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JAN  3  1  1994 

APRl  0  1994 

G2J  1  3  1994 
MAR2  21995 

NOV  2 "?  1996 

The  Catholic  Encyclopedia 

Fathers— Gregory 

Till';    UKUQUAKY    01''    ST.    CiKNEVlKNT'. 









EDWARD   A.  PACE,  Ph.D.,  D.D.         CONDE   B.  PALLEN,  Ph.D.,  LL.D. 







mew  ^ovk 

Nihil  Obstat,  September  1,  1909 




Copyrigni,  1909 
Bt  Robert  Appleton  Company 

Copyright,  1913 
By  the  encyclopedia  PRESS,  INC. 

The  articles  in  this  -work  have  been  written  specially  for  The  CathoUc 
Encyclopedia  and  are  protected  by  eopyria;ht.     All  rights,  includ- 
ing the  right  of  translation  and  reproduction,  are  reserved. 


Contributors  to  the  Sixth  Volume 

AHERNE,  CORNELIUS,  Professor  of  New  Tes- 
tament Exegesis,  Rector,  St.  Joseph's  Col,- 
LEGE,  Mill  Hill,  London:  GaLitians,  Epistle 
to  the. 

ALBERS,  P.,S.J.,  Maastricht,  Holland:  Gorkum, 
The  Martyrs  of. 

AlDASY,  ANTAL,  Ph.D.,  Archivist  of  the  Li- 
brary of  the  National  Museum,  Budapest: 
Gran,  Archdiocese  of. 

ALSTON,  G.  CYPRIAN,  O.S.B.,  Doivnside  Abbey, 
Bath,  England:  Fontenelle,  Abbey  of;  Font- 
froide,  Abbey  of;  Gall,  Abbey  of  Saint;  Gar- 
land; Gaudete  Sunday;  General  Chapter;  Glebe; 

ARENDZEN,  J.  P.,  S.T.D.,  M.A.  (Cantab.),  Pro- 
fessor OF  Holy  Scripture,  St.  Edmund's 
College,  Ware,  England:  Gabriel  Sionita; 

ASTRAIN,  ANTONIO,  S.J.,  Madrid:  Francis  Xav- 
ier,  Saint. 

AVELING,  FRANCIS,  S.T.D.,  London:  Form; 

BARBIERI,  REMIGIO  GUIDO,  Titul.«  Bishop 
OF  Theodosiopolis,  Vicar  Apostolic  of  Gi- 
braltar:   Gibraltar,  Vicariate  Apostolic  of. 

AND  Cantab.),  Cambridge,  England:  Glabrio, 
Manius  Acilius. 

BARRETT,  MICHAEL,  O.S.B.,  Buckie,  Scot- 
land: Fort  Augustus  Abbey;  Graham,  Patrick. 

tBARRY,  ALBERT,  C.SS.R.,  Limerick,  Ireland: 
Furniss,  John. 

BENIGNI,  UMBERTO,  Professor  of  Ecclesias- 
tical History,  Pont.  Collegio  Urbano  di 
Propaganda,  Rome:  Ferentino,  Diocese  of; 
Fermo,  Archdiocese  of;  Ferrara,  Archdiocese  of; 
Fiesole,  Diocese  of;  Florence,  Archdiocese  of; 
Foggia,  Diocese  of;  Foligno,  Diocese  of;  Forli, 
Diocese  of;  Fossano,  Diocese  of;  Fossombrone, 
Diocese  of;  Frascati,  Diocese  of;  Gaeta,  Arch- 
diocese of;  Gallipoli,  Diocese  of;  Galluppi, 
Pasquale;  Galtelli-Nuoro,  Diocese  of;  Genoa, 
.\rchdiocese  of;  Gerace,  Diocese  of;  Giberti, 
Gian  Matteo;  Gioberti,  Vincenzo;  Girgenti, 
Diocese  of;  Gonzaga,  Ercole;  Gonzaga,  Scipione; 
Grassis,  Paris  de;  Gravina  and  Montepeloso, 
Diocese  of. 

OF  St.  Augustine's,  Carshalton,  Surrey, 
England:    Genuflexion. 

t  Deceased 

BEWERUNGE,  H.,  Professor  of  Church  Music, 
St.  Patrick's  College,  Maynooth,  Dublin: 
Gregorian  Chant. 

BIHL,  MICHAEL,  O.F.M.,  Lector  of  Ecclesiasti- 
cal History,  Collegio  San  Bonaventura, 
QuARACCHi,  Florence:  Fraticelli;  Friars  Minor, 
Order  of;  Gerardus  Odonis. 

BOOTHMAN,  C.  T.,  Kingstown,  Ireland:  Fitz- 
herbert,  Maria  Anne;  Glanville,  Ranulf  de. 

Director,  "Canonists  Contemporain",  Pro- 
fessor OF  Canon  Law,  Institut  Catholique, 
Paris:  Forgery,  Forger;  Formularies;  Gibert, 
Jean-Pierre;  Glaire,  Jean-Baptiste;  Glosses, 
Glossaries,   Glossarists. 


William  Russell. 

D.D.,    New   York:    Grace, 

BRAUN,  JOSEPH,  S.J.,  Bellevue,  Luxemburg: 
Gloves,  Episcopal. 

BRIShIER,  LOUIS-RENfi,  Professor  of  Ancient 
AND  Medieval  History,  University  op  Cler- 
mont-Ferrand, Puy-de-D6ime,  France:  Foul- 
que  de  Neuilly;  Fregoso,  Federigo;  Froissart, 
Jean;  Gesta  Dei  per  Francos;  Godfrey  of  Bouil- 

BRIAULT,    MAURICE,    C.S.Sp.,    Paris: 
Vicariate  Apostolic  of. 


BROCK,  HENRY  M.,  S.J.,  Professor  of  Physics, 
Holy  Cross  College,  Worcester,  Massachu- 
setts: Ferdinand,  Blessed;  Feuillet,  Louis; 
Fixlmillner,  Placidus;  Fontana,  Felice;  Forster, 
Arnold;  Forster,  Thomas  Ignatius  Maria;  Fres- 
nel,  Augustin-Jean;  Gerbillon,  Jean-Frangois. 

TON  Castle,  Perthshire,  Scotland:  Gandol- 
phy,  Peter;  Gervase,  George;  Goldwell,  Thomas; 
Gother,  John;   Gradwell,  Robert. 

BURKE,  EDMUND,  B.A.,  Instructor  in  Latin, 
College  of  the  City  of  New  York:  Filelfo, 
Francesco;  Forcellini,  Egidio;  Fust,  John. 

BURTON,  EDWIN,  S.T.D.,  F.S.  Hist.  See,  Vice- 
President,  St.  Edmund's  College,  Ware, 
England:  Fenn,  John;  Finch,  John,  Venerable; 
Fitzalan,  Henry;  Fitzherbert,  Sir  Anthony; 
Fleming,  Richard;  Fletcher,  John;  Floyd,  John; 
Formby,  Henry;  Fowler,  John;  Gardiner, 
Stephen;  Geoffrey  of  Dunstable;  Geoffrey  of 
Monmouth;  Gerard,  Archbishop  of  York;  Ger- 
vase of  Canterbury;  Gesta  Romanorum;  Goffe, 
Stephen;  Goss,  Alexander;  Grant,  Thomas; 
Green,  Tljomas  Louis, 


BUTLER,  RICHARD  URBAN,  O.S.B.,  Downside 
Abbey,  Bath,  England:  Gilbertines,  Order  of; 
Gilbert  of  Sempringham,  Saint. 

CAMM,  BEDE,  O.S.B.,  B.A.  (Oxon.),  Erdington 
Abbey,  Birmingham,  England:  Feckenham, 
John  de. 

CARTER,  MARY  GILMORE,  New  York:  Gilmore, 
Patrick  Sarsficld. 

CASANOVA,  GERTRUDE,  O.S.B.,  Stanbrook 
Abbey,  Worcester,  England:  Gertrude  the 
Great,  Saint;  Gertrude  van  der  Oosten,  Vener- 

CASARTELLI,  L.  C,  S.T.D.,  Bishop  of  Salford, 
England:    Gentili,  Aloysius. 

CHAPMAN,  JOHN,  O.S.B.,  B.A.  (Oxon.),  Prior  of 
St.  Thomas's  Abbey,  Erdington,  Birmingham, 
England:  Fathers  of  the  Church;  Fei5sler, 
Joseph;  FirmiHan,  Bishop  of  Csesarea;  Fulgen- 
tius,  Fabius  Claudius  Gordianus,  Saint;  Gauden- 
tius.  Saint;   Gennadius  I,  Saint. 

CLEARY,  GREGORY,  O.F.M.,  S.T.L.,  J.U.L.,  Pro- 
fessor OF  Moral  Theology  and  Canon  Law, 
St.  Isidore's  College,  Rome:  Friar. 

CLEARY,  HENRY  W.,  Editor,  "New  Zealand 
Tablet",  Ddnedin,  New  Zealand:  Goulburn, 
Diocese  of. 

Paris:  Gatianus,  Saint;  Gerard,  Saint,  Abbot  of 
Brogne;  Gerard,  Saint,  Bishop  of  Toul;  Goar, 

COFFEY,  PETER,  S.T.L.,  Ph.D.,  Professor  of 
Philosophy,  St.  Patrick's  College,  Maynooth, 
Dublin:  Gilbert  de  la  Porr^e;  Godfrey  of  Fon- 

COLEMAN,  AMBROSE,  O.P.,  M.R.I.A.,  St.  Sav- 
iour's Priory,  Dublin:  Felix  III,  Saint,  Pope; 
Felix  of  Nola,  Saint. 

ton:  Fitton,  James. 

COOREMAN,  JOSEPH,  S.J.,  V.G.,  General  Mana- 
ger OF  THE  Schools  of  the  Diocese  of  Galle, 
Ceylon:  Galle,  Diocese  of. 



S.J.,    New    York:     Gradual 

CORDIER,  HENRI,  Professor  at  the  School  for 
Oriental  Living  Languages,  Paris:  Gaubil, 

CRAM,  RALPH  ADAMS,  F.R.G.S.,  F.  Am.  Inst. 
Architects,  President,  Boston  Society  of 
Architects,  Boston:    Gothic  Architecture. 

Krefeld,  Germany:  George  the  Bearded. 

CRIVELLI,  CAMILLUS,  S.J.,  Professor  of  Gen- 
eral History,  Instituto  CiENTipico,  City  of 
Mexico:  Figueroa,  Francisco  Garcia  de  la  Rosa; 
G6mara,  Francisco  L6pcz  de. 

CUTHBERT,  FATHER,  O.S.F.C,  Crawley,  Sus- 
sex, England:  Felix  of  Cantalice,  Saint;  Fidelis 
of  Sigmaringen,  Saint;  Francis  of  Paula,  Saint; 
Fytch,  William  Benedict;  Gennings,  Edmund 
and  John. 

D-ALTON,  E.  A.,  M.R.I.A.,  Athenry,  Ireland: 
Fitzpatrick,  William  John;  Fleming,  Patrick; 
Galway  and  Kilmacduagh,  Diocese  of. 

DEBUCHY,  PAUL,  S.J.,  Litt.L.,  Enghien,  Bel- 
gium:  Gagliardi,  Achille;  Gaudier,  Antoine  le; 
Gisbert,  Blaise. 

DEGERT,  ANTOINE,  LL.D.,  Editor,  "La  Revue 
de  la  Gascoigne",  Professor  of  Latin  Litera- 
ture, Institut  Catholique,  Toulouse:  Fene- 
lon,  Frangois  de  Salignac  de  la  Mothe;  Gallican- 

DELAMARRE,  LOUIS  N.,  Ph.D.,  Instructor  in 
French,  College  of  the  City  op  New  York: 
I'auriel,  Charles-Claude;  Florian,  Jean-Pierre 
Claris;  Gebhart,  Emile;  Gilbert,  Nicolas-Joseph- 
Laurent;  Giraud  de  Borneil. 

DELANY,  JOSEPH,  S.T.D.,  New  York:  Fear 
(from  moral  standpoint);  Gluttony;  Good  Faith. 

DE  SMEDT,  CH.,  S.J.,    Brussels:     Gamans,    Jean. 

DEVINE,  ARTHUR,  C.P.,  Profe.ssor  of  Theol- 
ogy, St.  Saviour's  Retreat,  Broadway, 
Worcestershire,  England:  Galjriel  Possenti, 

DEVITT,  E.  J.,  S.J.,  Professor  of  Psichology, 
Georgetown  University,  Washington  :  George- 
town University. 

fessor OF  Moral  Theology,  St.  Mary's  Uni- 
versity, Baltimore:  Good,  The  Highest. 

DIONNE,  N.  E.,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  Librarian  to  thf 
Legislature  of  Quebec:  Fr^cliette,  Louis- 

DONOVAN,  S'TEPHEN  M.,  O.F.M  ,  Washington: 
Ferber,  Nicolaus;  Fonseca,  Jos(S  Ribeiro  da; 
Fonseca  Soares,  Antonio  da;  Francis  Solanus, 
Saint;  Frassen,  Claude;  Gaudentius  of  Brescia. 

DOUMIC,  RENE,  Member  of  the  French  Academy, 
Literary  and  Dramatic  Critic,  ''Revue  des 
Deux  Mondes",  Paris:   French  Literature. 

DRISCOLL,  JAMES  F.,  S.l  D.,  New  York:  Firma- 
ment;  Gog  and  Magog:   Golden  Calf. 

DRISCOLL,  JOHN  THOMAS,  M.A.,  S.T.L.,  Fonda, 
New  York:    Fetishism. 

D'SA,  M.\NOEL  F.  X.,  Principal,  Antonio  de 
SouzA  School,  Mazagon,  Bombay,  India:  Gar- 
cia, Gonsalo,  Saint. 

DUBRAY,  CHARLES  A.,  S.M.,  S.T.B.,  Ph.  D.,  Pro- 
fessor OF  Philosophy,  Marist  College,  Wash- 
ington; Franchi,  Ausonio;  Gaultier,  Aloisius- 
Edouard-Camille;  Gddoyn,  Nicolas;  G^rando, 
Joseph-Marie  de;  Ginoulhiac,  Jacques-Marie- 
Achille;    Girard,  Jean-Baptiste. 

DUNFORD,  DAVID,  Diocesan  Inspector  of 
Schools,  Hoddesdon,  Hertfordshire,  Eng- 
land: Fear  (in  Canon  Law) ;  Foundation;  Gar- 
dellini,  Aloisio;  Funeral  Dues;  Gavantus,  Barto- 

Soc,  London-  Feilding,  Rudolph  William  BasiL 


DUNN,  JOSEPH,  Ph.D.,  Profe.ssor  of  Celtic  Lan- 
guage AND  Literature,  Catholic  University 
OP  America,  Washington:  Filliucius,  Felix. 

EDMONDS,  COLUMBA,  O.S.B.,  Fort  Augustus, 
Scotland:    Gildas,  Saint. 

viLLE,  California:  Friars  Minor  in  America. 

EWING,  JOHN  GILLESPIE,  M.A.,  San  Juan, 
Porto  Rico:  Gillespie,  Eliza  Maria;  Gillespie, 
Neal  Henry. 

FANNING,  WILLIAM  H.  W.,  S.J.,  Professor  op 
Church  History  and  Canon  Law,  St.  Louis 
University,  St.  Louis:  Filial  Church; Forum, 

FAVREAU,  J.  ARTHUR,  Secretary,  Societe  His- 
torique  Franco-A.mericaine,  Boston:  French 
Catholics  in  the  United  States. 

FENLON,  JOHN  F.,  S.S.,  S.T.D.,  President,  St. 
Austin's  College,  Brookland,  District  of 
Columbia,  Professor  of  Sacred  Scripture, 
St.  Mary's  Seminary,  Baltimore:  Fouard, 
Constant;    Gosselin,  Jean-Edra6-Auguste. 

FISCHER,  JOSEPH,  S.J.,  Professor  op  Geog- 
raphy and  History,  Stella  Matutina  Col- 
lege, Feldkirch,  Austria:  Fillastre,  Guillaume. 

FUREY,  JOHN,  U.S.N.,  Retired,  Brooklyn,  New 
York:    Grasse,  Frangois-Joseph-Paul  de. 

GEMELLI,  AGOSTINO,  O.F.M.,  M.D.C.M.,  Hon- 
orary Professor  op  Histology,  Professor  op 
Pastoral  Medicine,  Director,  "Rivlsta  di 
FiLosoFiA  Neo-scolastica",  Milan:  Fortunate 
of  Brescia. 

GERARD,  JOHN,  S.J.,    F.L.S.,    London: 


Titular  of  Barlings,  Corpus  Christi  Priory, 
Manchester,  England:  Floreffe,  Abbey  of; 
Frigolet,  Abbey  of;  GofBne,  Leonard. 

GIETMANN,  GERARD,  S.J.,  Teacher  of  Classical 

LEGE, Valkenburg,  Holland:  Fuhrich,  Joseph; 
GMberti,  Lorenzo  di  Clone;  Girardon,  Frangois. 

GIGOT,  FRANCIS  E.,S.T.D.,  Professor  of  Sacred 
Scripture,  St.  Joseph's  Seminaky',  Dunwoodie, 
New  York:  Gabbatha;  Gad;  Gamaliel;  Ged- 
eon;  Generation;  Gentiles;  Glosses,  Scriptural; 
Gospel  and  Gospels. 

GILLET,  LOUIS,  Paris:  Ferrari,  Gaudenzio;  Feti, 
Domenico;  Flandrin,  Jean-Hippolyte;  Fouquet, 
Jehan;  Francia  (Francesco  Raibolini) ;  Fromen- 
tin,  Eugene;  Ghirlandajo  (Domenico  di  Toma.sso 
Bigordi);  Giotto  di  Bondone;  Giulio  Romano; 
Gossaert,  Jan. 

FITA  Y  COLOMER,  FIDEL,  S.J.,  Member  of  the     GILMARTIN,  THOM^^S    P.,    S.T.D.,    Vice-Presi- 
RoYAL  Academy  of  History,  Madrid:  Funchal,  dent,  St.  Patrick  s  College,  Maynooth,  Dub- 

Diocese  of;   Granada,  Archdiocese  of.  "n:  Good  Friday. 

FORD,  JEREMIAH  D.  M.,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  Professor 
OF  French  and  Spanish  Languages,  Harvard 
University',  Cambridge,  Massachusetts:  Fer- 
reira,  Antonio;  Filicaja,  Vincenzo  da;  Folengo, 
Teofilo;  Gallego,  Juan  Nicasio;  Garcilasso  de  la 
Vega;  Giraldi,  Giovanni  Battista;  Giusti,  Giu- 
seppe; Goldoni,  Carlo;  Gomes  De  Ainorim,  Fran- 
cisco; Gonzalo  de  Berceo;   Gozzi,  Carlo. 

FORTESCUE,  ADRIAN,  S.T.D.,  Ph.D.,  Letch- 
worth,  Hertfordshire,  England:  Gennadius 
II,  Patriarch  of  Constantinople;  Gennadius  of 
Marseilles;  George  Hamartolus;  Georgius  Syn- 
cellus;  Gloria  in  Excelsis  Deo;  Gospel  in  the 
Liturgy;   Gradual;   Greece;    Greek  Rites. 

fessor OF  History',  College  de  Montreal, 
Montreal:  Gal,  Saint;  Galland,  Antoine; 
Gaume,  Jean-Joseph;  Gousset,  Thomas-Marie- 

FOX,  JAMES  J.,  S.T.D.,  Professor  of  Philosophy, 
St.  Thomas's  College,  Washington:  Glory; 

FOX,  WILLIAM,  B.S.,  M.E.,  Associate  Professor 
of  Physics,  College  of  the  City  of  New  York: 
Faye,  Herve-Auguste-Etienne-Albans;  Fizeau, 
Armand-Hippolyte-Louis;  Foucault,  Jean-Bert- 
rand-L^on;  Fraunhofer,  Joseph  von;  Galvani, 

FUENTES,  VENTURA,  B.A.,  M.D.,  Instructor, 
College  of  the  City  of  New  York:  Ferndndez 
dePalencia,  Diego;  Feyjooy  Montenegro,  Benito 
Jeronimo;  Figueroa,  Francisco  de;  Florez,  En- 
rique; Garcilasso  de  !a  Vega  (The  Inca). 

GOYAU,  GEORGES,  Associate  Editor,  "Revue 
DBS  Deux  Mondes",  Paris:  Fesch,  Joseph; 
Fleury,  Andr^-Hercule;  France;  Francis  I, 
King  of  France;  Fr^jus,  Diocese  of;  Gallia 
Christiana;  Gap,  Diocese  of. 

Rosemount,  Enniscorthy',  Ireland:  Ferns, 
Diocese  of;  Finan,  Saint;  Finnian  of  Moville, 
Saint;  Fintan,  Saints;  Fothad,  Saint;  Gerald, 
Saint;  Giordani,  Tommaso;  Giovanelli,  Ruggi- 
ero;   Gobban  Saer. 

GREANEY,  JOHN  J.,  S.T.L.,  Pittsburg,  Pennsyl- 
vania:   Fitzralph,  Richard. 

GUfiRIN,  CHARLES,  Prefect  Apostolic,  Ghar- 
daia,  Africa:  Ghardaia,  Prefecture  Apostolic  of. 

HAGEN,  JOHN  G.,  S.J.,  Vatican  Observatory, 
Rome:    Gassendi,  Pierre. 

HAMMER,  BONAVENTURE,  O.F.M.,  Lafayette, 
Indiana:   Fort  Wayne,  Diocese  of. 

HANDLEY,  marie  LOUISE,  New  York:  Gasser 
von  Valhorn,  Joseph. 

HARTIG,  OTTO,  Assistant  Librarian  op  the 
Royal  Library,  Munich:  Gama,  Vasco  da; 
Geography  and  the  Church;   Glarean,  Henry. 

HASSETT,  MAURICE  M.,  S.T.D.,  Harrisburg, 
Pennsy'LVANIa:  Fish,  Symbolism  of  the;  Fos- 
sors;     Graffiti. 

HE.\LY,  JOHN,  S.T.D.,  LL.D.,  M.R.I. A.,  .•Arch- 
bishop of  "Tcam,  Senator  of  the  Royal  Uni- 
versity op  Ireland:    Glendalough,  School  of. 


HEALY,  PATRICK  J.,  S.T.D.,  Assistant  Pro- 
fessor OF  Church  History,  Catholic  Univer- 
sity of  America,  Washington:  Faustus  of  Riez; 
Felicissimus;  Firmicus  Maternus;  Flavia  Domi- 
tilla;    Fulgentius  Ferrandus. 

HECKMANN,  FERDINAND,  O.F.M.,  Teacher  of 
Latin  and  Greek,  Franciscan  Monastery, 
Washington;   Ferdinand  III,  Saint. 

Litt.  D.,  K.S.G.,  Professor  of  Latin  Language 
and  Literature,  College  of  the  City  of 
New  York:  Frank,  Michael  Sigismund. 

HIND,  GEORGE  ELPHEGE,  O.S.B.,  Glamorgan- 
shire, Wales:  Faversham  Abbey;  Folkestone 
Abbey;   Fountains  Abbey;   Furness  Abbey. 

HOEBER,  KARL,  Ph.D.,  Editor,  "Volkszei- 
tung"  and  "Akademische  Monatsblatter", 
Cologne:  Galerius,  Valerius  Maximianus;  Gal- 
lienus,  Publius  Licinius  Egnatius;  Graz,  Uni- 
versity of. 

HOFFMANN,  ALEXIUS,  O.S.B.,  St.  John's  Col- 
lege, Collegeville,  Minnesota:  Feder,  Jo- 
hann  Michael;  Feilmoser,  Andreas  Benedict; 
Feneberg,  John  Michael  Nathanael. 

HOLWECK,  FREDERICK  G.,  St.  Louis,  Missouri: 
Feasts,  Ecclesiastical. 

side Abbey,  Bath,  England:  Glastonbury 
Abbey;   Gregory  I,  Saint,  Pope. 

JOYCE,  GEORGE  HAYWARD,  S.J.,  M.A.  (Oxon.), 
Professor  of  Logic,  Stonvhurst  College, 
Blackburn,  England:    Fundamental  Articles. 

KAMPERS,  FRANZ,  Ph.D.,  Professor  of  Medie- 
val and  Modern  Church  History,  Univer.sity 
OF  Breslau:  Frederick  I;  Frederick  II;  Ger- 
many, from  tlie  beginning  to  1556;  Godfrey  of 

KEILEY,  J.ARVIS,  M.A.,  Grantwood,  New  Jer- 
sey':   Georgia. 

KELLY,  BLANCHE  M.,  New  York:  Ferrer,  Ra- 
fael; Gerona,  Diocese  of;  Granada,  University 
of;    Grassel,  Lorenz. 

KELLY,  LEO  A.,  Ph.B.,  Rochester,  New  York: 
Frankfort,  Council  of. 

KIRSCH,  JOHANN  PETER,  S.T.D.,  Domestic 
Prelate,  Professor  of  Pathology'  and  Chris- 
tian Arch-eology,  University'  of  Fribourg, 
Switzerland:  Felicitas,  Saint;  Felicitas  and 
Perpetua,  Saints;  Feli.x  I,  Saint,  Pope;  Felix  II, 
Pope;  Felix  IV,  Pope;  Felix  V,  Antipope; 
Flaccilla,  ^lia;  Fleury,  Claude;  Florentina, 
Saint;  Florus;  Formosus,  Pope;  Forty  Martyrs; 
Four  Crowned  Martyrs;  Fribourg,  University 
of;  Fridolin,  Saint;  Fulcran,  Saint;  Fulgentius, 
Saint;  Fiinfkirchen,  Diocese  of;  Funk,  Franz 
Xaver  von;  Galletti,  Pietro  Luigi;  Gaudiosus, 
Bishop  of  Tarazona;  Germanus  I,  Saint;  Gobe- 
linus,  Person;  Gorres,  Guido;  Gorres,  Johann 
Joseph;   Gregory  X,  Blessed,  Pope. 

vania: Gallitzin,  Demetrius  Augustine. 

HULL,   ERNEST  R.,   S.J.,  Editor,   "The  Exam-     KLAAR,  KARL,    Government    Archivist,    iNf^h- 
iner",  Bombay-,  India:    Goa,  Archdiocese  of.  bruck:  Ferdinand  II. 

HUNT,  LEIGH,  Professor  of  Art,  College  op 
the  City  of  New  York:  Gaillard,  Claude- 
Ferdinand;  Giocondo,  Fra  Giovanni ;  Giorgione; 
Goya  y  Lucientes,  Francisco  Jos^  de. 

KURTH,  GODEFROID,  Director,  Belgian  His- 
torical Institute,  Rome:  Frankenberg,  Johann 
Heinricli;  Franks,  The;  Fredegarius;  Granvelle, 
Antoine  Perrenot  de. 

HUNT,  THOMAS  JOHN,  Dublin:    Goyaz,   Diocese     LADEUZE,  PAULIN,  S.T.D.,  Rector,  University 
of.  of  Louvain:    Goossens,  Pierre-Lambert. 

HUNTER-BLAIR,  Sir  D.  O.,  Bart.,  O.S.B.,  M.A.,    LAFLAMME,  J.  K.  L.,  Editor-in-Chief,  "L'Action 
Oxford:  Foreman,  Andrew;  Free  Church  of  Scot-  Sociale",    Quebec:     French   Catholics   in   the 

land;    Gillis,  James.  United   States. 

HUONDER,  ANTHONY,  S.J.,     Editor,     "Katho- 


Fridelli,  Xaver  Ehrenbert;  Fritz,  Samuel. 

HYDE,  DOUGLAS,  LL.D.,  Litt.D.,  M.R.I.A., 
Frenchpark,  Co.  Roscommon,  Ireland:  Four 
Masters,  Annals  of  the. 

"Morning  Star",  New  Orleans,  Louisiana: 
Gayarr^,  Charles  Etienne  Arthur. 

LALANDE,  LOUIS,  S.J.,  Montreal,  Canada: 
Felix,  C^lestin-Joseph;  Flechier,  Esprit;  Fray- 
ssinous,  Denis  de;  Freppel,  Charles-EmUe. 

LAUCHERT,  FRIEDRICH,  Ph.D.,  Aachen:  Feb- 
ronianism;  Geissel,  Johannes  von;  Gerhoh  of 
Reichersberg;   Granderath,  Theodor. 

L.AURENTIUS,  JOSEPH,  S.J.,  Professor  op 
Canon  Law,  St.  Ignatius  College,  Valken- 
burg,  Holland:  Fiscal  Procurator;  Fiscal  of  the 
Holy  Office. 

JAROSSEAU,  ANDRfi,  O.M.  Cap.,  Titular  Bishop     LAVIGNE,  DAVID  E.,    Editor,    "La    Tribune", 
-  -•  •  -  —  Woonsocket,  Rhode  Island:  French  Catholics 

in  the  United  States. 

of  Soatra,  Vicar  Apostolic  of  Galla,  Harar, 
Abyssinia:   Galla,  Vicariate  Apostolic  of. 

JARRETT,  BEDE,  O.P.,  B.A,  (Oxon.),  S.T.L.,  St. 
Dominic's  Priory,  London:    Feudalism. 

JENNER,  henry,  F.S.A.,  Late  op  the  British 
Museum,  London:    Galilean  Rite,  The. 

JEROME,  MOTHER  MARY,  Doyle,    New    York: 
Felician  Sisters. 

LEBRUN,  CHARLES,  C.J.M.,  S.T.D.,  Superior, 
Holy  Heart  Seminary,  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia: 
Good  Sliepherd,  Our  Lady  of  Charity  of  the. 

LECLERCQ,  HENRI,  O.S.B.,  London:  Ferriferes, 
Abbey  of;  Fire,  Liturgical  Use  of;  Flavigny, 
Abbey  of;  Gams,  Pius  Bonifacius;  Gerbert, 
Martin;  Goar,  Jacques;  Grace  at  Meals;  Gran- 
colas,  Jean. 


LEJAY,  PAUL,  Fellow  op  the  University  of 
France,  Professor,  Catholic  University  of 
Paris:  Fortunatus,  Venantius  Honorius  Cle- 
mentianus;  Caret,  Jean;  Garland,  John;  Gaul, 

LENHART,  JOHN  M.,  O.M.Cap.,  Lector  op  Philos- 
ophy, St.  Fidelis  Monastery,  Victoria, 
Kansas:   Forbes,  John. 

LENNOX,  PATRICK  JOSEPH,  B.A.,  Professor 
OF  English  Language  and  Literature,  Catho- 
lic University  of  America,  W,\shington: 
Gower,  John. 

Editor-in-Chief,  "La  Nouvelle  Fr.ance", 
Quebec:  Frontenac,  Louis  de  Buade;  Garneau, 
Franijois-Xavier;  Gamier,  Charles;  Gaspe, 
Philippe  Aubert  de;  Goupil,  Rene;  Gravier, 

LINS,  JOSEPH,  Freiburg  im  Breisgau,  Germ.\ny: 
Frankfort-on-the-Main;  Freiburg  (City,  Arch- 
diocese, University);  Fulda,  Diocese  of;  Ger- 
many, Vicariate  Apostolic  of  Northern;  Gesellen- 
vereine;  Gnesen-Posen,  Archdiocese  of. 

LOUGHLIN,  JAMES  F.,  S.T.D.,  Philadelphia: 
Friends,  Society  of;  Gelasius  II,  Pope;  Gregory 
VIII,  Pope;   Gregory  VIII,  Antipope. 

MAAS,  A.  J.,  S.J.,  Rector,  Woodstock  College, 
Maryland:  Filioque;  Forer,  Laurenz;  Gene- 
alogy (in  the  Bible);  Genealogy  of  Christ;  Gib- 
bons, John;  Gibbons,  Richard. 

MacAULEY,  PATRICK  J.,  Belp.\st,  Ireland: 
Gagarin,  Ivan  Sergejewitch;  GiSord,  William; 
Gonnelieu,  Jerome  de. 

MacCAFFREY,  J.\MES,  S.T.L.,  Ph.D.,  St.  Pat- 
rick's College,  Maynooth,  Dublin:  Fleming, 
Thomas;  French,  Nicholas;  Giraldus  Cam- 

MacERLEAN,  ANDREW  A.,  New  York:  Fin- 
barr.  Saint;  Garzon,  Diocese  of;  Genevieve, 
Saint;  George  Pisides;  Germain,  Saint,  Bishop 
of  Auxerre;  Germain,  Saint,  Bishop  of  Paris; 
Giffard,  Bonaventure;  Gilbert,  Sir  John  Thomas; 
Glaber,  Raoul;  Goajira,  Vicariate  Apostolic  of; 
Goodman,  Godfrey. 

McMAHON,  ARTHUR  L.,  O.P.,  St.  Dominic's 
Priory,  S.^n  Francisco:  Ferre,  Vincent;  Gali- 
lee;  Gravina,  Dominic. 

M.A.CPHERSON,  EWAN,  New  York:  Garcfa  Mor- 
eno, Gabriel. 

MAERE,  R.,  S.T.D.,  Professor  op  Christian 
Archeology,  University  of  Louvain:  Garrucci, 

MAES,  CAMILLUS  P.,  S.T.D.,  Bishop  op  Coving- 
ton, Kentucky:  Flaget,  Benedict  Joseph;  For- 
bin-Janson,  Charles  -  Auguste  -  Marie  -  Joseph, 
Comte  de. 

MAGNIER,  JOHN,  C.SS.R.,  Rome;  Gerard  Majella, 

MAHER,  MICHAEL,  S.J.,  Litt.D.,  M.A.  (London), 
Director  of  Studies  and  Professor  op  Peda- 
gogics, Stonyhurst  College,  Blackburn, 
England:    Free  Will. 

MANN,  HORACE  K.,  Headjiaster,  St.  Cuth- 
bert's  Grammar  School,  Newc.\stle-on-Tyne, 
England:  Gregory  II,  Saint,  Pope;  Gregory  III, 
Saint,  Pope;  Gregory  IV,  Pope;  Gregory  V, 
Pope;  Gregory  VI,  Pope;  Gregory  VI,  Anti- 

MARIQUE,  PIERRE  JOSEPH,  Instructor  in 
French,  College  op  the  City  op  New  York: 
Feval,  Paul-Henri-Corentin;  Flanders;  Fleuriot, 

MEDIN,  JOSEPH,  Great  Falls,  Montana:  Great 
Falls,  Diocese  of. 

MEEHAN,  THOMAS  F.,  New  York:  Fitz-Simons, 
Thomas;  Foresters,  Catholic  Orders  of;  Foster, 
John  Gray;  Galveston,  Diocese  of;  Garesche, 
Julius  Peter;  Gaston,  William;  Geraldton,  Dio- 
cese of;  Grand  Rapids,  Diocese  of;  Green  Bay, 
Diocese  of. 

MEIER,  GABRIEL,  O.S.B.,  Einsiedeln,  Switzer- 
land: Fructuosus  of  Braga,  Saint;  Fructuosus 
of  Tarragona,  Saint. 

Convent  of  S.  Salvator,  Jerusalem:  Geth- 

MERSHMAN,  FR.\NCIS,  O.S.B.,  S.T.D.,  Professor 
OF  Moral  Theology,  Canon  Law,  and  Liturgy, 
St.  John's  University,  CoLLEGE\aLLE,  Minne- 
sota: Felix  and  Adauctus,  Saints;  Feria;  Fla- 
bellum;  Funeral  Pall;  Galla,  Saint;  Gallicanus, 
Saints;  Gamier,  Jean;  Genesius  (1.  Genesius, 
a  comedian  at  Rome;  2.  Genesius  of  Aries;  3. 
Genesius,  Bishop  oi  Clermont;  4.  Genesius, 
Count  of  Clermont;  5.  Genesius,  Archbishop  of 
Lyons);  Gervasius  and  Protasius,  Saints;  Gott- 
schalk.  Saint. 

MOONEY,  JAMES,  United  States  Ethnologist, 
Smithsoni^vn  Institution,  Washington:  Flat- 
head Indians;    Ghost  Dance. 

MORICE,  A.G.,  O.M.I.,  St.  Boniface,  Manitoba, 
Canada:    Garin,  Andre. 

MUELLER,  ULRICH  F.,  C.PP.S.,  Professor  of 
Philosophy,  St.  Charles  Borromeo  Seminary, 
Carthagena,  Ohio:  Gaspare  del  Bufalo,  Blessed. 

MULCAHY,  CORNELIUS,  Professor  of  Rhetoric, 
St.  Patrick's  College,  Maynooth,  Dublin: 
Fergus,  Saint:  Fiacc,  Saint;  Fiacre,  Saint;  Fur- 
sey.  Saint;    Germaine  Cousin,  Saint. 

MURPHY,  JOHN  F.  X.,  S.J.,  Woodstock  College, 
M.uiyland:  Faustinus  and  Jovita,  Saints;  Filli- 
ucci,  Vincenzo;  Fonseca,  Pedro  da;  Franzelin, 
Johann  Baptist;  Frowin,  Blessed;  Gelasius  I, 
Saint,  Pope;  Giles,  Saint;  Gordianus  and  Epi- 
machus,  Saints;   Gorgonius,  Saint. 

MYERS,  EDW.\RD,  M.A.  (Cant.\b.),  Professor  op 
Dogmatic  Theology  and  Patrology,  St.  Ed- 
mund's College,  W.\ke,  England:  Gelasius  of 
Cyzicus;  George  of  Trebizond;  Giffard,  God- 
frey;   Giffard,  William. 

OBRECHT,  EDMOND,  O.C.R.,  Gethsemani  Abbey, 
Kentucky:  Feuillants;  Florians,  The;  Geramb, 
Ferdinand  de;  Gervaise,  Fran^ois-Armand; 
Gethsemani,  Abbey  of  Our  Lady  of. 

O'BRIEN,  JOHN  JOSEPH,  Ph.D.,  College  of  St. 
Thomas,  St.  Paul,  Minnesota:  Gibault,  Pierre. 


OESTREICn,    THOMAS,   O.S.B.,    Peofessor    of  RANDOLPPI,     BARTHOLOMEW,     CM.,      M.A., 

Church  History  and  Sacred  Scripture,  Mary-  Teacher  of  Philosophy  and  Church  History, 

HELP    Abbey,     Belmont,     North    Carolina:  St.  John's  College,   Brooklytst,   New  York: 

Florilegia;    Gregory  VII,  Saint,  Pope.  Francis  Regis  Clet,  Blessed. 

O'lvANE,  MICHAEL  M.,  O.P.,  Ph.D.,  S.T.L.,  Lim-  REIINHOLD,     GREGOR,    Freiburg  im  Breisgau, 

erick,  Ireland:   Felix  of  Valois,  Saint.  Germany':  Gorz,  Archdiocese  of. 

OLIGER,  LIVARIUS,  O.F.M.,  Lector  of  Church 
History,  Collegio  S.  Antonio,  Rome:  Feuar- 
dent,  Frangois;   Francis,  Rule  of  Saint. 

OTT,  MICHAEL,  O.S.B.,  Ph.D.,  Professor  of  the 
History'  of  Philosophy,  St.  John's  Univer- 
sity-, Collegeville,  Minnesota:  Forster,  Fro- 
benius;  Fulbert  of  Chartres;  Fiirstenberg,  Franz 
Friedrich  Wilhelm  von;  Gebhard  of  Constance; 
Gemblours;  Genebrartl,  Gilbert;  Gerberon, 
Gabriel;  Gertrude  of  Aldenberg,  Blessed; 
Gertrude  of  Hackeborn;  Gertrude  of  Nivelles, 
Saint;  Gil  de  Albornoz,  Alvarez  Carillo;  Gil  of 
Santarem,  Blessed;  Gottschalk  Qf  Orbais;  Gott^ 
weig.  Abbey  of ;  Gregory  IX,  Pope;  Gregory  XI, 

OTTEN,  JOSEPH,  Pittsburg,  Pennsylvania: 
Gounod,  Charles-Frangois. 

PAOLI,  FRANCESCO,  S.J.,  Rome:  Frances  of 
Rome,  Saint;  Francis  Caracciolo,  Saint;  Giu- 
seppe Maria  Tommasi,  Blessed. 

P.\RKINSON,  HENRY,  S.T.D.,  Ph.D.,  Rector, 
Oscott  College,  Birmingham,  England: 
Fitter,  Daniel. 

PERNIN,  RAPHAEL,  O.S.F.S.,  Albano-Laziale, 
It.^^ly:   Francis  de  Sales,  iSaint. 

REMY,  ARTHUR  F.  J.,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  Adjunct  Pro- 
fessor of  Germanic  Philology-,  Columbia 
University-,  New  York:  Feuchtersleben,  Ernst 
von;  Flodoard;  Friedrich  von  Hansen;  German 
Literature;  Gottfried  von  Strasburg;  Grail,  The 

RICIvABY,  JOHN,  S.J.,  Professor  of  Ethics, 
Stony'hurst  College,  Blackburn,  England: 

RITCHIE,  JOHN  CANON,  Diocesan  Secret.vry, 
Glasgow:   Glasgow,  Archdiocese  of. 

ROBINSON,  PASCHAL,  O.F.M.,  Washington: 
Fioretti  di  S.  Francesco  d'Assisi;  Franciscan 
Order;   Francis  of  Assisi,  Saint. 

ROCK,  P.  M.  J.,  Louis\iLLE,  Kentucky-:  Golden 

ROY,  J.  EDMOND,  Litt.D.,  F.R.S.C,  Officer  of 
the  French  Academy-,  Ottawa,  Canada:  Fer- 
land,  Jean-Baptiste-Antoine. 

town,  Ohio:  Faunt,  Lawrence  Arthur:  Ferndn- 
dez,  Antonio;  Fernandez,  Juan;  Finglow,  John, 
Venerable;  Flavian,  Saint;  Fontbonne,  Jeanne; 
Good  Samaritan,  Sisters  of  the. 

PHILLIMORE,      JOHN      SWINNERTON,     M.A.     RYAN,  JOHN  A.,    S.T.D.,    Professor    of    Moral 
(OxoN.),  Professor  op  Humanities,  Univer-  Theology,    St.    Paul    Seminary',    St.    Paul, 

siTY  of  Glasgow:  Glasgow,  University  of.  Minnesota:   Foundling  Asylums. 

PLASSMAN,  THOMAS,  O.F.M.,  Ph.D.,  S.T.D., 
Rome:  Francis  of  Fabriano,  Blessed;  Galatino, 
Pietro  Colonna. 

POHLE,  JOSEPH,  S.T.D.,  Ph.D.,  J.C.L.,  Professor 
OF  Dogmatic  Theology,  University  of  Bres- 
LAu:    Grace;   Grace,  Controversies  on. 

Fitzherbert,  Thomas;  Fitzsimon,  Henry;  For- 
teseue,  Adrian,  Blessed;  Freeman,  William, 
Venerable;  Frideswide,  Saint;  Garlick,  Nicholas, 
Venerable;  Garnet,  Henry;  Garnet,  Thomas, 
Venerable;  Gerard,  John;  Gerard,  Myles;  Ger- 
ard, Richard;  German  Gardiner,  Blessed;  Good- 
man, John,  Venerable;  Gordon  Riots;  Green, 
Hugh,  Venerable. 

PONCELET,  ALBERT,  S.J.,  Brussels:  Gall,  Saint. 

POOLE,  THOMAS  H.,  New  York:  Fontana,  Carlo; 
Galilei,  Alessandro;  Gau,  Franz  Christian ;  GauUi, 
Giovanni  Battista. 

POPE,  HUGH,  O.P.,  Hawkesyard  Priory,  Ruge- 
ley,  England:    Gabriel,  Archangel. 

POTAMIAN,  BROTHER,  F.S.C.,  D.Sc.  (London), 
Professor  of  Physics,  Manhattan  College, 
New  York:    Gordon,  Andrew. 

QUINN,  STANLEY  J.,  New  York:  Fremin,  James;     SCHEID,  N.,  S.J.,  Stella Matutina College,  Feld- 
Garnier,  Julien;  Gilbert  Islands,  Vicariate  Apos-  kirch,     Austria:      Geiler     von     Kaysersberg, 

tolic  of.  Johann. 

SALEMBIER,  LOUIS,  S.T.D.,  Professor  of  Church 
History-,  University  op  Lille:  Gerson,  Jean  le 
Charlier  de. 

SALSMANS,  JOSEPH,  S.J.,  Professor  op  Moral 
Theology  and  Canon  Law,  Jesuit  College, 
Louvain:  Genicot,  Edward;  Gobat,  George; 
Gonzalez  de  Santalla,  Thyrsus. 

SAUER,  JOSEPH,  S.T.D.,  Editor,  "Rundschau", 
Professor  of  Theology',  University'  of  Frei- 
burg, Germany:  Ferstel,  Heinrich  Freiherr  von; 
Fontana,  Domenico. 

SAUVAGE,  G.  M.,  C.S.C,  S.T.D.,  Ph.D.,  Professor 
OF  Dogmatic  Theology,  Holy'  Cross  College, 
Washington:  Fideism;  Gerdil,  Hyacinthe-Sig- 
ismond;  Gratry,  August e-Joseph-Alphonse. 

SCANNELL,  THOMAS  B.  CANON,  S.T.D.,  Editor, 
"Catholic  Dictionary",  Weybridge,  Eng- 
land: Frequent  Communion;  Gift,  Supernatural; 
Gordian,  Roman  Emperors;  Gratian,  Roman 

SCHAEFER,  FRANCIS  J.,  S.T.D.,  Ph.D.,  Pro- 
fessor OF  Church  History',  St.  Paul  Semi- 
nary, St.  Paul,  Minnesota:  Gassner,  Johann 
Joseph;  Geoffrey  of  Clairvaux;  Geoffrey  of 


SCHIRP,  FRANCIS  M.,  Ph.D.,  Instructor,  Loyola 
School,  New  York:  Germans  in  the  United 

VELD,  LicHTENVOORDE,  HOLLAND:  Feller,  Fran- 
gois-Xavier  de;  Ficker,  Julius;  Gallandi,  Andrea; 
Gallitzin,  Adele  .4malie;  Gervase  of  Tilbury; 
Gfrorer,  August  Friedrich;  Giannone,  Pietro; 
Grandidier,    Philippe- Andri^;     Gratius,    Ortwin. 

SCHROEDER,  JOSEPH,  O.P.,  Immaculate  Con- 
ception College,  Washington:  Francis  of 
Vittoria;  Franck,  Kaspar;  Galura,  Beruhard; 
Gazzaniga,  Pietro  Maria;  Gonet,  Jean  Baptiste; 
Gratz,  Peter  Aloys. 

Director  of  Studies,  University  of  Notre 
Dajie,  Indiana:  Ficino,  Marsilio. 

Cornwall,  England:   Gerhard  of  Ziltphen. 

SHIPMAN,  ANDREW  J.,  M.A.,  LL.M.,  New  Y'ork: 
Glagolitic;  Greek  Catholics  in  the  United  States; 
Greek  Orthodox  Church  in  America. 

SLATER,  T.,  S.J.,  St.  Beuno's  College,  St.  Asaph, 
Wales:  Fraud;  Gambling. 

SLOANE,  THOMAS  O'CONOR,  M.A.,  E.M.,  Ph.D., 
New  York:    Fuchs,  Johann  Nepomuk  von. 

SMITH,  HENRY  IGNATIUS,  O.P.,  Washington: 
Funic,  Bartolommeo. 

SMITH,  JOSEPH  H.,  S.J.,  Brooklyn  College, 
Brooklyn,  New  York:   GaUifet,  Joseph  de. 

SMITH,  SYDNEY  F.,  S.J.,  London:  Gallwey,  Peter. 

Fr.'^.ncisco:  Gerbet,  Olympe-Philippe;  Godet  des 

SORTAIS,  GASTON,  S.J.,  Assistant  Editor, 
"Etudes",  Paris:  Gozzoli. 

SOUVAY,  CHARLES  L.,  CM.,  LL.B.,  S.T.D., 
Ph.D.,  Professor  of  Holt  Scripture  and  He- 
brew, Kenbick  Seminary,  St.  Louis:  First- 
Born;  First-Fruits;  Fringes;  Geography,  Bibli- 

SPAHN,  MARTIN,  Ph.D.,  Professor  of  Modern 
History.  Universitv  of  Strasburg:  Germany 
(1556  to  1S71 ;  The  New  Cerman  Empire). 

SPILLANE,  EDW.\RD  P.,  S.J.,  Associate  Editor, 
"America",  New  York:  Finotti,  Joseph; 
Fisher,  Philip. 

STEELE,  FRANCESCA  M.,  Stroud.  Gloucester- 
shire, England:  Flete,  William;  Gabriel, 
Brothers  of  Saint. 

STUART,  JANET,  R.S.H.,  Superior  Vicar,  Con- 
vent of  the  Sacred  He.vrt,  Roeh.oipton, 
London:  Galitzin,  Elizabeth;  Goetz,  Marie 
Josephine;    Gramont,  Eugenie  de. 

Brazil:   Fortaleza,  Diocese  of. 

SUAU,  PIERRE,  S.J.,  Tournai,  Belgium:  Francis 
Borgia,   Saint. 

THURSTON,  HERBERT,  S.J.,  London:  Fools, 
Feast  of;  Forty  Hours' Devotion;  FractioPanis; 
George,  Saint. 

TIERNEY,  JOHN  J.,  M.A.,  S.T.D.,  Professor  op 
Scripture  and  Semitic  Studies,  Mt.  St.  Mary's 
College,  Emmitsburg,  Maryland:  Flagella- 

B.A.,  Stratton-on-the-Fosse,  near  Bath, 
England:  Flagellants:  Fonte-Avellana;  Godric 
I;   Godric  II. 

TONER,  PATRICK  J.,  S.T.D.,  Professor  of  Dog- 
matic Theology,  St.  Patrick's  College,  May- 
NooTH,  Dublin:  Gahan,  William;  God. 

TURNER,  WILLIAM,  S.T.D.,  Bishop  of  Gallo- 
way, Scotland:   Galloway,  Diocese  of. 

TURNER,  WILLL\M,  B.A.,  S.T.D.,  Professor  of 
Logic  and  the  History  of  Philosophy',  Cath- 
olic University'  of  Ajierica,  W.\shington: 
Fredegis  of  Tours;   Gerard  of  Cremona. 

turer IN  Modern  History,  Balliol  College, 
Oxford:  Florence  of  Worcester;  Gilbert  Foliot. 

VAILH^,  SIMEON,  A.A.,  Member  of  the  Russian 
Arch-eological  Institute  of  Constantinople, 
Professor  of  Sacred  Scripture  and  History' 
at  the  Theological  Seminary  at  Kadi-Keui, 
Constantinople:  Flavias;  Flaviopolis;  Fogar- 
as.  Archdiocese  of:  Furni;  Fussola;  Gabala; 
Gadara;  Gangra;  Gargara;  Gaza;  Gerasa;  Ger- 
manicia;  Germanicopolis;  Gennia;  Gerrha; 
Gezireh;  Gibail  and  Batrun;  Gindarus;  Girba; 
Gordos;  Gortyna;  Gratianopolis;  Greek  Church. 

VAN  CLEEF,  AUGUSTUS,  New  Y'ork:  Gegen- 
bauer,  Josef  Anton  von. 

VAN  DEN  GHEYN,  GABRIEL,  President  of  the 
Historical  and  Arch.eological  Society  op 
Ghent,  Secretary  of  the  Provincial  Com- 
mission of  Monuments,  Inspector  of  Con- 
vents, Ghent:  Ghent,  Diocese  of. 

VAN  DER  ESSEN,  LfiON,  Litt.D.,  Ph.D.,  Col- 
lege DU  Pape,  Louvain,  Belgium:  Florence, 
Council  of;  Foillan,  Saint;  Gery,  Saint;  Ghis- 
lain,  Saint;  Gondulphus  of  Metz;  Gondulphus  of 
Tongres;    Gondulphus,  Saint. 

VAN  HOVE,  A.,  J.C.D.,  Professor  of  Church  His- 
tory and  Canon  Law,  University  of  Louvain: 
Ferraris,  Lucius;  Giraldi,  LTbaldo;  Gratian, 
Johannes;   Gravina,  Giovanni  Vincenzo. 

VAN  ORTROY,  FRANCIS,  S.J.,  Brussels:  Fran- 
cis de  Geronimo,  Saint. 

VEALE,  JAMES,  S.T.D.,  M.\ndarin,  Florida: 

VELLA,  ANTONIO,  Gozo,  Malta:  Gozo,  Diocese  of. 

VONIER,  ANSCAR,  O.S.B.,  Ph.D.,  Abbot  of  Buck- 
fast,  Buckfastleigh,  England:  Fleury,  Ab- 
bey of. 

WALSH,  REGINALD,  O.P.,  S.T.D.,  Rome:  Friends 
of  God. 

WARD,  Mgr.  BERNARD,  President,  St.  Ed- 
mund's College,  Ware,  England:  Flanagan, 


WARREN,  KATE  MARY,  Lecturer  in   English  WILHELM,  BALTHASAR,  S.J.,  Stella  Matutina 

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Westfield    College,     Hampstead,     London: 

Forrest,    WOliam;    FuUerton,   Lady   Georgiana  WILLIAMSON,     GEORGE    CHARLES,    Litt.D., 

Charlotte.  London:  Flemael,  Bertholet;  Foppa,  Ambrogio; 

Franceschini,  Marc 'Antonio;    Franco,  Giovanni 

WEBER,  N.  A.,  S.M.,  S.T.L.,  Professor  of  Church  Battista;  Gaddi,  Antonio,  Giovanni  and  Taddeo; 

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WEBSTER,    RA1.THUND,    O.S.B.,    M.A.    (Oxon.),  WINTERSGILL,  H.  G.,  New  York:  Flathers,  Matt- 
Do  wnside    Abbey,    Bath,    England:     Fonte-  hew,  Venerable;  Fredoli,  Berenger. 
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and  Order  of.  WITTMANN,     PIUS,     Ph.D.,     Reichsaechiveat, 

Munich:  Finland,  Grand  Duchy  of;   Greenland. 

WELCH,  SIDNEY  READ,   S.T.D.,    Ph.D.,    J.P., 

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Tables   of  Abbreviations 

The  following  tables  and  notes  are  intended  to  guide  readers  of  The  Catholic  Encyclopedia  in 
interpreting  those  abbreviations,  signs,  or  technical  phrases  which,  for  economy  of  space,  will  be  most  fre- 
quently used  in  the  work.     For  more  general  information  see  the  article  Abbreviations,  Ecclesiastical. 

I. — General  Abbreviations. 

a article. 

ad  an at  the  year  (Lat.  ad  annum). 

an.,  ann the  year,  the  years  (Lat.  annus, 


ap in  (Lat.  apud). 

art article. 

.4.ssyr Assyrian. 

A.  S Anglo-Saxon. 

A.  V Authorized  Version  (i.e.  tr.  of  tlie 

Bible  authorized  for  use  in  the 
Anglican  Church — the  so-called 
"King  James",  or  "Protestant 

b bom. 

Bk Book. 

Bl Blessed. 

C,  c about  (Lat.  arm);  canon;  chap- 

ter; compagnie. 

can canon. 

cap chapter  (Lat.  caput — used  only 

in  Latin  context). 

cf compare  (Lat.  confer). 

cod codex. 

col column. 

concl conclusion. 

const.,  constit.  . .  .Lat.  constitutio. 

cura by  the  industry  of. 

d died. 

diet dictionary  (Fr.  dictionnaire). 

disp Lat.  disputatio. 

diss Lat.  dissertatio. 

dist Lat.  distinctio. 

D.  V Douay  Version. 

ed.,  edit edited,  edition,  editor. 

Ep.,  Epp letter,  letters  (Lat.  epistola). 

Fr French. 

gen genus. 

Gr Greek. 

H.  E.,  Hist.  Eccl.  .Ecclesiastical  History. 

Heb.,  Hebr Hebrew. 

ib.,  ibid in  the  same  place  (Lat.  ibidem). 

Id. the  same  person,  or  author  (Lat. 


inf below  (Lat.  infra). 

It Italian. 

1.  c,  loc.  cit at   the   place  quoted    (Lat.   loco 

citato) . 

Lat Latin. 

lat latitude. 

lib book  (Lat.  liber). 

long longitude. 

Mon Lat.  Monumenta. 

MS.,  MSS manuscript,  manuscripts. 

n.,  no number. 

N.  T New  Testament. 

Nat National. 

Old  Fr.,  O.  Fr.  .  .  .Old  French. 

op.  cit in  the   work  quoted  (Lat.  opere 

citato) . 

Ord Order. 

O.  T Old  Testament. 

p.,  pp page,  pages,  or  (in  Latin  ref- 
erences) pars  (part). 

par paragraph. 

passim in  various  places. 

pt part. 

Q Quarterly     (a    periodical),     e.g. 

"Church  Quarterly". 

Q.,  QQ.,  qusest.  . .  .question,  questions  (Lat.  qucestio). 

q.  V which  [title]  see  (Lat.  quod  vide) 

Rev Review  (a  periodical). 

R.  S Rolls  Series.  , 

R.  V Revised  Version. 

S.,  SS Lat.    Sanctus,    Sancti,    "Saint", 

"Saints" — used  in  this  Ency^ 
eloped ia  only  in  Latin  context. 

Sept Septuagint. 

Sess Session. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

Sp Spanish. 

sq.,  sqq following   page,    or   pages    (Lat. 


St.,  Sts Saint,  Saints. 

sup Above  (Lat.  supra). 

s.  v Under    the    corresponding    title 

(Lat.  sub  voce). 

tom volume  (Lat.  tomus). 


tr. translation  or  translated.  By  it- 
self it  means  "English  transla- 
tion", or  "translated  into  Eng- 
lish by".  Where  a  translation 
is  into  any  other  language,  the 
language  is  stated. 

tr. ,  tract tractate. 

V see  (Lat.  vide). 

Van Venerable. 

Vol Volume. 

II. — Abbreviations  of  Titles. 

4cta  SS Acta  Sanctorum  (BoUandists). 

Ann.  pont.  cath Battandier,  Aran uaire  pontifical 


Bibl.  Diet.  Eng.  Cath.Gillow,  Bibliographical  Diction- 
ary of  the  English  Catholics. 

Diet.  Christ.  Antiq. ..  Smith  and  Cheetham  (ed.). 
Dictionary  of  Christian  An- 

Diet.  Christ.  Biog.  . .  Smith  and  Wace  (ed.),  Diction- 
ary of  Christian  Biography. 

Diet,  d'arch.  chr^t. .  .Cabrol  (ed.),  Dictionnaire  d'ar- 
cheologie  chritienne  et  de  litur- 

Diet,  de  th^ol.  cath.  .  Vacant  and  Mangenot  (ed.), 
Dictionnaire  de  thiologie 

Diet.  Nat.  Biog Stephen    (ed.),    Dictionary   of 

National  Biography. 

Hast.,  Diet,   of  the 

Bible Hastings  (ed.),  A  Dictionary  of 

the  Bible. 

Kirchenlex Wetzer  and  Welte,  Kirchenlexi- 


P.  G Migne  (ed.),  Patres  Greed. 

P.  L Migne  (ed.),  Patres  Latini. 

Vig. ,  Diet,  de  la  Bible.  Vigouroux  (ed. ) ,  Dictionnaire  de 
la  Bible. 

Note  I. — Large  Roman  numerals  standing  alone  indicate  volxunea.  Small  Roman  numerals  standing  alone  indicate 
chapters.  Arabic  numerals  standing  alone  indicate  pages.  In  other  cases  the  divisions  are  explicitly  stated.  Thus  "  Rashdall, 
Universities  of  Europe.  I,  ix"  refers  the  reader  to  the  ninth  chapter  of  the  first  volume  of  that  work;  "I,  p.  ix"  would  indicate  the 
ninth  page  of  the  preface  of  the  same  volume. 

Note  II. — Where  St.  Thomas  (Aquinas)  is  cited  without  the  name  of  any  particular  work  the  reference  is  always  to 
"Summa  Theologica"  (not  to  "Summa  Philosophise").  The  divisions  of  the  "Summa  Theol."  are  indicated  by  a  system  which 
may  best  be  understood  by  the  following  example:  "  I-II,  Q.  vi.  a.  7,  ad  2  um  "  refers  the  reader  to  the  seventh  article  of  the 
sixth  question  in  the  ^rs(  part  of  the  second  part,  in  the  response  to  the  second  objection. 

Note  III. — The  abbreviations  employed  for  the  various  books  of  the  Bible  are  obvious.  Ecclesiasticus  is  indicated  by 
Ecclus.,  to  distinguish  it  from  Kcclesiastes  (Eccles.).  It  should  also  be  noted  that  I  and  II  Kings  in  D.  V.  correspond  to  I  and  II 
Samuel  in  A.  V. ;  and  I  and  II  Par.  to  I  and  II  Chronicles.  Where,  in  the  spelling  of  a  proper  name,  there  is  a  marked  difference 
between  the  D.  V.  and  the  A.  V.,  the  form  found  in  the  latter  is  added,  in  parentbese*. 

Full  Page  Illustrations  in  Volume  VI 

Frontispiece  in  Colour  pj^ob 

Fenelon — Portrait  by  Joseph  Vivien 36 

Cathedral,  Fcrrara 46 

Votivkirche,  Vienna 50 

Cathedral,  Fiesole 70 

Pope  Leo  XII  Carried  in  Procession  in  St.  Peter's — Vernet 88 

Florence 104 

The  Cathedral  of  Florence 112 

Church  of  San  Mercuriale,  Forli 136 

Fountains  Abbey,  Ripon,  England 160 

France 178 

The  Virgin  with  Sts.  Francis  Borgia  and  Stanislaus  Kostka — Deferrari 216 

St.  Francis  of  Assisi 220 

Assisi 228 

Mary's  Journey  through  the  Hill  Country — Fiihrich 312 

Ponte  Vecchio,  Florence 332 

Fagade,  St.  John  Lateran,  Rome 342 

Germany 492 

The  Castelfranco  Altar-Piece — Giorgione 564 

Giotto — Frescoes  in  Santa  Croce,  Florence 568 

English  Gothic  Interiors 672 

English  Gothic  Exteriors 680 

Michael  Pakcologus  as  One  of  the  Magi — Gozzoli 688 

The  Acropolis,  Athens 740 


France : 188 

Palestine  in  the  Old-Testament  Period 428 

Palestine  in  the  Time  of  Christ 432 

Fra  Mauro's  Map  of  the  World  (1459) 450 

Germany 514 



Fathers  of  the  Church. — The  word  Father  is 
used  in  the  New  Testament  to  mean  a  teacher  of  spiri- 
tual things,  by  whose  means  tiie  soul  of  man  is  born 
again  into  the  likeness  of  Christ:  "For  if  you  have 
ten  thousand  instructors  in  Christ,  yet  not  many 
fathers.  For  in  Christ  Jesus,  by  the  gospel,  I  have  be- 
gotten you.  Wherefore  I  beseech  you,  be  ye  followers 
of  me,  as  I  also  am  of  Christ"  (I  Cor.,  iv,  15,  IG; 
cf.  Gal.,  iv,  19).  The  first  teachers  of  Christianity 
seem  to  be  collectively  spoken  of  as  "the  Fathers" 
(II  Peter,  iii,  4).  Thus  .St.  Irena;us  defines  that  a 
teacher  is  a  father,  and  a  disciple  is  a  son  (iv,  41,2),  and 
so  says  Clement  of  Alexandria  (Strom.,  I,  i,  1).  A 
bishop  is  emphatically  a  "father  in  Christ",  both  be- 
cause it  was  he,  in  early  times,  who  baptized  all  his 
flock,  and  because  he  is  the  chief  teacher  of  his  church. 
But  he  is  also  regarded  by  the  early  Fathers,  such  as 
Hegesippus,  Iiena'us,  and  TertuUian,  as  the  recipient 
of  the  tradition  of  his  predecessors  in  the  see,  and  con- 
sequently as  the  witness  and  representative  of  the 
faith  of  his  Church  before  Catholicity  and  the  world. 
Hence  the  expression  "  the  Fathers ' '  comes  naturally 
to  be  applied  to  the  holy  bishops  of  a  preceding  age, 
whether  of  the  last  generation  or  further  back,  since 
they  are  the  parents  at  whose  knee  the  Church  of  to- 
day was  taught  her  belief.  It  is  also  applicable  in  an 
eminent  way  to  bishops  sitting  in  council,  "  the  Fathers 
of  Niccea",  "  the  Fathers  of  Trent".  Thus  Fathers  have 
learnt  from  Fathers,  and  in  the  last  resort  from  the 
Apostles,  who  are  sometimes  called  Fathers  in  this 
sense:  "  They  are  your  Fathers",  says  St.  Leo,  of  the 
Princes  of  the  Apostles,  speaking  to  the  Romans;  St. 
Hilary  of  Aries  calls  them  sartcti  patres;  Clement  of 
Alexandria  says  that  his  teachers,  from  Greece,  Ionia, 
Coele-Syria,  Egypt,  the  Orient,  Assyria,  Palestine,  re- 
spectively, had  handed  on  to  him  the  tradition  of 
blessed  teaching  from  Peter,  and  James,  and  John, 
and  Paul,  receiving  it  "as  son  from  father". 

It  follows  that,  as  our  own  Fathers  are  the  predeces- 
sors who  have  taught  us,  so  the  Fathers  of  the  whole 
Church  are  especially  the  earlier  teachers,  who  in- 
structed her  in  the  teaching  of  the  Apostles,  during 
her  infancy  and  first  growth.  It  is  difficult  to  define 
the  first  age  of  the  Church,  or  the  age  of  the  Fathers. 
It  is  a  common  habit  to  stop  the  study  of  the  early 
Church  at  the  Council  of  Chalcedon  in  451.  "The 
Fathers"  must  undoubtedly  include,  in  the  West,  St. 
Gregory  the  Great  (d.  004),  and  in  the  East,  St.  John 
Damascene  (d.  about  754).  It  is  frequently  said  that 
St.  Bernard  (d.  115.3)  was  the  last  of  the  Fathers,  and 
Migne's  "  Patrologia  Latina"  extends  to  Innocent  III, 
halting  only  on  the  verge  of  the  thirteenth  century, 
while  his  "  Patrologia  Gr^ca"  goes  as  far  as  the  Coun- 
cil of  Florence  (143S-9).  These  limits  are  evidently 
too  wide.  It  will  be  best  to  consider  that  the  great 
merit  of  St.  Bernard  as  a  writer  lies  in  his  resemblance 
in  style  and  matter  to  the  greatest  among  the  Fathers, 
in  spite  of  the  difference  of  period.  St.  Isidore  of 
Seville  (d.  C.3G)  and  the  Venerable  Bede  (d.  735)  are 
VI.— 1 

to  be  classed  among  the  Fathers,  but  they  may  be  said 
to  have  been  born  out  of  due  time,  as  St.  Theodore 
the  Studite  was  in  the  East. 

The  Appeal  to  the  Fathers. — Thus  the  use  of  the 
term  Fathers  has  been  continuous,  yet  it  could  not  at 
first  be  employed  in  precisely  the  modern  sense  of 
Fathers  of  the  Church.  In  early  days  the  expression 
referred  to  writers  who  were  then  quite  recent.  It  is 
still  applied  to  those  writers  who  are  to  us  the  an- 
cients, but  no  longer  in  the  same  way  to  writers  who 
are  now  recent.  Appeals  to  the  Fathers  are  a  sub- 
division of  appeals  to  tradition.  In  the  first  half  of 
the  second  century  begin  the  appeals  to  the  sub-Apos- 
tolic age:  Papias  appeals  to  the  presbyters,  and 
through  them  to  the  Apostles.  Half  a  century  later 
St.  Irena;us  supplements  this  method  by  an  appeal  to 
the  tradition  handed  down  in  every  Church  by  the  suc- 
cession of  its  bishops  (Adv.  Hier.,  Ill,  i-Lii),  and  Ter- 
tuUian clinches  this  argument  by  the  observation  that 
as  all  the  Churches  agree,  their  tradition  is  secure,  for 
they  could  not  all  have  strayed  by  chance  into  the 
same  error  (Prcescr.,  xxviii).  The  appeal  is  thus  to 
Churches  andtheirbishops,  none  but  bishops  being  the 
authoritative  exponents  of  the  doctrine  of  their 
Churches.  As  late  as  341  the  bishops  of  the  Dedica- 
tion Council  at  Antioch  declared:  "  We  are  not  follow- 
ers of  Arius;  for  how  could  we,  who  are  bishops,  be 
disciples  of  a  priest?" 

Yet  slowly,  as  the  appeals  to  the  presbyters  died 
out,  there  was  arising  by  the  side  of  appeals  to  the 
Churches  a  third  method:  the  custom  of  appealing  to 
Christian  teachers  who  were  not  necessarily  bishops. 
While,  without  the  Church,  Gnostic  schools  were  sub- 
stituted for  churches,  within  the  Church,  Catholic 
schools  were  growing  up.  Philosophers  like  Justin 
and  most  of  the  numerous  second-century  apologists 
were  reasoning  about  religion,  and  the  great  catecheti- 
cal school  of  Alexandria  was  gathering  renown.  Great 
bishops  and  saints  like  Dionysius  of  Alexandria, 
Gregory  Thaumaturgus  of  Pontus,  Firmilian  of  Cappa- 
docia,  and  Alexander  of  Jerusalem  were  proud  to  be 
disciples  of  the  priest  Origen.  The  Bishop  Cyprian 
called  daily  for  the  works  of  the  priest  TertuUian  with 
the  words  "Give  me  the  master".  The  Patriarch 
Athanasius  refers  for  the  ancient  use  of  the  word 
o/jioova-io!,  not  merely  to  the  two  Dionysii,  but  to  the 
priest  Theognostus.  Yet  these  priest-teachers  are 
not  yet  called  Fathers,  and  the  greatest  among  them, 
TertuUian,  Clement,  Origen,  Hippolytus,  Novatian, 
Lucian,  happen  to  be  tinged  with  heresy;  two  became 
antipopes;  one  is  the  father  of  Arianism;  another 
was  condemned  by  a  general  council.  In  each  case 
we  might  apply  the  words  u.sed  by  St.  Hilary  of  Ter- 
tuUian: "Sequenti  errore  detraxit  scriptis  probabili- 
bus  auctoritatem"  (Comm.  in  Matt.,  v,  1,  cited  by 
Vincent  of  Lerins,  24). 

A  fourth  form  of  appeal  was  better  foimded  and  of 
enduring  value.  Eventually  it  appeared  that  bishops 
as  well  as  priests  were  fallible.     In  the  second  century 



the  bishops  were  orthodox.  In  the  third  they  were 
often  found  wanting.  In  the  fourth  they  were  the 
leaders  of  schisms,  and  heresies,  in  the  Meletian  and 
Donatist  troubles  and  in  the  long  Arian  struggle,  in 
which  few  were  found  to  stand  firm  against  the  insidi- 
ous persecution  of  Constantius.  It  came  to  be  seen 
that  the  true  Fathers  of  the  Church  are  those  Catholic 
teachers  who  have  persevered  in  her  communion,  and 
whose  teaching  has  been  recognized  as  orthodox.  So 
it  came  to  pass  that  out  of  the  four  " Latin  Doctors" 
one  is  not  a  bishop.  Two  other  Fathers  who  were  not 
bishops  have  been  declared  to  be  Doctors  of  the 
Church,  Bede  and  John  Damascene,  while  among  the 
Doctors  outside  the  patristic  period  we  find  two  more 
priests,  the  incomparable  St.  Bernard  and  the  great- 
est of  all  theologians,  St.  Thomas  Aquinas.  Nay,  few 
writers  had  such  great  authority  in  the  Schools  of  the 
middle  ages  as  the  layman  Boethius,  many  of  whose 
definitions  are  still  commonplaces  of  theology. 

Similarly  (we  may  notice  in  passing)  the  name 
"Father",  which  originally  belonged  to  bishops,  has 
been  as  it  were  delegated  to  priests,  especially  as  min- 
isters of  the  Sacrament  of  Penance.  It  is  now  a  form 
of  address  to  all  priests  in  Spain,  in  Ireland,  and,  of  re- 
cent years,  in  England  and  the  United  States. 

IIciTras  or  IldTrTros,  Pope,  was  a  term  of  respect  for  emi- 
nent bi.shops  (e.  g.  in  letters  to  St.  Cyprian  and  to  St. 
Augustine, — neither  of  these  writers  seems  to  use  it  in 
addressing  other  bishops,  except  when  St.  Augustine 
writes  to  Rome).  Eventually  the  term  was  reserved 
to  the  bishops  of  Rome  and  Alexandria;  yet  in  the 
East  to-day  every  priest  is  a  "pope".  The  Aramaic 
abba  was  used  from  early  times  for  the  superiors  of 
religious  houses.  But  through  the  abuse  of  granting 
abbeys  in  commendam  to  seculars,  it  has  become  a  po- 
lite title  for  all  secular  clerics,  even  seminarists,  in 
Italy,  and  especially  in  France,  whereas  all  religious 
who  are  priests  are  addressed  as  "  Father". 

We  receive  only,  says  St.  Basil,  what  we  have  been 
taught  by  the  Holy  Fathers;  and  he  adds  that  in  his 
Church  of  Caesarea  the  faith  of  the  holy  Fathers  of 
Nicaea  has  long  been  implanted  (Ep.  cxl,  2).  St. 
Gregory  Nazianzen  declares  that  he  holds  fast  the 
teaching  which  he  heard  from  the  holy  Oracles,  and 
was  taught  by  the  holy  Fathers.  These  Cappadocian 
saints  seem  to  be  the  first  to  appeal  to  a  real  catena  of 
Fathers.  The  appeal  to  one  or  two  was  already  com- 
mon enough ;  but  not  even  the  learned  Eusebius  had 
thought  of  a  long  string  of  authorities.  St.  Basil,  for 
example  (DeSpir.S.,ii,  29),  cites  for  the  formula  "with 
the  Holy  Ghost"  in  the  doxology,  the  example  of  Ire- 
noeus,  Clement  and  Dionysius  of  Alexandria,  Dionysius 
of  Rome,  Eusebius  of  Cajsarea,  Origen,  Africanus, 
the  preces  lucernarice  said  at  the  lighting  of  lamps, 
Athenagoras,  Gregory  Thaumaturgus,  Firmilian, 
Meletius.  In  the  fifth  century  this  method  became  a 
stereotyped  custom.  St.  Jerome  is  perhaps  the  first 
writer  to  try  to  establish  his  interpretation  of  a  text  by 
a  string  of  exegetes  (Ep.  cxii,  ad  Aug.).  Paulinus,  the 
deacon  and  biographer  of  St.  Ambrose,  in  the  libellua 
he  presented  against  the  Pelagians  to  Pope  Zosimus  in 
417,  quotes  Cyprian,  Ambrose,  Gregory  Nazianzen, 
and  the  decrees  of  the  late  Pope  Innocent.  In  420  St. 
Augustine  quotes  Cyprian  and  Ambrose  against  the 
same  heretics  (C.  duas  Epp.  Pel.,  iv).  Julian  of  Ec- 
lanum  quoted  Chrysostom  and  Basil;  St.  Augustine 
replies  to  him  in  421  (Contra  Julianum,  i  )  with 
Irenaeus,  Cyprian,  Reticius,  Olympius,  Hilary,  Am- 
brose, the  decrees  of  African  councils,  and  above  all 
Popes  Innocent  and  Zosimus.  In  a  celebrated  pas- 
sage he  argues  that  these  Western  writers  are  more 
than  sufficient,  but  as  Julian  had  appealed  to  the  East, 
to  the  East  he  shall  go,  and  the  saint  adds  Gregory 
Nazianzen,  Basil,  Synod  of  Diospolis,  Chrysostom. 
To  these  he  adds  .lerome  (c.  xxxiv) :  "  Nor  should  you 
think  Jerome,  because  he  was  a  priest,  is  to  be  de- 
spised", and  adds  a  eulogy.     This  is  amusing,  when 

we  remember  that  Jerome  in  a  fit  of  irritation,  fifteen 
years  before,  had  written  to  Augustine  (Ep.  cxiii): 
"  Do  not  excite  against  me  the  silly  crowd  of  the  ignor- 
ant, who  venerate  you  as  a  bishop,  and  receive  you 
with  the  honour  due  to  a  prelate  when  you  declaim  in 
the  Church,  whereas  they  think  little  of  me,  an  old 
man,  nearly  decrepit,  in  my  monastery  in  the  solitude 
of  the  country." 

In  the  second  book  "Contra  Julianum",  St.  Augus- 
tine again  cites  Ambrose  frequently,  and  Cyprian, 
Gregory  Nazianzen,  Hilary,  Chrysostom;  in  ii,  37,  he 
recapitulates  the  nine  names  (omitting  councils  and 
popes),  adding  (iii,  32)  Innocent  and  Jerome.  A  few 
years  later  the  Semipelagians  of  Southern  Gaul,  who 
were  led  by  St.  Hilary  of  Aries,  St.  Vincent  of  Li5rins, 
and  Bl.  Cassian,  refuse  to  accept  St.  Augustine's 
severe  view  of  predestination  because  "contrarium 
putant  patrum  opinioni  et  ecclesiastico  sensui". 
Their  opponent  St.  Prosper,  who  was  trying  to  convert 
them  to  Augustinianism,  complains:  "  Obstinationem 
suamvetustate  defendunt"  (Ep.  inter  Aug.  ccxxv,  2), 
and  they  said  that  no  ecclesiastical  writer  had  ever 
before  interpreted  Romans  quite  as  St.  Augustine 
did — which  was  probably  true  enough.  The  interest 
of  this  attitude  lies  in  the  fact  that  it  was,  if  not  new, 
at  least  more  definite  than  any  earlier  appeal  to  an- 
tiquity. Through  most  of  the  fourth  century,  the 
controversy  with  the  Arians  had  turned  upon  Scrip- 
ture, and  appeals  to  past  authority  were  few.  But 
the  appeal  to  the  Fathers  was  never  the  most  imposing 
locus  theologiciis,  for  they  coukl  not  easily  be  assembled 
so  as  to  form  an  absolutely  conclusive  test.  On  the 
other  hand  up  to  the  end  of  the  fourth  century,  there 
were  practically  no  infallible  definitions  available, 
except  condemnations  of  heresies,  chiefly  by  popes. 
By  the  time  that  the  Arian  reaction  under  Valens 
caused  the  Eastern  conservatives  to  draw  towards  the 
orthodox,  and  prepared  the  restoration  of  orthodoxy 
to  power  by  Theodosius,  the  Nicene  decisions  were 
beginning  to  be  looked  upon  as  sacrosanct,  and  that 
council  to  be  preferred  to  a  unique  position  above  all 
others.  By  430,  the  date  we  have  reached,  the  Creed 
we  now  say  at  Mass  was  revered  in  the  East,  whether 
rightly  or  wrongly,  as  the  work  of  the  150  Fathers  of 
Constantinople  in  381,  and  there  were  also  new  papal 
decisions,  especially  the  tractoria  of  Pope  Zosimus, 
which  in  418  had  been  sent  to  all  the  bishops  of  the 
world  to  be  signed. 

It  is  to  living  authority,  the  idea  of  which  had  thus 
come  to  the  fore,  that  St.  Prosper  was  appealing  in  his 
controversy  with  the  Lerinese  school.  When  he  went 
to  Gaul,  in  431,  as  papal  envoy,  just  after  St.  Augus- 
tine's death,  he  replied  to  their  difficulties,  not  by  re- 
iterating that  saint's  hardest  arguments,  but  by  tak- 
ing with  him  a  letter  from  Pope  St.  Celestine,  in  which 
St.  Augustine  is  extolled  as  having  been  held  by  the 
pope's  predecessors  to  be  "  inter  magistros  optimos". 
No  one  is  to  be  allowed  to  depreciate  him,  but  it  is  not 
said  that  every  word  of  his  is  to  be  followed.  The  dis- 
turbers had  appealed  to  the  Holy  See,  and  the  reply  is 
"Desinat  incessere  novitas  vetustatem"  (Let  novelty 
cease  to  attack  antiquity!).  An  appendix  is  added,  not 
of  the  opinions  of  ancient  Fathers,  but  of  recent  popes, 
since  the  very  same  monks  who  thought  St.  Augustine 
went  too  far,  professed  (says  the  appendix)  "  that  they 
followed  and  approved  only  what  the  most  holy  See  of 
the  Blessed  Apostle  Peter  sanctioned  and  taught  by 
the  ministry  of  its  prelates".  A  list  therefore  follows 
of  "  the  j  udgments  of  the  rulers  of  the  Ronrian  Church  ", 
to  which  are  added  some  sentences  of  African  councils, 
"  which  indeed  the  Apostolic  bishops  made  their  own 
when  they  approved  them".  To  these  inmolabiles 
sanctiones  (we  might  roughly  render  "  infallible  utter- 
ances ")  prayers  used  in  the  sacraments  are  appended 
"  ut  legem  credendi  lex  statuat  supplicandi " — a  fre- 
quently misquoted  phrase — and  in  conclusion,  it  is 
declared  that  these  testimonies  of  the  Apostolic  See 



are  sufficient,  "  so  that  we  consider  not  to  be  Catholic 
at  all  whatever  shall  appear  to  be  contrary  to  the  de- 
cisions we  have  cited".  Thus  the  decisions  of  the 
Apostolic  See  are  put  on  a  very  different  level  from  the 
views  of  St.  Augustine,  just  as  that  saint  always  drew 
a  sharp  distinction  between  the  resolutions  of  African 
councils  or  the  extracts  from  the  Fathers,  on  the  one 
hand,  and  the  decrees  of  Popes  Innocent  and  Zosimus 
on  the  other. 

Three  years  later  a  famous  document  on  tradi- 
tion and  its  use  emanated  from  the  Lerinese  school, 
the  "Commonitorium"  of  St.  Vincent.  He  whole- 
heartedly accepted  tlie  letter  of  Pope  Celestine,  and  he 
quoted  it  as  an  authoritative  and  irresistible  witness  to 
his  own  doctrine  that  where  quod  ubique,  or  universi- 
tas,  is  uncertain,  we  must  turn  to  quod  semper,  or  an- 
tiquitas.  Nothing  could  be  more  to  his  purpose  than 
the  pope's:  "  Desinat  inces.sere  novitas  vetustatem". 
The  cecumenical  Council  of  Ephesus  had  been  held  in 
the  same  year  that  Celestine  wrote.  Its  Acts  were  be- 
fore St.  Vincent,  and  it  is  clear  that  he  looked  upon 
both  pope  and  council  as  decisive  authorities.  It 
was  necessary  to  establish  this,  before  turning  to 
his  famous  canon,  quod  ubique,  quod  semper,  quod 
ah  omnibus — otherwise  universitas,  anliquilas,  con- 
sensio.  It  was  not  a  new  criterion,  else  it  would  have 
committed  suicide  by  its  very  expression.  But  never 
had  the  doctrine  been  so  admirably  phrased,  so  limp- 
idly  explained,  so  adequately  exemplified.  Even  the 
law  of  the  evolution  of  dogma  is  defined  by  Vincent  in 
language  which  can  hardly  be  surpassed  for  exactness 
and  vigour.  St.  Vincent's  triple  test  is  wholly  mis- 
understood if  it  is  taken  to  be  the  ordinary  rule  of 
faith.  Like  all  Catholics  he  took  the  ordinary  rule  to 
be  the  living  magisterium  of  the  Church,  antl  he  as- 
sumes that  the  formal  decision  in  cases  of  doubt  lies 
with  the  Apostolic  See,  or  with  a  general  council. 
But  cases  of  doubt  arise  when  no  such  decision  is  forth- 
coming. Then  it  is  that  the  three  tests  are  to  be  ap- 
plied, not  simultaneously,  but,  if  necessary,  in  succes- 

When  an  error  is  found  in  one  corner  of  the  Church, 
then  the  first  test,  universitas,  quod  ubique,  is  an  unan- 
swerable refutation,  nor  is  there  any  need  to  examine 
further  (iii,  7,  8).  But  if  an  error  attacks  the  whole 
Church,  then  antiquitas,  quod  semper  is  to  be  appealed 
to,  that  is,  a  consensus  existing  before  the  novelty 
arose.  Still,  in  the  previous  period  one  or  two  teach- 
ers, even  men  of  great  fame,  may  have  erred.  Then 
we  betake  ourselves  to  quod  ah  omnihus,  consensio,  to 
the  many  against  the  few  (if  possible  to  a  general 
council;  if  not,  to  an  examination  of  writings). 
Those  few  are  a  trial  of  faith  "  ut  tentet  vos  Dominus 
Deus  vester"  (Deut.,  xiii,  1  sqq.).  So  TertuUian  was  a 
magna  tentaiio;  so  was  Origen — indeed  the  greatest 
temptation  of  all.  We  must  know  that  whenever  what 
is  new  or  unheard  before  is  introduced  by  one  man 
beyond  or  against  all  the  saints,  it  pertains  not  to  re- 
ligion but  to  temptation  (xx,  49).  Who  are  the 
"Saints"  to  whom  we  appeal?  The  reply  is  a  defini- 
tion of  "Fathers  of  the  Church"  given  with  all  St. 
Vincent's  inimitable  accuracy:  "Inter  se  majorem 
consulat  interrogetque  sententias,  eorum  dumlaxat 
qui,  diversis  licet  temporibus  et  locis,  in  unius  tamen  ec- 
clesiw  Calholicce  com.munione  et  fide  permanentes,  magis- 
tri  probahiles  exstiterunt;  et  quicquid  non  unus  aut 
duo  tantum,  sed  omnes  pariter  uno  eodemque  con- 
sensu aperte,  frequenter,  perseveranter  tenuisse, 
scripsisse,  docuisse  cognoverit,  id  sibi  quoque  intelli- 
gat  absque  ulla  dubitatione  credendum"  (iii,  8). 
"This  unambiguous  sentence  defines  for  us  what  is  the 
right  way  of  appealing  to  the  Fathers,  and  the  itali- 
cized words  perfectly  explain  what  is  a  "Father": 
"Those  alone  who,  though  in  diverse  times  and 
places,  yet  persevering  in  the  communion  and  faith 
of  the  one  Catholic  Church,  have  been  approved 

The  same  result  is  obtained  by  modern  theologians, 
in  their  definitions;  e.  g.  Fessler  thus  defines  what 
constitutes  a  "Father":  (1)  orthodo.x  doctrine  and 
learning;  (2)  holiness  of  life;  (3)  (at  the  present 
day)  a  certain  antiquity.  The  criteria  by  which  we 
judge  whether  a  writer  is  a  "Father"  or  not  are:  (1) 
citation  by  a  general  council,  or  (2)  in  public  Acts  of 
popes  addressed  to  the  Church  or  concerning  Faith; 
(.3)  encomium  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  as  "  sancti- 
tate  et  doctrina  insignis";  (4)  public  reading  in 
Churches  in  early  centuries;  (5)  citation,  with  praise, 
as  an  authority  as  to  the  Faith  by  one  of  the  more 
celebrated  Fathers.  Early  authors,  though  belonging 
to  the  Church,  who  fail  to  reach  this  standard  are 
simply  ecclesiastical  writers  ("Patrologia",  ed.  Jung- 
mann,  ch.  i,  §11).  On  the  other  hand,  where  the 
appeal  is  not  to  the  authority  of  the  writer,  but  his 
testimony  is  merely  required  to  the  belief  of  his  time, 
one  writer  is  as  good  as  another,  and  if  a  Father  is 
cited  for  this  purpose,  it  is  not  as  a  Father  that  he  is 
cited,  but  merely  as  a  witness  to  facts  well  known  to 
him.  For  the  history  of  dogma,  therefore,  the  works  of 
ecclesiastical  WTiters  who  are  not  only  not  approved, 
but  even  heretical,  are  often  just  as  valuable  as  those 
of  the  Fathers.  On  the  other  hand,  the  witness  of 
one  Father  is  occasionally  of  great  weight  for  doctrine 
when  taken  singly,  if  he  is  teaching  a  subject  on  which 
he  is  recognized  by  the  Church  as  an  especial  author- 
ity, e.  g.,  St.  Athanasius  on  the  Divinity  of  the  Son,  St. 
Augustine  on  the  Holy  Trinity,  etc.  There  are  a  few 
cases  in  which  a  general  council  has  given  approba- 
tion to  the  work  of  a  Father,  the  most  important  being 
the  two  letters  of  St.  Cyril  of  Alexandria  which  were 
read  at  the  Council  of  Ephesus.  But  "  the  authority 
of  single  Fathers  considered  in  itself",  says  Franzelin 
(De  Traditione,  thesis  xv),  "is  not  infallible  or  per- 
emptory; though  piety  and  sound  reason  agree  that 
the  theological  opinions  of  such  individuals  should 
not  be  treated  lightly,  and  should  not  without 
great  caution  be  interpreted  in  a  which  clashes 
with  the  common  doctrine  of  other  Fathers."  The 
reason  is  plain  enough;  they  were  holy  men,  who  are 
not  to  be  presumed  to  have  intended  to  swerve  from 
the  doctrine  of  the  Church,  and  their  doubtful  utter- 
ances are  therefore  to  be  taken  in  the  best  sense  of 
which  they  are  capable.  If  they  cannot  be  explained 
in  an  orthodox  sense,  we  have  to  admit  that  not  the 
greatest  is  immune  from  ignorance  or  accidental  error 
or  obscurity.  But  on  the  use  of  the  Fathers  in  theolo- 
gical questions,  the  article  Tradition  and  the  ordinary 
dogmatic  treatises  on  that  subject  must  be  consulted, 
as  it  is  proper  here  only  to  deal  with  the  historical 
development  of  their  use.  The  subject  was  never 
treated  as  a  part  of  dogmatic  theology  until  the  rise 
of  what  is  now  commonly  called  "  Theologia  funda- 
mentalis",  in  the  sixteenth  century,  the  founders  of 
which  are  Melchior  Canus  and  Bellarmino.  The  for- 
mer has  a  discussion  of  the  use  of  the  Fathers  in 
deciding  questions  of  faith  (De  locis  theologicis,  vii). 
The  Protestant  Reformers  attacked  the  authority  of 
the  Fathers.  The  most  famous  of  these  opponents  is 
Dalla-us  (Jean  Daill(5,  1594-1670,  "TraitC-  de  I'emploi 
des  saints  Peres",  1632;  in  Latin  "De  usu  Patrum", 
1656).    But  their  obj  ections  are  long  since  forgotten. 

Having  traced  the  development  of  the  use  of  the 
Fathers  up  to  the  period  of  its  frequent  employment, 
and  of  its  formal  statement  by  St.  Vincent  of  L^rins, 
it  will  be  well  to  give  a  glance  at  the  continuation  of 
the  practice.  We  saw  that,  in  434,  it  was  possible  for 
St.  Vincent  (in  a  book  which  has  been  most  unreason- 
ably taken  to  be  a  mere  polemic  against  St.  Augustine 
— a  notion  which  is  amply  refuted  by  the  use  made  in 
it  of  St.  Celestine's  letter)  to  define  the  meaning  and 
method  of  patristic  appeals.  From  that  time  onward 
they  are  very  common.  In  the  Council  of  Ephesus, 
431,  as  St.  Vincent  points  out,  St.  Cyril  presented  a 
series  of  quotations  from  the  Fathers,  rdy  ayiuiTiruv  koJ 



d(TlU]TdTO}V  TTCiTipbJV  Kal   iTt(TK6irbJV  Kal  dia(p6pwv   fj.apT'upwv, 

which  were  read  on  the  motion  of  Flavian,  Bishop  of 
Phihppi.  They  were  from  Peter  I  of  Alexandria, 
Martyr,  Athanasius,  Popes  Julius  and  Felix  (forgeries), 
Theophilus,  Cyprian,  Ambrose,  Gregory  Nazianzen, 
Basil,  Gregory  of  Nyssa,  Atticus,  Amphilochius.  On 
the  other  hand  Eutyches,  when  tried  at  Constanti- 
nople by  St.  Flavian,  in  449,  refused  to  accept  either 
Fathers  or  councils  as  authorities,  confining  himself  to 
Holy  Scripture,  a  position  which  horrified  his  judges 
(see  Eutyches).  In  the  following  year  St.  Leo  sent 
his  legates,  Abundius  and  Asterius,  to  Constantinople 
with  a  list  of  testimonies  from  Hilary,  Athanasius, 
Ambrose,  Augustine,  Chrysostom,  Theophilus,  Greg- 
ory Nazianzen,  Basil,  Cyril  of  Alexandria.  They 
were  signed  in  that  citjr,  but  were  not  produced  at  the 
Council  of  Chalcedon  m  the  following  year.  Thence- 
forward the  custom  is  fixed,  and  it  is  unnecessary  to 
give  examples.  However,  that  of  the  sixth  council 
in  680  is  important:  Pope  St.  Agatho  sent  a  long 
series  of  extracts  from  Rome,  and  the  leader  of  the 
Monothelites,  Macarius  of  Antioch,  presented  another. 
Both  sets  were  carefully  verified  from  the  library  of 
the  Patriarchate  of  Constantinople,  and  sealed.  It 
should  be  noted  that  it  was  never  in  such  cases  thought 
necessary  to  trace  a  doctrine  back  to  the  earliest 
times;  St.  Vincent  demanded  the  proof  of  the  Church's 
belief  before  a  doubt  arose — this  is  his  notion  of 
antiquitas;  and  in  conformity  with  this  view,  the 
Fathers  quoted  by  councils  and  popes  and  Fathers 
are  for  the  most  part  recent  (Petavius,  De  Incarn., 
XIV,  15,  2-5). 

In  the  last  years  of  the  fifth  century  a  famous  docu- 
ment, attributed  to  Popes  Gelasius  and  Hormisdas, 
adds  to  decrees  of  St.  Damasus  of  382  a  list  of  books 
which  are  approved,  and  another  of  those  disapproved. 
In  its  present  form  the  list  of  approved  Fathers  com- 
prises Cyprian,  Gregory  Nazianzen,  Basil,  Athanasius, 
Chrysostom,  Theophilus,  Hilary,  CjtU  of  Alexandria 
(wanting  in  one  MS.),  Ambrose,  Augustine,  Jerome, 
Prosper,  Leo  ("every  iota"  of  the  tome  to  Flavian  is 
to  be  accepted  under  anathema),  and  "also  the  trea- 
tises of  all  orthodox  Fathers,  who  deviated  iu  nothing 
from  the  fellowship  of  the  holy  Roman  Church,  and 
were  not  separated  from  her  faith  and  preaching, 
but  were  participators  through  the  grace  of  God  until 
the  end  of  their  life  in  her  communion;  also  the 
decretal  letters,  which  most  blessed  popes  have  given 
at  various  times  when  consulted  by  various  Fathers, 
are  to  be  received  with  veneration".  Orosius,  Sedul- 
ius,  and  Juvencus  are  praised.  Ruiinus  and  Origen 
are  rej  ected.  Eusebius's  "  History  "  and  "  Chronicle  " 
are  not  to  be  condemned  altogether,  though  in  another 
part  of  the  list  they  appear  as  "apocrypha"  with 
Tertullian,  Lactantius,  Africanus,  Commodian,  Cle- 
ment of  Alexandria,  Arnobius,  Cassian,  Victorinus  of 
Pettau,  Faustus,  and  the  works  of  heretics,  and  forged 
Scriptural  documents.  The  later  Fathers  constantly 
used  the  writings  of  the  earUer.  For  instance,  St. 
CEBsarius  of  Aries  drew  freely  on  St.  Augustine's  ser- 
mons, and  embodied  them  in  collections  of  his  own; 
St.  Gregory  the  Great  has  largely  founded  himself  on 
St.  Augustine;  St.  Isidore  rests  upon  all  his  prede- 
cessors; St.  John  Damascene's  great  work  is  a 
synthesis  of  patristic  theology.  St.  Bede's  sermons 
are  a  cento  from  the  greater  Fathers.  Eugippius  made 
a  selection  from  St.  Augustine's  writings,  which  had  an 
immense  vogue.  Cassiodorus  made  a  collection  of 
select  commentaries  by  various  writers  on  all  the 
books  of  Holy  Scripture.  St.  Benedict  especially 
recommended  patristic  study,  and  his  sons  have  ob- 
served his  advice:  "Ad  perfectionem  conversationis 
qui  festinat,  sunt  doctrinse  sanctorum  Patrum, 
quarum  observatio  perducat  hominem  ad  celsitu- 
dinem  perfectionis  .  .  .  quis  liber  sanctorum  catholi- 
corum  Patrum  hoc  non  resonat,  ut  recto  cursu 
perveniamus  ad  creatorem  nostrum?"    (Sanet  Regula, 

bcxiii).  Florilegia  and  catens  became  common  from  the 
fifth  century  onwards.  They  are  mostly  anonymous, 
but  those  in  the  East  which  go  under  the  name  of 
Qicumenius  are  well  known.  Most  famous  of  all 
throughout  the  Middle  Ages  was  the  "Glossa  ordin- 
aria"  attributed  to  Walafrid  Strabo.  The  "Catena 
aurea"  of  St.  Thomas  Aquinas  is  still  in  use.  (See 
Catenae,  and  the  valuable  matter  collected  by  Turner 
in  Hastings,  Diet,  of  the  Bible,  V,  521.) 

St.  Augustine  was  early  recognized  as  the  first  of 
the  Western  Fathers,  with  St.  Ambrose  and  St. 
Jerome  by  his  side.  St.  Gregory  the  Great  was  added, 
and  these  four  became  "  the  Latin  Doctors".  St.  Leo, 
in  some  ways  the  greatest  of  theologians,  was  excluded, 
both  on  account  of  the  paucity  of  his  WTitings,  and  by 
the  fact  that  his  letters  had  a  far  higher  authority  as 
papal  utterances.  In  the  East  St.  John  Chrysostom 
has  always  been  the  most  popular,  as  he  is  the  most 
voluminous,  of  the  Fathers.  tVith  the  great  St.  Basil, 
the  father  of  monachism,  and  St.  Gregory  Nazianzen, 
famous  for  the  purity  of  his  faith,  he  made  up  the 
triumvirate  called  "the  three  hierarchs",  familiar  up 
to  the  present  day  in  Eastern  art.  St.  Athanasius 
was  added  to  these  by  the  Westerns,  so  that  four 
might  answer  to  four.  (See  Doctors  of  the  Church.) 
It  will  be  observed  that  many  of  the  writers  rejected 
in  the  Gelasian  list  lived  and  died  in  Catholic  com- 
munion, but  incorrectness  in  some  part  of  their 
writings,  e.  g.  the  Semipelagian  error  attributed  to 
Cassian  and  Faustus,  the  chiliasm  of  the  conclusion  of 
Victorinus's  commentary  on  the  Apocalypse  (St. 
Jerome  issued  an  expurgated  edition,  the  only  one 
in  print  as  yet),  the  unsoundness  of  the  lost  "Hypo- 
typoses"  of  Clement,  and  so  forth,  prevented  such 
writers  from  being  spoken  of,  as  Hilary  was  by  Jerome, 
"inoffenso  pede  percurritur".  As  all  the  more  im- 
portant doctrines  of  the  Church  (except  that  of  the 
Canon  and  the  Inspiration  of  Scripture)  may  be  proved, 
or  at  least  illustrated,  from  Scripture,  the  widest 
office  of  tradition  is  the  interpretation  of  Scripture, 
and  the  authority  of  the  Fathers  is  here  of  very  great 
importance.  Nevertheless  it  is  only  then  necessarily  to 
be  followed  when  all  are  of  one  mind:  "Nemo  .  .  . 
contra  unanimum  consensum  Patrum  ipsam  Scrip- 
turam  sacram  interpretari  audeat",  says  the  Council  of 
Trent;  and  the  Creed  of  Pius  IV  has  similarly:  ".  .  .nee 
eam  unquam  nisi  juxta  unanimum  consensum  Patrum 
accipiam  et  interpretabor".  The  Vatican  Council 
echoes  Trent:  "  nemini  licere  .  .  .  contra  unanimum 
sensum  Patrum  ipsam  Scripturam  sacram  inter- 

A  consensus  of  the  Fathers  is  not,  of  course,  to 
be  expected  in  very  small  matters:  "Qu;c  tamen 
antiqua  sanctorum  patrum  consensio  non  in  omnibus 
divina;  legis  quiBstiunculis,  sed  solum  certe  pra^cipue 
in  fidei  regula  magno  nobis  studio  et  investiganda  est 
et  sequenda"  (Vincent,  xxviii,  72).  This  is  not  the 
method,  adds  St.  Vincent,  against  widespread  and 
inveterate  heresies,  but  rather  against  novelties,  to 
be  applied  directly  they  appear.  A  better  mstance 
could  hardly  be  given  than  the  way  in  which  Adop- 
tionism  was  met  by  the  Coimcil  of  Frankfort  in  794, 
nor  could  the  principle  be  better  expressed  than  by 
the  Fathers  of  the  Council:  "Tenete  vos  intra  termi- 
nos  Patrum,  et  nolite  novas  versare  quiestiunciilas; 
ad  nUiilinn  enim  valent  nisi  ad  subversionem  audien- 
tium.  Sufficit  enim  voliis  sanctorum  Patrum  vestigia 
sequi,  et  illorum  dicta  firraa  tenere  fide.  Illi  enim  in 
Domino  nostri  exstiterunt  doctores  in  fide  et  due- 
tores  ad  vitam;  quorum  et  sapientia  Spiritu  Dei 
plena  libris  legitur  inscripta,  et  vita  meritorum 
miraculis  clara  et  sanctissima;  quorum  aniraa;  apud 
Deum  Dei  Filium,  D.  N.  J.  C.  pro  magno_  pietatis 
labore  regnant  in  ca^lis.  Hos  ergo  tota  animi  virtute, 
toto  caritatis  affcctu  sequimini,  beatissimi  fratres,  ut 
horum  inconcussa  firmitate  doctrinis  adhairentes, 
consortium   a^terna;   beatitudinis  .  .  .  cum   illis  ha- 



bere  raerearaini  in  cirlis"  ("Synociifa  ad  Episc."  in 
Mansi,  XIII,  S97-S).  And  an  excellent  act  of  faith  in 
the  tradition  of  the  Churcli  is  that  of  Charlemagne 
(ibid.,  902)  made  on  the  same  occasion:  "Apostolica; 
scdi  et  antiquis  ab  initio  iiascentis  ecclesise  et  cath- 
olicis  traditionibus  tota  mentis  intentione,  tota 
cordis  ahicritate,  me  conjungo.  Quicquid  in  illorum 
legitur  libris,  qui  divino  Spiritu  affiati,  toti  orbi  a 
Deo  Christo  dati  sunt  doctores,  indubitanter  teneo ; 
hoc  ad  salutem  animaj  mea;  sufficere  credens,  quod 
sacratissimse  evangelicic  veritatis  pandit  historia, 
quod  apostolica  in  suis  epistolis  confirmat  auctoritas, 
quod  eximii  Sacra?  Scriptura;  tractatores  et  prajcipui 
CliristianiB  fidei  doctores  ad  perpetuam  posteris 
scriptiun  reliquerunt  memoriam." 

("lassification  of  Patristic  Writings. — In 
oriier  to  get  a  good  view  of  the  patristic  period,  the 
l'"atliers  may  be  divided  in  various  ways.  One  favour- 
ite method  is  by  periods;  the  Ante-Nicene  Fathers 
till  '.i'lo;  the  Great  Fatliers  of  tlie  fourth  century  and 
lialf  the  fifth  (325-151);  and  the  later  Fathers.  A 
more  obvious  division  is  mto  Easterns  and  Westerns, 
anil  the  Easterns  will  comprise  writers  in  Greek,  Syriac, 
Armenian,  and  Coptic.  A  convenient  division  into 
smaller  groups  will  be  by  periods,  nationalities  and 
character  of  writings;  for  in  the  East  and  West  there 
were  many  races,  and  some  of  the  ecclesiastical  writers 
are  apologists,  some  preachers,  some  historians,  some 
commentators,  and  so  forth. 

A.  After  (1)  the  Apostolic  Fathers  come  in  the 
second  century  (2)  the  Greek  apologists,  foUow^ed  by 
(3)  the  Western  apologists  somewhat  later,  (4)  the 
Gnostic  and  Marcionite  heretics  with  their  apocry- 
phal Scriptures,  and  (5)  the  Catholic  replies  to  them. 

B.  The  third  century  gives  us  (1)  the  Alexandrian 
writers  of  the  catechetical  school,  (2)  the  writers  of 
Asia  Minor  and  (3)  Palestine,  and  the  first  Western 
writers,  (4)  at  Rome,  Hippolytus  (in  Greek),  and 
Novatian,  (5)  the  great  African  writers,  and  a  few 

C.  The  fourth  century  opens  with  (1)  the  apolo- 
getic and  the  historical  works  of  Eusebius  of  Ca>sarea, 
with  whom  we  may  class  St.  Cyril  of  Jerusalem  and 
St.  Epiphanius,  (2)  the  Alexandrian  writers  Athana- 
sius,  Didymus,  and  others,  (3)  the  Cappadocians,  (4) 
the  Antiochenes,  (5)  the  Syriac  writers.  In  the  West 
we  have  (6)  the  opponents  of  Arianism,  (7)  the 
Italians,  including  Jerome,  (8)  the  Africans,  and  (9) 
the  Spanish  and  Gallic  writers. 

D.  The  fifth  century  gives  us  (1)  the  Nestorian 
controversy,  (2)  the  Eutychian  controversy,  including 
the  \\'estern  St.  Leo;  (3)  the  historians.  In  the  West 
( t)  the  school  of  Lerins,  (5)  the  letters  of  the  popes. 

E.  The  sixth  century  and  the  seventh  give  us  less 
important  names  and  they  must  be  grouped  in  a 
more  mechanical  way. 

A.  (1)  If  we  now  take  these  groups  in  detail  we 
fiii<l  the  letters  of  the  chief  Apostolic  Fathers,  St. 
Clement,  St.  Ignatius,  and  St.  Polycarp,  venerable 
not  merely  for  their  antiquity,  but  for  a  certain  sim- 
plicity and  nobility  of  thought  and  style  which  is  very 
moving  to  the  reader.  Their  quotations  from  the 
New  Testament  are  quite  free.  They  offer  most 
important  information  to  the  historian,  though  in 
somewhat  homoeopathic  quantities.  To  these  we  add 
the  Didache  (q.  v.),  probably  the  earliest  of  all;  the 
curious  allegorizing  anti-Jewish  epistle  which  goes 
under  the  name  of  Barnabas ;  the  Shepherd  of  Hernias, 
a  rather  dull  series  of  visions  chiefly  connected  with 
penance  and  pardon,  composed  by  the  brother  of  Pope 
Pius  l.and  long  appended  to  the  New  Testament  as  of 
almost  canonical  importance.  The  works  of  Papias, 
the  disciple  of  St.  John  and  Aristion,  are  lost,  all  but 
a  few  precious  fragments. 

1 2)  The  apologists  are  most  of  them  philosophic 
in  their  treatment  of  Christianity.  Some  of  their 
works  were  presented  to  emperors  in  order  to  disarm 

persecutions.  We  must  not  always  accept  the  view 
given  to  outsiders  by  the  apologists,  as  representing 
the  whole  of  the  Christianity  they  knew  and  practised. 
The  apologies  of  Quadratus  to  Hadrian,  of  Aristo  of 
Pella  to  the  Jews,  of  Miltiades,  of  ApoUinaris  of 
IlierapolLs,  and  of  Melito  of  Sardis  are  lost  to  us.  But 
we  still  possess  several  of  greater  importance.  That 
of  Aristides  of  Athens  was  presented  to  Antoninus 
Pius,  and  deals  principally  with  the  knowledge  of  the 
true  Ciod.  The  fine  apology  of  St.  Justin  with  its 
appendix  is  above  all  interesting  for  its  description  of 
the  Liturgy  at  Rome  c.  150.  His  arguments  against 
the  Jews  are  found  in  the  well-composed  "  Dialogue 
with  Trypho",  where  he  speaks  of  the  Apostolic  ' 
authorship  of  the  Apocalj'pse  m  a  manner  which  is  of 
first-rate  importance  in  the  mouth  of  a  man  who  was 
converted  at  Ephesus  some  time  before  the  year  132. 
The  "Apology"  of  Justin's  Syrian  disciple Tatian  isa 
less  conciliatory  work,  and  its  author  fell  into  her- 
esy. Athenagoras,  an  Athenian  (c.  177),  addressed  to 
Marcus  Aurelius  and  Commodus  an  eloquent  refuta- 
tion of  the  absurd  calumnies  against  Christians. 
Theophilus,  Bishop  of  Antioch,  about  the  same  date, 
wrote  three  books  of  apology  addressed  to  a  certain 

(3)  All  these  works  are  of  considerable  literary 
ability.  This  is  not  the  case  with  the  gi-eat  Latin 
apology  which  closely  follows  them  in  date,  the 
"  Apologeticus"  of  TertuUian,  which  is  in  the  uncouth 
and  untranslatable  language  affected  by  its  author. 
Nevertheless  it  is  a  work  of  extraordinary  genius,  in 
interest  and  value  far  above  all  the  rest,  and  for 
energy  and  boldness  it  is  incomparable.  His  fierce 
"Ad  Scapulam"  is  a  warning  addressed  to  a  perse- 
cuting proconsul.  "Adversus  Judceos"  is  a  title 
which  explains  itself.  The  other  Latin  apologists  are 
later.  The  "Octavius"  of  Minucius  Felix  is  as  pol- 
ished and  gentle  as  TertuUian  is  rough.  Its  date  is 
uncertain.  If  the  "  Apologeticus  "  was  well  calculated 
to  infuse  courage  into  the  persecuted  Christian,  the 
"Octavius"  was  more  likely  to  impress  the  inquiring 
pagan,  if  so  be  that  more  flies  are  caught  with  honey 
than  with  vinegar.  With  these  works  we  may  mention 
the  much  later  Lactantius,  the  most  perfect  of  all  in 
literary  form  ("DiviniE  Institutiones",  c.  305-10,  and 
"  De  Mortibus  persecutorum",  c.  314).  Greek  apolo- 
gies probably  later  than  the  second  century  are  the 
"Irrisiones"  of  Hennias,  and  the  very  beautiful 
"  Epistle  "  to  Diognetus.  (4)  The  heretical  writings  of 
the  second  century  are  mostly  lost.  The  Gnostics  had 
schools  and  philosophized ;  their  writers  were  numerous. 
Some  curious  works  have  come  down  to  us  in  Coptic. 
The  letter  of  Ptolemteus  to  Flora  in  Epiphanius  is 
almost  the  only  Greek  fragment  of  real  importance. 
Marcion  founded  not  a  school  but  a  Church,  and  his 
New  Testament,  consisting  of  St.  Luke  and  St.  Paul, 
is  preserved  to  some  extent  in  the  works  written 
against  him  by  TertuUian  and  Epiphanius.  Of  the 
writings  of  Greek  Montanists  and  of  other  early  here- 
tics, almost  nothing  remains.  The  Gnostics  composed 
a  quantity  of  apocrj-phal  Gospels  an<l  Acts  of  individ- 
ual Apostles,  large  portions  of  which  are  preserved, 
mostly  in  fragments,  in  Latin  revisions,  or  in  Syriac, 
Coptic,  Arabic,  or  Slavonic  versions.  To  these  are  to 
be  added  such  well-known  forgeries  as  the  letters  of 
Paul  to  Seneca,  and  the  Apocalypse  of  Peter,  of  which 
a  fragment  w-as  recently  found  m  the  Fayum. 

(5)  Replies  to  the  attacks  of  heretics  form,  next  to 
the  apologetic  against  heathen  persecutors  on  the  one 
hand  and  Jews  on  the  other,  the  characteristic  Catho- 
lic literature  of  the  second  century.  The  "SjTitagma" 
of  St.  Justin  against  all  heresies  is  lost.  Earlier  yet, 
St.  Papias  (already  mentioned)  had  directed  his  ef- 
forts to  the  refutation  of  the  rising  errors,  and  the  same 
preoccupation  is  seen  in  St.  Ignatius  and  St.  Polycarp. 
Ilcgesippus,  a  converted  Jew  of  Palestine,  journeyed 
to  Corinth  and  Rome,  where  he  stayed  from  the  epis- 




copate  of  Anicetus  till  that  of  Eleutherius  (c.  IGO-ISO), 
with  the  intention  of  refuting  the  novelties  of  the 
Gnostics  and  Marcionites  by  an  appeal  to  tradition. 
His  work  is  lost.  But  the  great  work  of  St.  Irena-us  (c. 
ISO)  against  heresies  is  founded  on  Papias,  Hegesippus, 
and  Justin,  and  gives  from  careful  investigation  an 
account  of  many  Gnostic  systems,  together  with  their 
refutation.  His  appeal  is  less  to  Scripture  than  to  the 
tradition  which  the  whole  Catholic  Church  has  re- 
ceived and  handed  down  from  the  Apostles,  through 
the  ministry  of  successive  bishops,  and  particularly  to 
the  tradition  of  the  Roman  Church  founded  by  Peter 
and  Paul. 

By  the  side  of  Irena?us  must  be  put  the  Latin  Ter- 
tiillian,  whose  book  "  Of  the  Prescriptions  Against 
Heretics ' '  is  not  only  a  masterpiece  of  argument,  but  is 
almost  as  effective  against  modern  heresies  as  against 
those  of  the  early  Church.  It  is  a  witness  of  extraor- 
dinary importance  to  the  principles  of  unvarying  tradi- 
tion which  the  Catholic  Church  has  always  professed, 
and  to  the  primitive  belief  that  Holy  Scripture  must 
be  interpreted  by  the  Church  and  not  by  private  in- 
dustry. He  uses  Iremeus  in  this  work,  and  his  po- 
lemical books  against  the  Valentinians  and  the  Mar- 
cionites borrow  freely  from  that  saint.  He  is  the  less 
persuasive  of  the  two,  because  he  is  too  abrupt,  too 
clever,  too  anxious  for  the  slightest  controversial  ad- 
vantage, without  thought  of  the  easy  replies  that 
might  be  made.  He  sometimes  prefers  wit  or  hard 
hitting  to  solid  argument.  At  this  period  controver- 
sies were  beginning  within  the  Church,  the  most  im- 
portant being  the  question  whether  Easter  could  be 
celebrated  on  a  weekday.  Another  burning  question 
at  Rome,  at  the  turn  of  the  century,  was  the  doubt 
whether  the  prophesying  of  the  Montanists  could  be 
approved,  and  yet  another,  in  the  first  years  of  the 
third  century,  was  the  controversy  with  a  group  of 
opponents  of  Montanism  (so  it  seems),  who  denied  the 
authenticity  of  the  writings  of  St.  John,  an  error  then 
quite  new. 

B.  (1)  The  Church  of  Alexandria  already  in  the  sec- 
ond century  showed  the  note  of  learning,  together  with 
a  habit  borrowed  from  the  Alexandrian  Jews,  espe- 
cially Philo,  of  an  allegorizing  interpretation  of  Scrip- 
ture. The  latter  characteristic  is  already  found  in  the 
"Epistle  of  Barnabas",  which  may  be  of  Alexandrian 
origin.  Panta^nus  was  the  first  to  make  the  Cate- 
chetical school  of  the  city  famous.  No  writings  of 
his  are  extant,  but  his  pupil  Clement,  who  taught  in 
the  school  with  Pantienus,  c.  180,  and  as  its  head,  c. 
180-202  (died  c.  214),  has  left  a  considerable  amount 
of  rather  lengthy  disquisitions  dealing  with  my- 
thology, mystical  theology,  education,  social  observ- 
ances, and  all  other  things  m  heaven  and  on  earth. 
He  was  followed  by  the  great  Origen,  whose  fame 
spread  far  and  wide  even  among  the  heathen.  The 
remains  of  his  works,  though  they  fill  several  volumes, 
are  to  a  great  extent  only  in  free  Latin  translations, 
and  bear  but  a  small  ratio  to  the  vast  amount  that  has 
perished.  The  Alexandrians  held  as  firmly  as  any 
Catholics  to  tradition  as  the  rule  of  faith,  at  least  in 
theory,  but  beyond  tradition  they  allowed  themselves 
to  speculate,  so  that  the  "  Hypotyposes "  of  Clement 
have  been  almost  entirely  lost  on  accoimt  of  the  errors 
which  found  a  place  in  them,  and  Origen's  works  fell 
under  the  ban  of  the  Church,  though  their  author  lived 
the  life  of  a  saint,  and  died,  shortly  after  the  Decian 
persecution,  of  the  sufferings  he  had  undergone  in  it. 

The  disciples  of  Origen  were  many  and  eminent.  The 
library  founded  by  one  of  them,  St.  Alexander  of  Jeru- 
ealem,  was  precious  later  on  to  Eusebius.  The  most 
celebrated  of  the  school  were  St.  Dionysiiis  "the 
(ireat"  of  Alexandria  and  St.  Gregory  of  Neoca?saroa 
in  Pontus,  known  as  the  Wonder- Worker,  who,  like  St. 
NonnoHUS  in  the  West,  was  said  to  have  moved  a 
mountain  for  a  short  distance  by  his  prayers.  Of  the 
writings  of  these  two  saints  not  very  much  is  extant. 

(2)  Montanism  and  the  paschal  question  brought  Asia 
Minor  down  from  the  leading  position  it  held  in  the 
second  century  into  a  very  inferior  rank  in  the  third. 
Besides  St.  Gregory,  St.  Methodius  at  the  end  of  that 
century  was  a  polished  writer  and  an  opponent  of 
Origenism — his  name  is  consequently  passed  over 
without  mention  by  the  Origenist  historian  Eusebius. 
We  have  his  "Banquet"  in  Greek,  and  some  smaller 
works  in  Old  Slavonic. 

(3)  Antioch  was  the  head  see  over  the  "  Orient",  in- 
cluding Syria  and  Mesopotamia  as  well  as  Palestine 
and  Phoenicia,  but  at  no  time  did  this  form  a  compact 
patriarchate  like  that  of  Alexandria.  We  must  group 
here  writers  who  have  no  connexion  with  one  another 
in  matter  or  style.  Julius  Africanus  lived  at  Em- 
maus  and  composed  a  chronography,  out  of  which  the 
episcopal  lists  of  Rome,  Alexandria,  and  Antioch,  and 
a  great  deal  of  other  matter,  have  been  preserved  for 
us  in  St.  Jerome's  version  of  the  Chronicle  of  Eusebius, 
and  in  Byzantine  chronographers.  Two  letters  of  his 
are  of  mterest,  but  the  fragments  of  his  "Kestoi"  or 
"Girdles"  are  of  no  ecclesiastical  value;  they  contain 
much  curious  matter  and  much  that  is  objectionable. 
In  the  second  half  of  the  third  century,  perhaps  to- 
wards the  end  of  it,  a  great  school  was  established  at 
Antioch  by  Lucian,  who  was  martyred  at  Nicomedia 
in  312.  He  is  said  to  have  been  excommunicated 
under  three  bishops,  but  if  this  is  true  he  had  been  long 
restored  at  the  time  of  his  martyrdom.  It  is  quite  un- 
certain whether  he  shared  the  errors  of  Paul  of  Samo- 
sata  (Bishop of  Antioch,  deposed  for  heresy  in  268-9). 
At  all  events  he  was — however  unintentionally — the 
father  of  Arianism,  and  his  pupils  were  the  leaders  of 
that  heresy:  Eusebius  of  Nicomedia,  Arius  himself, 
with  Menophantus  of  Ephesus,  Athanasius  of  Anazar- 
bus,  and  the  only  two  bishops  who  refused  to  sign  the 
new  creed  at  the  Council  of  Nicoea,  Theognis  of  Nicaea 
and  Maris  of  Chalcedon,  besides  the  scandalous  bishop 
Leontius  of  Antioch  and  the  Sophist  Asterius.  At 
Ceesarea,  an  Origenist  centre,  flourished  under  another 
martyr,  St.  Pamphilus,  who  with  his  friend  Eusebius, 
a  certain  Ammonius,  and  others,  collected  the  works  of 
Origen  in  a  long-famous  library,  corrected  Origen's 
"Hexapla",  and  did  much  editing  of  the  text  both  of 
the  Old  and  the  New  Testaments. 

(4)  We  hear  of  no  writings  at  Rome  except  in  Greek, 
until  the  mention  of  some  small  works  in  Latin,  by 
Pope  St.  Victor,  which  still  existed  in  Jerome's  day. 
Hippolytus,  a  Roman  priest,  wrote  from  c.  200  to  235, 
and  always  in  Greek,  though  at  Carthage  TertuUian 
had  been  writing  before  this  in  Latin.  If  Hippolytus 
is  the  author  of  the  "Philosophuraena"  he  was  an 
antipope,  and  full  of  unreasoning  enmity  to  his  rival 
St.  Callistus;  his  theology  makes  the  Word  proceed 
from  God  by  His  Will,  distinct  from  Him  in  substance, 
and  becoming  Son  by  becoming  man.  There  is  noth- 
ing Roman  in  the  theology  of  this  work ;  it  rather  con- 
nects itself  with  the  Greek  apologists.  A  great  part  of 
a  large  commentary  on  Daniel  and  a  work  against 
Noetus  are  the  only  other  important  remains  of  this 
writer,  who  was  soon  forgotten  in  the  West,  though 
fragments  of  his  works  turn  up  in  all  the  Eastern  lan- 
guages. Parts  of  his  chronography,  perhaps  his  last 
work,  have  survived.  Another  Roman  antipope, 
Novatian,  wrote  in  ponderous  and  studied  prose  with 
metrical  endings.  Some  of  his  works  have  come  down 
to  us  imder  the  name  of  St.  Cyprian.  Like  Hippoly- 
tus, he  made  his  rigorist  views  the  pretext  for  his 
schism.  LTnlike  Hippolytus,  he  is  quite  orthodox  in 
his  principal  work,  "  De  Trinitate". 

(5)  The  apologetic  works  of  TertuUian  have  been 
mentioned.  The  earlier  were  written  by  him  when  a 
priest  of  the  Clnirrh  of  Carthage,  but  al)out  the  year 
200  he  was  led  to  hcliovo  in  tlie  Montanist  prophets  of 
Phrygia,  and  he  hcudcd  a  Mimtanint  schism  at  Car- 
thage. Many  of  his  treatises  are  written  to  defend  his 
position  and  his  rigorist  doctrines,  and  he  does  so 



with  considerable  violence  and  with  the  clever  and 
hasty  argumentation  which  is  natural  to  him.  The 
placid  flow  of  St.  ( -yprian's  eloquence  (Bishop  of  Car- 
thage, 249-58)  is  a  great  contrast  to  that  of  his  "  mas- 
ter .  The  short  treatises  and  large  correspondence  of 
this  saint  are  all  concerned  with  local  questions  and 
needs,  and  he  eschews  all  speculative  theology.  From 
this  we  gain  the  more  light  on  the  state  of  the  Church, 
on  its  government,  and  on  a  number  of  interesting  ec- 
clesiastical and  social  matters.  In  all  the  patristic 
period  there  is  nothing,  with  the  exception  of  Euse- 
bius's  history,  which  tells  us  so  much  about  the  early 
Church  as  the  small  volume  which  contains  St.  Cypri- 
an's works.  At  the  end  of  the  century  Arnobius,  like 
Cyprian  a  convert  in  middle  age,  and  like  other  Afri- 
cans, Tertullian,  Cyprian,  Lactantius,  and  Augustine, 
a  former  rhetorician,  composed  a  dull  apology.  Lac- 
tantius carries  us  into  the  fourth  century.  He  was  an 
elegant  and  eloquent  writer,  but  like  Arnobius  was  not 
a  well-instructed  Christian. 

C.  (1)  The  fourth  century  is  the  great  age  of  the 
Fathers.  It  was  twelve  years  old  when  Constantine 
published  his  edict  of  toleration,  and  a  new  era  for  the 
Christian  religion  began.  It  is  ushered  in  by  Eusebius 
of  Caesarea,  with  his  great  apologetic  works  'Praepara- 
tio  Evangelica"  and  "Demonstratio  Evangelica",  which 
show  the  transcendent  merit  of  Christianity,  and  his 
still  greater  historical  works,  the  "Chronicle"  (the  Greek 
original  is  lost)  and  the  "History",  which  has  gathered 
up  the  fragments  of  the  age  of  persecutions,  and  has  pre- 
served to  us  more  than  half  of  all  we  know  about  the 
heroic  ages  of  the  Faith.  In  theology  Eusebius  was  a 
follower  of  Origen,  but  he  rej  ected  the  eternity  of  Crea- 
tion and  of  the  Logos,  so  that  he  was  able  to  regard 
the  Arians  with  considerable  cordiality.  The  original 
form  of  the  pseudo-Clementine  romance,  with  its  long 
and  tiresome  dialogues,  seems  to  be  a  work  of  the  very 
beginning  of  the  century  against  the  new  develop- 
ments of  heathenism,  and  it  was  written  either  on  the 
Phoenician  coast  or  not  far  inland  in  the  Syrian  neigh- 
bourhood. Replies  to  the  greatest  of  the  pagan  at- 
tacks, that  of  Porphyry,  become  more  frequent  after 
the  pagan  revival  under  Julian  (361-3),  and  they  occu- 
pied the  labours  of  many  celebrated  writers.  St.  Cy- 
ril of  Jerusalem  has  left  us  a  complete  series  of  instruc- 
tions to  catechumens  and  the  baptized,  thus  supplying 
us  with  an  exact  knowledge  of  the  religious  teaching 
imparted  to  the  people  in  an  important  Church  of  the 
East  in  the  middle  of  the  fourth  century.  A  Pales- 
tinian of  the  second  half  of  the  century,  St.  Epipha- 
nius,  became  Bishop  of  Salamis  in  Cyprus,  and  wrote  a 
learned  history  of  all  the  heresies.  He  is  unfortu- 
nately inaccurate,  and  has  further  made  great  difficul- 
ties for  us  by  not  naming  his  authorities.  He  was  a 
friend  of  St.  Jerome,  and  an  uncompromising  oppo- 
nent of  Origenism. 

(2)  The  Alexandrian  priest  Arius  was  not  a  product 
of  the  catechetical  school  of  that  city,  but  of  the 
Lucianic  school  of  Antioch.  The  Alexandrian  ten- 
dency was  quite  opposite  to  the  Antiochene,  and  the 
Alexandrian  bishop,  Alexander,  condemned  Arius  in 
letters  still  extant,  in  which  we  gather  the  tradition  of 
the  Alexandrian  Church.  There  is  no  trace  in  them 
of  Origenism,  the  head-quarters  of  which  had  long  been 
at  Cssarea  in  Palestine,  in  the  succession  Theoctistus, 
Pamphilus,  Eusebius.  The  tradition  of  Alexandria 
was  rather  that  which  Dionysius  the  Great  had  re- 
ceived from  Pope  Dionysius.  Three  years  after  the 
Nicene  Council  (325),  St.  Athanasius  began  his  long 
episcopate  of  forty-five  years.  His  writmgs  are  not 
very  voluminous,  being  either  controversial  theology 
or  apologetic  memoirs  of  his  own  troubles,  but  their 
theological  and  historical  value  is  enormous,  on  ac- 
count of  the  leading  part  taken  by  this  truly  great  man 
in  the  fifty  years  of  fight  with  Arianism.  The  head  of 
the  catechetical  school  during  this  half-century  was 
Didymus  the  Blind,  an  Athanasian  in  his  doctrine  of 

the  Son,  and  rather  clearer  even  than  hia  patriarch  in 
his  doctrine  of  the  Trinity,  but  in  many  other  points 
carrying  on  the  Origenistic  tnulilion.  Here  may  be 
also  mentioned  by  the  way  a  rather  later  writer,  Syne- 
sius  of  Cyrene,  a  man  of  philosophical  and  literary 
habits,  who  showed  energy  and  sincere  piety  as  a 
bishop,  in  spite  of  the  ratlier  pagan  character  of  his 
culture.     His  letters  are  of  great  interest. 

(3)  The  second  half  of  the  century  is  illustrated  by 
an  illustrious  triad  in  Cappadocia,  St.  Basil,  his  friend 
St.  Gregory  Nazianzen,  and  his  brother  St.  Gregory  of 
Nyssa.  They  were  the  main  workers  in  the  return  of 
the  East  to  orthodoxy.  Their  doctrine  of  the  Trinity 
is  an  advance  even  upon  that  of  Didymus,  and  is  very 
near  indeed  to  the  Roman  doctrine  which  was  later 
embodied  in  the  Athanasian  creed.  But  it  had  taken 
a  long  while  for  the  East  to  assimilate  the  entire  mean- 
ing of  the  orthodox  view.  St.  Basil  showed  great 
patience  with  those  who  had  advanced  less  far  on  the 
right  road  than  himself,  and  he  even  tempered  his  lan- 
guage so  as  to  conciliate  them.  For  fame  of  sanctity 
scarcely  any  of  the  Fathers,  save  St.  Gregory  the 
Wonder-Worker,  or  St.  Augustine,  has  ever  equalled 
him.  He  practised  extraordinary  asceticism,  and  his 
family  were  all  saints.  He  composed  a  rule  for 
monks  which  has  remained  practically  the  only  one  in 
the  East.  St.  Gregory  had  far  less  character,  but 
equal  abilities  and  learning,  with  greater  eloquence. 
The  love  of  Origen  which  persuaded  the  friends  in  their 
youth  to  publish  a  book  of  extracts  from  his  writings 
had  little  influence  on  their  later  theology;  that  of  St. 
Gregory  in  particular  is  renowned  for  its  accuracy  or 
even  inerrancy.  St.  Gregory  of  Nyssa  is,  on  the  other 
hand,  full  of  Origenism.  The  classical  culture  and 
literary  form  of  the  Cappadocians,  united  to  sanctity 
and  orthodoxy,  makes  them  a  unique  group  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  Church. 

(4)  The  Antiochene  school  of  the  fourth  century 
seemed  given  over  to  Arianism,  until  the  time  when 
the  great  Alexandrians,  Athanasius  and  Didymus, 
were  dying,  when  it  was  just  reviving  not  merely  into 
orthodoxy,  but  into  an  efflorescence  by  which  the  re- 
cent glory  of  Alexandria  and  even  of  Cappadocia 
was  to  be  surpassed.  Diodorus,  a  monk  at  Antioch 
and  then  Bishop  of  Tarsus,  was  a  noble  supporter  of 
Nicene  doctrine  and  a  great  writer,  though  the  larger 
part  of  his  works  has  perished.  His  friend  Theodore 
of  Mopsuestia  was  a  learned  and  judicious  commenta- 
tor in  the  literal  Antiochene  style,  but  unfortunately 
his  opposition  to  the  heresy  of  ApoUinarius  of  Laodi- 
cea  carried  him  into  the  opposite  extreme  of  Nestori- 
anism — indeed  the  pupil  Nestorius  scarcely  went  so 
far  as  the  master  Theodore.  But  then  Nestorius  re- 
sisted the  judgment  of  the  Church,  whereas  Theodore 
died  in  Catholic  communion,  and  was  the  friend  of 
saints,  including  that  crowning  glory  of  the  Antiochene 
school,  St.  John  Chrysostom,  whose  greatest  sermons 
were  preached  at  Antioch,  before  he  became  Bishop  of 
Constantinople.  Chrysostom  is  of  course  the  chief  of 
the  Greek  Fathers,  the  first  of  all  commentators,  and 
the  first  of  all  orators  whether  in  East  or  West.  He 
was  for  a  time  a  hermit,  and  remained  ascetic  in  his 
life;  he  was  also  a  fervent  social  reformer.  His 
grandeur  of  character  makes  him  worthy  of  a  place  be- 
side St.  Basil  and  St.  Athanasius. 

As  Basil  and  Gregory  were  formed  to  oratory  by  the 
Christian  Prohsresius,  so  was  Chrysostom  by  the 
heathen  orator  Libanius.  In  the  classical  Gregory 
we  may  sometimes  find  the  rhetorician;  in  Chrysos- 
tom never;  his  amazing  natural  talent  prevents  hia 
needing  the  assistance  of  art,  and  though  training  had 
preceded,  it  has  been  lost  in  the  flow  of  energetic 
thought  and  the  torrent  of  words.  He  is  not  afraid  of 
repeating  himself  and  of  neglecting  the  rules,  for  he 
never  wi.shes  to  be  admired,  but  only  to  instruct  or  to 
persuafle.  But  even  so  great  a  man  has  his  limita- 
tions.    He  has  no  speculative  interest  in  philosophy 



or  theology,  though  he  is  learned  enough  to  be  abso- 
lutely orthodox.  lie  is  a  holy  man  and  a  practical 
man,  so  that  his  thoughts  are  full  of  piety  and  beauty 
and  wisdom;  but  he  is  not  a  thinker.  None  of  the 
Fathers  has  been  more  imitated  or  more  read;  but 
there  is  little  in  his  writings  which  can  be  said  to  have 
moulded  his  own  or  future  times,  and  he  cannot  come 
for  an  instant  into  competition  with  Origen  or  Augus- 
tine for  the  first  place  among  ecclesiastical  writers. 

(5)  Syria  in  the  fourth  century  produced  one  great 
writer,  St.  Ephraem,  deacon  of  Edessa  (306-73). 
Most  of  his  writings  are  poetry;  his  commentaries  are 
in  prose,  but  the  remains  of  these  are  scantier.  His 
homilies  and  hjmins  are  all  in  metre,  antl  are  of  very 
great  beauty.  Such  tender  and  loving  piety  is  hardly 
found  elsewhere  in  the  Fathers.  The  twenty-three 
homilies  of  Aphraates  (326-7),  a  Mesopotamian 
bishop,  are  of  great  interest. 

(6)  St.  Hilary  of  Poitiers  is  the  most  famous  of  the 
earlier  opponents  of  Arianism  in  the  West.  He  wrote 
commentaries  and  polemical  works,  including  the 
great  treatise  "De  Trinitate"  and  a  lost  historical 
work.  His  style  is  affectedly  involved  and  obscure, 
but  he  is  nevertheless  a  theologian  of  considerable 
merit.  The  very  name  of  his  treatise  on  the  Trinity 
shows  that  he  approached  the  dogma  from  the  West- 
ern point  of  view  of  a  Trinity  in  Unity,  but  he  has 
largely  employed  the  works  of  Origen,  Athanasius, 
and  other  Easterns.  His  exegesis  is  of  the  allegorical 
type.  Until  his  day,  the  only  great  Latin  Father  was 
St.  Cyprian,  and  Hilary  had  no  rival  in  his  own  genera- 
tion. Lucifer,  Bishop  of  C'alaris  in  Sardinia,  was  a 
very  rude  controversialist,  who  wrote  in  a  popular  and 
almost  uneducated  manner.  The  Spaniard  Gregory 
of  niiberis,  in  Southern  Spain,  is  only  now  beginning 
to  receive  his  due,  since  Dom  A.  Wilmart  restored  to 
him  in  1908  the  important  so-called  "Tractatus  Ori- 
genis  de  libris  SS.  Scripturte",  which  he  and  Batiffol 
had  published  in  1900,  as  genuine  works  of  Origen 
translated  by  Victorinus  of  Pettau.  The  commenta- 
ries and  anti-Arian  works  of  the  converted  rhetorician, 
Marius  Victorinus,  were  not  successful.  St.  Eusebius 
of  Vercellse  has  left  us  only  a  few  letters.  The  date  of 
the  short  discourses  of  Zeno  of  Verona  is  uncertain. 
The  fine  letter  of  Pope  Julius  I  to  the  Arians  and  a 
few  letters  of  Liberius  and  Damasus  are  of  great 

The  greatest  of  the  opponents  of  Arianism  in  the 
West  is  St.  Ambrose  (d.  397).  His  sanctity  and  his 
great  actions  make  him  one  of  the  most  imposing  fig- 
ures in  the  patristic  period.  Unfortunately  the  style 
of  his  writings  is  often  unpleasant,  being  affected  and 
intricate,  without  being  correct  or  artistic.  His  exe- 
gesis is  not  merely  of  the  most  extreme  allegorical 
kind,  but  so  fanciful  as  to  be  sometimes  positively 
absurd.  And  yet,  when  off  his  guard,  he  speaks  with 
genuine  and  touching  eloquence;  he  produces  apo- 
phthegms of  admirable  brevity,  and  without  being  a 
tleep  theologian,  he  shows  a  wonderful  profundity  of 
thought  on  ascetical,  moral,  and  devotional  matters. 
Just  as  his  character  demands  our  enthusiastic  admira- 
tion, so  his  writings  gain  our  affectionate  respect,  in 
spite  of  their  very  irritating  defects.  It  is  easy  to  see 
that  he  is  very  well  read  in  the  classics  and  in  Christian 
writers  of  East  and  West,  but  his  best  tlioughts  are  all 
his  own. 

