} feet. 

There will be about 25 bridges erected along 
the proposed 200-mile extension of the Algoma 
Central Ry. One of these bridges will cost in 
the neighborhood of $25,000. 

D. E. Easson, of Peterborough, one of the 
staff of civil engineers on the Trent Canal, took 
final measurements for the steel superstructure of 
the contemplated Wellington Street bridge at 

At a meeting of the Vancouver bridge com- 
mittee it was decided to tender Waddell & 
Harrington, of Kansas City, $28,000, to cover all 
engineering expenses iu connection with the Cam- 
bic Street bridge. This will cover inspection of 
plans, field work, direction of work, etc. 

The contract for clearing the debris of the 
Quebec Bridge from the south shore has been 
awarded to Captain Charles Koenig and Co. 
The contract specifies that the clearing of the 
debris must be finished by May 1 next, when R. 
and J. G. Davis will begin the reconstruction 
of the piers. 
. F. W. Holt, C.E., in his report on the harbor 
bridge project at St. John, figures the cost of 
a satisfactory bridge at $749,577. Mr. Holt says, 
as designed, the bridge is intended to have a 32 
foot highway and an 8 foot sidewalk 25 feet 
above railway track and two street railway 
tracks on the same level. The three tracks are 
side by side Inside of the trusses to simplify 
the counter-balancing of draw. 

Two engineers of the Cleveland Bridge and En- 
gineering Co., of Darlington, Eng., J. H. 
Walker and J. R. Dixon, are in Quebec looking 
over the site of the big bridge, with the inten- 
tion of putting in a tender for the work on be- 
half of the company they represent. The Cleve- 
land Bridge Co. is one of the foremost concerns 
in England and has carried out a large number 
of big engineering works in England, India, 
. Africa and other parts of the world. 

The substructure of the C.P.R. bridge at Ed- 
monton will cost $500,000. Plans have been pre- 
pared for the bridge which will connect Strath- 
cona with Edmonton, and a deputation has gone 
to Ottawa to solicit the aid of the Dominion 
Government in bearing the expense. The struc- 
ture will cost about a million and a half, of 
which sum the C.P.R. will pay nearly a million 
but the balance has to be raised by the city of 
Edmonton and the Governments. The bridge 
will be 2,687 feet long and 166 feet high. 

The Dominion Bridge Co. has commenced ac- 
tive work on the erecting of the four new steel 
spans which will complete the Fredericton-St. 
Marys Highway Bridge. The first shipments of 
steel have arrived from Montreal and the travel- 
ers to be used in the work of erection have also 
arrived. The largest travelers are over 50 feet 
high, being somewhat higher than those used on 
the bridge heretofore. Superintendent McMahon 
has a crew of men coming here from a job near 
Bathurst and will hav*; about fifty men employed 
on the work. The contract calls for the four 
spans to be ready for traffic by April Ist and 
it is the biggest contract of the entire super- 

Electrical Notes. 

The office of the Dufferin Light and Power Co.. 
at Orangeville, was burned on Jan. 9. 

New tenders for electrical equipment for the 
London power station will be called for. 

The Lethbridge city power plant was totally 
destroyed by fire on Jan. 2. rendering the city 
without light or water. 

In Paris, the by-law for taking the first steps 
with a view to securing Hydro-Electric power, 
carried by a large majorityf 

The Northwest Battery Co.. Winnipeg, will in- 
Btal the lighting plant at Moose Jaw. G. K. 
Watson will superintend the Installation. 

The International Contract Co. is how engagecl 
in installing a motor at the new Lulu Island 
bridge at New Westminster for the purpose of 
operating the swing span by electric power. 

The new centre for Hydro-Electric power that 
will be created as a result of the favorable votes 
in Brampton and elsewhere, may mean a con- 
siderable reduction in the price of power to To- 
ronto itself. 

It is almost certain that the Calgary civic 
power and light plant will be moved during the 
year. The increasing business necessitates the 
extension of the plant and a change of site 
must be made. 

• The addition the city of Kamloops is making 
to its lighting plant will give that city the larg- 
est and most complete lighting system in the in- 
terior of British Columbia with one exception, 
that of Nelson, B.C. 

The Canadian Niagara Power Co. intends 
erecting a power plant at Bridgehurg ; the value 
of the plant to be "^$60,000 ; well equipped with 
transformers, switches and distributing circuits, 
to be erected in the early spring. 

J. N. Winslow, who was appointed by the New 
Brunswick Government to look into the value of 
the power of Grand Falls, has placed the same 
at $300,000. It is stated that an American syn- 
dicate is seeking to acquire the power. 

The work of preparing the ground in the rear 
of the Westminster Avenue car barns, at Van- 
couver, for the erection of a steam auxiliary 
plant for the B.C. Electric Railway Company, 
is being hurried forward as rapidly as possible. 

City Engineer Ker, of Ottawa, at the recent 
meeting of the waterworks committee made the 
proposition that the city should generate its 
own electricity for the booster it is proposed to 
instal to raise the water pressure for fire pur- 

Two carloads of machinery for the new unit 
at the city's power plant at Upper Bonnington 
Falls have arrived at Nelson. Another car was 
reported at Cranbrook. A. C. Read and Mr. 
Johnson, of Montreal, machinery experts, are 
there to inspect the installation. 

C H. Colgrove. M.E., hydraulic expert, has 
decided on a point on the Saskatchewan river 
about 110 miles from Edmonton as the source of 
power for that city. Minimum power is estim- 
ated at 20,000 horse power. The proposition is 
now being investigated by a group of hydraulic 

Another 10,000 horsepower unit will be install- 
ed at the Canadian plant of the Canadian Niagara 
Power Co., at St. Catharines, making the sixth 
of that type. The generator has been ordered 
from the Canadian Westinghouse Co., at Hamil- 
ton, and will be delivered so that it may be as- 
sembled in the spring. The turbine will be de- 
livered by the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

A special committee of the Sherbrooke City 
Council has made a recommendation that the 
city buy the drop-off power on the Magog river 
and also the dam at the outlet of Little Lake 
Magog from the British American Land Co. 
They set the price at $8,000. This property is re- 
quired or will be required shortly by the city 
for more power for the electric light plant. 

The B.C. executive council has granted the re- 
quest of Prince Rupert citizens for an advance 
from the provincial treasury of a sum of $50,000 
for the acquirement of the pole line of the 
Prince Rupert Power & Light Co.. and for the 
construction and installation of proper buildings 
and plant for the supply of electric light and 
power to Prince Rupert users of these modern 

An interesting feature in connection with the 
operation of the lumber mills of the Eraser River 
Lumber Co. in New Westminster is that they 
have found that too much power is lost by 
friction, and it is the intention to instal separ- 
ate motors to be operated by electricity* wher* 



ever possible in connection with shingle ma- 
chines, etc. Many of these motors have already 
arrived and will be installed Immediately. 

There is some talk in Levis, Que., ol the pos- 
sibility of the municipality purchasing the Dor- 
chester Electric Co.. which is capable of develop- 
ing 1,000 horse-power. The Dorchester Electric 
Co. recently obtained the right to enter Levis, 
and in some circles the idea of purchasing has 
been developed with a view to opposing the Can- 
adian Electric Co., which has just passed over 
to the Quebec Light and Power merger. 

As a result of the remodelling and rebuilding 
of power house No. 2, better Icnown as the "Old 
Standard." on Amelia Island, at the Chaudiere. 
the Ottawa Electric Co. will be able to double 
the amount of power hitherto generated there. 
New machinery throughout is being installed and 
the water level in the flumes is being raised 
from 22 feet to 33 feet. Formerly only 2,000 
horse power was being developed at this point. 

The total earnings of the Nelson light and 
power department, in 1909, were $52,237.20, and 
the expenditures $16,651.97, leaving a balance of 
$35,585.23. from which have to be deducted inter- 
est on debentures and sinking fund. During the 
year 100 new connections were made, and the city 
council is now supplying 80 per cent, of the busi- 
ness houses, 95 per cent, of the residences, and 
practically all the manufacturing establishments 
in Nelson. 

Citizens of Melville, Sask., voted on an elec- 
tric light by-law on Jan. 4, the result of the 
poll being 60 for the by-law and 8 against. This 
by-law gives Cashing & Weir a franchise, but not 
an exclusive one, to erect an electric light and 
power plant in Melville for a period of ten years, 
when it may be purchased by the town. Work 
will be commenced at as early a date as pos- 
sible, and the plant has to be in operation by 
July 1. Its cost will be in the neighborhood of 

Three gentlemen representing the Shuswap 
Falls Light & Power Co. are negotiating with 
the Armstrong, B.C.. council for the purchase of 
the town's electric light plant. The company re- 
present their plant as being capable of supplying 
light for the whole valley from Penticton to 
Sicamous. The company will sell light at 10 
cents per k.w., whereas the people are now pay- 
ing 16 cents. Another proposition by the com- 
pany is to connect Enderby, Armstrong and Ver- 
non with Grande Prairie and Salmon River by 
means of a tramline. 

The appointment of J. E. Aldred, president of 
the Shawinigan Water & Power Co., as director 
of the Montreal Light, Heat and Power Co., 
follows on the purchase of 3,000 shares of Power 
stock, a short time ago, by Shawinigan. The 
election of J. E. Aldred recalls rumors of a 
merger between Shawinigan and Power, but no 
significance is placed in the choice. There is no 
doubt, however, that Mr. Aldred's appointment 
will lead to closer relations between the two con- 
cerns, with possible ultimate merging of inter- 

The application of the Burrard Power Co. for 
the right to erect a dam at the lower end of 
Lillooet Lake, B.C., in the railway belt, for the 
purpose of raising the water in the lake and 
by diverting the water to a power house 
to be erected about four miles down the Lil- 
looet River from the lower end of the lake for 
the purpose of generating electric power, this to 
involve the right to use 25,000 miner's inches ol 
water in the lakes, has been approved by the 
executive council at Ottawa. The minimum 
amount of expenditure to be made in connection 
with the works annually during the five-year 
agreement is $25,000, and the water power to be 
developed 3,000 horsepower. 

For inside wiring at the Montreal electric 
power house the order went to O'Leary & Co., 
who secured the contract at $205, the same firm 
were also awarded the contract for electric pip- 
ing for generation purposes and for exciter leads 

at $145. For the supply of two circulating 
pumps, it was decided to award the contract to 
Laurie & Lamb, at $2,300, it being represented 
that the pumps on offer by that firm were more 
economical in steam consumption, and that the 
saving in fuel in one year would almost com- 
pensate for the dilTerence in price. Garth & Co. 
will provide the necessary pipe and fittings at a 
cost of $1,029. For a boiler supply the recom- 
mendation was for a 250 horse power water tube 
and the order was awarded to Poison's Iron 
Works at $4,615. 

The new auxiliary steam plant recently in- 
stalled at Victoria by the B.C. Electric Co., on 
the foreshore at Rock Bay opposite the old plant 
which has been yearly put in operation to meet 
the demand for power has been given its first 
practical test. By the installation of the new 
plant the B.C. Electric Co. has increased its 
ability to deliver electricity for power, light 
and heat by 1,000 horse power at an expenditure 
for building and plant of about $62,000. The 
machinery was formerly in use in Vancouver and 
was installed to give the added power needed 
consequent of the probable failure of the water 
power at Goldstream which in past years has 
overtaxed the old steam plant. For this year 
the new plant will be used solely as an aux- 
iliary in case of necessity. Until the Jordan 
river plant is running the new plant will be 
practically kept constantly in use after this 
year. The company now has a total horse power 
of 4,400. of which 3,400 can be secured from 
Goldstream and the old steam plant and 1000 
from the new plant, the largest amount of 
power in the history of the company here. 

Planing Mill News. 

J. W. Molson is building a large sawmill at 
Shawbridge. Que. 

D. E. Wallace, of Thamesville, Ont., is mak- 
ing further additions to his sawmill. 

A new sawmill is being built a short distance 
in the rear of the Markdalc. Ont., furniture fac- 

The Beaver Mfg. Co., Buffalo, makers of wood 
fibre material, contemplate establishing a branch 
factory at Ottawa. 

It is expected the Northern Oil Co. will 
establish works at Victoria, and wiii also build 
large wharves and a cooperage and box factory. 

The C. C. Manuel & Sons Co., of Richford, 
Vt. is building a plant in Sutton. Que., for the 
manufacture of butter dishes, clothes pins and 

Hugh Baird & Sons, formerly of Markdale. 
Ont., now at Thornbury, Ont., are again enter- 
ing the lumber business in the spring and ex- 
pect to put up a new band saw mill of the best 
fireproof construction. 

The Watts Manufacturing Co., of Wattsburg 
and Proctor, in the Kootenay district of Brit- 
ish Columbia, are installing a wire-wound wood- 
en pipe plant in connection with the Proctor 
mill. The plant is nearly ready for operation. 

Statistics of the lumber industry in British Co- 
lumbia show that the total number of saw mills 
is 204 : capacity, approximate average, 8,080,000 
feet a day ; shingle mills, 45, with a capacity of 
2.250.000,000 yearly ; logging camps, 265 ; donkey 
engines and logging locomotives, 267 : horses em- 
ployed, 1,500 ; men employed, 17,000. 

Seaman, Kent & Co., hardwood finishers, will 
erect a plant at Fort William, which will em- 
ploy 100 men and v/ill ship to the west the first 
year 500 carloajis of finished material and 800 
carloads a year afterward, provided the city will 
exempt them from all but a nominal tax. The 
proposition will be submitted to a vote of the 

Negotiations for the sale of the Canadian Pa- 
cific Lumber Co.'s mill at Port Moody, reputed 
to be the most scientifically constructed lumber 
manufacturing plant in British Columbia from 
the point of view of low cost of operation, are 


now proceeding between the owners and Mere- 
dith and Irwin, who are largely interested in the 
Anglo-American Lumber Company, of Vancouver. 
J. R. Booth, Ottawa : the E. B. Eddy Co., 
Hull, and the James Maclaren Co., of Bucking- 
ham, are taking out enough pulpwood to keep 
their mills running to the fullest capacity in 
preparation for what promises to be a good sea- 
son. Mr. Booth is increasing the capacity of his 
pulp producing plant by 60 per cent, and ex- 
pects to use all its output in the manufactur- 
ing of paper. 

Railway Construction. 

The Calgary Street Railway will build an ex- 
tension of about 12 miles during 1910. 

A $2,000,000 electric railway will be built in 
the Okanagan valley of British Columbia. 

The C.N.R. line will be extended to Athabasca 
Landing, thirty-six miles from Morinville, Alta.. 
the present terminus. 

Surveying between Port Colborne and Fort 
Erie along the lake shore for that branch of 
the N. St. C. & T. Ry., is now going on. 

Three hundred and fifteen thousand dollars will 
be expended on the New Westminster branch o; 
Ihe British Columbia Electric railway during 

Tenders are now being called for the construc- 
tion of tiie v., V. & E. line between Abbotsford 
and Hope, B.C., a distance of 78 miles, and be- 
tween Princeton and Tulameen. 

A party of G.T.P. surveyors will locate the 
line from Yorkton, Sask., to the Pass, at which 
point the G.T.P. will make connection with the 
Government road to either Churchill or Nelson. 

There is a project on foot at Vernon, B.C.. to 
build a tram line through the Okanagan valley 
from Enderby to Penticton and Summerland to 
handle the rapidly developing fruit and produce 
iiusiness of the district. 

A spur line running west from the C.V.R. 
branch of the Dominion Atlantic Railroad, at 
Kentville, N.S., will be built. The Provincial 
Government will give a subsidy of $3,200 per 
mile and the Federal the same. 

It is proposed to build a six-track subway 
from the eastern end of Montreal to the western, 
taking in all the railway stations, etc. English 
capital is behind the move, which will take in 
the street railway and power companies, and ne- 
cessitate an investment of a hundred million dol- 

A new electric railway running northward 
from Toronto to Barrie. with branches to Oril- 
lia and Owen Sound via Meaford, is being or- 
ganized by Toronto capitalists, and application 
will be made for a charter at the next sitting 
of the legislature by W. H. Price, acting for the 

A report from the Soo says that in February 
the Algoma Central Railway Company will call 
for tenders for an extension of their railroad 
200 miles. It was also stated that the sum ol 
$3,000,000 was being allowed in the estimates for 
this purpose. In the extension 64 bridges will be 

The charter granted to the Northern Empire 
Railway Co. and the Manitoba and British Co- 
lumbia Railway Co. has been transferred to a 
new company headed by Henry Roy. a million- 
aire. Capitalization. $4,500,000. Among the pro- 
jects Is a line through Peace River Crossing into 
Dawson and another east from McMurray to 
Fort Churchill on the Hudson Bay. 

To meet demands of the various parts of its 
extensive system, the B.C. Electric Railway will 
need over 100 freight cars and more than that 
number of passenger cars. Half a million dol- 
lars has been appropriated for this particular, 
and orders will be placed with manufacturers in 
the east. Not only that, but the shops at New 
Westminster of the company will be operated to 


capacity, and every effort made to attend to 
business offering. 

Officials of the Canadian Pacific Railway, in 
Winnipeg, have made an appropriation, provid- 
ing for the construction of fifty miles of the 
Kootenay Central Railway this year. It is pro- 
posed to start worli early in IMareh at or near 
Wardner station on the Crow's Nest Pass Rail- 
way. Tenders will likely be called for early Feb- 
ruary. The new line will open up some fertile 
and agricultural fruit-growing districts in the in- 
terior, including the famed Windermere Valley. 
The route extends north through the Kootenay 
Valley and thence via the Columbia Valley to 
Golden, a distance of 160 miles. 

The weather in the west has been so excep- 
tionally fine that good progress is reported as 
being made by the builders of the Grand Trunk 
Pacific. Freberg & Stone, sub-contractors under 
Foley. Welsh & Stewart, are drilling a tunnel 
nearly 400 feet long near Omineca on the upper 
Skeena river. Construction work on the east end 
of the Grand Trunk Pacific, also owing to the 
unusually favorable winter, is still going on. 
Down in New Brunswick the rails have been laid 
from Cains river westward as far as Nappadog- 
gan Lake, where in the heart of the great Mira- 
michi forest a divisional point has to be estab- 

New Companies. 

Caledonia Gypsum Co., Hamilton ; capital, 
i;i50,000 : to develop and work mineral lands. 
Incorporators, Henry Lewis, E. Uubenstein and 
E. J. Hunterf 

Acme Vacuum Cleaner Co., Montreal, capital. 
$20,000 ; to manufacture vacuum cleaners. Incor- 
porators. W. T. Cumming, A. J. Brown and F. 
G. Bush, Montreal. 

John Miller & Son, of Winnipeg ; capital. $25,- 
000 ; to deal in and manufacture hardware, etc. 
Incorporators. T. W. Neelands, 0. N. Broatch 
and F. W. Louthood. 

Montreal Asbestos Co.. Montreal ; capital. 
$500,000 : to mine, smelt and work asbestos. In- 
corporators, H. C. Organ. Q. E. Baxter and L. 
Normandin, Montreal. 

The Franco-Canadian Mfg. Co.. Montreal ; capi- 
tal. $20,000 ; to manufacture glass bottles and 
glassware. Incorporators H. Hubert. T. Lafleur. 
and L. Mercier, Montreal. 

Canadian Safe Co.. Windsor ; capital, $100,000; 
to make safes and vault doors. Incorporators. 
J. E. Blackmorc. Detroit : N. A. Bartlett and 
A. It. Bartlett, Windsor. 

Alex. Bremner, Ltd., Montreal ; capital. $200.- 
000 ; to manufacture bricks, cement, tiles, drain 
pipes, etc. Incorporators, Alex. Bremner, A. W. 
Bremner and Geo. Benoit, Montreal. 

The News Pulp & Paper Co., Montreal, has 
been incorporated with a capital of $1,000,000. 
The incorporators are : G. Cf Foster. J. T. 
Hackett. T. F. Coonan. all of Montreal. 

The National Engineering Co., Montreal ; capi- 
tal, $20,000 ; to manufacture electrical and me- 
chanical devices, etc. Incorporators, R. T. Hen- 
ekcr. A. H. Duff and W. S. Johnson, Montreal. 

The Torrcy Asbestos Machinery Co., Montreal; 
capital, $50,000 : to make mining, milling and 
general machinery. Incorporators, C. G. Green- 
shields, A. C. Caldcr and R. B. Allan. Mont- 

Swansea Smelting and Refining Co., Toronto ; 
capital, $100,000 ; to mine and treat ores and 
make articles of metals. Incorporators. A. E. 
Knox. C. F. Ritchie and J. H. Oldham. To- 

The Union Iron Works, Toronto ; capital, $200,- 
000 ; to manufacture all kinds of machinery and 
implements, hardware, etc. Incorporators, J. T. 
White. C. W. Widdifield, and J. H. Cavell. To- 

Canada Bolt and Nut Co., Toronto : capital, 
$2,500,000 : to smelt ores, metals and minerals, 
and manufacture their products. Incorporators, 
E. G. McMillan, J. B. Riley and G. B. Strathy, 

Canadian Merchandise, Ltd., Toronto ; capital, 
$5,000 ; to deal in novelties, household utensils, 
liardware and other merchandise. Incorporators, 
G. M. Kellam, R. Westwood and C. A. Bailey, 

The Courtright Stove Co.. Courtright, Out., 
capital $40,000, to manufacture stoves, furnaces, 
gas ranges and electric fixtures. Provisional 
directors, F. C. Watson, M. Sanders and H. W. 
Unsworth, Sarnia. 

Rogers Supply. Ltd., Toronto ; capital, $100,- 
000 : to take over the Rogers Supply Co. and 
make Portland cement and artificial stone. In- 
corporators. Alf. Rogers, J. W. Rogers and A. 
E. Stovel, Toronto. 

The International Tool Steel Co.. Toronto ; 
capital, $750,000 ; to mine and treat metals, car- 
ry on a foundry and machine shop, and make 
tools. Incorporators, S. J. Kelly, Jas. Ross, 
('has. Lehmann, Toronto. 

The B.C. Gazette gives notice of the incorpor- 
ation of the following companies : Powell River 
Paper Co., capital, $1,000,000 ; New Columbia 
River Co.. capital $.->,000,000 ; the Crown Shingle 
Mill Co., capital $25,000. 

Universal Engineering and Mfg. Co., Montreal; 
capital, $95,000 ; to manufacture, import and ex- 
port electrical and mechanical appliances and 
machinery. Incorporators, J. J. Campbell. J. D. 
I.achapelle and J. C. Dudley, Montreal. 

Canada Pipe & Steel Co.. Toronto ; capital 
$100,000 ; to manufacture iron, steel and metals, 
and make tools, machines and repair and con- 
struct structural work. Incorporators. J. L. 
Ross, A. R. Bickcrstaff and A. W. Holmstead. 

The Lafrance Improved Pipe Joints Co., Mont- 
real ; capital. $50,000 ; to manufacture and deal 
in saws, barbed wire, lead pipe, shot, locks, 
tools, white lead and paints, etc. Incorporators, 
J. Lafrance, A. Chagnon and L. D. Latour. 

Cartwright Automatic Press Co., Montreal ; 
capital. $500,000 ; to engage as iron founders, 
mechanical engineers and to make printing 
presses and machinery and tools. Incorporators. 
J. W. Blair. F. J. Laverty and L. A. David, 

Baillofs Gas and Steel Machine Co., Mont- 
real ; capital, $45,000 ; to construct and operate 
steel plants and gas generators and engage in 
general foundry and machine work. Incorpor- 
jitors, L. J. Beiquc, A. Baillot, and A. Menager, 

The Eastern Electric and Development Co.. 
Sackville, N.B. ; capital, $250,000 ; to establish 
electric works and manufacture electric ma- 
chinery, appliances, devices, etc., and to generate 
electric power for sale. Incorporators. Chas. 
Pickard. C. W. Fawcett. Sackville, and M. G. 
Siddall, Pt. Elgin, N.B. 

The Blair Engineering Co., of (Canada, Mont- 
real : capital. $100,000 ; to take over the Blair 
Engineering Co., New York, and to make the 
Blair indestructible port and bulk head for open- 
hearth furnaces, as well as deal in machinery of 
all kinds. Incorporators, Wm. Johnson. A. La 
Uocque and M. Benoit, Montreal. 

Martin Freres & Cie., Montrt^al, Que, have 
been incorporated with a capital of $100,000, to 
carry on business as manufacturers and dealers 
in timber, lumber, logs, sashes, blinds, boxes and 
woodwork generally : to own and operate limber 
limits, sawmills, ^ash and door factories and 
planing mills. Incorporators : T. B. Martin, F. 
Martin and others, all of Montreal. 


The ''Pocket Diary and Year Book for 1910," 
published by the Mechanical World, Manchester, 
Bug., contains considerable new matter, includ- 
ing an entirely new section on oil engines with 
notes on crude oil engines by W. A. Tookey, 
who has also revised the section on gas engines. 
Condensed notes on the design of centrifugal 
pumps have been contributed by B. M. Wood- 
house, and a new section on ball bearings has 
been included. Among other additions are the 
following ; Dimensions of marine boilers ; tapers 
and angles ; change wheels for cutting metric 
pitches ; hobs for cutting involute gears ; dimen- 
sions of ring-oiled bearings ; emery wheel speeds, 

Canadian Locomotive Works. 

The Canadian Locomotive Works recently com- 
pleted an up-to-date power house and a new 
boiler shop. Plans have been drawn up for a 
new erecting and tender shop and a new foundry. 
These new departments will be equipped with 
modern machinery greatly increasing the effi- 
ciency and capacity of the plant. 

International Harvester Co. 

The International Harvester Co.. Hamilton, 
have decided to spend $100,000 on enlarging their 
plant. A large addition will be made to the 
woodworking department. This will be followed 
by another building to be used for a machine 
and erecting shop. 

Bolt and Nut Merger. 

As announced in January Canadian Machinery, 
Lloyd Harris, M.P., Brantford, has been chosen 
president and T. H. Watson, Toronto, vice- 
president and general manager of the Canada 
Bolt & Nut Co., Toronto, the capitalization of 
which is made up as follows : Bonds, 6 per 
cent.. 20 years, $1,000,000 ; preferred, 7 per cent.. 
$1,250,000 ; common stock, $1,250,000 ; total, $3,- 

The companies included are the Toronto Bolt 
& Forging Co. ; Brantford" Screw Co.. Ganano- 
que Bolt Co.. Belleville Iron & Horseshoe Co. 
The remaining directors are G. P. Grant. W. T. 
Sampson and James Bicknell. Shareholders are 
offered cumulative preferred shares, and in addi- 
tion 25 per cent, bonus on the common stock. 


F. Reddaway, 56 St. Francois Xavier, Mont- 
real, manufacturers of Camel Brand oak tanned 
leather belting distributed a large office calendar 
printed in two colors. An instalation of a belt 
outside- is illustrated on the calendar. 

Big Aluminum Wire Order. 

The .\lumimim Co., of America, has just been 
given a contract for 1,500,000 pounds of alumi- 
num wire from the Hydro-Electric Commission 
of Ontario. The wire is for the first of a great 
series of electric installations which will place 
that province in the front rank as a section tor 
the distribution of cheap power. The wire is 
tor power lines supplied from Niagara Foils, 
and will cost about $400,000. It will be one- 
half inch in diameter and will be about halt 
the weight of copper. The lines will supply To- 
ront-^. Windsor. St. Catharines and Wetland. 
Port Dalhousie and many other municipalities 
with power to be used either for traction pur- 
poses, electric lighting or for manufacturing 
purposes. It is the plan to supply power by 
this method throughout the entire province of 
Ontario. The aluminum wire will be made and 
drawn at the Niagara Falls and Massenn, due., 
plants of the Aluminum Co. 



Canadian Machine Tool and Metal Markets 


Indications are that Winnipeg is to make vast 
industrial strides within the next two years at 
least. Every plant and machine shop in the city 
is working at its full capacity this winter and 
the business in all directions seems to be parti- 
cularly bright for this season of the year. Al- 
though there is only a small demand for new 
machinery just now, the fact that trade from the 
manufacturers' standpoint is good, the machine 
tool trade has an excellent future. Steel work- 
ing tools as yet have a weak market in this 
centre and only specialties are in demand. This 
is more particularly true of the smaller types. 

The woodworking tool market has been and 
continues to be better. The saw-milling indus- 
tries of the west are becoming more and more 
important and last fall many mills were equip- 
ped, and orders are in for some large planing 
machines and lathes. Construction machinery 
which always forms a large part of the trade 
in Western Canada is, of course, not called for 
now, but next season the demand for all types 
of hoisting engines, cranes and building ma- 
chines will be very heavy. 

The Stuart Machinery Co., are preparing to 
take care of a large amount of the machinery 
trade during the coming years. They will be in 
their new premises within the next few weeks. 

The Board of Control again took up the question 
of appointing an inspector for machinery for the 
city power plant, and decided to appoint the in- 
spector selected by the power engineers provided 
the cost would not exceed li per cent, of the 
total cost of the machinery. 


Business continues to improve and some of 
the machine tool manufacturers will not guar- 
antee deliveries for five months. Among the 
best selling lines during the past few weeks are 
heavy railroad machinery, radial drills and 
shapers. The prices of machine tools remain 
steady, prices being kept up by the increasing 

All the United States machinery centres re- 
port the same state of trade. They report a 
good volume of inquiries and a large percentage 
of these are turned into orders and the ma- 
chinery dealers are anticipating a good season. 

In power lines Canadian manufacturers are 
also busy. One manufacturer stated to Can- 
adian Machinery that business during three 
weeks of January 1910 equalled the business of 
Jan. and Feb. 1909. 

In the boiler trade, business is excellent and 
all manufactdrers of power lines are very busy. 
In electrical lines the demand for power equip- 
ment is keeping the plants at Hamilton, To- 
ronto and Peterboro very busy. Orders in this 
line are increasing, a number of them being 
placed in United States, England and Sweden. 


An improvement is noted in trade although 
it has not yet amounted to anything very sig- 
nificant. The mid-winter dullness is hard to 
shiike off, and users who buy at all ahead have 
not yet started to figure out very seriously 
what they may require for future needs. The 
tone of the markets is very good. It was ex- 
pected that tin and lead would be advanced, 
but the primary markets fell away, and thus 
ioeal prices remain unaltered. All the way 
round, however, prices are firm. 

The pig iron and steel situation look very 
promising. It is true that new business con- 
tinues quiet, but the trade are glad of this as 
it enables the plants to catch up with back or- 
ders. Delivery is better, and the industry is 
getting Into good shape for the great business 

that is anticipated later on. The situation in 
'the United States and the Old Country con- 
tinues unchanged. There has been a stimulation 
in iron buying in the States, with, the finished 
gteel trade quiet. The elections in the Old 
Country have disturbed the market there, but 
trade had kept up well, and when the turmoil 
is over plenty of business should break in. 

Prices show a decided stability and a good de- 
mand exists. Quotations are as follows : Sum- 
merlee ranges from $23 to $24 ; Middlesboro No. 
3 and Cleveland, $22 ; Glengarnock, $23.50 ; Jar- 
row and No. 1 Clarence, $21.75 ; and Canadian 
foundry iron, $22. 

Speaking of the outlook H. J. Fuller, pres- 
ident of Canadian Fairbanks Co.. Montreal, 
fiays : 

"We know, that many plants are projected to 
be built during 1910. We ourselves, are, at the 
present time, building a large addition to our 
factory at Toronto, and a new factory in Mont- 
real for the manufacture of a line not heretofore 
made in Canada by us. We believe that during 
the year 1910 we shall see higher prices and a 
demand which will be difficult to meet, even 
with all factories working to their utmost capa- 
city. From one end of the country to the other, 
nothing but the utmost optimism seems to pre- 
vail, and unless the spring should be unusually 
late and cold, and promise doubtful crops, we 
see no reason why 1910 should not be the great- 
est and best year that Canada has ever seen." 

W. S. Leslie, president of A. C Leslie & Co., 
Montreal, says : — "We look upon the prospects 
for the iron, steel and metal business as very 
favorable on the whole. Already nearly all the 
large buyers have shown their confidence by pur- 
chasing good quantities for delivery as far into 
the new year as producers would contract for ; 
prices generally are stiffening and the advance 
seems to be fully justified by improvement in 
general trade conditions, and there is very little, 
if any, appearance of an attempt unnaturally 
to boom prices. We look for a further improve- 
ment as soon as the election in Great Britain 
is over." 

Wm. McMaster, vice-president and general 
manager of the Montreal Rolling Mills, says :— 
"I look forward to a larger business in iron 
and steel products this year in comparison with 
1909. The improvement in business in the Unit- 
ed States, with the advances in prices, and the 
better feeling as to values in Great Britain and 
the Continent, all influence the opinion that 
1910 will be a prosperous one for Canada. 


Machine Tool Co., Franklin, Pa., have issued 
bulletin No. 40 which describes floating reamer 
holders made in two sizes for vertical boring 
mills with turret heads. They hold any make 
or style of reamer with Morse taper shank. A 
full description with prices is included in the 

Co.. Niagara Falls, N.Y., have issued Vol. VII., 
of American Statesmen series which contains the 
life history of Benjamin Franklin. 

ELECTRIC WELDING.— The Toledo Electric 
Welding Co., 141 Tenth St., Toledo, in a neat 
booklet describes the process of electric welding 
and the various machines. Prices are given 
showing the cost of electric welding. 

CONVEYORS.— Booklets 34 and 34 have been 
recently issued by the .Jeffrey Mfg. Co., Colum- 
bus, Ohio. The former deals with wire cable 
conveyors for various purposes. The latter con- 
tains descriptions of many styles of elevator 

POLISHING LATHES.— A pamphlet from 
Charles Taylor, machine tool maker, Bartholo- 

mew St., Birmingham, Eng., describes, giving 
prices, patent ball bearing polishing lathes. 

CRANES. — A catalogue dealing with railroad, 
shop and yard cranes has recently been issued 
by the Whiting Foundry Equipment Co., of Har- 
vey, III., a copy of which may be had on direct 
application. This publication gives a general 
outline of the purpose for which cranes are used 
in railroad yards and shops. The illustrations 
are reproduced from photographs of actual in- 
stallations, and cover the entire railroad field. 
From the handling of complete locomotives and 
parts thereof to the transfer of freight, very 
heavy loads are encountered and this company 
have originated many special designs, including 
gantry cranes for wheeling locomotives, travel- 
ing cranes running on circular track in round- 
houses and service cranes. 

SAND BLAST APPARATUS-— A pamphlet from 
C. Drucklieb. 178 Washington St., New York. 
gives directions for connecting and operating the 
injector sand blast. 

CUTTING METALS.— Cutting and welding 
metals by means of oxygen and hydrogen is the 
subject of an illustrated booklet issued by the 
American Oxhydric Co.. Milwaukee, Wis. The 
process is fully explained. 

INDUCTION MOTORS.— Bulletin 301 from Allis- 
Chaimers-BuUock, Montreal, deals with poly- 
phase Induction Motors. These are described in 
detail, Instalations are shown and in addition 
controllers, vertical motors are described. The 
advantages of the induction motor are given in 
the bulletin. 

CUPOLAS.— Foundry Melting Equipment is the 
subject of a catalogue from George Green & Co., 
Kcighley, Eng., describing cupolas, oil or gas 
furnaces, blowers, etc. One of the most inter- 
esting features is the "Emergency" cupola, in- 
stalations of which, have been made in almost 
every country on the globe, including the Brit- 
ish Colonies. 

Co., 106 New Bond St., London, have issued a 
series of leaflets, now compiled in book form de- 
scribing "Igranic" electric motor and dynamo 
controlling apparatus for direct and alternating 
current. All apparatus is fully described and il- 
lustrated, the volume containing a great deal of 
information making it a most useful one. 

STEAM HAMMERS.— Catalogue 911 from the 
Buffalo Foundry & Machine Co., East Ferry St.. 
liuffalo. describes fully with illustrations the va- 
rious types of Bell Steam Hammers. 

from the Standard Sand and Machine Co., 
Cleveland, describes their mixers of various 
types, pulverizers, conveyors, etc. 

JET CONDENSER.— A jet condenser giving a 
vacuum of 28.75 inches of mercury which is sg 
designed that a thorough mixture of exhaust 
steam and cooling water takes place and at 
the same time the air present is prevented from 
pocketing and is delivered to the air pump at 
a minimum temperature, involves numerous in- 
teresting departures in condenser design. These 
features are brought out, and the general theory 
of jet condenser construction discussed in a re- 
jirint of the article. "A Radical Improvement 
in Jet Condensers." This booklet is being dis- 
tributed by the Wheeler Condenser & Engineer- 
ing Co.. ol Carteret. N. J. 

UNIFORM TORQUE.— A pamphlet entitled. 
"Arrangement of Engine Cylinders \o Produce 
Uniform Torque" has just been issued by the 
.A-merican Engine Co., of Bound Brook. N. J. 
This pamphlet contains typical inaicator cards 
taken from the American Ball Angle Compound 
Engine, and also a derived crank effort diagram. 
This diagram shows that this type of engine 
produces a torque which is nearly as uniform 
as that given by steam turbines, while the 
steam consumption is considerably less than 
that of turbines. The booklet also contains a 
discussion of the crank effort diagram and will 
be sent free upon application. 




,^^ Manufacturing News ^ 

A monthly newspaper devoted to the manufacturing interests, covering in a practical manner the mechanical, power, foundry 
and alhed fields. Published by The MacLean Publishing Company, Limited, Toronto. Montreal. Winnipeg, and London. Eng 
MONTRB<L, Eastern Townships Bank BlJg. TORONTO, 10 Front Street East. WINNIPEG, 511 Union Bank Building. 

LONDON, ENG.. 88 Fleet Strtet, E C. 

Vol. VI. 

Publication Office: Toronto, March, 1910. 

No. 3 

Bertram Bending Rolls 



t' ' "^'.'7 

ilG« - '^■'^^^ 








Bertram Horizontal Plate Bending Rolls— Motor Driven 

Capacity to bend ii^-inch plate 12 ft. wide to a radius of yi^ft. 
Full particulars sent on request. 



SalM Acanta: Th« Canadian Fairbanks Company, Limited. 

Offices: Montreal, Toronto, Winnipas, Vancouver. Cal(ary, St. John 



For Grinding and Sizing Automatically 

within 0.0001 in. J^ / 


The P. & W. Automatic Sizing Grinder 

Permits operator to be simultaneously engaged in other work or in operating several machines. 

The P. & W. Sizing Device takes care of the entire grinding operation after work is once placed in 
position. It automatically changes the coarse roughing feed to a fine feed to remove the last thousandth 
and produce a mirror finish. Feed automatically stops after the exact size is obtained. Wear of grinding 
wheel has absolutely no effect whatever on the sizing device. 

The Only Attachment of its Kind and a Standard Part of the Machine. 

Write for illustrated Circulars. 

For the Rapid Manufacture of 
Brass and Steel Specialties 

The P. & W. 
Turret Lathes 

A standard machine tool with the accuracy 
of a high grade engine lathe. Thoroughly and 
rigidly constructed. Has a positive, unyielding 
control with a simple and reliable action which 
permits of rapid manipulation. 

Tool outfit rapidly and quickly adjusted to 
a wide range of work. 

Write for Catalogue ''Turret Lathes.'' 




Sales Agents — The Canadian Fairbanks Company, Limited, Montreal, St. John, Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary, Vancouver 

Don't tail to mention "Canadian Macliinery" in writing to advertisers. 

Some Notes on the Cost of Operating Machine Tools 

A Full Knowledge of Costs is Essential in Manufacturing — This Article Re- 
printed from the Electric Journal gives the Cost of Operating Machine Tools. 

By \. G. POPCKE. 

In addition to the wages of the ma- 
chinist, there are other hourly operat- 
ing expenses which must be charged 
against each tool in a machine shop. 
These will be referred to in this article 
as machine-hour rates. They include a 
proportional share of the general 
charges and also specific charges relat- 
ing to each specific tool. The conditions 
are somewhat similar to those encoun- 
tered in central stations. Before com- 
petition was very great, it was consid- 
ered sufficient to figure the cost of gen- 
erating power from the amount of coal 
and water consumed, and the wages of 
the power house attendants. Many in- 
dustrial plants of considerable size 
that generate their own power still use 
this method. Most central station man- 
agers, however, have found it necessary, 
as the demand for power increased and 
the business became more complicated, 
to figure more closely and to analyze 
more thoroughly, all their expenses, 
among, which are interest and deprecia- 
tion on the cost of all buildings and 
equipment, salaries of officials, engineer- 
ing staff, clerk, miscellaneous office ex- 
penses and advertising charges. 

General Charges. 

In a machine shop these charges may 
be considered under three general heads 
— fixed charges, variable charges and 
salaries. They can be determined for a 
given shop at intervals of a month or 
more and then divided among the sever- 
al machines. The best method of mak- 
ing this division depends on so many 
local conditions that no general rules 
can be given. If all the tools are do- 
ing work of the same general class and 
are in use approximately the same pro- 
portion of the total time, a part of the 
total general charge can be set oft 
against each tool in proportion to the 
floor space occupied by both the tool 
and the material on which it works. 
The general charge against each tool 
continues whether the tool is operating 
or idle, and the method of dividing the 
general charges must always take this 
fact into consideration. 

Fixed charges include interest, insur- 
ance, and taxes on the investment in 
buildings and auxiliary equipment, such 
as heating and ventilating systems, fire 
appliances, benches, cranes, etc. If a 
shop is rented, the rental must include 

the foregoing charges and an additional 
sum for profit to the owner. 

Variable charges include repairs on 
buildings and equipment to maintain 
the efficiency, losses due to breakage, 
defective material, defective design, 
workmanship, etc. 

Salaries include cost of management, 
superintendence, engineering and de- 
signing, clerical work, care of plant, 
miscellaneous labor, etc. 

Specific Charges. 

In addition to the foregoing general 
charges, the cost of operating a tool is 
affected by the following specific charges 
which can be determined for each tool : 

Interest on the cost of the tool and 
its auxiliaries. 

Depreciation of the tool and its aux- 

Cost of power consumed by the tool. 

The interest on the cost of the tool 
is fairly taken at six per cent. A reas- 








II * 



0- 1 














,;.n 1' 'l 1 T 'l 

Fig. 1. — Deiirpciation at 10 i pr cent. Reducing 

onable method of making allowance for 
d^)rcciation, in most cases, is to allow 
ten per cent, of a reducing balance ; 
that is, ten per cent, of the first cost 
is charged off the first year, then ten 
per cent, of the remaining cost the sec- 
ond year, and ten per cent, of that re- 
mainder the third year, etc. This me- 
thod is based on the fact that the ap- 
paratus actually decreases in value year 
by year. Allowance for depreciation in 
any given year can be made by the aid 
of Fig. 1. This curve gives the per 
cent, of the first cost corresponding 
each year to ten per cent, on the re- 
duced balance. For example, the curve 
shows that the depreciation on a tool 
that has been in service five years will 
be 6.6 per cent, of the original cost. If 
this cost was $3,800 the allowance for 
depreciation during the sixth year, ac- 


cording to the ten per cent, reducini; 
balance method, is $3,800 multiplied by 
0.066 equals $250.80. Since this amount 
is ten per cent, of the reduced cost the 
value of the tool at the end of the fifth 
year is $2,508. 

Costs of Power. 

Tools for special work which will be 
discontinued after a comparatively lim- 
ited period depreciate in value much 
more rapidly than is indicated by the 
foregoing method ; a special allowance, 
generally known as utility depreciation, 
should be made for such tools. 

The cost of power for each tool can 
be obtained by ascertaining the power 
demand in kilowatts per hour and mul- 
tiplying this number of power units by 
the cost per unit and the number of 
working hours. If power is generated 
under the shop management, its cost 
must be determined from the station 
records ; if purchased, the contract 
price must be used. If the machines 
are equipped with individual motors re- 
cords for each class of work may) easily 
be obtained by the use of graphic re- 
cording meters. These records will 
show what the standard conditions 
should be and what they actually are. 
Check records may be taken frequently 
to see that all machines are working at 
tlie desired efficiency. 

Each machine may be considered as a 
manufacturing centre and the general 
charge against it as rental. Each centre 
receives its material from another, per- 
forms some work on it and passes it on 
with an added value to the next centre. 
This added value, less the general and 
specific charges, is the profit accruing 
to each centre. Since the general 
charge is continuous, it is evident that 
each centre must do more than enough 
work to meet this charge, otherwise it 
will show a loss ; also it is evident that 
the more work there is done in each 
centre, the greater the profit. 

By determining the costs outlined in 
Table I and classifying them as in 
Table II, improvements in operating 
conditions will suggest themselves and 
if put into effect, the operating costs 
can usually bo reduced. The data in 
Table II was obtained by the aid of 
graphic recording meters in connection 
with motor-driven machine tools. The 
data in this table is typical of condi- 
tions in many large machine shops. The 

Canadian Machinery 

figures given indicate the following di- 
vision of total operating charges : 

Variable charges from 50 to 55 per cent. 
Salaries from 25 to 30 per cent. 
Interest on cost of machine tools from 

5 to 10 per cent. 
Depreciation on cost of machine tools 

from 5 to 10 per cent. 
Fixed charges 3 per cent. 
Powder 1 per cent. 

Table 11 shows no machine-hour rates 
less than 48 cents an hour. Usually the 
machine-hour rates are at least 50 per 

crating expenses, the increased earnings 
by motor operation will be 0.20 multi- 
plied by $2,470, or $494 per year. 

It both interest at six per cent, and 
depreciation at ten per cent, be consid- 
ered, $494 represents a capitalization of 
$3,087 ; that is, to effect an increase 
of 20 per cent, in production, this 
amount could be added to fhe invest- 
ment without change of net profit. This 
mill can be operated by a 7.5 horse- 
power motor, and the cost of such a 
motor, including a controller and the 

machine tool operation arc continually 
being developed, and should be taken 
advantage of when any such changes in 
equipment are being made. 



General Charges Against Total Shop. 

Fixed Charges: 

Interest and depreciation 
and accessories. 

Variable Charges: 

Repairs and renewals. 
General operating expenses. 



on buildings 

Charges Against Each Machine Tool. 
•Proporiionrtl share of total fixed charge. 

Proportional share of total variable charge 

Proportional share of total salaries. 

cent, greater than the operator's pay. 
It is perfectly evident from this that 
consideration of the operator's pay 
alone gives results far from correct, 
when the total cost of operation is un- 
der consideration. 

In some cases it has been found that 
the introduction of individual motor 
drive has resulted in an increase of 20 
per cent, on production as well as mak- 
ing it possible to obtain accurate data 
by means of graphic recording watt- 
meters. To obtain such results, how- 
ever, the motors must be properly ap- 
plied and the method of control must 
be suitable for the service. Machine 
tool builders are generally prepared to 
equip old line-shaft driven tools with 
additional parts to fit them for motor 
drive ; with few exceptions the advan- 
tages of motor drive for such machines, 
if in good condition, are nearly as great 
as for new machines. Heavier cuts are 
possible with motors than with line 
shaft drive, but the old tools are not 
usually strong enough to permit taking 
full advantage of this possibility. 

The saving to be made by installing 
an indivihual motor may be illustrated 
by assuming that the 60-in. boring mill 
cited in Table II was shaft driven. The 
machine-hour rate is $0.53, and if the 
workman receives $0.35 per hour, the 
total operating cost is $0.88 per hour, 
or $2,470 per year of 2,808 hours (54 
hours per week). This machine if pro- 
perly equipped for motor drive will 
give at least 20 per cent, increased out- 
put with practically no increased oper- 
ating cost. Assuming that the machine's 
earnings are only enough to cover op- 

Interest on cost of tool. 
Depreciation on cost of tool. 
Cost of power for tool. 

necessary changes in the machine, would 
amount to possibly $500 or about one- 
sixth the warranted investment. From 
the other point of view, the interest 
and depreciation on $500 at 16 per cent. 
is $80, which deducted from the total 
saving, $494, effected by the motor 
drive, leaves $414 per year net gain. 

In some cases the conditions will war- 
rant the installation of a complete new 


If you work for a man, in heaven's 
name, work for him. If he pays wages 
that supply you your bread and butter, 
work for him, speak well of him, think 
well of him, stand by him, and stand 
by the institution he represents. I 
would not work for him part of his 
time, but all of his time. I would give 
an undivided service or none. 

If put to the pinch, an ounce of loy- 
alty is worth a pound of cleverness. 

If you must vilify, condemn and eter- 
nally disparage, why resign your posi- 
tion, and when you are outside damn ' 
to your heart's content. But, I pray 
you, so long as you are a part of an 
institution, do not condemn it. Not 
that you will injure the institution— 
not that — but when you disparage the 
concern of which you are a part, you 
disparage yourself. 

And don't forget, "I forgot" won't 
do in business. — Elbert Hubbard. 

A very ingenious method of overcom- 
ing the friction of intermcshing gear.s 
has recently been devised. The gear- 
teeth are electro-magnetically held in en- 
gagement, without actually contacting. 
The teeth of the driving-gear are mag- 


,. Charges per hour in dollars. \ 

Total, or 
Vari- In- *Deprecia- Mach-Hr. 

Type of Machine. Fixed. able. Salaries, terest. tion. Power. Rate. 

Vertical Boring Mills — 

"10 inches to 60 inches 0.02 0.25 0.15 O.OS 0.05 0.01 0.53 

12 inches to 100 inches 0.04 0.45 0.25 0.08 0.08 0.01 0.91 

U feet to 14 feet 0.05 0.80 0.40 0.15 0.15 0.02 1.57 

16 feet to 24 feet Ext 0.08 2.00 1.00 0.30 0.30 0.03 3.71 

Av. percent of total 3 52 28 8 8 • 1 100 

Radial Drills— 5 feet 0.02 0.30 0.20 0.03 0.03 O.OI 0.59 

Radial Drills— 10 feet 0.04 0.60 0.35 0.09 0.09 0.01 1.18 

Av. percent of total 3 51 31 7 7 1 100 

Engine Lathes— 30 inches to 40 inches 0.02 0.25 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.48 

Engine Lathes— 40 inches to 60 inches 0.03 0.50 0.25 0.10 0.^0 0.01 0.99 

Av. percent of total 3 51 25 10 10 1 100 

Planers— 36 inches to 56 inches 0.04 0.55 0.30 0.05 0.05 0.01 1.00 

Planers-*- 7 feet to 10 feet 0.06 1.10 0.60 0.15 0.15 0.02 2.08 

Planers— 12 feet to 14 feet 0.13 2.60 1.40 0.25 0.25 0.03 4.M 

Av. per cent of total 3 55 30 5.5 5.5 1 100 

*It is assumed that machines have been installed six years, so that the depreciation is »ix 

per cent on basis of ten per cent reducing balance. See Fig. 1. 

equipment instead of equipping the old 
tool with a motor. The new tool will 
require increased investment, but will 
make possible more rapid work by tak- 
ing heavier cuts, thereby warranting 
the investment. Whether to equip an 
old machine with a motor or to install 
a new motor-driven tool is a question 
calling for careful consideration in order 
to' obtain the best results, as im- 
proved methods of api)lying motors to 

notised by means of suitable coils, while 
the teeth of the driven gear serve in 
pairs as armatures for the magnetised 
teeth. Of course, such an arrangement 
would hardly be suitable for slow, heavy 
work, because the cost of current would 
be greater than that of lubricating-oil 
and the loss due to friction, but for 
light, high-speed work the electro-mag- 
nectic engagement would undoubtedly 
prove very advantageous. 


Crinding Wheels — Their Manufacture and Uses 

Modern Grinding Wheel Practice : Mounting Wheels : Why a Grinding 
Wheel Cuts. From an Illustrated Talk at McGiU University, Feb. 9, 1910 


Alundiinn, the grit or cutting- material 
used in tlie manufacture of Norton grind- 
ing wheels, is made from bauxite, a hy- 
drate of alumina. The electric furnace 
purities it a,nd the analysis of alundnni 
will run nearly as high as the ruby in 
crvstalline aluminum oxide, anil theliigli- 

Correct Melli 'd o\ Mountitiif a Wheel, showing 
Flanges One-half the Diameter and 
Properly Relieved. 

er the crystalline aluminum o.xide. the 
greater its cutting elKiciency as an abras- 

The base of the abrasive qualities of 
emery and corundum is crystalline alum- 
inum oxide. Emery contains from 35 to 
■iO per cent impurity in the form of iron, 
silica and lime. Corundum is practically 
a pure aluminum oxide, but is never ob- 
tained in its pure state, on account of 
the matrix in which it is found. 

The etiieiency of an abrasive does not 
always depend on its hardness. The re- 
sistance of its grain lo fracture is its 
most important property. This sliould 
be proportionate to the pressure at which 
it is to be used. In internal grinding. 
where the wheel is small and mounted on 
the end of a slim spindle, we not only 
use a weak bond, but also an abrasive 
that will fracture easily. If the grain 
itself did not break so as to leave new 
cutting surfaces, it would be impossible 
to do good and fast work on account of 
glazing and heat. 

On heavy work, such as steel castings 
where large wheels are used and pieces 
weighing from 45 to 100 poun'ds are 
thrown against tliem, we must have a 
tough abrasive that will not break down 
until wo have reached the glazing point. 

This range of toughness of grain is 
known by us as "temper," and an abras- 
ive which cannot be made in different 
degrees of temper is not adapted to all 
classes of grinding. 

In the making of alnndum, manipula- 
tion of furnace and the mixtures which 
are used ir. it give us all the tempers re- 

The mineral bauxite is a hydrate of 
alumina containing one-third water of 

combination. The water is expelled by 
the means of a rotary calciner, the 
cylinder of the calciner shown here be- 
ing 60 feet in length and is heated by 
two gas producers, and the material be- 
ing fed in from the end farthest from 
the fire. The material is diseha.rged, free 
from water, at the producer end. The 
machine is continuous and will calcine 
40 tons of bauxite daily. 

After calcining, the ore is ready for 
the electric furnace. These furnaces are 
c:)nical-s'haped pots, which stand on a 
car and heated by two vertical electrodes, 
which are gradually raised as the molten 
bauxite fills the furnace. 2200 electric 
horse-power is used in the furnace room. 
When the fusion is complete, the furna,ce 
is pushed out under an electric crane, 
the product lifted off and placed on the 
cooling tloor until cold enough to handle. 
The fusions contain about three tons of 
abrasive material. 

In the scheme of reduction to pre- 
pare alundum for manufacture into 
wheels, it is passed through a series of 
crushers, rolls, roasters, washers, dryers 
and grading sieves. It must be crushed 
and graded to a great many sizes, which 
are designated by numbers ranging all 
the way from 10 to 201). Finer ma- 
terials than No. 200 grain are called 
Hours. The flours are used largely in 
rubbing and sharpening slones, razor 
hones, etc. The grains are numbered ac- 
cording to the meshes per linear inch 
I'.irougli which they have passed in grad- 
ing. By No. 30 grain is raea,nt the size 

testing Wheels. 

Norton alnndum wheels are tested im- 
mediately before shipment at approxi- 
mately 10,000 surface feet per minute. 
The testing is done on motor-driven ma- 
chines equipped with variab'e speed mo- 
tors, the revolutions per minute being 
indicated by tachometers. The bursting 
limits of all grinding wheels vary in 
proportion to their grade of hardness. 
Breakages do not occur in grinding 
wheels made by standard makers from 
any inherent weakness they may eon- 
tain, but rather from insufficient care 
taken in their use and mounting. 

The most common causes of accidents 
are: Catching of work between wheel 
and rest; mounting them between flanges 
that bear unevenly vphen nut is tight- 
ened; not using any flanges and simply 
screwing a nut against the wheel; allow- 
ing the arbors to become loose in the 
boxes from wear; allowing wheels to 
get out of truth. 

All wheels are tested against standard 
wheels to establish their grade of hard- 
ness, special machines being used for 
this purpose. Every wheel is thorough- 
ly inspected before shipment by an in- 
spection department, and no wheel can 
be shipped without having passed this 
department and without the signature of 
the inspector on the order check. 
Grits and Grades. 

Grinding wheels are made in many 
combinations of grain and grade to meet 
the variety of conditions under which 
they are used. The shipping tag of each 
wheel bears a number and grade letter. 
For example, 30-M; thirty designates 
that No. 30 grain was used in the manu- 
facture of that wheel. The letter of the 
al|)habet designates the grade of hard- 
ness, which grade is determined by skill- 
ed graders, with the aid of grading ma- 
chines. When the retentive properties of 

Three Types ol i' 

that will pass through a grading sieve 
having 30 meshes to the linear inch; No. 
20 grain, 20 meshes, etc. 

Truing is done by means of cutters of 
stamped steel or chilled iron, and on 
fine wheels or where sharp corners are 
desired diamonds are used. 

^..^^i.oii Flanges. 

the bond are great, the wheel is called 
"hard"; when the grains are easily bro- 
ken out it is called "soft." A wheel is 
of the proper grade when its cutting 
gi'ains are automatically replaced when 
dull. Wheels that are too hard glaze. 
Dressing re-sharpens them, the points of 


the dresser breaking oul and breaking 
off the cutting grains by percussion. 

Soft wheels are used on hard ma- 
terials, like hardened steel. Here the 
cutting particles are quickly dulled and 
must be renewed. On softer materials, 
like mild steel and wrought iron, harder 
grades can be used, the grains not dull- 
ing so quickly. 

The area of surface to be ground in 
contact with the wheel is of the utmost 
importance in determining grade. If 
it is a point contact, like grinding a 
ball, or an extremely narrow fin is to 
be removed, we must use a very strongly 
bonded wheel, on account of the leverage 
exerted on its grain, this tending to tear 
o^t the cutting particles before they 
have done their work. If we have a 
broad contact, like grinding a hole or 
where the work brings a large part of 
the wheel into operation, the softer 
grades must be used, because the deptli 
of cut is so infinitely small that the cut- 
ting points in work become dulled quick- 
ly and must be renewed, or the wheel 
glazes and loses its effieieney. 

Protection Hcxid. 

Vibrations in grinding machines cause 
percussion on the cutting grains, neces- 
sitating harder wheels. Wheels mounted 
on rigid machines can be softer in grade 
and are much more eificient. 

Running speed in practice are from 
4,000 to 6,000 surface feet, depending on 
work, condition of machine, and mount- 
ing. Generally speaking, grinding of 
tools, cutters and surface grinding, is 
done at about 4,000 to 5,000 feet. Snag- 
ging and rough forms of hand-grinding 
are done at 5,000 to 6,000 feet. Cylin- 
drical grinding, or where the work is 
rigidly held and the wheel feed is under 
control, is done at from 5,500 to 6,500 
feet, and in some instances as high as 
7,500 feet. These speeds apply to vitri- 
fied, silicate and elastic wheels. 

Users of grinding wheels are begin- 
ning to realize the importance of mount- 
ing them in a safe and proper manner. 
Fig. 1 shows flanges one-half the dia- 
meter of the wheel properly relieved so 
as to bring the bearing of the flangfe as 
far out on the diameter of the wheel as 

possible. The rubber washers tend to 
take up any imperfections in the wheel 
or flange. 

The three types of protection flanges 
shown are good if properly designed. The 
criticism of all protection flanges is that 
they do not prevent that part of the 
wheel outside of the flange from flying 
in case of accident. Probably the best 
protection for a grinding wheel is the 
protection hood shown. This device pre- 
vents pieces of wheel from flying all 
over the shop and protects the vital 
parts of the operator's anatomy. 

Before starting up the machine after 
a new wheel has been mounted, care 
should always be taken that the belt 
has been shifted to the proper pulley. 
As a grinding wheel decreases in dia- 
meter, in order to maintain the same 
surface speed the belt should be shifted 
to a smaller pulley. The belt should 
never be left on the smaller pulley, how- 
ever, when mounting a new wheel of 
larger diameter. In places where many 
wheels are used, instead of shifting the 
belt two or three sizes of machines are 
used and when the wheel is worn down 
to a certain diameter, it is changed to 
a machine with higher speed. 

It is well to remember that the ef- 
ficiency of any grinding wbeel is pro- 
portionate to its periphery speed. The 
following notice is used in many places 
with good results, it being posted direct- 
ly on front of the machine: 

Machine Number 

Spindle Revolutions 

Diameter of Grinding Wheel not over 


Take off Wheel at inches. 

Notify Foreman when Wheel needs 

In connection with this, it is good 
practice to have one man mount, change 
belts and dress all wheels. 

