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A    GUIDE    TO    MODERN   COOKERY 


BOOKS    FOR    THE,    HOUSEHOLD. 


Practical  Cooking  and  Serving. 

By  J.  M.  Hill,  ^ith  many  Coloured  and  Half-tone  Illustrations. 
Crown  8vo,  price  lOs.  net. 

"  We  think  the  book  the  best  and  most  helpful  of  the  many  published  of  late 
years." — Daily  Chronicle,  

The  Pleasures  of  the  Table. 

By  E.  H.  Ellwanger.     12s.  net. 

"  Charmingly  written,  well  illustrated  and  appeals  to  the  epicure  in  epigrams  as 
well  as  entries,  to  the  connoisseur  of  wit  as  well  as  wine." — Lady's  Pictorial. 


The  Complete  Indian  Housekeeper  and 

Cook.     By  Flora  Annie  Steel  and  Grace  Gardiner.     In 
one  Volume.     6s. 
"It  will  be  invaluable  to  the  English  housekeeper  in  India." — P nil  Mall  Gazette. 

The  Cook's  Decameron. 

By    Mrs,    W.    G.    Waters.      With   over    200   Italian  recipes. 
Crown  8vo,  2s.   6d. 

"  One  of  the  most  novel  and  really  useful  works  on  Cookery  it  has  been  my  lot  to 
read." — Ladys  Pictorial. 

The  American  Salad  Book. 

By  M.  De  Loup.     2s.  6d. 

"Should  be  in  every  English  Household." — Daily  Graphic. 


Practical  Lessons  in  Cookery  for  Small 

Households.     By  Georgette  Bendall.     Is.  net. 

"  A  most  useful  little  book,  to  be  recommended  on  account  ot  the  economical 
nature  of  the  recipes." — Glasgow  Herald. 

Modern  Housecraft. 

By  Lucy  H.  Yates.     Fcap.  8vo,  price  2s.  6d.  net. 

"A  valuable  little  handbook,  full  of  advice.  .  .  .  The  advice  is  sound,  the 
discussions  are  eminently  practical,  and  the  book  should  be  something  of  a  boon." — 
The  Evening  Standard. 

London  :     WILLIAM    HEINEMANN. 


i'jr,.M,,.7 


A   GUIDE  TO 
MODERN    COOKERY 


BY 


A.    ESCOFFIER 


OF  THE  CAHI-TON  HOTEL 


LONDON 
WILLIAM     HEINEMANN 

190; 

in 


Copyright  1907  hy  William  Heinemann 


PREFACE 


If  the  art  of  Cookery  in  all  its  branches  were  not  under- 
going a  process  of  evolution,  and  if  its  canons  could  be  once 
and  for  ever  fixed,  as  are  those  of  certain  scientific  operations 
and  mathematical  procedures,  the  present  work  would  have  no 
raison  d'etre;  inasmuch  as  there  already  exist  several  excellent 
culinary  text-books  in  the  English  language.  But  everything 
is  so  unstable  in  these  times  of  progress  at  any  cost,  and  social 
customs  and  methods  of  life  alter  so  rapidly,  that  a  few  years 
now  suffice  to  change  completely  the  face  of  usages  which  at 
their  inception  bade  fair  to  outlive  the  age — so  enthusiastically 
were  they  welcomed  by  the  public. 

In  regard  to  the  traditions  of  the  festal  board,  it  is  but 
twenty  years  ago  since  the  ancestral  English  customs  began  to 
make  way  before  the  newer  methods,  and  we  must  look  to  the 
great  impetus  given  to  travelling  by  steam  traction  and  naviga- 
tion, in  order  to  account  for  the  gradual  but  unquestionable 
revolution. 

In  the  wake  of  the  demand  came  the  supply.  Palatial  hotels 
were  built,  sumptuous  restaurants  were  opened,  both  of  which 
offered  their  customers  luxuries  undreamt  of  theretofore  in  such 
establishments. 

Modern  society  contracted  the  habit  of  partaking  of  light 
suppers  in  these  places,  after  the  theatres  of  the  Metropolis 
had  closed;  and  the  well-to-do  began  to  flock  to  them  on 
Sundays,  in  order  to  give  their  servants  the  required  weekly 
rest.  And,  since  restaurants  allow  of  observing  and  of  being 
observed,  since  they  are  eminently  adapted  to  the  exhibiting  of 
magnificent  dresses,  it  was  not  long  before  they  entered  into 
the  life  of  Fortune's  favourites. 

But  these  new-fangled  habits  had  to  be  met  by  novel  methods 
of  Cookery — ^better  adapted  to  the  particular  environment  in 
which  they  were  to  be  practised.  The  admirable  productions 
popularised  by  the  old  Masters  of  the  Culinary  Art  of  the  pre- 


vi  PREFACE 

ceding  Century  did  not  become  the  light  and  more  frivolous 
atmosphere  of  restaurants ;  were,  in  fact,  ill-suited  to  the  brisk 
waiters,  and  their  customers  who  only  had  eyes  for  one  another. 

The  pompous  splendour  of  those  bygone  dinners,  served  in 
the  majestic  dining-halls  of  Manors  and  Palaces,  by  liveried 
footmen,  was  part  and  parcel  of  the  etiquette  of  Courts  and 
lordly  mansions. 

It  is  eminently  suited  to  State  dinners,  which  are  in  sooth 
veritable  ceremonies,  possessing  their  ritual,  traditions,  and — 
one  might  even  say — their  high  priests ;  but  it  is  a  mere  hin- 
drance to  the  modern,  rapid  service.  The  complicated  and 
sometimes  heavy  menus  would  be  unwelcome  to  the  hyper- 
critical appetites  so  common  nowadays;  hence  the  need  of  a 
radical  change  not  only  in  the  culinary  preparations  themselves, 
but  in  the  arrangements  of  the  menus,  and  the  service. 

Circumstances  ordained  that  I  should  be  one  of  the  movers 
in  this  revolution,  and  that  I  should  manage  the  kitchens  of 
two  establishments  which  have  done  most  to  bring  it  about. 
I  therefore  venture  to  suppose  that  a  book  containing  a  record 
of  all  the  changes  which  have  come  into  being  in  kitchen  work — 
changes  whereof  I  am  in  a  great  part  author^may  have  some 
chance  of  a  good  reception  at  the  hands  of  the  public,  i.e.,  at 
the  hands  of  those  very  members  of  it  who  have  profited  by 
the  changes  I  refer  to. 

For  it  was  only  with  the  view  of  meeting  the  many  and 
persistent  demands  for  such  a  record  that  the  present  volume 
was  written. 

I  had  at  first  contemplated  the  possibility  of  including  only 
new  recipes  in  this  formulary.  But  it  should  be  borne  in  mind 
that  the  changes  that  have  transformed  kitchen  procedure  during 
the  last  twenty-five  years  could  not  all  be  classed  under  the  head 
of  new  recipes ;  for,  apart  from  the  fundamental  principles  of 
the  science,  which  we  owe  to  Careme,  and  which  will  last  as 
long  as  Cooking  itself,  scarcely  one  old-fashioned  method  has 
escaped  the  necessary  new  moulding  required  by  modern 
demands.  For  fear  of  giving  my  work  an  incomplete  appear- 
ance, therefore,  I  had  to  refer  to  these  old-fashioned  practices 
and  to  include  among  my  new  recipes  those  of  the  former 
which  most  deserved  to  survive.  But  it  should  not  be  forgotten 
that  in  a  few  years,  judging  from  the  rate  at  which  things  are 
going,  the  publication  of  a  fresh  selection  of  recipes  may  become 
necessary ;  I  hope  to  live  long  enough  to  see  this  accomplished, 
in  order  that  I  may  follow  the  evolution,  started  in  my  time, 
and  add  a  few  more  original  creations  to  those  I  have  already 


PREFACE  vii 

had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  adopted;  despite  the  fact  that  the 
discovery  of  new  dishes  grows  daily  more  difficult. 

But  novelty  is  the  universal  cry — novelty  by  hook  or  by 
crook  !  It  is  an  exceedingly  common  mania  among  people  of 
inordinate  wealth  to  exact  incessantly  new  or  so-called  new 
dishes.  Sometimes  the  demand  comes  from  a  host  whose  luxu- 
rious table  has  exhausted  all  the  resources  of  the  modern  cook's 
repertory,  and  who,  having  partaken  of  every  delicacy,  and 
often  had  too  much  of  good  things,  anxiously  seeks  new  sensa- 
tions for  his  blase  palate.  Anon,  we  have  a  hostess,  anxious  to 
outshine  friends  with  whom  she  has  been  invited  to  dine,  and 
whom  she  afterwards  invites  to  dine  with  her. 

Novelty  !  It  is  the  prevailing  cry ;  it  is  imperiously  demanded 
by  everyone. 

For  all  that,  the  number  of  alimentary  substances  is  com- 
paratively small,  the  number  of  their  combinations  is  not 
infinite,  and  the  amount  of  raw  material  placed  either  by  art  or 
by  nature  at  the  disposal  of  a  cook  does  not  grow  in  propor- 
tion to  the  whims  of  the  public. 

What  feats  of  ingenuity  have  we  not  been  forced  to  perform, 
at  times,  in  order  to  meet  our  customers'  wishes  ?  Those  only 
who  have  had  charge  of  a  large,  modern  kitchen  can  tell  the 
tale.  Personally,  I  have  ceased  counting  the  nights  spent  in 
the  attempt  to  discover  new  combinations,  when,  completely 
broken  with  the  fatigue  of  a  heavy  day,  my  body  ought  to  have 
been  at  rest. 

Yet,  the  Chef  who  has  had  the  felicity  to  succeed  in  turning 
out  an  original  and  skilful  preparation  approved  by  his  public 
and  producing  a  vogue,  cannot,  even  for  a  time,  claim  the 
monopoly  of  his  secret  discovery,  or  derive  any  profit  therefrom. 
The  painter,  sculptor,  writer  and  musician  are  protected  by 
law.  So  are  inventors.  But  the  chef  has  absolutely  no  redress 
for  plagiarism  on  his  work ;  on  the  contrary,  the  more  the  latter 
is  liked  and  appreciated,  the  more  will  people  clamour  for  his 
recipes.  Many  hours  of  hard  work  perhaps  underlie  his  latest 
creation,  if  it  have  reached  the  desired  degree  of  perfection. 

He  may  have  forfeited  his  recreation  and  even  his  night's 
rest,  and  have  laboured  without  a  break  over  his  combination; 
and,  as  a  reward,  he  finds  himself  compelled,  morally  at  least, 
to  convey  the  result  of  his  study  to  the  first  person  who  asks, 
and  who,  very  often,  subsequently  claims  the  invention  of  the 
recipe — to  the  detriment  of  the  real  author's  chances  and  reputa- 
tion. 

This  frantic  love  of  novelty  is  also  responsible  for  many  of 


VIU 


PREFACE 


the  difficulties  attending  the  arrangement  of  menus ;  for  very 
few  people  know  what  an  arduous  task  the  composing  of  a 
perfect  menu  represents. 

The  majority — even  of  those  who  are  accustomed  to  recep- 
tions and  the  giving  of  dinners — suppose  that  a  certain  routine 
alone  is  necessary,  together  with  some  culinary  practice,  in  order 
to  write  a  menu ;  and  few  imagine  that  a  good  deal  more  is 
needed  than  the  mere  inscription  of  Courses  upon  a  slip  of 
pasteboard. 

In  reality  the  planning  of  these  alimentary  programmes  is 
among  the  most  difficult  problems  of  our  art,  and  it  is  in 
this  very  matter  that  perfection  is  so  rarely  reached.  In  the 
course  of  more  than  forty  yearo'  experience  as  a  chef,  I  have 
been  responsible  for  thousands  of  menus,  some  of  which  have 
since  become  classical  and  have  ranked  among  the  finest  served 
in  modern  times;  and  I  can  safely  say,  that  in  spite  of  the 
familiarity  such  a  period  of  time  ought  to  give  one  with  the 
work,  the  setting-up  of  a  presentable  menu  is  rarely  accom- 
plished without  lengthy  labour  and  much  thought,  and  for  all 
that  the  result  is  not  always  to  my  satisfaction.  From  this  it 
may  be  seen  how  slender  are  the  claims  of  those  who,  without 
any  knowledge  of  our  art,  and  quite  unaware  of  the  various 
properties  belonging  to  the  substances  we  use,  pretend  to 
arrange  a  proper  menu. 

However  difficult  the  elaboration  of  a  menu  may  be,  it  is 
but  the  first  and  by  no  means  the  only  difficulty  which  results 
from  the  rapidity  with  which  meals  are  served  nowadays.  The 
number  of  dishes  set  before  the  diners  being  considerably 
reduced,  and  the  dishes  themselves  having  been  deprived  of  all 
the  advantages  which  their  sumptuous  decorations  formerly  lent 
them,  they  must  recover,  by  means  of  perfection  and  delicacy, 
sufficient  in  the  way  of  quality  to  compensate  for  their  dimin- 
ished bulk  and  reduced  splendour.  They  must  be  faultless  in 
regard  to  quality;  they  must  be  savoury  and  light.  The  choice 
of  the  raw  material,  therefore,  is  a  matter  demanding  vast 
experience  on  the  part  of  the  chef;  for  the  old  French  adage 
which  says  that  "  La  sauce  fait  passer  le  poisson  "  has  long  since 
ceased  to  be  true,  and  if  one  do  not  wish  to  court  disapproba- 
tion— often  well  earned — the  fish  should  not  be  in  the  slightest 
degree  inferior  to  its  accompanying  sauce. 

While  on  the  subject  of  raw  material,  I  should  like,  en 
passant,  to  call  attention  to  a  misguided  policy  which  seems 
to  be  spreading  in  private  houses  and  even  in  some  commercial 
establishments;  I  refer  to  the  custom  which,  arising  as  it  doubt- 


PREFACE  ix 

less  does  from  a  mistaken  idea  of  economy,  consists  of  entrusting 
the  choice  of  kitchen  provisions  to  people  unacquainted  with 
the  profession,  and  who,  never  having  used  the  goods  which' 
they  have  to  buy,  are  able  to  judge  only  very  superficially  of 
their  quality  or  real  value,  and  cannot  form  any  estimate  of 
their  probable  worth  after  the  cooking  process. 

If  economy  were  verily  the  result  of  such  a  policy  none 
would  object  to  it.  But  the  case  is  exactly  the  reverse;  for,  in 
the  matter  of  provisions,  as  in  all  commercial  matters,  the 
cheapest  is  the  dearest  in  the  end.  To  obtain  good  results, 
good  material  in  a  sufficient  quantity  must  be  used,  and,  in 
order  to  obtain  good  material,  the  latter  should  be  selected  by 
the  person  who  is  going  to  use  it,  and  who  knows  its  qualities 
and  properties.  Amphitryons  who  set  aside  these  essential  prin- 
ciples may  hope  in  vain  to  found  a  reputation  for  their  tables. 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  greater  part  of  the  titles  in  this 
work  have  been  left  in  French.  I  introduced,  or  rather  promul- 
gated this  system,  because,  since  it  is  growing  every  day  more 
customary  to  write  menus  in  French,  it  will  allow  those  who  are 
unacquainted  with  the  language  to  accomplish  the  task  with 
greater  ease.  Moreover,  many  of  the  titles — especially  those  of 
recent  creations — are  quite  untranslatable.  As  the  index,  how- 
ever, is  in  English,  and  in  every  case  the  order  number  of  each 
recipe  accompanies  the  number  of  the  page  where  it  is  to  be 
found,  no  confusion  can  possibly  arise.  I  have  also  allowed 
certain  French  technical  terms,  for  which  there  exist  no  English 
equivalents,  to  remain  in  their  original  form,  and  these  will  be 
found  explained  in  a  glossary  at  the  end  of  the  book. 

I  preferred  to  do  this  rather  than  strain  the  meaning  of 
certain  English  words,  in  order  to  fit  them  to  a  slightly  unusual 
application ;  and  in  so  doing  I  only  followed  a  precedent  which 
has  been  established  on  a  more  or  less  large  scale  by  such 
authors  of  English  books  on  French  cooking  as  Francatelli, 
Gouff^,  Ranhoffer,  etc. 

But  the  example  for  such  verbal  adoptions  was  set  long  ago 
in  France,  where  sporting  and  other  terms,  for  which  no  suitable 
native  words  could  be  found,  were  borrowed  wholesale  from  the 
English  language,  and  gallicised.  It  is  therefore  not  unreason- 
able to  apply  the  principle  to  terms  in  cookery  which,  though 
plentiful  and  varied  in  France,  are  scarce  in  this  country. 

To  facilitate  the  reading  of  the  recipes,  all  words  which  are 
not  in  common  use,  and  of  which  the  explanation  will  be  found 
in  the  Glossary,  are  italicised  in  the  text. 

In  concluding  this  preface,  which,  I  fear,  has  already  over- 


PREFACE 


reached  the  bounds  I  intended  for  it,  I  should  like  to  thank 
those  of  my  lady  clients  as  well  as  many  English  epicures  whose 
kind  appreciation  has  been  conducive  to  the  writing  of  this  work. 
I  trust  they  will  favour  the  latter  with  the  generous  considera- 
tion of  which  they  have  so  frequently  given  the  author  valuable 
proofs,  and  for  which  he  is  glad  of  an  opportunity  of  expressing 
his  deep  gratitude. 


CONTENTS 

PART    I 

FUNDAMENTAL   ELEMENTS 
CHAPTER  I 

PAGE 

FONDS  DE  CUISINE  ........  I 

CHAPTER  II 
THE  LEADING  WARM   SAUCES     .....  •  '5 

CHAPTER  III 

THE   SMALL  COMPOUND   SAUCES  ...  .  .  24 

CHAPTER  IV 

COLD  SAUCES  AND  COMPOUND  BUTTERS        .....  48 

CHAPTER  V 

SAVOURY  JELLIES  OR  ASPICS  .  ......  59 

CHAPTER  VI 
THE  COURT-BOUILLONS  AND  THE  MARINADES  .  .  .  -64 

CHAPTER  VII 
\J/:  ELEMENTARY  PREPARATIONS  .....  70 

CHAPTER  VIII 
THE  VARIOUS  GARNISHES   FOR  SOUPS  .  .  .  .  87 

CHAPTER  IX 
GARNISHING  PREPARATIONS   FOR  RELEVis  AND   ENTR]£eS  .  .  92 

CHAPTER  X 

U^DING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS  .  ....  97 


xii  CONTENTS 

PART   II 

RECIPES  AND   MODES   OF  PROCEDURE 

CHAPTER  XI 

PAGE 

HORS-D'CEUVRES      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ,  .137 

CHAPTER  XII 

EGGS  .......  .  .        164 

CHAPTER  XIII 
SOUPS  ..........      197 

CHAPTER  XIV 

FISH  ..........        260 

CHAPTER  XV 
RELEVilS  AND  ENTRIES  OF  BUTCHER'S  MEAT  ....       352 

CHAPTER  XVI 
RELEVES  AND  ENTRIES  OF  POULTRY  AND  GAME    ....       473 

CHAPTER  XVII 
ROASTS  AND  SALADS         ........       605 

CHAPTER  XVIII 
VEGETABLES  AND   FARINACEOUS  PRODUCTS  ....       624 

CHAPTER  XIX 
SAVORIES       ..........       678 

CHAPTER  XX 
ENTREMETS.      (SWEETS)  .  .  .....       687 

CHAPTER  XXI 

ICES   AND  SHERBETS  .....  788 

CHAPTER  XXII 

DRINKS   AND   REFRESHMENTS     .  .  .  .  .  .  .816 

CHAPTER  XXIII 
FRUIT-STEWS  AND  JAMS  ,.,,...       820 


GLOSSARY 


Abats,  stands  for  such  butcher's  supplies  as  heads,  hearts,  livers,  kidneys, 
feet,  &c. 

Aiguillettes,  see  No.  1755. 

Ailerons,  see  No.  1583. 

Amourettes,  see  No.  1288. 

Anglaise,  to  treat  k  I'Anglaise,  see  No.  174. 

Anglaise,  to  cook  k  I'Anglaise,  means  to  cook  plainly  in  water. 

Anglaise,  a  preparation  of  beaten  eggs,  oil  and  seasoning. 

Attereaux,  see  No.  12 19. 

Baba-moulds,  a  kind  of  small  deep  cylindrical  mould,  slightly  wider  at  the 
top  than  at  the  bottom. 

Bain-Marie,  a  hot-water  bath  in  which  utensils  containing  various  culinary 
preparations  are  immersed  to  keep  warm,  or  for  the  purpose  of  poach- 
ing or  cooking. 

Barquettes,  see  No.  314. 

Biscottes,  a  kind  of  rusks. 

Blanch,  Blanched,  see  No.  273. 

Brandade,  see  No.  127. 

Brunoise-fashion,  see  Cut  below. 

Canapis,  see  No.  316. 

Caramel  Stage,  see  Stages  in  the  Cooking  of  Sugar,  below. 

Casserole  (En),  see  No.  250. 

Cassolette,  a  kind  of  hot  hors-d'oeuvre,  moulded  to  the  shape  of  a  small 
drum. 

apes,  a  kind  of  mushroom  (Boletus  edulis). 

Chartreuse-fashion,  see  No.  1220. 

Chiffonade,  see  No.  215. 

Chinois,  a  very  small  green  candied  orange. 

Chipolata,  a  kind  of  small  sausages. 

Choux,  a  kind  of  cake  made  from  Pate  k  Choux,  q.v. 

Cisel,  Ciseled,  to  cut  a  vegetable  after  the  manner  of  a  chaff-cutting 
machine. 

Clothe,  Clothed,  Clothing  {of  moulds),  see  No.  916. 

Coeotte  {En),  see  No.  250. 

Concass,  Concassed,  to  chop  roughly. 


xiv  GLOSSARY 

Contise,  to  incise  a  piepe  of  meat  at  stated  intervals,  and  to  insert  slices  of 
truffle,  or  other  substance,  into  each  incision. 

Crepinettes,  see  No.  14  lo. 

Croustade,  see  No.  2393. 

Croutons,  pieces  of  bread  of  various  shapes  and  sizes,  fried  in  butter.  In 
the  case  of  aspic  jelly,  croutons  stand  for  variously  shaped  pieces  used 
in  bordering  dishes. 

Cut,  Brunoise-fashion  =  to  cut  a  product  into  small  dice. 

Cut,  Julienne-fashion   =  to  cut  a  product  into  match-shaped  rods. 

Cut,  Paysanne-fashion  =  to  cut  a  product  into  triangles. 

Dariok-moulds,  small  Baba-moulds,  q.v. 

Darne,  see  No.  184. 

Daubilre,  an  earthenware  utensil  used  in  the  cooking  of  Daubes. 

icarlate  (A  P),  salted  meat  is  said  to  be  k  I'^carlate  when  it  is  swathed  in 
a  coat  of  scarlet  jelly. 

Escarole,  Batavia  chicory. 

Feuilletis,  a  kind  of  puffs  made  from  puff-paste. 

Flute  (French,  soup),  a  long  crisp  roll  of  bread. 

Fondue,  (i)  a  cheese  preparation;  (2)  a  pulpy  state  to  which  such  vege- 
tables as  tomatoes,  sorrel,  &c.,  are  reduced  by  cooking. 

Fumet,  a  kind  of  essence  extracted  from  fish,  game,  &c. 

Galette,  a  large  quoit,  made  from  puff-paste  or  short-paste,  &c. 

Gaufrette,  a  special  wafer. 

Ginoise,  see  No.  2376. 

Gild,  Gilding,  Gilded  (i)  to  cover  an  object  with  beaten  eggs,  by  means  of  a 
brush  j  (2)  to  give  a  golden  sheen  to  objects  by  means  of  heat. 

Gratin,  Gratined,  see  No.  268  to  272  inclusive. 

Hatelet,  an  ornamental  skewer ;  the  word  sometimes  stands  for  Attereaux. 

Julienne,  Julienne-fashion,  see  Cut. 

Langoustine,  a  small  variety  of  the  Spiny  Lobster. 

Large-Ball  Stage,  see  Stages  in  the  Cooking  of  Sugar,  below. 

Large-Crack  Stage,  see  Stages  in  the  Cooking  of  Sugar,  below. 

Large-Thread  Stage,  see  Stages  in  the  Cooking  of  Sugar,  below. 

Maddoine,  a  mixture  of  early-season  vegetables  or  fruit. 

Madeleine-mould,  a  mould  in  the  shape  of  a  narrow  scallop-shell. 

Manied  (said  of  butter),  see  No.  r5i. 

Marinade,  see  No.  i68. 

Meringue,  see  No.  2382.     Meringued  =C02X&&.  with  meringue. 

Mirepoix,  see  No.  228. 

Mise-en-place,  a  general  name  given  to  those  elementary  preparations 
which  are  constantly  resorted  to  during  the  various  stages  of  most 
culinary  operations. 

Morue,  Newfoundland  or  Iceland  salt-cod. 

Mousses,  a  class  of  light,  hot  or  cold  preparations  of  fish,  meat,  poultry, 
game,  etc.,  and  sweets,  moulded  in  large  moulds  in  sufficient  quan- 
tities for  several  people. 


GLOSSARY  XV 

Mousselines,  same  as  above,  but  moulded  in  small  quantities  at  a  time, 

enough  for  one  person. 
Mousserons,  a  kind  of  mushroom. 
Nappe  Stage,  see  Stages  in  the  Cooking  of  Sugar,  below. 
Orgeat,  a  beverage  made  from  syrup  and  almonds. 
Oxalis,  a  Mexican  vegetable,  aUied  to  sorrel,  of  which  the  roots  principally 

are  eaten. 
Paillettes  au  Parmesan,  see  No.  2322. 

Palmettes,  palm-shaped  pieces  of  puif-paste,  used  in  decorating. 
PanSs  i  PAnglaise,  treated  k  I'Anglaise,  see  Anglaise. 
Pannequets,  see  No.  2403. 
Papillate,  see  No.  1259. 
P&te  i  Choux,  see  No.  2373. 
Paupiette,  a  strip  of  chicken,  of  fish  fillet,  or  other  meat,  garnished  with 

forcemeat,  rolled  to  resemble  a  scroll  and  cooked. 
Paysanne-fashion,  see  Cut. 
Pluches,  the  shreds  of  chervil,  used  for  soups. 
Po'ele,  Peeling,  see  No.  250. 
Peek  (A  Id),  see  No.  395. 
Pralin,  see  No.  2352. 

Pralined,  having  been  treated  with  Pralin,  q.v. 
Printanier  (Eng.    Vernal),   a   name   given  to   a  garnish  of  early-season 

vegetables,  cut  to  various  shapes. 
Profiterolles,  see  No.  218. 
R&ble,  the  back  of  a  hare. 
Ravioli,  see  No.  2296. 
Ribbon  Stage,  see  No.  2376. 
Rissole,  to  fry  brown. 
Salpicon,  a  compound  of  various  products,  cut  into  dice,  and,  generally, 

cohered  with  sauce  or  forcemeat. 
Sautt,  Sauttd,  a  process  of  cooking  described  under  No.  251. 
Saute,  a  qualifying  term  applied  to  dishes  treated  in  the  way  described 

under  No.  251. 
Savarin-mould,  an  even,  crown-shaped  mould. 
Small- Ball  Stage,  see  Stages  in  the  Cooking  of  Sugar,  below. 
Small-Crack  Stage,  see  Stages  in  the  Cooking  of  Sugar,  below. 
Small- Thread  Stage,  see  Stages  in  the  Cooking  of  Sugar,  below. 
Souffli,  name  given  to  a  class  of  light,  hot  or  cold  preparations  of  fish, 

meat,  poultry,  game,  etc.,  and  sweets,  to  which  the  whites  of  eggs  are 

usually  added  if  the  preparation  is  served  hot,  and  to  which  whisked 

cream  is  added  if  the  preparation  is  served  cold. 
Soup-Flute,  see  Flute. 
Stages  in  the  Cooking  of  Sugar : — 

Small-Thread'j . 

Large-Thread  J-See  No.  2344. 

Small-Ball     J 


xvi  GLOSSARY 

Stages  in  the  Cooking  of  Sugar  {continued) : — 

Large-Ball    ^ 

Small-Crack  L,      .^ 

Large-Crack  f^^  ^°-  ^344- 

Caramel        J 

Nappe,  see  No.  2955. 
Subrics,  see  No.  2137. 
Suprtme,  a  name  given  to  the  fillet  of  the  breast  of  a  fowl.     The  term  has 

been  extended  to  certain  of  the  best  parts  of  fish,  game,  etc. 
Terrine,  a  patty. 

Terrine  a  P&te,  a  special  utensil  in  which  patties  are  cooked. 
Tomatid.      Preparations    are   said  to   be   tomatdd  when  they  are  mixed 

with  enough  tomato  purde  for  the  shade  and  flavour  of  the  latter  to 

be  distinctly  perceptible  in  them. 
Vesiga,  the  dried  spine-marrow  of  the  sturgeon. 
Zest,  the  outermost,  coloured,  glossy  film  of  the  rind  of  an  orange   or 

lemon. 


PART   I 

FUNDAMENTAL    ELEMENTS     OF 
COOKING 

CHAPTER    I 

FONDS   DE  CUISINE 

Before  undertaking  the  description  of  the  different  kinds  of 
dishes  whose  recipes  I  purpose  giving  in  this  work,  it  will  be 
necessary  to  reveal  the  groundwork  whereon  these  recipes  are 
built.  And,  although  this  has  already  been  done  again  and 
again,  and  is  wearisome  in  the  extreme,  a  text-book  on  cooking 
that  did  not  include  it  would  be  not  only  incomplete,  but  in 
many  cases  incomprehensible. 

Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  it  is  the  usual  procedure,  in 
matters  culinary,  to  insist  upon  the  importance  of  the  part 
played  by  stock,  I  feel  compelled  to  refer  to  it  at  the  outset 
of  this  work,  and  to  lay  even  further  stress  upon  what  has 
already  been  written  on  the  subject. 

Indeed,  stock  is  everything  in  cooking,  at  least  in  French 
cooking.  Without  it,  nothing  can  be  done.  If  one's  stock  is 
good,  what  remains  of  the  work  is  easy ;  if,  on  the  other  hand, 
it  is  bad  or  merely  mediocre,  it  is  quite  hopeless  to  expect  any- 
thing approaching  a  satisfactory  result. 

The  workman  mindful  of  success,  therefore,  will  naturally 
direct  his  attention  to  the  faultless  preparation  of  his  stock,  and, 
in  order  to  achieve  this  result,  he  will  find  it  necessary  not 
merely  to  make  use  of  the  freshest  and  finest  goods,  but  also 
to  exercise  the  most  scrupulous  care  in  their  preparation,  for, 
in  cooking,  care  is  half  the  battle.  Unfortunately,  no  theories, 
no  formulae,  and  no  recipes,  however  well  written,  can  take  the 
place  of  practical  experience  in  the  acquisition  of  a  full  know- 
ledge concerning  this  part  of  the  work — the  most  important, 
the  most  essential,  and  certainly  the  most  difficult  part. 

In  the  matter  of  stock  it  is,  above  all,  necessary  to  have  a 
sufficient  quantity  of  the  finest  materials  at  one's  disposal. 
The  master  or  mistress  of  a  house  who  stints  in  this  respect 
thereby  deliberately  forfeits  his  or  her  right  to  make  any  remark 

B 


2  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

whatsoever  to  the  chef  concerning  his  work,  for,  let  the  talent 
or  merits  of  the  latter  be  what  they  may,  they  are  crippled  by 
insufficient  or  inferior  material.  It  is  just  as  absurd  to  exact 
excellent  cooking  from  a  chef  whom  one  provides  with  defective 
or  scanty  goods,  as  to  hope  to  obtain  wine  from  a  bottled 
decoction  of  logwood. 

The  Principal   Kinds  of  Fonds   de  Cuisine  (Foundation 
Sauces  and  Stocks) 

The  principal  kinds  of  fonds  de  cuisine  are  :■ — 

1.  Ordinary  and  clarified  consommes. 

2.  The  brown  stock  or  "  estouffade,"  game  stocks,  the  bases 
of  thickened  gravies  and  of  brown  sauces. 

3.  White  stock,  basis  of  white  sauces. 

4.  Fish  stock. 

5.  The  various  essences  of  poultry,  game,  fish,  &c.,  the 
complements  of  small  sauces. 

6.  The  various  glazes  :  for  meat,  game,  and  poultry. 

7.  The  basic  sauces :  Espagnole,-  Veloute,  Bechamel, 
Tomato,  and  Hollandaise. 

8.  The  savoury  jellies  or  aspics  of  old-fashioned  cooking. 
To   these   kinds   of  stock,   which,    in   short,    represent   the 

buttresses  of  the  culinary  edifice,  must  now  be  added  the  follow- 
ing preparations,  which  are,  in  a  measure,  the  auxiliaries  of 
the  above : — 

1.  The  roux,  the  cohering  element  in  sauces. 

2.  The  "  Mirepoix "  and  "  Matignon  "  aromatic  and 
flavouring  elements. 

3.  The  "  Court-Bouillon  "  and  the  "  Blancs." 

4.  The  various  stuffings. 

5.  The  marinades. 

6.  The  various  garnishes  for  soups,  for  relev^s,  for  entries, 
&c.  ("Duxelle,"  "  Duchesse,"  "  Dauphine,"  Pate  a  choux, 
frying  batters,  various  Salpicons,  Profiteroles,  Royales  CEufs 
fil6s,  Diablotins,  Pastes,  &c.). 

I— ORDINARY  OR  WHITE  CONSOMME 

Quantities  for  making  Four  Quarts. 

3  lbs.  of  shin  of  beef.  |  lb.  of  leeks  and  i  stick  of  celery. 
3  lbs.  of  lean  beef.  |  lb.  of  parsnips. 

1 1  lbs.   of  fowls'  carcases.  i     medium-sized    onion    with     a 

I  lb.  of  carrots.  clove  stuck  in  it. 

I  lb.  of  turnips. 


FONDS  DE  CUISINE  3 

Preparation. — Put  the  meat  into  a  stock-pot  of  suitable 
dimensions,  after  having  previously  strung  it  together;  add 
the  poultry  carcase,  five  quarts  of  water,  and  one-half  oz.  of 
grey  salt.  Place  the  stock-pot  on  a  moderate  fire  in  such  a 
manner  that  it  may  not  boil  too  quickly,  and  remember  to 
stir  the  meat  from  time  to  time.  Under  the  influence  of  the 
heat,  the  water  gradually  reaches  the  interior  of  the  meat, 
where,  after  having  dissolved  the  liquid  portions,  it  duly  com- 
bines with  them.  These  liquid  portions  contain  a  large  pro- 
portion of  albumen,  and  as  the  temperature  of  the  water  rises 
this  substance  has  a  tendency  to  coagulate.  It  also  increases 
in  volume,  and,  by  virtue  of  its  lightness,  escapes  from  the 
water  and  accumulates  on  the  surface  in  the  form  of  scum. 
Carefully  remove  this  scum  as  it  forms,  and  occasionally  add 
a  little  cold  water  before  the  boil  is  reached  in  order  that,  the 
latter  being  retarded,  a  complete  expulsion  of  the  scum  may 
be  effected.  The  clearness  of  the  consomm^  largely  depends 
upon  the  manner  in  which  this  skimming  has  been  carried 
out.  Then  the  vegetable  garnishing  is  added.  The  scum  from 
these  is  removed  as  in  the  previous  case,  and  the  edge  of  the 
stock-pot  should  be  carefully  wiped  to  the  level  of  the  fluid,  so 
as  to  free  it  from  the  deposit  which  has  been  formed  there. 
The  stock-pot  is  then  moved  to  a  corner  of  the  fire  where  it 
may  continue  cooking  slowly  for  four  or  five  hours.  At  the 
end  of  this  time  it  should  be  taken  right  away  from  the  fire, 
and,  after  half  a  pint  of  cold  water  has  been  added  to  its  con- 
tents, it  should  be  left  to  rest  a  few  minutes  with  a  view  to 
allowing  the  grease  to  accumulate  on  the  surface  of  the  liquid, 
whence  it  must  be  carefully  removed  before  the  consomm^  is 
strained.  This  last  operation  is  effected  by  means  of  a  very 
fine  strainer,  placed  on  the  top  of  a  white  tureen  (clean  and 
wide),  which  should  then  be  placed  in  a  draught  to  hasten  the 
cooling  of  the  consomm6.  The  tureen  should  not  on  any 
account  be  covered,  and  this  more  particularly  in  summer, 
when  rapid  cooling  is  a  precautionary  measure  against  fer- 
mentation. 

Remarks  upon  the  Different  Causes  which  Combine  to 
Influence  the  Quality  of  a  Consomme 

It  will  be  seen  that  I  have  not  made  any  mention  in  the 
above  formula  of  the  meat  and  the  vegetables  which  have 
helped  to  make  the  consomm^,  my  reason  being  that  it  is 
preferable  to  remove  them  from  the  stock-pot  only  after  the 

B  2 


4  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

broth  has  been  strained,  so  as  not  to  run  the  risk  of  disturbing 
the  latter. 

The  quality  of  the  meat  goes  a  long  way .  towards  settling 
the  quality  of  the  consomme.  In  order  that  the  latter  be  perfect, 
it  is  essential  that  the  meat  used  should  be-  that  of  comparatively 
old  animals  whose  flesh  is  well  set  and  rich  in  flavour.  This 
is  a  sine  qua  non,  and  the  lack  of  meat  coming  from  old  animals 
in  England  accounts  for  the  difficulty  attaching  to  the  making 
of  a  good  consomm^  and  savoury  sauces  in  this  country.  Cattle 
in  England  are  killed  at  an  age  varying  from  three  to  four  years 
at  the  most;  the  meat  thus  obtained  has  no  equal  for  the 
purpose  of  roasts  and  grills,  and  anything  approaching  it  is 
rarely  met  with  on  the  Continent.  But  when  this  same  meat 
is  used  for  boiling  or  braising,  it  does  not  contain  enough  juice 
or  flavour  to  yield  a  satisfactory  result. 

This  shortcoming  is  furthermore  aggravated  by  a  fault  that 
many  commit  who  are  employed  in  the  making  of  consommes 
and  stock.  The  fault  in  question  consists  in  cooking  the  bones 
simultaneously  with  the  meat.  Now  to  extract  that  gelatinous 
element  from  bone  which  produces  the  mellowness  character- 
istic of  all  good  consommes,  it  is  necessary  that  the  gelatigenous 
bodies  should  be  cooked  for  twelve  hours  at  least,  and  even 
after  that  time  has  elapsed  they  are  still  not  entirely  spent. 
On  the  Continent  the  quality  of  the  meat  easily  compensates 
for  this  technical  error,  but  such  is  certainly  not  the  case  in 
England,  where  five  hours'  stewing  only  results  in  a  flat  and 
insipid  consomm^. 

I  therefore  believe  that,  in  the  case  of  either  consomme  or 
stock,  the  formulas  of  which  I  shall  give  later,  it  would  be  ad- 
visable for  the  bones  to  stew  at  least  twelve  hours,  and  this  only 
after  they  have  been  well  broken  up,  while  the  quantity  of  water 
used  should  be  so  calculated  as  to  suffice  exactly  for  the  im- 
mersion of  the  meat  that  must  follow.  The  contents  of  this 
first  stock-pot  should  include  half  of  the  vegetables  mentioned, 
and  the  consomm6  thus  obtained,  after  having  been  strained  and 
cooled,  will  take  the  place  of  the  water  in  the  recipe,  in  accord- 
ance with  the  directions  I  have  given  above. 

The  Uses  of  White  Consomme 

.,  White  consomme  is  used  in  the  preparation  of  clarified  con- 
sommes, in  which  case  it  undergoes  a  process  of  clarifying,  the 
directions  for  which  will  be  given  later.  It  also  serves  as  the 
liquor  for  thick  soups,  poached  fowls,  &c.     It  must  be  limpid. 


FONDS  DE  CUISINE  5 

as  colourless  as  possible,  and  very  slightly  salted,  for,  what- 
ever the  use  may  be  for  which  it  is  intended,  it  has  to  undergo 
a  process  of  concentration. 

2— THE  PREPARATION  OF  CLARIFIED 
CONSOMME  FOR  CLEAR  SOUPS 

Qwantities  for  making  four  quarts. — Five  quarts  of  ordinary 
consomm^,  one  and  one-half  lbs.  of  very  lean  beef,  the  white 
of  an  egg,  one  fowl's  carcase  (roasted  if  possible).  First, 
mince  the  beef  and  pound  it  in  a  mortar  with  the  fowl's  carcase 
and  the  white  of  egg,  adding  a  little  cold  white  consomm^. 
Put  the  whole  into  a  tall,  narrow,  and  thick-bottomed  stewpan ; 
then  gradually  add  the  cold,  white  broth,  from  which  all  grease 
has  been  removed,  that  the  whole  may  be  well  mixed. 
Then  the  stewpan  may  be  put  on  the  fire,  and  its  contents 
thoroughly  stirred,  for  fear  of  their  burning  at  the  bottom. 
When  boiling-point  is  reached,  move  the  stewpan  to  a  corner 
of  the  fire,  so  that  the  soup  may  only  simmer,  for  anything 
approaching  the  boil  would  disturb  the  contents.  A  good  hour 
should  be  enough  to  properly  finish  the  consomm^,  and  any 
longer  time  on  the  fire  would  be  rather  prejudicial  than  the 
reverse,  as  it  would  probably  impair  the  flavour  of  the  prepara- 
tion. Now  carefully  remove  what  little  grease  may  have  col- 
lected on  the  surface  of  the  consomm^,  and  strain  the  latter 
through  muslin  into  another  clean  stewpan.  It  is  now  ready 
for  the  addition  of  the  garnishes  that  are  to  form  part  of  it, 
which  I  shall  enumerate  in  due  course. 


Remarks  upon  Clarifications 

For  clarified  consommes,  even  more  than  for  the  ordinary 
kind,  it  is  eminently  advisable  that  the  meat  should  be  that 
of  old  animals.  Indeed,  it  is  safe  to  say  that  one  lb.  of  meat 
coming  from  an  animal  of  eight  years  will  yield  much  better 
consomm^  than  two  lbs.  would,  coming  from  a  fattened 
animal  of  about  three  or  four  years.  The  consomm^  will  be 
stronger,  mellower,  and  certainly  more  tasty,  as  the  flesh  of 
young  animals  has  absolutely  no  richness  of  flavour. 

It  will  be  seen  that  I  do  not  refer  to  any  vegetable  for  the 
clarification.  If  the  white  consomm^  has  been  well  carried  out, 
it  should  be  able  to  dispense  with  all  supplementary  flavouring, 
and,  the  customary  error  of  cooks  being  rather  to  overdo  the 
quantity  of  vegetables — even  to  the  extent  of  disguising  the 
natural  aroma  of  the  consomm^ — I  preferred  to  entirely  abandon 


6  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

the  idea  of  vegetable  garnishes  in  clarifications,  and  thus  avoid 
a  common  stumbling-block. 

3— CHICKEN  CONSOMME 

White  chicken  consomm6  is  prepared  in  exactly  the  sam.e 
way  as  ordinary  white  consomm^.  There  need  only  be  added 
to  the  meat,  the  quantity  of  which  may  be  lessened,  an  old  hen 
or  a  cock,  slightly  coloured  on  the  spit  or  in  the  oven. 

For  the  clarification,  the  quantity  of  roast  fowl-carcases 
used  may  be  increased,  provided  the  latter  be  not  too  fat.  The 
process,  however,  is  the  same  as  in  the  clarification  of  ordinary 
consommds. 

The  colour  of  chicken  consomm6  should  be  lighter  than  that 
of  the  ordinary  kind — namely,  a  light,  amber  yellow,  limpid 
and  warm.  ^ 

4— FISH  CONSOMME 

These  consommes  are  rarely  used,  for  Lenten  soups  with  a 
fish  basis  are  generally  thick  soups,  for  the  preparation  of 
which  the  fish  fumet  whereof  I  shall  give  the  formula  later 
(Formula  No.  ii)  should  avail.  Whenever  there  is  no  definite 
reason  for  the  use  of  an  absolutely  Lenten  consomm^,  it  would 
be  advisable  to  resort  to  one  of  the  ordinary  kind,  and  to  finish 
off  the  same  by  means  of  a  good  fish  essence  extracted  from 
the  bones  of  a  sole  or  whiting.  An  excellent  consomm6  is  thus 
obtained,  more  palatable  and  less  flat  than  the  plain  fish  con- 
somm^. 

If,  however,  one  were  obliged  to  make  a  plain  fish  con- 
somm^,  the  following  procedure  should  be  adopted : — 

Clarification  of  Fish  Consomme 

Quantities  for  making  Four  Quarts. — Four  and  one-half 
quarts  of  ordinary  fish  fumet  having  a  decided  taste;  one-half 
lb.  of  good  fresh  caviare,  or  pressed  caviare. 

Mode  of  Procedure. — Pound  the  caviare  and  mix  the  result- 
ing pulp  with  the  cold  fish  fumet.  Put  the  whole  into  a  sauce- 
pan, place  it  on  the  open  fire,  and  stir  with  a  spatula  until  the 
contents  reach  the  boil.  Then  move  the  saucepan  to  a  corner 
of  the  fire,  and  let  the  consomm^  simmer  gently  for  twenty 
minutes,  after  which  strain  it  through  muslin  with  great  caution, 
and  keep  it  well  covered  and  in  the  warmth,  so  as  to  prevent 
the  formation  of  a  gelatinous  film  on  the  surface. 

Fish  consommi^s  are  greatly  improved  by  the  addition   of 


PONDS  DE  CUISINE  1 

such  ftfothatics  as  saffron  or  curry,  both  of  which  considerably 
add  to  their  quahty. 

'  5— GAME  CONSOMME 

The  necks,  breasts,  and  shoulders  of  venison  and  of  hare, 
old  wild  rabbits,  old  pheasants,  and  old  partridges  may  be  used 
in  the  production  of  game  consommes.  An  ordinary  consomm^ 
may  likewise  be  made,  in  which  half  the  beef  can  be  replaced 
by  veal,  and  to  which  may  be  added,  while  clarifying,  a  suc- 
culent game  essence.  This  last  method  is  even  preferable  when 
dealing  with  feathered  game,  but  in  either  case  it  is  essential 
that  the  meat  used  should  be  half-roasted  beforehand,  in  order 
to  strengthen  the  fumet. 

The  formula  that  I  give  below  must  therefore  only  be  looked 
upon  as  a  model,  necessarily  alterable  according  to  the  resources 
at  one's  disposal,  the  circumstances,  and  the  end  in  view. 

Quantities  for  making  Four  Quarts  of  Plain  Game  Consomme. 

3  lbs.  of  neck,  shoulder,  or  breast      i  medium-sized  leek  and  2  sticks 

of  venison.  of  celery. 

I J  lbs.  of  hare-trimmings.  i    bunch    of    herbs    with     extra 
I  old  pheasant  or  2  partridges.  thyme  and  bay  leaves. 

4  oz.  of  sliced  carrots,  browned  in  i   onion,    oven-browned,  with    2 

butter.  cloves  stuck  into  it. 

J    lb.    of    mushrooms,    likewise 
browned  in  butter. 

Liquor. — Five  and  one-half  quarts  of  water. 

Seasoning. — One  oz.  of  salt  and  a  few  peppercorns,  these 
to  be  added  ten  minutes  previous  to  straining  the  consomm^. 

Time  allowed  for  cooking. — Three  hours. 

Mode  of  Procedure. — Proceed  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  for 
*  ordinary  consommes,  taking  care  only  to  half-roast  the  meat, 
as  I  pointed  out  above,  before  putting  it  in  the  stewpan. 

The  Clarification  of  Game  Consommes 

The  constituents  of  the  clarification  of  game  consommes 
vary  according  to  the  kind  of  consomm^  desired.  If  it  is  to 
have  a  partridge  flavour,  one  partridge  should  be  allowed  for 
each  quart  of  the  consomm^,  whereas  if  its  flavour  is  to  be 
that  of  the  pheasant,  half  an  old  pheasant  will  be  required  per 
each  quart  of  the  liquid.  Lastly,  in  the  case  of  plain  game 
consommes,  one  lb.  of  lean  venison,  hare,  or  wild  rabbit  should 
be  allowed  for  each  quart  of  the  required  consomm6. 

Mode  of  Procedure. — Whatever  be  the  kind  of  game  used, 
the  latter  must  be  thoroughly  boned  and  the  meat  well  pounded, 
together  with  the  white  of  an  egg  per  four  quarts  of  consomm^. 


8  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

About  two  oz.  per  quart  of  dried  mushrooms  should  now  be 
added  if  they  can  be  procured,  while  the  bones  and  the  remains 
or  carcases  of  game  should  be  browned  in  the  oven  and  com- 
pletely drained  of  all  grease.  The  whole  can  now  be  mixed 
with  the  cold  game  consomm^.  The  clarification  is  then  put 
over  an  open  fire  (stirring  incessantly  the  while),  and  as  soon 
as  the  boil  is  reached  the  saucepan  must  be  moved  to  a  corner 
of  the  fire,  where  its  contents  niay  gently  boil  for  three-quarters 
of  an  hour.  The  fat  should  then  be  removed,  and  the  con- 
somm^  strained  through  muslin,  after  which  cover  up  until 
wanted. 

6— SPECIAL  CONSOMMES  FOR  SUPPERS 

The  consommes  whose  formulae  I  have  just  given  are  in- 
tended more  particularly  for  dinners.  They  are  always  finished 
off  by  some  kind  of  garnish,  which,  besides  lending  them  an 
additional  touch  of  flavour,  gives  them  their  special  and  definite 
character  when  they  are  served  up  in  the  diner's  plate. 

But  the  case  is  otherwise  with  the  consommes  served  for 
suppers.  These,  being  only  served  in  cups,  either  hot  or  cold, 
do  not  allow  of  any  garnishing,  since  they  are  to  be  drunk  at 
table.  They  must  therefore  be  perfect  in  themselves,  delicate, 
and  quite  clear. 

These  special  consommes  are  made  in  a  similar  manner  to 
the  others,  though  it  is  needful  to  slightly  increase  the  quantity 
of  meat  used  for  the  clarification,  and  to  add  to  that  clarification 
the  particular  flavour  mentioned  on  th.e  menu — to  wit,  a  few 
stalks  of  celery,  if  the  consomm^  is  a  celery  one;  a  small 
quantity  of  curry,  if  the  consomm6  is  given  as  "  ^  ITndienne  "  ; 
or  a  few  old  roast  partridges  if  it  is  to  be  termed  "  Consomm^ 
au  fumet  de  perdreau  " ;  and  so  on. 

The  means  by  which  one  may  vary  the  aroma  of  con- 
sommes are  legion,  but  it  is  highly  important,  what  aroma 
soever  be  used,  that  the  latter  be  not  too  pronounced.  It  ought 
only  to  lend  a  distinctive  and,  at  the  same  time,  subtle  finish 
to  the  consomm6,  which,  besides  sharpening  the  latter,  should 
increase  its  succulence. 

When  the  consomm^  is  served  cold  it  ought  to  have  the 
qualities  of  an  extremely  light  and  easily-melting  jelly,  barely 
firm;  but  when  it  is  too  liquid,  it  rarely  gives  that  sensation  of 
perfection  and  succulence  to  the  palate  of  the  consumer  which 
the  latter  expects.  When  too  firm  and  too  gelatinous  it  is 
positively  disagreeable;  therefore,  if  it  is  to  be  relished,  it 
should  be  just  right  in  respect  of  consistency. 


FONDS  DE  CUISINE  9 

7— BROWN  STOCK  OR  "ESTOUFFADE" 

Quantities  for  making  Four  Quarts. 

4  lbs.  of  shin  of  beef  (flesh  and  |  lb.  of  minced  carrots,  browned 

bone).  in  butter. 

4  lbs.  of  shin  of  veal  (flesh  and  |  lb.  of  minced  onions,  browned 

bone).  in  butter. 

i  lb.  of  lean,  raw  ham.  i  faggot,  containing  a  little  pars- 

I  lb.  of  fresh  pork  rind,   rinsed  ley,  a  stick  of  celery,  a  small 

in  tepid  water.  sprig  of  thyme,  and  a  bay 

leaf. 

Preparation. — Bone  and  string  the  meat,  and  keep  it  in 
readiness  for  the  morrow.  Break  the  bones  as  finely  as  pos- 
sible, and,  after  having  besprinkled  them  with  a  little  stock-fat, 
brown  them  in  an  oven ;  also  stir  them  repeatedly.  When  they 
are  slightly  browned,  put  them  in  a  conveniently  large  sauce- 
pan with  the  carrots,  the  onions,  and  the  faggot.  Add  five 
quarts  of  cold  water,  and  put  the  saucepan  on  an  open  fire 
to  boil.  As  soon  as  the  boil  is  reached  skim  carefully;  wipe 
the  edge  of  the  saucepan ;  put  the  lid  half  on,  and  allow  the 
stock  to  cook  gently  for  twelve  hours;  then  roughly  remove 
the  fat;  pass  the  liquid  through  a  sieve,  and  let  it  cool. 

This  being  done,  put  the  meat  in  a  saucepan  just  large 
enough  to  hold  it.  Brown  it  a  little  in  some  stock-fat,  and 
clear  it  entirely  of  the  latter.  Add  half  a  pint  of  the  prepared 
stock,  cover  the  saucepan,  and  let  the  meat  simmer  on  the  side 
of  the  fire  until  the  stock  is  almost  entirely  reduced.  Mean- 
while the  meat  should  have  been  repeatedly  turned,  that  it  may 
be  equally  affected  throughout.  Now  pour  the  remainder  of 
the  stock,  prepared  from  bones,  into  the  saucepan,  bring  the 
whole  to  the  boil,  and  then  move  the  saucepan  to  a  corner  of 
the  fire  for  the  boiling  to  continue  very  slowly  and  regularly 
with  the  lid  off.  As  soon  as  the  meat  is  well  cooked  the  fat 
should  be  removed  from  the  stock,  and  the  latter  should  be 
strained  or  rubbed  through  a  sieve,  after  which  it  should  be 
put  aside  to  be  used  when  required. 

Remarks  Relative  to  the  Making  of  Brown  Stock. — Instead 
of  stringing  the  meat  after  having  boned  it,  if  time  presses, 
it  may  be  cut  into  large  cubes  before  browning.  In  this  case 
one  hour  and  a  half  would  suffice  to  cook  it  and  to  extract  all 
its  juice. 

Whether  brown  or  white,  stock  should  never  be  salted, 
because  it  is  never  served  in  its  original  state.  It  is  either 
reduced  in  order  to  make  glazes  or  sauces — in  which  case  the 
concentration  answers  the  purpose  of  seasoning — or  else  it  is 


lo  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

used  to  cook  meat  which  miist  be  salted  before  being  cooked, 
and  which,  therefore,  imparts  the  necessary  salt  to  its  sur- 
rounding liquor. 

Brown  stock  ought  to  be  the  colour  of  fine  burnt  amber, 
and  it  must  be  transparent.  It  is  used  in  making  meat-glazes 
after  reduction,  also  to  moisten  meat  for  braising  and  to  prepare 
brown  sauces. 


8— BROWN  GAME  STOCK 

There  is  no  difference  between  the  game  consommes  and 
game  stock,  or,  otherwise  stated,  ordinary  game  consomme 
and  brown  game  stock  are  one  and  the  same  thing.  The  dis- 
tinction lies  in  the  ultimate  use  of  this  preparation ;  it  is  clari- 
fied, as  we  have  shown  (Formula  5),  if  it  be  intended  for  a  clear 
soup,  and  it  is  used  in  its  original  state  if  it  is  to  be  used  for 
a  thick  game  soup,  for  a  sauce,  or  for  reducing. 

9— BROWN  VEAL  STOCK 

Brown  veal  stock  requires  the  same  quantities  of  shin  and 
trimmings  of  veal  as  white  veal  stock  (Formula  10).  The  time 
allowed  for  cooking  is,  however,  a  little  shorter,  and  this  opera- 
tion may  be  completed  within  eight  hours.  This  stock  is  mostly 
used  as  the  liquor  for  poultry  and  poeled  game,  while  it  may 
also  serve  in  the  preparation  of  thickened  veal  stock.  Being 
quite  neutral  in  taste,  it  lends  itself  to  all  purposes,  and  readily 
takes  up  the  aroma  of  the  meat  with  which  it  may  happen  to 
be  combined.  It  is  admirably  suited  to  the  poaching  of  quails, 
and  nothing  can  supplant  it  in  this  particular. 

,0— WHITE  STOCK,  VEAL  AND  POULTRY  STOCK 

Quantities  for  -making  Four  Quarts. 

8  lbs.  of  shin  of  veal,  or  lean  and  5J  quarts  of  cold  water. 

fresh  veal  trimmings.  4  oz.  of  leeks  strung  with  a  stick 

I  or  2  fowls'  carcases,  raw  if  they  of  celery. 

are  handy.  i     faggot,    including     i     oz.     of 

12  oz.  of  carrots.  parsley,    i    bay   leaf,    and    a 

6  oz.  of  onions  stuck  with  a  clove.  of  parsley,  i  bay  leaf,  and  a 

Preparation. — Bone  the  shins,  string  the  meat,  break  up  the 
bones  as  small  as  possible,  and  put  them  in  a  stewpan  with  the 
water.  Place  on  an  open  fire,  allow  to  boil,  skim  carefully, 
and  then  move  to  a  side  of  the  fire  to  cook  very  gently  for 


FONDS  DE  CUISINE  ii 

five  hours.  At  the  end  of  this  time  put  the  stock  into  another 
stewpan,  add  the  meat  and  the  vegetables,  add  water,  if  neces- 
sary, to  keep  the  quantity  of  liquid  at  five  quarts,  let  it  boil, 
and  allow  it  to  cook  slowly  for  another  three  hours,  after  which 
remove  all  grease  from  the  stock,  pass  the  latter  through  a  fine 
strainer  or  a  colander,  and  put  it  aside  until  wanted. 

Remarks  upon  White  Stock. — One  should  contrive  to  make 
this  stock  as  gelatinous  as  possible.  It  is  therefore  an  indis- 
pensable measure  that  the  bones  be  well  broken  up  and  cooked 
for  at  least  eight  hours.  Veal  never  yields  such  clear  stock 
as  beef;  nevertheless,  the  consomm^  obtained  from  veal  should 
not  be  turbid.  It  must,  on  the  contrary,  be  kept  as  clear  and 
as  white  as  possible. 

Poultry  Stock  is  made  by  adding  two  old  fowls  to  the  above 
veal  stock,  and  these  should  be  put  into  the  liquor  with  the  meat. 


Fish  Stock 

u— WHITE  FISH  STOCK 

Quantities  for  making  Four  Quarts. 

4  lbs.  of  trimmings  and  bones  of      2  oz.  of  parsley,  root  or  stalks. 

sole  or  whiting.  J  bottle  of  white  wine. 

I  lb.  of  sliced,  blanched  onions. 

Preparation. — Butter  the  bottom  of  a  thick,  tall  stewpan, 
put  in  the  blanched  onions  and  the  parsley-stalks,  and  upon 
these  aromatics  lay  the  fish  remains.  Add  the  juice  of  a  lemon, 
cover  the  stewpan,  put  it  on  the  fire,  and  allow  the  fish  to 
exude  its  essence,  jerking  the  pan  at  intervals.  Moisten,  in 
the  first  place,  with  the  white  wine ;  then,  with  the  lid  off,  reduce 
the  liquid  to  about  half.  Now  add  four  quarts  of  cold  water, 
bring  to  the  boil,  skim,  and.  then  leave  to  cook  for  twenty 
minutes,  only,  on  a  moderate  fire.  The  time  allowed  is  ample 
for  the  purpose  of  extracting  the  aromatic  and  gelatinous 
properties  contained  in  the  bones,  and  a  more  protracted  stew- 
ing would  only  impair  the  savour  of  the  stock. 

Remarks  upon  White  Fish  Stock. — The  formula  which  I 
give  above  diverges  considerably  from  that  commonly  used, 
for,  as  a  rule,  fish  stock  is  diluted  far  too  much,  and  is  stewed 
for  much  too  long  a  time.  I  have  observed  that  fish  stock  may 
be  greatly  improved  by  rapid  cooking,  and  it  was  this  considera- 
tion that  led  me  to  dilute  it  scantily,  so  as  to  avoid  prolonged 
reduction. 


12  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

It  is  likewise  necessary  to  remember  that  in  order  to  make 
perfect  fish  stock,  only  the  sole  or  whiting  should  be  used.  In 
a  case  of  emergency,  however,  i.e.,  if  the  supply  of  the  latter 
were  to  run  short,  a  quarter  of  their  weight  of  brill  bones  might 
be  added  to  them.  But  all  other  kinds  of  fish  should  be  avoided 
in  the  preparation. 

12— FISH  STOCK  WITH  RED  WINE  "" 

This  stock  is  comparatively  rarely  used,  because,  in  practice, 
it  is  naturally  obtained  in  the  cooking  of  the  fish  itself,  as,  for 
instance,  in  the  case  of  the  "  Matelotes."  Be  this  as  it  may, 
with  the  recent  incursion  of  a  custom  which  seems  to  demand, 
ever  more  and  more,  the  serving  of  fish  without  bones,  the 
following  formula  will  be  worthy  of  interest,  as  it  is  likely  that 
its  need  will  henceforth  be  felt  with  increasing  urgency. 

Fish  fumet  with  red  wine  may  be  prepared  from  all  fresh- 
water fish,  as  well  as  from  the  remains  of  sole,  whiting,  chicken- 
turbot,  and  brill.  It  is  generally  better,  however,  to  have  re- 
course to  the  bones  and  remains  of  that  fish  which  happens  to 
be  constituting  the  dish — that  is  to  say,  the  bones  and  trimmings 
of  sole  in  a  stock  for  fillet  of  sole,  the  bones  and  trimmings  of 
a  chicken-turbot  in  a  fumet  for  a  chicken-turbot,  and  so  on.  The 
preparatory  formula  remains  the  same,  whatever  the  kind  of 
fish  used  may  be. 

Quantities  for  making  Four  Quarts  of  Fumet  with  Red 
Wine. — Four  lbs.  of  bones,  heads,  and  trimmings  of  the  fish 
to  be  served;  three-quarters  lb.  of  minced  white  onions;  three 
oz.  of  parsley  stalks,  two  bay  leaves,  four  small  sprigs  of  thyme, 
and  four  cloves  of  garlic ;  two  bottles  of  red  wine  and  five  pints 
of  water. 

Mode  of  Procedure. — Put  all  the  above-mentioned  in- 
gredients in  a  thick  and  tall  stewpan,  boil,  skim  carefully,  and 
allow  to  cook  twenty  to  thirty  minutes  on  a  moderate  fire ;  then 
strain  the  stock  through  a  colander  into  a  tureen,  to  be  used 
when  required. 

Remarks  upon  Fish  Stock  with  Red  Wine. — This  stock 
stands  reduction  far  better  than  white  fish  stock.  Nevertheless, 
I  urge  the  advisability  of  trying  to  obtain  the  required  quantity 
without  reduction.  In  its  preparation,  one  may  use  some  mush- 
room parings,  as  in  the  case  of  white  stock,  if  these  are  handy, 
and  they  will  be  found  to  lend  an  agreeable  flavour  to  the  fish 
fumet. 


FONDS  DE  CUISINE  13 

13— VARIOUS  ESSENCES 

As  their  name  implies,  essences  are  stock  which  hold  a  large 
proportion  of  a  substance's  aroma  in  a  concentrated  form.  They 
are,  in  fact,  ordinary  stock,  only  less  diluted,  with  the  idea 
of  intensifying  the  flavour  of  the  treated  ingredients  r  hence 
their  utility  is  nil  if  the  stock  which  they  are  intended  to  finish 
has  been  reasonably  and  judiciously  treated.  It  is  infinitely 
simpler  ta  make  savoury  and  succulent  stock  in  the  first  place 
than  to  produce  a  mediocre  stock,  and  finally  complete  it  by  a 
specially  prepared  essence.  The  result  in  the  first  instance  is 
better,  and  there  is  economy  of  time  and  material. 

The  most  one  can  do  is  to  recommend,  in  certain  circum- 
stances, the  use  of  essences  extracted  from  particularly  well- 
flavoured  products,  as,  for  instance,  mushrooms,  truffles,  morels, 
and  celery.  But  it  would  be  well  to  remember  that,  nine  times 
out  of  ten,  it  is  preferable  to  add  the  product  itself  to  the  stock 
during  the  preparation  of  the  same  than  to  prepare  essences. 

For  this  reason  I  do  not  think  it  necessary  to  dilate  upon 
the  subject  of  essences,  the  need  of  which  should  not  be  felt 
in  good  cooking. 

14— VARIOUS  GLAZES 

The  various  glazes  of  meat,  fowl,  game,  and  fish  are  merely 
stock  reduced  to  the  point  of  viscosity.  Their  uses  are  legion. 
Occasionally  they  serve  in  decking  dishes  with  a  brilliant  and 
unctuous  coating  which  makes  them  sightly;  at  other  times 
they  may  help  to  strengthen  the  consistence  of  a  sauce  or  other 
culinary  preparation,  while  again  they  may  be  used  as  sauces 
proper  after  they  have  been  correctly  creamed  or  buttered. 

Glazes  are  distinguished  from  essences  by  the  fact  that  the 
latter  are  only  prepared  with  the  object  of  extracting  all  the 
flavour  of  the  product  under  treatment,  whereas  the  former  are, 
on  the  contrary,  constituted  by  the  whole  base  of  the  substance 
itself.  They  therefore  have  not  only  its  savour,  but  also 
its  succulence  and  mellowness,  whereby  they  are  superior  to 
the  essences,  and  cooking  can  but  be  improved  by  substituting 
them  for  the  latter.  Nevertheless,  many  chefs  of  the  old  school 
do  not  permit  the  use  of  glazes  in  culinary  preparations,  or, 
rather,  they  are  of  opinion  that  each  cooking  operation  should 
produce  them  on  its  own  account,  and  thus  be  sufficient  unto 
itself.  Certainly,  the  theory  is  correct  when  neither  time  nor 
cost  is  limited.  But  nowadays  the  establishments  are  scarce 
where  these  theories  may  be  applied,  and,  indeed,  if  one  does 


14  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

not  make  an  abuse  of  glazes,  and  if  they  be  prepared  with  care, 
their  use  gives  excellent  results,  while  they  lend  themselves 
admirably  to  the  very  complex  demands  of  modern  customs. 

15— MEAT  OLAZE 

Meat  glaze  is  made  by  reducing  brown  stock  (Formula  7) 
in  a  large  stewpan  upon  an  open  fire.  As  often  as  the  stock 
is  appreciably  reduced,  during  ebullition,  it  may  be  transferred 
to  smaller  stewpans,  taking  care  to  strain  it  through  muslin  at 
each  change  of  stewpan.  The  glaze  may  be  considered  suffi- 
ciently reduced  when  it  evenly  veneers  a  withdrawn  spoon.  The 
fire  used  for  reducing  should  gradually  wane  as  the  concentra- 
tion progresses,  and  the  last  phase  must  be  effected  slowly  and 
on  a  moderate  fire. 

When  it  is  necessary  to  obtain  a  lighter  and  clearer  glaze, 
the  brown  veal  stock  (Formula  No.  9)  should  be  reduced  instead 
of  the  "  Estouffade." 

16— POULTRY  QLAZE 

Reduce  the  poultry  base  indicated  in  Formula  10,  and 
proceed  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  for  meat  glaze  (Formula  15). 

17— GAME  QLAZE 

Use  the  game  base  (Formula  8),  and  proceed  as  for  meat 
glaze  (Formula  9). 

18— FISH  QLAZE 

This  glaze  is  used  less  often  than  the  preceding  ones.  As 
it  is  only  used  to  intensify  the  savour  of  sauces,  it  is  sufficient 
for  this  purpose  to  prepare  a  white  fish  stock  (Formula  11), 
which  may  be  diluted  with  the  stock  already  prepared,  and 
which  may  be  reduced  according  to  the  requirements.  The 
name  of  fish  fumet  or  fish  essence  is  given  to  this  preparation  ; 
its  flavour  is  more  delicate  than  that  of  fish  glaze,  which  it 
replaces  with  advantage. 


CHAPTER    II 

THE  LEADING  WARM   SAUCES 

Warm  sauces  are  of  two  kinds :  the  leading  sauces,  also 
called  "  mother  sauces,"  and  the  small  sauces,  which  are  usually 
derived  from  the  first-named,  and  are  generally  only  modified 
forms  thereof.  Cooking  stock  only  includes  the  leading  sauces, 
but  I  shall  refer  to  the  small  hot  sauces  and  the  cold  sauces  at 
the  end  of  the  auxiliary  stock. 

Experience,  which  plays  such  an  important  part  in  culinary 
work,  is  nowhere  so  necessary  as  in  the  preparation  of  sauces, 
for  not  only  must  the  latter  flatter  the  palate,  but  they  must  also 
vary  in  savour,  consistence  and  viscosity,  in  accordance  with 
the  dishes  they  accompany.  By  this  means,  in  a  well-ordered 
dinner,  each  dish  differs  from  the  preceding  ones  and  from  those 
that  follow. 

Furthermore,  sauces  must,  through  the  perfection  of  their 
preparation,  obey  the  general  laws  of  a  rational  hygiene,  where- 
fore they  should  be  served  and  combined  in  such  wise  as  to 
allow  of  easy  digestion  by  the  frequently  disordered  stomachs 
of  their  consumers. 

Car^me  was  quite  justified  in  pluming  himself  upon  the  fact 
that  during  his  stay  at  the  English  Court  his  master — the  Prince 
Regent — had  assured  him  that  he  (Careme)  was  the  only  one 
among  those  who  had  served  his  Highness  whose  cooking  had 
been  at  all  easy  of  digestion.  Carlme  had  grasped  the  essential 
truth  that  the  richer  the  cooking  is,  the  more  speedily  do  the 
stomach  and  palate  tire  of  it.  And,  indeed,  it  is  a  great  mistake 
to  suppose  that,  in  order  to  do  good  cooking,  it  is  necessary 
to  be  prodigal  in  one's  use  of  all  things.  In  reality,  practice 
dictates  fixed  and  regular  quantities,  and  from  these  one  cannot 
diverge  without  upsetting  the  hygienic  and  sapid  equilibrium 
on  which  the  value  of  a  sauce  depends.  The  requisite  quan- 
tities of  each  ingredient  must,  of  course,  be  used,  but  neither 
more  nor  less,  as  there  are  objections  to  either  extreme. 

Any  sauce    whatsoever    should  be  smooth,  light  (without 


1 6  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

being  liquid),  glossy  to  the  eye,  and  decided  in  taste.  When 
these  conditions  are  fulfilled  it  is  always  easy  to  digest  even 
for  tired  stomachs. 

An  essential  point  in  the  making  of  sauces  is  the  seasoning, 
and  it  would  be  impossible  for  me  to  lay  sufficient  stress  on  the 
importance  of  not  indulging  in  any  excess  in  this  respect.  It 
too  often  happens  that  the  insipidness  of  a  badly-made  sauce  is 
corrected  by  excessive  seasoning;  this  is  an  absolutely  deplor- 
able practice. 

Seasoning  should  be  so  calculated  as  to  be  merely  a  com- 
plementary factor,  which,  though  it  must  throw  the  savour  of 
dishes  into  relief,  may  not  form  a  recognisable  part  of  them. 
If  it  be  excessive,  it  modifies  and  even  destroys  the  taste  peculiar 
to  every  dish — to  the  great  detriment  of  the  latter  and  of  the 
consumer's  health. 

It  is  therefore  desirable  that  each  sauce  should  possess  its 
own  special  flavour,  well  defined,  the  result  of  the  combined 
flavours  of  all  its  ingredients.  ^ 

If,  in  the  making  of  sauces,  one  allowed  oneself  to  be  guided 
by  those  principles  which  are  the  very  foundation  of  good 
cookery,  the  general  denunciation  of  sauces  by  the  medical 
faculty  would  be  averted ;  and  this  denunciation  no  sauce  de- 
serves if  it  be  carefully  prepared,  conformably  with  the  laws  pre- 
scribed by  practice  and  its  resulting  experience. 


The  Roux 

The  roux  being  the  cohering  element  of  leading  sauces,  it 
is  necessary  to  reveal  its  preparation  and  constituents  before 
giving  one's  attention  to  the  latter. 

Three  kinds  of  roux  are  used — namely,  brown  roux,  for 
brown  sauces;  pale  roux,  for  velout^s,  or  cream  sauces;  and 
white  roux,  for  white  sauces  and  Bdchamel. 

19— BROWN   ROUX 

Quantities  for  making  about  One  lb. — Eight  oz.  of  clarified 
butter,  nine  oz.  of  best-quality  flour. 

Preparation. — Mix  the  flour  and  butter  in  a  very  thick  stew- 
pan,  and  put  it  on  the  side  of  the  fire  or  in  a  moderate  oven. 
Stir  the  mixture  repeatedly  so  that  the  heat  may  be  evenly 
distributed  throughout  the  whole  of  its  volume. 

The  time  allowed  for  the  cooking  of  brown  roux  cannot  be 
precisely  determined,  as  it  depends  upon  the  degree  of  heat 


LEADING  SAUCES  17 

employed.  The  more  intense  the  latter,  the  speedier  will 
be  the  cooking,  while  the  stirring  will  of  necessity  be  more 
rapid.  Brown  roux  is  known  to  be  cooked  when  it  has  acquired 
a  fine,  light  brown  colour,  and  when  it  exudes  a  scent  re- 
sembling tha;t  of  the  hazel-nut,  characteristic  of  baked  flour. 

It  is  very  important  that  brown  roux  should  not  be  cooked 
too  rapidly.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  among  the  various  constituent 
elements  of  flour,  the  starch  alone  acts  as  the  cohering  prin- 
ciple. This  starch  is  contained  in  little  cells,  which  tightly 
constrain  it,  but  which  are  sufficiently  porous  to  permit  the 
percolation  of  liquid  and  fatty  substances.  Under  the  influence 
of  moderate  heat  and  the  infiltered  butter,  the  cells  burst 
through  the  swelling  of  the  starch,  and  the  latter  thereupon 
completely  combines  with  the  butter  to  form  a  mass  capable  of 
absorbing  six  times  its  own  weight  of  liquid  when  cooked. 

When  the  cooking  takes  place  with  a  very  high  initial  heat 
the  starch  gets  burned  within  its  shrivelled  cells,  and  swelling  is 
then  possible  only  in  those  parts  which  have  been  least  burned. 

The  cohering  principle  is  thus  destroyed,  and  double  or 
treble  the  quantity  of  roux  becomes  necessary  in  order  to  obtain 
the  required  consistency.  But  this  excess  of  roux  in  the  sauce 
chokes  it  up  without  binding  it,  and  prevents  it  from  despumat- 
ing  or  becoming  clear.  At  the  same  time,  the  cellulose  and 
the  burnt  starch  lend  a  bitterness  to  the  sauce  of  which  no 
subsequent  treatment  can  rid  it. 

From  the  above  it  follows  that,  starch  being  the  only  one 
from  among  the  different  constituents  of  flour  which  really 
effects  the  coherence  of  sauces,  there  would  be  considerable 
advantage  in  preparing  roux  either  from  a  pure  form  of  it,  or 
from  substances  with  kindred  properties,  such  as  fecula,  arrow- 
root, &c.  It  is  only  habit  that  causes  flour  to  be  still  used  as 
the  cohering  element  of  roux,  and,  indeed,  the  hour  is  not  so 
far  distant  when  the  advantages  of  the  changes  I  propose  will 
be  better  understood — changes  which  have  been  already  recom- 
mended by  Favre  in  his  dictionary. 

With  a  roux  well  made  from  the  purest  starch — in  which 
case  the  volume  of  starch  and  butter  would  equal  about  half  that 
of  the  flour  and  butter  of  the  old  method — and  with  strong  and 
succulent  brown  stock,  a  Spanish  sauce  or  Espagnole  may  be 
made  in  one  hour.  And  this  sauce  will  be  clearer,  more  brilliant, 
and  better  than  that  of  the  old  processes,  which  needed  three 
days  at  least  to  despumate. 


1 8  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

20— PALE  ROUX 

The  quantities  are  the  same  as  for  brown  roux,  but  cooking 
must  cease  as  soon  as  the  colour  of  the  roux  begins  to  change, 
and  before  the  appearance  of  any  colouring  whatsoever. 

The  observations  I  made  relative  to  brown  roux,  concerning 
the  cohering  element,  apply  also  to  pale  roux. 

21— WHITE  ROUX 

Same  quantities  as  for  brown  and  pale  roux,  but  the  time 
of  cooking  is  limited  to  a  few  minutes,  as  it  is  only  needful,  in 
this  case,  to  do  away  with  the  disagreeable  taste  of  raw  flour 
which  is  typical  of  those  sauces  whose  roux  has  not  been  suffi- 
ciently cooked. 

22— BROWN  SAUCE  OR  ESPAQNOLE 

Quantities  Required  for  Four  Quarts. — One  lb.  of  brown 
roux  dissolved  in  a  tall,  thick  saucepan  with  six  quarts  of  brown 
stock  or  estouffade.  Put  the  saucepan  on  an  open  fire,  and  stir 
the  sauce  with  a  spatula  or  a  whisk,  and  do  not  leave  it  until  it 
begins  to  boil.  Then  remove  the  spatula,  and  put  the  sauce- 
pan on  a  corner  of  the  fire,  letting  it  lean  slightly  to  one  side 
with  the  help  of  a  wedge,  so  that  boiling  may  only  take  place 
at  one  point,  and  that  the  inert  principles  thrown  out  by  the 
sauce  during  despumation  may  accumulate  high  up  in  the  sauce- 
pan, whence  they  can  be  easily  removed  as  they  collect. 

It  is  advisable  during  despumation  to  change  saucepans  twice 
or  even  three  times,  straining  every  time,  and  adding  a  quart 
of  brown  stock  to  replace  what  has  evaporated.  At  length, 
when  the  sauce  begins  to  get  lighter,  and  about  two 
hours  before  finally  straining  it,  two  lbs.  of  fresh  tomatoes, 
roughly  cut  up,  should  be  added,  or  an  equivalent  quantity  of 
tomato  pur^e,  and  about  one  lb.  of  Mirepoix,  prepared  accord- 
ing to  Formula  No.  228.  The  sauce  is  then  reduced  so  as  to 
measure  four  quarts  when  strained,  after  which  it  is  poured 
into  a  wide  tureen,  and  must  be  kept  in  motion  until  quite  cool 
lest  a  skin  should  form  on  its  surface. 

The  time  required  for  the  despumation  of  an  Espagnole 
varies  according  to  the  quality  of  the  stock  and  roux.  We  saw 
above  that  one  hour  sufficed  for  a  concentrated  stock  and  starch 
roux,  in  which  case  the  Mirepoix  and  the  tomato  are  inserted 
from  the  first.  But  much  more  time  is  required  if  one  is  deal- 
ing with  a  roux  whose  base  is  flour.    In  the  latter  case  six  hours 


LEADING  SAUCES  19 

should  be  allowed,  provided  one  have  excellent  stock  and  well- 
made  roux.  More  often  than  not  this  work  is  done  in  two 
stages,  thus  :  after  having  despumated  the  Espagnole  for  six 
or  eight  hours  the  first  day,  it  is  put  on  the  fire  the  next  day 
with  half  its  volume  of  stock,  and  it  is  left  to  despumate  a  few 
hours  more  before  it  is  finally  strained. 

Summing  up  my  opinion  on  this  subject,  I  can  only  give 
my  colleagues  the  following  advice,  based  upon  long  experi- 
ence : — 

1.  Only  use  strong,  clear  stock  with  a  decided  taste. 

2.  Be  scrupulously  careful  of  the  roux,  however  it  may  be 
made.  By  following  these  two  rules,  a  clear,  brilliant,  and 
consistent  Espagnole  will  always  be  obtained  in  a  fairly  short 
time. 

23— HALF  GLAZE 

This  is  the  Espagnole  sauce,  having  reached  the  limit  of  per- 
fection by  final  despumation.  It  is  obtained  by  reducing  one 
quart  of  Espagnole  and  one  quart  of  first-class  brown  stock 
until  its  volume  is  reduced  to  nine-tenths  of  a  quart.  It  is  then 
put  through  a  strainer  into  a  bain-marie  of  convenient  dimen- 
sions, and  it  is  finished,  away  from  the  fire,  with  one-tenth  of 
a  quart  of  excellent  sherry.  Cover  the  bain-marie,  or  slightly 
butter  the  top  to  avoid  the  formation  of  a  skin.  This  sauce 
is  the  base  of  all  the  smaller  brown  sauces. 

24— LENTEN  ESPAGNOLE 

Practical  men  are  not  agreed  as  to  the  need  of  Lenten 
Espagnole.  The  ordinary  Espagnole  being  really  a  neutral 
sauce  in  flavour,  it  is  quite  simple  to  give  it  the  necessary  flavour 
by  the  addition  of  the  required  quantity  of  fish  fumet.  It  is 
only,  therefore,  when  one  wishes  to  conform  with  the  demands 
of  a  genuine  Lent  sauce  that  a  fish  Espagnole  is  needed.  And, 
certainly  in  this  case,  nothing  can  take  its  place. 

The  preparation  of  this  Espagnole  does  not  differ  from  thai 
of  the  ordinary  kind,  except  that  the  bacon  is  replaced  by  mush- 
room parings  in  the  Mirepoix,  and  that  the  sauce  must  be  de- 
spumated for  only  one  hour. 

This  sauce  takes  the  place  of  the  ordinary  Espagnole,  for 
Lenten  preparations,  in  every  case  where  the  latter  is  generally 
used,  in  Gratins,  in  the  Genevoise  sauce,  &c. 


c  3 


20  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

25-ORDINARY  VELOUTE  SAUCE 

Quantities  Required  for  Four  Quarts. — One  lb.  of  pale  roux 
(Formula  20),  five  quarts  of  white  veal  stock  (Formula  10). 

Dissolve  the  roux  in  the  cold  white  veal  stock  and  put  the 
saucepan  containing  this  mixture  on  an  open  fire,  stirring  the 
sauce  with  a  spatula  or  whisk,  so  as  to  avoid  its  burning  at 
the  bottom.  Add  one  oz.  of  table-salt,  a  pinch  of  nutmeg  and 
white  powdered  pepper,  together  with  one-quarter  lb.  of  nice 
white  mushroom  parings,  if  these  are  handy.  Now  boil  and 
move  to  a  corner  of  the  fire  to  despumate  slowly  for  one  and  a 
half  hours,  at  the  same  time  observing  the  precautions  advised 
for  ordinary  Espagnole  (Formula  22).  Strain  through  muslin 
into  a  smaller  saucepan,  add  one  pint  of  white  stock,  and  de- 
spumate for  another  half  hour.  Strain  it  again  through  a  tammy 
or  a  sieve  into  a  wide  tureen,  and  keep  moving  it  with  a  spatula 
until  it  is  quite  cold. 

I  am  not  partial  to  garnishing  Velout^  Sauce  with  carrots, 
an  onion  with  a  clove  stuck  into  it,  and  a  faggot,  as 
many  do.  The  stock  should  be  sufficiently  fragrant  of  itself, 
without  requiring  the  addition  of  anything  beyond  the  usual 
condiments.  The  only  exception  I  should  make  would  be  for 
mushroom  parings,  even  though  it  is  preferable,  when  possible, 
to  replace  these  by  mushroom  liquor.  But  this  is  always  scarce 
in  kitchens  where  it  is  used  for  other  purposes ;  wherefore  it  is 
often  imperative  to  have  recourse  to  parings  in  its  stead.  The 
latter  may  not,  however,  be  added  to  the  stock  itself,  as  they 
would  blacken  it ;  hence  I  advise  their  addition  to  the  Veloute 
during  its  preparation. 

26— VELOUTE  DE  VOLAILLE 

This  is  identical  with  ordinary  Velout^,  except  that  instead 
of  having  white  veal  stock  for  its  liquor,  it  is  diluted  with  white 
poultry  stock.  The  mode  of  procedure  and  the  time  allowed  for 
cooking  are  the  same. 

26a— FISH  VELOUTE 

Velout^  is  the  base  of  various  fish  sauces  whose  recipes  will 
be  given  in  Part  II. 

Prepare  it  in  precisely  the  same  way  as  poultry  velout^, 
but  instead  of  using  poultry  stock,  use  very  clear  fish 
fumet,  and  let  it  despumate  for  twenty  minutes  only.  (See  fish 
fumet  No.  n.) 


LEADING  SAUCES  it 

27— ALLEMANDE  SAUCE  OR  THICKENED  VELOUTE 

Allemande  Sauce  is  not,  strictly  speaking,  a  basic  sauce. 
However,  it  is  so  often  resorted  to  in  the  preparation  of  other 
sauces  that  I  think  it  necessary  to  give  it  after  the  Velout^s, 
from  which  it  is  derived. 

Quantities  Required  for  One  Quart. 

The  yolks  of  5  eggs.  ^  the  juice  of  a  lemon. 

I  pint  of  cold  white  stock.  |  pint  of  mushroom  liquor. 

I  quart  of  Velout^,  well  despu- 
mated. 

Mode  of  Procedure. — Put  the  various  ingredients  in  a  thick- 
bottomed  saut^-pan  and  mix  them  carefully.  Then  put  the  pan 
on  an  open  fire,  and  stir  the  sauce  with  a  metal  spatula,  lest 
it  burn  at  the  bottom.  When  the  sauce  has  been  reduced  to 
about  one  quart,  add  one-third  pint  of  fresh  cream  to  it,  and 
reduce  further  for  a  few  minutes.  It  should  then  be  passed 
through  a  fine  strainer  into  a  tureen  and  kept  moving  until 
quite  cold. 

Prepared  thus,  the  Allemande  Sauce  is  ready  for  the  prepara- 
tion of  the  smaller  sauces.  Butter  must  only  be  added  at  the 
very  last  moment,  for  if  it  were  buttered  any  earlier  it  would 
most  surely  turn.  The  same  injunction  holds  good  with  this 
sauce  when  it  is  to  be  served  in  its  original  state ;  it  should  then 
receive  a  small  addition  of  cream,  and  be  buttered  so  that  it 
may  attain  its  required  delicacy ;  but  this  addition  of  butter  and 
cream  ought  only  to  be  made  at  the  last  moment,  and  away  from 
the  fire.  When  a  thick  sauce  has  any  fat  substance  added  to  it, 
it  cannot  be  exposed  to  a  higher  temperature  than  140  degrees 
Fahrenheit  without  risking  decomposition. 

28— BECHAMEL  SAUCE 

Quantities  Required  for  Four  Quarts. 

I  lb.  of  white  roux.  §  oz.  of  salt,  i  pinch  of  mignon- 

4J  quarts  of  boiling  milk.  ette,  and  grated  nutmeg,  and 

j  lb.  of  lean  veal.  i  small  sprig  of  thyme. 

I  minced  onion. 

Preparation. — Pour  the  boiling  milk  on  the  roux,  which 
should  be  almost  cold,  and  whisk  it  well  so  as  to  avoid  lumps. 
Let  it  boil,  then  cook  on  the  side  of  the  fire.  Meanwhile  the 
lean  veal  should  have  been  cut  into  small  cubes,  and  fried 
with  butter  in  a  saucepan,  together  with  the  minced  onion. 
When  the  veal  has  stiffened  without  becoming  coloured,  it  is 
added  to  the  Bechamel,  together  with  salt  and  the  other  aro- 
matics.     Let  the  sauce  stew  for  about  one  hour  in  all,  and  then 


22  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

pass  it  through  a  tammy  into  a  tureen;  butter  the  top,  lest  a 
crust  should  form. 

When  Bechamel  is  intended  for  Lenten  preparations,  the 
veal  must  be  omitted. 

There  is  another  way  of  making  the  sauce.  After  having 
boiled  the  milk,  the  seasoning  and  aromatics  should  be  added; 
the  saucepan  is  then  covered  and  placed  on  a  corner  of  the 
stove,  so  as  to  ensure  a  thorough  infusion.  The  boiling  milk 
must  now  be  poured  on  to  the  roux  which  has  been  separately 
prepared,  and  the  sauce  should  then  cook  for  one  quarter  of  an 
hour  only. 

29— TOMATO  SAUCE 

Quantities  Required  for  Four  Quarts. 

5  oz.  of    salted    breast    of   pork,      2  oz.   of  butter,  ^   oz.   of  salt,    i 

rather  fat.  oz.     of    sugar,    a    pinch    of 

6  oz.  of  carrots  cut  into  cubes.  pepper. 

6  oz.  of  onions  cut  into  cubes.  10  lbs.  of  raw  tomatoes  or  4 
I   bay  leaf  and   i   small  sprig  of  quarts  of  same,  mashed. 

thyme.  2  quarts  of  white  stock. 
5  oz.  of  flour. 

Preparation. — Fry  the  pork  with  the  butter  in  a  tall,  thick- 
bottomed  saucepan.  When  the  pork  is  nearly  melted,  add  the 
carrots,  onions,  and  aromatics.  Cook  and  stir  the  vegetables, 
then  add  the  flour,  which  should  be  allowed  to  cook  until  it 
begins  to  brown.  Now  put  in  the  tomatoes  and  white  stock, 
mix  the  whole  well,  and  set  to  boil  on  an  open  fire.  At  this 
point  add  the  seasoning  and  a  crushed  clove  of  garlic,  cover 
the  saucepan,  and  place  in  a  moderate  oven,  where  it  may  cook 
for  one  and  one-half  hours.  At  the  end  of  this  time  the  sauce 
should  be  passed  through  a  sieve  or  tammy,  and  it  should  boil 
while  being  stirred.  Finally,  pour  it  into  a  tureen,  and  butter 
its  surface  to  avoid  the  formation  of  a  skin. 

Remarks. — A  pur^e  of  tomatoes  is  also  used  in  cookery;  it 
is  prepared  in  precisely  the  same  fashion,  except  that  the  flour 
is  omitted  and  only  one  pint  of  white  stock  is  added. 

30— HOLLANDAISE  SAUCE 

Quantities  Required  for  One  Quart. — One  and  one-half  lbs. 
of  butter,  the  yolks  of  six  eggs,  one  pinch  of  mignonette  pepper 
and  one-quarter  oz.  of  salt,  three  tablespoonfuls  of  good  vinegar. 

Preparation. — Put  the  salt,  the  mignonette,  the  vinegar,  and 
as  much  water  in  a  small  saucepan,  and  reduce  by  three-quarters 
on  the  fire.     Move  the  saucepan  to  a  corner  of  the  fire  or  into 


LEADING  SAUCES  23 

a  bain-marie,  and  add  a  spoonful  of  fresh  water  and  the  yolks. 
Work  the  whole  with  a  whisk  until  the  yolks  thicken  and  have 
the  consistence  of  cream.  Then  remove  the  saucepan  to  a  tepid 
place  and  gradually  pour  the  butter  on  the  yolks  while  briskly 
stirring  the  sauce.  When  the  butter  is  absorbed,  the  sauce 
ought  to  be  thick  and  firm.  It  is  brought  to  the  correct  con- 
sistence with  a  little  water,  which  also  lightens  it  slightly,  but 
the  addition  of  water  is  optional.  The  sauce  is  completed  by 
a  drop  of  lemon  juice,  and  it  is  rubbed  through  a  tammy. 

Remarks. — The  consistence  of  sauces  whose  processes  are 
identical  with  those  of  the  Hollandaise  may  be  varied  at  will  ; 
for  instance,  the  number  of  yolks  may  be  increased  if  a  very 
thick  sauce  is  desired,  and  it  may  be  lessened  in  the  reverse 
case.  Also  similar  results  may  be  obtained  by  cooking  the  eggs 
either  more  or  less.  As  a  rule,  if  a  thick  sauce  be  required,  the 
yolks  ought  to  be  well  cooked  and  the  sauce  kept  almost  cold 
in  the  making.  Experience  alone — the  fruit  of  long  practice — 
can  teach  the  various  devices  which  enable  the  skilled  worker 
to  obtain  different  results  from  the  same  kind  and  quality  of 
material. 


CHAPTER    III 

The  Small  Compound  Sauces 

Remarks. — In  order  that  the  classification  of  the  small 
sauces  should  be  clear  and  methodical,  I  divide  them  into  three 
parts. 

The  first  part  includes  the  small  brown  sauces;  the  second 
deals  with  the  small  white  sauces  and  those  suited  to  this  part 
of  the  classification ;  while  the  third  is  concerned  with  the 
English  sauces. 


The  Small  Brown  Sauces 

31— SAUCE  BIQARRADE 

This  sauce  is  principally  used  to  accompany  braised  and 
poeled  ducklings.  In  the  first  case,  the  duckling's  braising 
stock,  being  thickened,  constitutes  a  sauce.  In  the  second  case, 
the  stock  is  clear,  and  the  procedure  in  both  cases  is  as 
follows  :  — 

1 .  After  having  strained  the  braising  stock,  completely  remove 
its  grease,  and  reduce  until  it  is  very  dense.  Strain  it  once 
more  through  muslin,  twisting  the  latter ;  then,  in  order  to  bring 
the  sauce  to  its  normal  consistence,  add  the  juice  of  six  oranges 
and  one  lemon  per  quart  of  sauce.  Finish  with  a  small  piece 
of  lemon  and  orange  rind  cut  regularly  and  finely.  Julienne- 
fashion,  and  scalded  for  five  minutes. 

2.  Strain  the  poeling  stock,  for  duck  or  ducks,  through  linen; 
entirely  remove  the  grease,  and  add  four  pieces  of  caramel  sugar 
dissolved  in  one  tablespoonful  of  vinegar  per  one-half  pint  of 
stock,  the  juice  of  the  oranges  and  the  lemon  and  the  Julienne 
of  rinds,  as  for  the  braised-ducklings  sauce  indicated  above. 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  25 

32— SAUCE  BORDELAISE 

Put  into  a  vegetable-pan  two  oz.  of  very  finely  minced 
shallots,  one-half  pint  of  good  red  wine,  a  pinch  of  mignonette 
pepper,  and  bits  of  thyme  and  bay.  Reduce  the  wine  by 
three-quarters,  and  add  one-half  pint  of  half-glaze.  Keep  the 
sauce  simmering  for  half  an  hour;  despumate  it  from  time  to 
time,  and  strain  it  through  linen  or  a  sieve.  When  dishing  it 
up,  finish  it  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  dissolved  meat  glaze,  a 
few  drops  of  lemon-juice,  and  four  oz.  of  beef-marrow,  cut  into 
slices  or  cubes  and  poached  in  slightly  salted  boiling  water. 
This  sauce  may  be  buttered  to  the  extent  of  about  three  oz.  per 
pint,  which  makes  it  smoother,  but  less  clear.  It  is  especially 
suitable  for  grilled  butcher's  meat. 

33- CHASSEUR  SAUCE  (Escoffier's  Method) 

Peel  and  mince  six  medium-sized  mushrooms.  Heat  one- 
half  oz.  of  butter  and  as  much  olive  oil  in  a  vegetable-pan;  put 
in  the  mushrooms,  and  fry  the  latter  quickly  until  they  are 
slightly  browned.  Now  add  a  coffeespoonful  of  minced 
shallots,  and  immediately  remove  half  the  butter ;  pour  one-half 
pint  of  white  wine  and  one  glass  of  liqueur  brandy  into  the 
stewpan ;  reduce  this  liquid  to  half,  and  finish  the  sauce  with  : 
one-half  pint  of  half-glaze,  one-quarter  pint  of  tomato  sauce,  and 
one  tablespoonful  of  meat-glaze.  Set  to  boil  for  five  minutes 
more,  and  complete  with  a  teaspoonful  of  chopped  parsley. 

34— BROWN  CHAUD=FROID  SAUCE 

Put  one  quart  of  half-glaze  into  a  saut^-pan  with  one-fifth 
pint  of  truffle  essence.  Put  the  pan  on  an  open  fire,  and  reduce 
its  contents ;  while  making  same  absorb  one  and  one-half  pints 
of  jelly — the  latter  being  added  to  the  sauce  in  small  quantities. 

The  degree  of  reduction  in  this  sauce  is  a  good  third,  but, 
to  be  quite  certain,  a  test  of  its  consistence  may  be  made  by 
allowing  it  to  cool  a  little.  After  the  reduction,  carefully  taste, 
and  rectify  the  seasoning  if  necessary;  mix  a  little  Madeira  or 
Port  with  the  sauce,  away  from  the  fire,  and  strain  through 
muslin  or,  preferably,  through  a  Venetian-hair  sieve.  Stir  the 
sauce  now  and  then  while  it  cools,  until  it  is  sufficiently  liquid, 
and  at  the  same  time  consistent  enough  to  coat  immersed  solids 
evenly  with  a  film  of  sauce.  Its  use  will  be  explained  among 
the  formulae  of  the  different  kinds  of  Chaud-froids. 


26  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

35— VARIETIES  OF  THE  CHAUD-FROID  SAUCE 

For  Ducks. — Prepare  the  sauce  as  above,  adding  to  it  (for 
the  prescribed  quantity)  one-half  pint  of  duck  jumet  obtained 
from  the  carcases  and  remains  of  roast  duckling,  and  finish  it, 
away  from  the  fire,  with  the  juice  of  four  oranges  and  a  heaped 
tablespoonful  of  orange  rind,  cut  finely.  Julienne-fashion,  and 
scalded  for  five  minutes. 

For  Feathered  Game. — Treat  the  Chaud-Froid  sauce  as  in- 
dicated in  No.  34,  adding  one-half  pint  of  the  fumet  of  the 
game  constituting  the  dish  in  order  to  lend  it  that  game's 
characteristic  taste.  Observe  the  same  precaution  for  the  cool- 
ing. 

For  Fish. — Proceed  as  in  No.  34,  but  (i)  substitute  the 
Espagnole  of  fish  for  the  half  glaze;  (2)  intensify  the  first  Es- 
pagnole  with  one-half  pint  of  very  clear  fish  essence;  (3)  use 
Lenten  jelly  instead  of  meat  jelly. 

Remarks  upon  the  Use  of  Chaud-Froid  Sauces. — The  chaud- 
froid  sauce  may  be  prepared  beforehand,  and  when  it  is  wanted 
it  need  only  be  gently  melted  without  heating  it  in  the  least. 
It  ought  simply  to  be  made  sufficiently  liquid  to  give  a  good 
coating  to  substances  immersed  in  it. 

36 -DEVILLED  SAUCE 

Put  in  a  vegetable  pan  two  oz.  of  sliced  shallots  and  one- 
third  pint  of  white  wine.  Reduce  the  latter  to  two-thirds,  add 
one-half  pint  of  half-glaze,  reduce  to  two-thirds,  season  strongly 
with  cayenne  pepper,  and  strain  through  muslin.  This  sauce 
may  be  served  with  grilled  fowls  or  pigeons.  It  also  forms  an 
excellent  accompaniment  to  re-dished  meat  which  needs  a  spicy 
sauce. 

37-"ESCOFFIER"  DEVILLED  SAUCE 

This  sauce,  which  may  be  bought  ready-made,  is  admirably 
fitted  to  accompany  grilled  fish  and  grills  in  general.  In  order 
to  make  it  ready,  all  that  is  needed  is  to  add  its  own  volume 
of  fresh  butter  to  it,  the  latter  being  previously  well  softened 
so  as  to  ensure  its  perfect  mixture  with  the  sauce. 

38— QENEVOISE  SAUCE 

Heat  two  oz.  of  butter  in  a  stewpan;  insert  one  lb.  of  Mire- 
poix  (No.  228)  without  bacon.  Slightly  brown,  add  two  lbs.  of 
head  of  salmon  and  remains  or  bones  of  fish,  and  stew  with 
lid  on  for  twenty  minutes.     Let  the  stewpan  lean  slightly  to 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  27 

one  side,  so  that  the  butter  may  be  drained;  moisten  with  one 
bottle  of  excellent  red  wine;  reduce  the  latter  by  half;  add  one 
pint  of  Lenten  Espagnole,  and  allow  to  cook  gently  for  half  an 
hour. 

Rub  the  sauce  through  a  sieve,  pressing  it  so  as  to  extract 
all  the  essence.  Let  it  rest  awhile;  carefully  remove  the  fat 
which  has  risen  to  the  surface,  and  add  one  liqueur-glass  of 
burnt  brandy,  one-half  pint  of  red  wine,  and  as  much  fish 
fumet.  Boil  again,  then  move  stewpan  to  the  side  of 
fire  to  despumate  for  one  and  one-half  hours.  Frequently  re- 
move what  the  ebullition  causes  to  rise  to  the  surface,  this 
second  period  of  cooking  being  only  to  ensure  the  purification 
of  the  sauce.  If  the  ebullition  has  been  well  effected,  the  sauce 
should  reach  the  proper  degree  of  reduction  and  despumation 
at  the  same  moment  of  time.  It  is  then  strained  through  muslin 
or  tammy,  and  it  is  finished  at  the  last  minute  with  a  few  drops 
of  anchovy  essence  and  four  oz.  of  butter  per  quart  of  sauce. 

N.B. — The  Genevoise  Sauce,  like  all  red-wine  sauces,  may 
be  served  without  being  buttered.  It  is  thus  clearer  and  more 
sightly  in  colour,  but  the  addition  of  butter  in  small  quantities 
makes  it  mellower  and  more  palatable. 

38a— REMARKS  ON  RED=WINE  SAUCES 

In  the  general  repertory  of  cooking  we  also  have,  in  the 
way  of  red-wine  sauces,  the  "  Bourguignonne,"  "Matelote," 
and  "  Red- Wine  "  sauces,  which  are  closely  allied  to  the 
"  Genevoise,"  and  only  differ  from  it  in  details  of  procedure. 

The  "  Bourguignonne "  Sauce  is  composed  of  red-wine 
accompanied  by  aromatics,  and  reduced  by  half.  In  accord- 
ance with  ordinary  principles,  it  is  thickened  by  means  of 
three  oz.  of  manied  butter  per  quart  of  reduced  wine.  This 
sauce  is  buttered  with  four  oz.  of  butter  per  quart,  and  is  espe- 
cially regarded  as  a  domestic  preparation  for  poached,  moulded, 
and  hard-boiled  eggs. 

"Matelote"  Sauce  is  made  from  Court-bouillon,  with  red 
wine  which  has  been  used  for  cooking  fish.  This  Court- 
bouillon,  with  the  mushroom  parings  added,  is  reduced  by 
two-thirds,  and  is  thickened  with  one  pint  of  Lenten  Espagnole 
per  pint  of  the  reduced  Court-bouillon. 

This  sauce  should  be  reduced  by  a  third,  strained  through 
a  tammy,  and  finished  by  means  of  two  oz.  of  butter  and  a 
little  cayenne  per  pint  of  sauce. 

The  Red-Wine  Sauce  resembles  the  two  preceding  ones  in 
so  far  as  it  contains  mirepoix  browned  in  butter  and  diluted 


28  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

with  red  wine.  The  wine  is  reduced  by  half,  thickened  by  a 
pint  of  Lenten  Espagnole  per  pint  of  the  reduction,  and  the 
sauce  is  despumated  for  about  twenty  minutes.  It  is  strained 
through  a  tammy,  and  finished,  when  ready,  by  a  few  drops 
of  anchovy  essence,  a  Httle  cayenne,  and  two  oz.  of  butter  per 
pint  of  sauce. 

39— QRAND-VENEUR  SAUCE 

Take  one  pint  of  Poivrade  Sauce  (No.  49)  and  boil  it,  adding 
one  pint  of  game  stock  to  keep  it  light;  reduce  the  sauce  by  a 
good  third ;  remove  it  from  the  fire,  and  add  four  tablespoonfuls 
of  red-currant  jelly.  When  the  latter  is  well  dissolved,  com- 
plete the  sauce  by  one-quarter  pint  of  cream  per  pint  of  sauce. 

This  sauce  is  the  proper  accompaniment  for  joints  of 
venison. 

40— ITALIAN  SAUCE 

Ordinary  Italian  Sauce. — Put  into  a  stewpan  six  tablespoon- 
fuls of  Duxelles  (see  No.  223),  two  oz.  of  very  lean,  cooked 
ham,  cut  very  finely,  brunoise-fashion,  and  one  pint  of  half- 
glaze  tomat^e.  Boil  for  ten  minutes,  and  complete,  at  the 
moment  of  dishing  up,  with  one  teaspoonful  of  parsley,  chervil, 
and  tarragon,  minced  and  mixed. 

Lenten  Italian  Sauce. — Same  preparation,  only  (i)  omit  the 
ham,  and  (2)  substitute  Lent  Espagnole  (combined  with  fish 
fumet  made  from  the  fish  for  which  the  sauce  is  intended)  for 
half  glaze  with  tomatoes. 

41— THICKENED  GRAVY 

Boil  one  pint  of  poultry  or  veal  stock  (according  to  the 
nature  of  the  dish  the  gravy  is  intended  for).  Thicken  this 
sauce  by  means  of  three-quarters  oz.  of  fecula,  diluted  cold, 
with  a  little  water  or  gravy,  and  pour  this  leason  into  the 
boiling  gravy,  being  careful  to  stir  briskly. 

The  thickened  gravy  with  the  veal-stock  base  is  used  for 
choicest  pieces  of  butcher's  meat;  that  with  a  poultry-stock 
base  is  for  fillets  of  poultry. 

42— VEAL  GRAVY  TOMATE 

Add  to  one  pint  of  veal  stock  two  oz.  of  pur6e  and  one- 
quarter  pint  of  tomato  juice,  and  reduce  by  a  fifth.  Strain  the 
gravy  through  linen.     This  gravy  is  for  butcher's  meat. 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  29 

43— LYONNAISE  SAUCE 

Finely  mince  two  oz.  of  onions  and  brown  them  slightly  in 
two  oz.  of  butter.  Moisten  with  one-quarter  pint  of  white  wine 
and  as  much  vinegar;  almost  entirely  reduce  the  liquid;  add 
one  and  one-half  pints  of  clear  half-glaze,  and  set  to  cook  slowly 
for  half  an  hour.     Rub  the  sauce  through  a  tammy. 

N.B. — The  onion  may  be  left  in  the  sauce  or  not,  according 
to  the  preparation  for  which  it  is  intended  and  the  taste  of  the 
consumer. 

44— MADEIRA  SAUCE 

Put  one  and  one-half  pints  of  half-glaze  into  a  saut^-pan,  and 
reduce  it  on  a  brisk  fire  to  a  stiff  consistence.  When  it  reaches 
this  point,  take  it  off  the  fire  and  add  one-fifth  pint  of  Madeira 
to  it,  which  brings  it  back  to  its  normal  consistence.  Rub 
through  a  tammy,  and  keep  it  warm  without  allowing  it  to 
boil. 

45— MARROW  SAUCE 

Follow  the  proportions  as  indicated  under  "  Sauce  Borde- 
laise  "  (No.  32)  for  the  necessary  quantity  of  this  sauce,  the 
Marrow  Sauce  being  only  a  variety  of  the  Bordelaise.  Finish 
it  with  six  oz.  per  quart  of  beef  marrow,  cut  into  cubes,  poached 
and  well  drained,  and  one  teaspoonful  of  chopped  parsley, 
scalded  for  a  second.  If  the  sauce  is  to  accompany  vegetables, 
finish  it,  away  from  the  fire,  with  three  oz.  of  butter,  and  then 
add  the  cubes  of  marrow  and  the  parsley. 

46— PIQNONS  SAUCE 

Take  the  necessary  amount  of  Poivrade  Sauce  prepared 
according  to  Formula  No.  49,  and  let  it  boil.  Now,  for  one 
pint  of  sauce,  prepare  an  infusion  of  juniper  berries,  with  one- 
quarter  pint  of  water  and  two  oz.  of  concassed  berries;  one  oz. 
of  grilled  fir-apple  kernels,  and  one  oz.  of  raisins,  stoned  and 
washed,  and  left  to  soak  in  tepid  water  for  about  an  hour. 
Finish  the  sauce,  when  dishing  up,  by  adding  the  infusion 
of  juniper  berries  strained  through  linen,  the  grilled  kernels, 
the  soaked  raisins,  and  one-eighth  pint  of  Madeira  wine. 

This  sauce  is  specially  suited  to  joints  of  venison. 

47— PERIQUEUX  SAUCE 

Prepare  a  "  Sauce  Mad^re  "  as  explained  in  No.  44,  and  add 
to  the  half-glaze,  to  be  reduced,  half  its  volume  of  very  strong 
veal  stock,  and  keep  it  a  little  denser  than  usual.     Finish  this 


30  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

sauce  by  adding  one-sixth  pint  of  truffle  essence  and  tliree  oz. 
of  chopped  truffles  per  quart  of  Madeira  Sauce.  It  is  used  for 
numerous  small  entries,  timbales,  hot  pit^s,  &c. 

48— PIQUANTE  SAUCE 

Put  into  a  vegetable  pan  two  oz.  of  minced  shallots,  one- 
quarter  pint  of  vinegar,  and  as  much  white  wine.  Reduce  the 
liquid  by  a  good  half,  and  add  one  pint  of  half-glaze;  set  the 
sauce  to  boil,  and  despumate  it  for  half  an  hour.  At  the  last 
moment  finish  it,  away  from  the  fire,  with  two  oz.  of  gherkins, 
one  oz.  of  capers,  and  a  teaspoonful  of  chervil,  parsley,  and 
tarragon,  mixed;  all  the  ingredients  to  be  finely  chopped.  This 
sauce  generally  accompanies  grilled  or  boiled  pork,  and  cold 
meat  re-dished  and  minced  which  needs  spicy  flavouring. 

49— ORDINARY  POIVRADE  SAUCE 

1.  Heat  two  oz.  of  butter  in  a  ste'wpan,  and  insert  one  lb.  of 
raw  Mirepoix  (No.  228).  Fry  the  vegetables  until  they  are  well 
browned;  moisten  with  one-quarter  pint  of  vinegar  and  one-half 
pint  of  Marinade  (Formula  169);  reduce  to  two-thirds;  add  one 
pint  of  Espagnole  Sauce,  and  cook  for  three-quarters  of  an 
hour.  Ten  minutes  before  straining  the  sauce,  put  in  a  few 
crushed  peppercorns.  If  the  pepper  were  put  in  the  sauce 
earlier,  it  might  make  it  bitter. 

2.  Pass  the  sauce  through  a  strainer,  pressing  the  aromatics ; 
add  a  further  one-half  pint  of  Marinade,  and  despumate  for 
one-quarter  of  an  hour,  keeping  it  simmering  the  while.  Strain 
again  through  tammy,  and  finish  the  sauce,  when  ready  for 
dishing,  with  two  oz.  of  butter. 

This  sauce  is  suitable  for  joints  marinaded  or  not. 

