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The Chautauqua System 
of Jewish Education 

Jewish Education. 





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Thb Jewish CHAVTAuauA SoaiBxr. 

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Table of Contents 



Abram Simon, Ph. D. 


William RoBenau, Ph. D. 


Abram Simon, Ph. D. 




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To stimulate Interest In Jewisb educatloDSil problems bas 
been the distinct purpose of the Jewisb Cbautaugua Society since 
ItB inception. In tb!s endeavor, tbe need of presenting an bletoi- 
Ical survey of tbe contributions made by Jews to the science ol 
pedagogy was trequently felt. In order to meet such need some 
of tbe papers contained In tbie volume were prepared tor tbe Soci- 
ety's Summer AesemMles. Wltb tbe view of giving a larger circu- 
lation and a permanent form to these papers, t^e Society herewith 
pubiisheB this volume as the Qrst of a series to be devoted to 
studies In the fleld of education. Excepting for a few monographs 
and Encyclopedia articles this work now makes available, for the 
first time In the English language, a succinct account of the note- 
worthy contributions Of the Jews to the history of education. This 
publication is designed to serve as a Text-book la the Correspond- 
ence School conducted by the Society. It is to be hoped that this 
survey will be welcomed by all who have not had tbe opportunity 
heretofore to see the subject presented In a systematic form. 

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A study of the blstory of Jewish Education In the Biblical 
Era is fruitful in aiiggestions for methods of inetruction applicable 
to-day. I shall construe the Biblical Era as the fifteen hundred 
years between the Patriarchal and the Maccabean epochs, and 1 
shall consider only such methods and principles which aeem to 
point a moral and adorn a tale in the volume of modem education. 
Th?s essay divides itself naturally into aix parts, forming answers 
to these questions; 

I. What is the general trend and purpose of Education? 
II. What la the specific purpose of Education in the Bible? 

III, What was the standard of general culture in the Bib- 
lical Era? 

IV. How and by whom was auch education or culture Im- 

V. What are the methods and principles ot such education, 
applicable to-day in our religious schools? 

VI, What is the message which the Biblical educational 
ideal holds for this age? 


What is the General Trend and Purpose of Education? 

A Philosophy ot Education is still in the making. The mass 
of information as to man's spiritual nature has not yet been for- 
mulated into so exact a scheme as to enable ub to say that there 
Is a complete Science of Education. If there is a science of edu- 
cation, it Is descriptive rather than normative. The depth of the 
spiritual nature of man is now being plumbed. Tet it must be ad- 

♦Presented originally to the Summer Assembly of the Jewish 
Chautauqua Society, Buffalo, N. T.. July 17, 1909. 

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mltted gladly that despite the foam ot speedily vaniahlng frothy 
thoorlea and deductions, divers have been privileged to bring to 
light and leading much o( the content and method ot spiritual 
phenomena. The art of education is waiting patiently on the 
science of education. What we have not as yet, but ought to have 
is what J, S. Mill called, a treatise which would embody the "laws 
of the formation ot character." 

Fortunately, the human instinct InBists on self-expression and 
self- reproduction, and formulates Its moods, pasBlons, Ideas and 
dreams Into moving traditions and fluid Institutions according to 
Its needs, ability and courage. Fortunately, the home performed 
Its divine task before Sociology saw the light of scientific day. 
Parents did not wait for the coming of Psychology and Pedagogy 
to impress themselves and their ideals upon their children. Thu 
race has educated itself without worrying over finalities. It grip- 
ped the eternal verities of lite; the ages have slowly clothed them 
in flesh and bone. The real heart of the Educational Ideal haa 
never ceased beating since the dawn of human life. 

Our modern educational Ideal Is a synthesis of all the past 
Ideals as modified by the growth of nationality, democracy, science 
and industrial development. It revolves about the right of each 
child to its own fullest development, the duty of the State to train 
Us children to the highest efllciency of citizenship, and to the right 
and duty of the home to be the productive and practical unit of 
society Cor the care of childhood. While the first and second Ideas 
have received but scant philosophical recognition in the past, the 
third Idea, the dower and duty ot home, baa never failed to ha 
appreciated as the dynamic force and possibility of all education. 
The Home contains the first and best of ail schools, all teachers, 
all pedagogics, and I much doubt If Society will ever develop a 
sublimer instttutlon tor the production, conservation and enhance- 
ment of Its accumulating treasures. Nor should It he forgotten 
that the education In the home was connected and saturated with 
the rites and rules of religion. Education seeded and sprouted in 
the home, but It has been fertilized by Faith. If the progressof 
society has thrown the burden of education upon the State, it may 
well pause In considering in how tar It can afford to dispense with 
the Intimacy and the warmth ot domestic instruction and the glow 

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of religion in the training of its citizenship for Life. "Education, 
then, in ita widest sense Is the means which a nation (In which 
State, Church and Home are organic unite), takes deliberately for 
the training of ita citizens In the traditions and principles of na- 
tional character and for the promotion of the welfare of the whole 
as an organized ethical community."* 

Out of this, has grown our modern Educational Ideal. Baby- 
lonia and Bgypt had general learning but It was exclusively the 
privilege and the possession of the priests; they have not left us 
their ideal ao as to have It succinctly embodied. From Greece 
comes the ideal of culture, embodied in philosopher and athlete. 
Rome found her ideal of efficiency in the training ot the orator. 
The Middle Ages busied themselves in producing the montc in the 
cloister and the knight in the castle. The masses in their ignor- 
ance watched the development side by side of these ideals of monk- 
ish piety and knightly chivalry. The Renalssaace broadened the 
mind, and brought hack Greek and Roman ideals. The Reforma- 
tion clarified the heart and brought back the Bible Ideals. The 
one gave learning more breadth and depth; the other gave relig- 
ion more purity and more scope. A new educational ideal was 
born when the fertile brain ot Rousseau gave "Bmlle" to tbe 
World in 1762. The Ideal of Nature, ot a nature as It can only 
exist in the imagination of men to whom civilization is a curse, 
thrilled Europe. Young Emile is to be trained In the lap 
and arms of Nature. No restraint, no rules, no books, no obedi- 
ence, no God, — only a full reliance on, and devotion to Nature 
and the child-Instincts of human nature, Learn nature's secrets! 
Nature must be the Bible; experiments and observation are the 
Law and the Prophets. I^et him grow strong, learn to swim, use 
his hands, and at fifteen introduce him to history, literature and 
society. This idea went home to the masses. Amid much rubbish. 
It contains a principle which has been transforming all modern 
Education, and finding Its enhanced expression and formulation in 
Pestalozzi. Proebel, Spencer, Bain and a host of noble workeri 
who are brlnglnf; »s at last to the heart of the child. Thus. Bdu- 

•S. S. Lfturl — "Historical Snrvey oC Pre-Christian CivlltKa- 
tion" — Introduction. 

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cation has become a movement o( the people, lor the people and 
by the people, and for the completest and most harmonious tnter- 
action of the Individual and of society for each other's life and 
progress. To this happy consummation, modernity is contribating 
the ideal of service. 

The question is, Is the modern Educational Ideal wholly (l 
synthesis of the Greek, the Roman, the Middle Age and the mod- 
ern democratic struggle? What do modern educators mean when 
they speak ol Heart-culture, Character building, spiritual training, 
or the preparation of the individual for life? Do these not hark 
back to the Bible, to the fundamental concepts and principles 
therein contained? Can we escape the conclusion that the stress 
and sweep of modern education are intrinsically about the heart 
of Israel, about the old Biblical Ideal -of Religious Culture? 

Is not Religious Culture, then, not only the contribution of 
Israel to the treasure-house of education, but also the Principle 
which evaluates all other gifts; or, changing the Sgure, is it not 
the conviction which is forming and transforming all theories to a 
necessity (or the cultivation of character and life? 

What is the Specific Farpose of Education In the Bible? 

It is not difficult to understand the purpose of Education In 
the Bible. The Bible is the world's oldest text-book on racial and 
individual training. The people who wrote the Bible are the clas- 
sic pedagogues of civilization. The Hebrew was the only one whc 
ever built up an educational program on religion. Its theory called 
for a levelling-up process of the people to the standing, dignity, 
piety and learning of priests. While learning was not the posses- 
sion of all, theoretically it was the privilege of all. Israel's ideal of 
"a kingdom of priests" called for the educational art which could 
give reality to such an ideal. Floating before the minds of all 
Hebrew educators was this inspiring message, "Surely, this great 
nation is a wise and understanding people." (Deut. IV. 6). There 
is nowhere a statement that education Is an exclusive prerogative. 

In how far culture In ancient Israel was general It Is impos- 
sible to say with any degree of deQnlteness. It is a fact, however, 
that Israel in Egypt, In Canaan and In Babylonia, was In the midst 

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of a nation of superior intellectual and political culture. The 
geniuB Of the Hebrew (and later on of the Jew) lay in hla master- 
ful absorbing function by which he transformed and transfigured 
the products thereof in the alembic of his soul. Whatever served 
this instinct was utilized and sublimated. He "Israellzed" the 
Osiria of Egypt, the Baalim of Canaan and the Ormuzd-Ahriman 
of Persia. He ethicized their gods, their myths, their institutions 
and their ceremonies. He reliBionlzed everything Anally Into an 
fthical monotheism and preserved it Immortally in a Book and, 
with hla pedagogical Instinct, made his holy God the World's Edu- 
cator. Thus, the Hebrew, hia God, his religion and his Book stand 
together as the Biblical contribution to the learning and the peda- 
gogy of the human race. 

The method adopted for the perpetuation of his first fruits 
is Inherently the best. God, Home and the Torah are the three 
classic and organic units. Education in the Bible begins with 
obedience to parents, centers in reverence for God and ends in 
the discipline and consecration of life. Israel laid his greatest 
burden on the home as the educator of the race, and sanctioned 
the fifth commandment as Its divine guarantee of perpetuity. From 
early morning until nightfall the day brought Its lessons and warn- 
ings, Its prayers and Its sacrifices. Daily and Insistently the In- 
struction revolved about the love of God and Hia choice and train- 
ing of Israel for his divinely set and priestly-charactered mission. 
"Out of heaven He made thee to hear His voice that He might In- 
struct thee. Upon earth He showed thee His great Are and thou 
heardest His words out of the midst of the Are. And because He 
loved thy fathers, therefore He chose their seed after them and 
brought thee out in His sight with His mighty power out of Egypt. 
Know, therefore, this day and consider it in thy heart that the 
Lord Is God in the Heaven above and upon the Earth beneath. 
There Is none else. Thou shalt keep, therefore, His statutes and 
His commandments which I command thee this day that It may go 
well with thee and with thy children after thee, and that thou 
mayest prolooR thy days upon the earth which the Lord, thy God, 
giveth thee forever.*' (Deut. IV, 3G-*0). Love God and do Hie 
commandments, (or this Is the whole duty of man. Religious 
training, then Is for personal and social righteousness. To know 
God is to be conscious of His existence and of our relation to Him. 


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To know God la lo do right. To do right is to be pious. Piety is 
learning. The knowledge of God is for the consecration of lUe, 
"Know God In order to live godly," this la the purpose of Educa- 
tion In the Bible. Know God, not for the Intellectual aatlsfactlon 
Involved, but In order to love Him! I^ove Him, not for the mere 
diBcharge of emotional energy but that you may iivel Live, not 
lor a mere satisfaction of the instinct tor existence, but in order 
that you may consecrate it! In other words. Religious Cnltnre is 
the educational Ideal of the Bible. ■ 


Wbat was the Standard of General Culture in the Biblical Era? 

What do we know of the level of culture In the Biblical Era? 
What subjects were taught the children in the home or the adults 
In the profeBsional schools or in the Synagogs? A curriculum Is 
out of the question. Something besides religion must have been 
taught in a history of fifteen hundred years. Joaephua la proud 
to say that Jewish education was so superior to the Qreek or 
Roman, in that It was both theoretical and practical. I can un- 
derstand that the "theoretical" would include a knowledge of re- 
ligion, of the parts of the history as it developed, a training in 
ethical duty, in the holidays and in reading Hebrew. But the 
"practical" must have been more than a participation in the sacri- 
ficial system. Bccleaiastes said "Whatever thy hand flndeth to do, 
do it with all thy might;" we would be using a cheap homlletlcs 
to make this bolster a plea for industrial education. However, 
there was training in war. All over twenty years must have 
served some apprenticeship and profited by its physical training. 

II Sam. I, 8, has the training of the men of Judah la the use 
of the bow. 

Strong as are the words against sloth and idleness, yet the 
Greek conception finds no clear enunciation until the beginning of 
ihe Maccabean era. 

Music was certainly taught to the upper classes. The travel- 
ing prophets in Samuel's day no less than the priests In connec- 
tion with the temple of Solomon and of those who returned un- 
der Ezra were teachers of music, though their music was essen- 
tially for worship. (I Chr. XXV, 8b; 11 Chr. XVII, 1; Prov. 
XXV, 5). 


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Nor do we know of the eclencee which were taught. The He- 
brew displayed no aptitude In the gathering and collating of scien- 
tific data. Some priests may have known something of medicine, 
hygiene, astronomy, but we do not know ol science as subjecta of 
education. Toy, in hla notes on "The Book o( Proverbs,*' p. 531 
suspects that tlie words, Chapter XXX, 18 and 19. 

"Three things are beyond my ken 
And four I do not understand 
The way of the vulture In the air. 
The way of a serpent over a rock. 
The way of a ship on the high sea 
And the way of a man with a woman," 

are lessons in natural history and physics. So the words, wisdom, 
intelligence, knowledge, doctrines, counsel, understanding, guid- 
ance, Torah, teaching, sagacity, discretion, the way, often finely 
drawn In the Bible, may represent crude divisions of general cul- 

Was writing taught? We touch debatable ground.* We may 
not be far from wrong In allowing a fairly common accomplish- 
ment in this direction before the Exile. Words and scenes about 
writing occur in every page of the Scripture. In Genesis 
XXXVni, 18, Juda's signet ring must have been lettered. 
Judges VIII, 14 reveals a young man putting down In the 
writing the names of the princes of Suceoth. In Judges V, 14 we 
find the words -13c J^ZV "t''^ stylos of the scribe." The ad- 
ministrative system of judges and elders under Moses and for 
many years later implies the supposition that tbey could keep rec- 
ord of names, dates and facts, Deut. XX speak? of C'"m"j sub- 
military officers, who kept the register of those wbo served in the 
army. I Chr. II speaks of .labez — the home of writing. Deut. 
XXIV treats of writing a bill of divorce, while the Mezuza calls 
for writing. "Thou shalt write them upon the door-posts," "Upon 
the tablets of thy heart," "the two tablets of stone" call for a fa- 
miliarity with the art of writing. In 11 Sam. VIII, 7; II Sam. XX, 
P: 1 Chr. XVIIl, 16; I Chr, XXIV, 6: I Kings IV, 3, and II Kings 

See Basting's Dictionary of the Bible; vol. IV on "Writing," 

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XIX, 2 2, occur the names of Sbeva, Shebua, Shaphan, Shimaya, 
Savya, Elisaref and Ahli as scribes under David and Solomon. 
Psalm CIX and Proverbs XXX, 11-31 are alphabetic acrostics. 
How comes It tbat Amos and Mlcah, two oF the greatest prophets 
wbo came from the masses spoke such classical Hebrew, and that 
Amos, the dresser of sycamores was the fl-fst to put his sermons to 
writing? The Bible itself Is Incontestable proof that the people 
had the literary Instinct and paaelon for self expression In stately 

Jeremiah XXXVI, 18 uses the word ink. From II Kings XX, 
20 and later referred to in II Chr. XXXII, 30 we learn of the great 
conduit built in the days of Hezekiah, and Its Inscription now de- 
ciphered, is livinK testimony to the knowledge of writing in the 
eighth century, B. C. 

Yet the Bible is only a remnant o( a great literature which 
the writers must have had for reference? Out of the Bible we 
draw the proof of the one-time existence of smaller tracts, codes, 
histories, epics and dirges. There existed 

■'The Book of Yashar" (II Sam. I, 18): 

"The Wars of Jehovah" (Num. XXI, 24). 

"The Book of the Covenant" (Ex. XX, 20-23). 

•'The Little Book of the Covenant" (Ex. XXXIV). 

"The Holiness Code" (l.evlt. XVII-XXVI). 

"Collections of Dirges" (Amos V, 2; Jer. XLVIII, 36; II Chr. 
XXXV, 25). 

"Collections of Genealogies by the prophets Shemalyah and 
Iddo." (11 Chr. XII, 15; XTII, 22). 

Were these tracts and booklets written for private circula- 
tion? Were they text-books on religion and history? 

Does not Numbers V, 11-23 indicate a separate tract on "The 
Law of Jealousy?" 

May Exodus XXXIV not have been a catechism in Religion? 
The existence of so much writing before the Exile compels ua to 
(he belief that writing was not the exclusive possession of the 
priests and Levites. 

Whether natural history, music and writing were only 
taught to the upper classes will never be definitely known. One 
thing is certain; after the return from the Exile and for a century 


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thereafter so general was education that SccleBiastes could sa; in 
Harcasm, aod with truth, "Ot the making of books there is no 
end." (Eccl. XII, 12). When we consider this question In don- 
nectlon with the further query, "How or where was Instruction 
imparted?" the probability ot a wide and general culture becomes 
a certainty In post-exilic days. Ancient Israel had no schools in 
our sense of the word. The phrase "schools of prophets" (I Sam. 
X) means rather a guild or brotherhood than a fixed place of In- 
struction. Instruction wae mostly oral and given in the home. 
The Levltea, scattered throughout the length and breadth of the 
land, came Into close contact with the people and, doubtloBB, served 
as the pioneer mlselonarles. The prophets In their peripatetic wan- 
derings made every spot a platform, a temporary school for public 
Instruction. The perch of the temple was often used; and here and 
there, we infer that the wide open places (Prov. I, 20) and cross- 
roads, furnished favorable meatlng grounds for the sages and their 

But the birth of the Synagogue was the greatest educational 
factor In Jewish history after the prophets' voice was hushed. The 
word "Mldrash" appearing twice In II Chron. XII, 22 and XXIV, 
37 cannot mean school but commentary. The InHtltutlon known 
as the "be rah" or "bet rabban" (house of the teacher) or ae thi> 
"be safra" or "bet eefsr" (house of the book) 1b supposed to have 
been originated by Ezra and hla Great Assembly which provided a 
public school in Jerusalem to secure the Education of fatherless 
boys ol the age of Bliteen years and upward. (Jewish Ency.. 
Vol. XII, p, 37). The growth of the synagogue was so rapid that 
by the second century B. C. E. there was scarcely a town which had 
not at least one synagogue. There was no conflict between the 
Temple and tne Synagojcue. Tbey nourished side Dy side, per- 
forming complementary functions. The Temple was for sacrifice 
and worship; the latter tor Instruction. The former had a cer- 
tain aloofness: the essential nature of the latter was democratic. 
It was the "People's Institute." The Synagogue was the public 
high school where the Law was read and expounded, where prayer 
and praises were offered, In the latter the services were con- 
ducted by the elders and the priests, while the instruction was in 
the bands ot the lalty, the sages. In addition to the popularizing 


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of knowledge ' In the Synagogues, the private homes were alBO 
turned Into welle ot Instructlbn bo that Jose ben Joezer of Zeredah 
could a&y truly, "Let thy bouse be a meeting-place for the wise; 
sit amidst the dust nCthetr feet 'and drink their words with thirst." 
Everywhere, little bands of nlen sr^uped themselvea together for 
instruction in the law and ta higher studies, offering the earliest 
form of study circles. By the Maccabean Era, elementary educa- 
tlOD was accessible to all, eo that we can appreciate the conclusion 
of Wellhausen, "Whoever could not read was no true Jew," (ler. u 
Jud. Gesch., 159). With the Maccabean Era, the synagogue felt 
the Impress of Greeli philosophy. When Jew met Greek, it 
was a clash of Jewish against Greek pedagogr. religious versus 
secular culture. Both ideals are dominant In the modem Educa- 
tional Ideal. The problem of the future is the taslc of harmoniz- 
ing them. 


Uow and by Wltom was Heli^oaa Education Imparted? 

By whom was this exalted ideal of religious culture devel- 
oped? The teachers in the Bible are' (a) the parents, (lb) the 
l^evites, priests, psalmists, (c) the prophets, (d) the scribes'. <e) 
the sages. 

(a) The parents are the first teachers (Ps, CXXVII, 3; 
CXXVIII, 3). They follow a curriculum born out of a rich fund 
ot domestic experience, tradition and love. We can follow the 
babe as it was washed in water, salted and swaddled (Ezek. XVI, 
i); how, If wealthy, it was turned over to nurses (Gen. XXIV, 
59) ; how, If a boy, It was entered Into the covenant of Israel on Its 
eighth day and was named. (Luke I, 59; II, 21). The fortieth 
day called for an offering In his name, while the girl's was brought 
on her eightieth day (Lev. XII). Then the babe was weaned at a 
family feast (Gen. XXI, 8, and I Sam. I, 24), during all of which 
time the Cull stamp ot the loving parental soul was being Impressed 
upon it. 