(7)  At  Rome  an  original,  odd,  and  learned  writer 
composed  a  commentary  on  St.  Paul's  Ejiistles  and  a 
series  of  questions  on  tlie  Old  and  New  Testaments. 
He  is  usually  spoken  of  as  Ambrosiaster,  and  may 
perhaps  be  a  converted  Jew  named  Isaac,  who  later 
apostatized.  St.  Damasus  wrote  verses  which  are 
poor  poetry  but  interesting  where  they  give  us  infor- 
mation about  the  martyrs  aiul  the  catacombs.  His  sec- 
retary for  a  time  was  St.  Jerome,  a  Pannonian  by  birth, 
a  Roman  by  baptism.  This  learned  Father,"  Doctor 
maximus  in  Sacris  Scripturis",  is  very  well  known  to 

us,  for  almost  all  that  he  wrote  is  a  revelation  of  him- 
self. He  tells  the  reader  of  his  inclinations  and  his 
antipathies,  his  enthusiasms  and  his  irritations,  his 
friendships  and  his  enmities.  If  he  is  often  out  of  tem- 
per, he  is  most  human,  most  affect  ionate,  most  ascetic, 
most  devoted  to  orthodoxy,  and  in  many  ways  a  very 
lovable  character;  for  if  he  is  quick  to  take  offence, 
he  is  easily  appeased,  he  is  laborious  beyond  ordinary 
endurance,  and  it  is  against  heresy  that  his  anger  is 
usually  kindled.  He  lived  all  the  latter  part  of  his  life 
in  a  retreat  at  Bethlehem,  surrounded  by  loving  dis- 
ciples, whose  imtiring  devotion  shows  that  the  saint  was 
by  no  means  such  a  rough  diamond,  one  might  say 
such  an  ogre,  as  he  is  often  represented.  He  had  no 
taste  for  philosophy,  and  seldom  gave  himself  time  to 
think,  but  he  read  and  wrote  ceaselessly.  His  many 
commentaries  are  brief  and  to  the  point,  full  of  infor- 
mation, and  the  product  of  wide  reading.  His  great- 
est work  was  the  translation  of  the  Old  Testament 
from  the  Hebrew  into  Latin.  He  carried  on  the 
textual  labours  of  Origen,  Pamphilus,  and  Eusebius, 
and  his  revision  of  the  Latin  Gospels  shows  the  use  of 
admirably  pure  Greek  MSS.,  though  he  seems  to  have 
expended  less  pains  on  the  rest  of  the  New  Testament. 
He  attacked  heretics  with  much  of  the  cleverness,  all 
the  vivacity,  and  much  more  than  the  eloquence  and 
effectiveness  of  TertuUian.  He  used  the  like  weapons 
against  any  who  attacked  him,  and  especially  against 
his  friend  Rufinus  during  their  passing  period  of 

If  he  is  only  "perhaps"  the  most  learned  of  the 
Fathers,  he  is  beyond  doubt  the  greatest  of  prose 
writers  among  tlicra  all.  We  cannot  compare  his 
energy  and  wit  with  the  originality  and  polish  of 
Cicero,  or  with  the  delicate  perfection  of  Plato,  but 
neither  can  they  or  any  other  writer  be  compared  with 
Jerome  in  his  own  sphere.  He  does  not  attempt  flights 
of  imagination,  musical  intonation,  word-painting; 
he  has  no  flow  of  honeyed  language  like  Cyprian,  no 
torrent  of  phrases  like  Chrysostom;  he  is  a  writer,  not 
an  orator,  and  a  learned  and  classical  writer.  But 
such  letters  as  his,  for  astonishing  force  and  liveliness, 
for  point,  and  wit,  and  terse  expression,  were  never 
written  before  or  since.  There  is  no  sense  of  effort, 
and  though  we  feel  that  the  language  must  have  been 
studied,  we  are  rarely  tempted  to  call  it  studied 
language,  for  Jerome  knows  the  strange  secret  of 
polishing  his  steel  weapons  while  they  are  still  at  a 
white  heat,  and  of  hurling  them  before  they  cool.  He 
was  a  dangerous  adversary,  and  had  few  scruples  in 
taking  every  possible  advantage.  He  has  the  unfor- 
tunate defect  of  his  extraordinary  swiftness,  that  he 
is  extremely  inaccurate,  and  his  historical  statements 
need  careful  control.  His  biographies  of  the  hermits, 
his  words  about  monastic  life,  virginity,  Roman  faith, 
our  Blessed  Lady,  relics  of  saints,  have  exercised  great 
influence.  It  has  only  been  known  of  late  years  that 
Jerome  was  a  preacher;  the  little  extempore  dis- 
courses published  by  Dom  Morin  are  full  of  his 
irrepressible  personality  and  his  careless  learning. 

(8)  Africa  was  a  stranger  to  the  Ariaii  struggle, 
being  occupied  with  a  battle  of  its  own.  Donatism 
(311-411)  was  for  a  long  time  paramount  in  Numidia, 
and  sometimes  in  other  parts.  The  writings  of  the 
Donatists  have  mostly  perished.  About  370  St.  Op- 
tatus  published  an  effective  controversial  work  against 
them.  The  attack  was  carried  on  by  a  yet  greater 
controversialist,  St.  Augustine,  with  a  marvellous 
success,  so  that  the  inveterate  schism  was  praotioally 
at  an  end  twenty  years  before  that  saint's  tleath.  So 
happy  an  event  turned  the  eyes  of  all  Cliristeiidum  to 
the  brilliant  protagonist  of  the  African  Catholics,  who 
had  already  dealt  crushing  blows  at  the  Latin  Mani- 
cha^an  writers.  From  417  till  his  death  in  431,  he 
was  engaged  in  an  even  greater  conflict  with  the 
philosophical  and  naturalistic  heresjr  of  Pelagius  and 
Ca-lestius.    In  this  he  was  at  first  assisted  by  the  aged 



Jerome;  the  popes  condeinned  the  innovators  and  the 
emperor  legislated  against  them.  If  St.  Augustine  has 
the  unique  fame  of  having  prostrated  three  heresies, 
it  is  because  he  was  as  anxious  to  persuade  as  to  refute. 
He  was  perhaps  the  greatest  controversialist  the 
world  has  ever  seen.  Besides  this  he  w-as  not  merely 
the  greatest  philosopher  among  the  Fathers,  but  he 
was  the  only  great  philosopher.  His  purely  theolo- 
gical works,  especially  his  "  De  Trinitate",  are  unsur- 
passed for  depth,  grasp,  and  clearness,  among  early 
ecclesiastical  writers,  whether  Eastern  or  Western. 
As  a  philosophical  theologian  he  has  no  superior, 
except  his  own  son  and  disciple,  St.  Thomas  Aquinas. 
It  is  probably  correct  to  say  that  no  one,  e.xcept  Aris- 
totle, has  exercised  so  vast,  so  profound,  and  so  benefi- 
cial an  influence  on  European  thought. 

Augustine  was  himself  a  Platonist  through  and 
through.  As  a  commentator  he  cared  little  for  the 
letter,  and  everything  for  the  spirit,  but  his  harmony 
of  the  Gospels  shows  that  he  could  attend  to  history 
and  detail.  The  allegorizing  tendencies  he  inherited 
from  his  spiritual  father,  Ambrose,  carry  him  now  and 
then  into  extravagances,  but  more  often  he  rather 
soars  than  commentates,  and  his  "  In  Genesini  ad  lit- 
teram",  and  his  treatises  on  the  Psalms  and  on  St. 
John,  are  works  of  extraordinary  power  and  interest, 
and  quite  worthy,  in  a  totally  different  style,  to  rank 
with  Chrysostom  on  Matthew.  St.  Augustine  was  a 
professor  of  rhetoric  before  his  wonderful  conversion; 
but  like  St.  Cyprian,  and  even  more  than  St.  Cyprian, 
he  put  aside,  as  a  Christian,  all  the  artifices  of  oratorj' 
which  he  knew  so  well.  He  retained  correctness  of 
grammar  and  perfect  good  taste,  together  with  the 
power  of  speaking  and  writing  with  ease  in  a  style  of 
masterly  simplicity  and  of  dignified  though  almost 
colloquial  plainness. 

Nothing  could  be  more  individual  than  this  style  of 
St.  Augustine's,  in  which  he  talks  to  the  reader  or  to 
God  with  perfect  openness  and  with  an  astonishing, 
often  almost  exasperating,  subtlety  of  thought.  He 
had  the  power  of  seeing  all  round  a  subject  and 
through  and  through  it,  and  he  was  too  conscientious 
not  to  use  this  gift  to  the  uttermost.  Large-minded 
and  far-seemg,  he  was  also  very  learned.  He  mastered 
Greek  only  m  later  life,  in  order  to  make  himself 
familiar  with  the  works  of  the  Eastern  Fathers.  His 
"De  Civitate  Dei"  shows  vast  stores  of  reading;  still 
more,  it  puts  him  in  the  first  place  among  apologists. 
Before  his  death  (431)  he  was  the  object  of  extraor- 
dinary veneration.  He  had  founded  a  monastery 
at  Tagaste,  which  supplied  Africa  with  bishops,  and 
he  lived  at  Hippo  with  his  clergy  in  a  common  life,  to 
which  the  Regular  Canons  of  later  days  have  always 
looked  as  their  model.  The  great  Dominican  Order, 
the  Augustinians,  and  nimiberless  congregations  of 
nuns  still  look  to  him  as  their  father  and  legisla- 
tor. His  devotional  works  have  had  a  vogue  second 
only  to  that  of  another  of  his  spiritual  sons,  Thomas  a 
Kempis.  He  had  in  his  lifetime  a  reputation  for 
miracles,  and  his  sanctity  is  felt  in  all  his  writings,  and 
breathes  in  the  story  of  his  life.  It  has  been  remarked 
that  there  is  about  this  many-sided  bishop  a  certain 
symmetry  which  makes  him  an  almost  faultless  model 
of  a  holy,  wise,  and  active  man.  It  is  well  to  remem- 
ber that  he  was  essentially  a  penitent. 

(9)  In  Spain,  the  great  poet  Prudentius  surpassed 
all  his  predecessors,  of  whom  the  best  had  been  Juven- 
cus  and  the  almost  pagan  rhetorician  Ausonius.  The 
curious  treatises  of  the  Spanish  heretic  Priscillian 
were  discovered  only  in  1SS9.  In  Gaul  Rufinus  of 
Aquileia  must  be  mentioned  as  the  very  free  transla- 
tor of  Origen,  etc.,  and  of  Eusebius's  "Historj'", 
which  he  continued  up  to  his  own  date.  In  South 
Italy  his  friend  Paulinus  of  Nola  has  left  us  pious 
poems  and  elaliorate  letters. 

D.  (1)  The  fragments  of  Nestorius's  writings  have 
been  collected  by  Loofs.    Some  of  them  were  pre- 

served by  a  disciple  of  St.  Augustine,  Marius  Mercator, 
who  made  two  collections  of  documents,  concerning 
Nestorianism  and  Pelagianism  respectively.  The 
great  adversary  of  Nestorius,  St.  Cyril  of  Alexandria, 
was  opposed  by  a  yet  greater  writer,  Theodoret,  Bishop 
of  Cyrus.  Cyril  is  a  very  voluminous  writer,  and  his 
long  commentaries  in  the  mystical  Alexandrian  vein 
do  not  much  interest  modern  readers.  But  his  princi- 
pal letters  and  treatises  on  the  Nestorian  question 
show  him  as  a  theologian  who  has  a  deep  spiritual 
insight  into  the  meaning  of  the  Incarnation  and  its 
effect  upon  the  human  race — the  lifting  up  of  man 
to  union  with  God.  We  see  here  the  influence  of 
Egyptian  asceticism,  from  Anthony  the  Great  (whose 
life  St.  Athanasius  wrote),  and  the  Macarii  (one  of 
whom  left  some  valuable  works  in  Greek),  and  Pa- 
chomius,  to  his  own  time.  In  their  ascetical  systems, 
the  union  with  God  by  contemplation  was  naturally 
the  end  in  view,  but  one  Ls  surprised  how  little  is  made 
by  them  of  meditation  on  the  life  and  Passion  of  Christ. 
It  is  not  omitted,  but  the  tendency  as  with  St.  Cyril 
and  with  the  Monophysites  who  believed  they  follow-ed 
him,  is  to  think  rather  of  the  Godhead  than  of  the 
Manhood.  The  Antiochene  school  had  exaggerated 
the  contrary  tendency,  out  of  opposition  to  ApoUin- 
arianism,  which  made  Christ's  Manhood  incom- 
plete, and  they  thought  more  of  man  united  to  God 
than  of  God  made  man.  Theodoret  undoubtedly 
avoided  the  excesses  of  Theodore  and  Nestorius,  and 
his  doctrine  was  accepted  at  last  by  St.  Leo  as  ortho- 
dox, in  spite  of  his  earlier  persistent  defence  of 
Nestorius.  His  history  of  the  monks  is  less  valuable 
than  the  earlier  writings  of  eyewitnesses — Palladius 
in  the  East,  and  Rufinus  and  afterwards  Cassian  in 
the  West.  But  Theodoret's  "History"  in  continua- 
tion of  Eusebius  contains  valuable  information.  His 
apologetic  and  controversial  writings  are  the  works  of 
a  good  theologian.  His  masterpieces  are  his  exegeti- 
cal  works,  which  are  neither  oratorj-  like  those  of 
Chrysostom,  nor  exaggeratctlly  literal  like  those  of 
Theodore.  With  him  the  great  Antiochene  school 
worthily  closes,  as  the  Alexandrian  does  with  St  Cyril. 
Together  with  these  great  men  may  be  mentioned  St. 
Cyril's  spiritual  adviser,  St.  Isidore  of  Pelusium, 
whose  2000  letters  deal  chiefly  with  allegorical  exe- 
gesis, the  commentary  on  St.  Mark  by  Victor  of 
Antioch,  and  the  introduction  to  the  interpretation 
of  Scripture  by  the  monk  Hadrian,  a  manual  of  the 
Antiochene  method. 

(2)  The  Eutychian  controversy  produced  no  great 
works  in  the  East.  Such  works  of  the  Monophysites 
as  have  survived  are  in  Syriac  or  Coptic  versions. 
(3)  The  two  Constantinopolitan  historians,  Socrates 
and  Sozomen,  in  spite  of  errors,  contain  some  data 
which  are  precious,  since  many  of  the  sources  which 
they  used  are  lost  to  us.  With  Theodoret,  their  con- 
temporary, they  form  a  triad  just  in  the  middle  of  the 
century.  St.  Nilus  of  Sinai  is  the  chief  among  many 
ascetical  writers.  (4)  St.  Sulpicius  Severus,  a  Ciallic 
noble,  disciple  and  biographer  of  the  great  St.  Martin 
of  Tours,  was  a  classical  scholar,  and  showed  himself 
an  elegant  writer  in  his  "  Ecclesiastical  History". 
The  school  of  Lcrins  produced  many  writers  besides 
St.  Vincent.  We  may  mention  Eucherius,  Faustus, 
and  the  great  St.  Caesarius  of  Aries  (543) .  Other  Gallic 
writers  are  Salvian,  St.  Sidonius  Apollinaris,  Genna- 
dius,  St.  Avitus  of  Vienne,  and  Julianus  Pomerius. 
(5)  In  the  West,  the  series  of  papal  decretals  begins 
with  Pope  Siricius  (3S4-9S).  Of  the  more  important 
popes  large  numbers  of  letters  have  been  preserved. 
Those  of  the  wise  St.  Innocent  I  (401-17),  the  hot- 
headed St.  Zosimus  (417-8),  and  the  severe  St.  Celes- 
tine  are  perhaps  the  most  important  in  the  first  half  of 
the  century;  in  the  second  half  those  of  Hilarus,  Sim- 
plicius,  and  above  all  the  learned  St.  Gelasius  (492-6). 
Midway  in  the  century  stands  St.  Leo,  the  greatest  of 
the  early  popes,  whose  steadfastness  and  sanctity 




saved  Rome  from  Attila,  and  the  Romans  from  Gen- 
seric.  He  couki  be  unbending  in  the  enunciation  of 
principle;  he  was  condescending  in  the  condoning  of 
breaches  of  discipline  for  the  sake  of  peace,  and  he  was 
a  skilful  diplomatist.  His  sermons  and  the  dogmatic 
letters  in  his  large  correspondence  show  him  to  us  as 
the  most  lucid  of  all  theologians.  He  is  clear  in  his 
expression,  not  because  he  is  superficial,  but  because  he 
has  thought  clearly  and  deeply.  He  steers  between 
Nestorianism  and  Eutychianism,  not  by  using  subtle 
distinctions  or  elaborate  arguments,  but  by  stating 
plain  definitions  in  accurate  words.  He  condemned 
Monothelitism  by  anticipation.  His  style  is  careful, 
with  metrical  cadences.  Its  majestic  rhythms  and 
its  sonorous  closes  have  invested  the  Latin  language 
with  a  new  splendour  and  dignity. 

E.  (1)  In  the  sixth  century  the  large  correspondence 
of  Pope  Hormisdas  is  of  the  highest  interest.  That 
century  closes  with  St.  Gregory  the  Great,  whose  cele- 
brated "Registrum "exceeds  in  volume  many  times  over 
the  collections  of  the  letters  of  other  early  popes.  The 
Epistles  are  of  great  variety  and  throw  light  on  the 
varied  interests  of  the  great  pope's  life  and  the  varied 
events  in  the  East  and  West  of  his  time.  His  "  Morals 
on  the  Book  of  Job  "  is  not  a  literal  commentary,  but 
pretends  only  to  illustrate  the  moral  sense  underlying 
the  text.  With  all  the  strangeness  it  presents  to  mod- 
ern notions,  it  is  a  work  full  of  wisdom  and  instruction. 
The  remarks  of  St.  Gregory  on  the  spiritual  life  and  on 
contemplation  are  of  special  interest.  As  a  theolo- 
gian he  is  original  only  in  that  he  combines  all  the  tra- 
ditional theology  of  the  West  without  adding  to  it. 
He  commonly  follows  Augustine  as  a  theologian,  a 
commentator  and  a  preacher.  His  sermons  are  ad- 
mirably practical;  they  are  models  of  what  a  good 
sermon  should  be.  After  St.  Gregory  there  are  some 
great  popes  whose  letters  are  worthy  of  study,  such  as 
Nicholas  I  and  John  VIII;  but  these  and  the  many 
other  late  writers  of  the  West  belong  properly  to  the 
medieval  period.  St.  Gregory  of  Tours  is  certainly 
medieval,  but  the  learned  Bede  is  quite  patristic.  His 
great  history  is  the  most  faithful  and  perfect  history  to 
be  found  in  the  early  centuries.  (2)  In  the  East,  the 
latter  half  of  the  fifth  century  is  very  barren.  The 
sLxth  century  is  not  much  better.  The  importance  of 
Leontius  of  Byzantium  (died  c.  543)  for  the  history  of 
dogma  has  only  lately  been  realized.  Poets  and  hagi- 
ographers,  chroniclers,  canonists,  and  ascetical  writers 
succeed  each  other.  Catenae  by  way  of  commentaries 
are  the  order  of  the  day.  St.  Maximus  Confessor,  An- 
astasius  of  Mount  Sinai,  and  Andrew  of  Ca-sarea  must 
be  named.  The  first  of  these  commented  on  the 
works  of  the  pseudo-Dionysius  the  Areopagite,  which 
had  probably  first  seen  the  light  towards  the  end  of  the 
fifth  century.  St.  John  of  Damascus  (c.  750)  closes 
the  patristic  period  with  his  polemics  against  heresies, 
his  exegetical  and  ascetical  writings,  his  beautiful 
hymns,  and  above  all  his  "Fountain  of  Wisdom", 
which  is  a  compendium  of  patristic  theology  and  a 
kind  of  anticipation  of  scholasticism.  Indeed,  the 
"Summse  Theologicte"  of  the  Middle  Ages  were 
founded  on  the  "Sentences"  of  Peter  Lombard,  who 
had  taken  the  skeleton  of  his  work  from  this  last  of  the 
Greek  Fathers. 

Characteristics  op  Patristic  Writings. — (a) 
Commentaries. — It  has  been  seen  that  the  literal  school 
of  exegesis  had  its  home  at  Antioch,  while  the  allegori- 
cal school  was  Alexandrian,  and  the  entire  West,  on 
the  whole,  followed  the  allegorical  method,  mingling 
literalism  with  it  in  varinus  degrees.  The  suspicion  of 
Arianism  has  lost  to  us  the  fourth-century  writers  of 
the  Antidelicnc  scIukiI,  such  as  Theodore  of  Heraclea 
anil  JMiscliius  of  iMncsa.aiid  tlicrliargc  of  Nestorianism 
lias  rauscd  ( he  roiiinicniarics  of  Dimlorus  and  Theo- 
dore (if  Mo|)sucstia  (for  the  tnost  ]):irl )  to  disappear. 
The  Alexandrian  school  has  lost  yc't  more  heavily,  for 
little  of  the  great  Origen  remains  except  in  fragments 

and  in  unreliable  versions.  The  great  Antiochenes, 
Chrysostom  and  Theodoret,  have  a  real  grasp  of  the 
sense  of  the  sacred  text.  They  treat  it  with  reverence 
and  love,  and  their  explanations  are  of  deep  value,  be- 
cause the  language  of  the  New  Testament  was  their 
own  tongue,  so  that  we  moderns  cannot  afford  to 
neglect  their  comments.  On  the  contrary,  Origen, 
the  moulder  of  the  allegorizing  type  of  commentary, 
who  had  inherited  the  Philonic  tradition  of  the  Alex- 
andrian Jews,  was  essentially  irreverent  to  the  in- 
spired authors.  The  Old  Testament  was  to  him  full 
of  errors,  lies,  and  blasphemies,  so  far  as  the  letter  was 
concerned,  and  his  defence  of  it  against  the  pagans, 
the  Gnostics,  and  especially  the  Marcionites,  was  to 
point  only  to  the  spiritual  meaning.  Theoretically  he 
distinguished  a  triple  sense,  the  somatic,  the  psychic, 
and  the  pneumatic,  following  St.  Paul's  trichotomy; 
but  in  practice  he  mainly  gives  the  spiritual,  as  op- 
posed to  the  corporal  or  literal. 

St.  Augustine  sometimes  defends  the  Old  Testa- 
ment against  the  Manichsans  in  the  same  style,  and 
occasionally  in  a  most  unconvincing  manner,  but  with 
great  moderation  and  restraint.  In  his  "De  Genesi 
ad  litteram"  he  has  evolved  a  far  more  effective 
method,  with  his  usual  brilliant  originality,  and  he 
shows  that  the  objections  brought  against  the  truth  of 
the  first  chapters  of  the  book  invariably  rest  upon  the 
baseless  assumption  that  the  objector  has  found  the 
true  meaning  of  the  text.  But  Origen  applied  his 
method,  though  partially,  even  to  the  New  Testament, 
and  regarded  the  Evangelists  as  sometimes  false  in  the 
letter,  but  as  saving  the  truth  in  the  hidden  spiritual 
meaning.  In  this  point  the  good  feeling  of  Christians 
prevented  his  being  followed.  But  the  brilliant  ex- 
ample he  gave,  of  running  riot  in  the  fantastic  exegesis 
which  his  method  encouraged,  had  an  unfortunate  in- 
fluence. He  is  fond  of  giving  a  variety  of  applications 
to  a  single  text,  and  his  promise  to  hold  nothing  but 
what  can  be  proved  from  Scripture  becomes  illusory 
when  he  shows  by  example  that  any  part  of  Scripture 
may  mean  anything  he  pleases.  The  reverent  temper 
of  later  writers,  and  especially  of  the  Westerns,  pre- 
ferred to  represent  as  the  true  meaning  of  the  sacred 
writer  the  allegory  which  appeared  to  them  to  be  the 
most  obvious.  St.  Ambrose  and  St.  Augustine  in 
their  beautiful  works  on  the  Psalms  rather  spiritual- 
ize, or  moralize,  than  allegorize,  and  their  imaginative 
interpretations  are  chiefly  of  events,  actions,  num- 
bers, etc.  But  almost  all  allegorical  interpretation  is 
so  arbitrary  and  depends  so  much  on  the  caprice  of 
the  exegete  that  it  is  difficult  to  conciliate  it  with  rev- 
erence, however  one  may  be  dazzled  by  the  beauty  of 
much  of  it.  An  alternative  way  of  defending  the  Old 
Testament  was  excogitated  by  the  ingenious  author  of 
the  pseudo-Clementines;  he  asserts  that  it  has  been 
depraved  and  interpolated.  St.  Jerome's  learning 
has  made  his  exegesis  unique;  he  frequently  gives  al- 
ternative explanations  and  refers  to  the  authors  who 
have  adopted  them.  From  the  middle  of  the  fifth 
century  onwards,  second-hand  commentaries  are  uni- 
versal in  East  and  West,  and  originality  almost  en- 
tirely disappears.  Andrew  of  Csesarea  is  perhaps  an 
exception,  for  he  commented  on  a  book  which  was 
scarcely  at  all  read  in  the  East,  the  Apocalypse. 

Discussions  of  method  are  not  wanting.  Clement 
of  Alexandria  gives  "traditional  methods",  the  ht- 
eral,  typical,  moral,  and  prophetical.  The  tradition  is 
obviously  from  Rabbinism.  We  must  admit  that  it 
has  in  its  favour  the  practice  of  St.  Matthew  and 
St.  Paul.  Even  more  than  Origen,  St.  Augustine 
theorized  on  this  subject.  In  his  "De  Doctrina 
Christiana  "  he  gives  elaborate  rules  of  exegesis.  Else- 
where he  distinguishes  four  senses  of  Scripture:  his- 
torical, a'tiological  (croniiinic),  analogical  (where  N. 
T.  explains  ().  T.),  and  allegorical  ("De  Util.  Cred.", 
H;  cf.  "De  Vera  Rel.",  50).  The  book  of  rules  com- 
posed by  the  Donatist  'Tichonius  has  an  analogy  in  the 




smaller  "canons"  of  St.  Paul's  Epistles  by  Priscillian. 
Hadrian  of  Antioch  was  mentioned  above.  St. 
(iie^ory  the  (ireat  compares  Scripture  to  a  river  so 
shallow  that  a  lamb  can  walk  in  it.  so  deep  that  an 
elephant  can  float.  (Pref.  to  "  Morals  on  Job").  He 
distinguishes  the  historical  or  literal  sense,  the  moral, 
and  the  allegorical  or  typical.  If  the  Western 
Fathers  are  fanciful,  yet  this  is  better  than  the  ex- 
treme literalism  of  Theodore  of  Mopsuestia,  who  re- 
fused to  allegorize  even  the  Canticle  of  Canticles. 

(b)  Preachers. — We  have  sermons  from  the  Greek 
Cluirch  much  earlier  than  from  the  Latin.  Indeed, 
Sozomen  tells  us  that,  up  to  his  time  (c.  450),  there 
were  no  public  sermons  in  the  churches  at  Rome. 
This  seems  almost  incredible.  St.  Leo's  sermons  are, 
however,  the  first  sermons  certainly  preached  at 
Rome  which  have  reached  us,  for  those  of  Hippolytus 
were  all  in  Greek;  unless  the  homily  "  Adyersus  Alea- 
tores"  be  a  sermon  by  a  Novatian  antipope.  The 
series  of  Latin  preachers  begins  in  the  middle  of  the 
fourth  century.  The  so-called  "Second  Epi.stle  of 
St.  Clement"  is  a  homily  belonging  possibly  to  the 
second  century.  Many  of  the  commentaries  of  Origen 
are  a  series  of  sermons,  as  is  the  case  later  with  all 
Chrysostom's  commentaries  and  most  of  Augustine's. 
In  many  cases  treatises  are  composed  of  a  course  of 
sermons,  as,  for  instance,  is  the  case  for  some  of  those 
of  Ambrose,  who  seems  to  have  rewritten  his  sermons 
after  delivery.  The  "  De  Sacramentis"  may  possibly 
be  the  version  by  a  shorthand-WTiter  of  the  course 
which  the  saint  himself  edited  under  the  title  "De 
Mysteriis".  In  any  case  the  "De  Sacramentis" 
(whether  by  Ambrose  or  not)  has  a  freshness  and 
naivete  which  is  wanting  in  the  certainly  authentic 
"De  Mysteriis".  Similarly  the  great  courses  of  ser- 
mons preached  by  St.  Chrysostom  at  Antioch  were 
evidently  written  or  corrected  by  his  own  hand,  but 
those  he  delivered  at  Constantinople  were  either  hur- 
riedly corrected,  or  not  at  all.  His  sermons  on 
Acts,  which  have  come  down  to  us  in  two  quite  dis- 
tinct texts  in  the  MSS.,  are  probably  known  to  us  only 
in  the  forms  in  which  they  were  taken  down  by 
two  different  tachygraphers.  St.  Gregory  Nazianzen 
complains  of  the  importunity  of  these  shorthand- 
writers  (Orat.  xxxii),  as  St.  Jerome  does  of  their  in- 
capacity (Ep.  Ixxi,  5).  Their  art  was  evidently 
highly  perfected,  and  specimens  of  it  have  come  down 
to  us.  They  were  officially  employed  at  councils  (e.  g. 
at  the  great  conference  with  the  Donatists  at  Car- 
thage, in  411,  we  hear  of  them).  It  appears  that 
many  or  most  of  the  bishops  at  the  Council  of  Ephesus, 
in  449,  had  their  own  shorthand-writers  with  them. 
The  method  of  taking  notes  and  of  amplifying  re- 
ceives ilUustration  from  the  Acts  of  the  Council  of 
Constantinople  of  27  April,  449,  at  which  the  min- 
utes were  examined  which  had  been  taken  down  by 
tachygraphers  at  the  council  held  a  few  weeks  earlier. 
Many  of  St.  Augustine's  sermons  are  certainly  from 
shorthand  notes.  As  to  others  we  are  uncertain,  for 
the  style  of  the  written  ones  is  often  so  colloquial  that 
it  is  difficult  to  get  a  criterion.  The  sermons  of  St. 
Jerome  at  Bethlehem,  published  by  Dom  Morin,  are 
from  shorthand  reports,  and  the  discourses  them.selves 
were  unprepared  conferences  on  those  portions  of  the 
Psalms  or  of  the  Gospels  which  had  been  sung  in  the 
liturgy.  The  speaker  has  clearly  often  been  preceded 
by  another  priest,  and  on  the  Western  Christmas  Day, 
which  his  community  alone  is  keeping,  the  bishop  is 
present  and  will  speak  last.  In  fact  the  pilgrim 
jEtheria  tells  us  that  at  Jerusalem,  in  the  fourth  cen- 
tury, all  the  priests  present  spoke  in  turn,  if  they  chose, 
and  the  bishop  last  of  all.  Such  improvised  com- 
ments are  far  indeed  from  the  oratorical  discourses  of 
St.  Gregory  Nazianzen,  from  the  lofty  flights  of  Chrysos- 
tom, from  the  torrent  of  iteration  that  characterizes 
the  short  sermons  of  Peter  Chrysologus,  from  the  neat 
phrases  of  Maximus  of  Turin,   and  the  ponderous 

rhythms  of  Leo  the  Great.  The  eloquence  of  these 
Fathers  need  not  be  here  described.  In  the  West  we 
may  add  in  the  fourth  century  Gaudentius  of  Hrescia; 
several  small  (•(lUcctions  of  interesting  sermons  appear 
in  the  fifth  century;  the  sixth  opens  with  the  numer- 
ous collections  made  by  St.  Ca'sarius  for  the  use  of 
preachers.  There  is  practically  no  edition  of  the 
works  of  this  eminent  and  practical  bishop.  St. 
Gregory  (apart  from  some  fanciful  exegesis)  is  the 
most  practical  preacher  of  the  West.  Nothing  could 
be  more  admirable  for  imitation  than  St.  Chrysostom. 
The  more  ornate  writers  are  less  safe  to  copy.  St.  Au- 
gustine's style  is  too  personal  to  be  an  example,  and 
few  are  so  learned,  so  great,  and  so  ready,  that  they 
can  venture  to  speak  as  simply  as  he  often  does. 

(c)  Writers. — The  Fathers  do  not  belong  to  the 
strictly  classical  period  of  either  the  Greek  or  the 
Latin  language;  but  this  does  not  imply  that  they 
wrote  bad  Latm  or  Greek.  The  conversational  form 
of  the  KoLVTj  or  common  dialect  of  Greek,  which  is 
found  in  the  New  Testament  and  in  many  papyri,  is 
not  the  language  of  the  Fathers,  except  of  the  very 
earliest.  For  the  Greek  Fathers  write  in  a  more  clas- 
sicizing style  than  most  of  the  New  Testament  writers ; 
none  of  them  uses  quite  a  vulgar  or  ungrammatical 
Greek,  while  some  Atticize,  e.  g.  the  Cappadocians  and 
Synesius.  The  Latin  Fathers  are  often  less  classical. 
TertuUian  is  a  Latin  Carlyle;  he  knew  Greek,  and 
wrote  books  in  that  language,  and  tried  to  introduce 
ecclesiastical  terms  into  Latin.  St.  Cyjirian's  "Ad 
Donatum",  probably  his  first  Christian  writing,  shows 
an  Apuleian  preciosity  which  he  eschewed  in  all  his 
other  works,  but  which  his  biographer  Pontius  has  imi- 
tated and  exaggerated.  Men  like  Jerome  and  Augus- 
tine, who  had  a  thorough  knowledge  of  classical  litera- 
ture, would  not  employ  tricks  of  style,  and  cultivated 
a  manner  which  should  be  correct,  but  simple  and 
straightforward ;  yet  their  style  could  not  have  been 
what  it  was  but  for  their  previous  study.  For  the 
spoken  Latin  of  all  the  patristic  centuries  was  very 
different  from  the  written.  We  get  examples  of  the 
vulgar  tongue  here  and  there  in  the  letters  of  Pope 
Cornelius  as  edited  by  Mercati,  for  the  third  century, 
or  in  the  Rule  of  St.  Benedict  in  Wolfflin's  or  Dom 
Morin's  editions,  for  the  sixth.  In  the  latter  we  get 
such  modernisms  as  cor  murmurantem,  post  quibus, 
cum  responsoria  sua,  which  show  how  the  confusing 
genders  and  cases  of  the  classics  were  disappearing 
into  the  more  reasonable  simplicity  of  Italian.  Some 
of  the  Fathers  use  the  rhythmical  endings  of  the  "  cur- 
sus"  in  their  pr6se;  some  have  the  later  accented 
endings  which  were  corruptions  of  the  correct  proso- 
dical  ones.  Familiar  examples  of  the  former  are  in 
the  older  Collects  of  the  Mass;  of  the  latter  the  Te 
Deum  is  an  obvious  instance. 

(d)  East  and  West. — Before  speaking  of  the  theologi- 
cal characteristics  of  the  Fathers,  we  have  to  take 
into  account  the  great  division  of  the  Roman  Empire 
into  two  languages.  Language  is  the  great  separator. 
Wlien  two  emperors  divided  the  Empire,  it  was  not 
quite  according  to  language ;  nor  were  the  ecclesiasti- 
cal divisions  more  exact,  since  the  great  province  of 
Illyricum,  including  Macedonia  and  all  Greece,  was 
attached  to  the  West  through  at  least  a  large  part  of 
the  patristic  period,  and  was  governed  by  the  arch- 
bishop of  Thessalonica,  not  as  its  exarch  or  patriarch, 
but  as  papal  legate.  But  in  considering  the  literary 
productions  of  the  age,  we  must  class  them  as  Latin 
or  Greek,  and  this  is  what  will  be  meant  here  by  West- 
ern and  Eastern.  The  understanding  of  the  relations 
between  Greeks  and  Latins  is  often  obscureil  by  cer- 
tain prepossessions.  We  talk  of  the  "unchanging 
East",  of  the  philosophical  Greeks  as  opposed  to  the 
practical  Romans,  of  the  reposeful  thought  of  the 
Oriental  mind  over  against  the  rapidity  and  orderly 
classification  which  characterizes  Western  intelligence. 
All  this  is  very  misleading,  and  it  is  important  to  go 




back  to  the  facts.  In  the  first  place,  the  East  was 
converted  far  more  rapidly  than  the  West.  When 
Constantuie  matle  Christianity  the  established  re- 
ligion of  both  empires  from  323  onwards,  there  was  a 
striking  contrast  between  the  two.  In  the  West 
paganism  had  everywhere  a  very  large  majority, 
except  possibly  in  Africa.  But  in  the  Greek  world 
Christianity  was  quite  the  equal  of  the  old  reli- 
gions in  influence  and  numbers;  in  the  great  cities  it 
might  even  be  predominant,  and  some  towns  were 
practically  Christian.  The  story  told  of  St.  Gregory 
the  Wonder-Worker,  that  he  found  but  seventeen 
Christians  in  Neocssarea  when  he  became  bishop,  and 
that  he  left  but  seventeen  pagans  in  the  same  city 
when  he  died  (c.  270-5),  must  be  substantially  true. 
Such  a  story  in  the  West  would  be  absurd.  The 
villages  of  the  Latin  countries  held  out  for  long,  and 
the  pagani  retained  the  worship  of  the  okl  gods 
even  after  they  were  all  nominally  Christianized. 
In  Phrygia,  on  the  contrary,  entire  villages  were 
Christian  long  before  Constantine,  though  it  is  true 
that  elsewhere  some  towns  were  still  heathen  in  Ju- 
lian's day — Gaza,  in  Palestine  is  an  example;  but  then 
Maiouraa,  the  port  of  Gaza,  was  Christian. 

Two  consequences,  amongst  others,  of  this  swift 
evangelization  of  the  East  must  be  noticed.  In  the 
first  place,  while  the  slow  progress  of  the  West  was 
favourable  to  the  preservation  of  the  unchanged  tra- 
dition, the  quick  conversion  of  the  East  was  accom- 
panied by  a  rapid  development  which,  in  the  sphere 
of  dogma,  was  hasty,  unequal,  and  fruitful  of  error. 
Secondly,  the  Eastern  religion  partook,  even  during 
the  heroic  age  of  persecution,  of  the  evil  which  the 
West  felt  so  deeply  after  Constantine,  that  is  to  say, 
of  the  crowding  into  the  Church  of  multitudes  who 
were  only  half  Christianized,  because  it  was  the  fash- 
ionable thing  to  do,  or  because  a  part  of  the  beauties 
of  the  new  religion  and  of  the  absurdities  of  the  old 
were  seen.  We  have  actually  Christian  writers,  in 
East  and  West,  such  as  Arnobius,  and  to  some  extent 
Lactantius  and  Julius  Africanus,  who  show  that  they 
are  only  half  instructed  in  the  Faith.  This  must  have 
been  largely  the  case  among  the  people  in  the  East. 
Tradition  in  the  East  was  less  regarded,  and  faith  was 
less  deep  than  in  the  smaller  Western  communities. 
Again,  the  Latin  writers  begin  in  Africa  with  Tertul- 
lian,  just  before  the  third  century,  at  Rome  with 
Novatian,  just  in  the  middle  of  the  third  century,  and 
in  Spain  and  Gaul  not  till  the  fourth.  But  the  East 
had  writers  in  the  first  century,  and  numbers  in  the 
.second;  there  were  Gnostic  and  Christian  schools  in 
the  second  and  third.  There  had  been,  indeed,  Greek 
writers  at  Rome  in  the  first  and  second  centuries  and 
part  of  the  third.  But  when  the  Roman  Church  be- 
came Latin  they  were  forgotten;  the  Latin  writers 
did  not  cite  Clement  and  Hermas;  they  totally  forgot 
Ilippolytus,  except  his  chronicle,  and  his  name  became 
merely  a  theme  for  legend. 

Though  Rome  was  powerful  and  venerated  in  the 
second  century,  and  though  her  tradition  remained 
unbroken,  the  break  in  her  literature  is  complete. 
Latin  literature  is  thus  a  century  and  a  half  younger 
than  the  Greek;  indeed  it  is  practically  two  centuries 
and  a  half  younger.  Tertullian  stands  alone,  and  he 
became  a  heretic.  Until  the  middle  of  the  fourth 
century  there  had  appeared  but  one  Latin  Father  for 
the  spiriluul  roiidingof  the  educated  Latin  Christian, 
an<l  it  is  natui'al  tliat  the  stichometry,  edited  (perhaps 
scmi-olliciully)  under  Pope  Liberius  for  the  control  of 
booksellers'  prices,  gives  the  works  of  St.  Cyprian  as 
well  as  the  books  of  the  Latin  Bible.  This  unique 
position  of  St.  Cyprian  was  still  recognized  at  the 
Ix'ginning  of  the  fiftli  century.  From  Cyprian  (d.  25S) 
to  Hilary  there  was  scarcely  a  Latin  book  that  could 
be  rcconim(^n(led  for  popular  reading  except  Lactan- 
tius's  "I)e  mortibus  persecutorum",  and  there  was  no 
theology  at  all.    Even  a  little  later,  the  commentaries 

of  Victorinus  the  Rhetorician  were  valueless,  and 
those  of  Isaac  the  Jew  (?)  were  odd.  The  one  vigorous 
period  of  Latin  literature  is  the  bare  century  which 
ends  with  Leo  (d.  461).  During  that  century  Rome 
had  been  repeatedly  captured  or  threatened  by  bar- 
barians; Arian  Vandals,  besides  devastating  Italy 
and  Gaul,  had  almost  destroyed  the  Catholicism  of 
Spain  and  Africa;  the  Christian  British  had  been 
murdered  in  the  English  invasion.  Yet  the  West  had 
been  able  to  rival  the  East  in  output  and  in  eloquence, 
and  even  to  surpass  it  in  learning,  ilepth,  and  variety. 
The  elder  sister  knew  little  of  these  productions,  but 
the  West  was  supplied  with  a  considerable  body  of 
translations  from  the  Greek,  even  in  the  fourth  century. 
In  the  sixth,  Cassiodorus  took  care  that  the  amount 
should  be  increased.  This  gave  the  Latins  a  larger 
outlook,  and  even  the  decay  of  learning  which  Cassi- 
odorus and  Agapetus  could  not  remedy,  and  which 
Pope  Agatho  deplored  so  humbly  in  his  letter  to  the 
Greek  council  of  680,  was  resisted  with  a  certain  per- 
sistent vigour. 

At  Constantinople  the  means  of  learning  were 
abundant,  and  there  were  many  authors;  yet  there 
is  a  gradual  decline  till  the  fifteenth  century.  The 
more  notable  writers  are  like  flickers  amid  dying 
embers.  There  were  chroniclers  antl  chronographers, 
but  with  little  originality.  Even  the  monastery  of 
Studiimi  is  hardly  a  literary  revival.  There  is  in  the 
East  no  enthusiasm  like  that  of  Cassiodorus,  of  Isidore, 
of  Alcuin,  amid  a  barbarian  world.  Photius  hacl 
wonderful  libraries  at  his  disposal,  yet  Bede  had  wider 
learning,  and  probably  knew  more  of  the  East  than 
Photius  dill  of  the  West.  The  industrious  Irish 
schools  which  propagated  learning  in  every  part  of 
Europe  liad  no  parallel  in  the  Oriental  world.  It  was 
after  the  fifth  century  that  the  East  began  to  be 
"unchanging".  And  as  the  bond  with  the  West  grew 
less  and  less  continuous,  her  theology  and  literature 
became  more  and  more  mummified;  whereas  the 
Latin  world  blossomed  anew  with  an  Anselm,  subtle 
as  Augustine,  a  Bernard,  rival  to  Chrysostom,  an 
Aquinas,  prince  of  theologians.  Hence  we  observe  in 
the  early  centuries  a  twofold  movement,  which  must 
be  spoken  of  separately:  an  Eastward  movement  of 
theology,  by  which  the  West  imposed  her  dogmas  on 
the  reluctant  East,  and  a  Westward  movement  in 
most  practical  things — organization,  liturgy,  as- 
cetics, devotion — by  which  the  West  assimilated  the 
swifter  evolution  of  the  Greeks.  We  take  first  the 
theological  movement. 

(e)  Theology. — Throughout  the  second  century  the 
Greek  portion  of  Christendom  bred  heresies.  The 
multitude  of  Gnostic  schools  tried  to  introduce  all 
kinds  of  foreign  elements  into  Christianity.  Those 
who  taught  and  believed  them  did  not  start  from  a 
belief  in  the  Trinity  and  the  Incarnation  such  as  we 
are  accustomed  to.  Marcion  formed  not  a  school,  but 
a  (Church;  his  Christology  was  very  far  removed  from 
tradition.  The  Montanists  made  a  schism  which  re- 
tained the  traditional  beliefs  and  practices,  but  asserted 
a  new  revelation.  The  leaders  of  all  the  new  views 
came  to  Rome,  and  tried  to  gain  a  footing  there;  all 
were  condemned  and  excommunicated.  At  the  end  of 
the  century,  Rome  got  all  the  East  to  agree  with  her 
traditional  rule  that  Easter  should  be  kept  on  Sunday. 
The  Churches  of  Asia  Minor  had  a  different  custom. 
One  of  their  bishops  protested.  But  they  seem  to 
have  submitted  almost  at  once.  In  the  first  decades 
of  the  third  century,  Rome  impartially  repelled 
opposing  heresies,  those  which  itientified  the  three 
Persons  of  the  Holy  Trinity  with  only  a  modal  distinc- 
tion (Monarchians,  Sabellians,  "  Patripassians"),  and 
those  who,  on  the  contrary,  made  Christ  a  mere  man, 
or  seemed  to  ascribe  to  the  Word  of  God  a  distinct 
being  from  that  of  the  Father.  This  last  conception, 
to  our  amazement,  is  assumed,  it  would  appear,  by 
the  early  Greek  apologists,  though  in  varying  language; 




Athenagoras  (who  as  an  Atlienian  may  have  been  in 
relation  with  the  West)  is  the  only  one  who  asserts 
tlie  Unity  of  the  Trinity.  Hippolytus  (somewhat 
diversely  in  the  "Contra  Noetum"  and  in  the  "Philo- 
sophumena,"  if  they  are  both  his)  taught  the  same 
division  of  the  Son  from  the  Father  as  traditional, 
and  he  records  that  Pope  Callistus  condemned  him 
as  a  Ditheist. 

Origen,  like  many  of  the  others,  makes  the  pro- 
cession of  the  Word  depenil  upon  His  office  of  Creator; 
and  if  he  is  orthodox  enough  to  make  the  procession 
an  eternal  and  necessary  one,  this  is  only  because  he 
regards  t'reation  itself  as  necessary  and  eternal.  His 
pupil,  Dionysius  of  Alexandria,  in  combating  the 
Sabellians,  who  atlmitted  no  real  distinctions  in  the 
Godheafl,  manifested  the  characteristic  weakness  of 
the  Greek  theology,  but  some  of  his  own  Egyptians 
were  more  correct  than  their  patriarch,  and  appealed 
to  Rome.  The  Alexandrian  listened  to  the  Roman 
Dionysius,  for  all  respected  the  unchanging  tradition 
and  unblemished  orthodoxy  of  the  See  of  Peter;  his 
apology  accepts  the  word  "  consubstantial ",  and  he 
explains,  no  doubt  sincerely,  that  he  had  never  meant 
anything  else;  but  he  had  learnt  to  see  more  clearly, 
without  recognizing  how  unfortunately  worded  were 
his  earlier  arguments.  He  was  not  present  when  a 
council,  mainly  of  Origenists,  justly  condemned  Paul 
of  Samosata  (268) ;  and  these  bishops,  holding  the 
traditional  Eastern  view,  refused  to  use  the  word 
"consubstantial"  as  being  too  like  Sabellianism. 
The  Arians,  disciples  of  Lucian,  rejected  (as  did  the 
more  moderate  Eusebius  of  Ca>sarea)  the  eternity  of 
Creation,  and  they  weie  logical  enough  to  argue  that 
consequently  "  there  was  (before  time  was)  when  the 
Word  was  not",  and  that  He  was  a  creature.  All 
Christendom  was  horrified;  but  the  East  was  soon 
appeased  by  vague  explanations,  and  after  Nica^a, 
real,  undisguised  Arianism  hardly  showed  its  head  for 
nearly  forty  years.  The  highest  point  of  orthodoxy 
that  the  East  could  reach  is  shown  in  the  admirable 
lectures  of  St.  Cyril  of  Jerusalem.  There  is  one  God, 
he  teaches,  that  is  the  Father,  and  His  Son  is  equal  to 
Him  in  all  things,  and  the  Holy  Ghost  is  adored  with 
Them;  we  cannot  separate  Them  in  our  worship.  But 
he  does  not  ask  himself  how  there  are  not  three  Gods; 
he  will  not  use  the  Nicene  word  "consubstantial",  and 
he  never  suggests  that  there  is  one  Godhead  common 
to  the  three  Persons. 

If  we  turn  to  the  Latins  all  is  different.  The  essen- 
tial Monotheism  of  Cliristianity  is  not  saved  in  the 
West  by  saying  there  is  "one  God  the  Father",  as 
in  all  the  Eastern  creeds,  but  the  theologians  teach 
the  unity  of  the  Divine  essence,  in  which  suljsist  three 
Persons.  If  TertuUian  and  Novatian  use  subordi- 
nationist  language  of  the  Son  (perhaps  borrowed  from 
the  East),  it  is  of  little  consequence  in  comparison 
with  their  main  doctrine,  that  there  is  one  substance 
of  the  Father  and  of  the  Son.  Callistus  excommuni- 
cates equally  those  who  deny  the  distinction  of 
Persons,  and  those  who  refuse  to  assert  the  tmity  of 
substance.  Pope  Dionysius  is  shocked  that  his  name- 
sake did  not  use  the  word  "consubstantial" — this  is 
more  than  sixty  years  before  Nica?a.  At  that  great 
council  a  Western  bishop  has  the  first  place,  with  two 
Roman  priests,  and  the  result  of  the  discussion  is 
that  the  Roman  word  "consubstantial"  is  imposed 
upon  all.  In  the  East  the  council  is  succeeded  by  a 
conspiracy  of  silence;  the  Orientals  will  not  use  the 
word.  Even  Alexandria,  which  had  kept  to  the  doc- 
trine of  Dionysius  of  Rome,  is  not  convinced  that  the 
policy  was  good,  and  Athanasius  spends  his  life  in 
fightmg  for  Nica^a,  yet  rarely  uses  the  crucial  word. 
It  takes  half  a  century  for  the  Easterns  to  digest  it; 
and  when  they  do  so,  they  do  not  make  the  most  of 
its  meaning.  It  is  curious  how  little  interest  even 
Athanasius  shows  in  the  Unity  of  the  Trinity,  which 
he  scarcely  mentions  except  when  quoting  the  Dio- 

nysii;  it  isDidymus  and  the  Cappadocians  who  word 
Trinitarian  doctrine  in  the  manner  since  consecrated 
by  the  centuries — three  hypostases,  one  usia;  but 
this  is  merely  the  conventional  translation  of  the 
ancient  Latin  formula,  though  it  was  new  to  the  East. 

If  we  look  back  at  the  three  centiu'ies,  second,  third, 
and  fourth,  of  which  we  have  been  speaking,  we  shall 
see  that  the  Greek-speaking  Church  taught  the  Divin- 
ity of  the  Son,  and  Three  inseparable  Persons,  and  one 
God  the  Father,  without  being  able  philosophically  to 
harmonize  these  conceptions.  The  attempts  which 
were  matle  were  sometimes  condcmnetl  as  heresy  in 
the  one  direction  or  the  other,  or  at  best  arrived  at 
unsatisfactory  and  erroneous  explanations,  such  as  the 
distinction  of  the  Ai7os  ivdidBeTos  and  the  Advos 
7rpo(popiK6s  or  the  assertion  of  the  eternity  of  Creation. 
The  Latin  Church  preserved  always  the  simple  tra- 
dition of  three  distinct  Persons  and  one  divine  Essence. 
We  must  judge  the  Easterns  to  have  started  from  a 
less  perfect  tradition,  for  it  would  be  too  harsh  to 
accuse  them  of  wilfully  perverting  it.  But  they  show 
their  love  of  subtle  distinctions  at  the  same  time  that 
they  lay  bare  their  want  of  philosophical  grasp.  The 
common  people  talked  theology  in  the  streets;  hut 
the  professional  theologians  did  not  see  that  the  root 
of  religion  is  the  unity  of  God,  and  that,  so  far,  it  is 
better  to  be  a  Sabellian  than  a  Semi-Arian.  There  is 
somethuig  mythological  about  their  conceptions, 
even  in  the  case  of  Origen,  however  important  a  thmker 
he  may  be  in  comparison  with  other  ancients.  His 
conceptions  of  Christianity  dominated  the  East  for 
some  time,  but  an  Origenist  Christianity  would  never 
have  influenced  the  modern  world. 

The  Latin  conception  of  theological  doctrine,  on 
the  other  hand,  was  by  no  means  a  mere  adherence  to 
an  uncomprehended  tradition.  The  Latins  in  each 
controversy  of  these  early  centuries  seized  the  main 
point,  and  preserved  it  at  all  hazards.  Never  for  an 
instant  did  they  allow  the  unity  of  God  to  be  obscured. 
The  equality  of  the  Son  and  his  consubstantiality 
were  seen  to  be  necessary  to  that  unity.  The  Pkiton- 
ist  idea  of  the  need  of  a  mediator  between  the  trans- 
cendent God  and  Creation  does  not  entangle  them,  for 
they  were  too  clear-headed  to  suppose  that  there 
could  be  anj'thing  half-way  between  the  finite  and  the 
infinite.  In  a  word,  the  Latins  are  philosophers,  and 
the  Easterns  are  not.  The  East  can  speculate  and 
wrangle  about  theology,  but  it  cannot  grasp  a  large 
view.  It  is  in  accordance  with  this  that  it  was  in  the 
West,  after  all  the  struggle  was  over,  that  the  Trini- 
tarian doctrme  was  completely  systematized  by 
Augustine;  in  the  West,  that  the  Athanasian  creed 
was  formulated.  The  same  story  repeats  itself  m  the 
fifth  century.  The  philosophical  heresy  of  Pelagius 
arose  in  the  West,  and  in  the  West  only  could  it  have 
been  exorcized.  The  schools  of  Antioch  and  Alexan- 
dria each  insisted  on  one  side  of  the  question  as  to  the 
union  of  the  two  Natures  in  the  Incarnation;  the  one 
School  fell  into  Nestorianisra,  the  other  into  Euty- 
chianism,  though  the  leaders  were  orthodox.  But 
neither  Cyril  nor  the  great  Theodoret  was  able  to 
rise  above  the  controversy,  and  express  the  two 
complementary  truths  in  one  consistent  doctrine. 
They  held  what  St.  Leo  held;  but,  omitting  their 
interminable  arguments  and  proofs,  the  Latin  writer 
words  the  true  doctrine  once  for  all,  because  he  sees  it 
philosophically.  No  wonder  that  the  most  popular 
of  the  Eastern  Fathers  has  always  been  imtheological 
Chrysostom,  whereas  the  most  popular  of  the  Western 
Fathers  is  the  philosopher  Augustine.  \Vhenever 
the  East  was  severed  from  the  West,  it  contributed 
nothing  to  the  elucidation  and  development  of  dogma, 
and  when  united,  its  contribution  was  mostly  to 
make  difficulties  for  the  W'est  to  unravel. 

But  the  West  has  continued  without  ceasing  its 
work  of  exposition  and  evolution.  After  the  fifth 
century  there  is  not  much  development  or  definition 




in  the  patristic  period;  the  dogmas  defined  needed 
only  a  reference  to  antiquity.  But  again  and  again 
Rome  had  to  impose  lier  dogmas  on  Byzantium — 519, 
680,  and  786  are  famous  dates,  when  the  whole  East- 
ern Church  had  to  accept  a  papal  document  for  the 
sake  of  reunion,  and  the  intervals  between  these  dates 
supply  lesser  instances.  The  Eastern  Church  had 
always  possessed  a  traditional  belief  in  Roman  tra- 
dition and  in  the  duty  of  recourse  to  the  See  of  Peter; 
the  Arians  expressed  it  when  they  wrote  to  Pope  Julius 
to  deprecate  interference — Rome,  they  said,  was 
"the  metropolis  of  the  faith  from  the  beginning".  In 
the  sixth,  seventh,  and  eighth  centuries  the  lesson  had 
been  learnt  thoroughly,  and  the  East  proclaimed 
the  papal  prerogatives,  and  appealed  to  them  with  a 
fervour  which  experience  had  taught  to  be  in  place. 
In  such  a  sketch  as  this,  all  elements  cannot  be  taken 
into  consideration.  It  is  obvious  that  Eastern  the- 
ology had  a  great  and  varied  influence  on  Latin 
Christendom.  But  the  essential  truth  remains  that 
the  West  thought  more  clearly  than  the  East,  while 
preserving  with  greater  faithfulness  a  more  explicit 
tradition  as  to  cardinal  dogmas,  and  that  the  West 
imposed  her  doctrines  and  her  definitions  on  the  East, 
and  repeatedly,  if  necessary,  reasserted  and  reimposed 

(f)  Discipline,  Liturgy,  Ascetics. — According  to 
tradition,  the  multiplication  of  bishoprics,  so  that 
each  city  had  its  own  bishop,  began  in  the  province  of 
Asia,  under  the  direction  of  St.  John.  The  develop- 
ment was  uneven.  There  may  have  been  but  one  see 
in  Egypt  at  the  end  of  the  second  century,  though 
there  were  large  numbers  in  all  the  provinces  of  Asia 
Minor,  and  a  great  many  in  Phoenicia  and  Palestine. 
Groupings  under  metropolitan  sees  began  in  that  cen- 
tury in  the  East,  and  in  the  third  century  this  organi- 
zation was  recognized  as  a  matter  of  course.  Over 
metropolitans  are  the  patriarchs.  This  method  of 
grouping  spread  to  the  West.  At  first  Africa  had  the 
most  numerous  sees;  in  the  middle  of  the  third 
century  there  were  about  a  hundred,  and  they  quickly 
increased  to  more  than  four  times  that  number.  But 
each  province  of  Africa  had  not  a  metropolitan  see; 
only  a  presidency  was  accorded  to  the  senior  bishop, 
except  in  Proconsularis,  where  Carthage  was  the 
metropolis  of  the  province  and  her  bishop  was  the  first 
of  all  Africa.  His  rights  were  undefined,  though  his 
influence  was  great.  But  Rome  was  near,  and  the  pope 
had  certainly  far  more  actual  power,  as  well  as  more 
recognized  right,  than  the  primate;  we  see  this  in 
TertuUian's  time,  and  it  remains  true  in  spite  of  the 
resistance  of  Cyprian.  The  other  countries,  Italy, 
Spain,  Gaul,  were  gradually  organized  according  to 
the  Greek  model,  and  the  Greek  names,  metropolis, 
patriarch,  were  adopted.  Councils  were  held  early 
in  the  West.  But  disciplinary  canons  were  first 
enacted  in  the  East.  St.  Cyprian's  large  councils 
passed  no  canons,  and  that  saint  considered  that  each 
bishop  is  answerable  to  God  alone  for  the  government 
of  his  diocese;  in  other  words,  he  knows  no  canon  law. 
The  foundation  of  Latin  canon  law  is  in  the  canons  of 
Eastern  councils,  which  open  the  Western  collections. 
In  spite  of  this,  we  need  not  suppose  the  East  was 
more  regular,  or  better  governed,  than  the  West,  where 
the  popes  guarded  order  and  justice.  But  the  East 
liad  larger  communities,  and  they  had  developed  more 
fully,  and  therefore  the  need  arose  earlier  there  to 
commit  definite  rules  to  writing. 

The  florid  taste  of  the  East  soon  decorated  the 
liturgy  with  beautiful  excrescences.  Many  such  ex- 
cellent practices  moved  Westward;  the  Latin  rites 
borrowed  prayers  and  songs,  antiphons,  antiphonal 
singing,  the  use  of  the  alleluia,  of  the  doxology,  etc. 
If  the  East  adopted  the  Latin  Christmas  Day,  the 
West  imported  not  merely  the  Cireek  Epiphany,  but 
feast  after  feast,  in  the  fourth,  fifth,  sixth,  and  seventh 
centuries.    The  West  joined  in  devotion  to  Eastern 

martyrs.  The  special  honour  and  love  of  Our  Lady  is 
at  first  characteristic  of  the  East  (except  Antioch), 
and  then  conquers  the  West.  The  parcelling  of  the 
bodies  of  the  saints  as  relics  for  devotional  purposes, 
spread  all  over  the  West  from  the  East;  only  Rome 
held  out,  until  the  time  of  St.  Gregory  the  Great, 
against  what  might  be  thought  an  irreverence  rather 
than  an  honour  to  the  saints.  If  the  first  three  centur- 
ies are  full  of  pilgrimages  to  Rome  from  the  East,  yet 
from  the  fourth  century  onward  \\'est  joins  with  East 
in  making  Jerusalem  the  principal  goal  of  such  pious 
journej's;  and  these  voyagers  brought  back  much 
knowledge  of  the  East  to  the  most  distant  parts  of  the 
West.  Monasticism  began  in  Egypt  with  Paul  and 
Anthony,  and  spread  from  Egypt  to  Syria;  St.  Atha- 
nasius  brought  the  knowledge  of  it  to  the  West,  and 
the  Western  monachism  of  Jerome  and  Augustine,  of 
Honoratus  and  Martm,  of  Benedict  and  Columba, 
always  looked  to  the  East,  to  Anthony  and  Pachomius 
and  Hilarion,  and  above  all  to  Basil,  for  its  most  per- 
fect models.  Edifying  literature  in  the  form  of  the 
lives  of  the  saints  began  with  Athanasius,  and  was 
imitated  by  Jerome.  But  the  Latin  writers,  Rufinus 
and  Cassian,  gave  accounts  of  Eastern  monachism, 
and  Palladius  and  the  later  Greek  writers  were  early 
translated  into  Latin.  Soon  indeed  there  were  lives 
of  Latin  saints,  of  which  that  of  St.  Martin  was  the 
most  famous,  but  the  year  600  had  almost  come  when 
St.  Gregory  the  Great  felt  it  still  necessary  to  protest 
that  as  good  might  be  found  in  Italy  as  in  Egypt  and 
Syria,  and  published  his  dialogues  to  prove  his  point, 
by  supplying  edifying  stories  of  his  own  country  to 
put  beside  the  older  histories  o',  the  monks.  It  would 
be  out  of  place  here  to  go  more  into  detail  in  these 
subjects.  Enough  has  been  said  to  show  that  the  West 
borrowed,  with  open-minded  simplicity  and  humility, 
from  the  elder  East  all  kinds  of  practical  and  useful 
ways  in  ecclesiastical  affairs  and  in  the  Christian  life. 
The  converse  influence  in  practical  matters  of  West  on 
East  was  naturally  very  small. 

(g)  Historical  Materials. — The  principal  ancient 
historians  of  the  patristic  period  were  mentioned 
above.  They  cannot  always  be  completely  trusted. 
The  continuators  of  Eusebius,  that  is,  Rufinus,  So- 
crates, Sozomen,  Theodoret,  are  not  to  be  compared 
to  Eusebius  himself,  for  that  industrious  prelate  has 
fortunately  bequeathed  to  us  rather  a  collection  of 
invaluable  materials  than  a  history.  His  "Life"  or 
rather  "Panegyric  of  Constantine"  is  less  remarkable 
for  its  contents  than  for  its  politic  omissions.  Euse- 
bius found  his  materials  in  the  library  of  Pamphilus 
at  Caesarea,  and  still  more  in  that  left  by  Bishop 
Alexander  at  Jerusalem.  He  cites  earlier  collections 
of  documents,  the  letters  of  Dionysius  of  Corinth, 
Dionysiusof  Alexandria,  Serapion  of  Antioch,  some  of 
the  epistles  sent  to  Pope  Victor  by  councils  through- 
out the  Church,  besides  employing  earlier  writers  of 
history  or  memoirs  such  as  Papias,  Hegesippus,  Apol- 
lonius,  an  anonymous  opponent  of  the  Montanists,  the 
"  Little  Labyrinth  "  of  H  ippoly tus  ( ?) ,  etc .  The  princi- 
pal additions  we  can  still  make  to  these  precious  rem- 
nants are,  first,  St.  Irena-us  on  the  heresies;  then  the 
works  of  TertuUian,  full  of  valuable  information  about 
the  controversies  of  his  own  time  and  place  and  the 
customs  of  the  Western  Church,  and  containing  also 
some  less  valuable  information  about  earlier  matters 
— less  valuable,  because  TertuUian  is  singularly 
careless  and  deficient  in  historical  sense.  Next,  we 
possess  the  correspondence  of  St.  Cyprian,  comprising 
letters  of  African  councils,  of  St.  Cornelius  and  others, 
besides  those  of  the  saint  himself.  To  all  this  frag- 
mentary information  we  can  add  much  from  St.  Epi- 
phanius,  something  from  St.  Jerome  and  also  from 
Photius  and  Byzantine  ehronographers.  The  whole 
Ante-Nicene  evidence  has  been  catalogued  with  won- 
derful industry  by  Harnack,  with  the  help  of  Preu- 
Bchen  and  others,  in  a  book  of  1021  pages,  the  first 




volume  of  his  invaluable  "  H  istory  of  Early  Christian 
Literature".  In  the  middle  of  the  fourth  century,  St. 
Epiphanius's  book  on  heresies  is  learned  but  confused; 
it  is  most  annoying  to  think  how  useful  it  would  have 
been  had  its  pious  author  quoted  his  authorities  by 
name,  as  Eusebius  did.  As  it  is,  we  can  with  difficulty, 
if  at  all,  discover  whether  his  sources  are  to  be  depended 
on  or  not.  St.  Jerome's  lives  of  illustrious  men 
are  carelessly  put  together,  mainly  from  Eusebius, 
but  with  additional  information  of  great  value,  where 
we  can  trust  its  accuracy.  Germadius  of  Marseilles 
continued  this  work  with  great  profit  to  us.  The 
Western  cataloguers  of  heresies,  such  as  Philastrius, 
Praedestinatus,  and  St.  Augustine,  are  less  useful. 

Collections  of  documents  are  the  most  important 
matter  of  all.  In  the  Arian  controversy  the  collec- 
tions published  by  St.  Athanasius  in  his  apologetic 
works  are  first-rate  authorities.  Of  those  put  together 
by  St.  Hilary  only  fragments  survive.  Another  dos- 
sier by  the  Homoiousian  Sabinus,  Bishop  of  Heraclea, 
was  known  to  Socrates,  and  we  can  trace  its  use  by 
him.  A  collection  of  dociunents  connected  with  the 
origins  of  Donatism  was  made  towards  the  beginning 
of  the  fourth  century,  and  was  appended  by  St.  Opta- 
tus  to  his  great  work.  Unfortunately  only  a  part  is  pre- 
served; but  much  of  the  lost  matter  is  quoted  by 
Optatus  and  Augustine.  A  pupil  of  St.  Augustine, 
Marius  Mercator,  happened  to  be  at  Constantinople 
during  the  Nestorian  controversy,  and  he  formed  an 
interesting  collection  of  pieces  juslificatives.  He  put 
together  a  corresponding  set  of  papers  bearing  on 
the  Pelagian  controversy.  IrenEeus,  Bishop  of  Tyre, 
amassed  documents  bearing  on  Nestorianism,  as  a 
brief  in  his  own  defence.  These  have  been  preserved 
to  us  in  the  reply  of  an  opponent,  who  has  added  a 
great  number.  Another  kmd  of  collection  is  that  of 
letters.  St.  Isidore's  and  St.  Augustine's  are  im- 
mensely numerous,  but  bear  little  upon  history.  There 
is  far  more  historical  matter  in  those  (for  instance)  of 
Ambrose  and  Jerome,  Basil  and  Chrysostom.  Those 
of  the  popes  are  numerous,  and  of  first-rate  value ;  and 
the  large  collections  of  them  also  contain  letters  ad- 
dressed to  the  popes.  The  correspondence  of  Leo  and 
of  Hormisdas  is  very  complete.  Besides  these  collec- 
tions of  papal  letters  and  the  decretals,  we  have  sepa- 
rate collections,  of  which  two  are  important,  the  Col- 
lectio  Avellana,  and  that  of  Stephen  of  Larissa. 

Councils  supply  another  great  historical  source. 
Those  of  Nicsea,  Sardica,  Constantinople,  have  left  us 
no  Acts,  only  some  letters  and  canons.  Of  the  later 
oecumenical  councils  we  have  not  only  the  detailed 
Acts,  but  also  numbers  of  letters  connected  with  them. 
Many  smaller  councils  have  also  been  preserved  in  the 
later  collections;  those  made  by  Ferrandus  of  Car- 
thage and  Dionysius  the  Little  deserve  special  mention. 
In  many  cases  the  Acts  of  one  council  are  preserved 
by  another  at  which  they  were  read.  For  example,  in 
418,  a  Council  of  Carthage  recited  all  the  canons  of 
former  African  plenary  councils  in  the  presence  of  a 
papal  legate;  the  Council  of  Chalcedon  embodies  all 
the  Acts  of  the  first  session  of  the  Robber  Council  of 
Ephesus,  and  the  Acts  of  that  session  contained  the 
Acts  of  two  synods  of  Constantinople.  The  later  ses- 
sions of  the  Robber  Council  (preserved  only  in  Syriac) 
contain  a  number  of  documents  concerning  inquiries 
and  trials  of  prelates.  Much  information  of  various 
kinds  has  been  derived  of  late  years  from  Syriac  and 
Coptic  sources,  and  even  from  the  Arabic,  Armenian, 
Persian,  Ethiopic  and  Slavonic.  It  is  not  necessary  to 
speak  here  of  the  patristic  writings  as  sources  for  our 
knowledge  of  Church  organization,  ecclesiastical  geog- 
raphy, liturgies,  canon  law  and  procedure,  archeol- 
ogy, etc.  The  sources  are,  however,  much  the  same 
for  all  these  branches  as  for  history  proper. 

Pathistic  Study. — (1)  Editors  of  the  Fathers. — The 
earliest  histories  of  patristic  literature  are  those 
contained  in  Eusebius  and  in   Jerom.e's    "De  viris 

illustribus".  They  were  followed  by  Gennadius,  who 
continued  Eusebius,  by  St.  Isidore  of  Seville,  and  by 
St.  Ildephonsus  of  Toledo.  In  the  Middle  Ages  the 
best  known  are  Sigelfert  of  the  monastery  of  Gem- 
bloux  (d.  1112),  and  Trithemius,  Abbot  of  Sponheim 
and  of  Wiirzburg  (d.  lolG).  Between  these  come  an 
anonymous  monk  of  Melk  (Mellicensis,  c.  1135)  and 
Honorius  of  Autun  (1122-5).  Ancient  editors  are  not 
wanting;  for  uistance,  many  anonymous  works,  like 
the  Pseudo-Clementines  and  Apostolic  Constitutions, 
have  been  remodelled  more  than  once;  the  translators 
of  Origen  (Jerome,  Rufinus,  and  unknown  persons) 
cut  out,  altered,  added;  St.  Jerome  published  an 
expurgated  edition  of  Victorinus  "On  the  Apoca- 
lypse". Pamphilus  made  a  list  of  Origen's  writings, 
and  Possidius  did  the  same  for  those  of  Augustine. 

The  great  editions  of  the  Fathers  began  when  printmg 
had  become  common.  One  of  the  earliest  editors  was 
Faber  Stapulensis  (Lefevre  d'Estaples),  whose  edition 
of  Dionysius  the  Areopagite  was  published  in  1498. 
The  Belgian  Pamele  (1536-87)  published  much.  The 
controversialist  Feuardent,  a  Franciscan  (1539-1610) 
did  some  good  editing.  The  sixteenth  century  pro- 
duced gigantic  works  of  history.  The  Protestant 
"Centuriators"  of  Magdeburg  described  thirteen 
centuries  in  as  many  vokmies  (1559-74).  Cardinal 
Baronius  (1538-1607)  replied  with  his  famous  "  Anna- 
les  Ecclesiastic!",  reaching  to  the  year  1198  (12  vols., 
1588-1G07).  Marguerin  de  la  Eigne,  a  doctor  of  the 
Sorbonne  (1546-89),  published  his  "Bibliotheca 
veterum  Patrum"  (9  vols.,  1577-9)  to  assist  in  refut- 
ing the  Centuriators. 

The  great  Jesuit  editors  were  almost  in  the  seven- 
teenth century;  Gretserus  (1562-1625),  Fronto  Du- 
CiBUS  (Fronton  du  Due,  1558-1624),  Andreas  Schott 
(1552-1629), were  diligenteditorsof  theGreek  Fathers. 
The  celebrated  Sirmond  (1559-1651)  continued  to 
publish  Greek  Fathers  and  councils  and  much  else, 
from  the  age  of  51  to  92.  Denis  Petau  (Petavius, 
1583-1652)  edited  Greek  Fathers,  wrote  on  chronol- 
ogy, and  produced  an  incomparable  book  of  historical 
theology,  "De  theologicis  dogmatibus"  (1644).  To 
these  may  be  added  the  ascetic  HalloLx  (1572-1656), 
the  uncritical  ChifHet  (1592-1682),  and  Jean  Gamier, 
the  historian  of  the  Pelagians  (d.  1681).  The  greatest 
work  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  is  the  publication  of  the 
"Acta  Sanctorum",  which  has  now  reached  the  be- 
ginning of  November,  in  64  volumes.  It  was  planned 
by  Rosweyde  (1570-1629)  as  a  large  collection  of  lives 
of  saints;  but  the  founder  of  the  work  as  we  have  it  is 
the  famous  John  van  BoUand  (1596-1665).  He  was 
joined  in  1643  by  Ilenschenius  and  Papebrochius 
(162S-1714),  and  thus  the  Society  of  Bollandists 
began,  and  continued,  in  spite  of  the  suppression  of 
the  Jesuits,  until  the  French  Revolution,  1794.  It 
was  happily  revived  m  1836  (see  Bollandists). 
Other  Catholic  editors  were  Gerhard  Voss  (d.  1609), 
Albaspinseus  (De  I'Aubespine,  Bishop  of  Orleans, 
1579-1630),  Rigault  (1577-1654),  and  the  Sorbonne 
doctor  Cotelier  (1629-86).  The  Dominican  Comb^fis 
(1605-79)  edited  Greek  Fathers,  added  two  volumes 
to  de  la  Eigne 's  collection,  and  made  colltetions  of 
patristic  sermons.  The  layman  Valesius  (de  Valois, 
1603-70)  was  of  great  eminence. 

Among  Protestants  may  be  mentioned  the  contro- 
versialist Clericus  (Le  Clerc,  1657-1736);  Bishop  Fell 
of  Oxford  (1625-86),  the  editor  of  Cyprian,  with  whom 
must  be  classed  Bishop  Pearson  and  Dodwell ;  Grabe 
(1666-1711),  a  Prussian  who  settled  in  England;  the 
Calvinist  Basnage  (1653-1723).  The  famous  Galilean 
Etienne  Baluze  (1630-1718),  was  an  editor  of  great 
industry.  The  Provengal  Franciscan,  Pagi,_  pub- 
lished an  invalual^le  commentary  on  Baronius  in 
1689-1705.  But  the  greatest  historical  achievement 
was  that  of  a  secular  priest,  Louis  Le  Nain  de  Tille- 
mont,  whose  "  Histoire  des  Empereurs"  (6  vols.,  1690) 
and  "M^moires  pour  servir  a  1 'histoire  eccMsiastique 




des  six  premiers  siecles"  (16  vols.,  1693)  have  never 
been  superseded  or  equalled.  Otlier  historians  are 
Cardinal  H.  Noris  (1631-1704);  Natalis  Alexander 
(1639-1725),  a  Dominican;  Fleury  (in  French,  1690- 
1719).  To  these  must  be  added  the  Protestant  Arch- 
bishop Usslier  of  Dublin  (15S0-1656),  and  many 
canonists,  such  as  Van  Espen,  Du  Pm,  La  Marca,  and 
Christianus  Lupus.  The  Oratorian  Thomassin  wrote 
on  Christian  antiquities  (1619-95);  the  English  Bing- 
ham composed  a  great  work  on  the  same  subject  (1708- 
22).  Holstein  (1596-1661),  a  convert  from  Protestants 
ism,  was  librarian  at  the  Vatican,  and  published  col- 
lections of  documents.  The  Oratorian  J.  Morin  (1597- 
1659)  published  a  famous  work  on  the  history  of  Holy 
orders,  and  a  confused  one  on  that  of  penance.  The 
chief  patristic  theologian  among  English  Protestants 
is  Bishop  Bull,  who  wrote  a  reply  to  Petavius's  views 
on  the  develo[iment  of  dogma,  entitled  "  Defensio 
fidei  Nicajnaj"  (1685).  The  Greek  Leo  Allatius  (1586- 
1669),  custos  of  the  Vatican  Library,  was  almost  a 
second  Bessarion.  He  wrote  on  dogma  and  on  the 
ecclesiastical  books  of  the  Greeks.  A  century  later 
the  Maronite  J.  S.  Assemani  (1687-1768)  published 
amongst  other  works  a  "Bibliotheca  Orientalis"  and 
an  edition  of  Ephrem  Syrus.  His  nephew  edited  an 
immense  collection  of  liturgies.  The  chief  liturgiolo- 
gist  of  the  seventeenth  centurv  Ls  the  Blessed  Cardinal 
Tommasi,  a  Theatine  (1649-1713,  beatified  1803),  the 
tyjie  of  a  sauitly  savant. 

The  great  Benedictines  form  a  group  by  them- 
selves, for  (apart  from  Dom  Calmet,  a  Biblical  scholar, 
and  Dom  Ceillier,  who  belonged  to  the  Congregation 
of  St-Vannes)  all  were  of  the  Congregation  of  St- 
Maur,  the  learned  men  of  which  were  drafted  into  the 
Abbey  of  St-Germain-des-Prds  at  Paris.  Dom  Luc 
d'Achery  (1605-85)  is  the  founder  ("Spicilegium",  13 
vols.) ;  Dom  Mabillon  (1032-1707)  is  the  greatest  name, 
but  he  was  mainly  occupied  with  the  early  Middle 
Ages.  Bernard  de  Slontfaucon  (1055-1741)  has  almost 
equal  fame  (Athanasius,  Ilexapla  of  Origen,  Chrys- 
ostom,  Antiquities,  Palaeography).  Dom  Constant 
(1054-1721)  was  the  principal  collaborator,  it  seems, 
in  the  great  edition  of  St.  Augustine  (1079-1700;  also 
letters  of  the  Popes,  Hilarv).  Dom  Garet  (Cassiodo- 
rus,  1679),  Du  Friche  (St  Ambrose,  1686-90),  Martia- 
nay  (St.  Jerome,  1693-1706,  less  successful),  Delarue 
(Origen,  1733-59),  Maran  (with  Tout^e,  Cyril  of  Jeru- 
salem, 1720;  alone,  the  Apologists,  1742;  Gregory 
Nazianzen,  unfinished),  Massuet  (Irenajus,  1710),  Ste- 
Marthe  (Gregory  the  Great,  1705),  Julien  Gamier  (St. 
Basil,  1721-2),  llumart  (Acta  Martyrumsincera,  1689, 
Victor  Vitensis,  1694,  and  Gregory  of  Tours  and  Frede- 
gar,  1699),  are  all  well-known  names.  The  works  of 
Martone  (1654-1739)  on  ecclesiastical  and  monastic 
rites  (1090  and  1700-2)  and  his  collections  of  anecdota 
(1700,  1717,  and  1724-33)  are  most  voluminous;  he 
was  assisted  by  Durand.  The  great  historical  works 
of  the  Benedictines  of  St^Maur  need  not  be  mentioned 
here,  but  Dom  Sabatier's  edition  of  the  Old  Latin  Bible, 
and  the  new  editions  of  Du  Gauge's  glossaries  must  be 
noted.  For  the  great  editors  of  collections  of  councils 
see  under  the  names  mentioned  in  the  bibliography 
of  the  article  on  Codncils. 

In  the  eighteenth  century  may  be  noted  Arch- 
bishop Potter  (1674-1747,  Clement  of  Alexandria). 
At  Rome  Arevalo  (Isidore  of  Seville,  1797-1803); 
Gallandi,  a  Venetian  Oratorian  (Bibliotheca  vete- 
rum  Patrum,  1765-81).  The  Veronese  scholars 
form  a  remarkable  group.  The  historian  Maffei  (for 
our  purpose  his  "anecdota  of  Cassiodorus"  are  to 
be  noted,  1702),  Vallarsi  (St.  Jerome,  1734-42,  a 
great  work,  and  Rufinus,  1745),  the  brothers 
Ballerini  (St.  Zeno,  1739;  St.  Leo,  1753-7,  a  most 
remarkaljle  production),  not  to  speak  of  Bian- 
chini,  who  published  codices  of  the  Old  Latin  Gospels, 
and  the  Dominican  Mansi,  Archbishop  of  Lucca,  who 
re-edited  Baronius,  Fabricius,  Thomassinus,  Baluze, 

etc.,  as  well  as  the  "Collectio  Amplissima"  of  councsla. 
A  general  conspectus  shows  us  the  Jesuits  taking  the 
lead  c.  1590-1650,  and  the  Benedictines  working 
about  1680-1750.  The  French  are  always  in  the  first 
place.  There  are  some  sparse  names  of  eminence  in 
Protestant  England;  a  few  in  Germany;  Italy  takes 
the  lead  in  the  second  half  of  the  eighteenth  century. 
The  great  literary  histories  of  Bellarmine,  Fabricius, 
Du  Pin,  Cave,  Oudin,  Schram,  Liunper,  Ziegelbauer, 
and  Schoenemann  will  be  found  below  in  the  biblio- 
graphy. The  first  half  of  the  nineteenth  century  was 
singularly  barren  of  patristic  study;  nevertheless 
there  were  marks  of  the  commencement  of  the  new 
era  in  which  Germany  takes  the  lead.  The  second 
half  of  the  nineteenth  was  exceptionally  and  increas- 
ingly prolific.  _  It  is  impossible  to  enumerate  the  chief 
editors  and  critics.  New  matter  was  povired  forth  by 
Cardinal  Mai  (1782-1854)  and  Cardmal  Pitra  (1812- 
89),  both  prefects  of  the  Vatican  Library.  Inedita  in 
such  quantities  seem  to  be  foimd  no  more,  but 
isolated  discoveries  have  come  frequently  and  still 
come;  Eastern  libraries,  such  as  those  of  Mount 
Athos  and  Patmos,  Constantinople,  and  Jerusalem, 
and  Mount  Sinai,  have  yielded  imknown  treasures, 
while  the  Syriac,  Coptic,  Armenian,  etc.,  have  supplied 
many  losses  supposeti  to  be  irrecoverable.  The  sands 
of  Egypt  have  given  something,  but  not  much,  to 

The  greatest  boon  in  the  way  of  editing  has  been  the 
two  great  patrologies  of  the  Abb6  Migne  (1800-75). 
This  energetic  man  put  the  works  of  all  the  Greek  and 
Latin  Fathers  within  easy  reach  by  the  "Patrologia 
Latina"  (222  vols.,  including  4  vols,  of  indexes)  and 
the  "Patrologia  Graeca"  (161  vols).  The  Ateliers 
Catholiques  which  he  founded  produced  wood-carv- 
ing, pictures,  organs,  etc.,  but  printing  was  the  special 
work.  The  workshops  were  destroyed  by  a  disas- 
trous fire  in  1868,  and  the  recommencement  of  the  work 
was  made  impossible  by  the  Franco-German  war. 
The  "Monumenta  Germaniic",  begun  by  the  Berlin 
librarian  Pertz,  was  continued  with  vigour  under 
the  most  celebrated  scholar  of  the  century,  Theodor 
Jlommsen.  Small  collections  of  patristic  works  are 
catalogued  below.  A  new  edition  of  the  Latin 
Fathers  was  undertaken  in  the  sixties  by  the  Academy 
of  Vienna.  The  volumes  published  up  till  now  have 
been  uniformly  creditable  works  which  call  up  no 
particular  enthusiasm.  At  the  present  rate  of  pro- 
gress some  centuries  will  be  needed  for  the  great  work. 
The  Berlin  Academy  has  commenced  a  more  motlest 
task,  the  re-editing  of  the  Greek  Ante-Nicene  writers, 
and  the  energy  of  Adolf  Harnack  is  ensuring  rapid 
publication  and  real  success.  The  same  indefatigable 
student,  with  von  Gcbhardt,  edits  a  series  of  "Texte 
vmd  LTntersuchungen",  which  have  for  a  part  of  their 
object  to  be  the  organ  of  the  Berlin  editors  of  the 
Fathers.  The  series  contains  many  valuable  studies, 
with  much  that  would  hardly  have  been  published  in 
other  countries. 

The  Cambridge  series  of  "Texts  and  Studies"  is 
younger  and  proceeds  more  slowly,  but  keeps  at  a 
rather  higher  level.  There  should  be  mentioned  also 
the  Italian  "Studii  e  Testi",  in  which  Mercati  and 
Pio  Franchi  de'  Cavalieri  collaborate.  In  England,  in 
spite  of  the  slight  revival  of  interest  in  patristic 
studies  caused  by  the  Oxford  Movement,  the  amount 
of  work  has  not  been  great.  For  learning  perhaps 
Newman  is  really  first  in  the  theological  questions. 
As  critics  the  Cambridge  School,  Westcott,  Hort,  and 
above  all  Lightfoot,  are  second  to  none.  But  the 
amount  edited  has  been  very  small,  and  the  excellent 
"Dictionary  of  Christian  Biography"  is  the  only 
great  work  published.  Until  1898  "there  was  abso- 
lutely no  organ  for  patristic  studies,  and  the  "Jour- 
nal of  Theological  Studios"  founded  in  that  year 
would  have  found  it  difficult  to  survive  financially 
without  the  help  of  the  Oxford  University  Press.   But 




there  has  been  an  increase  of  interest  in  these  subjects 
of  late  years,  both  among  Protestants  and  Catholics, 
in  England  and  in  the  United  States.  Catholic  France 
has  lately  been  coming  once  more  to  the  fore,  and  is 
very  nearly  level  with  Germany  even  in  output. 
In  the  last  fifty  years,  archaeology  has  added  much  to 
patristic  studies;  in  this  sphere  the  greatest  name  is 
that  of  De  Rossi. 

(2)  The  Study  of  the  Fathers. — The  helps  to  study, 
such  as  Patrologies,  lexical  information,  literary  his- 
tories,  are  mentioned   below. 

CoLLECTinxs: — The  chief  collections  of  the  Fathers  are  the 
following:  DE  LA  BiGNE,  Bibliotheca  SS.  PP.  (8  vols,  fol..  Pans, 
1575,  anil  .4pp.,  1579;   -tth  ed.,  10  vols.,  1624,  with  Aurlanum, 

2  vols.,  1624,  and  Siippl.,  1639,  5th  and  6th  edd.,  17  vols,  fol., 
1644  and  1654);  this  great  work  is  a  supplement  of  over  200 
writings  to  the  editions  till  then  published  of  the  leathers;  en- 
larged ed.  by  Univ.  of  Cologne  (Cologne,  1618,  14  vols.,  and 
App.,  1622);  the  Cologne  ed.  enlarged  by  100  writings,  in  27 
folio  vols.  (Lyons,  1677).  Combefis,  Grceco-Latince  Palrum 
Bibliothect£  novum  Aitclarium  (2  vols.,  Paris,  1648),  and  Auc- 
tarium  novissimum  (2  vols.,  Paris,  1672);  D'  Achkry,  Vderum 
aliquot  scriplorum  Spicilegium  (13  vols.  4to,  Paris,  1655-7/,  and 

3  vols,  fol.,  1723),  mostly  of  writings  later  than  patristic  period, 
as  is  also  the  case  with  Baluze,  Miscellanea  (7  vols.  8vo.  Pans, 
1678-1715);  re-ed.  by  M.ansi  (4  vols,  fol.,  Lucca,  1761-1);  Sir- 
MOND,  Opera  varia  nunc  primum  collecta  (5  vols.  fol..  Pans, 
1696,  and  Venice,  1728);  Mcratori,  ^necdo(a  from  the  .\m- 
brosian  Libr.  at  Milan  (4  vols.  4to,  Milan,  1697-S;  Padua, 
1713);  Idem,  Anecdola  gmca  (Padua,  1709);  Ghabe,  Spicile- 
gium of  Fathers  of  the  first  and  second  centuries  (Oxford,  1698- 
9.  1700,  and  enlarged,  1714);  Gallaxdi,  Bibl.  vet.  PP..  an  en- 
larged edition  of  the  Lyons  ed.  of  de  la  Eigne  (14  vols,  fol.,  Ven- 
ice. 1765-88,  and  index  publ.  at  Bologna,  1863) — nearly  all  the 
contents  are  reprinted  in  Migne;  OberthCr,  SS.  Patrum  opera 
polemica  de  verilale  religionis  chrKl.  c.  Gent,  et  Jud.  (21  vols.  Svo, 
Wurzburg,  1777-94);  Idem,  Opera  omnia  SS.  Palrum  Latin- 
orum  (13  vols.,  Wurzburg,  1789-91);  Routh,  Retiquice  sacrce, 
second  and  third  centuries  (4  vols.,  Oxford,  1814-18;  in  5  vols., 
1846-8);  Idem,  Scriplorum  eccl.  opuscula  praecipua  (2  vols.,  Ox- 
ford, 1832,  3rd  vol.,  1S58):  Mai,  Scriplorum  vderum  nova 
colleclio  (unpubl.  matter  from  Vatican  MSS..  10  vols.  4to,  1825- 
38);  Idem,  SpicUeqium  Romanum  (10  vols.  Svo,  Rome,  1839- 
44);  Idem,  Nova  Patrum  Bibliotheca  (7  vols.  4to,  Rome,  1844- 
54;  vol.  8  completed  by  Cozza-Luzi,  1871,  vol.  9  by  Cozz.i- 
Luzi,  1888,  App.  ad  opera  ed.  ab  A.  Maio,  Rome,  1871,  App. 
allera,  1871).  A  few  eccl.  writings  in  Mai's  Classici  aurlores 
(10  vols.,  Rome.  1828-38);  Caillau,  Colleclio  selecta  SS.  Eccle- 
siiB  Patrum  (133  vols.  sm.  Svo,  Paris,  1829-42);  Gersdorf, 
Bibl.  Palrum  eccl.  lat.  selecla  (13  vols.,  Leipzig,  1838-47);  the 
Oxford  Bibliotheca  Palrum  reached  10  vols.  (Oxford,  1838-55); 
Pitra,  Spicilegium  (4  vols.  4to,  Paris,  1852-8). 
The  number  of  these  various  collections,  in  addition  to  the 
works  ot  the  great  Fathers,  made  it  ditEcult  to  obtain  a  com- 
plete set  of  patristic  writings.  Migne  supplied  the  want  by 
collecting  almost  all  the  foregoing  (except  the  end  of  the  last 
mentioned  work,  and  Mai's  later  volumes)  into  his  complete 
editions;  Patrologice  cursus  comj)ldus,  Series  latina  (to  Innocent 
III,  A.  D.  1300,  221  vols.  4to,  including  four  vols,  of  indexes, 
1S44-55),  Series  grteco-lalina  (to  the  Council  of  Florence. 
A.  d.  11;;S-9,  161  vols.  4to,  1857-66,  and  another  rare  vol.  of 
additions,  1866);  the  Series  grcBca -was  also  published,  in  Latin 
only,  in  81  vols.;  there  is  no  index  in  the  ,Serzes  ffriBca.-  an  alpha- 
betical list  of  contents  by  Scholarios  (Athens,  1879,  useful); 
other  publications,  not  included  in  Migne,  by  Pitiu,  are  Juris 
ecclesiaslici  Grmcorum  hist,  et  monum.  (2  vols.,  Rome.  1864-8); 
AnalecJa  sacra  (6  vols.,  numbered  I,  II,  III,  IV,  VI,  VIII,  Paris, 
1876-84);  Analecta  sacra  et  clas-iica  (Paris,  1888);  Analecla 
naviisima,  medieval  (2  vols.,  18S5-S):  the  new  edition  of  Latin 
Fathers  is  called  Corpus  scriplorum  ecclesiasticorum  lalinorum, 
editum  consitio  et  impensis  Academice  litlerarum  Ccesarete  Vindo- 
bnnensis  (Vienna,  1866,  Svo,  in  progress);  and  of  the  Greek 
Fathers:  Die  griechischen  christlichen  Schriflsteller  der  erslen 
drei  Jahrhunderlen.  herausgegeben  von  der  Kirchenvaler-Kommis- 
sion  der  Kunigl.  preussischen  Akad.  der  Wiss.  (Berlin,  1897, 
large  Svo,  in  progress).  Of  the  Monumenla  GermanuE  historica, 
one  portion,  the  Auclores  antiquissimi  (Berlin,  1877-98),  con- 
tains works  of  the  sixth  century  which  connect  themselves  with 
patrology.  Smalt  modern  collections  are  Hurter,  5S.  Patrum 
opuscula  sdecta,  with  a  few  good  notes  (Innsbruck,  1st  series,  48 
vols.,  1868-85,  2nd  series,  6  vols.,  1884-92) — these  little  books 
have  been  deservedly  popular;  KrCger,  Sammlung  ausge- 
wohlter  kirchen-  und  dogmengeschichtlicher  Quellenschriflen 
(Freiburg.  1891 — );  Rauschen,  Florilegium  palrislicum,_  of 
first  and  second  centuries  (3  fasc,  Bonn.  1904-5);  Cambridge 
patristic  lexis  (I,  The  Five  Theol.  Oral,  of  Greg.  A'az.,  ed.  Mason, 
1899;  II,  The  Calech.  Or.  of  Greg.  Nyssen.,  ed.  Srawley.  1903; 
Diony.'iius  Alex.,  ed.  Feltre,  1904,  in  progress);  VlzziNl.  Bibl. 
SS.  PP.  Theologiw  tironihus  d  universe  clero  accomodala  (Rome. 
1901 —  in  progress);  Lietzmann,  Kleine  Texte.  filr  theol.  Vor- 
Icsungen  und  Uebungen  (twenty-five  numbers  have  appeared  of 
about  16  pp.  each,  Bonn,  1902 — in  progress);  an  English  ed. 
of  the  same  (Cambridge,  1903 — );  Textes  el  documents  pour 
Vt'tude  historique  du  christianisme,  ed.  Hemmer  and  Lejay 
(texts,  French  tr.,  and  notes,  Paris,  in  progress — an  admirable 

Initia; — For  Greek  and  Latin  writers  up  to  Eusebius.  the 
index  to  Har.nack,  Ge.'ich.  der  altchr.  Lilt.,  I:    for  the  Latin 
writers  of  first  six  centuries,  Aumers,  Initia  librorum  PP.  lat. 
VI.— 2 

(Vienna,   1865);    and  up  to  1200,  \'atasso.   Inilia  PP.  alu>- 
rumque  scriplorum  eccl.  lot.  (2  vols..  Vatican  press,  1906-S). 

Literary  Histories: — The  first  is  Bellarmine.Dc  Srripfori- 
bus  ecclesia.iticis  (Rome,  1613,  often  reprinted;  with  additions 
by  Labbe,  Paris.  1660,  and  by  Oudin,  Paris,  16S6);  Dv  Pin, 
Bihliolhiqueuniverseile des  auteurs  cedes.  (61  vols.  Svo,  or  19  vols. 
4to,  Paris.  1686,  etc.);  this  was  severely  criticized  by  the  Bene- 
dictine Petitdidier  and  by  the  Oratorian  Simon  (CrUique  de  la 
Bibl.  des  auteurs  eccl.  publ.  par  M.  E.  Dupin,  Paris,  1730),  and 
Du  Pin's  work  was  put  on  the  Index  in  1757;  Fabricius,  Biblio- 
theca Grceca,  sive  nolilia  Scriplorum  vderum  Grtecorum  (Ham- 
burg, 1705-28,  14  vols.;  new  ed.  by  Harles,  Hamburg,  1790- 
1809,  12  vols.,  embraces  not  quite  11  vols,  of  the  original  ed.; 
index  to  this  ed.,  Leipzig.  1S3S) — this  great  work  is  really  a 
vast  collection  of  materials;  Fabricius  w.-is  a  Protestant  (d. 
1736);  he  made  a  smaller  collection  of  the  Latin  lit.  hist.,  Bibl. 
Latina,  sive  not.  scr.  vdl.  lull.  (1697,  1708,  1712,  etc.,  ed.  by 
Ernesti,  3  vols.,  Leipzig,  1773-4),  and  a  continuation  for  the 
Middle  Ages  (1734-6,  5  vols.);  the  whole  was  re-edited  by 
Mansi  (6  vols.,  Padua,  1754,  and  Florence,  1858-9);  Le 
NouRRY,  Apparatus  ad  Bibliolh.  Max.  vdl.  Pair.  (2  vols, 
fol.,  Paris,  1703-15),  deals  with  Greek  Fathers  ot  the  second 
century  and  with  Latin  apologists;  Ceillier,  Husl.  gi-ncrale  des 
auteurs  sacres  d  ecclcs.  (from  Moses  to  1248,  23  vols.,  Paris, 
1729-63;  rofc/eflcn.  des  A/a(.,  by  Rondet,  Paris,  1782;  newed. 
16  vols.,  Paris,  1858-69);  Schram,  Analysis  Operum  SS,  PP.  d 
Scriplorum  eccles.  (Vienna,  1780-96,  18  vols.,  a  valuable  work); 
Lumper,  Hist.  Theologico-critica  de  vita  scriplis  atque  doctrina 
SS.  PP.  d  scr,  eccl,  trium  primorum  scec.  (Vienna,  1783-99,  13 
vols.;  a  compilation,  but  good);  the  Anglican  Cave  published 
a  fine  work,  Scriplorum  eccl.  historia  lileraria  (London,  16SS; 
best  ed.,  Oxford,  1740-3);  Ocdin.  a  Premonstratensian,  who 
became  a  Protestant,  Commcnlarius  de  Scnploribus  eccl. 
(founded  on  Bellarmine,  3  vols,  fol.,  Leipzig,  1722).  On  the 
editions  of  the  Latin  Fathers,  Schoenemann,  Bibliotheca  his- 
lorico-lilteraria  Patrum  Laiinorum  a  Tert.  ad  Greg.  M.  d  Isid. 
Hisp.  (2  vols.,  Leipzig,  1792-4).  ,     .    ,x 

Patrologies  (smaller  works): — Gerhard,  Palrologia  (Jena, 
1653);  HuLSEMANN,  Patrologia  (Leipzig,  1670);  Olearius, 
Abacus  Palrologicus  (Jena,  1673);  these  are  old-fashioned 
Protestant  books.  German  Catholic  works  are:  Goldwitzer, 
Bibliographic  der  Kirchenvater  und  Kirchenlehrer  (Landshut, 
1828);  Idem,  Patrologie  verbunden  mi  Patrislik  (Nuremberg, 
1833-1);  the  older  distinction  in  Germany  between  patrology, 
the  knowledge  of  the  Fathers  and  their  use,  and  patristic,  the 
science  of  the  theology  of  the  Fathers,  is  now  somewhat  anti- 
quated; BussE,  Grundriss  der  chr.  Lit.  (.Munster,  1828-9); 
MoHLER,  Patrologie,  an  important  posthumous  work  of  this 
great  man,  giving  the  first  three  centuries  (Ratisbon,  1840); 
Permaneder,  Bibliotheca  patrislica  (2  vols.,  Landshut.  1841- 
4);  Febsler,  Instilulimes  Palrolngim  (Innsbruck,  1851),  a  new 
ed.  by  Jusgmasn  is  most  valuable  (Innsbruck,  1890-6);  Alzog, 
Grundriss  der  Patrologie  (Freiburg  im  Br.,  1866  and  18SS): 
same  in  French  by  Belet  (Paris,  1867);  Nirschl,  Ilandbuch 
der  Patrologie  und  Patrislik  (Mainz,  1881-5);  RESB.iNYAY,  Com- 
pendium Patrologim  d  Palrvsticas  (Funfkirchen  in  Hungary, 
1894);  Carvajal,  Inslituliones  Patrologice  (Ovicdo,  1906); 
Bardenhewer.  Patrologie  (Freiburg  im  Br..  1894;  new  ed. 
1901) — this  is  at  present  by  far  the  best  handbook;  the  author 
is  a  professor  in  the  Cath.  theo.  faculty  of  the  Univ.  of  Munich; 
a  French  tr.  by  Godet  and  Verschaffel,  Les  Pires  de  VEglise 
(3  vols.,  Paris.iS99);  an  Italian  tr.  by  A.  .Mercati  (Rome.  1903); 
and  an  English  tr.  with  the  bibliography  brought  up  to  date,  by 
Shahan  (Freiburg  im  Br.  and  St.  Louis,  1908);  smaller  works, 
insufficient  for  advanced  students,  but  excellent  for  ordinary 
purposes,  are:  Schmid,  Grundlinien  der  Patrologie  (1879;  4th 
ed..  Freiburg  im  Br.,  1895);  an  Engl.  tr.  revised  by  Schobel 
(Freiburg,  1900);  Swete  of  Cambridge,  Palrtstic  Study  (Lon- 
don. 1902).  ^    .  ,         .  , 

Histories  of  the  Fathers: — It  is  unnecessary  to  catalogue 
here  all  the  general  histories  of  the  Church,  large  and  small, 
from  Baronius  onwards;  it  will  be  sufficient  to  give  some  of 
those  which  deal  specially  with  the  Fathers  and  with  ecclesias- 
tical Uterature.  The  first  and  chief  is  the  incomparable  work 
of  "Tillemont,  Memoires  pour  sen-ir  a  I'histoire  eccl.  des  six 
premiers  siicles  (Paris,  1693-1712,  16  vols.,  and  other  editions); 
SIarechal,  Concordance  des  SS,  Peres  de  VEglise,  Grecs  d  La- 
tins, a  harmony  of  their  theology  (2  vols..  Paris.  1739):  B.\hr, 
Die  christlich-romische  Litleratur  (4th  vol.  of  Gesch,  der  rom- 
ischen  Lill.,  Karisruhe,  1837;  a  new  ed.  of  the  first  portion, 
1872);  SCHANZ,  Gesch.  der  rom.  Lilt..  Part  III  (Munich.  1896), 
117-324;  Ebert,  Gesch.  der  christlich-laleinischen  Liu.  (Leipzig, 
1874-  2nd  ed..  1889);  Ancimnes  liUeratures  chreliennes  (in  Bi- 
bliothique  de  C enseignement  de  Vhisl.  eccl.  Paris):  I;  Batiffol, 
ia  W(<  rod/re (7rcc9MC,  a  useful  sketch  (4th  ed.,  1908),  II;  Duval, 
La  littcrature  syriaque  (3rd  ed..  1908);  Leclercq,  L  Afrique 
chrelienne  (in  same  Bibl.  de  I'ens.  de  Vh.  eccl..  2nd  ed..  Pans, 
1904):  Idem,  UEspagnecJirelienne  (Glided..  1906);  B.vtiffol. 
L'eglise  naissanle  et  te  Calholicisme.  a  fine  apologetic  account  of 
the  development  of  the  Church,  from  the  witness  of  the  I  athers 
of  the  first  three  centuries  (Paris.  1909):  of  general  histories  the 
best  is  Duchesne.  Hist,  ancienne  de  VEghse  (2  vols,  have  ap- 
peared, Paris,  1906-7);  finally,  the  first  place  is  being  taken 
among  histories  of  the  Fathers  by  a  work  to  be  completed  in  six 
volumes.  Bardenhewer.  Geschichte  der  allkirchluJten  Litleratur 
(I,  to  A.  D.  200,  Freiburg  im  Br.,  1902;  II.  to  a.  d  300.  19031. 
The  following  are  Protestant:  Newman,  The  Church  of  the 
Fathers  (London,  1840,  etc.);  Donaldson.  A  critical  history  of 
Christian  lit.  .  .  .  to  the  Nicene  Council:  I;  The  Apostolic 
Fathers.  II  and  III;  The  Apologists  (London,  1864-6--unsym- 
pathetic);  Bright,  The  Age  of  the  Fathers  (2  vols..  London, 
1903);  ZocKLER,  Gesch.  der  theologvschen  Lut.  IPatrwtili) 
(Nordlingen,  1889);   Cruttwell,  A  Literary  History  of  Early 




Christianiti/  .  ,  .  Nicene  Period  (2  vols.,  London,  1893); 
KrOger,  Gesch.  der  alichristlichen  Lilt,  in  den  ersten  3  Jahrh. 
(Freiburg  im  Br.  and  Leipzig.  1895-7);  tr.  Gillet  (New  York, 
1897) — this  is  the  best  modern  German  Prot.  history.  The  fol- 
lowing consists  of  materials:  A.  Harnack,  Gesckichte  der 
altckr.  Liu.  bis  Eusebius,  1,  Die  Ueberlieferung  (Leipzig,  1893; 
this  vol,  enumerates  all  the  known  works  of  each  writer,  and  all 
ancient  references  to  thera,  and  notices  the  MSS.);  II,  1  (1S97), 
and  II,  2  (1904),  Die  Chronologie,  discussing  the  date  of  each 
writing;  the  latter  Greek  period  is  dealt  with  by  Krumbacher, 
Gesckichte  der  byzantinischen  Lilt.  527-11*53  (2nd  ed.  with  assist- 
ance from  Ehrhard,  Munich,  1897).  The  following  collected 
series  of  studies  must  be  added:  Texte  und  Untersuchungen  zur 
Gesckichte  der  altckristlichen  Litt.,  ed.  voN  Gebhardt  and  A. 
Harnack  (1st  series,  15  vols.,  Leipzig,  1883-97,  2nd  series, 
Nctte  Folge,  14  vols.,  1897-1907,  in  progress) — the  editors  are 
now  Harnack  and  Schmidt;  Robinson,  Texts  and  Studies 
(Cambridge.  1891 — in  progress);  Ehrhard  and  MuLLER,.S7rass- 
burger  tkeologiscke  Studien  (12  vols.,  Freiburg  im  Br.,  1S94 — in 
progress);  Ehrhard  and  Kirsch,  Forschungen  zur  ckristl.  Litt. 
und  Dogmengeschichte  (7  vols.,  Paderborn,  in  progress);  La 
Pensee  chretienne  (Paris,  in  progress);  Studii  e  Testi  (Vatican 
press,  in  progress).  Of  histories  of  development  of  dogma, 
Harnack,  Dogmengesckickte  (3  vols.,  3rd  ed.,  1894-7,  a  new  ed. 
is  in  the  press;  French  tr.,  Paris,  189S;  Engl,  tr.,  7  vols.,  Edin- 
burgh, 1894-9),  a  very  clever  and  rather  "viewy"  work; 
LooFS,  Leitfaden  ziim  Studinm  der  D.  G.  (Halle,  18S9;  3rd  ed., 
1893);  Seeberg,  Lekrb.  der  D.  G.  (2  vols.,  Erlangen,  1895), 
conservative  Protestant;  Jgem,  Grundriss  der  D.  G.  (1900;  2nd 
ed.,  1905),  a  smaller  work;  Schwane,  Dogmengesckickte,  Catho- 
lic (2nd  ed.,  1892,  etc.;  French  tr.,  Paris,  1903^);  Bethune- 
Baker,  Introduction  to  early  History  of  Doctrine  (London,  1903) ; 
TixERONT,  Histoire  des  Dogmes:  I,  La  tkcologie  anti-niccenne 
(Paris,  19()5 — excellent);   and  others. 

Philological: — On  the  common  Greek  of  the  early  period  see 
MouLTON,  Grammar  of  N.  T.  Greek:  I,  Prolegomena  (3rd  ed., 
Edinburgh,  1909),  and  references;  on  the  literary  Greek,  A.  d. 
1-250,  ScHMiD,  Der  Atticismus  von  Dion..  Hal.  bis  auf  den 
zweiten  Philostratus  (4  vols.,  Stuttgart,  1887-9);  Thumb,  Die 
grieckiscke  Spracke  im.  Zeitalter  des  Hellenismus  (Strasburg, 
1901).  Besides  the  Tkesaurus  of  Stephanus  (latest  ed.,  S  vols., 
fo!.,  Paris,  1831-65)  and  lexicons  of  classical  and  Biblical 
Greek,  special  dictionaries  of  later  Greek  are  Du  Cange,  Glos- 
sarium  ad  scriptores  medice  et  inflmcB  grcecitatis  (2  vols.,  Lyons, 
1688,  and  new  ed.,  Breslau,  1890-1);  Sophocles,  Greek  Lexicon 
of  tke  Roman  and  Byzantine  Periods,  U6-1100  (3rd  ed.,  New 
York,  1888);  words  wanting  in  Stephanus  and  in  Sophocles  are 
collected  by  KuMANUDES  (2.  A.  Kovfj^avovSr)!;),  ^waytoyJi  Aefewi' 
aerjaavpiaTtov  e'f  Tois  fX\r)viKoi<:  M^lkoIs  (Athens,  1883);  gen- 
eral remarks  on  Byzantine  Greek  in  Krumbacher,  op.  cit.  On 
patristic  Latin,  Koffmane,  Gesch.  des  Kirchenlaieins:  I,  Entste' 
hung  ,  .  .  bis  auf  Augustinus-Hieronymus  (Breslau,  1879-81); 
Norden,  Die  antike  Kunstprosa  (Leipzig,  1898),  II;  there  is  an 
immense  number  of  studies  of  the  language  of  particular 
Fathers  [e.  g.  Hoppe  on  Tertullian  (1897);  Watson  (1896)  and 
Bayard  (1902)  on  Cyprian;  Goeltzbr  on  Jerome  (1884); 
Regner  on  Augustine  (1886),  etc.],  and  indices  latinitatis  to  the 
volumes  of  the  Vienna  Corpus  PP.  latt.;  Traube,  Quellen  und 
Untersuchungen  zur  lat.  Phil,  des  Mittclalters,  I  (Munich,  1906); 
much  will  be  found  in  Archiv  fur  lat.  Lexicographic,  ed.  Wolff- 
lin  (Munich,  began  1884). 

Translations: — Library  of  Ike  Fathers  of  ike  Holy  Catholic 
Church,  translated  by  members  of  Ike  English  Ck.  (by  Pusey, 
Newman,  etc.).  (45  vols..  Oxford,  1832 — ).  Roberts  and 
Donaldson.  The  Ante-Nicene  Christian  Library  (24  vols., 
Edinburgh,  1866-72;  new  ed.  by  Coxe,  Buffalo,  1884-6,  with 
Richardson's  excellent  Bibliographical  Synopsis  as  a  Suppl., 
1887);  ScHAFF  AND  Wage.  A  Select  Library  of  Nicene  and  post- 
Nicene  Fathers  of  theChr.  Ch.,  with  good  notes  (14  vols.,  Buffalo 
and  New  York.  1886-90,  and  2nd  series,  1900,  in  progress). 

Encyclopedias  and  Dictionaries: — Suicer,  Thesaurus  ec- 
clesiasticus,  e  patribus  grmcis  ordine  alphabetico  exhibens  quce- 
cumque  phrases,  rilus,  dogmata,  kcereses  et  hujusmodi  alia  spec- 
tant  (2  vols.,  Amsterdam,  1682;  again  1728;  and  Utrecht, 
1746);  Hoffmanns,  Bibliographisckes  Lexicon  der  gesammten 
Litt.  der  Griechen  (3  vols.,  2nd  ed.,  Leipzig,  1838-45);  the  arti- 
cles on  early  Fathers  and  heresies  in  the  Encuclopccdia  Britan- 
nica  (8th  ed.)  are,  many  of  them,  by  Harnack  and  still  worth 
reading;  Wetzer  and  Welte,  Kirchenlex.,  ed.  Hergen- 
ruther.  and  then  by  Kaulen  and  others,  12  vols.,  one  vol.  of 
index  (Freiburg  im  Br.,  1882-1903);  Herzoq,  Realencpklopddie 
fur  prot.  Theol.  und  Kirche,  3rd  ed.  by  Hauck  (21  vols..  1896- 
1908);  Vacant  and  Mangenot,  Did.  de  Theol.  cath.  (Paris,  in 
progress) ;  Cabrol,  Diet,  d'archeologie  chr.  et  de  liiurgie  (Paris,  in 
progress);  Baudrillart,  Diet,  d'hist.  et  de  gdogr.  eccUsiastiques 
(Paris,  in  progress);  Smith  and  Wace,  A  Dictionary  of  Christian 
Biography,  is  very  full  and  valuable  (4  vols.,  London.  1877-87). 

General  Books  of  Reference: — Ittig,  De  Bibliotkecis  et 
Catenis  Patrum,  gives  the  contents  of  the  older  collections  of 
Fathers  whith  woro  enumerated  above  (Leipzig,  1707);  Idem. 
Schediasma  dr  ntirtnrilniN  qui  de  scriptoribus  ecclesiasticis  egerunt 
(Leipzig.  ITIlt;  I ).  iw;.  Notifia  scriptorum  SS.  PP.  .  .  . 
qucF  in  r.>ll..>.  n,'.  ,        ^,:...',.^.^v■..;    p"   f  nmnnn    MDCC  in   tumn 

ediflscaNi,'-    '      t:^..,  ,■..1,  ..f  I  I  ii.,'    /'.  I  :.>■!.  rr  r,//..  Ox- 

ford.    is:;'j  ,     ■,,,     ,.1,,,,,  ,i.l,-    , 1,  ,m    u.„l.    .-    I'MuuMn-.    Die 

altrkrislh.h.  /  ■"  .,n.i  ,h  .  I  ■;-..■  . /,  ....  '  .'  ■.;  |,  .\ll,,,-mvinc 
r^'^rr.sfV/;/.    I.s^ll     }   a-liMl-ut-K  nil   lii        I     'M     .      II.     \  n\r-S  u,Ui- Hi ., 

ISSl-l'.MK)  (  i'.tOO);    tiiebibiiograpl Im    .^..lkMuf  iUitNA.K 

ati.l  of  Baiii'Kniiewer  (see  almv.  ir>  ■  -iNut;  for  Atiti-- 
Ni<-ciic  pcrio.l.  IticiiARnBON,  Bibli'«r'' i'>"""  ■-'/'"•ii>ii-'^  (in  extra 
vol.  of  Atitc-Niccne  Fathers,  Bulhil.p,  issTi;  for  the  whole 
period.  Chevalier.  Repertoire  des  simrces  kisturiuues  du  moyen- 
6.gei  Bio-bibliographie,  gives  names  of  persons  (2nd  ed.,  Paris. 

1905-07):  Topo-bibliographie  gives  names  of  places  and  sub- 
jects (2na  ed.,  Paris,  1894-1903);  progress  each  year  is  recorded 
in  Holtzmann  and  Kruger's  Theologiscker  Jahresbericht  from 
1881;  Kroll  and  Gurlitt,  Jahresbericht  fiir  klassiscke  Alter- 
thumswissensckaft  (both  Protestant);  Bihlmeyer,  Hagio- 
graphischer  Jakresberickt  for  1904-6  (Kempten  and  Munich, 
1908).  A  very  complete  bibliography  appears  quarterly  in  the 
Revue  d'hist.  ecrl.  (Louvain,  since  1900),  with  index  at  end  of 
year;  in  this  publ.  the  names  of  all  Reviews  dealing  with  patris- 
tic matters  will  be  found. 

John  Chapman. 

Fathers  of  the  Faith  of  Jesus.    See  Paccanar- 


Fathers   of  the   Holy    Sepulchre.        See  Holy 

Sepulchre,  Fathers  of  the. 

Fathers  of  the  Oratory.    See  Oratorians. 

Faunt,  Lawrence  Arthur,  a  Jesuit  theologian;  b. 
1554;  d.  at  Wilna,  Poland,  28  February,  1590-91. 
After  two  years  at  Merton  College,  Oxford  (1568-70) 
under  the  tuition  of  John  Potts,  a  well-known  philoso- 
pher, he  went  to  the  Jesuit  college  at  Louvain  where  he 
took  his  B.A.  After  some  time  spent  in  Paris  he 
entered  the  ITniversity  of  Munich  under  the  patronage 
of  Duke  William  of  Bavaria,  proceeding  M.A.  The 
date  of  his  entrance  into  the  Society  of  Jesus  is  dis- 
puted, some  authorities  giving  1570,  others  1575,  the 
year  in  which  he  went  to  the  English  College,  Rome, 
to  pursue  his  studies  in  theology.  It  is  certain,  how- 
ever, that  on  the  latter  occasion  he  added  Lawrence  to 
his  baptismal  name,  Arthur.  He  was  soon  made  pro- 
fessor of  divinity  and  attracted  the  favourable  atten- 
tion of  Gregory  XHI,  who,  on  the  establishment  of  the 
Jesuit  college  at  Posen  in  15S1,  appointed  him  rector. 
He  was  also  professor  of  Greek  there  for  three  years, 
of  moral  theology  and  controversy  for  nine  more,  and 
was  held  in  highest  repute  among  both  ecclesiastical 
and  secular  authorities.  His  chief  theological  works 
are:  "De  Christi  in  terris  Ecclesia,  qutenam  et  penes 
quos  existat"  (Posen,  1584);  "Ccenae  Lutheranorum 
et  Calvinistarum  oppugnatio  ac  Catholicae  Eucharis- 
tise  defensio'*  (Posen,  1586);  "Apologia  libri  sui  de 
invocatione  ac  veneratione  Sanctorum"  (Cologne, 

Cooper  in  Diet.  Nat.  Biog.  s.  v.;  Gillow,  Bibl.  Diet.  Eng. 
Ca/A.  s.  v.;  Hvrter,  Nomenclator. 

F.  M.  RUDGE. 

Fauriel,  Charles-Claude,  historian,  b.  at  St- 
Etienne,  France,  27  October,  1772;  d.  at  Paris,  15  July, 
1844.  He  studied  first  at  the  Oratorian  College  of 
Tournon,  then  at  Lyons.  He  served  in  the  army  of 
the  Pyr^nees-Orientales.  Under  the  Directory  Fouch^, 
an  ex-Oratorian,  attached  him  to  his  cabinet  as  pri- 
vate secretary.  Under  the  Empire,  he  refused  office  in 
order  to  devote  all  his  time  to  studj\  Fauriel  adopted 
the  new  ideas  of  the  Philosophers  and  the  principles 
of  the  Revolution,  but  repudiated  them  in  part  in  the 
later  years  of  his  life.  He  was  an  intense  worker  and 
knew  Greek,  Latin,  Italian,  German,  English,  San- 
skrit, and  Arabic.  It  was  he  who  made  the  merits  of 
Ossian  and  Shakespeare  known  to  the  French  public, 
and  spread  in  France  the  knowledge  of  German  litera- 
ture, which  had  been  previously  looked  upon  as  unim- 
portant. He  was  one  of  the  first  to  investigate  Ro- 
mance literature,  and  the  originality  of  his  views  in  this 
direction  soon  popularized  this  new  study.  He  also 
gathered  the  remnants  of  the  ancient  Basque  and 
Celtic  languages.  The  first  works  he  published  were 
a  translation  of  "La  Parthrnride"  (Paris,  1811),  an 
idyllic  epic  by  the  Danish  poet,  Baggesen,  and  of  the 
tram'dy  of  his  friend  Manzoni,  "II  Conte  di  Carma- 
gnola "  (Paris,  lS2;i).  The  numerous  linguistic  and 
Mrcha'oldgical  contributions  which  he  wrote  for  various 
magazines  wcni  for  him  a  great  reputation  among 
sclioliirs;  it  was  said  of  him  that  "he  was  tlie  man  of 
the  nineteenth  century  who  put  in  circulation  tlie  most 
ideas,  inaugurated  the  greatest  number  of  branches  of 
study,  and  gathered  the   greatest   number   of   new 




results  in  historical  science"  (Revue  des  Deux 
Mondes,  15  Dec,  1853).  The  publication  of  the 
"Chants  populaires  de  la  Grcce  moderne",  text  and 
translation  (Paris,  1824-25),  at  a  moment  when 
Greece  was  struggling  for  her  independence,  made  him 
known  to  the  general  public.  In  IS.SO  a  chair  of 
foreign  literature  was  created  for  him  at  the  University 
of  Paris.  He  studied  specially  the  Southern  literatures 
and  Provengal  poetry.  His  lectures  were  published 
after  his  death  under  the  title  of  "  Histoire  de  la  poesie 
provengale"  (3  vols.,  Paris,  1846).  In  order  to  study 
more  deeply  the  origins  of  French  civilization  he 
wrote  "  Hi-stoiredelaGaule  ni(5ridionale  sous  la  domina- 
tion des  conqudrants  germains"  (4  vols.,  Paris,  1836), 
only  a  part  of  a  vaster  work  conceived  by  him.  The 
merit  of  these  works  caused  him  to  be  elected  (1836), 
to  the  Academy  of  Inscriptions  and  Belles-Lettres. 
He  contributed  also  to  the  "Histoire  Litteraire  de  la 
France",  commenced  by  the  Benedictines  and  taken 
up  after  the  Revolution  by  the  Institute  of  France. 
Having  been  named  assistant  curator  of  the  MSS.  of 
the  Royal  Library,  he  published  an  historical  poem  in 
Provencal  verse  (with  a  translation  and  introduction), 
dealing  with  the  crusade  against  the  Albigenses. 

GuiGNlAUT,  Notice  hi^lorique  sur  la  vie  et  les  travaiix  de  M.  C. 
Faiinel  (Paris.  1S62);  Ozanam,  Discours  sur  Fauriel  in  Le  Cor- 
respondant  {Paris,  10  May,  1845);  Sainte-Beuve  in  Revue  des 
Deux  Mondes  (Paris,  15  May  and  1  June,  1845). 

Louis  N.  Delamarre. 

Faustinus  and  Jovita,  S.\ints  and  Martyrs,  mem- 
bers of  a  noble  family  of  Brescia;  the  elder  brother, 
Faustinus,  being  a  priest,  the  younger,  a  deacon. 
For  their  fearless  preaching  of  the  Gospel,  they  were 
arraigned  before  the  Emperor  Hadrian,  who,  first  at 
Brescia,  later  at  Rome  and  Naples,  subjected  them  to 
frightful  torments,  after  which  they  were  beheaded  at 
Brescia  in  the  year  120,  according  to  the  BoUandists, 
though  Allard  (Histoire  des  Persecutions  pendant  les 
Deux  Premiers  Siecles,  Paris,  1885)  places  the  date  as 
early  as  118.  The  many  "Acts"  of  these  saints  are 
chiefly  of  a  legendary  character.  Fedele  Savio,  S.J., 
the  most  recent  writer  on  the  subject,  calls  in  question 
nearly  every  fact  related  of  them  except  their  exists 
ence  and  martyrdom,  which  are  too  well  attested  by 
their  inclusion  in  so  many  of  the  early  martyrologies 
and  their  extraordinary  cult  in  their  native  city,  of 
which  from  time  immemorial  they  have  been  the  chief 
patrons.  Rome,  Bologna  and  Verona  share  with 
Brescia  the  possession  of  their  relics.  Their  feast  is 
celebrated  on  15  Feb.,  the  traditional  date  of  their 

Ada  SS.,  V.  806;  Savio,  La  Lfgendedes  SS.  Fauslin  et  Jovite 
in  Ihe  Analecta  Bollandiana  (Brussels,  1S96).  XV,  5,  113,  377. 

John  F.  X.  Mdrphv. 

Faustus  of  Milevis.    See  Manich.eans. 

Paustus  of  Riez,  BLshop  of  Riez  (Rhegium)  in 
Southern  Gaul  (Provence),  the  best  known  and  most 
distinguished  defentler  of  Semipelagianism,  b.  be- 
tween 405  and  410,  and  according  to  his  contempo- 
raries, .A.vitusof  VienneandSidoniusApoUinaris,  in  the 
island  of  Britain;  d.  between  490  and  495.  Nothing, 
however,  is  known  about  his  early  life  or  his  education. 
He  is  thought  by  some  to  have  been  a  lawj'er  but 
owing  to  theinfluenceof  hismother,famedforhersanc- 
tity,  he  abandoned  secular  pursuits  while  still  a  young 
man  and  entered  the  monastery  of  Ldrins.  Here  he 
was  soon  ordained  to  the  priesthood  and  because  of  his 
extraordinary  piety  was  chosen  (432)  to  be  head  of  the 
monastery,  in  succession  to  Maximus  who  had  become 
Bishop  of  Riez.  His  career  as  abbot  lasted  about 
twenty  or  twenty-five  years  dm'ing  which  he  attained 
a  high  reputation  for  his  wonderful  gifts  as  an  extem- 
pore preacher  and  for  his  stern  asceticism.  After  the 
death  of  Maximus  he  became  Bishop  of  Riez.  This 
elevation  did  not  make  any  change  in  his  manner  of 
life;  he  continued  his  ascetic  practices,  and  frequently 

returned  to  the  monastery  of  Lerins  to  renew  his 
fervour.  He  was  a  zealous  advocate  of  monasticism 
and  established  many  monasteries  in  his  diocese.  In 
spite  of  his  activity  in  the  discharge  of  his  duties  as 
bishop,  he  participated  in  all  the  theological  discussions 
of  his  time  and  became  known  as  a  stern  opponent  of 
Arianism  in  all  its  forms.  For  this,  and  also,  it  is  said, 
for  his  view,  stated  below,  of  the  corporeity  of  the 
himian  soul,  he  mcurred  the  enmity  of  Euric,  King  of 
the  Visigoths,  who  had  gained  possession  of  a  large 
portion  of  Southern  Gaul,  and  was  banished  from  his 
see.  His  e.xile  lasted  eight  years,  during  which  time 
he  was  aided  by  loyal  friends.  On  the  tleath  of  Euric 
he  resumed  his  labours  at  the  head  of  his  diocese  and 
continued  there  until  his  death.  Throughout  his  life 
Faustus  was  an  uncompromising  adversary  of  Pela- 
gius,  whom  he  styled  Peslijer,  and  equally  decided  in 
his  opposition  to  the  doctrine  of  Predestination  which 
he  styled  "erroneous,  blasphemous,  heathen,  fatal- 
istic, and  conducive  to  immorality".  This  doctrine  in 
its  most  repulsive  form  had  been  expounded  by  a 
presbyter  named  Lucidus  and  was  condemned  by  two 
synods,  Aries  and  Lyons  (475).  At  the  request  of  the 
bishops  who  composed  these  synods,  and  especially 
Leontius  of  Aries,  Faustus  wrote  a  work,  "  Libri  duo 
de  Gratia  Dei  et  humanae  mentis  libero  arbitrio",  in 
which  he  refuted  not  only  the  doctrines  of  the  Predes- 
tinarians  but  also  those  of  Pelagius  (P.  L.,  LVIII, 
783).  The  work  was  marred,  however,  by  its  decided 
Semipelagianism,  for  several  years  was  bitterly  at- 
tacked, and  was  condemned  by  the  SjTiod  of  Orange 
in  529  (Denzinger,  Enchiridion,  Freiburg,  1908,  no. 
174sqq.— oldno.  144;P.  L.,  XLV,  1785;Mansi,  VIII, 
712).  Besides  this  error,  Faustus  maintained  that  the 
human  soul  is  in  a  certain  sense  corporeal,  God  alone 
being  a  pure  spirit.  The  opposition  to  Faustus  was 
not  fully  developed  in  his  lifetime  and  he  died  with  a 
well-merited  reputation  for  sanctity.  His  own  flock 
considered  him  a  saint  and  erected  a  basilica  in  his 
honour.  Faustus  wrote  also:  "Libri  duo  de  Spiritu 
Sancto"  (P.  L.,  LXII,  9),  wrongly  ascribed  to  the 
Roman  deacon  Paschasius.  His  "  Libellus  parvus  ad- 
versus  Arianos  et  Macedonianos",  mentioned  by  Gen- 
nadius,  seems  to  have  perished.  His  correspondence 
(epistuUr)  and  sermons  are  best  found  in  the  new  and 
excellent  edition  of  the  works  of  Faustus  by  Engel- 
brecht,  "Fausti  Reiensis  prajter  sermones  pseudo- 
Eusebianos  opera.  Accedunt  Ruricii  Epistulte"  in 
"Corpus  Scrip,  eccles.  lat.",  vol.  XXI  (Vienna,  1891). 
Koch.  Der  hi.  Fau.'stus,  Bischof  von  Riez  (Stuttgart,  1895); 
WoRTER,  Zur  Dogmengeschichle  des  Semipelagianismus  (Miins- 
ter,  1900).  II;  Bardenhewer  (tr.  Shahan),  Patrology  (Frei- 
burg and  St.  Louis,  1908),  600  sq.  For  his  Sermons  see  Bero- 
mann,  Studien  zu  einer  kritischen  Sichtung  der  siidgallischen 
PredigUiteratur  des  5.  und  6.  Jahrhunderts  (Leipzig,  1898),  and 
MoRiN  in  Revue  Benedictine  (1892),  IX,  49-61.  Cf.  also  Caze- 
NOVE  in  Diet.  Christ.  Biog.,  a.  v. 

Patrick  J.  Healy. 

Faversham  Abbey,  a  former  Benedictine  monas- 
tery of  the  Cluniac  Congregation  situated  in  the 
County  of  Kent  aljout  nine  miles  west  of  Canterbury. 
It  was  founded  about  1147  by  King  Stephen  and  his 
Queen  Matilda.  Clarimbald,  the  prior  of  Bermondsey, 
and  twelve  other  monks  of  the  same  abbey  were  trans- 
ferred to  Faversham  to  form  the  new  community; 
Clarimbald  was  appointed  abbot.  It  was  dedicated  to 
Our  Saviour  and  endowed  with  the  manor  of  Faver- 
sham. In  the  church,  which  was  completed  about 
1251,  Stephen  and  Matikla,  the  founders,  were  buried 
and  also  their  eldest  son  Eustace,  Earl  of  Boulogne. 
We  read  of  chapels  in  the  church  dedicated  to  Our 
Lady  and  St.  Anne.  Henry  II  confirmed  all  grants 
and  privileges  conferred  by  Stephen,  adding  others  to 
them,  and  all  these  wereagainconfirmed  to  themonks by 
Kings  John  andHenrylll.  The  abbots  had  their  seat  in 
Parliament  and  we  find  them  in  attendance  at  thirteen 
several  parliaments  during  the  reigns  of  Edward  land 
Edward  II,  but  on  account  of  their  reduced  state  and 




poverty,  they  ceased  to  attend  after  the  18th,  Edward 
II.  It  appears  that  some  bitterness  existed  for  a 
considerable  time  between  the  monks  and  the  people 
of  Faversham,  who  complained  of  the  abbey's  imposts 
and  exactions.  Among  these  grievances  were  claims, 
by  way  of  composition,  for  allowing  the  inhabitants 
to  send  their  swine  to  pannage,  for  exposing  their 
goods  for  sale  in  the  market,  and  for  the  liberty  of 
brewing  beer.  Twenty-two  abbots  are  known  to  us; 
the  last  was  John  Shepey,  alias  Castelocke,  who,  on  10 
December,  1534,  along  with  the  sacristan  and  four 
monks,  is  said  to  have  signed  the  Act  of  Supremacy. 
On  8  July,  1538,  the  abbey  was  surrendered  to  the 
king,  at  which  time  the  annual  revenue  was  about 
£350.  Henry  VIII  gave  the  house  and  site  to  John 
Wheler  for  twenty-one  years  at  an  annual  rent  of  £3 
18s.  8d.  Afterwards  the  property  came  into  the  pos- 
session of  Sir  Thomas  Cheney,  warden  of  the  Cinque 
Ports.  Later  it  was  owned  by  Thomas  Ardern  and 
subsequently  came  to  belong  to  the  family  of  Sondes. 
The  two  entrance  gates  were  standing  a  century  ago, 
but  had  to  be  taken  down  on  account  of  their  ruinous 
condition.  At  the  present  day  there  is  nothing  left 
except  some  portions  of  the  outer  walls. 

Tanner,  Notttia  Monastica  (London,  17S7),  s.  v.  Kent; 
SouTHOUaE,  Monasticon  Favershamiense  (London,  1G71); 
Lewis.  History  of  Faversham  (London,  1727);  DUGDALE, 
Monasl.  Anglicanum  (London,  1S46),  IV,  568. 

G.  E.  Hind. 

Fawkes,  GnT.    See  Gunpowder  Plot. 

Faye,  Herve-Auguste-Etienne-Albans,  astron- 
omer, b.  at  Saint-Benott-du-Sault  (Indre,  France),  1 
Oct.,  1814 ;  d.  at  Paris,  4  July,  1902.  The  son  of  a  civil 
engineer,  he  entered  the  Ecole  Polytechnique  in  1832 
to  prepare  for  a  similar  career.  He  left  the  school  be- 
fore the  end  of  the  second  year  and  went  to  Holland. 
In  1830  he  entered  the  Paris  Observatory  as  a  pupil. 
There,  in  1843,  he  discovered  the  periodic  comet  bear- 
ing his  name.  This  discovery  gained  for  him  the  Prix 
Lalande.  As  early  as  1847  he  was  elected  member 
of  the  Academy  of  Sciences.  From  1848  to  1854  he 
taught  geodesy  at  the  Ecole  Polytechnique  and  then 
went  to  Nancy  as  rector  of  the  academy  and  professor 
of  astronomy.  In  1873  he  was  called  to  succeed  De- 
launay  in  the  chair  of  astronomy  at  the  Ecole  Polytech- 
nique, where  he  worked  and  lectured  until  1893.  He 
hekl  other  official  positions:  inspector-general  of  sec- 
ondary education  (1857);  member  (1862)  and  later 
(1S7G)  president  of  the  Bureau  des  Longitudes;  for 
a  few  weeks  only,  minister  of  public  instruction,  then 
inspector-general  of  highereducation  (1877);  and  mem- 
ber of  the  superior  council  of  public  instruction  (1892). 
Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honour  in  1843,  he  became 
officer  in  1855  and  commander  in  1870.  He  was 
honoured  with  other  decorations  and  by  election  to 
the  membership  of  the  principal  European  academies 
and  societies. 

