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LUZAC & Co. 


46 Great Russell Street 

To Ch, RIEU Esq. Ph.D, etc, etc, 




El-Baidawi s Commentary on the Qur an has been printed 
at Leipsic, 1846 (edited by H. L. Fleischer), at Boulak, 
1263 A.H. (on the margin of Shaykh Zadeh s gloss), 
and 1283 A.H. (on the margin of El-Khafaji s gloss) , and 
Constantinople, 1303 A.H. (with the commentary of the 
Jalalain on the margin) ; and lithographed at Lucknow (2 nd 
edition 1282 A.H.), and Constantinople (1300 A.H. ; on the 
margin of the Qur an) *. Of these editions the most easily 
procurable is the small edition of 1303, at about 1, issued 
simultaneously in Cairo and Constantinople. As however 
it teems with misprints, a collation of it with the careful 
recension of H. L. Fleischer has been appended to this 
Chrestomathy , from which the student will do well before 
he commences the study of Sura III to correct his copy. 
Part of the commentary on Sura II has been translated 
into French and explained by S. de Sacy in his Antkologie 
Grammaticale ; the whole of the commentary on Sura X 
was edited, but without explanation, in Henzius Frag 
ments Arabica (Dorpat, 1832). Fragments of it are rende 
red into English in Hughes s Dictionary of Islam and other 
works by English scholars. 

1) This list is not intended to be exhaustive. 


The translation offered to students in this Chrestomathy 
is hased on the following works; 

A. Supercommentaries. Some glosses by El-Baidawi on his 
commentary are occasionally quoted; and owing to its 
great popularity, it acquired a great number of super- 
commentators, of whom lists are given by the biblio 
grapher Hajji Khalfah and by Ahlwardt in his Catalogue 
of the University Library at Berlin. The Library of the 
India Office and the Khedivial Library at Cairo are also 
rich in this literature. The following three published glosses 
have been used for the present work; 

1. The gloss of ShihaJb el-din El-Khafajl , who died in 
Egypt in 1069 A.H. He held the office of gLaSJI ^15, 
and is known to scholars by his commentary on the 8^3 
of Hariri (published at Constantinople) , and his literary 
history called slsWI 3 ^ (printed repeatedly at Cairo), at 
the end of which he gives a short autobiography. His 
gloss on Baidawi called ^o{J&tt JoU^ is a compilation, em 
bodying the contents of the earlier glosses and enriched 
by learned grammatical and rhetorical disquisitions by the 
author. It occupies 8 volumes fol. 

2. The gloss of Skaykh Zadeh (Mohammed b. Muslih 
el-din Mustafa El-Kuhi) who died 951 A.H. This was 
published at Boulak in 4 folio volumes in 1283 A.H. It 
is mainly theological and consists largely in quotations 
from Fakhr el-din s commentary. 

3. The gloss of the Lucknow edition. This edition is 
provided with marginal and interlinear notes, as well as 
with figures to guide the reader in referring the prono 
minal affixes, the work of some very competent scholars. 
Most of the glosses occur word for word in the work of 
El-Khafaji, but not all. Were the lithography of this edi- 


tion somewhat clearer, it would be the most useful for 
the student. 

B. Other commentaries on the Qur an. 

The ^anwaru ^l-tanzll is said to be a compilation of the 
commentaries of El-Baghib (circ. 500), El-Zamakhshan 
(467528; called vJlAfll), and Fakhr el-din El-Bazi (ob. 
606; called w**-^ gn La*)- Of these the commentary of 
El-Kaghib, often cited by Shih. , has not been accessible 
to the translator. The bulk of B. s commentary is taken, 
with some alteration in the expression, from the famous 
oLW, of which it is sometimes called an epitome. The 
Kashshaf t published by W. Nassau Lees, Calcutta 1857, 
and more recently at Cairo , is a work of great genius 
and learning, which however suffered from the Mu c tazilite 
opinions of the writer. These B. sometimes refutes, some 
times neglects , and occasionally , by oversight , copies *. 
Traditions, as well as grammatical and rhetorical observa 
tions, for the latter of which the Kashshaf is especially 
celebrated, are ordinarily repeated; while the textual cri 
ticism is summarised. The commentary of Fakhr el-din 
has been printed repeatedly; the copy used by the trans 
lator is in six folios and bears the date 1286. Some 
account of it is given by I. Goldziher in his treatise on 
the Zahirites. It is a vast thesaurus of Qur anic learning, 
much of it being devoted to the refutation of the KashsMf 
and other MuHazilite works. The author s habit of dividing 
his matter into heads renders it tedious reading. The use 
made of it by B. would seem inconsiderable, at least in 

1) There is in the Khedivial Library a work dealing with this subject called 
tjL&IH W*J>LAO ^LkaxJI JwO U ^X*AJ oL^Oi^l. The subject 
is alluded to by the biographer of Ibn Arabi, in the introduction to the F. M. 


this sura. A more recent commentary by El-Khatlb El- 
Sharbmi (ob. 977) called ^t J^l , which has been both 
printed and lithographed, treats B. s commentary much as 
B. treated the Kashshaf. 

It is to be observed that the interpretations given by 
B. are not ordinarily, if ever , original l , but are traceable 
to earlier commentators on the Qur 3 an, commencing with 
the Interpreter of the Qur D an Abdallah B. c Abbas. A list 
of these commentators is given by Sprenger in his Life of 
Mohammed (vol. Ill, pp. cxiii cxviii). To find out the 
names of the scholars supposed to be responsible for par 
ticular opinions it is necessary to refer to the commentary 
of El-Farra El-Baghawi (ob. 516, called JojXxJt ^U*; litho 
graphed, but with countless miswritings, Bombay 1295; 
Sprenger s date 1269 seems truer). B. must have been 
aware of the existence of this work, since he commented 
on the ^oha* of the same author, but does not seem to 
have used it. 2 

C. Manuals of the Mohammedan sciences. 

a. Tradition. The traditions quoted come for the most 
part under the head called J^jxxM ^Ljwl or jj^JLJl v^*^ 
occasions of the revelation of certain texts , and so far as 
they belong to the commentaries have a bad reputation 3 ; 
a certain number are to be found in the lives of the Pro 
phet , ;f y*Ji W*A^, of which the oldest is that by Ibn Ishaq , 

1) S. Z. points out that the observation which B. claims as his own on I 
p. 28 1. 14 (Fleischer) is really F. D. s. 

2) In the abridgment of the JujJudt ^bw called Ju. 5 UJI -A*J b 7 E1 
Khazin, the L\AJl/*t or lists of authorities are omitted. 

3) Halabl II. 223 of a tradition : ^ ^ ^& y^> L*jl c^-jij ^ 
j*.M*JC$ wOlS . Many works bearing the name jjj^- s-U/J are enumera 
ted by H. Kh. 


called j**ti j *l*^t , published by Wustenfeld (Gottingen , 
1860). There are many other works on this subject of 
ancient and modern date ; the life called B^x** Q^otJt ^l^ot 
o y>Ut ^yo^f by Ali B. Burhan el-din El-Halabi is a useful 
compilation; while in English and German the works of 
Muir and Sprenger still hold the field; indeed no more 
instructive work than Sprenger s (das Leben und die Lehre 
des Muhammad, 1870) has ever been written on the origins 
of Mohammedanism. For notices of the Prophet s followers 
reference has been made to the biographical dictionary of 
Ibn El-Athir (ob. 630) called &LSPJI xsyw ^ iwliJI juJ 
(5 volumes, Boulak, 1286). Another dictionary on a vast 
scale called iulo^! by Ibn Hajar (IX th century) has been 
published in the Bibliotheca Indica. Much connected 
with the Tradition properly so called has recently been 
elucidated by the publication of the s-^vAJ of El-Suyuti 
(Cairo, 1307), and the 2 nd part of I. Goldziher s Moham- 
madanische Studien. Scholars have now the advantage of 
studying the most important collections in type or litho 
graph. Numerous editions have been published of the Sahih 
of El-Bukhari (ob. 256) with the very valuable commentary 
of El-Qastalani (ob. 923), known also as the author of a 
work on Mohammed called iCoAiJl ^Pifl (published at 
Cairo 1278 with the commentary of El-Zurqani in 8 volumes 
fol.). l The later editions of Qastalani s commentary on 
Bukharl have on their margin the Sahih of Muslim with 
the commentary of El-Nawawi; there is also a beautifully 

1) B. does not always follow BukhSri s traditions: e.g. the account given 
of the verses ^Lxj Uu&\ J.^ LJ iii. 57 in the on o ^\ j^RJ 
(Qastalani ed. 6, vii. p. 58) is not noticed by him. Had Krehl s edition of 
the Sahih been finished we might have had an index, which would be of help 
in tracing the passages of the Qur an elucidated. 


printed edition of Muslim bearing the date 1287. Of El- 
Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, El-Nasa l and Ibn Majah there are 
Indian lithographs with judiciously excerpted glosses. El- 
Baidawi himself commented onthe&uJ! g^l^o ofEl-Baghawi, 
a convenient summary of authentic tradition , to which 
therefore reference has frequently been made. 

b. Law. El-Baidawi belonged to the school of El-Shafi !, 
which, like that of Abu Hanifah, possesses a very co 
pious literature, while the schools of Malik and Ahmad 
B. Hanbal are less voluminous. Of these schools sketches 
which, though somewhat fanciful, are brilliant, are to be 
found in von Kremer s Culturgesckichte unter den Khalifen. 
El-Baidawi himself wrote a manual of Law called 2u.UJt 

Eeference has been made in the notes to the 
.l$A* of El-Nawawi (ob. 676) , a code of great 
authority, which has been published with a valuable 
French translation by van den Berg (Batavia, 1882); the 
recent Cairene edition with the very copious commentary 
of El-Khatib El-Sharbmi called ^H ^ & g UJl ^M 
is also very useful , while the earlier edition containing 
the gloss of Mahalli with supercommentaries is of use 
only to experts. For the comparison of different systems 
reference is sometimes made to the work called ^^ olj^ 
of El-Sha c rani , published together with the somewhat sim 
pler work called jU^I i^ y 

c. Principles of Jurisprudence (&& <Jy^) Works on this 
subject deal with the sources of Law and the Logic to be 
applied to them. The main treatise was the jy^ of 
Fakhr el-din El-Kazi, of which there are many epitomes, 
among them El-Baidawi s own manual called JyAa^Jt J-p-^ 
Jj-o^l XJLxJL> jj, of which there are several MSS. with 
valuable commentaries in Oxford. As this treatise is of 


great merit it has been frequently quoted in the notes 
(from the New College MS.). Printed or lithographed books 
on the Principles of Jurisprudence are the ,3 j^AoaJI ^xSJu 
Jyo^ ju*z~>\ (Malekite) by Shihab el-din El-Qirafi (ob. 684; 
Cairo 1306, etc.), the vJLxJL^U Ji xjUu vJijJi^uJ^ ^U^ 
(Hanefite, Lucknow 1876 A. D.), the ^x&u with commen- 

G ** 

tary called g^y by El-Taftazani (ob. 792) published at 
Kazan ; and cyjtfl jJU^o with commentary (Lucknow 1878 
A. D.); to the last reference has occasionally been made. 

d. Scholastic Theology, C^Ltft), or the philosophical basis 
of religion. B. as an orthodox Muslim belonged to the 
school of Abu D l-Hasan El- 3 Ash c ari. He himself wrote two 
treatises on this subject ; one called J^\ jjf^b , of which 
there are several MS. copies in Oxford, in all of which 
however the text is imperfectly given; another called 
^LAO!! which is rare. No manual ever acquired as great 
popularity as the y^lyo of c Adud el-din El- 3 Iji (ob. 756) 
which with the commentary of El-Jurjanl (ob. 816) has 
often been printed and lithographed; the last two stations 
treating of divinity were published separately by Soerensen. 
The Indian lithograph to which reference has ordinarily 
been made bears the date 1284. 

e. Mystical Theology (or Sufism). To this El-BaidawI 
shows not a few leanings, a fact which agrees with what 
we know of his life. The leading work on this subject is 
juJUl olr>y&5l, of Ibn c Arabi (ob. 638), described by von 
Kremer in his Herrschende Ideen des Islams. It has been 
published at Cairo in 8 imperial quartos, and is very te 
dious reading. An abstract of it by El-Sha c rani called 

vtf*A$]jJt \Jj is less trying. 
Besides these disciplines three more require to be mentioned; 


f. Technicalities of the Qur*an. These are dealt with by 
El-Suyutl in his interesting work called ^U^ ,J^ v5 ^12^ 
published in the Bibliotheca Indica and also at Cairo. The 
text of the Qur an was to a certain extent officially fixed 
by the Caliph c Uthman ; but from the nature of the Arabic 
writing employed at the time this text admitted of consi 
derable diversity of interpretation, and, as Sprenger says, 
every possible interpretation of it was advanced by some 
reader or other. Of c Uthman s text five copies (according 
to the authority cited by Suyuti p. 141) were sent to the 
chief Mohammedan cities, Mecca, Damascus, Basra, Cufa, 
Medina; and the pronunciation of seven readers belonging 
to these capitals at some time in the second century 
acquired general recognition for orthodoxy; each of these 
readers is known by two reporters ( 5 ^, plural ^); their 
names were: 

Naff of Medina (ob. 169) recorded by Qalun and Warsh. 
Ibn Kathlr of Mecca (ob. 120) recorded by Qunbul and El-Bazzl. 
Abu c Amr of Basra (ob. 154) recorded by El-Durl and El-Susi. 
Ibn <3mir of Damascus (ob. 118) recorded by Hisham and 

Ibn Dhakwan. 
c jsim of Cufa (ob. 127 or 128) recorded by Abu Bakr 

B. ^AyyasJi and Eafs. 

Eamza of Cufa (ob. 156) recorded by Khalaf and Khallad. 
El-Kistfi of Cufa (ob. 189) recorded by El-Dari and Altfl- 


To these seven Baidawi adds an eighth, Ytfqub of Basra, 
ob. 205, whose reporters were Ruwais and Ruh, while 
others speak of ten orthodox readers, adding Abu Ja c far 
Yazld of Medina, and Khalaf B. Hisham of Cufa, ob. 229. 
The names of other readers of eminence are given by 
Suyuti p. 171; and to their readings reference is occasi- 


onally made by B. , more frequently by Zam. Many books 
containing collections of readings are to be found in the 
Khedivial Library and elsewhere; Suyiiti p. 173 mentions 
a few of them ; the most popular is the j^**** of El-Dani 
(ob. 444) reduced into verse by El-Shatibi. Punctuation 
or pause (_%JI) is the subject of special treatises, such 
as the i^LXflJI jlLo of El-Ishmuni (published at Cairo). 

The readings , which for the most part concern questions 
of grammar and dialect, depend partly on tradition, and 
partly on criticism; El-Dani in the treatise referred to 
gives the names of the readers through whom each of the 
seven obtained his information, while in F. D. s commen 
tary critical grounds are given that may be urged in fa 
vour of or against different readings. 

g. Grammar. El-Baidawl wrote a treatise on this subject, 
viz. a commentary on the A& of Ibn El-Hajib. The gram 
matical statements in the commentary come for the most 
part directly from Zam., whose grammar called jJaail is 
still one of the most popular manuals of the subject, and 
has been edited several times with great care by J. P. Broch 
at Christiania (ed. 2. 1879). To this reference has regularly 
been made in the notes; and, where necessary, to the 
verbose commentary on it by Ibn Ya c ish published for the 
German Oriental Society by G. Jahn. The Mufassal is an 
abridgment of the vjUtf" ot Sibawaihi, published in Paris 
by H. Derenbourg and made by the learned Jesuit Vernier 
the basis of his excellent grammar; a translation of the 
original by Dr. G. Jahn is in course of publication. 

h. Rhetoric. The most popular work on this subject is 
the gloss called Jjkll by Sa c d el-din El-Taftazani on the 
^Uftll o*udsOj of Jalal el-din Mahmud El-Qazwim (ob. 739), 
which has been lithographed at Lucknow. 


The region therefore which is not indeed covered , but 
occasionally invaded hy B. s commentary on the Qur an is 
a very wide one; and the advantage of the study of it is 
that it leads the student directly into all the best culti 
vated fields of Mohammedan thought. This is why it has 
been set as a subject for the Oxford Oriental school, for 
the needs of which this Chrestomathy is primarily intended. 


B. = El-Baidawi . 

F. = El-Farra El-Baghawi, 

F. D. = Fakhr el-din El-Kazi. 

F. M. = The futuhat makkiyuah of Ibn Arabl. 

e/ t/t/ 

Gl. = Gloss of the Lucknow edition. 

Muf. = The muf assal of El-Zamakhshari. 

S. Z. = Shaykh Zadeh s gloss. 

Sharb. = El-Khatib El-Sharbmi. 

Shih. = Shihab el-din El-Khafaji s gloss. 

Zam. = The kashshaf of El-Zamakhshan. 

In the transliteration of Arabic words compound letters 
(gh, kh, etc.) are underlined; in proper names the underline 
and the signs of lengthening etc. are frequently omitted. 

In the transliteration of the article it is difficult to de 
cide whether to imitate the orthography or the pronun 
ciation ; the former has , with some reluctance , been followed. 

1) His full name was N&sir el-din Abu Said Abdallah B. Omar El-Baid&m, 
Qddi "l-Qudat. His death-date is variously given 682, 685 and 691. Baida is 
is a town in Persia eight parasangs from Shiraz, where B. was Qadl. He 
died at Tabriz. Besides the works mentioned in the Preface he also wrote a 
general history in Persian, of which the portion dealing with China has been 
published (Abdallae Bddavaei historia Sinensis persice et latine edita ab An 
drea Mullero Greifenhagio printed at Berlin 1677 , and published at Jena 
1679). Considering his fame, it is remarkable that the biographers have next 
to nothing to tell us about him. 


Eevealed at Medina. Its verses are two hundred in 

1. ^AUf Lam Him God there is no god but He the 
final m of the word mim was given the vowel fatha in 
the vulgate 4 , although it would naturally have had no 
vowel 2 , owing to the vowel of the hamza of *llahu heing 
transferred to it 3 ; which was to show that the hamza of 
*llahu is virtually unelided 4 being here elided for the 
sake of abbreviation 5 , and not because it occurs in the 
middle of a sentence 6 ; for the m is virtually in pause. 
The abbreviation is similar to that in the enumeration 
wahi-dithnan 7 , where the vowel of the hamza at the be 
ginning of *ithnan is transferred to the final d of wahid. 
The fatha is not due to the concurrence of vowelless con 
sonants 8 , for to this there is no objection when the sec 
ond of those consonants is in pause 9 : for which reason 
the m of lam (the second of the introductory letters) has 
no vowel 10 . There was another reading n mimi ^llahu, 
where the * is due to the supposed concurrence of vowel- 


6 SUKA m. 

less consonants ; and Abu Bakr read mlm without final 
vowel, and made what follows a fresh sentence, in which 
the hamza of *llahu received its natural vowel. 

the living, the sustaining; it is recorded 12 that the 
Prophet said: The Mightiest name of God 13 is to be found 
in three Suras; II. 256; III. 1; XX. 110. 

2. He has revealed unto thee the Book; the Qur D an, text 
by text 14 . 

with truth ; with justice 15 ; or, with truth in its narra 
tives; or, with arguments that demonstrate that it is from 
God. The word is in place of a circumstantial phrase 16 . 

confirming what was before it ; the Books that were before it. 

and He sent down the Law and the Gospel; in a body to 
Moses and Jesus respectively. The derivation of these 
words from waray to strike a light and najala to draw 
water giving them the measures taf c ilatun and *if c llun 17 
respectively is forced, since they are both foreign, as is 
confirmed by the fact that some read ^anjllun, which is 
not an Arabic formation. D Abu Amr, Ibn Dhakwan, and 
El-Kisal read el-tauratu with *imala throughout the Qur D an 18 . 
Hamza and Nafi c gave it the intermediate pronunciation l9 ; 
except Qalun 20 , who pronounced it with fatha like the 
rest of the readers. 

beforehand ; before he revealed the Qur D an. 

a guidance to mankind; mankind generally, if we suppose 
ourselves bound by the code of our predecessors 21 ; other 
wise the Jews and Christians are meant. 

and He revealed the Criterion; meaning the Divine Books 
generally 22 ; since they distinguish between true and false 23 . 
He mentions this after mentioning the three books, in 
order to include others besides the three; as much as to 
say and He sent down all the means whereby the true is 


distinguished from the false. Or he may mean the Psalms 24 ; 
or, the Qur an; thus mentioning the Qur D an again, under 
an epithet , to exalt and magnify it , and to show its superi 
ority over the others, in as much as it resembles them 
in being a revelation sent down, but is distinguished from 
them as being a miracle 83 , whereby the speaker of truth is 
distinguished from the speaker of falsehood. Or, he may 
mean the miracles 26 . 

3. Verily those who disbelieve the signs of God; such as 
the Books which He sends down, and others. 

for them is a terrible punishment; on account of their 

and God is mighty; victorious; He cannot be prevented 
from punishing. 

lord of vengeance; such as no avenger can wreak 97 . 
Niqmatun is the punishment of the sinner, from which 
comes the verb naqama or naqima* 9 . The passage is a menace 
introduced after the affirmation of the unity and the al 
lusion to the basis of Mohammed s prophetic claim, in 
order to magnify the matter and to warn mankind against 
neglecting it. 

4. Eerily notlwng is concealed from God in earth or in heaven" 
i. e. Nothing which comes to pass in the world, be it 
universal or particular 29 , faith or unbelief. He expresses 
this by the terms heaven and earth, becauses the senses 
cannot go beyond them; and he mentions the earth first, 
in order to ascend from lower to higher, and because what 
is intended to be mentioned is what is committed on earth. 
The verse is, as it were, a proof that He is alive; 
whereas the following 

He it is who forms you in the wombs as He will 
i. e. out of the different forms is , as it were , a proof 30 


of His quality of sustainer, and is like an argument that 
He is wise, based upon the perfection of His work in 
creating and forming the embryo 31 . Others read tasaw- 
warakum formed you for Himself and for His worship. 

there is no God dnt He ; since none except Him knows 
what He knows or can do what He does. 

the Mighty , the Wise ; indication of the perfection of His 
power and the absoluteness of His wisdom 32 . It has been 
said that this passage is an argument against those who 
say Jesus is Lord; for when the envoys from Najran 
argued with the Prophet on this matter, the Sura was 
revealed as far as past the 80 t]l verse, to confirm the 
arguments which he used against them and his answers 
to their quibbles 33 . 

5. He it is who sent down unto thee the Book wherein are 
elaborate verses; elaborately expressed in that they are 
preserved from ambiguity and obscurity. 

they are the mother of the Book; its foundation, to which 
other texts are referred. Analogy would suggest ^ummahatu 
in the plural; the singular implies that hunna is to be in 
terpreted each one of them , or that all these verses count 
as one verse. 

and others equivocal; ambiguous, whose drift is not clear, 
owing to their generality 34 , or to their contradicting 
some clear text, except by examination and study, in order 
that the excellence of the learned may be displayed over 
them, and that their zeal may be increased for their study 
and for the acquisition of the sciences on which the evolu 
tion of their meaning is based, and that they may rise 
to the highest ranks by employing their talents in educing 
their meaning and harmonizing them with the elaborate 
texts. As for the expression (XL 1) a book of which the 


texts are elaborate the meaning is that they are preserved 
from false notions and improper phrases; while the expres 
sion (XXXIX. 24) an equivocal book means that it is 
uniform throughout in correctness of idea and beauty of 
language. *ukharu is plural of ^ukhray and is diptote as 
being 1) an adjective, 2) altered from e?ukhray\ and 
this latter fact does not render it necessarily definite; since 
the expression altered means that whereas by analogy it 
should have the article, it is without it; not, that it 
means the same as the form with the article. Or, it may 
be altered from ^akharu min 35 . 

and as for those in whose hearts is apostasy ; rejection of 
the truth, like the schismatics. 

they follow those that are equivocal ; and adhere to their 

/ / J. 

letter, or to a false interpretation of them. 
. seeking to apostatize; seeking to draw men away from 
their religion by suggesting doubts and difficulties, and 
making the equivocal texts contradict the elaborate. 

and seeking to explain it; seeking to explain it to mean 
what they want. Now it is possible that the cause of their 
following the equivocal texts may be both these desires 
together, or each of them alternately; now the first cor 
responds with the case of the hardened opponent, while 
the latter suits the fool. 

and none knows its explanation; the explanation according 
to which it is to be taken. 

except God and those who are firm in knowledge ; those 
who are steadfast in it and have possession of it. Those 
who stop at ^illa ^llahu explain the equivocal part as refer 
ring to what God has reserved for His own knowledge, 
e. g. the duration of the world , and the time of the arrival 
of the Hour 30 , and the properties of the numbers , such as 


the number of the warders of Hell 37 , or as referring to 
those texts of which the letter is shown by decisive argu 
ments not to be the meaning, while there is no other in 
dication of what their meaning is 38 . 

they say We believe therein; a fresh sentence explaining 
the conduct of those who are firm; or else a hal depending 
on the word rasikhuna , or else predicate, if you make 
el-rasikhuna subject. 

all is from our Lord; both the elaborate and the equi 
vocal are from Him. 

yet there reflect not save those that are possessed of in 
tellects ; tribute of praise to the fine intellect and careful 
study of the firm, and indication of the apparatus with 
which they provide themselves in order to be guided to 
its interpretation; viz. the abstraction of the intellect from 
the clouds of sense. The connexion of this verse with what 
precedes lies in the fact that it deals with the information 
of the spirit and its decoration while the former deals 
with the formation and decoration of the body or else 
in the fact that it is an answer to the Christians, when 
they take hold of such phrases as His word which he 
cast into Mary and a spirit from Him (IV. 169), just as 
the former passage is an answer to their assertion he has 
no father but God, consequently it is clear that God must 
be his father , by showing that God can form the embryos 
as He will, and therefore can form them with or without 
the father s seed, and by showing that God formed him 
in the womb, and the former is not father to the formed. 

6. Our Lord do not divert our hearts; part of the speech 
of the firm ; according to others a fresh sentence 39 . The 
meaning is: Do not divert our hearts from the path of 
truth to follow the equivocal texts according to interpre- 


tations which do not please thee. The Prophet 40 said: The 
heart of man is between two of the fingers of the Merciful ; 
if He will , He establishes him in the truth , and if He will , 
He diverts him from it. Others 41 make the meaning: Do 
not try us with afflictions wherein our hearts will go astray. 

after that thou hast guided us; to the truth ; or, to belief 
in both portions. 6a c da is in the accusative of the vessel * 2 , 
and *idh virtually in the genitive after it 43 ; others say 
*idh stands for *an 44 . 

and give us kindness from with thee ; which shall bring us 
near thee , and which we shall possess with thee 4S ; or else 
help towards abiding in the truth; or, forgiveness of sins. 

verily thou art the giver ; of all requests 46 . Here is evi 
dence that guidance and misdirection come from God, and 
that He does a favour when He does good to His servants 
and that nothing is obligatory upon Him 47 . 

7. Our Lord, verily thou shalt gather mankind for a day ; 
for the reckoning of a day; or, for the recompense of a day. 

wherein is no doubt; no doubt of its occurrence, or of the 
gathering and the recompense taking place thereon. They 
call attention by their words to the fact that their chief 
aim in their two prayers is what concerns the future world, 
for that future world is the aim and the result. 

verily God will not break the appointment ; for His divinity 
contradicts such a notion 48 . And in order to call attention 
to this, and to magnify that which is promised, there is 
a change of person 49 . The Wa idites used this verse as evi 
dence of their doctrine 50 ; the answer given them is that 
the menace to the evildoers is conditional on their not 
being forgiven, as is shown by special proofs, just as it is 
conditional on non-repentance, as we are all agreed. 

8. Verily those that disbelieve:, this may refer to the un- 


believers generally; others say to the envoys from Najran, 
or the Jews, or the polytheist Arabs. 

there shall not avail them their goods nor their children 
instead of God at all; i. e. instead of His mercy; or, instead 
of obedience to Him; giving min the sense of instead of 51 . 
Or, against His punishment 52 . 

and those are the food of the fire ; i. e. what is to be burnt 
therein. Others read wuqudu meaning fit to be burned 
in it . 

9. Like the fashion of the people of Pharaoh; connected 
with the previous words, meaning it shall not avail them, 
just as it did not avail those ; or, it shall be kindled 
upon them, as it shall be kindled upon those ; or, a new 
clause , virtually in the nominative 53 , of which the full 
force is their fashion is like the fashion of the others in 
respect of unbelief and punishment ; dcblun is the infinitive 
of da aba, meaning to take trouble in work , whence it 
was transferred to the sense of business 54 . 

and those that were before them; connected by the con 
junction with people of Pharaoh ; or, some say, a fresh 

they belied our signs , and God took them for their sins ; 
either a hal in which gad is suppressed 55 ; or, a fresh 
sentence, to explain their character; or, predicate, if you 
make those that were before subject. 

and God is a severe punisher ; showing the terrible nature 
of the punishment, and offering an additional menace to 
the unbelievers. 

10. Say to them that disbelieve Ye shall be overcome and 
gathered into Hell; i.e. tell the polytheists of Mecca: Ye 
shall be conquered , on the day of Badr 56 . Others say : 
Tell the Jews; for the Prophet assembled them after Badr 


in the street of the Banu Qainuqa 57 , where he warned 
them that the same would befall them as had befallen the 
Quraish; and they said: Be not deceived because thouhast 
overcome tiros, who have no knowledge of war; if thou 
fight with us, thou shalt know that we are men . Then 
this text was revealed 58 . And God ratified his promise 
by the slaughter of the Banu Quraizah 59 , and the exile 
of the Banu Nadir 60 , and the taking of. Khaibar 61 , 
and the imposition of the tribute on the rest. And 
this is one of the evidences of Mohammed s mission 62 . 
Hamza and El-Kisa D i read they shall be conquered and 
gathered , making God command Mohammed to deliver 
to them the menace to them in the same words in which 
it was delivered to Mohammed. 

and a lad led it is ; the end of the menace to them ; or 
else a fresh sentence. The complete expression would be 
a bad bed is Hell or is what they have made for them 
selves 63 . 

11. There has been a sign to you in two parties; addressed 
to the Quraish, or, the Jews, or, the Believers. 

that met together ; on the day of Badr. 

a party that fought in God s way, and another unbelieving 
who thought them twice their size; the Unbelievers thought 
the Believers twice the number of the Unbelievers, the 
numbers of the latter being nearly 1000; or, twice the 
number of the Muslims, who were somewhat over 310; 
this was after God had made the latter look less in 
the eyes of the former 64 , so that they were encouraged 
to attack them; but when they encountered them, the 
latter were multiplied in the eyes of the Unbelievers, so 
that they conquered, God thus reinforcing the Believers. 
Or, the Believers thought the Unbelievers twice 

10 SURA m. 

the number of the Believers, when they were really three 
times their number, so that they faced them, and felt 
confident of the succour which God had promised them 
in the words if a hundred of you be patient, they shall 
conquer two hundred (VIII. 67); and this is supported 
by the reading of Naff and Ya c qub whom ye thought . 65 
There are also two other readings : they or ye were made 
to see them ., meaning God made them (or you) see that 
by His power 66 . Some read jiatm (a party) in the geni 
tive as permutative of fiataini (two parties), others Jiatan 
as specializing accusative 67 ; or as a circumstantial phrase 
referring to the subject of met together 68 . 

with the sight of the eye; with clear face-to-face vision. 

and God supports with his succour whom He wishes; to aid, 
just as He supported the soldiers at Badr. 

Verily therein; in the diminution and multiplication of 
their numbers ; or , in the fact that a small number without 
equipment overcame a large number of well-armed men. 
The designation of it as sign as well 69 will allow either 
of these interpretations, as well as a third viz. the event 
Calling out according to the Apostle s prophecy. 

there is indeed a warning to those that have eyes; an 
admonition to those who are possessed of intelligence; others 
say, to those who saw them. 

12. There has been beautified for men the love of lusts; 
i. e. of the objects of desire which he calls lusts for rheto 
rical effect, and to indicate that they are so sunk in the 
love of them that they love the lust after them; as in 
XXXVIII. 31 I love the love of good . The beautifier is 
God in as much as he creates the acts and the motives; 
and perhaps He beautifies them in order to try men, or 
that they may be a means of obtaining happiness in the 


next world, if carried out in a way which pleases God, or 
because that love is one of the causes of the maintenance 
of life and of the species. Others say the beautifier is 
Satan, 70 because the verse implies disapproval. El-Jubba D i 
made a distinction between the licit and the illicit 71 . 

such as women children talents of full weight of gold and 
silver fine horses and cattle and land , illustrations of the 
lusts , qintamn means a large sum of money, some say 
100,000 dinars 72 ; others an ox-hide-full. 78 It is a question 
whether the form is fi^lalun from qantara, or fin^alun 
from qatara 74 . muqantaratun is derived from it and added 
for the sake of strengthening like badratun mubaddaratun 
for a complete badratun 75 . musawwamatun means marked 
from saumatun a mark ; or well-fed from ^asama or saw- 
wama to feed cattle ; or of strong build . Cattle ^aifamun) 
includes camels, oxen, and sheep. 

that is the provision of the present existence ; that the 
things mentioned. 

but with God is the best return; the words are an ex 
hortation to commute empty and perishing lusts for the 
real and eternal pleasures that t are with Him. 

13. Say: Shall I tell you of something better than that 
confirmation of the fact that God s recompense is better 
than the pleasures of the world. 

for them that fear there are with their Lord gardens 
beneath which rivers flow , to abide for ever therein; a 
fresh sentence to illustrate the thing that is better. Or the 
for of for them may depend on better , so that gardens 
in the nominative will imply the omission of the nominal- 
subject it is 3 . This latter view is supported by the reading 
jannatin (gardens) in the genitive, as a permutative of 
something better . 

12 SURA. III. 

and wives that are cleansed ; from female pollution. 

and good wilt from God ; c lsim according to the record 
of Abu Bakr read rudwanun for ridwanun (good will) 
throughout the Qur D an except the second time the word is 
used in Sura V (Y. 18). These are optional forms. 76 

and God has an eye to His servants , over their deeds, to 
reward the well-doer, and punish the ill-doer. Or, over the 
character of those who fear , and for this reason has prepared 
gardens for them. And he calls attention in this verse 
to God s favours, of which the lowest is the provision of 
this world, and the highest the good will of God; as he 
says (IX. 73) and good will from God is greater ; and 
the Garden with its delights is intermediate. 

14. (Those) who say: our Lord, verily we believe, so forgive 
us our sins and keep from us the punishment of Hell ; epithet 
of those that fear , or of the servants , or accusative of 
praise 77 or nominative of praise. Their basing their 
request on the mere fact of their faith shows that faith 
is sufficient to merit forgiveness, or to prepare oneself 
for it 78 . 

15. Who are patient, anjl who speak the truth and who 
obey and who spend their goods , and who ask forgiveness in 
the mornings] an inclusive account of the stages through 
which the religious man passes , excellently arranged. 79 
His dealings with God are either acts of conciliation, or 
requests: the former are either in the soul, and consist 
in keeping it from vice, and attaching it to virtue 
these are included in patience ; or in the body, being either 
verbal (speaking the truth), or practical (obedience), or 
having to do with wordly goods (spending money in right 
ways); their requests are represented by the prayer for for 
giveness; since forgiveness is the greatest of the things they 


ask, or rather includes them all. The insertion of and 
before each member is to show that each of these acts is 
independent, and that they are perfect in it 80 ; or else is due 
to the fact that the persons described are not in all cases 
the same ; and the mornings are particularized because prayer 
then is more likely to be answered, worship being then 
more troublesome, and the soul purer 81 , and the mind 
more collected, especially in the case of the vigilant , 
who, it is said, used to pray until morning and then 
ask forgiveness and invoke blessings 82 . 

16. God is witness that there is no God but He; He 
proves His unity by establishing the evidences which in 
dicate it, and by revealing the texts that declare it. 

and the Angels; by confessing it. 

and those that are possessed of knowledge; by faith therein , 
and by arguing it out. He compares these acts to the evidence 
of a witness, because by them the fact is made clear and 

abiding by justice; causing justice to be established, in 
His distribution (of goods) and His judgments, qaiman 
(abiding) is in the accusative as being a circumstantial 
phrase of God in the words God is witness ; and it is 
permissible to give the word God a circumstantial phrase 
which does not apply to the other words connected with 
it, while you could not say Zaid and c Amr came to me 
riding (singular, applying to Zaid only), because in the 
present case there can be no confusion, just as there is 
none in Sura XXI. 72 83 . Or, qaiman may be dependent 
upon He , governed either by a verb implied in the sen 
tence, e. g. He stands alone, abiding , or / know Him, 
abiding , as being a confirmatory circumstantial phrase 84 . 
Or, it may be the accusative of praise 85 ; or an adjective 


agreeing with *ilaha (God) the accusative after the nega 
tive 86 ; but this is improbable , owing to the intervention 
of words between them 87 . If regarded either as an epithet 
of ^ilaha, or as a circumstantial phrase depending upon 
huwa (He), it becomes part of the proposition to which 
witness is borne. Others read *lqaiwu (He who abides) 
either as permutative of huwa (He), or as the predicate of 
an understood subject. 

there is no God but He; repeated for the sake of em 
phasis, and to make us more careful to know 88 the 
proof of the unity and acknowledge it when the evidence 
thereof is established; and also in order to help the 
construction of the following words 

the mighty , the wise; so that we might know that it is 
God to whom they apply. The mighty is put first , because 
the knowledge of His power is prior to the knowledge of His 
wisdom; and the words are in the nominative as permu 
tative of huwa, or as epithet of the subject of shahida. 
In reference to the importance of this text it is recorded 89 
that the Prophet said: He that knows this text shall be 
brought on the day of the Eesurrection and God shall say 
This servant of mine has a convenant with me, and none 
keeps a covenant more faithfully than I: take my servant 
in to the Garden . The verse shows the importance of the 
science of the Articles of Eeligion 90 and the excellence 
of its professors. 

17. Verily religion with God is Islam; fresh sentence, 
confirmatory of the last; no religion is acceptable with 
God save Islam, which consists in acknowledging the 
unity and embracing the code which Mohammed brought. 
El-Kisa 3 ! read ^anna ( that for verily ), making the sen 
tence a permutative of *annahu (that there is) above; if 


Islam be explained to mean faith or what is implied by 
faith, the permutative will be coextensive 91 ; but if it be 
explained the Islamic code , then it will be comprehensive 92 . 
Others read *innahu (verily there is) and *anna (that 
religion}, making the latter sentence that religion before 
God is Islam the object of the verb witnesses , all between 
being parenthetical; or else giving shahida (witness) the 
construction of gala (says) with the first 93 , that of c alima 
(knows) with the second sentence , since shakida has both 
these meanings. 

and those to whom the Book was given did not differ ; 
those, i. e. Jews and Christians, or the possessors of the 
previous books , did not differ i. e. concerning the Islamic 
religion, some saying it was the truth, others that it 
concerned the Arabs only, others absolutely rejecting it ; 
or else concerning the doctrine of the unity, since the 
Christians believe in three Persons, and the Jews say 
Ezra is the son of God 94 . Others say the people who dif 
fered were the followers of Moses, who disputed after his 
death 95 ; others make them the Christians, who differed 
concerning the nature of Jesus. 

save after that knowledge had come to them; after they 
had learnt the truth of the matter, or become possessed of 
the means of knowing it, by texts and arguments. 

out of jealousy of each other ; envy of each other and 
desire for the supremacy, not because of any doubt or 
obscurity in the thing itself. 

and for him that disbelieves the texts of God, verily God 
is quick at reckoning ; a warning to such of them as disbelieve. 

18. So if they wrangle with thee ; on the subject of reli 
gion , and contend with thee after thou hast established the 

16 SURA in. 

say: I have resigned my face to God; I have given over 
my whole soul and all my person to Him : I give none 
other a share therein. This is the right religion whereof 
the evidences were established and to which the texts 
and the apostles summoned. Face is used to express self, 
because the face is the most honourable of the external mem 
bers of the body, and the theatre of the faculties and senses. 

and who so follows me ; connected by the conjunction with 
! ; an allowable construction 96 owing to the intervention 
of the word wajhl ; or else comitative accusative 97 . 

19. And say to them to whom the Book was given and to 
the illiterate; i. e. who have no book, such as the Arabian 

have ye resigned? as I did, when the evidence was made 
clear to you. Or, are ye still unbelievers? A similar 
passage is V. 93 and will ye stop ? 98 The words contain 
a reproach to them for their folly or opposition. 

Then if they resign , they are guided; i.e. they have 
benefited their souls by withdrawing them from error. 

and if they turn back, then thou hast only to preach; 
i. e. they will do thee no harm, since thou hast nought 
to do save to deliver thy message, and thou wilt have 
delivered it. 

and God is watchful over His servants; a promise and a 

20. Verily those that disbelieve the texts of God and Mil 
the prophets without justice and slay those among men who 
enjoin the right, announce to them a terrible punishment; 
those are the people of the Book of his time; their 
ancestors had killed the Prophets and their followers, and 
they approved thereof and attempted to kill the Prophet 
and the Believers; only God protected them. A similar 


passage occurs in the preceding sura. Hamza read wayuqatiluna 
(and fight with). Sibawaihi forbids the introduction of fa 
before the predicate of *inna, as before that of laita and 
la alia; hence some make the predicate what follows 

21. They are those whose works are lost in this world and in 
the next; making the sentence like Zaid now mark 
is a just man . The difference however between *inna and 
those other particles is that *inna does not alter the import 
of the nominal sentence , whereas they do alter it ". 

and they have no helpers; to avert punishment from them. 

22. Hast thou not looked at those to whom a portion of 
the Book has been brought? i.e. the Law, or the heavenly 
books generally. The min may be either partitive or speci 
fying. The omission of the article with a portion may 
be either honorific or contemptuous 10 . 

They are called to the Book of God to judge between them ; 
the person who calls them is Mohammed, and the 
Book of God the Qur D an; or the Torah, according to the 
tradition 101 that he entered their Beth-hammidrash , where 
Nu c aim B. c Amr and El-Harith B. Zaid said to him: Of 
what religion art thou? He answered: Of the religion of 
Abraham . They said to him: But Abraham was a Jew . 
He said : Bring me the Torah , for it shall judge between 
us . This they refused to do. Then this verse was revealed. 
Others say , it was revealed at the stoning 102 . Others 
read: liyuhkama (that judgment be made) with the pas 
sive pointing, in which case the reference will be to their 
mutual disputes 03 . The verse gives proof that oral evidences 
may be used as arguments on the principles of religion 104 . 