What can express the duty and method of parental educa- 
tion so clearly as these words, "Thou shalt teach them dillgentlv 
unto tfiy children and thou shalt speak of them when thou sittest 
in thy house, when thou waikest by the way, when thou Host 
down and when thou risest up?" And what can express the abso- 


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lute duty of the child so eucciactly as the classic fifth commaad- 
meat and its law of reward? Surely the entire Sh'ma, the great 
Ten Words, the holidays, tbe forins aud meanings of Hacriflces, 
the choice of Israel, God's love, protection and promises to him 
are the most essential elements in the earliest education ol the 
child. Doubtless, too, the children were deeply impressed by their 
visit to the Temple to hear the reading of Deuteranomy by the 
King (Deut. XXXVI. 10-12). , . 

The strongest religious influence was the personality of the 
parents and the atmosphere of the home. The instinct of imita- 
tion (asliions the sights, souDds and hourly experiences Into habits 
and modes of conduct. If to the parent, the command "Ye shall 
be perfect as the Lord your God. is perfect" is the '"Imitatio Dei," 
to the child his hourly home-life brings the law of ■'Imitatio Par- 
entis" (Tien. XIII, 1, and Deut. II, 26). 

No days furnish more favorable occaatons for parental in- 
structlos than do the holidays. Here the parent has his oppor- 
tunity. Home-ceremonies arouse the curiosity of children 
and win from them numerous questions. And the parent is to wel- 
come such interest and inquiry and never say "Wait until you are 
older before I can explain to you the Exodus from Egypt or the 
Giving of the Law." Your welcoming the inquiry calls for your 
exercise of pedagogical common-sense. Fit your answers to the 
needs and mental capacities of your children. Exodus XII, 26 
presents such a recitation-hour during the Passover service. 
"And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, 
what mean ye by this service, then shall ye say, 'It is the sacrifice 
of the Lord's Passover.' " So in XIII, 8, "And thou shalt show thy 
son in that day, saying, 'This is done because of that which the 
Lord did unto me when I came forth from Egypt,' " So in verse 
14 and Deut. VI, 20 shall the children be thus trained to con- 
sider themselves as part of this people and to feel the responaibii- 
Ity thereof. 

The parents must seize the symljols as valuable pedagoglt 
pegs. For the Passover (Ex, XIII, 9 and 16), "Shall be for a sign 
unto thee upon thy hand and for memorial between thine eyes," 
So the Sh'ma adds the lesson, "Thou shait bind them as a sign 
upon thy hand and they shall be as frontlets between thy eyes." 


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The frequeot recurrence ot these phrtuee indicates their use and 
ttieir function in the home- training. 

These symbols teach through the avenue ol the eye; yet It 
la the heart "whence flow the Issues of life" (Prov. IV, 23) 
and upon which Is lavished all the wealth ot care. The law la to 
be "loved with all your heart and aout." The child must recog- 
nise the equal authority of father and mother and its very high- 
est obllgatloiL of obedience. "My son, keep thy father's command- 
ment, and forsake not the law of thy mother." (ProT. VI, 20), 
But this duty ought to be a heart-duty and an unforgettable duty. 
''Bind them continually upon thy heart and tie them about thy 
neck. When thou goest, it shall lead thee; when thou sleepest It 
shall keep thee. When thou wakest, it shall talk with tbee." 
(PrOT, VI, 21). Surely, the Influence of the mother must have 
been Immeasurably great. In addition to the religious training, 
she taught her girls weaving and spinning (Ex. XXXV, 25) and 
the domestic rounds of accomplishment of those days. A mother's 
instruction is still preserved for us In Prov. XXXI, "The words of 
King Lemuel, the prophesy which his mother taught him," and 
the description of the Ideal woman la a tribute to hia own mother 
and to Jewish womanhood in general. Doubtleas, she also taught 
prayers. Deut. XXVI preserves two prayers for us. Isaiah says, 
"What avalleth me the multitude ot your prayers?*' What those 
prayers were we know not. The word "Amen" abounds so very 
frequently and must have been the usual close of prayers In the 
early days. We find "Amen" used In Num. V, 22; Deut. V, 15; 
XXVII, a dozen times; Neh. VIII 6; Ps. CVI; Chr. XVI, 36; Pb. 
XLI, 14; LXXXIX, 53, aa liturgical formula; and It presuppoaes 
the existence of short prayers with the "Amen" as Its conclusion. 
Its ironical use In Jer. XXVIII, 6, and recurrence in Klnga 1, 36 
and Neh. V, 13 as an emphatic expression of assent only argues the 
widespread use of the word "Amen." 

The instruction was oral, and If attention and good behavior 
were not secured, the rod was brought Into frequent use. The 
boys and girls of the Biblp days were not "spoiled." Abso- 
lute obedience was the prime essential duty of childhood. If 
the child cursed his father or mother, (Deut. XXVII, 16; Ex. XXI, 
15; Lev. XX, 9) death was pronounced upon him. Death Is the 


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penalty for smiting a parent (Bz. XXI. 16), wbile "he that setteth 
light by hU father or bis mother" la pronounced accursed," (Deut. 
XXVII, 16). If the child was incorrigible a "ben sorer umorer," 
and bad refused perslEtently to obey blB parents, he was to be 
brought by his parents and publlcli' arraigned before the elders 
of the city and stoned to death. (Deut. XX. 18-21). This is the 
real origin of the Juvenile Court, but with an unmitigated BSTerity. 
Yet it must be remembered tbat the parent had not, as in Rome, 
the power of life and death over tals son. When Insubordination 
became Intolerable, he could not take the law into his own bands; 
he must appeal to the decision of an impartial .trihuQal. That this . 
punishment of the incorrigible could not have been of frequent 
occurrence even In the Bible Era ie clear from Prov. XXX, 17, 
where disobedience to parents la cited as a thin>; which brings a 
man to a bad end, not ae a thing punished by death. 

When the parents could afford it, they would entrust the 
further and higher education of their children to priests, Levltes 
(Deut. XXXI, 9; Joahua IX, 34) or tutors (II Kings X. 1), which, 
during and after the Exile, was a very common practice. 

(b) Our knowledge of the educational function of the Le- 
Tlte, priest and psalmist leaves very much to be desired, and yet 
they must have been strong factors in moulding the religious life 
of ancient Israel. It is a pity that we cannot know In how close 
a contact they came with the home, the parent, the child. I am 
inclined to say that their educational work must have been lesn 
direct upon the child and the home but more direct upon the com- 
munity as a community. I shall omit all consideration of Biblical 
criticism on the Indeflnitenesa of the position and relation of Le- 
vlte to priest, and of the exaggerated opposition between priest 
and prophet. I feel that an institution like the priesthood whose 
function became the acknowledged missionary Ideal of a people 
must have wleld<d a tremendous force for good and for learning. 
Aside from the purely ecclesiastical labors of the Levlte and priest, 
such as carrying the ark of the covenant, presiding over sacrifices 
and worship, acting as doorkeepers and pronouncing the benedic- 
tions, they were administrators, guardians and teachers of the law. 
"They show Jacob Thy Judgments 
And Israel Thy Law. "^( Deut. XXXIII, 8). 

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III Jeremiah vill, S, ttaeira la tbe power to decide in accord- 
ance with the prlucjlples at "the law of which they are the guard- 
lanfl." in IL Klnga XVJI, 27 the priest 1b the educator. In Jere- 
miah XVIli we read "The law shall not perlBh from tbe priest nor 
counsel from the wise." 'Haggai II U told by God to consuU the 
prleatB. Supervision of leprosy Is in, their hands (Dent. XXIV, 
S) ; they are to address the hosts as they go forth to battle (Deut. 
XX. 26); tbey ar«! to be consulted In difficult law-suits (Deut. 
XVII, 8) and see to the preservation of the laws (Daut. XVII. 
18 and V, 26). In the reform work under Jehosaphat the lr>adeni 
are priests (U Chr! XVIII). In Leviticus X, 10 we rea-1 "They 
teach the law of leprosy." And In Micah III, 11 the nrlests are 
scolded for "teaching for hire." "while the prophets divine for 
money." Nehemlab VIII recognizes the priests and Lievltes as tbe 
actual and practical expounders of tbe Law. That two great 
prophets, Jeremiah the preacher of Indlvidusllsm a.nd Ezeklel th^ 
exponent of Solidarity were also priests, adds Immeasurably to tbe 
stature of the ideal priesthood. This ideal priesthood Is stated eT- 
qnlsitely In Malaehi II who, after rebuking "the priests who de- 
spise My name," says: 

"The Law of truth was In bis mouth, 

And iniquity was not found on his Ilpe, 

He walked with Me in peace and equity. 

And did turn many ,away from sin. 

For the priests' lips should keep knowledge. 

And they should seek the law at his mouth. 

For he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts." 

We are moat anxious to know how the priests exercised these 
educational functions so that they could turn many from sin, and 
how many sought wisdom from their lips. At any rate, enough 
proof has been brought forth to show that by the period of the 
Esile the priests represented the purely ritual and Intellectual 
phases of worship and religion. Naturally, then, tbey were the 
conservators of the status and dignity of the religious lite; and 
their main appeal was to tradition, sentiment and the In- 
violable sanctifies of the Godlike Institutions. 

But Is this all that can be said of them? Were they only 
sticklers tor the cold majesty of the law, ceremonial or Judicial? 

22 ' 

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Had' they notblng to do with the PaalniB, those sweet intimate' dia- 
logues Ot the soul wifh God? Prophetic teachings abb'utid In the 
Pealma; can It be that the priests were unaffected by ttiem, failed 
to appreciate and appropriate them? The' Psalms are tutl of inf- 
erence to worship, rltiiai. prayer, feat-l, 8a<ir(flce, sin and. Temple, 
all of which represent jprfestly activity s'o that muck of the com 
position may be attributed to priests or guilds' of priests. Nor 
should It be forgotten that the last Psalins were completed when 
tte voice of the prophet could lio longer be heard in the land. 

For a thorough appreciation of" tbe "Priestly element In the 
Old Testament'* refer to foot' iioie^ The P&'alter Is a Book of 
Prayer, a Book of Praise and a Manual of Pec'sonarCofiimunlbti 
with (lOd. The late Professor Harper* puts these questions with 
reference to the composition and nature 'of the i*saTter, "COiild n 
priestly system including as Its cllnias a hymr'ar breathing a 'd'e- 
votlon so rich, be wholly formal ind mechanical, devoid of nfe 
and of spiritual power? Could such a hymnal have oWed Its 
origin to a body of priests who were strangers to the spiritual and 
a'ltogether slaves of the formal?" Can we, now, 'ahswer these 
questions: 'What was the educational function of th'e priest iri his 
many-sided capacity? 'What feelings and Ideas were stirred In the 
people as they saw the white-robed priest offlclatlng In bloodv 
sacrifice? Did the worshipper construe the sacrifices symbolically? 
Was tliere a deepenlns of the sense of sin, a sincere craving for 
pardon, a closer drawing to the heart of God? Were the people 
educated through the priestly performances? Did the constaiitly 
repeated ceremonies have any ethical effect? In what sense was 
the Temple a laboratory for developing character and for purify- 
ing the communion of the Individual with God? Was the mean- 
ing of life heightened by the knowledge of tbe law? Did the ha 
bitual doing of the ceremony or its constant sight have a peda- 
gogic value? Did the reading of the Psalms familiarize them 
with the Psalm of Life? Was tbe appeal altogether to the nation 
and not to the individual? Was worship not a powerful tie, a 
union and a communion of mutual interests, a strengthening of 

•■•The Priestly Element In the Old Testament" (Ch. XTX), 
Prof. W. R. Harper, Chicago, 1905. 

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the Ideal of the people? Was not the home thereby iolluenced 
when for sacrifice it bad a Psalter where religion waa more in- 
ward? And thus conatrued, did the many-sided, educating priest 
not keep alive the missionary Idea ol Israel as a Kingdom or 
Priests and a holy people? 

The priest, for this Is my concluolon on this subject, was (1) 
the teacher of the majesty and the holiness of Ood and of the 
means In sacrifice and In prayer whereby man might draw near 
God. (2) He was the teacher of Ood's specific law whereby 
man Is to learn to lead the holy and priestly life. (3) He taught 
not by the hortatory, objective method of the prophet or the sage. 
His influence was the subjective according as each worshipper in- 
terpreted the symbol, the ceremony and the psalm. (4) He 
taught by emphasts upon the necesalty and Integrity of tradition. 
His appeal was not so much to the conscience as to the feelings^ 
not to the Imagination but to the emotiona. He stood as the ex- 
ponent of tradition, the Ilte-htood of continuity and of the spiritual 
experience called Faith. 

(c) The prophets as educators ought to form a series ot 
monographs, and I can only give a few cursory sentiments as to 
their power and function In the educational life. "The school of 
the prophets," In the technical sense, took its rise In the days of 

These prophets were wandering revivalists, enthusiasts an<J 
singers, and they did but scant credit to the great masters who 
followed them. They formed schools and guilds and located them- 
selves In Ramfh O S XIX. IS). Gllgal (H K IV, 3S). Bethel (II K 
II. 3), .lerlcho (IT K II. 5), and In Glbeah and Mt. Ephralm. They 
traveled from place to place creating what might be called "Cir- 
cuit Preaching." They taught music (11 Chr. XXIil. 13), studied 
the history or early days and composed songs for special occasions 
(1 8 X. 5, 6, 10: XIII, £3: XIX, 18: I Chr. XXV. 8). We cannot 
speak with much definlteness about their labors: yet their valu" 
lay In the fact that they made possible the emergence of the ma- 
jestic figures of Samuel, Nathan. Gad. Elijah and Ellsha. to be fol- 
lowed by Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezeklel and the minor prophets, the 
lordliest band of teachers which any age has yet produced. 

Prophecy was an educational movement which Israel called 

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out of hlB own heart (or his own direction, tnatructlon, puriflca- 
tlOD and enlargement. Like no other force, it has stirred the con- 
science witb Its direct, though blunt appeal. It stripped off all 
preteace and precedent. Prophecy was the force that always said: 
"Thou art the man!" Prophecy was the force of opposition lor 
progress' sake; the force of protest for purity's sake. It read out 
of the book of universal experience the laws for particular situa- 
tions. It had vision, grasp, enthusiasm, faith, power, holiness. 

The prophets graduated from no school but took their cre- 
dentials from God. Wherever men were, there was their message. 
Where unrighteousness lurked, there was their platform. Klngn 
and queens, rich and poor, aye, the whole nation went to school to 
them. They inaugurated compulsory education for prince and 
public. Now they thunder like Elijah and Amos; now they plead 
like Hosea and Jeremiah. Now they are poets and mystics; and 
again they argue as cold moralists. But one thing above all, 
they speak in no abstract manner. The people all know what they 
are driving at. They lay down a proposition, or a series of self- 
evident truths. They bring Illustrations from Egypt and Assyria, 
from Babylonia and Persia. They And vocabulary and symbolism 
In court and camp. In farm and altar. They speak out of the tuli- 
ness of their hearts: they neither apologize nor await agreement. 
Conscious that they are in agreement with Qod and His truth. 
they think not of physical or material success. In the enthusiasm 
of their cause and in their indifference to popularity they never 
lose their sanity. 

They are eloquent exponents of religious culture. They be- 
lieve in the training of the mind; but the highest knowledge Is ot 
the existence of God, of His relation to humanity, of men's duties 
to one another. They admire nature, but nature is but God's thea- 
tre of daily revelation. They know history, but the comings and 
goings of nations and of kingdoms are but the means whereby 
God educates the race. Theirs, too. Is an appreciation of beauty, 
but beauty of form, of style, of Image is but Incidental to the 
"beauty of holiness." Nor do they look askance at strength, but 
they do insist, "Let not the wise glory in his wisdom, neither let 
the mighty glory In his might, let not the rich glory In his riches. 
but let him who will boast, boast of this, that he underatandeth and 

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knoweth Me," etc. (Jeremiah IX, 33 and 24). Their philosophy 
la the phlloBophy of Life; tor they eay to you and to me: 

"What doea the Lord require ot thee?" 
But to do justly, and to love mercy 
And to walk humbly with thy God." 

(Micab VI.) 

No platform or book stands between them and their listeners. 
They carry their Bchool with them wherever tliey go. They aim 
to touch the conscience. They are not guided ao much hy what is, 
as by what ought to be. They protest and scold In order to purify 
and make religion more Inward, more personal, more righteous. 
The dignity of the Individual conscience is as powerful an Ideal to 
them as the majesty of God. They know ol the Slthlnesa of sin 
but they would have their pupils realize this truth in all Its impli- 
cations. They know the necessity ot ceremony but they would 
have man go direct to God for forgivenesB. They educate by ap- 
peals to the history of the past, by present circumstances and by 
the future, sure to follow. They know the law of progress, and 
the Inevitable result of Immorality, idolatry, hypocrisy and injus- 
tice. They represent the Ideal ot the Orator. They apeak not lor 
rhetoric's sake, but as the spokesmen of God. They speak be- 
cause tliey must, nor do they hesitate to create a literary vehicle 
to present adequately their mesaage. Who will ever be able to 
estimate Justly the educational power ot the Hebrew prophets 
from Moses to Malachi? 

The prophets built upon the foundation laid by Mosas, the 
first and the greatest of prophets. Moses' educational work 
covers the whole fleld ot personal, domestic, social and na- 
tional life. He is the pedagogue par excellence. The tables of 
stone with five commandments on each, suggests that Moaea may 
have advisedly hit upon a method ot most quickly impressing great 
truths upon the mind. The pentad form auggeats at once the Ave 
fingers of the hand. Are we going too far In hinting that tble 
same scheme may have been the form in which, from the earliest 
times, Israel's popular laws were taught? (See Kent's Heroes and 
Crises ot Early Hebrew Tradition, p. 193), But his greatest edti- 
catlonal asset was his own matchless personality. He taught by 
: tht power ot tremendous and impressive example. Moeee was an 


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educator, by the grace ot Ood, large In vieton and deep In sympa- 
tby, ot inexhaustible patience and unexampled reaouTcetuluese. 
Moses was an educator, ideaiiet of the highest order but the sanest. 
Bouadest, practical teacher the world has known. Moses was an 
educator who fed his people according to their needs and mentU 
capacities. He was an educator who knew hU people Intimately, 
understood their frailties no less than their strength and led them 
slowly but securely to the great, distant purpose he had In mlud. 
Hoses was an educator ot the highest moral Integrity, yet never 
self-righteous; ot the widest culture, yet never self-oplntated ; con- 
scious ot hlB mission and leadership, yet never consumed by the 
lust for power and profit. Moses was an educator who, familiar 
with Egyptian lore, rejected all the gods of Egypt, and 
posited as the Source of all knowledge, the Author ot all Be- 
ing, the Fountain ot all Lite and the Inspiration of all morality, 
the One, only and alone Jehovah, holy, loving, compassionate. 
righteous, wise, the Father and Teacher of the race. He was an 
educator who saw the necessity ot such holy Ideal tor the training 
of a people and the absolute necessity ot religion tor the develop- 
ment of Its life and destiny. He taught them, that the national 
ideal must be a patterning after the Ood-ldeal, un marred by 
Intermediary and selflsh Idols. He taught that the best place 
tor the cultivation and perpetuity ot that doctrine was the home — 
and that the best teachers were father and mother, and that the 
beat law thereof was the child's happy and implicit obedience. Ha 
made the entire machinery ot education, administration, phil- 
anthropy, worship, agriculture, revolve as spokes in the hub ot re- 
ligious education for the moral and spiritual life of the nation. 

Moses was an educator who saw God face to face. He set his 
people face to face with the Truth for forty years and thus fash- 
ioned a nation. After his death on Mt. Nebo, the mountain ol 
prophecy, his name became a household Inspiration, passing down 
In enhanced affection from father to son unto the thousandth 

(d) The work ot the psalmists and the prophets might have 
been lost to the world were it not for another class ot educators. 
called the Scribes. We hear of the scribes long before the siith 
century B. G. E., but mostly serving as secretaries or chroniclers. 


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Ezra, the prince of BCrlbes (Ezra VII, 6), gave tbeu their new 
function. They formed guilds (I Chr. II, 55; I Chr, XXV, 8). 
Nelienitah called them "M'blnlm," and they certainly were tile 
literati of the period. They were a clasB by themeelyeB and were 
largely recruited from the prleets and LeviteB. They were the heat 
trained and educated men in their day. The times gave birth to 
their new energies. The prophet's voice was growing weaker, 
and a new era was at hand. The worlc of Nehemlab, the re- 
former, paved the way for Ezra, the ecclesiastic. Ear a 
tells us, VI, 10, "For Ezra had prepared bis heart to seek the law 
of the Lord and to do It, and to teach In Israel statutes and Juds- 
ments," The eighth to tenth chapters of the book oC Nehemiah 
present to our view the great educational feature of that epoch, 
the promulgation and formal adoption of a new guide. This for- 
mal adoption of the Law took place at a public asBembly of all tbe 
people and it was In the same method of procedure that the 
Deuteronomlc Code was accepted. The Law was read aloud In the 
hearing of all. Thirteen Levltes explained the text. The people 
understood It all and wept. A deep sense of sin brought the peo- 
ple to their knees. A solemn covenant was entered Into by all to 
observe the Law, and it was signed by the people's representatives. 
A people had willingly, publicly adopted a new Magna Charta. 