Faye's  fame  rests  both  on  his  practical  and  on  his 
theoretical  work.  He  improved  the  methods  of  astro- 
nomical measurement,  invented  the  zenithal  collimator, 
suggested  and  applied  photography  and  electricity  to 
a-stronomy,  and  dealt  with  problems  of  physical  as- 
tronomy, the  shape  of  comets,  the  spots  of  the  sun, 
meteors,  etc.  Credit  is  given  by  him  as  well  as  by  his 
friends  to  the  great  influence  of  his  wife,  whom  he  met 
on  his  early  trip  to  Holland.  His  religious  nature 
finds  corroboration  in  his  knowledge  of  the  wonders 
of  the  universe.  Cali  enarrant  gloriam  Dei,  he  quotes 
in  "Sur  Toriginedu  Monde",  and  goes  on  to  say:  "We 
run  no  risk  of  deceiving  ourselves  in  considering  it  [the 
Superior  Intelligence]  the  author  of  all  things,  in  refer- 
ring to  it  those  splendours  of  theheavenswhicharoused 
our  thoughts;  and  finally  we  are  ready  to  understand 
and  accept  the  traditional  formula:  God,  Father  Al- 
mighty, Creator  of  heaven  and  earth".  He  con- 
tributed over  400  mc'imoires  and  notes  to  the  "  Comptes 
rendus",    the    "Bulletin   de   la  soci<5t6   astronomi- 

que",  "Monthly  Notices  of  the  R.  A.  S.",  and  "As- 
tronomische  Nachrichten".  His  larger  works  are: 
"Cours  d'astronomie  de  I'ecole  polytechnique"  (Paris, 
1883) ;  Humbolt's  "  Cosmos  ",  tr.  by  Faye  and  Galusky 
(Paris,  1849-59);  "Cours  d'astronomie  nautique" 
(Paris,  1880);  "Surl'origine  du  monde"  (Paris,  1885). 
LoEWY  in  Ciel  et  Terre  (Brussels,  1902);  Poincare  in  Bul- 
letin de  la  Societe  astron.  de  France  (Paris,  1902);  The  Ohserva- 
toru,  files  (London),  July,  1902;  Afa(«re,  files  (London),  17  July. 

William  Fox. 
Fayum.    See  Egypt. 

Fear  (in  Canon  LAw),amental  disturbance  caused 
by  the  perception  of  instant  or  future  danger.  Since 
fear,in  greaterorlessdegree, diminishes  freedom  of  ac- 
tion, contracts  entered  into  through  fear  may  be  judged 
invalid;  similarly  fear  sometimes  excuses  from  the 
application  of  the  law  in  a  particular  case ;  it  also  excuses 
from  the  penalty  attached  to  an  act  contrary  to  the 
law.  The  cause  of  fear  is  found  in  oneself  or  in  a  natural 
cause  (intrinsic  fear)  or  it  is  found  in  another  person 
(extrinsic  fear) .  Fear  may  be  grave,  such  for  instance 
as  would  influence  a  steadfast  man,  or  it  may  be  slight, 
such  as  would  affect  a  person  of  weak  will.  In  order 
that  fear  may  be  considered  grave  certain  conditions 
are  requisite:  the  fear  must  be  grave  in  itself,  and  not 
merely  in  the  estimation  of  the  person  fearing;  it 
must  be  based  on  a  reasonable  foundation;  the  threats 
must  be  possible  of  execution;  the  execution  of  the 
threats  must  be  inevitable.  Fear,  again,  is  either  just 
or  unjust,  according  to  the  justness  or  otherwise  of  the 
reasons  which  lead  to  the  use  of  fear  as  a  compelling 
force.  Reverential  fear  is  that  which  may  exist  be- 
tween superiors  and  their  subjects.  Grave  fear  dimin- 
ishes will  power  but  cannot  be  said  to  totally  take  it 
away,  except  in  some  very  exceptional  cases.  Slight 
fear  (metus  levis)  is  not  considered  even  to  diminish 
the  will  power,  hence  the  legal  expression  "  Foolish 
fear  is  not  a  just  excuse". 

The  following  cases  may  be  taken  as  examples  to 
illustrate  the  manner  in  which  fear  affects  contracts, 
marriage,  vows,  etc.,  made  under  its  influence.  Grave 
fear  excuses  from  the  law  and  the  censure  attached 
thereto,  if  the  law  is  ecclesiastical  and  if  its  non-obser- 
vance will  not  militate  against  the  public  good,  the 
Faith,  or  the  authority  of  the  Church ;  but  if  there  is 
question  of  the  natural  law,  fear  excuses  only  from  the 
censure  (Commentators  on  Decretals,  tit.  "  De  his  qure 
vi  metusve  causd  fiunt";  Schmalzgrueber,  tit.  " De 
sent,  excomm."  n.79).  Fear  that  is  grave, extrinsic, 
unjust,  and  inflicted  with  a  view  to  forcing  consent, 
nullifies  a  marriage  contract,  but  not  if  the  fear  be  only 
intrinsic.  The  burden  of  proof  lies  with  the  person 
who  claims  to  have  acted  through  fear.  Reverential 
fear,  if  it  be  also  extrinsic,  i.  e.,  accompanied  by  blows, 
threats,  or  strong  entreaty,  and  aimed  at  extorting 
consent,  will  also  invalidate  marriage.  Qualified  as 
just  stated,  fear  is  a  diriment  impediment  of  marriage 
when  coupled  with  violence  or  threats  {vis  et  metus). 
For  further  details  see  any  manual  of  Canon  Law,  e.  g., 
Santi-Leitner,  "  Pralect.  Jur.  Can."  (Ratisbon,  1905), 
IV,  56-59;  Heiner,  "Kathol.  Eherecht"  (Miinster, 
1905),  82-86;  also  Ploch,  "De  Matr.  vi  ac  metu  con- 
tracto"  (1853).  For  the  history  of  this  impediment 
see  Esmein,  "Lemariage  en  droit  canonique"  (Paris, 
1891),  I,  309;  11,252;  also  Freisen,  "Gcsch.deskanon. 
Eherechts etc."  (Tiibingen,  1888). 

Resignation  of  office  extorted  by  unjust  fear  is 
generally  considered  to  be  valid,  but  may  be  rescinded 
unless  the  resignation  has  been  confirmed  by  oath. 
On  the  other  hand,  if  fear  has  been  justly  brought  to 
bear  upon  a  person,  the  resignation  holds  good  (S. 
Cong.  Cone.  24  April,  1880).  Ordination  received 
under  grave  and  unjust  fear  is  valid,  but  the  obliga- 
tions of  the  order  are  not  contracted  unless  there  is 
subsequent  spontaneous  acceptance  of  the  obligation 
(Sanchez,  "De  matrim.",  VII,  Disp.  xxix,  n.  5).     In 




such  cases  if  freedom  is  desired  the  Holy  See  should  be 
petitioned  for  a  dispensation  (S.  Cong.  Cone.  13  Aug., 
1870).  The  same  liolds  good  with  regard  to  the  vows 
of  religious  profession,  and  all  other  vows  made  under 
the  influence  of  fear  which  is  grave,  extrinsic,  unjust 
or  reverential  (see  Vow).  In  English  law,  on  proof  of 
force  and  fear,  the  law  restores  the  parties  to  the 
contract  to  the  position  in  which  they  were  before  it 
was  entered  into,  and  will  find  the  constraining  party 
liable  to  damages  as  reparation  for  any  injury  done  to 
the  party  constrained.  The  maxim  of  the  common 
law  is  that  "What  otherwise  would  be  good  and  just, 
if  sought  by  force  or  fraud  becomes  bad  and  unjust. " 
SeeCoN.SENT;  Contract;  Violence. 

TAVSTOti,  Law  of  Ihe  Church,  s.  V.  Fear  (London,  19061 ;  Bar- 
GiLLiAT.  Inst.  Juris  Canon.,  index  s.  v.  Melus  (Paris,  1907);  St. 
Alphonsus,  Theal.  Moral.;  Tanquerey,  v^ynopsis  Theol.  Mo- 
ralis  (Paris,  1902):  Feije,  De  imped,  et  tlisp.  matr.  (Louvain, 
1893);  Laure.vtius,  Inst.  Jur.  eccl.  (Freiburg,  1903),  nn.  615- 

David  Dunford. 

Fear  (from  Moral  Standpoint),  an  unsettlement 
of  soul  consequent  upon  the  apprehension  of  some 
present  or  fiitiue  danger.  It  is  here  viewed  from  the 
moral  standpoint,  that  is,  in  so  far  as  it  is  a  factor  to  be 
reckoned  with  in  pronouncing  upon  the  freedom  of 
himian  acts,  as  well  as  offering  an  adequate  excuse  for 
failing  to  comply  with  positive  law,  particularly  if  the 
law  be  of  human  origin.  Lastly,  it  is  here  considered  in 
so  far  as  it  impugns  or  leaves  intact,  in  the  court  of  con- 
science, and  without  regard  to  explicit  enactment,  the 
validity  of  certain  deliberate  engagements  or  contracts. 
The  division  of  fear  most  commonly  in  vogue  among 
theologians  is  that  by  which  they  distinguish  serious 
fear  (metus  gravis),  and  trifling  fear  (metus  levis). 
Tlie  first  is  such  as  grows  out  of  the  discernment  of 
some  formidable  impending  peril:  if  this  be  really, 
and  without  qualification,  of  large  proportions,  then 
the  fear  is  said  to  be  absolutely  great;  otherwise  it  is 
only  relatively  so,  as  for  instance,  when  account  is 
taken  of  the  greater  susceptibility  of  certain  of 
persons,  such  as  old  men,  women,  and  children.  Tri- 
fling fear  is  that  which  arises  from  being  confronted 
with  harm  of  inconsiderable  dimensions,  or,  at  any 
rate,  of  whose  happening  there  is  only  a  slender  likeli- 

It  is  customary  also  to  note  a  fear  in  wliich  the 
element  of  reverence  is  uppermost  (metus  revcren- 
iialis),  which  has  its  source  in  the  desire  not  to  oft'end 
one's  parents  and  superiors.  In  itself  this  is  reputed  to 
be  but  trifling,  although  from  circumstances  it  may 
easily  rise  to  the  dignity  of  a  serious  dread.  A  crite- 
rion rather  uniformly  employed  by  moralists,  to 
determine  what  really,  and  apart  from  subjective  con- 
ditions is,  a  serious  fear,  is  that  contained  in  this 
assertion.  It  is  the  feeling  which  is  calculated  to 
influence  a  solidly  b.alanced'  man  (cadere  in  virum 
conatantem) .  Another  important  classification  is  that 
of  fear  which  comes  from  some  source  within  the 
person,  for  example,  that  which  is  created  by  the 
knowledge  that  one  has  contracted  a  fatal  disease; 
and  fear  which  comes  from  without,  or  is  produced, 
namely,  by  some  cause  extrinsic  to  the  terror-stricken 
subject.  In  the  last  named  instance  the  cause  may  be 
either  natural,  such  as  probable  volcanic  eruptions,  or 
recognizable  in  the  attitude  of  some  free  agent. 
Finally  it  may  be  observed  that  one  may  have  been 
submitted  to  the  spell  of  fear  either  justly  or  unjustly, 
according  as  the  one  who  provokes  this  passion 
remains  within  his  rights,  or  exceedsthem,  in  .so  doing. 
Actions  done  under  stress  of  fear,  unless  of  course  it  be 
so  intense  as  to  have  dethroned  reason,  are  accounted 
the  legitimate  progeny  of  the  human  will,  or  are,  as  the 
theologians  say,  simply  voluntary,  and  therefore 
imputal)le.  The  reason  is  obvious.  Such  acts  lack 
neither  adequate  advertence  nor  sufficient  consent, 
even  though  the  latter  be  elicited  only  to  avoid  a 
greater  evil  or  one  conceived  to  be   greater.     Inas- 

much, however,  as  they  arc  accompanied  by  a  more  or 
less  vehement  repugnance,  they  are  said  to  be  in  a 
limited  and  partial  sense  involuntary. 

The  practical  inference  from  this  teaching  is  that 
an  evil  act  having  otherwise  the  bad  eminence  of  griev- 
ous sin  remains  such,  even  though  done  out  of  serious 
fear.  This  is  true  when  the  transgression  in  question 
is  against  the  natural  law.  In  the  case  of  obligations 
emerging  from  positive  precepts,  whether  Divine  or 
human,  a  serious  and  well-founded  dread  may  often 
operate  as  an  excuse,  so  that  the  failure  to  comply 
with  the  law  under  such  circumstances  is  not  regarded 
as  sinful.  The  lawgiver  is  not  presumed  to  have  it  in 
mind  to  impose  an  heroic  act.  This,  however,  does 
not  hold  good  when  the  catering  to  such  a  fear  would 
involve  considerable  damage  to  the  common  weal. 
Thus,  for  instance,  a  parish  priest,  in  a  parish  visited 
by  a  pestilence,  is  bound  by  the  law  of  residence  to 
stay  at  his  post,  no  matter  what  his  apprehensions 
may  be.  It  ought  to  be  added  here  that  attrition,  or 
sorrow  for  sin  even  though  it  be  the  fruit  of  dread 
inspired  by  the  thought  of  eternal  piuiishraent,  is  not 
in  any  sense  involuntary.  At  least  it  must  not  be  so, 
if  it  is  to  avail  in  the  Sacrament  of  Penance  for  the 
justification  of  the  sinner.  The  end  aimed  at  by  this 
imperfect  sort  of  sorrow  is  precisely  a  change  of  will, 
and  the  giving  up  of  sinful  attachment  is  an  unre- 
servedly good  and  reasonable  thing.  Hence  there  is 
no  room  for  that  concomitant  regret,  or  dislike,  with 
which  other  things  are  done  through  fear. 

It  is,  of  course,  needless  to  observe  that  in  what  has 
been  said  hitherto  we  have  been  referring  always  to 
what  is  done  as  a  result  of  fear,  not  to  what  takes  place 
merely  in,  or  with,  fear.  A  vow  taken  out  of  fear  pro- 
duced by  natural  causes,  such  as  a  threatened  ship- 
wreck, is  valid;  but  one  extorted  as  the  effect  of  fear 
unjustly  applied  by  another  is  invalid ;  and  this  last  is 
probably  true  even  when  the  fear  is  trifling,  if  it  be  the 
sufficient  motive  for  making  the  vow.  The  reason  is 
that  it  is  difficult  to  conceive  such  a  promise  being  ac- 
ceptable to  Almighty  God.  So  far  as  natural  law  is  con- 
cerned, fear  does  not  invalidate  contracts.  Neverthe- 
less, when  one  of  the  parties  has  sulTered  duress  at  the 
hands  of  the  other,  the  contract  is  voidable  within  the 
choosing  of  the  one  so  injured.  As  to  marriage,  unless 
the  fear  prompting  its  solemnization  is  so  extreme  as 
to  take  away  the  use  of  reason,  the  common  teaching 
is  that  such  consent,  having  regard  for  the  moment 
only  to  the  natural  law,  would  be  binding.  Its  stand- 
ing in  ecclesiastical  law  is  discussed  in  another  article. 
It  is  worthy  of  note  that  mere  insensibility  to  fear, 
having  its  root  whether  in  stolidity,  or  pride,  or  want 
of  a  proper  rating  of  even  temporal  things,  is  not  a 
v.aluable  character  asset.  On  the  contrary,  it  repre- 
sents a  vicious  temper  of  soul,  and  upon  occasion  its 
product  may  be  notably  sinful. 

Slater,  Manual  of  Moral  Theology  (New  York,  190S);  Jo- 
seph RiCKABY,  Aquina.s  Ethicus  (London,  1896);  Ballerini, 
Opus  Theologicum  Morale  (Prato,  189S);  Genicot,  Theologite 
Moralis  Instilutiones  (Louvain,  1898). 

Joseph  F.  Delant. 
Feast  of  the  Ass.    See  Asses,  Feast  of. 
Feast  o£  the  Fools.    See  Fools,  Feast  op. 

Feasts  (Lat.Fes(Mm;  Gr.eopr?;), Ecclesiastical, or 
Holy  Days,  are  days  which  are  celebrated  in  commem- 
oration of  the  sacred  mysteries  and  events  recorded 
in  the  history  of  our  redemption,  in  memory  of  the 
Virgin  Mother  of  Christ,  or  of  His  apostles,  martyrs, 
and  saints,  by  special  services  and  rest  from  work.  A 
feast  not  only  commemorates  an  event  or  person,  but 
also  .serves  to  excite  the  spiritual  life  by  reminding  us 
of  the  event  it  commemorates.  At  certain  hours 
Jesus  Christ  invites  us  to  His  vineyard  (Matt.,  xx,  1- 
15);  He  is  born  in  our  hearts  at  Christmas;  on  Good 
Friday  we  nail  ourselves  to  the  cross  with  Him;  at 
Easter  we  rise  from  the  tomb  of  sin ;  and  at  Pentecost 
we  receive  the  gifts  of  the  Holy  Ghost.    Every  religion 




has  its  feasts,  but  none  has  such  a  rich  and  judiciously 
constructed  system  of  festive  seasons  as  the  Catholic 
Church.  The  succession  of  these  seasons  forms  the 
ecclesiastical  year,  in  which  the  feasts  of  Our  Lord 
form  the  ground  and  framework,  the  feasts  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin  and  the  Saints  the  ornamental  tracery. 

Prototypes  and  starting-points  for  the  oldest  eccles- 
iastical feasts  are  the  Jewish  solemnities  of  Easter  and 
Pentecost.  Together  with  the  weekly  Lord's  Day, 
they  remained  the  only  universal  Christian  feasts 
down  to  the  third  century  (Tertullian,  "  De  bapt. "  19 ; 
Origen,  "Contra  Celsum",  VIII,  22).  Two  feasts  of 
Our  Lord  (Epiphany,  Christmas)  were  added  in  the 
fourth  century ;  then  came  the  feasts  of  the  Apostles 
and  martyrs,  in  particular  provinces;  later  on  also 
those  of  some  confessors  (St.  Martin,  St.  Gregory) ;  in 
the  sixth  and  seventh  centuries  feasts  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin  were  added.  After  the  triumph  of  Christianity, 
in  the  fourth  and  fifth  centuries,  the  sessions  of  the 
civil  courts  were  prohibited  on  all  feasts,  also  the 
games  in  the  circus  and  theatrical  performances,  in 
order  to  give  an  opportunity  to  all  to  hear  Mass.  In 
the  course  of  centuries  the  ecclesiastical  calendar 
expanded  considerably,  because  in  earlier  ages  every 
bishop  had  a  right  to  establish  new  feasts.  Later  on  a 
reduction  of  feasts  took  place,  partly  by  regular 
ecclesiastical  legislation,  partly  in  consequence  of 
revolutions  in  State  and  Church.  The  Statutes  of 
Bishop  Sonnatius  of  Reims  (see  Calendar,  III,  103), 
in  620,  mention  eleven  feasts;  the  Statutes  of  St. 
Boniface  ("Statuta",  Mansi  XII,  383),  nineteen  days, 
"■in  qiiibus  sahbatizandum",  i.  e.,  days  of  rest.  In 
England  (ninth  century)  the  feasts  were  confined  to 
Christmas,  Epiphany,  three  days  of  Easter,  Assump- 
tion, Sts.  Peter  and  Paul,  St.  Gregory,  and  AH  Saints. 
Before  the  re'.gn  of  King  Edgar  (959-75),  three  festi- 
vals of  the  B.  V.  Mary,  and  the  days  kept  in  honour 
of  the  Apostles  were  added;  in  the  tenth  year  of 
Ethelred  (989),  the  feast  of  St.  Edward  the  Martyr 
(18  March),  and  m  the  reign  of  Canute,  or  Cnut  (1017- 
35),  that  of  St.  Dunstan  (19  May),  were  added.  The 
feasts  in  the  Statutes  of  Lanfranc  (d.  1089)  are  quite 
numerous,  and  are  divided  into  three  classes  (Migne, 
P.  L.,CL,  472-78). 

The  Decree  of  Gratian  (about  1150)  mentions  forty- 
one  feasts  besides  the  diocesan  patronal  celebrations; 
the  Decretals  of  Gregory  IX  (about  1235)  mention 
forty-five  public  feasts  and  Holy  Days,  which  means 
eighty-five  days  when  no  work  could  be  done,  and 
ninety-five  days  when  no  court  sessions  could  be  held. 
In  many  provinces  eight  days  after  Easter,  in  some 
also  the  week  after  Pentecost  (or  at  least  four  days), 
had  the  sabbath  rest.  From  the  thirteenth  to 
the  eighteenth  century  there  were  dioceses  in  which 
the  Holy  Days  and  Sundays  amounted  to  over  one 
hundred,  not  counting  the  feasts  of  particular  mon- 
asteries and  churches.  In  the  Byzantine  empire 
there  were  sixty-six  entire  Holy  Days  (Constitution  of 
Manuel  Comnenus,  in  1106), exclusive  of  Sundays,  and 
twenty-seven  half  Holy  Days.  In  the  fifteenth  century, 
Gerson,  Nicolas  de  ClSmanges  and  others  protested 
against  the  multiplication  of  feasts,  as  an  oppression  of 
the  poor,  and  proximate  occasions  of  excesses.  The 
long  needed  reduction  of  feast  days  was  made  by  Urban 
VIII  (Universa  per  orbem,  13  Sept.,  1642).  There 
remained  thirty-sLx  feasts  or  eighty-five  days  free  from 
labour.  Pope  Urban  limited  the  right  of  the  bishops 
to  establish  new  Holy  Days;  this  right  is  now  not 
abrogated,  but  antiquated.  A  reduction  for  Spain 
by  Benedict  XIII  (1727)  retained  only  seventeen 
feasts;  and  on  the  nineteen  abrogated  Holy  Days  only 
the  hearing  of  Mass  was  obligatory.  This  reduction 
was  extcudecl  (1718)  to  Sicily.  For  Austria  (1715) 
the  nuiiil)rr  bad  been  reduced  to  fifteen  full  Holy 
Days;  but  since  the  hearing  of  Mass  on  the  abrogated 
feasts,  or  half  Holy  Days,  and  the  fast  on  the  vigils  of 
the   Apostles  were   poorly  oiiserved,   Clement   XIV 

ordered  that  sixteen  full  feasts  should  be  observed ;  he 
did  away  with  the  half  Holy  Days,  which  however 
continued  to  fie  observctl  in  the  rural  districts  (peasant 
Holy  Days,  Baucrnfcicrtayc).  The  parish  priests  have 
to  say  Mass  for  the  people  on  all  the  abrogated  feasts. 
The  same  reduction  was  introduced  into  Bavaria  in 
1775,  and  into  Spain  in  1791 ;  finally  Pius  VI  extended 
this  provision  to  other  countries  and  provinces. 

By  the  French  revolution  the  ecclesiastical  calendar 
had  been  radically  abolished,  and  at  the  reorganization 
of  the  French  Church,  in  1806,  only  four  feasts  were 
retained:  Christmas,  the  Ascension,  the  Assumption, 
and  All  Saints ;  the  other  feasts  were  transferred  to  Sun- 
day. This  reduction  was  valid  also  in  Belgium  and  in 
Germany  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Rhine.  For  the  Cath- 
olics in  England  Pius  VI  (19  March,  1777)  established 
the  following  list  of  feasts:  Easter  and  Pentecost  two 
days  each,  Christmas,  New  Year's  Day,  Epiphany, 
Ascension,  Corpus  Christi,  Annunciation,  Assumption, 
Sts.  Peter  and  Paul,  St.  George,  and  All  Saints.  After 
the  restoration  of  the  hierarchy  (1850),  the  Annun- 
ciation, St.  George,  and  the  Monday  after  Easter  and 
Pentecost  were  abolished .  Scotland  keeps  also  the  feast 
of  St.  Andrew,  Ireland  the  feasts  of  St.  Patrick  and 
the  Annunciation.  In  the  United  States,  the  number 
of  feasts  was  not  everywhere  the  same;  the  Council  of 
Baltimore  wanted  only  four  feasts,  but  the  decree  was 
not  approved  by  Rome;  the  third  Plenary  Council 
of  Baltimore  (1884),  by  a  general  law,  retained  six 
feasts:  Christmas,  New  Year's  Day,  Ascension, 
Assumption,  the  Immaculate  Conception,  and  All 
Saints.  Sts.  Peter  and  Paul  and  Corpus  Christi  were 
transferred  to  the  next  following  Sunday.  In  the  city 
of  Rome  the  following  feasts  are  of  double  precept 
(i.e. of  hearing  Mass, and  rest  from  work):  Christmas, 
New  Year's  Day,  Epiphany,  Purification,  St.  Joseph, 
Annunciation,  Ascension,  St.  Philip  Neri  (26  May), 
Corpus  Christi,  Nativity  of  the  B.  V.  M.,  All  Saints, 
Conception  of  the  B.V.M.,  St.  John  the  Evangelist. 
The  civil  law  in  Italy  acknowledges:  Epiphany,  Ascen- 
sion, Sts.  Peter  and  Paul,  Assumption,  Nativity, 
Conception,  Christmas,  and  the  patronal  feasts. 

The  Greek  Church  at  present  observes  the  following 
Holy  Days:  Nativity  of  Mary,  Exaltation  of  the  Cross 
(14  Sept.),  St.  Demetrius  (26  Oct.),  St.  Michael  (8 
Nov.),  Entrance  of  Mary  into  the  Temple  (21  Nov.), 
St.  Nicholas  (6  Dec),  Conception  of  St.  Anne  (9  Dec), 
Nativity  of  Christ,  Commemoration  of  Mary  (26  Dec), 
St.  Stephen  (27  Dec),  Circumcision  (1  Jan.),  Epiph- 
any, the  Doctors  St.  Basil,  St.  Gregory,  St.  John 
Chrysostom  (30  Jan.),  the  Meeting  of  Christ  and 
Simeon  (2  Febr.),  Aimunciation,  St.  George  (23  Apr.), 
Nativity  of  St.  John,  Sts.  Peter  and  Paul,  St.  Elias 
(20  July),  Transfiguration  (6  Aug.),  Assumption, 
Beheading  of  St.  John  (29  Aug.),  the  Monday  after 
Easter  and  Pentecost,  Ascension  of  Christ,  and  the 
patronal  feasts.  The  Russians  have  only  nine  ecclesi- 
astical Holy  Days  which  do  not  fall  on  a  Sunday,  viz.: 
Nativity,  Epiphany,  Ascension,  Transfiguration, 
Purification,  Annunciation,  Assumption,  JPresenta- 
tion  of  Mary  (21  Nov.),  and  the  Exaltation  of  the 
Cross.  But  they  have  fifty  festivals  (birthdays,  etc) 
of  the  imperial  family,  on  which  days  not  even  a 
funeral  can  be  held. 

Division  op  Feasts. — Feasts  are  divided  :(a)  Accord- 
ing to  external  celebration  (feriatio):  (1)  fesla  fori,  or 
feasts  of  precept,  with  double  obligation,  to  rest  from 
work  and  to  hear  Mass;  (2)  festa  chori,  which  are  kept 
only  in  the  liturgy,  by  the  celebration  of  Mass,  and  the 
recitation  of  the  Divine  Office.  Besides  these  there 
were,  and  still  are,  in  some  dioceses  (e.  g.  in  Holland), 
the  Half  Holy  Days,  on  which  the  people  after  having 
heard  Mass  can  do  servile  work  (Candlemas,  Nativity 
of  Mary,  and  the  Immaculate  Conception,  in  the 
Diocese  of  Utrecht). 

(b)  According  to  extension:  (1)  Universal  feasts, 
celebrated  everywhere,  at  least  in  the  Latin  Church; 




(2)  Particular  feasts,  celebrated  only  by  certain 
religious  orders,  countries,  provinces,  dioceses  or 
towns.  These  latter  are  either  prescribed  by  the 
general  rubrics,  like  the  patronal  feasts,  or  are 
specially  approved  by  the  Apostolic  See,  and  pre- 
scribed by  bishops  or  synods,  for  particular  countries 
or  dioceses  (Jesta  pro  aliquibus  hcis  in  the  Breviary). 
The  universal  feasts  are  contained  in  the  Roman 

(c)  According  to  their  position  in  the  calendar: 
(1)  Movable  feasts,  which  always  fall  on  a  certain 
day  of  the  week,  depending  on  the  date  of  Easter,  or 
the  position  of  the  Sunday,  e.  g.  Ascension  of  Christ 
(forty  days  after  Easter),  or  the  feast  of  the  Holy 
Rosary,  the  first  Sunday  of  October;  (2)  Immovable 
feasts,  which  are  fixed  to  a  certain  date  of  the  month, 
e.  g.  Christmas,  25  December.  In  the  Armenian 
Church  all  the  feasts  of  the  year  are  movable,  except 
six:  Epiphany,  Purification  (14  Febr.),  Annunciation 
(7  April),  Nativity  (8  Sept.),  Presentation  (21  Nov.), 
and  (8  Dec.)  Conception  of  Mary  (Tondini,  "Calen- 
drierliturgique  de  la  Nation  Armenienne",  Rome,  1906). 

(d)  According  to  the  solemnity  of  the  office  or  rite 
(see  Calendar  and  Duplex).  Since  the  thirteenth 
century  there  are  three  kinds  of  feasts:  festum  simplex, 
semiduplex,  and  duplex,  all  three  regulated  by  the 
recitation  of  the  Divine  Office  or  Breviary.  The 
simple  feast  commences  with  the  chapter  (capitulum) 
of  First  Vespers,  and  ends  with  None.  It  has  three 
lessons  and  takes  the  psalms  of  Matins  from  the 
ferial  office;  the  rest  of  the  office  is  like  the  semi- 
double.  The  semidouble  feast  has  two  Vespers,  nine 
lessons  in  Matins,  and  ends  with  Compline.  The 
antiphons  before  the  psalms  are  only  intoned.  In  the 
Mass,  the  semidouble  has  always  at  least  three  "  ora- 
tiones"  or  prayers.  On  a  double  feast  the  antiphons 
are  sung  in  their  entirety,  before  and  after  the  psalms. 
In  Lauds  and  Vespers  there  are  no  suffrogia  of  the 
saints,  and  the  Mass  has  only  one  "oratio"  (if  there 
be  no  commemoration  prescribed).  The  ordinary 
double  feasts  are  called  duplicia  minora;  occurring 
with  feasts  of  a  higher  rank,  they  can  be  simplified, 
except  the  octave  days  of  some  feasts  and  the  feasts 
of  the  Doctors  of  the  Church,  which  are  transferred. 
The  feasts  of  a  higher  rank  are  the  duplicia  majora 
(introduced  by  Clement  VIII),  the  duplicia  seeundos 
classis  and  the  duplicia  pritnoe  classis.  Some  of  the 
latter  two  classes  are  kept  with  octaves.  Before  the 
reformation  of  the  Breviary  by  Pius  V  (1566-72),  the 
terms  by  which  the  solemnity  of  a  feast  could  be 
known  were,  in  many  churches,  very  different  from 
the  terms  we  use  now.  We  give  a  few  examples  from 
Grotefend,  "  Zeitrechnung",  etc.  (Hanover,  1891-98, 
II-III):  Chur:  "Festum  summum,  plenum  ofBcium 
trium  lectionum,  commemoratio."  Havelberg:  "  Fes- 
tum summum,  seraisummum,  secundum,  tertium,  no- 
vem  majus,  novem  minus,  compulsatio  3  lect.,  anti- 
phona."  Halle:  "Festum  prspositi,  apostolicum, 
dominicale,  9  lect.,  compulsatio  3  lect.,  antiphona." 
Breslau:  "Festum Triplex,  duplex, 9 lectionum,  3 lect., 
commemoratio."  Carthusians:  "  Festum  Candelarum, 
capituli,  12  lect.,  missa,  commemoratio."  Lund: 
"Festum  Praelatorum,  canonicorum,  vicarionmi,  du- 
plex, simplex,  9  lect.,  3  lect.,  memoria." 

Some  of  the  religious  orders  which  have  their  own 
breviary,  did  not  adopt  the  terms  now  used  in  the 
Roman  Breviary.  For  example,  the  Cistercians  have 
the  following  terminology:  "Festum  sermonis  majus, 
sermonis  minus,  duarum  missarum  majus,  2  miss, 
minus,  12  lectionum,  3  lect.  commemoratio."  The 
Dominicans:  "Totum  duplex,  duplex,  simplex,  3  lect., 
memoria."  The  Carmelites:  "  Duplex  majus  I.  classis 
solemnis,  dupl.  maj.  I.  cl.,  duplex  majus  2.  classis,  du- 
plex minus  I.  classis,  duplex  minus  2.  classis,  semi- 
duplex,  simplex,  simplicissimum." 

Among  the  feasts  of  the  same  rite  there  is  a  differ- 
ence in  dignity.     There  are  (1)  primary  feasts  which 

commemorate  the  principal  mysteries  of  our  religion, 
or  celebrate  the  death  of  a  saint ;  (2)  secondary  feasts, 
the  object  of  which  is  a  particular  feature  of  a  mystery, 
e.  g.  the  feast  of  the  Crown  of  Thorns,  of  the  relics  of 
a  saint  or  of  some  miracle  worked  by  him,  e.  g.  the 
feast  of  the  translation  of  St.  Stephen,  the  Apparition 
of  Our  Lady  of  Guadalupe.  The  list  of  primary  and 
secondary  feasts  has  been  determined  by  a  decree  of 
the  Sacred  Congregation  of  Rites  (22  Aug.,  1893),  and 
is  found  in  the  introduction  to  the  Roman  Breviary. 
(3)  Within  the  two  classes  mentioned  the  feasts  of 
Christ  take  the  first  place,  especially  those  with  privi- 
leged vigils  and  octaves  (Christmas,  Epiphany, 
Easter,  Pentecost,  and  Corpus  Christi);  then  follow 
the  feasts  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  the  Holy  Angels,  St. 
John  the  Baptist,  St.  Joseph,  the  Apostles  and  Evange- 
lists, and  the  other  saints. 

Duchesne,  Origines  du  CiiUe  Chretien  (Paris,  18S9);  tr.  Mc- 
Ci-URE  (London,  1904);  Kellner,  Heorlology  (tr.  London, 
1909);  Probst.  Liiurgie  das  vierten  Jahrh.  (Miinster,  1893); 
Baumer,  G&>cA!<-We  dra  iJrei'irrs  (Freiburg,  1S95);  Binterim, 
Denkwurdigkeiten  (Mainz,  1829);  Lingard,  Antiquities  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  Church  (London,  18'iS];  Maximilian,  Prince  op 
Saxony,  Prwlect.  de  Li/mj':  ri: :.  ^  '>ilil,us  (Freiburg,  1908); 
Kirchliches  Handiexikon  iM  ii  i^  '.  \''n;);  Kirchetilexikmi  {Frei' 
burg,   1886),   IV;   Nille-,    A  < -h   manuale,  etc.  (Inns- 

bruck, 1897);  MoRlsoT,  /;  '..',,,„,,  .u/r  les  fites  de  I'annce 
(Paris,  1908). 


Feasts  among  the  Jews.  See  Atonement;  Bib- 
lical Antiquities;  Dedication;  Jubilee;  Pass- 
over; Pentecost;  Purim;  Sabbath;  Tabernacles; 


Febronianism,  the  politico-ecclesiastical  system 
outlined  l>y  Johann  Nikolaus  von  Hontheim,  Auxili- 
ary Bishop  of  Trier,  under  the  pseudonym  Justinus 
Febronius,  in  his  work  entitled  "Justini  Febronii 
Juris  consulti  de  Statu  Ecclesite  et  legitira;!  potestate 
Romani  Pontificis  Liber  singularis  ad  reuniendos  dis- 
sidentes  in  religione  christianos  compositus"  (BuUioni 
apud  Guillelmum  Evrardi,  1763;  in  realitj-  the  work 
was  published  by  Esslinger  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main). 
Taking  as  a  basis  the  Galilean  principles  which  he  had 
imbibed  from  the  canonist  Van  Espen  while  pursuing 
his  studies  in  Louvain,  Hontheim  advanced  along  the 
same  lines,  in  spite  of  many  inconsistencies,  to  a  radi- 
calism far  outstripping  traditional  Gallicanism.  He 
develops  in  this  work  a  theory  of  ecclesiastical  organi- 
zation founded  on  a  denial  of  the  monarchical  consti- 
tution of  the  Church.  The  ostensible  purpose  was  to 
facilitate  the  reconciliation  of  the  Protestant  bodies 
with  the  Church  by  diminishing  the  power  of  the  Holy 

According  to  Febronius  (cap.  i),  the  power  of  the 
keys  was  entrusted  by  Christ  to  the  whole  body  of  the 
Church,  which  holds  it  prineipah'ler  et  radicaliter,  but 
exercises  it  through  her  prelates,  to  whom  only  the  ad- 
ministration of  this  power  is  committed.  Among 
these  the  pope  comes  first,  though  even  he  is  subordi- 
nate to  the  Church  as  a  whole.  The  Divine  institu- 
tion of  the  primacy  in  the  church  is  acknowledged 
(cap.  ii),  but  Febronius  holds  that  its  connexion  with 
the  Roman  See  does  not  rest  on  the  authority  of 
Christ,  but  on  that  of  Peter  and  the  Church,  so  that 
the  Church  has  the  power  to  attach  it  to  another  see. 
The  power  of  the  pope,  therefore,  should  be  confined  to 
those  essential  rights  inherent  in  the  primacy  which 
were  exercised  by  the  Holy  See  during  the  first  eight 
centuries.  The  pope  is  the  centre  with  which  the  in- 
dividual Churches  must  be  united.  He  must  be  kept 
informed  of  what  is  taking  place  everjTvhere  through- 
out the  Church,  that  he  may  exercise  the  care  de- 
manded by  his  office  for  the  preservation  of  unity.  It 
is  his  duty  to  enforce  the  observance  of  the  canons  in 
the  whole  Church;  he  has  the  authority  to  promulgate 
laws  in  the  name  of  the  Church,  and  to  depute  legates 
to  exercise  his  authority  as  primate.  His  power,  as 
head  of  the  whole  Church,  however,  is  of  an  adminis- 
trative and  unifying  character,  rather  than  a  power  of 




jurisdiction.  Rut  since  tlic  ninth  century,  cliicfly 
tlirougli  tlic  influence  of  tlio  False  Decretals  of  Pseudo- 
Isidore,  the  constitution  of  the  Church  has  undergone 
a  complete  transformation,  in  that  the  papal  author- 
ity has  been  extended  beyond  proper  bounds  (cap. 
iii).  By  a  violation  of  justice,  questions  which  at  one 
time  were  left  to  the  decision  of  provincial  synods  and 
metropolitans  gradually  came  to  be  reserved  to  the 
Holy  See  (cap.  iv),  as,  for  instance,  the  condemnation 
of  heresies,  the  confirmation  of  episcopal  elections,  the 
naming  of  coadjutors  with  the  riglit  of  succession,  the 
transfer  and  removal  of  bishops,  the  establishment  of 
new  dioceses,  and  the  erection  of  metropolitan  and 
primatial  sees.  The  pope,  whose  infallibility  is  ex- 
pressly denied  (cap.  v),  cannot,  on  his  own  authority, 
without  a  council  or  the  assent  of  the  entire  episco- 
pate, give  forth  any  decisions  on  matters  of  faith  of 
universal  obligation.  Likewise  in  matters  of  disci- 
pline, he  can  issue  no  decrees  affecting  the  whole  body 
of  tlie  faithful;  the  decrees  of  a  general  council  have 
))inding  power  only  after  their  accejitance  by  the  indi- 
vidual churches.  Laws  once  promulgated  cannot  be 
altered  at  the  pope's  will  or  pleasure.  It  is  also  denied 
that  the  pope,  Ijy  the  nature  and  authority  of  the 
primacy,  can  receive  appeals  from  the  whole  Church. 

Accortling  to  Fcbronius,  the  final  court  of  appeal  in 
the  Church  is  the  cecumenical  council  (cap.  vi),  the 
rights  of  which  exclude  the  pretended  monarchical 
constitution  of  t!ie  Church.  The  pope  is  subordinate 
to  the  general  council;  he  has  neither  the  exclusive  au- 
thority to  summon  one,  nor  the  right  to  preside  at  its 
sessions,  and  the  conciliar  decrees  do  not  need  his  rati- 
fication. CEcumenical  councils  are  of  absolute  neces- 
sity, as  even  the  assent  of  a  majority  of  bishops  to  a 
papal  decree,  if  given  by  the  individuals,  outside  a 
council,  docs  not  constitute  a  final,  irrevocable  decis- 
ion. Appeal  from  the  pope  to  a  general  council  is  jv;s- 
tified  by  the  superiority  of  the  comicil  over  the  pope. 
According  to  the  Divine  institution  of  the  episcopate 
(cap.  vii),  all  bishops  have  equal  rights;  they  do  not 
receive  their  power  of  jurisdiction  from  the  Holy  See. 
It  is  not  within  the  province  of  the  pope  to  exercise 
ordinary  episcopal  functions  in  dioceses  other  than 
tliat  of  Rome.  The  papal  reservations  regarding  the 
grunting  of  benefices,  annates,  and  the  exemption  of 
religious  orders  are  thus  in  conflict  with  the  primitive 
law  of  the  Church,  and  must  be  abolished.  Having 
shown,  as  he  believes,  that  the  existing  ecclesiastical 
law  with  reference  to  papal  power  is  a  distortion  of 
the  original  constitution  of  the  Church,  due  chiefly  to 
the  False  Decretals,  Febronius  demands  that  the 
primitive  discipline,  as  outlined  by  him,  be  every- 
where restored  (cap.  viii).  He  then  suggests  as  means 
for  bringing  about  this  reformation  (cap.  ix),  that  the 
people  shall  be  properly  enlightened  on  this  subject, 
that  a  general  council  with  full  freedom  be  held,  that 
national  synods  be  convened,  but  especially  that 
Catholic  rulers  take  concerted  action,  with  the  co- 
operation and  advice  of  the  bishops,  that  secular 
princes  avail  themselves  of  the  Regium  Placet  to  resist 
papal  decrees,  that  obedience  be  openly  refused  to  a 
legitimate  extent,  and  finally  that  secular  authority  be 
appealed  to  through  the  AppcUatio  ab  abuf:u.  The 
hist  measures  reveal  the  real  trend  of  Febronian  prin- 
ciples; Febronius,  while  ostensibly  contending  for  a 
larger  independence  and  greater  authority  for  the 
bishops,  seeks  only  to  render  the  Churches  of  the  differ- 
ent countries  less  dependent  on  the  Holy  See,  in  order 
to  facilitate  the  estalilishment  of  national  Churches  in 
tliesc  states,  and  reduce  the  bishops  to  a  condition  in 
which  they  wo\ild  be  merely  servile  creatures  of  the 
civil  power.  Wherever  an  attempt  was  made  to  put 
his  ideas  into  execution,  it  proceeded  along  these  lines. 

The  book  was  formally  condemne<l,  27  February, 
1704,  by  Clement  XIII.  By  a  Brief  of  21  May,  1764, 
the  pope  required  the  (ierman  episcopate  to  suppress 
the  work.     Ten  prelates,  among  them  the  Elector  of 

Trier,  complied.  Meanwhile  no  steps  had  been  taken 
against  the  author  personally,  who  was  well  known  in 
Rome.  Despite  the  ban  of  the  Church,  the  book,  har- 
monizing as  it  did  with  the  spirit  of  the  times,  had  a 
tremendous  success.  A  second  edition,  revised  and 
enlarged,  was  issued  as  early  as  1765;  it  was  reprinted 
at  Venice  and  Zurich,  and  translations  appeared  in 
German,  French,  Italian,  Spanish,  and  Portuguese. 
In  the  three  later  volumes,  which  Hontheim  issued  as 
supplementary  to  the  original  work,  and  numbered  II 
to  IV  (Vol.  II,  Frankfort  and  Leipzig,  1770;  Vol.  Ill, 
1772;  Vol.  IV,  Parts  1  and  2,  1773-74),  he  defended  it, 
under  the  name  of  Febronius  and  various  other  pseu- 
donyms, against  a  series  of  attacks.  Later  he  pub- 
lished an  abridgment  under  the  title:  "Justinus  Fe- 
bronius abbrcviatus  et  emendatus"  (Cologne  and 
Frankfort,  1777).  In  addition  to  the  "Judicium  aca- 
demicum  "  of  the  University  of  Cologne  ( 1 765) ,  refuta- 
tions appeared  from  a  large  number  of  Catliolic  au- 
thors, the  most  important  being:  Ballcrini,  "De  vi  ac 
ratione  primatus  Romanorum  Pontificum  et  de  ip- 
sorum  infallibilitate  in  definiendis  controversiis  fidci" 
(Verona,  1766) ;  Idem,  "  De  potestate  ecclesiastica 
Summorum  Pontificum  et  Conciliorum  generalium 
liber,  una  cum  vindiciis  auctoritatis  pontificis  contra 
opus  Just.  Febronii  (Verona,  176S;  Augsburg,  1770; 
new  ed.  of  both  works,  Miinster  in  W,.,  1S45,  1847); 
Zaccaria,  "  Antifebronio,  ossia  apologia  polemico- 
storica  del  primate  del  Papa,  contra  la  dannata  opera 
di  Giust.  Febronio"  (2  vols.,  Pesaro,  1767;  2nd  ed.,  4 
vols.,  Cesena,  1768-70;  tr.  German,  Reichenberger, 
Augsburg,  1768);  Idem,  "  Antifebronius  vindicatus" 
(4  vols.,  Cesena,  1771-2);  Idem,  "In  tertium  Justini 
Febronii  tomum  animadversiones  Romano-catholica; " 
(Rome,  1774);  Mamachi,  "Epistola;  ad  Just.  Febron- 
ium  de  ratione  regendae  Christiana;  reipublica;  deqvie 
legitima  Romani  Pontificis  potestate"  (3  vols.,  Rome, 
1776-78).  There  were,  besides,  refutations  written 
from  the  Protestant  standpoint,  to  repudiate  the  idea 
that  a  diminution  of  the  papal  power  was  all  that  was 
necessary  to  bring  the  Protestants  back  into  union 
with  the  Church,  for  instance  Karl  Friedrich  Bahrtlt, 
"Dissertatio  de  eo,  an  fieri  possit,  ut  sublato  Pontificio 
imperio  reconcilientur  Dissidentes  in  religione  Chris- 
tiani"  (Leipzig,  1763),  and  Johann  Friedrich  Bahrdt, 
"De  Romany,  Ecclesia  irreconciliabili"  (Leipzig, 
1767) ;  Karl  Gottl.  Hofmann,  "  Programma  continens 
examen  reguUc  exegetica;  ex  Vincentio  Lerinensi  in 
Febronio  repetitic"  (Wittenberg,  1768). 

The  first  measures  against  the  author  were  taken 
by  Pius  VI,  who  urged  Clemens  Wenzeslaus,  Elector 
of  Trier,  to  prevail  on  Hontheim  to  recall  the  work. 
Only  after  prolonged  exertions,  and  after  a  retrac- 
tation, couched  in  general  terms,  had  been  adjudged 
unsatisfactory  in  Rome,  the  elector  forwardeil  to 
Rome  Hontheim's  emended  recantation  (15  Novem- 
ber, 1778).  This  was  communicated  to  the  car- 
dinals in  consistory  by  Pius  VI  on  Christmas  Day. 
That  this  retractation  was  not  sincere  on  Hontheim's 
part  is  evident  from  his  subsequent  movements. 
That  he  had  by  no  means  relinquished  his  ideas  ap- 
pears from  his  "  Justini  Febronii  Jcti.  Comnientarius  in 
suam  Retractationem  Pio  VI.  Pont.  Max.  Kalendis 
Nov.  anni  1778  submissam"  (Frankfort,  17S1;  Ger- 
man ed.,  Augsburg,  1781),  written  for  the  purpose  of 
justifying  his  position  before  the  public.  Meanwhile, 
notwithstanding  the  prohibition,  the  "Febronius" 
had  produced  its  pernicious  effects,  which  were  not 
checked  by  the  retractation.  The  ideas  advanced  in 
the  work,  being  in  thorough  accord  with  the  absolutis- 
tic  tendencies  of  civil  rulers,  were  eagerly  accepted  by 
the  Catholic  courts  and  governments  of  France,  the 
Austrian  Netherlands,  Sjiain  and  Portugal,  Venice, 
Austria,  and  Tu.scany;  and  they  recciveil  further  de- 
velopment at  the  hands  of  court  theologians  and  can- 
onists who  favoured  the  scheme  of  a  national  Church. 
Among  the  advocates  of  the  theory  of  Febronianisin 




in  Germany,  mention  should  be  made  of  the  Trier  pro- 
fessor, Franz  Anton  Haubs,  "Themata  ex  historia 
ecclesiastiea  de  hierarcliia  sacra  primorum  V  sseculo- 
rum"  (Trier,  1786);  "Systema  primsEVum  de  potes- 
tate  opit;copali  ejusque  applicatio  ad  episcopalia 
quirdanijura  in  speciepunctationibusl.  II.  et  IV.  con- 
gressus  Emsani  exposita"  (Trier,  178S);  and  Wilhehn 
Joseph  Castello,  "  Dissertatio  historica  de  variis 
causis,  queis  accidentahs  Romani  Pontiiicis  potestas 
successive  ampliata  fuit"  (Trier,  1788).  It  was  the 
Austrian  canonists,  liowever,  wlio  contributed  most 
towards  the  compilation  of  a  new  law  code  regulating 
the  relations  of  Church  and  State,  which  was  reduced 
to  practice  under  Joseph  II.  Especially  noteworthy 
as  being  conceived  in  this  spirit  were  the  textbooks  on 
canon  law  prescribed  for  the  Austrian  universities, 
and  compiled  by  Paul  Joseph  von  Riegger,  "  Institu- 
tiones  juris  ecclesiastici "  (4  vols.,  Vienna,  1768-72; 
fre(iueiitly  reprinted),  and  Pehem,  " Prselectiones  in 
jus  ecclesiasticum  universum",  also,  in  a  more  pro- 
noiinccil  way,  the  work  of  Johann  Valentin  Eybel, 
"lutroductio  in  jus  ecclesiasticum  Catholicorum"  (4 
vols.,  Vienna,  1777;  placed  on  the  Index,  1784). 

The  first  attempt  to  give  Febronian  principles  a 
practical  application  was  made  in  Germany  at  the 
Coblenz  Conference  of  1769,  where  the  three  ecclesias- 
tical Electors  of  Mainz,  Cologne,  and  Trier,  through 
their  delegates,  and  vmder  the  directions  of  Hontheim, 
compiled  a  list  of  thirty  grievances  against  the  Roman 
See,  in  consonance  with  the  principles  of  the  "  Febro- 
nius"  (Gravamina  trium  Archiepiscoporum  Electo- 
rum,  Moguntinensis,  Trevirensis  et  Coloniensis  contra 
Curiam  Apostolicam  anno  1769  ad  Cajsarem  de- 
lata;  printed  in  Le  Bret,  "Magazin  zum  Gebrauch 
der  Staaten-  und  Kirchengeschichte  ",  Pt.  VIII,  Ulm, 
1783,  pp.  1-21).  More  significant  was  the  Ems  Con- 
gress of  1786,  at  which  the  three  ecclesiastical  electors 
md  the  Prince-Bishop  of  Salzburg,  in  imitation  of  the 
Coblenz  Congress,  and  in  conformity  with  the  basic 
principles  of  the  "Febronius",  made  a  fresh  attempt 
to  readjust  the  relations  of  the  German  Church 
with  Rome,  with  a  view  to  securing  for  the  former 
a  greater  measure  of  independence;  they  also  had 
tlieir  representatives  draw  up  the  Ems  Punctation  in 
twenty-three  articles;  they  achieved,  however,  no 
practical  results.  An  attempt  was  made  to  realize 
the  principles  of  the  "Febronius"  on  a  large  scale  in 
Austria,  where  under  Joseph  II  a  national  Church  was 
established  according  to  the  plan  outlined.  Efforts  in 
the  same  direction  were  made  by  Joseph's  brother 
Leopold  in  his  Grand-Duchy  of  Tuscany.  The  reso- 
lutions adopted  at  the  Synod  of  Pistoia,  under  Bishop 
Scipio  Ricci,  along  these  lines,  were  repudiated  by  the 
majority  of  the  bishops  of  the  country. 

Mbjer,  Febronius,  Weihbischof  Johann  Nicotaus  van  Hont- 
heim undsein  Wiiierruf  (Tubingen,  18S0,  2nd  ed.,  1885),  anti- 
Roman;  KuNTZlGEK,  Febronius  et  le  Fcbronianisme  in  Memoires 
couronnes  et  autres  memoires  publics  par  V Academie  Royale  des 
sciences,  des  letlres  et  des  beaux-arts  de  BelgiqiLe,  Vol.  XLIV 
(Brussels,  1891),  also  anti-Roman;  Stumper,  Die  kirchenrecht- 
lichen  Ideen  des  Febronius,  inaugural  dissertation  presented  to 
the  faculty  of  jurisprudence  and  political  economy  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Wiirzburg  (Aschaffenburtr.  190S),  Catholic;  RoscH, 
Das  Kirchenrecht  im  Zeitalter  der  A  afh^.ir^ivq.  T  ■  Der  Febronian- 
ismus  in  Archiv  f.  kath.  Kirchenr,,!,'  I  \  \  \  1 1  I  iMainz,  1903), 
446-82,620-52.    Also  Walch,  iVi».         .  < :.schichte,Vt.l 

(Lemgo,  1771),  14.5-98;  Pt.  VI  (1T7,  .  i;,.  ju^.  I't.  VII  (1779), 
193-240,  453-64;  Pt.  VIII  (1781),  .-,-a-42;  Ur.tiwechsel  zwischen 
wi'iland  ihrer  Durchlaucht  dem  Herrn  Kurfursten  von  Trier, 
Clemens  Wenzeslaus  und  dem  Herrn  Weihbischof  Nik.  von  Hont- 
heim itber  das  Buch,Just.  Febronii  de  statu  EcclesicB  (Frankfort, 
1813);  Phillips,  Kirchenrecht  (Ratisbon,  1848),  III.  365-74; 
Makx.  Gesch.  des  Erzstifts  Trier  (Trier,  1864),  V,  90-129;  Bruck, 
Die  ralionalistischen  Bestrebungen  im  katholischen  Deutschland 
(Mainz,  1865);  von  .Schulte,  Die  Gesch.  der  Quellen  und  Lit. 
,;,-,  «.,,„„,\W,.o  Itrrh'-  (Sfiitt.-nrt.  1880),  Vol.  Ill,  Pt.  I.  193- 
'-'ii-  l;,  ,,i  //'  '  h-politische  Blatter,  LXXXVI 
il'~~^"  '  '  ii  Kr  I  u.  1  'I' ine  Deutsche  Biographic,  s.  V. 
11"..'  !,.,      1,    ,:,    /\      /  r.s.v.  Hontheim:  Anon..  Nel- 

U: .  U.uili^^ni  i,ud  i's./ntn..  W  i  uze^laus  {Die  Anfanqe  der  jebro- 
niainschcn  llarcsic)  in  KuthuUk.  I  (1891),  537-57;  II,  19-39; 
ZiLLlcn,  Febronius  in  Hallesche  Abhandlungen  zur  neueren 
Geschichte,  XLIV  (Halle,  1U06). 


Febronius,  Ju.stinu.s.     See  Fedronianism. 

Feckenham,  John  de,  last  Abbot  of  Westmin- 
ster, and  confessor  of  the  Faith;  b.  in  Feckenham 
Forest,  Worcestershire,  in  1515(?),  of  poor  parents 
named  Howman;  d.  at  Wisbech  Castle,  16  Oct., 
158.5.  He  became  a  Benedictine  monk  at  Evesham, 
and  studied  at  Gloucester  Hall,  Oxford  (B.D.,  11  June, 
1,5.39),  returned  to  Evesham  to  teach  junior  monks  till 
the  dissolution,  27  Jan.,  1540,  when  he  received  a  pen- 
sion of  15  marks.  Rector  of  Solihull,  Worcestenshire 
(15447-1554),  he  became  known  as  an  orator  and  con- 
troversialist. He  was  domestic  chaplain  to  Bishop 
Bell  of  Worcester  till  154.3,  and  then  to  Bonner  of 
London  till  1549.  He  was  sent  to  the  Tower  by  Cran- 
mer  for  defending  the  Faith,  but  in  1551  was  "bor- 
rowed out  of  prison"  to  hold  public  disputations  with 
the  new  men,  e.  g.  with  Jewel  and  Hooper.  Again 
relegated  to  the  Tower,  he  was  released  by  Queen 
Mary,  5  Sept.,  1553,  and  was  much  employed  as  a 
preacher  in  London ;  he  was  advanced  to  benefices,  and 
in  March,  1554,  made  dean  of  St.  Paul's.  He  .showed 
great  mildness  to  the  heretics,  many  of  whom  he  con- 
verted, and  saved  others  from  the  stake.  He  pre- 
pared Lady  Jane  Grey  for  death,  though  he  could  not 
convince  her  of  her  errors,  as  he  did  Sir  John  Cheke, 
the  king's  tutor.  Feckenham  interceded  for  Eliza- 
beth after  Wyatt's  rebellion,  obtaining  her  life  and 
subsequent  release.  He  took  the  degree  of  D.D.  at  0.\- 
ford.  May,  1556,  and  on  7  Sept.,  1556,  was  appointed 
abbot  of  the  royal  Abbey  of  Westminster,  restored  to 
the  order  by  the  queen.  The  Benedictines  took  po.s- 
session  on  21  November  (since  known  as  dies  memo- 
rabilis),  and  the  abbot  was  installed  on  29  November, 
beginning  his  rule  over  a  community  of  about  twenty- 
eight,  gathered  from  the  dissolved  abbeys.  He  suc- 
ces.sfully  defended  in  Parliament,  11  Feb.,  1557,  the 
threatened  privileges  of  sanctuary,  and  restored  the 
shrine  of  the  Confessor  in  his  abbey  church. 

Elizabeth  at  her  accession  offered  (November,  1558) 
to  preserve  the  monastery  if  he  and  his  monks  would 
accept  the  new  religion,  but  Feckenham  steadily  re- 
fused, bravely  and  eloquently  defending  the  old  faith 
in  Parliament  and  denouncing  the  sacrilegious  inno- 
vations of  the  Anglicans.  He  gave  sanctuary  to 
Bishop  Bonner,  and  quietly  went  on  planting  trees 
while  awaiting  the  expulsion,  which  took  place  12 
July,  1559.  He  generously  resigned  a  large  part  of 
the  money  due  him  to  the  dean  who  succeeded  him. 
Nevertheless,  in  May,  1560,  he  was  .sent  to  the  Tower 
"for  railing  against  the  changes  that  had  been  made". 
Three  years  later  he  was  given  into  the  custody  of 
Home,  the  intruded  Bishop  of  Winchester,  but  in 
15G4  he  was  sent  back  to  the  Tower,  his  episcopal 
jailer  having  failed  to  pervert  him.  Feckenham  him- 
self said  that  he  preferred  the  prison  to  the  pseudo- 
bishop's  palace.  In  1571  he  prepared  his  fellow-pris- 
oner. Blessed  John  Storey,  for  death,  and  a  little  later 
was  sent  to  the  Mar.shalsea.  In  the  Tower  he  and  his 
fellow-confessors  had  been  "haled  by  the  arms  to 
Church  in  violent  measure,  against  oiu-  wills,  there  to 
hear  a  sermon,  not  of  persuading  us  but  of  railing 
upon  us."  He  was  released  on  bail,  17  July,  1.574, 
after  fourteen  years'  confinement,  and  lived  in  Hol- 
born,  where  he  devoted  himself  to  works  of  charity. 
He  encouraged  boys  in  manly  sports  on  Sundays,  pre- 
ferring that  they  should  practise  archery  rather  than 
attend  the  heretical  services.  But  falling  ill,  he  was 
permitted  to  go  to  Bath,  where,  in  1576,  he  built  a  hos- 
pice for  poor  patients  and  did  much  good.  But  his 
zeal  for  the  Faith  excited  fresh  rancour,  and  in  1577  he 
was  committed  to  the  custody  of  Cox,  Bishop  of  Ely, 
who  was  requested  to  bring  him  to  conformity.  Fecfc- 
enham's  so-called  "Confession"  (British  Museum, 
Lansdowne  MSS.,  No.  30,  fol.  199)  shows  how  egre- 
gioiLsly  Cox  failed,  and  in  15S0  he  petitioned  the  coun- 
cil to  remove  the  abbot,  who  was  accordingly  sent  to 




Wisbech  Castle,  a  dismal  prison  belonging  to  the  Bish- 
ops of  Ely,  which  he  shared  with  Watson,  Bishop  of 
Lincoln,  and  other  confessors.  Here  he  died  a  holy 
death,  fortified  by  the  Sacred  Viaticum,  and  was 
buried  in  Wisbech  Church.  He  was  worn  out  by  an 
imprisonment  of  twenty-three  years  for  conscience' 
sake;  a  striking  example  of  Elizabeth's  ingratitude. 
Protestant  writers  unite  in  praising  his  virtues,  es- 
pecially his  kindness  of  heart,  gentleness,  and  charity 
to  the  poor.  Even  Burnet  calls  him  "a  charitable 
and  generous  man".  His  best-known  work  is  against 
Home,  "  The  Declaration  of  such  Scruples  and  Stays 
of  Conscience  touching  the  Oath  of  Supremacy",  etc. 
He  also  wrote  "Caveat  Emptor",  a  caution  against 
buying  abbey  lands,  and  a  commentary  on  the  Psalms, 
but  these  are  lost. 

Most  complete  life  in  Taunton,  Etifjlish  Black  Monks  of  St. 
Benedict  (London,  1897);  Bradley  in  Diet,  Nat.  Biog.,  s.  v.,  with 
good  bibliography;  Wood,  Athence  Oxon.,  II,  222;  Weldon, 
Chronological  Notes  on  English  Congregation  O.  S.  B.  (Stan- 
brook  Abbey,  1S81);Gillow,  Bibl.  Diet.  Eng.  Cath.,  II;  Gasqdet, 
Last  Abbot  of  Glastonbury  and  other  Essays  (London,  1908),  s.  v. 
Feckenham  at  Bath;  Stapleton  (vere  Harpsfield),  Counter- 
blast to  Mr.  Homes  vayne  blaste  against  Mr.  Feckenham  (Lou- 
vain,  1567);  Reyner,  Apostolatus  Benedictinorum  in  Anglid 
(Douai.  1626);  State  Papers,  Elizabeth,  Domestic,  XXII, 
XXXVI.  CXIV,  CXXXI,  CXXXII,  CXLIII,  etc.;  Dixon. 
History  of  the  Church  of  England  (London,  1891),  IV,  V. 

Bede  C.\MM. 

Feder,  Johann  Michael,  German  theologian,  b.  25 
May,  1753,  at  Oellingen  in  Bavaria;  d.  26  July,  1824,  at 
Wurzburg.  He  studied  in  the  episcopal  seminary  of 
Wiirzburg  from  1772-1777;  in  the  latter  year  he  was 
ordained  priest  and  promoted  to  the  licentiate  in  the- 
ology. For  several  years  Feder  was  chaplain  of  the 
Julius  hospital;  in  17S5  he  was  appointed  extraordi- 
nary professor  of  theology  and  Oriental  languages  at 
the  University  of  Wurzburg;  was  created  a  Doctor  of 
Divinity  in  1786;  director  of  the  university  library, 
1791;  ordinary  professor  of  theology  and  censor  of 
theological  publications,  1795.  After  the  reorganiza- 
tion of  the  University  of  Wurzburg,  1803-4,  he  was 
appointed  chief  librarian,  resigning  the  professorship 
of  theology  in  1805.  Shortly  after  his  removal  from 
office  as  librarian,  November,  1811,  he  suffered  a 
stroke  of  apoplexy,  from  which  he  never  fully  re- 
covered. Feder  was  a  prolific  writer,  editor,  and 
translator,  but  was  imbued  with  the  liberal  views  of 
his  time.  His  most  meritorious  work  is  a  revision  of 
Dr.  Heinrich  Braun's  German  translation  of  the  Bible 
(1803),  2  vols.  This  revision  served  as  the  basis  for 
Dr.  AUioli's  well-known  translation.  He  also  trans- 
lated the  writings  of  St.  Cyril  of  Jerusalem  (1786) ;  the 
sermons  of  St.  Chrysostom  on  Matthew  and  John,  in 
conjunction  with  the  unfortunate  Eulogius  Schneider 
(1786-88);  Theodoret's  ten  discourses  on  Divine 
Providence  (178S);  Gerard's  lectures  on  pastoral 
duties  (1803);  de  Bausset's  life  of  Fenelon  (1809-12), 
3  vols.,  and  the  same  author's  life  of  Bossuet  (1820); 
Fabert's  ' '  Meditations  "(1786).  He  was  editor  of  the 
"Magazin  zur  Beforderung  des  Schulwesens"  (1791- 
97),  3  vols.,  of  the  "  Prakt.-theol.  Magazin  fiir  katho- 
lische  Geistliche"  (1798-1800),  and  of  the  "Wurz- 
burger  Gelehrten  Anzeigen"  (1788-92).  He  also 
wrote  several  volumes  of  sermons. 

HuRTER.  Nomenclator:  Buchberger,  Kirchl.  Handlexikon,  I; 
ScHRODL  in  Kirchenlex.,  s.  v.;  Binder,  Realencyclopeedie 
(1847);  BrOck,  Geschichte  der  kath.  Kirche  in  Deutschland 
(Mainz,  1902),  I. 

Alexius  Hoffmann. 

Feehan,  Daniel  F.    See  Fall  River,  Diocese  of. 

Fees  (Honoraria),  Ecclesiastical.  See  Mass; 
Offeuing;   Sacraments;  Stipend. 

Feilding,  Rudolph  William  Basil,  eighth  Earl  of 
Denbigh,  and  ninth  Earl  of  Desmond,  b.  9  April,  1823; 
d.  1892.  He  was  educated  at  Eton  t'ollege  and  'Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  Mas- 
ter of  Arts.  He  was  received  into  the  Church  in  18.50, 
and  took  an  active  part  in  many  ('atholic  works  of 

charity  under  Cardinal  Wiseman.  As  Viscount  Feild- 
ing he  was  appointed  honorary  treasurer,  jointly  with 
Viscount  Campden  and  Mr.  Archibald  J.  Dvmn,  of  the 
Peter's  Pence  Association.  He  was  a  man  of  great 
courage  and  independence  of  character,  qualities 
needed  in  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth  century  when 
the  English  Protestant  mind  was  much  inflamed  in 
consequence  of  the  establishment  of  the  Catholic  hier- 
archy in  England.  As  a  thanksgiving  for  his  conver- 
sion, he  built  the  Franciscan  monastery  at  Pentasaph, 
North  Wales. 

Archibald  J.  Dunn. 

Feilire  of  Aengus  the  Culdee.    See  Aengus. 

Feilmoser,  Andreas  Benedict,  theologian  and 
Biblical  scholar,  b.  8  April,  1777,  at  Hopfgarten,  Tyrol; 
d.  at  Tubingen,  20  July,  1831,  studied  at  Salzburg 
from  1789  to  1794,  took  a  two  years'  course  in  philoso- 
phy at  the  University  of  Innsbruck  (1794-96),  and 
entered  the  Benedictine  Order  at  Fiecht,  Tyrol,  in 
September,  1796.  At  this  abbey  he  studied  the  Orien- 
tal languages  under  Dom  Georg  Maurer,  a  monk  of  St. 
George's  Abbey,  Villingen.  For  his  theological  studies 
he  was  sent  to  Villingen,  where  he  again  heard  Dom 
Maurer  and  Dom  Gottfried  Lumper,  both  eminent 
scholars.  Returning  to  Fiecht  in  1800,  he  taught 
Biblical  exegesis  and  was  ordained  priest  in  1801 ;  late 
in  the  same  year  he  was  appointed  master  of  novices, 
in  1802  professor  of  Christian  ethics  and  in  1803  of 
ecclesiastical  history.  A  number  of  theses  which  he 
published  in  1803  aroused  the  suspicions  of  the  ecclesi- 
astical authorities  of  the  Diocese  of  Brixen.  The 
Abbot  of  Fiecht  was  sharply  rebuked  for  permitting 
Feilmoser  to  teach  unsound  doctrine.  In  1804  ap- 
peared Feilmoser's  "  Animadversiones  in  historiam 
ecclesiasticam",  which  did  not  meet  the  approval  of 
the  diocesan  authorities,  who  threatened,  in  case  Feil- 
moser did  not  desist  from  advancing  dangerous  opin- 
ions, to  institute  proceedings  against  the  abbot.  To 
Feilmoser's  request  for  a  specification  of  the  objection- 
able passages  in  his  writings  no  reply  was  made,  but 
the  entire  matter  was  reported  to  the  emperor  at 
Vienna.  An  investigation  instituted  by  order  of  the 
emperor  resulted  favourably  for  Feilmoser.  He  was, 
nevertheless,  removed  from  the  office  of  master  of 
novices  and  in  1806  was  made  assistant  in  the  parish 
of  Achenthal.  By  the  Treaty  of  Presburg  (26  Dec., 
1805)  Tyrol  was  cut  off  from  Austria  and  became  a 
part  of  Bavaria.  The  new  Government,  in  November, 
1806,  appointed  him  professor  of  Oriental  languages 
and  of  introduction  to  the  Old  Testament  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Innsbruck.  The  monastery  of  Fiecht  hav- 
ing been  suppressed  in  1807,  he  left  the  order.  At 
Innsbruck  he  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Theol- 
ogy in  1808  and  was  appointed  to  the  chair  of  New- 
Testament  exegesis.  During  the  Tyrolese  insurrection, 
August,  1809,  he,  with  a  number  of  other  professors, 
was  taken  prisoner  and  carried  to  Pusterthal  by  order 
of  Andreas  Hofer.  In  1810  he  returned  to  Inns- 
bruck; in  1811  he  was  made  professor  of  catecbetics, 
in  1812  of  Latin  and  Greek  philology,  and  in  1817 
was  reappointed  professor  of  New-Testament  exege- 
sis in  the  face  of  much  opposition.  About  this  time 
the  old  charges  against  him  were  revived,  and  in  1818 
he  was  bitterly  attacked  in  an  anonymous  work  pub- 
lished at  Augsburg.  He  was  denied  the  opportunity 
of  publicly  defending  himself,  inasmuch  as  the  im- 
perial censor  at  Vienna,  on  17  July,  1819,  decided  that 
since  the  anonymous  work  was  published  in  a  foreign 
country,  it  was  under  Austrian  censure  and  must  be 
regarded  as  non-existent.  On  25  April,  1820,  he  was 
formally  appointed  a  professor  at  the  University  of 
Tubingen,  where  he  continued  to  teach  New-Testa- 
ment exegesis  until  his  death. 

He  wrote:  "Satze  aus  der  christlichen  Sittenlehre 
fiir  die  offentliche  Prtif  ung  in  dem  Benedictinerstifte  zu 
Fiecht"  (Innsbruck,  1803);  "  Satze  aus  der  Einleitung 




in  die  Bucher  des  alten  Buiides  und  den  hebraisciien 
Alterthumern"  (Innsbrucli,  1803);  "Animadversiones 
in  historian!  ecolesiasticam"  (Innsbruck,  lS03);"Satze 
aus  der  Einleitung  in  die  Biiciier  des  neuen  Bundes 
und  der  bibl.  Hermeneutik"  (Innsbruck,  1804);  "Ein- 
leitung in  die  Bucher  des  neuen  Bundes"  (Innsbruck, 
1810);  "Auszug  des  hebr.  Sprachlehre  nach  Jahn" 
(Innsbruck,  1812) ;  "  Die  Verketzerungssucht"  (Rott- 
weil,  1820).  His  principal  work,  "Einleitung  in  die 
Bucher  des  neuen  Bundes",  published  in  a  revised 
edition  (Tubingen,  1830),  is  inaccurate  and  was  praised 
far  beyond  its  due.  He  also  contributed  papers  and 
criticisms  to  the  "Annalen  der  osterreichischen  Lit- 
teratur  und  Kunst"  and  the  "  Theologische  Quartai- 
sehrift"  of  Tubingen.  His  exegetical  writings  are 
influenced  by  the  rationalistic  spirit  of  his  day.  He 
denied  the  genuineness  of  the  Comma  Johanneum  and 
maintained  that  the  Books  of  Job,  Jonas,  Tobias,  and 
Judith  are  merely  didactic  poems. 

HuRTER,  Nomenclator;  Welte  in  Kirchenlex.,  s.  v.;  Scrip- 
lores  O.S.B.  (Vienna,  1881);  Wackernell,  Beda  Weber  (Inns- 
brucli,  1893);  Theol.  Quarlalschrift  (Tubingen,  1831);  Greinz 
in  BucHBBRGBR,  Kirchl,  Handlexikon,  s.  v. 

Alexius  Hoffmann. 

Felbiger,  Johann  Ignaz  von,  a  German  educa- 
tional reformer,  pedagogical  writer,  and  canon  regular 
of  tlie  Order  of  St.  Augustine,  b.  6  January,  172-1,  at 
Gross-Glogau  in  Silesia;  d.  17  May,  1788,  at  Presburg 
in  Hungary.  He  was  the  son  of  a  postmaster,  who 
had  been  ennobled  by  Emperor  Charles  VI.  The 
death  of  his  parents  constrained  liim,  after  studying 
theology  at  tlie  University  of  Breslau,  to  accept  (174-1) 
the  position  of  teaclier  in  a  private  family.  In  1746 
he  joined  the  Order  of  Canons  Regular  of  St.  Augus- 
tine at  Sagan  in  Silesia,  was  ordained  a  priest  in  1748, 
and  ten  years  later  became  abbot  of  the  monastery  of 
Sagan.  Noting  the  sad  condition  of  the  local  Catliolic 
schools,  he  strove  to  remedy  the  evil  by  publisliing  his 
first  school-ordinance  in  1761.  During  a  private  jour- 
ney to  Berlin,  in  1762,  he  was  favourably  impressed 
with  Hecker's  Realschule  and  Hiihn's  method  of  in- 
structing by  initials  and  tables  (Literal-  or  Tabellen- 
melhode),  and  became  an  enthusiastic  propagator  of 
this  method.  A  school-ordinance  for  the  dependen- 
cies of  the  monastery  of  Sagan  was  issued  in  1763,  a 
teachers'  college  was  established,  and  Felbiger's  school- 
reforms  soon  attracted  the  attention  of  Catholics  and 
Protestants  alike.  He  was  supported  by  tlie  Silesian 
minister  von  Schlabrendorff,  and  at  the  latter's  re- 
quest, after  a  second  journey  to  Berlin  he  elaborated  a 
general  school-ordinance  for  tlie  Catholic  elementary 
schools  in  Silesia  (1765).  Three  graded  catechisms, 
the  joint  work  of  the  prior  and  the  abbot  of  Sagan,  ap- 
peared in  1766  under  the  title,  "Silesian  Catechism", 
and  enjoyed  a  wide  circulation.  The  death  of  von 
Schlabrendorff  in  1769  marked  the  end  of  the  Silesian 
government's  educational  efforts.  Felbiger's  sugges- 
tions were  heeded,  however,  by  King  Frederick  II  in 
the  regulations  issued  (1774)  forSilesian  higher  schools. 

At  the  request  of  the  empress,  Maria  Theresa,  he  re- 
paired to  Vienna  in  1774,  and  was  appointed  General 
Commissioner  of  Education  for  all  the  German  lands 
of  her  dominions.  The  same  year  he  published  his 
general  school-ordinance,  and  in  1775  his  most  impor- 
tant pedagogical  production:  " Methodenbuch  fur 
Lehrer  der  deutschen  Schulen".  His  school-reform 
was  copied  by  Bavaria  and  other  German  lands  and 
was  not  without  influence  on  Russia.  Considerable 
opposition,  aroused  by  Felbiger's  arbitrariness,  devel- 
oped in  Austria  against  his  plan  of  founding  special 
schools  for  the  neglected  instruction  of  soldiers. 
Maria  Theresa,  Iiowever,  always  remained  his  faithful 
protectress.  But  liis  strictly  rehgious  principles  of 
education  displeased  Joseph  II,  who  deprived  liim  of 
his  position,  assigned  him  to  his  provostship  at  Pres- 
burg, and  advised  him  to  look  after  educational  inter- 
ests in  Hungary  (1782).    The  chief  peculiarity  of  Fel- 

biger's too  mechanical  method  was  the  use  of  tables 
containing  the  initials  of  the  words  whicli  expressed 
the  lesson  to  be  imparted.  Other  features  were  the 
substitution  of  class-instruction  for  individual  instruc- 
tion and  the  practice  of  questioning  the  pupils.  He 
aimed  at  raising  the  social  standing,  financial  condi- 
tion, and  professional  qualification  of  the  teaching 
body,  and  at  giving  a  friendly  character  to  the  mutual 
relations  between  teacher  and  pupil.  For  a  list  of  his 
78  publications,  wliich  are  mainly  of  a  pedagogical 
character,  see  Panholzer's  "Methodenbuch"  (46-66). 
VoLKHER,  Johann  Ignaz  van  Felbiger  (Habeischwerdt,  1890); 
Panholzer.  J.  I.  von  Felbiger's  Methodenbuch,  Vol.  V  of  Biblio- 
thek  der  kath.  Pddagogik  (Freiburg,  1892);  Kahl,  Felbiger's 
Eigenschaften,  W issenachaftcn  u.  Bezeigen  rechtschaifener  Schul- 
leute  (2d  ed.,  Paderborn,  1905);  Williams,  History  of  Modern 
Education  (Syracuse,  1899),  354, 355;  Stockl,  Lehrbuch  d.  Gesch, 
d.  Pedagogik  (.Mainz,  1876),  351-55. 

N.  A.  Weber. 
Feldkirch.     See  Brixen. 
Felicianists.     See  Adoptionism. 

Felician  Sisters,  0.  S.  F.,  founded  21  November, 

1855,  at  Warsaw,  Poland,  by  Mother  Mary  Angela, 
under  the  direction  of  Father  Honorat,  O.  M.  Cap.  On 
their  suppression,  in  1864,  by  the  Russian  Govern- 
ment they  transferred  the  mother-liouse  to  Cracow, 
Austria.  In  the  province  of  Cracow  tliere  are  forty- 
four  houses  of  tliis  congregation,  and  in  the  United 
States,  wliere  the  first  foundation  was  made  in  1874, 
tliere  are  two  provinces,  820  choir  and  lay  sisters,  100 
novices,  168  postulants;  in  charge  of  87  schools  with 
36,700  pupils,  5  orphanages  with  416  inmates,  2 
homes  for  the  aged,  an  emigrant  home,  working  girls' 
home,  and  a  day  nursery. 

Mother  Mary  Jerome. 

Felicissimus,  a  deacon  of  Carthage  who,  in  the 
middle  of  the  third  century,  headed  a  short-lived  but 
dangerous  schism,  to  which  undue  doctrinal  import- 
ance has  been  given  by  a  certain  class  of  writers, 
Neander,  Ritsehl,  Harnack,  and  others,  who  see  in  it 
"  a  presbytcrial  reaction  against  episcopal  autocracy  ". 
Of  the  chief  figure  in  the  revolt,  Felicissimus,  not  much 
can  be  said.  The  movement  of  which  he  was  after- 
wards the  leader  originated  in  the  opposition  of  five 
presbyters  of  the  church  in  Carthage  to  St.  Cyprian's 
election  as  bishop  of  that  see.  One  of  these  presby- 
ters, Novatus,  selected  Felicissimus  as  deacon  of  his 
church  in  the  district  called  Mons,  and  because  of  the 
importance  of  the  office  of  deacon  in  the  African 
Church,  Felicissimus  became  the  leader  of  the  mal- 
contents. The  opposition  of  this  faction,  however, 
led  to  no  open  rupture  until  after  the  outbreak  of  the 
Decian  persecution  in  250,  when  St.  Cyprian  was  com- 
pelled to  flee  from  the  city.  His  absence  created  a 
situation  favourable  to  his  adversaries,  who  took  ad- 
vantage of  a  division  already  existing  in  regard  to  the 
methods  to  be  followed  in  dealing  with  those  who  had 
apostatized  (lapsi)  during  persecution  and  who  after- 
wards sought  to  be  readmitted  to  Christian  fellowship. 
It  was  easy  under  the  circumstances  to  arouse  much 
hostility  to  Cyprian,  because  he  had  followed  an  ex- 
tremely rigorous  policy  in  dealing  with  those  lapsi. 
The  crisis  was  reached  when  St.  Cyprian  sent  from  his 
place  of  hiding  a  commission  consisting  of  two  bishops 
and  two  priests  to  distribute  alms  to  those  who  had 
been  ruined  during  the  persecution.  Felicissimus,  re- 
garding the  activities  of  these  men  as  an  encroach- 
ment on  the  prerogatives  of  his  office,  attempted  to 
frustrate  their  mission.  This  was  reported  to  St.  Cjf- 
prian,  who  at  once  excommunicated  him. 
mus  immediately  gathered  around  him  all  those  who 
were  dissatisfied  with  the  bishop's  treatment  of  the 
lapsi  and  proclaimed  an  open  revolt.  The  situation 
was  still  further  complicated  by  the  fact  that  the 
thirty  years'  peace  preceding  the  Decian  persecution 
had  caused  much  laxity  in  the  Church,  and  that  on  the 




first  outbreak  of  hostilities  multitudes  of  Christians 
had  openly  apostatized,  or  resorted  to  the  expedient  of 
purchasing  certificates  from  the  venal  officials,  attest- 
ing their  compliance  with  the  emperor's  edict.  Besides 
this  the  custom  of  readmitting  apostates  to  Christian 
fellowship,  if  they  could  show  tickets  from  confessors 
or  martyrs  in  their  behalf,  had  resulted  in  widespread 

While  St.  Cyprian  was  in  exile  he  did  not  succeed  in 
checking  the  revolt  even  though  he  wisely  refrained 
from  exconimunicating  those  who  differed  from  him  in 
regard  to  the  treatment  of  the  lapsi.  After  his  return 
to  Carthage  (251)  he  convoked  a  synod  of  bishops, 
priests,  and  deacons,  in  which  the  sentence  of  excom- 
munication against  FeUcissimus  and  the  heads  of  the 
faction  was  reaffirmed,  and  in  which  definite  rules 
were  laid  down  regarding  the  manner  of  readmitting 
the  lapsi.  The  sentence  against  Felicissimus  and  his 
followers  did  not  deter  them  from  appearing  before 
another  council,  which  was  held  in  Carthage  the  follow- 
ing year,  and  demanding  that  the  case  be  reopened. 
Their  demand  was  refused,  and  they  sought  to  profit 
by  the  division  in  the  Roman  Church  which  had  arisen 
from  similar  causes,  except  that  in  this  case  the  charge 
of  laxity  was  levelled  against  the  orthodox  party. 
This  proceeding  and  the  fact  that  the  Council  of  Car- 
thage had  decided  with  so  much  moderation  in  regard 
to  the  lapsi,  modifying  as  it  did  the  rigoristic  policy  of 
Cyprian  by  a  judicious  compromise,  soon  detached 
from  Felicissimus  all  his  followers,  and  the  schism 

MoNCEAUx,  Hist.  Liu.  de  VAfrimie  Chrlt.  (Paris,  1901 ), 

II,  208  sq.;  Leclercq,  L'Afrique  chrctienne  (Paris,  1904),  I,  175 
sq.;  Benson,  Cyprian,  His  Life,  His  Times,  His  Work  (London, 
1897),  133-180;   Idem  in  Diet.  Christ.  Biog.,  s.  v. 

Patrick  J.  Healy. 

Felicitas,  Saint,  Martyr. — The  earliest  list  of  the 
Roman  feasts  of  martyrs,  known  as  the  "Depositio 
Martyrum  "  and  dating  from  the  time  of  Pope  Liberius, 
i.  e.  about  the  middle  of  the  fourth  century  (Ruinart, 
Acta  sincera,  Ratisbon,  p.  632),  mentions  seven  mar- 
tyrs whose  feast  was  kept  on  10  July.  Their  remains 
had  been  deposited  in  four  different  catacombs,  viz.  in 
three  cemeteries  on  the  Via  Salaria  and  in  one  on  the 
Via  Appia.  Two  of  the  martyrs,  Felix  and  Philip,  re- 
posed in  the  catacomb  of  Priscilla;  Martial,  Vitalis 
and  Alexander,  in  the  Cocmctcrium  Jordanorum;  Sil- 
anus  (or  Silvanus)  in  the  catacomb  of  Maximus,  and 
Januarius  in  that  of  Pra^textatus.  To  the  name  of 
Silanus  is  added  the  statement  that  his  body  was 
stolen  liy  the  Novatians  {hunc Silaniim  martyrem  Nova- 
tiani  Jurati  sunt).  In  the  Acts  of  these  martyrs,  that 
certainly  existed  in  the  sixth  century,  since  Gregory 
the  Croat  refers  to  them  in  his  "  Homiliaj  super  Evan- 
gclia"  (Lib.  I,  hom.  iii,  in  P.  L.,  LXXVI,  1087),  it  is 
stated  that  all  seven  were  sons  of  Felicitas,  a  noble 
Roman  lady.  According  to  these  Acts  Felicitas  and 
her  seven  sons  were  imprisoned  because  of  their  Chris- 
tian Faith,  at  the  instigation  of  pagan  priests,  during 
the  reign  of  Emperor  Antoninus.  Before  the  prefect 
Pul)!ius  they  adhered  firmly  to  their  religion,  and  were 
delivered  over  to  four  judges,  who  condemned  them 
to  various  modes  of  death.  The  division  of  the  mar- 
tyrs among  four  judges  corresponds  to  the  four  places 
of  their  burial.  St.  Felicitas  herself  was  buried  in 
the  catacomb  of  Maximus  on  the  Via  Salaria,  beside 

These  Acts  were  regarded  as  genuine  by  Ruinart 
(op.  cit.,  72-74),  and  even  distinguished  modern  archae- 
ologists have  considered  them,  though  not  in  their 
present  form  corresponding  entirely  to  the  original, 
yet  in  substance  based  on  genuine  contemporary  rec- 
ords. Recent  investigations  of  Fiihrer,  however  (see 
below),  have  shown  this  opinion  to  be  hardly  tenable. 
The  earliest  rccciisii)n  of  Acts,  edited  by  Ruinart, 
does  not  antedate  tlie  sixth  century,  and  appears  to 
be  based  not  on  a  Roman,  but  on  a  Greek  original. 

Moreover,  apart  from  the  present  form  of  the  Acts, 
various  details  have  been  called  in  question.  Thus,  if 
Felicitas  were  really  the  mother  of  the  seven  martyrs 
honoured  on  10  July,  it  is  strange  that  her  name  does 
not  appear  in  the  well-known  fourth-century  Roman 
calendar.  Her  feast  is  first  mentioned  in  tlie  "Mar- 
tyrologium  Hieronymianum",  but  on  a  different  day 
(23  Nov.).  It  is,  however,  historically  certain  that 
she,  as  well  as  the  seven  martyrs  called  her  sons  in  the 
Acts,  suffered  for  the  Christian  Faith.  From  a  very 
early  date  her  feast  was  solemnly  celebrated  in  the 
Roman  Church  on  23  November,  for  on  that  day 
Gregory  the  Great  delivered  a  homily  in  the  basilica 
that  rose  above  her  tomb.  Her  body  then  rested  in 
the  catacomb  of  Maximus;  in  that  cemetery  on  the 
Via  Salaria  all  Roman  itineraries,  or  guides  to  the 
burial-places  of  martyrs,  locate  her  burial-place,  speci- 
fying that  her  tomb  was  in  a  church  above  this  cata- 
comb (De  Rossi,  Roma  sotterranea,  I,  176-77),  and 
that  the  body  of  her  son  Silanus  was  also  there.  The 
crypt  where  Felicitas  was  laid  to  rest  was  later  en- 
larged into  a  subterranean  chapel,  and  was  redis- 
covered in  1SS5.  A  seventh-century  fresco  is  yet 
visible  on  the  rear  wall  of  this  chapel,  representing  in  a 
group  Felicitas  and  her  seven  sons,  and  overhead  the 
figure  of  Christ  bestowing  upon  them  the  eternal 

Certain  historical  references  to  St.  Felicitas  and  her 
sons  antedate  the  aforesaid  Acts,  e.  g.  a  fifth-century 
sermon  of  St.  Peter  Chrysologus  (Sermo  cxxxiv,  in 
P.  L.,  LII,  565)  and  a  metrical  epitaph  either  written 
by  Pope  Damasus  (d.  384)  or  composed  shortly  after 
his  time  and  suggested  by  his  poem  in  praise  of  the 
martyr: — 

Discite  quid  meriti  prsestet  pro  rege  feriri;_ 
Femina  non  timuit  gladium,  cum  natis  obivit, 
Confessa  Christum  meruit  per  ssecula  nomen. 
[Learn  how  meritorious  it  is  to  die  for  the  King 
(Christ).  This  woman  feared  not  the  sword,  Ijut  per- 
ished with  her  sons.  She  confessed  Christ  and  merited 
an  eternal  renown. — Ihm,  Damasi  Epigrammata 
(Leipzig,  1895),  p.  45.]  We  possess,  therefore,  confir- 
mation for  an  ancient  Roman  tradition,  independent  of 
the  Acts,  to  the  effect  that  the  Felicitas  who  reposed  in 
the  catacomb  of  Maximus,  and  whose  feast  the  Roman 
Church  commemorated  23  Nov.,  suffered  martyrdom 
with  her  sons;  it  does  not  record,  however,  any  details 
concerning  these  sons.  It  may  be  recalled  that  the 
tomb  of  St.  Silanus,  one  of  the  seven  martyrs  (10  July), 
adjoined  that  of  St.  Felicitas  and  was  likewise  hon- 
oured; it  is  quite  possible,  therefore,  that  tradition 
soon  identified  the  sons  of  St.  Felicitas  with  the  seven 
martyrs,  and  that  this  formed  the  basis  for  the  extant 
Acts.  The  tomb  of  St.  Januarius  in  the  catacoml:)  of 
Prsetextatus  belongs  to  the  end  of  the  second  century, 
to  which  period,  therefore,  the  martyrdoms  must  be- 
long, proliably  under  Marcus  Aurclius.  If  St.  Felicitas 
did  not  suffer  martyrdom  on  the  same  occasion  we 
have  no  means  of  determining  the  time  of  her  death. 
In  an  ancient  Roman  edifice  near  the  ruins  of  the 
Baths  of  Titus  there  stood  in  early  medieval  times  a 
chapel  in  honour  of  St.  Felicitas.  A  faded  painting  in 
this  chapel  represents  her  with  her  sons  just  as  in  the 
above-mentioned  fresco  in  her  crypt.  Her  feast  is 
celebrated  23  Nov. 

Ruinart,  Aeta  sincera  marlyntm  (Ratisbon,  18.59),  .72-74; 
Acta  SS.,  July,  III.  5-18;  Bibliotheea  haijiographica  lalina,  I, 
429-30;  Allard,  Hisloire  lies  persecutions  (2nd  ed.,  Paris,  1892), 
I,  345-68;  Auafc,  Hisloire  de.i  persecutions  de  I'Eglise  jvsgv'it  la 
fin  des  Antonins  (Paris,  1845),  345  sq^.,  439  sqq.;  Doulcet, 
Essai  sur  les  rapports  de  VEglise  chrctienne  avec  I'Etat  romain 
pendant  les  trois  premiers  sitclcs  (Paris.  1883),  187-217;  Dn- 
FOURCQ,  Gcsta  Martt/rmn  romains  (Paris.  1900).  I,  223-24;  De 
Rossi.  BMeUino  di  areheol.  crist.  (1884-85),  149-84;  Fuhrer, 
Ein  lieilrag  zur  Losiing  der  Felicilasfrage  yreising,  1890); 
Idem,  Zur  Felicitasfrage  (LeipziE.  1894);  ROnstle,  llagio- 
graphische  Sludien  iiber  die  Passio  Felicilatis  aim  VII  filiis 
(Paderhorn,  1894);  Marucchi,  La  calacombc  romanc  (Home, 
1903),  388-400. 

J.   P.    lilRSCH. 




Felicitas  and  Perpetua,  Saints,  martyrs,  suf- 
fered at  Carthage,  7  March,  203,  together  with  three 
companions,  Revocatus,  Saturus,  and  Saturninus. 
The  details  of  the  martyrdom  of  these  five  confessors 
in  the  Nortli  African  Churcli  have  reached  us  through  a 
genuine,  contemporary  tlcscription,  one  of  tlie  most 
affecting  accounts  of  the  glorious  warfare  of  Ciiristian 
martyrdom  in  ancient  times.  By  a  rescript  of  Septi- 
mius  Severus  (103-211)  all  imperial  subjects  were  for- 
bidden under  severe  penalties  to  become  Christians. 
In  consequence  of  this  decree,  five  catecliumens  at 
Carthage  were  seized  and  cast  into  prison,  viz.  Vibia 
Perpetua,  a  young  marrieil  lady  of  noble  birth;  tlie 
slave  Felicitas,  and  her  fellow-slave  Revocatus,  also 
Saturninus  and  Secuudulus.  Soon  one  Saturus,  who 
deliberately  declared  himself  a  Christian  before  the 
judge,  was  also  incarcerated.  Perpetua's  father  was 
a  pagan;  her  mother,  however,  and  two  brothers  were 
Christians,  one  being  still  a  catechumen;  a  third 
brother,  the  chiki  Dinocrates,  had  died  a  pagan. 

After  their  arrest,  and  before  they  were  led  away  to 
prison,  the  five  catechumens  were  baptized.  The  suf- 
ferings of  the  prison  life,  the  attempts  of  Perpetua's 
father  to  induce  her  to  apostatize,  the  vicissitudes  of 
the  martyrs  before  their  execution,  the  visions  of  Satu- 
rus and  Perpetua  in  their  dungeons,  were  all  faitlifully 
committed  to  writing  by  the  last  two.  Shortly  after  the 
death  of  the  martyrs  a  zealous  Christian  added  to  this 
document  an  account  of  their  execution.  The  dark- 
ness of  their  prison  and  the  oppressive  atmosphere 
seemed  frightful  to  Perpetua,  whose  terror  was  in- 
creased by  anxiety  for  her  young  child.  Two  deacons 
succeeded,  by  sufficiently  bribing  the  jailer,  in  gaining 
admittance  to  the  imprisoned  Christians  and  allevi- 
ated somewhat  their  sufferings.  Perpetua's  mother 
also,  and  her  brother,  yet  a  catechumen,  visited  them. 
Her  mother  brought  in  her  arms  to  Perpetua  her  little 
son,  whom  she  was  permitted  to  nurse  and  retain  in 
prison  with  her.  A  vision,  in  which  she  saw  herself 
ascending  a  ladder  leading  to  green  meadows,  where 
a  flock  of  sheep  was  browsing,  assured  her  of  her  ap- 
proaching martyrdom. 

A  few  days  later  Perpetua's  father,  hearing  a  rumour 
that  the  trial  of  the  imprisoned  Christians  would  soon 
take  place,  again  visited  their  dungeon  and  besought 
her  by  everything  dear  to  her  not  to  put  this  disgrace 
on  his  name;  but  Perpetua  remained  steadfast  to  her 
Faith.  The  next  day  the  trial  of  the  six  confessors 
took  place,  before  the  Procurator  Ililarianus.  All  six 
resolutely  confessed  their  ( 'hrist  ian  Faith.  Perpetua's 
father,  carrying  her  child  in  his  arms,  approached  her 
again  and  attempted,  for  the  last  time,  to  induce  her 
to  apostatize;  the  procurator  also  remonstrated  with 
tier  but  in  vain.  She  refused  to  sacrifice  to  the  gods 
for  the  safety  of  the  emperor.  The  procurator  there- 
upon had  the  father  removed  by  force,  on  which  occa- 
sion he  was  struck  with  a  whip.  The  Christians  were 
then  condemned  to  be  torn  to  pieces  by  wild  beasts, 
for  which  they  gave  thanks  to  God.  In  a  vision  Per- 
petua saw  her  brother  Dinocrates,  who  had  died  at  the 
early  age  of  seven,  at  first  seeming  to  be  sorrowful  and 
in  pain,  but  shortly  thereafter  happy  and  healthy. 
.\nother  apparition,  in  which  she  saw  herself  fighting 
with  a  savage  Ethiopian,  whom  she  conquered,  made 
it  clear  to  her  that  she  would  not  have  to  do  battle 
with  wild  beasts  but  with  the  Devil.  Saturus,  who 
also  wrote  down  his  visions,  saw  himself  and  Perpetua 
transported  by  four  angels,  towards  the  East  to  a 
beautiful  garden,  where  they  met  four  other  North 
African  Christians  who  had  suffered  martyrdom  dur- 
ing the  same  persecution,  viz.  Jocundus,  Saturninus, 
Artaxius,  and  Quintus.  He  also  saw  in  this  vision 
Bishop  Optatus  of  C^arthage  and  the  priest  Aspasius, 
who  prayed  the  martyrs  to  arrange  a  reconciliation  be- 
tween tiiem.  In  the  meanwhile  the  birthday  festival 
of  the  Emperor  Geta  approached,  on  which  occasion 
the  condemned  Christians  were  to  fight  with  wild 

beasts  in  the  military  games;  they  were  therefore 
transferred  to  the  prison  in  the  camp.  The  jailer 
Pudens  had  learnt  to  respect  the  confe.ssors,  and  he 
permitted  other  Christians  to  visit  them.  Perpetua's 
father  was  also  admitted  and  made  another  fruitless 
attempt  to  pervert  her. 

Secundulus,  one  of  the  confessors,  died  in  prison. 
Felicitas,  who  at  the  time  of  her  incarceration  was  with 
child  (in  the  eighth  month),  was  apprehensive  that 
she  would  not  be  permitted  to  suffer  martyrdom  at  the 
same  time  as  the  others,  since  the  law  forbade  the  exe- 
cution of  pregnant  women.  She  prayed  God  to  per- 
mit her  to  die  with  her  companions.  Happily,  two 
days  before  the  games  she  gave  birtli  to  a  daughter, 
who  was  adopted  by  a  Christian  woman.  On  7  March, 
the  five  confessors  were  led  into  the  amphitheatre. 
At  the  demand  of  the  pagan  mob  they  were  fii-st 
scourged;  then  a  boar,  a  bear,  and  a  leopard,  were  set 
at  the  men,  and  a  wild  cow  at  the  women.  Wounded 
by  the  wild  animals,  they  gave  each  other  the  kiss  of 
peace  and  were  then  put  to  the  sword.  Their  bodies 
were  interred  at  Carthage.  Their  feast  day  was  sol- 
emnly commemorated  even  outside  Africa.  Thus 
under  7  March  the  names  of  Felicitas  and  Perpetua  are 
entered  in  the  Philocalian  calentlar,  i.  e.  the  calendar 
of  martyi-s  venerated  publicly  in  the  fourth  century  at 
Rome.  A  magnificent  basilica  was  afterwards  erected 
over  their  tomb,  the  Basilica  Majorum ;  that  the  tomb 
was  indeed  in  this  basilica  has  lately  been  proved  by 
Pere  Delattre,  who  discovered  there  an  ancient  in- 
scription bearing  the  names  of  the  martyrs. 

The  feast  of  these  saints  is  still  celebrated  on  7 
March.  The  Latin  description  of  their  martyrdom  was 
discovered  by  Holstenius  and  published  byPoussines. 
Chapters  iii-x  contain  tlie  narrative  and  the  visions 
of  Perpetua;  chapters  xi-.\iii  the  vision  of  Saturus; 
chapters  i,  ii  and  xiv-xxi  were  written  by  an  eyewit- 
ness soon  after  the  death  of  the  martyrs.  In  ISOO 
Rendel  Harris  discovered  a  similar  narrative  written 
in  Greek,  which  he  published  in  collaboration  with 
Seth  K.  Gifford  (London,  1S90).  Several  historians 
maintain  that  this  Greek  text  is  the  original,  others 
that  both  the  Greek  and  Latin  texts  are  original  and 
contemporary;  but  there  is  no  doubt  that  tlie  Latin 
text  is  the  original  and  that  the  Greek  is  merely  a 
translation.  That  Tertullian  is  the  author  of  these 
Acts  is  an  unpio\cd  asstition  The  st  itement  that 
these  martyrs  weie  all  or  m  p  111  Mont  itii  N  il  o  1  icks 
proof ,  at  least  there  IS  no  intiiii  it loti  c)l  it  m  thi    Vets. 

HoLbTENius,  Pas^w  ,SS  MM  J  I  111  I  II  ed. 
PosslNus    (Rome,    1663),     Kim\\i  i       1   //  i        rrli/mm 

(Ratisbon,  1859),  137  s<iq  ,    4(/.;Ss     \1,,,1,    I    i  s     Har- 

ris and  Gifford,  T'Ac  4(/b  o/ Jt/</r/ /  !  //  I  1  III'  I  f  diet- 
tas  (London.  1890),    Roiiins.n    ]I     I,  I         l„a  m 

Texts  and  f>ludle3.  I  (Cvu\  :i  \         II  li  i         (v\AL- 

lERI  La  Poisto.S.S  Perp'l  /  rAr  , 

supplement  V  (Rome,  1^  H  /  tima, 

ed  BoLLANDlSTi  11,964      i  /  l^i        10(1-02, 

369-72,  Orsi,  D«sorfa(!.inp  /  ;  li  n  pn  ss  I'lriil  i,  1  dtcila- 
tis  et  sociorum  niarfyrum  orthijiloxia  (Florence,  1728),  PiLLET, 
Lcs  marlyrs  d' ^inque,  Htstoire  de  Ste  Ptrpttue  cl  de  ses  com- 
pnanoni  (V-\r\^  Iss.i  \i  m  /  ,u  I  AsSS  J-  h  it  Prrpitue 
el  de  lein  i  i      /         '  /  /    mam 

(Pans    ls'>  1        o  1  ,  /  die 

alloemrin     /  I     I  I  ^  i  I  VRD, 

llt^l   in    '  III  I  I       1  I       M         F  luA., 

Hill  I  //  „„i    L  (fms    I'lIU  I    70-96, 

I  )i  I  lombeau  des  iS.S    Perpetue  et 

h  icadcmie  des  Inscriptions  et 

B  n     I  I  "1        H     1 

J.  P.  IviUbCH. 

Felinus.     See  Sandeo,  Felina-Makia. 

Felix  I,  Saint,  Pope,  date  of  birth  unknown;  d. 
274.  Early  in  269  he  succeeded  Saint  Dionysius  as 
head  of  the  Roman  Church.  About  this  time  there 
arrived  at  Rome,  directed  to  Pope  Dionysius,  the  re- 
port of  the  Synod  of  Antioch  which  in  that  very  year 
had  deposed  the  local  bishop,  Paul  of  Samosata,  for 
his  heretical  teachings  concerning  the  doctrine  of  the 
Trinity  (see  Antioch).  A  letter,  probably  sent  by 
Felix  to  the  East  in  response  to  the  synodal  report, 




containing  an  exposition  of  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity, 
was  at  a  later  date  interpolated  in  the  interest  of  his 
sect  by  a  follower  of  ApoUinaris  (see  Apollinarian- 
ism).  This  spurious  document  was  submitted  to  the 
Council  of  Ephesus  in  431  (Mansi,  "Coll.  cone",  IV, 
118S;  cf.  Harnack,  "Geschichte  der  altchrLstlichen 
Literatur",  I,  659  sqq.;  Bardenhewer,  "Geschichte 
der  altkirchlichen  Literatur",  II,  582  sq.).  The  frag- 
ment preserved  in  the  Acts  of  the  council  lays  special 
emphasis  on  the  unity  and  identity  of  the  Son  of  God 
and  the  Son  of  Man  in  Christ.  The  same  fragment 
gives  Pope  Felix  as  a  martjT;  but  this  detail,  which 
occurs  again  in  the  biography  of  the  pope  in  the  "  Liber 
Pontificalis"  (ed.  Duchesne,  I,  58),  is  unsupported  by 
any  authentic  earlier  evidence  and  is  manifestly  due  to 
a  confusion  of  names.  According  to  the  notice  in  the 
"Liber  Pontificalis",  Felix  erected  a  basilica  on  the 
Via  Aiu-elia;  the  same  source  also  adds  that  he  was 
biu'ied  there  ("  Hie  fecit  basilicam  in  Via  Aurelia,  ubi 
et  sepultus  est").  The  latter  detail  is  evidently  an 
error,  for  the  fourth  century  Roman  calendar  of  feasts 
says  that  Pope  Felix  was  interred  in  the  Catacomb  of 
St.  Callistus  on  the  Via  Appia  ("III  Kal.  Januarii, 
Felicis  in  Callisti",  it  reads  in  the  "Depositio  episco- 
porum").  The  statement  of  the  "Liber  Pontificalis" 
concerning  the  pope's  martyrdom  results  obviously 
from  a  confusion  with  a  Roman  martyr  of  the  same 
name  buried  on  the  Via  Aurelia,  and  over  whose  grave 
a  church  was  built.  In  the  Roman  "  Feriale"  or  calen- 
dar of  feasts,  referred  to  above,  the  name  of  Felix 
occurs  in  the  list  of  Roman  bishops  (Depositio  episco- 
porum),  and  not  in  that  of  martyrs.  The  notice  in  the 
"  Liber  Pontificalis"  ascribes  to  this  pope  a  decree  that 
Masses  should  be  celebrated  on  the  tombs  of  martyrs 
("Hie  constituit  supra  memorias  mart.yrum  missas 
celebrare").  The  author  of  this  entry  was  evidently 
alluding  to  the  custom  of  celebrating  the  Holy  Sacri- 
fice privately,  at  the  altars  near  or  over  the  tombs  of 
the  martyrs  in  the  crypts  of  the  catacombs  {missa  ad 
corpus),  while  the  solemn  celebration  of  the  Sacred 
Mysteries  always  took  place  in  the  basilicas  built  over 
the  catacombs.  This  practice,  still  in  force  at  the  end 
of  the  fourth  century  (Prudentius,  "  Peristephanon ", 
XI,  vv.  171  sqq.),  dates  apparently  from  the  period 
when  the  great  cemeterial  basilicas  were  built  in  Rome, 
and  owes  its  origin  to  the  solemn  commemoration  ser- 
vices of  martyrs,  held  at  their  tombs  on  the  anniver- 
sary of  their  burial,  as  early  as  the  third  century. 
Felix  probably  issued  no  such  decree,  but  the  compiler 
of  the  "  Liber  Pontificalis"  attributed  it  to  him  because 
he  made  no  departure  from  the  custom  in  force  in  his 
time.  According  to  the  above-mentioned  detail  of  the 
"Depositio  episcoporum ",  Felix  was  interred  in  the 
catacomb  of  St.  Callistus,  30  December.  In  the  pres- 
ent Roman  Martyrology  his  name  occurs  30  May,  the 
date  given  in  the  "  Liber  Pontificalis"  as  that  of  his 
death  (///  Kal.  Jun.);  it  Ls  probably  an  error  which 
could  easily  occur  through  a  transcriber  writing  Jun. 
for  Jan. 

Liher  Pontificalis,  ed.  Duchesne,  T,  introd.  cxxv;  text,  158, 
with  the  notes;  De  Rossi,  Roma  sotterranea,  II,  98-104;  Acta 
iS'.S.,  May,  VII,  236-37;  Langen.  Geschichte  der  romlschen 
Kirche  (Bonn,  1881),  I,  365-69;  Allard,  Hisloire  des  persecu- 
tions, III,  243  sqq. 

J.    P.    KiRSCH. 

Felix  II,  Pope  (more  properly  Antipope),  355-58; 
d.  22  Nov.,  365.  In  355  Pope  Liberius  was  banished 
to  Beroca  in  Thrace  by  the  Emperor  Constantius  be- 
cause he  upheld  tenaciously  the  Nicene  definition  of 
faith  and  refused  to  condemn  St.  Atlianasius  of  Alex- 
andria (see  LiBERins).  The  Roman  clergy  pledged 
itself  in  solcnm  conclave  not  to  acknowledge  any  other 
Bisliop  of  Rome  while  Liberius  was  alive  ("Marcellini 
ft  Fausti  Libellus  precum",  no.  1:  "Qu;e  gosta  sunt 
iiilcr  liiberium  et  Fclicem  episcopos"  in  "Collectio 
Avcllana",  ed.  Gunthcr;  Ilieronymus,  "Chronicon", 
ad  an.  Abr.  2365).     The  emperor,  however,  who  was 

supplanting  the  exiled  Catholic  bishops  with  bishops 
of  Arian  tendencies,  exerted  himself  to  install  a  new 
Bishop  of  Rome  in  place  of  the  banished  Liberius. 
He  invited  to  Milan  Felix,  archdeacon  of  the  Roman 
Church;  on  the  latter's  arrival,  Acacius  of  Ciesarea  suc- 
ceeded in  inducing  him  to  accept  the  office  from  which 
Liberius  had  been  forcibly  expelled,  and  to  be  conse- 
crated by  Acacius  and  two  other  Arian  bishops.  The 
majority  of  the  Roman  clergy  acknowledged  the  val- 
idity of  his  consecration,  but  the  laity  would  have 
nothing  to  do  with  him  and  remained  true  to  the  ban- 
ished but  lawful  pope. 

When  Constantius  visited  Rome  in  May,  357,  the 
people  demanded  the  recall  of  their  rightful  bishop 
Liberius,  who,  in  fact,  retm-ned  soon  after  signing  the 
third  formula  of  Sirmium.  The  bishops,  assembled  in 
that  city  of  Lower  Pannonia,  wrote  to  Felix  and  the 
Roman  clergy  advising  them  to  receive  Liberius  in  all 
charity  and  to  put  aside  their  dissensions;  it  was  added 
that  Liberius  and  Felix  should  together  govern  the 
Church  of  Rome.  The  people  received  their  legiti- 
mate pope  with  great  enthusiasm,  but  a  great  commo- 
tion arose  against  Felix,  who  was  finally  driven  from 
the  city.  Soon  after,  he  attempted,  with  the  help  of 
his  adherents,  to  occupy  the  Basilica  Julii  (Santa 
Maria  in  Trastevere) ,  but  was  finally  banished  in  per- 
petuity by  unanimous  vote  of  the  Senate  and  the  peo- 
ple. He  retired  to  the  neighbouring  Porto,  where  he 
lived  quietly  till  his  death.  Liberius  permitted  the 
members  of  the  Roman  clergy,  including  the  adher- 
ents of  Felix,  to  retain  their  positions.  Later  legend 
confounded  the  relative  positions  of  Felix  and  Li- 
berius. In  the  apocryphal  "  Acta  Felicis  "  and  "  Acta 
Liberii",  as  well  as  in  the  "Liber  pontificalis",  Felix 
was  portrayed  as  a  saint  and  confessor  of  the  true 
Faith.  This  distortion  of  the  true  facts  originated 
most  probably  through  confusion  of  this  FelLx  with 
another  Felix,  a  Roman  martyr  of  an  earlier  date. 

According  to  the  "Liber  Pontificalis",  which  may 
be  registering  here  a  reliable  tradition,  Felix  built  a 
church  on  the  Via  Aurelia.  It  is  well  known  that  on 
this  road  was  buried  a  Roman  martyr,  Felix ;  hence  it 
seems  not  improbable  that  apropos  of  both  there  arose 
a  confusion  (see  Felix  I)  through  which  the  real  story 
of  the  antipope  was  lost  and  he  obtained  in  local 
Roman  history  the  status  of  a  saint  and  a  confessor. 
As  such  he  appears  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  on 
29  July. 

Liber  Pontificalis,  ed.  Duchesne,  I,  Introd.,  exxiii  sqq.;  211 
and  notes;  Acta  SS.,  July,  VII,  43-50;  Analecta  Boll.  (1883),  II, 
322-24;  Bibliotheca  haglographica  latina,  I,  430;  Gesta  Liberii, 
ed.  CousTANT  in  Epistoltc  Romanorum  Pontificum,  I  (Paris, 
1721),  appendix,  89-94;  Lettere  in  difesa  dell'  epitafio  di  san 
Felice  II  (Rome,  1790):  P.\OLl,  Dissertazinni  su  san  Felice  II 
papa  e  martyre  (Rome,  1790) ;  Dollinger,  Papstfabeln  des  Mittel- 
alters  (2nd  ed.),  126-45;  Langen,  Geschichte  der  romischen 
Kirche,  I,  471  sqq.;  Duchesne,  Histoire  ancienne  de  I'Eglise,  II 
(Paris,  1907),  290  sqq.,  452  sqq. 

J.    P.    IClRSCH. 

Felix  III,-  Saint,  Pope  (483-492),  b.  of  a  Roman 
senatorial  family  and  said  to  have  been  an  ancestor  of 
.Saint  Gregory  the  Great.  Nothing  certain  is  known  of 
Felix,  till  he'succeeded  St.  Simpricius  in  the  Chair  of 
Peter  (483).  At  that  time  the  Church  was  still  in  the 
midst  of  her  long  conflict  with  the  Eutychian  heresy. 
In  the  preceding  year,  the  Emperor  Zeno,  at  the  sug- 
gestion of  Acacius,  the  perfidious  Patriarch  of  Constan- 
tinople, had  issued  an  edict  known  as  the  Henoticon 
or  Act  of  LTnion,  in  which  he  declared  that  no  symbol 
of  faith,  other  than  that  of  Nice,  with  the  additions  of 
381,  should  be  received.  The  edict  was  intended  as  a 
bond  of  reconciliation  between  Catholics  and  Euty- 
chians,  but  it  caused  greater  conflicts  than  ever,  and 
split  the  Church  of  the  East  into  three  or  four  parties. 
As  the  Catholics  everywhere  spurned  the  edict,  the 
emperor  had  thiven  the  Patriarchs  of  Antioch  and 
Alexandria  from  their  sees.  Peter  the  Tanner,  a  noto- 
rious heretic,  had  again  intruded  himself  into  the  Seeof 




Antioch,  and  Peter  Mongus,  who  was  to  be  the  real 
source  of  trouble  during  the  pontificate  of  Felix,  had 
seized  that  of  Alexandria.  In  his  first  synod  Felix  ex- 
communicated Peter  the  Tanner,  who  was  likewise 
condemned  by  Acacius  in  a  synod  at  Constantinople. 
In  484,  Felix  also  excommunicated  Peter  Mongus — an 
act,  which  brought  about  a  schism  between  East  and 
West,  that  was  not  healed  for  thirty-five  years.  This 
Peter,  being  a  time-server  and  of  a  crafty  disposition, 
ingratiated  himself  with  the  emperor  and  Acacius  by 
subscribing  to  the  Henoticon,  and  was  thereupon,  to 
the  displeasure  of  many  of  the  bishops,  admitted  to 
communion  by  Acacius. 

Felix,  having  con\'ened  a  synod,  sent  legates  to  the 
emperor  and  Acacius,  with  the  request  that  they 
should  expel  Peter  Mongus  from  Alexandria  and  that 
Acacius  himself  should  come  to  Rome  to  explain  his 
conduct.  The  legates  were  detained  and  imprisoned; 
then,  urged  by  threats  and  promises,  they  held  com- 
munion with  the  heretics  by  distinctly  uttering  the 
name  of  Peter  in  the  reading  of  the  sacred  diptychs. 
When  their  treason  was  made  known  at  Rome  by 
Simeon,  one  of  the  "AccEraeti"  monks,  Felix  con- 
vened a  synod  of  seventy-seven  bishops  in  the  Lateran 
Basilica,  in  which  Acacius  as  well  as  the  papal  legates 
were  excommunicated.  Supported  by  the  emperor, 
Acacius  disregarded  the  excommunication,  removed 
the  pope's  name  from  the  sacred  diptychs,  and  re- 
mained in  the  see  till  his  death,  which  took  place  one 
or  two  years  later.  His  successor  Phravitas,  sent  mes- 
sengers to  Feli.x,  assuring  him  that  he  would  not  hold 
communication  with  Peter,  but,  the  pope  learning 
that  this  was  a  deception,  the  schism  continued.  Peter 
having  died  in  the  meantime,  Euthyraius,  who  suc- 
ceeded Phravitas,  also  sought  communion  with  Rome, 
but  the  pope  refused,  as  Euthyraius  would  not  remove 
the  names  of  his  two  predecessors  from  the  sacred 
diptychs.  The  schism,  known  as  the  Acacian  Schism, 
was  not  finally  healed  till  518  in  the  reign  of  Justinian. 
In  Africa,  the  Arian  Vandals,  Genseric  and  his  son 
Huneric,  had  been  persecuting  the  Church  for  more 
than  50  years  and  had  driven  many  Catholics  into 
exile.  When  peace  was  restored,  numbers  of  those 
who  through  fear  had  fallen  into  heresy  and  had  been 
rebaptized  by  the  Arians  desired  to  return  to  the 
Church.  On  being  repulsed  by  those  who  had  re- 
mained firm,  they  appealed  to  Felix,  who  convened  a 
synod  in  487,  and  sent  a  letter  to  the  bishops  of  Africa, 
expounding  the  conditions  under  which  they  were  to 
be  received  back.  Felix  died  in  492,  ha%'ing  reigned 
eight  years,  eleven  months  and  twenty-three  days. 

Liber  Pontiflcatis,  ed.  Duchesne  (Paris,  1886),  I,  252-593; 
Barmby,  in  Diet.  Christ.  Biogr.,  s.  v.;  Evagri08.  Ecete.'i.  Hist., 
431-594;  (tr.  London,  1854),  p.  357;  Aeta  SS.,  Feb.,  Ill,  507; 
Alexander,  Hi'it.  Eccle.i.  (Venice.  1776),  V,  9;  Fleury,  Hist. 
Eccles.,  IV,  xxix,  53;  Orsi,  Sloria  Eccles.,  XIV,  iii.  27-28; 
UoHRBACHER,  Hist.  Eecles.  (Uhge,  18,50).  VIII.  382;  DoL- 
LiNGER,  Hist,  of  the  Church  (London,  1840),  II,  172;  Baronius. 
Annates  Eccl.  ad  annum;   Acta  Juris  Pontif.  (Paris,  1869),  X, 

785-95.  Ambrose  Coleman. 

FeUx  IV,  Pope  (526-530).— On  IS  May,  526,  Pope 
John  I  (q.  V.)  died  in  prison  at  Ravenna,  a  victim  of 
the  angry  suspicions  of  Theodoric,  the  Arian  king  of 
the  Goths.  When,  through  the  powerful  influence  of 
this  ruler,  the  cardinal-priest,  Felix  of  Samnium,  son  of 
Castorius,  was  brought  forward  in  Rome  as  John's  suc- 
cessor, the  clergy  and  laity  yielded  to  the  wish  of  the 
Gothic  king  and  chose  Felix  pope.  He  was 
crated  Bishop  of  Rome  12  July,  526,  and  took  advan- 
tage of  the  favour  he  enjoyed  at  the  court  of  Theodoric 
to  further  the  interests  of  the  Roman  Church,  dis- 
charging the  duties  of  his  office  in  a  most  worthy  man- 
ner. On  30  August,  526,  Theodoric  died,  and,  his 
grandson  Athalaric  being  a  minor,  the  government 
was  conducted  by  Athalaric's  mother  Amalasuntha, 
daughter  of  Theodoric  and  favourably  disposed  to- 
wards the  Catholics.  To  the  new  ruler  the  Roman 
clergy  addressed  a  complaint  on  the  usurpation  of 

their  privileges  by  the  civil  power.  A  royal  edict, 
drawn  up  by  Cassiodorus  in  terms  of  the  deepest  re- 
spect for  the  papal  authority,  confirmed  the  ancient 
custom  that  every  civil  or  criminal  charge  of  a  layman 
against  a  cleric  should  be  submitted  to  the  pope,  or  to 
an  ecclesiastical  court  appointed  by  him.  A  fine  of 
ten  pounds  of  gold  was  imposed  as  a  punishment  for 
the  violation  of  this  order,  and  the  money  thus  ol> 
tained  was  to  be  distributed  amongst  the  poor  by  the 
pope  (Cassiodorus,  "  Varise",  VIII,  n.  24,  ed.  Momm- 
sen,  "Mon.  Germ.  Hist.:  Auctores  antiquiss.",  XII, 
255).  The  pope  received  as  a  gift  from  Amalasuntha 
two  ancient  edifices  in  the  Roman  Forum,  the  Temple 
of  Romulus,  son  of  the  Emperor  Maxentius,  and  the 
adjoining  Templum  sacrw  urbis,  the  Roman  land- 
registry  office.  The  pope  converted  the  buildings  into 
the  Church  of  SS.  Cosmas  and  Damian,  which  still  ex- 
ists and  in  the  apse  of  which  is  preserved  the  large  and 
magnificent  mosaic  executed  by  order  of  FelLx,  the 
figure  of  the  pope,  however,  being  a  later  restoration 
(see  Cosmas  and  Damian).  FelLx  also  took  part  in 
the  so-called  Semipelagian  conflict  in  Southern  Gaul 
concerning  the  nature  and  efficiency  of  grace.  He  sent 
to  the  bishops  of  those  parts  a  series  of  "  Capitula",  re- 
garding grace  and  free  will,  compiled  from  Scripture 
and  the  Fathers.  These  capitula  were  published  as 
canons  at  the  Sjmod  of  Orange  (529).  In  addition 
FelLx  approved  the  work  of  Coesarius  of  Aries  against 
Faustus  of  Riez  on  grace  and  free  will  (De  gratia  et 
libero  arbitrio).  Rendered  anxious  by  the  political 
dissensions  of  the  Romans,  many  of  whom  stood  for 
the  interests  of  Byzantium,  while  others  supported 
Gothic  rule,  Felix  IV,  when  he  fell  seriously  ill  in  the 
year  530,  wished  to  ensure  the  peace  of  the  Roman 
Church  by  naming  his  successor.  Having  given  over 
to  Archdeacon  Boniface  his  pallium,  he  made  it  known 
publicly  that  he  had  chosen  Boniface  to  succeed  him, 
and  that  he  had  apprised  the  court  of  Ravenna  of  his 
action  ("  Neues  Archiv",  XI,  1886,  367;  Duchesne, 
"Liber  Pontificahs",  I,  282,  note  4).  FelLx  IV  died 
soon  afterwards,  but  in  the  papal  election  which  fol- 
lowed his  wishes  were  disregarded  (see  Boniface  II). 
The  feast  of  Felix  IV  is  celebrated  on  30  January.  The 
day  of  his  death  is  uncertain,  but  it  was  probably 
towards  the  end  of  September,  530. 

Liber  Pontificalis,  ed.  Duchesne,  I,  279  sq.;  Langen,  Ge- 
schichte  der  rvmischen  Kirche,  I,  300  sqq.;  Grisar,  Geschichte 
Rnms  und  der  Pap.-<le  im  Mitlelaller  (Freiburg  im  Br.,  1901),  I, 
183  sqq.,  493  sq.,  513;  Holder.  Die  Designation  der  Nachfolger 
durch  die  Papste  (Fribourg,  1S92),  29  sqq. 

J.    P.    lilRSCH. 

Felix  V  (.\MAnEDS  op  Savoy),  Anti-pope  (1440- 
1449),  b.  4  Dec,  1383;  d.  at  Ripaille,  7  Jan.,  1451. 
The  schismatic  Council  of  Basle,  having  declared  the 
rightful  pope,  Eugene  IV,  deposed,  proceeded  imme- 
diately with  the  election  of  an  anti-pope  (see  Basle, 
Council  of).  Wishing  to  secure  additional  influence 
and  increased  financial  support,  they  turned  their  at- 
tention towards  the  rich  and  powerful  prince,  Duke 
Amadeus  VIII  of  Savoy.  Amadeus  had  exercised 
over  his  dependencies  a  mild  and  equitable  sway,  and 
had  evinced  a  great  zeal  for  the  interests  of  the  Church, 
especially  in  connexion  with  the  Western  Schism  re- 
garding the  papal  succession,  brought  to  a  close  by  the 
Council  of  Constance.  Emperor  Sigismund  had  shown 
his  appreciation  of  this  ruler's  services  by  raising,  in 
1416,  the  former  county  of  Savoy  to  the  status  of  a 
duchy,  and  in  1422  conferred  on  Amadeus  the  county 
of  Geneva.  On  the  death  of  his  wife,  Maria  of  Bur- 
gundy, Duke  .Vmadeus  resolved  to  lead  henceforth  a 
life  of  contemplation,  without  however  entirely  resign- 
ing the  government  of  his  territories.  He  appointed 
his  son  Ludwig  regent  of  the  duchy,  and  retired  to 
Ripaille  on  the  Lake  of  Geneva,  where,  in  company 
with  five  knights  whom  he  had  formed  into  an  Order 
of  St.  Maurice,  he  led  a  semi-monastic  life  in  accord- 
ance with  a  rule  drawn  up  by  himself. 




Amadeus  had  been  in  close  relations  with  the  schis- 
matic Council  of  Basle;  and  was  elected  pope,  30 
October,  1439,  by  the  electoral  college  of  that  council, 
including  one  cardinal  (d'AlIemand  of  Aries),  eleven 
bishops,  seven  abbots,  five  theologians,  anil  nine 
canonists.  After  long  negotiations  with  a  deputation 
from  the  council,  Amadeus  acquiesced  in  the  election, 
5  Feb.,  1440,  completely  renouncing  at  the  same  time 
all  further  participation  in  the  government  of  his 
duchy.  Ambition  and  a  certain  fantastic  turn  of  char- 
acter induced  him  to  take  this  step.  He  took  the 
name  of  Feli.K  V,  and  was  solemnly  consecrated  and 
crowned  by  the  Cardinal  d'AUemand,  24  July,  1440. 
Eugene  IV  had  already  excommunicated  him,  23 
March,  at  the  Council  of  Florence.  Until  1442,  the 
famous  jEneas  Sylvius  Piccolomini,  later  Pius  II,  was 
the  anti-pope's  secretary.  This  renewal  of  the  schism 
ruined  any  surviving  prestige  of  the  Basle  assembly, 
just  closed  at  Constance.  Subsequently,  Amadeus 
took  up  Jiis  residence  in  Savoy  and  Switzerland ;  his 
efforts  to  surround  himself  with  a  curia  met  with  little 
success;  many  of  those  whom  he  named  cardinals  de- 
clined the  dignity.  He  found  general  recognition  only 
in  Savoy  and  Switzerlantl,  but  his  claims  were  also 
recognized  by  the  Dukes  of  Austria,  Tyrol,  and 
Bayern-Munchen,  the  Count-Palatine  of  Simraern, 
the  Teutonic  Order,  some  orders  in  Germany  and 
some  universities,  hitherto  adherents  of  Basle.  He 
was  soon  embroiled  in  a  quarrel  with  the  Council 
of  Basle  concerning  his  rights  and  the  distribution  of 
revenues.  The  rightful  pope,  Eugene  IV,  and  his  suc- 
cessor Nicolas  V  (1447),  who  were  universally  recog- 
nized from  the  first  in  Spain  and  Poland,  found  tlieir 
claims  even  more  widely  admitted  in  France  and  Ger- 
many. In  1442,  Felix  left  Basle;  and  on  16  May, 
1443,  occurred  the  last  session  of  the  Basle  assembly. 
Felix,  who  had  for  the  sake  of  its  revenue  assumed  the 
administration  of  the  Diocese  of  Geneva,  clung  for  six 
years  more  to  his  usurped  dignity,  but  finally  sub- 
mitted (1449)  to  Nicolas  V,  received  the  title  of 
Cardinal  of  St.  Sabina,  and  was  appointed  permanent 
Apostolic  vicar-general  for  all  the  states  of  the  House 
of  Savoy  and  for  several  dioceses  (Ba.sle,  Strasburg, 
Chur,  etc.).     Thus  ended  the  last  papal  schism. 

iENEAS  Sylvius.  Commentarii  de  geslis  Concilii  Basileensis 
in  Opera  Omnia  (Basle,  1551):  Fea,  Pius  II,  Pontifex  maximus 
(Rome,  1823):  Gabotto,  Lo  Stato  Sabaudo  da  Amedeo  VIII  ad 
Emmanude  Filiberlo  I  (Turin,  1892);  Monod,  Amedeus  Pacifi- 
cus  seu  de  Eugenii  IV  et  Aviedei  Sabaudiw  ducis,  in  sua  obedi~ 
entia  Feticis  papa  V  nuncupati,  controversiis  commentarius 
(Turin,  1624):  Lecoy  de  la  Marche,  Amedee  VIII  et  son  sejour 
h  Ripaille  in  Revue  des  quest.  Histor.,  1866, 1, 192-203;  Bruchet, 
Notice  sur  te  buUaire  de  Felix  V,  conserve  aux  archives  de  Turin  in 
Mem.  et  docum.  publics  par  la  Societe  savoisienne,  1898,  XII, 
XXX-XXXIII;  InEM,  Le  Chateau  de  Ripaille  (Paris,  1907); 
Pastor,  GescAtcftiederPflpsie,  4th  ed.,  1,317  sqq.;  Baumgarten, 
Die  beiden  ersten  Kardinalskonsistorien  des  Gegenpapstes  Felix 
V  in  Rum.  Quartalschrift  fiir  chrisll.  Altert.  u.  fiir  Kirchengesch., 
1908,  GeschiclUe,  153  sqq. 

J.  P.  KiRSCH. 

F6Iix,  Celestin-Joseph,  French  Jesuit,  b.  at 
Neuville-sur-l'Escaut  (Nord),  28  June,  1810;  d.  at 
Lille,  7  July,  1891.  He  began  his  studies  under  the 
Brothers  of  Christian  Doctrine,  going  later  to  the 
preparatory  seminary  at  Cambrai,  where  he  com- 
pleted his  secondary  studies.  In  1833  he  was  named 
professor  of  rhetoric,  received  minor  orders  and  the 
diaconate,  and  in  1837  entered  the  Society  of  Jesus. 
He  began  his  noviceship  at  Tronchiennes  in  Belgium, 
continued  it  at  Saint-Acheul,  and  ended  it  at  Bruge- 
lettes,  where  he  studied  philosophy  and  the  sciences. 
Having  completed  his  theological  studies  at  Louvain, 
he  wa-s  ordained  in  1842  and  returned  to  Brugelettes 
to  teach  rhetoric  and  philosophy.  His  earliest  Lenten 
discourses,  preached  at  Ath,  and  especially  one  on  true 
patriotism,  soon  won  him  a  brilliant  reputation  for 

Called  to  Amiens  in  IS.TO,  he  introduced  the  teach- 
ing of  rhetoric  at  the  College  de  la  Providence  and 
preached  during  Advent  and  Lent  at  the  cathedral. 

His  oratorical  qualities  becoming  more  and  more 
evident,  he  was  called  to  Paris.  He  first  preached 
at  St.  Thomas  d'Aquin  in  1851,  and  in  1852  preached 
Lenten  sermons  at  Saint  -  Germain  -  des  -  Pr6s,  and 
those  of  Advent  at  Saint-Sulpice.  It  was  then  that 
Mgr.  Sibour  named  him  to  succeed  the  Dominican, 
Father  Lacordaire,  and  the  Jesuit,  Father  de  Ravi- 
gnan  in  the  pulpit  of  Notre-Dame  (1853  to  1870). 
He  became  one  of  its  most  brilliant  orators.  The 
conferences  of  the  first  three  years  have  not  been 
published  in  full.  In  1856  Pere  F^lix  began  the  sub- 
ject which  he  made  the  master-work  of  his  life: 
"Progres  par  le  Christianisme".  This  formed  the 
matter  of  a  series  of  Lenten  conferences  which  are  pre- 
served for  us  in  fifteen  volumes,  and  which  have  lost 
none  of  their  reality.  True  progress  in  all  its  forms, 
whether  of  the  individual  or  of  tlie  family,  in  science, 
art,  morals,  or  government,  is  herein  treated  with 
great  doctrinal  exactness  and  breadth  of  view.  The 
practical  conclusions  of  these  conferences  Pere  F(51ix 
summed  up  every  year  in  his  preaching  of  the  Easter 
retreat,  which  had  been  inaugurated  by  Pere  de 
Ravignan.  This  was  the  side  of  his  ministry  which 
lay  nearest  his  heart.  While  he  was  in  Paris,  and 
especially  during  his  stay  at  Nancy  (1867-1883), 
and  at  Lille  (1883-1891),  the  illustrious  Jesuit  spoke 
in  nearly  all  the  great  cathedrals  of  France  and 
Belgium.  In  1881  he  even  went  to  Copenhagen 
to  conduct  the  Advent  exercises,  and  there  he  held 
a  celebrated  conference  on  authority.  PY'lix  founded 
the  Society  of  St.  Michael  for  the  distribution  of  good 
books,  and  employed  the  leisure  moments  of  his  last 
years  in  the  composition  of  several  works  and  in  the 
revision  of  his  "Retraites  a  Notre-Dame",  which  he 
published  in  six  volumes. 

The  eloquence  of  Pere  F(51ix  was  characterized  by 
clearness,  vigorous  logic,  unction,  and  pathos,  even  in 
his  reasoning.  He  lacked  imagination  and  the  en- 
thusiasm of  Lacordaire,  but  he  was  more  skilled  in 
dialectic  and  surer  in  doctrine.  His  diction  was  richer 
than  that  of  de  Ravignan,  and  while  he  was  less  di- 
dactic than  MonsabrS  he  was  more  original.  A  list  of 
his  works  is  given  by  Sommervogel. 

Jenner,  Le  R.  P.  Felix,  with  the  catalogue  of  Sommervogel 
as  appendix  (Paris,  1892),  260;  Cornut,  Le  R.  P.  Fflix  in  the 
Etudes  (1891),  Aug.;  Pontmartin,  Le  R.  P.  Felix  (Paris, 

Louis  Lalande. 

FeUx  and  Adauctus,  Saints,  martyrs  at  Rome, 
303,  under  Diocletian  and  Maximian.  The  Acts,  first 
published  in  Ado's  Martyrology,  relate  as  follows: 
Felix,  a  Roman  priest,  and  brother  of  another  priest, 
also  named  Felix,  being  ordered  to  offer  sacrifice  to  the 
gods,  was  brought  by  tlie  prefect  Dracus  to  the  tem- 
ples of  Serapis,  Slercury,  and  Diana.  But  at  the  prayer 
of  the  saint  the  idols  fell  shattered  to  the  ground.  He 
was  then  led  to  execution.  On  the  way  an  unknown 
person  joined  him,  professed  himself  a  ('hristian,  and 
also  received  the  crown  of  martyrdom.  The  Christians 
gave  him  the  name  Adauctus  (added).  These  Acts 
are  considered  a  legendary  embellishment  of  a  mis- 
understood inscription  by  Pope  Damasus.  A  Dracus 
cannot  be  fouml  among  the  prefects  of  Rome;  the 
other  Felix  of  the  legentl  i.s  St.  Felix  of  Nola;  and  Felix 
of  Monte  Pincio  is  the  same  Felix  honoured  on  the 
Garden  Hill.  The  brother  is  imaginary  (Anal.  Boll., 
XVI,  19-29).  Their  veneration,  however,  is  very  old; 
they  are  commemorated  in  the  Sacramentary  of  Greg- 
ory the  Great  and  in  the  ancient  martyrologies.  Their 
church  in  Rome,  built  over  their  graves,  in  the  ceme- 
tery of  Comniodilla,  on  the  Via  Ostiensis,  near  the 
basilica  of  St.  Paul,  and  restored  by  Leo  III,  was  dis- 
covered about  three  huntlred  years  ago  and  again  un- 
earthed in  1905  (Civilt;\Catt.,'l905,  IT,  (108).  Leo  IV, 
about  S.W,  is  said  to  have  given  their  relics  to  Irmen- 
gard,  wife  of  Lothair  1;  .she  placed  (hem  in  the  abbey 
of  canonesses  at  Eschau  in  Alsace.    They  were  brought 




to  the  churcli  of  St.  Stephen  in  Vienna  in  1361.  The 
heads  are  ciaimed  by  Anjou  and  Colof-ne.  Aecording 
to  the  "Chronicle  of  .\ndeclis"  (Donauworth,  1S77, 
p.  69),  Henry,  the  latst  count,  received  the  rehcs  from 
Honorius  III  and  brought  them  to  the  Abbey  of 
Andechs.    Their  feast  is  kept  on  30  August. 

