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Professor John Hagan 





Professor John Hagan 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2018 with funding from 
University of Toronto 


1 Crime and Delinquency in a Changing Society 

John Hagan, “Defining Crime, an Issue of Morality,”In J. Hagan, Modem Criminology, New York: 
Mc-Graw-Hill, 1985 .1 

John Sutton, “Inventing the Stubborn Child,” In J. Sutton, Stubborn Children: Controlling 
Delinquency in the United States, J640-J981, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. . . 8 

Anthony Platt, “The Rise of the Child-Saving Movement,” American Academy of Political and 
Social Science, 3U 2\-3%, 1969.10 

Jon Pareles, ‘They’re Rebels Without a Cause and Couldn’t Care Less, The NeM’ York Times, July 
16, 1995, Section 2, p.l.16 

2. Defining and Measuring the Changeable Nature of Crime 

Paul E. Tracy, Jr., “Prevalence, Incidence, Rates, and Other Descriptive Measures, In K Kempf, 
(ed ), Measurement Issues in Criminology, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990 19 

Walter R Gove, Michael Hughes and Michael Geerken, “Are Uniform Crime Reports a Valid 
Indicator of Index Crimes? An Affirmative Answer with Minor Qualifications,” Criminology’ 23:451 - 

1985. 29 

Michael J Hindelang, Travis Hirschi and Joseph G Weis, “The Accuracy of Official and Self-Report 
Measures of Delinquency, In M. Hindelang, T Hirschi and J. Weis, Measuring Delinquency, 
Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1981.34 

Christopher Jones, “Out There,” Toronto Life .43 

3. Five Questions About Crime 

Michael J. Hindelang, “Race and Involvement in Common Law Personal Crimes, American 
Sociological Review' 4'i .93-\Q9, 1978 . 44 

Travis Hirschi, Michael Gottffedson, “Age and the Explanation of Crime,” American Journal of 
Sociology' %9-.5S2-5M, 1989. 55 

Roy L. Austin, “Recent Trends in Official Male and Female Crime Rates: The Convergence 
ConWovQvsy," Journal of Criminal Justice 22:445-466, 1993. 59 


Fox Butterfield, “ More Blacks in Their 20’s Have Trouble with the Law,” 
The New York Times . 


Fox Butterfield, “A History of Homicide Surprises the Experts,” The New York Times, 

October 23, 1994 .. 69 

4. A Science of Crime 

C. Ronald Huff, “Historical Explanations of Crime: From Demons to Politics,” In C .R Huff, Crime 
and the CrimmalJustice Process, Dubuque, lA: Kendall Hunt Publishing, 1978. 71 

John Hagan, Modern Criminology, Toronto; McGraw Hill, pp. 1-5, 1985 . 83 

Thorsten Sellin, “The Significance of Records of Crime, The Law Quarterly Review 67:489-504, 

5. Structural-Functional Theories of Crime 

Travis Hirschi, “A Control Theory of Delinquency,” In T. Hirschi, Causes of Delinquency, Berkeley: 
University of California Press, 1969. 96 

Albert Cohen, “Status Frustration nd the Delinquent Subculture,” In A. Cohen, Delinquent Boys: 
The Culture of the Gang, New York: The Free Press, 1955. 101 

Clifford R. Shaw, Henry D. McKay, “An Ecological Analysis of Chicago,” \[\ Juvenile Delinquency 
and Urban Areas, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942.107 

Robert D. Crutchfield, Michael Geerken, Walter R. Gove, “Crime Rate and Social Integration: The 
Impact of Metropolitan Mobility,” Criminology 20 :467-477, 1982. Ill 

Darius Sanai, “Some Estates are No-Go Zones, Even for Police Patrols with Bullet-Proof Armour, 
Automatic Weapons and Teargas..,” The Guardian, April 8, 1998. 115 

6. Organized Crime 

Robert K. Merton, “Social Structure and knomiQ," American Sociological Review 3:672-682, 