Educationally, what did this mean? Ezra, standing on the 
raised platform, had the largest School In our history. All 
Israel sat at bis feet. Henceforth, the new teach^- had a gr<>.at 
t«xt-book. The multiplication of this book, thus preserving In 
unity the history, the prophets and the Psalms (current up to that 
day) was made possible by the Scribes. Thus it happened that 
copies of the Law and of tbe nation's hymn-book came Into mora 
general use; and thus families obtained poBBession of them. 

The birth of the Synagogue added immeasurably to the pop- 
ularization of knowledge. The Exile proved that the Temple and 
its sacrlflclal altar were not wholly Indispensable. Psalm LXXIV 
proves the existence of many Synagogues during the Exile; yet if 
this Psalm happens to be post-eslllc the constant references to 
bodies of men coming to Ezeklel (VIII, 1; XIV, XXXIII) for In- 
struction carries the belief that the people were not homeless dur- 
ing the Eille, At any rate, the return of the people to Jerusalem 

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found the Temple again tbe center of the sacrificial system but 
along side of It flourished the Synagogue. Wherever a few Jews 
settled who wished to study the Law a SyiLagogue was organized' 
Thus were supplied the religious needs of tbe many Jews scat- 
tered in many lands who were uhabie to make frequent visits tci 
Jerusalem. Tbe Synagogue was a place for communal prayer 
and for study, more democratic and closer to the heart of the 
people tban the Tempie. It was In tbe Synagogue that the peo- 
ple's religious consciousness and unity could be expressed and 
maintained apart from the Temple. I have not the time to enter 
Into the new Prayer book which grew out of the requirements of 
the Synagogue In course of time. The tremendous educational 
significance of the Synagogue can be seen from the sayings of 
Simon the Just (300 B. C.) "Our fathers have taught ua threa 
things, to be cautious In Judging, to train many scholars and to 
set a fence about tbe Law." 

The educational significance of tbe Synagogue, then, In con- 
nection with the Scribe becomes apparent. It was through Ezra 
and the Scribes that tbe Jew became In the words of Mohammed: 
"The People of the Book." The growth of the Synagogues com- 
pelled an ever-increasing multiplication of copies of the Law; and 
the reaction of this upon tbe homes can be seen at a glance. As 
the Scriptures became more popular, the demand for teachers 
was more insistent. ''The community as a whole became more 
unselflsbty Interested In It than In the official hierarchy; the peo- 
ple began to raise apt teachers out of Its own ranks." {Monte- 
flore HIB. Lectures p. 395). The Rabbla, Schools of Pharisees 
and the Talmudtc Bra are children of this pregnant Educational 

Tbe Psalm-Book, the Prayer-Book, the Law-Book became 
domesticated and were a more satisfying means of religious as- 
piration than sacriBce and Temple. The Synagogue democratized 
religion. It Individualized religion; and the latter gained In depth, 
Inwardness and clarity. The Synagogue was alive. There was 
no sterility there, and lt« religion expressed Itself In many ways. 
This same age saw the last of the Psalmist, and the books of 
Rnth and Jonah came Into tbe canon. Tbe scribe as an edncator 
la the preserver and multiplier of the literary means of educa- 


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tloQ. He was a purely literary man. Most of tbe Bible in Its 
final touches shows his marks. He collated, reviBed, Interpolated, 
copied, and edited. He was the arbiter of literary taste. 

(e) Now let ua consider tor a moment a fifth class of men, 
to whom tbe word "teacher" In Its specific modern meaning would 
apply with more Justice than to any of the preceding groups. Tbe 
time was ripe for teachers. Tbe phrase "teacber as tbe scholar" 
occurs in I Chr. XXV, 8b. These men are called the scholars 
"Chacbamim," tbe wlsemen. tbe sages; and their Ideas, principles 
and literary productions were framed In the Book of Proverbs, 
Job, Eccleaiastes, and Ben Sirach (though the last named Is not 
found In the Bible) . The varied group of educators whom we have 
reviewed made their appeal to tradition, emotion, conscience; but 
the sages were the first to ask for the recognition of common 
sense and the approval of the Intellect. They represented beaut]' 
of culture, per se, yet In no wise depreciating the necessity and 
tbe prior claim of religious culture. It may truthfully be said that 
they came closest to the hearts of the parents and the children. 

The calm of philosophy requires a state of political tranquil- 
ity for Its successful development. Such an age intervened be- 
tween tbe post-Nebemlan age and the time when the danger of se- 
ductive Hellenism drew near. This was tbe time tor reflection 
and cold moraiism. It was the fittest time for systematic in- 
struction, not for the spasmodic teaching of prophet and psalm- 
ist. The sage knew tbe message of the home, the priest, tbe 
psalmist, the prophet and the scribe. He was a product of all 
these forces. Thus, he found bis material in their messages. He 
was tbe popularizcr In homely and sententious words of the re- 
ligion of the day. He came to the level of the masses and brought 
learning direct to their doorsteps. It was the task of tbe sagi^ 
to bring the minds of the people Into sympathy with thp prophets. 
Much of his teaching Is utilitarian and prudential wisdom. 
Not held down to any one book they could rely upon their 
native tact and talent. They were not burdened by a calling from 
on high; they did not need to scold and oppose. They were fa- 
miliar with history and literature; and they could find ready il- 
lustrations In daliy experiences. They were familiar with the 
popular wisdom, Its proverbs and gnomes, and built npon tbeee a 

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more stately phlloeopliy. They were moraliBtB, but never degener- 
ated Into BophlBta. Tbey Invariably threw their maxims into par- 
allellBtlc forms so as to have them more easily fixed In popular 
memory. Ben Sirach {XXXVIII, 24, XXXIX) aaaumefl the exUt- 
ence of systematic Inatructlon, In which the study of literature 
played an important part. So In Proverbs XII, 17-21, V, 13, w-j 
divine something of a Bchool organization. Ben Sirach teaches in 
hlB epilogue, 

"Draw near to me, ye unlearned, 
And lodge in the house of instruction," 

Wbat did they teach In these houses of InBtructlon or in the 
broad open apacea or prlvAte homes? It should be observed that 
they followed all their predecessars in taking a healthy and sane 
view of life. Life is a gift from God and yet life is a dlacipllne. 

Family life comes In (or special consideration. "Their ideal 
of family life Is high; monogamy ia assumed, parents are the re- 
sponsible guides of their children and entitled to obedience 
and reepect. Woman Is spoken of as wife, mother and housewife. 
She Is a power in the house, capable of making home bappy or 
miserable. She bas not only housekeeping capacity, but also 
broad wisdom. Her position Is as high as any accorded her In 
ancient life." (Toy's Proverbs, Int. Crlt. Com. XII). Parents are 
tbe first teachers (Prov. I, 8; IV, 1-4; VI, 2 0). They advise pa- 
rents to study their children carefully, watch their play and activi- 
ties so as to be able to shape their character. (Prov. XX, 2). 
The child's nature should be studied (Prov. XX, S), nor need the 
correcting rod be withheld (Prov, XIII. 1, 8, 24; XIX, 18). A(, 
ter the parents have done their duty it is well to send their chil- 
dren to professional teachers (Prov. V, 13) whose words are a 
fountain of life (Prov, XIII. 14), and whose greatest joy Is the 
pupil's progress. 

In general and speclBc terms the sages counsel the need oT 
chastity, dlllEence, sobriety, prudence, honesty, justice, loyalty 
to the poor, generosity to enemies, capacity for friendship, the 
aystematlc avoidance of anger, sloth, malice, folly, perjury and 
theft, and in all things to follow the law of God, which Is Wisdom, 
the essence of Religion. This law was the Will of God. The law 
was alive. It was a personal possession, a personal joy, a lov- 


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Ing link between God and man. It bad become spiritualized into 
a paBBlon. called WlBdom. Blessed were its teachers and their 
profession. So exalted had this teachershlp rlaen that it express- 
ed itseir In the warmth and glow of Daniel's phrase, "And they 
that be wise shall shine aa the brightness of the firmament; and 
they that turn many to righteousness as the stars forever anil 
ever. But, thou, O Daniel, shut up the words and seal the book, 
even to the time of the end. Many shall run to and fro nna 
knowledge shall be increased." (Daniel XII, 3 and 4). 

The only seemingly discordant note in the Wisdom Litera- 
ture, to the Joyous optimism of the sage, is strucli by Bccleslastes 
and Job. These two are lonely, solitary figures, yet never de- 
M.airing. Proverbs and Ben Sirach contain disconnected and 
practical reflections and observations. Job and Bcclesiastes are 
philosophers. The former two consider the general question as 
to what is good and right In life and practice. The two latter in- 
quire as to the Chief Good. Tet all four build their message on, 
and reach their conclusions in, God as the source and guarantee 
of all life, religion and happiness. Ecciesiastes and Job may suf- 
fer momentary doubt, but never do they lodge in agnosticism or 

God-consrlousneHS is the underlying dynamic and inspiriting 
phrase which combines the wisdom of the sage with the righteous- 
ness of tlie prophet; the culture of the scribe with the faith of the 
priest and the love of the parent. Each age grasped a new 
method, placed a new stress, emphasized a new principle of the 
fundamental God -consciousness in and for the nation. Yet this Is 
the link which binds home and Torah. Temple and Synagogue. 
This is the sun that Hoods them all with divine light. It is the in- 
terpretive principle In our history. Each age grasped an aspect of 
this progressive truth. But the God-consclousneas was not at 
an end In itself. Its aim was the pursuit and promise and pledge 
of a godly and consecrated life. To achieve this great end is the 
purpose of Religious Culture. To attain it parents, priests, proph- 
ets, scribes and sages have given themselves to the formation 
of its curriculum in 1500 years. It is our educational Ideal. The 
testimony of the Bible Is that this is the diploma of the Jew's 
teachergblp In the world. 


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Methods and Principles Applicable To^Ajt. 

Wbat are the principles and methods of education tn our 
Bible vhicb admit of modern application? Here we must be on 
our guard. Well defined and scientific principles do not exist in 
tbe Bible. It is stupid to attempt to translate psychological words 
like spirit, soul, mind, fiesh and beart from our Bible into modem 
technical terminology. It Is foolish to Inject William James Into 
Jeremiah. Wbat we can do Is, by following the course of historical 
development of religious culture In the Biblical Era, to frame a 
few propositions wbereln all agree. 

Were I, then, asked "Wbat is the moral of fifteen hundred 
years of Biblical education?" I Bhould embody the same In these 

(a) Every child Is educable and baa an Inherent right to 
the knowledge and love of God. 

(b) Bvery child Is entitled to the rich heritage of bis 
fathers as It has been progressively harvested. 

(c) The knowledge of God as It has been enunciated, am- 
plified and lived out tn history Is for the ennoblement and conse- 
cration of life. 

(d) Knowledge of God and Consecration of Life are not 
two separate but two complementary aspects of one truth. 

(e) The attainment of this truth as Religious Culture is the 
Educational Ideal of Scriptures. 

(f) Such religious culture is eBsentlally domestic. 

(g) In this culture, roughly speaking, parents, priests, 
prophets, scribes and sages have emphasized the ingredients of 
obedience, emotion, conBClence, art and Intellect. 

(h) Religious Culture does not mean the rejection but the 
asalmllatlon of other cultures. 

Accepting these fundamental propositions, there Follow these 
principles and methods as answers to the question, "How can wo 
beat attain the fullness of Relfgtoua Culture?" 

(1) Religious Culture Is primarily home-made and home- 
grown. Its moat natural soil Is the soli of domesticity. All are 
agreed that the borne is tbe best place, and the parent the best 
teacher of life's ideal. There is no need to dilate on this self-evl- 


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dent tact. Whatever other nations and races may have said and 
done, the Biblical Era has its unanimous verdict on the beauty, 
utility and duty of domestic training. Here the child gathers its 
flrat impressions, of religion. Here.lniagin^tloii Is stirred, emotion 
aroused,, CRnscier.te fluickened and tatjlt formed. Here are living 
»«(! ,(la4'?.L^*Sini! be imitated, and here, God cornea into the 
.cbild-c^aiBclousness. The hpme. doing its full duty, leaves no room 
(or ft,Rellglous School, save as It Is included In other necessary and 
.pro.fessionali jsghools foreitra-domestic instriiction. The Religious 
Schotd' is.a jnodern growth,., and is simply a confession of a 
];arBntal inefflcienci^ in thl.8 matter. Be it said, hoWever, that 
were the Biblical teachers conscious of local conditions in this 
century of transition, they would advise additional and suppl& 
mentary schools, not to compete with, but to complete the natural 
functions of parental teachershlp. 

(2) In the horne and in the Religious School we need the 
emphasis upon faith and loyalty. The ,parent was helped by the 
priest. : C])lIdliiOod needs the blossom ot faith and the bloom of 
loyalty. Childhood believes, and faith, aided by fertile Imagina- 
tion, Is, its working Intellect. Its faith fills its little universe with 
personalities; they exist tor the child and have reality for it. 
Teachers must appeal to its strong faith, give It content and sta- 
bility, and fill it. with the moving Presence of God. The child has . 
a reservoir of emotion. When tte priests came, they filled the 
home with tangible objects about which their talth could be en- 
twined. Prayer, ceremonial, holiday, sacrifice, temple, these were 
their food, Children to-day need this same food, properly admin- 

J But the real purpose o( this faith and feeling Is for the 
strengthening of tradition- Only tbe stupid Will sneer at tradi- 
tion. The student knows that tradition is the life-blood of Institu- 
tions and families. A tradlttonless home Is anaemic. Tradition 
js the possibility of progress, the conservation of faith and feeling, 
of memories and. heroism and tragedies of the past. Israel 
, ,elo.rles In his traditions. Loyalty to, and pride In them, Is the 
lesson of Biblical education. Not too early can we begin to teach 
Ibis to our children. This Is the keynote of Jewish Consciousness. 
One great conviction ties us forever to the Abraham who heard 
God's voice thirty-seven centuries ago. 




I nc I den tall 3*. this explains why we Jews do not require the 
speclflc training In religion in the public schools. A religious 
training that Is not spun on the loom o( tradition is already 
threadbare. Tradition la vea-k in Christian homes. Christian Sun~ 
day schools, and In our pubiic schools. Therefore, 1 am urgent 
that this idea of tradition, woven in faith and emotion, shalt be 
steadily insisted upon in the home, In the si^hool and In the 
puJplt. The Bible and our whole history and our religious in- 
atitutionallBm offer splendid and Inspiriting characters and tnd- 
denta to give content and direction to It. That reason, and that 
primarily, Justifies the retention of Hebrew In our curricula and In 
our Synagogal worship. 

(3) An excessive harping on this string may produce an 
ethical discord. The officialism of the priest Is sure to meet the 
rebuke of the courageous prophet. Emotion unchained and un- 
directed, faith degeuerating into blind credulity, tradition losing 
Itself In a blatant Chauvinism or a stereotyped K ad dish-loyalty are 
to be deplored. Thus, home and religious school should be espe- 
cially concerned that rellsloua culture should work conscience into 
the life of faith. Ceremonialism does not argue sincerity; nor 
does religiousness mean cliaracter. "Wash ye, make yourselves 
clean," Is the moral bill of health. We must teach religion as a 
part of life. We must show that a child no less than a man can- 
not be morally bad and religiously good at the same time. Wj 
must make religion stand for personal purity, and put conviction 
Into our traditions. We must be Jews; but we must know why we 
sponsor these teachings. We must acquire the courage to do 
right, to condemn wrong; and, at the same time, to put our faith 
into our deed. Our religion must pfiint our duties to our fellow 
men and make God more real to us. The Bible and our subse- 
quent history present magnificent examples of the prophetic ideal- 
Tbe heroism of the prophet matches the heroism of the priest. 
Religious lulture which is bereft of a strong sense of duty and of 
courage to be righteous la utterly devoid of virility. 

(4) Oral Instruction is not sufficient In itself to completely 
fulfill the demands of love, faith and conscience. The scribe pre- 
served law, ijsalmody and prophecy in a written Torah, and since 
then the teacher had a text-book. The learning of the ages must 


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be crystallized and preserved. This can become an authoritative 
guide, If It bear the impresB of divine Inspiration. When tbe Torah 
came, education by test-book was Jewlshly JuHtifled. Home and 
School are fortunate In possessing the preserved treasures of 
Israel's heroic past. They can have no better means for the cul- 
tivation of the religious spirit than a ceaBsleas love for the Bible, 
an abiding loyalty to It, a hearty compliance with Its laws and a 
systematic reading of its pages. If the home and the ReUgloua 
School hold to this task the reading of the Bible In the public 
school need not be our request. Its literary value, its moral em- 
phasis, its spiritual message can be ours at mother's knee. We, 
alas, do not handle our Bible; and much of our loving obedience, 
faith and conscience lack tbe ballast of consistency, courage and 
conviction because of this failure of reenforcement in the home 
and school. The spirit of the scribe is dormant In us. And If the 
complaint is true that Jews are not devouring Jewish literature, 
the reason thereof croucheth at our doors. The art of literature 
was once a strong Jewish passion. 

(5) Religious culture will not suffer if it receives breadth. 
It ought to Include Intellectual stimulus and the joys of wider out- 
looks and higher mental reaches. The sage saw real life, and its 
lessons were not lost on him. His intellectual grasp of the situa- 
tion and his wider reading did not land him in doubt or agnosti- 
cism. Our religious culture need not tear, then, the warm breath 
of other cultures. 

If home and Religious School bring to children and pupils the 
seriousneas, yet the Joy of life; its discipline with its rewards; If 
they encourage clear thinking on the problems of sorrow, suffer- 
ing and death, with sane and healthy appreciation of others' prob- 
lems; religious culture will profit thereby. The lesson of the sage 
is worthy of our most mature conalderation. 

The methods receiving tbe recommendations of the Bible 
educators for this training of obedience, tradition, character, 
study and Intellect, are: 

(1 ) Imitation: A child Is a born mimic. Most of his men- 
tal development is what has become habituated by imitation. Set 
the child the best examples in your personalities as teachers or 
parents, and in the splendid literature at your command! Home 
and history are the best guides. 


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(2) latereBt: A child will quickest abeorb what intereata 
him moat. This principle of Bain has the teetlmony of ceutarles 
beblnd It. Arouae the child's Interest In holidaya and tnstltu- 
tlona ao that It will Instinctively ask questlona. The asking ot a 
question Is a chord upon which a wise teacher will at once play. 
Constantly the question Is put by the child: "What means this 

(3) Symbols: The teaching through symbol grips the 
child's interest. It creates a picture. Through sight or sound, 
the Image and Its attendant lesson becomes fixed la the child's 
mind. The moral will find the picture accompanying It; the pic 
ture will call up the moral. The Bible sets up stone and pillars aa 
memorials. The Passover institution and the sacrificial system, 
and the constant reminders that these lesaons be bound as sign 
upon their hands and as frontlets between their eyes, are evidences 
of teaching by symbol. The offering of "first fruits" taught the 
child to dedicate a portion of his possessions to God. In other 
words, before a child is ready to grasp the deep things in Ood'a 
word, he is learning the lessons of prayer, devotion, reverence, 
gratitude and filial aflection. 

(4) Study the child's nature. Every wise parent knows the 
difference In temperaments, endowments and natures of children. 
"Train up a cbild according to its nature, and when it Is old It 
will not depart therefrom;" "Eves a child makea himself known 
by hla deeds (play) whether he wilt be good or bad," are familiar 
sayings of the sages. 

(5) Feed the child according to Its ability to digest, it 
cannot appreciate the message of the sage unless it has first felt 
the throb of the prophet, nor will It understand the prophet unless 
the priestly fount of faith has first been opened. 

(6) Repetition is recommended. It makes memory possibTe. 
It forms habit. The Hebrew says "Thou shalt teach them dili- 
gently." The Hebrew word rUff means to teach by repe- 
tition through constant digging. Parallelism was used to Hi an 
idea In the mind: acrostics had a similar saving grace. A people 
which has no text-book and feeds on tradition mnet rely on 
memory, sharpened through ages of repetition. 