.Stokes  in  Diet.  Christ.  Biog.,  a.  v.  Felix  (217);  Acta  SS., 
Aug.,  VI,  .'J45;  .Stadler,  Heiligentexiccm,  s.  v. 

Francis  Mershman. 

Felix  of  Cantalice,  Saint,  Capuchin  friar,  b.  at 
Cantalice,  on  tlie  north-western  border  of  the  Abruzzi; 
d.  at  Rome,  IS  May,  1587.  His  feast  is  celebrated 
amongst  the  Franciscans  and  in  certain  Italian  dioceses 
on  18  May.  He  is  usually  represented  in  art  as  holding 
in  his  arms  the  Infant  Jesus,  because  of  a  vision  he 
once  had,  when  the  Blessed  Virgin  appeared  to  him 
and  placed  the  Divine  Child  in  his  arms. 

His  parents  were  peasant  folk,  and  very  early  he 
was  set  to  tend  sheep.  When  nine  years  of  age  he  was 
hired  out  to  a  farmer  at  Citta  Ducale  with  whom  he 
remained  for  over  twenty  years,  first  as  a  shepherd- 
boy  and  afterwards  as  a  farm  labourer.  But  from  his 
earliest  years  Felix  evinced  signs  of  great  holiness, 
spending  all  his  leisure  time  in  prayer,  either  in  the 
church  or  in  some  solitary  place.  A  friend  of  his  hav- 
ing read  to  him  the  lives  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Desert, 
Felix  conceived  a  great  desire  for  the  eremitical  life, 
but  at  the  same  time  feared  to  live  otherwise  than 
under  the  obedience  of  a  superior.  After  seeking  light 
in  prayer,  he  determined  to  ask  admittance  amongst 
the  Capuchins.  At  first  the  friars  hesitated  to  accept 
him,  but  he  eventually  received  the  habit,  in  1543,  at 
AnticoU  in  the  Roman  Province.  It  was  not  without 
the  severest  temptations  that  he  persevered  and  made 
his  profession.  These  temptations  were  so  severe  as 
to  injure  his  bodily  health.  In  1547  he  was  sent  to 
Rome  and  appointed  questor  for  the  community. 
Here  he  remained  for  the  rest  of  his  life,  and  in  fulfilling 
his  lowly  office  became  a  veritable  apostle  of  Rome. 

The  influence  which  he  speedily  gained  with  the 
Roman  people  is  an  evidence  of  the  inherent  power  of 

Eersonal  holiness  over  the  consciences  of  men.  He 
ad  no  learning;  he  could  not  even  read;  yet  learned 
theologians  came  to  consult  him  upon  the  science  of 
the  spiritual  life  and  the  Scriptures.  Whenever  he 
appeared  in  the  streets  of  Rome  vicious  persons  grew 
abashed  and  withdrew  from  his  sight.  Sometimes 
Felix  would  stop  them  and  earnestly  exhort  them  to 
live  a  better  life;  especially  did  he  endeavour  to  re- 
strain young  men.  But  judges  and  dignitaries  also  at 
times  incurred  his  rebuke;  he  was  no  respecter  of  per- 
sons when  it  was  a  matter  of  preventing  sin.  On  one 
occasion,  during  a  Carnival,  he  and  St.  Philip  Neri 
organized  a  procession  through  the  streets.  The  Ora- 
torians  headed  the  procession  with  their  crucifix;  then 
came  the  Capuchin  friars;  last  came  Feli.x  leading  Fra 
Lupo,  a  well-known  Capuchin  preacher,  by  a  rope 
round  his  neck,  to  represent  Our  Lord  led  to  judgment 
by  his  executioners.  Arrived  in  the  middle  of  the 
revels,  the  procession  halted  and  Fra  Lupc  cached 
to  the  people.  The  Carnival,  with  its  open  vice,  was 
broken  up  for  that  year. 

But  Felix's  special  apostolate  was  amongst  the  chil- 
dren of  the  city,  with  whom  his  childlike  sim.plicity 
made  him  a  special  favourite.  His  method  with  these 
was  to  gather  them  together  in  bands  and,  forming  a 
circle,  set  them  to  sing  canticles  of  his  own  composing, 
by  which  he  taught  them  the  beauty  of  a  good  life  and 
the  ugliness  of  sin.  These  canticles  became  popular, 
and  frequently,  when  on  his  rounds  in  quest  of  alms, 
Felix  would  be  invited  into  the  houses  of  his  benefac- 
tors and  asked  to  sing.  He  would  seize  the  oppor- 
tunity to  bring  home  some  spiritual  truth  in  extempo- 
rized verse.  During  the  famine^jf  1580  the  directors  of 
the  city's  charities  asked  his  superiors  to  place  Felix  at 
their  disposal  to  collect  alms  for  the  starving,  and  he 
was  untiring  in  his  quest. 
VI.— 3 

St.  Philip  Neri  had  a  deep  affection  for  the  Capuchin 
lay  brotlier,  whom  he  once  proclaimed  the  greatest 
saint  then  living  in  the  Church.  When  St.  Charles 
Borromeo  sought  St.  Philip's  aid  in  drawing  up  the 
constitutions  of  his  Oblates,  St.  Phihp  took  him  to  St. 
FelLx  as  the  most  competent  adviser  in  such  matters. 
But  through  all,  Felix  kept  his  wonderful  humility  and 
simplicity.  He  was  accustomed  to  style  himself  "  The 
Ass  of  the  Capuchins".  Acclaimed  a  saint  by  the 
people  of  Rome,  immediately  after  his  death,  he  was 
beatified  by  Urban  VIII  in  1625,  and  canonized  by 
Clement  XI  in  1712.  His  body  rests  under  an  altar 
dedicated  to  him  in  the  church  of  the  Immaculate 
Conception  in  Rome. 

Ada  SS.,  ed.  Palme  (Paris.  1866).  18  May,  XVII;  Bullarium 
Ord.  F.  M.  Cap.  (Rome,  1740),  I;  BovERlus.  Annal.  Cap.,  ad 
ann.  1587;  Kerr,  A  Son  of  Saint  Francis  (London,  1900). 

Father  Cuthbert. 

Felix  of  Nola,  Saint,  b.  at  Nola,  near  Naples,  and 
lived  in  the  third  century.  After  his  father's  death 
he  distributed  almost  all  his  goods  amongst  the  poor, 
and  was  ordained  priest  by  Maxinms,  Bishop  of  Xola. 
In  the  year  250,  when  the  Decian  persecution  broke 
out,  Maximus  was  forced  to  flee.  The  persecutors 
seized  on  FelLx  and  he  was  cruelly  scourged,  loaded 
with  chains,  and  cast  into  prison.  One  night  an  angel 
appeared  to  him  and  bade  him  go  to  help  Maximus. 
His  chains  fell  off,  the  doors  opened,  and  the  saint  was 
enabled  to  bring  relief  to  the  bishop,  who  was  then 
speechless  from  cold  and  hunger.  On  the  persecutors 
making  a  second  attempt  to  secure  Felix,  his  escape 
was  miraculously  effected  by  a  spider  weaving  her  web 
over  the  opening  of  a  hole  into  which  he  had  just  crept. 
Thus  deceived,  they  sought  their  prey  elsewhere.  The 
persecution  ceased  the  following  year,  and  Felix,  who 
had  lain  hidden  in  a  dry  well  for  six  months,  returned 
to  his  duties.  On  the  death  of  Maximus  he  was  ear- 
nestly desired  as  bishop,  but  he  persuaded  the  people 
to  choose  another,  his  senior  in  the  priesthood.  The 
remnant  of  his  estate  having  been  confiscated  in  the 
persecution,  he  refused  to  take  it  back,  and  for  his  sub- 
sistence rented  three  acres  of  land,  which  he  tilled  with 
his  own  hands.  Whatever  remained  over  he  gave  to 
the  poor,  and  if  he  had  two  coats  at  any  time  he  in- 
variably gave  them  the  better.  He  lived  to  a  ripe  old 
age  and  died  14  January  (on  which  day  he  is  com- 
memorated), but  the  year  of  his  death  is  uncertain. 
Five  churches  were  built  in  his  honour,  outside  Nola, 
where  his  remains  are  kept,  but  some  relics  are  also  at 
Rome  and  Benevento.  St.  Paulinus,  who  acted  as 
porter  to  one  of  these  churches,  testifies  to  numerous 
pilgrimages  made  in  honour  of  Felix.  The  poems  and 
letters  of  Paulinus  on  Felix  are  the  source  from  which 
St.  Gregory  of  Tours,  Venerable  Bede,  and  the  priest 
Marcellus  have  drawn  their  biographies  (see  Paulinus 
OF  Nola).  There  is  another  Felix  of  Nola,  bishop  and 
martyr  under  a  Prefect  Martianus.  He  is  considered 
by  some  to  be  the  same  as  the  above. 

Acta  SS.,  Jan.,  II,  219;  Phillott  in  Diet.  Christ.  Bioo..  s.  V. 
Felix  (186);  Stokes,  ibid.,  s.  v.  Felix  (122);  Butler,  Live-t  of 
the  Saints,  14  Jan. ;  Baring-Gould,  Lives  of  the  Saints  (London, 
1898),  I,  199-201.  Ambrose  Coleman. 

Felix  of  Valois,  S.unt,  b.  in  1127;  d.  at  Cerfroi,  4 
November,  1212.  He  is  commemorated  20  Novem- 
ber. He  was  surnamed  Valois  because,  according  to 
some,  he  was  a  member  of  the  royal  branch  of  Valois  in 
France;  according  to  others,  because  he  was  a  native  of 
the  province  of  Valois.  At  an  early  age  he  renounced 
his  possessions  and  retired  to  a  dense  forest  in  the  Dio- 
cese of  Meaux,  where  he  gave  himself  to  prayer  and 
contemplation.  He  was  joined  in  his  retreat  by  St. 
John  of  Matha,  who  proposed  to  him  the  project  of 
founding  an  order  for  the  redemption  of  captives. 
After  fervent  prayer,  Felix  in  company  with  John  set 
out  for  Rome  and  arrived  there  in  the  beginning  of  the 
pontificate  of  Innocent  III.  liiey  liacl  letters  of  rec- 
ommendation from  the  Bishop  of  Paris,  and  the  new 




f)ope  received  them  with  the  utmoet  kindness  and 
odged  them  in  his  own  palace.  The  project  of  found- 
ing the  order  was  considered  in  several  solemn  con- 
claves of  cardinals  and  prelates,  and  the  pope  after 
fervent  prayer  decided  that  these  holy  men  were  in- 
spired by  tiod,  and  raised  up  for  the  good  of  the 
Church.  He  solemnly  confirmed  their  order,  which  he 
named  the  Order  of  the  Holy  Trinity  for  the  Redemp- 
tion of  Captives.  The  pope  commissioned  the  Bishop 
of  Paris  and  the  Abbot  of  St.  Victor  to  draw  up  for  the 
institute  a  rule,  which  was  confirmed  by  the  pope,  17 
December,  11 98.  Felix  returned  to  France  to  estab- 
lish the  order.  He  was  received  with  great  enthusiasm, 
and  King  Philip  Augustus  authorized  the  institute  in 
France  and  fostered  it  by  signal  benefactions.  Marga- 
ret of  Blois  granted  the  order  twenty  acres  of  the  wood 
where  Felix  had  built  his  first  hermitage,  and  on  al- 
most the  same  spot  he  erected  the  famous  monastery 
of  Cerfroi,  the  mother-house  of  the  institute.  Within 
forty  years  the  order  possessed  six  hundred  monas- 
teries in  almost  every  part  of  the  world.  St.  Felix  and 
St.  John  of  Matha  were  forced  to  part;  the  latter  went 
to  Rome  to  found  a  house  of  the  order,  the  church  of 
which,  Santa  Maria  in  Navicella,  still  stands  on  the 
Caelian  Hill.  St.  Felix  remained  in  France  to  look 
after  the  interests  of  the  congregation.  He  founded  a 
house  in  Paris  attached  to  the  church  of  St.  Maturinus, 
which  afterwards  became  famous  under  Robert  (iu- 
guin,  master  general  of  the  order.  Though  the  Bull 
of  his  canonization  is  no  longer  extant,  it  is  the  con- 
stant tradition  of  his  institute  that  he  was  canonizetl 
by  Urban  IV  in  1262.  Du  Plessis  tells  us  that  his 
feast  was  kept  in  the  Diocese  of  Meaux  in  1215.  In 
1666  Alexander  VII  declared  nim  a  saint  because  of 
immemorial  cult.  His  feast  was  transferred  to  20 
November  by  Innocent  XI  in  1679. 

Du  Plessis,  Hisl.  de  I'/glise  dr  il/pa i<j  (Paris,  1731);  Butler, 
Lives  of  tht-  ^Saints;  Acta  SS,,  20  Nov. 

Michael  M.  O'Ivane. 

Feller,  FRANfois-XAViER  de,  author  and  apologist, 
b.  at  Brussels  18  August,  1735;  d.  at  Ratisbon  22  May, 
1802.  He  received  his  primary  scientific  education  in 
the  Jesuit  College  at  Luxemburg,  studied  philosophy 
and  the  exact  sciences  at  Reims,  1752-54,  after  which 
he  joined  the  Society  of  Jesus  at  Tournai.  Appointed 
professor  of  humanities  soon  after,  he  edited  the 
"Mus;e  Leodienses"  (Liege,  1761),  a  collection  of 
Latin  poems  in  two  volumes  composed  by  his  pupils. 
Later  he  taught  theology  in  various  institutions  of  the 
order  in  Luxemburg  and  Tyrnau  (Hungary).  After 
the  suppression  of  the  order  he  was  active  as  preacher 
in  Liege  and  Luxemburg  until,  at  the  approach  of  the 
French  army  in  1794,  he  emigrated  to  Paderborn  and 
joined  the  local  college  of  the  ex-Jesuits.  After  stay- 
ing there  two  years,  he  accepted  the  invitation  of  the 
Prince  of  Hohenlohe  to  come  to  Bavaria  and  join  the 
court  of  the  Prince-Bishop  of  Freising  and  Ratisbon, 
Joseph  Konrad  von  Schroffenburg,  with  whom  he  re- 
mained, dividing  his  time  between  Freising,  Ratisbon, 
and  Berchtesgaden. 

Feller  was  very  amiable  and  talented,  gifted  with 
a  prodigious  memory,  and  combined  diligent  study 
with  these  abilities.  His  superiors  had  given  him 
every  opportunity  during  his  travels  of  cultivating 
all  the  branches  of  science  then  known,  and  the 
wealth  and  diversity  of  his  writings  prove  that  he 
made  good  use  of  his  advantages.  All  his  writings 
attest  his  allegiance  to  the  Jesuit  Order  and  his  un- 
tiring zeal  for  the  Catholic  religion  and  the  Holy  See. 

Although  he  became  prominent  as  a  literary  man 
only  after  the  suppression  of  his  order,  he  had  pre- 
viously contributed  articles  of  note  to  the  periodical 
"  La  clef  du  cabinet  des  princes  de  I'Europe,  ou  recueil 
historique  et  politique  sur  les  matieres  du  temps" 
(Luxemburg,  1760).  During  the  years  1773-1794  he 
was  the  sole  contributor  to  this  journal,  which  com- 

prised in  all  sixty  volumes  and  was,  from  the  first 
mentioned  date  (1773),  published  under  the  title 
"Journal  historique  et  litteraire".  Because  he  pub- 
licly denounced  the  illegal  and  despotic  attempts  at 
reform  on  the  part  of  Joseph  II,  the  journal  was  sup- 
pressed in  Austrian  territory  and  was,  consequently, 
transplanted  first  to  Liege  and  then  to  Maastricht. 
Its  principal  articles  were  published  separately  as 
"  Melanges  de  politique,  de  morale  chretienne  et  de 
litt^rature"  (Louvain,  1822),  and  as  "Coursde  morale 
chretienne  et  de  litt^rature  religieuse"  (Paris,  1826). 
His  next  work  of  importance  is  entitled  "  Dictionnaire 
historique,  ou  histoire  abr^g^e  de  tons  les  hommes  qui 
se  sont  fait  un  nom  par  le  genie,  les  talents,  les  vertus, 
les  erreurs,  etc.,  depuis  le  commencement  du  monde 
jusqu'a  nos jours" (Augsburg,  1781-1784), 6  vols.  He 
shaped  this  work  on  the  model  of  a  similar  one  by 
Chaudon  without  giving  the  latter  due  credit;  he  also 
showed  a  certain  aniiount  of  prejudice,  for  the  most 
part  lauding  the  Jesuits  as  masters  of  science  and 
underrating  others,  especially  those  suspected  of  Jan- 
senistic  tendencies.  This  work  was  frequently  re- 
vised and  republished, e.g.  by  Ecuy,  Ganith,  Henrion, 
P^rennes,  Simonin,  Weiss,  etc. ;  from  1837  it  appeared 
under  the  title  of  "  Biographic  universelle  ".  His  prin- 
cipal work,  which  first  appreared  under  the  pen-name 
"Flexierde  Reval",  is  " Catechisme  philosophique  ou 
recueil  d'observations  propres  a  defendre  la  religion 
chretienne  contre  ses  ennemis"  (Liege,  1772).  In  his 
treatise,  "  Jugement  d'un  ecrivain  protestant  tou- 
chant  le  livre  de  Justinus  Febronius"  (Leipzig,  1770), 
he  attacked  the  tenets  of  that  anti-papal  writer. 
Many  of  his  works  are  only  of  contemporary  interest. 
Biographie    Universelte,  XIII,   505;     Hurter,   Nomenclator. 

Patricius  Schlauer. 

Felton,  Thomas.     See  Morton,  Robert. 

Feltre,  Diocese  of.  See  Belluno-Feltre,  Dio- 
cese OP. 

Feneberg,  Johann  Michael  Nathanael,  b.  in 
Oberdorf,  Allgau,  Bavaria,  9  Feb.,  1751;  d.  12  Oct., 
1812.  He  studied  at  Kaufbeuren  and  in  the  Jesuit 
gymnasium  at  Augsburg,  and  in  1770  entered  the 
Society  of  Jesus,  at  Landsberg,  Bavaria.  When  the 
Society  was  suppressed  in  1773,  he  left  the  town,  but 
continvied  his  studies,  was  ordained  in  1775  and  ap- 
pointed professor  in  the  gymnasium  of  St.  Paul  at 
Ratisbon.  From  1778-85  he  held  a  modest  benefice  at 
Oberdorf  and  taught  a  private  school ;  in  1785  he  was 
appointed  professor  of  rhetoric  and  poetry  at  the  gym- 
nasium of  Dillingen,  but  was  removed  in  1793,  to- 
gether with  several  other  professors  suspected  of 
leanings  towards  lUuminism.  A  plan  of  studies  drawn 
up  by  him  for  the  gymnasium  brought  him  many 
enemies  also.  He  was  next  given  the  parish  of  Seeg, 
comprising  some  two  thousand  five  hundred  souls,  and 
received  as  assistants  the  celebrated  author  Christoph 
Schmid,  and  X.  Bayer.  He  was  a  model  pastor  in 
every  respect.  Within  a  short  time  he  executed  a 
chart  of  the  eighty-five  villages  in  his  parish,  and  took 
a  census  of  the  entire  district. 

In  the  first  year  of  his  pastoral  service  he  sustained 
severe  injuries  by  a  fall  from  his  horse,  which  necessi- 
tated the  amputation  of  one  leg  just  below  the  knee. 
He  bore  the  operation  without  an  anjesthetic,  and  con- 
soled himself  for  the  loss  of  the  limb  by  saying:  Non 
pedihiif:,  sill  ronli-  ilHii/imun  Deum  (We  love  God  not 
with  our  feet  but  with  our  hearts).  Shortly  after,  his 
relations  with  the  priest  Martin  Boos  led  him  to  be 
suspected  of  false  mysticism.  Boos  had  created  such 
a  sensation  by  his  sermons  that  he  was  compelled  to 
flee  for  safety.  He  took  refuge  at  Seeg  with  Feneberg, 
who  was  a  relation,  and  assisted  him  in  parochial  work 
for  nearly  a  year.  In  the  meantime  he  strove  to  con- 
vert or  "awaken"  Feneberg  to  the  higher  Christian 
life,  the  life  t)f  faith  and  love  to  the  exclusion  of  good 
works.    Boos's  followers  were  called  the  Erweckten 




Briider  (Awakencrl  Brethren).  Among  these  brethren, 
many  of  whom  were  priests,  Feneberg  was  called 
Nathanael  and  his  two  assistants  Markus  and  Silas. 

Boos's  preaching  and  conduct  at  8eeg  was  reported 
to  the  ordinary  of  Augsburg,  and  Feneberg,  with  his 
assistants,  Bayer  and  Siller,  were  also  involved.  In 
February,  1797,  an  episcopal  commissioner  arrived  in 
Seeg,  and  in  Feneberg's  absence  seized  all  his  papers, 
private  correspondence  and  manuscripts,  and  carried 
them  to  Augsburg.  Feneberg,  with  his  assistants,  ap- 
peared before  an  ecclesiastical  tribunal  at  Augsburg  in 
August,  1797 ;  they  were  required  to  subscrite  to  the 
condemnation  of  ten  erroneous  propositions,  and  then 
permitted  to  return  to  their  parish.  They  all  pro- 
tested that  they  had  never  held  any  of  the  propositions 
in  the  sense  implied.  It  does  not  appear  that  Fene- 
berg was  subsequently  molested  in  this  connexion, 
nor  did  he  ever  fail  to  show  due  respect  and  obedience 
to  the  ecclesiastical  authorities.  In  1805  he  resigned 
the  parish  of  Seeg  and  accepted  that  of  Vohringen, 
which  was  smaller  but  returned  slightly  better  rev- 
enues. This  appointment  and  the  assistance  of  gener- 
ous friends  enabled  him  to  pay  the  debts  he  had 
incurred  on  account  of  his  trouble  and  the  political 
disturbances  of  the  time.  For  a  month  before  his 
death  he  suffered  great  bodily  pain,  but  he  prayed 
unceasingly,  and  after  devoutly  receiving  the  sacra- 
ments expired. 

He  remained  friendly  to  Boos  even  after  the  latter's 
condemnation,  and  regretted  that  his  friend,  Bishop 
Sailer,  was  not  more  sympathetic  to  mysticism.  Fene- 
berg was  a  man  of  singular  piety,  candour,  and  zeal, 
but  failed  to  see  the  dangers  lurking  in  Boos's  pietism. 
Numbers  of  the  disciples  of  Boos — as  many  as  four 
hundred  at  one  time — became  Protestants,  although 
he  himself  remained  nominally  in  the  Church.  Fene- 
berg is  the  author  of  a  translation  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment, which  was  published  by  Bishop  Wittmann  of 

JuritAM  in  Kirchenlex.,  s.  v.;  Hablitzel  in  Buchberger. 
Kirrhl.  llnndleJ:ikon,  s.  v.;  AlcHiNGER,  Johajm  M.  Sailer  (Frei- 
burg im  Br..  1S65);  Bruck,  Gesch.  der  hath.  Kirche  in  Deutsch- 
hin'i.  I  (Mainz,  1902);  Sailer.  Aus  Fenebergs  Leben  (Munich, 
1S14);  tSiLBERNAGEL,  Die  kirchenpotitiscken  u.  religidsen  Zu~ 
staiide  im  19.  Jahrhundert  (Landshut,  1901);  Gosbner,  Boos 
Martin  (Leipzig,  1826):  Bodemann.  Leben  J.  M.  Fenebergs  in 
Smnlagsbibliolhek  (Bielefeld,  1856);  Braun,  Gesehiehte  der 
Bischofe  von  Augsburg  (Augsburg,  1815).  IV. 

Alexius  Hoffmann. 

Fenelon,  FRANfois  de  Salignac  de  La  Mothe-, 
a  celebrated  French  bishop  and  author,  b.  in  the  Cha- 
teau de  Fenelon  in  P^rigord  (Dordogne),  6  August, 
Itjol ;  d.  at  Cambrai,  7  January,  1715.  He  came  of  an 
ancient  family  of  noble  birth  but  small  means,  the 
most  famous  of  his  ancestors  being  Bertrand  de  Sali- 
gnac (d.  1599),  who  fought  at  Metz  under  the  Duke  of 
Guise  and  became  ambassador  to  England;  also  Fran- 
cois de  Salignac  I,  Louis  de  Salignac  I,  Louis  de  Sali- 
gnac II,  and  Francois  de  Salignac  II,  bishops  of  vSarlat 
between  1567  and  168S.  Fenelon  was  the  second  of 
the  three  children  of  Pons  de  Salignac,  Count  de  La 
Mothe-Fdnelon,  by  his  second  wife,  Louise  de  La 
Cropte.  Owing  to  his  delicate  health  F^nelon's  child- 
hood was  passed  in  his  father's  chateau  under  a  tutor, 
who  succeeded  in  giving  him  a  keen  taste  for  the 
classics  and  a  considerable  knowledge  of  Greek  htera^ 
ture,  which  influenced  the  development  of  his  mind  in 
a  marked  degree.  At  the  age  of  twelve  he  was  sent 
to  the  neighbouring  University  of  Cahors,  where  he 
studied  rhetoric  and  philosophy,  and  obtained  his  first 
degrees.  As  he  had  already  expressoil  his  intention  of 
entering  the  ("hurch,  one  of  his  uncles,  M.iniuis  An- 
toine  de  Fenelon,  a  friend  of  Monsieur  Oiler  and  St. 
Vincent  de  Paul,  sent  him  to  Paris  and  jilaccd  hiiu  in 
the  College  du  Plessis,  whose  students  followed  the 
course  of  theology  at  the  Sorbonne.  There  Fenelon 
became  a  friend  of  Antoine  de  Noailles,  afterwards 
Cardinal  and  Archbishop  of  Paris,  and  §UQW?d  such  de- 

cided talent  that  at  the  age  of  fifteen  he  was  chosen  to 
preach  a  public  sermon,  in  which  he  acquitted  himself 
admirably.  To  facilitate  his  preparation  for  the  priest- 
hood, the  marquis  sent  his  nephew  to  the  Seminaire  de 
Saint-Sulpice  (about  1672),  then  under  the  direction 
of  Monsieur  Tronson,  but  the  young  man  was  placed  in 
the  small  community  reserved  for  ecclesiastics  whose 
health  did  not  permit  them  to  follow  the  excessive 
exercises  of  the  seminary.  In  this  famous  school, 
of  which  he  always  retained  affectionate  memories, 
Fenelon  was  grounded  not  only  in  the  practice  of  piety 
and  priestly  virtue,  but  above  all  in  solid  Catholic 
doctrine,  which  saved  him  later  from  Jansenism  and 
Gallicanism.  Thirty  years  later,  in  a  letter  to  Clement 
XI,  he  congratulates  himself  on  his  training  by  M. 
Tronson  in  the  knowledge  of  his  Faith  and  the  duties 
of  the  ecclesiastical  life.  About  1675  he  was  ordained 
priest  and  for  a  while  thought  of  devoting  himself  to 
the  Eastern  missions.  This  was,  however,  only  a 
passing  inclination.  Instead,  he  joined  the  commu- 
nity of  Saint-Sulpice  and  gave  himself  up  to  the  works 
of  the  priesthood,  especially  preaching  and  catechizing. 

In  1678  Harlay  de  Champvallon,  Archbishop  of 
Paris,  entru.sted  Fenelon  with  the  direction  of  the 
house  of  "Nouvelles-Catholiques",  a  community 
founded  in  1634  by  Archbishop  Jean-Fran?ois  de 
Gondi  for  Protestant  young  women  about  to  enter  the 
Church  or  converts  who  needed  to  be  strengthened  in 
the  Faith.  It  was  a  new  and  delicate  form  of  aposto- 
late  which  thus  offered  itself  to  F6nelon's  zeal,  and 
required  all  the  resources  of  his  theological  knowledge, 
persuasive  eloquence,  and  magnetic  personality.  With- 
in late  years  his  conduct  has  been  severely  criticized, 
and  he  has  been  even  called  intolerant,butthesecharges 
are  without  serious  foundation,  and  have  not  been 
accepted  even  by  the  Protestant  authors  of  the  "Ency- 
clopraie  des  Sciences  Religieuses";  their  verdict  on 
Fenelon  is  "  that  in  justice  to  him  it  must  be  said  that 
in  making  converts  he  ever  employed  persuasion 
rather  than  severity". 

When  Louis  XIV  revoked  the  Edict  of  Nantes,  by 
which  Henry  IV  had  granted  freedom  of  public  wor- 
ship to  the  Protestants,  missionaries  were  chosen  from 
among  the  greatest  orators  of  the  day,  e.  g.  Bourda- 
loue,  Flechier,  and  others,  and  were  sent  to  those  parts 
of  France  where  heretics  were  most  numerous,  to 
labour  for  their  conversion.  At  the  suggestion  of  his 
friend  Bossuet,  F^'uelon  was  sent  with  five  companions 
to  Saintonge,  where  he  manifested  great  zeal,  though 
his  methods  were  always  tempered  by  gentleness. 
According  to  Cardinal  de  Bausset,  he  induced  Louis 
XIV  to  remove  all  troops  and  all  evidences  of  com- 
pulsion from  the  places  he  visited,  and  it  is  certain 
that  he  proposed  and  insisted  on  many  methods  of 
which  the  king  did  not  approve.  "  When  hearts  are 
to  be  moved",  he  wrote  to  Seignclay,  "force  avails 
not.  Conviction  is  the  only  real  conversion."  In- 
stead of  force  he  employed  patience,  established 
classes,  and  distributed  New  Testaments  and  cate- 
chisms in  the  vernacular.  Above  all,  he  laid  especial 
emphasis  on  preaching,  provided  the  sermons  were 
"  by  gentle  preachers  who  have  a  faculty  not  only  for 
instructing,  but  for  winning  the  confidence  of  their 
hearers".  It  is  doubtless  true,  as  recently  published 
documents  prove,  that  he  did  not  altogether  repudiate 
measures  of  force,  but  he  only  allowed  them  as  a  last 
resource.  Even  then  his  severity  was  confined  to 
exiling  from  their  villages  a  few  recalcitrants,  and  to 
constraining  others  under  the  small  penalty  of  five  sous 
to  attend  the  religious  instructions  in  the  churches. 
Nor  did  he  think  that  preachers  ought  to  advocate 
openly  even  these  measures;  similarly,  he  was  unwill- 
ing to  have  known  the  Catholic  authorship  of  pam- 
phlets against  Protestant  ministers  which  he  proposed 
to  have  printed  in  Holland.  This  was  certainly  an 
excess  of  cleverness;  but  it  proves  at  least  that  Fene- 
lon was  aot  in  sympathy  with  that  vague  toleraPQQ 




founded  on  scepticism  wliich  the  eii;litecnth-cent\iry 
rationalists  cliarged  him  with.  In  such  matteis  he 
shared  the  opinions  of  all  the  other  great  Catholics  of 
his  day.  With  Bossuet  and  St.  Augustine  he  held 
that  "  to  be  obliged  to  do  good  is  always  an  advantage, 
and  that  heretics  and  schismatics,  when  forced  to  ap- 
ply their  minds  to  the  consideration  of  truth,  eventu- 
ally lay  aside  their  erroneous  beliefs,  whereas  they 
would  never  have  examined  these  matters  had  not 
authority  constrained  them". 

Before  and  after  his  mission  at  Saintonge,  wliich 
lasted  but  a  few  months  (1686-1687),  F^nelon  formed 
many  dear  friendships.  Bossuet  was  already  his 
friend;  the  great  bishop  was  at  the  summit  of  his  fame, 
and  was  everywhere  looked  U]5  to  as  the  oracle  of  the 
Church  of  France.  F^nelon  showed  him  the  utmost 
deference,  visited  him  at  his  country-house  at  Ger- 
migny,  and  assisted  at  his  spiritual  conferences  and 
his  lectures  on  the  Scriptures  at  Versailles.  It  was 
under  his  inspiration,  perhaps  even  at  his  request,  that 
Fenelon  wrote  about  this  time  his  "R<;futation  du 
systeme  de  Maleljranche  sur  la  nature  et  sur  la  grace  ". 
In  this  he  attacks  with  great  vigour  and  at  length  the 
theories  of  the  famous  Oratorian  on  optimism,  the 
Creation,  and  the  Incarnation.  This  treatise,  though 
annotated  by  Bossuet,  Fenelon  considered  it  unwise 
to  publish;  it  saw  the  light  only  in  1820.  First  among 
the  friends  of  Fenelon  at  this  period  were  the  Due  de 
Beauvilliers  and  the  Due  de  Chevreuse,  two  influential 
courtiers,  eminent  for  their  piety,  who  had  married 
two  daughters  of  Colbert,  minister  of  Louis  XIV. 
One  of  these,  the  Duchesse  de  Beauvilliers,  mother  of 
eight  daughters,  asked  Fenelon  for  advice  concerning 
their  education.  His  reply  was  the  "Traits  de  I'^du- 
cation  des  filles",  in  whicli  he  insists  on  education  be- 
ginning at  an  early  age  and  on  the  instruction  of  girls 
in  all  the  duties  of  their  future  condition  of  life.  The 
religious  teaching  he  recommends  is  one  solid  enough 
to  enable  them  to  refute  heretics  if  necessary.  He 
also  advises  a  more  serious  course  of  studies  than  was 
then  customary.  Girls  ought  to  be  learned  without 
pedantry;  the  form  of  instruction  should  be  concrete, 
sensible,  agreeable,  and  prudent,  in  a  manner  to  aid 
their  natural  abilities.  In  many  ways  his  pedagogy 
was  ahead  of  his  time,  and  we  may  yet  learn  much 
from  him. 

The  Due  de  Beauvilliers,  who  had  been  the  first  to 
test  in  his  own  family  the  value  of  the  "  Traits  de 
I'dducation  des  filles",  was  in  1689  named  governor 
of  the  grandchildren  of  Louis  XIV.  He  hastened 
to  secure  Fenelon  as  tutor  to  the  eldest  of  these 
princes,  the  Duke  of  Burgundy.  It  was  a  most  im- 
portant post,  seeing  that  the  formation  of  a  future 
King  of  France  lay  m  his  hands;  but  it  was  not  with- 
out great  difficulties,  owing  to  the  violent,  haughty, 
and  passionate  character  of  his  pupil.  Fenelon 
brought  to  his  task  a  whole-hearted  zeal  and  devotion. 
Everything,  down  to  the  Latin  themes  and  versions, 
was  made  to  serve  in  the  taming  of  this  impetuous 
spirit.  Fenelon  prepared  them  himself  in  order  to 
adapt  them  the  better  to  his  plans.  With  the  same 
object  in  view,  he  wrote  his  "  Fables"  and  his  "Dia- 
logues des  Morts  ",  but  especially  his  "  T^l^maque  ",  in 
which  work,  under  the  guise  of  pleasant  fiction,  he 
taught  the  young  prince  lessons  of  self-control,  and  all 
the  duties  required  by  his  exalted  position.  The  re- 
siilts  of  this  training  were  wonderful.  The  historian 
Saint-Simon,  as  a  rule  hostile  to  Fc'nelon,  says;  "De 
cct  abime  sortit  un  prince,  aff^ible,  cloux,  mod^r(S,  hu- 
main,  patient,  humble,  tout  apiilicjue  a  .ses  devoirs." 
It  has  been  asked  in  our  day  if  I'enelon  did  not  s\iccoed 
too  well.  When  the  prince  grew  to  man's  estate,  liis 
piety  seemed  often  too  n'lin(!il;  lie  was  ediiliMually  ex- 
amining himsi'lf,  reasoning  for  anil  against,  till  he  was 
unable  to  reach  a  dellnitc  decision,  his  will  being  para- 
ly.sed  by  fear  of  doing  the  wrong  thing.  However, 
these  defects  of  ch.aracter,  against  wliieli  I'Y'nelon  in 

his  letters  was  the  first  to  protest,  did  not  show  them- 
selves in  youth.  About  16'J5  every  one  who  came  in 
contact  with  the  prince  was  in  admiration  at  the 
change  in  him. 

To  reward  the  tutor,  Louis  XIV  gave  him,  in  1694, 
the  Abbey  of  Saints Valery,  with  its  annual  revenue  of 
fourteen  thousand  livres.  The  Acaddmie  had  opened 
its  doors  to  him,  and  Madame  de  Maintenon,  the  mor- 
ganatic wife  of  the  king,  began  to  consult  him  on  mat- 
ters of  conscience,  and  on  the  regulation  of  the  house  of 
Saint-Cyr,  which  she  had  just  established  for  the  train- 
ing of  young  girls.  Soon  afterwards  the  archiepisco- 
pal  See  of  Cambrai,  one  of  the  best  in  France,  fell  va- 
cant, and  the  king  offered  it  to  Fenelon,  at  the  same 
time  expressing  a  wish  that  he  would  continue  to  in- 
struct the  Duke  of  Burgundy.  Nominated  in  Febru- 
ary, 1695,  Fenelon  was  consecrated  in  August  of  the 
same  year  by  Bossuet  in  the  chapel  of  Saint-Cyr. 
The  future  of  the  young  prelate  looked  brilliant,  when 
he  fell  into  deep  disgrace. 

The  cause  of  Fenelon's  trouble  was  his  connexion 
with  Madame  Guyon,  whom  he  had  met  in  the  society 
of  his  friends,  the  Beauvilliers  and  the  Chevreuses. 
She  was  a  native  of  Orleans,  which  she  left  when 
about  twenty-eight  years  old,  a  widowed  mother  of 
three  children,  to  carry  on  a  sort  of  apostolate  of 
mysticism,  under  the  direction  of  Pere  Lacombe,  a 
Barnabite.  After  many  journeys  to  Geneva,  and 
through  Provence  and  Italy,  she  set  forth  her  ideas  in 
two  works,  "  Le  moyen  court  et  facile  de  faire  oraison" 
and  "Les  torrents  spirituels".  In  exaggerated  lan- 
guage characteristic  of  her  visionary  mind,  she  pre-  . 
sented  a  system  too  evidently  founded  on  the  Quietism 
of  Molinos,  that  had  just  been  condemned  by  Innocent 
XI  in  1687.  There  were,  however,  great  divergencies 
between  the  two  systems.  Whereas  Molinos  made 
man's  earthly  perfection  consist  in  a  state  of  uninter- 
rupted contemplation  and  love,  which  would  dispense 
the  soul  from  all  active  virtue  and  reduce  it  to  ab- 
solute inaction,  Madame  Guyon  rejected  with  horror 
the  dangerous  conclusions  of  Molinos  as  to  the  cessa- 
tion of  the  necessity  of  offering  positive  resistance  to 
temptation.  Indeed,  in  all  her  relations  with  Pere 
Lacombe,  as  well  as  with  Fenelon,  her  virtuous  life  was 
never  called  in  doubt.  Soon  after  her  arrival  in  Paris 
she  became  acquainted  with  many  pious  persons  of 
the  court  and  in  the  city,  among  them  Madame  de 
Maintenon  and  the  Dues  de  Beauvilliers  and  Che- 
vreuse, who  introduced  her  to  Fenelon.  In  turn,  he 
was  attracted  by  her  piety,  her  lofty  spirituality,  the 
charm  of  her  personality,  and  of  her  books.  It  was 
not  long,  however,  before  the  Bishop  of  Chartres,  in 
whose  diocese  Saint-Cyr  was,  began  to  unsettle  the 
mind  of  Madame  de  Maintenon  by  questioning  the  or- 
thodoxy of  Madame  Guyon's  theories.  The  latter, 
thereupon,  begged  to  have  her  works  submitted  to  an 
ecclesiastical  commission  composed  of  Bossuet,  de 
Noailles,  who  was  then  Bishop  of  Chalons,  later  Arch- 
bishop of  Paris,  and  M.  Tronson,  superior  of  Saint- 
Sulpice.  After  an  examination  which  lasted  six 
months,  the  commission  delivered  its  verdict  in  thirty- 
four  articles  known  as  the  "  Articles  d'Issy  ",  from  the 
place  near  Paris  where  the  commission  sat.  These 
articles,  which  were  signed  by  Fenelon  and  the  Bishop 
of  Chartres,  also  by  the  members  of  the  commission, 
condemned  very  briefly  Madame  Guyon's  ideas,  and 
gave  a  short  exposition  of  the  Catholic  teaching  on 
prayer.  Madame  Guyon  submitted  to  the  condemna- 
tion, but  her  teacliing  sjircad  in  iMigland,  and  Protes- 
tants, who  have  had  her  liooks  reprinted,  have  always 
expressed  sympathy  with  her  views.  Cowper  trans- 
lated some  of  her  hymns  into  iMij^lish;  and  her 
a\it(il>i(>grapliy  was  iraiislatcd  into  I'aiglisli  by  Thomas 
Digby  (London,  LSUfj)  and  Thomas  Upham  (New 
York,  IK'IH).  ller  books  have  been  long  forgotten  in 

In  accordance  with  the  decisions  taken  at  Issy,  Bos- 






Buet  now  wrote  liis  instruction  on  tlie  "Etats  d'orai- 
son",  as  an  explanation  of  the  thirty-four  articles. 
F^nelon  refused  to  sign  it,  on  the  plea  that  his  honour 
forbade  him  to  condemn  a  woman  who  had  already 
been  condemned.  To  explain  his  own  views  of  the 
"Articles  d'Issy",  he  hastened  to  publish  the  "Expli- 
cation des  Maximes  des  Saints",  a  rather  arid  treatise 
in  forty-five  articles.  Each  article  was  divided  into 
two  paragraphs,  one  laying  down  the  true,  the  other 
the  false,  teaching  concerning  the  love  of  God.  In 
this  work  he  undertakes  to  distinguish  clearly  every 
step  in  the  upward  way  of  the  spiritual  life.  The  final 
end  of  the  Christian  soul  is  pure  love  of  God,  without 
any  admixture  of  self-interest,  a  love  in  which  neither 
fear  of  punishment  nor  desire  of  reward  has  any  part. 
The  means  to  this  end,  Fenelon  points  out,  are  those 
long  since  indicated  by  the  Catholic  mystics,  i.  e.  holy 
indifference,  detachment,  self-abandonment,  passive- 
ness,  through  all  of  which  states  the  soul  is  led  by  con- 
templation. Fenelon's  book  was  scarcely  published 
when  it  aroused  much  opposition.  The  king,  in  par- 
ticular, was  angry.  He  distrusted  all  religious  novel- 
ties, and  he  reproached  Bossuet  with  not  having 
warned  him  of  the  ideas  of  his  grandsons'  tutor.  He 
appointed  the  Bishops  of  Meaux,  Chartres,  and  Paris 
to  examine  Fenelon's  work  and  select  passages  for 
condemnation,  but  Fenelon  himself  submitted  the 
book  to  the  judgment  of  the  Holy  See  (27  April,  1697). 
A  vigorous  conflict  broke  out  at  once,  particularly  be- 
tween Bossuet  and  F(5nelon.  Attack  and  reply  fol- 
lowed too  fast  for  analysis  here.  The  works  of  Fene- 
lon on  the  subject  fill  six  volumes,  not  to  speak  of  the 
646  letters  relating  to  Quietism,  the  writer  proving 
himself  a  skilful  polemical  writer,  deeply  versed  in 
spiritual  things,  endowed  with  quick  intelligence  and 
a  mental  suppleness  not  always  to  be  clearly  distin- 
guished from  quibbling  and  a  straining  of  the  sense. 
After  a  long  and  detailed  examination  by  the  consult- 
ors  and  cardinals  of  the  Holy  Office,  lasting  over  two 
years  and  occupying  132  sessions,  "  Les  Maximes  des 
Saints"  was  finally  condemned  (12  March,  1699)  as 
containing  propositions  which,  in  the  obvious  mean- 
ing of  the  words,  or  else  because  of  the  sequence  of  the 
thoughts,  were  "  temerarious,  scandalous,  ill-sound- 
ing, offensive  to  pious  ears,  pernicious  in  practice,  and 
false  in  fact".  Twenty-three  propositions  were  se- 
lected as  having  incurred  this  censure,  but  the  pope 
by  no  means  intended  to  imply  that  he  approved  the 
rest  of  the  book.  Fenelon  submitted  at  once.  "  We 
adhere  to  this  brief  ",  he  wrote  in  a  pastoral  letter  in 
which  he  made  known  Rome's  decision  to  his  flock, 
"  and  we  accept  it  not  only  for  the  twenty-three 
propositions  but  for  the  whole  book,  simply,  abso- 
lutely, and  without  a  shadow  of  reservation. "  Most 
of  his  contemporaries  found  his  submission  adequate, 
edifying,  and  admirable.  In  recent  times,  however, 
scattered  expressions  in  his  letters  have  enabled  a  few 
critics  to  doubt  its  sincerity.  In  our  opinion  a  few 
words  written  impulsively,  and  contradicted  by  the 
whole  tenor  of  the  writer's  life,  caimot  justify  so 
grave  a  charge.  It  must  be  remembered,  too,  that  at 
the  meeting  of  the  bishops  held  to  receive  the  Brief  of 
condemnation,  Fenelon  declared  that  he  laid  aside 
his  own  opinion  and  accepted  the  judgment  of  Rome, 
and  that  if  this  act  of  submission  seemed  lacking  in 
any  way,  he  was  ready  to  do  whatever  Rome  would 
suggest.  The  Holy  See  never  required  anything  more 
than  the  above-mentioned  spontaneous  act. 

Louis  XI V,  who  had  done  all  he  could  to  bring  about 
the  condemnation  of  the  "  Maximes  des  Saints  ",  had 
already  punished  its  author  by  ordering  him  to  remain 
within  the  limits  of  his  diocese.  Vexed  later  at  the 
publication  of  "Telomaque",  in  which  lie  saw  his  per- 
son and  his  government  subjected  to  criticism,  the 
king  coukl  never  be  prevailed  upon  to  revoke  this 
command.  Fenelon  submitted  without  complaint  or 
regret,  and  gave  himself  up  entirely  to  the  care  of  his 

flock.  With  a  revenue  of  two  hundred  thousand 
livres  and  eight  hundred  parishes,  some  of  which  were 
on  Spanish  territory,  Cambrai,  which  had  been  re- 
gained by  France  only  in  1678,  was  one  of  the  most 
important  sees  in  the  kingdom.  F6nelon  gave  up  sev- 
eral months  of  each  year  to  a  visitation  of  his  archdio- 
cese, which  was  not  even  interrupted  by  the  War  of 
the  Spanish  Succession,  when  opposing  armies  were 
camped  in  various  parts  of  his  territory.  The  cap- 
tains of  these  armies,  full  of  veneration  for  his  person, 
left  him  free  to  come  and  go  as  he  would.  The  re- 
mainder of  the  year  he  spent  in  his  episcopal  palace  at 
Cambrai,  where  with  his  relatives  and  his  friends,  the 
Abbes  de  Langeron,  de  Chanterac,  and  de  Beaumont, 
he  led  an  uneventful  life,  monastic  in  its  regularity. 
Every  year  he  gave  a  Lenten  course  in  one  or  other 
important  parish  of  his  diocese,  and  on  the  principal 
feasts  he  preached  in  his  own  cathedral.  His  sermons 
were  short  and  simple,  composed  after  a  brief  medita- 
tion, and  never  committed  to  writing;  with  the  excep- 
tion of  some  few  preached  on  more  important  occa- 
sions, they  have  not  been  preserved.  His  dealings 
with  his  clergy  were  always  marked  by  condescension 
and  cordiality.  "His  priests",  says  Saint-Simon, 
"  to  whom  he  made  himself  both  father  and  brother, 
bore  him  in  their  hearts."  He  took  a  deep  interest  in 
their  seminary  training,  assisted  at  the  examination  of 
those  who  were  to  be  ordained,  and  gave  them  con- 
ferences during  their  retreat.  He  presided  over  the 
concursus  for  benefices  and  made  inquiries  among  the 
pastors  concerning  the  qualifications  of  each  candi- 

Fenelon  was  always  approachable,  and  on  his  walks 
often  conversed  with  those  he  chanced  to  meet.  He 
loved  to  visit  the  peasants  in  their  houses,  interested 
himself  in  their  joys  and  sorrows,  and,  to  avoid  pain- 
ing them,  accepted  the  simple  gifts  of  their  hospital- 
ity. During  the  War  of  the  Spanish  Succession  the 
doors  of  his  palace  were  open  to  all  the  poor  who  took 
refuge  in  Cambrai.  The  rooms  and  stairways  were 
filled  with  them,  and  his  gardens  and  vestibules  shel- 
tered their  live  stock.  He  is  yet  remembered  in  the 
vicinity  of  Cambrai  and  the  peasants  still  give  their 
children  the  name  Fenelon,  as  that  of  a  saint. 

Engrossed  as  F&elon  was  with  the  administration  of 
his  diocese,  he  never  lost  sight  of  the  general  interests 
of  the  Church.  This  became  evident  when  Jansen- 
ism, quiescent  for  nearly  thirty  years,  again  raised  it3 
head  on  the  occasion  of  the  famous  Cos  de  Conscience, 
by  wliich  an  anonymous  writer  endeavoured  to  put 
new  life  into  the  old  distinction  between  the  "ques- 
tion of  law"  and  "question  of  fact"  (question  de  droit 
cl  question  de  fait),  acknowledging  that  the  Church 
could  legally  condemn  the  famous  five  propositions 
attributed  to  Jansenius,  but  denying  that  she  could 
oblige  any  one  to  believe  that  they  were  really  to  be 
found  in  the  "Augustinus"  of  that  writer.  Fenelon 
multiplied  publications  of  every  kind  against  the  re- 
viving heresy;  he  wrote  letters,  pastoral  instructions, 
memoirs,  in  French  and  in  Latin,  which  fill  seven 
volumes  of  his  works.  He  set  himself  to  combat  the 
errors  of  the  Cos  de  Conscience,  to  refute  the  theory 
known  as  "  respectful  silence  ",  and  to  enlighten  Clem- 
ent XI  on  puljlic  opinion  in  France  Pere  Quesnel 
brought  fresh  fuel  to  the  strife  by  his  "Reflexions 
morales  sur  le  Nouveau  Testament",  which  was  sol- 
emnly condemned  by  the  Bull  "  LTnigenitus "  (1713). 
Fenelon  defended  this  famous  pontifical  constitution 
in  a  series  of  dialogues  intended  to  influence  men  of 
the  world.  Great  as  was  his  zeal  against  error, 
he  was  always  gentle  with  the  erring,  so  that  Saint- 
Simon  could  say  "  The  Low  Countries  swarmed  with 
Jansenists,  and  his  Diocese  of  Cambrai,  in  partic- 
ular, was  full  of  them.  In  both  places  they  found  an 
ever-peaceful  refuge,  and  were  glad  and  content  to  live 
peaceably  under  one  who  was  their  enemy  with  his  pen. 
They  had  no  fears  of  their  archbishop,  who,  though 




opposed  to  their  beliefs,  did  not  disturb  their  tran- 

In  spite  of  the  multiplicity  of  his  labours,  F&elon 
found  time  to  carry  on  an  absorbing  correspondence 
with  his  relatives,  friends,  priests,  and  in  fact  every 
one  who  sought  his  advice.  It  is  in  this  mass  of  cor- 
respondence, ten  volumes  of  which  have  reached  us, 
that  we  may  see  F^nelon  as  a  director  of  souls. 
People  of  every  sphere  of  life,  men  and  women  of  the 
world,  religious,  soldiers,  courtiers,  servants,  are  here 
met  with,  among  them  Mcsdaraes  de  Maintenon,  de 
Gramont,  de  la  Maisonfort,  de  Montebron,  de  Noailles, 
members  of  the  Colbert  family,  the  Marquis  de  Sci- 
gnelay,  the  Due  de  Chaulnes,  above  all  the  Dues  de 
Chevreuse  and  de  Beauvilliers,  not  forgetting  the 
Duke  of  Burgundy.  Fenelon  shows  how  well  he  pos- 
sessed all  the  qualities  he  required  from  directors, 
patience,  knowledge  of  the  human  heart  and  the  spir- 
itual life,  equanimity  of  disposition,  firmness,  and 
straightforwardness,  "together  with  a  quiet  gaiety 
altogether  removed  from  any  stern  or  affected  aus- 
terity". In  return  he  required  docility  of  mind  and 
entire  submission  of  will.  He  aimed  at  leading  souls 
to  the  pure  love  of  God,  as  far  as  such  a  thing  is  hu- 
manly possible;  for  though  the  errors  of  the  "  Maximes 
des  Saints"  do  not  reappear  in  the  letters  of  direction, 
it  is  still  the  same  Fenelon,  with  the  same  tendencies, 
the  same  aiming  at  self-abandonment  and  detach- 
ment from  all  personal  interests,  all  kept,  however, 
within  due  limits;  for  as  he  says  "this  love  of  God 
does  not  require  all  Christians  to  practise  austerities 
like  those  of  the  ancient  solitaries,  but  merely  that 
they  be  sober,  just,  and  moderate  in  the  use  of  all 
things  expedient";  nor  does  piety,  "like  temporal 
affairs,  exact  a  long  and  continuous  application"; 
"the  practice  of  devotion  is  in  no  way  incompatible 
with  the  duties  of  one's  state  in  life".  The  desire  to 
teach  his  disciples  the  secret  of  harmonizing  the  duties 
of  religion  wit  h  those  of  everyday  life  suggests  to  Fene- 
lon all  sorts  of  advice,  sometimes  most  unexpected 
from  the  pen  of  a  director,  especially  when  he  happens 
to  be  dealing  with  his  friends  at  court.  This  has  given 
occasion  to  some  of  his  critics  to  accuse  him  of  ambi- 
tion, and  of  being  as  anxious  to  control  the  State  as  to 
guide  souls. 

It  is  especially  in  the  writings  intended  for  the  Duke 
of  Burgundy  that  his  political  ideas  are  apparent.  Be- 
sides a  great  number  of  letters,  he  sent  him  through  his 
friends,  the  Dues  de  Beauvilliers  and  de  Chevreuse,  an 
"Examen  de  conscience  sur  les  devoirs  de  la  Roy- 
aut^  ",  nine  memoirs  on  tlie  War  of  the  Spanish  Suc- 
cession, and  "  Plans  de  Gouvernement,  concretes  avec 
le  Due  de  Chevreuse".  If  we  add  to  this  the  "T6\&- 
maque  ",  the  "  Lettre  a  Louis  XIV  ",  the  "  Essai  sur  le 
Gouvernement  civil",  and  the  "M6moires  sur  les  pre- 
cautions k  prendre  aprcs  la  mort  du  Due  de  Bour- 
gogne",  we  have  a  complete  exposition  of  F(5nelon's 
political  ideas.  We  shall  indicate  only  the  points  in 
which  they  are  original  for  the  period  when  they  were 
written.  F(5nelon's  ideal  government  was  a  mon- 
archy limited  by  an  aristocracy.  The  king  was  not  to 
have  absolute  power;  he  was  to  obey  the  laws,  which 
he  was  to  draw  up  with  the  co-operation  of  the  nobil- 
ity; extraordinary  subsidies  were  to  be  levied  only 
with  the  consent  of  the  people.  At  other  times  he 
was  to  be  assisted  by  the  States-General,  which  was  to 
meet  every  three  years,  and  by  provincial  assemblies, 
all  to  be  advisory  bodies  to  the  king  rather  than  repre- 
sentative assemblies.  The  State  was  to  have  charge 
of  education;  it  was  to  control  public  manners  by 
sumptuary  legislation  and  to  forbirl  both  sexes  misuit- 
able  marriages  (mi'fiiilli(tnres).  The  temporal  arm  and 
the  spiritual  arm  were  to  be  indepomlont  of  each  other, 
but  to  afford  mutual  support.  Ilis  iilcid  state  is  out- 
lined with  much  wisdom;  in  his  j)oliliriil  writings  are 
to  be  found  many  observations  remarkably  judicious, 
but  also  not  a  little  Utopianism. 

Fenelon  also  took  much  interest  in  literature  and 
philosophy.  Monsieur  Dacier,  perpetual  secretary  to 
the  AcaderaieFran^aise,  having  requested  him,  in  the 
name  of  that  body,  to  furnish  him  with  his  views  on  the 
works  it  ought  to  undertake  when  the  "  Dictionnaire  " 
was  finished,  Fdnelon  replied  in  his  "  Lettre  sur  les  oc- 
cupations de  I'Academie  Frangaise  ",  a  work  .still  much 
admired  in  France.  This  letter,  which  treats  of  the 
French  tongue,  of  rhetoric,  poetry,  history,  and  an- 
cient and  modern  writers,  exhibits  a  well-balanced 
mind  acquainted  with  all  the  masterpieces  of  antiq- 
uity, alive  to  the  charm  of  simplicity,  attached  to 
classical  traditions,  yet  discreetly  open  to  new  ideas 
(especially  in  history),  also,  however,  to  some  chimeri- 
cal theories,  at  least  concerning  things  poetical.  At 
this  very  time  the  Due  d'Orl^ans,  the  future  regent, 
was  consulting  him  on  quite  different  subjects.  This 
prince,  a  sceptic  through  circumstances  rather  than 
by  any  force  of  reasoning,  profited  by  the  appearance 
of  Fenelon's  "Traite  de  I'existence  de  Dieu"  to  ask  its 
author  some  questions  on  the  worship  due  to  God,  the 
immortality  of  the  soul,  and  free  will.  Fenelon  re- 
plied in  a  series  of  letters,  only  the  first  three  of  which 
are  answers  to  the  difficulties  proposed  by  the  prince. 
Together  they  form  a  continuation  of  the  "Traite  de 
I'existence  de  Dieu",  the  first  part  of  which  had  been 
published  in  1712  without  Fenelon's  knowledge.  The 
second  part  appeared  only  in  1718,  after  its  author's 
death.  Though  an  almost  forgotten  work  of  his 
youth,  it  was  received  with  much  approval,  and  was 
soon  translated  into  English  and  German.  It  is  from 
his  letters  and  this  treatise  that  we  learn  something 
about  the  philosophy  of  Fenelon.  It  borrows  from 
both  St.  Augustine  and  Descartes.  For  Fenelon  the 
strongest  arguments  for  the  existence  of  God  were 
those  based  on  final  causes  and  on  the  idea  of  the  in- 
finite, both  developed  along  broad  lines  and  with 
much  literary  charm,  rather  than  with  precision  or 

Fenelon's  last  years  were  saddened  by  the  death  of 
his  best  friends.  Towards  the  end  of  1710  he  lost 
Abb6  de  Langeron,  his  lifelong  companion;  in  Febru- 
ary, 1712,  his  pupil,  the  Duke  of  Burgundy,  died.  A 
few  months  later  the  Due  de  Chevreuse  was  taken 
away,  and  the  Due  tie  Beauvilliers  followed  in  August, 
1714.  Fenelon  survived  him  only  a  few  months,  mak- 
ing a  last  request  to  Louis  XIV  to  appoint  a  successor 
firm  against  Jansenism,  and  to  favour  the  introduc- 
tion of  Sulpicians  into  his  seminary.  With  him  disap- 
peared one  of  the  most  illustrious  members  of  the 
French  episcopate,  certainly  one  of  the  most  attrac- 
tive men  of  his  age.  He  owed  his  success  solely  to  his 
great  talents  and  admirable  virtues.  The  renown  he 
enjoyed  during  life  increased  after  his  death.  Un- 
fortunately, however,  his  fame  among  Protestants  was 
largely  due  to  his  opposition  to  Bossuet,  and  among 
the  philosophers  to  the  fact  that  he  opposed  and  was 
punished  by  Louis  XIV.  Fenelon  is  therefore  for 
them  a  precursor  of  their  own  tolerant  scepticism  and 
their  infi<lel  philosophy,  a  forerunner  of  Rousseau, 
beside  whom  they  placed  him  on  the  facade  of  the 
Pantheon.  In  our  ilays  a  reaction  has  set  in.  due  to 
the  cult  of  Bossuet  and  the  publication  of  Fenelon's 
correspondence,  which  has  brought  into  bolder  relief 
the  contrasts  of  his  character,  showing  him  at  once  an 
ancient  and  a  modern.  Christian  and  profane,  a  mystic 
and  a  statesman,  democrat  and  aristocrat,  gentle  and 
obstinate,  frank  and  subtle.  He  would  perhaps  have 
seemed  more  human  in  our  eyes  were  he  a  lesser  man; 
nevertheless  he  remains  one  of  the  most  attractive, 
brilliant,  and  puzzling  figures  that  the  Catholic  Church 
has  ever  produced. 

The  most  convenient  and  best  edition  of  Fenelon's 
works  is  that  begun  by  Lebel  at  Versailles  in  1820  and 
completed  at  Paris  by  Leclere  in  1830.  It  comprises 
twenty-two  volumes,  besides  eleven  volumes  of  let- 
ters, in  all  thirty-three  volumes,  not  including  an 




index  volume.  The  various  works  are  grouped  un- 
der five  headings:  (1)  Theological  and  controversial 
works  (^'ols.  I-XVI),  of  which  the  principal  are: 
"Traite  de  I'existence  et  des  attributs  de  Dieu";  let- 
ters on  various  nietapliysical  and  religious  subjects; 
"Traite  du  ministere  des  pasteurs";  "De  Surami 
Pontificis  auctoritate";  "Refutation  du  systeme  du 
P.  Malebranche  sur  la  nature  et  la  grace";  "  Lettre  a 
I'Eveque  d'Arras  sur  la  lecture  de  I'Ecriture  Sainte  en 
langue  vulgaire";  works  on  Quietism  and  Jansenism. 
(2)  Works  on  moral  and  spiritual  subjects  (\'ols.  XVII 
and  XVIII):  "Traite  de  I'education  des  fillcs";  ser- 
mons and  works  on  piety.  (3)  Twenty-four  pastoral 
charges  (Vol.  XVIII).  (4)  Literary  works  (Vols.  XIX- 
XXII):  "Dialogues des Morts";  "T^l^maque";  "Dia- 
logues sur  I'eloquence".  (5)  Political  writings  (Vol. 
XXII) :  "  Examen  de  conscience  sur  les  devoirs  de  la 
Royaut^  " ;  various  memoirs  on  the  War  of  the  Spanish 
Succession;  "  Plans  du  Gouveruement  concertes  avec 
le  Due  de  Chevreuse  ".  The  correspondence  includes 
letters  to  friends  at  court,  as  Beauvilliers,  Chevreuse, 
and  the  Duke  of  Burgundy;  letters  of  direction,  and 
letters  on  Quietism.  To  these  must  be  added  the 
"  Explication  des  maximes  des  Saints  sur  la  vie  int^- 
rieure"  (Paris,  1697). 

De  Rams.vy,  Histoire  de  la  vie  el  des  ouvrages  de  Fenelon  (Lon- 
don, 1723):  DE  B.\ussET,  Histoire  de  Fcnelan  (Paris,  1808); 
Tabaraud,  Supplement  aux  histoires  de  Bossuet  et  de  Fenelon 
(Paris.  1823);  de  Broglie,  Fenelon  h  Camhrai  (Pari.s,  1884); 
Janet.  Fenelon  (Paris.  1892);  Croitsle,  Finelon  et  Bossuet  (2 
vols.,  Paris,  1894);  DRnON,  Fenelon  archenque  de  Camhrai 
(Paris,  190.5):  Cagnac,  Fenelon  directeur  de  eonscience 
(Paris,  1903);  Brunetiere  in  La  Grande  Eneyclopcdie,  s.  v.; 
Idem.  Etudes  critiques  sur  Vhistoire  de  la  littC-rature  fran^aise 
(Paris,  1893);  DouEfj.  V intolirance  de  Fenelon  (2d  ed.,  Paris, 
1875);  Verlaqije.  Lettres  inrditex  de  Fenelon  (Paris,  1874); 
Idem.  fVnrf„n  .\lL-<si,„uunre  i  Marseilles.  IS.S-li;  Ci  F.RRIER.  il/o- 

.A;.,,,  (,.,.,,,      :      ,,,..'.,'     ■,,,,■..,.',,,■ I,'  ,n~.  ISSl); 

Ms--    ■-.  I     ■     '      .  ■    1/.         ■     •,     .         I'.:   -,  I'lii;-      i',  ■  i-n\N-QI-E. 

Fenn,  J.\me.s,  Veneu.\ble.  See  H.wdock,  George. 

Fenn,  Joh.v,  b.  at  Montacute  near  Wells  in  Somer- 
setshire; d.  27  Dec.,  1015.  He  was  the  brother 
of  Ven.  James  Fenn,  the  martjT,  and  Robert  Fenn,  the 
confessor.  After  being  a  cliorister  at  Wells  Cathedral, 
he  went  to  Winchester  Sciiool  in  1547,  and  in  1550  to 
New  College,  O.xford,  of  which  he  was  elected  fellow  in 
1552.  Next  year  he  became  head  master  of  the  Bury 
St.  Edmunds'  grammar-school,  but  was  deprived  of  this 
office  and  also  of  his  fellowship  for  refusing  to  take 
the  oath  of  supremacy  under  Elizabeth.  He  there- 
upon went  to  Rome  where  after  four  years'  study  he 
was  ordained  priest  about  1566.  Having  for  a  time 
been  chaplain  to  .Sir  William  Stanley's  regiment  in 
Flanders  he  settled  at  Louvain,  where  he  lived  for 
forty  years.  A  great  and  valuable  work  to  which  he 
contributed  was  the  publication,  in  1583,  by  Father 
John  Gibbons,  S.J.,  of  the  various  accounts  of  the  per- 
secution, under  the  title  "  Concertatio  Ecclesia?  Cath- 
olics in  Anglia",  which  was  the  groundwork  of  the  in- 
valuable larger  collection  published  by  Bridgewater 
under  the  same  name  in  1588.  He  also  collected  from 
old  English  sources  some  spiritual  treatises  for  the 
Brigettine  nuns  of  Syon.  In  1609,  when  the  English 
Augustinian  Canonesses  founded  St.  Monica's  Priory 
at  Louvain,  he  became  their  first  chaplain  until  in  1611 
when  his  sight  failed.  Even  then  he  continued  to  live 
in  the  priory  and  the  nuns  tended  him  till  his  death. 
Besides  his  "  Vit;e  quorundam  Martyrum  in  .Anglia", 
included  in  the  "  Concertatio ' ',  he  translated  into  Latin 
Blessed  John  Fisher's  "Treatise  on  the  penitential 
Psalms"  (1597)  and  two  of  his  sermons;  he  also  pub- 
lished English  versions  of  the  Catechism  of  the  Council 
of  Trent,  Osorio's  reply  to  Haddon's  attack  on  his 
letter  to  Queen  Elizabeth  (1568),  Guerra's  "Treatise 
of  Tribulation",  an  Italian  life  of  St.  Catherine  of 
Sienna  (1609;  1867).  and  Loarte's  "Instructions  How 
to  Meditate  the  Misteries  of  the  Rosarie". 

Pits,  De  lllustribus  Anglia:  Sertptoribus  (Paris,  1623);  DoDD, 
Churck  History  (Brussels.  1737-42),  1,  510;  Wood.  ed.  Bmsa. 
.4(Aena!  Oxonienses.  II;  GiLLOw,  Bibl.  Diet.  Eng.  Cath.,  s.  v.; 
Cooper  in  Diet.  j\'at.  Biuij.,  a.  v.;  Hamilton,  Chronicle  of  the 
English  Augustinian  Canonesses  of  St.  Monica's,  Louvain 
(London,  1904). 

EDW^N  Burton. 
Fenwick,  Benedict.  See  Boston,  Diocese  of. 
Fenwick,  Edward.    See  Cincinn.4.ti,  Diocese  of. 

Ferber,  Nicoi,.\rs,  Friar  Minor  and  controversial- 
ist, b.  at  Ilerborn,  Germany,  in  14S5;  d.  at  Toulouse, 
15  April,  1534.  lie  was  matle  provincial  of  the  Fran- 
ciscan province  of  Cologne  and  was  honoured  by  Clem- 
ent VII  witli  the  office  of  vicar-general  of  that  branch 
of  the  order  known  as  the  Cismontane  Observance,  in 
which  capacity  he  visited  the  various  pro\'inces  of  the 
order  in  England,  Germany,  Spain,  and  Belgium.  At 
the  instance  of  the  bishops  of  Denmark,  he  was  called 
to  Copenhagen  to  champion  the  Catholic  cause  against 
Danish  Lutheranism,  and  there  he  composed,  in  1530, 
the  "Confutatio  Lutheranismi  Danici ",  first  edited  by 
L.  Schmitt,  S.J.,  and  publi-shed  at  Quaracchi  (1902), 
which  earned  for  him  the  sobriquet  of  StagefjT  (fire- 
brand) .  Ferber's  principal  work  is  entitled :  "  Locorum 
communium  ad  versus  hujus  temporis  hoereses  En- 
chiridion", pubUshed  at  Cologne  in  152S,  with  addi- 
tions in  1529.  Besides  this  he  wrote  "Assertiones 
CCCXXV  ad  versus  Fr.  Lamberti  paradoxa  impia  "  etc. 
(Cologne,  1526,  and  Paris,  1534);  and  "  Enarrationes 
latinae  Evangeliorum  quadragesimalium  ",  preached  in 
German  and  published  in  Latin  (Antwerp,  1533). 

Schmitt,  Der  Kolner  Theolog  Nicolaus  Stagefyr  und  der 
Franziskaner  Nienlaus  Herborn  (Freiburg,  1896);  Hurter, 
Nomenrlator  (Innsbruelc.  1006),  II.  1255-56;,  Sup- 
plementum  ail  seriptores  Ordinis  Minorum,  556. 

Stephen  M.  DoNov.v^f. 

Ferdinand,  Blessed,  Prince  of  Portugal,  b.  in 
Portugal,  29  September,  1402;  d.  at  Fez,  in  Morocco, 
5  June,  1443.  He  w,as  one  of  five  sons,  his  motlier  be- 
ing Philippa,  daughter  of  John  of  Gaunt,  Duke  of  Lan- 
caster, and  his  father  King  John  I,  known  in  liistory 
for  his  victories  over  the  Moors  and  in  particular  for  his 
conquest  of  Ceuta,  a  powerful  Moorisli  stronghold,  and 
his  establishment  of  an  episcopal  see  within  its  walls. 
In  early  life  Ferdinand  suffered  much  from  sickness, 
but  bodily  weakness  did  not  hinder  his  growth  in  spirit, 
and  even  in  his  boyhood  and  youth  he  gave  evidence 
of  remarkable  qualities  of  soul  and  intellect.  With 
great  strength  of  character  and  a  keen  sense  of  justice 
and  order  he  combined  an  innocence,  gentleness,  and 
charity  which  excited  the  wonder  of  the  royal  court. 
He  had  a  special  predilection  for  prayer  and  for  the 
ceremonies  and  devotions  of  the  Church.  After  his 
fourteenth  year  he  recited  daily  the  canonical  hours, 
rising  at  midnight  for  Matins.  Always  severe  with 
himself,  he  was  abstemious  in  his  diet  and  fasted  on 
Saturdays  and  on  the  eves  of  the  feasts  of  the  Church. 
He  cared  for  the  spiritual  as  well  as  the  corporal 
necessities  of  his  tloniestics,  while  his  solicitude  for  the 
poor  and  oppres.sed  was  unbounded.  His  generosity 
towarils  the  monasteries  was  impelled  by  his  desire  to 
share  in  their  prayers  and  good  works.  He  had  him- 
self enrolled  for  the  same  reason  in  all  the  pious  con- 
gregations of  the  kingdom. 

Upon  the  death  of  his  father  in  1433,  his  brother 
Edward  (Duarte)  ascended  the  throne,  while  he  him- 
self received  but  a  small  inheritance.  It  was  then 
that  he  was  induced  to  accept  the  grand-mastership  of 
Aviz,  in  order  that  he  might  be  better  able  to  help  the 
poor.  As  he  was  not  a  cleric,  his  brother,  the  king,  ob- 
tained for  him  the  necessary  papal  dispensation.  The 
fame  of  his  charity  went  abroad,  and  Pope  Eugene  IV, 
through  the  papal  legate,  offered  him  the  cardinal's 
hat.  This  he  refused,  not  vrishing,  as  he  declared,  to 
burden  his  conscience. 

Though  living  a  life  of  great  .sanctity  in  the  midst  of 
the  court,  Ferdinand  was  not  a  mere  recluse.    He  was 




also  a  man  of  action,  and  in  liis  boyhood  his  soul  was 
stirred  by  the  heroic  campaign  against  Ccuta.  His 
mother,  the  queen,  ha<l  nurtured  tlie  martial  spirit  of 
her  sons,  and  it  is  even  said  tliat  on  lier  deathbed  she 
gave  them  eacli  a  sword,  charging  them  to  use  it  in 
defence  of  widows,  orplians,  and  their  country,  and  in 
particular  against  unbelievers.  An  opportunity  soon 
presented  itself.  In  1437  Edward  planned  an  expedi- 
tion against  the  Moors  in  Africa  and  placed  his  broth- 
ers Henry  and  Ferdinand  in  command.  They  set  sail 
22  Aug.,  1437,  and  four  days  later  arrived  at  Ceuta. 
During  the  voyage  Ferdinand  became  dangerously  ill, 
in  consequence  of  an  abscess  and  fever  which  he  had 
concealed  before  the  departure,  in  order  not  to  delay 
the  fleet.  Through  some  mismanagement  the  Portu- 
guese numbered  only  6000  men,  instead  of  14,000,  as 
ordered  by  the  king.  Though  advised  to  wait  for  rein- 
forcements, the  two  princes,  impatient  for  the  fray, 
advanced  towards  Tangiers,  to  which  they  laid  siege. 
Ferdinand  recovered  slowly,  but  was  not  able  to  take 
part  in  the  first  battle. 

The  Portuguese  fought  bravely  against  great  odds, 
but  were  finally  compelled  to  make  terms  with  the 
enemy,  agreeing  to  restore  Ceuta  in  return  for  a  safe 
passage  to  their  vessels.  The  Moors  likewise  de- 
manded that  one  of  the  princes  be  delivered  into  their 
hands  as  a  hostage  for  the  delivery  of  the  city.  Ferdi- 
nand offered  himself  for  the  dangerous  post,  and  with  a 
few  faithful  followers,  including  Joao  Alvarez,  his  sec- 
retary and  later  Ms  biographer,  began  a  painful  cap- 
tivity which  ended  only  with  his  death.  He  was  first 
brought  to  Arsilla  by  Sali,  ben  Sala,  the  Moorish 
ameer.  In  spite  of  sickness  and  bodily  sufferings,  he 
continued  all  his  devotions  and  showed  great  cliarity 
towards  his  Christian  fellow-captives.  Henry  at  first 
repaired  to  Ceuta,  where  he  was  j  oined  by  his  brother 
John.  Realizing  that  it  would  be  difficult  to  obtain 
the  royal  consent  to  the  restoration  of  the  fortress, 
they  proposed  to  exchange  their  brother  for  the  son  of 
Sala  ben  Sala,  whom  Henry  held  as  a  hostage.  The 
Moors  scornfully  rejected  the  proposal,  and  both  re- 
turned to  Portugal  to  devise  means  of  setting  the 
prince  free.  Though  his  position  was  perilous  in  the 
extreme,  the  Portuguese  Cortes  refused  to  surrender 
Ceuta,  not  only  on  account  of  the  treachery  of  the 
Moors,  but  because  the  place  had  cost  them  so  dearly 
and  might  serve  as  a  point  of  departure  for  future  con- 
quests. It  was  resolved  to  ransom  him  if  possible. 
Sala  ben  Sal.a  refused  all  offers,  his  purpose  being  to 
recover  his  former  seat  of  government. 

Various  attempts  were  made  to  free  the  prince,  but 
all  proved  futile  and  only  served  to  make  his  lot  more 
unbearable.  On  25  May,  1438,  he  was  sent  to  Fez  and 
handed  over  to  the  cruel  Lazurac,  the  king's  vizier. 
He  was  first  condemned  to  a  dark  dungeon  and,  after 
some  months  of  imprisonment,  was  compelled  to  work 
like  a  slave  in  the  royal  gardens  and  stables.  Amid 
insult  and  misery  Ferdinand  never  lost  patience. 
Though  often  urged  to  seek  safety  in  flight,  he  refused 
to  abandon  his  companions  and  grieved  more  for  their 
sufferings,  of  which  he  considered  himself  the  cause, 
than  for  his  own.  His  treatment  of  his  persecutors 
was  respectful  and  dignified,  but  he  would  not  descend 
to  flattery  to  obtain  any  alleviation  of  his  sufferings. 
During  the  last  fifteen  months  of  his  life  he  was  con- 
fined alone  in  .a  dark  dungeon  with  a  block  of  wood  for 
his  pillow  antl  the  stone  floor  for  a  bed.  He  spent 
most  of  his  time  in  prayer  and  in  preparation  for 
death,  wliich  his  rapidly  failing  health  warned  him  was 
near  at  hand.  In  May,  1443,  he  was  stricken  with  the 
fatal  di.sease  to  which  he  finally  succuml:)ed.  His  per- 
secutors refused  to  change  his  loathsome  abode,  al- 
though they  allowed  a  physician  and  a  few  faithful 
friends  to  atttmd  him.  On  the  evening  of  5  Juno,  after 
making  a  general  confession  and  a  profession  of  faith, 
he  peacefully  gave  up  his  soul  to  Cod.  During  the  day 
he  liad  confided  to  hisconfessor,  who  fn'<[uently  visited 

him,  that  the  Blessed  Virgin  with  St.  John  and  the 
Archangel  Michael  had  appeared  to  him  in  a  vision. 
Lazurac  ordered  the  body  of  the  prince  to  be  opened 
and  the  vital  organs  removed,  and  then  caused  it  to  be 
suspended  head  downwards  for  four  days  on  the  walls  of 
Fez.  Nevertheless  he  was  compelled  to  pay  tribute  to 
the  constancy,  innocence,  and  spirit  of  prayer  of  his 
royal  victim.  Of  Ferdinand's  companions,  four 
shortly  afterwards  followed  him  to  the  grave,  one 
joined  the  ranks  of  the  Moors,  and  the  others  regained 
their  liberty  after  Lazurac's  death.  One  of  the  latter, 
Joao  Alvarez,  his  secretary  and  biographer,  carried  his 
heart  to  Portugal  in  1451,  and  in  1473  his  body  was 
brought  to  Portugal,  and  laid  to  rest  in  the  royal  vault 
at  Batalha  amid  imposing  ceremonies. 

Prince  Ferdinand  has  ever  been  held  in  great  ven- 
eration by  the  Portuguese  on  account  of  his  saintly  life 
and  devotion  to  country.  Miracles  are  said  to  have 
been  wrought  at  his  intercession,  and  in  1470  he  was 
beatified  by  Paul  II.  Our  chief  authority  for  the  de- 
tails of  his  life  is  Joao  Alvarez,  already  referred  to. 
Calderon  made  him  a  hero  of  one  of  his  most  remarkable 
dramas,  "E!  Prfneipe  Constante  y  Mdrtir  de  Portu- 

Alvarez,  in  Ada  SS.,  June,  I;  Olfers.  Lehen  des  standhaften 
Prinzen  (Berlin.  1827);  Dunham,  History  of  Spain  and  Portugal 
(New  York),  III. 

Henry  M.  Brock. 

Ferdinand  II,  emperor,  eldest  son  of  Archduke 
Karl  and  the  Bavarian  Princess  Maria,  b.  1578;  d.  15 
February,  1637.  In  accordance  with  Ferdinand  I's 
disposition  of  his  possessions,  Styria,  Carinthia,  and 
Carniola  fell  to  his  son  Karl.  As  Karl  died  in  1590, 
when  his  eldest  son  was  only  twelve  years  old,  the 
government  of  these  countries  had  to  be  entrusted  to 
a  regent  during  the  minority  of  Ferdinand.  The  latter 
began  his  studies  under  the  Jesuits  at  Graz,  and  con- 
tinued them  in  company  with  Maximilian  of  Bavaria 
at  the  University  of  Ingolstadt,  also  in  charge  of  the 
Jesuits,  According  to  the  testimony  of  his  professors, 
he  displayed  remarkable  diligence,  made  rapid  pro- 
gress in  the  mathematical  sciences,  and  above  all  gave 
evidence  of  a  deeply  religious  spirit.  On  the  comple- 
tion of  his  studies,  he  took  up  the  reins  of  government, 
although  not  yet  quite  seventeen.  During  a  subse- 
quent visit  to  Italy  he  made  a  vow  in  the  sanctuary  of 
Loreto  to  banish  all  heresy  from  the  territories  which 
might  fall  under  his  rule.  He  was  of  middle  height, 
compact  build,  with  reddish-blonde  hair  and  blue 
eyes.  His  dress  and  the  cut  of  his  hair  suggested  the 
Spaniard,  but  his  easy  bearing  towards  all  with  whom 
he  came  into  contact  was  rather  German  than  Spanish. 
Even  in  the  heat  of  conflict,  a  .sense  of  justice  and 
equity  never  deserted  him.  On  two  occasions,  when 
his  tenure  of  power  was  imperilled,  he  was  unflinching 
and  showed  a  true  greatness  of  mind.  Ferdinand  was 
a  man  of  unspotted  morals,  but  lacking  in  statesman- 
like qualities  and  independence  of  judgment.  He  was 
wont  to  lay  the  responsibility  for  important  measures 
on  his  counsellors  (Freiherr  von  Eggenberg,  Graf  von 
Harrach,  the  Bohemian  Chancellor,  Zdencko  von  Lob- 
kowitz,  Cardinal-Prince  Dietrichstein,  etc.).  Liberal 
even  to  prodigality,  his  exchequer  was  always  low.  In 
pursuance  of  the  principle  laid  down  by  the  Diet  of 
Augsburg,  1555  {cuius  regio  cius  et  religio),  he  estab- 
lished the  Counter-Reformation  in  his  three  duchies, 
while  his  cousin  Emperor  Rudolf  II  reluctantly  rec- 
ognized the  Reformation. 

As  Ferdinand  was  the  only  archduke  of  his  day  with 
sufficient  power  and  energy  to  take  up  the  struggle 
against  the  estates  then  aiming  at  supreme  power  in 
the  Austrian  hereditary  domains,  the  childless  Em- 
peror Matthias  strove  to  secure  for  him  the  succession 
to  the  whole  empire.  During  Matthias's  life,  Ferdi- 
nand was  crowned  King  of  Holipniia  and  of  Hungary, 
but,  when  Matthias  dice  I  during  the  heat  of  the  religious 
war  (20  March,  IHI'O,  Ferdinand's  position  was  en- 




eompassed  with  perils.  A  uuitfil  army  of  Bohemians 
and  Silesians  stood  before  the  walls  of  Vienna;  in  the 
city  itself  Ferdinand  was  beset  by  the  urgent  demands 
of  the  Lower-Austrian  estates,  while  the  Bohemian 
estates  chose  as  king  in  his  place  the  head  of  the  Prot- 
estant Union  in  Germany  (the  Palatine  Frederick  \'), 
who  could  also  count  on  the  support  of  his  father-in- 
law,  James  I  of  England.  When  the  .Austrian  estates 
entered  into  an  alliance  with  the  Bohemians,  and 
Bethlen  Gabor,  Prince  of  Transylvania,  marched 
triumphantly  through  Hungary  with  the  assistance  of 
the  Hungarian  evangelical  party,  and  was  crowned 
king  of  that  country,  the 
end  of  the  Hapsburg  dy- 
nasty seemed  at  hand.  Not- 
withstanding tliese  troubles 
in  his  hereditary  states, 
Ferdinand  was  chosen  Ger- 
man Emperor  by  the  votes 
of  all  the  electors  except 
Bohemia  and  the  Palatinate. 
Spaniards  from  the  Neth- 
erlands occupied  the  Pala- 
tinate, and  the  Catholic 
League  (Bund  der  katho- 
lischen  Fursten  Deutsch- 
lands) headed  by  Maximilian 
of  Bavaria  declared  in  his 
favour,  although  to  procure 
this  support  Ferdinand  was 
obliged  to  mortgage  Austria 
to  Maximilian.  On  22  June, 
1619,  the  Imperial  General 
Buquoy  repulsed  from  Vi- 
enna the  besieging  Gen- 
eral Thurn;  Mansfeld  was 
crushed  at  Budweis,  and  on 
8  November,  1620,  the  fate 
of  Bohemia  and  of  Frederick 
V  was  decided  by  the  Battle 
of  the  White  Mountain, 
near  Prague. 

The  firm  re-establishment 
of  the  Hapsburg  dynasty 
was  the  signal  for  the  in- 
troduction of  the  Counter- 
Reformation  (q.  V.)  into 
Bohemia.  Ferdinand  an- 
nulled the  privileges  of  the 
estates,  declared  void  the 
concessions  granted  to  tln' 
Bohemian  Protestants  by 
the  Majestatsbrief  of  Ru- 
dolf II,  and  punished  the 
heads  of  the  insurrection 
with  death  and  confiscation 
of  goods.  Protestantism 
was  exterminated  in  Bohemia,  Moravia,  and  Lower 
Austria;  in  Silesia  alone,  on  the  intercession  of  the  Lu- 
theran Elector  of  Saxony,  the  Reformers  were  treated 
with  less  severity. 

The  establishment  of  a  general  peace  might  perhaps 
now  have  been  possible,  if  the  emperor  had  been  pre- 
pared to  return  his  possessions  to  the  outlawed  and 
banished  Palatine  Elector  Frederick.  .\t  first,  Ferdi- 
nand seemed  inclined  to  adopt  this  policy  out  of  con- 
sideration for  the  Spanish,  who  did  not  wish  to  give 
mortal  offence  to  James  I,  the  father-in-law  of  the 
elector.  However,  the  irritating  conduct  of  Fred- 
erick and  the  Protestant  L^nion,  and  the  wish  to  re- 
cover Austria  by  indemnifying  Maximilian  in  another 
way  led  Ferdinand  to  continue  the  war.  Entrusted 
with  the  execution  of  the  ban  against  the  Elector  Pala- 
tine, Maximilian  assisted  by  the  Spaniards  took  pos- 
session of  the  electoral  lands,  and  in  1632  was  himself 
raised  to  the  electoral  dignitv 

Emperor  F 
Frans  Pourbus  the  Younger, 

peror,  the  estates  of  the  Lower  Saxon  circle  (Kreis) 
had  meanwhile  formed  a  confederation,  and  resolved 
under  the  leadership  of  their  head.  King  Christian  IV 
of  Denmark,  to  oppose  the  emperor  (1625).  In  face 
of  this  combination,  the  Catholic  L'nion  or  League 
under  Count  Tilly  proved  too  weak  to  hold  in  check 
both  its  internal  and  external  enemies;  thus  the  re- 
cruiting of  an  independent  imperial  army  was  indis- 
pensable, though  the  Austrian  exchequer  was  unable 
to  meet  the  charge.  However,  Albrecht  von  Wald- 
stein  (usually  known  as  Wallenstein),  a  Bohemian 
nobleman  whom  Ferdinand  had  a  short  time  pre- 
viously raised  to  the  dignity 
of  prince,  offered  to  raise  an 
army  of  40,000  men  at  his 
own  expense.  His  offer  was 
accepted,  and  soon  Wallen- 
stein and  Tilly  repeatedly 
vanquished  the  Danes, 
Ernst  von  Mansfeld  and 
Christian  of  Brunswick,  the 
leaders  of  the  Protestant 
forces.  On  the  defeat  of 
Christian  at  Lutteram  Bar- 
enberge  (27  .\ugust,  1626), 
the  Danish  Duchies  of 
Schleswig  and  Holstein  fell 
into  the  hands  of  the  vic- 
torious Tilly,  Christian  was 
compelled  to  make  the 
equitable  peace  of  Lubeck 
on  12  May,  1629,  and  Wal- 
lenstein was  invested  with 
the  lands  of  the  Dukes  of 
Mecklenburg,  allies  of  Chris- 

Contemporaneously,  an 
insurrection  broke  out 
among  the  Austrian  peas- 
ants for  the  recovery  of  their 
ecclesiastical  rights  abro- 
gated by  the  emperor.  This 
rising  was  soon  quelled,  but, 
as  Wallenstein  did  not  con- 
ceal his  intention  to  estab- 
lish the  emperor's  rule  in 
( lermany  on  a  more  absolute 
basis,  the  princes  of  the 
empire  were  unceasing  in 
their  complaints,  and  de- 
manded Wallenstein's  dis- 
missal. The  excitement  of 
the  princes,  especially  those 
of  the  Protestant  faith,  ran 
still  higher  when  Ferdinand 
published,  in  1629,  the 
"Edict  of  Restitution", 
which  directed  Protestants  to  restore  all  ecclesiastical 
property  taken  from  the  Cat  holies  since  the  Convention 
of  Passau,  in  1.5.52  (2  archbishoprics,  12  bishoprics  and 
many  monastic  seigniories,  especially  in  North  Ger- 
many). At  the  meeting  of  the  princes  in  Ratisbon 
(1630),  when  Ferdinand  wished  to  procure  the  election 
of  his  son  as  King  of  Rome,  the  princes  headed  by  Max- 
imilian succeeded  in  prevailing  on  the  emperor  to  re- 
move Wallenstein.  The  command  of  the  now  reduced 
imperial  troops  was  entrusted  to  Tilly,  who  with  these 
forces  and  those  of  the  League  marched  against  Mag- 
deburg; this  city,  formerly  the  see  of  an  archbishop, 
energetically  opposed  the  execution  of  the  Edict  of 
Restitution.  Even  before  Wallenstein's  dismissal  on 
4  July,  1630,  Gustavus  Adolphus,  Kingof  Sweden,  had 
landed  at  the  mouth  of  the  Oder,  but,  as  the  Protes- 
tant estates  (notably  Brandenburg  and  Saxony)  hesi- 
tated to  enter  into  an  alliance  with  him,  he  was  unable 
at  first  to  accomplish  anyl  hing  decisive.     When,  how- 

Museo  del  Prado.  Madrid 

Uneasy  at  the  rapidly  increasing  power  of  the  em-     ever,  in  May,  1631,  Tilly  stormed  and  reduced  to  ashes 




the  town  of  Magdeburg,  tlie  Electors  of  Brandenburg 
and  Saxony  openly  espoxised  the  cause  of  Gustavus 
Adolphus.  After  the  utter  defeat  of  Tilly  at  Breiten- 
feld  (September,  1631),  Gustavus  Adolphus  advanced 
through  Thuringia  and  Franconia  to  the  Rhine,  while 
the  Saxon  army  invaded  Bohemia  and  occupied  its 
capital,  Prague.  In  1632,  the  Swedish  King  invaded 
Bavaria.  Tilly  faced  him  on  the  Lech,  but  was  de- 
feated, and  mortally  wounded.  Gustavus  Adolphus 
was  now  master  of  Germany,  the  League  was  over- 
thrown, and  the  emperor  threatened  in  his  hereditary 
domain.  In  this  crisis  Ferdinand  induced  Wallenstein 
to  raise  another  army  of  40,000  men,  and  entrusted 
him  with  unlimited  authority.  On  6  November,  1632, 
a  battle  was  fought  at  Liitzen  near  Leipzig,  where 
Gustavus  Adolphus  was  slain,  though  the  Swedish 
troops  remained  masters  of  the  battle-field.  Wallen- 
stein was  now  in  a  position  to  continue  the  war  with 
energy,  but  after  the  second  half  of  1633  he  displayed 
an  incomprehensible  inactivity.  The  explanation  is 
that  Wallenstein  had  formed  the  resolution  to  betray 
the  emperor,  and,  with  the  help  of  France,  to  seize 
Bohemia.  His  plan  miscarried,  however,  and  led  to 
his  assassination  at  Eger  on  25  February,  1634.  The 
emperor  had  no  hand  in  this  murder.  On  27  August 
of  the  same  year,  the  imperial  army  under  the  em- 
peror's eldest  son,  Ferdinand  inflicted  so  crushing  a 
defeat  on  the  Swedes  at  Nordlingen  that  the  Protest- 
ants of  south-western  Germany  turned  for  help  to 
France.  On  30  May,  1636,  by  the  cession  of  both 
LTpper  and  Lower  Lausitz,  Ferdinand  became  recon- 
ciled with  Saxony,  which  became  his  ally.  On  24 
September,  the  combined  imperial  and  Saxon  armies 
were  defeated  atWittstock  by  the  Swedes  under  Baner. 
France  now  revealed  its  real  policy,  and  dispatched  a 
powerful  army  to  join  the  ranks  of  the  emperor's  foes. 
Ferdinand  lived  to  witness  the  election  of  his  son  as 
German  Emperor  (22  December,  1636),  and  his  coro- 
nation as  King  of  Bohemia  and  Hungary.  He  died, 
however,  15  February,  1637,  without  witnessing  the 
end  of  this  destructive  conflict,  known  as  the  Thirty 
Years  War.  In  his  will,  he  expressly  provided  for  the 
succession  of  the  first-born  of  his  house  and  the  in- 
divisibility of  his  hereditary  states. 

HuRTER,  GeRchwhte  Kaiser  Ferdinands  11.  und  seiner  Zeil 
(11  vols.  Schaffhausen,  ISSO-lse-t);  Gindelt.  Geschichte  des 
dreissigjahrinen  Krienes  (3  vols.,  Prague,  1882):  Kl.opp.  Tilly 
im  dreissigjahrigen  Kriege  (2  vols.,  Stuttgart,  1861):  Huber, 
Geschiehte  Oeslerreichs  (5  vols.,  Prague  and  Leipzig,  1S94). 

Ferdinand  III,  Saint,  King  of  Leon  and  Castile, 
member  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis,  b.  in  1198 
near  Salamanca;  d.  at  Seville,  30  May,  1252.  He  was 
the  son  of  Alfonso  IX,  King  of  Leon,  and  of  Beren- 
garia,  the  daughter  of  Alfonso  III,  King  of  Castile,  and 
sister  of  Blanche,  the  mother  of  St.  Louis  IX. 

In  1217  Ferdinand  became  King  of  Castile,  which 
crown  his  mother  renounced  in  his  favour,  and  in  1230 
he  succeefled  to  the  crown  of  Leon,  though  not  without 
civil  strife,  since  many  were  opposed  to  the  union  of 
the  two  kingdoms.  He  took  as  his  counsellors  the 
wisest  men  in  the  Slate,  saw  to  the  strict  administra- 
tion of  justice,  and  took  the  greatest  care  not  to  over- 
burden his  subjects  with  taxation,  fearing,  as  he  said, 
the  curse  of  one  poor  woman  more  than  ;i  whole  ;irmy 
of  Sanicens.  Following  his  mother's  advice.  Ferdi- 
nand, in  1219.  married  Beatrice,  the  daughter  of  Philip 
of  Swabia,  King  of  Germany,  one  of  the  most  vir- 
tuous princesses  of  her  time.  God  blessed  this  union 
with  seven  children:  six  princes  and  one  princess. 
Th(^  highest  aims  of  Fcrdin.'iiid's  life  were  the  propaga- 
tion of  the  Faith  and  the  lilienition  of  Spain  from  the 
Saracen  yoke.  Ilciirc  liis  coritituial  wars  against  the 
Saracens.  He  took  from  them  vast  territories,  Ciran- 
ada  and  Alicante  aloni^  remaining  in  their  power  at  the 
time  of  his  death.  In  the  most  important  towns  he 
founded  bishoprics,  re-established  Catholic  worship 

everywhere,  built  churches,  founded  monasteries,  and 
endowed  hospitals.  The  greatest  joys  of  his  life  were 
the  conquests  of  Cordova  (1236)  and  Seville  (1248). 
He  turned  the  great  mosques  of  these  places  into  ca- 
thedrals, dedicating  them  to  the  Bles.sed  Virgin.  He 
watched  over  the  conduct  of  his  soldiers,  confiding 
more  in  their  virtue  than  in  their  valour,  fasted 
strictly  himself,  wore  a  rough  hairshirt,  and  often 
spent  his  nights  in  prayer,  especially  before  battles. 
Amid  the  tumult  of  the  camp  he  lived  like  a  religious 
in  the.cloister.  The  glory  of  the  Church  and  the  hap- 
piness of  his  people  were  the  two  guiding  motives  of 
his  life.  He  founded  the  University  of  Salamanca,  the 
Athens  of  Spain.  Ferdinand  was  buried  in  the  great 
cathedral  of  Seville  before  the  image  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin,  clothed,  at  his  own  request,  in  the  habit  of  the 
Third  Order  of  St.  Francis.  His  body,  it  is  said,  re- 
mains incorrupt.  Many  miracles  took  place  at  his 
tomb,  and  Clement  X  canonized  him  in  1671.  His 
feast  is  kept  by  the  Minorites  on  the  30th  of  May. 

Leo,  Lives  of  Ihe  Saints  and  Blessed  of  the  Three  Orders  of  St. 
Francis  (Taunton,  1SS6),  II,  300  sq.;  Butler.  Lives  of  the 
Saints  (New  York,  1896).  II.  444  sq.;  Acta  SS.,  May,  VII,  2S0 
sq.,  where  the  Lives  b.v  his  prime  minister  Roderigo  Ximenes. 
Archbishop  of  Seville,  and  Luke  of  Tuy,  as  well  as  the 
Chronicon  S.  Ferdinandi  are  to  be  found;  Wadding,  Annates 
Minorum,  VI,  189-221;  Nos  Saints  (Quebec,  1899),  126  sq.; 
ScnnoDVin Kirchenlex.,  s.  v.;  de  Ligny,  La  Viede  S.  Ferdinand, 
roi  de  Castille  et  de  Leon  (Paris,  1759);  Ferrera,  Geschiehte 
SpanieTUi,  Germ.  tr.  (Halle,  1755). 

Ferdinand  Heckmann. 

Perentino  (Ferextinum),  Diocese  of,  in  the 
province  of  Rome,  immediately  subject  to  the  Holy 
See.  The  town  was  in  antiquity  the  chief  place  of  the 
Hernici.  Its  ancient  origin  is  borne  out  by  the  numer- 
ous remains  of  its  Cyclopean  walls,  especially  near  the 
site  of  the  ancient  fortress  where  the  cathedral  now 
stands.  In  the  days  of  the  kings  there  was  strife  be- 
tween Rome  and  Ferentinum  which  then  belonged  to 
the  Volscians.  The  Consul  Furius  gave  it  over  to  the 
Hernici,  and  in  487,  a.  u.  c,  it  became  a  Roman  town 
(municipium),  and  shared  thenceforth  the  fortunes  of 
Rome.  Local  legend  attributes  the  first  preaching  of 
the  tiospel  in  Ferentinum  to  Sts.  Peter  and  Paul;  they 
are  said  to  have  consecrated  St.  Leo  as  its  first  bishop. 
In  the  persecution  of  Diocletian  the  centurion  Am- 
brose suffered  martyrdom  (304)  at  Ferentino;  possibly 
also  the  martj'rdom  of  St.  Eutychius  belongs  to  that 
period.  In  the  time  of  Emperor  Constantino  the 
towm  had  its  own  bishop;  but  the  first  known  to  us  by 
name  is  Bassus,  present  at  Roman  synods,  487  and 
492-493.  St.  Redemptus  (about  570)  is  mentioned  in 
the  "  Dialogues"  of  St.  Gregory  the  Great;  and  he  also 
refers  to  a  Bishop  Boniface.  Other  known  bishops  are 
TrasmondoSognino  (1150),  who  died  in  prison;  LTbaldo 
(1150),  legate  of  Adrian  IV  to  the  princes  of  Christen- 
dom in  favour  of  a  crusade,  later  the  consecrator  of 
the  antipope  Victor  IV;  Giacomo  (a.  d.  1276),  legate 
of  John  XXI  to  Emperor  Michael  Palseologus;  Lan- 
dolfo  Rosso  (1297),  who  rendered  good  service  to 
Boniface  VIII;  Francesco  Filippesio  (1799),  legate  of 
Julius  II  to  the  Emperor  Maximilian. 

Ferentino  has  (1909)  19  parishes  and  45,000  souls;  3 
boys'  and  2  girls'  schools;  6  monasteries  for  men;  and 
8  convents  for  women. 

rAppELLETTi,  Le  chiesc  d'Italia,VI,391;Ann.  Fed.  (Home, 

U.  Benigni. 

Fergus,  Saint,  d.  about  730,  known  in  the  Irish 
martyrologies  as  St.  Fergus  Cruithneach,  or  the  Pict. 
The  Breviary  of  Aberdeen  st:ites  tliat  he  had  been  a 
bishop  for  many  years  in  Ireland  when  he  came  on  a 
mission  to  Alba  with  some  p|His(ni  priests  and  other 
clerics.  He  settled  first  nc:ir  Stnigc.'itli,  in  the  present 
parish  of  Upper  Str:ithearn,  in  I'pper  Perth,  and 
erected  three  churches  in  (li:it  district.  The  churches 
of  Strageath,  Blackford,  and  Dolpatrick  are  found 
there  to-day  dedicated   to  St.   Patrick.    He  next 




evangelized  Caithness  and  established  there  the 
churches  of  Wick  und  Halkirk.  Thence  he  crossed  to 
Buchan  in  Alu'idccnshire  and  founded  a  church  at 
Lungley,  a  village  now  oallcd  St.  Fergus.  Lastly,  he 
established  a  church  at  Glammis  in  Forfarshire.  He 
went  to  Rome  in  721  and  was  present  with  Sedu- 
lius  and  twenty  other  bishops  at  a  synod  in  the 
basilica  of  St.  Peter,  convened  by  Gregory  II.  His 
remains  were  deposited  in  the  church  of  Glammis  and 
were  the  object  of  much  veneration  in  the  Mitldle 
Ages.  The  Abbot  of  Scone  transferred  his  head  to 
Scone  church,  and  encased  it  in  a  costly  shrine. 
There  is  an  entry  in  the  accounts  of  the  treasurer  of 
James  IV,  October,  1503,  "An  offerand  of  13  shillings 
to  Sanct  Fergus'  heide  in  Scone".  The  churches  of 
Wick,  Glammis,  and  Lungley  had  St.  Fergus  as  their 
patron.  His  festival  is  recorded  in  the  Martyrology  of 
Tallaght  for  the  Sth  of  September  but  seems  to  have 
been  observed  in  Scotland  on  the  18th  of  November. 

Kelly  (ed.),  Martyrology  of  Tallaght,  33;  O'HanloN.  Lives 
of  Irish  Sts.,  8  Sept.,  IX,  196;  Breviary  of  Aberdeen,  Latin 
text  (London,  1S54);  Skene,  Celtic  Scotland  (Edinburg,  1877), 
IL  232. 

Fergus,  Saint,  Bishop  of  Duleek,  d.  778,  mentioned 
by  Duald  MacFirbis,  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters, 
Annals  of  Ulster. 

Fergus,  S.\int,  Bishop  of  Downpatrick,  d.  583.  He 
was  si.xth  in  descent  from  Coelbad,  King  of  Erin.  He 
built  a  church  or  monastery  called  Killmbian,  identi- 
fied by  some  as  Killyban,  Co.  Down,  and  afterwards 
was  consecrated  bishop  and  ruled  the  cathedral 
church  of  Druiraleithglais  (Down).  He  was  probably 
the  first  bishop  of  that  see.  His  feast  is  kept  on  the 
30th  of  March. 

Ten  saints  of  this  name  are  mentioned  in  the  mar- 
tyrology of  Donegal. 

CoLGAN.  Ada  .S.S.  Hib..  30  Mar.;  O'Hanlon,  op.  cit..  30  Mar.; 
Lanigan,  Ecc.  Wis/,  of  Ireland  UJublin,  1829).  II.  183. 


Feria  (Lat.  for  "free  day"),  a  day  on  which  the 
people,  especially  the  slaves,  were  not  obliged  to  work, 
and  on  which  there  were  no  court  sessions.  In  ancient 
Roman  times  the  fe.riw  publico;,  legal  holidays,  were 
either  stativoe,  recurring  regularly  (e.  g.  the  Saturnalia), 
conceptivce,  i.  e.  movable,  or  imperativie,  i.  e.  appointed 
for  special  occasions.  When  Christianity  spread,  the 
fericE  were  ordered  for  religious  rest,  to  celebrate  the 
feasts  instituted  for  worship  by  the  Church.  The 
faithful  were  obliged  on  those  days  to  attend  Mass  in 
their  parish  church ;  such  assemblies  gradually  led  to 
mercantile  enterprise,  partly  from  necessity  and  partly 
for  the  sake  of  convenience.  This  custom  in  time 
introduced  market  gatherings  which  the  Ger- 
mans call  Messen,  and  the  English  call  fairs.  They 
were  fi.xed  on  saints'  days  (e.  g.  St.  Barr's  fair,  St. 
Germanus's  fair,  St.  Wenn's  fair,  etc.). 

To-day  the  terra  feria  is  used  to  denote  the  days  of 
the  week  with  the  exception  of  Sunday  and  Saturday. 
Various  reasons  are  given  for  this  terminology.  The 
Roman  Breviary,  in  the  sixth  lesson  for  31  Dec,  says 
that  Pope  St.  Silvester  ordered  the  continuance  of  the 
already  existing  custom,  "that  the  clergy,  daily  ab- 
staining from  earthly  cares,  would  be  free  to  serve 
God  alone".  Others  believe  that  the  Church  simply 
Christianized  a  Jewish  practice.  The  Jews  frequently 
counted  the  days  from  their  SabVjath,  and  so  we  find  in 
the  Gospels  such  expressions  as  una  Sabhati  and  prima 
Sabbati,  the  first  from  the  Sabbath.  The  early  Chris- 
tians reckoned  the  days  after  Easter  in  this  fashion, 
but,  since  all  the  days  of  Easter  week  were  holy  days, 
they  called  Easter  Monday,  not  the  first  day  after 
Easter,  but  the  second  feria  or  feast  day;  and  since 
every  Sunday  is  the  dies  Dominica,  a  lesser  Easter  day, 
the  custom  prevailed  to  call  each  Monday  a  feria 
secunda,  and  so  on  for  the  rest  of  the  week. 

The  ecclesiastical  style  of  naming  the  week  days  was 
adopted  by  no  nation  except  the  Portuguese,  who 

alone  use  the  terms  Segumta  Feira  etc.  The  old  use 
of  the  word  feria,  for  feast  day,  is  lost,  except  in  the 
derivative  feriatio,  which  is  equivalent  to  our  of  obliga- 
tion. To-day  those  days  are  called  ferial  upon  which 
no  feast  is  celebrated.  Ferite  are  either  major  or 
minor.  The  major,  which  must  have  at  least  a  com- 
memoration, even  on  the  highest  feasts,  are  the  ferise 
of  Advent  and  Lent,  the  Ember  days,  and  the  Monday 
of  Rogation  week;  the  others  are  called  minor.  Of 
the  major  ferice  Ash  Wednesday  and  the  days  of  Holy 
Week  are  privileged,  so  that  their  office  must  be  taken, 
no  matter  what  feast  may  occur. 

Dublin  Hevie-w,  CXXIV,  350;  Wapelhorst,  Compendium  S. 
Liturgiw  (New  York,  1905);  Heuser  in  Kirchenlex.,  s.  v. 

Francis  Mershman. 

Ferland,  Jean-Baptiste-Antoine,  French  Cana- 
dian historian,  b.  at  Montreal,  25  December,  1805;  d. 
at  Quebec,  1 1  January,  18G5.  He  studied  at  the  col- 
lege of  Nicolet  and  was  ordained  priest  14  September, 
1828.  He  ministered  to  country  parishes  until  1841, 
when  he  was  made  director  of  studies  in  the  college  of 
Nicolet.  He  became  its  superior  in  1848.  Being 
named  a  member  of  the  council  of  the  Bishop  of 
Quebec,  he  took  up  his  residence  in  that  city,  where  he 
was  also  chaplain  to  the  English  garrison.  From  his 
college  days  he  had  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of 
Canadian  history;  the  niuiierous  notes  which  he  col- 
lected had  made  him  one  of  the  most  learned  men  of 
the  country.  It  was  not,  however,  until  he  had 
reached  the  age  of  forty  that  he  thought  of  writing  a 
history  of  Canada.  In  1853  he  published  his  "  Obser- 
vations sur  I'histoire  eccl6siastique  du  Canada",  a 
refutation  and  criticism  of  the  work  of  the  Abb6  Bras- 
seur  de  Bourbourg ;  it  was  reprinted  in  France  in  1854i 
In  the  latter  year  he  published  "  Notes  sur  les  r^gistres 
de  Notre-Damede  Quebec",  a  second  edition  of  which, 
revised  and  augmented,  appeared  in  the  "  Foyer  Cana- 
dien"  for  1863.  In  1855  he  was  appointed  profe.s.sor 
of  Canadian  history  at  the  University  of  Laval 
(Quebec),  and  went  at  once  to  France  to  collect  new 
documents  to  perfect  him  in  his  work.  He  returned 
in  1857,  bringing  with  him  valuable  notes.  The  pub- 
lic courses  which  he  delivered  from  1858  to  1862  at- 
tracted large  audiences,  and  his  lectures,  printed  as 
"Cours  d'Histoire  du  Canada",  established  Ferland 's 
reputation.  The  first  volume  appeared  in  1861;  the 
second  was  not  published  till  after  the  author's  death 
in  1865.  This  work,  written  in  a  style  at  once  simple 
and  exact,  is  considered  authoritative  by  competent 
judges.  It  is,  however,  incomplete,  ending  as  it  does 
with  the  conquest  of  Canada  by  the  English  (1759). 
Ferland  aimed  above  all  at  establishing  the  actual 
facts  of  history.  He  desired  also  to  make  known  the 
work  of  the  Catholic  missions.  His  judgments  are 
correct  and  reliable.  Ferland  also  published  in  the 
"Soirees  Canadiennes"  of  1863  the  "Journal  d'un 
voyage  sur  les  cotes  de  la  Gaspesie",  and  in  "  Littera- 
ture  Canadienne"  for  1803  an  "Etude  sur  le  Labra- 
dor", which  had  previously  appeared  in  the  "  Annales 
de  I'Association  pour  la  Propagation  de  la  Foi".  For 
the  "Foyer  Canadien"  of  1863  he  wrote  a  "Vie  de 
Mgr  Plessis",  Bishop  of  Quebec,  translated  later  into 

Legare,  Notice  biographique  in  Courrier  du  Canada,  13  Jan., 
1865;  Gerin-Lajoie,  L'abbe  J.~B.-A.  Ferland  in  Foyer  Cana- 
dien, III  (1865),  i-l.\xii;  Royal,  Cours  d'histoire  du  Canada  de 
Ferland;  Revue  Canadienne  (1864),  IV,  552. 

J.  Edmond  Roy. 

Fermo,  Archdiocese  op  (Firmana),  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Ascoh  Piceno  (Central  Italy).  The  great  antiq- 
uity of  the  episcopal  city  is  attested  by  the  remains 
of  its  Cyclopean  walls.  It  was  the  site  of  a  Roman 
colony,  established  in  264  b.  c,  consisting  of  6000  men. 
With  the  Pentapolis  it  passed  in  the  eighth  century 
under  the  authority  of  the  Holy  See  and  underwent 
thenceforth  the  vicissitudes  of  the  March  of  Ancona. 
Under  the  predecessors  of  Honorius  III  the  bishops  of 




the  city  becamo  the  counts,  and  later  princes,  of 
Fermo.  In  the  contest  between  the  Hohenstaiifcn 
and  tlie  papacy,  Fermo  was  several  times  bpsicHnl  Miid 
captured;  in  1176  by  Archbishop  Christian  of  ^h^inz,  in 
1192  by  Henry  VI,  in  1208  by  Marcuald,  Duke  of 
Ravenna,  in  1241  by  Frederick  II,  in  1245  by  Manfred. 
After  this  it  was  governed  by  different  lords,  who 
ruled  as  more  or  less  legitimate  vassals  of  the  Holy 
See,   e.  g.   the  Monteverdi,   Giovanni    Viseonti,  and 

XII  Centdhy 

Francesco  Sforza  (banished  1446),  Oliverotto  Uffre- 
ducci  (murdered  in  1503  by  Ca-sar  Borgia),  who  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  Ludovico,  killed  at  the  battle  of 
Monte  Giorgio  in  1520,  when  Fermo  became  again  di- 
rectly subject  to  the  Holy  See.  Boniface  VIII  (1294- 
1303)  established  a  university  there.  Fermo  is  the 
birthplace  of  the  celebrated  poet,  Annibale  Caro. 

Local  legend  attributes  the  first  preaching  of  the 
Gospel  at  Fermo  to  Sts.  ApoUinaris  and  Maro.  The 
martyrdom  of  its  bishop,  St.  Alexander,  with  seventy 
companions,  is  placed  in  the  persecution  of  Decius 
(250),  and  the  martyrdom  of  St.  Philip  under  Aurelian 
(270-75).  Among  the  noteworthy  bishops  are:  Pas- 
sinus,  the  recipient  of  four  letters  from  Gregory  HI; 
Cardinal  Domenico  Capranica  (1426);  Sigismondo 
Zanettini  (1584),  under  whom  Fermo  was  made  the 
seat  of  an  archdiocese;  Giambattista  Rinuccini,  nun- 
cio in  Ireland;  and  Alessandro  Borgia.  The  suffra- 
gans of  Fermo  are  Macerata-Tolentino,  Montalto,  Ri- 
patransone,  and  San  Severino.  The  archdiocese  has 
(1908)  a  population  of  185,000;  147  parishes;  36S  secu- 
lar priests  and  86  regular;  2  male  and  5  female  educa- 
tional institutions;  6  religious  houses  of  men  and  50  of 
women;  and  a  Catholic  weekly,  the  "Voce  delle 
Marche".  ,,  „ 

Cappellktti.  Le  Chiasm  d'llalia  (Venice,  1844),  II;  Napolk- 
TANI,  Fermo  net  Picmo  (Rome,  1907);  Catalan:,  De  Ecdesid 
Firmand  ejusque  episcopia  (Fermo,  1783). 

U.  Benigni. 

Femindez,  Antonio,  Jesuit  missionary;  b.  at 
Lisbon,  c.  1.569;  d.  at  Goa,  12  November,  1642.  About 
1602  he  scTit  to  India,  whence  two  years  later  he 

went  to  Abyssinia,  where  he  soon  won  favour  with 
King  Melek  Seghed.  This  monarch,  converted  to  the 
Faith  in  1622.  after  the  arrival  of  the  Latin  patriarch, 
for  whom  he  had  petitioned  the  Holy  See,  publicly 
acknowledged  the  primacy  of  the  Roman  See  and 
constituted  Catholicism  the  State  religion  (1626). 
For  a  time  innumerable  conversions  were  made,  the 
monarch  in  his  zeal  resorting  even  to  compulsory 
measures.  The  emperor's  son,  however,  took  sides 
with  the  schismatics,  headed  a  rebellion,  seized  his 
father's  throne,  and  reinstalled  the  former  faith, 
proscribing  the  Catholic  religion  under  the  penalty  of 
death.  The  missionaries,  on  their  expulsion,  found  a 
temporary  protector  in  one  of  the  petty  princes  of  the 
country,  by  whom,  however,  they  were  soon  aban- 
doned. Those  who  reached  the  port  of  Massowah 
were  held  for  a  ransom.  Father  Ferniindez,  then  over 
eighty  years  of  age,  was  one  of  those  detained  as 
hostage,  but  a  younger  companion  persuaded  the 
pasha  to  substitute  him,  and  Father  Ferniindez  was 
allowed  to  return  to  India,  where  he  ended  his  days. 
On  his  missions  for  the  king  Father  Fernandez  had 
traversed  vast  tracts  of  hitherto  unexplored  territory. 
He  translated  various  liturgical  books  into  Ethiopian, 
and  was  the  author  of  ascetical  and  polemical  works 
against  the  heresies  prevalent  in  Ethiopia. 

MioNE,  Dicl.  des  missions  catholigues;  Bremer  in  Buch- 
BEHGER,  Kirchliches  Handtex.,  s.  v. 

F.  M.  RUDGE. 

Ferndndez,  Juan,  Jesuit  lay  brother  and  mission- 
ary; b.  at  Cordova;  d.  12  June,  1567,  in  Japan.  In  a 
letter  from  Malacca,  dated  20  June,  1549,  St.  Francis 
Xavier  begs  the  prayers  of  the  Goa  brethren  for  those 
about  to  start  on  the  Japanese  mission,  mentioning 
among  them  Juan  Ferndndez,  a  lay  brother.  On 
their  arrival  in  Japan  Juan  rendered  active  service  in 
the  work  of  evangelizing.  In  September,  1550,  he 
accompanied  St.  Francis  to  Firando  (Hirado),  thence 
to  Amanguchi  (Yamaguchi),  and  on  toMiako  (Saikio), 
a  difficult  journey,  from  which  they  returned  to 
Amanguchi,  where  he  was  left  with  Father  Cosmo 
Torres  in  charge  of  the  Christians,  when  Francis 
started  for  China.  There  is  still  in  the  records  of  the 
Jesuit  college  at  Coimbra  a  lengthy  document  pro- 
fessed to  be  the  translation  of  an  account  rendered  St. 
Francis  by  Ferniindez  of  a  controversy  with  the 
Japanese  on  such  questions  as  the  nature  of  God, 
creation,  the  nature  and  immortality  of  the  soul.  The 
success  of  Brother  Ferndndez  on  this  occasion  in  re- 
futing his  Japanese  adversaries  resulted  in  the  ill  will 
of  the  bonzes,  who  stirred  up  a  rebellion  against  the 
local  prince,  who  had  become  a  Christian.  The 
missionaries  were  concealed  by  the  wife  of  one  of 
the  nobles  until  they  were  able  to  resume  their  work 
of  preaching.  St.  Francis  says  in  one  of  his  letters; 
"Joam  Ferndndez,  though  a  simple  layman,  is  rnost 
useful  on  account  of  the  fluency  of  his  acquaint- 
ance w  ith  the  Japanese  language  and  of  the  aptness 
and  clearness  with  which  he  translates  whatever  Father 
Cosmo  suggests  to  him."  His  humility  under  insults 
impressed  all,  and  on  one  occasion  resulted  in  the  con- 
version of  a  brilliant  young  Japanese  doctor,  who  later 
became  a  Jesuit  and  one  of  the  shining  lights  in  the 
Japanese  Church.  Brother  Ferndndez  compiled  the 
first  Japanese  grammar  and  lexicon. 

Bhemer  in  BucHBERGER,  A'ircWic/ics  Hand/fT.,  s.  v.;  Cole- 
RinuE,  The  Life  and  Lcllers  of  SI.  Francis  Xavier  (London, 
1902),  II.  F.  M.  RuDGE. 

Ferndndez  de  Palencia,  Diego,  Spanish  conqueror 
and  historian;  b.  at  Palencia  in  the  early  part  of  the 
sixteenth  century.  He  took  up  a  military  career,  and 
went  to  Peru  shortly  after  the  concjucst  (about  1545). 
In  1553  and  1554  he  took  part  in  the  civil  struggle 
among  the  Spaniards,  figliting  under  the  banner  of 
AUmso  de  Alvarado,  (;apt:iiii-(!('  of  Los  Charoos, 
against  the  rebel  Francisco  Hernandez  de  (iiron.     In 




1555  Ilurtado  de  Mciuloza,  Marquess  of  f'afiete,  caino 
to  Peru  as  viceroy,  and  chargeil  Fernantlez  to  write  a 
history  of  the  troul)les  in  which  lie  liad  just  taken  part. 
He  then  began  his  history  of  Peru,  and  hiter,  when  he 
had  returned  to  Spain,  upon  the  suggestion  of  Sando- 
val, President  of  the  Council  of  the  Indies,  Ferndndez 

of  St.  Mullins  (Teach  Molinij),  County  Carlow.  The 
ancient  monastery  of  Ferns  included  a  nuniljer  of  cells, 
or  oratories,  and  the  cathedral  was  built  in  the  Irish 
style.  At  present  the  remains  of  the  abbey  (rcfounded 
for  Austin  Canons,  in  1160,  by  Dermot  MacMurrough) 
include  a  round  tower,  about  seventy-five  feet  high, 

enlarged  the  scope  of  his  work,  and  added  to  it  a  first  in  two  stories,  the  lower  of  which  is  quadrangular,  and 
part,  dealing  with  the  movements  of  Pizarro  and  his  the  upper  polygonal.  Close  by  is  the  Holy  Well  of  St. 
followers.  The  whole  work 
was  published  under  the 
title  "  Primera  y  segunda 
parte  de  la  Historia  del 
Peru"  (Seville,  1571).  Hav- 
ing taken  part  in  many  of 
the  events,  and  known  the 
men  who  figured  in  most  of 
the  scenes  which  he  de- 
scribes, Ferndndez  may  be 
regarded  as  an  historian 
whose  testimony  is  worth 
consideration.  Garcilasode 
la  Vega,  the  Peruvian,  who 
quotes  long  passages  from 
Ferndndez,  fiercely  attacks 
his  story  and  accuses  him  of 
partiality  and  of  animosity 
against  certain  personages. 
Whatever  the  reason  may 
have    been,   however,    pos- 

RuiNS  OK  Selskar  (St.  Sepulchre)  Priory,  Wexford 


Ferns  was  raided  by  the 
Scandinavians  in  834,  8.36, 
839,  842,  917,  920,  928,  and 
930,  and  was  burned  in  937. 
St.  Peter's  Church,  Ferns, 
dates  from  about  the  year 
1060,  and  is  of  the  Hiberno- 
Roraanesque  style,  having 
been  built  by  Bishop  O'Ly- 
nam,  who  died  in  1062.  Tlie 
bishops  were  indifferently 
styled  as  of  Ferns,  Hy  Kin- 
sellagh,  or  Wexford;  thus, 
Maeleoin  O'Donegan  (il. 
1125)  is  called  "Bishop  of 
Wexford",  while  Bishop 
O'Cathan  (d.  1135)  is  named 
"Archbishop  of  Hy  Kinsel- 
lagh".  This  was  by  reason 
of  the  fact  that  the  bound- 

sibly  because  of  the  truth  of  the  story,  the  fact  is,  aries  of  the  diocese  are  coextensive  with  the  territory 

that  the  Council  of  the  Indies  prohibited  the  printing  of  Hy  Kinsellagh,  on  which  account  Ferns  includes 

and  sale  of  the  book  in  the  provinces  imder  its  juris-  County  Wexford  with  small  portions  of  Wicklow  and 

diction.     A  perusal  of  the  book  conveys  the  impres-  Carlow.      Dermot  MacMurrough,   King  of  Leinster, 

sion  that  Fernandez  was  a  man  of  sound  judgment,  burned  the  city  of  Ferns  in  1160,  "for  fear  that  the 

who  set  down  the  facts  only  after  a  thorough  inves-  Connacht  men  would  destroy  his  castle  and  his  house", 

ligation.     The  reproaches  of  the  Inca  historian  may,  and,  three  years  later,  he  brought  over  a  pioneer  force 

therefore,  be  regarded  as  without  foundation.  of  Welshmen.     He  died  in  1171,  and,  at  his  own  re- 

PREscoTT,His(orao/<Aec<mgu€5i  o/Peru(Philadelphia,  1882).  quest,  was  buried  "near  the  shrines  of  St.  Maedhog 

Ventura  Fuentes.  and  St.  Moling".     The  same  year  Henry  II  of  Eng- 
land landed  in  Ireland,  where  he  remained  for  six 

Ferns,  of  (Fernensis),  in  the  province  of  months. 
Leinster    (Ireland),    suffragan    of    Dublin.     It    was        Ailbe  O'Molloy,  a  Cistercian,  who  ruled  from  1185  to 

founded  by  St.  Aedan 
whose  name  is  popu- 
larly known  as  Mo- 
aedhog,  or  "  My  dear 
little  Aedh",  in  598. 
Subsequently,  St. 
Aedan  was  given  a 
over  the  other  bishops 
of  Leinster,  with  the 
title  of  Ard-Escop, 
or  chief  bishop,  on 
which  account  he  and 
some  of  his  successors 
have  been  regarded 
as  having  archiepis- 
copal  powers.  Tlie 
old  annalists  style 
the  see  Fearna-mor- 
Maedhog,  that  is, 
"  the  great  plain  of 
the  alder-trees  of  St. 
Moedhog".  Even  yet 
Moedhog   (Mogue) 

Ruins  of  Ferns  Abbey 

1222,  was  the  last 
Irish  bishop  in  the 
pre-Reformation  his- 
tory of  Ferns.  He 
attended  the  Fourth 
(ieneral  Council  of 
Lateran  (1215)  and, 
on  his  return,  formed 
a  cathedral  chapter. 
His  successor,  Bishop 
St.  John,  was  granted 
by  Henry  III  (6  July, 
1226)  a  weekly  mar- 
ket at  Ferns  and  an 
annual  fair,  also  a 
weekly  market  at 
Enniscorthy.  This 
bishop  (S  April,  1227) 
assigned  the  manor 
of  Enniscorthy  to 
Pliilip  de  Prender- 
gast,  who  built  a  cas- 
tle, still  in  excellent 
preservation.    In  ex- 

the    Irish  endearing    form   of   Aedan — is  a  familiar  change,    he   acquired    six    plough-lands   forever  for 

Christian  name  in  the  diocese,  while  it  is  also  perpetu-  the  See  of  Ferns.     He  held  a  synod  at  Selskar  (St. 

ated  in  Tubbermogue,  Bovlavogue,  Cromogue,  Island  Sepulchre)    Priory,    Wexford    (8    September,  1240). 

Mogue,  etc.     The  bell  and  shrine  of  St.  Aedan  (Breacc  The  appointment  of  a  dean  was  confirmed  by  Clement 

Maedoig)   are  to  be  seen  in  the  National  Museum,  IV  (23  August,  1265).     Bishop  St.  John  rebuilt  the 

Dublin.     Many  of  his  successors  find  a  place  in  Irish  cathedral   of   Ferns,  which   from   recent  discoveries 

martyrologies,     including    St.    Mochua,   St.     Moling  seems  to  have  been  ISO  feet  in  length,  with  a  crypt, 

and  St.  Cillene.     Of  these  the  most  famous  is  St.  A  fine  stone  statue  of  St.  .\edan,  evidently  early  Nor- 

Moling,  who  died  13  May,  697.     His  book-shrine  is  man  work,  is  still  preserved.     In  1346  the  castle  of 

among  the  greatest  art  treasures  of  Ireland,  and  his  Ferns  was  made  a  royal  appanage,  and  constables  were 

"weir"  is  still  visited,  but  he  is  best  known  as  patron  appointed  by  the  Crown,  but  it  was  recovered  by  Art 




MacMurrough  in  13S6.  Patrick  Barret,  who  ruled 
from  1400  to  1415,  removed  the  episcopal  chair  of 
Ferns  to  New  Ross,  and  made  St.  Mary's  his  cathedral. 
His  successor,  Robert  Whitty,  had  an  episcopate  of 
forty  years,  dying  in  February,  1458.  Under  John 
Purcell  (1459-1479),  Franciscan  friars  acquired  a  foun- 
dation in  Enniscorthy,  which  was  dedicated  IS  Octo- 
ber, 1460.  Lawrence  Neville  (1479-1503)  attended  a 
provincial  council  at  Christ  Church  Cathedral,  Dublin, 
on  5  March,  1495.  His  successor,  Edmund  Comer- 
ford,  died  in  1509,  whereupon  Nicholas  Comyn  was 
elected.  Bishop  Comyn  resided  at  Fethard  Castle, 
and  assisted  at  the  provincial  councils  of  1512  and 
1518.  He  was  transferred  to  Waterford  and  Lismore 
in  1519,  and  was  replaced  by  John  Purcell,  whose 
troubled  episcopate  ended  on  20  July,  1539.  Though 
Echismatically  consecrated,  Alexander  Devereux  was 
rehabilitated  under  Queen  Mary  as  Bishop  of  Ferns, 
and  died  at  Fethard  Castle  on  6  July,  1566 — the  last 
pre-Reformation  bishop.  Peter  Power  was  appointed 
his  successor  in  15S2,  but  the  temporalities  of  the  see 
were  held  by  John  Devereux.  Bishop  Power  died  a 
confessor,  in  exile,  15  December,  158S.  Owing  to  the 
disturbed  state  of  the  diocese  and  the  lack  of  revenue, 
no  bishop  was  provided  till  19  April,  1624,  but  mean- 
time Father  Daniel  O'Drohan,  who  had  to  adopt  the 
alias  of  "James  Walshe",  acted  as  vicar  Apostolic 
(1606-1624).  John  Roche  was  succeeded  by  another 
John  Roche,  6  February,  1644,  who  never  enteretl  on 
possession,  the  see  being  administered  by  William 
Devereux  from  1636  to  1644.  Dr.  Devereux  was  an 
able  administrator  at  a  trying  period,  and  he  wrote  an 
English  catechism,  which  was  used  in  the  diocese  until 
a  few  years  ago.  Nicholas  French  was  made  Bishop  of 
Ferns  15  September,  1644,  and  died  in  exile  at  Client, 
23  August,  1079.  His  episcopate  was  a  remarkable 
one,  and  he  himself  was  a  most  distinguished  prelate. 
Bishop  Wadding  (1678-1691)  wrote  some  charming 
Christmas  carols,  which  are  still  sung  in  Wexford.  His 
successors,  Michael  Rossiter  (1695-1709),  John  Ver- 
don  (1709-1729),  and  the  Franciscan  Ambrose  O'Cal- 
laghan  (1729-1744),  experienced  the  full  brunt  of  the 
penal  laws.  Nicholas  Sweetman  (1745-1786)  was 
twice  imprisoned  on  suspicion  of  "  disloyalty  ",  while 
James  Caulfield  (1786-1814)  was  destined  to  outlive 
the  "rebellion"  of  '98.  One  of  the  Ferns  priests, 
Father  James  Dixon,  who  was  transported  as  a 
"felon",  was  the  first  Prefect  Apostolic  of  Australia. 
All  the  post-Reformation  bishops  lived  mostly  at 
W^exford  until  1809,  in  which  year  Dr.  Ryan,  coadju- 
tor bishop,  commenced  the  building  of  a  cathedral  in 
Enniscorthy,  which  had  been  assigned  him  as  a  mensal 
parish.  As  Bishop  Caulfield  was  an  invalid  from  the 
year  1809  the  diocese  was  administered  by  Dr.  Ryan, 
who,  with  the  permission  of  the  Holy  See,  transferred 
the  episcopal  residence  to  Enniscorthy.  Bishop  Ryan 
died  9  March,  1819,  and  was  buried  in  the  cathe- 
dral. His  successor,  James  Keating  (1819-1849), 
ruled  for  thirty  years,  and  commenced  building  the 
present  cathedral,  designed  by  Pugin.  Myles  Murphy 
(18.50-1856)  and  Thomas  Furlong  (1857-1875)  did 
much  for  the  diocese,  while  Michael  Warren  (1875- 
1884)  is  still  lovingly  remembered. 

From  an  interesting  Relalio  forwarded  to  the  Prop- 
aganda' by  Bishop  Caulfield  in  1796,  the  Diocese  of 
Ferns  is  de-scribed  as  38  miles  in  length  and  20  in 
breadth,  with  eight  borough  towns,  and  a  chapter  of 
nineteen  members.  In  pre-Reformation  days  it  had 
143  parishes;  17  monasteries  of  Canons  Regular  of  St. 
Augustine;  3  priories  of  Knights  Templars;  2  Cister- 
cian abbeys;  3  Franciscan  friaries;  2  Austin  friaries; 
1  Carmelite  friary,  and  1  Benedictine  priory.  It  never 
had  a  nunnery  nor  a  Dominican  friary.  (The  Jesuits 
had  a  flourishing  college  in  New  Ross  in  1675.)  The 
population  was  120,000,  of  which  114,000  were  Catho- 
lics, and  there  were  80  priests,  including  regulars. 
There  were  36  parishes,  many  of  which  had  no  curates. 

At  present  (1909),  the  population  is  108,750,  of 
which  99,000  are  Catholics.  There  are  41  parislies, 
two  of  which  (Wexford  and  Enniscorthy)  are  mensal. 
The  parish  priests  are  39  and  the  curates  are  66,  while 
the  churches  number  92.  The  religious  orders  include 
Franciscans  (one  house),  Augustinians  (two  houses), 
and  Benedictines  (one  house).  The  total  clergy  are 
140.  In  addition,  there  are  14  convents  for  religious 
women,  and  a  House  of  Missions  (Superior  Father 
John  Rossiter),  as  also  6  Christian  Brothers  schools,  a 
diocesan  college,  a  Benedictine  college,  and  several 
good  schools  for  female  pupils.  Enniscorthy  cathe- 
dral was  not  completed  until  1875,  and  the  interior  was 
not  completely  finished  till  1908.  Most  Rev.  Dr.  James 
Browne  was  consecrated  Bishop  of  Ferns  14  Septem- 
ber, 1884.  He  was  born  at  Mayglass,  County  Wex- 
ford in  1842,  finished  his  studies  at  Maynooth  College, 
where  he  was  ordained  in  1865,  and  served  for  nine- 
teen years  as  curate  and  parish  priest  with  conspicuous 

CoLGAN,  Ada  Sanct.  Hib.  (Louvain,  1648);  Brenan,  Ecct. 
Hi^l.  of  Ireland  (Dublin,  1840);  Rothe,  Aiialecta,  ed.  Moran 
(Dublin.  1884);  Ware,  Bishops  of  Ireland,  ed.  Harris  (Dublin, 
1739);  Renehan,  Collections  on  Irish  Church  Histoni,  ed. 
McCarthy  (Dublin,  1874),  II;  Grattan-Flood,  Hist,  of  Ennis- 
corthy (Enniscorthy,  1S98);  Idem,  The  Episcopal  City  of  Ferns 
in  Irish  Eccl.  Record,  II,  no.  358;  IV,  no.  368;  VI,  no.  380;  Bas- 
set, Wexford  (Dublin,  1885). 

W.  H.  Grattan-Flood. 

Ferrandus.     See  Fulgentids  Ferrandus. 