Machines should also be equipped with 
dust systems. There are many grinding 
rooms in our older shops where the ma- 
chines are placed in rooms without ven- 
tilation or light. Grinding reoms should 
necessarily be well ventilated on account 
of the dust. The dust system prevents 
wear and tear on the shafting, machin- 
ery and belts. It makes the grinders 
feel better and the man is just as ef- 
ficient as he feels. Machines on foun- 
dations are much less liable to vibration 
and lack of vibration means wheel econ- 

Why a Grinding Wheel Cuts. 
Some idea of the reason why a grind- 
ing wheel can cut work to size in less 
time than the same work can be sized 
by the turning tool may be had when it 
is known that a 24x4-ft. wheel, when used 
on a modern machine, will remove ap- 
proximately one billion, eighty-six mil- 
lion, one hundred and seventy-oii? thous- 
and (1,086,171,000) chips per minute. It 


has been figured out that there are .np- 
proximately one million, eighty-six thous- 
and, one hundred and seventy-one (1,- 
086,171) cutting points on the wheel 
faee each cutting off a chip one thousand 
times per minute. 

There seems to be considerable mis- 
understanding in the mechanical world 
as to what is going on when a grinding 
wheel is removing stock. One very often 
hears the expression, "This wheel cuts; 
it does not grind," the intention being 
to impress the hearer with the thought 
that that particular wheel has in it some 
virtue of cutting which other grindins; 
wheels have not. 

It is, of course, true that many wheels 
cut poorly, due to improper grain and 
grade. So do many tools which have not 
been correctly tempered. Because some 
of the cutting partieles of grinding 
wheels are blunt or even round does not 
prevent their cutting. 

We can all remember when we could 
not conceive of a lathe-tool as capable 
of cutting unless it had a sharp and 
raking edge. But modern high-speed 
steels have shown us that tools without 
sharp edges or sharp points cut off the 
greatest quantity of chips in the short- 
est time. The material of these steels 
and their proper heat treatment for cut- 
ting high speeds is the secret of their 

So with grinding wheels. The material 
removed by a good grinding wheel is re- 
moved in the same manner as by the 
turning tool. It is cut just the same. 
With the grinding wheel, the chips are 
so very small that we do not recognize 
them as such without the aid of the 
microscope. The microscope clearly 
shows them to be shavings identical with 
the cuttings from steel tools, except that 
they are of many different shapes and 
angles of clearance. Some have a rak- 
ing cut, some a dragging cut. In dry 
grinding, the chips are generally dis- 
colored from the heat. If the wheel is 
too hard, we find the grindings full of 
globules and molten metal. 

Wet grinding gives us better-shaped 
chips and of about their natural color, 
indicating that the water has served to 
lubricate and to keep the cutting edges 
of the grain sharp and the work cool. 

Examination will show a difference 
in chips of the same grade of steel 
ground dry from those produced by wet 
grinding. The chips from dry grinding 
usually show globules of molten steel, 
while those produced by wet grinding ; 
are more regular, and about the natural 
color of the metal. 

Manganese steel is a hard and tough 
material which cannot be touched with 
any kind of a turning tool and unless 
an abundance of water is used, when 
grinding, we get burned chips. 

The Design of Bevel Gears ; Shafts Acute and Obtuse 

Part II. on the Design and Manufacture of the Varions Types of Gears, 
Giving Information and Tables of Great use to Mechanical Men. 


This article introduces a method for 
the caleiilatiou of all bevel gears other 
than those with shafts at right angles, 
which has been described in Pare I. The 
method with which the centre angles are 
calculated, and from which the formulas 
are derived, can be better understood 
by referring to Fig. 2. The diagram 
contains the two half-pitch diameters 
drawn at an angle which is always 180 
degrees minus the angle of shafts, and 
the two shaft-centre lines form the bal- 
ance of the quadrilateral figure, the 
corners of this figure have been con- 
nected by two straight lines, one of 

Fig. 1.— Pair of Gears, Shafts Acute. 

which is the diameter of the enclosing 
circle, divides the angle of shafts, and 
runs through the centre of working depth 
of teeth, as they m§sh. 

A careful inspection of Fig. 2 reveals 
the fact, that in order to determine 
either centre angle G or C, we 
have but to calculate angle b or angle a, 
and since the included angle m is al- 
ways 180 degrees minus the angle of 
.shafts L, we have 'the included angle and 
two sides, viz: the two half-pitch diam- 
eters, with wliich we may proceed witli 
the operation of calculating angle a. In 
the right hand comer of Fig. 2, the 
half-pitch diameter of gear has been ex- 
tended to n and a perpendicular erected 

to 1, thus making a rig'ht triangle pnl 
tangent a or tangent c, is therefore the 
distance nl divided by the distance np, 
while the lengths nl and nk may be 
readily found by multiplying the half- 
pitch diameter of pinion by the sine and 
cosine of angle e, which is equal to the 

angle of .shafts L, and from which is 
derived 'the formula for shafts acute. 
N, sin L 

Tangent C^ 

(N, cosL")+K 
{I have substituted the number of teeth 
in place of pitch diameters, as in part 

G - Center Angle of Gccyr = cirujfc h 

C - „ „ „ Pinion — ,. " CL 

77T - inc/udod an^fc o/ Pif-ck Diamcf-pi-s = fSo"— L- 

e = Si'vplcmcnf cf anqlc "m" - anolc of shci/fs''L" 

Fig. 2.— Calculating Angles. 


Fig. 3.— Pair of Bevel Gears. Shafts Acute. 


r.). Angle G is found by deducting angle 
C from angle of shafts L. 

When shafts are at an obtuse angle, 
however, the included angle m is obliged 
to be acute and another formula re- 
(|uired to calculate angle C, this is ex- 
plained later on, there being but two 
foi-mulas necessary to calculate the 
centre angles of shafts acute and ob- 
tuse, and from these angles all other 
angles may be readily found. Fig. 2 
is arit'uged with shafts acute. A dia- 
gram of t'hafts presents a somt-. 
what different quadrilateral figure, and 
the figure is still more complicated in 
broad obtuse shafts. The method, how- 
ever, is correct for all three, it is proved 
in the 6th Book of Euclid, proposition 


^^fiftek d,afT„t,r of Gmr-^t' 

Fig. 4.— Calculating Gears, Shafts Acute. 

.S3-C, also 3rd Book of Euclid proposi- 
tion 21. I have deemed it expedient to 
prove the method, that the formulas may 
be followed with confidence. 

Only a few years ago many gear 
manufacturers obtained their angles by 
measuring the drawing with a protrac- 
tor, which method has, however, proved 
unreliable, and the necessity of calculat- 
ing the angles, apparent. 

In the tliree examples which follow, 
are arranged a pair of gears with acute 
shafts, and two pairs with obtuse shafts; 
together with a mode of procedure, 
which can be relied upon, to give ab- 
solutely correct results in every case. 

Fig. 3 con'tains a pair of bevel gears 
with shafts at an acute angle, and fol- 
lowing are a list of formulas necessary 

for llicii ciilciilMlioM. We shall proceed 
as in Part 1. bhafls at right angles, and 
the same tooth formulas may be used. 
The diameter of blank, angle increment 




Fig. 6.— Calculating Angles, Shafts Obtuse, 
cutting angle, angle of edge, and number 
of teeth to select cutter from are as in 
90 degi^ee shafts. The angle of blank, 
liowever, must be found separately for 
each wheel, by deducting from 90 degrees 
the sum of the centre angle and angle in- 
crement, and tile centre angles calculated 
first by the formulas for acute shafts. 


OF F■aR^^U 


a ra^ 



L ~.,n<,U of 

G-cmfrr « 

-tA. o! ^nr - a^,/. 


t.l,j< of •}fU 

H . 


C- . 

rtm^'xt. . . . to 





£- . 

- pinion. . 


B_=anqlt af 

bhnk of qear . 


^- . . 

■ ' /"""'" 



0' Hank of qtar 

0~{,.. ^G)t-V, 

".- ■ 

. , pin.^ 


Nvmher of teiH 


tcltit Cui'fi 


N - nuTtbtr 

of trtfh in gtor. . 

,€ tobU af ivol-h 


N. . 

- pinien 

. . 

A- ■ 


Our angle of shafts is to be 60 degrees, 
and we shall select, as in Part I., 32 and 
10 teeth 4-piteh and our tooth dimen- 
sions may be calculated as before, they 
will be found noted on J'ig. 3. Before 
calculating the centre angles, let us 
briefly review Fig. 2. It has been proved 
that angle a is equal to angle C, and that 
the included angle m is alwavs 180 der 

Pig. 5.— Bevel Gears, Shafts Obtuse. 

grees minus the angle of shafts L, cimse- 
quently our formula only deals with the 
upper portion of Fig 2, which will be 
found in Fig. 8. Therefore tangfent a 
or tangent C=: 
N, sin. L 16X.866 

= =.3464 

(N, cos L)-(-N, (16X.5)-f32 
and its angle is 19 degrees — 6' — 22" 
=H,. Angle G is obtained by deduct- 
ing angle C from angle of shafts L 
or 60 degrees minus 19 degrees — 6' — 
22 "=40 degrees— 53'— 38 "=H,. Angle 
increment is found as in 90-degree 
sin C .3273 

shafts, tangent A^ = = 

i K 8 

.0409, and its angle is 2 degrees — 20' — 
43". From these angles the others are 
readily found. 

Cutting Angles. 
The cutting angle of gear E,=G — A 
or 40 degrees — 53' — 38" minus 2 degrees 
—20'— 43 "=38 degrees— 33'. The cut- 
ting angle of pinion E,=C — A or 19 
degrees — 6' — 22" minus 2 degrees — 20' 
— 43 "=16 degrees — 45i '. Angle of 
of blank of gear Bj=90 degrees — (G-|- 
A) or 90 degrees minus (40 degrees — 
53'— 38" plus 2 degrees— 20'— 43")= 
46 d'^rees — 45^ '. Angle of blank of 
pinion 6^^=90 degrees— (C -f- A) or 90 
degrees minus (19 degrees — 6' — 22" plus 
2 degrees— 20'— 43")= 68 degi-ees- 33 '. 
It will be noticed that the centre angles 
and angle increment have been calculat- 
ed to seconds, in order to determine the 
other angles in degrees and minutes, as 
correct as possible. The above angles 
have also been noted on Fig. 3, in their 
proper place, and we may proceed to 
calculate the diameter of blanks and 
size cutters to select. As in Part I. 90- 
degree shafts, we have been obliged to 
wait until the angles were calculated. 
The diameter of blank of gear 0,^(2, Sj 
cos G)-fD.= (2 X .25"X.7559)+8"= 
8.378 inches, and the diameter of blank 
of pinion 0,=(2.s. cos C)-(-D =(2.X-25 
X.9449)-f4"=4.472 inches. The num- 
ber of teeth to select cutter for geai-:^ 
N, 32 

^ =i'2, or a 4 pitch involute 

cos G .7559 

'bevel gear cuttei-, which will cut 42 
teeth. The number of teeth to select 
N, 16 

cutter for pinion= = =17 

Cos. C .9449 
or a 4-pitch involute bevel gear cutter, 
which will cut 17 teeth. 

Shafts Obtuse. 
AVe may proceed with the calculations 
of shafts obtuse. In the diagram. Fig. 5, 
are arranged a gear and pinion with 
shafts at an angle of 120 degrees. We 
shall .select a speed ratio of IJ to 1 or 
24 aiul 16 teeth 4-pitch from which the 



tooth dimensions may be ealculated as 
l)efore, they are noted on Fig. 5. 

In calculating the centre angles of ob- 
tuse shafts, we shall require another 
formula. The upper {wrtion of a dia- 
gram of obtuse shafts similar to Fig. 
2, would appear as in Fig. (i. 

As before, we have two sides, and the 
included angle m, which is acute, when 
shafts are at an obtuse angle. Tangent 
a, or tangent C may be readily deter- 
mined by dividing the distance In, by the 
distance np and the lengths In and nk 
found by multiplying the half pitch di- 
ameter of pinion by the sine and cosine 
of angle of shafts L, which is the sine 
and ■ consine of its supplement, or sine 
and cosine of angle m. From this is 
derived the formula for obtuse shafts. 
N, sine L 16X-866 

Tangent C= = = 

N— (N, eosL) 24— (16X-5) 
=.866, and its angle is 40 deg.— 53i'= 
H. Centre angle G=L—C or 120 «le- 

26'. Tliese angles have been noted in 
their proper place on Fig. 5, and we may 
conclude our calculations for obtuse 
shafts, by determining the diameter of 
blanks and size cuttei's to select. 

The diameter of blank of gear 0,=(2. 
s. cos G)4-D,=(2X.25"X.1889)4-6"= 
C.095 inches. The diameter of blank of 
pinion 0,=(2. s. cos C)+D,=(2X-25 
.7559) -f 4 "=4.378 inches. The number 
of teeth to select cutter for gear — ■ 

N, 24 

= =127, or a 4-pitch involute 

cos G .1889 

bevel gear cutter, which will cut 127 
teeth. The number of teeth to select 
N, 16 

cutter for pinion== = ^21 

cos C .7559 
or a 4-piteh involute bevel gear cutter. 
which will cut 21 teeth. These have been 
noted on the diagram, Fig. 5, which com- 
pletes the calculations. 

In bevel srears with shafts at an obtuse 

A( = '6 
P =4 

Jl = .7854 
3 = £.B 

c = .039 
/ = .B33 
*= .393 

Cutter for Gear 6S teeth involute^ 
n - Pinion. 2o . 

Fig. 7. — Interior Gear. 

grees minus 40 degrees — o3J'=79 de- 
grees — 6J'=H,. The other angles may 
bo calculated as in shafts acute, and the 
same formulas used. Tangent of angle 
sine C .6546 

increment A=: = =.0818 

h N, 8 

^and its angle is 4 degrees — 40J '. The 
butting angle of gear E,=Q — A= 79 
Begrees — 6J' minus four degrees — 40J' 
74 degrees — 26 '. 

Cutting angle of pinion Ej=C — A=: 
40 degrees — 53J' minus 4 dcgreef; — 40J" 
:=36 degrees — 13'. The angle of blank 
of gear B,= 90 degrees— (G4-A)= 90 
degrees minus (79 degrees — 61' plus 4 
degrees — 40J'')=6 degrees — 13'. Angle 
of blank pinion B, ^90 degrees — 
(C-f A)^90 degrees minu.s (40 degrees — 
•'31' plus 4 degrees — 40J')=44 degrees — 

angle, there is another condition, which 
frequently arises when shafts are broad- 
.!y apart, viz. : — the gear becomes what is 
known as an interior gear. In the dia- 
gram, Fig. 7, we have this peculiarity. 

The angle of shafts L, Fig. 7, is 150 
degrees, and we shall select 16 and 24 
teeth 4-piteh, as before; from which 
we obtain the same tooth dimensions, 
and they are noted on Fig. 7. Our centre 
angle is ealculated as before, with the 
formula for obtuse shafts. Tangent C= 

N, sine L 16X-5 

r= =.7886 

N,— (N, cos L) 24— (16X-866 
and its angle is 38 degrees — 15i'=H,. 
centre angle G=L — C= 150 degrees 
minus 38 degrees — 15J'=111 degrees — 
44i'=H,. The tangent of angle incre- 
ment A 

sineC .6192 
= = =.0774 and its angle is 

i N, 8 

4 degrees — 25i'. The cutting angle of 
the interior gear K,=G — A=lll de- 
grees — 44J' minus 4 degrees^25i '^107 
degrees — 19'. This r.iigle, however, can- 
not be used to set our gear cutter or 
nulling machine, as our graduations only 
extend to 90 degrees. The angle to set 
i.s, therefore, its supplement, or 180 de- 
grees minus 107 degi-ees — 19 '=72 de- 
grees — 41'. Cutting angle of pinion E, 
=C — A=:38 degrees — 15J' minus 4 de- 
grees— 25 J '=33 degrees — 15 ' '. The angle 
of blank of gear B„ we are obliged to 
make the included angle between the 
edge line and face of teeth in a wheel 
of this description, that it may readily 
serve its purpose in trying the blank 
with a protractor B„ therefore equals 90 
degrees — A=90 degrees minus 4 degrees 
— 2oi'=85 degrees— 34i '. 

Angle of blank of pinion B^ is as be- 
fore, 90 degi-ees— (C+A)= 90 degrees 
minus (38 degrees — 15J' plus 4 degrees 
—25*) =47 degrees— 19'. Those angles 
will be found noted in their proper place 
on Fig. 7, and we may conclude our cal- 
culations for tbis pair of gears by de- 
termining the diameter of blanks, and 
number of teeth to select cutters from. 
In the case of the interior gear, the dis- 
tance across the bottom of blank or di- 
ameter of point of tooth circle, is found 
to be within the space necessary to con- 
struct the blank; while it has formerly 
served as the outer diameter. This dis- 
tance is equal to D, — (2. s. G = 6" 
minus (2X.25,"X.3704) =5.815 inches. 
The edge line may be turned from this 
eircle outward at an angle of 111 de- 
gree— 44i', or (centre angle G) nvith 
respect to the horizontal or bottom of 

We must, however, first find the di- 
ameter of blank, and may pi-oceed, as in 
former cases, 0,=(2. s. cos G)-fD,=(2 
X.25X.3704)-f6"=6.185 inches. This 
diameter will be found to be inadequate 
to properly extend tbe edge line and 
round the corners in this style of a 
wheel, and we shall have to add as much 
more to the pitch diameter, or (.185X2) 
-f 6 "=6.37 inches, which will be our di- 
ameter 0,. The diameter of blank of 
pinion is as before 0,=(2. s. cos C)-f 
D=(2X.25X.7852) + 4 = 4.393 inches. 
The number of teeth to select cutter for 
N, 24 

,s:eai-= = =65 teeth and the 

cos G .3704 
number of teeth to select cutter for pin- 
N, 16 

ion= = =20 teeth, and they have 

cos C .7852 
been noted in their proper place on Fig. 

Continued in April Issue. 


Unique "Ways of Doing Things in the Machine Shop. Readers* Opinions 
Concerning Shop Practice. Data for Machinists. Contributions paid for. 


tiy Frank K. Boolli. 

Some time ago the writer had occasion 

to bore three small cylinders, on the 

face plate of lathe. The job was such 

that it was necessary to have a long 

tool holder slot, which acts like a V 
block. By loosing off clamps the tool 
can be turned to suit operator, and 
when tightened down, gives a good solid 
hold. This is a handy fixture for shops 
where a variety of jobs are being done, 

Fig. 1. — Arrangement of Tool. 

rigid boring tool in order to machine 
certain parts properly. The lathe be- 
ing equipped with an ordinary tool 
holder as represented in Fig. 2, allowed 
the use of only a moderately sized tool. 
The difficulty was overcome in the 

such as job work, and it takes but a 
short time to rig it up. 

Fig. 3 shows a good way to clamp 
cylindrical work to the machine table, 
when V blocks are not to be had. Two 
pieces of round, straight stock A and B 
as long or longer than the job, are laid 
in the slots of table and work placed, as 
shown in the sketch and clamped down. 

The two pieces A and B act as a V 



Fig. 2.— Tool Post. 

manner shown in Fig. 1. In the sketch, 
the part marked R represents the solid 
tool rest which takes the place of the 
compound rest on the lathe. 

Four holes were drilled and tapped in 
the top faee of this easting, and studs 
were inserted, as shown in sketch. A 
tool as large as required could then be 
clamped as shown in Fig. 1, lying in 

Fig. 3.— Clamping Cylindrical Work. 

block, and are much quicker to handle 
than the ordinary V blocks. They hold 
the work parallel to the traverse of table 
requiring no adjusting in that direction, 
while setting up the job. 


A convenient angle plate has been de- 
vised by Robt. McKechnie, superintend- 
ent of the Smart-Turner Machine Co., 
Hamilton, which is giving good service. 
The dimensions of the one principally 
used by them are given in Fig. 1. 

The two plates are locked together in 
any desired position by tightening the nut 


on the end of the pin, thus drawing the 
pin D against the inside lug of the 
plate A. The plates may easily be set 
parallel, at right angles or at any sperv 

Fig. 1.— Angle Plate. 

ial angle for work to be done by using 
index pins. 

Figs. 1 and 2 show the plates in use 
on a planer, the shaded portions being 

■Angle Plate in Use. 

machined. The plates are used to se- 
cure the right angle, and the work is 
blocked in Fig. 2, by the insertion of a 
small block D. After maching one side. 

■Angle Plate in Use. 

the crosshead is 'then turned half way 

around without changing the angle plate. 

In Fig. 3, the sides to be machined are 

parallel. The plat«s are set at 90 de- 


gvees, and when one side is planed one 
plate is swung in the direction of the 
arrow, and the other side is machined. 
The work is blocked up at D. This con- 
venient angle plate has a variety of uses, 
the one illustrated being only an ex- 


By \Vm. Silk. 

The tool illustrated in Fig. 1 is used 
to plane underneath saw carriages. An 
idea may be obtained of the work ob- 

FiE. 1. Tool for Planer. 

tained by a reference to Fig. 2 which 
shows a sectional view of a saw car- 
riage. 1 designed this simple jig some 
time ago, making it from sheet iron 
and it has given good service ever 

The tool rests on A and planes under- 
neath. Then it catches on the end of 
the work and rides on top until it 
comes to the other end when it reverses, 
letting the tool fall down. 

The part A swings on the 2-inch bolt, 
the top arm being held in the tool- 



j v_ 

J V 


Fig. 2.— Section of Work Planed. 

holder of the planer. Kight and left 
liose tools are used tor the work to 
lachine underneath the left and right 
bidos of the saw carriage. 


By F. E. Lauer. 
The following article and sketch shows 
a favorite form of sectional pipe tap in 
detail and its efficiency as found by the 
writer. On account of the small diam- 
eter of the holder, only three blades are 

High Speed Pipe Tap. 

used and this will be found much better 
than four or more. It gives more 
strength and produces a rounder hole. 

The body A is made from cast steel, 
as a machine steel cannot hold its rigid- 
ity in small section as this size tap with 
the heavy work that high speed steel 
puts it too. B shows the inserted blade 
made from ]-" x ^" high speed steel 2 J" 
long. C shows the clamping or locating 
collar which is made from cast steel or 
case hardened machine steel. D shows 
the chuck which is used tor chasing the 
blades, and the lay out so as to get a 
clearance on the blades. E shows the 
collar for clamping blades while they are 
being machined. 

Four sets of blades are done at a time 
and when finished they have .010" ap- 



High-Speed Pipe Tap. 

pro.ximate clearance which produces a 
fine clear cutting tap for cast iron, 
while no dount the same clearance 
would work efficient on steel. The 
tapping diameter of an 1" pipe tap is 
1 3-16" approximate which give us a 
periphery of 3.75". 

This tap is designed to run at 15 feet 
per minute which means that it travels 
141 revolutions per minute. A fairly 
heavy lubricant is used on this work and 

37 .. .; _i 

a tap can stand a ten hour run on cast 
iron fittings. A tap at this speed going 
into a fitting eight threads can make the 
complete cycle in six seconds, which 
shows the possibilities of high speed 

The machine that drives these taps is 
geared so as to feed the spindle the same 
pitch as the tap. It will be noticed that 
the cutting edge of the blades is placed 


1L< J 


W -^ 

High-Speed Pipe Tap. 

1-16" ahead of the centre line. This was 
done so as to give the tap holder a 
stronger section and also to reduce the 
clearance on the blades. If in this tap a 
blade breaks or gets worn, it is easily 
clianged, the collar C is slackened off 
and the blade removed, the new one be- 
ing immediately located by the threaded 
collar C, and if the end is in advance of 
the other blades it is ground off to suit. 
If it is back of the others the collar is 
again slackened and the blade brought 
forward sufficiently so as to allow itself 
to be ground in proper relation to the 
other blades. 

If this tap is properly made it will be 
found a valuable addition to any first 
class shop. I would recommend the fol- 
lowing number of blades for sectional 
pipe taps from 1" to 2". 
1" pipe tap— 3 blades— 144 revolutions, 
IJ" pipe tap— 4 blades— 115 revolutions 
1^" pipe tap— 5 blades— 100 revolutions 
2" pipe tap— 6 blades— 72 revolutions. 
This article is not a write up from 
theory, but is in every day use. 


Tlic' shelf illustrated herewitli is used 
to store things that accumulate in a 
small shop. The additions at the bot- 
tom are for bar iron or pipe. The shelf 
itself is suspended from the ceiling with 
l-m. gas pipe, which is secui'ed to the 
ceiling with floor flanges. The lower 
ends of the pipe extend through the 
Ixiai'd and Ihe braces at the ends, which 

.Shelf Suspended from Ceiling for Bar Iron. etc. 

are secured with nuts. The shelf is 8 
ft. long and .3 ft. wide. 

Tile extensions on the under side of 
the shelf ar« made of j-in. gas pipe, se- 

C .V \ A D 1 A X M A C il 1 N E R Y 

cured to the shelf with floor flanges. L's 
are used to form the unions. The ex- 
tensions are 4 ft. apart and are used to 
support small sizes of gas pipe and bar 
iron. The shelf is about 8 ft. from the 
floor and the extensions a foot lower. 


In connection with oxy-acetylene weld- 
ing at Charles Potter's, 85 Yonge St., 
Toronto, they use a jig for welding 
crankshafts which may be used to ad- 
vantage in many machine departments. 

The jig consists of a long base A on 
which are four top pieces B. These 

Jig for Holding Cranksliaft. 

may be arranged in any position on A 
suiting the length of the shaft. The 
shaft is securely fastened in the V-top. 
The block at the top is fastened by 
two screws. The crankshaft parts can 
then be easily set for welding the parts 
together. This jig has many other ap- 
plications, for it may be used on a 
planer for crankshaft and other work. 


Perhaps the cheapest and most con- 
venient device used for forewarning the 
lowering of an elevator is shown in the 


Escaping tlie Elevator. 

engraving. A number of small chains, 
about two feet long, are hung from the 
bottom of the cage. If the elevator is 
coming down, and an attempt is made 
by the user to look up from the gate, 
when the elevator is within a short dis- 
tanhe from his head, he will have time 
to avoid a serious, or perhaps fatal, ac- 

cident, because of the warning given by 
the lowering chain. Of course, it will 
be understood that the height of the gate 
is often limited by the distance between 
the floors. This device is in daily use, in 
at least one factory, and doubtless if 
it were installed in uany more, a large 
number of elevator accidents could be 
prevented. — Machinery. 


By L. Bailey. 

in constructing blanking and drawing 
dies it appears to be customary to use 
very heavy cast iron bolster plates, and 
in this way using a large quantity of 
iron and also a lot of room for storage 
of such dies. For this reason the 
writer has made a bolster that has 
proved a very satisfactory remedy for 
these evils. 

The sketch herewith shows a bolster 
and also a blank-holder plate. This 
bolster holds dies 8-inch diam. and 
smaller, therefore it can be seen at 
once, that the cost of making dies will 
be greatly reduced by using a bolster 
that will dispense with a separate bols- 
ter for each die. The sketch is about 
quarter full size. 

in the various shops. The accompany- 
ing illustration shows the method of 
carrying out the attendance graph. 

The vertical line represents the num- 
ber of employes and the horizontal line 
the days, each day being represented by 


Attendance Graph. 

two spaces. This may be varied, how- 
ever, as desired taking one or more 
divisions for each day. 

Section line paper, 10 to the inch is 
used at the Canadian Locomotive 
Works and is found convenient for use 
in plotting. The graph is applied to 



\^ / iwv.v^ ^ 

Bolster Plate 

No. 3 is the base plate with a 10 
pitch thread as shown. No. 4 is a 
ring to screw on No. 3. Smaller dies 
are held in place by the use of a reduc- 
ing ring No. 5 and a reducing plate No. 
2 as shown. 

A drawing die with wide margin as 
shown at No. 6, it is held in place by a 
section ring No. 7 as shown at No. 8. 
When using a large die No. 6, lay die 
down, place No. 4 on top of die, put 
section ring No. 7 in as shown, then 
screw in base plate and the die is ready 
for use. 


At the Canadian Locomotive Works, 
Kingston, a graph is used to show the 
daily, weekly and monthly attendance 


each shop, but may be enlarged to in- 
clude the whole works. After the lines 
are plotted for each day, an average for 
the week may be plotted or for the 


The accompanying illustration shows 
an economical method of handling large 
quantities of lumber. The Muskoka 
Wood Mfg. Co., Huntsville, Ont., have a 
switch of the G.T.R. running into thiedr 
lumber yard, and are thus in a position 
to handle their lumber quickly, and in 
large quantities on trucks. In the view 
are shown quantities of lumber piled 
for drying. The advantages of inter- 


faetory oommunication includiug tracks 
through the yards, are clearly demon- 
strated in the quickness with which 
the company disposes of the products of 

^BB^^^^B ^^H^^^HM 


Handlint^ Lumber. 

its sawmill, and again brings the lumber 
to the fa;ctory to be made into wooden- 


The manner of calipering a casting 
with the aid of a scale is shown in the 
accompanying illustration shown in one 
of the publications of the Industrial 
Book Co., New York. In the ease shown, 
calipers alone will not do the work, and 

Measuring With Calipers. 

a scale must be used in addition. Here 
the thickness of the bowl is less than 
the flange, and the calipers will not pass 
the flange after calipering the bowl. 


Chucks are made to suit the class of 
work to be done and in listing the lines 
manufactured by the Cushman Chuck 
Co., Hartford, they have prepared tables 
giving various dimensions of them. They 
are issued in catalogue form making a 
very handy volume of reference. The 
many types are illustrated, the lines 
manufactured including independent 4- 
juw chucks, reversible face-plate jaws, 
geared scroll chucks, drill chucks and 
chucks for special machines. 

A daily balance is often found neces- 
sary in a large works. Such a balance 
must be complete. The details must be 
clear, so that if the work gets behind 
or there is a delay from any cause 
whatever, it can be at once detected. 

For in.stance if the capacity of the 

drills is not sufficient to keep up the 
work it would be easily detected from 

a production card like Fig. 1, 

and if the work is not carried 

on fast enough to finish the 

contract within the stipulated time, 

superintendent can see at a glance how 
much work has been finished in each 
department. This production should be 
kept by the foreman and a clerk can 
take oft a copy for the superintendent. 
An illustration will give the best idea 
of this card. 

PRODUCT/ A/ S/y££T CO/vrPACT...i2..^j^.. 

PMr..J-jua^»^. AfUMBER WAA/TCO. ./I'jJ; 

OPS /f AT /O A/ 







































































































Fig. 1. — Production Sheet. 

either working overtime must be re- 
sorted to or a new drill must be added 
to the equipment. 

This production sheet may be easily 
arranged to suit an Agricultural Im- 
plement Works as in Fig. 2. A column 
along the side gives the list of machin- 
ery, etc., thus, mowers erected, cutter 

This card would have to be made suit- 
able for the information wanted. In 
the machine shop or carpenter shop, 
different lists would probably be re- 
quired for the important parts of differ- 
ent machines. This production sheet is 
hardly suitable for a foundry where all 
separate castings must be kept track 


n«CHine shop 

fTn..^ / 







190 <j. 

















































































enE nmm 
















oift-rzn SAX 


19 lo 











WIMMl •*■ 












Fig. 2.— Daily Balance Sheet Applied to Mowers. 

bars assembled complete, rake axles 
fitted complete, etc. A sheet is neces- 
sary for each department. For in- 
stance the blacksmith shop requires a 
sheet with a list of the work completed 
in that shop. The dates should be ar- 
ranged along the top and should be for 
two weeks or for as long as the man- 
agement find convenient. The totals 
are carried forward from sheet to sheet 
so that at any time the foreman or 


of, good and bad, in order to see when 
the factory order for each particular 
casting is complete. In the foundry a 
production card should be made out for 
each casting and filed according to the 
number of the pattern under each ma- 
chine. A very simple card showing the 
number of castings on order, a column 
of good castings completed each day, 
and a column of totals is all that is 
necessary for a foundry production card. 


Interesting Machine Work at John Bertram & Sons 

Turning' a Large Worm on a Lathe; Machining a Large Gear on a Slotter; 
Home-made Grinder and its Work ; and Cutting Racks on a Shaper. 

Some interesting methods arc used in 
the works of John Bertram & Sons, 
Dundas, Ont., in connection with the 
manufacture of machine tools. 

Fig. 1 shows a large worm being cut 
on a lathe. Holes are bored at the be- 
ginning and end of gear to allow the tool 

Fifc'. 1— Roughing Out Large Worm. 

to start and for clearance at the end of 
the operation. Fig. I shows the worm 
before finishing and Fig. 2. shows 
the finished gear. In the foreground is 
shown the tool used, the nose being forg- 
ed the angle of the finished worm. 

Fig. 3 shows a large Bertram slotter 
on which is being cut a large gear. The 
roughing and finishing tools are shown 

It shows the operator the position of 
the feed at a distance. 

Next to wheel A is a pinion which 
meshes into the gear B. B has an annu- 
lar T-slot as shown carrying the stud C. 
>When this is set properly, it strikes the 
arm D which controls the shield E and 
automatically moves E to cover the 
notches in the feed wheel F, all further 
movement of the feed screw being thus 

The arrangement of the tool blocks in 
the ram is shown in Fig. 4. This en- 
sures its being held rigidly in position 
during the cutting stroke. Tool block A 
is pivoted at P and at the upper end has 
an extension ■ surrounding the cam I). 
Fixed on the side of ram support is the 
rack B, and in this, the gear C, mounted 
on a stud in the ram itself, gives motion 
to a gear which drives the cam shaft I) 
by friction washers, so that it can slip, 
after the cam D has been forced into 

When the ram starts downward, gear 
C revolves in the direction of the arrow 
and drives the gear on D in the opposite 
direction, throwing the point of the cam 
against the hardened incline block E, 
which forces the upper end ot the tool 

thus relieving the tool on the return 
stroke. The desired clamping effect is 
secured by adjusting with a screw the 
block E. 

Figs. 5 and 6 show a home made 
grinder in use in the Bertram shops. It 
is very serviceable, the board at the 

t t f^ ^ ^fi.< 

Fig. 2.— Finished Worm and Lathe TooL 

on the slide of the machine. The former 
tool has stepped edges while the latter 
has been given a better cutting edge by 
being hollow ground on top. 

In the lower right hand of Fig. 3 is 
shown the feed mechanism which moves 
the work forward toward the tool. 
There is a device which automatically 
prevents the tooth being cut too deep. 
The wheel A is a visible indicator and 
is convenient for setting the machine. 


Fig. 4. — Tool Lifting Apron of Slotter. 

back giving an idea of the wide range of 
work that may be accomplished on it. 
Fig. 5 shows the machine at work on a 
rack-cutting tool. A rack-cutting tool is 
shown also at the left of the grinding 

Fig. 3. — Cutting Large Gear on Slotter, John Bertram & Sons. 

block solidly against the ram and en- 
sures the cutting tool being held in pro- 
per position during the cutting oper- 
ation. When the ram starts on the re- 
turn stroke, the cam D is thrown up, 
allowing the upper end of the tool block 
to be forced out by a powerful stroke 


wheel and gives an idea of how it is 
ground. Fig. 6 shows it grinding a 
small cutter , The machine is convenient- 
ly operated, has lever feed and easily ad- 
justable stops. 

Fig. 7 shows a method of cutting racks 
on a shaper with a traversing head. A 


second table is utilized for holding the 
racks to be cut, and a large index wheel 
placed on the traversing screw ensures 
Accurate spacing. 

The tool holder and tool are interest- 
ing. The tool holder replaces the or- 
dinary clapper back and swings from the 
same point, being lifted out of the work 
and held during the return stroke by the 

Fig^. 5. — Home-made Grinder Grinding Rack Ciit'er. 

spring at the top. The tool is held 
rigid during the cut by using the cam A, 
operated by the arm B through the lever 
C, which is controlled by the two col- 
lars striking the stationary support at 
the end of stroke. Thus the cam is au- 
tomatically forced against the upper end 
of the tool holder, supporting it rigidly 
during the cut and is automatically 
withdrawn just before the return stroke. 
The tool is fed down to a positive stop. 
Figs. 7 and 8 show the tool which is 
of multiple design. Each tooth is re- 
lieved, each tooth taking a chip similar 
to the broching machine. A rake is 
ground on the cutling-edge of each tooth 

jobs in large shops at good wages, but 
they do not know what is going on out- 
side of their own little sphere. There 
are technical journals pertaining to al- 
most every trade, and if these me- 
chanics would take them and study 
them they would keep abreast of the 
times and got out of the rut they are 
liable to bo in all their lives. Some of 
them turn out good work, considering 
the material they have to work with, 
but it is always the same old style, and 
if they were put in a first-class shop 
with every labor-saving device at hand 
they would not know where they were 

1 know of one young printer who was 
working in small shops for nine and ten 
dollars a week, but who was wide- 
awake and studied every journal relat- 
ing to his trade he could get his hands 
on, and is now holding a permanent 
position at twenty-five dollars a week. 

There is more to be learned from a ■ 
trade journal than one thinks, until 
they begin to take an interest in it and 
then they would not be without it. 

I once heard a grocer say he would 
feel like a preacher without a Bible it 
he did not get his trade journal, so it 
is quite evident a man in any line of 
work can profit by taking some journal 
devoted to his trade. 


The B. Greening Wire Co., Hamilton, 
have just secured a patent on a new 
trussed hard steel wire lathing, in which 
are contained the best features of the 
g'eneral products of this class. It is 

the truss formation of the lathing, it 
may be stapled or nailed directly along 
the studs, joists or sheathing without 

Fig. 0. 


Machined on Grinder. 

any furring — a feature of great import- 
ance — and the absence of the lapping, 
lacing and the furring largely ensures 
the lowest possible cost in erecting. It 
has been successfully applied to 16-inch 
centres, and the saving thus effected is 
an important factor in the cost of build- 

Fig. 7. — Cutting Racks on a Siiaper, .John Bertram & Sons. 

Fig. 8.— Rack Cutting Device of Shaper. 

and this is alternated to equalize the 
side thrust when these are in the cut and 
the result is a good cutting action. 


By Tom L. .Johnston. 

Theie arc plenty of good mechanics 

who arc plugging away in small shops 

for low wages, who could bold good 

supplied in continuous lengths up to 
100 yards, with a selvage on each side 
and in widths to suit the spacing of the 
studs or joists. There are many special 
points of interest in connection with this 
lathing. The selvages are stapled or 
nailed along the studs or joists, con- 
sequently there is no lacing. Owing to 


ing, but even 18-inch or 20-inch centres 
could be used by substituting a heavier 
grade at a slight advance in price. 

H. P. Hoag for the past two years 
superintendent of Fairbanks-Morse Mfg. 
Co., Toronto, has accepted a similar 
position with the GqqW, Shapley & 
Muif Qq., Brantford, 

Several Jigs and Tools Used in Railroad Shop Work 

In Repairing Locomotives Quickness and Accuracy are Assisted by De- 
signing Jigs and Tools to Facilitate Work — Several are here Illustrated. 


On several occasions reference has 
been made to the G.T.R. shops at Strat- 
ford. They contain many interesting 
methods, machines and systems which 
are above the ordinary. In locomotive 
work it is the aim of the companies to 

works in the socket, the general design 
being shown in the illustration. No 
sizes are here given as dimensions can 
be made to suit the work to be done. 

The steel pins are hardened steel. The 
drill takes a standard Morse taper drill. 

iron block and the wedge is then driven 
in place. 

The tool is here 3-16" wide but any 
width tool may be used depending on 
the work to be done. The tool is 13J" 
long with a standard taper top. 
Chuck Extension. 

On a boring mill it is often desired to 
bore work which cannot be chucked on 

n. n -p u r, n 



■ li'A 

■Ai Lt-,-u — 5-— c — cr 


Fig. 3.— Multiple Tool. 



Fig. 1. — Arrangement of Hub Liner Drilling Machire. 

keep the locomotives on the road and in 
the repair shop as little as possible. 
With this in view many jigs, tools and 
devices have been evolved to facilitate 
the work and hurry the repairs with a 
speed consistent with good workmanship 
so that the locomotive will not have to 
again enter the shop for repairs for 
some time. 

Jigs and tools made specially tor the 
work are therefore as indispensable a 
factor in doing the work economically as 
in manufacturing establishments. Some 
of the jigs, at least, described in this 
article are original, being designed in 
the Stratford shops. 

Hub Liner Drill. 

Fig. 1 shows the arrangement of a 
hub liner drilling machine. This drills 
the liner and axle box without remov- 
ing the box from the shaft . Provision 
is made for clamping the machine over 
the axle, the two parts being fastened in 
position by two bolts on either side of 
the drilling machine. 

Adjustment is made by eight screws A 
shown in the illustration. The power is 
delivered from an overhead shaft by a 
belt, to pulley B. The drill is fed by 
the ratchet C. A small screw D holds 
the drill in place, the drill being easily 
replaced by a reamer for finishing if ne- 
cessary. There are two of these ma- 
chines so that the liners on both boxes 
may be drilled at the same time. 
Ball Joint Floating Reamer. 

A toggle joint for reaming holes on a 
drill is shown in Fig. 2. A 21 inch ball 

One side is flattened to hold reamer and 
keep it from turning. 

Multiple Tool. 
A multiple tool is shown in Fig. 3. A 
is the distance between tools, which 
may be varied by a movable block. In 

\ \ 



5% h 




Fig. 4. — Chuck Extension. 




1 *>- 
1 fltt- 










Fig. ■.'.- 


Joint Floating Reamer. 

the illustration they are |" apart but the face plate of the boring mill. This 
by inserting inch blocks the tools are can be done by using four castings sim- 

then kept one inch apart. 

The tools are held in place by the 
tapered wedge B. After the last tool is 
put in place, the distance between the 
tool and hole is made up by inserting an 

ilar to Fig. 4. These slip over the jaws 
on the boring mill and the larger work 
can then be easily gripped for boring. 

Fig. 5 shows the body casting and 
gears of an angle drill and Fig. 6 shows 




Fig. 5. -Right Angle Drilling Attachment. 

the details of the angle drill. For right 
angle drilling, the feed is from the top 
of the drill, the drill spindle moving 
freely independent of the drive. 

The large gear has a pitch circle diam- 
eter of 4.3125", number of teeth 27, 
diametral pitch .1597 and depth 11-32"' 
full. The pinion has a pitch circle diam- 
eter of 2.875", number of teeth 18, 
diametral pitch .1597 and depth of teeth 
n-32" full. 

Turning Axle Box Brasses. 

In the jig shown in Dig. 7 for turning 
axle box brasses, the brasses are placed 




Fig. 7.— Jig tor Turning Brasses. 

against the metal post B which is 12i" 
high X 7" diam. The distance between 
the brass and cap A is filled in with 
blocks and the cap A is screwed down 
and fastened by three bolts. The cap is 
lOi" diam. The jig is fastened to the 
face plate of the boring mill on which 
the work is done, by the clamps C. 

A lathe tool shown in Pig. 8 is used 
to turn the brass. As may be seen from 
the illustration the tool holder may be 
used on other work, it being clamped in 
place by two screws. The tool may be 




Fig. 8.— Tool for Turning Brasses. 




_ J<torWfcY-*. ' 







reeo qchzw- steel 


n:^==d @.-a»e 







clamped in any position to suit the 
work to be done. 
Ihe outside of the brass is finished on 
rrto SCREW K^T-trrEc. this jig. The inside is bored after the 
r-i r« ^ / N ^'^^^ '^ pressed into the axle box. 

4THUS.^OOl.sTCKt ln«¥-STtfL 

I b -^5^-Q- 

TO mmakocnis 

Pi*. B.— Detail, of Angle Drilling Machine. 


New Machinery for Machine Shop, Foundry, Pattern Shop, Planing 
Mill ; New Engines, Boilers, Electrical Machinery, Transmission Devices. 


Any improvement in a machine which 
will increase the safety of the operator 
is surely of value, providing, of course, 
that the efficiency of the machine is 
not lessened by the change. In a wood- 
working shop, the hand planer is pro- 
bably the most dangerous of any ma- 
chine tool, and the statement has been 
made that more fingers have been lost 
in hand planers than by any other sin- 
gle type of tool. 

A new cutter head for hand planers 
and joiners, which assures maximum 
safety to the operator by reason of its 
permitting the tables to be set very 
close together, has lately been intro- 
duced in the woodworking machine 

shaped head and thus permit the tables 
to be set very close to the cutter. 

The illustration herewith shows this 
new circular cutter-head in the manu- 
facturer's No. 61 C hand planer and 
joiner with the tables drawn back, giv- 
ing the reader an idea of its construc- 


Recently, there was placed on the mar- 
ket a grinder which aceoniplishes all the 
operations on work by grinding wheels 
instead of cutting tools. To this new 
type have been applied the principle un- 
derlying the design of the turret lathe 
with its semi-automatic features. Work 
is finished from the rough or from sur- 

Fay & Egan's New Safety Circular Cutter-Head. 

tools manufactured by the J. A. Fay 
& Egan Co., 862-382 W. Front St., 
Cincinnati, Ohio. In the old style cut- 
ter head with the square block and 
knives bolted to its sides ; the square 
shape of the block would neither per- 
mit the tables to be set close together 
nor did the head itself fill the opening 
between the tables. Thus with the 
slightest slip on the part of the opera- 
tor his fingers might be drawn in be- 
tween the tables and badly mutilated if 
not lost. 

The new safety circular cutter head 
closely fills the opening between the 
tables so that the most severe accident 
that could possibly happen would be the 
scraping of a finger or thumb. The de- 
sign is such that the cutting edges of 
the knives protrude but slightly from 
the circumference of the cylindrical- 

faces previously obtained in turret 
lathes and afterwards hardened. The 
machine shown in Fig. 1 will grind either 
outside or inside diameters, together 
with the faces of both internal and ex- 
ternal shoulders. Its scope includes 
cylindrical and conical shapes and it has 
a capacity of 12-in.d.xl2-in. long. 

There are three grinding spindles. The 
standard equipment comprises 10-in. 
wheels on the front spindle for outside 
work; C-in. wheels on the rear spindle 
for either outside or inside work or faee 
grinding, and 2i/2-in. wheels on the mid- 
dle spindle for internal grinding. These 
sizes may be varied to meet requirements, 
but the design regularly furnished gives 
to each spindle the speed required for 
the diameters of the wheel as stated. An 
auxiliary fourth spindle, not shown, is 
fui-nisbed as a fixture to carry still small- 

. .. 44 ^_a _i 

er wheels for internal work, being de- 
signed to enter a %-in. hole if desired. 
It may also be employed for butfing and 
for outside grinding. A rigid fixture, 
clamped to the back of the machine, holds 
the wheel in front of the central spindle. 
The wheel is swung into and out of 
working position without interfering with 
the use of other wheels. 

The three grinding spindles are car- 
ried in the head carriage. The turret 
feature is absent. The spindles are ad- 
justable lengthwise in heavy sleeves, for 
position, and are locked rigidly while 
operating. The wheel feed is with the 
carriage slide only; that is to say, longi- 
tudinal. The cross feed is in the head, 
carrying the work, which is held either 
in a chuck or spring arbor, on a massive 
spindle. In other words, the stroke is 
in the wheel carriage, the feed in the 
work carrier. A variable speed mechan- 
ism actuates the traverse movement of 
the wheel carriage. The feeding mechan- 
ism of the work carriage permits of a 
wide range of feeds; automatically re- 
leases the feed at the desired point, and 
also provides for automatically reducing 
the amount of feed as the work ap- 
proaches completion, the point of release 
and the degree of reduction being de- 
termined by cam forms. A gear box 
gives nine changes of speed for the work 
spindle. Both traverse of the wheel 
spindle head and feed of the work car- 
riage are arranged to reverse. 

The machine is driven from one con- 
stant speed pulley, which greatly sim- 
plifies the overhead works. This drive is 
transmitted to the wheel spindles by two 
belts only, and the arrangement is such 
that only one spindle is revolving at a 
time, or all are idle. The wheels are so 
grouped with reference to the work that 
each holds a natural position for the 
operation it is intended to perform, 
which reduces to a minimum the amount 
of adjusting in changing from one opera- 
tion to another. 

The operation of each grinding wheel 
is independent of the others, not only 
in that it revolves alone, but in its in- 
dividual lever for adjustment to the 
work and in its knock off and reversing 
dog in the carriage. In the work car- 
riage there is a cam and stop pin to 
govern the feed for each spindle. In 
fact, the control is equal to that of mod- 
ern turret lathe practice, in securing fa- 
cility and accuracy in the manufacture of 
duplicate parts. An auxiliaxy or lengtii 


slide for the work carriage assists in 
tlie convenience of manipulation. 

The whole machine is a complete new 
design, but probably the reader will be 
more interested in the work the machine 
will accomplish. Fig. 2 shows a -east 
iron gear with a conical clutch surface. 
This has to be ground, as shown, in the 
bore, the clutch surface, and on one face 
and outside diameter. In the first opera- 
tion the work is held by tooth-shaped 
jaws which hold it concentric with the 

position (which finishes this piece) the 
work is held by its finished clutch sur- 
face on a taper arbor mounted in the 
work spindle. This arbor may be ground 
in place to insure absolute accuracy. 

Fig. 3 shows the grinding of a tem- 
pered, collet, which is done at one opera- 
tion, althougb four grinding-wheel posi- 
tions are necessary. The first of these 
shows the collar held on a taper draw 
chuck and the internal-grinding wheel at 
work sizing out the nose. In the second 

around the substantial vertical shafi at 
the end of the body proper, so that the 
rigidity of the machine is in nowise af- 

A rather complicated piece of grind- 
ing is shown in Fig. 4, in the shape of 
a special hardened gear with a taper 
bearing. This is chucked in special 
tooth-shaped jaws, an-d the first wheel 
position shows the back spindle at work. 
In the second position the small internal 
wheel is doing external grinding on the 

^^^^^vvii m ss ;^^ ^'ff ^ ^ t ^ >\ ^ 

Fig. 1. — Section Bryant Chucking Grinder. 




3rd Wh.-el Po«ition, 
Grind Kesr Semt. 
Grind Keir FacB. 

Tempered Collei, ~ 
KIniibied In One Operation 

4tb Wbeel Potiilon. 
8wln| Work 15 and 
Qilnd Eroat Seat. 

Fig. 3. — Grinding: a Tempered Collet. 

Outtid* led 

raca UrladlBi 


Fig. 2. — Grinding Cast Iron Gear. 

pitch line. Here the bore is ground with 
a supplementary internal attachment, as 
shown, provided for work haiving small 
holes. (This supplementary spindle may 
also be used for buffing and polishing 
with rouge and a soft wheel.) In the 
second wheel position the work spindle 
and the bracket on which it is mounted 
are swiveled to the angle of the conical 
surface 15 degrees, as shown, which is 
finished with the regular internal wheel. 
For the second operation a^id third wheel 

position the front face is being ground 
by the large outside wheel and also be- 
ing buffed by the wheel on the rear spin- 

In the third position, the large wheei 
is grinding the outside and the back 
face, while in the fourth position the 
work spindle has been swung to the ne- 
cessary angle, 15 degrees, and the out- 
side wheel is grinding the tapered front 
seat. It will be noticed that the whole 
work head is swung for angular work 


Fig 1, — Grinding Hardened Gear. 

small diameter, while in the third posi- 
tion the work has been swung so that 
the wheel on the front spindle is finish- 
ing the taper portion. It is then neces- 
sary to reverse the piece and a small 
cut wheel on the internal spindle is at 
work inside the gear. 

The machine is the design of W. L. 
Bryant, and is being placed on the mar- 
ket by the Bryant Chucking Grinder Co., 
Springfield, Vt. 



Tiie Bonn clutch which is being placed 
on the Canadian market contains several 
interesting features. The driving piece 
N keyed to the shaft is provided with 
arms and driving pins (not shown in 
illustration) which carry the friction 
rings R R round, while allowing them 
longitudinal movement parallel to the 
shaft. The toggles E E move the fric- 
tion rings into or out of contact with the 
shell Q D, and are themselves brought in- 
to their most advantageous position 
(nearly straight) for transmitting pres- 
sure by the forward movement of sleeve 
H with its levers A A and links B B. 

The requisite friction for driving is 
obtained by the tension of the spiral 
springs joining the long ends of levers 

the clutch shell. If it has to be out of 
gear for long periods the pulley and 
clutch shell should be earned on a sleeve 
clear of the shaft, and supported by in- 
dependent bearings, so that friction and 
wear on the shaft is avoided. 

These clutches ai"e manufactured by 
the Unbreakable Pulley & Mill Gearing 
Co., London, and are being placed on the 
Canadian market by Vandeleur & 
Nichols, Dineen Building, Toronto. 


It is one of the paradoxes of life that 
the fellow who does his work faithfully 
without being watched by the boss, 
comes to be the very person whom the 
boss most watches. 

The Benn Clutch, Shown Out of Gear. 

A A, which springs open slightly as the 
links B approach the vertical, and when 
they pass the vertical, lock them and the 
toggles and friction rings in gear. Ad- 
justment for toggle position and for 
wear of parts is obtained by screw ring 
D, the exact position of the toggles and 
internal rings being ascertainable at any 
time from the outside by the clearance 
between shaft and pointers T T. 

As shown in the illustration, a good 
bearing must be provided close up on 
each side, and the two shafts must be 
lineable. If these two conditions are 
given, the clutch is guaranteed. 

When used to carry rope or belt pul- 
ley, the clutch is arranged as in Fig. 2 
shown at the left of the large illustra- 
tion. The pulley, which ig bushed with 
gun-metal and provided with spring 
lubricator for solid oil, is bolted on to 

But this sort of worker is watched not 
to make sure of his fealty but to de- 
termine the extreme of his capabilities 
so that the institution of w'hieh he is a 
part may take advantage of unusual 
fidelity by putting its exponent into the 
place where that faithfulness may be~of 
greatest value. 

The man or woman, the boy or girl, 
who will work without being watched, is 
so unusual that the appearance of one in 
any business institution is almost start- 

At the start, the reports of his im- 
mediate superior testifying to so amaz- 
ing a phenomenon are received by those 
higher up with unconcealed incredulity. 

"It will wear off," they say, for in 
their experience it nearly always has 
worn off. 

"He's a new man and uncertain of his 
job," say others, "but pretty soon he 

will fall into the rut and do as all the 
others do." 

But if he doesn't ; if on the other 
hand he works on just the same when 
the boss is elsewhere as when he is 
watching, the conviction slowly steals 
over those in authority that they have 
accidentally picked a winner. 

From then on the worker is watched. 
He is tested. His faithfulness being a 
certainty, the question of his intelligence 
and capacity must be determined. 

Around him are doubtless others more 
quick-witted, more brilliant. Judged by 
their capabilities these others may be 
one hundred per cent, men, though only 
fifty per cent, men in performance. 

But the men who are wise enough to 
be in charge of the larger affairs of 
business know that a faithful man who 
is always on the job achieves more and 
is of more value than the apparent one 
hundred per cent, man whose person or 
whose brain is away at the baseball 

Thus little by little more important 
tasks are assigned to the faithful em- 
ploye. Though he may be the latest 
comer he is the soonest promoted. 

And the others — well, they sit back 
and berate the boss. They always knew 
that the faithful one had a pull or that 
the boss has it in for them. 

They cannot see and they cannot un- 
derstand the simple reason why the man 
who works when the boss isn't looking, 
gets ahead. If they could see or under- 
stand some of them would follow the 
faithful one's example. 

And some of the others will tell the 
faithful one that he is "trying to get a 
stand in" with the boss. To their in- 
fantile minds it seems the highest 
stretch of foolishness to try and stand 
in with the men who determine your 
wages and your tenure. 

But the faithful one if he has sense as 
well as honesty will not swerve. As 
long as he sticks to the fundamental 
honesty of giving a full day's service for 
a full day's pay even if there be a 
chance to soldier and renage, he travels 
the road that leads to the top and no 
man can stop him. — Silent Partner. 

The standardization of parts reduces 
the number of jigs and tackle used in 
manufacture, and increases the produc- 
tion by expertness due to frequency of 
handling. Thus the cost per piece is 
lessened, and the possibilities of quicker 
deliveries give a more rapid turnover 
of capital. Not the least point in the 
favor of standardization is the influence 
of such activity on the men in the shop. 
During slack periods standard parts 
may with advantage be built for stock, 
and thus help to meet the call of urgent 
orders. — Mechanical World. 


Oxy - Acetylene Welding Makes the Scrap Pile Less 

Some Castings That can be Ecomically Repaired, Thus Saving 
them from the Scrap Pile. — A Description of the Linde System. 

A Linde Oxy-Acetylene instalation has 
been made at Charles Potter's, 85 Yonge 
St., Toronto, where repairs are being 
made to gas engines, patterns, etc , 
showing the great saving that may be 
made by using Oxy-Acetylene system of 
welding. The instalation was made by 
the Linde Air Products Co., Buffalo, 
N.Y. The Canadian company is in 

Complete systems are designed and in- 
stalled, the one at Charles Potter's in- 
cluding a full range of pipes, from No. 
1 to No. 15. A portable attachment al- 
lows the torches to be used on any \vr rk 
that cannot be brought into :he shcp. 
As an illustration of what may hj dcrc, 
the frame of a Ford car was bro.on, 
the welding apparatus was taken to the 

Fig. 1. — Linde Oxy-Acetylene Welding Outfit. 

car and the frame repaired without dis- 
mantling the car. 

The Oxy-Acetylene blowpipe (Fouche's 
patent), is a low pressure blowpipe, 
constructed on the injector principle and 
is designed and proportioned to meet all 
the special conditions with which an 
Oxy-Acetylene blowpipe must comply. It 
is so constructed that the flame cannot 
strike back. The gases are well mixed 
in the injector chamber before they issue 
from the nozzle of the blowpipe and the 
nozzle itself is so construc-ivi that the 
possibility of carbonaceous deposit in 
the orifice is practically oi)vi.atcd. It is 
made in ten sizes. 

Fig. 1 represents diagramatically a 
complete Linde Oxy-Acetylene blowpipe 
installation with the exception of the 
acetylene generator and holder which 

may be placed in any suitable position 
and at any convenient distance from the 
blowpipe apparatus. 

In the Fig. 1, B is a cook connecting- 
the inlet nipple of the hydraulic back- 
pressure valve with the acetylene supply 
pipe from the acetylene holder. The 
blowpipe is connected at A by means of 
an ordinary stout rubber tube with the 
outlet cock C of the hydraulic back- 

Fig. 2.— Broken Cylinder. 

pressure valve which forms the acetylene 
supply pipe of the blowpipe. 

The blowpipe is connected at O by 
means of a stout rubber tube with the 
outlet cock T of the oxygen pressure re- 
gulator, which is attached, as, to 
the valve on the oxygen cylinder. Vli's 
pipe conveys the oxygen supply ii> Ihe 
blowpipe, and should be securely attach- 
ed, as it is subject to pressures Vi,;ying 
from 10 pounds to 30 pounds per square 

Repairing Castings. 

Fig 2 shows a broken cylinder o. a 1- 
cylinder Toronto taxi-cab which was re- 
paired at Charles Potter's. The repaired 

Fig. 3. — Repaired (Cylinder. 

cylinders are shown in Fig. .3. The wa- 
ter jacket was broken out, the broken 
pieces resting on the top of Fig. 2. The 
cylinder was pre-heated so that no 
strains would be set up afterwards. 

Tool holders, patterns, etc., from $3 
up can usually be repaired economically. 
Other things that can be repaired are 
printing presses, crankshafts, automo- 
bile parts, pulleys, gears, valves, etc. 
The repair is made at a much less cost 


lluiii making a new part. The repair 
seldom costs over one-third of the first 
cost of the casting and usually much 
less. On small castings the percentage 
is much larger than on larger ones. On 
small repairs to large cylinders, auto- 
mobile frames, etc, the percentage is 
very low. 


The new system of heating installed 
in the ear barn of the Toronto and 
York Hadial Railway, at St. Clair Ave., 
Toronto, Canada, is unique. In place 
of a steam boiler, which in ordinary 
ear barns provides steam for heating, but 
seldom for power, there will be a heater 
for transferring the heat in the coal 
direct to the air, and a fan will force 
this heated .lir through the distribut- 
ing system. The heater, which re- 
sembles a sectional water-tube boiler, is 
called .in "air-tube" heater. It is 
the unique feature of this system which 
is being installed by the Harrison En- 
gineering Co., of New York City. This 
new method of heating will be watched 
witli interest, for there are no steam 
pipes or coils to he drained, no boiler 
to burst, and no accessories to be empt- 
ied or blown down in order to prevent 
freezing, should it be necessary to shut 
down the plant during the winter. 


The regular meeting of the Central 
Railway and Engineering Club was held 
in the Prince George Hotel, Toronto, on 
Feb. 15 when a paper was read on "The 
Principle of Melting Iron in the Cupola," 
by E. B. Gilmour, superintendent of the 
molding department at the Canada 
Foundry, Toronto. This paper is repro- 
duced in the Foundry Department of 
Canadian Machinery. M. J. Duguid, 
president, occupied the chair. Many 
members took part in the discussion of 
the paper. 