Then a section of them turn back , expression of sur 
prise los at their turning back, when they know that it is 
their duty to return to it. 



being such as swerve aside; persons whose habit is to 
turn aside. The sentence is a circumstantial phrase depend 
ing on a section , which is only permitted because that 
word is specialised by the epithet of them loe . 

23. That] their turning back, or their swerving aside. 
is because they said : The fire shall not touch us save for 

certain days ; because of their making light of the nature 
of the punishment, in accordance with this delusive belief 
and vain desire. 

and they were deceived in their religion by that which they 
were fabricating ; such as the fiction that the fire would 
not touch them save a few days; or that their fathers, the 
Prophets, would intercede for them; or that God promised 
Jocob that he would not punish his children save so far 
as the fulfilment of His oath required 107 . 

24. And how , when we shall have assembled them for a 
day wherein is no doubt; figure expressing the greatness 
of the evil which shall encompass them and refuting their 
assertion the fire shall not touch us save a few days . It is 
recorded that the first standard of the Infidels that shall 
be raised on the day of Judgment is the standard of the 
Jews 108 ; then God shall upbraid them in the presence of 
the witnesses and then order them to Hell. 

and every soul shall be paid what it wrought; the recom 
pense of what it wrought. This verse shows that service 
done is not lost; and the Believer will not be kept for 
ever in Hell, since the payment for his faith and his works 
cannot be given him in Hell nor before he enters it; con 
sequently it must be given him after he is released from it l09 . 

and they shall not be wronged ; the pronoun refers to 
every soul , in accordance with the sense, since these words 
mean every man . 


25. Say: God! The m in illahumma (0 God!) is a 
substitute for the interjection ya, and for this reason the 
two are never found together no . This is one of the pecu 
liarities of the name of God , as is the employment of ya 
"with it while it has the article with fixing of its hamza 
and the prefixing to it of the t of adjuration in . Others m 
say , the original expression meant : God , bring us what 
is good ; then the ya, the affixes depending on the verb, 
and its hamza were dropped. 

owner of the sovereignty ; who controllest whatever can 
be controlled, like its owner. A second invocation 113 accord 
ing to Sibawaihi in whose opinion the m of illahumma 
prohibits its being regarded as an epithet. 

thou givest the sovereignty to whom thou wilt and with- 
drawest the sovereignty from whom thou wilt; thou givest 
thereof such portion as thou wilt to them, and likewise 
doest take it back. Sovereignty in the first case is universal, 
in the two last a portion of the first. Others say mulk 
means the prophetic office 114 , and the withdrawal of it 
its transference from one nation to another 115 . 

and thou magnifiest whom thou wilt, and humblest whom 
thou wilt; in this world, or in the next, or in both, by 
giving victory and defeat, assistance and desertion. 

in thy hand is good , verily thou hast power over everything ; 
he mentions good only, since that is decreed essentially, 
whereas evil is only decreed per accidens 11G , as there is 
no particular evil which does not contain some universal 
good. Or in order to maintain due reverence in his 
address to the Deity m ; or because the subject which gave 
rise to this discourse was good 118 ; since it is recorded 119 
that , when the Prophet marked out the Ditch 12 , assigning 
forty cubits to each party of ten, and they began to dig, 

20 SURA in. 

and a tremendous rock was found there on which the 
pickaxe had no effect, and they sent Salman 121 to the Pro 
phet to tell him about it, then the Prophet came and took 
the pickaxe from him , and struck the rock a blow that split 
it, and a flash came forth therefrom which lighted up the space 
between the two La D ba s 122 of Medina , like a lamp in the 
middle of a dark room. The Prophet cried : Allah akbar , 
which the Muslims repeated after him ; then he said : The 
palaces of Hira 123 shine out before me by this light like 
dogs teeth . Then he struck a second blow, and said: The 
red palaces of the land of Greece shine out before me . 
Then he struck a third blow and said: The palaces of 
San c a m shine out before me; and Gabriel has told me 
that my people shall conquer them all; receive ye the 
glad tidings. Then said the Hypocrites : Are ye not amazed 
how he entices you and promises you false, telling you 
that he sees from Yathrib 125 the palaces of Hira , and 
that they are to be taken by you, while you are digging 
a trench in fear ? Then the verse was revealed. However 
he indicates that evil also is in His hand , by the addition : 
Thou hast power over everything . 

26. Thou plungest night into day and day into night , and 
extractest living from dead and dead from living, and feedest 
whom thou wilt, without reckoning; he subjoins a demonstra 
tion of His power to alternate night and day, death and 
life, and of the extent of His goodness, in order to show 
that one who is able to do this is also able to alternate 
humility and greatness , and to give sovereignty and with 
draw it. The verb walaja means to enter a narrow place ; 
so that plunging (squeezing) night into day means intro 
ducing one into the other alternately or gradually 126 ; 
while the extraction of living from dead and vice versa 


means the production of animals out of matter, and their 
destruction; or else the production of the animal from the 
seed, and the seed from the animal. Others make it 
the production of the Believer out of the Unbeliever and 
the Unbeliever out of the Believer. Ibn Kathir, Ibn 
Amir Abu c Amr, and Abu Bakr read mayta (dead) in the 
shortened form. 

27. Let not the Believers take to themselves the Unbelievers 
as friends; they are forbidden to befriend them in virtue 
of any relationship or friendship etc., dating from the 
days of Ignorance, in order that their loves and hates may 
be all in God; or to ask their aid in forays or other 
religious affairs 127 . 

in preference to the Believers ; indicating that the latter 
have the better claim to alliance, and that alliance with 
them renders alliance with the Unbelievers unnecessary. 

and who so does this; i. e. takes them for friends. 

is not in respect of God in anything ; in respect of alliance 
with God stands in no relation worthy to be called alliance. 
For alliance with two opponents canot have place in the 
same person. A poet says 12J : 

Thou lovest my enemy and pretendest that I am 
thy friend; folly is not far from thee . 

unless ye fear from them a fear; unless ye fear from 
them what it is necessary to beware of; or tuqatan may 
be infinitive 129 ; while min is employed to help the 
government of the verb, which has here the sense of 
hadhira or khafa 13 . Ya qub 131 read taqiyyatan. He forbids 
alliance with them , either ostensible , or real , at all times , 
except time of danger, when ostensible alliance is permit 
ted, just as Jesus said: Be in the middle, but walk on 
one side 13S . 

22 SURA m. 

and God bids you beivare of Himself, and to Him is the rever 
sion; so do not expose yourselves to His wrath by breaking 
His commandments and allying yourselves with His enemies. 
A powerful menace, showing the extreme wickedness of 
the thing forbidden. And he mentions Himself to let us 
know that the thing against which we are warned is a 
punishment to issue from Himself, in preference to which 
the danger threatened by the Unbelievers should not be 

Say : If ye hide what is in your breasts , or reveal it , God 
knows it ; i. e. He knows your innermost intentions such as 
alliance with the Unbelievers and all else, whether you 
hide them or reveal them. 

and He knows what is in the heavens and what is on the 
earth; so that He knows your secrets and what you manifest. 

and God is powerful over everything j so that He is able 
to punish you if you do not refrain from what is forbidden 
you. The verse is an expansion of the words : Grod bids 
you beware of Himself, as though he had said He bids 
you beware of Himself, because that self has as one of 
its attributes essential knowledge, which comprehends all 
knowable things, and essential power, including all pos 
sible things ; venture not therefore to offend Him, since there 
is no offence which He does not know , and is not able to 
punish . 

28. The day whereon each soul shall find any good she 
did set before her , and any evil that she did , she shall wish 
there were between her and it a wide space ; yauma (day) is in the 
accusative of time after tawaddu , i. e. each soul on the day 
whereon she finds the records (or the rewards) of her good 
and bad actions set before her , shall wish there were between 
her and that day with its terror a wide space , 133 or after a 


verb to be supplied like mention 134 ; in which case 
iawaddu will be a hal depending on the pronoun in the 
second C amilat 1 135 or else the predicate of ma c amilat, the 
force of shall find being restricted to any good she did ; 
ma cannot be conditional, since tawaddu is in the indic 
ative 13G . Others read waddat, in which case ma 
may be conditional ; however the predicative construction ! 37 
gives a more forcible sense, as being the narration of an 
actual event l38 ,-and corresponds better with the vulgate text. 

and God bids you beware of Himself; repeated for emphasis 
and to impress it on the memory. 

and God is kindly to His servants; indication that God 
forbids them and warns them only out of mercy towards 
them and care for their welfare; or that He is capable 
both of forgiving and punishing, so that His mercy may 
be hoped for and His vengeance feared. 

29. Say: If ye love God, then follow me; love means 
the inclination of the soul towards anything, owing to 
some perfection perceived in it , great enough to incite the 
soul to a course which will bring it near to that thing 139 . 
And when a man knows that true perfection is in God 
only, and that anything in his soul or elsewhere which he 
regards as perfection is from God , in God and returning to 
God" 140 , this necessitates the desire to obey Him, and the 
desire to do what will bring him near. For this reason love 
has been interpreted desire to obey 141 , and has been 
made I42 a ground for following the Prophet in worshipping 
God, and for eagerness to obey Him. 

God will love you and forgive you your sins ; apodosis to 
the imperative follow me , i. e. God will be satisfied with 
.you and lift the veil from your hearts, by passing over 
your inadvertencies , and will bring you near to His glorious 

24 6T7EA III. 

might , and restore you to the neighbourhood of His holi 
ness. This he expresses by the word love by way of 
metaphor or analogy. 

and, God is forgiving, merciful; to those who have 
endeared themselves to Him by obeying Him and following 
the Prophet. It is recorded that this text was revealed 
when the Jews said : We are the children of God and His 
beloved ; by others, that it was revealed in reference to 
the envoys of Najran , when they said : We worship Christ 
only out of love to God ; others say , in reference to cer 
tain contemporaries of the Prophet , who asserted that they 
loved God and were ordered to confirm their profession 
by their practice. 

Say: Obey God and the Apostle and if ye [or they] turn 
aside, verily God does not love the Unbelievers; is not satis 
fied with them and does not commend them. He does not 
say does not love them 1 for the sake of generalization l43 , 
and in order to show that turning aside is unbelief, and 
from this aspect forfeits God s love; and that His love is 
the peculiar possession of the Believers. 

30. Verily God chose Adam and Noah and the family of 
Abraham and the family of c lmran out of the worlds ; i. e. to be 
his Apostles and to possess certain spiritual and corporeal U4 
privileges. Hence they were able to do things which were 
impossible for all besides them. After enjoining obedience to 
the Apostles and showing that such obedience attracts the love 
of God, he proceeds to enumerate their exploits, in order 
to encourage the hearer to obey. Some have used this text 
to prove that the Prophets are superior to the Angels. 145 
By the family of Abraham are meant Ishmael, Isaac and 
their children, into the number of whom the Prophet 
Mohammed enters. The family of c lmran are Moses and 


Aaron, sons of "Imran B. Yashur, B. Kahath, B. Lawi, 
B. Jacob 146 ; or Jesus and Ms mother Maryam, daughter 
of c lmran B. Matthan, B. El- c azar, B. Abihud, B. Zarbabel, 
B. Salyan, B. Yuhanna, B. Ushia, B. Amun, B. Manashkan, 
B. Hazqa, B. lhaz, B. Yutham, B. C 0ziya, B. Yuram, B. 
Safat, B. Isha, B. Raj^m, B, Sulaiman, B. Dawud, B. 
Ishai, B. c Ubid, B. Salman, B. Ba c az, B. Nahshun, B. c Amyad, 
B, Ram, B. Hasrum, B. Faris, B. Yahudha, B. Jacob 147 . 
Between the two c lmran s there were 1800 years. 

descendants one from another ; hdl or permutative of the 
word family , which occurs twice; or, of the two famil 
ies and Noah; meaning that the two were one stock, the 
former branching out from the latter. Others make the 
words one from another refer to religion. U8 dhurriyya- 
tun signifies offspring and may be applied to one or 
many ; it is either of the form ftfliyyatun from the root 
dkarra , to scatter , or fu^ulatun from dhartfa , to create , 
with substitution of y for the Jiamza , transformation of the 
w to y , and contraction of the two y s. 

and God is one who hears and knows; men s words and 
deeds, so that He chooses those whose words and deeds are 
right. Or, one who heard the words of c lmran s wife, 
and knew her intention 

31. When c lmran s wife said: Lord I vow to thee what is 
in my womb ; in which case ^idk will be accusative after 
heard and knew . Others however make it accusative after 
a verb mention to be supplied 149 . The woman referred 
to is Hannah, daughter of Faqudha , grandmother of Jesus. 
Now c lmran B. Yashur had a daughter Mary am older than 
Aaron, so that some suppose him to be the person whose 
wife is meant. But this is refuted by the fact that the 
guardian of this Maryam was Zacharia, who was a con- 

26 SURA in. 

temporary of c lmran B. Matthan, and husband of his 
daughter 3 Isha c 15 , Yahya and Jesus being sons of sisters 
on the father s side. It is recorded 151 that she was 
old and barren, and while she was under the shade of a 
tree she saw a bird feeding its young ; and then she longed 
and yearned for a child, and said God, I make this 
vow to thee; if thou providest me with a child, I will 
bestow him on the Temple , and he shall be one of its 
servants . Then she conceived Maryam, and c lmran died. 
This form of vow was legal in their time in the case of 
boys; perhaps she made the vow on the assumption that 
it would be a male child, or asked for a male child 152 . 

set free; set at liberty for its service. I will not occupy 
him with ought else. Or, given up to worship. The 
word is accusative as being a ML 

and accept from me ; what I have vowed. 

verily thou art He that hears and knows; my speech 
and thought. 

and when she bore her, she said: My Lord, verily I have born 
her, a female; her refers to what was in her womb above. 
The pronoun is feminine because the subject was female; 
and a female is allowed to be in the accusative of the 
Ml after it, since the subject of the pronoun is known 
from the word female to be female 153 ; for the circum 
stantial phrase and that to which the circumstantial phrase 
belongs are essentially one 154 . Or because her is to 
be interpreted as referring to some feminine word like 
soul or embryo . This she says to express her grief 
and anguish to her Lord, for she had hoped that it would 
be male, and for this reason vowed to free it. 

and God knew best what she bore; knew best about the 
thing which she had born 155 . Fresh proposition in the 


mouth of God, intended to glorify the child, and show 
that the mother knew nothing of its worth. Ibn c lmir, 
Abu Bakr after c lsim and Ya c qub read what I have born , 
making the sentence part of Hannah s speech, consoling 
herself, meaning: perhaps God has some mystery therein, 
or the female may be better . Others 156 read what 
thou hast born , making the words an address from God 
to her. 

and the male is not as the female ; interpretation of the 
words and God knew best , meaning that the male she 
desired was not as the female she got; the article being 
that of familiarity in both cases Or the words may 
be Hannah s, with the sense: the male and the female are 
not indifferent 157 in the matter of my vow ; in which 
case the articles will be generic. 

and I call her Maryam; connected by the conjunction 
with Hannah s foregoing words , all between being parenthe 
tical. She states this to her Lord only in order to intercede 
with Him and beg that He will protect and prosper the 
child , so that her acts may correspond with her name : 
for Mary am in their language means the worshipper 158 . 
The passage proves that the name, the person named and 
the naming are different things 159 . 

and verily, I put her and her seed under thy protection 
from Satan the accursed; the rejected; rajama originally 
means to pelt with stones 16 . It is recorded 161 that the 
Prophet said: not a child is born, but Satan touches it, 
when it is born, so that it bursts into a cry; except 
Maryam and her son . The meaning is that Satan desires 
to mislead every child that is born in such a way that the 
child is affected thereby, except Maryam and her son, 
whom God protected by virtue of this invocation 162 . 

28 SURA in. 

32. And her Lord accepted her; and was satisfied with 
her in place of the male for the fulfilment of the vow. 

with a fair acceptance; meaning 163 a fair way of accepting 
offerings , with reference to her being substituted for a male 
child , or her being received shortly after her birth , before she 
was big enough to be keeper of the Temple. It is recorded 164 
that when Hannah bore her she wrapped her in swaddling 
clothes and carrying her to the place of worship, set her 
before the Doctors, saying: Take this offering . The Doctors 
then strove with one another for her , because she was the 
daughter of their highpriest and sacrificer; now the family 
of Matthan were the chiefs and kings of the children of 
Israel. Then Zacharia said: I have the best right to her, since 
her mother s sister is my wife . But they refused to listen 
to anything but the lot; now they were 27 in number. 
Then they went off to a river and threw in their pens, 
and the pen of Zacharia floated, whereas the others sank. 
So he became her guardian. The word qabulan may be 
infinitive if we supply something for it to depend on, 
e. g. with something which contained a fair welcome ; and 
taqabbala may stand for istaqbala, like taqassay and ta^ajjala 
for the X th form of those verbs, meaning He welcomed 
her as soon as she was born with a fair welcome 165 . 

and reared her well; metaphorical expression, 166 signifying 
that she was brought up in a way that would prosper 
her in all her concerns. 

and Zacharia was her guardian; Hamza, El-Kisa 3 ! and 
c lsim read kaffala and Zakariyya (except C 5.sim according 
to Ibn c Ayyash), making God agent, and Zacharia object, 
the whole meaning that God made him guardian to her, 
and manager of her affairs; the remaining readers read 
kafala and Zakariyya u. 


whenever Zacharia came unto her to the shrine ; the chamber 
which had been built for her ; or, the place of worship ; 
or, the most holy and exalted place therein , called mihralun, 
because it was the place where Satan was fought with 167 . 
We are to suppose that she was placed in the holiest part 
of the Temple. 

he found provision ly her; apodosis of kullama (whenever), 
which is put in the accusative after it. , It is recorded 
that no one save him went to see her, and that, when he 
went out, he would lock seven doors upon her; and he 
used to find by her the fruits of the winter in summer, 
and vice versa. 

he said: Mary am , whence hast thou this? this provision, 
which comes in the wrong season , while the doors are locked 
upon thee. This is evidence of the possibility of spon 
taneous miracles being wrought for the benefit of the saints. 
The theory that it was Zacharia s miracle is refuted by 
the fact that he was puzzled by it 168 . 

She said: This is from God; so be not surprised. It is 
said that she spoke, when small 169 , like Jesus, and never 
sucked the breast; her nourishment being sent down from 

verily God provides for whom He will without reckoning ; 
without fixing its amount; or, without its being earned, 
as a free gift. This may be part of Maryam s speech, or of 
God s. It is recorded that Fatima brought the Prophet 
two cakes and a piece of meat, which the Prophet gave 
back to her, saying: Take them, my daughter ; then she 
uncovered the dish , and , lo , it was full of bread and meat. 
He said to her: Whence hast thou this? She said: It is 
from God ; verily God provides for whom He will, without 
reckoning. He said: Praise be to God, who has made thee 

30 SUB A III. 

like the chief of the women of Israel. Then he gathered 
c Ali and El-Hasan and El-Husain and all his household, and 
they ate their fill , and the food still remained undiminished , 
so that Fatima gave of it to her neighbours. 

33. There Zacharia invoked his Lord; in that place, or 
time; since the words huna (here), thamma (there), haithu 
(where), may all be metaphorically applied to time; signifying, 
when he saw the miracle performed for Maryam s sake 
and her rank with God. 

saying: My Lord give me from thee good offspring ; as 
thoa gavest the old and barren Hannah. It is said that, when 
he saw the fruits at the wrong reason, he awoke to the 
possibility of children being born to an old man and a 
barren woman; so he prayed, saying: My Lord, give it 
me from thee , because it would not be given in the or 
dinary ways or by the accustomed means. 

verily, thou art the hearer of prayer ; the answerer of it. 

then the angels called to him; i. e. some of the class of the 
angels; like the expression: Zaid rides (the) horses , i.e. 
certain of them. The one who called him was Gabriel 
only 17 . Hamza and El-Kisa D i read fanaddhu with modifica 
tion in the masculine. 

while he was standing praying in the shrine ; standing in 
prayer. Praying is either an epithet of standing , or a second 
predicate 171 , or circumstantial phrase, or a circumstantial 
phrase depending on the pronoun in qaimun (standing). 

34. That God announces unto thee Yaliya; object of 
called . Nafi c , Hamza and Ibn C 5.mir read ^inna, verily , 
supplying in thought the word saying , or making calling 
a species of utterance 172 . Hamza and El-Kisa i read 
yabshuruTca. Yahya, is a foreign name; if it be regarded as 
Arabic, then it is diptote as being 1) defined, 2) a verbal form. 


who shall confess to a word from God; i.e. Jesus; called 
a word , because he came into existence by God s com 
mand 173 without a father, so that he resembled the new 
creations , who are the world of command m . Or con 
fess to God s book , which is called a word, just as a 
poem of Huwaidirah 175 was called his word . 

and shall be a Lord; shall be chief of his people and 
surpass them. And indeed he was superior to all mankind 
in that he never had an evil thought. 

and continent; shall preserve his soul to the utmost from 
lusts and enjoyments. It is recorded that in his youth he 
passed by some lads who asked him to play with them; 
but he said: I was not created for play . 176 

and a Prophet of the pious ; sprung from them; or, one 
of those who commit neither capital nor minor offences. 

35. He said: My Lord, whence shall there be to me a boy? 
regarding it as improbable ; or, marvelling and wondering ; 
or, asking how it should come about. 

when old age has reached me; overtaken me and left its 
mark on me. He was 99 years old, and his wife 98. 

and my wife is barren; from f aqara to cut off; such a 
woman being cut off l77 from child-bearing. 

lie said: Like that God does what He will; He does mir 
acles like that deed , viz. the production of children from a 
decayed old man and a barren old woman; or, even so , 
i. e. : whilst thou and thy wife are old and childless as ye 
are, God will do what He will in the way of creating chil 
dren; or, like that and God are predicate and subject, 
meaning God is of this sort , of which He does what He 
will is an explanation; or, like that is predicate of an 
omitted subject, meaning the matter is so ; of which 
the words: God does what He will are an explanation. 


36. He said: My Lord, give me a sign; whereby I shall 
know of the conception and may welcome it with cheerful 
ness and gratitude, and which may allay the pain of 

he said: Thy sign is that thou shalt not speak to mankind 
three days; that thou shalt not be able to speak to them 
for three days. He refrained from addressing mankind during 
that time, in order to devote it all to making mention 
of and thanking Glod, in order to pay his obligation; in 
other words: thy sign is, that thou shalt refrain thy 
tongue from all but thanksgiving . Now the best sort of 
answer is that which is derived from the question. m 

save by gestures; with the hand, for example, or the 
head; ramzun means properly motion , whence ramuzun is 
applied to the sea. The exception is heterogeneous 179 ; 
some however say it is homogeneous , interpreting speech 
as anything that indicates the thought; others read: 
ramazan, making signs , plural of ramizun , like khadamun 
of khadimun , or rumuzan, plural of ramuzun, like rusulun 
of rasulun , making the word a hal referring to both him 
and mankind , with the sense making signs to each other ; 
the construction being like that of the verse: 

whensoever thou meetest me, both alone, the extrem 
ities of thy buttocks shake and tremble . 18 

and make much mention of thy Lord ; in the days when 
thy tongue is tied; confirming what preceded, and explain 
ing the object of the injunction. The qualification of the 
command by much shows that the imperative by itself 
does not imply repetition. l81 

and praise Him in the evenings; from the afternoon 
until sunset; others say: from the time when the sun be 
comes red, or sunset, until the first part of the night is past. 


the morning ; from the rise of dawn until midday. 
Some read ^abkari which would be plural of baJcarun like 
^asharun from saharun. 

37. And when the angels said: Mar yam, verily God has 
chosen thee and purified thee and chosen thee above the women 
of the worlds ; they addressed her face to face , thereby per 
forming a spontaneous miracle in her honour ; those however 
who deny the doctrine of spontaneous miracles maintain 
that this was Zacharia s miracle 182 , or a sign 183 foresho 
wing the Prophetic office of Jesus , since it is agreed that 
God never gave the right of prophecy to a woman 184 , 
owing to the words in xii. 109 we have sent none before 
thee but men . Others say the angels put it into her 
thoughts. The first chosen refers to Grod s receiving 
her from her mother whereas no female had been accepted 
before her, and her being given up to the divine service 
and her being rendered independent of labour by sustenance 
from paradise ; her being purified refers to purification from 
female pollution; the second choosing refers to her being 
guided, and the mission of the angels to her, and her 
being distinguished by certain privileges, such as parturi 
tion without a father, and her being declared innocent of 
the accusations launched at her by the Jews through the 
child being made to speak 185 and her and her son being 
made a sign to the worlds. 

38. Mary am , obey thy Lord and prostrate thyself and 
incline with them that incline; she is enjoined to pray in 
public 18e , and the canons I87 of prayer are mentioned in 
order to say stress on their accurate observance. The 
prostration is put before the inclination 188 either because 
that was the rule in their law; or to call attention to the 
fact that the copulative conjunction does not necessarily 



imply order 189 ; or to couple the word incline with the 
words with those that incline in order to show that those 
who do not incline in their prayer do not really pray. 19 
Some say that qunutun signifies constant service as in 
xxxix. 12 l91 , sujudun prayer as in L. 39, and ruku un 
humility and resignation. 

39. This is one of the secret histories we reveal it unto 
thee; i. e. the histories we have recorded are mysteries 
which thou knowest only by revelation. 

and thou wast not with them when they cast their reeds; 
their arrows wherewith they drew lots. Some say they cast 
lots with the pens wherewith they wrote the Law, for 
luck. The purpose of the verse is to enforce the fact of 
its being revelation, by ridiculing those who deny this; 
for the only ways in which events can be known are 
witnessing them or hearing of them; now that Mohammed 
had not heard of them was well known, nor did the unbe 
lievers question it; consequently they must have imagined 
it possible that he had witnessed them; which however no 
rational being could suppose. 

which of them should be Mary am 1 s guardian; depending 
on a verb omitted l92 , but suggested by the word cast 
their reeds , i. e. in order to know which of them etc.; 
or, saying 193 which of them shall be Maryam s guardian? 

nor wast thou with them when they wrangled ; each desiring 
to be her guardian. 

40. When the angels said ; permutative of the first when 
the angels said , the intervening words being a digression; 
or of c when they wrangled , meaning that the occurrence 
of the wrangling and the annunciation took place over an 
extended period, as when you say I met him in such- 
and-such a year l94 . 


Mary am verily God announces unto thee a word from 
Him whose name is the Messiah Isa son of Mary am; the 
Messiah is Ms surname, being a title of honour, like El- 
siddly 195 . Its original form in Hebrew 196 is masfaka, 
meaning the blessed , and Isa is an arabized form of 
Ishu 197 . The derivations of the two words from masaha 
to rub because he was anointed with a blessing l98 , or 
with something that cleansed him from sin, or because 
he traversed the earth, not remaining in one place, or 
because Gabriel caressed him, and of Isa from ayasun 
which means white with a shade of red 199 are tours de 
force of no value ; and since Son of Maryam is an epithet 
which distinguishes in the same way as a name distinguishes, 
it is treated as a name; nor is a multitude of predicates 
inconsistent with a subject in the singular; for that is a 
common noun annexed to a genitive 20 . It is also pos 
sible that the meaning may be that that whereby he is to 
be known and distinguished from others consists in these 
three; for the name is the badge of the thing named, 
and that which distinguishes it from all else. It is also 
possible that Isa is predicate of an omitted subject 201 , 
and that son of Maryam is an epithet of it 202 . Son of 
Maryam is said , although she is the person addressed , only 
to call attention to the fact that he will be born without 
a father, since children are called after the father, and not 
the mother, except where the father is not known 203 . 

eminent in this world and the next ; potential hal 204 , depen 
ding upon a word , which has epithets attached, although 
it has not the article 205 ; in the masculine according to 
the sense. The eminence in this world is the prophetic 
office, in the next the right of intercession 206 . 

and one of those who are brought near ; unto God. Ac- 

36 SURA m. 

cording to some what is intended is the high place he is 
to have in paradise; or his being raised to heaven, and 
the society of the angels 207 . 

and he shall speak to mankind In the cradle and grown up ; 
i. e. in the condition of an infant and in that of a grown 
man he shall speak to them the language of the prophets 
without variation 208 . mahdun is properly an infinitive, 
turned into a noun, meaning the bed laid for an infant. 
It is said that he was taken into heaven when a child, so 
that the words and when he is grown up mean after his 
descent 209 . He specifies the different stages of his existence, 
in order to show that he is destitute of divinity. 

and one of the saints; third hal of a word ; or hal 
of the pronoun in he shall speak which refers to it. 

42. She said: my Lord, whence shall I have a child, 
when no man has touched me ; expression of natural surprise 
or of abhorrence , or inquiry whether it would be by wedlock 
or how. 

He said: Like that God creates what He will; the speaker 
is Gabriel or Gk>d 210 ; in the latter case Gabriel will be 
narrating to her the words of God. 

when He decides a matter He merely says to it Be and it 
is; to show that just as God is able to create things in 
stages by causes and with matter, so He is able to create 
them directly without. 

43. And we shall teach him the writing and wisdom and 
the Law and the Gospel; a fresh topic, introduced to ease 
her mind and to banish fears of censure that may have 
troubled her when she knew that she should bear without 
a husband; or, annexed by the conjunction to announce 
marriage; or to eminent . The writing means 
the art of writing , or the revealed books generally, of 


which two owing to their preeminence are afterwards spe 
cialised. Nan* and isim read and he shall teach him in 
the 3 rd person. 

and an Apostle to the Children of Israel: that I have 
brought you a sign from your Lord ; rasulan is in the accu 
sative after a suppressed verb, with the sense of the verb 
Ho say ; when the full expression will be and he shall 
say And I am sent as a messenger with the news that I 
have brought you 211 ; or, as being connected by the 
conjunction with the preceding hals, itself containing the 
sense pronouncing ; in other words , and pronouncing that 
I am come . The children of Israel are particularized 
owing to his mission being peculiarly to them , or to refute 
those who asserted that he was sent to others 212 . 

that I will create for you out of the clay like the form 
of a bird 213 ; either accusative as permutative of the pre 
ceding that , or genitive as permutative of a sign , or 
nominative if we make the construction that sign is that 
I have brought . The meaning is I will form and 
fashion 214 for you something like the form of a bird . Nafi 
read *innl verily I for that I . 

and I will blow upon it; the pronoun refers to the thing 
like* ; i. e. I will blow upon that counterfeit. 

and it shall become a bird by the will of God; and it 
shall become alive and flying by God s command. He 
indicates thereby that it is God, not he, who makes it live. 
Nafi read here and in Sura Y tairun for tayrun. 

and I will heal the blind and the leprous ; the born blind, 
or one whose eye is affected 2I5 . It is recorded that thousands 
of the sick used to gather to him ; those of them who were 
able, came to him, while to those who were unable Jesus 
came; and he healed by prayer only. 

38 SURA in. 

and I will raise the dead to life by the will of God ; he 
repeats by the will of God in order to refute the fancy 
of those who maintain his divinity. For raising to life does 
not belong to the class of human actions 2I6 . 

and I will tell you of what ye eat, and what ye store 
up in your houses ; i. e. your most secret affairs concerning 
which you do not doubt. 

verily therein is a sign for you, if ye be believers ; if ye 
be guided to faith. Others are not helped by the miracles. 
Or, confessors of the truth, not opponents of it. 

44. And confessing to the Law that was before me; con 
nected by the conjunction with an Apostle , however 
that be taken; or, accusative after a suppressed verb, in 
dicated by I am come to you , i. e. and I am come to 
you confessing . 

and to make lawful for you; to be interpreted by the 
suppression of such a verb; or, to be referred back to the 
words that I have brought you a sign 2I7 ; or, connected 
by the conjunction with the sense of the word confessing , 
as when you say I have come to you excusing myseli 
and to satisfy you 218 . 

part of that which was made unlawful for you ; in the 
Law of Moses; such as the suet, the fat about the entrails 219 , 
fish, camel s flesh and work on the sabbath-day. This 
shows that his Code superseded that of Moses. This does 
not prevent its confirming the Law , just as the fact that 
parts of the Qur an supersede each other does not make it 
self-contradicting, and self-destructive; for superseding in 
reality means explanation, and specification of the time to 
which a command applies 22 . 

and I have brought you a sign from your Lord: so fear 
God and obey me ; verily God is my Lord and your Lord , 


so serve Him; this is a straight path; i.e. I have brought 
you another sign, which your Lord taught me; and that 
is my saying God is my Lord and yours ; for that is 
the true proclamation, whereon the apostles are agreed, 
and which distinguishes the Prophet from the sorcerer. 
Or, I have brought you a sign to prove 821 that God is 
my Lord and yours, in which case the words so fear God 
and obey me will be parenthetical. Most probably they are 
a repetition of the words above I have brought you , i. e. 
I have brought you sign after sign, such as I have men 
tioned to you; the first being to prepare the way for the 
argument, and the second to bring it into proximity with 
the injunction ; and for this reason he appends the latter to 
the former by the particle fa c so , saying so fear God , 
i. e. since I have brought you convincing miracles and 
evident signs, therefore fear God in case you disobey, and 
obey me in that to which I invite you. Then he com 
mences the invitation which is indicated by the concise 
expression verily God is my Lord and your Lord , implying 
that they should seek to perfect their intellectual power 
by the true belief, the sum of which is the doctrine of 
the Unity; adding so serve him , to indicate that they 
should endeavour to perfect their practical abilities, which 
is to be done by assiduous piety, consisting in performance 
of the commands, and abstinence from things forbidden. 
Then he emphasizes this by explaining that the conjunction 
of these two things is the path which he testifies to be 
straight . Similar to this is the saying of the Prophet 222 . 
Say I believe in God: then keep straight . 

45. And when Jesus perceived unbelief on their part; when 
he was convinced of their unbelief with the conviction of 
a thing perceived by the senses. 


lie said: who are my helpers unto God^l i. e. fleeing unto 
God , or going unto Him , or joining unto Him 223 ; 
or, the preposition may depend on my helpers , if that 
word contain the idea of attaching, i. e. who are those 
who attach themselves to God in giving me aid 224 . 
Others give unto here the meaning with 225 or in or 
belonging to . 

the Apostles said; a man s hawan 226 is his sincere friend , 
taken from liawarun which means pure white . Thence too 
come liawariyyatun applied to the women of the cities, 
owing to the clearness of ther complexions. The followers 
of Jesus were so named owing to the purity of their minds 
and the holiness of their thoughts. Others say they 
were Jewish princes, clad in white, whose assistance Jesus 
invoked; others say fullers , who cleansed garments, i.e. 
whitened them. 227 

We are the helpers of God; i.e. helpers of His religion. 

we believe in God and bear thou witness that we are Muslims ; 
do thou hear witness for us on the day of the Resurrec 
tion when the Apostles testify for or against their peoples. <m 

46. Our Lord we believe in what thou hast revealed, and 
we follow the Apostle, so write us with them that testify; 
with those that testify to thy unity. Or with the Pro 
phets who testify to their followers; or, with the people 
oi Mohammed; for they are witnesses against mankind. 229 

47. And they plotted; those of the Jews whose unbelief 
he had perceived; by putting him in the charge of one 
who should kill him treacherously. 

and God plotted; in raising Jesus 23 , and throwing the 
semblance of him upon him who plotted his destruction, 
who was killed. Now plotting in so far as it properly 
signifies forming a scheme whereby some one else is drawn 


into mischief cannot be ascribed to God except by way of 
correspondence and combination. 231 

and God is the best of plotters; the most powerful of 
them in plotting, and the best able to produce the mischief 
whence it is not expected. 232 

48. When God said; temporal clause depending on plotted , 
best of plotters , or a suppressed clause like this hap 
pened when . 

Jesus verily I will achieve thee; i. e. achieve the whole 
of thy term, and cause thee to tarry till thy appointed 
end, by protecting thee from their murderous onslaught 233 
Or, take thee from the earth , the verb in the text 
being used in the sense of calling in money. Or, take 
thee to myself, sleeping , since it is recorded that he was 
taken up sleeping. 234 Or, destroy in thee the lusts 
which hinder ascent to the world of spirits. 235 Some 
say that Grod let him die for seven hours, and then raised 
him to heaven; and this is held by the Christians. 

and raise thee unto me ; to the place of my glory 236 
and the abode of my angels. 

and cleanse thee from those who disbelieve; from their 
unkindness, or their assaults. 

and set those who followed thee above those who disbelieved 
until the Day of the Resurrection; they shall prevail over 
them by argument or by the sword in the majority of cases. 
Those who followed him are the Muslims and Christians 
who believed in his mission, and to this day we have 
never heard of the Jews prevailing over them, neither 
have they ever obtained sovereignty or empire. 

then your return shall be to me; your means that of 
Jesus, his followers and those who disbelieved in him. The 
second person is given the preference over the third. 237 

42 SURA HI. 

and I will judge between you of that wherein ye were at 
variance; in religious questions. 

49. And as for those that disbelieved I shall punish them 
severely in this world and the next, and they shall have no 
helpers ; 50 but as for them that believed and wrought righteous 
ness , we shall pay them their rewards; interpretation and 
partition of the judgment . Hafs read he shall pay them . 

and God does not love the wrong-doers confirmation of 
the preceding. 

51. That; referring to the stories of Jesus etc. which 
preceded. It is a subject of which what follows 

we read it to thee ; is predicate; and what follows 
of the signs ; is a hal depending on the pronoun it . Or 
[is] of the signs may he predicate, and we read it to 
thee [ being read unto thee] a hal, governed by the 
idea of we point to contained in the demonstrative that . 838 
Or, both may be predicates. Or, that may be 
virtually in the accusative after a suppressed verb , to be 
supplied from we read it . 239 

and the wise record ; i. e. the record which embraces 
various forms of wisdom; or the elaborate , which is di 
vinely guarded 24 against the intrusion of flaws. He 
means thereby the Qur an or the Tablet. 

52. Verily the likeness of Jesus with God is as the likeness 
of Adam; his wonderful nature is like that of Adam. 

God formed him from mould; sentence explaining the 
comparison and showing wherein the resemblance lay; and 
this is his being created without a father, just as Adam 
was created without father or mother. God compares his 
nature to a thing yet stranger, in order to silence the 
opponent , and to destroy the ground for false conceptions. 
The meaning is he created his frame from the mould 241 . 


then He said to him Be; he created him a man, as he 
says then we produced him with a fresh creation (xxiii. 14). 
Or, he ordained his formation out of mould, then formed 
him 242 . Possibly then refers to the interval in the nar 
ration rather than between the events narrated 243 . 

and he shall be ; the speaker puts himself into the past 

53. The truth from thy Lord; predicate of an omitted 
subject, viz that is. Others make the truth subject, 
and from thy Lord predicate , i. e. the truth that has been 
related is from God. 

so be not one of those who doubt; address to the Prophet, 
urging him to still greater steadfastness 244 ; or, to every 

54. And they that argue with thee; those Christians that do so. 
concerning him; Jesus. 

after the knowledge that has come to thee ; the clear evi 
dences which necessitate knowledge. 

say to them Come; bring hither your opinion and your 
resolve 24s . 

let us call our sons and your sons , our wives and your 
wives , ourselves and yourselves ; let each of us summon him 
self and the most precious of his household, and those of 
them that are nearest to his heart, to a mutual execration, 
and set about it 24e . And he mentions them before the 
man s self, because a man will stake his life for their 
sake, and fight to defend them. 

then let us curse each other; let us make a mutual exe 
cration by cursing the one of us that lies, bahlatun or 
luhlatun means a curse , its original meaning being to 
leave ** 7 , as when one leaves a she-camel without an 


and set the curse of God upon the liars; explanatory ad 
dition. It is recorded 248 that when they were challenged 
to the mutual execration, they said let us consider ; and 
when they had conferred they said to their yice-roy 249 , 
who was their counsellor, what thinkest thou? He said 
By Allah ye know that he is a Prophet and he has 
brought you the truth concerning the nature of your 
master 25 ; by Allah , no nation has ever execrated a Prophet 
but has perished. If therefore you refuse to do aught but 
maintain 25 your religion 251 , then make terms with the man . 
Then they left him, and came to the Prophet, who had 
started out, with Husain in his arms, and holding Hasan 
by the hand , with Fatima walking behind , and Ali behind 
her. And he was saying when I call, then say Amen . 
Then their Bishop 253 said: Ye company of Christians , I 
see persons, who, if they asked God to remove a moun 
tain from its place, God would remove it. Do not there 
fore execrate each other and perish. So when they humbled 
themselves before the Prophet of God, and gave him the 
tribute, two thousand red chemises and thirty breastplates 
of steel, the Prophet said: By Him in whose hand is 
my soul, if they had execrated, they would have been 
transformed into monkeys and swine; the valley would 
have been kindled into fire upon them, and God would 
have rooted out Najran and its people, to the trees. 
This is evidence of his prophetic power, and of the 
excellence of those members of his household whom he 
brought. 254 

55. Verily this; the account of Jesus and Maryam just given. 

it [is] the true narrative; the words taken together may 
be the predicate Qi^inna 255 , or else huwa may be the separating 
pronoun, showing that his account of the nature of Jesus 


is the truth rather than their account, what follows 
being the predicate. The I is prefixed to the separating pronoun, 
because it is nearer to the inchoative than the predicate 
is, and it naturally should be prefixed to the inchoative 25G . 

and there is no God but God; the full form 257 with the 
min which is added for universalization is here employed 
in order to emphasize the refutation of the Christian doctrine 
of the Trinity. 

and verily God is the mighty, the wise ; there is none 
beside Him to equal Him in perfect power and consum 
mate wisdom, so as to be His partner in the godhead. 

56. And if they decline, well, God is cognizant of the 
corrupters ; menace to them. The substantive (/the corrupters ) 
is substituted for the pronoun ( them ) in order to show 
that to reject the evidences and to repudiate the doctrine 
of the Unity constitute corruption 258 of religion and faith , 
which leads to corruption of the soul, and, indeed, to the 
destruction of the world. 