50— POIVRADE  SAUCE  FOR  VENISON 

Fry,  with  two  oz.  of  butter  and  two  oz.  of  oil,  one  lb.  of 
raw  Mirepoix  (No.  228)  to  which  are  added  four  lbs.  of  well- 
broken  bones  and  ground-game  trimmings.  When  the  whole 
is  well  browned,  drain  the  grease  away,  and  dilute  with  one 
pint  of  vinegar  and  one  pint  of  white  wine.  Reduce  this  liquid 
by  three-quarters,  then  add  three  quarts  of  game  stock  and  a 
quart  of  Espagnole  Sauce.  Boil,  cover  the  saucepan,  and  put 
into  a  moderate  oven,  where  it  should  stay  for  at  least  three 
hours.  At  the  end  of  this  time  take  out  the  saucepan  and  pour 
its  contents  into  a  fine  sieve  placed  over  a  tureen ;  press  the 
remains  so  as  to  expel  all  the  sauce  they  hold,  and  pour  the 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  31 

sauce  into  a  tall,  thick  saucepan.  Add  enough  game  stock  and 
Marinade,  mixed  in  equal  parts,  to  produce  three  quarts  in  all 
of  sauce,  and  gently  reduce  the  latter  while  despumating  it. 
As  it  diminishes  in  volume,  it  should  be  passed  through  muslin 
into  smaller  saucepans,  and  the  reduction  should  be  stopped 
when  only  a  quart  of  sauce  remains. 

N.B. — This  sauce,  like  red-wine  sauces,  may  be  served  as  it 
stands.  It  is  brilliant,  clear,  and  perhaps  more  sightly  thus, 
but  the  addition  of  a  certain  quantity  of  butter  (four  oz.  per 
quart)  makes  it  perfectly  mellow,  and  admirably  completes  its 
fragrance. 

51— PROVEN9ALE  SAUCE 

Peel,  remove  the  seeds,  press  and  concass  twelve  medium 
tomatoes.  Heat  in  a  sautd-pan  one-fifth  pint  of  oil,  until  it 
begins  to  smoke  a  little;  insert  the  tomatoes  seasoned  with 
pepper  and  salt ;  add  a  crushed  garlic  clove,  a  pinch  of  powdered 
sugar,  one  teaspoonful  of  chopped  parsley,  and  allow  to  melt 
gently  for  half  an  hour.  In  reality,  true  Proven9ale  is  nothing 
but  a  fine  fondue  of  tomatoes  with  garlic. 

52— ROBERT  SAUCE 

Finely  mince  a  large  onion  and  put  it  into  a  stewpan  with 
butter.  Fry  the  onion  gently  and  without  letting  it  acquire  any 
colour.  Dilute  with  one-third  pint  of  white  wine,  reduce  the 
latter  by  one-third,  add  one  pint  of  half-glaze,  and  leave  to 
simmer  for  twenty  minutes.  When  dishing  up,  finish  the  sauce 
with  one  tablespoonful  of  meat  glaze,  one  teaspoonful  of 
mustard,  and  one  pinch  of  powdered  sugar.  If,  when  finished, 
the  sauce  has  to  wait,  it  should  be  kept  warm  in  a  bain-marie,  as 
it  must  not  boil  again.  This  sauce — of  a  spicy  flavour — is  best 
suited  to  grilled  and  boiled  pork.  It  may  also  be  used  for  a 
mince  of  the  same  meat. 

53— ESCOFFIER  ROBERTS  SAUCE 

This  sauce  may  be  bought  ready-made.  It  is  used  either  hot 
or  cold.  It  is  especially  suitable  for  pork,  veal,  poultry,  and 
even  fish,  and  is  generally  used  hot  with  grills  after  the  equi- 
valent of  its  volume  of  excellent  brown  stock  has  been  added 
to  it.     It  may  also  be  served  cold  to  accompany  cold  meat. 

54— ROUENNAISE  SAUCE 

Prepare  a  "  Bordelaise  "  sauce  according  to  Formula  No. 
32.  The  diluent  of  this  sauce  must  be  an  excellent  red  wine. 
Fqr  one  pint  of  sauce,  pass  four  raw  ducks'  livers  through  a 


32  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

sieve;  add  the  resulting  pur^e  to  the  Bordelaise,  and  heat  the 
latter  for  a  few  minutes  in  order  to  poach  the  liver.  Be  careful, 
however,  not  to  heat  the  sauce  too  much  nor  too  long,  lest  the 
liver  be  cooked.  Serve  this  sauce  with  duckling  h  la  Rouen- 
naise. 

55— SALMIS  SAUCE 

The  base  of  this  sauce,  which  rather  resembles  the  cullis,  is 
unchangeable.  Its  diluent  only  changes  according  to  the  kind 
of  birds  or  game  to  be  treated,  and  whether  this  game  is  to  be 
considered  ordinary  or  Lenten. 

Cut  and  gently  brown  in  butter  five  oz.  of  Mirepoix  (Formula 
228).  Add  the  shin  detached  from  the  limbs  and  the  chopped 
carcase  of  the  bird  under  treatment,  and  moisten  with  one  pint 
of  white  wine.  Reduce  the  latter  to  two-thirds,  add  one-half 
pint  of  half  glaze,  and  boil  gently  for  three-quarters  of  an  hour. 
Pass  through  a  strainer,  while  pressing  upon  the  carcase  and 
the  aromatics,  with  the  view  of  extracting  their  quintessence, 
and  thin  the  cullis  thus  obtained  by  means  of  one-half  pint  of 
game  stock  or  mushroom  liquor,  if  the  game  be  Lenten.  Now 
despumate  for  about  one  hour,  finally  reduce  the  sauce,  bring 
it  to  its  proper  consistency  with  a  little  mushroom  liquor  and 
truffle  essence,  rub  it  through  tammy,  and  butter  it  slightly  at 
the  last  moment. 

56— TORTUE  SAUCE 

Boil  one-half  pint  of  veal  stock,  adding  a  small  sprig  of  sage, 
sweet  marjoram,  rosemary,  basil,  thyme,  and  as  much  bay, 
two  oz.  of  mushroom  parings,  and  one  oz.  of  parsley.  Cover 
and  allow  to  infuse  for  half  an  hour.  Two  minutes  before  strain- 
ing the  infusion,  add  four  concassed  peppercorns. 

After  straining  through  fine  linen,  add  one-half  pint  of  half- 
glaze  and  as  much  tomato  sauce  (away  from  the  fire)  with  four 
tablespoonfuls  of  sherry,  a  litde  truffle  essence,  and  a  good  pinch 
of  cayenne. 

N.B. — As  this  sauce  must  be  spicy,  the  use  of  cayenne  sug- 
gests itself,  but  great  caution  should  be  observed,  as  there  must 
be  no  excess  of  this  condiment. 

57_VENISON  SAUCE 

Prepare  a  Poivrade  sauce  for  game,  as  explained  in  No.  50. 
Finish  this  sauce  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  red-currant  jelly, 
previously   dissolved,   and  mixed  with   five   tablespoonfuls   of 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  33 

fresh  cream  per  pint  of  sauce.     This  addition  of  cream  and  red- 
currants  must  be  made  away  from  the  fire. 
Serve  this  sauce  with  big  ground-game. 


Small  White  and  Compound  Sauces. 

58— AMERICAN  SAUCE 

This  sauce  consists  of  lobster  prepared  "k  I'Am^ricaine  " 
(see  No.  939).  As  it  generally  accompanies  a  fish,  the  meat  of 
the  lobster  or  lobsters  which  have  served  in  its  preparation  is 
sliced  and  used  as  the  garnish  of  the  fish. 

59— ANCHOVY  SAUCE 

Put  into  a  small  stewpan  one  pint  of  unbuttered  "  Normande 
Sauce  "  (No.  99),  and  finish  it,  away  from  the  fire,  with  three 
oz.  of  anchovy  butter,  and  one  oz.  of  anchovy  fillets,  washed, 
well  sponged,  and  cut  into  small  pieces. 

60— AURORE  SAUCE 

Into  one-half  pint  of  boiling  velout^  put  the  same  quantity 
of  very  red  tomato  pur^e  (No.  29),  and  mix  the  two.  Let  the 
sauce  boil  a  little,  pass  it  through  a  tammy,  and  finish,  away 
from  the  fire,  with  three  oz.  of  butter. 

61— LENTEN  AURORE  SAUCE 

This  sauce  is  made  like  the  preceding  one,  i.e.,  with  the 
same  quantities  of  velout6  and  tomato  puree,  replacing  ordinary 
velout^  by  fish  velout6. 

63— BEARNAISE  SAUCE 

Put  into  a  small  stewpan  one  teaspoonful  of  chopped  shallots, 
two  oz.  of  chopped  tarragon  stalks,  three  oz.  of  chervil,  some 
mignonette  pepper,  a  pinch  of  salt,  and  four  tablespoonfuls  of 
vinegar.  Reduce  the  vinegar  by  two-thirds,  take  off  the  fire, 
let  the  stewpan  cool  a  little,  and  add  to  this  reduction  the  yolks 
of  five  eggs.  Now  put  the  stewpan  on  a  low  fire  and  gradually 
combine  with  the  yolks  six  oz.  of  melted  butter.  Whisk  the 
sauce  briskly,  so  ^s  to  ensure  the  cooking  of  the  yolks,  which 
alone,  by  gradual  cooking,  effect  the  leason  of  the  sauce. 

When  the  butter  is  combined  with  the  sauce,  rub  the  latter 
through  tammy,  and  finish  it  with  a  teaspoonful  of  chervil 
parings  and  chopped  tarragon  leaves.  Complete  the  seasoning 
with  a  suspicion  of  cayenne.  This  sauce  should  not  be  served 
yery  hot,  as  it  is  really  a  mayonnaise  with  butter.     It  need  tjnly 

D 


34  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

be  tepid,   for  it  would  probably  turn  if  it  were  over-heated. 
Serve  it  with  grilled,  butcher's  meat  and  poultry. 

63— BEARNAISE  SAUCE  WITH  MEAT  GLAZE, 
OTHERWISE  VALOIS  SAUCE  OR  FOYOT  SAUCE 

Prepare  a  B^arnaise  sauce  as  explained  in  No.  62.  Complete 
it  with  three  tablespoonfuls  of  dissolved  pale  meat  glaze,  which 
may  be  added  in  small  quantities  at  a  time.  Serve  it  with 
butcher's  meat. 

64— BEARNAISE  TOMATEE  SAUCE  OR  CHORON  SAUCE 

Proceed  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  for  B^arnaise  No.  62. 
When  the  sauce  is  made  and  rubbed  through  tammy,  finish  it 
with  one-third  pint  of  very  red  tomato  pur^e.  In  this  case  the 
final  addition  of  chervil  and  tarragon  should  not  be  made. 

This  is  proper  to  "  Tournedos  Choron,"  but  it  may  accom- 
pany grilled  poultry  and  white,  butcher's  meat. 

6s— BERCY  SAUCE 

Heat  two  oz.  of  chopped  shallots.  Moisten  with  one-half 
pint  of  white  wine  and  as  much  fish  fumet,  or,  when  possible, 
the  same  quantity  of  fish  liquor,  the  latter  being,  of  course, 
that  of  a  fish  similar  to  the  one  the  sauce  is  to  accompany. 
Reduce  to  a  good  third,  add  one-third  pint  of  velout^,  let  the 
sauce  boil  some  time,  and  finish  it,  away  from  the  fire,  with 
four  oz.  of  butter  (added  by  degrees),  a  few  drops  of  fish  glaze, 
half  the  juice  of  a  lemon,  and  one  oz.  of  chopped  parsley. 

Serve  with  medium-sized  poached  fish. 

66— BUTTER  SAUCE 

Mix  two  oz.  of  sifted  flour  with  two  oz.  of  melted  butter. 
Dilute  with  one  quart  of  boiling  water,  salted  to  the  extent  of 
one-quarter  oz.  per  quart.  Stir  briskly  to  ensure  a  perfect 
leason,  and  do  not  allow  to  boil.  Add  immediately  the  yolks 
of  six  eggs  mixed  with  one-quarter  pint  of  cream  and  the  juice 
of  half  a  lemon.  Rub  through  a  tammy,  and  finish  the  sauce 
with  five  oz.  of  best  fresh  butter. 

Be  careful  that  the  sauce  does  not  boil  after  it  has  been 
thickened. 

67— BONNEFOY  SAUCE,  OR  WHITE  BORDELAISE  SAUCE 

Put  in  a  stewpan  two  oz.  of  minced  shallots  and  one-half 
pint  of  Graves,   Sauterne,   or  any  other  excellent  white  Bor- 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  35 

deaux.  Reduce  the  wine  almost  entirely,  add  one-quarter  pint 
of  velout^,  let  it  simmer  twenty  minutes,  and  rub  it  through  a 
tammy.  Finish  it,  away  from  the  fire,  with  six  oz.  of  butter 
and  a  little  chopped  tarragon. 

Serve  it  with  grilled  fish  and  grilled  white  meat. 

68— CAPER  SAUCE 

This  is  a  derivative  of  the  Butter  Sauce  described  under  No. 
66,  and  there  need  only  be  added  two  tablespoonfuls  of  capers 
per  pint  of  sauce.  It  frequently  accompanies  boiled  fish  of  all 
kinds. 

69-CARDINAL  SAUCE 

Boil  one  pint  of  Bechamel,  to  which  add  one-half  pint  of  fish 
fumet  and  a  little  truffle  essence,  and  reduce  by  a  quarter. 
Finish  the  sauce,  when  dishing  up,  with  three  tablespoonfuls  of 
cream  and  three  oz.  of  very  red  lobster  butter  (No.  149). 

This  sauce  is  poured  over  the  fish. 

70— MUSHROOM  SAUCE 

If  this  be  intended  for  poultry,  add  one-fifth  pint  of  mush- 
room liquor  and  eight  oz.  of  button-mushroom  heads  turned 
or  channelled  and  cooked,  to  one  pint  of  very  stiff  Allemande 
Sauce. 

If  it  be  intended  for  fish,  take  one  pint  of  fish  velout^, 
thickened  wfth  the  yolks  of  four  eggs,  and  finish  it  with  mush- 
room liquor,  as  above. 

The  sauce  that  I  suggest  for  poultry  may  also  be  used  foi 
fish,  after  adding  the  necessary  quantity  of  fish  fumet. 

71— CHATEAUBRIAND  SAUCE 

Put  one  oz.  of  chopped  shallots,  a  sprig  of  thyme  and  a  bit 
of  bay,  one  oz.  of  mushroom  parings,  and  one-quarter  pint  of 
white  wine  into  a  stewpan.  Reduce  the  wine  almost  entirely, 
add  one-half  pint  of  veal  gravy,  and  reduce  again  until  the 
liquid  only  measures  one-quarter  pint.  Strain  through  muslin, 
and  finish  the  sauce  away  from  the  fire  with  four  oz.  of  butter 
"  Mattre  d'Hotel  "  (No.  150),  to  which  may  be  added  a  little 
chopped  tarragon.  Serve  with  grilled  fillet  of  beef,  otherwise 
"  Chdteaubriand." 

72— WHITE  CHAUD-FROID  SAUCE 

Boil  one  pint  of  velout^  in  a  stewpan,  and  add  three-quarters 
pint  of  melted  white  poultry  jelly.     Put  the  stewpan  on  an  open 

D  2 


36  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

fire,  reduce  the  sauce  by  a  third,  stirring  constantly  the  while, 
and  gradually  add  one-half  pint  of  very  fresh  cream.  When 
the  sauce  has  reached  the  desired  degree  of  consistency  rub  it 
through  a  tammy,  and  stir  it  frequently  while  it  cools,  for  fear 
of  a  skin  forming  on  its  surface,  for  if  this  happened  it  would 
have  to  be  strained  again.  When  dishing  up,  this  sauce  should 
be  cold,  so  that  it  may  properly  coat  immersed  solids  and  yet 
be  liquid  enough  to  admit  of  the  latter  being  easily  steeped 
into  it. 

73— ORDINARY  CHAUD=FROID  SAUCE 

Proceed  exactly  as  above,  substituting  Allemande  Sauce  for 
the  velout6,  and  reducing  the  quantity  of  cream  to  one-quarter 
pint.     Observe  the  sam.e  precautions  while  cooling. 

74— CHAUD  =  FROID  SAUCE,  A  L'AURORE 

Prepare  a  white  Chaud-Froid  (No.  72).  The  same  may  be 
coloured  by  the  addition  of  fine  red  tomato  pur^e — more  or 
less  to  match  the  desired  shade — or  by  an  infusion  of  paprika, 
according  to  the  use  for  which  it  is  intended.  This  last  pro- 
duct is  preferable  when  not  too  deep  a  shade  is  required. 

75— CHAUD  =  FROID  SAUCE,  AU  VERT=PR6 

Add  to  the  velout^  of  the  white  Chaud-Froid  sauce,  at  the 
same  time  as  the  jelly,  an  infusion  prepared  thus : — Boil  one- 
quarter  pint  of  white  wine,  and  add  to  it  one  pinch  of  chervil 
stalks,  a  similar  quantity  of  tarragon  leaves,  chives,  and  parsley 
leaves.  Cover,  allow  infusion  to  proceed  away  from  the  fire 
for  ten  minutes,  and  strain  through  linen. 

Treat  the  sauce  as  explained,  and  finish  with  spinach-green 
(No.  143).  The  shade  of  the  sauce  must  not  be  too  pronounced, 
but  must  remain  a  pale  green.  The  colouring  principle  must 
therefore  be  added  with  caution  and  in  small  quantities,  until 
the  correct  shade  is  obtained.  Use  this  sauce  for  Chaud-froids 
of  fowl,  particularly  that  kind  distinguished  as  "  Printanier ." 

76— LENT  CHAUD=FROID  SAUCE 

Proceed  as  for  white  Chaud-Froid,  using  the  same  quantities, 
and  taking  note  of  the  following  modifications : — 

1.  Substitute  fish  velout^  for  ordinary  velout^. 

2.  Substitute  white  fish  jelly  for  poultry  jelly. 

Remarks. — I  have  adopted  the  use  of  this  ordinary  Chaud- 
Froid  sauce  for  the  glazing  of  fillets  and  escalopes  of  fish  and 
shell-fish,  instead  of  cleared  Mayonnaise,  formerly  used,  which 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  27 

had  certain  inconveniences — not  the  least  being  the  oozing  away 
of  the  oil  under  the  shrinkage  of  the  gelatine.  This  difficulty 
does  not  obtain  in  the  ordinary  Chaud-Froid,  the  definite  and 
pronounced  flavour  of  which  is  better  than  that  of  tlie  cleared 
Mayonnaise. 

77— "ESCOFFIER"  CHERRY  SAUCE 

This  sauce  may  be  bought  ready-made.  Like  the  Roberts 
Sauce,  it  can  be  served  hot  or  cold.  It  is  an  excellent  adjunct 
to  venison,  and  even  to  small  ground-game.  Saddle  of  venison 
with  this  sauce  constitutes  one  of  the  greatest  dainties  that  an 
epicure  could  desire. 

78— CH5VRY  SAUCE 

In  one-half  pint  of  boiling  poultry  stock  put  a  large  pinch  of 
chervil  pluches,  tarragon  and  parsley  leaves,  a  head  of  young 
pimpernel  (the  qualification  here  is  very  important,  for  this 
aromatic  plant  grows  bitter  as  it  matures),  and  a  good  pinch  of 
chives.  Cover  up,  and  let  infusion  proceed  for  ten  to  twelve 
minutes;  then  add  the  liquid  (strained  through  linen)  to  one  pint 
of  velout6.  Boil,  reduce  by  a  quarter,  and  complete  it  with 
two  oz.  of  Green  Butter  (No.  143).  Chivry  Sauce  is  admirably 
suited  to  boiled  or  poached  poultry. 

79-CREAM  SAUCE 

Boil  one  pint  of  Bechamel  Sauce,  and  add  one-quarter  pint  of 
cream  to  it.  Reduce  on  an  open  fire  until  the  sauce  has  become 
very  thick;  then  pass  through  tammy.  Bring  to  its  normal 
degree  of  consistency  by  gradually  adding,  away  from  the  fire, 
one-quarter  pint  of  very  fresh  cream  and  a  few  drops  of  lemon- 
juice.  Serve  this  sauce  with  boiled  fish,  poultry,  eggs,  and 
various  vegetables. 

80— SHRIRIP  SAUCE 

Boil  one  pint  of  fish  veloute  or,  failing  this,  Bechamel  sauce, 
and  add  to  it  one-quarter  pint  of  cream  and  one-quarter  pint 
of  very  clear  fish  fumet.  Reduce  to  one  pint,  and  finish 
the  sauce,  away  from  the  fire,  with  two  oz.  of  Shrimp  Butter 
(No.  145)  and  two  oz.  of  shelled  shrimps'  tails. 

81— CURRY  SAUCE 

Slightly  brown  the  following  vegetables  in  butter: — Twelve 
oz.  of  minced  onions,  one  oz.  of  parsley  roots,  four  oz.  of  minced 
celery,  a  small  sprig  of  thyme,  a  bit  of  bay,  and  a  little  mace. 
Sprinkle  with  two  oz.  of  flour  and  a  teaspoonful  of  curry  pepper. 


38  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Cook  the  flour  for  some  minutes  without  letting  it  acquire  any 
colour,  and  dilute  with  one  and  one-half  pints  of  white  stock. 
Boil,  cook  gently  for  three-quarters  of  an  hour,  and  rub  through 
a  tammy.  Now  heat  the  sauce,  remove  its  grease,  and  keep  it 
in  the  bain-viarie.  Serve  this  sauce  with  fish,  shell-fish,  poultry, 
and  various  egg-preparations. 

N.B. — This  sauce  is  sometimes  flavoured  with  cocoa-nut  milk 
in  the  proportion  of  one-quarter  of  the  diluent. 

82— DIPLOMATE  SAUCE 

Take  one  pint  of  Normande  Sauce,  prepared  according  to 
No.  99,  and  finish  it  with  two  oz.  of  lobster  butter  and  three 
tablespoonfuls  of  lobster  meat,  and  truffles  cut  into  small,  regular 
tubes. 

83— HERB  SAUCE 

Prepare  one  pint  of  white-wine  sauce  (No.  in).  Finish  it 
away  from  the  fire  with  three  oz.  of  shallot  butter,  a  tablespoon- 
ful  of  parsley,  chervil,  tarragon,  and  chives,  chopped  and  mixed. 
Serve  this  sauce  with  boiled  or  poached  fish. 

84— GOOSEBERRY  SAUCE 

Prepare  one  pint  of  butter  sauce.  Formula  No.  66.  Mean- 
while put  one  lb.  of  green  gooseberries  into  a  small  copper 
saucepan  containing  boiling  water.  Boil  for  five  minutes,  then 
drain  the  gooseberries,  and  put  them  in  a  little  stewpan  with 
one-half  pint  of  white  wine  and  three  oz.  of  powdered  sugar. 
Gently  cook  the  gooseberries,  rub  them  through  a  tammy,  and 
add  the  resulting  pulp  to  the  butter  sauce.  This  sauce  is  excel- 
lent with  grilled  mackerel  and  the  poached  fillets  of  that  fish. 

85-HUNQARIAN  SAUCE 

Gently  fry  in  butter,  without  colouring,  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  chopped  onions  seasoned  with  table-salt  and  half  a  teaspoon- 
ful  of  paprika.  Moisten  with  one-quarter  pint  of  white  wine, 
add  a  small  faggot,  reduce  the  wine  by  two-thirds,  and  remove 
the  herbs. 

Finish  with  one  pint  of  ordinary  or  Lenten  Velout^,  accord- 
ing to  the  use  for  which  the  sauce  is  intended,  and  boil  moder- 
ately for  five  minutes.  Then  rub  the  sauce  through  a  tammy, 
and  complete  it  with  two  oz.  of  butter.  Remember  this  sauce 
should  be  of  a  tender,  pink  shade,  which  it  must  owe  to  the 
paprika  alone. 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  39 

It  forms  an  ideal  accompaniment  to  choice  morsels  of  lamb 
and  veal,  eggs,  poultry,  and  fish. 

86— OYSTER  SAUCE 

Take  one  pint  of  Normande  Sauce,  finish  it  as  directed  in 
that  recipe,  and  complete  it  with  one-quarter  pint  of  reduced 
oyster  liquor,  strained  through  linen,  and  twelve  poached  and 
trimmed  oysters. 

87— IVORY  SAUCE,  OR  ALBUFERA  SAUCE 

Take  the  necessary  quantity  of  Supreme  Sauce,  prepared 
as  explained  in  No.  105a.  Add  to  this  four  tablespoonfuls  of 
dissolved,  pale,  meat  glaze  per  quart  of  sauce,  in  order  to  lend 
the  latter  that  ivory-white  tint  which  characterises  it.  Serve 
this  sauce  chiefly  with  poultry  and  poached  sweet-bread. 

88— JOINVILLE  SAUCE 

Prepare  one  pint  of  Normande  Sauce  (No.  99),  as  given  in 
the  first  part  of  its  formula,  and  complete  it  with  two  oz.  of 
shrimp  butter  and  two  oz.  of  crayfish  butter.  If  this  sauce  is 
to  accompany  a  fish  k  la  Joinville,  which  includes  a  special 
garnish,  it  is  served  as  it  stands.  If  it  is  served  with  a  large, 
boiled,  ungarnished  fish,  one  oz.  of  very  black  truffles  cut 
Julienne-fashion  should  be  added.  As  may  be  seen,  Joinville 
Sauce  differs  from  similar  preparations  in  the  final  operation 
where  crayfish  and  shrimp  butter  are  combined. 

89— MALTESE  SAUCE 

To  the  Hollandaise  Sauce,  given  under  No.  30,  add,  when, 
dishing  up,  the  juice  of  two  blood  oranges  (these  late-season 
oranges  being  especially  suitable  for  this  sauce)  and  half  a 
coffeespoonful  of  grated  orange-rind. 

Maltese  Sauce  is  the  finest  for  asparagus. 

90— MARINIERE  SAUCE 

Take  the  necessary  quantity  of  Bercy  Sauce  (No.  65),  and 
add,  per  pint  of  sauce,  one-quarter  pint  of  mussel  liquor  and  a 
leason  composed  of  the  yolks  of  three  eggs. 

Serve  this  with  small  poached  fish  and  more  particularly  with 
mussels. 

91— MORN  AY  SAUCE 

Boil  one  pint  of  Bdchamel  Sauce  with  one-quarter  pint  of 
the  fumet  of  that  fish  which  is  to  constitute  the  dish.     Reduce 


40  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

by  a  good  quarter,  and  add  two  oz.  of  Gruy^re  and  two  oz.  of 
grated  Parmesan. 

Put  the  sauce  on  the  fire  again  for  a  few  minutes,  and  ensure 
the  melting  of  the  cheese  by  stirring  with  a  small  whisk.  Finish 
the  sauce  away  from  the  fire  with  two  oz.  of  butter  added  by 
degrees. 

92— MOUSSELINE  SAUCE 

To  a  Hollandaise  Sauce,  prepared  as  explained  (No.  30),  add, 
just  before  dishing  up,  one-half  pint  of  stiffly-whipped  cream 
per  pint  of  sauce. 

93— MOUSSEUSE  SAUCE 

Scald  and  wipe  a  small  vegetable-pan,  and  put  into  it  one- 
half  lb.  of  stifHy-mamed  butter,  properly  softened.  Season  this 
butter  with  table-salt  and  a  few  drops  of  lemon-juice,  and  whisk 
it  while  gradually  adding  one-third  pint  of  cold  water.  Finish 
with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  very  firm,  whipped  cream.  This  pre- 
paration, though  classified  as  a  sauce,  is  really  a  compound 
butter,  which  is  served  with  boiled  fish.  The  heat  of  the  fish 
alone  suffices  to  melt  it,  and  its  appearance  is  infinitely  more 
agreeable  than  that  of  plain,  melted  butter. 

94— MUSTARD  SAUCE 

Take  the  necessary  quantity  of  butter  sauce  and  complete  it, 
away  from  the  fire,  with  one  tablespoonful  of  mustard  per  pint 
of  sauce. 

N.B. — If  the  sauce  has  to  wait,  it  must  be  kept  in  a  bain- 
marie,  for  it  should  not  on  any  account  boil.  It  is  served  with 
certain  smafl  grilled  fish,  especially  fresh  herrings. 

95— NANTUA  SAUCE 

Boil  one  pint  of  Bechamel  Sauce,  add  one-half  pint  of  cream, 
and  reduce  by  a  third.  Rub  it  through^a  tammy,  and  finish  it 
with  a  further  addition  of  two  tablespoonfuls  of  cream,  three  oz. 
of  very  fine  crayfish  butter,  and  one  tablespoonful  of  small, 
shelled  crayfishes'  tails. 

96— NEWBURQ  SAUCE 

First  Method  {with  Raw  Lobsters). — Divide  a  two  lb.  lobster 
into  four  parts.  Remove  its  creamy  parts,  pound  them  finelv 
with  two  oz.  of  butter,  and  put  them  aside. 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  41 

Heat  in  a  saut^pan  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  and  as 
much  oil,  and  insert  the  pieces  of  lobster,  well  seasoned  with 
salt  and  cayenne.  Fry  until  the  pieces  assume  a  fine,  red  colour ; 
entirely  drain  away  the  butter,  and  add  two  tablespoonfuls  of 
burnt  brandy  and  one-third  pint  of  Marsala  or  old  Sherry. 

Reduce  the  wine  by  two-thirds,  and  wet  the  lobster  with  one- 
third  pint  of  cream  and  one-half  pint  of  fish  fumet.  Now  add 
a  faggot,  cover  the  saut^pan,  and  gently  cook  for  twenty- 
five  minutes.  Then  drain  the  lobster  on  a  sieve,  remove 
the  meat  and  cut  it  into  cubes,  and  finish  the  sauce  by  adding 
the  creamy  portions  put  aside  from  the  first.  Boil  so  as  to 
ensure  the  cooking  of  these  latter  portions;  add  the  meat,  cut 
into  cubes,  and  verify  the  seasoning. 

N.B. — The  addition  of  the  meat  to  the  sauce  is  optional; 
instead  of  cutting  it  into  cubes  it  may  be  stewed  and  displayed 
on  the  fish  constituting  the  dish. 

97— SECOND  METHOD  (WITH  COOKED  LOBSTER) 

The  lobster  having  been  cooked  in  a  Court-bouillon,  shell 
the  tail  and  slice  it  up.  Arrange  these  slices  in  a  saut^pan  liber- 
ally buttered  at  the  bottom ;  season  them  strongly  with  salt  and 
cayenne,  and  heat  them  on  both  sides  so  as  to  effect  the  red- 
dening of  the  skin.  Immerse,  so  as  to  cover,  in  a  good  Sherry, 
and  almost  entirely  reduce  same. 

When  dishing  up,  pour  on  to  the  slices  a  leason  composed 
of  one-third  pint  of  fresh  cream  and  the  yolks  of  two  eggs. 
Gently  stir,  away  from  the  fire,  and  roll  the  saucepan  about  until 
the  leason  is  completed. 

Originally,  these  two  sauces,  like  the  American,  were  ex- 
clusively composed  of,  and  served  with,  lobster.  They  were 
one  with  the  two  very  excellent  preparations  of  lobster  which 
bear  their  name.  In  its  two  forms  lobster  may  only  be  served 
at  lunch,  many  people  with  delicate  stomachs  being  unable  to 
digest  it  at  night.  To  obviate  this  serious  difficulty,  I  have 
made  it  a  practice  to  serve  lobster  sauce  with  fillets  or  Mous- 
selines  of  sole,  adding  the  lobster  as  a  garnish  only.  And  this 
innovation  proved  most  welcome  to  the  public. 

By  using  such  condiments  as  curry  and  paprika,  excellent 
varieties  of  this  sauce  may  be  obtained,  which  are  particularly 
suited  to  sole  and  other  white  Lenten  fish.  In  either  of  these 
cases  it  is  well  to  add  a  little  rice  "  k  I'lndienne  "  to  the  fish. 


42  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

98— NOISETTE  SAUCE 

Prepare  a  Hollandaise  Sauce  according  to  the  recipe  under 
No.  30.     Add  two  oz.  of  hazel-nut  butter  at  the  last  moment. 
Serve  this  with  salmon,  trout,  and  all  boiled  fish  in  general. 

99— NORMANDE  SAUCE 

Put  in  a  saut^pan  one  pint  of  fish  veloute,  three  tablespoon- 
fuls  of  mushroom  liquor,  as  much  oyster  liquor,  and  twice  as 
much  sole  fumet,  the  yolks  of  three  eggs,  a  few  drops  of  lemon- 
juice,  and  one-quarter  pint  of  cream.  Reduce  by  a  good  third 
on  an  open  fire,  season  with  a  little  cayenne,  rub  through  a 
tammy,  and  finish  with  two  oz.  of  butter  and  four  tablespoonfuls 
of  good  cream. 

This  sauce  is  proper  to  fillet  of  sole  "  k  la  Normande,"  but 
it  is  also  frequently  used  as  the  base  of  other  small  sauces. 

100— ORIENTAL  SAUCE 

Take  one  pint  of  American  sauce,  season  with  curry,  and 
reduce  to  a  third.  Then  add,  away  from  the  fire,  one-quarter 
pint  of  cream  per  pint  of  sauce. 

Serve  this  sauce  in  the  same  way  as  American  Sauce. 

loi— POULETTE  SAUCE 

Boil  for  a  few  minutes  one  pint  of  Sauce  Allemande,  and 
add  six  tablespoonfuls  of  mushroom  liquor.  Finish,  away  from 
the  fire,  with  two  oz.  of  butter,  a  few  drops  of  lemon-juice,  and 
one  teaspoonful  of  chopped  parsley.  Use  this  sauce  with 
certain  vegetables,  but  more  generally  with  sheep's  trotters. 

102-RAVIQOTTE  SAUCE 

Reduce  by  half,  one-quarter  pint  of  white  wine  with  half 
as  much  vinegar.  Add  one  pint  of  ordinary  velout^,  boil  gently 
for  a  few  minutes,  and  finish  with  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  shallot 
butter  and  one  teaspoonful  of  chervil,  tarragon,  and  chopped 
chives.  This  sauce  accompanies  boiled  poultry  and  certain 
white  "  abats." 

103— REGENCY  SAUCE 

If  this  sauce  is  to  garnish  poultry,  boil  one  pint  of  Alle- 
mande Sauce  with  six  tablespoonfuls  of  mushroom  essence  and 
two  tablespoonfuls  of  truffle  essence.  Finish  with  four  table- 
spoonfuls of  poultry  glaze. 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  43 

If  it  is  to  garnish  fish,  substitute  for  the  Allemande  Sauce 
some  fish  velout^  thickened  with  egg-yolks  and  the  essences  of 
mushroom  and  truffle  as  above.  Complete  with  some  fish 
essence. 

104— SOUBISE  SAUCE 

Stew  in  butter  two  lbs.  of  finely-minced  onions,  scalded  for 
three  minutes  and  well  dried.  This  stewing  of  the  onions  in 
butter  increases  their  flavour.  Now  add  one-half  pint  of  thick- 
ened Bechamel ;  season  with  salt  and  a  teaspoonful  of  powdered 
sugar.  Cook  gently  for  half  an  hour,  rub  through  a  tammy. 
and  complete  the  sauce  with  some  tablespoonfuls  of  cream  and 
two  oz.  of  butter. 

105— SOUBISE  SAUCE  WITH  RICE 

The  same  quantity  as  above  of  minced  onions,  scalded  and 
well  drained.  Garnish  the  bottom  and  the  sides  of  a  tall, 
medium  stewpan  with  some  thin  rashers  of  fat  bacon.  Insert 
the  onions,  together  with  one-quarter  lb.  of  Carolina  rice,  one 
pint  of  white  consomm^,  a  large  pinch  of  powdered  sugar,  and 
the  necessary  salt.  Cook  gently  in  the  front  of  the  oven  for 
three-quarters  of  an  hour.  Then  pound  the  onions  and  rice  in 
a  mortar,  rub  the  resulting  pur^e  through  a  tammy,  and  finish 
with  cream  and  butter  as  in  the  preceding  case. 

N.B. — This  sauce,  being  more  consistent  than  the  former,  is 
used  as  a  garnish  just  as  often  as  a  sauce. 

106— SOUBISE  SAUCE  TOMATEE 

Prepare  a  soubise  in  accordance  with  the  first  of  the  two 
above  formulae,  and  add  to  it  one-third  of  its  volume  of  very 
red  tomato  pur^e. 

Remarks. 

1.  The  Soubise  is  rather  a  cullis  than  a  sauce;  i.e.,  its  con- 
sistence must  be  greater  than  that  of  a  sauce. 

2.  The  admixture  of  B6chamel  in  Soubise  is  preferable  to 
that  of  rice,  seeing  that  it  makes  it  smoother.  If,  in  certain 
cases,  rice  is  used  as  a  cohering  element,  it  is  in  order  to  give 
the  Soubise  more  stiffness. 

3.  In  accordance  with  the  uses  to  which  it  may  be  put,  the 
Soubise  Tomatde  may  be  finally  seasoned  either  with  curry  or 
paprika. 


44  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

io6a-SUPREME  SAUCE 

The  salient  characteristics  of  Supreme  Sauce  are  its  perfect 
whiteness  and  consummate  delicacy.  It  is  generally  prepared 
in  small  quantities  only. 

Preparation. — Put  one  and  one-half  pints  of  very  clear 
poultry  stock  and  one-quarter  pint  of  mushroom  cooking  liquor 
into  a  saut^pan.  Reduce  to  two-thirds;  add  one  pint  of 
"poultry  velout^  " ;  reduce  on  an  open  fire,  stirring  with  the 
spatula  the  while,  and  combine  one-half  pint  of  excellent  cream 
with  the  sauce,  this  last  ingredient  being  added  little  by  little. 

When  the  sauce  has  reached  the  desired  consistence,  strain 
it  through  a  sieve,  and  add  another  one-quarter  pint  of  cream 
and  two  oz.  of  best  butter.  Stir  with  a  spoon,  from  time  to 
time,  or  keep  the  pan  well  covered. 

107-VENETIAN  SAUCE 

Put  into  a  stewpan  one  tablespoonful  of  chopped  shallots, 
one  tablespoonful  of  chervil,  and  one-quarter  pint  of  white  wine 
and  tarragon  vinegar,  mixed  in  equal  quantities.  Reduce  the 
vinegar  by  two-thirds;  add  one  pint  of  white  wine  sauce  (No. 
Ill);  boil  for  a  few  minutes;  rub  through  a  tammy,  and  finish 
the  sauce  with  a  sufficient  quantity  of  Herb  Juice  (No.  183)  and 
one  teaspoonful  of  chopped  chervil  and  tarragon.  This  sauce 
accompanies  various  fish. 

I08-VILLER0Y  SAUCE 

Put  into  a  sautepan  one  pint  of  Allemande  Sauce  to  which 
have  been  added  two  tablespoonfuls  of  truffle  essence  and  as 
much  ham  essence. 

Reduce  on  an  open  fire  and  constantly  stir  until  the  sauce  is 
sufficiently  stiff  to  coat  immersed  solids  thickly. 

109— V5LLEROY  SOUBISEE  SAUCE 

Put  into  a  sautepan  two-thirds  pint  of  Allemande  Sauce  and 
one-third  pint  of  Soubise  pur^e  (Formula  105).  Reduce  as 
in  the  preceding  case,  as  the  uses  to  which  this  is  put  are  the 
same.  Now,  according  to  the  circumstances  and  the  nature 
of  the  SQlid  it  is  intended  for,  a  few  teaspoonfuls  of  very 
black,  chopped  truffles  may  be  added  to  this  sauce. 

no— VILLEROY  TOMATEE  SAUCE 

Prepare  the  sauce  as  explained  under  No.  108,  and  add  to 
it  the  third  of  its  volume  of  very  fine  tomato  puree.  Reduce  in 
the  same  way. 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  45 

Remarks. — i.  Villeroy  sauce,  of  whatsoever  kind,  is  solely 

used  for  the  coating  of  preparations  said  to  be  "  ^  la  Villeroy." 

2.  The  Villeroy  Tomat^e  may  be  finally  seasoned  with  curry 

or  paprika,  according  to  the  preparation  for  which  it  is  intended. 

Ill— WHITE  WINE  SAUCE 

The  three  following  methods  are  employed  in  making  it : — 

1 .  Add  one-quarter  pint  of  fish  fumet  to  one  pint  of  thickened 
Velout^,  and  reduce  by  half.  Finish  the  sauce,  away  from  the 
fire,  with  four  oz.  of  butter.  Thus  prepared,  this  white  wine 
sauce  is  suitable  for  glazed  fish. 

2.  Almost  entirely  reduce  one-quarter  pint  of  fish /wmei.  To 
this  reduction  add  the  yolks  of  four  eggs,  mixing  them  well  in 
it,  and  follow  with  one  lb.  of  butter,  added  by  degrees,  paying 
heed  to  the  precautions  indicated  under  sauce  Hollandaise  No. 
30. 

3.  Put  the  yolks  of  five  eggs  into  a  small  stewpan  and  mix 
them  with  one  tablespoonful  of  cold  fish-stock.  Put  the  stew- 
pan  in  a  bain-marie  and  finish  the  sauce  with  one  lb.  of  butter, 
meanwhile  adding  from  time  to  time,  and  in  small  quantities, 
six  tablespoonfuls  of  excellent  fish  fumet.  The  procedure  in  this 
sauce  is,  in  short,  exactly  that  of  the  Hollandaise,  with  this 
distinction,  that  here  fish  fumet  takes  the  place  of  the  water. 

Hot  English  Sauces 

1 12- APPLE  SAUCE 

Quarter,  peel,  core,  and  chop  two  lbs.  of  medium-sized 
apples;  place  these  in  a  stewpan  with  one  tablespoonful  of 
powdered  sugar,  a  bit  of  cinnamon,  and  a  few  tablespoonfuls 
of  water.  Cook  the  whole  gently  with  lid  on,  and  smooth  the 
pur^e  with  a  whisk  when  dishing  up. 

Serve  this  sauce  lukewarm  with  duck,  goose,  roast  hare,  &c. 

113— BREAD  SAUCE 

Boil  one  pint  of  milk,  and  add  three  oz.  of  fresh,  white 
bread-crumb,  a  little  salt,  a  small  onion  with  a  clove  stuck  in 
it,  and  one  oz.  of  butter.  Cook  gently  for  about  a  quarter  of 
an  hour,  remove  the  onion,  smooth  the  sauce  with  a  whisk,  and 
finish  it  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  cream. 

This  sauce  is  served  with  roast  fowl  and  roast  feathered 
game. 


46  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

114— CELERY  SAUCE 

Clean  six  stalks  of  celery  (only  use  the  hearts),  put  them  in 
a  sautepan,  wholly  immerse  in  consomm6,  add  a  faggot 
and  one  onion  with  a  clove  stuck  in  it,  and  cook  gently.  Drain 
the  celery,  pound  it  in  a  mortar,  then  rub  it  through  a  tammy 
and  put  the  pur^e  in  a  stewpan.  Now  thin  the  purde  with  an 
equal  quantity  of  cream  sauce  and  a  little  reduced  celery  liquor. 
Heat  it  moderately,  and,  if  it  has  to  wait,  put  it  in  a  bain-marie. 

This  sauce  is  suited  to  boiled  or  braised  poultry.  It  is 
excellent,  and  has  been  adopted  in  French  cookery. 

115— CRANBERRY  SAUCE 

Cook  one  pint  of  cranberries  with  one  quart  of  water  in  a 
stewpan,  and  cover  the  stewpan.  When  the  berries  are  cooked 
drain  them  in  a  fine  sieve  through  which  they  are  strained.  To 
the  puree  thus  obtained  add  the  necessary  quantity  of  their 
cooking  liquor,  so  as  to  make  a  somewhat  thick  sauce.  Sugar 
should  be  added  according  to  the  taste  of  the  consumer. 

This  sauce  is  mostly  served  with  roast  turkey.  It  is  to  be 
bought  ready-made,  and,  if  this  kind  be  used,  it  need  only  be 
heated  with  a  little  water. 

116— FENNEL  SAUCE 

Take  one  pint  of  butter  sauce  (No.  66)  and  finish  it  with  two 
tablespoonfuls  of  chopped  fennel,  scalded  for  a  few  seconds. 
This  is  principally  used  with  mackerel. 

117— EGG  SAUCE  WITH  MELTED  BUTTER 

Dissolve  one-quarter  pound  of  butter,  and  add  to  it  the 
necessary  salt,  a  little  pepper,  half  the  juice  of  a  lemon,  and 
three  hard-boiled  eggs  (hot  and  cut  into  large  cubes);  also  a 
teaspoonful  of  chopped  and  scalded  parsley. 

118— SCOTCH  EGG  SAUCE 

Make  a  white  roux  with  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  and 
one  oz.  of  flour.  Mix  in  one  pint  of  boiling  milk,  season  with 
salt,  white  pepper,  and  nutmeg,  and  boil  gently  for  ten  minutes. 
Then  add  three  hot  hard-boiled  eggs,  cut  into  cubes  (the  whites 
and  the  yolks). 

This  sauce  usually  accompanies  boiled  fish,  especially  fresh 
haddocks  and  fresh  and  salted  cod. 


THE  SMALL  COMPOUND  SAUCES  47 

119— HORSE-RADISH  OR  ALBERT  SAUCE 

Rasp  five  oz.  of  horse-radish  and  place  them  in  a  stewpan 
with  one-quarter  pint  of  white  consomm^.  Boil  gently  for 
twenty  minutes  and  add  a  good  one-half  pint  of  butter  sauce, 
as  much  cream,  and  one-half  oz,  of  bread-crumb ;  thicken  by 
reducing  on  a  brisk  fire  and  rub  through  tammy.  Then  thicken 
with  the  yolks  of  two  eggs,  and  complete  the  seasoning  with  a 
pinch  of  salt  and  pepper,  and  a  teaspoonful  of  mustard  dis- 
solved in  a  tablespoonful  of  vinegar. 

Serve  this  sauce  with  braised  or  roast  beef — especially  fillets. 

119a— PARSLEY  SAUCE 

This  is  the  Butter  Sauce  (No.  66),  to  which  is  added,  per  pint, 
a  heaped  tablespoonful  of  freshly-chopped  parsley. 

120— REFORM  SAUCE 

Put  into  a  small  stewpan  and  boil  one  pint  of  half-glaze 
sauce  and  one-half  pint  of  ordinary  Poivrade  sauce.  Complete 
with  a  garnish  composed  of  one-half  oz.  of  gherkins,  one-half 
oz.  of  the  hard-boiled  white  of  an  egg,  one  oz.  of  salted  tongue, 
one  oz.  of  truffles,  and  one  oz.  of  mushrooms.  All  these  to  be 
cut  Julienne-fashion  and  short. 

This  sauce  is  for  mutton  cutlets  when  these  are  "  k  la 
Reform." 


CHAPTER   IV 

COLD   SAUCES    AND   COMPOUND    BUTTERS 

121— AIOLI  SAUCE,  OR  PROVENCE  BUTTER 

Pound  one  oz.  of  garlic  cloves  as  finely  as  possible  in  a 
mortar,  and  add  the  yolk  of  one  raw  egg,  a  pinch  of  salt,  and 
one-half  pint  of  oil,  letting  the  latter  gradually  fall  in  a  thread 
and  wielding  the  pestle  meanwhile,  so  as  to  effect  a  complete 
amalgamation.  Add  a  few  drops  of  lemon  juice  and  cold  water 
to  the  sauce  as  it  thickens,  these  being  to  avoid  its  turning. 

Should  it  decompose  while  in  the  process  of  making  or  when 
made,  the  only  thing  to  be  done  is  to  begin  it  again  with  the 
yolk  of  an  egg. 

I22~ANDAL0USE  SAUCE 

Take  the  required  quantity  of  Mayonnaise  sauce  (No.  126) 
and  add  to  it  the  quarter  of  its  volume  of  very  red  and  con- 
centrated tomato  pur6e,  and  finally  add  two  oz.  of  capsicum  cut 
finely.  Julienne-fashion,  per  pint  of  sauce. 

123— BOHEMIAN  SAUCE 

Put  in  a  bowl  one-quarter  pint  of  cold  Bechamel,  the  yolks 
of  four  eggs,  a  little  table  salt  and  white  pepper.  Add  a  quart 
of  oil  and  three  tablespoonfuls  of  tarragon  vinegar,  proceeding 
as  for  the  Mayonnaise. 

Finish  the  sauce  with  a  tablespoonful  of  mustard. 

i24~QEN0A  SAUCE 

Pound  in  a  mortar,  and  make  into  a  smooth,  fine  paste,  one 
oz.  of  pistachios  and  one  oz.  of  fir-apple  kernels,  or,  if  these  are 
not  available,  one  oz.  of  sweet  almonds;  add  one-half  table- 
spoonful  of  cold  Bechamel.  Put  this  paste  into  a  bowl,  add 
the  yolks  of  six  eggs,  a  little  salt  and  pepper,  and  finish  the 
sauce  with  one  quart  of  oil,  the  juice  of  two  lemons,  and  proceed 
as  for  the  Mayonnaise. 


COLD  SAUCES  AND  COMPOUND  BUTTERS     49 

Complete  with  three  tablespoonfuls  of  pur^e  of  herbs,  pre- 
pared with  equal  quantities  of  chervil,  parsley,  tarragon,  and 
fresh  pimpernel,  scalded  for  one  minute.  Cool  quickly,  press 
so  as  to  expel  the  water,  and  pass  through  a  fine  sieve. 

Serve  this  sauce  with  cold  fish. 

125  -QRIBICHE  SAUCE 

Crush  in  a  basin  the  yolks  of  six  hard-boiled  eggs,  and 
work  them  into  a  smooth  paste,  together  with  a  large  tablespoon- 
ful  of  French  mustard,  the  necessary  salt,  a  little  pepper,  and 
make  up  the  sauce  with  one  pint  of  oil.  Complete  with  one 
dessertspoonful  of  parsley,  chervil,  and  tarragon  (chopped  and 
mixed),  as  many  capers  and  gherkins,  evenly  mixed,  and  the 
hard-boiled  whites  of  three  eggs,  cut  short,  Julienne-fashion. 

This  sauce  is  chiefly  used  with  cold  fish. 

126-- MAYONNAISE  SAUCE 

Put  in  a  basin  the  yolks  of  six  raw  eggs,  after  having 
removed  the  cores.  Season  them  with  one-half  oz.  of  table- 
salt  and  a  little  cayenne  pepper.  Gradually  pour  one-fifth 
pint  of  vinegar  on  the  yolks  while  whisking  them  briskly. 
When  the  vinegar  is  absorbed  add  one  quart  of  oil,  letting  the 
latter  trickle  down  in  a  thread,  constantly  stirring  the  sauce 
meanwhile.  The  sauce  is  finished  by  the  addition  of  the  juice 
of  a  lemon  and  three  tablespoonfuls  of  boiling  water — the 
purpose  of  the  latter  being  to  ensure  the  coherence  of  the 
sauce  and  to  prevent  its  turning. 

Mayonnaise  prepared  in  this  way  is  rather  liquid,  but  it 
need  only  be  left  to  rest  a  few  hours  in  order  to  thicken  con- 
siderably. Unless  it  be  exposed  to  too  low  a  temperature,  the 
Mayonnaise,  prepared  as  above,  never  turns,  and  may  be  kept 
for  several  days  without  the  fear  of  anything  happening  to  it. 
Merely  cover  it  to  keep  the  dust  away. 

Remarks. — In  the  matter  of  sauces  there  exist  endless  preju- 
dices, which  I  must  attempt  to  refute  : — 

1.  If  the  sauce  forms  badly,  or  not  at  all,  the  reason  is  that 
the  oil  has  been  added  too  rapidly  at  first,  before  the  addition 
of  the  vinegar,  and  that  its  assimilation  by  the  yolks  has  not 
operated  normally. 

2.  It  is  quite  an  error  to  suppose  that  it  is  necessary  to 
work  over  ice  or  in  a  cold  room.  Cold  is  rather  deleterious  to 
the  Mayonnaise,  and  is  invariably  the  cause  of  this  sauce  turn- 
ing in  winter.     In  the  cold  season  the  oil  should  be  slightly 

E 


50  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

warmed,  or,  at  least,  kept  at  the  temperature  of  the  kitchen, 
though  it  is  best  to  make  it  in  a  moderately  warm  place. 

3.  It  is  a  further  error  to  suppose  that  the  seasoning  inter- 
feres with  the  making  of  the  sauce,  for  salt,  in  solution,  rather 
provokes  the  cohering  force  of  the  yolks. 

Causes  of  the  Disintegration  of  the  Mayonnaise : — 

1.  The  too  rapid  addition  of  the  oil  at  the  start. 

2.  The  use  of  congealed,  or  too  cold,  an  oil. 

3.  Excess  of  oil  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  yolks,  the 
assimilating  power  of  an  egg  being  limited  to  two  and  one-half 
oz.  of  oil  (if  the  sauce  be  made  some  time  in  advance),  and  three 
oz.  if  it  is  to  be  used  immediately. 

Means  of  Bringing  Turned  Mayonnaise  Back  to  its  Normal 
State. — Put  the  yolk  of  an  egg  into  a  basin  with  a  few  drops 
of  vinegar,  and  mix  the  turned  Mayonnaise  in  it,  little  by 
little.  If  it  be  a  matter  of  only  a  small  quantity  of  Mayonnaise, 
one-half  a  coffeespoonful  of  mustard  can  take  the  place  of  the 
egg-yolk.  Finally,  with  regard  to  acid  seasoning,  a  whiter 
sauce  is  obtained  by  the  use  of  lemon  juice  instead  of  vinegar. 

127— CLEARED  MAYONNAISE  SAUCE 

Take  the  necessary  quantity  of  Mayonnaise  and  gradually 
add  to  it,  per  one  and  one-half  pints  of  the  sauce,  one-half  pint 
of  cold  and  rather  firm  melting  aspic  jelly — Lenten  or  ordinary, 
according  to  the  nature  of  the  products  for  which  the  sauce  is 
intended. 

Remarks. — It  is  this  very  Mayonnaise,  formerly  used  almost 
exclusively  for  coating  entries  and  cold  relevees  of  fish,  filleted 
fish,  escalopes  of  common  and  spiny-lobster,  &c.,  which  I 
have  allowed  the  Lenten  Chaud-froid  (see  remarks  No.  76)  to 
supersede. 

138— WHISKED  MAYONNAISE 

Put  into  a  copper  basin  or  other  bowl  three-quarters  pint  of 
melted  jelly,  two-thirds  pint  of  Mayonnaise,  one  tablespoonful 
of  tarragon  vinegar,  and  as  much  rasped  and  finely-chopped 
horse-radish.  Mix  up  the  whole,  place  the  utensil  on  ice,  and 
whisk  gently  until  the  contents  get  very  frothy.  Stop  whisking 
as  soon  as  the  sauce  begins  to  solidify,  for  it  must  remain  almost 
fluid  so  as  to  enable  it  to  mix  with  the  products  for  which  it 
is  intended. 

This  sauce  is  used  principally  for  vegetable  salads. 


COLD  SAUCES  AND  COMPOUND  BUTTERS     51 

129— RAVIQOTE  SAUCE,  OR  VINAIGRETTE 

Put  into  a  bowl  one  pint  of  oil,  one-third  pint  of  vinegar, 
a  little  salt  and  pepper,  two  oz.  of  small  capers,  three  table- 
spoonfuls  of  fine  herbs,  comprising  soine  very  finely  chopped 
onion,  as  much  parsley,  and  half  as  much  chervil,  tarragon,  and 
chives.  Mix  thoroughly.  The  Ravigote  accompanies  calf's 
head  or  foot,  sheep's  trotters,  &c. 

Two  or  three  tablespoonfuls  of  the  liquor  with  which  its 
accompanying  solids  have  been  cooked,  i.e.,  calf's  head  or 
sheep's  trotters  liquor,  &c.,  are  often  added  to  this  sauce  when 
dishing  up. 

130— REMOULADE  SAUCE 

To  one  pint  of  Mayonnaise  add  one  large  tablespoonful  of 
mustard,  another  of  gherkins,  and  yet  another  of  chopped  and 
pressed  capers,  one  tablespoonful  of  fine  herbs,  parsley,  chervil, 
and  tarragon,  all  chopped  and  mixed,  and  a  coffeespoonful  of 
anchovy  essence. 

This  sauce  accompanies  cold  meat  and  poultry,  and,  more 
particularly,  common  and  spiny  lobster. 

131— GREEN  SAUCE 

Take  the  necessary  quantity  of  thick  Mayonnaise  and  spicy 
seasoning,  and  add  to  these,  per  pint  of  sauce,  one-third  pint 
of  herb  juice,  prepared  as  indicated  hereafter  (No.  132). 

This  is  suitable  for  cold  fish  and  shell  fish. 

132— VINCENT  SAUCE 

Prepare  and  carefully  wash  the  following  herbs : — One  oz. 
each  of  parsley,  chervil,  tarragon,  chives,  sorrel-leaves,  and 
fresh  pimpernel,  two  oz.  of  water-cress  and  two  oz.  of  spinach. 
Put  all  these  herbs  into  a  copper  bowl  containing  salted,  boiling 
water.  Boil  for  two  minutes  only;  then  drain  the  herbs  in 
a  sieve  and  immerse  them  in  a  basin  of  fresh  water.  When 
they  are  cold  they  are  once  more  drained  until  quite  dry ;  then 
they  must  be  finely  pounded  with  the  yolks  of  eight  hard-boiled 
eggs.  Rub  the  pur^e  thus  obtained  through  a  sieve  first,  then 
through  tammy,  add  one  pint  of  very  stiff  Mayonnaise  to  it, 
and  finish  the  sauce  with  a  dessertspoonful  of  Worcestershire 
sauce. 


52  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Cold  English  Sauces 

133— CAMBRIDGE  SAUCE 

Pound  together  the  yolks  of  six  hard-boiled  eggs,  the  washed 
and  dried  fillets  of  four  anchovies,  a  teaspoonful  of  capers,  a 
dessertspoonful  of  chervil,  tarragon,  and  chives,  mixed.  When 
the  whole  forms  a  fine  paste,  add  one  tablespoonful  of  mustard, 
one-fifth  pint  of  oil,  one  tablespoonful  of  vinegar,  and  proceed 
as  for  a  Mayonnaise.  Season  with  a  little  cayenne ;  rub 
through  tammy,  applying  pressure  with  a  spoon,  and  put 
the  sauce  in  a  bowl.  Stir  it  awhile  with  a  whisk  to  smooth  it, 
and  finish  with  one  teaspoonful  of  chopped  parsley. 

It  is  suited  to  cold  meats  in  general ;  in  fact,  it  is  an 
Anglicised  version  of  Vincent  Sauce. 

134— CUMBERLAND  SAUCE 

Dissolve  four  tablespoonfuls  of  red-currant  jelly,  to  which 
are  added  one-fifth  pint  of  port  wine,  one  teaspoonful  of 
finely-chopped  shallots,  scalded  for  a  few  seconds  and  pressed, 
one  teaspoonful  of  small  pieces  of  orange  rind  and  as  much 
lemon  rind  (cut  finely.  Julienne-fashion,  scalded  for  two 
minutes,  well-drained,  and  cooled),  the  juice  of  an  orange  and 
that  of  half  a  lemon,  one  teaspoonful  of  mustard,  a  little 
cayenne  pepper,  and  as  much  powdered  ginger.  Mix  the  whole 
well. 

Serve  this  sauce  with  cold  venison. 

135-QLOUCESTER  SAUCE 

Take  one  pint  of  very  thick  Mayonnaise  and  complete  it 
with  one-fifth  pint  of  sour  cream  with  the  juice  of  a  lemon 
added,  and  combine  with  the  Mayonnaise  by  degrees ;  one  tea- 
spoonful of  chopped  fennel  and  as  much  Worcester  sauce. 

Serve  this  with  all  cold  meats. 

136— MINT  SAUCE 

Cut  finely.  Julienne-fashion,  or  chop,  two  oz.  of  mint  leaves. 
Put  these  in  a  bowl  with  a  little  less  than  one  oz.  of  white 
cassonade  or  castor  sugar,  one-quarter  pint  of  fresh  vinegar, 
and  four  tablespoonfuls  of  water. 

Special  sauce  for  hot  or  cold  Iamb. 


COLD  SAUCES  AND  COMPOUND  BUTTERS     53 

137— OXFORD  SAUCE 

Make  a  Cumberland  sauce  according  to  No.  134,  with  this 
difference  :  that  the  Julienne  of  orange  and  lemon  rinds  should 
be  replaced  by  rasped  or  finely-chopped  rinds,  and  that  the 
quantities  of  same  should  be  less,  i.e.,  two-thirds  of  a  tea- 
spoonful  of  each. 

138— HORSE-RADISH  SAUCE 

Dilute  one  tablespoonful  of  mustard  with  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  vinegar  in  a  basin,  and  add  one  lb.  of  finely-rasped  horse- 
radish, two  oz.  of  powdered  sugar,  a  little  salt,  one  pint  of 
cream,  and  one  lb.  of  bread-crumb  steeped  in  milk  and  pressed. 
Serve  this  sauce  very  cold. 

It  accompanies  boiled  and  roast  joints  of  beef. 

Compound  Butters  for  Grills  and  for  the  Completion  of 

Sauces 

With  the  exception  of  those  of  the  shell-fish  order,  the  butters, 
whose  formuL-E  I  am  about  to  give,  are  not  greatly  used  in 
kitchens.  Nevertheless,  in  some  cases,  as,  for  instance,  in  accen- 
tuating the  savour  of  sauces,  they  answer  a  real  and  useful  pur- 
pose, and  I  therefore  recommend  them,  since  they  enable  one  to 
give  a  flavour  to  the  derivatives  of  the  Velout6  and  Bechamel 
sauces  which  these  could  not  acquire  by  any  other  means. 

With  regard  to  shell-fish  butters,  and  particularly  those  of  the 
common  and  spiny  lobster  and  the  crayfish,  experience  has 
shown  that  when  they  are  prepared  with  heat  (that  is  to  say,  by 
melting  in  a  bain-marie  a  quantity  of  butter  which  has  been 
previously  pounded  with  shell-fish  remains  and  afterwards 
strained  through  muslin  into  a  basin  of  iced-water  where  it  has 
solidified)  they  are  of  a  finer  colour  than  the  other  kind  and 
quite  free  from  shell  particles.  Biit  the  heat,  besides  dissipat- 
ing a  large  proportion  of  their  delicacy,  involves  consider- 
able risk,  for  the  slightest  neglect  gives  the  above  preparation 
quite  a  disagreeable  taste.  To  obviate  these  difficulties  I  have 
adopted  a  system  of  two  distinct  butters,  one  which  is  exclusively 
colorific  and  prepared  with  heat,  and  the  other  which  is  prepared 
with  all  the  creamy  parts,  the  trimmings  and  the  remains  of  com- 
mon and  spiny  lobsters,  without  the  shells,  pounded  with  the  re- 
quired quantity  of  fresh  butter  and  passed  through  a  sieve.  The 
latter  is  used  to  complete  sauces,  particularly  those  with  a 
Bechamel  base  to  which  it  lends  a  perfect  savour. 

I  follow  the  same  procedure  with  shrimp  and  crayfish  butters, 


54  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

sometimes  substituting  for  the  butter  good  cream,  which,  I  find, 
absorbs  the  aromatic  principles  perhaps  better  than  the  former. 
With  the  above  method  it  is  advisable  to  pass  the  butter  or  the 
cream  through  a  very  fine  sieve  first  and  afterwards  through 
tammy,  so  as  to  avoid  small  particles  of  the  pounded  shell  being 
present  in  the  sauce. 

139— BERCY  BUTTER 

Put  into  a  small  stewpan  one-quarter  pint  of  white  wine  and 
one  oz.  of  finely-chopped  shallots,  scalded  a  moment.  Reduce 
the  wine  by  one-half,  and  add  one-half  lb.  of  butter  softened  into 
a  cream;  one  teaspoonful  of  chopped  parsley,  two  oz.  of  beef 
marrow  cut  into  cubes,  poached  in  slightly  salted  water  and  well 
drained,  the  necessary  table-salt,  and,  when  dishing  up,  a  little 
ground  pepper  and  a  few  drops  of  lemon-juice. 

This  butter  must  not  be  completely  melted,  and  it  is  prin- 
cipally served  with  grilled  beef. 

140— CHIVRY  OR  RAVIQOTE  BUTTER 

Put  into  a  small  saucepan  of  salted,  boiling  water  six  oz.  of 
chervil,  parsley,  tarragon,  fresh  pimpernel,  and  chives,  in  equal 
quantities,  and  two  oz.  of  chopped  shallots.  Boil  quickly  for 
two  minutes,  drain,  cool  in  cold  water,  press  in  a  towel  to  com- 
pletely remove  the  water,  and  pound  in  a  mortar.  Now  add 
one-half  lb.  of  half-melted  butter,  mix  well  with  the  pur^e  of 
herbs,  and  pass  through  tammy. 

This  butter  is  used  to  complete  Chivry  sauce  and  other  sauces 
that  contain  herb  juices,  such  as  the  Venetian,  &c. 

140a— CHATEAUBRIAND  BUTTER 

Reduce  by  two-thirds  four-fifths  pint  of  white  wine  contain- 
ing four  chopped  shallots,  fragments  of  thyme  and  bay,  and  four 
oz.  of  mushroom  parings.  Add  four-fifths  pint  of  veal  gravy, 
reduce  the  whole  to  half,  rub  it  through  tammy,  and  finish  it 
away  from  the  fire  with  eight  oz.  of  Maitre  d' Hotel  butter  (No. 
150)  and  half  a  tablespoonful  of  chopped  tarragon. 

141— COLBERT  BUTTER 

Take  one  lb.  of  Maitre  d'Hotel  butter  (No.  150)  and  add  six 
tablespoonfuls  of  dissolved,  pale  meat  glaze  and  one  teaspoonful 
of  chopped  tarragon. 

Serve  this  sauce  with  fish  prepared  a  la  Colbert. 


COLD  SAUCES  AND  COMPOUND  BUTTERS     55 

142— RED  COLOURING  BUTTER 

Put  on  to  a  dish  any  available  remains  of  shell-fish  after 
having  thoroughly  emptied  and  well  dried  them  in  the  oven. 
Pound  them  until  they  form  a  fine  powder,  and  add  their  weight 
of  butter. 

Put  the  whole  into  a  saucepan  and  melt  in  a  bain-marie,  stir- 
ring frequently  the  while.  When  the  butter  is  quite  clarified 
strain  it  through  muslin,  twisting  the  laFter  over  a  tureen  of  iced- 
water  in  which  the  strained  butter  solidifies.  Put  the  congealed 
butter  in  a  towel,  press  it  heavily  so  as  to  expel  the  water,  and 
keep  cool  in  a  small  bowl. 

Remarks. — A  very  fine  and  decided  red  colour  is  obtained  by 
using  paprika  as  a  condiment  for  sauces  intended  for  poultry  and 
certain  butcher's  meats,  in  accordance  with  the  procedure  I  re- 
commend for  the  Hongroise.  But  only  the  very  best  quality 
should  be  used — that  which  is  mild  and  at  the  same  time  pro- 
duces a  nice  pink  colour  without  entailing  any  excess  of  the 
condiment.  Among  the  various  kinds  of  paprika  on  the  market 
I  can  highly  recommend  that  of  Messrs.  Kotangi,  which  I  have 
invariably  found  satisfactory. 


143— GREEN  COLOURING  BUTTER 

Peel,  wash,  -and  thoroughly  shake  (so  as  to  get  rid  of  every 
drop  of  water)  two  lbs.  of  spinach.  Pound  it  raw  and  then  press 
it  in  a  strong  towel,  twisting  the  latter  so  as  to  extract  all  the 
vegetable  juice.  Pour  this  juice  into  a  saut^pan,  let  it  coagu- 
late in  a  bain-marie,  and  pour  it  on  to  a  serviette  stretched  over 
a  bowl  in  order  to  drain  away  the  water.  Collect  the  remains 
of  the  colouring  substance  on  the  serviette,  making  use  of  a 
palette-knife  for  the  purpose,  and  put  these  into  a  mortar ;  mix 
with  half  their  weight  of  butter,  strain  through  a  sieve  or  tammy, 
and  put  aside  to  cool.  This  green  butter  should  in  all  cases  take 
the  place  of  the  liquid  green  found  on  the  market. 


144- VARIOUS  CULLISES 

Finely  pound  shrimp  and  crayfish  shells,  and  combine  with 
these  the  available  creamy  parts  and  spawn  of  the  common  and 
spiny  lobsters;  add  one-quarter  pint  of  rich  cream  per  lb.  of  the 
above  remains,  and  strain,  first  through  a  fine  sieve  and  then 
through  tammy.  This  cullis  is  prepared  just  in  time  for  dishing 
up,  and  serves  as  a  refining  principle  in  certain  fish  sauces. 


56  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

145— SHRIMP  BUTTER 

Finely  pound  any  available  shrimp  remains,  add  to  these 
their  weight  of  butter,  and  strain  through  tammy.  Place  in  a 
bowl  and  put  aside  in  the  cool. 

146— SHALLOT  BUTTER 

Put  eight  oz.  of  roughly  minced  shallots  in  the  corner  of  a 
clean  towel,  and  wash  them  quickly  in  boiling  water.  Cool,  and 
press  them  heavily.  Then  pound  them  finely  with  their  own 
weight  of  fresh  butter  and  strain  through  tammy. 

This  butter  accentuates  the  savour  of  certain  sauces,  such  as 
Bercy,  Ravigote,  &c. 

147— CRAYFISH  BUTTER 

Pound,  very  finely,  the  remains  and  shells  of  crayfish  cooked 
in  Mirepoix.  Add  their  weight  of  butter,  and  strain  through  a 
fine  sieve,  and  again  through  tammy,  so  as  to  avoid  the  presence 
of  any  shell  particles.  This  latter  precaution  applies  to  all  shell- 
fish butters. 

148 -TARRAGON  BUTTER 

Quickly  scald  and  cool  eight  oz.  of  fresh  tarragon,  drain, 
press  in  a  towel,  pound  in  a  mortar,  and  add  to  them  one  lb.  of 
butter.  Strain  through  tammy,  and  put  aside  in  the  cool  if  it  is 
not  to  be  used  immediately. 

149— LOBSTER  BUTTER 

Reduce  to  a  paste  in  the  mortar  the  spawn,  shell,  and  creamy 
parts  of  lobster.  Add  their  equal  in  weight  of  butter  and  strain 
through  tarnmy. 

150— BUTTER  A  LA  MAiTRE  D'HOTEL 

First  manie  and  then  soften  into  a  cream  one-half  lb.  of  butter. 
Add  a  tablespoonful  of  chopped  parsley,  a  little  salt  and  pepper, 
and  a  few  drops  of  lemon-juice. 

Serve  this  v-ith  grills  in  general. 

151— MANIED  BUTTER 

Mix,  until  perfectly  combined,  four  oz.  of  butter  and  three  oz. 
of  sifted  flour.  This  butter  is  made  immediately  before  the  time 
of  dishing  up,  and  is  used  for  quick  leasons  like  the  Mat^ 
lotes,  &c. 


COLD  SAUCES  AND  COMPOUND  BUTTERS     57 

The  sauce  to  which  manied  butter  has  been  added  should  not 
boil  if  this  can  possibly  be  avoided,  as  it  would  thereby  acquire  a 
very  disagreeajjle  taste  of  raw  flour. 

iSia-MELTED  BUTTER 

This  preparation,  which  is  used  principally  as  a  fish  sauce, 
should  consist  of  butter,  only  just  melted,  and  combined  with 
a  little  table-salt  and  a  few  drops  of  lemon-juice.  It  should 
therefore  be  prepared  only  at  the  last  minute;  for,  should  it  wait 
and  be  allowed  to  clarify,  besides  losing  its  flavour  it  will  be 
found  to  disagree  with  certain  people. 


152— BUTTER  A  LA  MEUNIERE 

Put  into  a  frying-pan  the  necessary  quantity  of  butter,  and 
cook  it  gently  until  it  has  acquired  a  golden  tint  and  exudes  a 
slight  smell  of  nut.  Add  a  few  drops  of  lemon-juice,  and  pour 
on  the  fish  under  treatment,  which  should  have  been  previously 
sprinkled  with  concussed  parsley. 

This  butter  is  proper  to  fish  "  kla  Meuni^re  "  and  is  always 
served  on  the  fish. 


IS3— MONTPELLIER  BUTTER 

Put  into  a  saucepan  containing  boiling  water  equal  quantities 
of  watercress  leaves,  parsley,  chervil,  chives,  and  tarragon  (six 
oz.  in  all),  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  chopped  shallots,  and  one- 
half  oz.  of  spinach  leaves.  Boil  for  two  minutes,  then  drain, 
cool,  press  in  a  towel  to  expel  water,  and  pound  in  a  mortar  with 
one  tablespoonful  of  pressed  capers,  four  oz.  of  gherkins,  a  garlic 
clove,  and  the  fillets  of  four  anchovies  well  washed. 

Mix  this  paste  with  one  and  one-half  lbs.  of  butter;  then  add 
the  yolks  of  three  boiled  eggs  and  two  raw  eggs,  and  finally 
pour  in,  by  degrees,  two-fifths  pint  of  oil.  Strain  through  a  fine 
sieve  or  through  tammy,  put  the  butter  into  a  basin,  and  stir 
it  well  with  a  wooden  spoon  so  as  to  make  it  smooth.  Season 
with  table-salt  and  a  little  cayenne. 

Use  this  butter  to  deck  large  fish,  such  as  salmon  and  trout ; 
but  it  is  also  used  for  smaller  pieces  and  slices  of  fish. 

Remarks. — When  this  butter  is  specially  prepared  to  form 
a.  coat  on  fish,  the  oil  and  the  egg  yolks  are  omitted  and  only 
butter  is  used. 


58  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

154— BLACK  BUTTER 

Put  into  a  frying-pan  the  necessary  amount  of  butter,  and 
cook  it  until  it  has  assumed  a  brown  colour  and  begins  to  smoke. 
At  this  moment  add  a  large  pinch  of  concussed  parsley  leaves 
and  spread  it  immediately  over  the  object  to  be  treated. 

15s— HAZEL-NUT  BUTTER 

Put  eight  oz.  of  shelled  hazel-nuts,  for  a  moment,  in  the  front 
of  the  oven,  in  order  to  slightly  grill  their  skins  and  make  them 
easily  removable.  Now  crush  the  nuts  in  a  mortar  until  they 
form  a  paste,  and  add  a  few  drops  of  cold  water  with  a  view  to 
preventing  their  producing  any  oil.  Add  their  equivalent  in 
weight  of  butter  and  rub  through  tammy. 

156— PISTACHIO  BUTTER 

Put  into  boiling  water  eight  oz.  of  pistachios,  and  keep  them 
on  the  side  of  the  fire  until  the  peel  may  be  easily  removed. 
Drain,  cool  in  cold  water,  clean  the  pistachios,  and  finely  pound 
while  moistening  them  with  a  few  drops  of  water. 
Add  two  oz.  of  butter  and  pass  through  tammy. 

157— PRINTANIER  BUTTER 

These  butters  are  made  from  all  early-season  vegetables,  such 
as  carrots,  French  beans,  peas,  and  asparagus  heads. 

When  dealing  with  green  vegetables  cook  quickly  in  boiling, 
salted  water,  drain,  dry,  pound  with  their  weight  of  butter, 
and  rub  through  tammy. 

With  carrots  :  Mince  and  cook  with  consomme,  sugar,  and 
butter  until  the  diluent  is  quite  reduced.  After  cooling  they 
are  pounded  with  their  own  weight  of  butter  and  rubbed  through 
tammy. 


CHAPTER   V 

Savoury  Jellies  or  Aspics 

Jellies  are  to  cold  cookery  what  consommes  and  stock  are  to 
hot.  If  anything,  the  former  are  perhaps  more  important,  for 
a  cold  entree — however  perfect  it  may  be  in  itself — is  nothing 
without  its  accompanying  jelly. 

In  the  recipes  which  I  give  hereafter  I  have  made  a  point  of 
showing  how  melting  jellies  may  be  obtained,  i.e.,  served  in  a 
sauce-boat  simultaneously  with  the  cold  comestible,  or  actually 
poured  over  it  when  the  latter  lies  in  a  deep  dish — a  common 
custom  nowadays. 

This  method  of  serving  cold  entries,  which  I  inaugurated  at 
the  Savoy  Hotel  with  the  "  Supreme  de  Volaille  Jeannette,"  is 
the  only  one  which  allows  of  serving  a  jelly  in  a  state  of  absolute 
perfection. 

Nevertheless,  if  a  more  solid  jelly  were  required,  either  for  the 
decking  of  cold  dishes  or  for  a  moulded  entree,  there  need  only 
be  added  to  the  following  formulse  a  few  gelatine  leaves — more 
or  less — according  to  the  required  firmness  of  the  jelly. 

But  it  should  not  be  forgotten  that  the  greater  the  viscosity 
of  the  jelly  the  less  value  will  the  same  possess. 

The  various  uses  of  jellies  are  dealt  with  in  Part  II.  of  this 
work,  where  the  formulas  of  their  divers  accompanying  dishes 
will  also  appear. 

158— ORDINARY  ASPICS 

Stock  for  Ordinary  Aspic. — Quantities  for  making  Four  Quart';. 

4  lbs.  of  strung  knuckle  of  veal.  3  calf's  feet,  boned  and  blanched. 

3  lbs.  of  strung  knuckle  of  beef.  |    lb.    of   fresh    pork    rind,    well 

3  lbs.  of  veal  bones,  well  broken  blanched    and    with    fat    re- 

up.  moved. 

Mode  of  Procedure. — Put  the  meats  in  a  very  clean  and  well- 
tinned  stockpot  or  stewpan.  Add  eight  quarts  of  cold  water, 
boil,  and  skim  after  the  manner  indicated  under  No.  i.  Having 
well  skimmed  the  stock  add  one  oz.  of  salt,  put  it  on  the  side  of 


6o  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

the  fire,  and  let  it  boil  gently  for  four  hours.  Then  remove  the 
meat,  talcing  care  not  to  disturb  the  stock.  Carefully  remove 
the  fat,  and  garnish  with  one-half  lb.  of  carrots,  six  oz.  of 
onions,  two  oz.  of  leeks,  a  stick  of  celery,  and  a  large  faggot. 
Put  the  whole  back  on  to  the  fire  and  cook  gently  for  a  further 
two  hours.  Strain  through  a  sieve  into  a  very  clean  basin  and 
leave  to  cool. 

Clarification  of  Aspic. — When  the  stock,  prepared  according 
to  the  above  directions,  has  cooled,  the  grease  that  has  formed  on 
its  surface  should  be  removed.  Then  pour  off  gently  into  a  stew- 
pan  of  convenient  size  in  such  a  way  as  to  prevent  the  deposit  at 
the  bottom  of  the  basin  from  mixing  with  the  clear  liquor.  Test 
the  consistence  of  the  aspic,  when  it  should  be  found  that  the 
quantities  given  above  have  proved  sufficient  to  form  a  fairly 
firm  jelly.  If,  however,  this  be  not  the  case,  a  few  leaves  of 
gelatine  steeped  in  cold  water  should  be  added,  being  careful  not 
to  overdo  the  quantity.  Now  add  to  the  stock  two  lbs.  of  lean 
beef  (first  minced  and  then  pounded  together  with  the  white  of 
an  egg),  a  little  chervil  and  tarragon,  and  a  few  drops  of  lemon- 
juice.  Place  the  saucepan  on  an  open  fire,  stir  its  contents  with  a 
spatula  until  the  liquid  begins  to  boil,  remove  it  from  the  fire, 
and  place  it  on  the  side  of  the  stove,  where  it  may  boil  gently  for 
half  an  hour. 

At  the  end  of  this  time  take  the  saucepan  off  the  fire  and 
remove  what  little  grease  has  formed  on  the  aspic  while  cooking. 
Strain  through  a  serviette  stretched  and  fastened  across  the  legs 
of  an  overturned  stool,  and  let  the  aspic  fall  into  a  basin  placed 
between  the  legs.  Ascertain  whether  the  liquid  is  quite 
clear,  and  if,  as  frequently  happens,  this  be  not  the  case,  what 
has  already  been  strained  should  once  more  be  passed  through 
the  serviette,  renewing  the  operation  until  the  aspic  becomes 
quite  transparent. 

Flavouring  the  Aspic. — The  aspic  obtained  as  above  is  limpid, 
has  an  agreeable  savour,  and  is  the  colour  of  fine  amber.  It  now 
only  requires  flavouring  according  to  the  tastes  of  the  consumer 
and  the  purpose  for  which  it  is  intended.  For  this  operation  it 
should  be  allowed  to  become  quite  tepid,  and  the  following  quan- 
tities of  choice  wine  are  added  to  it,  viz. :  — 

If  the  wine  is  of  a  liqueur  kind,  such  as  Sherry,  Marsala, 
Madeira,  &c.,  one-fifth  pint  per  quart. 

If  it  is  another  kind  of  wine,  for  example,  champagne,  hock, 
&c.,  one-fourth  pint  per  quart. 

The  wine  used  should  be  very  clear,  free  from  any  deposit, 
and  as  perfect  as  possible  in  taste. 


SAVOURY  JELLIES  OR  ASPICS  6i 

159— CHICKEN  ASPIC 

The  quantities  of  meat  are  the  same  as  for  ordinary  aspic; 
there  need  only  be  added  to  it  either  two  oven-browned  hens,  or 
their  equivalent  in  weight  of  roasted  fowl  carcases,  and  poultry 
giblets  if  these  are  handy.  It  is  always  better,  however,  to  pre- 
pare the  stock  with  the  hens  and  giblets  and  to  keep  the  carcases 
for  the  clarification.  This  clarification  follows  the  same  rules 
as  that  of  the  ordinary  aspic,  except  that  a  few  roasted-fowl  car- 
cases, previously  well  freed  from  fat,  are  added  to  it. 

In  the  case  of  this  particularly  delicate  aspic,  it  is  more  than 
ever  necessary  not  to  overdo  the  amount  of  gelatine.  It  should 
be  easily  soluble  to  the  palate  in  order  to  be  perfect. 

160— GAME  ASPIC 

Prepare  this  aspic  stock  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  that  of 
ordinary  aspic,  only  substitute  game,  such  as  deer,  roebuck,  doe, 
or  hare,  or  wild  rabbit  (previously  browned  in  the  oven),  for  the 
beef.  When  possible  also  add  to  this  stock  a  few  old  specimens 
of  feathered  game,  such  as  partridges  or  pheasants  that  are  too 
tough  for  other  purposes  and  which  suit  admirably  here. 

The  clarification  changes  according  to  the  different  flavours 
which  are  to  be  given  to  the  aspic.  If  it  is  not  necessary  to  give 
it  a  special  characteristic,  it  should  be  prepared  with  the  meat  of 
that  ground  game  which  happens  to  be  most  available  at  the 
time,  adding  to  the  quantity  used  roast  carcases  of  feathered 
game,  the  respective  amounts  of  both  ingredients  being  the  same 
as  for  ordinary  aspic.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  aspic  is  to  have 
a  well-defined  flavour,  the  meat  used  for  the  clarification  should 
naturally  be  that  producing  the  flavour  in  question,  i.e.,  either 
partridge  or  pheasant,  or  hazel-hen,  &c. 

Some  aspics  are  greatly  improved  by  being  flavoured  with  a 
small  quantity  of  old  brandy.  Rather  than  use  an  inferior  kind 
of  this  ingredient,  however,  I  should  advise  its  total  omission 
from  the  aspic. 

Without  aromatisation  the  aspic,  though  imperfect,  is  pas- 
sable; but  aromatised  with  bad  brandy  it  is  invariably  spoilt. 

LENTEN    ASPICS 

161— FISH  ASPIC  WITH  WHITE  WINE 

The  stock  for  this  aspic  is  prepared  in  precisely  the  same 
manner  as  fish  stock,  No.  i .  The  stewpan  need  not,  however,  be 
buttered  previous  to  the  insertion  of  the  onions,  parsley-stalks. 


62  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

and  fish-bones.  If  the  aspic  is  not  required  to  be  quite  white,  a 
little  saffron  may  be  added  to  it,  as  the  aroma  of  this  condiment 
blends  so  perfectly  with  that  of  fish. 

When  the  stock  is  prepared  its  consistence  should  be  tested, 
and  rectified,  if  necessary,  by  means  of  gelatine.  The  quantity 
of  this  substance  should  on  no  account  exceed  eight  leaves  per 
quart  of  aspic,  and,  at  the  risk  of  repeating  myself,  I  remind  the 
reader  that  the  less  gelatine  is  used  the  better  the  aspic  will  be. 

The  clarification  should  be  made  with  fresh  caviare  if  pos- 
sible, but  pressed  caviare  is  also  admirably  suited  to  this  purpose. 
The  quantities  are  the  same  as  for  the  clarification  of  fish  con- 
somm6.  No.  4. 

In  flavouring  white  fish  aspics  either  dry  champagne  or  a 
good  Bordeaux  or  Burgundy  may  be  used.  Take  care,  how- 
ever— 

1.  That  the  wine  used  be  of  an  unquestionably  good  quality. 

2.  That  it  be  only  added  to  the  aspic  when  the  latter  is 
already  cold  and  on  the  point  of  coagulating,  as  this  is  the 
only  means  of  preserving  all  the  aroma  of  the  wine. 

Finally,  in  certain  cases,  a  special  flavour  may  be  obtained 
by  the  use  of  crayfish,  which  are  cooked,  as  for  bisque,  then 
pounded,  and  added  to  the  fish  stock  No.  11  ten  minutes  before 
straining  it.  A  proportion  of  four  little  crayfish  k  bisque  per 
quart  of  aspic  is  sufficient  to  secure  an  excellent  aroma. 

162— FISH  ASPIC  WITH  RED  WINE 

This  aspic  stock  is  the  Court-bouillon  with  red  wine  No. 
165,  which  has  served  in  cooking  the  fish  for  which  the  aspic 
is  intended ;  this  fish  is  generally  either  trout  or  salmon ;  some- 
times also,  but  less  commonly,  a  carp  or  a  pike. 

This  stock  must  first  of  all  have  its  grease  thoroughly  re- 
moved; it  should  then  be  poured  carefully  away,  reduced  if 
necessary,  and  the  required  quantity  of  gelatine  added.  This 
cannot  be  easily  determined,  as  all  gelatines  are  not  alike,  and 
the  stock  may  have  contracted  a  certain  consistence  from  its 
contact  with  the  fish.  One  can,  therefore,  only  be  guided  by 
testing  small  quantities  cooled  in  ice,  but  care  should  be  taken 
that  the  aspic  be  not  too  firm. 

The  clarification  of  this  aspic  is  generally  made  with  white 
of  egg  in  the  proportion  of  one  white  per  quart.  The  white, 
half-whisked,  is  added  to  the  cold  stock,  and  the  latter  is 
put  over  an  open  fire  and  stirred  with  a  spatula.  As  soon 
as  it  boils    the  aspic  is  poured  through  a  serviette  fixed  on  to 


SAVOURY  JELLIES  OR  ASPICS  63 

the  legs  of  an  overturned  stool.  The  first  drippings  of  the  fluid 
are  put  back  on  to  the  serviette  if  they  do  not  seem  clear,  and 
this  operation  is  repeated  until  the  required  clearness  is  obtained. 

It  almost  invariably  happens  that,  either  during  the  cook- 
ing of  the  fish  or  during  the  clarification,  the  wine  loses  its 
colour  through  the  precipitation  of  the  colouring  elements  de- 
rived from  the  tannin. 

The  only  way  of  overcoming  this  difficulty  is  to  add  a  few 
drops  of  liquid  carmine  or  vegetable  red ;  but,  in  any  case,  it  is 
well  to  remember  that  the  colour  of  red-wine  aspic  must  never 
be  deeper  than  a  sombre  pink. 


CHAPTER    VI 

The  Court-bouillons  and  the  Marinades 

163— COURT=  BOUILLON  WITH  VINEGAR 

Quantities  Required  for  Five  Quarts. 

5  quarts  of  water.  f  lb.   of  carrots. 

\  pint  of  vinegar.  i  lb.   of  onions. 

2  oz.  of  gray  salt.  A  little  thyme  and  bay. 
\  oz.  of  peppercorn.^.  2  oz.   of  parsley  stalics. 

Preparation. — Put  into  a  saucepan  the  water,  salt,  and 
vinegar,  the  minced  carrots  and  onions,  and  the  parsley,  thyme, 
and  bay,  gathered  into  a  bunch.  Boil,  allow  to  simmer  for 
one  hour,  rub  through  tammy,  and  put  aside  until  wanted. 

Remariis. — Put  the  peppercorns  into  the  court-bo^iillon 
only  twelve  minutes  before  straining  the  latter.  If  the  pepper 
were  in  for  too  long  a  time  it  would  give  a  bitterness  to  the 
preparation.  This  rule  also  applies  to  the  formula;  that  follow, 
in  which  the  use  of  peppercorns  is  also  required. 

This  court-bouillon  is  principally  used  for  cooking  trout 
and  salmon,  as  well  as  for  various  shell-fish. 

164— COURT=BOUiLLON  WITH  WHITE  WINE 

Quantities  Required  for  Two  Qtiarts. 

I  quart  of  white  wine.  i  large  faggot. 

I  quart  of  water.  |  oz.  of  gray  salt. 

3  oz.  of  minced  onions.  A  few  peppercorns. 

Preparation. — This  is  the  same  as  for  the  court-bouillon  with 
vinegar,  except  that  it  is  boiled  for  half  an  hour  and  is  strained 
through  tammy. 

Remarks. — If  the  court-bouillon  has  to  be  reduced  the 
quantity  of  salt  should  be  proportionately  less.  This  prepara- 
tion is  principally  used  for  poaching  fresh-water  fish. 

i65-COURT=BOUILLON  WITH  RED  WINE 

Use  the  same  quantities  as  for  court-bouillon  with  white 
wine,  taking  care — 

I.  To  replace  white  wine  by  excellent  red  wine. 


COURT-BOUILLONS  AND  MARINADES        65 

2.  To  add  four  oz.  of  minced  carrots. 

3.  To  apportion  the  wine  and  water  in  the  ratio  of  two- 
thirds  to  one-third. 

Preparation. — The  same  as  that  of  the  former,  with  the  same 
time  for  boiling. 

Remarks. — If  the  court-bouillon  is  to  be  reduced,  the  salt 
should  be  less  accordingly.  When  the  court-bouillon  with  red 
wine  is  to  constitute  an  aspic  stock,  fish  fumet  with  enough 
gelatine  takes  the  place  of  the  water. 

The  uses  of  court-bouillon  with  red  wine  are  similar  to 
those  of  the  white-wine  kind. 

166— PLAIN  COURT- BOUILLON 

The  quantity  of  court-bouillon  is  determined  by  the  size  of 
the  piece  which  it  is  to  cover.  It  is  composed  of  cold,  salt 
water  (the  salt  amounting  to  a  little  less  than  one-half  oz.  per 
quart  of  water),  one-quarter  pint  of  milk  per  quart  of  water, 
and  one  thin  slice  of  peeled  lemon  in  the  same  proportion. 
The  fish  is  immersed  while  the  liquor  is  cold;  the  latter  is  very 
slowly  brought  to  the  boil,  and  as  soon  as  this  is  reached,  the 
receptacle  is  moved  to  the  side  of  the  fire,  where  the  cooking 
of  the  fish  is  completed. 

This  court-bouillon,  which  is  used  with  large  pieces  of  turbot 
and  brill,  is  never  prepared  beforehand. 

167— SPECIAL  COURT- BOUILLON,  OR  BLANC 

This  preparation  is  a  genuine  court-bouillon,  though  it  is 
not  used  in  cooking  fish. 

The  Quantities  Required  for  Five  Quarts  of  this 
Court-bouillon  are : — 

A  little  less  than  2  oz.  of  flour.  The  juice  of  3  lemons  or  ^  pint  of 

ij  oz.  of  grey  salt.  good  vinegar. 

5  quarts  of  cold  water. 

Gradually  mix  the  flour  and  the  water;  add  the  salt  and 
the  lemon  juice,  and  pass  through  a  strainer.  Set  to  boil,  and 
stir  the  mixture  the  while,  in  order  to  prevent  the  flour  from 
precipitating ;  as  soon  as  the  boil  is  reached,  immerse  the  objects 
to  be  treated.  These  are  usually  calf's  head  or  foot,  previously 
blanched;  sheep's  trotters,  cocks'  kidneys  or  combs,  or  such 
vegetables  as  salsify,  cardoon,  &c. 

Remarks  upon  the  Use  of  Court-bouillon. 

I.  Court-bouillon  must  always  be  prepared  in  advance  for 
all  fish,  the  time  for  poaching  which  is  less  than  half  an  hour, 
except  turbots  and  brills. 

F 


66  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

2.  When  a  fish  is  of  such  a  size  as  to  need  more  than  half 
an  hour's  poaching,  proceed  as  follows: — Place  under  the 
drainer  of  the  fish-kettle  the  minced  carrots  and  onions  and 
the  faggot;  put  the  fish  on  the  drainer,  and  cover  it  with 
water  and  vinegar,  or  white  wine,  in  accordance  with  the 
kind  of  court-bouillon  wanted  and  the  quantity  required.  Add 
the  salt,  boil,  and  keep  the  court-bouillon  gently  simmering  for 
a  period  of  time  fixed  by  the  weight  of  the  fish.  The  time 
allowed  for  poaching  the  latter  will  be  given  in  their  respective 
formulae. 

3.  Fish,  when  whole,  should  be  immersed  in  cold  court- 
bouillon;  when  sliced,  in  the  same  liquor,  boiling.  The  ex- 
ceptions to  this  rule  are  small  trout  "  au  bleu  "  and  shell-fish. 

4.  If  fish  be  cooked  in  short  liquor  the  aromatics  are  put 
under  the  drainer  and  the  liquid  elements  of  the  selected  court- 
bouillon  (as,  for  example,  that  with  red  or  white  wine)  are  so 
calculated  as  to  cover  only  one-third  of  the  solid  body.  Fish 
cooked  in  this  way  should  be  frequently  basted. 

5.  Court-bouillon  for  ordinary  and  spiny  lobsters  should 
always  be  at  full  boiling  pitch  when  these  are  immersed.  The 
case  is  the  same  for  small  or  medium  fish  "  au  bleu." 

6.  Fish  which  is  to  be  served  cold,  also  shell-fish,  should 
cool  in  the  court-bouillon  itself;  the  cooking  period  is  conse- 
quently curtailed. 

Marinades  and  Brines. 

Marinades  play  but  a  small  part  in  English  cookery,  venison 
or  other  ground-game  being  generally  preferred  fresh.  How- 
ever, in  the  event  of  its  being  necessary  to  resort  to  these 
methods  of  preparation,  I  shall  give  two  formulae  for  venison 
and  two  for  mutton. 

The  use  of  the  marinade  for  venison  is  very  much  debated. 
Certainly  it  is  often  desirable  that  the  fibre  of  those  meats  that 
come  from  old  specimens  of  the  deer  and  boar  species  be 
softened,  but  there  is  no  doubt  that  what  the  meat  gains  in 
tenderness  it  loses  in  flavour.  On  the  whole,  therefore,  it  would 
be  best  to  use  only  those  joints  which  come  from  young  beasts. 

In  the  case  of  the  latter,  the  marinade  may  well  be  dispensed 
with.  It  would  add  nothing  to  the  savour  of  a  haunch  of 
venison,  such  as  may  be  got  in  England,  while  it  would  be 
equally  ineffectual  in  the  case  of  the  roebuck  or  hare.  A  sum- 
mary treatment  of  these  two,  with  raw  marinade,  may  well 
be  adopted,  as  also  for  deer. 


COURT-BOUILLONS  AND  MARINADES         67 

As  for  cooked  marinade,  its  real  and  only  use  lies  in  the 
fact  that  during  stormy  summer  weather  it  enables  one  to  pre. 
serve  meat  which  would  otherwise  have  to  be  wasted.  It  may, 
moreover,  be  used  for  braised  venison,  but  this  treatment  of 
game  is  very  uncommon  nowadays. 

168— COOKED  MARINADE  FOR  VENISON 

Quantities  Required  for  Five  Quarts. 

^  lb.  of  minced  carrots.  i  faggot,  including  i  oz.  of  pars- 

J  lb.  of  minced  onions.  ley  stalks,  2  sprigs  of  rose- 

2  oz.  of  minced  shallots.  mary,  as  much  thyme,   and 

I  crushed  garlic  clove.  2  bay  leaves. 

Preparation. — Heat  one-half  pint  of  oil  in  a  stewpan,  add 
the  carrots  and  onions,  and  fry  them  while  stirring  frequently. 
When  they  begin  to  brown  add  the  shallots,  the  garlic,  and 
the  faggot,  then  one  pint  of  vinegar,  two  bottles  of  white 
wine,  and  three  quarts  of  water.  Cook  this  marinade  for 
twenty  minutes,  and  add  a  further  two  oz.  of  salt,  one-half  oz. 
of  peppercorns,  and  four  oz.  of  brown  sugar.  Ten  minutes 
afterwards  pass  it  through  a  strainer  and  let  it  cool  before  in- 
serting the  meats. 

N.B. — In  summer  the  marinade  very  often  decomposes, 
because  of  the  blood  contained  by  the  meat  under  treatment  in 
it.  The  only  means  of  averting  this  is  to  boil  the  marinade 
every  two  or  three  days  at  least. 

169— RAW  MARINADE  FOR  BUTCHER'S  MEAT  OR  VENISON 

This  marinade  is  prepared  immediately  before  using.  The 
meat  to  be  treated  is  first  salted  and  peppered  on  all  sides, 
then  it  is  put  in  a  receptacle  just  large  enough  to  hold 
it,  and  laid  therein  on  a  litter  of  aromatics,  including  minced 
carrots  and  onions,  a  few  chopped  shallots,  parsley  stalks, 
thyme,  and  bay  in  proportion  to  the  rest.  Now  sprinkle  the 
meat  copiously  with  oil  and  half  as  much  vinegar;  cover  the 
dish  with  oil-paper,  and  put  it  somewhere  in  the  cool. 
Remember  to  turn  the  meat  over  three  or  four  times  a  day, 
covering  it  each  time  with  a  layer  of  vegetables. 

This  marinade  is  very  active,  and  is  admirably  suited  to 
all  butcher's  meat  and  venison,  provided  these  be  not  allowed 
to  remain  in  it  for  too  long  a  time.  It  is  very  difficult  to  say 
how  long  the  meat  must  stay  in  these  marinades ;  the  time  varies 
according  to  the  size  and  quality  of  the  joints,  and  the  taste 
of  the  consumer,  &c.  All  that  can  be  said  is  that  three  hours 
should  be  sufiScient  to  marinade  a  cutlet  or  escalope  of  roebuck, 

F  2 


68  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

and  that  for  big  joints  such  as  saddle  or  leg  the  time  should 
not  exceed  four  days. 

170— MARINADE  FOR  MUTTON,  ROEBUCK-STYLE 

This  is  exactly  the  same  as  cooked  marinade,  No.  168. 
There  need  only  be  added  one  oz.  of  juniper  berries,  a  few 
sprigs  of  rosemary,  wild  thyme,  and  basil,  two  extra  garlic 
cloves,  and  one  quart  less  of  water. 

171— MARINADE  WITH  RED  WINE  FOR  MUTTON 

By  substituting  red  wine  for  white  in  the  preceding  formula 
— the  quantity  of  the  liquid  equalling  that  of  the  water — and  by 
slightly  increasing  the  quantity  of  aromatics,  an  excellent 
marinade  for  mutton  is  obtained,  which  in  summer  enables  one 
to  preserve  meat,  otherwise  perishable,  for  some  days. 

172— BRINE 

Quantities  Required  for  Fifty  Quarts. 

56  lbs.  of  gray  salt.  6  lbs.  of  saltpetre. 

50  quarts  of  water.  3I  lbs.  of  brown  sugar. 

Mode  of  Procedure. — Put  the  salt  and  the  water  in  a  tinned 
copper  pan,  and  put  it  on  an  open  fire.  When  the  water  boils, 
throw  in  a  peeled  potato,  and,  if  the  latter  float,  add  water  until 
it  begins  to  sink.  If,  on  the  contrary,  the  potato  should  sink 
immediately,  reduce  the  liquid  until  it  is  able  to  buoy  the 
tuber  up.  At  this  stage  the  sugar  and  saltpetre  are  added; 
let  them  dissolve,  and  the  brine  is  then  removed  from  the 
fire  and  is  allowed  to  cool.  It  is  then  poured  into  the  re- 
ceptacle intended  for  it,  which  must  be  either  of  slate,  stone, 
cement,  or  well-jointed  tiles.  It  is  well  to  place  in  the  bottom 
of  this  reservoir  a  wooden  lattice,  whereon  the  meats  to  be 
salted  may  be  laid,  for,  were  the  immersed  objects  to  lie  directly 
on  the  bottom  of  the  receptacle,  the  under  parts  would  be 
entirely  shielded  from  the  brine. 

If  the  meats  to  be  salted  are  of  an  appreciable  size,  they  should 
be  inoculated  with  brine  by  means  of  a  special  syringe.  With- 
out this  measure  it  would  be  impossible  to  salt  regularly,  as 
the  sides  would  already  be  over-saturated  before  the  centre  had 
even  been  properly  reached. 

Eight  days  should  be  allowed  for  salting  a  piece  of  beef 
of  what  size  soever,  above  eight  or  ten  lb.,  since  the  process 
of  inoculation  equalises  the  salting. 

Ox-tongue  intended  for  salting,   besides  having   to  be  as 


COURT-BOUILLONS  AND  MARINADES        69 

fresh  as  possible,  must  be  trimmed  of  almost  all  the  cartilage 
of  the  throat,  and  carefully  beaten  either  with  a  beater  or 
roller.  Then  it  must  be  pricked  on  all  sides  with  a  string- 
needle,  and  immersed  in  the  liquid,  where  it  should  be  slightly 
weighted  by  some  means  or  other  in  order  to  prevent  its  rising 
to  the  surface.  A  medium-sized  tongue  would  need  about  seven 
days'  immersion  in  the  brine. 

Though  brine  does  not  turn  as  easily  as  the  cooked 
marinades,  it  would  be  well,  especially  in  stormy  weather,  to 
watch  it  and  occasionally  to  boil  it.  But,  as  the  process  of 
boiling  invariably  concentrates  the  brine,  a  little  water 
should  be  added  to  it  every  time  it  is  so  treated,  and  the  test 
of  the  potato,  described  above,  should  always  be  resorted  to. 


CHAPTER    VII 

I.  Elementary  Preparations 

Before  broaching  the  question  of  the  numerous  prepara- 
tions which  constitute  the  various  soup,  relev6,  and  entree  gar- 
nishes, it  will  be  necessary  to  give  the  formulae  of  the  elementary 
preparations,  or  what  are  technically  called  the  mise  en 
place.  If  the  various  operations  which  go  to  make  the  mise 
en  place  were  not,  at  least  summarily,  discussed  here,  I  should 
be  compelled  to  repeat  them  in  each  formula  for  which  they 
are  required — that  is  to  say,  in  almost  every  formula.  I  should 
thus  resemble  those  bad  operators  who,  having  neglected  their 
mise  en  place,  are  obliged  to  make  it  in  the  course  of  other 
work,  and  thereby  not  only  run  the  risk  of  making  it  badly, 
but  also  of  losing  valuable  time  which  might  be  used  to  better 
advantage. 

Elementary  preparations  consist  of  those  things  whereof 
one  is  constantly  in  need,  which  may  be  prepared  in  advance, 
and  which  are  kept  available  for  use  at  a  moment's  notice. 

173— ANCHOVIES  (FILLETS  OF) 

Whether  they  be  for  hors  d'oeuvres  or  for  culinary  use,  it 
is  always  best  to  have  these  handy. 

After  having  washed  and  well  wiped  them,  in  order  to  re- 
move the  white  powder  resulting  from  the  little  scales  with 
which  they  are  covered,  they  should  be  neatly  trimmed  to  the 
shape  of  extended  oblongs.  Then  detach  the  fillets  from  the 
bones  by  gentle  pulling,  divide  each  fillet  lengthwise  into  three 
or  four  smaller  fillets,  put  the  latter  into  a  small  narrow  dish 
or  a  little  bowl,  and  cover  them  with  oil.  The  fillets  may 
also  be  kept  whole  with  a  view  to  rolling  them  into  rings. 

174— ANQLAISE  (FOR  EQO=AND-BREAD-CRUMBINQ) 

It  is  well  to  have  this  always  ready  for  those  dishes  which 
are  to  be  panes  a  I'anglaise,  or  as  many  of  the  recipes  direct : 
treated  a  I'anglaise. 


ELEMENTARY  PREPARATIONS  71 

It  is  made  of  well-whisked  eggs,  salt,  pepper,  and  one 
dessertspoonful  of  oil  per  couple  of  eggs. 

Its  Uses. — The  solids  to  be  panes  a  I'anglaise  are  dipped 
into  the  preparation  described  above,  taking  care  that  the  latter 
coats  them  thoroughly;  whereupon,  according  to  the  require- 
ments, they  arerolled  either  in  bread-crumbs  or  in  fine  raspings. 
From  this  combination  of  egg  with  bread-crumbs  or  raspings 
there  results  a  kind  of  coat  which,  at  the  moment  of  contact  with 
the  hot  fat,  is  immediately  converted  into  a  resisting  crust.  In 
croquettes  this  crust  checks  the  escape,  into  the  fat,  of  the  sub- 
stances it  encloses,  and  this  is  more  especially  the  case  when 
the  croquettes  contain  some  reduced  sauce,  or  are  composed 
of  raw  meats  or  fish  whose  juices  are  thereby  entirely  retained. 
A  solid  prepared  a  I'anglaise  and  cooked  in  fat  should 
always  be  put  into  the  latter  when  this  is  very  hot,  so  as  to 
ensure  the  instantaneous  solidification  of  the  egg  and  bread- 
crumbs. 

N.B. — Objects  to  be  treated  a  I'anglaise  are  generally 
rolled  in  flour  before  being  immersed  in  the  anglaise,  for  the 
flour  helps  the  foregoing  to  adhere  to  the  object. 

The  crust  formed  over  the  solid  thus  acquires  a  density  which 
is  indispensable. 

174a— AROMATICS 

Aromatics  play  a  very  prominent  part  in  cookery,  and  their 
combination  with  the  condiments  constitutes,  as  Grinod  de  la 
Reyni^re  said,  "the  hidden  soul  of  cooking."  Their  real 
object,  in  fact,  is  to  throw  the  savour  of  dishes  into  relief,  to 
intensify  that  savour,  and  to  give  each  culinary  preparation  its 
particular  stamp. 

They  are  all  derived  from  the  vegetable  kingdom ;  but,  while 
some  are  used  dry,  others  are  used  fresh. 

The  first-named  should  belong  to  the  permanent  kitchen 
stock ;  they  are  :  sage,  basil,  rosemary,  sweet  marjoram,  thyme, 
and  bay. 

Also  to  be  included  in  the  permanent  stock  are :  cinnamon, 
ginger,  juniper-berries,  nutmeg,  cloves,  mace,  and  vanilla. 

The  last-named  comprise  those  aromatic  herbs  used  fresh, 
such  as :  parsley,  chervil,  tarragon,  pimpernel,  and  common 
savory ;  while,  under  this  head,  there  may  also  be  included : 
bits  of  common-  and  Seville-orange  rind  and  zests  of  lemon 
rind. 

174b— SEASONING  AND  CONDIMENTS 

Seasonings  are  divided  into  several  classes,  which  com. 
prise : — 


72  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

1.  Saline  seasonings. — Salt,  spiced  salt,  saltpetre. 

2.  Acid  seasonings. — Plain  vinegar,  or  the  same  aromatised 
with  tarragon ;  verjuice,  lemon  juice,  and  common-  or  Seville- 
orange  juices. 

3.  Hot  seasonings. — Peppercorns,  ground  or  concassed 
pepper,  or  mignonette;  paprika,  curry,  cayenne,  and  com- 
pound spices. 

4.  Saccharine  seasonings. — Sugar  and  honey. 
Condiments    are    likewise    subdivided,    the    three    classes 

being : — 

(i)  The  pungents. — Onions,  shallots,  garlic,  chives,  and 
horseradish. 

2.  Hot  condiments. — Mustard,  gherkins,  capers,  English 
sauces,  such  as  Worcester,  Harvey,  Ketchup,  Escoffier's  sauces, 
&c.;  the  wines  used  in  reductions  and  braisings;  the  finishing 
elements  of  sauces  and  soups. 

3.  Fatty  substances. — Most  animal  fats,  butter,  vegetable 
greases  (edible  oils  and  cocoanut  butter). 

Remarks. — In  cookery  it  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  both 
excellence  and  eatableness  depend  entirely  upon  a  judicious  use 
and  a  rational  blending  of  the  aromatics,  seasonings,  and  con- 
diments. And,  according  as  the  latter  have  been  used  and 
apportioned,  their  action  will  be  either  beneficial  or  injurious 
to  the  health  of  the  consumer. 

In  the  matter  of  seasoning  there  can  be  no  question  of 
approximation  or  half  measures;  the  quantities  must  be  exact, 
allowing  only  of  slight  elasticity  in  respect  of  the  various  tastes 
to  be  satisfied. 

175— CLARIFIED  BUTTER 

A  certain  quantity  of  clarified  butter  should  always  be  kept 
ready  and  handy. 

To  prepare  this  butter,  put  one  lb.  to  melt  in  a  saucepan 
large  enough  to  hold  twice  that  amount.  Place  the  saucepan 
on  the  side  of  the  fire,  over  moderate  heat ;  remove  all  the  scum 
which  rises  to  the  surface,  and,  when  the  butter  looks  quite 
clear  and  all  foreign  substances  have  dropped  to  the  bottom, 
put  the  liquid  carefully  away  and  strain  it  through  muslin. 

176— FAQQOTS  (BOUQUETS  QARNIS) 

The  name  "faggot"  is  given  to  those  little  bunches  of 
aromatics  which,  when  the  contrary  is  not  stated,  are  generally 
composed  (in  order  to  weigh  one  ounce)  of  eight-tenths  oz.  of 


ELEMENTARY  PREPARATIONS  73 

parsley  stalks  and  roots,  one-tenth  oz.  of  bay  leaves,  and  one- 
tenth  oz.  of  thyme.  These  various  aromatics  are  put  neatly 
together  so  that  no  sprig  of  the  one  sticks  out  beyond  the 
others,  and  they  are  properly  strung  together. 

177— CHERVIL 

Chopped  Chervil. — Clean  the  chervil  and  remove  the  stalks ; 
wash,  dry  it  well  while  tossing  it,  then  chop  it  finely  and  put 
it  aside  on  a  plate  in  the  cool,  if  it  is  not  for  immediate  use. 

Concussed  Chervil. — Proceed  as  above,  except  that,  instead 
of  chopping  it,  compress  it  between  the  fingers  and  slice  it  after 
the  manner  of  a  chaff-cutter.  Concussed  and  chopped  chervil 
are,  if  possible,  only  prepared  at  the  last  moment. 