1938. 1 16 

Richard Cloward, Lloyd Ohlin, “Differential Opportunity and Types of Delinquent Sub¬ 
cultures,” In R. Cloward and L. Ohlin, Delinquency and Opportunity, New York; The Free Press, 
1960. 122 

Donald R. Cressey, “From Mafia to Cosa Nostra,” In D. Cressey, Theft of the Nation: The Structure 
of Organized Crime in America, New York: Harper and Row, 1969.127 


Paul Keegan, “The Thinnest Blue Line,” The New York Times Magazine, March 31, 1996. 139 

7. The Lupollo Family 

Daniel Bell, “Crime as an American Way of Life,” The Antioch Review 13:131-154, 1953. . . 142 

Dennis J. Kenney, James O. Finkenauer, “Myths and Organized Crime; Is There a Mafia, and Does 
It Really Matter?” In D.J. Kenney and J O. Finkenauer, Organized Crime in America, Belmont, CA: 
Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1995. 155 

Jeffrey Toobin, “Weak Chin,” The New Yorker, August 4, 1997. 162 

8. The Black Mafia 

Francis A. J lanni, “New Mafia: Black, Hispanic and Italian Styles,” Society, 11(3), 1974 165 

John McCormick, “The ‘Disciples’ of Drugs-Ajid Death,” Newsweek, February 5, 1996. 178 

9. The Symbolic Interactionist Theories 

Edwin H. Sutherland, “A Theory of Crime; Differential Association,” In E Cressey, Principles of 
Criminology, Fourth Edition, Chicago: J.B Lippincott, 1989.180 

Gresham M. Sykes and David Matza, “Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency” 
American Sociological Review 22.6(>A-61Q, 1957. 183 

Edwin Schur, “An Overview of Labeling Theory,” In E Shur, Labeling Deviant Behavior: Its 
Sociological Implications, New York: Harper & Row, 1971.189 

Edwin M. Lemert, "Primary and Secondary Deviation," In E. Lemert, Social Pathology, New 
York: McGraw-Hill, 1951. 192 

Robert Lipsyte, “Harassed Officials Fear ‘Kill the Ump’ Is No Longer a Joke,” The New York Times, 
January 19, 1997.194 

10. Crime as Work 

Edwin H Sutherland, “Theft as a Way of Life,” In E. Sutherland, The Professional Thief, Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1937 . 196 

Howard Becker, “Career Deviance,” In H. Becker, Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance, 
New York; The Free Press, 1963. 204 

Mercer Sullivan, “Crime in Projectville,” In M. Sullivan, Getting Paid: Youth Crime and Work in the 
Inner City, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989. 210 

11. Conflict Theories of Crime 

Richard Quinney, “Crime and the Development of Capitalism,” In R. Quinney, Class, State, and 

Crime, New York: Longman Publishing, 1977. 225 

Austin Turk, “Conflict and CnmmdXxty," American SociologicalRevieM' 1966. 228 

Elijah Anderson, “The Code of the Streets,” The Atlantic Monthly, 273(5), 1994. 234 

Emerge, November 1997. 244 

12. Parole and Social Control of the Underclass 

Elliott P Currie, “Confronting Crime: New Directions,” In E. P. Currie, Confronting Crime: An 
American Challenge, New York: Pantheon, 1985. 246 

Joan Petersilia, Susan Turner, “An Evaluation of Intensive Probation in California,” Criminology 
31:18-32, 1985. 254 

Merr\' Morash and Lila Rucker, “A Critical Look at the Idea of Boot Camp as a Correctional 
KtiowaC Crime and Delinquency 1)6.2QA-222, 1990 . 262 

Fox Butterfield, “Crime Keeps on Falling, but Prisons Keep on Filling,” The New York Times, 
September 28, 1997. 271 

13. Social Capital Theory 

John Hagan, “A New Sociology of Crime and Disrepute,” In J Hagan, Crime and Disrepute, 

Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1994. 273 

James Brooke, “Prisons: A Growth Industry for Some,” The Nes\' York Times, November 2, 

1997. 294 

14. White-Collar Crime 

Edwin H Sutherland, “White-Collar Criminality,” In K. Schuessler, (ed ), Ech'in H. Sutherland: On 
Analyzing Crime, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1973. 296 

James W. Coleman, “The Criminal Elite,” In J. Coleman, The Criminal Elite, Third Edition, New 
York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994. 304 


Aian Wolfe, “Extralegality and American Power,” Society, 13(3), 1976. 