57. Say: ye people of the Book; including the people of 
both Books. Some say he means the envoys from Najran, 
or the Jews of Medina. 

come to a word that is equal between us and you ; wherein 
there is no variance between the Apostles and the Books; 
explained by what follows. 

that we shall worship none but God ; that we shall proclaim 
His unity in our worship and worship sincerely. 

and that we shall associate nothing with Him; we shall 
make none other His fellow in deserving worship, nor 
regard any other as fit to be worshipped. 

and that we shall not adopt each other as lords besides 
God; and not say that Ezra is the son of God, nor that 
Christ is the son of God nor obey the Jewish doctors in 


their inventions concerning things lawful and unlawful; 
for each one of them is only one of us, and human like 
us. It is recorded 259 that when the verse (ix. 31) They 
have adopted their doctors and their monks as lords beside 
God was revealed, Adi B. Hatim 260 said We are not 
wont to worship them, Apostle of God. Mohammed 
answered Used they not to declare some things lawful and 
others unlawful for you, and did you not hold to their 
word? He said Yes; Mohammed said That is it. 

and if they reject; the doctrine of the Unity. 

then say Bear witness that we are Muslims; the argument 
holds you , so confess that we rather than you are Muslims. 
Or, Confess that you disbelieve what the Books declare, 
and that on which the Apostles are agreed. Note. Observe 
in this story the catechetical skill employed and the beau 
tiful stages in the polemizing process. First he explains 
the circumstances of Jesus, and the events passing over 
him which contradict his godhead. Then he states what 
will solve their difficulties and clear away their false 
notions. Then , when he sees their opposition and litigiousness, 
he invites them to the mutual execration , with a rhetorical 
figure 261 . Then, when they declined that, and partly 
yielded, he once more endeavoured to instruct them, going 
an easier and more convincing way, by summoning them 
to accept the doctrine whereon he , Jesus , the Gospel and all 
the Books and Apostles were agreed; but when this too 
did not help them , and he knew that signs and preaching 
would not avail them, he relinquished the task, saying 
merely, Bear witness that we are Muslims. 

58. Ye people of the Book , wherefore wrangle ye concerning 
Abraham, when the Law and the Gospel were not revealed 
save after him? The Jews 2G2 and Christians quarreled 


over Abraham, each sect maintaining that he belonged to 
them; so they referred the matter to the Prophet, when 
the text was revealed. The meaning is that Judaism and 
Christianity were instituted by the revelation of the Law 
and the Gospel to Moses and Jesus respectively; now 
Abraham lived 1000 years before Moses and 2000 before 
Jesus 263 . How then can he have belonged to either sect? 

will ye not understand? but proclaim an absurdity. 

59. See, ye are these, who have argued concerning that 
whereof ye have knowledge : so why should ye argue concerning 
that whereof ye have no knowledge? ha is a particle ol 
calling attention. Their attention is called by it to their 
condition, of which they were careless. Ye is subject, 
these predicate, and ye have argued another sentence 
explaining the first , i. e. ye are such fools 264 . And the 
explanation of their folly is Ye have contended concerning 
that whereof ye have knowledge , viz. what ye have found 
in the Law and the Gospel, in order to oppose, or, what 
you profess to be recorded therein; why then should you 
argue concerning that whereof you have no knowledge , 
and which is not recorded in your book, such as the 
religion of Abraham ? Others 265 say haulai has here the 
sense of elladbina, and that hajajtum is its relative 
clause. Others 266 say haantum is for ^afantum , being 
a question of surprise at their folly, the hamza being turned 
into h 267 . Nafi and Abu Amr read hantum wherever it 
occurs , with madda and without hamza ; Warsh 268 with a 
less protracted madda , Qunbul 269 with hamza without elit 
after the h (ha antum), the rest with madda and hamza 
(haantum), El-Bazzi with the ordinary pronunciation of the 
madda 27 . 

God knows ; that concerning which ye dispute. 


and ye know not; and ye are ignorant about it. 

60. Abraham was not a Jew, nor yet a Christian clear 
statement of the result of the arguments established. 

but he was a Hanif 111 ; one who rejected false doctrines. 

a Muslim- one who obeyed God. The meaning is not 
that he belonged to the Islamitic sect; otherwise he would 
be liable to the same refutation m . 

and he was not one of those that associate; insinuation 
that they do associate with God Ezra, or Christ. An 
answer to the pretension of the Polytheists that they follow 
the sect of Abraham. 

61. Verily the nearest of mankind to Abraham; the men 
to whom he most belongs, and who are nearest of kin 
to him from walay which means to be near . 173 

are those that followed him; of his. people. 274 
and this Prophet, and they that believe ; since they agree 
with him in most of what was commanded them afresh. 275 
Others read Prophet in the accusative making it coupled 
by the conjunction with him ; others read the genitive, 
coupling it with Abraham . 

and God is the ally of the Believers; helps them and 
gives them good recompense for their faith. 

62. Fain would a party of the people of the Book mislead 
you; revealed concerning the Jews when they invited 
Hudhaifa 276 , Ammar and Mu adh to Judaism, lau has here 
the sense of *an 277 . 

but they shall mislead none save themselves their misleading 
shall not go beyond them, and the evil thereof shall not 
redound upon others , since their punishment shall be doubled 
thereby. Or , they shall mislead none but those like them. 

but they do not feel; the sin thereof, and how the mischief 
falls peculiarly on them. 


63. Ye people of the Book, why do ye disbelieve the signs 
of God? what the Law and the Gospel utter, proving the 
mission of Mohammed. 

while ye testify ; that they are the signs of God. Or, 
the Qur 3 an, when ye have before you the description 
thereof 278 in the two books, Or, when ye know by 
miracles that it is true. 

64. Ye people of the Book , why confuse ye the true with 
the false? by mutilating it, and publishing the false in 
its form. Or, by insufficiently distinguishing between the 
two. Others read the II nd conjugation , or the intransitive 
of the I st , with the meaning why put ye on the true 
with the false , like the words of the Prophet like him 
that putteth on two garments of falsehood 279 , 

and hide the truth; the mission of Mohammed and the 
description of him 28 . 

when ye know are cognizant of what ye hide. 

65. And a party of the people of the Book said Believe 
ye in that which was revealed to the Believers at the beginning 
of the day ; display your belief in the Qur an at the be 
ginning of the day. 

and disbelieve at the end of it. Perhaps they will return; 
and disbelieve it at the end thereof. Perhaps they will feel 
doubts concerning their religion, thinking that ye have 
come back owing to some flaw which ye have perceived 
therein. The party referred-to are Ka b 281 B. El-Ashraf, 
and Malik B. Es-saif, who said to their fellows when the 
Qiblah was changed 282 Believe what has been revealed to 
them concerning prayer towards the Ka bah and pray facing 
it at the beginning of the day , then at the end of the 
day pray facing the Eock 283 ; perhaps they may say They 
know better than we, and have gone back , and so will 


50 SURA m. 

go back too. Others say that twelve of the doctors of 
Khaibar took counsel to join Islam at the beginning of 
the day, and to say at the end of it We have looked in 
our Book, and have consulted our scholars, but have not 
found Mohammed to correspond to the description which 
is recorded in the Law , hoping that his followers might 
begin to doubt about him. 

66. And believe not save to those that follow your religion 
Confess not with conviction, save to the people of your 
religion 284 . Or, Display not your faith at the beginning 
of the day save to your former co-religionists, for there 
is more hope that they will return, and more consequence 
in their doing so. 

Say Verily the guidance is God s guidance ; He will guide 
whom He will to the Faith and establish him therein. 

that one should have brought him anything like what has 
been brought to you; depending on a verb omitted: i.e. 
l Ye have planned this and said it, because of one having 
brought him , meaning that envy has urged them to do 
this. Or , dependent on Believe not : i. e. Display not 
your belief that one can have brought him etc. except 
to your co-religionists; do not reveal it to the Muslims 
lest it should increase their steadfastness, nor to the Poly- 
theists lest it should encourage them to become Muslims. 
The words Say guidance are then a parenthesis , 
implying that their craft will produce no profit. Or, 
that one should have brought him may be the predicate 
of ^inna, if we make God s guidance permutative of the 
guidance 285 . The reading of Ibn Kathir a? an yutay 
with a reproachful interrogation is in favour of the first 
view Is it because one has brought him that ye have 
planned ? Others read , in not , in which case the words 


will be part of the speech of the party , i. e. do not con 
fess save to those who follow your religion; and say to 
them None shall have brought him . 

or that they should contend with you before your Lord ; 
connected by the conjunction with that one should have 
brought him according to the first two interpretations; 
but according to the third we should render until they 
contend with you and invalidate your argument . 286 
The pronoun they refers to one , which in the previous 
text has a plural sense, as it means those who are not 
their followers . 

Say: Bounty is in the hand of God, He gives it to whom 
He will, and God is broad, knoiving. 67. He bestows His 
mercy on whom He will. And God is the author of the great 
bounty; a clear argument whereby their pretension is answered 
and confuted. 

68. And among the people of the Book are those who , if 
you trust them with a talent, will pay it back to you like 
Abdallah B. Salam 287 , with whom a Qurashite deposited 
1200 ounces 188 of gold, and who returned them to him. 

and among them are those who , if you trust them with a 
dinar, will not return it to you; like Finhas B. 5.zura , 
with whom another Qurashite deposited a dinar, which he 
disclaimed. Others say that those who may be trusted 
with a great deal are the Christians, since they are for 
the most part honest; while those who deceive in a little 
are the Jews, who are for the most part dishonest. Hamza, 
Abu Bakr, and Abu Amr read yudih, dropping the vowel 
of the h , Qalun shortened 289 the vowel of the h, which 
according to the tradition was the pronunciation of Hisham 29 ; 
the rest lengthened the Kesra. 

except so long as thou standest firm upon him; except 

52 stiRA in. 

during the period of thy remaining at his head , vigorously 
demanding it of him by litigation, appeals and production 
of evidence. 

69. That ; referring to the refusal to pay indicated by 
the words shall not return it . 

is because they say There is no way against us among the 
unlearned; there is no reproach or blame attaching to us 
in the matter of those who are not people of the Book, 
and are not of our religion. 

but they speak a lie against God; in this pretension. 

and they know ; that they are liars. Because they regard 
it as lawful to oppress those who differ from them, and 
say this is not forbidden in the Law. It is said that the 
Jews had dealings with certain Qurashites , and when they 
became Muslims the latter demanded their money of the 
former, then the Jews said Your right is invalidated by 
your abandoning your religion ; and they asserted that it 
was so in their Book. And it is recorded 291 that the Pro 
phet said on the occasion of the revelation of this text 
The enemies of God lie; there is nothing that was done 
in the days of Ignorance but is under my feet 293 , except 
deposits; for they are to be paid to good and bad . 

70. Aye; confirmation of what they deny; on the con 
trary, there is a path against them in their dealings with 
the others . 

whoso keeps 293 his covenant and fears well God loves 
them that fear ; fresh sentence confirming the sentence of 
which the place is supplied by Aye . His covenant is 
either that of the subject of the sentence, or Q-od s; and 
the collective them that fear serves instead of the pronoun 
which in the apodosis should refer to the subject of the 
protasis , and suggests that fear is the main thing , which 


includes keeping and other duties such as paying one s 
debts, and abstaining from things forbidden. 

71. Verily they that purchase; take in exchange, 

with the covenant of God; for that which they have 
promised God 294 in the way of believing the Apostle and 
returning deposits. 

and their oath; that to which they swore when they 
said By Allah, we will believe in him and help him. 

a small price ; the goods of this world. 

they have no portion in the next world and God shall not 
address them ; with anything that will comfort them 295 ; 
or, with any words at all, for the angels will ask them 
the questions on the day of the Resurrection. Or, 
they shall derive no profit from the words of God and 
from his signs. - - Most probably it is an indirect phrase 296 
to express His wrath against them, since there follows 

and He shall not look upon them on the day of the Re- 

L / t/ 

surrection; for whoever is wroth with any one else and 
despises him, turns away from him and from speaking 
with him and looking in his direction; just as he who 
makes much of any one talks with him and looks fre 
quently at him. 

and will not justify them ; eulogize them. 

and for them is terrible punishment for what they have 
done. Said to have been revealed in reference to certain 
Jewish doctors 297 who mutilated the law , and altered the 
account of Mohammed 298 , and the law of deposits and 
certain other things, for which they received a bribe. 
According to others 2 " , in reference to a man who exposed 
some goods in the market and swore that he had bought 
them for a sum for which he had not bought them 3o . 
Others 3Ql say in reference to a question between Ash c ath 302 


B. Qais and a Jew about a well or a field , when the Jew 
had to swear. 

72. And verily of them; i.e. those that mutilate, like 
Ka b, Malik and Huyyai. 

is a party who twist their tongues in the Book turn 30S 
them in reading it, and divert them from the revealed 
words to the fabricated. Or , involve 304 them in the 
counterfeit of the Book. Others read yaluna with a 
change of waw with damma to hamza 305 , which is then 
thrown out, and its vowel transferred to the preceding 
vowelless consonant. 

that you may think it of the Book when it is not of the 
Book; the pronoun it refers to the fabricated part, indicated 
by the words who twist . Others read that they may think 
it , in which case they will still refer to the Muslims. 

and they say it is from God , when it is not from God ; 
a confirmation of the statement it is not of the Book , 
and a reproach to them; and also a declaration that they 
assert this openly and not by insinuation. The meaning 
is, it is not revealed by God; but this does not evince 
that the work of man is not the work of God 306 . 

and they tell a lie against God when they know it; 
corroboration and confirmation of the fact that they lie 
against God, and do so purposely. 

73. It was not for a man to be given by God the Book and 
the Judgment 307 and the mission and then to say to mankind 
Be servants to me instead of God ; contradiction and refutation 
of the worshippers of Jesus. And it is said that Abu Eafi c 
El-Qurazi and El-Sayyid El-Najrani said Mohammed 
dost thou wish that we should serve thee and take thee 
for our Lord ? Then he said God forbid that we should 
serve any but God , or enjoin the service of any but God. 


God did not send me with such a message or give me 
such a command . Then the text was revealed. Others 
say that a man said to Mohammed Prophet of God, 
we greet each other; ought we not to bow down to thee ? 
He said : It is not meet to bow down to any besides God ; 
nevertheless honour your Prophet, and acknowledge each 
person s right . 

but rather be divines; but rather to say 308 be divines . 
rabbani is a relative adjective of rabbun Lord with the 
augment an like likyani and raqabarii 309 . It means one 
who is perfect in theory and practice 31 . 

seeing that ye teach the Book and seeing that ye read it; 
for the advantage of teaching and study is knowledge of 
the truth and of what is best to believe and do. IbnKathir, 
Nafi c , Abu c Amr and Ya c qub read ta^lamuna meaning ye 
know ; other readings were tudarrisuna und tudrisuna ye 
teach (for the IV th form with the sense of the II nd compare 
karrama and ^akrama ( he honoured ); and this may be the 
meaning of the ordinary reading, if we give it the force 
ye read it to mankind . 

74. And he shall not bid you take the Angels and the 
Prophets for Lords; Ibn C 3.mir, Hamza, c lsim and Ya c qub 
pointed yamura to order , connecting it by the conjunction 
with to say above ; in that case la (not) will be otiose , 
inserted in order to confirm the negative idea in the words 
it was not for a man , the sense being It was not for a 
man to be made a Prophet by God, and then to bid 
mankind serve him and bid them take the angels and the 
Prophets for Lords 311 . Or, not otiose, with the meaning 
It was not for him to order himself to be worshipped, 
while 312 he did not ordain that his peers be adopted as 
Lords, but on the contrary forbad it ; which were a minor 


offence than commanding them to worship himself 313 . 
The remaining readers pointed yamuru he shall command , 
making it a fresh sentence, or possibly a hal 314 . Abu 
f Amr according to the tradition of El-Duri 315 followed his 
principle in shortening the damma of yamumkum. 

will he enjoin on you unbelief? Question expecting the 
answer no . He refers to a man above; others say to God. 

after that ye are Muslims; evidence that the persons 
addressed are the Muslims, and that they are those who 
ask leave to bow down to him. 

75. And when God took the Covenant of the Prophets 
verily whenever I give you any book or wisdom, then there 
comes to you a Prophet confessing to what is with you, ye 
shall believe him and help him; some say the Prophets 
is to be taken literally; [and if this was the law for the 
Prophets, still more was it binding on their peoples. 
Others say it means that Grod took the covenant from the 
Prophets and their peoples; and then made the mention 
of the Prophets serve for the mention of the peoples as 
well. Others say the genitive of the Prophets after 
the covenant is a subjective genitive, meaning the covenant 
which the Prophets laid upon their peoples. Others say 
the meaning is the children of the Prophets , with omission 
of the word children , the children of the Prophets being 
the children of Israel. Or, that he calls them Prophets 
ironically, because they used to say We have a better 
claim to be Prophets than Mohammed, since we are the 
people of the Book, and the Prophets were from among 
us. The la in lama prepares the way for the oath 316 , 
since taking the covenant has the sense of making to 
swear . ma may be conditional, in which case ye shall 
believe serves as apodosis to both the oath and the 


condition 317 . Or, it may be predicative 318 (i.e. that which 
I haye given you ). Hamza read lima with kesra, 
making ma infinitival, i. e. because of my giving you 
certain books and then of the coming of an apostle , 
confirming, God took the covenant that you should believe 
him and assist him . Or, making it relative God took 
the covenant for that which I have brought you , and there 
has come an apostle corroborating it . Others read lamma 
when I gave you , or verily because I have given you , 
deriving it from la min ma 319 , making the n coalesce 
with the m, and then dropping one of the three mlm for 
abbreviation. Nafi c read ^ataynakum we have given you . 

He said: Have ye consented, and taken my bond thereunto ? 
i.e. my covenant; called bond because it is bound i.e. 
made secure. Others read *usn which is either another form 
(cp. ^ubrun for C i6run 32 ) or the plural of *isarun , meaning 
a band . 

They said: We consent. He said: Then testify ; let some 
of you testify against the others that they have consented. 
Others say the words are addressed to the angels. 

and I am with you of them that testify ; and I too am 
witness to your consenting and testifying of each other. 
Confirmation and severe warning. 

76. And whosoever turns aside thereafter ; after the covenant 
and the confirmation by their consent and testifying. 

those are the evildoers; the contumacious unbelievers. 

77. And do they seek another religion than God s? Con 
nected by the conjunction with the previous sentence, the 
interrogative particle being inserted between the two to 
express disapproval 321 . Or, with an omitted member of 
the force Will they turn aside and seek . The accusative is 
put first because that is the object of the disapproval 322 . 


The verb is in the third person according to Abu c Ainr 
and c lsim as recorded by Hafs and Ya c qub, in the second 
according to the rest, with which reading and say unto 
them must be supplied. 

and to Him have submitted whosoever is in the heavens 
and the earth, of obedience or against their will; obeying, 
through study and following the evidence; or against their 
will, by reason of the sword and being brought face to 
face with what forced them to take refuge in resignation , 
such as the uplifting of the mountain 323 , and being over 
taken by drowning 324 , and being at the gate of death ; 
or 325 , of their free will , like the angels and the believers , 
and forced, like the unbelievers; for the latter are unable 
to keep themselves from what is decreed for them. 

and to Him ye shall be brought back; another reading 326 
is they shall be brought back , the pronoun referring to 
whosoever . 

78. Say: We believe in God and what has been revealed 
to us, and what was revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and 
Isaac and Jacob and the Tribes, and what was given to 
Moses and Jesus and the Prophets from their Lord; injunction 
to the Prophet to declare the faith of himself and his 
followers; since the Qur 3 an is revealed to them by the 
medium of his communication as much as it is revealed 
to him; and further that which is ascribed to one of a 
number is ascribed to the whole 327 . Or, an injunction 
to speak of himself after the fashion of kings, to do him 
honour. The verb nazala is construed with Hay since 
the revelation reaches to the Apostles , but also with c alay 
since it comes from above 328 . He mentions that which 
has been revealed to him before that which was revealed 
to the rest of the Apostles, because the former is what 


gives the latter its title and is the standard by which the 
latter is tested. 

we distinguish not between any of them; by believing one 
and disbelieving another 329 . 

but we submit to Him ; we obey ; or, serve Him purely 33 . 

79. And whoso seeks a religion other than Islam; other 
than the confession of the unity, and obedience to the 
Law of God. 

it shall in no wise be received of him, aud he in the next 
world is of the losers; of those that fall into ruin. The 
meaning is that whoso abandons Kesignation and seeks 
another religion loses the profit and falls into misfortune, 
by defacing the perfect nature wherein man was created. 
The passage was used as evidence to show that faith 
meant resignation 331 , since, if it were anything else, it 
would not be received. The answer is that the text denies 
the acceptability of any religion which differs therefrom, 
not of everything that differs therefrom. And perhaps reli 
gion also refers to works 332 . 

80. How shall God guide people who have disbelieved after 
their believing, and they have testified that the Apostle is 
true , and the evidences have come to them ? Assertion of the 
improbability of God s leading them; for he who turns 
aside from the truth after it has been made clear to him 
is sunk in error and far from guidance. Others say, 
a denial and rejection of that notion: but this would 
make it certain that the repentance of the apostate will 
not be accepted 333 . Have testified is connected by 
the conjunction with the finite verbal idea contained in 
their believing ; a similar construction is to be found in 
LXIII 10 334 . Or else it is a hal with suppression of 
gad dependent on have disbelieved 33r> . In either case the 


passage jthows that consent with the tongue differs from 
genuine belief 336 . 

And God does not guide the people that wrong ; that wrong 
themselves by neglecting to meditate and by substituting 
unbelief for faith. How much less then those to whom 
the truth has come, who have known it, and who then 
discard it. 

81. The recompense of these is that upon them is the curse 
of God and of the Angels and of all men; the passage 
indicates, by what it states, that to curse them is lawful ; 
and, by what it implies 337 , forbids the cursing of any one 
else. And perhaps the difference is that they 338 are formed 
for unbelief, precluded from guidance, beyond hope of 
mercy from the first, unlike others. By men he means 
the Believers or the generality of men. For the Unbeliever 
also curses him that denies the truth, and apostatizes from 
it, only he does not know the truth specifically 339 . 

abiding therein ; in the curse ; or, the punishment ; or, 
Hell-fire , since , although they has not been mentioned , they 
are indicated by the context. 

the punishment shall not be lightened for them, nor shall they 
be delayed. 83. But those that repent after that; after apostasy. 

and make good; the harm they have done. Or, possibly, 
no object need be supplied, the meaning being and enter 
into a right state . 

then verily God is forgiving; will accept their repentance. 

merciful; will be gracious to them. It is said that the 
text was revealed concerning El-Harith B. Suwaid 34 , when 
he repented of his apostasy , and sent to his people , saying 
Ask whether there is any repentance for me? Then his 
brother El-Jallas 341 sent this text to him; so he returned 
to Medina and repented. 


84. Verily those that disbelieve after they have believed 
and then increase in unbelief ; like the Jews who disbelieved 
in Jesus and the Gospel after believing in Moses and the 
Law, then disbelieved yet more in Mohammed and the 
Qur D an; or, who disbelieved Mohammed after believing in 
him prior to his mission, and then increased in unbelief 
by obstinacy, opposition, and accusing the Prophet, diver 
ting others from the faith, and breaking their covenant; 
or like certain who apostatized, and went to Mecca, and 
then increased in unbelief inasmuch as they said: Let us 
watch for what time may bring forth 342 against Moham 
med ; or, Let us go back to him and deceive him by 
a display of faith . 

their repentance shall not be received 343 , because they 
will not repent 344 , or, will only repent when they are face 
to face with destruction, He expresses their non-repentance 
by the phrase their repentance shall not be accepted in 
order to aggravate their case , and to represent their condition 
as the condition of those who despair of mercy. Or, 
because their repentance is only hypocrisy, and not owing 
to their apostasy and increased unbelief; and for this reason 
the fa of the apodosis is not employed 345 . 

and these are they that go astray, that persist in error 346 . 

85. Verily those that disbelieve and die while unbelieving, 
an earthful of gold shall not be taken from one of them; 
since their death in unbelief is the reason why the acceptance 
of the ransom is precluded , the fa of the apodosis is here 
employed to indicate it. The fullness of anything is enough 
to fill it , dhahaban is an accusative of limitation 347 . Others 
read dhahabun in the nominative as permutative Qimilaun 348 
(fullness), or as predicate of an omitted subject. 

although he offered it as a ransom; construed according 


to the sense 349 , as though he had said : And a ransom 
shall not be received from any one of them, eyen though 
an earthful of gold were his ransom ; or, connected hy 
the conjunction with a suppressed verb, to be supplied as 
follows : There shall not be received from any of them an 
earthful of gold, though he were to give it in alms in 
this world, and though he were to ransom himself there 
with from punishment in the next . Or, the meaning 
may be even though he redeemed himself with as much 
again like (v. 40) and although the evil-doers had all that 
is upon the earth and as much again with it . The words 
the like of it are frequently omitted and inserted redun 
dantly because the two similar things are virtually one 
thing 35 . 

those for them is terrible punishment ; a violent menace ; 
and destruction of all hope ; for those from whom no ransom 
is taken might sometimes be forgiven gratis. 

and they have no helpers; to avert the punishment, min 
is added to make the negation universal 351 . 

86. Ye shall not acquire charity; ye shall not attain to 
the reality of charity, which is the perfection of good. 
Or, ye shall not gain. the charity of God, i.e. mercy and 
good will and Paradise 352 . 

until ye spend of what ye love ; i. e. wealth and all that 

3 Jr J / 

term includes, and other things, such as sacrificing one s 
dignity in aiding people, and one s body in the service of 
God, and one s blood in His path. It is recorded that 
when the text was revealed Abu Talha 353 came and said : 
Apostle of God, lo, the dearest to me of my possessions 
is Bairaha 354 ; do thou deposit it where God will . Then 
he said : Bravo 355 , that is profitable wealth 356 ; and I would 
have thee deposit it among thy next of kin . Then 


came Zaid 357 son of Haritha with a mare of which he 
was fond, saying: This is for the path of God ; then 
Mohammed set upon it 3 Usama 358 , son of Zaid. Then said 
Zaid: I wanted to give it in alms ; the Prophet answered 
Grod has accepted it of thee . This shows that spending 
the dearest of one s possessions on one s nearest kin is most 
acceptable , and that the verse regards both necessary 359 and 
commendable expenditure. Some read part of what ye 
love , which indicates that min (of) in the ordinary reading 
is partitive; but it may be explanatory ( such things as 
ye love ) 36 . 

and whatever ye spend of anything ; whether what ye spend 
be a thing beloved or anything else, min (of) is here ex 

verily God is cognizant thereof; and will reward you 

87. All the food; i.e. all the foods 361 ; the meaning is 
the eating of them. 

was lawful to the children of Israel ; hillun is an infinitive 
employed as an adjective, and for this reason singular 
and plural, masculine and feminine are the same 361 . So 
in Sura LX. 10 it is construed with -the feminine plural. 

save what Israel; Jacob. 

made unlawful for himself, 

such as the flesh and milk of the camel ; it is said that 
he suffered in the sciatic nerve, and made a vow, that, if 
he were cured , he would never eat the food he liked best , 
and that was what he liked most. Others say he did 
so to cure himself by the advice of the physicians. The 
passage has been used as an argument by those who give 
the Prophet the right of initiation 363 ; whereas those that 
deny this right can say this act of Jacob was done with 


the divine consent, so that it was as though it had from 
the beginning been declared unlawful. 

before the Tor ah was revealed; before it was sent down, 
embracing the laws by which certain things were declared 
unlawful for them, by way of punishment and severity, 
owing to their wrong-doing and oppressing. The verse 
is an answer to the Jewish pretension of innocence of the 
crimes imputed to them in the words by reason of the 
injustice of those who became Jews we made good things 
unlawful for them (iv. 158), and the words and for those 
who became Jews we made unlawful every animal with 
claws (vi. 147), to the end of the two texts, when they said 
We are not the first to whom they were made unlawful ; on 
the contrary they were made unlawful for Noah and Abraham 
and his followers until it came to us, and they were made 
unlawful for us as they had been for those who were before 
us . And also an answer to their rejection of the theory 
of supersession 364 , and to their objection to the Prophet s 
declaration that he agreed with Abraham in regarding the 
flesh and milk of the camel as lawful. 

Say: Then bring the Torah and read it, if ye be veracious , 
He commands him to refute them out of their Book, and 
reduce them to silence with the statement contained therein 
that on account of their evil doings things which had not 
been declared unlawful were declared so. It is recorded 365 
that when the Prophet recited it to them, they were put 
to silence and did not venture to produce the Law. And 
herein was a proof of his mission. 

88. And whoso invents a lie against God; has fabricated one , 
in asserting that it was declared unlawful, before the revelation 
of the Torah , for the children of Israel and their predecessors. 

after that; after the evidence has held them. 


those are they that do wrong; who will not do justice of 
themselves , and resist the truth after it has been made clear. 

89. Say God speaks true; insinuation that they lie. In 
other words, it stands firm that Grod speaks true in what 
He has revealed, and you are the liars. 

so follow the sect of Abraham , he being a Hanlf ; i. e. 
the sect of 3 Islam which is essentially the sect of Abraham 
or like his sect ; that ye may keep clear of Judaism which 
has forced you to fabrication and obstinacy in order to com 
pass your worldly ends, and has compelled you to declare 
unlawful good things which Grod made lawful for Abraham 
and his followers. 

and was not one of the Polytheists; indication of the fact 
^hat it is necessary to follow him in holding the pure 
doctrine of the unity , and in keeping steadfast in religion , 
and in avoiding doing too much or too little 366 ; and in_ 
sinuation that the Jews are polytheists. 

90. Verily the first house set up for men; set up for 
worship and made a conventicle for them. The setter up 
is Grod as is shown by the other reading wadtfa (he set up). 

is that which is in BakJca; another form for Makka, like 
Nabit and Namlt 367 , ratib aud rdtim 368 , lazib and lazim 369 . - 
Some say Bakka is the place of the mosque, and Makka 
the town from bakk to jostle or to knock ; for Bakka 
strikes the necks of tyrants 37 . It is recorded 371 that 
the Apostle was asked concerning the first house set up 
for men, and he answered The Most Holy Mosque, then 
the Temple . When asked how long had been the interval 
between them, he said 40 years . It is said that the 
first builder was Abraham ; that it was afterwards destroyed 
and rebuilt by certain Jurhumites 372 , then by the Amale- 
kites, then by the Quraish; others say it was the first 



house built by Adam , which perished in the Deluge , and 
that then Abraham built it; others, that on its site before 
Adam was a house called El-durah 373 , round "which the 
angels made their circuit; and when Adam was ejected, 
he was commanded to go on a pilgrimage thither, and 
make a circuit round it. At the time of the flood it was 
lifted to the Fourth Heaven , and the angels of the heavens 
make circuit round it, This however does not suit the 
letter of the verse 374 . Others say the meaning is, the 
first house in dignity, not in time. 

a blessed one; rich in blessings and advantages to those 
who go on the greater or the lesser pilgrimage 375 thither, 
and linger 376 near it, and go round it. The word 
mubaraJcan ( being blessed ) is a circumstantial phrase at 
tached to the subject concealed in the adverbial clause ( in 
Bakka ) 377 . 

and guidance to the worlds; as being their Qibla and 
their place of worship, and because there are wonderful 
signs there, as follows. 

91. Therein are perspicuous signs; such as the birds 
declining to come directly over it during all these years, 
and the fact that within the sacred confines the wild beasts 
mix with their prey and do not seek to hurt them, and 
that every tyrant who has attempted to do it any harm 
has been overpowered, like the people of the elephant 378 . 
The sentence is explanatory of the guidance or else is a 
second circumstantial phrase (wherein are etc.). 

the station of Abraham; subject of which the predicate 
is omitted , i. e. among them is the station of Abraham ; 
or, permutative for signs , permutative of part for whole. 
Others make it an explanatory appendage 379 , supposing 
the thing meant by the signs to be the print of the foot 


ID the hard rock, and its sinking therein as far as the 
ball, and the fact of the rock having been softened unlike 
other rocks , and the footprint having been preserved unlike 
all the footprints of the Prophets, and its having been 
preserved in spite of the number of Abraham s enemies 
some thousands of years. This view is supported by the 
reading 38 ^ayatun bayyinatun in the singular. The occasion 381 
of this footprint was that when the building of the Ka c ba 
rose, he stood upon this stone in order to be able to lift 
the stones, and his feet sank therein. 

and he that enters it is secure ; either a nominal sentence 382 , 
or a conditional sentence, annexed by the conjunction, ac 
cording to the sense , to the station of Abraham , meaning 
and the security of him that entered it , i. e. and of 
those signs was the security of him that entered it ; or, 
therein are clear signs, the station of Abraham and the 
security of him that entered it . He mentions these 
two only out of the many signs, and omits the rest, as 
in the saying of the Prophet: Three things out of this 
world of yours have been endeared to me; scent, women, 
and my comfort is in prayer 383 because these two 
make the mention of the rest of the signs in the two 
worlds , e. g. the persistence of the footprint through all 
time , and security from punishment on the Day of Judgment, 
unnecessary. The Prophet said 384 : Whoso dies within 
the boundary of the two sanctuaries 385 shall be raised on 
the Day of Judgment secure . According to Abu Hamfah 
whoever has incurred the penalty of death by apostasy or 
having committed murder or any other crime is not as 
sailed therein but is forced to come out 386 . 

And to God is owing from men the Pilgrimage to the 
House; visiting it according to the prescribed manner. 


Hamza, El-Kisa D i, and C 3.sim according to the record of 
Hafs read hijju (for hajju) which is the peculiar form of 
the people of Najd. 

whosoever hath in his power a path thereunto / permutative 
of men , which it specializes. Hath in his power was 
interpreted 387 by the Prophet to mean food and a heast 
to ride. This supports the opinion of Shan ! that it refers 
to money ; 388 and for this reason he commands the infirm 
to send substitutes when they can find the hire of a sub 
stitute. Malik referred it to the person; in which case 
any one able to walk and to earn his living on the way 
will be forced to make the pilgrimage. Abu Hanifah said 
it referred to ability in both these matters 389 . There in 
thereunto refers to the House; or else to the pilgrimage; 
for every means of coming to a thing may be described 
as its path. 

92. And whose disbelieves well, God is independent of 
the worlds , he makes disbelieves synonymous with does 
not go on pilgrimage in order to enforce its necessity, 
and to express displeasure at those who neglect it. For 
this reason the Prophet said 39 : Whoso dies without 
having made the Pilgrimage, let him die, if he will, a 
Jew or a Christian . And in this text he emphasizes the 
importance of the Pilgrimage in several ways ; by asserting 
its necessity in the form of a statement 39 * ; by expressing 
the proposition in the form of a nominal sentence 392 ; by 
introducing it in such a manner as conveys the idea that 
it is a right of God binding on the necks of men 393 ; by 
making it universal first, and afterwards specializing 394 , 
which is like elucidating after expressing a thing vaguely, 
and like doubling and iterating the idea ; by calling neglect 
of the Pilgrimage Unbelief, as being the act of unbelievers; 


and by mentioning God s independence which in this place 
suggests disapproval and abandonment by God of the 
offenders; and by the use of the words of the worlds 
(instead of of him ), since those words convey an emphatic 
generalization, and prove by a syllogism that God is in 
dependent of him 395 , and point to the violence of God s 
wrath; all because the pilgrimage is a difficult duty, 
combining contrition of soul and affliction of body, ex 
penditure of money, abandonment of pleasures and turning 
to God 396 . It is said that when the first half of the 
text was revealed , the Prophet collected the heads of the 
sects 397 , and addressed them, saying God has prescribed 
the Pilgrimage for you, so observe it . Then one sect 
believed therein and five disbelieved. Thereupon and 
whoso disbelieves etc. was revealed. 

93. Say : Ye people of the Book, wherefore do ye disbelieve 
the signs of God; signs traditional and intellectual 398 which 
point to the veracity of Mohammed in his assertions of 
the duty of pilgrimage etc. The fact that the people of 
the Book in particular are addressed is evidence that their 
unbelief was more heinous , and that , although they asserted 
that they believed the Law and the Gospel , they nevertheless 
disbelieved in both. 

while God is witness of what ye do; the condition being 
that He is witness , i. e. cognizant of their works , and will 
recompense them therefor, so that perversion and concealment 
will not avail them. 

94. Say: Ye people of the Book, wherefore do ye divert 
from, the path of God him that believes? He repeats the 
vocative and the question, in order the more emphatically 
to upbraid them, and deny them all excuse, and to 
make it felt that each of these two things is disgraceful 


in itself and sufficient to bring on punishment. The path 
of God is His true religion, which we are ordered to 
follow , i. e. D Islam. It is said 3 " that they used to create 
schisms among the Believers and sow dissensions among 
them , and indeed , came to the tribes of El-Aus and El- 
Khazraj , and reminded them of their mutual enmity and 
warfare during the time of the Ignorance, in order that 
they might return to that condition; and that they used 
to plot to turn them from the way. 

seeking for it crookedness*; circumstantial phrase depen 
ding upon ye ; i.e., by confusing it before mankind, and 
making them think that it contains apostasy from the 
truth , by rejecting the doctrine of supersession and altering 
the description of the Prophet, etc. Or, by stirring up 
dissensions between the Believers in order to make their 
language discordant and to produce flaws in their belief. 

when ye are witnesses: that it is the Path of God, and 
that to turn people from it is to err and to cause to 
err. Or, when you are men of honour in the eyes of 
your co-religionists , so that they trust your words and em 
ploy your witness in trials. 

and God is not negligent of what ye do; a menace to 
them. The crime complained of in the former verse being 
their unbelief, which they proclaimed openly, he ended 
that verse with the words God is witness ; the crime 
complained of in this verse being their seducing the Believers 
from Islam, which they did secretly and by guile, he 
says and God is not negligent of what ye do*. 

95. ye that have believed , if ye obey a portion of those 
to whom the Book was given , they will render you unbelievers 
after that ye have believed; revealed concerning a party of 
El-Aus and El-Khazraj who were sitting talking, when 


Shas B. Qais 401 the Jew passed by them, who, being vexed 
by their unity and concord, commanded a Jewish boy to 
sit with them , and remind them of the day of Bu^th 402 , 
and recite to them some of the poems composed about it 
now El-Aus were the victors on that day. So he did 
it; and the people began to wrangle and boast and to grow 
angry with one another and to call to arms , to arms ; till a 
large number of both tribesmen gathered together. Then 
the Prophet with his followers came up to them , and said 
Do ye cry the cry of the time of Ignorance 403 , while I 
am among you, after that God has honoured you with 
Islam ? Then they knew that this was a suggestion of 
Satan and a plot of their enemy , and throwing down their 
arms, they asked forgiveness, embraced each other, and 
went off with the Prophet. God here addresses them in 
person, after bidding the Prophet address the People of 
the Book, in order to show the superiority of the former, 
and to point out that they are the persons who deserve 
best that God should address them and hold converse 
with them. 

96. And how can ye disbelieve , after the texts of God 
are read to you and among you is His Apostle? Expression 
of disapproval and surprise at their unbelief when they 
had united every motive which should prompt belief and 
prevent unbelief. 

now he that takes hold of God ; takes hold of His religion 
and resorts to Him in all his affairs. 

has been guided into a straight path ; has received guidance 
without a doubt. 

97. ye that believe , fear God as He ought to be feared; 
to the full extent His fear involves i. e. exhausting 
your power in abiding by His mandates and abstaining 

72 SURA ID. 

from what He has forbidden; compare and fear God as 
far you can (Ixiv. 16) 404 . - - According to Ibn Mas c ud 405 
the meaning is that He should be obeyed and not dis 
obeyed; thanked and not treated with ingratitude; remem 
bered and not forgotten. Others say it means abstracting 
the act of piety from attention 406 and expectation of 
recompense on its account. And in this command the veto 
on obeying the People of the Book is confirmed. The origi 
nal form of tuqatun is wuqayatun in which the w was changed 
to t as in ttfadatun and tuMamatun and the y into elif* 07 . 

and ye must not die unless when ye are Muslims; ye 
must not be in any other condition than that of resignation 
when death overtakes you. For the veto against that which 
is limited by a circumstantial phrase or anything else is 
sometimes directed against the act, sometimes against the 
limitation , sometimes against the two together, and neither 
separately. The same is the case with negations 408 . 

98. And take hold of the rope of God; His religion of 
Islam; or, God s book, since the Prophet said: the Qur 3 an 
is God s firm rope . He employs for this the image 
of the rope , inasmuch as taking hold of it is a 
means of safety from evil, just as taking hold of a rope 
is a means of saving one self from falling ; and he employs 
to express confidence in it and reliance upon it the 
words take hold of, in order to carry out the metaphor 409 . 

all of you; with one consent. 

and do not separate ; yourselves from the truth by allowing 
differences to come between you , like the People of the 
Book. Or, Do not separate from each other as you did in 
the days of Ignorance, when you were each warring with 
the other. Or, Do not mention what will bring about 
discord and spoil the unity. 


remember the mercy of God towards you; in which is 
included the guidance and the divine aid towards resignation 
which has led to unity and the cessation of ill-feeling. 

since ye were enemies ; in the days of the Ignorance , 
fighting with one another. 

and He united your hearts by Islam. 

and ye found yourselves by His grace brethren; loving 
one another 41 , united in brotherhood in God. Others 
say that El- D Aus and El-Khazraj were brothers by both 
parents ; then there came discord between their children , 
and the wars between them lasted 120 years, until God 
extinguished them by Islam and united them by His 

99. And ye were on the edge of a gulf of fire ; ready 
to fall into the Fire of Hell owing to your Unbelief: since, 
had death overtaken you whilst you were in that state, 
you would have fallen into Hell. 

and He saved you therefrom ; by Islam ; the feminine 
pronoun refers to the gulf, or the fire , or to the edge 
which may be attracted to the gender of the word to which 
it is annexed 411 ; or, the feminine pronoun may be employed 
because shafa means the lip , shafa and shafatun as applied 
to a well both meaning its edge , like janibun &&&janibatun. 
The original form was shafawun , but the third radical 
was changed to elif in the masculine, and elided in the 

like that; with demonstration like that 
does God show you His signs; His evidences 
perhaps ye may be guided desiring 412 you to be stead 
fast 413 in the guidance and to increase therein. 

100. And let there be of you a nation summoning to good, 
and enjoining right , and forbidding wrong min (of) is par- 


titive, meaning out of you ; since enjoining right and 
forbidding wrong are duties obligatory on the community 
as a whole 414 , and because not every one is fit for this 
task , since the undertaking of it requires certain conditions 
in which the whole nation does not share, such as know 
ledge of the laws, and of the gradations in the process of 
enjoining and forbidding 415 , and of the way to enforce 
them, and power to maintain them. He addresses the 
whole community, but demands the action of part of it 
only: in order to show that this requirement is so far 
binding on the community that were they entirely to 
neglect it, they would all be guilty, but that it is satisfied 
by the action of some. The same is the case with all 
duties that are binding on the community as a whole. - 
Or mm (of) may be explanatory with the meaning and 
be ye a nation , agreeing with the words of the Qur an: 
Ye were the best nation produced for mankind, enjoining 
right (iii. 106). Summoning to good includes invitation 
to conduct leading to prosperity both worldly and spiri 
tual. The appending of enjoining right etc. to summo 
ning to good is a case of appending the special to the 
general in order to call attention to the importance of the 

and those are the prosperous; those whose privilege is 
perfect prosperity 416 . - - It is recorded that the Prophet 
was asked Who is the best of men ? He answered : He who 
most enjoins right, most forbids wrong, fears God most, 
and is most observant of the ties of kindred. Enjoining 
right is necessary or commendable according to the thing 
prescribed 417 ; forbidding wrong is on the other hand 
always necessary, since everything which the Code forbids 
is prohibited 418 . It is most probable that the transgressor 


is bound to forbid what he is himself in the habit of 
committing, since he is bound both to abandon those 
practices and to discourage them; and his neglect of one 
of these duties does not render the other less binding. 