Chervil  Pinches. — The  pluches  are  greatly  used  in  the 
finishing  off  of  soups.  They  are,  practically,  the  serrated  por- 
tions only  of  the  leaves,  which  are  torn  away  in  such  a  manner 
as  to  show  no  trace  of  the  veinings.  They  are  immersed  in 
water,  and  at  the  last  moment  withdrawn,  so  as  to  be  added, 
raw,  to  either  soups  or  boiling  consommes. 

178— RASPINGS 

Golden  raspings  are  obtained  by  pounding  and  passing 
through  a  fine  sieve  bread-crusts  which  have  been  previously 
well  dried  in  the  oven. 

White  ruspings  are  similarly  prepared,  except  that  very  dry, 
white  crumb  is  used. 

179— PEELED,  CHANNELLED,  AND  ZESTED  LEMONS 

Lemons  are  greatly  used  in  cookery,  as  dish  and  comestible 
garnish.  When  a  whole  lemon  is  used  for  marinades  of  fish, 
for  the  "  bluncs,"  &c.,  it  is  well  to  peel  it  to  the  pulp,  i.e.,  to 
remove  the  peel  and  the  whole  of  the  underlying  white.  The 
lemon  is  then  cut  into  more  or  less  large  slices,  according  to 
the  use  for  which  it  is  intended. 

The  rind  of  a  lemon  thus  peeled  may  be  cut  into  bits  and 
used  in  this  form  as  the  necessity  arises.  When  cutting  it  up, 
flatten  the  rind  inside  uppermost  on  the  table,  and,  with  a  very 
sharp  and  flexible  knife,  remove  all  the  white;  then  slice  the 
remaining  peel  (which  constitutes  what  is  called  zest)  into  strips 
about  one  inch  wide,  and  cut  these  laterally  in  fine  julienne- 
fashion. 

Scald  the  resulting  bits  for  five  minutes,  cool  them,  drain 
them  carefully,  and  put  them  aside  until  wanted.  Sometimes, 
instead  of  cutting  julienne-fashion,  the  zest  may  be  finely 
chopped,  but  the  rest  of  the  process  remains  the  same. 


74  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Lemons  are  channelled  by  means  of  a  little  knife,  or  a  special 
instrument  for  the  purpose,  which  excises  parallel  ribbons  from 
the  surface  of  the  rind  and  lays  the  white  bare.  A  lemon 
channelled  in  this  way  is  cut  in  two,  lengthwise  with  the  core ; 
its  two  extremities  are  removed,  and  the  two  halves  are  cut 
laterally  into  thin,  regular  slices  to  look  like  serrated  half-discs. 

The  lemon  may  also  be  cut  at  right  angles  to  the  core. 

Fried  fish,  oysters,  and  certain  game  are  generally  garnished 
with  lemon  slices  fashioned  according  to  the  taste  of  the  cook ; 
but  the  simplest,  and  perhaps  the  best,  way  is  to  cut  the  lemon 
through  the  centre,  after  having  trimmed  the  two  ends  quite 
straight,  and  then  to  remove  the  rind  roughly  from  the  edge. 

For  whatever  purpose  the  lemon  be  intended,  it  should  be, 
as  far  as  possible,  only  prepared  at  the  last  moment.  If  it  must 
be  prepared  beforehand,  it  would  be  well  to  keep  it  in  a  bowl 
of  fresh  water. 

1 80— SHALLOTS 

Chopped  Shallots. — Clean  the  shallots,  and,  by  means  of  a 
very  sharp  knife,  cut  them  lengthwise  into  thin  slices ;  let  these 
cling  together  by  not  allowing  the  knife  to  cut  quite  through 
them,  and,  this  done,  turn  them  half  round  and  proceed  in  the 
same  way  at  right  angles  to  the  other  cuts. 

Finally,  cut  them  laterally,  and  this  will  be  found  to  produce 
very  fine  and  regular,  small  cubes. 

Ciseled  Shallots. — The  name  "  ciseled  shallots"  is  often 
erroneously  given  to  those  shallots  resulting  from  the  above 
process. 

But  ciseled  shallots  are  merely  laterally  sliced,  the  result  ot 
which  operation  is  a  series  of  thin,  regular  discs.  Ciseled  or 
chopped  shallots  should,  when  possible,  only  be  prepared  when 
required;  if,  however,  they  must  be  treated  in  advance,  they 
should  be  kept  somewhere  in  the  cool  until  wanted. 

181-SPICES 

Strictly  speaking,  spices  include  cinnamon,  nutmeg,  ginger, 
mace ;  and  the  many  varieties  of  peppers  and  pimenta,  cayenne, 
paprika,  &c. 

These  various  condiments  are  found  ready-made  on  the 
market,  and  they  need  only  be  kept  dry  in  air-tight  boxes  in 
order  to  prevent  the  escape  of  their  aroma. 

But  there  is  another  kind  of  preparation,  in  cookery,  to 
which  the  name  of  spice  or  all-spice  is  more  especially  given. 


ELEMENTARY  PREPARATIONS  75 

Nowadays  several  market  varieties  of  this  preparation  exist,  and 
vie  with  each  other  for  custom,  though  in  most  cases  they 
deserve  it  equally  well. 

Formerly  this  was  not  so,  and  every  chef  had  his  own 
formula. 

The  following  is  a  recipe  for  the  spice  in  question,  which 
would  be  found  useful  if  it  had  to  be  prepared  at  a  moment's 
notice :  — 

Obtain  the  following,  very  dry. 

5  oz.  of  bay  leaves.  4  oz.  of  cloves. 

3  oz.  of  thyme  (half  of  it  wild,  if  3  oz.  of  ginger-root, 

possible).  3  oz.  of  mace. 

3  oz.  of  coriander.  10  oz.  of  mixed  pepper  (half  black 

4  oz.  of  cinnamon.  and  half  white). 

6  oz.  of  nutmeg.  i  oz.  of  cayenne. 

Put  all  these  ingredients  into  a  mortar  and  pound  them  until 
they  are  all  able  to  pass  through  a  very  fine  sieve.  Put  the 
resulting  powder  into  an  air-tight  box,  which  must  be  kept  dry. 

Before  being  used,  this  spice  is  generally  mixed  with  salt 
(No.  188). 

182— FLOUR 

For  whatever  use  the  flour  is  intended,  it  is  always  best  to 
sift  it.  This  is  more  particularly  necessary  in  the  case  of  flour 
used  for  coating  objects  to  be  fried;  for  the  latter,  being  first 
dipped  into  milk,  must  of  necessity  let  a  few  drops  of  that 
liquid  fall  into  the  flour  they  are  rolled  in.  Lumps  would 
therefore  form,  which  might  adhere  to  the  objects  to  be  fried 
if  the  flour  were  not  sifted. 

183— HERB  JUICE 

This  is  to  finish  or  intensify  certain  preparations. 

To  prepare  it,  throw  into  a  small  saucepan  of  boiling  water 
some  parsley,  chervil,  and  tarragon  and  chive  leaves,  in  equal 
quantities,  according  to  the  amount  of  juice  required. 

Set  to  boil  for  two  minutes,  drain,  cool,  press  the  herbs  in 
a  towel,  twisting  the  latter;  pound  very  finely,  and  extract  the 
juice  from  the  resulting  paste  by  twisting  a  strong  towel 
round  it. 

Keep  this  juice  in  the  cool. 

1 84— BREAD  -  CRUMBS 

Thoroughly  rub,  in  a  closed  towel,  some  stale  bread-crumb 
previously  well  broken  up.  Pass  it  through  a  fine  sieve  or 
colander,  according  as  to  whether  it  is  required  very  fine  o^  not, 
and  put  it  aside  in  a  convenient  receptacle. 


76  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

i8s— CHOPPED  ONION 

Cut  the  onion  finely,  like  the  shallots,  but  if  it  is  to  be 
minced  with  a  view  to  making  it  even  finer,  it  should  be  freed 
of  its  pungent  juice,  which  would  cause  it  to  blacken  with 
exposure  to  the  air. 

To  accomplish  this,  put  the  onion  in  the  corner  of  a  towel, 
pour  plenty  of  cold  water  over  it,  and  twist  the  towel  in  order 
to  express  the  water.  By  this  means  the  onion  remains  quite 
white. 

i86— TURNED  OR  STONED  OLIVES 

There  are  special  instruments  for  stoning  olives,  but,  failing 
these,  cut  the  fruit  spirally  from  the  stone  with  the  point  of  a 
small  knife. 

Keep  the  olives  in  slightly  salted  water. 

187— PARSLEY 

Chopped  Parsley. — If  parsley  be  properly  chopped,  no  juice 
should  be  produced.  If,  on  the  contrary,  the  operation  be  per- 
formed badly,  it  amounts  to  a  process  of  pounding  which,  per- 
force, expresses  the  juice. 

In  the  latter  case  the  particles  cohere,  and  they  are  sprinkled 
with  difficulty  over  an  object.  To  remedy  this  shortcoming, 
wash  the  choppings  in  fresh  water,  as  in  the  case  of  the  onion, 
pressing  in  a  similar  manner  so  as  to  expel  the  water. 

Concussed  Parsley  is  that  kind  which  is  roughly  chopped. 
When  a  culinary  preparation  is  dressed  with  concussed  parsley, 
the  latter  should  be  added  to  it  a  few  moments  before  serving, 
in  order  to  undergo  a  slight  cooking  process;  whereas  chopped 
parsley  may  be  strewn  over  a  dish  at  the  last  moment. 

It  should  be  remembered  that  parsley,  when  quite  fresh  and 
used  in  moderation,  is  an  excellent  thing;  but,  should  it  have 
remained  too  long  in  the  heat,  it  becomes  quite  insufferable. 

I  cannot,  therefore,  too  strongly  urge  the  advisability  of 
using  it  in  the  freshest  possible  state,  and  it  would  even  be 
wiser  to  discard  it  entirely  than  to  be  forced  to  ignore  this 
condition. 

Parsley  Sprays. — These  are  chiefly  used  in  garnishing 
dishes,  and  it  is  well  for  the  purpose  to  make  as  much  use  as 
possible  of  the  curled-leaf  kind,  after  having  removed  the  long 
stalks.     Keep  the  sprays  in  fresh  water  until  required. 

Fried  Parsley. — This  consists  of  the  sprays,  well  drained  of 
watei»after  washing,  and  immersed  for  an  instant  in  very  hot 
fat.     The  moment  it  is  fried  carefully  drain  it,  salt  it,  and  place 


ELEMENTARY  PREPARATIONS  77 

it  in  a  clean  towel,  where  it  may  get  rid  of  any  superfluous 
grease.     It  is  used  to  dress  fried  viands. 

188— SALT 

Two  kinds  of  salt  are  used  in  cooking,  viz.,  grey,  or  sea-salt, 
and  rock-salt.  Grey-salt  is  used  more  especially  for  Brines 
and  in  the  preparation  of  ices,  as  its  grey  colour  does  not 
allow  of  its  being  used  indiscriminately. 

Be  this  as  it  may,  many  prefer  it  to  rock-salt  for  the  salting 
of  stock-pots,  roasts,  and  grills.  For  the  last  two  purposes  it 
is  crushed  with  a  roller,  without  being  pounded,  and  the  result 
should  be  such  that  every  grain  is  distinctly  perceptible  to  the 
touch. 

This  salt,  in  melting  over  a  roast  or  a  grill,  certainly  imparts 
a  supplementary  flavour  to  the  latter  which  could  not  be  got  with 
the  use  of  rock-salt. 

Rock-salt. — This  is  found  on  the  market  in  the  forms  of 
cooking  and  table-salt.  If  the  kitchen  is  only  supplied  with 
cooking  salt,  the  quantity  required  for  several  days  should  be 
dried,  pounded  in  the  mortar,  and  passed  through  a  fine  sieve; 
and  then  put  aside  in  a  dry  place  for  use  when  wanted.  Even 
table-salt,  as  it  reaches  one  from  the  purveyor,  sometimes  needs 
drying  and  passing  through  a  sieve  before  being  used. 

Spiced  Salt. — This  condiment,  which  serves  an  important 
purpose  in  the  preparation  of  pies  and  galantines,  is  obtained 
from  a  mixture  of  one  lb.  of  table  salt  with  three  and  one-half  oz. 
of  spices  (No.   181). 

This  kind  of  salt  should  be  carefully  kept  in  a  very  dry  place. 


2.  The  Various  Kinds  of  Garnishes  for  Soups,  Releves, 
AND  Entrees,  Hot  or  Cold 

stuffings  AND  FORCEMEATS 

189— VARIOUS  PANADAS  FOR  STUFFINGS 

Panadas  are  those  preparations  which  go  to  make  the  leason 
of  forcemeats  and  which  ensure  their  proper  consistence  when 
they  are  cooked.  They  are  not  necessary  to  every  forcemeat;  for 
the  mousseline  kind,  which  are  the  finest  and  lightest,  do  not 
require  them.  Nevertheless,  they  are  useful  for  varying  the  taste 
and  the  uses  of  forcemeats,  and  I  thought  it  advisable  to  intro- 
duce them  here.  The  reader  will  thus  be  able  to  use  either 
forcemeats  with  a  panada  base  or  mousseline  forcemeats ;  in 
accordance  with  the  requirements  and  his  resources. 


78  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

190— A.     BREAD  PANADA 

Put  one-half  lb.  of  the  crumb  of  bread  and  one-half  oz,  of 
salt  into  one-half  pint  of  boiling  milk.  When  the  crumb  has 
absorbed  all  the  milk,  place  the  saucepan  over  a  brisk  fire  and 
stir  with  a  spatula  until  the  paste  has  become  so  thick  as  not  to 
cling  any  longer  to  the  end  of  the  spatula.  Turn  the  contents  of 
the  saucepan  into  a  buttered  platter,  and  lightly  butter  the  sur- 
face of  the  panada  in  order  to  avoid  its  drying  while  it  cools. 

191— B.     FLOUR  PANADA 

Put  into  a  small  saucepan  one-half  pint  of  water,  a  little  salt, 
and  two  oz.  of  butter.  When  the  liquid  boils  add  five  oz.  of  sifted 
flour  thereto,  stirring  the  while  over  a  brisk  fire  until  it  reaches 
the  consistence  described  in  the  case  of  bread  panada.  Use  the 
same  precautions  with  regard  to  cooling. 

192— C.     FRANQIPAN  PANADA 

Put  into  a  stewpan  four  oz.  of  sifted  flour,  the  yolks  of  four 
eggs,  a  little  salt,  pepper,  and  nutmeg.  Now  add  by  degrees 
three  oz.  of  melted  butter  and  dilute  with  one-half  pint  of  boiled 
milk.  Pass  through  a  strainer,  stir  over  the  lire  until  the  boil  is 
reached;  set  to  cook  for  five  minutes  while  gently  wielding  the 
whisk,  and  cool  as  in  the  preceding  cases. 

193— CHICKEN  FORCEMEAT  WITH 
PANADA  AND  BUTTER 

Remove  the  tendons  from,  and  cut  into  cubes,  one  lb.  of 
chicken-meat.  Pound,  and  add  one-third  oz.  of  salt,  a  little 
pepper  and  nutmeg.  When  the  meat  is  well  pounded  remove  it 
from  the  mortar,  and  place  in  its  stead  one-half  lb.  of  very  cold 
panada  (see  No.  190).  Finely  pound  this  panada,  and  then  add 
one-half  lb.  of  butter  thereto,  taking  care  that  the  two  ingredients 
mix  thoroughly.  Now  put  in  the  chicken-meat,  and  wield  the 
pestle  vigorously  until  the  whole  mass  is  completely  mixed. 
Finally,  add  consecutively  two  whole  eggs  and  the  yolks  of  four, 
stirring  incessantly  the  while  and  seeing  that  each  egg  is  only 
inserted  when  the  one  preceding  it  has  become  perfectly  incor- 
porated with  the  mass.  Rub  through  a  sieve,  put  the  forcemeat 
into  a  basin,  and  smooth  it  with  a  wooden  spoon. 

Test  the  forcemeat  by  poaching  a  small  portion  of  it  in  salted, 
boiling  water.  This  test,  which  is  indispensable,  allows  of  recti- 
fying the  seasoning  and  the  consistence  if  necessary.  If  it  be 
found  that  the  forcemeat  is  too  light,  a  little  white  of  egg  could 


ELEMENTARY  PREPARATIONS  79 

bft  mingled  with  it ;  if,  on  the  ether  hand,  it  should  be  too  stiff 
add  a  little  softened  buttef. 

N.B. — By  substituting  for  chicken  veal,  game,  or  fish,  &c., 
any  kind  of  forcemeat  may  be  made;  for  the  quantities  of  the 
other  ingredients  remain  the  same  whatever  the  basic  meat  may 
be. 

194— CHICKEN  FORCEMEAT  WITH 
PANADA  AND  CREAM 

(For  Fine  Quenelles.) 

Finely  pound  one  lb.  of  chicken-meat  after  having  removed 
the  tendons,  and  seasoned  with  one-quarter  oz.  of  salt,  a  little 
pepper  and  nutmeg. 

When  the  meat  has  been  reduced  to  a  fine  paste,  add,  very 
gradually,  two  oz.  of  white  of  egg.  Finish  with  seven  oz.  of 
Frangipan  panada  (No.  192),  and  work  vigorously  with  the  pestle 
until  the  whole  is  amalgamated.  Strain  through  a  fine  sieve, 
put  the  forcemeat  into  a  vegetable-pan  sufficiently  large  to  allow 
of  ultimately  working  it  with  ease,  and  place  it  on  dee  for  a  good 
hour. 

This  done,  stir  the  forcemeat  (still  on  the  ice)  for  a  few 
seconds  with  a  wooden  spoon,  then  add,  in  small  quantities  at  a 
time,  one  pint  of  raw  cream.  At  this  stage  complete  the  prepara- 
tion by  adding  thereto  one-half  pint  of  whipped  cream.  It 
should  then  be  found  to  be  very  white,  smooth,  and  mellow. 
Test  as  directed  in  the  preceding  recipe,  and  add  a  little  white 
of  egg  if  it  be  too  light,  and  a  little  cream  if  it  be  too  stiff. 

N.B. — This  forcemeat  may  be  prepared  from  all  butcher's 
meats,  game,  or  fish. 

195— FINE  CHICKEN  FORCEMEAT  OR  "  MOUSSELINE  " 

Remove  the  tendons  from,  trim,  and  cut  into  cubes,  one  lb. 
of  chicken-meat.  Season  with  one  oz.  of  salt,  a  little  pepper  and 
nutmeg. 

Finely  pound,  and,  when  it  is  reduced  to  a  paste,  gradually 
add  the  whites  of  two  eggs,  vigorously  working  with  the  pestle 
meanwhile. 

Strain  through  a  fine  sieve,  put  the  forcemeat  into  a  vege- 
table-pan, stir  it  once  more  with  the  wooden  spoon  for  a  moment 
or  two,  and  combine  with  it,  gradually,  one  pint  of  thick,  fresh 
cream,  working  with  great  caution  and  keeping  the  receptacle 
on  ice. 

Remarks  Relative  to  Mousseline  Forcemeat. — This,  like  the 
preceding  forcemeats,  may  be  prepared  from  any  kind  of  meat. 


8o  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

The  addition  of  the  white  of  egg  is  not  essential  if  the  meats 
used  already  possess  a  certain  quantity  of  albumen ;  but  without 
the  white  of  egg  the  forcemeat  absorbs  much  less  cream. 

This  forcemeat  is  particularly  suited  to  preparations  with  a 
shell-fish  base.  Incomparably  delicate  results  are  obtained  by 
the  process,  while  it  also  furnishes  ideal  quenelles  for  the  pur- 
pose of  garnishing  soup.  In  a  word,  it  may  be  said  of  mousse- 
line  forcemeat  that,  whereas  it  can  replace  all  other  kinds,  none 
of  these  can  replace  it. 

N.B. — Mousseline  forcemeats  of  all  kinds,  with  meat, 
poultry,  game,  fish,  or  shell-fish,  may  be  made  according  to  the 
principles  and  quantities  given  above. 

196— PORK  FORCEMEAT  FOR  DIVERS  USES 

Remove  the  tendons  of,  and  cut  into  large  cubes,  two  lbs.  of 
fillet  of  pork,  and  the  same  weight  of  fresh,  fat  bacon.  Season 
with  one  and  three-quarter  oz.  of  spiced  salt  (No.  188),  chop  the 
fillet  and  bacon  up,  together  or  separately,  pound  them  finely  in 
the  mortar,  and  finish  with  two  eggs  and  two  tablespoonfuls  of 
brandy. 

This  forcemeat  is  used  for  ordinary  pies  and  terrines.  Strictly 
speaking,  it  is  "  sausage-meat."  The  inclusion  of  eggs  in  this 
forcemeat  really  only  obtains  when  it  is  used  to  stuff  joints  that 
are  to  be  braised,  such  as  stuffed  breast  of  veal ;  or  in  the  case  of 
pies  and  terrines.  The  addition  of  the  egg  in  these  cases  pre- 
vents the  grease  from  melting  too  quickly,  and  thus  averts  the 
drying  of  the  forcemeat. 

197— FORCEMEAT  FOR  QALANTiNES,  PIES  AND  TERRINES 

Remove  the  tendons  from,  and  cut  into  cubes,  one  lb.  of  fillet 
of  veal  and  as  much  fillet  of  pork ;  add  to  these  two  lbs.  of  fresh, 
fat  bacon,  also  cut  into  cubes.  Season  with  three  oz.  of  spiced 
salt,  chop  the  three  ingredients  together  or  apart,  and  then  finely 
pound  them.  Finish  with  three  eggs  and  three  tablespoonfuls 
of  burnt  brandy,  strain  through  a  sieve,  and  place  in  a  basin. 

When  about  to  serve  this  stuffing,  add  to  it  a  little  fumat 
corresponding  with  the  meat  that  is  to  constitute  the  dish.  For 
terrines,  pies,  and  galantines  of  game,  one-quarter  or  one-fifth  of 
the  forcemeat's  weight  of  gratin  stuffing  (proper  to  the  game 
under  treatment)  is  added. 

198— VEAL  FORCEMEAT  WITH  FAT  OR  GODIVEAU 

Remove  the  tendons  from,  and  cut  into  cubes,  one  lb.  of  fillet 
of  veal ;  also  pare,  i.e.,  detach  skin  and  filaments  from,  two  lbs. 


ELEMENTARY  PREPARATIONS  8i 

of  the  very  dry  fat  of  kidneys  of  beef.  First,  chop  these  up 
separately,  then  combine  and  pound  them  in  the  mortar.  Season 
with  one-half  oz.  of  salt,  a  little  pepper,  some  nutmeg,  and  pound 
afresh  until  the  veal  and  fat  become  a  homogeneous  mass.  Now 
add  four  eggs,  consecutively,  and  at  intervals  of  a  few  minutes, 
without  ceasing  to  pound,  and  taking  care  only  to  insert  each  egg 
after  the  preceding  one  has  been  properly  mixed  with  the  mass. 
Spread  the  forcemeat  thus  prepared  on  a  dish,  and  put  the  latter 
on  ice  until  the  next  day. 

The  next  day  pound  once  more,  and  add  little  by  little  four- 
teen oz.  of  very  clean  ice  (in  small  pieces) ;  or,  instead,  an  equal 
weight  of  iced  water,  adding  this  also  very  gradually. 

When  the  godiveau  is  properly  moistened,  poach  a  small  por- 
tion of  it  in  boiling  water  in  order  to  test  its  consistence.  If  it 
be  too  firm,  add  some  more  ice  to  it;  if,  on  the  other  hand,  it 
seem  too  flimsy,  add  a  little  of  the  white  of  an  egg.  For  the 
uses  of  godiveau  and  quenelles  see  No.  205. 

199— VEAL  FORCEMEAT  WITH  FAT  AND  CREAM 

Chop  finely  and  apart  one  lb.  of  very  white  fillet  of  veal,  with 
tendons  removed,  cut  into  cubes,  and  one  lb.  of  the  fat  of  pared 
kidney  of  beef. 

Combine  the  veal  and  the  fat  in  the  mortar,  and  pound  until 
the  two  ingredients  form  a  fine  and  even  paste.  Season  with  one- 
half  oz.  of  salt,  a  little  pepper,  and  some  nutmeg,  and  add  con- 
secutively two  eggs  and  two  yolks,  after  the  manner  of  the  pre- 
ceding recipe  and  without  ceasing  to  pound.  Strain  through  a 
sieve,  spread  the  forcemeat  on  a  dish,  and  keep  it  on  ice  until  the 
next  day. 

Next  day  pound  the  forcemeat  again  for  a  few  minutes,  and 
add  to  it,  little  by  little,  one  and  one-half  pints  of  cream. 

Test  as  before,  and  rectify  if  necessary,  either  by  adding 
cream  or  by  thickening  with  the  white  of  an  egg. 

200-CHICKEN  FORCEMEAT  FOR  GALAN- 
TINES, PIES  AND  TERRINES 

The  exact  weight  of  chicken-meat  used  as  the  base  of  this 
forcemeat  determines  the  quantities  of  its  other  ingredients. 
Thus  the  weight  of  meat  afforded  by  a  fowl  weighing  four  lbs.  is 
estimated  at  twenty  oz.  after  deducting  the  fillets  which  are 
always  reserved.  Hence  the  quantities  for  the  forcemeat  are 
regulated  thus : — 

Chicken-meat,  twenty  oz. ;  lean  pork,  eight  oz. ;  fillet  of  veal, 

G 


82  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

eight  oz.;  fresh,  fat  bacon,  thirty  oz.;  whole  eggs,  five;  spiced 
salt,  two  oz. ;  brandy,  one-fifth  pint. 

Chop  up,  either  together  or  apart,  the  chiclien-meat,  the  veal, 
the  pork,  and  the  bacon.  Put  all  these  into  the  mortar,  pound 
them  very  finely  with  the  seasoning,  add  the  eggs  consecutively, 
and,  last  of  all,  pour  in  the  brandy. 

Remarks 

1 .  The  quantity  of  spiced  salt  varies,  a  few  grammes  either 
way,  according  as  to  whether  the  atmosphere  be  dry  or  damp, 

2.  According  to  the  purpose  of  the  forcemeat,  and  with  a 
view  to  giving  it  a  finer  flavour,  one  may,  subject  to  the  resources 
at  one's  disposal,  add  a  little  raw  trimmings  of  foie  gras  to  it ;  but 
the  latter  must  not,  in  any  case,  exceed  one-fifth  of  the  forcemeat 
in  weight, 

3.  As  a  rule,  forcemeat  should  always  be  rubbed  through 
a  sieve  so  as  to  ensure  its  being  fine  and  even. 

4.  Whether  the  foie  gras  be  added  or  not,  chicken  forcemeat 
may  always  be  completed  with  two  or  three  oz.  of  chopped  truffles 
per  lb.  of  its  volume. 

201— GAME  FORCEMEAT  FOR  PIES  AND  TERRINES 

This  follows  the  same  principles  as  the  chicken  forcemeat, 
i.e.,  the  weight  of  the  game-meat  determines  the  quantities  of  the 
other  ingredients.  The  proportions  are  precisely  the  same  as 
above  as  regards  the  veal,  the  pork,  the  bacon,  and  the  season- 
ing. The  procedure  is  also  the  same,  while  the  appended  re- 
marks likewise  apply. 

202— QRATIN  FORCEMEAT  FOR 
ORDINARY  HOT,  RAISED  PIES 

Put  into  a  saut^pan  containing  one  oz.  of  very  hot  butter,  one- 
half  lb.  of  fresh,  fat  bacon,  cut  into  large  cubes,  brown  quickly, 
and  drain  on  a  dish. 

Quickly  brown  in  the  same  butter  one-half  lb.  of  fillet  of  veal 
cut  like  the  bacon  and  drain  in  the  same  way. 

Now  rapidly  brown  one-half  lb.  of  pale,  calf's  liver,  also  cut 
into  large  cubes.  Put  the  veal  and  the  bacon  back  into  the  saute- 
pan  with  the  liver,  add  the  necessary  quantity  of  salt  and  pepper, 
two  oz.  of  mushroom  parings,  one  oz.  of  truffle  parings  (raw  if 
possible),  chopped  shallots,  a  sprig  of  thyme,  and  a  fragment  of 
bay.  Put  the  whole  on  the  fire  for  two  minutes,  drain  the  bacon, 
the  veal,  and  the  liver,  and  put  the  gravy  aside.  Swill  the  saut6- 
pan  with  one-quarter  pint  of  Madeira, 


ELEMENTARY  PREPARATIONS  83 

Pound  the  bacon,  veal,  and  liver  quickly  and  finely,  while 
adding  consecutively  six  oz.  of  butter,  the  yolks  of  six  eggs,  the 
gravy  that  has  been  put  aside,  one-third  pint  of  cold,  reduced 
Espagnole,  and  the  Madeira  used  for  swilling. 

Strain  through  a  sieve,  place  in  a  tureen,  and  smooth  with 
the  wooden  spoon. 

N.B. — To  make  a  gratin  forcemeat  with  game,  substitute 
for  the  veal  that  game-meat  which  may  happen  to  be  required. 

203-PIKE  FORCEMEAT  FOR  QUENELLES  A  LA  LYONNAISE 

Forcemeats  prepared  with  the  flesh  of  the  pike  are  extremely 
delicate.  Subject  to  circumstances,  they  may  be  prepared 
according  to  any  one  of  the  three  formulae  (Nos.  193,  194,  195). 
There  is  another  excellent  method  of  preparing  this  forcemeat 
which  I  shall  submit  here,  as  it  is  specially  used  for  the  prepara- 
tion of  pike  forcemeat  k  la  Lyonnaise. 

Pound  in  a  mortar  one  lb.  of  the  meat  of  a  pike,  without  the 
skin  or  bones;  combine  with  this  one-half  lb.  of  stiff  frangi- 
pan,  season  with  salt  and  nutmeg,  pass  through  a  sieve,  and  put 
back  into  the  mortar. 

Vigorously  work  the  forcemeat  in  order  to  make  it  cohere, 
and  gradually  add  to  it  one-half  lb.  of  melted  beef-fat.  The 
whole  half-pound,  however,  need  not  necessarily  be  beef-fat; 
beef-marrow  or  butter  may  form  part  of  it  in  the  proportion  of 
half  the  weight  of  the  beef-fat. 

When  the  forcemeat  is  very  fine  and  smooth,  withdraw  it  from 
the  mortar  and  place  it  in  a  bowl  surrounded  with  ice  until 
wanted. 

204— SPECIAL  STUFFINGS  FOR  FISH 

These  preparations  diverge  slightly  from  the  forcemeats 
given  above,  and  they  are  of  two  kinds.  They  are  used  to 
stuff  such  fish  as  mackerel,  herring,  shad,  &c.,  to  which  they 
lend  a  condimentary  touch  that  makes  these  fish  more  agree- 
able to  the  taste,  and  certainly  more  digestible. 

First  Method. — Put  into  a  bowl  four  oz.  of  raw,  chopped  milt, 
two  oz.  of  bread-crumb,  steeped  in  milk  and  well  pressed,  and 
one  and  one-half  oz.  of  the  following  fine  herbs,  mixed  in  equal 
quantities  and  finely  chopped: — Chives,  parsley,  chervil,  shal- 
lots, sweet  basil,  half  a  garlic  clove  (crushed),  then  two  whole 
eggs,  salt,  pepper,  and  nutmeg. 

Chop  up  all  these  ingredients  together  so  as  to  mix  them 
thoroughly. 

Second  Method. — Put  into  a  bowl  four  oz.  of  bread-crumb 

Q  3 


84  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

steeped  in  milk  and  well  pressed ;  one-half  oz.  of  onion  and  one- 
half  oz.  of  chopped  shallots,  slightly  cooked  in  butter,  and  cold; 
one  oz.  of  raw  mushrooms,  chopped  and  well  pressed  in  a  towel ; 
a  tablespoonful  of  chopped  parsley ;  a  piece  of  garlic  the  size  of  a 
pea,  crushed ;  salt,  pepper,  and  nutmeg,  and  two  eggs. 
Mix  it  as  above, 

205— FORCEMEAT  BALLS  OR  QUENELLES 

Divers  ways  of  Moulding  and  Poaching  them. — Whatever 
be  the  required  size  or  shape  of  quenelles  there  are  four  ways  of 
making  them  : — (i)  By  rolling  them ;  (2)  by  moulding  them  with 
a  spoon ;  (3)  by  forming  them  with  a  piping-bag ;  (4)  by  mould- 
ing them  by  hand  into  the  shape  of  a  kidney. 

1.  To  roll  quenelles  it  is  necessary  to  keep  the  forcemeat 
somewhat  stiff,  and  therefore  this  process  could  not  well  apply  to 
the  mousseline  forcemeats.  Place  one-quarter  lb.  of  forcemeat, 
when  ready,  on  a  floured  board,  and,  with  hands  covered  in  flour, 
roll  the  preparation  until  it  has  lengthened  itself  into  the  form  of 
a  sausage,  the  thickness  of  which  depends  upon  the  required  size 
of  the  intended  quenelles. 

Cut  up  the  sausage  of  forcemeat  laterally  with  a  floured 
knife,  and  roll  each  section  with  the  finger-ends  until  the 
length  it  assumes  is  thrice  that  of  its  diameter.  The  balls 
should  be  put  aside  on  a  floured  tray  as  soon  as  they  are  made. 

The  Poaching  of  Rolled  Quenelles. — When  all  the  force- 
meat has  been  used  up,  the  balls  are  gently  tilted  into  a  sauce- 
pan containing  boiling,  salted  water,  so  calculated  in  quan- 
tity as  to  allow  of  their  not  being  too  tightly  squeezed.  The 
saucepan  is  covered  and  kept  on  the  side  of  the  fire  until  all 
the  balls  have  risen  to  the  surface  and  are  almost  out  of  the 
water.  They  are  then  removed  with  a  skimmer  and  placed  in 
a  bowl  of  cold  water. 

At  last,  when  they  have  properly  cooled,  they  are  carefully 
drained  on  a  cloth  and  put  aside  on  a  dish  until  required. 

When  the  quenelles  are  needed  for  immediate  use  it  would 
be  better  not  to  cool  them. 

2.  To  Mould  Quenelles  with  a  Spoon. — This  method  may 
be  applied  to  all  forcemeats,  and  allows  of  the  balls  being 
much  softer,  as  the  forcemeat  need  not  be  so  stiff.  First,  butter 
the  sautepan  or  the  tray,  whereon  the  balls  are  to  be  laid,  by 
means  of  a  brush,  and  let  the  butter  cool. 

Put  the  sautepan  on  the  table  in  front  and  a  little  to  the 
right  of  one;  on  the  left,  place  the  sautepan  or  bowl  contain- 
ing the  forcemeat,  and  on  the  further  side  of  the  buttered  saut^- 


ELEMENTARY  PREPARATIONS  85 

pan  there  should  be  a  receptacle  containing  hot  water,  into 
which  the  spoon  used  for  moulding  is  inserted.  For  ordinary 
quenelles  two  coffee-spoons  are  used,  one  of  which  is  kept  in 
the  hot  water  as  stated  above.  Now,  with  the  other  held  in 
the  left  hand,  take  up  a  little  of  the  forcemeat  (just  enough  to 
fill  the  spoon) ;  withdraw  the  second  spoon  from  the  hot  water 
and  place  it,  with  its  convex  side  uppermost,  on  the  other  spoon . 

This  smoothens  the  upper  surface  of  the  forcemeat.  Now, 
with  the  help  of  the  second  spoon,  remove  the  whole  of  the 
contents  of  the  first  spoon,  and  overturn  the  second  spoon  on  the 
spot  in  the  tray  or  saut^pan  which  the  ball  is  intended  to 
occupy.  The  second  spoon,  being  at  once  moist  and  hot, 
allows  the  forcemeat  to  leave  it  quite  easily  in  the  shape  of  a 
large  olive.  Renew  this  operation  until  the  whole  of  the  force- 
meat has  been  used. 

The  Poaching  of  Spoon-moulded  Quenelles. — When  all  the 
balls  have  been  moulded,  place  the  tray  on  the  side  of  the 
stove  and  pour  enough  boiling,  salted  water  over  them  to 
moisten  them  abundantly.  Leave  them  to  poach,  and  from 
time  to  time  move  the  tray ;  then,  when  they  have  swollen  suffi- 
ciently and  seem  soft  and  firm  to  the  touch,  drain  them.  If 
they  are  to  be  used  at  once  they  should  be  placed  directly  in  the 
sauce.  If  they  have  been  prepared  in  advance,  it  would  be 
well  to  cool  them  as  directed  under  rolled  quenelles. 

3.  To  Form  Quenelles  with  a  Piping-bag. — This  process 
is  especially  recommended  for  small,  fine,  and  light  forcemeat 
balls  intended  for  soup  garnish.  For,  besides  being  extremely 
quick,  it  allows  of  making  them  in  any  desirable  size  or  shape. 

Butter  a  tray  or  a  saut^pan,  and  leave  to  cool.  Put  the 
forcemeat  into  a  bag  fitted  with  a  pipe  at  its  narrowest  end. 
The  pipe  may  be  grooved  or  smooth,  and  its  size  must  be  in 
accordance  with  that  intended  for  the  proposed  balls.  Now 
squeeze  out  the  latter,  proceeding  in  the  usual  way  and  laying 
them  very  closely. 

The  Poaching  of  Quenelles  m,ade  by  the  above  Process, 
with  ordinary  or  Mousseline  Forcemeat. — These  quenelles  are 
poached  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  the  spoon-moulded  ones. 

The  Poaching  of  Godiveau  Quenelles  made  with  a 
Piping-bag. — These  quenelles  or  balls  are  laid  on  a  piece  of 
fine,  buttered  paper,  which  in  its  turn  is  placed  upon  a  buttered 
tray.  The  godiveau  must  not  be  too  stiff,  and  the  balls  are 
laid  by  means  of  the  piping-bag  side  by  side  and  slightly 
touching  one  another.  When  the  tray  is  covered  push  it  into 
a  very  moderate  oven  for  a  few  minutes.     The  balls  are  poached 


86  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

when  a  thin  dew  of  grease  may  be  seen  to  glisten  on  their 
surfaces.  On  the  appearance  of  this  dew  withdraw  them  from 
the  oven  and  overturn  the  tray,  carefully,  upon  a  marble  slab, 
taking  care  that  the  tray  does  not  press  at  all  upon  the  balls, 
lest  it  crush  them.  When  the  latter  are  nearly  cold  the  paper 
which  covers  them  is  taken  off  with  caution,  and  all  that 
remains  to  be  done  is  to  put  them  carefully  away  on  a  dish 
until  they  are  wanted. 

4.  To  Mould  Forcemeat  with  the  Fingers. — This  excellent 
process  is  as  expedient  as  that  of  the  bag,  and  it  produces 
beautifully  shaped  balls.  Place  on  the  edge  of  a  table,  in  front 
of  one,  a  saucepan  three-quarters  full  of  boiling,  salted  water, 
the  handle  of  the  receptacle  being  turned  to  the  far  side.  Now 
take  a  piece  of  string  one  yard  in  length,  double  it  over,  and 
tie  the  free  ends  to  a  weight  of  two  lbs.,  letting  the  two  strands 
twist  round  each  other. 

This  done,  there  should  be  a  loop  at  the  top  of  the  string. 
Put  this  loop  round  the  handle  of  the  saucepan,  and  draw 
the  string  diametrically  across  the  latter,  letting  the  weight  pull 
the  string  tightly  down  on  the  side  opposite  to  the  handle. 
When  this  has  been  effected  the  operator,  with  his  left  hand, 
takes  some  of  the  forcemeat,  smoothening  it  with  a  spoon, 
and,  placing  the  spoon  near  the  string  with  his  right,  first 
finger,  he  removes  from  its  extremity  a  portion  of  the  prepara- 
tion about  equal  to  the  intended  size  of  the  balls.  This  portion 
of  the  forcemeat  remaining  suspended  on  his  first  finger,  the 
operator  now  scrapes  the  latter  across  the  string,  and  the  ball 
falls  beneath  into  the  saucepan  containing  the  water.  When 
all  the  stuffing  has  been  moulded  in  this  way  the  saucepan  is 
placed  on  the  fire  to  complete  the  poaching  of  the  balls,  and 
the  precautions  indicated  in  the  preceding  processes  are  ob- 
served. 


CHAPTER    VIII 

The  Various  Garnishes  for  Soups. 

ROYALES. 

206— ORDINARY  ROYALE 

Put  one  oz.  of  chervil  into  one  pint  of  boiling  consomm6, 
cover  the  saucepan,  and  let  infusion  proceed  away  from  the 
fire  for  twenty  minutes.  Now  pour  this  infusion  over  two 
eggs  and  six  yolks,  beaten  briskly  in  a  basin,  and  mix  with 
the  whisk.  Strain  through  muslin,  and  carefully  remove  there- 
from the  froth  that  has  formed.  Pour  into  buttered  moulds; 
poach  in  a  bain-marie,  as  in  the  case  of  cream,  and  take  great 
care  that  the  water  in  the  bain-marie  does  not  boil. 

According  to  the  way  in  which  the  royale  is  to  be  divided, 
it  may  be  poached  either  in  large  or  small  "Charlotte" 
moulds;  but  the  latter,  large  and  small  alike,  must  be  well 
buttered. 

If  the  preparation  be  put  into  large  moulds,  thirty-five  or 
forty  minutes  should  be  allowed  for  poaching ;  if,  on  the  other 
hand,  the  moulds  are  small,  about  fifteen  minutes  would  suffice. 

Always  let  the  royale  cool  in  the  moulds. 

207— DESLIQNAC  OR  CREAM  ROYALE 

Boil  one  pint  of  thin  cream,  and  pour  it,  little  by  little, 
over  one  egg  and  six  yolks,  well  whisked  in  a  basin.  Season 
with  a  little  salt  and  nutmeg,  strain  through  muslin,  and,  for 
the  poaching,  follow  the  directions  given  above. 

208— CHICKEN  ROYALE 

Finely  pound  three  oz.  of  cooked  white  chicken-meat,  and 
add  thereto  three  tablespoonfuls  of  cold  Bechamel.  Put  this 
paste  in  a  bowl,  season  with  a  little  salt  and  a  dash  of  nutmeg, 
dilute  with  one-fifth  pint  of  cream,  and  strain  through  tammy. 

Thicken  this  preparation  with  one  egg  and  the  yolks  of  three, 


88  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

and  poach  in  small  or  large  moulds,   in  accordance  with  the 
procedure  already  described. 

209— GAME  ROYALE 

Finely  pound  three  oz.  of  the  cooked  meat  of  that  game 
which  gives  its  name  to  the  preparation,  and  add  three  table- 
spoonfuls  of  cold  Espagnole  Sauce  and  one-fifth  pint  of  rich 
cream,  in  small  quantities  at  a  time.  Warm  the  seasoning  with 
a  very  little  cayenne,  strain  through  tammy,  thicken  with  one 
egg  and  three  yolks,  and  poach  as  before. 

210— FISH  ROYALE 

Stew  in  butter  four  oz.  of  fillet  of  sole  cut  into  cubes,  or 
the  same  quantity  of  any  other  fish  suited  to  the  nature  of 
the  intended  soup.  Cool,  pound  finely,  and  add,  little  by 
little,  two  tablespoonfuls  of  cold  Bechamel  and  one-quarter  pint 
of  cream.  Season  with  salt  and  a  pinch  of  nutmeg,  and  strain 
through  tammy.  Thicken  by  means  of  the  yolks  of  five  eggs, 
and  poach  in  large  or  small  moulds. 

211— CARROT  OR  CRECY  ROYALE 

Stew  gently  in  butter  five  oz.  of  the  red  part  only  of  carrots. 
Cool,  crush  in  a  mortar,  and  gradually  add  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  Bechamel  and  one-fifth  pint  of  rich  cream.  Season  with 
table-salt  and  a  pinch  of  castor  sugar,  and  deepen  the  tint  of 
the  royale  with  a  few  drops  of  vegetable  red.  Strain  through 
tammy,  thicken  with  one  egg  and  four  yolks,  put  into  moulds, 
and  poach. 

212— FRESH  PEAS  OR  ST.  GERMAIN  ROYALE 

Cook  one-half  lb.  of  fresh,  small  peas  in  boiling  water  with 
a  bunch  of  chervil  and  a  few  leaves  of  fresh  mint.  Pass 
through  a  sieve,  and  dilute  the  resulting'  pur^e  (in  a  saucepan) 
with  two-fifths  of  its  volume  of  the  liquor  it  has  been  cooked 
in  and  one-fifth  of  cream.  Add  a  little  sugar,  the  necessary 
salt,  one  egg,  and  two  yolks.  Pass  through  a  fine  strainer, 
and  poach  in  well-buttered  moulds. 

213— VARIOUS  ROY  ALES 

Royales  may  also  be  made  with  leeks,  celery,  &c.,  the 
procedure  being  as  follows  :■ — 

Finely  mince  six  or  seven  oz.  of  the  chosen  vegetable;  stew 


THE  VARIOUS  GARNISHES  FOR  SOUPS       89 

the  same  gently  and  thoroughly  in  butter,  and  strain  through 
tammy.  Add  to  the  resulting  pur^e  three  tablespoonfuls  of 
Bechamel,  one-fifth  pint  of  cream,  two  eggs,  and  four  yolks. 
Put  into  large  or  small  moulds,  and  poach. 

Remarks. — In  order  that  these  royales  may  have  the  re- 
quired delicacy,  I  should  urge  the  reader  not  to  exceed  the 
prescribed  quantities  of  eggs  and  yolks,  these  being  so  calcu- 
lated as  to  exactly  produce  the  density  required. 

214— THE  DIVIDINQ-UP  OF  ROYALES 

When  the  poaching  is  done  take  the  mould  or  moulds  out 
of  water,  and  leave  the  royale  to  cool  in  them.  Do  not  turn  out 
the  moulds  whilst  the  preparation  is  hot,  as  it  would  surely 
scatter.  It  only  assumes  the  necessary  solidity  for  being 
divided  up  by  means  of  the  aggregation  and  contraction  of  its 
various  constituents  during  the  cooling  process. 

If  the  royale  has  been  poached  in  small  moulds,  slightly  trim 
the  cylinders  of  royale,  divide  them  up  laterally  into  discs, 
and  stamp  them  uniformly  with  a  plain  or  indented  fancy 
cutter. 

//  the  royale  has  been  poached  in  large  moulds,  withdraw  it 
from  these,  and  place  it  on  a  serviette;  trim  the  tops,  cut  into 
half-inch  slices,  and  stamp  with  small,  fancy  cutters  of  different 
shapes.  These  little  divisions  of  royale  must  always  be  stamped 
very  neatly  and  quite  regularly. 

215— CHIFFONADE 

The  name  "  Chiffonade  ^'  is  given  to  a  mince  of  sorrel  or 
lettuce,  intended  as  a  complement  for  such  soups  as  "  Potage 
de  sant^,"  "  le  Germiny,"  &c.,  or  various  clear  consommes  like 
"Julienne." 

To  prepare  Chiffonade,  first  carefully  shred  the  sorrel  or 
lettuce,  and  remove  therefrom  all  the  leaf-ribs.  Carefully  wash 
the  leaves,  and  squeeze  the  latter  tightly  between  the  fingers 
of  the  left  hand  and  the  table.  Now  cut  them  into  fine  strips 
with  a  sharp  knife. 

If  the  chiffonade  be  intended  for  a  consomm^,  add  it  to  the 
latter  half  an  hour  before  dishing  up ;  it  is  thus  actually  cooked 
in  the  soup  itself.  If,  as  is  most  often  the  case,  it  be  intended 
for  a  thick  soup,  it  is  better  to  let  it  melt  well  in  butter,  to 
moisten  it  with  a  little  consomm^,  and  to  let  it  boil  for  ten 
minutes  before  adding  it  to  the  soup. 

Whatever  the  purpose  be  for  which  it  is  made,  chiffonade 
should  always  be  prepared  with  very  tender  sorrel  or  lettuce. 


90  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

216— DIRECTIONS  FOR  SOUP  WITH  PASTES 

Vermicelli  and  the  various  Italian  pastes  should  measure 
about  three  oz.  per  quart  of  consomm^.  They  should  first 
be  thrown  into  boiling,  salted  water,  where  they  are  left  to 
poach  for  three  minutes,  whereupon  they  are  drained,  cooled, 
and  their  cooking  is  completed  in  the  consomm^. 

The  parboiling  of  these  pastes  is  necessary  in  order  to  get 
rid  of  the  little  agglomerations  of  flour  which  adhere  to  them, 
and  which  would  otherwise  make  the  consomm^  cloudy. 

Tapioca,  sago,  salep,  &c.,  should  also  be  apportioned  at 
about  three  oz.  per  quart.  But  this  is  only  an  average,  for  the 
quality  of  this  kind  of  products  varies  greatly,  and  it  is  best 
to  choose  the  goods  of  an  excellent  maker,  and,  in  order  to 
avoid  surprises,  to  abide  by  that  choice. 

These  products  need  no  parboiling;  they  are  merely 
sprinkled  into  the  boiling  consomm^  while  stirring  the  latter, 
and  they  are  left  to  cook  until  the  soup  is  quite  clear.  The 
boiling  should  be  gentle,  and  the  scum  should  be  removed  as 
often  as  it  forms. 

The  time  allowed  for  cooking  naturally  varies  in  accord- 
ance with  the  quality  of  the  goods,  but  the  absolute  trans- 
parency of  the  consomm^  is  an  infallible  sign  of  its  having 
been  completed. 

Brazilian,  Japanese,  and  other  pearls  are  used  in  the  same 
quantities,  but  they  should  poach  for  thirty  minutes  if  required 
to  be  very  transparent. 

217— THREADED  EGGS 

Beat  up  three  eggs  in  a  bowl,  season  with  salt  and  pepper, 
and  strain  through  a  sieve.  Now  pour  the  eggs  into  a  fine 
strainer,  hold  same  over  a  saut^pan  containing  some  boiling 
consomm^,  and  shift  it  about  in  such  wise  as  to  let  the  egg 
fall  in  threads  into  the  boiling  liquid  beneath,  and  thus  imme- 
diately coagulate.  Drain  the  egg-threads  very  carefully  lest 
they  break. 

218— PROFITEROLLES  FOR  SOUPS 

These  consist  of  little  choux  about  the  size  of  a  large  hazel- 
nut, stuffed  with  some  kinds  of  pur^e,  such  as  that  of  foie  gras 
with  cream,  or  of  chicken,  or  of  vegetables,  &c.  Four  fro- 
fiterolles  should  be  allowed  for  each  person. 

To  make  profiterolles,  put  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  "pate 
a  choux  "  without  sugar  (No.  2374)  into  a  piping-bag  fitted  with 


THE  VARIOUS  GARNISHES  FOR  SOUPS       91 

a  smooth  pipe,  whose  orifice  should  be  about  one-quarter  inch 
in  diameter.  Squeeze  out  portions  of  the  preparation  on  to  a 
tray,  so  as  to  form  balls  about  the  size  of  a  small  hazel-nut; 
gild  by  means  of  beaten  egg  applied  with  a  fine  brush,  and 
cook  in  a  moderate  oven. 

Do  not  take  the  profiterolles  from  the  oven  until  they  are 
quite  dry. 


CHAPTER    IX 
Garnishing  Preparations  for  Releves  and  Entr]&es. 

219— POTATO  CROQUETTES 

Cook  quickly  in  salted  water  two  lb.  of  peeled  and  quartered 
potatoes.  As  soon, as  they  seem  soft  to  the  finger,  drain  them, 
place  them  in  the  front  of  the  oven  for  a  few  minutes  in  order 
to  dry  them,  and  then  tilt  them  into  a  sieve  lying  on  a  cloth, 
and  press  them  through  the  former  without  rubbing. 

Place  the  pur^e  in  a  saut^pan ;  season  with  salt,  pepper, 
and  nutmeg;  add  one  oz.  of  butter,  and  dry;  i.e.,  stir  over  a 
brisk  fire  until  the  pur^e  becomes  a  consistent  paste. 

Take  off  the  fire,  complete  with  the  yolks  of  three  eggs, 
well  mixed  with  the  rest,  and  turn  the  paste  out  on  to  a  buttered 
dish,  taking  care  to  spread  it  in  a  rather  thin  layer,  so  as  to 
precipitate  its  cooling.  Butter  the  surface  to  prevent  the  pre- 
paration's drying. 

To  make  croquettes,  equal  portions  of  this  paste,  i.e.,  por- 
tions weighing  about  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  it,  are  rolled  on 
a  flour-dusted  board  into  the  shape  of  a  cork,  a  ball,  or  a 
quoit.  These  are  now  dipped  into  an  Anglaise  (No.  174)  and 
rolled  in  bread-crumbs  or  raspings,  the  latter  being  well  patted 
on  to  the  surface  of  the  croquettes,  lest  they  should  fall  into 
the  frying  fat.  Let  the  patting  also  avail  for  finishing  off  the 
selected  shape  of  the  objects.  These  are  then  plunged  into 
hot  fat,  where  they  should  remain  until  they  have  acquired  a 
fine,  golden  colour. 

220— DAUPHINE  POTATOES 

Prepare  as  above  the  required  quantity  of  paste,  and  add 
thereto  per  lb.  six  oz.  of  pate  k  choux  without  sugar  (No.  2374). 

Mix  the  two  constituents  thoroughly. 

Dauphine  potatoes  are  moulded  in  the  shape  of  small 
cylinders,  and  they  are  treated  a  I' Anglaise,  like  the  croquettes. 


GARNISHING  FOR  RELEVJiS  AND  ENTRIES     93 

221— DUCHESSE  POTATOES 

These  are  the  same  as  the  croquettes,  though  they  are 
differently  treated.  They  are  made  on  a  floured  board  in  the 
shape  of  diminutive  cottage-loaves,  little  shuttle-shaped  loaves, 
small  quoits,  and  lozenges  or  rectangles.  They  are  gilded  with 
beaten  egg,  and  when  their  shape  is  that  of  quoits,  rectangles, 
or  lozenges,  they  are  streaked  by  means  of  a  small  knife. 

After  this  operation,  which  is  to  prevent  the  gilding  from 
blistering,  they  are  baked  in  the  oven  for  a  few  minutes  previous 
to  being  used  in  dressing  the  dishes  they  accompany. 

222— MARQUISE  POTATOES 

Take  one  lb.  of  croquette  paste  and  add  thereto  six  oz.  of 
very  red,  reduced  tomato-pur^e.  Pour  this  mixture  into  a  bag 
fitted  with  a  large,  grooved  pipe,  and  squeeze  it  out  upon  a 
baking-tray  in  shapes  resembling  large  meringues. 

Slightly  gild  their  surfaces  with  beaten  egg,  and  put  them 
into  the  oven  for  a  few  minutes  before  using  them  to  dress  the 
dish. 

223— ORDINARY  OR  DRY  DUXELLE 

The  uses  of  Duxelle  are  legion,  and  it  is  prepared  thus:  — 
Slightly  fry  one  teaspoonful  of  onions  in  one  tablespoonful  of 
butter  and  oil  mixed.  Add  to  this  four  tablespoonfuls  of  mush- 
room stalks  and  parings,  chopped  and  well  pressed  in  a  towel 
with  the  view  of  expelling  their  vegetable  moisture.  Stir  over 
a  brisk  fire  until  the  latter  has  completely  evaporated;  season 
with  salt,  pepper,  and  nutmeg,  and  one  coffeespoonful  of  well- 
chopped  parsley,  mixing  the  whole  thoroughly. 

Transfer  to  a  bowl,  cover  with  a  piece  of  white,  buttered 
paper,  and  put  aside  until  wanted. 

224— DUXELLE  FOR  STUFFED  VEGETABLES 
(Tomatoes,  Mushrooms,  &c.) 

Put  six  tablespoonfuls  of  dry  duxelle  into  a  small  stewpan, 
and  add  thereto  three  tablespoonfuls  of  half-glaze  sauce  con- 
taining plenty  of  tomato,  crushed  garlic  the  size  of  a  pea,  and 
two  tablespoonfuls  of  white  wine.  Set  to  simmer  until  the 
required  degree  of  consistence  is  reached. 

]Sj_B. — A  tablespoonful  of  fine,  fresh  bread-crumbs  may  be 
added  to  the  duxelle  in  order  to  thicken  it. 


94  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

225— DUXELLE  FOR  GARNISHING  SMALL  PIES, 
ONIONS,  CUCUMBERS,  ETC. 

To  four  tablespoonfuls  of  dry  duxelle  add  four  tablespoon- 
fuls  of  ordinary  pork  forcemeat  (No.  196). 

226 — MAINTENON  (preparation  used  in  stuffing 
preparations  k  la  Maintenon) 

Put  one  pint  of  Bechamel  into  a  vegetable-pan  with  one- 
half  pint  of  Soubise  (No.  104),  and  reduce  to  half  while  stirring 
over  a  brisk  fire.  Thicken,  away  from  the  fire,  by  means  of  the 
yolks  of  five  eggs,  and  add  four  tablespoonfuls  of  minced  mush- 
rooms, either  cooked  in  the  ordinary  way  or  stewed  in  butter. 

227— MATIQNON 

This  preparation  serves  chiefly  for  covering  certain  large 
joints  of  butcher's  meat,  or  fowl,  to  which  it  imparts  an  appro- 
priate flavour.  It  is  made  as  follows : — Finely  mince  two 
medium  carrots  (the  red  part  only),  two  onions,  and  two  sticks 
of  celery  taken  from  the  heart.  Add  one  tablespoonful  of  raw 
lean  ham,  cut  paysanne-fashion,  a  sprig  of  thyme,  and  half 
a  leaf  of  bay,  crushed. 

Stew  in  butter,  and  finally  swill  the  saucepan  with  two 
tablespoonfuls  of  Madeira. 

228— MIREPOIX 

The  purpose  of  Mirepoix  in  culinary  preparations  is  the 
same  as  that  of  Matignon,  but  its  mode  of  use  is  different. 

Its  constituents  are  the  same  as  those  of  the  Matignon,  but 
instead  of  being  minced  they  are  cut  up  into  more  or  less  fine 
dice,  in  accordance  with  the  use  for  which  the  preparation  is 
intended. 

Instead  of  the  ham,  fresh  and  slightly-salted  breast  of  pork 
may  be  used,  while  both  the  ham  and  the  bacon  may  be  ex- 
cluded under  certain  circumstances. 

229— FINE  OR  BORDELAISE  MIREPOIX 

Coarse  Mirepoix,  which  are  added  to  certain  preparations 
in  order  to  lend  these  the  proper  flavour,  are  generally  made 
immediately  before  being  used,  but  this  is  not  so  in  the  case 
of  the  finer  Mirepoix,  which  chiefly  serves  as  an  adjunct  to 
crayfish  and  lobsters,  This  is  made  in  advance,  and  as 
follows : — 


GARNISHING  FOR  RELEVES  AND  ENTREES     95 

Cut  into  dice  four  oz.  of  the  red  part  only  of  carrots,  the 
same  quantity  of  onion,  and  one  oz.  of  parsley  stalks.  In 
order  that  the  Mirepoix  may  be  still  finer,  these  ingredients 
may  now  be  chopped,  but  in  this  case  it  is  advisable  to  tho- 
roughly press  them  in  a  corner  of  a  towel,  so  as  to  squeeze  out 
their  vegetable  moisture,  the  mere  process  of  stewing  not  being 
sufficient  for  this  purpose. 

Should  this  water  be  allowed  to  remain  in  the  Mirepoix, 
more  particularly  if  the  latter  must  be  kept  some  time,  it  would 
probably  give  rise  to  mustiness  or  fermentation. 

Put  the  ingredients  into  a  small  stewpan  with  one  and  one- 
half  oz.  of  butter  and  a  little  powdered  thyme  and  bay,  and 
stew  until  all  are  well  cooked.  This  done,  turn  the  preparation 
out  into  a  small  bowl,  heap  it  together  with  the  back  of  a 
fork,  cover  it  with  a  piece  of  white,  buttered  paper,  and  put 
aside  until  wanted. 

230— VARIOUS  SALPICONS 

This  term  stands  for  a  certain  preparatory  method  applied  to 
a  series  of  preparations. 

Salpicons  are  simple  or  compound.  Simple  if  they  only  con- 
tain one  product,  such  as  the  meat  of  a  fowl,  or  of  game, 
butcher's  meat,  foie  gras,  various  fish,  ham  or  tongue,  mush- 
rooms, truffles,  &c.  Compound  if  they  consist  of  two  or  more  of 
the  above-mentioned  ingredients  which  may  happen  to  combine 
suitably. 

The  preparatory  method  consists  in  cutting  the  various  in- 
gredients into  dice. 

The  series  of  preparations  arises  from  the  many  possible  com- 
binations of  the  products,  each  particular  combination  bearing 
its  own  name. 

Thus  Salpicons  may  be  Royal,  Financier,  Chasseur,  Parisien, 
Montglas,  &c. ;  of  whichever  kind,  however,  Salpicons  are 
always  incorporated  with  a  vehicular  sauce  which  is  in  accord- 
ance with  their  constituents. 

231— BATTER  FOR  VARIOUS  FRITTERS 

Put  into  a  bowl  one  lb.  of  sifted  flour,  one-quarter  oz.  of  salt, 
one  tablespoonful  of  oil  or  melted  butter,  and  the  necessary 
quantity  of  barely  lukewarm  water.  If  the  batter  is  to  be  used  at 
once  mix  the  ingredients  by  turning  them  over  and  over  with- 
out stirring  with  the  spoon,  for  this  would  give  the  preparation  an 
elasticity  which  would  prevent  its  adhering  to  immersed  solids. 
Should  the  batter  be  prepared  beforehand,  however,  it  may  be 


96  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

stirred,  since  it  loses  its  elasticity  when  left  to  stand  any  length 
of  time. 

Before  using  it  add  the  whites  of  two  eggs  whisked  to  a  froth. 

232— BATTER  FOR  VEGETABLES  (Salsify,  Celery,  &c.) 

Put  one  lb.  of  sifted  flour  into  a  bowl  with  one-quarter  oz.  of 
salt  and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  oil  or  melted  butter.  Dilute  with 
one  egg  and  the  necessary  quantity  of  cold  water.  Keep  this 
batter  somewhat  thin,  do  not  stir  it,  and  let  it  rest  for  a  few 
hours  before  using. 

333— BATTER  FOR  FRUIT  AND  FLOWER  FRITTERS 

Put  one  lb.  of  flour  into  a  bowl  with  one-quarter  oz.  of  salt 
and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  oil  or  melted  butter.  Dilute  gradually 
with  one-quarter  pint  of  beer  and  a  little  tepid  water. 

When  about  to  use  the  batter  mix  therewith  the  whites  of  two 
eggs  whisked  to  a  froth. 

N.B. — Keep  this  batter  thin,  if  anything,  and  above  all  do 
not  stir  overmuch. 

234— BATTER  FOR  OVEN-GLAZED  FRUIT  FRITTERS 

Mix  one  lb.  of  flour  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  oil,  a  grain  of 
salt,  two  eggs  (added  one  after  the  other),  the  necessary  quantity 
of  water,  and  one  oz.  of  sugar.  Keep  this  preparation  in  a  luke- 
warm place  to  let  it  ferment,  and  stir  it  with  a  wooden  spoon  be- 
fore using  it  to  immerse  the  solids. 

Remarks. — Batter  for  fruit  fritters  may  contain  a  few  table- 
spoonfuls of  brandy,  in  which  case  an  equal  quantity  of  the  water 
must  be  suppressed. 

235— PROVEN^ALE  (preparation  for  stuffing 
cutlets  a  la  Provencale) 

Put  one  pint  of  Bechamel  into  a  vegetable-pan  and  reduce  it 
until  it  has  become  quite  dense.  Thicken  it  with  the  yolks  of 
four  eggs,  and  finish  it  away  from  the  fire  with  a  crushed  piece  of 
garlic  as  large  as  a  pea,  and  one-quarter  lb.  of  grated  cheese. 


CHAPTER  X 
Leading  Culinary  Operations 

236— THE  PREPARATION  OF  SOUPS 

The  nutritious  liquids  known  under  the  name  of  Soups  are  of 
comparatively  recent  origin.  Indeed,  as  they  are  now  served, 
they  do  not  date  any  further  back  than  the  early  years  of  the 
nineteenth  century. 

The  soups  of  old  cookery  were,  really,  complete  dishes, 
wherein  the  meats  and  vegetables  used  in  their  preparation  were 
assembled.  They,  moreover,  suffered  from  the  effects  of  the 
general  confusion  which  reigned  in  the  menus  of  those  days. 
These  menus  seem  to  have  depended  in  no  wise,  for  their  items, 
upon  the  progressive  satisfaction  of  the  consumers'  appetites, 
and  a  long  procession  of  dishes  was  far  more  characteristic  of  the 
meal  tlian  their  judicious  order  and  diversity. 

In  this  respect,  as  in  so  many  others,  Careme  was  the  re- 
former, and,  if  he  were  not,  strictly  speaking,  the  actual  initiator 
of  the  changes  which  ushered  in  our  present  methods,  he  cer- 
tainly had  a  large  share  in  the  establishment  of  the  new  theories. 

Nevertheless,  it  took  his  followers  almost  a  century  to  bring 
soups  to  the  perfection  of  to-day,  for  modern  cookery  has  replaced 
those  stodgy  dishes  of  yore  by  comparatively  simple  and  savoury 
preparations  which  are  veritable  wonders  of  delicacy  and  taste. 
Now,  my  attention  has  been  called  to  the  desirability  of  drawing 
up  some  sort  of  classification  of  soups,  if  only  with  the  view  of 
obviating  the  absurdity  of  placing  such  preparations  as  are  in- 
discriminately called  Bisque,  Pur^e,  CuUis,  or  Cream  under  the 
same  head.  Logically,  each  preparation  should  have  its  own 
special  formula,  and  it  is  impossible  to  admit  that  one  and  the 
same  can  apply  to  all. 

It  is  generally  admitted  that  the  terms  Veloutes  and 
Creams,  whose  introduction  into  the  vocabulary  of  cookery 
is  comparatively  recent,  are  peculiarly  well  suited  to  sup- 
plant those  of  Bisque  and  Cullis,  which  are  steadily  becoming 
obsolete,  as  well  as  that  too  vulgar  term  Puree.     Considerations 

H 


98  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

of  this  kind  naturally  led  me  to  a  new  classification  of  soups,  and 
this  I  shall  disclose  later. 

I  shall  not  make  any  lengthy  attempt  here  to  refute  the  argu- 
ments of  certain  autocrats  of  the  dinner-table  who,  not  so  many 
years  ago,  urged  the  total  abolition  of  soups.  I  shall  only 
submit  to  their  notice  the  following  quotation  from  Grimod  de  la 
Regni^re,  one  of  our  most  illustrious  gastronomists :  "  Soup  is 
to  a  dinner  what  the  porch  or  gateway  is  to  a  building,"  that  is  to 
say,  it  must  not  only  form  the  first  portion  thereof,  but  it  must  be 
so  devised  as  to  convey  some  idea  of  the  whole  to  which  it  be- 
longs ;  or,  after  the  manner  of  an  overture  in  a  light  opera,  it 
should  divulge  what  is  to  be  the  dominant  phrase  of  the  melody 
throughout. 

I  am  at  one  with  Grimod  in  this,  and  believe  that  soups  have 
come  to  stay.  Of  all  the  items  on  a  menu,  soup  is  that  which 
exacts  the  most  delicate  perfection  and  the  strictest  attention,  for 
upon  the  first  impression  it  gives  to  the  diner  the  success  of  the 
latter  part  of  the  meal  largely  depends. 

Soups  should  be  served  as  hot  as  possible  in  very  wkrm  plates, 
especially  in  the  case  of  consommes  when  these  have  been  pre- 
ceded by  cold  hors-d'oeuvres. 

Hors-d'oeuvres  are  pointless  in  a  dinner,  and  even  when 
oysters  stand  as  such  they  should  only  be  allowed  at  meals  which 
include  no  soup. 

Those  hors-d'oeuvres  which  consist  of  various  fish,  smoked 
or  in  oil,  and  strongly  seasoned  salads,  leave  a  disagreeable  taste 
on  the  consumer's  palate  and  make  the  soup  which  follows  seem 
flat  and  insipid  if  the  latter  be  not  served  boiling  hot. 


Classification  of  Soups 

This  includes  (i)  clear  soups,  (2)  thick  soups,  (3)  special  soups 
of  various  kinds,  (4)  classical  vegetable  soups,  including  some 
local  preparations. 

237— CLEAR  SOUPS 

Clear  soups,  of  whatever  nature  the  base  thereof  may  be, 
whether  butcher's  meat,  poultry,  game,  fish,  shell-fish,  or 
turtle,  &c.,  are  made  according  to  one  method  only.  They  are 
always  clear  consommes  to  which  has  been  added  a  slight  gar- 
nish in  keeping  with  the  nature  of  the  consomm^. 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS  99 

238— THICK  SOUPS 

These  are  divided  into  three  leacling  classes  as  follows  : — (i) 
The  Purees,  Cullises,  or  Bisques.  (2)  Various  Veloutt^s.  (3) 
Various  Creams. 

Remarks. — Though  the  three  preparations  of  the  first  class 
are  practically  the  same,  and,  generally  speaking,  the  Cul- 
lises and  the  Bisques  may  be  considered  as  purees  of  fowl,  game, 
or  shell-fish,  it  is  advisable  to  distinguish  one  from  another  by 
giving  each  a  special  name  of  its  own. 

Thus  the  word  Puree  is  most  suitably  applied  to  any  pre- 
paration with  a  vegetable  base.  The  term  Cullis  is  best  fitted  to 
preparations  having  either  poultry,  game,  or  fish  for  base, 
while  bisque,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  in  former  days  it  was 
applied  indiscriminately  to  purees  of  shell-fish,  poultry,  pigeons, 
&€.,  distinctly  denotes  a  pur^e  of  shell-fish  (either  lobster,  cray- 
fish, or  shrimp,  &c.). 

In  short,  it  is  imperative  to  avoid  all  ambiguities  and  to  give 
everything  its  proper  name,  or,  at  least,  that  name  which  identi- 
fies it  most  correctly. 

239— PUREES 

Farinaceous  vegetables,  such  as  haricot-beans  and  lentils, 
and  the  floury  ones,  such  as  the  potato,  need  no  additional 
thickening  ingredient,  since  the  flour  or  fecula  which  they  con- 
tain amply  suffices  for  the  leason  of  their  purees. 

On  the  other  hand,  aqueous  vegetables  like  carrots,  pump- 
kins, turnips,  celery,  and  herbs  cannot  dispense  with  a  thicken- 
ing ingredient,  as  their  purees  of  themselves  do  not  cohere  in 
the  least. 

Cohering  or  Thickening  Elements;  their  Quantities, — In 
order  to  effect  the  coherence  of  vegetable  purees,  either  rice, 
potato,  or  bread-crumb  cut  into  dice  and  fried  in  butter  may  be 
used. 

The  proportion  of  these  per  pound  of  vegetables  should  be 
respectively  three  oz.,  ten  oz.,  and  ten  oz.  Bread-crumb  dice, 
prepared  as  described  above,  were  greatly  used  in  old  cookery, 
and  they  lend  a  mellowness  to  a  puree  which  is  quite  peculiar  to 
them. 

The  Dilution  of  Purees. — Generally  this  is  done  by  means  of 
ordinary  white  consomm6,  though  in  certain  cases,  as,  for  in- 
stance, if  the  soup  is  a  Lenten  one,  milk  is  used. 

The  Finishing.— When  the  purees  have  been  strained  and 
brought  to  the  required  consistence  they  should  be  boiled  and 
stirred.     Then  they  are  placed  on  the  side  of  the  fire  to  simmer 

H  2 


loo  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

for  twenty-five  or  thirty  minutes.  It  is  at  this  stage  that  they  are 
purified  by  means  of  the  careful  removal  of  all  the  scum  that 
forms  on  their  surface. 

When  dishing  up  complete  them,  away  from  the  fire,  with 
three  oz.  of  butter  per  quart  of  soup,  and  pass  them  once  more 
i^hrough  a  strainer. 

Puree  Garnishes. — These  are  usually  either  small  fried  crusts, 
small  dice  of  potato  fried  in  butter,  a  chiffonade,  some  kind  of 
little  brunoise,  or,  more  generally,  chervil  pluches. 

240— CULLISES 

Cullises  have  for  their  base  either  poultry,  game,  or  fish. 

The  thickening  ingredients  used  are : — 

For  fowl,  two  or  three  oz.  of  rice,  or  three-quarters  pint  of 
poultry  velout6  per  lb.  of  fowl. 

For  game,  three  or  four  oz.  of  lentils,  or  three-quarters  pint 
of  game  Espagnole  per  lb.  of  game. 

For  fish,  a  clear  panada  made  up  of  French  bread  soaked 
in  boiling  salted  milk.  Use  five  oz.  of  bread  and  one  good  pint 
of  milk  per  lb.  of  fish.  Having  strained  and  made  up  the 
Cullises,  boil  them  while  stirring  (except  in  the  case  of  fish 
cullises,  which  must  not  boil,  and  must  be  served  as  soon  as  they 
are  made),  then  place  them  in  a  bain-marie  and  butter  their 
surfaces  lest  a  skin  should  form. 

At  the  last  moment  complete  them  with  two  or  three  oz. 
of  butter  per  quart. 

The  garnish  of  poultry  or  game  cullises  consists  of  either 
small  dice  of  game  or  fowl-fillets,  which  should  be  kept  aside 
for  the  purpose;  a  fine  julienne  of  these  fillets,  or  small  quen- 
elles made  from  the  latter,  raw. 

The  garnish  of  fish  cuUis  is  generally  fish-fillets  poached  in 
butter  and  cut  up  into  small  dice  or  in  julienne-fashion. 

241— BISQUES 

The  invariable  base  of  Bisques  is  shell-fish  cooked  in  mire- 
poix. 

Their  thickening  ingredients  are,  or  may  be,  rice,  fish 
velout^,  or  crusts  of  bread  fried  in  butter,  the  proportion  being 
three  oz.  of  rice,  ten  oz.  of  bread-crusts,  or  three-quarters  pint 
of  fish  velout^  per  lb.  of  shell-fish  cooked  in  mirepoix  (No.  228). 

When  the  soup  is  strained,  treat  it  in  precisely  the  same 
way  as  the  cullises. 

The  garnish  consists  of  small  dice  of  the  meat  from   the 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS         loi 

shell-fish  used.     These  pieces  should  have  been  put  aside  from 
the  first. 

242— THE  VELOUTES 

These  differ  from  the  purees,  cullises,  and  bisques  in  that 
their  invariable  thickening  element  is  a  velout^  whose  prepara- 
tion is  in  harmony  with  the  nature  of  the  ingredients  of  the  soup, 
these  being  either  vegetables,  poultry,  game,  fish,  or  shell-fish. 

The  Preparation  of  the  Veloute. — Allow  three  and  one-half 
oz.  of  white  roux  per  quart  of  the  diluent.  This  diluent  should 
be  ordinary  consomm^  for  a  velout^  of  vegetables  or  herbs, 
chicken  consomm^  for  a  poultry  veloutd,  or  very  clear  fish  fumet 
for  a  fish  or  shell-fish  velout^.  The  procedure  is  exactly  the 
same  as  that  described  under  No.  26  of  the  leading  sauces. 

The  apportionment  of  the  Ingredients. — In  general,  the 
quantities  of  each  constituent  are  in  the  following  proportion  : — 
Velout^,  one-half ;  the  pur^e  of  the  substance  which  character- 
ises the  soup,  one-quarter;  the  consomm^  used  to  bring  the 
soup  to  its  proper  consistence,  one-quarter.  In  respect  of  finish- 
ing ingredients,  use,  for  thickening,  the  yolks  of  three  eggs  and 
one-fifth  pint  of  cream  per  quart  of  soup. 

Thus  for  four  quarts  of  poultry  velout^  we  arrive  at  the 
following  quantities : — 

Poultry  velout^,  three  pints;  puree  of  fowl  obtained  from  a 
cleaned  and  drawn  hen  weighing  about  three  lbs.,  one  quart ; 
consomm^  for  regulating  consistence,  one  quart;  leason,  twelve 
yolks  and  four-fifths  pint  of  cream. 

Rules  Relative  to  the  Preparation. — If  the  velout^  is  to  be 
of  lettuce,  chicory,  celery,  or  mixed  herbs,  these  ingredients 
are  scalded  for  five  minutes,  drained,  gently  stewed  in  butter, 
and  added  to  the  prepared  veloute  in  which  their  cooking  is 
completed. 

If  carrots,  turnips,  onions,  &c.,  are  to  be  treated,  finely  mince 
them,  stew  them  in  butter  without  allowing  them  to  acquire  any 
colour,  and  add  them  to  the  veloute. 

If  fowl  be  the  base,  cook  it  in  the  velout^.  This  done,  with- 
draw it,  remove  the  meat,  finely  pound  same,  and  add  it  to 
the  veloute,  which  is  then  rubbed  through  tammy. 

In  the  case  of  fish  the  procedure  is  the  same  as  for  fowl. 
For  game,  roast  or  saute  the  selected  piece,  bone  it,  finely  pound 
the  meat,  and  combine  the  latter  with  the  velout^,  which  should 
then  be  rubbed  through  tammy. 

For  shell-fish,  cook  these  in  a  mirepoix,  finely  pound  them 
together  with  the  latter,  add  to  the  veloute,  and  pass  the  whole 
through  tammy, 


102  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

The  Completing  of  Veloute. — Having  passed  the  soup 
through  tammy,  bring  it  to  its  proper  degree  of  consistence 
with  the  necessary  quantity  of  consomm^,  boil  while  stirring, 
and  place  in  a  bain-marie. 

At  the  last  moment  finish  the  soup  with  the  leason  and  two 
oz.  of  butter  per  quart  of  liquid. 

Garnish  for  Veloute. — In  the  case  of  vegetables  :  Chiffonade, 
fine  printaniers,  or  brunoise. 

For  fowl  and  game  :  The  fillets  of  one  or  the  other,  poached 
and  cut  into  small  dice  or  in  julienne-fashion;  little  quenelles 
made  with  the  raw  fillets,  or  either  fowl  or  game  royales. 

For  fish  :  Small  dice  or  fine  julienne  of  fish  fillets  poached 
in  butter. 

For  shell-fish  :  Small  dice  of  cooked  shell-fish  meat  put  aside 
for  the  purpose. 

Remarks. — In  certain  circumstances  these  garnishes  are  in- 
creased by  means  of  three  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  rice  per 
quart  of  the  soup. 

243— THE  CREAMS 

Practically  speaking,  the  preparation  of  the  creams  is  the 
same  as  that  of  the  veloutes,  but  for  the  following  exceptions  : — 

1.  In  all  circumstances,  i.e.,  whatever  be  the  nature  of  the 
soup,  velout^  is  substituted  for  clear  Bechamel. 

2.  The  correct  consistence  of  the  soup  is  got  by  means  of 
milk  instead  of  consomm^. 

3.  Creams  do  not  require  egg-yolk  leasons. 

4.  They  are  not  buttered,  but  they  are  finished  with  one-fifth 
or  two-fifths  pint  of  fresh  cream  per  quart. 

Creams  allow  of  the  same  garnishes  as  the  veloutes. 

244-  SPECIAL  SOUPS  AND  THICKENED  CONSOMMES 

These  are  of  different  kinds,  though  their  preparation 
remains  the  same,  and  they  do  not  lend  themselves  to  the  re- 
quirements of  veloutes  or  creams.  I  should  quote  as  types  of 
this  class  the  Ambassador,  a  I'Americaine,  Darblay,  Faubonne, 
&c. 

The  same  holds  good  with  thickened  consommes,  such  as 
"  Germiny,"  "  Coquelin,"  &c. 

245— VEGETABLE  SOUPS 

These  soups,  of  which  the  "  Paysanne  "  is  the  radical  type, 
do  not  demand  very  great  precision  in  the  apportionment  of 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS         103 

the  vegetables  of  which  they  are  composed ;  but  they  need  great 
care  and  attention,  notwithstanding. 

The  vegetables,  in  the  majority  of  cases,  must  undergo  a 
long  stewing  in  butter,  an  operation  the  object  of  which  is  to 
expel  their  vegetable  moisture  and  to  saturate  them  with  butter. 

In  respect  of  others  which  have  a  local  character,  the  vege- 
tables should  be  cooked  with  the  diluent,  without  a  preparatory 
stewing. 

246— FOREIGN  SOUPS 

In  the  course  of  Part  II.  of  this  work  I  shall  allude  to  certain 
soups  which  have  a  foreign  origin,  and  whose  use,  although  it 
may  not  be  general,  is  yet  sufficiently  common.  If  only  for  the 
sake  of  novelty  or  variety,  it  is  occasionally  permissible  to  poach 
upon  the  preserves  of  foreign  nations;  but  apart  from  this 
there  exist  among  the  recipes  of  foreigners  many  which  can  but 
enrich  their  adopter,  besides  being  generally  appreciated. 


I04  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 


2.  Braising,  Poaching,  Sautes,  and  Poeling. 

Except  for  the  roasts,  grills,  and  fryings,  which  will  be  dis- 
cussed later,  all  culinary  operations  dealing  with  meat  are  re- 
lated to  one  of  the  four  following  methods :  Braising,  poeling, 
poaching,  and  sautes. 

These  four  methods  of  cooking  belong,  however,  to  the 
sauces,  and  this  explains  how  it  is  that  the  latter  hold  such  a 
pre-eminent  position  in  French  cookery. 

Before  devoting  any  attention  to  particular  formulae,  which 
will  be  given  in  the  second  part  of  this  work,  it  seemed  desirable 
to  me  to  recapitulate  in  a  general  way  the  theory  of  each  of  these 
cooking  methods.  These  theories  are  of  paramount  importance, 
since  it  is  only  with  a  complete  knowledge  of  them  that  good 
results  may  be  obtained  by  the  culinary  operator. 

247— ORDINARY  BRAISINQS 

Of  all  the  various  culinary  operations,  braisings  are  the  most 
expensive  and  the  most  difficult.  Long  and  assiduous  practice 
alone  can  teach  the  many  difficulties  that  this  mode  of  procedure 
entails,  for  it  is  one  which  demands  extraordinary  care  and 
the  most  constant  attention.  Over  and  above  the  question  of 
care  and  that  of  the  quality  of  meat  used,  which  latter  considera- 
tion is  neither  more  nor  less  important  here  than  in  any  other 
cooking  operation,  there  are  also  these  conditions  to  be  fulfilled 
in  order  that  a  good  braising  may  be  obtained,  namely,  that 
excellent  stock  should  be  used  in  moistening,  and  that  the 
braising  base  be  well  prepared. 

Meats  that  are  Braised. — Mutton  and  beef  are  braised  in  the 
ordinary  way,  but  veal,  lamb,  and  poultry  are  braised  in  a 
manner  which  I  shall  treat  of  later. 

Meat  intended  for  braising  need  not,  as  in  the  case  of  roasts, 
be  that  of  young  beasts.  The  best  for  the  purpose  is  that 
derived  from  an  animal  of  three  to  six  years  of  age  in  the  case 
of  beef,  and  one  to  two  years  in  the  case  of  mutton.  Good  meat 
is  rarely  procured  from  animals  more  advanced  than  these  in 
years,  and,  even  so,  should  it  be  used,  it  would  not  only  be 
necessary  to  protract  the  time  of  cooking  inordinately,  but  the 
resulting  food  would  probably  be  fibrous  and  dry. 

Properly  speaking,  meat  derived  from  old  or  ill-nourished 
beasts  only  answers  two  purposes  in  cookery,  viz.,  the  prepara- 
tion of  consommes  and  that  of  various  kinds  of  stock. 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS  105 

The  Larding  of  Meats  for  Braising. — When  the  meat  to  be 
braised  is  ribs  or  fillet  of  beef,  it  is  always  interlarded,  and  con- 
sequently never  dry  if  of  decent  quality.  But  this  is  not  the 
case  with  the  meat  of  the  rumps,  or  with  leg  of  mutton.  These 
meats  are  not  sufficiently  fat  of  themselves  to  allow  of  prolonged 
cooking  without  their  becoming  dry.  For  this  reason  they  are 
larded  with  square  strips  of  bacon  fat,  which  should  be  as  long 
as  the  meat  under  treatment,  and  about  half  an  inch  thick. 
These  strips  of  fat  are  first  seasoned  with  pepper,  nutmeg,  and 
spices,  besprinkled  with  chopped  parsley,  and  then  marinaded 
for  two  hours  in  a  little  brandy.  They  should  be  inserted  into 
the  meat  equidistantly  by  means  of  special  larding  needles. 
The  proportion  of  fat  to  the  meat  should  be  about  three  oz. 
per  lb. 

To  Marinade  Braisings. — Larded  or  not,  the  meats  intended 
for  braising  gain  considerably  from  being  marinaded  for  a  few 
hours  in  the  wines  which  are  to  supply  their  moistening  and 
the  aromatics  constituting  the  base  of  their  liquor.  Before  doing 
this  season  them  with  salt,  pepper,  and  spices,  rolling  them 
over  and  over  in  these  in  order  that  they  may  absorb  the  season- 
ing thoroughly.  Then  place  them  in  a  receptacle  just  large 
enough  to  contain  them,  between  two  litters  of  aromatics,  which 
will  be  detailed  hereafter;  cover  them  with  the  wine  which  forms 
part  of  their  braising-liquor,  and  which  is  generally  a  white  or 
red  "  vin  ordinaire,"  in  the  proportion  of  one-quarter  pint  per 
lb.  of  meat,  and  leave  them  to  marinade  for  about  six  hours, 
taking  care  to  turn  them  over  three  or  four  times  during  that 
period. 

The  Aromatics  or  Base  of  the  Braising. — These  are  thickly 
sliced  and  fried  carrots  and  onions,  in  the  proportion  of  one  oz. 
per  lb.  of  meat,  one  faggot,  including  one  garlic  clove  and  one 
and  one-half  oz.  of  fresh,  blanched  bacon-rind. 

To  Fry,  Prepare,  and  Cook  Braised  Meat. — Having  suf- 
ficiently marinaded  the  meat,  drain  it  on  a  sieve  for  half  an  hour, 
and  wipe  it  dry  with  a  clean  piece  of  linen.  Heat  some  clarified 
fat  of  white  consomm^  in  a  thick  saucepan  of  convenient  size,  or 
a  braising-pan,  and  when  it  is  sufficiently  hot  put  the  meat  in 
the  saucepan  and  let  it  acquire  colour  on  all  sides.  The  object 
of  this  operation  is  to  cause  a  contraction  of  the  pores  of  the 
meat,  thereby  surrounding  the  latter  with  a  species  of  cuirass, 
which  prevents  the  inner  juices  from  escaping  too  soon  and 
converting  the  braising  into  a  boiling  process.  The  frying 
should,  therefore,  be  a  short  or  lengthy  process  according  as  to 
whether  the  amount  of  meat  to  be  braised  be  small  or  large, 


io6  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Having  properly  fried  the  meat,  withdraw  it  from  the 
braising-pan,  cover  it  with  slices  of  larding-bacon  if  it  be  lean, 
and  string  it.  In  the  case  of  fillets  and  ribs  of  beef,  this  treat- 
ment may  be  dispensed  with,  as  they  are  sufficiently  well 
supplied  with  their  own  fat. 

Now  pour  the  marinade  prepared  for  the  meat  into  the 
braising-pan,  and  place  the  meat  on  a  litter  composed  of  the 
vegetables  the  marinade  contained.  Cover  the  pan  and  rapidly 
reduce  the  wine  therein.  When  this  has  assumed  the  consist- 
ency of  syrup  add  sufficient  brown  stock  to  cover  the  meat  (it 
being  understood  that  the  latter  only  just  conveniently  fills  the 
pan),  cover  the  braising-pan,  set  to  boil,  and  then  put  it  in  a 
moderate  oven.  Let  the  meat  cook  until  it  may  be  deeply  pricked 
with  a  braiding  needle  without  any  blood  being  drawn.  At 
this  stage  the  first  phase  of  braising,  whereof  the  theory  shall  be 
given  hereafter,  comes  to  an  end,  and  the  meat  is  transferred 
to  another  clean  utensil  just  large  enough  to  hold  it. 

With  respect  to  the  cooking  liquor,  either  of  the  two  fol- 
lowing modes  of  procedure  may  now  be  adopted  : — 

1.  If  the  liquor  is  required  to  be  clear  it  need  only  be 
strained,  over  the  meat,  through  muslin,  while  the  braising-pan 
should  be  placed  in  the  oven,  where  the  cooking  may  go  on 
until  completed,  interrupting  it  only  from  time  to  time  in  order 
to  baste  the  meat.  This  done,  thicken  the  liquor  with  arrow- 
root, after  the  manner  of  an  ordinary  thickened  gravy  (No.  41). 

2.  If,  on  the  contrary,  a  sauce  be  required,  the  liquor  should 
be  reduced  to  half  before  being  put  back  on  the  meat,  and  it 
is  restored  to  its  former  volume  by  means  of  two-thirds  of  its 
quantity  of  Espagnole  sauce  and  one-third  of  tomato  pur^e,  or 
an  equivalent  quantity  of  fresh  tomatoes. 

The  cooking  of  the  meat  is  completed  in  this  sauce,  and 
the  basting  should  be  carried  on  as  before.  When  it  is  cooked 
— that  is  to  say,  when  the  point  of  a  knife  may  easily  be  thrust 
into  it  without  meeting  with  any  resistance  whatsoever — it 
should  be  carefully  withdrawn  from  the  sauce ;  the  latter  should 
be  again  strained  through  muslin  and  then  left  to  rest,  with  a 
view  to  letting  the  grease  settle  on  the  surface. 

Carefully  remove  this  grease,  and  rectify  the  sauce  with  a 
little  excellent  stock  if  it  is  too  thick,  or  by  reduction  if  it  is 
too  thin. 

The  Glazing  of  Braised  Meat. — Braised  meat  is  glazed  in 
order  to  make  it  more  sightly,  but  this  operation  is  by  no  means 
essential,  and  it  is  quite  useless  when  the  meat  is  cut  up  previous 
to  being  served. 


I.EADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS         107 

To  glaze  meat  place  it  as  soon  as  cooked  in  the  front  of  the 
oven,  sprinkle  it  slightly  with  its  cooking  liquor  (gravy  or 
sauce),  and  push  it  into  the  oven  so  that  this  liquor  may  dry. 
Being  very  gelatinous,  the  latter  adheres  to  the  meat,  while  its 
superfluous  water  evaporates,  and  thus  coats  the  solid  with  a 
thin  film  of  meat-glaze.  This  operation  is  renewed  eight  or 
ten  times,  whereupon  the  meat  is  withdrawn  from  the  oven, 
placed  on  a  dish,  and  covered  until  it  is  served. 

Various  Remarks  relative  to  Braising. — When  a  braised 
meat  is  to  be  accompanied  by  vegetables,  as  in  the  case  of  beef 
a  la  mode,  these  vegetables  may  either  be  cooked  with  the  meat 
during  the  second  braising  phase,  after  they  have  been  duly 
coloured  in  butter  with  a  little  salt  and  sugar,  or  they  may  be 
cooked  separately  with  a  portion  of  the  braising-liquor.  The 
first  procedure  is  the  better,  but  it  lends  itself  less  to  a  correct 
final  dressing.  It  is,  therefore,  the  operator's  business  to  decide 
according  to  circumstances  which  is  the  more  suitable  of  the 
two. 

I  pointed  out  above  that  the  cooking  of  braised  meat  con- 
sists of  two  phases,  and  I  shall  now  proceed  to  discuss  each 
of  these,  so  that  the  reader  may  thoroughly  understand  their 
processes. 

It  has  been  seen  that  meat,  to  be  braised,  must  in  the  first 
place  be  fried  all  over,  and  this  more  particularly  when  it  is 
very  thick.  The  object  of  this  operation  is  to  hold  in  the  meat's 
juices,  which  would  otherwise  escape  from  the  cut  surfaces. 
Now,  this  frying  produces  a  kind  of  cuirass  around  the  flesh, 
which  gradually  thickens  during  the  cooking  process  until  it 
reaches  the  centre.  Under  the  influence  of  the  heat  of  the  sur- 
rounding liquor  the  meat  fibres  contract,  and  steadily  drive  the 
contained  juices  towards  the  centre.  Soon  the  heat  reaches  the 
centre,  where,  after  having  effected  a  decomposition  of  the  juices 
therein  collected,  the  latter  release  the  superfluous  water  they 
contain.  This  water  quickly  vaporises,  and  by  so  doing  dis- 
tends and  separates  the  tissues  surrounding  it.  Thus,  during 
this  first  phase,  a  concentration  of  juices  takes  place  in  the 
centre  of  the  meat.  It  will  now  be  seen  that  they  undergo  an 
absolutely  different  process  in  the  second. 

As  shown,  the  disaggregation  of  the  muscular  tissue  begins 
in  the  centre  of  the  meat  as  soon  as  the  temperature  which 
reaches  there  is  sufficiently  intense  to  vaporise  the  collected 
juices.  The  tension  of  the  vapour  given  off  by  the  latter  per- 
force increases  by  dint  of  finding  no  issue;  it  therefore  exerts 
considerable  pressure  upon  the  tissues,  though  now  its  direction 


io8  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

is  the  reverse  of  what  it  was  in  the  first  place,  i.e.,  from  the 
centre  to  the  periphery. 

Gradually  the  tissues  relax  under  the  pressure  and  the  effects 
of  cooking,  and,  the  work  of  disaggregation  having  gradually 
reached  the  fried  surface,  the  latter  also  relaxes  in  its  turn  and 
allows  the  constrained  juices  to  escape  and  to  mix  with  the 
sauce.  At  the  same  time,  however,  the  latter  begins  to  filter 
through  the  meat,  and  this  it  does  in  accordance  with  a  well- 
known  physical  law,  namely,  capillarit}'^.  This  stage  of  the 
braising  demands  the  most  attentive  care.  The  braising-liquor 
is  found  to  be  considerably  reduced  and  no  longer  covers  the 
meat,  for  the  operation  is  nearing  its  end.  The  bared  meat 
would,  therefore,  dry  very  quickly,  if  care  were  not  taken  to 
baste  it  constantly  and  to  turn  it  over  and  over,  so  that  the 
whole  of  the  muscular  tissue  is  moistened  and  thoroughly 
saturated  with  the  sauce.  By  this  means  the  meat  acquires  that 
mellowness  which  is  typical  of  braisings  and  distinguishes  them 
from  other  preparations. 

I  should  be  loth  to  dismiss  this  subject  before  pointing  out 
two  practices  in  the  cooking  of  braisings  which  are  as  common 
as  they  are  absolutelv  wrong.  The  first  of  these  is  the 
"  pinca^e  "  of  the  braising  base.  Instead  of  laying  the  fried 
meat  on  a  litter  of  aromatics,  likewise  fried  beforehand,  many 
operators  place  the  meat,  which  they  often  omit  to  fry,  on  raw 
aromatics  at  the  bottom  of  the  braising-pan.  The  whole  is 
sprinkled  with  a  little  melted  fat,  and  the  aromatics  are  left  to 
fry,  on  one  side  only,  until  they  begin  to  burn  on  the  bottom 
of  the  receptacle. 

If  this  operation  were  properlv  conducted  it  might  be 
tolerated,  even  though  aromatics  which  are  only  fried  on  one 
side  cannot  exude  the  same  savour  as  those  which  are  fried  all 
over.  But  nine  times  out  of  ten  the  frying  is  too  lengthy  a 
process ;  from  neglect  or  absent-mindedness  the  aromatics  are 
left  to  burn  on  the  bottom  of  the  pan,  and  there  results  a 
bitterness  which  pervades  and  spoils  the  whole  sauce. 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  this  process  of  "  pingage  "  is  an  absurd 
caricature  of  a  method  of  preparing  braisings  which  was  very 
common  in  old  cookery,  the  custom  of  which  was  not  to  prepare 
the  braising-liquor  in  advance,  but  to  cook  it  and  its  ingredients 
simultaneously  with  the  meat  to  be  braised.  This  method, 
though  excellent,  was  very  expensive,  the  meats  forming  the 
base  of  the  braising-liquor  consisting  of  thick  slices  of  raw 
ham  or  veal.  The  observance  of  economy,  therefore,  long  ago 
compelled  cooks  to  abandon  this  procedure.     But  routine  has 


LEADING^CULINARY  OPERATIONS         109 

perpetuated  the  form  of  the  latter  without  insisting  upon  the 
use  of  its  constituents,  wliich  were  undoubtedly  its  essential 
part.  Routine  has  even,  in  certain  cases,  aggravated  the  first 
error  by  instituting  a  habit  consisting  of  substituting  bones  for 
the  meats  formerly  employed — an  obviously  ridiculous  practice. 

In  the  production  of  ordinary  consomme  (No.  i)  we  saw  that 
bones,  even  when  taken  from  veal,  as  is  customary  in  the  case 
of  braising-liquor,  require,  at  the  very  least,  ten  to  twelve  hours 
of  cooking  before  they  can  yield  all  their  soluble  properties. 
As  a  proof  of  this  it  is  interesting  to  note  that,  if  bones  undergo 
only  five  or  six  hours  of  cooking,  and  are  moistened  afresh  and 
cooked  for  a  further  six  hours,  the  liquor  of  the  second  cooking 
yields  more  meat-glaze  than  that  of  the  first ;  though  it  must  be 
admitted  that,  while  the  latter  is  more  gelatinous,  it  has  less 
savour.  But  this  gelatinous  property  of  bones  is  no  less  useful 
to  braisings  than  is  their  savour,  since  it  is  the  former  that 
supplies  the  mellowness,  which  nothing  can  replace  and  without 
which  the  sauce  can  have  no  quality. 

Since,  therefore,  the  longest  time  that  a  braising  can  cook 
is  from  four  to  five  hours,  it  follows  that^  if  bones  be  added 
thereto,  their  properties  will  scarcely  have  begun  disaggregating 
when  the  meat  is  cooked.  They  will,  in  fact,  have  yielded  but 
an  infinitesimal  portion  of  these  properties;  wherefore  their 
addition  to  the  braising  is,  to  say  the  least,  quite  useless. 

It  now  remains  to  be  proved  that  the  above  method  is  bad 
from  another  point  of  view. 

I  suppose  I  need  not  fear  contradiction  when  I  assert  that, 
in  order  that  a  braising  may  be  good,  its  sauce  should  be  short 
and  correspondingly  substantial;  also  that  the  sauce  obtained 
from  a  piece  of  meat  moistened  with  a  quart  of  liquid  cannot 
be  so  good  as  that  resulting  from  the  moistening  of  a  pint  only. 

It  is  more  particularly  on  this  account  that  I  advise  a  braising 
utensil  which  can  only  just  hold  the  meat,  for  since,  in  the  firfat 
stage,  the  meat  is  only  moistened  with  the  braising-liquor,  the 
smaller  the  receptacle  may  be  the  less  liquor  will  it  require, 
and  the  latter  will  in  consequence  be  the  tastier.  Hence,  if 
bones  be  added  to  the  braising,  the  utensil  must  necessarily  be 
larger,  and  a  greater  quantity  of  braising-liquor  must  be  used. 
But  this  liquor  will  not  be  nearly  so  savoury  as  that  obtained 
from  the  process  I  recommend;  in  fact,  it  will  be  but  a  rather 
strong  broth,  quite  unfit  for  the  impregnation  of  the  meat, 
and  the  final  result  will  be  a  tasteless  lump  of  fibre  instead  of  a 
succulent  braising. 

I  must  apologise  to  the  reader  for  my  insistence  with  regard 


I  lo  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

to  these  questions,  but  their  importance  is  such  that  success  is 
beyond  reach  in  the  matter  of  brown  sauces  and  braisings  unless 
the  above  details  have  been  thoroughly  grasped.  Moreover,  the 
explanations  given  will  afford  considerable  help  in  the  under- 
standing of  operations  which  I  shall  give  later;  therefore  it  is 
to  be  hoped  that  the  examination  of  the  theories  involved, 
however  long  this  has  been,  will  prove  of  use  and  assistance. 

248— BRAISING  OF  WHITE  MEATS 

The  braising  of  white  meats  as  it  is  now  effected  in  modern 
cookery  is,  strictly  speaking,  not  braising  at  all,  inasmuch  as 
the  cooking  is  stopped  at  the  close  of  the  first  of  the  two  phases 
which  I  mentioned  when  discussing  brown  braisings.  True, 
old  cookery  did  not  understand  braising  in  the  way  that  the 
modern  school  does,  and  under  the  ancient  regime  large  pieces, 
especially  of  veal,  were  frequently  cooked  until  they  could 
almost  be  scooped  with  a  spoon.  This  practice  has  been  gene- 
rally, though  mistakenly,  eschewed,  but  its  name-survives. 

White  braisings  are  made  with  the  neck,  the  saddle,  the  loin, 
the  fillets,  the  fricandeaus,  and  the  sweet-bread  of  veal,  young 
turkeys  and  fat  pullets,  and  sometimes,  though  less  frequently, 
relev^s  of  lamb,  hindquarters  or  saddle.  The  procedure  is  the 
same  for  all  these  meats;  the  time  of  cooking  alone  varies  in 
accordance  with  their  size.  The  aromatics  are  the  same  as 
those  of  the  brown  braisings,  but  the  frying  of  them  is  optional. 

The  moistening  liquor  is  brown  veal  stock  (No.  9). 

Mode  of  Procedure. — Except  for  the  veal  sweet-bread,  which 
is  always  blanched  before  being  braised,  the  meats  or  poultry 
to  be  treated  may  always  be  slightly  stiffened  and  browned  in 
butter,  on  all  sides.  This  is  not  essential  in  all  cases,  but  I 
think  that  when  they  do  undergo  something  of  the  kind  they 
dry  less  quickly.  Now  place  them  in  a  utensil  just  large  enough 
to  hold  them  and  deep  enough  to  keep  the  lid  from  touching 
them.  Place  the  aromatics  under  them  and  moisten  with  a  little 
veal  stock;  set  to  boil  on  a  moderate  fire,  and  reduce  the  veal 
stock  with  the  lid  on.  When  this  stock  has  assumed  the  con- 
sistence of  a  glaze,  add  a  further  similar  quantity  of  fresh  stock, 
and  reduce  as  before.  The  third  time  moisten  the  veal  until  it 
is  half  covered,  and  push  the  pan  into  a  moderate  oven. 

The  meat  needs  constant  basting  while  it  cooks,  in  order 
to  avoid  its  drying;  and,  as  the  stock  is  very  gelatinous,  it 
forms  a  coating  on  the  surface  which  resists  the  evaporation  of 
the  contained  juices;  for  these,  being  insufficiently  constrained 
by  the  slight  frying  the  meat  has  undergone,  tend  to  vaporise 
under  the  influence  of  the  heat. 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS  iii 

It  is  for  this  reason  that  the  stock  must  be  reduced  to  a 
glaze  before  finally  moistening.  If  the  moistening  were  all 
done  at  once,  the  liquor  would  not  be  sufficiently  dense  to 
form  the  coating  mentioned  above,  and  the  meat  would  con- 
sequently dry  on  being  set  to  cook. 

Braised  white  meat  is  known  to  be  cooked  when,  after  having 
deeply  pricked  it  with  a  braiding  needle,  it  exudes  an  absolutely 
colourless  liquid.  This  liquid  denotes  that  the  piece  is  cooked 
to  the  centre,  and  as  a  result  thereof  the  blood  has  decom- 
posed. 

There  lies  the  great  difference  between  brown  braisings  and 
white-meat  braisings.  The  latter  are  practically  roasts,  and 
they  should  not  be  made  with  any  but  young  poultry  or  meats, 
very  fat  and  tender,  for  they  cannot  go  beyond  their  correct 
time  of  cooking,  which  equals  that  of  roasts,  without  imme- 
diately losing  all  their  quality.  A  quarter  of  an  hour  too  much  in 
the  cooking  of  a  kernel  of  veal  weighing  about  six  lbs.  is  enough 
to  make  the  meat  dry  and  unpalatable,  and  to  thoroughly  spoil 
it,  whereas  a  brown  braising  cannot  be  over-cooked,  provided 
it  do  not  burn. 

White  braised  meats  are  generally  glazed,  and  this  process 
is  especially  recommended  for  larded  pieces,  which,  though  less 
common  nowadays  than  formerly,  can  still  claim  many 
votaries. 

249— POACHINQS 

However  nonsensical  it  may  sound,  the  best  possible  de- 
finition of  a  poaching  is  a  boiling  that  does  not  boil.  The 
term  -poach  is  extended  to  all  slow  processes  of  cooking  which 
involve  the  use  of  a  liquor,  however  small.  Thus  the  term 
poach  applies  to  the  cooking  in  court-botiillon  of  large  pieces 
of  turbot  and  salmon,  as  well  as  to  fillets  of  sole  cooked  with 
a  little  fish  fumet,  to  hot  mousselines  and  mousses,  cooked  in 
moulds,  to  quenelles  which  are  cooked  in  salted  water,  to  eggs 
announced  as  "poached,"  to  creams,  various  royales,  &c.  It 
will  readily  be  seen  that  among  so  many  different  products,  the 
time  allowed  for  the  cooking  in  each  case  must  differ  some- 
times widely  from  the  rest.  The  treatment  of  them  all,  how- 
ever, is  subject  to  this  unalterable  principle,  namely,  that  the 
poaching  liquor  must  not  boil,  though  it  should  reach  a  degree 
of  heat  as  approximate  as  possible  to  boiling-point.  Another 
principle  is  that  large  pieces  of  fish  or  poultry  be  set  to  boll 
in  cold  liquor,  after  which  the  latter  is  brought  to  the  required 
temperature  as  rapidly  as  possible.  The  case  may  be  the 
same  with  fillets  of  sole,  or  poultry,  which  are  poached  almost 


ti2  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

dry ;  but  all  other  preparations  whose  mode  of  cooking  is 
poaching  gain  by  being  immersed  in  liquor  which  has  reached 
the  required  temperature  beforehand. 

Having  regard  to  the  multitudinous  forms  and  kinds  of  pro^ 
ducts  that  are  poached,  it  would  be  somewhat  difficult  to  state 
here  the  details  and  peculiarities  proper  to  each  iti  the  matter 
of  poaching;  I  think,  therefore,  I  should  do  better  to  leave 
these  details  to  the  respective  recipes  of  each  product,  though  it 
will  now  be  necessary  to  disclose  the  way  of  poaching  poultry, 
if  only  with  a  view  to  thoroughly  acquainting  the  reader  with 
the  theory  propounded  above. 

Properly  prepare  the  piece  of  poultry  to  be  poached,  and 
truss  it  with  its  feet  folded  back  alongside  of  the  breast. 

If  it  is  to  be  stuffed,  this  should  be  done  before  trussing. 

If  it  is  to  be  larded  or  studded,  either  with  truffles,  ham, 
or  tongue,  rub  it  when  trussed  on  the  fillets  and  legs  with  half 
a  lemon,  and  dip  the  same  portions  of  its  body  (namely,  those 
to  be  larded  or  studded)  for  a  few  moments  in  boiling  white 
stock.  The  object  of  this  operation  is  to  slightly  stiffen  the 
skin,  thus  facilitating  the  larding  or  studding. 

The  Cooking  of  the  Piece  of  Poultry. — Having  stuffed, 
larded,  or  studded  it,  if  necessary,  and  having,  in  any  case, 
trussed  it,  place  it  in  a  receptacle  just  large  enough  to  hold  it, 
and  moisten  with  some  excellent  white  stock  previously  pre- 
pared. 

Set  to  boil,  skim,  put  the  lid  on,  and  continue  the  cooking 
at  a  low  simmer.  It  is  useless  to  work  too  quickly,  as  the 
operation  would  not  be  shortened  a  second  by  so  doing.  The 
only  results  would  be  :  — 

1.  Too  violent  evaporation,  which  would  reduce  the  liquor 
and  disturb  its  limpidness. 

2.  The  running  of  a  considerable  risk  of  bursting  the  piece 
of  poultry,  especially  when  the  latter  is  stuffed. 

The  fowl,  or  whatever  it  may  be,  is  known  to  be  cooked 
when,  after  pricking  the  thick  of  the  leg  close  to  the  "drum- 
stick," the  issuing  liquid  is  white. 

Remarks. — (a)  The  need  of  poaching  poultry  in  a  receptacle 
just  large  enough  to  hold  the  piece  is  accounted  for  as  follows : 
(i)  The  piece  must  be  wholly  immersed  in  the  stock  during  the 
cooking  process.  (2)  As  the  liquor  used  is  afterwards  served 
as  an  accompanying  sauce  to  the  dish,  the  less  there  is  of  it 
the  more  saturated  does  it  become  with  the  juices  of  the  meat, 
and,  consequently,  the  better  it  is. 

(b)  (i)  The  white  stock  used  in  poaching  should  be  pre- 
pared beforehand,  and  be  very  clear. 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS         113 

(2)  If  the  piece  of  poultry  were  set  to  cook  with  the  products 
constituting  the  stock,  even  if  these  were  more  than  liberally 
apportioned,  the  result  would  be  bad,  for  inasmuch  as  a  fowl, 
for  example,  can  only  take  one  and  one-half  hours,  at  the  most, 
to  cook,  and  the  time  required  for  extracting  the  nutritious  and 
aromatic  principles  from  the  constituents  of  the  stock  would 
be  at  least  six  hours,  it  follows  that  the  fowl  would  be  cooking 
in  little  more  than  hot  water,  and  the  resulting  sauce  would 
be  quite  devoid  of  savour. 

250— POELINQS 

Poelings  are,  practically  speaking,  roasts,  for  the  cooking 
periods  of  each  are  the  same,  except  that  the  former  are  cooked 
entirely  or  almost  entirely  with  butter.  They  represent  a  sim- 
plified process  of  old  cookery,  which  consisted  in  enveloping 
the  object  to  be  treated,  after  frying  it,  in  a  thick  coating  of 
Matignon.  It  was  then  wrapped  with  thin  slices  of  pork  fat, 
covered  with  buttered  paper,  placed  in  the  oven  or  on  a  spit, 
and  basted  with  melted  butter  while  it  cooked.  This  done,  its 
grease  was  drained  away,  a;nd  the  vegetables  of  the  matignon 
were  inserted  in  the  braising-pan  wherein  the  piece  had  cooked, 
or  in  a  saucepan,  and  were  moistened  with  excellent  Madeira  or 
highly  seasoned  stock.  Then,  when  the  liquor  had  thoroughly 
absorbed  the  aroma  of  the  vegetables,  it  was  strained,  and  its 
grease  was  removed  just  before  dishing  up.  This  excellent 
method  is  worthy  of  continued  use  in  the  case  of  large  pieces 
of  poultry. 

Preparation  of  Peeled  Meats. — Pl&ce  in  the  bottom  of  a  deep 
and  thick  receptacle,  just  large  enough  to  hold  the  piece  to  be 
poeled,  a  layer  of  raw  matignon  (No.  227).  The  meat  or  piece 
of  poultry  is  placed  on  the  vegetables  after  it  has  been  well 
seasoned,  and  is  copiously  sprinkled  with  melted  butter;  cover 
the  utensil,  and  push  it  into  an  oven  whose  heat  is  not  too 
fierce.  Set  it  to  cook  gently  in  this  way,  after  the  manner  of  a 
stew,  and  frequently  sprinkle  with  melted  butter. 