A social evening was tendered to mem- 
bers and prospective members at the St. 
Charles Hotel on Feb. 25. 

A. F. Well, B.A.Sc, and J. V. Gray, 
formerly of the Bishop Construction Co., 
me carrying on a general engineering 
and contracting business under the name 
"Wells & Gray, Ltd.," at 315 Confeder- 
ation Life Building, Toronto. 

George Y. Chown, B.A., has resigned 
his position as Registrar of Queen's Uni- 
versity and secretary of the School of 
Mining to devote his time to managing 
the affairs of the Wormwith Piano 
Works, of which he is now sole owner. 
Mr. Chown will retain the position of 
treasurer of (Queen's. 


Equipping Each Machine With Its Own Power Plant 

How Manufacturers have Applied Electric Motors to Drive Ma- 
chinery— Some Interesting Instalations of Individual Motor Drive 

Illustrated herewith are a number of 
machines equipped with motor drive. 
Fig. 1 shows a Toledo open-back, inclin- 
able, plain press for making handles, 

Fig. 1.— Motor Driven Press. 

lock parts and sheet metal work made 
by the Toledo Machine Co., Toledo, 
Ohio. It has its own power plant. In 
other words it is motor driven. The 
motor is 2J h.p., 250 volt Westinghouse, 
type "S" direct current shunt motor 
which runs 1025 r.p.m. Line switch and 
starting rheostat are shown mounted 
directly on the machine frame. The 
large spur-gear reduction, meshing with 

Fig. 3.— Motor Connected to Vertical Sliaft. 

the motor pinion, transmits directly to 
the crank shaft which carries the pit- 
man connecting to the cross-head punch 

One of the advantag^es of motor drive 
is in getting power around corners. 

When certain machines are in use, it is 
not necessary to run the whole line 
shafting. That is a second advantage. 
Any machine that is idle a great part 
of the day should be driven by indivi- 
dual motor. When a number of ma- 
chines are to run practically all the 
time it is often economical to run them 
all by one motor. 

Another advantage in motor drive is 
the placing of the motors. It may be 
located on the floor, on the ceiling or 
on the machine depending on the work 
to be done. 

Fig. 2 shows a motor mounted on a 
platform suspended from the ceiling 
direct connected to a blower. The mo- 
tor is a Westinghouse 30 h.p. squirrel 
cage 60 cycle, three phase, 220 volts. 

The Westinghouse Diary for 1910 has 
some additions over those issued during 
the past six years. It contains much 
condensed material of instructive type 
and pertaining mainly to electrical ques- 
tions. Not the least interesting of the 
contents is the brief but impressive pres- 
entation of Westinghouse plants. Among 
the reminders of an esp)eeially ingenious 
character are the wrinkles introduced 
with the wire table. A wire which is 
throe sizes larger is shown to be twice 
the weight, twice the area, but only half 
the resistance. Of course, this ratio ap- 
plies to the other sizes. One thousand 
feet of No. 5 wire weighs 100 pounds 
and No. 10 wire is almost eactly 0.10 
inch diameter. These and many other 
pointers of more or less consequence to 
those using or contemplating the pur- 
chase of electrical apparatus are given 
space in this neat leather-covered hand- 
book of information. 

Fig. 2. -Motor Arranged to Drive Blower. 

The blower is a 30 inch, collecting the 
shavings from the other machinery and 
forcing it across a roadway. 

PMg. 3 shows a Westinghouse motor 
connected to a vertical shaft driving a 
post sandcr. The motor is a 2 h.p. 220 
volts, started from a three pole, double 
throw switch, wired without fuses for 
starting but with fuses on tlic running 

On tbe starting box in Fig. 2 is print- 
ed the words "Stop Motor." This is a 
constant suggestion to the operator that 
the realization of the advantage of in- 
termittent operation are up to him , 



It is often difficult to keep machinery 
properly oiled in cold weather, as the 
oil freezes in the oil holes and the cups, 
and the oil upon the ways of the lathe 
and planer becomes stiff, causing the 
machines to work hard. A good oil for 
winter use is made by mixing graphite 
with cylinder oil until in a thick or 
pasty consistency, and then adding kero- 
sene until it flows freely. This oil will 
not become stiff at 14 degrees below 
zero, and is valuable to those operating 
machinery outside or in cold shops. 



One of the suggestions given in reply 
to our editorial in the February issue 
asking for comments, was that a ques- 
tion and answer department be estab- 
lished. This will appear under the 
heading of correspondence and will be 
entirely separate from the "Methods 
and Devices Department." Anyone desir- 
ing names of firms and addresses will be 
answered througli this department. 
Comments on answers and previous ar- 
ticles containing good ideas will be paid 
for.— Editor. 

British Trade. 

A writer from London wishes to be 
put in communication with a large Can- 
adian firm wishing to open stores in 
London, England. The writer has been 
selling United States machinery for 
twelve years. His address will be given 
by writing Canadian Machinery. 


1 have passed the examinations of the 
I. C. S. in mathematics, mechanics, 
strength of materials, steam engine de- 
sign, geometrical and mechanical draw- 
ing. (1) Do you think I could hold a 
position of draftsman. (2) What pay 
does a draftsman get ? 

We think you should, if you have been 
observant in your present position, be 
able to take up the work of drafting, 
but of course, you would have to work 
at small pay until you had proved 
yourself able to take care of more re- 
sponsible work. There is practically no 
limit to the possibilities of a good 
draftsman, though in starting the 
salary will probably be from about 
$2 per day up. 

Tempering Gears, 

We would like a safe, simple method 
for hardening the teeth of steel cut 
gears after they have been dressed so 
that warping will be eliminated. 

We would suggest that two large 
washers be used, bolting the gear firmly 
between them when hardening. This 
will keep the centre of the gear soft 
and assist in preventing warping. We 
would also suggest that the gears be 
re-tempered just before finishing. 

Heat the gears in a muflle, if possi- 
ble, thus preventing the gears coming 
in contact with the fire. Heat the 
gears from 1,500 to 1,550 degs., but not 
higher. In hardening, the gear may be 
put on an arbor, letting the arbor rest 
on the side of the box. The gear can 
then be turned around in the solution, 
having only enough solution in the box 
to wet the teeth. Small wheels are 

usually case-hardened by cyanide of 
potassium. Readers having had exper- 
ience in case-hardening gears are re- 
quested to send in the results of their 

Factories A.ct. 

Will you permit me to use some of 
the valuable space in your paper to 
make a protest in reference to an 
amendment that is being made in the 
Factories Act that any employe in- 
jured can start a suit for dam- 
ages in six months. 

While quite in favor of any amend- 
ments that make for the safety of 
employes, yet here is the danger in 
this amendment, the easier it is for 
employes to get damages the more 
careless they become, especially when 
there are a lot of lawyers who are 
looking for every little excuse to work 
up a case for damages. Most em- 
ployers know that nine times out of 
ten that injury is caused by careless- 
ness ; this should not be encouraged. 

A good strong protest on the part of 
manufacturers would mean that the 
law would be fixed so that the respon- 
sibility would be placed on the right 
parties, not a case of hold up. 



It isn't often that a cupola Are goes 
out, but accidents will happen. It was 
probably the first time in the history of 
the Canada Foundry Co., Toronto, when 
their cupola fire went out recently. It 
certainly was the first in the long experi- 
ence of E. B. Gilmour. superintendent 
of the molding department. 

It may be interesting to know how 
the fire was re-lighted. The cupola was 
filled to the charging door with tons of 
coke and iron, and a look through the 
tuyeres showed that every bit of wood 
had been consumed and the cupola 
could not be dumped, as there was a 
large floor of molds ready for the charge 
to melt. 

A steel bar was procured, and the 
breastwork was knocked out. A gener- 
ous piece of waste was soaked in oil and 
pushed underneath the charge. Then 
with a gas torch and compressed air a 
■ flame was kept playing on the waste 
and coke bed until the fire was started, 
when the blast was turned on and the 
melt proceeded with in the regular way. 

The lire bricks and ground fire clay of 
this company are well known in Canada, 
and under the control of Mr. Gibb a 
vigorous selling campaign is to be in- 
stituted. The success of the Glenboig 
products is due to the quality of the 
clay found at Glenboig, I.,anarkshire, 
and the advanced methods, combining 
care and knowledge, employed in the 
manufacture. The products of the com- 
pany have been successfully shown at 
all the principal exhibitions, and in every 
case have secured the highest awards, 
the medals and diplomas numbering 48. 
About a thousand hands are engaged in 
mining the fire-clay and in the processes 
of converting the raw material into all 
kinds of fire-clay goods, showing the ex- 
tensiveness of the operations of the com- 
pany and the demand for their goods 
from all quarters of the globe. 


F. Horace Disston, lately of Philadel- 
phia, has been appointed superintendent 
of Henry Disston & Sons' new saw 
works at Toronto. 

J. Hossack, Toronto, sales manager 
of the Lufkin Rule Co., is visiting the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland, 
on a business trip. 

F. B. Cowan, manager of the Ganan- 
oque Bolt Works, which has been taken 
into the Canada Bolt Co. merger, will 
be manager of the two Gananoque 
branches of the merged company. 

W. P. Beardshaw, of J. Beardshaw & 
Sons, Baltic Steel Works, Sheffield, 
Eng., is in Montreal, on a visit to 
Alex. Gibb, the sole Canadian agent of 
this firm. Mr. Beardshaw will visit 
several other Canadian cities while in 

Fred Harding, who has been secretary- 
treasurer of the London Machine Tool 
Co., Hamilton, since it started was 
presented with a valuable gold watch 
by his fellow directors. Mr. Harding 
is leaving the company to go to To- 
ronto, where he has accepted a posi- 
tion with the Chapman Double Ball 
Bearing Co. 

H. C. Hunt, who has been managing 
director of Brass & Steel Goods, Ltd., 
Belleville, since its organization has 
transferred his interests to W. C. 
Springer, who will take the full man- 
agement and direction of the company. 
It is stated that the Corbin Lock Co. 
is to take over the Brass & Steel Goods 
Company's business and the plant is to 
bo enlarged considerably. 


Alex. Gibb, 13 St. John St., Montreal 
has been appointed sole agent for Can- 
ada of the Glenboig Union Fire-Clay 
Co., whose head office is at West Regent 
Street, Glasgow. 


According to the Geological Survey, 
the United States leads all other coun- 
tries in the conversion of raw asbestos 
into manufactured products, although 
much less than 1 per cent, of the ma- 
terial used is mined in that country. 



^v^ Manufacturing News^ 

A monthly newspaper devoted to machinery and manufacturing: interests 
mechanical and electrical trades, the foundry, technical progress, construction 
and improvement, and to all users of power developed from steam, gas, elec- 
ricity, compressed air and water in Canada. 

The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 


H. V. TYRRELL, Toronto 

G. C. KEITH, iW.E., B.Sc, Toronto 

F. C. D.WILKES, B.Sc, Montreal 

W. L. EDMONDS. Vice-President 

Business Manaeer 
Managing Editor 
Associate Editor 


CANADA „„, „„ _ . 

Montreal Rooms 701-702 Eastern 

Townships Bank Bldg 

Toronto - 10 Front Street East 

Phone Main 2701 

Winnipeg, 511 Union Bank Building 

Phone 3726 

F. R. Munro 

British Columbia - Vancouver 

H. Hodgson, 

Room 21, Hartney Chambers 


London - 88 Fleet Street, E.C. 

Phone Central 12960 

J. Meredith McKim 


New York - - R. B. Huestis 
1109-1111 Lawyers' Title, Insur- 
ance and Trust Building 
Phone, 1111 Cortlandt 


Paris John F. Jones & Co., 

31bis, Faubourg Montmartre, 

Paris, France 



Louis Wol 
Orell Fussli & Co 

Cable Address: 
Macpubco, Toronto. Alabek, London, Eng. 


Canada, United States, $1.00, Great Britain, Australia and other colonies 
48. 6d., per year ; other countries, $1.50. Advertising rates on request. 

Subscribers who are not receiving their paper regularly will 
confer a favor on us by letting us know. We should be notified 
at once of any change in address, giving both old and new. 

Vol. VI. 

March, 1910 

No. 3 

hands of a busines-s man who understood what it was in- 
tended to do, we never would have had the last clause 
which makes the party kiiowin<;ly privy to any offence of 
the act liable to the same penalties as the giver of the 
secret rebate. 

The boards of trade which represent the raaiiufactur- 
iiig and all business interests of a community should 
therefore be in touch with the government and should be 
made acquainted with what is going on in parliament. 

A copy of each bill respecting business should be sent 
to the president or secretary of each board of trade just 
as soon as it is in type in order to give the business men 
an opportunity of studying it and offering their opinions. 


There are bills which come up from time to time in 
the Dominion Parliament and in the various provincial 
parliaments which ;need the expert. attention of the 
ness men of the country. Yet these men never see or hear 
of these bills until they come before the house and then 
only through meagre newspaper reports. 

How simple it would be for the governments to have a 
list of the boards of trade in Canada and in the respective 
provinces on file and each time a bill is drawn up to send 
a copy to each. 

Boards of trade are composed of the best busines.s 
men in the country; they are therefore the most competent 
men to judge whether a bill is in the best interests of 
trade or not; they are in a position to suggest changes, 
omissions, or additions which often make a bill really 

A good example of this is to be found in the Secret 
Commissions Act. If that bill had not fallen into the 


The man who "never did things like tiiat" is gradu- 
ally weeding himself from the list of successful men in 
their business and profession. When confronted with the 
problems of the present and having suggested to him 
certain courses to pursue, he puts up the plea that he 
has never done things that way, has heretofore been suc- 
cessful and sees no reason why he should modify, change, 
or add to that which has made him where be is. He keeps 
on for a while in the way he is going, and although he 
insists that be is doing good work, he knows that some- 
thing is wrong, somewhere, but he still sees no reason 
for adopting newfangled ideas. 

If we can't make up our minds to do the things of 
to-day as the necessities of the day demands and shape 
our methods according to the particular requirements of 
the present, we'll sooner or later find that he who has a 
way of his own of doing things, and persists in doing 
things that way under any conditions, will get left far 
behind in life's race. 

A man goes to bed with a clear conscience that he has 
fixed his business properly for the problems he has con- 
tended with during the day, but he wakes up to his busi- 
ness the next morning with some new series or sets of 
trouble confronting him that demand other treatments. 

Ignoring or passing over won't rid his business of the 
annoyances, and because he didn't have them to contend 
with 10 or 20 years ago, he fools himself expensively if 
ha attempts to let them go unnoticed and unconquered. 

It doesn't make an difference how we did things some 
other day; the problems of to-day are the ones that de- 
mand our attention to-day, and if we don't know how to 
handle them, it is up to us to find out immediately. 


The advent of high-speed steels has made many ma- 
chines in the shop out-of-date. Some foremen, superin- 
tendents and manufacturers have found it inconvenient 



to make use of the new steel on account of the machines 
not being able to stand up to their work. Some superin- 
tendents have found it advisable to replace the less mod- 
ern machinery by those of heavier design, and in some 
cases by motor-driven machines, the older machines being 
then consigned to the scrap pile. When the efficiency 
of the shop can Ibe increased to an amount to pay at least 
the interest on the investment, this is a paying proposi- 

In other shops the first cost has been a difficulty in 
the way and the old machines have been worked to their 
capacity, which in some cases is very low compared with 
1910 practice. Others again by the adoption of several 
schemes have brought the machinery up-to-date. 

Where lathes have four-step cones, they were ma,de in- 
to two, the first and third steps being raised to the level 
of the second and fourth. A belt of twice the width is 
then used, giving power sufficient to greatly increase the 
output of the lathe and to obtain the benefit derivable 
from using high-speed steel. Other machines, including 
shapers, etc., have been similarly treated. 

Increased outputs are obtained with planers by using 
individual motor drive, connecting them to the planer- 
driving gear by chain drive or increasing the width of the 
belt so that high-speed steel may be used. 

With the increased speed of the machinery in bringing 
it up to modern requirements, attention has been given 
to lubrication. The drilled hole in the bearing is replaced 
by an oil cup, which keeps the fast-running parts well 

It has been found in modernizing the machine shop by 
introducing modern tools and bringing older ones up-to- 
date, that the capacity of a given number of tools is 
greatly increased and costs of output have decreased. The 
modern machine tool, coupled with good management, is 
a great factor in present-day competition, and the shop 
that is up-to-date, i.s the one that produces at a minimum 



The .s-urta.x of one-third maximum duly on imports 
from Germany has been abolished, (the new agreement 
taking effect, March 1. We have jxHuted out on several 
occasions that various German organizations were inter- 
ested in promoting better trade relations between Ger- 
many and Canada, and the present arrangement between 
tli'O two governments is the result. 

The French Treaty is now in force, as intimated in the 
February issue of Canadian Machinery. Among the 
French goods provided for in the treaty are : 

lilf). Klectiic light carbons and point.s, Ii2i per cent. 

.339. Mfgs. of lead. 27J per cent. 

3.'J2. Brass and copper nails, tacks, rivets and burrs 
or washers; bells and gongs, n.o.p. ; and manufactures of 
brass or copiMicr. n.o.p., 27J per cent. 


3.')4. Manufacturers of aluminum, n.o.p., 22i per cent. 

418. Wire cloth, or woven wire of brass or copper 22i 
per cent. 

438. Locomotives and motor cars, for railways ami 
tramways; and automobiles and moitor vehicles of all 
kinds, 30 per cent. 

Ex 4.53. Telephone and telegraph instruments, electric 
and galvanic batteries, electric motors, dynamos, generat- 
oi-s, sockets, in.sulators of all kinds; electric apparatus, 
n.o.p.; and iron and steel castings, and iron and steel 
integral parts of all machinery above specified, 25 pei- cent. 

4.')4. Manufactures, artieles of wares of iron or steel 
or of which iron and steel (or either) are the component 
materials of chief value, n.o.p., 27i per cent. 

The following Canadian products are included among 
those provided for in the treaty : — 

205. Cast iron. 

206. Wrought iron crude, in blooms, prisms or bars. 

207. Iron, drawn in bars, angle and T iron, axle.^ and 
tires, in the rough. 

210. Sheet and plate iron. 

212. Iron or steel wire, whether tinned, coppered, 

zincked, galvanized or not. 

212. Rails of iron or steel. 

213. Steel in" bars. 

214. Axles and tires rough, in steel. 
216. Steel. 

221. Copper. 

222. Lead. 
225. Nickel. 
227. Antimony. 

488. Transmission belts, etc., of leather. 

522. Agricultural machinery. 

554. Iron castings. 

567. Tubes of iron or steel, not welded. 

620. Manufacturers of India-rubber and gutta-percha. 

In the seven months ending January 31, 1910, United 
States imported into Canada, goods valued at $116,130,- 
775. It is to be ho]>ed that the Tariff Commission of the 
United States will make satisfactory arrangements for 
the continuance of the growing exchange of products be- 
tween the United States and Canada. 

Canadian trade in January amounted to $51,500,103-, 
of which total the increase is $12,322,627. Imports and 
exports are in the proportion of about three to two, whieh 
is a gain of thirty per cent, over the first month of 
1909, when the commercial recovery had barely begun. 
One of the most encouraging features of the ten months' 
statement is an increase of two millions in manufactured 
articles exported. For the ten months imports have 
totalled $302,050,207, an increase of $60,978,445. 


Practical Articles for Canadian Foundrymen and Pattern Makers, and 
News of Foundrymen's and Allied Associations. Contributions Invited. 


By E. B. Gilmour * 

The subject which I have chosen is 
"The Principles of Melting Iron in the 
Cupola." The name and style of this 
furnace is derived from a cupola or 
dome leading to the chimney, which is 
now frequently omitted. 

Cupolas are made in sizes ranging 
from 18" to an unlimited size in diam- 
eter, to suit the requirements of the 
foundryman, and in nearly every foundry 
there are two or more cupolas, a small 
one for every day use, and a large one 
for specially large heats. The shape and 
style of cupolas have become more or 
less standardized with very little differ- 
ence as regards results, unless when 
some one in authority is putting in a 
new plant, and wants one of his own 
design, and at the same time, if he was 
put upon his own resources he could not 
melt iron even in his own cupola. All 
founders possess more or less knowledge 
of cupola practice, and mixing of irons. 
When I say founders I do not mean 
molders, as plenty of molders do not 
know know anything about the cupola. 

T he cupola furnace for melting iron has 
a great advantage over all kinds of fur- 
naces, as it melts iron cheaply and 
quickly, from a small quantity to an 
unlimited amount, with very little fuel. 
The cupola does not improve the quality 
of the iron melted, but in this age of 
keen competition, every one is trying to 
get the best results as regards quality 
and quantity in their product. The im- 
provements that have been worked on 
the cupola have been very little, com- 
paratively, with the other improvements 
that have been added to the foundry. I 
remember the old style of cupola with 
the single tuyere on each side, blowing 
direct into the furnace which gave good 
results. Now they are built in multiple 
rows of tuyeres, which is a great im- 

Cupola Practice. 

In good cupola practice there is a 
loss of heat units to the extent of 
about 25 per cent., and in order to have 
perfect combustion, you must supply a 
sufficient amount of oxygen to the 
amount of carbon in your cupola, 
as when a substance containing 
carbon burns in an insufficient 
supply of air, oxidation of the car- 
bon is not complete and the product, in- 

• Sunerintendent Molding Department, Canada 
Foundry Co.. Toronto. 

stead of being carbon-dioxide, is carbon- 
monoxide, consequently there will be a 
great loss of fuel, in not using all the 
heat units capable of being produced, ac- 
cording to the amount of fuel supplied, 
but if you add at different stages in 
your cupola more oxygen, it will com- 
bine with the carbon-monoxide and pro- 
duce carbon-dioxide, and in this stage 
you have as near perfect combus- 
tion as it is practical to get, from a 

Too much blast is attended with an 
increased consumption of fuel per ton of 
iron melted, which also chills the fur- 
nace and causes it to scaffold. On the 
other hand, too little blast is attended 
with a loss of heat. 

It is not my object, to advertise any 
particular kind of cupola or condemn 
any one that is on the market for sale, 
but to try and outline some of the prin- 
ciples involved in melting iron in the 

After a very careful study, extending 
over a number of years, both from a 
chemical and practical standpoint, I de- 
signed a cupola with upper tuyeres. I 
never had the opportunity to erect a 
cupola as desired, but some years later 
I was employed with the E. P. Ellis 
Co., Milwaukee, Wis., who had a cupola 
of practically the same design which was 
giving most remarkable records ; this 
was a Whiting cupola of nine tons capa- 
city per hour. Previous to the changes 
having been put upon it which after- 
wards gave fifteen tons p t hour and 
giving very hot iron for the finest of ma- 
chinery castings, with a consumption of 
fuel of ten to one, this ratio could be 
easily increased, but in order to get 
good hot and clean iron you must use 
fuel, and this is a very exceptional re- 
sult. We often see in trades journals re- 
cords of far more phenomenal results 
than this, but T am sorry to say that 
they are only upon paper, or if they are 
in the foundry, you have a proportional 
large scrap heap caused by dull iron 

Getting Iron Hot. 

One great secret in foundry practice is 
to get the iron hot, which means clean 
iron. The fact of trying to save a little 
coke in the cupola is all a fallacy be- 
cause the price of coke is hot of so 
much consideration, when in ordinary 
practice you get eight pounds of iron 
melted for one pound of coke. The prin- 
cipal thing is to get quick melting so 
that you can get more hours molding. 
As a rule when iron begins to flow the 

inolder gets ready to pour, so conse- 
quently the longer your heats, the less 

For the benefit of those who are not 
familiar with the cupola I will begin at 
the foundation and explain how iron is 
melted. The cupola is practically a cy- 
linder made of boiler plate with holes at 
regular intervals divided around the shell 
averaging about two feet from the bot- 
tom. This shell is set up on four legs 
attached to a cast iron frame with two 
halt circled doors with hinges. These 
doors are held up with a rod or pin 
from the ground. The inside of this 
shell is lined with fire brick all the way 
up to the top in order to preserve the 
shell. These holes around the shell are 
called tuyeres, which are connected to 
each other by a continuous belt around 
the outside, and it is this tuyere ar- 
rangement that gives effective or non-ef- 
fective melting, as the case may be. On 
top of the bottom doors there is about 
four inches of sand gradually tapered to- 
wards the tap hole. A fire of wood is 
started on top of this sand and filled up 
with coke, up to twenty-four inches 
above the top of the tuyeres. Between 
this point and the tuyeres is called the 
melting zone ; this is where all the melt- 
ing is done. On top of this coke bed an 
amount of iron is put on, to about 3i 
pounds to one of coke in the bed, there- 
after another layer of coke and iron al- 
ternately, of one to ten, and this is con- 
tinued until all is charged that is re- 
quired for that day. On top of each 
charge of iron is placed about 30 to 40 
pounds of lime stone, this makes the 
slag from the iron and coke very fluid, 
,=0 that in large heats it is run off, so 
as to keep the cupola clean. 

About two years ago, when the foun- 
drymen were in convention in Toronto, 
there was a new cupola put upon the 
market with phenomenal records of 
melting. It embodied the same principle 
as I was working in my cupola, but with 
this diflerence, that he drew all the 
gases from the cupola as they escaped 
over the top of the highest charge with 
another row of tuyeres at this level. As 
a consequence he draws the carbon- 
dioxide gas which is, roughly speaking, 
the ash of the gases, generated in con- 
sumption. Vow this is a gas that you 
want to get rid of. His system is to 
get the oyygen from the charging door, 
also the carbon-monoxide from the 
cupola, which would be hot, and get rid 
of the clogging of the tuyeres. This 



system has not proved so good as the Oi. .•.* i (^ J>T lo 

designer anticipated, as I watched the »>-)tailSnCS OF L.anada S IrOIl and Stcel Pmrllirfl'rkn 

records and demonstrations for three iv^vJU^-UUli 

days, and noticed a very heavy burning Returns Gathered by Canadian Machinervfnr IPOQ .1,^ 

out of the upper tuyeres, and the iron Material Advances oVthe TotT 3^^ 

was not hot enough for the usual run of rrevious r ear. 

In general cupola practice there are a '^^ .^'f «f'« figures-now first publish- of construction, are also addil/ eoke 

number of irregularities in melting which ed-indicate a marked improvement over ovens to be built this vear 

caused Mr. Hart to make an inquiry as ^'^^'■'^ o^ t^e previous year. In every The Deseronto nlant of th «f j ., 

to the cause. 'Phis is also in the blast ''"^ there has been a sig:nificant ad- Chemical Co will be hr,nrlv„rr 

furnace ; he says :-"He describes some '^nce, and the gratifying totals which ore trestle and the in«t 1 f I """ 

of the irregularities to differences in at- ^^ anticpated at the publishing of our electric motor in the ^"'t "r- ''" 

mospheric pressure; thus the range of ^''^^^ yearly statement have been more dian Maehinprv >, = „ " """^ /°"'^- ^ana- 

the barometer in Great Britain being 'han realised. Taking iron and steel as details of the Lrlinl "^^ Published 

about three inches, or rather more than the best trade barometer that a country construction at thn "°'''" T'^^ °^ 

one tenth of the mean pressure, this «an possess, it is evident that Canada Steel and the HamiltonTrnn"* «T ,^ 

change of density would produce a dif- ^ad a good year, and starts in the °"^'- 

ference of one-tenth in the bulk of the °^ shape forniaking 1910 the best of all. The Year's Figures. 

;-rost t"i?h iirlT' *"*;'''". \fT' 20 to 30 per Cent. Gain. ^^^^ ending Year ending 

irost with the thermometer at 20 deg. 0^^ 3j p, „, 

and sultry weather at 70 degrees, the '' s'ance at the appended figures 19Qg fqj^Q 
difference would be 50 degrees, and as '^^ows that the total pig iron produc- Total iron production 566.515 G7q IfiT 
atmospheric air dilates or contracts one tion for last year was 112,648 tons bet- Total ingot steel pro- 
four hundred and eighty-fifth part of ter than for 1908, or nearly 20 per cent., duotion... 511569 675 qpQ 
every degree, this difference in temper- ^^'^'''^ the ingot production was 161,- ' ^ "." ' ^i^.^^^ 
ature would produce a variation of ra- '^^^ tons, or over 30 per cent. Consid- p. Details. 
ther more than one-tenth in the mass '"'"^ that the improvements taking „ '.^ Iron— 

or bulk of the air. So that, if during P^a"® i" the various plants were, in but 7^^^*^ 345,494 362,947 

severe frost the barometer stood at ^''^ ^, sufficiently advanced to be of ^'^^,^''"!7 J 16,230 164,002 

thirty-one inches, while during sultry any great help, it can be understood *|^"'\^''le 18,293 29,500 

weather it stood at twenty-eight inches, that the pressure of all this increased |^,°"""''y 81,932 107,041 

the combined effects of the differences in l>roduction must have been very great. t,"arcoal 4_56(; 15 671 

temperature and the pressure would ^" ^act, for several months the furnaces ^ Steel- 
amount to a total variation of one-fifth ^^'"'e not looking for orders, and deliv- J"^°ts 511.569 675,929 

in the bulk of the blast, which would be ery was hard to obtain. The conges- |^|°o™'' 370,563 472,126 

nearly equivalent to a careless furnace tion in steel was likewise severe, es- z!^]^^^ 105,473 139.335 

man putting into his furnace ninety pecially as two of the great producers ^ 267,377 337,346 

pounds of coal instead of one hundred were out of the open market, having all " ''°*'^ 41,420 73,002 

During a whole casting, indeed, the dif- they could do to look after their own '*'"' ®*®®'' ''^"" ^"•^ 

ference from temperature and pressure wants. structural material.. 81,984 121,058 

amounts to something like an irregular Detailed Figures. Castings 9 350 13 gijo 

charging of the furnace with ninety Of the detailed figures of the iron pro- ^'**''' *'''*'''' ^''^'^^s and 

pounds indiscriminately, instead of one duction it will be noticed that while s""f'"es .3, HO 6,,i21 

hundred pounds regularly." they all show advances, Bessemer, with 

These ob.scrvations of Mr. Hart are '»" '"crease of 47,772 tons, or over 40 The Osborn Mf^. Co., .5401 East 

certainly worthy of attention. The im- '"'i' "ent., and foundry with an increase Hamilton Ave., Cleveland' have issu d 

pression of the effect of moisture in the «* 25,109 tons, or over 30 per cent., are catalogue No 124 describing' the' ^1 

air is still as firmly held as ever. Tak- "^o-^t prominent, that is so far as com- justable flask stripnino- rnddino- ,!!' 

mg the average of five vears, selected at pansons with the previous year are chine Tlio maehiiip is " . 1 ■ 1 

intervals of the same period, for twcntv- confe.rned. ^j^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ■ J™" "^ .'" ^'"*«' 

two years working, the following quan- '■'he steel figures .show great and signi- fo„r «fs„i^»,.i , '•.:i'*i '"I a , •'"*'^'' *" 

titles of coal were consumed for everv fi^ant increases. Wire rods for instance, i.J.r T ' "'"' '''"' 

ton of crude iron produced :- ' -^h-.w an increase of 31,582 tons, or 76 „ ?, '""■^' "® required. 

per cent.; bar steel, iron and struc- '"/*"•"« -"re mounted on a metal or 

M fca 8 g tural material, 39,074 tons ■ rails 69 ''""'' Pattern plate. The oast iron flask 

I -^ .3 -^ S -g i -g 369 tons, while plate, axles and ' sun- ''"PP'^^'tf "" either side of the machine 

5:o|-03o|o dries, etc., show the greatest compara- *''® ''"dji'stable sideways, these adjust- 

Foundry iron furnace.''49.7 52 2 53 1 55 4 ''^' '"'''"'''''*' °^ =>">•• that of 3,381 tons, '""f « being j^raduated to .* inch spaces. 

Forge iron furnace... 43.6 44 2 44 6 45 8 "^ "^"" ^"^ """ '='="*• '^=^^*'"^'' =^l-^° T '"^ f'^'^T' "'' ^'''^''"' P'^'^« "" 

Blast furnace iron... 43 2 44 1 501 495 ^"^ ""'"^ prominent, with an increase ^''P °t these flask supports are also ad- 

of 4,610 tons or nearly 50 per cent. It .H'^table sideways to accommodate the 

In the first, or foundry iron furnace, '« evident from this that all classes of '"■''chine to any trifling irregularities in 

the excess of autumn over winter months consumers have been active buyers. flasks of standard sizes, 

is eleven per cent. • in forge furnace Twelv« furnaces were in blast com- A full description with illustrations 

equal to five per cent., and in blast fur- " Th! T**" eleven for the previous year, is given in the catalogue. Several other 

nace fifteen per cent . ,^ Canada Iron Corporation are molding machines are also described, 

nueen per cent. building an additional furnace at Mid- The catalogue, will be sent on request 




By Dr. R. Moldenke, Watehung, N.J. 

In the last few years considerable has 
been written on the subject of imper- 
fect castinigs, and many and varied have 
been the reasons advanced to account for 
the existence of pin, gas and slag holes, 
interior shrinkages, draws, cracks, and 
the like. The supposition that these un- 
desirable manifestations are solely due 
to molding troubles, bad sand, air in 
the molds which can not escape fast 
enough, bad design, or an improper mix- 
ture of metal, does not always convince 
the experienced foundryman. He has, 
however, no other recourse than to cor- 
rect what he can in his practice as he 
sees it, and trust that lie will soon run 
out of his bad run of luck. Usually by 
the time things begin to get irritating, 
the castings have all been made, and the 
trouble is forgotten for the time being. 
^ For a number of years it has been 
my feeling that aside from causes easily 
seen and remedied, the fundamental 
difHculty in nearly all cases of imperfect 
castings lies deeper and may be found 
directly in the manner in which the 
stock is melted down. In other woi-ds, 
that there is something about every melt- 
ing process, whether cupola, air furnace 
or open hearth, that must be taken into 
account, otherwise a greater or less num- 
ber of the castings made will show 
spongy spots, pinholes, etc.. when ma- 

It is the purpose of this paper to go 
into the subject a little, to try to give 
the probable cause, and suggest a remedy 
for much of the above mentioned trouble. 

Foundrymen will remember that sever- 
al years ago a very elaborate series of 
cupola melting tests were made at the 
Government testing plant in conneetioai 
with the St. Louis exposition, and the 
year thereafter I was in charge of this 
work, and present at nearly every indi- 
vidual test, and hence could observe the 
peculiar behavior of the .several cokes 
tested out. A large number of cokes 
made on the premises from coals gather- 
ed all over the country, and selected 
specially for their probable usefulness 
for foundry purposes, were run through 
two small cupolas under standard con- 
ditions, and results noted. The series 
of tables subsequently published, while 
giving the coal producer information of 
direct value to him for his special use, 
also demonstrated a number of thing's 
for the foundry which would have been 
impossible to get in ordinary practice, 
as no <ine individual could afford to 

* Keiid before .\iiiericmi Foundiymen's Asso- 

burn up a lot of valuable iron in order 
to derive infonnation therefrom. 

As these tesits really form the basis 
for what is to follow, a few words in 
further explanation may not be amiss. 
The Technological Bran«h of the U.S. 
Geological Survey coked a great num- 
ber of coals sent in by producers all 
over the country. Wherever these cokes 
showed a composition anywhere near 
foundry requirements, some were set 
aside for melting tests. In all some 
one hundred and ninety tests were made. 
Three thousand pounds of metal were 
melted in each test. In order to have 
uniform conditions for the coke 'bed, and 
still suit the average coke made, four- 
teen inches above the lower tuyeiHJs was 
selected, and this height kept for every 
test. The upper tuyeres were kept 
closed. A melting ration of 7 to 1 was 
adopted. The coke used for the bed 
was weighed as put in to the jiroper 
mark. In this manner, measuring the 
height of the bed by a wire and weight 
diopped in, the exact amount of coke 
used could he noted. This weight varied 
from 180 to 230 pounds, showing quite a 
range in specific gravity. Four times 
this weight was charged in metal for the 
first charge, and the successive charges 
of coke and metal remaining to hold the 
ratio at 7 to .1 divided up into four 
|)arts, coke varying from ">0 to 62 
pounds, and the metal correspondingly. 
Blast was put on — about 7 ounces — and 
the time noted when iron began to show 
at the spout. Iron came in .3 to 15 min- 
utes. This is interesting as indicating 
the rate at which coke was consumed, 
and the iron brcnight into the melting 
zone. With the best results the iron 
came in 7 to 10 minutes. 

Necessarily for the extremely light 
and tlie uniluly heavy cokes this melting 
practice would spell disaster, and 
it did so, the melting loss show- 
ing this up very markedly. Pos- 
sibly this may convince many foun- 
drymen wlio think it impossible to burn 
iron in the cupola. The results shoA\- 
this melting loss to be from 3.2 all the 
way up to 52.5 per cent, of the metal 
charged. The cupolas were constantly 
slagged off, but in the worst ease above 
mentioned, so much slag was made that 
it flooded the tuyeres, and effectually 
slopped operations. When bottom was 
drop|>ed, there was no metal remaining. 
It was quite evident that with the light- 
er varieties of coke, they burned away 
so fast that the metal came to the lower 
portion of the melting zone much earlier 
than it should. Hence metal was burn- 
ed directly by the blast. The first heavy 
charge, in melting, lowered this coke 
bed to a point which not only ruined the 
metal melted, but also prevented the 


subsequent charges of coke from restor- 
ing the bed to its proper level again. 
The burning therefore continued, and a 
very bad heat resulted. 

Heavy Cokes. 

Now taking the very heavy cokes. 
Here it was necessary to wait quite a 
while before the bed had burned low 
enough to begin melting. Necessarily 
to keep the ratio of one to four for 
the first charge, a very heavy one re- 
sulted. Here again the coke bed was 
lowered unduly in melting this first ex- 
tra heavy charge, again bringing the 
metal too close to the blast. Result — 
burnt metal. The trouble in such cases, 
however, was aggravated by the fact 
that the subsequent coke charges were 
very small — too much having gone into 
the bed and being burned away without 
effect, remembering that the ratio of 7 
to 1 was maintained in the heat. Hence 
again dilliculty, and bottom dropped 
with a lot of uinnelted pig iron remain- 
ing. The fuel became insufficient to 
even support the Bessemerizing influence 
of the blast. 

So it will be seen that where the melt- 
ing process with a given coke and con- 
ditions normal gives good iron, it does 
not necessarily follow that any other 
coke will act the same, and hence many 
are the mistakes made in using new 
varieties of coke in a foundry without 
studying the conditions that should ob- 
tain to get results from them. 

Burning Iron. 

\ word about burning ii-on in the 
cupola. Those who have watched the 
making of the iron silicates can realize 
how very little silica can carry great 
quantities of iron to make a thin black 
.slag. In the heating shop where steel 
01- wrought iron billets are gotten ready 
for the hammers, this process can be 
watched very nicely. The regenerative 
system of heating the modern furnace 
keeps things intensely hot in them, and 
as the billets become red and then white 
hot the metal (jxidizes and wastes away 
rapidly, uniting with the sand bottom 
to a rich silicate, which flows out of the 
back of the hearth in a steady thin 
stream. This material is prized by the 
furnace as a wash and is easily 60 per 
cent, and over in iron content. In the 
bottom of the open hearth furnace, after 
a malleable heat, oftentimes jx)ols of 
iron remain which rapidly oxidize, burn- 
ing with a di.splay of fine sparks, to dis- 
appear after uniting with the sand bot- 
tom as a dark spot on a fiery surface. 
Of the Bessemer process nothing need 
be said here, as the burning of the metal 
is a .self-evident proposition, though 
theoretically the iron goes last. In the 
blast furnace one has only to note that 



the same sized t'urnace which produces 
2')0 tons a day under one set of con- 
ditions, and makes good honesit iron for 
tlie foundryman is made to yield double 
the amount in another place, with a cor- 
responding diminution in value to the 
foundry. Some of the metal made gets 
oxidized before arriving in the crucible. 
In the cupola it is a simple thing to 
wateh the scintillations from the drops 
of iron falling througii the coke bed. 
Every little shot is thus coated with a 
.skin of oxide as it passes the fresh blast 
and goes into the bath below. Just bow 
much this oxidation amounts to depends 
upon the position of the stock with re- 
ference to the melting zone, as the ma- 
terial runs oS molten. 

Whether the blast attacks the lining 
and this eats up the oxidized metal, or 
tiie oxidized metal unites with the ash 
of the coke, needing so little .silica, mat- 
ters very little. The slag fonned eventu- 
ally gets blown upward and to the sides, 
the rich iron oxides greedily eat the 
lining, and great quantities of slag re- 
sult. In the case above cited where the 
melting loss was over half the metal 
charged, the slag contained 43.50 per 
cent. iron. 

A study of the St. Louis results leads 
one to look into the melting process a 
little. Melting in the crucible has al- 
ways given the best results, and simply 
because the oxidizing influences ai'e at 
a minimum. In the air furnace, proper 
attention to the melting, and doing 
away with the thin edge of molten metal 
on the sand bottom, by making this ap- 
proach the open hearth shape more, 
does away with much of the oxidation 
resulting in weak metal. In the open 
hearth as well as the air furnace, the 
reduction of the time in melting does 
moi'e than anything else to keep the 
quality of the meital up. To reduce this 
melting time means a first-class knowl- 
edge of the process. 

In the case of the cupola things are 
more complex. It is necessary to see 
what functions each part of the optera- 
tion serves. Take the coke bed; this 
may be divided into three parts. The 
first is that portion below the tuyeres 
which .serves as a filling. It occupies the 
space intended to hold the molten iron, 
and holds up the balance of the charges. 
The second portion of the bed is that 
ju.s't above the tuyeres and up to the 
zone of melting. In this space the blast 
has its oxygen more or less converted 
to carbonic acid and carbonic oxide. 
The third portion is incandescent coke 
at which the actual melting takes place. 
The second and third portions of the 
coke, of, shade into each other, 
the temperature of the coke rising from 
the comparatively dull heat of the bot- 

tom fiiling. to the hottest part at the 
melting line. As the metal melts, this 
line — if it may be so called — naturally 
drops downward, and when all of the 
first charge is gone, the first intermediate 
coke charge gets on the bed, bringing it 
upward again. The second charge of 
iron is melted, the bed dropped in so 
doing, and again the next intermediate 
coke charge brings it up again. And so 
on. On the nicety of the charges de- 
pends the rate of melting, melting loss, 
and a number of other things. 

That practically only the portion of 
(he coke above the tuyeres does any 
melting is proven by the fact that in 
many foundries where it is not desired 
to hold any metal in the cupola at all, 
the tuyeres are placed a few inches from 
the bottom. Again, that the lower por- 
tion of the coke above the tuyeres is 
also not effecitive for good is shown by 
the damage done when the iron gets too 
low. Hence the upper part only of the 
coke charge should be counted as effec- 
tive, and study be given it to see how 
it can be made most so. 

Coke Bed. 

The first question that presents itself 
to the thinking mind is why — if only the 
upper part of the coke bed does the 
melting, and this part being used up in 
so doing, is replaced by the small coke 
charge above — why is the first charge in 
cupolas made heavier than the rest? It 
seems unreasonable, in fact absolutely 
incorrect to do so. Think a moment — 
iron does not begin to melt until the 
coke has burned down to the proper 
point. It takes more coke burned away 
after melting starts, to care for a big 
first charge, than for a little one, such 
as the ones subsequently used. There- 
fore with the big charge, the coke bed 
has been lowered so much that the sub- 
sequent coke charge does not restore the 
bed to its original height — in fact far 
from it. The second iron charge there- 
fore does not begin to melt where the 
first one did, but much below it. Re- 
sult — ^burnt iron in both cases. This 
goes right on for every succeeding 
charge, the latter end of each being too 
low and near the blast which at this 
low point contains a lot of unconsumed 
oxygen. Usually we find that the in- 
termediate coke charges are just a little 
large, and gradually the line of melting 
is brought back to where it should be. 
and hence the burning trouble is confined 
to the first part of the heat. One often 
hears that toward the end of a heat the 
iron comes slow, and by cutting the coke 
in the last charges a little, quicker re- 
sults are obtained. This is simply due 
to the extra large coke charges bringing 
the bed above the melting line, and 

hence coke must be burned away to get 
the iron into the proper place again for 

The conclusion that one must come 
to — if the reasoning is correct — is that 
the first cliarge shall be no larger than 
the others succeeding. 


The second thought that comes from 
this is the natural result of the first, 
and that is — if the unreasonable fluctu- 
ation of the melting zone produced by 
ail excessively large first charge does 
damage to the metal, then why not make 
all the charges not only alike, but as 
small as it is possible to make them, in 
order to hold the melting line as con- 
stant as possible. 

Herein lies the change I suggesit in 
cupola practice as it is carried on to-day. 
I have tried this method repeatedly in 
the last year with remarkable results, 
nearly all the imperfections mentioned 
in the beginning of this paper being 
wiped out wherever the charges wea'e 
made very small, the bed started off at 
the right height, and that the inter- 
mediate coke charges proportioned in 
such a way that uniform melting re- 
sulted throughout the heat, and of 
course the chemical composition correct, 
and charging and melting aceomplLshed 
with care. 

The bed may be accepted as of proper 
height when iron comes at the spout in 
seven to ten minutes^ the latter time 
being preferable. The charges are made 
so small that the propontionate amount 
of coke between just covers them and 
no more, say from two to four inches in 
depth. The ratio of iron and coke is 
kept just the same as previously in 
starting off this way, except that after 
deducting the coke for the bed from the 
sum total of coke charged, all the iron 
and all the coke left is divided up into 
equal and small charges. After running 
a while it will invariably be found that 
the coke can be reduced somewhat as 
the small chai'ge system keeps the melt- 
ing so uniform that the fuel formerly 
used in making slag and keeping it hot, 
is applied for melting iron. 

It may be of interest to say that with 
cupolas of about 54 in. inside diameter, 
the metal charges have been made as 
low as 750 pounds each, and with ad- 
mirable results. In general however, it 
is well to be guided by the coke between 
the metal charges, keeping this down to 
the smallest convenient amount, and 
making the metal charges proportionate 
to hold up the melting ratio. In this 
way there is a quick succession of coke 
layers to keep the bed right up to the 
proper level. In no case is the metal 


charge so large that the melting line is 
lowered very materially, and hence a 
minimum of iron is burned. The con- 
sequence of this is the practical wiping 
out of pin holes, the removal of draws, 
gas pockets, lessening of strains which 
mean cracks,- and the closing up or 
rather prevention of spongy metal. All 
this, of course, not in its entirety, but in 
so great a measure that the discount is 
lowered to a highly gratifying extent. 
I could name case after case, where upon 
being called in to assist over much diffi- 
culties, this simple and logical — I think 
it — charging method, has accomplished 
everything that could be desired. I take 
pleasure, therefore, in giving it to the 
foundry public, for their criticism and 
trial if they choose to do so. It may 
help someone who has castings to make 
which are machined and put under pres- 
sure tests. 

I need not call attention to the greater 
uniformity in the mixture attained by 
this small charge method. This alone 
would commend it to the smaller jobber, 
who oftentimes has either no bull-ladle, 
or a very small one, holding say half of 
a charge only. 

My own suggestion for charging a 
cupola, especially for big heats, would be 
somewhat on the following line: — Have 
the cupola cut oS, say six in. above the 
platform, and arrange a hood further 
up to draw off the gases. (This I be- 
lieve is done in England in some places). 
Have a large cylinder slightly smaller 
than the inside diameter of the cupola, 
and provided with a drop bottom. Place 
the charges for the cupola inside this 
cylinder, or several of them, laying the 
metal, scrap and coke evenly and care- 
fully. Do this in your metal yard. Then 
transport to the cupola, run directly 
over it by some overhead method, and 
drop the charges squarely into the 
cupola. This will reduce the platform 
labor to next to nothing, allow the 
charges to be weighed by crane scale 
overhead, and laid right, and mean only 
one handling in the yard. It would be 
mechanical charging in its best sense. 
and rather more effective than the pres- 
ent bla,st furnace hoist. Moreover, charg- 
ing could not well be made any cheaper. 

Modern Practice in the Pattern Shop and Foundry* 

Old Methods Have Passed Away and Nev/ Ideas have Revolu- 
tionized Patternmaking, Making Possible Great Savings in the Foundry. 



This question was asked upon an ex- 
amination paper: "What steps would 
you take in determining the height of a 
building, using an aneroid barometer?" 

The answer was: "I would lower tie 
barometer by a string and measure the 
string. ' ' 

This is a transition period in pattern- 
making as it is in the foundry business. 
The most curious thing about us hu- 
mans is our indillerence and unalertness 
to change. The telephone came and al- 
tered all accepted precedent ; nobody 
noticed it. The automobile crop is 
right now ot more value in dollars than 
that of cotton or gold. The flying ma- 
chine will be common when next we 
meet. So with the venerated and ven- 
erable pattern-shop. The molding ma- 
chine is also coming, mighty fast, too. 

Passing of Pioneer Practice. 

The old folly is passing of setting a 
mechanic iu wood to make a rigid model 
of some intricate casting which will be, 
not fabricated at all, but poured in 
liquid. This foolishness is about to de- 
part along with "How to temper cop- 
per" and "Who was Cain's wife?" The 
pattern-shop of our boyhood had its 
traditions, but it has come to pass that 
the man most learned and expert in 
those ways is really the least impor- 
tant thing in the pattern-shop of to- 
day. Why, there is almost no gearing 
used in this century— everything goes 
by belts, ropes, friction or is "direct- 
connected." Gears of precision are cut 
anyway and a lot are not metal at all, 
only rawhide. So the pattern-shop need 
not keep an expert gear-maker. Cast- 
tooth gears from patterns are no longer 
called for. If they were wanted, we 
have a fine gear-cutter more accurate 
than any mere man, doing nothing most 
of the time. 

Concrete Patterns. 

After fooling away a lot of time I de- 
cided to add a separate department and 
make some patterns out of concrete. In 
an Italian image-maker's shop on 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, I found 
my man. He was "a artist" and was 
very much surprised and grieved when 
I started him on a housing to weigh 
about 16,000 pounds instead of on a 
group of figures, Cupids, Psyches, etc. 
My man was just a little different from 
the common or garden variety of pat- 
ternmaker. He did not know it all and 
he was a fine, honest worker. He fur- 
nished his own reinforcing. I learned 
since that in an old steel mattress, 
which he picked up on the dump and 

• Address before Pittsburg Foundrymen's Asso- 

*• Address, care of Gobeille Pattern Co.. Nia- 
gara Falls. N. Y. 


hauled to the shop himself, and a few 
feet of barbed wire appropriated from a 
chicken fence in the suburbs, he had pro- 
cured the best kind of reinforcing and 
bothered nobody. 

Now for the part that will interest 
you. A housing priced at a wage cost 
of $432, my Florentine friend got out 
for $71.60 and we made a good casting 
from it. I was paying him $9 a week, 
so much to his surptise, I raised him 
to $2 a day. He is now not afraid to 
tackle a water-jacketed automobile 
cylinder or a cast-together tandem- 
compound, core-boxes and all. To get 
his water-course and steam-port section 
superficies, he pours the core-box with 
plaster, saws one-inch sections from the 
cast and weighs these sections against 
1-inch cubes of the same plaster used 
as weights on a common candy balance. 
It is obvious that the number of cubes 
necessary to balance any slice repre- 
sents the number of square inches of 
superficial area in that part no matter 
how crooked or intricate the out-line 
may be. So we built a dog-house to 
our pattern-shop and put into it this 
man with two helpers, who will them- 
selves be experts in a year or two, on 
$6 and $7 per week respectively ! 

Now when so many molding machines 
are in use it is desirable to short-cir- 
cuit, working not from the blue-print 
to the pattern but directly to the plate 
itself. Instead of all the expensive iron 
and brass patterns with two shrinks to 
allow and the thousand chances for in- 
accuracy, we must arrive by carving or 
modeling the piece wanted in one shrink 
and working directly onto the plate. 
This in practice necessitates another 
dog-house for a first-class white-metal 
molder. It should adjoin the concrete 
man's room. 

I may confide in you to this extent : 
my plaster man was from sunny Italy, 
my molder from the land o' cakes. 
What a Scot will say out loud about a 
Dago, and what a Florentine thinks 
about a Glasgow man, is not suitable 
to put into words before this respecta- 
ble company. What to do, well I 
didn't know. Finally, I worked most 
of my plates with a Hungarian green- 
horn in charge. He molded lovely 
plates but was slow. 

Jolt Rammer Introduced. 

One wonderful thing about present- 
day pattern-shop practice is due to the 


rise of the jolt-rammer. It is possible 
to handle boards 36 by 48 inches in at 
least one of the new machines and make 
anything at all, large or small. After 
two years' pretty close connection with 
the jariing type I am convinced of its 
entire practicability for small and light 
work and for stove plate, as well as 
for heavy castings. The man in charge 
must know how to run it just as in 
everything else, the automobile for ex- 

The trouble with the jolt machine is 
that it needs common sense to get re- 
sults and common sense is scarce. 
Think a moment. That bunip-bump- 
bump, 19 times, bumps something else 
besides the sand, flasks, bars, patterns. 
All catch it and must be made with a 
degree of strength and accuracy not de- 
manded elsewhere. Make your flasks of 
solid iron, no joints at corners. Make 
them absolutely interchangeable, tool 
steel pins ground to 1,000th of an inch 
and fitting a 1,000th of an inch tapered 
reamed hole. Have them so accurately 
made that any cope will fit any drag. 

Man and Molding Machines. 

Don't get it into your cosmos that 
the man running the machine needs any 
special mental endowment. I tried a 
mechanical engineer, graduate of a good 
technical school. No go ! He couldn't 
even shake out cores in the old jolt- 
rammer. So I hired a Russian who 
combined the trade of button-hole mak- 
er with a physique which stamped him 
a veritable Vulcan. He was a green- 
horn and spoke no language but Rus- 
sian except a few Hebrew swear-words. 
All the conversation I ever had with 
him was this, bump-bump-bump-bump- 
bump-bump-bump. Hn understood and 
could even increase the number of jolts, 
if his air was down 20 or 30 pounds, 
without any profanity on my part. That 
was one qualification. The second was, 
he was so big and strong, so bearded 
and so fierce-looking, the molders were 
afraid to rough-house his machine or 
him. Once when he lost a mold because 
some molder had buried a sponge in his 
sand he wrecked three of the foundry 
windows and broke two shovels with his 
hands. That was enough, Strosky never 
was called upon to jar-ram any more 
si)onges. I pacified him, but dreamed 
of button-holes and wrecked foundries 
at intervals for weeks afterwards. 

Advantages of Jolt Rammer. 

Another advantage of the jar-rammer 
in combination with the concrete man 
might be illustrated in this way. We 
wanted a shell-like casting for a gear- 
case. We modeled this in clay and took 
an impression in plaster of the male 
side which was to be our drag. We 
then made a reverse, by processing, and 

poured a female from which we made 
our cope. These were poured in har- 
dened concrete in an iron flask, allowed 
to dry, rammed up separately, put to- 
gether and poured from hand ladles. We 
never had a pattern, but got a fine per- 
fect casting. Size was about 18 by 38 
by 13 inches deep, 22 indentations, 
bosses and oil courses, irregular in 
shape, J inch thick, weight 228 pounds, 
cost of patternmaker's time $9.20, and 
all from a blue-print one-quarter size. 

Another photograph from life ! A 
certain HO-inch pipe bend, T-valve and 
end connection, cost $628, and was de- 
stroyed by fire. The insurance compan- 
ies settled. We replaced the patterns 
(from castings) in concrete for $52. The 
adjuster came around and saw the fin- 
ished job. Here is what he said, "Does 
this stone work cost much more than 
cherry?" "No." "Not half as much 
again does it?" "No." "Well, it's 
worth it, makes a harder pattern and 
can't burn," said the adjuster. In that 
one item the poor unfortunate foundry- 
man who had the fire sold out to the 
insurance company so as to make a 
clear profit of $r)76 on an investment of 

If your flasks are right you can get a 
hundred castings from an ordinary con- 
crete pattern and then make a new one 
for less than you could patch up, var- 
nish and store a wood pattern. Gen- 
tlemen, believe me, the reinforced con- 
crete pattern is a wonder. I have no 
monopoly of it. Buy a barrel of cement 
collect an Italian and try it out for 

The way to keep things even or to 
change work on the big jolt-rammer is 
almost too simple for words, only it 
seems that nobody gets onto it. Make 
a standard plate for all small work, 12 
by 16 inches. That will be nine for 
each big board, 36 by 48 inches. These 
multiples are interchangeable and bolt- 
ed in place, so when one casting runs 
ahead, take out its multiple and replace 
with something else, or if it runs short 
make an extra plate, substitute for 
something not pressing and double the 
output. Very simple, and this is now- 
being worT^ed out in practice. 

Non-shrink Alloys. 

One word about alloys. There is now 
on sale a metal that is practically non- 
shrink, but what the new era pattern- 
shop wants awfully bad is a white alloy 
that will take solder and expand in 
cooling 4 inch instead of contracting 
that fraction. Think what that would 
do for you. A casting from a broken 
casting would make an absolutely ac- 
curate working pattern. 

I have made in vain a hundred mix- 
tures seeking this Philosopher's Stone. 
When it is discovered the stove founder 


will go into deep mourning, for patterns 
for repairs that will fit any given stove 
could be made from the casting itself 
or a new pattern stove duplicated in its. 
entirety exactly right in size. 

Water expands thus on cooling ; a 
cubic foot of water makes a nice plus in 
volume when it cools to ice. What else 
does ? Especially what other material 
which combines with copper and alum- 
inum ? 

Cutting Expenses. 

Finally, gentlemen, if you do not be- 
lieve in radical changes, I can suggest 
three things which will cut down your 
pattern expense very materially : 

First comes the rearrangement of 
your tools. To-day in most pattern- 
shops the tools are put in helter-skelter 
— a skilled workman will put in more 
time walking and carrying his lumber 
than in the actual operations involved. 
Change the disposition of your tools 
so that the natural operations may be 
sequential. Nearest the lumber racks 
the cut-off saw ; then the big jointer, 
the surfacer or pony planer, next, your 
combination cross-cut and rip-saw, 
band-saw, jig-saw, segment-cutter and 
your big trimmer, in the order named, 
and have one of the new toy jointers 
conveniently near the bench of every 
man. They are twice as helpful as any 

Specialists in Pattern Shops. 

The second source of saving is in hav- 
ing a good foreman. A bright, ambi- 
tious, young man just out of his time, 
who has taken a course in mechanical 
drawing, makes a splendid man for 
foreman. Do not select one who knows 
too much about patternmaking, or de- 
pend on him for carrying out intricate 
valves or cored work. He can hire men 
for 40 cents per hour who know all 
about such details. A young man right 
out of a good technical school makes a 
splendid foreman, one who will get out 
work and keep accurate cost accounts. 

My third suggestion is a careful di- 
vision of labor ; if you run more than 
25 men you will be able to save more 
than 25 per cent, right at the start. 

Get a good turner and allow him to 
do nothing else. A good man on beds 
and housings, give him a gang of five 
men to help him and keep him at that 
and similar work all the time. The 
same with cylinders, small valves, 
parts, fittings, etc. Each man at what 
he can do best with cheap help will cut 
your average wage rate 15 cents per 

Many of your men run big shops. 
Have in them nothing but the group or 
gang .system with a mill gang, dimen- 
sion gang, assembling gang, finishing 
gang and a varnishing gang. 


Establishment or Enlargement of Factories, Mills, Power Plants, Etc.; Construc- 
tion of Railways, Bridges, Etc.; Municipal Undertakings ; Mining News. 

Foundry and Machine Shop. 

The Central Foundry will build an addition to 
their foundry at Port Hope. 

Mackenzie & Mann will operate a smelter and 
iron works at Victoria. B.C. 

The Northern Foundry & Machine Co. will 
«rect a pipe foundry at Winnipeg. 

The Western Sheet Metal Works. Vancouver. 
■will build a $2,000 .additions to their plant. 

The St. Lawrence Car Works, Quebec, will erect 
« plant in that city with a capacity of 600 cars 

The C. T. Reineck Co. will build a $100,000 
plant in Bast Calgary to manufactui-e stoves 
and kitchen ranges. 

The Lidgerwood Mfg. Co.. New York, will erect 
a plant for the manufacture of logging machin- 
ery, at Lachine, P. Q. 

The C.P.R. will remove their machine shops 
from Wellington. B.C., to Vancouver island, as 
soon as a location Is secured. 