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(7) Story and Song. The Hebrew parent was a splendid 
story teller. He had the gift ol the short story. There are no 
biographies like those presented in the Bible to Appeal to tha 
imagination, to arouse the emotions and to urge towards right- 
eousness and holiness. With the aid or song and poetry such as 
our Biblical parents must have employed to fix things fn the mind, 
we have the greatest educational force in religious training of the 

( 8 ) Teit-book education ia less direct than oral. The power 
thereof depends mostly on the ability of the teacher. Teach 
rather through concrete objects than through theories and ab- 

(9) Make the child recognize your authority. Teach by 
kindness; while exercising unwavering firmness and you will 
rarely need to be severe. Ideas must be drilled In by repetition 
and often sink in by rebuke. Under all circumstances, obedience 
Is the sine qua non of the educative process. The parents taught 
by commands, 

(10) Above all else, your own personality' aa a living and 
concrete illustration of your abiding talth. your spotless integrity, 
your literary honesty, your sympathetic philosophy will be the 
finest example of the power of God in you for the cultivation of 
the religious spirit In others. 

The Message of Biblical Education. 

I can now sum up, briefly, the message which the Educational 
Ideal has for our age. Religion Is a natural need ot the soul and 
demands cultivation. The time has past tor apologising for tho 
birth, growth and flowering of the spirit that thireteth for the liv- 
ing God and His righteousness. Religion is the glow of God In 
childhood, and becomes the consecration and guarantee of na- 
tional perpetuity. 

While religious culture may find its final flowering elsewhere, 
its true, natural and best garden is in the home. A rellglonless 
home is a misfortune. A religionieBs nation is bloodless. A rell- . 
gionless education is one-sided. The State must see that the edu- 


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catlonal agency of the home ia not superseded. The State Is mada 
up o[ families; and there the affections and sentiments of Individ- 
uals receive their hearty support. There life receives its dower 
and Ita consecration, and there the State renews Itself. 

Truth, beauty and goodneea are the ideals of science, art and 
ethics. Religion posits God as the Source of truth, heautf and 
goodness. It harmonlzea, It sanctifies them all to human endeav- 
ors. It says to these ideals, "Bleaaed be ye In the name of God. 
^Ve i)lesa you from the house of God." 

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The Rabbinical Era. 

That Israel la a wonderlul people Is not by any means K novel 
observation. It has been time and agala uttered and penned with 
good reason, not only b; Its friends, but also by Its enemies. For 
does not Its history prove an eloquent witness? Cradled In the 
Orient thousands of years ago, with naught but barbarism u Its 
environment, and scattered over the face of the globe tor welt nigh 
nineteen centuries, with proscription and persecution as Its lot, 
Israel was never without buoyant hope, noble aspiration, and godly 
Idealism. In mankind's struggle upward It proved Itself the mas- 
ter-builder. Because dowered with the moral and religions talent. 
It did not lose its Interest, and did not sacrifice its co-operation In 
any one of the manifold activities making for a better and higher 
humanity. Would not any other people, subjected to a lot similar 
to that which Israel endured, have long ere this despaired and 
passed out of existence? If the Israel of Biblical days de- 
serves to be called wonderful, on account of Its survival in 
the face of obetacles. struggles and vicissitudes, the Israel living 
in dispersion la more wonderful by far. The student cannot help 
but notice, that, despite the pressure put upon dispersed Israel 
from without, its life within constantly expanded, so that It not 
only did not fall behind, but even kept abreast with, and was often 
In advance of other peoples in general culture, as well as In re- 
ligions and moral thought. 

It is needless to enter into details In support of this claim. - 
"He that runs may read." We are In possession of text-books on 
Jewish history, the perusal of which proves conclusively Israel's 


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many-sided and growing activity at all times. Nor Is the proof of 
Israel's numerous contributions to civilization tb« purpose of 
the present paper. Tbat, with which we are concerned now and 
here, is the coDsideratlon of the part Israel has taken from the 
dose of tlie Biblical Canon to the beginning of the Mendelssohn- 
Ian period, in the development of pedagogy. While pedagogy was 
not reduced among Jews to a science In the modern acceptation of 
the term, yet proper Intellectual and spiritual guidance and devel- 
opment received at the hands of Jews careful and undivided atten- 
tion. It has been shown by the author of the previous paper, tbat 
In the Biblical period education was an important discipline In oui* 
people's polity. No sentiment expressed by ancient teacher lends 
firmer conviction to this contention than the words "Thou sbalt 
teacb tbem diligently unto thy children." (1) Nor can sight be 
lost of the fact, tbat various methods of education were well known 
to and practiced among our Biblical ancestors. Taking Into ac- 
count, that the Jews of the Rabbinical era ever built upon tbe 
teachings and tbe traditions of the Bible, and sought to further 
among themselves tbe talent and the mission of their forebears, It 
may with Justice be inferred, that education as such, together with 
other cultural dlBclpllnes, was not only not neglected, but actually 
promoted throughout the Diaspora. In tact, it Is not asserting 
too much, when the remark Is made, that Jews, more than others, 
were tbe edncators of tbe world. Pedagogy was their natural vo- 
cation. Tbat. which they failed to give to the world along the 
lines of tbe natural sciences and the arts, was more than equalized 
by their earnest and unmitigated endeavors In the field of educa- 

That tbe Jew had manifested marked pedagogical genlns 
and skill in the course of his career, Is not generally known. Few 
are tbe text-books dealing with the history of education, which 
mention the Jew's activity in this direction. This circumstance 
Is by no means surprising, when we bear in mind, tbat the Jew 
is only now beginning to be properly presented and understood, 
and. that the literature on the Jew as educator, Is by no means 
any more extensive than the study of tbe Jew carried on from 
other specific points of view. In fact, the literature in modem lan- 
guages on the subject in question is extremely meager. We can 
point to no exhaustive treatise In English. The only material avall- 

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able In Engllsb 1b an article on "Education," and another on 
"Pedagogy," in tbe Jewish Encyclopedia, while In German three 
treatises Btand forth from amidst a number ot brochures. I refer 
to "The History of Training and Instruction Among the is- 
raetlteB," by B. Strassburger, "The History of Education Among 
. JewB," by M. Ouedeman, and "The Method of Jewish Religious In- 
atructlon," by S. Maybaum. The thorough and exact acquaintance 
witb tbe principles and methods of Jewish education In vogue in 
tbe Rabbinical era must remain, therefore, for the present at 
least, the privileged accomplishment of those, who have mastered 
the dialects in which the Talmudlc and post-Talmudlc literatures 
have been written. 

The Talmudlc writings are indeed replete with valuable 
thoughts on education not found collected tn any one definite 
book, but scattered, as in the case of the Bible, over a wide 
range; while among the post-Talmudlc writings are found peda- 
gogical treatUes like "The Training of the Intellect," by Hal Oaon 
(938-1038); "The Book of the Pious," by Rabbi Jehudah, the 
Pious, (1166-1217); "The Healing of Souls," by Joseph Aknin, 
(1160-1226); "The Balances of Righteousness," by Abraham 
Chasdal, (1240); "The Silver Dish," by Joseph EpobI, (1250); 
a treatise entitled "The Study of the Law," In the MIshnah To- 
rah of Moses Malmonldes, (1135-1204); "The Statutes of the 
I>aw," giving tbe educational theories of the thirteenth century; 
and parts of tbe Shulchan Arukh. by Joseph Caro (1488-1575). 

In giving here, on account of the limited space at our disposal 
what can be at best a mere digest of rabbinical pedagogy, we feel 
constrained to Indicate first and foremost, the value which the 
rabbis of old set upon education. Holding that "the moral order 
of the universe depends on the breath of school children," (21 
they laid down tbe maxim, "the study of the law is tbe paramount 
religious duty." (3) Hence, "one Is forbidden to dwell in a city in 
which there la no teacher;" (4) and in the aasignment of causes 
which led to the ruination of Israel's state. It is remarked, that 
"Jerusalem was destroyed because of the neglect of the children's 
instruction." (5) Even for tbe sake "of the rebuilding of tbe 
temple, education was not to be set aside." (6) And every father 
was exhorted to pay close attention to the spiritual development of 
hia child, for "everyone who taught his son the Law was regarded 

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as though he himself received the Law from Mt, Sinai." (7) Al- 
though the educational burden rested upon the lather, the mother 
was not exempt from it. The Ignorance b[ her oC-epring resulted 
in the mother's shame, since it was held, that "it Is the merit of 
women to enroll their sons and daughters at school." (8) Wltb 
sentiments like these prevailing among the rabbis, we can ander- 
stand why they should have admonished the people "to train many 
disciples." (9) In lact, the duty of making knowledge an unlTor- 
sal posseasion had its origin, not simply In the worth of educa- 
tion, but also in the desire to see God emulated. With a qualnt- 
nesB peculiar to Israel's sagea, the Rabbis asked the question, 
"what does God do in the fourth hour of the day?"; (10) and they 
replied, at such time, "God sits and teaches the younger pupils." 

That schools In great abundance should have come Into exlst- 
ence in Jewry wheresoever residing, during the Rabbinical period 
ot our history, is. therefore, not at all astonishing. The schools 
bore various names. A school was called either "the house ot aa- 
sembly," "house of research," or "house of the Rabbi." The 
head ot the school was called "Rab," "the master," while In Sora 
and Pumbaditha, where prominent academies once flourished, he 
was designated "Gaon," "the excellent one." The teachers In the 
faculties of a school were known as " 'Haberim," "the associ- 
ates," or " "Ha'hmlm," "the wise." And pupils were termed 
"Talmtde 'Ha'hmlm," "disciples of the wise." Tracing the his- 
tory of the rabbinical schools back to their beginnings, we find sach 
nourishing In Jerusalem already two centuries before the disinte- 
gration ot the Jewish state. "The men' of the great Synagogue," 
"the school of the Scribes," and the "Synbedrln." should be men- 
tioned In this connection, for their function was, as is well known. 
the transmlBsion of Jewish tradition In its exactness from genera- 
tion to generation. In the year 80 B. C. Simon ben Shetach 
founded schools In larger communities, of which afterwards, the 
schools of Hillel and Shamai became types; while In 63 C. E. 
schools for younger children were founded by Joshua ben Gamla. 
It was, however, with the year 70 C. E. when the national life, with 
Its Temple service, came to a close, that the activity of Jews in the 
establishment of schools became markedly pronounced. Jocbanan 
ben Sakkai. having appeared before the Roman Emperor with a 
plea for mercy, established an Influential seat of learning at Jab- 


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neb, not far from the Holy City. From time to time, new acade- 
mleB aroee In Palestine and In Babylonia, wbere, as at all times, 
tbe Jew was made a welcome Bojourner. In Palestine we have in 
addition to Jabneh, the schools of Bene-Berak, Lydda, (the Deopo- 
lla of the Romans), Caesarea, SefTorls, Beth Shearlm, Achbara, 
Ttberlas and Kefar-Aziz; In Babylonia we have the si?hools of N^- 
liardeii, Mechuzah, Shechanzib, Nisibls, Sora and Pumbaditha. 
which closed ItE doors In 1040 C. E.; and Id more recent tlmep of 
the Rabbinical era, the 'Heder and Yeshlbah of every Jewish com- 
munity. Originally, the schools were often located In humble 
dwelHnsVH In tlie heart of the towns, but were for the most part sii- 
uoted In the suburbs of the city, so as to free pupils from the temii- 
tatloti o! distrsction. The class rooms, to use a modern term, 
were so arranged, that the pupils formed a seml-clrcle Ave and 
six rows deep, around the teacher, who sat upon an elevated 
chair, while they sat on the floor, as la the earlier times, or on 
benches, as In the later centuries. Attention was paid to the 
number of pupils in charge of one instructor. In the majority of 
instances a teacher was appointed for every class of twenty-Bve 
students. H the number increased from twenty-flve to fortj, an 
assistant was appointed who had to attend the instruction of the 
teacher in order to review the lessons with the pupils. Whenever 
the number of pupils reached fifty, the appointment of an addi. 
tlonal regular teacher was deemed essential. 

A boy's education began as soon as he knew how to speak, 
hifl father then being obliged to teach him the declaration; "the 
law that Moses commanded us, Is the heritage of the congrega- 
tion of Jacob," (11) and "Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the 
Lord is One." The age tor entering school was fixed at six 
years. Earlier enrollment was discouraged. The observation 
was made, that "he who sends his son to school, before the latter 
is six years old, runs after him, but does not overtake him," 
(12) which signified, "that while the father may be anxious to 
develop his boy. his boy, because of Inaufflcient physical and 
mental strength, will decline." 

Instruction vtaa given every day. and during a part of every 
evening; Sabbath, however, being set aside only for review. In 
addition to Sabbaths, the two months, Adar and Ellul. called 
"the months of Aasembly," were in the schools of Sora and Pum- 


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badltba, also employed [or review. 

The curriculum was carefully mapped out. The foundation 
of all Instruction was reading. At six years ot age the pupil was 
Introduced into the Scriptures, the study of which began with the 
Book of Leviticus, because of Its emphasis of purity and bollneBS. 
The Mlshnah was taught to the boy when he reached his tenth 
year, and the Talmud when be became fifteen. (13) In the trans- 
lation ol texts, what is now called the Hamlltonian method 
was used (James Hamilton, 1T69-1S31), and consists of 
teaching language by observations made in reading and 
not of the study of grammatical rules. The test-hook naed 
In history was the "Seder Olam," the chronology of the world, 
while [rom time to time, the Midrashim, the Biblical commentaries 
of the Rabbis, the Codes and the Kabballstlc literature, (like the 
Zobar. Sefer Yezirah and others) were added to the curriculum. 
In addition to the religious knowledge obtained from the fore- 
going works, considerable secular knowledge was imparted, but, 
ot course, only Incidentally. The latter Included geometry, as- 
tronomy, the natural sciences, anatomy and medicine. Qrammar, 
too, was not neglected, although It was pursued with exactness 
and seriousness only from the time that Jews came In contact with 
Arabs, and were under the Influence of Arabic grammarians. 

The practical In education was always considered more Im- 
portant than the theoretical. Consider such sayings as: "With- 
out wisdom there Is no religion, as without religion there Is no 
wisdom," (14) "not study but practice la the principal duty"; 
(15) "he that reads and studies, hut does not practice, remains 
Ignorant." (16) 

In the srheme of Rabbinical education gradual progression 
was deemed desirable. In the early days the student had to learn 
at least one Biblical verse a day, for the teacher was In the habit 
of saying to the pupil upon coming to school: "Tell me thy verse." 

For subserving the ends, which education has In view, the 
method of Instruction In vogue in the Rabbinical schools Is high- 
ly interesting, because unique In character. It proceeded by qnes- 
tion and answer. The teacher would propound a query which fre- 
quently led to almost Interminable discussion. While the subject 
primarily concerned Itself with the exposition of the Biblical or 
Talmudlc law, many and various themes, by no means religtouB In 


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cliB.rB.cter, were otten Introduced and treated more or less exhaust- 
ively In consequence of the aesociatlon of Ideas, The object In 
view was always the full unfolding of the mentm and moral fac- 
ulties. Memory and reason were carefully deTelo::ed; reverence 
and love, [aitbfully cultivated. In the course of the discursive 
method referred to, the instruction oft became direct and didactic, 
especially In the citation of a fixed law or tradition: or It partook 
of the Illustration of a principle by means of story, legend or al- 
legory. The former bears the technical name "Halachah," "law," 
and the latter "Aggadah," "narrative," or "allegory." An example 
of Halachah 1b such a principle as, "every one Is presumed to 
be Innocent until proved guilty." And a specimen Aggadah Is the 
following story told in one of the tracts of the Talmud. It Is nar- 
rated, that at the time of the revolution under Hadrian, the study 
of the Law was prohibited, and Aklbah, one ot the teachers at that 
time addreBsed a conterarorary as follows: "A fox went to the 
brink of a river and noticed, on looking Into the water, that the 
fishes swam nervously to and fro." "Of what are you afraid?" 
asked the fox, -'Of the nets of the fishermen," was the reply 
of the fishes. Thereupon the fox said, "Come upon the dry land, 
and we shall live together peaceably." The fish answered, "Not 
without cause do people call you the slyest of animals. Your 
couTFel Is ridiculous. If we are not safe in the water, which gives 
us life, why should we go where our sojourn would be sure to re- 
sult In death." The point emphasized in this story Is plain. It 
Indicates, that as the life of the fish depends upon the water, so 
the lite of Israel depends upon the study of the Law, 

In treating the method of Instruction, attention must needs 
be directed to the dialectics employed in the Rabbinical schools, 
because of which the powers of analysis and reasoning among our 
forefathers became exceptionally acute. In the earlier days, the 
laws of logic In vogue among the Greeks, were not known to the 
Jews, but In their stead, Jews used certain principles ol argu- 
mentation by means of which they arrived at countless justifiable 
conclusions and cultivated the mind, Hillel was the first to pro- 
mulgate these principles by arranging them Into a category of 

1, The inference from n less to a more rigorous case and 
vice versa. 

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2. The Inference based on analogy of language. 

3. A law deduced from one Scriptural verse. 
i. A law deduced from two Scriptural verses. 

h. An Inference based upon the relationship of general and 
liarticular terms. 

6. An analogy drawn from another verse Of the Bible. 

T. An explanation based upon the context of a verse. 

In addition to these seven hermeneutlcal principles Of UUlel. 
increased by Rabbt Ishmael to thirteen, and later by Rabbi Ele&z- 
er to thirty-two, a process of reasoning known as "Extension and 
LlmltaflOD," attaching special Impoi'tance to particles of the He- 
brew language used In the scriptures, was developed by a certain 
Rabbi Nahum, and the celebrated Rabbi Akibah; and another sys- 
tern known as that of "Juxtaposition." purporting to show that a 
law Is often explained by a passage either preceding or following 
in the Biblical text, was also frequently called into service, in or- 
der to arrive at the significance and intent of an established and 
transmitted institution. 

Because all the instruction, except that in the Bible, was 
supposed to be oral, so as to properly discriminate between the 
scriptural or written law. and the traditional or oral law, numer- 
ous aids to the memory were invented. Thus, for example, terms 
and phrases were formed out of the initials of separate words, 
and names were given to treatises or their constituent chaptera 
oft taken from their opening passages. 

Brevity and conciseness in Instruction met with commenda- 
tion. Hence the warning that "one should always teach his pupil 
in the shortest possible way." Repetition as leading to thorough- 
ness, too. was couDselled. He who repeated a lesson a hundred 
times was not presumed to know the lesson as well as the one who 
repeated it a hundred and one times. Of a certain Rabbi It 
Is told that "he repeated a teaching four hundred times." (17) 

While in the main the method remained the same tbrougb- 
out the centuries, the character of the instruction reflected to a 
great extent the influences to which Jews were exposed at various 
times. They could not help but be molded, through Alexandriati 
Jews, by Greek educational ideals, in the days of Phllo: by Arabic 
tendencies during their solourn with the Moors; and by 
the stagnating scholaBticIsm and lassitude of the Church In En- 


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rope during tbe Middle Ages. The more recent 'Heder with its 
lack of system, Its narrow scope, Us absence of division Into classes, 
Its Instruction by personal attention bestowed upon pupils In ro- 
tation, Is the result rather of the medieval spirit, than of the edU' 
catlonal ideals native to the Jews. If a trace of the genuine Jew- 
ish education existed at all during the Middle Ages, — and' to be 
more speclQc, — Just before the birth of Mendelssohn, that trace was 
to he found In the Yeahibah, where treatises of the Talmud with 
their commentaries were .seriously studied and grammatical re- 
jearches made, and where was to be met the "Bakl" well versed 
In TalmudlG law, and the ' Harlf" dowered wfth the keen analy- 
tical sense. 