When  the  meats  or  the  pieces  of  poultry  are  cooked,  the 
utensil  is  uncovered  so  that  the  former  may  acquire  a  fine  colour ; 
then  they  are  transferred  to  a  dish  which  should  be  kept 
covered  until  taken  to  the  table.  Now  add  to  the  vegetables 
(which  must  not  be  burned)  a  sufficient  quantity  of  brown 
veal  stock  (No.  9),  transparent  and  highly  seasoned;  set  the 
whole  to  boil  gently  for  ten  minutes,  strain  through  a  serviette, 
carefully  remove  all  grease  from  the  poeling  stock  and  send 
it  to  the  table  in  a  sauceboat  at  the  same  time  as  the  meat 
or  poultry,  which,  by  the  bye,  is  generally  garnished. 


114  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Remarks  on  Poelings. — It  is  of  paramount  importance  that 
these  be  not  moistened  during  the  process  of  cooking,  for  in 
that  case  their  savour  would  be  the  same  as  that  of  braised 
white  meats. 

Nevertheless,  an  exception  may  be  made  in  the  case  of  such 
feathered  game  as  pheasants,  partridges,  and  quails,  to  which 
is  added,  when  nearly  cooked,  a  small  quantity  of  burnt  brandy. 

It  is  also  very  important  that  the  vegetables  should  not  have 
their  grease  removed  before  their  moistening  stock  is  added  to 
them.  The  butter  used  in  the  cooking  absorbs  a  large  propor- 
tion of  the  savour  of  both  the  vegetables  and  the  meat  under 
treatment,  and,  to  make  good  this  loss,  it  is  essential  that  the 
moistening  stock  remain  at  least  ten  minutes  in  contact  with 
the  butter.  At  the  end  of  this  time  it  may  be  removed  without 
in  the  least  impairing  the  aroma  of  the  stock. 

Special  Poelings  known  as  "En  Casserole,"  or  "En 
Cocotle." — The  preparations  of  butcher's  meats,  of  poultry,  or 
game,  known  as  "en  casserole  "  or  "en  cocotte,"  are  actual 
poelings  cooked  in  special  earthenware  utensils  and  served  in 
the  same.  Generally,  preparations  known  as  "  en  casserole  " 
are  simply  cooked  in  butter,  without  the  addition  of  vegetables. 

When  the  cooking  is  done,  the  piece  under  treatment  is 
withdrawn  for  a  moment,  and  some  excellent  brown  veal  stock 
(No.  9)  is  poured  into  the  utensil.  This  is  left  to  simmer  for 
a  few  minutes;  the  superfluous  butter  is  then  removed;  the 
piece  is  returned  to  the  earthenware  utensil,  and  it  is  kept  hot, 
without  being  allowed  to  boil,  until  it  is  dished  up. 

For  preparations  termed  "en  cocotte,"  the  procedure  is  the 
same,  except  that  the  piece  is  garnished  with  such  vegetables 
as  mushrooms,  the  bottoms  of  artichokes,  small  onions,  carrots, 
turnips,  &c.,  which  are  either  turned  or  regularly  pared,  and 
half  cooked  in  butter  before  being  used. 

One  should  endeavour  to  use  only  fresh  vegetables,  and 
these  should  be  added  to  the  piece  constituting  the  dish  in  such 
wise  as  to  complete  their  cooking  with  it. 

The  earthenware  utensils  used  for  this  purpose  improve  with 
use,  provided  they  be  cleaned  with  clean,  fresh  water,  without 
any  soda  or  soap.  If  new  utensils  have  to  be  used,  these 
should  be  filled  with  water,  which  is  set  to  boil,  and  they  should 
then  undergo  at  least  twelve  hours'  soaking.  For  the  pre- 
scribed time  this  water  should  be  kept  gently  boiling,  and  then 
the  utensil  should  be  well  wiped  and  soaked  anew,  in  fresh 
water,  before  being  used. 


LeadinC  culinary  operations       1 15 

251— THE   SAUTES 

What  characterises  the  process  we  call  "  saut^  "  is  that  the 
object  treated  is  cooked  dry — that  is  to  say,  solely  by  means  of 
a  fatty  substance  such  as  butter,  oil,  or  grease. 

Sautes  are  made  with  cut-up  fowl  or  game,  or  with  butcher's 
meat  suitably  divided  up  for  the  purpose. 

All  products  treated  in  this  way  must  be  frizzled — that  is 
to  say,  they  must  be  put  into  the  fat  when  it  is  very  hot  in  order 
that  a  hardened  coating  may  form  around  them  which  will 
keep  their  juices  within.  This  is  more  particularly  desirable 
for  red  meats  such  as  beef  and  mutton. 

The  cooking  of  fowl  sautes  must,  after  the  meats  have  been 
frizzled,  be  completed  on  the  stove  or,  with  lid  off,  in  the  oven, 
where  they  should  be  basted  with  butter  after  the  manner  of  a 
roast. 

The  pieces  are  withdrawn  from  the  utensil  with  a  view  to 
swilling  the  latter,  after  which,  if  they  be  put  back  into  the  sauce 
or  accompanying  garnish,  they  should  only  remain  therein  a 
few  moments  or  just  sufficiently  long  to  become  properly  warm. 

The  procedure  is  the  same  for  game  sautes. 

Sautes  of  butcher's  meats  (red  meats),  such  as  tournedos, 
kernels,  cutlets,  fillets,  and  noisettes,  are  always  effected  on  the 
stove;  the  meats  are  frizzled  and  cooked  with  a  small  quantity 
of  clarified  butter. 

The  thinner  and  smaller  they  are,  the  more  rapidly  should 
the  frizzling  process  be  effected. 

When  blood  appears  on  the  surface  of  their  raw  side,  they 
should  be  turned  over;  when  drops  of  blood  begin  to  bedew 
their  other  side,  they  are  known  to  be  cooked. 

The  swilling  of  the  utensil  obtains  in  all  sautes.  After 
having  withdrawn  the  treated  product  from  the  saucepan,  re- 
move the  grease  and  pour  the  condimentary  liquid  (a  wine),  that 
forms  part  of  the  accompanying  sauce,  into  the  saucepan. 

Set  to  boil,  so  that  the  solidified  gravy  lying  on  the  bottom 
may  dissolve,  and  add  the  sauce;  or  simply  add  the  swilling 
liquid  to  the  prepared  sauce  or  accompanying  garnish  of  the 
saut^.  The  utensil  used  must  always  be  just  large  enough  to 
hold  the  objects  to  be  treated.  If  it  be  too  large,  the  parts  left 
uncovered  by  the  treated  meats  burn,  and  swilling  is  then  im- 
possible, whence  there  results  a  loss  of  the  solidified  gravy, 
which  is  an  important  constituent  in  the  sauce. 

Sautes  of  white,  butcher's  meats,  such  as  veal  and  lamb,  must 
also  be  frizzled  in  hot  fat,  but  their  cooking  must  be  completed 
gently  on  the  side  of  the  fire,  and  in  many  cases  v>'ith  lid  on. 


n6  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Preparations  of  a  mixed  nature,  which  partly  resemble 
sautes  and  partly  braisings,  are  also  called  sautes.  Stews,  how- 
ever, is  their  most  suitable  name. 

These  dishes  are  made  from  beef,  veal,  lamb,  game,  &c., 
and  they  are  to  be  found  in  Part  II.  under  the  headings  Es- 
touffade;  Goulah;  Sautt^s :  Chasseur,  Marengo,  Bourgeoise; 
Navarin ;  Civet;  &c. 

In  the  first  stage  of  their  preparation,  the  meats  are  cut  up 
small  and  fried  like  those  of  the  sautes;  in  the  second,  slow 
cooking  with  sauce  or  garnish  makes  them  akin  to  braised 
meats. 

3.  Roasts,  Grills,  Fryings. 
Roasts. 

Of  the  two  usual  methods  of  roasting,  the  spit  will  always 
be  used  in  preference  to  the  oven,  if  only  on  account  of  the 
conditions  under  which  the  operation  is  effected,  and  whatever 
be  the  kind  of  fuel  used — wood,  coal,  or  gas. 

The  reason  of  this  preference  is  clear  if  it  be  remembered 
that,  in  spite  of  every  possible  precaution  during  the  progress 
of  an  oven  roast,  it  is  impossible  to  avoid  an  accumulation  of 
vapour  around  the  cooking  object  in  a  closed  oven.  And  this 
steam  is  more  particularly  objectionable  inasmuch  as  it  is  ex- 
cessive in  the  case  of  delicately  flavoured  meats,  which  latter 
are  almost  if  not  entirely  impaired  thereby. 

The  spitted  roast,  on  the  contrary,  cooks  in  the  open  in  a 
dry  atmosphere,  and  by  this  means  retains  its  own  peculiar 
flavour.  Hence  the  unquestionable  superiority  of  spitted  roasts 
over  the  oven  kind,  especially  in  respect  of  small  feathered 
game. 

In  certain  circumstances  and  places  there  is  no  choice  of 
means,  and,  nolens  volens,  the  oven  has  to  be  used;  but,  in 
this  case  at  least,  all  possible  precautions  should  be  observed 
in  order  to  counteract  the  effects  of  the  steam  above  mentioned. 

252— LARDING  BACON  FOR  ROASTS 

Poultry  and  game  to  be  roasted  ought  generally  to  be  partly 
covered  with  a  large  thin  slice  of  larding  bacon,  except  those 
pieces  of  game  which  in  special  cases  are  larded. 

The  object  and  use  of  these  slices  are  not  only  to  shield  the 
fillets  of  fowl  and  game  from  the  severe  heat  of  the  fire,  but  also 
to  prevent  these  from  drying  while  the  legs,  which  the  heat 
takes  much  longer  to  penetrate  than  the  other  parts,  are  cook- 
ing.    The  slices  of  bacon  should  therefore  completely  cover  the 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS         117 

breasts  of  fowl  and  game,  and  they  should  be  tied  on  to  the 
latter  by  means  of  string. 

In  some  cases  roasts  of  butcher's  meat  are  covered  with 
layers  of  veal-  or  beef-fat,  the  object  of  which  is  similar  to 
that  of  the  bacon  prescribed  above. 

253— SPITTED  ROASTS 

The  whole  theory  of  roasts  on  the  spit  might  be  condensed 
as  follows : — 

In  the  case  of  butcher's  meat,  calculate  the  intensity  of  the 
heat  used  according  to  the  piece  to  be  roasted,  the  latter's  size 
and  quality,  and  the  time  it  has  hung.  Experience,  however,  is 
the  best  guide,  for  any  theory,  whatever  be  its  exactness,  can 
only  give  the  leading  principles  and  general  rules,  and  cannot 
pretend  to  supply  the  place  of  the  practised  eye  and  the  accuracy 
which  are  the  result  of  experience  alone. 

Nevertheless,  I  do  not  say  with  Brillat  Savarin  that  a  roaster 
is  born  and  not  made;  I  merely  state  that  one  may  become  a 
good  roaster  with  application,  observation,  care,  and  a  little 
aptitude. 

The  three  following  rules  will  be  found  to  cover  all  the 
necessary  directions  for  spitted  roasts : — 

1 .  All  red  meats  containing  a  large  quantity  of  juice  should 
be  properly  set,  and  then,  according  to  their  size,  made  to 
undergo  the  action  of  a  fire  capable  of  radiating  a  very  penetrat- 
ing heat  with  little  or  no  flame. 

2.  In  the  case  of  white  meats,  whose  cooking  should  be 
thorough,  the  fire  ought  to  be  so  regulated  as  to  allow  the 
roast  to  cook  and  colour  simultaneously. 

3.  With  small  game  the  fuel  should  be  wood,  but  whatever 
fuel  be  used  the  fire  ought  to  be  made  up  in  suchwise  as  to 
produce  more  flame  than  glowing  embers. 

254— OVEN  ROASTS 

The  degree  of  heat  used  for  each  roast  must  be  regulated 
according  to  the  nature  and  size  of  the  latter  after  the  manner 
of  spitted  roasts. 

An  oven  roast,  in  the  first  place,  should  always  be  placed 
on  a  meatstand,  and  this  should  be  of  such  a  height  that  at  no 
given  moment  during  the  cooking  process  the  meat  may  come 
in  contact  with  the  juices  and  fat  which  have  drained  from  it 
into  the  utensil  beneath.  Failing  a  proper  stand,  a  spit  resting 
upon  the  edges  of  the  utensil  may  be  used. 

No  liquid  of  any  kind,  gravy  or  water,  need  be  put  in  the 
baking-pan.     The  addition  of  any  liquid  is  rather  prejudicial 


ii8  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

than  otherwise,  since  by  producing  vapour  which  hangs  over 
the  roast  it  transforms  the  latter  into  a  stew. 

Remarks. — Whether  spitted  or  in  the  oven,  a  roast  must 
always  be  frequently  basted  with  a  fatty  substance,  but  never 
with  any  other  liquid. 

255— THE  GRAVY  OF  ROASTS 

The  real  and  most  natural  gravy  for  roasts  is  made  from 
the  swilling  of  the  baking-  or  dripping-pan,  even  if  water 
be  used  as  the  diluent,  since  the  contents  of  these  utensils 
represent  a  portion  of  the  essential  principles  of  the  roast 
fallen  from  it  in  the  process  of  cooking.  But  to  obtain 
this  result  neither  the  utensils  nor  the  gravy  ought  to  have 
burned;  the  latter  should  merely  have  solidified,  and  for  this 
reason  a  roast  cooked  in  a  very  fierce  oven  ought  to  be  laid 
on  a  pan  only  just  large  enough  to  hold  it,  so  that  the  fat  may 
not  burn. 

The  swilling  can  in  any  case  only  produce  a  very  small  quan- 
tity of  gravy,  consequently,  when  it  happens  that  a  greater 
quantity  is  required,  the  need  is  met  beforehand  by  preparing 
a  stock  madte  from  bones  and  trimmings  of  a  similar  nature  to 
the  roast  for  which  the  gravy  is  required.  The  procedure  for 
this  is  as  follows  :  — 

Place  the  bones  and  trimmings  in  a  pan  with  a  little  fat  and 
literally  roast  them.  Then  transfer  them  to  a  saucepan,  moisten 
so  as  to  cover  with  tepid,  slightly-salted  water,  and  add  thereto 
the  swillings  of  the  pan  wherein  they  were  roasted.  Boil,  skim, 
and  set  to  cook  gently  for  three  or  four  hours,  according  to  the 
nature  of  the  products  used.  This  done,  almost  entirely  remove 
the  grease,  strain  through  muslin,  and  put  aside  for  the  purpose 
of  swilling  the  dripping-  or  baking-pan  of  the  roast. 

Swilling. — Having  removed  the  roast  from  the  spit  or  oven, 
take  off  a  portion  of  the  grease  from  the  baking-  or  dripping- 
pan,  and  pour  into  it  the  required  quantity  of  prepared 
gravy.  Reduce  the  whole  by  half,  strain  through  muslin,  and 
almost  entirely  remove  grease. 

It  is  a  mistake  to  remove  all  the  grease  from,  and  to  clarify, 
the  gravy  of  roasts.  Treated  thus  they  are  certainly  clearer  and 
more  sightly,  but  a  large  proportion  of  their  savour  is  lost,  and 
it  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  gravy  of  a  roast  is  not  a 
consomm^. 

In  the  matter  of  roast  feathered  game,  the  accompanying 
gravy  is  supplied  by  the  swilling  of  the  utensil,  either  with  water 
or  a  small  quantity  of  brandy.  This  is  a  certain  means  of 
obtaining  a  gravy  whose  savour  is  precisely  that  of  the  game ; 
but  occasionally  veal  gravy  is  used,  as  its  flavour  is  neutral. 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS         119 

and  it  therefore  cannot  impair  the  particular  flavour  of  the 
reduced  game  gravy  lying  on  the  bottom  of  the  utensil.  The 
use  of  stock  prepared  from  the  bones  and  trimmings  of  game 
similar  to  that  constituting  the  dish  is  also  common. 

256— THE  DRESSING  AND  ACCOMPANIMENTS  OF  ROASTS 

As  a  rule,  a  roast  ought  not  to  wait.  It  ought  only  to  leave 
the  spit  or  oven  in  order  to  be  served.  All  roasts  should  be 
placed  on  very  hot  dishes,  slightly  besprinkled  with  fresh 
butter,  and  surrounded  by  bunches  of  watercress  (this  is  op- 
tional).    The  gravy  is  invariably  served  separately. 

Roasts  of  butcher's  meat  and  poultry  are  dished  up  as  simply 
as  possible. 

Small  roasted  game  may  be  dished  up  on  fried  slices  of  bread- 
crumb masked  with  gratin  stuffing  (No.  202). 

When  lemons  accompany  a  roast,  they  should  be  served 
separately.  Pieces  of  lemon  that  have  once  served  to  garnish 
a  dish  must  not  be  used,  for  they  have  mostly  been  tainted  by 
grease. 

The  mediaeval  custom  of  dishing  game  with  the  plumage 
has  been  abandoned. 

Roast  feathered  game  a  I'anglaise  is  dished  up  with  or 
without  potato  chips,  and  the  three  adjuncts  are  gravy,  bread- 
crumbs, and  bread-sauce. 

In  northern  countries  game  roasts  are  always  accompanied 
either  by  slightly  sugared  stewed  apples,  or  by  cherry  or  apricot 
jam. 

257— GRILLS 

Those  culinary  preparations  effected  by  means  of  grilling 
belong  to  the  order  called  cooking  by  concentration.  And, 
indeed,  in  almost  all  cases,  the  great  object  of  these  operations, 
I  might  even  say  the  greatest  object,  is  the  concentration,  in 
the  centre,  of  the  juices  and  essences  which  represent,  most 
essentially,  the  nutritive  principles  of  the  products  cooked. 

A  grill,  which  is,  in  short,  but  a  roast  on  an  open  fire,  stands, 
in  my  opinion,  as  the  remote  starting-point,  the  very  genesis 
of  our  art. 

It  was  the  primeval  notion  of  our  forefathers'  infantile 
brains ;  it  was  progress  born  of  an  instinctive  desire  to  eat  with 
greater  pleasure;  and  it  was  the  first  culinary  method  ever 
employed. 

A  little  later,  and  following  naturally,  as  it  were,  upon  this 
first  attempt,  the  spit  was  born  of  the  grill ;  gradually,  intelli- 
gence supplanted  rude  instinct;  reason  began  to  deduce  effects 
from  supposed  causes;  and  thus  cooking  was  launched  forth 


I20  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

upon  that  highroad  along  which  it  has  not  yet  ceased  steadily  to 
advance. 

Fuel  for  Grills. — That  mostly  used,  and  certainly  the  best 
for  the  purpose,  is  live  coal  or  small  pieces  of  charcoal.  What- 
ever fuel  be  used,  however,  it  is  essential  that  it  produce  no 
smoke,  even  though  the  grill  fire  be  ventilated  by  powerful 
blowers  which  draw  the  smoke  off.  More  especially  is  this 
necessary,  though  I  admit  the  contingency  is  rare,  when  artificial 
ventilation  has  to  be  effected  owing  to  the  fire's  burning  in  the 
open  without  the  usual  help  of  systematic  draughts ;  for  if  smoke 
occasioned  by  foreign  substances  or  by  the  falling  of  the  fat 
itself  on  to  the  glowing  embers  were  not  immediately  carried 
away,  either  artificially  or  by  a  convenient  draught,  the  grills 
would  most  surely  acquire  a  very  disagreeable  taste  therefrom. 

The  Bed  of  Charcoal. — The  arrangement  of  the  bed  of  char- 
coal under  the  grill  is  of  some  importance,  and  it  must  not  only 
be  regulated  according  to  the  size  and  kind  of  the  products  to 
be  grilled,  but  also  in  such  wise  as  to  allow  of  the  production 
of  more  or  less  heat  under  given  circumstances. 

The  bed  should  therefore  be  set  in  equal  layers  in  the 
centre,  but  varying  in  thickness  according  as  to  whether  the 
fire  has  to  be  more  or  less  fierce;  it  should  also  be  slightly 
raised  on  those  sides  which  are  in  contact  with  the  air,  in 
order  that  the  whole  burning  surface  may  radiate  equal  degrees 
of  heat. 

The  grill  must  always  be  placed  over  the  glowing  fuel  in 
advance,  and  it  should  be  very  hot  when  the  objects  to  be 
grilled  are  placed  upon  it,  otherwise  they  would  stick  to  the 
bars,  and  would  probably  be  spoiled  when  turned. 

Grills  Classified. 

Grills  may  be  divided  into  four  classes,  of  which  each 
demands  particular  care.  They  are :  (i)  Red-meat  grills 
(beef  and  mutton);  (2)  White-meat  grills  (veal,  lamb,  poultry); 
(3)  Fish;  (4)  Grills  coated  with  butter  and  bread-crumbs. 

258— RED  MEAT  GRILLS 

I  submit  as  a  principle  that  the  golden  rule  in  grills  is  to 
strictly  observe  the  correct  degree  of  heat  which  is  proper  to 
each  treated  object,  never  forgetting  that  the  larger  and  richer 
in  nutrition  the  piece  of  meat,  the  quicker  and  more  thorough 
must  be  its  initial  setting. 

I  have  already  explained,  under  braisings,  the  part  played 
by,  and  the  use  of,  rissoling  or  setting;  but  it  is  necessary  to 
revert  to  this  question  and  its  bearing  upon  grills. 

If  large  pieces  of  meat  (beef  or  mutton)  are  in  question,  the 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS  121 

better  their  quality  and  the  richer  they  are  in  juices,  the 
more  resisting  must  be  the  rissoled  coating  they  receive.  The 
pressure  of  the  contained  juices  upon  the  rissoled  coating  of 
this  meat  will  be  proportionately  great  or  small  according 
to  whether  the  latter  be  rich  or  poor,  and  this  pressure  will 
gradually  increase  with  the  waxing  heat. 

If  the  grill  fire  be  so  regulated  as  to  ensure  the  progressive 
penetration  of  heat  into  the  cooking  object,  this  is  what 
happens : — 

The  heat,  striking  that  surface  of  the  meat  which  is  in 
direct  communication  with  the  fire,  penetrates  the  tissues,  and 
spreads  stratiformly  through  the  body,  driving  the  latter's 
juices  in  front  of  it.  When  these  reach  the  opposite,  rissoled, 
or  set  side  of  the  meat,  they  are  checked,  and  thereupon,  absorb- 
ing the  incoming  heat,  effect  the  cooking  of  the  inner  parts. 

Of  course,  if  the  piece  of  meat  under  treatment  is  very 
thick,  the  fierceness  of  the  fire  should  be  proportionately  abated 
the  moment  the  initial  process  of  rissoling  or  setting  of  the 
meat's  surface  has  been  effected,  the  object  being  to  allow  the 
heat  to  penetrate  the  cooking  body  more  regularly.  If  the 
fierceness  of  the  fire  were  maintained,  the  rissoled  coating  on 
the  meat  would  probably  char,  and  the  resulting  thickness  of 
carbon  would  so  successfully  resist  the  passage  of  any  heat 
into  the  interior  that,  in  the  end,  while  the  meat  would  probably 
be  found  to  be  completely  burnt  on  the  outside,  the  inside 
would  be  quite  raw. 

If  somewhat  thinner  pieces  are  in  question,  a  quick  rissol- 
ing of  their  surfaces  over  a  fierce  fire,  and  a  few  minutes  of 
subsequent  cooking,  will  be  all  they  need.  No  alteration  in 
the  intensity  of  the  fire  need  be  sought  in  this  case. 

Examples. — A  rumpsteak  or  Chateaubriand,  in  order  to  be 
properly  cooked,  should  first  have  its  outsides  rissoled  on  a 
very  fierce  fi.re  with  a  view  to  preserving  its  juices,  after  which 
cooking  may  proceed  over  a  moderate  fire  so  as  to  allow  of 
the  gradual  penetration  of  the  heat  into  the  centre  of  the  body. 

Small  pieces  such  as  tournedos,  small  fillets,  noisettes, 
chops,  may,  after  the  preliminary  process  of  outside  rissoling, 
be  cooked  over  the  same  degree  of  heat  as  effected  the  latter, 
because  the  thickness  of  meat  to  be  penetrated  is  less. 

The  Care  of  Grills  while  Cooking. — Before  placing  the 
meats  on  the  grill,  baste  them  slightly  with  clarified  butter, 
and  repeat  this  operation  frequently  during  the  cooking  process, 
so  as  to  avoid  the  possible  drying  of  the  rissoled  surfaces. 

Grilled  red  meat  should  always  be  turned  by  means  of 
special  tongs,  and  great  care  should  be  observed  that  its  surface 


122  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

be  not  torn  or  pierced,  lest  the  object  of  the  preliminary  pre- 
cautions be  defeated,  and  the  contained  juices  escape. 

Time  of  Cooking. — This,  in  the  case  of  red  meats,  is  arrived 
at  by  the  following  test :  if,  on  touching  the  meat  with  one's 
finger,  the  former  resist  any  pressure,  it  is  sufficiently  cooked : 
if  it  give,  it  is  clear  that  in  the  centre,  at  least,  the 
reverse  is  the  case.  The  most  certain  sign,  however,  that 
cooking  has  been  completed  is  the  appearance  of  little  beads 
of  blood  upon  the  rissoled  surface  of  the  meat. 

259— WHITE-MEAT  GRILLS 

That  superficial  rissoling  which  is  so  necessary  in  the  case 
of  red  meats  is  not  at  all  so  in  the  case  of  white,  for  in  the  latter 
there  can  be  no  question  of  the  concentration  of  juices,  since 
these  are  only  present  in  the  form  of  albumen — that  is  to  say, 
in  the  form  of  juices  "  in  the  making,"  so  to  speak,  which  is 
peculiar  to  veal  and  lamb. 

For  this  kind  of  grills  keep  a  moderate  fire,  so  that  the 
cooking  and  colouring  of  the  meat  may  take  place  simul- 
taneously. 

White-meat  grills  should  be  fairly  often  basted  by  means 
of  a  brush,  with  clarified  butter,  while  cooking,  lest  their  out- 
sides  dry. 

They  are  known  to  be  cooked  when  the  juice  issuing  from 
them  is  quite  white. 

360— FISH  QRILLS 

Use  a  moderate  fire  with  these,  and  only  grill  after  having 
copiously  sprinkled  them  with  clarified  butter  or  oil.  Sprinkle 
them  similarly  while  cooking. 

A  grilled  lish  is  cooked  when  the  bones  are  easily  separated 
from  the  meat.  Except  for  the  fatty  kind,  such  as  mackerel, 
red  mullet,  or  herrings,  always  roll  fish  to  be  grilled  in  flour 
before  sprinkling  them  with  melted  butter.  The  object  of  so 
doing  is  to  give  them  a  golden  external  crust,  which,  besides 
making  them  more  sightly,  keeps  them  from  drying. 

261— THE  GRILLING  OF  PRODUCTS  COATED 
WITH  BUTTER  AND  BREAD-CRUMBS 

These  grills  generally  consist  of  only  small  objects;  they 
must  be  effected  on  a  very  moderate  fire,  with  the  view  of 
enabling  them  to  cook  and  acquire  colour  simultaneously. 
They  should  also  be  frequently  besorinkled  with  clarified  butter, 
and  turned  with  care,  so  as  not  to  break  their  coating,  the  object 
of  which  is  to  withhold  their  contained  juices. 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS         123 

262— FRYINGS 

Frying  is  one  of  the  principal  cooking  processes,  for  the 
number  of  preparations  that  are  accomplished  by  its  means 
is  very  considerable.  Its  procedure  is  governed  by  stringent 
laws  and  rules  which  it  is  best  not  to  break,  lest  the  double 
danger  of  failure  and  impairment  of  material  be  incurred. 

The  former  is  easily  averted  if  one  is  familiar  with  the 
process,  and  paj's  proper  attention  to  it,  while  the  latter  is 
obviated  by  precautions  which  have  every  raison  d'etre,  and  the 
neglect  of  which  only  leads  to  trouble. 

The  question  of  the  kind  of  utensil  to  employ  is  not  so 
immaterial  as  some  would  think,  for  very  often  accidents  result 
from  the  mere  disregard  of  the  importance  of  this  matter. 

Very  often  imprudence  and  bluster  on  the  part  of  the 
operator  may  be  the  cause  of  imperfections,  the  greatest  care 
being  needed  in  the  handling  of  utensils  containing  overheated 
fat. 

Utensils  used  in  frying  should  be  made  of  copper,  or  other 
resisting  metal ;  they  should  be  in  one  piece,  oval  or  round  in 
shape,  and  sufficiently  large  and  deep  to  allow,  while  only  half- 
filled  with  fat,  of  the  objects  being  properly  affected  by  the 
latter.  The  necessity  of  this  condition  is  obvious,  seeing  that 
if  the  utensil  contain  too  much  fat  the  slightest  jerking  of  it 
on  the  stove  would  spill  some  of  the  liquid,  and  the  operator 
would  probably  be  badly  burnt. 

Finally,  utensils  with  vertical  sides  are  preferable  to  those 
with  the  slanting  kind;  more  especially  is  this  so  in  large 
kitchens  where,  the  work  involving  much  frying,  capacious  re- 
ceptacles are  required. 

263— FRYING  FAT— ITS  PREPARATION 

Any  animal  or  vegetable  grease  is  suitable  for  frying,  pro- 
vided it  be  quite  pure  and  possess  a  resisting  force  allowing 
it  to  reach  a  very  high  temperature  without  burning.  But 
for  frying  on  a  large  scale,  the  use  of  cooked  and  clarified 
fats,  such  as  the  fat  of  "  pot-au-feu  "  and  roasts,  should  be 
avoided. 

A  frying  medium  is  only  perfect  when  it  is  able  to  meet 
the  demands  of  a  protracted  operation,  and  consists  of  fresh  or 
raw  fats,  chosen  with  care  and  thoroughly  purified  by  cooking. 

Under  no  circumstances  may  butter  be  used  for  frying  on 
a  large  scale,  seeing  that,  even  when  thoroughly  purified,  it 
can  only  reach  a  comparatively  low  degree  of  heat.  It  may  be 
used  only  for  small,  occasional  fryings. 

The  fat  of  kidney  of  beef  generally  forms  the  base  of  the 
grease  intended  for  frying  on  a  large  scale.     It  is  preferable 


124  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

to  all  others  on  account  of  its  cheapness  and  the  great  length 
of  time  it  can  be  worked,  provided  it  receives  the  proper  care. 

Veal-fat  yields  a  finer  frying  medium,  but  its  resistance  is 
small,  and  it  must,  moreover,  always  be  strengthened  with  the 
fat  of  beef. 

Mutton-fat  should  be  deliberately  discarded,  for,  if  it  happen 
to  be  that  of  an  old  beast,  it  smells  of  tallow,  and,  if  it  be  that 
of  a  young  one,  it  causes  the  hot  grease  to  foam  and  to  overflow 
down  the  sides  of  the  utensil,  this  leading  to  serious  accidents. 

Pork-fat  is  also  used  for  frying,  either  alone,  or  combined 
with  some  other  kind. 

In  brief,  the  fat  of  kidney  of  beef  is  that  which  is  best 
suited  to  fryings  on  a  large  scale.  Ordinary  household  frying, 
which  does  not  demand  a  very  resisting  grease,  may  well  be 
effected  by  means  of  the  above,  combined  with  an  equal  quantity 
of  veal-fat,  or  a  mixture  composed  of  the  fat  of  kidney  of  beef, 
veal,  and  pork  in  the  proportions  of  one-half,  one-quarter,  and 
one-quarter  respectively. 

The  grease  used  for  frying  ought  not  only  to  be  melted 
down,  but  also  thoroughly  cooked,  so  that  it  may  be  quite 
pure.  If  insufficiently  cooked,  it  foams  on  first  being  used, 
and  so  demands  all  kinds  of  extra  precautions,  which  only 
cease  to  be  necessary  when  constant  heating  at  last  rectifies  it. 
Moreover,  if  it  be  not  quite  pure,  it  easily  penetrates  immersed 
solids  and  makes  them  indigestible. 

All  grease  used  in  frying  should  first  be  cut  into  pieces  and 
then  put  into  the  saucepan  with  one  pint  of  water  per  every 
ten  lbs. 

The  object  of  the  water  is  to  assist  in  the  melting,  and  this 
it  does  by  filtering  into  the  grease,  vaporising,  and  thereby 
causing  the  latter  to  swell.  So  long  as  the  water  has  not  com- 
pletely evaporated,  the  grease  only  undergoes  the  action  of 
liquefaction,  i.e.,  the  dissolution  of  its  molecules;  but  its 
thorough  cooking  process,  ending  with  its  purification,  only 
begins  when  all  the  water  is  gone. 

The  grease  is  cooked  when  (i)  the  membranes  which  en- 
veloped it  alone  remain  intact  and  are  converted  into  greaves; 
(2)  it  gives  off  smoke  which  has  a  distinct  smell. 

At  this  stage  it  has  reached  such  a  high  temperature  that 
it  is  best  to  remove  it  from  the  fire  for  about  ten  minutes,  so 
that  it  may  cool;  then  it  must  be  strained  through  a  sieve,  or 
a  coarse  towel,  which  must  be  tightly  twisted. 

264— THE  VARIOUS  DEGREES  OF  HEAT  REACHED  BY 
THE  FRYING  MEDIUM,  AND  THEIR  APPLICATION 

The  temperature  reached  by  a  frying  medium  depends  upon 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS         125 

the  latter's  constituents  and  its  purity.     The  various  degrees 
may  be  classified  as  moderately  hot,  hot,  very  hot. 

The  expression  "  boiling  hot  "  is  unsuitable,  seeing  that  fat 
never  boils.  Butter  (an  occasional  frying  medium)  cannot  over- 
reach 248°  F.  without  burning,  whereas  if  it  be  thoroughly 
purified  it  can  attain  from  269°  to  275°  F. — a  temperature  which 
is  clearly  below  what  would  be  needed  for  work  on  a  large 
scale. 

Animal  greases  used  in  ordinary  frying  reach  from  275°  to 
284°  F.  when  moderately  hot,  320°  F.  when  hot,  and  356°  F. 
when  very  hot;  in  the  last  case  they  smoke  slightly. 

Pork-fat  (lard),  when  used  alone,  reaches  392°  F.  without 
burning.  Very  pure  goose  dripping  withstands  428°  F. ;  and, 
finally,  vegetable  fats  may  reach,  without  burning,  482°  F.  in 
the  case  of  cocoa-nut  butter,  518°  F.  with  ordinary  oils,  and 
554°  in  the  case  of  olive  oil. 

The  temperature  of  ordinary  frying  fat  may  be  tested  thus : 
it  is  moderately  hot  when,  after  throwing  a  sprig  of  parsley 
or  a  crust  of  bread  into  it,  it  begins  to  bubble  immediately;  it 
is  hot  if  it  crackles  when  a  slightly  moist  object  is  thrust  into 
it;  it  is  very  hot  when  it  gives  off  a  thin  white  smoke  per- 
ceptible to  the  smell. 

The  first  temperature,  "  moderately  hot,"  is  used  (i)  for  all 
products  containing  vegetable  water  the  complete  evaporation 
of  which  is  necessary;  (2)  for  fish  whose  volume  exacts  a  cook- 
ing process  by  means  of  penetration,  previous  to  that  with  con- 
centration. 

In  the  first  degree  of  heat  with  which  it  is  used  the  frying 
fat  therefore  only  effects  a  kind  of  preparatory  operation. 

The  second  temperature,  "  hot,"  is  used  for  all  products 
wihich  have  previously  undergone  an  initial  cooking  process 
in  the  first  temperature,  either  for  evaporation  or  penetration, 
and  its  object  is  either  to  finish  them  or  to  cover  them  with  a 
crimped  coating. 

It  is  also  applicable  to  those  products  upon  which  the  frying 
fat  must  act  immediately  by  concentration — that  is  to  say,  by 
forming  a  set  coating  around  them  which  prevents  the  escape 
of  the  contained  substances. 

Objects  treated  with  this  temperature  are :  all  those  panes  a 
I'anglaise  or  covered  with  batter,  such  as  various  croquettes, 
cromesquis,  cutlets,  and  collops  k  la  Villeroy,  fritters  of  all 
kinds,  fried  creams,  &c. 

In  this  case  the  frying  medium  acts  by  setting,  which  in 
certain  cases  is  exceedingly  necessary. 

I.  If  the  objects  in  question  are  panes  a  I'anglaise,   i.e., 


126  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

dipped  in  beaten  eggs  and  rolled  in  bread-crumbs,  the  sudden 
contact  of  the  hot  grease  converts  this  coating  of  egg  and  bread- 
crumbs into  a  resisting  crust,  which  prevents  the  escape  of  the 
substances  and  the  liquefied  sauce  contained  within. 

If  these  objects  were  plunged  in  a  fat  that  was  not  suffi- 
ciently hot,  the  coating  of  egg  and  bread-crumbs  would  not 
only  imbibe  the  frying  medium,  but  it  would  run  the  risk  of 
breaking,  thereby  allowing  the  escape  of  the  very  substances  it 
was  intended  to  withhold. 

2.  The  same  holds  with  objects  treated  with  batter.  Hence 
the  absolute  necessity  of  ensuring  that  setting  which  means 
that  the  covering  of  batter  solidifies  immediately.  As  the  sub- 
stances constituting  these  various  dishes  are  cooked  in  advance, 
it  follows  that  their  second  heating  and  the  colouring  of  the 
coating  {egg  and  bread-crumbs  or  batter)  take  place  at  the  same 
time  and  in  a  few  minutes. 

The  third  temperature,  "  very  hot,"  is  used  (i)  for  all  objects 
that  need  a  sharp  and  firm  setting ;  (2)  for  all  small  objects  the 
setting  of  ^^hich  is  of  supreme  importance,  and  whose  cooking 
is  effected  in  a  few  minutes,  as  in  the  case  of  whitebait. 

265— FRYING  MEDIUM  FOR  FISH 

Every  frying  medium,  used  for  work  on  a  large  scale,  which 
has  acquired  a  too  decided  colouring  through  repeated  use, 
may  serve  in  the  preparation  of  fish  even  until  its  whole  strength 
is  exhausted. 

Oil  is  best  suited  to  the  frying  of  fish,  especially  the  very 
small  kind,  owing  to  the  tremendous  heat  it  can  withstand  with- 
out burning,  for  this  heat  guarantees  that  setting  which  is  so 
indispensable. 

Except  in  this  case,  however,  the  temperature  of  the  frying 
medium  should  be  regulated  strictly  in  accordance  with  the 
size  of  the  fish  to  be  fried,  in  order  that  its  cooking  and  colour- 
ing may  be  effected  simultaneously. 

Except  Nonats  and  whitebait,  which  are  simply  rolled  in 
flour,  fish  to  be  fried  are  previously  steeped  in  slightly  salted 
milk  and  then  rolled  in  flour.  From  this  combination  of  milk 
and  flour  there  results  a  crisp  coating  which  withholds  those 
particular  principles  that  the  fish  exude  while  cooking. 

When  finished,  fried  fish  are  drained,  dried,  slightly  salted, 
and  dished  on  a  serviette  or  on  paper,  with  a  garnish  of  fried 
parsley-sprays  and  sections  of  channelled  lemon. 

266— THE  QUANTITY  OF  THE  FRYING  MEDIUM 

This  should  always  be  in  proportion  to  the  quantity  or  size 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS         127 

of  the  objects  to  be  fried,   bearing  in   mind  that  these  must 
always  be  entirely  submerged. 

Without  necessarily  exaggerating,  the  quantity  should  in- 
variably be  rather  in  excess  of  the  requirements,  and  for  this 
reason,  viz.,  the  greater  the  amount  of  fat,  the  higher  will 
be  the  temperature  reached,  and  the  less  need  one  fear  a  sudden 
cooling  of  the  fat  when  the  objects  to  be  treated  are  immersed. 
This  sudden  cooling  is  often  the  cause  of  great  trouble,  unless 
one  be  working  over  a  fire  of  such  fierceness  that  the  fat  can 
return  in  a  few  seconds  to  the  temperature  it  was  at  before  the 
objects  were  immersed. 

267— THE  CARE  OF  THE  FRYING  MEDIUM 

Every  time  a  frying  fat  is  used  it  should,  after  having  been 
melted,  be  strained  through  a  towel,  for  the  majority  of  objects 
which  it  has  served  to  cook  must  have  left  some  particles  behind 
them  which  might  prove  prejudicial  to  the  objects  that  are  to 
follow. 

Objects  that  are  "  panes  "  always  leave  some  raspings,  for 
instance,  which  in  time  assume  the  form  of  black  powder,  while 
those  that  have  been  treated  with  flour  likewise  drop  some  of 
their  coating,  which,  in  accumulating,  produces  a  muddy  pre- 
cipitate on  the  bottom  of  the  utensil. 

Not  only  do  these  foreign  substances  disturb  the  clearness 
of  the  fat  and  render  it  liable  to  burn,  but  they  are  exceedingly 
detrimental  to  the  objects  that  are  treated  later. 

Therefore,  always  strain  the  fat  whenever  it  is  used — in  the 
first  place  because  the  proper  treatment  of  the  objects  demands 
it,  and,  secondly,  because  its  very  existence  as  a  serviceable 
medium  depends  upon  this  measure. 

268— GRATINS 

This  culinary  operation  plays  a  sufficiently  important  part 
in  the  work  to  warrant  my  detailing  at  least  its  leading  points. 

The  various  kinds  of  the  order  "  Gratins  "  are  (i)  the  Com- 
plete Gratin;  (2)  the  Rapid  Gratin;  (3)  the  Light  Gratin; 
(4)  Glazing,  which  is  a  form  of  Rapid  Gratin. 

269— COMPLETE  GRATIN 

This  is  the  first  example  of  the  series ;  it  is  that  whose  pre- 
paration is  longest  and  most  tiresome;  for  its  principal  con- 
stituent, whatever  this  is,  must  be  completely  cooked.  Its 
cooking  must  moreover  be  coincident  with  the  reduction  of  the 
sauce,  which  is  the  base  of  the  gratin,  and  with  the  formation 
of  the  gratin  proper,  i.e.,  the  crimped  crust  which  forms  on 
the  surface  and  is  the  result  of  the  combination  of  the  sauce 


128  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

with  the  raspings  and  the  butter,  under  the  direct  influence  of 
the  heat. 

In  the  preparation  of  complete  gratin,  two  things  must  be 
taken  into  account : — (i)  The  nature  and  size  of  the  object  to 
be  treated,  and  (2)  the  degree  of  heat  which  must  be  used  in 
order  that  the  coolcing  of  the  object,  the  reduction  of  the  sauce, 
and  the  formation  of  the  gratin  may  be  effected  simultaneously. 

The  base  of  complete  gratin  is  almost  invariably  ordinary 
or  Lenten  duxelle  sauce  (No.  223),  in  accordance  with  the  re- 
quirements. 

The  object  to  be  treated  with  the  gratin  is  laid  on  a  buttered 
dish,  surrounded  with  slices  of  raw  mushrooms  and  chopped 
shallots,  and  covered  with  duxelle  sauce.  The.  surface  is  then 
sprinkled  with  raspings,  and  copiously  moistened  with  melted 
butter.  Should  the  piece  be  large,  the  amount  of  sauce  used 
will  be  proportionately  greater,  and  the  reverse,  of  course, 
applies  to  medium  or  smaller  sizes. 

Take  note  of  the  following  remarks  in  the  making  of  complete 
gratins :  — 

1.  If  too  much  sauce  were  used  in  proportion  to  the  size 
of  the  object,  the  latter  would  cook  and  the  gratin  form  before 
the  sauce  could  reach  the  correct  degree  of  consistence  by  means 
of  reduction.  Hence  it  would  be  necessary  to  reduce  the  sauce 
still  further  on  the  stove,  and  thereby  give  rise  to  steam  which 
would  soften  the  coating  of  the  gratin. 

2.  If  the  sauce  used  were  insufficient,  it  would  be  reduced 
before  the  cooking  of  the  object  had  been  effected,  and,  more 
sauce  having  to  be  added,  the  resulting  gratin  would  be  uneven. 

3.  The  larger  the  piece,  and  consequently  the  longer  it 
takes  to  cook,  the  more  moderate  should  be  the  heat  used. 
Conversely,  the  smaller  it  is,  the  fiercer  should  the  fire  be. 

When  withdrawing  the  gratin  from  the  oven  squeeze  a 
few  drops  of  lemon-juice  over  it,  and  besprinkle  it  with 
chopped  parsley. 

270— RAPID  QRATIN 

Proceed  as  above,  with  duxelle  sauce,  but  the  products 
treated  with  it,  viz.,  meats,  fish,  or  vegetables,  are  always 
cooked  and  warmed  in  advance.  All  that  is  required,  there- 
fore, is  to  effect  the  formation  of  the  gratin  as  quickly  as 
possible. 

To  do  this,  cover  the  object  under  treatment  with  the  neces- 
sary quantity  of  salt,  besprinkle  with  raspings  and  butter,  and 
set  the  gratin  to  form  in  a  fierce  oven. 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS  129 

271— LIGHT  QRATIN 

This  is  proper  to  farinaceous  products,  such  as  macaroni, 
lazagnes,  noodles,  gnocchi,  &c.,  and  consists  of  a  combina- 
tion of  grated  cheese,  raspings,  and  butter.  In  this  case,  again, 
the  only  end  in  view  is  the  formation  of  the  gratin  coating,  which 
must  be  evenly  coloured,  and  is  the  result  of  the  cheese  melting. 
A  moderate  heat  is  all  that  is  wanted  for  this  kind  of  gratin. 

Also  considered  as  light  gratins  are  those  which  serve  as 
the  complement  of  stuffed  vegetables  such  as  tomatoes,  mush- 
rooms, egg-plant,  and  cucumber.  With  these  the  gratin  is 
composed  of  raspings  sprinkled  with  butter  or  oil,  and  it  is 
placed  in  a  more  or  less  fierce  heat  according  to  whether  the 
vegetables  have  already  been  cooked  or  partially  cooked,  or  are 
quite  raw. 

272— GLAZINGS 

These  are  of  two  kinds — they  either  consist  of  a  heavily 
buttered  sauce,  or  they  form  from  a  sprinkling  of  cheese  upon 
the  sauce  with  which  the  object  to  be  glazed  is  covered. 

In  the  first  case,  after  having  poured  sauce  over  the  object 
to  be  treated,  place  the  dish  on  another  dish  containing  a  little 
water.  This  is  to  prevent  the  sauce  decomposing  and  boiling. 
The  greater  the  quantity  of  butter  used,  the  more  intense  will 
be  the  heat  required,  in  Order  that  a  slight  golden  film  may  form 
almost  instantaneously. 

In  the  second  case,  the  sauce  used  is  always  a  Mornay  (No. 
gi).  Cover  the  object  under  treatment  with  the  sauce,  be- 
sprinkle with  grated  cheese  and  melted  butter,  and  place  in 
fairly  intense  heat,  so  that  a  slight  golden  crust  may  form 
almost  immediately,  this  crust  being  the  result  of  the  combined 
cheese  and  butter. 

273— BLANCHINGS 

The  essentially  unsuitable  term  blanchings  is  applied  in  the 
culinary  technology  of  France  to  three  classes  of  operations 
which  entirely  differ  one  from  the  other  in  the  end  they  have 
in  view. 

1.  The  blanching  of  meats. 

2.  The  blanching,  or,  better,  the  parboiling  of  certain 
vegetables. 

3.  The  blanching  of  certain  other  vegetables,  which  in  reality 
amounts  to  a  process  of  cooking. 

The  blanching  of  meats  obtains  mostly  in  the  case  of  calf's 
head  and  foot  and  the  sweet-bread  of  veal,  sheep's  and  lambs' 

K 


I30  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

trotters,  and  lamb's  sweet-bread.  These  meats  are  first  set  to 
soak  in  cold,  running  water  until  they  have  quite  got  rid  of 
the  blood  with  which  they  are  naturally  saturated.  They  are 
then  placed  on  the  fire  in  a  saucepan  containing  enough  cold 
water  to  abundantly  cover  them,  and  the  water  is  gradually 
brought  to  the  boil. 

For  calf's  head  or  feet,  boiling  may  last  for  fifteen  or  twenty 
minutes;  veal  sweet-bread  must  not  boil  for  more  than  ten  or 
twelve  minutes;  while  lamb  sweet-bread  is  withdrawn  the 
moment  the  boil  is  reached. 

As  soon  as  blanched,  the  meats  are  cooled  in  plenty  of  fresh 
water  before  undergoing  their  final  treatment. 

The  blanching  of  cocks'  combs  is  exceptional  in  this, 
namely,  that  after  the  combs  have  been  cleansed  of  blood — that 
is  to  say,  soaked  in  cold  water,  they  are  placed  on  the  fire  in 
cold  water,  the  temperature  of  which  must  be  carefully  kept 
below  113°  F.  When  this  degree  is  approached,  take  the 
saucepan  off  the  fire  and  rub  each  comb  with  a  cloth,  dusted 
with  table-salt,  in  order  to  remove  the  skins;  then  cool  the 
combs  with  fresh  water  before  cooking  them. 

Many  people  use  the  blanching  process  with  meats  intended 
for  "  blanquette  "  or  "fricassee."  I  regard  this  procedure  as 
quite  erroneous,  as  also  the  preliminary  soaking  in  cold  water. 

If  the  meats  or  pieces  of  poultry  intended  for  the  above- 
mentioned  preparations  be  of  a  good  quality  (and  no  others 
should  be  used),  they  need  only  be  set  to  cook  in  cold  water, 
or  cold  stock,  and  gradually  brought  to  the  boil,  being  stirred 
repeatedly  the  while.  The  scum  formed  should  be  carefully 
removed,  and,  in  this  way,  perfectly  white  meats  and  stock, 
with  all  their  savour,  are  obtained. 

As  to  meats  or  pieces  of  poultry  of  an  inferior  quality,  no 
soaking  and  no  blanching  can  make  good  their  defects.  Which- 
ever way  they  are  treated  they  remain  dry,  gray,  and  savourless. 
It  is  therefore  simpler  and  better  to  use  only  the  finest  quality 
goods. 

An  excellent  proof  of  the  futility  of  soaking  and  blanching 
meats  intended  for  "fricassees"  and  "  blanquettes  "  lies  in 
the  fact  that  these  very  meats,  if  of  good  quality,  are  always 
perfectly  white  when  they  are  braised,  poeled,  or  roasted,  not- 
withstanding the  fact  that  these  three  operations  are  less  calcu- 
lated to  preserve  their  whiteness  than  the  kind  of  treatment 
they  are  subjected  to  in  the  case  of  "blanquettes"  and 
"  fricassees." 

Mere  routine  alone  can  account  for  this  practice  of  soaking 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS         131 

and  blanching  meats — a  practice  that  is  absolutely  condemned 
by  common  sense. 

The  term  "blanching"  is  wrongly  applied  to  the  cooking 
of  green  vegetables,  such  as  French  beans,  green  peas,  Brussels 
sprouts,  spinach,  &c.  The  cooking  of  these,  which  is  effected 
by  means  of  boiling  salted  water,  ought  really  to  be  termed 
"  a  I'anglaise."  All  the  details  of  the  procedure,  however,  will 
be  given  when  I  deal  with  the  vegetables  to  which  the  latter 
apply. 

Lastly,  under  the  name  of  "  blanching,"  there  exists  another 
operation  which  consists  in  partly  cooking  certain  vegetables 
in  plenty  of  water,  in  order  to  rid  them  of  any  bitter  or  pungent 
flavour  they  may  possess.  The  time  allowed  for  this  blanching 
varies  according  to  the  age  of  the  vegetables,  but  when  the 
latter  are  young  and  in  season,  it  amounts  to  little  more  than 
a  mere  scalding. 

Blanching  is  chiefly  resorted  to  for  lettuce,  chicory,  endives, 
celery,  artichokes,  cabbages,  and  the  green  vegetables;  carrots, 
turnips,  and  small  onions  when  they  are  out  of  season.  In 
respect  of  vegetable-marrows,  cucumbers,  and  chow-chow, 
blanching  is  often  left  to  the  definite  cooking  process,  which 
should  then  come  under  the  head  of  the  "k  I'anglaise" 
cooking. 

After  the  process  of  blanching,  the  vegetables  I  have  just 
enumerated  are  always  cooled — that  is  to  say,  steeped  in  cold 
water  until  they  are  barely  lukewarm.  They  are  then  left  to 
drain  on  a  sieve,  previous  to  undergoing  the  final  cooking 
process  to  which  they  are  best  suited,  this  generally  being 
braising. 


K  2 


132  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

6.  Vegetables  and  Garnishes 
Various  Preparations. 

274— THE  TREATMENT  OF  DRY  VEGETABLES 

It  is  wrong  to  soak  dry  vegetables.  If  they  are  of  good 
quality,  and  the  produce  of  the  year,  they  need  only  be  put 
into  a  saucepan  with  enough  cold  water  to  completely  cover 
them,  and  with  one  oz.  of  salt  per  five  quarts  of  water. 

Set  to  boil  gently,  skim,  add  the  aromatic  garnish,  quartered 
carrots,  onions,  with  or  without  garlic  cloves,  and  a  faggot, 
and  set  to  cook  gently  with  lid  on. 

Remarks. — If  the  vegetables  used  are  old  or  inferior  in 
quality,  they  might  be  put  to  soak  in  soft  water;  but  this  only 
long  enough  to  swell  them  slightly,  i.e.,  about  one  and  one-half 
hours. 

A  prolonged  soaking  of  dry  vegetables  may  give  rise  to 
incipient  germination,  and  this,  by  impairing  the  principles  of 
the  vegetables,  depreciates  the  value  of  the  food,  and  may 
even  cause  some  harm  to  the  consumer. 

27s— BRAISED  VEGETABLES 

Vegetables  to  be  braised  must  be  first  blanched,  cooled, 
pared,  and  strung. 

Garnish  the  bottom  of  a  saucepan  with  blanched  pork-rind, 
sliced  carrots  and  onions,  and  a  faggot,  and  cover  the  sides 
of  the  utensil  with  thin  slices  of  bacon.  Lay  the  vegetables 
upon  the  prepared  litter,  and  leave  them  to  sweat  in  the  oven 
for  about  ten  minutes  with  lid  on.  The  object  of  this  oven- 
sweating  is  to  expel  the  water.  Now  moisten  enough  to  cover 
with  white  stock,  and  set  to  cook  gently. 

This  done,  drain,  remove  string,  and  cut  to  the  shape  re- 
quired. Lay  them  in  a  saut^pan,  and,  if  they  are  to  be  served 
soon,  cover  them  with  their  reduced  stock  from  which  the  grease 
has  been  removed. 

If  they  are  prepared  in  advance,  simply  put  them  aside  in 
suitable  basins,  cover  them  with  their  cooking-liquor,  which 
should  be  strained  over  them,  boiling,  and  without  its  grease 
removed,  and  cover  with  buttered  paper. 

Adjuncts  to  Braised  Vegetables 

According  to  the  case,  the  adjunct  is  either  the  braising- 
liquor,  reduced  and  with  all  grease  removed,  or  the  same  com- 
pleted by  means  of  an  addition  of  meat-glaze. 


LEADING  CULINARY  OPERATIONS  133 

Occasionally,  it  may  be  the  braising-liquor  slightly  thick- 
ened with  half-glaze  and  finished  with  butter  and  the  juice  of  a 
lemon. 

276— LEASON  OF  GREEN  VEGETABLES  WITH  BUTTER 

First  thoroughly  drain  the  vegetables  and  toss  them  over 
the  fire  for  a  few  minutes,  in  order  to  completely  rid  them  of 
their  moisture.  Season  according  to  the  kind  of  vegetable ;  add 
the  butter  away  from  the  fire,  and  slightly  toss,  rolling  the 
saucepan  meanwhile  on  the  stove  with  the  view  of  effecting  the 
leason  by  means  of  the  mixing  of  the  butter  with  the  treated 
vegetables. 

377— LEASON  OF  VEGETABLES  WITH  CREAM 

Vegetables  to  be  treated  in  this  way  must  be  kept  some- 
what firm.  After  having  thoroughly  drained  them,  put  them 
into  a  saucepan  with  enough  boiling  fresh  cream  to  well  moisten 
without  covering  them. 

Finish  their  cooking  process  in  the  cream,  stirring  occasion- 
ally the  while. 

When  the  cream  is  almost  entirely  reduced,  finish,  away  from 
the  fire,  with  a  little  butter. 

The  leason  may  be  slightly  stiffened,  if  necessary,  by  means 
of  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  cream  sauce. 

278— VEGETABLE  CREAMS  AND  PUREES 

Purees  of  dry  and  farinaceous  vegetables  may  be  obtained 
by  rubbing  the  latter  through  a  sieve. 

Put  the  purde  into  a  sautdpan,  and  dry  it  over  a  brisk  fire, 
adding  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  per  pint  of  purde;  then 
add  milk  or  cream  in  small  quantities  at  a  time,  until  the  purde 
has  reached  the  required  degree  of  consistence. 

For  purees  of  aqueous  vegetables,  such  as  French  beans, 
cauliflowers,  celery,  &c.,  a  quarter  of  their  volume  of  mashed 
potatoes  should  be  added  to  them  in  order  to  effect  their  leason. 

In  the  case  of  vegetable  creams,  substitute  for  the  thickening 
of  mashed  potatoes  an  equivalent  quantity  of  succulent  and 
stiff  Bechamel  sauce. 

279— GARNISHES 

In  cookery,  although  garnishes  only  play  a  minor  part, 
they  are,  nevertheless,  very  important,  for,  besides  being  the 
principal  accompaniments  to  dishes,   they  are  very  often  the 


134  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

adornment  thereof,  while  it  frequently  happens  that  their  har- 
monious arrangement  considerably  helps  to  throw  the  beauty 
of  a  fine  joint  or  bird  into  relief. 

A  garnish  may  consist  of  one  or  more  products.  Be  this 
as  it  may,  its  name,  as  a  rule,  distinctly  denotes,  in  a  word, 
what  it  is  and  how  it  is  made. 

In  any  case,  it  should  always  bear  some  relation  to  the  piece 
it  accompanies,  either  in  the  constituents  of  its  preparation  or 
with  regard  to  the  size  of  the  piece  constituting  the  dish. 

I  merely  add  that,  since  the  constituents  of  garnishes  are 
strictly  denoted  by  the  name  the  latter  bear,  any  addition  of 
products  foreign  to  their  nature  would  be  a  grave  mistake.  Like- 
wise, the  omission  of  any  constituent  is  to  be  avoided,  as  the 
garnish  would  thereby  be  out  of  keeping  with  its  specified 
character. 

Only  in  very  exceptional  circumstances  should  any  change 
of  this  kind  be  allowed  to  take  place. 

The  constituents  of  garnishes  are  supplied  by  vegetables, 
farinaceous  products,  quenelles  of  all  kinds,  cocks'  combs  and 
kidneys,  truffles  and  mushrooms,  plain  or  stuffed  olives,  mol- 
luscs (mussels  or  oysters),  shell-fish  (crayfish,  shrimps,  lobster, 
&c.),  butcher's  supplies,  such  as  lamb's  sweet-bread,  calf's 
brains,  and  calf's  spine-marrow. 

As  a  rule,  garnishes  are  independent  of  the  dish  itself — 
that  is  to  say,  they  are  prepared  entirely  apart.  At  other  times 
they  are  mixed  with  it,  playing  the  double  part  of  garnish  and 
condimentary  principle,  as  in  the  case  of  Matelotes,  Compotes, 
Civets,  &c. 

Vegetables  for  garnishing  are  fashioned  and  treated  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  use  and  shape  implied  by  the  name  of  the 
dish,  which  should  always  be  the  operator's  guide  in  this 
respect. 

The  farinaceous  ones,  the  molluscs  and  shell-fish,  undergo 
the  customary  preparation. 

I  have  already  described  (Chapter  X.)  the  preparation  of 
quenelles  and  forcemeats  for  garnishing.  Other  recipes  which 
have  the  same  purpose  will  be  treated  in  their  respective  order. 


PART  II 
RECIPES  AND  MODES  OF  PROCEDURE 

In  Part  I.  of  this  work  I  treated  of  the  general  principles 
on  which  the  science  of  cookery  is  founded,  and  the  leading 
operations  constituting  the  basis  of  the  work. 

In  Part  II.  I  shall  proceed  from  the  general  to  the  particular 
— in  other  words,  I  shall  set  forth  the  recipes  of  every  dish  I 
touch  upon,  its  method  of  preparation,  and  its  constituent 
parts. 

With  the  view  of  making  reference  as  easy  as  possible,  with- 
out departing  from  a  certain  logical  order,  I  have  adopted  the 
method  of  classifying  these  recipes  in  accordance  with  the 
position  the  dishes  they  represent  hold  in  the  ordinary  menu, 
and  thus,  starting  with  the  hors-d'oeuvres,  I  go  straight  on 
_to  the  dessert.  I  was  compelled,  however,  to  alter  my  plan 
in  the  case  of  eggs,  which  never  appear  on  the  menu  of  a  dinner 
save  in  Lent. 

These  I  have  therefore  placed  immediately  after  the  hors- 
d'oeuvres,  which,  like  eggs,  should  only  be  served  at  luncheons, 
for  reasons  I  shall  explain  later. 

It  will  be  seen  that  I  have  placed  the  Savouries  before  the 
Entremets,  instead  of  after  the  Ices,  as  is  customary  in 
England.  My  reason  for  this  apparent  anomaly  is  that  I  con- 
sider it  a  positive  gastronomical  heresy  to  eat  fish,  meats,  fowl- 
remains,  &c.,  after  delicate  Entremets  and  Ices,  the  subtle 
flavour  of  the  latter,  which  form  such  an  agreeable  item  in  a 
dinner,  being  quite  destroyed  by  the  violent  seasoning  of  the 
former. 

Moreover,  the  very  pretext  brought  forward  in  support  of 
this  practice,  so  erroneous  from  the  gastronomical  standpoint, 
namely,  "  that  after  a  good  dinner  it  is  necessary  to  serve 
something  strange  and  highly  seasoned,  in  order  to  whet  the 
diner's  thirst,"  is  its  own  condemnation. 

For,  if  appetite  is  satiated  and  thirst  is  quenched,  it  follows 


136  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

that  the  consumer  has  taken  all  that  is  necessary.  Therefore, 
anything  more  that  he  may  be  stimulated  to  take  will  only 
amount  to  excess,  and  excess  in  gastronomy,  as  in  everything 
else,  is  a  fault  that  can  find  no  excuse. 

At  all  events,  I  could  agree  to  no  more  than  the  placing  of 
the  Savouries  before  mild  Entremets,  and,  even  so,  the  former 
would  have  to  consist  of  light,  dry  preparations,  very  mode- 
rately seasoned,  such  as  Paillettes  with  Parmesan,  various 
kinds  of  dry  biscuits,  and  small  tartlets  garnished  with  cheese 
souffle. 

In  short,  if  I  expressed  my  plain  opinion  on  the  matter,  I 
should  advise  the  total  suppression  of  Savouries  in  a  dinner. 


CHAPTER    XI 

hors-d'ceuvres 
General  Remarks 

The  preparations  described  hereafter  all  belong  to  the  order 
of  cold  hors-d'oeuvres.  I  did  not  deem  it  necessary  to  touch 
upon  the  hot  kind,  for,  apart  from  the  fact  that  these  are  very 
seldom  served  in  England,  at  least  under  the  head  of  hors- 
d'oeuvres,  they  are  mostly  to  be  found  either  among  the  hot 
Entries  or  the  Savouries  proper. 

Generally  speaking,  hors-d'oeuvres  should  only  form  part 
of  a  meal  that  does  not  comprise  soup,  while  the  rule  of  serving 
them  at  luncheons  only  ought  to  be  looked  upon  as  absolute. 

It  is  true  that  restaurants  k  la  carte  deliberately  deviate  from 
this  rule,  but  it  should  be  remembered,  in  their  case,  that,  in 
addition  to  the  fact  that  "  hors-d'oeuvres  de  luxe,"  such  as 
caviare,  oysters,  plovers'  and  lapwings'  eggs,  &c.,  are  mostly 
in  question,  they  also  find  the  use  of  hors-d'oeuvres  expedient 
if  only  as  a  means  of  whiling  away  the  customers'  time  during 
the  preparation  of  the  various  dishes  that  may  have  been 
ordered. 

Moreover,  the  hors-d'oeuvres  enumerated  are  not  subject 
to  the  same  objection  as  those  composed  of  fish,  salads,  and 
marinaded  vegetables.  The  use  of  cold  hors-d'oeuvres  in  these 
special  cases  is  thus,  to  a  certain  extent,  justified,  but  it  is 
nevertheless  to  be  regretted  that  an  exception  of  this  kind  should 
degenerate  into  a  habit,  and  that  it  should  be  made  to  prevail 
under  circumstances  which,  in  themselves,  are  insufficient 
warrant  for  the  abuse. 

In  Russia  it  is  customary  to  have  a  sideboard  in  a  room 
adjoining  the  dining-room,  dressed  with  all  kinds  of  special 
pastries,  smoked  fish,  and  other  products,  and  these  the  diners 
partake  of,  standing,  together  with  strong  liqueurs,  before  taking 
their  seats  at  the  table.  The  general  name  given  to  the  items 
on  the  sideboard  is  "  Zakouski."  Caterers  and  hotel-keepers  in 
different  parts  of  the  world,  more  zealous  than  judicious,  intro- 
duced the  custom  of  the  zakouski  without  allowing  for  the 


138  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

differences  of  race,  which  are  due,  to  some  extent,  to  the  in- 
fluence of  climate ;  and  at  first,  probably  owing  to  everybody's 
enthusiasm  for  things  Russian,  the  innovation  enjoyed  a 
certain  vogue,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that,  in  many  cases,  the  dishes 
served  resembled  the  Zakouski  in  name  alone,  and  consisted  of 
cold  and  very  ordinary  hors-d'ceuvres,  served  at  the  dining-table 
itself. 

At  length  the  absurdity  of  investing  such  common  things 
as  hors-d'oeuvres  with  an  exotic  title  began  to  be  perceived, 
and  nowadays  the  occasions  are  rare  when  the  Russian  term 
is  to  be  found  on  a  menu ;  nevertheless,  the  custom  unfor- 
tunately survives. 

For  my  own  part,  I  regard  cold  hors-d'oeuvres  as  quite 
unnecessary  in  a  dinner;  I  even  consider  them  counter  to  the 
dictates  of  common  sense,  and  they  are  certainly  prejudicial  to 
the  flavour  of  the  soup  that  follows. 

At  the  most,  caviare  might  be  tolerated,  the  nutty  taste  of 
which,  when  it  is  quite  fresh,  can  but  favourably  impress  the 
consumer's  palate,  as  also  certain  fine  oysters,  provided  they 
be  served  with  very  dry  Rhine  wine  or  white  Bordeaux.  But 
I  repeat  that  hors-d'oeuvres  consisting  of  any  kind  of  fish, 
salad,  marinaded  vegetables,  &c.,  should  be  strictly  proscribed 
from  the  items  of  a  dinner. 

The  custom  of  serving  cold  hors-d'oeuvres  at  lunch  is,  on 
the  contrary,  not  only  traditional,  but  indispensable,  and  their 
varied  combinations,  thrown  into  relief  by  tasteful  and  proper 
arrangement,  besides  lending  a  cheerful  aspect  to  the  table,  be- 
guile the  consumer's  attention  and  fancy  from  the  very  moment 
of  his  entering  the  dining-room.  It  has  been  said,  with  reason, 
that  soups  should  foretell  the  dominant  note  of  the  whole 
dinner,  and  cold  hors-d'ceuvres  should  in  the  same  way  reveal 
that  of  a  luncheon. 

Possibly  it  was  with  a  sense  of  the  importance  of  hors- 
d'oeuvres,  from  this  standpoint,  that  their  preparation  was 
transferred  from  the  office  (the  exclusive  concern  whereof  used, 
formerly,  to  be  the  hors-d'oeuvres)  to  the  kitchen. 

The  results  of  this  change  manifested  themselves  imme- 
diately in  prodigious  variations  and  transformations  of  the 
hors-d'oeuvres,  both  in  respect  of  their  preparation  and  dishing- 
up,  so  much  so,  indeed,  that  perhaps  in  no  other  department 
of  culinary  art  has  there  been  such  progress  of  recent  years. 

Their  variety  is  infinite,  and  it  would  be  impossible  to 
compute,  even  approximately,  the  number  of  combinations  an 
ingenious  artist  could  effect  in  their  preparation,   seeing  that 


HORS-D'CEUVRES  139 

the  latter  embraces  almost  every  possible  use  of  every  conceiv- 
able esculent  product. 

Well  may  it  be  said  that  a  good  hors-d'oeuvrier  is  a  man 
to  be  prized  in  any  kitchen,  for,  although  his  duties  do  not 
by  any  means  rank  first  in  importance,  they  nevertheless 
demand  in  him  who  performs  them  the  possession  of  such 
qualities  as  are  rarely  found  united  in  one  person,  viz.,  reliable 
and  experienced  taste,  originality,  keen  artistic  sense,  and  pro- 
fessional knowledge. 

The  hors-d'oeuvrier  should  be  able  to  produce  something 
sightly  and  good  out  of  very  little,  and  the  beauty  and  attractive- 
ness of  a  hors-d'oeuvre  should  depend  to  a  much  greater  degree 
upon  his  work  and  the  judicious  treatment  of  his  material  than 
upon  the  nature  of  the  latter. 

Preparation  for  Hors-d'CEuvres 

280— BUTTERS  AND  CREAMS 

The  seasoning  of  butters  for  hors-d'oeuvres  is  effected  when 
dishing  them  up.  When  prepared  in  advance,  they  ought  to 
be  placed  in  a  bowl  and  put  aside  somewhere  in  the  cool, 
covered  with  a  piece  of  clean  paper. 

281— ANCHOVY  BUTTER 

Wash  twelve  or  fifteen  anchovies  in  cold  water,  and  dry  them 
thoroughly.  Remove  the  fillets  from  the  bones,  pound  them 
smoothly  with  four  oz.  of  butter,  rub  the  whole  through  a  fine 
sieve,  smooth  it  with  a  spoon,  and  put  it  aside. 

282— CAVIARE  BUTTER 

Pound  three  oz.  of  pressed  caviare  with  four  oz.  of  butter, 
and  rub  through  a  fine  sieve. 

283— SHRIMP  BUTTER 

Pound  four  oz.  of  shrimps  with  four  oz.  of  butter;  rub 
through  a  fine  sieve  first,  then  through  muslin,  after  having 
softened  the  preparation. 

This  may  also  be  made  from  the  shelled  tails  of  shrimps, 
which  process,  though  it  is  easier,  does  not  yield  a  butter  of 
such  delicate  taste  as  the  former. 

284— CURRY  BUTTER 

Soften  four  oz.  of  butter  in  a  bowl,  and  add  thereto  suffi- 
cient curry-powder  to  ensure  a  decided  taste.  The  exact 
quantity  of  curry  cannot  be  prescribed,  since  the  quality  of  the 
latter  entirely  governs  its  apportionment. 


HO  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

285— CRAYFISH  BUTTER 

Cook  the  crayfish  with  mirepoix,  as  for  Bisque.  Finely 
pound  the  shells  after  having  removed  the  tails,  and  add  thereto 
four  oz.  of  butter  per  two  oz.;  rub  through  a  fine  sieve  first, 
then  through  muslin. 

N.B. — The  whole  crayfish  may  be  pounded,  but  the  tails 
are  usually  laid  aside  with  a  view  to  supplying  the  garnish 
of  the  toasts  for  which  the  butter  is  intended. 

286- RED -HERRING  BUTTER 

Take  the  fillets  of  three  red-herrings;  remove  the  skins,  and 
pound  finely  with  three  oz.  of  butter.  Rub  through  a  fine 
sieve. 

287— LOBSTER  BUTTER 

Pound  four  oz.  of  lobster  trimmings  and  spawn,  and  a  little 
of  the  coral  with  four  oz.  of  butter.     Rub  through  a  fine  sieve. 

288— MILT  BUTTER 

Poach  four  oz.  of  milt  in  a  covered  and  buttered  saut^-pan, 
with  the  juice  of  half  a  lemon ;  pound  in  the  mortar,  and  add 
to  the  preparation  its  weight  of  butter  and  a  teaspoonful  of 
mustard.     Rub  through  a  fine  sieve. 

289— MONTPELIER  BUTTER  (GREEN  BUTTER) 

See  Compound  Butter  for  Sauces  (No.  153). 

290— HORSE-RADISH  BUTTER 

Grate  two  oz.  of  horse-radish  and  pound  with  four  oz.  of 
butter.     Rub  through  a  fine  sieve. 

291— SMOKED  SALMON  BUTTER 

Finely  pound  four  oz.  of  smoked  salmon  with  as  much 
butter,  and  rub  through  a  fine  sieve. 

292— PAPRIKA  BUTTER 

Soften  four  oz.  of  butter  in  a  bowl,  and  mix  therewith  a 
small  teaspoonful  of  paprika  infused  in  a  few  drops  of  white 
wine  or  consomm^,  with  a  view  to  strengthening  the  colour  of 
the  paprika. 


HORS-D'GEUVRES  141 

293— PIMENTO  BUTTER 

Pound  four  oz.  of  preserved  or  freshly-cooked  capsicum ; 
add  as  much  butter  thereto,  and  rub  through  a  fine  sieve. 

294— CAVIARE  CREAM 

Pound  four  oz.  of  preserved  caviare  and  add  thereto,  little 
by  little,  two  tablespoonfuls  of  fresh  cream  and  two  oz.  of 
softened  butter.  Rub  through  a  fine  sieve,  and  finish  the  pre- 
paration by  an  addition  of  three  tablespoonfuls  of  whisked 
cream . 

N.B. — This  cream  and  those  that  follow  often  take  the 
place  of  the  butters  in  the  preparation  of  hors-d'oeuvres.  The 
addition  of  previously  well-softened  butter  to  these  creams  is 
necessary  in  order  to  make  them  sufficiently  consistent  when 
they  cool. 

295— LOBSTER  CREAM 

Pound  four  oz.  of  lobster  trimmings,  spawn,  and  coral,  and 
add  thereto  three  tablespoonfuls  of  fresh  cream  and  two  oz. 
of  softened  butter. 

Rub  through  a  sieve,  and  complete  the  preparation  with 
whisked  cream,  as  above. 

296— GAME  CREAM 

Pound  four  oz.  of  cold,  cooked  game-meat  with  three  table- 
spoonfuls of  fresh  cream  and  two  oz.  of  softened  butter.  Rub 
through  a  sieve,  and  finish  the  preparation  with  three  table- 
spoonfuls of  whisked  cream. 

297— SMOKED  SALMON  CREAM 

Finely  pound  four  oz.  of  smoked  salmon,  and  add  thereto, 
little  by  little,  three  tablespoonfuls  of  fresh  cream  and  two  oz. 
of  softened  butter.  Rub  the  whole  through  a  sieve,  and  finish 
with  an  addition  of  three  tablespoonfuls  of  whisked  cream. 

298— TUNNY  CREAM 

Finely  pound  four  oz.  of  tunny  in  oil,  and  finish  the  cream 
similarly  to  that  of  the  Smoked  Salmon. 

299— CHICKEN  CREAM 

Finely  pound  four  oz.  of  cold  fowl  (white  parts  only)  and 
add  thereto  two  tablespoonfuls  of  fresh  cream  and  two  oz.  of 
softened  butter.  Rub  through  a  sieve,  and  finish  with  three 
tablespoonfuls  of  whisked  cream. 

N.B. — This  cream  ought  to  be  made  and  seasoned  with 
salt  immediately  before  being  served. 


142  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

299a— MUSTARD  SAUCE  WITH  CREAM 

Put  three  tablespoonfuls  of  mustard  in  a  bowl  with  a  little 
salt,  pepper,  and  a  few  drops  of  lemon-juice.  Mix  the  whole 
and  add,  little  by  little,  the  necessary  quantity  of  very  fresh 
cream. 


HORS-D'CEUVRES 

300— ANCHOVY  ALLUMETTES 

Roll  some  puff-paste  trimmings  into  rectangular  strips  two 
and  one-half  inches  wide  and  one-eighth  inch  thick.  Spread 
thereon  a  thin  coating  of  fish  stuffing,  finished  with  anchovy 
butter ;  lay  the  anchovy  fillets,  prepared  beforehand,  lengthwise 
on  this  stuffing,  and  cut  into  pieces  about  one  inch  wide.  Place 
the  pieces  on  a  baking-tray,  and  set  to  bake  in  the  oven  for 
twelve  minutes. 

301— ANCHOVY  FILLETS 

Cut  each  halved  anchovy,  which  should  have  been  previously 
■marinaded  in  oil,  into  two  or  three  little  fillets.  Place  them 
across  each  other  in  a  hors-d'oeuvre  dish^^  after  the  manner  of 
a  lattice ;  garnish  with  chopped  parsley  and  the  chopped  white 
and  yolk  of  a  hard-boiled  egg,  alternating  the  colours.  Put 
a  few  capers  on  the  fillets,  and  besprinkle  moderately  with  oil. 
Anchovy  fillets  may  also  be  served  on  a  salad  of  ciseled 
lettuce,  for  the  sake  of  variety. 

302— FRESH  MARINADED  ANCHOVIES 

Take  a  few  live  anchovies,  cleanse  them,  and  put  them  in 
salt  for  two  hours.  This  done,  plunge  them  in  smoking  oil, 
where  they  may  remain  only  just  long  enough  to  stiffen. 
Drain,  place  them  in  a  moderately  acid  marinade,  and  serve 
on  a  hors-d'oeuvre  dish  with  a  little  marinade. 

303— ROLLED  ANCHOVIES 

Turn  some  fine  olives  and  stuff  them  with  anchovy  butter; 
when  quite  cold,  encircle  them  with  a  ring  of  anchovy  fillet, 
kept  whole. 

304— ANCHOVY  MEDALLIONS 

Cut  into  discs,  about  the  size  of  half-a-crown,  potatoes  boiled 
in    water   or   baked   beetroot.     Cover    their    edges    with    fine 


HORS-D'CEUVRES  143 

anchovy  fillets  marinaded  in  oil,  and  garnish  their  centres  either 
with  caviare,  chopped  hard-boiled  egg,  or  milt  pur^e,  &c. 

305— ANCHOVY  PAUPIETTES 

Prepare  some  thick  slices  of  blanched  and  marinaded 
cucumber,  about  the  size  of  half-crowns,  and  hollow  their 
centres  slightly.  Place  rings  composed  of  the  fillets  of 
anchovies  in  oil  upon  these  slices,  and  fill  up  their  centres  with 
tunny  cream  or  the  cream  of  any  fish  or  shell-fish. 

306— ANCHOVY  WITH  PIMENTOS 

Prepare  some  anchovy  fillets  in  oil,  and  place  them  across 
each  other  in  a  lattice,  using  fillets  of  pimento  alternately  with 
those  of  the  anchovies.  Garnish  in  the  same  way  as  for  anchovy 
fillets,  i.e.,  with  the  chopped  white  and  yolk  of  a  hard-boiled 
egg,  and  chopped  parsley. 

307— NORWEGIAN  ANCHOVIES  OR  KILKIS 

These  are  found  ready-prepared  on  the  market.  Place  them 
on  a  hors-d'oeuvre  dish  with  some  of  their  liquor,  and  without 
any  garnish. 

308— SMOKED  EEL 

Serve  it  plain,  cut  into  fillets. 

309— EEL  WITH  WHITE  WINE  AND  PAPRIKA 

Divide  the  eel  into  lengths  of  three  and  one-half  inches; 
poach  these  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  for  matelote,  but  with 
white  wine  and  paprika  seasoning.  Let  them  cool  in  their 
cooking-liquor ;  cut  the  pieces  lengthwise  into  large  fillets,  and 
cover  them  with  the  liquor  after  all  grease  has  been  removed 
therefrom  and  it  has  been  clarified  and  cleared. 

310— EEL  AU  VERT 

Stew  in  butter  two  oz.  of  sorrel,  one-quarter  oz.  of  parsley, 
as  much  chervil,  a  few  tarragon  leaves,  a  little  fresh  pimpernel, 
two  oz.  of  tender  nettle,  one-quarter  oz.  of  savory,  a  sprig  of 
green  thyme,  and  a  few  sage-leaves,  all  of  which  must  be 
ciseled.  Remove  the  skins  from  two  lbs.  of  small  eels,  sup- 
press the  heads,  and  cut  into  pieces  two  inches  long.  Put 
these  pieces  with  the  herbs,  stiffen  them  well,  and  add  one  pint 
of  white  wine  and  a  little  salt  and  pepper.  Set  to  cook  for  ten 
minutes,  thicken  with  the  yolks  of  four  eggs  and  a  few  drops 
of  lemon-juice,  and  leave  to  cool  in  a  bowl.  This  preparatigij 
pf  eel  is  served  very  cold. 


144  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

311— EEL  AU  VERT  A  LA  FLAMANDE 

Remove  the  skin  from,  and  cut  into  small  pieces,  two  lbs. 
of  small  eels.  Stiffen  the  pieces  in  butter,  moisten  with  one 
pint  of  beer,  season,  and  set  to  cook  for  ten  minutes.  Add  the 
herbs  enumerated  above,  raw  and  roughly  chopped.  Once 
more  set  to  cook  for  seven  or  eight  minutes,  thicken  with 
fecula  if  the  sauce  is  too  thin,  and  transfer  the  whole  to  a  bowl 
to  cool.     Serve  very  cold. 

312— ARTICHOKES  A  LA  QRECQUE 

Take  some  very  small  and  tender  artichokes.  Pare  them, 
cut  the  leaves  short,  and  plunge  them  into  a  large  saucepan 
of  acidulated  water.  Set  to  parboil  for  eight  or  ten  minutes, 
drain,  cool  in  fresh  water,  and  drain  once  more  in  a  sieve. 

For  twenty  artichokes  prepare  the  following  liquor : — one 
pint  of  water,  one-quarter  pint  of  oil,  a  little  salt,  the  juice  of 
three  lemons,  a  few  fennel  and  coriander  seeds^  some  pepper- 
corns, a  sprig  of  thyme,  and  a  bay-leaf.  Set  to  boil,  add  the 
parboiled  artichokes,  and  leave  to  cook  for  twenty  minutes. 
Transfer  to  a  bowl. 

Serve  these  artichokes  very  cold  upon  a  hors-d'oeuvre 
dish,  accompanied  by  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  their  cooking- 
liquor. 

3i3~SMALL  ARTICHOKE -BOTTOMS 

Remove  the  leaves  and  the  hearts  of  some  little  artichokes; 
trim  their  remaining  bases,  and  plunge  each  as  soon  as  trimmed 
into  acidulated  water  lest  they  blacken.  Cook  them  "  au 
blanc  "  (No.  167),  and  leave  them  to  cool  in  their  liquor. 

Drain  them  well,  dry  them,  place  them  in  a  pan,  and 
marinade  them  for  twenty  minutes  in  oil  and  lemon-juice.  This 
done,  garnish  them,  either  with  a  salpicon  thickened  with 
mayonnaise,  a  milt  or  other  pur^e,  a  small  viacedoine,  or  a 
vegetable  salad,  &c.  Place  on  a  hors-d'ceuvre  dish  with  a 
garnish  of  parsley  sprays. 

314— BARQUETTES 

These  are  a  kind  of  small  Croustades  with  indented  edges, 
made  in  very  small,  boat-shaped  moulds,  and  they  may  be 
garnished  in  any  conceivable  way. 

As  their  preparation  is  the  same  as  that  of  Tartlets,  see  the 
latter  (No.  387);  also  refer  to  "  Frivolities  "  (No.  350). 


HORS-D'CEUVRES  145 

31S— SMOKED  HAMBURG  BEEF 

Cut  it  into  very  thin  slices;  divide  these  up  into  triangles, 
and  roll  the  latter  into  the  shape  of  cones.  The  slices  may  also 
be  served  flat. 

Dish  up  at  the  last  moment,  and  serve  very  cold. 

316— CANAPES  AND  TOAST 

In  the  matter  of  hors-d'oeuvres,  the  two  above  names  have 
the  same  meaning.  The  preparation  consists  of  small  slices 
of  the  crumb  of  bread,  about  one-quarter  inch  thick,  slightly 
toasted  and  with  a  garnish  on  one  of  their  sides.  The  garnish 
is  subject  to  the  taste  of  the  consumer,  the  resources  at  the 
disposal  of  the  cook,  or  the  latter's  fancy,  which  may  here  be 
fully  indulged. 

But  the  garnish,  par  excellence,  for  Canapes  or  Toast,  is 
fresh  butter  combined  with  a  fine  mince  of  white  roast  chicken- 
meat,  the  meat  of  shell-fish  or  fish,  or  cheese,  &c.,  as  I  pointed 
out  above  under  the  butters  for  hors-d'oeuvres. 

Whatever  be  the  garnish  of  Canapes  or  Toast,  and  even 
when  it  would  be  unreasonable  to  let  butter  form  a  part  of  it, 
as,  for  example,  in  the  case  of  marinaded  fish,  anchovies, 
filleted  herring,  &c.,  it  is  always  best  to  put  plenty  of  butter 
on  the  pieces  of  toast  while  they  are  still  hot,  with  the  view 
of  keeping  them  soft. 

When  the  garnish  consists  of  a  pur^e,  i.e.,  a  compound 
butter,  I  should  advise  the  use  of  a  piping-bag  fitted  with  a 
grooved  pipe,  for  laying  the  preparation  upon  the  toast.  This 
method  is  both  clean  and  expeditious,  and  lends  itself  to  any 
fanciful  arrangement  which  the  varying  shape  of  the  toast  may 
suggest. 

The  principal  shapes  given  to  the  toast  are  as  follows  : 
round,  square,  rectangular,  oval,  triangular,  crescented,  star- 
like, crossed,  &c. 

They  should  never  exceed  one  and  one-half  inches  in 
diameter,  and  a  corresponding  size  in  the  other  shapes. 

I  shall  only  indicate  here  a  few  kinds  of  specially  gar- 
nished toast,  and  leave  the  thousand  and  one  other  kinds  for 
the  operator  himself  to  discover. 

317— ANCHOVY  TOAST 

Make  the  pieces  of  toast  oval.  Cover  with  anchovy  butter, 
and  place  thereon,  lattice-wise,  some  fillets  of  anchovy  cut  to 
the  length  of  the  toast.     Garnish  the  pieces  of  toast  all  round 

L 


146  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

with  the  separately  chopped  whites  and  yolks  of  hard-boiled 
eggs,  alternating  the  colours. 

318— CAVIARE  TOAST 

Make  the  pieces  of  toast  round;  cover  with  caviare  butter; 
garnish  the  edges  with  a  thread  of  softened  butter,  laid  on  by 
means  of  a  piping-bag  fitted  with  a  grooved  pipe.  Put  fresh 
caviare  in  the  centre. 

319— SHRIMP  TOAST 

Make  the  pieces  of  toast  round;  cover  with  shrimp  butter, 
and  garnish  by  means  of  a  border  composed  of  shelled  shrimps' 
tails  with  a  caper  in  the  centre. 

320— CITY  TOAST 

Make  the  pieces  of  toast  round,  and  cover  with  a  thick 
coating  of  the  following  preparation,  viz. : — Four  oz.  of  fresh 
butter,  softened;  two  oz,  of  fresh  Gruy^re  and  two  oz.  of 
Parmesan,  both  grated ;  a  dessertspoonful  of  cream,  and  a  little 
salt  and  cayenne.  Cover  this  preparation  with  two  half-discs, 
which  when  juxtaposed  are  equal  in  circumference  to  the  round 
of  the  toast.  The  half-discs  should  be  cut  respectively  from 
a  Lyons  sausage  and  a  Gruy^re  cheese;  both  should  be  thin, 
and  equal  in  thickness. 

321— DANISH  TOAST 

Prepare  some  slices  of  brown  bread,  equal  in  thickness  to 
the  toast ;  but  only  heat,  do  not  grill  them.  Spread  some  horse- 
radish butter  over  them,  and  cover  with  alternate  strips  of 
smoked  salmon,  caviare,  and  filleted  herrings  marinaded  in 
white  wine.  Now  stamp  the  garnished  slices  with  a  sharp 
fancy-cutter,  the  shape  of  which  is  optional. 

322— CRAYFISH  TOAST 

Make  the  pieces  of  toast  crescented;  cover  with  crayfish 
butter,  deck  the  edges  with  a  string  of  softened  butter,  and 
garnish  with  a  crayfish's  tail,  cut  into  two  lengthwise  The 
two  halves  of  the  tail  should  be  placed  in  the  middle  of  each 
crescent,  close  together  and  with  their  thickest  side  innermost. 

323— TONGUE  TOAST 

Prepare  some  slices  of  crumb  of  bread,  equal  in  thickness, 
and  toast  them.     Now  garnish  with  a  coating,   half  as  thick 


HORS-D'CEUVRES  147 

as  the  slices  themselves,  of  mustard  butter.  Cover  the  butter 
with  thin  slices  of  very  red,  salted  tongue,  and  let  the  butter 
harden. 

Stamp  out  the  pieces  of  toast  with  a  star-shaped  fancy-cutter, 
which  should  be  dipped  from  time  to  time  in  boiling  water  in 
order  to  facilitate  the  operation.  Finally,  make  a  rosette  of 
mustard  butter  in  the  middle  of  each  piece  of  toast. 

324— LUCILE  TOAST 

Make  the  pieces  of  toast  oval,  cover  with  mustard  butter, 
and  border  their  edges  with  a  line  of  finely  chopped  and  very 
red  tongue.  Garnish  the  middle  of  each  with  chopped  white 
chicken-meat,  and  in  the  centre  drop  a  pinch  of  chopped  truffle. 

335— VARIOUS  CAROLINES 

These  are  very  small  6clairs  of  pate  a  choux  without  sugar. 
When  quite  cold,  garnish  them  inside  with  a  pur^e,  either  of 
tongue,  fowl,  game,  or  foie  gras,  &c.,  then  coat  them 
thinly  with  a  chaud-froid  sauce  in  keeping  with  the  pur^e  form- 
ing the  inside  garnish. 

When  the  sauce  has  cooled,  glaze  it,  by  means  of  a  brush, 
with  a  little  cold  melted  jelly,  with  a  view  to  making  it  glossy. 

N.B. ^Carolines  are  also  used  as  a  garnish  for  certain  cold 
preparations,  aspics,  &c. 

336— CAVIARE  AND  BLINIS 

Caviare  is  undoubtedly  the  richest  and  most  delicate  of 
hors-d'oeuvres,  granted,  of  course,  that  it  be  of  good  quality 
and  consist  of  large,  light-coloured,  and  transparent  particles. 
Its  price  is  always  high,  owing  to  the  difficulty  attending  its 
importation.  It  is  served  very  simply,  either  in  a  silver  tim- 
bale  or  in  its  original  receptacle,  surrounded  with  ice,  and 
accompanied  by  a  dish  of  Blinis,  whereof  the  preparation  is  as 
follows : — 

Make  a  thin  paste  with  one  oz.  of  yeast  and  one  lb.  of 
sifted  flour  diluted  with  one  pint  of  lukewarm  milk.  Leave 
this  paste  to  ferment  for  two  hours  in  a  lukewarm  atmosphere, 
and  then  add  thereto  one-half  lb.  of  flour,  the  yolks  of  four 
eggs,  a  pinch  of  salt,  one-half  pint  of  tepid  milk;  mix  the 
whole  without  letting  it  acquire  any  body,  and  finally  add  the 
whites  of  four  eggs,  whisked.  Let  the  preparation  ferment 
for  half  an  hour,  and,  when  about  to  serve,  cook  the  Blinis 
quickly,  after  the  manner  of  pancakes,  in  special  little  omelet- 
pans.     Dish  them  up  very  hot  on  a  napkin. 

L    2 


148  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Failing  fresh  caviare,  the  pressed  and  salted  kind  may  also 
be  used  for  hors-d'oeuvres.  Some  cooks  serve  finely-chopped 
onions  with  fresh  caviare,  but  a  worse  practice  could  not  be 
imagined.  Fresh  caviare,  the  flavour  of  which  is  perfect,  does 
not  need  any  supplementary  condiment. 

337— CELERY  "A  LA  BONNE-FEMME" 

Take  equal  quantities  of  very  tender  celery  sticks  and  peeled, 
quartered  and  cored  russet  apples.  Finely  mince  the  celery  and 
apples,  season  with  a  mustard-and-cream  sauce,  and  place  on 
a  hors-d'oeuvre  dish. 

328— CELERY  A  LA  QRECQUE 

Select  a  few  hearts  of  celery,  very  equal;  trim,  wash,  and 
parboil  them  in  acidulated  water,  as  directed  under  "arti- 
chokes a  la  Grecque."  Prepare  the  cooking-liquor  from  the 
same  ingredients,  using  the  same  quantities  thereof,  and  cook 
similarly. 

Serve  very  cold  on  a  crystal  hors-d'oeuvre  dish  with  a  por- 
tion of  the  cooking-liquor. 

329— CELERIAC 

Quarter,  peel,  and  cut  the  vegetable  in  julienne  fashion. 
Prepare  the  seasoning  with  mustard,  salt,  pepper,  and  vinegar ; 
add  the  julienne  of  Celeriac  and  mix  thoroughly.  When  the 
roots  are  quite  soft,  a  seasoning  consisting  of  mustard-and- 
cream  sauce  is  preferable. 

329a— MARINADED  CEPES 

Select  some  very  small  and  fresh  cepes.  Parboil  them  for 
eight  minutes,  drain  and  cool  them,  put  them  into  a  basin, 
and  cover  them  with  the  boiling  marinade  after  having  passed 
the  latter  through   a  strainer. 

Marinade  for  Two  lbs.  of  Cepes. — Put  into  a  saucepan  one 
pint  of  vinegar,  one-third  pint  of  oil,  a  crushed  clove  of  garlic, 
a  fragment  of  bay,  and  a  little  thyme,  six  peppercorns,  a  pinch 
of  coriander,  a  few  fennel  leaves,  and  a  small  root  of  parsley. 
Set  to  boil  for  five  minutes.  Leave  the  mushrooms  to  marinade 
for  five  or  six  hours  before  using  them. 

329b— CHERRIES  A  L'ALLEMANDE 

Take  five  lbs.  of  Morella  cherries,  put  them  into  a  bottle,  as 
in  the  case  of  cherry  brandy,  and  add  thereto  three  cloves,  a 


HORS-D'CEUVRES  149 

fragment  of  cinnamon,  some  grated  nutmeg,  and  a  sprig  of 
tarragon.  Pour  over  the  cherries  two  quarts  of  vinegar,  boiled 
with  one-half  lb.  of  brown  sugar  and  properly  cooled.  Cork 
the  bottle,  and  leave  the  fruit  to  macerate  for  a  fortnight. 

329c— BRAINS  A  LA  ROBERT 

Cook  well-cleansed  sheep's  or  lamb's  brains  in  court- 
bouillon,  and  cool.  Divide  them  up  into  thin  and  regular  slices, 
and  place  them  on  a  hors-d'oeuvre  dish.  Rub  the  brain  re- 
mains through  a  fine  sieve,  combine  the  resulting  pur^e  with 
a  mustard-and-cream  sauce,  and  add  thereto  a  fine  julienne  of 
the  white  part  only  of  celery. 

Cover  the  slices  of  brain  with  the  sauce. 

329d— CUCUMBER  A  LA  DANOISE 

Cut  the  cucumber  to  the  shape  of  small  cassolettes  or  bar- 
quettes,  blanch  and  marinade  them. 

Garnish  with  a  preparation  composed  of  a  purde  of  salmon 
mixed  with  fillets  of  herring  and  chopped,  hard-boiled  eggs  in 
equal  quantities. 

Sprinkle  a  little  chopped  horse-radish  over  the  garnish. 

330— STUFFED  CUCUMBERS 

Prepare  them  as  above,  in  the  shape  of  small  barquettes  or 
cassolettes.  Cook  them,  at  the  same  time  keeping  them  firm; 
marinade  them  for  twenty  minutes,  when  they  are  quite  cold,  in 
oil  and  vinegar,  and  garnish  them,  by  means  of  a  piping-bag, 
either  with  a  thick  purde,  some  mince-meat  thickened  with 
mayonnaise,  or  a  small  vegetable  macedoine,  &c. 

331— CUCUMBER  SALAD 

Carefully  peel  the  cucumbers,  cut  them  into  two  lengthwise, 
remove  their  seeds,  and  mince  finely.  Place  them  in  a  bowl, 
sprinkle  with  table-salt,  and  leave  them  to  exude  their  vegetable 
moisture  for  twenty-five  minutes.  This  done,  drain  them,  press 
them  in  a  towel,  season  with  pepper,  oil,  and  vinegar,  and  add 
some  chopped  chervil. 

332— CUCUMBER  AND  PIMENTO  SALAD 

Select  some  very  fresh,  medium-sized  cucumbers,  peel  them, 
and  cut  them  into  pieces  two  inches  in  length.  Cut  these  pieces 
spirally,  beginning  at  their  peripheries  and  working  towards 
their  centres ;  then  cut  them  diametrally,  so  as  to  produce  curved 


I50  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

strips  of  the  vegetable.     Add  an  equal  quantity  of  pimentos  cut 
into  strips,  and  season  as  in  the  case  of  cucumber  salad. 

333— YORK  CONES 

Cut  slices  from  a  York  ham  as  thinly  as  possible,  and  trim 
them  to  the  shape  of  triangles.  Roll  the  triangles  into  cones, 
and  garnish  their  insides  (by  means  of  a  piping-bag  fitted  with 
a  grooved  pipe)  with  any  butter  or  cream.  (See  Nos.  280  to 
299.) 

334— TONGUE  CONES 

Proceed  as  for  York  Cones. 

335— MOULDED  CREAMS 

Prepare  a  hors-d'oeuvre  cream  in  accordance  with  any  one 
of  the  recipes  (Nos.  294  to  299).  Put  this  cream  into  very 
small,  slightly-oiled,  and  ornamented  moulds,  and  leave  it  to 
set  in  the  cool  or  on  ice.  Empty  the  moulds,  at  the  moment 
of  dishing  up,  either  directly  upon  a  dish,  on  tartlets  garnished 
with  a  pur^e  in  keeping  with  the  cream,  or  on  toast.  With 
these  moulded  creams,  endless  varieties  of  delicate  and  recom- 
mendable  little  hors-d'oeuvres  may  be  prepared,  while  in  their 
preparation  the  moulds  used  in  pastry  for  "  petits  fours  "  may 
serve  a  useful  purpose. 

336— SHRIMPS  AND  PRAWNS 

Get  these  very  fresh  and  serve  them  on  boat-shaped  hors- 
d'oeuvre  dishes,  arranging  them  so  that  they  overlap  one 
another.  Either  garnish  the  middle  of  the  dishes  with  curled- 
leaf  parsley,  or  lay  the  crustaceans  directly  upon  parsley. 

337— DUCHESSES 

This  hors-d'oeuvre  is  almost  equivalent  to  the  Carolines 
(No.  325),  except  that  the  shape  of  the  Duchesses  is  that  of 
little  choux,  about  the  size  of  a  pigeon's  egg,  and  that,  as  a 
rule,  they  are  merely  glazed  with  some  melted  jelly,  and  not 
covered  with  a  chaud-froid  sauce.  Sprinkle  them  with  chopped 
pistachios,  and  serve  them  very  cold  on  ornamented  dish-papers. 

338— NANTUA  DUCHESSES 

Stuff  the  little  choux,  referred  to  above,  with  crayfish  pur^e, 
and  sprinkle  them,  again  and  again,  with  cold,  melted  jelly, 
in  order  to  cover  them  with  a  transparent  film. 


HORS-D'CEUVRES  151 

339— DUCHESSES  A  LA  REINE 

Stuff  the  little  choux  with  a  pur^e  of  fowl  with  cream.  Glaze 
with  jelly,  as  above,  and  sprinkle  some  very  black,  finely- 
chopped  truffles  over  the  jelly. 

340— DUCHESSES  A  LA  SULTANE 

Stuff  the  little  choux  with  a  pur^e  of  fowl,  completed  with 
pistachio  butter.  Glaze  with  jelly,  and  sprinkle  a  little  chopped 
pistachio  upon  each  little  chou. 

341— CAVIARE  DUCHES5ES 

Stuff  with  fresh  caviare  or  caviare  cream.  Glaze  with  jelly 
and  serve  iced. 

343- SMOKED-SALMON  DUCHESSES 

Stuff  the  little  choux  with  a  pur^e  of  smoked  salmon  and 
butter,  and  glaze  them  with  a  maigre  jelly. 

343— NORWEGIAN  DUCHESSES 

Stuff  the  choux  with  a  pur^e  of  Kilkis  and  butter,  and 
glaze  with  jelly. 

344— KAROLY  ECLAIRS 

These  are  little  Eclairs  stuffed  with  a  pur^e  made  from  the 
entrails  of  woodcock  with  champagne.  The  pur^e  is  buttered 
and  slightly  seasoned.  Cover  the  Eclairs  with  a  brown  chaud- 
froid  sauce,  mask  them  with  game  jelly,  and  serve  them,  iced,  on 
ornamented  dish-papers. 

345— CRAYFISH  EN  BUISSON 

Prepare  them  in  accordance  with  the  recipes  "  k  la  nage  " 
or  "k  la  marini^re,"  and  serve  them  very  cold. 

346— MARINADED  SMELTS 

Fry  some  well-dried  and  floured  smelts  in  oil ;  as  soon 
as  this  is  done,  put  them  in  a  deep  dish  or  a  bowl.  Add  to 
the  oil,  per  pint  (which  quantity  should  be  allowed  for  every 
two  lbs.  of  the  fish),  eight  unpeeled  garlic-cloves,  an  onion, 
and  a  carrot  cut  into  thin,  round  slices,  all  of  which  vegetables 
should  be  slightly  fried.  Drain  off  the  oil,  moisten  with  one- 
quarter  pint  of  vinegar  and  as  much  water,  and  season  with  a 
little  salt,  two  small  pimentos,  a  small  bay-leaf,  a  sprig  of 
thyme,  and  a  few  parsley  stalks.    Dip  the  smelts  for  twelve 


152  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

minutes  in  this  marinade,  and  transfer  them  to  the  dish,  where 
they  may  be  left  to  marinade  for  twenty-four  hours. 
Serve  very  cold  with  a  portion  of  the  marinade. 

347— FENNEL  A  LA  QRECQUE 

Same  process  as  for  artichokes  and  celery  k  la  Grecque. 

348— FRESH  FIGS 

Place  them  on  a  layer  of  very  green  leaves,  and  surround 
them  with  broken  ice. 

349— FOIE  QRAS 

If  in  the  form  of  a  sausage,  cut  it  into  thin  slices.  If  potted, 
shape  it  into  little  shells,  after  the  manner  in  which  butter  is 
sometimes  served,  only  a  little  smaller.  In  all  cases  serve  it 
iced,  and  as  soon  as  it  is  ready. 

350— FRIVOLITIES 

I  adopted  the  above  term  for  those  small,  light,  and  elegant 

little  preparations,  the  radical  types  whereof  are  barquettes  and 
tartlets,  which  often  take  the  place  of  hors-d'oeuvres  on  a  menu. 
The  term  seems  plain,  clear,  and  explicit,  and  no  other  could 
denote  more  happily  this  series  of  trifles  which  constitute  mere 
gewgaws  of  the  dining-table. 

3Si_FROQS  OR  NYMPHS  A  L'AURORE 

For  various  reasons,  I  thought  it  best,  in  the  past,  to  sub- 
stitute the  mythological  name  "  Nymphs  "  for  the  more  vulgar 
term  "  Frogs  "  on  menus,  and  the  former  has  been  universally 
adopted,  more  particularly  in  reference  to  the  following 
"  Chaud-froid  k  I'Aurore  "  :— 

Poach  the  frogs'  legs  in  an  excellent  white-wine  court- 
bouillon.  When  cooled,  trim  them  properly,  dry  them  tho- 
roughly in  a  piece  of  fine  linen,  and  steep  them,  one  after 
the  other,  in  a  chaud-froid  sauce  of  fish  with  paprika,  the  tint 
of  which  should  be  golden.  This  done,  arrange  the  treated 
legs  on  a  layer  of  champagne  jelly,  which  should  have  set 
beforehand  on  the  bottom  of  a  square,  silver  dish  or  crystal 
bowl.  Now  lay  some  chervil  pluches  and  tarragon  leaves  between 
the  legs  in  imitation  of  water-grasses,  and  cover  the  whole 
with  champagne  jelly  to  counterfeit  the  effect  of  water. 

Send  the  dish  to  the  table,  set  in  a  block  of  ice,  fashioned 
as  fancy  may  suggest. 


HORS-D'CEUVRES  153 

352— SALAD  OF  FILLETED  SALTED  HERRINGS 

Remove  the  fillets  whole;  take  off  the  skins;  set  to  soak  and 
then  trim  them.  Dish,  and  cover  them  with  the  following 
sauce : — Add  the  pur^e  of  eight  soft  roes,  moistened  with  two 
tablespoonfuls  of  vinegar,  to  four  tablespoonfuls  of  mayonnaise. 
Season  with  onion,  parsley,  chervil,  chives,  and  tarragon,  all 
finely  chopped;  flavour  moderately  with  cayenne. 

353— FRESH  HERRINGS   MARINADED  IN  WHITE  WINE 

For  twelve  herrings,  put  one  pint  of  white  wine  into  a  sauce- 
pan, with  one-quarter  pint  of  vinegar,  an  onion  cut  into  thin 
slices,  half  a  carrot  cut  into  grooved  roundels,  a  faggot, 
the  necessary  salt,  and  a  few  peppercorns.  Set  to  boil  gently 
for  twenty  minutes. 

Place  the  cleaned  herrings  in  a  saut6-pan,  pour  the  boiling 
marinade  upon  them,  and  let  them  poach  for  fifteen  minutes. 

Serve  them  very  cold  with  the  marinade,  the  roundels  of 
carrot,  and  thin  strips  of  onion. 

354— LUCAS  HERRINGS 

Raise  the  fillets  from  fine  salted  herrings,  soak  them  first  in 
cold  water,  and  then  in  milk  for  an  hour. 

Prepare  a  sauce  as  follows  :  — Beat  up  the  yolks  of  two  eggs 
in  a  bowl  with  salt  and  pepper  and  one  tablespoonful  of 
mustard;  add  five  tablespoonfuls  of  oil  and  two  of  vinegar, 
proceeding  as  in  the  case  of  mayonnaise,  and  complete  with 
shallots  and  one  dessertspoonful  of  chopped  chervil  and 
gherkins.  Season  with  cayenne,  immerse  the  drained  and  dried 
fillets  of  herrings  in  this  sauce,  and  send  them  to  the  table  on 
a  hors-d'oeuvre  dish. 

355— HERRINGS  A  LA  LIVONIENNE 

Take  some  fine  salted  herrings'  fillets,  clean  them,  and  cut 
them  into  dice.  Place  these  in  a  bowl,  and  add  thereto,  in 
equal  quantities,  some  cold,  boiled  potatoes  and  russet  apples 
cut  into  dice,  parsley,  chervil,  and  chopped  fennel  and  tarragon. 
Season  with  oil  and  vinegar,  salt  and  pepper;  make  the  pre- 
paration into  shapes  resembling  herrings,  and  place  the  heads 
and  tails,  which  should  have  been  put  aside  for  the  purpose,  at 
each  extremity  of  every  supposed  herring. 

356— HERRINGS  A  LA  RUSSE 

Cut  some  fine,  cleaned  fillets  of  salted  herrings  into  thin 
slices.     Dish  up,  and  alternate  the  rows  of  sliced  fillets  with 


154  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

rows  of  sliced,  cold,  boiled  potatoes.  Season  with  oil  and 
vinegar,  and  finish  up  with  chopped  chervil,  fennel,  tarragon, 
and  shallots. 

357— HERRINGS  WITH  FRENCH  BEANS 

These  hors-d'oeuvres  can  only  be  served  at  their  best  in 
the  months  of  September  and  October,  when  the  first  shoals 
of  herrings  begin  to  appear.  Dutch  fishermen  know  of  a  means 
of  salting  and  marinading  this  fish,  which  greatly  increases 
its  value,  and  it  is  not  unusual  to  pay  as  much  as  two  or  three 
shillings  for  one  in  the  early  part  of  the  season.  They  can  only 
be  kept  a  few  days,  but  they  form  an  excellent  dish,  and  their 
flavour  Is  exquisite.  Before  serving  them,  it  is  only  needful 
to  skin  them,  whereupon  they  may  be  dished  up  with  a  little 
chopped  parsley.  Send  a  bowl  of  French  beans  to  the  table 
with  them,  the  vegetables  having  been  freshly  cooked,  kept 
somewhat  firm,  buttered,  and  not  cooled.  Some  cooks  serve 
the  beans  cold,  in  the  form  of  a  salad,  but  as  a  rule  they  are 
preferred  hot  with  butter,  while  the  herrings  should  be  very 
cold. 

358— OYSTERS 

The  best  oysters  to  be  had  are  those  of  Whitstable,  Col- 
chester, Burnham,  and  Zeeland.  The  green,  French  Marennes, 
which  might  equal  the  above,  are  not  favoured  by  everyone  on 
account  of  their  colour.  Ostend  oysters  are  also  excellent,  but 
they  are  neither  as  delicate  nor  as  fleshy  as  the  English  ones. 

Oysters  are  the  dish  par  excellence;  their  delicacy  satisfies 
the  most  fastidious  of  epicures,  and  they  are  so  easily  digested 
that  the  most  delicate  invalid  can  partake  of  them  freely.  With 
the  exception  of  caviare,  they  are  the  only  hors-d'oeuvres  which 
should  ever  appear  on  the  menu  of  a  well-ordered  dinner. 

Oysters  ought  to  be  served  very  cold;  hence  the  prevailing 
custom  of  dishing  them  on  ice.  In  England  they  are  served 
plain  on  the  flat  half  of  the  shell,  whereas  in  France  and  else- 
where they  are  left  in  the  hollow  half,  which  is  better  calculated 
to  retain  the  natural  liquor  of  the  oyster,  held  in  high  esteem 
by  many.  Send  some  slices  of  brown  bread  and  butter  to  the 
table  with  the  oysters. 

The  various  methods  of  treating  oysters  will  be  given  here- 
after in  the  chapter  dealing  with  fish.  I  have  given  them 
merely  because  consumers  and  caterers  alike  may  wish  to  have 
them ;  but  the  real  and  be§t  way  of  serving  oysters  is  to  send 
them  to  the  table  raw. 


HORS-D'CEUVRES  155 

359— ARDENNES  HAM 

This  is  served  like  smoked  breast  of  goose,  cut,  raw,  into 
thin  and  even  slices. 

360— CANTALOUP  MELON 

Melon  makes  an  excellent  hors-d'oeuvre  for  summer 
luncheons.  It  should  be  just  ripe,  and  have  a  nice  perfume. 
Serve  it  as  fresh  as  possible. 