The present premises of the Steel Wire Works 
at Guelph are too small for their increasing 
business, so they will extend. 

Plans tor the John Deere Plow Company's 
building at Saskatoon are nearly completed. 
Construction will begin March 1. 

Brownell. Lindley & Co.. Manchester. Eng., 
manufacturers of engines, will establish a 
branch of their business at Montreal. 

The Canadian American Gas and Gasoline En- 
gine Co., will erect a foundry and machine shop 
at Dunnville. Ont., to cost $43,000. 

The C.P.R. has purchased four hundred acres 
adjoining Souris, Man., presumably for a shop 
«ite to serve the southwestern lines. 

Owing to increased business the International 
Harvester Co. has decided to spend $100,000 in 
making improvements to its plant at Hamilton. 

Joseph E. Ganiache and Victor Ijangelier have 
been registered as machinists at St. Hya- 
cinthe. Que., under the title of Gamache & Lan- 

A movement is on foot to move the West 
Lome foundry at Glencoe, Ont.. to Rodney and 
run it under a joint stock company capitalized 
at $10,000. 

The Goold, Shapley & Mulr Co., Brantford, 
have let the contract for their new machine 
shop and erecting room which will be 180 .x 132 

Work is being commenced on the new C.P.R. 

car repair shop being built to replace the one 

destroyed by fire at Nelson, B.C. Estimated 
cost, $3,500. 

The Vulcan Iron Works, Winnipeg, has pur- 
chased 20 acres adjoining the Dominion Bridge 
CO.'s works for $60,000, in order to provide for 
luture e.\tensions. 

Additions will be built to the plants of the 
Otis-Fensom Co.. the London Machine & Tool 
Co., and the Canadian Drawn Steel Co., all 
located at Hamilton. 

The Charlottetown Foundry & Machine Co.. 
Charlottetown, P.E.I. , have sold their business 
to Bruce Stewart & Co., and the latter com- 
ipany has been incorporated. 

'The Corbet Foundry & Machine Co., Owen 
Sonnd, manufacturers of factory trucks, dry kiln 

trucks, municipal steel bridges, intend enlarging 
their plant this year by the erection of a new 
machine shop. 

Following a recent visit of the officers of the 
Gananoque Spring & Axle Co. to their Chatham 
plant, formerly the Dowsley Spring & Axle 
Works, it is announced that a new office will be 
erected and much new machinery installed, the 
outlay amounting to probably $13,000. 

An extension of the ornamental iron depart- 
ment of the Canada Foundry, Toronto, is in 
course of construction. which will cost about 
$30,000 and increase the capacity of the depart- 
ment by 25 to 30 per cent. It will be completed 
in .\pnl when the present force of 225 men will 
be increased to about 300. 

The Kingston Shipbuilding Co., which takes 
over the Government dry dock, on April 15, is 
making preparations to erect a large building for 
shops. The structure will l)e 120 feet long, .ind 
two storeys high, it is uuderstood. All the 
most modern machinery is being purchased, and 
will be shipped there shortly. 

John Millen & Son, Limited. Montreal, have 
been appointed sole Canadian agents for the 
Chisholm & Moore Manufacturing Company's line 
of chain hoists and trolleys. The chief of these 
is the "Cyclone" high speed hoist with self- 
lubricating bearings. The other hoists include 
both the screw and differential types. 

Official announcement is made that a syndicate. 
composed of E. R. Wood. Toronto. Clarence J. 
McCuaig, Montreal, and R. Harmer. Toronto, have 
concluded arrangements by which they secure 
control in the Sawyer-Massey concern of Ha- 
milton, one of the largest manufacturers of 
threshing machines and engines in Canada. 

The first annual meeting of the shareholders 
of the Brantford Steel Range Co. was held early 
in February, when a careful survey of the year's 
work was was made and everything found in a 
satisfactory condition. It was decided to in- 
crease the capital stock of the company and A. 
L. Mcpherson was appointed secretary and gen- 
eral manager. Mr. Stamford is being retained 
as superintendent. The old board of directors 
was re-elected as follows : President. John 
Muir ; vice-president, L. W. Ryerson : treasurer 
Geo. H. Wilks : Jos. H. Ham and W. R. K. 

The annual meeting of the James Pender Co., 
wire nail manufaetuturers, was held on Feb. 2, 
when the following officers and directors were 
elected : — G. S. Fisher, president ; H. R. Stur- 
dee, secretary-treasurer, James Pender, manag- 
ing director : Joseph Findley, J. Fraser Gre- 
gory and J. B. Purdy. additional directors. An 
offer was made to the stockholders by Montreal 
capitalists interested in the new Lake Superior 
Milling Co.. at Fort William, to purchase the 
stock of the company at $215 per share. The 
par value of the shares is $100 and big divid- 
ends have always been paid. .\n offer has also 
been made to Mr. Pender to assume the man- 
agement of the new company at . Fort William 
and the decision of the stockholders to sell their 
holdings will depend largely on whether or not 
Mr. Pender goes to Fort William, though even 
in that case he would still be the real manager 
of the St. John company, which would be the 
maritime province branch of the other. Although 
the stockholders are reticent about the offer, it 
is understood that those who desire to buy are 
offering 75 per cent, in bonds and 23 per cent, in 
stock of the new company. 


Municipal Undertakings. 

Another reservoir has been recommended to be 
built at Kamploops, B.C. 

Edmunston, N.B.. has agreed with the G.T.P. 
to put in a waterworks system. 

The New Westminster council will advertise for 
new tenders for the city incinerator. 

The civic officials of Fort SIrie. Ont., favor the 
construction of a waterworks system. 

The Board of Control at Hamilton awarded to 
the IjOndon Brass Co. the contract for the brass 
work for water mains at $3,000. 

City Engineer Rust, of Toronto, in his estim- 
ates for 1910 asks for $225,151 for new fire and 
water mains. 

Vancouver will this year add from 14 to 25 
miles to its waterworks system. Mains will be 
constructed on 40 streets. 

J. Gait, consulting engineer, has reported ia 
favor of a project to instal a gravity system 
water supply at Edmonton. 

For the repair of the Third Avenue sewer at 
Vancouver $2,100 was set apart ; and $1,000 will 
be expended in continuing the sewer on York 

City Engineer Ker. of Ottawa, has laid before 
the Board of Control a drainage scheme, which 
will take three years to complete, and will cost 

Tenders are being called for by J. W. Trues- 
d.ile. city clerk, of Saskatoon, Sask., for ma- 
terials required for house sewer and water 
works service connections, etc. 

Calgary water commissioners recommend that 
a by-law for $242,000 be introduced and submit- 
ted for a vote of the ratepayers for the con- 
struction and extension of water mains in that 
city during 1910. 

The Hamilton Works Committee passed estim- 
ates amounting to $356,000. Among other items 
were : sewers, $11,150 ; waterworks expenses, $65,- 
250 ; sewage disposal, $19,154 ; waterworks con- 
struction, $94,000. , 

Structural Steel. 

Strickland Bros, got the contract to erect a 
foot bridge attachement to the C.N.R. bridge 
at Saskatoon. 

The Laurentian Construction & Engineering Co. 
were awarded the contract for a bridge at 
Adamsville, Que. 

The sub-structure for the Wolf Creek bridge at 
Edmonton, will be ready for the steel early in 
the spring. Chas May is the contractor. 

The Dominion Bridge Co., Lachine. have been 
awarded a contract for structural steel for power 
racks and tail race bridge by the Canadian 
Light & Power Co., of Montreal. 

The Great Northern Railway have given orders 
to their engineers to prepare plans for permanent 
steel bridges over the railway outs across Park 
and Victoria drives at Vancouver. 

City Engineer Rust, of Toronto, recommends a 
new bridge at Turner's baths, Toronto Island, 
to cost $9,268 ; Dundas street bridge widening 
$19,000 ; Park Drive bridge, $5,000 ; and Weston 
road bridge. $30,828. 


lUectrical Notes. 

The St. George Electric Co.. Sherbrooke, will 
tuild a new concrete dam and electric plant on 
the Chaudiere river. 

It is reported that the provincial government 
■will spend about $20,000 on the telephone plant 
at Prince Albert. 

Kenora will pay out $80,000 for a municipal 
power site. The Hudson's Bay Co. receives $45,- 
000 and the Keewatin Power Co., $35,000. 

The Toronto Board of Control decided that 
the City Engineer should build the electric pump 
building at the high-level pumping station by 
4ay labor. 

A by-law to raise $77,000 for the erection and 
development of a municipal power plant at Ren- 
frew will be submitted to the ratepayers in the 
near future. 

The Revelstoke, B.C.. council have decided to 
enter into a five-year contract to supply the C. 
P.R. with power. A new power plant is being 
installed by the municipality. 

General manager Nichols, of the Canadian Gen- 
eral Electric Co., states that between $250,000 
and $750,000 will be spent on new buildings and 
equipment at Toronto or Peterboro. 

F. Barber & Son. of Meaford, are instaling a 
second set of w'atcr wheels at Croton for the 
Delhi Light & Power Co. A new Canadian Gen- 
eral Electric Generator is also being installed. 

Contracts involving an expenditure of $53,000 
have been awarded by the B.C. Electric Co. for 
their first unit at Jordan River. The John Mc- 
Dougall Caledonian Iron Works Co., Montreal. 
have the contract. 

An important extension to the N., St. C. & 
T. Railway will be built this spring, when a 
line will be constructed from Port Colborne to 
Fort Erie and Bridgeburg, connecting Niagara- 
on-the-Lake with Crystal Beach. 

much activity in railway building in British 

The promoters of a new radial railway to run 
between Toronto and Orillia are applying to the 
Ontario Legislature for incorporation. The name 
of the concern is the Monarch Company. The 
proposed line parallels the Metropolitan as far 
as Aurora, where it turns, passing through Hol- 
land Landing, Bradford, Deerhurst, Churchill, 
Stroud and AUandale. A number of branches 
are proposed, one to western shore of Lake Sim- 
coe in the summer, and another to Markham. 
The capital is placed at $1,000,000 with bonds to 
the amount of $2,500,000. The incorporators are : 
W. H. Price. Chas. M. Garbey, Jas. F. Coughlin. 
N. R. Lindsay and Steifan F. Adalia, the latter 
representing French capital. 

Railway Construction. 

The Canadian Northern contemplate spending 
$5,000,000 on terminals at Montreal. 

The C.P.R. intend double-tracking their road 
between Winnipeg and Portage la Prairie, a dis- 
tance of 56 miles, this year. This will even- 
tually be extended to Moose Jaw, a distance of 
400 miles. 

Wm. O'Brien and a syndicate of eastern pro- 
moters will, this summer, construct a line of 
railway which will open up the coal fields of 
the Yellow Head Pass Coal and Coke Co., west 
of Edmonton. 

The I.C.R. is calling for tenders for the con- 
struction of a line of railway between Nelson 
and Chatham. N.B., eight miles. Tenders are 
also being called for the construction of a new 
branch railway between Georges River and Syd- 
ney Mines. C.B.. a distance of nine miles. 

A new company is being formed to control the 
Moncton and Buctouche Railway, and the names 
has been changed to the Buctouche Transport- 
ation Co. This company has already applied 
for a Dominion charter to extend the road to 
Richibucto and to carry on a service between the 
mainland and Prince Edward Island. 

Now that the contract between the British 
Columbia government and the Canadian North- 
ern has been completed, ready for presentation 
to the legislature, the announcement is made 
that grading will commence very shortly. It is 
the intention to rush work on this line so as 
to have it completed to Vancouver in the least 
possible time, and it will mean considerable 
business for all lines. With the construction of 
the G.T.P. in the north and work proceeding on 
the coast sections of the V.V. & E., there is 

Planing Mill News. 

McDiarmid & Clark will erect a large sash and 
door factory at Brandon. 

A. Beaumont's sawmill, near Augustin, Que., 
was destroyed by fire recently. 

The planing mill at Huntsville. Ont.. which 
was damaged by fire will be rebuilt at once. 

The St. Anthony Lumber Co., Whitney, Ont.. 
will erect a large furniture factory at that 

The Bay Chaleur Lumber Co., Campbellton, 
N.B., will erect a new mill at Mission Point, 
to replace the structure burned last season. 

General Manufacturing News. 

The Acme Brick Co.. established last year at 
Edmonton, finds its output increasing so rapidly 
that extensions are now under way in prepar- 
ation for the coming building season. 

The Great West Saddlery Co., Winnipeg, is 
running almost night and day in order to keep 
up with western Canadian demands. E. F. 
Hutehings. president of the company, stated that 
as soon as the spring opens up his firm would 
erect an additional factory across the street 
from its present location. The structure will 
cost in the neighborhood of $75,000. The com- 
pany will also build a horse collar factory at 
Calgary, Alta., which will cost about $5,000, 
and will as well make additions to its whole- 
sale warehouse at Calgary. Mr. Hutehings says 
that the whole of the Winnipeg plant will be 
run night and day during the coming year. 

The Canadian Asbestos Mfg. Co.. a large 
American concern, is building a factory at La- 
chine for the purpose of manufacturing fireproof 
asbestos materials. 

Superintendent Bishop, of Toronto's Board of 
Education, has been asked to prepare plans for 
the new Technical school there, of which the es- 
timated cost is $500,000. 

The Peter Whaleu property at Ottawa, has 
iiecn purchased by the Hugh Carson, Ltd.. 
as a site for the company's new factory, which 
it is stated will be six storeys in height. Work 
will be started at once. 

As a result of a visit recently paid to East 
Kootenay, B.C.. by Eduardo Riondel. an emi- 
nent financier of France, who is president of the 
Canadian Metal Co., which operates the Blue 
Bell mine at Riondel, B.C., an establishment for 
the reduction of zinc ores into zinc oxide, a pro- 
perty similar to white lead, used in the manu- 
facture of paint may be built at Riondel. 

Building Operations. 

The armory at Regina will be erected at a 
cost of $100,000. 

A ^76.000 station will be built by the C.P.R. 
at Woodstock. N.B. 

The Dominion Chair Co., will rebuild their 
factory at Bass River, N.B. 

Horn Bros., Lindsay, will erect a large ad- 
dition to their woolen mills. 

Barker and Johnson, of Edmonton, will erect 
a new flour mill at Lloydminster. Sask. 

Townsley & Son, Minneapolis, have secured a 
site at Brandon for a factory building. 

The Northern Foundry and Machine Co., Win- 
nipeg, will erect a $10,000 pipe foundry. 

Work will be commenced at once on the en- 
largement of the C.P.R. hotel at Vancouver. 

The Toronto Bedding Co. will build a three- 
storey addition to their factory at Toronto to 
cost $21,000. 

T. Pringle & Sons. Montreal, have awarded the 
general contract for the erection of a plant for 
the Shawinigan Cotton Co., to C. E. Dcakin, 


New Companies. 

Port Arthur Wagon Co.. Port Arthur ; capital. 
$750,000 : to manufacture conveyances, machines 
and implements. Incorporators, J. R. L. Starr, 
J. H. Spence and M. C. Cameron. Toronto. 

The Fletcher Pulp & Lumber Co.. Sherbrooke ; 
capital, $300,000 : to make lumber, wood pro- 
ducts and pulp and paper. Incorporators. C. H. 
Fletcher. R. A. Ewing and R. H. Fletcher, Sher- 

The Charles A. Marsh Co.. Montreal ; capital, 
$100,000 ; to operate cotton, woollen and textile 
fabrics of every kind. Incorporators, R. 0. Mc- 
Murtry. F. G. Bush and H. W. Jackson. Mont- 

The Metal-Bound Box Co.. Montreal ; capital, 
$700,000 ; to manufacture and deal in all kinds 
of boxes and furniture, etc. Incorporators. R. 
C. McMichael, R. 0. McMurtry, W. R. Shanks, 

Sawyer-Massey Co., Hamilton ; capital $7,000,- 
000 ; to make steam, gasolene and oil engines, 
locomotives, agricultural machinery, wagons, etc. 
Incorporators, J. S. Lovell. Wm. Bain and Robt. 
Gowans. Toronto. 

. The Wrought Iron Range Co., Toronto; capi- 
tal, $100,000 ; to manufacture and deal in all 
kinds of wrought iron stoves and ranges. In- 
corporators, J. C. Holtby, A. W. Caldwell and 
Thos. Reid. Toronto. 

Rice, Green & Co.. Toronto ; capital, $40,000 ; 
to manufacture and deal in electrical supplies, 
fittings and machinery for the supply of light, 
heat and power. Incorporators, A. R. Rice. G. 
W. Close, and P. Soliague, Toronto. 

The Regal Motor Car Co., Walkerville : capital 
$50,000 ; to manufacture and deal in automobiles, 
cycles, bicycles, motors, and carriages and con- 
veyances of all kinds. Incorporators, J. E. 
Lambert, F. Haines, C. R. Lambert, Detroit. 

The B.C. Gazette gives notice of the incorpor- 
ation of the following companies : B.C. Orna- 
mental Iron & Fence Co., capital $10,000 ; Fraser 
River Brick & Tile Company, capital $50,000 ; 
and Vancouver Gypsum Co., capital ^100,000. 

The Central Canada Power Co., Montreal ; 
capital, $5,000,000 ; to construct electric machin- 
ery, appliances, devices, etc., and to operate 
telegraph and telephone lines. Incorporators, . J. 
C. Hickson, S. B. Hammond, V. M. Drury. 

The Canadian Dart Co.. Montreal., have been 
incorporated with capital of $50,000 to build, 
construct and equip public and private works, 
sawmills, stone quarries, etc. The incorporators 
are : W. Dart. F. H. Jefferson, and W. H. Brun- 
ning, Montreal. 




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252 Dundas St. 

London, Canada 

record Dials fiiroished tor all nachioes. 

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Prince Rupert Coal Ficlijs, Ltd., Montreal : 
capital,, $5,000,000, to carry on colliery trade ; 
to mine coal, and smelt and treat iron, steel, 
tin and other metals ; and to refine oil and 
make powder, etc. Incorporators, M. Alexander, 
D. B. Smith and T. D. Killan, Montreal. 

llillcrest Collieries, Ltd., Montreal ; capital, 
%3, 000, 000 ; to mine coal, coke, supply natural 
gas and oil. and to manufacture machinery, im- 
plements, etc.. used in connection with mining, 
timber or lumber operations. Incorporators, J. 
M. Mackie, A. H. B. MacKenzie, C. Meredith, 

Superior Rolling Mills Co., Fort William ; 
caiiital, $500,000 : to mine, mill, smelt and re- 
fine, gold, .silver, copper, coal, iron and other 
minerals, to make wire nails, steel rails, iron 
l«rs, and refine oil, supply natural gas, etc. 
Incorporators, G. H. A. Montgomery, R. 0. Mc- 
Murtry and F. G. Bush. Montreal. 

Dominion Corrugated Steel Pipe Co.. St. 
,Tohns, Que. ; capital, $20,000 ; to make steel 
pipes, culverts, metal sidings, agricultural ma- 
chinery and to carry on a foundry business and 
operate rolling mills. Incorporators, C. H. 
Richardson, St, Johns ; H. Proctor, Wm. Wake- 
field and A. C. Seller. Sandusky. Mich. ; and 
Geo. Donaldson. Topeka, Kan. 

A bill to incorporate the Ottawa and Mont- 
real Power Transmission Co.. will be presented 
to the House of Commons. Authority will be 
sought to transmit power in the counties of 
Wright and Pontiac. etc.. and to Montreal. 
Capitalization. $500,000, Incorporators, Cameron 
Edwards, J. B. Fraser, R. G. Edwards and R. 
Blackburn, all of Ottawa, 

Trade Notes. 

The Canadian Inspection Co., have removed 
their Toronto offices from 37 Melinda St., to 
the .Stair Bldg./ cor. Adelaide and Bay Sts. 

The Johns-Mannville Co., manufacturers of as- 
bestos packing and other mill supplies, hate 
opened an agency in Vancouver, their represent- 
ative being Mr. Tackaberry. 

Smart-Turner Machine Co., Hamilton, have 
supplied pumps recently to H. W. Ansley, Port 
Dover ; C. A. Larken Lumber Co., Toronto ; S. 
F. Bowser Co., Toronto ; Canadian Paper Co., 
Windsor Mills : J. C. Mundell Co., Elora ; Shea's 
Theatre, Toronto : Kinleith Paper Co., St. Cath- 
arines ; Zimmerman Mfg. Co., Hamilton ; To- 
ronto Ferry Co., Toronto ; Harris Abattoir 
Co., Toronto : Page Herscy Co., Toronto : W. 
Harris Co., Toronto ; Delora Mining & Reduc- 
tion Co., Delora ; Allan Sheemaker, Berlin : 
Hamilton Steel & Iron Co., Hamilton, and Mc- 
Quay Tanning Co., Owen Sound, They have al- 
so received an order for a 5-ton traveling crane 
from the Manitoba Wind Mill & Pump Co., 

$40,000,000. The following were elected ofBcers of 
the association : T. F. Manville, president ; R. 
V. Mattison, Jr., vice-president ; R. P. Doucet. 

It is announced that the purposes of the asso- 
ciation are the general exploitation of the uses 
of asbestos, particularly in the field of fireproof 
construction, co-operation between consumer and 
producer, cultivation of new markets, and de- 
velopment of processes whereby the wastes in the 
industry may be rendered commercially valuable. 
The association will establish a bureau that will 
be devoted to the aforementioned purposes. 

One of the important factors in the associa- 
tion is the so-called Canadian "Asbestos Trust" 
—the Amalgamated Asbestos Corporation. — a 
combination of several of the most important 
Quebec asbestos properties located at Black Lake 
and Thetford, and which controls 80 per cent. 
of the output of these districts. The greater 
part of the world's supply of asbestos comes 
from the Black Lake and Thetford districts. 
Among the directors of the corporation are Hugh 
A. Allan, of the Allan Line Steamship Co.. ex- 
assistant Attorney-general James M. Beck, Har- 
ry A. Berwind. of the Berwind-White Coal Min- 
ing Co., Geo. D. Crabbs. of the Philip Carey 
Mfg. Co.. E. B. Greenshields. of Montreal, Rob- 
ert Mackay, of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
H, H, Melville, of the Canadian-Northern-Quebeo 
Railway, R. V. Mattison, president of the Keas- 
bey & Mattison Co., and H. E. Mitchell, of the 
Philadelphia banking firm of Cramp, Mitchell & 

Asbestos is produced in Canada, Russia, the 
United States, Cape Colony, and the island of 
Cyprus. It is stated that the Canadian asbestos 
supply is practically inexhaustible and that it is 
the chief factor in the control of the asbestos 
industry ol the United States and. in a marked 
degree, of the world. 

Thompson Bros., Liverpool, N.S. 

Thompson Bros., machinist. Liverpool. N.S-. 
have erected large additions to their plant. 
Their new buildings are situated on the water- 
front at Liverpool with both water and rail 
shipping facilities. The machine shop consists of 
a two-storey reinforced concrete structure. 61 
leet long by 50 feet wide. The equipment con- 
sists of a ten ton planer and one of smaller 
capacity, five lathes, one shaper, one drill, one 
milling machine and one grinder. All these are 
new and of latest design to use high speed 

The output consists of sawmill machinery and 
pulp machinery, a large contract for pulp ma- 
chinery for Clyde River being under construction. 
Ship work is a specialty such as steering gear, 
pumps, windlasses, capstans and steam winches. 

The firm consists of W. J. Thompson and H. 
Thompson. They began in a small way in 1897 
and have succeeded in building up a fairly good 
business. — D.W. 

International Asbestos Association. 

The International Asbestos Association was re- 
cently organized at a meeting held in New York. 
Its membership is composed of representatives 
ol American and Canadian mine owners and 
manufacturers. The interests at the meeting re- 
presented between 80 per cent, and 90 per cent. 
of the asbestos business in the United States 
and Canada. Included in the association are 
-the largest producers and users of asbestos in 
the United States and Canada, among them the 
Amalgamated Asbestos Corporation, Limited, 
Keasbcy & Mattison Co., Philip Carey Mfg. Co.. 
Asbestos Protected Metal Co.. Franklin Mfg. 
Co.. H. W. Johns-Manville Co.. Sail Mt. Asbes- 
tos Mfg. Co.. Ling Asbestos Co.. and the United 
States Asbestos Co. The aggregate capitalization 
of the concerns who are so far represented is over 

Disston Company Expanding. 

Henry Disston & Sons. Philadelphia, Pa., have 
recently opened branch houses in Seattle, Port- 
land, and Vancouver, to better facilitate the 
filling of orders and take care of the constantly 
increasing trade. These branches will devote 
their attention exclusively to the mill goods 
business, such as inserted and solid tooth cir- 
cular saws, handsaws. crosscut saws, cylinder 
saws, mill saws, stave saws, saw tools, 
machine knives, files, steel, etc. The Disston fac- 
tory at Toronto, established only two or three 
years ago. having become too small a new site 
was secured on Frazer Avenue and the Grand 
Trunk Railway. Toronto, upon which two new 
buildings have been erected : one of two stories. 




A monthly newspaper devoted to the manufacturing interests, covering in a practical manner the mechanical, power, foundry 
and allied fields. Published by The MacLean Publishing Company, Limited, Toronto, Montreal, Winn/peg, and London, Eng. 

TORONTO, 10 Front Street East. WINNIPEG, 511 Union Bank Building. LONDON. ENG., 88 Fleet Street, E C. 

MONTREtL, Eastern Townships Bank Bldg. 

Vol. IV. 

Publication Office : Toronto, April, 1910. 

No. 4 

Bertram Punches and Shears 


M.275 12503 



No. 7 SINGLE PUNCHING MACHINE with 56-inch depth of throat. Equipped with Automatic Stop and Right Angle Drive. S-^, 

Write for particulars. *". 

THE JOHN BERTRAM & SONS COMPANY, Limited, dundas, Ontario, Canada 

SaIcs a <«nts : The Canadian Fatrbaokt Company, Limited. Offices : Montreal, Toronto. Winnipeg. Vanoouver. Calffary. St. John 


Two Leaders 
In Small Tools 

That Cut Down Drilling and 
Reaming Costs 

The P. & W. 

Twisted Drill 

(Patented July 14. 1908) 

The strongest long-lived drill on the market. 

Requires no special drive. 

Fits'any standard taper socket. 

Runs as true and drills as accurately "as afmilied drill. 

Can be "crowded" in heavy drilling until machine stops 
for lack of power to drive drill. 

The P. & W. Adjust- 
able Blade Reamer 

(Patented Dec. 22, 1903) 

The^dependable reamer that IS exact, can be KEPT exact, and 
that will LAST a lifetime. 

Eccentrically relieved and can be set to size without regrinding. 

Easily and quickly taken down to replace broken blades, and readily 

reset to exact size. 

Projecting blades used for facing holes at bottom. 


Pratt & Whitney Co., Ltd. 

Dundas, Ontario 

Sales Agents — The Canadian Fairbanks Company, Limited 


St. John Toronto Winnipeg Calgary Vancouver 

Don't tail to mention "Canadian Macliinery" in writing to advertisers. 

A Speed Variation of 1 8 to 1 on Motor Driven Planer 

The Lancashire Dynamo and Motor Co. Have Recently Introduced an Elec- 
trical Drive, giving Remarkable Speed Variation of 1 8 to I — The Accuracy 
Obtainable in Reversal by this System is fully Described and Illustrated. 

The electrical driving of planing ma- 
chines is a matter that has had a good 
deal of attention in an endeavor to 
eliminate the defects of mechanical re- 
versing gear. 

The objects to be obtained are : (1) 
Simplicity and reliability ; (2) Some 
method of recovering the energy im- 
parted to the table, particularly during 
the retui-n stroke ; (3) A large range 
of speed ; (4) A method applicable to 
both direct and alternating systems. 

A Uniaue Method. 

In the following system known as the 
"Lancashire" system, these results are 
obtained in a very high degree, and the 
system provides an extremely flexible 
drive for this class of machine. The 
shaft that operates either the screw or 
the rack of the planer is connected 
direct to a motor, the motor itself re- 
versing at the end of each stroke. This 
motor has its direction of rotation con- 
troled by a small high-speed motor gen- 
erator set the motor of which is 
driven off the mains, by either alternat- 
ing or direct current. 

The armature circuit of the planer 
motor is not broken at all, the rever- 
sals being effected by reversing the pol- 
arity of the generator of the motor 
generator set, which is done by revers- 
ing the field connections. This means 
that the reversing switch instead of 
dealing with the full current required 
to drive the planer only deals with a 
few amperes, and the switch therefor 
can be made very light and yet strong. 
The whole of the mechanism for revers- 
ing is merely a two pole two-way 
switch actuated by the stops on the 
table. The makers claim that this 
method of reversal eliminates the rath- 
er expensive controller renewals gen- 
erally required with sy.stems in which 
the armature current is reversed. A 
separate small switch is provided tc 
stop and start the planer, or in the 
case of large tools, two are provided 
one on each side of the machine. 
18 to 1 Speed Variation. 

The range of speed is really only 
limited by the maximum speed at 
which a table can be returned. As this 
is usually about 180 or 200 feet per 
min., the usual range of speed supplied 
is 18-1, that is, with a planer that re- 
turns at 180 feet per minute, there are 
provided about 30 steps on the cutting 
stroke the lowest being ten ft. per min. 
and the highest 180. These very low 

speeds are very useful in setting large 
jobs and in taking rough cuts off cast- 
ings with scale on them. 

The motor works at rather less effi- 
ciency at the lower speeds, but as the 
control is not by armature resistance 
the loss is not material. Two of the 
cuts show a 18 ft. x 6 ft. x 6 ft. planer 
which, with a total load of eleven tons, 
is provided with a cutting speed of 
from 5-180 feet per minute and a return 
speed of 180 feet. 

Conservation of Energy. 

One of the great features of the sys- 
tem is that the energy imparted to th 

of the motor generator set, to be used 
again to accelerate the table quickly 
without drawing an excess of current 
from the line. 

The power curve of a planer equipped 
with the system is shown herewith. 
Fig. 3, and this shows clearly the cur- 
rent returned to the line, and the ab- 
sence of a large peak, during the accel- 
erating period, notwithstanding the 
high speed that the planer was run at. 
Planing to a Line. 

This method of storing the energy has 

also the advantage that it causes the 

etable to stop at exactly the same spot 

Fig. 1. — Planing Macliine Equipped With Livncashire Electric Drive. 

table during ajjceleration is not lost in 
heating belts, clutches or resistances, 
but is partly returned to the mains, 
(the motor acting as a generator) and 
is partly stored up by raising the speed 

every time, owing to the fact that the 
braking effort is always constant, and 
is not dependent on any mechanical 
contrivance that may vary in strength 
through damp or heating. A photo- 


graph of the cuts made in a block by 
two planers is here shown. Fig. 4 
shows the cuts made by a modern belt 
driven planer, cutting at 54 feet per 
minute and returning at 150 feet. Fig. 
5 shows the outs made by a larger 
planer converted to the electrical drive 
when cutting at 60 feet and returning 
at 180 feet. In the latter case the 
planer table comes true to the same 
mark at the end of every stroke. 


The system is very easy to adapt to 
existing planers, and the smoothness of 
the reversal enables the speeds to be 

pull up in about eight inches, even when 
running at 180 feet per minute, and 
with a table load of ten tons. 

The originators and makers of this 
gear are the Lancashire Dynamo and 
Motor Co., L'td., 152-154 Bay Street, 
Toronto. They do not make planing 
machines, but supply all the electrical 
gear for the drive. 


Users of tool grinders are leaning to- 
ward dry grinding for the general pur- 
poses of the macliinc shop, not because 

Fig. 2 — The "Lancashire" Diive, showing Table Control. 

materially increased, and with the large 
speed variation given one can always 
have the machine cutting just as fast 
as each job will stand, as of course to 
alter the speed is only a matter of 
turning the speed regulator to the speed 
required. As the motion of the revers- 
ing switch is a simple to and fro mo- 
tion, and the speed of the movement is 
immaterial, it is adaptable to any ex- 
isting belt shifter. 


The makers state that, provided the 
table has stops on it, it is absolutely 
impossible to cause the table to rur. 
off, under any circumstances, short of ; 
breakage. If the supply of current fails, 
.the planer runs until the energy in the 
moving parts is expended, but if the 
supply fails when the motor is just on 
the point of reversal, the motor still 
reverses. This is a very important 
point, as with some drives, if the power 
fails, the motor will not reverse, but 
allows the table to run off. If any of 
the contacts in the reversing switch 
failed to make contact the table will 

the results are better, but because with 
the wet process the average workman 
places altogether too much reliance 
upon the cooling influence of the water. 

nccessarilj be taken. Of oourst. in 
works where much of the tool snarpen- 
ing is done by the toolroom, experts 
are em[)loyed, and the wet grinding is 
often preferred, for obvious reasons. 

Kig. 4. — Block Planed on Planer Before Equipped 
With Lancashire Drive. 

A series of tests made in the course 
of research into the characteristics of 
the high-speed steels developed the fact 
that the failure of tools made of such 
a steel to accomplish a good finish on 

Fig. 5. — Block Pliined With Lani--;:i.larc Drive. 

work is due to unskilful grinding. Even 
under a copious stream of cold water 
the tool becomes red at the surface. So 
great a degree of heat cannot be diffus- 
ed rapidly enough, and inner stresses 
occur. The fineness of the cutting edge 
quickly breaks down under use. The 
tool loses nothing in its capacity for 
roughing, but it lacks the edge requisite 
for a finishing chip. A remedy is to 

Cutting Speed = 80 ft. per min. 
Return Speed. = 160 ft. per mm. 

2 - i' X ^,' cut* 
(mild steel) 

Fig. 3. — Power Curve of Electric Drive on the Lancashire System. 

He presumes that the cooling agent is 
able to carry away the heat generated 
by the contact of the steel and wheel, 
no matter how severe that contact may 
be, and the ruin of the tool may result. 
With dry grinding greater care must 

grind the tool hot. In the tests alluded 
to an extreme fineness of work was pro- 
cured by this process, and equally good 
results were obtained when sufficient 
care was taken in grinding cold. — Iron 

■f'g f 

-» * *# 

rl f ft I ? f fTt n 

1 f 


....wL Railway Approiillccs in the Montreal Shops. 

How the G.T.R.has Solved the Apprenticeship Question 

Canadian Railroads are in Need of Trained Mechanics ; to Supply the 
Demand they have Successfully Devised and Carried out a System for 
Training Good Mechanics — This Article deals with the G.T.R. System. 

Witli the idea of training intelligent 
mechanics, the Grand Trunk Kailway 
several years ago started a class for its 
apprentice boys, who were eager to 
learn ; commenced to teach subjects 
which at once aroused interest among 
the boys, bearing as it did on the 
every-day needs of mechanics. In a sur- 
prisingly short time, the desire for 
knowledge being whetted, it was found 
necessary to increase the scope of the 
teaching, as the apprentice boy of the 
day saw within his grns) the very high- 
est position of responsibility in the 
man^ement and operation of the road. 
He realized that here was an opportun- 
ity to obtain an education little short 
of a college course, with a minimum 
exertion on his part and at the same 
time be independent and self-supporting. 

From the commencement on a small 
scale, the system has grown until at 
the present time these technical schools 
are spread at all important centres 
throughout the entire (Irand Trunk Sys- 
tem and hundreds of scholars are en- 
rolled, whilst every large railway sys- 
tem of this continent boasts several 
graduates af the G. T. training .schools 
as their chief mechanical engineers, and 
more than one of our largest industrial 

concerns have graduates as their chiel 

The subjects taught are graded to 
suit the student's ability and in dozens 
of cases boys who left school when in 
the second book can now do problems 
v^fhich would tax the powers of a High 
School graduate to the utmost. 

The subjects taught comprise every- 
thing from simple ai'ithmetic to higher 
mathematics, mechanics, machine de- 
sign and mechanical drawing, and so 
well has the course been graded that 
numerous requests from mechanics' in- 
stitutes and even our largest technical 
colleges have been received for com- 
plete sets of instruction books. 

The entire cost of education at these 
training schools is borne by the Grand 
Trunk System, who furnish all the 
equipments and engage the instructors, 
who must themselves have had a thor- 
ough technical and practical training, 
so as to enable them to anticipate the 
needs of the apprentices. 

The appreciation of individual promo- 
tions forms one of the strongest fea- 
tures in the system and serves to keep 
alive the keenest interest in the classes, 
as the boys realize that as soon as they 
arrive at a certain standard of excel- 


lence, increased pay is their reward, and 
many of our foremost students of poli- 
tical economy, see in this system, as it 
is being carried out, the future supply 
of skilled mechanics, master mechanics, 
superintendents, etc., being carefully 
husbanded, and an effective solution to 
labor problem, namely, the prompt re- 
cognition of individual merit. 
Night Classes in Drawing and Mechanics. 

For two evenings per week during the 
fall and winter months he must attend 
mechanical drawing classes, study of 
practical mechanics and elementary 
electricity, the most competent instruc- 
tors procurable being provided. On the 
staff are two graduates of American 
and Canadian engineering colleges, Pur- 
due and MoGill. The work in the draw- 
ing class is outlined in a special text 
book written by the company's ('hief 
Draughtsman at Montreal, who is also 
the author of the book used on practi- 
cal mechanics. 

During the term frequent examina- 
tions are held, and the points gained 
by each boy are posted so that they 
may all keep advised as to just what 
progress they are making, and thereby 
be able to brush up the weak spots 
that the examinations have disclosed. 


The master mechanic is constantly in 
touch with each boy's progress and 
standing, and if necessary he frequently 
calls a boy up, and in a kindly manner 
points out to him the necessity of ap- 
plying himself more consistently to 
bring his rating up to the required 

Prizes for Best Work. 

The annual competitive examination 
is always conducted by the company's 
chief draughtsman from Montreal, and 

been adopted by the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way System has been in successful op- 
eration for a number of years and has 
been the means of supplying that com- 
pany with skilled mechanics in the most 
satisfactory manner. All apprentices are 
indentured to machinist's trade for 
five years, and to blacksmith's, boiler- 
maker's, or other trades for four years. 
Five cents per day is deducted from 
the wages of each apprentice, and the 
total amount is returned to him at the 

G. T. R. Apprentices at Work on a Rebuilt Locomotive in Stratford Shops. 

has just been completed at all the large 
shops along the system. Prizes are 
awarded to the apprentices obtaining the 
highest average in their respective 
years. These prizes amount to $40.00 
for each shop, and are distributed over 
the different years of apprenticeship, 
thus : the apprentice obtaining the high- 
est average for his first year in mechan- 
ical drawing gets $4.00, and the one 
obtaining the highest in practical me- 
chanics gets $4 also. Therefore, it. is 
quite possible for one apprentice to ob- 
tain both prizes. A keen interest is 
taken in this examination, which takes 
the form of a contest between the var- 
ious shops. 

In addition to the prizes as stated 
above there is a capital prize offered of 
$25 for each subject. This is competed 
for by the apprentices obtaining the 
highest averages in drawing and prac- 
tical mechanics at their respective sta- 
tions. These apprentices are given a 
trip to some point on the system where 
the final examinations are held, and the 
one receiving the highest number of 
points in each subject receives the 
amount stated. This, in addition to 
what he has already received at his 
station, will make a tatal of $29, $33 
or $58, if he has been successful in all 

The form of apprenticeship which has 

expiration of his apprenticeship with 
an addition of $25 as a bonus if ser- 
vices have been entirely satisfactory. 
The first requisite in employing an 

to the master mechanic or the general 
foreman, and to be not under 15 or over 
18 years of age. He is required to un- 
dergo a medical examination so as to 
assure the head of the department that 
he is healthy and likely to be able to 
follow up the trade after he has com- 
pleted the term of apprenticeship. 
Making Apprentices Think. 

Each year the apprentice must pass 
examinations, his whole training being 
with the object of making him think. 
His course through the various shops 
last five years. He is provided with in- 
struction books and must pass his ex- 
amination on these before entering the 
machine shop. The questions asked 
deal with drill speeds for various work, 
jigs, belts, etc. 

An apprentice is required to seve five 
years at the following rates : 8c, 10c, 
12c, 15c and 17c per hour. Before he is 
granted each years' advance he is re- 
quired to pass a written examination 
on shop work, also make a drawing of 
some detail part of a locomotive, as 
specified in the apprenticeship book, 
which examination and drawing must 
have the approval of the master mech- 
anic, and the supterintendent of motive 
power before his advance is allowed. 
All Bound Competency Secured. 

The above system insures thorough 
education in all details of the trade, 
and while some of the work may be 
specialized it is not done by the appren- 
tice until he becomes a journeyman. 
For instance, the apprentice comes from 
the boiler shop to the machine shop, 
from the machine shop to motion bench, 
to the side rod bench, to the axlebox 

G. T. R. Apprentices at Work in the Montreal Shops. 

apprentice is to know that he is moral- 
ly, physically and mentally capable oF 
filling the requirements of a mechanic. 
To ascertain this the apprentice is re- 
quired to make his application direct 


gang, to the steam pipe gang, to the 
valve gang, and finally to the erecting 
gang, so that after an apprentice is out 
of his time he is a specialist in any one 
of these branches. 

Efficient Methods Followed in Shops to Reduce Costs 

These Tried Out Plans are Reproduced from Factory, and^Give Practical 
Ideas for Saving the Time of Valuable Workmen, Reducing!: Labor, etc. 
Question of Spoiled Work as Solved in Certain Factories is also Given. 

The methods here given are not com- 
plicated systems of red tape. They 
are schemes that have been devised and 
tried out with great success. In pre- 
sent day competition schemes and 
short cuts assist a great deal in pro- 
ducing more for a dollar expended than 
would otherwise be possible. For any 
manager who is trying to get more 
out of iis factory these examples of 
what other men have accomplished in 
the machine shop should be of special 


* * * 

Locating the Foreman. 
By R. M. Graham. 

When the head of a department leaves 
his desk at the Browne & Sharpe Com- 
pany's factory, he sets the indicator, 
Fig. 1, so that if he is wanted he can 
be quickly located by telephone. 

The construction of this little indi- 
cator is clearly shown. The metal 
markers at the sides of the frame slide 
vertically on a thin metal strip so 
that they can be quickly set. The 
building numbers are printed in large 
figures and the telephone numbers for 
each department make it convenient to 
call the man. 

Saving Babbitt Metal. 

By H. S. Mitchell. 

A gasoline engine factory used a high 
grade babbitt metal on tlie crank shaft 
bearings of its product. This babbitt 
was purchased in two pound cakes, and 
the form was such that it fit the aver 
age man's hand to perfection. 

During the last money stringency the 
|)lant shut down for a few days for an 
inventory. While checking the machining 
and assembling departments the mana- 
ger found that these cakes of babbitt 
were in use all over the .shop, as ham- 
mers. No check had been kept on the 
babbitters, so every one had been free 
to help himself. As no one bothered 
about returning the battered chunks, 
most of the machines had several cakes 
lying on their tool stands. 

The manager gathered up all the bab- 
bitt and returned it to the stores de- 
partment. He had the tailings render- 
ed from the babbitt fires and mixed in 
some lead. The firm purchased a bab- 
bitt hammer die and the cost clerk 
found some waste ends of tubing in the 
rough stores warehouse, that were just 
right for handles. 

A babbiter was put at work mold- 
ing liammers, and these were given out 

on tool-checks, when the factory re- 
sumed operations. The money involved 
in the extra babbitt was not saved, be- 
cause the material was available if de- 
sired, but the money was released, at a 
time when needed. 

* ^ ;^ 

Economy From Using Right Machine. 
By C. M. Muruhy. 

In a western shop, all the sheet metal 
from 1-32 inch up to 3-4 inch was for- 
merly punched on one ponderous ma- 
chine. A punch of smaller dimensions 
had been suggested, but was thought 
too expensive for a time of retrench- 

One morning the foreman went to his 
supplier with a slip of paper. Upon 
this paper were figures on the current 

Fig. 1. — When the head of a department leaves 
his headquarters at Brown & Sharp's, his 
whereabouts arc indicated by the simple little 
indicator here shown. 

waste of time, labor and power inci- 
dent to handling one class of thin sheet- 
ing on the large punch. Below was a 
requisition for a tiny, inexpensive air 
punch, and a note showing that in a 
few weeks the current loss would neu- 
tralize the purchase price of this ma- 

The buyer had thought a much larger 
machine necessary. The foreman's low 
bid accordingly went through, and the 
instantaneous air punch, set down in 
the midst of the light work, .soon paid 
for itself. 

:^ * * 

Making Errand Boys Responsible. 
By H. M. Wood.* 
At our plant messenger boys are call- 
ed to different departments by a special 

annunciator and push button system. 
The annunciator is located opposite the 
tool room window and is connected 
with fifty push button stations con- 
veniently located throughout the plant. 
The annunciator location is head- 
quarters for the boys who respond to 
the bell. 

In establishing a basis for paying 
these boys it was first ascertained that 
on the average the boys made about 
fifty calls per day. This figure was 
taken as a standard, therefore, and each 
boy was allowed a premium of one-half 
cent for every call made above fifty a 
day. If he does not make more than 
fifty calls, he receives his regular day's 
pay and no premium. 

The number of calls which each boy 
makes is recorded in the tool room 
just across the aisle from the annun- 
ciator and bench. The boys are num- 
bered from one to twelve, and in the 
tool room one hundred brass checks 
about the size of a quarter of a dollar 
are kept for each boy. When the annun- 
ciator indicates a call, the boy next in 
line reports at the tool room window 
to run the errand, and at that time one 
check corresponding to the boy's num- 
ber is placed in the rack. When the 
rack is full the boy is credited with a 
hundred calls and the checks are re- 
moved from his rack to be used over 

The advantages of this system are 
obvious ; each boy is interested to get 
in as many calls as possible a day, and 
consequently the boys respond promptly 
every time the bell rings. 

Moreover the plan makes the boys 
more responsible and their job appeals 
to them in a business way. This is not 
an errand boy's ordinary point of view 
on his work. Each boy is uniformed 
in khaki and each wears a numbered 
shield. On the wall behind the bench is 
a blue print layout of the factory. 

* + * 

Saving Spoiled Work. 

By A. R. Kipp.» 

Piece work and the bonus system are, 
in my opinion, the only methods of 
wage payment correct in principle. My 
preference is for the piece-work system. 
In this the words "For value received" 
apply as they do in so many financial 
transactions, and under this system if 

* Of the Lodge 

Shipley Co. 

• Mechanical Superintendent. The Minneapolif, 
St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Ry. 


the workman spoils his work he pays 
^for it, unless, of course, he does other 
damage to co-related parts beyond his 
control. Nevertheless, the premium is 
time-saving and good workmanship. 

In paying a flat rate per hour, the 
only recourse an employer has is dis- 
missal, which is at times when skilled 
labor is scarce very unsatisfactory, so 
that in my opinion the only solution of 
the problem of placing spoiled work 
where it belongs lies in a system of 
using the piecework principle. 

Another question suggests itself as 
going hand in hand with this one, which 
is, "What system will present the bill 
for spoiled work to the proper party ?" 
I believe the answer to this is worthy 
of consideration when the first one is 

Spoiled Work in Brass Foundry. if 
By Frederick C. Shafer.** 

In our brass shop all piece workers 
pay us for the work they spoil. Of 
course, the total loss for the spoiled 
work is not covered in this repayment 
for spoiled pieces ; but, to my mind, 
this method serves as a check upon 

Our day workers are not charged for 
spoiled work. But all the scraps from 
jobs are collected daily and separated 
into lots identified as defective in cast- 
ing or in molding. This enables us to 
keep a check on day workers also, for 

Factory Supt. of Penberthy Injector Co. 

they spoil a great deal of work it 
comes automatically to the attention 
of the inspector, who reports the facts 
to the foreman and to me. The men 
knowing that this is done, are more 
careful than they would be otherwise. 

In the foundry we have a method for 
handling spoiled work which has proved 
very effective. The molders are paid 
altogether on a piecework basis, and 
when they spoil work, they are charged 
back with it. Of course, in charging 
back, we are very careful that the spoil- 
ed work is wholly the molder's fault. 
A sheet is made out weekly and is 
placed in the man's pay envelope so 
that he has definite information as ta 
just the amount of work he has com- 

Concise Cost System for Small and Medium Sized Sho ps 

The Division of Expenses, Pointing out what Should be Considered Pro- 
ductive and what Non-productive Labor, Overhead Expense, Etc. 


In a cost system for a small shop the 
details cannot be gone into with the 
same elaborateness as in larger shops 
some of whose systems have been de- 
scribed in these columns. The system 
for the smaller shops should be concise, 
taking into consideration that the pro- 
prietor must oversee both the office and 
manufacturing end, and often with the 
aid of a clerk perhaps, serves as book- 
keeper, time clerk and superintendent. 

In all shops, large and small there 
are a number of items that must be 
taken into consideration in figuring 
costs. These are rent or its equivalent, 
taxes, insurance, depreciation of plant, 
interest and discount, salaries of non- 
producers, traveling expenses, advertis- 
ing, printing and stationery, postage, 
telegrams, freight, cartage, supplies 
(oil, waste, emery cloth, files, belts, 
belt lacing, drills, dies, reamers, man- 
drels, lathe tools, milling cutters, etc.), 
gas and coal, donations, doctors' bills, 
spoiled work and bad accounts. 

The following classification has been 
given by a writer in the Iron Trade 
Review. Of course a number of them 
will not appear in the small shop used 
as an example in this article. In keep- 
ing track of the various items of ex- 
pense these can be eliminated. For in- 
stance there may be no stable expenses 
to be dealt with and therefore this item 
may be dropped from the list. Those 
that do enter in must be provided for 
in th« cost system ; 

Classification of Accounts. 

1. Real Estate. 

Interest on the cost of land. 
Interest on the cost of buildings. 
Insurance on buildings and equipment. 
Maintenance of land and buildings. 

2. Floor Rate. 

The sum of the real estate expenses divided 
by the area in square feet of the entire 
floor surface, gives the overhead burden 
on this account per square foot. 

3. Power. 

Interest on cost of equipment for the gen- 
eration and transmission of power, and 
its installation. 

Depreciation of equipment. 

Maintenance of equipment. 

Floor rate for space occupied. 

Cost of fuel. 

Sundry supplies. 

Wages of engineers and firemen. 

4. Light. 

Interest on equipment. 

Depreciation of equipment. 

Maintenance of equipment. 

Power necessary to run dynamos. 

Sundry supplies. 

Wages of electrician, etc. 

5. Heat. 

Interest on equipment. 

Depreciation of equipment. 

Maintenance of equipment. 

Power, or equivalent horsepower in steam. 

6. Shop Transportation. 
Interest on equipment. 
Depreciation of equipment. 
Maintenance of equipment. 

Power to run elevators, cranes, etc. 
Wages of elevator men. shop car men. crane 
men. etc. 

7. Machine Rate. 

Interest on cost of each machine and in- 

Depreciation in value of machine. 

Maintenance of machine. 

Floor rate, including necessary space around 

Power to operate the machine. 


8. Man Rate. 

Floor rate portion not covered by machine 

Consumable tools and supplies. 
Liability insurance. 

9. Productive Labor. 

Wages of all men worliing on hand or ma- 
chine operations on actual product. 
Man rate, of surcharge or burden per hour. 

10. Non-Productive Labor. 

Wages of superintendents and assistants, 
foremen and assistants, gang bosses, time 
lieepers. time study men, speed bosses, er- 
rand boys, clerks, stenographers, tool 
Iseepers, watchmen, sweepers, carpenters, 
inspectors, laborers, and others when on 
worlc not chargeable to production orders. 

11. Material. 

Castings, iron, malleable iron, steel, brass. 

bronze, etc. 
Forgings. wrought iron, machine steel, cast 

steel, etc. 
Bar Stocli : iron, machine steel, cast steel, 

tool steel, high speed steel, copper, brass, 

bronze, etc. 
Sheet Stocls ; iron, steel, copper, brass. 

fiber, etc. 
Miscellaneous : all other kinds in use. 

12. Tools and Fixtures. 

Tools, jigs, gages and fixtures specially 
made for the purpose of machining, gag- 
ing and inspecting the product. 

13. General Office. 
Real estate charges. 
Interest on equipment. 
Insurance on equipment. 
Maintenance of equipment. 

Salaries of all officials, book-keepers, stock 
keepers, clerks, stenographers, office boys, 
and all others employed herein. 

Light, proportion according to number of 

Heat, proportion according to cubic feet of 
space to be heated. 

Supplies of all kinds for use in the office. 

Legal expenses, traveling expenses. 

Telephone, telegraph and postage expenses. 

Express and freight charges. 


U. Sales Department. 

Real estate charges. 

Interest on equipment. 

Insurance on equipment. 

Maintenance of equipment. 

Ligiit, proportion according to number of 

Heat, proportion according to cubic feet of 
space to be heated. 

Advertising, catalogs, circulars, etc. 

Allowances, collections interest. 

Legal expenses, traveling expenses. 

Supplies of all kinds for use in the office. 

Salaries and commissions. 

Engineer's expenses, preliminary drawings 

and estimates. 
Telephone and telegraph expenses. 
Mailing expenses. 
Express and freight charges. 
t 15. Stable. 

Real estate charges. 

Interest on equipment. 

Insurance on equipment. 

Maintenance of equipment. 

Supplies, hay, grain, etc. 

Wages of stable men, truck men, etc. 

Depreciation of Plant. 

In order to illustrate the distribution 
|oi costs under the various heads, take 
ifor example a small shop employing 
fabout fifteen hands. There are a great 
[many of such shops in Canada, grow- 
ing concerns that should have a cost 
Shops located in power buildings pay 
.to the landlord a fixed sum per year 
Ifor space, power, heat, elevator service 
land watchman. The charge is about 
|25 cts. per sq. ft. and the shop pays 
tso much for the space occupied by the 
building and not for the net available 

Shops occupying their own ground 
and buildings are obliged themselves to 
pay for the above mentioned power, 
heat, elevator service and watchman, 
and in addition, they must pay inter- 
est on the value of the grounds and 
buildings, real estate taxes, insurance 
on buildings, repairs on buildings, 
power and heating plant. Except in the 
case of very large plants, the cost is 
greater than renting, but the cost 
would be at least 25 cents per square 

In figuring the amount of space re- 
quired for running a certain number of 
men on medium sized work, without 
crowding, it is customary to allow 150 
square feet for each man employed. This 
would require a shop of 2,250 square 
feet. This would cost $562.50. 

The real estate and water tax is 
included under the head of "Rent or 

The rate of insurance varies a great 
deal and depends on the quality and 
arrangement of buildings, and contents, 
fire protection, watch service, and its 
location. In what is known as a mill 
constructed building, fitted with auto- 
matic sprinklers and good watch ser- 
vice, the rate is much less than other 
construction. Fifty dollars per year will 
be a small estimate, but will serve to 
illustrate the distribution of costs. 

Everything in a machine shop wears 
out after a time. The length of time 
required to wear out a machine varies 
greatly under different conditions, but 
no matter what these conditions are, 
the machine becomes worth less and less 
until it is finally not worth shop room, 
and has to be replaced by a new tool. 
The plant cannot be figured at its full 
cost value each year, and then finally 
ivhen the machines are worn out, re- 
place them with others, charging the 
cost to the expense of that particulur 
year in which the change is made. 

What is done is this. The average 
life of a machine is found out and the 
cost is divided up into as many parts 
as there are years of its life, and each 
year one of these parts is taken from 
the value of the plant, considering the 
part thus lost in the expense of oper- 
ating. When thus divided up one of 
these parts is called a depreciation. 
Machines wear out in from ten to 
twenty years. In the first case one- 
tenth of the cost of the plant must be 
added to the running expenses each 
year and in the latter case, one- 
twentieth. In a shop such as has been 
suggested the machinery equipment 
would have a value of probably $6,800 
which includes tools, jigs, patterns, etc. 
If the depreciation was one-twentieth, 
then $340 must be added to the runn- 
ing expenses each year, .'.s 

Interest and Discount, 

In a general way both these words 
mean the same thing. Interest is the 
price paid for money. It might be 
called rent. Few concerns are able to 
carry on business without borrowing 
more or less money, and while borrow- 
ing is the word used the money must 
be paid on a certain day and an addi- 
tional sum is charged for its use. 

Productive labor is understood to 
mean the wages of those men who work 
on actual production. Non-productive 
labor includes all labor that cannot be 
directly charged to productive labor. 

Material covers all stock that enters 
into the product. This does not in- 
clude tools which are included in gen- 
eral expense. Insurance on material is 
added to the cost of the material. 
There is also labor on the material re- 
ceived, but this is included in the gen- 
eral expenses and added as a per cent- 
age over the product. 

The total therefore consists of three 
items : material, productive labor and 
overhead burden. The overhead burden 
includes non-productive labor, general 
office expense, tools, depreciation, etc. 

The overhead expense is figured as a 
per centage of the productive labor and 
when the cost of material and produc- 
tive labor is obtained by a time-keeping 
system, by adding a per centage of the 


productive labor to these two items the 
total cost is obtained. 

In some systems it is the practice to 
figure the percentage of overhead charge 
yearly, others half-yearly and still 
others monthly. The general expense 
accounts for a small shop may easily 
be made up monthly and for estimating 
that percentage, may be used for the 
succeeding month. The percentage var- 
ies little from month to month as a 
rule and the manufacturer, whether 
large or small can thus keep in close 
touch with the manufacturing costs. 


In the March issue of Canadian Ma- 
chinery reference was made to French 
and German tariff arrangements, A list 
was also given of French and Canadian 
goods affected by the treaty. 

Attention was also drawn to the fact 
tihat a trade arrangement had been made 
with Germany, whereby the surtax of 
33 1-3 per cent, has been abolished and 
German goods will now be taxed at the 
general tariff rates. Among the articles 
which Germany has chiefly exported to 
Canada, the duty on which is now re- 
moved are: Clocks, glue, glass, springs 
and axles; rolled iron or steel bars, angiles 
and other shapes; agate, granite or en- 
amelled iron or steel ware; scientific in- 
struments; chemicals; dry red lead, etc. 
The following goods are among those 
which may be entered into Germany at 
the conventional tariff rate: Grain, 
fruits, timber, greases, alcohol, leather 
for manufacture of driving belts, pulp- 
wood, etc. 

Canada's preference to Great Britain 
was the cause of the German tariff war, 
which is now over. Canada has main- 
tained that foreign nations should not 
coerce her in tariff law-making. Hap- 
pily a tariff war between the United 
States and Canada has been averted<*y 
the tact of a number of far-seeing ^h- 
cials and Canada will enjoy the United 
States minimum tariff. Had no agree- 
ment been arrived at, Canada would have 
retaliated with a 33 1-3 per cent surtax. 
Canada conceded lower duties on thir- , 
teen articles mostly foodstuffs and 
fancy goods, and President Taft has 
accordingly issued a proclamation giv- 
ing Canada the benefit of the United 
States minimum tariff. 

Canada's brightest year has dawned 
and with a great number of industries and 
gigantic undertakings under way, it is 
essential that Canada should be at com- 
mercial peace with the many nations 
with which she can exchange products. 
Arrangements are being made for a full 
discussion of the trade relations between 
United States and Canada, when it is 
expected that reciprocity adjustments 
will be made. 

Efficient Handling of Raw Material Jat Minimum Cost 

A Convenient System for Handling Material Installed^ in the "Chiclet ".-Factory, 
Toronto, by W. D. Beath & Son, Toronto — It is a Modern Labor-saving Device. 

The accompanying illustrations show 
eflfective methods used in the factory of 
Frank H. Fleer & Co., Sterling Road, 
Toronto, for the handling of raw ma- 
terial. In this ease it is chicle, im- 
ported in bags from Mexico for the 
manufacture of Chiclet chewing gum. 
The system is applicable, however, to a 
great number of enterprises, and a large 
number of instalations have been made 
resulting in a great saving of labor. 

A railway siding runs into the yard 
and the chicle is loaded on to the car- 
rier. From the point of unloading a 
covered trolley system extends to the 
warehouse and runs along the front of 
the warehouse, past several doors, as 
shown in Fig. 1. 

When loading, one end of the carrier 
rests on the platform to facilitate load- 
ing. The end is then raised to the level 
of the other by means of the block and 
pulley, which may be easily seen in Fig. 

2. : 01 ;ii 

After loading, the carrier is moved 
along the trolley to the scales, where a 
section of the trolley is disengaged. The 
weight is then read direct. This com- 
pleted, the trolley connection is again 
made, and the material is moved along 
until opposite the door of the ware- 
house where the material is to be stored. 
Then by simply pulling a lever the car- 
rier is switched to the siding running 
into the warehouse. Fig. 3 shows the 
carrier being' switched from the main 

trolley to the branch one, running into 
the warehouse. 