In the Rabbinical schools, the status of the teacher was a dig- 
nified one. The help of a teacher was considered Indispensable for 
every man. Although the self-instructed was worthy of commends- 
tlon, he, who was taught by a teacher was considered more thor- 
ough. The people were told "to learn from scholars rather than 
from books," (18), Whereas the teacher was highly neceeeary. 
In the proper acquirement of knowledge, wisdom had to be exer- 
cised in hts choice. The teacher had to possess personality. Al- 
though It Is not deemed advisable "to look at the tlask but what Is 
In It." (19) because there Is many a new flask with old wine, and 
"many an old Rask that has not even new wine," a teacher, to do 
effective work, had to be forty years of age; for, "he that learns 
from young people is like one who eats sour grapes, and drinks 
■wine from the vat. whereas, he who learns from the old is like one 
who eats ripe grapes and drinks seasoned wine," (30) The Hab- 
bls do not forget to accentuate the need of the "oacher's. profes- 
sional fitness. He must be thoroughly qualified Intellectually, 
so as always to be ready with the proper answer. A caution In 
point Is: "If one asks of thee a question, do not stammer, but 
reply without hesitation." (21) In fact, the more experienced 
the teacher, the more desirable he was considered. The Latin 
maxim "docendo discimus" finds an echo in the Rabbi's confession 
to the effect, "I have learned much from my teachers, more from 
my associates, and most from my pupils." (22) The teacher had 
to evince also the proper temperament. He had cheerful, 
kind and patient. He was admonished to be meek like Hlllel, and 
warned not to be Irritable like Shamsl, (23) for "the Irritable Is 

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not at to teach," (24) The teacher had to be above favoritism. 
Because Moses is supposed to have declared, that he htmsell worlc- 
ed for Israel gratuitously, every teacher must devote himself to 
hla calling with unselfish motives. The teacher was especteu to 
be modest, no matter how profound his erudition, lor "as water, 
milk and wine are preserved only In earthen vessels, so the words 
of the law endure only with him who Is modest." (25) 

However, over and above the profeBslonal fltness was the 
moral fltness. "Not every man wae worthy to teach," "He who 
drank a fourth of a meoaure of wine could not Instruct." (26) 
"Before seeking to improve others the candidate for teaching was 
told to eradicate hla own faults." "Every disciple who waa not 
inwardly aa clean as outwardly, was said to amount to naught." 
(27) "The Ark of the Covt.iant waa overlaid with gold within and 

Nor did the Rabbis forget to specify the need of the teitch- 
er'g social qualification. Said they: "the youth, the unmarried or 
one divorced from his wife ahall not teach," "The ideal teacher is 
he, who Indulges in audible study; pronounces distinctly; possesses 
understanding and discernment of the heart, awe, reverence, meek- 
ness, cheerfulness: who ministers to sages; associates with col- 
leagues; discusses with disciples: is sedate: knows the ScrlptursH 
and the Hishnah; engages but tittle in buBinesB; Indulges mod- 
erately In intercourse with the world, in pleasure, In sleep, in con- 
versation and In laughter; who is patient and kind; trusts the wise: 
shows resignation In chastisement; knows his station, rejoices In 
his portion; puts a fence to his words; claims no merit for him- 
self; is beloved; loves Ood, mankind, righteousness, rectitude and 
reproof: flees from honor; boasts not of hie learning; and delights 
not In giving decisions; bears his neighbor's yoke; Judges him 
favorably; and leads him to truth and peace; is calm in bis 
study; asks and answers; listens and adds: learns in order to 
teach and to practice; makes wise hie own teacher; pays attention 
to every teacher's discourse; and reports a teaching on the authori- 
ty of him who Is responsible for it." (28) 

As It was considered an advantage for the pupil to enjoy th« 
guidance of a teacher, this advantage was very much more pre- 
clons, if he came under the Influence of many and various teach- 
ers. He, who learned the law from only one instructor, was not 


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looked upon as having enjoyed the blesBlng o[ education to Its full- 
est extent. And white speaking of the number and variety of 
teachers, tt was well for one to employ, reference should be made 
to the tact, that the teachers In the Rabbinical schools wero oft 
given to specialization. There were those who were more particu- 
larly prepared for Biblical instruction, and, on the other hand, 
those, who devoted themselves altogether to the teaching of tbe 
Mishnah and Talmud. (29) Despite the wider range of knowl- 
edge, which the secondary school-teacher, whose province lay in 
Mishnah and Talmud, had to possess, the work of the elementary 
teacher was considered more gratilying. "He who teaches a child 
was compared to him that writes upon clean paper, while he who 
leaches the Old is compared to him that writes on blotted paper. 

Whatever the specific province ot the teacher may have been, 
he was always granted academic freedom for the expression of his 
pcraqnal views. 

Teachers could also be suspended, but only "on account ot 
their faulty instruction or their ignorance." <31) The people 
were, however, warned against ''dismissing an elementary teacbei 
endowed with sufficient knowledge, for one whose knowledge is 
more extensive, but who, because ot his rank, may prove proud 
and negligent." (32) 

In the Rabbinical schools the teaching staff was masculine 
throughout. Women were not eligible tor appointment. (33) 

The compensation ot teachers, for services rendered their pu- 
pils, differed in the many centuries of the period ot which we 
are treating. Because ot the maxim "do not make of the Law a 
crown tor self aggrandizement, or a spade with which to dig," 
(34) and because ot that other saying, "he who makes use of the 
crown of the Iiaw is destroyed," (35) teachers were not paid In 
the earlier days, but piled a trade for self-support. In the course 
of time, teachers, provided they had no means ot livelihood, 
were supported from the tithe given to the poor. Eventually, how- 
ever, the teacher's remuneration consisted ot presents bestowed 
upon bim, a practice which found authority in the Talmudlc say- 
ing, "he who brings gilts to the wise man. Is as it he had ottered 
the first fruits to Ood." (36) 

As the teacher was made the subject of careful scrutiny, m* 

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that DO one except tbe fltteat could Instruct, ao too, tbe pupil was 
carefully studied In the light of bis general and specific needs. Child- 
nature was a province, to tbe examination of which, marked at' 
tention was bestowed in the Rabbinical scheme ol education. 
The Biblical principle "train tbe lad In the way be should go," 
(37) was never abandoned. In order that the pupil might he- 
come a credit to hie teacher and hla school, he bad to possess a. 
number of very important qualifications. He had to be self- 
reliant tor "tbe bashful person cannot learn." \3S) He bad 
to seek Information by questions. In order that tbe subjects 
taught him should be properly understood. He bad to persevere, 
for "everyone who studies and forgets, Is like a woman who bears 
children and buries them." ( 39 ) He had to be modest for "if thou 
hast learned much, do not consider It to thy credit, because tor 
this purpose thou waat created;" (40) "learning Is permanent 
only with the meek;" (41) and "everyone, who studies privately, 
will be sure to win fame in time." (42) 

The difference Id the aptitudes of pupils was not Ignored. 
Pupils were likened to "the sponge, the funnel, the strainer and 
the sievei The sponge sucks up everything. The funnel allows 
things taken In to pass out. Tbe strainer lets the wine pass and 
retains the lees. The sieve lets tbe bran pass and collects tbe fine 
flour." (43) Another observation on the difference In pupils runs 
thus: "there are tour kinds of disciples, one is quick to under- 
stand, and quick to forget; another Is slow to understand, ana 
slow to forget: a third Is quick to understand and slow to forget; 
and a fourth Is slow to understand and quick to forget." (44) 

Poverty in pupils was not considered a hindrance to their 
education. Apart from the support given them frequently by 
teachers, the poor were considered as giving greater promise of 
success by virtue of their need, than such who were better condi- 
tioned. It was therefore remarked, "be careful of the poor, for from 
them comes the law." (45) 

Inasmuch as the pupil was carefully studied from every point 
of view, by the Rabbis, It Is but natural, that the backward papil 
should have received their attention. A pupil was regarded back- 
ward who had attended a school from three to five years without 
making progress. In such Instance the transfer of the pnpll to 
another school was recommended, for tbe failure of the pupil was 


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not ascribed so mucb to the natural lack of aptitude In the child. 
as to the Uhellhood, that the teacher had not ehown the pupil 
Bufflcient Bftnpathy, (46) or, that ttie teacher In his Instruc- 
tion was devoid of ayatematic presentation. 

Aa the teaching staff consisted of men, so tbe student body 
coDBisted for tbe moat part of boys. Girls did not receive equal 
opportunitlea of education with their brothers. Their instruc- 
tion did not extend into Taimudic literature, but ended with the 
Bible. They were, however, in tbe earlier days, taught Greek, be- 
cause Greek was looked ut^nn a.s one of the finer accompllahments. 

The time set aside for study had to be conscientiously utilised. 
The pupil was advised not to say "I shall learn when I have time, 
aa later on he might not have the time;" (47) and "if thou ne- 
glectest the law, many hindrances may arise to prevent thy study." 
(48) fhe pupil was warned "not to absent himself from school 
even fur a single hour," (49) for "the day is short, the work is 
great.' (50) 

Prizes were awarded to the most meritorious pupils. Rabbi 
Jehudit ha-Nassi is reported to have given honey to his successful 
elementf ry pupils. 

Proi lelon was also made for vacations. These were given on 
fast days the eves of Sabbaths and holidays, for three days before 
the Feast of Weeks, 'Hhanukab week, the fifteenth of Ab and 

Tbe discipline of the school was good. It grew out of the 
healthful atmosphere favoring the instruction. It was but seldom 
that the proper point of contact between teacher and pupil was 
not estiil lished. The teacher was accorded tbe pupil's profound 
respect, for he was told: "that the fear for bis teacher had to 
be like Uie tear for God," (51) and "that one's father is respon- 
sible for one's life in this world, whereas one's teacher giving him 
knowledge. Is responsible for one's life In the world to come." 
(52) Everyone who disputed bis teacher was regarded as one who 
disputed Providence. (53) 

As respect had to be shown to the teacher by his pupil; so the 
teacher was likewise enjoined to pay the proper regard to his 
disciple. Tbe admonition "let the fear for thy teacher be like the 
ffiar tor God," had the companion warning. — "let the honor of thy 
disciple be ae dear to thee as thine own." (54) 


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Coi'poial punishment was not looked upon with tavor. When- 
ever it was necessary to administer such, the pupil could be chaa- 
tised only with a strap. (55) In the case ot grown pupils, how- 
ever, corporal punishment was discountenanced, because tbelr selF- 
defense could eaaiiy have led to blows inflicted upon the teacher. 

Before closing, we shall quote some of the rules of guidance 
for instruction laid down by a few Of the teachers of the Middle 
Ages, who devoted themselves to the solution of the educational 

Hai Gaon remarks In bis "Training ot the Intellect," "Train 
children with gentleness. Hake every sacriSce to purchase books 
for them, and to engage for them a teacher. Reward the teacher 
generously, for whatever you give the teacher you give your own 

Rabbi Jehudah, the Pious, in his "Book o[ The Pious," says 
among other valuable things; "Boys and girls should not play to- 
gether. No one should punish children In anger. Children are 
like their parents, even in the acquirement ot knowledge. Chil- 
dren should not receive leHsons too difficult for them. In the selec- 
tion of a vocation for his son, the parent should consider the son's 
talent. Even girls one should instruct in the leading principles 
of religion. A father should not teach his own children, but should 
engage a teacher. Interruption in Instruction should not be conn* 
tenanced. What one teacher has forbidden his pupils, another 
should not allow them. One should not entrust children to an in- 
efficient teacher. Well-behaved and incorrigible children should 
not be taught together. Exceptionally apt children should receive 
a special teacher. A teacher should never ask questions ot a stut- 
tering pupil in the presence of his school-mates. Questions should 
be put to the stuttering cither In writing or orally after the school 
mates have left." 

Joseph Aknin in his "Healing ot Souls" advises, that the 
teacher should know his subject; should practice what he teaches: 
teach gratuitously: treat pupils as though they were his oivn 
children: perform all of his pedagogical duties consclentlonsl;; and 
should always consider the ability of his pupils, Joseph Aknln re- 
gards the following subjects as a necessary curriculum tor the edu- 
cated man: writing, reading, the Bible, the Talmud, poetry, logic, 
philosophy, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, mechanics, the nat- 




ural edenceB, music, medicine and metaphyelcs. 

Reviewing In thougbt this outline o( Jewieh education In 
vogue in the Rabbinical era, we muat needs recognize, that vhUe 
many principles advocated by our sages are antiquated, a goodly 
number, to which they gave expression, despite their age, are 
thoroughly modern. It Beems indeed as though some of the newer 
departures along pedagogical lines, of which we hear so much to- 
day, have been anticipated by the scholars whose sphere of ac- 
tivity lay either in the Oriental academies or in the Jewish ichooU 
of medieval Europe. It is well nigh certain, that, with the ap- 
plication of the methods of Rabbinical education, we conld produce 
In our day men, each one of whom would deserve to be called, b^ 
cause of reasoning power, "a butting ram," like Rabbi Aklbah, or, 
"the acute" like Rabbi Jehudab Bar Jecheskel wno, though dead 
these many centuries, will shine on "like the stars, forever and 

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Deut 8:5. 


Ned. 8 a. 


Sab. IlSb. 




Peat 1:1. 


Chul. 107b. 


Sota 22: a 


B. B. 21a. 


Sab. 119. 


Kid. 4:13. 


Sab. 119b. 


Aboth 4:7. 


Synh. 17b. 


Aboth 1:13. 


Berach 2a. 


Keth. 106 b. 


Abotli 1:1. 


Prov. 22:6. 


Aboda Zarah 8b. 


Aboth 2:6. 


B. B. 14a. 


Synh. 99a. 


Ketli. 50a. 


Aboth 2:9. 




Sota 21b. 


Abotb 3:21. 


Moed Kat ISb. 


Aboth 1:17. 


Aboth 5:18. 




Aboth 5:15. 


BTnb. 99a. 


Ned. 81a. 


Kid. Ilia. 


Taan. 8 b. 




Aboth 2:5. 




Aboth 4:12. 


Kid. SOa. 


Sab. 83. 


Taan. 7a. 


Aboth 2:20. 


Sab. 30b. 






B. M. 33a. 


Taan. 7a. 


Synh. 110a. 


Erub 64a. 


Aboth 4:15. 


Yoma 72b. 


B. B. 21a. 


Aboth 6. 




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A complete history of Jewieh Education in the Modern 
Era awalte the fuller gathering ot scattered material and thi 
development of educational methods still In their lormative state. 
Yet enough Is at our disposal to write a connected story by re- 
lating It to the larger and contiguous fields of Jewish Emanci- 
pation, Reform and Orthodoxy, and the Development ot Hebrew- 

Xhe Pre-MeDdelssohnian Era. 

Concerning the eminent services of Jews to the progress of 
clTlUiatlon, Lecky wrote : "While all around them were grovel- 
ing In the darkness of besotted ignorance, while Juggling miracles 
and lying relics were the themes on which almost all Buropu 
were expatiating, while the Intellect of Christendom had sunk 
Into a deadly torpor. In which all love of Inciulry and all search 
for truth were abandoned, the Jews were still pursuing the path 
of knowledge, amassing learning and stimulating progress with 
the same unflinching constancy that they manifested in thel r 
faith." (1) Along aide this quotation let me present a con- 
trasting picture. Naphtali Herz Wessely, one of the most dis- 
tinguished friends of Mendelssohn, wrote — "They are Ignoraa': 
of the rules ot Hebrew, of the beauty ot its diction and its 
poetry. Much less are they acquainted with the languages of 
the people among whom they live; some can neither read nor 
write them. The construction ot the globe, the events of history 
and the principles ot civil law, of natural and scientific philoso- 

(1) History of Rationalism, p. 232, Vol. 1. 

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phy, are altogether hidden things to them. They are not prop- 
orly acquainted with the fundamental principles of their faith, 
nor are thsy taught morality or psychology In their BChoola. (1) (2) 
What a contrast between the picture painted by a Christian 
of the Jew In the Middle Ages, and the one drawn by a Jew 
of the intellectual degradation of his people In the beginning of 
the eighteenth century! 

However true may be the sketch presented by Wessely, 
there is always one redeeming feature. There was always some- 
one studying somewhere at all times in Israel. LoTe of learning, 
however narrow It may have become, never wanted disciples. 
Political proscription, social degradation, the deification of the 
Talmud and the use of a jargon, left their educational imprlDt 
on the Jew. A dead level ol ritual uniformity marked the Jew- 
ish culture of the period. Recoiling within himself, he tabooed 
all secular books, language and studies. Driven from contact 
with the outer world, he found his only aolace in poring over 
his religion, and in a slavish study of the Talmud. The People 
of the Book was lost In a book. The Bible Itself had sunk into 
a place of secondary importance, known largely through its 
Talmudlc quotations. The Talmud-Tora (the public school for 
the poor), and the 'Heder, (a private venture) were the element- 
ary schools for the learning of Hebrew reading, the Five Books 
of Moses, the Books of Esther and Lamentations aud the Rashl 
Commentary. This type of school abounded throughout Europe. 
Boys from sii to thirteen studied there. At the age of thirteen, 
the boys were Bar Mitzvah and allowed themselves three months 
for the study of their special "portion" which they read from 
the Scroll. This was the youth's graduation Into the higher or 
secondary school called the "Veshibah." In this latter school 
he gained a familiarity with the Talmud, its commentaries and 
the Schulchan Aruch. It was a general practice for the higher 

(1) "Hebrew Review," London, 18B9. 

( 2 ) It is Interesting to note also that Johanes Buxtorf , a not- 
ed Christian Hebraist, in his Synngogua Jndalca, "dast tat, Jnden 
Scbul" Basel, 1S43, In Ch. III. tells "Wie die Juden ilire Jnnge 
Kinder auterziehen zur Gottesfurcht," In "How the Jews R«ar 
Their Children In the 'Fear of God.' " 


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students to visit various "Yeahiboth." A student thus stocked 
wltb learning was a most acceptable son-in-law. The traveling 
student found lodgment everywhere. Private purses were in- 
variably open to support him. He had the additional pleasure 
of a Communal dinner when a certain tractate of the Talmud 
was begun or Bnished. Moneyless, he traveled from city to city 
to slake hie thirst. He carried out to the letter the Idea of the 
poverty-student "Eat bread with salt, drink water by measure, 
sleep on the hard ground, lead a life of denial and busy yourself 
wltn learning." (Pirke Aboth VI 4.) 

In 1753 something of a system was slowly coming to light. 
At a conference of the Community of Nlckolsburg, where the 
Land-Rabblner had his seat, certain communities were ordered 
to support their quota of students. All the higher schools were 
tti begin their study of the one tractate of the Talmud at the 
same time, so that the itinerant student lost nothing. A Head 
Master, (Roah Yeahibah) was chosen to rule for one year. Be- 
fore him the student appeared tor examination every six months, 
but the weekly quiz was given on Fridays by the local teacher. 
A traveling truant ofQcer came to see if the student was indus- 

Discipline In all these schools was unknown. The rod was 
the teacher's method of securing order. A droning, monotonous 
sing-song by teacher and pupil in varying degrees of loudness 
added to the demoralization of the discipline. Classifloation of 
pupils was scarcely known. Individual attention was. Of course, 
impossible; when one pupil recited, the others read to themselves 
audibly. Of course, wealthier families could afford their own 
private teacher. 

No system of religious Instruction was ottered to the girls. 
They learned by absorption. Countless opportunities in the home 
were utilized tor gathering the fundamental elements of the re- 
ligious and ritualistic life. A vast deal of vfoman's literature 
■was developed in that era, containing not only Biblical and Mid- 
raachlc material, but stories of Jewish history, fables, romances, 
ethical manuals, dramas like the Sale of Joseph, and the Battle 
of David and Goliath, Arabian Nights, and fables from the age 
of the Troubadours. Girls found most reflection, instruction and 
; in songs about the Torah, In a "Ma-aae-Buch" con- 

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talning legende, romanceB and travel-talk; In the very popular 
"Ze-ena-Urena" with Its quaint homiletlc lore, known as the 
l>eutach Chumseh; and in various prosaic and poetic tranelatiODB 
of the Prayer Book. All these books were written In the pre- 
vailing language of the "JQdiBCh-Deute(^h." The publication h; 
Dr. Kaufmann of "Memorlen der GlUckel von Hameln" compels 
us to revise our former opinions of the utter religious education' 
ai neglect of the girls, at least so far as Hamburg and other 
German cities are concerned. Gliickel's piety was doubtless 
characteristic of most Jewesses of her era. She did not lay 
claim to an education. Her Memoira are written In Hebrew 
characters, though her language is the current Judisch-Dentsch. 
'■Her father had his children instructed both in things heavenly 
and in things worldly." She knew enough Hebrew to read her 
daily prayers, and It la roost likely that she went to a •"Heder." 
There is no doubt that Glilckei, like her sisters elsewhere, read 
on the Sabbath the various lectures on the Peutateuchal sections, 
together with some of the edifying literature just before noted, 
(1), It is, therefore, no matter of surprise that, when the eigh- 
teenth century saw a revival of Jewish culture, the women were 
the first to emerge Into the new light, though several of them 
were dazed and crazed by it. (2). 

The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. 
The political and cultural emancipation of the Jew led di- 
rectly to his emancipation from the old educational meth- 
ods and curriculum. To Moses Mendelssohn belongs the 
lion's share of credit tor this achievement. With the best 
of Hebrew learning which a Bar Mltzvah lad could boast of, this 
traveling student reached Berlin In 1743, to become the pupil 
of Rabbi Frankel. In a few years he mastered the secular 

(1) For literature tor the girls and women, see B. Straas- 
burger, "Geschlchte der Brziehung," p. 175. P, P, Frankl "Brbau- 
ungslecture unserer Altvorderen" essay appearing In "Monat- 
schriff XXXIV, p. 14B. 

(2) Abrahams' "Jews In Middle Ages," p. 343. 

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knowledge of his day, together with a thorough grasp of Oerman. 
L.atin, FrencU and Greek. By bU twentieth year he waa intellec- 
tually at home with the world's maatere. God had destined him 
to be Israel's redeemer, through education. 