361— ENGLISH  MELONS 

The  English  variety  of  melons  is  inferior  in  quality  to  the 
French. 

Their  shape  is  oval,  their  peel  is  yellow,  thin,  and  smooth, 
and  their  pulp,  which  is  white,  more  nearly  resembles  the 
water-melon  than  the  melon  in  flavour. 

362— MELON  WITH  PORT,  MARSALA,  OR  SHERRY,  &c. 

Select  a  Cantaloup  or  other  melon  of  the  same  kind  as  the 
former,  and  let  it  be  just  ripe.  Make  a  round  incision  about 
the  stalk,  three  inches  in  diameter;  withdraw  the  plug  thus 
cut,  and  through  the  resulting  hole  thoroughly  remove  all  the 
pips  by  means  of  a  silver  spoon. 

Now  pour  one-half  pint  of  best  Port,  Marsala,  or  Sherry 
into  the  melon,  replace  the  plug,  and  keep  the  melon  for  two 
or  three  hours  in  a  cooler  surrounded  by  broken  ice.  Do  not 
cut  the  melon  into  slices  when  serving  it.  It  should  be  taken 
to  the  table,  whole,  and  then  the  piece  containing  the  stalk 
is  withdrawn  and  the  fruit  is  cut  into  shell-like  slices  with  a 
silver  spoon,  and  served  with  a  little  of  the  accompanying  wine 
upon  iced  plates. 

363— VARIOUS  MELONS 

France  produces  a  large  variety  of  melons,  of  which  the 
principal  kinds  are  the  Sucrins  of  Tours,  the  St.  Laud  melon, 
the  black  melons  of  the  Carmes,  &c.  They  are  all  excellent, 
and  are  served  like  the  Cantaloups. 

364— NATIVES  WITH  CAVIARE 

This  is  a  typically  luxurious  hors-d'oeuvre.  Cook  some 
little  tartlet  crusts  for  hors-d'oeuvre  (No.  314).  When  about 
to  dish  up,  garnish  these  with  a  tablespoonful  of  fine,  fresh 
caviare;  make  a  hollow  in  the  latter  and  place  therein  a  fine 
Whitstable  oyster  (cleared  of  its  beard),  seasoned  with  a  little 
powdered  pepper  and  a  drop  of  lemon-juice. 


156  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

365— SMOKED  BREAST  OF  GOOSE 

Cut  it  into  the  thinnest  possible  slices,  and  garnish  with 
very  green  parsley. 

366— PLAIN  OLIVES 

Olives  of  all  kinds  are  suitable  for  hors-d'oeuvres,  and  they 
are  served  plain.  Three  or  four  varieties  are  known,  all  of 
which  are  excellent,  provided  they  be  fleshy,  firm,  very  green, 
and  moderately  salted. 

367— STUFFED  OLIVES 

For  this  purpose,  select  large  Spanish  olives  and  stone  them, 
either  by  cutting  them  spirally,  or  by  means  of  a  special 
machine.  In  the  place  of  the  stone,  put  one  of  the  butters  or 
creams  for  hors-d'oeuvres  (Nos.  280  to  299).  Before  serving 
these  olives,  it  is  well  to  let  them  rest  awhile  in  a  moderately 
warm  atmosphere.  For,  since  stuffed  olives  are  generally  kept 
in  the  cool,  immersed  in  oil  with  which  they  become  thoroughly 
saturated,  it  follows  that  the  moment  they  are  put  into  contact 
with  a  slightly  higher  temperature  they  will  exude  that  oil. 
Wherefore,  if  the  above  precaution  were  not  observed,  by  the 
time  the  olives  reached  the  table  they  would,  more  often  than 
not,  be  swimming  in  oil,  when  they  would  be  neither  nice  nor 
appetising. 

368— PLAIN  LAPWINGS'  AND  PLOVERS'  EGGS 

Though  the  lapwing  and  the  plover  are  different  in  respect 
of  their  plumage,  they  are,  nevertheless,  birds  of  similar 
habits  and  haunts,  and  their  eggs  are  remarkably  alike.  The 
latter,  which  are  a  little  larger  than  pigeons'  eggs,  have  a  light- 
green  shell  covered  with  black  spots. 

When  cooked,  the  albuminous  portions  acquire  a  milky 
colour,  and  never  assume  the  solidity  of  the  whites  of  other 
eggs. 

When  served  as  a  hors-d'oeuvre,  these  eggs  are  always 
boiled  hard.  Put  them  in  a  saucepan  of  cold  water,  and  leave 
them  to  cook  for  eight  minutes  after  the  boil  is  reached.  Cool 
them,  shell  their  pointed  ends,  and  serve  them  in  a  nest  com- 
posed of  watercress  or  curled-leaf  parsley. 

N.B. — Test  the  freshness  of  the  eggs  before  boiling  them 
by  plunging  them  in  a  bowl  of  cold  water.  If  they  float,  their 
freshness  is  doubtful,  and  they  should  be  discarded. 


HORS-D'CEUVRES  157 

369— LAPWINGS'  EGGS  IN  ASPIC 

Decorate  a  border-mould  according  to  taste,  and  let  a 
thin  coating  of  very  clear  aspic  jelly  set  on  the  bottom  of  the 
utensil.  Besprinkle  the  articles  used  in  decorating  with  a  few 
drops  of  melted  jelly,  in  order  to  keep  them  from  shifting; 
then  cover  them  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  jelly,  and  let  it 
set.  On  this  coating  of  jelly  arrange  the  shelled,  hard-boiled 
lapwings'  eggs  with  their  points  downwards,  so  that  they 
may  appear  upright  when  the  aspic  is  withdrawn  from  the 
mould.  Fill  up  the  mould  by  means  of  successive  layers  of 
melted  jelly. 

When  about  to  serve,  dip  the  mould  into  hot  water ;  quickly 
wipe  it,  and  then  turn  the  aspic  out  on  to  a  folded  napkin  lying 
on  a  dish. 

370— LAPWINGS'  EGGS  A  LA  MODERNE 

Boil  the  eggs  soft ;  mould  them  in  dariole-moulds,  coated 
with  jelly,  and  garnished  in  Chartreuse  fashion.  Heap  a 
vegetable-salad,  thickened  with  mayonnaise,  in  the  middle  of 
the  dish,  and  place  the  eggs  removed  from  their  moulds  all 
round. 

371— LAPWINGS'  EGGS  A  LA  CHRISTIANA 

Cook  the  eggs  as  above ;  shell  them ;  slice  a  piece  off  their 
thicker  ends  to  make  them  stand,  and  arrange  them  on  a  dish, 
placing  them  upon  little  tartlet-crusts,  garnished  with  a  foie- 
gras  purde. 

For  twelve  eggs  put  two  tablespoonfuls  of  foie-gras  purde 
in  a  small  saucepan ;  add  thereto  one  tablespoonful  of  chopped 
truffles  and  as  much  melted  jelly,  the  latter  with  a  view  to 
making  the  preparation  more  liquid.  Take  some  of  this  pre- 
paration in  a  tablespoon  and  pour  it  over  the  eggs,  taking 
care  that  each  of  these  gets  well  covered  with  it.  Let  the 
coating  set  in  the  cool,  and  dish  up  the  tartlets  on  a  napkin, 
arranging  them  in  the  form  of  a  circle  with  curled-leaf  parsley 
as  a  centre-garnish. 

372— LAPWINGS'  EGGS  A  LA  MOSCOVITE 

Boil  the  eggs  hard;  cool  and  shell  them.  Prepare  as  many 
tartlet-crusts  as  there  are  eggs.  When  dishing  up,  garnish 
the  tartlets  with  a  coffeespoonful  of  caviare,  and  place  one 
egg  in  the  middle  of  each. 


158  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

373— VARIOUS  HARD-BOILED  EGGS 

With  hard-boiled  eggs  for  base,  a  large  number  of  hors- 
d'oeuvres  may  be  made.  I  shall  limit  myself  to  a  few  only, 
which,  by  means  of  a  small  change  in  their  form,  garnish,  or 
ornamentation,  may  be  varied  at  will:  — 

Egg  Discs. — Cut  the  eggs  laterally  into  roundels  one-third 
inch  in  thickness,  and  discard  the  two  end-pieces  of  each  egg, 
in  order  that  the  shapes  may  be  almost  uniform,  and  that  the 
yolks  may  appear  about  the  same  size  throughout.  In  the 
centre  of  each  roundel  make  a  little  rosette  of  butter,  by  means 
of  a  small,  grooved  pipe.  Different  butters,  such  as  the 
Shrimp,  Montpellier,  Caviare,  and  other  kinds,  may  be  used 
with  the  view  of  varying  the  colours. 

Halved,  Stuffed  Eggs. — Take  some  very  small,  hard-boiled 
eggs;  cut  them  into  two,  lengthwise;  remove  the  yolk's,  and 
trim  the  oval  hollow  of  each  of  the  remaining  whites  to  the 
shape  of  an  oblong,  the  edges  of  which  may  then  be  indented. 

Garnish,  either  with  a  pur^e  of  tunny,  salmon,  milt,  &c., 
or  a  hash  or  salpicon  of  lobster,  shrimp,  &c.,  thickened  by 
means  of  a  mayonnaise  with  jelly,  or  a  fine  viacedoine  of  vege- 
tables with  mayonnaise,  or  a  pur^e  composed  of  the  withdrawn 
yolks  combined  with  a  little  butter,  some  cold  Bechamel  sauce, 
and  herbs. 

Quartered,  Stuffed  Eggs. — The  simplest  way  of  doing  this 
is  to  proceed  as  above,  to  stuff  the  halved  white  with  a  buttered 
pur^e,  or  a  pur^e  mixed  with  jelly,  to  leave  the  stuffing  to  set, 
and  then  to  cut  the  halves  in  two. 

Salad  of  Eggs. — With  alternate  rows  of  sliced  eggs  and 
either  tomatoes,  potatoes,  cucumbers,  or  beetroot,  and  a  salad- 
seasoning  composed  of  oil  and  vinegar  or  cream,  a  dozen 
different  salads  may  be  prepared,  each  of  which  constitutes  an 
excellent  hors-d'oeuvre. 

374— LARK  PATE 

For  this  hors-d'oeuvre  use  the  ready-made  pate,  which  is 
obtained  either  in  pots  or  crusts.  Thoroughly  set  it  by  means 
of  ice;  turn  it  out  of  its  receptacle,  cut  it  into  very  small  and 
thin  slices,  and  arrange  them  on  a  hors-d'oeuvre  dish  with  a 
little  broken  jelly  in  the  middle. 

375— MILD,  GRILLED  CAPSICUM 

Grill  the  capsicum  on  a  moderate  fire  until  the  skins  are 
so  scorched  as  to  be  easily  removed. 


HORS-D'CEUVRES  159 

Now  cut  them  up  julienne-fashion,  and  season  with  oil  and 
vinegar. 

376— RADISHES 

In  the  preparation  of  hors-d'oeuvres  by  the  Icitchen,  radishes 
are  used  chiefly  as  a  garnish.  When  they  constitute  a  hors- 
d'oeuvre  of  themselves,  their  preparation  is  relegated  to  the 
pantry. 

They  are  used  especially  in  imitating  the  pendulous  flowers 
of  the  fuchsia;  sometimes,  too,  they  are  sliced  and  placed  on 
cut  cucumber  to  form  a  dish-border;  but  their  uses  in  garnish- 
ing are  as  numerous  as  they  are  various. 

377— AMERICAN  RELISHES 

These  consist  of  divers  kinds  of  fruit  and  of  small  onions 
and  gherkins,  prepared  with  vinegar,  seasoned  with  sugar  and 
cinnamon,  and  flavoured  with  cayenne. 

They  resemble  what  the  Italians  call  "  Aceto-dolce."  This 
hors-d'oeuvre  is  accompanied  by  special  cinnamon  biscuits, 
and  remains  on  the  table  throughout  the  meal. 

378— RILLETTES  AND  RILLONS 

Both  these  preparations,  which  belong  to  the  province  of 
the  pork-butcher,  may  be  found  on  the  market. 

The  rillettes  are  served  in  their  pots,  and  are  always  sent 
to  the  table  very  cold. 

379— RED  MULLET  A  L'ORIENTALE 

Select  small  ones,  as  far  as  possible.  Place  them  in  an 
oiled  pan,  and  add  peeled  and  concussed  tomatoes,  parsley- 
root,  fennel,  thyme,  bay,  a  little  garlic,  peppercorns,  coriander, 
and  saffron,  the  latter  being  the  dominating  ingredient. 

Cover  the  whole  with  white  wine;  salt  moderately,  set  to 
boil,  and  then  leave  to  poach  on  the  side  of  the  fire  for  twelve 
or  eighteen  minutes,  in  accordance  with  the  size  of  the  mullet. 

Leave  the  fish  to  cool  in  their  cooking-liquor,  and  serve 
them  with  a  little  of  the  latter  and  a  few  slices  of  peeled  lemon. 

380— SARDINES 

The  various  kinds  of  sardines  for  hors-d'oeuvres  may  be 
found  on  the  market. 

381— SALADS 

Salads  for  hors-d'oeuvres  may  consist  of  an  endless  diversity 
of  products,  and  their  preparation  varies  so  that  it  would  be 


i6o  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

impossible  to  prescribe  fixed  rules  for  the  latter.  I  shall  there- 
fore restrict  myself  to  saying  merely  that  they  should  be  made 
as  light  and  as  sightly  as  possible,  in  order  that  they  may  be 
in  keeping  with  the  general  idea  and  purpose  of  hors-d'oeuvre. 

382— QOTHA  AND  MILAN  SALAMI 

Cut  these  into  very  thin  slices,  and  place  them,  one  on  top 
of  the  other,  on  a  hors-d'oeuvre  dish,  in  the  form  of  a  crown, 
with  a  sprig  of  curled-leaf  parsley  in  the  middle.  They  may 
also  be  laid  flat  upon  a  litter  of  parsley. 

383— ARLES,  BOLOQNE  OR  LARGE  LYONS  SAUSAGES 

Cut  these  up  and  arrange  them  like  the  Salami. 

384— FOIE-GRAS  SAUSAGES 

Cut  into  thin  roundels  and  dish  up  with  chopped  aspic  jelly 
as  a  centre-garnish. 

385— SMOKED  SALMON 

Cut  into  triangular,  thin  slices;  roll  these  into  cones,  and 
arrange  in  the  form  of  a  crown  with  curled-leaf  parsley  in  the 
middle. 

386— SPRATS 

These  are  smoked  sardines.  Select  the  very  fleshy  ones, 
for  there  exist  many  kinds,  a  few  of  which  are  dry  and  quite 
flavourless. 

In  order  to  prepare  them,  suppress  the  heads  and  remove 
or  leave  on  the  skins,  in  accordance  with  the  consumer's  taste. 
Put  them  on  a  dish  with  some  finely-chopped  shallots,  chopped 
parsley,  and  oil  and  vinegar,  using  a  very  little  of  each  in- 
gredient. Leave  them  to  marinade  for  five  or  six  hours,  taking 
care  to  turn  them  over  from  time  to  time  so  as  to  thoroughly 
saturate  them  with  the  marinade. 

387— TARTLETS  AND  BARQUETTES 

These  articles  play  an  important  part  in  the  service  of  hors- 
d'oeuvres,  and  represent  the  class  I  designated  under  the  name 
of  Frivolities. 

The  garnishes  suitable  for  tartlets  are  likewise  used  with 
barquettes,  the  latter  only  differing  from  the  former  in  their 
shape.  The  directions  which  follow  below,  and  which  should 
be  carefully  noted,  apply  equally  to  both. 


HORS-D'CEUVRES  i6i 

Special  Paste  jor  Tartlets  and  Barquettes. — Sift  one  lb.  of 
flour  on  to  a  mixing-board;  make  a  hole  in  the  centre,  into 
which  put  one-eighth  oz.  of  salt,  one-half  lb.  of  cold,  melted 
butter,  one  egg,  the  yolks  of  two,  and  a  few  drops  of  water. 
Mix  the  whole  into  a  paste,  handling  it  as  little  as  possible; 
roll  it  into  a  ball,  and  put  it  aside  in  the  cool  for  two  hours. 

The  Preparation  of  Tartlet-  and  Barquette-crusts. — Roll  out 
the  paste  to  the  thickness  of  one-eighth  inch,  and  stamp  it  with 
an  indented  fancy-cutter  into  pieces  of  the  same  size  as  the 
tartlet-moulds  to  be  used,  which  in  this  case  are  the  same  as  for 
"  petits  fours,"  and,  therefore,  very  small. 

The  fancy-cutter  should  be  round  for  tartlets,  and  oval  for 
barquettes.  Lay  the  paste  in  the  moulds,  prick  the  parts  lying 
on  the  bottom,  lest  they  should  blister,  garnish  the  insides  with 
pieces  of  kitchen-paper  to  protect  the  paste,  and  fill  them  with 
rice  or  flour.  Bake  in  a  moderate  oven;  remove  the  rice  or 
flour,  the  sole  object  of  which  was  to  preserve  the  shape  of  the 
tartlets  or  barquettes ;  turn  the  latter  out  of  their  moulds,  and 
set  them  to  cool. 

The  Garnishes  of  Tartlets  and  Barquettes. — These  may  be 
divided  into  two  classes,  viz.,  (i)  those  with  a  compound  butter 
for  base,  (2)  those  with  an  aspic  jelly  base. 

The  first  class  comprises  all  the  garnishes  I  gave  for  Canapes 
and  Toast,  as  also  all  those  which  the  operator's  fancy,  taste, 
and  inventiveness  may  devise. 

The  second  class  generally  consists  of  a  layer,  on  the  bottom, 
of  some  kind  of  mousse,  upon  which  a  whole  piece  of  a  different 
colour  from  the  mousse  is  placed,  and  which  is  then  coated 
with  a  very  clear  jelly. 

Example. — Garnish  the  bottom  of  a  tartlet  or  barquette  with 
a  coating  of  pink,  shrimp,  crayfish  or  lobster  mousse.  Upon 
this  lay  a  very  white  poached  oyster,  or  a  slice  of  hard-boiled 
egg,  stamped  with  an  indented  fancy-cutter.  In  the  centre  of 
the  yolk  put  a  little  lobster  coral,  and  coat  the  whole  with  jelly 
to  the  level  of  the  tartlet  edges. 

The  explanations  given  above  warrant  my  refraining  from 
a  more  detailed  discussion  of  these  delicate  preparations.  Suffi- 
cient has  been  said  to  allow  of  any  operator,  with  a  little  taste 
and  inventiveness,  easily  making  an  endless  variety  of  com- 
binations. 

388— TUNNY  IN  OIL 

This  is  found  on  the  market,  and  it  may  be  served  as  it 
stands.     It  is  very  greatly  used  as  a  garnish  for  hors-d'oeuvres. 

M 


1 62  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

389— TUNNY  WITH  TOMATOES 

Lay  alternate  slices  of  tunny  and  tomato  upon  a  hors- 
d'oeuvre  dish,  and  between  each  slice  lay  a  thin  round  of  onion. 
Garnish  the  edge  of  the  dish  with  a  border  composed  of  sliced 
potato,  and  sprinkle  the  whole  with  an  ordinary  salad 
seasoning. 

390— MOCK  TOMATOES 

Select  some  about  the  size  of  a  walnut,  and  peel  them  care- 
fully. Press  them  in  a  piece  of  linen,  and  set  them  to  marinade 
for  half  an  hour  in  oil  and  vinegar.  Then  stick  a  small  piece 
of  parsley  stalk  into  each  tomato,  in  imitation  of  the  stalk,  and 
surround  it  with  little  leaves  made  from  green  butter  by  means 
of  a  small  piping-bag. 

391— TOMATOES  A  L'AMERICAINE 

Select  some  firm,  medium-sized  tomatoes,  and  cut  them  into 
thin  slices.  Put  them  into  a  dish  with  salt,  pepper,  oil,  and 
a  few  drops  of  vinegar,  and  leave  them  to  marinade  for  twenty 
minutes.  Then  arrange  them  on  a  hors-d'oeuvre  dish,  gar- 
nishing the  border  with  fine  rings  of  onion. 

392— TOMATOES  A  LA  MONEQASQUE 

Select  some  small  tomatoes  about  the  size  of  walnuts,  and 
cut  a  slice  from  each  in  the  region  of  the  stalk.  Squeeze  out 
all  their  water  and  seeds,  and  viarinade  them,  inside,  for 
twenty  minutes.  Prepare  a  mince  of  tunny  with  oil,  and  add 
thereto,  per  two  oz.  of  the  fish,  half  a  tablespoonful  of  finely- 
chopped  onion,  a  tablespoonful  of  chopped  parsley,  chervil,  and 
tarragon,  and  a  small,  hard-boiled  egg,  also  chopped. 

Thicken  the  whole  with  a  tablespoonful  of  thick  mayon- 
naise; put  it  into  a  bag  fitted  with  a  smooth,  medium-sized 
pipe,  and  garnish  the  tomatoes  with  the  preparation,  using 
enough  of  the  latter  to  form  a  kind  of  dome  upon  each  tomato. 

393_QUARTERED  TOMATOES 

Use  medium-sized  tomatoes,  somewhat  firm  and  with  very 
smooth  skins.  Peel  them  and  empty  them,  and  then  fill  them, 
either  with  a  fish  puree  cleared  with  jelly,  or  with  a  macedoine 
of  vegetables  thickened  by  means  of  a  mayonnaise  with  jelly. 
Place  on  ice  for  half  an  hour,  and  cut  the  tomatoes  into 
regular  quarters.  The  tomatoes  may  also  be  cut  into  four, 
previous  to  stuffing  them,  whereupon  they  may,  with  the  help 


HORS-D*CElJVRES  163 

of  a  piping-bag  fitted  with  a  grooved  pipe,  be  filled  with  one 
of  the  compound  butters. 

394— MARINADED  TROUT 

Select  some  very  small  trout,  clean  and  dress  them,  and 
poach  them  in  a  white-wine  court-bouillon  (No.  164)  to  which 
vinegar  has  been  added  in  the  proportion  of  one-third  of  its 
volume. 

Leave  the  fish  to  cool  in  the  liquor,  and  dish  up  with  a  few 
tablespoonfuls  of  the  latter,  placing  some  thin,  grooved  slices 
of  lemon  upon  the  fish. 


M   2 


CHAPTER    XII 

EGGS 

Of  all  the  products  put  into  requisition  by  the  art  of  cookery, 
not  one  is  so  fruitful  of  variety,  so  universally  liked,  and  so 
complete  in  itself  as  the  egg.  There  are  very  few  culinary 
recipes  that  do  not  include  eggs,  either  as  a  principal  con- 
stituent or  as  an  ingredient. 

The  many  and  various  egg-preparations  constitute  chiefly 
breakfast  or  luncheon  dishes;  nevertheless,  at  a  Lenten  dinner 
they  rriay  be  served  as  entries  with  advantage,  for,  at  a  time 
when  fish,  shell-fish,  and  water-game  are  the  only  resources 
in  this  respect,  eggs  form  a  pleasant  and  welcome  change. 

395— EQQS  ON  THE  DISH 

Eggs  cooked  in  this  way  derive  all  their  quality  from  the 
way  in  which  the  cooking  process  is  conducted.  They  must 
be  evenly  cooked,  on  top  and  underneath,  and  should  remain 
soft.  An  important  condition  of  the  process  is  that  the  eggs 
should  be  exceedingly  fresh.  After  having  heated  sufficient 
butter  in  the  dish  to  cover  the  whole  of  the  bottom,  break  two 
eggs  into  it,  baste  the  yolks  with  a  little  very  hot  butter,  salt 
them  slightly,  and  push  them  into  the  oven.  As  soon  as  the 
white  of  the  eggs  assumes  a  milky-white  colour,  they  are  cooked 
and  should  be  withdrawn  from  the  oven  to  be  served  imme- 
diately. 

Great  attention  should  be  bestowed  upon  the  cooking  pro- 
cess, a  few  seconds  more  or  less  than  the  required  time  being 
sufficient  to  spoil  the  eggs.  Special  care  ought  to  be  taken 
that  they  do  not  cook  either  too  much  or  too  quickly,  for  it 
should  be  remembered  that,  even  were  the  cooking  checked 
before  the  proper  time,  the  heat  of  the  dish  does,  to  a  certain 
extent,  make  good  the  deficiency. 

Eggs  a  la  poele,  which,  in  England,  are  called  "fried 
eggs,"  are  a  variety  of  eggs  on  the  dish,  very  often  served  on 
toast,  or  accompanied  by  sausages  or  fried  bacon.     They  are 


EGGS  165 

cooked  in  an  omelet-pan,  trimmed  neatly  witli  a  fancy-cutter, 
and  placed,  by  means  of  a  spatula,  upon  the  prepared  toast. 

About  one-half  oz.  of  butter  should  be  allowed  for  every 
two  eggs,  which  number  constitutes  the  working-base  of  the 
following  recipes. 

396— BERCY  EQQS 

Put  half  of  the  butter  to  be  used  in  a  dish;  let  it  melt,  break 
the  eggs,  taking  care  not  to  burst  the  yolks;  baste  the  latter 
with  the  rest  of  the  butter,  and  season.  Cook  as  directed — 
that  is  to  say,  until  the  whites  are  quite  done  and  the  yolks  are 
glossy.  Garnish  with  a  small,  grilled  sausage,  placed  between 
the  yolks,  and  surround  with  a  thread  of  tomato  sauce. 

397— EQQS  WITH  BROWN  BUTTER 

There  are  two  methods  :  (i)  Cook  the  eggs  in  a  dish  as 
usual,  and  then  cover  them  with  one-quarter  oz.  of  brown  butter 
and  a  few  drops  of  vinegar,  which  should  be  added  after  the 
butter. 

(2)  Put  one-half  oz.  of  butter  into  a  small  omelet-pan, 
and  cook  it  until  it  is  almost  black.  Break  the  eggs  into  it, 
season,  cook,  tilt  them  gently  on  to  a  dish,  and  besprinkle  with 
a  few  drops  of  vinegar,  with  which  the  omelet-pan  has  been 
rinsed. 

398— EQQS  CHASSEUR 

Cook  the  eggs  as  per  No.  395.  This  done,  garnish  on 
either  side  with  a  tablespoonful  of  sliced  chicken's  liver,  rapidly 
sauted  and  cohered  with  a  little  Chasseur  sauce. 

399— DEVILLED  EQQS 

Cook  the  eggs  in  the  omelet-pan ;  turn  them,  after  the 
manner  of  pancakes,  taking  care  lest  they  break.  Slide  them 
gently  into  a  dish,  and  besprinkle  them  with  brown  butter  and 
a  few  drops  of  vinegar  with  which  the  omelet-pan  has  been 
rinsed. 

400— EQQS  A  LA  FLORENTINE 

Garnish  the  bottom  of  a  dish  with  spinach-leaves  stewed 
in  butter ;  sprinkle  thereon  two  pinches  of  grated  cheese ;  break 
the  eggs  upon  this  garnish,  and  cover  them  with  two  table- 
spoonfuls  of  Mornay  sauce.  Place  in  a  fierce  oven,  so  that 
the  cooking  and  glazing  of  the  eggs  may  be  effected  simul- 
taneously. 


1 66  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

401— EQQS  AU  QRATIN 

Put  a  tablespoonful  of  very  hot  Mornay  sauce  into  a  dish. 
Break  the  eggs  into  it,  cover  them  with  Mornay  sauce, 
sprinkle  with  grated  cheese  mixed  with  fine  raspings,  and  cook 
in  a  fierce  oven,  in  order  that  the  eggs  and  the  gratin  may  be 
done  at  the  same  time. 

402— ISOLINE  EGGS 

Cook  the  eggs  according  to  No.  395.  Place  between  them, 
and  all  round  the  dish,  some  small,  halved  tomatoes  k  la  Pro- 
ven9ale.  Put  in  the  centre  of  each  halved  tomato  a  fine 
chicken's  liver  sauted  with  Madeira. 

403— JOCKEY  CLUB  EGGS 

Cook  the  eggs  in  an  omelet-pan ;  tilt  them  gently  on  to  a 
dish,  and  trim  them  with  a  round  fancy-cutter.  Place  each 
egg  upon  a  round,  thin  piece  of  toast,  and  then  cover  them 
with  foie-gras  pur6e.  Arrange  them  in  the  form  of  a  crown, 
on  a  dish,  and  pour  into  the  middle  a  garnish  of  calf's  kidneys 
cut  into  dice  and  sauted,  and  truflBes  similarly  cut,  the  latter 
being  cohered  by  means  of  some  dense  half-glaze. 

404— LULLY  EQQS 

Cook  the  eggs  in  an  omelet-pan,  and  cut  them  with  a  round 
fancy-cutter.  Place  each  egg  on  a  slice  of  raw  ham,  cut  to 
the  same  shape  as  the  former,  and  fried  in  butter.  Then  place 
the  egg  and  ham  on  toast  similarly  shaped  and  of  the  same 
size.  Arrange  the  eggs  in  a  circle  round  the  dish,  and  garnish 
the  middle  of  it  with  macaroni  combined  with  concassed  to- 
matoes stewed  in  butter. 

405— MEYERBEER  EQQS 

Cook  the  eggs  as  in  No. '395.  Place  a  small,  grilled  sheep's 
or  lamb's  kidney  between  each  yolk,  and  surround  with  a  thread 
of  P^rigueux  sauce. 

406— MIRABEAU  EGGS 

Substitute  for  ordinary  butter,  anchovy"  butter.  Break  the 
eggs  and  cook  them.  Surround  each  yolk  with  anchovy  fillets, 
and  garnish  each  of  these  with  a  spray  of  parboiled  tarragon 
leaves.  Place  a  large  olive  stuffed  with  tarragon  butter  on 
either  side  of  the  yolks. 


EGGS  167 

407— OMER- PACHA  EQQS 

Garnish  a  dish  with  a  large  tablespoonful  of  minced  onions 
cooked  in  butter  and  unbrowned.  Break  the  eggs  over  the 
garnish,  sprinkle  them  with  a  small  tablespoonful  of  dry,  grated 
Parrhesan  cheese,  and  cook  in  a  sufficiently  fierce  oven  for  a 
slight  gratin  to  form  as  soon  as  the  eggs  are  done. 

408— PARMENTIER  EGOS 

Bake  some  fine  Dutch  potatoes  in  the  oven.  Open  them, 
from  above,  with  an  oval  fancy-cutter;  remove  the  pulp  from 
the  inside,  rub  it  through  a  sieve,  and  make  a  smooth  pur^e 
of  it.  Half-fill  the  potato-shells  with  this  pur^e,  break  an  egg 
into  each,  besprinkle  with  cream,  and  cook  in  the  oven.  Re- 
place the  part  of  the  baked  shell  removed  in  the  first  instance, 
and  dish  up  on  a  napkin. 

409— EQQS  A  LA  PORTUQAISE 

Put  a  tablespoonful  of  tomato  fondue  into  a  dish.  Break 
the  eggs  upon  this,  season,  and  cook.  Between  the  eggs  and 
at  each  end  of  the  dish  put  a  little  heap  of  tomato  fondue,  and 
on  each  of  the  heaps  drop  a  pinch  of  chopped  parsley. 

410— EQQS  A  LA  REINE 

Cook  the  eggs  in  an  omelet-pan,  and  trim  them  with  a  round 
fancy-cutter.  Put  each  egg  upon  a  small  disc  of  Duchesse 
potatoes,  of  the  same  size  as  the  egg,  previously  browned  in 
the  oven.  Arrange  the  eggs  in  a  circle  round  the  dish;  in 
the  middle  put  a  chicken  mincemeat,  and  surround  with  a 
border  of  Supreme  sauce. 

Poached  and  Soft-boiled  Eggs 

All  the  recipes  given  hereafter  apply  equally  to  poached  and 
soft-boiled  eggs,  wherefore  I  shall  only  mention  ' '  poached  ' ' 
in  the  titles,  leaving  soft-boiled  to  be  understood. 

411— PROCEDURE  FOR  POACHED  EQQS 

The  one  and  only  essential  condition  in  this  case  is  the 
use  of  perfectly  fresh  eggs,  for  it  is  quite  impossible  to  expect 
an  even  poaching  if  this  condition  is  not  fulfilled. 

(i)  Have  ready  a  saut^-pan  containing  boiling  salted  water 
(one-third  oz.  of  salt  per  quart  of  water),  slightly  acidulated  with 
vinegar.  Break  the  eggs  over  that  part  of  the  water  which  is 
actually  boiling. 


1 68  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

(2)  In  order  that  the  eggs  may  poach  freely,  do  not  put  more 
than  eight  or  ten  at  a  time  into  the  same  saut(^-pan ;  better  even 
poach  them  six  at  a  time,  for  then  the  poaching  will  be  effected 
more  equally. 

(3)  As  soon  as  the  eggs  are  in  the  water,  let  the  latter 
simmer.  The  egg  is  poached  when  the  white  has  enveloped 
the  yolk,  reassuming,  as  it  were,  the  form  of  a  raw  egg,  and 
when  it  may  be  touched  without  breaking.  The  usual  time 
allowed  for  poaching  is  three  minutes. 

(4)  Withdraw  the  eggs  by  means  of  a  slice;  dip  them  into 
cold  water,  trim  their  whites,  and  put  them  back  into  moderately 
warm  water  until  ready  to  serve. 

412— THE  COOKING  OF  SOFT-BOILED  EGQS 

These  ought  to  be  very  fresh,  as  in  the  case  of  poached 
eggs.  With  a  view  to  equalising  their  cooking,  it  is  a  good 
plan  to  put  them  in  a  colander  perforated  with  large  holes, 
whereby  they  may  be  plunged  into  and  withdrawn  from  the 
water  together.  Keep  the  water  boiling ;  plunge  the  eggs 
therein  as  directed;  leave  them  to  cook  for  six  minutes  from 
the  time  the  water  has  regained  the  boiling-point;  drain,  steep 
for  a  moment  in  a  bowl  of  cold  water,  and  shell  the  eggs  care- 
fully. Keep  them  in  moderately-salted  hot  water  until  ready 
to  serve. 

413— THE  DISHING  OF  POACHED  AND  SOFT-BOILED  EGQS 

There  are  many  ways  of  doing  this,  viz.  :  — 
(i)  On  rusks  of  bread-crumb,  slightly  hollowed,  ornamented 
according  to  taste  (i.e.,  indented  by  means  of  the  point  of  a 
small  knife)  and  fried  in  clarified  butter.  Their  shape  is  oval 
for  poached  eggs,  and  round  for  soft-boiled  eggs,  the  latter 
being  generally  dished  upright. 

(2)  On  little,  oval  feuilletes  for  poached  eggs,  on  feuilletes 
in  the  shape  of  indented  crowns,  or  in  small  patties  for  soft- 
boiled  eggs. 

(3)  In  borders  of  forcemeat  or  other  preparations,  the  kind  of 
which  is  indicated  by  the  name  of  the  particular  egg-prepara- 
tion. These  borders  are  laid  on  the  dish  by  means  of  a  piping- 
bag  or  by  hand;  they  are  either  oval  or  round,  plain  or  in- 
dented, poached  or  oven-browned,  according  to  the  nature  of 
the  preparation  used. 

(4)  On  tartlet-crusts  which  are  garnished  so  as  to  be  in  keep- 
ing with  the  method  of  dressing  the  eggs. 


EGGS  169 

Remarks. — (i)  Poached  or  soft-boiled  eggs,  when  dished 
upon  fried  rusks,  feuilletes,  or  tartlets,  should,  before  being 
placed  on  the  latter,  be  covered  with  sauce.  Also  before  being 
treated  with  sauce  they  should  be  well  drained. 

(2)  Having  given  the  general  outlines  of  the  procedure,  I 
shall  now  pass  on  to  the  particular  recipes,  stating  them  briefly, 
and  reminding  the  reader  that  all  of  them  apply  equally  to 
poached  and  soft-boiled  eggs.  Thus  "  Poached  Eggs  Mireille  " 
stands  for  "  Poached  or  Soft-boiled  Eggs  Mireille." 

414— POACHED  EQQS  ARQENTEUIL 

Garnish  the  bottom  of  some  tartlet-crusts  with  asparagus 
cut  into  pieces  and  cooked,  and  six  green  asparagus-heads, 
about  one  and  one-half  inches  in  length,  arranged  like  a  star. 
Place  an  egg,  coated  with  cream  sauce  mixed  with  half  its 
volume  of  asparagus  pur^e,  upon  each  tartlet. 

415— POACHED  EGGS  A  L'AURORE 

Coat  the  eggs  with  Aurora  sauce,  and  dish  them  on  oval 
feuilletes  if  poached,  or  upright  on  feuilletes  in  the  shape  of 
rings  if  soft-boiled. 

416— POACHED  EQQS  EN  BERCEAU 

Bake  some  fine  Dutch  potatoes  in  the  oven.  Cut  each  potato 
in  half,  lengthwise,  with  the  point  of  a  small  knife,  and  remove 
the  pulp.  Emptied  in  this  way,  the  halved  potatoes  resemble 
little  cradles.  Coat  the  interior  of  each  cradle  with  a  fine 
chicken  mincemeat  mixed  with  cream,  and  place  an  egg  coated 
with  Aurora  sauce  in  each. 

417— POACHED  EQQS  A  LA  BOHEMIENNE 

Garnish  the  bottom  of  some  tartlet-crusts  with  a  salpicon 
of  foie-gras  and  truffles  cohered  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of 
the  following  sauce : — For  six  eggs,  dissolve  one  teaspoonful 
of  white-meat  glaze;  add  thereto  half  a  teaspoonful  of  truffle 
essence,  and  finish  with  a  lump  of  butter  about  the  size  of  a 
pigeon's  egg.  Take  enough  of  this  sauce  to  effect  the  cohering 
of  the  salpicon ;  coat  the  eggs  with  Hungarian  sauce,  and  place 
one  upon  each  garnished  tartlet. 

418— POACHED  EQQS  BOIELDIEU 

Garnish  the  tartlets  with  a  white-chicken-meat,  foie-gras, 
and  truffle  salpicon  cohered  with  poultry  velout^.  Coat  the 
eggs  with  a  reduced  and  thickened  poultry  gravy. 


I70  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

419— POACHED  EGGS  A  LA  BRUXELLOISE 

Garnish  some  tartlet-crusts  with  braised,  minced  endives 
thicliened  with  cream.  Place  an  egg,  coated  with  cream  sauce, 
upon  each ;  sprinkle  moderately  with  biscotte  raspings,  and 
set  to  glaze  quickly  in  a  fierce  oven. 

420— POACHED  EGGS  A  LA  CLAMART 

Garnish  some  tartlet-crusts  with  small,  green  peas,  cooked 
a  la  fran9aise  (No.  2193),  and  mixed  with  finely  ciseled  lettuce 
which  should  have  cooked  with  them.  Place  an  egg,  coated 
with  cream  sauce  which  has  been  finished  with  fresh-pea  butter, 
upon  each. 

421— POACHED  EGGS  COLBERT 

Garnish  some  tartlet-crusts  with  a  macedoine  cohered  with 
Bechamel.  Place  a  plainly-poached  egg  upon  each,  and  send 
Colbert  butter,  separately,  to  the  table  with  the  tartlets. 

422— POACHED  EGGS  A  LA  COMTESSE 

Garnish  some  tartlet-crusts  with  white  asparagus  pur^e. 
Place  an  egg  coated  with  AUemande  sauce  upon  each,  and 
sprinkle  with  very  black  chopped  truffles. 

423— POACHED  EGGS  GRAND  DUC 

There  are  two  modes  of  procedure  : — (a)  Place  the  eggs  on 
fried  rusks,  with  a  nice  slice  of  truffle  on  each ;  arrange  them 
in  a  circle  round  the  dish,  coat  with  Mornay  sauce,  and  set  to 
glaze  in  a  fierce  oven.  On  withdrawing  the  dish  from  the 
oven,  put  in  the  centre  a  garnish  composed  of  asparagus-heads 
and  a  small  faggot  of  the  latter,  very  green  and  cooked. 
(b)  Prepare  a  croustade,  moulded  in  a  flawn  ring,  the  size  of 
which  must  be  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  eggs  to  be 
served.  Arrange  the  eggs  in  a  circle  in  the  croustade,  coat 
them  with  Mornay  sauce,  and  set  to  glaze  in  a  fierce  oven. 
On  withdrawing  the  croustade  from  the  oven,  garnish  its  centre 
with  asparagus-heads  and  a  small  faggot  as  above. 

424— POACHED  EGGS  MAINTENON 

Garnish  some  tartlet-crusts  with  a  Soubise  k  la  Bechamel, 
slightly  thickened  by  reduction.  Coat  the  eggs  with  Mornay 
sauce,  besprinkle  with  grated  cheese,  and  place  them  in  the 
crusts  by  means  of  a  slice. 

Set  to  glaze  in  a  fierce  oven,  and,  on  withdrawing  the  dish 


EGGS  171 

from  the  oven,  surround  the  crusts  with  a  thread  of  melted 
meat-glaze. 

435— POACHED  EQQS  MASS^NA 

Heat  some  medium-sized  artichoke-bottoms  in  butter. 
Slightly  hollow  them,  if  necessary,  and  garnish  each  with  a 
tablespoonful  of  B^arnaise  sauce.  Place  an  egg,  coated  with 
tomato  sauce,  upon  each  artichoke-bottom ;  then  place  a  slice 
of  poached  marrow  upon  each  egg,  and  a  little  chopped  parsley 
upon  each  slice  of  marrow. 

426— POACHED  EGGS  MIREILLE 

Slightly  press  some  saffroned  pilaff  rice  in  buttered  tartlet 
moulds. 

Prepare  as  many  pieces  of  toast  of  the  same  size  as  the 
tartlets,  and  fry  them  in  oil.  Place  an  egg,  coated  with  cream 
sauce,  finished  with  saffron,  upon  each.  Turn  the  rice-tartlets 
out  of  the  moulds,  and  arrange  them  in  a  circle  on  a  dish, 
alternating  them  with  the  eggs  on  toast;  put  a  cofifeespoonful 
of  concussed  tomatoes,  stewed  in  butter  and  kept  rather  thick, 
upon  each  rice-tartlet. 

427— POACHED  EGGS  MORNAY 

Coat  the  eggs  with  Mornay  sauce,  and  besprinkle  with 
grated  Gruy^re  and  Parmesan  cheese  mixed  with  fine  raspings. 
Then,  by  means  of  a  slice,  carefully  transfer  the  eggs  to  pieces 
of  toast  fried  in  oil.  Arrange  them  in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  sprinkle 
each  egg  with  a  few  drops  of  melted  butter,  and  set  to  glaze 
quickly  in  a  fierce  oven. 

428— POACHED  EGGS  D'ORSAY 

Place  the  eggs  upon  toast  fried  in  butter.  Arrange  them 
in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  and  coat  them  with  Chateaubriand  sauce. 

429— POACHED  EGGS  ROSSINI 

Garnish  some  tartlet-crusts,  each  with  a  slice  of  foie  gras 
(raw  if  possible)  seasoned,  dredged  with  flour,  and  fried  in 
butter.  Place  an  egg,  coated  with  thickened  veal  gravy  with 
Madeira,  on  each  tartlet,  and  complete  by  means  of  a  large  slice 
of  very  black  truffle  on  each  egg. 

430-^POACHED  EGGS  S^VIQNlfe 

Prepare  some  thin  rusks;  fry  them  in  clarified  butter,  and 
stuff  them  with  a  mince  of  braised  lettuce.     Place  an  egg  on 


172  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

each  stuffed  rusk ;  coat  with  velout6  mixed  with  poultry  essence ; 
arrange  in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  and  complete  by  means  of  a  ring 
of  very  black  truffle  on  each  egg. 

431— POACHED  EGGS  VICTORIA 

Garnish  some  tartlet-crusts  with  a  salpicon  made  from  three 
oz.  of  spiny-lobster  meat  and  one-half  oz.  of  truffles,  cohered 
with  three  tablespoonfuls  of  Diplomate  sauce.  Place  an  egg, 
coated  with  Diplomate  sauce,  on  each  tartlet.  Dish,  and  set 
to  glaze  in  a  fierce  oven. 

432— POACHED  EGGS  WITH  RED  WINE 

These  eggs  may  either  be  poached  with  red  wine,  or  in  the 
ordinary  way. 

In  the  first  case,  the  wine  used  for  poaching  may  serve  to 
prepare  the  red  wine  or  Bordelaise  sauce  (No.  32).  In  either 
case,  the  eggs  are  dished  on  oval  rusks,  slightly  hollowed  and 
fried  in  butter;  they  are  coated  with  the  sauce,  after  having 
been  dished,  and  they  are  quickly  glazed. 

433— HARD-BOILED  EGGS 

Boiling  eggs  hard  may  seem  an  insignificant  matter,  but, 
like  the  other  modes  of  procedure,  it  is,  in  reality,  of  some 
importance,  and  should  be  effected  in  a  given  period  of  time. 
If,  for  a  special  purpose,  they  have  to  be  just  done,  it  is  point- 
less and  even  harmful  to  boil  them  beyond  a  certain  time-limit, 
seeing  that  any  excess  in  the  boiling  only  makes  them  tough, 
and  the  whites  particularly  so,  owing  to  their  albuminous  nature. 
In  order  to  boil  eggs  uniformly,  they  should  be  put  into  a 
colander  with  large  holes,  whereby  they  may  be  plunged  at 
the  same  moment  of  time  into  the  boiling  water.  From  the 
time  the  water  regains  the  boiling  point,  eight  minutes  should 
be  allowed  in  the  case  of  medium-sized  eggs,  and  ten  minutes 
in  the  case  of  larger  ones;  but  these  times  should  never  be 
exceeded.  As  soon  as  they  are  done  drain  the  eggs  and  dip 
them  in  cold  water,  and  then  shell  them  carefully. 

434— HARD-BOILED  EGGS  CAREME 

Have  ready  beforehand  a  timbale  crust  (No.  2395),  some- 
what shallow. 

For  six  hard-boiled  eggs,  slice  four  artichoke-bottoms  of 
medium  size,  and  stew  them  in  butter;  cut  some  truffles  into 
slices,  allowing  four  slices  to  each  egg,  and  cut  up  the  eggs 


EGGS  173 

into  discs  about  one-half  inch  thick.  Prepare  also  in  advance 
one-half  pint  of  Nantua  sauce. 

Garnish  the  crust  with  alternate  layers  of  sliced  artichoke- 
bottoms,  egg-discs,  and  sliced  truffles.  Finish  with  a  coating 
of  sauce  and  a  ring  of  sliced  truffles. 

Dish  up  the  crust  on  a  napkin. 

435— HARD-BOILED  EGOS  CHIMAY 

Cut  the  eggs,  lengthwise,  in  two.  Remove  the  yolks,  pound 
them  into  a  paste,  and  add  thereto  an  equal  quantity  of  dry 
Duxelle  (No.  '223).  Fill  the  empty  whites  with  the  preparation; 
place  them  on  a  buttered  ^raiin-dish ;  cover  them  with  Mornay 
sauce;  besprinkle  with  grated  cheese;  pour  a  few  drops  of 
melted  butter  upon  the  sauce,  and  set  to  glaze  in  a  fierce  oven. 

436— HARD-BOILED  EGOS  IN  CROQUETTES 

Cut  the  eggs  into  small  dice  (white  and  yolks).  Per  six 
eggs  add  five  oz.  of  cooked  mushrooms  and  one  oz.  of  truffles, 
cut  into  dice. 

Thicken  the  whole  with  one-quarter  pint  of  reduced 
Bechamel,  and  spread  on  a  plate  to  cool. 

When  cold,  divide  the  preparation  into  portions  weighing 
about  two  oz. ;  roll  these  portions  into  balls  on  a  floured  mixing- 
board,  and  then  shape  them  like  eggs.  Dip  them  into  an 
anglaise  (No.  174),  taking  care  to  cover  them  well  with  it, 
and  then  roll  them  in  fine  and  fresh  bread-crumbs,  letting  this 
operation  avail  for  finishing  off  the  shape.  Put  them  into  hot 
fat  seven  or  eight  minutes  before  dishing  up ;  drain,  salt 
moderately,  place  on  a  napkin,  with  a  centre  garnish  of  very 
green,  fried  parsley,  and  send  a  cream  sauce  to  the  table  with 
them. 

437— HARD-BOILED  EGGS  IN  RISSOLES 

Make  a  preparation  of  eggs,  as  for  the  croquettes,  using  a 
little  more  sauce.  Roll  some  puff-paste  trimmings  to  a  thick- 
ness of  one-quarter  inch,  and  stamp  it  with  a  round  indented 
cutter  two  and  one-half  inches  in  diameter. 

Place  a  small  tablespoonful  of  the  preparation  in  the  middle 
of  each  piece  of  paste;  moisten  slightly  all  round,  and  make 
the  rissoles  by  folding  the  outside  edges  of  the  paste  over  one 
another  to  look  like  a  closed  purse,  taking  care  to  press  them 
well  together  so  as  to  join  them,  thus  completely  enclosing  the 
preparation.     Treat  them  a  I' anglaise;  put  them  into  hot  fat 


174  ■         GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

eight  minutes  before  serving,  and  dish  up  on  a  napkin,  with 
a  centre  garnish  of  parsley. 

438— EQQS  A  LA  TRIPE 

For  six  eggs,  finely  mince  two  onions,  and  stew  them  in 
butter,  without  letting  them  acquire  any  colour.  Add  thereto 
one-half  pint  of  Bechamel  sauce,  and  set  to  cook  gently  for 
ten  minutes.  A  few  minutes  before  serving  add  the  eggs,  cut 
into  large  slices,   to  the  sauce. 

Dish  up  in  a  timbale. 

439— EQQS  A  LA  TRIPE,  BOURQEOISE 

For  six  eggs  chop  up  two  large  onions  and  stew  them  in 
butter  without  colouration.  Sprinkle  them  with  one-half  oz.  of 
flour,  moisten  with  one  pint  of  boiling  milk,  and  season  with 
salt,  pepper,  and  nutmeg. 

Set  to  cook,  gently,  for  twenty  minutes;  rub  through  a 
fine  sieve  or  through  tammy,  and  transfer  the  preparation  to  a 
saucepan,  and  heat  it  well.  Dish  up  the  eggs,  which  should 
be  quartered,  in  a  timbale,  and  cover  them  with  the  preparation 
of  onions,  very  hot. 

440— EQQS  EN  COCOTTE 

The  poaching  of  eggs  en  cocotte  is  done  in  the  bain-marie. 

Cocottes  for  eggs,  which  may  be  replaced  by  little  china  or 
plaited  cases,  are  a  kind  of  small  saucepan  in  earthenware,  in 
porcelain,  or  in  silver,  provided  with  a  little  handle.  The  time 
generally  allowed  for  the  cooking  or  poaching  of  eggs  in  this 
way  is  ten  minutes,  but  this  time  is  subject  to  variations  either 
way.  In  order  to  accelerate  the  process  I  should  advise  the 
warming  of  the  cocottes  before  the  insertion  of  the  eggs. 

Mode  of  Procedure. — Having  garnished  the  cocottes  and 
broken  the  eggs  into  them,  as  directed  in  the  recipes  given 
hereafter,  set  them  in  a  saut^-pan  and  pour  therein  enough 
boiling  water  to  reach  within  one-half  inch  of  the  brims  of  the 
cocottes.  Place  in  the  oven  and  cover,  just  leaving  sufficient 
opening  for  the  steam  to  escape. 

The  eggs  are  done  when  the  whites  are  almost  set  and  the 
yolks  are  glossy.  After  having  properly  wiped  the  cocottes, 
dish  them  on  a  napkin  or  on  a  fancy  dish-paper. 

441— EQQS  IN  COCOTTE  AU  CHAMBERTIN 

Prepare  a  red-wine  sauce  au  Chambertin.  Fill  the  cocottes, 
one-third  full,  with  this  sauce.     Set  to  boil  on  a  corner  of  the 


EGGS  175 

stove;  break  the  eggs  into  the  boiling  sauce,  season  with  a 
grain  of  salt,  and  put  the  cocottes,  one  by  one,  into  a  saute-pan 
containing  the  necessary  quantity  of  boiling  water. 

Poach  as  directed,  and  set  to  glaze  quickly  at  the  last 
moment. 

442— EQGS  EN  COCOTTE  WITH  CREAM 

This  preparation  constitutes  the  radical  type  of  this  series 
of  eggs,  and,  for  a  long  time,  was  the  only  one  in  use.  Heat 
the  cocottes  beforehand;  pour  a  tablespoonful  of  boiling  cream 
into  each,  followed  by  an  egg,  broken ;  season,  and  add  two 
little  lumps  of  butter,  the  size  of  peas.  Place  the  cocottes  in 
a  bain-marie,  and  poach  as  before. 

443— EaaS  EN  COCOTTE  A  LA  JEANNETTE 

Garnish  the  bottom  and  the  sides  of  the  cocottes  with  a 
thickness  of  one-third  inch  of  chicken-forcemeat  with  cream, 
mixed  with  a  fifth  of  its  volume  of  foie  gras.  Break  the  egg 
over  the  middle,  season,  and  poach  in  the  usual  way.  When 
about  to  serve,  surround  the  eggs  with  a  thread  of  poultry 
velout^. 

444— EQGS  EN  COCOTTE  WITH  GRAVY 

Break  the  eggs  into  buttered  cocottes.  Season,  poach,  and, 
when  about  to  serve,  surround  the  yolks  with  a  thread  of 
reduced  veal  gravy. 

445— EGGS  EN  COCOTTE  A  LA  LORRAINE 

Put  a  teaspoonful  of  breast  of  pork,  cut  into  dice  and  fried, 
into  each  cocotte,  also  three  thin  slices  of  Gruy^re  cheese  and 
one  tablespoonful  of  boiling  cream.  Break  the  eggs,  season, 
and  poach  in  the  usual  way. 

446— EQGS  EN  COCOTTE  A  LA  MARAICHERE 

Garnish  the  bottom  and  sides  of  the  cocottes  with  cooked 
spinach,  chopped  and  pressed,  and  sorrel  and  lettuce  leaves, 
both  of  which  should  be  stewed  in  butter.  Break  the  eggs, 
season,  poach  in  the  usual  way,  and,  when  about  to  send  the 
eggs  to  the  table,  drop  a  fine  chervil  -pluche  on  each  yolk. 

447— EGGS  EN  COCOTTE  WITH  MORELS 

Garnish  the  bottom  and  sides  of  the  cocottes  with  minced 
morels  fried  in  butter  and  thickened  with  a  little  reduced  half- 
glaze.  Break  the  eggs,  season,  poach,  and  surround  the  yolks 
with  a  thread  of  half-glaze  when  dishing  up. 


176  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

448— EQQS  EN  COCOTTE  A  LA  SOUBISE 

Garnish  the  bottom  and  sides  of  the  cocottes  with  a  coating 
of  thick  Soubise  purde.  Break  the  eggs,  season,  and  poach. 
When  dishing  up,  surround  the  yolks  with  a  thread  of  melted 
meat-glaze. 

449— MOULDED  EGGS 

These  form  a  very  ornamental  dish,  but  the  time  required 
to  prepare  them  being  comparatively  long,  poached,  soft-boiled, 
and  other  kinds  of  eggs  are  generally  preferred  in  their  stead. 
They  are  made  in  variously  shaped  moulds,  ornamented  accord- 
ing to  the  nature  of  the  preparation,  and  the  eggs  are  broken 
into  them  direct,  or  they  may  be  inserted  in  the  form  of 
scrambled  eggs,  together  with  raw  eggs  poached  in  a  hain- 
marie. 

Whatever  be  the  mode  of  preparation,  the  moulds  should 
always  be  liberally  buttered.  The  usual  time  allowed  for  the 
poaching  of  the  eggs  in  moulds  is  from  ten  to  twelve  minutes, 
but  when  withdrawn  from  the  bain-marie  it  is  well  to  let  the 
moulds  stand  awhile  with  the  view  of  promoting  a  settling  of 
their  contents,  which  action  facilitates  the  ultimate  turning  out 
of  the  latter. 

Empty  the  moulds  on  small  pieces  of  toast  or  tartlets,  and 
arrange  these  in  a  circle  round  the  dish. 

450— MOULDED  EGGS  A  LA  CARIGNAN 

Butter  some  Madeleine-moulds,  shaped  like  elongated  shells, 
and  garnish  them  with  a  thin  coating  of  chicken-stuffing  or 
crayfish  butter.  Break  the  eggs  in  the  middle  of  the  forcemeat; 
season,  place  carefully  in  a  bain-marie,  and  poach,  with  cover 
on,  in  the  oven,  leaving  a  small  opening  for  the  escape  of  the 
generated  vapour.  Empty  the  moulds  on  toast  cut  to  the  same 
shape  as  the  moulds  and  fried  in  butter;  arrange  them  on  the 
dish,  and  coat  with  a  Chateaubriand  sauce. 

451— MOULDED  EGGS  A  LA  DUCHESSE 

Butter  some  baba-moulds;  garnish  the  bottom  of  each  with 
a  large  slice  of  trufHe;  break  an  egg  into  each,  and  poach  in 
the  bain-marie.  Turn  out  the  moulds  on  to  little  fluted  galettes 
made  from  Duchesse  potatoes  and  coloured  in  the  oven  after 
having  been  gilded. 

Dish  up  in  the  form  of  a  crown,  and  coat  with  a  thickened 
veal  gravy. 


EGGS  t77 

452— QALLI-MAR16,  MOULDED  EQQS 

For  four  people:  (i)  Prepare  five  scrambled  eggs,  keeping 
them  very  soft ;  add  thereto  three  raw,  beaten  eggs  and  one  tea- 
spoonful  of  capsicum,  cut  into  dice.  Mould  this  preparation  in 
four  little  shallow  cassolettes,  well  buttered,  and  poach  in  the 
bain-marie. 

(2)  Have  ready  and  hot  as  many  cooked  artichoke-bottoms 
as  there  are  cassolettes ;  the  former  should  have  had  their  edges 
fluted.     Have  also  ready  a  "  Rice  k  la  Grecque  "  (No.  2253). 

(3)  Garnish  the  artichoke-bottoms  with  the  rice;  turn  out 
the  cassolettes  upon  the  latter;  arrange  on  a  dish,  and  cover 
with  highly-seasoned  and  buttered  Bechamel  sauce.  Put  the 
dish  in  a  fierce  oven,  so  as  to  glaze  quickly,  and  serve  imme- 
diately. 

453— MOULDED  EQQS  A  LA  MORTEMART 

Scramble  five  eggs,  keeping  them  soft,  and  add  thereto  three 
raw,  beaten  eggs.  Butter  some  shallow,  timbale  moulds; 
garnish  their  bottoms  with  a  fine  slice  of  truffle,  and  fill  them 
with  the  preparation  of  eggs.     Poach  in  a  bain-marie. 

Turn  out  each  mould  on  a  tartlet-crust,  garnished  with 
mushroom  pur6e  k  la  cr6me  (No.  2079),  and  arrange  in  a  circle 
on  a  round  dish.  Send  a  sauceboat  containing  some  melted 
and  buttered  meat-glaze  to  the  table  with  the  eggs. 

454— NEAPOLITAN  MOULDED  EQQS 

Make  a  preparation  consisting  of  scrambled  eggs  and 
Parmesan  cheese,  keeping  it  very  soft;  add  thereto,  per  five 
scrambled  eggs,  two  raw  eggs.  Fill  some  little,  well-buttered 
brioche-moulds  with  this  preparation,  and  poach  in  the  bain- 
marie.  As  soon  as  their  contents  are  properly  set,  turn  out 
the  moulds  on  to  a  buttered  gratin  dish,  besprinkle  with  grated 
Parmesan  cheese,  and  coat  the  eggs  with  reduced  and  buttered 
half-glaze,  well  saturated  with  tomato. 

455— MOULDED  EQQS  PALERMITAINE 

Butter  some  baba-moulds ;  garnish  the  bottoms  with  a  slice 
of  truffle,  and  besprinkle  the  sides  with  very  red,  chopped 
tongue.  Put  the  moulds  in  ice  for  a  while,  in  order  that  the 
tongue  may  set  in  the  butter.  Break  an  egg  into  each  mould, 
season,  and  poach  in  the  bain-marie.  Turn  out  the  moulds  on 
tartlet-crusts  garnished  with  macaroni  with  cream. 

N 


178  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

456— POLIQNAC  MOULDED  EQQS 

Butter  some  baba-moulds,  and  garnish  the  bottoms  with 
a  slice  of  truffle.  Break  an  egg  into  each;  season,  and  poach  in 
a  bain-mane. 

Turn  out  the  moulds  upon  little  round  pieces  of  toast; 
arrange  them  in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  and  coat  the  eggs  with 
Maitre-d' Hotel  butter,  the  latter  being  dissolved  and  mixed  with 
three  tablespoonf  uls  of  melted  meat-glaze  per  every  one-quarter 
lb.  of  its  weight. 

457— PRINCESS  MOULDED  EQQS 

Butter  some  narrow  and  deep  dariole-moulds ;  garnish  their 
bottoms  with  a  slice  of  very  black  truffle,  and  their  sides  with 
a  very  thin  coating  of  chicken  forcemeat. 

Make  a  preparation  of  scrambled  eggs,  asparagus-heads, 
and  truffles  cut  into  dice,  keeping  them  very  soft,  and  add  there- 
to raw,  beaten  eggs  in  the  proportion  of  one  raw  egg  to  every 
four  scrambled. 

Fill  the  moulds,  two-thirds  full,  with  this  preparation ;  cover 
the  eggs  with  a  coating  of  forcemeat,  and  poach  in  a  bain-marie 
for  twelve  minutes. 

Turn  out  the  moulds  upon  little,  round  pieces  of  toast;  set 
these  in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  and  surround  them  with  a  thread 
of  clear  poultry  velout6.  Or  the  velout^  may  be  sent  to  the 
table  separately,  in  a  sauceboat. 

458— PRINTANIER  MOULDED  EQQS 

Butter  some  hexagonal  moulds,  and  garnish  them.  Chart- 
reuse-fashion, with  cut-up,  cooked  vegetables,  varying  the 
shades.  Break  an  egg  into  each  mould;  season,  and  poach 
in  a  bain-marie.  Turn  out  the  moulds  upon  little,  round  pieces 
of  toast;  arrange  these  in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  and  pour  in 
their  midst  a  cream  sauce  finished  by  means  of  a  Printanier 
butter  with  herbs,  in  the  proportion  of  one  oz.  of  butter  to 
one-quarter  pint  of  sauce. 

459— SCRAMBLED  EQQS 

This  dish  is  undoubtedly  the  finest  of  all  egg-preparations, 
provided  the  eggs  be  not  over-cooked,  and  they  be  kept  soft 
and  creamy. 

Scrambled  eggs  are  mostly  served  in  silver  timbales,  but,  in 
certain  cases,  they  may  also  be  dished  in  special  little  croustades, 
in  little  receptacles  made  from  hollowed  brioches,  or  in  tartlet- 


EGGS  179 

crusts.  Formerly,  it  was  customary  to  garnish  scrambled  eggs 
served  in  a  silver  timbale  with  small,  variously-shaped  pieces 
of  toast,  or  with  small  scraps  of  puff-paste,  cooked  without 
colouration,  and  shaped  like  crescents,  lozenges,  rings,  palm- 
ettes,  &c.  This  method  has  something  to  recommend  it,  and 
may  always  be  adopted.  In  old  cookery,  scrambled  eggs  were 
sanctioned  only  when  cooked  in  a  bain-marie.  This  measure 
certainly  ensured  their  being  properly  cooked,  but  it  consider- 
ably lengthened  the  procedure.  The  latter  may  therefore  be 
shortened  by  cooking  the  eggs  in  the  usual  way,  i.e.,  in  a 
utensil  in  direct  contact  with  the  fire;  but  in  this  case  the  heat 
must  be  moderate,  in  order  that,  the  process  of  cooking  being 
progressive  and  gradual,  perfect  homogeneity  of  the  particles 
of  the  eggs  (effecting  the  smoothness  of  the  preparation)  may 
result. 

460— METHOD  OF  SCRAMBLING  EQQS 

For  six  eggs,  slightly  heat  one  oz.  of  butter  in  a  thick- 
bottomed  saut6-pan.  Add  the  six  eggs,  beaten  moderately, 
together  with  a  large  pinch  of  salt  and  a  little  pepper ;  place  the 
pan  on  a  moderate  fire,  and  stir  constantly  with  a  wooden 
spoon,  taking  care  to  avoid  anything  in  the  way  of  sudden, 
fierce  heat,  which,  by  instantaneously  solidifying  the  egg- 
molecules,  would  cause  lumps  to  form  in  the  mass — a  thing 
which,  above  all,  should  be  guarded  against. 

When,  by  cooking,  the  eggs  have  acquired  the  proper  con- 
sistence, and  are  still  smooth  and  creamy,  take  the  saut6-pan 
off  the  fire,  and  finish  the  preparation  by  means  of  one  and 
one-half  oz.  of  butter  (divided  into  small  quantities)  and  three 
tablespoonfuls  of  cream.  Only  whisk  the  eggs  to  be  scrambled 
when  absolutely  necessary. 

N.B. — Having  given  the  mode  of  procedure,  which  is  un- 
alterable for  scrambled  eggs,  I  shall  now  pass  on,  in  the  follow- 
ing recipes,  to  the  various  garnishes  suited  to  this  kind  of  dish. 
The  quantities  I  give  are  those  required  for  six  scrambled  eggs. 

461— SCRAMBLED  EQGS  A  LA  BOHEMIENNE 

Take  one  cottage  brioche  for  every  two  eggs.  Remove  the 
tops  of  the  brioches,  and  the  crumb  from  the  remaining  portions, 
so  as  to  form  cases  of  these.  Add  one-half  oz.  of  foie  gras  to 
the  scrambled  eggs,  and  half  as  much  truffles,  cut  into  dice, 
for  every  two  eggs.  Fill  the  emptied  brioches  with  this  pre- 
paration, and  place  a  slice  of  trufifle  coated  with  meat-glaze 
upon  each. 

N    2 


i8o  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

462— SCRAMBLED  EQQS  WITH  MUSHROOMS 

Add  to  the  scrambled  eggs  one  oz.  of  cooked  mushrooms 
cut  into  dice,  or  raw  mushrooms,  minced  and  sauted  in  butter, 
for  every  two  eggs. 

Dish  in  a  timbale;  put  a  fine,  cooked,  and  grooved  mush- 
room in  the  middle,  and  surround  with  a  crown  of  sliced  mush- 
rooms, also  cooked. 


463— SCRAMBLED  EGGS,  CHASSEUR 

Dish  the  scrambled  eggs  in  a  timbale.  Hollow  out  the 
middle,  and  place  therein  a  garnish  of  one  fine  chicken's  liver, 
sauted,  per  every  two  eggs.  Sprinkle  a  pinch  of  chervil  and 
tarragon  on  the  garnish,  and  surround  with  a  thread  of  chas- 
seur sauce  (No.  33). 


464— SCRAMBLED  EGGS,  CHATILLON 

Dish  the  eggs  in  a  timbale,  and  place  a  garnish  of  mush- 
rooms in  the  centre.  The  mushrooms  should  first  be  minced 
raw,  and  then  sauted  in  butter.  Sprinkle  a  pinch  of  chopped 
parsley  on  the  garnish,  and  surround  with  a  thread  of  melted 
meat-glaze.  Border  the  whole,  close  to  the  sides  of  the  timbale, 
with  small  crescents  of  puff-paste,  baked  pale. 

465— SCRAMBLED  EGGS  WITH  SHRIMPS 

Dish  the  scrambled  eggs  in  a  silver  timbale.  Place  a  little 
heap  of  shrimps'  tails  bound  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of 
shrimp  sauce  in  the  middle,  and  surround  with  a  thread  of  the 
same  sauce. 


466— SCRAMBLED  EGGS  WITH  HERBS 

Add  to  the  scrambled  eggs  a  tablespoonful  of  parsley, 
chervil  pluches,  chives,  and  tarragon  leaves  in  equal  quantities 
and  chopped. 


467— SCRAMBLED  EGGS  WITH  CHEESE 

Break  the  eggs,  beat  them,  season,  and  add  thereto,  for 
every  two  eggs,  one-half  oz.  of  fresh  grated  Gruy^re  cheese,  and 
as  much  grated  Parmesan.  Cook  the  eggs  in  the  usual  way  on 
a  very  moderate  fire,  in  order  to  keep  them  creamy. 


EGGS  i8i 

468— SCRAMBLED  EGOS    GRAND=MERE 

Add  to  the  scrambled  eggs  a  tablespoonful  of  little  crusts, 
cut  into  dice,  fried  in  clarified  butter,  and  prepared  in  time  to 
be  inserted  into  the  eggs  very  hot.  Dish  in  a  timbale  with  a 
pinch  of  chopped  parsley  in  the  middle. 

469— SCRAMBLED  EGGS,  GEORGETTE 

Bake  three  fine  Dutch  potatoes,  or  six  smaller  ones,  in  the 
oven.  Open  them  by  means  of  an  incision  on  their  tops;  with- 
draw the  pulp  from  the  interior  with  the  handle  of  a  spoon,  and 
keep  the  remaining  shells  hot.  Prepare  the  scrambled  eggs  in 
the  usual  way,  and  finish  them  away  from  the  fire  with  one  and 
one-half  oz.  of  crayfish  butter,  and  eight  or  ten  shelled  crayfish 
tails.  Garnish  the  potato  shells  with  this  preparation,  and 
dish  up  on  a  napkin. 

470— SCRAMBLED  EGGS  FOR  HOT  LUNCHEON 

HORS=D'(EUVRE 

I  only  give  one  recipe  of  this  kind,  but  the  series  may  be 
extended  at  will  without  involving  much  deep  research,  since 
all  that  is  needed  for  the  purpose  of  variety  is  the  modification 
of  the  garnish  and  a  change  in  the  souffle  preparation.  The 
mode  of  procedure  remains  unalterable.  Prepare  the  scrambled 
eggs,  and  garnish  them  as  fancy  may  suggest.  Also  make  a 
"  Souffl6  with  Parmesan  Cheese  "  (No.  2295a). 

Put  the  scrambled  eggs  into  a  large  tartlet-crust,  cook 
without  colouration,  filling  them  only  two-thirds  full.  Cover 
with  the  souffle  preparation,  taking  care  to  make  it  project  in 
a  mound  above  the  tartlets ;  place  these  on  a  tray,  poach  quickly 
in  a  hot  oven,  and  glaze  at  the  same  time. 

471— SCRAMBLED  EGGS  WITH  MORELS 

Add  to  the  scrambled  eggs  some  minced  morels,  sauted  in 
butter  and  seasoned.  Dish  in  timbales,  and  place  a  fine,  cooked 
morel  in  the  centre  of  each. 

472— SCRAMBLED  EGGS  WITH  MOUSSERONS 

Proceed  as  for  No.  471. 

473— SCRAMBLED  EGGS,  ORLOFF 

Break  the  eggs,  beat  them,  and  add  thereto  a  little  fresh, 
thick  cream.     Cook  them  in  the  usual  way,  and  add  three  cray- 


1 82  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

fishes'  tails  per  every  two  eggs.  Dish  in  little  porcelain  cases, 
place  a  fine  slice  of  truffle  in  each  of  the  cases,  and  arrange 
these  upon  a  napkin  lying  on  a  dish. 

474— SCRAMBLED  EQQS  A  LA  PIISmONTAISE 

Add  to  the  scrambled  eggs,  per  every  two  of  the  latter,  one- 
half  oz.  of  grated  Parmesan  cheese  and  a  coffeespoonful  of  raw, 
grated.  Piedmont  truffles.  Dish  in  a  timbale,  and  garnish  with 
a  fine  crown  of  sliced  truffles  of  the  same  kind  as  the  above. 

475_SCRAMBLED  EQQS  A  LA  PORTUQAISE 

Dish  the  eggs  in  a  timbale,  and  place,  in  the  middle,  some 
fine,  concassed  tomatoes,  seasoned  and  sauted  in  butter. 
Sprinkle  a  pinch  of  concassed  parsley  on  the  tomatoes,  and 
surround  with  a  thread  of  meat-glaze. 

476— SCRAMBLED  EQQS,  PRINCESS  MARY 

Prepare  some  small  timbales  in  dariole-moulds  from  puff- 
paste  scraps,  and  bake  them  without  colouration ;  also  some 
little  covers  of  puff-paste,  stamped  out  with  an  indented  fancy- 
cutter,  two  inches  in  diameter.  Set  the  covers  on  a  tray,  gild 
them  slightly,  place  on  each  a  scrap  of  indented  paste,  and 
leave  this  uncoloured.  Bake  the  timbales  and  the  covers  in  a 
moderate  oven. 

Make  a  preparation  of  scrambled  eggs  and  Parmesan  cheese ; 
add  to  this,  away  from  the  fire,  two  tablespoonfuls  of  reduced 
veloutd  with  truffle  essence  and  truffles  cut  into  dice. 

Garnish  the  timbales,  put  a  cover  on  each,  and  dish  up  on  a 
napkin. 

477— SCRAMBLED  EQQS,  RACHEL 

Add  some  truffles,  cut  into  dice,  and  some  asparagus-heads 
to  the  scrambled  eggs.  Dish  on  a  timbale;  put  a  fine  little 
faggot  of  asparagus-heads  in  the  middle,  and  surround  with  a 
crown  of  sliced  truffles. 

478— SCRAMBLED  EQQS,  REINE  MARQOT 

Prepare  the  scrambled  eggs  in  the  usual  way,  and  finish 
them  with  the  necessary  quantity  of  almond  butter.  Place  this 
preparation  in  small  tartlet-crusts,  baked  without  colouration, 
and  surround  the  tartlets  with  a  thread  of  Bechamel  sauce, 
finished  with  pistachio  butter,  the  thread  of  sauce  being  close 
up  to  the  edge  of  the  tartlets. 


EGGS  183 

480— SCRAMBLED  EQQS,  ROTHSCHILD 

Finely  pound  the  remains  of  six  crayfish  (cooked  in  Mire- 
poix)  the  tails  of  which  have  been  put  aside,  and  add  thereto, 
little  by  little,  two  tablespoonfuls  of  thick  cream.  Rub  through 
tammy. 

Add  this  crayfish  cream  to  the  six  beaten  eggs;  season,  and 
cook  on  a  moderate  fire  with  the  object  of  obtaining  a  smooth, 
soft,  and  creamy  preparation.  Serve  in  a  timbale  and  garnish, 
firstly  with  a  small  faggot  of  asparagus-heads  placed  in  the 
middle  of  the  eggs,  secondly  with  crayfish  tails  arranged  in  a 
circle  round  the  asparagus,  and  thirdly  with  large  slices  of  very 
black  truffles  arranged  in  a  crown  around  the  crayfish  tails. 

481— SCRAMBLED  EQQS  WITH  TRUFFLES 

Add  one  tablespoonful  of  truffles,  cooked  in  Madeira  and 
cut  into  dice,  to  the  scrambled  eggs.  Place  these  in  a  timbale, 
and  garnish  with  a  crown  of  sliced  truffles. 

Or  place  the  preparation  in  tartlet-crusts,  made  from  trim- 
mings of  puff-paste  and  baked  without  colouration,  with  a  large 
slice  of  truffle  on  the  eggs,  in  each  tartlet. 

482— FRIED  EQQS 

In  the  long  series  of  egg-preparations,  fried  eggs  are  those 
which  hold  the  least  important  place,  for  the  fried  eggs  which 
are  so  commonly  served  at  breakfasts  in  England  and  America 
are  really  eggs  a  la  poele.  The  real  fried  egg  is  almost  un- 
known in  England  and  America.  As  a  rule,  the  garnish  given 
to  this  kind  of  eggs  is  served  apart,  while  the  latter  are  dished, 
either  on  a  napkin  or  on  pieces  of  toast,  with  a  little  fried  parsley 
laid  in  the  middle  of  the  dish. 

483— THE  PREPARATION  OF  FRIED  EQQS 

Any  fat,  provided  it  be  well  purified,  may  be  used  for  these 
eggs,  but  oil  is  the  more  customary  frying  medium.  To  do 
these  eggs  properly,  only  one  should  be  dealt  with  at  a  time. 

Heat  some  oil  in  an  omelet-pan  until  it  begins  to  smoke 
slightly ;  break  the  egg  on  a  plate ;  season  it,  and  let  it  slide  into 
the  pan.  Then,  with  a  wooden  spoon,  quickly  cover  up  the 
yolk  with  the  solidified  portions  of  the  white,  in  order  to  keep 
the  former  soft. 

Drain  the  egg  on  a  piece  of  stretched  linen,  and  proceed 
in  the  same  way  with  the  other  eggs  until  the  required  quantity 
has  been  treated. 


1 84  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

484— FRIED  EQQS  A  LA  BORDELAISE 

Prepare  as  many  halved  tomatoes  k  la  Provenfale  (see 
tomatoes)  as  there  are  eggs,  adding  a  pinch  of  chopped  shallots 
to  each  halved  tomato.  When  cooked,  garnish  them  with  cepes, 
finely  minced  and  sauted  k  la  Bordelaise;  place  a  fried  egg  on 
each  garnished  half-tomato,  and  arrange  them  in  a  circle  on 
a  dish,  with  fried  parsley  in  the  middle. 

485— HARVESTERS'  FRIED  EGGS 

Fry  as  many  blanched  rashers  of  breast  of  bacon  as  there 
are  eggs.  Arrange  in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  alternating  the  rasher 
with  the  eggs.  Garnish  the  centre  with  large  peas,  cooked 
with  ciseled  lettuce  and  finely-sliced  potatoes. 

486— FRIED  POACHED  EQQS 

This  kind  is  recommended,  because  it  may  be  served  with 
various  garnishes— either  vegetables  of  the  same  nature,  a 
macedoine,  vegetable  purees,  or  divers  cullises,  sauces  in  keep- 
ing with  the  eggs,  artichoke-bottoms,  mushrooms,  morels,  &c. 
(sliced  and  sauted  in  butter),  or  tomato-fondue,  &c. 

After  having  properly  drained  and  dried  the  poached  eggs, 
which  should  have  been  prepared  beforehand,  dip  them  care- 
fully in  a  Villeroy  sauce  (No.  108),  and  arrange  them,  one  by 
one,  on  a  dish.  When  the  sauce  has  set,  pass  the  point  of  a 
small  knife  round  the  eggs  to  remove  any  excess  of  sauce; 
take  them  off  the  dish  to  treat  them  with  an  anglaise  (No.  174), 
and  then  roll  them  in  very  fine,  fresh  bread-crumbs. 

Plunge  them  into  very  hot  fat  three  or  four  minutes  before 
serving ;  drain  them  on  a  piece  of  linen ;  salt  slightly,  arrange 
in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  and  set  the  selected  garnish  in  the  middle. 

487— FRIED  EQQS  A  LA  PORTUQAISE 

Place  each  of  the  fried  eggs  upon  a  half-tomato  k  la  Por- 
tugaise,  i.e.,  stuffed  with  rice  after  having  been  previously 
half-baked  in  the  oven.  Arrange  in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  and 
garnish  the  centre  with  concussed  tomatoes  sauted  in  butter. 

488— FRIED  EQQS  A  LA  PROVEN9ALE 

Put  each  fried  egg  on  a  half-tomato  on  a  large,  thick  slice 
of  egg-plant,  seasoned,  rolled  in  flour,  and  fried  in  oil. 
Set  in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  with  fried  parsley  in  the  centre. 


EGGS  185 

489— FRIED  EGGS  A  LA  ROMAINE 

Place  the  eggs,  fried  in  oil,  on  little,  oval  subrics  of  spinach. 
The  preparation  of  spinach  should  have  anchovy  fillets,  cut 
into  dice,  added  to  it. 

490— FRIED  EGGS  A  LA  VERDI 

Cut  six  hard-boiled  eggs  lengthwise.  Remove  the  yolks, 
pound  them  with  two  oz.  of  butter,  and  add  thereto  two  table- 
spoonfuls  of  thick,  cold  Bechamel,  two  tablespoonfuls  of  cooked 
herbs,  and  one  tablespoonful  of  lean  ham,  cooked  and  chopped. 
Garnish  each  half-white  of  egg  with  a  good  tablespoonful  of 
this  preparation,  and  smooth  it  with  the  blade  of  a  small  knife, 
shaping  it  in  such  wise  as  to  represent  the  other  half  of  the 
egg.  Dip  each  whole  egg,  thus  formed,  into  an  anglaise,  and 
roll  in  fine,  fresh  bread-crumbs.  Plunge  in  hot  fat  six  minutes 
before  serving,  and  dish  on  a  napkin,  with  fried  parsley  in  the 
centre.  Send,  separately,  to  the  table  a  garnish  composed  of 
asparagus-heads . 

491— FRIED  POACHED  EGGS  A  LA  VILLEROY 

Prepare  the  eggs,  poached  beforehand,  as  explained  under 
No.  486.  Fry  them  similarly,  and  dish  them  on  a  napkin,  with 
a  garnish  of  fried  parsley  in  the  centre. 


Omelets 

The  procedure  for  omelets  is  at  once  very  simple  and  very 
difficult,  for  tastes  differ  considerably  in  respect  of  their  pre- 
paration. Some  like  them  well  done,  others  insist  upon  their 
being  just  done,  while  there  are  yet  others  who  only  enjoy  them 
when  they  are  almost  liquid. 

Nevertheless,  the  following  conditions  apply  to  all — namely, 
that  there  should  be  homogeneity  of  the  egg-molecules;  that 
the  whole  mass  should  be  smooth  and  soft;  and  that  it  should 
be  borne  in  mind  that  an  omelet  is  in  reality  scrambled  eggs 
enclosed  in  a  coat  composed  of  coagulated  egg. 

I  take  as  my  standard  an  omelet  consisting  of  three  eggs, 
the  seasoning  of  which  comprises  a  small  pinch  of  table-salt  and 
a  little  pepper,  and  which  requires  one-half  oz.  of  butter  for  its 
preparation.  The  quantities  of  garnishing  ingredients  given 
below,  therefore,  are  based  upon  this  standard. 


i86  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

492— THE  PREPARATION  OF  OMELETS 

Heat  the  butter  in  the  omelet-pan,  until  it  exhales  the  char- 
acteristic nutty  smell.  This  will  not  only  lend  an  exquisite 
taste  to  the  omelet,  but  the  degree  of  heat  reached  in  order  to 
produce  the  aroma  will  be  found  to  ensure  the  perfect  setting 
of  the  eggs. 

Pour  in  the  beaten  and  seasoned  eggs,  and  stir  briskly  with 
a  fork,  in  order  to  heat  the  whole  mass  evenly.  If  the  omelet 
is  to  be  garnished  inside,  this  ought  to  be  done  at  the  present 
stage,  and  then  the  omelet  should  be  speedily  rolled  up  and 
transferred  to  a  dish,  to  be  finished  in  accordance  with  the  nature 
of  its  designation. 

When  the  omelet  is  on  the  dish,  a  piece  of  butter  may  be 
quickly  drawn  across  its  surface,  to  make  it  glossy. 

493— AONES  SOREL  OMELET 

Stuff  the  omelet  with  one  tablespoonful  of  mushrooms, 
minced  and  sauted  in  butter.  Roll  it  up,  and  transfer  it  to  a 
dish. 

Then  lay  eight  small  slices  of  very  red  tongue  upon  it,  let- 
ting their  edges  overlap ;  surround  with  a  thread  of  veal  gravy. 

494— OMELET  A  LA  BRUXELLOISE 

Stuff  the  omelet  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  braised  endives, 
ciseled  and  thickened  with  cream.  Surround  with  a  thread  of 
cream  sauce. 

495— OMELET  WITH  CfePES 

Finely  mince  two  oz.  of  cepes ;  toss  them  in  butter  in  an 
omelet-pan  until  they  have  acquired  a  brown  colour;  add  thereto 
a  pinch  of  chopped  shallots,  and  toss  them  again  for  a  moment. 

Pour  the  eggs  into  the  omelet-pan;  make  the  omelet;  dish 
up,  and  surround  with  a  thread  of  half-glaze. 

496— OMELET  WITH  MUSHROOMS 

Mince  two  oz.  of  raw  mushrooms;  toss  them  in  butter  in  an 
omelet-pan ;  add  the  eggs  thereto,  and  make  the  omelet.  Trans- 
fer it  to  a  dish,  lay  three  little  cooked  and  grooved  mushrooms 
upon  it,  and  surround  with  a  thread  of  half-glaze. 


EGGS  187 

497— OMELET  A  LA  CHOISY 

Stuff  the  omelet  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  braised  lettuce ; 
the  latter  should  have  been  ciseled  and  cohered  by  means  of 
cream  sauce. 

Roll  and  dish  the  omelet,  and  surround  it  with  a  thread  of 
cream  sauce. 

498— OMELET  A  LA  CLAMART 

Stuff  the  omelet  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  fresh  peas,  bound 
by  means  of  butter  and  combined  with  a  portion  of  the  lettuce 
used  in  cooking  them,  finely  ciseled.  Roll  and  dish  the  omelet, 
make  an  opening  lengthwise  in  the  centre,  and  fill  the  inter- 
space with  a  tablespoonful  of  fresh  peas. 

499— OMELET  WITH  CRUSTS 

Combine  with  the  beaten  and  seasoned  eggs  two  tablespoon- 
fuls of  small  crusts,  cut  into  dice,  fried  in  clarified  butter,  and 
very  hot. 

Make  the  omelet  very  quickly. 

500— OMELET  WITH  SPINACH 

Stuff  the  omelet  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  spinach  with 
cream,  and  surround  with  a  thread  of  cream  sauce. 

501— OMELET  A  LA  FERMIERE 

Add  to  the  beaten  and  seasoned  eggs  one  tablespoonful  of 
very  lean,  cooked  ham  cut  into  dice.  Pour  the  eggs  into  the 
omelet-pan,  and  cook  them  quickly,  taking  care  to  keep  them 
very  soft.  Let  the  outside  harden  slightly;  tilt  into  the  dish 
after  the  manner  of  a  pancake,  and  besprinkle  the  surface  with 
a  pinch  of  chopped  parsley. 

502— OMELET  AUX  FINES  HERBES 

Add  to  the  eggs  one  tablespoonful  of  parsley,  chervil,  chive, 
and  tarragon  leaves,  all  to  be  finely  chopped  and  almost  equally 
apportioned. 

Make  the  omelet  in  the  usual  way. 

503— OMELET  WITH  VEGETABLE  MARROW  FLOWERS 

Add  to  the  eggs  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  the  calices  of 
freshly-plucked  and  young  vegetable-marrow  flowers;  cisel  and 


1 88  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

stew  them,  and  add  thereto  a  pinch  of  chopped  parsley.     Sur- 
round the  omelet  with  a  thread  of  tomato  sauce. 

N.B. — This  omelet  may  be  made  with  oil,  as  well  as  with 
butter. 

504— OMELET  WITH  CHICKEN'S  LIVER 

Stuff  the  omelet  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  chicken's  liver, 
which  should  be  cut  into  dice  or  finely  sliced,  seasoned,  quickly 
sauted  in  butter,  and  cohered  with  half-glaze.  Dish  the  omelet, 
make  an  opening  lengthwise  in  the  centre,  and  place  one  table- 
spoonful  of  chicken's  liver,  prepared  as  above,  in  the  interspaces. 
Besprinkle  with  chopped  parsley,  and  surround  the  omelet  with 
a  thread  of  half-glaze. 

S05— OMELET  WITH  ARTICHOKE = BOTTOMS 

Finely  mince  two  small  artichoke-bottoms  (raw  if  possible), 
season  them,  and  slightly  colour  them  in  butter.  Add  the 
beaten  and  seasoned  eggs,  and  make  the  omelet  in  the  usual 
way. 

506— OMELET  WITH  YOUNG  SHOOTS  OF  HOPS 

Stuff  the  omelet  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  young  shoots 
of  hops,  cohered  with  cream,  and  finish  it  in  the  usual  way. 
Open  it  slightly  along  the  top,  and  garnish  with  a  few  young 
shoots  of  hops  put  aside  for  the  purpose. 

The  omelet  may  be  surrounded  with  a  thread  of  cream  sauce, 
but  this  is  optional. 

507— OMELET  A  LA  LYONNAISE 

Finely  mince  half  an  onion,  and  cook  it  with  butter  in  an 
omelet-pan,  letting  it  brown  slightly.  Add  the  eggs,  with 
which  a  large  pinch  of  chopped  parsley  has  been  mixed,  and 
make  the  omelet  in  the  usual  way. 

508— OMELET  MAXIM 

Make  the  omelet  in  the  usual  way.  Lay  upon  it  alternate 
rows  of  crayfish  tails  and  slices  of  truffle.  Surround  the  omelet 
with  a  fine  border  of  frogs'  legs  "  sauted  k  la  Meuni^re,"  i.e., 
seasoned  raw,  rolled  in  flour,  and  sauted  in  butter  until  quite 
cooked  and  well  gilded. 


EGGS  189 

509— OMELET  WITH  MORELS 

Mince  and  toss  in  butter  two  oz.  of  very  firm  morels.  Two 
should  be  put  aside,  which,  after  having  been  cut  in  two,  length- 
wise, and  sauted  with  the  others,  should  be  placed  on  a  dish 
when  the  omelet  is  about  to  be  made.  Having  dished  the  latter, 
place  the  four  sauted  and  reserved  pieces  of  morels  upon  it,  and 
surround  it  with  a  thread  of  half-glaze. 

510— OMELET  MOUSSELINE 

Beat  the  yolks  of  three  eggs  in  a  bowl  with  a  small  pinch 
of  salt  and  a  tablespoonful  of  very  thick  cream.  Add  thereto 
the  three  whites,  whisked  to  a  stiff  froth,  and  pour  this  pre- 
paration into  a  wide  omelet-pan  containing  one  oz.  of  very  hot 
butter.  Saute  the  omelet,  tossing  it  very  quickly,  and  taking 
care  to  turn  the  outside  edges  of  the  preparation  constantly 
towards  the  centre;  when  the  whole  mass  seems  uniformly  set, 
roll  the  omelet  up  quickly,  and  dish  it.  This  omelet  should 
be  sent  to  the  table  immediately. 

510a— OMELET  WITH  MOUSSERONS 

Mince  two  oz.  of  very  fresh  mousserons ;  toss  them  in  butter 
in  the  omelet-pan ;  add  thereto  the  eggs  mixed  with  a  pinch  of 
chopped  parsley;  make  the  omelet,  dish  it,  and  surround  it  with 
a  thread  of  half-glaze. 

SI  I— OMELET  A  LA  NANTUA 

Add  to  the  omelet  six  little  crayfishes'  tails,  each  of  which 
must  be  cut  into  three,  and  the  whole  mixed  with  a  little 
Nantua  sauce.  Put  two  fine  crayfishes'  tails  on  the  omelet, 
making  them  touch  at  their  thicker  ends,  and  surround  with 
a  thread  of  Nantua  sauce. 

512— OMELET  PARMENTIER 

Add  a  pinch  of  chopped  parsley  to  the  eggs,  and,  when 
about  to  pour  the  latter  into  the  omelet-pan,  add  two  table- 
spoonfuls  of  potato  cut  into  dice,  seasoned,  sauted  in  butter, 
and  very  hot.     Make  the  omelet  in  the  usual  way. 

513— OMELET  A  LA  PAYS  ANNE 

Frizzle  with  butter,  in  the  omelet-pan,  two  oz.  of  breast  of 
bacon  cut  into  dice.  Add  to  the  eggs  one  tablespoonful  of 
finely-sliced  potatoes  sauted  in  butter,  one-half  tablespoonful  of 
ciseled  sorrel  stewed  in  butter,  and  a  pinch  of  concussed  chervil. 

Pour  the  whole  over  the  bacon-dice;  cook  the  eggs  quickly, 


I90  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

keeping  them  soft;  turn  the  omelet  after  the  manner  of  a  pan- 
cake, and  tilt  it  immediately  on  to  a  round  dish. 

514— OMELET  WITH  ASPARAGUS=TOPS 

Add  one  and  one-half  tablespoonfuls  of  blanched  asparagus- 
tops,  stewed  in  butter,  to  the  omelet.  Having  dished  the  omelet, 
open  it  along  the  middle,  and  lay  a  nice  little  faggot  of 
asparagus-tops  in  the  interspace. 

S15— OMELET  A  LA  PROVEN9ALE 

Rub  the  bottom  of  the  omelet-pan  lightly  with  a  clove  of 
garlic;  put  two  tablespoonfuls  of  oil  into  the  utensil,  and  heat 
it  until  it  smokes. 

Throw  into  the  oil  a  fine,  peeled,  pressed,  and  pipped 
tomato,  cut  into  dice  and  besprinkled  with  a  pinch  of  concussed 
parsley.  Cook  it  quickly,  tossing  it  the  while,  and  add  it  to 
the  beaten  and  seasoned  eggs.  Make  the  omelet  in  the  usual 
way. 

N.B. — The  nature  of  this  preparation  demands  the  use  of 
oil  in  treating  the  tomato,  but,  failing  oil,  clarified  butter  may 
be  used. 

516— OMELET  WITH  KIDNEYS 

Add  to  the  omelet  a  tablespoonful  of  calf's  or  sheep's  kidney, 
cut  into  dice,  seasoned  with  salt  and  pepper,  sauted  quickly  in 
butter,  and  cohered  by  means  of  half-glaze.  Having  dished  the 
omelet,  divide  it  down  the  middle,  lay  some  reserved  kidney- 
dice  in  the  interspace,  and  surround  with  a  thread  of  half-glaze. 

517— OMELET  A  LA  ROSSINI 

Add  to  the  beaten  and  seasoned  eggs  one  dessertspoonful 
of  cooked  foie  gras  and  as  much  truffle,  cut  into  small  dice. 
Having  dished  the  omelet,  place  in  the  middle  thereof  a  small 
rectangular  piece  of  heated  foie  gras,  and  two  slices  of  truffle 
on  either  side  of  the  latter.  Surround  it  with  a  thread  of  half- 
glaze  flavoured  with  truffle  essence. 

518— OMELET  WITH  TRUFFLES 

Add  to  the  omelet  one  tablespoonful  of  truffles,  cut  into  dice. 
Make  the  omelet,  dish  it,  and  lay  a  row  of  fine  slices  of  truffles 
upon  it.     Surround  it  with  a  thread  of  melted  meat-glaze. 


EGGS  191 

519— HOT  LAPWINGS'  AND  PLOVERS'  EGGS 

Note. — In  the  chapter  on  hors-d'oeuvres,  where  recipes  were 
given  which  deal  with  lapwings'  eggs,  I  made  a  few  remarks 
relative  to  their  freshness,  and  indicated  the  procedure  for  boil- 
ing them  soft  and  hard. 

520— SCRAMBLED  LAPWINGS'  EGGS 

Proceed  as  for  ordinary  scrambled  eggs,  all  the  recipes  given 
for  the  latter  being  perfectly  applicable  to  lapwings'  eggs.  They 
require,  however,  very  great  care  in  their  preparation,  and  it 
should  be  borne  in  mind  that  one  ordinary  hen's  egg  is  equal 
to  about  three  lapwings'  eggs. 

521— LAPWINGS'  EGGS  A  LA  DANOISE 

Poach  the  eggs  as  directed  in  the  recipe  dealing  with  the 
process,  and  dish  them  up  in  tartlet-crusts  garnished  with  a 
pur^e  of  smoked  salmon. 

522— OMELET  OF  LAPWINGS'  EGGS 

Proceed  as  for  other  omelets,  but  one  ordinary  hen's  egg  is 
generally  added  to  every  six  lapwings'  eggs  in  order  to  give 
more  body  to  the  preparation.  All  the  omelet  recipes  already 
given  may  be  applied  to  lapwings'  eggs. 

523— LAPWINGS'  EGGS  A  LA  ROYALE 

Garnish' as  many  small  tartlet  moulds  as  there  are  eggs  with 
chicken-forcemeat.  Poach,  turn  out  the  moulds,  and  hollow 
out  the  centres  of  the  tartlets  in  such  wise  as  to  be  able  to  set 
an  egg  upright  in  each. 

Place  a  soft-  or  hard-boiled  egg  on  each  forcemeat  tartlet, 
coat  the  eggs  with  a  light  pur^e  of  mushrooms,  besprinkle  with 
chopped  truffles,  and  arrange  in  a  circle  on  a  dish. 

524— LAPWINGS'  EGGS  AU  TROUBADOUR 

Select  as  many  large  morels  as  there  are  eggs.  Remove  the 
stalks,  and  widen  the  openings  of  the  morels ;  season  them,  and 
stew  them  in  butter.     Boil  the  lapwings'  eggs  soft. 

Garnish  each  stewed  morel  with  an  egg;  set  them  on  little 
tartlet-crusts  garnished  with  a  light,  foie-gras  pur^e,  and 
arrange  them  in  a  circle  on  a  dish. 


192  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Cold  Eggs 

The  preparation  of  cold  eggs  is  not  limited  by  classical 
rules;  it  rests  with  the  skill  and  artistic  imagination  of  the 
operator,  and,  since  fancifulness  and  originality  are  always 
closely  allied  to  artistic  imagination,  it  follows  that  the  varieties 
evolved  may  be  infinite. 

Indeed,  so  various  and  numerous  are  the  recipes  dealing  with 
this  kind  of  egg-preparations  that  I  must  limit  myself  to  a 
selection  only  of  the  more  customary  ones,  culled  as  far  as 
possible  from  my  own  repertory. 

525— COLD  EQQS  ALEXANDRA 

Take  some  cold,  well-trimmed,  poached  eggs ;  dry  them  and 
cover  them  with  a  white  chaud-froid  sauce.  Place  a  fine  in- 
dented slice  of  truffle  in  the  centre  of  each,  and  sprinkle  with  a 
cold,  white,  melted  aspic  jelly  until  they  are  thinly  coated  there- 
with. Slip  the  point  of  a  small  knife  round  each  egg  with  the 
view  of  moving  them  more  easily,  and  transfer  them  to  oval 
tartlet-crusts  made  from  puff-paste  trimmings,  baked  without 
colouration. 

Lay  a  border  of  caviare  round  the  eggs;  dish  them  in  the 
form  of  a  crown,  and  put  some  chopped  jelly  in  the  centre. 

526— COLD  EGGS  A  L'ANDALOUSE 

Cover  some  cold,  well-dried,  poached  eggs  with  a  tomato 
pur^e  combined  with  a  full  third  of  its  volume  of  Soubise  pur^e 
and  one-half  pint  of  melted  aspic  jelly  per  pint  of  sauce.  Cut 
some  pimentos,  marinaded  in  oil,  into  very  thin  strips,  and  lay 
these,  after  the  manner  of  a  lattice,  upon  each  egg. 

Now  garnish  as  many  oiled,  oval  tartlet-moulds  as  there 
are  eggs  with  tomato  pur^e,  thickened  with  jelly,  and  let  the 
garnish  set  on  ice.  Turn  out  the  moulds,  and  put  an  egg  upon 
each  of  the  tomato  tartlets;  arrange  the  latter  in  a  circle  on  a 
dish  surrounded  with  a  chain  composed  of  linked  rings  of  onion, 
and  garnish  the  centre  with  chopped,  white  jelly. 

527— COLD  EQQS  ARGENTEUIL 

Coat  some  well-dried,  soft-boiled  eggs,  slightly  cut  at  their 
base  to  make  them  stand,  with  a  white  chaud-froid  sauce  com- 
bined with  a  good  third  of  its  volume  of  asparagus-tops  pur^e. 
Sprinkle  repeatedly  with  cold,  melted,  white  jelly,  until  a  glossy 
coating  is  obtained. 


ECGS  19  j 

Garnish  the  centra  6f  a  dish  with  a  salad  of  asparagus-tops ; 
surround  this  with  fine  slices  of  cold  potato,  cooked  in  water  and 
cut  up  with  an  even  fancy-cutter,  one  inch  in  diameter,  and 
arrange  the  eggs  all  round. 

528— COLD  EGGS  CAPUCINE 

Carefully  dry  some  cold,  poached  eggs,  and  half-coat  them 
lengthwise  with  a  white  chaud-froid  sauce ;  complete  the  coating 
on  the  other  side  with  a  smooth  pur^e  of  truffles,  thickened  with 
jelly.  Leave  these  two  coats  to  set,  placing  the  eggs  in  the 
cool  or  on  ice  for  that  purpose. 

Garnish  the  centre  of  a  round  dish  with  a  small  pyramid  of 
cold,  truffled  Brandade  of  morue,  and  set  the  eggs  round  the 
latter. 

529— COLD  EQQS  CARfeME 

Cook  the  eggs  on  the  dish,  leave  them  to  cool,  and  trim 
them  with  an  even  fancy-cutter,  oval  in  shape.  Place  each 
egg  on  an  oval  tartlet-crust,  garnished  with  dice  of  cooked 
salmon,  cohered  with  mayonnaise. 

Surround  with  a  thread  of  caviare,  and  lay  a  thin  slice  of 
very  black  truffle  on  each  egg. 

530— COLD  EGGS  COLBERT 

Garnish  some  small,  oval  moulds  in  Chartreuse  fashion,  i.e., 
like  a  draught-board.  Put  a  small,  cold,  poached  egg  into  each 
mould,  fill  up  with  melted,  white  jelly,  and  leave  to  set.  Garnish 
the  centre  of  a  dish  with  a  heaped  vegetable  salad ;  arrange  the 
eggs  taken  from  their  moulds  around  this,  and  surround  with 
a  little  chopped  jelly. 

531— COLD  EGGS  COLINETTE 

Let  a  thin  coat  of  white  jelly  set  upon  the  bottom  and  sides 
of  some  small,  oval  moulds.  Garnish  the  latter  with  some  small 
dice,  consisting  of  white  of  &gg  and  truffles,  placing  them  so 
as  to  simulate  a  draught-board ;  now  insert  a  very  small,  cold, 
poached  egg  into  each  mould,  and  fill  up  with  a  melted  jelly. 

Garnish  the  centre  of  a  dish  with  a  "  Rachel  "  salad,  en- 
circled by  a  ring  of  sliced,  cold  potatoes,  cooked  in  water,  and 
place  the  eggs,  removed  from  their  moulds,  all  round.  Border 
the  dish  with  indented  crescents  of  white  jelly. 

532— COLD  EGGS  WITH  TARRAGON 

Mould  these  in  baba-moulds,  or  in  porcelain  cocottes ;  some 
times  they  may  simply  be  dished  up  on  small  tartlet-crusts. 

O 


194  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

The  preparation  consists  of  poached  or  soft-boiled  eggs, 
garnished  with  blanched  tarragon  leaves,  or  coated  or  moulded 
with  a  very  fine  tarragon  jelly. 


533— COLD  EGGS,  FROU-FROU 

Select  soine  very  small  poached  eggs  of  equal  size,  cover 
them  with  a  white  chaud-froid  sauce  combined  with  about  a 
third  of  its  volume  of  a  pur^e  of  hard-boiled  egg-yolks. 

Garnish  the  top  of  each  egg  with  an  indented  ring  of  very 
black  truffle,  and  surround  the  base  of  the  eggs  with  a  narrow 
ribbon  composed  of  chopped  truffles.  Glaze  with  jelly,  and 
leave  to  set  on  ice. 

Prepare  a  salad  of  green  vegetables  (peas,  French  beans  cut 
into  dice  or  lozenges,  asparagus-tops) ;  thicken  it  with  a  very 
little  mayonnaise  mixed  with  melted  jelly.  Pour  this  prepara- 
tion into  an  oiled  mould,  and  leave  it  to  set.  For  dishing, 
turn  out  the  salad  in  the  middle  of  a  dish ;  surround  the  base 
with  a  line  of  chopped  jelly;  encircle  the  whole  with  the  eggs, 
letting  them  rest  on  the  jelly,  and  garnish  the  dish  with  a 
border  of  dice  cut  in  very  clear,  white  jelly. 

534— COLD  EGGS  MOSCOVITE 

Slightly  level  both  ends  of  some  shelled,  hard-boiled  eggs. 
Surround  the  tops  and  the  bases  with  three  little  anchovy  fillets, 
and  place  a  bit  of  truffle  just  half-way  along  each  egg.  Eggs 
prepared  in  this  way  resemble  little  barrels,  whereof  the  anchovy 
fillets  imitate  the  iron  hoops,  and  the  bits  of  truffle  the  bungs. 
By  means  of  a  tubular  cutter  empty  the  eggs  with  care ;  garnish 
them  with  caviare,  and  shape  the  latter  to  a  point,  outside  the 
edges  of  the  egg. 

Lay  each  egg  in  an  artichoke-bottom,  cooked  white,  and  gar- 
nished with  finely-chopped  jelly,  and  arrange  them  in  a  circle  on 
a  dish  with  chopped  jelly  in  the  centre. 

535— COLD  EGGS  A  LA  NANTUA 

Prepare  some  hard-boiled  eggs  to  resemble  little  barrels, 
after  the  manner  described  above.  For  every  six  eggs  keep 
ready  and  cold  eighteen  crayfish  cooked  k  la  Bordelaise.  Shell 
the  tails,  put  two  aside  for  each  egg,  and  cut  the  remainder  into 
dice;  finely  pound  the  bodies  and  remains,  add  thereto  three 


EGGS  195 

tablespoonfuls  of  thick  cream,  and  rub  through  tammy.  Add 
to  this  cullis  one  tablespoonful  of  thick  mayonnaise. 

Bind  the  crayfish  tails,  cut  into  dice,  with  a  few  tablespoon- 
fuls of  this  sauce,  and  garnish  the  eggs,  emptied  by  the  method 
indicated  above,  with  the  preparation  of  dice,  making  it  stand 
out  of  the  eggs  in  the  shape  of  a  small  dome.  Garnish  each 
dome  with  a  rosette  composed  of  four  halved  crayfish  tails  and 
four  truffle  lozenges. 

Glaze  well  with  jelly;  set  the  eggs  upon  artichoke-bottoms 
garnished  with  a  mayonnaise  with  crayfish  cullis,  and  arrange 
in  a  circle  on  a  dish. 

536— COLD  EQQS  POLIQNAC 

Prepare  some  eggs  a  la  Polignac,  as  explained  under 
"  Moulded  Eggs,"  and  leave  them  to  cool.  Select  some  moulds 
a  little  larger  than  those  used  in  the  cooking  of  the  eggs ;  pour 
into  each  half  a  tablespoonful  of  melted,  white  jelly,  and  leave 
to  set.  Then  put  an  egg  into  each  mould,  and  fill  up  the  space 
around  the  eggs  with  melted,  white  jelly. 

Leave  to  set,  turn  out  the  moulds,  arrange  the  mouldings 
on  a  dish,  and  surround  them  with  dice  of  faintly  coloured 
jelly. 

537— COLD  EQQS  A  LA  REINE 

Prepare  some  soft-boiled  eggs,  and  leave  them  to  cool.  Take 
as  many  cottage  brioches  as  there  are  eggs;  trim  them  to  the 
level  of  the  fluting,  and  remove  the  crumb  from  the  inside,  so 
as  to  form  little  croustades  of  them.  Garnish  the  bottom  and 
the  sides  of  these  croustades  with  a  fine  mince  of  white  chicken- 
meat,  thickened  with  mayonnaise,  and  season  moderately  with 
cayenne.  Place  a  shelled,  soft-boiled  egg  in  each  croustade ; 
coat  thinly  with  mayonnaise  slightly  thickened  by  means  of  a 
jelly;  lay  a  fine  piece  of  truffle  on  each  egg,  and,  when  the 
sauce  has  set,  glaze  with  jelly,  using  a  fine  brush  for  the 
purpose. 

Dish  up  on  a  napkin. 

538— COLD  EQQS,  RUBENS 

Season  some  cooked  young  shoots  of  hops  with  salt  and 
freshly-ground  pepper;  add  thereto  some  chopped  parsley  and 
chervil,  and  a  pur^e  of  plainly-cooked  tomatoes  combined  with 
just  sufficient  jelly  to  ensure  the  cohesion  of  the  hops.  Mould 
in  oiled  tartlet-moulds. 

o  2 


196  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Coat  some  well-dried,  cold,  poached  eggs  with  white  chaud- 
froid  sauce;  garnish  with  pieces  of  tarragon  leaves,  and  glaze 
with  jelly. 

Turn  out  the  tartlet-moulds;  set  an  egg  on  each  of  the 
mouldings,  and  arrange  them  in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  placing 
between  each  egg  a  piece  of  very  clear  jelly,  cut  to  the  shape 
of  a  cock's  comb. 

Garnish  the  centre  of  the  dish  with  chopped  jelly. 


CHAPTER      XIII 


SOUPS 


Soups  are  divided  into  two  leading  classes,  viz. : — 

1.  Clear  soups,  which  include  plain  and  garnished  con- 
sommes. 

2.  Thick  soups,  which  comprise  the  Purees,  Velout^s,  and 
Creams. 

A  third  class,  which  is  independent  of  either  of  the  above, 
inasmuch  as  it  forms  part  of  plain,  household  cookery,  em- 
braces vegetable  soups  and  Garbures  or  gratincd  soups.  But 
in  important  dinners — by  this  I  mean  rich  dinners — only  the 
first  two  classes  are  recognised. 

When  a  menu  contains  two  soups,  one  must  be  clear  and 
the  other  thick.  If  only  one  is  to  be  served,  it  may  be  either 
clear  or  thick,  in  which  case  the  two  kinds  are  represented 
alternately  at  different  meals. 

In  Part  I.  of  this  work  I  indicated  the  general  mode  of  pro- 
cedure for  consommes  and  thick  soups;  I  explained  how  the 
latter  might  be  converted  from  plain  purees  into  veloutds  or 
creams,  or  from  velout^s  into  creams ;  and  all  that  now  remains 
is  to  reveal  the  recipes  proper  to  each  of  those  soups. 

Remarks.— In  the  course  of  the  recipes  for  consommes,  given 
hereafter,  the  use  of  Royales  (Nos.  206  to  213)  and  of  Quenelles, 
variously  prepared  (Nos.  193  to  195),  will  often  be  enjoined. 
For  the  preparation  of  these  garnishes,  therefore,  the  reader  will 
have  to  refer  to  the  numbers  indicated. 

The  quantities  for  the  clear  soups  that  follow  are  all  calcu- 
lated to  be  sufficient  for  a  standard  number  of  six  people,  and 
the  quantity  of  Royales  is  always  given  in  so  many  dariole- 
moulds,  which  contain  about  one-eighth  pint,  or  baba-moidds, 
which  hold  about  one-fifth  pint. 

Of  course,  it  will  be  understood  that  the  poaching  need  not 
necessarily  have  been  effected  in  these  moulds,  for  very  small 
"Charlotte"  moulds  would  do  quite  as  well.  But  I  had  re- 
course to  the  particular  utensils  mentioned  above,  in  order  that 


198  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

there  might  be  no  sort  of  doubt  as  to  the  exact  quantity  of  royale 
it  would  be  necessary  to  prepare  for  any  one  of  the  soups. 


Clear  Soups  and  Garnished  Consommes 

539— CONSOMM6  ALEXANDRA 

Have  a  quart  of  excellent  chicken  consomm6  ready;  add 
thereto,  in  order  to  thicken  it  slightly,  three  tablespoonfuls  of 
poached  tapioca,  strained  through  muslin,  and  very  clear. 