There are thus only two handlings of 
the chicle, unloading the material from 
the car to the carrier, and again from 
the carrier at the warehouse. 

When the chicle is required for manu- 
facture, the trolley and carrier are again 
used. The chicle is taken by means of 
the trolley to the elevator, by which it 
is taken to the grinding room. In re- 
turning the finished product to the ware- 
house the trolley and carrier are used 
in a similar manner. They are also 
used in shipping the prepared raw ma- 
terial to the United States factory, the 
scales being used in a similar manner 
as that described above, in re-shipping. 

One point in connection with this sys- 
tem of trolley is illustrated in Fig. 3. 
Very little space is required in turning 
into the warehouse. It is a single rail 
system, and can switch and turn on a 
radius of four feet. The system was 
installed by W. D. Beath & Son, 193 
Terauley St., Toronto. 


There has been a rumor to the effect 
ihat a big manufacturing merger is in 
process of formation with Gait as its 
headquarters. Five large plants were 
mentioned, covering machine tool and 
wood working lines. Such a merger 
would require a capital of about $2,000.- 
000, and while there has been talk of it, 
and several Canadian companies have 
been approached, Canadian Machinery 
has advice from some of the larger com- 
panies said to be interested, that they 
are not likely to seriously consider the 
present propositions presented to them. 

It was also reported that wealthy 
I'nited States manufacturers were be- 
hind the venture, but investigation has 
been unable to show anyone with capital 
behind the scheme outside of the Canad- 
ian companies themselves. Unless some 
other conditions arise, the Canadian com- 
panies are not likely to hazard their 
interests in a new venture. 

Fig. 3. — Carrier Being Switched to Warehouse. 


R. S. Shoemaker, for some time con- 
nected with the Pittsburg/ Steel Com- 
pany at Monessen, Pa., as electrical 
engineer, has become assistant con- 
sulting engineer of the Algoma Steel 
Company, Ltd., Sault Ste. Marie, Out. 


Fig. 1.— Moving Carrier Along _T rack, "Chiclet" Co., Toronto. 

Fig. 'I, Kaw Material being Weighed, "Chiclet Co,, Toronto, 


The Design of Bevel Gears ; Shafts Acute and Obtuse 

Part II. on the Design and Manufacture of the Varions Types of Gears, 
Giving Information and Tables of Great use to Mechanical Men. 

(Continued from March issue). 

The interior gear can be cut with an 
automatic gear cutter by slightly alter- 
ing the slide, or it may be cut on a 
milling machine. 

In order to provide con-ect profiles of 
the teeth of bevel gears, it is first neces- 
sary to determine the pitch diameters of 
equivalent spur gears and on their pitch 
circles construct the profiles, which are 
the profiles of the teeth of the bevels on 
the edge line. The radius of the pitch 
circle of either spur gear is readily ob- 
tained graphically, by extending the 
edge line where the wheels mesh, in 
either direction, until it intersects the 
centre lines of both shafts. Its length 
is the distance from this point of inter- 
section to the centre line of teeth as 
they mesh, and the angle at this point 
of intersection, is the compliment of the 
centre angle. The radius may be cal- 
culated , by dividing the half pitch 
diameter of the bevel gear by the sine 
of angle at point of " intersection, or 
cosine of centre angle. The pitch diame- 
ter of an equivalont spur gear is 
therefore the pitch diameter of the 
bevel gear, divided by the cosine 
of its centre angle, and since the 
numibers of teeth bear equal proportions 

Fig. 8.— Gears With Shalts Acute. 

to the pitch diameters, our formula, 
"number of teeth to select cutter for" 
is therefore the number of teeth in the 
bevel gear, divided by the cosine of its 
centre angle. Correct profiles of the 
large and small ends of teeth should 
be provided during the operation of 
cutting the twth, that th« blank may be 


tried direct or with a gauge, and any 
defects remedied by filing. 

In Figures 8 and 9 which follow, will 
be found another method for obtaining 
the centre angles of acute and obtuse 
shafts, which presents many attractive 
features. In Fig. 8 are arranged a gear- 
and pinion with shafts at an acute 
angle. In the above we have the angle 
of shafts L also the two pitch diameters. 
Tangent C is found by dividing the half 

Pig. 9.— Gears With Shafts Obtuse. 

pitch diameter of pinion or length be by 
length cd which length however must be 
calculated. It will be noticed that the 
pitch diameter of pinion has been ex- 
tended until it intersects the centre line 
of gear shaft at the point a, and that in 
the right triangle acd, the angle L is one 
of its angles. The angle at a is there- 
fore the compliment of angle L. In the 
upper portion of Fig. 8 is a certain other 
right triangle acb. If we divide the 
half pitch diameter of gear or length eb 
by the sine of angle at a or cosine L, 
we shall have (he length ab which is 
added to be and our length dc is then 
ac multiplied by the tangent at a or 
cotangent L from which is derived this 
formula for acute shafts. Tangent C= 

I + N2 1 

Vcos. L y 

Co + L 

Angle G=L minus C. 

Shafts Obtnse. 

In Fig. 9 will be found a diagram of 
two gears with shafts at an obtuse 

As before the pitch diameter of 
pinion has been extended until it inter- 
sects the centre lin" of gear shaft at a, 


the triangle being reversed in this case, 
and we have the angle of shafts L also 
the two pitch diameters. Tangent C is 
therefore the half pitch diameter of pin- 
ion divided by the length be which 
length may be calculated in the 
right triangle abe. The angle at b is 
the supplement of angle L and its com- 
pliment is the angle at a. The enclosing 
light triangle acd has for one of its sides 
the half pitch diameter of gear or length 
cd which divided by sine a or cosine L 
gives us the length ad from which is de- 
ducted the half pitch diameter of pinion 
or length de. Our distance b e is there- 
fore length as multiplied by the tangent 
at a or cotangent L and from which is 
derived this formula for obtuse shafts, 
tangent C= 


I -N2 ICo. 

VCos. L / 

+ L 

Angle G as before equals L minus C. 
Figures 8 and 9 still further verify the 
method as set forth in Fig. 2, since the 
results obtained are the same by either 
method. While the graphics of these 
last two figures are more brief than that 
of Fig. 2, the formulas obtained by the 
first method are to be preferred. It 
has been the writer's aim to fully set 
forth and prove the methods from 
which the centre angle formulas are de- 
rived and to provide practical examples 
for their application. I am sure the 
necessity for each operation will be apn 
parent to every one who has practical 
designing of this kind to do. Bevel 
gears when new should mesh as close as 
possible without actually binding since 
the wear on the teeth will in time make 
them loose, and for this reason spiral 
gears are often preferred as the screw 
like motion of spirals take up the wear 
on the teeth so that it is almost imper- 
ceptible. They, therefore, wear longer 
and may be set at any angle, or made to 
mesh with a spur gear, the array of 
formulas and graphics connected with 
spiral calculations, however, is greater 
than for bevel gears. 

G. Y. Chown, B.A., Registrar and 
Treasurer of Queen's University, has 
reconsidered his decision and will retain 
his connection with the University in 
the above capacity, 

Machinery Equipment for N. T. R. Shops, Winnipeg 

Machinery and Tools, Motors, Furnaces and Forges, Cranes, Air Compressors, Grey Iron Foundry 
Equipment, Brass Foundry Equipment, Belting, Shafting, Hangers, Industrial Track, Lockers, Etc. 

The building and equipping of the 
National Transcontinental shops at Win- 
nipeg is one of the largest undertak- 
ings of its kind that has been undertaken 
in Canada. When one considers the 
size of these shops it will be under- 
stood that the equipment will cover a 
large and varied line. 

The shops consist of fourteen units, 
as follows: — 

1. Round house to accommodate 25 

2. Locomotive shop, 823' x 174' with 
2(i engine pits. 

3. Store house, 62' 6" x 262'. 

4. Forge shop, 104' 9" x 264' 9". 

5. Oil house, 30' x 40'. 

6. Power house, 154' 9" x 110'. 

7. Carpenter shop^ 104 ' 9 " x 74 ' 9 ' '. 

8. Watertank of 100,000 gals, capac- 

9. Chinmney 200' high. 

10. Grey iron and brass foundries, 
204' 9" 134' 9", with cleaning room 64' 
9" X 82' 4i". 

11. Crude oil storage, 25' x 62'. 

12. Frog shop, 64 ' 9 " X 104 ' 9 ' '. 

13. Storage platform, 56' x 180' and 
superstructure, 58' x 151'. 

14. Iron storage, 30' x 60'; coal, 30 
x 30'; coke, 30' x 20', and scrap, 30' x 

The shops are located at Springfield, 
east of Winnipeg, and the work on the 
pumping plant and reservoir must be 
finished and the machinery ready for 
operation by August 1, 1910. The build- 
ings are nearing completion, and it is 
expected that the works will be in op^era- 
tion by Jan., 1911. 

Power Plant. 

The current to be used is 3-phase, 60- 
cycle 550 volts, alternating current. 

The air compressor will be of the 
horizontal type with two-stage air 
cylinders designed for motor drive. It 
will have a capacity of 660 cubic feet 
of air and speed of 150 r.p.m. Air will 
be used at from 80 to 120 lbs. per sq. 
in. The air valve inlet gear will be of 
the Corliss type. The outlet valves will 
be of the high speed type. 

Machine Tools. 
The machine tool equipment makes a 
long list of machines of well-known 
types. These include lathes, drills, shap- 
ers, planers, grinders, boring machines, 
etc., necessary for efficient work in the 

construction and repairing of locomo- 

The shops have been divided into de- 
partments and the tools will be arrang- 
ed in groups. There are two general 
groups in the locomotive shop. No. 3 and 
4 are the piston, motion and crossheads; 
5, tool, 6, 7 and 8, are bolt depart- 
ments; 9, rod; 10, brass; 11, 12 and 13, 
boiler and tank shop, and 14, flue and 
pipe shop. 

A number of the tools will be equip- 
ped with individual motor drive in- 
cluding bending rolls, 200-ton hydraulic 
press shears, 42" car wheel lathe, etc. 
There wil be a number of hydraulic ma- 
chines including punches, riveters, 560- 
ton hydraulic forging press, 4-column 
type, etc. 

The forge shop will have machine 
tools for cutting, centreing, forging, etc. 
The hammers will be two of 200, one 
1,250, 1,500, 3,000, 3,300, 3,500 and 5,000 
lbs. There will also be hydraulic bull- 
dozer, squeezer, etc. 

The scheme of grouping is being car- 
ried out in all the shops, so that work 
will pass through the shops with the 
least number of handlings. 


The locomotive erecting shop will have 
one 120 and one 10-ton electric crane; 
machine shop, two 10-ton; boiler shop, 
one 30 and one 10; riveting tower, one 
20; tank shop, one 20 and one 5; grey 
iron foundry, one 15-'ton with a 5-ton 
auxiliary hoist for light work; cleaning 
room, one 5-ton ; forge and tank shop, 
one 10; and yard midway, one 10-ton. 
These are all electric. There are also 
the following hand hoists: power house, 
one 10-ton; stores, one 10; and grey iron 
foundry, three 1-ton. Jib and bracket 
cranes are also arranged throughout to 
facilitate the handling of work when the 
large cranes are in use. 

Foundry Equipment. 

One cupola will be 50' in height, shell 
84" diameter; wind box 104", with 12 
tuyeres. The second will be 50' irk 
height, with shell 72" diameter, wind 
box 92", shell of cupola to have 12 

A 40 h.p. motor will drive the blowers. 
The cupolas will be equipped with pneu- 
matic charging machines and the charg- 
ing floor will be served with a 4,000 lb. 
pneumatic elevator. Tumblers, grinders, 
core oven, pneumatic sand sifters, ladle», 


brake shoe, molding machine etc., will 
form part of the equipment. 

In the brass foundry will be four 26" 
diameter brass furnaces, and one 32" 
diameter, core oven, metal cutting band 
saw, sprue cutter, tumblers, axle brass 
molding machine, etc. 

Thousands of feet of belting will be 
required for the various shops. In each 
shop there will be a number of tools 
specially designed for the work in the 
new shops of the National Transcontin- 
ental at Winnipeg. When completed the 
shops will be among the most modern 
and best equipped on the continent. 


W. R. Sweaney has been appointed 
business manager of the Toronto Elec- 
trical department. 

D. MacDougall has been appointed 
assistant general manager of the Do- 
minion Iron & Steel Co., Sydney, N.S. 

Mrs. Main, wife of J. J. Main, man- 
ager of the Poison Iron Works, To- 
ronto, died in March after a few hours' 
illness at her home in Toronto. 

Mr. Mitchell, superintendent of the 
Dominion Iron & Steel Co., Sydney, 
has been visiting the steel centres of 
the United States investigating the 
latest practice and ideas for the new 
mills to be installed this summer at 

J. J. Foote, manager of the McClary 
Mfg. Co.'s Winnipeg warehouse, spent 
a day in Toronto last month, on his 
way back home from a visit to the 
London head office. He reports bumper 
business in the west and expects this 
fall to outdo the record established last 

J. C. MacLeay, superintendent of 
blast furnaces. Dominion Iron & Steel 
Co., Sydney, was severely unjured on 
March 19. One of the workmen acci- 
dently poured cold water into a hot 
slag pit causing an explosion in which 
Mr. MacLeay and five workmen were in- 

Those who perused the "First aid to 
the Injured" article in Canadian Ma- 
chinery for February will be further in- 
terested to note that the writer of the 
article, S. A. Gidlow, has had the dis- 
tinction conferred upon him of Hon. As- 
sociate of the Order of St. John of Jer- 
usalem in England. This honor was con- 
ferred upon Mr. Gidlow by King Ed- 
ward upon recommendation by the 
Prince of Wales, who is the Grand 
Prior oi the Order. 



There is surely a reason for tha pro- 
gress of large manufacturing establish- 
ments. Take for instance, the Baldwin 
locomotive Works, there is a firir. of 
world-wide reputation. In these works 
are built locomotives, not only for 
American railroads, but for roads in al- 
most all countries in the world, thus 
competing successfully with the loco- 
motive manufacturers in all these dif- 
ferent countries. There must be a rea- 
son why locomotives can be built at Phil- 
adelphia, shipped to any country in 
Europe and placed on the roads there 
for the same cost or less than they can 
be built in shops in that country. Giving 
all due credit to the national advan- 
tages this works has, because of its 
geographical position, the greater part 
of the credit must be due to the man- 
agement of the works, a review of the 
chief points in the management policy 
of this establishment Would probably 
throw some light on the reason for their 

In these works are employed in the 
neighborhood of 15,500 men, distributed 
among 20 departments. The executive 
consists of one superintendent, four as- 
sistant superintendents and twenty fore- 
men, one for each of the departments. 
The foreman in each department has as- 
sistant foremen and underforemen ac- 
cording to the size and importance of 
the department. Each under-foreman is 
a specialist in his line of work. Each 
department is a factory in itself, turn- 
ing out special parts of the locomotive. 
Each department is operated on contract 
or piece work system. Now there is con- 
siderable diversity of opinion regarding 
the best methods of paying labor, but 
the success or non-success of any system 
of payment does not depend on the sys- 
tem alone, but also on the way the sys- 
tem is managed. It is the claim of the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works that under 
careful management they get more work 
per man out of their piece workers than 
any other similar concern in the world, 
and that their men are allowed to make 
higher wages. Dissatisfaction is rare 
at Baldwin's, and they have no strikes. 

No attention is paid to unions at 
Baldwin's. A man is hired on his own 
merits, and after he enters the works he 
is expected to abide by the regulations 
of the shops. 

Their system of apprenticeship is 
worthy of notice. They find their ap- 
prentices of great value, simply because 
they have been brought up in the work 
and therefore are much better able to 
fill positions in the works than any me- 

chanic unaquainted with the system. The 
apprentice system is as follows:— 

The apprentices are divided into three 
classes, i.e., first, those with an ordinary 
public school or grammar school educa- 
tion ; second, those with a high school 
education; and third, those who are 
graduates of a technical school. A first- 
class apprentice must be 17 years of 
age. He serves 4 years ; and during that 
time he is moved from one department 
to another until he has been through the 
whole works. He attends night school 
two nights in the week to take up mathe- 
matics and mechanical drawing. His pay 
ranges from |3 to $6.60 per week during 
liis apprenticeship, and on completion of 
his time receives a certificate and $250. 
A second-class apprentice serves .3 years 
instead of four and gets from $4.20 to 
$6.60 per week, and upon completion of 
time receives a certificate and $200. He 
ako -ittends night school. The third- 
class apprentice serves 2 years, and does 
not attend night school. He gets from 
$9 to $12 per week and a certificate upon 
completion of time. 

There is another feature of the man- 
agement that goes towards making the 
firm what it is. The foremen of the dif- 
ferent departments are encouraged to 
improve existing conditions, and they 
are sent by the firm all over the country 
to see and appropriate new ideas. If a 
foreman can prove that by the instala- 
tion of some new machine, work can be 
handled in a m.ore economical manner, 
he is furnished with the machine with- 
out any question, and iu this manner 
the works p.rv kept up-to-date in every 
particular. Because they are np-to-dale 
ill every particular is a very subst ntiai 
rens-on why they can compete with manu- 
facturing plants so far away from home. 
Many of the shops in England, Sweden 
and Russia are 25 years behind in equip- 

Thus the secret of success in manufac- 
turing is to keep up with the times. 

lowini? schedule of bounties paid dur- 
ing the year ending March 31 , 1909 : 

Pig iron $693,423 

Steel 838,100 

Mfrs. of steel 383,091 


The Dominion Government has an- 
nounced that it would not renew the 
iron and steel bounties at the end of 
the coming fiscal year. The bounties 
have been in force fourteen years and 
the Government believes the industries 
are now established on a sufficiently 
firm basis to stand alone. These boun- 
ties were fixed on a sliding scale for 
different iron and steel manufacturers, 
decreasing year by year, and varying 
from $2.10 per ton for pig iron pro- 
duced from Canadian ores in the calen- 
dar year 1907 to 40 cents per ton for 
pig iron from foreign ore produced this 
year. The extent to which these indus- 
tries have grown is shown by the fol- 

Total $1,914,614 

Since 1896 a total of over $14,000,000 
has been paid in iron and steel boun- 
ties, the abolition of which will not 
affect the protection of $1.50 per ton 
upwards imposed on imports of iron 
and steel. 


The Browning Engineering Co., Stop 
118, Shore Line, Cleveland, Ohio, have 
been instaling a number of locomotive 
cranes in Canada. They have had a 
■number of requests for operators for 
their locomotive cranes and are anxious 
to have the names and addresses of 
available men on file for positions as 
they open up. Two important instala- 
tions were described in a recent issue 
of Canadian Machinery. These were at 
the Canadian Locomotive Works, Kings- 
ton, and Angus Shops, Montreal. 


By C. Tuells. 

Bob was a good-natured, curly-headed 
apprentice boy in the best and largest 
machine shop in town. He had passed 
the days when the men used to send 
him to the blacksmith shop to get the 
teeth of a file drawn out a little longer, 
or to the stock room for a half-inch 
counterbore with a five-eighths pilot. 
As he was in his second year, he got 
fairly good work — compared with turn- 
ing pulleys and snagging castings, or 
running errands and "chasing the 

He was now at that stage of the 
trade where he was commencing to earn 
a little money for the company, for he 
could make a simple machine or a plain 
jig as well as most of the journeymen, 
and there was quite a difference be- 
tween his thirteen cents an hour and 
the journeyman's thirty, which went on 
the right side of the books. 

One day the boss brought around the 
blue-prints and castings for a rotary 
pump and gave Bob instructions how 
to make it. It was his first pump, so 
with all the vigor of ambitious youth 
he "waded into his job." He bored 
out his casting for the pump casing, 
turned up his gear blanks, and made his 
union as good and as quickly as the 
best of the men could do. True, he 
slipped up cutting one of the gears, but 
he hustled out a new blank, and this 
time his grears were cut the right num- 
ber of teeth and the proper pitch. 


After three or four days of interest- 
ing work his pump was completed and 
ready to be tested before being sent out 
of the shop. In "trying out" a rotary 
pump, it was customary to set it up 
on the ways of an old lathe, with the 
pump spindle in the chuck and the in- 
let and outlet pipes reaching to the 
floor into buckets ; in this way, by 
starting the lathe, a bucketful of water 
was pumped from one bucket to the 
other, when everything went right. 

Well, Bob got his pump set up all 
right, and it pumped, and pumped good, 
too. After pumping a few bucketfuls he 
shut off the power and went to get the 
boss to inspect the pump and see it 
work — his mind in that harmonious 
state that always accompanies a suc- 
cessful job. 

In the meantime, two of Bob's 
brother apprentices conceived the bril- 
liant idea of inserting a large cork 
stopper in the end of the inlet pipe and 
pushing it up out of sight. 

Bob soon came back with the boss, 
who, after looking it all over, ordered 
him to start the pump. The pump 
started all right, but, strange to say, 
there was "nothing doing" at the out- 
let end, much to Bob's astonishment, 
and all attempts to make it pump were 
in vain. 

The boss looked dubious and Bob look- 
ed worse, but the sly glances his fellow 
apprentices cast in his direction were 
full of fiendish glee. After telling Bob 
to "pull her to pieces and see what's 
the matter," the boss left Bob to work 

"There was nothing doing at the outlet end, 
and all attempts to make it pump were in 

out his own salvation. Although he 
took the pump apart and examined 
every inch of it thoroughly, he could 
find nothing wrong, until he tried to 
look through the inlet pipe — he couldn't 
see light. Then Bob knew what the 

trouble was, and another leaf was add- 
ed to his book of experience. 

Back together went that pump in 
double-quick order, and this time it 
worked fine and to the satisfaction of 
the boss. Bob's detective abilities 
traced the stopper to the empty bottle 
in his shop-mates's dinner box, and it 
wasn't long before he was paid back in 
his own coin — but that's another story. 

When comparing competitive bids on 
direct current electric motors one man- 
ager always keeps in mind the fact that 
the cost of the machines increase with 
the horsepower, but decreases with the 

For emergency work about the boiler 
shop, the foreman of a locomotive fac- 
tory constructed six small hand trucks, 
heavy and low wheeled. On three of 
these he rigged anvils : on the others, 
forges. When a bit of smithy work is 
needed on some massive part, such as 
a boiler or firebox, one of these forges 
is dragged in and connected with the air 
main. The anvil follows ; and the work 
is done, independent of other smithing, 
in quicker time than work could be 
taken to the blacksmith department, 
run through the routine and returned. 

At a luncheon given by President W. 

I. Gage to members of the Board of 
trade, Toronto, recently the following 

Bsolution was unanimously passed : — 

'Whereas the Board of Trade of the 
fcity of Toronto consider the control of 
■he waterfront in and contiguous to To- 
ronto is essential to the commercial de- 
felopment of the city ; 

"And whereas no satisfactory plan of 
development can be devised and carried 
out without permanent concentration of 
authority ; 

"And whereas the proper development 
of the waterfront will enrich the city 
many millions by enhancing the actual 
value of its property in Ashbridge's Bay 
and elsewhere ; 


"Be it therefore resolved that this 
meeting most strongly urges placing the 
management of our waterfront in the 
hands of a commission, and that the 
Secretary be instructed to forward a 
copy of this resolution to the Mayor, 
Board of Control, and Council of the 
city of Toronto, with a request tor in\- 
mediate action." 


Unique Ways of Doing Things in the Machine Shop. Readers' Opinions 
Concerning Shop Practice. Data for Machinists. Contributions paid for. 


M By Staveley. 

For the purpose of lifting round logs 
on to rack benches or timber frames, a 
suitable device is necessary for carrying 
out this operation quickly. If the logs 


Fig. 1.— Logging Hoo 

Fig. 2.— Gripping a Log. 

come into the mill, drawn up by an end- 
less chain, they rest on the floor, and 
there is no way of passing a sling chain 
under, or if there were this would take 
a longer time, than the hooks shown in 
Fig. 1. These are made from a good 
class of 14"xli" iron, and a -|" chain 
goes^ through the eye of each and through 
the ring which is attached to the travel- 
ing Crane hook overhead. Fig. 2 shows 
the nooks gripping the log, which slide 

Fig. 3.— Pulley Lagged With Timber. 

or adjust tfiernselves on the 4" chain, as 
in the sketch. The hook points are sharp 
arffl hardened, no that they dig them- 
selves into th? Icgi when the slack is 
hauled up. 

Fig. 3 shows how a W.l. pulley in 
halves can be lagged with timber, either 
for a belt or rope drive. In the figure, 
it has has been shown for a rope drive. 
The segments are cut from well seasoned 
hardwood, the grain running radially. 
The segments are well bedded to the 
rim and fixed by tee-headed bolts let in- 
to the wood, so as to clear the ropes. 
By removing the segments over the lap 
plates, the pulley can be removed in 
halves in the usual 'way. 


By K. Campbell. 
There are other troubles for the re- 
cipients of catalogues besides the filing 
of the heterogenous collection of cata- 
logues that are necessary in a well man- 
aged manufacturing plant. We success- 
fully disposed of the filing difiiculty by 
using vertical files and following the 

$10 For An Idea 

For the "Machine Shop Methods 
and Devices" departrnent of Can- 
adian Machinery. 

We want ideas for this depart- 
ment — ideas of practical, labor- 
saving, cost-reducing value. We 
will pay at regular rates for each 
idea accepted, and in addition will 
pay $10 for the best idea sub- 
mitted during the next six months 
—that is, until Sept. 30, 1910. 

Address all communications to 
the Editor of Canadian Machinery, 
10 Front Street East, Toronto, 

same manner as in letter filing. In this 
connection, we used a double card in- 
dex in which the names of the com- 
panies were tabulated alphabetically 
with a list of the lines manufactured 
given on the card of each company. On 
the second index the various articles in 
which we are interested were listed al- 
phababetically and on each card the 
names and addresses of the companies 
manufacturing these lines, were given. 

The point I wished to bring to the at- 
tention of those issuing catalogues is to 
be sure to have the name and address 
of the company on the catalogue. In 
fact it is a good idea to have it on 
every page. A page is often torn out 
and sent to the superintendent or fore- 
man. It is returned only to find that 
there is no name on the page to tell 
from which catalogue it was taken. 


The one in care of the index must trust 
his memory and it there is a page from 
one catalogue sent to the foundry fore- 
man, another to the carpenter shop, the 
pattern and a few other departments, it 
is practically impossible to trace some 
of the pages. It would be an easy mat- 
ter to have the name and address of the 
company on every page 

The technical, trade and daily press 
are careful to have the name and ad- 
dress on every page and the manufac- 
turer who issues catalogues would do 
well to follow this example. Orders are 
sometimes lost through this neglect. 

Perhaps it would be hard to believe, 
but it is a fact, that catalogues are re- 
ceived in our office containing no name 
or address to designate the company is- 
suing them. British manufacturers are 
the chief offenders in this regard as far 
as I can learn. We have received cata- 
logues on which there was absolutely no 
name or address and consequently, it we 
had not been interested in the lines the 
catalogue would have been relegated to 
the waste basket instead of following up 
the trade-mark and thus locating the 
name and address after a great deal of 
inconvenience. It is an easy matter to 
carry out the suggestion of having the 
name on each page and is worthy of 


The two illustrations shown are used 
in connection with ordering friction 
clutches by Vandeleur &) Nichols, Elec- 
trical, Mechanical and Constructional 
Engineers, Dineen Bldg., Toronto, but 
they may be applied to requisitions in 
the factory and in ordering various ar- 
ticles and equipment. 

Standardizing will allow the use of 
this method of making drawings. In 
connection with the clutches the various 
measurements are indicated only. The 
sizes are filled in to suit the conditions 
under which the clutch will be operated. 

In ordering a clutch a customer is 
asked to give the following information : 

1. Maximum horse power in ordinary 

2. Maximum horse power at starting 
(which is generally greater than 1.) 

3. Revolutions per minute. 

4. How often in the 24 hours will the 
clutch be put in and out ? 

5. Are there any heavy masses, fly- 
wheels, large belt, or rope pulleys, 
heavy machines, etc., to be put in mo- 
tion ? If so, give particulars. 


6. What kind of machine or machines In the columns A, B, C, etc., are enter- One of these forms is filled out for 

is clutch to drive ? 

7. What Iciud of motor drives clutch 
—steam, gas, oil, electric, turhine, etc. ? 

8. If clutch couples shafts, give their 
diams. and fill in dimensions in sketch 

ed the check numbers of those who are 

In the column at the right are entered 
the total number present, the number on 
the roll and the corresponding figures 
for the year previous. 

each working day so that the general 
manager can tell at a glance each day, 
the number on the roll, those absent, 
any new men starting and those leaving 
the employ. If any department is be- 
hind on the work the foreman of that 











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Sketch A. — Clutch Requisition. 

Slcetch B.— Clutch RequiBition. 

If the clutch is to carry belt or rope 
pulley, gear wheel, etc., state, in addi- 
tion to the above : 

9. Diam. and width of pulley, width 
and thickness of belt, or particulars of 
gear wheel. 

10. Diam. of rope pulley ; number of 
grooves ; size of ropes. 

11. Does pulley drive shaft, or shaft 
pulley ? 

12. Average length of time per 24 
hours during which clutch would be out 
of gear with either part running. 

13. Give shaft diams. and fill in di- 
mensions on sketch below. 

If striking gear is required : 

14. If the shaft is carried as eithci 
sketch A or B, fill in dimensions on that 
sketch. If neither meets your case, give 
rough sketch in space below (or on back 
of form), showing how shaft is carried, 
whether in slings, hangers, brackets, 
pedestals, etc., and giving dimensions 
corresponding to those in sketches A 
and B. 

Where a number of articles are manu- 
factured with variations in certain mea- 
surements these could be left as in the 
accompanying illustrations and filled in 
on the blue print. 

Another method, and one that is used 
a great deal, is to designate the dis- 
tances by letters. Then when an article 
is required a table may be prepared giv- 
ing the measurements for the various 


The accompanying illustration shows 
the form submitted by the time keeper 
to the general manager every morning, 
at Frost & Woods, Smith's Falls, man- 
ufactureti ot agricultural implements, 

At the foot of the sheet is given the 
check number and name of each new em- 
ploye and workman leaving the employ 
of the company. In the case of those 
leaving the employ, the reason is also 

department, the superintendent, and gen- 
eral manager can co-operate in obtain- 
ing sufficient men to keep up the work. 
The form keeps the general manager in 
close touch with the conditions in the 



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rosoB 1 
























Tim* Ketpwi' Oailjr Ktpon SbNt, ^^ 



The quickest and best way to cut a 
cable, is to place it in the forge fire and 
burn the strands in two. Almost any 
size or kind of hoisting cable may be 
easily separated by this method. 

First mark the place to be cut and 
hold the cable in the fire until there is 
a shower of sparks thrown off. Begin 
pulling on both parts of the cable at 
this time and when it is heated to a 
welding heat give the parts a good hard 
twist in the direction of the strands. 
This will pull the cable apart where it is 
heated, leaving the wires at each end 
all welded together and tapering down 
to a smooth point. Such an end does 
not need any wrapping to keep the wires 
that form the cable from coming apart. 

By J. H. Shales. 

As a rule troubles arise from lack of 
attention to the machines, by those in 
charge. As long as a machine will re- 
spond to power, it is let run regardless 
of its physical conditions. It may have 
badly worn cables, or rust eaten 
piston rods, or burnt out contacts, no 
oil in worm gear, worn out bearings, 
safety out of order and a host of other 
infirmities. But as long as it will go 
up and down, people will use it, jeop- 
ardizing their lives and limbs, month 
in and month out. I have been called 
in to examine elevators in this city 
that had been in use for months with- 
out having a drop of oil put on the 
running parts or overhead sheaves. I 
have seen overhead sheaves bearing cut 
down through the babbitt and i-inch 
into the metal and the shaft scored so 
that we had to put in new ones. This 
happens in scores of buildings. 

I have one in mind that came under 
my notice two years ago in a leading 
hotel within a block of where we are 
assembled. The manager and engineer's 
attention had been called to the worn 
out condition of the machinery, but 
they thought it could run a little while 
longer, and so it went on until the 
armature gave out through over work, 
and they had to shut down for four 
days and make repairs, costing them 
four times the amount that it would 
have done if they had given it proper 
care. It is surprising how careless the 
owners of buildings are about their ele- 
vators. And when their attention is 
called to the need of repair, they will 
say it should run without looking after, 
forgetting that iron and steel want 
looking after as well as the human 

This brings to mind a case I had 
some years ago of an electric elevator 
I had installed in one of our large hos- 
pitals, It had been in some months 

and was giving trouble occasionally 
through not having a steady operator. 
On this occasion, as I was leaving the 
building, I was met by the medical 
superintendent and was asked if the ma- 
chine was all right now. I said : 
"Yes." "Well, how long will it stay 
that way?" My reply was the Irishman's 
answer, by asking him : "Doctor are 
you well now ?" Of course he said 
"Yes." "Well how long will you re- 
main that way ?" Needless to say, I 
was not asked that question again, al- 
though I have done the repair on that 
machine for seventeen years. This is 
but one of hundreds of thoughtless 
questions we have to answer in our 

Fifteen years ago we had great trou- 
ble in getting architects to give us 
room to put in elevators. They thought 
any old place was good enough for the 
elevator, forgetting that those ma- 
chines would need repairs. And through 
this short-sighted policy it has cost 
owners hundreds of dollars for repairs 
which would have been saved if the 
machine had been placed where they 
could have been looked after. 


Subscribers will confer a favor on us by 
notifying us in case they are not receiving 
their paper regularly, or if thev find they 
have missed one or mora issues. We send 
out thousands of copies each month, and 
it is only natural to suppose that a few 
copies will go astray in the mails, even 
though every precaution is taken by us to 
avoid this. 

We should also be notified at once of 
any change of address, giving both old and 
new addresses. 

In one of our large office buildings we 
were installing a first class hydraulic 
plant, and when we came to set up our 
valves and control machinery, we could 
not get them in place on account of hav- 
ing a small lavatory in the way. This 
room is 5x6 on the ground floor with 
a large lavatory within 20 feet on the 
same floor. After a great deal of coax- 
ing, the architect gave orders to move 
the terra cotta wall 18 inches. This 
just gave us room to get our machines 
in position. But for the last 18 years, 
every time there are repairs made thn 
architect is cursed for his folly, as the 
small room is not used and is of no 
value to the building for revenue. I 
have met with instances like this in my 
25 years' experience in elevator work. 

My advice to all persons in charge of 
elevators, is to give them the same at- 
tention you would give a steam engine, 
as they are only hydraulic electric en- 
gines in the true sense and produce 
power to operate the cages. 

If your plant is an electric one, be 


sure that all contacts are clean and 
have good faces. Also that all connec- 
tions are firm and tight. Those parts 
should be gone over and tested every 
day. Also keep an eye on all ropes, 
overhead sheaves and bearings. Also 
keep your girder well oiled and car 
properly adjusted as well as cables 
tuned up. When this is done on either 
electric or hydraulic machines, you will 
be all right. 


Repairing locomotives is a very differ- 
ent proposition from almost any other 
work I know of, and requires different 
treatment, says a writer in the American 
Machinist. Micrometers are an unknown 

Fig. 1.— Boring Driving Bcxes. 

quantity in most of the work, yet the 
results are probably as good as can be 
expected, when the service is considered. 
Side rods must have play on the pins, 
both as to diameter and end movement, 
varying from 1-64 to 1-32 inch, 
the different crank pins are almost never 
in line on account of frogs, switches and 
high and low spots in the track. But 
the main rod has to be as close as it 
will run cool, on account of pounding 
out the brass, to say nothing of the 

Rebolting a Frame. 

When an engine comes in for general 
repairs and the frame bolts have to 'be 
driven out, it's a case of new bolts when 
tlie engine is put together again. These 
bolts have a taper body and drive into 
the reamed taper holes of the frame. The 
taper is usually 1-16 inch to the front. 

This is usually a ease of fitting each 

— Crosshead Babbiltinfj 

bolt to its place, as the holes are just 
cleaned up with the reamer in the air 
drill. This fitting has to be well done, 
as it is very important that they should 
not work loose. 

To do this rapidly, the foreman in 
charge of this work at the East Buffalo 


shops of the Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western road has a portable outfit which 
he sets down near the track the enarine is 
on. This outfit consists of a lathe, a 
centreing machine and a grinding wheel 
for sharpening tools, all tied together on 
on base and driven by an independent 

A bright boy completes the outfit and 
the combination gives star performances 
when it comes to fitting up a locomotive 
frame with new bolts. The bolts are 
centered and the ends all threaded to 
standard size before the frame has been 
reamed, and as soon as a few holes are 
ready the boy gets busy. 

He sets a pair of inside calipers to 
both ends of the first hole to be sure and 
get the right taper set in the lathe, then 
he starts in, only measuring one end of 
the rest of the holes, and turns each bolt 
to fit its hole. There is no micrometer 
about it; he just sets his outside calipers 
by the inside calipers set to the hole, 
measures by "feci" in the old-fashioned 
way, and does a good joib in a lathe that 
had seeii hard service long before it 
joined the bolt-turning outfit. 
Detecting Cracks in Frames, Rods and 
Every railroad shop has its hair- 
raising story of axles that have dropped 
in two on the turntable after a hard 
run and other cases, all depriving the 
yellow journals from a prominent dis- 
play of scare headlines about another 
wreck, and the best or worst of it is 
they are true. In no place is the effect 
of constant vibration better shown than 
in railroad service, the most prominent 
defects occuring in frames, rods and 
axles, all of which are hard to detect 
unless they are very pronounced. The 
hammer test helps in many cases where 
the man is trained for the work, but 
even this is not infallable. 

The master mechanic at these shops, 
B. H. Hawkins, has introduced a method 
that is at once simple and efficient 
whether it is original or not. When an 
engine comes in for repairs and is strip- 
ped, the frames, axles and rods are 
given a coat of a white water paint. This 
dries in about an hour and does not rub 
off readily. 

Then, as the wheels are turned up in 
the lathe, or the frames and rods work- 
ed on in any way, or even without it, 
the oil and dirt that are in atiy crack in 
these parts work through this paint and 
show a dark streak so plainly that it 
cannot be mistaken. At the time of my 
visit a driving axle had just been dis- 
carded, owing to a slight crack just start- 
ing from the round corner of a keyway 
for the eccentric, and which would never 
have been discovered in any other way. 

The same thing holds good in the 
other parts, and cracks are constantly 
discovered that might cause accidents 
later had they not been found. So a 
little white paint is probably a life 
saver when applied in this way. 

Boring and Facing Driving Boxes. 

Two Billiard vertical lathes or boring 
mills with a side tool carriage or head, 
ai^e in use here doing all sorts of face- 
plate work. The way in which driving 
boxes are bored is interesting as show- 
ing the use to which the side head is 
put as well as the method of holding 
and boring. 

The lower plate or fixture is bolted to 
the face-plate, and the driving boxes fit 
in this and are easily centred and set. 

There are several sets of these jigs of 
different widths at C to allow for guides 
being planed down on the sides to true 
them up at different times. These cost 
very little to make and have been hand- 
ling all the babbitting done here for 
some time. 

By J. II. R., Hamilton. 

The accompanying sketch shows an 
attachment placed on an ordinary emery 
jack for grinding circular cutters. The 
shaded portion of the sketch shows the 
attachment in position. 

The piece P is secured to the two 
brackets BB. On one end of piece P is 
the compound rest R, the top table of 

Grinding Circular Cutters. 

A mole in the centre of this plate forms 
a guide for the pilot on the boring bar, 
as shown in Fig. 1, holding it steady in 
its work and insuring a straight cut as 
well as making high sj>eed possible. 

At the same time the side head comes 
in and faces off the hub lining so that 
no extra time is required for this work. 
It makes a neat way of handling work 
of this kind. 

Babbitting Crossheads. 

They have the simplest form of bab- 
bitting jigs, as shown in Fig. 2, I have 
seen and they do the work in good shape. 
They depend on the faces XX of the 
< lossheads C, being planed alike in all 
cases so far as the distance from one 
guide to the other is concerned, as well 
as being the same width on the outside. 
This allows the fixtures or jigs to be 
lield on the crossheads by the simple 
clamps, shown at the side, and the bab- 
bit fills the opening between the two, 
being retained at the bottom by an as- 
bestos sheet or pad on which it rests. 
The crossheads are tinned beforehand, 
being heated by an oil torch for this 


which carries the two centre heads I and 
J. The arbor A carries the cutter K 
and is supported between the centres as 
shown , 

A worm wheel W is secured to the 
centre in head I and by turning the 
wheel by the handle and worm the ar- 
bor and cutter are revolved on the cen- 
tres. By removing collar C and putting 
on a grooved pulley the arbor can be re- 
volved from a shaft overhead. 

By the use of jigs in place of the cen- 
tre head, different small jobs of grinding 
can be done. 


By J. S. Staveley. 

For quickly transporting goods pat- 
terns, castings, etc., the accompanying 
sketches show a convenient method of 
building an overhead runway. Fig. 1 
shows tlie arrangement of the posts, 
which are "halved" at the point where 
they cross each other and a plate coach- 
screwed on the top to take an 1^" bolt 
which supports the carrying beam. 

In order that the C.I. wheels of the 
"runner" can traverse freely, a 2"xJ" 
flat is screwed to the top of the beam, 


the heads being countersunk. Where it 
is necessary to join the beams, the type 
of joggle joint suitable is also shown. 

In Fig. 2 is seen the runner complete, 
with swivel ring bolt at the bottom. 
This is convenient for attaching the pul- 

plicates. Attached to the double-armed 
leader C is a stud upon which is mount- 
ed a loose sleeve which travels in, and 
fits the slot of the templet. As the 
head is driven along the rail the tool is 
automatically raised or lowered accord- 

right in London, with employes of the 
Dennis Wire & Iron Works Co., Ltd., as 
pupils. If the true "German Peril" be, 
as claimed, in the struggle for industrial 
supremacy, this linn is doing its part to 
avert it. 

Fig. 1. — Arrangement of Posts. 

ley block, and adjusts itself to the direc- 
tion of pull. It is well to rivet over 
slightly, the nut ends of the wheel spin- 
dle, to prevent them slacking oS. 


An attachment for planing work of a 
convex or concave shape is shown in the 
accompanying engraving. The attach- 
ment consists of four parts all of which 
are of cast iron. These castings com- 
prise the two side pieces or brackets A, 
the templet B, and the double-armed 
"leader" C, which is attached to the 
tool slide. Of course, difierent templets 
have to be used for difierent jobs, the 
shape of each being governed by the spe- 
cial requirements of the work in hand. 
The side brackets must be cast with bos- 
ses to allow the templet to clear the 
planer head, so that the latter can move 
along the rail. As shown, the brackets 
fit over the top guide on the rail and 
any slack is taken up by the set-screw 
shown in the end view. Separate pieces 
are fitted to the bottom of each bracket 
which are put in place after the fixture 
is put on the rail. These brackets are 
at all times stationary. The templet is 
worked out on a profiler or slotter, and 
it is attached to the brackets A by 
bolts. It should be machined carefully 
to the required shape, for, obviously, 
when it is made it will produce any 
number of pieces which will be exact du- 

ing to the formation of the guiding slot 
in the templet. Of course, when this at- 
tachment is in use, the screw of the 
slide is removed , The fixture is entirely 
automatic, and when it is in use the 
cross-feed may be put on, and the planer 
will take care of the work. This fix- 
ture is not new, but there are doubtless 
many who are not familiar with it.— 


By W. E. Elliott. 
While slow-moving Governments and 
college faculties are talking of the need 
for technical education, private enter- 
prises has initiated a modest trade school 

Fig. 2.— Runner Complete. 

One hundred men are employed in the 
Dennis works. Between 25 and 30 have 
already enrolled in a night class for 
training in the higher elements of the 
work in their own factory, and the com- 
pany has provided a room in the upper 
part of the works for theoretical instruc- 

Here are workmen who make first- 
class material. Here, also, are a few 
capable of acting as instructors. Ma- 
chinery and other equipment is to hand 
as no trade school has it, with regard 
to the particular work in which Dennis 
employes are interested, and the man- 
agement figure out that the least they 
can do is provide facilities for those 
vi'ho are ready to be taught. 

"The men get their manual training 
in the day time," says Mr. Earnest R. 
Dennis, managing director; "and now we 
are prepared to give them the theoretical 
part at night." 

ib di di isfc AYS 

planer Attachment Wliich Automatically 
46 . _ 

Guides Tool in Planing Curved Surfaces. 


Mr. Dennis' idea is to secure Inspec- 
tor Peake and others from Toronto, as 
well as local experts, to give lectures to 
the men, from time to time — lectures of 
Canadian Club quality and Dennis prac- 

"For some time my hobby has been 

technical education," said Mr. Dennis. 

, "About two years ago I brought the 

matter up in the Board of Trade, but 

nothing was done. 

"We get good men from England, and 
also a few from Germany. Some people 
speak disparagingly of the Englishman, 
but I tell you they can deliver the goods, 
thanks to trade schools. 

"I have eianged my mind aibout tech- 
nical schools. 1 believe now that trade 
schools are the thing. At Detroit they 
have the best Y.M.C.A. in the United 
States. You go in there and find a 
great plumbing shop, with men making 
joints and all that sort of thing. They 
have another big electrical room with 
dynamos, meters, rheostats, etc. Then 
they have drafting and carpentering 
rooms. These things help a man make 
his living. 

"We have the equipment right here 
for working in iron, and training will 
make our men worth more to us, and 
we will pay them more. 

"We have a draughtsman whose fath- 
er and grandfather before him were 
architects, and he was brought up in a 
technical institute himself. He is cap- 
able of showing these fellows." " 

la 1876, Mr. Dennis points out, an 
exposition was held in Philadelphia, and 
the German Government, always watch- 
ful, sent a commission over to see how 
' erman students and maufaeturers 
stood, as compared with other nations, 
as shown by the exhibits. They went 
back and reported that England and the 
United States were far in advance. Then 
the Germans, being practical people, ap- 
pointed another commission to find out 
ways and means of remedying the situa- 
tion. They said, "If you want to manu- 
facture good stuflt" you have got to have 
good men, and we need training 
schools," and so arose the present sys- 
tem of technical education in Germany. 

That was in the neighborhood of 30 
years ago," remarked Mr. Dennis, "and 
now Germany has the most highly organ- 
ized industrial plants in the world. We 
have a German manager in our Toronto 
branch. He is an engineer. 'You talk 
about militarism in Germany,' he will 
tell you, 'but it is not militarism— it is 
law and order, in the business and the 
home. Everything is done with preci- 
sion. ' 


"We had a $10,000 contract for orn- 
amental iron work for a technical school 
in Quebec," added Mr. Dennis. "If 
they need one down there, surely we need 
on in London. A manufacturing con- 
cern cannot run ten minutes without 
labor, and intelligent labor is what we 
want. We have good material here, if 
we can only educate them a bit. 

"It is awful, you know, when people 
come in here and ask for a job. I say, 
'What can you do?' and the answer is, 
'0. almost anything.' When I ask, 
'Blacksmithing? Machines? Ironwork?' 
they can do none of these. In this coun- 
try there is nothing along this line be- 
tween the public school and the college." 

This appliance can be clamped on the 
table of a drill press or on the face 
plate of a lathe or grinding machine- 
American Machinist. 


By G. A. Beaudry. 
This device I designed and built for 
use in my work of die making. The new 
feature about the tool is the arrange- 
ment by which a short screw is used. 
This short screw will clamp all the dif- 


Combined Angle Plate and V Block. 

ferent sizes which the tool can take in, 
that is, from 4-inch up to 4-inch, round 
or square stock. 

A is the body of the tool proper; B is 
the clamping bar into which a V is cut 
to correspond with F (the V in the 
body) and it can be moved forward or 
back according to requirements. D D are 
side bars into which are cut a certain 
number of teeth which catch the ends 
of the binding bar C and when the 
screw E is set up against the body A 
and forces the bar C backward, bar B 
is pulled back and clamps the work. To 
move bar B forward take parts D D be- 
tween the thumb and forefinger and 
press them together ; this releases bind- 
ing bar C and allows it to be pulled 
backward and then bar B can be pulled 
forward so as to admit the stock. G 
is a coil spring and H is a pin set in 
the body A on each side to force rods 
D apart so that they catch on the ends 
of binding bar C ; then a few turns of 
screw E will clamp the work solidly. 



In the year 1825, Charles Allen, a na- 
tive of Andover, Vermont, settled in 
Waterloo, Que., and there worked as a 
blacksmith. A few years later he form- 
ed a partnership with Daniel Taylor, a 
native of Newfane, Vermont, to eari-y 
on the business of blacksmithing and 
cloth dressing. That partnership contin- 
ued until 1858, when Mr. Taylor died. 
In 1861 a new partnership was formed, 
and a son of each of the former part- 
ners was admitted into the company. 
Charles Allen died in 1881, and his sec- 
ond son became a member of the com- 

This firm is still carrying on the busi- 
ness of machinists and dealers in gen- 
eral merchandise, their general store be- 
ing started by them in 1839. 

D. L. Allen commenced working as 
clerk for Allen, Taylor & Co., in 1861, 
and was admitted a partner in 1881. The' 
general merchandise business has been 
carried on in the same store for seventy 

The Waterloo (Que.), Iron Works, the 
manufacturing end of the company's in- 
terests was started by Charles Allen as 
stated above. The works have been in 
continuous operation eighty years. The 
works and the store are now being con- 
ducted by the third generation with the 
exception of I). L. Allen, who is of the 
second generation. 

Owning both works and store, it is an 
easy matter for these two institutions to 
work together. The employer and em- 
ploye exchange work for merchandise 
the co-operative system followed being 
very simple. It is not compulsory for a 
workman to deal at the general store of 
Allen, Taylor & Co., but it is made very 
easy for him to do so. 

If a workman decides he will deal with 
the company for whom he works, he is 
furnished with a pass book in which is 
entered the purchases made at any time. 
At the end of the week the pass books 
are checked up. The amount of purchase 
IS treated as an advance payment, and 
is deducted from the total wages due the 
workman. The balance due him is plac- 
ed in his envelope. The system is found 
to work satisfactorily and is beneficial 
to both workman and proprietora. 



Readers are invited to send in replies 
to answers asked under "Correspon- 
dence," and these will be paid for at 
regular editorial rates. Anyone desiring 
the names of firms manufacturing cer- 
tain lines will be answered under this 
heading. Comments on previous articles 
containing good ideas will be paid for. — 

Position of Belt Tightener. 
Will a reader please inform me the 
proper place to put tightener on a main 
driving belt, as shown in the illustra- 

Where Should the Tightener be Placed ? 

tion. A is the driven pulley on line 
shaft. B is the driving pulley on the 
engine. The arrow shows the direc- 
tion in which the 'belt runs. 


The dotted circle C shows the suggest- 
ed position for the belt tightener. In 
addition to tightening belt, it will give 
a larger belt contact on the small pull- 
ey if placed close to it. — Editor. 

Boring Deep Holes. 

I have some castings in which deep 
holes must be bored, and I find it very 
inconvenient. Are there not some meth- 
ods for boring, without having to with- 
draw the drill every few turns to remove 
the cuttings? 


In the Feb., 1908, issue, Canadian Ma- 
chinery, is an article on this smbject 
by John Edgar. Hollow drills may be 
obtained from the manufacturers of 
twist drills advertising in Canadian Ma- 
chinery, and it is eomparatifvely a simple 
matter to use a hollow drill and lubri- 
cate the work. One method is to at- 
tach a hollow tube of less diameter than 
the hole. Peed in the lubricant through 
the centre and the chips will be carried 
out along the flinted sides and out along 
the outside of the hollow tube. 

If the work to be bored is firmly 
chucked and nins true in a rest, and the 

boring bar is held rigid in the lathe 
rest, great accuracy may be obtained. — 


* * * 

Rust on Metals. 

We store away iron and steel, but 
as the storehouse is a little damp the 
bars rust. Will you recommend a pre- 
ventative for rust— READER. 

Answer— A coating of sperm or lard 
oil will prevent rusting. Do not use lu- 
bricating oil. A box of lime placed near 
the steel will absorb dampness.— Editor. 

* * * 
Lignum Vitae. 

Where is lignum vitae obtained. 


Guaiacum, Brazilwood, or lignum vitae 
is obtained in the American tropics, and 
is remarkable for the hardness and 
heaviness of the wood. We would ap- 
preciate receiving the address of a Can- 
adian or United States company handling 
lignum vitae. — Editor. 

* * * 

Vulcanizing Rubber Tires. 

How can I vulcanize automobile rub- 
ber tires so that after vulcanizing the 
rubber will again be brought to its nor- 
mal elasticity. I find that after I heat 
the rubber to its melting point, it is com- 
pletely spoiled, and the reason is prob- 
ably because I am not using the right 
process. Will a reader of Canadian Ma- 
chinery give the correct method through 

this paper. 


* * * 

Tempering Gears. 

In the March iss .e of Canadian M.i- 
chinery a manufacturer asked for a saf -, 
simple method for hardening the t2°ch 
of steel cut gears to prevent warping. 

be hardened one-sixteenth of an inch on 
the surface. There is no furnace in 
which the gears can be placed, except 
a small brass furnace, which has a diam- 
eter of about 15 or 16 inches. It is 
necessary that these gears run perfect- 
ly true, as they run at high speed. 
* * * 

British Locomotives. 

Are there any locomotives of British 
manufacture running on the railways of 
Canada. I undestand there are some 
Scotch locomotives in Lower Canada. 
Will readers please send this informa- 
tion.— C. E. 


An excellent toast list was provided 
at the fifth annual banquet of the Grand 
Trunk apprentices, Stratford, on March 
15, and the addresses given were list- 
ened to by nearly all the members of 
the club and their friends. 

The toast to the "G. T. R." was re- 
sponded to by Master Mechanic, J. Q. 
Markey, Toronto; "The Local Shops," 
W. Seeley, and "The City," by Mayor 
Dingham and W. Preston; "Appren- 
tices," W. Margett, "Ex-apprentices," 
E. R. Dalley. 

Prof. Angus, of Toronto University, 
was on hand, and replied to the toast of 
"Educational Facilities," as did Prin- 
cipal Mayberry and W. Walton. "Our 
Teachers," by E. Meldrum; "Visiting 
Apprentices," li. Andsky, P. Drum- 
mond and E. Thorpe, of Montreal; "Ath- 
letics," H. Humber, and "The Ladies," 
H. Walton. 

The Grand Trunk band discoursed 

Gears to be Temperpd. 

Herewith is given a sketch and suggea- several selections, and solos were render| 

tion for hardening them will be apprec- ed by J. G. Sarvis, H. Genson, A. KeW| 

iated and paid for. The teeth are to W. Bryanston and A. Walton. 



For Manufacturers. Cost and Efficiency Articles Rather Than Technical. 
Steam Power Plants ; Hydro Electric Development ; Producer Gas, Etc. 


In a discussion of lineshaft efficiency 
in the proceedings of tiie American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, W. F. 
Parish, Jr., points out that for com- 
parative tests made under work-shop 
conditions it is advisable to have the 
belts made up half of cotton and half 
of leather, thereby eliminating the effect 
of humidity, which may cause varia- 
tions of 12 per cent, in the power de- 

An English firm five years ago pur- 
chased a cotton belt to drive a dyna- 
mo, but this belt was not equal to the 
speed and power required of it, so a 
leather belt was substituted. It was 
decided to use the cotton belt on one 
of the main mill drives, but it was 
found to be much too short. So a 
piece of leather belt was spliced in, the 
whole being, when finished, half leather 
and half cotton. A casing was built un- 
der it, as it was low down and in a 
dangerous position. The manager was 
annoyed to find that this casing had 
been built too close to the belt, no 
allowance being made for sagging. 

The dampness greatly affected the 
leather belt, as the drive was in a low 
part of the mill, but the casing under 
the patched belt was never altered. The 
length of the belt never varies whether 
the weather is damp or dry, and it is 
the best belt drive in the -mill for 
steady work. Moisture has an opposite 
effect on leather and cotton, leather 
lengthening and cotton contracting with 
an increase of humidity, so that in the 
halt-cotton and half-leather belt the 
weather effect is practically compensat- 
ed for. 


The vacuum cleaner has been develop- 
ed with much asrgressiveness by its var- 
ious builders, and has now become of 
recogrnized utility in industrial as well as 
rc.sidental life. The modern shop and 
factory are we'l ordered institutions, 
and cleanliness is a prime requisite. 

The vacuum cleaner is a most complete 
remover of dust and dirt and finer debris 
of all sorts. The vacuum system of 
cleaninfT promises exceptional usefulness 
in ridding works of those kinds of dust 
which are injurious to the health of em- 
ployes. The manufacturers believe that 
they can be of great service to factories 

which do wet grinding, by collecting the 
dried sediment of particles of abrasive 
and metal. 

Where an exhaust system is installed, 
the apparatus is designed to be attach- 
ed at conveniently spaced stations. The 
self-contained unit, with an electric mo- 
tor attached to the fan, can be employ- 
ed in any works having electric wiring. 
The blower and exhaust have a great 
usefulness, extending over a wide field. 
The vacuum cleaner is an addition to 
the scope of effort, which will undoubted- 
ly be adopted quite generally in the next 
few years. — Iron Age. 


By Charles Collins. 

Recently I happened to be where a 
new light and power plant was being 
installed. As the parts of the machines 
were cumbersome and heavy to handle 
the erecting crew were provided with a 

but will increase its life in far greater 
proportion than the increase in first 

Double belts will transmit about 11/2 
times as much power as single belts. 

This rule applies to belts running over 
pulleys of equal diameter, or where the 
arc of contact is ISO degrees. For small- 
er arcs of contact, use the coefficients 
found in the following table: 

Ueg. 90 100 120 130 MO 150 160 170 180 200 
Coef. 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.94 0.97 1.00 1.00 

To increase the power transmitted, 
either increase the speed of the belt by 
using larger pulleys, or use a wider belt. 

Example. A 3-inch, single belt is run- 
ning over a 24-inch driving pulley, which 
makes 200 revolutions per minute. How 
many h.p. will it transmit? 

The circumference of the pulley in 
feet is 2X3.1416=6.2832 feet. 

As the speed of 'the pulley is 200 revo- 
lutions per minute, the speed of the 

Handy Homemade Erecting Crane 

light and handy portable traveling 
crane of home-made construction, which 
seemed to be the acme of convenience. 

It consisted of a ten-foot length of 
I-bean supported by two 6x6-inch tim- 
bers, which telescoped into light, well 
braced frames of angle iron, thus per- 
mitting the beam to be raised to a 
height suitable for the job. A traveler 
and a chain tackle completed the out- 
fit. — American Machinist. 

By H. D. Chapman. 

The power transmitted by a belt is 
directly proportioned to its speed. A 
safe rule is: 

Allow one h.p. for a speed of 1,000 
feet per minute, with a belt of single 
thickness, 1 inch wide. 

This is a more liberal allowance in 
favor of the belt than is usually given, 


bolt will be 200X6-2832=1256.64 feet 
per minute. 

For every inch of width it will trans- 
mit 1256.64^1000=1.25664 h.p. 

Then, a 3-inch belt will transmit 
3X1-25664=3.76992 h.p. 

If it is desired to increase the power 
in the above example to five h.p., it 
may be done by using a wider belt in 
the proportion of 3.75 to 5, or in reality 
a 4-inch belt. The same thing could be 
effected by increasing the size of the 
pulley in the same proportion, or 

3.75 : 5 : : 24 : 32. 

It would thus require a 32-inch pulley. 
A double belt of the same width would 
transmit li times as much power or 
1.5X3.75=5.63 h.p., which would be a 
little more than the required five h.p. — 




A monthly newspaper devoted to machinery and manufacturing interests 
mechanical and electrical trades, the foundry, technical progress, construction 
and improvement, and to all useis of power developed from steam, gas, elec- 
rioity, compressed air and water in Canada. 

The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

JOHN BAYNE MACLEAN, President W. L. EDMONDS. Vice-President 

H. V. TYRRELL, Toronto 

G. C. KEITH, M.E., B.Sc, Toronto 

F.C. D.WILKES, B.Sc, Montreal 

Business Manager 
Managing Editor 
Associate Editor 


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. Townships Bank Bldg 

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Room 21. Hartney Chambers 


London - 88 Fleet Street. E.C. 

Phone Central 12960 

J. Meredith McKim 


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1109-1111 Lawyers' Title. Insur- 
ance and Trust Building 
Phone. 1111 Cortlandt 


Paris John F. Jones & Co.. 

31bis, Faubourg Montmartre, 

Paris, France 



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Orell Fussli & Co 

Cable Address: 
Macpubeo, Toronto. Atabek, London, Eng. 