101. And be not like those that split into sects and were 
at variance; like the Jews and the Christians who are 
divided concerning the Unity, the Abstraction 419 and the 
Future Life, as you know. 

after that the evidences came to them; the signs and proofs 
which evince the truth and necessitate agreement concerning 
it. - - It is most probable 42 that the prohibition only 
applies to division concerning the Principles of Eeligion, 
as opposed to the branches (i. e. the legal codes) ; according 
to the words of the Prophet 421 the Variance of my people 
is mercy ; and whoso inquires for himself and succeeds 
has a double reward and he that fails has a single 
reward . 

and they have a terrible punishment; a threat to those 
that are divided and a warning against imitating them. 

102. On a day whereon faces shall turn white and faces 
shall turn black yauma (a day) is in the accusative either 
after the verbal idea contained in lahum (to them they 
have), or after a suppressed make mention of. The 
whiteness and blackness of the face are symbolical expressions 
fbr the appearance therein of the brightness of joy and the 
gloom of fear. Others say, the followers of the truth shall 
be distinguished by whiteness of face and complexion 422 
and brightness of skin, and the waving of light in front 
of them, whereas the followers of falsehood shall be dis 
tinguished by the contrary. 

and as for those whose faces are blackened Did ye 
disbelieve after believing ? i. e. Did ye disbelieve ? etc. 


shall be said to them 423 . The sign of interrogation here 
expresses reproach and surprise at their conduct. They are 
the apostates, or the people of the Book who disbelieved 
the Prophet after believing in him previous to his mission 
or, all the unbelievers , who had acknowledged him when 
he made them testify concerning themselves 424 ; or, after 
they had it in their power to believe by studying the 
evidences and the signs. 

so taste the punishment ; contemptuous command. 

for your disbelieving ; on account of your unbelief, or 
as the recompense for it 425 . 

103. And as for those whose faces are whitened , they are 

j u > j 

in the mercy of God; he means in Paradise and the eternal 
recompense. He expresses this by the word mercy , to 
show that although the Believer be devoted throughout his 
life to the service of Grod, yet he cannot enter Paradise 
save by His mercy and beneficence 42G . According to the 
natural order 427 he should have mentioned them first ; 
however he desired to make the beginning and end of the 
discourse the character and the reward of the Believers. 

they abide therein ; introduced as a fresh clause 428 for 
emphasis. It is as though he had been asked How shall 
they be therein? To which he answers abiding therein 
for ever . 

104. Those signs of God; which are revealed concerning 
the promises of reward and punishment. 

we read them unto thee with truth- clothed with truth, 
with no doubt therein. 

and God would not injure the worlds ; since such injury 
on His part is an absurdity, since He has no duties 429 , in 
which it would be unjust in Him to fall short, nor is He 
precluded from anything, so that it would be unjust in 


Him to commit it; inasmuch as He is absolute master, as 

105. And God s is all that is in the heavens and in the 
earth, and to God shall the things be brought back so that 
He will recompense every one according to His promises 
and threats. 

106. Ye were the best nation; the words imply that they 
were the hest in past time, but do not imply that they 
have since ceased to be so; as in iv. 27 and God was for 
giving, merciful . Others 43 say: Ye were means in the 
knowledge of Gk>d , or on the Table , or, among past nations . 

produced to men shown to them. 

ye enjoined right and forbad wrong fresh clause explaining 
how they were the best nation; or, second predicate to 
kuntum (ye were). 

and believed in God; comprising belief in everything in 
which belief is necessary; since belief in Gk>d is a duty 
and of consequence only when it implies belief in every 
thing wherein belief is enjoined 431 . This is put at the end 
when it would have naturally been placed at the begin 
ning 432 , because he means , by mentioning it , to show that 
they enjoined right and forbad wrong because they had 
faith in God, and believed in Him, and in order to assist 
His religion. The verse has been used to prove that the 
agreement of the Believers is a source of Law 433 ; for the 
verse makes it certain that they enjoined everything right 
and forbad everything wrong, the article being here uni 
versalizing. Now were they to agree to what is false, their 
conduct would be the reverse 434 . 

and if the people of the Book believed ; as they should 435 . 

it would be better for them; that belief would be better 
for them than their present state. 


of them are the Believers ; such as Abdallali B. Salam 436 
and his fellows. 

and the most of them are the evil-doers; who are pertinacious 
in unbelief. This sentence and the following are digressive 437 . 

107. They shall not harm you save a hurt; a slight harm, 
such as an accusation or a menace. 

and if they fight with you , they will turn you their backs ; 
they will flee and not harm you by slaying or taking 

then they shall not be helped ; there shall not be one to 
help them against you, or to avert your violence from 
them. He denies that they can do any harm except by 
speech; and he confirms this by stating that if they have 
courage to fight, the rout shall be theirs. Then he 
states 438 that their end shall be infirmity and isolation. 
Others read la yunsaru (they shall not be helped) in the 
jussive, connected by the conjunction with yuwallu (they 
shall turn), supposing the word fhumma (then) to imply 
an interval in the importance of the events; and with this 
reading their not being helped will be conditional upon 
their fighting 439 . This is one of the Prophetic texts 
which were corroborated by the event; since such was the 
case with the tribes Quraiza and Nadir, the Banu Qainuqa 
and the Jews of Khaibar. 

108. There has been set^ Q upon them affliction; waste of 
life and goods and ruin of family, or, the affliction which 
consists in adhering to falsehood and paying tribute. 

wheresoever they are found ; except by a cord from God 
and a cord from men; exception from the more comprehensive 
of comprehensive conditions 441 ; i. e. affliction is set upon 
them in all their conditions except when they take refuge 
in or put upon themselves the protection of God, or of 


His Book which has come to them, and the protection of 
the Muslims; or His religion Islam and following the path 
of the Believers. 

and they have brought back wrath from God ; earning it. 

and poverty has been set upon them; so that it surrounds 
them as a tent that has been pitched surrounds the 
owners, The Jews are for the most part poor and destitute. 

that referring to the setting of baseness and poverty, 
and the bringing back of wrath. 

is because they used to disbelieve the signs of God and 
slay the Prophets without justice ; .... The limitation without 
justice is added, although the murder of the Prophets is 
without justice from the nature of the case, in order to 
show that it was so even according to their belief. 

that; the unbelief and the slaughter. 

was because they rebelled and transgressed because of their 
rebelling and transgressing the ordinances of God; for 
pertinacity - in small offences leads to great offences and 
continuance in great offences to unbelief. Others say the 
meaning is that the setting of affliction upon them in this 
world and their earning wrath in the next world, as they 
have for one cause their unbelief and murder of the Prophets , 
so they have for another cause 442 their rebellion and trans 
gression, inasmuch as the secondary precepts are binding 
on them also 44S . 

109. They are not equal; in their evil conduct 444 ; they 
are the people of the Book. 

of the people of the Book there is a party that stands ; 
asyndeton, to explain why equality is denied them. That 
stands means that is straight and just; from qama used 
in the phrase I set the stick up and it stood (qama) . 
They are those who became Muslims. 


who read the texts of God in the hours of night , and 
prostrate themselves- they read the Qur 3 an while they 
keep watch 445 ; which he expresses by the phrase reading 
in the hours of night together with prostration , in order 
to make the matter clearer and to bestow on them the 
greater praise 416 . Others say, the night-prayer 447 is meant 
since the people of the Book do not pray at that time , 
since there is a tradition that the Prophet postponed it 
and then went out, and found the people were expecting 
the prayer; then he said Is it not true that none of the 
followers of the religions make mention of God at this 
hour except you? 

110. Who believe in God and the Last Day, who enjoin 
right and forbid wrong, and are eager for those things which 
are right; further descriptive clauses of a party . He attri 
butes to them characteristics not to be found among the 
Jews, who decline from the right, who do not worship in 
the night, who associate others with God, give him im 
proper epithets, describe the last day falsely, are too soft 
in their censure of other men s acts 418 , and slow to do 
what is good. 

and they are of the prosperous those to whom these 
epithets belong are of those whose affairs have prospered 
with God , and who have earned His favour and His praise. 

111. Whatever good ye do it shall not be disclaimed for 
you i. e. it shall not be lost , nor the reward of it be 
lessened at all. This is called disclaiming just as the 
payment of the reward is elsewhere called thanks . It is 
made to govern two objects owing to its containing the 
sense of the verb deprive . Hamza, El-Kisafi and Hafs 
read the verbs in the third person, the rest in the 2 nd 


and God is cognizant of them that fear encouragement 
to them and admonition 449 that fear is the commencement 
of good and of right dealing, and that they are those 
that fear who prosper with God. 

112. Verily those that disbelieve, their goods and their 
children shall not avail them against God a bit i. e. of 
punishment, or of availing; in the latter case it will be 
a cognate accusative 45 . 

and they are the people of the Fire belonging to it. 
they shall abide therein. 

113. The likeness of what they spend ; of what the Un 
believers spend to gain Gfod s favour, or out of pride or 
for fame, or, the Hypocrites, for appearance sake or from fear. 

in this present life is as the likeness of a wind wherein 
is bitter cold the word sirrun is commonly applied to a 
cold wind, like sarsarun , originally it was a masdar, 
turned into an epithet; or, an epithet combined by a 
rhetorical figure with the word cold , like the phrase 
bar dun baridun (severe, lit. cold, cold) 451 . 

which strikes the ploughed land of people that have wronged 
themselves ; by unbelief and transgression. 

and destroys it ; as a punishment to them. For destruction 
when occasioned by the Divine wrath is severer than any 
other 453 . He means to compare what they spend in respect 
of its futility with the agriculture of Unbelievers which a 
cold wind strikes and annihilates, so that no use remains 
to them therein in this world or the next. It is a com 
pound simile 453 , and hence he does not mind letting the 
particle of comparison be followed by wind rather than 
by agriculture . Or perhaps we may supply as the likeness 
of that which is destroyed by a wind , that being the 


82 SURA in. 

And God does not wrong them , rather they wrong them 
selves He did not wrong those who spent by the waste 
of what they spent, rather they wronged themselves by 
not spending it in a way which would be reckoned; or, 
God did not wrong the people of the ploughed land by 
ruining it , rather they wronged themselves by committing 
offences whereby they merited punishment. Others read 
lakinna (but) in which case the accusative after lakinna 
is permissible in poetry only, as in the verse but whoso 
ever beholds thy eyelids , loves 454 . 

114. ye that believe , take not a lining ; i. e. an intimate 
friend ; one to whom a man tells his secrets in confidence : 
compared to the lining of a garment, as such were 
compared to the inner garment in the words of the Prophet 
The Ansar are the inner garment and mankind the outer . 

from outside yourselves; to the exclusion of the Muslims. 
The words depend either on take not , or on an omitted 
word e. g. a lining coming from . 

they shall not fail you in harm ; . the verb *ala (to come 
short) ought properly to take prepositions 455 after it ; 
however it is also construed with two accusatives as in 
the phrase la *aluka nashan (I shall not fail thee in advice) 
owing to its containing the ideas of preventing or dim 
inishing . 

they would like that you should come to harm; anatun 
means excessive harm and misery 456 . ma has the infinitival 
sense 457 . 

their hatred has shown itself from their mouths from 
their words; since they cannot control themselves owing 
to their extreme hatred. 

and what their breasts conceal is yet greater than what 
is revealed. For the display of it is not deliberate and of choice. 


we have made clear to you the signs; which point out 
the duty of sincere attachment to the Believers and of 
opposition to the Unbelievers. 

if ye have understood ; what has been made clear to you. 
The four sentences are independent and convey the reason 
for the previous proposition. Possibly the three first are 
descriptive clauses of bitanatan (a lining) 458 . 

115. Behold ye are these , ye love them and they love you 
not ; ye are these 459 , who offend in being attached to the 
Unbelievers. Ye love them etc. is an explanation of their 
sin in being attached to them, or a second predicate of 
ye ; or predicate of these , the whole sentence being 
predicate of ye , like thou art Zaid who lovest him ; or 
the sentence may be a relative clause attached to ye ; or, 
a circumstantial phrase ( loving them ), governed by the 
idea of pointing out in behold ; and ^aulcti (these) may 
be in the accusative after a verb explained by what fol 
lows 46 in which case the sentence will be predicate 
(of ye ). 

while ye believe in the Book, the whole of it; the article 
is here generic 461 . The sentence is a circumstantial phrase 
depending on they love you not . The meaning is that 
they love you not, while you believe in their Book as 
well; why then do you love them, when they do not 
believe in your Book? The words contain a taunt, that 
they are more obstinate in their falsehood than you are 
in your truth. 

and when they meet you, they say: We believe out of 
hypocrisy and deceit. 

but when they are by themselves they bite their finger-tips 
out of spite against you- out of vexation and annoyance 
that they cannot find any way of gratifying themselves. 

84 SURA in. 

say: Die in your anger ; an imprecation that their wrath 
may continue and increase as the power of Islam and its 
followers doubles itself, until they perish thereby 468 . 

verily God is cognizant of that which is in the breasts] 
so that he knows the anger and spite that is in their 
breasts. Possibly the words may be part of the message; 
Say, God knows what is yet more hidden than your secret 
biting of your finger-tips out of spite ; or they may be 
not part of the message, meaning tell them this, and be 
not amazed that I tell thee their secrets, for I know the 
most hidden thing, their thoughts . 

116. If a good thing touch you, it hurts them; and if 
evil befall you, they rejoice thereat; explanation of the fact 
that their hatred reaches such a pitch that they envy any 
good and any profit which befalls the Believers , and rejoice 
at any harm or mischief that befalls them. To touch is 
used metaphorically for to befall . 

but if ye persist; in enmity to them, or, in the painful 
duties imposed upon you. 

and fear; association with them; or, those acts which 
God has forbidden you. 

their guile shall not hurt you at all by the mercy of 
God, and His performance of His promise to those who 
persist and fear; and because whoever is zealous in the 
matter and accustoms himself to caution and persistance 
will suffer little and be bold against the enemy. The second 
u in yadurrukum 463 (shall hurt you) is due to the attraction 
of the previous u like that in muddu 464 (stretch out). Ibn 
Kathir, Nafi, Abu c Amr and Ya c qub read yadirJcum from 
dara with the same meaning. 

Verily God comprehends what ye do what ye do in the 
way of patience , fear , etc. Literally , causes His knowledge 


to surround , so that He will recompense you according to 
what you deserve. Others read what they do , i. e. in 
their enmity against you; so that He will punish them 

117. And when thou didst go forth early mention the 
time when 465 . 

from thy family ; from the chamber of ^isha. 

bringing the Believers ; bringing them down to , or arranging 
and preparing for them ; which latter explanation is supported 
by the reading liltmfminina seats for the battle places where 
they should stand 4e6 and stations for it ; the words mafadun 
and maqamun are used loosely for places as in the words 
of the Qur D an in the place of truth (LIV. 55), and before 
thou risest from thy place (xxvn. 39). 

and God had hearing for their words. 

and knowledge; of their intent. It is recorded 467 that 
the Idolaters encamped at Uhud on Wednesday the 12 th of 
Shawwal in the 3 rd year of the Hijra ; and that the Prophet 
called a council of his Companious among whom he sum 
moned Abdallah B. Ubayy 468 , whom he had not summoned 
before. Then he, and most of the Helpers said Abide, 
Prophet of God, in Medina, and go not out unto them; 
for, by Allah, we have never gone out from Medina 
against an enemy but he has defeated us; and no enemy 
has ever entered Medina to attack us , but we have defeated 
him. How much more then when thou art amongst us? 
So let them alone; for if they abide, they shall abide in 
the worst of prisons 469 ; and if they enter Medina , the 
men will fight with them, while the women and children 
pelt them with stones ; and if they go back , they will go 
back disappointed. Others advised a sally 47 . Then 
the Prophet said: I saw in my dream oxen slaughtered 

86 SURA m. 

around me 471 , which I interpret good; and I saw a dint 
in the edge of my sword, which I interpret defeat 472 ; and 
I saw myself, as it were , putting my hand into a coat of 
mail, which I interpret Medina. And if ye see fit to abide 
in Medina and to let them alone, well. Then said 
certain men who had missed Badr , but whom God honoured 
with martyrdom on the day of 3 Uhud c Take us out to our 
enemies ; and they urged him until he went in and put 
on his coat of mail. And when they saw that , they repented 
that they had urged him and said Prophet of God do 
what thou seest fit . Then he said It is not meet for a 
Prophet to put on a coat of mail and then put it off, 
until he have fought . Then he started out after the prayer 
of the Friday 473 , and was in the pass of Uhud on the Saturday 
morning. Then he stationed his force in the side 474 of the 
valley and placed his rear and his camp towards Uhud, 
and straightened the line , giving Abdallah B. Jubair 475 
command of the archers, saying Defend us with your 
arrows, let them not attack us from behind . 

118. When there considered ; dependent on the words had 
hearing and had knowledge ; or, permutative of When 
thou didst go forth . 

two parties of you ; the Banu Salima of El-Khazraj, and 
the Banu Haritha of El-Aus. These occupied the two flanks. 

that they would flag ; that they would be cowardly and 
weak. It is recorded that the Apostle started out with 
about 1000 men, and promised them victory if they 
persevered , but when they reached El-Shaut 476 , Ibn Ubayy 
with 300 deserted, saying Why should we slay ourselves 
and our children ? Then they were followed by c Amr B. 
Hazm the Ansari 477 , who said I adjure you by God and 
Islam to think of your Prophet and yourselves . Then said Ibn 


Ubayy If we knew how to fight we should follow you . Then 
the two tribes 478 thought of following him, hut God restrained 
them , and they went on with the Apostle. Itis clear however 
that it was not an intention 479 , as is shown by what follows. 

and God was their friend ; restrained them from following 
that suggestion. Or the meaning may be but God was 
their helper, so why should they flag ? 

and upon God let the Believers rely; let them rely on 
no other to help them as He did at Badr. 

119. And God did help you at Badr; calling to their 
memory an occasion on which reliance on God had been 
of use to them. Badr is a spring between Mecca and 
Medina which belonged to a man named Badr and was 
called after him. 

when ye were humble ; circumstantial phrase depending on 
you in did help you . He says ^adhillatun 48 rather than 
dhalattu*** to point to the paucity of their numbers together 
with their humility , by which is meant their feeble condition 
and the poverty of their mounts and armour. 

so fear God; in keeping your station. 

perhaps ye may be grateful for the help conferred upon 
you , by showing fear or, perhaps God may be merciful 
to you, so that you will be thankful; and he substitutes 
the gratitude for the benefit , because the latter is the cause 
of the former. 

120. When thou saidst to the Believers temporal clause 
after did help you ; others say, a second permutative of 
when thou wentest forth above; supposing that he said 
it to them on the day of Uhud, but on the conditions of 
persistence and abstinence from disobedience; so that when 
they did not restrain themselves from plundering and 
disobeyed the Prophet, the angels were not sent down. 

88 SUKA m. 

will it not suffice you that your Lord reinforce you with 
3000 of the Angels sent down? rejection of the idea that 
that number would not suffice them. Ian 482 is employed 
to point out that they were like people who despaired of 
help owing to their weakness and paucity, and the strength 
and number of the enemy. It is said that on the day 
of Badr God helped them first with 1000 angels, who 
then became 3000, and afterwards 5000. Ibn c lmir 
read munazzalma, meaning either sent down in numbers , 
or, sent down gradually 483 . 

121. Aye! confirmation of the sentence following Ian (not), 
i. e. Aye truly it will suffice you . Then he promises them 
increase of help on condition of perseverance and obedience, 
in order to encourage them to these courses, and to 
strengthen their hearts, saying: 

if ye persevere and fear and they come to you : the Polytheists. 

at this moment of theirs ; the word faurun (moment) is 
originally infinitive of the verb fara (to boil) applied to a 
pot, and metaphorically used of speed , then applied to 
an occasion about which there is no delay nor lingering. 
The meaning is If they come to you at once. 

your Lord will assist you with 5000 Angels at the moment 
of their coming, without lingering or procrastination. 

marked; from sawwama which signifies to exhibit the 
badge of anything; this interpretation corresponds with the 
saying of the Prophet to his followers Put on your 
badges, for the Angels have put on theirs 484 . Or, 
despatched, from conjugation II in the sense of conjuga 
tion IV. Ibn Kathir, Abu c Amr, Asim and Ya c qub 
read musawwimina 485 . 

122. And God has not decreed this; that you should be 
reinforced by Angels. 


but to encourage you; with tidings of help. 

and that your hearts might thereby be quieted; might 
acquiesce therein from fear. 

and the help comes not except from God ; not from ar 
maments and numbers; signifying that there was no need 
of reinforcements in order to help them; and that God 
reinforced them and promised them reinforcement only in 
order to encourage them and strengthen their hearts, inas 
much as the vulgar look more to the immediate causes ; 
and exhorting them not to care who left them in the lurch. 

the mighty ; who cannot be thwarted in His decisions. 

the wise ; who helps and abandons with or without means ; 
according to the dictates of wisdom and utility. 

that He may cut off some of them that disbelieve; depen 
dent on He helped you 486 above; or, upon the help 
comes not if the article in the help be that of famili 
arity ; 487 the meaning is to lessen their numbers by kil 
ling some and taking others captive; and this was what 
took place on the day of Badr, when of their leaders 488 
70 were killed and 70 taken captive. 

or may abase them ; i. e. make them ashamed : Jcabt means 
violent anger or faint ness falling on the heart. Or is 
here rather specificative 489 than alternative. 

and that they may be turned back disappointed; and that 
they way be routed in despair. 

123. Thou hast nought of the matter ; parenthesis. 

or He may turn again to them or He may punish them; 
connected by the conjunction with may abase them ; 49 
the meaning being that God is controller of their fate, 
and will either destroy them or abase them, or turn again 
to them, if they become Muslims, or punish them, if 
they are obstinate. Thou hast nought of their concern and 

90 SURA in. 

art merely a servant ordered to warn them and to contend 
with them. Or possibly it way be connected with of 
the matter , or with nought , supposing the conjunction 
that to be omitted, so that the sense will be or with 
His turning again towards them or with His punishing 
them ; or, nothing of their concern is thine, neither His 
turning again to them nor His punishing them. Or 
again, aw (or) may have the meaning except that , 491 so 
that the sense will be thou hast nought to do with them, 
unless God turn again to them, so that thou wilt rejoice, 
or punish them , in which case thou wilt be avenged 49S . 
It is recorded that on the day of Uhud c Utbah 493 B. AM 
Waqqas wounded the Prophet in the head and broke his 
side-tooth , so that he began to wipe the blood off his face , 
saying How can people prosper who have dyed their Pro 
phet s face with blood ? Then the text was revealed. 
And it is said m that he thought of cursing them, only 
God restrained him, knowing that there were future be 
lievers among them. 

for they are wrong- doers ; who have merited punishment 
by the wrong which they have done. 

124. And God s is whatsoever is in the heaven and on the 
earth; as His creation and possession; and His is the whole 

He forgives whom He will and punishes whom He will ; 
a plain declaration 495 that the punishment is not obliga 
tory; and to make repentance or non-repentance a condition 
is to contradict this text. 

and God is ready to forgive , merciful ; to His servants. 
Do not therefore curse them hastily. 

125. ye that believe, eat not the Interest times redoubled ; 
i. e. do not increase it over and over again. Possibly the 


specialization 496 is in reference to what actually occurred ; 
inasmuch as a man would lend on interest for a given term , 
and then increase it, until by a small debt he swallowed 
up all the property of the debtor. Ibn Kathir, Ibn c lmir 
and Ya D qub read the participle in the II nd conjugation. 

and fear God; in what He has forbidden you. 

perhaps ye may prosper ; in hope that ye may. 

126. And take heed of the fire which has been prepared 
for the unbelievers; by guarding yourselves against imitating 
them or practising their actions. The verse indicates that 
the fire has been prepared essentially for the unbelievers, 
and per accidens for the transgressors. 497 

and obey God and the Apostle , perhaps ye may find mercy ; 
he appends to the warning a promise, in order to deter 
them from disobedience and encourage them to obedience. The 
words c asay (perchance) and let alia (perhaps) show that the cases 
are rare in which the predicate of these words is realised, 

127. And hasten; hurry and go forward 

towards forgiveness from your Lord; to those courses 
whereby forgiveness is earned, such as resignation, repen 
tance and sincerity. Nafi c and Ibn Amir read hasten 
without the conjunction. 

and towards a Garden whose width is the heavens and the 
earth; i. e. as wide as they. Its width is mentioned in 
order to give by way of comparison a powerful conception 
of its vastness, for the width of a thing is usually less 
than its length. A tradition after Ibn c Abbas makes its 
width like the seven heavens and the seven earths connected 

which is prepared for them that fear ; made ready for 
them. Herein is evidence that the Garden is created 498 and 
is outside this world. 4 " 

92 SURA m. 

128. They who spend ; laudatory epithet of them that 
fear ; or , expression of praise either in the nominative or 

m weal and woe; in times of comfort and of distress; 
or, under all circumstances, since man is always either in 
joy or in distress. The sense is that in no state do they 
fail to expend what they can, whether much or little. 

and who suppress their wrath; who keep it back; who 
refrain from giving it vent while they have the power to 
do so ; from kazama applied to the act of filling a milkskin 
and tying up the mouth. It is recorded that the Prophet 
said: If any man repress his wrath when able to give it 
vent, God will fill his heart with comfort and faith . 

and who forgive people ; who omit to punish those whom 
they have a right to punish. It is recorded that the Pro" 
phet said : These last among my people are few, save those 
whom God assists; but in the nations that are past there 
were many . 

and God loves the welldoers; the article way be generic, 
in which case the classes above mentioned will be included 
in the term; or that of familiarity, in which case the 
reference will be to them. 

129. And those who, when they commit a crime; an action 
of extreme foulness, such as fornication. 

or wrong themselves; by committing a sin, of whatever 
sort it be. Some say the crime is a capital offence, and 
the self-wronging a minor offence. Possibly the crime is 
an act which affects others , and self- wronging an act which 
does not. 

remember God; recollect His warning or His mighty right. 

and ask forgiveness for their sins; by remorse and re 


and who shall forgive sins but God ? interrogation expec 
ting a negative answer, interposed parenthetically between 
the two sentences that are connected by the conjunctions. 
He means to predicate of God width of mercy and com 
prehensive forgiveness, and to encourage people to ask 
His pardon and to promise that their repentance will be 

and are not obstinate in what they do; i. e. do not per 
sist in sins without asking forgiveness; compare the saying 
of the Prophet He is not hardened wo asks forgiveness 
though he repeat the sin seventy times in the day. 

while they know; i. e. do not adhere knowingly to a foul 
course of conduct. 

130. Those their recompense is forgiveness from their Lord, 
and gardens beneath which rivers flow , wherein they abide; 
predicate of those who in verse 129 , if that be regarded 
as subject; or fresh sentence explanatory of the preceding 
if those who etc. be connected by the conjunction with 
those that fear of verse 127, or those who spend of verse 
128. It does not follow 50 from the fact that the Garden 
has been prepared as a recompense for the pious and the 
repentant that the obstinate will not enter it, just as it 
does not follow from the fact that the fire has been pre 
pared as a recompense for the unbelievers that no others 
will enter it. If we make the words predicate of those 
who (v. 129) , the omission of the article before Gardens 
shows that what is prepared for these is less than that 
what has been prepared for those that fear , who are 
described by the epithets mentioned in the preceding 
verse 501 . And it is a sufficient distinction between the two 
parties that he supplements the text dealing with them 
by stating that they do good and earn the love of God 

94 SURA m. 

by observing the ordinances of the Law, and endeavour 
to possess themselves of His favours ; while he supplements 
the text dealing with the latter class by the words 

and blessed are the wages of them that toil ; since he who 
endeavours to make up for his short-comings is like one 
who labours to regain something which he has allowed to 
escape him; and how great is the difference between him 
that does good and him that makes reparation, and between 
the beloved and the hireling! It may be that the substi 
tution of the word wages for recompense is for this 
point; the object of praise 602 is here omitted, the full 
force being are those i. e. forgiveness and the Garden. 

131. There have passed before you dealings 503 ; events 
decreed by God against the peoples that disbelieved; com 
pare xxxiii . 61 and they were utterly slain, the dealing 
of God with them that passed before ; others say na 
tions as in the verse mankind have seen no excellence 
such as yours , nor did they find the like thereof in bygone 
nations (sunan) 3 . 

so march in the earth and see how was the end of the 
unbelievers; that ye may take warning by the vestiges 01 
their destruction which ye shall see. 

132. This a demonstration to mankind and guidance and 
warning to them that fear ; this refers to the words there 
have passed or to the sense of the words and see ; not 
only is it a demonstration to the unbelievers, but conveys 
additional instruction and is a warning to them that fear; 
or, it refers to the above summary of the state of them 
that fear and them that repent, the words There have 
passed etc. being a parenthesis exhorting to faith and 
repentance. Others say this refers to the Qur an. 

133. And faint not neither grieve; consolation to them 


for what had befallen them on the day of Uhud; the 
meaning being Be not discouraged by what has befallen 
you and mourn not over your slain . 

when ye are the uppermost ; the circumstances being such 
that you are more exalted than they in dignity, since 
you are on the side of truth, and fight for God, and your 
slain are in Paradise, whereas they are on the side of 
falsehood, their fighting is for Satan, and their dead are 
in Hell. Or , since you took more of them on the day 01 
Badr than they took of you this day 505 . Or, when you 
are superior to them in the long run; in which case the 
words will be a promise of help and victory to them. 

if ye believe; depending 506 on the prohibition: i. e. faint 
not, if your faith be firm ; since faith necessitates stout 
ness of heart, through reliance on God, Or, dependent 
on ye are the uppermost . 

134. If a sore touch you, a sore like it has already tou 
ched the people; Hamza, El-Kisa 3 ! and Ibn c Ayyash after 
c lsim read jurhun (sore), the rest jarhun; they are opti 
onal forms like du^fun and da fun (weakness) ; others make 
the form with a mean wounds , the form with u the pain 
they cause. The meaning is if they have overcome 
you on the day of Uhud, you overcame them on the day 
of Badr; yet they did not become discouraged or faint 
hearted, and you are still more bound not to flag; for 
you hope to receive from God what they hope not . 
Others make both touchings refer to the day of Uhud, 
since the Muslims were victorious until they disobeyed 
the Prophet s command. 

now those days we alternate among mankind; we change 
them about between them; we give the victory one time 
to these, another to those; as in the verse 507 . One day 

96 SURA in. 

against us to and one day for us; so one day we are 
grieved and one day are made merry . Dawala is in 
sense like awara 508 , you say, using the III nd and VI th 
forms I alternated a thing between them and each got 
his share . Days (el^ayyama) may be either an epi 
thet 509 , or predicate (rendering those are the days ) and 
we alternate them may be either predicate or circum 
stantial phrase. The meaning is times of help and victory . 

and that God may know those who believe; connected by 
the conjunction with an omitted cause; we alternate them 
in order that such-and-such may take place, and in order 
that God may know , suggesting that the cause thereof is 
not one only, and that the advantages which accrue there 
from to the Believers are unknowable. Or, the verb on 
which this final sentence depends may be omitted, to be 
supplied thus; and in order that those who are firm in 
their faith might be distinguished from those who are on 
the margin we have done this\ The import of such phrases 
and their contrary 5I is not God s knowing or nat 
knowing, but the establishment or the contrary of the 
thing already know by God by a demonstrative process, 
Others say the meaning is, that He might know them 
with a knowledge whereon recompense would depend; and 
that is knowledge of a thing when already come to pass. 

and that He might take to himself of you martyrs ; and 
might honour some of you with martyrdom. 5U He means 
the martyrs of Uhud. Or, might take from among you 
witnesses 512 proved true by the steadfastness and endu 
rance of tribulation which they then displayed. 

and God loves not them that do injury: who keep in 
their bosoms the contrary of what they display 5l3 . Or, 
the Unbelievers. The verse notifies that God does not 


really help the Unbelievers, but gives them the victory 
sometimes merely to tempt them and to try the Believers. 

135. And that Go A may prove them that believe; may 
cleanse and purify them from their sins if the event go 
against them. 

and may waste the Unbelievers away may destroy them, 
if the event go against them, mahaqa means to diminish 
a thing little by little. 

136. Or think ye that ye shall enter Paradise? nay, 
think ye? 514 The meaning is think not. 

When God knoweth not those of you who have fought ; i. e. 
when some of you have not yet fought 515 . This shows that 
the command to fight is addressed to the community as a 
whole 516 . The difference between the negatives lamma and lam 
is that the former implies that the action which it denies 
is expected in the future 517 . Some read ya c lama supposing 
that the original form was ya^laman with n elided. 

nor does He know the patient yaclama is in the subjunc 
tive after a suppressed *an (that), the waw (and) according 
to this reading having comitative force 518 . Others read 
ya^lamu (indicative), making the waw circumstantial 519 , the 
sense being Ye have not yet fought being patient . 

137. And formerly ye desired death; i. e. war, which is 
one of the causes of death. Or, the death of martydom. 
The persons addressed are those who were not present at 
Badr, but desired to be present with the Apostle at a 
sacred battle, in order to gain the distinction which the 
heroes of Badr obtained; and so urged him to go out on 
the day of Uhud. 

before ye met it; before ye faced it and learned its terror. 

and now ye have seen it, looking thereon; ye have seen 

it face to face when such of your brethren as were slain 


98 SURA m. 

were slain while you escaped. The verse upbraids them 
with having desired war and brought it on, and then 
having fainted and fled from the field; or, with desiring 
martyrdom; a desire which by implication is a desire for 
the victory of the Unbelievers 52 . 

138. And Muhammad is only an apostle before whom the 
j j. / 

apostles ham passed away ; and he will pass away as they 
have passed by death or murder. 

and if he die or be slain, will ye retrace your steps? 
Disapproval of any apostasy or abandonment of religion 
on their part owing to his passing away by death or 
murder, when they knew how the Apostles had passed 
away before him, but their religion remained an object 01 
adherence. Others 521 make the conjunction causative , and 
the interrogation express disapproval of their making the 
fact that the Apostles before him had passed away a rea 
son for backsliding after his death. It is recorded that 
when Abdallah B. Qamfah the Harithite 522 threw the 
stone at the Prophet, breaking his side- tooth and wounding 
his face, his standard-bearer Mus c ab B. c Umair 523 protected 
the Prophet until slain by Ibn Qamfah; who thinking that 
he had slain the Prophet, said I have killed Mohammed ; 
ome one then shouted aloud Mohammed is slain , and his 
followers took to flight. The Prophet then began to cry 
out servants of Grod , to me , when thirty of his followers 
gathered to him and protected him, until they had rid 
him of the Polytheists; the rest were dispersed, some 
saying would that Ibn Ubayy 624 might get an amnesty 
for us from Abu Sufyan 525 . Some of the Hypocrites said 
Had he been a Prophet, he had not been killed; return 
therefore to your brethren and your religion . Anas B. El- 
Nadr 526 however the uncle of Anas B. Malik 527 said Good 


people, if Mohammed be killed, Mohammed s Lord is 
alive and immortal; and what will ye do with life after 
he is gone? So fight for the cause for which he fought . 
Then he said God, I ask thy pardon for what they 
say, and am innocent thereof. So he set to work with 
his sword and fought till he was killed. Then the text 
was revealed. 

and whoso turns upon his heels shall not hurt God at 
all; by his apostasy, but rather hurts himself. 

and God will reward them that are grateful; for the be 
nefit of Islam by adhering to it, like Anas and those 
like him. 

139. No soul has power to die but by the permission of 
God ; save by His will 528 ; or by His permitting the 
Angel of Death to seize the spirit. The meaning is that 
each soul has a term named in the knowledge and ordi 
nance of Grod; they cannot delay it nor anticipate it by 
one hoar by keeping away from battle or plunging into 
it 529 . The words are meant to encourage and embolden 
them to fight, and promise the Apostle that he shall be 
protected, and his end postponed. 

in writing ; confirmatory infinitive 53 ; the meaning being 
death is written in writing. 

dated; epithet of Jcitaban (writing); meaning fixed for 
a time ; death shall not come before nor after that time. 

and whoso desires the recompense of this world, we shall 
give him thereof ; side glance at those who were occupied 
with the plunder on the day of Uhud; for the Muslims 
on that day attacked the Polytheists and put them to 
flight and commenced plundering; then when the archers 
saw this , they made for the plunder , leaving their 
places ; thereupon the Polytheists , taking advantage of the 

100 SURA in. 

opportunity, attacked them in the rear and routed them. 

and whoso desires the recompense of the next , we shall give 
him thereof ; of its recompense. 

and we shall reward them that are grateful ; those who 
were thankful for Grod s mercy and were not diverted by 
anything from fighting. 

140. And how many ; kaayyin, originally ^ayyun with 
ka prefixed, like what coming to have the meaning of 
Jcam (how many); the in being the tanwin, maintained in 
writing contrary to analogy. Ibn Kathir read kain** 1 the 
account of this form being that the word has undergone 
the permutations to which a single word is liable as when 
you say ra^amli for la c amn, whence it became Jcayy^in; 
then the second y was thrown out for abbreviation, and 
the other y changed into a as in taiyyun 5 ^. 

a prophet ; explanation of Jca ayyin 

have many ribbiyyun fought with ; ribbiyyuna for rabbis ; 
learned and pious men; or, worshippers of their Lord; 
others say companies , making ribbiyyuna relative adjective 
of ribbatun a company , used as an emphatic form of that 
word: 533 Ibn Kathir, Nafi c , Abu c Amr and Ya c qub read 
qutila was slain which may be referred either to ribbiy 
yuna or to the pronoun referring to the Prophet , in which 
case while ribbiyyuna were with him will be a circum- 
stantiar phrase belonging to that pronoun. The former view 
is supported by the reading quttila were massacred . 534 
rabbiyyuna is also read, which would be the original form; 
also rubbiyyuna with u, which would be a change not un 
common in a relative adjective , 535 as would also be the 
case with the form with i. 

and they fainted not for what befell them in the path of 
God; they flagged not, nor was their zeal diminished by 


the death of their prophet and of some of themselves, or 
any such disaster. 

nor did they fail ; to meet the enemy ; or, in their faith. 

nor did they yield; humble themselves hefore the enemy; 
istaJcanu, originally istaJcanu from saJcana (to be quiet); for 
he that bows down is silent before his master, to let him 
do with him what he will; according to this account the 
a has received an irrational lengthening; or, from Jcaun 
(to be), originally istakwanu, because he that humbles him 
self desires that his soul shall belong to him to whom be 
bows down. 536 The verse alludes to what befell them at the 
time of the false rumour of Mohammed s death. 

and God loves those that endure; and accordingly helps 
them and exalts their station. 

141. And no words did they utter save that they said: 

j / 

Our Lord, forgive us our sins and our excess in our conduct 
and establish our feet and help us against the evil-doing folk; 
in spite of their steadfastness and their strength in their 
faith and their being worshippers, their language was 
nothing but this, viz. the ascription of sins and excess to 
themselves by way of self-abasement, and of what befell 
them to the wickedness of their actions; a prayer for for 
giveness thereof; then a request that they might be esta 
blished in their battle-stations, and aided against the foe; 
and that request is put last 537 in order that it may appear 
to proceed from humility and purity and be most likely 
to be answered. He makes the words their speech 
predicate of kana (was) instead of subject, because that 
they said is more definite, since it points out the nature 
of the relation 538 and the time of the occurrence. 

so God gave them the reward of this world, and the fair 
reward of the next world, and God loves them that do well; 

102 SURA m. 

so God gave them, by reason of their imploring forgive 
ness and taking refuge with Him, victory and spoil and 
honour and good name in this world, and Paradise and 
delights in the next world. And the recompense of the 
next world is particularised as fair in order to point to 
its excellence and to the fact that it only is of consequence 
with God. 

142. ye that believe, if ye obey them which disbelieve, 
they will send you back upon your heels , and ye shall be 
turned away losers; revealed with reference to the words 
of the Hypocrites to the Believers during the rout Eeturn 
to your religion and your brethren , and Had Mohammed 
been a Prophet, he had not been slain. Others make the 
meaning If ye humble yourselves before Abu Sufyan and 
his followers and capitulate to them, they will bring you 
back to their religion . Others refer it generally to obeying 
the unbelievers and accepting their decisions; which leads 
to agreement with them. 

143. Nay rather , God is your ally ; your helper. Others 
read the accusative with the force Nay rather obey God, 
your ally . 

and He is the best of helpers; so through Him dispense 
with the alliance of others and their assistance. 

144. We shall cast into the hearts of those that disbelieve 
terror ; referring to the terror cast into their hearts on the 
day of Uhud , so that they left off fighting and retreated 
without cause ; 539 then Abu Sufyan cried out Our rendez 
vous is the fair of Badr for next year, if thou wilt, 
Mohammed and the Prophet answered If God will . 
Others say that when they had retreated, and were half 
way, they repented and bethought them of returning to 
fight the Believers in order to annihilate then, but God 


threw fear into their hearts. Ibn c Amir, El-Kisai and 
Ya c qub read rvfuban (with two ^ s) , the original form 540 
throughout the Qur an. 

because they associated with God beings for whom God had 
not revealed authority ; Gods for whose association with God 
there was no evidence , nor had God revealed any authority. 
The phrase resembles the verse and thou seest not the 
lizard retreat therein 541 The root saltanah means power ; 
hence is derived sallt olive-oil owing to the force with 
which it hums, and salatah sharpness of tongue . 

and their home is the fire , and a bad home is that of the 
wrong-doers ; i. e. their home, The wrong-doers is substituted 
for their to add harshness to the expression, and to sug 
gest the ground of the proposition. 

145. And God has ratified His promise to them; His 
promise of assistance to them on condition of obedience and 
endurance. Now this was so until the archers disobeyed, 
for, when the Polytheists advanced, the archers began to 
shoot them, and the rest to strike them with the sword, 
till they were routed with the Muslims behind them. 

when ye were slaying them by His leave; from hassa , 
meaning to stun the senses. 

until, when ye flagged; when ye became cowardly and 
your counsel failed ; or turned to the spoil , for covetousness 
comes from weakness of intellect. 

and ye strove with one another in the matter ; referring 
to the dispute of the archers, when the Polytheists fled, 
and some said Why stop we here ? but others said Let 
us not disobey the command of the Apostle ; so their 
commander 542 remained in his place with a number under 
ten , and the rest made for the booty, which is the meaning 
of what follows. 