Ferrara,  Archdiocese  op  (Ferrariensis),  imme- 
diately subject  to  the  Holy  See.  The  city,  which  is 
the  capital  of  the  similarly  named  province,  stands  on 
the  banks  of  the  Po  di  Volano,  where  it  branches  off  to 
form  the  Po  di  Primaro,  in  the  heart  of  a  rich  agricul- 
tural district.  The  origin  of  Ferrara  is  doubtful.  No 
mention  is  made  of  it  before  the  eighth  century.  Un- 
til the  tenth  century  it  followed  the  fortunes  of  Ra- 
venna. In  986  it  was  given  as  a  papal  fief  to  Tedaldo, 
C'ount  of  Canossa,  the  grandfather  of  Countess  Ma- 
tilda against  whom'it  rebelled  in  1101.  From  1115  it 
was  directly  under  the  pope,  though  often  claimed  by 
the  emperors.  During  this  period  arose  the  commune 
of  Ferrara.  Gradually  the  Salinguerra  family  became 
all-powerful  in  the  city.  They  were  expelled  in  1208 
for  their  fidelity  to  the  emperor,  whereupon  the  citi- 
zens offered  the  governorship  to  Azzo  VI  d'Este, 
whose  successors  kept  it,  as  lieges  of  the  pope,  until 
1598,  with  the  exception  of  the  brief  period  from  1313 
to  1317,  when  it  was  leased  to  the  King  of  Sicily  for  an 
annual  tribute.  Alfonso  I  d'Este,  hoping  to  cast  off 
the  overlordship  of  the  pope,  kept  up  relations  with 
Louis  XII  of  France  long  after  the  League  of  Cambrai 
(1508)  had  been  dissolved.  In  1510  Julius  II  at- 
tempted in  person  to  bring  him  back  to  a  sense  of  duty, 
but  was  not  successful.  In  1519  Leo  X  tried  to  cap- 
ture the  town  by  surprise,  but  he  too  failed;  in  1522, 
however,  Alfonso  of  his  own  accord  made  his  peace 
with  Adrian  VI.  In  1597  Alfonso  II  died  without 
issue  and  named  his  cousin  Cesare  as  his  heir.  Clem- 
ent VIII  refused  to  recognize  him  and  sent  to  Fer- 
rara his  own  nephew,  Cardinal  Pietro  Aldobrandini, 
who  in  1598  brought  the  town  directly  under  papal 
rule.  In  1796  it  was  occupied  by  the  French,  and  be- 
came the  chief  town  of  the  Bas-Po.  In  1815  it  was 
given  back  to  the  Holy  See,  which  governed  it  by  a 
legate  with  the  aid  of  an  Austrian  garrison.  In  1831 
it  proclaimed  a  provisional  government,  but  the  Aus- 
trian troops  restored  the  previous  civil  conditions, 
which  lasted  until  1859,  when  the  territory  was  an- 
nexed to  the  Kingdom  of  Italy. 

The  dukes  of  Ferrara,  especially  Alfonso  I  (1505- 
1534)  and  Alfonso  II  (1559-1597),  were  generous  pa- 
trons of  literature  and  the  arts.  At  their  court  lived 
Tasso,  Ariosto,  Boiardo,  V.  Strozzi,  G.  B.  Guarini,  the 
historian  tiuido  Bentivoglio,  and  others.  It  counted 
many  artists  of  renown,  whose  works  adorn  even  yet  the 
churches  and  palaces  of  the  city,  e.  g.  the  ducal  palace, 




the  Schifanoia,  Diamanti,  Rovella,  Scrofa-Calcagnini, 
and  other  palaces.  The  more  famous  among  the 
painters  were  Benvenuto  Tisi  (Garofalo),  Ercole 
Grandi,  Ippolito  Scarsello,  the  brothers  Dossi,  and 
Girolamo  da  Carpi.  Alfonso  Cittadella,  the  sculptor, 
left  immortal  works  in  the  duomo,  or  cathedral  (Christ 
and  the  Apostles),  and  in  San  Giovanni  (Madonna). 
Churches  of  note  are  the  cathedral,  SS.  Benedetto  and 
Francesco,  San  Domenioo  (with  its  beautiful  carved 
choir  stalls  of  the  fourteenth  century).  The  most 
famous  work  of  ecclesiastical  architecture  is  the  mag- 
nificent Certosa.  The  university  was  founded  in  1391 
by  Boniface  IX.  Ferrara  was  the  birthplace  of  Sa- 
vonarola and  of  the  great  theologian,  Silvestro  di  P^er- 
rara,  both  Dominicans. 

The  earliest  bishop  of  certain  date  is  Constantine, 
present  at  Rome  in  S61;  St.  Maurelius  (patron  of  the 
city)  must  have  lived  before  this  time.  Some  think 
that  the  bishops  of  Ferrara  are  the  successors  to  those 
of  \'igonza  (the  ancient  Vicuhabentia).  Other  bish- 
ops of  note  are  Filippo  Fontana  (1243),  to  whom  Inno- 
cent IV  entrusted  the  task  of  inducing  the  German 
princes  to  depose  Frederick  II;  Blessed  Alberto  Pan- 
doni  (1261)  and  Blessed  Giovanni  di  Tossignano 
(1431);  the  two  Ippolito  d'Este  (1520  and  155(1)  and 
Luigi  d'Este  (1553),  all  three  munificent  patrons  of 
learning  and  the  arts;  Alfonso  Rossetti  (1563),  Paolo 
Leoni  (1579),  Giovanni  Fontana  (1590),  and  Lorenzo 
Magalotti  (1628),  all  four  of  whom  eagerly  supported 
the  reforms  of  the  Council  of  Trent;  finally,  the  saintly 
Cardinal  Carlo  Odescalchi  (1823).  Up  to  1717  the 
Archbishop  of  Ravenna  claimed  metropolitan  rights 
over  Ferrara;  in  1735  Clement  XII  raised  the  see  to 
archiepiscopal  rank,  without  suffragans.  It  has  89 
parishes  and  numbers  130,752  souls;  there  are  two 
educational  institutions  for  boys  and  six  for  girls,  nine 
religious  houses  of  men  and  nineteen  of  women. 

Cappelletti,  Le  Chicse  d'ltalia  (Venice.  1S46),  IV,  9-11, 
24-226;  Fhizzi,  Memorie  per  la  Storia  di  Ferrara  (Ferrara, 
1791);  Agnelli,  Ferrara  in  Italia  Arlistica  (Bergamo,  1902). 

Council  of  Ferrara. — When  Saloniki  (Thessa- 
lonica)  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Turks  (1429)  the  Em- 
peror John  Pala!ologus  approached  Martin  V,  Eugene 
IV,  and  the  (^'ouncil  of  Basle  to  secure  help  against  the 
Turks  and  to  convoke  a  council  for  the  reunion  of  the 
two  Churches,  as  the  only  means  of  efficaciously  re- 
sisting Islam.  At  first  it  was  proposed  to  hold  the 
council  in  some  seaport  town  of  Italy;  then  Constanti- 
nople was  suggested.  The  members  of  the  Council  of 
Basle  held  out  for  Basle  or  Avignon.  Finally  (IS  Sep- 
tember, 1437),  Eugene  IV  decided  that  the  council 
would  be  held  at  Ferrara,  that  city  being  acceptable  to 
the  Greeks.  The  council  was  opened  S  January,  1438, 
by  Cardinal  Nicolo  -fybergati,  and  the  pope  attended 
on  27  January.  The  synodal  officers  were  divided 
into  three  classes:  (1)  the  cardinals,  archbishops,  and 
bishops;  (2)  the  abbots  and  prelates;  (3)  doctors  of 
theology  and  canon  law.  Before  the  arrival  of  the 
Greeks,  proclamation  was  made  that  all  further  action 
by  the  Council  of  Basle  as  such  would  be  null  and  void. 
The  Greeks,  i.  e.  the  emperor  with  a  train  of  archbish- 
ops, bishops,  and  learned  men  (700  in  all),  landed  at 
Venice  S  February  and  were  cordially  received  and 
welcomed  in  the  pope's  name  by  Ambrogio  Traversari, 
the  General  of  the  (i'araaldolese.  On  4  IMarch  the  em- 
peror entered  Ferrara.  The  Greek  bishops  came  a 
little  later.  Questions  of  precedence  and  ceremonial 
caused  no  small  difficulty.  P^or  preparatory  discus- 
sions on  all  controverted  points  a  committee  of  ten 
from  either  side  was  appointed.  Among  them  were 
Marcus  Eugenicus,  Archbishop  of  Ephesus;  Bessarion, 
Archbishop  of  Nica?a;  Balsamon;  Siropolos  and  others, 
for  the  Greeks;  while  Cardinals  Giuliano  Cesarini  and 
Nicolo  Albergati,  Giovanni  Turrecremata,  and  others 
represented  the  Latins.  The  Greek  Emperor  pre- 
vented a  discussion  on  the  Procession  of  the  Holy 
Spirit  and  on  the  use  of  leavened  bread.     For  months 

the  only  thing  discussed  or  written  about  was  the  ec- 
clesiastical teaching  on  purgatory.  The  uncertainty 
of  the  Greeks  on  this  head  was  the  cause  of  the  delay. 
The  emperor's  object  was  to  bring  about  a  general 
union  without  any  concessions  on  the  part  of  the 
Greeks  in  matters  of  doctrine.  Everybody  deplored 
the  delay,  and  a  few  of  the  Greeks,  among  them  Mar- 
cus Eugenicus,  attempted  to  depart  secretly,  but  they 
were  obliged  to  return. 

The  sessions  began  8  October,  and  from  the  opening 
of  the  third  session  the  question  of  the  Procession  of 
the  Holy  Spirit  was  constantly  before  the  council. 
Marcus  Eugenicus  blamed  the  Latins  for  having  added 
the  "Filioque"  to  the  Nicene  Creed  despite  the  pro- 
hibition of  the  Council  of  Ephesus  (431).  The  chief 
speakers  on  behalf  of  the  Latins  were  Andrew,  Bishop 
of  Rhodes,  and  Cardinal  Giuliano  Cesarini,  who 
pointed  out  that  the  addition  was  dogmatically  cor- 
rect and  not  at  all  contrary  to  the  prohibition  of  the 
('Ouncil  of  Ephesus,  nor  to  the  teaching  of  the  Greek 
Fathers.  Bessarion  admitted  the  orthodoxy  of  the 
"Filioque"  teaching,  but  maintained  it  ought  not  to 
have  been  added  to  the  (jreed.  Twelve  sessions  were 
(III-XV)  taken  up  with  this  controversy.  On  both 
sides  many  saw  no  hope  of  an  agreement,  and  once 
more  many  Greeks  were  eager  to  return  home.  Fi- 
nally the  emperor  perm.itted  his  followers  to  proceed  to 
the  discussion  of  the  orthodoxy  of  the  "Filioque".  In 
the  meantime  the  people  of  Florence  had  invited  the 
pope  to  accept  for  himself  and  the  council  the  hospi- 
tality of  their  city.  They  hoped  in  this  way  to  reap 
great  financial  profit.  The  offer  was  accompanied  by  a 
large  gift  of  money.  Eugene  IV,  already  at  a  loss  for 
funds  and  obliged  to  furnish  hospitality  and  money  to 
the  Greeks  (who  had  come  to  Italy  in  the  pope's  own 
fleet),  gladly  accepted  the  offer  of  the  Florentines. 
The  Greeks  on  their  part  agreed  to  the  change.  The 
council  thus  quitted  Ferrara  without  having  accom- 
plished anything,  principally  because  the  emperor  and 
Marcus  Eugenicus  did  not  wish  to  reach  an  agreement 
in  matters  of  doctrine.    (See  Florence,  Council  of.) 

Mansi,  Coll.  i-<;ir..  XXIX:  Hardooin,  Coll.  Cone,  IX; 
Hefele,  Kon::h:  n:},:rhi,-l,i,'  (2nd  ed.),  VII;  Cecconi,  Studi 
slorici  std  connli,i  di  Fir,  it:,'  (Florence,  1869). 

U.  Benigni. 
Ferrari,  Bartiielemy,  Venerable.     See  Barna- 


Ferrari,  Gaudenzio,  an  Italian  painter  and  the 
greatest  master  of  the  Piedmontese  School,  b.  at  Val- 
duggia,  near  Novara,  Italy,  c.  1470;  d.  at  Milan,  31 
January,  1546.  His  work  is  vast  but  poorly  known. 
He  seems  never  to  have  left  his  beloved  Piedmont  or 
Lombardy  save  perhaps  on  one  occasion.  He  had 
seen  Leonardo  at  work  in  Milan  (1490-98),  and  had 
learned  from  him  lessons  in  expression  and  in  model- 
ling. But  he  owed  more  to  his  compatriots  in  the 
North:  to  Bramante  and  Bramantino  in  architec- 
tural details,  above  all  to  Mantegna,  whose  frescoes  of 
the  "  Life  of  St.  James"  inspired  more  than  one  of  his 
paintings  at  Varallo. 

Nothing  is  more  uncertain  than  the  history  of  the 
great  man.  His  earliest  known  works  belong  to  the 
years  1508  and  1511 ;  at  that  time  he  was  about  forty 
years  of  age.  He  would  seem  to  have  been  formed  in 
the  good  old  Milanese  school  of  such  men  as  Borgo- 
gnone,  Zenale,  and  Butinone,  which  kept  aloof  from 
the  brilliant  fashion  in  art  favoured  by  the  court  of  the 
Sforzas,  and  which  prolonged  the  fifteenth  century 
with  its  archaisms  of  expression.  Gaudenzio,  the 
youngest  and  frankest  of  this  group,  never  fell  under 
the  influence  of  Leonardo,  and  hence  it  is  that  on  one 
point  he  always  held  out  against  the  new  spirit;  he 
would  never  dally  with  the  paganism  or  rationalism  of 
Renaissance  art.  He  was  as  passionately  naturalistic 
as  any  painter  of  his  time,  before  all  else,  however,  he 
was  a  Christian  artist.  He  is  the  only  truly  religious 
master  of  the  Italian  Renaissance,  and  this  trait  it  is 




which  makes  him  stand  out  in  an  age  where  faith  and 
single-mindedness  were  gradually  disappearing,  as  a 
man  of  another  country,  almost  of  another  time. 

When  we  consider  the  works  of  Gaudenzio,  more 
especially  his  earlier  ones,  in  the  light  of  the  fact  that 
the  district  in  which  he  was  born  was  in  the  direct  line 
of  communication  between  North  and  .South;  and 
reflect  that  what  might  be  termed  the  "art  traffic" 
between  Germany  and  Italy  was  very  great  in  his 
time,  we  are  forced  to  recognize  that  German  influ- 
ence played  a  considerable  part  in  the  development  of 
his  genius,  in  so  far  at  least  as  his  mind  was  amenable 
to  external  stimuli.  He  is,  in  fact,  the  most  German  of 
the  Italian  painters.  In  the  heart  of  a  school  where  art 
was  becoming  more  and  more  aristocratic,  he  remained 
the  people's  painter.  In  this  respect  his  personality 
stands  out  so  boldly  amongst  the  Italian  painters  of 
the  time  that  it  seems  natural  to  infer  that  Gaudenzio 
in  his  youth  travelled  to  the  banks  of  the  Rhine,  and 
bathed  long  and  deep  in  its  mystic  atmosphere. 

Like  the  Gothic  masters,  he  is  perhaps  the  only  six- 
teenth-century painter  who  worked  exclusively  for 
churches  or  convents.  He  is  the  only  one  in  Italy  who 
painted  lengthy  sacred  dramas  and  legends  from  the 
lives  of  the  saints:  a"  Passion"  at  Varallo;  a"Lifeof 
the  Virgin ' ',  and  a  "  Life  of  St.  Magdalen ' ',  at  Vercelli ; 
and  at  times,  after  the  fashion  of  the  dnquecenlo,  he 
grouped  many  different  episodes  in  one  scene,  at  the 
expense  of  unity  in  composition,  till  they  resembled 
the  mysteries,  and  might  be  styled  "sectional  paints 
ings".  He  was  not  aiming  at  art,  but  at  edification. 
Hence  arose  a  certain  negligence  of  form  and  a  care- 
lessness of  execution  still  more  pronounced.  The 
"Carrying  of  the  Cross"  at  Cannobio,  the  "Calvary" 
at  Vercelli,  the  "  Deposition"  at  Turin,  works  of  great 
power  in  many  ways,  and  unequalled  at  the  time  in 
Italy  for  pathos  and  feeling,  are  somehow  wanting  in 
proportion,  and  give  one  the  impression  that  the  con- 
ventional grouping  has  been  departed  from.  The 
soul,  being  filled  as  it  were  with  its  object,  is  over- 
powered by  the  emotions;  and  the  intellect  confesses 
its  inability  to  synthesize  the  images  which  rise 
tumultuously  from  an  over-excited  sensibility.  An- 
other consequence  of  this  peculiarity  of  mental  con- 
formation is,  perhaps,  the  abuse  of  the  materials  at 
his  disposal.  Gaudenzio  never  refrained  from  using 
doubtful  methods,  such  as  ornaments  in  relief,  the  use 
of  gilded  stucco  worked  into  harness,  armour,  into  the 
aureolas,  etc.  And  to  heighten  the  effect  he  does  not 
even  hesitate  to  make  certain  figures  stand  out  in  real, 
palpable  relief;  in  fact  some  of  his  frescoes  are  as 
much  sculpture  as  they  are  painting,  by  reason  of  this 

His  history  must  always  remain  incomplete  until 
we  get  further  enlightenment  concerning  that  strange 
movement  of  the  Pietist  preachers,  which  ended  in 
establishing  (1487-93)  a  great  Franciscan  centre  on 
the  Sacro  Monte  de  Varallo.  It  was  in  this  retreat 
that  Gaudenzio  spent  the  years  which  saw  his  genius 
come  to  full  maturity;  it  was  there  he  left  his  greatest 
works,  his  "Life  of  Christ"  of  1513,  in  twenty-one 
frescoes  at  Santa  Maria  delle  (Jrazie,  and  other  works 
on  the  Sacro  Monte  dating  between  1523  and  1528. 
It  was  there  that  the  combined  use  of  painting  and 
sculpture  produced  a  most  curious  result.  Fresco  is 
only  used  as  an  ornament,  a  sort  of  background  to  a 
scene  presenting  a  tableau  vivanl  of  figures  in  terra- 
cotta. Some  of  the  groups  embrace  no  less  than  thirty 
figures.  Forty  chapels  bring  out  in  this  way  the  prin- 
cipal scenes  in  the  drama  of  the  Incarnation.  Gau- 
denzio is  responsible  for  the  chapels  of  the  Magi,  the 
PietA.,  and  the  Calvary. 

In  his  subsequent  works,  at  Vercelli  (1530-34)  and 
at  Saronno  (in  the  cupola  of  Santa  Maria  dei  Miracoli, 
1535),  the  influence  of  Correggio  is  curiously  blended 
with  the  above-mentioned  German  leanings.  The 
freshness  and  vigour  of  his  inspiration  remain  un- 

touched in  all  their  homely  yet  stern  grace.  The 
"Assumption"  at  Vercelli  is  perhaps  the  greatest 
lyric  in  Italian  art;  this  lyric  quality  in  his  painting  is 
still  more  intense  in  the  wonderful  "  Glory  of  Angels", 
in  the  cupola  at  Saronno,  the  most  enthusiastic  and 
jubilant  symphony  that  any  art  has  ever  produced. 
In  all  Correggio's  art  there  is  nothing  more  charming 
than  the  exquisite  sentiment  and  tender  rusticity  of 
"The  Flight  into  Egypt",  in  the  cathedral  of  Como. 
The  artist's  latest  works  were  those  he  executed  at 
Milan,  whither  he  retired  in  1536.  In  these  paintings, 
the  creations  of  a  man  already  seventy  years  of  age, 
the  vehemence  of  feeling  sometimes  becomes  almost 
savage,  the  presentation  of  his  ideas  abrupt  and  apoc- 
alyptic. His  method  becomes  colossal  and  more  and 
more  careless;  but  still  in  the  "Passion"  at  Santa 
Maria  delle  Grazie  (1542)  we  cannot  fail  to  trace  the 
hand  of  a  master. 

Gaudenzio  was  married  at  least  twice.  By  his  first 
marriage  a  son  was  born  to  him  in  1509  and  a  daughter 
in  1512.  He  married,  in  1528,  Maria  Mattia  della 
Foppa  who  died  about  1540,  shortly  after  the  death  of 
his  son.  These  sorrows  doubtless  affected  the  charac- 
ter of  his  later  works.  Gaudenzio's  immediate  influ- 
ence was  scarcely  appreciable.  His  pupils  Lanino 
and  Delia  Cerva  are  extremely  mediocre.  Neverthe- 
less when  the  day  of  Venice's  triumph  came  with  Tin- 
toretto, and  Bologna's  with  the  Carraccis  in  the 
counter-reform  movement,  it  was  the  art  of  Gaudenzio 
Ferrari  that  triumphed  in  them.  The  blend  of  North- 
ern and  Latin  genius  in  his  work,  so  characteristic  of 
the  artists  of  the  Po  valley,  was  carried  into  the  ate- 
liers of  Bologna  by  Dionysius  Calvaert.  It  became 
the  fashion,  displacing,  as  it  was  bound  to  do,  the  in- 
tellectual barrenness  and  artistic  e.xoticism  of  the 
Florentine  School. 

LoMAZZO,  Idea  del  tempio  delta  pitlura  (Milan,  1584);  Idem, 
Trattato  dell'  arte  della  pitlura  (Milan,  1590);  Zuccaro,  //  passag- 
gio  per  Vltalia  con  la  dimora  di  Parma  (Bologna,  1(568);  BoR- 
DIGA,  Nolizie  inlomo  alle  opere  di  G.  Ferrari  (Milan,  1821); 
Idem,  Guida  al  Sacro  Monte  di  Varallo  (18.51);  <i)oLOMBO,  Vita 
ed  opere  di  G.  Ferrari  (Turin,  1881);  Halsey,  Gaudenzio  Fer' 
rari  (London,  1903);  DE  Wtzewa,  Peintrcs  italiens  d'autrefois: 
Ecoles  du  Nord  (Paris,  1907). 

Louis  Gillet. 

Ferraris,  Lucius,  an  eighteenth-century  canonist 
of  the  Franciscan  Order.  The  exact  dates  of  his 
birth  and  death  are  unknown,  but  he  was  born  at 
Solero,  near  Alessandria  in  Northern  Italy.  He  was 
also  professor,  provincial  of  his  order,  and  consultor 
of  the  Holy  Office.  It  would  seem  he  died  before 
1763.  He  is  the  author  of  the  "Prompta  Bibli- 
otheca  canonica,  juridica,  moralis,  theologica,  necnon 
ascetica,  polemica,  rubricistica,  historica",  a  veritable 
encyclopedia  of  religious  knowledge.  The  first  edi- 
tion of  this  work  appeared  at  Bologna,  in  1746.  A 
second  edition,  much  enlarged,  also  a  third,  were  pub- 
lished by  the  author  himself.  The  fourth  edition, 
dating  from  1763,  seems  to  have  been  published  after 
his  death.  This,  like  those  which  followed  it,  contains 
the  additions  which  the  author  had  made  to  the  second 
edition  under  the  title  of  addiliones  aiictoris,  and  also 
other  enlargements  {addiliones  ex  aliend  many)  in- 
serted in  their  respective  places  in  the  body  of  the  work 
(and  no  longer  in  the  appendi.x  as  in  the  former  edi- 
tions) and  supplements.  The  various  editions  thus 
differ  from  each  other.  The  most  recent  are:  that  of 
the  Benedictines  (Naples,  1844-55),  reproduced  by 
Migne  (Paris,  1861-1863),  and  an  edition  published  at 
Paris  in  1884.  A  new  edition  was  |niblished  at  Rome 
in  1899,  at  the  press  of  the  Propaganda  in  eight  vol- 
umes, with  a  volume  of  supplements,  edited  by  the 
Jesuit,  Bucceroni,  containing  several  di.s.sertations  and 
the  most  recent  and  important  documents  of  the  Holy 
See.  This  supplement  serves  to  keep  up  to  dtitc  the 
work  of  I'Vrniris,  wliii-h  will  ever  remain  a  precious 
mine  of  infonnation,  although  it  is  sometimes  possible 
to  reproach  tlic  author  with  laxism. 


FERRE  49 

ScHPLTE.  Ccsrh.  dcr  Quel,  und  Lit.  ties  can.  Rcchtu  (St»i(tcart, 
1875-80),  III,  531;  von  Scheber  in  Kirchenhx.,  IV,  1380. 
A.  Van  Hove. 

Ferre,  Vicente,  theologian,  b.  at  Valencia,  Spain; 
d.  at  Salamanca  in  1682.  He  entered  the  Dominican 
Order  at  Salamanca,  where  he  pursued  his  studies  in 
the  Dominican  College  of  St.  Stephen.  After  teaching 
in  several  houses  of  study  of  his  order  in  Spain,  he  was 
called  from  Burgos  to  Rome,  where  for  eighteen  years 
he  was  rcgens  primarius  of  the  Dominican  College  of 
St.  Thomas  ad  Minervam.  From  Rome  he  went  to 
Salamanca,  where  he  became  prior  of  the  convent  and, 
after  three  years,  regent  of  studies.  In  his  own  time 
he  was  recognized  as  one  of  the  best  Thomists  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  and  posterity  acknowledges  that 
his  published  works  possess  extraordinary  fullness, 
clearness,  and  order.  He  died  while  publishing  his  com- 
mentaries on  the  Summa  Theologica  of  St.  Thomas. 
We  have  two  folio  volumes  on  the  Secunda  Secundae, 
covering  the  treatises  of  faith,  hope,  and  charity,  and 
the  opposite  vices,  published  at  Rome  in  1669;  three 
on  the  Prima,  published  at  Salamanca,  in  1675,  1676, 
and  1678  respectively;  and  three  on  the  Prima  Se- 
cunda>,  down  to  Q.  cxiii,  published  at  Salamanca, 
1679,  1681,  and  1690.  His  confrere  Perez  a  Lerma 
added  to  Q.  cxiv  the  treatise  on  merit. 

QuETiF  AND  EcH\Ri),  Script.  Ord.  Prmi.,  11,696:  Antonio, 
Bibliotheca  Hisp.  Nova  CMadrid,  1783),  II,  261. 

A.  L.  McMahon. 

Ferreira,  Antonio,  poet,  important  both  for  his 
lyric  and  his  dramatic  compositions,  b.  at  Lisbon, 
Portugal,  in  1528;  d.  there  of  the  plague  in  1569.  He 
studied  law  at  Coimbra,  where,  however,  he  gave  no 
less  attention  to  belles-lettres  than  to  legal  codes,  ar- 
dently reading  the  poetry  of  classic  antiquity.  Suc- 
cessful in  his  chosen  profession,  he  became  a  judge  of 
the  Supreme  Court  at  Lisbon,  and  enjoyed  close  rela- 
tions with  eminent  personages  of  the  court  of  John 
in.  Ferreira  stands  apart  from  the  great  majority  of 
the  Portuguese  poets  of  his  time  in  that  he  never  used 
Spanish,  but  wrote  constantly  in  his  native  language. 
Yet  he  is  to  be  classed  with  the  reformers  of  literary 
taste,  for,  like  Sa  de  Miranda,  he  abandoned  the  old 
native  forms,  to  further  the  movement  of  the  Renais- 
sance. He  manifested  a  decided  interest  in  the  Ital- 
ian lyric  measures,  already  given  some  elaboration  by 
Sa  de  Miranda,  and  displayed  some  skill  in  the  use 
of  the  hendecasyllable.  The  sonnet,  the  elegy,  the 
idyll,  the  verse  epistle,  the  ode,  and  kindred  forms  he 
cultivated  with  a  certain  felicity,  revealing  not  only 
his  study  of  the  Italian  Renaissance  poets,  but  also  a 
good  acquaintance  with  the  Greek  and  Latin  masters. 

It  is  by  his  dramatic  endeavours  that  he  attained  to 
greatest  prominence,  for  his  tragedy  "  Ines  de  Cas- 
tro", in  particular,  is  regarded  as  one  of  the  chief 
monuments  of  Portuguese  literature.  He  began  his 
work  on  the  drama  while  still  a  student  at  Coimbra, 
writing  there  for  his  own  amusement  his  first  comedy, 
"Bristo",  dealing  with  the  old  classic  theme  of  lost 
children  and  later  agnitions,  which  was  so  often  util- 
ized for  the  stage  of  the  Renaissance  and  has  been 
made  famihar  by  Shakespeare.  Much  improvement 
in  dramatic  technique  is  evinced  by  his  second  com- 
edy, "O  Cioso",  which  treats  realistically  the  figure  of 
a  jealous  husband.  It  is  considered  as  the  earliest 
character-comedy  in  modern  Europe.  Written  in 
prose,  it  exhibits  a  clever  use  of  dialogue  and  has 
really  comical  scenes.  None  of  the  compositions  of 
Ferreira  appeared  in  print  during  his  lifetime  and  the 
first  edition  of  his  two  comedies  is  that  of  1622.  An 
English  translation  of  the  "Cioso"  made  by  Musgrave 
was  published  in  1825.  His  tragedy,  "Ines  de  Cas- 
tro", imitates  in  its  form  the  models  of  ancient  Greek 
literature,  and  shows  Italian  influence  in  its  use  of 
blank  verse,  but  it  owes  its  subject-matter  to  native 
Portuguese  history,  concerning  itself  with  the  love  of 
VI.— 4 


King  Pedro  for  the  beautiful  Ines  de  Castro,  an  inci- 
dent which  has  also  been  splendidly  treated  by 
Camoes  in  his  "Lusiadas",  and  has  furnished  the 
theme  for  at  least  ten  Portuguese  and  four  Spanish 
plays,  and  over  a  score  of  compositions  in  foreign  lan- 
guages. If  tested  by  the  requirements  of  the  theatre, 
the  play  is  doubtless  far  from  perfect,  but  the  purity 
of  its  style  and  diction  ensures  its  popularity  with  its 
author's  compatriots.  It  was  rendered  into  English 
by  Musgrave  in  1826.  The  rather  free  Spanish  ver- 
sion of  1577  was  made  on  the  basis  of  a  manuscript 
copy  of  the  Portuguese  original,  for  the  first  Portu- 
guese printed  edition  is  of  1587 

Castillo,  A ntonio  Ferreira,  poela  quinhenlisia  (Rio  de  Janei ro, 
3  vols.,  1875);  de  Vasconcellos  in  Gr<')Ber,  Orundriss  der 
romanischen  Philologic  (Strasburg,  1897).  II,  ii,  219;  Braga  in 
Historia  dos  Quinheniistas  (Oporto,  1871). 

J.  D.  M.  Ford. 
Ferreol,  Saints.     See  Besanpon;  Uzes. 

Ferrer,  Rafael,  Spanish  missionary  and  explorer; 
b.  at  Valencia,  in  1570;  d.  at  San  Jose,  Peru,  in  1611. 
His  father  had  destined  him  for  a  military  career,  but 
he  entered  the  Society  of  Jesus,  and  in  1593  was  sent 
to  Quito,  Ecuador.  In  1601  he  penetrated  the  terri- 
tory of  the  Cofanis,  a  liostle  tribe  who  had  been  a 
source  of  great  trouble  to  the  Spanish  Government. 
Within  three  3'ears  the  Indians  of  several  villages  were 
so  civilized  by  the  influence  of  religion  that  the  sur- 
rounding country  was  open  to  colonists. 

In  1605,  at  the  command  of  the  viceroy  of  Quito, 
Ferrer  went  among  the  uncivilized  tribes  of  the  River 
Napo.  He  was  well  received  by  the  Indians,  and  on 
this  journey,  which  lasted  two  and  a  half  years,  he 
travelled  3600  miles  into  the  interior,  bringing  back 
with  him  a  chart  of  the  basin  of  the  Napo,  a  map  of 
the  country  he  had  explored,  and  an  herbarium  which 
he  presented  to  the  viceroy.  He  was  appointed 
governor  and  chief  magistrate  of  the  Cofanis,  and 
received  the  title  of  "Chief  of  the  Missions  of  the 
Cofanis".  After  a  period  of  rest  at  the  mission  he 
next  journeyed  northward  from  Quito  through  unex- 
plored forests,  and  discovered  a  large  lake  and  the 
River  Pilcomago.  In  1610  he  returned  to  his  labours 
among  the  Indians,  bending  his  energies  to  the  civiliza- 
tion of  the  few  tribes  of  the  Cofanis  who  were  not  yet 
within  the  range  of  his  influence.  He  met  his  death 
at  the  hands  of  the  chief  of  one  of  these  tribes,  whom 
he  had  compelled  to  abandon  polygamy.  The  mur- 
derer was  slain  in  turn  by  his  tribesmen,  who  were 
enraged  on  learning  of  his  deed.  An  extract  from 
Father  Ferrer's  account  of  his  explorations  was  pub- 
lished by  Fr.  Detre  in  the  "Lettres  Edifiantes",  and 
the  same  extract  was  also  published  by  Father  Ber- 
nard de  Bologne  in  the  "Bibhotheca  Societatis  Jesu", 
but  the  original  manuscript  was  lost  and  has  never 
been  published  in  its  entirety.  Besides  compiling  his 
"  Arte  de  la  Lengua  Cofana,"  Father  Ferrer  translated 
the  catechism  and  selections  from  the  Gospels  for 
every  Sunday  in  the  year  into  the  language  of  the 
Cofanis.  Blanche  M.  Kelly. 

Ferrer,  Vincent,  Saint. 

See  Vincent  Ferrer, 

Ferrieres,  Abbey  op,  situated  in  the  Diocese  of 
Orleans,  department  of  Loiret,  and  arrondissement  of 
Montargis.  The  Benedictine  Abbey  of  Ferrieres-en- 
Gatinais  has  been  most  unfortunate  from  the  point  of 
view  of  historical  science,  having  lost  its  archives,  its 
charters,  and  everything  which  would  aid  in  the  re- 
construction of  its  history.  Thus  legend  and  cre- 
dulity have  had  full  play.  But  it  is  interesting  to 
encounter  in  the  work  of  an  obscure  Benedictine  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  Dom  Philippe  Mazoyer,  informa- 
tion perhaps  the  most  aceiu'ate  and  circumspect  ob- 
tainable. According  to  Dom  Mazoyer  there  was 
formerly  at  Ferrieres  a  chapel  dedicated  to  the 
Blessed  Virgin  under  the  title  Notre-Dame  de  Beth- 




l€em  de  Ferrieres.  With  regard  to  the  foundation  of 
the  abbey,  he  thinks  it  cannot  be  traced  beyond  the 
reign  of  Dagobert  (628-38),  and  he  rightly  regards  as 
false  the  Acts  of  St.  Savinian  and  the  charter  of 
Clovis,  dated  508,  despite  the  favourable  opinion  of 
Dom  Morin.  Some  have  based  conjectures  on  the 
antiquity  of  portions  of  the  church  of  Saint- Pierre  et 
Saint-Paul  de  Ferrieres,  which  they  profess  to  trace 
back  to  the  sixth  century,  but  this  is  completely  dis- 
proved by  arch;Bological  testimony.  On  the  other 
hand  the  existence  of  the  abbey  about  the  year  630 
seems  certain,  and  rare  documents,  such  as  the  diploma 
of  Charles  the  Bald  preserved  in  the  archives  of  Or- 
leans, bear  witness  to  its  prosperity.  This  prosper- 
ity reached  its  height  in  the  time  of  the  celebrated 
Loup  (Lupus)  of  Ferrieres  (c.  850),  when  the  abbey 
became  a  rather  active  literary  centre.  The  library 
must  have  benefited  thereby,  but  it  shared  the  fate  of 
the  monastery,  and  is  represented  to-day  by  rare 
fragments.  One  of  these,  preserved  at  the  Vatican 
library  (Reg.  1573),  recalls  the  memory  of  St.  Aldric 
(d.  836),  Abbot  of  Ferrieres  before  he  become  Arch- 
bishop of  Sens.  There  is  here  also  a  loosely  arranged 
catalogue  of  some  of  the  abbots  of  Ferrieres  between 
887  and  987,  which,  imperfect  though  it  is,  serves  to 
rectify  and  complete  that  of  the  "Gallia  Christiana". 
Among  the  last  names  in  the  list  of  the  abbots  of  Fer- 
rieres IS  that  of  Louis  de  Blanchefort,  who  in  the  fif- 
teenth century  almost  entirely  restored  the  abbey. 
Grievously  tried  during  the  w'ars  of  religion,  Ferrieres 
disappeared  with  all  the  ancient  abbeys  at  the  time  of 
the  French  Revolution.  Its  treasures  and  library 
were  wasted  and  scattered.  To-day  there  are  only  to 
be  seen  some  ruins  of  the  ancient  monastic  buildings. 
At  the  time  of  the  Concordat  of  1802  and  the  ecclesi- 
astical reorganization  of  France,  Ferrieres  passed  from 
the  Archdiocese  of  Sens  to  the  Diocese  of  Orleans. 

Crochet,  Origine  Tniraculeuse  et  hisloire  de  la  chapelle  de 
Notre-Dame  de  Belhteem,  de  Ferr.  en  Gdt.  (Orleans,  1890);  ^7!- 
nales  de  la  Soc.  Hist,  et  Arch,  du  Gdlinais,  IX  (1891),  155-56; 
Gallia  Christiana,  XII,  161-62;  Advrat,  Deux  manuscrits  de 
Fleury-sur-Loire  et  de  Ferrit-res  conserves  au  Vatican  in  Annalcs 
de  la  Soc.  Hist,  et  Arch,  du  Gdtinais,  VII  (ISSO  ,  1  ■  -,  1 ;  Si  ein, 
Lettre  d'un  benedictin  sur  VAhbajje  de  Ferris  i.     < .  ''  'jW., 

X  (1892),  387-93;    Morin,  Disrours  des  nn  ■  n   la 

chappelle  de  Nostre-Dame  de  Bethleem  {Varis.  H Mw!;i\,La 

naissance  miraculeuse  de  la  chappcUe  de  Bclhi<  cm  m  i-  ranee 
(Paris,  1610).  H.  Leclercq. 

Ferstel,  Heinrich,  Freiherr  von,  architect; 
with  Hansen  and  Schmidt,  the  creator  of  modern 
Vienna;  b.  7  July,  1828,  at  Vienna;  d.  at  Grinzing, 
near  Vienna,  14  July,  1883.  His  father  was  a  bank- 
clerk.  After  wavering  for  some  time  between  the 
different  arts,  all  of  which  possessed  a  strong  attrac- 
tion for  him,  the  talented  youth  finally  decided  on 
architecture,  which  he  studied  at  the  Academy  under 
Van  der  Null,  Siccardsburg,  and  Rosner.  After  sev- 
eral years  during  which  he  was  in  disrepute  because  of 
his  part  in  the  Revolution,  he  entered  the  atelier  of 
his  uncle,  Stache,  where  he  worked  at  the  votive  altar 
for  the  chapel  of  St.  Barbara  in  the  cathedral  of  St. 
Stephen  and  co-operated  in  the  restoration  and  con- 
struction of  many  castles,  chiefly  in  Bohemia.  Jour- 
neys of  some  length  into  (Jermany,  Belgium,  Holland, 
and  England  confirmed  him  in  his  tendency  towards 
Romanticism.  It  w'as  in  Italy,  however,  where  he 
was  sent  as  a  bursar  in  1854,  that  he  was  converted 
to  the  Renaissance  style  of  architecture.  This  was 
thenceforth  his  ideal,  not  because  of  its  titanic  gran- 
deur, but  because  of  its  beauty  and  sj^mmetrical 
harmony  of  proportion,  realized  pre-eminently  in 
Bramante,  his  favourite  master.  He  turned  from  the 
simplicity  and  restraint  of  the  Late  Renaissance  to  the 
use  of  polychromy  by  means  of  graffito  decoration  and 
terra-cotta.  This  device,  adapted  from  the  Early 
Renaissance  and  intendc'l  to  convey  a  fuller  .sense  of 
life,  he  employ(;d  later  with  marked  success  in  the 
Austrian  Museum. 

While  still  in  Italy  he  was  awarded  the  prize  in  the 

competition  for  the  votive  church  (Votivkirche)  of 
Vienna  (1855)  over  seventy-four  contestants,  for  the 
most  part  celebrated  architects.  In  this  masterpiece 
of  modern  ecclesiastical  architecture  he  produced  a 
structure  of  marvellous  symmetry  designed  along 
strong  architectural  principles,  with  a  simple,  well- 
defined  grovmd-plan,  a  harmonious  correlation  of 
details,  and  a  sumptuous  scheme  of  decoration 
(1856-79).  After  his  death  this  edifice  was  pro- 
posed by  Sykes  as  a  model  for  the  new  Westminster 
cathedral  in  London.  Another  of  Ferstel's  monu- 
mental works  belonging  to  the  same  period  is  the 
Austro-Himgarian  bank  in  Vienna,  in  the  style  of 
the  Early  Italian  Renaissance  (1856-60)  The  ex- 
pansion of  the  city  of  Vienna  enabled  Ferstel, 
with  Eitelberger,  to  develop  civic  architecture  along 
artistic  lines  (burgomaster's  residence,  stock  ex- 
change, 1859).  At  the  same  time  he  had  also  the  op- 
portunity of  putting  his  ideas  into  practice  in  a 
number  of  private  dwellings  and  villas  at  Briinn  and 

The  more  important  buildings  designed  during  his 
later  years,  passing  over  the  churches  at  Brlmn  and 
Schonau  near  Teplitz,  really  products  of  his  earlier 
activity,  are  the  palace  of  Archduke  Ludwig  Victor, 
his  winter  palace  at  Klessheini,  the  palace  of  Prince 
Johann  Liechtenstein  in  the  Rossau  near  Vienna,  the 
palace  of  the  Austro-Hungarian  Lloyd's,  at  Triest,  but 
above  all  the  Austrian  Museum  (completed  in  1871),  a 
masterpiece  of  interior  economy  of  space  with  its  im- 
posing aroaded  court.  Next  to  his  civic  and  ecclesi- 
astical masterpieces  comes  the  Vienna  University,  of 
masterly  construction  with  wonderfully  effective 
stairways  (1871-84).  Through  a  technical  error  his 
design  for  the  Berlin  Reichstag  building  received  no 

Ferstel  is  the  most  distinctively  Viennese  of  all 
Viennese  architects;  able  to  give  a  structure  beauty  of 
design  and  harmony  without  prejudice  to  the  purpose 
it  was  to  subserve,  and  this  because  of  his  artistic 
versatility  and  inexhaustible  imagination.  These 
qualities  also  assured  him  success  as  a  teacher,  and 
were  evident  in  his  memoirs  and  numerous  treatises, 
which  are  masterpieces  of  clearness.  Special  mention 
should  be  made  of  those  which  appeared  in  Forster's 
architectural  magazine.  In  1S66  Ferstel  was  ap- 
pointed professor  at  the  Polytechnic  School,  in  1871 
chief  government  inspector  of  public  works  and  in 
1879  was  rai.sed  to  the  rank  of  I'reiherr.  At  the  time 
of  his  death  he  was  still  in  the  full  vigour  of  his 

Pecht,  Deutsche  Kiinstler  dcs  19.  Jahrhunderts,  III  (Nord 
lingen,  1881),  140-70;  Ferstel,  in  Allg.  Deutsch.  Biographic 
48,  521  sqq.;  Lutzow  in  suppl.  to  Zeitschrift  f.  Kunstwissen 
schaft,  XVIII,  658  sqq. ;  Hevesi,  Oeslerreichische  Kunst  im  19, 
Jhdt.  (Leipzig,  1903),  II,  141  sqq.  Joseph  Sauer. 

Fesch,  Joseph,  cardinal,  b.  at  Ajaccio,  Corsica,  3 
January,  1763;  d.  at  Rome,  13  May,  1839.  He  was 
the  son  of  a  captain  of  a  Swiss  regiment  in  the  service 
of  Genoa,  studied  at  the  seminary  of  Aix,  was  made 
archdeacon  and  provost  of  the  chapter  of  .Ajaccio  be- 
fore 1789,  but  W'as  obliged  to  leave  Corsica  when  his 
family  sided  witli  France  against  the  English,  who 
came  to  the  island  in  an.swer  to  Paoli's  summons.  The 
young  priest  was  half-brother  to  Letizia  Ramolino, 
the  mother  of  Napoleon  I  and  upon  arriving  in  France 
he  entered  the  commissariat  department  of  the  army; 
later,  in  1795,  became  commissary  of  war  under  Bona- 
parte, then  in  command  of  the  Arm<''e  d'  Italic.  When 
religious  peace  was  re-established,  Fesch  made  a 
month's  retreat  under  the  direction  of  Emery,  the 
superior  of  Saint-Sulpice  ;iiicl  re-entered  ecclesiastical 
life.  During  thc(  '(msuliitc  he  became  canon  of  Bastia 
and  helped  to  negotiati'  tlie  Concordat  of  ISOl;  on 
15  August,  11S02,  Caprara  consecrated  him  Arch- 
bishop of  Lyons,  and  in  1803  Pius  VII  created  him 






On  4  April,  1803,  Napoleon  appointed  Cardinal 
Fescli  successor  to  Cacaiilt  as  ambassador  to  Rome, 
giving  him  Chateaubriand  for  secretary.  The  early 
part  of  his  sojourn  in  the  Eternal  City  was  noted  for 
his  differences  with  Chateaubriand  and  his  efforts  to 
have  the  Concordat  extended  to  the  Italian  Republic. 
He  prevailed  upon  Pius  VII  to  go  to  Paris  in 
person  and  crown  Napoleon.  This  w'as  Fesch's 
greatest  achievement.  He  accompanied  the  pope  to 
France  and,  as  grand  almoner,  blessed  the  marriage 
of  Napoleon  and  Josephine  before  the  coronation  cere- 
mony took  place.  By  a  decree  issued  in  1805,  the 
missionary  institutions  of  Saint-Lazare  and  Saint- 
Sulpice  were  placed  under  the  direction  of  Cardinal 
Fesch,  who,  laden  with  this  new  responsibility,  re- 
turned to  Rome.  In  1806,  after  the  occupation  of 
Ancona  by  French  troops,  and  Napoleon's  letter  pro- 
claiming himself 
Emperor  of  Rome, 
Akjuier  was  named 
to  succeed  Fesch 
as  ambassador  to 
Rome.  Returning 
to  his  archiepisco- 
pal  See  of  Lyons, 
the  cardinal  re- 
mained in  close 
touch  with  his 
nepliew's  religious 
policy  and  strove, 
occasionally  with 
success,  to  obviate 
certain  irreparable 
mistakes.  He  ac- 
cepted the  coadju- 
torship  to  Dalberg, 
in  the  See  of  Rat- 
isbon,  but,  in  ISOS, 
refused  the  em- 
peror's offer  of  the  Archbishopric  of  Paris,  for  which 
he  could  not  have  obtained  canonical  institution.  Al- 
though powerlesstopreventeitherthe  rupture  between 
Napoleon  and  the  pope  in  1809  or  the  closing  of  the  semi- 
naries of  Saint-Lazare,  Saint-Esprit,  and  the  Missions 
Etrangeres,  Fesch  nevertheless  managed  to  deter 
Napoleon  from  signing  a  decree  relative  to  the  inde- 
pendence of  the  Galilean  Church.  He  consented  to 
bless  Napoleon's  marriage  with  Marie-Louise,  but, 
according  to  the  researches  of  Geoffroy  de  Grand- 
maison,  he  was  not  responsible  to  the  same  extent  as 
the  members  of  the  diocesan  officialiti-  for  the  illegal 
annulment  of  tlie  emperor's  first  marriage. 

In  1809  and  ISIO  Fesch  presided  over  the  two  eccle- 
siastical commissions  charged  with  the  question  of 
canonical  institution  of  bishops,  but  the  proceedings 
were  so  conducted  that  neither  commission  adopted 
any  schismatic  resolutions.  As  its  president,  he 
opened  the  National  Council  of  1811,  but  at  the  very 
outset  he  took  and  also  administered  the  oath 
(forma  juramenti  professionis  fidei)  required  by  the 
Bull  "  Injunctum  nobis"  of  Pius  IV;  it  was  decided  by 
eight  votes  out  of  eleven  that  the  method  of  canonical 
institution  could  not  be  altered  independently  of  the 
pope.  A  message  containing  the  assurance  of  the 
cardinal's  loyalty,  and  addressed  to  the  supreme  pon- 
tiff, then  in  exile  at  Fontainebleau,  caused  Fesch  to  in- 
cur the  emperor's  disfavour  and  to  forfeit  the  subsidy 
of  150,000  florins  which  he  had  received  as  Dalberg's 
coadjutor.  Under  the  Restoration  and  the  Mon- 
archy of  July,  Fesch  lived  at  Rome,  his  Archdiocese 
of  Lyons  being  in  charge  of  an  administrator.  He  died 
without  again  returning  to  France  and  left  a  splendid 
collection  of  pictures,  a  part  of  which  was  bequeathed 
to  his  episcopal  city. 

As  a  diplomat,  Fesch  sometimes  employed  ques- 
tionable methods.     His  relationship  to  the  emperor 


anil  his  cardinalitial  dignity  often  made  his  position  a 
ditticult  one;  at  least  he  could  never  be  accused  of 
approving  the  violent  measures  resorted  to  by  Napo- 
leon. As  archbishop,  he  was  largely  instrumental  in 
re-establishing  the  Brothers  of  Christian  Doctrine  and 
recalling  the  Jesuits,  under  the  name  of  Pacanarists. 
The  Archdiocese  of  Lyons  is  indebted  to  him  for  some 
eminently  useful  institutions.  It  must  be  admitted, 
moreover,  that  in  his  pastoral  capacity  Fesch  took  a 
genuine  interest  in  the  education  of  priests. 

Lyonnet,  Le  cardinal  Fesch,  archeveque  de  Lyon,  primal  des 
Gaules  (Pari.s,  1S41);  Cattet,  La  virUe  sur  le  cardinal  Fesch 
(Lyons,  1S42);  Id.,  Difense  de  la  verite  sur  le  cardinal  Fesch  et 
sur  V administralion  aposlolique  de  Lyon  (Lyons,  1,S43);  Ricard, 
Le  cardinal  Fesch  (Paris,  1893);  Grandmaiso.n,  Napoleon  et  tes 
cardinaux  noirs  (Paris,  1898). 

Georges  Goyau. 

Fessler,  Josef,  Bishop  of  St.  Polten  in  Austria, 
and  secretary  of  tlie  Vatican  Council;  b.  2  December, 
1813,  at  Lochau  near  Bregenz  in  the  Vorarlberg;  d.  25 
April,  1S72.  His  parents  were  peasants.  He  early 
showed  great  abilities.  His  classical  studies  were  done 
at  Feldkirch,  his  philosophy  at  Innsbruck,  including  a 
year  of  legal  studies,  and  his  theology  at  Brixen.  He 
was  ordained  priest  in  1837,  and,  after  a  year  as 
master  in  a  school  at  Innsbruck,  studied  for  two  more 
years  in  Vienna.  He  then  became  professor  of  eccle- 
siastical history  and  canon  law  in  the  theological 
school  at  Brixen,  1841-52.  He  published  at  tlie  re- 
quest of  the  Episcopal  Conference  of  Wiirzburg,  in 
1848,  a  useful  little  book  "  Ueber  die  Provincial-Concil- 
ien  und  Diocesan-Synoden  "  (Innsbruck,  1849),  and  in 
1850-1  the  well-known  "Institutiones  Patrologi^, 
quas  ad  frequentiorem  utiliorem  et  faciliorem  SS. 
Patrum  lectionem  promovendara  concinnavit  J.  Fess- 
ler" (Innsbruck,  2  vols.,  Svo).  This  excellent  work 
superseded  the  unfinished  books  of  Mohler  and  Per- 
maneder,  and  was  not  surpas.sed  by  the  subsequent 
works  of  Alzog  and  Nirschl.  In  its  new  edition  by  the 
late  Prof.  Jungmann  of  Louvain  (Innsbruck,  1890-1)), 
it  is  still  of  great  value  to  the  student,  in  spite  of  the 
newer  information  given  by  Bardenhewer.  From  1856 
to  1861  Fessler  was  professor  of  canon  law  in  the  LTni- 
versity  of  Vienna,  after  making  special  studies  for  six 
months  at  Rome.  He  was  consecrated  as  assistant 
bishop  to  the  Bishop  of  Brixen,  Dr.  Gasser,  on  31 
March,  1862,  and  became  his  vicar-general  for  the 
Vorarlberg.  On  23  Sept.,  1864,  he  was  named  by  the 
emperor  Bishop  of  St.  Polten,  not  far  from  Vienna. 
When  at  Rome  in  1867  he  was  named  assistant  at  the 
papal  throne.  In  1869  Pope  Pius  IX  proposetl  Bishop 
Fessler  to  the  Congregation  for  the  direction  of  the 
coming  Vatican  Council  as  secretary  to  the  council. 
The  appointment  was  well  received,  the  only  objection 
being  from  Cardinal  Caterini  who  thought  the  choice 
of  an  Austrian  might  make  the  other  nations  jealous. 
Bishop  Fessler  was  informed  of  his  appointment  on 
27  March,  and  as  the  pope  wished  him  to  come  with  all 
speed  to  Rome,  he  arrived  there  on  S  July,  after  hastily 
dispatching  the  business  of  his  diocese.  He  had  a 
pro-secretary  and  two  assistants.  It  was  certainly 
wise  to  choose  a  prelate  whose  vast  and  intimate  ac- 
quaintance with  the  Fathers  and  with  ecclesiastical 
history  was  equalled  only  by  his  thorough  knowledge  of 
canon  law.  He  seems  to  have  given  universal  satis- 
faction by  his  work  as  secretary,  but  the  burden  was  a 
heavy  one,  and  in  spite  of  his  excellent  constitution  his 
untiring  labours  were  thought  to  have  been  the  cause 
of  his  early  death.  Before  the  council  he  published  an 
opportune  work  "Das  letzte  und  das  nachste  allge- 
meine  Konzil"  (Freiburg,  1869).  and  after  the  coun- 
cil he  replied  in  a  masterly  brochure  Xo  the  attack  on 
the  council  by  Dr.  Schulte,  professor  of  canon  law  and 
German  law  at  Prague.  Dr.  Schulte's  pamphlet  on 
the  power  of  the  Roman  popes  over  princes,  countries, 
peoples,  and  individuals,  in  the  light  of  their  acts  since 
the  reign  of  Gregory  VII,  was  very  simOar  in  character 




to  the  Vaticanism  pamplilet  of  Mr.  Gladstone,  and 
rested  on  just  thesaiiir  funii.iinrntal  misunderstancliiig 
of  the  dogma  of  I'Mpal  Infalliliility  as  d(>fined  liy  the 
Vatican  Council.  Tlu'  Prussian  (lovernnicut  pminptly 
appointed  Dr.  Schulte  to  a  professorship  at  Bonn, 
while  it  iniprisonetl  Catholic  priests  and  bishops.  Fess- 
ler's  reply,  "Die  wahre  und  die  falsche  Unfehlbarkeit 
der  Piipste"  (Vienna,  187 1 ) ,  was  translated  into  French 
by  Cosquin,  editor  of  "  Le  Frangais  ",  and  into  English 
by  Father  Ambrose  St.  John,  of  the  Birmingham  Ora- 
tory (The  true  and  false  Infallibility  of  tlie  Popes, 
London,  1875).  It  is  still  an  exceedingly  valuable 
explanation  of  the  true  doctrine  of  Infallibility  as 
taught  by  the  great  Italian  "  Ultramontane  "  theolo- 
gians, such  as  Bellarmine  in  the  sixteenth  century,  P. 
Ballerini  in  the  eighteenth,  and  Perrone  in  the  nine- 
teenth. But  it  was  difficult  for  those  who  had  been 
fighting  against  the  definition  to  realize  that  the  "  In- 
fallibilists"  had  wanted  no  more  than  this.  Bishop 
Hefele  of  Rottenburg,  who  had  strongly  opposed  the 
definition,  and  afterwards  loyally  accepted  it,  said  he 
entirely  agreed  with  the  moderate  view  taken  by 
Bishop  Fessler,  but  doubted  whether  such  views  would 
be  accepted  as  sound  in  Rome.  It  was  clear,  one 
would  have  thought,  that  the  secretary  of  the  council 
was  likely  to  know;  and  the  hesitations  of  the  pious 
and  learned  Hefele  were  removed  by  the  warm  Brief  of 
approbation  which  Pius  IX  addressed  to  the  author. 
Anton  Ehdinger.  Dr.  Joseph  Fessler,  Bischof  v.  St.  Putten, 
ein  Lebensbitd  (Brixen,  1874);  Mitterrl'tzner  in  Kirchcnlexi- 
kon;  Granderath  and  Kirch,  Geschichte  des  Vaticanischen 
Konzils  (Freiburg  im  Br.,  2  vols.,  1903). 

John  Chapman. 

Feti,  DoMENico,  an  Italian  painter;  b.  at  Rome, 
1589;  d.  at  Venice,  1624.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Cigoli 
(Ludovico  Cardi,  1559-161.3),  or  at  least  was  much  in- 
fluenced by  this  master  during  his  sojourn  in  Rome. 
From  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century  Rome  again 
became  what  she  had  ceased  to  be  after  the  sack  of 
1527,  the  metropolis  of  the  beautiful.  The  jubilee  of 
the  year  1600  marked  the  triumph  of  the  papacy. 
Art,  seeking  its  pole  now  at  Parma,  now  at  \'enice, 
now  at  Bologna,  turning  towards  Rome,  concentrated 
itself  there.  Crowds  of  artists  flocked  thither.  This 
was  the  period  in  which  were  produced  the  master- 
pieces of  the  Carracci,  Caravaggio,  Domenichino,  Guido, 
not  counting  those  of  many  cosmopolitan  artists,  such 
as  the  brothers  Bril,  Elsheimer,  etc.,  and  between  1600 
and  1610  Rubens,  the  great  master  of  the  century, 
paid  three  visits  to  Rome.  This  exceptional  period 
was  that  of  Domenico's  apprenticeship;  the  labour, 
the  unique  fermentation  in  the  world  of  art,  resulted, 
as  is  well  known,  in  the  creation  of  an  art  which  in  its 
essential  characteristics  became  for  more  than  a  cen- 
tury that  of  all  Europe.  For  the  old  local  and  pro- 
vincial schools  (Florentine,  Umbrian,  etc.)  Rome  had 
the  privilege  of  substituting  a  new  one  which  was 
characterized  by  its  universality.  Out  of  a  mixture  of 
so  many  idioms  and  dialects  she  evolved  an  interna- 
tional language,  the  style  which  is  called  baroque. 
The  discredit  thrown  on  this  school  should  not  lead 
us  to  ignore  its  grandeur.  In  reality,  the  reorganiza- 
tion of  modern  painting  dates  from  it. 

Domenico  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  types  of 
this  great  evolution.  Eclecticism,  the  fusion  of  divers 
characteristics  of  Correggio,  Barrochi,  Veronese,  was 
already  apparent  in  the  work  of  Cigoli.  To  these  Feti 
added  much  of  the  naturalism  of  Caravaggio.  From 
him  he  borrowed  his  vulgar  types,  his  powerful  mobs, 
his  Bohemians,  his  beggars  in  heroic  rags.  From  him 
also  he  borrowed  his  violent  illuminations,  his  novel 
and  sometimes  fantastic  portrayal  of  the  picturesque, 
his  rare  lights  and  strong  shadows,  his  famous  chia- 
roscuro, which,  nevertheless,  he  endeavoured  to  de- 
velop into  full  daylight  and  the  diffuse  atmosphere 
of  out-of-doors.  He  did  not  have  time  to  succeed 
completely  in  this.     His  colouring  is  often  dim,  crude, 

and  faded,  though  at  times  it  assumes  a  golden  patina 
and  seems  to  solve  the  problem  of  conveying  mysteri- 
ous atmospheric  effects. 

At  an  early  age  Domenico  went  to  Mantua  with 
Cardinal  Gonzaga,  later  Duke  of  Mantua,  to  whom  he 
became  court  painter  (hence  his  surname  of  Manto- 
vano),  and  he  felt  the  transient  influence  of  Giulio  Ro- 
mano. His  frescoes  in  the  cathedral,  however,  are  the 
least  characteristic  and  the  feeblest  of  his  works. 
Domenico  was  not  a  good  frescoist.  Like  all  modern 
painters  he  made  use  of  oils  too  frequently.  By  de- 
grees he  abandoned  his  decorative  ambitions.  He 
painted  few  altar-pieces,  preference  leading  him  to 
execute  easel  pictures.  For  the  most  part  these  dealt 
with  religious  subjects,  but  conceived  in  an  intimate 
manner  for  private  devotion.  Scarcely  any  of  his 
themes  were  historical,  and  few  taken  from  among 
those,  such  as  the  Nativity,  Calvary,  or  the  entomb- 
ment, which  had  been  presented  so  often  by  painters. 
He  preferred  subjects  more  human  and  less  dogmatic, 
more  in  touch  with  daily  life,  romance,  and  poetry. 
He  drew  by  preference  from  the  parables,  as  in  "The 
Labourers  in  the  Vineyard",  "The  Lost  Coin"  (Pitti 
Palace,  Florence),  "The  Good  Samaritan",  "The  Re- 
turn of  the  Prodigal  Son"  (and  others  at  the  Museum 
of  Dresden).  Again  he  chose  picturesque  scenes  from 
the  Bible,  such  as  "Elias  in  the  Wilderness"  (Berlin) 
and  the  history  of  Tobias  (Dresden  and  St.  Peters- 

It  is  astonishing  to  find  in  the  canvases  of  this  Ital- 
ian nearly  the  whole  repertoire  of  Rembrandt's  sub- 
jects. They  had  a  common  liking  for  the  tenderest 
parts  of  the  Gospel,  for  the  scenes  of  every  day,  of  the 
"eternal  present",  themes  for  genre  pictures.  But 
this  is  not  all.  Domenico  was  not  above  reproach. 
It  was  his  e.xcesses  which  shortened  his  life.  May  we 
not  assume  that  his  art  is  but  a  history  of  the  sinful 
soul,  a  poem  of  repentance  such  as  Rembrandt  was  to 
present?  There  is  fo\md  in  both  painters  the  same 
confidence,  the  same  sense  of  the  divine  Protection  in 
spite  of  sin  (cf.  Feti's  beautiful  picture,  "The  Angel 
Guardian"  at  the  Louvre),  and  also,  occasionally,  the 
same  anguish,  the  same  disgust  of  the  world  and  the 
flesh  as  in  that  rare  masterpiece,  "Melancholy",  in  the 
same  museum.  Thus  Domenico  was  in  the  way  of 
becoming  one  of  the  first  masters  of  lyric  painting,  and 
he  was  utilizing  to  the  perfection  of  his  art  all  thathe 
could  learn  at  Venice  when  he  died  in  that  city,  worn 
out  with  pleasure,  at  the  age  of  thirty-four.  There  is 
no  good  life  of  this  curious  artist.  His  principal 
works  are  to  be  found  at  Dresden  (11  pictures),  St. 
Petersburg,  Vienna,  Florence,  and  Paris. 

Baglione,  Le  rile  de'  pitlore  (Rome.  1642),  155;  Lanzi, 
Sloria  pillorica  delV  llaliana  (Milan,  1809);  tr.  RoscoE  (Lon- 
don, 1847),  I,  471;  11,339;  Charles  Blanc, //is/oiVe  (ie5  petn- 
Ires:  Ecole  romaine  (Paris,  s.  d.);  Burckhardt,  Cicerone,  ed. 
Bode,  Fr.  tr.  (Paris,  1897),  809,  816;  Woehmann,  Malerei 
(Leipzig,  1888),  III,  233.  LoDIS  GiLLET. 

Fetishism  means  the  religion  of  the  The 
word  jetish  is  derived  through  the  Portuguese  feiti^o 
from  the  Latin  farliiius  (jacere,  to  do,  or  to  make), 
signifying  made  b)'  art,  artificial  (cf.  Old  English  fetys 
in  Chaucer).  From  jacio  are  derived  many  w'ords 
signifying  idol,  idolatry,  or  witchcraft.  Later  Latin 
has  facturari,  to  bewitch,  and  factura,  witchcraft. 
Hence  Portuguese  feitiro,  Italian  fdtntura,  O.  Fr.  fai- 
lure, meaning  witchcraft,  magic.  The  word  was  prob- 
ably first  applied  to  idols  and  amulets  made  by  hand 
and  supposed  to  possess  magic  power.  In  the  early 
part  of  the  sixteenth  century,  the  Portuguese,  explor- 
ing the  West  Coast  of  Africa,  foimd  the  natives  using 
small  material  objects  in  their  religious  worship. 
These  they  called  jeitiro,  but  the  use  of  the  term  has 
never  extended  beyond  the  natives  on  the  coast. 
Other  names  are  bohsum,  the  tutelary  fetishes  of  the 
Cold  Coast;  suhman,  a  term  for  a  private  fetish; 
gree-yree  on  the  Liberian  coast;  morula  in  the  Gabun 




country;  (n'nn  among  tho  cannibal  FauR;  in  the  Niger 
Delta ;'"-;" — possibly  from  the  French  joujou,  i.  e.  a 
doll  or  toy  (KingsJey) — and  grou-grou,  according  to 
some  of  the  same  origin,  according  to  others  a  native 
term,  but  the  natives  say  that  it  is  "a  white  man's 
word  ".  Every  Congo  leader  has  his  m'kissi;  and  in 
other  tribes  a  word  equivalent  to  "medicine"  is  used. 

C.  de  Brosses  first  employed  fetishism  as  a  general 
descriptive  term,  and  claimed  for  it  a  share  in  the 
early  development  of  religious  ideas  (Du  Culte  des 
Dieiix  Fetiches,  17fiO).  He  compared  the  phenomena 
observed  in  the  negro  worship  of  West  Africa  with 
certain  features  of  the  old  Egyptian  religion.  This 
comparison  led  Pietschmann  to  emphasize  the  ele- 
ments of  fetishism  in  the  Egyptian  religion  by  starting 
with  its  magic  character.  Basthold  (1805)  claimed  as 
fetish  "everything  produced  by  nature  or  art,  which 
receives  divine  honor,  including  sun,  moon,  earth, 
air,  fire,  water,  mountains,  rivers,  trees,  stones,  im- 
ages, animals,  if  considered  as  objects  of  divine  wor- 
ship". Thus  the  name  became  more  general,  imtil 
Comte  employed  it  to  designate  only  the  lowest  stage 
of  religious  development.  In  this  sense  the  term  is 
used  from  time  to  time,  e.  g.  de  la  Rialle,  Schultze, 
Menzies,  HolTding.  Taking  the  theory  of  evolution  as 
a  basis,  Comte  affirmed  that  the  fundamental  law  of 
history  was  that  of  historic  filiation,  that  is,  the  Law  of 
the  Three  States.  Thus  the  human  race,  like  the 
human  individual,  passed  through  three  successive 
stages:  the  theological  or  imaginative,  illustrated  by 
fetishism,  polytheism,  monotheism;  the  metaphysical 
or  abstract,  which  differed  from  the  former  in  explain- 
ing phenomena  not  by  divine  beings  but  by  abstract 
powers  or  essences  behind  them ;  the  positive  or  scien- 
tific, where  man  enlightened  perceives  that  the  only 
realities  are  not  supernatural  beings,  e.  g.  God  or  an- 
gels, nor  abstractions,  e.  g.  substances  or  causes,  but 
phenomena  and  their  laws  as  discovered  by  science. 
Under  fetishism,  therefore,  he  classed  worship  of 
heavenly  bodies,  nature-worship,  etc.  This  theory  is 
a  pure  assumption,  yet  a  long  time  passed  before  it 
was  cast  aside.  The  ease  with  which  it  explained 
everything  recommended  it  to  many.  Spencer  for- 
mally repudiated  it  (Principles  of  Sociology),  and  with 
Tylor  made  fetishism  a  subdivision  of  animism. 

While  we  may  with  Tylor  consider  the  theory  of 
Comte  as  abandoned,  it  is  difficult  to  admit  his  own 
view.  For  the  spirit  supposed  to  dwell  in  the  fetish  is 
not  the  soul  or  vital  power  belonging  to  that  object, 
but  a  spirit  foreign  to  the  object,  yet  in  some  way  con- 
nected with  and  embodied  in  it.  Lippert  (1881),  true 
to  his  exaggerated  animism,  defines  fetishism  as  "a 
belief  in  the  souls  of  the  departed  coming  to  dwell  in 
anything  that  is  tangible  in  heaven  or  on  earth". 
Schultze,  analysing  the  consciousness  of  savages,  says 
that  fetishism  is  a  worship  of  material  objects.  He 
claims  that  the  narrow  circle  of  savages'  ideas  leads 
them  to  admire  and  exaggerate  the  value  of  very 
small  and  insignificant  objects,  to  look  upon  these 
objects  anthropopathically  as  alive,  sentient,  and 
willing,  to  connect  them  with  auspicious  or  inauspi- 
cious events  and  experiences,  and  finally  to  believe 
that  such  objects  require  religious  veneration.  In  his 
view  these  four  facts  accoimt  for  the  worship  of  stocks 
and  stones,  bundles  and  bows,  gores  and  stripes, 
which  we  call  fetishism.  But  Schultze  considers  fet- 
ishism as  a  portion,  not  as  the  whole,  of  primitive 
religion.  By  the  side  of  it  he  puts  a  worship  of  spirits, 
and  these  two  forms  run  parallel  for  some  distance, 
but  afterwards  meet  and  give  rise  to  other  forms  of 
religion.  He  holds  that  man  ceases  to  be  a  fetish- 
worshipper  as  soon  as  he  learns  to  distinguish  the 
spirit  from  the  material  object.  To  Muller  and  Brin- 
ton  the  fetish  is  something  more  than  the  mere  object 
(Rel.  of  Prim.  Peop.,  Phil.adelphia,  1898).  Menzies 
(History  of  Religion,  p.  129)  holds  that  primitive  man, 
like  the  untutored  savage  of  to-day,  in  worshipping  a 

tree,  a  snake,  or  an  idol,  worshipped  (he  very  objects 
themselves.  He  regards  the  suggcslioii  that  these  ob- 
jects represented  or  were  even  the  chviMing-place  of 
some  spiritual  being,  as  an  aftertliou(.;hl,  \\p  to  which 
man  has  grown  in  the  lapse  of  ages.  The  study  of  the 
African  negro  refutes  this  view.  Ellis  writes,  "  Every 
native  with  whom  I  have  conversed  on  the  subject  has 
laughed  at  the  possibility  of  its  being  supposed  that  he 
could  worship  or  offer  sacrifice  to  some  sifch  object  as  a 
stone,  which  of  itself  would  be  perfectly  obvious  to  his 
senses  was  a  stone  only  and  nothing  more". 

De  La  Saussaye  regards  fetishism  as  a  form  of  anim- 
ism, i.  e.  a  belief  in  spirits  incorporated  in  single  ob- 
jects, but  says  that  not  every  kind  of  worship  paid  to 
material  objects  can  be  called  fetishism,  but  only  that 
which  is  connected  with  magic;  otherwise  the  whole 
worship  of  nature  would  be  fetishism.  The  stock  and 
stone  which  forms  the  object  of  worship  is  then  called 
the  fetish.  Tylor  has  rightly  declared  that  it  is  very 
hard  to  say  whether  stones  are  to  be  regarded  as 
altars,  as  symbols,  or  as  fetishes.  He  strives  to  place 
nature-worship  as  a  connecting  link  between  fetishism 
and  polytheism,  though  he  is  obliged  to  admit  that  the 
single  stages  of  the  process  defy  any  accurate  descrip- 
tion. Others,  e.  g.  Reville,  de  La  Saussaj'e,  separate 
the  worship  of  nature  from  animism.  To  Hoffding, 
following  Usener,  the  fetish  is  only  the  provisional  and 
momentary  dwelling-place  of  a  spirit.  Others,  e.  g. 
Lubbock,  Happel,  insist  that  the  fetish  must  be  con- 
sidered as  a  means  of  magic — not  being  itself  the  ob- 
ject of  worship,  but  a  means  by  which  man  is  brought 
into  close  contact  with  the  deity — and  as  endowed 
with  divine  powers.  De  La  Saussaye  holds  that  to 
savages  fetishes  are  both  objects  of  religious  worship 
and  means  of  magic.  Thus  a  fetish  may  often  be  used 
for  magic  purposes,  yet  it  is  more  than  a  mere  means 
of  magic,  as  being  itself  anthropopathic,  and  often  the 
object  of  religious  worship. 

Within  the  limits  of  animism,  Tiele  and  Hoffding 
distinguish  between  fetishism  and  spiritism.  Fetish- 
ism contents  itself  with  particular  objects  in  which  it 
is  supposed  a  spirit  has  for  a  longer  or  a  shorter  time 
taken  up  its  abode.  In  spiritism,  spirits  are  not 
bound  up  with  certain  objects,  but  may  change  their 
mode  of  revelation,  partly  at  their  own  discretion, 
partly  under  the  influence  of  magic.  Thus  Hoffding 
declares  that  fetishism,  as  the  lowest  form  of  religion, 
is  distinguished  from  spiritism  by  the  special  weight 
it  attributes  to  certain  definite  objects  as  media  of 
psychical  activity.  In  selecting  objects  of  fetishism, 
religion  appears,  according  to  Hoffding,  under  the 
guise  of  desire.  He  holds  that  religious  ideas  are  only 
religious  in  virtue  of  this  connexion  between  need  and 
expectation,  i.  e.,  as  elements  of  desire,  and  that  it  ia 
only  when  thus  viewed  that  fetishism  can  be  under- 
stood. Htlbbe-Schleiden,  on  the  contrary,  holds  that 
fetishism  is  not  a  proper  designation  for  a  religion,  be- 
cause Judaism  and  Christianity  have  their  fetishes  as 
well  as  the  nature  religions,  and  says  the  word  fetish 
should  be  used  as  analogous  to  a  word-symbol  or  em- 
blem. Haddon  considers  fetishism  as  a  stage  of  reli- 
gious development.  Jevons  holds  magic  and  fetish- 
ism to  be  the  negation  of  religion.  He  denies  that 
fetishism  is  the  primitive  religion,  or  a  basis  from 
which  religion  developed,  or  a  stage  of  religious  devel- 
opment. To  him,  fetishism  is  not  only  anti-social,  and 
therefore  anti-religious,  he  even  holds  that  the  atti- 
tude of  superiority  manifested  by  the  possessor  to- 
wards the  fetish  deprives  it  of  religious  value,  or  rather 
makes  it  anti-religious. 

The  fetish  differs  from  an  idol  or  an  amulet,  though 
at  times  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish  between  them. 
An  amulet,  however,  is  the  pledge  of  protection  of  a 
divine  power.  A  fetish  may  be  an  image,  e.  g.  the 
New  Zealand  wakapakoko,  or  not.  but  the  divine  power 
or  spirit  is  supposed  to  be  wholly  incorporated  in  it. 
Farnell  says  an  image  may  be  viewed  as  a  symbol,  or 




as  infused  with  divine  power,  or  as  the  divinity  itself. 
Idolatry  in  this  sense  is  a  higher  form  of  fetishism. 
Farnell  does  not  distinguish  clearly  between  fetish  and 
amulet,  and  calls  relics,  crucifixes,  the  Bible  itself, 
fetishes.  In  his  view  any  sacred  object  is  a  fetish. 
But  objects  may  be  held  as  sacred  by  external  associa- 
tion with  sacred  persons  or  places  without  having  any 
intrinsic  sanctity.  This  loose  use  of  the  word  has  led 
writers  to  consider  the  national  flag  (especially  a  tat- 
tered battle-flag),  the  Scottish  stone  of  Scone,  the  ma.s- 
cot,  the  horseshoe,  as  fetishes,  whereas  these  objects 
have  no  value  in  themselves,  but  are  prized  merely  for 
their  associations — real  in  the  case  of  the  battle-flag, 
fancied  in  the  case  of  the  horseshoe. 

The  theory  advanced  by  certain  writers  that 
fetishism  represents  the  earliest  stage  of  religious 
thought,  has  a  twofold  basis:  (1)  philosophical;  (2) 

(1)  Philosophical  Basis:  the  Theory  of  Evolution. — 
Assuming  that  primitive  man  was  a  semi-brute,  or  a 
semi-idiot,  some  writers  of  the  Evolutionist  School 
under  the  influence  of  Comte  taught  that  man  in  the 
earliest  stage  was  a  fetish-worshipper,  instancing  in 
proof  the  African  tribes,  who  in  their  view  repre- 
sent the  original  state  of  mankind.  This  basis  is  a 
pure  assumption.  More  recent  investigation  reveals 
clearly  the  universal  belief  in  a  Great  God,  the  Creator 
and  Father  of  mankind,  held  by  the  negroes  of  Africa; 
Comber  (Gram,  and  Diet,  of  the  Congo  Language)  and 
Wilson  (West  Guinea)  prove  the  richness  of  their  lan- 
guages in  structure  and  vocabulary;  while  Tylor, 
Spencer,  and  most  advocates  of  the  animistic  theory 
look  upon  fetishism  as  by  no  means  primitive,  but  as  a 
decadent  form  of  the  belief  in  spirit  and  souls.  Fi- 
nally, there  are  no  well-authenticated  cases  of  savage 
tribes  whose  religion  consists  of  fetish-worship  only. 

(2)  Sociological  Basis. — Historians  of  civilization, 
impressed  liy  the  fact  that  many  customs  of  savages  are 
also  found  in  the  highest  stages  of  civilized  life,  con- 
cluded that  the  development  of  the  race  could  best  be 
understood  by  taking  the  savage  level  as  a  starting- 
point.  The  life  of  savages  is  thus  the  basis  of  the 
higher  development.  But  this  argument  can  be  in- 
verted. For  if  the  customs  of  savages  may  be  found 
among  civilized  races,  evident  traces  of  higher  ideals 
are  also  found  among  savages.  Furthermore,  the 
theory  that  a  savage  or  a  child  represents  exclusively, 
or  even  prominently,  the  life  of  primitive  man,  cannot 
be  entertained.  Writers  on  the  philosophy  of  reli- 
gion have  used  the  word  fetishism  in  a  vague  sense, 
susceptible  of  many  shades  of  meaning.  To  obtain  a 
correct  knowledge  of  the  subject,  we  must  go  to  au- 
thorities like  Wilson,  Norris,  Ellis,  and  Kingsley,  who 
have  spent  years  with  the  African  negroes  and  have 
made  exhaustive  investigations  on  the  spot.  By  fetish 
or  ju-ju  is  meant  the  religion  of  the  natives  of  West 
Africa.  Fetishism,  viewed  from  the  outside,  appears 
strange  and  complex,  but  is  simple  in  its  underlying 
idea,  very  logically  thought  out,  and  very  reasonable 
to  the  minds  of  its  adherents.  The  prevailing  notion 
in  West  Guinea  seems  to  be  that  God,  the  Creator 
(Anyambfi,  Anzam),  having  made  the  world  and  filled 
it  with  inhabitants,  retired  to  some  remote  corner  of 
the  universe,  and  allowed  the  affairs  of  the  world  to 
come  under  the  control  of  evil  spirits.  Hence  the  only 
religious  worship  performed  is  directed  to  these  spirits, 
the  purpose  being  to  court  their  favour  or  ward  off 
their  displeasure.  The  Ashantis  recognize  the  exist- 
ence of  a  Supreme  Being,  whom  they  adore  in  a  vague 
manner  althougli,  being  invisible.  He  is  not  repre- 
sented by  an  idol.  At  the  commencement  of  the 
world,  God  was  in  daily  relations  with  man.  He 
came  on  earth,  conversed  with  men,  and  all  went  well. 
But  one  day  He  retired  in  anger  from  the  world,  leaving 
its  management  to  subaltern  divinities.  These  are 
spirits  which  dwell  everywhere — in  waters,  woods, 
rocks — and  it  is  necessary  to  conciliate  them,  unless 

one  wishes  to  encounter  their  displeasure.  Such  a 
phenomenon  then  as  fetish-  or  spirit-worship,  existing 
alone  without  an  accompanying  belief  in  a  Supreme 
Being  who  is  above  all  fetishes  and  other  objects  of 
worship,  has  yet  to  be  discovered.  Other  nations, 
holding  the  fundamental  idea  of  one  God  who  is  Lord 
and  Creator,  say  that  this  God  is  too  great  to  interest 
Himself  in  the  affairs  of  the  world;  hence  after  having 
created  and  organized  the  world.  He  cliarged  His  sub- 
ordinates with  its  government.  Hence  they  neglect 
the  worship  of  God  for  the  propitiation  of  spirits. 
These  spirits  correspond  in  their  functions  to  the  gods 
of  Greek  and  Roman  mythology,  but  are  never  con- 
founded with  the  Supreme  Being  by  the  natives. 
Fetishism  therefore  is  a  stage  where  God  is  quietly 
disregarded,  and  the  worship  due  to  Him  is  quietly 
transferred  to  a  multitude  of  spiritual  agencies  under 
His  power,  but  uncontrolled  by  it.  "  All  the  air  and 
the  future  is  peopled  by  the  Bantu",  says  Dr.  Norris, 
"  with  a  large  and  indefinite  company  of  spiritual  be- 
ings. They  have  personality  and  will,  and  most  of  the 
human  passions,  e.  g.,  anger,  revenge,  generosity, 
gratitude.  Though  they  are  all  probably  malevolent, 
yet  they  may  be  influenced  and  made  favorable 
by  worship." 

In  the  face  of  this  animistic  view  of  nature  and  the 
peculiar  logic  of  the  African  mind,  all  the  seemingly 
weird  forms  and  ceremonies  of  fetishism,  e.  g.  the 
fetish  or  witch-doctor,  become  but  the  natural  conse- 
quences of  the  basal  idea  of  the  popular  religious 
belief.  There  are  grades  of  spirits  in  the  spirit- world. 
Miss  Kingsley  holds  that  fourteen  classes  of  spirits  are 
clearly  discernible.  Dr.  Nassau  thinks  the  spirits 
commonly  affecting  human  affairs  can  be  classified 
into  six  groups.  These  spirits  are  different  in  power 
and  functions.  The  class  of  spirits  that  are  human 
souls,  always  remain  human  souls;  they  do  not  become 
deified,  nor  do  they  sink  in  grade  permanently.  The 
locality  of  spirits  is  not  only  vaguely  in  the  surround- 
ing air,  but  in  prominent  natural  objects,  e.  g.  caves, 
enormous  rocks,  hollow  trees,  dark  forests.  While  all 
can  move  from  place  to  place,  some  belong  peculiarly 
to  certain  localities.  Their  habitations  may  be  nat- 
ural (e.  g.  large  trees,  caverns,  large  rocks,  capes,  and 
promontories;  and  for  the  spirits  of  the  dead,  the  vil- 
lages where  they  had  dwelt  during  the  lifetime  of  the 
body,  or  graveyards)  or  acquired,  e.  g.  for  longer  or 
shorter  periods  under  the  power  wielded  by  the  incan- 
tations of  the  nganga  or  native  doctor.  By  his  magic 
art  any  spirit  may  be  localized  in  any  object  whatever, 
however  small,  and  thus  placed  it  is  under  the  control 
of  the  "doctor"  and  subservient  to  the  wishes  of  the 
possessor  or  wearer  of  the  object  in  which  it  is  con- 
fined. This  constitutes  a  fetish.  The  fetish-worship- 
per makes  a  clear  distinction  between  the  reverence 
with  which  he  regards  a  certain  material  object  and 
the  worship  he  renders  to  the  spirit  for  the  time  being 
inhabiting  it.  Where  the  sjiirit,  for  any  reason,  is 
supposed  to  have  gone  out  of  that  thing  and  defini- 
tively abandoned  it,  the  thing  it.self  is  no  longer 
reverenced,  but  thrown  away  as  useless,  or  sold  to  the 
curio-hunting  white  man. 

Everything  the  African  negro  knows  by  means  of 
his  senses,  he  regards  as  a  twofold  entity — partly 
spirit,  partly  not  spirit  or,  as  we  say,  matter.  In  man 
this  twofokl  entity  appears  as  a  corporeal  body,  and  a 
spiritual  or  "astral"  body  in  shape  and  feature  like 
the  former.  This  latter  form  of  "  life  "  with  its  "  heart " 
can  be  stolen  by  magic  power  while  one  is  asleep,  and 
the  individual  sleeps  on,  unconscious  of 'his  loss.  If 
the  life-form  is  returned  to  him  before  he  awakes,  he 
will  l>e  unaware  that  anything  unusual  has  happened. 
If  he  awakes  before  this  portion  of  him  has  been  re- 
turned, though  he  may  live  for  a  while,  he  will  sicken 
and  eventually  die.  If  the  magician  who  stole  the 
"life"  has  eaten  the  "heart",  the  victim  sickens  at 
once  and  dies.     The  connexion  of  a  certain  spirit  with 



a  certain  mass  of  matter  is  not  regarded  as  permanent. 
The  native  will  point  out  a  lightning-struck  tree,  and 
tell  you  its  spirit  has  been  killed,  i.  e.,  the  spirit  is  not 
actually  dead,  but  has  fled  and  lives  elsewhere.  When 
the  cooking  pot  is  broken,  its  spirit  has  been  lost.  If 
his  weapon  fails,  it  is  because  some  one  has  stolen  the 
spirit,  or  made  it  sick  by  witchcraft.  In  every  action 
of  life  he  sliows  how  muoli  ho  lives  with  a  great,  power- 
ful spirit-world  a  nil  md  him.  Before  starting  to  hunt  or 
fight,  he  rubs  iiicihciiie  into  his  weapons  to  strengthen 
the  S[)irit  within  them,  talking  to  them  the  while, 
telling  them  what  care  he  has  taken  of  tliem  and  what 
he  has  given  them  lief  ore,  though  it  was  hard  to  give, 
and  begging  them  not  to  fail  him  now.  He  may  be 
seen  bending  over  the  river,  talking  w-ith  proper  in- 
cantations to  its  spirit,  asking  that,  when  it  meets  an 
enemy,  it  will  upset  the  canoe  and  destroy  the  occu- 
pant. The  African  believes  that  each  human  soul  has 
a  certain  si)an  of  life  due  or  natural  to  it.  It  should  be 
born,  grow  up  througli  childhood,  youth,  and  man- 
hood to  old  age.  If  this  does  not  liappen,  it  w  because 
some  malevolent  influence  has  blighted  it.  Hence  the 
Africans'  prayers  to  the  spirits  are  always:  "  Leave  us 
alone!"  "Go  away!"  "Come  not  into  this  town, 
plantation,  house;  we  have  never  injured  you.  Go 
away!"  This  malevolent  influence  which  cuts  short 
the  soul-life  may  act  of  itself  in  various  ways,  but  a 
coercive  witchcraft  may  have  been  at  work.  Hence 
the  vast  majority  of  deaths — almost  all  deaths  in 
which  no  trace  of  blood  is  shown — are  held  to  have 
been  produced  by  human  beings,  acting  through 
spirits  in  their  command,  and  from  this  idea  springs 
the  widespread  belief  in  witches  and  witchcraft. 

Thus  every  familiar  object  in  the  daily  life  of  these 
people  is  touched  with  some  curious  fancy,  and  every 
trivial  action  is  regulated  by  a  reference  to  unseen 
spirits  who  are  unceasingly  w'atching  an  opportunity 
to  hurt  or  annoy  mankind.  Yet  upon  close  inspec- 
tion the  tenets  of  this  religion  are  vague  and  unformu- 
lated, for  with  every  tribe  and  every  district  belief 
varies,  and  rites  and  ceremonies  diverge.  The  fetish- 
man,  fetizero,  nganga,  chitbone,  is  the  authority  on  all 
religious  observances.  He  offers  the  expiatory  sacri- 
fice to  the  spirits  to  keep  off  evil.  He  is  credited  with 
a  controlling  influence  over  the  elements,  winds  and 
waters  obey  the  waving  of  liLs  charm,  i.  c.  a  bimdle  of 
feathers,  or  the  whistle  through  the  magic  antelope 
horn.  He  brings  food  for  the  departed,  pniphcsies, 
and  calls  down  rain.  One  of  liis  principal  duties  is  to 
find  out  evil-doers,  that  is,  persons  who  by  evil  magic 
have  caused  sickness  or  death.  He  is  the  exorcist  of 
spirits,  the  maker  of  charms  (i.  e.  fetishes),  the  pre- 
scriber  and  regulator  of  ceremonial  rites.  He  can 
discover  who  "ate  the  heart"  of  the  chief  who  died 
yesterday;  who  caused  the  canoe  to  upset  and  gave 
lives  to  the  crocodiles  and  the  dark  waters  of  the 
Congo;  or  even  "who  blighted  the  palm  trees  of  the 
village  and  dried  up  their  sap,  causnig  the  supply  of 
nmlnju  to  cease;  or  who  drove  away  the  rain  from  a 
district,  and  withheld  its  field  of  nguba"  (ground-nuts). 
The  fetish  doctors  can  scarcely  be  said  to  form  a  class. 
They  have  no  organization,  and  are  honoured  only  in 
their  own  districts,  unless  they  be  called  specially  to 
minister  in  another  place.  In  their  ceremonies  they 
make  the  petiple  dance,  sing,  play,  beat  drinns,  and 
they  spot  their  bodies  with  their  "medicines".  Any- 
one may  choose  the  profession  for  himself,  and  large 
fees  are  demanded  for  services. 

.4mong  the  natives  on  the  lower  Congo  is  found  the 
ceremony  of  n'kimba,  i.  e.  the  initiation  of  young  men 
into  the  mysteries  and  rites  of  their  religion.  Every 
village  in  this  region  has  its  n'kimba  enclosure,  gener- 
ally a  walled-in  tract  of  half  an  acre  in  extent  buried 
in  a  tliick  grove  of  trees.  Inside  the  enclosure  are  the 
huts  of  the  ngangn  and  his  assistants,  as  well  as  of 
those  receiving  instruction.  The  initiated  alone  are 
permitted  to  enter  the  enclosure,  where  a  new  lan- 

guage is  learned  in  which  they  can  talk  on  religioua 
matters  without  being  understood  by  the  people.  In 
other  parts  of  the  Congo  the  office  falls  on  an  indi- 
vidual in  quite  an  accidental  manner,  e.  g.  because 
fortune  has  in  some  way  distinguished  him  from  his 
fellows.  Evei-y  unusual  action,  display  of  skill,  or 
superiority  is  attributed  to  the  intervention  of  some 
supernatural  power.  Thus  the  future  ngntiga  usually 
begins  his  career  by  some  lucky  adventure,  e.  g. 
prowess  in  hunting,  success  in  fishmg,  bravery  in  war. 
He  is  then  regarded  as  possessmg  some  charm,  or  as 
enjoying  the  protection  of  some  spirit.  In  considera- 
tion of  payment  he  pretends  to  impart  his  power  to 
others  by  means  of  charms,  i.  e.  fetishes  consisting  of 
different  herbs,  stones,  pieces  of  wood,  antelope  horns, 
skin  and  feathers  tied  in  little  bundles,  the  possession 
of  which  is  supposed  to  yield  to  the  purchaser  the 
same  power  over  spirits  as  the  nganga  himself  enjoys. 

The  fetish-man  always  carries  in  liis  sack  a  strange 
assortment  of  articles  out  of  which  he  makes  the 
fetishes.  The  flight  of  the  poisonous  arrow,  the  rush 
of  the  maddened  bulTalo,  or  the  venomous  Ijite  of  the 
adder,  can  be  averted  by  these  charms;  with  their 
assistance  the  waters  of  the  Congo  may  be  safely 
crossed.  The  Moloki,  ever  ready  to  pounce  on  men, 
is  cliecked  by  the  power  of  the  nganga.  The  eye-teeth 
of  leopards  are  an  exceedingly  valuable  fetish  on  the 
Kroo  coast.  The  Kabinda  negroes  wear  on  their  necks 
a  little  brown  shell  sealed  with  wax  to  preserve  intact 
the  fetish-raedicine  within.  A  fetish  is  anything  that 
attracts  attention  by  its  curious  shape  (e.  g.  an  anchor) 
or  by  its  behaviour,  or  anything  seen  in  a  dream,  and 
is  generally  not  shaped  to  represent  the  spirit.  A 
fetish  may  be  such  by  the  force  of  its  own  proper 
spirit,  but  more  commonly  a  spirit  is  supposed  to  be 
attracted  to  the  object  from  without  (e.  g.  the  su/i- 
man),  whether  by  the  incantations  of  the  nganga.  or 
not.  These  wandering  spirits  may  be  natural  spirits 
or  ghosts.  The  Melanesians  believe  that  the  souls  of 
the  dead  act  through  bones,  while  the  independent 
spirits  choose  stones  as  their  mediums  (Brinton,  Re- 
ligions of  Prim.  Peoples,  New  York,  1S97).  Ellis  says, 
if  a  man  wants  a  snhman  (a  fetish),  he  takes  some 
object  (a  rudely  cut  wooden  image,  a  stone,  a  root  of  a 
plant,  or  some  red  earth  placed  in  a  pan),  and  then 
calls  on  a  spirit  of  Sasahonsum  (a  genus  of  deities)  to 
enter  the  object  prepared,  promising  it  offerings  and 
worship.  If  a  spirit  consents  to  take  up  its  residence 
in  the  object,  a  low  hissing  sound  is  heard,  and  the 
suhman  is  complete. 

Every  house  in  the  Congo  village  has  its  m'kisd; 
they  are  frequently  put  over  the  door  or  brought  in- 
side, and  are  supposed  to  protect  the  house  from  fire 
and  robbery.  The  selection  of  the  object  in  which  the 
spirit  is  to  reside  is  made  by  the  native  nganga.  The 
ability  to  conjure  a  free  wandering  spirit  into  the  nar- 
row limits  of  this  material  object,  and  to  compel  or 
subordinate  its  power  to  the  service  of  some  desig- 
nated person  and  for  a  special  purpose,  rests  with  hini. 
The  favourite  articles  used  to  confine  spirits  are  skins 
(especialljr  tailsof  bushcats),  horns  of  the  antelope,  nut- 
shells, snail-shells,  eagles'  claws  and  feathers,  tails  and 
heads  of  snakes,  stones,  roots,  herbs,  bones  of  any 
animal  (e.  g.  small  horns  of  gazelles  or  of  goats),  teeth 
and  claws  of  leopards,  but  especially  human  bones— of 
ancestors  or  of  renowned  men,  but  particularly  of 
enemies  or  white  men.  Newly  made  graves  are  rifled 
for  them,  and  among  the  bodily  parts  most  prized  are 
portions  of  human  skulls,  human  eyeballs,  especially 
those  of  white  men.  But  anything  may  be  chosen — a 
stick,  string,  bead,  stone,  or  rag  of  cloth.  Apparently 
there  is  no  limit  to  the  number  of  spirits;  there  is 
literally  no  limit  to  the  number  and  character  of  the 
articles  in  wliicli  they  may  be  confined.  As,  however, 
the  spirits  may  quit  the  objects,  it  is  not  always  cer- 
tain that  fetishes  possess  extraordinary  powers;  they 
must  be  tried  and  give  proof  of  their  efficiency  before 




they  can  be  implicitly  trusted.  Thus,  according  to 
Ellis,  the  natives  of  the  Gold  Coast  put  their  bohsum 
in  fire  as  a  probation,  for  the  fire  never  injures  the  true 
bohsum.  A  fetish  then,  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  word, 
is  any  material  object  consecrated  by  the  nganga  or 
magic  doctor  with  a  variety  of  ceremonies  and  pro- 
cesses, by  virtue  of  which  some  spirit  is  supposed  to 
become  localized  in  that  object,  and  subject  to  the 
will  of  the  possessor. 

These  objects  are  filled  or  rubbed  by  the  nganga 
with  a  mixture  compounded  of  various  substances, 
selected  according  to  the  special  work  to  be  accom- 
plished by  the  fetish.  Its  value,  however,  depends 
not  on  itself,  nor  solely  on  the  nature  of  these  sub- 
stances, but  on  the  skill  of  the  nganga  in  dealing  with 
spirits.  Yet  there  is  a  relation,  difficult  sometimes  for 
the  foreigner  to  grasp,  between  the  substances  selected 
and  the  object  to  be  attained  by  the  fetish.  Thus,  to 
give  the  possessor  bravery  or  strength,  some  part  of  a 
leopard  or  of  an  elephant  is  selected ;  to  give  cunning, 
some  part  of  a  gazelle;  to  give  wisdom,  some  part  of 
the  human  brain ;  to  give  courage,  a  portion  of  the  heart ; 
to  give  influence,  some  part  of  the  eye.  These  sub- 
stances are  supposed  to  please  and  attract  some  spirit, 
which  is  satisfied  to  reside  in  them  and  to  aid  their 
possessor.  The  fetish  is  compounded  in  secret,  with 
the  accompaniment  of  drums,  dancing,  invocations, 
looking  into  mirrors  or  limpid  water  to  see  faces  human 
or  spiritual,  and  is  packed  into  the  hollow  of  the  shell 
or  bone,  or  smeared  over  the  stick  or  stone.  If  power 
over  some  one  be  desired,  the  nganga  must  receive 
crumbs  from  the  food,  clippings  of  the  finger-nails, 
some  hair,  or  even  a  drop  of  blood  of  the  person,  which 
is  mixed  in  the  compound.  So  fearful  are  the  natives 
of  power  being  thus  obtained  over  them,  that  they 
have  their  hair  cut  by  a  friend;  and  even  then  it  is 
carefully  burned,  or  cast  into  the  river.  If  one  is 
accidentally  cut,  he  stamps  out  the  blood  that  has 
dropped  on  the  ground,  or  cuts  away  the  wood  which 
it  has  saturated. 

The  African  negro  in  appealing  to  the  fetish  is 
prompted  by  fear  alone.  There  is  no  confession,  no 
love,  rarely  thanksgiving.  The  being  to  whom  he  ap- 
peals is  not  God.  True  he  does  not  deny  that  God  is; 
if  asked,  he  will  acknowledge  His  existence.  Very 
rarely  and  only  in  extreme  emergencies,  however, 
does  he  make  an  appeal  to  Him,  for  according  to  his 
belief  God  is  so  far  off,  so  inaccessible,  so  indifferent 
to  human  wants,  that  a  petition  to  Him  would  be 
almost  vain.  He  therefore  turns  to  some  one  of  the 
mass  of  spirits  whom  he  believes  to  be  ever  near  and 
observant  of  human  affairs,  in  which,  as  former 
human  beings,  some  of  them  once  had  part.  He 
seeks  not  spiritual,  but  purely  physical,  safety.  A 
sense  of  moral  and  spiritual  need  is  lost  sight  of, 
although  not  quite  eliminated,  for  he  believes  in  a 
good  and  a  bad.  But  the  dominant  feeling  is  fear 
of  possible  natural  injury  from  human  or  subsidized 
spiritual  enemies.  This  physical  salvation  is  sought 
either  by  prayer,  sacrifice,  and  certain  other  cere- 
monies rendered  to  the  spirit  of  the  fetish  or  to 
non-localized  spirits,  or  by  the  use  of  charms  or  amu- 
lets. These  charms  may  be  material,  i.  e.  fetishes; 
vocal,  e.  g.  utterances  of  cabbalistic  words  which  are 
supposed  to  have  power  over  the  local  spirits;  ritual, 
e.  g.  prohibited  food,  i.  e.  orumhi,  for  which  any  article 
of  food  may  be  selectetl  antl  made  sacred  to  the  spirit. 
At  night  the  Congo  chief  will  trace  a  slender  line  of 
ashes  round  his  hut,  and  firmly  believe  that  he  has 
erected  a  barrier  which  will  protect  him  and  his  till 
morning  against  the  attacks  of  the  evil  spirit. 

The  African  believes  largely  in  preventive  measures, 
and  his  fetishes  are  chiefly  of  this  order.  When  least 
con.soioiis,  he  may  lie  offending  some  spirit  with  power 
to  work  him  ill;  he  must  therefore  be  supplied  with 
charms  for  every  season  and  occasion.  Sleeping,  eat- 
ing, drinking,  he  must  lie  protected  from  hostile  in- 

fluences by  his  feti-shes.  These  are  hung  on  the 
plantation  fence,  or  from  the  branches  of  plants  in  the 
garden,  either  to  prevent  theft  or  to  sicken  the  thief; 
over  the  doorway  of  the  house,  to  bar  the  entrance  of 
evil ;  from  the  bow  of  the  canoe,  to  ensure  a  successful 
voyage ;  they  are  worn  on  the  arm  in  hunting  to  ensure 
an  accurate  aim;  on  any  part  of  the  person,  to  give 
success  in  loving,  hating,  planting,  fishing,  buying; 
and  so  through  the  whole  range  of  daily  work  and 
interests.  Some  kinds,  worn  on  a  bracelet  or  neck- 
lace, ward  off  sickness.  The  new-born  infant  has  a 
health-knot  tied  about  its  neck,  wrist,  or  loins.  Before 
every  house  in  Whydah,  the  seaport  of  Dahomey,  one 
may  perceive  a  cone  of  baked  clay,  the  apex  of  which 
is  discoloured  with  libations  of  palm-oil,  etc.  To  the 
end  of  their  lives  the  people  keep  on  multiplying,  re- 
newing, or  altering  these  fetishes. 

In  fetish-worship  the  African  negro  uses  prayer  and 
sacrifice.  The  stones  heaped  by  passers-by  at  the  base 
of  some  great  tree  or  rock,  the  leaf  cast  from  a  passing 
canoe  towards  a  point  of  land  on  the  river  bank,  are 
silent  acknowledgements  of  the  presence  of  the  omb- 
u'iris  (i.  e.  spirits  of  the  place).  Food  is  offered,  as  also 
blood-offerings  of  a  fowl,  a  goat,  or  a  sheep.  Until 
recently  human  sacrifices  were  offered,  e.  g.  to  the  sacred 
crocodiles  of  the  Niger  Delta;  to  the  spirits  of  the  oil- 
rivers  on  the  upper  Guinea  coast,  where  annual  sacri- 
fices of  a  maiden  were  made  for  success  in  foreign  com- 
merce; the  thousands  of  captives  killed  at  the  "  annual 
custom"  of  Dahomey  for  the  safety  of  the  king  and 
nation.  In  fetishism  prayer  has  a  part,  but  it  is  not 
prominent,  and  not  often  formal  and  public.  Ejacula- 
tory  prayer  is  constantly  made  in  the  utterance  of  cab- 
balistic words,  phrases,  or  sentences  adopted  by,  or 
assigned  to,  almost  every  one  by  parent  or  doctor. 
According  to  Ellis  no  coercion  of  the  fetish  is  attempted 
on  the  Gold  Coast,  but  Kidd  states  that  the  negro  of 
Guinea  beats  his  fetish,  if  his  wishes  are  frustrated, 
and  hides  it  in  nis  waistcloth  when  he  is  about  to  do 
anything  of  which  he  is  ashamed. 

The  fetish  is  used  not  only  as  a  preventive  of  or  de- 
fence against  evil  (i.  e.  ii'hite  art),  but  also  as  a  means 
of  offence,  i.  e.  black  art  or  witchcraft  in  the  full  sense, 
which  always  connotes  a  possible  taking  of  life.  The 
half-civilized  negro,  w'hile  repudiating  the  fetish  as  a 
black  art,  feels  justified  in  retaining  it  as  a  white  art, 
i.  e.  as  a  weapon  of  defence.  Those  who  practise  the 
black  art  are  all  "wizards"  or  "witches" — names 
never  given  to  practisers  of  the  white  art.  The  user 
of  the  white  art  uses  no  concealment;  a  practitioner  of 
the  black  art  denies  it,  and  carries  on  its  practice  se- 
cretly. The  black  art  is  supposed  to  consist  of  evil 
practices  to  cause  sickness  and  death.  Its  medicines, 
dances,  and  enchantments  are  also  used  in  the  pro- 
fessed innocent  white  art ;  the  difference  is  in  the  work 
which  the  spirit  is  entrusted  to  perform.  Not  every 
one  who  uses  white  art  is  able  to  use  also  the  black 
art.  Anyone  believing  in  the  fetish  can  use  the  white 
art  without  subjecting  himself  to  the  charge  of 
being  a  wizard.  Only  a  wizard  can  cause  sickness 
or  death.  Hence  witchcraft  belief  includes  witch- 
craft murder. 

There  exists  in  Bantu  a  society  called  the  "Witch- 
craft Company  ",  whose  members  hold  secret  meetings 
at  midnight  in  the  depths  of  the  forest  to  plot  sickness 
or  death.  The  owl  is  their  sacred  bird,  and  their 
signal-call  is  an  imitation  of  its  hoot.  They  profess  to 
leave  their  corporeal  bodies  asleep  in  their  huts,  and  it 
is  only  their  spirit-bodies  that  attend  the  meeting, 
passing  through  walls  and  over  tree-tops  with  instant 
rapidity.  At  the  meeting  they  have  visible,  audible, 
and  tangible  communications  with  spirits.  They  have 
feasts,  at  which  is  eaten  "the  heart-life"  of  some 
human  being,  who  through  this  loss  of  his  "heart" 
falls  sick  and  dies  unless  the  "heart"  be  restored. 
The  early  cock-crow  is  a  warning  for  them  to  tlisperse, 
for  they  fear  the  advent  of  the  morning  star,  as,  snould 



the  sun  rise  upon  tlieni  before  they  reach  their  cor- 
poreal bodies,  all  tlicir  plans  would  fail  and  they  would 
sicken.  They  dread  cayenne  pepper;  should  its 
bruised  leaves  or  pods  be  rubbed  over  their  corporeal 
bodies  during  their  absence,  their  spirits  are  unable  to 
re-enter,  and  their  bodies  die  or  waste  miserably  away. 
This  society  was  introduced  by  black  slaves  to  the 
West  Indies,  e.  g.  Jamaica  and  Hayti,  and  to  the 
Southern  States  as  Voodoo  worship.  Thus  Voodooism 
or  Odoism  is  simply  African  fetishism  transplanted  to 
American  soil.  Authentic  records  are  procurable  of 
midnight  meetings  held  in  Hayti,  as  late  as  1888,  at 
which  human  beings,  especially  children,  were  killed 
and  eaten  at  the  secret  feasts.  European  govern- 
ments in  Africa  have  put  down  the  practice  of  the 
black  art,  yet  so  deeply  is  it  implanted  in  the  belief  of 
the  natives  that  Dr.  Norris  does  not  hesitate  to  say  it 
would  revive  if  the  whites  were  to  withdraw. 

Fetishism  in  Africa  is  not  only  a  religious  belief;  it 
is  a  system  of  government  and  a  medical  profession, 
although  the  religious  element  is  fundamental  and 
colours  all  the  rest.  The  fetish-man,  therefore,  is 
priest,  judge,  and  physician.  To  the  believers  in  the 
fetish  the  killing  of  those  guilty  of  witchcraft  is  a  judi- 
cial act;  it  is  not  murder,  but  execution.  The  fetish- 
man  has  power  to  condenm  to  death.  A  judicial  sys- 
tem does  not  exist.  Whatever  rules  there  are,  are 
handed  down  by  tradition,  and  the  persons  familiar 
with  these  old  sajnugs  and  customs  are  present  in  the 
trial  of  disputed  matters.  Fetishes  are  set  up  to  pun- 
ish offenders  in  certain  cases  where  it  is  considered 
specially  desirable  to  make  the  law  operative  though 
the  crimes  cannot  be  detected  (e.  g.  theft).  The  fe- 
tish is  supposed  to  be  able  not  only  to  detect  but  to 
punish  the  transgressor.  In  cases  of  death  the  charge 
of  witchcraft  is  made,  and  the  relatives  seek  a  fetish- 
man,  who  employs  the  ordeal  by  poison,  fire  or  other 
tests  to  detect  the  guilty  person.  Formerly  mhwaye 
(i.  e.  ordeal  by  poison)  was  performed  by  giving  to  the 
accused  a  poisonous  drink,  the  accuser  also  having  to 
take  the  test  to  prove  their  sincerity.  If  he  vomited 
immediately  he  was  innocent;  if  he  was  shown  guilty, 
the  accusers  were  the  executioners.  On  the  upper 
coast  of  Guinea  the  test  is  a  solution  of  the  sassa- 
wood,  and  is  called  ''red  water";  at  Calabar,  the  solu- 
tion of  a  bean ;  in  the  Gabun  country,  of  the  akazya 
leaf  or  bark;  farther  south  in  the  Nkami  country,  it  is 
called  mbuiidu.  The  distinction  between  poison  and 
fetish  is  vague  in  the  minds  of  many  natives,  to  whom 
poison  is  only  another  material  form  of  a  fetish  power. 
It  has  been  estimated  that  for  every  natural  death  at 
least  one — and  often  ten  or  more — has  been  executed. 

The  judicial  aspect  of  fetishism  is  revealed  most 
plainly  in  the  secret  societies  (male  and  female)  of 
crushing  power  and  far-reaching  influence,  which  be- 
fore the  advent  of  the  white  man  were  the  court  of  last 
appeal  for  individual  and  tribal  disputes.  Of  this 
kind  were  the  Egbo  of  the  Niger  Delta,  Ukuku  of  the 
Corisco  region,  Yasi  of  the  Ogowd,  M'wetyi  of  the  She- 
kani,  Bweti  of  the  Bakele,  Inda  and  Nj6mb6  of  the 
Mpongwe,  Ukuku  and  Malinda  of  the  Batanga  region. 
All  of  these  societies  had  for  their  primary  object  the 
laudable  one  of  government,  and,  for  this  purpose, 
they  fostered  the  superstitious  dread  with  which  the 
fetish  was  regarded  by  the  natives.  But  the  arbitrary 
means  employed  in  their  management,  the  oppressive 
influences  at  work,  the  false  representations  indulged 
in,  made  them  almost  all  evil.  They  still  exist  among 
the  interior  tribes;  on  the  coast,  they  have  either 
been  entirely  suppressed  or  exist  only  for  amusement 
(e.  g.  Ukuku  in  Gabun),  or  as  a  traditional  custom 
(e.  g.  Njgmbe).  The  Ukuku  society  claimed  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  country.  To  put  "Ukuku  on  the 
white  man"  meant  to  boycott  him,  i.  e.  that  no  one 
should  work  for  him,  no  one  should  sell  food  or  drink 
to  him ;  he  was  not  allowed  to  go  to  his  own  spring.  In 
Dahomey  the  fetish-priests  are  a  kind  of  secret  police 

for  the  despotic  king.  Tluis,  while  witchcraft  was  the 
religion  of  the  natives,  these  societies  constituted  their 

Although  sickness  is  spoken  of  among  the  natives  as 
a  disease,  yet  the  patient  is  said  to  be  sick  because  of 
an  evil  spirit,  and  it  is  believed  that  when  this  is 
driven  out  by  the  magician's  benevolent  spirit,  the 
patient  will  recover.  When  the  heathen  negro  is  sick, 
the  first  thing  is  to  call  the  "doctor"  to  find  out  what 
spirit  by  invading  the  body  has  caused  the  sickness. 
The  diagnosis  is  made  by  drum,  dance,  frenzied  song, 
mirror,  fumes  of  drugs,  consultation  of  relics,  and  con- 
versation with  the  spirit  itself.  Next  must  be  decided 
the  ceremony  peculiar  to  that  spirit,  the  vegetable  and 
mineral  substances  supposed  to  be  either  pleasing  or 
offensive  to  it.  If  these  cannot  be  obtained,  the  pa- 
tient must  die.  The  witch-doctor  believes  that  his 
incantations  have  subsidized  the  power  of  a  spirit, 
which  forthwith  enters  the  body  of  the  patient  and, 
searching  through  its  vitals,  drives  out  the  antagoniz- 
ing spirit  which  is  the  supposed  actual  cause  of  the  dis- 
ease. The  nkitida,  "the  spirit  of  disease",  is  then 
confined  by  the  doctor  in  a  prison,  e.  g.  in  a  section  of 
sugar-cane  stalk  with  its  leaves  tied  together.  The 
component  parts  of  any  fetish  are  regarded  by  the  na- 
tives as  we  regard  the  drugs  of  our  materia  medica. 
Their  drugs,  however,  are  esteemed  operative  not 
through  certain  inherent  chemical  qualities,  but  in 
consequence  of  the  presence  of  the  spirit  to  whom  they 
are  favourite  media.  This  spirit  is  induced  to  act  by 
the  pleasing  enchantments  of  the  magic-doctor.  The 
nganga,  as  surgeon  and  physician,  shows  more  than 
considerable  skill  in  extracting  bullets  from  wounded 
warriors,  and  in  the  knowledge  of  herbs  as  poisons 
and  antidotes. 

Whether  the  black  slaves  brought  to  America  the 
okra  or  found  it  already  existing  on  the  continent  is 
uncertain,  but  the  term  gumbo  is  undoubtedly  of  Afri- 
can origin,  as  also  is  the  term  vihenda  (peanuts  or 
ground-nuts),  corrupted  into  pindar  in  some  of  the 
Southern  States.  The  folk-lore  of  the  African  slave 
survives  in  Uncle  Remus's  tales  of  "Br'er  Rabbit". 
Br'er  Rabbit  is  an  American  substitution  for  Brother 
Xja  (Leopard)  or  Brother  Ihlii  (Gazelle)  in  Paia 
N'jambi's  (the  Creator's)  council  of  speaking  animals. 
Jevons  holds  that  fetishes  are  private  only,  although, 
in  fact,  not  only  individuals,  but  families  and  tribes 
have  fetishes.  The  fetish  Deute  at  Krakje  and  AHa 
Yaw  of  Okwaou  were  known  and  feared  for  leagues 
around.  In  the  Benga  tribe  of  West  Africa  the  fam- 
ily fetish  is  known  by  the  name  of  Ydka.  It  is  a 
bundle  of  the  parts  of  bodies  of  their  dead,  i.  e.  first 
joints  of  fingers  and  toes,  lobe  of  ear,  hair.  The  value 
of  I'aA'd  depends  on  the  spirits  of  the  family  dead  being 
associated  with  the  portions  of  their  bodies,  and  this 
combination  is  effected  by  the  praj'er  and  incantation 
of  the  doctor.  The  Yaka  is  appealed  to  in  family 
emergencies,  e.  g.  disease,  death,  when  ordinary  fe- 
tishes fail.  This  rite  is  very  expensive  and  may  require 
a  month,  during  which  time  all  work  is  suspended. 

The  observances  of  fetish-worship  fade  away  into 
the  customs  and  habits  of  everyday  life  by  gradations, 
so  that  in  some  of  the  superstitious  beliefs,  while  there 
may  be  no  formal  handling  of  a  fetish  amulet  contain- 
ing a  spirit  nor  actual  prayer  nor  sacrifice,  neverthe- 
less spiritism  is  the  thought  and  is  more  or  less  con- 
sciously held,  and  consequently  the  term  fetish  might 
perhaps  be  extended  to  them.  The  superstition  of 
the  African  negro  is  different  from  that  of  the  Chris- 
tian, for  it  is  the  practical  and  logical  application  of 
his  religion.  To  the  Christian  it  is  a  pitiful  weakness ; 
to  the  negro,  a  trusted  belief.  Thus  some  birds  and 
beasts  are  of  ill  omen,  others  of  good  omen.  The 
mournful  hooting  of  an  owl  at  midnight  is  a  warning  of 
death,  and  all  who  hear  the  call  will  hasten  to  the 
wood  and  drive  away  the  messenger  of  ill-tidings  with 
sticks  and  stones.     Hence  arises   the   belief  in   the 




power  of  Ngoi,  Moloki.  N'doshi  or  Uvengwa  (i.  e., 
evil-spirited  leopard,  like  the  German  werewolf),  viz., 
that  certain  possessors  of  evil  spirits  have  ability  to 
assume  the  guise  of  an  animal,  and  reassume  at  will 
the  human  form.  To  this  superstition  must  be  referred 
the  reverence  shown  fetish  leopards,  hippopotami, 
crocodiles,  sokos  (large  monkeys  of  the  goriUa 

(See  Amulet,  Animism,  Beity,  Idolatry,  Magic, 
Nathrism,  Religion,  Spiritism,  Totemism,  Shaman- 
ism, Symbolism.) 

Bhinton,  The  Religions  of  Primitive  Peoples  (New  York, 
1897);  Ellis,  The  Tshi-speaking  Peoples  of  the  Gold  Coast  of  W. 
Africa  (London,  1SS7);  Idem,  The  Yomba-speaking  Peoples  of 
the  Slave-Coast  of  W.  Africa  (London,  1S94);  Farnell,  Evolu- 
tion of  Religion  (London  and  New  York,  1905);  Haddon,  Magic 
and  Felichism  in  Religions,  Ancient  and  Modem  (London,  1906); 
HoFFDiNG,  The  Philosophy  of  Religion,  tr.  Meyea  (London  and 
New  York,  1906);  Jevons.  Introduction  to  Study  of  Comparative 
Religion  (New  York.  190S);  Kellog,  Genesis  and  Growth  of  Re- 
ligion (London  and  New  York,  1S92);  Kidd,  The  Essential 
Kaffir  (London.  1904);  Kingsley,  Travels  in  West  Africa 
(London,  ISUSi;  Ii.em,  West  African  Studies  (London,  1S99); 
Leppert,  Dir  I^'!i>/i,>ii' 'I  '/(T  europdischen  Culturvolker  (Berlin, 
ISSl);  MuLLKii,  Ar/'.n//  l;.Ugion  (London,  1892);  Idem.  Origin 
and  Growth  of  U.lnjion  (London,  1878);  Norris.  Fetichism  in 
W.  Africa  (New  York,  1904);  Schdltze,  Psychologic  der 
Naturvulker  (Leipzig,  1900);  Spencer  St.  John,  Hayii  and  the 
Black  Republic  (2d  ed.,  London,  1889);  Tylor,  Primitive  Cul- 
ture (2d  ed.,  London,  1873);  Wilson,  Western  Africa  (New 
York,  1856);  Ames,  African  Fetichism  (Heli  Chatelain)  in  Folk- 
hore  (Oct.,  Dec,  1894);  Glau,  Fetichism  in  Congo  Land  in  Cen- 
tury (April,  1891);  Kingsley,  The  Fetich  View  of  the  Human 
Sold  in  Folk-Lore  (June,  1897);  Nippesley,  Fetich  Faith  in  W. 
Africa  in  Pop.  Sc.  Monthly  (Oct.,  1887);  Le  Roy,  La  religion 
des  primitifs  (Paris,  1909). 

John  T.  Driscoll. 

Feuardent,  Francois,  Franciscan,  theologian  and 
preacher  of  the  Ligue,  b.  at  Coutances,  Normandy,  in 
1539;  d.  at  Paris,  1  Jan.,  1610.  Having  completed 
his  humanities  at  Bayeux,  he  joined  the  Friars 
Minor.  After  the  novitiate,  he  was  .sent  to  Paris  to 
continue  his  studies,  where  he  received  (1.576)  the  de- 
gree of  Doctor  in  Theology  and  taught  with  great  suc- 
cess at  the  university.  He  took  a  leading  part  in  the 
political  and  religious  troubles  in  which  France  was 
involved  at  that  time.  With  John  Boucher  and 
Bishop  Rose  of  Senlis,  he  was  one  of  the  foremost 
preachers  in  the  cause  of  the  Catholic  Ligue,  and,  as 
Roennus  remarks  in  an  appendix  to  Feuardent's 
"Theomachia",  there  was  not  a  church  in  Paris  in 
which  he  had  not  preached.  Throughout  France  and 
beyond  the  frontiers  in  Lorraine  and  Flanders,  he  was 
an  eloquent  and  ardent  defender  of  the  Faith.  Never- 
theless, even  Pierre  de  I'Etoile,  a  fierce  adversary  of 
the  Ligue,  recognizes  in  his  "  Memoires"  the  merits  of 
Feuardent's  subsequent  efforts  in  pacifying  the  coun- 
try. In  his  old  age  he  retired  to  the  convent  of 
Baj'eux,  which  he  restored  and  furnished  with  a  good 
library.  His  works  can  be  conveniently  grouped  in 
three  classes:  (1)  .Scriptural;  (2)  patristical ;  (3)  con- 
troversial. Only  some  of  the  most  remarkable  may 
be  pointed  out  here.  (1)  A  new  edition  of  the  medie- 
val Scripturist,  Nicholas  of  Lyra:  "Biblia  Sacra,  cum 
glossa  ordinaria  .  .  .  et  postilla  Nicolai  Lyrani" 
(Paris,  1590,  6  vols.  fob).  He  also  wrote  commen- 
taries on  various  books  of  Holy  .Scripture,  viz  on  Ruth, 
Esther,  Job,  Jonas,  the  two  Epistles  of  St.  Peter,  the 
Epistles  of  St.  Jude  and  St.  James,  the  Epistle  of 
St.  Paul  to  Philemon,  and  others.  (2)  "S.  Irenaei 
Lugd.  episcopi  adversus  Valentini  .  .  .  hsereses  libri 
quinque"  (Paris,  1576);  "S.  Ildephonsi  archiepiscopi 
Toletani  de  virginitate  Marisc  liber"  (Paris,  1576). 
Feuardent  also  wrote  an  introduction  and  notes  to 
"Michaelis  Pselli  Dialogus  de  energia  seu  operatione 
daemonum  translatus  a  Petro  Morello"  (Paris,  1577). 
(3)  "Appendix  ad  libros  Alphonsi  a  Castro  (O.F.M.) 
contra  haereses"  (Paris,  1578).  "Theomachia  Calvi- 
nistica",  his  chief  work  is  based  on  some  earlier  writ- 
ings, such  as:  "Semaine  premifre  des  dialogues  aux- 
quels  sont  examines  et  r^futC-es  174  erreurs  des  Calvi- 
nistes"  (1585);  " Seconde  semaine  des  dialogues  .  .  .  " 

(Paris,    1598);    "  Entremangeries   et   guerres   minis- 
trales  ..."  (Caen,  1601). 

Feret,  La  Faculte  de  Theologie  de  Paris  et  ses  docteurs  les  plus 
centres  (Paris,  1900),  II,  244-254;  Wadding-Sbaralea,  Scrip- 
tores  Ordinis  minorum,  ed.  Nardecchia,  I  (Rome,  1906),  80 
sq.;  II  (1908),  268  sq.;  Joannes  a  S.  Antonio,  Bihliolheca 
universa,  I,  3S3;  Weinand  in  Kirchenlex,,  s.  v.;  Gaudentius. 
Britrdge  zur  Kirchengeschichte  des  XVL  und  XVIL  Jahrhunderts 
(Bozen,  1880),  102-104;  Hurter,  Nomenclalor.  IS6t,-166S,  p.  157. 

Livarius  Oliger. 

Feuchtersleben,  Baron  Ernst  von,  an  .Austrian 
poet,  philosopher,  and  physician;  b.  at  Vienna,  29 
April,  1806;  d.  3  September,  1849.  After  completing 
his  course  at  the  Theresian  Academy,  he  took  up  the 
study  of  medicine  in  1825,  receiving  the  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Medicine  in  1833.  In  1844  he  began  a  series 
of  free  lectures  on  psychiatry  at  the  LTniversity  of 
Vienna,  the  next  year  became  dean  of  the  medical 
faculty,  and  in  1847  was  made  vice-director  of  medico-  studies.  In  July,  1848,  he  was  appointed 
under -secretary  of  state  in  the  ministry  of  public 
instruction,  and  in  this  capacity  he  attempted  to 
introduce  some  important  reforms  in  the  system  of 
education,  but,  discouraged  by  the  difficulties  which  he 
encountered,  he  resigned  in  December  of  the  follow- 
ing year.  As  a  medico-philosophical  -ivriter,  Feuchters- 
leben attained  great  popularity,  especially  through  his 
book  "Zur  Diatetik  der  Seele  (Vienna,  1838),  which 
went  through  many  editions  (46th  in  1896).  Hardly 
less  famous  is  his  "Lehrbuch  der  arztlichen  Seelen- 
kunde"  (Vienna,  1845),  translated  into  English  by  H. 
Evans  Lloyd  under  the  title  of  "  Principles  of  Aledical 
Psychology"  (revised  and  edited  by  B.  G.  Babington, 
London,  1847).  He  also  wrote  an  essay,  "Die  Ge- 
wissheit  und  Wiirde  der  Hcilkunst"  (Vienna,  1839),  a 
new  edition  of  which  appeared  under  the  title  "  Aerzte 
und  Publikum"  (Vienna,  1845).  As  a  poet  Feuch- 
tersleben is  chiefly  known  by  the  well-known  song,  "  Es 
ist  bestimmt  in  (jottes  Rat",  which  appeared  in  "Ge- 
dichte"  (Stuttgart,  1836)  and  was  set  to  music  by 
Mendelssohn.  His  later  poems  are  more  philosophi- 
cal and  critical.  His  essays  and  other  prose  writings 
were  published  under  the  title  "  Beitriige  zur  Littera- 
tur-,  Kunst-  und  Lebenstheorie "  (Vienna,  1837-41). 
His  complete  works  (exclusive  of  his  medical  writings) 
were  edited  by  Friedrich  Hebbel  (7  vols.,  Vienna, 

Ckinsult  the  autobiography  prefixed  to  the  above-mentioned 
edition;  also  Neckhr,  Ernst  v.  Feuchtersleben,  der  Freund  Grill- 
parsers  in  Jahrhuch  der  Grillparzer-Gesetlschaft,  III  (Vienna, 

Arthur  F.  J.  Remy. 

Feudalism. — This  term  is  derived  from  the  Old 
Aryan  pe'ku,  hence  .Sanskrit  pofu,  "cattle";  so  also 
Lat.  pecus  (cf.  pecunia);  Old  High  German  fehu,  fihu, 
"cattle",  "property",  "money";  Old  Frisian  fia;  Old 
Saxon  fehu;  Old  English  feoh,  fioh,  feo,  fee.  It  is  an 
indefinable  word,  for  it  represents  the  progressive 
development  of  European  organization  during  seven 
centuries.  Its  roots  go  back  into  the  social  conditions 
of  primitive  peoples,  and  its  branches  stretch  out 
through  military,  political,  and  judicial  evolution  to 
our  own  day.  Still,  it  can  so  far  be  brought  within 
the  measurable  compass  of  a  definition  if  sufficient 
allowance  be  made  for  its  double  aspect.  For  feudal- 
ism (like  every  other  systematic  arrangement  of  civil 
and  religious  forces  in  a  state)  comprises  duties  and 
rights,  according  as  it  is  looked  at  from  a  central  or 
local  point  of  view.  (1)  As  regards  the  duties  in- 
volved in  it,  feudalism  may  be  defined  as  a  contractual 
system  by  which  the  nation  as  represented  by  the  king 
lets  its  lands  out  to  individuals  who  pay  rent  by  doing 
governmental  work  not  merely  in  the  shape  of  military 
service,  but  also  of  suit  to  the  king's  court.  Origni- 
ally  indeed  it  began  as  a  military  system.  It  was  in 
imitation  of  the  later  Roman  Empire,  which  met  the 
Germanic  inroads  by  grants  of  lands  to  individuals  on 




condition  of  military  service  (Palgrave,  "English 
Commonwealth",  I,  350,  495,  505),  that  the  Carlovin- 
gian  Empire  adopted  the  same  expedient.  By  this 
means  the  ninth-century  Danish  raids  were  opposed 
by  a  semi-professional  army,  better  armed  and  more 
tactically  efficient  than  the  old  Germanic  levy.  This 
method  of  forming  a  standing  national  force  by  grants 
of  lands  to  individuals  is  perfectly  normal  in  history, 
witness  the  Turkish  timar  fiefs  (Cambridge  Modern 
History,  1,  iii,  99,  1902),  the  fief  dc  soudie  of  the  East- 
ern Latin  Kingdoms  (Br^hier,  "  L'Eglise  et  I'Orient  au 
moyon  age",  Paris,  1907,  iv,  94),  and,  to  a  certain  ex- 
tent, the  Welsh  uchelwyr  (Rhys  and  Jones,  "The 
Welsh  People",  London,  1900,  vi,  205).  On  the  whole, 
feudalism  means  government  by  amateurs  paid 
in  land,  rather  than  professionals  paid  in  money. 
Hence,  as  we  shall  see,  one  cause  of  the  downfall  of 
feudalism  was  the  substitution  in  every  branch  of 
civil  life  of  the  "cash-nexus"  for  the  "land-nexus". 
Feudalism,  therefore,  by  connecting  ownership  of  land 
with  governmental  work,  went  a  large  way  towards 
solving  that  ever-present  difficulty  of  the  land-ques- 
tion ;  not,  indeed,  by  anj'  real  system  of  land-national- 
ization, but  by  inducing  lords  to  do  work  for  the 
country  in  return  for  the  right  of  possessing  landed 
property.  Thus  gradually  it  approximated  to,  and 
realized,  the  political  ideal  of  Aristotle,  "  Private  pos- 
session and  common  use"  (Politics,  II,  v,  12G3,  a).  To 
a  certain  extent,  therefore,  feudalism  still  exists,  re- 
maining as  the  great  justification  of  modern  land- 
owners wherever — as  sheriffs,  justices  of  the  peace, 
etc. — they  do  unpaid  governmental  work.  (2)  As 
regards  the  rights  it  creates,  feudalism  may  be  de- 
fined as  a  "graduated  system  based  on  land-tenure  in 
which  every  lord  judged,  taxed,  and  commanded  the 
class  next  below  him"  (Stubbs,  "Constitutional  His- 
tory", Oxford,  1897,  I,  ix,  278).  One  result  of  this 
was  that,  whenever  a  Charter  of  Liberties  was  wrung 
by  the  baronage  from  the  king,  the  latter  always  man- 
aged to  have  his  concessions  to  his  tenants-in-chief 
paralleled  by  their  concessions  to  their  lower  vassals 
(cf.  Stubbs, ■" .Select  Charters",  O.xford,  1900,  §4,  101; 
§60,  304).  Another  more  serious,  less  beneficent, 
result  was  that,  while  feudalism  centrally  converted 
the  sovereign  into  a  landowner,  it  locally  converted 
the  landowner  into  a  sovereign. 

Origin. — The  source  of  feudalism  arises  from  an 
intermingling  of  barbarian  usage  and  Roman  law 
(Maine,  "Ancient  Law",  London,  1906,  ix).  To  ex- 
plain this  reference  must  be  made  to  a  change  that 
passed  over  the  Roman  Empire  at  the  beginning  of 
the  fourth  century.  About  that  date  Diocletian  re- 
organized the  Empire  by  the  establishment  of  a  huge 
bureaucracy,  at  the  same  time  disabling  it  by  his 
crushing  taxation.  The  obvious  result  was  the  de- 
pression of  free  classes  into  unfree,  and  the  barbariza- 
tion  of  the  empire.  Before  A.  n.  300  the  absentee 
landlord  farmed  his  land  by  means  of  a  familiarusHca 
or  gang  of  slaves,  owned  by  him  as  his  own  transfer- 
able property,  though  others  might  till  their  fields  by 
hired  labour.  Two  causes  extended  and  intensified 
this  organized  slave-system:  (1)  Imperial  legislation 
that  two-thirds  of  a  man's  wealth  must  be  in  land,  so 
as  to  set  free  hoarded  specie  and  prevent  attempts  to 
hide  wealth  and  so  escape  taxation.  Hence  land  be- 
came the  medium  of  exchange  instead  of  money,  i.  e. 
land  was  held  not  by  rent,  but  by  service.  (2)  The 
pressure  of  taxation  falling  on  land  (trihutum  soli) 
forced  smaller  proprietors  to  put  themselves  under 
their  rich  neighbours,  who  paid  the  tax  for  them,  but 
for  whom  they  were  accordingly  obliged  to  perform 
service  (obsequium)  in  work  and  kind.  Thus  they 
became  tied  to  the  soil  (nscripti  glebcp),  not  transfer- 
able dependents.  Over  them  the  lord  had  powers  of 
correction,  not,  apparently,  of  jurisdiction. 

Meanwhile  the  slaves  themselves  had  become  also 
territorial,  and  not  personal.    Further,  the  public  land 

(ngcr  prihlicus)  got  manorialized  by  grants  partly  to 
free  veterans  (as  at  Colchester  in  England),  partly  to 
laii — a  semi-servile  class  of  conquered  peoples  (as  the 
Germans  in  England  under  Marcus  Antonius),  paying, 
besides  the  tributum  soli,  manual  .service  in  kind 
(sordida  munera).  Even  in  the  Roman  towns,  by  the 
same  process,  the  urban  landlords  (curiales)  became 
debased  into  the  manufacturing  population  (colle- 
ginti).  In  a  word,  the  middle  class  disappeared;  the 
empire  was  split  into  two  opposing  forces:  an  aristo- 
cratic bureaucracy  and  a  servile  labouring  population. 
Over  the  Roman  Empire  thus  organized  poured  the 
Teutonic  flood,  and  these  barbarians  had  also  their 
organization,  rude  and  changeful  though  it  might  be. 
According  to  Tacitus  (Germania),  the  Germans  were 
divided  into  some  forty  civitates,  or  popidi,  or  folks. 
Some  of  these,  near  the  Roman  borders,  lived  under 
kings,  others,  more  remote,  were  governed  by  folk- 
moots  or  elective  princes.  Several  of  these  might 
comliine  to  form  a  "stem",  the  only  bond  of  which 
consisted  in  common  religious  rites.  The  populus  or 
civilas,  on  the  other  hand,  was  a  political  unity.  It 
was  di\'i(lod  into  pagi,  each  pagus  being  apparently  a 
jurisdictional  limit,  probably  meeting  in  a  court  over 
which  a  pn'nceps,  elected  by  the  folk-moot,  presided, 
but  in  which  the  causes  were  decided  by  a  body  of 
freemen  usually  numbering  about  a  hundred.  Parallel 
with  the  pagus,  according  to  Tacitus  (Germania,  xii), 
though  in  reality  probalily  a  division  of  it,  was  the 
vicusi,  an  agricultural  luiit.  This  vicus  was  (though 
Seebohm,  "English  Historical  Re\'iew",  July,  1892, 
444-465,  thought  not)  represented  in  two  types  (1)  the 
dependent  village,  consisting  of  the  lord's  house  and 
cottages  of  his  subordinates  (perhaps  the  relics  of  in- 
digenous conquered  peoples)  who  paid  rent  in  kind, 
corn,  cattle,  (2)  the  free  village  of  scattered  houses, 
each  with  its  separate  enclosure.  Round  this  village 
stretched  great  meadows  on  which  the  villagers  pas- 
tured their  cattle.  Every  year  a  piece  of  new  land  was 
set  apart  to  be  ploughed,  of  which  each  villager  got  a 
share  proportioned  to  his  official  position  in  the  com- 
munity. It  was  the  amalgamation  of  these  two 
systems  that  produced  feudalism. 