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48. 6d., per year; other countries, $1.50. Advertising rates on request. 

Subscribers who are not receiving their paper regularly will 
confer a favor on us by letting us know. We should be notified 
at once of any change in address, giving both old and new. 

Vol. VI. 

April, 1910 

No. 4 


Much to the satisfaction of the people of United States 
and Canada, a tariff agreement has been amicably ar- 
ranged. Canada has conceded lower duties on thirteen 
items, and in return receives the benefit of the 
United States minimum tariff. The items cover food 
stuffs such as dates, figs, nuts of all kinds, etc; soaps, 
toilet preparations, window glass, watch actions, feathers, 
etc. The reduction amounts from about 2J to 3 per cent. 

In connection with the tariff arrangement, there is a 
reciprocity offer^ President Taft proposing negotiations 
looking toward the establishment of closer relations be- 
tween United States and Canada. Any movement in 
the direction of broader and closer commercial relations 
will receive the hearty support of the large majority 
of the people of these two countries. 

Canadian manufacturers are in hopes that when the 
representatives of the two countries meet, the subject 
of reducing the tariff on machinery not made in Canada 
should be considered. At the present time there are a 
great number of machine tools not manufactured in Can- 

ada and Canadian plants are at a disadvantage on ac- 
count of the high initial outlay necessary when certain 
machines are required. 

Take the automatic for example. The machine costs 
probably $1,500, fo.b. place of manufacture. The duty 
is 27J per cent., bringing the total cost up to $1,912.50. 
This includes only one set of tools and many are required 
which the user must make himself at great fisk of in- 
accuracies on account of all toolmakers not being famil- 
iar with the automatic. Otherwise, he must pay heavy 
duty on the necessary tools. We have not considered the 
freight in the above figures. 

It is manifestly unfair to place the Canadian manufac* 
turer at such a decided disadvantage in regard to shop 
■equipment, when the machines cannot be obtained in 
Canada. This applies not only to automatic machinery, 
but to cylindrical grinders, gear cutting machinery and 
numerous others. If the Canadian manufacturer is to be 
the factor in the world's market that he should be, he 
should receive all the assistance possible to compete with 
other manufacturers placing similar lines on the market. 


For a number of years manufa,cturers and users have 
been working towards the adoption of uniform boiler 
regulation in the vai'ious provinces. At a meeting in 
Kpn-ina in December, 1909, representatives of the various 
provinces met and discussed' regulations which would be 
acceptable to the several provinces. 

At the recent session of the Ontario Legislature a bill 
was passed respecting steam boilers. As the bill states, 
the regulations shall come into force at such a date as is 
deemed advisable. The following are the provisions of 
I'he Ontario Boiler Act : 

1. This Aet may be cited as "The Steam Boiler Act." 

2. In this Act "steam boiler" shall mean a boiler 
i:sed for generating steam for heating and power pur- 
p :ses, and every part thereof or thing connected there- 
with, and apparatus and things attached to or used in 
[■:innection with any such 'boiler, but shall not include a 
bii'er used for heating water for il. nicotic purposes or a 
railway Iccomotive or steamboat boiler. 

3. Upon the recommendation of the Minister of Pub- 
lie Works the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Couneil may make 
snc'd rules, regulations and specifications as may be deem- 
ed proper respecting the construction of steam boilers, in- 
cluding the materials to be used, the method of construc- 
ticii. the tests to be applied, the inspection of the boiler 
during its construction and before it is permitted to leave 
the place of construction, and generally such other mat- 
ters as may secure a uniform standard of strength, safety 
and efficiency. 

4. The rules, regulations and spef iticntinns sha'l be 
published in tlie Oniario' Gazette and -'lall c. mi- iii;n f,v?c 
and take effect at a date tn be named by prnclamation. 




The election of Eugene N. to the United States 
Congress marks a long step towards securing fair trade 
between United States and Canada. Reciprocity has 
been a hobby of Mr. Foss' for years and his policy^ "Can- 
adian Reciprocity and Tariff Reform," has won for him 
a notable victory in a constituency which had always 
voted Republican. 

E. N. Foss is president of the R. F. Sturtevant Co., 
Boston, whose blowers and ventilating apparatus are 
known the world over. Mr. Foss' creed is thus summed 
up : 

"Reciprocity with Canada is not a question of a 
year or a day. It is' one for the statesmanship of the 
future, and it is to the interest of both countries to 
have this question settled intelligently and upon broad 
lines, which will permit to both countries the highest 
development of all their resources. Reciprocity accom- 
plished, contemplates the extension of American condi- 
tions to Canada. These have made the T'uited States 
the most prosperous country in the world, and they will 
make a prosperous Canada." 

Mr. Foss' victory should go far in bringing about 
the realization of his creed. 


trade of Canada for February, 1910, was 
in increase of $8,202,374 over February of 

The total 
last year. 

For the eleven months of the fiscal year the total trade 
has been $610,577,981, an increase of $104,113,307, or over 
20 per cent., as compared with the corresponding eleven 
months of the last fiscal yeai-, and constituting a new 
record for Canadian trade. 

Imports for the month totaled $30,341,462, an increase 
of $7,152,794. For the eleven months the imports totaled 
$332,391,669, an increase of $68,131,239. 

Exports of domestic products for the month totaled 
$15,337,043, an increase of a little over one million. Ex- 
ports of domestic products for the eleven months totaled 
$257,012,262, an increase of $32,805,650. Of this latter in- 
crease, about seventeen millions was in agricultural ex- 
ports, about seven and a half millions was in exports of 
the forest, and about two millions in exports of manu- 

Exports of foreign products for the eleven months 
totaled $21,174,050. an increase of a little over three mil- 

The total customs revenue for the eleven months was 
$53,781,333, an increase of $11,389,085. 

The monthly financial statement of the Dominion shows 
an increase of $1,606,751, as compared with February, 
1909, and an increase of $14,179,638 for the first eleven 
months of the present fiscal year, as compared with the 
corresponding period of last year. The total revenue for 
the eleven months has been $89,684,460. When the books 

are finally balanced for the year it is expected that the 
revenue will run very close to the hundred million mark, 
and -will exceed by a million or so Hon. Mr. Fielding's 
conservative estimate in his budget speech of December 

The expenditure on account of consolidated fund for 
the eleven months has been $63,876,584, a decrease of $3,- 
127,898. On capital account the expenditure has been 
.$29,989,535, ^a decrease of $9,312,567. 

The net public dtebt at the end of February was $328,- 
658,879, a decrease during the month of $1,211,090. 


"I have been authorized to announce that, dating from 

. March 1, 1910, a general increase in wages of five per 

cent, will be made to 'all the works' employes of the 

Canada Foundry Co., Limited, who are on an hourly 


"The management recognize the harmony that has ex- 
isted between themselves and the employes during the dull 
times, and take the earliest opportunity ^afforded 'by im- 
proved' prospects of showing their appreciation in a prac- 
tical manner." 

This is the notice which the lyOOO employes of the 
Canada Foundry Co. saw posted in the works on March 
1. The total amount of wages affected upon which five 
per cent, increase will accrue will be between $12,000 
and $13,000 weekly. The increase means, therefore, $600 
or $650 a week. 

This action in 'asking the employes to share in • the 
prosperity the company has enjoyed is an encouraging 
sign of the times, indicating, as it does, the hopeful view 
the directors of the company take in the future. It augurs 
well for the cordial relationship between employer and 
employes. Having a reputation for fair dealing with em- 
ployes or customers is one of the greatest assets 'a com- 
pany can possess. 


It will, no doubt, be of interest to our thousands of 
Canadian readers, that mechanical men in the West Indies 
are also interested in the Canadian Machine Shop and 
Foundry paper. David Williams, one of the best known 
of our large staff of circulation representatives, has been 
\ isiting the West Indies for the past three months, and 
lie writes that Canadian Machinery is taking well among 
the reading class of mechanical men, and that all appear 
anxious to keep in touch with Canadian practice. 

Writing from British Guiana, Mr. Williams reports 
securing fifteen subscribers to Canadian Machinery, as a 
result of his first few days' work there. He will remain 
some time yet in the West Indies and British South Amer- 
ica in the interests of the MacLean papers. What is 
being done in the south is being done in Canada. 

Three new salaried circulation men started work on the 
MacLean papers on April 4, in addition to a number of 
local shop agents. It is the intention of the MacLean 
Publishing Co. to keep pace with Canada's industrial 
growth, and this can only be done by increasing the 
staff. As soon as capable men can be secured other addi- 
tions will be made to the circulation staff. 



New Machinery for Machine Shop, Foundry, Pattern Shop, Planing 
Mill ; New Engines, Boilers, Electrical Machinery, Transmission Device*. 


There are many times when a slott- 
ing attachment can be used to advan- 
tage on a milling machine. This is es- 
pecially true of the tool room miller, 
as much time can be saved on slotting 
boring bars, dies, wrenches, internal 
gears, keyseating, etc. 

In the attachment illustrated here- 
with, the adjustment of stroke is easily 
effected. The ram is a rectangular 
steel bar carrying at its lower end har- 
dened V-jaws in which to clamp the 
slotting tool. 

The tool can be of any form or 
shape, rough or finished. The form of 
ram permits of a long bearing relative 
to its width which ensures rigidity and 

The cutting stroke is one half the 
speed of the return, greatly increasing 
the output. The ram can be swiveled 
through the entire 360 deg., making it 
possible to hold work in the chuck on 
the dividing head in a horizontal posi- 
tion and cuts taken, using the head for 
indexing on such work as a hex socket 
wrench, internal gears or anything of 
this character that cannot be done ac- 
curately by other means. 

The return is effected through the 
driving shaft which has a T-slot cut 
through its front end to receive the ad- 
justment bolt. This bolt is adjusted 

with a wrench, an opening being pro- 
vided for this on the right hand side. 
Adjustment of stroke is provided from 
to 4 inches. 

The driving shaft has a groove in 
which is fitted a bronze block that is 

Fig. 3.— Details of Slotting Attachment. 

driven by a collar directly on the main 
spindle of the machine. The centre line 
of the driving shaft is above the centre 
line of the spindle, a distance sufficient 

to give a quick return of two to one 
as before mentioned. 

Milwaukee Milling Machines are all 
constructed with the knee slide carried 
upward to the over-arm, the primary 
object being to securely hold attach- 
ments such as this. 

The attachment could be used in 
connection with rotary table, as shown 
by photographs for any work requiring 
slotting and indexing as, for instance, 
internal gears or anything of that na- 
ture. It can also be swiveled to a hor- 
izontal position and used in connection 
with universal centres for similar work 
where rotary table is not available. 

The oil tubes for conveying lubricant 
to the cutting edge are regularly sup- 
plied on all of their milling machines, 
none being made without them. 

The details are shown in Fig. 3. The 
ram A is a rectangular steel bar, and 
carries at its lower end V-blocks BBi 
with a hardened piece C to back up the 
tool. The tool D can be of any form 
or shape, rough or finished. This form 
of ram permits of a long bearing rela- 
tive to its width, which insures stiff- 
ness and better alinement. 

The return of two to one is effected 
through the driving shaft E, which has 
a T-slot cut through its front end to 
receive the adjustment bolt, F. This 

Fig. 1.— Slotting Attachment on Kearney ft Trecker Milling Machine. Fig. 2.— Slotting Attachment on Kearney & Trecker's Milling Machine. 



bolt is adjusted with a wrench, through 
an opening on the right-hand side. 

The driving shaft E has a groove GG, 
carrying a bronze block H, that is 
driven by the collar I directly on the 
main spindle of the machine. The centre 
line of the driving shaft E is above the 
centre line of the spindle J, a distance 
sufficient to give the quick return. 

These milling machines are made by 
the Kearnev & Tracker Co., Milwaukee, 


The new style Universal Milling Ma- 
chine illustrated herewith shows several 
changes in design including the feed 
box, the dividing head and changes in 
the machine. The photos show the 
large proportions of all the main parts 
and an unusual design for simplicity 
and rigidity. 

The automatic feeds to the table are 
transmitted from the spindle through a 
roller chain to the sprocket wheel of 
the feed box. On the sprocket shaft 
rides a sliding gear on which are 
mounted two other gears ; these gears 
are shifted by means of the lower lever 
on feed box, so as to engage other 
gears which are secured to the inter- 
mediate shaft. On this intermediate 
shaft are also secured a cone of gears 
into any one of which the intermediate 
tumbler gear is engaged. From the 
tumbler gear shaft the power is trans- 
mitted through the universal joint to 
the gears on the knee and there the 
automatic longitudinal, cross or verti- 

cal feed is engaged. The gears in feed 
box run in oil, provisions are made so 
as to readily drain the oil and put in 
clean oil. A direct reading index plate 
is attached to the feed box from which 

Figr. 3.— Details of Dividing Head. 

the exact amount of feed per revolution 
of spindle is read. 

The elevating screw is provided with 
ball bearings which insure ease of oper- 
ation. This screw does not extend be- 
low base when at its lowest point. 

The nose of the spindle is slotted to 

Fig. i. — Details of Dividing Head. 

positively drive arboi's and other tools. 

The universal head is designed for 

dividing work in any position from 10 

degrees below the horizontal to 10 de- 

grees beyond the perpendicular. It is 
furnished with dividing mechanism for 
spiral cutting and has several note- 
worthy features. 

This head can be securely clamped in 
any position by two bolts with V- 
blocks, turned to the same radius as 
the V on body, which are such a dis- 
tance apart as to make it very rigid. 

The dividing crank is fitted on the 
worm shaft, thus eliminating the gear- 
ing when used for dividing. A half turn 
of the engaging crank disengages worm 
from wheel. 

One of the features of this head is 
the quick spacing device to divide work 
in 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 divisions. The 
spindle spacer consists of 24 holes 
drilled in the worm wheel and the front 
shoulder of spindle has 24 graduations 
in plain view, which graduations are in 
line with holes in worm wheel. The 
spindle spacer pin is hardened and the 
point is tapered, it is actuated by a 

The worm shaft and worm are made 
in one piece of tool steel, and the worm 
wheel is made of bronze. 

To compensate for any wear that 
takes place between worm and worm 
wheel, there is provided an eccentric 
bush. This raises the engaging crank 
and consequently the worm. 

When using the universal head for 
dividing work the sleeve and plate are 
held stationary by locking the sleeve to 

The spindle can be very efficiently 
clasped by a wedge pin with a 60 de- 
gree angle milled on one end to fit 60 

Fig. 1. — Ocsteriein Milling Mauiiine. 

Fig. 2.— Oesterlein Milling Machine. 



degree groove turned in spindle. This 
wedge pin is operated by the screw 
shown in Fig. 3. The crucible steel 
spindle has a taper bearing its entire 
length and any wear is readily com- 
pensated by means of a split nut on back 
of spindle. 

To rotate the work for spiral cutting 
connection is made to the lead screw 
by gearing shown iii Fig. 3. 

With this head goes a complete set 
of change gears, three dividing plates, 
a tailstock and centre rest. These 3 
plates will index all divisions up to 
100, all even and those divisible by n 
up to 200 and many others. 

The plain head shown in Fig. 1 is 
the standard head for plain milling 
machines. It will do all work the 
universal head will, except spiral cutt- 

The tailstock is so arranged that it 
can be swiveled to any angle necessary 
for milling taper work. It has an effi- 
cient clasping device for the centre. 

This Universal Milling Machine is 
made by the Oesterlein Machine Co., 


The Sells roller bearing herewith il 
lustrated and described is being sold by 
the Royersford Foundry & Machine Co., 
Royerstord, Pa. It is the design of 
John D. Sells, for many years identified 
with the "Standard" roller bearing, 
and is therefore the product of a long 
experience in this line of work. This 
bearing is universally adaptable, can be 
applied to any hanger or pillow-block 

The construction is as follows : First 
the split sleeve is put on the shaft. 
This is formed in two parts, with the 
split running diagonally, so that the 
rolls may pass over the joint without 
shock or irregularity of motion. Next 
this sleeve is clamped in place onto the 
shaft by two collars, which are pro- 
vided with counterbores fitting the 
edges of the sleeve so that they are 
thus themselves truly located. Next 
the two halves of the split cage are 
placed around the sleeve between the 
collars. Then, as shown in Fig. 2, the 
box itself is put over the whole and 
fastened. The application of the bearing 
will thus be seen to be as simple as 
the application of a split sleeve or 
wood pulley. 

The bushing is of hardened steel, and 
absolutelj' protects the shaft from be- 
ing cut or scored by the case-hardened 
steel rollers. Injury from this cause is 
of common occurrence in other designs. 
These bushings are so constructed as 
to vary in thickness, allowing the same 
size of bearing to be fitted to different 
diameters of shafts. Each roller cage 
structure is adapted to three such 
changes of bu.shings. This makes it un- 
necessary for the dealer to carry a 
large stock of these bearings, as odd- 
sized bushings will take care of the in- 
termediate sizes. 

The rolls, as shown are contained 
within a roller structure or cage. This 
separates them from each other, and 
eliminates the friction caused by the 
rolls running in contact. It also holds 
them parallel to each other so that it 

and to give further assurance in this 
matter a heavy felt wiper is used at 
each end of the box, which at the same 
time prevents the loss of oil. Drain 
holes are also provided so that the ease 
can be flushed with kerosene or other 
cleansing fluid when the oil gums. Holes 
are tapped in the top of the box to 
provide for oil cups. For head or jack- 
shaft use, on shafts 3 11-16 inch diam. 
or larger, this bearing is provided with 
a double roller structure shown in Fig. 
1. This gives a greater bearing area 
for heavily loaded shafts. All parts 
are made interchangeable. In case any 
part of the bearing becomes mislaid or 
broken by accident, it can be easily re- 
placed, thus avoiding the expense of a 
new complete bearing. For the present 
the manufacturers intend selling these 
bearings at fifty per cent, less than 
that asked for any similar device on the 


By G. P. Blackiston.* 

The great shortage of the natural gas 
supply on the one hand and the fre- 
quent delays of coal deliveries on the 
other, due to severe cold weather as ex- 
perienced this year, has made som'e of 
the slower thinking manufacturers real- 
ize th« great necessity of being provided 
with some auxiliary method of heating. 
This is especially true in the open hearth 
practice, where a sudden shut off of fuel 
would often mean not only a delay but a 
total loss to both the furnace and its 
charge — the furnace being out of com- 
mission for many weeks at the least. 

Fig. 1.— Sells UoUer Bearing of Double Cage Type. 

?'lg. 2.— Sells Roller Kearing of Single Cage Type. 

of corresponding size either for new in- 
stalations or for substituting in a plant 
previously equipped with the old style 
of plain or oil bearings ; and it also 
possesses the advantage of being appli- 
cable without requiring to be pushed on 
over the length of the shaft from one end 
to the other. 

is impossible for them to get cramped 
diagonally in the boxes. 

This bearing is of the full floating 
type, so that none of the customary 
trouble. from end-thrust friction in roller 
bearings is met with. The two halves 
of the case are fitted together with 
milled joints to make them dust-proof, 

This being the case, many of the larg- 
est plants have been equipped with an 
auxiliary heatirig system. 

The problem has been, however, how 
to secure an equipment that would give 

• Formerly Superintendent of Open Hearth 
Furnaces Howe-Brown Steel Co., Pittsburgh. 

satisfactorv results without necessitat- 
ing any changes in the aperation or con- 
struction of the furnaces — also one that 
would not interfere with the floor space 
and be capable of being installed in the 
narrow spaces between the ends of the 

After considerable experimenting a de- 
vice was designed and placed upon the 


ing the temperature to facilitate atomiza- 
tion and feeding it to the burner under 
a uniform pressure. 

Oil is fed to the burner by this means 
under a pressure of from 35 to 50 lbs. 
and a small quantity of compressed air 
or steam for atomizing the oil is supplied 
at a pressure from 5 to 10 lbs. less than 
the oil pressure. Either steam or eom- 

The Kirkwoud Uil Fuel System as Aiiplied to open Hearth Furnaces. 

market by Tate, Jones & Co., Inc., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., that fulfilled all the severe 
requirements. At either end of the furn- 
ace a burner is installed, each being 
properly mounted on a swinging stand 
located on exterior of furnace to admit 
of one burner being swung into place 
(into the parts of furnace), and the other 
swung out and turned off as the furnace 
is reversed. The design of the burner 
is such that the supply of oil and com- 
pressed air or steam for atomizing is 
regulated by one lever, the ratio between 
the atomizing agent and the oil always 
remaining at a constant point, which has 
been found to be the proper proportion 
for complete atomization. 

This adjustment is scientifically made 
and fixed before the burner leaves the 
factorj', so that an efficient fire is al- 
ways maintained. 

Necessary valves are provided on the 
burner stand for cutting off the oil and 
atomizing agent, when it is necessary to 
remove the burner from the stand. The 
nil and atomizing agent are controlled 
from the charging floor. 

An oil pumping, heating and regulat- 
ing system is also used for drawing the 
oil from the storage tanks, straining the 
foreign matter and lumps from it, rais- 

piessed air may be used for atomizing, 
as determined by local conditions. The 
oil lines from the pumping system and 
the compressed air or steam lines are 
run to the charging floor where special 
controlling valves are provided, as in- 
ilieated above, and the additional reduc- 
iu'i: valves are introduced in tlie air or 

Throwing in Kirkwood Oil System When (Viis 
has Given Out. 

steam line for cutting the compressor 
or boiler pressure down as required. 

The burners when not in use are 
thrown back (out of the ports), from 
the ends of the furnace. When the reg- 
ular fuel supply gives out, one of the 
burners is merely thrown forward, and 
the valves on the regulating stand open- 
ed with a continuation of the melting. 

By this method all danger of a shut 
down on account of shortage of fuel is 


absolutely minimized. Several of the 
largest plants in the Pittsburgh teiritory 
were thus spared this winter on more 
than one occasion. 


S. M. Hildreth, 2 Rector St., New 
York City, are placing on the market a 
collapsible steel horse or trustle. They 
are made from angle iron and are very 
rigid. The legs fold up when the trestle 
is not in use. They are u.seful for car- 
penters, contractors, machine shops, 
manufacturing plants, etc. 


A motor driven multi-spindle drill is 
shown herewith, the iilaoing of the 
motor being of special interest. It is a 
vertical type, variable speed, 550 volt 
direct current motor, 12 h.p. 300 to 
1,200 r.p.m. with ball bearings. 

The drill is a six spindle drill for re- 
petition work and is of substantial de- 

■ ■'*. 

^ .- wmss ^ m 









Vertical Type Motor Driving Multi-Spindle. Drill. 

sign and build, being one of Craven 
Bros., Manchester, manufacture. 

The motor is manufactured by the 
Lancashire Dynamo & Motor Co., Man- 
chester, whose Canadian officers are at 
152-4 Bay St., Toronto. 

A large corporation finds it very 
much to its advantage to have con- 
stantly in its employ a lubricating en- 
gineer who has direct charge and super- 
vision of the machinery oiling in the 
various plants. He selects the oils and 
directs the handling of all lubricants. 
He saves twice his salary each year. A 
small manager who can't afford a spec- 
ial man sends his oils and glue to a 
consulting man for analysis. 


Practical Articles for Canadian Foundrymen and Pattern Makers, and 
News of Foundrymen's and Allied Associations. Contributions Invited. 

Convention of the Allied Foundry Associations 

Programme for the Meeting in Detroit, June 6 to 10 — Some Excellent 
Papers Have Been Arranged for— Canadian Foundrymen Should Attend. 

The Detroit local committee will tender 
a complimentary dinner to the officers 
of the allied associations and to the 
Technical Press, on Monday evening:, 
June 6, at the Pontchartrain Hotel. 

The Ladies' Committee will give a trip 
around the city, and a theatre party, on 
Tuesday, June 7. 

A smoker will be given at the Light 
Guard Armory, on Tuesday feweming, 
June 7. Chairman Woodison has some 
original features to "pull off," and thos? 
who recall his previous efforts along 
this line will realize that a treat is in 
store for them. The ladies will be over 
at their theatre party that night, and a-s 
the theatre is located near the hotels, no 
one need leave early to call for their 

Officers are Busy. 

Arthur T. Waterfall, president of the 
American Foundrymen's Association, 
will make an extended trip through the 
east, the middle of March. During this 
trip, he will meet the Philadelphia, New 
York and Pittsburgh foundrymen, and 
will hold a conference with Dr. Richard 
Moldenke, secretary of the organization, 
and perfect the plans for making tiiis 
the greatest convention of the organiza- 

W. M. Corse, secretary of the Ameri- 
can Brass Founders' Association, was 
in Detroit on March 4 and 5. He re- 
ports that the membership of his organ- 
ization has increased over 50 per cent, 
during the past year. Mr. Corse is now 
with the Lumen Bearing Co., of Buffalo, 
and the new address should be noted 
when writing him. 

Richard Moldenke, secretary of the 
American Foundrymen's Association, re- 
turned from Europe on March 1, and 
from this time on his whole energies wiU 
be devoted to furthering the coming con- 

Joseph J. Wilson, has recently accept- 
ed the position of generl supei'intendent 
of the foundry departments of the Gen- 
eral Motors Co. Mr. Wilson is chairman 
of the Plant Visitation Committee of 
the convention, and is already planning 
to give the delegates every opportunity 
to visit the new and very up-to-date 
foundries, which have done so much to 

make Detroit a centre of the foundry 
industry, especially relative to the auto- 
mobile industry. He is conceded to be 
the greatest authority to-day on the pro- 
duction of auto engine cylinders in this 
country, and the work of his committee 
will doubtless prove to be one of the 
best educational features of the con- 
vention. It is not too early for those de- 
siring to visit certain particular plants, 
to get into communication with Mr. Wil- 
son, that he may make suitable prepara- 

Boat Ride on Detroit River. 

Tlie boat ride on Detroit River and 
Lake St. Clair will surely be one of the 
most enjoyable features of the social part 
of the convention. The probability will 
be that we will use the Ste. Claire, the 
new steamer of the Detroit, Belle Isle 
& Windsor Ferry Co. This steamer will 
go into commission just before the con- 
vention opens, and she is the very lat- 
est word in pleasure steamer construc- 
tion. She will handle fully 4,000 people, 
and no one will be crowded. The trip 
will last from late in the afternoon till 
midnight, and good music, and something 
good to eat will be provided by the com- 
mittee. Ladies along, of course. Oliver 
Phelp?, resident manager of the M. A. 
Hanna Co., has charge of this. 

Incidentally, speakng of Detroit as a 
foundry centre, there are 10 foundries 
under construction here at the present 
time. Three of them will be the laj-gest 
of their kind on the continent. 

The local committee has already ar- 
ranged for Postal and Western Union 
wires into the exhibit, and for tele- 
phones with a central switchboard and 
amp'e operators. The Detroit Poliqje 
Dept. furnishes the neetded uniformed 
men, and the Fire Dept. will station a 
company on the grounds to give the need- 
fire protection. Electric apparatus will 
be provided, to anticipate the needs of 
those who desire to illustrate technical 
papers in a proper manner. 

The chairman of the convention ses- 
ions committee, W. P. Putnam, who is 
spending a few weeks in Arizona at this 
time, is perfecting the most perfect ar- 
rangements to assist those who desire 
i-pecial features in their papers. Write 


liiui at 1111 Union Trust Building foi- 
ai ything wanted in this line. 

James S. Keightley, supt. of tii" Grea: 
Lakes Engineering Works, is chairman of 
the reception committee. He is so well 
known for his genial smile and glad 
hand, that the right kind of welcome is 
assured for delegates. 

Hotel Headquarters. 

The local committee has establish- 
ed headquarters at the Pontchartrain 
Hotel. President Waterfall and Chair- 
man Stephenson will be found at Par- 
lor H, when they are not at the conven- 
tion meetings. 

The F. & M. S. Association will have 
its headquarters at the Cadillac Hotel. 
The American Foundrymen, the Brass 
Founders and the local committee will 
have headquarters at the Hotel Pont- 
chartrain. The Foundry Foremen will 
use the Griswfold House as headquarters. 
All these hotels are located near to- 
gether, and ample room will thus be 
made for all. The Hotel Tuller, the 
Metropole, the Wayne, the Ste. Claire, 
and the Noi'mandie all within a few 
blocks of each other, will doubtless re- 
ceive their quota of visitors. 

The date of the convention is purpose- 
ly arranged with the Detroit Convention 
and Tourist Bureau so as to occur at 
tiie time when no other convention is in 
Detroit, thus offering the best possible 
accommodations to our delegates. Re- 
membaring the experiences of fonner 
conventions, it is well to reserve rooms 
at once, and be assured of a good place. 
The phenomenal growth in the associa- 
tions reported by the secretaries, point 
to the largest convention in the history 
of the organization. 

N. K. B. Patch, Toronto, is chairman 
of the committee on papers for the meet- 
ing of the American Brass Founders 
Association. He reports some very good 
ones are already promised. 

On Thursday evening, February 17, 
at the association i-ooms in the Stevens 
Building, Henry M. Lane, editor of 
"Castings," Cleveland, 0., presented to 
the Detroit FoundrjTnen 's Association a 
splendid paper on "Modern Metallurgy 
and the Electi-ic Furnace." 

The development of the electric furn- 
ace in recent years has made possible the 
manufacture of an extensive line of 
ferro-alloys, refractory materials, abra- 
sives, and other products which are used 
extensively in foundry practice. The 


speaker traced the history and develop- 
ment of the electric furnace, noted the 
different types used, their relative ad- 
vantages, the uses of the different pro- 
ducts in the foundry, and the field the 
electric furnace is destined to occupy 
in modern metallurgy. 

In this connection reference was made 
to a duplex process in which ihi electric 
furnace is used to finish or refine metal 
meltfd in some other furnace. The lec- 

technieal session of the convention also 
claims a large interest for those attend- 
ing. The commercial consideration 
makes a very strong appeal, and it is 
true that any exhibit that can show the 
proprietor or superintendent how he can 
save money is a first-class attraction. 
The excellent work done by the Ameri- 
can Foundrymen V Association with the 
accumulative influence it has exerted has 
been the exciting cause. The assoeia- 

the cost per 100 lbs. tor net, clean cast- 
ings, without extra clerical force or 
cost, or causing undue work for foundry 
foreman, assistant, or cleaning room 
foreman. This system is not perfect and 
could be improved. To do so in our 
case, would require more clerical force, 
which would increase the non-producer 
cost per 100 lbs. net, clean castings. 
For instance, in-case of a pulley with a 
cracked arm that was to be remelted ; 


(Joldcns' Foundry and 31achine Co., Columbus, Ga. Date_ 














Lummni filler, 






Fig. 1. 

Daily Foundry Report. 

ture was illustrated with about fifty lan- 
tern slides, and the speaker, also, had 
on exhibition a large collection of elec- 
tric furnace products, including ferro- 
alloys, abrasives, refractory material and 
pure metal, together with the materials 
irora which these product-s are made. 
. . The above talk was one of the series 
at the monthly meetings of the Detroit 
Foundrymen's Association in the inter- 
est of advancing the froundry's art. 
The meetings have been remarkably well 
attended both by the foundry executives 
of the many foundries in Detroit, but 
also the foundryrden within easy distance 
from Detroit. The enormous advance of 
the automobile industries here has led 
to an eager seeking after the very lat- 
est and up-to-date methods of produc- 
tion on the part of the foundry- 
men engaged in the manufacture 
of brass, aluminum, gray iron, mall- 
eable or steel castings. The in^ 
_ creasingly high standard of excellence 
^K demanded by the purchasers of these 
^fcproducts has greatly stimulated the in- 
BBdustries to meet this demand, and De- 
f^ troit is making castings of the various 
11 metals, now, that equal or surpass any 
made in the trade. 
Every Foundryman Should Attend. 
; The week of June 6, Detroit will be 

honored by the meeting here in conven- 
tion of the American Foundrymen 's As- 
sociation, American Brass Foundrymen's 
I Association, Foundry & Manufacturers' 
Supply Association, and the Association 
of Foundry Foremen. The fact that 
something like five thousand foundry ex- 
ecutives are coming from all sections 
of the United States and Canada to 
yathcT together at Detroit convention is 
significant enough in itself. Unquestion- 
ably the exhibit of mechanical equipment 
on which so large an outlay is made, ac- 
counts for the great outpouring, but the 

tion has marked the lines of advance and 
mechanical invention has met the need. 
Large Exhibits. 

Canadian Machinery has a letter from 
C. E. Hoyt, Lewis Institute, Chicago, 111., 
secretary of the Foundry & Manufactur- 
ers' Supply Association. Applications 
for space have been received for an 
amount in excess of that called for at 
any previous convention. 

Dr. Frank T. F. Stephenson, Detroit 
Saw & Brazing Works, 12-14 West At- 
water St., is the energetic chairman of 
the general convention committee. In- 
formation will be promptly supplied by 
application to this address. 


• Read before Cincinnati Convention A.F.A. 

By J. P. Golden, Columbus, Ga. 
A practical simple cost system, suit- 
able for foundries doing a business of 
125,000 to 150,000 lbs., net, clean, me- 

without inquiry, I wished to know why 
it was to be made over, and by whom 
returned. The system referred to covers 
this case, also by whom the pulley was 
made, the time taken in making, weight 
of pulley, to whom sold, cause of crack, 
etc. These records are all accessible to 
both superintendent and foundry fore- 
man under this system. 

In the event of a molder asking for a 
raise, the system shows either the su- 
perintendent or foreman what class of 
work the man has been working upon, 
his record, his present pay, whether by 
hour or piece, and the number of pieces 
lost, as well as the weight molded, also 
the means of comparing the wages and 
output of one man with another. 

I also wished to have a method where- 
by the foundry foreman could see ex- 
actly what each department was do- 
ing, to allow him to correct any bad 
practice that he might control, so far 
as rested with him. 

I wished also to know at a glance 



Apr. 26, 


Apr. 29, 


May 3. 


May 5. 


By Whom 

Our Mch. Shop 

Our Mch. Shop 




Cause Whose Fault 

- - 

I S. B. Pulley Bored 
36 X 8 — 2,'g too large 
in. bore. 

I Spht Pulley Broke 
24 X 6 — 2 ,='5 lug in 
in. bore. splitting 

12 Gear Cast- Cored too 
ings P. 2. large 

I D. B. Pulley Blow hole 
36 X 8 — 2i3'in face 
in. bore. 


240 pounds 
120 pounds 
14 pounds 
260 pounds 

Fig. 2. — Defective Castings Record. 

dium, and light grey iron castings per 
week, with an approximate force of 
75 to 100 men. 

My object in devising the .following 
system, was to enable me to have a 
ready means of reference and compari- 
son in the several foundry departments 
at all times, and incidentally to lower 


what the cost per hundred lbs. for clean 
castings was for last week, or last 
year, or the average for a year. How 
many pounds net clean castings were 
made in any week, or the average for a 
year, with the per cent, loss for bad 
castings. As to wage cost alone for 
100 lbs. for any week, or yearly aver- 

age. What the cost per hundred lbs. 
was for either the non-producers, rumbl- 
ing department, molding department, 
core shop, day or night cleaning gangs. 

I also wished to separate the different 
kinds of castings into classes, with cur- 
rent prices for these castings, for both 
our shop and customer, so that having 
the approximate cash value of castings, 
and deducting therefrom the cost of 
pig, scrap and coko, wages, and fixed- 
expense per 100 lbs. clean net castings, 
I- would be able to find the approximate 
cash profit per week. 

After a satisfactory trial of the fol- 
lowing system for nearly two years, 
without extra clerical force or cost, 
(the weekly report being made up in the 
unoccupied time of a draftsman) , it has 
occurred to me that there might be 
other members of the association to 
whom my system might be of interest; 
therefore, I have submitted this paper. 
Daily Cupola Report. 

The system consists of, first : a daily 
cupola report. Fig. 1, the printed form 
having column for charge, number 
pounds coke and brand, pounds pig 
iron and brand, and per cent, silicon 
and sulphur, scrap, foreign and returns, 
and total charge, also lines for weekly 
totals for use in weekly report. Ratio 
of coke to iron. Time started blast. 
Tim.e dropped bottom. Average blast 
pressure. Per cent, sulphur in heat. Per 


cent, silicon in heat. Remarks. With 
each sheet signed by foreman. 
Daily Foundry Report. 

Second : the Daily Foundry Report, 
which is made up by the rumbling room 
foreman. This report consists of a 
sheet, with columns for name of molder, 
hour or piece rate, number of molds, 
number castings, time of helper, pat- 
tern description, with columns for 
weights of the various classes of work, 
as pulleys, sheaves, hangers, hanger 
boxes, pillow blocks, couplings, cane 
mills, factories, miscellaneous, etc. Also 
column for number of pieces lost, total 
weight of each kind of piece lost, and 
a cause column for same, showing if it 
did not run, if was crushed, bio wed, or 
whatever cause of defect. There is a 
line at bottom of sheet tor weekly 
totals, to be used in weekly report. The 
daily foundry report furnishes a ready 
means of comparison of each molder's 
record, with his own, or with other 
molders, as to quantity of good cast- 
ings, castings lost, weight and cost of 
same. This report also shows the 
amount of good and bad castings for 
each day, in each class, with the weekly 
total for each. 

Defective Castings. 

Third : there is a book for defective 
and other castings returned from shop 
and customers. Fig. 2, in which is the 
following rule : 

"All castings returned by machine 
shop customers, before being made over, 
must be entered in this book, giving 
cause for making over. Castings re- 
turned to foundry from shop or cus- 
tomers, through no fault of foundry, 
must not be deducted from not foundry 
castings, and should be considered as 
foreign scrap. If fault of foundry, they 
are charged back to foundry and are 
considered as foundry return scrap." 

This book has columns for showing 
date returned, by whom, description, 
cause and weight. Without this book, 
there could be returned defective cast- 
ings, which was the foundry's fault and 
made over without the superintendent's 
knowledge. With the "to be made 
over" casting book, all castings return- 
ed are specified therein. If the fault of 
the machine .shop, it is so stated. It 
returned from customers, this is noted, 
with date, description, cause and 
weight. No casting is made over with- 
out being recorded in this book. This 
book being always open to superinten- 
dent and foreman, saves inquiries and 
e.vplanations. Possibly a few examples 
here will make the value of this book 
plainer. For example : the superinten- 
dent upon examination of this book, 
finds a record of a split pulley 36 inches 
X 12 inches — 2|- inch bore, lug broken 
off in machine shop in splitting, or a 
record of a pulley 24 inches x 8 inches 







1MI..H- ! Coup- 
Block! 1 linp 







I(ii<l <astmgs rcfizrnpd from foiinilry 

TiMA\ |>i>iii«lflK<>o<l t-n>^liiigs itiidi: 


iVlL-ciiVP cn.-li-tt;*! rcliiincdlrom y|i"|i ami cii-lnint-r-i 

N,-lK<y>.I raf.iir.Es (or wpek Total aM.oiiiit ( 1 

Average per cent, of lort. 1 



Totnl )toun.lH I'tn and (oreign wrap cliarged in cuiv>la 


Net good la-tiUK-i for wwk \ 


Poundi foreisn scrap (4 

Percent, lout in rcii.elt, cupola dropinrnf. K3ng*ay8. ett . 

 Wn«* S 

Total tnell 



Net K'lod in 


Material cost per hundred 

po net caftinipi ma.le as r^r sheet 


IVr cor.t, h:<d cMlingfc, gain, etc., 

ol toUi 


ToUl cost p«r liandred pounds nel caali 

□ ge made at per dheet 


1 ncludinu [oreift" scrap. reluroB a 

id piK 



Foundry Foreman J ^ MoLIits (White) S | Wagoa cost per | 

Foondrv AMiitant \ 

Helpem (While) f hoadrtd pounda > » 

Pulley man | 

Help^f (Blackl ' ntt cm^i ,~ 1 

Crane man J 

Total » 


Wages CQBt per 


) Wagg* coet per I 
^ hundred pouoda ^ % 
} net ca.-'lingfl. I 

Jhupdredpounda / ^ 


ToUl t 

I Wag-'g CQBt per 

[ fauii'lted tiooiid- > > 


ToUl t 


AVagea coat per'. 

ndrc-d DoutidBf 





) Wagrt cot-t per 


1 hundred noui.tis >» 






Fig. 3. — Weekly Foundry Report. 


— 2 inch bore, bored too large in ma- 
chine shop. These cases would not be 
through any fault of foundry and the 
weights would not be deducted there- 
from. The castings would be consider- 
ed as foreign scrap. If the record show- 
ed a pulley 12 inches x 4 inches — 1 7-16 
inch, bore, with dirty face, or 12 gears 
returned by a customer, from no fault, 
except in excess of the order, or 25 J. 
I. Castings returning by customer with 
too large cores. These latter three 
eases would be the fault of the foundry, 
and the weights would be deducted from 
clean net castings for the week in which 
they were recorded, and considered as 
return foundry scrap. 

Weekly Foundry Report. 
Fourth : the Weekly Foundry Report 
Sheet, Fig. 3. This sheet is made up 
from the daily foundry report, and cu- 
pola sheets and the book (to be made 
over castings). On this sheet, provi- 
sion is made for record of bad castings 
returned from foundry, shop or cus- 
tomer, by classes, as well as the good 
castings made. The total of good cast- 

divided by the net good castings, gives 
the cost per 100 lbs. net castings, in- 
cluding pig iron, scrap, coke, wages. 
The weekly report also has separate 
divisions for non-producers, rumbling 
department, molding department, core 
shop, day and night cleaning gangs, in 
which the wages of each class of men in 
each division are given separately, by 
total, and the wage cost per hundred 
lbs. For instance ; in our own shop, 
the non-producer division includes the 
foreman, assistant foreman, pulley man, 
craneman, the clerk (who is also rumbl- 
ing room foreman), cupola tender, cu- 
pola helpers, and carpenter, the separ- 
ate wages per week of each being given, 
the total of all, and the wages cost per 
100 lbs. net castings. The weekly re- 
port also embodies the grand total 
wages cost per 100 lbs. and this is the 
most important item, for both foreman 
and superintendent, for this item is one 
which the foreman can control to the 
greatest extent, and which speaks the 
loudest in favor of the system. 

eluding pig iron, scrap, coke, and wages, 
the wage cost per 100 lbs. in the non- 
producers, rumbling and molding de- 
partments, also the core shop, day and 
night cleaning gangs, with a column 
for grand total wage cost per 100 lbs. 

Both the superintendent and foreman 
have access to the several reports, giv- 
ing each the means of knowing the ac- 
tual conditions in all departments on 
the foundry at all times. 

This system gives the foreman the 
means of remedying a small or defective 
output by the knowledge of the cause 
producing it, and to place each molder 
upon the class of work to which he is 
best fitted to increase the general out- 

It is an encouragement for a good 
foreman to know that every gain in his 
record is brought to the attention of 
the superintendent, and should he be a 
little careless at times, he knows that 
the report will show it, and he is more 
apt to avoid a bad report. Moreover, 
it sets a pace for him to keep up to so 
if the production is a little light the 


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Fig. 4.— Weekly Summary Giving Percentage Comparisors 

ings minus defective castings gives net 
good castings for week. The average 
per cent, of all castings lost is given, 
with the per cent, loss in each class, 
with the total pounds pig and foreign 
scrap charged in cupola, and the net 
good castings deducted therefrom, we 
find the per cent, lost in remelt, cupola 
droppings, gang-ways, etc. This loss is 
apt to deceive one, for where the foun- 
dryman would estimate a loss of 3 to 
5 per cent, on a certain class of work, 
he might overlook the fact that he had 
not taken into consideration the re- 
melting loss of gates. For instance : if 
upon exceedingly light work with 25 to 
40 per cent, gates, the loss from con- 
tinued remclting etc. might run as high 
as 8 p.c. or 10 per cent. The weekly 
foundry report also has a record of total 
melt taken from daily cupola sheet, 
which with net good castings deducted 
gives per cent, bad castings, gates, etc. 
of total melt, including foreign scrap, 
returns and pig. In a division headed 
cupola charge, is given the number of 
pounds pig iron, foreign scrap and coke, 
with current price of each and total 
cost per week. To these amounts are 
added the total wages, giving a total 
of material and wages for week, which 

It may be of interest to the members 
of the association to know that since 
the adoption of this system, nearly two 
years ago, each period of six months' 
average records, have shown a decided 
decrease in the wages cost per 100 lbs., 
amounting to nearly 20 per cent, since 
adopting the system. 

In connecting with the weekly report 
is a detailed report of the pounds of 
good castings, to whom sold or charg- 
ed, and price for each lot, and from 
this sheet ;is prepared on the back of 
the weekly report, a statement giving 
the estimated profit or loss for week. 

And lastly, there is a ready reference 
sheet (headed Comparison of Per Cents. 
Wages Cost per 100 lbs. in different de- 
partments of foundry from weekly 
foundry report) giving the comparison 
by weeks and the average comparison 
at the end of each year of the following 
Items after date. Net good castings for 
week, castings killed in machine shop, 
with columns for the per cent, loss of 
each of the several classes of castings, 
each class in a separate column, gives 
a ready means of comparison in that 
class for all of its weeks. 

There are also columns for the cost 
per week per 100 lbs. net castings, in- 


first part of the week he can often turn 
out a little more the last part to keep 
up the production. 

Also in the case of a change in fore- 
man, not only does the superintendent 
have his judgment to base the worth of 
the new man upon, but the records 
themselves show the standing of the 
new man in comparison with the old, in 
the average wage cost per hundred lbs. 
net clean castings under similar condi- 

The system also furnishes a basis for 
closer estimates than formerly, upon 
work a little out- of the usual run, by 
knowing exactly what prices can be ac- 
cepted for the regular work. The foun- 
dry foreman in this case is allowed 
nominal control of the foundry, hiring 
and discharging his men, fixing their 
wages, and increases in pay for his men 
are by his recommendations, subject to 
approval of superintendent. 

As tlie system consists simply of a 
set of forms which can be cheaply pro- 
cured from any printer, which forms 
are filled in each week, those of the 
members who are interested, may get a 
clearer idea of this system by referring 
to the sample forms which I have at 
your disposal. 


ELstablishnient or Enlargement of Factories, Mills, Power Plants, Etc.; Construc- 
tion of Railways, Bridges, Etc.; Municipal Undertakings; Mining News. 

Foundry and Machine Shop. 

The G.T.R. will build new engine shops at 

The Montreal Steel Works will erect a foundry 
at Montreal. 

The C.P.R. will erect a new machine shop at 
Calgary to cost ?20.000. 

The Regina Machine and Iron Works Co. will 
erect a foundry to cost $5,000. 

The Don Iron Works. Toronto, including all 
machinery, has been completely destroyed by 

The Down Draft Furnace Co.. Gait, is running 
on double shifts, owing to the large number of 
orders received. 

The machine shop of tne Schofleld-Holden Ma- 
chine Co.. Toronto, was damaged by fire to the 
extent of $7,000. 

Work on the Port Arthur Steel & Wagon 
Works plant will soon be started. It will have 
a big foundry attached. 

The Bcrgmann Electrical Works, of Berlin, 
Germany, are considering the location of a 
branch industry at Montreal. 

The Parker Foundry Co.. Montreal, have been 
authorized by the Dominion Government to in- 
crease their capital from $25,000 to $100,000. 

Fire did about $5,000 damage in the furnace 
room af the premises of William Coulter & 
Son's brass works. 155 George Street, Toronto, 

The annual meeting of the Montreal Steel 
Works was held at Montreal, about the middle 
of March. The net earnings for the year 1909 
show that the company had a most successful 

A disastrous fire broke out on March 18th 
in the premises of Valentine & Martin, Wa- 
terloo, shoe manufacturers. The interior was 
gutted. The loss will be about $30,000, which is 
partially covered by insurance. 

The St. Thomas city council has closed a deal 
10 loan C. Norsworthy & Co.. foundrymcn. $10,- 
000 for fifteen years, without interest, to enable 
the company to take over the manufacture of 
the Howard furnaces, now made in Berlin. They 
agree to employ fifty hands at the outset. 

The McBrien Mfg. Co.'s nail and tack factory 
at Toronto, was damaged by fire on March 7. 
to the extent of $1,000. and the machinery, etc.. 
to the extent of $5,500. The loss is only par- 
tially covered by insurance. It will be some 
time before the plant can be operated again. 

Shurly & Dietrich. Gait, the largest saw 
manufacturers in Canada, have dissolved part- 
nership, C. J. Shurly retiring. The business 
will be carried on by .1. C. Dietrich forming a 
joint stock company, with increased capital. 
Included in the transfer are the iron and brass 
bedstead works and the R. H. Smith Saw 
Works. St. Catharines. 

Brent. Noxon & Co.. Toronto are placing the 
bonds of the Standard Drain Pipe Co.. of St. 
.lohn. P. Q., on the market. Among the lines 
manufactured are chimney tops, fire bricks, lo- 
comotive arch bricks, chimney fire proof linings, 
and all kinds of vitrified clay and fire clay pro- 
ducts. The output of the two factories at St. 
John, P. Q,. and New Glasgow. N.S.. amounts 
to 2,000 carloads per annum. 

Tenders addressed to the Commissioners of the 
Transcontlqepldl Railway, Ottawa, will be re- 

ceived until April 12 for the following : Ma- 
chines and tools ; leather belting : shafting, 
hangers, steel frame work, etc, ; miscellaneous 
equipment, industrial track and lockers : mo- 
tors : furnaces and forges : cranes : air com- 
pressors : grey iron foundry equipment and brass 
foundry equipment. 

In a recent issue we referred to the Canadian 
Crocker Wheeler Co.. Montreal, locating in St. 
Catharines. They have purchased a site of 8 
acres, on which are practically new buildings 
having a floor space of about 30.000 sq. ft. The 
company is installing in these buildings tools 
and equipment for the manufacture of electrical 
apparatus. It is understood that all the neces- 
sary equipment has not yet been purchased. 

A disastrous fire occurred near Campbellcroft, 
in Hope township, on March 16th, when a 
large frame barn, owned, it is said, by the To- 
ronto Loan & Savings Co., was destroyed. Mr. 
Stewart Dean, who is ^oing west, had just va- 
cated the farm, and Mr. Thomas Worr was 
moving in and had placed a couple of loads of 
hay and other feed in the barn. He first notic- 
ed flames bursting from the upper part of the 
barn, and after considerable trouble managed to 
get his horses out. 

At the annual meeting of the shareholders of 
T. McAvity & Sons, foundrymen, St. John, T. 
McAvity, president of the board of directors re- 
tired from that post and G. McAvity was elected 
in his stead. J. A. McAvity was made vice- 
president and J. W. McAvity succeeds his father, 
the late J. H. McAvity, as a member of the 
board. C. Caster was elected secretary. One of 
the matters discussed at the meeting was the 
future of the company's iron foundry, which it 
has been stated might be removed to the west. 
An offer from Port Arthur has been under con- 
sideration for some time, and another came 
more recently from Montreal, while Toronto has 
also been considered. No decision has yet been 
reached in the matter, and the directors will 
make a report at a later date. 

Electrical Notes, 

Summersidc, P.E.I., will instal a new street 
lighting system. 

The work of installing the new pump at Fen- 
elon Falls has been completed. 

The Sackville. N.B.. Electric Light Company 
inaugurated its system of electric power early 
in March. 

The Toronto Fllectric Light Co. has installed 
a large steam turbine as an addition to its pre- 
sent steam reserve. 

The Canadian-British Insulated, of Montreal, 
lave been awarded the contract for the cable 
for the electric power plant at Toronto, 

The Railway Committee has passed the Mont- 
real Central Terminal bill with the elimination 
of clauses authorizing the acquisition of light- 
ing and power comphnies. 

The necessity of enlarging the electrical plant 
at Victoria to permit of increased service in 
street lighting is being considered by the elec- 
tric light committee of the council. 

A year from now the Electrical Development 
Co,, Toronto, will increase the capacity of their 
plant from 50,000 to 85,000 horse-power. Orders 
for three machines were given some time ago. 

The Canadian Westinghouse company's tender 
for equipment for the power terminal station at 
Winnipeg, was recommended by the board of 


control for acceptance. The price ol the tender 
is $116,500. 

The following contracts for transformers were 
awarded by the Toronto city council : Canadian 
General Electric Co., $8,800 ; Canadian Westing- 
house Co., $5,430 ; AUis-Chalmers-BuUock. $12.- 

The Dufferin Light & Power Co. has purchased 
the Shelburne and Orangeville lighting plants 
and a water power at Horning's Mills capable of 
developing 1,000 h.p., which it intends develop- 
ing the coming summer. 

The following were the tenders received for the 
full equipment for the installation of Niagara 
power at St. Thomas : Canadian General Elec- 
tric Co., $19,050 : Lancashire Dynamo & Motor 
Co.. $18,447, and the Canadian Westinghouse Co.. 

The Campbell Lumber Co., Weymouth Bridge. 
N.S., are contemplating the installation of an 
electric plant at the Upper Site, known as Sis- 
siboo Falls. to generate electricity for their 
lower pulp mill, as well as lighting the neigh- 
boring towns. 

The following :ire included in the supplement- 
ary estimates of the Ontario Provincial Trea- 
surer : Electric plant. Hamilton Asylum, $12,- 
000 : electric plant, London Asylum, $25,000 ; 
electric plant, Ontario Agricultural College. 
Guelph. $15,000. 

The Erindale Power Co.. Erindale, Ont., sus- 
tained a loss of $1,200 by an unexpected flow of 
ice which rushed down upon their new dam on 
the Credit River at Erindale. The ice made a 
gap in the centre of the dam about 75 feet in 
length. The damage was repaired. 

C. H. Mitchell, of Mitchell & Mitchell, consult- 
ing engineers, Toronto, has reported favorably 
on La Colle Falls, neat Prince Albert, Sask.. as 
a site for pow-er development. The proposed 
plans call for a canal a mile long and a dam 
across the river 750 feet in length. 

A. W. E. Fawkes is inspecting two power sites 
in the vicinity of Montreal, one where 40.000 
horsepower can be developed at a cost of $200.- 
flOO and another where from 10,000 to 12,000 
horsepower can be developed at a probable cost 
of $150,000, for additional sources of power for 
Montreal's lighting system. 

The year 1910 promises to be one of rapid ex- 
tensions for the Ontario Pt>wer Co., of Niagara 
Falls. General Greene, vice-president of the 
company, outlined the programme about the 1st 
of March, which includes the immediate installa- 
tion of a second 18-foot conduit tube, and the ex- 
cavation of rock for the third and final tube. 

Some of the recent contracts closed by the 
Canadian General Electric Co., Toronto, are 
with the Electrical Development Co., of Ontario, 
who are duplicating their output at Niagara 
Falls, this order calling for three enot'mous gen- 
erators of 15,000 horsepower each, which estab- 
lishes a world's record for size of individual 
units. The Ontario Power Companies' order 
called for three generators of 12,500 horsepower 
each . 

Municipal Enterprises. 

Aldermere, B.C.. will construct a waterworks 

The council of Medicine Hat, Alta.. will spend 
over $60,000 in extending the sewerage system. 

F. W. Murdoch, city engineer, of St. John, 
has been instructed to prepare plans and estim- 


ates of cost for the renewal of pipes in the 
water distribution system. He will also prepare 
a report on the matter of additional hydrants. 

Ladner. B.C.. south of Vancouver, is securing 
plans for a new water system, to cost $125,000. 

Winnipeg will call ftfr tenders for 2.500 feet of 
water pipe, also for 150 valves and 60 hydrants. 

City Engineer Childs, of Calgary, is preparing 
plans tor a trunk sewer and septic tanks to 
cost $800,000. 

The New Glasgow, N.S., city council is again 
considering plans for increased water supply at 
an estimated cost of $175,000. 

The following by-laws will be voted on at Re- 
giOa, Sask. ; sewerage and waterworks exten- 
sions. $10,000 : exhibition buildings, $25,000 ; mar- 
ket house, $16,000. 

The municipality of High River, Alta., will 
apply to the Provincial Government for power 
to borrow $125,000, required for the construction 
of waterworks and sewerage systems. 

Tenders addressed to the chairman of the 
Winnipeg-Board of Control will be received un- 
til April 4, for supply of cast iron water pipe, 
valves and hydrants for extension of the water- 
works system. 

City Engineer Ker, of Ottawa, has prepared 
the following estimates : sewer main, $5,000 ; 
waterworks, old aqueduct, (renewing piers), $4,- 
000: renewing old services, etc., $10,000 ; laying 
new services, $15,000 : renewing and repairs to 
hydrants, $3,500. 

Tenders were accepted by the Water Commit- 
tee at Vancouver, for brass and water pipe fit- 
tings and upwards of 65,000 feet of galvanized 
water pipe. The successful bidder in the former 
was Crane & Co., at $3,356.50, while A. J. For- 
syth secured the latter at $2,622.50. 

The Toronto Board of Control awarded the 
contract for the construction of the outfall 
sewer, in connection with the sewage disposal 
works to F. H. Dickenson, Hamilton, for $125,- 
504. The Canada Foundry will supply the spe- 
cial castings needed in connection with the 

The contracts for the equipment of the pump- 
house at Loudon were awarded to the following : 
turbine pumps, J. McDougall & Co., Montreal, 
$5,640 ; motors, dynamos, etc., Lancashire Dyna- 
mo and Motor Co., Manchester. England, $11,- 
032 ; compressors and gas engines, G. H. & H. 
J. Daniels, Stroud, England. 

Sealed tenders will be received until noon on 
Wednesday. April 6th, 1910, for the building of 
concrete abutments and floor for a steel bridge 
to be erected over the Sydenham River between 
the Townships of Moore and Sombra. Plans and 
specifications can be seen at the office of the un- 
dersigned, and also at the office of Bell & Mc- 
Cubbin, Civil Engineers, St. Thomas. T. H. 
Holmes, Colinville, Ont., Neil McGugan, Wilkes- 
port, Ont. 

Sealed tenders will be received by the Weston 
Village clerk until 8 p.m. on Monday. April 18, 
1910. for the following works :— Contract "B"— 
Pump house ; contract "F"— Mechanical water 
filters ; contract "G"— Electrically operated 
pumping machinery. Plans and specifications 
may be seen at the office of the Chief Engineer, 
Mail Building, Toronto, or at the town hall, 
Weston. J. H. Taylor, Esq.. clerk, Weston, Ont. 
Willis Chipman, Chief Engineer, 204 Mail Build- 
ing. Toronto. Ont. 

Sealed tenders will bo received by the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer of the town of North Battleford 
until 8 p.m. on Tuesday, April 19th, 1910, for 
the following works :— Contract "A"— Pipelaying, 
waterworks, and sewers : contract "D" — Cast 
iron water pipes ; contract "E" — Fire hydrants, 
vales, etc. ; contract "L" — Concrete reservoir : 
contract "X" — Sewage disposal works. Plans 
and specifications may be seen at the office of 
the Chief Engineer, Winnipeg and Toronto and 
at the town hall. North Battleford. S. Cook- 

son, Secretary-Treasurer. North Battleford. 
Sask., Willis Chipman, C.E., Chief Engineer, 
Winnipeg and Toronto. 

Sealed tenders will be received by the secre- 
tary-treasurer of the town of Weyburn, until 8 
p.m. on Wednesday, April 27th, 1910, for the fol- 
lowing works : — Contract "A" — Pipelaying on the 
sewerage system : contract **B1" — Water works 
pump house ; contract "B2" — Power house ; con- 
tract "F" — Mechanical water filters'; contract 
"G" — Water works pumping machinery ; contract 
"S"— Sewer pipes : contract "W"— Furnishing 
wooden stave pipes ; contract "X"-^Sewage dis- 
posal works. Plans and specifications may be 
seen at the office of the Chief Engineer. Toronto 
and Winnipeg, and at the town hall, Weyburn. 
Geo. Ross, Esq., secretary-treasurer, Weyburn. 
Sask. Willis Chipman. C.E., Chief Engineer, 
Winnipeg and Toronto. 

Sealed tenders will be received up to 12 o'clock 
noon, on Wednesday. April 6th, for the follow- 
ing : — (A) All works required in connection with 
construction of abutments to bridge at M. P. 
48.91. Tenders to be marked on the envelope, 
"Tender for Abutments." (B) All the works re- 
(luired in connection with construction of sub- 
structure of steel trestle for Wabis River, M.P. 
119.13. Tenders to be marked on envelope, 
"Tender for Substructure of Steel Trestle 
Spans." Plans and specifications may be seen, 
and forms of tender procured, at the office ol 
the Secretary-Treasurer. 25 Toronto Street, To- 
ronto, and at the office ol the Chief Engineer, 
North Bay. A. J. McGee, Secretary-Treasurer, 
of Temiskaming & Northern Ontario Ry,, 25 To- 
ronto Street, Toronto. 