104 SURA m. 

and ye rebelled after He had shown you what ye like ; in the 
way of victory and booty and rout of the enemy. The apodosis 
of *idha (when) is omitted, it should be ye were tried . 543 

146. Among you were those that desired this present world; 
these were they who left their station for the plunder. 

and among you were those that desired the next world ; 
those that kept their places, observing the command of 
the Prophet. 

then he diverted you from them; restrained you from them 
until the tables were turned and they defeated you. 

that He might try you ; by misfortune 544 , and test the 
endurance of your faith therein. 

and He has forgiven you ; out of generosity, and because 
He knew how you repented of your disobedience. 

and God is full of merey for them that believe ; He freely 
bestows His forgiveness upon them. Or, at all times, 
whether the issue be for or against them; since trial* is 
mercy also. 

147. When ye departed ; depending on He diverted you , 
or, that He might try you ; or, on a verb to be supplied 
like Bemember . *afada means to depart or go far into 
the land ; it is used of going from Mecca to Medina. 

and ye turned not to any; no one stood still for any 
other, nor waited for him. 

while the Apostle was calling you; was saying Hither, 
hither, ye servants of God. I am the Apostle of God; he 
that turns against them shall have Paradise . 

in your rear ; the hinder portion and the other company 
of you. 

and He recompensed you with trouble for trouble that ye 
might not grieve over what had escaped you neither over what 
had overtaken you; connected by the conjunction with He 


diverted you , meaning and God rewarded your nagging 
and your disobedience with trouble following upon trouble , 
referring to their vexation at the carnage and the wounds 
they received , the victory of the Idolaters and the rumour 
of the death of the Prophet. Or, and God rewarded you 
with sorrow, owing to the sorrow which you had made the 
Prophet endure by your disobedience to him, that you 
might accustom yourselves to endurance in tribulations, 
and not grieve thereafter over advantages which escaped 
you , nor to harm which befell you. Others say la (not) is 
otiose and that the sense is that ye might grieve over the 
victory and spoil which ye had lost, and over the wounds 
and defeat which had befallen you as a punishment to 
you Others say the pronoun in and he recompensed 
you refers to the Apostle, meaning and he imitated you 
in your grief and was vexed at what had befallen you, 
just as you were grieved at what had befallen him, and 
did not reproach you for your disobedience, in order to 
comfort you , and that you might not mourn over the succour 
which you had lost, and the rout that had befallen you . 

and God is aware of what ye do; is cognizant of your 
acts and what ye intended thereby. 

148. Then He sent down upon you after your grief security, 
slumber ; God sent down upon you such security that slumber 
seized you. It is recorded 545 that Abu Talhah said : Slumber 
overcame us in our stations, so that the sword would fall 
out of a man s hand, and he would pick it up again 
amanafan means security and is in the accusative of the 
direct object 546 , and slumber its permutative, or, perhaps, 
the latter is the direct object, and amanatan* in security 
is a circumstantial phrase referring to it, and placed before 
it 547 ; or, an accusative of the cause, out of security. 

106 SURA m. 

Or, a circumstantial phrase referring to the persons ad 
dressed , and meaning while you were secure ; which will 
also be the meaning if amanatun be regarded as plural of 
aminun like barrun, plural bararatun. Others read y um- 
natan 548 as nomen vicis of umnun. 

overcoming a portion of you i. e. slumber overcame. 
Hamza and El-Kisa D i read the feminine form of the verb 
which they refer to amanatan (security). The portion are 
the true believers. 

and a portion; the Hypocrites. 

whose souls had thrown them into anxiety ; or who had no 
concern save for their lives and the desire to preserve them 549 . 

thinking concerning God other than the truth, thoughts of 
the Ignorant; second descriptive clause of the portion ; or 
circumstantial phrase (while thinking) referring to them; 
or fresh sentence (they thought) explaining what pre 
ceded; other than the truth is an infinitival accusative; 
i. e. they thought concerning God other thoughts than the 
true thoughts which it is proper to think concerning Him. 
Thoughts of the Ignorant , permutative of other than the 
truth , mean such thoughts as belong peculiarly to the 
Ignorant school and its followers. 

saying ; i. e. to the Apostle. The word is permutative 
of thinking . 

Have we anything at all of the matter? Have we any 
portion at all in the succour and the victory which God 
ordained and promised? -- It is said that Ibn Ubayy being 
told of the slaughter of the Banu Khazraj said this , meaning 
we are not allowed to look after ourselves or to dispose 
of our lives according to our discretion; so that nothing 
of the matter remains to us or else will this violence 
cease, so that we shall have something of the matter ? 


say: The whole matter is God s; the real victory is to 
God and His allies ; for the party of God are the victors . 
Or, the decision is His; He does what He will and decides 
as He pleases, and decrees what He chooses. The words 
are parenthetical. Abu Amr and Ya c qub read kulluhu* 
rendering the matter the whole of it is God s . 

hiding in their souls what they divulge not to thee; cir 
cumstantial phrase, referring to the pronoun in saying 
above ; i. e. they say, while ostensibly asking for direction 
and praying for help, but inwardly harbouring disapproval 
and unbelief. 

they say; to themselves; or, when they are alone with 
one another; permutative of hiding , or fresh clause ex 
plaining it. 

Had we had any of the matter ; as Mohammed promised , 
declaring that the whole matter was God s and His friends ; 
or, Had we had any discretion and disposition and had 
not moved , as was the counsel of Ibn Ubayy and others. 

we had not been slain here; we had not been overcome 
and some of us killed on this battlefield 551 . 

Say Had ye been in your houses , those for whom slaughter 
was written would have come forth to their beds ; those for 
whom God had ordained slaughter and written it on the 
Preserved Table would have come forth to the places 
where they were slain, nor would it have availed them 
to stay in Medina nor would one of them have escaped. 
For He ordained the events and disposed them in His original 
plan, and none can reverse His judgment. 

and that God might try what was in your breasts; that 
He might examine what was in your breasts and reveal 
their secrets , i. e. their sincerity 552 or hypocrisy ; it is a 
final clause attached to an omitted verb i. e. and He 

108 SURA ra. 

wrought that . Or, it may be connected by the conjunc 
tion with an omitted clause they would have come forth 
in order that fate might be accomplished, and that God 
might try . Or, it may be connected by the conjunc 
tion with that ye might not grieve . 

and that He might purify what is in your hearts ; reveal it , 
and distinguish it, or purify it from Satan s suggestions. 

and God is cognizant of that which is in the breasts; of 
their hidden things before they are disclosed. The words 
contain a promise and a warning; and a notification that 
God can dispense with experiment, and did this merely 
to practise the Believers and to disclose the character of 
the Hypocrites. 

149. Verily those of you who turned back on the day 
whereon the two companies met, it was only Satan that 
caused them to slip with some of what they had committed; 
he means that in the case of those who fled on the day 
of Uhud, the cause of their fleeing was only that Satan 
desired that they should stumble, so they obeyed him 
and committed sins, in that they disobeyed the Apostle 
in leaving their posts and hasting after booty or life; and 
they forfeited the divine aid and strength of heart. 
Others say Satan s causing them to stumble refers to their 
turning aside which was because of sins they had pre 
viously committed, since each transgression induces ano 
ther. Others say he caused them to slip by reminding 
them of sins they had committed, so that they wished 
not to be slain before they had sincerely repented and 
abandoned evil-doing. 

and God has forgiven them; owing to their repenting 
and asking pardon. 

God is full of forgiveness ; of sins. 


gentle; He does not hasten the punishment of the sinner, 
in order that he may repent. 

150. ye that believe be not like unto them that believed 
not; meaning the Hypocrites. 

and said of their brethren; on account of them and con 
cerning them 553 . The meaning of their brotherhood is their 
union in descent or in religion. 

when they wander about the earth; travel there and go 
far away for merchandise or some other purpose. The na 
tural particle would have been idh (when); since they 
said is in the perfect; however idha is used to throw the 
hearer back into the past 554 . 

or go on forays; ghuzzan foraying , plural of ghazin like 
^uffan plural of *qfin 555 . 

Had they been with us they were not dead neither had 
they been slain; object of qalu they said . This shows that 
their brethren were not the persons addressed. 

that God may make that a sorrow in their hearts; depen 
ding upon they said , if the li (that) be that of conse 
quence 556 , as it is in XXVIII. 7 that it 557 might be an 
enemy and a grief to them . Or, Be not like them in 
uttering these words and in believing this, in order that 
God may make it a sorrow in their hearts only . That 
refers to the belief indicated by their words; or, accor 
ding to others, to the result indicated by the prohibition: 
i. e. Be not like them, so that God may make your 
failing to be like them a pang in their hearts . For their 
being opposed and thwarted is a thing that would grieve 

and God gives life and slays ; refutation of their words. 
It is He who is the operator in the matter of life and 
death, not staying at home, or going out. For at times 

110 SURA in. 

He keeps alive one that travels and goes on expeditions 
and slays some that remain sitting at home. 

and God is watchful over what ye do; a warning to the 
Believers not to imitate the others. Ibn Kathir, Hamza 
and El-Kisa D i read what they do , making it a menace to 
them that disbelieved . 

151. And verily if ye be slain in the path of God or 
die; die in His path. Hamza and El-Kisa 3 l read mittum 
from mata , yamatu 558 . 

there is forgiveness from God and mercy , better than what 
ye amass ; apodosis of the oath, which serves as apodosis 
to the conditional sentence 559 . The meaning is that mar 
ching and campaigning is not a thing that induces death 
or hastens the end; but if that should occur in the path 
of God, then the forgiveness and mercy which ye will 
obtain by death are better than what ye would amass of 
this world and its comforts were ye not to die. Hafs read 
they amass . 

152. And verily if ye die or are slain 56 ; howsoever your 
destruction come about. 

unto God shall ye be gathered; unto the object of your 
worship unto whom ye aspire and for whose face ye have 
given your lives , not unto any other shall ye be gathered , 
without doubt; and He will pay you your recompense and 
increase your reward. Nafi c , Hamza and El-Kisai read 
mittum with Kesra. 

153. And through mercy from God thou hast been gentle 
with them; ma is added for emphasis and to show that his 
leniency with them was only 561 due to mercy from God. - 
The mercy consisted in His calming the Prophet s emotion , 
and aiding the Prophet to be gentle with them so that 
he was even sorry for them after they had disobeyed him. 


and hadst thou been rough; of a cruel disposition and violent. 

hard hearted, they would have dispersed pom around thee; 
and would not have taken refuge with thee. 

so forgive them; so far as concerns thee. 

and ask pardon for them; for that which concerns God. 

and consult them in the matter; in the matter of war, 
since that is the subject of discussion; or, in matters in 
which it is proper that they should he consulted , in order 
to gain the advantage of their advice, and gratify them, 
and establish the practice of deliberation in the nation 563 . 

and when thou determinest ; settest thy heart on any course 
after consultation 563 . 

then rely upon God; to bring thy business about as 
is best for thee; for none but He knows that. Another 
reading 564 is c azamtu in the first person ; i. e. when I have 
determined upon any course for thee and marked it out 
for thee , then rely upon Me and consult no other about it. 

verily God loves them that rely; and helps them and 
guides them to prosperity. 

154. If God help you; as he did on the day of Badr. 
then there is no conqueror of you ; no one can conquer you. 
and if He abandon you ; as he did on the day of Uhud. 
then who is there that will help you thereafter? after His 

desertion; or after God; meaning if ye go beyond Him, 
ye have no helper. The passage is to notify the reason 
which makes reliance necessary, and to encourage to that 
course which will earn God s help , and to deter from that 
course which will bring about His withdrawal of it. 

and upon God let the believers rely; let them rely upon 
Him alone. Knowing that they have no helper but Him, 
and believing on Him. 

155. And it was not for a Prophet to cheat it was not 

112 SURA in. 

proper for a Prophet s office is incompatible with chea 
ting 565 . You say ghalla in the I st or the IV th conjugation 
of any one who takes booty secretly. The intention is 
either to declare the Prophet innocent of that of which he 
was suspected since it is recorded that a red nightgown 
was missed on the day of Badr 566 , and some of the Hy 
pocrites said Perhaps the Prophet of God has taken it , 
or of what the archers thought about him on the day of 
Uhud when they left their stations for the sake of plunder 
saying we fear that the Prophet will say whoso has taken 
anything, it is his, and will not divide the plunder . 
Or else it is an express prohibition to the Prophet, ac 
cording to a story that he sent out exploring parties, 
and after sending them took some plunder which he dis 
tributed to those that remained with him, and not to 
the exploring parties, when the text was revealed. The 
designation of the act of depriving of their share some 
of those who had merited one as cheating will in 
that case be an intentionally harsh phrase, and a second 
mode of strengthening the veto 567 . Naff, Ibn c lmir , 
Hamza, El-Kisa i and Ya c qub read *an yuyhalla in the 
passive, with the meaning It is not proper for a Prophet 
to be found stealing 568 , or to be described by the epithet 
thief 569 . 

and he that steals shall bring what he has stolen on the 
Day of Judgment; he shall come with what he has stolen, 
carrying it upon his neck , as is stated in the tradition 57 ; 
or, with the curse and the sin thereof wherewith he shall 
be loaded. 

then every soul shall be paid what it has committed shall 
be given the recompense of what it has committed com 
plete. It would have corresponded exactly with the pre- 


ceding if he had said Then he shall be paid 571 what he 
has committed ; however he makes the proposition general 
so that it becomes as it were a demonstration of the pro 
position intended; for, if every one who commits is to 
be rewarded according to his work, he that steals, con 
sidering the enormity of his crime, is most likely to be so. 

and they shall not be wronged; the reward of such of 
them as are pious shall not be diminished, nor the pu 
nishment of the evildoers among than increased. 

156. And shall he that follows the favour of God; by 

be as he that returns with anger from God? On account 
of his transgressions. 

and whose house is Gehenna and an evil issue is his; the 
difference between the issue and the return is that the 
issue must necessarily be different from the original state, 
whereas the returning is not so 572 . 

they are stages with God- they are compared to stages, 
owing to the diversity between them in reward and pu 
nishment. Or, they are possessed of stages . 

and God is vigilant over what they do is cognizant of 
their works and the degrees thereof proceeding from them, 
and will recompense them on account of them. 

158. Verily God has been gracious to the Believers; has 
conferred benefits on those of the Prophet s people who 
have believed with him; and they are specialized, not 
withstanding that the benefit of the mission is universal, 573 
because they more than any others profit thereby. Others 
read lamin manni ^llahi (verily of the favour of God) as 
predicate of an omitted subject such as is His favour or 
is His sending . 

since He has sent among them an Apostle of themselves; 


114 SURA in. 

of the same family, 574 or race with, them, an Arab, so 
that they might understand his language easily, and might 
be cognizant of his character for truth and trustworthi 
ness , and boast of him. Some 575 read ^anfasihim of 
the most noble of them , and indeed the Prophet was of 
the noblest tribe and family of Arabia. 

to read to them His signs; the Qur an, after they had 
been ignorant and had never heard revelation. 

and purify them; and cleanse them from the corruption 
of their nature and from their evil beliefs and works. 576 

and teach them the Book and the Wisdom; the Qur an 
and the Sunna. 

and verily they were beforehand in clear error; 3 m (verily) 
is here the abbreviated form of ^inna , and la 577 the dis 
tinguishing particle ; the meaning being and the fact is , 578 
they were before the sending of the Apostle in obvious error . 

159. And when there befell you a loss double whereof ye 

had inflicted, did ye say Whence is this? The interrogation 


is affirmative and reproachful. The and connects the sen 
tence with the story of Uhud which preceded; or with an 
omitted verb like did ye do so and so and say ? And of 
this 579 lamma when which is annexed to there befell you 
is the temporal clause ; i. e. Did ye say , when an afflic 
tion, viz. the loss of 70 men on the day of Uhud, befell 
you, the case being that you had gained twice as much 
on the day of Badr, when you slew 70 and took 70 pri 
soners Whence has this befallen us, when God promised 
us the victory ? 

Say : This is from themselves ; owing to what they them 
selves committed in disobeying the command, and leaving 
their station: for the promise was conditioned by their 
remaining steadfast and obeying ; or , in choosing to go forth 


from Medina ; or , according to Ali (whose face God ennoble) 
by your choosing to take ransoms on the day of Badr. 58 

Verily God has power over everything; so that He is 
able to give succour and withdraw it , to make you victors 
and to defeat you. 

160. And that which befell you on the day when the two 
companies met; the company of Muslims and the company 
of Polytheists; he means the day of Uhud. 

was by the permission of God; took place by His ordi 
nance , or by His leaving the Unbelievers free. This he calls 
permission because the former followed on the latter. 681 

and that He might know the Believers and know them 
which simulated; and that the Believers and the Hypocrites 
might be discriminated , and the faith of the one party and 
the unbelief of the other made clear. 

and it was said to them; i.e. and to whom it was said , 
connected by the conjunction with which simulated , and 
so part of the relative clause; or else a fresh sentence. 

Come, fight in the path of God or defend; option given 
to them and choice between fighting for the next world 
or in defence of their lives and possessions. Others make 
the meaning Fight with the Unbelievers, or else repel 
them by increasing the mass of the fighters ; for multi 
tude is a thing which frightens the enemy and causes him 
to retreat. 

they said: If we knew of a battle, we should follow you; 
/ t/ / j / / 

if we knew of anything worthy to be called a battle we 
should have followed you thither; but what you are en 
gaged in is not a battle , but casting your lives to destruc 
tion. Or, if we were good at fighting we should follow 
you. This they said out of unwillingness to fight, and 
in mockery. 

116 SURA III. 

they were nearer that day to unbelief than to belief ; 58a 
as shown by their desertion and this speech; for these 
were the signs displayed by them which gave evidence of 
their unbelief. Others say they were nearer (kinder) in 
giving aid to the Unbelievers than to the Believers; since 
their desertion and their speech strengthened the Idolaters 
and betrayed the Believers. 

161. They speak with their mouths what is not in their 
hearts; they display the opposite of what they think. 
Their hearts do not correspond with their tongues in faith. 
Speech is attributed to the mouth for emphasis and to 
give a graphic description. 583 

and God knows better what they hide; their hypocrisy 
and what they say in secret to one another. For He knows 
it distinctly by necessary knowledge; whereas you know 
it summarily by outward signs. 

162. Who say; either nominative as permutative of they 
(in they side ), or accusative of reproach, or accusative 
in apposition with them which simulated of verse 160; 
or genitive as permutative of the pronoun in their hearts 
as in the verse In a condition in which had Hatim been 
with the people, he would have stinted the water in spite 
of his goodness , Hatim s . 584 

to their brethren; i. e. on account of their brethren, 
meaning those of their relations or of their race who were 
killed or the day of Uhud. 

when they had sat down; circumstantial phrase with the 
particle qad to be supplied. 585 They said this when they 
had kept aloof from the battle. 

had they obeyed us ; in sitting down in Medina 

they had not been killed; even as we have not been 
killed. Hisham read quttilu (had not been massacred). 


Say Then avert death from yourselves , if ye speak true ; 
i. e. if ye say truly that ye can avert slaughter from those 
for whom it is decreed, then avert death and the causes 
of it from yourselves; for that is fitter for you. The mea 
ning is that sitting down is not sufficient; for the causes 
of death are many; just as fighting may be a cause of 
ruin and sitting still a cause of safety, so the matter may 
be reversed. 

163. And count not those who were slain in the path of 
God, dead; revealed concerning the martyrs of Uhud; 
according to others concerning those of Badr. 586 The per 
son addressed is either the Apostle or each individual. 
Others read and let him not count referring it to the 
Prophet, or to him that thinketh , or to those who were 
slain 587 , in which case the first object, originally the 
subject of a nominal sentence, will have been omitted, as 
it may be , when the context suggests it. 588 Ibn c lmir 
read guttilu (were massacred) owing to the number of those 
that were killed. 

nay alive ; they are alive. Others read the word in the 
accusative after count them . 

with their Lord near Him. 

they are provided ; out of Paradise; confirmation of the 
statement that they are alive. 

164. Rejoicing in what He has given them of His munificence 
the glory of martyrdom, the possession of eternal life, 
nearness to God, and the enjoyment of the pleasures of 

and they congratulate themselves concerning those that have 
not followed them ; concerning their believing brethren who 
have not been slain nor joined them. 

behind them; i. s. that are behind them in time or in rank. 

118 SURA. m. 

that there is no fear for them, neither do they mourn; 
peramtative of concerning those that have not followed 
them . The meaning is that they are gladdened by the 
knowledge that has come to them of the condition of the 
next world and the state of the believers whom they have 
left behind; that knowledge being that when they die, 
or are slain , they are alive with a life which is not clouded 
by the fear of the occurrence of anything which they dislike 
or grief at the loss of what they like. The verse proves 
that man is not the sensible frame 589 , but a substance 
essentially capable of perception, which does not perish 
with the destruction of the body, and whose powers of 
perception and of feeling pain and pleasure are not depen 
dent on the body. 59 This is supported by the words of 
God concerning the people of Pharaoh (XL 49) the fire 
they shall be exposed to it , and the words of the Prophet 591 
recorded by Ibn c Abbas The spirits of the martyrs are 
in the bodies of green birds 593 , which go down to the 
rivers of Paradise and eat of its fruits and nestle under 
lamps suspended under the shadow of the throne . Those 
however who deny this and regard the spirit as a breath 
and an accident say they are alive on the Day of Judgment, 
and are only said to be alive now because of the certainty 
and the vicinity of that day; or, alive in remembrance; 
or, in faith. 59S The words are an exhortation to struggle 
and an encouragement to martyrdom, and an admonition 
to increase in piety, and an encomium 594 on those who 
desire for their brethren benefits similar to those conferred 
upon themselves and a promise to the Believers of success. 

165. They congratulate themselves; repeated for emphasis, 
and in order to append to it what will illustrate the words 
there is no fear for them . 595 It is possible that the first 


congratulation (v. 164) refers to the condition of their 
brethren, the latter to their own condition. 

upon munificence from God; being the recompense of 
their works. 

and bounty ; and an increment thereto; like the words 
(x. 27) c To them that have done good shall there be good 
and an increment . The omission of the article gives the 
sense of magnitude. 596 

and that God wastes not the reward of the Believers; 
part of that whereon they congratulate themselves ; joined by 
the conjunction to bounty . El-Kisa 3 ! read wtfinna (and 
verily; for and that ), making this a new sentence, paren 
thetical 597 , showing that this is a reward to them owing to 
their faith , and indicating that the works of him who has 
no faith are lost and his reward wasted. 598 

166. Who answered God and the Apostle ofter that the 
wounds had befallen them ; description of the Believers; or, 
accusative of praise; or subject (they who answered) of 
which the whole of what follows is predicate. 5 " 

to those of them that do good and fear there is a mighty 
reward of in of them is explanatory 60 . The purpose 
of mentioning these two qualities 601 is to praise them and 
to give the ground of their being rewarded, not to limit; 
for all those who answered were also persons who did 
good and feared. It is recorded 602 that when Abu 
Sufyan and his followers retreated and reached Kauha 603 , 
they repented and thought of returning; this reached the 
Apostle and he called his followers to go out in search 
of Abu Sufyan; and he said None shall go out with us 
unless he was with us in our battle yesterday 604 . Then 
the Apostle went out with a company until they reached 
Hamra-el-asad , eight miles from Medina ; now his followers 

120 SUKA III. 

were smarting from their wounds; nevertheless they bore 
up, in order that they might not lose their reward; and 
God cast terror into the heart of the Polytheists, who 
fled. Then the verse was revealed. 

167. To whom the people said he means the riders who 
met them from Abd Qais; or, Nu c aim B. Mas c ud El- 
3 Ashja c i 605 , of whom people is used loosely , because he 
is one of the class; as you say So-and-so rides horses , 
though he may have only one horse; or because certain 
of the people of Medina joined themselves to him and cir 
culated his words. 

Verily they have gathered a company for you , so beware 
of them; referring to Abu Sufyan and his friends. It 
is recorded that when he went away from Uhud 606 , he 
cried out Mohammed , our rendez-vous is the fair of Badr 
next year, if thou wilt ; the Apostle answered If God will . 
And when the next year came, he went out with the 
people of Mecca, till he alighted at Marra Zahran, where 
God cast terror into his heart and he bethought him of 
going back. And some riders from Abd Qais passed by 
him , making for Medina to get provisions ; and Abu Sufyan 
promised them a camel s burden of raisins if they discou 
raged the Muslims. Others say he met Nu aim B. Mas ud 
who had come to Mecca for the lesser Pilgrimage, and 
asked him to do this; and undertook to give him ten 
camels. Then Nu c aim went out of Mecca and found the 
Muslims making preparations. He said to them When 
they came against you in your houses not one of you 
escaped except some solitary ones; do you intend then to 
go out to them when they have gathered an army against 
you ? Then the people were discouraged; but the Apostle 
said By Him in whose hand is my life I will go out, 


although no-one go with me . Then he went out with 70 
riders, saying God suffices us . 

and it increased their faith ; the pronoun virtually con 
tained in zada (it increased) 607 refers to what they said or 
to the infinitive of said (in to whom the people said ), or to 
the subject of people said if hy people be meant Nu c aim 
B. Mas c ud only; while they in their faith refers to those 
to whom it was said. The meaning is that they did not 
attend to it, nor were discouraged thereby, but on the 
contrary their confidence in God was confirmed, and their 
faith increased; and they displayed the zeal of Islam, and 
remained sincere inspite thereof. This is evidence that faith 
increases and diminishes 608 , which is supported by the 
saying of Ibn Omar, 609 We said Apostle of God, 
does faith increase and diminish ? He said Yes, it in 
creases till it brings its possessor into Paradise and de 
creases till it brings him into Hell . And this is clear, it 
pious acts be reckoned part of the thing called faith, and 
no less so, if they be not so reckoned; for certainty is 
increased by familiarity and frequent reflection and the 
mutual assistance of the evidences. 

and they said God is sufficient for us; God suffices us 
and protects us; from ^ahsaba in the sense of to suffice 
with accusative of the person. That hasbun has in this 
phrase the meaning muhsibun is shown by the fact that it 
does not become defined by being annexed in the phrase 
hadha rajulun liasbuka this is a man sufficient for thee . 61 . 

and a good trustee is He; a good object of confidence is He. 

168. So they returned; from Badr. 6n . 

with a blessing from God; safety and stability and increase 
in faith. 

and an increment; and gain in merchandise; for when 

122 SURA m. 

they came to Badr they found a fair there and they did 
business and gained money. 

no evil having touched them; in the way of wounds; or 
of treachery on the enemy s part. 

and they followed the favour of God; whereon depends 
the acquisition of the best of both worlds, in their daring 
and readiness to go forth. 

and God is of mighty munificence; God was munificent 
to them in confirming and increasing their faith and aiding 
them towards hastening to the fray, and remaining firm in 
their religion and displaying courage against the enemy, 
and preserving them from anything that might hurt them, 
and causing them to acquire worldly gain together with 
assurance of their reward; so that they returned with a 
blessing from God and an increment. The words contain 
a reproach 612 to those that remained behind and show 
the folly of their counsel in forfeiting what the others 

169. Verily that was the Devil; that means the person 
who discouraged them Nu c aim or Abu Sufyan. The 
Devil is predicate to that , what follows being an expla 
nation of his diabolic nature ; or, the Devil is an epithet 613 , 
what follows being predicate. Or it is possible that the 
word that refers to what he said, if we supply a word 
before the Devil i. e. that was the language of the Devil , 
meaning Satan. 

he frightened his friends ; who kept aloof from going 
out with the Apostle of God; or, making you fear his 
friends viz. Abu Sufyan and his followers 614 . 

and fear ye them not; them refers to the second people 
in v. 168 615 , according to the former interpretation; to 
<his friends according to the latter, 


but fear me; fear to disobey my command and fight 
with my Apostle. 

if ye are Believers; for faith requires that the fear of 
God be preferred to the fear of men. 

170. And let not them grieve thee that are quick to dis 
believe ; who fall quickly thereinto , 616 being eager for 
unbelief; these are the Hypocrites who stayed behind, or 
else certain persons who apostatised from Islam: and the 
meaning is be not grieved by the fear that they will harm 
thee and give help against thee ; 617 as is shown by what 

Verily they shall not harm God anything ; they shall not 
harm the friends of God by their hastening into unbe 
lief; they shall only harm themselves thereby, shay^an 
(anything) may be either object 618 or cognate accusative. 
Nafi c read yuhzin for yahzun wherever it occurs except in 
Sura xxi. 103 the great terror shall not grieve them 
where he read yahzunuhum which is the pointing of the 
other readers everywhere. 

God would fain [not] give them a portion in the next 
world; a share of the reward in the next world. This points 
to the long continuance of their disobedience and to their 
dying in unbelief. And the mention of God s will points 
to the fact that their unbelief has reached an extreme 
limit , 619 seeing that the most merciful of the merciful 
desires that they should have no share in His mercy; 
and that their hastening to disbelieve is because God does 
not wish that they should have any share in the next world. 

and for them is terrible punishment; besides their for 
feiting the reward. 

171. Verily they that have purchased unbelief for faith 
shall not harm God at all , and for them is painful punish- 

124 SURA III, 

ment; repetition for the sake of emphasis or in order to 
include all the Unbelievers after specializing the hypocrites 
who stayed behind and those of the Arabs who apostatized. 

172. And reckon not those that disbelieve that our indul 
gence to them is good for their souls ; the person addressed 
is the Apostle or any one who thinks; those that is the 
object of which that our indulgence is permutative. The 
second object of reckon is omitted, because the attention 
is concentrated on the permutative , 62 which serves instead 
of both objects , 621 as in the words of Sura xxv. 46 or 
thinkest thou that most of them hear ? Or , that our 
indulgence may be second object, if we supply a word 
before the second object e. g. such that our indulgence 
to them is good for them , or before the first object e. g. 
think not that the condition of them that disbelieve to be 
that our indulgence is good for them , ma (that) is here 
a substitute for the infinitive and should properly be sepa 
rated from anna (that) in writing; however it happened 
to be connected in c Uthman s copy 632 , which was followed. 
Ibn Kathir, Abu Amr, c lsim, El-Kisa l and Ya c qub 
read yaksibanna (let there not reckon) making those that 
disbelieve its subject and anna (that) with its clause (our 
indulgence to them is good for them) the object. Ibn 3.mir, 
Hamza and c lsim read yahsabu (with a for i) throughout 
the Qur 3 an. ^imlaun (indulgence) means to give time or 
to lengthen life . Others 633 say it means leaving them to 
their affairs 624 , from the use of this verb in the sense ot 
loosening the foot-bands of a horse to let him feed as he will. 

verily we indulge them that they may increase in guilt; 
fresh sentence giving the reason for the preceding proposi 
tion ; ma (after verily ) is restrictive 625 ; that in that 
they may increase is the that of volition 626 , but accor- 


ding to the MuHazils the that of consequence. 627 Some 
read *annama (that) for verily here, and *innama ( verily ) 
for that above, and let there not reckon with the sense 
let not those who disbelieve think that our indulgence to 
them is in order that they may increase in guilt; on the 
contrary it is in order that they may repent and enter 
into faith ; the words Verily our indulgence to them is 
good for their souls being a parenthesis with the mean 
ing Our indulgence to them is good if they cease unbe 
lieving or make up therein for their sins . 

and for them is shameful punishment; according to the 
last reading recorded it is possible that these words are a 
circumstantial phrase connected with they in that they 
may increase , i. e. that they may increase in guilt having 
in preparation for them shameful punishment . 

173. God was not one to leave the Believers in the con 
dition wherein ye are that He might distinguish the base 
from, the good; the persons addressed are the whole number 
of the sincere and the hypocrites in the Prophet s time. 
The meaning is He will not leave you mixed up so that 
the sincere cannot be known from the hypocritical; rather 
He will distinguish the hypocrites from the sincere by 
revelation to His Prophet concerning your characters; or 
by hard ordinances which none save the most sincere and 
pious among you can endure or obey, such as the sacri 
ficing of property and life in the cause of God, that your 
inner feelings may be tried thereby and your convictions 
revealed. Hamza and El-Kisa 3 i read yumayyiza (distinguish) 
in the II nd conjugation here and in Sura vii; the rest read 
yamlza in the I st . 

174. God was not one to reveal unto you the mystery ; 
nay rather God chooses of His Apostles whom He will; God 

126 SUKA m. 

was not one to give one of you knowledge of mysteries, 
so that he should understand what was in their hearts in 
the way of belief and unbelief; on the contrary He chooses 
to be His envoy whom He will, and reveals to him and 
instructs him concerning certain mysteries, or gives him 
signs whence he can infer. 

so believe in God and His Apostles; with the quality of 
sincerity. 628 Or , by knowing that He alone understands 
mysteries, and that they are His chosen servants who 
know only what God teaches them, and speak only what 
He reveals to them. 629 It is recorded that the Unbelievers 
said If Mohammed be veracious let him tell us which of 
us believes and which believes not . There is a tradition 
on the authority of Suddi 63 that the Prophet said My 
people have been paraded before me and I have been shown 
which believes in me and which believes not . Then 
said the Hypocrites He declares that he knows which of 
us believes in him and which believes not. Now we are 
with him and he knows us not . 

and if ye believe ; duly; 

and take heed; of hypocrisy; 

then there is a mighty reward for you; whose amount 
cannot be equalled 631 . 

175. And think not those who stint what God has given 
them of His munificence that it is better for them the va 
riety of reading is the same as above. Those who read 
think not in the second person supply a word before 
those in order that the two objects of the verb think 
may correspond , e. g. think not the avarice of those who 
stint ; so too do those who read think not in the third 
person make the subject the Apostle or Whoever thinks . 
Those who make the relative phrase (those who stint) the 


subject of think not suppose the first object omitted owing 
to its being indicated by the word stint i. e. let not 
them that stint think their stinting good for them . 

nay it; their avarice; 

is bad for them ; inasmuch as it brings punishment upon 

176. They shall have hung round their necks that which 
they stinted on the day of Resurrection; explanation of the 
preceding proposition. The meaning is they shall have 
adhering to them the evil result of their avarice as a 
collar adheres to the neck . The Prophet is recorded to 
have said 632 : Never a man fails to pay alms out of his 
possessions but God puts a serpent round his neck on the 
day of Eesurrection . 

and God s is the inheritance of the heavens and the earth ; 
to God belongs everything in either that can be bequeathed 
from one to another; why then need these stint Him His 
own goods instead of spending them in His way? Or, 
God will inherit from them whatever they retain instead 
of spending it in His path, by their destruction; when 
nothing will remain for them but lamentation and punish 

and God is well acquainted with what they do; in the 
way of retaining and giving. Nan , Ibn c lmir, c lsim, 
yamza and El-Kisa i read with what ye do , apostrophi 
zing them: and this is more emphatic as a threat. 

177. Verily God has heard the language of those that say 
Verily God is poor and we are rich; this was said by the 
Jews when they heard the words (ii.246) Who then will 
lend to God a good loan ? It is recorded that the Prophet 
sent a letter by Abu Bakr to the Jewish tribe Banu 
Qainuqa 3 inviting them to Islam and to maintain prayer 

128 SURA m. 

and to give alms and to lend to God a good loan, when 
Pinhas B. Azura said Then God must be poor if he asks 
us for a loan! 633 . Then Abu Bakr buffeted him saying 
Were it not for the covenant that is between us. I had 
cut off thy head . Then Pinhas complained thereof to 
the Prophet, denying that he had said this, when the 
text was revealed. The meaning is that it is not hidden 
from Him 634 , and that He has prepared punishment for 
them on account of it. 

we shall write down what they said , and how they slew the 
Prophets without justice i. e. We shall write it down in 
the rolls of the recording Angels; or, we shall preserve 
it in our knowledge 635 ; we shall not pass it over ; for it 
was a grave saying, since it involved denial of God, and 
mockery of the Qur an and the Apostles, and for this rea 
son he couples it with slaughter of the Prophets. The 
verse points out that this was not the first crime they 
had committed and that those who ventured to slay the 
Prophets were not unlikely persons to utter words like 
these. Hamza read sayuktabu (there shall be written), wa- 
qatluhum ( and how they slew , in the nominative) and 
wayaqulu (and he shall say) in what follows. 

and we shall say: Taste the punishment of burning ; i. e. and 
we shall be avenged upon them by saying Taste the burning 
punishment . The expression contains many of the figures 
whereby a menace is made emphatic 636 . The word 
dhauy is properly applied to the perception of tastes, and 
loosely to the perception of other sensible things and 
states. It is employed here because their punishment is oc 
casioned by what they said, and that saying sprang from 
avarice and intense love of money, which man chiefly 
needs in order to acquire his food, his avarice being or- 


dinarily due to the fear of wanting food. For this reason 
eating is so often mentioned in connection with wealth 637 . 

178. That; referring to the Punishment. 

is for what their hands wrought beforehand ; in the way 
of killing the Prophets and saying this, and the rest of 
their iniquities. Hands is used for souls because most 
of the actions are done with the hands. 

and God does not ivrong to His servants; connected by 
the conjunction with what their hands wrought 638 . It 
contains a motive for the punishment, because the priva 
tion of injustice involves justice, which necesitates the 
rewarding of the doer of good and the punishment of the 
doer of evil 639 . 

who say; these were Ka c b B. El- D Ashraf, Malik, Huyayy, 
Pinhas and Wabb B. Yehuda. 

Verily God has commanded us; bidden us in the law and 
charged us. 

to believe no Apostle till he briny an offering which the 
fre eats; to believe no Apostle until he work this parti 
cular miracle which the Prophets of the children of Israel 
used to perform. It consisted in an animal being slaugh 
tered, when the Prophet stood and prayed, and the hea 
venly fire came down and ate it up, i. e. reduced it by 
burning to its own nature. This was one of their fabrica 
tions and fictions; for the fact that the fire ate up the 
offering would not necessitate belief except on the ground 
of its being a miracle 64 ; and this and all the other mi 
racles are equal in this respect 641 . 

Say: Apostles have come to you before me with evidences, 
and with what ye say ; why then did ye kill them, if ye 
speaJc true? Eefutation by an argumentum ad hominem, 
showing that the Apostles had come to them before Mo- 


130 SURA III. 

hammed such as Zacharia and Yahya with ottier miracles 
which claimed belief, and with the particular miracle which 
they demanded, and they killed these Apostles; so that 
if it was the working of this particular miracle which 
caused belief, and their hesitating and refusing to believe 
was on account of it, why had they not believed on those 
who had wrought it among other miracles, but had made 
bold to slay them? 

181. And if they disbelieve, well, Apostles have been 
disbelieved before thee who came with evidences and the Psalms 
and the luminous book; consolation to the Prophet for the 
unbelief of his people and of the Jews, zubur (Psalms) is 
the plural of za&ur, meaning a book which is confined to 
wise maxims from zabara to confine . 642 The Book in 
the language of the Qur an means anything that contains 
laws and ordinances, for which reason the Book and the 
Wisdom are mentioned in connexion with one another 
throughout the Qur an. Others say zuburun means 
counsels and reproofs from zabara in the sense of to 
reprove . Ibn Imir read and with the Psalms and 
Hisham read a nd with the Book , 643 the preposition being 
repeated to show that the Psalms and the Book were 
essentially different from the evidences. 

182. Every soul shall taste of death; a promise and a 
warning to the Believer and the Unbeliever. Other readings 
are dhaiqatuni-lmauta with accusative and tan win, or with 
out tanwin as in the verse and not mentioning God save 
a little . 64 * 

and verily ye shall be paid in full your wages; ye shall 
be given the recompense of y^our works be it good or 
bad, complete and full. 

on the Day of Resurrection; on the Day when ye shall 


rise from your graves. The expression paid in full sug 
gests that some part of the wages may be paid before 
that day ; 645 and this is supported by the words of the 
Prophet The grave is one of the gardens of Paradise or 
one of the trenches of Hell . 646 

and whose is rescued from the fire; zahzaha is originally 
a reduplication of zahka which means to pull out quickly . 

and is made to enter the garden, has won; salvation and 
the attainment of his desire. The Prophet is recorded to 
have said Whose desires to be rescued from the Fire, let 
death find him believing in God and in the last day and 
doing unto men what he would they should do unto him . 647 

and the present life; its pleasures and its delusions. 

is but a deceptive ware; he compares it to a ware of 
which the seller conceals the defects from the buyer, 648 
to induce him to buy it. This is addressed to those who 
prefer it to the future life; for to those who seek with 
it the future life it is a profitable ware. 649 ghururin is 
either infinitive (ware of deceiving) or plural of the parti 
ciple active of the deceivers . 65 

183. Verily ye shall be tried; i. e. by Allah G51 ye shall 
be tested. 

in your goods; by being commanded to spend and by 
the disasters which may overtake them. 

and your souls; by the sacred war, slaughter, impri 
sonment, and wounds; and by the dangers, diseases, and 
fatigues to which they are exposed. 

and ye shall hear from them that have been given the 
Book before you and from them that associate, much mischief; 
in the way of ridicule of the Apostle and religious objec 
tions and provocation of the Unbelievers against the Mus 
lims. He prophesies this to them before the event that 

132 SURA III. 

they may accustom themselves to patience and endurance 
and be prepared to meet these things so that their arrival 
will not surprise them. 652 

and if ye hold out; against that. 

and fear; to disobey God. 

verily that; that endurance and fear. 

is of the things that are determined; those things which 
require determination ; 653 or, are things which God has 
determined on, 654 i. e. has commanded and insisted upon. 
asm means originally fixing one s mind upon anything in 
the direction of bringing it to pass. 

184. And when God took; i. e. mention the time when 
God took. 

the covenant of them to whom the Book was given; mean 
ing those that were learned therein. 

Verily ye shall explain it to mankind, not concealing it; 
reproduction of the address made to them. Ibn Kathir, 
Abu Amr, and Asim according to Ibn Ayyash read the 
verbs in the third person, because the persons to whom 
this was said were absent. The la (verily) is that of the apo- 
dosis of the oath for which are substituted the words God 
took the covenant . The pronoun it refers to the Book. 

then they cast it; the covenant. 

behind their backs; and did not observe it, nor attend 
to it. Throwing behind the back is a proverbial expression 
for leaving out of consideration and refusing to attend to. 
The opposite is to make a thing the object of one s eyes . 

and bought therewith; and took instead thereof. 

a little price; of the refuse and the goods of this world. 

and a bad thing they bought; they chose for themselves. 
It is recorded that the Prophet said : 655 Whose hides 
knowledge from his people shall be bridled with a bridle 


of fire ; and that All said God did not command the 
ignorant to learn until he had commanded the learned to 
teach . 