The translation of the Pentateuch and Psalms (Etz Cbayim) 
into pure German Inaugurated the new era in Jewish education. 
Three significant and tar-reaching results Sowed Irom It. (a) 
The Jew won bacli his Bible, to hold flrst place in bis atfectioa 
and education. The religious consciousnesB was deepened. Tbe 
Bible as a textbook came again into its rightful leadership, (b) 
The Jew gained a cultural language, implying also an open door 
to the secular life, to general social advancement and to the 
duties of national citizenabip. Henceforth, all instruction was 
to be in tbe vernacular, at least so far as Germany and Aus- 
tria were concerned, (e) The Bible translation inaugurated a 
great literary and religious era. It gave birth to new literary 
and educational energiea, beginning with the authors known 
as "Tbe Me-asseflm" (Collectors) and culminating eventually in 
the Science of Judaism and tbe revitalizing of Judaism. "Phae- 
don," his famous book on the Immortality of tbe Soul, aside 
from its tremendous religions influence on his contemporaries, 
bad a direct bearing on the method of educational progress. 
Patterned after the literary practice of Plato and Socrates, It 
brought the dialogue method into usage. The pllpullstlc style 
gave way to the Socratic. Tbe sing-song lost its vogue. Reli- 
gious education begot a German, In fact, an European character, 
and submitted gradually to the pedagogical regime. The Bible 
and Phaedon became the manual and tbe new method of re- 
llglods Instruction for the young. 

The first definite result of this new educational movement 
was the founding by David Prledlander. in 1778, of The Free 
School, in Berlin, its plan called (or the exclusive use of the 
German language, the priority of Bible-study, the teaching, in 
the earlier years, of reading, writing, arithmetic, and, later on. 
of geography, history and French. In 1779, Frledlander's 
"Reader for Israelitisch Schools" appeared. In 1783 Dessau 
wrote a manual called "Grundsatze der Judiscben Religion." 
A school was started In 1787 by Isaac Herz Samson In Wol- 
fenbattel, whence Zunz and Jost graduated. In 1801 the famous 


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echool o( Israel JacobBOn in Seesen was founded. The Frank- 
furt Hebrew School after four years had five classes. In 1810 
ii added a girls' department, and In 1S13 was transformed Into 
"The Real und Volksschule der Israel ttlscben Gemeinde." Thus 
numberless schools aiirang into existence In all of the German 
States. Magdeburg witnessed the beginning of the first con- 
gregational religious school In 1S30. 

Prince Leopold Friedrlch Franz encouraged education 
among the Jews in his kingdom and gave money liberally for 
the founding of the "Phtlasthropin." The Jewisb families of 
the middle classes formed an organization for the training of 
their children; they secured a teacher and invited the poor 
children to attend, for whose instruction the "Talmud-Tora- 
Chebra" paid. The advanced students went to The Fiirth 
Veshlbah. Later on, David Frankel. the director of the Frani 
Schule, brought Baruch Herzfeld to be the new teacher. The 
following most Interesting description of this school is found Jn 
the personal reminiscences of Dr. H. Steinscbneider ( 1 ) wbo 
attended It as a boy. Baruch Herzfeld secured his learning at 
the Beth Hamldrash, in Dessau, and received 60 thalers original- 
ly as bis salary. A furnished room was rented, containing two 
long tables at which sat twelve boys and eight girls. The girls 
started In a year later and left a year earlier than the boys did. 
As the number of pupils increased, the boys of six years of age 
used four benches which had no back-rest. The teacher used 
a chair. The walls were barren. A blackboard, a narrow shelf, 
for hooks and a guitar belonging to the teacher were tbe only 
ornaments of the room. 

School began in summer at eight o'clock, and in winter at 
nine o'clock In the morning, lasting until noon. The afternoon 
session was held from one to four. The exercises opened with 
a German prayer, then with the reading of tbe Schachrlth (morn- 
ing) service in Hebrew. The Pentateuch was studied according 
to each weekly section. While the one class recited, the others 
listened. The Prayerbook for Sabbath and week-days was trans- 
lated in one year. Later on they studied the first twenty-flve 


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PsaliDB and twelve chapters ol Isaiah. Very little of Hebrew 
grammar was learned. In pronouncing the letters, they were 
accustomed to call them "a. b and g" Instead of "Aleph, Beth 
and Glmel." Bible history was not In the curriculum. The use 
of the blackboard for Illustrative purposes brought especial de- 
light to the pupils. The Bar MUzvah boys were given additional 
instruction In putting on the phylacteries and in reading the 
Scroll with the Neglnah (Musical accent). 

The afternoon session began with a lesson in writing. The 
lowest class used the Judlsch-Deutsch, the nest grade both 
Jiidlsch and German, the next grade German and Latin script, 
while the highest class was taught the use of the Rasbl style 
and Hebrew script. Arithmetic, geography and history toUowed 
the writing lesson. In the opening session of the early Autumn 
the children were instructed in the writing of Roach Hashana'i 
(New Year) letters in German to their parents and friends. 
Pesacli week was known as the examination season, while Purlm 
was celebrated In a characteristic manner with Haman-plays 
and recitations. 

Discipline was not possible. IiOud talking during recita- 
tions and while others were being examined was the common 
practice. It is especially Interesting to note that Dr. Steln- 
schneider, already In his teens, observed that the Jewish boys 
and girls not only learned to speak German very fluently, but 
also had a better and a superior accent than their Christian 
neighbors. When the State public schools opened their doors 
for the Jewish children, this Jewish school closed Its doors in 
18-40. With slight changes, this description gives an adequate 
picture of the educational methods and status of the Jewish 
children and elementary schools all over Germany previous to 
1850. In some cities it has not lost its Cull application, even 

German emancipation in its widest sweep, though it brought 
in its train many dangers and pitfalls. Is directly responsible 
for the following great blessing: (a) It witnessed the Renascence 
of Hebrew Ijiterature. The loss of the jargon meant the gain 
of the German. And the gain of the German, by a fortunate turn 
of circumstances, was the regain of the Hebrew. The Intellectuals 
who rose equal to the demands of the new cultural regime were 

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wise Id seeking io the Hebrew language the means of of- 
fense and defense. They founded Schools in Berlin. Ham- 
burg and Breslau. As early as 1TS3 Isaac Abraliam Eu- 
cbel and Mendel Breeslau issued an appeal to all the 
Jews to assist In establishing a Society for the Study 
of Hebrew, to be known as "The Chebrs Doresche Leshou 
Eber." Two schools came Into life, one called the ■■Blurlsts" 
(Commentators) and the other the "Meassetim" (Collectors). 
The former defended Judaism against attacks from without and 
contributed largely to the dislodgment of Jiidlscb by the spread 
o( German. The latter took as its sphere of activity the reform 
of the education of the youth, together with the cultivation of 
Hebrew. Aside from Its purely literary value, the periodical 
'Ha-Meassef" became an engine of propaganda and polemice 
furnishing the weapons with which attacks were made against 
the strongholds of ignorance In Israel and the enemies without 
the camp. Soon a vast library of books and pamphlets on all 
conceivable subjects of science, religion, philoaophy and litera- 
ture was created, (1). 

(b) The ripe fruit of this emancipation was the develop- 
ment of Jewish Science. Leopold Zunz is the greatest name 
(onnected with this harvest. Israel was beginning to feel that 
its own great treasures must be known to be appreciated and 
must be known by the Jew before the non-Jew can be expected 
to be sympathetic. While still a young man, Zunz joined other 
young pioneers In organizing the "Verein (ner Cultur der 
Jiiden." Soon a magazine. "Zeltschrlft fuer die Wissenschatt 
des Judenthums" was created. Zunz's place in a history of 
Jewish education is assured by bis remarlcable contributions. 
In his illuminating book "Gottesdienstllche Vortrage." he il- 
lustrated admirably the educational task of the Synagogue b.v 
the ever-active presence and force of preaching In all the pre- 
vious eighteen centuries. Unlike Mendelssohn, Zunz was first 
the Intellectual and then the political emancipator. He showed 
clearly that Israel's neglect of the sciences was not voluntary. 

(1) For a thorough appreciation of this subject, see "The 
Renascence of Hebrew Literature," by S. Nahum Slouschz. 

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tha,t it was due to the absence of political rights anil 
privileges, and that civil freedom and Intellectual progresB, 
science and religion required schools and seminaries. Thus, 
through the creation of Jewish science, the Jewish Seminary for 
the training of Rabbis was founded. The Breslau Semi- 
nary In 1S54 was soon followed t)y others in Germany and else- 
where, although a few years previous to this M. Velt established 
a Teachers' Seminary In 1S40 In Cassel; similar teachers' schools 
flourished in Munster, Hanover. Dilsaeldorf, Cologne and Wurz- 
burg. In Wurtenberg a society was organized for the support of 
religious school teachers. At the Conference of twenty-four Rab- 
bis In Cassel. August 1868, a Committee on Schools and Religious 
Education was appointed. The real value of this Committee's 
work lies In the stimulus It brought to the Leipzig (1869) Synod, 
and In the paper presented by Dr. S, Herxheimer, the chairman 
thereof. The resolutions adopted by this Synod, so far as religious 
education Is concerned, recommended the establishment and 
support of good religious schools for the youth of both sexes 
by the congregations; non-sectarian schools are necessary in 
themselves, and also compel the creation of additional religious 
schools. Religious education must Include not only the usual 
instruction In Biblical history and religion, but a knowledge of 
tbe contents of all the Biblical books, the cultivation of the 
Hebrew language and a training in Post-Biblical history ; Re- 
ligious instruction must avoid the critical method; special schools 
should be instituted for the training of teachers and the grad- 
uation ot Rabbis. (1>. 

(c) Another Important result of this larger political and 
cultural emancipation was the re-lnvlgoration of Judaism. Ortho- 
doxy was revitalised, created schools and animated doughty 
champions In Its defense. Reform Judaism was the product of 
this era of culture and protestation. It is only the educational 
aspect of Reform Judaism which interests us here. The educa- 
tional character ot this Reform lies in Its aesthetic appeal to 
the Individual, In its enforcement of the principle of growth in 
Judaism as in all religious and cultural activities, in Its dlgnl- 

(1) Philipson's "The Reform Movement In Judaism," p. 

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fled oOertng to Ihe girl and lo woman a share of equality in 
the economy of Israel, in its realization of the educating possi- 
bilities of the pulpit and sermon, in its constant Insistence on 
the superiority of the ethical and religious over tlie ceremonial 
*ad the purely ritualistic, in its enabling the people to read, 
follow and understand the leaehlngs of the Prayer Book, Re- 
ligion and History, and finally in creating the distinctive congre- 
gational Sabbath School. Thus in Germany to-day, children 
and youth, both Orthodox and Reformed, have the beat ot op- 
portunities for securing religious education In government and 
congregational schools, in Hedarim, Yeahibot and Seminaries. 

Jewish education in Austria was lifted out of the mire by 
the Tolerance Edict of Kaiser Joseph In 1781, granting the Jews 
admittance into the public schools and permission to take up trades 
and agriculture. The two who deserve the moat credit for the 
direction which religious education took were Herz Homberg 
and Naplitall Herz Wessely. The former. Influenced by 
Rousseau's "Emite," took up pedagogy as a profession. Re- 
turning to Austria, he published a text book called "Ben Zion;" 
and in 178* was appointed superintendent of all the German 
Jewish schools of Gallcia, and In 1793 was called by Emperor 
Francis II to Vienna to formulate laws regulating the moral and 
political status of the Jews In Austria. His chief pedagogical 
works are "Imre Sefer," a religious and moral reader for young 
people; "B'ne Zion," a religious reader for children; "Bea 
Yakkir," a book on the beliefs and ethical doctrines for Israel- 
itlBh Youth. (1814). 

Greater Influence In the Jewish educational line was wielded 
by Wessely, He was an ardent advocate of the educational and 
social reforms outlined by Emperor Joseph II. He published, 
in eight chapters, a series of letters called "Dibre Slialom we- 
Emeth" (Words of Peace and Truth), in which he urged a re- 
form of the educational methods in vogue. He insisted that 
the study at the secular schools would not Interfere with Jewlsii 
learning. He insisted that the Quotation "The beginning of 
wisdom Is the fear of the Lord" meant in his day that general 
culture was not only not Incompatible, but was actually in har- 
mony with, and dependent upon Jewish piety. The opposition 
to his reforms was bitter. Nothing daunted, Wessely's second 


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letter to the Austrian congTegatlone proved clearly that educa- 
tion would not mean a detection from Judaism. Only by generaL 
culture would the Jews be able to remove the disgrace which 
weighted them down. He begged them tu banish the Jargon 
and accept the vernacular. He sketched a plan of lostructiou 
which the child could follow from the lowest grade, and move 
istep by step to a full understanding of the Talmud. 

The educational emancipation oC the Jew In Austria was 
very slow. In Vienna In 1815 appeared Detmold's First Hebrew 
Reader and Baer Frank's "Light of Faith," but no definite re- 
aulta are visible until In 1867, General Hayuau, levying a heavy 
war tax on the Jews, set aside this vast sum of money for educa- 
tional purposes. At the Hungarian Jewish Congress two years 
later the tolerant Minister of the Interior, Baron Botvoes, urged 
them to elaborate a plan for the tutherance of the cause of educa- 
tion. The result was the establishment of belter schools and the 
employment of better teachers. Already in 1S52 religious In- 
struction In the public high schools was made compulsory. The 
chief practical achievement of the Congress was the establish- 
ment at Buda Pesth ot the Rabbinical Seminary, while the 
Yeshibot at Pressburg became more and more the stronghold 
of the moat rigid orthodoxy. The mediaeval character of the 
latter was rudely shattered by an edict In 1883 that "all 
students entering it must have passed Buccesafully the esamina- 
tions of the four lower classes of the public school; that Rahbls 
Issuing from the Yeshibot must possess a secular education, etc," 

We pass now to consider the course of Jewish education 
in . Qalicla and Russia. The third and fourth decades of the 
nineteenth century were relieved by the scholarly researches of 
Rahbl Salomon Jehudah Rapaport (1790-1867) and Nahman 
Krochmal (1785-1840). Both of these men were offspring of 
the Measseflm inspiration. Both agreed with Zuti^ that the science 
o( Judaism would be the best guarantee for the full emancipation 
of Israel. Both looked upon Hebrew as the vehicle for promot- 
ing knowledge among and about the Jews. Both found In the 
new emancipation a Justification and a realization of the his- 
toric mission of Israel. Scores of writers were stimulated by 
them to raise the standard of the masses to a higher level, to 
train them to an appreciation of the fruits of culture by a deeipen- 




lug appreciation of tbefr own Jewleh genius and Jewish history. 
To this scbool of Measseam belonga the credit of having put 
forth the greatest effort to Inspire the maMea with a consuming 
ideal of Jewish education. But the masHee rematned practically 

Lithuania, in the beginning of the eighteenth century, pre- 
sented a miniature Judea of ite own. Rabbinical echools flourish- 
ed In many citlra; thousands of students were In attendance 
poring over the Talmud and gave not only to Russia, but also 
to Qermany and Austria, the rabbinical authorities of the day. 
The first Indication of the new humanistic awakening came 
with the reform projects of Alexander I: and the first literary 
expression of it was the pamphlet published In 1803, called "The 
Loud Voice of the Daughter of Judah." Wllna became the 
home of new Hebrew writers. Abraham Baer Lebensohn's (1794- 
18S0) literary etTorta interest us here only as they were weapons 
for bis campaign In behalf of emancipation. He felt that the 
degradation of his people was due, not only to an absence of 
Haskalah, that is, a rational education founded upon Instruc- 
tion in the language of the land and the ordinary branches of 
knowledge, but also to the Ignorance of the Rabbis and preachers 
on all subjects outside of religion. Equally Important for the 
larger educational activity of the Jew was Isaac Baer Leven- 
Bohn of Kremenetz. "The founding of Jewish elementary 
schools, the opening of two Rabbinical seminaries at Wllna and 
Zhitomir, the establishment of numerous agricultural colonit^. 
the Improvement effected In the political condition of the Jews 
and in the censorship of Hebrew books — all these progressive 
measures are In a great part, if not entirely, due to the In- 
fluence of Levensohn." (1). 

The Romantic writers did not help the cause of education, 
but the school of Realism, coming at the time of the accession 
of Alexander II, created dozens of lournals for the education 
of the masses and did not hesitate to castigate the Incompetency 
of the Rabbis and the miracle-working saints. The Hebrew 
Journal, "Ha-Melitz" the Interpreter, begun In 1860 In Odessn. 
. work. As schools were developed by the Govern- 

(1) Renascence of Hebrew Literature, p. 123 (Slonschz). 


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ment, the 'Hedarim and Yeablbot lost thouxandB of pupils. Judalf 
lieon Bordon (1830-1S9'2), tbe' finest incarnation of this realistic 
era, Interests us because or hl^ etauncb advocacy of educatlooal 
retorms. The old forms of Instrut^tion aroused his Ire. The 
children were kept In ignorance. There must come a deeper 
pnd a more radical reform. There must not only be a Renas- 
cence of Hebrew, but of all culture and freedom. This move- 
ment became known aa Haskalah. It Is against the narrow 
Ideas of the Rabbis that Gordon burls his bitterest Invectives. 
As the band of educated Jews In Southern and South-western 
Russia grew Into a fuller appreciation of the need of a radical 
reform of Jewish education. "The Society for the Promotion of . 
Culture among the Jews" was formed In St. Petersburg. Perez 
Smolenskln represents that school of writers who Insist that 
emancipation must mean, above all else. Jewish unity, solidarity . 
and national aspiration. The Jew must be educated to know 
himself and to trust in himself. Smolenskl's literary labors touch- 
ed the lives of thousands of men and women whose loyalty to 
the faith became all the stronger and deeper. To him the , 
Yeshlbotb are the nurseries of Idealism, the stronghold of the 
religion, the buttress of Hebrew nationality. To these students . 
In the seminaries the message of this author was the great Jew- 
ish and educating force. 

Within the past few years some of the elementary schools 
have been altered In plan and scope: the old 'Heder has In 
many places given way to tlie Improved 'Heder or the " 'Heder 
Metukkan" with more sanitary environments, shorter hours and 
an incluRlon of some secular studies. In a larger sense it may 
be added that the Hebrew tongue Is proving to be the civiliz- 
ing Instrument In Russian Jewry which "possesses the nower of 
renlenleblna the moral resources of the masses and of making 
fheir hearts thrill with enthusiasm for Justice and the ideal, and 
Is accomplishing a work of culture and emancipation." What 
real progress can the Jew make when the Russian C^ar and 
Douma are replacing the pogrom by the strangulation of bla 
Intellect and his soul! 

The progress of religious Instruction was all the more rapid 
in Amsterdam because the best of Spanish and Portuguese 
refugees had brought culture with them from the Southwestern 



lands ot Europe. Ab early as 1837 the three united congrega- 
tiona tormed an institute (Etz Hayyim Talmud Tora). It was 
both an eismentary school and a high school, leading Its pupils 
from instruction in the Hebrew letters to a thorough study Ot 
the Talmud and Commentariea. In addition, elocution, poetry 
and philosophy were parts of the curriculum. It was, perhaps, 
the first graded school of its kind among the Jews, having sis 
rooms to accommodate six grades. The sessions were from eight 
to eleven, and from two to five. In the highest grades Rabbis 
Saul Morteira and Isaac Aboab gave instruction. These tvo 
men, with Menasssh ben Israel and David Pinto, founded the 
first Rabbinical college. It is Interesting to note that Baruch 
Spinoza attended the Etz 'Hayyim School as a boy. Rotterdam 
had an institute called "The Yeshlba de los Pintos," while the 
Hague had a Hebrew school in 16S9 where Jacob Abenecer 
Vergei was the special teacher. The Hebrew Renascence pro- 
duced scholars and literati, such as David Franco, Samuel 
Moulder and Gabriel Polak, but none seems to have had a 
very direct influence on the course of Jewish education In the 
schools. A period of decline set in. The common schools of 
Netherlands were closed to the Jews for a time; even the wealth- 
ier classes did not think of organizing separate schools tor their 
co-religionists. The crowning of King William I (1813) brought 
school privileges to the Jews, in 1817 a decree required the 
congregations to maintain Jewish tree schools (or the poor. Re- 
ligious instruction was entrusted to a commission. Moses 
Lemans took steps for the spread of culture. He, with others, 
furnished them with Jewish school books, translations of the 
Bible and various prayer books in the Dutch language. The 
Netherlandish laraelitlsch Seminarlum, founded in 1738, was re- 
organized In 1S34. With the separation of Church and State 
in 1S4S, the educational interests were re-organized. At present 
a flourishing seminary exista in Amsterdam, through the great 
efforts of Dr. Joseph Hirach Diinner; and a monthly magazine 
of the Society of Jewish Teachers, called "Ahawah," is pub- 

The intellectual vigor of the Italian Jews suffered very lUtl« 
impairment. The projected school in 1564 of the David Proven- 
zaie did not materialize. The general cultural influence of the 


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Hebrew Renascence was inaugurated In Italy by Moses Hayyim ' 
Iiuzzato, whose great merit lies in "releasing the Hebrew 
language from Its slavery to Middle Age forms and Ideas, and 
revealing it as capable of expreealng all the manirold complex 
feelings o( man." Isaac Reggio translated portions of the Bible 
Into Italian. Among the first schools to adopt the reform pro- 
jects o( Naphtali Herz Wesaely were those of Trieste, Venice and 
Ferrara. The Rabbinical seminary at Padua supplied the Rabbis for 
the entire country. Another seminary started in LeRhorn, another 
in 1887 in Rome waa transferred to Florence where it flourishes 
under the direction of Dr. S. H. Margulies. The disaolution of 
the ghetto in Rome brought with it the reorganization of its 
Talmud-Tora under the leadership of Dr. Ehrenreich, and later 
on of Angelo Fornarl, his successor, as its principal. 