Kurt Eichenwald, “ The Tale of the Secret Tapes,” The New York Times, November 16, 1997, 319 

15. Plea-Bargaining 

George F. Cole, “The Decision to Prosecute,” La\i' and Society’ Review 4:313-343, 1970. . . 323 

Milton Heumann, “Prosecutorial Adaptation to Plea Bargaining,” In M. Heumann, Plea Bargaining: 
The Experiences of Prosecutors, Judges and Defense Attorneys, Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, 1978. 331 

Abraham S. Blumberg, “The Practice of Law as a Confidence Game,” Law and Society Review 1:15- 
39, 1967. 334 

Roy B. Flemming, “Client Games: Defense Attorneys’ Perspectives on Their Relations With Criminal 
C\\QX\X^," American Bar Foundation Research Journal, Spring 1986. 342 

16. Policing Minority Communities 

Donald J. Black, “The Social Organization of Arrest,” Stanford Law' Review' 23:1087-1 111, 


Jerome Skolnick, “The Police Officers’s ‘Working Personality’,” In J Skolnick, Justice Without 
Trial: Law Enforcement in a Democratic Society, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1966 356 

James Q. Wilson, “Police Discretion,” In J Q. Wilson, Varietiesof Police Behavior, Cambridge, MA 
Harvard University Press, 1974. 364 

David A Klinger, “Demeanor or Crime'’ Why ‘Hostile’ Citizens are More Likely to be Arrested,” 
(Timinology 32 \5-40, 1994. 367 

James Lardner, “Better Cops, Fewer Robbers,” The New York Times Magazine, February 9, 

1997. 372 

17. Crime Waves 

Philip Jenkins, “A Murder ‘Wave’? Trends in American Serial Homicide, 1940-1990,” Criminal 
Justice Review 17:1-19, 1992. 382 

Criag Reinarman and Harry G Levine, “Crack in Context: Politics and Media in the Making of a 
Drug Scare,” Contemporaiy Drug Problems 16:535-577, 1989. 392 


Emile Durkheim, “The Normal and The Pathological,” In George E G. Catlin (ed ), Rules of 
Sociological Method, Eighth Edition, Glencoe, IL: The Free press, 1950 . 398 

Milton Friedman, “There’s No Justice in the War on Drugs,” The New York Times, January 11, 1998. 

Elizabeth Olson, “Swiss Weigh Fate of Clinics Offering legal Heroin,” The New York Times, 
September 28, 1997. 403 

18. The Imprisoned Society 

James B Jacobs, “Stateville: The Penitentiary in Mass Society,” In J.B Jacobs, Stateville, Chicago 
University of Chicago Press, 1978. 404 

John Irwin, “The Prison Experience: The Convict World,” In J. Irwin, The Felon, Englewood Cliffs, 
NJ: Prentice Hall, 1970. 411 

Geoffrey Hunt, Stephanie Riegel, Tomas Morales, and Dan Waldorf, “Prison Gangs and the Case of 
the ‘Pepsi Generation’,” Social Problems 40:398-409, 1993 . 422 

Francis T Cullen and Lawrence Travis, “An American History of Corrections,” In F T Cullen and 
L Travis, Reaffirming Rehabilitation, Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co., 1982 431 

Matthew Purdy, “State’s Jail Raid is Unusual, But Reasons For It Are Not,” The New York Times, 
January 26, 1996. 449