185. Think not those who rejoice in what they have done 
ond love to 6e praised for what they have not done think 
them not in safety from punishment; The person addressed 
is the Apostle. Those who read tahsibunna think ye not 
make the Apostle together with the Believers the persons 
addressed. The first object of think not is those that 
rejoice , the second in safety ; 656 the second think them 
not is for strengthening. 657 The meaning is think not 
them which rejoice in what they have done in the way 
of concealing defects 658 and hiding the truth, and who 
love to be praised for what they have not done in the 
way of keeping the covenant and proclaiming the right, 
and narrating the truth, to be in safety from punishment, 
i. e. enjoying immunity from it. Ibn Kathir and Abu 
c Amr read yahsabanna in the first case and yalisabunna in 
the second, making the relative clause 659 the subject and 
the two objects of the first omitted, as sufficiently indi 
cated by the confirming verb yalisabannahum. 66 It is as 
though he had said Let not those think who rejoice in 
what they have done let them not think themselves 
in safety . Or, the first object may be omitted, and 
the words let them not think them serve to strengthen 
the vert, its subject and its first object. 661 

And for them is painful punishment; owing to their un 
belief and unfair dealing. It is recorded that the Apostle 662 
asked the Jews concerning something in the Law and they 
told him the contrary of what was there; then they as 
sured him that they had told him the truth and rejoiced 
at what they had done. Then the verse was revealed. 

134 SURA III. 

Others 663 say it was revealed concerning certain who stayed 
behind from an expedition, and then excused themselves 
by saying that they saw certain advantages in staying 
behind, and demanded praise on that account. Others say 
it was revealed concerning the Hypocrites who rejoiced in 
their hypocrisy and demanded praise of the Muslims for 
that faith which they did not practise in reality. 

186. And God s is the sovereignty of the heaven and the 
earth; so that he governs their affairs. 

and God is powerful over everything ; so that He is able 
to punish them. Some say this is a refutation of their 
statement verily God is poor. 664 

187. Verily in the creation of the heavens and the earth , 
and in the alternation of the night and the day there are 
signs to them that have hearts; there are clear evidences of 
the existence of their Maker and of His Unity and of the 
perfectness of His knowledge and His power, for those that 
are possessed of intellects cleansed and purified from the 
taints of sense and fancy, as was said in the ii nd Sura. 
And possibly in this verse he limits himself to these three, 
because the ground of ratiocination is change, and these 
three things are exposed to all the forms of change. For 
change may be in the essence of a thing, as is the change 
of night and day; or in a portion of it, like the change 
of the elements by the variation of their forms; or in 
something outside it, like the change of the spheres by 
the variation of their positions. The Prophet is recorded 
to have said woe to him that reads this text and does 
not ponder thereon. 

188. Those who make mention of God standing and sitting 
and on their sides; i. e. make mention of Him constantly 
in all postures, standing, sitting and lying. The Prophet 


is recorded to have said whoso desires to pasture in the 
gardens of Paradise let him mention often the name of 
God. Some say the meaning is who pray in these 
three postures according to their power as the Apostle said 
to Imran B. el-Husain 665 Pray standing; and, if thou 
canst not, then sitting; and if thou canst not, then on 
one side, making signs. The verse is used by El-Shafi i 
to show that a sick man must pray lying on his right 
side, turning the upper part of his body to the Qjblah. 

and ivho ponder over the creation of the heaven and of 
the earth; to gain guidance and admonition. And this is 
the most excellent form of devotion, as the Prophet said, 
there is no form of devotion like meditation , since it 
belongs entirely to the heart 666 and is what was intended 
by the creation. It is recorded that the Prophet said: 
While a man was prostrate on his bed, he raised his head 
and looked towards heaven and the stars and said I bear 
witness that thou hast a lord and a creator; God for 
give me! Then God looked unto him and forgave him. 
And this is clear evidence of the importance of the science 
of the Articles 667 and of the excellence of its professors. 

our Lord, thou hast not created this in vain; meaning 
that they say this; i.e. who ponder, saying so . This 
refers to what they ponder on 668 i. e., to the Creation , 
supposing that to mean the things created, i. e. the hea 
vens and the earth ; 669 or to the heavens and the earth 
the two having the sense of that which is created 67 . 
The meaning is Thou hast not created it as a useless 
sport, without a wise purpose, but on the contrary for 
wise and important purposes, among them that it might 
be a commencement of the existence of mankind, and a 
means of sustaining them, and an evidence that might 

136 SURA III, 

guide them towards knowledge of thee and exhort them 
to obey thee, so that they might gain eternal life and 
everlasting happiness near thee . 

praise be to thee; far from thee be sport and the crea 
tion of vanity ! The words are an apostrophe. 

so save us from the punishment of hell; for failing to 
ponder thereon, and by practising what brings it on. The 
purpose of the fa so is to show that their knowledge of 
the purpose of the creation of the heavens and the earth 
is what urged them to apply for succour. 

189. Our Lord, verily whomsoever thou doest cause to enter 
the fire thou hast made him ashamed; thou hast made him 
utterly ashamed. A similar phrase is Whoever has reached 
the pasture of Daman 671 has reached it 672 . The intention 
is to exhibit the horror of the thing against which they 
implore aid by calling attention to the magnitude of their 
fear, and the earnestness with which they ask for protec 
tion from it. The verse indicates that the spiritual punish 
ment is more disgraceful than the bodily 673 . 

and the wrong-doers have no helpers; he means by them 
those who are caused to enter the fire. The substantive is 
used instead of the pronoun to show that their wrong-doing 
was the cause of their being made to enter the fire and 
of their being cut off from all deliverance therefrom. From 
the fact that there is no help, it does not follow that 
there is no intercession: 674 for help means forcible aid . 

190. Our Lord, verily we have heard a herald summoning 
to belief; he makes the direct object of the verb we have 
heard the author of the sound, 675 omitting the object of 
the thing heard, as being sufficiently indicated by the des 
criptive clause; producing a rhetorical effect which would 
not have been produced by making the thing heard the 


object of the verb. By leaving a herald indefinite and 
objectless, and then limiting it, he enhances his dignity 676 . 
The person meant is the Apostle. Others say the Qur an 677 . 
Words like to call and to invite 678 take for their go 
vernment either Hay or I, because they contain the ideas 
of direction and propriety . 

saving : Believe in your Lord. And we have believed; an is 
either equivalent to that is , or is the an of the masdar 679 . 

And we obeyed. 

191. Our Lord, so forgive us our sins; our capital of 
fences : for they have consequences 68 . 

and cover our ill-deeds; our light offences: which are to 
be disapproved of but are covered in him who avoids 
capital offences. 

and take us to thyself with the innocent; privileged with 
their fellowship and numbered in their company. The words 
call attention to the fact that they love to meet God: and 
if a man loves to meet God, God loves to meet him. 680a 
abrarun is the plural of barnm or barrun like ashabun 
and arbabun. 

192. our Lord, and give us what thou hast promised 
upon thy Apostles; i. e. the reward thou hast promised 
us upon believing thy Apostles. Having expressed his obe 
dience to what he is ordered, he asks for that which has 
been promised him on condition thereof, not out of any 
fear that the promise will be broken, but out of appre 
hension lest he may not be one of those to whom the 
promise is made, owing to some evil consequence or to 
his coming short in his obedience: or else the request 
is made out of devotion and humility. Possibly alay 
depends on a word omitted like what thou hast promised 
us by a revelation sent down upon thy Apostles or set 

138 SURA in. 

upon them . Others say the meaning is by the tongues 
of thy Apostles. 

and make us not ashamed on ike day of Resurrection; 

/ / + 

by protecting us from what will bring that shame about. 
verily ihou wilt not break the appointment, to reward the 
believer and answer him that prays. According to Ibn 
c Abbas the appointment is to raise them after death. 
our Lord is repeated in order to emphasize the sup 
plication and to point out how each request stands by it 
self, and how important each is. In the Sayings of the 
Prophet s Companions we read: 681 if a man be troubled 
by anything, if he say five times Rabbana, (our Lord!) 
God will save him from what he fears . 

193. And their Lord answered them; granting their re 
quest. The X tl1 conjugation is more appropriate than the 
IV th682 . It can take either a direct accusative, or lam. 

that I shall not waste the work of any worker of you; 

by saying that I shall not etc. Others read *inni (verily I) 
supposing istajaba to imply saying. 

male of female; explanation of worker ; 

one of you from the other; since the male comes from 
the female and the female from the male. Or, because both 
are of one stock. Or, because they are so closely connected 
and united 683 . Or, because they are conjoined and agreed 
in religion. It is a parenthetical sentence, showing the 
association of the men with the women in what has been 
promised to the workers. It is recorded 684 that Umm Salama 
said: Apostle of God I hear how God mentions the men 
in connection with the hijrah, but not the women. Then 
the text was revealed. 

194. And those that have abandoned; this and what fol 
lows is a specification of the works of the workers and of 


the reward prepared for them by way of praise and exal 
tation. The meaning* is, now those that have abandoned 
their polytheism or their homes and their associations for 
the sake of religion. 

have been brought out of their houses and have suffered 
m my way; for the sake of their belief in God, 
and on His account. 

and have fought; with the Unbelievers. 

and been slain; in the Holy war. Hamza and El-Kisa D i 
read vice-versa (have been slain and have fought), because 
and does not imply any order in time 685 , and the second 
is better 686 . Or, because the meaning is, that when some 
had been killed, the rest fought, and fainted not. Ibn 
Kathir and Ibn c Amir read quttilu in the II nd conjugation 
of multitude. 

verily I will cover their evil-doings; I will wipe them out. 

and I will cause them to enter gardens, beneath which 
rivers flow, (195) a recompense from God; i. e. I will re 
compense them therewith as a recompense from God, by 
His munificence. Recompense is a confirmatory masdar. 687 

and God with Him is fair recompense; for acts of 
piety; He is able to give it. 

Let there not deceive thee the ease of them that disbelieve 
in the countries; the person addressed is the Prophet, and 
the meaning is, his people; or else the command is in 
tended to maintain the Prophet in the state of mind wherein 
he is, as in the words of God (Ixviii. 8) Do not obey 
them that disbelieve. 688 Or the person addressed is 
each one. The veto according to the sense is directed 
to the person addressed (i. e. thou not the ease art for 
bidden to do something); and it is according to the 
language directed to the ease , in such a way that the 

140 SURA III. 

cause 689 is put in the place of the effect, for the sake of 
forcible expression. The meaning is look not at the 
ease and good fortune which the Unbelievers enjoy; nei 
ther be deceived by their prosperity in their traffic and 
merchandise and agriculture . It is recorded that certain 
of the Believers used to see the Polytheists in ease and 
comfort, and said Truly the enemies of God are in the 
good fortune which we see, whereas we have perished of 
hunger and fatigue : then the verse was revealed. 

a small provision; predicate of an omitted subject : i. e. 
that ease is a small provision, owing to the shortness of 
its duration in comparison with what God has prepared 
for the Believers. The Prophet is recorded to have said : 69 
The present world in comparison with the next is like one 
of you putting his finger in the sea, and let him see how 
much he brings out . 

then their abode is Hell and a bad bed; is that which 
they have made for themselves. 

But for those who have feared their Lord are gardens be- 
neqth which rivers flow, abiding therein^ a guestright from God; 
nuzlun or nuzulun means the food drink and present prepared 
for a guest. Abu 1-Sha r el-Dabbi says : 691 and whensoever the 
champion came to see us with his host, we made the spears 
and the sharp swords his guestright. It is in the accusa 
tive as hail after gardens ; and the prepositional phrase serves 
as regent. 692 Others make nuzlan confirmatory masdar 
supplying into which they are brought a bringing . 693 

and what is from God; owing to its amount and its 

is letter for the innocent; than that in which the guilty 
luxuriate, owing to its small amount, and the quickness 
with which it disappears. 


verily of the people of the Book there are those that 
believe in God; revealed in reference to Abdallah B, Salam 
and his fellows ; others say in reference to forty from Najran, 
and thirty-two of the Abyssinians, and eight of the Greeks 
who had been Christians and became Muslims. Others 
say in reference to D Ashama 694 el-Najashi 695 , when Gabriel 
informed the Prophet of his death, and the Prophet went 
out and prayed over him. Then the Hypocrites said Hark 
at this man praying over a Christian barbarian whom he 
never saw, 696 The I is introduced before the subject of 
inna 697 (verily) only because of its separation from inna 
by the adverbial phrase (of the People of the Book). 

and in what has been revealed to you; the Qur D an. 

and what has been revealed to them; the two Books. 

submitting to God; hal of the subject of believe ; in 
the plural according to the sense. 

who do not buy with the signs of God a small price; as 
those of their Doctors, who alter the text, do. 

199. Those have their reward with God; their peculiar 
reward 698 which has been promised them in the verse 
(xxviii, 54). Those shall be given their reward twice over. 

verily God is quick at reckoning ; owing to His know 
ledge of their deeds, and the recompense which each 
worker deserves; and owing to the fact that He does not 
need to ponder and be cautious. The meaning is that 
the reward promised will quickly reach them, for quickness 
in reckoning induces quickness in recompensing. 

200. ye that believe, endure; the trouble attending 
on acts of piety, and the afflictions which may overtake you. 

and rival in endurance; and outdo the enemies of God 
in endurance of the trials of war; and outdo your worst 
enemy 899 in constancy in disobeying your lusts. This is 

142 SURA TTI. 

specially mentioned after the general command to endure, 
owing to its difficulty. 

and equip; your bodies and your horses at the frontiers, 
watching for attacks; and equip your souls for devotion, 
as the Prophet said: Part of equipment is waiting for 
prayer after prayer . Another saying of the Prophet 
is : Whoso is equipped night and day in the Path of God, 
it is as though he had fasted the month of Ramadan and 
said the nightly prayers 70 , without breaking his fast, and 
without retiring from prayer except for the needs of nature, 

and fear God: perchance ye may prosper; fear Him by 
freeing yourselves of all besides Him, in order that ye 
may attain the final prosperity. Or, take heed of evil- 
doing; perhaps ye may succeed in obtaining the three 
graduated stages, viz. endurance of the toils necessitated 
by devotion; contention with your inclinations by throwing 
off old habits; and having your hearts equipped on the 
side of right, in order to await those divine messages that 
are spoken of as the Law , the Path or the Truth . 

The Prophet is recorded to have said 701 : Whoso reads 
the Sura of the family of c lmran shall be given for each 
verse a safe-conduct over the bridge of Gehenna. Also: 
Whoso reads the Sura in which the family of c lmran is 
mentioned on Friday, God and His angels shall be gracious 
unto him until the Sun goes down. 


1) The vulgate means the reading of all or some of the 
eight canonical readers, whose names are given in the pre 
face. B. on II. 91 states that the word J^_j__^j> is read in 
eight ways, four of them occurring in the .^&*, which he 
then proceeds to explain; the rest being ofj & or exceptio 
nal . The commentator on Musallam El-Thubut p. 313 dis 
approves of the use of the term * g ^ * } for which he says 
-jfjJLo should be employed. Suyuti (ItqUn p. 151) quotes an 
opinion according to which a . ^ g ^ * is a reading handed 
down by a chain of trustworthy persons, but not so well 
attested as a yl^C-c. 

2) The fact that the nunnation is dropped implies that 
these letters are in some sort of pause. B. in his commentary 
on Sura II. 1 (translated in de Sacy s Anthologie Gramma- 
ticale) discusses the views of the early critics on the nature 
and meaning of these letters. The Mohammedans seem una 
nimous in making them part of the original Qur an as de 
livered by Mohammed, a fact which is against the theory 
( now ordinarily accepted , according to Dieterici Worterbuch 
zum Koran) that they are really abbreviations of the names 
of the owners of MSS. 

3) A parallel case to this would be the reading in XV. 
45, 46 uyuninu-dkhiluhu for uyUnin ^udkhiluhtt X_ ^ 

(S. Z, II. p. 154. 

144 NOTES. 

4) p&> is often used in the sense of equivalent to, e. g. 
B. I. p. 506 b^ fX> U^li >yJU, jUj^f Ipulw for the 
two count as one Sara 7 . 

5) ^JuaJ is the technical name for the change of a hamza 
into an elif elwasl etc.; Muf. 658, c ltqan p. 231 sqq. 

6) gf^ i s opposed by the grammarians to ^LX-X-^f the 
beginning 7 and \J* ^ il <the end of a sentence. See e. g. 
Muf. 183. 

7) The numerals in lists lose their final vowels like the 
letter-names of the alphabat, Muf. 321; but in a hasty 
enumeration the hamza of ^ithnnni may be lightened 7 . 

O Cl 

8) The two vowelless consonants meant are * j ; so in 
Sura XLI. 1 which commences ^> we are told that the read 
ing hmmma was due to ^JL/LJi ^LjLxJt. The grammarians 

attribute the final fatha of Q-JJ O^-H e * c - * the desire to 
avoid this concurrence (Muf. 159). F. D. on Sura II. 1 
discusses the question why the fatha is employed in such 
cases, whereas it is not employed (ordinarily) between two 
separate words. 

9) Ibn Ya c ish p. 1317, 1. 14 where there is a pause two 
vowelless consonants may come together; for the pause 
supplies the place of a vowel 7 . 

10) Ibn Ya c ish (p. 1320, 1. 6) makes the two vowelless 
consonants m, I (the first I of *i!i), and this may have been 
the intention of Sibawaihi, who gave this explanation, where 
in he was followed by Zam. in the Muf. ( 623). The 
arguments however of Zam. and B. evidently assume that 
the explanation given above is correct. 

11) The readings given by B. without the names of their 

authorities are usually uncanonical (Shih. ; called i%); the 
person referred to here was c Amr B. c Ubaid. 

12) Various traditions to this effect are quoted in the 
collection of prayers called Hisn Hasm p. 35, 

NOTES. 145 

13) The name whereby if God be asked, He bestows, 
and if He be invoked, He answers Masabih El-Sunnah I. 
109, F. D. I. 63 discusses it at length. 

14) This is obtained from the use of the II nd conjugation 
here and the IV th below. Of. B. on XVI. 101, 102; XVII. 
116. Ibn Hisham Mugkni II. p. 117 (ed. Muhammad El- 
Amir) observes that XXV. 34 is against this distinction. The 
variations of the readers in the punctuation of the word are 
recorded by F. p. 39 1. 6. 

15) Meaning for the sake of justice S. Z. 

16) Equivalent to a participle in the accusative, e. g. 

L*vJU. The remark should have been restricted to the two 
last explanations. 

17) The derivation from ^ 5 would give the sense en 
lightenment . The Cufans regarded |^j as of the form KJLxaj, 
the Basrans as of the form jdc^j , with change of ^ into o. 
The derivation of ^^^ from J^p would refer to the pro 
duction of the Gospel from the Eternal Table. The sugges 
tion that they must be Arabic words is due to the article 
being prefixed to them , which in the case of foreign words 
is irregular. 

18) ^Imalah means the pronunciation of a like the English 
ai or ei. According to Muf. 634 r before a prevents 
Hmalah. The readers followed different theories with regard 
to this process , which are recorded in the ^y*uu of El-Dani. 
As in other cases their pronunciation was based on etymo 
logical grounds, cp. B. on XVII. 72. 

19) That is, a slighter form of ^imalah other names for 
it are ^ ^j, Uukb", JuJtSs (Itqan, p. 216). 

20) Qalun s reading counts as Nafi c s , he and Warsh being 
the two recorders of Nafi c . 

21) I. e. our predecessors in God s favour ; cp. B. on V. 
48, 52; this question -- which in any case refers only to 
enactments not definitely abrogated is discussed in the 


146 NOTES. 

Principles of Jurisprudence ; in Tanqih p. 130 it is stated 
that the Shafi c ites, Malekites, and Hanefites all hold that 
we are so bound; B. in his Minhaj discusses the question 
with regard to the Prophet himself, and supposes that the 
Prophet before his mission was commanded to obey former 
revelations in generalities, not in particulars. The ordinary 
reason assigned for the neglect of Pre-Muhammadan revela 
tion is that the tradition cannot be trusted (Musallam El- 
Thubut). Homiletic writers, e. g. Ghazzali in his ^Ihya-ul- 
c ulum, quote the sacred books frequently enough, but the 
quotations when not apocryphal are inaccurate. The passive 

verb iXou is regularly used in this sense; the active 

may be used of God, e. g. F. M. I. 194, 5. 

22) The number of these is given by Ibn Qutaibah at 
104; other writers are less modest; according to B. on XXII. 
51 it would be 313. The word being regarded as infinitive 
of ^ji takes no plural (Sharb.). 

23) The word is the Syriac purqana redemption as was 
truly seen by Abu l-Qasim (Itqan p. 311) and others; and 
this must have been understood in early times since ^cX-j 
l)WI as applied to the greater Badr must mean Badr of 
Deliverance (not Badr of discrimination as Halabi, II. 189 
interprets it). Mohammed seems here to have regarded it 
as the name of a sacred book, probably misunderstanding 
some Biblical quotation. 

24) Suggested by the enumeration in IV. 161. Moham 
medan writers sometimes speak of the four Books , making 
the Psalms count as the fourth lhija c ulum id-din I. 54 etc.). 

25) This is stated forcibly by B. on XX. 133, who holds 
that the former Books require the Qur D an to confirm them. 

26) F. D. seems to claim this suggestion as his own. 
Shih. states that in some copies the following was added; 

Jls ^ & >> & ,* o^ 


NOTES. 147 

27) The omission of the article is supposed to imply *-Ja*i 
or grandeur . 

28) ffrSJ is the more correct (S. Z.). 

29) The philosophers , i. e. the school of Avicenna, denied 
that God knew particulars, i. e. things which change; for 
with the change in the fact there must come a change in 
God s knowledge. This argument is dealt with in Mawaqif 
p. 593 (4751 Sorensen); see also B. on XXI. 51. 

30) J.AXK Hike a proof (cf. on XI. 100: I. p. 446 1. 12). 
It is usual to insert the article in this case; so jusyo &$ 
5ws=yaK J. With JtfuX&J compare the note on II. 116. 
The J^^b comes after the statement, the j^L\X*wt before. 

31) The argument by which God s wisdom is proved in 
the Kalam is drawn from the fact that the creation is 
Q&CX> , Mawaqif V. 3. 3. The verse is not a proof of it , but 
suggests the argument by which it can be proved. 

32) Giving the article the universalizing sense (^ty&w^il). 

33) See Sprenger III. 488. The Najranites were converted 
to Arian Christianity in the IV th century . Najran is said to 
be 7 days journey from Mecca , in the direction of Yemen , 
containing 37 villages. The embassy consisted of 14 depu 
ties sent to answer the Prophet in reply to an epistle sent 
by him. 

34) The different sects interpreted the words f-^ and 
aul&Xx> differently. With the Shafi c ites a verse is muhkam 
when its sense is clear, i. e. when the reader is convinced 
that a certain sense and no other is intended; mutashabih 
when it is obscure. The Hanefites hold that muhkam is a 
text which has not been superseded, mutashabih one of 
which God reserves the meaning to Himself. The two terms 
with them are the extremes of a system, not a dichotomy. 
B. however in his Commentary frequently uses muhkam in 
the sense of not abrogated ; see VI. 140, VII (heading), 
VIII. 15; and this sense would seem to be supported by 

148 NOTES. 

XXII. 51 \jU aJU! *.& Jd , referring to abrogated texts. 

35) The two causes (Muf. 18) for j-=>\ being diptote 
are 1) its being an adjective, 2) is being altered from one 
form to another; the form from which it is altered however 

is variously given as y>$H i. e. that plural of the super. 
lative which according to Muf. 355 cannot be used without 

the article, and as ^ yf; the fact that the elative Jotil 


is regularly followed by ^ makes the omission of ^ after 


y>f ( 358) a case of alteration. The objection urged by the 
grammarian Abu Ali El-Farisi that if y>f is altered from 
j^^>^ it should have the same meaning as the latter is 
answered in the text. 

36) The Day of judgment. The commentator on Majani 
n-Adab I. 87 would seem to make X-cL-w in this phrase 
plural of jL**, meaning those that shall perish 7 . Moham 
medan writers interpret *Lj5 as Q^- 

37) They were 19; see Sura LXXIV. 30. 

38) This text with the pause at aJUt was quoted by the 
sect called Juyiji who maintained that the Qur 3 an contained 
meaningless matter. 

39) A prayer to be said whenever the reader comes across 
an equivocal text. 

40) A frequently cited tradition ; quoted often in the 
^Ihya-ul^ulum and the F. M. 

41) Viz. the Mu c tazils, such as Zam. B. is following 
Zam. unthinkingly. Another way of avoiding the doctrine 

o _ j 

here implied was to read Lo^JLs j->^ (Zam.). 

42) Name given to the adverbial accusative of place and 

43) So Ibn Hisham, Mughnl I. 74. 3t is said to be a 
noun of time employed as a u?jk, in this case put into 
the genitive after another 

NOTES. 149 

44) The difference of meaning will be that in this case 
we should render after thy guiding us , in the former 
after the time of thy guiding us . S. Z. says <3f loses its 
meaning of vessel by having c\ju annexed to it. 

45) This suggestion seems not to be found in the other 

46) Got from the omission of the object. 

47) Polemic against the Mu tazils. 

48) Suggested by the change from the 2 nd to the 3 nd 
person and the substitution of aJJt for ^. 

49) The phrase more ordinarily used for this is olaxM, 
discussed by Taftazani pp. 199 sqq. According to Qastalani 
on Bukhari I. 142 (first ed.) some objected to the employ 
ment of the phrase olixN with reference to God, as sug 
gesting that God was in space; doubtless this is why B. 
as a rule avoids it, substituting ^LLS ^J^J, ^^-> simply 
(XIV. 19), j^Ltfl o &3\ (XX. 8). Occasionally, however, he 
uses the ordinary term (III. 176). 

50) The Wa c ldites were a Mu c tazilite sect, headed by 
El-Jubbai (on whom see Dugat, Histoire des philosophes 
Arabes p. 141, Steiner, die Mutazilen p. 81). They held 
that God could not pardon evil-doers , and that the punish 
ment with which they are threatened in the Qur 3 an is 
irrevocable. <Axc^ menace was, they said, included in the 
word iAcj and its derivatives. They are referred to by 
B. on II. 5 (p. 20 1. 11); and in 3 Ihya-ul- c ulum IV. 120 we 
read of Abu Sahl El-Zajjaj who was of the vXxcy t J^f. 

51) As in X. 37 J& ^ ( JJu t ^ ^ (Zam). 

52) Giving ,^cl the sense 4 to avert . The whole will 
then be construed <shall not avert from them any part of 
God s vengeance . 

53) It is rather the ^ which in that case is virtually 
in the nominative , as predicate of a suppressed nominal subject. 

54) Since what a person takes trouble over becomes his 
habit . Gl. 

150 NOTES. 

55) The rule being that when the circumstantial phrase 

o - 

is in the perfect, O^i must be either expressed or under 
stood. Muf. 80. 

56) But since the next verse, apparently connected by 
the sense with this , speaks of Badr as past , this is unlikely. 

57) Ibn Ishaq p. 383. Muir p. 328. 

58) Zam. has another tradition according to which the 
Jews, who had waited for a second battle to consider the 
Prophet s claims , found them annulled by the battle of tfliud. 

59) Muir p. 328. A. H. 5. The horrible story is told by 
all the authorities, e. g. Bukhari VI 6 p. 327. 

60) Muir p. 290. A. H. 3. 

61) Muir p. 392. A. H. 7. 

62) I. e. the fulfilment of the prophecy uttered here. 

63) See Muf. 469 and 473. Verbs of praise and blame 
take as their agent a definite noun, followed by the name 
of the person or thing praised or blamed. The latter is 
called O^\ J ^& (joya&Mj and, when there is no doubt 
how it should be supplied, may be omitted. 

64) See Sura X. 46. 

65) Those who read thus referred ye to the Jews , 
rendering the whole Ye saw the unbelievers twice the number 
of the Believers , 

66) Bather they thought them ; ^J being commonly 
used in this sense. 

67) But the specializing accusative an accusative before 
which ^f\ <I mean is to be supplied -- should be definite, 
Muf. 57. Here the epithets which follow might be regarded 
as a sort of definition. 

68) The sense will then be two parties which met together, 
the one believing, the other unbelieving . 

69) As well as a warning . 

70) El-Hasan El-Bisri (ob. A. H. 110) held this view, in 
which he was followed by the Mu c tazils. 

NOTES. 151 

71) Ascribing the beautifying of licit pleasures to God, 
that of illicit pleasures to Satan. El-Jubba D i , one of the most 
eminent of Mu c tazilite writers, flourished 225303 A. H. Jubba 
is a village near Basrah. His full name was Abu Ali Muliam- 
mad B. Abdil-Wahhab. 

72) A theory ascribed to the Prophet. 

73) Of gold. 

74) Of course it is derived through the Aramaic from 

75) A thousand dinars (or, dirhems). - - This figure is 
specially noticed in the books on rhetoric ; J^Ab ^ a thick 
shade being the most familiar example. 

76) ,MU*^ is Hijazi, ..jU^ Tamimi; or, the first is the 

noun, the second the infinitive (Nawahidu l-abkar). 

77) Synonymous with the expression specializing accusative . 

78) To merit forgiveness, if an offence has been com 
mitted; to be ready for it otherwise. The Mu c tazilites held 
that works (olclJa) formed an integral part of faith , a doctrine 
against which this passage is directed, 

79) B. on Sura V. 115 uses the phrase t^JL*J! oUt&o 
more correctly, making the *Ux> a stage of perfection, not 
as here a religious exercise. So S. Z. 1. 682 calls worship 
for duty s sake olcUit J^i. 

80) Abu Hayyan denied that the copula could have 
this force. 

81) A doctrine probably derived from the Greek medicine. 

82) According to F. M. I. 213 the X^ is <one who 
rises and sleeps , and rises and sleeps , and rises and sleeps . 

83) { We gave him Isaac and Jacob as a grandson . 

Abu Hayyan allowed even Lx.5 55 ^Xi J> L->> taking 

with the latter. 
84) The confirmatory hal consists of an adjective signi 
fying a permanent quality of the subject of a nominal 

152 NOTES. 

sentence, confirming the predicate of that sentence; since 
every hal must have as regent (Muf. 75) a verb expressed 
or understood, the grammarians (Muf. 79) supply in this 

case something like J.ct or &Ju3l, or *&>t (so in Jahn s 
ed. of the Muf.; the Lucknow ed. has here 

85) But in that case it should not be indefinite , Muf. 57. 

86) Which admits of this construction as well as of 
another, Muf. 102. 

87) The adjective ought to accompany the substantive, 
Muf. 149. 

88) S. Z. takes it f^JC-jj** v^-^ > which can scarcely 
be right. 

89) Quoted by El-Baihaqi in o U>t ^i& (Nawahidu I- 

90) I. e. the kaldm. Baidawi wrote more than one treatise 
on this subject. 

91) If faith mean belief in the Unity, then the two 
propositions will be identical. This was the opinion of the 
x/c>./o <Murjites , who held that faith 7 consisted in the asser 
tion of this proposition , unaccompanied by works. The chapter 
^U-j in Bukharl s Sahlh is directed against them. 

92) A badal of comprehension is one in which the first 
phrase in some way includes the second, e. g. they ask 
thee concerning the sacred month , fighting in it . - - F. D. 
explains this opinion here as signifying that Belief in the 
Unity is one of the propositions included in the code called 
Islam; but it would seem that the second term is in that 
case more inclusive than the first. 

93) J5 should be followed by ^1 (Muf, 518). It is a 


w f 

common error to write ^ after it. 

94) Geiger in his treatise Was hat Muhammad aus dem 
Judenthum genommen endeavours, but without success, to 

NOTES. 153 

account for this myth, which is repeated by Mohammedan 
writers to this day. B. on IX. 30 acknowledges that the 
Jews repudiate this assertion. 

95) The descendants of the 70 Elders to whom Moses 
at his death committed the Law . S. Z. 

j o __ 

96) 3 o\JLJ would not be allowable for /oj Lit 

Muf. 158; the exceptional case in which a word inter 
venes is not noticed by Zam., but by his commentator Ibn 
Ya c lsh p. 397, 1. 20. Some objected that with either of the 
explanations given the object (c^->5 tt my face is improper. 
Compare the notes on VI. 23 and XIII. 25. 

97) I. e. Q.XI is accusative after 5 . 

98) Similar in respect of the employment of the inter 
rogative for imperative. 

99) According however to Ibn Ya ish (p. 124) Sibawaihi 
did allow <_j after ^! when the Mubtada 3 contained the idea 


of a condition, because the introduction of ^ makes no 


difference in the nature of the proposition, whereas El-Akh- 
fash disallowed it altogether. Perhaps B. was misled by the 
words of the Mufassal. 

100) Taftazani p. 130. Implying that the object has reached 
a pitch of exaltation or degradation which does not admit 
of being defined . Other uses of indefiniteness are ^i5u and 

101) Ibn Ishaq p. 383 gives o Lvo for ^*j. F. has 

102) See Ibn Ishaq p. 393395. The Prophet, being called 
upon to decide the punishment of a Jewish adulterer and 
adulteress in accordance with the law of Moses, said they 
should be stoned. The Jews denied that any such enactment 
existed in the Law of Moses. 

103) S. Z. observes that the pointing of ,JC^3J cannot 
affect this question. Zam. s words are to the effect that 

154 NOTES. 

shows that the dispute is between rival parties among the 
Jews, not between the Jews and Mohammed. B. s words are 
stated by Gl. to be a refutation of this , on the ground that 
the cause of the right party among the Jews was identical 
with that of the Prophet ; it is more probable that they are 
a careless copying of the passage of Zam. Cf. F. D. p. 133. 

104) Shih. observes that it is difficult to see how any 
of the questions raised here were connected with the arti 
cles. Apparently B. has a somewhat confused reminiscence 
of a passage in his own Minhaj Bk II, c. 1, qu. 5. Was 
Mohammed bound by the codes of his predecessors or not, 
after he had been called to the Prophetic office? Most say 
No. Some say he was commanded to draw from them. This 
is shown to be false by the facts that he waited for a re 
velation before deciding, that he did not consult the older 
books, and that we do not consult them. It is answered 
that he did consult them in the case of the stoning. We 
reply, as an argumentum ad hominem. And our opponents 
also quote texts in which the Prophet is commanded to 
follow the steps of older prophets. We reply, in reference 
to the articles and general principles of religion . 

105) Explanation of Jf which here implies distance not 
in time but in thought ; since their turning back would 
not naturally be expected. See Taftazani pp. 424, 5 , where 
several examples of this supposed use are given. Taft. s words 

106) The rule is that a Ml must belong to a definite 
word, unless it precede its subject. There is however a 
difficulty in making the words a hal, since a hal should not 
be a permanent quality but a transient state. S. Z. would 
make it a hal of j? in +%**j- 

107) The oath according to Gl. L. is that in XIX. 72 
<each one of them shall descend thereunto . The interlinear 
gloss inte prets it KJlSJ) j JJu proverbial expression for a 

NOTES. 155 

little . More probably the oath is that mentioned in a tradi 
tion quoted by F. on Sura II. 74 after El-Hasan and Abu 
l- c Aliyah : <The Jews said God swore he would punish us 
40 days ; God therefore will punish us 40 days only in 
order to fulfil His oath . 

108) This tradition is not given in the ordinary works 
on theology. 

109) See Mawdqif (Ind.) p. 711 where the doctrine that 
one capital sin annuls all previous good works is ascribed 
to the bulk of the Mu c tazils and Khawarij. The author of 
the Mawaqif however does not adopt B. s solution , but thinks 
the punishment and reward may be mixed. 

110) A verse however is quoted in which +%\$\ U occurs. 

111) Muf. 506 quotes 

112) The Cufans (El-Farra); see Ibn Ya lsh p. 181 who 
rightly ridicules this view. A form fi$ = a^l is read by 
some in a verse of El-A c sha (Shih. I. 57). 

113) The argument being that by being compounded with 
an interjection it has become an interjection and so could 
not be qualified. 

114) F. D. shows that the Prophetic office is the highest 
degree of sovereignty. 

115) Because the same person cannot cease to be a Prophet, 
if he once become one (F. D.). 

116) Cf. B. on X. 4. 

117) v-of is often used in the sense of reverence . Shih. 
I. p. 49 says that to use aJJiL for aJJi ^^ involves 8*U*i 
( O^t or irreverence . Compare for the present context F. M. 
I. 266. 

118) So Gl. 

119) Not in the authentic works. The books called 
HjxiM of Et-Baihaqi and Abu Nu c aim are quoted for this. 

120) The Battle of the Ditch, called also 
fought A. H. 4. 

156 NOTES. 

121) Salman El-Farisi, the Christian who had suggested 
the entrenchment of Medina; a semi-mythical personage whose 
death is placed variously A. H. 30 , 34 , and 36 , at the age 
of 250 or 350 years. Both the Muhajirs and the Ansar claimed 
him. Halabi II. 407. 

122) Rocky mountains enclosing Medina. 

123) Near Cufa. The resemblance is to be found in their 
whiteness smallness and compactness. 

124) Capital of Yemen. 

125) Medina. 

126) Refers (according to F.) to lengthening the nights etc. 

127) Yet according to El-Shafi c i and *the majority this 
is allowed. See Mawerdi s Constitutiones. 

128) Said to be Bashshar by Sharlshl in his commen 
tary on Hariri I. p. 423, where this verse is quoted. 

129) Infinitive of conjugation I , used with a finite verb of 
VIII; allowable according to Muf. 40. 

130) And therefore takes this construction. 

131) See Preface. 

132) From Zam. The meaning is said to be either let 
thy body be among them , but thy heart in Paradise 7 ; or 
keep a mean between befriending them and opposing them, 
but walk on one side in the matter of assenting to what 
they do . A third suggestion, given by S. Z., is <do not 
avoid their society, but avoid engrossing thyself ((j^^) in 
their business . F. D. here enumerates various limitations 
to the licence given in the text. 

133) There is a difficulty in the syntax in this interpre 
tation. Some doubted whether the subject of a verbal sen 
tence could be a pronoun referring to something annexed 
to a noun governed by the verb; here the whole sentence 
equals O^j ^Lf to y^aj J^ Q^t\>^ f^>, in which the agent 
of L>^> is a pronoun referring to ^^ai which is annexed to 

* , which is governed by <j^j. El-Kisa 3 ! and most of the 

NOTES. 157 

Basrans allowed this construction, and a verse is quoted 
resembling the present text 

J,l^l j^Aa> ^alo LoOl ^ L\.J \ vi^U^o jtf Js_>t 
However El-Farra with El-Akhfash and other Basrans dis 
approved of the construction where the virtual regent was 
annexed to an accusative (Shih). 

134) Compare its supposed omission before <3t ; Itqan p. 344. 

135) With the sense the day on which each soul shall 
find whatever good it did , and whatever evil it did , wishing 
there were 7 , etc. 

136) A careless observation of Zam. after El-Wahidi ; 
where the protasis has the perfect, the apodosis may be 
either indicative or jussive (Muf. 586). Some endeavoured 
to defend Zam. on the ground that the indicative is rare. 

137) I. e. the construction in which U is Mubtada, and 
i^j or cOj Khobar. 

138) Whereas a condition may be fulfilled or not. 

139) On the love of God in Islam see von Kremer s Herr- 
schende Ideen p. 63. B. takes his definition from F. D. ; Zam. 
gives others, called by F. D. those of the Q^Jl&Oo; viz. the 
love of God by His servants is an improper expression for 
their desire to serve Him only , and their liking for that ser 
vice; whereas God s love of His servants signifies His being 
satisfied with them and commending their actions. 

140) Sufic conceptions. Its coming from God represents 
the stage of jUlel&H .Lsa^uJ ; whereas the last , in which 
the object wherein the perfection was supposed to exist has 
perished, while the perfection remains, represents the stage 
of vjyoi! iXs^jJi or ^complete union*. 

141) As by Zam. 

142) In the text. 

143) I. e. to include others besides those who turn back . 

144) See F. D. p. 145. Such a privilege was the extended 
vision whereby Abraham and Mohammed could see all the 
kingdoms of the world; Jacob s power of smell, etc. 

158 NOTES. 

145) The answer is that ^*I(c means the persons con 
temporary with each particular prophet. On this question 
see Mawaqif (Sorensen) pp. 238, 9 : There is no question 
that the Prophets are superior to the Lower Angels; the 
only question is about the Upper. Most of our Colleagues 
(the Ash c arites) and the Shi c ites make the Prophets superior; 
only the Mu c tazils and among our Colleagues Abu Abd- 
allah El-Hulaimi and the Qadi Abu Bakr make the Angels 
"uperior . 

146) Tradition of Muqatil ap. F. Cf. 1 Chron. V. 25. 

147) The genealogy is taken from Matthew with the 
omission of several members and the ingenious insertion of 
c lmran after Matthan. The Gospel makes Matthan father of 
Jacob, and Jacob father of Joseph. The names are grossly 
corrupted in all the copies. In the Calcutta edition of Zam. 
the editor has left space for all but the most familiar names. 

148) I. e. all of one sect. 

149) See on this question Itqdn p. 341. This view is 
ascribed by F. D. to El-Akhfash and El-Mubarrad. Abu 
c Ubaidah held that in such cases $ was otiose. 

150) The genealogy then according to the Muslims is 
Faqudha Matthan 

I I 

Hannah = c lmran 

I _ I 

Maryam D Isha = Zacharia 

I I 

c lsa. Yahya 

According to this (as Gl. observes) Maryam and D Isha (Eli 
zabeth) will be sisters; however as D Isha was married to 
Zacharia at the time of the birth of Maryam , she cannot 
have been the daughter of Hanna, whose long barrenness 
is mentioned here. This then would suggest that D Isha was 
c lmran s daughter by a former wife, which B. signifies by 
u^^LJ; but this is contradicted by the assertion that she 

NOTES. 159 

was Maryam s aunt and Hannah s sister. Another suggestion 
therefore is that Hannah and D Isha were both daughters of 
Faqudha; so that, since the daughter of a sister can losely 
be called sister, Yahya and c lsa may still be called &Jl:> Lot. 

151) This story is told in the Protevangelium Jacobi Mi- 
noris, ed. Thilo p. 180. F. quotes for it El-Kalbi and Ibn 

152) F. D. more clearly ^5 ^lh & xLy*^L\AJ! i^U5 vi*JL. 

153) This statement seems confused. The reasons given 
are reasons for saying Lpjt/i^ instead of \X*/i?j, as will be 
seen by comparing Zam. The phrase *JU jjlc seems to have 
been suggested by F. D. s explanation that God knew the 
sex of the child. 

154) This is often asserted by the grammarians of sub 
stantive and adjective; see e. g. Ibn Ya lsh p. 376. 

155) About its character and fortunes. 