The glorious reign of Hebrew scholarship !n France came to 
an unhappy end in the expulsion of the .lews by Charles VI in 
1384. Four hundred years later a better day started to break 
for them. Cerf Berr (1730-1799) led the emancipation move- 
ment. He undertook the dissemination of the Pentateuch In 
AUace. As soon as the famous emancipation document was 
signed by Louis XVI on November 13th, 1791. giving full free- 
dom to the Jews, Cerf Berr began the task of educating his 
people to a full appreciation of the privileges and responsibili- 
ties of French citizenship, "If we ourselves cannot enjoy the 
blessings which the new Constitution holds in store, we shall 
at least see our children gather the first fruits of this precious 
tree!" Religious instruction must be given In French; schools: 
must be built where the children ran learn to be good Jews and 
good French citizens. No definite Information of educational 
progress for several decades Is available, save here and there a 
conforting item. The fltty-thousand .Tews in France were dis- 
tricted in 1808 into seven consistories, with the highest authori- 
ty embodied in the Central Consistory in Paris. From this 
body the order was issued that all sermons be preached in the 
French language. A Rabbinical College was founded in Metz 
(then a part of France) in the year 1S29. and it was recognized 
as a State institution and granted a subsidy. 

In 1840 the civilized world was startled by an outrageous 
attack on the Jews of Damascus, who were charged with Ritual 


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murder. Two great Frenchmen, Adolf Creml«us and Solomon* 
Munk, tOK«tl)er with Moses Mouteflore, ot England, went to 
Damascus to see Mebemet All on a pereonal InveBtlgatlon. 
Cremleux realized only too clearly that tlie Ignorance of the 
Jews of Alexandria, and Cairo rendered them easy victlmB. Munk 
wrote a letter In Hebrew and Arabic to the Jews ol BgTpt, beg- 
ging them. to bestir themselves and establish schools wber« tlieli' 
children could learn the elements of Judaism and literature, and 
secure a secular and a practical education. Soon' Valenslm 
placed himself at the head of a Socletty to establish schools and 
superintend the. public education' o( hlft people. In Cai-ro two 
schools for boys and one (or girls were Instituted. The Grand 
Rabbi of Constantinople, the Chacham Basbi iBsued a letter to 
' all the Turkish congregations asking all the Jews to learn tbe 
language o( the country. Thus we are led up to the year 1860, 
when another Outrage ( the Mortara Incident 0( 1S6 S ) gave 
birth In Paris to the Alliance Uraellte Universelle, an inter- 
national society for the protection and education of the Jews 
in the Orient. Of all Its manifold enterprises, Its educational 
system has been the most satisfactory and beneOclal. It started 
a school In Tetuan (1S62), then In Tangiers, and another In 
Bagdad. Since then, as many as ninety-four schools have been 
organized under Its authority. In 1867 a school was begun in 
Paris for the training of teachers recruited from the Bast, and 
It had 127 students in 1899. It must be added that the alliance 
was materially aided In its work by the splendid munificence in 
1ST3 of one million francs contributed by Baron de Hlrsch. The 
curriculum In all these various schools varies according to local 
conditions and standards. It ought also to be noted that these 
numerous schools have so elevated the moral and social stand- 
ards as to raise the age of marriage of Jews and Jewesses In 
the Mohammedan countries. The Seminary (or the Preparation 
of'Rabbis In Constantinople (1897) Is the crowning achievement 
of the Alliance for tbe future elevation of the Jews In the 

The recent Separation Act has thrown the financial sup- 
port of the Jewish education In France upOn the Jews them- 
selves, and the result Is awaited with deepest Interest, not only 
in the twelve French consistories, but also in the entire world. 


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The story o( education Id PalestiDe because of the Alliance 
and the birth of Zionism has become very assuring. Tne cultural 
movement there Is bound up with the national aspirations. Tue 
Hebrew language la used as the vehicle ot Instruction in accord- 
ance with the "i'brlth BIbrith" (Hebrew In Hebrew) method. 
Here we find kindergartens and a Child's Periodical called "Olaui 
Katan" (The Child's World); Talmud Toroth, under the care of 
Sephardlc and German authorities; three schools for girls; a 
Training School (or Teachers founded in 1907 by the Ezra School; 
.a Hebrew Kindergarten in Safed. under the auspices of the Inde- 
pendent Order o( B'nal B'rith; a Talmud Tora, a Yeshlba, and 
.it Boys' and Girls' School (1. O. B, B.) in Jaffe, and a Confer- 
-.ence o( teachers in Jerusalem meeting annually to secure unity 
of pronunciation, method, and organization. In addition to ali 
these, technical and agricultural schools are doing a noble work 
-in training boys and girls for practical life. 

Very meager Is the information obtainable ot the progress 
of Jewish education In England lor several centuries. An in- 
teresting .appendix to Dr. Jpseph Jacob's book (1) attempts to 
claim an Bnglisfa source and background for' a splendid code 
of Jewish education supposed to be practiced In England pre- 
vious to the expulsion in 1290. The English Jewish Dark Ages 
emit very little light for the next Ave centuries. Even Mr. 
Lucien Wolf's Interesting discovery of the existence ot a small 
community o( Jews already established In London previous to 
the visit of Menasseh ben Isra«l (2) does not help us, save In 
adding Interest to the comment of Israel Abraham that "John 
Evelyn (1641) tells us of a Burgundian Jew who displayed 
several books or devotion which he had translated into English 
for the Instruction of his wife." ( 3 ) . The gradual political 
and social emancipation of the Jews, the first reform of Juda- 
ism (1840), the creation of the Anglo-Jewish Association (1871) 
and the birth of the Jew's College (1856) are the most signifi- 
cant events which affected the course and cause of religious 
education. In the eighteenth century there was a Betb-Hammld- 

(1) Jews of Angevin, England, pp. 342-343. 

(2) The Jewish Literary Annual, London, 1904, p. S3. 

(3) Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, p. 346. 

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rash In connection with the City Synagogue tor the study of 
Hebrew Scrlpturea and Rabbinical Writings. In 1841 the trustees 
met to remodel It and to train up the youth for offices connucted 
with the mlnlBtrattons ol our Religion. The English Rabbis were 
o( foreign training, save a lew who received their, eijucatlon at 
The Jews' Cree School. The Jews' College was born of both, with 
the purpose of training Ministers, Readers and Teachers. Chief 
Rabbi Adler started some propaganda work, by Instituting relig- 
ious Instruction In the West End In connection wl(h the Jews' 
College. In 1ST9 the secular studies were eliminated from tho 
curriculum so that the Seminary might be unhampered In Its 
purely Jewish atudles. Another forward step was the union of 
two minor lastltutlons of similar alms, tbe Aria College at Portsea, 
and the Lady Judith Montefiore College at Ramsgate, with The 
Jews' College In 1ST4. The Normal training of teachers was 
transferred from its course to become The Teachers' Training 
Committee of The Jewish Religious Education Board,* foot note. 

At present the problem of religious instruction in England 
la receiving the moBt serious consideration. The Qovernment's 
Education Bill on the one hand and the deepening religious 
consciousness and feeling of solidarity on the other compel an 
immediate and a satisfactory solution of the problem. To-day 
the children receive elementary training in the twelve Jewish 
elementary schools largely supported by subscriptions, in the He- 
brew and Religion Classes of tbe Provided Schools, In the Volun- 
tary Schools of the Religious Education Board, In other schools at- 
tached to synagogues. In Talmud Toroth and 'Hedarlm, Independ- 
ent of any organizing authority. Besides those, there are the 
Beth Hammldrash and the Jews' College. A complete re-or- 
ganlzatlon of these schools, a standardizing of schemes of educa- 
tion, a creation of a Teachers' Normal School, a widening of the 
scope of the Jews' College for a "Teachers of Religion Depart- 
ment," and a central representative "Board of Religious Educa- 
tion tor the Jews of the United Kingdom." are matters of moat 
earnest discussion. 

Religious education has made the speediest and most endur- 
ing progress In the United States. At the very outset of our 

'Jews' College Jubilee Volume. Part I 

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history, Jewish Instruction together with secular studies was [ouad 
necessary. The rapid development o[ Public Schools meant the 
eliminatlOD ol secular subjects Irom, and a healthier growth of, 
the Kellglous School as a distinct and etCectlve institution. It 
Is Instructive to note that the cradle ot the Jewish Religious 
School (known as the Sabbath School) was rocked by a woman. 
the tamouH Rebecca Gratz, ot Philadelphia, in 1833. Within 
a few years, similar schools, independent of congregationa, were 
started in Charleston, S. C, In Richmond, Va.. and in New York 
City. Isaac L«eser s Hebrew Education Society, established 1:848, 
and still doing excellent work, and the Uainonldes College (which 
existed for a (ew years), were founded In Philadelphia. The pro- 
jected school for higher education by Mordechai M. Noah in 
1840 did not see the light ot day. and the same la true of the 
ZiOD Collegiate Institute, whlcti Dr. 1. M. Wise desired to 
found in 1S55. 

The direction of religious education has been towards the 
organization of schools in conjunction with the congregatlona. 
These have produced the best fruit. Courses in our Religious 
Schools include Hebrew, History and Religion, to be covered in 
from three to eight years, according to local conditions, culmin- 
ating in the "Bar MItzvah" In orthodox and Conservative congre- 
gations, or In thhe "Confirmation" In Reform congregations. 
Some schools have addUIonal post-con Srmatlon classes, others 
conduct Bible classes, others, too, plan courses of a Normal 
Scbool character for their teachers, and still others have in- 
troduced a special Children's Service on Saturday morning or 
Sunday afternoon. On the whole. It may be said with truth, 
that discipline prevails without the use of the rod, that decorum 
is generally in evidence, that a system of graded schools Is 
rapidly becoming prevalent because imperative, and that a 
saner appreciation of the principles of modern pedagogy has al- 
ready won the day. 

The past few years bear witness to sincere efforts to produce 
desirable text-boohs. Individual Rabbis and laymen published 
books ot various kinds which have wide circulation. The Sati- 
bath School Union (1886) published leaflets on history and 
religion, though it has since been merged Into the Union of 
American Hebrew Congregations, operating as the "Committee 


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on Synagogue and Scbool Extension." The Committee has 
Biarted In to do very eameet and succeseCul work In the prepara- 
tion of a Union Graded Series of religious, ethical and historical 
text-boo kB. Teachers' schools are in active operation in con- 
junction with the Gratz College (1893) in Philadelphia. The 
Hebrew Union College (1$T&) In Cincinnati and The Jewlah 
Theological Seminary (1886) in New York. The latest effort 
for the benefit of teacher-training is the promising "Teachers 
Correspondence School o[ the Jewish Chautauaua Society," pro- 
jected for the elevation of the standard of teaching and In order 
to bring the Normal Course opportunities to people even in the 
distant or sparsely settled communities. 

The general supervision of religious schoolB Is ih the hands 
of the Rabbi. There are two rabbinical seminaries in the United 
States — the Hebrew Union College; representing the Reform wing 
bf Judaism, and the Jewish Theological Seminary of the Ortho- 
dox. The recently endowed Moses A. Dropsle College in Phila- 
delphia is a PoBt-Graduate Institution for Hebrew and Cognate 
Learning. Besides these schools and colleges, one finds the 
'Heder and the Talmud Torab in many cities undergoing neces- 
sary changes In discipline and organization. The Rellgioua Edu- 
cational Work, under the authority of the Kehillah of New Tort 
City, has a comprehensive plan of co-ordinating numerous relig- 
ious forces, and its work will be watched with deep Interest. 

Other institutions which are sharing in the wider range of 
the educational "'Forward Movement" are; (a) The Independent 
Order of B'nai B'rlth which, in addition to its numerous schools 
and benefactions In the Orient, Roumanla, Austria and Germany, 
maintains about twenty organizations in the United States; Fra- 
ternal Orders, like the Kesher Shel Barzei, Free Sons of Israel, 
and Order of B'rlth Abraham; (b) The Jewish Historical Society; 
The Jewish Publication Society and the Jewish Press in English 
and Jiidiach; (e) The Orphan Asylums, Agricultural and Technical 
Schools. Hebrew Educational Alliance, Hebrew Institutes; (d) 
Conferences of Rabbis, both Orthodox and Reform; (e) The Jew- 
ish Chautauqua Society, Young Men's Hebrew Associations. Coun- 
cil of Jewish Women, Zlonistic Circles, State Conferences of Re- 
ligious Workers In Ohio. Arkansas and MlBslssippl, Baron de 
Hirsch Fund, The National Farm School, the Union of American- 



Hebrew CoDgregatloDS, tbe Union or Orthodox CongregatJoiia, and 
(() Libraries. 

The OuUook. 

The outlook for the future of Jewish education U based 
upon the past and the present condltlone which we can review la 
the following few sentences. The hlatory of Jewish education 
begins with the birth of Israel and follows the circuitous path of 
Israel's changing fortunes. In tbe Patriarchal and Prophetic 
periods, education seizes naturally upon the home and the par- 
ent as the best media for Instruction. The Era of the Second 
Commonwealth puts Into the bands of the parent the Bible as 
the first and best text-book, to be Interpreted by Bsges and RabtiiB. 
The great Dispersion in TO A. C., finding Jewish education grown 
to healthy independence, chooses Che Academy of Jabneh as its 
means of salvation and continuity. The increase of academies. 
synagogues, elementary schools, the Talmud and the later Bible- 
reaction of Karaism, enable the Jews not only to hold a firm 
front against the proscriptions of the Christian Church, but also 
to beep t!ie faith strong and the intellect keen to prepare the 
broad highway through which the Moorish and the Christian 
Renascence may pass to greater enlightenment and culture. The 
Jewish Dark Ages, coming with the sixteenth, seventeenth and 
first half of the eighteenth centuries, reflect the social, political 
and religlouH degradation of the masses. The Jewish Renas- 
cence, beginning in the last decades of the eighteenth century 
marks the turning point in the history of tbe Jew. Jewish edu- 
cation since then has been taking a decidedly upward, Inspiring 
and transforming course. Thus repeating the reply of Dr. J. 
Ooldschmitt to Bousset, we see clearly "Das Judenthum Is eine 
Schule, nlcht elne Kirche," (1) (Judaism is a school, not a 
church.) In short, JudalKm is a teaching Religion. 

The outlook and the promises of Jewish Education revolve 
about two large bodies of facts: 

1. (a) Judaism as a teaching religion sufTered no break 
for thirty centuries in its need and appreciation of education as 
the builder of character and the conserver of idealism. 

(1) Das Wesen des Judenthuma, p. 123. 

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(b) The coudition o( Jewish education has beea i 
\L1> ioaueaced by the prevailing status of civilization. 

(c) The political and cultural emancipation of the Jew 
in most lands is a happr accompaniment ol the increaelng ap- 
preciation of the power and neceBsity of religious training for 
the development of character and good citizenship. 

2. Efficiency as the modern evaluating standard In all hu- 
man activities is making Its demands on Jewish oducation. 

(a) Efficiency Is calling tor the acceptance and application 
ol the beet pedagogical methods In curriculum, organization and 

(b) In the better training of teachers by means ot expert 
teachers' colleges. 

(c) In the standardizing of the teachings at different 

(d) And In the probable Institution ot Jewish Educational 
Boards, — National. State and Municipal. 


B. Strassburger — "Geschichte der Erziehung und dea Unterrlchts, 
etc." Contains a full bibliography to the year 1885. 

S. Cohn — "Die Entwicklung des Jildtschen Unterrlchtswesen." 

M, Giideman — "Geschichte des Erzlehungawesens und der Cultur 
der Juden." "Queilenschrlften zur Geschichte des Un- 
terrlchts und der Erziehung bel den deutschen Juden." 

Samuel Marcus — "Die Padagoglk des Israel I tlacten Volkes. von 
der P atria re hen zelt bis auf den Talmud." 

Solomon Stein — "SchulTerhaltnisse, Erzlehungslehren und Un- 
terrlchtsmethoden Im Talmud" (1901). 

Joseph Wlesen — "Geschichte und Methodllc des Schulwesens." 

J. Hamb u rger — ' 'Real-Encyclopadle." 

Jewish Encyclopedia — Articles on Education, Pedagogics, Bab- 
bath School, Rabbi and Talmud Tora. 

Hastings — "Dictionary of the Bible." Article on "Education." 

Israel Abrahams — "Jewish Life in the Middle Ages." Chapters 
XIX and XX. 

A. Berliner — "Aus dem Leben der Deutschen Jnden Im Mlttelal- 
ter." Chapter I, 


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Lesson 1. Pages 0-12, 
1. What le the difterence between the Science of Education an<l 

the Art of Education? 
t. Why (toes teaching precede Pedagogics? 

3. What factors enter Into our modern educational Ideal? 

4. What was the first school In history? 

5. What was ItB source of strength? 

6. What Ideals have the various nations contributed to the 

modem Ideal of education? 

7. How can the Ideal of service be used educationally? 

8. What 1b the highest objective of all education? 

Le«soii n. Pages 12-14. 

1. What is the oldest text-book on religious and moral culture? 

2. What has the ideal of the "Kingdom of Priesta" to do with 


3. What was the religious genius of Israel? 

4. What iB the Biblical contrlhutlon of Israel to the culture of 

the race? 

5. Describe the educational function of the home. 

6. Olve the Biblical definition and implication of knowledge. 

7. What l9 the educational Ideal of our Bible? 

S. Give me your own personal opinion as to the educational 
force of the home in modern American Society. 

B ni. Paees 14-18. 

Does the Bible present any deflnita curriculum? 

What proof Is there that music was taught? 

In how far waa writing a matter of general culture? 

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4. la there any proof that there must have existed a large body 

of "lost" literatureT 

5. What doee Eccleslastes mean when he says "01 the making 

of hooka, there le no end." Does thla prove anything? 
( In what manner, using your own Judgment, dtd the JewUb 
book differ from the Egyptian and Grecian forms of litera- 

7. What relation does the birth of the Synagogue bear to the 

course of Jewish education? 

8. What place would you assign to Ezra as a leador of educa- 


9. What Is meant by the clash between the Oreek and Jevrish 

Ideate of education? 

liCBSon IV. Pages 18-24. 

Describe the method of the parent as a teacher. 

What do you understand by, and what la the ethical value 

of, "Imltatio Parentis"? 
Why should children be encouraged to ask questions? Was 

that what Moses had In mind? 
What was the child's flrat duty? How was It secured? 
What was the mother's first duty? 

What do you think la the real value of oral InstrucUonT 
What do you consider the educational value of tradition and. 

What was the value and task of the Priest as a teacher In 

ancient Israel? 

Lesson V. Pages 24-30. 

What Is meant by "Prophecy aa an educational movement?" 

What was the prophet's text-book? 

What was the prophet's method of teaching? 

What was the ethical message ot the prophet aa orator? 

Describe the contribution of Moses to Blfitlcal education. 

Why does the prophet precede the scribe? 

What waa the educational necessity of the "Law"? 


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What was the educational result o( the "Law"? 

Explain the Blgnlflcance of the Synagogue. 

In vhat manner can the Scribe be called an Educator? 

Lesbon VI. Pages .10-32. 

Why was the time ripe tor teachers? 

How wan the sage related to the preceding claBees of teach- 

Wbat wae the task of the sage? 

What books contain most of hia teacblngs? 

What did the eagea teach with regard to domeatic life? 

What virtues did they Inculcate? 

Did they draw a distinction between ethics and religion? 

Pick out of your Bible some of the most valuable teachings 

of the sages. 
What do you understand by God-coEaciousneaa? 
How has the Jew, so far as we have gone in our study, been 

a great teacher in the world? 

Lesaoa VII. Pages S3>3S. 
What Is implied In the sentence "Every child is entitled to 

the rich heritage of his fathers?" 
What is the testimony of history and the Bible as to the 

value of religious training in the home? What Is your 

personal Judgment? 
In what manner does the religious school complement the 

What Is the justification tor teaching Hebrew In the modern 
religious school? 

What is meant by the saying that religion must be taught as 
part o( Life? 

Why should the Bible be tbe leading tezt-boook in our re- 
ligious schools? 

In how far does the modem pedagogy Justify the efBcacy of 
the Biblical methods of Imitation and Repetition? 

What is the educational value of the teacher's Personality? 

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Iiesson VIII. Pages 4S>47. 