Structural Steel. 

The CoUingwood, Ont., council is considering 
a $10,000 bridge by-law. 

County Engineer Bell is preparing plans for 
the construction of a steel and concrete bridge 
at St. Thomas. 

Work on the construction of the C.P.R. bridge 
at Fort William is to start as soon as the ne- 
cessary order is secured from the Dominion 
Railway Board. 

The contract for the construction of a steel 
viaduct over the North Wabie river has been 
awarded to the Hamilton Bridge Co. by the 
Commission of the T. & N. O. Railway. 

The Bank of Montreal have awarded to the 
Dominion Bridge Co., Montreal and Winnipeg, the 
contract for steel and iron work on their new 
building at Winnipeg. Between 600 and 700 tons 
will be used. 

The contracts for reinforcing steel and iron 
stairways, etc., for the transformer station for 
the Calgary Power & Transmission Co., at Ex"- 
shaw, Alta., have been awarded to the Mani- 
toba Bridge & Iron Works, Winnipeg. 

The residents of Annacis Island, near New 
Westminster, are anxious to secure a $40,000 
bridge to connect their island with Lulu Island. 

The contract tor the new superstructure tor 
Louise bridge, Winnipeg, has been awarded to 
the Algoma Steel Bridge Co., Winnipeg, at 

The Canada Foundry Co., Toronto, is sending 
a large amount of steel to British Columbia tor 
construction purposes. Eleven carloads are now 
on the way, considerable of this to go into the 
construction of the new eight-storey building to 
be erected by the Canada Life Assurance Co., 
at Vancouver. In addition, six carloads ol steel 
are also to be sent here by the same company 
to be used in the new transmission towers to be 
erected by the B.C. Electric Railway Co., at 
New Westminster, 

The Manitoba Bridge and Iron Works, Win- 
nipeg, have erected fire escapes on the Royal 
Hotel. Fernie ; Public School at Stony Mount- 
ain. Man., and the St. Boniface Convent. St. 
Boniface, Man. They also have contracts for the 


structural steel for the new Bank of Montreal. 
Winnipeg ; R. H. Williams' Departmental Store, 
Regina : Winnipeg Veterinary Hospital, and the 
new Union Station, Fort William, also for the 
iron and steel for four combination span bridges 
at Shellmouth and Russell, Man., and the new 
bridge over the railway tracks at Saskatoon. 

Planing Mill News. 

p. A. Paulson is erecting a $100,000 sawmill at 
Kitchener. B.C. 

Construction has begun on the Joyce sawmill, 
six miles from Quesnel. B.C. 

McMaster Bros., of Kemptville. Ont.. are erect- 
ing a $20,000 saw mill near Aylmer. Que. 

The sawmill of J. H. Gignac & Co., at Quebec, 
was damaged recently to the extent of about 

The planing mill of Madden Bros. & Brown, at 
Toronto, was damaged by fire to the extent of 
$8,000 on March 14. 

The planing mill and residence of Treffle Ber- 
geron, at Murray Bay, Que., were destroyed by 
fire recently. Total estimated loss. $70,000. Mill 
and residence will be built at once. 

The Guelph Patent Cask Co., Woking, England, 
bought out the timber limits and other pro- 
perty of the Great Northern Lumber Co., Scots- 
town, P. Q. The deal involves several thousand 
acres of lumber limits, besides several large 
mills. The company will start operations soon. 

The new woodworking factory at St. John, 
which is to take the place of the one owned by 
A. E. Hamilton and destroyed by fire a tew 
weeks ago is almost completed and Mr. Hamil- 
ton is again working on the contracts which 
were held up on account ot the fire. The re-or- 
ganized company has a capital ot $50,000. 

General Manufacturing Ne'ws. 

The Oblate Fathers will build a printing office 
at Winnipeg. 

A number of St. John men are seriously con- 
sidering a project for establishing an automobile 
factory at that place. Geo. Fleming, one of the 
proprietors ol the Phoenix Foundry, is said to 
be one of the most active promoters ot the 

The contract for the construction of the West- 
ern Dry-dock and Shipbuilding Co.'s plant. Port 
Arthur, Ont.. has been awarded to the Canadian 
Stewart Co., of that city. The cost of the 
whole will be upwards ot $1,000,000. The com- 
pany has the assurance of two big steel freight- 
ers to build when the plant is completed. 

Building Operations. 

A new high school will be erected at Victoria. 

A general hospital will be erected at Prince- 
ton. B.C. 

Methodists of Regina will establish a college to 
cost $250,000. 

A new general hospital will be erected at 
Smith's Falls. 

The Winnipeg school board will erect a school 
to cost $80,000. 

The Holland Varnish Co. will erect a new fac- 
tory at Montreal. 

An isolation hospital will be erected near 
Grand Forks, B.C. 

George Weston will erect a four-storey biscuit 
bakery at Toronto. 

The Dominion Government will erect a drill 
hall at Fernie, B.C. 

J. H. Todd is to spend about $40,000 on a 
building at Victoria. 

The Great West Saddlery Co. will erect a fac- 
tory at St. John. N.B. 

The reconstruction ot Manitoba's legislative 
buildings will cost $400,000. 

The Dowsley Spring & Axle Co., Chatham, will 
extend their plant this year. 


CatllolicB ot North Sydney. N.S.. will erect ft 
ejiurch to cost $18,397. 

A new and up-to-date opera house will be 
erected at Brockville, Ont. 

The Presbyterians of Vancouver will erect a 
new church on Pender Avenue. 

Walker, Parker Co. will erect four-storey brick 
addition to factory at Toronto. 

An office building will be erected on the Baner 
block. Vancouver, to cost $225,000. 

The Ottawa Vacuum Cleaner Co., contem 
plate locating at Brockville, Ont. 

The Urban Mutual Insurance Co. will erect an 
office building at Portage la Prairie. 

A new armory and post ofTice will be erected 
at Strathcona, Alta., to cost $200,000. 

Bonar Presbyterian congregation will erect a 
new church at Toronto to cost $38,000. 

An undenominational residential college will be 
erected at Moose Jaw, to cost $300,000. 

Toronto Showcase Co. will erect a two-storej 
brick factory at Toronto to cost $32,000. 

Lever Bros., Toronto, will build an addition 
to their factory at that place, to cost 5^7,000. 

The contract for a new school at Stratford 
has been awarded to Wilson & Wilson for $68,- 

C. P. Walker, of Winnipeg, will erect modern 
theatres at Winnipeg, Fort William and Saska- 

A mammoth department store is to be erected 
by the Marshall Field Co., of Chicago, at Win- 

D. R. Smith, of Boston, is considering the 
erection of a hotel at Kingston to cost not less 
than $250,000. 

The Parisian Laundry will build a three-storey 
brick addition to their laundry at Toronto, to 
cost $11,000. 

Wilson & Wilson, of ilegina, were awarded the 
contract for the new public school at that place 
to cost $68,750. 

Tenders are being called for the new $100,000 
twelve-roomed school to be erected by the Ed- 
monton Public School Board. 

A. C. Hope has prepared plans for R. M. Ed- 
gar tor a new six-storey apartment house at 
Vancouver. Estimated cost $175,000. 

The Victoria Department of Public Works has 
awarded the contract for an eight-room school 
house to A. J. Prudh.mme at $26,000. 

The Dominion Office and Store Fitting Co. 
will erect an addition to its factory at the cor- 
ner of Dundas and Patrick Streets, London. 

G. H. Archibald & Co. have been awarded the 
contract for the construction of the plant of the 
Western Canada Flour Mills Co., at St. Boni- 
face, Man. 

The Geo. White & Son Co. will spend $50.- 
000 on their plant at London. Permits have 
been issued for two buildings to cost $40,000 and 

Mason & McLeod will erect an apartment house 
at Vancouver to cost $80,000. Another apart- 
ment house will be erected by G. King at that 
place to cost $25,000. 

Th« City of Winnipeg is making an applica- 
tion to legislature for an amendment to the 
charter, so that $500,000 may be raised lor hos- 
pital and morgue purposes. 

Among the recommendations made by the Uni- 
versity Commission at Winnipeg is one for the 
establishment of an engineering college and a 
■college of domestic science. 

The ratenayers of Saskatoon will vote on the 
following by-laws : $100,000, hospital : $9,000, col- 
legiate institute ; $21,000 for completing civic 
hospital and buildings for fair purposes. 

Chatham is to have two automobile factories 
The Swift Motor Oar Co. and the Aubert Co.. 

both of Detroit, have concluded arrangements for 
the location of their factories at that place. 

Work has commenced on what will be the larg- 
est building in Victoria. This is the eight- 
storey block to be erected by .J. A. Say ward, 
on Douglas Street. The building will cost 

The new naval college in connection with the 
Government's naval scheme will be built at Ha- 
lifax, and ?vill cost $150,000. A barracks for the 
stalT and possibly an admiralty dockyard may 
also be erected at that place. 

The following building estimates have been pre- 
pared by the Toronto Board of Education ; 
Technical School, $100,000 : Oakwood High 
School. $90,000 ; Frankland School, $60,000 ; ad- 
ditional to Humberside Avenue High School, 
$40,000 ; additions to Public Schools, $300,000 : 
Manning Avenue School, $90,000. Total, $740,000. 

Railway News. 

The New Brunswick Legislature outlined a plan 
ta run an electric line from St. John, N.B., to 
Quebec City across the State of Maine. 

The Great Northern line from Orville. Wash., 
to Penticton, B.C., has been located. Forty 
miles of road may be built this year. 

Early this summer the Grand Trunk Pacific 
Railway will take over the 1.200 miles of com- 
pleted road between Winnipeg and Edmonton. 

The contract for the construction of the G. 
T.P. wharf at Vancouver has been awarded to 
C. J. Johnson & Co., Vancouver and Seattle. 

The Niagara Falls, Welland & Dunnville Elec- 
tric Railway has been incorporated to build a 
railway from Niagara Falls to Welland and 

A survey party of the C.P.R. has passed 
through Watrous on a newly-proposed road be- 
tween Regina and Prince Albert. Watrous is 
named as a C.P.R. Divisional point. 

J. N. Stewart & Son are reported to have se- 
cured contracts from the Vancouver, Victoria & 
Eastern Railway Co. for construction of two 
sections of its line aggregating 18 and 51 miles 
of track. 

Application will be made to the New Bruns- 
v/ick Legislature for the incorporation of the 
Gibson & Minto Railway Co., with a capital of 
$98,000 and authority to connect the New Bruns- 
wick railway with the I.C.R. near Gibson. 

New freight car shops, six stall addition to 
Ignace engine house and several standard sec- 
tion houses and station buildings on the Cen- 
tral Division. C.P.R. will he erected this year. 
Frank Lee, Winnipeg, Divisional Engineer. 

Bids are asked by J. S. Dennis, assistant to 
the second vice-president, C.P.R., Calgary, Al- 
berta, until noon. May 1. for all excavation re- 
(}Uired to complete the canal system in the east- 
ern section of the C.P.R. Co.'s irrigation block. 
Alberta, amounting to upward of 25.000,000 cu. 
yds. of material. Plans, specifications and all 
other information may be seen at the office of 
the assistant chief engineer, Calgary, Alberta. 

Railway construction tenders will be received 
up to 12 o'clock noon, April 15, 1910, for the 
clearing, grading and bridge work on the 31-mile 
(more or less) section of the Algoma Central & 
Hudson Bay Railway, between Hawk Lake Junc- 
tion, Algoma Central & Hudson Bay Railway, 
and Hobon, Canadian Pacific Railway. For 
plans, specifications and details apply to C. N. 
Coburn, Chief Engineer, Algoma Central & Hud- 
ton Bay Railway, Sault Ste. Marie. Ont., to 
whom all tenders should be addressed. 

New Companies. 

Toronto Structural Steel Co., Toronto ; ca- 
pital, $250,000 ; to buy, sell and manufacture 
steel and iron. Incorporators, G. Grant, A. 
Dods and M. MacDonald, Toronto. 


Bebmina Consolidated Asbestos Co.. Montreal ; 

capital, $2,000,000 ; to mine, manufacture and 
deal In asbestos. Incorporators, W. L. Bond, J. 
J. Meagher, J. E. Coulin. Montreal. 

B. J. Coghlin Co., Montreal ; capital $200,000 ; 
to manufacture and deal in iron, steel and rail- 
way supplies, etc. Incorporators. B. W. Coghlin, 
G. R. Coghlin and N. J. Dowes, Montreal. 

The Glidden Varnish Co., Toronto : capital 
$100,000 ; to manufacture and deal in varnishes, 
stains and paints, etc. Incorporators, W. S. Ed- 
wards, J. F. McCarthy and J. Parker, Toronto. 
Dominion Explosives, Ltd., Ottawa ; capital, 
$99,000 ; to manufacture and deal in explosives, 
powder, and ammunition ot all kinds. Incorpor- 
ators, J. Tamsden, N. Ross, H. G. NicoU, Ot- 

Dominion Safe & Vault Co., Montreal ; ca- 

- pital $525,000 ; to manufacture and deal in safes, 

vaults and metallic furniture, etc. Incorporators 

H. J. Fuller, W. McMaster and A. W. Wheatley, 

all of Montreal. 

The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.. Toronto ; 
capital, $250,000 ; to manufacture and deal in all 
kinds of rubber goods, etc. Incorporators, D. B. 
Simpson, W. F. Stearns and N. Wilson, Bow- 
manville, Ont. 

J. W. Kilgour & Bro., Beauharnois, Que. ; 
capital, $300,000 ; to manufacture and deal in fur- 
niture, houseturnishings, beds, carpets, glass, etc. 
Incorporators, J. W. Kilgour. J. Wilson, R. W. 
Kilgour, Beauharnois. 

Eastern Canada Steel and Iron Works, Que- 
bec : capital, $200,000 ; to manufacture and deal 
in engines, machinery, Implements and boilers. 
Incorporators, C. Donohue, E. Duvcrger, both of 
Montreal, L. H. Gaudry, Quebec. 

A. A. Fournier, Ottawa ; capital, $100,-000 ; to 
manufacture, buy, sell and deal in stoves, grates, 
gas ranges, brass, copper, tin and galvanized 
iron. Incorporators A. A. Fournier, W. L. 
Jayner, F. D. Crowe, Ottawa. 

H. A. Drury Co.. Montreal : capital, $200,000 -. 
to manufacture and deal in steel, iron, metals, 
machinery and contractors' supplies. Incorpor- 
ators, H. A. Drury, Westmount, Que., C. L. 
Drury, Toronto, F. A. McDonald, Montreal. 

Victor Steel and Wood Products Co., Walker- 
ville, Ont. ; capital, $40,000 ; to manufacture and 
deal In show-cases, gasolene engines, trucks, 
cars, and automobiles, etc. Incorporators, J. H. 
Kllnn, N. G. Begle and F. T. Chapman, Detroit. 
A company with twenty million dollars capital 
has been organized at Montreal, under the name 
of the Montreal Elevated and Underground Rail- 
way Co., to build elevated and underground rail- 
ways in the city and Island of Montreal. 

The Wabi Iron Works Co., New I^iskeard, Ont. ; 
capital. $40,000 ; to carry on a general foundry 
and machine shop business and to manufacture 
and deal in iron, steel and metal, etc. Incor- 
porators, F. L. Hutchinson. A. W. Summers, S. 
Greenwood, New Liskeard. 

National Glass. Ltd., Montreal ; capital, $45,- 
000 ; to manufacture, buy and sell all kinds of 
glass, paints, varnishes, dyes and other similar 
articles. Incorporators, J. A. Dubois, W. Le- 
febvre, both of St. Chrysostome, and E. C. 
Frappier, Montreal. 

Dominion Cement Co.. Montreal ; capital, $5,- 
000,000 ; to mine, manufacture and deal in ce- 
ment, stone, sand, plaster and all minerals, me- 
tals, earths, etc. Incorporators, E. C. Eckel, 
Washington, U.S.A.. G. W. MacDougall, F. Mac- 
farlane, C. A. Page, Montreal. 

F. Pierpon Shaw, St. John ; Truman Beck- 
with, of Providence, R. I. : Charles Rosenthal, of 
Boston ; Wm. G. Latz, of New Haven, and 
Theodore T. Hazlewood, New York, have applied 
to the Provincial Government for incorporation 
as the Big Six Coal Co., with a capitalization 
of $2,000,000. The company propose to develop 
the soft coal areas near Ghipman, N.B. 


The Modern Railway Device Mfg. Co., Mont- 
real ; capital, $1,500,000 ; to manufacture and deal 
in maciiinery or mechanical devices constructed 
under such patents, railway track material, 
steam or electric railway cars, metal goods of all 
kinds, tools, implements, engines and boilers. 
Incorporators, E. A. Bleakney, Ottawa, W. K. 
Hamilton, H. R. Emmerson, both of Montreal. 

The Crossen Car Co., Cobourg, Ont., capital 
$1,000,000 : to manufacture and deal in locomo- 
tives, motor trucks, traction engines, motor 
cars, and to carry on the business of iron found- 
ers, mechanical engineers and manufacturers of 
all kinds of machinery, brass founders, metal 
workers, boiler-makers, and machinists. Incor- 
porators, A. Falconer, Westmount, Que., M. A. 
Phelan and H. Stevens, Montreal. 

Trade Notes. 

Ekins & Norris, of Richford, Vt., were awarded 
the contract for the Catholic Church to be built 
at Bedford, Que. 

The Prentiss Vise Co., vise manufacturers, who 

■ have been at 44 Barclay St., New York, for the 

past twenty years, have moved into large and 

commodious offices in the Hardware Bldg., 106- 

110 Lafayette St., New York. 

Percy Woodward, of London, formerly employ- 
ed at McClary's, the London Foundry Co., and 
Wortman & Ward's, has obtained a jiatent at 
Washington on a rotary engine which he has 
been working at for five years. 

Northern Engineering Works, Crane Builders, 
Detroit, have been placing orders for new tools 
and machinery consisting largely of lathes, gear 
cutters and milling machines, etc., for several 
months past and the machinery is now being 

The Wm. Hamilton Co., Peterboro, have been 
awarded a large contract by the Simcoe Kail- 
way and Power Co., which includes the supply- 
ing of penstocks, standpipes and the installing 
of waterwheels and other portions of the plants, 
that the company is constructing on the Severn 
river. ' I i J 

On April 1st, the Tallman Brass & Metal Co., 
Hamilton, will start to manufacture brass 
finished goods. They are installing the latest 
machinery for this line. Since moving to their 
new plant last November they have doubled 
their output in brass castings, arctic metal and 

James L. McAvity, proprietor of McLean, Holt 
& Co., St. John, manufacturers of stoves and 
castings and retail stove merchants, has been 
gazetted colonel of the 62nd Regiment, succeeding 
Col. M. B. Edwards, who has been retired to 
the reserve staff. Col. McAvity plans to put the 
regiment on a voluntary basis and make it one 
of' the crack militia forces of the Dominion. 

Smart-Turner Machine Co., 191 Barton St., 
Hamilton, have recently suijplied pumps of va- 
rious designs to the following : David Morton & 
Sons, Hamilton ; Lopp Bros., Locust Hill ; Port 
Colborne, for waterworks pumping station ; 
Hudson Bay Co.. Edmonton ; Normal School, 
Toronto ; W. J. Finlay & Co., Strathcona ; Pe- 
trolia Wagon Co., Petrolia ; Canadian Hart 
Wheel, Ltd., Hamilton ; Sam. Lacaille, Nomi- 
ningue, P. 0. : Midland Navigation Co., Mid- 
land ; Slingsby Co., Brantford : Thompson & 
Norris, Niagara Falls ; Keenan Woodenware Mfg. 
Co., Owen Sound ; Fowler's Canadian Co., Ha- 
milton, and Miller Bros. Co., Glen Miller. They 
have supplied tumbling barrels to Laidlaw Bale 
Tie Co., Hamilton, and to Canada Screw Co.. 
Hamilton. They have also supplied the King- 
ston Shipbuilding Co., with an independent jet 

* • * 

Lethbridge, Alberta. 

The twentieth annual report of the Lethbridge, 
Alberta, Board of Trade has been issued in 
which the maoy improvements made in the city 
in 1909 are pointed out. C. G. K. Nourse is 

Lor don Machine Tool Co.'s Calendar. 

The London Machine Tool Co., Hamilton, are 
mailing a calendar for 1910. Each page contains 
an illustration of one of their machine tools, 
the calendar forming a useful reference catalogue 
as well. 

Coal in North Ontario. 

Twenty miles of coal territory has been lo- 
cated along the Metagama River in Northern 
Ontario. The fields are 60 miles north of the 
G.T.P. and west of Cochrane. The T.N. & O. Ry. 
will probably be continued to them from Coch- 

* * * 

"First Engineers" Calendar. 

Allis-Chalmcrs-Bullock. Montreal. manufac- 
turers of hydro-electric plants, etc., have issued 
a 1910 edition of their "First Engineers" calendar 
which received so much favorable comment a 
year ago. This calendar shows two beavers at 
work, the picture being appropriately named 
"The First Engineers." 

* * * 

Sumner Iron Works. 

W^ork is to be started on the immense plant of 
the Sumner Iron Works in Burnaby municipality, 
about ten miles southeast of Vancouver, where 
a site comprising twenty acres has been secured. 
The present name of the station on the com- 
pany's property is Ardley, but it is the Inten- 
tion of the company to rename it Sumnerton, in 
honor of the founder of the Sumner Iron Works, 
at Everett, Wash. 

* » • 

Tenders for Electric Light Plant. 

Sealed tenders in duplicate, for boilers, en- 
gines, condensers, pumps and piping, together 
with electrical apparatus, for Prince Rupert. 
B.C., will be received by Thos. Dunn, chairman 
of electric light committee. Prince Rupert, B.C.. 
up to the noon of the 3rd ol May, 1910. 

Plans and specifications and full particulars of 
delivery, etc., can be obtained from the chair- 
man of the electric light committee at Prince 
Rupert, or from James Milne, consulting en- 
gineer. Loo Building, Vancouver, B.C. 
« * * 

Ship Building Plant for Winnipeg. 

The Doty Engine Works Co., of Goderich, Ont., 
has organized a branch at Winnipeg and has ap- 
plied for a Manitoba charter. The site for a 
shipbuilding yard has been obtained at the foot 
of Water Street, and offices have been estab- 
lished in the Bank of Hamilton building. In 
connection with the shipyard, the company will 
operate a machine shop and boiler shop for the 
construction of the machinery reriuired for build- 
ing the steam craft. Several contracts have been 
received for building steel steamers of the twin- 
screw type. It is expected that the plant will 
be operating before next fall. 

Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co. 

The 9th annual statement of the Nova 
Scotia Steel & Coal Co., has been issued 
by Robert E. Harris, President. The profits for 
1909 amounted to $907,949, as compared with 
5734,701.53 in 1908. The volume of business tran- 
sacted by the company during the year shows a 
substantial increase being in excess of any pre- 
vious year. During 1909 extensions were made 
to the mills at New Glasgow and further addi- 
tions improvements and additions will be made 
during 1910 to increase the output of finished 
steel . 



every shop. Address, with stamp, O. BURCH, 
Grand Rapids, Mich. (3) 



Notice to Contractors 

Tenders for Machinery, Belt- 
ing, Shafting, Cranes, Air 
Compressors, etc. 

SEALED TENDERS, addressed to the under- 
signed, and marked on the envelope 'Tender 
for Machines and Tools,' 'Tender for Lea- 
ther Belting.' etc., etc., as the case may be, will 
be received at the office of the Commissioners of 
the Transcontinental Railway, at Ottawa. On- 
tario, until 12 o'clock noon of the 12th day of 
April, 1910, for : 

(1) Machines and tools ; 

(2) Leather belting ; 

(3) Shafting, hangers, steel frame work, etc. 

(4) Miscellaneous equipment, industrial track 
and lockers ; 

(5) Motors ; 

(6) Furnaces and forges ; 

(7) Cranes ; 

(8) Air compressors ; 

(9) Grey iron foundry equipment and brass 
foundry equipment ; 

required for the equipment of the locomotive and 
other shops of the Commissioners of the Trans- 
oontmental Railway at Springfield, east of Win- 
nipeg, Manitoba. 

Tenders will be received and considered for any 
or all of the items indicated above and num- 
bered from 1 to 9. both inclusive. 

Plans and specifications may be seen in the 
office of the Chief Engineer of the Commission- 
ers at Ottawa. Mr. Gordon Grant, and in the 
office of the District Engineer of the Commis- 
sioners at St. Boniface, Man., Mr. S R 

Persons tendering are notified that tenders will 
not be considered unless made on the printed 
forms supplied by the Commissioners. which 
:iiav be had on application to the Chief En- 
gmeer at Ottawa, or to the District Engineer 
at St. Boniface, Man. 

Each tender must be signed and sealed by all 
the parties to the tender, and witnessed and be 
accompanied by an accepted cheque on a char- 
tered bank of the Dominion of Canada, payable 
to the order of the Commissioners of the 
Transcontinental Railway for a sum equal to 
ten per cent. (10 per cent.) of the amount of the 

Any person whose tender is accepted shall 
within ten days after the acceptance thereof sign 
the contract, specifications and other documents 
required to be signed, and in any case of re- 
fusal or failure on the part of the party whose 
tender is accepted to complete and execute the 
contract with the Commissioners, the said 
cheque shall be forfeited to the Commissioners 
as liquidated damages for such refusal or fail- 
ure, and all contract rights acquired by the ac- 
ceptance of the tender shall be forfeited. 

The cheques deposited by parties whose tenders 
are accepted will be deposited to the credit of 
the Receiver General of Canada as security for 
the due and faithful performance of the' con- 
tract .according to its terms. 

The cheques dejiosited by parties whose tend- 
ers are rejected will be returned within ten days 
after the signing of the contract. 

The right is reserved to reject any or all 

By order. 

P. E. RYAN. 

Secretary, The Commissioners of the Transcon- 
tinental Railway. 

Ottawa, 2nd March, 1910. 

Newspapers inserting this advertisement with- 
out authority from the Commissioners will not 
be paid for it. 


A PARTY holding a large interest in a well-estab- 
lished prosperous machinery manufacturing com- 
pany on the Pacific coast, wishes to dispose of 
part of his holdings to meet personal obligations. Can 
arrange if necessary for purchaser wi'h proper quali- 
tlcalions 10 take an active part in the management. 
This 's a splendid opportunity and investment for any- 
one wishing to get a start in a good, steady, legitimate, 
profitable business. In a young, growing country. Ap- 
plicants who mean business, musthaveatleast $20,000, 
are Invited to Investigate. Write Box 102, CANA- 
DIAN MACHINERY, Toronto. (4) 



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"ARK" High-Speed Steel 


80 Bay, St., Toronto, Ontaiio 

Chas. L. Bailey, Agent. 

Keid-Newfoundland Company 

St. John's, Newfoundland. 

Jas. Robertson Co., Ltd. 
Montreal, Quebec 
Jas. Robertson Co., Ltd., 
St. John, New Brunswick 

WM. JESSOP & SONS, Limited, Manufactory, SHEFFIELD, ENGLAND. 

We want your orders for 


Price, delivery, and quality 
will please you. 

A. B. Jardine & Co., Hespeier, ont 

B. C. Steel Plant. 

It is reported that a great etecl plant, to cost 
between half a million and a million dollars, is 
to be established in the near future at a point 
on the Coast — probably on Vancouver Island — 
by James A. Moore, president of the Irondale 
.Sjnelting Co., Washington, in conjunction with 
other prominent capitalists. Extensive coal de- 
posits have been acquired on Graham Island, 
one of the Queen Charlotte group, in addition to 
enormous ore bodies on Quatsino Sound and At- 
lin, in the interior, where a rich magnesite mine 
was lately discovered. The steel plant, which is 
expected to employ about 2,000 men. forms only 
part of Mr. Moore's extensive scheme. 

* * * 

Gait Saw Works. 

Shurly & Dietrich, proijrietors of the Maple 
Loaf Saw Works, have dissolved, J. C. Dietrich 
purchasing the interest of C. J. Shurly. The inten- 
tion of Mr. Dietrich is to form a joint stock 
company with largely increased capital, to go 
aggressively into foreign trade, and to take 
care of the ever-widening field in Canada. In- 
cluded in the transfer is the Iron and Brass 
Bedstead Works, having been managed by his 
son, Percy G., for ten years. The R. H. Smith 
Saw Works at St. Catharines forms another link 
in the chain. The Maple Leaf Harvest Tool 
Works is another, this factory having been sold 
to the American Fork Trust in May, 1909. 

• « • 

Iron Worlis for B. 0. 

It is announced from Victoria, B.C., that 
Mackenzie & Mann, Vancouver and Victoria, 
backed by J. P. Morgan & Co., have purchased 
the Vancouver island coal mines owned by the 
Dunsmuir interests and known by the general 
name of the Wellington collieries, for the sum of 
$11,000,000 cash. The mines included in the deal 
produce some of the best coal mined on the Pa. 
cific coast, including high grade bituminous 
steam, domestic and coking coals. It is an- 
nounced that Mackenzie & Mann will spend ?5.- 
000,000 on improvements to the property, in- 
cluding the erection of iron works, although no 
details are yet available. 

* • * 

May Establish Canadian Plant. 

During the past year many United States con- 
cerns have established factories in Canada to 
lake care of their business in the Canadian ter- 
ritory, and to have a share in the growth of 
trade on this side of the line. In this connec- 
tion, Mr. S. H. Reck, Secretary of the Rockford 
Drilling Machine Co., of Rockford, 111., was a 
recent caller at the Toronto office of "Canadian 
Machinery." He has been visiting Toronto, Ha- 
milton and other points in .Western Ontario, 
with a view to establishing a plant in Canada 
for the manufacture of drill presses and small 

• • * 

The "Soo" Industries. 

Plans for extensions and enlargements in\OiV- 
ing an expenditure of over ten millions of dol- 
lars are being worked out by those in control 
of the Lake Superior Steel Corporation. The en- 
largement of the works already partly under 
way will call for an expenditure of api ro\;m- 
ately $6,000,000, while extensions of Al,-».iia 
Central Railway, which is owned jy t>e lorpor- 
ation, are being planned, to cost nearly J.'i.COO,- 
000, Two large industries, representing an in- 
vestment of over a million dollars, ha« rccept- 
ly located in the Soo. A lomrjany for thft 
manufacture of chemicals from the by-products of 
the mills and representing $1,000,000 capital has 
purchased the charcoal plant from the Steel 
Corporation. The Dominion Tar Co., capitalized 
at $100,000, has purchased seven acres of land 
from the Lake Superior Power Co., and will 
erect a plant lor the manufacture of coal tar 
from the by-products of the coke ovens. 






A monthly newspaper devoted to the manufacturing interests, covering In a practical manner the mechanical, power, foundry 
and allied fields. Published by The MacLean Publishing Company, Limited, Toronto, Montreal, Winnipeg, and London, Eng. 

MONTREtl, Eastern Townships Bank BIdg. 

TORONTO, 10 Front Street East. 

WINNIPEG, 511 Union Bank Building. 

LONDON, ENG.. 88 Fleet Street, E C. 

Vol. IV. 

Publication Office : Toronto, May, 1910. 

No. 5 


Plate Bending Rolls 



Bertram Horizontal Plate Bending Rolls — Motor Driven 

Capacity to Bend l>^-inch Plate 12 feet wide to a radius of lyi feet 

Full Particulars Sent on Request 

The John Bertram & Sons Co., Limited 

Dundas, Ontario, Canada 

Sftles AianU: The Canadian Fairbanks Company. Limited. 

Offices: Montreal, Toronto. Winnipeg. Vancouver Calgary. St. John 


Rapid Bar Production 

in Exact^ Duplication 

The P. & W. 
Turret Lathes 


A series of bar machines 
that are capable of a class 
of work in accuracy beyond 
that which it has been sup- 
posed or known could bs 
produced on turret lathes. 
To obtain this end it has been 
necessary to make liberal use 
of many refinements of con- 
struction not generally em- 
ployed in other machines of 
this class. 

A number of exclusive fea- 
tures also have bean intro- 
duced to promote conveni- 
ence and rapidity in opera- 
tion, facilitate making ready 
for given work and enable 
the machines to be econ- 
omically used for the pro- 
duction of small lots as well 
as large lots of work. 

Tool equipment is adjust- 
able to a very wide range of 
work to meet the ever-chang- 
ing manufacturing demands. 

Five Sizes: fx4j, 1x10, 
^ X 18, 2 X 26, 3 X 36 in. 


p. & \V. gx-l^in. Tunel Lathe. 

V. & W. 1 xlO-in. Turret Lathe. 



Hartford, Conn., U.S.A. 

Sales Agents — The Canadian Fairbanks Company, Limited 

Montreal St. John Toronto Winnipeg Calgary Vancouver 

Don't fail to mention "Can adian Machinery" in writing to advertisers. 

Making an Annual Saving of Thousands of Dollars 

By Practicing Economy in the Locomotive Repair Shops, Thousands of Dollars are Saved — The 
Stock Room and Various Shops are Large Fields Where Large Saving of Waste may be Made. 

By W. R. Smith* 

THE subject upon which I have endeavored to com- 
pile this paper is a very broad one, in fact there 
are very few railway problems upon which there 
has been more comment and discussion than that 
of economy in locomotive repair shops. Possibly, 
on account of the Mechanical Department not 
being directly a revenue bearing department, great- 
er attention has been paid to it as regards the 
organization in its various branches, than to any 
other department, in connection with railroad work. 
To bring this matter before you in detail would occupy a 
very considerable length of time, therefore, I shall only 
mention points which are of the greatest importance in 
connection with shop practice. 

Storing Materials. 

The first of these which I wish to bring to your notice 
is the storing of material, particularly heavy material, 
such as tyres, boiler plate, tubes, bar iron, etc., etc., all 
these should be located as near as possible to the shop 
in which used, and stored in properly erected buildings or 
racks, suitable for the purpose required, thus reducing de- 
lay on the part of the shop staff to a minimum, and at 
the same time placing such material under cover that 
would otherwise be subjected to atmospheric conditions, 
causing the material to depreciate in value, on account of 
corroding and pitting, thus reducing the lengiih of service 
and thereby increasing the cost of the manufactured ar- 
ticle. The buildings referred to should be thoroughly 
equipped with small cranes or lifting devices, to eliminate 
hard labor and facilitate rapid handling. Tlie use of mag- 
netic power on locomotive cranes now in use in the ma- 
jority of modern plants, has proved very effective, and 
has been found to be a labor saving device. It would not 
be an extensive plant that would not require at least 
twenty men to perform duties of this nature, without 
proper facilities, which could be handled by the use of a 
crane of this type with about five men, effecting an ap- 
proximate estimate in wage economy of about $8,000 per 

You will, therefore, see that the saving would aggre- 
gate a much higher figure than would be considered cre- 
dible by those not conversant with engine repairs. 
There is one other point on the material question, 
through which the mechanical department can be subject- 
ed to numerous inconveniences and disadvantages, detri- 
mental to the working progress which of necessity ter- 
minates in increased expense ; I speak of the purchasing 
and supplying of the proper quantity and quality of ma- 
terial at the required time, it being a very essential fea- 
ture in economy. In this particular line of railway busi- 
ness, it appears to me, after personal experience of sever- 
al years with four different railroad companies, that if 
those in authority in such matters, acted as far as con- 
sistent in supplying the make or quality of material spe- 
cified by the head of the mechanical department, it would 
assist materially in economy. It can be readily under- 
stood that it is practically impossible for the latter to 
obtain the best results, in frugal efficiency, without the 
support of the purchasing department. The fact cannot 
be denied, however, that cases do occur, through some 

• General Foreman, Canadian Northern Sbopi, Winnipeg. 

neglect or oversight on the part of the mechanical depart- 
ment, in not advising the stores or purchasing officials of 
the consumption of an unusual amount of a certain class 
of material, or the necessity on the part of the latter to 
place an order for a commodity which it has not pre- 
viously been customary to carry in the ordinary stock, 
thus placing that department in an unfair position 
through not being allowed sufficient time to obtain de- 

Tracing Orders. 

One matter to which strict attention should be paid 
is the tracing of orders for material after being placed. 
I could relate instances where it would be impossible for 
a mechanical department to correctly account for exces- 
sive charges through failure on the part of a manufac- 
turer to supply material within a reasonable time. As we 
know the manufacturer's tendency is to grasp all the 
business possible, with the result that it frequently takes 
double the necessary time to get deliveries made. I have 
known cases where six months has been taken where 
thirty days under ordinary circumstances should be am- 
ple time. This is an expensive proposition and one that 
should not be tolerated by a railway company, as the ul- 
timate cost is perhaps one hundred per cent, more than 
the actual value. This and other questions of a similar 
nature prompt me to state that the most improved busi- 
ness methods possible to adopt, relative to these three de- 
partments, are in the best interest of the company. 

In referring to what is conceded by many to be the 
principal cause of high figures in mechanical labor, being 
that of the present standard rates of wages, we are all 
aware that conditions in this particular have made a 
wonderful advance in the past ten years. 

Still expensive locomotive repairs must not always be 
solely attributed to this fact, as there are comparisons 
for consideration in what might be termed the ancient 
and modern methods in applied mechanics found in shop 

The rapid strides accomplished in the mechanical 
sphere of late years are more than equal to those which 
have taken place in any one particular in railroad re- 

It is well said that time is money, and in this age of 
comparison, rapidity should be the point at issue in every 
performance in locomotive repairs, in order to keep pace 
with the records which are now being continually made, 
in modern shop efficiency. 

I do not purpose entering upon a discussion of the 
numerous improved appliances, but by way of comparison 
I remember only a few years ago, in what was at that 
time one of the largest shops in Canada, where an em- 
ploye welding boiler tubes after ten hours of strenuous 
labor would have about 100 tubes welded 

To-day it is possible by the use of certain machines, 
without any more exertion on the part of the operator, to 
weld 600 tubes in the same length of time. 

Increase Efficiency of Machinery. 

Take for instance the enormous amount of manufac- 
tured material produced by the use of the modern tilack-; 
smith shop machinery. 

Then consider the riiocJern moulding department as 
compared with that o! ten years ago, and we find an in- 



crease in the output ranging from 100 per cent, up, and »• Bush cylinders No 38. steam and exhaust pipes 

not only a higher grade of casting, but more accurate, 1»- R^Painng cylinders No M. Dry pipe and throttle rigging 

■' , , , i,. , J ■ ^, ^ ' 11. P'irebox— new or repairing 40. Valve seatB. bushes and chests 

requiring less machine work, thereby reducing the cost of jj ^^^ ,,„„^ ^^^ ^^.^t 41. Pistons and crossheads 

manufacturing in every particular, due to the use of 13. New back 42. (iuide bars and blocks 

moulding machine. 14. New inside sheets R. or L. 43. Spectacle plate 

The same progress may be applied in speaking of the 1=- ^'^ ""'"'d'" "•"^"^b R' o' L- "• Repairing valve gear and mo- 

, ... „, 4. t iu 4-- u- I, 16. New door sheet tion 

boiler shop, as 75 per cent, of the operations which were j., ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^5 u^i^i^^ ti^,^_ ^^^^j,_ „^„k 

manual labor, a few years ago, are now minor details, jg. ^ew face plate pins and axles 

through the use of hydraulics and compressed air. is. New throat sheet 46. Boiler mountings, injectors. 

The tool and machine shops have, with high speed 20- New crown sheet pops and lubricators 

si eel and high grade improved machinery, shown no small |; f^'^^^ ^^^_^^^ ^^ ^^^^.^^ *^- f^l^^^ 

display in the advanced superiority of shop efficiency, and 23. Washout plugs and holes 49. i-iping 

in view of the existence of such conditions, the fact, be- 24. Tank repairs ''''■ RnEine bell 

yond a doubt is clearly demonstrated, that the adopting 25- Hemove flues si. Headlight 

of modern methods and such machinery,, is of vital im- ^s. Repair flues 52. .Smoke stack and base 

^ ' 27. Replacing flues S3. Front end ring and door 

portance to a mechanical staff who are expected to com- 38. Front end arrangement and 54. Expansion and running board 

pete with the competitors of this decade, for never in the netting brackets 

history of railroading has there been such efficiency devel- 29. Ashpan and rigging 55. Springs and spring riggings 

oped in railroad mechanics, as in that of the past ten ^O. Air pump air signal and 56. Wheeling and putting up bind. 
, ■ , J i, J 1. ■ i J steam heat ers 

years, which goes to prove that all companies to-day oc- ^j ^^.j^j^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^5^^,^^ ., p-i^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ bracket. 

CUpying an important position in the handling of freight 32. Driving boxes, hub liners and and front coupler 

and passenger traffic, must of necessity keep their motive eccentric straps 58. Cab running boards and deck 

.power in first class condition, there being nothing that 33. R-pairs to shoes, wedges and floor 

.,, „ , ,. ,.. . , ., „ horn blocks 59. Sand box. dome casing and 

Will reflect discredit upon a company quicker than ne- ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^.^^ 

gleet in this department. ,15. Orck beam brackets and wind 60. Painting engine and tender 

By this it is understood that shop equipment for loco- sheets 6I. Tank frame repairs and draft 

motive repairs is an essential question and should war- 36. Hanging motion and setting gear 

rant due consideration, in order that economy is brought ,^ ^ ^".1'" , ^ ^ «2. Trucks and brake riggmg 

' I ,, J 37. Repairs to engine trucks 63. Miscollaneous 

to prevail, which necessitates close inspection of all de- 
tails in daily shop practice, as the small matters count „4. ■ ■ • • „„ 4- x^ 1 „ ;,i„^ ^„ac 
. ,, / ; i ■ J , u u- u ■ ^ A Stripping an engine is account No. 1, repairing rods 
in the question of time and labor, which is money, and '^*; " " .. v,- u <- iT ■ cq ;+ 

^ , , , J ..• i J + account No. 2, and so on; the highest number is 63, it 

in the performance of such duties, system is required to , . u- 1 n „„+,„ „, 

^ , . ^. , ' ' . .., J I- ■ „ being a miscellaneous account which covers all extra or 

be observed in every particular governing the delivering " 

of material to the respective departments, also the dis- 
posing of scrap materials, and the various relations be- jt is worked in this way :— 

tween the foremen, in order that the work in each and p,,,„^i ^ machinist has worked all day on boiler 

eyejry department, be advanced to the best interests of ^^^^^^.^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^g^ 0„ ^.^ ^^^^ ^Up ^, ^^-^^^ ^he 

all concerned. _, , . _ ^ date, engine number and 9 hours account No. 46, which 

Checking Costs. ,' ^,\ . 

IS all that is necessary. 

Another important item in this connection, is the ^^^^ ^^^^^.^^ ^^^ ^^.p^ ^^^ collected from ticket boxes 

checking of the costs of work performed each day. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ mechanical department, pre- 

In order to have correct information with reference to ^..^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ timekeeper, 

the cost of locomotive repairs, it is necessary to obtain 

a daily check, to prevent any mistake being made by the The form used for this purpose has the dates printed 

employees on their time distribution slips, which are on the top line and the account numbers on the right 

commonly used in time-keeping in locomotive repair side, so that all that is necessary, is to place the amount 

sjjops ' charged under the date and opposite the account number. 

This places the foreman directly in charge of engine ^jjpj.g j^ ^^g f„yj^ ^^^ p^P^ engine in the shop for each 

erecting, or machine work, in a position to explain why month. 

certain repairs on any particular engine, should cost more ,, , . ... , , , . . , 

,, ., . .,„,. „„„:„„ „t +v,„ camp Bv this vou wi 1 uudcrstaud that at a glance, the cost 

than the same repairs on another engine of the same , , .- • , , ., , . t 

of labor on every piece of work in the .shop can be ob- 

, . , tained daily. Charges for material, of course, can only be 
To obviate such difficulties I am convinced that a sts- ^^ ^j^^- ^^^ ^^j ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ accounts are closed 

tern adopted about a year ago by A. Shields, Master Me- ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ department, 
chanic of the Canadian Northern Railway, which is known 

as the "Engine repair account" and is only used in general It is understood of course, that due credit is received 

repair shops, or what is generally termed "Back" shop, for scrap material. 

is one of the most convenient methods to be found in ^^^^ companies use the shop order system : In this, 

checking cost of engine repairs, i.e. from a mechanical de- ^^^^^ ^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^ different number, being confus- 

partment's point of view. ^^^ ^^ account of high figures, which would run into the 

It must be admitted that it entails extra time in thousands everv month. 
Stores' Accountant's office. 

It is a svstem of itemized charges against repairs bv With the account system, a certain piece of work on 

the use of consecutive numbers, which are used to specifv ^^"y engine is always the same number, with which the 

every piece of work on an engine, and is as follows :- employes become familiar and thus avoid mistakes on 

their time slips. 
Accounts — Repairs to Engines. 

It may be possible to improve on this system, but I 

1. Stripping 5. Put on frame R. or L. ^^^^ -f properly carried out, it is the best arrange- 

2. Repair rods 6. Remove cylinders No ^ ■ 1, ■ ,_ / , ^, ,. • i j 4. i ii,_t t 

3. Take off frame R. or L. 7. Apply cylinders No ment in the interest of the mechanical department that I 

4. Repair frame R. or L. 8. Boring cylinders No... have used. 

Value of Trade Papers: How to Derive Benefit from Them 

The Greatest Loser is the Reader who Carelessly Thumbs over the 
Pages— Technical and Trade Papers Should be Handled Methodically. 

By One Who Reads Them- 

I OFTEN wonder what subscribers and others who receive 
various trade publications do with them. I know of 
some who "get them," look tliem over carelessly 
and throw them aside ; their disposition, mental and 
other needs, possibly their capacity for acquirement of 
features of value, not being sufficiently pronounced to 
force them to a realization of the wonderful worth to-day 
incorporated in these publications— and in this I do not 
mean wholly to indicate the reading matter or editorial 
columns, for, from my point of view, there is not a sin- 
gle column in a trade paper of the present time that is 

It is astonishing when we consider the value given to 
the assembled sheets of paper. How we must praise the 
modern progress made in the art of printing and illus- 
trating ! How few understand, when they subscribe for 
the average trade paper and pay the price asked for the 
regular sending of the publication, that their subscription, 
instead of meaning a profit to the publisher, actually 
means that the publisher is to lose money in supplying it, 
for the service given by the leading trade papers now 
costs more than the return as represented by the price of 
the subscription. Thus the subscriber gets something, yes, 
much, for nothing, but still the publisher willingly bears 
his loss, as he needs readers to give value to the adver- 
tising columns. In other words, circulation counts, and it 
counts for a very great deal from the publisher's stand- 
point, even though the advertisers should always reserve 
the right, and persist in it, to criticise the quantity in a 
demand for quality. (;uantity without quality will bring 
disappointment. That, however, is another story. 
The Careless Reader the Greatest Loser. 
A subscriber who reci'ives his paper, carelessly glances 
over it as he applies thumb pressure to shoot the leaves 
along, stopping only to casually and quickly read a par- 
agraph, a note here and there, does not do himself or the 
publisher justice He will be the greatest loser. The pub- 
lisher will get just as much money from him, but he will 
fail in acquiring the exceedingly valuable fund of inform- 
ation the publication brings to him. .\nd the more of 
this information he gleans the higher and better will be 
his appreciation of the publication. The faithful, ener- 
getic editors work hard to have the pages up to date in 
the data they carry. Type forms and illustrations are 
carefully studied in order that the appearance may be of 
the best, each thoughtful attention in this direction being 
intended to hold interest on the part of the reader. Many 
fields have been searched for the actual news and scien- 
tific information placed before the subscriber by the 
editors, who are very materially helped on the larger 
number of pages by the men who write and plan the ad- 

The subscriber who looks upon the advertising pages 
of trade publications of to-day as tales of purchased 
space makes a very serious mistake. These advertise- 
ments are developed by able minds in every part of the 
country, each one of which seeks to educate the subscrib- 
ers of the trade publication to the latest and best prac- 
tice in a particular line. Publishers of trade papers have 
high morals ; they scan every bit of copy that comes to 
their office determined that their readers shall be pro- 
tected from advertisements that make false claims. Oc- 
casionally a fake assertion that has a new feature may 

creep in unknowingly, but as soon as the deceit is made 
apparent the columns of honest papers are forever closed 
to that business. And the average reader does not know 
how many advertising men there are who are cautioned 
not to call on this or that concern whose business by the 
publisher is deemed undesirable. 

Handling Trade Papers Methodically. 
Let me advocate a higher appreciation of the trade 
paper. Let me tell of one progressive company and its 
realization of the importance of thoroughly reading what 
th? editors and others have to say in these factors of this 
modern industrial growth. The company to which I refer 
receives a very large number of trade and technical pa- 
pers, but it makes easy the reading, handling and dispo- 
sition of them. They are all first handled and opened by 
the one who distributes them to the department or em- 
ploye most vitally interested in the various publications, 
b^'or instance, an engineering publication first goes to the 
company engineer ; a paper that has to do with power is 
sent to the mechanical department, as are also machinery 
papers ; the electrical papers go to the electrical en- 
gineers, except papers that carry patent references, which 
first go to one who scans the patent report to see if any 
of the late issues have to do with fields in which the 
company operates, and if so, this department immediately 
sends for these patents of interest ; papers that are asso- 
ciated with the chemical, electrochemical, electrometal- 
lurgical field all have their readers ; automobile publica- 
tions go to various departments, as do those devoted to 
military affairs, while the same may be said of marine, 
paint, power boat and similar fields ; all the publications 
go regularly to individual readers. It is well understood 
among the employes of this company that they are, in a 
certain sense, responsible for reading these publications 
and getting from them everything of present or future in- 
terest to the company's affairs. Articles of interest are 
abstracted, and cards in the following form are made out 
for filing in a well planned system : 





Remarks .... 

Kile under 

All such cards are sent to the stenographic depart- 
ment and filed. Subjects having any relation to the field 
in which the company sells its products, or to the use 
and application of its products, are most carefully cover- 
ed, so that, for instance, should the company at any time 
desire information on any of the many subjects it would 
only be necessary to call for the cards on file and direct 
that the publications containing the articles or references 
listed be brought up from the basement for review. To 
facilitate this review, it may be stated that all the trade 
papers received in the English language as well as foreign 
languages are most carefully preserved by means of a 
filing system, to which a goodly space has been given in 
a spacious basement, the plan being to bundle each year 



of the various publications by themselves. Clipping of 
the publications is prohibited. 

In order to have the publications distributed and pass 
from department to department, so that all may see 
them, discover new features or absorb the information of 
articles marked, each publication is first stamped with the 
initials of the several readers who are to see them in the 
course of 'their transit through office and works, the stamp 
used being something like this : 

A list of publication? 
received and the readers 
assigned is' in possession 
of each department, so 
that the course to be fol- 
lowed in sending a pub- 
lication forward is so well 
known that it soon be- 
comes a matter of form, 
each reader checking on the dotted line following his ini- 
tials. The sales department, the financial depart- 
ment, the chemists,, the superintendent, the en- 
gineer, the electrical engineers, the executive de- 
partment and others are all alert to new things, and it 
may be guessed that a fund of information is gathered. 
Then, too, it makes possible the reading up on things in 
which to-day a company seemingly has little interest, but 
which is conceived to possess future features of possible 

. Every Item Preserved. 

By this system, every item printed in the publications 
read is preserved, so that when the day comes when the 
concern wants information on the subject it will only 
have to turn to its filing system to review all that has 
been printed. This is a factor of wonderful value, it is 
believed, as it makes possible a general oversight aided 
by the many bright minds that write for the publications. 
It will thus give life to the writings of many editors 
long after they may be dead. 

It one will only consider the immense amount of 
capital and human energy now devoted to preparing and 
printing the trade papers which serve as guides in their 
respective fields, I am very confident there will be a gen- 
eral increase in appreciation of the service performed. It 
is but fair to admit that the principal trade papers are 
always ahead of their readers in information. They must 
be so, for they are teachers ; they tell us of the newest 
and best things, of the latest practice in many lines, and 
it is indeed a dull reader who cannot profit bv perusal of 
them. If subscribers will thus cherish their trade papers 
I am sure there will be an awakening as to their value 
and of the good they do, of their great general worth and 
assistance. When subscribers thus esteem their technical 
and trade papers, they will deserve to have their names 
enrolled on that monument of quality instead of being 
considered quantity, which, as I have said, is another 
story.— Iron Age. 

Let us Look Technical Education Square in the Face 

Co-operative Education Combining Practical Shop Training in the Shop 
with the University Course is Suggested as a Solution — It Would 
Greatly Increase the Value of the Apprentice to the Manufacturer. 

By Robert Patterson * 

Being much interested in the training of apprentices 
for the mechanical trade, also in the education of the 
younger mechanics, any papers, or discussions on the 
subject, have always been of great interest to me, and 
when asked to write a paper on some subject I selected 
this one, not, perhaps, so much with the idea of impart- 
ing much new information, as with a view of bringing be- 
fore you, a subject that is of great importance, requiring 
careful study and attention of the industrial community 
of Canada, and those responsible for the proper education 
of Canadians to-day. 

I believe the most desirable for present day 
needs of Canada is a combined practical and tech- 
nical education . This would meet the present 
urgent demands, and would create a number of 
'educated mechanics who now receive little or no 
technical education. 
Papers without number, and discussions without end, 
have been dealt with, to try and settle the question, as 
to whether the university educated man, or the prac- 
tically educated man has been the most successful, in 
giving the best results to their employers and the me- 
chanical world at large. Although, there have been 

MaBt* Wcpliarfo 'B'T;Ri^bopSi Stratford. 

numerous university graduates, who have shown great 
brilliancy, and accomplished much, yet the practical man 
has not by any means been outclassed ; as to-day, he is 
probably holding more general positions of trust and re- 
sponsibility, and quite as many high j5ositions, as his 
university graduate competitor. With the combined practi- 
cal and technical education, we have men who are thorough- 
ly conversant with .shop practice, labor conditions, organ- 
ization and the practical handling of men. This, the univer- 
sity graduate does not learn at college or university and 
in that respect, is much inferior to the ■jnan who is tech- 
nically and practically educated. 

However, it is not this phase of the subject I wish 

particularly to deal with, but technical education of the 

average mechanic and system of education by which same 

can be most successfully accomplished as to thoroughness 

with economy of time. 

In this young and growing country of ours, the rapid 
development of steam and electric roads and the vast in- 
crease in manufacturing industries have created a demand 
for increased and rapid facilities for doing work, and, also 
for producing mechanics able to keep pace with such 
development. From all appearances, the future will create 
a still more urgent demand. To meet present and future 



requirements, a quick and thorough system of education 
will be necessary to provide technically trained men. 

Men at the head ot our public educational system of 
to-day, have already realized this, and as a result, the 
boys in our public schools are taught manual training. 
The system should be in force in every centre in the 
country. It would greatly help parents and guardians by 
enabling them to judge of the fitness of the boy for his 
future profession, mechanical or otherwise. Without this 
opportunity ot judging a boy's qualifications, it is often 
very difficult to determine what a boy's profession should 
be. With manual training in his early days, however, it 
gives additional opportunity to learn whether the boy 
would be more fitted for engineering or some of the 
other learned professions. It is a great assistance to the 
boys who intend to enter the mechanical profession. It 
teaches the necessity of carefulness and correctness with 
application of thoroughness in their work that they may 
attain their desired ends ; also it gives them self reliance 
and leads them to appreciate honor and have an honest 
pride in good work done by themselves. It also teaches 
them to have a desire and respect for all honest manual 
labor, an attitude ot mind which will produce a beneficial 
effect on the country at large. 

At the present day in Canada, it too often happens 
that from lack of opportunity and facilities, when a boy 
leaves school, he is unable to continue his studies. This 
unfortunately results in the education which he already 
has becoming warped or lost on account of its not being 
further developed. In a few years, with few exceptions, 
he is thrown on the world as a journeyman mechanic 
with less education than when he started to work and 
practically no ambition to obtain it. 

Training Men in the Shops. 

To overcome this state of affairs, what step should be 
taken to make mechanics better acquainted with the tech- 
nical side of their professional education ? One method is 
for employers to establish a system of technical educa- 
tion in connection with their works or industries. It is 
• ot the first importance to interest manufacturers in the 
cause of such education. The manufacturer will be the 
first to be directly benefited as in all branches of indus- 
tries, we would have a corps of trained young men with 
more intelligent interest in their work seeking all the 
time to improve in practice and desiring to become elig- 
ible for promotion. 

A number of corporations in the United States and 
Canada have already established technical schools in con- 
nection with their shops. The Grand Trunk Railway Sys- 
tem in Canada has been a pioneer in this respect and 
now the C.P.R. also has a school where technical train- 
ing is given its apprentices. In the case of the Grand 
Trunk, it was found that to meet the ever increasing de- 
mands for skilled and thoroughly trained mechanics, it 
was absolutely necessary to establish a training school. 
The boy who had to leave school with only the rudi- 
ments of an education from force of circumstances and be- 
gin work, had little to look forward to in the matter of 
education after he once left school. With this system of 
education, which has been adopted by the Grand Trunk 
Railway, all apprentices are now fortunate enough to be 
able to secure a good practical, as well as a technically 
combined education. 

G. T. R. System. 

In explaining this system to begin with, an apprentice 
has to be 15 years of age or over before he can enter the 
service of the company as an apprentice. He has to re- 
ceive a medical certificate from the company's doctor cer- 
tifying that he is physically fit to do the work required 
of him. He is then put through an examination in the of- 

fice and practically had to pass an examination in differ- 
ent subjects that would entitle him to enter the first form 
of our collegiate institutes. He has also to pass an ex- 
amination to see if his hearing and eyesight is sufficiently 
good to follow the business. 

If he is successful, he is then admitted as an appren- 
tice to the works and is provided with a text book for 
his instruction and guidance. This book contains exam- 
inations for the apprentices tor each promotion he takes 
while serving his apprenticeship. For instance, if an ap- 
prentice is being promoted, say from the boiler shop or 
pipe shop to machine shop and is going to be placed on a 
drilling machine, he is examined on how this machine 
should be operated and he has to theoretically explain the 
method of operation so that, with very little practical in- 
struction, he is able at once to start in and do good 
practical work but should he fail in these examinations, 
he is sent back to the shop he came from and the next 
boy in turn is promoted. He is given another chance, af- 
ter his first failure, say in a month's time, and if he fails 
again, he is dismissed from the service for the reason 
that he is considered either not sufficiently intelligent or 
too indifferent to make a good mechanic. This practice 
is followed during his five years' course. 

Advantage of Apprenticeship System. 

One of the great advantages of this system is that it 
gets the apprentice thinking and leads him to reading up 
in line with his work. It is compulsory for all appren- 
tices to attend evening classes two nights per week dur- 
ing the term, at which practical mechanics, mechanical 
drawing and machine design are taught. An, examination 
of the apprentices takes place over the entire system once 
a year and examination papers are prepared in which all 
first, second, third, fourth and fifth year apprentices com- 
pete, that is, all the first year apprentices on the sys- 
tem in one class, all the second in another, and so on. 

Class prizes are given, also individual prizes, and the 
keenest rivalry is exhibited, not only among the ap- 
prentices individually, but among the different shops as 
each shop is desirous of having the honor of obtaining the 
highest average number of marks at the examination. 

At the expiration of apprenticeship before an appren- 
tice becomes a journeyman, he has to undergo a thor- 
ough examination to see that he is competent in all the 
branches of the trade he has been learning. After success- 
fully passing this examination, he is furnished with a 
certificate of apprenticeship. During his five years' ap- 
prenticeship, the sum of 5c per day is retained from his 
wages. This is refunded to him and a bonus of $25.00 
from the company is given him. That with his month's 
wages entitles him to a snug little sum on the day he 
completes his five years' apprenticeship. In addition to 
these privileges, the company has arranged that two 
scholarships be given each year for competition amongst 
the apprentices so that the fortunate ones are entitled to 
a four years' free course at McGill University in any ot 
the branches of engineering or transportation work. 
A Co-operative Course Necessary. 

But however, I would like to add to this and thereby 
make the system of training more complete. I would 
like to see a way opened up at our universities so that 
young men who have gone through their five years' train- 
ing as apprentices and not fortunate enough to have won 
a scholarship entitling them to the four years' free course 
at McGill University in Engineering or Transportation, 
might be able to obtain further technical education by a 
short course, say of one year at our Universities at as 
low a cost as possible to the student. In this course, he 
should have the privilege of making experiments, tests, 



etc., and a young man who wishes to succeed and obtain 
a more advanced education, could do so. If such a sys- 
tem as we have on the Grand Trunk Railway were ap- 
plied to every manufacturing and industrial establish- 
ment, the apprentices' rebate and bonus at expiration of 
his apprenticeship would partly enable him to carry 
this out and would make him more diligent, attentive and 
ambitious to become not only a good practical but tech- 
nical mechanic. 