Put  the  folloM?ing  garnish  into  the  soup-tureen  :  One  table- 
spoonful  of  white  chicken-meat  cut  in  fine  julienne-fashion,  one 
tablespoonful  of  small  chicken  quenelles,  grooved  and  long  in 
shape,  and  one  tablespoonful  of  lettuce  chiffonade. 

Pour  the  boiling  consomme  upon  this  garnish,  and  send  to 
the  table  immediately. 

540— C0NS0MMI6  AMBASSADRICE 

Have  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm^  ready ;  also  there 
should  have  been  prepared  beforehand,  with  the  view  of  using 
them  quite  cold,  three  different  kinds  of  royales,  consisting 
respectively  of  truffle  pur^e,  tomato  purde,  and  pur^e  of  peas, 
each  of  which  should  have  been  poached  in  a  dariole-mould. 

Cut  these  royales  up  into  regular  dice,  and  put  them  in 
the  soup-tureen  with  one  tablespoonful  of  chicken  fillet  and 
an  equal  quantity  of  small,  freshly-cooked  mushrooms,  finely 
minced.  Pour  the  boiling  consommd  over  these  garnishes,  and 
serve  at  once. 

541— CONSOMM^   ANDALOUSE 

Prepare  a  baba-mould  of  royale  made  from  tomato  pur^e. 
When  quite  cold,  cut  it  into  dice,  and  put  these  in  the  soup- 
tureen  with  one  small  tablespoonful  of  cooked  ham  cut  in 
julienne-fashion,  one  tablespoonful  of  boiled  rice,  with  every 
grain  distinct  and  separate,  and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  threaded 
eggs  (No.  217). 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  one  quart  of  very  clear  chicken 
consomm^  over  the  garnish. 

543— CONSOMME    D'ARENBERG 

With  a  small  spoon-cutter,  pick  out  a  spoonful  of  carrot 
pellets  and  the  same  quantity  of  turnip  pellets.  Cook  these 
vegetables  by  boiling  them  in  consomm^,  taking  care  that  the 
latter  be  reduced  to  a  glaze  when  the  vegetables  are  cooked. 


SOUPS  199 

With  the  same  spoon  take  the  same  quantity  as  above  of  very 
black  truffle ;  also  prepare  a  dariole-mould  of  royale  made  from 
asparagus  heads,  and  a  dozen  small  chicken-forcemeat  quen- 
elles, which  should  be  moulded  to  the  shape  of  large  pearls. 

Poach  the  quenelles,  cut  the  royales  up  into  slices,  which 
must  be  stamped  with  an  indented  fancy-cutter,  and  put  the 
whole  into  the  soup-tureen  with  the  carrots,  turnips,  and  truffle 
pellets,  and  one  tablespoonful  of  very  green  peas. 

Pour  a  quart  of  chicken  consomm^  over  the  garnish,  and 
send  to  the  table  at  once. 

543— CONSOMME  A   LA   BOHJ&MIENNE 

Prepare  three  dariole-moulds  of  foie-gras  pur^e,  and  twelve 
■profiterolles  (No.  218)  of  the  size  of  hazel-nuts,  the  latter  being 
made  very  crisp. 

When  the  royale  is  cold,  cut  it  into  little,  regular  squares, 
and  put  these  into  the  soup-tureen. 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  over  this  garnish  a  quart  of 
chicken  consomm^,  thickened  by  means  of  three  tablespoonfuls 
of  tapioca,  poached  and  strained  through  linen. 

Send  the  profiterolles  to  the  table  separately,  and  very  hot. 

544— CONSOMMlfe   BOiELDIEU 

Prepare  eighteen  chicken-forcemeat  quenelles,  moulded  by 
means  of  a  small  teaspoon ;  some  should  be  stuffed  with  foie- 
gras  pur^e,  moistened  with  a  little  veIout6 ;  others  with  chicken 
pur^e;  and  yet  others  with  truffle  pur^e — in  short,  six  of  each 
kind. 

Place  these,  one  by  one,  on  a  buttered  saut6-pan ;  poach 
them,  drain  them,  and  put  them  in  the  soup-tureen  with  a 
tablespoonful  of  white  chicken-meat,  cut  into  dice. 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm^, 
thickened  as  above  with  tapioca,  over  the  garnish. 

545— CONSOMME    BOUQUETlfeRE 

Prepare  a  garnish  of  carrots  and  turnips,  cut  with  the 
tubular  cutter  or  with  the  spoon ;  French  beans  cut  into  lozenges, 
asparagus-heads,  and  green  peas,  all  of  which  vegetables  should 
be  fresh  and  young.  Cook  each  vegetable  according  to  its 
nature,  and  put  the  whole  into  the  soup-tureen. 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  over  the  garnish  one  quart  of 
chicken  consomm6  thickened  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of 
tapioca,  poached  and  strained  through  fine  linen. 


200  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

546— CONSOMMI6   BOURDALOUE 

Prepare  a  dariole-mould  of  each  of  the  four  following 
royales  : — 

1.  Of  a  pur^e  of  haricot-beans  with  a  slight  addition  of 
tomato. 

2.  Of  a  chicken  pur^e  moistened  with  velout6. 

3.  Of  a  puree  of  asparagus-tops  combined  with  a  few  cooked 
spinach  leaves,  to  deepen  the  colour. 

4.  Of  a  carrot  pur^e  (Pur^e  Crecy). 

Having  poached  and  cooled  the  royales,  cut  them  as 
follows  : — 

(i)  Into  dice,  (2)  into  lozenges,  (3)  into  little  leaves,  and 
(4)  into  stars. 

Place  them  all  in  the  ^oup-tureen,  and,  when  about  to 
serve,  pour  one  quart  of  boiling  and  very  clear  chicken  con- 
somme over  them. 

547— POTAQE  BORTSCH 

Cut  in  julienne-fashion  the  heads  of  two  leeks,  one  carrot, 
half  of  an  onion,  four  oz.  of  the  white  of  cabbage  leaves,  half 
a  root  of  parsley,  the  white  part  of  a  stick  of  celery,  and  four  oz. 
of  beetroot ;  set  the  whole  to  stew  gently  in  butter. 

Moisten  with  one  quart  of  white  consommd  and  two  or  three 
tablespoonfuls  of  the  juice  of  grated  beetroot;  add  a  small 
bunch  of  fennel  and  sweet  marjoram,  two  lbs.  of  moderately 
fat  breast  of  beef,  and  the  half  of  a  semi-roasted  duck ;  set  to 
cook  gently  for  four  hours. 

When  about  to  serve,  cut  the  breast  of  beef  into  large  dice, 
and  cut  the  duck  into  small  slices;  finish  the  soup  with  one- 
quarter  pint  of  beetroot  juice,  extracted  from  grated  beetroot 
pressed  in  linen,  and  a  little  blanched  and  chopped  fennel  and 
parsley.  Put  the  beef  dice  and  sliced  duck  into  the  soup,  with 
twelve  grilled  and  despumated  chipolatas. 

Serve,  separately,  a  sauceboat  of  sour  cream. 

N.B. — The  chipolatas  may  be  replaced  by  very  small  patties 
with  duck  forcemeat,  which  should  be  served  separately. 

548— CONSOMME  BRUNOISE 

Cut  into  small  dice  the  red  part  only  of  two  small  carrots, 
one  small  turnip,  the  heads  of  two  leeks,  a  small  stick  of  celery, 
and  the  third  of  an  onion  of  medium  size. 

Season  the  vegetables  moderately  with  salt  and  a  pinch  of 
sugar,  and  stew  them  in  butter.     Moisten  with  one-half  pint 


SOUPS  20 1 

of  consomm6,  and  complete  the  cooking  of  the  Brunoise  gently. 
Five  minutes  before  serving,  finish  with  one  quart  of  boiling, 
ordinary  consomm^,  a  moderate  tablespoonful  of  peas,  and  the 
same  quantity  of  French  beans,  cut  into  dice  and  kept  very 
green. 

Pour  into  the  soup-tureen,  and  add  a  pinch  of  fine  chervil 
pluches. 

549— CONSOMME  CARMEN 

Prepare  one  quart  of  consomm^,  to  which  add,  while  clarify- 
ing, one-quarter  pint  of  raw  tomato  pur^e,  in  order  to  give  it 
a  faint,  pink  tinge. 

Also  peel  and  press  a  small  and  rather  firm  tomato ;  cut  into 
dice,  and  poach  the  latter  in  some  of  the  consomm^ ;  put  them 
in  the  soup-tureen  with  a  small  tablespoonful  of  mild  capsicum, 
cut  in  fine  julienne-fashion,  and  one  tablespoonful  of  plain- 
boiled  rice. 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  the  boiling  consomm^  over  the 
garnish,  and  add  a  small  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

550— CONSOMME   CASTELLANE 

Prepare  (i)  one  quart  of  game  consomm6,  flavoured  with  a 
fumct  of  woodcock;  (2)  two  baba-moulds  of  royale,  two-thirds 
of  which  consists  of  a  pur^e  of  woodcock  and  one-third  of 
lentils,  with  half  the  yolk  of  a  hard-boiled  egg,  chopped  and 
thickened  with  the  usual  leason. 

Cut  this  royale  into  slices,  about  the  size  of  a  florin,  one- 
half  inch  thick.  Put  these  into  the  soup-tureen,  together  with 
one  tablespoonful  of  a  julienne  of  roast  woodcock  fillets,  and 
pour  thereon  the  boiling  game  consomm^. 

551— CONSOMME   CELESTINE 

Prepare  one  quart  of  chicken  consomme,  and  add  thereto 
three  small  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  tapioca,  strained  through 
fine  linen. 

For  the  garnish  make  three  pannequets  (No.  2476)  without 
sugar,  and  spread  over  each  a  thin  coating  of  chicken  force- 
meat with  cream.  Place  one  on  top  of  the  other,  sprinkle  the 
layer  of  forcemeat  on  the  uppermost  one  with  finely-chopped, 
very  black  truffles,  and  place  in  the  front  of  the  oven  for  a  few 
minutes,  in  order  to  poach  the  forcemeat. 

Stamp  the  panncqtiets  out  with  an  even  fancy-cutter  about 
one  inch  in  diameter.  Put  the  pieces  into  a  soup-tureen,  and, 
\yhgn  about  to  serve,  pour  in  the  boiling  consornfp<J, 


202  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

552— CONSOMMl^   CHARTREUSE 

Prepare  (i)  eighteen  small  ravioles  (No.  2296) — six  from 
spinach  purde,  six  from  foie-gras  purde,  and  the  remaining  six 
from  chopped  mushrooms;  (2)  two  small  tablespoonfuls  of 
tomato  dice.  Ten  minutes  before  serving,  poach  the  ravioles 
in  boiling,  salted  water,  and  the  tomato  dice  in  some  of  the 
consomm^. 

Put  the  ravioles  and  the  tomato  dice  (well  drained)  into  the 
soup-tureen,  and  pour  over  them  one  quart  of  consomm^  with 
a  moderate  addition  of  tapioca.     Add  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

553— C0NS0MM6  AUX  CHEVEUX  D'ANGE 

About  two  minutes  before  serving,  plunge  three  oz.  of  very 
fine  vermicelli,  known  as  Angel's  Hair  (Cheveux  d'Ange)  into 
one  quart  of  excellent,  boiling  consomm^. 

An  instant  only  is  needed  to  poach  the  vermicelli,  and  the 
latter  does  not  require  to  be  blanched. 

This  soup,  like  those  containing  pastes,  should  be  accom- 
panied by  freshly-grated  Parmesan  cheese. 

554— CONSOMME  COLBERT 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  excellent  Printanier  chicken  con- 
somm6  (No.  601).  Also  poach  six  small  eggs  in  slightly  salted 
and  acidulated  water.  The  eggs  should  be  as  small  and  as 
fresh  as  possible,  both  of  which  conditions  are  absolutely  neces- 
sary for  a  proper  poaching  (see  poached  eggs.  No.  411).  Set 
these  eggs  in  a  small  timbale  with  a  little  consomm^,  and  send 
them  to  the  table  with  the  Printanier.  Having  poured  the 
latter  into  the  plates,  put  one  of  the  eggs  into  each  of  these. 

555_CONSOMME   COLOMBINE 

Prepare  a  good  tablespoonful  of  carrot  pearls,  and  as  many 
turnip  pearls,  keeping  the  latter  very  white.  Cook  them  in 
the  customary  way,  and  put  them  in  the  soup-tureen  with  one 
tablespoonful  of  very  green  peas,  one  tablespoonful  of  a  julienne 
of  roast-pigeon  fillets,  and  six  poached  pigeons'  eggs,  which 
latter  should  be  sent  to  the  table  in  a  timbale  at  the  same  time 
as  the  consomm^. 

Pour  over  the  other  garnish  one  quart  of  very  clear,  boiling, 
chicken  consomm6,  and  serve  immediately. 

This  soup  can  only  appear  on  summer  and  spring  menus, 
when  the  pigeons'  eggs  are  in  season. 


SOUPS  203 

556— croOte  au  pot 

Prepare  a  freshly-cooked  vegetable  garnish  for  a  stock- 
pot : — Carrots  and  turnips  cut  into  small  sticks  and  trimmed; 
a  few  heads  of  leeks,  and  cabbage,  parboiled,  minced,  and 
cooked  in  very  fat  oonsomm^. 

Put  these  vegetables  in  a  somewhat  greasy  broth  for  ten 
minutes. 

Also  prepare  seven  or  eight  crusts  of  French  soup  "  flutes  " ; 
besprinkle  them  with  stock  grease,  and  dry  them  in  the  oven. 
Put  the  vegetable  garnish  into  the  soup-tureen ;  pour  thereon 
one  quart  of  consomm^  of  the  Petite  Marmite  (No.  589),  and 
add  to  the  dried  crusts. 

557— CONSOMM^  CYRANO 

Prepare  (i)  one  quart  of  consomm^  with  a  fumet  of  duck; 
(2)  twelve  small  quenelles  of  duck  forcemeat,  which  should  be 
made  flat  and  oval.  Having  poached  the  quenelles,  drain 
them,  and  set  them  in  a  small,  shallow  earthen  pan  or  timbale ; 
sprinkle  with  a  little  grated  Parmesan  cheese  and  a  few  drops 
of  chicken  glaze,  and  set  to  glaze  in  the  oven. 

The  quenelles  are  served  separately  in  the  pan  in  which 
they  have  been  glazed,  and  the  consomm^  is  sent  to  the  table 
in  a  soup-tureen. 

558— CONSOMMjg  DEMIDOFF 

With  the  small  spoon-cutter,  pick  out  a  good  tablespoonful 
of  carrot,  and  the  same  quantity  of  turnip  pearls.  Cook  these 
vegetables  in  the  customary  way,  and  put  them  in  the  soup- 
tureen  with  one  tablespoonful  of  truffle  pearls,  the  same  quan- 
tity of  peas,  and  small,  poached,  chicken-forcemeat  quenelles 
with  herbs.  Pour  one  quart  of  boiling  chicken  consomm^  over 
this  garnish,  and  add  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 


559— CONSOMME  DESLIQNAC 

Prepare  (i)  two  small,  stuffed  lettuces,  rolled  into  sausage 
form  and  poached;  (2)  two  baba-moulds  of  royale  with  cream. 
Cut  the  royale  into  small,  regular  dice;  trim  the  lettuce,  and 
cut  it  into  slices;  put  this  garnish  into  the  soup-tureen,  and 
pour  thereon  one  quart  of  boiling  chicken  consomm^,  thick- 
ened with  three  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  tapioca,  strained 
through  linen.     Add  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 


204  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

560— CONSOMMjg  AUX  DIABLOTINS 

Cut  a  French  soup  "  flute  "  into  twelve  slices  one-quarter 
inch  thick.  Reduce  about  one-quarter  pint  of  Bechamel  to  a 
thick  consistence;  add  thereto,  away  from  the  fire,  two  heaped 
tablespoonfuls  of  grated  Gruy^re  cheese,  and  season  with  a  little 
cayenne. 

Garnish  the  slices  of  soup  "  flute  "  with  this  preparation, 
arranged  in  the  form  of  a  dome,  upon  a  tray,  and  set  it  to 
glaze  a  few  minutes  before  serving. 

Pour  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm^  into  the  soup-tureen, 
and  add  the  diablotins. 

561— CONSOMME  DIPLOMATE 

Roll  into  small  sausage-form  three  oz.  of  chicken  forcemeat, 
finished  with  crayfish  butter.  Poach  the  sausages,  cut  them 
into  thin  roundels,  and  put  them  into  the  soup-tureen  with  one 
dessertspoonful  of  very  black  truffle,  cut  in  julienne-fashion. 

Pour  over  this  garnish  one  quart  of  boiling  chicken  con- 
somme, thickened  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  tapioca, 
strained  through  linen. 

562— CONSOMME  DIVETTE 

Prepare  two  baba-inoulds  of  royale  made  from  crayfish 
velout^,  eighteen  small  quenelles  of  smelt  forcemeat,  moulded 
to  the  shape  of  pearls,  and  one  tablespoonful  of  small  pearls 
of  very  black  truffle. 

Cut  the  royale  into  oval  slices,  and  put  these  into  the  soup 
with  the  poached  quenelles  and  the  truffle  pearls. 

Pour  one  quart  of  very  clear,  boiling  consommd  over  the 
garnish. 

563— CONSOMME  DORIA 

Prepare  the  following  garnish  : — Thirty  pellets  of  cucumber 
in  the  shape  of  large  pearls ;  eighteen  small  quenelles  of  chicken 
forcemeat,  long  in  shape  and  grooved;  six  little  pellets,  about 
the  size  of  a  large  pea,  of  pate  a  choux,  combined  with  grated 
cheese,  rolled  by  hand;  and  one  and  one-half  tablespoonfuls  of 
Japanese  pearls,  poached  in  some  of  the  consomm^. 

Put  the  cucumber  pellets,  cooked  in  consomme,  into  the 
soup-tureen ;  add  the  poached  quenelles  and  the  Japanese  pearls. 

Four  minutes  before  serving,  plunge  the  pellets  of  fate  a 
chotix  into  hot  fat,  keeping  them  crisp. 


SOUPS 


16^ 


When  about  to  serve,  pour  over  the  garnish  one  quart  of 
boiling  chicken  consommd;  complete  with  a  pinch  of  chervil 
pluches,  and  serve  the  little,  fried  pellets  separately. 

S64--CONSOMME  DOUGLAS 

With  an  even  cutter,  the  size  of  a  penny,  cut  up  some  braised 
and  cooled  sweetbread  into  twelve  roundels  one-third  inch  thick ; 
with  the  same  cutter  cut  out  twelve  more  roundels  from  some 
cooked  artichoke-bottoms,  and  put  the  whole  into  the  soup- 
tureen  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  very  green  asparagus-heads. 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  one  quart  of  boiling,  highly 
seasoned,  ordinary  consomm^  upon  the  garnish. 

565— C0NS0MM6  A  L'ECOSSAISE 

Prepare  a  special  mutton  broth,  and,  at  the  same  time,  cook 
a  fine  piece  of  breast  of  mutton  for  the  garnish. 

Per  two  quarts  of  broth,  put  into  the  soup-tureen  four 
tablespoonfuls  of  pearl-barley,  cooked  very  gently  beforehand; 
two  tablespoonfuls  of  French  beans,  cut  into  lozenges,  and  the 
breast  of  mutton  cut  into  regular  dice  of  one-half  inch  side,  in 
the  proportion  of  one  tablespoonful  for  each  person. 

Pour  the  boiling  mutton  broth  over  this  garnish,  after 
having  removed  all  the  grease  and  strained  it  through  linen. 

566— CONSOMME  FAVORITE 

With  a  spoon-cutter,  pick  from  out  some  violet  potatoes 
eighteen  pellets  the  size  of  small  hazel-nuts,  and  cook  them  in 
salted  water  in  good  time  for  them  to  be  ready  for  the  dishing 
up  of  the  soup.  Put  them  in  the  soup-tureen  with  two  table- 
spoonfuls of  a  julienne  of  artichoke-bottoms  and  the  same 
quantity  of  cooked  mushrooms,  also  cut  in  julienne-fashion. 

Pour  over  the  garnish  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm^, 
thickened  with  three  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  tapioca  strained 
through  linen.     Add  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

566a— CONSOMME  A  LA  FERMIERE 

Mince,  somewhat  finely,  one  small  carrot,  one  small  turnip, 
the  heads  of  two  leeks,  and  the  half  of  an  onion .  Slightly  stew 
these  vegetables  in  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter;  moisten  with 
one  and  one-half  pints  of  white  consomm^;  add  two  oz.  of 
parboiled  cabbage,  cut  roughly  into  a  julienne,  and  complete 


2o6  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

the  cooking  gently,  taking  care  to  remove  all  grease,  with  the 
view  of  obtaining  a  very  clear  consomm^. 

Pour  into  the  soup-tureen,  and  add  a  few  thin  slices  of  French 
soup  "  flute,"  slightly  dried. 

567— CONSOMME  FLORENTINE 

With  fine  chicken  forcemeat  make  twenty-four  small  quen- 
elles on  a  buttered  tray,  their  shape  being  that  of  small  Mecca 
loaves.  To  the  forcemeat  of  six  of  these  quenelles  add  some 
very  finely  chopped  tongue;  add  white  chicken-meat  to  that 
of  another  six;  and  to  that  of  the  remaining  twelve  add  some 
very  reduced  spinach  pur^e.  The  quenelles  with  spinach  should 
number  twice  those  with  the  other  two  ingredients,  in  order 
that  the  preparation  may  be  in  keeping  with  its  designation 
"  ^  la  Florentine." 

Poach  the  quenelles;  put  them  in  the  soup-tureen  with  two 
tablespoonfuls  of  very  green,  cooked  peas. 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  one  quart  of  very  clear,  boiling 
chicken  consomm^  over  this  garnish,  and  add  a  pinch  of  chervil 
pluches. 

568— CONSOMME  QAULOISE 

Prepare  two  dariole-moulds  of  ham  royale,  and  poach  the 
latter  in  a  small,  well-buttered  Charlotte  mould.  When  quite 
cold,  cut  it  into  large  lozenges,  and  put  these  into  the  soup- 
tureen  with  six  small  cocks'  combs  and  six  small  cocks'  kidneys 
(these  latter  as  small  as  possible). 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  over  this  garnish  one  quart  of 
chicken  consomm^,  thickened  slightly  with  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  poached  tapioca,  strained  through  linen. 

569— C0NS0MM6  QEORQE  SAND 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  consomm^  flavoured  with  very  clear 
fish  fumet.  Also  prepare  twelve  small  quenelles  of  whiting 
forcemeat,  finished  with  crayfish  butter;  stew  twelve  morels, 
which  should  be  left  whole  if  very  small,  and  cut  into  two  if 
they  are  of  medium  size;  twelve  small  slices  of  poached  carps' 
milt,  and  twelve  little  roundels  of  French  soup  "flutes." 

Put  the  poached  quenelles  and  the  stewed  morels  into  the 
soup-tureen ;  pour  therein  the  boiling,  fish  consomm^,  and 
send  the  slices  of  carps'  milt  set  on  the  roundels  of  French 
soup  "  flute  "  separately  to  the  table. 


SOUPS  207 

570— CONSOMM^  GERMAINE 

Prepare  two  dariole-moulds  of  royale  made  from  a  pur6e 
of  very  green  peas,  combined  with  a  tablespoonful  of  Mire- 
poix  stewed  in  butter,  and  a  strong  pinch  of  small,  chervil 
pluches;  eighteen  small  quenelles  of  chicken  forcemeat  with 
cream,  moulded  to  the  form  of  pastils. 

When  the  royale  is  cold,  cut  it  into  regular  roundels,  and 
put  these  into  the  soup-tureen  with  the  poached  quenelles. 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  one  quart  of  boiling  chicken 
consomm^  over  the  garnish. 

571— C0NS0MM6  QIRONDINE 

Prepare  (i)  one  quart  of  highly-seasoned  beef  consomm^; 
(2)  two  baha-moulds  of  ordinary  royale  made  with  whole  eggs 
and  combined  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  cooked  and  finely- 
chopped  lean  ham ;  (3)  three  tablespoonfuls  of  a  julienne  of 
carrots  (the  red  part  only)  stewed  in  butter,  the  cooking  of 
which  should  be  completed  in  the  consomm6. 

Put  the  royale,  cut  into  large,  regular  lozenges,  and  the 
julienne  of  carrots  into  the  soup-tureen,  and  pour  in  the  boiling 
beef  consomm^. 

572— CONSOMM^  QRIMALDI 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  excellent  ordinary  consomm6,  to 
which  have  been  added,  while  clarifying,  four  tablespoonfuls 
of  raw  tomato  pur^e,  strained  through  fine  linen. 

Also  prepare  two  dariole-moulds  of  ordinary  royale,  and 
three  tablespoonfuls  of  a  fine  julienne  of  the  white  of  celery, 
stewed  in  butter,  finally  cooked  in  the  consomm^,  and  with  all 
grease  removed. 

Put  the  royale,  cut  into  large  dice,  and  the  julienne  of 
celery  into  the  soup-tureen,  and  pour  thereon  the  boiling  con- 
somm^  with  tomatoes. 

573— CONSOMM^  IMP^RIALE 

Prepare  three  dariole-moulds  of  mousseline  forcemeat  of 
fowl  (No.  195),  and  put  it  to  poach  in  a  small  Charlotte  mould. 

When  quite  cold,  cut  it,  by  means  of  a  cutter,  into  roundels 
the  size  of  a  penny,  and  put  these  in  the  soup-tureen  with  six 
small  blanched  cocks'  combs  and  three  sliced  cocks'  kidneys, 
and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  very  green  peas. 

Pour  over  this  garnish  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm^, 
thickened  with  three  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  tapioca  strained 
through  linen. 


io8  GUIDE  to  MODERN  COOKERY 

574— CONSOMME  A  L'INDIENNE 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  ordinary  consomm^  seasoned  with 
curry.  Also  prepare  three  baba-moulds  of  royale  made  from 
cocoanut  milk,  and,  when  quite  cold,  cut  into  small  dice. 

Put  this  royale  into  the  soup-tureen;  pour  on  it  the  boil- 
ing consomm^  with  curry,  and  send  to  the  table,  separately, 
four  tablespoon fuls  of  Rice  k  I'lndienne  (No.  2254). 

575— CONSOMM6  A  L'INFANTE 

With  some  pate  a  choux  (No.  2374)  prepare  eighteen  fro- 
fiterolles  of  the  size  of  hazel-nuts.  Cook  them,  taking  care  to 
keep  them  very  crisp,  and  stuff  them  when  cold  with  pur^e 
de  foie  gras  moistened  with  velout^. 

Put  two  tablespoonfuls  of  a  fine  julienne  of  mild  capsicum 
into  the  soup-tureen,  and  pour  thereon  one  quart  of  boiling 
chicken  consomm^,  moderately  thickened  with  poached  tapioca 
strained  through  linen. 

Serve  the  proflteroUes  of  foie  gras  separately,  after  having 
heated  them  in  the  front  of  the  oven. 

N.B. — The  garnish  of  Consomm^  k  I'lnfante  may  consist 
only  of  the  profiterolles,  and  the  julienne  of  capsicum  may  be 
suppressed ;  this  is  a  matter  of  taste. 

576— CONSOMME  JACQUELINE 

With  a  small  spoon-cutter,  pick  from  out  some  carrots 
twenty-four  little  oval  pellets,  which  should  be  cooked  in  the 
consomme.     Prepare  two  baba-moulds  of  royale  with  cream. 

Put  into  the  soup-tureen  the  pellets  of  carrots  and  the  royale 
cut  to  the  shape  of  pastils,  one  tablespoonful  of  peas,  the  same 
quantity  of  very  green  asparagus-heads,  and  one  tablespoonful 
of  rice. 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  one  quart  of  boiling  chicken 
consomme  over  this  garnish. 

576a— CONSOMME  JULIENNE 

Cut  into  fillets,  two  inches  in  length,  the  red  part  only  of 
two  medium-sized  carrots,  one  medium-sized  turnip,  one  leek, 
half  a  stick  of  celery,  some  cabbage  leaves,  and  half  an  onion. 
Season  these  vegetables  with  a  pinch  of  salt  and  as  much  castor 
sugar;  stew  them  in  one  oz.  of  butter;  moisten  with  one  and 
one-half  pints  of  white  consomm^^  and  then  add  two  oz.  of  small 
parboiled  cabbages,  cut  after  the  manner  of  the  other  vegetables. 

Finish  the  cooking  gently,  removing  the  grease  the  while, 


SOUPS  209 

and  complete  with  one  small  tablespoonful  of  very  green,  cooked 
peas,  one  tablespoonful  of  sorrel  and  lettuce  chiffonade,  and  one 
pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

577— C0NS0MM1&  LORETTE 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm^.  Also  prepare 
two  tablespoonfuls  of  a  fine  julienne  of  celery  stewed  in  butter 
and  cooked  in  the  consomm^;  twelve  small  "  pommes  k  la 
lorette  "  (No.  2226),  the  size  of  hazel-nuts,  and  shaped  like  small 
crescents.  These  potatoes  should  be  fried  in  hot  fat  four  minutes 
before  serving. 

Put  into  the  soup-tureen  the  julienne  of  celery,  twelve  small, 
freshly-poached  cocks'  kidneys,  and  one  tablespoonful  of  a 
julienne  of  pimentos;  pour  the  boiling  consomm^  over  this 
garnish ;  add  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches,  and  send  the  lorette 
potatoes  to  the  table  separately. 

578— C0NS0MM6  MACDONALD 

Prepare  (i)  one  quart  of  highly  seasoned  beef  consomm^; 
(2)  two  dariole-moulds  of  brain-pur^e  royale;  (3)  two  table- 
spoonfuls  of  cucumbers  cut  into  small  dice  and  cooked  in  con- 
somm6  until  the  latter  is  reduced  to  a  glaze;  (4)  five  little 
ravioles  garnished  with  chicken  forcemeat  combined  with  a 
third  of  its  volume  of  spinach.  Put  these  ravioles  to  poach  in 
salted  boiling  water  twelve  minutes  before  serving. 

Put  into  the  soup-tureen  the  royale  of  brains  cut  into 
roundels  one-third  inch  thick,  the  dice  of  cucumber,  and  the 
ravioles  poached  and  well  drained. 

Pour  the  boiling  beef  consomm^  over  this  garnish  just  before 
serving. 

579— CONSOMME  MARGUERITE 

Take  two  tablespoonfuls  of  chicken  forcemeat  with  cream, 
and  roll  it  into  sausage-form  on  the  floured  mixing-board.  Put 
the  sausage  to  poach.  Rub  the  yolk  of  an  egg  through  a  fine 
sieve,  and  cohere  it  with  half  a  teaspoonful  of  raw  forcemeat. 

Having  poached  and  cooled  the  chicken  sausage,  cut  it  into 
thin  roundels,  and  stamp  each  roundel  with  a  fancy-cutter  to 
the  shape  of  a  marguerite.  Arrange  the  marguerites  on  a  dish, 
and  lay  in  the  middle  of  each  a  bit  of  the  egg  and  forcemeat,  in 
imitation  of  the  flower-centre. 

Put  these  marguerites  into  the  soup-tureen  with  one  table- 
spoonful of  small,  green  asparagus  cut  into  lengths  of  one  inch. 
When  about  to  serve,  pour  one  quart  of  very  clear,  boiling 
chicken  consomm^  over  this  garnish. 

P 


2 to  GUTDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

580— CONSOMME  MARQUISE 

Prepare  one  quart  of  good,  ordinary  consomm^,  to  which 
three  sticks  of  celery  have  been  added,  while  clarifying,  in 
order  that  the  taste  of  the  celery  may  be  very  decided. 

Make  thirty  small  quenelles  of  chicken  forcemeat  combined 
with  finely-chopped  filberts,  giving  them  the  shape  of  pastils. 

Poach  these  quenelles  ten  minutes  before  serving.  Also 
poach  in  court-bouillon  two  calf's  piths,  and  cut  them  into  thin 
roundels. 

Put  the  poached  quenelles  and  the  roundels  of  calf's  piths 
into  the  soup-tureen,  and  pour  thereon  the  boiling  consommt^. 

581— C0NS0MM6  MERC^DfiS 

Prepare  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm^  with  pimentos,  com- 
bined, at  the  last  minute,  away  from  the  fire,  with  one-half  pint 
of  sherry. 

Put  into  the  soup-tureen  two  tablespoonfuls  of  capsicum, 
cut  in  fine  julienne-fashion  and  short,  and  some  small,  freshly- 
cooked  cocks'  combs. 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  the  consomm6  over  this  garnish. 

582— CONSOMM6  MESSALINE 

Prepare  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm^,  and  add  thereto, 
while  clarifying,  one-quarter  pint  of  tomato  essence,  obtained  by 
reducing  the  moisture  contained  by  the  tomato  to  a  syrup. 

Put  into  the  soup-tureen  twelve  small,  freshly-poached  cocks' 
ccmbs,  two  tablespoonfuls  of  Spanish  capsicum  cut  into  a 
julienne  and  poached  in  the  consomm^  if  fresh  (this  should  have 
been  previously  grilled,  with  the  view  of  removing  the  skins), 
and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  rice,  every  grain  of  which 
should  be  distinct. 

Pour  the  boiling  consomm^  over  this  garnish. 

583— CONSOMME  METTERNICH 

Prepare  one  quart  of  game  consomm^  with  pheasant  fumet. 
Also  poach  two  dariole-moulds  of  royale,  made  from  a  purde 
of  artichokes  combined  with  some  tablespoonfuls  of  the  reduced 
game  Espagnole.  Cut  this  royale  into  dice;  put  these  into  a 
soup-tureen  with  one  tablespoonful  of  a  julienne  of  pheasant 
fillets,  and  pour  thereon  the  boiling  consomm^. 

584— CONSOMME  A  LA  MILANAISE 

Cook  in  slightly  salted  boiling  water  two  oz.  of  moderately 
thick  macaroni.  As  soon  as  it  is  cooked,  drain  it,  lay  it  on  a 
piece  of  linen,  and  cut  it  into  small  rings.     Also  prepare  one- 


SOUPS  III 

quarter  pint  of  Bechamel,  thickened  with  the  yolk  of  one  egg 
combined  with  one  oz.  of  grated  cheese,  and  l^eep  it  very  dense. 

Mix  the  rings  of  macaroni  with  this  sauce ;  spread  the  whole 
on  a  dish,  and  leave  to  cool.  Now  divide  up  the  preparation 
into  portions  the  size  of  walnuts ;  roll  these  into  balls,  and  then 
flatten  them  out  to  form  quoits  about  the  size  of  shillings.  Treat 
these  quoits  with  an  anglaise,  and  very  fine  bread-crumbs,  and 
plunge  into  hot  fat  four  minutes  before  serving.  Drain  them 
when  they  have  acquired  a  fine  golden  colour. 

Pour  one  quart  of  boiling  chicken  consomme  into  the  soup- 
tureen,  and  send  to  the  table,  separately,  (i)  the  fried  macaroni 
quoits;  (2)  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  Gruy^re  and  Parmesan 
cheese,  in  equal  quantities,  grated  and  mixed. 

585— CONSOMMjfe  MIREILLE 

Add  one  tablespoonful  of  very  concentrated  tomato  pur^e  to 
three  oz.  of  chicken  forcemeat;  roll  this  preparation  into  the 
form  of  a  somewhat  large  sausage,  and  poach  it.  When  cold, 
cut  it  into  roundels,  one-quarter  inch  thick,  and  stamp  each 
roundel  with  an  oval  fancy-cutter  in  the  shape  of  a  medallion. 
Put  these  medallions  in  the  soup-tureen  with  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  saffroned  pilaff  rice  (No.  2255),  and,  when  about  to  serve, 
pour  thereon  one  quart  of  very  clear,  boiling  chicken  consomm^. 

586— CONSOMME  MIRETTE 

Make  eighteen  quenelles  of  chicken  forcemeat  in  the  shape 
of  large  pearls,  and  poach  them.  Prepare  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  lettuce  chiffonade  (the  heart  of  one  lettuce  cut  julienne-fashion 
and  stewed  in  butter) ;  make  eighteen  paillettes  with  Parmesan 
(No.  2322),  and  put  them  in  a  very  hot  oven  eight  or  ten  minutes 
before  serving. 

Put  the  poached  quenelles  and  the  lettuce  chiffonade  into 
the  soup-tureen ;  pour  thereon  one  quart  of  boiling  consomm^ 
of  the  Petite  Marmite,  and  one  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

Send  the  paillettes  au  Parmesan  to  the  table  separately,  and 
have  them  very  hot. 

587— C0NS0MM6  MONTE  CARLO 

Make  and  poach  thirty  small  quenelles  of  chicken  force- 
meat ;  cisel  and  stew  in  butter  the  heart  of  one  lettuce ;  prepare 
twelve  little  profiterolles  of  pate  a  choux,  the  size  of  hazel-nuts, 
and  cook  them,  taking  care  to  keep  them  crisp. 

Put  the  quenelles  and  the  lettuce  chiffonade  into  the  soup- 
tureen  ;  pour  thereon  one  quart  of  very  clear,  boiling,  chicken 
consomm^,  and  add  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

Serve  the  profiterolles  separately  and  very  hot. 


212  GUIDE  TO    MODERN  COOKERY 

588— CONSOMME  MONTMORENCY 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  chicken  consommt^  thickened  with 
three  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  tapioca,  strained  through  linen. 

Prepare  eighteen  small  grooved  quenelles  of  chicken  force- 
meat. Poach,  drain,  and  put  them  into  the  soup-tureen  with 
two  tablespoonfuls  of  very  green  asparagus-heads  and  two 
tablespoonfuls  of  poached  rice,  every  grain  of  which  should  be 
distinct  and  separate. 

589— CONSOMME  A  LA  MOSCOVITE 

Prepare  one  quart  of  sterlet  or  sturgeon  consomm^,  and  add 
thereto  some  cucumber  essence,  obtained  by  pounding  a  cored 
and  peeled  cucumber,  and  straining  the  resulting  pur^e  through 
linen. 

Put  into  the  soup-tureen  two  tablespoonfuls  of  a  julienne  of 
salted  mushrooms,  one  oz.  of  soaked  vesiga  cut  into  dice  and 
cooked  in  broth,  and  pour  thereon  the  boiling  consomm^. 

N.B. —  Vesiga  or  the  spine-marrow  of  the  sturgeon  ought  to 
be  soaked  in  cold  water  for  a  few  hours  in  order  to  soften  and 
swell  it,  after  which  it  should  be  cut  into  dice  and  cooked  in 
broth.  For  every  four  tablespoonfuls  of  cooked  vesiga,  one  oz. 
of  dry  vesiga  should  be  allowed. 

590— CONSOMM6  NESSELRODE 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  game  consomm6,  prepared  with 
hazel-hen  fumet.  Poach  two  baba-moulds  of  royale  made  from 
chestnut  puree  with  two  small  tablespoonfuls  of  game  salmis 
sauce  added  thereto;  cut  it  into  roundels  half-inch  thick,  and 
trim  these  with  a  grooved  fancy-cutter. 

Put  them  into  the  soup-tureen  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  a 
julienne  of  hazel-hen  fillets,  the  same  quantity  of  a  julienne  of 
mushrooms,  and  pour  thereon  the  boiling  game  consomm^. 

591— CONSOMME  AUX  NIDS  D'HIRONDELLES 

The  nests  used  for  this  soup  are  those  of  the  esculent  swal- 
low, and  their  shape  somewhat  resembles  that  of  the  rind  of  a 
quartered,  dry  orange. 

In  the  first  place,  prepare  a  chicken  consomme  containing  a 
large  proportion  of  nutritious  principles.  Set  three  nests  to 
soak  in  cold  water  for  twenty-four  hours,  the  object  being  to 
swell  the  mucilaginous  elements  of  which  they  are  composed 
and  to  make  them  transparent. 

When  they  have  soaked  sufficiently  remove  any  pieces  of 
feather  which  may  have  remained  in  them,  using  for  this  pur- 


SOUPS  213 

pose  the  point  of  a  needle,  and,  when  the  nests  are  quite  clean, 
drain  them  and  put  them  into  the  consomm^.  At  this  stage 
set  the  consomm^  to  boil,  gently,  for  thirty  or  thirty-five 
minutes  without  interruption.  During  this  time  the  gummy 
portions  of  the  nests  will  melt  into  the  consomm^,  giving  the 
latter  its  characteristic  viscidity,  and  there  will  only  remain 
visible  those  portions  which,  in  the  natural  state,  constitute  the 
framework  of  the  nests;  that  is  to  say,  little  threads  not  unlike 
superfine  transparent  vermicelli. 

592— CONSOMME  AUX  CEUFS  DE  FAUVETTE 

I  introduced  this  consomm^  in  honour  of  the  illustrious 
singer,  Adelina  Patti. 

It  consists  of  a  chicken  consomm^,  which  should  be  made  as 
perfect  as  possible,  and  a  garnish  composed  of  the  poached  eggs 
of  small  birds. 

593— CONSOMME  OLQA 

Prepare  one  quart  of  excellent  ordinary  consomm6,  and  add 
thereto,  when  about  to  serve  and  away  from  the  fire,  one-quarter 
pint  of  port  wine. 

Also  cut  into  a  fine  julienne  the  quarter  of  a  small  celeriac, 
the  white  of  a  leek,  and  the  red  part  only  of  a  small  carrot. 
Stew  this  julienne  in  butter  and  complete  its  cooking  in  con- 
somm^,  reducing  the  latter  to  a  glaze. 

When  about  to  serve  put  this  julienne  in  a  soup  tureen,  add 
a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  a  julienne  of  salted  gherkins,  and  pour 
thereon  the  consomm^  with  port. 

594— CONSOMME  D'ORLlfeANS 

Lay  on  a  buttered  tray  ten  small  quenelles  of  ordinary 
chicken  forcemeat,  ten  others  of  chicken  forcemeat  combined 
with  a  very  red  tomato  pur^e,  and  ten  more  of  the  same  force- 
meat, combined  with  a  pur^e  of  spinach,  all  the  quenelles  being 
grooved. 

Ten   minutes  before  serving  poach  these  quenelles,    drain 

them,  put  them  in  the  soup-tureen,  and  pour  therein  one  quart 

of  chicken  consomm^  thickened  with  three  tablespoonfuls  of 

poached  tapioca  strained  through  linen.   Add  a  pinch  of  chervil 

pluches. 

595— CONSOMME  D'ORSAY 

Prepare  one  quart  of  very  clear  chicken  consomm^,  also 
make  fifteen  small  quenelles  of  pigeon  forcemeat  moulded  to 
the  shape  of  eggs  by  means  of  a  very  small  spoon,  and  poach 
the  yolks  of  ten  eggs,  taking  care  to  keep  them  very  soft. 


214  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Put  the  quenelles  and  the  poached  yolks  into  the  soup-tureen 
with  a  julienne  of  three  fillets  of  pigeon  and  a  tablespoonful  of 
asparagus-heads,  and  pour  thereon  the  boiling  consomm^. 
Serve  at  once. 

596— OX=TAIL  SOUP 

For  Ten  People. — Garnish  the  bottom  of  a  small  stock-pot 
or  stewpan  with  one  fine  carrot  and  two  medium-sized  onions 
cut  into  roundels  and  browned  in  butter,  and  one  faggot.  Add 
two  small  ox-tails,  or  one  of  medium  size  weighing  about  four 
lbs.  (The  tails  should  be  cut  into  sections,  each  of  which 
should  contain  one  of  the  caudal  vertebras,  and  they  should 
then  be  browned  in  the  oven.)  Also  add  two  lbs.  of  gelatinous 
bones,  broken  very  small  and  likewise  browned  in  the  oven. 

Now  proceed  exactly  as  for  brown  veal  stock  (No.  9),  taking 
note  that  the  whole  moistening  must  consist  of  no  more  than 
two  and  one-half  quarts  of  ordinary  broth  and  one  quart  of 
water. 

Set  to  boil  very  gently  for  four  and  one-half  or  five  hours. 
This  done,  strain  the  broth,  which  should  be  reduced  to  two  and 
one-half  quarts,  and  completely  remove  its  grease.  Transfer 
the  largest  sections  of  the  tails,  by  means  of  a  braiding-needle, 
one  by  one  to  another  saucepan.  Cover  them  with  broth,  and 
keep  them  warm  for  the  garnish. 

Finely  chop  one  lb.  of  very  lean  beef;  put  this  mince  into  a 
saucepan  with  the  white  of  a  leek  cut  into  dice  and  half  the 
white  of  an  egg,  and  mix  thoroughly.  Add  the  broth,  the 
grease  of  which  has  been  removed,  set  to  boil,  stirring  con- 
stantly the  while,  and  then  leave  to  simmer  for  one  hour,  which 
is  the  time  required  for  the  beef  to  exude  all  its  juices  and  for 
the  clarification  of  the  broth. 

While  the  clarification  is  in  progress  cut  a  small  carrot  in 
brunoise  fashion,  or  turn  it  by  means  of  a  very  small  spoon. 
Cook  this  garnish  in.a  little  water  with  butter,  salt,  and  sugar. 

A  few  minutes  before  serving  strain  the  ox-tail  broth 
through  a  napkin,  put  the  sections  of  ox-tail  and  brunoise  into 
the  soup-tureen,  and  pour  thereon  the  prepared  broth.  This 
soup  may  be  flavoured  with  port  or  sherry,  but  this  is  optional. 
N.B. — If  a  thickened  ox-tail  soup  be  required  add  to  the 
broth  per  every  quart  of  it  one-third  of  an  oz.  of  arrowroot 
diluted  with  a  little  of  the  broth  or  some  cold  water. 

597— CONSOMME  PARISIENNE 

Have  one  quart  of  chicken  consomme  ready. 

For  the  garnish  prepare  two  dariole-moulds  of  royale  made 


SOUPS  215 

from  a  pur^e  of  ordinary  julienne,  a  small  macedoine  of  vege- 
tables, comprising  one  heaped  tablespoonful  each  of  carrots  and 
turnips  divided  up  by  means  of  a  small  grooved  spoon  and 
cooked  in  the  usual  way,  one  tablespoonful  of  small  peas,  the 
same  quantity  of  fine  French  beans  cut  into  lozenges,  and  one 
tablespoonful  of  asparagus-heads. 

Cut  the  royale  into  regular  roundels;  put  these  in  the  soup- 
tureen  with  the  macedoine  of  vegetables,  and,  when  about  to 
serve,  pour  thereon  the  boiling  chicken  consomm^.  Add  a 
pinch  of  fine  chervil  pluches. 

598— LA  PETITE  MARMITE 

For  Ten  People. — Prepare  a  consomm^  in  a  special  earthen- 
ware stock-pot  in  accordance  with  the  procedure  indicated  in 
recipe  No.  i,  but  with  the  following  quantities,  viz.,  two  lbs. 
of  lean  beef  and  as  much  breast  of  beef,  one  marrow-bone 
tied  in  a  muslin-bag,  and  the  necks,  the  pinions,  and  the  giz- 
zards of  six  large  fowls,  these  giblets  being  inserted  in  the 
stewpan  one  hour  before  dishing  up. 

Moisten  with  three  and  one-half  quarts  of  water  and  add 
three-quarters  of  an  oz.  of  salt.  Set  to  boil,  skim  as  indicated, 
and  cook  gently  with  the  view  of  obtaining  a  very  clear  broth. 
One  hour  before  serving  add  six  oz.  of  carrots  and  the  same 
quantity  of  turnips,  both  cut  to  the  shape  of  large  olives,  five  oz. 
of  the  white  of  leeks,  and  a  heart  of  celery. 

Cook  a  quarter  of  a  very  white,  properly  blanched  cabbage, 
separately,  in  a  saucepan  with  a  little  consomm^  and  some  stock 
grease. 

When  about  to  serve  test  the  seasoning  of  the  consomm6, 
which  latter  should  be  very  clear;  thoroughly  clean  the  stewpan, 
which  may  even  be  covered  with  a  clean  napkin;  withdraw  the 
marrow-bone;  take  it  out  of  its  muslin-bag,  and  send  it  and 
the  cabbage  to  the  table  separately,  accompanied  by  a  plate  of 
small  pieces  of  hot  toast  for  the  marrow. 

599— THE  POT=AU=FEU 

Prepare  this  exactly  like  the  Petite  Marmite. 

600— POULE  AU  POT,  or  Poule  au  Pot  Henri  IV 

This  is  a  variation  of  the  Petite  Marmite,  in  which  a  tender 
and  very  fleshy  hen  is  substituted  for  the  giblets  of  fowl. 

Strictly  observe  the  rule  of  never  using  a  new  earthenware 
stock-pot  before  having  boiled  water  in  it  for  at  least  twelve 
hours.  Also  bear  in  mind  that  earthenware  stock-pots  should 
be  washed  in  hot  water  only,  without  any  soda  or  soap. 


2i6  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

6oi— CONSOMM^  PRINTANIER 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm^,  also  cut  one 
carrot  and  one  turnip  into  roundels  one-half  inch  thick.  With  a 
tubular  cutter  one-eighth  inch  in  diameter,  cut  these  roundels 
into  little  rods,  making  a  sufficient  number  to  fill  one  table- 
spoonful  with  each  vegetable.  Cook  these  little  rods  in  con- 
somm6,  and  reduce  the  latter  to  a  glaze. 

Put  the  carrot  and  turnip  rods  into  the  soup-tureen  with  one 
tablespoonful  of  small  peas,  the  same  quantity  of  small  French 
beans  and  asparagus-heads,  the  former  cut  into  lozenges,  ten 
roundels  of  sorrel  leaves,  and  as  many  of  lettuce  leaves,  the  latter 
being  poached  in  some  consomm^.  When  about  to  serve  pour 
the  boiling  consomm^  over  these  garnishes  and  add  a  large 
pinch  of  small  chervil  pluches. 

602— CONSOMM6  PRINTANIER  AUX  QUENELLES 

Prepare  the  printanier  exactly  as  directed  above,  but  slightly 
lessen  the  quantities  of  the  vegetables  constituting  the  garnish. 

Make  eighteen  small  quenelles  of  chicken  forcemeat  in  the 
shape  of  little  grooved  meringues,  and  poach  them  ten  minutes 
before  dishing  up. 

Drain  them,  put  them  into  the  soup-tureen  with  the  other 
garnishes,  and  pour  thereon  the  boiling  consomme. 

603— CONSOMME  AUX  PROFITEROLLES 

Prepare  forty  very  dry  frofiterolles  (No.  28),  and  add  an  ex- 
cellent chicken  consomme  to  them  at  the  last  moment. 

The  frofiterolles  may  also  be  made  to  the  size  of  walnuts,  in 
which  case  they  may  be  stuffed  with  a  pur^e  of  chicken,  foie 
gras,  &c. 

604— CONSOMME  RACHEL 

Prepare  one  quart  of  chicken  consomme,  and  thicken  it  with 
three  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  tapioca  strained  through  linen. 
With  a  round,  even  cutter  stamp  out  twelve  roundels  of  crumb 
of  bread  the  size  of  pennies  and  one-half  inch  thick.  Poach  in 
consomm6  as  many  slices  of  very  fresh  beef-marrow  as  there 
are  roundels  of  bread. 

Six  minutes  before  serving  fry  the  roundels  of  bread  in  clari- 
fied butter,  hollow  out  their  centres,  and  place  on  each  a  slice  of 
poached  beef-marrow  suitably  trimmed. 

Put  three  tablespoonfuls  of  a  julienne  of  cooked  artichoke 
bottoms  into  the  soup-tureen,  pour  thereon  the  thickened  con- 
somm^,  and  add  the  roundels  of  bread  garnished  with  marrow. 


SOUPS  217 

605— CONSOMMI6  R^JANE 

Prepare  one  quart  of  excellent  white  consomm^,  set  it  to  boil, 
and  add  a  julienne  of  the  white  of  half  a  fowl  and  the  heads  of 
two  leeks  cut  similarly  to  the  fowl.  Set  to  cook  gently  for  ten 
minutes,  taking  care  to  disturb  the  consomm^  as  little  as  pos- 
sible, add  three  oz.  of  potatoes  cut  into  a  julienne,  complete 
the  cooking,  and  serve  immediately. 

606— C0NS0MM6  RENAISSANCE 

Prepare  one  quart  of  clear  chicken  consomm^. 

For  the  garnish  make  two  dariole-moulds  of  royale  with  a 
pur^e  of  early-season  herbs  thickened  with  veloute  and  whole 
eggs ;  with  a  small  grooved  spoon-cutter  pick  out  one  tablespoon- 
ful  of  pellets  from  a  turnip  and  the  red  part  only  of  a  carrot. 
Cook  these  vegetables  in  the  usual  way.  Cut  the  royale  with  a 
grooved  fancy-cutter  into  pieces  of  the  shape  of  small  leaves. 
Put  the  leaves  of  royale  into  the  soup-tureen  with  the  carrot  and 
turnip  pellets,  one  tablespoonful  of  very  green  peas,  the  same 
quantity  of  French  beans  cut  into  lozenges,  one  tablespoonful 
of  asparagus-heads,  and  twelve  very  small  particles  of  very 
white  cauliflower.  Pour  the  boiling  consomm^  over  these  gar- 
nishes, and  add  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

607— CONSOMME  RICHELIEU 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  highly-seasoned  beef  consommd. 
Also  (i)  prepare  twelve  quenelles  of  chicken  forcemeat  moulded 
by  means  of  a  small  coffee-spoon,  proceeding  as  follows  : — Line 
the  spoon  with  a  thin  coating  of  the  forcemeat,  and  in  the 
middle  lay  some  chopped,  reduced,  cold  chicken  aspic.  Cover 
the  jelly  with  a  layer  of  forcemeat,  shaping  it  like  a  dome ;  insert 
another  spoon  (first  dipped  in  hot  waterj  under  the  quenelle, 
and  place  the  latter  upon  a  buttered  saut^pan.  Repeat  the 
operation  until  the  required  number  of  quenelles  have  been 
moulded.  Treated  in  this  way,  the  quenelles,  when  poached, 
contain,  so  to  speak,  a  liquid  core.  Five  minutes  before  dishing 
up,  poach  the  quenelles. 

2.  Cut  six  rectangles  out  of  lettuce  leaves;  spread  a  thin 
layer  of  forcemeat  over  each ;  roll  into  paupiettes,  and  poach  in 
some  of  the  consomm^. 

3.  Prepare  two  tablespoonfuls  of  a  coarse  julienne  of  carrots 
and  turnips,  stew  them  in  butter,  and  complete  their  cooking 
in  the  consomm^,  which  should  be  thoroughly  cleared  of  grease. 

Put  the  julienne,  the  paupiettes,  and  the  stuffed  quenelles 


21 8  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

into  the  soup-tureen ;  pour  therein  the  boiling  beef  consomm^, 
and  add  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

608— CONiSOMME  ROSSINI 

Prepare  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm6,  slightly  thickened 
with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  tapioca  strained  through 
linen. 

Make  eighteen  profiterolles,  from  pate  a  choux  without  sugar 
(No.  2374),  to  the  size  of  hazel-nuts.  Bake  them  in  a  moderate 
oven,  keeping  them  very  crisp,  and  garnish  them,  inside,  with 
a  foie-gras  and  truffle  pur^e. 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  the  consomm^  into  the  soup- 
tureen,  and  dish  the  profiterolles  separately,  after  having  placed 
them  in  good  time  in  the  front  of  the  oven,  so  that  they  may 
reach  the  table  very  hot. 

609— C0NS0MM6  ROTHSCHILD 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  game  consomm^,  prepared  with 
pheasant  fumet.  Add  thereto,  when  about  to  serve,  one-quarter 
pint  of  reduced  Sauterne.  Make  two  dariole-moulds  of  royale 
from  a  preparation  consisting  of  one-third  of  the  whole  of  pur^e 
of  pheasant,  one-third  of  chestnut  pur^e,  and  one-third  of 
pheasant  salmis  sauce.  Poach  the  royale;  cut  it  into  grooved 
roundels,  and  place  these  in  the  soup-tureen  with  one  table- 
spoonful  of  a  julienne  of  fillets  of  pheasant. 

When  about  to  serve,  pour  the  boiling  consomm^  over  the 
garnish. 

610— C0NS0MM6  SAINT  HUBERT 

Take  one  quart  of  game  consomm^,  prepared  with  venison 
fumet.  Finish  the  consomm^,  at  the  time  of  serving,  with  one- 
quarter  pint  of  Marsala. 

Make  three  dariole-moulds  of  royale  from  a  preparation  con- 
sisting of  one-third  of  the  whole  of  venison  pur^e,  one-third 
of  lentil  pur^e,  and  one-third  of  reduced  game  Espagnole. 
Poach  the  royale  in  a  small  Charlotte  mould,  and,  when  it  has 
cooled,  cut  it  up. with  a  fancy-cutter  of  the  shape  of  a  cross. 
Put  the  crosses  of  royale  into  the  soup-tureen  with  two  table- 
spoonfuls  of  a  julienne  consisting  of  fillets  of  hare,  and  pour 
thereon  the  boiling  consomme. 

611— POT  AGE  SARAH  BERNHARDT 

Sprinkle  three  tablespoonfuls  of  tapioca  into  one  quart  of 
boiling  chicken  consomm6,  and  leave  to  poach  gently  for  fifteen 
or  eighteen  minutes. 


SOUPS  219 

Make  twenty  small  quenelles  from  chicken  forcemeat, 
finished  by  means  of  crayfish  butter,  and  mould  them  to  the 
shape  of  small,  grooved  meringues.  Poach  these  quenelles. 
Cut  twelve  roundels,  the  size  of  a  penny,  from  a  piece  of  beef- 
marrow,  and  poach  them  in  the  consomm6. 

Put  the  drained  quenelles  and  the  poached  roundels  of 
marrow  into  the  soup-tureen ;  add  one  tablespoonful  of  a  julienne 
of  very  black  truffles,  and  the  same  quantity  of  asparagus-heads. 
Pour  the  boiling  consomm^,  with  tapioca,  over  this  garnish. 

612— CONSOMME  s6VIQN6 

Keep  one  quart  of  very  clear  chicken  consomm^  very  warm. 

Prepare  ten  quenelles  of  chicken  forcemeat,  moulded  by 
means  of  a  small  coffee-spoon,  and  poach  them ;  also  have 
ready  four  braised  lettuces. 

Put  the  quenelles,  the  lettuce  cut  into  small  sections  and 
properly  trimmed,  and  one  tablespoonful  of  peas  into  the  soup- 
tureen  ;  pour  therein  the  boiling  consomm6  and  a  pinch  of 
chervil  pluches. 

613— CONSOMM6  SOUVERAINE 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm^. 

Make  ten  large  quenelles  from  chicken  forcemeat,  and  stuff 
them  with  a  very  fine  brunoise,  proceeding  as  follows : — Line 
a  dessertspodh  with  a  thin  coat  of  forcemeat,  and  garnish  the 
centre  with  the  brunoise,  previously  cooked  in  consomm^,  and 
cold.  Cover  the  brunoise  with  a  layer  of  forcemeat,  shaping 
it  like  a  dome;  insert  another  dessertspoon  dipped  into  hot 
water  under  the  quenelle,  and  transfer  the  latter  to  a  buttered 
saut6pan.  Repeat  the  operation  until  the  required  number  of 
quenelles  have  been  moulded. 

Allow  eight  minutes  for  the  poaching  of  these  quenelles; 
put  them  into  the  soup-tureen  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  peas; 
pour  thereon  the  boiling  consomm^,  and  add  a  pinch  of  chervil 
pluches. 

614— TURTLE  SOUP 

With  the  exception  of  a  few  leading  London  restaurants, 
where  a  large  quantity  of  this  preparation  is  constantly  in 
demand,  turtle  soup  is  very  rarely  prepared  in  the  kitchens  of 
catering  establishments.  It  is  more  generally  obtained  ready- 
made,  either  fresh  or  preserved,  and  as  a  rule  of  exceptional 
quality,  from  firms  whose  speciality  it  is  to  make  it,  and  who 
deliver  it  in  excellent  condition. 

From  among  the  London  firms  who  have  deservedly  earned. 


220  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

a  reputation  for  this  soup,  "  P6criaux  "  may  be  quoted  as  one 
whose  produce  is  quite  irreproachable. 

When  a  comparatively  small  quantity  of  this  soup  is  re- 
quired, it  is  best  to  buy  it  ready-made;  in  the  event  of  its 
being  desirable  to  prepare  it  oneself,  the  following  recipe  will 
be  found  the  simplest  and  most  practical  for  the  purpose. 

Particulars  of  the  Operation 

The  Slaughtering  of  the  Turtle. — For  soup,  take  a  turtle 
weighing  from  120  to  180  lbs.,  and  let  it  be  very  fleshy  and  full 
of  life. 

To  slaughter  it,  lay  it  on  its  back  on  a  table,  with  its  head 
hanging  over  the  side.  By  means  of  a  double  butcher's  hook, 
one  spike  of  which  is  thrust  into  the  turtle's  lower  jaw,  -while 
the  other  suspends  an  adequately  heavy  weight,  make  the  animal 
hold  its  head  back ;  then,  with  all  possible  dispatch,  sever  the 
head  from  the  body. 

Now  immediately  hang  the  body  over  a  receptacle,  that  the 
blood  may  be  collected,  and  leave  it  thus  for  one  and  one-half 
or  two  hours. 

Then  follows  the  dismemberment : — To  begin  with,  thrust 
a  strong  knife  between  the  carapace  or  upper  shell  and  the 
plastron  or  lower  shell,  exactly  where  the  two  meet,  and  separate 
the  one  from  the  other.  The  turtle  being  on  its  back,  cut  all  the 
adhering  flesh  from  the  plastron,  and  put  the  latter  aside. 
Now  cut  off  the  flippers;  remove  the  intestines,  which  throw 
away,  and  carefully  collect  all  the  green  fat.  Whereupon  cut 
away  the  flesh  adhering  to  the  carapace;  once  more  remove  all 
fat,  and  keep  both  in  reserve. 

The  Treatment  of  the  Carapace,  the  Plastron,  and  the 
Flippers. — The  carapace  and  plastron,  which  are  the  outside 
bony  framework  of  the  turtle,  constitute  the  only  portions  where- 
from  the  gelatinous  flesh,  used  as  the  garnish  of  the  soup,  are 
obtained. 

Saw  the  carapace  into  six  or  eight  pieces,  and  the  plastron 
into  four. 

Put  these  pieces  with  the  flippers  into  boiling  water  or  into 
steam,  to  blanch.  Withdraw  the  flippers  as  soon  as  they  are 
sufficiently  stiff  for  their  skin  to  be  removed,  and  leave  the 
pieces  of  carapace  and  plastron  to  blanch  for  five  minutes,  in 
order  that  they  may  admit  of  being  scraped.  Now  cool  the 
pieces  of  carapace  and  plastron  and  the  flippers,  and  put  them 
into  a  stewpan  containing  enough  water  to  abundantly  cover 


SOUPS  221 

them.  Set  to  boil;  garnish  with  vegetables,  as  in  the  case  of 
an  ordinary  broth,  and  add  a  small  quantity  of  turtle  herbs. 

Five  or  six  hours  should  be  allowed  for  the  cooking  of  the 
carapace  and  the  plastron,  but  the  flippers,  which  are  put  to 
further  uses  in  other  culinary  preparations,  should  be  withdrawn 
at  the  end  of  five  hours. 

When  the  pieces  are  taken  from  the  cooking-liquor,  remove 
all  the  flesh  from  the  bones,  and  cool  the  former;  then  trim  it 
carefully,  and  cut  it  into  little  squares  of  one  and  one-half 
inches  side.  It  is  these  squares  together  with  the  green  fat 
(poached  in  salted  water  and  sliced)  which  constitute  the  garnish 
of  the  soup. 

The  Preparation  of  Turtle  Soup. — There  are  two  modes  of 
procedure,  though  their  respective  results  are  almost  identical. 

1.  Make  a  broth  of  the  flesh  of  turtle  alone,  and  then  add  a 
very  gelatinous  beef  consomm^  to  it,  in  pursuance  of  the 
method  employed  when  the  turtle  soup  is  bought  ready-made. 

This  procedure  is  practically  the  best,  more  particularly  if 
the  soup  has  to  be  kept  some  time. 

2.  Make  an  ordinary  broth  of  shin  of  beef,  using  the  same 
quantity  of  the  latter  as  of  turtle.  Also  include  half  a  calf's 
foot  and  one-half  lb.  of  calf's  shin  per  3  lbs.  of  the  beef.  Add 
the  flesh  of  the  turtle,  or,  in  the  event  of  its  being  thought 
necessary  to  clarify,  which  operation  I  do  not  in  the  least  advise, 
reserve  it  for  that  purpose. 

The  condiments  and  aromatics  being  the  same  for  both 
methods,  I  shall  now  describe  the  procedure  for  method  No.  i. 

The  Ingredients  of  the  Soup. — Put  into  a  stewpan  of  con- 
venient size  the  flesh  of  the  turtle  and  its  head  and  bones. 
Moisten  partly  with  the  cooking-liquor  of  the  carapace,  and 
complete  the  moistening,  in  the  case  of  a  turtle  weighing 
120  lbs.,  with  enough  water  to  bring  the  whole  to  50  quarts. 
By  this  means  a  soup  of  about  thirty  to  thirty-five  quarts  will 
be  obtained  at  the  end  of  the  operation.  Add  salt  in  the 
proportion  of  one  oz.  per  every  five  quarts;  set  to  boil;  skim, 
and  garnish  with  twelve  carrots,  a  bunch  of  leeks  (about  ten 
bound  with  a  head  of  celery),  one  lb.  of  parsley  stalks,  eight 
onions  with  ten  cloves  stuck  into  them,  two  lbs.  of  shallots,  and 
one  head  of  garlic.  Set  to  boil  gently  for  eight  hours.  An 
hour  before  straining  the  soup,  add  to  the  garnish  four  strips 
of  lemon-peel,  a  bunch  of  herbs  for  turtle,  comprising  sweet 
basil,  sweet  marjoram,  sage,  rosemary,  savory,  and  thyme,  and 
a  bag  containing  four  oz.  of  coriander  and  two  oz.  of  pepper- 
corns. 


222  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Finally,  strain  the  soup  through  a  napkin;  add  the  pieces 
of  flesh  from  the  carapace  and  plastron  which  were  put  aside 
for  the  garnish,  and  keep  it  until  wanted  in  specially-made 
sandstone  jars. 

The  Serving  of  the  Soup. — When  about  to  serve  this  soup, 
heat  it;  test  and  rectify  its  seasoning,  and  finish  it  off  by  means 
of  a  port  wine  glass  of  very  old  Madeira  to  every  quart. 

Very  often  a  milk  punch  is  served  wkh  turtle  soup,  the 
recipe  being  :  — 

Milk  Punch. — Prepare  a  syrup  from  one-half  pint  of  water 
and  three  and  one-half  oz.  of  sugar,  the  consistence  at  the 
boil  being  17°  (Baum^'s  Hydrometer).  Set  to  infuse  in  this 
syrup  two  orange  and  two  lemon  zests.  Strain  at  the  end  of 
ten  minutes,  and  add  one-half  pint  of  rum,  one-fifth  pint  of 
kirsch,  two-thirds  pint  of  milk,  and  the  juice  of  three  oranges 
and  three  lemons.  Mix  thoroughly.  Let  it  stand  for  three 
hours;  filter,  and  serve  cold. 


6 15- CONSOMME  TOSCA 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm6  thickened  with 
three  tablespoon fu Is  of  poached  tapioca  strained  through  linen. 

Also  prepare  two  tablespoonfuls  of  a  julienne  of  carrots 
stewed  in  butter,  the  cooking  of  which  is  completed  in  the  con- 
somm^ ;  ten  small  quenelles  of  chicken  forcemeat,  combined,  in 
the  proportion  of  one-third,  with  foie  gras  and  chopped  truffles ; 
ten  small,  very  crisp  profiterolles,  stuffed  with  a  pur^e  of  chicken 
with  pistachio  kernels. 

Put  the  quenelles  and  the  julienne  into  the  soup-tureen, 
pour  therein  the  boiling  consomm^,  and  send  the  profiterolles 
to  the  table  separately,  and  very  hot. 


6i6— CONSOMME  VERT  PRE 

Sprinkle  two  tablespoonfuls  of  tapioca  into  one  quart  of 
boiling  corisomm^,  and  set  to  cook  gently  for  a  quarter  of  an 
hour. 

Put  into  the  soup-tureen  one  tablespoonful  of  asparagus- 
heads,  the  same  quantity  of  peas  and  of  French  beans  cut  into 
lozenges,  a  few  roundels  of  sorrel  leaves,  and  as  many  roundels 
of  poached  lettuce  leaves. 

Pour  the  boiling  consomm^,  with  tapioca,  over  this  garnish, 
and  add  a  large  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 


SOUPS  223 

617— C0NS0MM6  VILLENEUVE 

Have  ready  one  quart  of  chicken  consomm^. 

Prepare  the  following  garnish : — Two  small  blanched 
lettuces,  stuffed  with  chicken  forcemeat  combined  with  braised 
and  chopped  salted  tongue;  two  dariole-moulds  of  ordinary 
royale,  and  two  pancakes  coated  with  a  layer  of  chicken  force- 
meat, which  should  be  placed  in  the  front  of  the  oven  for  a 
few  moments  with  the  view  of  poaching  the  forcemeat. 

Put  the  cut-up  lettuces,  the  pancakes  cut  into  small,  narrow 
lozenges,  and  the  royale  cut  into  pastils,  into  the  soup-tureen ; 
and,  when  about  to  serve,  pour  the  boiling  consomm^  over  the 
whole. 

Special  Cold  Consomm6  for  Suppers 

Remarks  Relative  to  the  Consommes. — I  gave  the  recipes 
of  these  consommes  in  Part  I.  of  this  work  (No.  6),  and  shall 
now,  therefore,  limit  myself  to  the  following  remarks,  which  are 
of  paramount  importance  : — 

1.  These  consommes  must  be  perfect  in  limpidness  and 
quality. 

2.  The  flavour  which  typifies  them  should  be  at  once  decided 
and  yet  not  too  pronounced. 

3.  When  the  flavour  is  imparted  by  a  wine,  the  latter  should 
be  of  the  best  possible  quality.  Rather  than  make  use  of  in- 
ferior wines,  the  presence  of  which  in  the  soup  would  tend  to 
depreciate  its  quality,  completely  discard  wine  flavourings. 

4.  Supper  consommes  never  contain  any  garnish. 

618— CONSOMME  A  L'ESSENCE  DE  CAILLES 

Use  roast  quails  in  the  proportion  of  two  for  each  pint  of 
consomm^;  the  fillets  may  be  reserved  for  a  cold  entree. 

619— CONSOMME  A  L'ESSENCE  DE  CJ^LERl 

It  is  impossible  to  state  exactly  how  much  celery  should  be 
used,  the  quantity  being  entirely  subject  to  the  more  or  less 
decided  flavour  of  the  vegetables  at  one's  disposal. 

Experience  alone  can  guide  the  operator  in  this  matter. 

620— CONSOMM^  A  L'ESSENCE  DE  MORILLES 

Allow  five  oz.  of  small  fresh  morels,  or  three  oz.  of  dry 
ones  per  quart  of  the  consomm^.  Pound  them  and  mix  them 
with  the  clarification. 


224  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

621— CONSOMME  A  LESSENCE  DE  TRUFFLE 

Use  fresh  truffles  only  in  this  case.  Allow  two  oz.  of  peel- 
ings and  trimmings  per  quart  of  the  consomm^ ;  pound  them 
and  mix  them  with  the  clarification. 

622-CONSOMM6  AU  FUMET  DE  PERDREAU 

Proceed  as  in  No.  618;  allow  one  partridge  for  each  quart 
of  the  consomm6. 

623— CONSOMM6  AUX  PAILLETTES  D  OR 

Take  a  very  superior  chicken  consomm^;  add  thereto,  per 
quart,  a  glass  of  excellent  liqueur  brandy,  and,  in  the  same 
proportion,  one  gold-leaf  cut  into  small  spangles. 

624— CONSOMME  AUX  PIMENTS  DOUX 

Add  one-half  oz.  of  fresh  or  preserved  capsicum  to  every 
quart  of  the  consomm^.  The  product  should  be  pounded  and 
mixed  with  the  clarification. 

625— CONSOMMlS  A  LA  MADRILENE 

Add  four  oz.  of  raw  tomato  and  one  oz.  of  capsicum  to  the 
consomm6  per  every  quart  of  the  latter.  Mix  these  ingredients 
with  the  clarification,  and  serve  as  cold  as  possible. 

626— CONSOMME  A  LA  PORTUQAISE 

Add  to  the  consomm^  for  every  quart  one-third  pint  of  raw 
tomato  pur^e  and  one-sixth  pint  of  tomato  juice.  Cook  with 
lid  on  for  twenty  minutes,  taking  care  not  to  let  it  reach  the  boil  ; 
strain  through  muslin,  pressing  lightly  the  while,  and  season 
moderately  with  cayenne.     Set  to  cool,  and  serve  very  cold. 

627— CONSOMMES  AUX  VINS 

By  adding  a  port  wine  glass  full  of  the  chosen  wine  to  one 
pint  of  excellent  cold  chicken  consomm^,  the  following  series 
of  consommes  may  be  made  :  — 

Consomm6  au  vin  de  Chypre. 

Consomm^  au  vin  de  Mad^re. 

Consommd  au  vin  de  Malvoisie. 

Consomme  au  vin  de  Marsala. 

Consomm^  au  vin  de  Porto  dor^. 

Consomm^  au  vin  de  Porto  rose. 

Consomm^  au  vin  de  Samos. 

Consomme  au  vin  de  Zucco. 


SOUPS  225 

628— qel6e  AUX  POMMES  D'AMOUR 

Proceed  as  for  the  "  Consomm^  Portugaise,"  and  use  that 
variety  of  small  tomatoes  which,  in  Provence,  are  called 
"  Pommes  d'amour." 

629— QELEE  DE  VOLAILLE  A  LA  NAPOLITAINE 

Proceed  as  for  the  "  Consomm^  Portugaise,"  but  finish  it 
with  one  port  wine-glassful  of  port  or  old  Marsala  per  quart. 

THICK    SOUPS 

In  Part  I.,  Chapter  I.,  of  this  work  I  pointed  out  what  thick 
soups  consist  of.  I  likewise  touched  upon  the  general  rules 
which  should  be  observed  in  the  preparation  of  each  class  of 
these  soups,  and  showed  how  most  of  them  could,  if  necessary, 
be  converted  into  and  served  as  cullises,  purees,  bisques, 
velout^s,  or  creams.  The  principles  governing  these  altera- 
tions are  very  simple,  and  after  a  moment's  reflection  the 
operator  will  thoroughly  grasp  their  import.  Be  this  as  it 
may,  the  reader  will  find  the  necessary  directions  at  the  end 
of  each  recipe  that  admits  of  various  methods  of  preparation. 

With  regard  to  those  recipes  which  are  not  followed  by  any 
directions  of  the  sort  referred  to,  and  which  I  simply  class 
under  the  name  of  Potages,  these  are  unalterable  preparations 
which  may  only  be  served  in  accordance  with  the  directions 
given.  This  being  clear,  the  reader  will  understand  that  I 
have  refrained  from  repeating  the  quantities  of  butter,  cream, 
thickening  ingredients,  &c.,  in  each  recipe.  These  particulars 
having  been  given  in  Part  I.,  it  will  be  necessary  to  refer  to 
that  part  of  the  book  for  them. 

630— PUR^E  DE  GAROTTES,  otherwise  CR^CY 

Cut  one  lb.  of  the  red  part  only  of  carrots  into  fine  slices; 
chop  one  onion,  and  put  the  whole  into  a  stewpan  with  a 
sprig  of  thyme  and  two  oz.  of  butter.  Stew  gently  for  twenty 
minutes,  and  season  with  a  pinch  of  salt  and  sugar.  Add  the 
thickening  ingredient,  i.e.,  either  two  oz.  of  rice  or  five  and 
one-half  oz.  of  bread  dice  fried  in  butter;  also  add  one  and  one- 
half  pints  of  white  consomm^,  and  set  to  cook  very  gently. 

Rub  through  tammy,  test  the  consistence,  despumate,  and 
add  butter  when  dishing  up. 

Ordinary  garnish  :  small  bread  dice  fried  in  butter. 

Occasional  garnish :  poached  Japanese  pearls  in  tKe  pro- 
portion of  two  tablespoonfuls  per  quart  of  the  soup. 

Q 


226  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream  or  a  veloutd 
k  la  Nivernaise  (see  No.  674). 

631— pur6e  de  carottes  au  tapioca, 

otherwise  VELOURS 

Make  one  pint  of  carrot  pur^e  as  above,  and  poach  two 
tablespoonfuls  of  tapioca  in  a  pint  of  white  consomm^. 

When  about  to  serve,  and  after  having  buttered  the  pur^e 
of  carrots,  mix  therewith  the  prepared  tapioca. 

632— PUREE  DE  CI^LERNRAVE 

Finely  mince  one  lb.  of  celeriac;  blanch  it;  thoroughly  drain 
it,  and  stew  it  gently  in  one  oz.  of  butter.  Moisten  with  one 
quart  of  white  consomm^ ;  add  two  medium-sized  potatoes, 
minced,  and  set  to  cook  gently.  Rub  through  tammy;  de- 
spumate  the  pur^e  gently  for  half  an  hour,  and  add  butter  when 
dishing  up. 

Garnish  :  small  bread  dice  fried  in  butter. 

633— PUREE  DE  CHOUX  DE  BRUXELLES, 
otherwise  FLAMANDE 

Parboil  and  drain  one  lb.  of  very  fresh  Brussels  sprouts. 
Set  them  to  stew  gently  in  three  oz.  of  butter;  moisten  with  one 
pint  of  white  consommd;  for  the  leason  add  two  medium-sized 
quartered  potatoes,  and  complete  the  cooking. 

Rub  the  whole  through  tammy,  finish  the  pur^e  with  milk, 
despumate  it  in  the  usual  way,  and  add  butter  when  dishing  up. 
Garnish  with  small  bread  dice  fried  in  butter. 

634— PUREE  DE  CHOUX-FLEURS, 
otherwise  DUBARRY 

Parboil  one  lb.  of  cauliflower  divided  into  bunches. 

Drain  them  and  put  them  in  a  saucepan  with  one  pint  of 
boiled  milk  and  two  medium-sized  minced  potatoes  for  the 
thickening.  Set  to  cook  gently,  rub  through  tammy,  finish 
with  boiled  milk,  despumate,  and  add  butter. 

Garnish  with  small  bread  dice  fried  in  butter. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  or  a  cream 
with  small  pieces  of  cauliflower  as  garnish. 

635_PUREE  DE  CROSNES,  otherwise  JAPONAISE 

Parboil  and  drain  one  lb.  of  well-cleaned  stachys.  Stew 
them  in  one  oz.  of  butter;  moisten  with  one  pint  of  boiled 


SOUPS  227 

milk  or  white  consomm^,  according  as  to  whether  the  pur6e  is 
to  be  a  Lenten  one  or  not;  add  two  medium-sized  minced 
potatoes,  and  complete  the  cooiting  gently. 

Rub  through  tammy,  test  the  consistence,  and  add,  if  neces- 
sary, either  a  little  boiled  milk  or  some  consomm^ ;  despumate, 
and  add  butter. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  Japanese  pearls  poached 
in  consomm^  or  milk. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  or  a  cream. 

636— PUREE  DE  FLAGEOLETS,  otherwise  MUSARD 

Cook  together  with  the  ordinary  aromatic  garnish  three- 
quarters  pint  of  dry  flageolets,  or,  if  they  are  in  season,  use 
twice  that  quantity  of  fresh  ones. 

Drain,  pound,  and  moisten  the  pur^e  with  a  little  of  the 
cooking-liquor  of  the  flageolets,  rub  through  tammy,  and 
rectify  the  consistence  with  some  white  consomm6  and  the 
necessary  quantity  of  boiled  milk.  Despumate,  and  butter  it 
when  about  to  dish  up. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  small  bread  dice  fried  in 
butter. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  or  a  cream,  but 
for  either  of  the  latter  it  is  preferable  to  use  fresh  flageolets,  the 
garnish  for  both  consisting  of  very  small  flageolets  and  chervil 
pluches. 

637 -PURINE  DE  HARICOTS  BLANCS, 
otherwise  SOISSONNAISE 

Cook  in  the  usual  way,  that  is"  to  say,  with  carrots,  a  faggot, 
and  one  onion  stuck  with  a  clove,  a  good  half-pint  of  dry 
haricot  beans. 

Crush  all  these,  moisten  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  their 
cooking-liquor,  and  rub  through  tammy. 

Rectify  the  consistence  of  the  purde  with  the  necessary 
quantity  of  white  consomm^  and  milk,  despumate,  add  butter 
when  about  to  dish  up,  and  garnish  with  small  bread  dice. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  or  a  cream. 

638— PUREE  DE  HARICOTS  VERTS, 
otherwise  CORMEILLES 

Parboil  one  and  one-half  lbs.  of  French  beans  and  keep 
them  very  green.  After  having  well  drained  them,  stew  them 
for  ten  or  twelve  minutes  in  one  oz.  of  butter,  moisten  with  one 
pint  of  white  consomm^,  and  add  two  medium-sized  minced 
potatoes  for  the  thickening. 

Q  2 


228  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Set  to  cook  gently,  rub  through  tammy,  rectify  the  con- 
sistence of  the  pur^e  with  a  little  boiled  milk,  despumate,  and 
add  butter  when  dishing  up. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  cooked  French  beans 
cut  into  narrow  lozenges. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  or  a  cream. 

639— PUREE  DE  HARICOTS  ROUGES, 
otherwise  CONDE 

Put  a  heaped  pint  of  red  beans  into  cold  water,  set  to  boil 
slowly,  skim,  add  three  oz.  of  carrots,  one  small  faggot,  one 
onion  stuck  with  a  clove,  and  a  bottleful  of  boiling  red  wine. 
Set  to  cook  gently. 

Drain  the  beans  and  crush  them  in  a  mortar.  Moisten  the 
pur^e  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  the  cooking-liquor  of  the 
beans,  rub  through  tammy,  rectify  the  consistence  of  the  purte 
with  some  white  consomm^,  follow  the  procedure  of  afl  purees, 
and  add  butter  when  about  to  serve. 

Garnish  with  bread  dice  fried  in  butter. 

640— PUREE  DE  LENTILLES,  otherwise  CONTI 

Soak  three-quarters  of  a  pint  of  lentils  in  lukewarm  water  for 
two  hours.  Put  them  in  a  stewpan  with  two  oz.  of  very  lean 
breast  of  bacon,  blanched,  cooled,  and  cut  into  dice,  and  one 
quart  of  white  consomm^.  Set  to  boil,  skim,  add  three  oz.  of 
carrots,  one  onion,  and  one  faggot,  and  cook  very  gently. 

Drain  the  lentils,  pound  them  together  with  the  bacon, 
moisten  the  pur^e  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  cooking-liquor, 
and  rub  through  tammy.  Rectify  the  consistence  with  some 
reserved  cooking-liquor,  then  treat  the  pur^e  in  the  usual  way 
and  add  butter  when  about  to  serve. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  bread  dice  fried  in  butter 
and  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

N.B. — It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  aromatic  garnish 
used  in  cooking  dry  vegetables  of  what  kind  soever  should  be 
withdrawn  before  pounding  the  latter,  that  they  may  be  rubbed 
through  tammy. 

641— PUR^E  DE  NAVETS,  otherwise  FRENEUSE 

Finely  mince  one  lb.  of  very  firm  turnips,  parboil,  driain, 
and  stew  them  in  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter,  the  necessary 
salt,  and  one-half  oz.  of  sugar,  until  they  are  almost  completely 
cooked.    Moisten  with  one-half  pint  of  white  consomm^,  and 


SOUPS  229 

complete  the  cooking.  Meantime,  cook  two  medium-sized, 
peeled  and  quartered  potatoes  in  some  consomm^. 

Now  put  the  turnips  and  the  potato  into  the  same  stewpan ; 
crush  them,  and  rub  them  through  tammy.  Bring  the  purde 
to  the  proper  consistence  by  means  of  boiled  milk,  and  finish  it 
in  the  usual  way. 

Garnish  with  some  small  bread  dice  fried  in  butter. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  or  a  cream. 

642— PUR^E  D'OSEILLE  ET  DE  VERMICELLE 

A  LA  CREME 

Sprinkle  three  oz.  of  well-separated  vermicelli  into  one  pint 
o£  boiling  milk  or  white  consomm6  (according  as  to  whether 
the  preparation  be  a  Lenten  one  or  not).  Let  the  vermicelli 
poach  gently  "for  twenty-five  minutes,  and  then  add  four  table- 
spoonfuls,  of  sorrel  cooked  in  butter. 

Rub  the  whole  through  tammy;  finish  the  pur^e  with  suffi- 
cient milk  or  thin  cream ;  heat  until  the  boil  is  reached,  and, 
when  about  to  serve,  complete  by  means  of  a  leason  composed 
of  the  yolks  of  two  eggs  and  one-quarter  pint  of  very 
fresh  cream. 

For  the  garnish,  refer  to  the  remarks  under  No.  646. 

643— PUREE  D'OSEILLE  ET  DE  SAQOU  A  LA  CREME 

Proceed  exactly  as  directed  in  the  preceding  recipe;  but 
instead  of  vermicelli  use  three  oz.  of  sago.  Allow  the  usual 
time  for  cooking,  and  add  the  same  quantity  of  sorrel  cooked  in 
butter. 

Use  the  same  quantities  of  milk  or  consommd  in  order  to 
bring  the  pur^e  to  the  proper  consistence,  and  make  use  of  a 
precisely  similar  leason. 

644— PUREE  D'OSEILLE  ET  DE  SEMOULE  A  LA  CR6ME 

The  same  as  the  above,  but  use  three  oz.  of  semolina.  All 
other  particulars  remain  the  same. 

645_PUREE  D'OSEILLE  ET  DE  TAPIOCA  A  LA  CREME 

Procedure  like  that  of  No.  642,  using  instead  of  the 
vermicelli  three  oz.  of  tapioca. 

646— REMARKS  RELATIVE  TO  THE  POSSIBLE 
VARIATIONS  OF  THE  FOUR  PRECEDING  RECIPES 

A  large  variety  of  this  kind  of  soups  may  be  prepared  by 
using  the  quantity  prescribed  of  salep,  buckwheat,  oatmeal, 
barley-meal,  &c. 


230  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

These  soups  derive  a  particular  and  agreeable  flavour  from 
their  cohering  element. 

The  chief  point  to  be  remembered  in  their  preparation  is 
their  consistence,  which  should  be  that  of  a  thin  cream. 

When  too  thick,  these  soups  are  pasty  and  disagreeable; 
when  too  thin,  they  are  insipid ;  hence  the  desirability  of  aiming 
at  a  happy  medium. 

Their  garnish  is  exceedingly  variable,  the  more  preferable 
forms  being  small  bread  dice  fried  in  clarified  butter,  pressed; 
peeled  tomatoes  cut  into  dice  and  tossed  in  butter;  small  prin- 
taniers,  brunoises,  juliennes,  faysannes,  or  well-poached  rice. 

Thus,  from  the  typical  recipe  of  these  soups,  a  whole  series 
may  be  prepared,  which  need  not  be  gone  into  separately  here. 

647— PURINE  DE  POIS  AUX  CROUTONS 

Wash  three-quarters  of  a  pint  of  split  peas  in  cold  water  and 
put  them  into  a  stewpan  with  one  quart  of  cold  water,  a  little 
salt,  and  one-half  lb.  of  raw  ham.  Set  to  boil,  skim,  and  add 
two  oz.  of  mirepoix,  the  minced  green  leaves  of  three  leeks,  a 
fragment  of  thyme  and  bay,  salt,  and  one-half  oz.  of  sugar.  Set 
to  cook  very  gently. 

Rub  through  tammy,  bring  the  pur^e  to  the  proper  con- 
sistence by  means  of  white  consomm^,  despumate  it  sufficiently, 
and  add  butter  to  it  when  dishing  up. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  small  bread  dice  fried 
in  butter. 

648— PUREE  DE  POIS  FRAIS,  otherwise 
SAINT-GERMAIN 

The  two  following  methods  may  be  employed,  viz. :  — 

(i)  Cook  quickly  one  and  one-quarter  pints  of  fresh  peas, 
just  shelled,  in  boiling,  salted  water.  Drain  them,  pound  them 
in  a  mortar,  moisten  the  pur^e  with  one  pint  of  white  con- 
somm^,  and  rub  it  through  tammy.  Bring  it  to  the  proper 
degree  of  heat,  and  add  butter  when  about  to  serve.  Prepared 
in  this  way,  the  puree  should  be  of  a  perfect  shade. 

(2)  Stew  one  and  one-quarter  pints  of  fresh  peas  in  one  and 
one-half  oz.  of  butter,  a  little  lettuce  chiffonade,  one  and 
one-half  oz.  of  the  green  part  of  leeks,  a  pinch  of  chervil,  a 
little  salt  and  sugar,  and  one-seventh  pint  of  water. 

Pound  the  peas  as  soon  as  they  are  cooked,  moisten  the 
pur^e  with  one  pint  of  white  consomm6,  and  rub  through 
tammy.  Bring  the  preparation  to  the  proper  degree  of  heat, 
and  add  butter  at  the  last  moment. 


SOUPS  231 

Treated  thus,  the  iiur^e  will  be  of  a  fainter  shade  than  the 
preceding  one,  but  i^s  flavour  will  be  more  delicate. 

Garnish,  in  both  cases,  with  one  and  one-half  tablespoonfuls 
of  very  green,  fine  peas,  and  some  chervil  fluches.  This  soup 
may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  or  a  cream, 

649— PUREE  DE  POIS  FRAIS  A  LA  MENTHE 

Make  the  pur^e  according  to  one  of  the  above-mentioned 
methods,  and  add  to  the  peas,  while  cooking,  a  faggot  consist- 
ing of  three  little  sprigs  of  fresh  mint.  Finish  with  con- 
somm^,  and  add  butter  in  the  usual  way. 

Garnish  with  nice  peas,  as  above,  and  some  very  tender 
mint-leaves,  chopped,  instead  of  the  chervil  fluches. 

Remarks  Relative  to  those  Soups  which  have  a  Puree  of 
Peas  for  Base. — A  large  number  of  soups  may  be  made  from 
purees  of  fresh  peas ;  among  others  I  may  mention  the  follow- 
ing, with  brief  directions  as  to  their  constituents  and  garnish, 
viz. :  — 

650— POTAQE  AMBASSADEURS 

Pur^e  of  fresh  peas,  quite  ready  for  soup ;  finish  with  a  small 
tablespoonful  of  sorrel  and  lettuce  chiffonade,  and  two  table- 
spoonfuls  of  poached  rice  per  quart  of  pur6e. 

651— POTAQE  CAMlfeLIA 

Prepare  this  after  the  recipe  of  potage  Lamballe ;  finish  with 
one  tablespoonful  of. a  julienne  of  the  white  of  a  leek  and  one 
tablespoonful  of  white  chicken  meat,  cut  julienne-fashion,  per 
quart  of  the  soup. 

652— POTAQE  FONTANQES 

Puree  of  fresh  peas  ready  for  soup ;  add  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  a  chiffonade  of  sorrel  and  a  pinch  of  chervil  fluches  per 
quart  of  the  pur6e,  and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  rice. 

653— POTAQE  LAMBALLE 

Half  of  this  consists  of  a  finished  pur^e  of  peas,  and  the 
other  half  of  tapioca  poached  in  consomm^  as  for  the  ordinary 
"  potage  au  tapioca." 

654— POTAQE  LONQCHAMPS 

This  is  the  "  potage  Fontange,"  kept  somewhat  clear,  and 
with  a  garnish  composed  of  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  vermicelli, 
poached  in  consomm^,  and  a  pinch  of  chervil  fluches  per  quart 
of  the  soup. 


232  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

655— POTAQE  MARIQNY 

Proceed  as  for  "  potage  Fontange,"  and  add  a  garnish  of 
one  tablespoonful  of  peas  and  one  tablespoonful  of  fine  French 
beans  cut  into  lozenges. 

656— POTAGE  MARCILLY 

Half  of  this  consists  of  a  pur^e  of  peas  and  the  other  half 
of^a  pur^e  of  chicken.  Prepare  these  purees  in  the  usual  way 
and  mix  them  together  when  about  to  serve. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  Japanese  pearls  poached 
in  consomm6  and  twelve  small  quenelles  of  chicken  forcemeat, 
in  the  shape  of  pearls,  per  quart  of  the  soup. 

657— POTAGE  SAINT-MARCEAU 

This  is  an  ordinary  puree  of  peas  with  butter,  combined  with 
two  tablespoonfuls  of  a  julienne  consisting  of  the  white  of  a 
leek  and  some  chervil  pluches  per  quart  of  the  purde. 
This  list  could  be  considerably  lengthened,  but  what  there  is 
of  it  amply  suffices  to  show  the  great  number  of  soups  that 
may  be  obtained  from  the  combination  of  other  suitable  pro- 
ducts with  the  pur6e  of  peas  and  the  modification  of  the  garnish 
in  each  case. 

658— PUREE  DE  POMMES  DE  TERRE, 
otherwise  PARMENTIER 

Finely  mince  the  white  of  two  medium-sized  leeks,  and  fry 
them  without  colouration  in  one  oz.  of  butter.  Add  three 
medium-sized  peeled  and  quartered  potatoes,  one  pint  of  white 
consomme,  and  cook  quickly.  The  moment  the  potatoes  seem 
soft  to  the  touch  crush  them  and  rub  them  through  tammy. 

Finish  the  pur^e  with  some  boiled  milk  or  thin  cream,  heat 
until  the  boil  is  reached,  and  add  butter  when  dishing  up. 

Garnish  with  two  tablesponfuls  of  small  bread  dice  fried  in 
butter  and  some  chervil  pluches. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  or  a  cream. 

659— PUR^E  DE  TOMATES,  otherwise  PORTUQAISE 

Fry  in  one  oz.  of  butter  a  somewhat  finely-cut  mirepoix 
consisting  of  one  oz.  of  breast  of  bacon  cut  into  dice,  one-third 
of  a  carrot,  half  an  onion,  a  fragment  of  thyme  and  bay.  Add 
to  this  fried  mirepoix  eight  medium-sized  tomatoes,  pressed  and 
cut  into  pieces  the  size  of  a  clove  of  garlic,  a  pinch  of  sugar, 
two  and  one-half  oz.  of  rice,  and  one  pint  of  white  consomme. 


SOUPS  233 

Set  to  cook  gently,  rub  through  tammy,  and  finish  with  the 
necessary  quantity  of  consomm6. 

When  about  to  serve  complete  the  pur^e  by  adding  thereto, 
away  from  the  fire,  two  oz.  of  butter. 

Garnish  with  two  tablesponfuls  of  poached  rice,  each  grain 
being  separate,  and  the  same  quantity  of  peeled  tomatoes  cut 
into  dice  and  briskly  tossed  in  butter. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  or  a  cream. 

660— PUREE  DE  TOMATES  AU  TAPIOCA, 
otherwise  WALDfeZE 

Prepare  one  and  one-half  pints  of  tapioca  in  white  con- 
somme, and  keep  it  a  little  lighter  than  ordinary  tapioca.  Also 
press,  peel,  and  cut  into  dice  the  pulp  of  three  medium-sized, 
very  red  tomatoes;  poach  these  dice  in  some  consomm^  and  mix 
them  with  the  tapioca. 

Or,  failing  fresh  tomatoes,  add  to  the  tapioca  two  table- 
spoonfuls  of  concentrated  tomato  pur6e  diluted  in  a  bowl  with 
some  white  consomm^. 

Send  two  oz.  of  grated  cheese  to  the  table  separately. 

661— PUR^E  DE  TOPINAMEOUR, 
otherwise  PALESTINE 

Finely  mince  two  lbs.  of  Jerusalem  artichokes  and  stew  them 
in  one  oz.  of  butter.  Add  five  torrefied  and  crushed  filberts, 
moistened  with  one  pint  of  white  consomm^,  and  set  to  cook 
gently.  Rub  through  tammy;  finish  the  purde  with  one-quarter 
pint  of  milk;,  in  which  one  tablespoonful  of  fecula  has  been 
diluted,  cold.     Set  to  boil  and  add  butter  when  dishing  up. 

Garnish  with  small  bread  dice  fried  in  butter. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  or  a  cream. 

662— BISQUE  D'ECREVISSES 

(i)  Cut  into  very  small  dice  one  oz.  of  carrot,  one  oz.  of 
onion,  and  two  parsley  stalks.  Add  a  fragment  of  thyme  and 
bay;  brown  this  mirepoix  with  butter,  in  a  saut^pan;  throw  in 
fifteen  crayfish  for  "  Bisque  "  (their  average  weight  being  about 
one  and  one-third  oz.),  and  toss  them  in  the  mirepoix  until  they 
acquire  a  very  red  colour.  Sprinkle  with  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  burnt  brandy  and  one-quarter  pint  of  white  wine,  season  with 
a  large  pinch  of  salt  and  a  pinch  of  ground  pepper,  and  set  to 
reduce. 

This  done,  moisten  with  one-quarter  pint  of  white  consomm^ 
and  leave  to  cook  for  ten  minutes. 


234  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Also  cook  three  oz.  of  rice  in  one  and  one-half  pints  of 
white  consomm^. 

(2)  Shell  the  crayfishes'  tails  and  put  them  aside;  also  re- 
-serve  eight  carapaces.  Drain  the  crayfishes  of  all  their  cooking- 
liquor;  finely  pound  them  and  their  remains  and  the  mirepoix. 
Add  the  rice,  properly  cooked,  and  the  cooking-liquor  of  the 
crayfish,  and  rub  through  a  sieve,  first,  and  then  through 
tammy.    . 

Add  to  the  resulting  purde  one-half  pint  of  white  consomm^, 
set  to  boil,  wielding  a  whisk  the  while,  pass  through  a  strainer, 
and  then  keep  the  preparation  in  a  bain-marie,  taking  care  to 
place  a  few  lumps  of  butter  on  its  surface  lest  a  skin  should 
form  while  the  bisque  is  waiting  to  be  served. 

Finish  the  preparation  when  dishing  up  with  two  and  one- 
half  oz.  of  butter,  three  tablespoonfuls  of  excellent  thick  cream, 
and  a  very  little  cayenne. 

Garnish  with  the  crayfish  tails  cut  into  dice,  and  the  eight 
carapaces  stuffed  with  a  fish  forcemeat  with  cream  and  poached 
seven  or  eight  minutes  previously. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  veloute  or  a  cream. 

663— BISQUE  DE  HOMARD 

After  substituting  for  the  crayfish  a  raw  lobster  weighing 
three  lbs.,  cut  into  small  sections,  the  procedure  is  the  same  as 
that  of  No.  662.  It  is  only  necessary,  therefore,  to  refer  to  that 
recipe  for  all  particulars  relating  to  preparation  and  quantities. 

Garnish  with  the  meat  taken  from  the  tail ;  this  should  have 
been  kept  aside  and  cut  into  small  dice. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout6  or  a  cream. 

664— BISQUE  DE  CREVETTES 

The  mode  of  procedure  for  this  bisque,  the  mirepoix,  the 
thickening  ingredients,  the  moistening,  and  the  finishing  of 
the  soup  are  identical  with  those  of  No.  662. 

All  that  is  needed,  therefore,  is  to  substitute  for  the  crayfish 
two  lbs.  of  raw  shrimps. 

Instead  of  using  ordinary  butter  in  finishing  this  bisque,  use 
three  oz.  of  shrimp  butter.  Garnish  with  twenty-five  reserved 
tails,  these  being  shelled  and  trimmed. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  veloutd  or  a  cream. 

665— COULIS  DE  QIBIER,  otherwise  AU  CHASSEUR 

Prepare  six  oz.  of  the  meat  of  a  wild  rabbit,  six  oz.  of  that 
of  a  partridge,  and  six  oz.  of  that  of  a  pheasant.  These  meats 
should  be  roasted  and  their  roast-cases  swilled  with  a  liqueur- 


SOUPS  235 

glass  of  burnt  brandy.  The  resulting  gravy  should  be  added 
to  the  soup. 

Now  finely  pound  these  meats  together  with  one-half  pint  of 
cooked  and  drained  lentils.  When  the  whole  has  become  a 
smooth  purde  add  the  cooking-liquor  of  the  lentils  and  the 
swillings  referred  to  above  and  rub  through  tammy. 

Finish  the  cullis  with  the  necessary  quantity  of  consomm6, 
heat  it,  and  pass  it  through  a  strainer.  Add  butter  at  the  last 
moment  and  season  moderately. 

Garnish  with  three  tablesponfuls  of  small,  very  fresh  mush- 
rooms; these  to  be  finely  minced  and  tossed  in  butter. 

666— COULIS  DE  QRIVES  AU  PAIN  NOIR, 
otherwise  A  L'ARDENNAISE 

Fry  four  fine  thrushes  in  butter  and  complete  their  cooking 
in  one  pint  of  feathered  game  consomm6  containing  five  oz.  of 
rye-bread  dice  fried  in  butter.  These  dice  constitute  in  this 
case  the  thickening  element  of  the  soup.  Remove  and  put  aside 
the  thrushes'  fillets,  finely  pound  the  carcasses  together  with  two 
juniper-berries,  add  the  leason  of  bread  dice,  and  rub  through 
tammy. 

Add  to  the  resulting  pur^e  one-quarter  pint  of  feathered- 
game  consomm^,  set  to  boil,  and  pass  through  a  strainer. 
Finish  the  cullis  with  two  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  and  four 
tablespoonfuls  of  cream. 

Garnish  with  the  reserved  fillets  cut  into  thin  slices  or  into 
a  julienne. 

667— COULIS  DE  GROUSE  OU  DE  QELINOTTE 

A  L'ANCIENNE 

Proceed  as  in  No.  666  in  so  far  as  the  preparatory  details 
and  the  quantities  are  concerned,  but  take  note  of  the  following 
changes  in  other  directions  : — 

(i)  Substitute  for  the  thrushes  two  grouse  or  two  hazel-hens, 
taking  care  to  discard  the  legs  and  the  carcasses. 

(2)  Use  ordinary  bread  dice  instead  of  those  of  rye-bread. 

668— COULIS  DE  LAPEREAU  AU  CURRIE 

Cut  the  legs  of  a  young  wild  rabbit  into  small  pieces,  stiffen 
these  in  butter,  and  put  them  into  the  stewpan  with  a  few 
roundels  of  carrot  and  onion,  one  small  faggot  of  parsley  and 
celery,  and  one  quart  of  white  consomm^.     Set  to  cook  gently. 

Also  lightly  brown  in  butter  two  tablesponfuls  of  chopped 
onion,  besprinkle  with  one-half  tablespoonful  of  fecula  and  a 


236  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

sufficient  quantity  of  curry,  moisten  with  the  strained  cooking- 
liquor  of  the  pieces  of  rabbit,  bring  to  the  boil,  and  set  to  simmer 
for  seven  or  eight  minutes.  Rub  through  tammy  and  then 
despumate  for  twenty  minutes,  adding  from  time  to  time  one  or 
two  tablespoonfuls  of  consomm^  with  the  view  of  promoting  the 
clarification  of  the  cullis.  When  about  to  serve  finish  the  latter 
with  three  or  four  tablespoonfuls  of  cream. 

Garnish  with  eighteen  very  small  slices  taken  from  the  pieces 
of  rabbit  and  two  oz.  of  rice  a  I'lndienne,  serving  the  latter 
separately. 

669— COULIS  DE  PERDREAU  A  LA  PUREE  DE 
MARRONS,  otherwise  A  LA  MANCELLE 

Split  the  shells  of  fifteen  fine  chestnuts,  put  them  in  a  stew- 
pan  with  water,  boil  them  for  five  minutes,  and  shell  and  peel 
them  quickly  while  they  are  still  very  hot.  Then  cook  them 
gently  in  one-half  pint  of  white  consomm^  with  one-third  of  a 
stick  of  celery,  minced,  and  one  piece  of  loaf-sugar. 

Poele  a  partridge,  remove  the  fillets  for  the  purpose  of  gar- 
nish, bone  the  rest,  and  pound  it  finely  together  with  the  car- 
cass and  the  poeling  liquor.  Add  the  chestnuts,  pound  the 
whole,  and  add  some  consomm6  to  the  resulting  pur^e  with 
the  object  of  facilitating  the  rubbing  through  tammy.  This 
done,  add  to  the  preparation  about  one-quarter  pint  of  very 
clear  game  stock,  bring  the  whole  to  the  boil,  pass  it  through  a 
strainer,  and  finish  the  cullis,  when  dishing  up,  with  a  very 
little  cayenne  and  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter. 

Garnish  with  the  fillets  of  partridge  cut  into  a  small 
julienne. 

670— COULIS  DE  VOLAILLE,  otherwise  A  LA  REINE 

Poach  in  one  quart  of  white  consomm^  a  cleaned  fowl  weigh- 
ing about  three  lbs.  and  two  oz.  of  rice  previously  blanched. 
Having  cooked  the  fowl,  withdraw  it,  raise  its  fillets,  and  put 
them  aside.  Bone  the  remainder  and  finely  pound  the  meat. 
When  the  latter  is  a  smooth  paste  mix  therewith  the  rice,  which 
should  be  very  well  cooked,  add  the  necessary  amount  of  white 
consomm6  to  the  pur^e,  and  rub  through  tammy.  Bring  the 
cullis  to  the  boil  and  pass  it  through  a  fine  strainer. 

Finish  the  preparation,  when  dishing  up,  with  a  leason  com- 
posed of  the  yolks  of  three  eggs,  one-sixth  pint  of  cream,  and 
three  oz.  of  butter. 

Garnish  with  the  reserved  fillets  cut  into  small,  regular  dice. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  or  a  cream. 


SOUPS  237 

671— VELOUTI^  AQNfeS  SOREL 

(i)  Prepare  one  and  one-half  pints  of  poultry  velout^,  keep- 
ing it  somewhat  thin, 

(2)  Clean,  wash,  peel,  and  quickly  pound  eight  oz.  of  very 
fresh  mushrooms,  newly  gathered  if  possible. 

Rub  through  a  fine  sieve,  and  add  the  resulting  pur6e  of 
raw  mushrooms  to  the  velout^.  Bring  the  whole  to  the  boil  once 
or  twice,  and  this  done  rub  through  tammy  immediately. 
Finish  with  the  leason  and  add  butter  when  dishing  up. 

Garnish  with  one  tablespoonful  of  a  julienne  of  raw  mush- 
rooms tossed  in  butter,  one  tablespoonful  of  chicken  fillets,  and 
as  much  salted  tongue,  both  of  which  should  also  be  cut  in 
julienne-fashion . 

N.B. — With  regard  to  velout^s  I  remind  the  reader  that  the 
velout^  of  ordinary  consistence  represents  one-half  of  the  soup, 
the  pur^e  typifying  the  latter  represents  one-quarter,  while  the 
consomm^  required  to  bring  the  soup  to  the  correct  degree  of 
consistence  should  be  in  the  proportion  of  the  remaining 
quarter. 

The  leason,  per  quart  of  the  soup,  should  consist  of  the  yolks 
of  three  eggs  and  one-sixth  pint  of  cream,  while  the  average 
quantity  of  butter  should  measure  about  two  and  one-half  oz. 
(see  No.  242). 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream. 

672— VELOUTE  DE  BLANCHAILLE  AU  CURRIE 

Bear  in  mind  that  this  soup  ought  to  be  made  and  served 
within  the  space  of  twenty  minutes,  for  if  it  be  left  to  stand  for 
however  short  a  time,  it  will  most  probably  turn,  in  spite  of 
every  possible  precaution. 

Cook  three  oz.  of  finely  chopped  onion  in  butter  without 
colouration,  besprinkle  with  one-half  coffeespoonful  of  curry, 
moisten  with  one  and  one-half  pints  of  boiling  water,  add 
a  faggot,  a  pinch  of  salt,  a  few  sprigs  of  saffron  (or  a  little  of 
it  powdered),  and  two  pz.  of  Viennese  bread. 

Set  to  boil  for  ten  minutes;  this  done  add  three-quarters  lb. 
of  very  fresh  Blanchailles,  and  cook  over  a  brisk  fire. 

Rub  through  a  hair-sieve,  finish  by  means  of  a  leason  con- 
sisting of  the  yolks  of  three  eggs  and  one-fifth  pint  of  cream, 
and  pour  the  whole  into  the  soup-tureen  over  some  dried  slices 
of  bread  (buttered),  over  rice,  or  over  some  previously  poached 
vermicelli.    Serve  at  once. 


238  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

673— VELOUTE  CARMELITE 

Prepare  one  and  one-half  pints  of  fish  velout^,  stew  four  oz. 
of  fillets  of  sole  and  the  same  quantity  of  fillets  of  whiting  in 
one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  and  lemon  juice.  Pound  the  fish, 
add  it  to  the  velout^,  and  rub  through  tammy. 

Add  the  necessary  quantity  of  consomm^,  heat  the  velout^, 
and  finish  it,  when  about  to  serve,  with  a  leason  and  butter. 

Garnish  with  one  tablespoonful  of  a  julienne  of  poached 
fillets  of  sole  and  twelve  small  quenelles  of  smelt  forcemeat. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream. 

674— VELOUTE  AUX  CAROTTES,  otherwise 
NIVERNAISE 

Cut  into  thin  slices  one  lb.  of  the  red  part  only  of  carrots, 
season  with  a  pinch  of  table-salt  and  twice  that  amount  of 
castor-sugar,  and  stew  in  one  oz.  of  butter. 

Add  one  pint  of  ordinary  thin  velout6  and  let  the  cooking  of 
the  carrots  be  completed  therein.  Rub  through  tammy,  finish 
with  one-half  pint  of  white  consomm^,  set  to  boil,  and  complete 
the  preparation,  when  dishing  up,  with  the  leason  and  butter. 

Garnish  with  one  and  one-half  tablespoonfuls  of  a  fine 
brunoise  of  the  red  part  of  carrots. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream. 

675_VELOUT]6  COMTESSE 

Prepare  one  pint  of  ordinary  velout6,  parboil  one  and  one- 
half  lbs.  of  white  asparagus,  and  put  them  into  the  velout6. 
Complete  the  cooking  gently.  Rub  through  tammy,  add  one- 
half  pint  of  white  consomm^,  heat,  and  finish  the  preparation, 
when  dishing  up,  with  the  leason  and  butter. 

Garnish  with  one  tablespoonful  of  a  lettuce  chiffonade  and 
twelve  small  white  asparagus-heads  wherefrom  all  leaves  have 
been  removed. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream. 