But  here,  precisely  as  to  the  relative  preponderance 
of  the  Germanic  and  Roman  systems  in  manorial 
feudalism,  the  discussion  still  continues.  The  ques- 
tion turns  to  a  certain  extent  on  the  view  taken  of  the 
character  of  the  Germanic  inroads.  The  defenders  of 
Roman  preponderance  depict  these  mo^-ements  as 
mere  raids,  producing  indeed  much  material  damage, 
but  in  reality  not  altering  the  race  or  institutions  of 
the  Romanized  peoples.  Their  opponents,  however, 
speak  of  these  incursions  rather  as  people-wander- 
ings— of  warriors,  women  and  children,  cattle,  even, 
and  slaves — indelibly  stamping  and  moulding  the  in- 
stitutions of  the  race  which  they  encountered.  The 
same  discussion  focuses  round  the  medieval  manor, 
which  is  best  seen  in  its  English  form.  The  old  theory 
was  that  the  manor  was  the  same  as  the  Teutonic 
mark,  plus  the  intrusion  of  a  lord  (Stubbs,  "Constitu- 
tional History",  Oxford,  1897,  I,  .32-71).  This  was 
attacked  by  I^'ustel  de  Coulanges  (Histoire  des  institu- 
tions politiques  de  I'ancienne  France,  Paris,  1901)  and 
by  Seebohm  (The  English  Village  Community,  Lon- 
don, 1883,  viii,  252-316),  who  insisted  on  a  Latin 
ancestiy  from  the  Roman  villa,  contending  for  a  de- 
velopment not  from  freedom  to  serfdom,  but  from 
slavery  through  serfdom  to  freedom.  The  arguments 
of  the  Latin  School  may  be  thus  summarized:  (1)  the 
"mark"  is  a  figment  of  the  Teutonic  brain  (cf.  Mur- 
ray's "Oxford  English  Dictionary",  s.  v.,  167;  "mark 
moot"  probably  means  "a  parsley  bed").  (2)  Early 
(Jerman  law  is  based  on  assumption  of  private  ow'ner- 
ship.  (3)  Analogies  of  Maine  and  others  from  India 
and  Russia  not  to  the  point.  (4)  Romanized  Britons, 
for  example,  in  south-eastern  Britain  had  complete 
manorial  system  before  the  Saxons  came  from  Ger- 




many. — They  are  thus  answered  by  the  Teutonic 
School  (Elton,  Eng.  Hist.  Rev.,  July,  1886;  Vinogra- 
doff,  "Growth  of  the  Manor",  London,  1905,  87; 
Maitland,  "Domesday  Book  and  Beyond",  Cam- 
bridge, 1897,  222,  2.32,  327,  337):  (1)  the  name  mark 
may  not  be  applied  in  England,  but  the  thing  existed. 
(2)  It  is  not  denied  that  there  are  analogies  between 
the  Roman  mil  and  the  later  manor,  but  analogies  do 
not  necessarily  prove  derivation.  (3)  The  manor  was 
not  an  agricultural  unit  only,  it  was  also  judicial.  If 
the  manor  originated  in  the  Roman  vill,  which  was 
composed  of  a  servile  population,  how  came  it  that  the 
suitors  to  the  court  were  also  judges?  or  that  villagers 
had  common  rights  over  waste  land  as  against  their 
lord?  or  that  the  community  was  represented  in  the 
hundred  court  by  four  men  and  its  reeve?  (4)  See- 
bohm's  evidence  is  almost  entirely  drawn  from  the 
position  of  villas  and  villeins  on  the  demesnes  of  kinf;s, 
great  ecclesiastical  bodies,  or  churchmen.  Such  vil- 
lages were  admittedly  dependent.  (5)  Most  of  the 
evidence  comes  through  the  tainted  source  of  Norman 
and  French  lawyers  who  were  inclined  to  see  serfdom 
even  where  it  did  not  exist.  On  the  whole,  the  latest 
writers  on  feudalism,  taking  a  legal  point  of  view, 
incline  to  the  Teutonic  School. 

Cause.s. — The  same  cause  that  produced  in  the  later 
Roman  Empire  the  disappearance  of  a  middle  class 
and  the  confronted  lines  of  bureaucracy  and  a  servile 
population,  operated  on  the  teutonized  Latins  and 
latinized  Teutons  to  develop  the  complete  system  of 

(1)  Taxation,  whether  by  means  of  feorm-Jultum, 
danegelt,  or  gabelle,  forced  the  poorer  man  to  commend 
himself  to  a  lord.  The  lord  paid  the  tax,  but  de- 
manded in  exchange  conditions  of  service.  The  ser- 
vice-doing dependent  therefore  was  said  to  have  "  taken 
his  land  "  to  a  lord  in  payment  for  the  tax,  which  land 
the  lord  restored  to  him  to  be  held  in  fief,  and  this 
(i.  e.  land  held  in  fief  from  a  lord)  is  the  germ-cell  of 

(2)  Another,  and  more  outstanding,  cause  was  the 
royal  grant  of  folc-land.  Around  this,  too,  historians 
at  one  time  ranged  in  dispute.  The  older  view  was 
that  folc-land  was  simply  private  land,  the  authorita- 
tive possession  of  which  was  based  upon  the  witness  of 
the  people  as  opposed  to  the  bok-land,  with  its  written 
title  deeds.  But  in  1830  John  Allen  (Rise  and  Growth 
of  Royal  Prerogative)  tried  to  show  that  folc-land  was 
in  reality  public  property,  national,  waste,  or  unappro- 
priated land.  His  theory  was  that  all  land-books  (con- 
veyances of  land)  made  by  the  Anglo-Saxon  kings 
were  simply  thefts  from  the  national  demesne,  made 
for  the  benefit  of  the  king,  his  favourites,  or  the 
Church.  The  land-book  was  an  ecclesiastical  instru- 
ment introduced  by  the  Roman  missionaries,  first  used 
by  that  zealous  convert,  Ethelbert  of  Kent,  though 
not  becoming  common  till  the  ninth  century.  Allen 
based  his  theory  on  two  groimds:  (a)  the  king  occa- 
sionally books  land  to  himself,  which  could  not  there- 
fore have  been  his  before;  (b)  the  assent  of  the 
Witan  was  necessary  to  grants  of  folc-land,  which, 
therefore,  was  regarded  as  a  national  possession.  To 
this  Professor  Vinogradoff  (Eng.  Hist.  Rev.,  Jan., 
1893,  1-17)  made  answer:  (a)  that  even  the  village 
knew  nothing  of  common  ownership,  and  that  k 
fortiori  the  whole  nation  would  not  have  had  such  an 
idea;  (b)  that  the  king  in  his  charters  never  speaks  of 
terram  gentis  but  tcrrnm  juris  sui;  (c)  that  the  land 
thus  conveyed  away  is  often  expressly  described  as 
being  inhabited,  cultivated,  etc.,  and  therefore  cannot 
have  been  un;)ppn)pri:itod  or  waste  land.  Finally, 
Professor  Maithind  (Doiriosday  Book  and  Beyond, 
Cambridge,  1S'.I7,  211)  clearly  explains  what  hap- 
pened, by  distiiiguisliiiig  two  sorts  of  ownership, 
economic  and  political.  Economic  ownership  is  the 
right  to  share  \n  the  agricultural  returns  of  the  land, 
as  does  the  modern  landlord,  etc.    Political  ownership 

is  the  right  to  the  judicial  returns  from  the  soil — 
ownership,  therefore,  in  the  sense  of  governing  it  or 
exercising  jurisdiction  over  it.  By  the  land-bok,  there- 
fore, land  was  handed  over  to  be  owned,  not  economi- 
cally, but  politically;  and  the  men  suing  on  the  courts 
of  justice,  paying  toll,  etc.,  directed  their  fines,  not  to 
the  royal  exchequer,  but  to  the  newly-intruded  lord, 
who  thus  possessed  suzerainty  and  its  fiscal  results. 
In  consequence  the  local  lord  received  the  privilege  of 
the  feorjn-fullum,  or  right  to  be  entertained  for  one 
night  or  more  in  progress.  So,  too,  in  Ireland,  tUI  the 
seventeenth  century,  the  chieftains  enjoyed  "coigne 
and  livery"  of  their  tribesmen;  and  m  medieval 
France  there  was  the  lord's  droit  de  gele.  This  land-tax 
in  kind,  not  unnaturally,  helped  in  villeinizing  the 
freemen.  Moreover  the  king  surrendered  to  the  new 
lord  the  profits  of  justice  and  the  rights  of  toll,  mak- 
ing, therefore,  the  freeman  still  more  dependent  on  his 
lord.  However,  it  must  also  be  stated  that  the  king 
nearly  always  retained  the  more  important  criminal 
and  civil  cases  in  his  own  hands.  Still  the  result  of  the 
king's  transference  of  rights  over  folc-land  was  easy 
enough  to  foresee,  i.  e.  the  depression  of  the  free  vil- 
lage. The  steps  of  this  depression  may  be  shortly  set 
out:  (a)  the  Church  or  lord  entitled  to  food-rents 
established  an  overseer  to  collect  this  rent  in  kind. 
Somehow  or  other  this  overseer  appropriated  land  for 
a  demesne,  partly  in  place  of,  partly  alongside  of,  the 
food-rents;  (b)  the  Church  or  the  lord  entitled  by  the 
land-bok  to  jurisdictional  profits  made  the  tenure  of 
land  by  the  villagers  depend  upon  suit  to  his  court; 
the  villagers'  transfers  came  to  be  made  at  that  court, 
and  were  finally  conceived  as  having  their  validity 
from  the  gift  or  grant  of  its  president. 

(3)  Meanwhile  the  action  of  the  State  extended  this 
depression  (a)  by  its  very  endeavour  in  the  tenth- 
century  Capitularies  to  keep  law  and  order  in  those 
rude  cattle-lifting  societies.  For  the  system  evolved 
was  that  men  should  be  grouped  in  such  a  manner  that 
one  man  should  be  responsible  for  another,  especially 
the  lord  for  his  men.  As  an  example  of  the  former 
may  be  taken  the  Capitularies  of  the  Frankish  kings, 
such  as  of  Childebert  and  Clotaire,  and  of  the  English 
King  Edgar  (Stubbs,  Select  Charters,  69-74) ;  and  of 
the  latter  the  famous  ordinance  of  Athelstan  (Cone. 
Treatanlea,  c.  930,  ii ;  Stubbs,  Select  Charters,  Ox- 
ford, 1900,  66):  "And  we  have  ordained  respecting 
those  lordless  men  of  whom  no  law  can  be  got,  that 
the  hundred  be  commanded  that  they  domicile  him  to 
folk  right  and  find  him  a  lord  in  the  folk-moot"; 
(b)  another  way  was  by  the  institution  of  central  taxa- 
tion in  the  eleventh  century — in  England  by  means  of 
danegelt,  abroad  by  various  gabelles.  These  were 
monetary  taxes  at  a  time  when  other  payments  were 
still  largely  made  in  kind.  Accordingly,  just  as  under 
the  later  Roman  Empire,  the  poorer  man  commended 
himself  to  a  lord,  who  paid  for  him,  but  demanded 
instead  payment  in  service,  a  tributum  soli.  The  de- 
pendent developed  into  a  retainer,  expecting,  as  in  the 
Lancastrian  days  of  maintenance,  to  be  protected  by 
his  lord,  even  in  the  royal  courts  of  justice,  and  repay- 
ing his  master  by  service,  military  and  economic,  and 
by  the  feudal  incidents  of  heriot,  wardship,  etc.  (for 
details  of  feudal  aids,  cf.  Maitland,  Constitutional  His- 
tory, 27-30). 

(4)  Nor  should  it  be  forgotten  that  a  ceorl  or  mer- 
chant could  "thrive"  (Stubbs,  Select  Charters,  65; 
probably  of  eleventh-century  date),  so  as  to  amass 
wealth  to  the  loss  of  his  neighbours,  and  gradually  to 
become  a  master  of  villeins — possessing  a  church,  a 
kitchen  where  the  said  villeins  must  bake  their  bread 
(jus  furmi),  a  semi-fortified  bell-house,  and  a  burgh- 
gate,  where  he  could  sit  in  judgment. 

(5)  The  last  great  cause  that  developed  feudalism 
was  war.  It  is  an  old  saying,  nearly  a  dozen  cent  uries 
old,  that  "war  begat  the  king".  It  is  no  liss  liue 
that  war,  not  civil,  but  international,  begat  feudalism. 




First  it  forced  the  kings  to  cease  to  surround  tliom- 
selves  with  an  antiquated  fyrd  or  national  militia,  that 
had  forgotten  in  its  agricultural  pursuits  that  rapidity 
of  movement  was  the  first  essential  of  mililary  success, 
and  by  beating  the  sword  into  the  ploughshare  had 
lost  every  desire  to  beat  back  the  iron  into  its  old 
form.  In  consequence  a  new  military  force  was  or- 
ganized, a  professional  standing  army.  This  army 
had  to  be  fed  and  housed  in  time  of  peace.  As  a  re- 
sult its  individual  members  were  granted  lands  and 
estates,  or  lived  with  the  king  as  his  personal  suite.  At 
any  rate,  instead  of  every  able-bodied  man  being  in- 
dividually bound  in  person  to  serve  his  sovereign  in 
the  field,  the  lords  or  landowners  were  obliged  in  virtue 
of  their  tenure  to  furnish  a  certain  quantity  of  fighting 
men,  armed  with  fi.xed  and  definite  weapons,  accord- 
ing to  the  degree,  rank,  and  wealth  of  the  combatant. 
Secondly,  it  gave  another  reason  for  commendation, 
i.  e.  protection.  The  lord  was  now  asked,  not  to  pay  a 
tax,  but  to  extend  the  sphere  of  his  influence  so  as  to 
enable  a  lonely,  solitary  farmstead  to  keep  off  the  at- 
tacks of  a  foe,  or  at  least  to  afford  a  place  of  shelter 
and  retreat  in  time  of  war.  This  the  lord  would  do  for 
a  consideration,  to  wit,  that  the  protected  man  should 
acknowledge  himself  to  be  judicially,  politically, 
economically,  the  dependent  of  his  high  protector. 
Finally,  the  king  himself  was  pushed  up  to  the  apex 
of  the  whole  system.  The  various  lords  commended 
themselves  to  this  central  figure  to  aid  them  in  times 
of  stress,  for  they  saw  the  uselessness  of  trying  singly 
to  repel  a  foe.  They  were  continually  being  defeated 
because  "'shire  would  not  help  shire"  (Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle,  ann.  1010).  Thus  the  very  reason  why  the 
English  left  Ethelred  the  Unready  to  accept  Sweyn  as 
full  king  (Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  ann.  1012)  was 
simply  because  Ethelred  had  no  idea  of  centralizing 
and  unifying  the  nation;  just  as  in  the  contrary  sense 
the  successful  resistance  of  Paris  to  the  Northmen 
gave  to  its  dukes,  the  Lords  of  the  Isle  of  France,  the 
royal  titles  which  the  Carlovingians  of  Laon  were  too 
feeble  to  defend ;  and  the  lack  of  a  defensive  national 
war  prevented  any  unification  of  the  imwieldy  Holy 
Roman  Empire.  This  is  effectually  demonstrated  by 
the  real  outburst  of  national  feeling  that  centred 
round  one  of  the  weakest  of  all  the  emperors,  Freder- 
ick III,  at  the  siege  of  Neuss,  simply  because  Charles 
the  Bold  was  thought  to  be  threatening  Germany  by 
his  attack  on  Cologne.  From  these  wars,  then,  the 
kings  emerged,  no  longer  as  mere  leaders  of  their  peo- 

Ele  out  as  owners  of  the  land  upon  which  their  people 
ved,  no  longer  as  Reges  Francorum  but  as  Reges 
Francice,  nor  as  Duces  Normannorum  but  as  Duces 
Norma  nnicc,  nor  as  Kings  of  the  Anglecyn  but  of 
Engla-land.  This  exchange  of  tribal  for  territorial 
sovereignty  marks  the  complete  existence  of  feudalism 
as  an  organization  of  society  in  all  its  relations  (eco- 
nomic, judicial,  political),  upon  a  basis  of  commenda- 
tion and  land-tenure. 

Essence. — We  are  now,  therefore,  in  a  position  to 
understand  what  exactly  feudalism  was.  Bearing  in 
mind  the  double  definition  given  at  the  beginning,  we 
may,  for  the  sake  of  clearness,  resolve  feudalism  into 
its  three  component  parts.  It  includes  a  territorial 
element,  an  idea  of  vassalage,  and  the  privilege  of  an 

(1)  The  territorial  element  is  the  grant  of  the  en- 
feoffment by  the  lord  to  his  man.  At  the  beginning 
this  was  probably  as  well  of  stock  and  cattle  as  of  land. 
Hence  its  etymology.  Littrd  makes  the  Low  Latin 
feudum  of  Teutonic  origin,  and  thus  cognate  with  the 
Old  High  German  fihu,  Gothic  jaihu,  Anglo-Saxon  jeoh 
(our  jee),  modern  German  vie.h.  That  is  to  say,  the 
word  goes  back  to  the  days  when  cattle  was  originally 
the  only  form  of  wealth;  but  it  came  by  a  perfectly 
natural  prooess,  when  the  race  had  passed  from  a 
nomadic  life  lo  the  fixity  of  abode  neeessilaled  by  pas- 
toral pursuits,  to  signify  wealth  in  general,  and  finally 

wealth  in  Land.  The  cattle,  stock,  or  land  was  there- 
fore handed  over  by  the  lord  to  his  dependent,  to  be 
held,  not  in  full  ownership,  but  in  usufruct,  on  condi- 
tions originally  personal  but  becoming  hereditary. 
(This  whole  process  can  be  easily  traced  in  Hector 
Munro  Chadwick's  "Studies  in  Anglo-Saxon  Institu- 
tions", Cambridge,  1905,  ix,  308-354;  x,  378-411, 
where  a  detailed  account  is  given  of  how  the  thegn,  a 
personal  servant  of  the  king,  developed  into  a  land- 
owner, possessing  an  average  of  five  hides  of  land  and 
responsible  to  his  sovereign  in  matters  of  war  and  ju- 
risdiction.) The  influence  of  the  Church,  too,  in  this 
gradual  transference  of  a  personal  to  a  territorial  vas- 
salage has  been  very  generally  admitted.  The  mo- 
nastic houses  would  be  the  first  to  find  it  troublesome 
(Liber  Eliensis,  275)  to  keep  a  rout  of  knights  within 
their  cloistral  walls.  Bishops,  too,  howsoever  mag- 
nificent their  palaces,  could  not  fail  to  wish  that  the 
fighting  men  whom  they  were  boimd  by  their  barony 
to  furnish  to  the  king  should  be  lodged  elsewhere  than 
close  to  their  persons.  Consequently  they  soon  de- 
veloped the  system  of  territorial  vassalage.  Hence 
the  medieval  legal  maxim:  nulle  tcrre  snns  seigneur 
(Vinogradoff,  lOnglish  Society  in  the  Eleventh  Cen- 
tury, Oxford,  1!k')S,  ii,  39-89).  This  enfeoffment  of 
the  lord  or  lantlowner  by  the  king  and  of  the  depen- 
dent by  the  lord  was  partlj'  in  the  nature  of  a  reward  for 
past  services,  partly  in  the  nature  of  an  earnest  for  the 
future.  It  is  this  primitive  idea  of  the  lord  who  gives 
land  to  his  supporter  that  is  answerable  for  the  feudal 
incidents  which  otherwise  seem  so  tyrannous.  For 
instance,  when  the  vassal  died,  his  arms,  horse,  mili- 
tary e(|uipment  reverted  as  heriot  to  his  master.  So, 
too",  when  the  tenant  died  without  heirs,  his  property 
escheateil  to  the  lord.  If,  however,  he  died,  with 
heirs,  indeed,  but  who  were  still  in  their  minority, 
then  these  heirs  were  in  wardship  to  the  feudal  supe- 
rior, who  could  even  dispose  of  a  female  ward  in  mar- 
riage to  whom  he  would,  on  a  plea  that  otherwise  she 
might  unite  herself  and  lands  to  an  hereditary  enemy. 
All  the  way  along  it  is  clear  that  the  ever-present  idea 
ruling  and  suggesting  these  incidents,  was  precisely  a 
territorial  one.  The  origin,  that  is,  of  these  incidents 
went  back  to  earlier  da)'S  when  all  that  the  feudal 
dependent  possessed,  whether  arms,  or  stock,  or  land, 
he  had  received  from  his  immediate  lord.  Land  had 
become  the  tie  that  knit  up  into  one  the  whole  of  soci- 
ety. Land  was  now  the  governing  principle  of  life 
(Pollock  and  Maitland,  History  of  English  Law,  Cam- 
bridge, 1898,  I,  iii,  66-78).  A  man  followed,  not  the 
master  whom  he  chose  or  the  cause  that  seemed  most 
right,  but  the  master  whose  land  he  held  and  tilled, the 
cause  favoured  in  the  geographical  linnts  of  his  do- 
main. The  king  was  looked  up  to  as  the  real  possessor 
of  the  land  of  the  nation.  By  him,  as  representing  the 
nation,  baronies,  manors,  knights-fees,  fiefs  were  dis- 
tributed to  the  tenants-in-chief,  and  they,  in  turn, 
divided  their  land  to  be  held  in  trust  b}'  the  lower  vas- 
sals (Vinogradoff,  English  Society  in  the  Eleventh 
Centurj',  42).  The  statute  of  Edward  I,  known  from 
its  opening  clause  as  Quia  Emptores,  shows  the  ex- 
treme lengths  to  which  this  sub-infeudation  was 
carried  (Stuhbs,  Select  Charters,  478).  So  much, 
however,  had  this  territorial  idea  entered  into  the 
legal  conceptions  of  the  medieval  polity,  and  been 
passed  on  from  .ige  to  age  by  the  most  skilful  lawyers 
of  each  generation,  that,  up  to  within  the  last  half  cen- 
tury, there  were  not  wanting  some  who  taught  that 
the  very  peerages  of  England  might  descend,  not  by 
means  of  blood  only,  nor  even  of  will  and  bequest,  but 
by  the  mere  possession-at-law  of  certain  lands  and 
tenements.  Witness  the  Berkeley  Peerage  case  of 
1861  (.\nson,  Law  and  Custom  of  the  Constitution, 
Oxford,  1S97,  Part  1,  I,  vi,  200-203). 

(2)  p'eudalisiii  further  implies  the  idea  of  vassalage. 
This  is  piirtly  oorieurrent  with,  partly  overlapping,  the 
territorial  conception.     It  is  certainly  prior  to,  more 




primitive  than,  the  notion  of  a  landed  enfeoffment. 
The  early  banded  hordes  that  broke  over  Europe  were 
held  together  by  the  idea  of  loj'alty  to  a  personal  chief. 
The  heretogas  were  leaders  in  war.  Tactitus  says 
(Germania,  vii):  ''The  leaders  hold  command  rather 
by  the  example  of  their  boldness  and  keen  courage 
than  by  any  force  of  discipline  or  autocratic  rule."  It 
was  the  best,  most  obvious,  simplest  method,  and 
would  always  obtain  in  a  state  of  incessant  wars  and 
raids.  But  even  when  that  state  of  development  had 
been  passed,  the  personal  element,  though  consider- 
ably lessened,  could  not  fail  to  continue.  Territorial 
enfeoffment  did  not  do  away  with  vassalage,  but  only 
changed  the  medium  by  which  that  vassalage  was 
made  evident.  The  dependent  was,  as  ever,  the  per- 
sonal follower  of  his  immediate  lord.  He  was  not 
merely  holding  land  of  that  lord ;  the  very  land  that  he 
held  was  but  the  expression  of  his  dependence,  the 
outward  and  visible  sign  of  an  inward  and  invisible 
bond.  The  fief  showed  who  the  vassal  was,  and  to 
whom  he  owed  his  vassalage.  At  one  time  there  was  a 
tendency  among  historians  to  make  a  distinction  be- 
tween the  theory  of  feudalism  on  the  Continent  and 
that  introduced  into  England  by  William  I.  But 
a  closer  study  of  both  has  proved  their  identif  v  (Tout, 
Eng.  Hist.  Rev.,  Jan.,  1905,  141-143).  The  Salisbury 
Oath,  even  on  the  supposition  that  it  was  actually 
taken  by  "all  the  land-owning  men  of  accoimt  there 
were  over  all  England"  (Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  ann. 
1068),  wa.s  nothing  more  than  had  been  exacted  by 
the  Anglo-Saxon  kings  (Stubbs,  Select  Charters, 
Doom  of  Exeter,  iv,  64;  i,  67;  but  compare  Vino- 
gradoff,  Growth  of  the  Manor,  Oxford,  1905,  294- 
306).  In  Germany,  too,  many  of  the  lesser  knights 
held  directl}^  of  the  emperor;  and  over  all,  whether 
immediately  subject  to  him  or  not,  he  had,  at  least  in 
theory,  sovereign  rights.  And  in  France,  where  feu- 
dal vassalage  was  very  strong,  there  was  a  TOya\  court 
to  which  a  dependent  could  appeal  from  that  of  his 
lord,  as  there  were  also  roval  cases,  which  none  but 
the  king  could  try.  In  fact  it  was  perhaps  in  France, 
earlier  than  elsewhere,  that  the  centralizing  spirit  of 
royal  interference  began  to  busy  itself  in  social,  eco- 
nomic, judicial  interests  of  the  individual.  Besides, 
on  the  other  hand,  the  anarchy  of  Stephen's  reign  that 
spread  over  the  whole  country  (Davis,  Eng.  Hist. 
Rev.,  Oct.,  1903)  showed  how  slight  even  in  England 
was  the  roj'al  hold  over  the  vassal  barons.  Moreover, 
if  English  feudalism  did  at  all  differ  from  the  hier- 
archic vassalage  that  caused  so  much  harm  abroad, 
the  result  was  due  far  more  to  Henry  II  and  his  suc- 
cessors than  to  the  Norman  line  of  kings.  And  even 
the  work  of  the  Angevins  was  to  no  small  degree  un- 
done by  the  policy  of  Edward  III.  The  Statutes  of 
Merton  (127S),  Slortmain  (1279),  Quia  Emptores 
(1290)  all  laid  the  foundations,  though  such,  of  course, 
was  foreign  to  their  object,  for  the  aggregations  of 
large  estates.  Then  came  the  marriage  of  the 
royal  princes  to  great  heiresses;  the  Black  Prince 
gained  the  lands  of  Kent;  Lionel,  the  dowry  of  Ulster; 
Thomas  of  Woodstock,  the  linked  manors  of  Eleanor 
Bohun.  Henry  IV,  before  he  deposed  Richard  II,  was 
"Harry  of  Hereford,  Lancaster  and  Derby",  as  well  as 
Leicester  and  Lincoln.  The  result  was  that  England, 
no  less  than  France,  Germany,  Italy,  and  Spain,  had 
its  feudal  vassals  that  acquired  ascendancy  over  the 
crown,  or  were  only  prevented  by  their  mutual  jeal- 
ousy from  doing  so.  In  England,  too,  the  substitution 
of  a  fi'mliilili'  iip(i)ui(ii'r,  or  noliility  of  the  blood  roval, 
for  the  old  fi'mlalili  lirn'Inriiilc  worked  the  same  mis- 
chief as  it  did  in  !■' ranee;  and  the  W.ars  of  the  Roses 
par.alleleil  (he  fatal  feuds  of  Burgundians  and  Armagn- 
acs,  the  horrors  of  the  Praguerie  and  the  anarchy  of 
the  League  of  the  Public  Weal.  It  will  be  .seen,  there- 
fore, that  all  over  Ivirope  the  same  feudal  system  pre- 
vailed of  a  liicrarchir  arrangement  of  classes,  as  some 
vast  pyramid  of  which  the  apex,  pushed  high  up  and 

separated  by  intervening  layers  from  its  base,  repre- 
sented the  king. 

(3)  Feudalism  lastly  included  the  idea  of  an  immu- 
nity or  grants  of  the  profits  of  justice  over  a  fief  or 
other  piece  of  land  (Vinogradoff,  Eng.  Soc.  in  the 
Eleventh  Century,  177-207).  We  have  already  stated 
how  by  the  land-books  the  Anglo-Saxon  kings  (and  the 
like  had  been  done,  and  was  to  be  repeated  all  over  the 
Continent)  granted  to  others  political  ownership  over 
certain  territories  that  till  that  time  had  been,  in  the 
medieval  phrase,  "doing  their  own  law".  The  result 
was  that,  apparently,  private  courts  were  set  up, 
typified  in  England  by  the  aUiterative  jingle  "sac  and 
soc,  tol  and  theam,  and  infangenthef".  Sometimes 
the  lord  was  satisfied  by  merely  taking  the  judicial 
forfeitures  in  the  ordinary  courts,  without  troubling  to 
establish  anj'  of  his  own.  But,  generally  speaking, 
he  seems  to  have  had  the  right,  and  to  have  used  it,  of 
keeping  his  own  separate  courts.  Feudalism,  there- 
fore, includes  not  merely  service  (military  and  eco- 
nomic) but  also  suit  (judicial).  This  suit  was  as 
minutely  insisted  upon  as  was  the  service.  The  king 
demanded  from  his  tenants-in-chief  that  they  should 
meet  in  his  cvria  regis.  So  William  I  had  his  thrice- 
yearly  cro^^Ti-wearings,  attended  by  "all  the  rich  men 
over  all  England,  archbishops  and  bishops,  abbots  and 
earls,  thegns  and  knights"  (Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle, 
ad  ann.  1087).  So  too  in  France,  there  was  the  cour  du 
roy,  dating  from  the  earliest  Capetian  times,  the  court 
of  the  king's  demesne  or  immediate  tenants;  at  this 
royal  court,  whether  in  England  or  in  France,  all  the 
tenants-in-chief,  at  any  rate  in  the  days  of  the  full 
force  of  feudalism,  were  obliged  to  attend.  The  same 
court  existed  in  the  Holy  Roman  Empire  and  was  of 
great  importance,  at  least  till  the  death  of  Henry  V 
(Bryce,  Holy  Roman  Empire,  London,  1904,  viii,  120- 
129).  All  those  who  attended  these  courts  did  so  in 
virtue  of  the  tenurial  obligations.  Now,  these  royal 
councils  were  not  constitutional  bodies,  for  we  have  no 
evidence  of  any  legislation  by  them.  Rather,  like  the 
Parlement  of  France,  they  simply  registered  the  royal 
edicts.  But  their  real  work  was  judicial,  adjudicating 
causes  too  numerous  or  too  complicated  for  the  king 
alone  to  deal  with.  So  Philip  Augustus  summoned 
John  as  a  vassal  prince  to  the  cour  du  roy  to  answer 
the  charge  of  the  murder  of  Arthur  of  Brittany.  Just 
as  these  royal  courts  were  judicial  bodies  for  dealing 
with  questions  relating  to  the  tenants-in-chief,  so  these 
tenants-in-chief,  and  in  a  descending  gradation  every 
lord  and  master,  had  their  private  courts  in  which 
to  try  the  cases  of  their  tenants.  The  private  criminal 
courts  were  not  strictly  feudal,  but  dependent  on  a 
royal  grant;  such  were  the  franchises,  or  liberties,  or 
regalities,  as  in  the  counties  Palatine  up  and  down 
Europe.  Besides  these,  however,  there  were  the 
librw  curice,  courts  baron,  courts  leet.  courts  custom- 
ary, and,  in  the  case  of  the  Church,  courts  Christian 
(for  details.  Pollock  and  Maitland,  History  of  English 
Law,  I,  571-594).  The  very  complexity  of  these 
courts  astonishes  us;  it  astonished  contemporaries  no 
less,  for  Langland  in  "Piers  Plowman"  (Passus  III, 
11.  318-319)  looks  forward  to  a  golden  day  when 
King's  court  and  common  court,  consistory 

and  chapter. 
All  shall  be  one  court  and  one  baron-judge. 

CHT7RCH  AND  Feud.\lism. — The  Church  too  had  her 
place  in  the  feudal  system.  She  too  was  granted  terri- 
torial fiefs,  became  a  vassal,  possessed  immunities.  It 
was  the  result  of  her  calm,  wide  sympathy,  turning  to 
the  new  nations  away  from  the  Roman  Empire,  to 
which  many  Christians  thought  she  was  irrevocably 
bound.  By  the  baptism  of  Clovis  she  showed  the  bap- 
tism of  Constant ine  had  not  tied  her  to  a  political 
system.  So  she  created  a  new  world  out  of  chaos, 
created  the  paradox  of  barbarian  civilization.  In 
gratitude  kings  and  emperors  endowetl  her  with  prop- 
erty; and  ecclesiastical  property  has  not  infrequently 




brought  evils  in  its  train.  The  result  was  disputed 
elections;  younger  sons  of  nobles  were  intruded  into 
bishoprics,  at  times  even  into  the  papacy.  Secular 
princes  claimed  lay  investiture  of  spiritual  offices.  The 
cause  of  this  was  feudalism,  for  a  system  that  had  its 
basis  on  land-tenure  was  bound  at  last  to  enslave  a 
Church  that  possessed  great  landed  possessions.  In 
Germany,  for  example,  three  out  of  the  mystically 
numbered  seven  electors  of  the  empire  were  church- 
men. There  were,  besides,  several  prince-bishops 
within  the  empire,  and  mitred  abbots,  whose  rule  was 
more  extended  and  more  powerful  than  that  of  many 
a  secular  baron.  As  it  was  in  Germany,  so  it  was  in 
France,  England,  Scotland,  Spain,  etc.  Naturally 
there  was  a  growing  desire  on  the  part  of  the  king  and 
the  princes  to  force  the  Church  to  take  her  share  in  the 
national  burdens  and  duties.  Moreover,  since  by  cus- 
tom the  secular  rulers  had  obtained  the  right  of  pre- 
sentation to  various  benefices  or  the  right  of  veto,  with 
the  title  on  the  Continent  of  advocates  or  i^ogl,  the 
numerous  claimants  for  the  livings  were  only  too  ready 
to  admit  every  possible  demand  of  their  lord,  if  only  he 
would  permit  them  to  possess  the  bishopric,  abbacy, 
or  whatever  else  it  might  be.  In  short,  the  Church  w-as 
in  danger  of  becoming  the  annex  of  the  State;  the 
pope,  of  becoming  the  chaplain  of  the  emperor. 
Simony  and  concul>inage  were  rife.  Then  came  the 
Reforms  of  Cluny  and  the  remedy  of  the  separation  of 
Church  and  State,  in  this  sense,  that  the  Church  would 
confer  the  dignity  or  office,  and  the  State  the  barony. 
But  even  when  this  concordat  had  been  arranged  (in 
England  between  Henry  I  and  St.  Anselm  in  1107;  the 
European  settlement  did  not  take  place  till  1122  at 
Worms),  the  Church  still  lay  entangled  with  feudal- 
ism. It  had  to  perform  its  feudal  duties.  It  might 
owe  suit  and  service  to  a  lord.  Certainly,  lesser  vas- 
sals owed  suit  and  service  to  it.  So  it  was  brought  into 
the  secular  fabric  of  society.  A  new  tenure  was  in- 
vented for  it,  tenure  by  frankalmoyn.  But  it  had 
more  often  than  not  to  provide  its  knights  and  war- 
men,  and  to  do  justice  to  its  tenants.  The  old  ideal  of 
a  world-monarchy  and  a  world-religion,  the  pope  as 
spiritual  emperor,  the  emperor  as  temporal  pope,  as 
set  out  with  matchless  skill  in  the  fresco  of  the  Domini- 
can Church  in  Florence,  S.  Maria  Novella,  had  ceased 
to  influence  public  opinion  long  before  Dante  penned 
his  "De  Monarchia".  Feudalism  had  shattered  that 
ideal  (Barry,  in  Dublin  Review,  Oct.,  1907,  221-243). 
There  was  to  be  not  so  much  a  universal  Church,  as  a 
numljer  of  national  Churches  under  their  territorial 
princes,  so  that  feudalism  in  the  ecclesiastical  sphere 
prepared  the  way  for  the  Renaissance  principle,  Cujus 
regio  ejus  religio.  For  while  at  the  beginning  the 
Church  sanctified  the  State  and  anointed  with  sacred 
chrism  the  king  vested  in  priestly  apparel,  in  the  end 
the  State  secularized  the  Church  amid  the  gilded  cap- 
tivity of  Avignon.  Royal  despotism  followed  the 
indignities  of  Anagni;  the  Church  sank  under  the 
weight  of  her  feudal  duties. 

Rksults. — (1)  Enl  Results. — (a)  The  State  instead 
of  entering  into  direct  relations  with  individuals, 
entered  into  relation  with  heads  of  groups,  losing  con- 
tact with  the  members  of  those  groups.  With  a  weak 
king  or  disputed  succession,  these  group-heads  made 
themselves  into  sovereigns.  First  of  all  viewing  them- 
selves as  sovereigns  they  fought  with  one  another  as 
sovereigns,  instead  of  coming  to  the  State  as  to  the 
true  sovereign  to  have  their  respective  claims  adjudi- 
cated. The  result  was  what  the  chroniclers  call  guerra 
or  private  war  (Coxe,  House  of  Austria,  I,  London, 
1807,  30G-7).  This  was  forbidden  in  England  even 
under  its  mock  form  the  tournament.  Still  it  was  too 
much  tangled  with  feudalism  to  be  fully  suppressed, 
breaking  out  as  fiercely  here  from  time  to  time  as  it 
did  elsewhere,  (b)  The  group-heads  tempted  their 
vassals  tn  follow  them  as  against  their  overlords.  So 
Robert  of  Bellesme  obtained  the  help  of  his  feudatories 

against  Henry  I.  So  Albert  of  Austria  headed  the 
electors  against  the  Emperor  Adolf  of  Nassau.  So 
Charles  of  Navarre  led  his  vassals  against  King  John 
of  France.  So  James  of  Urgel  formed  the  Privileged 
Union  at  Saragossa.  (c)  These  group-heads  claimed 
the  rights  of  private  coinage,  private  castles,  full  judi- 
cial authority,  full  powers  of  taxation.  There  was 
always  a  struggle  between  them  antl  their  .so\-ereigns, 
and  between  them  and  their  lesser  vassals  as  to  the 
degree  of  their  independence.  Each  manorial  group  or 
honour  or  fief  endeavoured  to  be  self-sufficient  and  to 
hold  itself  apart  from  its  next  overlord .  Each  overlord 
endeavoured  more  and  more  to  consolidate  his  do- 
mains and  force  his  vassals  to  appeal  to  him  rather 
than  to  their  direct  superior.  This  continual  struggle, 
the  success  and  failure  of  which  dependetl  on  the  per- 
sonal characters  of  lord  and  overlord,  was  the  chief 
cause  of  the  instability  of  life  in  medieval  times, 
(d)  A  last  evil  may  perhaps  be  added  in  the  power 
given  to  the  Church.  In  times  of  disputed  succession 
the  Church  claimed  the  right  to  defend  her.self,  then  to 
keep  order,  and  eventually  to  nominate  the  ruler. 
This,  however  justifiable  in  itself  and  however  at  times 
beneficial,  often  drove  the  ecclesiastical  order  into  the 
arms  of  one  or  other  political  party;  and  the  cause  of 
the  Church  often  became  identified  with  a  particular 
claimant  for  other  than  Church  reasons;  and  the  pen- 
alties of  the  Church,  even  excommunication,  were  at 
times  imposed  to  defend  worldly  interests.  As  a  rule, 
however,  the  influence  of  the  Church  was  directed  to 
control  antl  soften  the  unjust  and  cruel  elements  of  the 

(2)  Good  Results. — (a)  Feudalism  supplied  a  new 
cohesive  force  to  the  nations.  At  the  break-up  alike 
of  the  Roman  Empire  and  of  the  Germanic  tribal  loy- 
alty to  the  tribal  chief,  a  distinct  need  was  felt  for 
some  territorial  organization.  As  yet  the  idea  of 
nationality  was  non-existent,  having  indeed  little  op- 
portunity of  expression.  How  then  were  the  peoples 
to  be  made  to  feel  their  distinct  individuality?  I'eu- 
dalism  came  with  its  ready  answer,  linked  Germanic 
with  Roman  political  systems,  built  up  an  inter-con- 
nected pyramid  that  rested  on  the  broad  basis  of 
popular  possession  and  culminated  in  the  apex  of  the 
king,  (b)  It  introduced  moreover  into  social  and 
political  life  the  bond  of  legalitas.  Every  war  of 
medieval,  or  rather  feudal,  times  was  based  on  some 
legal  claim,  since  other  casus  belli  there  was  none. 
Political  expediency  or  national  expansion  were  un- 
known doctrines.  No  doubt  this  legalitas,  as  ui  the 
English  claim  to  the  French  throne,  often  became 
sheer  hypocrisy.  Yet  on  the  whole  it  gave  a  moral 
restraint  to  public  opinion  in  the  midst  of  a  passionate 
age;  and  the  inscription  on  the  simple  tomb  of  Ed- 
ward I :  P.^CTDM  Serva,  however  at  times  disregarded 
by  the  king  himself,  still  sums  up  the  great  bulwark 
raised  in  medieval  days  against  violence  and  oppres- 
sion. To  break  the  feudal  bond  was  felony;  and 
more,  it  was  dishonour.  On  the  side  of  the  king  or 
lord,  there  was  the  investiture  by  banner,  lance,  or 
other  symbol;  on  the  side  of  the  man  or  tenant, 
homage  for  the  land,  sworn  on  bended  knees  with 
hands  placed  between  the  hands  of  the  lord,  the  tenant 
standing  upright  while  taking  the  fealty,  as  the  sign  of 
a  personal  obligation,  (c)  Feudalism  gave  an  armed 
force  to  Europe  when  she  lay  defenceless  at  the  feet  of 
the  old  mountains  over  which  so  many  peoples  had 
wandered  to  conquer  the  Western  world.  The  onrush 
of  Turk.  Saracen,  and  Moor  was  checked  by  the  feudal 
levj'  which  substituted  a  disciplined  professional  force 
for  the  national  fyrd  or  militia  (Oman,  Art  of  War,  IV, 
ii.  357-377,  London.  1898).  (d)  From  a  modern  point 
of  view  its  most  interesting  advantage  was  the  fact  of 
its  being  a  real,  if  only  temporary,  solution  of  the  land- 
question.  It  enforced  a  just  distribution  of  the  terri- 
torial domains  included  within  the  geographical  limits 
of  the  nation,  by  allowing  individuals  to  carve  out 




estates  for  themselves  on  condition  that  each  landlord, 
whether  secular  baron,  churchman,  even  abbess,  ren- 
dered suit  and  service  to  his  overlord  and  demanded 
them  in  return  from  each  and  every  vassal.  This 
effectually  taught  the  principle  that  owners  of  land, 
precisely  as  such,  had  to  perform  in  exchange  govern- 
mental work.  Not  that  there  was  exactly  land- 
nationalization  (though  many  legal  and  theological 
e.xpressions  of  medieval  literature  seem  to  imply  the 
existence  of  this),  but  that  the  nation  was  paid  for 
its  land  by  service  in  war  and  by  judicial,  adminis- 
trative, and,  later,  legislative  duties. 

Decline  of  Feudalism. — This  was  due  to  a  multi- 
plicity of  causes  acting  upon  one  another.  Since 
feudalism  was  based  on  the  idea  of  land-tenure  paid 
for  by  governmental  work,  every  process  that  tended 
to  alter  this  adjustment  tended  also  to  displace 

(1)  The  new  system  of  raising  troops  for  war  helped 
to  substitute  money  for  land.  The  old  system  of 
feudal  levy  became  obsolete.  It  was  found  imprac- 
ticable for  the  lords  to  retain  a  host  of  knights  at  their 
service,  waiting  in  idleness  for  the  call  of  war.  Instead, 
the  barons,  headed  by  the  Church,  enfeoffed  these 
knights  on  land  which  they  were  to  own  on  conditions 
of  service.  Gradually  these  knights  too  found  military 
service  exceedingly  inopportune  and  commuted  for  it 
a  sum  of  money,  paid  at  first  to  the  immediate  lord, 
eventually  demanded  directly  by  the  king.  Land 
cea.sed  to  have  the  same  value  in  the  eyes  of  the  mon- 
arch. Money  took  its  place  as  the  symbol  of  power. 
But  this  was  further  increased  by  a  new  development 
in  military  organization.  The  system  by  which  sher- 
iffs, in  virtue  of  royal  writs,  summoned  the  county- 
levy  had  taken  the  place  of  the  older  arrangements. 
These  commissions  of  array  issued  to  the  tenants-in- 
chief,  or  proclaimed  for  the  lesser  vassals  in  all  courts, 
fairs,  and  markets  were  now  exchanged  for  indentures, 
by  which  the  king  contracted  with  individual  earls, 
barons,  knights,  etc.,  to  furnish  a  fixed  number  of  men 
at  a  fixed  wage  ("They  sell  the  pasture  now  to  buy  the" — "Henry  V",  prologue  to  Act  II).  The  old 
conception  of  the  feudal  force  had  completely  disap- 
peared. Further,  by  means  of  artillery  the  attacking 
force  completely  dominated  the  defensive,  fortified 
castles  declined  in  value,  archers  and  foot  increased  in 
importance,  heavily  armoured  knights  were  becoming 
useless  in  battle,  and  on  the  Continent  the  supremacy 
of  harquebus  and  pike  was  assured.  Moreover  as  part 
of  this  military  displacement  the  reaction  against 
livery  and  maintenance  (cf.  Lingard,  History  of  Eng- 
land, IV,  V,  139-140,  London,  1854)  must  be  noted. 
The  intense  evils  occasioned  all  over  Europe  by  this 
bastard  feudalism,  or  feudalism  in  caricature,  pro- 
voked a  fierce  reaction.  In  England  and  on  the  Conti- 
nent the  new  monarchy  that  sprang  from  the  "Three 
Ma^i"  of  Bacon  stimulated  popular  resentment 
against  the  great  families  of  king-makers  and  broke 
their  power. 

(2)  \  second  cause  of  this  substitution  was  due  to 
the  Black  Death.  For  some  years  the  emancipation 
of  villeinage  had,  for  reasons  of  convenience,  been 
gradually  extending.  A  system  had  grown  up  of  ex- 
changing tenure  by  rent  for  tenure  by  service,  i.  e. 
money  was  paid  in  exchange  for  service,  and  the  lord's 
fields  were  tilled  by  hired  labourers.  By  the  Great 
Pestilence  labour  was  rendered  scarce  and  agriculture 
was  disorganized.  The  old  surphis  population  that 
had  ever  before  (Vinogradoff  m  Eng.  Hist.  Rev., 
Oct.,  1900,  775-81;  April,  190G,  .356)  drifted  from 
manor  to  manor  no  longer  existed.  The  lords  pur- 
sued their  tenants;  capital  was  begging  from  labour. 
All  statutory  enactments  to  chain  labour  to  the  soil 
proved  futile.  Villeins  escaped  in  numbers  to  manors, 
not  of  their  own  lords,  and  entered  into  service  this 
time  as  hired  labourers.  That  is,  the  lord  became  a 
landlord,  the  villein  became  a  tenant-farmer  at  will  or 

a  landless  labourer.  Then  came  the  Peasant  Revolt 
over  all  Europe,  the  economic  complement  of  the 
Black  Death,  by  which  the  old  economy  was  broken 
up  and  from  which  the  modern  social  economy  began. 
On  the  Continent  the  result  was  the  metayer  system 
or  division  of  national  wealth  among  small  landed 
proprietors.  In  England  under  stock-and-land  leases 
the  same  system  prevailed  for  close  on  a  century,  then 
disappeared,  emerging  eventually  after  successive  ages 
as  our  modern  "enclosed"  agriculture. 

(3)  As  in  things  military  and  economic,  so  also  in 
things  judicial  the  idea  of  landed  administrative  sinks 
below  the  horizon.  All  over  Europe  legal  kings,  Al- 
fonso the  Wise,  Philip  the  Fair,  Charles  of  Bohemia, 
Edward  I  of  England,  were  rearranging  the  constitu- 
tions of  their  countries.  The  old  curia  regis  or  cour  du 
roy  ceases  to  be  a  feudal  board  of  tenants-in-ehief  and 
becomes  at  first  partly,  then  wholly,  a  body  of  legal 
advisers.  The  king's  chaplains  and  clerks  with  their 
knowledge  of  civil  and  canon  law,  able  to  spell  out  the 
old  customaries,  take  the  place  of  grim  warriors.  The 
Ptacita  Regis  or  cas  royaux  get  extended  and  simpli- 
fied. Appeals  are  encouraged.  Civil  as  well  as 
criminal  litigations  come  into  the  royal  courts.  Fi- 
nance, the  royal  auditing  of  the  accounts  of  sheriffs, 
bailiffs,  or  seneschals,  increases  the  royal  hold  on  the 
country,  breaks  down  the  power  of  the  landed  classes, 
and  draws  the  king  and  people  into  alliance  against 
the  great  nobles.  The  shape  of  society  is  no  longer  a 
pyramid,  but  two  parallel  lines.  It  can  no  longer  be 
represented  as  broadening  down  from  king  to  nobles, 
from  nobles  to  people ;  but  the  apex  and  base  have 
withdrawn,  the  one  from  completing,  the  other  from 
supporting,  the  central  block.  The  rise  to  power  of 
popular  assemblies,  whether  as  States-General, 
Cortes,  Diets,  or  Parliaments,  betokens  the  growing 
importance  of  the  middle  class;  and  the  triumph  of 
the  middle  fi.  e.  of  the  moneyed,  not  landed,  pro- 
prietors) is  the  overthrow  of  feudalism.  The  whole 
literature  of  the  fourteenth  century  and  onward  wit- 
nesses to  this  triumph.  Henceforward  till  the  Re- 
naissance it  is  eminently  bourgeois.  Song  is  no 
longer  an  aristocratic  monopoly ;  it  passes  out  into  the 
whole  nation.  The  troubadour  is  no  more;  his  place 
is  taken  by  the  ballad  writer  composing  in  the  vulgar 
tongue  a  dolce  stil  nuovo.  This  new  tone  is  especially 
evident  in  "Renard  le  Contrefait"  and  "Branche  des 
Royaux  Lignage".  These  show  that  the  old  rever- 
ence for  all  that  was  knightly  and  of  chivalry  (q.  v.) 
was  passing  away.  The  medieval  theory  of  life, 
thought,  and  government  had  broken  down. 

Stubbs,  Constitutional  History  (Oxford,  1897} ;  Seebohm, 
English  Village  Community  (London,  1883);  Pollock  and 
Maitland,  History  of  English  Law  (Cambridge,  1898);  Mait- 
ij^ND,  Constitutional  History  (Cambridge,  1908),  141-164; 
Vinogradoff,  English  Society  in  the  Eleventh  Century  (Oxford, 
1908);  Round,  Feudal  England  (London,  1895),  225-314; 
Baldwin,  Scutage  and  Knight  Service  (Chicago,  1897);  Roth, 
Geschichte  des  Beneficialwesens  (Eriangen.  1850);  Waitz, 
Deutsche  Verfassungsgeschichte  (Berlin,  1880);  LtppERT,  Die 
deutschen  Lehnbucher  (Leipzig,  1903);  Rhamen,  Die  GrossAu/en 
der  Nordgermanen  (Brunswick,  1905);  Luchaihe,  Histoire  des 
Institutions  (Paris.  1883-85);  Petit-Dutaillis,  Histoire  Con- 
stitutionelle  (1907).  tr.  Rhodes  (1908);  Seignobos  in  Lavissb 
AND  Rambaud,  Histoire  General.  II  (Paris,  1893),  i.  1-64;  GuiL- 
meroz,  Essai sur  V origine dela  noblesse  en  France  (Paris,  1902); 
Flach,  Les  originea  de  VAncienne  France,  III  (Paris,  1904). 
Bede  Jarrett. 

Feudum.     See  Tenure,  Ecclesiastical. 

Feuillants. — The  Cistercians  who,  about  1145, 
founded  an  abbey  in  a  shady  valley  in  the  Diocese  of 
Rieux  (now  Toulouse)  named  it  Fuliens,  later  Les 
Feuillans  or  Notre-Dame  des  Feuillans  (Lat.  folium, 
leaf),  and  the  religious  were  soon  called  Feuillants 
(Lat.  Fulienses).  Relaxations  crept  into  the  Order  of 
Citeaux  as  into  most  religious  congregations,  and  in 
the  sixteenth  century  the  Feuillant  monastery  was 
dishonoured  by  unworthy  monks.  A  reform  was 
soon  to  be  introduced,  however,  by  Jean  de  la  Bar- 
ridre,  b.  at  Saint-C^r6,  in  the  Diocese  of  Cahors,  29 




April,  1544;  d.  25  April,  IGOO.  Having  completed  a 
successful  course  in  the  humanities  at  Toulouse  and 
Bordeaux,  at  the  age  of  eighteen  he  was  made  com- 
mendatory Abbot  of  the  Feuillants  by  the  King  of 
France,  succeeding  Charles  de  Crussol,  who  had  just 
joined  the  Reformers.  After  his  nomination  he  went 
to  Paris  to  continue  his  studies,  and  then  began  his 
lifelong  friendship  with  the  celebrated  Arnaud  d'Os- 
sat,  later  cardinal.  In  1573  Barriere,  having  re- 
solved to  introtluce  a  reform  into  his  abbey,  took  the 
habit  of  novice,  and  after  obtaining  the  necessary 
dispensations,  made  his  solemn  profession  and  was 
ordained  priest,  some  time  after  8  May,  1573.  His 
enterprise  was  a  difficult  one.  There  were  twelve 
monks  at  Les  Feuillans  who  refused  to  accept  the 
reform,  and  unmoved  by  the  example  and  exhorta- 
tions of  their  abbot,  resolved  to  do  away  with  him,  by 
means  of  poison.  Their  attempts,  however,  were 
frustrated.  In  1577,  having  received  the  abbatial 
benediction,  he  solemnly  announced  his  intention  of 
reforming  his  monastery,  and  made  the  members  of 
the  community  understand  that  they  had  either  to 
accept  the  reform  or  leave  the  abbev;  they  chose  the 
latter  and  dispersed  to  various  Cistercian  houses. 
Their  departure  reduced  the  community  to  five  per- 
sons, two  professed  clerics,  two  novices,  and  the  supe- 
rior. The  rule  was  interpreted  in  its  most  rigid  sense 
and  in  many  ways  even  surpassed.  Sartorius  in  his 
work  "Cistercium  bis-tertium"  sums  up  the  austeri- 
ties of  the  reform  in  these  four  points:  (1)  The  Feuil- 
lants renounced  the  use  of  wine,  lish,  eggs,  butter, 
salt,  and  all  seasoning.  Their  nourishment  con- 
sisted of  barley  breatl,  herbs  cooked  in  water,  and 
oatmeal.  (2)  Tables  were  abolished;  they  ate  on  the 
floor  kneeling.  (3)  They  kept  the  Cistercian  habit, 
but  remained  bare-headed  and  barefoot  in  the  mon- 
astery. (4)  They  slept  on  the  ground  or  on  bare 
planks,  with  a  stone  for  pillow.  They  slept  but  four 
hours.  Silence  and  manual  labour  were  held  in 
honour.  The  community  was  increased  rapidly  by 
the  admission  of  fervent  postulants. 

In  1581  Barriere  received  from  Gregorj'  XIII  a 
Brief  of  commendation  and  in  1589  one  of  confirma- 
tion, establishing  the  Feuillants  as  a  separate  congre- 
gation. In  spite  of  the  opposition  of  the  abbots  and 
general  chapters  of  Citeaux,  the  reform  waxed  strong. 
In  1587  Sixtus  V  called  the  Feuillants  to  Rome, 
where  he  gave  them  the  church  of  S.  Pudentiana,  and 
the  same  year,  Henn,'  III,  King  of  France,  constructed 
for  them  the  monaster^'  of  St.  Bernard,  in  the  Rue 
Saint-Honore,  Paris.  In  1590,  however,  the  Peas- 
ants' War  brought  about  dissensions.  While  Bar- 
riere remained  loyal  to  Henry  III,  the  majority  of 
his  religious  declared  for  the  League.  As  a  result,  in 
1592  Barriere  was  condemned  as  a  traitor  to  the 
Catholic,  deposed,  and  reduced  to  lay  commun- 
ion. It  was  not  until  IGOO  that,  through  the  efforts 
of  Cardinal  Bellarmine,  he  was  exonerated  and  rein- 
stated. Early  in  the  same  year,  however,  he  died  in 
the  arms  of  his  friend  Cardinal  d'Ossat.  In  1595 
Clement  VIII  exempted  the  reform  from  all  jurisdic- 
tion on  the  part  of  Cistercian  abbots,  and  allowed  the 
Feuillants  to  draw  up  new  constitutions,  containing 
some  mitigations  of  the  primitive  rigour.  These  were 
approved  the  same  year.  In  1598  the  Feuillants  took 
possession  of  a  second  monaster^'  in  Rome.  San  Ber- 
nardo alle  Terme.  In  1630  Pope  Urban  VIII  divided 
the  congregation  into  two  entirely  distinct  branches: 
that  of  France,  under  the  title  of  Notre-Dame  des 
Feuillants;  and  that  of  Italy,  under  the  name  of  Ber- 
nardoni  or  Reformed  Bernardines.  In  1034  the 
Feuillants  of  France,  and  in  1667  the  Bernardines  of 
Italy  modified  somewhat  the  constitutions  of  1595. 
In  1791  at  the  time  of  the  suppression  of  the  religious 
orders,  the  Feuillants  possessed  twenty-four  abbeys 
in  France;  almost  all  the  religious  were  confessors, 
exiles,  or  martyrs.  The  Bernardines  of  Italy  eventu- 
VI.— 5 

ally  combined  with  the  Order  of  Citeaux.  The 
congregation  of  the  Feuillants  has  given  a  number  of 
illustrious  personages  to  the  Church,  among  others: 
Cardinal  Bona  (q.v.),  the  celebrated  liturgist  and 
ascetical  writer  (d.  1674);  Gabriele  de  Castello  (d. 
1687),  general  of  the  Italian  branch,  who  also  received 
the  cardinal's  hat;  Dom  Charles  de  Saint-Paul,  first 
general  of  the  Feuillants  of  France,  afterwards  Bishop 
of  Avranche,  who  published  in  l(i41  the  "Geographia 
Sacra";  among  theologians,  Pierre  Comagere  (d. 
1662),  Laurent  Apisius  (d.  1681),  and  Jean  Goulu 
(d.  1629).  Special  mention  should  be  made  of  Carlo 
Giuseppe  Morozzi  (Morotius),  author  of  the  most  im- 
portant history  of  the  order,  the  "Cistercii  reflores- 
centis.  .  .chronologicahistoria".  Many  martyrologies 
give  Jean  de  la  Barriere  (25  April)  the  title  of  Vener- 
able. The  Abbey  des  Feuillants  was  authorized  by 
papal  Brief  to  publicly  venerate  his  remains,  but 
the  cause  of  beatification  has  never  been  introduced. 

The  Feuillantines,  founded  in  1588  by  Jean  de  la 
Barriere,  embraced  the  same  rule  and  adopted  the 
same  austerities  as  the  Feuillants.  Matrons  of  the 
highest  distinction  sought  admission  into  this  severe 
order,  which  soon  grew  in  numbers,  but  during  the 
Revolution,  in  1791,  the  Feuillantines  disappeared. 

Hkltot.  Hist,  des  onlres  (Paris.  1719);  Caretto,  Sant&rale 
del  S.  Ordine  (Turin.  1708);  Sartorius,  Cistercium 
bis-tertium  (Prague,  17(X)):  Bazy,  Vie  du  Venerable  Jean  de  la 
Barriire  (Toulouse,  1SS5);  SIorotius,  Ci.stercii  re/lorescentis  .  .  . 
chronologica  historia  (Turin,  1690);  Chalemot,  .Series  Sanctorum 
el  Beatorum  S.  O.  Cist.  (Paris,  1670);  Callia  Chrisliana.  XIII; 
Janauschkk,  Ong.  Cist.  (Vienna,  1877);  Voyage  littiraire  de 
deux  religieux  de  la  cong.  de  S.  Aiaur  in  Martene  and  Doran'd 
(Paris.  1717);  Jongelinus,  Nolilia  abbatiarum  Ord.  Cist. 
(Cologne,  1640). 

Ediiond  M.  Obrecht. 

Feuillet  (Feuillee),  Loui.'!,  geographer,  b.  at 
Mane  near  Forcalquier,  France,  in  1660;  d.  at  Mar- 
seilles in  1732.  He  entered  the  Franciscan  Order 
and  made  rapid  progress  in  his  studies,  particularly  in 
mathematics  and  astronomy.  He  attracted  the  atten- 
tion of  members  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  and  in 
1699  was  sent  by  order  of  the  king  on  a  voyage  to  the 
Levant  with  Cassini  to  determine  the  geographical 
positions  of  a  number  of  seaports  and  other  cities. 
The  success  of  the  undertaking  led  him  to  make  a 
similar  journey  to  the  Antilles.  He  left  Marseilles, 
5  Feb.,  1703,  and  arrived  at  Martinique  11  April.  A 
severe  sickness  was  the  cause  of  considerable  delay, 
but  in  September  of  the  following  year  he  began  a 
cruise  along  the  northern  coast  of  South  America, 
making  observations  at  numerous  ports.  He  likewise 
collected  a  number  of  botanical  specimens.  Upon  his 
return  to  France  in  1706,  his  work  won  recognition 
from  the  Government,  and  he  immediately  began  prep- 
arations for  a  more  extended  voyage  along  the  western 
coast  of  South  America  to  continue  his  observations. 
He  received  the  title  of  royal  mathematician,  and 
armed  with  letters  from  the  ministry  set  sail  from 
Marseilles,  14  Dec,  1707.  He  rounded  Cape  Horn 
after  a  tempestuous  voyage  and  visited  the  principal 
western  ports  as  far  north  as  Callao.  At  Lima  he 
spent  several  months  studying  the  region.  He  re- 
turned to  France  in  1711,  bringing  with  him  much 
valuable  data  and  a  collection  of  botanical  specimens. 
Louis  XIV  granted  him  a  pension  and  built  an  obser- 
vatory for  him  at  Marseilles.  Feuillet  was  of  a  gentle 
and  simple  character,  and  while  an  enthusiastic  ex- 
plorer, was  also  a  true  ecclesiastic.  He  was  the  author 
of  "Journal  des  observations  physiques,  math^mati- 
ques,  et  botaniques"  (Paris,  1714);  "Suite  du  Jour- 
nal" (Paris,  1725). 

Eyries  in  Biog.  Univ.,  XIV;  Poggendorff,  Biographisch 
Lilerarisches  Handwnrterbuch  zur  Geschichte  der  exacten  Wis- 
senschajten  (Leipzig,  18(53),  I. 

Henry  M.  Brock. 

Peval,  P.\ul-Hexri-Corentin,  novelist,  b.  at 
Rennes,  27  September,  1817;   d.  la  Paris,  8  March. 




1887.  He  belonged  to  an  old  family  of  barristers,  and 
his  parents  wished  him  to  follow  the  family  traditions. 
He  received  his  secontlary  instruction  at  the  hjcue  of 
Rennes  and  stiulied  law  at  the  university  of  the  same 
city.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at  the  age  of  nine- 
teen, but  the  loss  of  his  first  case  disgusted  him  with 
the  practice  of  law,  and  he  went  to  Paris,  where  he 
secured  a  position  as  a  bank  clerk.  His  fondness  for 
reading,  which  caused  him  to  neglect  his  professional 
duties,  led  to  his  dismissal  a  few  months  later.  He  is 
next  found  in  the 
service  of  an  ad- 
vertising concern, 
then  on  the  staff 
of  an  obscure  Pa- 
risian paper,  and 
finally  as  proof- 
reader in  the  offices 
of  "  Le  Nouvel- 
liste".  He  had 
already  begun  to 
write.  A  short 
story,  "Le  club 
des  Phoques", 
which  he  published 
in  "  La  Revue  de 
Paris",  in  1841, 
attracted  atten- 
tion and  opened  to 
F6val  the  columns 
of  the  most  im- 
_        „         „  ^,  portant     Parisian 

Paci^Henri-Corentin  F£val  newspapers.         In 

1844,  under  the  pseudonym  of  Francis  Trolopp, 
he  wrote  "Les  mysteres  de  Londres",  which  had 
great  success  and  was  translated  into  several  lan- 
guages. From  this  time  on  he  hardly  ever  ceased 
writing,  sometimes  publishing  as  many  as  four  novels 
at  a  time.  8ome  of  them  he  also  tried  to  adapt  for 
the  stage  but,  with  the  exception  of  "  Le  Bossu" 
which  was  played  many  times,  his  ventures  in  that 
direction  were  unsuccessful.  Feval's  writings  had 
not  always  been  in  conformity  with  the  teachings 
of  the  Church.  In  the  early  seventies  he  sincerely  re- 
turned to  his  early  belief,  and  between  1877  and  1882 
published  a  revised  edition  of  all  his  books.  He  also 
wrote  some  new  works  which  show  the  change.  His 
incessant  labour  and  the  financial  reverses  he  had  suf- 
fered told  on  his  constitution;  he  was  stricken  with 
paralysis.  The  Societe  des  Gens  de  Lettres,  of  which 
he  was  the  president,  had  him  placed  in  the  home  of 
Les  Freres  de  S.  Jean  de  Dieu,  where  he  died. 

Most  of  Feval's  novels  are  romantic;  in  fact  he  may 
be  considered  as  the  best  imitator  of  the  elder  Dumas; 
his  fecundity,  his  imagination,  and  his  power  of  inter- 
esting the  reader  rival  those  of  his  great  predecessor; 
the  style,  however,  too  often  betrays  the  haste  in  which 
his  novels  were  written.  The  list  of  his  works  is  a 
very  long  one;  the  best  known  besides  those  already 
mentioned  are:  "Etapes  d'une  conversion"  (Paris, 
1877);  "Merveilles  du  Mont-Saint^Michel "  (Paris, 

LouANnRE  AND  BouRQUELOT,  Litleralure  coniemporaine 
(Paris,  1854);  de  Mirecouht,  Lcs  conlemporains  (Paris,  1856): 
BuET,  MidaUlons  et  camces  (Paris,  1853). 

Pierre  Marique. 

Peyjoo  y  Montenegro,  Benito  Jeronimo,  a  cele- 
brated Spanish  writer,  b.  at  Casdemiro,  in  the  parish 
of  Santa  Maria  de  Melias,  Galicia,  Spain,  8  October, 
107G;  d.  at  Oviedo,  26  September,  1764.  Intended  by 
his  parents  for  a  literary  career,  he  showed  from  a 
very  early  age  a  predilection  for  ecclesiastical  studies, 
and  in  168S  received  the  cowl  of  the  Order  of  St,  Bene- 
dict at  the  monastery  of  San  Juan  de  Samos.  A  man 
of  profound  learning,  Feyjoo  wrote  on  a  great  variety 
of  subjects,  embracing  nearly  every  branch  of  human 
knowledge.     In  his  writings  ho  attacked  many  old  in- 

stitutions, customs,  and  superstitions.  He  criticized, 
among  other  things,  the  system  of  public  instruction  in 
Spain,  offering  suggestions  for  reforms;  and  it  was 
owing  to  his  agitation  that  many  universities  adopted 
new  and  better  methods  of  teaching  logic,  physics,  and 
medicine.  He  naturally  stirred  up  many  controver- 
sies and  was  the  oliject  of  bitter  attacks,  but  he  was 
riot  without  his  supporters  and  defenders.  In  his  long 
life  he  wrote  many  works,  the  full  list  of  which  may  be 
found  in  Vol.  LVI  of  "  La  Biblioteca  de  Autores  Es- 
panoles"  (Madrid,  1883).  The  subjects  may  be  con- 
veniently grouped  as  follows:  arts;  astronomy  and 
geography;  economics;  philosophy  and  metaphysics; 
philology;  mathematics  and  physics;  natural  history; 
literature;  history;  medicine.  Nearly  all  are  included 
in  the  eight  volumes  which  bear  the  title  "Teatro 
critico  universal  6  discursos  varios  en  todo  g^nero  de 
materias  para  desengano  de  errores  comunes"  (Mad- 
rid, 1726-39)  and  in  the  five  volumes  of  his  "Cartas 
Eruditas"  (Madrid,  1742-60).  During  the  life  of  the 
author  his  works  were  translated  into  French,  Italian, 
German,  and  after  his  death  into  English.  At  his 
death  Feyjoo  was  laid  to  rest  in  the  church  of  San 
Vicente  at  Oviedo.  A  fine  statue  in  his  memory  orna- 
ments the  entrance  to  the  National  Library  at  Madrid. 
Vicente  de  la  Fuente,  Vida  y  Juicio  Critico  de  Feyj'do  in 
Rivadeneira,  Biblioteca  de  Autores  Espafioles  (Madrid,  1848- 
86),  LVI. 

Ventura  Fuentes. 

Fiacc,  Saint  (about  415-520),  poet,  chief  bishop 
of  Leinster,  and  founder  of  two  churches.  His  father, 
Mac  Dara,  was  prince  of  the  Hy-Bairrche  in  the  coun- 
try around  Carlow.  His  mother  was  sister  of  Dubh- 
tach,  the  chief  bard  and  brehon  of  Erin,  the  first  of 
Patrick's  converts  at  Tara,  and  the  apo.stle's  hfelong 
friend.  Fiacc  was  a  pupil  to  his  uncle  in  the  bardic 
profession  and  soon  embraced  the  Faith.  Subse- 
quently, when  Patrick  came  to  Leinster,  he  so- 
journed at  Dubhtach's  house  in  Hy-Kinsellagh  and 
selected  Fiacc,  on  Dubhtach's  recommendation,  to  be 
consecrated  bishop  for  the  converts  of  Leinster. 
Fiacc  was  then  a  widower;  his  wife  had  recently  died, 
leaving  him  one  son  named  Fiacre.  Patrick  gave 
him  an  alphabet  written  with  his  own  hand,  and 
Fiacc  acquired  with  marvellous  rapidity  the  learning 
necessary  for  the  episcopal  order.  Patrick  conse- 
crated him,  and  in  after  time  appointed  him  chief 
bishop  of  tlie  ijrovince.  Fiacc  founded  the  church  of 
Domnach-Fiech,  east  of  the  Barrow.  Dr.  Healy 
identifies  its  site  at  Kylebeg.  To  this  church  Patrick 
presented  sacred  vestments,  a  bell,  the  Pauline  Epis 
ties,  and  a  pastoral  staff.  After  many  years  of  aus 
tere  life  in  this  place,  Fiacc  was  led  by  angelic  com- 
mand to  remove  to  the  west  of  the  Barrow,  for  there 
"he  would  find  the  place  of  his  resurrection".  The 
legends  state  that  he  was  directed  to  build  his  oratory 
where  he  should  meet  a  hind,  his  refectory  where  he 
should  find  a  boar.  He  consulted  Patrick,  the  latter 
fixed  the  site  of  his  new  church  at  Sletty — "  the  high- 
land " — a  mile  and  a  half  north-west  of  Carlow.  Here 
Fiacc  built  a  large  monastery,  which  he  ruled  as  abbot, 
while  at  the  same  time  he  governed  the  surrounding 
country  as  bishop.  His  annual  Lenten  retreat  to  the 
cave  of  Drum-Coblai  and  the  rigours  of  his  Lenten 
fast,  on  five  barley  loaves  mixed  with  ashes,  are  men- 
tioned in  his  life  by  Jocelyn  of  Furness.  He  suffered 
for  many  years  from  a  painful  disease,  and  Patrick, 
commiserating  his  infirmity,  sent  him  a  chariot  and 
a  pair  of  horses  to  help  him  in  the  visitation  of  the  dio- 
cese. He  lived  to  a  very  old  age;  sixty  of  his  pious 
disciples  were  gathered  to  their  rest  before  him.  His 
festival  has  been  always  observed  on  the  12th  of  Octo- 
ber. He  was  buried  in  his  own  church  at  Sletty,  his 
son  Fiacre,  whom  Patrick  had  ordained  priest,  occupy- 
ing the  same  grave.  They  are  mentioned  in  several 
calendars  as  jointly  revered  in  certain  churches. 

St.  Fiacc  is  the  reputed  author  of  the  metrical  life  of 




St.  Patrick  in  Irish,  a  document  of  undoubted  an- 
tiquity and  of  prime  importance  as  the  earhest  biog- 
raphy of  the  saint  that  has  come  down  to  us.  A 
hymn  on  St.  Brigid,  "Audite  virginis  laudes",  has 
been  sometimes  attributed  to  him,  but  on  insufficient 

Acta  SS.,  12  Oct.;  Colgan,  Trias  Thnum.  (Louvain,  1647); 
Ware,  The  Writers  of  Ireland  (Dublin,  1746),  I,  II.  7;  Laotgan, 
Eccles.  Hist,  of  Ireland  (Dublin.  1S29),  I;  Healy,  Ireland's  An- 
cient Schools  and  Scholars  (Dublin,  1902),-  Irish  Eccl.  Record, 
March,  1868;  Liber  Hymnorum  (Trinity  College.  Dublin),  ed. 
Todd  (1855-69)  and  Bernard  and  Atkinson  (1898). 


Fiacre,  S.unt,  Abbot,  b.  in  Ireland  about  the  end 
of  the  sixth  century;  d.  IS  August,  (370.  Having  been 
ordained  priest,  he  retired  to  a  hermitage  on  the  banks 
of  the  Nore  of  which  the  townland  Kilfiachra,  or  Ivil- 
fera,  Co.  Kilkenny,  still  preserves  the  memory.  Dis- 
ciples flocked  to  him.  but,  desirous  of  greater  solitude, 
he  left  his  native  land  and  arrived,  in  628,  at  Meaux, 
where  St.  Faro  then  held  episcopal  sway.  He  was 
generously  received  by  Faro,  whose  kindly  feelings 
were  engaged  to  the  Irish  monk  for  blessings  which  he 
and  his  father's  house  had  received  from  the  Irish 
missionary  Columbanus.  Faro  granted  him  out  of  his 
own  patrimony  a  site  at  Brogillum  (Breuil)  surrounded 
by  forests.  Here  Fiacre  built  an  oratory  in  honour  of 
the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  a  hospice  in  which  he  re- 
ceived strangers,  and  a  cell  in  which  he  himself  lived 
apart.  He  lived  a  life  of  great  mortification,  in 
prayer,  fast,  vigil,  and  the  manual  labour  of  the  gar- 
den. Disciples  gathered  around  him  and  soon  formed 
a  monastery.  There  is  a  legend  that  St.  Faro  allowed 
him  as  much  land  as  he  might  surround  in  one  day 
with  a  furrow;  that  Fiacre  turned  up  the  earth  with 
the  point  of  his  crosier,  and  that  an  officious  woman 
hastened  to  tell  Faro  that  he  was  being  beguiled;  that 
Faro  coming  to  the  wood  recognized  that  the  wonder- 
worker was  a  man  of  God  and  sought  his  blessing,  and 
that  Fiacre  henceforth  excluded  women,  on  pain  of 
severe  bodily  infirmity,  from  the  precincts  of  his 
monastery.  In  reality,  the  exclusion  of  women  was  a 
common  rule  in  the  Irish  foundations.  His  fame  for 
miracles  was  widespread.  He  cured  all  manner  of 
diseases  by  laying  on  his  hands;  blindness,  polypus, 
fevers  are  mentioned,  and  especially  a  tumour  or 
fistula  since  called  "le  fie  de  S.  Fiacre". 

His  remains  were  interred  in  his  church  at  Breuil, 
where  his  sanctity  was  soon  attested  by  the  numerous 
cures  wrought  at  his  tomb.  Many  churches  and  ora- 
tories have  been  dedicated  to  him  throughout  France. 
His  shrine  at  Breuil  is  still  a  resort  for  pilgrims  with 
bodily  ailments.  In  1234  his  remains  were  placed  in  a 
shrine  by  Pierre,  Bishop  of  Meaux,  his  arm  being  en- 
cased in  a  separate  reliquary.  In  1479  the  relics  of 
Sts.  Fiacre  and  Kilian  were  placed  in  a  silver  shrine, 
which  was  removed  in  156S  to  the  cathedral  church  at 
Meaux  for  safety  from  the  destructive  fanaticism  of 
the  Calvinists.  In  1617  the  Bishop  of  Meaux  gave 
part  of  the  saint's  body  to  the  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany, 
and  in  1637  the  shrine  was  again  opened  and  part  of 
the  vertebrse  given  to  Cardinal  Richelieu.  A  mystery 
play  of  the  fifteenth  century  celebrates  St.  Fiacre's 
life  and  miracles.  St.  John  of  Matha,  Louis  XIII,  and 
Anne  of  Austria  were  among  his  most  famous  clients. 
He  is  the  patron  of  gardeners.  The  French  cab  de- 
rives its  name  from  him.  The  Hotel  de  St-Fiacre,  in 
the  Rue  .St-Martin,  Paris,  in  the  middle  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  first  let  these  coaches  on  hire.  The 
sign  of  the  inn  was  an  image  of  the  saint,  and  the 
coaches  in  time  came  to  be  called  by  his  name.  His 
feast  is  kept  on  the  30th  of  .August. 

Acta  .S'.S'..30  Aug.;  Lanii;an,  Ere.  of  Ireland  (Dublin. 
1829).  II.  446-44S;  O'Hanlon,  LUvh  of  the  Irish  Saints.  30 
Aug.,  VIII,  421;  Marlitrologil  of  Doneijat,  229;  Butler,  Lives 
of  the  Saints,  30  Aug.;  I.iTTRE.  French  Diet.,  s.  v.;  Ricard.  La 
vie  et  lea  miracles  de  S.  Fiacre  d'apres  les  Bollandiates  avec  piices 
iuetificatives  (Paris,  1865). 

C.    MnLCAHY. 


Fiammingo  (The  Fleming),  Dennis.    See  Cal- 


Ficino,  Marsilio,  philosopher,  philologist,  phy- 
sician; b.  at  Florence,  19  Oct.,  1433;  d.  at  Correggio, 
1  Oct.,  1499.  Son  of  the  physician  of  Cosmo  de' 
Medici,  he  served  the  Medicis  for  three  generations 
and  received  from  them  a  villa  at  Monte  Vecchio. 
He  studied  at  Florence  and  at  Bologna;  and  was  spe- 
cially protected  in  his  early  work  by  Cosmo  de'  Medici, 
who  chose  him  to  translate  the  works  of  Plato  into 
Latin.  The  Council  of  Florence  (1439)  brought  to  the 
city  a  number  of  Greek  scholars,  and  this  fact,  com- 
bined with  the  founding  of  the  Platonic  Academy,  of 
which  Ficino  was  elected  president,  gave  an  impetus 
to  the  study  of  Greek  and  especially  to  that  of  Plato. 
Ficino  became  an  ardent  admirer  of  Plato  and  a  prop- 
agator of  Plato- 
nism,  or  rather 
neo-Platonism,  to 
an  unwarranted 
degree,  going  so 
far  as  to  maintain 
that  Plato  should 
be  read  in  the 
churches,  mil 
claiming  Socrai'  - 
and  Plato  as  fi_>ri'- 
runners  of  Christ. 
He  taught  Plato 
in  the  Academ^y  of 
Florence,  and  it  is 
said  he  kept  a  light 
burning  before  a 
bust  of  Plato  in  hia 
room.  It  is  supposed  that  the  works  of  Savonarola 
drew  Ficino  closer  to  the  spirit  of  the  Church.  He 
was  ordained  priest  in  1477  and  became  a  canon  of  the 
cathedral  of  Florence.  His  disposition  was  mild,  but 
at  times  he  had  to  use  his  knowledge  of  music  to  drive 
away  melancholy.  His  knowledge  of  medicine  was 
applied  very  largely  to  himself,  becoming  almost  a 
superstition  in  its  detail.  As  a  philologist  his  worth 
was  recognized,  and  Reuchlin  sent  him  pupils  from 
Germany.     Angelo  Poliziano  was  one  of  his  pupils. 

As  a  translator  his  work  was  painstaking  and  faith- 
ful, though  his  acquaintance  with  Greek  and  Latin 
was  by  no  means  perfect.  He  translatetl  the  "Argo- 
nautica",  the  "Orphic  Hymns",  Homer's  "Hymns", 
and  Hesiod's  "  Theogony  " ;  his  translation  of  Plato  ap- 
peared before  the  Greek  text  of  Plato  was  published. 
He  also  translated  Plotinus,  Porphyry,  Proclus,  lam- 
blichus,  Alcinous,  Synesius,  Psellus,  the  "  Golden 
Thoughts  "  of  Pythagoras,  and  the  works  of  Dionysius 
the  Areopagite.  When  a  young  man  he  wrote  an 
"Introduction  to  the  Philosophy  of  Plato";  his  most 
important  work  was  "Theologia  Platonica  de  anima- 
rum  immortalitate"  (Florence.  1482);  a  shorter  form 
of  this  work  is  found  in  his  "  Compendium  theologiae 
Platonic;e".  He  respects  Aristotle  and  calls  St. 
Thomas  the  "glory  of  theology";  yet  for  him  Plato  is 
the  philosopher.  Christianity,  he  says,  must  rest  on 
philosophic  grounds;  in  Plato  alone  do  we  find  the 
arguments  to  support  its  claims,  hence  he  considers 
the  revival  of  Plato  an  intervention  of  Providence. 
Plato  does  not  stop  at  immediate  causes,  but  rises  to 
the  highest  cause,  God,  in  Whom  he  sees  all  things. 
The  philosophy  of  Plato  is  a  logical  outcome  of  pre- 
vious thon<;ht,  beginning  with  the  Egyptians  and  ad- 
vancing .step  l)y  step  till  Plato  takes  up  the  mysteries 
of  religion  and  casts  them  in  a  form  that  made  it  pos- 
sible for  the  neoPlatonist  to  set  them  forth  clearly. 
The  seed  is  to  be  found  in  Plato,  its  full  expression  in 
the  neo-Platonists.  Ficino  follows  t  liis  line  of  thought 
in  speaking  of  the  human  soul,  which  he  considered  as 
the  image  of  the  God-head,  a  part  of  tlie  great  chain 
of  existence  coming  forth  from  God  and  leading  back 




to  the  same  source,  giving  us  at  the  same  time  a  view 
of  the  attributes  of  God  and  of  his  relations  to  the 
world.  His  style  is  not  always  clear.  Perhaps  his 
distinctive  merit  rests  on  the  fact  that  he  introduced 
Platonic  philosophy  into  Europe.  Besides  the  works 
already  mentioned,  he  left:  "De  religione  Christiana 
et  fidei  pietate",  dedicated  to  Lorenzo  de'  Medici;  "  In 
Epistolas  Pauli  commentaria";  Marsilii  Ficini  Epis- 
tolse  (Venice,  1491;  Florence,  1497).  His  collected 
works:  Opera  (Florence,  1491,  Venice,  1516,  Basel, 

ScHELiioRN,  De  Vila,  vioribus  et  scriplis  Marsilii  Ficini  com- 
mcntalio  in  his  Amocnit.  Lit.,  Tom.  I;  CoRSi,  Commaitarius, 
etc.,  seu  M.  Ficini  vita,  ed.  Bandini  (Pisa,  1771);  ^Sieveking, 
Gesch.  d.  plalonisch  Akademie  zu  Florenz  (Gottingen,  1S12); 
TlRABOSCHl,  jSioria  delta  letteratura  italiana  (Modena.  1771-S2); 
RoBCOE,  Life  of  Lorenzo  de'  Medici  (London,  1865);  J.  A. 
Symonds,  The  Renaissance  in  Italy  (Scribner's,  New  York, 
1898),  II;  Stockl,  Gesch.  d.  Philosophie  d.  Miltclalters  (Mainz, 
1866),  III;  Gabotto,  L' epicurcismo  di  Ficino  (Milan,  1891). 
M.  Schumacher. 

Ficker,  Julius  (more  correctly  Caspar)  von,  his- 
torian, b.  at  Paderborn,  Germany,  30  April,  1826;  d.  at 
Innsbruck,  10  June,  1902.  He  studied  history  and 
law  at  Bonn,  Munster,  and  Berlin,  and  during  1848-49 
lived  in  Frankfort-on-the-Main,  where  he  was  closely  as- 
sociated with  the  noted  historian,  Bohmer,  who  proved 
himself  a  generous  friend  and  patron.  In  1852  he  pro- 
ceeded to  Bonn,  but  shortly  afterwards  accepted  an 
invitation  from  Count  Leo  Thun,  the  reorganizer  of  the 
Austrian  system  of  education,  to  settle  at  Innsbruck 
as  professor  of  general  history.  In  1863,  however,  he 
joined  the  faculty  of  jurisprudence,  and  his  lectures  on 
political  and  legal  history  drew  around  him  a  large 
circle  of  devoted  and  admiring  pupils.  In  1866  he  was 
elected  member  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,  but  re- 
tired, after  being  ennobled  by  the  Emperor  of  Aus- 
tria, in  1879.  His  numerous  and  important  works 
extend  over  three  branches  of  scientific  history  (i.  e. 
political  and  legal  history  and  the  science  of  diplo- 
macy), and  in  each  division  he  discovered  new  methods 
of  investigation.  Among  his  writings  those  of  especial 
note  are:  "Rainald  von  Dassel,  Reichskanzler  und 
Erzbischof  von  Koln"  (Cologne,  1850);  "Munster- 
ische  Chroniken  des  Mittelalters"  (Mimster,  1851); 
"Engelbert  der  Heilige,  Erzbischof  von  Koln"  (Co- 
logne, 1853) ;  "  Die  Ueberreste  des  deutschen  Reichs- 
archivs  in  Pisa"  (Vienna,  1855).  The  second  division 
of  his  works  includes  "  Ueber  einen  Spiegel  deutscher 
Leute"  (Vienna,  1857);  ''Ueber  die  Entstehungs- 
zeit  des  Sachsenspiegels"  (Innsbruck  1859);  "Vom 
Reichsf urstenstande  "  (Innsbruck,  1S61);  "Forschun- 
genzurReichs-u.  Rechtsgeschichte  Italiens"  (4  vols., 
Innsbruck,  1868-74) ;  "  Untersuchungen  zur  Rechts- 
geschichte" (3  vols.,  Innsbruck,  1891-97).  Finally 
he  proved  himself  a  master  in  diplomatics  in  his 
"Beitriige  zur  Urkundenlehre"  (2  vols.,  Innsbruck, 
1877-78).  During  the  period  1859-1866,  he  was  en- 
gaged in  a  literary  controversy  with  the  historian, 
Heinrich  von  Sybel,  on  the  significance  of  the  German 
Empire.  Ficker  advocated  and  defended  the  theory 
that  Austria,  on  account  of  its  blending  of  races,  was 
best  fitted  as  successor  of  the  old  empire  to  secure  the 
political  advancement  both  of  Central  Europe  and  of 
Germany.  In  support  of  his  theory,  he  wrote  "Das 
deutsche  Kaiserreich  in  seinen  universalen  und  nation- 
alen  Beziehungen"  (Innsbruck,  1871),  and  "Deut- 
sches  Konigtum  und  Kaisertum"  (Innsbruck,  1872). 
As  legatee  of  Bohmer's  literary  estate,  he  published 
the  "Acta  Imperii  seleeta"  (Innsbruck,  1870)  and 
directed  the  completion  and  revision  of  the  "  Regesta 

Jung,  Zur  Erinnemnij  an  J.  Ficker,  in  Allgemein-e  Zcitunfr, 
supplement  (1902).  293-9.'5;  Idem,  Beitrag  zur  deutschen  Gelehr- 
tengeschichte  (Innsbruch,  1908);  Bettelheim,  Biographischcs 
Jahrbuch,  VII  (1905),  299-306. 

Patricius  Schlager. 

Fidatus,  Simeon  a  Cascia.    Sec  Simon  of  Cassia. 

Fideism  (Lat.  fides,  faith),  a  philosophical  term 
meaning  a  system  of  philosophy  or  an  attitude  of 
mind,  which,  denying  the  power  of  unaided  human 
reason  to  reach  certitude,  affirms  that  the  funda- 
mental act  of  human  knowledge  consists  in  an  act  of 
faith,  and  the  supreme  criterion  of  certitude  is  author- 
ity. Fideism  has  divers  degrees  and  takes  divers 
forms,  according  to  the  field  of  truth  to  which  it  is  ex- 
tended, and  the  various  elements  which  are  affirmed 
as  constituting  the  authority.  For  some  fideists,  hu- 
man reason  cannot  of  itself  reach  certitude  in  regard 
to  any  truth  whatever;  for  others,  it  cannot  reach 
certitude  in  regartl  to  the  funtlamental  truths  of  meta- 
physics, morality  and  religion,  while  some  maintain 
that  we  can  give  a  firm  supernatural  assent  to  revela- 
tion on  motives  of  credibility  that  are  merely  prob- 
able. Authority,  which  according  to  fideism  is  the 
rule  of  certitude,  has  its  ultimate  foundation  in  divine 
revelation,  preserved  and  transmitted  in  all  ages 
through  society  and  manifested  by  tradition,  common 
sense  or  some  other  agent  of  a  social  character.  Fide- 
ism was  maintained  by  Huet,  Bishop  of  Avranches,  in 
his  work  "  De  imbecillitate  mentis  humana; "  (Amster- 
dam, 1748);  by  de  Bonald,  who  laid  great  stress  on 
tradition  in  society  as  the  means  of  the  transmission 
of  revelation  and  the  criterion  of  certitude;  by  Lamen- 
nais,  who  assigns  as  a  rule  of  certitude  the  general 
reason  (la  raison  g^n^rale)  or  common  consent  of  the 
race  (Defense  de  1  essai  sur  I'indill^rence,  chs.  viii,  xi) ; 
by  Bonnetty  in  "  Annales  de  philosophie  chr^tienne"; 
by  Bautain,  Ventura,  Ubaghs,  and  others  at  Louvain. 
These  are  sometimes  called  moderate  fideists,  for, 
though  they  maintained  that  human  reason  is  unable 
to  know  the  fundamental  truths  of  the  moral  and  reli- 
gious orders,  they  admitted  that,  after  accepting  the 
teaching  of  revelation  concerning  them,  human  intel- 
ligence can  demonstrate  the  reasonableness  of  such 
a  belief  (cf.  Ubaghs,  I^ogica;  seu  Philosophise  ratio- 
nalis  elementa,  Louvain,  1860). 

In  addition  to  these  systematic  formulae  of  fideism, 
we  find  throughout  the  history  of  philosophy  from  the 
time  of  the  sophists  to  the  present  day  a  fideistic  atti- 
tude of  mind,  which  became  more  or  less  conspicuous 
at  different  periods.  Fideism  owes  its  origin  to  dis- 
trust in  human  reason,  and  the  logical  sequence  of 
such  an  attitude  is  scepticism.  It  is  to  escape  from 
this  conclusion  that  some  philosophers,  accepting  as  a 
principle  the  inipotency  of  reason,  have  emphasized 
the  need  of  belief  on  the  part  of  human  nature,  either 
asserting  the  primacy  of  belief  over  reason  or  else  af- 
firming a  radical  separation  between  reason  and  belief, 
that  is,  between  science  and  philosophy  on  the  one 
hand  and  religion  on  the  other.  Such  is  the  position 
taken  by  Kant,  when  he  distinguishes  between  pure 
reason,  confined  to  suljjectivity,  and  practical  reason, 
which  alone  is  able  to  put  us  by  an  act  of  faith  in 
relation  with  objective  reality.  It  is  also  a  fideistic 
attitude  which  is  the  occasion  of  agnosticism,  of  posi- 
tivism, of  pragmatism  and  other  modern  forms  of  anti- 
intellectualism.  As  against  these  views,  it  must  be 
noted  that  authority,  even  the  authority  of  God,  can- 
not be  the  supreme  criterion  of  certitude,  and  an  act  of 
faith  cannot  be  the  primary  form  of  human  knowledge. 
This  authority,  indeed,  in  order  to  be  a  motive  of  assent, 
must  be  previously  acknowledged  as  being  certainly 
valid;  before  we  believe  in  a  proposition  as  revealed  by 
God,  we  must  first  know  with  certitude  that  God  ex- 
ists, that  He  reveals  such  and  such  a  proposition,  and 
that  His  teaching  is  worthy  of  assent,  all  of  which 
questions  can  and  must  be  ultimately  decided  only  by 
an  act  of  intellectual  assent  based  on  objective  evi- 
dence. Thus,  fideism  not  only  denies  intellectual 
knowledge,  but  logically  ruins  faith  itself. 

It  is  not  surprising,  therefore,  that  the  Church  has 
condemned  such  doctrines.  In  134S,  the  Holy  See 
proscribed  certain  fideistic  propositions  of  Nicholas 
d'Autrecourt  (cf.  Denzinger,  Enchiridion,  lOtb  ed.,  nn. 




553-570).  In  his  two  Encyclicals,  one  of  September, 
1832,  and  tlie  other  of  July,  1834,  Gregory  XVI  con- 
demned the  political  and  philosophical  ideas  of  Lamen- 
nais.  On  8  September,  1S40,  Bautain  was  required  to 
subscribe  to  several  propositions  directly  opposed  to 
Fideism,  the  first  and  the  fifth  of  which  read  as  fol- 
lows: "Human  reason  is  able  to  prove  with  certitude 
the  existence  of  God ;  faith,  a  heavenly  gift,  is  posterior 
to  revelation,  and  therefore  cannot  be  properly  used 
against  the  atheist  to  prove  the  existence  of  God"; 
and  "The  use  of  reason  precedes  faith  and,  with  the 
help  of  revelation  and  grace,  leads  to  it."  Tlie  same 
propositions  were  subscribed  to  by  Bonnetty  on  11 
June,  1855  (cf.  Denzinger,  nn.  1650-1652).  In  his 
Letter  of  11  December,  1862,  to  the  Archbishop  of 
Munich,  Pius  IX,  while  condemning  Frohschammer's 
naturalism,  affirms  the  ability  of  human  reason  to  reach 
certitude  concerning  the  fundamental  truths  of  the 
moral  and  religious  order  (ci.  Denzinger,  1666-1676). 
And,  finally,  the  Vatican  Council  teaches  as  a  dogma 
of  Catholic  faith  that  "  one  true  God  and  Lord  can  be 
known  with  certainty  by  the  natural  light  of  human 
reason  by  means  of  the  things  that  are  made  "  (Const. 
"De  FideCatholica",Sess.  Ill,  can.  i,  De  Revelatione; 
cf.  Granderath,  "  Constitutiones  dogmaticae  Cone. 
Vatic",  Freiburg,  1892,  p.  32-  cf.  Denzinger,  n.  1806). 

As  to  the  opinion  of  those  who  maintain  that  our 
supernatural  assent  is  prepared  for  by  motives  of  cred- 
ibility merely  probable,  it  is  evident  tliat  it  logically 
destroys  the  certitutle  of  such  an  assent.  This  opinion 
was  condemned  by  Innocent  XI  in  the  decree  of  2 
March,  1679  (cf.  Denzinger,  n.  1171),  and  by  PiusX  in 
the  decree  "  Lamentabili  sane  "  n.  25:  "  Assensus  fidei 
ultimo  innititur  in  congerie  probabilitatum"  (The 
assent  of  faith  is  ultimately  based  on  a  sum  of  proba- 
bilities). Revelation,  indeed,  is  the  supreme  motive  of 
faith  in  supernatural  truths,  yet  the  existence  of  this 
motive  and  its  validity  has  to  be  established  by  reason. 
No  one  will  deny  the  importance  of  authority  ami 
tradition  or  common  consent  in  human  society  for  our 
knowledge  of  natural  truths.  It  is  quite  evident  that 
to  despise  the  teaching  of  the  sages,  the  scientific  dis- 
coveries of  the  past,  and  tlie  voice  of  common  consent 
would  be  to  condemn  ourselves  to  a  perpetual  infancy 
in  knowledge,  to  render  impossible  any  progress  in 
science,  to  ignore  the  social  character  of  man,  and  to 
make  human  life  intolerable;  but,  on  the  other  hand, 
it  is  an  error  to  make  these  elements  the  supreme 
criteria  of  truth,  since  they  are  only  particular  rules  of 
certitude,  the  validity  of  whicli  is  grounded  upon  a 
more  fundamental  rule.  It  is  indeed  true  that  moral 
certitude  differs  from  mathematical,  but  the  difference 
lies  not  in  tiie  firnmess  or  validity  of  the  certainty  af- 
forded, but  in  the  process  employed  and  the  disposi- 
tions required  by  the  nature  of  the  truths  with  which 
they  respectively  deal.  Tlie  Catholic  doctrine  on  this 
question  is  in  accord  with  history  and  philosophy.  Re- 
jecting both  rationalism  and  fideism,  it  teaches  that  hu- 
man reason  is  capable  (physical  ability)  of  knowing 
the  moral  and  religious  truths  of  the  natural  order; 
that  it  can  prove  with  certainty  the  existence  of  God, 
the  immortality  of  the  soul,  and  can  acknowledge 
most  certainly  the  teaching  of  God;  that,  however,  in 
the  present  conditions  of  life,  it  needs  (of  moral  neces- 
sity) the  help  of  revelation  to  acquire  a  sufficient 
knowledge  of  all  the  natural  truths  necessary  to  direct 
human  life  according  to  the  precepts  of  natural  re- 
ligion (Cone.  Vatic,  "De  Fide  Cath.",  cap.  ii;  cf.  St. 
Thomas,  "Cont.  Gent.",  Lib.  I,  c  iv). 

Perrone,  Prcelecliones  theoloaicjE,  vol.  I:  De  verd  Religione; 
Olle-Laprune. /)c/a  Certitude  Morale  (5th  ed.,  Paris.  190."i); 
Mercier,  Criteriologie  ffenerate  (4th  ed.,  Louvain,  19()0,),  III. 
ch.  i;  John  Rickaby,  The  First  Principles  of  Knowledge  (4th 
ed.,  London,  1901),  chs.  xii,  xiii. 

G.  M.  Sauvage. 

Fidelis  of  Sigmaringen,  Saint,  b.  in  1577,  at 
Sigmaringen,  Prussia,  of  which  town  his  father  Johan- 

nes Rey  was  burgomaster;  d.  at  Sevis,  24  April,  1622. 
On  the  paternal  side  he  was  of  Flemish  ancestry.  He 
pursued  his  studies  at  the  University  of  Freiburg  in 
the  Breisgau,  and  in  1604  became  tutor  to  Wilhelm  von 
Stotzingen,  with  whom  he  travelled  in  France  and 
Italy.  In  the  process  for  Fidelis's  canonization  Wil- 
helm von  Stotzingen  bore  witness  to  the  severe  morti- 
fications his  tutor  practised  on  these  journeys.  In 
1611  he  returned  to  Freiburg  to  take  the  doctorate  in 
canon  ami  civil  law,  and  at  once  began  to  practise  as 
an  advocate.  But  the  open  corruption  which  found 
place  in  the  law  courts  determined  him  to  relinquish 
that  profession  and  to  enter  the  Church.  He  was  or- 
dained priest  the  following  year,  and  immediately 
afterwards  was  received  into  the  Order  of  Friars  Minor 
of  the  Capuchin  Reform  at  Freiburg,  taking  the  name 
of  Fidelis.  He  has  left  an  interesting  memorial  of  his 
novitiate  and  of  his  spiritual  development  at  that  time 
in  a  book  of  spiritual  exercises  which  he  wrote  for  him- 
self. This  work  was  re-edited  by  Father  Michael 
Hetzenauer,  O.  M.  Cap.,  and  republished  in  1893  at 
Stuttgart  under  the  title:  "S.  Fidelis  a  Sigmaringen 
exercitia  seraphicae  devotionis".  From  the  novitiate 
he  was  sent  to  Constance  to  finish  his  studies  in  the- 
ology under  Father  John  Baptist,  a  Polishfriarof  great 
repute  for  learning  and  hohness.  At  the  conclusion  of 
his  theological  studies  Fidelis  was  appointed  guardian 
first  of  the  community  at  Rheintelden,  and  after- 
wards at  Freiburg  and  Feldkirch.  .-Vs  a  preacher  his 
burning  zeal  earned  for  him  a  great  reputation. 

From  the  beginning  of  his  apostolic  career  he  was 
untiring  in  his  efforts  to  convert  heretics;  nor  did  he 
confine  his  efforts  in  this  direction  to  the  pulpit,  but 
also  used  his  pen.  He  wrote  many  pamphlets  against 
Calvinism  and  Zwinglianism,  though  he  would  never 
put  his  name  to  his  writings.  Unfortunately  these 
publications  have  long  been  lost.  Fidelis  was  still 
guardian  of  the  community  at  Feldkirch  when  in 
1621  he  was  appointed  to  undertake  a  mission  in  the 
country  of  the  Grisons  with  the  purpose  of  bringing 
back  that  district  to  the  Catholic  Faith.  The  people 
there  had  almost  all  gone  over  to  Calvinism,  owing 
partly  to  the  ignorance  of  the  priests  and  their  lack  of 
zeal.  In  1614  the  Bishop  of  Coire  had  requested  the 
Capuchins  to  undertake  missions  amongst  the  heretics 
in  his  diocese,  but  it  was  not  until  1621  that  the  gen- 
eral of  the  order  was  able  to  send  friars  there.  In  that 
year  Father  Ignatius  of  Bergamo  was  commissioned 
with  several  other  friars  to  place  himself  at  the  dis- 
posal of  this  bishop  for  missionary  work ;  and  a  similar 
commission  was  given  to  Fidelis,  who,  however,  still 
remained  guardian  of  Feldkirche.  Before  setting  out 
on  this  mission  Fidelis  was  appointed  by  authority  of 
the  papal  nuncio  to  reform  the  Benedictine  monastery 
at  Pfiifers.  He  entered  upon  his  new  labours  in  the 
true  apostolic  spirit.  Since  he  first  entered  the  order 
he  had  constantly  prayed,  as  he  confided  to  a  fellow- 
friar,  for  two  favours:  one,  that  he  might  never  fall 
into  mortal  sin;  the  other,  that  he  might  die  for  the 
Faith.  In  this  spirit  he  now  set  out,  ready  to  give  his 
life  in  preaching  the  Faith.  He  took  with  him  his 
crucifix,  Bible,  Breviary,  and  the  book  of  the  rule  of 
his  order;  for  the  rest,  he  went  in  absolute  poverty, 
trusting  to  Divine  Providence  for  his  daily  sustenance. 
He  arrived  in  Mayenfeld  in  time  for  Advent  and  began 
at  once  preaching  and  catechizing;  often  preaching  in 
several  places  the  same  day.  His  coming  aroused 
strong  opposition  and  he  was  frequently  threatened 
and  insulted.  He  not  only  preached  in  the  Catholic 
churches  and  in  the  public  streets,  but  occasionally  in 
the  conventicles  of  the  heretics.  At  Zizers,  one  of  the 
principal  centres  of  his  activity,  heheld  conferences  with 
the  magistrates  and  chief  townsmen,  often  far  into  the 
night.  They  resulted  in  the  conversion  of  Rudolph  de 
Sails,  the  most  influential  man  in  the  town,  whose  pub- 
lic recantation  was  followed  by  many  conversions. 

Throughout  the  winter  Fidelis  laboured  indef  atigably 




and  with  such  success  that  the  heretic  preachers  were 
seriously  alarmed  and  set  themselves  to  inflame  the 
people  against  him  by  representing  that  his  mission 
was  political  rather  than  religious  and  that  he  was  pre- 
paring the  way  for  the  subj  ugation  of  the  country  by  the 
Austrians.  During  the  Lent  of  1622  he  preached  with 
especial  fervour.  At  Easter  he  returned  to  Feldkirch 
to  attend  a  chapter  of  the  order  and  settle  some  afTairs 
of  his  community.  By  this  time  the  Congregation  of 
the  Propaganda  had  been  established  in  Rome,  and 
Fidelis  was  formally  constituted  by  the  Congregation, 
superior  of  the  mission  in  the  Orisons.  lie  had,  how- 
ever, a  presentiment  that  his  labours  would  shortly  be 
brought  to  a  close  by  a  martyr's  death.  Preaching  a 
farewell  sermon  at  Feldkirch  he  said  as  much.  On 
re-entering  the  country  of  the  Orisons  he  was  met 
everywhere  with  the  cry:  "Death  to  the  Capuchins!" 
On  24  April,  being  then  at  Orusch,  he  made  his  confes- 
sion and  afterwards  celebrated  Mass  and  preached. 
Then  he  set  out  for  Sevis.  On  the  way  his  companions 
noticed  that  he  was  particularly  cheerful.  At  Sevis  he 
entered  the  church  and  began  to  preach,  but  was  in- 
terrupted by  a  sudden  tumult  both  within  and  with- 
out the  church.  Several  Austrian  soldiers  who  were 
guarding  the  doors  of  the  church  were  killed  and 
Fidelis  himself  was  struck.  A  Calvinist  present  offered 
to  lead  him  to  a  place  of  security.  Fidelis  thanked  the 
man  but  said  his  life  was  in  the  hands  of  Ood.  Out- 
side the  church  he  was  surrounded  by  a  crowd  led  by 
the  preachers  who  ofTered  to  save  his  life  if  he  would 
apostatize.  Fidelis  replied:  "I  came  to  extirpate 
heresy,  not  to  embrace  it",  whereupon  he  was  struck 
down.  He  was  the  first  martyr  of  the  Congregation  of 
Propaganda.  His  body  was  afterwards  taken  to  Feld- 
kirch and  buried  in  the  church  of  his  order,  except  his 
head  and  left  arm,  which  were  placed  in  the  cathedral 
at  Coire.  He  was  beatified  in  1729,  and  canonized  in 
1745.  St.  Fidelis  is  usually  represented  in  art  with  a 
crucifix  and  with  a  wound  in  the  head;  his  emblem  is 
a  bludgeon.     His  feast  is  kept  on  24  April. 

Da  Cesinale,  Storia  delte  Musiojii  dei  Cappuccini  (Home, 
1872),  II;  De  Paris,  Vie  de  Saint  Fidele  (Paris,  1745);  Delia 
SCALA,  Der  hciligc  Fidelia  von  Sigmaringen  (Mainz,  1896). 

Father  Cuthbert. 
Fides  Instrumentorum.    See  Protocol. 
Fiefs  of  the  Holy  See.    See  Holy  See. 

Fiesole,  Diocese  op  (F.«snLANA),  in  the  province 
of  Tuscany,  suffragan  of  Florence.  The  town  is  of 
Etruscan  origin,  as  may  be  seen  from  the  remains  of 
its  ancient  walls.  In  pagan  antiquity  it  was  the  seat 
of  a  famous  school  of  augurs,  and  every  year  twelve 
young  men  were  sent  thither  from  Rome  to  study  the 
art  of  divination.  Sulla  colonized  it  with  veterans, 
who  afterwards,  under  the  leadership  of  Manlius,  sup- 
ported the  cause  of  Catiline.  Near  Fiesole  the  Van- 
dals and  Suevi  under  Radagaisus  were  defeated  (405) 
by  hunger  rather  than  by  the  troops  of  Stilicho.  Dur- 
ing the  Gothic  War  (536-53)  the  town  was  several 
times  besieged.  In  539  Justinus,  the  Byzantine  gen- 
eral, captured  it  and  razed  its  fortifications.  In  the 
early  Middle  Ages  Fiesole  was  more  powerful  than 
Florence  in  the  valley  below,  and  many  wars  arose  be- 
tween them.  In  1010  and  1025  Fiesole  was  sacked  by 
the  Florentines,  and  its  leading  families  obliged  to  take 
up  their  residence  in  Florence. 

According  to  local  legend  the  Gospel  was  first 
preached  at  Fiesole  by  St.  Romulus,  a  disciple  of  St. 
Peter.  The  fact  that  the  ancient  cathedral  (now  the 
Abbazia  Fiesolana)  stands  outside  the  city  is  a  proof 
that  the  Christ  ian  origins  of  Fiesole  date  from  the  per- 
iod of  the  persecutions.  The  earliest  mention  of  a 
Bishop  of  Fiesole  is  in  a  letter  of  Cielasius  I  (492-49(')). 
A  little  later,  under  Vigilius  (537-55),  a  Bishop  Rus- 
ticus  is  incntiiirii'd  as  papal  legate  at  one  of  the  Coun- 
cils of  Constanliiiople.  Tlie  legendary  St.  Alexander 
is  said  by  some  to  belong  to  the  time  of  the  Lombard 

King  Autari  (end  of  the  sixth  century),  but  the  Bol- 
landists  assign  him  to  the  reign  of  Lothair  (middle  of 
the  ninth  century).  A  very  famous  bishop  is  St. 
Donatus,  an  Irish  monk,  the  friend  and  adviser  of  Em- 
perors Louis  the  Pious  and  Lothair.  He  was  elected 
in  826  and  is  buried  in  the  cathedral,  where  his  epi- 
taph, dictated  by  himself,  may  still  be  seen.  He 
founded  the  abbey  of  San  Martino  di  Mensola;  Bishop 
Zanobi  in  890  founded  that  of  St.  Michael  at  Passi- 
gnano,  which  was  afterwards  given  to  the  Vallombro- 
san  monks.  Other  bishops  were  Hildebrand  of  Lucca 
(1220),  exiled  by  the  Florentines;  St.  Andrew  Corsini 
(1352),  born  in  1302  of  a  noble  P'lorentine  family,  and 
who,  after  a  reckless  youth,  became  a  Carmelite  monk, 
studied  at  Paris,  and  as  bishop  was  renowned  as  a 
peacemaker  between  individuals  and  States.  He  died 
6  January,  1373,  and  was  canonized  by  Urban  VIII. 
Other  famous  bishops  were  the  Dominican  Fra  Jacopo 
Altovita  (1390),  noted  for  his  zeal  against  schism;  An- 
tonio Aglio  (1466),  a  learned  humanist  and  author  of  a 
collection  of  lives 
of  the  saints;  the 
Augustinian  Gugli- 
elmo  Bachio 
(1470),  a  cele- 
brated preacher, 
and  author  of  com- 
mentaries on  Aris- 
totle and  on  the 
"Sentences"  of 
Peter  Lombard ; 
Francesco  Cataneo 
Diaceto  (1570),  a 
theologian  at  the 
Council  of  Trent 
and  a  prolific 
writer;  Lorenzo 
who  built  the  sem- 
inary. Among  the 
glories  of  Fiesole 
should  be  men- 
tioned the  painter 
Lorenzo  Monaco  (1370-1424).  But  the  greatest 
name  associated  with  the  history  of  the  city  is  that 
of  Blessed  Giovanni  Angelico,  called  da  Fiesole 
(1387-1455).  His  baptismal  name  was  Guido, 
but,  entering  the  convent  of  the  Reformed  Domini- 
cans at  Fiesole,  he  took  the  name  of  Giovanni  in 
religion;  that  of  Angelico  was  afterwards  given  to  him 
in  allusion  to  the  beauty  and  purity  of  his  works. 

The  Cathedral  of  St.  Romulus  was  built  in  1028  by 
Bishop  Jacopo  Bavaro  with  materials  taken  from  sev- 
eral older  edifices;  it  contains  notable  sculptures  by 
Mino  da  Fiesole.  The  old  cathedral  became  a  Bene- 
dictine abbey,  and  in  course  of  time  passed  into  the 
hands  of  the  regular  canons  of  Lateran.  It  once  po.s- 
sessed  a  valuable  library,  long  since  dispersed.  The 
abbey  was  closed  in  1778.  The  diocese  has  254  par- 
ishes and  155,800  souls.  Within  its  limits  there  are  12 
monasteries  of  men,  including  the  famous  Vallom- 
brosa,  and  24  convents  for  women. 

The  principal  holy  places  of  Fiesole  are:  (1)  the 
cathedral  (II  Duonw),  containing  the  shrine  of  St. 
Romulus,  martyr,  according  to  legend  the  first  Bishop 
of  Fiesole,  and  that  of  his  martyred  companions,  also 
the  shrine  of  St.  Donatus  of  Ireland;  (2)  the  Badia  or 
ancient  cathedral  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  on  which 
Fiesole  stands,  supposed  to  cover  the  site  of  the  mar- 
tyrdom of  St.  Romulus;  (3)  the  room  in  the  bishop's 
palace  where  St.  Andrew  Corsini  lived  and  died; 
(4)  the  little  church  of  the  Primi-rana  in  the  cathedral 
square,  where  the  same  saint  was  warned  by  ( )ur  Lady 
of  his  approaching  death;  (5)  the  chun'h  of  S.  Ales- 
sandro,  with  the  shrine  of  St.  Alexander,  bishop  and 
martyr;  (6)  the  monastery  of  S.  Francesco  on  the 
crest" of  the  hill,  with  the  "cells  of  St.  Bernardine  of 

E  FOR  Bishop  Salutati 
Fiesole,  Cathedral  of  Fiesole 




Siena  and  seven  Franciscan  Beati;  (7)  S.  Girolamo, 
the  home  of  Venerable  Carlo  dei  Conti  Guidi,  founder 
of  the  Hieroiiymitcs  of  Fiesole  (13(30);  (8)  .S.  Donien- 
ico,  the  novice-home  of  Fra  Angelico  da  Fiesole  and 
of  St.  Antoninus  of  Florence;  (9)  Fontanelle,  a  villa 
near  S.  Domenico  wliere  St.  Aloysius  came  to  live  in 
the  liot  summer  months,  when  a  page  at  the  court  of 
Grand  Duke  Francesco  de'  Medici;  (10)  Fonte  Lu- 
cente,  where  a  miraculous  crucifix  is  greatly  revered. 
A  few  miles  distant  is  (11)  Monte  Senario,  the  cradle 
of  the  Servite  Order,  where  its  seven  holy  founders 
lived  in  great  austerity  and  were  cheered  at  their  deatli 
by  the  songs  of  angels;  also  (12)  S.  Martino  di  Men- 
sola,  with  the  body  of  St.  Andrew,  an  Irish  samt,  still 

Cappelletti,  Le  chiese  (Vltalia  (Venice,  1846),  XVIT,  7-72; 
Ammieato,  Gli  Vescovi  di  Fiesole  (Florence,  1637);  Phillimore, 
Fra  Angelico  (London,  1881). 

U.  Benigni. 

Figueroa,  Francisco  de,  a  celebrated  Spanish 
poet,  surnamed  "  tlie  Divine  ",  b.  at  Alcala  de  Henares, 
c.  1540;  d.  there,  1620.  Little  is  known  of  his  life, 
except  that  he  was  of  noble  family,  received  his  educa- 
tion at  the  University  of  Alcala,  and  followed  a  mili- 
tary career  for  a  time,  taking  part  in  campaigns  in 
Italy  and  Flanders.  From  a  very  early  age  Figueroa 
showed  unusual  poetical  talent,  and  his  poems  are  full 
of  fire  and  passion.  His  work  first  attracted  atten- 
tion in  Italy,  where  he  resided  for  a  time,  but  it  was 
not  long  before  he  had  earned  a  brilliant  reputation  in 
his  own  country.  Following  in  the  footsteps  of  Bos- 
can  Almogaver  and  Garcilaso,  to  whose  school  lie  be- 
longed, he  wrot«  pastoral  poems  in  the  Italian  metres, 
and  was  one  of  the  first  Spanisli  poets  who  used  with 
much  success  blank  verse,  which  had  been  introduced 
by  Boscan  in  1543.  His  best-known  and  most  highly 
praised  work  is  the  eclogue  "Tirsis",  written  entirely 
in  blank  verse.  He  was  highly  praised  by  Cervantes 
in  his  " Galatea".  It  is  unfortunate  that  but  a  small 
part  of  the  works  of  this  brilliant  poet  have  reached  us, 
the  greater  portion  having  been  burned  by  his  direc- 
tion just  before  his  death.  A  small  part,  however, 
was  preserved  and  published  by  Luis  Tribaldos  de 
Toledo,  at  Lisbon  in  1625.  They  were  reprinted  in 
1785  and  again  in  1804.  The  best  of  Figueroa's  works 
appear  in  "La  Biblioteca  de  Autores  Espaiioles"  of 
Rivadeneira,  vol.  XLII. 

TicKNOR,  History  o/  Spanish  Literature  (3  vols..  New  York, 

Ventura  Fuentes. 

Figueroa,  Francisco  Garcia  de  la  Rosa,  Fran- 
ciscan; b.  in  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  century 
at  Toluca,  in  the  Archdiocese  of  Mexico;  date  of  ilcath 
unknown.  Figueroa  possessed  extraordinary  admin- 
istrative powers  and  for  more  than  forty  years  directed 
the  affairs  of  his  order  with  singular  prudence  and  abil- 
ity, being  lector  emeritus  of  his  order,  prefect  of 
studies  of  the  college  of  Tlaltelulco,  superior  of  several 
convents,  definitor,  cu.stodian,  twice  provincial  of  the 
province  of  Santo  Evangelio,  and  visitor  to  the  other 
provinces  of  New  Spain.  He  was  much  beloved  by 
the  people,  and  highly  esteemed  by  the  viceroys  and 
bishops.  On  21  Feb.,  1790,  a  royal  order  was  received 
directing  that  all  documents  shedding  light  on  the  his- 
tory of  New  Spain  should  be  copied  and  sent  to  Spain, 
the  order  designating  in  some  instances  special  docu- 
ments which  were  wanted.  D.  Juan  Vicente  de 
Giiemes  Pacheco  do  Padilla,  second  Count  of  Revilla- 
gigedo,  viceroy  from  1789  to  1794,  entrusted  to  Father 
Figueroa  the  work  of  selecting,  arranging,  and  copying 
these  manuscripts.  To  this  task  Father  Figueroa 
brought  such  marvellous  activity  and  rare  judgment, 
both  in  selecting  the  material  and  the  copyists,  that  in 
less  than  three  years  he  turned  over  to  the  Govern- 
ment thirty-two  folio  volumes  of  almost  a  thousand 
pages  each,  in  duplicate,  containing  copies  of  original 

documents  collected  from  the  archives  of  convents  and 
from  private  collections,  for  the  most  part  almost  for- 
gotten, and  of  the  greatest  value  for  the  knowledge  of 
the  political  and  ecclesiastical  lii.story  of  the  provinces. 
Such  a  collection  contained  quite  inevitably  some  ma- 
terial not  of  the  first  importance;  there  were  docu- 
ments of  all  kinds,  but  the  collection  as  a  whole  was 
one  of  great  value.  One  copy,  which  was  sent  to 
Spain  and  examined  by  the  chronicler  Munoz,  is  pre- 
served in  the  Academia  de  Historia;  the  other  was 
kept  in  Mexico  in  the  Secretarfa  del  Virreinado,  and 
from  there  was  transferred  to  the  general  archives  of 
the  Palacio  Nacional,  where  it  is  still  kept.  The  first 
volume  of  this  was  missing,  but  about  1872  a  copy  of  it 
was  made  from  that  preserved  in  Madrid.  To  the  orig- 
inal thirty-two  volumes  another  was  added,  compiled 
years  afterwards  by  some  Franciscans,  which  contains 
a  minute  index  of  the  contents  of  the  work.  Two  other 
copies  of  the  thirty-two  volumes  were  found;  one  is 
in  Mexico,  the  property  of  Senor  Agueda,  and  the  other 
in  the  United  States  in  the  H.  H.  Bancroft  collection. 
As  this  work  of  Figueroa's  has  never  been  published 
it  may  be  of  interest  to  summarize  the  contents  of  the 
different  volumes.  They  are  as  follows:  I.  Thirty 
fragments  from  the  Museo  r'e  Boturini,  among  them 
four  letters  from  Father  Salvatierra.  II.  Treatise  on 
political  virtues  by  D.  Carlos  Sigtienza;  life  and  mar- 
tyrdom of  the  children  of  Tlaxcala;  narrative  of  New 
Mexico  by  Father  Ger6nimo  Salmeron,  Father  Velez, 
and  others.  III.  Report  of  Father  Posadas  on  Texas; 
three  fragments  on  ancient  history.  Canticles  of  Netzah- 
ualcoyotl,  etc.  IV.  Na.iative  of  IxtlLxochitl.  V-VI. 
Conquest  of  the  Kingdom  of  New  Galicia  by  D. 
Matias  de  la  Mota  Padilla.  VII-VIII.  Introduction 
to  the  history  of  Michoacan.  IX-X-XI.  Chronicle  of 
Michoacdn  by  Fray  Pablo  Beaumont.  XII.  Mexi- 
can Chronicle  by  D.  Hernando  Alvarado  Tezozomoc. 

XIII.  History   of  the  Chichimecs   by   Ixtlilxochitl. 

XIV.  Reminiscences  of  the  City  of  Mexico.  XV. 
Reminiscences  for  the  history  of  Sinaloa.  XVI-XVII. 
Notes  for  the  history  of  Sonora.  XVIII.  Important 
letters  to  elucidate  the  history  of  Sonora  and  Sinaloa. 
XIX-XX.  Documents  for  the  history  of  New  Vizcaya 
(Durango).  XXI.  Establishment  and  progress  of  the 
Missions  of  Old  California.  XXII-XXIII.  Notes  on 
New  California.  XXIV.  Log-book  kept  by  the  Fathers 
Garc^s,  Barbastro,  Font,  and  Capetillo;  voyage  of  the 
frigate  " Santiago " ;  "  Diario "  of  Llrrea  and  of  D.  J.  B. 
Anza,  etc.  XXV-XXVI.  Documents  for  the  ecclesi- 
astical and  civil  history  of  New  Mexico.  XXVII- 
XXVIII.  Documents  for  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical 
history  of  the  Province  of  Texas.  XXIX.  Documents 
for  the  history  of  Coahuila  and  Central  Mexico  (Seno 
Mexicano).  XXX.  Tampico,  Rfo  Verde,  and  Nuevo 
Leon.  XXXI.  Notes  on  the  cities  of  Vera  Cruz,  Cor- 
dova, Oaxaca,  Puebla,  Tepotzotlan,  Quer^'taro,  Guana- 
juato, Guadalajara,  Zacatecas,  and  Nootka.  XXXII. 
Pious  reminiscences  of  the  Indian  nation. 

Beristain,  BibL  hisp,  amer.  septentrional  (2d  ed.,  Mexico, 
1883);  Diccionario  Univ.  deUist.  y  Geog.,  published  in  Spain  by 
a  society;  revised  and  enlarged  by  D.  LncAS  AlamXn,  D.  J.  Gab- 
ci'a  Icazbalzeta,  and  others  (Mexico,  1853),  III;  Antonio 
Garci'a  Cubas,  Diccionario  geog,,  hist,  y  biog.  de  los  Estados 
XJnidos  Mexicanos  (Mexico,  1888),  I;  Leon,  Hist.  Gen.  de 
Mexico  (Mexico,  1902). 


Filcock,  Robert.     See  Line,  Anne 

Filelfo,  Francesco,  humanist,  b.  at  Tolentino,  25 
July,  1.398;  d.  at  Florence,  31  July,  1481.  He  studied 
grammar,  rhetoric,  and  Latin  literature  at  Padua, 
where  he  was  appointed  professor  at  the  age  of  eigh- 
teen. In  1417  he  was  invited  to  teach  eloquence  and 
moral  philosophy  at  Venice,  where  the  rights  of  cit- 
izenship were  conferred  upon  him.  Two  years  later  he 
was  appointed  secretary  to  the  Venetian  consul- 
general  at  Constantinople.  Arriving  there  in  1420,  he 
at  once  began  the  study  of  Greek  under  John  Chry- 




Francesco  Filelfc 

Boloras,  whose  daughter  he  afterwards  married,  and 
he  was  received  with  great  favour  by  the  Emperor 
John  Palseologus,  by  whom  he  was  employed  on  sev- 
eral important  diplomatic  missions.  In  1427,  receiving 
an  invitation  to  the  chair  of  eloquence  at  Venice, 
FileLfo  returned  there  with  a  great  collection  of  Greek 
books.  The  following  year  he  was  called  to  Bologna, 
and  in  1429  to  Florence,  where  he  was  received  with 
the  gre:itest  enthusiasm.  During  his  five  years'  resi- 
dence there  he  engaged  in  numerous  quarrels  with  the 
Florentine  scholars  and  incurred  the  hatred  of  the 
Medici,  so  that  in  1434  he  was  forced  to  leave  the  city. 
He  went  to  Siena  and  later  to  Milan,  where  he  was 
welcomed  by  Filippo  Maria  Visconti,  who  showered 
honours  upon 
him.  Some  years 
later,  after  Milan 
had  been  forcibly 
entered  by  PVan- 
cesco  Sforza,  Fil- 
elfo  wrote  a  his- 
tory of  Sforza's 
life  in  a  Latin  epic 
poem  of  sixteen 
books,  called  the 
"Sforziad".  In 
1474  he  left  Milan 
to  accept  a  pro- 
fessorship at 
P>ome,  where,  ow- 
ing to  a  disagree- 
ment with  Sixtus 
IV,  he  did  not  re- 
main long.  He 
went  back  to 
Milan,  but  left 
there  in  1481  to 
teach  Greek  at 
Florence,  having 
long  before  become  reconciled  with  the  Medici.  He 
died  in  poverty  only  a  fortnight  after  his  arrival. 
The  Florentines  buried  hira  in  the  church  of  the  An- 
nunziata.  Filelfo  was  the  most  restless  of  all  the  hu- 
manists, as  is  indicated  by  the  number  of  places  at 
which  he  taught.  He  was  a  man  of  indefatigable 
activity,  but  arrogant,  rapacious,  fond  of  luxury, 
and  always  ready  to  assail  his  literary  rivals.  His 
writings  include  numerous  letters  (last  ed.  by  Le- 
grand,  Paris,  1892),  speeches  (Paris,  1515),  and 
satires  (Venice,  1502);  besides  many  scattered  pieces 
in  prose,  published  under  the  title  "Convivia  Mediola- 
nensia",  and  a  great  many  Latin  translations  from  the 
Greek.  In  both  these  languages  he  wrote  with  equal 

Symonds,  Renaissance  in  Italy  (New  York,  1900),  II:  The 
Revival  of  Learning;  Rosmint,  Vila  di  Fr.  Filelfo  (3  vols., 
Milan,  1S08);  Voigt,  Die  Wiederbelebimg  des  classischen  Aller- 
Ihuma  (Berlin,  1893).  I;  Sandv3.  Hilary  of  Classical  Scholar- 
ship (Cambridge,  1908).  I.  55-57. 

Edmdnd  Burke. 

Filial  Church  (Lat.  fdialis,  from  filia,  daughter),  a 
church  to  which  is  annexed  the  cure  of  souls,  but 
which  remains  dependent  on  another  church.  As  this 
dependence  on  the  mother  church  may  be  of  various 
degrees,  the  term  filial  church  has  naturally  more  than 
one  signification  as  to  minor  details.  Ordinarily,  a 
filial  church  Ls  a  parish  church  which  has  been  consti- 
tuted by  the  dismemberment  of  an  older  parish.  Its 
rector  is  really  a  parish  priest,  having  all  the  ei5.sential 
rights  of  such  a  dignity,  but  still  bound  to  defer  in  cer- 
tain accidental  matters  to  the  pastor  of  the  mother 
church.  The  marks  of  deference  required  are  not  so 
fixed  that  local  custom  may  not  change  them.  Such 
marks  are:  obtaining  the  baptismal  water  from  the 
mother  church,  making  a  moderate  offering  of  money 
(fixed  l)y  the  bishop)  to  the  parish  priest  of  the  mother 
church  annually,  and  occasionally  during  the  year 

assisting  with  his  parishioners  ui  a  body  at  services  in 
the  older  church.  In  some  places  this  last  includes  a 
procession  and  the  presentation  of  a  wax.  candle.  If 
the  filial  church  has  been  endowed  from  the  revenues  of 
the  mother  church,  the  parish  priest  of  the  latter  has 
the  right  of  presentation  when  a  pastor  for  the  depen- 
tlent  church  is  to  be  appointed. 

This  term  is  also  applied  to  churches  established 
within  the  limits  of  an  extensive  parish,  without  any 
dismemberment  of  the  parochial  territory.  The  pas- 
tor of  such  a  filial  church  is  really  only  a  curate  or 
assistant  of  the  parish  priest  of  the  mother  church,  and 
he  is  removable  at  will,  except  in  cases  where  he  has  a 
benefice.  The  parish  priest  may  retain  to  himself  the 
right  of  performing  baptism,  assisting  at  marriages 
and  similar  offices  in  the  filial  church,  or  he  may  ordain 
that  such  functions  be  performed  only  in  the  parish 
church,  restricting  the  services  in  the  filial  church  to 
Mass  and  Vespers.  In  practice,  however,  the  curates 
of  such  filial  churches  act  as  parish  priests  for  their 
districts,  although  by  canon  law  the  dependence  upon 
the  pastor  of  the  mother  church  remains  of  obligation, 
though  all  outward  manifestation  of  subjection  has 

In  the  union  of  two  parishes  in  the  manner  called 
"union  by  subjection",  the  less  important  of  the 
parish  churches  may  sink  into  a  condition  scarcely 
distmguishable  from  that  of  a  filial  church  and  be 
comprehended  under  this  term.  In  other  words,  the 
parish  priest  may  govern  such  a  church  by  giving  it 
over  to  one  of  his  assistants.  It  is  true  that  the  sub- 
jected church  does  not  lose  its  parochial  rights,  yet  its 
dependence  on  the  parish  priest  of  another  church  and 
its  administration  by  a  vicar  has  led  to  its  being  in- 
cluded loosely  under  the  designation  filial  church. 
Historically,  this  term  has  also  been  applied  to  those 
churches,  often  in  different  countries,  founded  by  other 
and  greater  churches.  In  this  sense  the  great  patri- 
archal Sees  of  Rome,  Antioch,  Jerusalem,  Alexandria, 
Constantinople  established  many  filial  churches  which 
retained  a  special  dependence  upon  the  church  found- 
ing them.  The  term  Mother  Church,  however,  as  ap- 
plied to  Rome,  has  a  special  significance  as  indicating 
its  headship  of  all  the  churches. 

AicHNER,  Compendium  Juris  Ecel.  (Brixen,  1895);  Ferra- 
ris, Bibliolheca  Canonica  (Rome,  1886),  III,  s.  v.  Dismembra- 
tio;  Laurentius,  Institutiones  Juris  Canonici  (Freiburg,  1903). 

William  H.  W.  Fanning. 

Filicaja,  Vincenzo  da,  lyric  poet;  b.  at  Florence, 
30  Dec,  1642;  d.  there  24  Sept.,  1707.  At  Pisa  he  was 
trained  for  the  legal  profession,  which  he  later  pur- 
sued, but  during  his  academic  career  he  devoted  no 
little  attention  to  philosophy,  literature,  and  music. 
Returning  to  Florence,  he  was  made  a  member  of  the 
Accademia  della  Crusca  and  of  the  Arcadia,  and  en- 
joyed the  patronage  of  the  illustrious  convert  to  the 
Catholic  faith,  C'hristina,  ex-Queen  of  Sweden,  who 
with  her  purse  helped  to  lighten  his  family  burdens. 
A  lawyer  and  magistrate  of  integrity,  he  never  at^ 
tained  to  wealth.  His  probity  and  ability,  however, 
were  acknowledged  by  those  in  power,  and  he  was 
appointed  to  several  public  offices  of  great  trust. 
Thus,  already  a  senator  by  the  nomination  of  Grand 
Duke  Cosmo  III,  he  was  chosen  governor  of  Volterra  in 
1696,  and  of  Pisa  in  1700,  and  then  was  given  the 
important  post  of  Segretario  delle  Tratte  at  Florence. 
An  ardent  Catholic,  he  not  infrequently  gives  expres- 
sion to  his  religious  feeling  in  his  lyrics,  which,  even 
though  they  may  not  entitle  him  to  rank  among  the 
greatest  of  Italian  poets,  will  always  attract  attention 
because  of  their  relative  freedom  from  the  literary 
vices  of  the  time,  the  bombast,  the  exaggerations  and 
obscurity  of  Marinism.  Notable  among  his  composi- 
tions are  the  odes  or  canzoni,  which  deal  with  the 
raising  of  the  siege  of  Vienna  by  John  Sobieski,  when 
in  16S.J  it  was  beleaguered  by  the  Turks,  and  the  son- 
nets in  which  he  bewails  the  woes  of  Italy  whose  beauty 




had  made  her  the  object  of  foreign  cupidity  :ind  whose 
sons  were  incapable  of  fighting  for  Iier  and  could  only 
enlist  mercenaries  to  defend  her.  The  most  famous  of 
the  sonnets  is  perhaps  the  "  Italia,  Italia,  O  tu  cui  feo 
la  sorte",  which  Byron  rendered  with  skill  in  the 
fourth  canto  of  Childe  Harold.  Some  letters,  elogi, 
orazioni,  and  Latin  carniina,  constitute  the  rest  of  liis 
literary  output.  After  the  death  of  Filicaja,  an  edi- 
tion of  the  "  Poesie  toscane",  containing  the  lyrics, 
was  given  to  the  world  by  his  son  (Florence,  1707);  a 
better  edition  is  that  of  Florence,  IS'23;  selected  poems 
are  given  in  "  Lirici  del  secolo  XVII ",  published 
by  Sonzogno. 

Amico.  Poesie  e  lettcre  di  Vinccnzo  da  Filicaja  (Florence, 
1S64),  with  a  preface  on  his  life  and  work;  Castellani,  Studi 
leltemri  (Citta  di  Castello,  1SS9). 

J.  D.  M.  Ford. 

Filioque  is  a  theological  formula  of  great  dogmatic 
and  historical  importance.  On  the  one  hand,  it  ex- 
presses the  Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost  from  both 
Father  and  Son  as  one  Principle;  on  tlie  other,  it  was 
the  occasion  of  the  Greek  schism.  Both  aspects  of  the 
expression  need  further  explanation. 

I.  Dogmatic  Meaning  op  Filioque. — The  dogma 
of  the  double  Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost  from  Fa- 
ther and  Son  as  one  Principle  is  directly  opposed  to  the 
error  that  the  Holy  Ghost  proceeds  from  the  Father, 
not  from  the  Son.  Neither  dogma  nor  error  created 
much  difficulty  during  the  course  of  the  first  four  cen- 
turies. Macedonius  and  his  followers,  the  so-called 
Pneumatomachi,  were  condemned  by  the  local  Council 
of  Ale.xandria  (362)  and  by  Pope  St.  Damasus  (378) 
for  teaching  that  the  Holy  Ghost  derives  His  origin 
from  the  Son  alone,  by  creation.  If  the  creed  used  by 
the  Nestorians,  which  was  composed  probably  by 
Theodore  of  Mopsuestia,  and  the  expressions  of  Theo- 
doret  directed  against  the  ninth  anathema  by  Cyril  of 
Alexandria,  deny  that  the  Holy  Ghost  derives  His 
existence  from  or  through  the  Son,  they  probably  in- 
tend to  deny  only  the  creation  of  the  Holy  Ghost  by  or 
through  the  Son,  inculcating  at  the  same  time  His  Pro- 
cession from  both  Father  and  Son.  At  any  rate,  if  the 
double  Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost  was  discussed  at 
all  in  those  early  times,  the  controversy  was  restricted 
to  the  East  and  was  of  short  din-ation.  The  first  un- 
doubted denial  of  the  double  Procession  of  the  Holy 
Ghost  we  find  in  the  seventh  century  among  the 
heretics  of  Constantinople  when  St.  Martin  I  (649- 
655),  in  his  synodal  writing  against  the  Monothelites, 
employed  the  expression  "Filioque".  Nothing  is 
known  about  the  further  development  of  this  contro- 
versy ;  it  does  not  seem  to  have  assumed  any  serious 
proportions,  as  the  question  was  not  connected  with 
the  characteristic  teaching  of  the  Monothelites.  In 
the  Western  church  the  first  controversy  concerning 
the  double  Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost  was  con- 
ducted with  the  envoys  of  the  Emperor  Constantine 
Copronymus,  in  the  Synod  of  Gentilly  near  Paris,  held 
in  the  time  of  Pepin  (767).  The  synodal  Acts  and 
other  sources  of  information  do  not  seem  to  e.xist.  At 
the  beginning  of  the  ninth  century,  John,  a  Greek 
monk  of  the  monastery  of  St.  Sabas,  charged  the 
monks  of  Mt.  Olivet  with  heresy,  because  they  had 
inserted  the  Filioque  into  the  Creed.  In  the  second 
half  of  the  same  century,  Photius  the  successor  of  the 
unjustly  deposed  Ignatius,  Patriarch  of  Constanti- 
nople (858),  denied  the  Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost 
from  the  Son,  and  opposed  the  insertion  of  the  Filioque 
into  the  Constantinopolitan  Creed.  The  same  position 
was  maintained  towards  the  end  of  the  tenth  century 
by  the  Patriarchs  Sisinnius  and  Sergius,  and  about  the 
middle  of  the  eleventh  century  by  the  Patriarch  Mich- 
ael CaTularius,  who  renewed  and  completed  the  Greek 
schism.  The  rejection  of  the  Filioque,  or  of  the  dogma 
of  the  double  Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost  from  the 
Father  and  Son,  and  the  denial  of  the  primacy  of  the 
Roman  Pontiff  constitute  even  to-day  the  principal 

errors  of  the  Greek  Churcli.  While  outside  the  Church 
doubt  as  to  the  double  Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost 
grew  into  open  denial,  inside  the  Church  the  doctrine 
of  the  Filioque  was  declared  to  be  a  dogma  of  faith  in 
the  Fourth  Lateran  Council  (1215),  the  Second  Coun- 
cil of  Lyons  (1274),  and  the  Council  of  Florence  (1438- 
1445).  Thus  the  Church  proposed  in  a  clear  and 
authoritative  form  the  teaching  of  Sacred  Scripture 
and  tradition  on  the  Procession  of  the  Third  Person  of 
the  Holy  Trinity. 