Government Should Provide Schools. 

Again, there are some factories or industries not pro- 
vided with rooms or appliances for education of appren- 
tices or from other causes, could not do so. In these 
cases, where occurring in towns or cities, the government 
or municipality should step in and provide night schools, 
thereby giving them the chance to acquire better tech- 
nical education to help them in their career through life. 
As a rule, they have not been able to go very far in their 
High Schools before going to work, but at least they 
should have the same opportunities as that of their old 
school mates destined tor professional life but not called 
upon to leave school at such an early age. 

Our High Schools and Collegiate Institutes with all 
their facilities for education are practically only used six 
hours per day for live days per week. Why should not 
these be opened to the young mechanic at night time so 
that he might further pursue his studies and be educated 
for his life work. In the majority of cases, good labor- 
atories are used in connection with most of these schools 
and should be at the service of those who wish to study 
along that line. 

The government should be prepared, and I think it 
would be the quickest way to get at it. to assist the 
manufacturers in having the use of these schools.* For 
instance, any manufacturer giving free tuition that could 
show an attendance of so many employes ought to receive 
renumeration so as to bear part of the expense of teach- 
ing, etc. 

Scholarships assisted by government grants should 
also be given for these shops, which would entitle the suc- 
cessful student to a scholarship at the university for the 
one year's short course which I have mentioned. In the 
larger cities, the government ought to support the univer- 
sities to such an extent that they would be so equipped 
so as to take in all mechanical and engineering branches 
and where sufficient number would make request and where 
sufficient students would attend to make it successful, ail 
other industries could be represented at the university. 

I think a short course at the university as mentioned 
by me would be of incalculable benefit, for in addition to 
the actual information which a young man would get in 
connection with his work which he would be able to take 
in more rapidly on account of his five years' practical 
and technical training, he would receive general improve- 
ment on account of coming in contact with men of learn- 
ing and culture for a year. This would not take him so 
long from the practical work as the four years' course at 
present, also after the four years' course, he would find 
so many changes that he would require to go over a great 
deal of the practical ground again. 

To ask that the government' should assist in the high- 
er education of the mechanic is not more than right. The 
government provides colleges for the agriculturist with 
long and short courses for the farmers. Normal Schools 
and Faculties of Education for education of teachers in 
Agriculture and Domestic Science, grants to the univer- 
sities for student courses in Arts, Divinity, Medicine, 

• On the Grand Trunk, all tuition is free for the apprentices, they 
not being under any expense whatever for the education which they 
get and are paid substantial wages during the time they are work- 
lug in the shop. 

Law, Kngineering and Mining arc also given. Why shoulQ 
a short course of one year be instituted for finishing the 
education of the working mechanic. We may for all we 
know have amongst our young men, mechanics or en- 
gineers whose genius might equal that of some of the 
most celebrated of modern times if they only had a 
chance that a little further education might give them. 
Let us endeavor to give them that chance not only for 
tlieir own advantage but for our own as employers and 
for the betterment of mankind in general. The young 
mechanic deserves every opportunity of pushing his way 
in the world as much as the literary man, the minister, 
the lawyer, doctor, or any other professional men. The 
educated mechanic is one of the main stays of our Domi- 
nion, like the Village Blacksmith of Longfellow : — 

"Each morning sees some task begun 

Each evening sees its close ; 

Something attempted, something done. 

Has earned a night's repose." 
In conclusion, 1 would say that if we combine 
the practical and technical training of our boys 
and young men, we would have the best average 
mechanic who will meet all requirements of these 
times of rapid progress and development and we 
will I believe, solve labor problems to a great 


A bill is before the Quebec House of Assembly en- 
titled "An act respecting the working hours of women 
and children in certain factories." Factory inspectors' 
have brought to the attention of the powers that be, the; 
fact that women and children are working eleven hours a 
day in many places. These hours are too long. There is 
no need to mince matters — the fact remains, and the only 
excuse for these long hours seems to be the fact that they 
are necessitated if sixty hours a week are to be put in 
and the Saturday half holiday stand. 

But why sixty-five hours ? Are not fifty-five or even 
fifty hours plenty ? It would not increase the cost of 
production by any appreciable amount it the hours were 
shortened and more hands employed. There are still lots 
of willing— and efficient— workers ready to work if em- 
ployment can only be had, and in view of this we feel 
that (jicbec has in mind a progressive step in the ques- 
tion of labor legislature. 

Large employers of such labor in the Province of Que- 
bec are opposed to the act on the grounds that it would 
place them at a disadvantage when compared with the 
manufacturers of other provinces whom the act will not 
involve. This is a grod point and worthy of consider- 
ation and brings us to the statement that we believe the 
act should be made general by emanating from Ottawa. 
Whatever is wrong about existing conditions in Quebec is 
wrong about similar conditions in Ontario or any other 
province and it is up to the Dominion government to in- 
vestigate and right matters. 

We won't go into details regariliii!? the detrimental 
features of women and children working in factories — they 
are fairly well known to most of us. The unfortunate 
thing is that they are compelled to work to live and, as 
we said before, it is us to our general parliament to see 
that conditions under which they do work are made as 
cnmfoi'table a,nd a.s favorable as possible. 

It may be that the matter will have been brought to 
a head— in Quebec at least — by the time this appears off 
the press. If so we trust that our hopes will be realized 
and our women and children will not be forced to work 
eleven hours a day in order to "hold their jobs." 

Production Greatly Increased by High Speed Steel 

The Proper Treatment of High Speed Tool Steel will Help in Ob- 
taining the Full Efficiency — Forging, Hardening and Sharpening. 

By Samuel K. Patteson. 

While practically every machine shop 
owner, foreman, or operator is familiar 
with the fact that great strides have 
been made in the production of steel for 
cutting tools, they are totally ignorant 
of the means and methods of such pro- 
duction, a knowledge of which would 
perhaps result in moie intelligent use 
of the tools. 

Crucible steel, or the fusion of iron 
and charcoal in crucibles, has been 
known from the earliest times, in fact 

planer of a chij) i inches broad from 
an armor plate, at a speed of 12 feet 
per minute, and turning mild steel bars 
at a speed of fSO feet per minute, with 
a cut 3-16 in. deep and the fee<l 5 inches 
per minute. In this latter case the tool 
worked from 7 to 8 hours without grind- 
ing. Instances have also been cited of 
cutting speeds up to 500 feet, and grey 
iron drilled at 25 inches per minute. 
Comparing these results with the speeds 
of 25 to 50 feet jjer minute of the old 


Fig. 1. — Arrangement ot Iron Tank for Heating Tools Electrically. 

it is a matter of record that the Chin- 
ese made steel in this way prior to the 
Christian era. So far back into anti- 
quity does the beginning of the process 
go that it is impossible to accurately 
trace it, but it is hardly conceivable 
that the ancient races used anything 
but tool-steel in the execution of the 
carvings on the hard stones which re- 
cord their history. It would seem there- 
fore wonderful to the ordinary mind 
that while the process of making cruci- 
ble steel was known so long ago, rbe 
method and process of manufacture is 
practically now on the same lines as it 
was in the old times. 

The most important discovery in this 
line was made by Robert Mushet some 
^orty years ago, who produced a steel 
containing a percentage of tungsten, 
md called Mushet steel, which marked 

very considerable advance in the man- 
facture of tool-steel, and for a long 
time held the first place in its class. 
Since then practical and scientific men 
liave given their time and thought to 
experiment and research, with the ic- 
sult that remarkable advancement lias 
been made. Not only has the field of 
Improvement in tool-steel been advanc- 
but as a result of better grades 

ing produced, experiment has shown 
that machinery for metal-cutting can 
pe speeded up to almost unheard of 
irelocity, with a consequent increase of 
vork and great economic saving. There 
ire records of work done by modern 
^igh speed tools that are almost incre- 
|ible, as for instance the removal by a 

tools, shows what startling progress 
has been made. 

With these results befoie them, it is 
hardly to be wondered at that the ma- 
jority of operators have embraced the 
opportunity presented for utilizing such 
an economic development, and the 
growth in the use of high speed tool- 
steel has been almost in a ratio with 
the increased speed possible as a result 
of their use. This can be more readily 
understood when it is recalled that for 
many years prior to its introduction, 
there had been but little progress in the 
manufacture of tool steel or improve- 
ment made in its cutting qualities. To 
those practical minds that were given 
to thought, must have occurred the 

and in combination with these two are 
variously used molybdenum, tungsten 
and chromium, either singly, in pairs 
or all three in conjunction, and for the 
benefit of those not entirely familiar 
with the subject, it might be well to 
give briefly the various influences of the 
different metals. 

The toughening effect of carbon is 
well known, as is also the fact that too 
high a percentage of it will make the 
steel brittle. Percentages ranging from 
0.35 to 0.9 or 1.0 give a very tough 
steel, and the highest cutting efficiency. 
Over this percentage the tools are 
found to be unsatisfactory and are liable 
to break when the cutting is not con- 
tinuous, as in planing. 

With chromiuna at percentages of 
from 1.0 to 6.0, varying results have 
been obtained. Thus, a low percentage 
tends to toughen the steel, and tools 
made from it give excellent results on 
mild steel and gray iron, but their effi- 
ciency was lowered on harder steel. As 
with carbon an increased percentage of 
chromium gives a harder steel, but for 
best results, there must be a decrease 
in carbon for a corresponding increase 
in chromium. 

Vanadium as a substitute for chrom- 
ium is not satisfactory, owing to the 
fact that, while the cutting qualities on 
medium steel are about equal, the in- 
creased cost renders it inadvisable. 

Tungsten in High-speed Steel. 

Nearly all ot the high speed tool- 
steels now on the market contain tung- 
sten in varying proportions. In one 
series of experiments on record, the 
percentages varied from 9 to 27, and it 
was found that when from 9 to 16 p.c. 


Fig. 2. — Second Method, Utilizing the Electric Arc. 

hope that eventually a steel of greater 
cutting i)ossibilities would be produced, 
and as a result more work, with a cor- 
responding decrease in cost, would bo 
obtained. The developments of recent 
years have, in a measure, realized these 
desires, and the wide awake operator ot 
to-day is availing himself of the oppor- 

Iron and carbon arc the principal com- 
l)onents of modern high speed tool-steel, 

was present, the cutting efficiency was 
very high, but the steel was brittle, 
and no better results were obtained by 
increasing the tungsten over 16 p.c, 
which seemed to be the limit for best 
efficiency. Between 18 and 27 p.c. they 
became softer and tougher, the tools 
cutting cleanly, but liable to break 
down easily. 

It has been found that where a large 
percentage of tungsten is necessary to 


CANADIAN Machinery 

give a high speed stoel, a much smaller 
percentage of molybdenum will give 
equally as satisfactory results, and in 
addition steel containing the latter 
does not require as high a temperature 
for hardening, to obtain the greatest 
efficiency, about 1,000 deg. C. being 
sufficient, the tools losing in efficiency 
and life at higher temperature. Molyb- 
denum is, however, comparatively cost- 
ly, and while slightly greater efficiency 
is obtained in tungsten steel by the ad- 
dition of from 0.5 to 3.0 per cent of 
this metal, the results obtained are not 
proportionate to the cost. 

Silicon has been used in percentages 
up to 4.0, and up to about 3.0 per 
cent, perceptibly hardens the steel and 
increases the efficiency on hard mater- 
ials. Above that point, howver, there 
is a rapid fall in efficiency. 

Stands High Temperature. 

Now the prime requisite of a high 
speed steel is that' it shall be capable 
of withstanding the high temperatures 
generated by friction between the tool 
and the work as a result of rapid cut- 
ting. Ordinary steel may be made in- 
tensely hard by heating and tempering, 
but as the frictional temperature in- 
creases and reaches approximately 
500 deg. F., the hardness rapidly de- 
parts. Thus it is necessary, in order 
to prolong the life of the tool to run 
at a limited cutting speed, and thus 
reduce the friction and consequent heat- 
ing. On the other hand high speed tools 
are efficient at greatly higher tempera- 
tures, even to 1,200 deg. F., and, as 
the hardening temperature is carried 
above the critical point, and rapidly 
cooled, so will the frictional tempera- 
ture the tool can stand be correspond- 
ingly increased. At a temperature of 
about 700 deg. C. steel undergoes a 
transformation, and it is with the ob- 
ject of retarding this that such ele- 
ments as those mentioned above are 
used. Ordinary carbon steel, or the old 
self-hardening steels, required great care 
in heating, as, it either were heated 
above about 1,600 deg. F. there was 
great danger of burning and resulting 
impaired efficiency. In the high speed 
steel, however, temperatures may be 
carried much higher, approximating the 
melting point, it being almost impossi- 
ble to reduce efficiency by burning. The 
heating and tempering of high speed 
steel is, however, an important phase 
of the subject, and a more than super- 
ficial knowledge of it should be sought 
by those who handle tools of this 

After the steel has been worked into 
bars, annealing is probably one of the 
most important processes through 
which it goes, and thorough and accur- 
ate annealing is an important factor in 
the production of satisfactory high 

speed tools. It not only insures a uni- 
form molecular construction, by reliev- 
ing internal strains due to casting or 
tilting, but leaves the steel soft enough 
to be easily machined into any form. 
The three principal stages of forging, 
hardening and sharpening high speed 
tool-steel for use vary in practice and 
with regard to the type of steel used, 
but for general use may be summarized 
somewhat as follows : 


It is an absolute essential that the 
bar be heated thoroughly and evenly, 
to the centre of the bar, before cutting 
oS. If this is not done and it be cut 
when cold, end cracks are liable to ap- 
pear which may gradually extend and 
produce considerable trouble and loss. 
After cutting, reheat as before and be 
sure it is heated throughout, otherwise, 
if the centre be cold, the steel will not 
draw or spread out equally, with crack- 
ing as a probable result. The steel 
may be raised to a yellow heat or 
about 1,800 deg. F., when it becomes 
soft and is easily forged. When it cools 
to a good red, or about 1,500 deg. F., 
forging should be discontinued and the 
piece reheated. After the required 
shape is obtained, lay aside to cool. 

Hardening temperatures vary in ac- 
cordance with the class of tool to be 
dealt with. Thus for planing, turning 
or slotting tools to be hardened, the 
point or nose only is heated gradually 
to a white heat, just short of melting 
while for gear-cutters, twist-drills, taps 
and reamers a temperature of about 
2,200 deg. F. is required. If the point 
of the turning or planing tool should 
become slightly fused, it does 
not matter, for after cooling 
in an air-blast, it only requires grind- 
ing to restore it to usefulness. Another 
method of treating these latter tools, 
is to grind to shape on a dry stone, or 
emery wheel, after forging, and when 
cold, after which it is heated just short 
of melting and cooled as before. In- 
stead of the air blast for cooling the 
oil bath may be used. In this process 
the steel is raised to the white heat, 
without melting, and cooled in an air 
blast to about 1,700 deg. F., and then 
immediately immersed in a bath of 
rape or whale oil. The rough grinding 
to shape of the tool before heating is 
advantageous in this latter process, es- 
pecially where tools with a sharp edge 
are desired for turret or automatic 
lathes, brass workers or finishing tools, 

Electrical Heating. 

In this connection the electrical heat- 
ing of tools has become an important 
factor and either one of the following 
two arrangements may be used for 
turning or planing tools with satisfac- 

tory results. An arrangement of an 
iron tank containing a strong solution 
of carbonate of potassium, a dynamo, 
rheostat, switches properly fused, etc., 
is shown in Fig. 1. 

In this method the current is turned 
full on and the tool lowered into the 
liquid until the part to be tempered is 
immersed. On contact with the solu- 
tion of K2 Co3 the electric current is 
completed, and intense heat is gener- 
ated, and when the tool is sufficiently 
heated, the current is shut off, the bath 
serving to chill the steel, thus obviating 
the use of an air blast. 

The other method is by utilizing the 
electric arc, somewhat as in Fig. 2. In 
this case the current is derived from a 
direct current, shunt wound motor of 
220 volts, coupled to a direct current, 
shunt wound dynamo of from 50 to 150 
volts, and with this combination arcs 
up to 1,000 amperes are easily produced 
and handled by means of the rhtostat. 
The tool to be tempered is fastened on 
the positive electrode, and the negative 
so arranged that the arc will heat the 
point of the tool without approaching 
the edge too closely. The current is then 
turned on and by means of the rheostat 
gradually increased until the proper 
heat is obtained, care being exercised 
not to raise it enough to burn or fuse 
the tool. 

The hardening of milling or gear cut- 
ters, drills, screw-dies, taps, etc., is a 
different proposition and should be 
done in an oven or muffle-furnace. For 
this purpose a special design is used, 
consisting of two chambers, one above 
the other, both lined with fire brick, 
and the lower heated by a series of 
Bunsen burners beneath it. Control of 
these burners should be had so that the 
temperature in the lower chamber may 
be maintained at about 2,200 deg. F., 
while, of course, the upper chamber is 
at a much lower heat. After thorough- 
ly warming the tool to be hardened, on 
the top of the furnace, it is placed in 
the upper chamber, and heated to about 
1,500 deg. F., then placed in the lower 
one and allowed to reach the tempera- J 
ture of the chamber, or about 2,200 ^ 
deg. F., at which time the cutting edges 
present a greasy appearance, and are a 
bright yellow color. They should then 
be removed and cooled in an air blast 
until they may be handled, then plung- 
ed into a bath of melted tallow at 
about 200 deg. F., and the heat of the 
bath then raised to about 500 deg. F. 
At this point the tool should be taken 
out and plunged in cold oil. 

A knowledge of these points, there- 
fore, should be sought after by those 
using these steels, and a better under- 
standing of them will enable an opera- 
tor to work more advantageously and 



When Does it Pay to Instal a Complete New Machine? 

In a Paper on " Economical Features of Motor Applications," Read before 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Charles Robbins deals 
with the Conditions when Equipping Old Machines with Motor Drive. 

new tool. It is evident, therefore, that 
although a somewhat greater capital is 
required for the new instalation, it is 
by far tlie better investment. 

When changing over from lineshaft 
drive to individual motor drive the ques- 
tion arises whether to equip the old 
lineshaft-driven machines with motors 
or to install new motor-driven machine 
tools. The old machines are not as 
strong in construction as new tools de- 
signed for motor drive, nor are they 
equipped with the latest devices by 
means of which the time required to 
make adjustments can he greatly re- 
duced. Owing to weaker construction 
old machines cannot be made to remove 
metal as rapidly as machines buih with 
(liis point in view. < 

The case taken for consideration in- 
volves the modification or exc^hange of a 
72-in. vertical belt-driven boring mill, 
so as to obtain a greater output at lower 
cost per unit of product. This mill, the 
original cost of which was $3,200, has 
been in use five years. The hourly over- 
head operating charge has been deter- 
mined at 91 cents. The machinist re- 
ceives 3.5 cents an hour for 54 hours per 
week (2,808 hr. per year). The total 
earnings for the year from this machine 
amount to $4,200. The operating ex- 
penses for the year are as follows : — 
Overhead 0.91X2.808= $2,5.55.28 

Wages 0.35X2,808= 982.80 

Total $3,.538.08 

Net profit $4,200— $3,538= .$662.00 

The depreciated value of this tool on 
a basis of 10 per cent, reduced balance 
is 66 per cent, of its first cost. If a 
motor is installed the investment ap- 
pears as follows: 

Value of tool .$0.66X3,200= $2,112.00 
Cost of motor, gears, controller, 

wiring, etc.^ 550.00 

Total investment .$2,662.00 

The hourly overhead charge of 91 
cents includes interest and depreciation 
at 16 cents an hour; the overhead charge 
exclusive of interest and depreciation 
will therefore be 75 cents an hour. The 
depreciation on the new investment for 
the remaining five years' life of the tool 
will be 20 per cent, per year, making 
the charge for interest and depreciation 
26 per cent. The operating cost of the 
old tool with motor drive is therefore : 
Overhead (exclusive of interest 
and depreciation) .$0.75X2,- 
808= $2,106.00 

Interest and depreciation, 26 

per cent of .$2,662= 692.12 

Wages, $0.35X3;808 9«2.12 

Assuming 10 per cent, increased earn- 
ings, due to adoption of individual motor 
drives, makes the total earnings: 
$4,200+$420= $4,620.00 

The net profit is then 

$4,620^^3,780.92= 839.08 

or 31.5 per cen't. interest on the invest- 
ment of $2,662. 

The corresponding figures based on the 
instalation of a new machine tool with 
individual motor drive are approximate- 
ly as follows. — ■ 

Cost of new tool= $3,400.00 

Cost of motor, etc.= ' 270.00 


Staff Correspondence. 
The A. R. Williams Machinery Co., 
Winnipeg, recently moved into their 
new premises on Logan Avenue, and at 
the present time are arranging the dis^ 
play of machine tools on the spacious 
main floor of the building. The struc- 
ture is one of the finest warehouses in 
Canada, being 60 x 130 feet, and tour 
stories high. It is of solid reinforced 
concrete and absolutely fire proof. 
The feature of the interior design is 

^the track facility tor loading and un- 

$3,670.00<lBloading machines. Trucks may be 

iflpli ijiif^ t^'-; 


! Ill III ill 

The Modern Machine Tool Warehouse of the A. R. William.s Co., Winnipeg. 

Scrap value of old tool at 5% 


Investment ,$3,510.00 

Overhead operating charge — 
$0.75X2,808= $2,106.00 

Wages as above 982.80 

Interest and depreciation for 
10 years (depreciation 10% 
interest 6%) 16%X3,510= 561.60 

Total $3,650.10 

Assuming 25% increased output for 
the year, the total earnings become: 
ia5% X .$4,200= $5,250.00 

Net profit is then $5,250— $3,- 

650.40= 1,599.60 

or 45.3% interest on the investment. 

The ."^hove figures show that for I he 
'■•..nditions given, approximately 14 i or 
rent, greater return on the mvestmetit 
is gained by instalation of a complete 

driven alongside the large electric ele- 
vator on which machines may be. loaded 
and raised to any floor desired. Runn- 
ing from the elevator door on each 
floor is a heavy steel track made of a 
single bar of steel about 5" x 1". This 
track curves around from the elevator 
and runs the full length of the building 
making it possiljle to place machines 
conveniently at any desired location on 
the floor. 

The first floor is utilized for steel 
drills and large front windows make 
a fine display of these from the out- 
side. A small but well equipped office 
is also on the first floor, immediately 
at the right of the entrance, which is 
at the side as seen by the accompany- 
ing cut. The second floor displays the 
lathes and other heavy tools, and the 
third floor stores the bar iron, shaft- 
ing and accessories. The fourth floor 
is leased to a stove firm. 



By Walter Dill Seott. 

For the sake of clearness in studying 
acts of imitation we separate them into 
two classes — voluntary imitation (also 
called conscious imitation) and instinc- 
tive imitation (also known as suggestive 

A peculiar signature may strike my 
fancy so that I unconsciously and de- 
liberately may try to imitate it. This 
is a clear case of voluntary imitation. 
In writing letters or advertisements or 
magazine articles, I analyze the work of 
other men and' consciously imitate whal 
seems best. Or I observe a fellow labor- 
er working faster than I and forthwith 
try to catch and hold his pace. 

For precisely similar reasons, :i 
"loafer" or careless or inefficient work- 
man will lower the efficiency or slow 
up the production of the men about him. 
no matter how earnest or indiustrious 
their natural haTiits. Night work by 
clerks, also, is taken by some office man- 
agers to indicate a slump in industry 
during the day. To correct this the in- 
dividual drags on the organization are 
discovered and either revitalized or dis- 

I have seen more than one 
machine shop where production 
could have been materially 
raised by the simple expedient 
of weeding out the workmen 
who were satisfied with a mere 
living wage earned by piece 
work, thereby setting a dilatory 
example to the rest; and replac- 
ing them with fresh men am- 

• This article is abstracted from "Psychology 
of Business." a series of articles in "System," 
contributed by Walter Dill Scott, Director of 
the Psychology Laboratory of Northwestern Uni- 
versity. This article deals with human efficiency 
and is based on the experience of executives 
whose instincts and intuitions are very keen, and 
give them the understanding of employee' mo- 
tives and capacities, and suggest methods by 
which their full powers may be stinriulated and 
used. The article is an important one on the 
science and art of managing men. For the em- 
ploye, it blazes the trail to a plane of wider 
usefulness and greater material rewards. For 
the employer, superintendent and manager, it 
points the way to the knowledge and under- 
standing which evokes organization, efficiency 
and individual power. — Editor. 

bilious to earn all they could, 
who would' have been imitated 
by the others. 

In these instances it is assumed that 
the imitation is not voluntary but that 
we unconsciously imitate whatever ac- 
tions happen to catch our attention. For 
the negative action, the "slowing down" 
process, we have_ the greater affinity 
simply because labor or exertion is natur- 


Ill this department articles 
on costs and saving of waste 
will appear. The Icahs and 
losses in your factory and my 
office, are right at our elbows, 
pulling at our cash drawers, 
threatening our business to- 
day. We must he interested, 
Titally. in possible economics 
that will stop our losses, in- 
crease our .profits and 
strengthen our business. 

These articles are to arouse 
you to inspect your business 
nozi' — to get you interested in 
stopping them — to arouse 
thought, then interest, then 

In the June issue will ap- 
pear in this department an ar- 
ticle showing a successful, 
practical cost system in a 
manufacturing concern. If 
Canadian manufacturers are 
to compete in the world's mar- 
kets they must knoxv their 
costs and eliminate zvaste. 
Knozving the ■cost will stir 
your interest in looking for 
waste and the elimination of 
waste will reduce your cost. 

Let Economy be a watch- 
word and remem'ber: Doing 
is the only thing that gets re- 

ally distasteful. One such influence or 
example, therefore, may sway us more 
than a dozen positive impulses towards 

To pro'fit from the instinctive 
imitation of my men, I must 
control their environment in 

shop or office and make sure 
that examples of energy and 
efficiency are numerous enough 
to catch their attention and 
establish, as it were, an atmos- 
phere of industry in the place. 

'Conditions may limit or forbid the 
use of pacemakers. In construction work 
and in some of the industries w'here there 
are minute sub-division of operations 
audi continuity of processes this method 
of increasing efficiency is veiy commonly 
applied. In many factories, however, 
siu-!i an effort to "speed up" produc- 
tion might stir resentment even among 
the piece workers and have an effect ex- 
actly opposite to that desired. The al- 
teinative, of course, is for the employer 
to secure unconscious pacemakers by pro- 
viding incentives for the naturally am- 
bilions men in the way of a premium or 
bonus system or other reward for un- 
usual efficiency. 

To take advantage of their conscious 
or voluntary imitation, workpeop'e must 
be provided with examples which appeal 
to them as admirable and inspire the 
wish to emulate them. The oldest, sim- 
plest application of this principle is 
seen in the choice of department heads, 
foremen and other bosses. Invariably 
they win promotion by industiy, skill 
and efficiency greater than that displayed 
by their fellows, or by all-round mastery 
of their trades which enable them to 
show their less efficient mates how any 
and all operations should be conducted. 
Judged by the results of the 
investigation the most common 
use of imitation is in the train- 
or "breaking-in" of new em- 
ployes. The accepted plan is 
to pick out the m'ost expert and 
intelligent workman available 
and put the new man in his 

iBy observing the veteran and imitating 
liis actions, working gradaial'y from the 
simpler operations to the more complex, 
the beginner is able to master technic 
and methods in the shortest possible 
time. The p.sychological moment for 
such instruction, of course, is the first 
day or the first week. 'New men learn 
iriiH-h more readily than those who havd 
b:?come habituated to certain methods of 
tasks; not having had time or oppor- 
tunity to experiment and learn wrong 



methods, they liave uotliiiis; to unlear.i 
ill acquiring the rig'ht. They fall into 
line at once and adopt the stride and 
tlie majiner of work approved by the 

This is the speei'fle pi-ocess by which 
the most advanced industrial oi-ganiza- 
tions develop machins hands and initiate 
skilled mechanics into house methods 
and requirements. It has been largely 
used by public service corporations' — 
street car motormen and conductors, for 
instance, learning their duties almost en- 
tirely by observation of experienced men 
either in formal schools or on cars in 
actual operation. Many large commer- 
cial houses give new employes regulai' 
courses in company methods before en- 
trusting work to them; the instructor is 
some highly efflcient specialist, who shows 
the beginner how to get output and 
quality with the kast expenditure of 
time and energy. 'The same method ha> 
been adapted' by leading manufacturers 
(if machines, who call their mechanics or 
assem'b'ers together at intervals and have 
I he most expert among them show how 
they ciuidnct operalion.s in which Ihey 
luue attained spt'cial .'^kill. 

Kdueationa! trips to other 
factories were employed by sev- 
eral Arms to stimulate mental 
alertness and the instinct of imi- 
tation in their men. 'These trips 
usually supplemented some sort 
of suggestion system for encour- 
ag'ing employes to submit to the 
management ideas for improv- 
ing methods, machines or pro- 

Cash payments were made for eaeli 
suggestion adopted, quarterly prizes of 
ten to fifty dollars were awarded foi' 
the most valuable suggestions; and 
finally a dozen or a score of the men 
submitting the best ideas were sent on 
a week's tour of observation of other 
industrial centres and notable plants. In 
some instances the expens'e incurred was 
considerable, but the companies consider- 
ed the money well spent. Not only were 
the men marking helpful suggestions the 
very ones who would observe most wise- 
ly and profit most extensively from such 
educational trips; they brought back to 
their evervday tasks a new perspective, 
saw them from a new angle, and fre- 
quently, oflfered new suggestions which 
more than saved or earne'd the vacation 

Business managers, it was made plain, 
are coming more and more to depend 
upon imitation as one of the great forces 
in securing a maximum of efficiency 
without risking the rupture or rebellion 
which might follow if the same pfificiency 
were sought by force or by any met hod 
of conscious compulsion. Tactfully sug- 
gested, the examples for imitation will 

lead men where no amount of argument 
or reasonable compensation will drive 
them. I am, therefore, led to suggest 
the following uses of imitation for in- 
creasing the efficiency of the working 
force : 

In 'breaking in new recruits they should 
be set to imitate expert workmen in all 
the details possible. 

Gang foremen and superintendents 
should always be capable of "showing 
how" for the sake of the men under 

The better workmen should, where 
possible, be located so they would be 
observed by the other employes. 

Inefficient help should be avoided lest 
the examples of the less efficient should 
become the model for the larger group. 

Educational trips or tours of inspection 
shnu'd be regularly encouraged for both 
woikmen and superintendents. 

$10 For An Idea 

For the "Business Management" 
depai-tment of Canadian Machin- 

We want ideas for this depart- 
ment — ideas of practical, labor- 
saving, cost-reducing value. We 
will pay at regular rates for each 
idea accepted, and in addition will 
pay $10 for the best idea sub- 
mitted during the next five months 
—that is, until Sept. 30, 1910. 

Address all communications to 
the Editor of Canadian Machinery, 
10 Front Street East, Toronto. 

The deeds of successful houses should 
bo brought to the attention of employes. 

Where conditions admit, pacemakers 
should be retained in various groups to 
key up the other men. 

Favorable conditions should be provid- 
ed for conscious and instinctive imita- 
tion for all the menAers of the plant. 


The Simonds Mfg. Co., Fitcliburg, Chi- 
cago and Montreal, believe that efficiency 
in their plants is greatly increased by 
co-operation with their men. Carrying 
out the Simond-si policy in connection with 
their new saw factory at Loc'kport, they 
will build at once fifty houses for the 
company 's employes, on the best lines 
that can be found for dwellings of the 
type desired, an<i the settlements will 
hi' brought iip-lo-dafe in point of per- 
fectness ef e<|uipment and completeness 
and every provision made for the health 
and pleasure of their employe-tenants. 

At the Fitchburg |)lant the company 
maintains a club room, recreation room. 

baths, gymnasium and medical service 
for its many hundred employes. The 
company has also established a qomplete 
pension system 'for its employes in its 
several plants, office force and operatives. 

Speaking of all these matters in a 
more intimate and personal way, a re- 
presentative of the Simonds Mfg. Co. 
said : 

"Progress along manufacturing lines 
is to-day based on quality and service. 
As good as our service was, it was prov- 
ing inadequate. To win, therefore, that 
fullest measure of success which we be- 
lieve we merited demands attention 
equally to the goods we manufacture, 
the conditions under which they are 
produced and the way we treat our cus- 
tomers. The public demand to-day is 
for the very best of anything that can 
be produced. The best, it is needless to 
say, can 'be made only under proper, i.e., 
the 'best conditions. 'Part of these con- 
ditions means affording workmen the 
greatest advantages in return for inereas- 
ingly faithful service. It means regu- 
lating the physical or parely mecliauical 
features of the establishment in a way 
thai will promote the greatest harmony." 

By James F. Hobart. 

A workman who should know better, 
and a foreman who is paid for looking 
after things in general are sometimes 
guilty of time waste, which is ridicu- 
lous when one comes to consider the 
matter. For instance in the shipping 
department of a machine shop, I re- 
cently saw the head of that department 
trimming up a stencil, with a scissors, 
which the machine had not cut clean 
owing to the extreme thinness of the 
paper. Ordinary thin wrapping paper 
had been used instead of the strong 
thick paper provided for the purpose of 

Upon being asked why he spent so 
much time on that work, instead of 
using the regular paper, the workman 
loplied, that he only wanted a very 
small stencil and used the wrapping 
paper to save the r^ular paper. As 
the man was working 60 hours a week 
for $16. ,50, or d.'iS-lOOO cent per minute, 
two minutes were spent trimming the 
stenoil, at a cost of 916-1000 of a cent. 
The paper 4 inches wide and 10 inches 
long weighed 3-16 ounce and at 10 cents 
a pound cost about 1-10 a cent as 
nearly as you can figure it. Trying to 
economize in that way will never prove 

.\nother instance occurred in a large 
eastern railroad. The master mechanic 
wanted a lot of new ratchet drills at a 
cost of $3.48 apiece, that being the 
price for which he could purchase 100 
now ones. The directors would not lis- 
ten to the request, but ordered the 



master mechanic to rebuild the old 
ratchets in the shop. This was done, 
and the cost totaled about $9.80 apiece 
for the 100 odd rebuilt ratchets. 

Instances of this kind can be multi- 
plied indefinitely. They indicate that 
someone connected with the mechanical 
industry should make it his business, to 
watch each operation performed by each 
and every man, from general manager 
down to water boy, and determine if 
there is not some other way of making 
those moves which will save one-half 
the time, or cost a little less for energy 
expended in moving. Truly, this is the 
day of small ecomomies ; they must be 
looked after closely or many little 
losses will creep in. — American Machin- 


Sealed boxes prevent .9hipment short- 
ages in one factory, says a writer in 
"Factory." At first sight they appear 
too frail to stand the wear and tear of 
the heavier boxes, as the boards are 
much thinner. However to offset this, 
the boxes are provided with four or five 
strong wires with staples securely 
driven and firmly clinched by machinery. 
The ends of these wires project at the 
same edge so that when the box has 
been packed they are then sealed with 
a leaden seal. 

The box can then only be broken into 
by breaking the seals or the wires. A 
glance will then detect this if the box 
has been tampered with and in this way 
there is a complete cheek on the con- 
tents while en route. 

One company began their use by try- 
ing out a sample lot. When the boxes 
were first used a letter was sent to 
trace the condition of the box at its 
destination and it was found that the 
consignee was pleased with the box. 
The box weighs about one-haJf to one- 
third that of the unwired box and in 
case of a long haul when it is consider- 
ed that the average per cent, of the 
weight of packing cases is with much 
merchandise shipped to the merchants 
about 25 p.c. A wire-bound box ship- 
ment was a case for Louisville, Ky. 
The box and contents weighed 165 
pounds and the box weighed only 21 
pounds or a little less than 13 per cent. 


By Rube Borough. 

During the first years in which I was 
employed in a carriage factory I was 
at times a sort of "emergency man." 
I trimmed shafts, and, whenever the 
supply of finished shafts piled up in ex- 
cess of the demand, I was transferred 

to other departments of the factory 
work. I wiped out odds and ends of 
jobs in the "paint shop," in the "black- 
smith shop," and I helped out in the 
crating room. 

The company by whic:h I was employ- 
ed owned its horse and dray and did its 
own draying. The man who had charge 
of this work handed in his time at the 
end of the week to the foreman of the 
crating room. When not busy with the 
dray, he helped to crate the finished 

One week during the summer, while 
this man was away from the factory, 
I was given his job. My duty, as I 
sized it up, was to be two-fold : I was 
to deliver the crated buggies at the 
freight depot and was to bring back 
from the freight depot to the factory 
the small "sorting up," summer ship- 
ments of tires, wheels, seats, bodies, 
and so on. 

My first day on the job was planless. 
I blundered ahead, drawing to the 
freight depot in the morning a dozen 
crated buggies and wasting time at the 
freight depot doors which were almost 
constantlj' besieged during the rush 
morning hours by dozens of the town's 
draymen. Also I was delayed several 
times at side-track crossings. 

Late in the morning an incoming 
train unloaded the first freight of the 
the day, leaving for the buggy com- 
pany, a half dozen dray loads of seats, 
bodies, tires, wheels, etc. In the after- 
noon I drew this stuff to the factory. 
T was not delayed — the railroad side- 
tracks were clear and there were not 
many draymen at the freight depot 

That first day — toward the end of the 
afternoon — I worked, for not quite two 
hours, in the crating room. 

Now, for results of the first day's 
work : 

First, I must cut in two the number 
of trips with the dray to the freight 
depot. I must never have an empty 
dray behind that horse — it must be 
loaded with outgoing freight, always, 
on the way over to the freight depot, 
and loaded with incoming freight, al- 
ways, on the way back to the factory. 

Second, I must visit the freight depot 
at a time of the day when switching 
freight trains and that odd dozen of 
other draymen should be out of my 

The second day and the rest of the 
week, I carried through to a successful 
finish a program of work as follows : 
In the morning, work in the crating 
room. In the afternoon, work with the 

By this plan T had three hours more 
work in the crating room,— Factory, 


By W. R. Smith. 

1 thoroughly believe that the time 
limit is the correct idea. It is the pro- 
per system, but it is governed entirely 
by conditions. A department cannot 
give proper results on a time limit un- 
less otlier departments produce the re- 
quired efficiency. Before stating a 
standard time for doing a certain 
amount of work, you have to check 
previous records as to what can be ac- 
complished and to find the time requir- 
ed to do that work according to other 
existing conditions. 

The foremen who are in charge of the 
men in the different departments look 
over the time slips each morning before 
being sent to the General Foreman's 
Office, where they are checked over, and 
if it is found that a certain piece of 
work, we will say for instance putting 
on a cylinder, taking down a frame, 
setting guides, piston and crosshead 
work, or whatever the case may be, has 
cost more than usual or does not com- 
pare with previous records, it is imme- 
diately investigated as to the reason, 
so that we are thoroughly convinced 
that our time records are correct before 
our time slips go to the time office or 
audit department. 


By M. E. D. 

It is being recognized almost every- 
where to-day that the education of the 
men is necessary to increase the effi- 
ciency of the shops. The railroads in 
both United States and Canada have 
been leaders and set an example which 
might well be followed by Canadian 
manufacturing concerns. Examples of 
apprenticeship systems on the C.P.R. 
and G.T.R. have been given in Cana- 
dian Machinery. The following is an- 
other example of railroad progressivc- 
ness and goes to show the value placed 
by railroads on education of the men. 

To increase the efficiency of the men 
operating its trains, the Pennsylvania 
Railroad has determined to adopt the 
use of signal instruction cars on all of ' 
its divisions. The divisions on the 
main line between Philadelphia and 
Pittsburg have just been equipped. 

The company realizes that safety of 
operation depends upon its employes 
having a thorough knowledge of all sig- 
nals, and it has been decided that ex- 
plicit personal instructions shall be 
given frequently to enginemen, firemen, 
conductors and trainmen. The instruc- 
tions to be given in this signal car will 
include not only block and interlocking 
signals, but all other signals used in 
the movement of trains, 



Practical Ways of Obtaining Economy in the Factor} 

Co-operation Between Men and Foremen, and Managers has Resulted 
in Large Annual Saving at Canadian Works of National Cash Register Co. 

THE superintendent of the Cana- 
dian branch of the National Cash 
Register Co. believes in getting 
in close personal touch with the work 
in the different departments. He works 
on the principle that the shop foremen 
ought to develop laTjor saving, cost 
reducing schemes. The foreman knows 
his department intimately and with a 
little incentive, takes pains to think 
out better ways of doing the work un- 
der his supervision. 

The superintendent endeavors to de- 
velop th« workmen and with this in 
view a rest and reading room hasi been 
fitted up where the men may spend a 
quiet quarter hour at the noon hour 
perusing such mechanical and educative 
papers as Canadian Machinery. 

Boxes are placed at the stairway 
leading to the different floors and here 
the workmen are requested to deposit 
suggestions which will tend to increase 
efficiency and economy, increasing the 

cussed and the suggestions of the men 
dealt with. Here by the result of 
planning schemes have lieen devised 
which have cut $11,400 from the oper- 
ating expenses of the factory without 
impairing in any way the quality of the 

Saving of Waste. 

In almost every factory there is an 
accumulation of various pieces of fac- 
tory equipment, stray bolts, shafting 
hangers, belting, etc. At the National 
Cash Register Company's works, a 
room has been set apart for accumula- 
tive stock. If there is a pulley, bolt 
or any other piece of factory equipment 
not in use it is returned to this room 
where it is ticketed and listed. Now 
the purchasing agent buys nothing until 
the stock keeper is consulted. 

Making the Men Punctual. 

A simple check system is in use. A 
box is located in each department and 
the men drop their checks into the box 

The Stock Room of National Cash Register Co.. Toronto. A is the Card giving Name and 
Number of Part. B is card made in Quadruplicate. One Copy being Sent to Stock Depart- 
ment showing Quantity of Stock Ordered. When it Comes to Hand, it is Checkt-d by Stock 
Men. C is Signal Bell. D Shows Small Bo xes Used for the Easy Handling of Parts. 

output or reducing the expenses. Per- 
haps some impractical ideas are sub- 
mitted sometimes but by explaining to 
the men why they will not work, other 
practical ideas are suggested. At any 
rate, it keeps the men thinking and use- 
ful ideas are developed. 

Banner Department. 

To stimulate the practice of economy, 
and habits of cleanliness and punctual- 
ity, a banner containing the words 
"Banner Department" is hung in a 
prominent place in the department in 
which the best record is made. At the 
present time it is in possession of the 
Foundry Department. 

Fortnightly Conference. 

'Another scheme that has resulted in 
the saving of thousands of dollars each 
year is the result of fortnightly con- 
ferences held in the reading room. 
Means of improving the plant are dis- 

in their particular deuartment. Bells in 
the different departments are controlled 
by the engineer. Automatically, as he 
rings the bells at seven and one o'clock, 
a simple electrical device closes the 
opening in the check box and the late 
comer must report to the foremen. 

This means a saving as men are 
trained to be punctual. Supposing ten 
men in the factory, earning $2.00 per 
day, were five minutes late each work- 
ing day, it would mean a loss to the 
company of $50 per year. If there were 
20 men it would mean $100 per year ; 
if the 20 men lost 10 minutes, the loss 
would be $200 ; if the men received $3 
a day, it would be $267. Therefore in 
teaching the men to be prompt, savings 
have been effected in this way. 
Indexing the Stock. 

In order that the reader may appre- 
ciate the saving that may be made by 

a well-ordered stockroom is here shown. 
It was customary to have one or two 
men familiar with all the parts and 
depend on them for the delivery of 
stock to the various departments. As 
there are 13,000 parts kept in stock, 
the stores department was crippled if 
one of the workmen was ill or away 
for a day. It also hindered prompt 
deliveries on account of men not fami- 
liar with the work, having to handle 
the supplies. 

A saving of 50 per cent, of the cost 
of maintenance has been effected in this 
way : A card bearing the number of the 
part and its name, is fastened to the 
front of each pocket in the bins. Then 
each row of pockets, and each bin is 
numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. The parts 
are all listed alphabetically in a book 
for the purpose similar to the follow- 
ing : 

1071 screw for cash drawer 3.16 in. x 3 in. bin 
2, row 2. 

It is therefore seen that an unitiated 
workman can easily locate stock and 
there are therefore no delays in obtain- 
ing Tnaterial. 

Piece Work in Erecting Shop. 

Satisfactory results have been ob- 
tained by introducing the piece work 
system in the erecting shop and it is 
intended to introduce it into some of 
t'be other departments. When a joib is 
given to a workman a job card is issued 
and this card must be presented to the 
foreman to show that the job is com- 
pleted beforehe can obtain a new one. 
In this way the men are prevented from 
holding back work and entering it on 
the piece work card for the following 


A dumb-waiter has been installed, 
which carries the work from the stock 
room on the second floor to the ma- 
chine shop on the third floor and to 
the assembling room on the top floor. 
The time of a man is thus saved, for 
those employed in the stock room can 
send the boxes of small parts to the 
departments mentioned. 

Obtaining the Men's Enthusiasm. 

Mention has been made of the rest 
room. In addition their is a coat and 
wash room with rows of lockers, -where 
the men keep their eoats, towels, etc. 
The lockers were made by the company 
at a cost of about 90cts each. Wire 
screening is used for the front of the 

Two towels and two aprons are sup- 
plied each workman per week. Every 
week, each is allowed to take a bath 
in the company's time, sprinkler baths 
being kept up by the company. The 
men are thus encouraged to be neat. 
Each man and foreman is made as re- 
sponsible as is possible for the work 
under his charge. It makes them more 
enthusiastic and useful and they obtain 
higher wages, 





The total trade for March last was $66,5t)4,208, an 
inoieaso of $1.^250,000. Imports for the month totalled 
$43,391,991, an increase of about $10,500,000. p^xports 
of domestic products totalled $22,199,275, as compared 
with $18,397,974 in March of last year. 

A monthly newspaper devoted to machinery and manufacturing interests 
mechanical and electrical trades, the foundry, technical progress, construction 
and improvement, and to all users of power developed from steam, gas, elec- 
ricity, compressed air and water in Canada. 

The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 


H.V. TYRRELL, Toronto 

G. C. KEITH, M.E., B.Sc, Toronto 

F. C. D.WILKES, B.Sc, Montreal 

W. L. EDMONDS. Vice-President 

Business Manager 
Managing Editor 
Associate Editor 



Montreal Rooms 701-702 Eastern 

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Toronto - 10 Front Street East 

Phone Main 7324 

WlNNIPBO, 511 Union Bank Building: 

Phone 3726 

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Room 21, Hartney Chambers 


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Phone Central 12960 

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11091111 Lawyers' Title, Insur. 

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Phone, nil Cortlandt 


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Paris, France 


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Cable Address: 
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48. 6d., per year ; other countries, $1.50. Advertising rates on request. 

Subscribers who are not receiving their paper regularly will 
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at once of any change in address, giving both old and new. 

Vol. VI. 

Miy, 1910 

No. 5 


Canada's total trade for the fiscal year ending last 
month reached the record figure of $677,142,189. This is 
an increase of no less than $117,506,238, or over twenty 
per cent., as compared with the preceding twelve months. 
It is an increase of over twenty-six millions as com- 
pared with the previous high record of 1907-8. At pre- 
sent the regular monthly increases over the correspond- 
ing months of last year are running over ten millions 
per month, and indications point to a total trade in the 
neighborhood of eight hundred millions for the current 
fiscal year. 

The total imports for the year were $375,783,660, 
an increase of $77,659,868 over 1908-9. Exports of 
domestic products totalled $279,211,537, an increase of 

Exports of foreign products totalled $22,146,992, an 
increase of $3,238,419. The chief items of export for the 
year, with comparative figures are as follows : — 

1908-9. 1909-10. 

Agriculture $71,997,207 $90,433,747 

Forest 39,667,387 47,517,033 

Animals and their produce. 51,349,646 53,926,515 

Mines 37,257,699 40,087,017 

Manufacturees 28,957,050 31,494,916 

Fisheries 13,319,664 15,627,148 

The total duty collected for the year amounted to 
$61,010,489, an increase of $12,269,475. 


In this issue of Canadian Maehinery we ijublish a 
paper written by Robert Patterson, in which he advocates 
technical education for apprentices. He suggests that it 
be made possible for an apprentice," on completion of his 
term of practical training, to attend the university for a 
year, and combine theory and practice. 

It is a poor rule that, does not work both ways, and 
if the tombination of theory and practice is good for an 
apprentice, it is also good for a student at the university. 
At some of our Canadian universities there are mechanical 
laboratories, where the students learn to run a lathe, use 
a drill, planer, etc., but it is the seven o'clock w'.iistle, and 
the clink of the time check that makes a student know 
what his education is worth. 

A young man in attendance at one of our universities 
spent his summers in one of the large locomotive shops. 
At the close of his second summer he went into the office 
to bid the master mechanic good-bye. It was a thoughtful 
lime for liim, and he thus addressed the head of the 
shops : 

"I have spent two summers in the shops and any of 
the apprentices can lake liold of a job and do it tetter 
than I can. Next spring I hope to get my degree; what 
am I then fittedi for?" 

That master mechanic had a, great respect for that 
.vouiig man an account of his coming to the point of un- 
derstanding. He realized, as all should, that when a man 
receives a salary or wages, the company makes an invest- 
ment to the amount of the salary and wages, and the man 
must be in a position to give returns for that investment, 
which will .justify the expenditure. 

Tlie student was recommended to spend another year 
or two in the shop and then, with both the theoretical 
and the practical knowledge combined, he would be 
prepared] to take a more responsible position than he 
otherwise would. 

Frederick W. 'Taylor, who presented that notable paper 
before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, a 
short time ago, on "The Art of Cutting Metals," has 
taken an active interest in technical education, and he 
says : 

"At college a very large amount of time is given up 
to the study of materials. Practically his whole chemical 
course is the study of materials. A very considerable part 
of his course in physics has to do with materials. The 
greater part of his work in a meclianical laboratory is 
a study of materials. Do you realize that the great raw 
material with which more than one-half of the successful 
graduates of our technical schools have to deal, receives 
not a sringle hour of study at our colleges and universities, 
not one hour? That the great raw material with which 
the managers, superintendents, presidents, every man of 
our large companies is dealing, is men? And these one- 
half of the students, who are finally called upon to man- 
age workmen, learn nothing whatever about that at col- 
lege. At twenty-two years of age on the average they 
land outside of college without the slightest knowledge of 
the great raw material with which more than one-half 
of them will have to work throughout their lives." 

A joint committee appointed bv seven of the English 
engineering societies, with three of the professors from 
universities, unanimously voted that it was desirable to 



have two years' apprenticeship before students graduated 
as engineers. This is a very remarkable recommendation. 
It would, however, give the student a chance to under- 
stand shop cunditions, and will show him that each one 
in an organization must become one in a train of gears. 
The combination of practical and theoretical will ensure 


For years the ^buying of the railroads has 'been looked 
upon as a trade barometer. At the present time large 
orders for freight equipment are being placed by the 
railroad corporations. Kecently the C.P.R. placed an 
order for l.OOO steel freight cars, and within the past two 
weeks a second million-dollar order for 1,000 cars, all of 
which will be ready for the I&IO harvest. In addition to 
these orders, which have been pieced with an outside com- 
pany, and which are being turned out at the rate of 
fifteen ears per day, the C.P.R. are building twenty-four 
cars per day, making a total output of nearly forty cars 
per day. 

The G.T.'R. is calling for tenders for well over $3,- 
000,000 of freight equipment, much of which is being or- 
dered in anticipation of the wheat business from the west 
next year. The prospective order includes two thousand 
five hundred steel-frame bo.x cars of 100,000 pounds ca- 
pacity, especially designed for wheat carrying, and of a 
type which is a radical departure for the road. Twenty 
of these cars in a train will carry a thousand tons of wheat, 
and they will be utilized ne.xl fall when the western haj- 
vest starts. 

In addition, the (t.T.R. is now a,dvertising for tenders 
for 500 ;peeial automobile cars. These are steel-framed 
bo.x-cars, with doors taking up almost their whole end, so 
that big touring cars can easily be run in or out. The 
(rrand Trunk touches Detroit and other big auto manufac- 
turing cities, and has found special equipment necessary 
for this trade. 

It is preparations like this tha.t convey confidence to 
those who want more than general opinion before they are 
satisfied as to a country's prospects. When men who have 
their pulse so truly on the situation, like those constituting 
the management of our great railroads, start such equip- 
ment provision there can be little room, for doubt. 


Hon. Mackenzie King, Minister of Labor, has introduc- 
ed a bill in the Dominion Parliament, which aims to pro- 
vide machinery for investigating charges that prices of 
commodities have been unduly enhanced by combines. 

The bill, in brief, provides that where six or more per- 
sons are of opinion that a conabine exists, and that prices 
have been enhanced or competition restricted by reason of 
such combines, to the detriment of consumers, they may 
make an application in writing to a High Court judge for 
an order directing an investigation into such alleged com- 
bine. If upon such hearing the judge is satisfied that 
there is reasonable ground tor believing that a combine 
exists which is injurious to trade, or which has operated 
to the detriment of consumers, and that it is in the pub- 
lic interest that an investigation should be held, the judge 
shall direct an investigation. The Minister of Labor then 
chooses a board of three members to investigate the al- 
leged combine, which if foimd guilty, is liable to a fine of 
.$1,000 a day and costs for each day it offends after the 
expiration of ten days from the date of the publication of 
the board's report in the Canada Gazette. 

The bill has been introduced late in the session and as 
it is an important measure, it is likely to be held over 
until next parliament before final adoption. Mr. King 
will have the .sympathy of a large body of Canadian 
citizens in his endeavor to restrict the harmful influences 
of trusts and combines, while leaving trade associations 
free to continue their regulation of the minor details af- 
fecting their various industries. 

The chief defect of the bill proposed seems to be the 
ease with which a handful of individuals could cause busi- 
ness enterprises a lot of trouble by compelling them to 
present books and other documents in court to disprove 
charges which may or may not have been laid by respon- 
sible persons. A discussion of the features of the, bill is 
desirable and wise action would be taken in referring it 
to a committee of the House or allowing it to stand over 
until the next session of Parliament. 


The latest rumor in connection with the proposed mer- 
ger of various iron and steel mills is that the Dominion 
Iron and Steel Co. are interested in the offer to purchase 
the Montreal Rolling Mills. This is incorrect, however. 

The Dominion Iron and Steel Co. were mentioned in 
this connection some time ago but more recently the un- 
derstanding has been that the merger would include the 
Hamilton Steel and Iron Co., the Canada Screw Co , the 
Canada Bolt and Nut Co. (with mills at Brantford, To- 
ronto, Belleville and Gananoque), and the Montreal Rol- 
ling Mills. There has been trouble in securing the approv- 
al of the Hamilton .Steel and Iron Co.'s shareholders, 
however, they holding out for .$9,000,000 in stock in the 
new company, whereas they have only been offered $7,- 
500,000 in merger stock for their $3,000,000 of Hamilton 
Steel and Iron stock. This seems to have upset arrange- 
ments as it is now said that the merger will be gone on 
with without any steel company being included, it being 
purely an iron mill consolidation. 

That the proposition is progressing is evident from 
the fact that the directors of the Montreal Rolling Mills 
issued on Thursday of this week a circular to sharehold- 
ers advising them to accept the private offer made of $300 
per share for stock which has been quoted at $250. Re- 
plies are requested by June. 

A considerable step forward was made when the Can- 
ada Bolt and Nut Co. consolidated half a dozen mills un- 
der one head, and if the Hamilton and Montreal mills join 
interests with the Canada Company, having headquarters 
in Toronto, the finished iron products industry will be in 
a strong position and capable of competing successfully 
with the large United States corporations. 

It no steel mill is included in the iron merger, it is 
probable that the merger of Canadian steel industries, 
suggested some months ago, will be gone on with and the 
leading Canadian iron and steel industries consolidated 
under two heads working in alliance with each other. 


A question that is receiving the attention of manufac- 
turers at the present time, probably more than ever be- 
fore, is the saving of waste. In factories similar con- 
ditions exist as in locomotive repair shops, and in both 
these, as Mr. .Smith points out in the article "Making an 
Annual Saving of Thousands of Dollars," great savings 
can often be made by eliminating the expensive handling 
of material. In the case in point, $8,000 was saved an- 
nually by the installation of a crane. The store room is 
often the source of a great deal of waste which may be 



greatly reduced by storing material in bins, protecting it 
from atmospheric conditions, etc. 

In this connection also a great responsibility rests on 
the purchasing agent. This is also pointed out by Mr. 
Smith. Proper materials should be on hand when required 
■and purchased when they are cheapest. The using of more 
expensive material than is required, because it is on 
hand and the specified material is not in the store de- 
partment, is a source of waste which should be avoided. 

A buyer for a manufacturing worlts often tries to have 
as little stock on hand as he possibly can. It costs 
money to carry stock, he says, and money brings in a 
large interest. It must also be remembered, however, 
that it costs money to wait for stock ; it costs many 
times what the stock is worth to wait for it. In many 
cases it will be found that it pays to carry a large 
stock, especially of standard articles. 

One way in which a saving can be made is to get the 
full efficiency from the machines at all times. The intro- 
duction of high speed steel has assisted us in doing this to 
a certain extent. The design of machine tools has had 
to advance to keep pace with the use of high speed steel 
and a great economy has bee-n effected in largely increased 

Another thing that works for economy is to have a 
well-balanced shop, that is, that production in the various 
departments must be balanced in such a manner, that 
the erecting shop has always a supply of material. This 
applies to all classes of factories. In the locomotive 
shop, the boiler, foundry and machine shops must work 
together to get the highest efficiency out of the shops. 
If the erecting shop cannot get cylinders from the found- 
ries, or if they cannot get work from the machine shop, 
the department at fault should be strengthened to bring 
it up to the producing strength of the other shops. 

The railroad shops of to-day are among the most pro- 
gressive in securing economies and the manufacturers, 
generally, who look after the small items are placed in a 
better position to compete in the world's markets. 

One reason for this is that the railroad official is 
ever ready to investigate anything which will result in 
further economies in the shops. A railroad repair shop 
is, as a rule, a model of economy. The machinery equip- 
ment is suited to the purpose for which it is intended and 
by the systems in use, stock is carefully accounted for, 
tools are taken care of and departments are in close 
touch with the master mechanic. 

In the twentieth century development, however, new 
schemes are being devised which make it necessary for 
every manufacturer, master mechanic, superintendent and 
foreman to be on the alert. The reason for the growth 
and success of many industries is that the waste is taken 
care of and economies are introduced which has enabled 
them to make considerable profits. Some hard study is 
necessary to reduce the costs of manufacturing but tlie 
achievements of those who are eliminating waste, show 
that it is worth the investigation and work connected- 
with it. 



His Lordship, Justice Magee says it is illegal for a 
purchaser to accept a secret rebate. The Secret Com- 
missions Act makes no distinction between receiving and 
giving a secret commission. 

Justice Magee says : "If you sent your servant to 
market to buy a horse and there he meets with a man 
who offers him a horse at $150 and says, 'If you will 
buy this ho' at $150 I will give you $10 of it to your- 
self ; and you need not have any compunction about it, 
because I would not let your master have it for less 
than $150,' And your servant gets it for $150 and puts 

the $10 in his pocket, you can recover that $10 from 
your servant. It is your money, not his, because it was 
made out of the transaction which he was carrying on 
with some person else for you ; now, that is clear law. 
So, a commercial traveler sent out by a house here in 
Canada to buy goods for that house in the States, and 
he may be offered a commission by a person in respect 
to the goods he buys. When he comes back to Canada, 
if the transaction ever becomes known, he is liable to 
pay over that rr.jney to his employers. He has no right 
to be paid at both ends, unless it is known. This ques- 
tion of double commissions has for a long time past been 
quite too common, and has been permeating to a large 
extent the commercial life of the country. So much is 
that the case that last year the Dominion Government 
passed an act making it a criminal offence to take a 
double commission." 

Let us see whether the other half of the act is not 
just as binding on the giver of the secret rebate as it 
is on the receiver. Clause (b) reads as follows : "Being 
an agent, corruptly gives or agrees to give or offers any 
gift or consideration to any agent as an inducement or 
reward or consideration to such agent for doing or for- 
bearing to do, or for having after the passing of this 
Act done or forborne to do, any act relating to his 
principal's affairs or business, or for showing or for- 
bearing to show favor or disfavor to any person with 
relation to his principal's affairs or business." 

It must be evident from the above that the object 
of the law is to prevent the seller from giving a secr