676— VELOUTE  AU  CONCOMBRES,  otherwise 
DANOISE 

Peel,  remove  the  seeds  from,  mince,  and  stew  in  butter  one 
lb.  of  parboiled  cucumber.  Add  this  to  one  pint  of  ordinary 
veloutd,  which  should  have  been  prepared  at  the  same  time,  and 
complete  the  cooking  quickly.  Rub  through  tammy,  add  the 
necessary  quantity  of  white  consomm^,  heat,  and  finish  the 
preparation,  when  dishing  up,  with  a  leason  and  butter  in  the 
usual  quantities. 


SOUPS  239 

Garnish  with  small  bread  dice  fried  in  butter. 
This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream. 

677— VELOUTE  CRESSONIERE 

After  having  slightly  parboiled  them,  stew  one  lb",  of  very 
fresh  watercress  leaves  in  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter,  add 
them  to  one  pint  of  ordinary  velout^.  Set  to  simmer  for  seven 
or  eight  minutes,  rub  through  tammy,  add  one  and  one-half 
pints  of  ordinary  white  consomm6,  heat,  and  finish  the  prepara- 
tion, when  dishing  up,  with  a  leason  and  butter. 

Garnish  with  one  oz.  of  watercress  leaves  parboiled  for  three 
minutes. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream. 

678— VELOUTE  DAME  =  BLANCHE 

Prepare  one  and  one-half  pints  of  clear  poultry  velout^. 
Also  finely  pound  ten  or  twelve  well-washed  sweet  almonds, 
moisten  them,  little  by  little,  with  one-sixth  pint  of  fresh  water, 
and  rub  through  a  strong  towel,  twisting  the  latter  to  assist  the 
process. 

Add  this  almond  milk  to  the  velout^,  and  finish  the  latter, 
when  dishing  up,  with  the  leason  and  butter. 

Garnish  with  one  tablespoonful  of  the  white  of  a  chicken 
cut  into  small  dice,  and  twelve  small  quenelles  of  chicken  force- 
meat (in  the  shape  of  pearls)  poached  just  before  dishing  up. 

679— VELOUTE  D'ARTOIS 

Prepare  one  pint  of  ordinary  velout6,  and  mix  therewith  one- 
half  pint  of  a  pur^e  of  haricot  beans.  Rub  through  tammy; 
add  one-half  pint  of  white  consomm^;  heat,  and  finish  the 
whole,  when  dishing  up,  with  the  leason  and  butter. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  an  ordinary  julienne  and 
a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream. 

680— VELOUTE  D'EPERLANS 

Prepare  a  thin  panada  with  one  pint  of  boiled  milk  and  two 
and  one-half  oz.  of  crumbled  bread.  Season  with  a  pinch  of 
salt  and  a  very  small  quantity  of  mignonette.  Also  stew 
gently,  in  one  oz.  of  butter,  two  tablespoonfuls  of  chopped 
onion,  two  and  one-half  oz.  of  fillets  of  smelt,  one-half  lb.  of 
fillets  of  sole,  or  the  meat  of  a  dory,  and  the  juice  of  the  quarter 
of  a  lemon. 


240  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Add  the  fish,  stewed  in  butter  and  pounded,  to  the  panada, 
together  with  one-half  pint  of  ordinary  thin  veloutd. 

Rub  through  tammy ;  heat ;  season  with  a  very  little  cayenne, 
and  finish  the  whole,  when  dishing  up,  with  an  ordinary  leason 
and  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter. 

N.B. — I.  In  view  of  the  decided  flavour  of  the  smelt,  and 
the  really  disagreeable  taste  it  imparts  to  a  preparation  which 
contains  overmuch  of  it,  its  flesh  should  never  exceed  the  pro- 
portion of  one-third  of  the  required  quantity  of  fish.  The  re- 
maining two-thirds  should  be  supplied  by  a  fish  of  neutral 
flavour,  such  as  the  sole  or  dory,  both  of  which  are  admirably 
suited  to  this  purpose. 

2.  The  velout^  d'^perlans  should,  like  almost  all  fish 
velout^s,  be  prepared  as  quickly  as  possible,  and  at  the  last 
moment.  The  process  should  not  last  longer  than  thirty 
minutes,  for,  if  there  be  any  delay,  the  preparation  will  turn 
and  lose  its  flavour. 

3.  For  this  soup  I  elected  to  use  a  panada  as  the  thickening 
element,  instead  of  a  fish  velout^,  the  reason  being  that,  were 
the  latter  used,  the  taste  of  fish  would  in  the  end  be  too  pro- 
nounced. 

681— VELOUTE  D'^PERLANS  JOINVILLE 

Proceed  in  the  matter  of  the  base  of  the  soup  as  in  No.  680. 

Finish  the  velout6  with  an  ordinary  leason  and  one  and  one- 
half  oz.  of  shrimp  butter. 

Garnish  with  six  crayfish  tails,  cut  into  four  pieces,  and  one 
tablespoonful  of  a  short  julienne  of  truffles  and  mushrooms. 

682— VEL0UT6  D'EPERLANS  PRINCESSE 

The  same  as  above,  with  twelve  small  quenelles  of  smelt 
forcemeat  with  crayfish  butter,  and  one  tablespoonful  of  very 
green  asparagus-heads  per  quart  of  veloutd. 

683— VEL0UT6   AUX  QRENOUILLES,  otherwise 
SICILIENNE 

Prepare  one  and  one-half  pints  of  delicate  and  rather  thin 
fish  velout^. 

Trim  fifteen  or  twenty  frogs'  legs ;  toss  them  in  butter  with- 
out letting  them  acquire  any  colour,  and  set  them  to  poach  for 
ten  minutes  in  two  tablespoonfuls  of  white  wine  and  the  juice 
of  a  lemon.  Pound  them  in  a  mortar;  add  the  resulting  pur^e 
to  the  velout^ ;  set  to  simmer  for  seven  or  eight  minutes,  and 
rub  through  tammy. 


SOUPS  241 

Heat  the  velout^,  and  finish  it,  when  dishing  up,  with  the 
ordinary  leason  %nd  three  and  one-half  oz.  of  best  butter. 
Do  not  garnish  this  velout^. 
This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream. 

684-  VELOUTE  DE  HOMARD,  otherwise  CARDINAL 

Prepare  one  and  three-quarter  pints  of  bisque  de  homard 
(No.  663),  but  substitute  velout^  for  the  thickening  with  rice. 
Rub  through  tammy;  heat,  and  complete,  when  dishing  up, 
with  two  and  one-half  oz.  of  lobster  butter  and  three-quarters 
oz.  of  red  butter. 

Garnish  with  two  baba-moulds  of  a  royale  of  lobster,  cut  by 
means  of  a  fancy-cutter  in  the  shape  of  a  cross. 

Shell-fish  velout^s  do  not  admit  of  an  egg-yolk  leason. 

685— VELOUTE  DE  HOMARD  A  CLEVELAND 

Break  up  two  small  live  lobsters  or  one  medium-sized  one, 
and  prepare  it  k  I'Am^ricaine  (see  "  Lobster  k  I'Amdricaine  "). 
Reserve  a  few  slices  of  the  meat  for  garnishing  purposes. 
Finely  pound  the  rest  with  the  shell ;  combine  the  pur^e  with 
one  quart  of  ordinary  veloutd  prepared  beforehand,  and  add 
the  lobster  sauce.  Rub  through  a  sieve,  first,  then  through 
tammy ;  heat  without  allowing  to  boil ;  add  the  required  quantity 
of  consomm^,  and  once  more  pass  the  whole  through  a  strainer. 

Complete,  when  dishing  up,  with  three  oz.  of  best  butter. 

Garnish  with  one-half  tablespoonful  of  peeled  tomato  pulp, 
cut  into  dice  and  half-melted  in  butter,  and  the  reserved  slices 
of  lobster  cut  into  dice. 

686 -VELOUTE  DE  HOMARD  A  L'INDIENNE 

Prepare  the  lobster  k  I'Am^ricaine  as  above,  and  flavour  it 
with  curry.  Preserve  a  sufficient  quantity  of  meat  from  the 
tail  to  afford  an  abundant  garnish. 

For  the  rest  of  the  process  proceed  exactly  as  the  preceding 
recipe  directs. 

Garnish  with  the  reserved  meat  cut  into  dice,  and  four  table- 
spoonfuls  of  rice  k  I'lndienne;  send  the  latter  to  the  table 
separately. 

687— VEL0UT6  DE  HOMARD  A  L'ORIENTALE 

Prepare  a  medium-sized  lobster  after  the  manner  directed 
in  "  Homard  k  la  Newburg  with  raw  lobster"  (see  No.  948), 
and  season  with  curry. 

Reserve  a  few  slices  of  the  meat  of  the  tail  for  the  garnish ; 

R 


242  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

finely  pound  the  remaining  portions  and  the  shell ;  add  the 
lobster  sauce,  and  combine  the  whole  with  one  quart  of  ordinary 
velout^,  kept  somewhat  light. 

Rub  through  a  sieve,  first,  then  through  tammy;  heat  the 
velout6  without  letting  it  boil;  add  the  necessary  quantity  of 
consomm^,  and  finish  the  preparation,  when  about  to  serve, 
with  three  oz.  of  butter. 

Garnish  with  the  reserved  meat  cut  into  dice,  and  two  table- 
spoonfuls  of  rice  k  I'lndienne,  each  grain  of  which  should  be 
kept  distinct  and  separate. 

688— VEL0UT6  DE  HOMARD  AU  PAPRIKA 

Prepare  a  medium-sized  lobster  k  I'Am^ricaine,  and,  in 
addition  to  the  usual  ingredients  of  the  preparation,  include 
two  concassed  tomatoes  and  two  roughly  chopped  onions. 
Season  with  paprika. 

For  the  rest  of  the  operation,  proceed  exactly  as  directed 
under  "  Velout6  k  la  Cleveland." 

Garnish  with  lobster  meat  cut  into  dice,  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  rice,  and  one  tablespoonful  of  pimentos  cut  into  dice. 

689— VEL0UT6  DE  HOMARD  A  LA   PERSANE 

Proceed  exactly  as  for  "  Velout^  de  Homard  k  I'Orientale." 

Garnish  with  lobster  meat  in  dice,  one  tablespoonful  of 
pimentos  in  dice,  and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  pilaff  rice,  to  which 
add  a  very  little  saffron. 

Remarks  relating  to  the  Variation  of  these  Veloutes. — By 
merely  substituting  an  equivalent  quantity  of  crayfish,  shrimps, 
or  crabs,  for  the  lobster,  the  recipes  dealing  with  veloutes  of 
lobster,  given  above,  may  be  applied  to  Veloutes  of  Crayfish, 
Shrimps,  or  Crabs. 

It  would  therefore  be  pointless  to  repeat  them,  since  all  that 
is  needed  is  to  read  crayfish,  shrimps,  or  crabs  wherever  the 
word  lobster  appears. 

Thus  I  shall  only  point  out  that  the  number  of  these 
veloutes  may  be  increased  at  will,  the  only  requisites  being  the 
change  of  the  basic  ingredient  and  the  modification  of  the 
garnish, 

690— VELOUTE  AUX  HUITRES 

Prepare  one  quart  of  very  delicate  fish  velout6,  and  bear  in 
mind  that  the  preparation  must  be  made  as  speedily  as  pos- 
sible. (See  the  remarks  dealing  with  this  question  which  follow 
upon  the  model  recipe  of  the  velout^  d'^perlans.) 


SOUPS  243 

Add  to  the  velout^  the  carefully  collected  liquor  of  the 
twenty-four  oysters  constituting  the  garnish,  and  complete, 
when  about  to  serve^  with  a  leason  and  butter. 

Garnish  with  four  poached  oysters  (cleared  of  their  beards) 
per  each  person. 

691— VELOUT^  ISOLINE 

Prepare  one  quart  of  poultry  velout^.  Complete  it,  when 
dishing  up,  with  an  ordinary  leason  and  three  oz.  of  crayfish 
butter. 

Garnish  with  three  tablespoonfuls  of  Japanese  pearls  poached 
in  white  consomm^. 

692— VEL0UT1&  MARIE  LOUISE 

Prepare  one  pint  of  poultry  velout6 ;  mix  therewith  one-half 
pint  of  barley  cream  (No.  712),  and  rub  through  tammy.  Add 
one-half  pint  of  white  consomm^,  and  heat  the  velout^  without 
letting  it  boil. 

Finish  it,  when  about  to  serve,  with  a  leason  and  butter. 
Garnish  with  one  and  one-half  tablespoonfuls  of  best  macaroni, 
poached  and  cut  into  dice. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream. 

693— VELOUTE  MARIE  STUART 

Prepare  a  poultry  velout^  with  barley  cream,  as  above. 
Finish  it,  when  about  to  serve,  with  a  leason  and  butter. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  a  brunoise,  and  the 
same  quantity  of  fine  pearl  barley  cooked  in  white  consomm^. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream. 

694— VELOUTE  AU  POURPIER 

Proceed  exactly  as  directed  under  "  Velout6  Cressoni^re  " 
(No.  677),  but  substitute  purslain  for  the  watercress. 

695— VEL0UT6  A  LA  SULTANE 

Prepare  one  quart  of  poultry  velout^.  Finish  it,  when 
dishing  up,  with  a  leason  composed  of  the  yolks  of  three  eggs 
diluted  with  one-fifth  pint  of  sweet-almond  milk  (made  by 
pounding  eighteen  sweet  almonds,  mixing  therewith  one-fifth 
pint  of  water,  and  straining  the  whole  through  a  twisted  towel), 
and  three  oz.  of  pistachio  butter.  The  velout^  should  be  of  a 
pale  green  shade. 

Garnish  with  small  crescents  of  chicken  forcemeat  prepared 
with  crayfish  butter,  kept  of  a  pink  shade.     These  crescents 

R  2 


244  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

should  be  laid,  by  means  of  a  piping-bag,  upon  thin  roundels 
of  truffle,  and  poached  in  consomm^. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  cream. 

695a— COLD  CHICKEN  VELOUXfi  FOR  SUPPERS 

The  preparation  of  these  veloutds  requires  the  utmost  care, 
but,  as  a  rule,  they  are  very  much  liked. 

Prepare  a  white  roux  from  one  oz.  of  butter  and  one  and 
one-sixth  oz.  of  flour  per  quart  of  the  moistening.  Dilute  with 
some  very  strong  clear  consomm^,  thoroughly  cleared  of 
grease ;  boil,  and  despumate  for  one  and  one-half  hours,  adding 
meanwhile  half  as  much  consomm^  as  served  in  the  moistening 
of  the  velout6. 

When  the  velout^  is  thoroughly  despumated  and  entirely 
cleared  of  grease,  strain  it  through  a  silk  sieve,  and  add,  per 
quart,  one-quarter  pint  of  very  fresh  thin  cream.  Cool,  stirring 
incessantly  the  while;  once  more  strain  the  velout^  through  the 
sieve  when  it  is  cold,  and,  if  necessary,  add  some  of  the 
consomm^  already  used,  in  order  to  give  the  velout^  the  con- 
sistence of  a  thickened  consomme.  Serve  it  in  cups,  and  see 
that  it  be  sufficiently  thin  to  not  impaste  the  mouth  of  the 
consumer. 

This  velout^  is  usually  served  as  it  stands,  but  it  allows  of 
various  condimentary  adjuncts.  Such  are  : — Tomato  and  cap- 
sicum essences;  crayfish,  shrimp,  or  game  creams.  These 
creams  or  essences  should  be  of  consummate  delicacy,  and 
ought  to  lend  only  a  very  delicate  flavour  to  the  velout^. 

696— CREME  D'ARTICHAUTS  AU  BEURRE  DE  NOISETTE 

Have  ready  one  and  one-half  pints  of  Bechamel.  Parboil, 
finely  mince,  and  stew  in  butter  four  large  artichoke-bottoms. 
Pound  the  latter;  put  them  in  the  Bechamel,  and  rub  the  whole 
through  tammy. 

Add  the  necessary  quantity  of  white  consomm^  or  milk,  and 
set  to  heat  without  allowing  to  boil.  Finish  the  preparation, 
when  dishing  up,  with  one-quarter  pint  of  cream  and  one  oz. 
of  hazel-nut  butter  (No.   155). 

Remarks  relative  to  Creams. — I  remind  the  reader  here 
that  (i)  the  thickening  element  of  creams  is  a  Bechamel  prepared 
in  the  usual  way  (see  No.  28) ;  (2)  in  the  preparation  of  a  cream, 
of  what  kind  soever,  the  Bechamel  should  constitute  half  of 
the  whole,  the  basic  ingredient  a  quarter,  and  the  white  con- 
somm^  or  milk  the  remaining  quarter. 


SOUPS  245 

As  a  rule,  they  comprise  no  butter,  but  are  finished  by  means 
of  one-third  pint  of  very  fresh  cream  per  quart.  Be  this  as  it 
may,  if  it  be  desirable  to  butter  them,  one  may  do  so,  but  in 
very  small  quantities,  and  taking  care  to  use  the  very  best 
butter. 

This  class  of  soups  is  more  particularly  suited  to  Lenten 
menus. 

697— CREME  D'ASPERQES,  otherwise  ARQENTEUIL 

Parboil  for  five  or  six  minutes  one  and  one-half  lbs.  of 
Argenteuil  asparagus,  broken  off  at  the  spot  where  the  hard 
part  of  the  stalk  begins.  Drain  them,  and  set  them  to  complete 
their  cooking  gently  in  one  and  one-quarter  pints  of  previously 
prepared  Bechamel. 

Rub  through  tammy;  add  the  necessary  quantity  of  white 
consomm6,  and  heat  without  allowing  to  boil. 

Finish  with  cream  when  dishing  up. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespponfuls  of  white  asparagus-heads 
and  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

698— CRfiME  D'ASPERQES  VERTES 

Proceed  exactly  as  for  "  Cr^me  Argenteuil,"  but  substitute 
green  asparagus  for  Argenteuil  asparagus. 

699— CREME  AU  BL6  VERT,  otherwise  CI^RES 

Put  one  lb.  of  dry,  green  wheat  to  soak  in  cold  water  for 
four  hours.  Then  cook  it  slowly  in  one-half  pint  of  water  and 
as  much  white  consomm^.  Mix  therewith  one  and  one-quarter 
pints  of  Bechamel  and  rub  through  tammy. 

Add  the  necessary  amount  of  white  consomm^  to  the  pur^e ; 
heat  the  whole  without  boiling,  and  finish  it  with  cream  when 
dishing  up. 

Garnish  with  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  pur6e  or  a  velout^. 

700— CRfiME  DE  CELERI 

Mince  one  lb.  of  the  white  of  celery;  parboil  for  seven  or 
eight  minutes;  drain,  and  stew  in  one  oz.  of  butter.  Mix  one 
and  one-quarter  pints  of  Bechamel  with  it ;  complete  the  cooking 
slowly,  and  rub  through  tanlmy. 

Add  one-half  pint  of  white  consommd ;  heat  without  allowing 
to  boil,  and  finish  the  preparation  with  cream  when  about  to 
serve. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  a  brunoise  of  celery. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  purde  or  a  veloutd. 


246  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

701— CRfeME   DE  CERFEUIL  BULBEUX, 
otherwise  CHEVREUSE 

Mince  and  stew  in  butter  one  lb.  of  bulbous  chervil,  and 
mix  therewith  one  and  one-quarter  pints  of  Bechamel.  Com- 
plete the  cooking  slowly;  rub  through  tammy;  add  sufficient 
white  consomme ;  heat,  and  finish  with  cream  when  dishing 
up.  Garnish  with  one  tablespoonful  of  a  fine  julienne  of 
chicken  fillets  and  the  same  quantity  of  a  julienne  of  truffles. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^. 

702— CREME  DE  CHICOREE   DE  BRUXELLES, 
otherwise  BRUXELLOISE 

Take  one  lb.  of  very  fresh  chicory,  and  stew  it  for  a  good 
half-hour  in  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  and  the  juice  of  one 
lemon. 

Now  mix  one  and  one-quarter  pints  of  Bechamel  with  it, 
and  finish  the  cooking  very  slowly.  Rub  through  tammy;  add 
the  necessary  quantity  of  white  consommd ;  heat,  and  complete 
with  cream  when  serving. 

Garnish  with  a  julienne  of  Belgian  chicory,  stewed  and  well 
drained. 

703— CREME  D'EPINARDS,  otherwise  FLORENTINE 

Quickly  parboil  one  lb.  of  shredded  and  well-washed  spinach 
to  which  a  little  sorrel  may  be  added;  drain,  press,  and  add 
thereto  one  and  one-half  pints  of  somewhat  thin  Bechamel. 
Complete  the  cooking;  rub  the  whole  through  tammy,  and 
finish  it  with  the  necessary  amount  of  fresh  cream. 

Garnish  with  a  julienne  of  spinach,  quickly  parboiled  and 
stewed  in  butter. 

704— CRfiME  DE  FEVES  NOUVELLES 

Skin  two-thirds  lb.  of  new  broad  beans,  freshly  gathered,  if 
possible.  Cook  them  for  ten  minutes  in  boiling  salted  water 
containing  a  sprig  of  savory,  and  then  add  one  and  one-quarter 
pints  of  Bechamel.  Complete  the  cooking  of  the  broad  beans 
in  the  Bechamel;  rub  through  tammy;  add  one-half  pint  of 
white  consomm^  or  milk ;  heat  without  allowing  to  boil,  and 
finish  the  preparation  with  cream  when  dishing  up. 

Garnish  with  very  small  skinned  broad  beans,  split  in  two 
and  parboiled  with  a  sprig  of  savory. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout6. 


SOUPS  247 

70s— CREME  D'IQNAMES,  otherwise  BRESILIENNE 

Bake  the  yams  in  the  oven,  without  peeling  them.  As  soon 
as  this  is  done,  cut  them  in  two,  remove  their  pulp,  and  quickly 
rub  the  latter  through  a  sieve  while  it  is  still  hot.  Dilute  the 
pur^e  with  boiling  milk  or  thin  Bechamel  in  the  proportion  of 
one  pint  of  the  former  and  one-half  pint  of  the  latter  per  lb. 
of  the  pur6e.  (This  Bechamel  should  be  made  from  one  and 
one-half  oz.  of  butter  and  one  oz.  of  flour  per  quart  of  milk.) 

Rub  the  whole  through  tammy,  and  finish  the  preparation 
in  the  usual  way.  Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  Japanese 
pearls,  poached  in  consomm6. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout6. 

706— CREME  DE  LAITUES,  otherwise  JUDIC 

Parboil  and  stew  in  butter  two  medium-sized  ciseled  lettuces, 
the  greenest  leaves  of  which  should  have  been  discarded.  Add 
these  to  one  and  one-half  pints  of  Bechamel. 

Rub  through  tammy ;  add  one  pint  of  white  consomm^ ;  heat, 
and  finish  as  usual  with  cream. 

Garnish  with  roundels  of  lettuce  leaves,  lightly  coated  with 
chicken  forcemeat,  a  bit  of  truffle  laid  in  their  centre,  and  the 
whole  poached  at  the  last  minute.  / 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^. 

707— CREME  DE  MAIS,  otherwise  WASHINGTON 

Cook  some  fresh  maize  in  salted  water  (or  use  the  preserved 
kind  if  the  fresh  is  out  of  season),  and  combine  therewith  an 
equal  quantity  of  thin  Bechamel.  Rub  through  tammy;  heat, 
and  finish  with  cream  when  dishing  up. 

Garnish  with  grains  of  maize  cooked  in  salted  water. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^  by  substituting 
for  the  Bechamel  an  excellent  poultry  velo'ute. 

708— CRfeME  D'OSEILLE  A  L'AVOINE 

Pour  one-quarter  lb.  of  oatmeal  diluted  with  one-half  pint 
of  cold  milk  into  one  quart  of  slightly  salted  boiling  milk.  Stir 
over  the  fire  until  the  boil  is  reached;  move  the  stewpan  to  the 
side  of  the  fire,  and  simmer  for  two  hours. 

This  done,  add  six  tablespoonfuls  of  a  fondue  of  sorrel  and 
butter;  set  to  simmer  again  for  one-quarter  hour,  and  rub  the 
whole  through  tammy. 

Complete  the  operation  after  the  manner  common  to  all 
cieams. 


248  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

yop-CRfiME   D'OSEILLE  A  L'ORQE 

Proceed  exactly  as  for  No.  708,  using  the  same  quantities, 
but  substituting  barley-meal  for  oatmeal. 

Remarks  upon  the  Two  above  Creams. — They  may  also  be 
prepared  as  velout^s.  Their  garnish  may  be  greatly  varied, 
and  may  consist  of  chiffonade  of  lettuce  and  sorrel ;  pressed 
peeled  tomatoes,  cut  into  dice  and  cooked  in  butter;  poached 
rice  or  pastes  {i.e.,  vermicelli,  &c.);  fine  well-cooked  pearl 
barley ;  brunoise ;  small  printaniers,  &c. 

They  belong,  in  fact,  to  the  same  order  of  soups  as  the 
purees  of  sorrel  with  pastes,  the  recipes  of  which  were  given 
earlier  in  the  chapter. 

710— CREME  D'OXALIS 

Peel  and  slice  the  oxalis  roots,  and  half-cook  them  in  salted 
water.  Drain,  add  it  to  one  and  one-half  pints  of  Bechamel, 
and  complete  its  cooking  gently  in  the  sauce. 

Rub  through  tammy ;  add  one-half  pint  of  white  consomme, 
and  finish  after  the  manner  of  other  creams.  Garnish  with 
chervil  pluches. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  pur6e  or  a  velout6. 

711— CRBME  DE  RIZ 

Wash  one-half  lb.  of  rice  in  cold  water;  blanch  it;  cool  it, 
and  cook  it  very  gently  in  one  quart  of  white  consomm^. 
Crush  in  the  mortar;  rub  through  tammy,  and  dilute  the  rice 
pur^e  with  one  pint  of  white  consomm^.  Heat  and  finish  the 
preparation,  when  dishing  up,  with  the  necessary  quantity  of 
cream. 

Or  pour  four  tablespoonfuls  of  rice  cream,  diluted  with  one- 
half  pint  of  cold  milk,  into  three  pints  of  boiling  milk;  set  to 
boil,  stirring  the  while,  and  leave  to  cook  very  gently  for 
twenty-five  minutes.  Rub  through  tammy,  and  finish  the  pre- 
paration, when  dishing  up,  with  the  required  quantity  of  cream. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^. 

712— crEme  D'ORQE 

Wash  three-quarters  lb.  of  coarse  pearl  barley  in  lukewarm 
water,  and  cook  it  gently  for  about  two  and  one-half  hours  in 
one  pint  of  white  consomm6  containing  one  piece  of  the  white 
part  of  a  stick  of  celery. 

Crush  in  a  mortar;  rub  through  tammy;  dilute  the  pur^e  of 
barley  with  one  pint  of  white  consomm^;  heat,  and  finish  the 


SOUPS  249 

preparation,  when  dishing  up,  with  the  necessary  quantity  of 
cream. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  with  barley-meal,  the  pro- 
cedure in  that  case  being  the  same  as  that  of  the  "  Cr^me  de 
Riz  "  above. 

Garnish  with  very  fine,  well-cooked  pearl  barley. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  veloutd. 

713— CRfeME  DE  VOLAILLE  PRINCESSE 

Mix  one  and  one-half  pints  of  thin  Bechamel  with  one-half 
pint  of  chicken  pur6e.  Rub  through  tammy;  add  one-half 
pint  of  white  consomm^  to  the  preparation,  or  the  same  quantity 
of  boiled  milk;  heat  without  allowing  to  boil,  and  finish  with 
cream  when  dishing  up. 

Garnish  with  twenty  very  small  slices  of  chicken  fillets,  white 
asparagus-heads,  and  chervil  pluches. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^. 

714— crBme  reine-marqot 

Mix  one-half  pint  of  chicken  pur^e  with  one  pint  of  thin 
Bdchamel.  Rub  through  tammy;  add  one  and  one-half  pints 
of  white  consomm6  and  one-quarter  pint  of  almond  milk  (No. 
678).     Heat  without  allowing  to  boil,  and  finish  with  cream. 

Garnish  with  very  small  grooved  quenelles  of  chicken  force- 
meat combined  with  one  oz.  of  pistachio  pur^e  per  three  oz.  of 
forcemeat. 

This  soup  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  velout^. 

715— POTAGE  A  L'AURORE 

Wash  one-quarter  lb.  of  fine  pearl  barley  in  plenty  of  water. 
Put  it  into  a  stewpan  with  one  quart  of  consomm^,  as  much 
water,  a  faggot  comprising  parsley,  celery,  and  chervil,  and  set 
to  cook  very  gently  for  five  hours.  While  the  cooking  pro- 
gresses, take  care  to  remove  all  the  skin  which  forms  on  the 
surface,  in  order  that  the  cooking-liquor  may  remain  very  clear. 

When  the  barley  is  well  cooked,  transfer  it  to  another  stew- 
pan,  and  add  to  it  four  tablespoonfuls.  of  a  thick  and  very  red 
tomato  pur^e,  strained  through  muslin,  and  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  celery,  minced  in  paysanne-fashion,  stewed  in  butter,  and 
finally  cooked  in  consomm^. 

This  excellent  soup  should  not  be  made  too  thick. 

716— POTAQE  baqration  qras 

Cut  two-thirds  lb.  of  very  white  fillet  of  veal  into  large  dice, 
and  stiffen  these  in  butter  without  letting  them  acquire  any 


250  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

colour.  Add  one  and  one-quarter  pints  of  thin  velout^  with  a 
veal  base,  and  set  to  cook  very  gently. 

Finely  pound  the  veal;  dilute  the  pur^e  with  velout^,  and 
rub  through  tammy.  Add  one  pint  of  white  consommd;  heat 
without  boiling,  and  complete  the  preparation,  when  dishing 
up,  with  a  leason  of  the  yolks  of  three  eggs  diluted  with  four 
tablespoonfuls  of  cream  and  two  oz.  of  butter. 

Garnish  with  thin  macaroni  cut  into  short  lengths,  and  send 
some  grated  cheese  to  the  table  separately. 

717— POTAQE   BAQRATION  MAIQRE 

Prepare  one  and  one-half  pints  of  fresh  velout^,  and  mix 
therewith  one-quarter  pint  of  mushroom  velout^.  (For  making 
this,  see  "  Velout6  Agn^s  Sorel,"  No.  671.) 

Heat  without  boiling;  pass  through  a  strainer,  and  finish, 
when  about  to  serve,  with  the  same  leason  as  for  ordinary 
velout^,  and  two  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter.  Garnish  with  one 
fillet  of  sole,  poached  very  white,  and  cut  into  a  julienne ; 
twelve  small  quenelles  of  sole  or  whiting  forcemeat  finished 
with  crayfish  butter,  and  six  crayfishes'  tails  cut  into  small 
pieces. 

718— POTAQE  CHOISEUL 

Prepare  a  "  pur^e  Conti  "  (No.  640)  with  an  excellent  fumet 
of  game. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  sorrel,  ciseled  and  cooked 
in  butter,  and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  poached  rice. 

719— POTAQE  COMPlfiQNE 

Prepare  a  light  "  Pur^e  Soissonaise  " ;  butter  it  well,  and 
add  thereto  as  garnish  three  tablespoonfuls  of  ciseled  sorrel 
cooked  in  butter,  and  chervil  pluches. 

720— POTAQE  DERBY 

Add  one-half  pint  of  Soubis6  pur^e  (No.  104)  to  one  pint  of 
"  Cr^me  de  Riz  "  (No.  711)  flavoured  with  a  very  little  curry. 
Rub  the  whole  through  tammy. 

Add  one-half  pint  of  white  consommd,  and  heat  without 
boiling.  Complete,  when  about  to  serve,  with  an  ordinary 
leason  and  three  oz.  of  butter. 

Garnish  with  twelve  small  quenelles  of  chicken  forcemeat 
combined  with  one-third  of  its  volume  of  foie-gras  purde,  one 
tablespooriful  of  little  truffle  pearls,  and  an  equal  quantity  of 
poached  rice,  each  grain  of  which  must  be  kept  distinct  and 
separate. 


SOUPS  251 

721— POTAQE  A  LA  DIANE 

Cook  one-half  lb.  of  lentils  with  the  usual  garnish.  Roast 
two  medium-sized  partridges,  keeping  them  slightly  underdone, 
and  remove  their  fillets.  Complete  the  cooking  of  the  partridges 
with  the  lentils,  drained  of  their  cooking-liquor,  in  one  pint  of 
game  consomm^. 

Prepare  a  royale  (No.  209)  with  the  reserved  fillets. 

When  the  birds  are  cooked,  bone  them ;  pound  their  meat, 
and  add  thereto  the  lentils  and  the  cooking-liquor ;  rub  through 
tammy. 

Finish  the  pur^e  with  one  and  one-half  pints  of  excellent 
thin  game  stock,  and  complete  the  soup,  when  dishing  up,  with 
two  oz.  of  butter  and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  reduced  Madeira. 

Garnish  with  the  royale,  cut  into  small  regular  crescents, 
and  twelve  small  crescents  of  very  black  truffle. 

722— POTAQE  ELISA 

Prepare  one  and  one-half  pints  of  poultry  velout^,  and  rub 
it  through  tammy.  Complete  with  one-half  pint  of  white  con- 
somm^ ;  heat  without  boiling,  and  finish,  when  dishing  up,  with 
an  ordinary  leason,  two  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter,  and  two 
tablespoonfuls  of  a  fondue  of  sorrel. 

733— POTAQE  FAVORI 

Prepare  one  pint  of  a  velout6  of  green  asparagus;  one-half 
pint  of  a  velout^  of  lettuce,  and  one-half  pint  of  poultry 
velout^.  Put  all  three  into  a  stewpan;  add  thereto  the  neces- 
sary quantity  of  white  consomm^  to  bring  the  soup  to  the 
correct  degree  of  consistence;  heat  without  boiling,  and  pass 
through  a  strainer. 

Finish  the  soup,  when  dishing  up,  with  an  ordinary  leason 
and  two  oz.  of  butter.  Garnish  with  one  tablespoonful  of  a 
chiffonade  of  sorrel,  and  one  tablespoonful  of  green  asparagus- 
heads. 

724— POTAQE  QERMINY 

Cisel  and  melt  in  butter  three  oz.  of  shredded  sorrel,  and 
add  thereto  one  and  one-half  pints  of  white  consomm^.  A  few 
minutes  before  serving,  pour  into  the  consomm^  a  leason  com- 
posed of  the  yolks  of  six  eggs  diluted  with  one-quarter  pint 
of  cream ;  set  on  the  fire  and  stir,  after  the  manner  of  an 
English  custard,  i.e.,  until  the  preparation  begins  to  show 
signs  of  boiling. 

Finish,  away  from  the  fire,  with  two  and  one-half  oz.  of 
butter,  and  add  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 


252  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Remarks  concerning  the  Possible  Variation  of  this  Soup, — 
The  mode  of  procedure  adopted  in  the  case  of  the  Germiny 
could,  if  necessary,  be  appUed  to  all  thick  soups,  and  it  would 
then  constitute  a  class  to  which  the  term  "  Cream  "  would  be 
better  suited  than  it  is  at  present  to  the  soups  thus  designated. 

Instead  of  the  ordinary  white  consomm^,  which  is  used  in 
its  preparation,  a  consomm6  may  be  used  in  which  such  vege- 
tables as  carrots,  turnips,  peas,  &c.,  are  cooked,  the  latter 
being  reserved  for  the  garnish,  while  the  cooking-liquor  is 
thickened  with  egg-yolks  and  cream  in  accordance  with  the 
quantities  and  directions  given  in  the  above  recipe. 

A  carrot  cream,  a  cream  of  fresh  peas,  or  of  asparagus-heads, 
prepared  in  this  way,  would  be  much  more  delicate  than  those 
prepared  after  the  ordinary  recipes. 

The  essential  point  in  this  series  of  soups  is  the  leason ;  this 
should  consist  of  enough  egg-yolks  to  render  the  preparations 
sufficiently  thick  and  creamy. 

725— POTAQE  AUX  HERBES 

Cut  two  oz.  of  sorrel  leaves  into  a  julienne,  and  stew  them 
in  butter  with  one  oz.  of  watercress  leaves,  one  oz.  of  chervil 
^ju£h^s,  and  young  pimpernel.  Add  one  anHja'ne-halt  pints  of 
water;,  the  necessary  salt^  three  medium-sized,  pe'eled,  and 
quartered  potatoes,  an J'cook  gently. 

Drain  and  reserve  the  cooking-liquor;  crush  the  potatoes; 
dilute  the  pur^e  with  the  cooking-liquor,  and  rub  through 
tammy.  Set  to  boil,  and  finish,  when  dishing  up,  with  three 
oz.  of  Printanier  butter  with  herbs,  combined  with  a  few  leaves 
of  sweet  basil.  — — — 

Add  a  pinch  of  chervil  pluches. 

726— POTAQE  JUBILEE,  otherwise  BALVET 

Prepare,  according  to  the  directions  given  (No.  648),  one 
and  one-half  pints  of  a  purde  of  fresh  peas,  and  add  thereto  one- 
half  pint  of  consommd  of  "La  Petite  Marmite."  Set  to  boil, 
and  finish  with  two  oz.  of  butter. 

Garnish  with  the  vegetables  from  the  Marmite,  prepared  as 
for  Croute  au  Pot. 

727— POTAQE  LONQCHAMPS 

Refer   to   the  derivative   soups  of  the   "  Pur^e   de   Pois " 
(No.  654). 
738— POTAQE  LAVALLIfiRE 

Prepare  one  and  one-half  pints  of  "  Cr^me  de  Volaille  " 
(No.  713),  finished  with  a  leason  of  egg-yolks  and  cream;  also 


SOUPS  253 

two-thirds  pint  of  "  Cr^me  de  C^leri,"  similarly  finished,  and 
combine  the  two  creams. 

Garnish, with  twelve  small  profiterolles,  stuffed  with  chicken 
forcemeat,  and  a  royale  of  celery  in  dice. 

729— POTAQE  MADELEINE 

Prepare  and  combine  the  following  purees  : — One-third  pint 
of  artichoke  pur6e,  one-fifth  pint  of  haricot-bean  pur^e,  one- 
seventh  pint  of  Soubise  pur^e.  Add  one  pint  of  white  con- 
somm^ ;  set  to  boil ;  pass  through  a  strainer,  and  finish,  when 
dishing  up,  with  two  oz.  of  butter. 

Garnish  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  sago  poached  in  one- 
half  pint  of  white  consomm^. 

730— POTAQE  MISS  BETSY 

Proceed  exactly  as  for  "  Potage  h  I'Aurore  "  (No.  715),  but 
(i)  flavour  potage  Miss  Betsy  with  curry;  (2)  substitute  for  the 
celery  peeled,  cored  apples  cut  into  dice  and  cooked  in  butter, 

N.B. — Both  these  soups  (Aurore  and  Miss  Betsy)  are  subject 
to  much  variation.  All  that  is  needed  is  to  alter  the  flavouring 
element  and  the  garnish.  Thus  the  quantity  of  tomato  may  be 
reduced  by  half,  and  combined  with  one-quarter  lb.  of  peas  and 
their  cooking-liquor  (the  peas  in  this  case  being  cooked  in  one 
pint  of  water  with  a  little  salt  and  sugar) ;  or  with  the  same 
quantity  of  French  beans,  asparagus-heads,  or  sorrel  cooked  in 
butter,  &c. 

731— POTAQE  MONTESPAN 

Add  one-half  pint  of  somewhat  thick  tapioca  to  one  and  one- 
half  pints  of  "  Cr^me  d'Asperges "  (No.  697),  prepared  as 
directed.  Garnish  with  very  fine  peas  cooked  in  the  English 
fashion. 

732— POTAQE  n6LUSK0 

Mix  one  and  one-half  pints  of  rather  liquid  poultry  velout^ 
with  one-half  pint  of  chicken  purde.  When  serving,  add  an 
ordinary  leason,  and  finish  with  two  and  one-half  oz.  of  hazel- 
nut butter. 

Garnish  with  very  small  quenelles  of  chicken  forcemeat  com- 
bined with  one  tablespoonful  of  hazel-nut  powder  per  three  oz. 
of  the  forcemeat. 

733— POTAQE  PETIT  DUC 

Take  a  fine  woodcock;  raise  and  reserve  one  of  its  fillets, 
and  roast  it,  taking  care  to  keep  it  very  underdone.  Then 
remove  the  other  fillet,  and  with  it  prepare  two  dariole-moulds 


254  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

of  royale  (No.  209).  Finely  pound  what  remains  of  the  wood- 
cock, and  combine  with  the  resulting  pur^e  one  and  one-half 
pints  of  game  velout6  prepared  with  essence  of  woodcock. 
Cover  the  stewpan  and  place  it  in  the  bain-marie  for  thirty- 
five  minutes.  Now  rub  the  whole  through  tammy;  heat  without 
boiling,  and  finish,  when  dishing  up,  with  one  and  one-half 
oz.  of  butter,  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  cooked  foie-gras  pur^e, 
diluted  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  the  soup,  one  and  one-half 
tablespoonfuls  of  cream,  and  one  and  one-half  tablespoonfuls  of 
burnt  liqueur  brandy. 

Garnish  with  the  royale  cut  into  dice,  and  the  reserved  fillet 
of  woodcock,  stiffened  in  butter  at  the  last  moment,  and  cut  into 
thin  slices. 

734— POTAQE  REQENCE 

Prepare  one  quart  of  barley  cream  in  accordance  with  the 
directions  under  No.  712.  Finish  it,  when  dishing  up,  with  an 
ordinary  leason  and  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  crayfish  butter. 

Garnish  with  twelve  small,  grooved  quenelles  of  chicken 
forcemeat  finished  with  crayfish  butter;  one  tablespoonful  of 
small  pearl  barley,  well  cooked;  and  six  small  cocks'  combs, 
freshly  poached  and  very  white. 

735— POTAQE  ROSSOLNIK 

Prepare  (i)  one  quart  of  light,  poultry  velout^  combined 
with  cucumber  juice ;  (2)  ten  pieces  of  parsley  root  and  the  same 
quantity  of  celery  root,  turned  to  the  shape  of  small,  new 
carrots,  and  split  crosswise  at  their  base;  (3)  twenty  small 
lozenges  of  salted  cucumber. 

Parboil  the  roots  and  the  cucumber  lozenges  for  fifteen 
minutes,  and  add  them  to  the  velout^  when  about  to  cook  the 
latter.  Cook  the  whole  gently  for  forty  minutes,  despumating 
the  velout^  the  while.  Finish  with  one  and  one-half  tablespoon- 
fuls of  cucumber  juice,  and  an  ordinary  leason. 

Garnish  with  small  chicken-forcemeat  quenelles. 

736_P0TAGE   DE   SANTE 

Cook  quickly,  in  salted  water,  three  medium-sized,  peeled, 
and  quartered  potatoes.  When  their  pulps  seem  soft  to  the 
touch,  drain  them;  rub  them  through  a  fine  sieve,  and  dilute 
the  resulting  pur^e  with  one  and  one-half  pints  of  white  con- 
somm^.  Add  two  tablespoonfuls  of  sorrel  melted  in  butter, 
and  finish  the  preparation  with  an  ordinary  leason  and  one  oz. 
of  butter. 


SOUPS  255 

Garnish  with  very  thin  roundels  of  French  soup-flute  and 
chervil  pluches. 

737— POTAQE  SIQURD 

Prepafe  one  pint  of  "  Velout^  Parmentier  "  and  one  pint  of 
tomato  velout^.  Combine  the  two;  heat,  and  finish,  when  dish- 
ing up,  with  two  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter. 

Garnish  with  twenty  small  quenelles  of  chicken  forcemeat, 
combined  with  one  coffeespoonful  of  chopped  capsicum,  or 
capsicum  in  dice,  per  three  oz,  of  the  forcemeat. 

738— POTAQE  SOLFERINO 

Mince  tlie  white  of  two  leeks,  the  third  of  a  medium-sized 
carrot,  and  half  an  onion,  and  stew  the  whole  in  one  and  one- 
half  oz.  of  butter.  Add  one-half  lb.  of  pressed  tomatoes  cut 
into  pieces,  two  medium-sized,  peeled  potatoes,  minced ;  moisten 
with  two-thirds  pint  of  white  consomm^,  and  cook  gently. 
Crush  the  vegetables ;  rub  them  through  tammy ;  complete  the 
pur^e  with  the  necessary  quantity  of  white  consomm^;  set  to 
boil,  and  finish,  when  dishing  up,  with  two  and  one-half  oz.  of 
butter. 

Garnish  with  twelve  little  balls  of  potato,  raised  by  means 
of  the  spoon-cutter,  and  cooked  in  salted  water ;  two  tablespoon- 
fuls  of  French  beans  cut  into  lozenges;  and  some  chervil 
pluches, 

739— POTAQE  VIVIANE 

Prepare  one  quart  of  "  Cr^me  de  Volaille  "  (No.  713),  and 
finish  it  with  the  usual  leason.  Garnish  with  one  tablespoonful 
of  artichoke-bottom,  cut  into  dice,  the  same  quantity  of  carrot 
dice,  both  gently  cooked  in  butter,  and  one  tablespoonful  of 
trufifle  dice. 

740— POTAQE  WINDSOR 

Blanch  and  cool  one  small,  boned  calf's  foot,  and  cook  it 
gently  in  a  good  white-wine  mirepoix.  Prepare  one  and  one- 
half  pints  of  "  Cr^me  de  Riz  "  (No.  711),  and  add  thereto  the 
cooking-liquor  of  the  calf's  foot,  strained  through  muslin. 

Finish  this  cream,  when  about  to  serve,  with  an  ordinary 
leason,  one  and  one-half  tablespoonfuls  of  a  slight  infusion  of 
turtle-soup  herbs,  and  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter. 

Garnish  with  a  julienne. oi  half  of  the  calf's  foot  and  twenty 
small  quenelles  consisting  of  a  pur^e  of  hard-boiled  egg-yolks 
and  chicken  forcemeat,  these  two  preparations  being  in  the  pro- 
portion of  two-thirds  and  one-third  respectively. 


256  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

741— SOUPE  AUX  ABATIS  DE  VOLAILLE  A  L'ANGLAISE 

Cut  the  necks  into  three,  the  gizzards  into  four,  and  the 
pinions  into  two.  Brown  one-half  lb.  of  these  giblets  in  a 
thick-bottomed  stewpan  with  one  oz.  of  butter.  Sprinkle  with 
one  tablespoonful  of  flour ;  slightly  colour  the  latter,  and  moisten 
with  one  quart  of  white  consomm6  and  one  pint  of  water.  Add 
a  faggot  containing  one  stick  of  celery,  and  set  to  cook  gently 
for  three  hours. 

When  the  pieces  of  giblets  are  cooked,  drain  them,  trim 
them,  and  put  them  into  a  stewpan  with  one  dessertspoonful  of 
parboiled  rice  and  a  heaped  tablespoonful  of  the  white  of  celery, 
minced  and  fried  in  butter.  Strain  the  cooking-liquor  of  the 
giblets,  through  a  strainer,  over  the  enumerated  garnishes; 
set  to  cook  gently  for  another  quarter  of  an  hour;  season 
strongly  with  pepper,  and  serve. 

742— SOUPE  AUX  CERISES 

Stone  two-thirds  lb.  of  small,  fleshy  cherries,  and  put  twenty 
aside  for  garnishing  purposes.  Put  the  others  into  a  sugar- 
boiler  with  two-thirds  pint  of  hot  water,  a  small  strip  of  lemon 
rind,  and  a  fragment  of  cinnamon,  and  set  to  boil  quickly  for 
eight  minutes. 

Also  boil  in  another  sugar-boiler  one-half  pint  of  Port  or 
Bordeaux  wine.  Crush  half  of  the  cherry-stones  in  the  mortar; 
put  them  into  the  boiled  wine,  and  let  them  infuse,  away  from 
the  fire. 

Rub  the  cooked  cherries  through  a  fine  sieve;  dilute  the 
pur6e  with  the  juice  thickened  by  means  of  one  tablespoonful 
of  fecula  moistened  with  cold  water;  add  the  cherries  put  aside 
for  the  garnish,  and  one-half  tablespoonful  of  castor  sugar,  and 
again  set  to  boil  for  four  minutes. 

Complete  the  preparation  with  the  infusion  strained  through 
muslin ;  pour  it  into  the  soup-tureen,  and  add  a  few  biscottes. 

For  the  sake  of  variety,  lady's-finger  biscuits  may  be  sub- 
stituted for  the  biscottes. 

743— COCKY- LEEKI  SOUP 

Set  half  a  fowl  to  cook  very  gently  in  one  and  one-half  pints 
of  light  and  clear  veal  stock  with  a  few  aromatics. 

Also  prepare  a  julienne  of  the  white  of  three  leeks;  stew 
this  in  butter  without  colouration,  and  complete  the  cooking 
thereof  in  the  cooking-liquor  of  the  fowl,  strained  and  poured 
carefully  away. 


SOUPS  257 

Pour  the  preparation  into  the  soup-tureen,  and  add  the  meat 
of  the  fowl,  cut  into  a  julienne. 

Serve  some  stewed  prunes  separately,  but  this  is  optional. 

744---SOUPE  AUX  FOIES  DE  VOLAILLE 

Make  a  roux  from  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  and  as  much 
flour.  When  it  has  acquired  a  nice,  light-brown  colour,  moisten 
it  with  one  quart  of  white  consomm^  or  brown  stock,  and  set 
to  boil,  stirring  the  while. 

Add  one-half  lb.  of  raw  chickens'  livers  rubbed  through  e 
sieve,  and  set  to  cook  for  fifteen  minutes.  Rub  the  whole 
through  tammy ;  season  strongly  with  pepper ;  heat,  and  com- 
plete the  preparation,  at  the  last  moment,  with  one-quarter  lb. 
of  sliced  chickens'  livers,  tossed  in  butter,  and  one  wineglass  of 
good  Madeira. 

745— SOUPE  JULIENNE  DARBLAY 

Cook  quickly  in  salted  water  two  small,  peeled,  and  quartered 
potatoes.  Drain  them,  rub  them  through  a  fine  sieve,  and  dilute 
the  pur^e  with  one  and  one-half  pints  of  white  consomm^.  Add 
three  tablespoonfuls  of  a  julienne  made  in  accordance  with  the 
above  recipe;  heat,  and  finish  the  preparation  with  an  ordinary 
leason  and  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter. 

746— MINESTRONE 

Brown  the  minced  white  of  two  small  leeks  and  one-third 
of  an  onion,  also  minced,  in  one  oz.  of  chopped,  fresh  breast 
of  bacon,  and  one-half  oz.  of  grated,  fat  bacon.  Moisten  with 
one  and  one-half  pints  of  white  consomm^,  and  add  one-third 
of  a  carrot,  one-third  of  a  turnip,  half  a  stick  of  celery,  two 
oz.  of  small  cabbage,  and  one  small  potato,  or  one-half  of  a 
medium-sized  one,  all  of  which  vegetables  must  be  finely 
minced. 

About  twenty-five  minutes  after  the  soup  has  started  cook- 
ing, complete  it  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  peas,  a  few  French 
beans  cut  into  lozenges,  and  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  rice,  or 
the  same  quantity  of  very  thin  macaroni  broken  into  very  small 
pieces. 

This  done,  set  to  cook  again  for  thirty  minutes.  A  few 
minutes  tJefore  serving,  add  to  the  soup  one  small,  crushed 
clove  of  garlic,  three  leaves  of  sweet  basil,  and  a  small  pinch 
of  chopped  chervil  pluches ;  mix  the  whole  with  one-half  table- 
spoonful  of  grated  bacon. 

Send  to  the  table,  separately,  at  the  same  time  as  the  soup 
some  freshly  grated  Gruy^re. 

S 


258  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

747— MILLE-FANTI 

First  make  the  following  preparation  : — Beat  two  small  eggs 
to  a  stiff  froth,  and  mix  therewith  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  the 
crumb  of  very  good  white  bread,  one  oz.  of  grated  Parmesan, 
and  a  little  nutmeg.  Boil  one  and  two-thirds  pints  of  white 
consomm^,  and  pour  the  above  preparation  therein,  little  by 
little,  stirring  briskly  the  while  with  the  whisk.  Then  move 
the  stewpan  to  the  side  of  the  fire,  put  the  lid  on,  and  set  to 
cook  gently  for  seven  or  eight  minutes. 

When  about  to  serve,  stir  the  soup  with  a  whisk,  and  pour 
it  into  the  soup-tureen. 

748— MULLIGATAWNY  SOUP 

Cut  a  small  fowl,  or  half  a  medium-sized  one,  into  little 
pieces,  and  put  these  in  a  stewpan  with  a  few  roundels  of  carrot 
and  onion,  a  small  bunch  of  parsley  and  celery,  one-half  oz.  of 
mushroom  parings  and  one  quart  of  white  consomm^.  Set  to 
boil,  and  then  let  cook  gently. 

Also  lightly  brown  in  butter  half  a  medium-sized  onion, 
chopped;  besprinkle  it  with  one  dessertspoonful  of  fecula  and 
one  coffeespoonful  of  curry ;  moisten  with  the  cooking-liquor  of 
the  fowl,  strained  through  a  sieve;  boil,  and  set  to  cook 
gently  for  seven  or  eight  minutes.  Now  rub  the  whole  through 
tammy,  and  leave  it  to  despumate  for  twenty  minutes,  adding 
one  tablespoonful  of  consomm^,  from  time  to  time,  with  the 
view  of  promoting  the  despumation,  i.e.,  the  purification  of  the 
soup. 

When  about  to  serve,  finish  the  preparation  with  three  or 
four  tablespoonfuls  of  cream.  Pour  the  whole  into  the  soup- 
tureen  ;  add  a  portion  of  the  meat  of  the  fowl,  cut  into  thin 
slices,  and  serve  separately  two  oz.  of  rice  k  I'lndienne. 

749— SOUPE  AUX  QOMBOS  OU  OKRA 

This  soup  is  held  in  high  esteem  by  Americans.  It  is 
served  either  with  garnish,  as  I  direct  below,  or  as  a  consomm^, 
hot  or  cold,  or  in  cups,  after  it  has  been  strained. 

Fry  one  medium-sized  chopped  onion  in  two  oz.  of  butter, 
without  letting  it  acquire  any  colour.  Add  one-quarter  lb.  of 
fresh  lean  bacon,  or  raw  ham  cut  into  medium-sized  dice;  fry 
for  a  few  minutes,  and  add  about  one  lb.  of  boned  chicken- 
meat  cut  into  large  dice  (the  white  parts  of  the  chicken  are 
used  in  preference) ;  let  these  ingredients  stiffen  well ;  take  care 
to  stir  fairly  often,  and  moisten  with  two  quarts  of  white  chicken 
consomm^.  Boil,  and  set  to  cook  gently  for  twenty  or  twenty- 
five  minutes  with  lid  on. 


SOUPS  259 

Now  add  about  one-half  lb.  of  peeled  gombo,  cut  in  coarse 
paysanne-fashion,  and  three  or  four  medium-sized  tomatoes, 
peeled,  concussed,  and  with  their  seeds  withdrawn. 

When  the  gombos  are  well  cooked,  carefully  remove  all 
grease  from  the  preparation;  test  the  seasoning,  and,  if  neces- 
sary, add  a  few  drops  of  Worcestershire  sauce. 

Garnish  the  soup  with  two  or  three  tablespoonfuls  of  plainly- 
cooked  rice. 

N.B. — This  soup  is  excellent  if  it  be  finished  with  one-quarter 
pint  of  cream  per  quart.  A  cream  of  gombos  may  also  be  pre- 
pared, which  may  be  garnished  with  the  dice  of  chicken  meat. 
In  the  latter  case,  the  garnish  of  rice  is  optional. 

750— SOUPE  A  LA  PAYSANNE 

Finely  mince  one  small  carrot,  one  small  turnip,  one  leek, 
one-third  of  a  stick  of  celery,  one-third  of  an  onion,  and  some 
cabbage  leaves.  Stew  the  vegetables  in  one  oz.  of  butter; 
moisten  with  one  and  one-half  pints  of  white  consomm^,  and  set 
to  boil.  A  few  minutes  having  elapsed,  add  two  small  potatoes 
minced  like  the  other  vegetables,  and  complete  the  cooking 
gently.     Send  separately  some  roundels  of  soup-flutes. 

751— SOUPE  AUX  POIREAUX  ET  POMMES  DE  TERRE, 

otherwise  A  LA  BONNE  FEMME 

Finely  mince  the  white  of  four  medium-sized  leeks.  Put 
this  into  a  stewpan  with  one  oz.  of  butter,  and  stew  gently 
for  a  quarter  of  an  hour.  Then  add  three  medium-sized 
quartered  potatoes,  cut  into  roundels  the  thickness  of  pennies. 
Moisten  with  one  pint  of  white  consomm6;  add  the  necessary 
quantity  of  salt,  and  set  to  cook  gently.  When  about  to  serve, 
finish  the  soup  with  one  pint  of  boiled  milk  and  one  and  one- 
half  oz.  of  butter;  pour  it  into  the  soup-tureen,  and  add  twelve 
roundels  of  French  soup-flutes,  cut  as  thinly  as  possible. 

752— SOUPE  AUX  ROQNONS 

Proceed  exactly  as  for  ' '  Soupe  aux  Foies  de  Volaille, ' '  but 
substitute  for  the  garnish  of  sliced  livers  one  of  calf's  or  sheep's 
kidney  cut  into  large  dice,  or  sliced,  and  briskly  tossed  in  butter 
just  before  dishing  up. 

Finish  the  soup  similarly  to  the  preceding  one,  i.e.,  with 
Madeira. 


S   2 


CHAPTER    XIV 


FISH 


In  matters  culinary,  fish  comprise  not  only  the  vertebrates 
of  the  sea  and  river,  but  also  the  esculent  Crustacea,  mollusca, 
and  chelonia,  and  one  batrachian.  Of  course,  the  animals 
representing  these  various  classes  differ  enormously  in  respect 
of  their  importance  as  articles  of  diet.  Fresh-water  fish,  for  in- 
stance, with  the  exception  of  salmon  and  some  kinds  of  trout, 
are  scarcely  ever  eaten  in  England;  and  the  same  applies  to 
the  frog.  As  regards  salt-water  fish,  although  certain  species, 
such  as  the  sole  and  the  turbot,  are  in  great  demand,  many 
other  and  excellent  ones  which  are  looked  upon  as  inferior  are 
seldom  put  into  requisition  by  first-class  cookery.  Thus,  Brill, 
Fed  Mull&t,  and  Bass  are  not  nearly  so  popular  as  they  de- 
serve to  be,  and  never  appear  on  a  menu  of  any  importance. 
No  doubt.  Fashion — ever  illogical  and  wayward — exercises  her 
tyrannical  sway  here,  as  in  other  matters  of  opinion ;  for  it  will 
be  found,  even  when  the  distinctions  among  fish  are  once 
established,  that  there  exist  a  host  of  incongruities  in  the  un- 
written law.  Fresh  cod  is  a  case  in  point;  should  this  fish 
appear  on  the  menu  of  a  grand  dinner  given  by  Royalty,  the 
guests  would  not  think  it  at  all  out  of  place;  but  if  the  chef 
of  a  large  modern  hotel  ventured  to  include  it  among  the  items 
of  a  plain  table-d'hote  dinner  he  would  most  probably  incur 
the  scorn  and  indignation  of  his  clientele. 

This  example,  than  which  none  could  be  better  suited  to  our 
case,  successfully  shows  that  the  culinary  value  of  the  fish  has 
far  less  to  do  with  the  vogue  the  latter  enjoys  than  the  very  often 
freakish  whims  of  the  public. 

One  can  but  deplore  the  arbitrary  proscription  which  so 
materially  reduces  the  resources  at  the  disposal  of  a  cook, 
more  particularly  at  a  time  when  the  universally  imperious  cry 
is  for  novelty  and  variety  in  dishes  and  menus  respectively; 
and  one  can  only  hope  that  reason  and  good  sense  may,  at  no 
remote  period,  intervene  to  check  the  purposeless  demands  of 
both  entertainers  and  their  guests  in  this  respect. 


FISH  261 

Having  regard  to  these  considerations,  I  have  omitted  from 
this  work,  which  is  really  a  thesaurus  of  selected  recipes  and 
not  a  complete  formulary,  all  those  fish  enumerated  below, 
which  are  very  rarely  eaten  in  England,  and  the  recipes  for 
which  could  therefore  serve  no  purpose : — 

753 — SHADJchiefly  served  grilled. 

754 — FRESH  ANCHOVIES,  extremely  rare,  and  may  be  grilled 
or  fried. 

755 — EELS,  considered  as  common,  and  principally  used  in  the 
preparation  of  a  pie  held  in  high  esteem  by  the  frequenters  of 
coffee-shops  along  the  banks  of  the  Thames.  Small  eels  are  also 
fried.  ^But  the  many  ways  of  dressing  them  which  are  common 
on  the  Continent  are  seldom  practised  in  England. 

756 — PIKE,  plentiful  and  of  excellent  quality ;  only  used  in  the 
preparation  of  forcemeat  and  quenelles  ;  the  directions  for  the 
latter  will  be  given  later.  Albeit  they  are  sometimes  served 
crimped,  or  cooked  whole  in  a  court-bouillon  au  bleu,  accompanied 
by  parsley  or  caper  sauce,  &c.  Small  pike  are  generally  prepared 
"  a  la  Meuniere,"  or  fried. 

757 — CARP,  in  still  less  demand  than  the  pike,  and  only  prized 
for  its  milt.  It  must,  however,  be  admitted  that  in  England,  more 
than  anywhere  else,  I  believe,  this  fish  is  too  often  spoilt  by  the 
taint  of  mud. 

758 — DORADO,  served  boiled  with  any  of  the  English  fish 
sauces  ;  but,  in  my  opinion,  it  is  best  grilled,  after  the  manner 
generally  adopted  in  the  South  of  France. 

759 — STURGEON,  very  rare ;  it  is  braised,  like  veal. 
j5o — FERA,  very  scarce  on  the  market ;  comes  from  the  Swiss 
or  Savoy  lakes,  and  is  only  served  4  la  Meuniere. 

761 — GUDGEON,  very  abundant  in  all  rivers,  but  never  eaten. 
762 — FROGS,  the  pet  abomination  of  all  classes  of  the  popula- 
tion, with  but  few  exceptions  ;  nevertheless  "  Nymphes  k  I'Aurore," 
the  recipe  of  which  I  gave  among  the  hors-d'oeuvres,  are  generally 
appreciated. 

763— FRESH  HERRINGS,  abundant  and  of  excellent  quality  ; 
seldom  used  in  first-class  cookery,  except,  perhaps,  for  their  milt. 
Bloaters  and  kippered  herrings  are,  with  reason,  preferred ;  of 
these  I  shall  speak  later. 

764 — LAMPREYS,  chiefly  used  in  preparing  pies  similar  to  those 
referred  to  in  No.  755. 

765— FRESH -WATER  HERRINGS,  like  the  F^ra,  come  from 
Switzerland  or  Savoy,  and  are  very  scarce  on  the  English  market 
Prepared  especially  a  la  Meuriiere, 


262  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

766 — LOTE,  very  scarce  on  the  English  market ;  only  prized 
for  its  liver. 

767 — MOSTELE,  only  caught  in  the  region  of  Monaco ;  cannot 
bear  transport ;  especially  served  k  la  Meuniere  or  a  I'Anglaise. 

768 — MUSSELS,  only  used  as  garnish. 

769 — NONAT,  replaced  in  England  by  whitebait,  which  it 
greatly  resembles. 

770 — PERCH,  very  moderately  appreciated ;  chiefly  served 
fried,  when  small,  and  boiled  with  some  fish  sauce  when  large. 

771 — SKATE,  generally  served  boiled,  with  caper  sauce ; 
occasionally  with  brown  butter.  The  smaller  specimens  are  better 
fried.     Often  offered  for  sale,  crimped. 

773 — SARDINES,  generally  of  inferior  quality  ;  used  in  the 
preparation  of  sprats. 

773^STERLET,  almost  unknown  in  England. 

774 — TURTLE,  with  the  exception  of  those  firms  which  make 
this  their  speciality,  is  almost  exclusively  used  in  preparing  Turtle 
Soup.     The  flippers  are  sometimes  served  braised  au  Mad^re. 

I  do  not  think  it  at  all  necessary  to  lay  any  further  stress 
upon  the  series  of  preparations  bearing  the  names  of  Cro- 
quettes, Cromesquis,  Cotelettes  (cotelettes  here  only  mean 
those  prepared  from  cooked  fish,  and  which  are  really  but  a 
form  of  croquettes),  Coquilles,  Bouchees,  Palets,  &c.,  which 
may  be  made  from  any  kind  of  cooked  fish.  These  prepara- 
tions are  so  well  known  that  it  would  be  almost  superfluous  to 
repeat  their  recipes. 

775— DIVERS  WAYS  OF  COOKING  FISH 

The  divers  ways  of  cooking  fish  are  all  derived  from  one  or 
another  of  the  following  methods :  — 

(i)  Boiling  in  salted  water,  which  may  be  applied  equally 
well  to  large  pieces  and  slices  of  fish. 

(2)  Frying,  particularly  suited  to  small  specimens  and  thin 
slices  of  larger  ones. 

(3)  Cooking  in  butter,  otherwise  "  h.  la  Meuniere,"  best 
suited  to  the  same  pieces  as  No.  2. 

(4)  Poaching,  with  short  moistening,  especially  suited  to 
fillets  or  small  specimens. 

(5)  Braising,  used  particularly  for  large  pieces. 

(6)  Grilling,  for  small  specimens  and  coUops. 

(7)  Cooking  au  Gratin,  same  as  grilling. 

776— THE  BOILING  OF   FISH  IN  SALTED  WATER 

The  procedure  changes  according  as  to  whether  the  fish  is 
to  be  cooked  whole  or  in  slices.     If  whole,  after  having  pro- 


FISH  263 

perly  cleaned,  washed,  and  trimmed  it,  lay  it  on  the  drainer  of 
the  utensil  best  suited  to  its  shape;  i.e.,  a  fish-kettle.  Cover  it 
with  water,  salt  it  in  the  proportion  of  one-quarter  oz.  of  salt 
per  quart  of  water,  cover  the  utensil,  and  bring  the  liquid  to 
the  boil.  As  soon  as  this  is  done  skim  and  move  the  kettle  to 
the  side  of  the  fire,  where  the  cooking  of  the  fish  may  be  com- 
pleted without  boiling. 

If  the  fish  is  cut  into  slices,  plunge  these,  which  should 
never  be  cut  too  thin,  into  boiling  salted  water,  and  move  the 
fish-kettle  containing  them  to  the  side  of  the  fire;  complete 
their  cooking  slowly  without  allowing  the  water  to  boil. 

The  object  of  this  process  is  to  concentrate,  inside  the  fish, 
all  the  juices  contained  in  its  flesh,  whereof  a  large  portion 
escapes  when  the  cut  fish  is  plunged  in  cold  water  gradually 
brought  to  the  boil.  If  this  method  is  not  applied  to  large 
fish,  cooked  whole,  the  reason  is  that  the  sudden  immersion  of 
these  in  boiling  water  would  cause  such  a  shrinking  of  their 
flesh  that  they  would  burst  and  thereby  be  spoiled. 

In  the  case  of  certain  kinds  of  fish,  such  as  Turbot  and 
Brill,  milk  is  added  to  the  water  in  the  proportion  of  one-eighth 
of  the  latter,  the  object  being  to  increase  the  whiteness  of  the 
fish.. 

For  the  various  kinds  of  Salmon  and  Trout,  the  court- 
bouillon  (No.  163)  is  used  in  the  place  of  salted  water,  but  the 
general  working  process  remains  the  same. 

The  boiled  fish  is  dished  on  a  napkin  and  drainer;  it  is 
garnished  with  fresh  parsley;  and  the  sauce  announced  on  the 
menu,  together  with  some  plain-boiled  and  floury  potatoes,  is 
sent  to  the  table  separately. 

777-THE  FRYING  OF  FISH 

In  Part  I.  of  this  work  I  explained  the  general  theory  of 
frying  (Chapter  X.,  No.  26a) ;  I  shall  now,  therefore,  only  con- 
cern myself  with  the  details  of  the  operation  in  its  relation  to 
fish. 

As  a  rule,  frying  should  never  be  resorted  to  for  very  large 
fish  or  very  thick  slices  of  the  latter,  for,  owing  to  the  very  high 
temperature  that  the  operation  enjoins,  the  outside  of  the  fish 
would  be  dried  up  before  the  inside  had  even  become  affected. 

If  the  fish  to  be  fried  is  somewhat  thick,  it  is  best  to  cut 
several  gashes  in  it,  lengthwise  and  across,  these  being  deeper 
and  closer  together  the  thicker  the  fish  may  be.  The  object 
of  this  measure  is  to  facilitate  the  cooking,  but  the  measure 
itself  is  quite  unnecessary  when  dealing  with  small  fish.     In 


264  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

the  case  of  flat-fish,  partly  detach  the  two  underlying  fillets  on 
either  side  of  the  back-bone  instead  of  gashing  them. 

All  fish  intended  for  frying  (except  Blanchailles  and  White- 
bait) should  first  be  steeped  in  salted  milk,  then  rolled  in  flour 
before  being  plunged  into  the  hot  fat.  If  they  be  "  panes  a 
I'anglaise,"  however,  as  they  generally  are  in  England,  the 
milk  may  be  dispensed  with,  in  which  case,  after  they  have 
been  lightly  coated  with  flour,  they  are  completely  dipped  in 
an  anglaise  (No.  174)  and  afterwards  rolled  in  white  bread- 
crumbs. They  should  then  be  patted  with  the  blade  of  a  knife 
so  as  to  ensure  the  cohesion  of  the  whole  coating,  and,  finally, 
the  latter  should  be  criss-crossed  with  the  back  of  a  knife  with 
the  view  of  improving  the  appearance  when  fried. 

Fried  fish  are  served  either  on  a  napkin,  on  a  drainer,  or  on 
special  dish-papers.  They  are  garnished  with  fried  parsley  and 
properly  trimmed  half-lemons. 

778— THE  COOKING  OF  FISH  A  LA  MEUNI6RE 

This  excellent  mode  of  procedure  is  only  suited  to  small 
fish  or  the  slices  of  larger  ones.  Nevertheless,  it  may  be  re- 
sorted to  for  chicken-turbots,  provided  their  weight  do  not 
exceed  four  lbs. 

The  operation  consists  in  cooking  the  fish  (or  slices  or  fillets 
of  fish)  in  the  frying-pan  with  very  hot  butter,  after  having 
seasoned  them  and  sprinkled  them  with  flour.  If  the  fish 
are  very  small,  ordinary  butter  is  used;  if,  on  the  other  hand, 
they  are  large,  the  procedure  demands  clarified  butter.  When 
the  fish  is  sufficiently  coloured  on  one  side,  it  is  turned  over  for 
the  completion  of  the  operation.  This  done,  it  is  transferred, 
by  means  of  a  spatula,  to  a  hot  dish,  whereon,  after  having 
been  salted,  it  is  sent  to  the  table. 

It  may  be  served  as  it  is  with  a  garnish  of  trimmed  half- 
lemons. 

Fish  prepared  in  this  way  are  termed  "  dor^s  "  (gilded), 
"Soles  dords,"  "  Turbotins  dor^s,"  &c.,  in  order  to  distin- 
guish them  from  those  prepared  a  la  Meuni^re. 

If  the  fish  is  announced  "a  la  Meuni^re,"  a  few  drops  of 
lemon  should  be  sprinkled  upon  it ;  it  should  be  seasoned  with 
salt  and  pepper,  and  garnished  with  concussed,  scalded  pars- 
ley. At  the  last  moment  a  piece  of  butter,  in  proportion  to  the 
size  of  the  fish,  is  put  in  the  frying-pan,  and  is  heated  until  it 
begins  to  brown  slightly.  This  is  poured  over  the  fish  imme- 
diately, and  the  latter  is  sent  to  the  table  at  once  while  still 


FISH  265 

covered  by  the  froth  resulting  from  the  contact  of  the  butter 
with  the  parsley. 

779— THE  POACHING  OF  FISH 

This  method  is  best  suited  to  sole,  chicken-turbots,  and  brill, 
as  well  as  to  the  fillets  of  various  fish. 

Having  laid  the  fish  to  be  poached  in  a  baking-tray  or  a 
sautepan,  either  of  which  should  have  been  previously  but- 
tered, season  it  moderately  with  salt  and  moisten  with  a  little 
very  white  fish  or  mushroom  fumet;  very  often  the  two  latter 
are  mixed.  Cover  the  utensil,  push  it  into  a  moderate  oven, 
and  baste  from  time  to  time,  especially  when  a  large  fish  is 
cooking.  When  the  fish  is  done,  drain  it  carefully,  place  it  on 
a  dish,  and,  as  a  rule,  reduce  the  poaching-liquor  and  add  it  to 
the  sauce.  Poached  fish  are  always  served  sauced;  i.e., 
covered  with  the  sauce  which  properly  forms  their  accompani- 
ment. More  often  than  not  they  are  garnished  after  the 
manner  which  will  be  described  later. 

I  most  emphatically  urge  :  (i)  the  use  of  very  little  fish  fumet 
for  the  poaching,  but  this  fumet  should  be  perfect  and  should, 
above  all,  not  be  cooked  for  longer  than  the  required  time; 
(2)  that  the  fish  be  not  covered  with  buttered  paper  as  is  often 
done,  for  nowadays  a  suitable  paper  is  very  rarely  found.  All 
papers  found  on  the  market  are,  owing  to  the  chemical  products 
used  in  their  manufacture,  liable  to  impart  a  more  or  less  pun- 
gent smell  to  the  objects  they  enclose,  which  in  either  degree 
would  prove  seriously  prejudicial  to  the  preparation. 

These  remarks  not  only  apply  to  fish,  but  to  all  those 
objects  with  which  paper  was  formerly  used  at  some  stage  in 
their  cooking  process. 

780— THE  BRAISING  OF  FISH 

This  method  is  generally  applied  to  whole  or  sliced  salmon, 
to  trout,  and  to  chicken-turbot.  Sometimes  the  fish  treated  in 
this  way  is  larded  on  one  side  with  strips  of  bacon-fat,  truffles, 
gherkins,  or  carrots.  The  mode  of  procedure  is  exactly  the 
same  as  that  described  under  the  "  Braising  of  White  Meats  " 
(No.  248).  Moisten  these  braisings  in  the  proportion  of  one- 
half  with  white  wine  or  red  wine  (according  as  to  how  the  fish 
is  to  be  served),  and  for  the  other  half  use  a  light  fish  fumet. 
Place  the  fish  on  the  drainer  of  a  fish-kettle  just  large  enough 
to  hold  the  former,  and  moisten  in  such  wise  that  the  cooking- 
liquor  at  the  beginning  of  the  operation  does  not  cover  more 
than  three-quarters  of  the  depth  of  the  fish.     Unless  it  be  for 


266  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

a  Lenten  dish,  the  fish  may  be  covered  with  slices  of  bacon 
while  cooking.  In  any  case,  baste  it  often.  Talie  care  not  to 
close  the  lid  down  too  tightly,  in  order  that  the  liquor  may  be 
reduced  simultaneously  with  the  cooking  of  the  fish. 

When  the  operation  is  almost  completed,  take  the  lid  off  the 
fish-kettle  with  the  view  of  glazing  the  fish ;  then  take  the 
former  off  the  fire.  Now  withdraw  the  drainer  with  the  fish 
upon  it,  and  lay  it  athwart  the  top  of  the  fish-kettle,  and  let  it 
drain ;  tilt  the  fish  on  to  a  dish,  and  cover  the  latter  pending 
its  despatch  to  the  table.  Strain  the  stock  remaining  in  the 
fish-kettle  through  a  strainer;  let  it  stand  for  ten  minutes,  re- 
move all  the  grease  that  has  formed  on  its  surface,  and  use  it  to 
complete  the  sauce  as  I  directed  above. 

Braised  fish  are  generally  accompanied  by  a  garnish,  the 
constituents  of  which  I  shall  give  in  the  particular  recipes 
relating  to  braising. 

781— THE  GRILLING  OF  FISH 

This  method  is  best  suited  to'  small  fish,  to  medium-sized 
chicken-turbots,  and  to  large-sectioned  fish. 

Unless  they  are  very  small,  it  is  best  to  gash  both  sides  of 
fish  intended  for  grilling;  the  reasons  given  above  for  this 
measure  likewise  apply  here. 

All  white  and  naturally  dry  fish  should  be  rolled  in  flour 
and  besprinkled  with  butter  or  very  good  oil  before  being 
placed  on  the  grill  to  be  exposed  to  the  heat  of  the  fire.  The 
flour  forms  a  crust  around  the  fish,  which  keeps  it  from  drying 
and  gives  it  that  golden  colour  quite  peculiar  to  objects  thus 
treated. 

Salmon,  trout,  red  mullet,  mackerel,  and  herrings,  the  flesh 
whereof  is  fatty,  need  not  be  floured,  but  only  besprinkled  with 
melted  butter. 

Owing  to  the  somewhat  fragile  texture  of  most  fish,  a  special 
double  gridiron  is  used,  by  means  of  which  they  may  be  turned 
without  fear  of  damage.  This  gridiron  is  placed  upon  the 
ordinary  grill.  I  have  already  given  in  Part  I.  of  this  work 
the  radical  principles  of  grilling  (No.  257);  to  this,  therefore, 
the  reader  is  begged  to  refer. 

Grilled  fish  are  served  on  a  very  hot  dish,  without  paper  or 
a  napkin;  they  are  garnished  with  fresh  parsley  and  grooved 
slices  of  lemon. 

Butter  k  la  Maitre  d'Hotel,  anchovy  butter,  devilled  sauce, 
Roberts'  sauce  Escoffier,  and  butter  k  la  Ravigote  constitute 
the  best  adjuncts  to  grilled  fish. 


FISH  267 

782— THE  COOKING  OF  FISH  AU  QRATIN 

I  described  all  the  details  of  this  method  under  Complete 
Gratin  (No.  269),  to  which  I  must  ask  the  reader  to  refer.  This 
process  is  best  suited  to  small  fish,  such  as  sole,  whiting,  red 
mullet,  chicken-turbot,  &c. 

783— THE  CRIMPING  OF  FISH 

Crimped  fish  is  quite  an  English  speciality.  This  method 
of  preparation  is  applied  more  particularly  to  salmon,  fresh 
cod,  haddock,  and  skate.  The  first  three  of  these  fish  may  be 
prepared  whole  or  in  slices,  while  skate  is  always  cut  into  more 
or  less  large  pieces  after  it  has  been  skinned  on  both  sides. 

In  order  to  crimp  a  whole  fish,  it  should  be  taken  as  it  leaves 
the  water.  Lay  it  on  something  flat,  and  make  deep  lateral 
gashes  on  both  its  sides  from  head  to  tail.  Allow  a  space  of 
about  one  and  one-half  inches  to  two  inches  between  each  gash. 
This  done,  put  the  fish  to  soak  in  very  cold  water  for  an  hour  or 
so.  When  the  fish  is  to  be  cooked  sliced,  divide  it  up  as  soon 
as  it  is  caught,  and  put  the  slices  to  soak  in  very  cold  water,  as 
in  the  case  of  the  whole  fish. 

But  does  this  barbarous  method,  which  stiffens  and  contracts 
the  flesh  of  the  fish,  affect  its  quality  so  materially  as  con- 
noisseurs would  have  us  believe  ? 

It  is  very  difficult  to  say,  and  opinions  on  the  matter  are 
divided.  This,  however,  is  certain,  that  fish  prepared  in  the 
way  above  described  is  greatly  relished  by  many. 

Whether  whole  or  sliced,  crimped  fish  is  always  boiled  in 
salted  water.  Its  cooking  presents  a  real  difficulty,  in  that  it 
must  be  stopped  at  the  precise  moment  when  it  is  completed, 
any  delay  in  this  respect  proving  prejudicial  to  the  quality  of 
the  dish. 

Crimped  fish  is  served  like  the  boiled  kind,  and  all  the 
sauces  suited  to  the  latter  likewise  obtain  with  the  former. 
Besides  the  selected  sauce,  send  a  sauceboat  to  the  table  con- 
taining some  of  the  cooking-liquor  of  the  fish. 

SALMON    (SAUMON) 

Salmon  caught  on  the  Rhine,  or  Dutch  salmon,  is  generally 
considered  the  most  delicate  that  may  be  had,  though,  in  my 
opinion,  ihat  obtained  from  certain  English  rivers,  such,  for 
instance,  as  the  Severn,  is  by  no  means  inferior  to  the  fore- 
going. Here  in  England  this  excellent  fish  is  held  in  the  high 
esteem  it  deserves,  and  the  quantity  consumed  in  this  country 
is  considerable.     It  is  served  as    plainly    as    possible,   either 


268  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

boiled,  cold  or  hot,  grilled,  or  k  la  Meuni^re;  but  whatever  be 
the  method  of  preparation,  it  is  always  accompanied  by  cucum- 
ber salad. 

The  slices  of  salmon,  however,  thick  or  thin,  large  or  small, 
take  the  name  of  "  Darnes." 

784— BOILED  SALMON 

Boiled  salmon,  whether  whole  or  sliced,  should  be  cooked 
in  court-bouillon  in  accordance  with  directions  given  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  chapter  (No.  776).  All  fish  sauces  are  suited 
to  it,  but  more  especially  the  following,  viz. : — Hollandaise 
sauce,  Mousseline  sauce,  Melted  butter.  Shrimp  sauce,  Nantua 
sauce.  Cardinal  sauce,  &c. 

Crimped  salmon  admits  of  precisely  the  same  sauces. 

78s— BROILED  SALMON 

Cut  the  salmon  to  be  grilled  in  slices  from  one  inch  to  one 
and  one-half  inches  thick.  Season  with  table-salt,  sprinkle 
with  melted  butter  or  oil,  and  grill  it  for  the  first  part  on  a 
rather  brisk  fire,  taking  care  to  moderate  the  latter  towards  the 
close  of  the  operation.  Allow  about  twenty-five  minutes  for 
the  grilling  of  a  slice  of  salmon  one  and  one-half  inches  thick. 
Butter  a  la  Maitre  d'Hotel,  anchovy  butter,  and  devilled  sauce 
Escoffier  are  the  most  usual  adjuncts  to  grilled  salmon. 

786— SAUMON  A  LA  MEUNI6RE 

Having  cut  the  salmon  into  moderately  thick  slices,  season 
these,  dredge  them  slightly,  and  cook  them  in  the  frying-pan 
with  very  hot  clarified  butter. 

It  is  important  that  the  salmon  be  set  and  that  the  cooking 
be  rapid. 

Serve  it  in  either  of  the  two  ways  indicated  above  (No.  778). 

Various  Ways  of  Preparing  Salmon 

In  addition  to  the  three  methods  of  serving  salmon  described 
above,  and  those  cold  preparations  with  which  I  shall  deal 
later,  the  fish  in  question  lends  itself  to  a  whole  host  of  dress- 
ings which  are  of  the  greatest  utility  in  the  varying  of  menus. 
The  principles  of  these  dressings  I  shall  now  give. 

787— CADQEREE  OF  SALMON 

Prepare  one  lb.  of  cooked  salmon,  cleared  of  bones  and 
§kin,  and  cut  into  small  pieces;  four  hard-boiled  eggs  cut  into 


FISH  269 

dice;  one  lb.  of  well-cooked  pilaff  rice;  and  three-quarters  pint 
of  Bechamel  flavoured  with  curry. 

Dish  in  a  hot  timbale,  alternating  the  various  products,  and 
finish  with  a  coating  of  sauce. 

788-COTELETTES  DE  SAUMON 

Prepare  some  mousseline  forcemeat  for  salmon,  the  quantity 
whereof  will  be  in  accordance  with  the  number  of  cutlets  to 
be  made,  and  rub  it  through  a  coarse  sieve.  Line  the  bottom 
and  sides  of  some  buttered  tin  moulds,  shaped  like  cutlets,  with 
a  coating  one-half  inch  thick  of  the  prepared  forcemeat. 

Fill  the  moulds  to  within  one-third  inch  of  their  brims  with 
a  cold  salpicon  of  mushrooms  and  truffles,  thickened  by  means 
of  reduced  Allemande  sauce,  and  cover  this  with  the  stuffing. 

Set  the  cutlets  to  poach,  turn  out  the  moulds;  treat  the 
cutlets  a  I'anglaise,  and  cook  them  with  clarified  butter. 

Arrange  in  a  circle  round  a  dish,  put  a  frill  on  a  piece  of 
fried  bread  counterfeiting  the  bone  of  the  cutlet,  garnish  with 
fried  parsley,  and  send  to  the  table,  separately,  a  "  Dieppoise  " 
sauce.  Shrimp  sauce,  or  a  pur^e  of  fresh  vegetables,  such  as 
peas,  carrots,  &c.  In  the  latter  case,  serve  at  the  same  time 
a  sauce  in  keeping  with  the  garnish. 

789— COULIBIAC  DE  SAUMON 

Preparation. — Have  ready  two  lbs.  of  ordinary  brioche  paste 
without  sugar  (No.  2368).  Stiffen  in  butter  one  and  one-half 
lbs.  of  small  salmon  collops,  and  prepare  one-sixth  lb.  of  mush- 
rooms and  one  chopped  onion  (both  of  which  should  be  fried 
in  butter),  one-half  lb.  of  semolina  kache  (No.  2292)  or  the 
same  weight  of  rice  cooked  in  consomm^;  two  hard-boiled  eggs, 
chopped;  and  one  lb.  of  vesiga,  roughly  chopped  and  cooked 
in  consomm^. 

For  this  weight  of  cooked  vesiga  about  two  and  one-half  oz. 
of  dried  vesiga  will  be  needed,  which  should  be  soaked  for  at 
least  four  hours  in  cold  water,  and  then  cooked  for  three  and 
one-half  hours  in  white  consomm^.  It  may  also  be  cooked  in 
water. 

Roll  the  brioche  paste  into  rectangles  twelve  inches  long 
by  eight  inches  wide,  and  spread  thereon  in  successive  layers 
the  kache  or  the  rice,  the  collops  of  salmon,  the  chopped 
vesiga,  the  eggs,  the  mushrooms,  and  the  onion,  and  finish  with 
a  layer  of  kache  or  rice.  Moisten  the  edges  of  the  paste  and 
draw  the  longest  ends  of  it  towards  each  other  over  the  enu- 


270  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

merated  layers  of  garnish,  and  join  them  so  as  to  properly  en- 
close the  latter. 

Now  fold  the  two  remaining  ends  over  to  the  centre  in  a 
similar  way.  Place  the  coulibiac  thus  formed  on  a  baking- 
tray,  and  take  care  to  turn  it  over  in  order  that  the  joining 
parts  of  the  paste  lie  underneath. 

Set  the  paste  to  rise  for  twenty-five  minutes,  sprinkle  some 
melted  butter  over  the  coulibiac,  sprinkle  with  some  very  fine 
raspings,  make  a  slit  in  the  top  for  the  escape  of  vapour,  and 
bake  in  a  moderate  oven  for  forty-five  or  fifty  minutes.  Fill 
the  coulibiac  with  freshly-melted  butter  when  withdrawing  it 
from  the  oven. 

Darnes  de  Saumon 

The  few  recipes  dealing  with  "  Darnes  de  Saumon,"  which 
I  give  below,  may  also  be  adapted  to  whole  salmon  after  the 
size  of  the  fish  has  been  taken  into  account  in  measuring  the 
time  allowed  for  cooking. 

790— DARNE  DE  SAUMON  A  CHAMBORD 

As  already  explained,  the  term  "  darne  "  stands  for  a  piece 
of  salmon  cut  from  the  middle  of  that  fish,  and  the  size  of  a 
darne  is  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  people  it  is  intended 
for. 

Proceed  after  the  manner  directed  under  "  The  Braising  of 
Fish  "  (No.  780);  moisten  in  the  proportion  of  two-thirds  with 
excellent  red  wine  and  one-third  with  fish  stock,  calculating  the 
quantity  in  such  wise  that  it  may  cover  no  more  than  two-thirds 
of  the  depth  of  the  darne.  Bring  to  the  boil,  then  set  to  braise 
gently,  and  glaze  the  darne  at  the  last  moment. 

Garnish  and  Sauce. — Garnish  with  quenelles  of  truffled 
mousseline  forcemeat  for  fish,  moulded  by  means  of  a  spoon ; 
two  large  ornamented  quenelles;  truffles  fashioned  like  olives; 
pieces  of  milt  dipped  in  Villeroy  sauce,  treated  a  I'anglaise  and 
fried  when  about  to  dish  up;  small  gudgeon  or  smelts  treated 
similarly  to  the  milt,  and  trussed  crayfish  cooked  in  court- 
bouillon. 

The  sauce  is  a  Genevoise,  made  from  the  reduced  cooking- 
liquor  of  the  darne. 

Dishing  Up. — Surround  the  darne  by  the  garnishes  enu- 
merated, arranging  them  tastefully,  and  pierce  it  with  two 
hatelets,  each  garnished  with  a  small  truffle,  an  ornamented 
quenelle,  and  a  crayfish. 

Send  the  sauce  to  the  table  separately. 


FISH  271 

791— DARNE  DE  SAUMON  A  DAUMONT 

Poach  the  dame  in  a  court-bouillon  prepared  beforehand. 

Dishing  Up  and  Garnish. — Surround  the  darne  by  medium- 
sized  mushrooms  stewed  in  butter  and  garnished  with  small 
crayfish  tails  cohered  by  means  of  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of 
Nantua  sauce;  small  round  quenelles  of  mousseline  forcemeat 
for  fish,  decorated  with  truffles,  and  some  slices  of  milt  treated 
a  I'anglaise,  and  fried  when  about  to  dish  up. 

Serve  the  Nantua  sauce  separately. 

792— DARNE  DE  SAUMON  A  LUCULLUS 

Skin  one  side  of  the  darne,  lard  it  with  truffles,  and  braise 
it  in  champagne. 

The  Garnish  Round  the  Darne. — Very  small  garnished 
patties  of  crayfish  tails ;  small  cassolettes  of  milt ;  small  mousse- 
lines  of  oysters,  poached  in  dariole-moulds . 

Sauce. — The  braising-liquor  of  the  darne  finished  by  means 
of  ordinary  and  crayfish  butter  in  equal  quantities.  Send  it  to 
the  table  separately. 

793— DARNE  DE  SAUMON  A  NESSELRODE 

Remove  the  spine  and  all  other  internal  bones.  Stuff  the 
darne  with  raw  lobster  mousse  stiffened  by  means  of  a  little 
pike  forcemeat. 

Line  a  well-buttered,  round  and  even  raised-pie  mould  with 
a  thin  layer  of  hot-water,  raised-pie  paste  (this  is  made  from  one 
lb.  of  flour,  four  oz.  of  lard,  one  egg,  and  a  little  lukewarm 
water),  which  should  be  prepared  in  advance  and  made  some- 
what stiff.  Now  garnish  the  inside  of  the  pie  with  thin  slices 
of  bacon  and  place  the  darne  upright  in  it.  (To  simplify  the 
operation  the  darne  may  be  stuffed  at  this  stage.)  Cover  the  pie 
with  a' layer  of  the  same  paste,  pinch  its  edges  with  those  of  the 
original  lining,  make  a  slit  in  the  top  for  the  steam  to  escape, 
and  cook  in  a  good  oven. 

When  the  pie  is  almost  baked,  prod  it  repeatedly  with  a 
larding-needle ;  when  the  latter  is  withdrawn  clear  of  all  stuffing 
the  pie  should  be  taken  from  the  oven.  This  done,  turn  it  up- 
side down  in  order  to  drain  away  the  melted  bacon  and  other 
liquids  inside  it,  but  do  not  let  it  drop  from  the  mould.  Then 
tilt  it  on  to  a  dish  and  take  off  the  mould.  Do  not  break  the 
crust  except  at  the  dining-table. 

5aMce  .-^Serve  an  American  sauce  with  the  pie,  the  former 
being  prepared  from  the  remains  of  the  lobsters  used  in  making 
the  mousse,  finished  with  cream,  and  garnished  with  very  fine 
oysters  (cleared  of  their  beards),  poached  when  about  to  dish  up. 


in  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

794— DARNE  DE  SAUMON  R^QfiNCE 

Braise  the  dame  in  white  wine  in  accordance  with  the? 
directions  given  in  No.  780. 

Garnish. — Surround  the  darne  by  spoon-moulded  quenelles 
of  whiting  forcemeat  prepared  with  crayfish  butter,  oysters 
cleared  of  their  beards  and  poached,  small,  very  white  mush- 
rooms, and  poached  slices  of  milt. 

Normande  sauce  finished  with  truffle  essence, 

795— DARNE  DE  SAUMON  A  ROYALE 

Braise  the  darne  in  Sauterne  wine. 

Garnish. — Bunches  of  crayfishes'  tails,  small  quenelles  of 
mousseline  forcemeat  for  fish,  small  mushrooms,  slices  of  truffle, 
and  little  balls  of  potato  raised  by  means  of  the  large,  round 
spoon-cutter,  and  cooked  a  I'anglaise. 

Send  a  Normande  sauce  separately. 

796— DARNE  DE  SAUMON  A  VALOIS 

Poach  the  darne  in  a  white  wine  court-bouillon. 

Garnish. — Potato  balls  raised  with  the  spoon-cutter  or  turned 
to  the  shape  of  olives,  and  cooked  in  salted  water,  poached 
slices  of  milt,  and  trussed  crayfish  cooked  in  court-bouillon. 

Send  a  Valois  sauce  separately. 

797— MOUSSELINE  DE  SAUMON 

In  Part  I.  I  dealt  with  the  preparation  of  mousseline  force- 
meat (No.  195),  and  also  the  method  of  poaching  spoon-moulded 
quenelles  (No.  205).  Now  mousselines  are  only  large  quenelles 
which  derive  their  name  from  the  very  light  forcemeat  of  which 
they  are  composed.  These  mousseline  quenelles  are  always 
moulded  with  the  ordinary  tablespoon,  they  are  garnished  on 
top  with  a  fine,  raw  slice  of  the  fish  under  treatment,  and 
poached  after  the  manner  already  described. 

798— MOUSSELINE  ALEXANDRA 

Having  made  the  salmon  mousseline  forcemeat,  mould  tha 
quenelles  and  place  them,  one  by  one,  in  a  buttered  saut^pan. 
Place  a  small,  round  and  very  thin  slice  of  salmon  on  each,  and 
poach  them  in  a  very  moderate  oven  with  lid  on  the  utensil  con- 
taining them. 

Drain  on  a  piece  of  linen,  arrange  them  in  a  circle  on  a  dish, 
place  a  slice  of  truffle  upon  each  slice  of  salmon,  coat  with 
Mornay  sauce,  and  glaze. 

Garnish  the  centre  of  the  dish  with  very  small  peas  or 
asparagus-heads  cohered  with  butter  just  before  dishing  up. 


FISH  273 

799— MOUSSELINE  DE  SAUMON  A  LA  TOSCA 

Combine  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  crayfish  cream-cullis  with 
each  pound  of  the  salmon  mousseline  forcemeat.  Mould  and 
poach  as  above,  drain,  and  arrange  in  a  circle  on  a  dish. 

Garnish  each  mousseline  with  a  thin  slice  of  milt  cooked  in 
lightly-browned  butter,  four  crayfish  tails  cut  lengthwise  into 
two,  and  a  slice  of  truffle  at  each  end.  Coat  with  a  light  Mor- 
nay  sauce,  finished  with  crayfish  butter,  and  glaze  quickly. 

N.B. — In  addition  to  these  two  recipes,  all  the  garnishes 
suitable  for  fillets  of  sole  may  be  applied  to  mousselines. 
Garnishes  of  early-season  vegetable  purees  also  suit  them  admir- 
ably, and  therein  lies  an  almost  inexhaustible  source  of  variety. 

800-COLD  SALMON 

When  salmon  is  to  be  served  cold  it  should,  as  far  as  pos- 
sible, be  cooked,  either  whole  or  in  large  pieces,  in  the  court- 
bouillon  given  under  No.  163  and  cooled  in  the  latter.  Pieces 
cooked  separately  may  seem  better  or  may  be  more  easily  made 
to  look  sightly,  but  their  meat  is  drier  than  that  of  the  salmon 
cooked  whole.  And  what  is  lost  in  appearance  with  the  very 
large  pieces  is  more  than  compensated  for  by  their  extra 
quality. 

In  dishing  cold  salmon  the  skin  may  be  removed  and  the 
fillets  bared,  so  that  the  fish  may  be  more  easily  decorated,  but 
the  real  gourmet  will  always  prefer  the  salmon  served  in  its 
natural  silver  vestment. 

In  decorating  cold  salmon  use  pieces  of  cucumber,  anchovy 
fillets,  capers,  slices  of  tomato,  curled-leaf  parsley,  &c. 

I  am  not  partial  to  the  decorating  of  salmon  with  softened 
butter,  coloured  or  not,  laid  on  by  means  of  the  piping-bag. 
Apart  from  the  fact  that  this  method  of  decoration  is  rarely 
artistic,  the  butter  used  combines  badly  with  the  cold  sauces 
and  the  meat  of  the  salmon  on  the  diner's  plate.  Very  green 
tarragon  leaves,  chervil,  lobster  coral,  &c.,  afford  a  more 
natural  and  more  delicate  means  of  ornamentation.  The  only 
butter  fit  to  be  served  with  cold  salmon  is  Montpellier  butter 
(No.  153),  though  this,  in  fact,  is  but  a  cold  sauce  often  re- 
sorted to  for  the  coating  of  the  cold  fish  in  question. 

Among  the  garnishes  which  suit  cold  salmon,  I  might  men- 
tion small  peeled,  and  emptied  tomatoes  garnished  with  some 
kind  of  salad;  hard-boiled  eggs,  either  wholly  stuffed,  or  stuffed 
in  halves  or  in  quarters,  barquettes,  tartlets  and  cassolettes 
made  from  cucumber  or  beetroot,  parboiled  until  almost  com- 
pletely cooked  and  garnished  with  a  pur^e  of  tunny,  of  sar- 

T 


274  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

dines,  of  anchovies,  &c. ;  small  aspics  of  shrimps  or  of  cray- 
fishes' tails;  small  slices  of  lobster,  &c. 

Almost  all  the  cold  sauces  may  accompany  cold  salmon. 

8oi— SAUMON  FROID,  OU  DARNE  DE  SAUMON  FROID 
A  LA  ROYALE 

Having  drained  and  dried  the  salmon  or  the  darne,  remove 
the  skin  from  one  of  its  sides,  and  coat  the  bared  fillets  with 
a  layer  of  a  preparation  of  mousse  de  saumon,  letting  it  lie 
rather  more  thickly  over  the  middle  than  the  sides.  Coat  the 
layer  of  mousse  with  mayonnaise  sauce  thickened  by  means  of 
fish  jelly,  and  leave  to  set. 

Now  let  some  clear  fish  jelly  set  on  the  bottom  of  the  dish  to 
be  sent  to  the  table ;  place  the  salmon  or  the  darne  on  this  jelly, 
and  surround  the  piece  with  a  border  consisting  of  Montpellier 
butter,  using  for  the  purpose  a  piping-bag  fitted  with  a  grooved 
pipe. 

Decorate  the  centre  of  the  piece  by  means  of  a  fine  fleur-de- 
lys  made  from  trufHes,  and  encircle  it  with  two  royale  crowns 
made  from  anchovy  fillets. 

802— SAUMON  FROID  OU  DARNE  DE  SAUMON 
A  LA  PARISIENNE 

Remove  the  skin  in  suchwise  as  to  leave  the  bared  portion 
in  the  shape  of  a  regular  rectangle,  equidistant  from  the  tail  and 
the  head;  or,  in  the  case  of  a  darne,  occupying  two-thirds  of 
its  surface. 

Cover  the  bared  portion  with  mayonnaise  sauce  thickened 
with  fish  jelly  and  leave  it  to  set. 

Now  stand  the  piece  on  a  small  cushion  of  rice  or  semolina, 
shaping  the  latter  like  the  piece  itself ;  trim  the  sauced  rectangle 
with  a  border  of  Montpellier  butter,  laid  on  by  means  of  a 
piping-bag  fitted  with  a  small  grooved  pipe.  Garnish  the  centre 
of  the  rectangle  with  pieces  of  lobster  coral,  the  chopped,  hard- 
boiled  white  and  yolk  of  an  egg,  chervil  leaves,  &c. 

Encircle  the  piece  with  a  border  of  small  artichoke-bottoms, 
garnished,  in  the  form  of  a  dome,  with  a  small  macedoine  of 
vegetables  cohered  with  cleared  mayonnaise. 

Send  a  mayonnaise  sauce  to  the  table  separatel}'^. 

803— SAUMON  FROID  OU  DARNE  DE  SAUMON  FROID 
A  LA  RIGA 

Prepare  a  salmon  or  a  darne  as  in  the  preceding  recipe,  and 
dish  it  on  a  cushion  in  order  that  it  may  be  slightly  raised. 


FISH  275 

Surround  it  with  grooved  sections  of  cucumber  hollowed  to 
represent  small  timbales,  well  parboiled,  marinaded  with  a  few- 
drops  of  oil  and  lemon-juice  and  filled  with  a  vegetable  salad 
thickened  with  mayonnaise;  indented,  halved  eggs  filled  with 
caviare;  and  tartlets  of  vegetable  salad  cohered  with  mayon- 
naise, and  garnished,  each  with  a  crayfish-shell  stuffed  with 
crayfish  mousse;  alternate  these  various  garnishes,  and  encircle 
with  a  border  of  jelly  dice. 

804— SAUMON  FROID,  OU  DARNE  DE  SAUMON  FROID 

EN  BELLE-VUE 

Skin  the  salmon  or  the  darne,  set  the  piece  upright  upon 
the  belly  side,  and  decorate  the  fillets  with  pieces  of  truffles, 
poached  white  of  egg,  chervil  leaves,  and  tarragon,  &c. 

Coat  the  garnish  with  a  little  melted  fish  aspic  so  as  to  fix  it. 

This  done,  sprinkle  the  piece,  again  and  again,  with  the 
same  melted  aspic  jelly  in  order  to  cover  it  with  a  kind  of  trans- 
parent veil. 

Place  the  piece  thus  prepared  in  a  crystal  receptacle 
similarly  shaped  to  the  fish,  and  fill  the  former  to  the  brim  with 
very  clear,  melted  jelly. 

When  dishing  up,  incrust  the  receptable  containing  the  fish 
in  a  block  of  clean  ice  which,  in  its  turn,  is  laid  on  the  dish  to 
be  sent  to  the  table.  Another  way  is  to  place  the  crystal  utensil 
direct  upon  the  dish  and  to  surround  the  former  with  broken 
ice. 

80s— SAUMON  FROID,   OU  DARNE   DE   SAUMON  FROID 

AU  CHAMBERTIN 

Poach  the  salmon  or  the  darne  in  a  court-bouillon  consist- 
ing of  very  clear  fish  fumet  and  Chambertin  wine,  in  equal 
quantities,  and  leave  to  cool.  Prepare  an  aspic  jelly  from  the 
court-bouillon. 

Skin  and  decorate  the  salmon  or  the  darne  and  glaze  it  with 
white  aspic  jelly,  exactly  as  directed  above,  in  the  case  of  the 
Belle- vue. 

Dish  in  the  same  way,  in  a  crystal  receptacle,  and  fill  the 
latter  with  the  prepared  aspic  jelly.  Serve  on  a  block  of  ice,  or 
with  broken  ice  around  the  utensil. 

806-SAUMON  FROID,  OU  DARNE  DE  SAUMON  FROID 

A  LA  NORVEQIENNE 

Skin  and  decorate  the  salmon  or  the  darne,  and  glaze  it  with 
white  aspic  jelly  precisely  as  in  No.  804. 

Let  a  coating  of  very  clear  jelly  set  on  the  bottom  of  the 

T  2 


276  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

dish  to  be  sent  to  the  table.  Upon  this  aspic  jelly  lay  a  cushion 
the  same  shape  as  the  fish,  of  semolina,  or  of  carved  rice. 

Set  the  piece  (salmon  or  darne),  decorated  and  glazed,  upon 
this  cushion,  and  lay  thereon  a  row  of  fine  prawns,  cleared  of 
their  abdominal  shell. 

Surround  with  a  garnish  of  small  cucumber  timbales,  well 
parboiled,  marinaded,  and  garnished  dome-fashion,  with  a 
pur^e  of  smoked  salmon ;  halved,  hard-boiled  eggs,  glazed  with 
aspic ;  very  small  tomatoes,  or  halved  medium-sized  ones, 
peeled,  pressed  in  the  corner  of  a  towel  to  return  them  to  their 
original  shape,  stuck  with  a  bit  of  parsley-stalk,  and  decorated 
with  leaves  of  green  butter  moulded  by  means  of  the  piping- 
bag;  and  small  barquettes  of  cooked  and  marinaded  beetroot, 
garnished  with  shrimps'  tails  cohered  with  mayonnaise. 

Send  a  Russe  sauce  separately. 

807— COTELETTES  FROIDES  DE  SAUMON 

Liberally  butter  some  tin  cutlet-shaped  moulds.  Line  their 
bottoms  and  sides  with  a  very  red  slice  of  salmon,  as  thin  as  a 
piece  of  cardboard.  This  slice  should  be  long  enough  to  project 
outside  the  brim  of  the  mould  to  the  extent  of  one-half  inch. 

Garnish  the  insides  of  the  moulds  with  well-seasoned  salmon 
meat,  and  draw  the  projecting  lengths  of  salmon  across  this 
meat  so  as  to  enclose  the  latter  and  finish  off  the  cutlets. 

Arrange  the  moulds  on  a  baking-tray;  poach  the  cutlets, 
dry,  in  a  moderate  oven ;  turn  them  out  of  their  moulds  on  to 
another  tray  as  soon  as  they  are  poached,  and  let  them  cool. 
Then  coat  them  with  a  half-melted  aspic,  and  decorate  them 
according  to  fancy,  either  with  very  green  peas  or  a  leaf  of 
chervil  with  a  bit  of  lobster  coral  in  its  centre — in  a  word,  some- 
thing simple  and  neat. 

These  cutlets,  which  are  generally  served  at  ball-suppers, 
may  be  dished  on  a  tazza,  on  a  cushion  of  rice,  semolina,  corn- 
flour, or  stearine,  and  laid  almost  vertically  against  a  pyramid 
of  vegetable  salad  cohered  by  means  of  mayonnaise  with 
aspic.  In  this  case  the  dish  is  finished  ofif  with  a  hatelet  stuck 
into  the  middle  of  the  pyramid. 

The  cutlets  may  also  be  arranged  in  a  circle  on  a  flat,  shal- 
low, silver  or  crystal  dish,  and  covered  with  a  delicate  cold 
melted  jelly. 

Whatever  be  the  selected  method  of  dishing,  always  send 
to  the  table  with  the  cutlet  a  sauceboat  of  cold  sauce. 
808— M^DAILLONS  DE  SAUMON 

These  medallions  have  the  same  purpose  as  the  cutlets 
already  described,  and  are  prepared  thus:  — 


FISH  277 

Cut  some  small  slices,  one-third  inch  thick,  from  a  fillet  of 
salmon. 

Arrange  them  on  a  buttered  tray;  poach  them,  dry,  in  a 
moderate  oven,  and  cool  them  under  a  light  weight. 

Now  trim  them  neatly,  with  an  even  cutter,  oval  or  round, 
in  accordance  with  the  shape  they  are  intended  to  have. 

Coat  them,  according  to  their  purpose,  either  with  mayon- 
naise sauce  or  one  of  its  derivatives,  thickened  with  jelly,  or  a 
white,  pink,  or  green  chaud-froid  sauce.  Decorate  it  in  any 
way  that  may  be  fancied,  and  glaze  them  with  cold  melted  aspic 
jelly. 

Dish  after  the  manner  described  under  "  Cotelettes  "  (see 

above). 

809— MAYONNAISE  DE  SAUMON 

Garnish  the  bottom  of  a  salad-bowl  with  moderately 
seasoned,  ciseled  lettuce.  Cover  with  cold,  cooked  and  flaked 
salmon,  thoroughly  cleared  of  all  skin  and  bones. 

Coat  with  mayonnaise  sauce,  and  decorate  with  anchovy 
fillets,  capers,  stoned  olives,  small  slices  or  roundels  or  quarters 
of  hard-boiled  eggs,  small  hearts  of  lettuce,  a  border  of  little 
roundels  of  radish,  &c. 

810— SALADE  DE  SAUMON 

This  preparation  comprises  the  same  ingredients  as  the 
above,  with  the  exception  of  the  mayonnaise  sauce.  The  de- 
corating garnish  is  placed  directly  upon  the  salmon,  and  the 
whole  is  seasoned  in  precisely  the  same  way  as  an  ordinary 
salad. 

TROUT. 

From  the  culinary  standpoint,  trout  are  divided  into  two 
quite  distinct  classes,  viz.,  large  trout,  whereof  the  typical 
specimen  is  Salmon-trout,  and  small  or  fresh-water  trout. 

811— TRUITE  SAUMONEE  (Salmon  Trout) 

In  its  many  preparations,  salmon-trout  may  be  replaced 
by  salmon,  and  all  the  recipes  relating  to  the  former  may  be 
adapted  to  the  latter. 

In  any  case,  however,  as  its  size  is  less  than  that  of  salmon, 
it  is  very  rarely  cut  into  darnes,  being  more  generally  served 
whole. 

The  few  recipes  that  follow  are  proper  to  salmon-trout. 

812— TRUITE  A  LA  CAMBAC^RES 

Select  a  male  trout  in  preference;  clean  it,  and  remove  its 
gills  without  opening  it  in  th?  region  of  the  belly. 


278  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Skin  it  on  one  side,  starting  at  a  distance  of  one  inch  from 
the  head  and  finishing  within  two  and  one-half  inches  of  the 
root  of  the  tail. 

Lard  the  bared  portions  with  trufHes  and  the  red  part  only 
of  carrots  cut  into  rods. 

This  done,  spread  out  a  napkin,  lay  the  trout  thereon,  belly 
under,  and,  with  a  sharp  knife,  separate  the  two  fillets  from 
the  bones,  beginning  in  the  region  of  the  head  and  proceeding 
straight  down  to  where  the  body  converges  towards  the 
tail. 

The  spine  being  thus  liberated,  sever  it  at  both  ends;  i.e., 
from  the  tail  and  the  head,  and  withdraw  it,  together  with  all 
the  adhering  ventral  bones.  The  intestines  are  then  removed,  the 
inside  of  the  fish  is  well  cleaned,  the  fillets  are  seasoned  on  their 
insides,  and  the  trout  is  stuffed  with  a  mousseline  forcemeat  of 
raw  crayfish.  The  two  fillets  are  drawn  together,  and  the  trout, 
thus  reconstructed,  is  covered  with  thin  slices  of  bacon  and  laid 
on  the  drainer  of  the  fish-kettle  and  braised  in  Sauterne  wine. 

When  the  fish  is  done,  remove  the  slices  of  bacon,  glaze  it, 
and  dish  it  up.  Surround  it  with  alternate  heaps  of  morels 
tossed  in  butter  and  milt  k  la  Meuni^re. 