156) Ibn c Abbas. 

157) QU^ of most MSS. (Gl. L.) is surely an error for 
^x**. The commentators make y<*J mean <it is not the 
fact that very unnaturally. 

158) Shih. offers another suggestion iulS- ( a maid-servant . 
B. on II. 81 says i*--^ mean ( a servant in Hebrew , but 
that in Arabic p-jyo applied to women corresponds to ^ 
as applied to men. Mohammedan writers are apt to guess 
in this way at the meaning of foreign names ; so Halabi II. 
p. 12. says X^c (the old name for Friday) meant <mercy ; 
and Qastalani says 01 ^_j means c handsome ; very crude 
observations are made by Shih. (at the commencement of 
vol. 1) about the Syriac language. 

159) From F. D. See on this question B. Sura L 1; 
and F, D. I. p. 60. The Hashwiyyah, Karramiyyah, and 
Ash c arites say the name is the same as the named, but 
different from the naming ; the Mu c tazils say that it is the 
same as the naming, but different from the named. The 
true view according to us is that it differs from both. 

160 NOTES. 

B. (1. c.) says Abu 1-Hasan El-Ash c ari regarded the name 
as a Kft/o or epithet of the named. F. D. in his treatise <on 
the Names of God (Bodleian MS.) discusses this matter 
very fully. 

160) The word is Aethiopic r gum accursed . -- J. van 
Vlooten in Festbundel aan Prof. M. J. de Goeje pp, 3643 
endeavours to show that f*j-N ^UsA**]! is a Pre-Islamic 
phrase, referring to the stones thrown at a snake. 

161) The tradition is given by both Bukhari (VII. 52, 
ed. 6) and Muslim (II. 224). B. therefore rejects the doubt 
which Zam. casts on its authenticity, though he accepts the 
following allegorization of it. A work called +3? quoted 
by Gl. observes that since the child s crying is real , the 
touch must be real too. 

162) The words <by virtue of this invocation 7 are an un 
authorised addition by B. 

163) Examples of j^s meaning the instrument are jyu* 
and O 5 vXJ, names of drugs injected into the nostrils and mouth 

164) See Protevangelium p. 206. 

165) The X th conjugation of J^J> means <to go to meet . 

166) v^-ot applies properly to plants* 

167) The word is Aethiopic mekwrab used in the N. T. 
for the Temple. Frankel, die aramaischen Worter im Ara- 
bischen p. 274. 

168) The Mu c tazils denied the possibility of Karamat, 
see Mawakif (Sorensen) p. 243. The bj^o is distinguished 
from the *~A\^ by 1) ^ccXjl profession of the Prophetic 
office ; 2) ^cXsSJI intention . The suggestion that this was 
Zacharia s miracle was El- JubbaYs , see F. D. p. 151. Zam. 
avoids the subject. 

169) Shih. quotes verses of Suyuti enumerating 11 persons 
who did this. 

170) So Ibn Mas c ud read here. 

171) Muf. 31. 

NOTES. 161 

172) Views of the Basrans and Cufans respectively. 

173) By the word ^ be . 

174) I. e. who are created by a mere word without matter. 
The name -*$> Jt. comes from the answer in the Qur D an 
XVII. 85 ^.jj yof (j- - 5; J5 JJ>. This is the explanation of 
the phrase given by Ibn Arabi in his ^[^^ f^l^ quoted 
in El-yawaqlt wal-jctwahir II. 140 everything that God created 
without intermediaries belongs to the world of command, 
since God said to it Be and it was . El-Ghazzali interpreted 
the phrase ^otM ^L 

175) Surname of a pre-Muhammedan poet Qutbah B. 
Muhsin B. Kharwah. This Kalimah is a poem rhyming in 
c. &J4 is frequently used in this sense by El-Mubarrad in 
his Kamil. 

176) Part of a long tradition given by El-Ghazzali after 
Ibn c Umar in *Ihya el- c ulum IV. 143. 

177) The phrase ; &e ot*5 implies that ys(c is a case of 
li used in the sense of Jyux. So El-Khalil interpreted 

as to ot3 Muf. 312. 

178) That is, corresponds with it in words and meaning. 
The correspondence here , says S. Z., lies in this : the sign 
was only asked for in order that Z. might express his 
gratitude; he is told in answer that his tongue shall be 
tied from expressing anything else. 

179) I. e. of a different class from the xJUo &*A or 

thing excepted from, which here would be UJ> address . 

180) Verse of c Antarah quoted Muf. 74, and explained 
on Margin of Khizanatu 1-Adab II. 174. The person ad 
dressed is oU -.-j BjL^. rr 1 .^ stands for (tdvos (tdvov. The 
syntax of tyJoX^u is difficult; see Ibn Ya lsh p. 233. 

181) Question of the Principles of Jurisprudence. B. s 
Minhaj I. 1. c. 2 4: <A mere command neither implies nor 
excludes repetition of the action . Abu Ishaq El-Isfaraini 


162 NOTES. 

held that it did imply repetition; while others held that 
it necessarily implied that the action should be done once 
only. Musallam El-Thubut p. 259 states that this last was 
the view of the Hanefites, and also of a majority of the 

182) So Zam. after the Mu c tazils. 

183) The (j^LjM (from jja^ the lowest row of stones 

in a wall) is said to be <that which, resembling a miracle, 
precedes the profession of the prophetic office . This is 
given as the opinion of El-Ka c bi among the Mu c tazils. 

184) Shih. denies that this is agreed, since many of the 
ancients as well as El-Subki and Ibn El-Sayyid thought 
otherwise; he rejects the argument from XII. 109 on the 
ground that prophesy is not the same as Apostleship. - 
The power of seeing and hearing the angels is given in 
Mawakif (Ind.) p. 664 as one of the three marks of the 
prophetic gift postulated by the philosophers. The author 
of the Mawakif makes no allusion to the opinion that a 
woman cannot be a prophet. 

185) See Sura XIX, F. D. endeavours to account for 
this miracle being unknown to the Christians. 

186) Got from (^^ go. 

187) See Minhaj el-Talibln Bk II. c. 4. The arkan or 
constituent parts of prayer are variously enumerated at 13, 
14, and 17. The first is the enumeration of the Minhaj 
viz. 1) XjjJi intention ; 2) ^f>^ *j**& > the words ^\ lii 
whereby the worshipper renders unlawful for the time being 
what was lawful for him before; 3) pL-AjUt the upright 
posture ; 4) gslyUI recitation of the SC^ li; 5) gj-*}-M <an 
inclination , of which the smallest amount is that in which 
the palms are on a level with the knees, the most perfect, 
one in which the back and neck are horizontal, the legs 
being erect; 6) jtjLJC-eW Standing at ease ; 7) Ly^\_*Jf 
prostration of which the smallest amount is that in which 

NOTES. 163 

the forehead touches the praying place, whereas neither 
hands nor knees nor soles should do so ; 8) u^Ul sitting 
down ; 9, 10, 11) ^t Jj* ^UJt 5 s^j J^SoJt, the first 
being the name of a prayer which begins aJJt oL^Gf; *Cy& 
meaning the squatting posture adopted when saying it; 12) 
*^L*J} a prayer of which the shortest form is *XJle *X*Jt; 
13) QlOf V^Hy *^ e correct sequence of the different acts. 

188) Against the Mohammedan usage. So the Minhaj 
states that a prayer is invalidated by prostration before 
inclination (Sharb. I. 180). 

189) Question discussed in the Principles of jurisprudence ; 
in B. s Minhaj I. c. 11. qu. 1. Musallam El-Thubut p. 125 
states that the view that ^ implied order was held by El- 
Shaficr himself; it is ascribed by others to Abu Hanifah. 

190) The argument seems to be that if the word (j^^ 
means those that pray it implies that fy^j is the most 
important part of prayer; the statement however is, as S. Z. 
sees, confused. The Imams differed about the relative 
importance of the arkan. El-Shan" ! held that the -Ls was 
more important than the v^U, and the o^^u* than the 
/ ; (Bhih.), 

191) oyLaJ in law is the technical name of a prayer 
that runs as follows: ^^9 ^^ vi^oJ^ ^4-0 


Li^ (Sharb. I. 168). 

192) Only the v_jjJlJt jljwt can take after them a depen 
dent sentence, which may be preceded by j, an interroga 
tive or a negative (Muf. 445). 

193) B. should have written o ^-$-J or ^^JljLS (S. Z.). 
Perhaps the first should be restored. 

194) Otherwise the second could not be permutative of 
the first. 

195) Surname of Abu Bakr, the first Caliph. 

196) He should have said Syriac. 

164 NOTES. 

197) Rather of Esau, it would seem. 

198) F. D. says with pure and blessed oil (cf. Sura XXIV. 
35) wherewith the prophets and they only are anointed . - 
It is curious that Lagarde in his Uebersicht would seem to 
attach some importance to these suggestions. 

199) Whence j^-otJi is used poetry for camels. 

200) The article can be used for ^ty&J i. e. Exhaus 
tion ; and in that case the singular to which it is prefixed 
no longer implies unity. See TaftazanI p. 127, whose words 
are JL* JldJI ^ o ^ ^ oiylj j^x^l ^ 

itffljjf a c b^ u JL> juJfi JJ>JL Ut 
L But this rule only applies to a noun in annexion 
when it is annexed in a way that preserves its genuine 
nature (Taft. p. 129 {Jt ^ <jo|y> or > X-SL^ s^wtot W 
j^aJt Q 5 o) ; B. s explanation is not therefore quite satisfactory. 

201) That is y>. 

202) &ftA> is correct here. Muf. 147. 

203) Cf. El-Fakhri (ed. Ahlwardt) pp. 133135. Examples 
are the poets Ibn c Ai shah and Ibn Mayyadah. 

204) I, e. hal relating to a condition in the future. See 
Mughni II. p. 91 where the divisions of the hal according 
to time are stated, viz. xi.L&o relating to the present, j^X&o 
to the future, *A^ to the past. 

205) v. Supra. 

206) There were various degrees of &ela or power of 
intercession, some of which were supposed to belong to 
Mohammed only. They are enumerated by Nawawi comm. 
on Muslim in the introduction to the section on this subject. 

207) See B. on IV. 156. 

208) Suggestion of Abu Muslim El-Farisi ; otherwise there 
would be no purpose in mentioning when he is grown up . 

209) El-Husain B. El-Fadl according to F. said that bL^ 
meant after his descent . B. would seem to represent this 

NOTES. 165 

210) Zam. calls the reference of the exclamation <my Lord 
to Gabriel an extraordinary interpretation (-y**.aXJI cAj Q-). 

211) There are two difficulties which B. does not very 
clearly distinguish. 1) The construction of ^w ; 2) that of 

^. The first is explained as a hal after a suppressed 
or as connected with the preceding hals by the conjunction; 
the second is explained in the first case as governed by 
the verb oJLvJ meaning <I am sent with the message that ; 
in the second as governed by %^ that word being sup- 
to mean ^announcing . One would fancy that the 

phrase J^siM 8w>^J ^.Lc should only be employed where ^ 

212) It is one of the supposed privileges of Mohammed 
that he was sent to all mankind, whereas the other pro 
phets were sent only to particular peoples. El-yawaqit wal- 
jawahir II. p. 23. 

213) See the Apocryphal Gospels, Thilo p, 279. 

214) Create must not be used of any but God ; hence it 
is explained away. 

215) Shih. interprets (.^JUxJt _.y**U as *one whose eyes 
are not opened, or who has no pupil in them . 

216) And might therefore suggest it. 

217) So that the sense will be *I have come to you to 
show you a sign and to make lawful for you . The v^alac 
of the &! iVxa* to the ao Jyww is improper, 

218) Where the first is a <>J Jyta^o in meaning, though 
it be a hal in expression. Gl. 

219) *l*x^% ^i i^aju (Jffi p^vb vj^JI (Shih.). See 
Lev. III. 17, 

220) See B. s Minhaj Bk II. cc. in, iv. (jo-ua^j is a 
technical term of Law, defined as ^-J^UlJa Uo (jo*j T^T^ 

whereas Q|-XJ is the further explanation of a 
or obscure passage. In c. iv the first discussion is 
with the Jews who rejected the idea of w*o; if God s 

166 NOTES. 

laws pursue men s welfare, they must vary as men s con 
cerns vary; if they do not, we may not ask why they 
change; further Adam married his daughters to his sons, 
and that has since been forbidden. In Musallam El-Thubut 
p. 349 it is shown that between this theory of ^*o i. e. 
that it is an explanation (^O) of the limit of time for 

which a particular command was to be valid and the theory 
according to which it is a revocation of a previous law, 
there is the same difference as that between the main tenets 
of the Ash c arites and the Mu c tazils. 

221) This would rather require Q!, a reading mentioned 
by Zam. 

222) Masablh El-Sunnah I. 4. Answer given to a man 
who asked for a maxim which would render further ques 
tions about Islam unnecessary. 

223) The word .La3l is doubles intended as the etymon 
of the word I^IAOJ Christians , B. on Sura V. 17. -- Joi 
ning his help of me to God s help S. Z. Yet Gl. seems 
right in saying that B must have intended these words to 
be hals of the suffix of the 1 st person in ^Lajl; and in 

that case he has made a slip in giving IxU? as an alter 
native supplement; for that supplement is only possible if 
the word to be supplied be a kal of ^L*oJL Zam. rightly 
distinguishes the two explanations. 

224) This again reproduces inexactly Zam. s paraphrase. 
^jAa-o U5" ,^J 5; ^o Jfl ^ f^ajf QjAjucoj p^Xfl cr- 

225) Another passage in which this usage is supposed 
to occur is IV. 2 ^\y>\ & ^Jyjl I^KlS "$. Cf. Ibn Ya lsh 
p. 1079. 

226) The word is Aethiopic and means messenger . 

227) Shih. states that this in Nabataean was ^jJjP. The 
authorities for the various suggestions are given by F. 

228) Qur an II. 143. 

229) Ibid. 

NOTES. 167 

230) IV. 106. 

231) A figure by which the same word is employed 
twice, though it is appropriate only in one sense. Qastalani 
on Bukhari I. 151 (ed. 1) ^te>\ o yo o ! ^y$ti* iti lti.l 
iPUjw c^l^> o ^ L5y>^U ** b ^ A efc^kaW. The tradition on 
which he makes this obversation is *God will not be weary 
till you are weary . 

232) Gl. renders ^j*^. by vv^ *J yixiu ^. 

233) The Mu c tazils believed that a murdered man did 
not accomplish his full term. B. in taking this explanation 
from Zam. has not observed that this heresy underlies it. 
F. D. for tikx^Xx gives d^ ^Xx>. 

234) After Qur. VI. 60 J^UL jJu^Xi ^JJt ^, which 
is said to mean *X*-yLj causes ye to sleep (El-Siraj). 

235) View of Abu Bakr El-Wasiti (ob. 320; see Sha c rawi s 
jjfft gj>y I. p. 132). It is a Sufic comment; Shih. I. p. 11 
quotes from the ^lot of Ghazzali a saying that the world 
of t*LUt is what appears to the senses, whereas the world 
of OjUt is what God created by His eternal word. 

236) This verse was quoted by **-&#, who held that 
God had a human form. The paraphrase is meant to avoid 

237) Where the pronoun refers to the person addressed 
and to others. 

238) See Muf. 75; the regent of a hal may be a verb 
or a verbal notion (Jots ^^ow); in such a phrase as L\-0 
LJUJaJLx) t^, the verbal notion may be supposed to be 

(Ibn Ya lsh p. 255). 

239) The construction being similar to that in 

such a case is called in Arabic K-Lj.;^ ^JU &Us -*/&! L_x> 
^^aXJi (Muf. 62). 

240) But Jw-ots for Jo*ax> is rare; cf. d^&& thickened 
of honey, for cX&w. 

241) By ^JU the mere bodily frame is meant , otherwise 

168 NOTES. 

242) Compare the explanation given in Muf. 541 of 
Qur. VII. 3. 

243) The Arabic grammarians say ^ necessarily implies 
an interval (&Jlg-JJ) between the two acts it combines, as 
well as sequence between them (v^xjydj). The example given 
of interval in the narration is U ^ ^-Jl ^*x*+o Lo 
v.^^ (j<**t o.**A0, where after ^ we should supply 
then I would inform you* (Mughni I. 107). 

244) The Prophet being unlikely to doubt. 

245) As their persons were already present. 

246) Gl. seems to take these words so. 

247) The word is perhaps used here in the Aethiopic 
sense of to dispute or ^discourse . 

248) Ibn Ishaq p. 401. 

249) Aethiopic c aqabl used for a minister, praefect, or 
bishop. His name is given as Abdul-Maslh. 

250) Christ. 

251) Fleischer s reading yjjl seems wrong for vjJt (Zam.). 

252) F. D. interprets the words p&#* Jas^tyo$ ^persisting in . 

253) His name is given as Abu Harithah. 

254) The Shi c ite argument lies in the identification of 
with Ali. since Fatima, Al-Hasan and El-Husain 

correspond with the others. The question who was the 
best of mankind after the Prophet is discussed in the Kalam ; 
see Mawaqif (Ind.) p. 741 , where it is asserted that in the 
opinion of the Ash c arites and the older Mu c tazils it was 
Abu Bakr; but in that of the Shi c ites and the later Mu c ta- 
zils it was Ali; and this text is quoted. 

255) See Muf. 166. In such a sentence as liA^ ^1 
<S$LL/O j^> j-P the pronoun ^ can only be regarded as 
Mubtada?-, but in one like ^IkJ! ^ \J^\ ^ it is impossible 
to say whether the whole proposition ^LL^ ^ is the Khobar, 
or whether ^IkJI only is Khobar, ^ being the separating 
pronoun which is inserted optionally when the predicate is definite. 

NOTES. 169 

256) This lam is called stJO^I ^ and therefore should 
go with the Mubtada? as it does sometimes when the 
Mubtada? is a proper name or indefinite (Muf. 604). When 

Q! is also prefixed to the MuUada, in order to avoid the 

acervation of particles, j is transferred to the Khobar, 
according to the grammarians (e. g. Ibn Ya lsh pp. 1227, 8); 
the pronoun of separation being nearer the Mubtada than 
the Khobar is, the j is naturally transferred to that when 
it is employed. 

257) fo is the opposite of ~+^o\. In the ordinary 
idiom there is no God would be aJ! ^; the ^Uj (indeeli- 
nability) of JI is here accounted for on the ground that 



this accusative implies the sense of the particle -/O (Ibn 

Ya c ish p. 287, 15). That particle in such a sentence as to 
J*->j ^A 6*L> shows that by J*.-^ is meant the whole 
class of men, not e. g. one man as opposed to a number. 
It is regarded as a form of emphasis to employ the full 
expression for which the ordinary idiom is supposed to be 
a substitute. So too Ishmuni (II. 2) says the sense of uni 
versality requires the employment of (j* expressed or under 

258) The reading ^JsJJ oL*i! appears in all the editions 
(including Sharb.) , except Fl. ; who , however, is clearly wrong 

in reading oLfiXe W for the genitive- 

259) Tirmidhi. 

260) Son of the famous Hatim El-Ta 3 !, whose name is 
proverbial for liberality; a Christian (more accurately, Ra- 
qusian) who afterwards became a Muslim, remained faithful 
during the general apostasy on the death of Mohammed, 
and witnessed most of the famous battles which took place 
during the early conquests of Islam. He is said to have 

170 NOTES. 

died in the year 68 A. H. or thereabouts, aged 120 years (!). 
An interesting account of him is given in Usdu 1-ghabah 
III. 392-3. 

261) The words L^t ^ are not clear. S. Z. says 

making the inversion <our children and ourselves constitute 
the jL^f, which according to the work oLajyu means to 
express a thing in the most forcible manner possible. Perhaps 
we may say that the elaborate enumeration in the verse 
referred to is what constitutes it. Gl. L. seems wrong in 
interpreting it 

262) Ibn Ishaq p. 384. 

263) These numerals are not intended to be precise. 

264) Compare kJulP which exactly corresponds. 

265) The Cufans, who held that every demonstrative 
could be employed as a relative. 

266) See Muf. 661, where Zam. quotesf rom Dhu 1-Rummah 

f ! oolf. 

267) As in is)JLgJ which the grammarians quote for 

268) c Uthman B. Sa ld. 

269) Muhammad B. Abdallah. 

270) Madd in the literature of the Qur D an is a technical 
term for <the prolongation of a letter of prolongation beyond 
its natural length (Itqan 32 p. 226). The natural length 
means the production implied by the presence of a letter 
of prolongation, yais in the same language means leaving 
the letter of prolongation its natural length. The case of 
pj$ [$> would be called J^aaJU , the elif and the hamza before 
which it takes madd being in separate words. Six elifs 
is the highest number at which this madd is computed. 

271) On this word see Sprenger I. 67 sqq. According to 
him the word which in Syriac means heathen was origi- 

NOTES. 171 

nally a term of opprobrium applied to a sect which pro 
fessed to follow Abraham, afterwards adopted by that sect 
and explained in some such way as it is explained here. 
Some such account may be correct; it did not satisfy A. 
Geiger, but seems to have satisfied Dozy. The word ^JuJL> 
seems to have been used as a proper name in pre-Moham- 
medan times. It might seem that the final \ of UxJL>, the 
form in which it appears throughout the Qur D an, is the 
Aramaic emphatic state . 

272) To call him a Muslim would involve the same ana 
chronism as calling him a Christian. 

273) Vernier makes ^ a comparative without a corres 
ponding positive. 

274) I. e. in his own time to distinguish those that 
followed from those that believe . Sprenger argues that this 
must mean the Hanefites mentioned above. 

275) ^y &oto ^Jlc ^ Gl. The consensus of the two 
codes does not make one a copy of the other. Shih. For 
xJLot originality omitted by Freytag, see B. on Sura V. 60; 
VII. 31. It is regularly used in antithesis to .xj. 

276) Hudhaifah B. El-Yaman , afterwards governor of El- 
Madain ob. 36 A. H. 

277) Muf. 592. 

278) au*j is referred by Gl. to the Qur 3 an; it is more 
natural to refer it to the Prophet, 

279) The Prophet s words were ^^ -k*j J U y^^JUt 
j)) t^V* ^ woman sa id to the Prophet: my husband says 
he has given me what he has not given me. The Prophet 
answered : He who boasts of what he has not given is like 
one who puts on two garments of falsehood . Two garments 
are supposed to be the minimum of clothing. Farazdaq said 
t^bj ^tXJy JcSxU, y> W . Of. Tirmidhi p. 338. 

280) Containe^ in the sacred books. El-Halabi II. p. 173 
quotes from the Taurat in the description of the Prophet 
the phrase (^yJUiS) 3 <3 the man that shall turn to two Qiblahs . 

172 NOTES. 

281) After the battle of Badr this man said It were 
better for us to be under the earth (Halabi II. 240). Bukhari 
(ed. 6 VI. 283) relates how he was assassinated (by Moham 
med s orders) by Muhammad B. Maslamah. 

282) Changed in the second year A. H., though autho 
rities differ as to the month. The traditions are collected 
by Halabi II. 170. 

283) I. e. Jerusalem. 

284) Q^f is interpreted in this way in order to account 
for the construction with j. Others maintained that the verb 
means *to believe as usual, and that the construction with 
j was possible. 

285) In which case we should construe the guidance, 
God s guidance is that one should have given him*. 

286) This interpretation of J also applies to the fourth 
suggestion (Gl. after Zam.). <To contend with you before 
your Lord is supposed to mean in any case <to get the 
better of you . The sentence is harsh and difficult. 

287) His original name was El-Hasin, but on his con 
version to Islam he was called Abdallah by the Prophet. 
He took some part in defending the Caliph c Uthman against 
his assassins, and died in the year 43. (Usdu l-ghabaty. 

288) Different values assigned to the Uqiyah are 7 mithqal, 
40 dirhems, 10? dirhems. 

289) ^bLx^t means LJI ^ s^&L \Jutf\ employing the 
kesra without the y. The ground for dropping the vowel 
was that the h being in the place of the third radical , 
is treated as if it were the third radical. 

290) See Preface. 

291) After Sald B. Jubair; but on a weak sanad. 

292) I. e. superseded. 

293) &J is said to be HijazI, 5 Najdl. 

294) \JJf is therefore objective genitive. 

295) These explanations are required because it is stated 
elsewhere that God will question them on the Day of Judgment. 

NOTES. 173 

296) AD account of the aLj.LJLT is given by Taftazani 
p. 651 sqq. It is defined as employment of an expression 
which is to signify something necessarily connected with 
the meaning of that expression, without excluding its actual 
meaning 1 . It is in this latter point that it differs from the 
jL^o or metaphor. 

297) Their names are given as Abu Rafi c , Lubabah B. 
Abi 1-Huqaiq, and Huyyayy B. Akhtab. 

298) Halabi II. 157 give the alteration as follows: the 
description of the prophet in the Torah was 

299) Bukhari ed. 6. VII. 54. 

300) The tradition has (J -Lci and Ja*j , which most read 
in the passive, meaning he had been offered for them . 
The varieties are quoted by Qastalani 1. 1. 

301) Bukhari 1.1. 

302) A Kandite who visited the Prophet in the year 10 
with other Kandites who became Muslims , and married Abu 
Bakr s sister, but apostatised after the Prophet s death; lost 
an eye at the battle of Yarmuk; was made prefect of 
Adherbijan by c Uthman; died A. H. 42. (Usdu l-gkabah). 

303) You can say JJ&ilS ^-^>^ .*- *J^5 he diverted it 
from the right sense , i. e. distorted the meaning with VII th 
for passive. According to this ujLX-XJb will stand for <in 
reading the Book Gl. Shih. suggests after El-Qaffa that 
in reading they gave the consonants wrong points so as to 
alter the meaning. 

304) According to this the word omitted will be ***& 
the like rather than a^.s . You can say j-*/o xJLwJ ^^ 
he involved his tongue in a poem of a man who reads it 
carefully. The explanation of Ibn c Abbas ap. Zam. was that 
they inserted their own language, i. e. some composition 
of their own 

305) The most familiar example of this is ^>l for 

174 NOTES. 

306) As the Mu c tazils (El-Jubba D l and El-Ka^) argued 
from this passage , maintaining that the works of men were 
their own and not the works of God. The answer given 
here is that AXc ^ means revelation, and that what is 
denied is the particular mode of origination, not origination 

307) According to Zam. <the sunna . According to S. Z. 
power to understand the scriptures. 

308) Point jyb ofter ^ above. 

309) From &.xi and x*J^ meaning having a long beard 
and having a long neck 7 . For similar formations see Ver 
nier s grammar. 

310) So Sa ld B. Jubair. F. quotes a tradition in which 
the fact that this word must stand for the Hebrew rabbdn 
is indicated. - What the Prophet meant by it here is not 
clear; the Arabs supposed it to mean something like Theo 
logian , and hence Muhammad B. El-Hanafiyya on the death 
of Ibn c Abbas said the Rabbani of this people is gone. Of. 
Bukhari I. p. 192 (ed. 1). 

311) Zam. invents a sentence to illustrate this construction 

312) So that 3 may be taken as * j|$, or the and 
after which the subjunctive is required, 

313) So Gl. &**a3 H^Lc ^ j,ot. If this be really the 
meaning, it is expressed rather awkwardly. More naturally 
we should understand that taking for lords was milder 
than worshipping; but the two seem identical. Perhaps we 
should read au oUc. 

314) When the imperfect is negatived and employed as 
a hal, the waw may be optionally prefixed to it (Tafta- 
zanl p. 467). 

315) Not in Zam., F. D., or F. The Lucknow ed. has 
another reading Q^J^ y^Lx^it ^ *Lot. The principle 
in question is stated by El-DanI in his ~y*J , note on II. 

NOTES. 175 

51, A^J^IJ. In the case of this word, (*-^yWj pj*&& and 
some others, Abu c Amr read yamuru-kum etc. according 
to one tradition, according to the other yamurkum etc. 
The IM}^* of the Lucknow ed. refers to this other tradition. 

316) See Muf. 601. 

317) Not quite accurate; the rule being that where an 
oath precedes the condition, the apodosis of the conditional 
sentence is omitted, the apodosis of the oath standing in 
stead. See Ibn Ya c lsh p. 1224. The effect appears in the 


mood which the apodosis takes e. g. y^>j&. t L>y>! Q*^, 

o)i o y 

as opposed to *3t &J)!^ *S3 ...I . 


318) The more accurate phrase would have been ^relative 7 . 
The passage is discussed at great length by F. D. pp. 199, 
200. The question whether it could be relative was decided 
in the affirmative by El-Akhfash , who thought the >\& (here 

Lx>) could be substituted for the OA (which here 

would be sJ) in the ^sLc (sentence beginning 
in the negative by Sibawaihi, who denied this. 

319) Reading of Sald B. Jubair. This reading will in the 
end make It causative, as in the former case. 

320) j*. means a powerful camel. 

321) View of the nature of the case generally taken by 
Sibawaihi and adopted by Zam. (Mughni I. 14). 

322) Its rhetorical purpose is j$\XJb (jaxjka^XJI special 
mention . See the use of f-j^XJLj analysed by Taftazani 
pp. 154, 5. 

323) Over the Israelites at the giving of the Law. Qur 3 an 
VII. 170. 

324) The case of Pharaoh, Qur an II. 47. 

325) View of El-Hasan. This interpretation differs from 
the last in giving j^LJ the sense of *XM*J or yielding , 
whereas the former gives it the sense of ^believing . 

176 NOTES. 

326) The other editions have 
?- 3^7) To account for the discrepancy in number between 

JJj and U*t . 

328) Some supposed that ^& was the proper preposition 
when the revelation was made to the Prophet, ^ when 
communicated by him to others, Zam. shows that the usage 
of the Qur D an is against ah?y such distinction. 

329) Distinctions of rank are admitted. 

330) Deriving ^MJ^M-wo from &obU* perfection . 

331) See supra n. 91. This particular passage is discussed in 
relation to this problem in Mawakif (Ind.) p. 720. 

332) Whereas faith cannot properly have any such re 
ference. Mawaqif 1. c. , Also means as well as Islam . Unless 
faith be treated as a religion this passage proves nothing; 
but to make it a religion is to beg the question. The words 
of the Mawaqif are : 

333) Whereas all are agreed that it can be accepted. 

334) The parallel is not a close one. In that passage 

^J , ^t is supposed to be in the jussive 
because had o been omitted ^A-ot would have been in 
that mood (Muf. 426). 

335) Muf. 80. The employment of 5 in this case is 
optional, Ibn Ya^sh p. 247, 19, Taftazani p. 468. 

336) In the first case because tyA^fc will be attached by 
the conjunction to I^-A-*!, and the things coupled by the 
conjunction must necessarily be different; in the second be 
cause if it be equivalent to ^Uj its addition as a hal will 
be useless (Gl.). - - The Karramites identified the two; see 
B. I. p, 15 ad fin, Mawaqif ut supra. 

NOTES. 177 

337) This is got from the position of ^Jlc which implies 
(restriction 7 , Taftazani pp. 154, 5. 

338) The Apostates. 

339) I. e. he curses the Unbelievers generally not indi 

340) Nothing is told of this person in Usdu l-ghabah 
besides this story. 

341) Also a doubtful follower who is said to have dis 
couraged the Muslims at Tabbuk, but was afterwards for 
given by the Prophet (Ibid.). 

342) Qur an LII. 30. 

343) This is apparently in contradiction of the words save 
those that repent immediately preceding. 

344) Making the phrase a aC-jUtf" or oblique expression. 

345) The s_s would connect the protasis with the apodosis 
causatively. The case is that described in the Mughni I. 
141 in which o connects v!*-^- *-**" or a quasi-apodosis 
with J^&J5 mub or a quasi-protasis. The Mughni proceeds: 
By the introduction of this o we learn that the speaker 
intends to make the second sentence dependent on the first, 
whereas, were it omitted, this would not be evident. 

346) Since all Unbelievers are in error. 

347) Muf. 84. 

348) In this case the badal should have an adjective. S. Z. 

349) The difficulty here lies in the 3 . <Even though 
implies some easier condition preceding: e. g. <a ransom 
shall not be received, even though it were the whole earth . 
In the first of the following explanations the words an 
earthful of gold are taken to metaphorically represent any 
sum in the apodosis, and literally in the protasis. 

350) The locus classicus for this supposed usage is jj^-J 
^ &&y, discussed by Taftazani p. 649 sqq. 

351) Both the singular and the plural are allowed in 
this case. 


178 NOTES. 

352) The article in the former case is y^JL^vU, in the 
latter J^xJJ. 

353) His name was Zayd B. Sahl El-Ansari; he saved 
the Prophet on the day of Uhud. The date of his death is 
uncertain. The following story is told by Bukhari VII. 59, 
ed. 6; also III. 50. 

354) Name of a garden or park in Medina. The word 
was pronounced according to Qastalani on the latter passage 
in eight different ways. One of the Yemen Sheykhs wrote 
a special dissertation on this word which he considered to 
a compound of which the first element is Jj <a well . Halabi 
II. 395 accepts this, saying that the second element L> 
is the exclamation used in making camels drink. According 
to Bukhari it was given by Ibn Talhah to Hassan B. Thabit. 
Hassan afterwards sold it to Mu c awiyah for a large sum. 

355) Expression of admiration. 


356) \j! and *po were different traditions of the Prophet s 

words. The latter which is a common expression in the 


Qur 3 an and elsewhere must surely be right. ^oL occurs in 


a proverb f^^ v>le JUt money has wings . 

357) The famous freedman of the Prophet. 

358) A favourite of the Prophet, whose death-year is 
variously given at 54, 57 and 58 A. H. 

359) I. e. the legal amount exacted in alms. 

360) The explanatory ^ however stands either as the 
epithet of an indefinite or the Ml of a definite word 
and there is no such word here. 

361) Giving the article the sense of ^y&J or mniver- 
salizing , Taftazani p. 122. Taft. maintains that the univer 
sality so obtained when the article is prefixed to the 
singular is greater than that obtained when it is prefixed 
to the dual or plural, because in these cases the singular 
is excluded. 

NOTES. 179 

362) Muf. 143. 

363) Question discussed in the Principles of Jurisprudence. 
El-Shafi ! and Abu Yusuf gave Mohammed this right, where 
as the Mu c tazils denied him it altogether; some others gave 
him the right in practical questions, but not in legal 
matters. B s Minhaj Bk VII. pt. I. 1 where ol g,x.>l is 
defined as X-oySJf pIX^&l ^o Js^ JjftX<J . In ordi 
nary usage it means finding out a thing for oneself, and 
is opposed to iXJLaj ^following some one else s initiative . 

364) Discussed in the Principles of Jurisprudence under 

the title ^J. The Jews denied that one revealed code 

could be superseded by another. 

365) Bukhari VII. 60, ed. 6. 

366) Allusion to V. 81 ^jCop ^Lxi V. 

367) Name of a tribe in El-Bata ih. 

368) Used in the phrase ^j L j*\ <a continuous or con 
stant thing . 

369) vjjJ is used rather of physical, *^ of moral adhe 
rence. In Sharishi s Commentary on Hariri II. 20 (ed. 1) 
we are told that the change of uj and j at the be 
ginning of a word is a peculiarity of the tribe $-* of 
Xa-U) . A place of the name & is mentioned in El~Futukat 
El-Makkiyyah I. 242. 

370) Tyrants who would invade it. 

371) Muslim I. 146. 

372) A tribe of Yaman: the Arabic historians speak of 
a first and second Jurhum, but Caussin de Perceval (His- 
toire des Arabes avant VIslamisme I. 33, 195206 etc.) 
regards the first as mythical. He dates their expulsion 
from Mecca 206 A. D. Their restoration of the Ka c ba is men 
tioned in the Mu^allaya of Zuhair. 

373) Aethiop. Sareh ^chamber or <temple\ 

374) Because this would make it built for the angels 
(Gl.), or, because the context shows that the glorification of 
the Kcfba and no other house is intended (S. Z.). 

180 NOTES. 

375) The greater and lesser Pilgrimage are described 
at length by Nawawi (Minhaj el-Talibm I. p. 495, Sharbini): 
the act of Pilgrimage consists of five canons p*j->^ (en 
tering the Pilgrim s state) i^J^JyJI (standing on Mt. c Arafa) 
\^ija$ (making the circuit round the Ka c ba) ^jt^Jt (running 
between Safa and El-Marwa) oUL^Ut (shaving the hair 
etc*). See Burton s famous work. 

376) oLXjLc^l in the technical language means &*^\ 
x-ub tX^wlf (Mahalli on the Minhaj). The proper time 
for this is the last decade of Ramadan. The best place for 
it is the -LS. vXWx>, i. e. the territory within which the 
vj|j-b may take place, as well as the inside of the Ka c ba. 
The shortest time according to some is an hour, according 
to others a day. 

377) According to the theory of Arabic grammarians the 
^jJb contains by implication the word jJLX^wo which also 
contains the pronoun ^S>. 

378) See Sura CV with commentary. As a matter of 
fact the Ka c ba often suffered violence at the hands of invaders. 
B. on XXII. 29 endeavours to explain away these cases. 

379) Yet according to both schools the bayan or appo 
sition must not be definite when that to which it is attached 
is indefinite; Ibn Ya c lsh p. 394, 5. MughnI II. 86: D LxJt 
Sjx&jj *ftjj*j ajcj^o v_&JLb "^ , where the explanation given 
here is described as a y^ or slip of Zam. In Mughni II. 
p. 139 the question is again discussed. 

380) Of Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and Abu Ja c far. 

381) See Snouck Hurgronje <Mekka I. p. 11 (Hague, 1887). 
<The stone which bears this name is kept under a cupola, 
half the space under which is surrounded by four walls of 
iron grating, within which the box containing the Maqam- 
stone stands. The open space serves as the praying place 
of the Imam of the Shafeites 7 . Snouck Hurgronje supposes 
that the connection of the place with Abraham was Moham 
med s invention. 

NOTES. 181 

382) Because the subject comes before the -verb. 

383) The tradition as quoted by all the authorities has 
c>-L*->5 <and I have set my comfort in prayer ; but in 
any case prayer cannot be regarded as a wordly thing; 
according to many authorities love of women is not so either. 

384) Said to be given by Baihaqi and Tabarani. 

385) Mecca and Medina. 

386) By being refused meat and drink. El-Shafi c I however 
allowed such persons to be killed within the sanctuary, 
El-Mlzan II. p. 139; but according to Sharbini IV. 39 it is 
better to drag them out and kill them afterwards. 

387) Tirmidhi p. 141. 

388) The meaning of KcH^t is discussed at length in 
the Shafi c ite code. In the Minhaj it is explained as ability 
to undertake it, consisting in a) possession of a viaticum; 
b) possession of a mount if the pilgrim live two days journey 
or more away; c) safe roads; d) ability to ride; or, the 
possession of sufficient money to pay a substitute. 

389) Physical ability and money. 

390) Tirmidhi p. 141; where it is regarded as ^^c or 
of secondary authenticity. 

391) Instead of an imperative. 

392) Similarly B. on Sura XXIII. 2 says it is a form of 
xJtJL/o to make the sentence nominal. The reason is that 
the nominal sentence implies j>fZ*\ or perpetuity . Taftazani 
p. 444. 

393) By the use of the prepositions j and j^JUs . 

394) The words ^IkCwf ^ following ^LJt. 

395) If God is independent of the worlds , a fortiori of him. 

396) See this brought out at length in Ghazzali s 

397) The sects mentioned in the Qur an (Jews , Christians, 
Magi, Sabaeans, Idolaters). 

398) ij-e* means communicated by oral or other tradi 
tion ; (Jlac <to be discovered by the aid of the intellect 

182 NOTES. 

The distinction is a commonplace of the Kalam-literature. 

399) Ibn Ishaq p. 385. 

400) According to B s construction the object of Q^JUJ 
is L>j.c , and IP stand for LgJ . F. D. cites as a parallel 
to this LLj" J *S(\#o\ UjJLfcf <shall I hunt you an ostrich or 
a wild ass ? Others make L>^c a hal depending on the subject. 

401) A Jewish doctor < Ibn Ishaq p 396. Bukhari connects 
this verse with the story of the Jewish adulterers (ed. 6. 
VII. p. 60). 

402) See Ibn El-Athir ed. Tornberg I. 510; El-Halabi II. 
8. The battle was fought five years before the Hijrah, at 
Bu c ath, a place two days journey from Medina in the land 
inhabited by the Jewish tribe Quraizah. The Khazraj were 
at first victorious, but finally the Aus. 

403) The true reading is ^j^cLXjf, the cry of the Days 
of Ignorance being ^^UJ U, especially with the name of a 
tribe, Halabi II. 374. GU. states that o *CL\j1 of the copies 
of B. is a miswriting taken from Zam. F. has the phrase right. 

404) El-Zajjaj maintained that the present text was ab 
rogated by LXIV. 16 and II. 233. 

405) Celebrated theologian; ob. 32 A. H. 

406) I. e. being unconsciously pious. 

407) Muf. 689. 

408) As opposed to prohibitions. 

409) ^&j-j is a technical term of rhetoric, defined as 
ao au^m j^jbL U j5^5 i. e. carrying out a metaphor. 

410) This is the correct sense of the form Q|^> . 

411) A rare idiom for which the locus classicus is a verse 
of El-Asha piXJ Q-, alj&Jt ^Jo^ c^^ lol. However the 
author of the Intisaf replies that it was the tpit , not <the 
edge from which they were saved. 

412) Perhaps according to the Asharites can only be 
used metaphorically of God. 

413) The Muslims, who are addressed, have in a way 
been guided already. 

NOTES. 183 

414) The &j.UJt (jzy is a duty binding on the commu 
nity as a whole, but to be discharged only by certain 
persons, such e. g. as the sacred war. 

415) v-jL*JJ>^t or iC->.AM,il is a technical term meaning 
to enjoin right and forbid wrong . The stages or degrees 
of doing so is a phrase taken from El-Ghazzali s ^Is. U>f 
(V.jJf II. 236. He makes them five in number: 1) calling 
the attention of the offender; 2) gently chiding him; 3) 
abusing him; 4) forcible prevention; 5) inflicting blows. 
Only in the case of the last, according to this author, is 
the leave of the Imam (or sovereign) necessary. Ghazzali 
polemizes for some pages against those who suppose that 
in ordinary cases (ja^JLt or authorization is necessary. On 
p. 231 we learn that different degrees should be employed 
on different occasions. 

416) Allusion to the limitative use of the separating pronoun. 

417) Right being (with the Shafi c ites) of two kinds, ne 
cessary and commendable. 

418) Yet ..&/ assuredly includes the *^&Q which cor 
responds to the yjAJ-^o, and B. in his MinMj expressly 
states that the sj^ is not p ; >. This statement therefore 
is copied carelessly from Zam. , who follows Mu c tazilite defi 
nitions of right and wrong. 