As  to  Sacred  Scripture,  the  inspired  writers  call  the 
Holy  Ghost  the  Spirit  of  the  Son  (Gal.,  iv,  6),  the 
Spirit  of  Christ  (Rom.,  viii,  9),  the  Spirit  of  Jesus 
Christ  (Phil.,  i,  19),  just  as  they  call  Him  the  Spirit 
of  the  Father  (Matt.,  x,  20)  and  the  Spirit  of  God 
(I  Cor.,  ii,  11).  Hence  they  attribute  to  the  Holy 
Ghost  the  same  relation  to  tlie  Son  as  to  the  Father. 
Again,  according  to  Sacred  Scripture,  the  Son  sends 
the  Holy  (Luke,  xxiv,  49;  John,  xv,  26;  xvi,  7; 
XX,  22;  Acts,  u,  33;  Tit.,  iii,  6),  just  as  the  Father  sends 
the  Son  (Rom.,  viii,  3;  etc.),  and  as  the  Father  sends 
the  Holy  Ghost  (John,  xiv,  26).  Now,  the  "mission  "or 
"sending"  of  one  Divine  Person  by  another  does  not 
mean  merely  that  the  Person  said  to  be  sent  assumes  a 
particular  character,  at  the  suggestion  of  Himself  in 
the  character  of  Sender,  as  the  SabelUans  maintained; 
nor  does  it  imply  any  inferiority  in  the  Person  sent,  as 
the  Arians  taught;  but  it  denotes,  according  to  the 
teaching  of  the  weightier  theologians  and  Fathers,  the 
Procession  of  the  Person  sent  from  the  Person  Who 
sends.  Sacred  Scripture  never  presents  the  Father  as 
being  sent  by  the  Son,  nor  the  Son  as  being  sent  by  the 
Holy  Ghost.  The  very  idea  of  the  term  "mission" 
implies  that  the  person  sent  goes  forth  for  a  certain 
purpose  by  the  power  of  the  sender,  a  power  exerted 
on  the  person  sent  by  way  of  a  physical  impulse,  or  of  a 
command,  or  of  prayer,  or  finally  of  proiluction ;  now, 
Procession,  the  analogy  of  production,  is  the  only 
manner  admissible  in  God.  It  follows  that  the  in- 
spired writers  present  the  Holy  Ghost  as  proceeding 
from  the  Son,  since  they  present  Him  as  sent  by  the 
Son.  Finally,  St.  John  (XVI,  13-15)  gives  the  words 
of  Christ:  "What  things  soever  he  [the  Spirit]  shall 
hear,  he  sliall  speak;  ...  he  shall  receive  of  mine, 
and  shall  shew  it  to  you.  All  things  whatsoever  the 
Father  hath,  are  mine."  Here  a  double  consideration 
Ls  in  place.  First,  the  Son  has  all  things  that  the 
Father  hath,  so  that  He  must  resemble  the  Father  in 
being  the  Principle  from  Which  the  Holy  Ghost  pro- 
ceeds. Secondly,  the  Holy  Ghost  shall  receive  "of 
mine"  according  to  the  words  of  the  Son;  but  Pro- 
cession is  the  only  conceivable  way  of  receiving  which 
does  not  imply  dependence  or  inferiority.  In  other 
words,  the  Holy  Ghost  proceeds  from  the  Son. 

The  teaching  of  Sacred  Scripture  on  the  double  Pro- 
cession of  the  Holy  Ghost  was  faithfully  preserved  in 
Christian  tradition.  Even  the  Greek  schismatics 
grant  that  the  Latin  Fathers  maintain  the  Procession 
of  the  Holy  Ghost  from  the  Son.  The  great  work  on  the 
Trinity  by  Petavius  (Lib.  VII,  cc.  iiisqq.)  develops  the 
proof  of  this  contention  at  length.  Here  we  mention 
only  some  of  the  later  documents  in  which  the  patristic 
doctrine  has  been  clearly  expressed:  the  dogmatic 
letter  of  St.  Leo  I  to  Turribius,  Bishop  of  Astorga, 
Ep.  XV,  c.  i  (447);  the  so-called  Athanasian  Creed; 
several  councils  held  at  Toledo  in  the  years  447,  589 
(III),  675  (XI),  693  (XVI) ;  the  letter  of  Pope  HormLs- 
das  to  the  Emperor  Justinus,  Ep.  Ixxix  (521);  St. 
Martin  I's  synodal  utterance  against  the  Monothel- 
ites, 649-655;  Pope  Adrian  I's  answer  to  the  Caroline 
Books,  772-795;  the  Synods  of  Meritla  (666),  Braga 
(675),  and  Hatfield  (680");  the  writing  of  Pope  Leo  III 
(d.  816)  to  the  monks  of  Jerusalem ;  the  letter  of  Pope 
Stephen  V  (d.  891)  to  the  Moravian  King  Suentopolcus 
(Suatopluk),  Ep.  xiii;  the  symbol  of  Pope  Leo  IX  (d. 
1054);  the  Fourth  Lateran  Council,  1215;  the  Second 
Council  of  Lyons,  1274;  and  the  Council  of  Florence, 




1439.  Some  of  the  foregoing  conciliar  documents  may 
be  seen  in  Hefele,  "Conciliengeschichte"  (2d  ed.),  Ill, 
nn.  109,  117,  252,  411;  cf.  P.  G.,  XXVIII,  1567  sqq. 
Bessarion,  speaking  in  the  Council  of  Florence,  in- 
ferred the  tradition  of  the  Greek  Church  from  the 
teaching  of  the  Latin ;  since  the  Greek  and  the  Latin 
Fathers  before  the  ninth  century  were  members  of  the 
same  Church,  it  is  antecedently  improbable  that  the 
Eastern  Fathers  should  have  denied  a  dogma  firmly 
maintained  by  the  Western.  Moreover,  tliere  are  cer- 
tain considerations  which  form  a  direct  proof  for  the 
belief  of  the  Greek  Fathers  in  the  double  Procession  of 
the  Holy  Ghost.  First,  the  Greek  Fathers  enumerate 
the  Divine  Persons  in  the  same  order  as  the  Latin 
Fathers;  they  admit  that  the  Son  and  the  Holy  Ghost 
are  logically  and  ontologically  connected  in  the  same 
way  as  the  Son  and  the  Father  [St.  Basil,  Ep.  cxxv; 
Ep.  xxxviii  (alias  xliii)  ad  Gregor.  fratrem;  "Adv. 
Eunom.",  I,  xx,  III,  sub  inil.].  Second,  the  Greek 
Fathers  establish  the  same  relation  between  the  Son 
and  the  Holy  Ghost  as  between  the  Father  and  the 
Son;  as  the  Father  is  the  fourttain  of  the  Son,  so  is  the 
Son  the  fountain  of  the  Holy  Ghost  (Athan.,  Ep.  ad 
Serap.,  I,  xix,  sqq.;  "De  Incarn.",  ix;  Orat.  iii,  adv. 
Arian.,  24;  Basil,  "Adv.  Eunom.",  v,  in  P.  G.,  XXIX, 
731;  cf.  Greg.  Naz.,  Orat.  xliii,  9).  Third,  passages 
are  not  wanting  in  the  writings  of  the  Greek  Fathers  in 
which  the  Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost  from  the  Son 
is  clearly  maintained:  Greg.  Thaumat.,  "Expos,  fidei 
sec.",  vers.  ssec.  IV,  in  Rufinus,  Hist.  Eccl.,  VII,  xxv; 
Epif)han.,Haer.,c.  Ixii,  4;  Greg.  Nyss.,  Hom.  iii  in  orat. 
domin.  (cf.  Mai,  "Bibl.  nova  Patrum",  IV,  40  sqq.); 
Cyril  of  Alexandria,  "Thes.",  ass.  xxxiv;  the  second 
canon  of  a  synod  of  forty  bishops  held  in  410  at  Seleucia 
in  Mesopotamia  (cf.  Lamy,  "Concilium  Seleucite  et 
Ctesiphonte  habitum  a.  410",  Louvain,  1869;  Hefele, 
"Conciliengeschichte",  II,  102  sqq.);  the  Arabic  ver- 
sion of  the  Canons  of  St.  Hippolytus  (Haneberg, 
"Canones  Sti.  Hyppolyti",  Miinster,  1870,  40,  76); 
the  Nestorian  explanation  of  the  Symbol  (cf.  Badger, 
"The  Nestorians",  London,  1852,  II,  79;  Cureton, 
"Ancient  Syriac  Documents  Relative  to  the  Earliest 
Establishment  of  Christianity  in  Edessa",  London, 
1864,  43;  "The  Doctrine  of  Addai,  the  Apostle",  ed. 
Phillips,  London,  1876).  The  only  Scriptural  diffi- 
culty deserving  our  attention  is  based  on  the  words  of 
Christ  as  recorded  in  John,  xv,  26,  that  the  Spirit  pro- 
ceeds from  the  Father,  without  mention  being  made  of 
the  Son.  But  in  the  first  place,  it  cannot  be  shown 
that  this  omission  amounts  to  a  denial;  in  the  second 
place,  the  omission  is  only  apparent,  as  in  the  earlier 
part  of  the  verse  the  Son  promises  to  "send"  the 
Spirit.  The  Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost  from  the 
Son  is  not  mentioned  in  the  Creed  of  Constantinople, 
because  this  Creed  was  directed  against  the  Mace- 
donian error  against  which  it  sufficed  to  declare  the 
Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost  from  the  Father.  The 
ambiguous  expressions  found  in  some  of  the  early 
writers  of  authority  are  explained  by  the  principles 
■which  apply  to  the  language  of  the  early  Fathers 

II.  Historical  Importance  op  theFilioqde. — It 
has  been  seen  tliat  the  Creed  of  Constantinople  at  first 
declared  only  the  Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost  from 
the  Father;  it  was  directed  against  the  followers  of 
Macedonius  who  denied  the  Procession  of  the  Holy 
Spirit  from  the  Father.  In  the  East,  the  omission  of 
Filioque  did  not  lead  to  any  serious  misunderstand- 
ing. But  conditions  were  different  in  Spain  after  the 
Goths  had  renounced  Arianism  and  professed  the 
Catholic  faith  in  the  Third  Synod  of  Toledo,  589.  It 
cannot  be  ascertained  who  liist  adde<l  the  Filioque  to 
the  ('rood;  but  it  ap|ii-:irs  to  he  cerlain  that  the  ('reed, 
with  the  addition  of  the  lMli(«|U(.,  was  first  suns;  in  the 
Spanish  Churcli  after  tlic  coMvcrsiiin  of  the  Goths.  In 
7iM)  the  Patriarch  Paiilinus  of  A(|uilcia  justified  and 
iidopted  the  same  addition  at  the  Synod  of  Friaul,  and 

in  809  the  Council  of  Aachen  appears  to  have  approved 
of  it.  The  decrees  of  this  last  council  %\ere  examined 
by  Pope  Leo  III,  who  approved  of  the  doctrine  con- 
veyed by  the  Filioque,  but  gave  the  advice  to  omit  the 
expression  in  the  Creed.  The  practice  of  adding  the 
Filioque  was  retained  in  spite  of  the  papal  advice,  and 
about  the  middle  of  the  eleventh  century  it  had  gained 
a  firm  foothold  in  Rome  itself.  Scholars  do  not  agree 
as  to  the  exact  time  of  its  introduction  into  Rome,  but 
most  assign  it  to  the  reign  of  Benedict  VIII  (1014-15). 
The  Catholic  doctrine  was  accepted  by  the  Greek  dep- 
uties who  were  present  at  the  Second  Council  of  Lyons, 
in  1274,  and  at  the  Council  of  Florence,  in  1439,  when 
the  Creed  was  sung  both  in  Greek  and  Latin,  with  the 
addition  of  the  word  Filinque.  On  each  occasion  it 
was  hoped  that  the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople  and 
his  subjects  had  abandoned  the  state  of  heresy  and 
schism  in  which  they  had  been  living  since  the  time  of 
Photius,  who  about  870  found  in  the  Filioque  an  ex- 
cuse for  throwing  off  all  dependence  on  Rome.  But 
however  sincere  the  individual  Greek  bishops  may 
have  been,  they  failed  to  carry  their  people  with  them, 
and  the  breach  between  East  and  West  continues  to 
this  day.  It  is  a  matter  for  surprise  that  so  abstract  a 
subject  as  the  doctrine  of  the  double  Procession  of  the 
Holy  Ghost  should  have  appealed  to  the  imagination 
of  the  multitude.  But  their  national  feelings  had  been 
aroused  by  the  desire  of  liberation  from  the  rule  of  the 
ancient  rival  of  Constantinople;  the  occasion  of  law- 
fully obtaining  their  desire  appeared  to  present  itself 
in  the  addition  of  Filioque  to  the  Creed  of  Constanti- 
nople. Had  not  Rome  overstepped  her  rights  by  dis- 
obeying the  inj  unction  of  the  Third  Council,  of  Ephesus 
(431),  and  of  the  Fourth,  of  Chalcedon  (451)?  It  is 
true  that  these  councils  had  forbidden  to  introduce 
another  faith  or  another  Creed,  and  had  imposed  the 
penalty  of  deposition  on  bishops  and  clerics,  and  of 
excommunication  on  monks  and  laymen  for  trans- 
gressing this  law;  but  the  councils  had  not  forbidden 
to  explain  the  same  faith  or  to  propose  the  same  Creed 
in  a  clearer  way.  Besides,  the  conciliar  decrees  af- 
fected individual  transgressors,  as  is  plain  from  the 
sanction  added;  they  did  not  bind  the  Church  as  a 
body.  Finally,  the  Councils  of  Lyons  and  Florence 
did  not  require  the  Greeks  to  insert  the  Filioque  into 
the  Creed,  but  only  to  accept  the  Catholic  doctrine  of 
the  double  Procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  (See  Holy 
Ghost  and  Creed.) 

Hunter,  Outlines  of  Dogmatic  Theology  (New  York,  1896), 
II,  193  sqq.;  HuRTER,  TheotogifE  DogmaticcB  Compendium  (Inns- 
bruck, 1888),  II,  145  sqq.;  Becker  in  Kirchenlexicon,  s.  v.; 
Petavius,  De  Trinilate,  Lib.  VII;  van  der  Moeren,  Dissertalio 
theoloffica  de  processione  Spiritus  Sancli  ex  Patre  Filioque  (Lou- 
vain, 1864);  ViNCENZi,  De  processione  Spiritus  Sancti  (Kome, 
1878).     See  also  literature  under  Holy  (jhost. 

A.  J.  Maas. 

Filippini.    See  Oratorians. 

Fillastre  (Philastrius),  Guillaume,  French 
cardinal,  canonist,  humanist,  and  geographer,  b.  1348 
at  La  Suze,  Maine,  France;  d.  at  Rome,  6  November, 
1428.  After  graduating  as  doctor  juris  utriusgue, 
Fillastre  taught  jurisprudence  at  Reims,  and  in  1392 
was  appointed  dean  of  its  metropolitan  chapter. 
During  the  Western  Schism  he  showed  at  first  much 
sympathy  for  Benedict  XIII  (Peter  de  Luna).  In 
1409,  however,  he  took  part  in  the  attempt  to  recon- 
cile the  factions  at  the  Council  of  Pisa.  John  XXIII 
conferred  on  him  and  his  friend  d'Ailly  the  dignity  of 
cardinal  (1411),  and  in  1413  he  was  made  Archbishop 
of  Aix.  Fillastre  took  a  very  important  part  in  the 
Council  of  Constance,  where  he  and  Cardinal  d'Ailly 
were  the  first  to  agitate  the  question  of  the  abdication 
of  the  rival  claimants  (February,  1415).  He  won 
special  distinction  through  the  many  legal  questions 
on  which  he  gave  decisions.  Martin  V,  in  whose  elec- 
tion he  had  been  an  important,  factor,  appointed  liim 
Icgalus  a  latere  to  France  (1418),  where  he  was  to  pro- 




mote  the  cause  of  Church  unity.  In  recognition  of  his 
successful  efforts  in  tliis  capacity,  he  was  made  Arch- 
priest  of  the  Lateran  Basilica.  In  1421  he  resigned 
the  See  of  Aix,  and  in  1422  was  assigned  to  the  See  of 
Saint-Pons-de-Thomieres.  He  died  at  Rome  in  his 
eightieth  year,  as  Canlinal-Priest  of  San  Marco. 

During  the  Council  of  Constance  Fillastre  kept  a 
diary  discovered  by  Jleinrich  Finke,  first  reviewed  by 
him  in  the  "  Knmischo  Quartalschrift"  (1SS7),  and 
there  partly  edited  by  him.  It  is  the  most  important 
historical  source  for  the  Council  of  Constance,  and 
was  edited  by  Finke  in  its  entirety  in  1889  (in  his 
"  Forschungen  und  Quellen",  see  below,  163-242). 
Fillastre's  notes  throw  new  light  on  the  principal  par- 
ticipants in  the  council,  as  well  as  on  the  two  popes 
who  were  deposed  and  their  trial,  on  the  college  of 
cardinals  as  a  body,  and  in  particular  on  Cardinals 
d'Ailly,  Fillastre,  Zabarella,  etc.  Fillastre  is  our  only 
authority  concerning  the  preliminary  motions  on  the 
method  of  voting  anti  the  extremely  difficult  position 
of  the  college  of  Cardinals;  he  gives  us  our  first  clear 
conception  of  the  quarrels  that  arose  among  the  "  na- 
tions" over  tlie  matter  of  precedence,  and  the  place 
which  the  Spanish  "nation"  held  at  the  council;  he 
also  furnishes  the  long-sought  explanation  of  the  con- 
firmation of  Sigismund  as  Holy  Roman  Emperor  by 
Martin  V.  Fillastre's  diary  derives  its  highest  value, 
however,  from  the  exposition  of  the  relations  between 
the  king  and  the  council  and  the  description  of  the 

While  Fillastre  was  in  Constance  (where,  it  may  be 
remarked,  he  translated  several  of  Plato's  works  into 
Latin),  he  rendered  important  services  to  the  history 
of  geography  and  cartography,  as  well  as  to  the  history 
of  the  council.  Thus  he  had  copied  the  Latin  transla- 
tion of  Ptolemy's  geography  (without  maps),  which 
had  been  completed  by  Jacobus  Angelus  in  1409,  a 
manuscript  he  had  great  difficulty  in  securing  from 
Florence.  Together  with  this  precious  Ptolemy  co- 
dex, he  sent  in  1418  to  the  chapter-library  of  Reims, 
which  he  had  founded  and  already  endowed  with 
many  valuable  manuscripts,  a  large  map  of  the  world 
traced  on  walrus  skin,  and  a  codex  of  Pomponius 
Mela.  The  two  geographical  codices  are  still  pre- 
served as  precious  "cimelia"  in  the  municipal  library 
of  Reims,  but  the  map  of  the  world  unfortunately 
disappeared  during  the  eighteenth  century. 

About  1425  Fillastre  wrote  one  of  his  most  impor- 
tant canonical  works  on  interest  and  usury;  it  has 
been  handed  down  in  numerous  manuscripts.  In 
1427,  though  now  an  old  man,  he  was  as  indefatigable 
as  ever,  and  had  the  maps  of  Ptolemy  drawn  from  a 
Greek  original,  but  on  a  diminished  scale,  and  ar- 
ranged with  Latin  terminology,  to  go  with  his  Latin 
Ptolemy.  Since  Ptolemy  had  no  knowledge  of  the 
Scandinavian  Peninsula,  much  less  of  Greenland, 
Fillastre  completed  his  codex  by  adding  to  Ptolemy's 
ten  maps  of  Europe  an  eleventh.  This  "eleventh 
map  of  Europe",  with  the  subjoined  detailed  descrip- 
tion of  Denmark,  Sweden,  Norway,  and  Greenland,  is 
the  only  existing  copy  of  the  "first  map"  of  Claudius 
Clavus,  "the  first  cartographer  of  America".  This 
precious  cartographic  treasure  is  still  preserved  in  the 
municipal  library  of  Nancy. 

Marlot,  Metropolis  remensis  historia  (Reims,  1679),  II, 
693  sqq.;  Albanes,  Gallia  Christ,  (novissima)  (1899),  I,  96  sqq.; 
Finke,  Forschungen  und  Quellen  zur  Geschichte  des  Konstanzer 
Konzila  (Paderbom,  18S9),  73  sqq.;  Storm,  Z>e7i  danske  geogr. 
Claudius  Clavus  (Stockholm,  1891),  129  sqq.;  Fischer,  IHs- 
coveries  of  the  Norsemen  (London,  1903),  58  sqq.,  83  .sqq.; 
Bjornbo  and  Petersen,  Claudius  Clavus  (Innsbruok,  190S). 
Joseph  Fischer. 

Filliucci,  ViNCENZo,  Jesuit  moralist ;  b.  at  Sienna, 
Italy,  1566;  d.  at  Rome,  5  April,  1622.  Having 
entered  the  Society  of  Jesus  at  the  age  of  eigh- 
teen and  made  the  usual  course  in  classics,  science, 
philosophy,  and  theology,  he  professed  philosophy  and 
mathematics  for  some  years,  and  later  became  rector  of 

the  Jesuit  college  in  his  native  city.  Being  summoned 
to  Rome  to  fill  the  chair  of  moral  theology  in  the 
Roman  College,  he  taught  there  for  ten  years  with 
great  distinction.  Paul  V  appointed  him  penitentiary 
of  St.  Peter's,  a  post  he  filled  until  his  deatli  in  the  fol- 
lowing pontificate.  Filliucci's  greatest  work,  "Mora- 
lium  Quaestionum  de  Christianis  Oflficiis  et  Casibus 
Conscienti^  Tomi  Duo",  appeared  in  1622,  and  to- 
gether with  a  posthumous  "  Appendix,  de  Statu  Cleri- 
corum  ",  forming  a  third  volume,  has  frequently  been 
reprinted  in  several  countries  of  Europe.  A  "  Synopsis 
Theologize  Moralis",  which  likewise  appeared  posthu- 
mously in  1626,  went  through  numerous  editions. 
FiUiucci  is  also  known  for  his  excellent  "Brevis  In- 
structio  pro  Confessionibus  Excipiendis  "  (Ravens- 
burg,  1626);  this  work  is  generally  published  as  an 
appendix  in  all  subsequent  editions  of  his  "Synopsis". 
Besides  these  published  works,  there  is  a  manuscript, 
"Tractatus  de  Censuris",  preserved  in  the  archives  of 
the  Roman  College.  As  an  authority  in  moral  theol- 
ogy. Father  Filliucci  has  ever  been  accorded  high  rank, 
though  this  did  not  save  him  from  the  attacks  of  the 
Jansenists.  The  "Provincial  Letters"  of  Pascal  and 
"  Les  Extraits  des  Assertions"  make  much  capital  out 
of  their  garbled  quotations  from  his  writings;  while, 
in  the  anti-Jesuit  tumult  of  1762,  the  "parlement"  of 
Bordeaux  forbade  his  works  and  the  "parlement"  of 
Rouen  burnt  them,  together  with  twenty-eight  other 
works  by  Jesuit  authors. 

So.MMERvoGEL,  Bibl.  de  la  C.  de  J.,  Ill,  735;  IX,  340;  db 
Backer,  Bibl.  des  Ecrirains  de  la  Camp,  de  Jesus,  I,  308; 
HuRTER,  Xomenclator  Literarius,  I,  364. 

John  F.  X.  Murpht. 

Filliucius,  Felix  (or,  as  his  name  is  more  often 
found,  in  its  Italian  form,  Figliucci),  an  Italian  hu- 
manist, a  philosopher,  and  theologian  of  note,  was  b. 
at  Siena  about  the  year  1525;  supposed  to  have  d.  at 
Florence  c.  1590.  He  completed  his  studies  in  philos- 
ophy at  Padua  and  was  for  a  time  in  the  service  of 
Cardinal  Del  Monte,  afterwards  Julius  III.  In  spite 
of  the  fact  that  he  gained  a  great  reputation  as  an  ora- 
tor and  poet,  and  had  a  wide  knowledge  of  Greek,  no 
mention  of  his  name  is  found  in  such  standard  works 
on  the  Renaissance  as  Burchardt,  Voigt  (Die  Wieder- 
belebung  des  class.  Alterthums),  and  Belloni  (II  Sei- 
cento).  After  having  enjoyed  the  pleasures  of  the 
worldly  life  at  the  court  in  1551  he  entered  the  Domin- 
ican convent  at  Florence,  where  he  assumed  the  name 
Alexus.  His  works  are  both  original  in  Italian  and 
translations  into  that  language  from  the  Greek. 
Worthy  of  mention  are:  "II  Fedro,  ovvero  del  bello" 
(Rome,  1544);  "  Delle  divine  lettere  del  gran  Marsilio 
Ficino"  (Venice,  1548);  "Le  undici  Filippiche  di 
Demostene  dichiarate"  (Rome,  1550);  "Delia  Filo- 
sofia  morale  d'Aristotile"  (Rome,  1551);  "Delia 
Politica,  ovvero  Scienza  civile  secondo  la  dottrina 
d'Aristotile,  libri  VIII  scritti  in  modo  di  dialogo" 
(Venice,  1583).  Filliucius  attended  the  Council  of 
Trent,  where  he  delivered  a  remarkable  Latin  oration 
and,  at  the  order  of  St.  Pius  V,  translated  into  Italian, 
under  his  cloister  name  of  Alexus,  the  Latin  Catechism 
of  the  Council  of  Trent  (Catechismo,  cioe  istruzione 
secondo  il  decreto  del  concilio  di  Trento,  Rome,  1567), 
often  reprinted. 

QuETir  AND  EcHARD,  Scriptores  Ord.  Pred.^  II,  263  sqq.,  on 
which  all  the  other  biographies  are  based. 

Joseph  Dunn. 

Finality.    See  C.^use;  Teleology. 

Final  Perseverance.    See  Perseverance. 

Finan,  S.-^int,  second  Bishop  of  Lindisfarne;  d.  9 
February,  661.  He  was  an  Irish  monk  who  had  been 
trained  in  lona,  and  who  was  specially  chosen  by  the 
Columban  Monks  to  succeed  the  great  St.  Aidan  (635- 
51).  St.  Bede  describes  him  as  an  able  ruler,  and  tells 
of  his  labours  in  the  conversion  of  Northumbria.  He 
built  a  cathedral  "in  the  Irish  fashion",  employing 




"hewn  oak,  with  an  outer  covering  of  reeds'",  dedi- 
cated to  St.  Peter.  His  apostohc  zeal  resulted  in  tlie 
foundation  of  St.  Mary's  at  the  mouth  of  the  River 
Tyne;  Gilling,  a  monastery  on  the  spot  where  King 
Oswin  had  been  murdered,  founded  by  Queen  Eanfled, 
and  the  great  Abbey  of  Streanaeshalch,  or  Whitby. 
St.  Finan  (Finn-an — little  Finn)  converted  Peada, 
son  of  Penda,  King  of  the  Middle  Angles,  "  with  all  his 
Nobles  and  Thanes",  and  gave  him  four  priests,  in- 
cluding Diuma,  whom  he  consecrated  Bishop  of  Mid- 
dle Angles  and  Mercia,  under  King  Oswy.  The  Brev- 
iary of  Aberdeen  styles  him  "a  man  of  venerable  life, 
a  bishop  of  great  sanctity,  an  eloquent  teacher  of  un- 
believing races,  remarkable  for  his  training  in  virtue 
and  his  liberal  education,  surpassing  all  his  equals  in 
every  manner  of  knowledge  as  well  as  in  circumspec- 
tion and  prudence,  but  chiefly  devoting  himself  to 
good  works  and  presenting  in  his  life,  a  most  apt  exam- 
ple of  virtue  ". 

In  the  mysterious  ways  of  Providence,  the  Abbey 
of  Whitby,  his  chief  fomidation,  was  the  scene  of  the 
famous  Paschal  controversy,  which  resulted  in  the 
withdrawal  of  the  Irish  monks  from  Lindisfarne.  The 
inconvenience  of  the  two  systems — Irish  and  Roman 
— of  keeping  Easter  was  specially  felt  when  on  one  oc- 
casion King  Oswy  and  his  Court  were  celebrating 
Easter  Sunday  with  St.  Finan,  while  on  the  same  day 
Queen  Eanfled  and  her  attendants  were  still  fasting 
and  celebrating  Palm  Suntlay.  Saint  Finan  was 
spared  being  present  at  the  Synod  of  Whitby.  His 
feast  is  celebrated  on  the  9th  of  February. 

Bkde,  ed.  Sellar,  Ecch.  Hist,  of  England  (London,  1907); 
MoRAN,  Irish  Sainls  in  Great  Britain,  new  ed.  (Callan,  1003); 
Healy,  Ireland's  Ancient  Schools  and  Scholars  (Dublin,  1901'). 

W.  H.  Grattan-Flood. 

Finbarr  (Lochan,  Barr),  Saint,  Bishop  and 
patron  of  Cork,  b.  near  Bandon,  about  550,  d.  at 
Cloyne,  25  Sept.,  623,  was  son  of  Amergin.  He 
evangelized  Gowran,  Coolcashin,  and  Aghaboe,  and 
founded  a  school  at  Eirce.  For  some  years  he  dwelt 
in  a  hermitage  at  Gougane  Barra,  where  a  beautifid 
replica  of  Cormac's  chapel  has  recently  been  erected  in 
his  honour.  Finbarr  was  buried  in  the  cathedral  he 
built  where  Cork  city  now  stands.  He  was  specially 
honoured  also  at  Dornoch  and  Barra,  in  Scotland. 
There  are  five  Irish  saints  of  this  name.  (See 

Life  by  Walsh  (New  York,  1S64);  Banba  (Dublin),  207. 
A.  A.  MacErlean. 

Finch,  John,  Venerable,  martyr,  b.  about  1548; 
d.  20  April,  1584.  He  was  a  yeoman  of  Eccleston, 
Lancashire,  and  a  member  of  a  well-known  old  Catho- 
lic family,  but  he  appears  to  have  been  brought  up  in 
schism.  When  he  was  twenty  years  old  lie  went  to 
London  where  he  spent  nearly  a  year  with  some 
cousins  at  the  Inner  Temple.  While  there  he  was  forci- 
bly struck  by  the  contrast  between  Protestantism  and 
Catholicism  in  practice  and  determined  to  lead  a 
Catholic  life.  Failing  to  find  advancement  in  London 
he  returned  to  Lancashire  where  he  was  reconciled  to 
the  Catholic  Church.  He  then  married  and  settled 
down,  his  house  becoming  a  centre  of  missionary  work, 
he  himself  harbouring  priests  and  aiding  them  in  every 
way,  besides  acting  as  catechist.  His  zeal  drew  on 
him  the  hostility  of  the  authorities,  and  at  Christmas, 
1581,  he  was  entrapped  into  bringing  a  priest,  George 
OstlifTe,  to  a  place  where  both  were  apprehended.  It 
was  given  out  that  Finch,  having  betrayed  the  priest 
and  other  Catholics,  had  taken  refuge  with  the  Earl  of 
Derby,  but  in  fact,  he  was  kept  in  the  earl's  house  as 
a  prisoner,  sometimes  tortured  and  sometimes  bribed 
in  order  to  pervert  him  and  induce  him  to  give  infor- 
mation. This  failing,  he  was  removed  to  the  Fleet 
prison  at  Manchester  and  afterwards  to  the  House  of 
Correction.  When  he  refusetl  to  go  to  the  Protestant 
church  he  was  dragged  there  by  the  feet,  his  head 

beating  on  the  stones.  For  many  months  he  lay  in  a 
damp  dungeon,  ill-fed  and  ill-treated,  desiring  always 
that  he  might  be  brought  to  trial  and  martyrdom. 
After  three  years'  imprisonment,  he  was  sent  to  be 
tried  at  Lancaster.  There  he  was  brought  to  trial 
with  three  priests  on  18  April,  1584.  He  was  found 
guilty  and,  on  20  April,  having  spent  the  night  in  con- 
verting some  condemned  felons,  he  suffered  with  Ven. 
James  Bell  at  Lancaster.  The  cause  of  his  beatifica- 
tion with  those  of  the  other  English  Martyrs  was  in- 
troduced by  decree  of  the  Sacred  Congregation  of 
Rites,  4  Dec,  1886. 

Bridgewater,  Concertatio,  164  sqq.,  g.  v  Martyrium  Domini 
Joannis  Finchii,  the  first  and  fullest  account  of  the  martyr 
(Trier,  1588);  Challoner,  Memoirs  of  Missionary  Priests 
(London,  1741),  I,  162  sqq.;  Simpson  in  The  Rambler,  new 
series,  VIII,  414;  GlLLow,  Bibl.  Diet.  Bng.  Cath.  (London, 
1SS6),  11;  Pollen,  Unpublished  Documents  relating  to  the  Eng- 
lish Martyrs,  especially  44-46  and  78-88;  Catholic  Record  Soci- 
ety (London,  1908).  V. 

Edwin  Burton. 

Finding  of  the  Cross.    See  Cross. 

.  Finglow,  John,  Venerable,  English  martyr;  b.  at 
Barnby,  near  Howden,  Yorkshire;  executed  at  York, 
8  August,  1586.  He  was  ordained  priest  at  the  Eng- 
lish College,  Reims,  25  March,  1581,  whence  the  fol- 
lowing month  he  was  sent  on  the  English  mission. 
After  labouring  for  some  time  in  the  north  of  England, 
he  was  .seized  and  confined  in  Ousebridge  Kidcote, 
York,  where  for  a  time  he  endured  serious  discom- 
forts, alleviated  slightly  by  a  fellow-prisoner.  He  was 
finally  tried  for  being  a  Catholic  priest  and  reconciling 
English  subjects  to  the  ancient  Faith,  and  condemned 
to  be  hanged,  drawn,  and  quartered. 

Cooper  in  Diet.  Nat.  Biog.:  Douay  Diaries,  ed.  Knox  (Lon- 
don, 1S7S);    GiLLOW,  Bihl.  Diet.  Eng.  Cath. 

F.    M.    RUDGE. 

Finland,  Grand  Dcchy  of,  a  department  or  prov- 
ince of  the  Russian  Empire;  boundeil  on  the  north  by 
Norway,  on  the  west  by  Sweden  and  the  Gulf  of 
Bothnia,  on  the  south  by  the  Gulf  of  Finland.  Its 
limits  extend  from  about  60°  to  70°  N.  lat.,  and  from 
about  19°  to  33°  E.  long.;  the  area  is  141,617  sq.  miles. 
Finland  abounds  in  lakes  and  forests,  but  the  propor- 
tion of  arable  soil  is  small.  The  population  numbers 
2,900,000  souls,  chiefly  Finns;  the  coasts  are  inhabited 
by  the  descendants  of  Swedish  settlers. 

Up  to  the  beginning  of  the  twelfth  century  the  peo- 
ple were  pagans;  about  this  date  efforts  for  the  conver- 
sion of  the  Finns  were  made  from  two  sides.  The 
Grand  Duke  of  Novgorod,  Vassievolodovich,  sent 
Russian  missionaries  to  the  Karelians,  Finns  living  on 
the  Lake  of  Ladoga  in  East  Finland,  while  in  1157 
King  Erik  of  Sweden  vmdertook  a  crusade  to  Finland. 
Erik  established  himself  firmly  on  the  south-western 
coast  and  from  this  base  extended  his  power.  Hen- 
rik,  Bishop  of  Upsala,  who  had  accompanied  Erik  on 
this  expedition,  devoted  himself  to  preaching  the  Gos- 
pel and  suffered  the  death  of  a  martyr  in  1158.  His 
successor,  Rodulfus,  met  the  same  fate  about  1178, 
while  the  next  following  bishop,  Folkvin,  died  a  nat- 
ural death.  Finland  attained  an  independent  church 
organization  imder  Bishop  Thomas  (1220;  d.  1248), 
whose  see  was  Rantemiikai;  at  a  later  date  the  episco- 
pal residence  was  transferred  to  Abo.  The  successors 
of  Thomas  were:  Bero  I  (d.  1258);  Ragvald  I  (1258- 
66);  Ketfil  (1266-86);  Joannes  I  (1286-90);  Magnus  I 
(1290-1308),  who  was  the  first  Finn  to  become  bishop; 
he  tr.ansferred  the  see  to  Abo;  Ragvald  II  (1309-21); 
Bengt  (1321-38);  Hemming  (1338-66),  who  made 
wise  laws,  built  numerous  churches,  began  the  collec- 
tion of  a  library,  and  died  in  the  odour  of  sanctity;  in 
1514  his  bones  were  taken  up,  the  relics  now  being  in 
the  mu.seum  of  the  city  of  Abo,  but  he  was  not  canon- 
ized; Henricus  Hartmanni  (1366-68);  Joannes  II 
Petri  (1.368-70);  Joannes  II  Westfal  (1370-85),  a 
bishop  of  German  descent;  Bero  II  (1385-1412);  Mag- 



nus  II  Olai  Tavast  (1412-50),  the  most  important 
prince  of  the  Church  of  Finland,  who,  when  eighty- 
eight  years  old,  undertook  arduous  visitations;  he  also 
went  on  a  pilgrimage  to  the  Holy  Land  whence  he 
brought  back  objects  of  art  and  manuscripts;  Olaus 
Magni  (1450-GO),  who  in  earlier  years  was  twice  rector 
of  the  Sorbonne,  a  college  of  the  University  of  Paris, 
and  was  also  procurator  and  bursar  of  the  "English 
nation  "  at  the  university.  As  representative  of  these 
he  settled  the  disagreement  between  Charles  VII  and 
the  imiversity  arising  from  the  part  the  latter  had 
taken  in  the  burning  of  Joan  of  Arc:  Conrad  I  Bitz 
(1460-S9),  who  in  14SS  had  the  "Missale  ecclesi^-e 
Aboensis"  printed;  Magnus  III  Stjernkors  (1489- 
1500);  Laurentius  Suurpiia  (1500-06);  Joannes  IV 
Olavi  (1500-10);  Arvid  Kurck  (1510-20),  who  was 
drowned  in  the  Baltic;  Ericus  Svenonis  (1523),  the 
chancellor  of  King  Gustavus  Vasa;  this  prelate  re- 
signed the  see  as  his  election  was  not  confirmed  by 
Rome.  He  was  the  last  Catholic  Bishop  of  Finland. 
The  king  now,  on  his  own  authority,  appointed  his  fa- 
vourite, the  Dominican  Martin  Skj'tte,  as  bishop; 
Skytte  did  all  in  his  power  to  promote  the  violent  in- 
troduction of  Lutheranism.  The  people  were  de- 
ceived by  the  retention  of  Catholic  ceremonies;  clerics 
and  monks  were  given  the  choice  of  apostasy,  expul- 
sion, or  death.  The  only  moderation  shown  was  that 
exhibited  towards  the  Brigittine  nunnerj'  of  Xadendal. 
But  on  the  other  hand,  the  Dominicans  at  Abo  and 
Viborg,  and  the  Franciscans  at  Kokars  were  rudely 
driven  out  and  apparently  the  inmates  of  the  monas- 
tery of  Raiuno  were  hung.  Then,  as  later,  the  Church 
of  Finland  did  not  lack  martyrs,  among  them  being 
JiJns  JussoiUi,  Peter  Ericius,  and  others. 

By  the  entl  of  the  sixteenth  century  the  Catholic 
Church  of  Finland  may  be  saitl  to  have  ceasetl  to  exist. 
In  its  place  appeared  an  inflexible  and  inquisitorial 
Lutheranism.  Wlien  in  1617  Karelia  (East  Finland) 
fell  to  .Sweden,  an  effort  was  made  to  win  the  native 
population,  which  belonged  to  the  Greek  Orthodox 
Church,  for  the  "pure  Gospel".  .\s  this  did  not  suc- 
ceed, the  war  of  1506-68  was  used  for  the  massacre 
and  expulsion  of  the  people.  In  consequence  of  the 
victories  of  Peter  the  Great  matters  after  a  while  took 
another  course;  in  1809  Russia  became  the  ruler  of 
Finland  and  the  Orthodox  Greek  Church  has  of  late 
grown  in  strength.  It  numbers  now  50,000  members 
under  an  archbishop;  it  has  fine  church  buildings,  es- 
pecially in  Helsingfors,  wealthy  monasteries  (Valaam 
and  Konevetz),  a  church  paper  published  at  Viborg, 
and  numerous  schools.  Under  Russian  sovereignty 
the  long  repressed  Catholic  Church  received  again 
(1S69  and  1889)  the  right  to  exist,  but  it  is  still  very 
weak,  and  numbers  only  about  1000  souls;  there  are 
Catholic  churches  at  Abo  and  Helsingfors.  The  great 
majority  of  the  inhabitants  belong  now,  as  before,  to 
the  various  sects  of  Protestantism.  The  State  Church 
of  former  times,  now  the  "  National ' '  Church,  to  which 
the  larger  part  of  the  population  adhere,  is  diviiled 
into  four  dioceses:  Abo,  Kuopio,  Borga,  and  Nyslott; 
these  contain  altogether  45  provostships  and  512  par- 
ishes. The  finest  of  its  church  buildings  are  the 
domed  church  of  St.  Nicholas  at  Helsingfors  and  the 
church  at  Abo,  formerly  the  Catholic  cathedral. 
Education  is  provided  for  by  a  university  and  techni- 
cal high  school  at  Helsingfors,  by  lyceums  of  the  rank 
of  gymnasia,  modern  scientific  schools,  and  primary 
schools.  Finland  has  a  rich  literature  both  in  Swed- 
ish and  Finnish.  Besides  the  followers  of  Christian- 
ity there  are  both  Jews  and  Mohammedans  in  Finland, 
but  the}'  have  no  civil  rights.  Since  the  middle  of  the 
nineteenth  century  about  200,000  Finns  have  emi- 
grated to  the  United  States,  settling  largely  in  Minne- 
sota and  Michigan.  The  town  of  Hancock,  Michigan, 
is  the  centre  of  their  religious  and  educational  work. 

WiN-DT.  Fiidawl  as  It  Is  (New York,  1902);  Nordisk  Familjcbok. 
VIII,  Pts.  IlI-IV;  Sveriges  historia  (Stockholm,  1877-81),  VI; 

Phipps,  The  Grand  Duclty  of  Finland  (London,  1903):  Scht- 
BEHGOO.N,  F'inlands  hisloria  (1903),  II;  Styffe,  Skandinavien 
under  unionstiden  (Stockholm,  1880);  Leinberg.  Det  odelade 
Finska  Biskopssliflels  Herdamine  (Jyavskylii,  1894);  Idem,  De 
Finska  Klostrens  (Helsinrfors.  1890);  Idem.  Skolslalen 
inuvarande  Abosliff  ■  T'v-.  :i.-!;\-|:i,  1  *•''' ':  T-i-m,  Finska  studeTande 
xnd  utrikes  univcr  ! '         ■         '  II    '    ■    ■    ■   ,  1  s'.l6);  Idem,  Om 

Finska  sluderawl,     .1  il  :   ,  I  ^90):  Retzius, 

Finlandi  Nordisk'i  M        /    ^ ,:Mi;:i    1^-1    ,    \'<^'mrineWfUge- 

schichl-  (1765).  X-\l.\,  Ku»Kl.^i■,.^.  I-  ,„,  .  •  .'-h'--  ran  den 
friihe^ten  Zeilenbis  zur  Gi^genwfirt  iLeipzi'^.  i"  ■  :  S  .'aiitzer, 
Geschichte  der  skandinavisciten  Litteratur     1  .  -.    l^^.'i,  III; 

Neher  in  Kirchenlex.,  s.  v.  Finnland;  K^  '.  ■  >  -  r..  3.  v. 

Finland;  BAtlMG.tRTNER.  Nordisdie  Fahrhn.  U;  I.amsse  and 
R.uibaud,  Histoire  generate  (Paris,  1893-iyuU,  XII;  Gautzin, 
La  Finlande  (Paris,  1SS2),  II;  Brockhals  and  Ephron, 
Konversationslexikon;  Statesman's  Year  Book  (London,  1908), 
1462-66.  P.   WiTMANN. 

Finnian  of  Moville,  S.uxt,  b.  about  495;  d.  589. 
Though  not  so  celebrated  as  his  namesake  of  Clonard, 
he  was  the  founder  of  a  famous  school  about  the  year 
540.  He  studietl  under  St.  Colman  of  Dromore  and 
St.  Mochte  of  Noendrum  (Mahee  Island),  and  subse- 
quently at  Candida  Casa  (Whithern),  whence  he  pro- 
ceeded to  Rome,  returning  to  Ireland  in  540  with  an 
integral  copy  of  St.  Jerome's  Vulgate.  St.  Finnian's 
most  distinguished  pupil  at  Moville  (County  Down) 
was  St.  Columba,  whose  surreptitious  copying  of  the 
Psaltery  led  to  a  verj'  remarkable  sequel.  What  re- 
mains of  the  copy,  together  with  the  casket  that  con- 
tains it,  is  now  in  the  National  JIuseum,  Dublin.  It 
is  known  as  the  Cathach  or  Battler,  and  was  wont  to  be 
carried  by  the  O'Donnells  in  battle.  The  inner  case 
was  made  by  Cathbar  O'Donnell  in  10S4,  but  the 
outer  is  fourteenth-century  work.  So  prized  was  it 
that  the  family  of  MacGroarty  were  heretlitary  cus- 
todians of  this  Cathach,  and  it  finally  passed,  in  1802, 
to  Sir  Neal  O'Donnell,  County  Mayo.  St.  Finnian  of 
Moville  wrote  a  rule  for  his  monks,  also  a  penitential 
code,  the  canons  of  which  were  published  by  Wasser- 
schleben,  ia  1851.  His  festival  is  observed  on  10 

CoLGAN,  Ada  Sanct.  Hib.  (Louvain,  1645);  O'Laverty, 
Down  ami  Connor  (Dublin,  1880),  II;  O'Hanlo.v,  Lives  of  the 
Irish  Saints  (Dublin,  s.  d.);  Healt,  IrelaruVs  Ancient  Schools 
and  Scholars  (Dublin,  1902);  Hyde,  Lit.  Hist,  of  Ireland  (Dub- 
lin, 1901). 

W.  H.  Grattan-Flood. 

Finotti,  Joseph  M.,  b.  at  Ferrara,  Italj',  21  Septem- 
ber, 1817;  d.  at  Central  City,  Colorado,  10  January, 
1879.  In  18.33  yoimg  Finotti  was  received  into  the 
.Society  of  Jesus  in  Rome,  and  for  several  j-ears  taught 
and  studied  in  the  colleges  of  the  order  in  Italy.  He 
was  one  of  the  recruits  whom  Father  Ryder,  in  1845, 
brought  from  Europe  to  labour  in  the  Marj'land  Prov- 
ince. After  his  ordination  at  Georgetown,  D.  C, 
Father  Finotti  was  appointed  pastor  of  St.  Mary's 
Church,  -Alexandria,  Virginia,  and  given  charge  of 
outlying  missions  in  Maryland  and  Virginia.  In  1852 
he  left  the  Society  of  Jesus  and  went  to  Boston.  For 
many  years  he  held  the  position  of  literary  editor  of 
"The  Pilot",  while  acting  as  pastor  of  Brookline  and 
later  of  .\rlington,  Mass.  The  last  few  years  of  his  life 
he  spent  in  the  West,  becoming,  in  1877,  pastor  of 
Central  City,  Colorado,  and  retaining  charge  of  that 
parish  up  to  the  time  of  his  death.  Father  Finotti  was 
a  great  book-lover,  giving  much  time  to  literary  pur- 
suits and  displaying  special  interest  in  the  Catholic 
literan,-  history  of  .\merica.  .\mong  his  productions 
are:  "Month  of  Mary",  18.53,  which  reached  a  sale  of 
50,000  copies;  "Life  of  Blessed  Paul  of  the  Cross", 
1860;  "Diary  of  a  Soldier",  1861;  "The  Spirit  of  St. 
Francis  de  Sales",  1866;  "The  French  Zouave", 
1863;  "Herman  the  Pianist",  1863;  "Works  of  the 
Rev.  Arthur  O'Leary";  "Life  of  Blessed  Peter 
Claver",  etc.  Most  of  these  publications  were  trans- 
lated or  edited  by  him.  His  best-known  work,  never 
completed,  is  his  "Bibliographia  Catholica  Ameri- 
cana", which  took  years  of  study  and  care.  It  was 
intended  to  be  a  catalogue  of  all  the  Catholic  books 




published  in  the  United  States,  with  notices  of  their 
authors  and  an  epitome  of  their  contents.  The  first 
part,  which  brings  the  list  down  to  1820  inclusive,  was 
published  in  1,S72;  the  second  volume,  which  was  to 
include  the  works  of  Catholic  writers  from  1821  to 
1875,  was  never  finished,  though  much  of  the  material 
for  it  had  been  industriously  gathered  from  all  avail- 
able sources.  His  last  literary  effort,  which  he  did  not 
live  to  see  published,  entitled"  The  Mystery  of  Wizard 
Clip"  (Baltimore,  1879),  is  a  story  of  preternatural 
occurrences  at  Smithfield,  W.  Virginia,  which  is  partly 
told  in  the  life  of  Father  Gallitzin. 

Illustrated    Catholic    Family    Almanac,    1880;     Biographical 
sketch  in  MS,,  Georgetown  College  Archives;    McGee's  Weekly, 
Feb.  15,  1879;  Ave  Maria,  Feb.,  1879;  Sommehvooel,  111,7-17. 
Edward  P.  Spillane. 

Fintan,  Saints. — Fintan  of  Clonenagh,  Saint,  a 
Leinster  saint,  b.  about  524;  d.  17  February,  probably 
594,  or  at  least  before  597.  He  studied_ under  St. 
Columba  of  Terryglass,  and  in  550  settled  in  the  soli- 
tude of  the  Slieve  Bloom  Mountains,  near  what  is  now 
Maryborough,  Queen's  County.  His  oratory  soon  at- 
tracted numerous  disciples,  for  whom  he  wrote  a 
rule,  and  his  austerities  and  miracles  recalled  the 
apostolic  ages.  Among  his  pupils  was  the  great  St. 
Comgall  of  Bangor.  When  he  attained  his  seven- 
tieth year  he  chose  Fintan  Maeldubh  as  his  successor 
in  the  Abbey  of  Clonenagh.  He  has  been  compared 
by  the  Irish  annalists  to  St.  Benedict,  and  is  styled 
"Father  of  the  Irish  Monks". 

Fintan  (Munnu)  of  Taghmon,  Saint,  son  of  Tul- 
chan,  an  Ulster  saint,  d.  at  Taghmon,  636.  He 
founded  his  celebrated  abbey  at  Taghmon  (Teach 
Munnu)  in  what  is  now  County  Wexford,  in  599.  He 
is  principally  known  as  the  defender  of  the  Irish 
methotl  of  keeping  Easter,  and,  in  630,  he  attended 
the  Synod  of  Magh  Lene,  at  which  he  dissented  from 
the  decision  to  adopt  the  Roman  paschal  method. 
Another  synod  was  held  somewhat  later  at  Magh 
Ailbe,  when  St.  Fintan  again  upheld  his  views  in  op- 
position to  St.  Laserian  (Mo  Laisre).  But  the  views 
of  the  Universal  Church  prevailed.  His  feast  is  ob- 
served on  21  October.  The  beautiful  stone  cross  of 
"St.  Munn"  still  stands  in  the  churchyard  of  the 

CoLGAN,  Ada  Sand.  Hib.  (Louvain,  1645);  Acta  SS.  (1853), 
Oct.,  VIII,  896-98;  (1858),  IX,  325-33;  Ziuuer,  Celtic  Church  in 
Britain  and  Ireland  (London,  1902);  O'Hanlon,  Lives  of  the 
Irish  Saints  (Dublin,  s.  d.),  X;  Reeves,  Life  of  St.  Columba 
(Dublin,  1857);  Bede,  Ecct.  Hist,  of  England,  ed.  Seller 
(London,  1907);  Annals  of  Ulster  (Dublin,  1901),  IV;  Stokes, 
Ireland  and  the  Celtic  Church,  ed.  Lawlor  (London,  1907). 
W.  H.  Grattan-Flood. 

Fioretti  di  S.  Francesco  d'Assisi  (Little  Flow- 
ers of  St.  Francis  of  A.ssisi),  the  name  given  to 
a  classic  collection  of  popular  legends  about  the  life 
of  St.  Francis  of  Assisi  and  his  early  companions  as 
they  appeared  to  the  Italian  people  at  the  beginning 
of  the  fourteenth  century.  Such  a  work,  as  Ozanam 
observes,  can  hardly  be  said  to  have  one  author;  it  is 
the  product  rather  of  gradual  growth  and  must,  as 
Sabatier  remarks,  remain  in  a  certain  sense  anony- 
mous, because  it  is  national.  There  has  been  some 
doubt  as  to  whether  the  "Fioretti"  were  written  in 
Italian  in  the  first  instance,  as  Sbaralea  thought,  or 
were  translated  from  a  Latin  original,  as  Wadding 
maintained.  The  latter  seems  altogether  more  proba- 
ble, and  modern  critics  generally  believe  that  a  larger 
Latin  collection  of  legends,  which  has  come  down  to  us 
under  the  name  of  the  "  Actus  B.  Francisci  et  Sociorum 
Ejus",  represents  an  approximation  to  the  text  now 
lost  of  the  original  "Floretura",  of  which  the  "Fior- 
etti" is  a  translation.  A  striking  difference  is  notice- 
able between  the  earlier  chapters  of  the  "Fioretti", 
which  refer  to  St.  Francis  and  his  companions,  and  the 
later  ones  which  with  the  friars  in  the  province  of 
the  March  of  Ancona.     The  first  half  of  the  collection 

is,  no  doubt,  merely  a  new  form  given  to  traditions 
that  go  back  to  the  early  days  of  the  order ;  the  other 
is  believed  to  be  substantially  the  work  of  a  certain 
Fra  Ugolino  da  Monte  Giorgio  of  the  noble  family  of 
Brunforte  (see  Brunforte,  Ugolino),  who,  at  the 
time  of  his  death  in  1348,  was  provincial  of  the  Friars 
Minor  in  the  March.  Living  as  he  did  a  century  after 
the  death  of  St.  Francis,  LTgolino  was  dependent  on 
hearsay  for  much  of  his  information;  part  of  it  he  is 
said  to  have  learned  from  Fra  Giacomo  da  Massa  who 
had  been  well  known  and  esteemed  by  the  companions 
of  the  saint,  and  who  had  lived  on  terms  of  intimacy 
with  Fra  Leone,  his  confessor  and  secretary.  What- 
ever may  have  been  the  sources  from  which  Ugolino 
derived  his  materials,  the  fifty-three  chapters  which 
constitute  the  Latin  work  in  question  seem  to  have 
been  written  before  1328.  The  four  appendixes  on  the 
Stigmata  of  St.  Francis,  the  life  of  Fra  Ginepro,  and 
the  life  and  sayings  of  Fra  Egidio,  which  occupy  nearly 
one  half  of  the  printed  text  of  the  "Fioretti",  as  we 
now  have  it,  form  no  part  of  the  original  collection  and 
were  probably  added  by  later  compilers.  Unfortu- 
nately the  name  of  the  fourteenth-century  Franciscan 
friar  who  translated  into  Italian  fifty-three  of  the 
seventy-si.x  chapters  found  in  the  "Actus  B.  Fran- 
cisci" and  in  translating  immortalized  them  as  the 
"Fioretti",  remains  unknown.  The  attribution  of 
this  work  to  Giovanni  di  San  Lorenzo  rests  wholly 
upon  conjecture.  It  has  been  surmised  that  the  trans- 
lator was  a  Florentine.  However  this  may  be,  the 
vernacular  version  is  written  in  the  most  limpid  Tus- 
can and  is  reckoned  among  the  masterpieces  of  Italian 

The  "Fioretti"  have  been  described  as  "the  most 
exquisite  expression  of  the  religious  life  of  the  Middle 
Ages".  That  perhaps  which  gives  these  legends  such 
a  peculiar  charm,  is  what  may  be  called  their  atmos- 
phere; they  breathe  all  the  delicious  fragrance  of  the 
early  Franciscan  spirit.  Nowhere  can  there  be  found 
a  more  childlike  faith,  a  livelier  sense  of  the  super- 
natural, or  a  simpler  literalness  in  the  following  of 
Christ  than  in  the  pages  of  the  "Fioretti",  which  more 
than  any  other  work  transport  us  to  the  scenes  amid 
which  St.  Francis  and  his  first  followers  lived,  and 
enable  us  to  see  them  as  they  saw  themselves. 

These  legends,  moreover,  bear  precious  witness  to 
the  vitality  and  enthusiasm  with  which  the  memory  of 
the  life  and  teaching  of  the  Poverello  was  preserved, 
and  they  contain  much  more  history,  as  distinct  from 
mere  poetry,  than  it  was  customary  to  recognize  when 
Suyskens  and  Papini  wrote.  In  Italy  the  "Fioretti" 
have  always  enjoyed  an  extraordinary  popularity; 
indeed,  this  liber  aureus  is  said  to  have  been  more 
widely  read  there  than  any  other  book,  not  excepting 
even  the  Bible  or  the  Divine  Comedy.  Certain  it  is  that 
the  "Fioretti  "have  exercised  an  immense  influence  in 
forming  the  popular  conception  of  St.  Francis  and  his 
companions.  The  earliest  known  MS.  of  the  "Fior- 
etti", now  preserved  at  Berlin,  is  dated  1390;  the 
work  was  first  printed  at  Vieenza  in  1476.  Manzoni 
has  collected  many  interesting  details  about  the  well- 
nigh  innumerable  codices  and  editions  of  the  "  Fior- 
etti". The  best  edition  for  the  general  reader  is  un- 
questionably that  of  Father  Antonio  Cesari  (Verona, 
1822)  which  is  based  on  the  epoch-making  edition 
of  Filippo  Buonarroti  (Florence,  1718).  The  Crusca 
quote  from  this  edition  which  has  been  often  reprinted. 
The  "  Fioretti ' '  have  been  translated  into  nearly  every 
European  language  and  in  our  own  day  are  being  much 
read  and  studied  in  Northern  countries.  There  are 
several  well-known  English  versions. 

Oz.^NAM,  Les  potles  Frandscains  en  Italie  au  treizi^jne  sitcle 
(6th  ed.,  Paris,  1882),  vii;  Bonav.  ha  Sorrento,  11  libra  de' 
Fioretti  di  San  Francesco  (Naples,  1885);  Manzoni,  Studi  sui 
Fioretti  in  jl/isc  Franeeseoml.  Ill  (Foligno,  1888-89);  Alvisi. 
Fiorilli  ili  S.  Franresco:  Sluihi  snHii  loro  composizione  storicn  in 
An-h.  .SV..r.  //.//. .  SIT.  l,  IV  (  lS7ill,  488  sqq.;  Stadehini,  Sulle 
fnntiil,,  Fi„r.tti  in  lioll.  d.  S„c.  I'mbra  di  St.  Patria  (1896),  II, 
faac.  II-III.;  Gauavani,  La  queslione  starica  dei  Fiorettie  it  loro 




poslo  nctla  sloria  dd  ordine  in  Rivista  SloHco  Critica  deUcScienze 
tfologiche,  XI  (1906),  269  sqq.,  578  sqq.;  Wadding-Sbaralea. 
Scriplores  ordinis  Minorum,  ed.  Nardecchia  (Rome,  1906-08), 
s.  v.;  HuGOLiNus,  bibliography  under  Brunforte  in  The  Catho- 
lic Encyclopedia. 

Paschal  Robinson. 

Fire,  Baptism  by.    See  Baptism. 

Fire,  Liturgical  Use  of. — Fire  is  one  of  the  most 
expressive  and  most  ancient  of  liturgical  symbols. 
All  the  creeds  of  antiquity  accorded  a  prominent  place 
to  this  element  whose  mysterious  nature  and  irresist- 
iljle  power  frequently  caused  it  to  be  adored  as  a  god. 
The  sun,  as  the  principle  of  heat  and  light  for  the 
earth,  w-as  regarded  as  an  igneous  mass  and  had  its 
share  in  this  worship.  Christianity  adapted  this 
usual  belief,  but  denied  the  di\-ine  title  to  heat  and 
light,  and  made  them  the  sjinbols  of  the  divinity, 
which  enlightens  and  warms  humanity.  The  symbol- 
ism led  quite  naturally  to  the  liturgical  rite  by  which 
the  Church  on  the  Eve  of  Easter  celebrates  the  mys- 
tery of  the  Death  and  Resurrection  of  Christ,  of  which 
the  extinguished  and  rekindled  fire  furnishes  the  ex- 
pressive image.  The  beginning  of  the  office  also  re- 
flects ancient  beliefs.  The  new  fire  is  struck  from  a 
flint  and  is  blessed  with  this  prayer:  "Lord  God,  Al- 
mighty Father,  inextinguishable  light.  Who  hast  cre- 
ated all  light,  bless  this  light  sanctified  and  blessed 
by  Thee,  Who  hast  enlightened  the  whole  world:  make 
us  enlightened  by  that  light  and  inflamed  with  the 
fire  of  Thy  brightness;  and  as  Thou  didst  enlighten 
Moses  when  he  went  out  of  Egypt,  so  illuminate  our 
hearts  and  senses  that  we  may  attain  life  and  light 
everlasting  through  Christ  our  Lord.  Amen."  When 
the  fire  has  been  struck  from  the  flint  the  three- 
branched  candle  is  lighted  and  the  deacon  chants  the 
"Exultet"  (q.  v.),  a  liturgical  poem  whose  style  is  as 
lively  and  charming  as  the  melody  which  accompanies 
it.  It  is  yet  preserved  in  the  Roman  Liturgy.  In  the 
East  the  ceremony  of  the  new  fire  occupies  a  place  of 
considerable  importance  in  the  paschal  ritual  of  the 
Greek  Church  at  Jerusalem.  This  ceremony  is  the 
occasion  for  scandalous  demonstrations  of  a  piety 
which  frequently  degenerates  into  orgies  worthy  of 
pagan  rites.  The  Journal  of  the  Marquis  de  Nointel, 
m  the  seventeenth  century,  relates  scenes  which  can- 
not be  transcribed  and  which  take  place  periodically. 
This  ceremony  is  peculiar  to  the  Holy  City  and  does 
not  figure  in  the  ordinary  Byzantine  ritual. 

In  the  West  we  see  the  Irish,  as  early  as  the  sixth 
century,  lighting  large  fires  at  nightfall  on  the  Eve  of 
Easter.  The  correspondence  of  St.  Boniface  with 
Pope  Zachary  furnishes  a  curious  detail  on  this  sub- 
ject. These  fires  were  kindled,  not  with  brands  from 
other  fires,  but  with  lenses;  they  were  therefore  new 
fires.  There  is  no  trace  of  this  custom  in  Gaul,  where 
the  Merovingian  liturgical  books  are  silent  on  the 
point.  It  is  difficult  to  say  what  took  place  in  Spain, 
for  although  the  Mozarabic  Missal  contains  a  blessing 
of  fire  at  the  beginning  of  the  vigil  of  Easter,  it  can 
hardly  be  admitted  that  this  ceremony  was  primitive. 
It  may  have  been  inserted  in  this  missal  at  a  later  date 
as  it  was  in  the  Roman  Missal,  in  the  case  of  which  fire 
is  obtained  from  a  flint  and  steel.  It  is  possible  that 
the  custom,  of  Breton  or  Celtic  origin,  was  imposed 
upon  the  Anglo-Saxons,  and  the  missionaries  of  that 
nation  brought  it  to  the  continent  in  the  eighth  cen- 
tury. _  An  altogether  diff'erent  rite,  though  of  similar 
meaning,  was  followed  at  Rome.  On  Holy  Thursday, 
at  the  consecration  of  the  holy  chrism,  there  was  col- 
lected in  all  the  lamps  of  the  Lateran  basilica  a  quan- 
tity of  oil  sufficient  to  fill  three  large  vases  deposited 
in  the  corner  of  the  church.  Wicks  burned  in  this  oil 
mil  il  the  night  of  Holy  Saturday,  when  there  were 
liglitcd  from  these  lamps  the  candles  and  other  lumi- 
naries by  which,  during  the  Eve  of  I'^aster,  light  was 
thrown  on  the  ceremonies  of  the  administration  of 
baptism.     This  rite  must  have  been  attended  with  a 

certain  solemnity  since  the  letter  of  Pope  Zachary  to 
St.  Boniface  prescribes  that  a  priest,  perhaps  even  a 
bishop,  should  officiate  on  this  occasion.  Unhappily 
we  are  reduced  to  this  somewhat  vague  information, 
for  neither  the  Roman  "Ordines",  nor  the  Sacramen- 
tarjes  tell  us  anything  concerning  this  ceremony. 
This  blessing  of  the  paschal  candle  and  the  fire  at  the 
beginning  of  Easter  Eve  is  foreign  to  Rome.  The 
large  lamps  prepared  on  Holy  Thursday  provided  fire 
on  the  Friday  and  Saturday  without  necessitating  the 
solemn  production  of  a  new  fire.  The  feast  of  the 
Purification  or  Candlemas  (2  February)  has  a  cele- 
brated rite  with  ancient  prayers  concerning  the  emis- 
sion of  liturgical  fire  and  light.  One  of  them  invokes 
Christ  as  "  the  true  light  which  enlightenest  every  man 
that  Cometh  mto  this  world".  The  canticle  of  Sim- 
eon, "Nunc  Dimittis",  is  chanted  with  the  anthem 
"A  light  (which  my  eyes  have  seen)  for  the  revelation 
of  the  Gentiles  and  for  the  glory  of  thy  people  Israel." 

.ScHANZ.  Apologie  (tr.),  II,  96,  101;  de  la  Sadssate,  Com- 
parative Religion,  II,  1S5;  Duchesne,  Origins  of  Christian  War- 
ship  (London,  1904);  Kellner,  Heortology  (London,  1908); 
Hampson,  Medii  ^m,  Kalendarium;  Hone's  Every  Day  Book, 
H.  Leclercq. 

Fire,  Pillar  of.    See  Pillar  op  Fire, 

Fire  Worshippers.    See  Parsees. 

Firmament  (Heb.  JJ'pT;  Sept.  a-Tepiufm;  Vulgate, 
firmament  um). — The  notion  that  the  sky  was  avast 
solid  dome  seems  to  have  been  common  among  the 
ancient  peoples  whose  itleas  of  cosmology  have  come 
down  to  us.  Thus  the  Egyptians  conceived  the 
heavens  to  be  an  arched  iron  ceiling  from  which  the 
stars  were  suspended  by  means  of  cables  (Chabas, 
L'Antiquite  hi-storique,  Paris,  1S73,  pp.  6J;-(37).  Like- 
wise to  the  mind  of  the  Babylonians  the  sky  was  an 
immense  dome,  forged  out  of  the  hardest  metal  by  the 
hand  of  Merodach  (Marduk)  and  resting  on  a  wall 
surrounding  the  earth  (Jensen,  Die  Kosmologie  der 
Babylonier,  Stra.sburg,  1S90,  pp.  253,  260).  Accord- 
ing to  the  notion  prevalent  among  the  Greeks  and 
Romans,  the  sky  was  a  great  vault  of  crystal  to  which 
the  fixed  stars  were  attached,  though  by  some  it  was 
held  to  be  of  iron  or  brass.  That  the  Hebrews  enter- 
tained similar  ideas  appears  from  numerous  biblical 
passages.  In  the  first  account  of  the  creation  (Gen.,  i) 
we  read  that  God  created  a  firmament  to  divide  the 
upper  or  celestial  from  the  lower  or  terrestrial  waters. 
The  Hebrew  word  ypT  means  something  beaten  or 
hammered  out,  and  thus  extended;  the  Vulgate  ren- 
dering, "firmamentum",  corresponds  more  closely 
with  the  Greek  (rrep^wfia  (Septuagint,  Aquila,  and 
Symmachus),  "something  made  firm  or  solid".  The 
notion  of  the  solidity  of  the  firmament  is  moreover 
expressed  in  such  passages  as  Joli,  xxxvii,  IS,  where 
reference  is  made  incidentally  to  the  heavens,  "  w-hich 
are  most  strong,  as  if  they  were  of  molten  brass". 
The  same  is  impfied  in  the  purpose  attributed  to  God  in 
creating  the  firmament,  viz.  to  serve  as  a  wall  of 
separation  between  the  upper  and  lower  bodies  of 
water,  it  being  conceived  as  supporting  a  vast  celestial 
reservoir;  and  also  in  the  account  of  the  deluge  (Gen., 
vii),  where  we  read  that  the  "flood  gates  of  heaven 
were  opened",  and  "shut  up"  (viii,  2).  (Cf.  also  IV 
Ivings,  vii,  19;  Is.,  xxiv,  18;  Mai.,  iii,  10;  Prov.,  viii, 
28  sqq.)  Other  passages,  e.  g.  Is.,  xlii,  5,  emphasize 
rather  the  idea  of  something  extended :  "  Thus  saith  the 
Lord  God  that  created  the  heavens  and  stretched  them 
out"  (Cf.  Is.,  xliv,  24,  and  xl,  22).  In  conformity 
with  these  ideas,  the  WTiter  of  Gen.,  i,  14-17,  20,  repre- 
sents God  as  setting  the  stars  in  the  firmament  of 
heaven,  and  the  fowls  are  located  beneath  it,  i.  e.  in 
theair  as  distinct  finm  (lie  tinnamcnt.  On  this  point, 
as  on  many  others,  the  Bible  siinjily  reflects  the  current 
cosmological  ideas  and  language  of  the  time. 

LEsfiTHE  in  ViG.,  Diet,  de  la  Bible,  s.  v.;  Whitehouse  in 
Hastings,  Diet,  of  the  Bible,  s.  v.  Cosmogony,  T.  502. 

James  F.  Driscoll. 




Fiimicns  Maternus,  Christian  author  of  the  fourth 
century,  wrote  a  work  "De  errore  profanarum  reh- 
gionum".  Nothing  is  known  about  him  except  what 
can  be  gleaned  from  this  work,  which  is  found  in  only 
one  MS.  (Codex  Vaticano-Palatinus,  Sffc.  X).  Some 
references  to  the  Persian  Wars,  and  the  fact  that  the 
work  was  addressed  to  the  two  emperors,  Constantius 
II  and  Constans  I,  have  led  to  the  conclusion  that  it 
was  composed  during  their  joint  reign  (337-350).  The 
work  is  valualile  because  it  gives  a  picture  of  the  char- 
acter which  the  paganism  of  the  later  Roman  Empire 
had  taken,  under  the  stress  of  the  new  spiritual  needs 
aroused  by  contact  with  the  religions  of  Egypt  and  the 
East.  It  aims,  if  one  may  judge  from  the  mutilated 
introduction,  at  presenting  from  a  philosophical  and 
historical  standpoint,  reasons  showing  the  superiority 
of  Christianity  over  the  superstitions  and  licentious- 
ness of  heathenism.  In  a  general  survey  of  pagan 
creeds  and  beliefs  the  author  holds  up  to  scorn  the 
origin  and  practices  of  the  Gentile  cults.  All  its  parts 
are  not  of  equal  merit  or  importance,  from  the  purely 
historical  standpoint.  The  first  portion,  in  which  the 
religions  of  Cireece  and  the  East  are  descril^ed,  is 
merely  a  compilation  from  earlier  sources,  but  in  the 
latter  section  of  the  work,  in  which  the  mysteries  of 
Eleusis,  Isis,  and  especially  Mithra  are  set  forth  in  de- 
tail, with  their  system  of  curious  passwords,  formula^, 
and  ceremonies,  the  author  seems  to  speak  from  per- 
sonal experience,  and  thus  reveals  many  interesting 
facts  which  are  not  found  elsewhere.  The  emperors 
are  exhorted  to  stamp  out  this  network  of  superstition 
and  immorality,  as  a  sacred  duty  for  which  they  will 
receive  a  reward  from  God  Himself,  and  ultimately  the 
praise  and  thanks  of  those  whom  they  rescue  "from 
error  and  corruption.  The  theory  that  the  author  of 
the  Christian  work  was  identical  with  Julius  Firmicus 
Maternus  Siculus,  who  wrote  a  work  on  astrology  (De 
Nativitatibus  sive  Matheseos),  assigned  by  Mommsen 
to  the  year  337  ["  Hermes  ",  XXIX  (1894),  468  sq.],  is 
favourably  received  by  some,  as  well  because  of  tlie 
identity  of  names  and  dates,  as  because  of  similarities 
in  style  which  they  are  satisfied  the  two  documents 
exhibit.  This  theory  of  course  supposes  that  the  au- 
thor WTote  one  work  before,  the  other  after,  his  con- 
version. Critical  edition  by  Halm  (Vienna,  1S67)  in 
"Corpus  Scrip.  Eccles.  Lat.",  II. 

ZlEGLER,  Firmicus  Malemus,  De  Errore  Prof.  Relig.  (Leipzig, 
1908);  MuLLER,  Zur  Ueberliefentng  tier  Apologie  des  Firmicus 
Malemus  (Tubingen,  1908);  additional  literature,  Barden- 
HEWER,  Palrology,  tr.  Shahan   (Freiburg  im  Br.,  St.  Louis, 

190S),  402.  Patrick  J.  Healy. 

Finnilian,  Bishop  of  Cssarea  in  Cappadocia,  died 
c.  269.  He  had  among  his  contemporaries  a  repu- 
tation comparable  to  that  of  Dionysius  or  Cyprian. 
St.  Gregory  of  Nyssa  tells  us  that  St.  Gregory  the 
Wonder-Worker,  then  a  pagan,  having  completed  his 
secular  studies,  "  fell  in  with  Firmilian,  a  Cappadocian 
of  noble  family,  similar  to  himself  in  character  and 
talent,  as  he  showed  in  his  subsequent  life  when  he 
adorned  the  Church  of  Ccesarea."  The  two  young 
men  agreed  in  their  desire  to  know  more  of  God,  and 
came  to  Origen,  whose  disciples  they  became,  and  by 
whom  Gregory,  at  least,  was  baptized.  Firmilian  was 
more  probably  brought  up  as  a  Christian.  Later,  when 
bishop,  Eusebius  tells  us,  he  had  such  a  love  for  Origen 
that  he  invited  him  to  his  own  country  for  the  benefit 
of  the  Churches,  at  the  time  (232-5)  when  the  great 
teacher  was  staving  inCssareaof  Palestine,  on  account 
of  his  bishop'.s  displeasure  at  his  having  been  ordained 
priest  in  that  city.  Firmilian  also  went  to  him  subse- 
quently and  stayed  with  him  some  time  that  he  might 
advance  in  theology  (Hist.  Eccl.,  VII,  xxviii,  1).  He 
was  an  opponent  of  the  antipope  Novatian,  for  Diony- 
sius in  2.52-3  writes  that  Helenus  of  Tarsus,  Firmilian, 
and  Theoctistus  of  Ca'.sarea  in  Palestine  (that  is,  the 
Metropolitans  of  Cilicia,  Cappadocia,  and  Palestine) 
had  invited  him  to  a  synod  at  Antioch,  where  some 

were  trying  to  support  the  heresy  of  Novatian  (Euseb., 
Hist.  Eccl.,  VI,  xlvi,  3).  Dionysius  counts  Firmilian 
as  one  of  "the  more  eminent  bishops"  in  a  letter  to 
Pope  Stephen  (ibid.,  VII,  v,  1),  where  his  expression 
"Firmilian  and  all  Cappadocia"  again  implies  that 
Ca?sarea  was  already  a  metropolitan  see.  This  ex- 
plains why  Firmilian  could  invite  Origen  to  Cappado- 
cia "for  the  benefit  of  the  Churches". 

In  a  letter  to  Pope  Sixtus  II  (257-8),  Dionysius 
mentions  that  Pope  St.  Stephen  in  the  baptismal  con- 
troversy had  refused  to  communicate  with  Helenus  of 
Tarsus,  Firmilian,  and  all  Cilicia  and  Cappadocia,  and 
the  neighbouring  lands  (Euseb.,  VII,  v,  3-4).  We 
learn  the  cause  of  this  from  the  only  writing  of  St. 
Firmilian 's  which  remains  to  us.  When  the  baptismal 
controversy  arose,  St.  Cyprian  wished  to  gain  support 
from  the  Churches  of  the  East  against  Pope  Stephen 
for  his  own  decision  to  rebaptize  all  heretics  who 
returned  to  the  Church.  At  the  end  of  the  summer  of 
256,  he  sent  the  deacon  Rogatian  to  Firmilian  with  a 
letter,  together  with  the  docimients  on  the  subject — 
letters  of  the  pope,  of  his  own,  and  of  his  council  at 
Carthage  in  the  spring,  and  the  treatise  "De  Eccl. 
Cath.  Unitate".  Firmilian's  reply  was  received  at 
Carthage  about  the  middle  of  November.  It  is  a  long 
letter,  even  more  bitter  and  violent  than  that  of  Cyp- 
rian to  Pompeius.  It  has  come  down  to  us  in  a  transla- 
tion made,  no  doubt,  under  St.  Cyprian's  direction, 
and  apparently  very  literal,  as  it  abounds  in  Gra^cisms 
(Ep.  Ixxv  among  St.  Cyprian's  letters).  St.  Cyprian's 
arguments  against  St.  Stephen  are  reiterated  and  rein- 
forced, and  the  treatise  on  Unity  is  laid  under  contri- 
bution. It  is  particularly  interesting  to  note  that  the 
famous  fourth  chapter  of  that  treatise  must  have  been 
before  the  writer  of  the  letter  in  its  original  form,  and 
not  in  the  alternative  "Roman"  form  (c.  xvi).  It  is 
the  literal  truth  when  Firmilian  says:  "We  have  re- 
ceived your  writings  as  om-  own,  and  have  committed 
them  to  memory  by  repeated  reading"  (c.  iv). 

The  reasoning  against  the  validity  of  heretical  bap- 
tism is  mainly  that  of  St.  Cyprian,  that  those  who  are 
outside  the  Church  and  have  not  the  Holy  Spirit  can- 
not admit  others  to  the  Church  or  give  what  they  do 
not  possess.  Firmilian  is  fond  of  dilemmas:  for  in- 
stance, either  the  heretics  do  not  give  the  Holy  Ghost, 
in  which  case  rebaptism  is  necessary,  or  else  they  do 
give  it,  in  which  case  Stephen  should  not  enjoin  the 
laying  on  of  hanils.  It  is  important  that  Firmilian 
enables  us  to  gather  much  of  the  drift  of  St.  Stephen's 
letter.  It  is  "ridiculous"  that  Stephen  demanded 
nothing  but  the  use  of  the  Trinitarian  formula.  He 
had  appealed  to  tradition  from  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul: 
this  is  an  insult  to  the  Apostles,  cries  Firmilian,  for 
they  execrated  heretics.  Besides  (this  is  from  Cyprian, 
Ep.  Ixxiv,  2),"  no  one  could  be  so  sUly  as  to  believe  this ' ', 
for  the  heretics  are  all  later  than  the  Apostles!  And 
Rome  has  not  preserved  the  Apostolic  traditions  un- 
changed, for  it  differs  from  Jerusalem  as  to  the  observ- 
ances at  Easter  and  as  to  other  mysteries.  "1  am 
justly  indignant  with  Stephen's  obvious  and  manifest 
silliness,  that  he  so  boasts  of  his  position,  and  claims 
that  he  is  the  successor  of  St.  Peter  on  whom  were  laid 
the  foundations  of  the  Church ;  yet  he  brings  in  many 
other  rocks,  and  erects  new  buildings  of  many  Churches 
when  he  defends  with  his  authority  the  baptism  con- 
ferred by  heretics;  for  those  who  are  baptized  are 
without  doubt  numbered  in  the  Church,  and  he  who 
approves  their  baptism  affirms  that  there  is  among 
them  a  Church  of  the  baptized.  .  .  .  Stephen,  who 
declares  that  he  has  the  Chair  of  Peter  by  succession, 
is  excited  by  no  zeal  against  heretics"  (c.  xvii).  "  You 
have  cut  yourself  off — do  not  mistake — since  he  is  the 
true  schismatic  who  makes  himself  an  apostate  from 
the  communion  of  ecclesiastical  unity.  For  in  think- 
ing that  .all  can  be  excommimicated  by  you,  you  have 
cut  off  yourself  alone  from  the  communion  of  all" 
(c.  xxiv).  . 




We  thus  learn  the  ckiims  (if  the  pope  to  impose  on 
the  whole  Church  by  his  authority  as  successor  of 
Peter,  a  custom  derived  by  the  Roman  Church  from 
Apostolic  tradition.  Firmilian  tells  the  Africans  that 
with  them  the  custoin  of  rebaptizing  may  be  new,  but 
in  Cappadocia  it  is  not,  and  he  can  answer  Stephen  by 
opposing  tradition  to  tradition,  for  it  was  their  prac- 
tice from  the  beginning  (c.  xix) ;  and  some  time  since, 
lie  had  joined  in  a  council  at  Iconium  with  the  bishops 
of  Galatia  and  Cilicia  and  other  provinces,  and  had 
decided  to  rebaptize  the  Montanists  (c.  vii  and  xix). 
Dionysius,  in  a  letter  to  the  Roman  priest  Philemon, 
also  mentions  the  Council  of  Iconium  with  one  at 
Synnada  "  among  many".  It  was  presumably  held  in 
the  last  years  of  Alexander  Severus,  c.  231-5.  Firmil- 
ian also  took  part  in  the  two  councils  of  264-5  at 
Antioch  which  deposed  Paul  of  Samosata.  He  may 
even  have  presided.  The  letter  of  the  third  council 
says  he  was  too  easily  persuaded  that  Paul  would 
amend ;  hence  the  necessity  of  another  council  (Euseb. 
Hist.  Eccl.,  VII,  iii-v).  He  was  on  his  way  to  this 
assembly  when  death  overtook  him  at  Tarsus.  This 
was  in  2GS  (Harnack)  or  269.  Though  he  was  cut  off 
from  conuiumion  by  Pope  Stephen,  it  is  certain  that 
the  following  popes  ditl  not  adhere  to  this  severe  policy. 
He  is  commemorated  in  the  Greek  Jlenaea  on  28 
Oct.,  but  is  unknown  to  the  Western  martyrologies. 
His  great  successor,  St.  Basil,  mentions  his  view  on 
heretical  baptism  without  accepting  it  (Ep.  clx.xxviii), 
and  says,  when  speaking  of  the  expression  "with  the 
Holy  Ghost"  in  the  Doxology:  "That  our  own  Firmil- 
ian held  this  faith  is  testified  by  the  books  [X6701] 
which  he  has  left"  (De  Spir.  Sane,  xxix,  74).  We 
hear  nothing  else  of  such  writings,  which  were  proba- 
bly letters. 

BossuE,  in  Acta  SS.,  28  Oct.,  gives  an  elaborate  dissertation 
on  this  saint;  Benson  in  Diet.  Christ.  Biog.;  the  genuineness 
of  the  letter  was  arbitrarily  contested  by  MissoRius,  In  Epist. 
ad  Pomp,  inter  Cypr.  (Venice,  1733),  and  by  Molkenbuhr, 
BincB  diss,  de  S.  Firm.  (Munster,  1790,  and  in  P.  L.,  HI,  1357); 
RiTSCHL,  Cyprian  v.  Karth  (Gottingen,  1895),  argued  that  the 
letter  had  been  interpolated  at  Carthage  in  the  interests  of 
Cyprian's  party;  so  also  Harnack  in  Gesch.  der  altchr.  Lit. 
(Leipzig,  1893),  I,  407,  and  Soden,  Die  cyprianische  Brief samm- 
luna  (Berlin,  19041;  this  was  disproved  by  Ernst,  Die  Echtheit 
desBrielesFir7nilin,rv^  7.-  ,/;-.  furkath.  Theol.  (1894),  XVIII, 
209,  a.nd  Zur  Frail'  '       'i<  it  des  Briefes  F.'s  an  Cyprian 

(ibid..  XX,  364).  ;il  .    Ti  ..  Cyprian  (London,  1897),  p. 

377,  and  Harnack  lai.  1  •  ,|.i.  ~  -  ^1  himself  convinced  (Gesch.,  II, 
ii,  p.  359,  1904).  .Mu.-,fc.-.  ..t  i_\i.juene,  Hist.  Arm.,  II,  l.vxv, 
attributed  to  Firmilian  '  "many  books,  among  them  a  history  of 
the  persecutions  of  the  Church  in  the  days  of  Maximus,  Decius 
and  later  of  Diocletian".  This  is  a  mistake.  It  seems  there 
were  letters  from  Firmilian  in  the  published  correspondence  of 
Origen,  according  to  St.  Jerome's  version  of  the  list  of  Origen's 
works  by  Paraphilus  and  Eusebius;  '  'Origenis,  Firmiani  [sic]  et 
Gregorii"  [ed.  by  Klostehmann.  Sitzunqsberichte der  Real-.ikad. 
(Berlin,  1897);  see  Harnack,  op.  ct(.,  II,  ii,  p.  47];  the  letter  to 
Gregory  Thaum.  is  extant.  A  fragment  of  a  letter  from  Origen 
to  Firmilian,  cited  by  Victor  of  Capua,  was  published  by  Pitr.\, 
Spic.  Solesm.,  I,  268.  St.  Augustine  seems  not  to  have  known 
the  letter  to  (jyprian,  but  Cresconius  seems  to  have  referred  to 
it,  C.  Cresc,  iii,  1  and  3.  Theletterisnot  quoted  by  any  ancient 
writer,  and  is  found  in  at  most  28  out  of  the  431  MSS.  of  St. 
Cyprian  enumerated  by  von  Soden,  op.  cit.  See  also  Barden- 
hewer,  Gesch,  der  altkirchl.  Lit.,  II,  269;  Batiffol,  Litt.  grecque 
(Paris,  1898);  Idem,  L' Egli-ie  naissante  ette  Catholicisme  CParis, 
1909);  see  also  references  under  Cyprian  of  Carthage,  Saint. 
John  Chapman. 

First-Born. — The  word,  though  casually  taken  in 
Holy  Writ  in  a  metaphorical  sense,  is  most  generally 
u.sed  by  the  sacred  %vriters  to  designate  the  first  male 
child  in  a  family.  The  first-cast  male  animal  is,  in  the 
English  Bibles,  termed  "firstling".  The  firstlings, 
both  human  and  animal,  being  considered  as  the  best 
representatives  of  the  race,  because  its  blood  flows 
purest  and  strongest  in  them,  were  commonly  believed, 
among  the  early  nomad  Semitic  tribes,  to  belong  to 
God  in  a  special  way.  Hence,  very  likely,  the  custom 
of  sacrificing  the  first-cast  animals;  hence  also  the  pre- 
rogatives of  the  first-born  son;  hence,  possibly,  even 
some  of  the  superstitious  practices  which  mar  a  few 
pages  of  the  history  of  Israel. 

Among  the  Hebrews,  as  well  as  among  other  na- 
VI.— 6 

tions,  the  first-born  enjoyed  special  privileges.  Be- 
sides having  a  greater  share  in  the  paternal  affection, 
he  had  everywhere  the  first  place  after  his  father  (Gen., 
xliii,  33)  and  a  kind  of  directive  authority  over  his 
younger  brothers  (Gen.,  xxxvii,  21-22,  30,  etc.);  a 
special  blessing  was  reserved  to  him  at  his  father's 
death,  and  he  succeeded  him  as  the  head  of  the  family, 
receiving  a  double  portion  among  his  brothers  (Deut., 
xxi,  17).  Moreover,  the  first-birthright,  up  to  the 
time  of  the  promulgation  of  the  Law,  included  a  right 
to  the  priesthood.  Of  course  this  latter  privilege,  as 
also  the  headship  of  the  family,  to  which  it  was  at- 
tachcil,  continued  in  force  only  when  brothers  dwelt 
together  in  the  same  house ;  for,  as  soon  as  they  made 
a  family  apart  and  separated,  each  one  became  the 
head  and  the  priest  of  his  own  house. 

When  God  chose  unto  Himself  the  tribe  of  Levi  to 
discharge  the  office  of  priesthood  in  Israel,  He  wished 
that  His  rights  over  the  first-born  should  not  thereby 
be  forfeited.  He  enacted  therefore  that  every  firsts 
born  should  be  redeemed,  one  month  after  his  birth, 
for  five  sides  (Num.,  iii,  47;  xviii,  15-16).  This  re- 
demption tax,  calculated  also  to  remind  the  Israelites 
of  the  death  inflicted  upon  the  first-born  of  the  Egyp- 
tians in  punishment  of  Pharaoh's  stubbornness  (Ex., 
xiii,  15-16),  went  tothe  endowment-fund  of  the  clergy. 
No  law,  however,  stated  that  the  first-born  should  be 
presented  to  the  Temple.  It  seems,  however,  that 
after  the  Restoration  parents  usually  took  advantage 
of  the  mother's  visit  to  the  sanctuary  to  bring  the 
child  thither.  This  circumstance  is  recorded  in  St. 
Luke's  Gospel,  in  reference  to  Christ  (ii,  2'2-3S). 
It  might  be  noted  here  that  St.  Paul  refers  the  title 
primogenitus  to  Christ  (Heb.,  i,  6),  tlie  "fu'st-born"  of 
the  Father.  The  Messianic  sacrifice  was  the  first- 
fruits  of  the  Atonement  offered  to  God  for  man's  re- 
demption. It  must  be  remembered,  however,  con- 
trary to  what  is  too  often  asserted  and  seems,  indeed, 
intimated  by  the  liturgical  texts,  that  the  "pair  of 
turtle-doves,  or  two  young  pigeons"  mentioned  in  this 
connexion,  were  offered  for  the  purification  of  the 
mother,  and  not  for  the  child.  Nothing  was  especially 
prescribed  with  regard  to  the  latter. 

As  polygamy  was,  at  least  in  early  times,  in  vogue 
among  the  Israelites,  precise  regulations  were  enacted 
to  define  who,  among  the  children,  should  enjoy  the 
legal  right  of  primogeniture,  and  who  were  to  be  re- 
deemed. The  right  of  primogeniture  belonged  to  the 
first  male  child  born  in  the  family,  either  of  wife  or 
concubine;  the  first  child  of  any  woman  having  a  legal 
status  in  the  family  (wife  or  concubine)  was  to  be  re- 
deemed, provided  that  child  were  a  boy. 

As  the  first-born,  so  were  the  firstlings  of  the  Egyp- 
tians smitten  by  the  sword  of  the  destroying  angel, 
whereas  those  of  the  Hebrews  were  spared.  As  a 
token  of  recognition,  God  declared  that  all  firstlings 
belonged  to  Him  (Ex.,  xiii,  2;  Num.,  iii,  13).  They 
accordingly  should  be  immolated.  In  case  of  clean  ani- 
mals, as  a  calf,  a  lamb,  or  a  kid  (Num.,  xviii,  15-18), 
they  were,  when  one  year  old,  brought  to  the  sanc- 
tuary and  offered  in  sacrifice;  the  blood  was  sprinkled 
at  the  foot  of  the  altar,  the  fat  burned,  and  the  flesh 
belonged  to  the  priests.  Unclean  animals,  however, 
which  could  not  be  immolated  to  the  Lord,  were  re- 
deemed with  money.  Exception  was  made  in  the 
case  of  the  firstling  of  the  ass,  which  was  to  be  re- 
deemed with  a  sheep  (Ex.,  xxxiv,  20)  or  its  own  price 
(Josephus,  Ant.  Jud.,  IV,  iv,  4),  or  else  to  be  slain 
(Ex.,  xiii,  13;  xxxiv,  20)  and  buried  in  the  ground. 
Firstlings  sacrificetl  in  the  temple  should  be  without 
blemish;  such  as  were  "lame  or  blind,  or  in  any  part 
disfigured  or  feeble",  were  to  be  eaten  unconditionally 
witliin  the  gates  of  the  owner's  home-city. 

W.  II.  Smith,  The  Religian  of  the  Semites  (2d  ed.,  London, 
1907);  Talmud,  Bekhoroth;  Philo,  De  proemiis  sacerdotum; 
Reland,  Antiqiiitntes  sacrce  (Utrecht,  1741);  SchOrer,  Ge- 
schichtedes  Jud..Volkes  im  Zeit,  J.  C.  (Leipzig.  1898),  II,  253-54, 

Chaeles  L,  Souvay. 




First-Friiits.— The  practice  of  consecrating  first- 
fruits  to  the  Deity  is  not  a  distinctly  Jewish  one  (cf. 
IHad,  IX,  529;  Aristophanes,  "Ran.",  1272;  Ovid 
"Metam.",  VIII,  273;  X,  431;  Pliny,  "Hist.  Nat.", 
IV,  26;  etc.).  It  seems  to  have  sprung  up  naturally 
among  agricultural  peoples  from  the  belief  that  the 
first — hence  the  best — yield  of  the  earth  is  due  to  God 
as  an  acknowledgment  of  His  gifts.  "God  served 
first ",  then  the  whole  crop  becomes  lawful  food.  The 
offering  of  the  first-fruits  was,  in  Israel,  regulated  by 
laws  enshrined  in  different  parts  of  the  Mosaic  Isooks. 
These  laws  were,  in  the  course  of  ages,  supplemented 
by  customs  preserved  later  on  in  the  Talmud.  Three 
entire  treatises  of  the  latter,  "Bfkkiirim",  "Terfi- 
moth",  and  "Hdllah",  besides  numerous  other  pas- 
sages of  both  the  Mishna  and  Gemarah,  are  devoted  to 
the  explanation  of  these  customs. 

First-fruit  offerings  are  designated  in  the  Law  by  a 
threefold  name:  Bikkurim,  Reshtth,  and  Terflmoth. 
There  remains  much  uncertainty  about  the  exact  im- 
port of  these  words,  as  they  seem  to  have  been  taken 
indiscriminately  at  different  epochs.  If,  however,  one 
considers  the  texts  attentively,  he  may  gather  from 
them  a  fairly  adequate  idea  of  the  subject.  There  was 
a  first-fruit  offering  connected  with  the  beginning  of 
the  harvest.  Leviticus,  xxiii,  10-14,  enacted  that  a 
sheaf  of  ears  should  be  brought  to  the  priest,  who,  the 
next  day  after  the  Sabbath,  was  to  lift  it  up  before  the 
Lord.  A  holocaust,  a  meal-offering,  and  a  libation  ac- 
companied the  ceremony;  and  until  it  was  performed 
no  "  bread,  or  parched  corn,  or  frumenty  of  the  har- 
vest "  should  be  eaten.  Seven  weeks  later  two  loaves, 
made  from  the  new  harvest,  were  to  be  brought  to  the 
sanctuary  for  a  new  offering.  The  Bikkurim  con- 
sisted, it  seems,  of  the  first  ripened  raw  fruits;  they 
were  taken  from  wheat,  barley,  grapes,  figs,  pome- 
granates, olives,  and  honey.  The  fruits  offered  were 
supposed  to  be  the  choicest,  and  w^ere  to  be  fresh,  ex- 
cept in  the  case  of  grapes  and  figs,  which  might  be 
offered  dried  by  Israelites  living  far  from  Jerusalem. 
No  indication  is  given  in  Scripture  as  to  how  much 
should  be  thus  brought  to  the  sanctuary.  But  the 
custom  was  gradually  introduced  of  consecrating  no 
less  than  one-sixtieth  and  no  more  than  one-fortieth  of 
the  crop  (Bikk.,  ii,  2,  3,  4).  Occasionally,  of  course, 
there  were  extraordinary  offerings,  like  that  of  the 
fruit  of  a  tree  the  fourth  year  after  it  had  been  planted 
(Lev.,  xix,  23-25);  one  might  also,  for  instance, 
set  apart  as  a  free  offering  tfie  harvest  of  a  whole 

No  time  was,  at  first,  specially  set  apart  for  the 
offering;  in  later  ages,  however,  the  feast  of  Dedication 
(25  Casleu)  was  assigned  as  the  limit  (Bi'kk.,  i,  6; 
Hallah,  iv,  10).  In  the  Book  of  Deuteronomy,  xxvi, 
1-11,  directions  are  laid  down  as  to  the  manner  in 
which  these  offerings  should  be  made.  The  first- 
fruits  were  brought  in  a  basket  to  the  sanctuary  and 
presented  to  the  priest,  with  an  expression  of  thanks- 
giving for  the  deliverance  of  Israel  from  Egypt  and  the 
possession  of  the  fertile  land  of  Palestine.  A  feast, 
shared  by  the  Levite  and  the  stranger,  followed. 
Whether  the  fruits  offered  were  consumed  in  that  meal 
is  not  certain;  Numbers,  xviii,  13,  seems  to  intimate 
that  they  henceforth  belonged  to  the  priest,  and  Philo 
and  Josephus  suppose  the  same. 

Other  offerings  were  made  of  the  prepared  fruits, 
especially  oil,  wine,  and  dough  (Deut.,  xviii,  4;  Num., 
XV,  20-21;  Lev.,  ii,  12,  14-16;  cf.  Ex.,  xxii,  29,  in  the 
Greek),  and  "  the  first  of  the  fleece".  As  in  the  case  of 
the  raw  fruits,  no  quantity  was  determined;  Ezechiel 
affirms  that  it  was  one-sixtieth  of  the  harvest  for  wheat 
and  barley  and  one-ono  huiidrcdth  for  oil.  They  were 
presented  to  the  sanctuary  with  ceremonies  analogous 
to  alluded  to  above,  although,  unlike  the  Bik- 
kurim, they  were  not  offered  at  the  altar,  but  brought 
into  the  store-rooms  of  the  temple.  They  may  be 
looked  upon,  therefore,  not  so  much  as  sacrificial 

matter  as  a  tax  for  the  support  of  the  priests.     (See 


Smith,  The  Religion  of  the  Semites  (2d  ed.,  London,  1907); 
Wellhausen,  Prolegomena  to  the  History  of  Israel,  tr.  Black 
AND  Menzies  (Edinburgh,  1885),  157-5S;  Philo,  De  festo 
cophini;  It>.,  Deproemiis  saeerdolum;  Josepkvs,  Ant.  Jud.,  IV, 
viii,  22:  Reland,  Antiguitates  sacra^:  Schijher,  Geschichte  des 
jiid.  Volkes  im  Zeit.  J.  C.  (Leipzig,  1898),  II,  237-50. 


First  Request.     See  Right  of  Presentation. 

Fiscal  Procurator  (Lat.  Procukator  Fiscalis). 
— The  duties  of  the  fiscal  procurator  consist  in  pre- 
venting crime  and  safeguarding  ecclesiastical  law.  In 
case  of  notification  or  denunciation  it  is  his  duty  to 
institute  proceedings  and  to  represent  the  law.  His 
office  is  comparable  to  that  of  the  state  attorney  in 
criminal  cases.  The  institution  of  the  procuratores 
regii_  or  procureurs  du  roi  (king's  procurators)  was  es- 
tablished in  France  during  the  thirteenth  century,  and 
has  developed  from  that  time  onward;  though  canon 
law,  previous  to  that  time,  had  imposed  on  the  bishops 
the  duty  of  investigating  the  commission  of  crimes 
and  instituting  the  proper  judicial  proceedings.  It 
is  to  be  noted  that  formerly  canon  law  admitted 
the  validity  of  private  as  well  as  of  public  accusa- 
tion or  denunciation.  At  present  custom  has  brought 
it  about  that  all  criminal  proceedings  in  ecclesias- 
tical courts  are  initiated  exclusively  by  the  fiscal 

The  Congregation  of  Bishops  and  Regulars,  11  June, 
ISSO,  called  attention  to  the  absolute  necessity  of  the 
fiscal  procurator  in  every  episcopal  curia,  as  a  safe- 
guard for  law  and  justice.  The  fiscal  procurator  may 
be  named  by  the  bishop,  either  permanently,  or  his 
term  of  office  may  be  limited  to  individual  cases  (see 
Third  Plenary  Council  of  Baltimore,  1884,  no.  299; 
App.,  p.  289).  This  official  appears  not  only  in  crimi- 
nal proceedings  but  also  in  other  ecclesiastical  matters. 
In  matrimonial  cases,  canon  law  provides  for  a  defen- 
der of  the  matrimonial  tie  whose  duty  it  is  to  uphold 
the  validity  of  the  marriage,  as  long  as  its  invalidity 
has  not  been  proven  in  two  lower  ecclesiastical  courts. 
This  defender  of  the  matrimonial  tie  represents  both 
ecclesiastical  law  and  public  morality,  whose  ultimate 
objects  would  not  be  attained  if  the  validity  or  inval- 
idity of  a  marriage  were  decided  in  a  too  easy  or  infor- 
mal way.  A  similar  office  is  that  of  the  defender  of  the 
validity  of  sacred  orders  and  solemn  vows.  When  the 
validity  of  either  of  these  acts,  and  their  pertinent 
obligations,  is  attacked,  it  becomes  the  duty  of  this 
official  to  bring  forward  whatever  arguments  may  go 
to  establish  their  binding  force.  In  all  these  cases  the 
defensor,  like  the  fiscal  procurator  in  criminal  pro- 
cesses, represents  the  public  interests ;  the  institution 
of  this  office  was  all  the  more  necessary,  as  it  takes 
cognizance  of  causes  in  which  both  parties  frequently 
display  a  desire  to  have  the  contract  nullified.  In  the 
processes  of  beatification  and  canonization  it  devolves 
on  the  pro7notor  fidei  to  investigate  strictly  the  reasons 
urged  in  favour  of  canonization,  and  to  find  out  and 
emphasize  all  objections  which  can  possibly  be  urged 
against  it.  He  is  therefore  popularly  known  as  the 
advocatus  diaboli,  i.  e.  "devil's  lawyer'"'.  It  is  the  duty 
of  the  promoter  fidei,  therefore,  to  take  up  the  negative 
side  in  the  discussion  which  has  a  place  amongst  the 
preliminaries  to  beatification  and  canonization,  and  to 
endeavour,  by  every  legitimate  means,  to  prevent  the 
completion  of  the  process. 

Peries,  Le Procureur  Fiscal ou  promoleur  (Paris,  1897):  Leoa, 
De  Judieits  Ecclesiastieis,  Bit.  I,  vol.  I,  2nd  ed.  (Rome,  1905). 

Fiscal  of  the  Holy  Office.— The  Holy  Office,  i.  e. 
the  supreme  court  in  the  Catholic  Church  for  all  mat- 
ters that  affect  its  faith  or  are  closely  connected  with 
its  teaching,  has  an  ojfwi(difs  fixcidia,  whose  duties  are 
similar  to  those  of  the  fiscal  procurator  in  episcopal 
courts.  The  officialis  fiscalis  is  present  at  all  sessions  of 
the  Holy  Office,  when  criminal  cases  are  sub  judice,  and 




as  adviser  to  the  ordinary  when  tlie  process  is  referred 
to  the  episcopal  court.  By  tlie  reorganization  of 
the  Roman  Curia,  29  June,  1008,  tlie  Holy  Office 
continues  t(j  retain  its  exclusive  competency  in  all 
cases  of  heresy  and  kindred  crimes.  The  office  of 
fiscal  is  to  this  Congregation  therefore  remains  un- 

Joseph  Laukentius. 

Fish,  Symbolism  of  the. — Among  the  symbols  em- 
ployed by  the  primitive  Christians  that  of  the  fish 
ranks  probalily  first  in  importance.  While  the  use  of 
the  fish  in  pagan  art  as  a  purely  decorative  sign  is 
ancient  and  constant,  the  earliest  literary  reference  to 
the  symbolic  fish  is  made  by  Clement  of  Alexandria, 
born  about  150,  who  recommends  his  readers  (Paeda- 
gogus.  III,  xi)  to  have  their  seals  engraved  with  a  dove 
or  a  fish.  Clement  did  not  consider  it  necessary  to 
give  any  reason  for  this  recommendation,  from  which 
it  may  safely  be  inferred  that  the  meaning  of  both 
symbols  was  so  well  known  to  Christians  that  explana- 
tion was  unnecessary.  Indeed,  from  monumental 
sources  we  know  that  the  symbolic  fish  was  familiar  to 
Christians  long  before  the  famous  Alexandrian  was 

pt  of  Lucina,  Catacomb  of  St.  Callistus 

born;  in  such  Roman  monuments  as  the  Capella 
Greca  and  the  Sacrament  Chapels  of  the  catacomb  of 
St.  Callistus,  the  fish  was  depicted  as  a  symbol  in  the 
first  decades  of  the  second  century.  The  symbol  itself 
may  have  been  suggested  by  the  miraculous  multipli- 
cation of  the  loaves  and  fishes  or  the  repast  of  the 
seven  Disciples,  after  the  Resurrection,  on  the  shore  of 
the  Sea  of  Galilee  (John,  xxi,  9),  but  its  popularity 
among  Christians  was  due  principally,  it  would  seem, 
to  the  famous  acrostic  consisting  of  the  initial  letters 
of  five  Greek  words  forming  the  word  for  fish  ('Ix^i's), 
which  words  briefly  but  clearly  described  the  character 
of  Christ  and  His  claim  to  the  worship  of  believers: 
'Itjo-oCs  Xpi<rT6s  BcoO  Ti6j  SuT?}p,  i.  e.  Jesus  Christ, 
Son  of  God,  Saviour.  (See  the  discourse  of  Emperor 
Constantine,  "  Ad  ccetum  Sanctorum"  c.  xviii.)  It  is 
not  improbable  that  this  Christian  formula  originated 
in  Alexandria,  and  was  intended  as  a  protest  against 
the  pagan  apotheosis  of  the  emperors;  on  a  coin  from 
Alexandria  of  the  reign  of  Doniitian  (81-96)  this  em- 
peror is  styled  OeoO  Tils  (son  of  God). 

The  word  'Ix"'''.  then,  as  well  as  the  representation 
of  a  fish,  held  for  Christians  a  meaning  of  the  highest 
significance;  it  was  a  brief  profession  of  faith  in  the 
divinity  of  Christ,  the  Redeemer  of  mankind.  Be- 
lievers in  this  mystic  'Ix^i^s  were  themselves  "little 
fishes",  according  to  the  well-known  passage  of  Ter- 
tuUian  (De  baptismo,  c.  1) :  "  we,  little  fishes,  after  the 
image  of  our  'IxSis,  Jesus  Christ,  are  born  in  the 
water".  The  association  of  the  'IxSvi  with  the 
Eucharist  is  strongly  emphasized  in  the  epitaph  of 
Abercius,  the  second-century  Bishop  of  Hieropolis  in 
Phrygia  (see  Abercius,  Inscription  of),  and  in  the 

somewhat  later  epitaph  of  Pectorius  of  Autun.  Aber- 
cius tells  us  on  the  aforesaid  monument  that  in  his 
journeyfrom  his  Asiatic  home  to  Rome,  everywhere  on 
the  way  he  received  as  food  "the  from  the 
spring,  the  great,  the  pure",  as  well  as  "wine  mixed 
with  water,  together  with  bread".  Pectorius  also 
speaks  of  the  Pish  as  a  delicious  spiritual  nurture  sup- 
plied by  the  "Saviour  of  the  Saints".  In  the  Eucha- 
ristic  monuments  this  idea  is  expressed  repeatedly  in 
pictorial  form;  the  food  before  the  banqueters  is  in- 
varialjly  bread  and  fish  on  two  separate  dishes.  The 
peculiar  significance  attached  to  the  fish  in  this  rela- 
tion is  well  brought  out  in  such  early  frescoes  as  the 
Fradio  Panis  scene  in  the  cemetery  of  St.  Priscilla, 
and  the  fishes  on  the  grass,  in  closest  proximity  to  the 
baskets  containing  bread  and  wine,  in  the  crjfpt  of 
Lucina.  (See  Eucharist,  Sy.mbolism  op  the.)  The 
fish  symbol  was  not,  however,  represented  exclusively 
with  symbols  of  the  Eucharist;  quite  frequently  it  is 
found  associated  with  such  other  symbols  as  the  dove, 
the  anchor,  antl  the  monogram  of  Christ.  The  monu- 
ments, too,  on  which  it  appears,  from  the  first  to  the 
fourth  century,  include  frescoes,  sculptured  repre- 
sentations, rings,  seals,  gilded  glasses,  as  well  as 
enkolpia  of  various  materials.  The  type  of  fish  de- 
liictecl  calls  for  no  special  observation,  save  that,  from 
the  second  century,  the  form  of  the  dolphin  was  fre- 
quently employed.  The  reason  for  this  particular 
selection  is  presumed  to  be  the  fact  that,  in  popular 
esteem,  the  dolphin  was  regarded  as  friendly  to  man. 
Besides  the  Eucharistic  frescoes  of  the  catacombs  a 
considerable  number  of  objects  containing  the  fish- 
symbol  are  preserved  in  various  European  museums, 
one  of  the  most  interesting,  because  of  the  grouping  of 
the  fish  with  several  other  symbols,  being  a  carved 
gem  in  the  Kircherian  Museum  in  Rome.  On  the  left 
is  a  T-form  anchor,  with  two  fishes  beneath  the  cross- 
bar, while  next  in  order  are  a  T-form  cross  with  a  dove 
on  the  crossbar  and  a  sheep  at  the  foot,  another  T-cross 
as  the  mast  of  a  ship,  and  the  Good  Shepherd  carrying 
on  His  shoulders  the  strayed  sheep.  In  addition  to 
these  symbols  the  five  letters  of  the  word  'Ix^i^s 
are  distributed  round  the  border.  Another  ancient 
carved  gem  represents  a  ship  supported  by  a  fish,  with 
doves  perched  on  the  mast  and  stern,  and  Christ  on 
the  waters  rescuing  St.  Peter.  After  the  fourth  cen- 
tury the  symbolism  of  the  fish  gradually  disappeared; 
representations  of  fishes  on  baptismal  fonts  and  on 
bronze  baptismal  cups  like  those  found  at  Rome  and 
Trier,  now  in  the  Kircherian  Museum,  are  merely  of  an 
ornamental  character,  suggested,  probably  by  the 
water  used  in  baptism. 

Heuser  in  Kraus.  Real-Encyk.  der  chrisllicken  Alterihumer 
(Freiburg.  188:3):  \Vilpert,  Le  pitture  delle  catacombe  rovmne 
(Rome,  1903),  for  accurate  representations:  Idem,  Princi-pieri' 
fragen  (Freiburg,  1S89);  Tyrwhitt  and  Cheeth.^m  in  Did. 
Christ.  Antiq.,  s.  v.  Important  archseologico-literary  studies 
on  the  subject  are  the  dissertations  of  G._  B.  De  Rossi,  De 
chrisHanis  monumeniis  'IxBvv  exhibenlibus  in  Spiciteg.  Solesm. 
(1855),  III,  548-84,  and  Pitra,  De  pisce  allegorico  ei  symbolico, 
ibid.,  499-543,  627-29.  See  also  Leclercq,  Manuel  d'  archeol. 
chrcl.  (Paris,  1907),  II.  379-81;  Kaufmann,  Manuale  di 
archeol.  crint.,  tr.  It.  (Rome,  1908);  particularly  R.  Mowat  in 
.s'ociVVe  nal.  des  antiquaires  de  France  (Paris,  1898),  21  and  Alti 
del  II.  Congr.  Inlernalionale  (Rome,  1902),  1-8. 

Maurice  M.  Hassett. 

Fisher,  John.    See  John  Fisher,  Blessed. 

Fisher,  Philip  (an  alias,  real  name  Thomas  Cop- 
ley), missionary,  b.  in  Madrid,  1595-6;  d.  in  Mary- 
land, U.  S.,  1652.  He  was  the  eldest  son  of  William 
Copley  of  Gatton,  England,  of  a  Catholic  family  of 
distinction  who  suffered  exile  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth. 
He  arrived  in  Maryland  in  1637,  and,  being  a  man  of 
great  executive  ability,  took  over  the  care  of  the  mis- 
sion, "a  charge  which  at  that  time  required  rather 
business  men  than  missionaries".  In  1645,  Father 
Fisher  was  wantonly  seized  and  carried  in  chains  to 
England,  with  Father  Andrew  White,  the  founder  of 




the  English  mission  in  America.  After  enduring  many 
hardships  he  was  released,  when  he  boldly  returned  to 
Maryland  (Feb.,  1648),  where,  after  an  absence  of 
three  years,  he  found  his  flock  in  a  more  flourishing 
state  than  those  who  had  oppressed  and  plundered 
them.  That  he  made  an  effort  to  enter  the  missionary 
field  of  Virginia,  appears  from  a  letter  written  1  March, 
164S,  to  the  Jesuit  General  Caraffa  in  Rome,  in  which 
he  says:  "A  road  has  lately  been  opened  through  the 
forest  toVirignia;  this  will  make  it  but  a  two  days' 
journey,  and  both  places  can  now  be  united  in  one 
mission.  After  Easter  I  shall  wait  upon  the  Governor 
of  Virginia  upon  business  of  great  importance."  Un- 
fortunately there  is  no  further  record  bearing  on  the 
projected  visit.  Neill,  in  his  "Terra  Marije"  (p.  70), 
and  Smith,  in  his  "  Religion  under  the  Barons  of  Bal- 
timore" (p.  VII),  strangely  confound  this  Father 
Thomas  Copley  of  IMaryland  with  an  apostate  John 
Copley,  who  was  never  a  Jesuit.  Father  Fisher  is 
mentioned  with  honourable  distinction  in  the  mission- 
ary annals  of  Maryland,  and,  according  to  Hughes, 
was  "  the  most  distinguished  man  among  the  fourteen 
Jesuits  who  had  worked  in  Maryland  ". 

Hughes,  History  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  in  North  America 
(London  and  New  York,  1907),  Text,  I,  passim;  Documents, 
I,  part  I;  Shea,  The  Catholic  Church  in  Colonial  Days  (New 
York,  1886),  38,  46-47.  53;  Foley,  Records  of  English  Province 
S.  J.  (London,  1882),  VII,  255;  Dorset,  Life  of  Father  Thomas 
Copley,  published  in  Woodstock  Letters,  XIV,  223;  Woodstock 
Letters,  XI,  lS-24;  XIII,  104-105;  XV, 44,  47;  Ol.n-ER,  Collec- 
tions .  .  .  Scotch,  English  and  Irish  Members  of  S.  J.  (Lon- 
don, 1845).  91,  92;  Rdssell,  Maryland,  the  Land  of  the  Sanc- 
tuary (Baltimore,  1907).  88.  125,127.  156-1.59,  171-173;  Diet, 
of  Aalional  Biography  (New  York,  1908),  IV,  1114. 

Edw.vkd  p.  Spillane. 
Fisherman's  Ring.    See 

Fitter,  Daniel,  b.  in  Worcestershire,  England, 
1G2S;  d.  at  St.  Thomas'  Priory,  near  Stafford,  G  Feb., 
1700.  lie  entered  Lisbon  C'oUege  at  the  age  of  nine- 
teen, went  through  his  studies  with  some  distinction, 
and  was  raised  to  the  priesthood  in  1G51.  A  year  or 
two  later,  he  returned  to  England,  and  was  appointed 
chaplain  to  William  Fowler,  Esq.,  of  St.  Thomas' 
Priory,  near  Stafford,  where  he  remained  until  his 
death.  During  the  reign  of  James  II,  he  opened  a 
school  at  Stafford,  which  was  suppressed  at  the  revolu- 
tion in  IGSS.  At  the  period  of  excitement  ensuing 
upon  the  Titus  Oates  plot  (1678),  he,  with  a  few 
others,  upheld  the  lawfulness  of  taking  the  oath  then 
tendered  to  every  well-known  Catholic.  He  himself 
subscribed  it,  rind  defended  his  action  on  the  ground 
of  a  common  and  legal  use  of  the  term  "spiritual". 
In  consequence  of  this,  when  the  chapter  chose  him  as 
Vicar-General  of  the  Counties  of  Stafford,  Derby, 
Cheshire  and  Salop,  they  required  that  he  should 
"sign  a  Declaration  made  by  our  Brethren  in  Paris 
against  the  Oath  of  Supremacy". 

In  a  letter  to  the  clergy  of  England  and  Scotland 
(1G84),  Carduial  Philip  Howard  recommended  warmly 
the  "Institutum  clericorum  in  communi  viventium", 
founded  in  1641  by  the  German  priest  Bartolomiius 
Holzhauser,  and  approved  by  Innocent  XI  in  1680 
and  1684.  The  institute  met  with  eager  acceptance  in 
England,  and  Fitter  was  appointed  its  first  provincial 
president  and  procurator  for  the  Midland  district. 
The  association  was,  however,  dissolved  shortly  after 
his  death  by  Bishop  Giffard  in  1702,  on  account  of  a 
misunderstanding  between  its  members  and  the  rest  of 
the  secular  clergy.  Fitter  had  bequeathed  property  to 
"The  Common  Purse"  of  the  institute,  with  a  life- 
interest  in  favour  of  his  elder  brother  Francis;  but 
when  the  institute  ceased  to  exist,  Francis,  by  a  deed 
of  as.signment,  established  a  new  trust  (170.3),  called 
"The  Common  Fund"  for  the  benefit  of  the  clergj'  of 
the  district.  This  fund  became  subsequently  known 
as  "The  Johnson  Fund"  and  still  exists.  Daniel  Fit- 
ter also  left  a  fund  for  the  maintenance  of  a  priest, 
whose  duty  it  should  be  to  reside  in  the  county  of 

Stafford  and  take  spiritual  charge  of  the  poor  Catho- 
lics of  the  locality. 

Kirk.  Biog.  of  Eng.  Cath.  (London,  1909);  Idem,  Address  to 
the  Secular  Clergy  of  the  Midland  District  (1840);  GiLLOW,  BiU. 
Diet.  Eng.  Cath.,  s.  v.;  Idem,  St.  Thomas'  Priory,  Stafford  (Lon- 
don, s.  d.);  Reports  of  the  Nottingham  Johnson  Fund  (1892, 
1895);    Archives  of  the  Birmingham  Johnson  Fund. 

Henry  Parkinson. 

Fitton,  James,  missionary,  b.  at  Boston,  Massa- 
chusetts, U.  S.  A.,  10  April,  1805;  d.  there,  15  Sept., 
1881.  His  father,  Abraham  Fitton,  went  to  Boston 
from  Preston,  England;  his  mother  was  of  Welsh 
origin  and  a  convert  to  the  Faith.  His  primary  edu- 
cation was  received  in  the  schools  of  his  native  city, 
and  his  classical  course  was  made  at  Claremont,  New 
Hampshire,  at  an  academy  conducted  by  Virgil  Hor- 
ace Barber,  an  early  New  England  convert  to  the 
Faith.  His  theology  he  learned  from  the  lips  of 
Bishop  Fenwick,  by  whom  he  was  ordained  priest, 
23  Dec,  1827.  Thenceforth  for  nearly  a  quarter  of  a 
century  the  whole  of  New  England  became  the  theatre 
of  his  zealous  missionary  labours.  Carrying  a  valise 
containing  vestments,  chalice,  and  all  necessaries  for 
offering  the  Holy  Sacrifice,  his  breviary  under  his  arm, 
he  travelled,  often  on  foot,  from  Eastport  and  the 
New  Brunswick  line  on  the  northeast,  to  Burlington 
and  Lake  Champlain  on  the  northwest;  from  Boston 
in  the  east,  to  Great  Barrington  and  the  Berkshire 
Hills  in  the  west;  from  Providence  and  Newport  in 
the  southeast,  to  Bridgeport  and  the  New  York  State 
line  in  the  southwest.  In  the  course  of  his  ministry 
he  was  often  exposed  to  insult  and  hardship,  but  he 
considered  these  as  trifles  when  souls  were  to  be  saved. 
During  his  missionary  career  he  was  pastor  of  the  first 
Catholic  church  at  Hartford,  Connecticut,  and  at 
Worcester,  Massachusetts.  He  erected  the  church  of 
Our  Lady  of  the  Isle  at  Newport,  Rhode  Island.  In 
1S40,  while  pastor  of  the  church  at  Worcester,  he  pur- 
chased the  present  site  of  Holy  Cross  College,  and 
erectetl  a  building  for  the  advanced  education  of 
Catholic  yoimg  men.  In  1842  he  deeded  the  grounds 
and  building  to  Bishop  Fenwick,  who  placed  it  under 
the  care  of  the  Jesuits.  In  1855  he  was  appointed 
by  Bishop  Fenwick  pastor  of  the  church  of  the  Most 
Holy  Redeemer  in  East  Boston.  Here  he  laboured 
for  the  remaining  twenty-si.x  years  of  his  life,  and 
built  four  more  chiu-ches.  In  1877  he  celebrated  the 
golden  jubilee  of  his  priesthood. 

Leahy,  History  of  the  Catholic  Church  in  the  New  England 
States  (Boston.  1899);  Fitton,  Sketches  of  the  Establishment  of 
the  Church  in  New  England  (Boston,  1872);  Shea,  Hist.  Cath. 
Ch.  in  V.  S.  (New  York,  1904);  McCarthy,  Sketch  of  Life  and 
Missionary  Labors  of  Rev.  James  Fitton  (N.  E.  Cath.  Hist.  Soc, 
Boston,  1908). 

Arthur  T.  Connolly. 

Fitzalan,  Henry,  twelfth  Earl  of  Arundel,  b.  about 
1511;  d.  in  London,  24  Feb.,  1580  (O.  S.  1579).  Son 
of  William,  eleventh  earl,  and  Lady  Anne  Percy,  he 
was  godson  to  Henry  VIII,  in  whose  palace  he  was  edu- 
cated. From  1540  he  was  governor  of  Calais  till  1543, 
when  he  succeeded  to  the  earldom.  In  1544  he  be- 
sieged and  took  Boulogne,  being  made  lord-chamber- 
lain as  a  reward.  In  the  reign  of  Edward  VI  he  op- 
posed Protector  Somerset  and  supported  Warwick, 
who  eventually  unjustly  accused  him  of  peculation 
and  removed  him  from  the  council.  On  the  death  of 
Edward  he  abandoned  the  cause  of  Lady  Jane  Grey 
and  proclaimed  Mary  as  queen.  Throughout  her 
reign  he  was  in  favour  as  lord-steward  and  was  em- 
ployed in  much  diplomatic  business.  Even  under 
Elizalicth  he  at  first  retained  his  offices  and  power 
though  distrusted  by  her  ministers.  Yet  he  was  too 
powerful  to  attack,  and,  being  a  widower,  was  con- 
sidered as  a  possible  consort  for  the  queen.  But  in 
1564  he  fell  into  disgrace,  and  Elizabeth  did  not  again 
employ  him  till  1568.  Being  the  leader  of  the  Catholic 
party,  he  desireil  a  marriage  between  Mary,  Queen  of 
Scots,  and  his  son-in-law,  the  Duke  of  Norfolk,  but 




was  too  cautions  to  commit  liimself,  so  that  even  after 
the  futile  northern  rebellion  of  1569  he  was  recalled  to 
the  council.  But  the  discovery  of  the  Ridolfi  con- 
spiracy, in  1571, 
again  led  to  his 
confinement,  and 
he  spent  the  rest 
of  his  hfe  in  re- 

Life  of  Uenrye 
Fitzallm  last  Earle 
of  Armidell  of  that 
name,  written  shortly 
after  his  death  by  his 
chaplain,  a  MS.  in 
British  Museum 
(Kings  MSS.  XVII. 
A.  ixt.  printed  in 
C'rnffrmnn's  Maga- 
-.'■r.  isli.j;  The  Boke 
.  //<  >:}-ie.  Earle  of 
.ir,„.,v;  (Harl.  MS. 
41U7j.  printed  in 
Jeffery's  Antiquarian 
Repertory,  II  (Lon- 
don, 1807);  Calendar 
of  State  Papers.  I5i7- 
1.569;  TiEHNET,  His- 
tory of  the  Ca.^tle  and 
Town  of  Arundel,  I 
(London,  1S34).310- 
350;  GoonwiN  in 
Persons*  Memoirs  in  Catholic  Rec- 

Henry  P'itzalax 

Diet.  Nat.  Biog..s.  v.;  Path 

ord  Society:    Miscellanea,  II  (London,  1906). 

Edwin  Burton. 

Fitzherbert,  Mai!i.\  Anne,  wife  of  King  George 
IV;  b.  26  July,  1756  (place  uncertain);  d.  at  Brighton, 
England,  29  March,  1S37;  eldest  child  of  Walter 
Sraythe,  of  Brambridge,  Harap.shire,  younger  son  of 
Sir  John  Smythe,  of  Eshe  Hall,  Durham  and  Acton 
Burnell  Park,  Salop,  a  Catholic  baronet.  In  1775  she 
married  Edward  Weld,  of  Lulworth,  Dorset  (uncle  of 
Cardinal  Weld),  who  died  before  the  year  was  out. 
Her  next  husband  was  Thomas  Fitzherbert,  of  Swyn- 
nerton,  Staffordshire,  whom  she  married  in  1778  and 
who  died  in  1781.  A  young  and  beautiful  widow  with 
a  jointure  of  £2000  a  year,  she  took  up  her  abode  in 
1782  at  Richmond,  Surrey,  having  at  the  same  time  a 
house  in  town.  In  or  about  17S4  happened  her  first 
meeting  with  George,  Prince  of  Wales,  then  about 
twenty-two  years  of  age,  she  about  six  years  older. 
He  straightway  fell  in  love  with  her.  Marriage  with 
her  princely  suitor  being  legally  impossible,  Mrs.  Fitz- 
herbert turned  a  deaf  ear  to  the  prince's  solicitations, 
to  get  rid  of  which  she  witlnlrew  to  the  Continent. 
However,  on  re- 
ceipt of  an  honour- 
able offer  from  the 
prince,  she  return- 
ed after  a  while  to 
England,  and  they 
were  privily  mar- 
ried in  her  own 
Ixindon  drawing- 
room  and  before 
two  witnesses,  15 
Dec,  1785,  the  of- 
ficiating minister 
lieing  an  Anglican 

though  in  separate 
houses,  they  lived 
together  as  man 
and  wife,  she  being 
treated  on  almost 
every    hand    with 

Makia  Anne  Fitzherbert 

unbounded  respect  and  deference,  until  1787,  when, 
upon  the  prince's  application  to  Parliament  for 
payment  of  his  debts,  Fox  authoritatively  declared 
in  the  House  of  Commons  that  no  marriage  be- 
tween  the    prince   and    Mrs.  Fitzherbert   had    ever 

taken  place.  However,  upon  the  prince's  solemn 
and  oft-repeated  assurance  that  Fox  had  no  authority 
for  this  degrading  denial,  the  breach  between  the  of- 
fended wife  and  her  husband  was  healed._  So  they 
continued  to  live  together  on  a  matrimonial  footing 
until  1794,  when,  being  about  to  contract  a  forced 
legal  marriage  with  his  cousin,  Caroline  of  Brunswick, 
the  prince  very  reluctantly  cast  Mrs.  Fitzherbert  off, 
at  the  same  time  continumg  the  pension  of  £3000  a 
year,  which  he  had  allowed  her  ever  since  their  mar- 
riage. .Shortly  after  the  birth  of  Princess  Charlotte  in 
1796,  the  prince,  who  hated  the  Princess  of  Wales, 
separated  from  her  and  besought  the  forsaken  Mrs. 
Fitzherbert  to  return  to  him.  This,  after  consultation 
with  Rome,  she  at  length  did  in  1800,  and  remained 
with  him  some  nine  years  more,  when  they  virtually 
parted.  At  last,  in  1811,  becavise  of  a  crowning  affront 
put  upon  her  on  occasion  of  a  magnificent  jite  given  at 
Carlton  House  by  the  prince,  lately  made  regent,  at 
which  entertainment  no  fixed  place  at  the  royal  table 
had  been  assigned  her,  she  broke  off  connexion  with 
the  prince  for  ever,  withdrawing  into  private  life  upon 
an  annuity  of  £6000.  Her  husband,  as  King  George 
IV,  died  in  1830,  with  a  locket  containing  her  minia- 
ture round  his  neck,  and  was  so  buried.  Mrs.  Fitz- 
herbert survived  him  seven  years,  dying  at  the  age  of 
eighty,  at  Brighton,  where  she  was  buried  in  the  Cath- 
olic church  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  to  the  erection  of 
which  she  had  largely  contributed,  and  wherein  a 
mural  monument  to  her  memory  is  still  to  be  seen. 

Kebbel  in  Did.  A'a(.  Biog.,  s.  v.;  Gillow,  Bihl.  Diet.  Eng. 
Cath.,  s.  v.;  Annual  Register  for  1S37  (London);  Langdale, 
Memoirs  of  Mrs.  Fitzherbert  (London,  18.56);  Wilkins,  Mrs. 
Fitzherbert  and  George  IV  (London,  190.5). 

C.   T.    BOOTHMAN. 

Fitzherbert,  Sir  Anthony,  judge,  b.  in  1470; 
d.  27  May,  1538.  He  was  the  sixth  son  of  Ralph 
Fitzherbert  of  Norbury,  Derbyshire,  and  Elizabeth 
Marshall.  His  brothers  dying  young,  he  succeeded 
his  father  as  lord  of  the  manor  of  Norbury,  an  estate 
granted  to  the  family  in  1125  and  still  in  their  hands. 
Wood  states  that  he  was  educated  at  Oxford,  but  no 
evidence  of  this  exists ;  nor  is  it  known  at  which  of  the 
inns  of  court  he  received  his  legal  training,  though  he 
is  included  in  a  list  of  Gray's  Inn  readers  (Douth- 
waite,  Gray's  Inn,  p.  46.)  He  was  called  to  the  de- 
gree of  serjeant-at-law,  18  Nov.,  1510,  and  six  years 
later  he  was  appointed  king's  Serjeant.  He  had  al- 
ready published  (in  1514)  his  great  digest  of  the  year- 
books which  was  the  first  systematic  attempt  to  pro- 
vide a  summary  of  English  law.  It  was  known  as 
"La  Graunde  Abridgement"  and  has  often  been  re- 
printed, both  entire  and  in  epitomes,  besides  forming 
the  foimdation  of  all  subsequent  abridgments.  He 
also  brought  out  an  edition  of  "Magna  Charta  cum 
diver.sis  aliis  statutis"  (1519).  In  1522  he  was  made 
a  judge  of  conmion  pleas  and  was  knighted;  but  his 
new  honours  did  not  check  his  literary  activity  and  in 
the  following  year  (1523)  he  published  three  works: 
one  on  law,  "  Diversite  de  courtz  et  leur  jurisdictions" 
(tr.  by  Hughes  in  1646);  one  on  agriculture,  "The 
Boke  of  Husbandrie";  and  one  of  law  and  agriculture 
combined,  "The  Boke  of  Surveyinge  and  Improve- 
ments". All  three  were  frequently  reprinted  and 
though  Sir  Anthony's  authorship  of  the  "Boke  of 
Husbandrie"  was  formerly  questioned  it  is  now  re- 
garded as  established.  Meanwhile  his  integrity  and 
ability  caused  much  business  to  be  entrusted  to  him. 
In  1524  Fitzherbert  was  sent  on  a  royal  commission 
to  Ireland;  Archbishop  Warham  appointed  him  by 
will  sole  arbitrator  in  the  administration  of  his  estate; 
and  in  1529  when  Wolsey  fell,  he  was  made  a  commis- 
sioner to  hear  chancery  causes  in  place  of  the  chan- 
cellor, and  he  subsequently  signed  the  articles  of  im- 
peachment against  him.  As  one  of  the  judges  he 
unwillingly  took  part  in  the  trials  of  the  martyrs 
Fisher,  More,  and  Haile,  but  he  strongly  disapproved 




of  the  king's  ecclesiastical  polity,  particularly  the 
suppression  of  the  monasteries  and  he  bound  his 
children  under  oath  never  to  accept  or  purchase  any 
abbey  lands.  In  1534  he  brought  out  "that  exact 
work,  exquisitely  penned"  (Coke,  Reports  X,  Pref.), 
"La  Novelle  Natura  Brevium",  which  remained  one 
of  the  classical  English  law  books  until  the  end  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  His  last  works  were  the  con- 
stantly reprinted  "L'Office  et  Auctoryt6  des  jus- 
tices de  peas"  (1538),  the  first  complete  treatise  on 
the  subject,  and  "L'Office  de  Viconts  Bailiffes,  Es- 
cheators,  Constables,  Coroners".  Sir  Anthony  was 
twice  married,  first  to  Dorothy  Willoughby  who  died 
without  issue,  and  secondly  to  Matilda  Cotton  by 
whom  he  had  a  large  family.  His  descendants  have 
always  kept  the  Faith  and  still  own  his  estate  of  Nor- 
bury  as  well  as  the  family  seat  at  Swynnerton. 

State  Papers,  Foreign  and  Domestic,  of  Henry  VIII,  III,  ii, 
889;  IV,  iii,  272;  VI,  263;  VII,  545,  581;  Pitts,  De  Illust. 
Anglice  Scriploribus  (Paris,  1623),  707;  Dodd,  Ch.  Hist.  (Brus- 
sels, 1737),  I;  Burke,  History  of  the  Commoners  of  Great  Britain 
(London,  1834),  I,  78  sqq.;  Foss,  The  Judges  of  England  (Lon- 
don, 1848-1864);  Idem,  .4  Biog.  Diet,  of  the  Judges  of  England 
(London.  1870);  Burke,  Landed  Gentry  (London.  1882);  Gil- 
low,  Bibl.  Diet.  Eng.  Calh.  (London,  1886),  s.  v.;  Rigg  in  Diet. 
Nat.  Biog.  (London,  1889),  s.  v. — For  Sir  Anthony's  descend- 
ants see  pedigree  in  Foley,  Records  of  the  Eng.  Prov.  S.  J. 
(London,  1878),  HI,  792. 

Edwin  Burton. 