What waB the secret o( Israele strength during its dlsper- 

What do you understand by the sentence "Pedagogy was 

their natural vocation?" 
ludicate the value which the Kabbfe set upon education. 
Indicate the relations which the Rabbis bear to the various 

classes of teachers mentioned In the previous lessons. 
What do you gather From the figurative language "God sits 

and teaches the younger pupils?" 
What names were given to the schools, tlie teachers and the 

When were the first schools started? 
What Is the great merit of Rabbi Jochanan ben Sakkai? 
Give the names of some o( the great Academies. 
Do you consider that the limitation of 25 puplis to a claas a. 

wise provision? Why? 

Lesson IX. Pages 47-ISO. 

When did a boy's education begin; what was the first lesson 

taught him? 
What did the curriculum Include? 
Show how the practical was not excluded from the course if 

What was the method of Instruction? 
In your Judgment, what Is the educational value of the 

What influence did the method of Instruction have upon the 

cultivation or the Intellect? 

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Do you tbink that your answer gives any clue to tbe intellect- 
ual biBtory of the Jew up to the preaeot day? 

What are the hermeneutlcal rules? 0( what value? 

What did the Rabbis eay with regard to the value or Repe- 
tition? ' 

LesEon X. Pages HO-SS, 

In what manner was the character oF Jewish education in 
fluenced by the culture of other nations? 

How was the 'Heder a product at the dispersion? Do you 
consider It a sign of progress? 

What was the status of the teacher? 

What were the personal qualifications which a teacher had 
to posaesB? 

Indicate the moral quallflcatlouB. 

Indicate the social qualifications. 

How do we know that consideration was paid In the Rabbini- 
cal Schools to the study of child nature and its educational 

Cite the various mental attitudes noted In their pupils by 
the Rabbinical teachers. 

What method was used with backward pupils? 

Describe the methods used in the Rabbinical Schools to In- 
sure diligence In study, regularity and promptness In at- 
tendance and proper discipline In the classes. 
Name five points you would consider obsolete in the rules of 
guidance tor instruction laid down by some of the teachers 
of the middle ages. Why? 

Name five you wo>ild approve and state why. 

Lesimn XI. Pages S3-S7. 

Show how the Biblical Injunction "Train up a lad on thf 
way he should go" was not abandoned in the Rabbinical 

Were the poor children ignored? 


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How did the Rabbis provide tor the backward pupHs? 

Ib this in line with modern Ideas? How? 

Wbat education was given the girls? 

What was the pupil's first duty to the teacher; what was the 
teacher's first duty to the pupil? 

How was discipline secured? Is this any advance over tbe 
statements on page 19 of the text-book? 

What were some of the guiding rules laid down cy Rabbi 

What was the curriculum which Joseph Aknln suggested In 
the twelfth century? 

In reviewing the ground covered thus far, wbat Is your gen- 
eral Impressio'ii of the educational ideal and method of the 
Jews during their dispersion? 

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Lesson XII. Pages 01-04, 

Does the quotation from Lecky suggest to you any vital con- 

DectioR between Jewish learning <n the Middle Ages and 

in the Rabbinical Era? 
What was the condition ot Jewish education at the openins 

of the eighteenth century? 
What special reason was there lor this? 
What is a Talmud Tora; a 'Heder, a Yeshlhs? 
Does the "Traveling Student" remind you of any similar 

condition or Institution elsewhere' 
What was the character ot the discipline? 
What kind of education did the girls receive? 
Do you consider this sufficient? 
What would you add to It to-day? 

Lesson XIII. Pages 64-07. 

How does the educational emancipation of the Jew depend 
upon his political emancipation? 

Does anything In the previous lecture Illustrate It? 

Do you find another example in any modern country? 

What relation does Moses Mendelssohn bear to the emanci- 
pation of the Jew? 

What were the great results of his translation of the Penta- 
teuch into Qerman? 

What were some of the Immediate and practical results of 
this translation? 

Describe the conditions and curriculum of the school which 
Dr. Stein Schneider attended. 

Is there anything significant In the statement that the Jew- 
ish children had a better German pronunciation? 

In your Judgment, what is the educational value of a cul- 
tural language to the Jew? 


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Lesson XIV. Pages 67-71. 

Wtierela was the Renascence of the Hebrew language ^ blesa- 

Upon what did Zudz base hla couceptloo of emancliiatloa? 

Compare MendelsBohn and Zunz. 

Mention two practical results ol the Science of Judaism. 

How was Judaism affected by this emancipation? 

How is Reform Judaism related to the progress of Educa- 

What did Herz Homberg do for Jewish education In Austria? 

What did Naphtali Herz Wessely do for Jewish education Is 

Mention some of the Immediate practical results of their 

Lesson XV. Pages 71-76. 

What was the attitude of Rappaport and Krochmal to Jew- 
ish Education In Russia? 

What did Lebensohn and LevensbliD do tor the education of 
the masses? 

What Is Smolenskl's contribution to the progress of educa- 

In what manner did the Jewish schools give evidence of the 
change which had been wrought? 

Describe the first graded school of Its kind among the Jews. 
Why was Amsterdam prepared for It? 

Who deserves the credit tor the new awakening of the Ital- 
ian Jews? 

Who In France? 

What was the great task which Munk set for himself? 

Describe the educational labors of the Alliance Israelite Unl- 

In the light of present day conditions, do you think that the 
Separation Act in France Is a benefit to Jewish education? 


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Leflson XVL Paces 77-80. 

What Is tbe present condition of education in. Palestine! 
Explain tbe reason for tbe meagerness of Jewish knowledge 

Id England from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century. 
What help would this bring you In estimating Shakespeare's 

knowledge of Jews and Judaism as displayed in "The 

Merchant of Venice?" 
What is the educational situation In England to-dayT 
Is this strong Insistence for a Teachers' Training Course p 

natural development In the history of Jewish education? 
What Is the special merit of Mlaa Rebecca Gratz? 
Can you see any reason why the contemplated Theological 

Seminaries In 1840 and 1S56 failed to materialize? 
Describe the modern congregational religious school. 
What are the two most hopeful signs of progress In our 

religious schools? 
Does the creation of a Correspondence School tor Teachers 

fit Into the History of Jewish Education? 
Mention some of the most important Institutions in the 

United States which are doing educational work. 

Lesson XVll. Pages 81-82. 

Is It slgnlScant that the course of Jewish education follows 

the history of Israel? 
Can you connect the school of Jabneh as a saving power 

with the Theological Seminaries in the United States? 
Is Judaism a teaching religion? Wby? 
Upon what political conditions do we base our hope for tbe 

future growth of Jewish education? 
Would the same apply to our people In Russia? 
What does efficiency Imply In its application to modem Jew- 
ish education? 
What would be gained by a Board of Jewish Education In 

the larger cities or States? 
Does a bird's-eye view of religious culture In Israel tor the 

past three thousand years harmonize with the general 

scheme of so-called secular education? 

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Atwaham, creator of Jewish 

Consciousness 34 

Abrahams, Israel, quoted 77 

Abraham Chasdai, "The Bal- 
ances of Righteousness" ... 45 

Agaddah 49 

Alexander 1, reform projects 

of 73 

Alliance Israelite Universelle. , 76 

Amen, use of 20 

Amos 16, 2S 

Akibah, parable of, 49; dialec- 
tics 50 

Assyria and the prophets ... 25 
Astronomy, priests' knowledge 

of IS 

Austria, history of education 
in 70 seq. 

Baalim, and the Hebrew Genius 13 

Brain and child education n 

Babylonia, its learning exclus- 
ive, II ; culture in 12, 25 

Bar Mitsvah, in pre-Mendels- 
sohnian era, &. 67; in United 

States 79 

Beauty, prophets' view of 25 

Ben Sirach, 30; quoted 31 

Berr, Cerf, and emancipation 

in France 75 

Betk Hammidrask, in Dessau, 

66; in London 78 

Biblical education, summed up 

33 ; message of 38 

Bible, text-book on training, 
13 ; text-book for training, 35 
seq.; in home and school, 36; 
translated by Mendelssohn 65 

"Binfirij" 68 

Bresslau, M 68 

Canaan, culture in 12 

Capital punishment for diobedi- 

Cereraonialism 35 

Chachamim 30 

See S^es 
Character, J. S. Mill, 10 ; build- 
ing of, 12; developed in 

Chebra Doresche Leshon Ebtr 68 
Children, obedience of, 19, 20; 
punishment of, 21 ; religious 

needs of, 34; nature of 37 

Commandments, their pentad 

form 26 

Community, education of zr 

Confirmation, see Bar Mitz- 

Coporal punishment, in Bibli- 
cal times, 20; in Rabbinical 

Covenant, Book of 16 

Cremieux A 76 

Culture, Biblical and Modern, 

12. See Religious Culture. 

Curriculum, parental, 18 seq. ; 

Hebrew in, 35; of Joseph 

Aknin 56 

Damascus 75 seq. 

Daniel 32 

David Franco 74 

David Pinto 74 

Death for disobedience 21 

Democracy, educational move- 

Deuteronomic Code accepted.. 2? 
Dialectics of Rabbinical Schools 49 
Diaspora, education in ....44, 81 
"Dibre Shalom we-Emelh" . . . 70 
Dropsie College 80 

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Fcclesiastes 14. 30. 32 

Ewypt, 11; cul'urc of, 12, 251 

Jews ill modem 76 

F mancipation, results of, 69, 
71 ; iti France, 75. in England 7? 

KIders conducting services 17 

Flijah 24 

Lliaha 24 

■■F_mile" II 

Fiigland, history of Jewish edu- 
cation in 77 seq. 

Kt-chel, I. A 68 

Europe, thrilled by Rousseau. 11 
Ezekiel, exponent of Solidarity, 
22, 24; solicited for instruc- 
tion 28 

Rxile and Temple ,. 28 

E;:ra. provides school in Jerusa- 
lem, 17; as Ecclesiastic 28 

Family life 3' 

France, history of Jewish 
education in, 75 seq. ; Sep- 
aration Act 76 

Frankel, D 66 

Franz Schule, the 66 seq. 

Free School, In Berlin, 65; in 
Holland, yi ; in London ... 78 

Friedlander, D 65 

Froebel 1 ' 

Gahriel Polak 74 

Gad, the prophet 24 

Galicia, education in 71 

Germany, history of Jewish 

education in 05 seq. 

Girls of Bible, what taught . . 20 
Gliickel von Hamein, memoirs . 

of 64 

God-consciousness 32 

God, home and Torah 13 

Goldschmitt J 81 

Gordon J. L. 73 

Oratz, Rebecca 79 

Cratz College 80 

Greece, 11; Josephus on .... 14 

Great Assembly, provides 

school in Jerusalem 17 

Greek, teaching of 55 

Greek. Roman and Jewish edu- 
cation compared 14 

Hai Ganon. "Training the In- 
tellect," 45; quoted 56 

Halackah 49 

■'Ha-Meliln" 72 

Harper, Professor, on Psalter 23 

Hoskalah 72. 73 

Hebrew, in curricula and syna- 
gogue 35 

Hebrew Union College ... 80 

Hebrews, pedagogues of civi- 
lization, 12; genius of, 13. see 

Heder, curriculum of 62 

Hellenism 30 

Herxheimer S. 69 

Hezekiah, inscription on con- 
duit of 16 

High school, synagogue a ... 17 

Hillel, and Shamai, schools of 

46; hermeneutical principles 

of 49 »eq. 

Hirsch, Baron de 76 

History and prophets 25 

Holland, history of Jewish 

education in 73 seQ- 

Home, as educator, 10; God 
and Torah, 13; its curricu- 

Hosea as 

Hungarian Jewish Congress.. 71 
Hygiene, known by priests ,. 15 

Ideal, the modern a synthesis, 

12; its message, id. 
Israel, culture in ancient .... 12 

Imitation, influence of ifl. 36 

Imitatio Dei T9 

Infants, treatment of 18 

Ink, use of in Bible times . . 16 
Inscription. Judah's ring, 15; 

Hezekiab's conduit 16 

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Isaac Aboab 74 

Isaac Reggio 75 

Isaiah on prayers 20. 24 

Italy, history of Jewish educa- 
tion in 74 seq. 

Jabneh, school of 47, 81 

Jacobs, J 77 

Jacobson, 1 66 

James, Williatn and Jeremiah. 33 
Jehosaphat, reform work 

under 22 

Jehudah ha-Nassi 55 

Jehudah the Pious, pedagogic 

treatise, 45 ; quoted 56 

Jeremiah, uses ink. 16: preach- 
er of individualism, 22 ; 
teacher, 24; and William 

J«"« 3.1 

Jewess, Gliickel the typical pre- 

Mendelsfohnian 64 

Jewish Chautauqua Society, 
purpose of, 5 ; Correspond- 
ence School 80 

Jewish Consciousness, keynote 

of 34 

Jewish, Greek and Roman 

education compared I4 

Jewish-German jargon, books 

in 6.1 seq. 

Jews' College 77 seq. 

Jewish Theological Seminary. 80 
Jews, history of summed up, 
43 ; influence on civilization, 
44, 61: in pedagogy, 44; in- 
fluenced by surroundings. 50 

seq. : in i8th Century 61 seq, 

Jews and Christians, religious 

training compared 35, 81 

Job 30. 32 

Jochannan ben Sakkai 46 

Jonah 29 

Jose ben Joezer, quoted 18 

Joseph Aknin, 45 ; curriculum 

of S6 

Joseph Caro, pedagogic writings 

Joseph Epobi, ■'The Silver 

Uish" 45 

Joseph us and Jewish education 14 
Joshua ben Gamla, founds 
school for young children . . 46 

Judah's signet ring 15 

Judaism, character of 81 seq. 

Juvenile Court, biblical origin 
of 21 

Karaism 81 

Kehilla 80 

Kent's "Heroes — of Hebrew 

Tradition" 24 

Krochmal, N ?t 

I-aw, to be loved, 20 ; expound- 
ers of. 22; Ezra adopts. 28: 
and Wisdom, .12; see Torah. 

Lebensohn, A. B 72 

Lecky, Jews' value to civiliia- 

Leeser, 1 70 

Lemans, M 74 

Leprosy, Priests supervise ... 22 

Levensohn, t. B 72 

Levites, missionaries and pio- 
neers of education, 17; as 
teachers, 18. 21 ; become 

scribes 28 

Literati, scribes as 2^ 

Literature, Biblical rcmnanis 
of, 16 : for women. 63 seq. ; 

renascence of Hebrew 67 

Lithuania, history of Jewish 
education in 72 

Maccabean Era, 14; elementary 
education in 18 

Magna Charta of Jews 2? 

Malachi on the ideal priest, 22 ; 
educational power of 26 

M'biniin 28 

Meassefim 68, 72 

Medicine, and priests I? 

Jtenasseh ben Israel ,74 

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Mezuza 15 

Micah, 16; philosophy of life 

of 26 

Middle Ages, status of 11 

Midrask 17 

Mill, J. S 10 

Mission of Hebrew stated .. 13 
Mohamined, "the people of the 

book" 29 

Montefiore, M 76 

^loorish Renascence 81 

Itorals and religion 35 

Moses, records of, 15; the peda- 
gogue par excellence, z6; 

what he achieved 27 

Moses Mendelssohn 64 seq. 

Mother of the Bible 20 

Munk, S 76 

Music, teachers of, 14; proph- 
ets teach 24 

Nathan the prophet 24 

Natural history, priests' knowl- 
edge of 15 

Nature and Rousseau, 11; and 

prophets 2$ 

N'ehemiah and scribes 28 

Noah, M. M.p school for high- 
er education 79 

Obedience, 19, 20; the sine qua 

non 33 

Old Testament, priestly element 

in 23 

Oral instruction, 20 ; alone not 
sufficient, 35 ; Rabbinical 

method of 50 

Orator, prophet ideal of 26 

Ormuzd-Ahriman 1,1 

Orphans, education of 17 

Orthodoxy and Reform 6g 

Osiris 13 

Palestine, history of Jewish 

education in 77 

Parents, obedience to. 13 ; 

as teachers, 18: opportuni- 

. ties of, 19; equal authority 

Passover, lessons of 19 

Pedagogue, Moses the great 27 
Pedagogues of civilization, Jews 

the 12 

Pedagogy, Jews in, 44; Rab- 
binical treatises on, 45; Rab- 
binical methods of, 47 seq, ; 

old and new 57 

"People's Institute," syn^ogue 

a 17 

Persia, 13; prophets and .... 23 

Pestalozzi 11 

Pharisees, rise ot 2Q 

Philosophy of prophets 26 

Physical culture, in Bible times, 

14; prophets' view of 25 

Physics, priests' knowledge of 15 
Prayers, mother teaches, 20 ; 

value in education 34 

Prayer-book, creation of 29 

Priest and prophet, 21 ; the 

Priests, conduct services, 17 ; 
as teachers, 18, 21, 22: meth- 
ods of instruction, 24; be- 
come scribes 28 

Prizes 55 

Prophecy an educational move- 
ment 25 

Prophets, schools of. 17; as 
teachers, 18 ; and priests com- 
pared, 21, 35 : activities, 24; 

methods 25 seq. 

Proverbs, Book of. 30; advice 

to parents and teachers 31 

Psalm-book, institution of . . 29 

Psalmists as teachers 18, 21 

Psalms and priests 2,1 

Pumbeditha 415 

Pupils, qualifications of, 54 ; 
girls as :.. 55. 63 

Rabbinical pedagogy, digest of 

45 seq- 

Rabbis, birth of 29 

Rapaport, S. J 71 

Reform Judaism 6g 

Reformation 11 

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Religious Culture, Biblical aiid 
modern, 12; the educational 
ideal, 14; and secular, 18; 
prophet exponents of, 25 ; 
fundamental propositions of, 
33; attainment of. 33 seq. ; 
and morals, 35 : and other 
cultures, 36; methods,.. 36 seq. 
Religious School, 34; Hebrew 

in curriculum of 35 

Renaissance 11 

Repetition, employment of 37, 50 
Roman, Greek and Jewish edu- 
cation compared 14 

Rome, 11; Josephus on, 14; 

power of parents in 21 

Rousseau, his message stated 11 
Russia, histoo' of Jewish edu- 

catiwi in 71 

Ruth 29 

Sacrifices, how construed, 23; 

prayers take place of 24 

Sages, as teachers, 17, 18 : 
methods of instruction, 30 

seq 36 

Samson, I. H 65 

Samuel 24 

Saul Morteira, teaches in Am- 
sterdam 74 

Samuel Moulder 74 

School, in Biblical era, 14 ; of 
prophets. 17 ; largest in his- 

Paiestinian, 47 ; discipline, 55 ; 
vacations, 55 ; arrangement 
of the Franz, 66 ; see Schools. 
Schools, founding of Rabbini- 
cal, 46 ; status of teacher, 
51 ; modern, 73 : in the Ori- 
ent, 76; in United States . 79 
See under Countries. Abo 
'Heder, Beth Hamidrash, 

Schulchan Aruch 45. 62 

Science in Bible times 15 

Scribes, stylos of, 15 ; of David 
and Solomon, 16; as teach- 
ers. 18, 27: under Ezra, 28; 
and Synagogue 29 

Seminary, founded by Jewish 
science, 6g; of Buda Pesth. 
71; of Wilna and Zhitomir. 
72; first Rabbinical, 74; of 
Padua. 7S; of Metz, 75; of 
Constantinople. 76: of Eng- 
land, 77 seq. ; in United 

States 80 

Sermons, first in writing 16 

Sh'ma. lesson of 19 

Simon ben Shetach 46 

Simon the Just quoted 29 

Sin, and sacrifice. 23; national 

sense of 28 

Smolenskin, P. 73 

Songs, composed by prophets, 

24; educational value of .. 38 
Sora 46 

Spinoza 74 

State and education 10 

Steinschneider, R.. school 

reminiscences of 66 

Story-telling, its educational 

value 38 

Symbols ig, 37 

Synagogue, birth of, 17, 28; 
place for study. 29; demo- 
cratic tendencies of 29 

Synod of Leipzig 69 

Talmud, teachers of 53. 62 

Talmudic Era begins 29 

Talmud-Tora 62 

Teachers, personality of. ,l6. 
38: Rabbinical titles of. 46; 
qualifications, 51 seq. ; wom- 
en, S3; remuneration of, 53; 

respect for 55 

Temple, and synagogue com- 
pared, 17, 29; children in, 
10; for developing charac- 
ter 23 

Text-books, use of, 38; in 

United States 79 seq. 

Torah, God and Rome, 13; 
part of curriculum, 15; see 

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Toy, on "Proverbs," 15 ; on 

family life 31 

Tutors in Bible times 21 

United States, history of Jew- 
ish education in, 78 seq. ; edu- 
cational societies of So seq. 

Wellhausen quoted 18 

Wessely. N. H, on Jews of 

18th Century, 61 seq. .,70, 75 
Wise, I. M., "Zion Collegiate 

Women, education of ... 63 seq. 

Writing in Bible times 15, 16 

Yashar, Book of 16 

Yeshiba de los Pintos 74 

Yeshibah, 51, 62 ; life of student 
in, 63; the Fiirth, 66; of 
Pressburg 71 

1 Palestine" 

SEP 7 1918 

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