419) I, e. of God from attributes. 

420) This probability is according to Shih. suggested by 
the word like in be not like those . Of course the four 
schools of Law are all equally orthodox. 

421) On the import of this tradition see Goldziher s 
Zahiriten. It is not to be found in the good collections of 
traditions. The tradition gives its name to the synopsis of the 
views of the schools called iC*^ u5^U^>l ,3 &o$ ^T\ 

422) For Xa*^ complexion see a line quoted in J.*II 
jjUJt of El-Jazari p. 375 aJCaj^P J, ^%=>} Uu^ oo^,. 

423) LJ which should regularly come after lot may, it is 
thought, be omitted when the verb to which it should be 

184 NOTES. 

prefixed is omitted; Mughni I. 53, where it is stated that 
the later commentators make the o before US^ii the apodosis. 

424) According e.g. to Sura VII. 171, where to the question 
*^j.j v^sK>*Jl they answered ,J^. 

425) According as \^> is given the sense of X-AAX^ <cau- 
sation , or KLla/o ^correspondence 7 . 

426) Polemic against the Mu c tazils who held that it was 
obligatory on God to reward the well-doer. 

427) I. e. the order of the last verse. 

428) The oLuuut is the form of asyndeton in which the 
second sentence contains an answer to a question implied in 
the first. Taftazani p. 439, 899. 

429) Polemic against the Mu c tazils continued. 

430) Who denied that ^ could be dissociated from the 
idea of past time. 

431) See the above quotations for the question whether 
QUJ implies the performance of duties. 

432) Owing to its importance. 

433) Question discussed in the Principles of Jurisprudence. 
See B, s Minhaj Bk III. c. 1. 2, proof that the pU>t or 
consensus of authorities (not, as v. Hammer in his Ottoman 
history says, of the four Imams) is a source of Law. The 
Muctazil El-Nazzam, the Shi c ites and the Khawarij denied 
this. Neither by B, there nor in Musallam El-Thubut is the pre 
sent text , which indeed is very feeble evidence, quoted. 

434) I. e., they would be commanding wrong and forbidding 

435) I. e. complelety. 

436) See supra n. 287. 

437) The <3jjLu*J is defined as mentioning in the middle 
of a discourse a matter connected with it, but not of its 
direct drift. See Glosses on II. 185. 

438) pS then refers , as above , to the succession of state 
ments (Arab. L>^t j, 

NOTES. 185 

439) Whereas according to the present reading, it is not 
so conditioned. pS should then be rendered may more ; for, 
as Zam. says , their not being helped is of more consequence 
than their being defeated in a particular battle. 

440) Literally pitched like a tent. 

441) The phrase jy>"$ pic pd is discussed at length by 

Shih. and S. Z. xolc ^*&\ means the more universal or 
comprehensive ; and the whole phrase stands for jlJL Q* 
pic (*cl j> 2iL. The exception, as S. Z. says, may be from 
the most comprehensive of subjects, e. g. mo-one struck but 
Zaid , or of objects, or of states, as here. The >^A ^JwCw/wo 
or thing excepted from is here "then some phrase like 
j|j>^l /c(c the whole number of conditions ; and the whole 
sentence might be paraphrased JJ^ ^ jC-JcXJ! &Jlc c^Jy^ 
gjt (ZULxJt JL> ^\ jl^t. Sometimes (e. g. VI. Ill) the 
phrase j|^>^l pc.\ ^ is employed. Cf. also XII. 66 
IV. 75 

442) Making ^U3 in both cases refer to the setting of 
affliction on them to which then two different causes will 
be assigned. The variation between w*.*^ and XJle is pro 
bably only to avoid tautology. Zam., whose opinion is here 
quoted, uses ^ AX** in both cases, and S. Z. follows him. 

443) Question discussed in the Principles of Jurisprudence. 
The force of the word ^.bLs^ is adressed by God , since 
the j*) or command is defined as an address by God. See 
B. s Minhaj Introd. c. II. 3 qu. s. The unbeliever is bound 
by the secondary precepts , though this is denied by the 
Mu c tazils [and, adds the Commentator, by the bulk of the 
Hanefites] whereas some distinguish between positive and 
negative precepts . The Hanefites [adds the Commentator] 
held that the acquisition of belief was the condition of a 
person s being bound by the secondary precepts; and when 
they say "the unbeliever is bound by the secondary precepts" 

186 NOTES. 

they mean that if he die in Unbelief he is punished for 
neglecting them besides being punished for neglecting the 
primary precepts . 

444) Irregular plural of y. 

445) See supra. 

446) This according to Taftazani quoted by Gl. and S. Z. 
refers to the detailed description, which is more striking 
than the word iX^Vp would have been. 

447) The same as JUXxtt B^Lo (Ibn Mas c ud) of which the 
prescribed time is from sunset till dawn. The practice of 
calling it X*A is condemned in Minhaj el-Talibm I. 127 

448) On v-jL^X^t see supra n. 415. 

449) To be found in the substitution of <those that fear 7 
for <them . 

450) Perhaps ^A^alt ^Jlc LyaJl/> <in the accusative of the 
masdar would be more accurate. 

451) The difficulty lies in the fact that yo means properly 
<a cold wind . In the first of the explanations given B. 
supposes the original sense of the word to have been <cold 
(subst.), and that the author of the text reverts to the 
original sense; in the second that it is properly an adjec 
tive signifying <chilly , used as an epithet of the substantive 
<cold , which is here omitted. Examples of the omission of 
the substantive after a perpetual epithet are given in Muf. 
149; and examples of the poetical combination j^L o^j, 
JoJlib J*b are given by Taftazani. 

452) The point of the words <of a people that have 
wronged themselves lies in the vehemence of the destruction. 

453) I. e. one in which two things are compared to two 

454) See El-Mutanabbi ed. Dieterici p. 498. The poem 
begins with the words ^Jij U 5 ol^aJI L yiJb U ^xJLotJ . The 
argument to be drawn from it depends on the rule that 

NOTES. 187 

when ^ is conditional the particles which govern the ac 
cusative cannot precede, because it must necessarily come 
at the beginning of the sentence, and has no Khobar. - 
Here therefore jJU*wf is supposed to be the accusative after 

^yCJ and QjJtJcu to be used for Lg^lfeu. 

455) The preposition ^ . 

456) Said to mean a state in which a person is on the 
brink of destruction. 

457) I. e. fJCJle U zr 

458) Which would then be given the construction of 
for which it stands. 

459) See supra. 

460) The whole will then be <ye love those who love 
you not . The expression ^x^G ^1 will resemble such 

phrases as xJoyo f^X-n which the grammarians say stands 

for JOcyi? LXn 

461) The whole of it is then a strengthening of the 
dass, not of the book. Shih. 

462) So that this is a case of X.j.UJf JuU^ or doubly 
indirect expression; dying being a consequence of anger, 
and anger a consequence of the prosperity of Islam 5 and 
it is the last , not the first or second which should be prayed 
for. Shih. and S. Z. 

463) The jussive is required, this being the apodosis. 

464) Imperative of Xo. 

465) Supra. - - For these verses see Bukhari ed. 6. VI. 
p. 289 sqq. in ^Lxlf vj^- 

466) Such as the right, centre, flank and rear. 

467) Ibn Ishaq p. 555. See also Halabi II. 287, 

468) A Khazrajite, and chief of the Hypocrites: accord 
ing to Halabi before Uhud it was his custom to act as the 
Prophet s patron in the Mosque; but after Uhud this was 
no longer allowed. He is said to have betrayed the Banu 

188 NOTES. 

Qainuqa and Banu Nadir. He was the first who spread the 
slander against Tishah (Halabi II. 381). The Sura called 
^&UP is levelled against him. 

469) I. e. without food or water. The word however seems 
corrupt for (j*Jb^ (Halabi 1. c.) ; Ibn Ishaq has jLa/o . 

470) The construction with ^Jlc is more usual. 

471) The words slaughtered around me are omitted in 

the first version of the legend given by Ibn Ishaq. The 
reference is to the martyrdom of his followers. 

472) Ibn Ishaq adds that he interpreted it as the death 
of a member of his own family , Hamza B. c Abd il-Muttalib. 

473) The public service in the Mosque. 

474) Cf. Sura VIII. 43 B. 

475) He had previously been present at the c Aqaba and 

476) A garden near Mt. Uhud. 

477) Ob. in Medina circ. A. H. 50 (Usdu l-ghabah). 

478) The Banu Haritha and Banu Salimah. 

479) I. e. it was an idea that occurred, not a definite 

480) Plural of paucity. 

481) Jol3 would be plural of JL45; *Sk5l like *ISJo*l 
would be the more natural form. Some of the copies omit 
the words Jofo JJb ^. 

482) Being an emphatic negative. 

483) See supra. 

484) They had on yellow turbans; or, were on piebald 
horses. Halabi has an unprofitable discussion on the colour 
of the angels turbans on this occasion. 

485) "Which will be reflexive; or equivalent to letting 
their horses go free 1 . 

486) But in that case jyij 31 must be a temporal clause, 
not permutative; i. e. it must refer to Badr, and not to 

NOTES. 189 

Uhud; since otherwise the regent will be separated from its 
government by foreign matter. 

487) Referring to the help given at Badr. 

488) Shih. finds an allusion to the sense of ou^ some 
times attached to Oyk. Zam. in his aLebUJf (j*Lw! is said 
to give a saying VjxJt vj^-bt cr f meaning he is one of 
the chief of the Arabs . 

489) Meaning that He will weaken them in one of those ways. 

490) Supposing the j to depend on the words and the 
help is not save from God , the way in which the latter 
is the cause of the present clause is plain; for help from 
God in relation to the sinner means assisting him to repent; 
but if the j depend on God has helped you at Badr 
then the causation consists in the fact that the latter was 
one of the clearest miracles, and sufficient to provide a 
ground for God s turning to them, if they were converted, 
or punishing them if they remained disobedient. But if 
punishment in this world be meant , the meaning is clear (Gl.). 

491) Mughni I. p. 64. 

492) Z\A& is used of the satisfaction of vengeance. 

493) The date of his death is uncertain; also whether 
he died a Muslim or not. 

494) So Bukhari ed. 6, VII, p. 63. 

495) Polemic against Zam., who holds that God does not 
wish to forgive any but those that repent, nor wish to 
punish any but those who deserve punishment. 

496) Contained in the words times redoubled ; we are not 
to infer that a moderate amount of interest might be taken. 

497) The Believing sinner therefore is not to remain in 
it for ever, as the Mu c tazils thought he might (Mawaqif 
p. 709). 

498) The question whether Paradise and Hell are already 
created or not, is discussed in the Kalam. See Mawaqif 
p. 708, where we are told that the Mu c tazils for the most 
part denied this, while the Ash c arites as well as El-Jubba D l, 

190 NOTES. 

Bishr B. El-Mu c tamir , and Abu 1-Husain El-BisrI maintained 
that they are already created. According to F. M. I. 387 
the Sufi s (v^juyt^j v^a^XSi Jj>i) thought they were partly, 
not wholly prepared. 

499) For there would be no room for it inside the world, 
its dimensions being what have been described. They must 
be then in a .:>! ^(c the possibility of which some denied. 
See Mawaqif 1. c. 

500) As Zam. thought with the Mu c tazils. 

501) The indefiniteness implies -*&& ^contempt . 

502) Technical term for the first subject of the verbs *ju 
and <j*Ju . The correct way to construe will then be blessed 
wages of toilers are those ! See Muf. 473, 

503) ( ^M properly means customs . 

504) This verse need not prove the author s point, since 
QJUW can be rendered customs*. 

505) The slain of the Muslims on the day of Uhud 
consisted of 70 Helpers and 5 Refugees; whereas on the 
day of Badr 70 Meccans were killed and 70 taken captive. 

506) He should have said quasi-dependent; for the con 
dition cannot be put after the apodosis in the opinion of 
the Basrans. S. Z. 

507) Verse of Namir B. Taulab. 

508) Said to mean in VI. <to help to beat Vj*^ t^ o^* 5 ^ 

509) In such a combination as J^^j! t,AJ> or *l$t <sUj 
the Arabic grammar makes the substantive an epithet (j&o) 
of the demonstrative pronoun (Muf. 147). 

510) Such as God s not knowing; e.g. (below) f*jo J 
j^b. ^jJJI *JJ! jjlxj U 3 SuS. l^>Ju o \. El-Hakam 

B. Hisham argued from this place that God did not know 
events before they happened. 

511) According to the first explanation ^tcX^w is plural 
of Jc^vii; according to the second, of LX^Lw. 

512) Witnesses against the nations on the Day of 

NOTES. 191 

513) This seems to imply a connexion of ^b with 
^darkness . Neither Zam. nor F. D. gives this explanation. 

514) The Arabs distinguish between the J which is con 
nected with (x_LaJOo) and the J which is separated from 
(iutbSXx)) the preceding. This latter ^f invariably contains an 
adversative sense (^L/to^t) and sometimes a rhetorical question 
(Mughnl I. 43). By the resolution of pi into \ Jo this latter 
use is indicated. 

515) Got from the particle Q* . 

516) See above. 

517) Muf. 548. 

518) Muf. 411, 

519) However the ^ ought not to be prefixed to the im 
perfect when used as a hal. Taftazani p. 468. 

520) Which desire according to Zam. is excusable on the 
ground that lie who desires a thing need not desire all 
that it implies; <just as he who drinks a potion given him 
by a Christian physician only desires recovery, not the ad 
vantage of the enemy of God\ 

521) So Zam. 

522) The name is given above as <Utbah B. Abl Waqqas; 
According to Ibn Ishaq p. 571 Ibn Qaml ah wounded the 
Prophet in the cheek. 

523) His life is given with some detail in Usdul-ghabah. 
He is said to have been the first refugee . Bukhari VI p. 295 
(ed. 6) notices his poverty. 

524) Ibn Ubayy having, as stated above, withdrawn from 
the conflict. 

525) The Prophet s cousin and leader of the Quraish at 
Uhud. Converted at the taking of Mecca; ob. A. H. 20. 

526) In Usdu-lghabah little more is told of him than is 
told here; there is one anecdote illustrating his clemency. 

527) The servant (^L>) of the Prophet, and the source 
of a great number of traditions. The date of his death was 

192 NOTES. 

variously given ; according to most authorities 93 A. H,, 
when he would have been 103 years of age. 

528) There being no question of asking and obtaining 
permission (the literal sense). 

529) Against the Mu tazils who supposed that the term 
was not accomplished in the case of a murdered man. 

530) Muf. 226. 

531) Since alif and hamza are not distinguished, when 
a writer wishes to explain the paradigm of a word contain 
ing a hamza , he substitutes c for it. 

532) For ^xxK Shih, quotes other irregular forms. 

533) S. Z. states that the form of w***o (relative adjec 
tive) is sometimes used *JLJlJ (for emphasis) without other 
change of meaning; but he gives no examples. 

534) For this verb could only have a plural subject, 
since J^y&j means <to slay in numbers . 

535) For irregular forms of relative adjective see Muf. 

536) Not in Zam. or F. D. Shih. adds a suggestion 
that <he who humiliates himself is like the non-existent 
who demands of his soul that it should exist . 

537) So Zam. 

538) Where both subject and predicate are definite , the 
more definite should be the grammatical subject. The nature 
of the relation refers to the fact that the masdar may be 
in annexion to either its subject or its object; whereas in 
jylS jt there is no doubt that the pronoun is subject. 
Here there could be no doubt that in jjU^S j? would be 
subject (S. Z.). 

539) Sprenger rightly observes that the party of Abu 
Sufyan were naively satisfied with avenging the defeat of 
Badr, and did not care to do more. 

540) Whence < *^; is said to come by 

541) Verse of El-Aus B. Hajr El-Tamlml. The first half 

NOTES. 193 

was lfc%l ^.j^i c jiu *$. It means that there are no lizards 

542) Abdallah B. Jubair. 

543) The apodosis of \$ means the verb that should fol- 

low ^>; Shih. offers a number of suggestions for filling it 
in. The Cufans held that f-XxAoc was the apodosis, 5 being 
otiose. A third suggestion makes what follows the apodosis. 

544) B. apparently interprets jJol in the sense of to render 
proof against . His interpretation will then give ^-JLxjt two 
different senses at once ; but this , as S. Z. remarks , the 
Shafi c ite jurisprudence allows. 

545) Bukhari VII p. 65 (ed. 6). 

546) JytiU is here for sj jywlt. 

547) If the hal be put before its subject , that subject 
may be indefinite , Muf. 78. Ibn Ya c lsh i. p. 243 calls this 
construction (j\.^v*^ Q**>t <the better of two bad construc 
tions . 

548) This would not be a proper use of the nomen vicis, 
but would be defensible on the ground of the short duration 
of the ^umnun. 

549) The verb p-3>\ may mean either <to trouble or <to 
concern . - - The source of the ^_AO-> (i. e. the word only 
which B. interpolates) is given differently by Shih. and S. Z. 

550) Instead of the vXx-^^Jj construction. The sentence 

will then resemble such a case as 

551) Since the slain could not use the words in the text. 

552) As the hypocrites are addressed, this is superfluous 

553) This use of j is not infrequent in the Qur^an. 

554) To this TaftazanI objected that i) the graphic con 
struction is possible only when the present is introduced , not 
when the future is introduced; ii) that had they been with 
us implies that the saying is after their death. Doubtless the 


194 NOTES. 

true explanation is that quoted by S. Z. viz. that the prota 
sis and apodosis are inverted, the true construction being 

555) L3U means ^obliterated . The form occurs in a verse 
of Imru ul Qais. 

X-oL> J&*\ 

where ,-JLS means wells . 

556) The translation should therefore be whence God 
makes it , or so that God makes it . The existence of ^ 
xjJiLaJt was denied by the Basrans followed by Zam., who 
rightly held that it was a metaphorical use of the final j. 
This is certainly the case in such verses as 

<unto death does the mother foster her young as unto deso 
lation are the dwelling-places built . 

557) The child Moses. 

558) So ^1=> ob, ciJj Jl^j. 

559) More technically the apodosis of the conditional sen 
tence is omitted, being sufficiently indicated by the apodosis 
of the oath. The apodosis of the conditional sentence would 
have commenced with o. 

560) Shih. endeavours to account for the transposition 
which is apparently intentional. 

561) The restriction is sufficiently suggested by the order 
of the words; and Lo could not have this sense (Shih.). 

562) It is a question discussed in the Principles of Juris 
prudence whether the Prophet was advised to consult others 
in matters of religion as well as in matters of this world, 
or in the latter only. Those who denied the Prophet the 
right of initiation took the second view , those who allowed 
it, the first. Of course the initiation (oL^:>i) only referred 
to matters for which there was no revelation. 

563) This is got from the vj. 

NOTES. 195 

564) This reading is shown by F. D. on critical grounds 
to be wrong. 

565) Since from what follows it appears that the cheater 
will be disgraced on the day of Judgment, whereas we know 
that the Prophet will be honoured on that day. 

566) Tirmidhi p. 490. 

567) The first mode is by employing the indicative in 
stead of the imperative. 

568) Compare phrases like \JLsaJ <he found him avarici 
ous 7 , *JU> <he found him cowardly . 

569) Arab. JJtJt it au^o Jet. Compare fc-JtAJ t <he cal 
led him liar . 

570) The words of the tradition are LJ& ^X^I Job ^ 

571) With the pronoun referring to JJlij <j*. 

572) Since ^o necessarily implies change. 

573) Supra. 

574) In which case the verse will concern the Quraish 

575) Called the reading of Mohammed and Fatima. 

576) Another suggestion recorded by Zam. is <and take 
alms of them . 

Q <H O 

577) I. e. which distinguishes ^1 ^ from ^f <not . 


Muf. 605. 

578) The theory here maintained is that ^ is short for 


o \ , and that after it the pronoun of the fact U 

has been omitted; cp. Muf. 525. S. Z. maintains that this 
is contrary to the theory of the grammarians, who do not 

allow that this Q! can govern. 


579) This would seem to mean the omitted verb; the U 
clause however clearly belongs to 

196 NOTES. 

580) On the day of Badr the Muslims are said to have 
been given their choice by the Prophet between taking ran 
soms for and killing the prisoners, and to have chosen the 
former. Halabi ii, 251. 

581) A Mu c tazilite opinion, copied inadvertently from. Zam. 
according to the Mu c tazils Q-od cannot will the victory of 
the unbelievers. 

582) sjj5 should properly be construed with <y. 

583) S. Z. compares *x>LLs? jA* ^ "* (VI. 38). 

584) Verse of Farazdaq, not it would seem, in Bucher s 
edition. Hence the author of Shawahid El-Kashshaf gives 
it as Farazdaq s on the authority of El-Mubarrad in the 
Kamil. Hatim El-Ta 3 ! was celebrated for his "liberality. It is 
not probable that the account given of this verse in the 
text is correct. Farazdaq is known to be careless about the 
final vowels in his rhymes. 

585) The phrase is equivalent to IjJuS iXJ^ **tO&> JL> 
in the grammarians language is ordinarily feminine , whence 
Sharb. writes i^JsJi/c. 

586) A mistake according to Gl. : for the verse in Sura 
II deals with them. 

587) Construing det not those that were slain count them 
selves dead . 

588) The first object would be j? in the sentence o|^t j?. 
It may be omitted according to Shih. for .LAO&>! not for 
^UaXii. The first is defined by Lex. Techn, p. 414 as the 
omission of a word where there is a &-AJ-$ or something 
in the context showing what it was ; the latter, as its 
omission where there is no such JLJu.5. A further diffi 
culty lies in the question how these persons could , if alive , 
think they were dead ; on which see Shih. p. 80 last lines. 

589) J*-x is often used in the sense of compages corpo- 
ris. The meaning is given by Dozy. 

590) This is further worked out by B. in his 

NOTES. 197 

591) Yet these words rather imply that the spirit is paired 
with another body. See Tirmidhi p. 490. 

592) Interpreted by some to mean that they are attached 
to the crystal spheres and the stars; or, that they acquire 
fresh perfections. Those who allegorize this tradition desire 
to shut the door against the doctrine of transmigration 

593) Faith on the part of the surviving Muslims. 

594) From L\^! in the sense b^ 8 A> 5 . 

595) This ^lo is to be found in the J^iaJ etc. men 
tioned below. 

596) Taftazani p. 132. 

597) We learn hence that the parenthesis (^iy^et) need 
not necessarily come between two consecutive sentences Gl. 
S. Z. adds that this view is maintained by Zam., not by 
most writers on rhetoric. 

598) Kalam question. 

599) To be construed <as for those who answered God etc. 

600) This is evidently a forced interpretation. 

601) Sc. doing good and fearing. 

602) Halabi II. 336. Ibn Ishaq p. 590. 

603) A place between Mecca and Medina. 

604) I. e. at Uhud, 

605) Became a Muslim at the Battle of the Ditch ; created 
the dissension between Quraizah , Ghatafan and Quraish which 
led to the destruction of the first-named tribe ; died in the 
Caliphate of Uthman, or at the battle of the camel (Usdu- 

606) Ibn Ishaq p. 583. 

607) A J-M.XD or pronoun is said to be ^^A^/O when it 
is not represented by any part of the word ; \\* when it 
is so represented. 

608) Kalam question. See Mawaqif, p. 721 , the author of 
which holds against Fakhr el-din El-Razi that faith can 
increase both in force and quantity ; since faith is a col- 

198 NOTES. 

lective name for a number of separate beliefs. The matter 
is treated at great length by Bukhari; see vol. I. (ed. 6) 
p. 130. 

609) His son Abdallah, authority for many traditions. 

610) Muf. 115, where however W^A^> is reckoned with 
words like -xc , JJU etc. u^..**.ot is said to mean to ^satisfy . 
The annexion of the participle to its object does not always 
make the former definite. 

611) Badr the less, the year after Uhud. 

612) Rendered by Shih. B^s> ^.cUbj. There is another 
reading ^^ l . 

613) So that we should render <that Satan . 

614) (J^U would naturally take two objects; the inter 
pretations given imply the omission of the first and the 
second objects respectively. 

615) In ^^=> c\3 yJjJJ. 

616) The verb c^L ^ is naturally construed with ^Jl. 
As it is here construed with ^ it is supposed to imply 
the sense <to fall . 

617) It is the duty of the Believer to grieve over the 
unbelief of the j&. S. Z. 

618) Not in Zam. or F. D.; and it could only be inter 

preted as a (5j*SLA (i. e, &-j ck*&*) if Jo took two accusa 
tives , which does not appear. S. Z. says it stands for ^^^ ; 
but probably the observation is erroneous and should be 
omitted , with Sharb. 

619) Again careless copying of the unorthodox opinionss 
of Zam. For this implies the Mu tazilite doctrine that Bo^t 
y*JL o*Jl*Aj t *1H <God cannot will evil . The true infe 
rence, says Shih., is rather that all things, good and bad, 
depend on His will- Another Mu tazilite doctrine refuted 
from this verse was *JmJL /iLuCj K *iH &>U . 

620) Muf. 151 vi^xilj JwXxj ^jJI y3> at is the ba&al 
which the speaker intends . 

NOTES. 199 

621) As it consists of a MuUada 1 and a Khobar. 

522) Referred to by B. on Sura I. 5; by Zam. p. 1123 
for the spelling liy&tf , and also p. 1224; pp. 1009 and 1089 
it is referred to with the name v^a^UoLt . 

623) The Mu tazils who deny that God wills any evil. 

624) *gJL% is a case of the <comitative accusative Muf. 

625) I. e. the Lo which restricts the governing power of Q!. 

626) Not the same as uaytM *^ or <the lam of the object ; 
for God s actions can have no (jcye or object. S. Z. 

627) The Mu tazils (e. g. Zam. here) construe owing to 
their increasing in guilt , comparing j^if ^r^ O c Ot *--*-S 
<I stayed at home from the war owing to inability ; God s 
foreknowledge of it being equivalent to its priority in time. 
B. s statement that they made it the lam of consequence 
(supr. n. 556) is therefore inaccurate ; the Mu tazils avoid that 
interpretation because this sentence gives the reason for the 
preceding one; and if the indulgence were for a good ob 
ject, of which this matter were the consequence merely, 
the sentence would not serve as a reason for their being 
forbidden to think the indulgence good for them. Shih. 

628) Not in Zam. or F. 

629) This is not intended to prejudice the right of oL^x>l. 

630) Suddi Isma il B. Abd El-Rahman, an early inter 
preter of the Qur 3 an. 

631) Got from the indefiniteness. 

632) Bukhari (ed. 6) VII. p- 27; Masablh El-Sunnah I. 
p. 85. In the tradition the words Qlx*^ ^ ?$ are added. 
The tradition would seem to be appealed to by those who 
adhere to the literal interpretation of the threat. A fine 
verse of Mutanabbi is quoted by Shih. to illustrate the 
employment of b of good as well as of evil 

633) Ibn Ishaq p. 388. 

200 NOTES. 

634) This touches a difficult question connected with the 
oU/o or attributes of God, on which see Mawaqif p. 600. 
<The philosophers, El-Ka bi and Abu 1-Husain El-Bisri said 
that God s hearing and seeing mean his being cognizant of 
what can be heard and seen [the view taken here by B. 
after Zam.]; whereas most of the Ash writes and the Mu tazils 
hold that they are attributes over and above knowledge . 

635) Either then the attribution of the art of writing to 
God is metaphorical , or the word write is metaphorical. S. Z. 

636) Enumerated in Gl. and S. Z. 

637) As in Sura IV passim. 

638) In order to construe according to this we must supply 
and because God does not wrong . 

639) This is surely a Mu tazilite opinion. 

640) A miracle in the technical language of the Kalam 
(Mawaqif p. 665) signifies aJJt Jy^ au! (J^t ^y> ^cX^o ^L$bt 
<the proof of the veracity of any one who professes himself 
a messenger of God . However the various conditions there 
enumerated as going to make a miracle prevent this passage 
being tautologous. 

641) c. J*t ^t^w. Some authorities regarded it as the 

- - o ., 

plural of c. JL& ; some allowed the pointing e J , others c. J* 

642) iL_xxM,> in Fl. and L. is a miswriting for .O:.w..o> . 
B. s suggestion is that ^ means \^y^ <*Jj&\ i. e. the Book 
that is confined to a particular class of utterances. 

643) This is omitted in the text of S. Z. as well as 
by Zam. 

644) Verse of Abu 1-Aswad El.Du all (the founder of 
Arabic grammar; Ibn Khill. ed. de Slane I. 663). The rest 
of the passage is 

NOTES. 201 

There is nothing in the metre to show that &JLM rather 
than *JUI should be read. 

645) So Zam. against the opinion of the rest of the 

646) Given by Tabarani according to Gl. ; by Tirmidhi 
according to Shih. Not , it would seem , in the Masabih. 

647) Of. Muslim. I. 28 

648) Literally, the bidder. 

649) S. Z. interprets )U as gJLj like ^ for 

The sentence is a quotation from Sa c id B. Jubair (apud Zam.) ; 
F. D. has for the words ^LM cto the words cUit ^ 

650) A rare form; compare however vJjSj etc. 

651) The ordinary interpretation of pM*A$ ft . 

652) S. Z. interprets vji^ by y*.t . 

653) Some thought the Arabic for this would be 

654) Yet it is not certain that *jc can be applied to God. 
Sharb. after F. D. interprets belongs to that right ordering 
and good guidance at which every reasoning being should aim . 

655) Tirmidhi p. 436: in a slightly different form. 

656) Which then is equivalent to i^jj J 

657) The term Juilj may be applied to the simple repe 
tition of a word (goyo JT J ; J) Muf. 132. 

658) See v. 182. 

659) Those who rejoice , etc. 

660) The <_>>^-N J 1 -*-^ mav take a suffix of tnis sort - 
Muf. 446. 

661) The words j^J! jj^jufeoj are omitted in S. Z. s para 
phrase , it would seem , with justice. 

662) Bukhari (ed. 6) VII. p. 70. 

663) Bukhari (ed. 6) VII. p. 69. 

664) Which, however, is improbable, owing to the length 
of the interval by which that passage is separated from this. 

665) Converted in the year of the taking of Khaybar; 

202 NOTES. 

sent by the Caliph Omar to Basra as Qadi, an office that 
he held a short time. He died at Basra in 52 A. H. Several 
traditions are traced to him (Usdu-lghabah). 

666) The most excellent organ of the body. 

667) I. e. the Kalam, the purpose of which is to some 
extent proving theological dogmas by physical and meta 
physical speculation. Ibn Arabi in his *.&. (joyes finds fault 
with El-Ghazzali for asserting that the contemplation of nature 
would in itself suffice to prove the existence of God. 

668) This is meant to account for the masculine LXP; 
since the number of objects alluded-to would have made 

more natural. 

669) Making the annexion in o^^vJt U&> explanatory. 

670) So that the verse above might be paraphrased 

671) A mountain famous for its pasture. Conjectures con 
cerning its locality are given by Yaqut. 

672) Meaning has reached something like pasture. This 
explanation is necessary , because the fact that a person 
cast into Hell-fire is disgraced goes without saying. S. Z. 

673) The process by which this is deduced is as follows: 
Hell implies both bodily pain and disgrace (mental punish 
ment); now in this sentence in which the tortures of Hell 
are described the latter and not the former is alluded-to. 

674) Mu tazilite doctrine, taught by Zam. on this place. 

675) The grammarians hold that after f* the accusative 
of the author of the sound can only be used when a 
descriptive clause follows; there is however a question 
whether that clause is to be regarded as a -a*o or as a 
second accusative. 

676) This is from Zam., but it is not clear what they 
mean. The pL^jf followed by j^w^j enhances the dignity 
not of the herald, but of the thing to which he summons 
(S. Z.). The parallel of Zam. r ^L^U ^cX-fcj oL^-j cy> is 
liable to the same objection. 

NOTES. 203 

677) Because the passage deals with Believers generally, 
not only contemporaries of Mohammed. 

678) Including ^Js^ jind L> (S. Z.). 

679) The words lyLoT are omitted (wrongly) in the text 
of Shih. and S. Z. 

680) Allusion to the supposed connexion of ^o with 
6800) Tirmidhi p. 189. 

681) The ^ISI usually mean the sayings of the Prophet s 
companions or other famous men of Islam. The ^L*3-f are 
the sayings of the Prophet Mohammed, as well as earlier 
Prophets. These terms are very frequently employed in 
Ghazzali s ^J^J f^ic *l*>t. 

682) According to S. Z. because vjL^UuJ means neces 
sarily to grant a request , whereas v^ means only to answer. 

683) Giving ^ the sense of jUoil which it is said to 
have sometimes. F. D. took the peculiar view that ^ had 
here the sense of d. 

684) Tirmidhi. (?) 

685) See supra n. 189. 

686) To slay an unbeliever is better more meritorious 
than to be slain; thus the Prophet slew an Unbeliever 
on the day of Uhud, but did not suffer martyrdom him 
self. S. Z. 

687) vj>3 is then given the sense of &$. 

688) See supra. 

689) The cause is uJU&Jt , the effect jjJLfN The phrase 
in the text does not seem quite accurate; the putting of 
the cause in place of the effect consists in saying <let not 
there deceive thee instead of <be not deceived by it . 

690) Tirmidhi p. 385. 

691) Abu Sa d (Const, etc.) El-Dabbi; an obscure poet. 

692) Muf. 75. 

693) Making 4y masdar of jj3. 

694) According to Shih. this name in Abyssinian means 

204 NOTES, 

Theodore , a name familiar to us in this context. 

695) Compare the Aethiopic negush <a King . See Tir- 
midhi p. 184. 

696) Zam. records an additional fact, invented, it would 
seem by Hanefites to resist the conclusion drawn from this 
legend by El-Shafi I with reference to prayers for the dead. 

697) Which is forbidden by Muf. 521 in all other cases. 

698) Got from the annexion. 

699) Viz. the soul; *yJL H ; U$ u^ajJl. 

700) jLttu*j jLxJJ is the technical name for the prayers 
called ^o^Lj said during the nights of Ramadan. (Nawawl, 
Comm. on Muslim II. p. 29). 

701) On these traditions, quoted by B. and Zam. at the 
end of every Sura see Goldziher, Muhammedanische Studien 
II. p. 155 sqq. The inventor is supposed to have been an Abu 
4 Isma El-Jami*. See also the ^Ju* of Suyuti p. 104. 


18) On Imala see the valuable work of Griinert <die Imala; 
der Umlaut im Arabischen (Wien 1876). 

22) On the number of the sacred books the following 
passage is of interest MS. Uri 114 f. 28 a: 

jjl Jjjl ^ O y^ jj/ Oo^ B^yJJ l!i Jjsl ^ 



The brackets ( ) mean that the reading of the Const, ed. 
is to be preferred; the sign = that the readings are 
equally good. 

P. 192 1. 9 U^] 

1. 13 Jo^J 

1. 22 oxlf otxl! 3 I. 

P. 193 1. 3 Iji] g ,31. 

1. 11 

1. 13 

P. 194 1. 9 

1. 21 Lo] 
P. 195 1. 28 
P. 196 1. 17 

i. 20 


P. 199 1. 3 Lfr&] add. ,c^ from the Lucknow ed. 
1. 4 
1. 7 



P. 199 

1. 14 ob 5 J 
1. 18 IJLs] 

1. 20 U ^ 
1. 21 *u^l 



I <b 



would be better, since what is al- 

luded-to is the form aJLJI L 


P. 201 

1. 22 
1. 23 
1. 24 
1. 27 
P. 200 1. 4 

i. 6 jiq JISj. 




P. 202 

= om. 

The Const, reading gives a better 


read with Lucknow ed. 

14 sqq. The names are not worth correcting. 

18 ^yjtj] om. 

1. 23 c jUxJt J^c] om. The words would mean, < 
and j*Jlc in that case disputing the government of 
<5t between them . 
1. 24 JJ^li] (3yb). 
1. 25 ^^5 ^^x.] = Q5 ^ only. 


P. 202 1. 28 
P. 203 1. 1 

i. 2 

1. 11 \S] 

1-15 (j^*<] see note 157. 

1. 16 IfcJUs] *Ls. 
P. 204 1. 2 4^ = om. 

1. 7 L^Loj] 

1. 8 

1. 15 

1. 23 aJCo] 4- 
P. 205 (wrongly paged 105) 1. 2 bUs] (sbUs) read 

1. 3 

1. 13 

1. 20 O lo] 

1. 23 

1. 24 

1. 25 JJ^JI a c] jj^Ji O x>. 

1.17 1^] 
P. 206 1. 3 ya*JL] 

1. 6 cools ^3 O l r cj] ^3 O l ^y, read 

1. 7 L^] l^. 

1. 9 xlxiij ] J**.aj ; read 

1. 10 

1. 12 

1. 23 ^UvJ! 5 i] 

1. 26 

i. 29 

P. 207 1. 5 

1. 8 

1. 13 
1. 26 
P. 208 1. 3 t^AX] (om.) 

1. 7 jjLb] ^Lbf. 
1. 9 iu^l ^XJ] 




P. 208 1. 12 

1. 27 

P. 209 1. 2 
1. 6 

i. 9 

1. 12 
1. 13 
1. 14 
1. 16 
1. 18 
1. 26 
1. 28 

P. 210 1. 1 

p. 211 


1. 15 
1. 16 

1. 18 
1. 25 







P. 214 1. 4 
1. 8 

P. 212 

p. 213 




1. 3 

1. 4 Continue the overlining. 
1. 6 


from the Lucknow ed. 

.JJh see nt)te 258. 

= . 

c (the second)] omitted. 


1. 9 

P. 214 1. 13 

1. 17 

1. 29 

P. 215 1. 2 J^U] aJUf 

1. 4 

1. 5 

1. 7 

L. 10 JwAL] (omitted). 

1. 15 J2:>l j omitted. 

L 16 

P. 216 1. 4 
1. 11 
1. 13 
1. 17 
1. 28 

P. 217 1. 2 

p. 218 i. is 

P. 219 1. 7 
1. 11 
1. 14 
1. 15 

1- 27 

P. 220 1. 7 

1. 22 v-5 

P. 221 1. 4 u] 

1. 20 U] 

1. 26 
P. 222 1. 3 

1. 4 

1. 17 
P. 223 1. 2 

1. 6 J^S] 

1. 7 


1. 14 ^ UL] (omits j?). 

i. 21 

1. 23 

1. 29 sLjJI and iU**JI sLUU and 

1. 3 XxJ^ ] 
1. 11 

1. 14 jljjl] + UJi. 

1. 16 

P. 224 1. 17 ^y] (om.). 

1. 27 

1. 29 \xJLc ^^J (om. 

P. 225 1. 10 ,jLo] 

1. 11 

1. 12 
1. 13 

i. 23 

1. 24 

1. 29 %a] om. 
P. 226 1. 1 ,j;!] om. 
1. 3 

1. 7 

1. 18 vjLxill] oL-oLLt. iiUJ^] (iU3). 
1. 23 iu !>^ ; ] (om. au). 
P. 227 1. 20 O lj] L 

1. 24 Uy> 3 ] ^> 5 I. 

P. 228 1. 5 ^ the second] ^ 5 . 

1. 6 Fl. inserts the ,Joo of tha verse 

1. 12 O 4.^j a c] u>*3J ,J.c. Read 

ibid. (jfcftjJI] (jaftjJi. 

1. 15 M^aji omits. 

1. 16 


1. 17 

1. 18 

P. 228 1. 29 838] 

P. 229 1. 5 

1. 7 j.c the second] omitted. 

1. 12 

1. 13 

1. 19 ^ a j] (om.) J.AS ^ om. a . 

P. 230 1. 16 JJb] 4. JJ^L> . dbl is better. 

1. 18 

P. 231 1. 12 

1. 27 

1. 28 

P. 232 1. 7 

P. 234 (wrongly numbered 224) 1. 21 

P. 235 1. 7 bUl^aJt] BoLi ^^.j read jL*3. 
P. 236 1. 2 ^J ^. 
1. 4 

! 7 
1. 8 

1. 10 
1. 12 

1. 16 

1. 25 

P. 237 1. 6 

1. 8 lyLAX*-ls] 

1. 11 

1. 19 

1. 22 

1. 25 JJixIi] 
1. 27 ^wol *3lXo] - 
P. 238 1. 3 
1. 6 


1. 7 

1. 8 alJt L>lxc vil bis] = semel. 

1. 28 jZUfc] = jib. 

P. 239 1. 3 *NL] 

1. 6 

i. 8 

1. 9 31] 
1. 16 U* 

1. 18 jjUaJLj] = 

1, 22 ^bbb^U ^^o . *3] - om. 

1. 25 
P. 240 1. 3 

1. 6 
1. 8 
1. 17 
1. 21 
P. 241 1. 15 

1. 25 oJtj om 

1. 26 

1. 27 

1. 29 ^Li ^4/: insert brackets and overline. 
P. 242 1. 5 f*3] -f J,c. 

1. 8 Omit overline from 

om. ^. 

1. 9 

1. 11 

1. 12 

1. 13 om. 

1. 14 

1. 22 
P. 243 1. 1 

1. 9 .x*Aaj] 

1. 13 First half of the verse j o ^ KJlr> 


1. 14 

1. 15 JyiftJt] + XJLi 

1. 16 ^UJI OuJ^XJb] 

1. 20 

P. 244 1. 3 

1. 4 

1. 24 


1. 29 

P. 245 1. 5 

1. 10 

1. 28 

P. 246 1. 1 

1. 3 

1. 5 

1. 7 

1. 17 

1. 19 + 

i. 26 
i. 28 

P. 247 1. 2 U0] (om.) 
1. 5 

1. 8 

1. 11 *i\ (+ 

1. 15 
1. 16 
1. 17 ^JUI l^iw] 

1. 18 ^.fcJUCS^] 

1. 24 oLuw Lo] 

P. 248 1. 6 ^U;L^x5] 

1. 12 ^^5 J*] (om.) 

1. 13 UCAi] 

1. 23 &>L> 


P. 249 1. 5 

1. 13 *X>UM.>] see note. 

1. 25 ^1] = om. 

P. 250 1. 4 J*3J J^>. 

1. 5 jjUWy] 

1. 18 ^.j^rS 

1. 29 Jo] L 
P. 251 1. 6 ^] 

1. 9 x&UJt] 

1. 10 iOtojtAX)] (J 

1. 12 Lo om. 

1. 15 

1. 25 
P. 252 1. 5 

1. 22 

1. 28 
P. 253 1. 8 ^1] om. 

1. 9 

1. 12 ^U-j-o i] (^U-e<). tiUJo] 

1. 20 

1. 27 
P. 254 1. 3 

1. 10 

1. 13 AAXMU add wolc ^ from the Lucknow ed. 

1. 17 

1. 22 O l22x>j om, 
1. 23 


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