Fitzherbert,  Thomas,  b.  1552,  at  Swynnerton, 
Staffs,  England;  d.  17  Aug.,  1040,  at  Rome.  His 
father  having  died  whilst  Thomas  was  an  infant,  he 
was,  even  as  a  child,  the  head  of  an  important  family 
and  the  first  heir  born  at  Swynnerton,  where  his  de- 
scendants have  since  flourished  and  still  remain 
Catholics.  He  was  trained  to  piety  and  firmness  in  his 
religion  by  his  mother,  and  when  sent  to  Oxford  in  his 
si.xteenth  year  he  confessed  his  faith  with  a  courage 
that  grew  with  the  various  trials,  of  which  he  has  left 
us  an  interesting  memoir  (Foley,  "  Records  of  English 
Provinces.  J.",  II,  210).  At  last  he  was  forced  to  keep 
in  hiding,  and  in  1572  he  suffered  imprisonment.  In 
15S0  he  married  and  had  issue,  but  he  did  not  give  up 
his  works  of  zeal.  When  Campion  and  Person?  com- 
menced their  memoraljle  mission,  Fitzherbert  put 
himself  at  their  service,  and  helped  Campion  in  the 
preparation  of  his  "Decern  Rationes"  by  verifying 
quotations  and  copying  passages  from  the  Fathers  in 
various  libraries,  to  which  it  would  have  been  impos- 
sible for  the  Jesuit  to  obtain  admission.  Unable  at 
last  to  maintain  his  position  in  face  of  the  ever-growing 
persecution,  he  left  England  in  1582,  and  took  up  his 
residence  in  the  north  of  France.  Here,  as  a  lay 
Catholic  of  birth,  means,  and  unexceptionable  char- 
acter, he  was  much  trusted  by  the  Catholic  leaders, 
and  as  sedulously  watched  by  Walsingham's  emis- 
saries, whose  letters  contain  frequent  insinuations 
against  his  intentions  and  ulterior  objects  (see  Foley, 
"  Records  of  English  Provinces.  J.",  II,  220-228).  His 
wife  died  in  1588,  and  he  soon  afterwards  took  a  vow 
of  celibacy.  He  is  ne.xt  found  in  the  household  of  the 
young  Duke  of  Feria,  whose  mother  was  Lady  Anne 
Dormer.  With  him  or  in  his  service  he  lived  in 
Flanders,  Spain,  Milan,  Naples,  and  Rome  for  some 
twenty  years,  until  the  duke  died  in  1607,  on  the  point 
of  setting  out  for  a  diplomatic  mission  to  Germany,  on 
which  Fitzherbert  was  to  have  accompanied  him.  It 
was  during  this  period  that  he  was  charged  in  1598  by 
Squire  with  having  tempted  him  to  murder  Queen 
Elizabeth;  in  1.505  a  charge  of  contradictory  implica- 
tion had  been  preferred  against  him  to  the  Spanish 
Government,  viz.  that  he  was  an  agent  of  Elizabeth. 
Both  charges  led  to  the  enhancement  of  his  reputation. 
An  interesting  series  of  200  letters  from  the  duke  to 
him  is  preserved  in  the  archives  of  the  Archdiocese  of 
Westminster.  In  1601,  while  in  Spain,  he  felt  moved 
to  take  a  vow  to  offer  himself  for  the  priesthood,  and 
he  was  ordained  in  Rome  24  March,  1(302.  After  this 
he  acted  as  Roman  agent  for  the  archpriest  Harrison 

until  he  was  .succeeded,  in  1609,  by  the  future  bishop, 
Richard  Smith.  But  in  1606  he  had  made  a  third 
vow,  namely,  to  enter  the  Society  of  Jesus,  which  he 
did  about  the  year  1613.  He  was  soon  given  the  im- 
portant post  of  superior  in  Flanders,  1616  to  1618, 
afterwards  recalled  and  made  rector  of  the  English 
College,  Rome,  from  1618  to  1639.  He  died  there, 
closing,  at  the  age  of  eighty-eight  years,  a  life  that  had 
been  filled  with  an  unusual  variety  of  important 
duties.  His  principal  works  are:  "A  Defence  of  the 
Catholycke  Cause,  By  T.  F.,  with  an  Apology  of  his 
innocence  in  a  fayned  conspiracy  of  Edward  Squire" 
(St-Omer,  1602);  "A  Treatise  concerning  Policy  and 
Religion"  (Douai,  1606-10,  1615),  translated  into 
Latin  in  1630.  This  work  was  highly  valued  for  its 
sound  and  broad-minded  criticism  of  the  lax  political 
principles  professed  in  those  days.  He  also  wrote 
books  in  the  controversy  that  grew  out  of  King 
James's  Oath  of  Allegiance:  "  A  Supplement  to  [Father 
Persons's]  the  Discussion  of  M.  D.  Barlow"  (St-Omer, 
1613);  "A  Confutation  of  certaine  Absurdities  uttered 
by  M.  D.  Andrews  "  (St-Omer,  1613) ;  "  Of  the  Oath  of 
Fidelity"  (St-Omer,  1614);  "The  Obmutesce  of  F.  T. 
totheEpphataofD.  Collins"  (St-Omer,  1621).  We 
have  also  from  his  pen  a  translation  of  Turcellini's 
"Life  of  St.  Francis  Xavier"  (Paris,  1632). 

Foley,  Records  of  English  Province  S.J.,  II,  198-230,  VII, 
258;  Cooper  in  Diet.  Nat.  Biog.,  s.  v.  J.  H.  PoLLEN. 

Fitz  Maurice,  John.     See  Erie,  Diocese  of. 

Fitzpatrick,  John  Bernard.  See  Boston,  Dio- 
cese OF. 

Fitzpatrick,  William  John,  historian,  b.  in  Dub- 
lin, Ireland,  31  Aug.,  1830;  d.  there  24  Dec,  1895. 
The  son  of  a  rich  merchant,  he  had  ample  means  to 
indulge  his  peculiar  tastes,  and  these  were  for  biogra- 
phy, and  especially  for  seeking  out  what  was  hitherto 
unknown  and  not  always  desirable  to  publish  about 
great  men.  Educated  partly  at  a  Protestant  school, 
partly  at  Clongowes  Wood  College,  he  early  took  to 
writing  and  in  1855  published  his  first  work — "The 
Life,  Times  and  Correspondence  of  Lord  Cloncurry". 
The  same  year  he  wrote  a  series  of  letters  to  "  Notes 
and  Queries"  charging  Sir  Walter  Scott  with  plagiar- 
ism in  his  Waverley  novels,  and  attributing  the  chief 
credit  of  having  written  these  novels  to  Sir  Walter's 
brother  Thomas.  The  latter  was  dead,  but  his  daugh- 
ters repudiated  Fitzpatrick's  advocacy  and  their 
father's  supposed  claims,  and  the  matter  ended  there. 
In  1859  Fitzpatrick  published  "  The  Friends,  Foes  and 
Adventures  of  Lady  Morgan  ".  From  that  date  to  his 
death,  his  pen  was  never  idle.  His  research  was  great, 
his  industry  a  marvel,  his  patience  and  care  immense, 
nor  is  he  ever  consciously  unjust.  For  these  reasons, 
though  his  style  is  unattractive,  his  works  are  valuable, 
especially  to  the  Irish  historical  student.  Notable 
examples  are  "The  Sham  Squire"  (1866),  "Ireland 
before  the  Union"  (1867),  "The  Correspondence  of 
Daniel  O'Connell"  (1888),  "Secret  Service  under 
Pitt"  (1892).  Fitzpatrick  also  wrote  works  dealing 
with  Archbishop  Whately,  Charles  Lever,  Rev.  Dr. 
Lanigan,  Father  Tom  Burke,  O.P.,  and  Father  James 
Healy  of  Bray.  In  1876  he  was  appointed  professor 
of  history  by  the  Hibernian  Academy  of  Arts.  Fitz- 
patrick's painstaking  research  as  well  as  his  spirit  of 
fair  play  are  specially  to  be  commended  and  have 
earned  words  of  praise  from  two  men  differing  in 
many  other  things — Lecky  and  Gladstone. 

Falkiner  in  Diet.  Nat.  Biog.,  supplement,  II,  s.  v.;  Free- 
man's Journal  (Dublin,  26  Dec,  1895). 

E.  A.  D'Alton. 

Fitzralph,  Richard,  Archbishop  of  Armagh,  b.  at 
Dundalk,  Ireland,  about  1295;  Avignon,  16  Dec, 
1300.  He  st\idipd  in  ()xford,  where  we  first  find  mention 
of  him  in  1325  as  an  ex-fellow  Mild  teaclicrof  Halliol  Col- 
lege. He  was  madcdoctordf  theology  before  1331,  and 
was  chancellor  of  Oxford  University  in  1333.     In  1334 



he  was  made  chancellor  of  Lincohi  Cathedral,  and  in 
Jan. ,1335,canon  and  prebendary  of  Lichfield,"  notwith- 
standing that  he  has  canonries  and  prebends  of  Credi- 
ton  and  Bosham,  and  has  had  provision  made  for  him 
of  the  Chancellorship  of  Lincoln  and  the  canonries  and 
prebends  of  Armagh  and  Exeter,  all  of  which  he  is  to 
resign"  (Bliss,  Calendar  of  Kntries  in  Papal  Registers, 
II,  524).  He  was  archdeacon  of  Chester  when  made 
dean  of  Lichfield  in  1337.  On  31  July,  134G,  he  was 
consecrated  Archbishop  of  Armagh. 

Fitzralph  was  a  man  who  pre-eminently  joined  the 
speculative  temperament  with  the  practical.  One  of 
the  great  Scholastic  hnninaries  of  his  day,  and  a  close 
friend  of  the  scholarly  Richard  of  Bury,  he  fostered 
learning  among  his  priests  by  sending  many  of  them  to 
take  higher  studies  in  Oxford.  He  was  zealous  too  in 
visiting  the  various  church  provinces,  and  in  bettering 
financial  as  well  as  spiritual  conditions  in  his  own  see. 
He  contended  for  his  primatial  rights  against  the  im- 
munity claimed  by  the  See  of  Dublin;  and  on  various 
occasions  acted  as  peacemaker  between  the  Engli-sh  and 
the  Irish.  He  was  in  great  demand  as  a  preacher,  and 
many  of  his  sermons  are  still  extant  in  manuscript. 
Whilst  at  Avignon  in  1350,  Fitzralph  presented  a 
memorial  from  the  English  clergy  reciting  certain 
complaints  against  the  mendicant  orders.  After 
serving  on  a  commission  appointed  by  Clement  VI  to 
inquire  into  the  points  at  issue,  he  embodied  his  own 
views  in  the  treatise  "  De  Pauperie  Salvatoris",  which 
deals  with  the  subject  of  evangelical  poverty,  as  well 
as  the  questions  then  agitated  concerning  dominion, 
possession,  and  use,  and  the  relation  of  these  to  the 
state  of  grace  in  man.  Part  of  this  work  is  printed  by 
Poole  in  his  edition  of  Wyclif 's  "  De  Dominio  Divi- 
no"  (London,  1890).  It  was  probably  during  this 
visit  that  Fitzralph  also  took  part  in  the  negotiations 
going  on  between  the  Armenian  delegates  and  the 
pope.  He  composed  an  elaborate  apologetico-po- 
lemic  work,  entitled  "Summa  in  Quaestionibus 
Armenorum"  (Paris,  1511),  in  which  he  displayed 
his  profound  knowledge  of  Scripture  with  telling 
eff'ect  in  refuting  the  Greek  and  Armenian  heresies. 

Fitzralph's  controversy  with  the  friars  came  to  a 
crisis  when  he  was  cited  to  Avignon  in  1357.  Avow- 
ing his  entire  submission  to  the  authoritj'  of  the  Holy 
See,  he  defended  his  attitude  towards  the  friars  in  the 
plea  entitled  '' Defensorium  Curatorum"  (printed  in 
Goldast's  "Monarehia"  and  elsewhere).  He  main- 
tained as  probable  that  voluntary  mendicancy  is  con- 
trary to  the  teachings  of  Christ.  His  main  plea, 
however,  was  for  the  withdrawal  of  the  privileges  of 
the  friars  in  regard  to  confessions,  preaching,  burying, 
etc.  He  urged  a  return  to  the  purity  of  their  original 
institution,  claiming  that  these  privileges  undermined 
the  authority  of  the  parochial  clergy.  The  friars  were 
not  molested,  but  by  gradual  legislation  harmony  was 
restored  between  them  and  the  parish  clergy.  Fitz- 
ralph's position,  however,  was  not  directly  con- 
demned, and  he  died  in  peace  at  Avignon.  In  1370 
his  remains  were  transferred  to  St.  Nicholas'  church, 
Dundalk;  miracles  were  reported  from  his  tomb  and 
for  several  centuries  his  memory  was  held  in  saintly 
veneration.  His  printed  works  are  mentioned  above. 
His  "Opus  in  P.  Lombardi  Sententias"  and  several 
other  works  (list  in  the  "Catholic  University  Bulle- 
tin", XI,  243)  are  still  in  manuscript. 

Poole  in  Did.  of  Nat.  Bioq.,  s.  v.;  Grkaney  in  Cath.  Univ. 
Bull.  (Washington),  XI,  68,  195;  Felten  in  Kirchenlex.,  s.  v. 

John  J.  Greaney. 

Fitzsimon  (Fitz  Simon),  Henry,  Jesuit,  b.  1566  (or 
1."iH;i),  in  Dublin,  Ireland;  d.  29  Nov.,  1643  (or  1645), 
prol  )al  )ly  at  Kilkenny.  He  was  educated  a  Protestant 
at  Oxford  (Hart  Hall,  and  perhaps  Christ  Church), 
15S3-15S7.  Going  thence  to  the  University  of  Paris, 
he  became  a  zealous  protagonist  of  Protestantism, 
"with  the  firm  intention  to  have  died  for  it",  if  need 

had  been.  But  having  engaged  in  controversy  with 
"  an  owld  English  Jesuit,  Father  Thomas  Darbishire, 
to  my  happiness  I  was  overcome  ".  Having  embraced 
Catholicism  he  visited  Rome  and  Flanders,  where,  in 
1592,  he  "elected  to  militate  under  the  Jesuits'  stand- 
ard, because  they  do  most  impugn  the  impiety  of  here- 
tics". In  1595  there  was  a  call  for  Jesuit  labourers  for 
Ireland,  which  hail  been  deprived  of  them  for  ten 
years.  He  at  once  offered  himself  for  the  post  of  dan- 
ger, and  he  shares  with  Father  Archer  the  honour  of 
having  rcfounded  that  mission  on  a  basis  that  proved 
permanent  amid  innumerable  dangers  and  trials. 
Keeping  chiefly  to  Dulilin  and  Drogheda  he  was  won- 
derfully successful  in  reconciling  Protestants,  and  he 
loudly  and  persistently  challenged  the  chief  Anglican 
divines  to  disputation.  With  the  same  fighting  spirit 
he  laughed  at  his  capture  in  1600.  "Now",  said  he, 
"  my  adversaries  cannot  say  that  they  know  not  where 
to  find  me";  and  he  wouki  shout  his  challenges  from 
his  prison  window  at  every  passing  parson.  But  his 
opponents,  James  Ussher,  Meredith  Hanmer,  and  John 
Rider,  in  spite  of  their  professions,  carefully  avoided 
coming  to  close  quarters  with  their  redoubtable  ad- 

Banished  in  1604,  he  visited  Spain,  Rome,  and 
Flanders,  1611-1620,  everywhere  earnest  and  active 
with  voice  and  pen  in  the  cause  of  Ireland.  After  the 
outbreak  of  the  Thirty  Years  War,  in  July,  1620,  he 
served  as  chaplain  to  the  Irish  soldiers  in  the  imperial 
army,  and  published  a  diary,  full  of  life  and  interest, 
of  his  adventurous  experiences.  He  probably  re- 
turned to  Flanders  in  1621  and  in  1630  went  back  to 
Ireland,  where  he  continued  to  work  with  energy  and 
success  until  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War  (1640). 
In  the  ensuing  tumult  and  confusion,  we  are  unable  to 
followhislater  movements  with  certainty.  At  one  time 
we  hear  that  he  was  under  sentence  of  death,  from 
which  he  escaped  in  the  winter  of  1641  to  the  Wicklow 
Mountains,  and  after  many  sufferings  died  in  peace, 
probably  at  Kilkenny.  "  Not  many,  if  any  Irishmen", 
says  his  biographer,  while  reflecting  on  the  many  uni- 
versities, towns,  courts  and  armies  which  Father  Fitz- 
simon had  visited,  "  have  known,  or  been  known  to,  so 
many  men  of  mark  ".  Besides  one  controversial  work 
in  MS.,  not  known  to  previous  biographers,  now  at 
Oscott  College,  Birmingham,  which  is  entitled  "A 
revelation  of  contradictions  in  reformed  articles  of 
religion",  dated  1633,  he  wrote  two  MS.  treatises,  now 
lost,  against  Rider;  and  afterwards  printed  against  him 
"A  Catholic  Confutation"  (Rouen,  1608);  "Britanno- 
machia  Ministrorum"  (1614);  "Pugna  Pragensis" 
(1620)  and  "Buquoii  Quadrimestreiter,  Auctore  Con- 
stantio  Peregrino"  (Briinn,  1621,  several  editions, 
also  Italian  and  English  versions) ;  "  Catalogus  Prseci- 
puorum  Sanctorum  Hiberniaj  "(1611,  several  editions), 
important  as  drawing  attention  to  Irish  hagiography 
at  a  time  of  great  depression.  His  "Words  of  Com- 
fort to  Persecuted  Catholics",  "Letters  from  a  Cell 
in  Dublin  Castle",  and  "Diary  of  the  Bohemian 
War  of  1620",  together  with  a  sketch  of  his  life,  were 
published  by  Father  Edmund  Hogan,  S.J.  (Dublin, 

Hogan,  Dislinguished  Irishmen  of  the  Sixteenth  Century  (Dub- 
lin, 1S94\  198-310;  Foley.  Ri-conh  tS.J..  VII.  260;  Sommervo- 
GEL,  Bibliothcque,  III,  766-768;  Cooper  in  Diet.  Not.  Biog.,  s.v. 

J.  H.  Pollen. 

Fitz-Simons,  Thomas,  American  merchant,  b.  in 
Ireland,  1741;  d.  at  Pliiladelphia,  U.  S.  A.,  26  Aug., 
1811.  There  is  no  positive  date  of  his  arrival  in  Amer- 
ica, but  church  records  in  Philadelphia  show  he  was 
there  in  1758.  In  1763  he  was  married  to  Catherine, 
sister  of  George  Meatle,  and  he  was  Mt':ide's  partner  as 
a  merchant  until  1784.  In  the  events  that  led  up  to 
the  revolt  of  the  colonists  against  ICngland  he  took  a 
prominent  part.  He  was  one  of  the  deputies  who  met 
in  conference  in  Carpenter's  Hall,  Philadelphia,  out  of 
which  conference  grew  the  Continental  Congress  that 




assembled  4  Sept.,  1774,  and  of  which  he  was  a  mem- 
ber. His  election  as  one  of  the  Provincial  Deputies  in 
July,  1774,  is  the  first  instance  of  a  Catholic  being 
named  for  a  public  office  in  Pennsylvania.  At  the 
breaking-out  of  hostilities  he  organized  a  company  of 
militia  and  took  part  in  the  Trenton  campaign  in  New 
Jersey.  After  this  service  in  the  field  he  returned  to 
Philadelphia  and  was  active  with  other  merchants 
in  providing  for  the  needs  of  the  army. 

On  12  Nov.,  1782,  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
Congress  of  the  old  Confederacy  and  was  among  the 
leaders  in  its  deliberations.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
Convention  that  met  in  Philadelphia  25  May,  17S7, 
and  framed  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 
Daniel  Carroll  of  Maryland  being  the  only  other  Cath- 
olic member.  In  this  convention  Fitz-Simons  voted 
against  universal  suffrage  and  in  favour  of  limiting  it 
to  free-holders.  Under  this  constitution  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  first  Congress  of  the  United 
States  and  in  it  served  on  the  Committee  on  Ways  and 
Means.  In  politics  he  was  an  ardent  Federalist.  He 
was  re-elected  to  the  second  and  the  third  Congresses, 
but  was  defeated  for  the  fourth,  in  1794,  and  this 
closed  his  political  career.  Madison  wrote  to  Jeffer- 
son, on  16  Nov.,  1794,  that  the  failure  of  Fitz-Simons 
to  be  selected  was  a  "stinging  blow  for  the  aristo- 
cracy". The  records  of  Congress  show  that  he  was 
among  the  very  first,  if  not  the  first,  to  advocate  the 
fundamental  principles  of  a  protective  tariff  system  to 
help  American  industries.  When  Washington  was 
inaugurated  the  first  president,  Fitz-Simons  was  one  of 
the  four  laymen,  Charles  and  Daniel  Carroll  of  Mary- 
land, and  Dominic  Lynch  of  New  York  being  the 
others,  to  sign  the  adtlress  of  congratulation  presented 
to  him  by  the  Catholics  of  the  country.  He  was 
among  the  founders  of  Georgetown  College,  and  was 
considered  during  his  long  life  one  of  the  most  enlight- 
ened merchants  in  the  United  States.  On  all  ques- 
tions connected  with  commerce  and  finance  his  advice 
was  always  sought  and  regarded  with  respect  in  the 
operations  that  laid  the  foundation  of  the  commercial 
prosperity  of  the  new  republic. 

Ghiffin,  Thomas  Fil^-Simonx  (Philadelphia.  1887);  Am. 
Calh.  Hist.  Researchrs  (Philadelphia,  1908).  162-63;  Shea,  Life 
and  Times  of  Most  Rev,  John  Carroll  (New  York,  ISSS). 

Thomas  F.  Meehan. 

Five  Mile  Act.    See  Nonconformists. 

Fixlmillner,  Placidus,  astronomer,  b.  at  Achleu- 
then  near  Kremsmiinster,  Austria,  in  1721;  d.  at 
Kremsniiinster,  27  August,  1791.  He  received  his 
early  education  at  Salzburg,  where  he  displayed  a 
talent  for  mathematics.  He  joined  the  Benedictines 
at  the  age  of  sixteen  and  became  distinguished  for  his 
broad  scholarship.  In  1756  he  published  a  small 
treatise  entitled  "Reipublicie  sacrje  origines  diviniE". 
He  intended  to  continue  this  work  but  the  transit  of 
Venus  in  1761  again  aroused  his  interest  in  mathe- 
matics. Though  already  forty  years  of  age  he  resumed 
his  old  studies  with  ardour,  and  an  opportunity  soon 
presented  itself  for  work  in  astronomy.  He  was  ap- 
pointed director  of  the  observatory  of  Kremsmiinster, 
which  had  been  established  by  his  uncle  in  1748  while 
abbot.  His  first  task  was  to  improve  the  equipment 
and  h.ave  new  instruments  constructed,  and  as  soon 
as  possible  he  determined  the  latitude  and  longitude 
of  the  observatory.  He  continued  in  charge  of  the 
observatory  until  his  death  and  by  his  industry  ac- 
cumulated a  number  of  observations  of  great  variety 
and  value.  He  did  not,  however,  devote  all  his  time 
to  astronomy.  For  many  years  he  was  in  charge  of  the 
college  connected  with  the  abbey  and  at  the  same  time 
acted  as  professor  of  canon  law.  As  such  he  was 
honoured  with  the  dignity  of  notary  Apostolic  of  "the 
Roman  Court.  Fixlmillner  is  Ijest  known  for  his  work 
in  astronomy.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  compute  the 
orbit  of  Uraims  after  its  discovery  by  Herschel.  His 
numerous  observations  of  Mercury  were  of  much  ser- 

vice to  Lalande  in  constructing  tables  of  that  planet. 
Besides  the  treatise  already  mentioned  he  was  the 
author  of  "Meridianus  speculse  astronomicEe  cremi- 
fanensis"  (Steyer,  1765),  which  treats  of  his  observa- 
tions in  connexion  with  the  latitude  and  longitude  of 
his  observatory,  and  "Decennium  astronomicum" 
(Steyer,  1776).  After  his  death  his  successor  P.  Derf- 
flinger  published  the  "Acta  cremifanensia  a  Placido 
Fixlmillner"  (Steyer,  1791),  which  contain  his  obser- 
vations from  1776  to  1791. 

ScHLicHTKGROLL,  Nekrolofj  dcT  DcutschcH  (Gotha,  1791- 
1S06),  supplement;  Zach,  Ephemfridcs  gcographiqucs  (1799); 
Nicollet  in  Biog.  Universelle,  XIV. 

H.  M.  Brock. 

Fizeau,  Armand-Hippglyte-Louis,  physicist,  b. 
at  Paris,  23  Sept.,  1819;  d.  at  Nanteui!,  Seine-et- 
Marne,  18  Sept.,  1896.  His  father,  a  distinguished 
physician  and  professor  of  medicine  in  Paris  during 
the  Restoration,  left  him  an  independent  fortune,  so 
that  he  was  able  to  devote  himself  to  scientific  re- 
search. He  attended  Stanislas  College  and  then  be- 
gan to  study  medicine,  but  had  to  abandon  it  on  ac- 
count of  ill-health  and  travelled  for  awhile.  Then 
followed  Arago's  lessons  at  the  Observatory,  Re- 
gnault  on  optics  at  the  College  of  France,  and  a  thor- 
ough study  of  his  brother's  notebooks  of  the  courses  at 
the  Ecole  Polytechnique.  In  1839  he  became  inter- 
ested in  the  new  photography  and  succeeded  in  getting 
permanent  pictures  by  the  daguerreotype.  Foucault 
came  to  consult  him  about  this  work  and  became  as- 
sociated with  him  in  their  epoch-making  experiments 
in  optics,  showing  the  identity  of  radiant  heat  and 
light,  the  regularity  of  tlie  light  vibrations,  and  the 
validity  of  the  undulatory  theory.  Just  as  they  were 
ready  to  develop  the  expcrimentum  a-ucis  (see  Fou- 
cault) overthrowing  the  emission  theory,  they  parted 
company  and  worked  independently. 

Fizeau  was  the  first  to  determine  experimentally  the 
velocity  of  light  (1849).  He  used  a  rotating  cog- 
wheel and  a  fixed  mirror  several  miles  distant;  light 
passed  between  two  teeth  of  the  wheel  to  the  distant 
mirror  and  then  returned.  If  the  wheel  turned  fast 
enough  to  obscure  the  reflection,  then  the  reflected 
beam  struck  a  cog.  The  time  it  took  the  wheel  to 
move  the  width  of  one  tooth  was  then  equal  to  the 
time  it  took  the  light  to  travel  twice  the  distance  be- 
tween the  wheel  and  the  mirror.  He  also  experi- 
mented successfully  to  show  that  the  ether  is  carried 
along  by  moving  substances,  since  light  travels  faster 
through  a  stream  of  water  in  the  direction  of  its  mo- 
tion than  in  the  opposite  direction.  In  his  measure- 
ments of  vanishingly  small  distances,  such  as  the  ex- 
pansion of  crystals,  he  made  use  of  the  extremely  small 
and  very  regular  wave-length  of  light.  His  addition 
of  a  condenser  in  the  primary  circuit  of  the  induction 
coil  increased  the  effectiveness  of  this  device  consid- 
erably. On  the  recommendation  of  the  Academy  of 
Sciences  he  was  awarded  the  Grand  Prix  ( 10,000  francs) 
of  the  Institute  in  1856.  He  was  elected  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  in  18G0,  and  a 
member  of  the  Bureau  des  Longitudes  in  1878.  He 
received  the  decoration  of  the  Legion  of  llonnurin  1849 
and  became  officer  in  1875.  In  1866  the  Hnjal  Soci- 
ety of  London  awarded  him  the  Rvuuford  Medal. 
Cornu  says  of  him :  "  He  was  a  practical  and  convinced 
Christian  and  did  not  hide  that  fact."  In  the  presi- 
dential address  before  the  academy  (Comptes  Rendus, 
1879),  Fizeau  calls  attention  to  "the  dignity  ;iiid  inde- 
pendence of  natural  science  as  well  as  to  its  limits  of 
action,  preventing  it  from  interfering  in  philosophic  or 
social  questions,  nml  imt  )irniii(ting  it  to  jnit  it.self  in 
opposition  to  the  imMc  chh. (ions  of  the  heart  nor  to 
the  pure  voice  of  <'(iiis(iciicc".  Most  of  his  published 
works  appeared  in  the  "Comptes  Rendus  "and  in  the 
"Aniiales  de  physique  et  de  chimie".  A  few  of  the 
tides  are:  "Sur  la  dagucrrfotypie " ;  "Sur  I'inter- 
fdrence  entre  deux  rayons  dans  le  cas  de  grandcs  dif- 

LEO   XII   (1823-29)    CAKI!  I  i;i  >    IN    l'l;(  H  l-iSSK  >N    IN   ST.   PETER'S 





ferences  do  marche";  "Vitesse  de  la  lumiere;  "In- 
terference des  rayons  calorifiques " ;  "Refraction  dif- 
ferentielle";  "Vitesse  de  I 'Electricity";  "Dilatation 
des  cristaux". 

Gray,  Nature  (London,  1896);  Cobnd.  Anniiairc  pour  fan 
180S  of  the  Bureau  des  Longitudes  (Paris). 

William  Fox. 

St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  London,  had  a  fan  made  of  pea- 
cock feathers,  and  York  Cathedral's  inventory  men- 
tions a  silver  handle  of  a  fan,  which  was  gilded  and  had 
upon  it  the  enamelled  picture  of  the  bishop.  Hayrao, 
Bishop  of  Rochester  (d.  13.52),  gave  to  his  church  a  fan 
of  silver  with  an  ivory  handle. 

Rock,  Church,  of  our  Fathers  (London.  1904),  II,  209;  Du 
Cange.  Glossarium  (Niort,  1885)j  Streber  in  Kirchenlexicon, 
s.  v.;  Kraus,  Gesch.  der  kirchl.  Kunst  (Freiburg.  1896),  I,  552. 

Francis  JIershman. 

Flabellum,  in  liturgical  use  a  fan  made  of  leather, 
silk,  parchment,  or  feathers  intended  to  keep  away 
insects  from  the  Sacred  Species  and  from  the  priest. 
It  was  in  use  in  the  sacrifices  of  the  heathens  and  in  Flaccilla  (IlXoiciXXa),  jElia,  empress,  wife  of  Theo- 
the  Christian  Church  from  very  early  days,  for  in  the  dosius  the  Great,  died  c.  a.  d.  385  or  386.  Like  Theo- 
Apostolic  Constitutions,  a  work  of  the  fourth  century,     dosius  himself,  his  first  wife,  JEVia,  Flaccilla,  was  of 

we  read  (VIII,  12) :  "  Let  two  of  the  deacons,  on 

each  side  of  the  altar,  hold  a  fan,  made 

up    of    thin    membranes,    or   of    the 

feathers  of  the  peacock,  or  of  fine 

cloth,  and  let  them  silently  drive 

away  the  small  animals  that  fly 

about,  that  they  may  not  come 

near  to  the  cups".     Its  use  was 

continued  in  the  Latin  Church  to 

about   the   fourteenth  century. 

In    the    Greek    Church   to    the 

present  day,  the  deacon,  at  his 

ordination,   receives  the  hagion 

ripidion,  or  sacretl  fan,  which  is  generally  made 

to  the  likeness  of  a  cherub's  six-wingeil  face,  and 


Spanish  descent.       She    may  have   been    the 
daughter  of  Claudius  Antonius,  Prefect  of 
Gaul,  who  was  consul  in  382.     Her  mar- 
riage with  Theodosius  probably  took 
place    in   the   year  376,  when   his 
father,  the  comes  Theodosius,  fell 
into  disfavour  and  he  himself  with- 
drew to  Cauca  in  Gallaecia,  for  her 
eldest    son,  afterwards   Emperor 
Arcadius,  was  born  towards  the 
end  of  the  following  year.    In  the 
succeeding   years   she   presented 
two  more  children  to  her  husband, 
Honorius  (384).  who  later  became  emperor,  and 
Pulcheria,  who  died  in  early  childhood,  shortly 

the  sacrifice  of  the  Mass  he  waves  it  gently  over      [   before  her  mother.     Gregory  of  Nyssa    states   ex- 

the  species  from  the  time  of  the  Offertory  to  the 
Communion — in  the  Liturgy  of  St.  Basil  only  dur- 
ing the  Consecration.  Among  the  ornaments  found 
belonging  to  the  church  of  St.  Riciuier,  in  Ponthieu 
(813),  there  is  a  silver  flabellum  (Migne,  P.  L., 
CLXXIV,  12.57),  and  for  the  chapel  of  Cisoin,  near 
Lisle,  another  flabellum  of  silver  is  noted  in  the  will  of 
Everard  (d.  '.(37),  the  founder  of  that  abbey.  When, 
in  1777,  Martene  wrote  his  "  Voy.age  Litt^raire",  the 
Abbey  of  Tournus,  on  the  Sa(5ne  in  France,  possessed 
an  old  flabellum,  whicli  had  an  ivory  handle  two  feet 
long,  and  was  beautifully  carved ;  the  two  sides  of  the 
ivory  circular  disc  were  engraved  with  fourteen  figures 
of  saints.  Pieces  of  this  fan,  dating  from  the  eighth 
century,  are  in  the  Mus^e  Cluny  at  Paris,  and  in  the 
Collection  Carrand.  The  circular  disc  is  also  found  in 
the  Sla\'ic  flabellum  of  the  thirteenth  century,  pre- 
served at  Moscow,  and  in  the  one  shown  in  the  5legas- 
pileon  monastery  in  Greece.  On  this  latter  disc  are 
carved  the  Madonna  and  Child  and  it  is  encircled  by 
eight  medallions  containing  the  images  of  cherubim 
and  of  the  Four  Evangelists.  The  inventory,  taken  in 
1222,  of  the  treasury  of  Salisbury,  enumerates  a  silver 
fan  and  two  of  parchment.  The  richest  and  most 
beautiful  specimen  is  the  flabellum  of  the  thirteenth 
century  in  the  Abbey  of  Kremsmiinster  in  Upper  Aus- 
tria.    It  has  the  shape  of  a  Greek  Papal 

cross  and  is  ornamented  with  fret-  Museum  of  Universtry  of  Pennsylvania  ^  saint,  and  her  feast  is  kept  on  14 
work  and  the  representation  of  the  September.     The  Bollandists  (Acta 

Resurrection  of  Our  Lord.  A  kind  of  fan  with  a  hoop  SS.,  Sept.,  IV,  142)  are  of  the  opinion  that  she  is  not 
of  little  bells  is  used  by  the  Maronites  and  other  Orien-  regarded  as  a  saint  but  only  as  venerable,  but  her 
tals  and  is  generally  made  of  silver  or  brass.  name   stands   in  the   Greek  Mena^a  and  Synaxaria 

Apart  from  the  foregoing  liturgical  uses,  a  flabellum,  followed  by  words  of  eulogy,  as  is  the  case  with  the 
in  the  shape  of  a  fan.  later  of  an  umbrella  or  canopy,  other  saints  (cf. e.g.  Synaxarium  eccl.  Constantino- 
was  used  as  a  mark  of  honour  for  bishops  and  princes,     politanae,  ed.  Delehaye,  Brussels,  1902,  col.  46,  under 

pres.sly  that  she  had  three  children;  consecjuently 
the  Gratian  mentioned  by  St.  Ambrose,  together 
with  Pulcheria,  was  probably  not  her  son.  Flaccilla 
was,  like  her  husband,  a  zealous  supporter  of  the 
Nicene  Creed  and  prevented  the  conference  between 
the  emperor  and  the  Arian  Eunomius  (Sozomen, 
Hist,  eccl.,  VII,  vi).  On  the  throne  she  was  a  shining 
example  of  Cliristian  virtue  and  ardent  charity. 
St.  describes  her  as  "a  soul  true  to  God" 
(Fiiktis  animn  Deo. — "  De  obitu  Theodosii",  n.  40, 
in  P.  L.,  XVI,  1462).  In  his  panegyric  St.  Gregory 
of  Nyssa  bestowed  the  highest  praise  on  her  virtuous 
life  and  pictured  her  as  the  helpmate  of  the  emperor 
in  all  good  works,  an  ornament  of  the  empire,  a  leader 
of  justice,  an  image  of  beneficence.  He  praises  her 
as  filled  with  zeal  for  the  Faith,  as  a  pUlar  of  the 
Church,  as  a  mother  of  the  indigent.  "Theodoret  in 
particular  exalts  her  charity  and  benevolence  (Hist, 
eccles.,  V,  xix,  ed.  Valesius,  III,  192  sq.).  He  tells  us 
how  she  personally  tended  cripples,  and  quotes  a  say- 
ing of  hers:  "  To  distribute  money  belongs  to  the  im- 
perial dignity,  but  I  offer  up  for  the  imperial  dignity 
it.self  personal  service  to  the  Giver."  Her  humility 
also  attracts  a  special  meed  of  praise  from  the  church 
historian.  Flaccilla  was  buried  in  Con.stantinople,  St. 
Gregory  of  Nyssa  delivering  her  funeral  oration.  She 
is  venerated  in  the  Greek  Church  as 


14  Sept.). 

Gregory  of  Nyssa,   Oratio  funebris  de  Placilla  in  P.  G., 
XLVI,  877-92;    Themistius,  Oratio,  ed.  Dindorf.  637  sqq.; 

TiLLEHONT,  Histoire  des  empereurs,  V  (Br 
sq.,  notes  33,  40  sq.;  .\rgles  in  Diet.  Chr 
cilia  (1);  Guldenpennin'g  and  Ifland,  De 

Two  fans  of  this  kind  are  used  at  the  Vatican  when- 
ever the  pope  is  carried  in  state  on  the  sedia  gestatoria 
to  or  from  the  altar  or  audience-chamber.  Through 
the  influence  of  Count  Ditalmo  di  Brozza,  the  fans 
formerly  used  at  the  Vatican  were,  in  1902,  presented 

to  Mrs."  Joseph  Drexel  of  Philadelphia,  U.  S.  A.,  by     ''«•  «™se  (Halle,  1878),  56,  13: 
Leo  XIII,  and  in  return  she  gave  a  new  pair  to  the 
Vatican.     The  old  ones  are  exhibited  in  the  museum 

of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania.  They  are  splendid  Flagellants,  a  fanatical  and  heretical  sect  that 
creations.  The  spread  is  formed  of  great  ostrich  flourished  in  the  thirteenth  and  succeeding  centuries, 
plumes  tipped  with  peacock  feathers;  on  the  sticks  Their  origin  was  at  one  time  attributed  to  the  mission- 
are  the  papal  arms,  worked  in  a  crimson  field  in  heavy  ary  efforts  of  St.  .4nthony  of  Padvia,  in  the  cities  of 
gold,  the  crown  studded  with  rubies  and  emeralds.     Northern  Italy,  early  in  the  thirteenth  century;  but 

1732),  62,  109 
:(.  Biog..  s.  V.  Flac- 
•  Kaiser  Theodosius 

J.  P.  KiRSCH. 




Lempp  (Zeitschrift  fur  Kirchengeschichte,  XII,  435) 
has  shown  this  to  be  unwarranted.  Every  important 
movement,  however,  has  its  forerimners,  both  in  the 
idea  out  of  which  it  grows  and  in  specific  acts  of  which 
it  is  a  cuhuination.  And,  undoubtedly,  the  practice  of 
self-flagellation,  familiar  to  the  folk  as  the  ascetic  cus- 
tom of  the  more  severe  orders  (such  as  the  Camaldo- 
lese,  the  Cluniacs,  the  Dominicans),  had  but  to  be 
connected  in  idea  with  the  equally  familiar  penitential 
processions  popularized  by  the  Mendicants  about 
1233,  to  prepare  the  way  for  the  great  outburst  of  the 
latter  half  of  the  thirteenth  century.  It  is  in  1200 
that  we  first  hear  of  the  Flagellants  at  Perugia.  The 
terrible  plague  of  1259,  the  long-continued  tyranny 
and  anarchy  throughout  the  Italian  States,  the  prophe- 
cies concerning  Antichrist  and  the  end  of  the  world 
by  Joachim  of  Flora  and  his  like,  had  created  a  min- 
gled state  of  despair  and  expectation  among  the  de- 
vout lay-folk  of  the  middle  and  lower  classes.  Then 
there  appeared  a  famous  hermit  of  Umbria,  Raniero 
Fasani,  who  organized  a  brotherhood  of  "  Disciplinati 
di  GesCi  Cristo",  which  spread  rapidly  throughout 
Central  and  Northern  Italy.  The  brotherhoods  were 
known  by  various  names  in  various  localities  (Battuti, 
Scopatori,  Verberatori,  etc.),  but  their  practices  were 
very  similar  everywhere.  All  ages  and  conditions  were 
alike  subject  to  this  mental  epidemic.  Clergy  and 
laity,  men  and  women,  even  children  of  tender  years, 
scourged  themselves  in  reparation  for  the  sins  of  the 
whole  world.  Great  processions,  amounting  some- 
times to  10,000  souls,  passed  through  the  cities,  beat- 
ing themselves,  and  calling  the  faithful  to  repentance. 
With  crosses  and  banners  borne  before  them  by  the 
clergy,  they  marched  slowly  through  the  towns. 
Stripped  to  the  waist  and  with  covered  faces,  they 
scourged  themselves  with  leathern  thongs  till  the 
blood  ran,  chanting  hymns  and  canticles  of  the  Passion 
of  Christ,  entering  the  cliurches  and  prostrating  them- 
selves before  the  altars.  For  thirty-three  days  and  a 
half  this  penance  was  continued  by  all  who  undertook 
it,  in  honour  of  the  years  of  Christ's  life  on  earth.  Nei- 
ther mud  nor  snow,  cold  nor  heat,  was  any  obstacle. 
The  processions  continued  in  Italy  throughout  1260, 
and  by  the  end  of  that  year  had  spread  beyond  the 
Alps  to  Alsace,  Bavaria,  Bohemia,  and  Poland.  In 
1261,  however,  the  ecclesiastical  and  civil  authorities 
awoke  to  the  danger  of  such  an  epidemic,  although  its 
undesirable  tendencies,  on  this  occasion,  were  rather 
political  than  theological.  In  January  the  pope  for- 
bade the  processions,  and  the  laity  realized  suddenly 
that  behind  the  movement  was  no  sort  of  ecclesiastical 
sanction.  It  ceased  almost  as  quickly  as  it  had 
started,  and  for  some  time  seemed  to  have  died  out. 
Wandering  flagellants  are  heard  of  in  Germany  in 
1296.  In  Northern  Italy,  Venturino  of  Bergamo,  a 
Dominican,  afterwards  beatified,  attempted  to  revive 
the  processions  of  flagellants  in  1334,  and  led  about 
10,000  men,  styled  the  "  Doves",  as  far  as  Rome.  But 
he  was  received  with  laughter  by  the  Romans,  and  his 
followers  deserted  him.  He  went  to  Avignon  to  .see 
the  pope,  by  whom  he  was  promptly  relegated  to  his 
monastery,  and  the  movement  collapsed. 

In  1347  the  Black  Death  swept  across  Europe  and 
devastated  the  Continent  for  the  next  two  years.  In 
1348  terrible  earthquakes  occurred  in  Italy.  The 
scandals  prevalent  in  Church  and  State  intensified  in 
the  popular  mind  the  feeling  that  the  end  of  all  things 
was  come.  With  extraordinary  suddenness  the  com- 
panies of  Flagellants  appeared  again,  and  rapidly 
spread  across  the  .\lps,  through  Hungary  and  Switzer- 
land. In  1349  they  had  reached  Flanders,  Holland, 
Bohemia,  Poland,  and  Denmark.  By  September  of 
that  year  they  had  arrived  in  England,  where,  how- 
ever, they  met  with  but  little  success.  The  l^nglish 
people  watched  the  fanatics  with  quiet  interest,  even 
expressing  pity  and  sometimes  adininition  for  their 
devotion;    but  no  one  could  be  imluced  to  join  them. 

and  the  attempt  at  proselytism  failed  utterly.  Mean- 
while in  Italy  the  movement,  in  accordance  with  the 
temperament  of  the  people,  so  thorough,  so  ecstatic, 
yet  so  matter-of-fact  and  practical  in  religious  mat- 
ters, spread  rapidly  through  all  classes  of  the  com- 
munity. Its  diffusion  was  marked  and  aided  by  the 
popular  laudi,  folk-songs  of  the  Passion  of  Christ  and 
the  Sorrows  of  Our  Lady,  while  in  its  wake  there 
sprang  up  numberless  brotherhoods  devoted  to  pen- 
ance and  the  corporal  works  of  mercy  Thus  the 
"Battuti"  of  Siena,  Bologna,  (iubbio,  all  founded 
Case  di  Dio,  which  were  at  once  centres  at  which  they 
could  meet  for  devotional  and  penitential  exercises, 
and  hospices  in  which  the  sick  and  destitute  were 
relieved.  Though  tendencies  towards  heresy  soon 
became  apparent,  the  sane  Italian  faith  was  unfavour- 
able to  its  growth.  The  confraternities  adapted  them- 
selves to  the  permanent  ecclesiastical  organization, 
and  not  a  few  of  them  have  continued,  at  least  as 
charitable  as.sociations,  until  the  present  day.  It  is 
noticeable  that  the  songs  of  the  Laudesi  during  their 
processions  tended  more  and  more  to  take  on  a 
dramatic  character.  From  them  developed  in  time 
the  popular  mystery-play,  whence  came  the  beginnings 
of  the  Italian  drama. 

As  soon,  however,  as  the  Flagellant  movement 
crossed  the  Alps  into  Teutonic  countries,  its  whole 
nature  changed.  The  idea  was  welcomed  with  enthu- 
siasm; a  ceremonial  was  rapidly  developed,  and 
almost  as  rapidly  a  specialized  doctrine,  that  soon 
degenerated  into  heresy.  The  Flagellants  became  an 
organized  sect,  with  severe  discipline  and  extravagant 
claims.  They  wore  a  white  habit  and  mantle,  on  each 
of  which  was  a  red  cross,  whence  in  some  parts  they 
were  called  the  "  Brotherhood  of  the  Cross".  Whoso- 
ever desired  to  join  this  brotherhood  was  bound  to 
remain  in  it  for  thirty-three  and  a  halt  days,  to  swear 
obedience  to  the  "  Masters "  of  the  organization,  to 
possess  at  least  four  pence  a  day  for  his  support,  to  be 
reconciled  to  all  men,  and,  if  married,  to  have  the 
sanction  of  his  wife.  The  ceremonial  of  the  Flagel- 
lants seems  to  have  been  much  the  same  in  all  the 
northern  cities.  Twice  a  day,  proceeding  slowly  to  the 
public  square  or  to  the  principal  church,  they  put  off 
their  shoes,  stripped  themselves  to  the  waist  and  pros- 
trated themselves  in  a  large  circle.  By  their  posture 
they  indicated  the  nature  of  the  sins  they  intended  to 
expiate,  the  murderer  lying  on  his  back,  the  adulterer 
on  his  face,  the  perjurer  on  one  siile  holding  up  three 
fingers,  etc.  First  they  were  beaten  by  the  "  Master  ", 
then,  bidden  solemnly  in  a  prescribed  form  to  rise, 
they  stood  in  a  circle  and  scourged  themselves  severely, 
crying  out  that  their  blood  was  mingled  with  the 
Blood  of  Christ  and  that  their  penance  was  preserving 
the  whole  world  from  perishing.  At  the  end  the  "  Mas- 
ter" read  a  letter  which  was  supposed  to  have  been 
brought  by  an  angel  from  heaven  to  the  church  of  St. 
Peter  in  Rome.  This  stated  that  Christ,  angry  at  the 
grievous  sins  of  mankind,  had  threatened  to  destroy 
the  world,  yet,  at  the  intercession  of  the  Blessed  Virgin, 
had  ordained  that  all  who  .should  join  the  brotherhooil 
for  thirty-three  and  a  half  days  should  be  saved.  The 
reading  of  this  "letter",  following  the  shock  to  the 
emotions  caused  by  the  public  penance  of  the  Flagel- 
lants, aroused  much  excitement  among  the  populace. 
In  spite  of  the  protests  and  criticism  of  the  educated, 
thousands  enrolled  themselves  in  the  brotherhood. 
Great  processions  marched  from  town  to  town,  with 
crosses,  lights,  and  banners  borne  before  them.  They 
walked  slowly,  three  or  four  abreast,  bearing  their 
knotted  scourges  and  chanting  their  melancholy 
hymns.  As  the  number  grew,  the  pretences  of  the 
leaders  developed.  They  professed  a  ridiculous  horror 
of  even  accidental  contact  with  women,  and  insisted 
that  it  was  of  obligation  to  fast  rigidly  on  Fridays. 
They  cast  tloubts  on  the  necessity  or  even  desira- 
bility  of   the    sacraments,   and   even   pretended   to 




absolve  one  another,  to  cast  out  evil  spirits,  and  to 
work  miracles.  They  asserted  that  the  ordinary  ec- 
clesiastical jurisdiction  was  suspended  and  that  their 
pilgrimages  would  be  continued  for  tliirty-three  and  a 
half  years.  Doubtless  not  a  few  of  them  hoped  to 
estabhsh  a  lasting  rival  to  the  Catholic  Church,  but 
very  soon  the  authorities  took  action  and  endeavoured 
to  suppress  the  whole  movement.  For,  while  it  was 
thus  growing  in  Cermany  and  the  Netherlands,  it  had 
also  entered  France. 

At  first  this  fiituus  novits  ritus  was  well  received. 
As  early  as  1348,  Pope  Clement  VI  had  permitted  a 
similar  procession  in  Avignon  in  entreaty  against  tlie 
plague.  Soon,  however,  the  rapid  spread  and  heretical 
tendencies  of  the  Plagellants,  especially  among  the 
turbulent  peoples  of  Southern  France,  alarmetl  tlie 
authorities.     At   the  entreaty  of   the   University  of 

fourteenth  century,  too,  the  great  Dominican,  St.  Vin- 
cent Ferrer,  spread  this  penitential  devotion  through- 
out the  north  of  Spain,  and  crowds  of  devotees  fol- 
lowed him  on  his  missionary  pilgrimages  through 
France,  Spain,  and  Northern  Italy. 

In  fact,  the  great  outburst  of  1.349,  while,  perhaps, 
more  widespread  and  more  formidable  than  similar 
fanaticisms,  was  but  one  of  a  series  of  popular  up- 
heavals at  irregular  intervals  from  1260  until  the  end 
of  the  fifteenth  century.  The  generating  cause  of  these 
movements  was  always  an  obscure  amalgam  of  horror 
of  corruption,  of  desire  to  imitate  the  heroic  expiations 
of  the  great  penitents,  of  apocalyptic  vision,  of  despair 
at  the  prevailing  corruption  in  Church  and  State.  All 
these  things  are  smouldering  in  the  minds  of  the 
much-tried  populace  of  Central  Europe.  It  needed 
but  a  sufficient  occasion,  such  as   the   accvunulated 


"cabin atmop^Mrfo  ^m&»«^i!'cqsrnutl  o>tta|iftti  pcrfoni^R* 

flfljunnitioms  uurgunij^iw  ^  vsnit«im£'a)utole«-«)ttit«o^ 

k-oft  \)«wmnt  a  uilia  bun^w        tiflS  rcMCi>e  f«tfci^  tnnta.  ftni^ 

in  the  Chro 

N  OF  Flagellants  at  Tournai,  13-49 

licle  of  Gillon  li  Muisis  (1353).  Library  of  Brussels 

Paris,  the  pope,  after  careful  inquiry,  condemned  the  tyranny  of  some  petty  ruler,  the  horror  of  a  great 
movement  and  prohibited  the  processions,  by  letters  plague,  or  the  ardent  preaching  of  some  saintly  ascetic, 
dated  20  Oct.,  1349,  whicli  were  sent  to  all  the  bishops     to  set  the  whole  of  (Jhristendom  in  a  blaze.    Like  fire 

of  France,  Cermany,  Poland,  Sweden,  and  England. 
This  condemnation  coincided  with  a  natural  reaction 
of  public  opinion,  and  the  Flagellants,  from  being  a 
powerful  menace  to  all  settled  public  order,  foimd 
themselves  a  hunted  and  rapidly  dwindling  sect.  But, 
though  severely  stricken,  the  I'lagellant  tendency  was 
by  no  means  eradicated.  Throughout  the  fourteenth 
and  fifteenth  centuries  there  were  recrudescences  of 
this  and  similar  heresies.  In  Germany,  about  1360, 
there  appeared  one  Konrad  Schmid,  who  called  him- 
self  Enoch,    and    pretended    that    all    ecclesiastical 

the  impulse  ran  through  the  people,  and  like  fire  it 
died  down,  only  to  break  out  here  and  there  anew.  At 
the  beginning  of  each  outbreak,  the  effects  were  gener- 
ally good.  Enemies  were  reconciled,  debts  were  paid, 
prisoners  were  released,  ill-gotten  goods  were  restored. 
But  it  was  the  merest  revivalism,  and,  as  always, 
the  reaction  was  worse  than  the  former  stagna- 
tion. Sometimes  the  movement  was  more  than  sus- 
pected of  being  abused  for  political  ends,  more  often 
it  exemplified  the  fatal  tendency  of  emotional  pietism 
to  degenerate  into  heresy.    The  Fl.iycllant  movement 

authority  was  abrogated,  or  rather,  transferred  to     was  but  one  of  tlie  manias  that  afflicted  the  end  of  tlie 

himself.  Thousands  of  young  men  joined  him,  and  lie 
was  able  to  continue  his  propagani  la  till  13()!l,  wlicii  the 
vigorous  measures  of  tlie  In(|uisition  resulted  in  his 
suppression.  Yet  we  still  hear  of  trials  and  condemna- 
tions of  Flagellants  in  1411  at  Erfurt,  in  1446  at  Nord- 
hausen,  in  i4")3  at  Sangerhausen,  even  so  late  as  14sl 
at  Ilallierstadt.  Again  the  "Albati"  or  "Bianchi" 
are  heard  of  in  Provence  about  13'.lil,  with  their  proces- 
sions of  nine  days,  during  which  they  beat  themselves 
and  chanted  the  "Stabat  Mater".    At  the  end  of  the 

Middle  iVges;  others  were  the  dancing-mania,  the  Jew- 
baiting  rages,  which  the  Flagellant  processions  encour- 
aged in  1349,  the  child-crusades,  and  the  like.  And, 
according  to  the  temiierainent  of  the  peoples  among 
whom  it  spread,  the  niovenii'iit  became  a  revolt  and  a 
fantastic  iieresy,  a  rush  of  devotion  .settling  soon  into 
pious  practices  and  good  works,  or  a  mere  spectacle 
that  aroused  the  curiosity  or  the  pity  of  the  onlookers. 
Although  as  a  dangerous  heresy  the  Flagellants  are 
not  heard  of  after  the  fifteenth  century,  their  practices 




were  revived  again  and  again  as  a  means  of  quite 
orthodox  public  penance.  In  France,  during  the  six- 
teenth century,  we  hear  of  White,  Black,  Grey,  and 
Blue  Brotherhoods.  At  Avignon,  in  1574,  Catherine 
de'  Medici  herself  led  a  procession  of  Black  Penitents. 
In  Paris,  in  1583,  King  Henry  III  became  patron  of 
tlie  "  Blancs  Battus  de  I'Annonciation ".  On  Holy 
Thursday  of  that  year  he  organized  a  great  procession 
from  the  Augustinians  to  Notre-Dame,  in  which  all  the 
great  dignitaries  of  the  realm  were  obliged  to  take  part 
in  company  with  himself.  The  laughter  of  tlie  Paris- 
ians, however,  who  treated  the  whole  thing  as  a  jest, 
obliged  tlie  king  to  withdraw  his  patronage.  Early  in 
the  seventeenth  century,  the  scandals  arising  among 
these  brotherhoods  caused  the  Parliament  of  Paris  to 
suppress  them,  and  under  the  combined  assaults  of  the 
law,  the  Gallicans,  and  the  sceptics,  the  practice  soon 
died  out.  Througliout  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth 
centuries  Flagellant  processions  and  self-flagellation 
were  encouraged  Ijy  the  Jesuits  in  Austria  and  the 
Netherlands,  as  well  as  in  tlie  far  countries  which  they 
evangelized.  India,  Persia,  Japan,  the  Philippines, 
Mexico,  and  the  States  of  South  America,  all  had  their 
Flagellant  processions;  in  Central  and  South  America 
they  continue  even  to  the  present  day,  and  were  regu- 
lated and  restrained  by  Pope  Leo  XIII.  In  Italy  gen- 
erally and  in  the  Tyrol  similar  processions  survived 
until  the  early  years  of  the  nineteenth  century;  in 
Rome  itself  they  took  place  in  the  Jesuit  churches  as 
late  as  1870,  while  even  later  they  occurred  in  parts  of 
Tuscany  and  Sicily.  Always,  however,  these  later 
Flagellant  processions  have  taken  place  under  the  con- 
trol of  ecclesiastical  authority,  and  must  by  no  means 
be  connected  with  the  heretical  epidemic  of  the  later 
Middle  Ages. 

One  of  the  best  modern  accounts  of  flagellation  and  the  Fla- 
gellants is  an  article  by  Haupt,  Geisselung,  kirchliche,  und 
(reisslerbruderschaften,  in  Realencykl.  fiir  prol.  Theol.  It  contains 
full  and  excellent  bibliographies.  Some  of  the  original  authori- 
ties for  the  outbreak  in  1260  will  be  found  in  Pertz,  Man.  Germ. 
Hist.,  XVII,  102-3,  105, 191, 402,  531,  714;  XIX,  179.  For  the 
heresy  of  1348  may  be  consulted:  Chroniken  der  deutschen 
SIddte,  VII,  204  sqq. ;  IX,  105  sqq. ;  Fqrschungen  zur  deulachcn 
Geschichie,  XXI  (1881),  21  sqq.;  Recueil  des  chroniques  de  Flan- 
dre,  II  (Bruges,  1841),  111  sqq.;  Fredericq,  Corpus  doeumcn- 
torum.  inquisilionis  hcereticm  pravitaiis  neerlandicGE,  I  (Ghent, 
1889),  190  sqq.;  Berlierg,  Trois  traites  inedils  sur  les  Flagel- 
lants de  1S49,  m  Revue  Benedictine,  July,  1908.  Good  accounts 
are  to  be  found  in  Muratori,  Antiquitt.  Ifal.  med.  wvi,  VI 
(Milan,  1738-42),  diss.  Ixxv;  Gretser,  Opera,  IV  (Ratisbon, 
1734),  43-5;  Zockler,  Askcse  und  Munchtum,  II  (Frankfort, 
1897),  518,  530-7. 

Leslie  A.  St.  L.  Toke. 

Flagellation. — The  history  of  the  whip,  rod,  and 
stick,  as  instruments  of  punishment  and  of  voluntary 
penance,  is  a  long  and  interesting  one.  The  Heb.  Dif, 
"whip",  and  t33L'',  "rod",  are  in  etymology  closely 
related  (Gesenius).  Horace  (Sat.,  I,  iii)  tells  us  not  to 
use  the  horrihile  flagcllum,  made  of  thongs  of  ox-hide, 
when  the  offender  deserves  only  the  scutica  of  twisted 
parchment;  the  schoolmaster's  ferula — Eng.  ferule 
(Juvenal,  Sat.,  I,  i,  15) — was  a  strap  or  rod  for  the 
hand  (see  ferule  in  Skeat).  The  earliest  Scrijitural 
mention  of  the  whip  is  in  Ex.,  v,  14,  16  (flaydhili  .s■»«^• 
flnijcllis  cadimur),  where  the  Heb.  word  meaning  "to 
strike"  is  interpreted  in  the  Greek  and  the  Latin  texts, 
"were  scourged" — "beaten  with  whips".  Roboam 
said  (III  Kings,  xii,  11,  14;  11  Par.,  x,  11,  14):  "My 
father  beat  you  with  whips,  but  I  will  beat  you  with 
scorpions",  i.  e.  with  scourges  armed  with  knots, 
points,  etc.  Even  in  Latin  scorpio  is  so  interpreted  by 
St.  Isidore  (Etym.,  v,  27),  "virga  nodosa  vel  acu- 
leata".  Old-Testament  references  to  the  rod  might  be 
multiplied  indefinit<?ly  (Deut.,  xxv,  2,  3;  II  Kings,  vii, 
14;  Job,  Lx,  34;  Prov.,  xxvi,  3,  etc.).  In  the  New  Testa- 
ment we  are  told  that  Clirist  used  the  scourge  on 
the  money-changers  (John,  ii,  15);  He  predicted  that 
He  and  His  disciples  would  be  scourged  (Mat.,  x,  17; 
XX,  19);  and  St.  Paul  .says:  "Five  times  did  I  receive 
forty  stripes,  save  one.     Thrice  was  I  beaten  with 

rods"  (II  Cor.,  xi,  24,  25;  Deut.,  xxv,  3;  Acts,  xvi,  22). 
The  offender  was  to  be  beaten  in  the  presence  of  the 
judges  (Deut.,  xxv,  2,  3),  but  was  never  to  receive 
more  than  forty  stripes.  To  keep  witliin  the  law,  it 
was  the  practice  to  give  only  thirtv-nine.  The  culprit 
was  so  attached  to  a  low  pillar  that  he  had  to  lean  for- 
ward— "they  shall  lay  liira  down",  says  the  law,  to 
receive  the  strolces.  Verses  of  thirteen  words  in 
Hebrew  were  recited,  the  last  alwa}'s  being:  "But  he 
is  merciful,  and  will  forgive  their  sins:  and  will  not 
destroy  them"  [Ps.  bcxvii  (Heb.  Lxxviii)  38];  but  the 
words  served  merely  to  count  the  blows.  Moses  al- 
lowed masters  to  use  the  rod  on  slaves;  not,  however, 
so  as  to  cause  death  (E.x.,  xxi,  20).  The  flagellation  of 
Christ  was  not  a  Jewish,  but  a  Roman  punishment, 
and  was  therefore  administered  all  the  more  cruelly. 
It  was  suggested  by  Pilate's  desire  to  save  Him  from 
crucifixion,  and  this  was  inflicted  only  when  the 
scourging  liad  failed  to  satisfy  the  Jews.  In  Pilate's 
plan  flagellation  wa,s  not  a  preparation,  but  rather  a 
substitute,  for  crucilLxion. 

As  the  earliest  monuments  of  Egypt  make  the 
scourge  or  whip  very  conspicuous,  the  children  of 
Israel  cannot  have  been  the  first  on  whom  the  Egyp- 
tians used  it.  In  Assyria  the  slaves  dragged  their  bur- 
dens under  the  taskmaster's  lash.  In  Sparta  even 
youths  of  high  social  standing  were  proud  of  their  stoical 
indifference  to  the  scourge;  while  at  Rome  the  various 
names  for  slaves  (flagriones,  verherones,  etc.)  and  the 
significant  term  lorarii,  used  by  Plautus,  give  us  ample 
assurance  that  the  scourge  was  not  spared.  However, 
from  passages  in  Cicero  and  texts  in  the  New  Testa- 
ment, we  gather  that  Roman  citizens  were  exempt 
from  this  punishment.  The  bamboo  is  used  on  all 
classes  in  China,  but  in  Japan  heavier  penalties,  and 
frequently  death  itself,  are  imposed  upon  offenders. 
The  European  country  most  conspicuous  at  the  pres- 
ent day  for  the  whipping  of  culprits  is  Russia,  where 
the  knout  is  more  than  a  matcli  for  the  worst  scourge 
of  the  Romans.  Even  in  what  may  be  called  our  own 
times,  the  use  of  the  whip  on  soldiers  under  the  English 
flag  was  not  unknown;  and  the  State  of  Delaware  yet 
believes  in  it  as  a  corrective  and  deterrent  for  the 
criminal  class.  If  we  refer  to  the  past,  by  Statute  39 
Eliz.,  ch.  iv,  evil-doers  were  whipped  and  sent  back  to 
the  place  of  their  nativity;  moreover,  Star-chamber 
whippings  were  frequent.  "In  Partridge's  Almanack 
for  1692,  it  is  stated  that  Oates  was  whipt  with  a  whip 
of  sue  thongs,  and  received  2256  lashes,  amounting  to 
13536  stripes"  (A  Hist,  of  the  Rod,  p.  158).  He  sur- 
vived, however,  and  lived  for  years.  The  pedagogue 
made  free  use  of  the  birch.  OrbiUus,  who  flogged 
Horace,  was  only  one  of  the  learned  line  who  did  not 
believe  in  moral  suasion,  while  Juvenal's  words:  "Et 
nos  ergo  manuni  ferula;  subdiixiraus"  (Sat.,  I,  i,  15) 
sliow  clearly  the  system  of  school  discipline  existing  in 
his  day.  The  priests  of  Cybele  scourged  themselves 
and  others,  and  such  stripes  were  considered  sacred. 
Although  tliese  and  similar  acts  of  penance,  to  propi- 
tiate heaven,  were  practised  even  before  the  coming  of 
Christ,  it  was  only  in  the  religion  establislied  bj'  Him 
that  they  found  wise  direction  and  real  merit.  It  is 
held  by  some  interpreters  tliat  St.  Paul  in  the  words: 
"I  cha.stise  my  body"  refers  to  self-inflicted  bodily 
scourging  (I  Cor.,  Lx,  27).  The  Greek  word  iirunndt^(a 
(see  Liddell  and  Scott)  means  "to  strike  under 
the  eye",  and  metaphorically  "to  mortify";  conse- 
quently, it  can  scarcely  mean  "to  scourge",  and 
indeed  in  Luke,  xviii,  5,  such  an  interpretation  is  quite 
inadmissible.  Furthermore,  where  St.  Paul  certainly 
refers  to  scourging,  he  uses  a  different  word.  We  may 
therefore  safely  conclude  tliat  he  speaks  liere  of 
mortification  in  general,  as  Piconio  holds  (Trijilex 

Scourging  was  soon  adopted  as  a  sanction  in  the 
monastic  di.sciplinc  of  the  fift  h  and  following  centuries. 
Early  in  the  fifth  century  it  is  mentioned  by  Palladius 




in  the  "Ilistoria  Lausiaca"  (c.  vi),  and  Socrates  (Hist. 
Eccl.,  IV,  xxiii)  tells  us  that,  instead  of  being  excom- 
municated, offending  young  monks  were  scourged. 
See  the  sLxth-century  rules  of  St.  Caesarius  of  Aries  for 
nuns  (P.  L.,  LXVII,  1111),  and  of  St.  Aurelian  of 
Aries  (ibid.,  LXVIII,  392,  401-02).  Thenceforth 
scourging  is  frequently  mentioned  in  monastic  rules 
and  councils  as  a  preservative  of  discipUne  (Hefele, 
"Concilieng.  ',  II,  594,  656).  Its  use  as  a  punishment 
was  general  in  the  seventh  century  in  all  monasteries 
of  the  severe  Columban  rule  (St.  Columbanus,  in 
"RegulaCoenobialis",  c.  x,  inP.  L.,  LXXX,  215  sqq.); 
for  later  centuries  of  the  early  Middle  Ages  see  Tho- 
massin,  "Vet.  ac  nova  ecc.  disciplina,  II  (3),  107; 
Du  Cange,  "  Glossar.  med.  et  infim.  latinit.",  s.  v.  "  Dis- 
ciphna";  Gretser,  "De  spontanea  discipUnarum  seu 
flagellorum  crucelibri  trcs"  (Ingolstadt,  1603);Kober, 
"Die  korperliche  Zuchtigung  als  kirchliches  Straf- 
mittel  gegen  Clerikcr  und  Monche"  in  Tub.  "Quartal- 
schrift"  (1875).  The  canon  law  (Decree  of  Gratian, 
Decretals  of  Gregory  IX)  recognized  it  as  a  punish- 
ment for  ecclesiastics;  even  as  late  as  the  sLxteenth 
and  seventeenth  centuries,  it  appears  in  ecclesiastical 
legislation  as  a  punishment  for  blasphemy,  concu- 
binage, and  simony.  Though  doubtless  at  an  early 
date  a  private  means  of  penance  and  mortification, 
such  use  is  publicly  exemphfied  in  the  tenth  and 
eleventh  centuries  by  the  lives  of  St.  Dominic  Lori- 
catus  (P.  L.,  CXLIV,  1017)  and  St.  Peter  Damian  (d. 
1072).  The  latter  wrote  a  special  treatise  in  praise  of 
self-flagellation ;  though  blamed  by  some  contempora- 
ries for  excess  of  zeal,  his  example  and  the  high  esteem 
in  which  he  was  held  did  much  to  popularize  the  vol- 
imtary  use  of  the  scourge  or  "  discipline  "  as  a  means  of 
mortification  and  penance.  Thenceforth  it  is  met  with 
in  most  medieval  religious  orders  and  associations. 
The  practice  was,  of  course,  capable  of  abuse,  and  so 
arose  in  the  thirteenth  century  the  fanatical  sect  of  the 
Flagellants  (q.  v.),  though  in  the  same  period  we  meet 
with  the  private  use  of  the  "discipline"  by  such 
saintly  persons  as  King  Louis  IX  and  Elizabeth  of 

Unger,  Die  Flagellanten  (1902);  Cooper  (pseudonym), 
Flagellation  and  the  Flagellants.  A  History  of  the  Rod,  etc,  (new 
ed.,  London,  1896),  an  anti-Catholic  and  Biased  work;  Barney, 
CiTnimrision  and  Flagellation  among  the  Filipinos  (Carlisle,  Pa., 
1903);  C.^lmet's  Diet,  of  the  Bible,  s.  v.  Scourging;  Kitto,  Cy- 
clop, of  Biblical  Lit.,  s.  v.  Punishment. 

John  J.  Tierney. 

Flaget,  Benedict  Joseph,  first  Bishop  of  Bards- 
town  (subsequently  of  Louisville),  Kentucky,  U.  S.  A., 
b.  at  Contouruat,  near  Billom,  Auvergne,  France,  7 
November,  1763;  d.  11  February,  1850,  at  Louisville, 
Kentucky.  He  was  a  posthumous  child  and  was  only 
two  years  old  when  his  mother  died,  leaving  him  and 
two  brothers  to  the  care  of  an  aunt;  they  were  wel- 
comed at  the  home  of  Canon  Benoit  Flaget,  their  uncle, 
at  Billom.  In  his  seventeenth  year,  he  went  to  the 
Sulpician  seminary  of  Clermont  to  study  philosophy 
and  theology,  and  joining  the  Society  of  St.  Sulpice, 
1  November,  1783,  he  was  ordained  priest  in  1787, 
at  Issy,  where  Father  Gabriel  Richard,  the  future  apos- 
tle of  Michigan,  was  then  superior.  Flaget  taught 
dogmatic  theology  at  Nantes  for  two  years,  and 
filled  the  same  chair  at  the  seminary  of  Angers  when 
that  house  was  closed  by  the  Revolution.  He  re- 
turned to  Billom  in  1791  and  on  the  advice  of  the  Sul- 
pician superior.  Father  Emery,  determined  to  devote 
himself  to  the  American  mission.  He  sailed  in  Janu- 
ary, 1792,  with  Father  J.  B.  M.  David,  his  future  coad- 
jutor, and  the  subdeacon  Stephen  Badin  (q.  v.),  land- 
ing in  Baltimore,  29  March,  1792.  He  was  studying 
English  with  his  Sulpician  brethren,  when  Bishop 
Carroll  tested  his  self-sacrifice  by  sending  him  to  Fort 
Vincennes,  as  missionary  to  the  Indians  and  pastor  of 
the  Fort.  Crossing  the  mountains  he  reached  Pitts- 
burg, where  he  had  to  tarry  for  six  months  owing  to 

low  water  in  the  Ohio,  tloing  such  good  work  that  he 
gained  the  lasting  esteem  of  General  Anthony  Wayne. 
The  latter  recommended  him  to  the  military  com- 
mander Colonel  Clark  at  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio,  who 
deemed  it  an  honour  to  escort  him  to  Fort  Vincennes, 
where  he  arrived  21  December,  1792.  Father  Flaget 
stayed  here  two  years  and  then,  recalled  by  his  supe- 
riors, he  became  professor  at  the  Georgetown  College 
under  the  presidency  of  Father  Dubourg.  In  Novem- 
ber, 1798,  he  was  .sent  to  Havana,  whence  he  returned 
in  1801  with  twcnty-tliree  stutlcnts  to  Baltimore. 

On  S  April,  1808,  Bardstowii,  Kentucky,  was  cre- 
ated a  see  and  Flaget  was  named  its  first  bishop.  He 
refused  the  honour  and  his  colleagues  of  St.  Sulpice 
approved  his  action,  but  when  in  1809  he  went  to 
Paris,  his  superior.  Father  Emery,  received  him  with 
the  greeting:  "My  Lord,  you  should  be  in  your  dio- 
cese! The  pope  commands  you  to  accept."  Leaving 
France  with  Father  Simon  William  BrutiS,  the  future 
Bishop  of  Vincennes,  and  the  subdeacon,  Guy  Igna- 
tius Chabrat,  his  future  coadjutor  in  Kentucky, 
Flaget  landed  in  Baltimore  and  was  consecrated 
4  November,  1810,  by  Archbishop  Carroll.  The  Dio- 
cese of  Bardstown  comprised  the  whole  North-West, 
bounded  East  and  West  by  Louisiana  and  the  Missis- 
sippi. Bishop  Flaget,  handicapped  by  poverty,  did  not 
leave  Baltimore  until  11  May,  1811,  and  reached 
Louisville,  4  June,  whence  the  Rev.  C.  Nerinckx  es- 
corted him  to  Bardstown.  He  arrived  there  9  June. 
On  Christmas  of  that  year  he  ordained  priest  the  Rev. 
Guy  Ignatius  Chabrat,  the  first  priest  ordained  in 
the  West.  Before  Easter,  1813,  he  had  established 
priestly  conferences,  a  seminary  at  St.  Stephen's  (re- 
moved to  St.  Thomas',  November,  1811),  and  made 
two  pastoral  visits  in  Kentucky.  That  summer  he 
visited  the  outlying  districts  of  Indiana,  Illinois,  and 
Eastern  Missouri,  confirming  1275  people  during  the 

Bishop  Flaget's  great  experience,  absolute  self-de- 
nial, and  holy  life  gave  him  great  influence  in  the  coun- 
cils of  the  Church  and  at  Rome.  Most  of  the  bishops 
appointed  within  the  next  twenty  years  were  selected 
with  his  advice.  In  October,  1817,  he  went  to  St. 
Louis  to  prepare  the  way  for  Bishop  Duliourg.  He 
recommended  Bishop  Fenwiok  for  Ohio,  then  left  on  a 
trip  through  that  State,  Indiana,  and  Michigan  in  1818. 
In  the  latter  State  he  did  great  missionary  work  at 
Detroit  and  Monroe,  attending  also  a  rally  of  10,000 
Indians  at  St.  Mary's.  Upon  his  return  to  Kentucky 
in  1819  heconsecrated  his  newcathedral  inBardstown, 
8  August,  and  consecrated  therein  his  first  coadjutor 
bishop.  Rev.  J.  B.  M.  David,  on  the  loth.  In  1821  he 
started  on  a  visitation  of  Tennessee,  and  bought  prop- 
erty in  Nashville  for  the  first  Catholic  church.  The 
years  1819  to  1821  were  devoted  to  missionary  work 
among  the  Indians.  He  celebrated  the  first  Synod  of 
Bardstown,  8  August,  1823,  and  continued  his  labours 
until  1828,  when  he  was  called  to  Baltimore  to  conse- 
crate Archbishop  Whitfield;  there  he  attended  the 
first  Council  of  Baltimore  in  1829.  In  1830  he  conse- 
crated one  of  his  own  priests.  Rev.  Richard  Kenrick, 
as  Bishop  of  Philadelphia.  A  great  friend  of  educa- 
tion, he  invited  the  Jesuits  to  take  charge  of  St.  Mary's 
College,  Bardstown,  in  1832.  In  the  meantime  he  had 
resigned  his  see  in  favour  of  Bishop  David  with  Bishop 
Chabrat  as  coadjutor.  Both  priests  and  people  re- 
belled, and  their  representations  were  so  instant  and 
continued  that  Rome  recalled  its  appointment  and 
reinstated  Bishop  Flaget,  who  during  all  this  time  was, 
regardless  of  age  and  infirmities,  attending  the  cholera- 
stricken  in  Louisville,  Bardstown,  and  surrounding 
country  during  1832  and  1833.  Bishop  Chabrat  be- 
came his  second  coadjutor  and  was  consecrated  20 
July,  1834.  Only  Kentucky  and  Tennessee  were  now 
left  under  Flaget's  jurisdiction,  and  in  the  former  he 
founded  various  religious  institutions,  including  four 
colleges,  two  convents,  one  foundation  of  brothers,  and 




two  religious  institutions  of  priests.     Tennessee  be- 
came a  diocese  with  see  at  Nashville  in  1838. 

His  only  visit  to  Europe  and  Rome  was  not  under- 
taken until  1835.  He  spent  four  years  in  France  and 
Italy  in  the  interests  of  his  diocese  and  of  the  propa- 
gation of  tlie  Faith,  visiting  forty-six  dioceses.  Every- 
where he  edified  the  people  by  the  sanctity  of  his  life, 
and  well  authenticated  miracles  are  ascribed  to  his 
intercession.  He  returned  to  America  in  1839,  trans- 
ferred his  see  to  Louisville,  and  crowned  his  fruitful 
life  by  consecrating,  10  September,  18-18,  a  young  Ken- 
tucky priest,  Martin  John  Spalding,  as  his  thirtl  coad- 
jutor and  successor  in  the  See  of  Louisville.  The  cor- 
ner-stone of  the  cathedral  of  Louisville  was  laid  15 
August,  1849.  He  died  peacefully  at  Louisville,  sin- 
cerely mourned  and  remembered  to  this  day.  His 
only  writings  are  his  journal  and  a  report  of  his  diocese 
to  the  Holy  See. 

Spalding,  Life,  Timef!  and  Character  of  Benedict  Joseph  Flaget 
(Louisville,  1852);  Shea,  Hist.  Cath.  Ch.  in  U.  S.  (New  York. 
1904):  Webb,  The  Centenary  of  Catholicity  in  Kentucky  (Louis- 
ville, 1884). 

Camillus  p.  Maes. 

Flanagan,  Thomas  Canon,  b.  in  England  in  1814, 
though  Irish  by  descent ;  d.  at  Kidderminster,  21  July, 
18G5.  He  was  educated  at  Sedgley  Park  School.  At 
the  age  of  eighteen  he  proceeded  to  Oscott — that  is 
"  Old  Oscott ' ',  now  known  as  Mary  vale — to  study  for 
the  priesthood.  The  president  at  that  time  was  Dr. 
Weedall,  under  whose  supervision  the  present  impos- 
ing college  buildings  were  about  to  be  erected.  The 
students  and  professors  migrated  there  in  183S,  after 
the  summer  vacation,  Flanagan  being  thus  one  of  the 
original  students  at  the  new  college.  There  he  was 
ordained  in  1842,  Bishop  (afterwards  Cardinal)  Wise- 
man being  then  president.  At  this  time  Oscott  was 
the  centre  of  much  intellectual  activity,  many  of  the 
O.xford  converts  during  the  following  years  visiting 
the  college,  where  some  made  their  first  acquaintance 
with  Catholic  life.  Flanagan,  who  throughout  his 
course  had  been  an  industrious  and  persevering  stu- 
dent, was  asked  by  Wiseman  to  remain  as  a  professor, 
and  as  such  he  came  into  contact  with  the  new  con- 
verts, his  own  bent  towards  historical  studies  creating 
a  strong  bond  of  sympathy  between  him  and  those 
who  had  become  convinced  of  the  truth  of  Catholicism 
on  historical  grounds. 

In  1847  Flanagan  brought  out  his  first  book,  a  small 
manual  of  British  and  Irish  history,  containing  nu- 
merous statistical  tables  the  preparation  of  which  was 
congenial  to  his  methodical  mind.  The  same  year  he 
became  prefect  of  studies  and  acted  successfully  in 
that  capacity  until  1850,  when  he  was  appointed  vice- 
president  and  then  president  of  Sedgley  Park  School, 
and  he  became  one  of  the  first  canons  of  the  newly 
formed  Birmingham  Diocese  in  1851.  The  active  life 
of  administration  was,  however,  not  congenial  to  his 
tastes,  and  he  was  glad  to  resume  his  former  position 
at  Oscott  in  1853.  It  was  at  this  time  that  he  began 
writing  his  chief  work,  a  "  History  of  the  Church  in 
England".  In  order  to  allow  him  more  leisure  for 
this,  he  was  appointed  chaplain  to  the  Hornyold  fam- 
ily at  Blackmore  Park,  and  his  history  appeared  in  two 
volumes,  during  his  residence  there,  in  1857.  It  was 
at  that  time  the  only  complete  work  on  the  Church  in 
England  continued  down  to  present  times,  and,  though 
marred  by  some  inaccuracies,  on  the  whole  it  bore  wit- 
ness to  much  patient  work  and  research  on  the  part  of 
the  author.  His  style,  however,  was  somewhat  con- 
cise, and  Bishop  Ullathorne's  remark,  that  Canon 
Flanagan  a  compiler  of  history  rather  than  .a  vivid 
historian,  has  often  liieii  quoted.  The  year  after  the 
appearance  of  Ins  Clnnch  history,  we  find  Flan.agan 
once  more  installed  in  his  old  position  as  prefect  f)f 
studies  at  Oscott,  where  he  remained  for  eighteen 
.months,  when  his  health  gave  way.  The  last  years  of 
hia  life  were  spent  as  assistant  priest  at  St.  Chad's 

Cathedral,  Birmingham.     He  died  at  Kidderminster, 
whither  he  had  gone  for  his  health. 

Flanagan,  Manual  of  British  and  Irish  Hist.  (1847);  Idem, 
Catechism  of  Bug.  Hist.  (1851);  Idem,  Hist,  of  Church  in  Eng. 
(1857);  Cooper  in  Diet.  Nat.  Biog,  s.  v.;  Gillow,  Bibl.  Diet. 
Eng.  Cath.,  s.  v.;  Husenbeth,  Hist,  of  Sedgley  Park;  Oscotian, 
Jubilee  No.  (1888);  Obituary  notices  in  The  Tablet  and  Weekly 

Bernard  Ward. 

Flanders  (Flem.  Vlaenderen;  Ger.  Flanderen; 
Fr.  Flandre)  designated  in  the  eighth  century  a  small 
territory  around  Bruges;  it  became  later  the  name  of 
the  country  bounded  by  the  North  Sea,  the  Scheldt, 
and  the  Canche;  in  the  fifteenth  century  it  was  even 
used  by  the  Italians  and  the  Spaniards  as  the  synonym 
for  the  Low  Countries;  to-day  Flanders  belongs  for  the 
most  part  to  Belgium,  comprising  the  provinces  of 
East  Flanders  and  West  Flanders.  A  part  of  it, 
known  as  French  Flanders,  has  gone  to  France,  and 
another  small  portion  to  Holland.  Flanders  is  an  un- 
picturesque  lowland,  whose  level  is  scarcely  above 
that  of  the  sea,  which  accounts  for  the  fact  that  a 
great  part  of  it  was  for  a  long  time  flooded  at  high 
water.  The  country  took  its  present  aspect  only  after 
a  line  of  downs  had  been  raised  by  the  sea  along  its 
shore.  The  soil  of  Flanders,  which  for  the  most  part  was 
unproductive,  owes  its  present  fertility  to  intelligent 
cultivation;  its  products  are  various,  but  the  most  im- 
portant are  flax  and  hemp;  dairying,  market-garden- 
ing, and  the  manufacture  of  linens  are  the  main  Flem- 
ish industries.  At  the  time  of  its  conquest  by  the 
Romans,  Flanders  was  inhabited  by  the  Morini,  the 
Menapii,  and  the  Nervii.  Most  probably  these  tribes 
were  of  partly  Teutonic  and  partly  Celtic  descent,  but, 
owing  to  the  almost  total  absence  of  Roman  colonies 
and  the  constant  influx  of  barbarians,  the  Germanic 
element  soon  became  predominant.  The  Flemings  of 
to-day  may  be  considered  as  a  German  people  whose 
language,  a  Low-German  dialect,  has  been  very 
slightly,  if  at  all,  influenced  by  Latin. 

it  is  likely  that  Christianity  was  first  introduced 
into  Flanders  by  Roman  soldiers  and  merchants,  but 
its  progress  must  have  been  very  slow,  for  Saint  Eloi 
(Eligius,  c.  590-660)  tells  us  that  in  his  days  almost  the 
whole  population  was  still  heathen,  and  the  conver- 
sion of  the  Flemings  was  not  completed  until  the  be- 
ginning of  the  eighth  century.  Towards  the  middle 
of  the  ninth  century,  the  country  around  Bruges  was 
governed  by  a  marquess  or  "  forester  "  named  Baldwin, 
whose  bravery  in  fighting  the  Northmen  had  won  him 
the  surname  of  Iron  Arm.  Baldwin  married  Judith, 
daughter  of  the  Emperor  Charles  the  Bald,  and  re- 
ceived from  his  father-in-law,  with  the  title  of  count, 
the  country  bounded  by  the  North  Sea,  the  Scheldt, 
and  the  Canche.  Thus  was  founded,  in  864,  the 
County  of  Flanders.  Baldwin  I  was  a  warm  protector 
of  the  clergy,  and  made  large  grants  of  land  to  churches 
and  abbeys.  He  died  in  878.  His  successors  were 
Baldwin  II,  the  Bald  (878-919),  Arnold  I  (919-964), 
Baldwin  III  (958-961),  and  Arnold  II  (964-989),  who 
could  not  prevent  Hugh  Capet  from  annexing  the 
Comity  of  Boulogne  to  the  royal  domain  of  France. 
The  son  of  Arnold  II,  Baldwin  IV,  the  Bearded  (989- 
1036),  was  a  brave  and  pious  prince.  He  received 
from  the  Emperor  Henry  II  the  imperial  castle  of 
Ghent  and  its  territory.  From  that  time  there  were 
two  Flanders:  Flanders  under  the  Crown,  a  French 
fief;  and  imperial  Flanders,  under  the  suzerainty  of 
Germany.  Baldwin  V,  of  Lille  (1036-67),  added  to  his 
domains  the  County  of  Eenhan  or  Alost.  He  was  re- 
gent of  France  during  the  minority  of  Philip  I.  Bald- 
win VI,  of  Mons(U)67-70),  was  also  Count  of  Hainault 
in  consequence  of  his  marriage  to  Riehilde,  heiress  of 
that  county.  He  reigned  only  three  years,  and  was 
s\iccerded  in  h'landers  by  his  brother  Robert  the 
Friesman  (1070  1093).  Robert  II,  of  Jeru.salem 
(1093-1111),  took  a  leading  part  in  the  First  Crusade. 
He  annexed  Tournai  to  Flanders  and  died  fighting  for 




his  suzerain.  His  son  Baldwin  VII,  Ilapkin  (1111- 
1 1 19),  enforced  strict  justice  among  the  nobility.  Like 
liis  father,  he  died  while  supporting  the  cause  of  his 
suzerain.  His  successor  was  Charles,  son  of  Saint 
Canute  of  Denmark  (1119-27).  The  new  count  was  a 
saintly  prince  and  a  great  lover  of  peace.  His  stern 
justice,  however,  angered  a  few  greedy  nobles,  who 
murdered  him  while  he  was  praying  in  the  church  of 
Saint-Donat  in  Bruges.  Louis  VI,  King  of  France, 
then  gave  the  County  of  Flanders  to  William  of  Nor- 
mandy, a  grandson  of  the  Conqueror,  but  William's 
high-handetl  way  of  governing  the  country  soon  made 
him  unpopular  and  the  Flemings  turned  to  Thierry  of 
Alsace,  a  descendant  of  Robert  I.  William  died  in  the 
war  which  ensued,  and  Thierry's  candidacy  received 
the  royal  sanction.  Thierry  (1128-68)  granted  privi- 
leges to  the  Flemish  communes,  whose  origin  dates 
from  this  period,  and  took  part  in  the  Second  Crusade. 
His  son  Philip  (1168-91)  granted  new  privileges  to  the 
communes,  did  much  to  foster  commerce  and  indus- 
try, antl  was  a  generous  protector  of  poets.  He  made 
a  political  blunder  when  he  gave  up  Artois  to  France 
as  the  dowry  of  his  niece,  as  this  dismemberment  of 
the  county  led  to  many  wars  with  the  latter  country. 
Philip  died  in  the  Holy  Land  during  the  Third  Cru- 
sade. His  successor  was  his  brother-in-law,  Baldwin 
VIII,  the  Bold,  of  Hainault  (1191-95).  Baldwin  IX 
(1195-1205)  is  famous  in  history  as  the  first  Latin 
IDmperor  of  Constantinople.  He  died  in  1205  in  a  war 
against  the  Bulgarians,  and  the  Counties  of  Flanders 
and  Hainault  passed  to  his  daughter  Jeanne,  who  had 
married  Ferdinand  of  Portugal.  This  prince  was  in- 
volved in  the  war  of  King  John  of  England  against 
Philip  II  of  France,  and  was  made  a  prisoner  at  the 
battle  of  Bouvines  (1214).  He  was  released  in  1228, 
only  to  die  shortly  afterwards.  Jeanne  (1205-1244) 
administered  the  counties  wisely  during  her  husband's 
captivity,  and  after  his  death  she  increased  the  liber- 
ties of  the  communes  to  counteract  the  influence  of  the 
nobility  —  a  policy  which  was  followed  by  her  sister 
Margaret,  w'ho  succeeded  her  in  1244.  Upon  Mar- 
garet's death,  in  1279,  her  children  by  her  first  hus- 
band (Bouchard  d'Avesnes)  inherited  Ilainault,  while 
Flanders  went  to  the  Dampierres,  her  children  by  her 
second  husband. 

The  battle  of  Bouvines  was  the  beginning  of  a  new  era 
in  the  history  of  Flanders.  Vp  to  that  time  the  counts 
had  occupied  the  foreground;  their  place  was  hence- 
forth taken  by  the  communes,  whose  power  reaches  its 
acme  in  the  course  of  the  thirteenth  century.  Bruges, 
the  Venice  of  the  North,  had  then  a  population  of 
more  than  200,000  inhal)itants;  its  fairs  were  the  meet- 
ing place  of  the  merchants  of  all  Europe;  Ghent  and 
Ypres  had  each  more  than  50,000  men  engaged  in  the 
cloth  industry.  This  commercial  and  industrial  activ- 
ity, in  which  the  rural  classes  had  their  share,  brought 
to  Flanders  a  wealth  wliich  manifested  itself  every- 
where— in  the  buildings,  in  the  fare  of  the  inhabitants, 
in  their  dress.  "  I  thouglit  I  was  the  only  queen 
here,"  said  the  wife  of  Philip  the  Fair  on  a  visit  to 
Bruges,  "but  I  see  hundreds  of  queens  around  me." 
The  intellectual  and  artistic  activity  of  the  time  was 
no  less  remarkable.  Then  flourished  Henry  of  Ghent, 
the  Solemn  Doctor;  Van  Maerlant,  the  great  Flemish 
poet,  and  his  continuator,  Louis  van  Velthem;  Philip 
Mussche,  the  chronicler,  who  became  Bishop  of  Tour- 
nai;  and  the  mystic  Jan  van  Ruysbroeck.  Then,  too, 
were  built  the  beautiful  guild-halls,  city-halls,  and 
chirrches,  which  bear  witness  at  once  to  the  popular 
love  for  the  fine  arts  and  Flemish  religious  zeal — the 
guild-halls  of  Bruges  and  Ypres,  the  churches  of  the 
Holy  Saviour  and  of  Our  Lady  at  Bruges,  those  of  Saint- 
Bavon,  Saint-Jacques  and  Saint-Nicolas  at  Ghent,  and 
of  Saint-Martin  at  Ypres.  Still  more  worthy  of  admira- 
tion was  the  internal  organization  of  the  commtmes, 
which,  owing  to  the  beneficent  influence  of  the  Church, 
had  become  so  powerful  a  factor  in  the  moral  welfare 

of  the  masses.  Guy  of  Dampierre  (1279-1305)  suc- 
ceeded his  mother  Margaret,  and  inaugurated  a  new 
policy  in  the  administration  of  the  county.  His  pre- 
decessors had  on  the  whole  lieen  friendly  to  the 
wealthy  classes  in  the  Flemish  cities,  in  whose  hands 
were  the  most  important  offices  of  the  communes. 
Guy,  who  aimed  at  absolute  rule,  souglit  the  support 
of  the  guilds  in  his  conflict  with  the  rich.  The  latter 
appealed  from  liis  decisions  to  the  King  of  France,  the 
wily  Philip  the  Fair,  who  readily  seized  upon  this  op- 
portunity of  weakening  the  power  of  his  most  import- 
ant vassal.  Philip  constantly  ruled  against  the  count, 
who  finally  appealed  to  arms,  but  was  defeated. 
Flanders  then  received  a  French  governor,  but  the 
tyranny  of  the  French  soon  brought  about  an  insur- 
rection, in  the  course  of  which  some  3000  French  were 
slaughtered  in  Bruges,  and  at  the  call  of  the  two  pa- 
triots, de  Coninck  and  Breydel,  the  whole  covmtry 
rose  in  arms.  Philip  sent  into  Flanders  a  powerful 
army,  which  met  with  a  crushing  defeat  at  Courtrai 
(1302);  after  another  battle,  which  remained  unde- 
cided, the  King  of  France  resorted  to  diplomacy,  but  in 
vain,  and  peace  was  restored  only  in  1320,  after  Pope 
John  XXII  had  induced  the  Flemings  to  accept  it. 
Guy  of  Dampierre,  who  died  in  prison  in  1305,  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son  Robert  of  Bethune,  who  had  an  un- 
eventful reign  of  seventeen  years.  The  successor  of 
the  latter  was  his  grandson,  Louis  of  Nevers  (1322- 
1346),  who  was  unfit  for  the  government  of  Flanders 
on  account  of  the  French  education  he  had  received. 
Shortly  after  his  accession,  the  whole  country  was  in- 
volved in  a  civil  war,  which  ended  only  after  the  Flem- 
ings had  been  defeated  at  Cassel  by  the  Iving  of  France 

At  the  breaking  out  of  the  Hundred  Years  War,  the 
Flemish  communes,  whose  prosperity  dependeil  on 
English  wool,  followed  the  advice  of  Ghent's  great  citi- 
zen, Jacques  van  Artevelde,  and  remained  neutral;  the 
count  and  nobility  took  the  part  of  the  French  king. 
When  the  policy  of  neutrality  could  no  longer  be  ad- 
hered to,  the  Flemings  sided  with  the  English  and 
helped  them  to  win  the  battle  of  Sluis  (1340).  By 
that  time  Van  Artevelde  had  become  practically  mas- 
ter of  the  country,  which  was  very  prosperous  under 
his  rule.  He  was  murdered  in  1345,  and  Louis  of 
Nevers  was  killed  the  next  year  at  the  battle  of  Cr6cy. 
His  son  Louis  of  Male  (1346-1384)  was  a  spendthrift. 
The  communes  paid  his  debts  several  times,  but  they 
finally  refused  to  give  him  any  more  money.  He 
managed,  however,  to  get  some  from  Bruges  by  grant- 
ing to  that  city  a  licence  to  build  a  canal,  which  Ghent 
considered  a  menace  to  her  commerce.  A  new  civil 
war  broke  out  between  the  tw'O  cities,  and  peace  was 
not  restored  until  Charles  VI  of  France  had  defeated 
the  insurgents  at  Roosebeke  (1382).  Louis  of  Male's 
successor  was  his  son-in-law,  Philip  the  Bold,  Duke  of 
Burgundy  (1384-1404).  This  prince  and  his  son, 
John  the  Fearless  (1404-1419),  being  mostly  inter- 
ested in  the  affairs  of  France,  paid  little  attention  to 
those  of  Flanders. 

The  situation  changed  after  Philip  the  Good,  third 
Duke  of  Burgundy  (1419-1467),  had  united  under  his 
rule  the  whole  of  the  Low  Countries.  Philip  wanted 
to  weaken  the  power  of  the  communes  for  the  benefit 
of  the  central  government,  and  soon  picked  a  quarrel 
with  Bruges,  which  was  compelled  to  surrender  some 
of  its  privileges.  Ghent's  turn  came  next.  A  con- 
tention had  arisen  between  that  city  and  the  duke  over 
a  question  of  taxes.  War  broke  out,  and  the  army  of 
Ghent  was  utterly  defeated  at  Gavre  (1452),  which 
city  had  to  pay  a  heavy  fine  and  to  surrender  her  privi- 
leges. In  1446,  Philip  created  the  Great  Council  of 
Flanders,  which,  under  Charles  the  Bold,  became  the 
Great  Council  of  Mechlin.  Appeals  from  the  judg- 
ments of  local  courts  were  henceforth  to  be  made  to 
this  council,  not  to  the  Parliament  of  Paris  as  before. 
Thus  were  severed  the  bonds  of  vassalage  which  for 



six  centuries  had  connected  Flanders  to  France. 
Philip  was  succeeded  by  Charles  the  Bold  (1467-1477), 
the  marriage  of  whose  daughter  to  Maximilian,  Arch- 
duke of  Austria,  brought  Flanders  with  the  rest  of  the 
Low  Countries  under  the  rule  of  the  House  of  Haps- 
burg  in  1477.  In  1488,  the  communes  tried  to  recover 
their  independence.  The  attempt  w'as  unsuccessful, 
and  the  war  was  disastrous  for  Bruges,  because  it  has- 
tened her  approaching  decline.  The  main  causes  of 
this  decline  were:  the  silting  up  of  her  harbour,  which 
became  inaccessible  to  large  vessels;  the  discovery  of 
America,  which  opened  new  fields  for  European  enter- 
prise; the  dissolution  of  the  Flemish  Ilanse,  whose  seat 
was  in  Bruges;  the  unintelligent  policy  of  the  dukes 
towards  England;  and  the  civil  wars  of  the  preceding 
fifty  years.  The  prosperity  of  Bruges  passed  to  Ant- 
werp. The  reign  of  the  House  of  Burgundy,  in  many 
respects  so  harmful  to  Flanders,  was  a  period  of  artis- 
tic splendour.  To  that  time  belong  Memling  and  the 
Van  Eycks,  the  first  representatives  of  the  Flemish 
school  of  painters.  Flemish  literature  on  the  whole 
declined,  but  a  Fleming,  Philippe  de  Comines,  was  the 
leading  French  ■nTiter  of  the  fifteenth  century.  An- 
other Fleming  of  that  time,  Thierry  Maertens  of  Alost, 
was  the  Gutenberg  of  the  Low  Countries.  Flanders 
can  also  claim  two  of  tlie  greatest  scientists  of  the  six- 
teenth and  seventeenth  centuries:  Simon  Stevin, 
mathematician  and  engineer,  and  the  Jesuit  Father 
Gr^goire  de  Saint- Vincent,  whom  Leibniz  considered 
the  equal  of  Descartes. 

Although  the  material  condition  of  Flanders  is  to- 
day very  satisfactory,  the  country  has  not  recovered 
its  former  prosperity.  And  it  is  not  likely  that  it  ever 
will,  not  because  of  any  decrease  in  the  energy  of  the 
Flemish  race,  but  because  economic  contlitions  have 
changed.  Intellectually  the  Flemings  of  the  twenti- 
eth century  are  still  the  true  sons  of  the  glorious  gen- 
erations which  produced  Van  Maerlant,  Van  Arte- 
velde,  Rubens,  and  Van  Dyck;  perhaps  it  is  not  an 
exaggeration  to  say  that  they  have  taken  the  lead  in 
promoting  the  prosperity  of  Belgium.  The  Flemish 
tongue,  w-hich  during  the  eighteenth  century  had  fal- 
len so  low  that  in  1830  it  was  little  more  than  a  patois, 
has  risen  again  to  the  rank  of  a  literary  language  and 
can  claim  the  larger  portion  of  the  literary  production 
of  Belgium  in  the  last  seventy-five  years;  nay,  the 
Flemings  have  even  made  important  contributions  to 
French  literature.  In  the  fine  arts,  in  the  sciences,  in 
politics,  their  activity  is  no  less  remarkable.  They 
have  given  the  Belgian  Parliament  some  of  its  best 
orators  and  its  ablest  statesmen:  Malou,  Jacobs, 
Woeste,  Beernaert,  SchoUaert.  Above  all  they  have 
retained,  as  the  most  precious  inheritance  of  the  past 
ages,  the  simple,  fervent,  vigorous  faith  of  the  crusa- 
ders and  their  filial  attitude  towards  the  Church.  No 
country  sends  out  a  larger  proportion  of  secular  and 
regular  missionaries,  some  of  wliom  (like  Father  P.  J. 
De  Smet,  the  apostle  of  the  American  Indians)  have 
attained  a  world-wide  celebrity.  Flanders  may,  in- 
deed, be  considered  the  bulwark  of  Catholicism  in  Bel- 
gium. The  Socialists  are  well  aware  of  this  fact,  but 
the  Catholics  realize  it  just  as  clearly,  and  their  de- 
fence is  eq\ial  to  the  enemy's  attack.  Every  Flemish 
community  has  its  parochial  schools;  the  Catholic 
press  is  equal  to  its  task ;  and  the  "  Volk  "  of  Ghent  has 
been  organized  to  counteract  the  evil  influence  of  the 
Socialist  "Voruit". 

Kervyn  de  Lettenhove,  IliM.  de  Flandre  (Brussels,  1S4S- 

.TO):   Moke   and   Hubert,  Hist,  de  Belgique  (Brussels.   1S95); 

KuRTH,  Oriqines  dela  Civilisation  Modenie  (Brussels,  1886);  Hy- 

MANS,  Histoire  parlementaive  dela  Belgique  (Brussels,  1S77-1906). 

P.  J.  Marique. 

Flandrin,  Jean-Hippolyte,  French  painter,  b.  at 
Lyons,  2.S  March,  1809;  d.  at  Rome,  21  March,  1864. 
He  came  of  a  family  of  poor  artisans   and  was  a 

Eupil  of  the  sculptor   Legcndro  and  of  Rcvoil.     In 
is  education,  however,  two  elements  must  above  all 

be  taken  into  account.  The  first  is  the  Lyonnaise 
genius.  Various  causes,  physical  and  historical,  have 
combined  to  give  the  city  of  Lyons  a  character  all  its 
own.  This  is  twofold — religious  and  democratic — 
and  the  labouring  classes  ha^■e  always  been  an  active 
centre  of  idealism.  This  is  especially  noticeable  in  its 
poets,  from  Maurice  Sceve  to  Lamartine,  Lyons  has 
also  always  been  the  great  entrepot  for  Italy,  and  the 
province  was  a  permanent  centre  of  Roman  culture. 
The  second  factor  in  Flandrin 's  development  was  the 
influence  of  Ingres,  without  which  it  is  doubtful 
whether  Flandrin  would  have  achieved  any  fame.  In 
1829  Flandrin,  with  his  brother  Jean-Paul  (the  land- 
scape painter),  went  to  Paris,  where  he  became  a  pupil 
of  Ingres,  who  conceived  a  paternal  affection  for  him. 
In  Paris  the  young  man  experienced  the  bitterest 
trials.  He  was  often  without  a  fire,  sometimes  with- 
out bread,  but  he  was  sustained  by  a  quiet  but  un- 
shakable faith,  and  finally  (1832)  carried  off  the 
Grand  Prix  de  Rome  through  "The  Recognition  of 
Theseus  by  his  Father ' '.  At  Rome,  where,  after  1834, 
Ingres  was  director  of  the  French  Academy,  his  tal- 
ents expanded  and  blossomed  imder  the  influence  of 
natural  beauty,  a  mild  climate,  and  the  noble  spectacle 
of  the  works  of  classic  and  Christian  antiquities.  He 
sent  thence  to  the  French  salons:  "  Dante  and  Virgil " 
(Lyons  Museum,  1835);  "Euripides"  (Lyons  Mu- 
seum, 1835);  "St.  Clare  Healing  the  Blind"  (Cathe- 
dral of  Nantes,  1836) ;  "Christ  Blessing  the  Children" 
(Lisieux  Museum,  1837).  The  serenity  of  his  nature, 
his  chaste  of  form  and  beauty,  his  taste  for  effec- 
tive disposition  of  details,  his  moral  elevation,  and 
profound  piety,  found  expression  in  these  early  ef- 
forts. On  his  return  to  Paris,  in  1838,  he  was  all  in- 
tent upon  producing  great  religious  works. 

At  this  time  there  sprang  up  throughout  the  French 
School  a  powerful  reaction  against  "  useless  pictures",  the  conventional  canvases  exhibited  since  the 
end  of  the  eighteenth  century  (Quatremere  de  Quiney, 
"Notices  historiques",  Paris,  18.34,  311),  There  was 
a  return  to  an  art  more  expressive  of  life,  less  arbi- 
trary, more  mural  and  decorative.  Delacroix,  Chas- 
s^rian,  and  the  aged  Ingres  were  engaged  on  mural 
paintings.  It  was  above  all,  however,  the  walls  of  the 
churches  which  offered  an  infinite  field  to  the  decora- 
tors, to  Chass&iau,  Victor  Mottez,  Couture,  and 
Amauiy  Duval.  Within  fifteen  or  twenty  years  this 
great  pictorial  movement,  all  too  obscure,  left  on  the 
walls  of  the  public  buildings  and  churches  of  Paris 
pictorial  treasures  such  as  had  not  been  seen  since  the 
age  of  Giotto.  It  is  possible,  and  even  probable  that 
the  first  impulse  towards  this  movement  (especially 
so  far  as  religious  paintings  are  concerned)  was  due  to 
the  Nazarene  School.  Ingres  had  known  Overbeck 
and  Steinle  at  Rome;  Flandrin  may  well  have  known 
them.  In  any  case  it  is  these  artists  whom  he  resem- 
bles above  all  in  purity  of  sentiment  and  profound 
conviction,  though  he  possessed  a  better  artistic  edu- 
cation. From  1840  his  work  is  scarcely  more  than  a 
painstaking  revival  of  religious  painting.  The  artist 
made  it  his  mission  in  France  to  serve  art  more  bril- 
liantly than  ever,  for  the  glory  of  God,  and  to  make 
beauty,  as  of  old,  a  source  of  instruction  and  an  in- 
strument of  edification  to  the  great  body  of  the  faith- 
ful. He  found  a  sort  of  apostolate  before  him.  He 
was  one  of  the  petits  prcdicateurs  i!e  I'Evangile.  Artis- 
tic productions  in  the  mid-nineteenth  century,  as  in 
the  Middle  .\ges,  became  the  Biblia  Pauperum. 

Henceforth  Flandrin's  life  was  passed  almost  en- 
tirely in  churches,  hovering  between  heaven  and  earth 
on  his  ladders  and  scaffolds.  Ilis  first  work  in  Paris 
was  in  the  chapel  of  St-Jean  in  the  church  of  St-S6v- 
erin.  He  next  decorated  the  sanctuary  and  choir  of 
the  church  of  St-Germain-des-Prfe  (1842-48).  On 
either  side  of  the  sanctuary  he  painted  "Christ's  En- 
try into  Jerusalem"  and  "The  Journey  to  Calvary", 
besides  the  figures  of  the  Apostles  and  the  symbols  oi 




,ci'-^"S°'"'^'  ^.'^"r^"  <■'  pensres  d'HippohjIe  Flandrm  (Paris, 

ISbo);    Bi^NC.  Artustes  de  man  temps  (Paris,  18 — ),  263;    Ga- 

■}jlf  XVini864)^  105,  243;  XVIII  (1865),  63, 

"""   ^        -         '      Beaux-Arts  en  Europe, 

Qo  date, 

ze/te  des  Bca 

187;   XXIV  (1868);  20:'G~A'nTrE'R.  „„  „.„„^-„,.o  ., 

1855.  I,  283;   Maurice  Hamel  in  Musee  d'art,  Paris, 

Louis  Gillet. 

the  Evangelists.     All  these  are  on  a  gold  background     power  of  always  painting  in  the  style  displayed  in 
with  beautiful  arabesques  which  recall  the  mosaic  of     this  portrait.  ■>  f    j 

Torriti  at  .Maria  Maggiore.  At  St.  Paul,  Ninies 
(1847-49),  he  p;unt(Hl  a  lovely  garland  of  virgin  mar- 
tyrs, a  prelude  to  his  masterpiece,  the  frieze  in  the 
nave  of  the  church  of  St-Vineent-de-Paul  in  Paris. 
The  last  is  a  double  procession,  developing  symraetri-  ^''  ^^■ 
cally  between  the  two  superimposed  arches,  without 
any  exaggeration,  a  Christian  Panathenaea,  as  it  was         mi     i. 

called  by  Thtephile  Gautier.  It  might  be  shown  how  Flathead  Indians,  a  name  used  in  both  Americas, 
the  ancient  Greek  theme  is  subjected,  in  the  work  of  'Without  special  ethnologic  significance,  to  designate 
the  modern  painter,  to  a  more  flexible,  less  uniform,  *'"''?'??  practising  the  custom  of  compressing  the  skull 
and  more  complex  rhythm,  how  the  melodic  proces-  '"  infancy  by  artificial  means.  Curiously  enough  the 
sion,  without  losing  any  of  its  grandeur  or  its  continu-  {;"  ,  "^**''  known  under  this  name,  the  Salish  or  Flat- 
ity,  is  strengthened  bv  silences,  pauses,  cadences.  "^^"  proper  of  ^^■estem  Montana,  never  practised  the 
But  it  is  more  important  to  note  the  originality  in  the  custom,  the  confusion  arising  from  the  fact  that  the 
return  to  the  most  authentic  sources  of  Christian  icon-  ^f^J.  traders  felt  compelled  to  adopt  the  local  Indian 
ography.  Hitherto  painters  of  this  class  hardly  went  classification,  -Rhich  considered  the  prevailing  com- 
back  beyond  the  fourteenth  or  fifteenth  century.  But  P/"^ssed  skull  of  the  neighbouring  tribes  as  pointed  and 
Flandrin  turned  to  the  first  centuries  of  the  Church,  ^^  naturally  shaped  Salish  skull  by  contrast  as  flat, 
and  drew  his  inspiration  from  the  very  fathers  of  re^  ^  Salish  or  Flathead  Indians  of  the  mountain  region 
ligious  thought.  In  the  frieze  of  St-Vincent-de-Paul  °^  north-western  Montana  are  the  easternmost  tribe 
fifteen  centuries  of  Christian  tradition  are  unrolled.  °f  t'^^  great  Salishan  stock  which  occupied  much  of  the 
In  1855  the  artist  executed  a  new  work  in  the  apse  of  Columbia  and  Fraser  River  region  westward  to  the 
the  church  of  Ainay  near  Lyons.  On  his  return  he  Pacific.  Although  never  a  large  tribe,  they  have  al- 
undertook  his  crowning  work,  the  decoration  of  the  ^^i'^  maintained  an  exceptional  reputation  for  brav- 
nave  of  St-Gerraain-de.s-Pr^s.  He  determined  to  il-  ^^V'  honesty,  and  general  high  character  and  for  their 
lustrate  the  life  of  Christ,  not  from  an  historical,  but  f"e"dly  disposition  towards  the  whites.  When  first 
from  a  theological,  point  of  view,  the  point  of  view  of  known,  about  the  beginning  of  the  last  century,  they 
eternity.  He  dealt  less  with  facts  than  with  ideas,  subsisted  chiefly  by  hunting  and  the  g.athering  of  wild 
His  tendency  to  parallelLsm,  to  symmetry,  found  its  roots,  particularly  camas,  dwelt  in  skin  tipis  or  mat- 
element  in  the  symbolism  of  the  Middle  Ages.  He  covered  lodges,  and  were  at  peace  with  all  tribes  e.x- 
took  pleasure  in  considering,  according  to  this  system  cepting  their  hereditary  enemies,  the  powerful  Black- 
of  harmony  'and  relations,  the  Old  Testament  as  the  ^^^^:  Their  religion  was  the  ordinary  animism  of  the 
prototype  of  the  New,  the  burning  bush  as  represent-  Indians  and  they  had  a  number  of  ceremonial  dances, 
mg  the  Annunciation,  and  the  baptism  of  Christ  as  apparently  including  the  Sun  Dance.  Having  learned 
prefiguring  the  crossing  of  the  Red  Sea.  through  the  Catholic  Iroquois  of  the  Hudson  Bay 

It  was,  perhaps,  the  first  time  since  the  frescoes  of  Company  something  of  the  Catholic  religion,  they 
Perugino  and  Botticelli  in  the  Sistine  Chapel,  that  voluntarily  adopted  its  simpler  forms  and  prayers, 
Christian  art  returned  to  its  ancient  genius.  The  in-  ^"^  in  1831  sent  a  delegation  all  the  long  and  danger- 
terrupted  tradition  was  renewed  after  three  centuries  ous  way  to  St.  Louis  to  ask  of  the  resident  government 
of  the  Renaissance.  Unhappily  the  form,  despite  its  Indian  superintendent  that  missionaries  be  sent  to 
sustained  beauty,  possesses  little  originality.  It  is  them.  This  was  not  then  possible  and  other  delega- 
lacking  in  personality.  The  whole  series,  though  ex-  *i?"s  were  sent,  until  in  1840  the  noted  Jesuit  Father 
hibiting  a  high  degree  of  learning  and  poise,  of  grace,  Pierre  I>e  Smet  (q.  v.)  responded  and  was  welcomed 
and  even  of  strength,  lacks  charm  and  life.  The  col-  °"  ^'is  arrival  in  their  country  by  a  great  gathering  of 
ouring  is  flat,  crude,  and  dull,  the  design  neutral,  some  1600  Indians  of  the  allied  mountain  tribes.  In 
unaccented,  and  commonplace.  It  is  a  miracle  of  1^"*!  he  founded  on  Bitter  Root  River  the  mission  of 
spiritual  power  that  the  seriousness  of  thought,  the  *^t.  Mary,  which  was  abandoned  in  1850,  in  conse- 
truth  of  sentiment,  more  harsh  in  the  Old  Testament,  quence  of  the  inroads  of  the  Blackfeet,  for  the  new 
and  more  tender  in  the  Christian,  scenes,  glow  through  mission  of  St.  Ignatius  on  Flathead  Lake.  This  still 
this  pedantic  and  poor  style.  Certain  scenes,  such  as  exists  in  successful  operation,  practically  all  the  con- 
"The  Nativity",  which  strongly  recalls  that  of  Giotto  federated  Indians  of  the  reservation — Flathead,  Pend 
at  Padua,  possess  a  sweetness  w'hich  is  quite  human  in  d'Oreille,  Kutenai,  and  Spokan — having  been  consis- 
their  conventional  reserve.     Others,  such  as  "Adam     tent  CathoHcs  for  half  a  century. 

and  Eve  after  the  Fall",  and  "The  Confusion  of  I"  1855  the  Flatheads  made  a  treaty  ceding  most 
Tongues",  are  marked  by  real  grandeur.  This  was  of  their  territory,  but  retaining  a  considerable  reser- 
Flandrin's  last  work.  lie  was  preparing  a  "Last  vation  south  of  Flathead  Lake  and  including  the  mis- 
Judgment"  for  the  cathedral  of  Strasburg,  when  he  sion.  They  number  now  about  020.  the  confederated 
went  to  Rome,  where  he  died.  body  together  numbering  2200  souls,  being  one  of  the 

Apart  from  his  religious  work,  Flandrin  is  the  au-  f^w  Indian  communities  actually  increasing  in  popu- 
thor  of  some  very  charming  portraits.  In  this  brancli  lation.  They  are  prosperous  and  industrious  farmers 
of  painting  he  is  far  from  possessing  the  acute  and  and  stockmen,  moral,  devoted  Catholics,  and  in  every 
powerful  sense  of  life  of  which  Ingres  possessed  the     '"'ay  a  testimony  to  the  zeal  and  ability  of  their  reli- 

be  more  maidenly  and  yet  profound.     His  portraits  of  several  of  whom  have  made  important  contributions 

men  are  at  times  magnificent.     Thus  in  the  "  Napo-  *"  '^"'='''^""  '^'^■''-' '^''"  „.•„„:„., :,  ,in^oN .-_  .,_ 

leon  III"  of  the  "Versailles  Museum  the  pale  massive 
countenance  of  Caesar  and  his  dream-troubled  eyes 
reveal  the  impress  of  destiny.     An  admirable  "Study 

ofaMan"intheMuseumof  the  Louvre,  is  quite  "In-  ,w=.hi  „4^     lonrv  r,   „     t,    ,,■    v--; -;sL-",- 

gresque"  in  its  perfection,  being  almost  equ'al  to  that  '^^l^'^isf.^T^^t^^Si^tl,!^,^^^^^^^^^^ 

master  s  Oedipus.      \\  hat  was  lacking  to  the  pupil  m  Mont..  1890);  Shea,  HUl.  of  the  Catholic  Missions,  etc    (New 

order  that  the  artistic  side  of  his  work  should  eciual  its  y°'^'  ^^?*)'  Df  Smet,  Oregon  Uissimis  (New  York,  1847); 

merits  fronj  the  religious  and  philosophic  side  was  the  ^^r^^'.^tHept^T'^o^^'oi  MfWa?rl\^Ll^A  llstj! 

to  Salishan  philology.  The  mission  is  (1908)  in  charge 
of  Rev.  L.  Tallman,  assisted  by  several  Jesuits,  to- 
gether with  a  number  of  Christian  Brothers,  Sisters  of 
Providence,  and  Ursulines. 

Director's   Report   of  the   Bureau   of  Catholic  Ind.  Missions 




O'COKNOR,  T?ie  Flathead  Indians  in  Records  of  The  Am.  Calh. 
Hist.  Sac.  (Philadelphia  18S8),  III,  85-110;  Post,  Worship 
Among  the  Flatheads  and  Kaliopels  in  Th£  Messenger  (New  York, 
1894J,  528-29. 

James  Mooney. 

Flathers  (alias  Major),  Matthew,  Venerable, 
English  priest  and  martyr;  b.  probably  c.  1580  at 
Weston,  Yorkshire,  England;  d.  at  York,  21  March, 
1607.  He  educated  at  Douai,  and  ordained  at 
Arras,  25  March,  1000.  Tliree  months  later  he  was 
sent  to  the  English  mission,  but  was  discovered  almost 
immediately  by  the  emissaries  of  the  Government, 
who,  after  the  Gunpowder  Plot,  had  redoubled  their 
vigilance  in  hunting  down  the  priests  of  the  pro- 
scribed religion.  He  was  brought  to  trial,  under  the 
statute  of  27  Elizabeth,  on  the  charge  of  receiving 
orders  abroad,  and  condemned  to  death.  By  an  act 
of  unusual  clemency,  this  sentence  was  commuted  to 
banishment  for  life;  but  after  a  brief  exile,  the  un- 
daunted priest  returned  to  England  in  order  to  fulfil 
his  mission,  and,  after  ministermg  for  a  short  time  to 
his  oppressed  coreligionists  in  Y'orkshire,  was  again 
apprehended.  Brought  to  trial  at  Y'ork  on  the 
charge  of  being  ordained  abroad  and  exercising 
priestly  functions  in  England,  Flathers  was  offered  his 
life  on  condition  that  he  take  the  recently  enacted 
Oath  of  Allegiance.  On  his  refusal,  he  was  con- 
demned to  death  and  taken  to  the  common  place  of 
execution  outside  Micklegate  Bar,  York.  The  usual 
punishment  of  hanging,  drawing,  and  quartering 
seems  to  have  been  carried  out  in  a  peculiarly]  brutal 
manner,  and  eyewitnesses  relate  how  the  tragic  spec- 
tacle excited  the  commiseration  of  the  crowds  of 
Protestant  spectators. 

GiLLOw,  Bibl.  Diet.  Eng.  Calh.,  s.  v.;  Challoner,  Memoirs, 
11;    Morris,  Troubles,  third  series;    Douay  Diaries. 

H.    G.    WiNTERSGlLL. 

Flavia  Domitilla,  a  Christian  Roman  matron  of 
the  imperial  family  who  lived  towards  the  close  of  the 
first  century.  She  was  the  third  of  three  persons 
(mother,  daughter,  and  grand-daughter)  who  bore  the 
same  name.  The  first  of  these  was  the  wife  of  the 
Emperor  Vespasian ;  the  second  was  his  daughter  and 
sister  to  the  Emperors  Titus  and  Domitian;  her 
daughter,  the  third  Domitilla,  married  her  mother's 
first  cousin,  Titus  Flavins  Clemens,  a  nephew  of  the 
Emperor  Vespasian  and  first  cousin  to  Titus  and 
Domitian.  From  this  imion  there  were  born  two  sons 
who,  while  children,  were  adopted  as  his  successors  by 
Domitian  and  commanded  to  assume  the  names  Ves- 
pasianus  and  Domitianus.  It  is  quite  probable  that 
these  two  lads  had  been  brought  up  as  Christians  by 
their  pious  mother,  and  the  possibility  thus  presents 
itself  that  two  Christian  boys  at  the  end  of  the  first 
century  were  designated  for  the  imperial  purple  in 
Rome.  Their  later  fate  is  not  known,  as  the  Flavian 
line  ended  with  Domitian.  Clement,  their  father,  was 
the  emperor's  colleague  in  the  consular  dignity,  but  had 
no  sooner  laid  down  his  office  than  he  was  tried  on 
charges  of  the  most  trivial  character  {ex  temiissimA 
suspicione — Suetonius,  Vita  Domit.).  Dio  Cassius 
(Ixvii,  14)  says  that  husband  and  wife  alike  were 
guilty  of  atheism  and  the  practice  of  Jewish  rites  and 
customs.  Such  accusations,  as  is  clear  from  the  works 
of  the  Christian  apologists,  could  have  meant  nothing 
else  than  that  both  had  become  Christians.  Though 
doubts  have  been  expressed,  because  of  the  silence  of 
Christian  tradition  on  the  subject,  as  to  whether  Cle- 
ment was  a  Christian,  the  affirmative  view  is  consider- 
ably strengthened  by  the  further  accusation  of  Sue- 
tonius that  he  was  a  man  of  the  most  contemptible 
inactivity  (rnntemplissimceinerliae).  Such  a  charge  is 
easily  explained  on  the  ground  that  Clement  found 
most  of  the  duties  of  his  office  as  consul  so  incom- 
patible with  Christian  faith  and  practice  as  to  render 
total  abstention  from  public  life  almost  an  absolute 
necessity.     In  the  case  of  Domitilla  no  doubt  can  re- 

main, since  De  Rossi  showed  that  the  "Ccemeterium 
DomitillEe"  (see  Cemeteries,  Early  Christian)  was 
situated  on  ground  belonging  to  the  Flavia  Domitilla 
who  was  banished  for  her  faith,  and  that  it  was  used 
as  a  Christian  burial  place  as  early  as  the  first  century. 
As  a  result  of  the  accusations  made  against  them  Cle- 
ment was  put  to  death,  and  Flavia  Domitilla  was  ban- 
ished to  the  island  of  Pandataria  in  the  Tyrrhenian  Sea. 
Eusebius  (H.  E.,  Ill,  18;  Chron.  ad  an.  Abraham! 
2110),  the  spurious  acts  of  Nereus  and  Achilles,  and 
St.  Jerome  (Ep.,  CVIII,  7)  represent  Flavia  Domitilla 
as  the  niece,  not  the  wife,  of  tlie  consul  Flavins  Cle- 
mens, and  say  that  her  place  of  exile  was  Pontia,  an 
island  also  situated  in  the  Tyrrhenian  Sea.  These  state- 
ments have  given  rise  to  the  opinion  that  there  were 
two  Domitillas  (aunt  and  niece)  who  were  Christians, 
the  latter  generally  referred  to  as  Flavia  Domitilla  the 
Younger.  Lightfoot  has  shown  that  this  opinion, 
adopted  by  Tillemont  and  De  Rossi  and  still  main- 
tained by  many  writers  (among  them  Allard  and 
Duchesne),  is  derived  entirely  from  Eusebius,  who  was 
led  into  this  error  by  mistakes  in  transcription,  or 
ambiguity  of  expression,  in  the  sources  which  he  used. 
Lightfoot,  The  Apostolic  Fathers,  Pt.  I;  St.  Clement  of 
Rome,  I,  the  best  discussion  of  all  subjects  connected  with  the 
name  Domitilla;  Allard,  Hist,  des  persecutions  pendant  les 
deux  premiers  siecles,  p.  96  sq.;  Neumann.  Der  rbmische  Staat 
und  die  allgemeine  Kirche  bis  auf  Diocletian  (Leipzig,  1890),  I; 
Ramsay,  The  Church  in  the  Roman  Empire  before  A.D..  170 
(New  York,  1893);  Ddchesne,  Hisioire  ancienne  de  I'eglise 
(Paris.  1906). 

P.  J.  Healy. 

Flavian,  Saint,  Bishop  of  Constantinople,  date  of 
birth  unknown;  d.  at  Hypa?pa  in  Lydia,  August,  449. 
Nothing  is  known  of  him  before  his  elevation  to  the 
episcopate  save  that  he  was  a  presbyter  and  <7Kevo(pi\a^, 
or  sacristan,  of  the  Church  of  Constantinople,  and 
noted  for  the  holiness  of  his  life.  His  succession  to  St. 
Proclus  as  bishop  was  in  opposition  to  the  wishes  of 
the  eunuch  Chrysaphius,  minister  of  Emperor  Theo- 
dosius,  who  sought  to  bring  him  into  imperial  dis- 
favour. He  persuaded  the  emperor  to  require  of  the 
new  bishop  certain  eulogice  on  the  occasion  of  his  ap- 
pointment, but  scornfully  rejected  the  proffered 
blessed  bread  on  the  plea  that  the  emperor  desired 
gifts  of  gold.  Flavian's  intrepid  refusal,  on  the  ground 
of  the  impropriety  of  thus  disposing  of  church  treas- 
ures, roused  considerable  enmity  against  him.  Pul- 
cheria,  the  emperor's  sister,  being  Flavian's  stanch 
advocate,  Chrysaphius  secured  the  support  of  the  Em- 
press Eudocia.  Although  their  first  efforts  to  involve 
St.  Flavian  in  disgrace  miscarried,  an  opportunity 
soon  presented  itself.  At  a  council  of  bishops  con- 
vened at  Constantinople  by  Flavian,  8  Nov.,  448,  to 
settle  a  dispute  which  had  arisen  among  his  clergy,  the 
archimandrite  Eutyches,  who  was  a  relation  of  Chry- 
saphius, was  accused  of  heresy  by  Eusebius  of  Dory- 
Iseum.  (For  the  proceedings  of  the  council  see  Euse- 
bius of  Doryl.'eum;  Eutyches.)  Flavian  exercised 
clemency  and  urged  moderation,  but  in  the  end  the 
refusal  of  Eutyches  to  make  an  orthodox  declaration 
on  the  two  natures  of  Christ  forced  Flavian  to  pro- 
nounce the  sentence  of  degradation  and  excommuni- 
cation. He  forwarded  a  full  report  of  the  council  to 
Pope  Leo  I,  who  in  turn  gave  his  approval  to  Flavian's 
decision  (21  May,  449),  and  the  following  month  (13 
June)  sent  him  his  famous  "Dogmatic  Letter". 
Eutyches'  complaint  that  justice  had  been  violated  in 
the  council  and  that  the  Acts  had  been  tampered  with 
resulted  in  an  imperial  order  for  the  revision  of  the 
Acts,  executed  (8  and  27  April,  449).  No  material 
error  could  be  established,  and  Flavian  was  justified. 

The  long-standing  rivalry  between  Alexandria  and 
Constantinople  now  became  a  strong  factor  in  the  dis- 
sensions. It  had  been  none  the  less  keen  since  the  See 
of  Constantinople  had  been  officially  declared  next  in 
dignity  to  Rome,  and  Dioscurus,  Bishop  of  Alexan- 
dria, was  quite  ready  to  join  forces  with  Eutyches 




against  Flavian.  Even  before  the  revision  of  the  Acts 
of  Flavian's  council,  Chrysaphius  had  persuaded  the 
emperor  of  the  necessity  for  an  cecumenical  council  to 
adjust  matters,  and  the  decree  went  forth  that  one 
should  convene  at  Ephesus  under  the  presidency  of 
Dioscurus,  who  also  controlled  the  attendance  of 
bishops.  Flavian  and  six  bi.shops  who  had  assisted  at 
the  previous  synod  were  allowed  no  voice,  being,  as  it 
were,  on  trial.  (For  a  full  account  of  the  proceedings 
see  Ephesus,  Robber  Council  of.)  Eutyches  was 
absolved  of  heresy,  and  despite  the  protest  of  the  papal 
legate  Hilary  (later  pope),  who  by  his  Contradicitur 
annulled  the  decisions  of  the  council,  Flavian  was  con- 
demned and  deposed.  In  the  violent  scenes  which 
ensued  he  was  so  ill-used  that  three  days  later  he  died 
in  his  place  of  exile.  Anatolius,  a  partisan  of  Dioscu- 
rus, was  appointed  to  succeed  him. 

St.  Flavian  was  repeatedly  vindicated  by  Pope  Leo, 
whose  epistle  of  commendation  failed  to  reach  him  be- 
fore his  death.  The  pope  also  wrote  in  his  favour  to 
Theodosius,  Pulcheria,  and  the  clergy  of  Constanti- 
nople, besides  convening  a  council  at  Rome,  wherein 
he  designated  the  Council  of  Ephesus  Ephesinum  non 
judicium  sed  latrocinium.  At  the  Council  of  Chalce- 
don  (451)  the  Acts  of  the  Robber  Council  were  an- 
nulled and  Flavian  eulogized  as  a  martyr  for  the 
Faith.  Pope  Hilary  had  Flavian's  death  represented 
pictorially  in  a  Roman  church  erected  by  him.  On 
Pulcheria's  accession  to  power,  after  the  death  of 
Theodosius,  she  brought  the  remains  of  her  friend  to 
Constantinople,  when  they  were  received  in  triumph 
and  interred  with  those  of  his  predecessors  in  the  see. 
In  the  Greek  Menology  and  the  Roman  llartyrologj' 
his  feast  is  entered  18  February,  the  anniversary  of 
the  translation  of  his  body.  Relics  of  St.  Flavian  are 
honoured  in  Italy. 

St.  Flavian's  appeal  to  Pope  Leo  against  the  Robber 
Council  has  been  published  by  Amelli  in  his  work  "  S. 
Leone  Magno  e  I'Oriente"  (Monte  Cassino,  1890),  also 
by  Lacey  (Cambridge,  1903).  Two  other  (Greek  and 
Latin)  letters  to  Leo  are  preserved  in  Migne,  P.  L. 
(LIV,  723-32,  743-51),  and  one  to  Emperor  Theodo- 
sius also  in  Migne,  P.  G.  (LXV,  889-92). 

Bardenhewer,  Patrolopy,  tr.  Shahan  (Freiburg  im  Br.. 
1908);  Hergenrother-Kirsch,  Kirchengesch.  (Freiburg. 
1904);  Hauswirth  in  Kirchenlex.;  Ada  SS..  Feb.,  Ill,  71-9; 
TiLLEMONT,  Mem.  pour servir  a  I'hist,  eccL  (Paris,  1704);  Baro- 
Nius,  Annates  eccL  ad  an.  449,  nn.  4,  3,  14. 

F.   M.   RuDGE. 

Flavias,  a  titular  see  of  Cilicia  Secunda.  Nothing 
is  known  of  its  ancient  name  and  history,  except  that 
it  is  said  to  be  identical  with  Sis.  Lequien  (II,  899) 
gives  the  names  of  several  of  its  bishops:  Alexander, 
later  Bishop  of  Jerusalem  and  founder  of  the  famous 
library  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre  in  the  third  century; 
Nicetas,  present  at  the  Council  of  Nic£ea  (325) ;  John, 
who  lived  in  451 ;  Andrew  in  the  sixth  century;  George 
(681) ;  and  Eustratus,  Patriarch  of  Antioch  about  868. 
If  the  identification  of  Flavias  with  Sis,  which  is  prob- 
able, be  admitted,  it  will  be  found  that  it  is  first  men- 
tioned in  Theodoret's  life  of  St.  Simeon  Stylites. 

In  704  the  Arabs  laid  siege  to  the  stronghold  of  Sis. 
From  1186  till  1375  the  city  was  the  capital  of  the 
Kings  of  Les.ser  Armenia.  In  1266  it  was  captured 
and  burned  by  the  Egyptians.  Definitely  conquered 
by  the  latter  in  1375,  it  passed  later  into  the  power  of 
the  Ottomans.  In  the  Middle  Ages  it  was  the  reli- 
gious centre  of  Christian  Armenians,  at  least  until 
the  catholicos  established  him.self  at  Etschmiadzin. 
Sis  is  still  the  residence  of  an  Armenian  catholicos, 
who  has  under  his  jurisdiction  several  bishops,  numer- 
ous villages  and  convents.  It  is  the  chief  town  of  the 
caza  of  the  same  name  in  the  vilayet  of  Adana  and 
numbers  4000  inhabitants,  most  of  whom  are  Armen- 
ians. The  great  heats  compel  the  inhabitants  to 
desert  it  during  the  summer  months.  It  is  sur- 
rounded by  vineyards  and  groves  of  cypress  and  syca- 

more trees.     Ruins  of  churches,  convents,  castles, 
and  palaces  may  be  seen  on  all  sides. 

.\U8Ha.n.  Siasouan  ou  rArmeno-Cilide  (Venice.  1899).  241- 
272;  CuiNET.  La  Turquie  d'  Asie,  II,  90-92. 

S.  Vailhe. 

Flavigny,  Abbet  op,  a  Benedictine  abbey  in  the 
Diocese  of  Dijon,  the  department  of  Cote-d'Or,  and 
the  arrondissement  of  Semur.  This  monastery  was 
founded  in  721,  the  first  year  of  the  reign  of  Thierry 
IV,  by  Widerad,  who  richly  endowed  it.  According 
to  the  authors  of  the  "Gallia  Christiana",  the  new 
abbey,  placed  under  the  patronage  of  St.  Prix,  Bishop 
of  Clermont,  and  martyr,  was  erected  on  the  site  of  an 
ancient  monastic  foundation,  dating,  it  is  said,  from 
the  time  of  Clovis,  and  formerly  under  the  patronage 
of  St.  Peter.  This  titular  eventually  overshadowed 
and  superseded  St.  Prix.  Pope  John  VIII  dedicated 
the  new  church  about  the  year  877,  from  which  time 
the  first  patronage,  that  of  St.  Peter,  appears  to  have 
prevailed  definitively.  The  fame  of  Flavigny  was  due 
partly  to  the  relics  which  it  preserved,  and  partly  to 
the  piety  of  its  religious.  The  monastery  was  at  the 
height  of  its  reputation  in  the  eighth  century,  in  the 
time  of  the  Abbot  Manasses,  whom  Charlemagne  au- 
thorized to  found  the  monastery  of  Corbigny.  The 
same  Manasses  transferred  from  Volvic  to  Flavigny 
the  relics  of  St.  Prix.  There  were  also  preserved  here 
the  relics  of  St.  Regina,  whom  her  acts  represent  as 
having  been  beheaded  for  the  faith  in  the  borough  of 
Alise  (since  called  Alise-Sainte-Reine).  The  history 
of  the  translation  of  St.  Regina  (21-22  March,  864) 
was  the  subject  of  a  contemporary  account.  Unfor- 
tunately the  "Chronicle",  the  " Marty rology",  and 
the  "Necrology"of  the  Abbot  Hugues,  and  the  "LivTe 
contenant  les  choses  notables"  have  either  perished  or 
contain  few  facts  of  real  interest.  The  liturgical 
books,  notably  the  "  Lectionary",  have  disappeared. 
The  abbatial  list  contains  few  names  worthy  to  be 
preserved,  with  the  exception  of  that  of  Hugues  of 
Flavigny.  The  monastery  was  rebuilt  in  the  seven- 
teenth century  and  occupied  by  Benedictines  of  the 
Congregation  of  St.  Maur,  who  were  actively  employed 
in  research  concerning  the  historical  documents  of  the 
abbey,  but  it  disappeared  during  the  French  Revolu- 
tion. Hitherto  it  had  formed  a  part  of  the  Diocese  of 
Autun ;  but  after  the  concordat  of  1802  the  new  parti- 
tion of  the  diocese  placed  Flavigny  in  the  Diocese  of 
Dijon.  Lacordaire  rebuilt  a