Send  to  the  table,  separately,  a  fine  Bechamel  sauce,  com- 
bined with  the  braising-liquor  of  the  trout,  strained  and  re- 
duced, and  finished  with  crayfish  butter. 

813— TRUITES  SAUMONEES  FROIDES 

We  are  now  concerned  with  a  whole  series  of  unpublished 
"  Trout  "  preparations,  which  are  at  once  of  superfine  delicacy 
and  agreeable  aspect,  and  which  admit  of  clean  and  easy 
dishing. 

Cook  a  trout  weighing  from  two  to  three  lbs.  in  court- 
bouillon,  and  let  it  cool  in  the  latter.  Then  drain  it;  sever 
the  head  and  tail  from  the  body,  and  put  them  aside.  Com- 
pletely skin  the  whole  fish,  and  carefully  separate  the  two  fillets 
from  the  bones. 

Deck  each  fillet  with  tarragon  and  chervil  leaves,  lobster 
coral,  poached  white  of  eggs,  &c.,  and  set  them,  back  to  back, 
upon  a  mousse  of  tomatoes  lying  in  a  special,  long  white  or 
coloured  porcelain  dish  about  one  and  one-half  to  two  inches 
deep. 

Replace  the  head  and  tail,  and  cover  the  whole  with  a  coat- 
ing of  half-melted,  succulent  fish  aspic,  somewhat  clear.  Let 
the  aspic  set,  and  incrust  the  dish  containing  the  trout  in  a 
block  of  ice,  or  surround  it  with  the  latter  broken. 


FISH  279 

814— PREPARATION  DE  LA  MOUSSE  DE  TOM  AXES 

This  mousse,  like  those  which  I  shall  give  later,  is  really  a 
bavarois  without  sugar.  Its  recipe  is  exactly  the  same  as  that 
of  the  "  bavarois  of  fruit,"  except  with  regard  to  the  question 
of  sugar. 

Cook  one-half  lb.  of  tomato  pulp  (cleared  of  skin  and  seeds, 
and  roughly  chopped)  in  one  oz.  of  butter.  When  the  pulp 
has  thoroughly  mingled  with  the  butter,  add  thereto  two  table- 
spoonfuls  of  velout^  thickened  by  means  of  eight  leaves  of 
gelatine  per  quart  of  the  sauce. 

Rub  through  tammy,  and  add  to  the  preparation,  when 
almost  cold,  half  of  its  volume  of  barely-whipped  cream.  Taste 
the  mousse ;  season  with  a  few  drops  of  lemon  juice,  and  if  it 
still  seems  flat,  add  the  necessary  salt  and  a  very  little  cayenne. 

N.B. — It  will  be  seen  that  I  prescribe  cream  only  half- 
whipped.  This  precaution,  however,  does  not  apply  to 
"Mousse  de  Tomates "  alone,  but  to  all  mousses.  Well- 
whipped  cream  imparts  a  dry  and  woolly  taste  to  them,  whereas, 
when  it  is  only  half-whipped,  it  renders  them  unctuous  and 
fresh  to  the  palate. 

From  the  point  of  view  of  delicacy,  the  respective  results  of 
the  two  methods  do  not  bear  comparison. 

815— OTHER  PREPARATIONS  OF  TROUT 
after  the  same  recipe 

By  proceeding  exactly  as  directed  in  the  foregoing  recipe, 
and  by  substituting  one  of  the  following  m,ousses  for  the 
"Mousse  de  Tomates,"  it  will  be  found  that  considerable 
variety  may  be  introduced  into  menus : — 

1.  Crayfish  Mousse  with  fillets  of  trout,  decked  with  crayfish 
tails  and  tarragon  leaves. 

2.  Lobster  Mousse  with  fillets  of  trout,  decked  with  slices  of 
lobster,  coral,  and  chervil. 

3.  Shrimp  Mousse  with  fillets  of  trout,  decked  with  crayfish 
tails  and  capers. 

4.  Capsicum  Mousse  with  fillets  of  trout,  decked  with  strips 
of  grilled  capsicum. 

5.  Physalia  Mousse  with  fillets  of  trout,  decked  with  chervil, 
tarragon,  and  bunches  of  physalia  around  the  fillets. 

6.  Green  Pimentos  Mousse  with  fillets  of  trout,  decked  with 
strips  of  green  pimentos. 

7.  Early-season  Herb  Mousse  with  fillets  of  trout,  decked 
with  chopped,  hard-boiled  eggs,  and  chopped  parsley. 

8.  Volnay  Mousse  with  fillets  of  trout,  decked  with  anchovy 
fillets,  capers,  and  olives. 


28o  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

9.  Chambertin  Mousse  with  fillets  of  trout  decked  like  No.  8. 

N.B. — In  the  making  of  "Mousse  au  Vol  nay  "  and  "  au 
Chambertin  "  the  base  of  the  preparations  is  supplied  by  cleared 
velout6,  to  which  is  added  the  reduced  cooking-liquor  of  the 
trout. 

All  these  recipes  are  equally  suitable  for  sole  or  chicken- 
turbot. 

815a— ONDINES  AUX  CREVETTES  ROSES 

Prepare  a  very  delicate  trout  mousse,  mould  it  in  egg-moulds, 
and  garnish  the  centre  with  trimmed  prawns'  tails.  Let  the 
mousse  set;  then  speedily  turn  the  undines  out  of  their  moulds, 
and  lay  them  in  a  deep  entree-dish.  Between  each  of  them  lay 
a  few  prawns,  the  tails  of  which  should  be  shelled.  Cover 
the  whole,  little  by  little,  with  some  excellent,  half-melted  jelly ; 
here  and  there  add  a  few  sprigs  of  chervil,  and  then  fill  up 
the  dish  with  jelly,  so  as  to  completely  cover  the  mousses. 

816— FRESH-WATER  TROUT 

The  best  are  those  procured  in  mountainous  districts,  where 
the  clear  water  they  inhabit  is  constantly  refreshed  by  strong 
currents. 

The  two  leading  methods  of  preparing  them  are  called,  re- 
spectively, "  Au  bleu  "  and  "  k  la  Meuni^re."  Having  already 
described  the  latter,  I  shall  now  give  my  attention  to  "  Truite 
au  bleu." 

This  preparation  is  held  in  very  high  esteem  in  Switzerland 
and  Germany,  where  fresh-water  trout  are  not  only  plentiful,  but 
of  excellent  quality. 

817— TRUITES  AU  BLEU 

The  essential  condition  for  this  dish  consists  in  having  live 
trout.  Prepare  a  court-bouillon  with  plenty  of  vinegar  (No. 
163),  and  keep  it  boiling  in  a  rather  shallow  basin. 

About  ten  minutes  before  dishing  them,  take  the  trout  out 
of  water;  stun  them  by  a  blow  on  the  head;  empty  and  clean 
them  very  quickly,  and  plunge  them  into  the  boiling  liquid, 
where  they  will  immediately  shrivel,  while  their  skin  will  break 
in  all  directions. 

A  few  minutes  will  suffice  to  cook  trout  the  average  weight 
of  which  is  one-third  lb. 

Drain  them  and  dish  them  immediately  upon  a  napkin,  with 
curled-leaf  parsley  all  round.  Serve  them  with  a  HoUandaise 
sauce  or  melted  butter. 


FISH  281 

N.B. — Fresh-water  trout  may  also  be  served  fried  or  grilled, 
but  neither  of  these  methods  of  preparation  suits  them  so  well 
as  "  ^  la  Meuni^re  "  or  "  au  bleu,"  which  I  have  given. 

SOLES. 

Sole  may  be  served  whole  or  filleted,  and  a  large  number 
of  the  recipes  given  for  the  whole  fish  may  be  adapted  to  its 
fillets. 

As  a  rule,  the  fillets  are  made  to  appear  on  the  menu  of  a 
dinner  owing  to  the  fact  that  they  dish  more  elegantly  and  are 
more  easily  served  than  the  whole  fish,  the  latter  being  generally 
served  at  luncheons. 

Nevertheless,  in  cases  where  great  ceremony  is  not  observed 
at  a  dinner,  soles  may  well  be  served  whole,  inasmuch  as  no 
hard-and-fast  rule  has  ever  obtained  in  this  matter. 

818— SOLE  ALICE 

This  sole  is  prepared,  or  rather  its  preparation  is  com- 
pleted, at  tlie  table. 

Have  an  excellent  fish  fumet  (No.  11),  short  and  very  white. 
Trim  the  sole ;  put  it  into  a  special,  deep  earthenware  dish,  the 
bottom  of  which  should  be  buttered ;  pour  the  fumet  over  it  and 
poach  gently. 

Now  send  it  to  the  table  with  a  plate  containing  separate 
heaps  of  one  finely-chopped  onion,  a  little  powdered  thyme,  and 
three  finely-crushed  biscottes. 

In  the  dining-room  the  waiter  places  the  dish  on  a  chafer, 
and,  taking  off  the  sole,  he  raises  the  fillets  therefrom,  and 
places  them  between  two  hot  plates.  He  then  adds  to  the 
cooking-liquor  of  the  sole  the  chopped  onion,  which  he  leaves 
to  cook  for  a  few  moments,  the  powdered  thyme  and  a  sufficient 
quantity  of  the  biscotte  raspings  to  allow  of  thickening  the 
whole. 

At  the  last  minute  he  adds  six  raw  oysters  and  one  oz.  of 
butter  divided  into  small  pieces. 

As  soon  as  the  oysters  are  stiff,  he  returns  the  fillets  of  sole 
to  the  dish,  besprinkles  them  copiously  with  the  sauce,  and  then 
serves  them  very  hot. 

N.B. — In  order  to  promote  the  poaching  of  the  soles,  more 
particularly  when  they  are  large,  the  fillets  on  the  upper  side 
of  the  fish  should  be  slightly  separated  from  the  bones.  By  this 
means  the  heat  is  able  to  reach  the  inside  of  the  fish  very 
quickly,  and  the  operation  is  accelerated. 


2  82  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

The  sole  is  always  laid  on  the  dish  with  its  opened  side 
undermost — that  is  to  say,  on  its  back. 

8 1 9— SOLE  MORN  AY 

Lay  the  sole  on  a  buttered  dish ;  sprinkle  a  little  fish  fumet 
over  it,  and  add  one-half  oz.  of  butter  divided  into  small  pieces. 
Poach  gently. 

Coat  the  bottom  of  the  dish  on  which  the  sole  is  to  be  served 
with  Mornay  sauce ;  drain  the  fish,  lay  it  on  the  prepared  dish  ; 
cover  it  with  the  same  sauce;  sprinkle  with  grated  Gruy^re 
and  Parmesan,  and  glaze  at  a  Salamander. 

820— SOLE  MORNAY   DES  PROVEN9AUX 

This  sole,  which  used  to  be  served  at  the  famous  restaurant 
of  the  "  Fr^res  Proven9aux,"  was  prepared,  and  always  may  be 
prepared,  as  follows  :  — 

Poach  the  sole  in  fish  fumet  and  butter,  as  directed  in  the 
preceding  recipe ;  drain  it,  and  place  it  on  a  dish ;  cover  it  with 
white-wine  sauce;  sprinkle  liberally  with  grated  cheese,  and 
glaze  quickly. 

831— SOLE  AU  CHAMPAGNE 

Poach  the  sole  in  a  buttered  dish  with  one-half  pint  of 
champagne.  Dish  it;  reduce  its  cooking-liquor  to  half;  add 
thereto  one-sixth  pint  of  veloutd,  and  complete  with  one  and 
one-half  oz.  of  best  butter. 

Cover  the  sole  with  this  sauce;  glaze,  and  garnish  each  side 
of  the  dish  with  a  little  heap  of  a  julienne  of  filleted  sole, 
seasoned,  dredged,  and  tossed  in  clarified  butter  at  the  last 
moment  in  order  to  have  it  very  crisp. 

N.B. — By  substituting  a  good  white  wine  for  the  champagne, 
a  variety  of  dishes  may  be  made,  among  which  may  be  men- 
tioned :  Sofes  au  Chablis,  Soles  au  Sauterne,  Sole  au  Samos, 
Sole  au  Chateau  Yquem,  &c.,  &c. 

822— SOLE  COLBERT 

On  the  upper  side  of  the  fish  separate  the  fillets  from  the 
spine,  and  break  the  latter  in  several  places.  Dip  the  sole  in 
milk ;  roll  it  in  flour ;  treat  it  a  I'anglaise,  and  roll  the  separated 
fillets  back  a  little,  so  that  they  may  be  quite  free  from  the 
bones. 

Fry ;  drain  on  a  piece  of  linen ;  remove  the  bones,  and  fill 
the  resulting  space  with  butter  a  la  Maitre  d'H&tel. 

Serve  the  sole  on  a  very  hot  dish. 


FISH  283 

823— SOLE  A  LA  DAUMONT 

Bone  the  sole;  i.e.,  sever  the  spine  near  the  tail  and  the 
head;  remove  it,  and  leave  those  portions  of  the  fillets  which 
He  on  the  remaining  extremities  of  it  intact.  Garnish  the  inside 
with  whiting  forcemeat  finished  with  crayfish  butter,  and  re- 
arrange the  fillets  in  such  wise  as  to  give  a  natural  and  un- 
touched appearance  to  the  fish.  Poach  it  on  a  buttered  dish 
with  one-sixth  pint  of  white  wine,  the  same  quantity  of  the 
cooking-liquor  of  mushrooms,  and  one  oz.  of  butter  cut  into 
small  lumps. 

Drain  and  dish  the  sole,  and  cover  it  with  Nantua  sauce. 
Place  around  it  four  mushrooms  stewed  in  butter  and  garnished 
with  crayfish  tails  in  Nantua  sauce;  four  small,  round  quenelles 
of  whiting  forcemeat  with  cream,  decked  with  truflBes ;  and  four 
slices  of  milt  treated  d  I'anglaise  and  fried  at  the  last  moment. 

824— SOLE  DOREE 

As  I  explained  under  "  Fish  k  la  Meuni^re  "  (No.  778), 
"  Sole  Dor^e  "  is  a  sole  fried  in  clarified  butter,  dished  dry,  and 
garnished  with  slices  of  carefully  peeled  lemon. 

825— SOLE  DUQL^RE 

All  fish  treated  after  this  recipe,  with  the  exception  of  soles, 
should  be  divided  up. 

Put  the  sole  in  a  buttered  dish  with  one  and  one-half  oz.  of 
chopped  onion,  one-half  lb.  of  peeled  and  concussed  tomatoes, 
a  little  roughly-chopped  parsley,  a  pinch  of  table  salt,  a  very 
little  pepper,  and  one-eighth  pint  of  white  wine.  Set  to  poach 
gently,  and  then  dish  the  sole. 

Reduce  the  cooking-liquor;  thicken  it  with  two  tablespoon- 
fuls  of  fish  velout^ ;  complete  with  one  oz.  of  butter  and  a  few 
drops  of  lemon  juice,  and  cover  the  fish  with  this  sauce. 

826— SOLE  GRILLEE 

Season  the  sole ;  sprinkle  oil  thereon,  and  grill  the  fish  very 
gently.  Send  it,  garnished  with  slices  of  lemon,  on  a  very  hot 
dish. 

827— SOLE  QRILLEE,  AUX  HUITRES  A  L'AM^RICAINE 

This  sole  may  be  either  grilled  or  poached,  almost  dry,  in 
butter  and  lemon  juice.  With  the  procedure  remaining  the 
same,  it  may  also  be  prepared  in  fillets.  Whatever  be  the 
mode  of  procedure,  serve  it  on  a  very  hot  dish,  and  surround 


284  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

it  at  the  last  moment  with  six  oysters  poached  in  a  little  boiling 
Worcestershire  sauce. 

Cover  the  sole  immediately  with  very  hot  fried  bread-crumbs, 
and  add  thereto  a  pinch  of  chopped  parsley. 

828— SOLE  A  LA  FERMlfeRE 

Put  the  sole,  seasoned,  on  a  buttered  dish  with  a  few  aro- 
matics.  Add  one-third  pint  of  excellent  red  wine,  and  poach 
gently  with  lid  on. 

Dish  up;  strain  the  cooking-liquor,  and  reduce  it  to  half; 
thicken  it  with  a  lump  of  manied  butter  the  size  of  a  hazel-nut, 
and  finish  the  sauce  with  one  oz.  of  butter. 

Encircle  the  sole  with  a  border  of  mushrooms  sliced  raw 
and  tossed  in  butter.  Pour  the  prepared  sauce  over  the  sole, 
and  set  to  glaze  quickly. 

829— SOLE  A  LA  HOLLANDAISE 

Break  the  spine  of  the  sole  by  folding  it  over  in  several 
places.  Put  the  fish  in  a  deep  dish ;  cover  it  with  slightly  salted 
water;  set  to  boil,  and  then  poach  gently  for  ten  minutes  with 
lid  on. 

Drain  and  dish  on  a  napkin  with  very  green  parsley  all 
round.  Serve  at  the  same  time  some  plainly  boiled  potatoes, 
freshly  done,  and  two  oz.  of  melted  butter. 

830— SOLE  SAINT-QERMAIN 

Season  the  sole ;  dip  it  in  melted  butter,  and  cover  it  with 
fresh  bread-crumbs,  taking  care  to  pat  the  latter  with  the  flat  of 
a  knife,  in  order  that  they  may  combine  with  the  butter  to  form 
a  kind  of  crust.  Sprinkle  with  some  more  melted  butter, 
and  grill  the  fish  gently  so  that  its  coating  of  bread-crumbs  may 
acquire  a  nice  golden  colour.  Dish  the  sole,  and  surround  it 
with  potatoes  turned  to  the  shape  of  olives,  and  cooked  in  butter. 

Send  a  Bearnaise  sauce  to  the  table  separately. 

831— SOLE  FLORENTINE 

Poach  the  sole  in  a  fish  fumet  and  butter.  Spread  a  layer 
of  shredded  spinach,  stewed  in  butter,  on  the  bottom  of  a  dish ; 
place  the  sole  thereon ;  cover  it  with  Mornay  sauce ;  sprinkle 
with  a  little  grated  cheese,  and  set  to  glaze  quickly  in  the  oven 
or  at  a  salamander. 

833— SOLE  MONTREUIL 

Poach  the  sole  in  one-sixth  pint  of  fish  fumet,  one-sixth  pint 
of  white  wine,  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter. 


FISH  285 

Drain  as  Soon  as  poached,  and  surround  with  potato-balls 
the  size  of  walnuts,  cooked  in  salted  water,  and  kept  whole. 
Cover  the  sole  with  white-wine  sauce,  and  lay  a  thread  of  shrimp 
sauce  over  the  garnish. 

833— SOLE  AU  GRATIN 

Partly  separate  the  fillets  from  the  bones  on  the  upper  side 
of  the  fish,  and  slip  a  lump  of  butter,  the  size  of  a  walnut,  under 
each. 

This  done,  place  the  sole  on  a  well-buttered  gratin  dish,  on  the 
bottom  of  which  a  pinch  of  chopped  shallots  and  parsley  has 
been  sprinkled,  together  with  one  or  two  tablespoonfuls  of 
Gratin  sauce. 

Lay  four  cooked  mushrooms  along  the  sole,  and  surround  it 
with  one  oz.  of  raw  mushrooms,  cut  into  rather  thin  slices. 

Add  two  tablespoonfuls  of  white  wine;  cover  the  sole  with 
Gratin  sauce;  sprinkle  with  fine  raspings  followed  by  melted 
butter,  and  set  the  gratin  to  form  in  pursuance  of  the  directions 
given  under  complete  Gratin  (No.  269). 

When  taking  the  sole  from  the  oven,  sprinkle  a  few  drops 
of  lemon  juice  and  a  pinch  of  chopped  parsley  upon  it,  and 
serve  at  once. 

834— SOLE  AU  CHAMBERTIN 

Season  the  sole  and  poach  it  on  a  buttered  dish  with  one- 
third  pint  of  Chambertin  wine. 

As  soon  as  it  is  poached,  drain  it,  dish  it,  and  keep  it  hot. 
Reduce  the  cooking-liquor  to  half,  add  thereto  a  little  freshly- 
ground  pepper  and  two  or  three  drops  of  lemon-juice,  thicken 
with  a  lump  of  manied  butter  the  size  of  a  walnut,  and  finish 
the  sauce  with  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter. 

Cover  the  sole  with  the  sauce,  set  to  glaze  quickly,  and  gar- 
nish both  sides  of  the  dish  with  a  little  heap  of  julienne  of 
filleted  sole,  seasoned,  dredged,  and  tossed  in  clarified  butter 
at  the  last  moment  so  that  it  may  be  very  crisp. 

835— Remarks  concerning  "SOLES  AUX  GRANDS  VINS  " 

Taking  recipe  No.  834  as  a  model,  and  putting  into  requi- 
sition all  the  good  wines  of  Burgundy  and  Bordeaux,  the  fol- 
lowing varieties  are  obtained,  viz.  : — Soles  au  Volnay,  au 
Pommard,  au  Romanee,  au  Clos-Vougeot,  or  soles  au  Saint- 
Estfephe,  au  Chateau-Larose,  au  Saint-Emilion,  &c.,  &c. 

836— SOLE  MONTGOLFIER 

Poach  the  sole  in  one-sixth  pint  of  white  wine  and  as  much 
of  the  cooking-liquor  of  mushrooms.     Drain,  dish,  and  cover  it 


286  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

with  a  white  wine  sauce  combined  with  the  reduced  cooking- 
liquor  of  the  sole  and  one  tablespoonful  of  a  fine  pilienne  of 
spiny  lobster's  tail,  mushrooms,  and  very  black  truffles.  Sur- 
round the  sole  with  a  border  of  little  palmettes  made  from  pufT- 
paste  and  cooked  without  colouration. 

837— SOLE  SUR  LE  PLAT 

Partly  separate  the  fillets  from  the  bones  on  the  upper  side 
of  the  fish,  and  slip  a  piece  of  butter  the  size  of  a  walnut  under 
each. 

Lay  the  sole  on  a  liberally  buttered  dish,  moisten  with  one- 
fifth  pint  of  the  cooking-liquor  of  fish,  and  add  a  few  drops  of 
lemon-juice. 

Cook  in  the  oven,  basting  often  the  while,  until  the  cooking- 
liquor  has  by  reduction  acquired  the  consistence  of  a  syrup  and 
covers  the  sole  with  a  translucent  and  glossy  coat. 

N.B. — By  substituting  for  the  mushroom  cooking-liquor  a 
good  white  or  red  wine,  to  which  a  little  melted  pale  meat-glaze 
has  been  added,  the  following  series  of  dishes  may  be  prepared, 
viz. : — Sole  sur  le  plat  au  Chambertin.  Sole  sur  le  plat  au  vin 
rouge,  Sole  sur  le  plat  au  Champagne.  Sole  sur  le  plat  au 
Chablis,  &c.,  &c. 

838— SOLE  REQENCE 

Poach  the  sole  in  a  little  white  wine  and  two-thirds  oz.  of 
butter  cut  into  small  pieces. 

Drain  the  sole,  dish  it,  and  surround  it  with  six  quenelles 
of  whiting  forcemeat  finished  with  crayfish  butter,  moulded  by 
means  of  a  small  spoon ;  four  poached  oysters  (cleared  of  their 
beards);  four  small  cooked  and  very  white  mushrooms;  four 
small  truffles,  turned  to  the  shape  of  olives;  and  four  small 
poached  slices  of  milt.  Cover  the  sole  and  the  garnish  with  a 
Normande  sauce  finished  with  a  little  truffle  essence. 

839— SOLE  PORTUQAISE 

Poach  the  sole  in  white  wine  and  the  cooking-liquor  of  fish. 
Drain,  dish,  and  surround  with  a  garnish  consisting  of  two 
medium-sized  tomatoes,  peeled,  pressed,  minced,  cooked  in 
butter,  and  combined  with  minced  and  cooked  mushrooms,  and 
a  large  pinch  of  chopped  chives. 

Coat  the  sole  with  white  wine  sauce,  plentifully  buttered, 
and  take  care  that  none  of  the  sauce  touches  the  garnish. 

Set  to  glaze  quickly,  sprinkle  the  garnish  with  a  pinch  of 
chopped  parsley  when  taking  the  sole  from  the  oven,  and  serve 
immediately. 


FISH  287 

840— SOLE  CUBAT 

Poach  the  sole  in  one-fifth  pint  of  the  cboking-hquor  of 
mushrooms  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  cut  into  small  pieces. 

Coat  the  bottom  of  the  dish  intended  for  the  sole  with  a 
pur^e  of  mushrooms,  place  the  drained  sole  on  this  pur^e,  lay 
six  fine  slices  of  truffle  along  the  fish,  coat  with  Mornay  sauce, 
sprinkle  with  cheese,  and  glaze  quickly. 

841— SOLE  AUX  HUtTRES 

Open  and  poach  six  oysters.  Poach  the  sole  in  the  liquor 
of  the  oysters,  drain  it,  dish  it,  and  surround  it  with  the  oysters 
(cleared  of  their  beards). 

Coat  with  a  white  wine  sauce  combined  with  the  reduced 
cooking-liquor  of  the  sole,  and  glaze  quickly. 

842— SOLE  A  LA  MEUNIBRE 

Proceed  for  this  dish  as  directed  under  "  Fish  k  la 
Meuni^re"  (No.  778). 

843— SOLE  MEUNIERE  AUX  CONCOMBRES, 

otherwise  DORIA 

Prepare  a  sole  k  la  Meuni^re.  Garnish  it  at  both  ends  with 
little  heaps  of  cucumber,  turned  and  cooked  in  butter  with  a 
little  salt  and  a  pinch  of  sugar. 

844— SOLE  MEUNIERE  AUX  AUBERGINES 

Prepare  a  sole  k  la  Meuni^re  in  the  usual  way.  Surround 
it  with  a  fine  border  of  egg-plant  rundles  one-third  inch  thick, 
seasoned,  dredged,  and  fried  in  clarified  butter,  just  in  time  to 
be  arranged  round  the  sole  when  it  is  ready.  The  question  of 
time  is  important,  for  if  the  fried  rundles  be  allowed  to  wait  at 
all  they  very  quickly  lose  their  crispness. 

845— SOLE  MEUNIBRE  AUX  CfiPES 

Prepare  the  sole  k  la  Meuni^re  in  the  usual  way  and  sur- 
round it  with  a  border  of  sliced  cepes  frizzled  in  butter  just  be- 
fore dishing  up. 

846— SOLE  MEUNI6RE  AUX  MORILLES 

Surround  the  sole  with  very  fresh  morels  cooked  in  salted 
water  and  then  tossed  in  butter  just  before  dishing  up. 
Sprinkle  a  pinch  of  chopped  parsley  over  the  morels. 


288  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

847— SOLE  MEUNIBRE  AUX  RAISINS 

The  sole  being  ready,  encircle  it  with  fresh  skinned  Mus- 
cadel  grapes  prepared  in  advance. 

848-SOLE  MEUNIERE  A  L'ORANQE 

When  the  sole  is  cooked  and  dished,  lay  thereon  a  row  of 
orange  slices,  peeled  to  the  pulp  and  thoroughly  pipped,  or 
some  sections  of  oranges,  likewise  peeled  to  the  pulp  and  care- 
fully pipped.  This  done,  cover  the  sole  and  the  garnish  with 
lightly-browned  butter  and  serve  instantly. 

849— SOLE  LUTECE 

Line  the  bottom  of  the  dish  intended  for  the  sole  with  a 
coating  of  shredded  spinach  tossed  in  lightly-browned  butter. 
Place  the  sole,  prepared  k  la  Meuni^re,  upon  this  spinach ;  lay 
a  few  rundles  of  onion  and  slices  of  artichoke-bottom  tossed  in 
butter  upon  the  fish ;  and  on  either  side  of  the  sole  lay  a  border 
of  potato-slices,  freshly  cooked  in  salted  water  and  well 
browned  in  butter. 

At  the  last  moment  cover  the  whole  with  lightly-browned 
butter. 

850— SOLE  MURAT 

Toss  in  butter,  separately  (i)  one  medium-sized  potato  cut 
into  dice;  (2)  two  small  raw  artichoke-bottoms,  likewise  cut 
into  dice.  Prepare  the  sole  k  la  Meuni^re,  dish  it,  and  surround 
it  with  the  tossed  potato  and  artichoke-bottom,  mixed  when 
cooked.  Lay  on  the  sole  five  slices  of  tomato,  one-half  inch 
thick,  seasoned,  dredged,  and  tossed  in  very  hot  oil ;  sprinkle 
a  few  drops  of  pale  melted  meat-glaze,  a  little  lemon-juice,  and 
a  pinch  of  concussed  parsley  over  the  sole,  and  cover  the  whole 
with  slightly-browned  butter.     Serve  instantly. 

851— SOLE  A  LA  PROVEN9ALE 

Poach  the  sole  in  one-sixth  pint  of  fish  fumet,  two  table- 
spoonfuls  of  oil  and  a  piece,  the  size  of  a  pea,  of  garlic,  well 
crushed.  Drain  and  dish  the  sole.  Coat  it  with  Provengale 
sauce  combined  with  the  reduced  cooking-liquor,  and  sprinkle 
a  little  concussed  parsley  over  it. 

Surround  the  sole  with  four  little  tomatoes  and  four 
medium-sized  mushrooms  stuffed  with  duxelles  flavoured  with 
a  mite  of  garlic;  these  latter  should  be  put  in  the  oven  just  in 
time  for  them  to  be  ready  at  the  dishing  up  of  the  fish. 


FISH  289 

852— SOLE  ARLESIENNE 

Poach  the  sole  in  a  little  fish  fumet.  Dish  it,  reduce  the 
fumet,  and  add  thereto  the  following  garnish  : — Cook  a  little 
chopped  onion  in  butter,  add  two  medium-sized,  peeled, 
emptied,  and  concussed  tomatoes,  a  bit  of  garlic,  and  some  con- 
cassed  parsley.  Cook  with  lid  on,  add  the  reduced  fumet  and 
twelve  pieces  of  vegetable-marrow,  turned  to  the  shape  of  olives 
and  cooked  in  butter. 

Cover  the  sole  with  this  garnish  and  set  a  little  heap  of 
fried  onion  at  each  end  of  the  dish. 

853— SOLE  A  LA  ROYALE 

Poach  the  sole  in  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  fish  fumet  and  two- 
thirds  oz.  of  butter  cut  into  small  lumps.  Dish  the  sole  and 
set  upon  it  four  small  cooked  mushrooms,  four  small  quenelles 
of  fish  forcemeat,  four  crayfishes'  tails,  and  four  slices  of 
trufHe. 

Surround  the  sole  with  potato-balls,  raised  by  means  of  the 
round  spoon-cutter  and  cooked  a  I'anglaise,  and  coat  the  sole 
and  garnish  with  Normande  sauce. 

854— SOLE  A  LA  RUSSE 

Prepare  twelve  grooved  and  very  thin  roundels  of  carrots, 
cut  a  small  onion  into  fine  slices.  Put  these  vegetables  into 
and  cut  a  small  onion  into  fine  slices.  Put  these  vegetables  into 
one-seventh  pint  of  white  wine,  and  one-third  pint  of  fish  fum,et. 
Cook  and,  in  the  process,  reduce  the  moistening  by  half,  and 
pour  this  preparation  into  a  deep  dish. 

Partly  separate  the  fillets  from  the  bones  on  the  upper  side 
of  the  sole,  slip  a  piece  of  bvitter,  the  size  of  a  walnut,  under 
each  fillet,  and  put  the  fish  into  a  deep  dish  containing  the 
preparation.     Poach  and  baste  frequently  the  while. 

As  soon  as  it  is  poached,  dish  the  sole,  also  the  vegetables 
used  in  cooking,  and  keep  the  whole  hot. 

Reduce  the  cooking-liquor  to  one-eighth  pint,  add  a  few 
drops  of  lemon  juice,  and  finish  it  away  from  the  fire  with  one 
and  one-half  oz.  of  butter.  Coat  the  sole  and  the  garnish  with 
this  sauce. 

855— SOLE  RICHELIEU 

Prepare  the  sole  exactly  as  directed  under  "  Sole  k  la  Col- 
bert "  (No.  822).  When  it  is  fried,  remove  the  bones  and  dish 
it.  Garnish  the  inside  with  butter  k  la  maitre-d'h6tel,  and  lay 
thereon  a  row  of  sliced  truffles. 

U 


290  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

856— SOLE  NORMANDE 

Poach  the  sole  on  a  buttered  dish  with  one-sixth  pint  of  fish 
fumet,  and  the  same  quantity  of  the  cooking-liquor  of  mush- 
rooms. Drain  and  dish  the  sole,  and  surround  it  with  mussels, 
poached  oysters  (cleared  of  their  beards),  shrimps'  tails,  and 
small  cooked  mushrooms.  Put  the  sole  in  the  oven  for  a  few 
minutes,  tilt  the  dish  in  order  to  get  rid  of  all  liquid,  and  coat 
the  sole  and  the  garnish  with  Normande  sauce.  Make  a  little 
garland  of  pale  meat-glaze  on  the  sauce,  and  finish  the  gar- 
nish with  the  following  articles : — Six  fine  slices  of  truffle  set 
in  a  row  upon  the  sole;  six  small  crusts  in  the  shape  of 
lozenges,  fried  in  clarified  butter  and  arranged  round  the 
truffles ;  four  gudgeons  treated  a  I'anglaise  and  fried  at  the  last 
moment;  and  four  medium-sized  trussed  crayfish  cooked  in 
court-bouillon. 

Set  the  gudgeons  and  the  crayfish  round  the  dish. 

857— SOLE  MARQUERY 

Poach  the  sole  in  white  wine  and  fish  fumet  in  the  propor- 
tions already  given. 

Drain  and  dish  the  sole,  and  surround  it  with  a  border  of 
mussels  and  shrimps'  tails.  Coat  the  sole  and  the  garnish  with 
white  wine  sauce,  well  finished  with  butter,  and  set  to  glaze 
quickly. 

858— SOLE  MARINI6RE 

Liberally  butter  a  dish,  sprinkle  a  coffeespoonful  of  chopped 
shallots  on  the  bottom,  lay  the  sole  thereon,  and  poach  the 
latter  with  one-sixth  pint  of  white  wine  and  the  same  quantity 
of  the  very  clear  cooking-liquor  of  mussels.  Drain  and  dish 
the  sole,  surround  it  with  mussels  (cleared  of  their  beards),  and 
keep  it  hot. 

Reduce  the  cooking-liquor  to  half;  thicken  with  a  table- 
spoonful  of  velout^,  and  the  yolks  of  two  eggs,  and  finish  it, 
away  from  the  fire,  with  two  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  and  a 
pinch  of  chopped  parsley. 

Tilt  the  dish  so  as  to  rid  it  of  the  liquid  accumulated  on  the 
bottom,  coat  the  sole  and  the  garnish  with  the  prepared  sauce, 
and  glaze  quickly. 

859— SOLE  AU  VIN  BLANC 

Partly  separate  the  fillets  from  the  bones  on  the  upper  side 
of  the  sole,  and  slip  a  piece  of  butter,  as  large  as  a  walnut, 
under  each  fillet.     Lay  the  sole  in  a  dish,  the  bottom  of  which 


FISH  291 

should  be  buttered  and  garnished  with  a  small  onion,  chopped. 
Moisten  with  one-quarter  pint  of  ordinary  white  wine,  as  much 
fish  fumet,  and  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  the  cooking-liquor  of 
mushrooms.     Poach  gently  with  lid  on. 

Drain  and  dish  the  sole,  and  coat  it  with  a  white  wine  sauce, 
prepared  in  accordance  with  one  of  the  methods  given  in  the 
chapter  on  Sauces  (No.  in).  Glaze  quickly,  or  serve  without 
glazing. 

N.B. — "  Sole  au  Vin  Blanc  "  may  be  prepared  after  the 
above  recipe,  but  ordinary  white  wine  may  be  replaced  by 
one  of  the  Rhine  wines  or  Moselle,  by  some  Johannisberg,  or 
by  a  good  white  Burgundy  or  Bordeaux  wine,  such  as  Chablis- 
Moutonne,  Savigny,  Montrachet,  Barsac,  Sauternes,  and  even 
Chateau-Yquem  or  Ch^teau-Latour. 

In  any  of  these  cases  the  name  of  the  wine  may  be  men- 
tioned, and  on  the  menu  may  be  written  Sole  au  Barsac,  Sole 
au  Chateau-Yquem,  &c. 

860— SOLE  DIEPPOISE 

Poach  the  sole  with  one-sixth  pint  of  fish  fumet  and  a  few 
tablespoonfuls  of  the  cooking-liquor  of  mussels. 

Drain  and  dish  the  sole,  surround  it  with  poached  mussels 
(shelled  and  cleared  of  their  beards)  and  shrimps'  tails,  and 
coat  the  fish  and  the  garnish  with  a  white  wine  sauce  combined 
with  the  reduced  cooking-liquor. 

861— SOLE  DIPLOMATE 

Poach  the  sole  in  very  clear  fish  fumet. 
Drain  it,  dish  it,  and  coat  it  with  Diplomate  sauce. 
Set  upon  it  a  row  of  six  fine  slices  of  black  truffle;  these 
should  have  been  previously  glazed  with  pale  meat-glaze. 

862— SOLE  BONNE  FEMME 

Butter  the  bottom  of  the  dish  intended  for  the  sole,  and 
besprinkle  it  with  two  chopped  shallots,  one  pinch  of  parsley, 
and  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  raw  minced  mushrooms.  Lay  the 
sole  upon  this  garnish,  moisten  with  one-quarter  pint  of  white 
wine  and  as  much  fish  fumet,  and  poach  gently,  taking  care  to 
baste  from  time  to  time. 

When  the  sole  is  poached,  drain  off  the  cooking-liquor  into 
a  vegetable-pan,  and  reduce  it  quickly  to  half ;  effect  the  leason 
with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  fish  velout^,  and  finish  the  sauce 
with  two  oz.  of  butter.  Coat  the  sole  with  this  sauce  and  set 
it  to  glaze  in  a  fierce  oven  or  at  a  salamander. 

U  2 


292  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

863— SOLE  PARISIENNE 

Poach  the  sole  in  white  wine,  the  cooking-liquor  of  mush- 
rooms, and  some  butter.  Drain  it  thoroughly,  dish  it,  and 
coat  it  with  white  wine  sauce  combined  with  the  reduced  cook- 
ing-liquor of  the  sole.  Garnish  with  a  row  of  six  slices  of 
truffle  and  six  fine  roundels  of  cooked  mushrooms  kept  very 
white,  and  finish  with  four  medium-sized  trussed  crayfish. 

864— SOLE  NANTUA 

Poach  the  sole  in  one-sixth  pint  of  fish  fumet  and  a  few 
tablespoonfuls  of  the  cooking-liquor  of  mushrooms. 

Drain  and  dish  the  sole,  surround  it  with  twelve  shelled 
crayfishes'  tails,  and  coat  it  with  Nantua  sauce. 

Lay  a  row  of  very  black  truffle  slices  along  the  middle  of  the 
fish. 

FILLETS  OF   SOLE 

Subject  to  the  kind  of  dish  required,  fillets  of  sole  are  either 
kept  in  their  natural  state,  they  are  stuffed  and  folded  over,  or 
they  are  simply  folded  over  without  being  stuffed,  each  of  which 
methods  of  preparation  will  be  specially  referred  to  in  the 
recipes. 

Whatever  be  the  method  adopted,  always  skin  the  fillets 
thoroughly;  i.e.,  remove  the  thin  membrane  which  lies  beneath 
the  skin,  the  tendency  of  which,  during  the  cooking  process,  is 
to  shrink  and  thereby  disfigure  the  fillet. 

This  done,  flatten  out  the  fillets  with  the  broad  side  of  a  wet 
knife,  and  trim  them  slightly  if  necessary.  The  poaching  of 
fillets  of  sole  must  be  effected  without  allowing  the  cooking- 
liquor  to  boil,  the  object  being  to  prevent  the  pieces  losing  their 
shape.     Fillets  should  also  be  kept  very  white. 

In  cases  where  the  exact  amount  of  the  poaching-liquor  is 
not  given,  allow  one-quarter  pint  to  every  four  fillets,  i.e.,  to 
every  sole. 

865— FILETS  DE  SOLES  AM^RICAINE 

Arrange  the  folded  fillets  in  a  deep,  buttered  dish,  and  poach 
them  in  fish  fumet. 

Drain,  and  dish  them  in  the  form  of  an  oval,  letting  them 
overlap  one  another  with  their  tail-ends  hidden.  Garnish  the 
centre  of  the  dish  with  slices  of  lobster  prepared  h  I'am^ricaine 
(No.  939),  and  coat  the  whole  with  the  lobster's  sauce. 

866— FILETS  DE   SOLES  ANQLAISE 

Treat  the  fillets  a  I'anglaise  with  fresh  and  fine  bread-crumbs. 
Pat  the  bread-crumbs  over  the  egg  with  the  flat  of  a  knife,  that 


FISH  293 

the  two  may  be  well  combined;  and,  with  the  back  of  a  knife, 
criss-cross  the  coating  of  the  fillets. 

Cook  them  gently  in  clarified  butter.  Serve  on  a  hot  dish, 
and  sprinkle  the  fillets  with  half-melted  butter  k  la  maitre- 
d'hotel. 

867— FILETS  DE  SOLES  ANDALOUSE 

Coat  the  upper  sides  of  the  fillets  with  fish  forcemeat  com- 
bined, per  pound,  with  three  oz.  of  chopped  capsicum.  Roll 
them  up,  after  the  manner  of  a  scroll  (see  No.  914),  and 
smooth  the  forcemeat  on  the  top.  Poach  the  fillets  in  butter 
and  fish  fumet. 

The  following  should  have  been  prepared  beforehand : — 
(i)  As  many  small  half-tomatoes,  stewed  in  butter  and  gar- 
nished by  means  of  rizotto  with  capsicums,  as  there  are  fillets 
of  sole ;  (2)  the  same  number  of  roundels  of  egg-plant,  seasoned, 
dredged,  and  fried  in  oil. 

When  dishing,  arrange  the  roundels  of  egg-plant  round  the 
dish ;  place  a  stuffed  tomato  on  each  roundel  of  egg-plant,  and 
a  poached  fillet  of  sole  upon  each  tomato.  Sprinkle  with 
lightly-browned  butter,  and  serve  at  once. 

868— FILETS  DE  SOLES  CAPRICE 

Dip  the  fillets  in  melted,  seasoned  butter,  and  then  roll  them 
in  fresh  and  fine  bread-crumbs.  Pat  the  bread-crumbs  with 
the  flat  of  the  knife,  and  with  the  back  of  the  same  instrument 
criss-cross  the  surface  of  the  fillets.  Sprinkle  with  melted 
butter,  and  set  to  grill  gently,  taking  care  that  the  coating  of 
bread-crumbs  acquires  a  nice,  light-brown  colour. 

Lay  each  grilled  fillet  on  the  half  of  a  peeled  banana,  cooked 
in  butter,  arid  send  to  the  table,  separately,  a  Roberts  sauce 
Escoffier,  finished  with  butter. 

869— FILETS  DE  SOLES  CATALANE 

Poach,  in  the  oven,  as  many  emptied  and  seasoned  half- 
tomatoes  as  there  are  fillets  of  sole.  Cook  some  very  finely- 
minced  onion  in  oil,  without  letting  it  acquire  any  colour,  and 
allow  one  tablespoonful  of  the  onion  to  each  half-tomato. 

Fold  the  fillets  of  sole,  and  poach  them  in  fish  fumet  just  a 
few  minutes  before  dishing  them.  Garnish  the  half-tomatoes 
with  onion ;  arrange  them  in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  and  place  a 
fillet  of  sole  upon  each.  Quickly  reduce  the  cooking-liquor  of 
the  fillets,  and  finish  it  with  butter  in  the  proportion  of  one  oz. 
per  one-eighth  pint  of  reduced  fumet. 

^QHt  the  fillets  and  set  to  glaze  quickly. 


294  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

870— FILETS  DE  SOLES  CLARENCE 

Fold  the  fillets,  and  poach  them  in  fish  fumet. 

They  may  be  dished  after  the  two  following  methods: — 

1.  Put  a  preparation  of  Duchesse  potatoes  in  a  piping-bay 
fitted  with  a  large,  grooved  pipe,  and  describe  therewith  an 
ornamental  design  containing  as  many  divisions  as  there  are 
fillets  of  sole.  Lightly  gild  and  brown  in  the  oven.  This 
design,  consisting  of  scroll-work,  should  be  prepared  before 
poaching  the  fillets.  Lay  a  fillet  in  each  division  of  the  design, 
and  coat  with  AmericaR  j"  .uce,  prepared  with  curry  and  com- 
bined with  the  meat  of  the  lobster  (cut  into  small  dice)  which 
has  served  in  the  preparation  of  the  sauce.  Take  care  that  no 
sauce  touches  the  scroll-work,  which  should  remain  well-defined. 

2.  Bake  some  large  potatoes  in  the  oven.  Open  them;  re- 
move their  pulp,  and  put  into  each  baked  shell  a  tablespoonful 
of  American  sauce  au  currie  referred  to  above.  Add  a  poached 
fillet  of  sole ;  coat  with  American  sauce ;  dish  these  garnished 
potatoes  on  a  napkin,  and  serve  very  hot. 

871— FILETS  DE  SOLES  AUX  CHAMPIGNONS 

Stew  two  oz.  of  small  mushrooms  in  butter.  Fold  the  fillets, 
and  poach  them  in  one-sixth  pint  of  the  cooking-liquor  of  mush- 
rooms, and  a  piece  of  butter  the  size  of  a  walnut.  Arrange  the 
fillets  in  an  oval,  and  garnish  the  centre  of  the  dish  with  the 
stewed  mushrooms. 

Reduce  the  cooking-liquor  of  the  fillets  to  one-third ;  add 
thereto  two  tablespoonfuls  of  velout^ ;  finish  the  sauce  with  one 
oz.  of  butter,  and  coat  the  fillets  and  the  garnish. 

873— FILETS  DE  SOLES  AUX  CREVETTES 

Fold  the  fillets,  and  poach  them  in  fish  fumet. 

Dish  them  in  an  oval ;  garnish  the  middle  with  one  oz.  of 
shelled  shrimps'  tails,  kept  very  hot,  and  coat  the  fillets  and 
the  garnish  with  shrimp  sauce. 

873— FILETS  DE  SOLES  CHAUCHAT 

Poach  the  fillets  of  sole,  folded,  in  butter  and  lemon  juice. 

Coat  the  bottom  of  a  dish  with  Mornay  sauce,  and  set  the 
fillets  of  sole  thereon  in  the  form  of  an  oval.  Surround  the  fish 
with  roundels  of  cooked  potatoes  turned  to  the  shape  of  corks. 

Cover  the  fillets  and  the  garnish  with  Mornay  sauce,  and 
glaze  quickly  in  a  fierce  oven  or  at  the  salamander. 

874— FILETS  DE  SOLES  BERCY 

Butter  the  bottom  of  the  dish  intended  for  the  soles,  and 
■<prinkle   it  with  two  finely-chopped  shallots.     Lay   the  fillets 


FISH  295 

lengthwise  upon  the  dish,  side  by  side;  moisten  with  three 
tablespoonfuls  of  white  wine  and  as  much  fish  fumet,  and  add 
one-half  oz.  of  butter  cut  into  small  pieces. 

Cook  in  the  oven,  basting  frequently  the  while,  and  glaze 
at  the  last  minute.  Besprinkle  with  a  few  drops  of  lemon 
juice,  and  when  about  to  serve  drop  a  pinch  of  chopped  parsley 
upon  each  fillet. 

Or,  poach  the  fillets  with  chopped  shallots,  and  increase  the 
moistening.  As  soon  as  the  fillets  are  ready,  drain  off  their 
cooking-liquor  into  a  vegetable-pan ;  reduce  it  speedily  to  one- 
third,  and  add  a  few  drops  of  meat-glaze,  a  little  lemon  juice, 
one-half  oz.  of  butter,  and  one  pinch  of  chopped  parsley. 

Coat  the  fillets,  and  set  to  glaze  quickly. 

N.B. — Sole  k  la  Bercy  may  be  prepared  after  either  of  the 
two  methods. 

875— FILETS  DE  SOLES   DEJAZET 

Treat  the  fillets  of  sole  d  I'anglaise  and  grill  them  as 
explained  under  No.  860. 

Dish  them,  cover  them  thinly  with  half-melted  tarragon 
butter,  and  deck  each  fillet  with  five  or  six  parboiled,  tarragon 

876— FILETS  DE  SOLES  GRAND  DUC 

Fold  the  fillets  of  soles  over,  and  poach  them  in  fish  fumet 
and  the  cooking-liquor  of  mushrooms.  Arrange  them  in  an 
oval  on  a  dish,  with  their  tails  pointing  inwards;  place  a  fine 
slice  of  truffle  in  the  middle  of  each  fillet,  and  between  each  of 
the  latter  three  shelled  crayfishes'  tails. 

Coat  with  Mornay  sauce,  and  set  to  glaze  quickly. 

When  taking  the  dish  from  the  oven,  set  in  its  centre  a 
fine  heap  of  very  green  asparagus-heads,  cohered  with  butter 
at  the  moment  of  dishing. 

877— FILETS  DE  SOLES  JOINVILLE 

Select  some  fine  fillets  of  soles;  fold  them,  and  poach  them 
in  the  cooking-liquor  of  mushrooms,  and  butter,  taking  care 
to  keep  them  very  white.  Arrange  them  in  an  oval,  with  their 
tails  pointing  upwards  and  the  carapace  of  a  crayfish  fixed  on 
each  fillet;  and  garnish  the  middle  of  the  dish  with  a  salpicon 
or  a  short  julienne,  consisting  of  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  cooked 
mushrooms,  one-half  oz.  of  truffle,  and  one  and  one-half  oz.  of 
shrimps'  tails  cohered  by  means  of  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of 
Joinville  sauce.  Coat  the  fillets  and  the  garnish  with  the  same 
sauce,  and  deck  each  fillet  with  a  fine  slice  of  truffle  coated  with 
meat-glaze. 


296  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

They  may  also  be  served  after  the  old-fashioned  way,  as 
follows : — 

Set  the  garnish  in  the  middle  of  the  dish,  shaping  it  like  a 
dome ;  coat  it  with  Joinville  sauce,  and  surround  it  with  the 
fillets  of  sole,  which  should  slightly  overlap  one  another  and 
have  their  tails  uppermost.  Fix  a  carapace  of  crayfish  on  the 
tail  of  each  fillet,  and  deck  each  with  a  slice  of  very  black 
truffle. 

With  this  method  of  dishing,  the  garnish  alone  is  coated 
with  sauce,  the  fillets  thus  forming  a  white,  encircling  border. 

878— FILETS  DE  SOLES  JUDIC 

Fold,  and  poach  the  fillets  in  butter  and  lemon  juice. 

Arrange  them  in  an  oval  round  a  dish,  laying  each  upon  a 
nice  little  braised  and  trimmed  half  lettuce,  and  place  upon  each 
fillet  a  quenelle  of  sole  mousseline-foTcemeat  in  the  shape  of  a 
flattened  oval,  poached  at  the  time  of  dishing  up. 

Coat  with  Mornay  sauce  and  glaze  quickly.  When  taking 
the  dish  out  of  the  oven,  encircle  the  fillets  of  sole  with  a  thread 
of  buttered  meat-glaze. 

879— FILETS  DE  SOLES  A  LA  HONQROISE 

Fry  in  butter,  without  colouration,  one  small  tablespoonful 
of  chopped  onion  seasoned  with  a  very  little  paprika;  moisten 
with  three  tablespoonfuls  of  white  wine  and  one-sixth  pint  of 
fish  fumet ;  add  two  small  peeled,  pressed,  and  roughly-chopped 
tomatoes,  and  set  to  cook  for  seven  or  eight  minutes. 

Fold  the  fillets  of  sole ;  lay  them  on  a  buttered  dish ;  pour 
the  above  preparation  thereon,  and  poach  them.  Arrange  them 
in  a  circle  on  a  dish ;  reduce  their  cooking-liquor  to  a  stiff 
consistence ;  add  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  cream  and  a  few  drops 
of  lemon  juice,  and  coat  the  fillets  with  this  sauce. 

880— FILETS  DE  SOLES  LADY  EGMONT 

Fold  the  fillets,  and  poach  them  in  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of 
excellent  fish  fumet. 

Also  for  every  four  fillets  (i.e.,  per  sole)  finely  minee  one  oz. 
of  well-cleaned  mushrooms,  and  cook  them  quickly  in  butter, 
lemon  juice,  a  little  salt,  and  pepper.  This  done,  add  the 
cooking-liquor  to  the  fish  fumet,  and  keep  the  cooked  minced 
mushrooms  hot. 

Reduce  the  combined  cooking-liquor  and  fish  fumet  to  half ; 
add  thereto  one  oz.  of  butter  and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  cream ; 
and  to  the  resulting  sauce  add  the  reserved  minced  mushrooms 
and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  freshlyTCOoked  and  wplj-drained  as- 
paragus-headsj  uncoolpd. 


FISH  297 

Serve  the  fillets  of  sole  on  an  earthenware  dish,  coat  them 
with  the  above  garnish,  and  set  to  glaze  quickly  in  a  fierce 
oven  or  at  the  salamander. 

881— FILETS  DE  SOLES  MARINETTE 

Poach  a  sole  in  fish  fumet  and  the  cooking-liquor  of  mush- 
rooms, and  drain  it  on  a  napkin.  When  it  is  still  lukewarm, 
carefully  raise  its  fillets  and  trim  them. 

Break  an  egg  into  a  bowl;  beat  it  well,  and  add  enough 
grated  Gruy^re  and  Parmesan  to  it  (mixed  in  equal  quantities) 
to  produce  a  dense  paste.  Mix  a  dessertspoonful  of  cold 
Bechamel  sauce  with  this  paste;  add  salt  and  cayenne  pepper; 
spread  an  even  thickness  of  one  inch  of  it  over  two  of  the  fillets 
of  sole;  lay  thereon  the  two  remaining  fillets,  and  put  aside  in 
the  cool. 

When  the  egg  and  cheese  paste  is  very  stiff,  dip  the  fillets 
in  a  Villeroy  sauce,  and  leave  the  latter  to  cool.  Then  treat  the 
stuffed  and  sauced  fillets  a  I'anglaise,  and  fry  them,  just  before 
serving,  in  very  hot  fat. 

Dish  on  a  napkin  with  very  green  parsley  all  round. 

882— FILETS  DE  SOLES  MARIE  STUART 

Fold  the  fillets,  and  poach  them  in  fish  fumet.  Arrange 
them  in  an  oval  on  a  dish ;  coat  them  with  the  sauce  given 
under  "  Filets  de  soles  k  la  New-burg"  (No.  890),  and  place 
on  each  fillet  a  quenelle  of  fish  forcemeat  in  the  shape  of  a  quoit 
and  decked  with  a  slice  of  truffle.  These  quenelles  should,  if 
possible,  be  poached  just  before  dishing  up,  and  well  drained 
before  being  laid  on  the  fillets  of  sole. 

883— FILETS  DE  SOLES  MIGNONETTE 

Cook  the  fillets  in  butter,  and  set  them  in  a  hot  timbale. 

Surround  them  with  potato-balls  the  size  of  peas,  raised  by 
means  of  the  round  spoon-cutter,  and  cooked  beforehand  in 
butter. 

Lay  upon  the  fillets  eight  or  ten  slices  of  fresh  truffle  heated 
in  one-sixth  pint  of  very  light  meat-glaze. 

Finish  the  glaze  in  which  the  slices  of  truffle  have  been 

heated  with  two-thirds  oz.  of  butter  and  a  few  drops  of  lemon 

juice,  and  pour  it  over  the  fillets  and  their  garnish.     Serve  very 

hot. 

884— FILETS  DE  SOLES  MIMI 

Divide  a  live  lobster  into  two,  lengthwise,  and  prepare  it 

k  I'am^ricaine,  taking  care  to  keep  the  sauce  short. 

Wl^en  the  lobster  is  cooked,  take  the  me^t  from  the  tail ;  put 


298  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

it  into  as  many  slices  as  there  are  fillets  of  sole,  and  keep  them 
hot. 

Remove  all  the  meat  from  the  claws,  and  that  remaining  in 
the  carcass;  pound  all  of  it  smoothly,  add  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  cream,  and  rub  through  a  fine  sieve.  Prepare  a  garnish  of 
spaghetti  with  cream,  and  add  thereto  the  puree  of  lobster. 

Fold  the  fillets  of  sole,  and  poach  them  in  Chablis  wine  and 
butter.  All  this  being  done,  lay  the  two  emptied  halves  of  the 
lobster  on  a  napkin  lying  on  a  dish,  setting  them  back  to  back. 
Fill  these  lobster  shells  to  the  brim  with  the  prepared  garnish 
of  spaghetti.  Upon  this  garnish  lay  the  poached  fillets  of  sole, 
sandwiching  a  slice  of  lobster  between  every  two ;  besprinkle  the 
whole  with  a  short  and  fine  julienne  of  very  black  truffle. 

Send  the  lobster  sauce,  finished  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of 
cream,  to  the  table  separately.  Proceed  as  quickly  as  possible 
with  the  dishing  up,  in  order  that  the  dish  may  reach  the  table 
very  hot. 

885— FILETS  DE  SOLES  MEXICAINE 

Coat  the  fillets  with  fish  forcemeat,  and  roll  them  to  resemble 
scrolls  (see  No.  914).  Poach  them  in  fish  fumet  as  directed  for 
the  faupiettes.  Lay  each  rolled  fillet  in  a  grilled  mushroom 
garnished  with  one-half  tablespoonful  of  peeled,  pressed,  and 
concussed  tomato  cooked  in  butter,  and  arrange  them  in  an 
oval  on  a  dish. 

Coat  them  with  Bechamel  sauce  combined  with  a  pur^e  of 
tomatoes  and  capsicums  cut  into  small  dice,  in  the  proportion 
of  two  tablespoonfuls  of  the  puree  and  two-thirds  oz.  of  the 
capsicums  per  pint  of  the  sauce. 

886— FILETS  DE  SOLES  MIRABEAU 

Poach  the  fillets,  left  in  their  natural  state,  in  fish  fumet. 

Dish  them  and  coat  with  white  wine  and  Gen^voise  sauces, 
alternating  the  two,  white  and  brown.  Lay  a  thin  strip  of 
anchovy  fillet  between  each  of  the  fillets  of  sole;  deck  those  of 
the  latter  coated  with  white  sauce  with  a  slice  of  truffle,  and  those 
coated  with  brown  sauce  with  a  star  of  blanched  tarragon 
leaves. 

887— FILETS  DE  SOLES  MIRAMAR 

Divide  each  of  the  fillets  into  slices;  season  them  and  cook 
them  in  butter.  Cut  fifteen  roundels  (one-third  inch  thick)  of 
egg-plant;  season,  dredge,  and  toss  them  in  butter,  taking  care 
to  keep  them  very  crisp. 

Take  a  timbale  of  suitable  size,  and  line  its  sides  with  a 
layer  (three-quarters  inch  thick)  of  pilaff  rice. 


FISH  299 

Put  the  roundels  of  egg-plant  and  the  sliced  fillets  of  sole 
(mixed  and  tossed  together  for  a  moment)  in  the  middle  of  the 
dish. 

Just  before  serving,  sprinkle  with  one  oz.  of  lightly-browned 
butter. 

888— FILETS  DE  SOLES  AUX  HUITRES 

Open  and  poach  twelve  oysters.  Poach  the  fillets  of  sole, 
folded,  in  the  oyster  liquor  strained  through  linen,  and  a  piece 
of  butter  as  large  as  a  walnut. 

Arrange  in  an  oval  on  a  dish ;  garnish  the  centre  with  the 
poached  oysters  (cleared  of  their  beards),  and  coat  the  fillets 
of  sole  and  the  oysters  with  Normande  sauce  combined  with 
the  reduced  cooking-liquor  of  the  fillets. 

889— FILETS  DE  SOLES  NELSON 

Fold  the  fillets,  and  poach  them  in  fish  fumet. 

Arrange  them  in  a  circle  on  a  dish ;  coat  them  with  white- 
wine  sauce,  and  glaze  quickly. 

Garnish  the  centre  of  the  dish  with  a  pyramid  of  potato- 
balls  cooked  in  butter  and  of  a  light-brown  colour.  Surround 
the  fillets  with  poached  milt. 

890— FILETS  DE  SOLES  NEW-BURG 

Prepare  a  lobster  a  la  New-burg,  in  accordance  with  one  of 
the  recipes  given  (No.  948  and  949).  Cut  the  tail  into  as  many 
slices  as  there  are  fillets  of  sole,  and  keep  them  hot. 

Cut  the  remainder  of  the  lobster  meat  into  dice,  and  add  these 
to  the  sauce.  Fold  the  fillets  of  sole,  and  poach  them  in  fish 
fumet.  Arrange  them  in  an  oval  on  a  dish ;  lay  a  slice  of  lobster 
upon  each  fillet,  and  coat  with  the  lobster-sauce  combined  with 
the  dice,  prepared  as  directed  above. 

891— FILETS  DE  SOLES  ORIENTALE 

Prepare  the  fillets  exactly  as  those  a  la  New-burg,  but  season 
the  sauce  with  curry. 

Having  dished  and  sauced  the  fillets,  set  a  pyramid  of  rice 
a  rindienne  in  the  middle  of  the  dish,  or  send  the  rice  to  the 
table  separately,  in  a  timbale;  either  way  will  be  found  to 
answer. 

892— FILETS  DE  SOLES  PERSANE 

Prepare  the  fillets  as  in  the  case  of  those  k  la  New-burg,  but 
season  the  sauce  with  Paprika,  and  add  thereto  one  oz.  of  cap- 
sicums cut  into  large  dice.  Send  some  pilaff  rice  with  saffron 
to  the  table  separately. 


300  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

893— FILETS  DE  SOLES  ORLY 

Season  the  fillets;  dip  them  into  batter  and,  a  few  minutes 
before  serving,  put  them  into  very  hot  fat.  Drain  them;  dish 
them  on  a  napkin  with  fried  parsley,  and  serve  a  tomato  sauce 
separately. 

N.B. — There  are  several  ways  of  preparing  these  fillets  of 
sole.  Thus  they  may  be  simply  dipped  in  milk,  dredged,  and 
impaled  on  a  hatelet.  They  may  also  be  marinaded,  treated 
a  I'anglaise,  and  twisted  into  cork-screw  shape. 

Always,  however,  dish  them  on  a  napkin  with  fried  parsley 
and,  in  every  case,  send  a  tomato  sauce  to  the  table  separately. 

This  last  accompaniment  is  essential. 

894— FILETS  DE  SOLES  OLQA,  otherwise  "  OTERO  " 

Bake  beforehand,  in  the  oven,  as  many  fine,  well-washed 
potatoes  as  there  are  fillets  of  sole.  As  soon  as  they  are  done, 
remove  a  piece  of  the  baked  shell,  and  withdraw  the  pulp  in 
such  wise  as  to  leave  nothing  but  the  long,  parched  shells.  Fold 
the  fillets,  and  poach  them  with  a  little  excellent  fish  fumet. 
Garnish  the  bottom  of  each  prepared  shell  with  a  tablespoonful 
of  shelled  shrimps'  tails,  cohered  with  a  white-wine  sauce. 

Put  a  poached  fillet  of  sole  upon  this  garnish ;  cover  with 
sufficient  Mornay  sauce  to  completely  fill  the  shell ;  sprinkle 
with  grated  cheese,  and  glaze  quickly.  Dish  on  a  napkin  the 
moment  the  fillets  have  been  taken  from  the  oven,  and  serve 
immediately. 

89s— FILETS  DE  SOLES  POLIQNAC 

Fold  the  fillets,  and  poach  them  in  one-quarter  pint  of  white 
wine,  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  the  cooking-liquor  of  mushrooms, 
and  a  piece  of  butter  about  the  size  of  a  walnut. 

Dish  the  fillets  in  an  oval.  Reduce  the  cooking-liquor  to 
half;  thicken  it  by  means  of  two  tablespoonfuls,  bare,  of  fish 
velout6;  finish  the  sauce  with  one  oz.  of  butter,  and  add  thereto 
three  small,  cooked,  finely-minced  mushrooms,  and  one  table- 
spoonful  of  a  julienne  of  truffles. 

Coat  the  fillets  with  sauce,  and  set  to  glaze. 

896— FILETS  DE  SOLES  PAYSANNE 

For  the  fillets  of  soles,  cut  two  small  carrots,  two  new  onions, 
a  stick  of  celery,  and  the  white  of  one  leek  in  paysanne  fashion. 
Season  these  vegetables  with  a  very  little  table-salt  and  a  pinch 
of  sugar ;  stew  them  in  butter ;  moisten  sufficiently  to  cover  them 
with  lukewarm  water;  and  add  a  few  pieces  of  broccoli,  a  table- 
spoonful  of  peas,  and  the  same  quantity  of  French  beans  cyt 
into  lozenges. 


FISH  301 

Complete  the  cooking  of  the  vegetables  while  reducing  the 
cooking-liquor.  Season  the  fillets  of  sole,  and  lay  them  on  a 
buttered  earthenware  dish.  Pour  thereon  the  garnish  of  vege- 
tables; put  the  cover  on  the  dish,  and  gently  poach  the  fillets. 

When  they  are  cooked,  tilt  the  dish  so  as  to  pour  all  the 
liquor  away  into  a  vegetable-pan;  this  done,  reduce  the  liquor 
to  one-fifth  pint,  and  add  to  it  three  oz.  of  butter. 

Pour  this  sauce  into  the  dish  containing  the  fillets  and  the 
vegetable  garnish,  and  serve  immediately. 

897— FILETS  DE  SOLES  EN  PILAW  A  LA  LEVANTINE 

Cut  the  fillets  into  collops,  and  toss  these  in  butter.  Prepare 
some  pilaff  rice  after  the  usual  recipe  (No.  2255),  and  add 
thereto  one  oz.  of  capsicum  cut  into  dice. 

Also  toss  in  butter  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  egg-plant,  cut 
into  dice  and  seasoned,  and  put  these  with  the  fillets  of  sole. 
Mould  the  rice  into  a  border  round  the  dish ;  put  the  fillets  and 
the  egg-plant  in  the  middle,  and  coat  the  two  with  curry  sauce 
without  letting  the  latter  touch  the  rice. 

N.B. — In  the  case  of  pilaff  rice  with  fillets  of  sole,  the  rice 
should  border  the  dish,  and  the  fillets  of  sole,  tossed  in  butter, 
should  be  laid  in  the  middle  and  coated  with  brown  butter. 

898— FILETS  DE  SOLES  POMPADOUR 

Treat  the  fillets  with  butter  and  bread-crumbs,  and  grill 
them.  Garnish  them  all  round  with  a  thread  of  very  firm 
b^arnaise  tomat^e.  Dish  and  surround  them  with  a  border  of 
Chateau  potatoes  (No.  2208). 

Lay  a  fine  slice  of  truffle,  moistened  with  melted  meat-glaze, 
on  each  fillet. 

899 -FILETS  DE  SOLES  RACHEL 

Coat  the  fillets  with  some  delicate  fish  forcemeat;  put  four 
slices  of  truffle  on  the  forcemeat  of  each  of  the  fillets ;  fold  the 
latter,  and  poach  them  in  one-sixth  pint  of  the  cooking-liquor 
of  mushrooms,  and  a  piece  of  butter  the  size  of  a  walnut,  cut 
into  small  pieces. 

Arrange  the  fillets  in  an  oval  on  a  dish,  and  coat  them  with 
white-wine  sauce  combined  with  one  tablespoonful  of  freshly- 
cooked  and  uncooled  asparagus-heads,  and  one  tablespoonful 
of  truffle  in  dice  per  every  one-half  pint  of  the  sauce. 

900— FILETS  DE  SOLES  VENITIENNE 

Fold  the  fillets,  and  poach  them  in  fish  fumet. 
Arrange  them  in  a  circle  on  a  dish,  alternating  them  with 
thin  crusts,  in  the  shape  of  hearts,  fried  in  butter.    Coat  with 


302  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Venetian  sauce  combined  with  the  reduced  cooking-liquor  of 

the  fillets. 

901— FILETS  DE  SOLES  VERDI 

Prepare  a  garnish  of  macaroni  cut  into  dice ;  cohere  this 
with  cream  and  grated  Gruy^re  and  Parmesan,  and  add  three 
oz.  of  lobster  meat  and  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  truffles  in  dice 
per  every  one-half  lb.  of  the  macaroni. 

Poach  the  fillets  of  sole  in  fish  fumet,  keeping  the  fillets  in 
their  natural  state.  Lay  the  macaroni  very  evenly  on  the  dish ; 
set  the  poached  fillets  of  sole  upon  it ;  coat  with  Mornay  sauce, 
and  set  to  glaze  quickly. 

902— FILETS  DE  SOLES  VICTORIA 

Fold  the  fillets,  and  poach  them  in  fish  fuvtet. 

Arrange  them  in  an  oval  on  a  dish,  and  garnish  the  centre 
with  three  oz.  of  the  meat  from  the  tail  of  the  spiny  lobster, 
and  one  oz.  of  truffle  in  dice  per  every  four  fillets. 

Coat  the  fillets  and  the  garnish  with  Victoria  sauce,  and  set 
to  glaze  quickly. 

903— FILETS  DE  SOLES  VERONIQUE 

Raise  the  fillets  of  a  fine  sole ;  beat  them  slightly ;  fold  and 
season  them,  and  put  them  in  a  special  earthenware,  buttered 
dish. 

With  the  bones,  some  of  the  trimmings  of  the  fish,  a  little 
minced  onion,  some  parsley  stalks,  a  few  drops  of  lemon  juice, 
and  white  wine  and  water,  prepare  two  spoonfuls  of  fumet. 

This  done,  strain  it  over  the  fillets,  and  poach  them  gently. 

Drain  them  carefully;  reduce  the  fumet  to  the  consistence 
of  a  syrup,  and  finish  it  with  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter. 
Arrange  the  fillets  in  an  oval  on  the  dish  whereon  they  have 
been  poached;  cover  them  with  the  buttered  fumet,  and  set  to 
glaze  quickly.  When  about  to  serve,  set  a  pyramid  of  skinned 
and  very  cold  muscadel  grapes  in  the  middle  of  the  dish. 

Put  a  cover  on  the  dish,  and  serve  immediately. 

904— FILETS  DE  SOLES  WALEV^SKA 

Poach  the  fillets  in  fish  fumet,  keeping  them  in  their  natural 
state. 

Dish,  and  surround  them  with  three  langoustines'  tails  cut 
into  two  lengthwise,  and  stewed  in  butter  (with  lid  on)  with  six 
fine  slices  of  raw  truffle. 

Coat  with  a  delicate  Mornay  sauce,  and  set  to  glaze  quickly. 

N.B. — The  Mornay  sauce  may,  according  to  circumstances, 
be  combined  with  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  langoustine  butter 
per  pint. 


FISH  303 

90s— FILETS  DE  SOLES  WILHELMINE 

Prepare  some  potato  shells  as  directed  under  "  Filets  de  soles 
Olga "  (No.  894).  Garnish  them  with  a  tablespoonful  of 
cucumber  with  cream ;  put  a  fillet  of  sole  into  each  garnished 
shell,  a  fine  Zeeland  oyster  on  each  fillet,  and  cover  with 
Mornay  sauce. 

Set  to  glaze  quickly,  and  dish  on  a  napkin. 

Various  Preparations  of  Soles  and  Fillets  of  Sole 

906— MOUSSELINES  DE  SOLES 

The  directions  given  under  "  Mousselines  de  Saumon  "  (No. 
797)  apply  in  all  circumstances  to  Mousselines  of  Sole.  I  shall 
therefore  refrain  from  repeating  the  recipe,  since,  the  quantities 
remaining  the  same,  all  that  is  needed  is  the  substitution  of  the 
meat  of  sole  for  that  of  salmon.  Thus,  I  shall  only  state 
here,  by  way  of  reminding  the  reader,  that  these  excellent  pre- 
parations admit  of  all  the  fish  sauces  and  garnishes,  and  that 
they  may  also  be  accompanied  by  all  purees  of  fresh  vegetables. 

907— TURBAN  DE  FILETS  DE  SOLES  A  LA  VILLARET 

Raise  the  fillets  of  three  soles;  flatten  them  slightly  with  a 
moistened  beater,  and  trim  them  very  straight  on  either  side. 

Liberally  butter  a  medium-sized  savarin-mould.  Lay  the 
fillets  aslant  in  this  mould,  with  their  tail-ends  over-reaching 
its  inner  edge  and  their  other  ends  projecting  over  its  outer 
edge;  slip  a  fine  slice  of  truffle  between  each,  and  let  them 
slightly  overlap  one  another. 

When  the  mould  is  completely  lined  with  the  fillets  of  sole, 
fill  it  up  with  lobster  mousseline  forcemeat.  Gently  tap  the 
mould  on  a  folded  napkin  lying  on  the  table,  with  the  object 
of  settling  the  forcemeat,  and  then  draw  the  overhanging  ends 
of  the  fillets  across  the  latter. 

Set  to  poach  in  a  bain-marie  in  a  moderate  oven. 

This  done,  take  the  mould  out  of  the  bain-marie ;  let  it  stand 
for  a  few  minutes,  and  then  turn  it  upside-down  upon  the  dish. 
Leave  it  to  drain ;  soak  up  the  liquid  that  has  leaked  out  on  to 
the  dish;  take  off  the  mould,  and  moisten  the  surface  of  the 
fillets  by  means  of  a  small  brush  dipped  in  melted  butter.  The 
object  of  this  last  measure  is  to  glaze  the  fish  and  to  remove 
therefrom  the  froth  resulting  from  its  poached  albumen. 

Now  garnish  the  centre  of  the  moulding  with  shrimps' 
tails,  mushrooms,  poached  milt,  and  slices  of  truffle,  the  whole 
cohered  by  means  of  Bechamel  sauce  finished  with  lobster 
butter. 


304  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Send  a  sauceboat  of  Bechamel  sauce,  finished  with  lobster 
butter,  to  the  table  at  the  same  time  as  the  fish. 

908— TURBAN  DE  FILETS  DE  SOLES  ET  SAUMON 
VILLARET 

Proceed  as  in  the  preceding  recipe,  but  alternate  the  fillets 
of  sole  with  very  red  slices  of  salmon  of  the  same  size  as  the 
fillets. 

The  combination  yields  an  excellent  result,  and  the  varying 
strips  of  white  and  orange  which  constitute  the  body  of  the 
moulded  crown  lend  sightliness  to  the  dish. 

N.B. — The  designation  "  k  la  Villaret,"  relating  to  the  crown 
alone,  in  no  wise  affects  the  constituents  of  the  garnish;  these 
may  either  remain  the  same  as  those  of  the  preceding  recipe,  or 
may  be  replaced  by  something  similar.  The  sauce  alone 
remains  unalterable,  and  this  should  be  a  good  Bdchamel 
finished  with  lobster  butter. 

909— TIMBALE  DE  FILETS  DE  SOLES  CARDINAL 

For  ten  people,  prepare  a  timbale  crust  (No.  2395)  the 
diameter  of  which  should  be  greater  than  the  height;  line  it 
with  fine,  short  paste,  and  decorate  it  with  noodle  paste. 

Raise  the  fillets  of  three  medium-sized  soles,  flatten  them 
slightly ;  coat  them  with  whiting  forcemeat  prepared  with  cray- 
fish butter,  and  roll  them  into  scroll-form.  Also  prepare  ten 
small  slices  of  the  meat  of  a  medium-sized  ordinary  or  spiny 
lobster's  tail,  ten  small  grooved  and  cooked  mushrooms,  fifteen 
slices  of  truffle,  and  three-quarters  pint  of  Cardinal  sauce 
finished  with  a  lobster  butter. 

When  about  to  serve,  lay  the  poached,  rolled  fillets  of  sole 
(well  drained)  in  a  circle  round  the  bottom  of  the  timbale;  put 
the  slices  of  lobster  and  the  mushrooms  in  the  centre,  and 
cover  the  whole  with  Cardinal  sauce. 

Set  upon  the  sauce,  just  over  the  centre  of  the  timbale,  a 
large,  grooved  mushroom  (cooked  and  kept  very  white),  and 
encircle  the  latter  with  fifteen  slices  of  truffle. 

Place  the  timbale,  thus  garnished,  on  a  folded  napkin  lying 
on  a  dish,  and  serve  at  once. 

910— TIMBALE  DE  FILETS  DE  SOLES  CARMELITE 

Prepare  (i)  a  timbale  crust  as  above;  (2)  a  lobster  k  la 
New-burg  made  from  raw  lobster  (No.  948);  (3)  twelve  rolled 
fillets  of  sole  stuffed  with  fish  forcemeat  finished  with  lobster 
butter;  (4)  three  oz.  of  sliced  truffles. 

Poach  the  rolled  fillets  in  fish  fumet;  slice  the  meat  of  the 
lobster's  tail,  and  put  the  poached  fillets,  the  slices  of  lobster, 


arid  the  slices  of  truffle  into  the  lobster  sauce.  Heat  the  whole 
well,  without  boiling;  pour  the  saiice  and  garnish  into  the 
tiihbale  crust,  and  deck  the  top  with  twelve  fine  slices  of 
truffle. 

Dish  the  timbale  on  a  folded  napkin,  and  serve  instantly. 

911— TIMBALE  DE  FILETS  DE  SOLES  QRIMALDI 

Prepare: — (i)  A  rather  deep  timbale  crust,  and  decorate 
it  with  noodle  paste.  (2)  Cook,  as  for  bisqufe,  twenty-four  small 
langotistines ;  wrench  off  their  tails;  cut  them  into  two  length- 
wise, and  keep  them  hot  in  butter.  (3)  Finely  pound  the  lan- 
goustines'  carapaces,  and  add  thereto  one-third  pint  of  fine 
Bechamel.  Rub  through  a  fine  sieve  first,  and  thert  through 
tammy.  Put  the  resulting  culHs  into  a  saucepan,  and  heat 
without  boiling  it;  intensify  the  seasoning;  add  a  few  table- 
spoonfuls  of  cream,  little  by  little ;  put  the  prepared  tails  in  the 
cullis,  and  keep  the  latter  in  the  bain-marie.  (4)  Cut  four  oz. 
of  blanched  and  somewhat  stiff  macaroni  into  pieces,  and  add 
thereto  one-sixth  pint  of  cream  and  three  oz.  of  sliced  truffle. 
Heat  until  the  macaroni  has  completely  absorbed  the  cream ; 
thicken  with  one-sixth  pint  of  Bechamel  sauce  finished  with  fish 
fumet;  add  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  cut  into  small  lumps, 
and  keep  hot.  (5)  Coat  sixteen  fillets  of  sole  with  truffled  fish 
forcemeat;  roll  the  fillets  into  scroll-form,  and,  at  the  last 
minute,  poach  them  in  fish  fumet. 

To  garnish  the  timbale,  spread  a  layer  of  macaroni  on  the 
bottom  thereof,  lay  half  of  the  rolled  fillets  upon  the  macaroni, 
and  cover  these  with  half  of  the  langoustines'  tails  in  the  cullis. 

Repeat  the  procedure,  in  the  same  order,  with  what  is  left 
of  the  garnishes,  and  finish  the  timbale  with  a  layer  of  the 
langoustines'  tails. 

Set  the  timbale  on  a  folded  napkin  lying  on  a  dish,  and  serve 
immediately. 

913— TIMBALE  DE   FILETS  DE  SOLES  CAR^ME 

Flatten  the  fillets  of  three  medium-sized  soles,  and  trim  them 
neatly. 

Liberally  butter  a  pound-cake  mould,  and  line  it  with  the 
fillets,  placing  them  side  by  side  with  their  tails  lying  round 
the  centre  of  the  bottom  of  the  mould,  and  their  opposite  ends 
projecting  above  the  brim.  Press  them  well,  that  they  may  take 
the  shape  of  the  mould. 

Completely  coat  the  fillets  with  a  layer,  one-half  inch  thick, 
of  fish  forcemeat. 

Put  the  "mould  in  the  front  of  the  oven  for  a  few  minutes 

X 


3o6  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

in  order  to  poach  the  forcemeat,  which,  in  adhering  to  the  fillets, 
gives  the  required  firmness  to  the  timbale. 

When  the  forcemeat  has  been  poached  and  is  stiff,  with- 
draw the  timbale  from  the  oven,  and  cut  off  the  pieces  of  fillet 
that  project  above  the  edges  of  the  mould.  Fill  the  timbale 
to  within  one-third  inch  of  its  brim  with  a  garnish  of  shrimps 
and  poached  oysters  and  mussels,  small  button-mushrooms,  and 
slices  of  truffle,  all  of  which  should  be  cohered  with  a  thick 
and  highly-seasoned  B6chamel  sauce.  Cover  this  garnish  with 
the  projecting  pieces  of  fillets,  already  cut  off,  and  close  the 
timbale  by  means  of  a  thin  layer  of  that  forcemeat  which  served 
in  coating  the  fillets.  Poach  for  thirty  minutes  in  a  bain-marie 
and  in  a  moderate  oven.  After  taking  the  timbale  out  of  the 
bain-marie,  let  it  stand  for  a  few  minutes;  overturn  it  on  a  round 
dish ;  take  off  the  mould ;  deck  it  on  top  with  a  garland  con- 
sisting of  six  little  paupiettes  of  salmon,  each  stuffed  with  a  cray- 
fish tail,  and  surmounted  by  an  encrusted  crayfish  carapace. 

Serve  a  Nantua  sauce  separately. 

913— TIMBALE  DE  FILETS  DE  SOLES  MARQUISE 

For  a  timbale  large  enough  for  ten  people,  prepare  :  — 

1.  An  even  or  fluted  timbale  crust. 

2.  A  garnish  consisting  of  twelve  rolled  or  folded  fillets  of 
sole  poached  in  fish  fumet,  twelve  poached  oysters  (cleared  of 
their  beards),  twenty-four  small  quenelles  of  salmon,  and  twenty 
slices  of  truffle. 

Heat  this  garnish  after  having  added  a  few  drops  of  fish 
fumet  to  it,  and  then  thicken  it  with  one-half  pint  of  white-wine 
sauce  prepared  with  paprika. 

Put  the  above  garnish  into  the  timbale,  which  should  be 
very  hot;  set  the  latter  on  a  folded  napkin,  and  serve  at  once. 

914— The  Preparation  of  PAUPIETTES  OF  FILLETS 
OF  SOLE   SALMON,  &c. 

The  paupiettes  (or  fillets  rolled  after  the  manner  of  a  scroll) 
are  served  either  as  entries  like  fillets  of  sole,  of  which  they  are 
but  a  special  kind,  or  as  a  garnish.  For  the  second  purpose, 
not  only  should  they  be  smaller  than  for  the  first,  but  very 
small  fillets  are  generally  selected  for  the  preparation  of  the 
paupiettes. 

In  order  to  make  paupiettes,  first  remove  the  horny  film  from 
the  outside  surfaces  of  the  fillets,  and  then  slightly  flatten  the 
latter  with  the  blade  of  a  large  knife ;  trim  them  on  both  sides, 
and  coat  them  on  their  flayed  side  with  a  thin  layer  of  fish  force- 
meat, truffled  or  not,  in  accordance  with  the  requirements. 


t?ISH  307 

Now  roll  them  into  scroll-form ;  smooth  the  forcemeat  that 
projects  from  the  top  end,  and  the  paupieltes  are  done. 

Stand  them  upright  in  a  buttered  saut^pan  to  poach,  and 
take  care  to  place  them  snugly  together  lest  they  lose  their 
shape  while  the  operation  is  in  progress.  Moisten  them  with 
sufficient  fish  fumet  (No.  11)  to  cover  them;  poach  them  in  a 
moderate  oven,  and  remember,  as  in  the  case  of  fillets  of  sole, 
not  to  let  the  poaching-liquor  boil. 

All  the  garnishes  and  sauces  suited  to  fillets  of  sole  likewise 
obtain  with  paupiettes,  provided  the  difference  in  their  shape  be 
taken  into  account  when  dishing  up. 

For  salmon  paupiettes,  cut  slices  two-thirds  inch  wide,  one- 
half  inch  thick,  and  the  length  of  a  fillet  of  sole,  from  a  skinned 
fillet  of  salmon.  In  view  of  the  unusual  fragility  of  salmon's 
flesh,  the  slices  of  fillets  should  be  carefully  flattened  in  order 
to  give  them  the  width  and  thickness  of  a  fillet  of  sole.  This 
done,  spread  forcemeat  on  them,  and  roll  them  as  explained 
above. 

Soles  and  Fillets  of  Sole  (Cold) 

915— ASPIC  DE  FILETS  DE  SOLES 

An  essential  point  in  the  making  of  an  aspic  is  the  clearness 
of  the  fish  jelly.  For  a  sole  aspic,  take  some  white  fish  aspic, 
which  is  at  once  succulent,  limpid,  and  just  sufficiently  viscous 
to  allow  of  its  being  turned  out  of  a  mould  without  breaking. 

For  the  purpose  under  consideration,  moulds  with  plain 
or  decorated  borders  are  generally  used,  and  there  are  two 
modes  of  procedure  :  — 

I.  For  a  mould  capable  of  holding  one  quart,  fold  twelve 
small  fillets  of  sole  and  poach  them  in  butter  and  lemon  juice, 
taking  care  to  keep  them  very  white.  This  done,  set  them  to 
cool  under  a  light  weight. 

Pour  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  melted  fish  jelly  into  the  mould, 
which  should  be  lying  amidst  broken  ice.  As  soon  as  the  jelly 
begins  to  set,  decorate  it  tastefully  with  pieces  (lozenges,  cres- 
cents, &c.)  of  very  black  truffle  and  the  poached  white  of  an 
egg.  Capers,  tarragon  leaves,  thin  roundels  of  small  radishes, 
&c.,  may  also  be  used  for  the  purpose  of  decoration. 

When  this  part  of  the  procedure  has  been  satisfactorily 
effected,  sprinkle  a  few  drops  of  the  same  jelly  over  the  decorat- 
ing particles,  in  order  to  fix  them  and  prevent  their  shifting 
during  the  subsequent  stages  of  the  process.  Now  add  enough 
melted  jelly  to  cover  the  bottom  of  the  mould  with  a  layer  one 
inch  thick,  and  leave  this  to  set. 

X  2 


3d8  guide  to  modern  COOKERY 

On  this  set  jelly,  arrange  the  six  fillets  of  sole ;  let  their  tail- 
ends  overlap,  and  cover  them  with  jelly.  Continue  adding 
coat  upon  coat  of  jelly  until  the  thickness  covering  the  fillets 
measures  about  one-half  inch. 

Now  arrange  the  remaining  fillets  in  the  reverse  order,  and 
fill  up  the  mould  with  cold,  melted  jelly.  Leave  to  cool  for 
one  hour. 

When  about  to  serve,  quickly  dip  the  mould  in  a  saucepan 
of  hot  water;  wipe  it,  and  turn  out  the  aspic  upon  a  folded 
napkin  lying  on  a  dish. 

916— Another  Method  of  Preparing  ASPICS 
DE  FILETS  DE   SOLES 

Coat  ten  fine  fillets  of  sole  with  a  thin  layer  of  truffled 
fish  forcemeat  finished  with  crayfish  butter,  and  roll  them  round 
a  little  rod  of  truffle,  twice  as  thick  as  an  ordinary  penholder. 
Tie  these  faupiettes,  once  or  twice  round,  with  cotton ;  poach 
them  very  gently  in  fish  fumet  and  cool  them  on  ice.  Take 
a  border-mould,  even  if  possible;  pour  therein  a  few  table- 
spoonfuls  of  melted  fish  jelly,  and  then  rock  it  about  on  broken 
ice,  with  the  object  of  evenly  coating  it  with  a  thin  layer  of 
the  jelly. 

This  operation  is  technically  called  "  clothing  the  mould." 

Decorate  the  bottom  of  the  mould  as  explained  above;  fix 
the  decorating  particles,  and  cover  them  with  a  layer  one-half 
inch  thick  of  fish  jelly. 

After  having  properly  trimmed  the  ends  of  the  paufiettes, 
cut  them  into  roundels  one-half  inch  thick;  set  these  upright 
against  the  sides  of  the  mould,  keeping  them  close  together; 
add  a  few  drops  of  melted  jelly  to  fix  the  roundels,  and  as  soon 
as  this  has  set,  add  a  further  quantity,  sufficient  to  completely 
cover  them. 

As  soon  as  this  jelly  sets,  repeat  the  operation  with  the 
paupiette  roundels  and  the  jelly,  and  do  so  again  and  again  until 
the  mould  is  filled.  For  turning  out  the  aspic,  proceed  as 
directed  above. 

917— BORDURE  DE  FILETS  DE  SOLES  A  L'lTALIENNE 

Line  a  border-mould  with  jelly;  i.e.,  coat  its  bottom  and 
sides  with  a  thin  layer  of  fish  jelly,  rocking  it  upon  ice  as 
already  explained. 

Now  fill  it,  two-thirds  full,  with  a  garnish  consisting  of  a 
julienne  of  cold,  poached  fillets  of  sole,  a  julienne  of  truffles 
(two  oz.  per  two  filleted  soles),  and  a  julienne  of  capsicum  (one 
and  one-half  oz.  per  two  filleted  soles).  Fill  up  the  mould  with 
melted  fish  jelly,  and  leave  the  latter  to  set. 


FISH  309 

When  about  to  serve,  turn  out  the  mould  upon  a  little,  low 
cushion  of  rice,  lying  on  a  dish,  and  set  an  Italian  salad  in  the 
centre. 

Serve  a  Mayonnaise  sauce  with  this  dish. 

918— FILETS  DE  SOLES  CALYPSO 

Flatten  the  fillets,  and  roll  them  into  ■paupiettes  around 
little  rods  of  wood  two-thirds  inch  thick.  Lay  the  paupiettes 
in  a  buttered  saut^pan,  with  their  joined  sides  undermost,  and 
poach  them  in  very  clear  fish  fumet  and  lemon  juice,  taking  care 
to  keep  them  very  white. 

Let  them  cool,  and  remove  the  pieces  of  wood,  whereupon 
they  will  have  the  appearance  of  rings. 

Take  as  many  small  tomatoes  as  there  are  paupiettes ;  cut 
them  in  two  at  a  point  two-thirds  of  their  height  below  their 
stem-end;  empty,  and  peel  them.  Set  a  paupiette,  upright,  in 
each  tomato ;  fill  the  centre  with  crayfish  mousse  combined  with 
crayfishes'  tails  in  dice ;  lay  a  round  piece  of  milt  (stamped  out 
with  a  cutter,  poached,  and  cold)  on  each,  and,  finally,  the 
shelled  tail  of  a  crayfish  on  each  roundel  of  milt. 

Arrange  the  tomatoes  in  a  circle  round  a  dish;  surround 
them  with  little  triangles  of  white  fish  jelly,  and  garnish  the 
centre  of  the  dish  with  the  same  fish  jelly,  chopped. 

919— FILETS  DE  SOLES  CHARLOTTE 

Fold  the  fillets;  poach  them  in  fish  fumet,  and  let  them 
cool. 

Trim  them ;  coat  them  with  pink  chaud-froid  sauce ;  de- 
corate each  fillet  by  means  of  a  rosette  of  chervil  leaves,  in  the 
centre  of  which  rests  a  bit  of  lobster  coral,  and  glaze  them  with 
fish  jelly. 

Set  them,  tail  end  uppermost,  against  a  m,ousse  of  milt 
with  horse-radish,  moulded  in  a  narrow  dome-mould,  which 
should  have  been  coated  with  fish  jelly  and  besprinkled  with 
chopped  coral. 

Surround  with  a  border  of  regularly-cut  jelly  dice. 

920— FILETS  DE  SOLES  A  LA  MOSCOVITE 

Prepare  (i)  some  paupiettes  of  filleted  sole,  in  rings,  as  ex- 
plained under  "  Filets  de  Soles  a  la  Calypso  "  (No,  918);  (2)  as 
many  round,  fluted  cases  made  from  hollowed  cucumber  as  there 
are  paupiettes.  The  cucumber  cases  should  be  well  blanched 
and  m,annaded  inside.  Set  each  paupiette  in  a  cucumber  case ; 
garnish  their  centre  with  caviare,  and  arrange  them  in  a  circle 
on  a  dish. 

Send  a  sauce  Russe  to  the  table,  separately,  at  the  same 
time  as  the  dish. 


3IO  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

921— DOMINOS  DE  FILETS  DE  SOLES 

Select  some  fine,  fleshy  fillets ;  slightly  flatten  them ;  poach 
them  in  a  little  of  the  cooking-liquor  of  mushrooms,  some 
lemon  juice  and  butter,  and  set  them  to  cool  under  a  light 
weight.  When  the  fillets  are  cold,  trim  them  and  cut  them 
into  regular  rectangles  the  size  of  dominoes. 

Coat  the  rectangles  with  a  maigre,  white,  chaud-f roid  sauce ; 
decorate  them  in  imitation  of  dominoes,  with  little  spots  of 
truffle;  glaze  them  with  cold,  melted  fish  jelly,  and  put  them 
aside. 

Pound  the  trimmings  of  the  fish  together  with  their  weight 
of  caviare,  and  rub  the  whole  through  a  fine  sieve.  Add  to 
this  preparation  half  its  weight  of  highly-coloured  jelly,  and 
leave  it  to  set  in  a  somewhat  deep  and  moderately-oiled  tray, 
the  thickness  of  the  preparation  on  the  tray  being  not  greater 
than  that  of  a  fillet  of  sole. 

When  the  jelly  is  set,  cut  it  into  rectangles  exactly  the  same 
size  as  the  prepared  dominoes,  and  then,  by  means  of  a  little 
melted,  cold  jelly,  fix  the  diminoes  of  sole  to  the  rectangles 
just  prepared. 

Put  some  chopped  jelly  in  the  centre  of  the  dish,  and  on 
this  lay  the  dominoes  in  a  muddled  heap. 

922— FILETS  DE  SOLES  FROIDS  DRESSES  SUR  MOUSSES 

What  I  pointed  out  above,  I  repeat  here  for  the  reader's 
guidance — namely,  that  fillets  of  sole  may  be  prepared  after 
all  the  recipes  given  for  trout  (No.  813). 

As  the  fillets  of  sole  in  this  dish  remain  very  conspicuous, 
it  is  advisable  to  keep  them  very  white  in  the  poaching.  Set 
them  to  cool  under  a  light  weight,  and  decorate  them  in  a 
way  that  will  be  in  keeping  with  the  mousse  on  which  they  are 
dished.  This  mousse  is  set  on  a  special  dish,  as  already 
explained,  and  the  decorated  fillets  are  laid  upon  it  and  covered 
with  melted  jelly. 

For  the  variation  of  mousses,  see  the  table  given  under 
No.  814. 

923— TURBOT 

Turbot  is  generally  served  boiled,  accompanied  by  freshly- 
cooked,  floury  potatoes,  and  the  cases  are  exceptional  when, 
cooked  in  this  way,  it  is  dished  with  any  other  garnish. 

All  fish  sauces  may  be  served  with  turbot.  When,  for  the 
sake  of  variety,  or  in  pursuance  of  the  consumer's  wishes,  turbot 
has  to  be  braised  or  garnished,  it  is  best  to  select  a  medium- 


FISH  311 

sized  fish,  i.e.,  one  weighing  from  eight  to  twelve  lbs.,  thick, 
very  fleshy,  and  white. 

Unless  expressly  ordered,  it  is  best  to  avoid  surrounding  the 
piece  with  its  garnish.  Preferably,  send  the  latter  to  the  table 
in  a  separate  dish,  as  also  the  sauce.  By  this  means  the 
service  is  expedited,  and,  more  important  still,  the  fish  is 
quite  hot  when  it  reaches  the  table.  It  is  granted  that  the 
sight  of  a  dish  containing  a  fine,  richly  garnished  and  taste- 
fully arranged  piece  is  flattering  to  the  host,  but  it  would  be 
a  pity  that  the  quality  of  the  fish  should  thereby  sufifer,  more 
particularly  as  the  gourmet  is  not  satisfied  with  sightliness 
alone. 

I  explained  at  the  beginning  of  this  chapter,  under  "  Boiled 
Fish  "  (No.  776  and  779),  the  details  relating  to  this  method 
of  cooking,  especially  with  regard  to  its  application  to  turbot. 
For  the  braising  and  garnishing  of  turbot,  the  reader  is  begged 
to  refer  to  the  recipes  concerned  with  chicken-turbot.  These 
recipes  may  be  applied  to  turbot,  provided  the  difference  in 
the  size  of  the  fish  be  taken  into  account  in  reference  to  the 
time  allowed  for  braising  and  the  quantities  of  the  garnishing 
ingredients. 

934— COLD  TURBOT 

Whether  whole  or  sliced,  cold  turbot  makes  an  excellent 
dish,  if  the  fish  have  not  been  cooked  too  long  beforehand.  It 
will  be  found  that  turbot,  especially  when  sliced,  tends  to 
harden,  crumple,  and  lose  its  flavour  while  cooling.  It  is  there- 
fore of  the  greatest  importance  that  the  fish  should  have  just 
cooled  after  cooking,  and  that  the  cooking-liquor  should  have 
barely  time  to  set;  otherwise  the  evil  effects  of  cooling,  men- 
tioned above,  will  surely  ensue.  When  served,  just  cooled,  with 
one  of  the  cold  sauces  suited  to  fish,  turbot  can  vie  in  delicacy 
even  with  such  fish  as  salmon  or  trout,  which  are  usually  served 

cold. 

925— TURBOTINS  (CHICKEN=TURBOTS) 

Turbotins  (chicken-turbots)  may  rank  among  the  most  deli- 
cate and  nicest  of  fish.  Their  varying  sizes  allow  of  their  being 
served  either  for  three,  four,  or  ten,  or  twelve  people ;  they  are, 
moreover,  tender  and  white,  and  they  lend  themselves  to  quite 
a  vast  nurhber  of  culinary  preparations. 

They  may  be  served  boiled,  like  the  turbot;  grilled;  k  la 
Meuni^re;  fried;  au  gratin,  like  the  soles;  or  braised,  like  the 
salmon  and  the  trout.  They  are  most  often  served  whole, 
garnished  and  with  sauce ;  but,  in  order  to  simplify  the  process, 
they  may  be  filleted,  the  fillets  being  poached  and  dished  with 
a  garnish  and  the  selected  sauce. 


312  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Whatever  be  the  method  of  preparing  the  chicken-turbot, 
whether  it  be  boiled,  poached,  or  braised,  the  spine  should 
always  be  cut  in  one  or  two  places.  The  gash  should  be 
just  in  the  middle  of  the  back  where  the  flesh  is  thickest,  and 
the  fillets  on  either  side  of  the  gash  should  be  partly  separated 
from  the  bone.  The  object  of  this  measure  is  to  prevent  de- 
formation during  the  cooking  process  and,  also,  to  precipitate 
the  latter. 

926— TURBOTIN  A  L'AMIRAL 

Gash  the  back  of  the  fish,  and  partly  separate  the  under 
fillets  from  the  bones.  Lay  it  on  a  grill,  and  moisten,  suffi- 
ciently to  cover  it,  with  previously-cooked  court-bouillon  with 
Sauterne  wine.  As  soon  as  the  court-bouillon  boils,  allow  the 
fish  to  cook  ten  or  twelve  minutes  for  every  two  lbs.  of  its 
weight. 

This  done,  drain  it;  dish  it,  and  coat  it  twice  with  melted, 
red  butter. 

Now  surround  it  with  the  following  garnish,  which  should 
be  in  proportion  to  the  size  of  the  fish,  viz.,  little  heaps  of 
large  mussels  and  oysters,  prepared  k  la  Villeroy,  and  fried 
at  the  time  of  dishing;  small  patties  of  crayfish  tails;  large 
mushroom-heads  grooved  and  cooked,  and  slices  of  truffle. 

Serve,  separately,  (i)  a  timbale  of  potatoes  a  I'anglaise; 
(2)  Normande  sauce,  combined  with  one-sixth  pint  of  reduced 
court-bouillon  per  quart  of  sauce,  finished  with  crayfish  butter 
and  seasoned  with  cayenne. 

927— TURBOTIN  A  L'ANDALOUSE 

Cut  it  in  the  region  of  the  back ;  season  it,  and  lay  it  in 
a  deep  earthenware  dish  of  convenient  size,  liberally  buttered. 
In  the  case  of  a  chicken-turbot  weighing  two  and  one-half  lbs., 
moisten  with  one-third  pint  of  white  wine  and  one-quarter  pint 
of  fish  fumet. 

Finely  mince  two  medium-sized  onions,  and  toss  them  in 
butter  until  they  have  acquired  a  yellow  colour. 

Peel,  press  and  mince  three  tomatoes,  and  add  thereto  three 
large,  raw,  sliced  mushrooms.  Cut  two  mild  capsicums  into 
strips. 

Spread  the  onion  on  the  chicken-turbot;  put  the  tomatoes 
and  the  sliced  mushrooms  on  top,  and  upon  these  arrange  the 
grilled  strips  of  mild  capsicum.  Besprinkle  moderately  with  rasp- 
ings; lay  one  oz.  of  butter,  cut  into  small  pieces,  on  the  top, 
and  set  to  cook  gently  in  the  oven. 


FISH  313 

Allow  thirty  minutes  for  the  cooking.  By  reducing  the 
moistening-liquor,  which  has  perforce  absorbed  some  of  the 
gelatinous  properties  of  the  fish,  the  leason  forms  of  itself. 

928— TURBOTIN  BONNE  FEMME 

For  a  chicken-turbot  weighing  from  two  to  two  and  one-half 
lbs.  sprinkle  on  the  bottom  of  a  buttered  tray  one  dessertspoon- 
ful of  chopped  shallots,  one  pinch  of  concussed  parsley,  and 
three  oz.  of  minced  mushrooms* 

Cut  the  chicken-turbot  in  the  back,  and  partly  separate  the 
fillets  from  the  boile ;  lay  it  on  a  tray,  and  moisten  with  one-third 
pint  of  white  wine  and  one-third  pint  of  fish  fumet.  Cook 
gently  in  the  oven,  and  baste  frequently  the  while. 

When  the  chicken-turbot  is  cooked,  dish  it  and  keep  it  hot. 
Pour  the  cooking-liquor  into  a  saut^pan ;  reduce  it  to  half,  and 
add  three  tablespoonfuls  of  fish  velout6  and  three  oz.  of  butter. 

Cover  the  fish  with  this  sauce  and  the  garnish,  and  glaze 
quickly. 

939— TURBOTIN  COMMODORE 

Poach  the  chicken-turbot  in  salted  water. 

Prepare  the  following  garnish  per  one  person  : — Three  large, 
potatoes  cut  to  the  shape  of  hazel-nuts  and  cooked  a  I'anglaise ; 
one  medium-sized,  trussed  crayfish ;  one  quenelle  of  fish ;  one 
small  lobster  croquette;  and  one  oyster  prepared  k  la  Villeroy. 

All  these  products  should  be  treated  according  to  their 
nature,  and  just  in  time  to  be  ready  for  the  dishing  up.  A 
few  moments  before  serving,  drain  the  turbot ;  dish  it,  and  sur- 
round it  with  the  garnish  detailed  above,  arranged  in  alternate 
heaps. 

Serve   a   Normande   sauce,    finished  with   anchovy   butter, 

separately. 

930— TURBOTIN  DAUMONT 

Proceed  exactly  as  directed  under  "  Sole  Daumorit  "  (No. 
823),  taking  into  account  the  size  of  the  fish,  and  increasing 
the  sauce  and  the  garnishing  ingredients  accordingly. 

931— TURBOTIN  FERMlfiRE 

Sprinkle  on  the  bottom  of  a  buttered  tray  two  minced 
shallots,  a  few  roundels  of  carrot  and  onion,  some  parsley  stalks, 
thyme,  and  bay. 

Lay  the  chicken-turbot  on  these  aromatics,  and  season 
moderately.  For  a  fish  weighing  two  lbs.  moisten  with  two- 
thirds  pint  of  excellent  red  wine;  add  one-half  oz.  of  butter,  cut 
into  small  pieces,  and  poach  gently,  taking  care  to  baste  fre- 
quently. 


314  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Meantime  toss  three  oz.  of  minced  mushrooms  in  three  oz. 
of  butter.  When  the  turbot  is  ready,  drain  it;  dish  it;  sur- 
round it  with  the  tossed  mushrooms,  and  keep  it  hot. 

Strain  the  cooking-Hquor  into  a  vegetable-pan,  and  reduce 
it  to  half.  Thicken  it  with  a  piece  of  manied  butter  the  size  of 
a  walnut;  add  three  oz.  of  butter;  pour  this  sauce  over  the 
chicken-turbot  and  its  garnish,  and  set  to  glaze  quickly. 

933— TURBOTIN  A  LA  MODE  DE  HOLLANDE 

Poach  the  chicken-turbot  in  salted  water.  Drain  it,  dish  it, 
and  upon  it  lay  a  lobster  cooked  in  court-bouillon.  The  shell 
of  the  lobster  should  have  been  opened  along  the  top  of  the 
tail,  and  the  meat  of  the  tail  should  have  been  quickly  sliced  and 
returned  to  its  place. 

Send  to  the  table  at  the  same  time  (i)  a  timbale  of  floury 
potatoes,  freshly  cooked  a  I'anglaise;  (2)  a  sauceboat  containing 
egg  sauce  with  melted  butter  (No.  117). 

933— TURBOTIN  MIRABEAU 

Poach  the  fish  in  court-bouillon  with  Sauterne  wine,  as 
directed  under  "  Turbotin  k  I'Amiral  "  (No.  926). 

Drain  it;  dish  it,  and  coat  it  in  alternate  bands  with  white 
wine  and  Gen^voise  sauces.  Along  the  lines  formed  by  the 
meeting  of  the  sauces  lay  thin  strips  of  anchovy  fillets  placed 
end  to  end.  Decorate  the  bands  of  white  sauce  with  slices  of 
truffle,  and  the  bands  of  brown  sauce  with  blanched  tarragon 
leaves. 

934— TURBOTIN  PARISIENNE 

Poach  the  fish  in  court-bouillon  with  Sauterne  wine.  Drain 
it,  dish  it,  and  round  it  arrange  a  border  composed  of  alternate 
slices  of  truffles  and  mushrooms.  Coat  the  fish  with  white-wine 
sauce,  and  surround  it  with  trussed  crayfish  cooked  in  court- 
bouillon. 

N.B.— For  fish  k  la  Parisienne,  the  garnish  of  sliced  truffles 
and  mushrooms  may  be  set  on  the  dish,  either  conspicuously 
or  the  reverse;  i.e.,  it  may  be  laid  round  the  fish  and  covered  by 
the  sauce,  or  arranged  in  the  form  of  an  oval  on  the  fish  after 
the  latter  has  been  sauced.  In  either  case  the  slices  of  truffles 
and  mushrooms  should  be  laid  alternately. 

935— TURBOTIN  REQENCE 

Poach  the  chicken-turbot  in  a  sufficient  quantity  of  pre- 
viously-prepared court-bouillon  with  Chablis  wine. 

For  a  fish  weighing  three  lbs.  (enough  for  ten  people),  pre- 
pare   the    following    garnish  : — Twenty    small    spoon-moulded 


FISH  315 

quenelles  of  whiting  forcemeat  with  crayfish  butter;  ten  poached 
oysters  (cleared  of  their  beards) ;  ten  small  mushroom-heads 
(very  white);  ten  truffles  in  the  shape  of  olives,  and  ten  poached 
slices  of  milt. 

Drain  the  chicken-turbot  just  before  dishing  it,  and  slip  it  on 
to  a  dish.  Surround  it  with  the  garnish  detailed  above, 
arranged  in  alternate  heaps,  and  serve  a  Normande  sauce,  fin- 
ished with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  truffle  essence  per  pint, 
separately. 

936— TURBOTIN  S0UFFL6  A  LA  REYNIERE 

Lay  the  chicken-turbot  on  its  belly,  and  make  two  gashes 
in  its  back,  on  either  side  of  the  spine,  from  the  head  to  the 
tail.  Completely  separate  the  fillets  from  the  bones;  cut  the 
spine  at  both  ends ;  carefully  raise  it  from  the  underlying,  ventral 
fillets,  and  entirely  remove  it. 

Season  the  inside  of  the  fish,  and  garnish  it  with  enough 
fish  motisseline  forcemeat  to  give  it  a  rounded  appearance. 
Close  in  the  forcemeat  by  drawing  the  two  separated  fillets  over 
it ;  turn  the  piece  over,  and  lay  it  on  a  well-buttered,  deep,  oval 
dish,  the  size  of  which  should  be  in  proportion  to  that  of  the 
chicken-turbot. 

Poach  it  gently,  almost  dry,  with  lid  on,  in  fish  fumet  and 
the  cooking-liquor  of  mushrooms  mixed,  i.e.,  two-thirds  pint  of 
the  one  and  one-third  pint  of  the  other.  This  done,  dish  it 
carefully,  and  lay  a  row  of  grooved  and  white  mushroom-heads 
down  the  centre  of  it.  On  either  side  put  some  very  white, 
poached  milt,  alternating  the  latter  with  whole  anchovy  fillets, 
in  such  wise  as  to  form  an  oval  enframing  the  row  of  mush- 
rooms. 

Send  to  the  table,  separately,  a  sauce  composed  of  Soubise 
cullis  and  white-wine  sauce,  in  the  proportion  of  one-third  and 
two-thirds  respectively,  combined  with  the  reduced  cooking- 
liquor  of  the  chicken-turbot. 

937— TURBOTIN  FEUILLANTINE 

Stuff  the  chicken-turbot  after  the  method  described  in  the 
preceding  recipe,  but  substitute  lobster  mousseline  forcemeat 
for  that  mentioned  above. 

Poach  as  directed  above,  and  dish. 

Coat  the  fish  with  lobster  butter,  made  as  red  as  possible, 
from  the  carcass  of  the  lobster  whose  meat  has  been  used  for 
the  forcemeat. 

From  head  to  tail  and  down  the  centre  of  the  fish  lay  a  row 
of  fine  slices  of  truffle,  letting  them  overlap  each  other  slightly. 


3i6  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Frame  the  row  of  truffle  with  two  lines  of  very  white,  poached 
oysters,  so  placed  as  to  form  a  regular  oval. 

Send  to  the  table,  separately,  a  fine  Bechamel  sauce  seasoned 
with  cayenne. 

938— COLD  CHICKEN-TURBOT 

My  remarks  relative  to  cold  turbot  apply  here  with  even 
greater  force,  for  chicken-turbots  are  particularly  well  suited  to 
cold  dishing. 

The  chicken-turbots  to  be  served  cold  should  not  be  too 
small ;  the  best  for  the  purpose  would  be  those  weighing  four 
lbs.  or  more. 

In  dismissing  the  subject  I  can  but  recommend  cold  chicken- 
turbot  as  a  dish  admitting  of  the  most  tasteful  arrangement  and 
decoration . 

LOBSTER     (HOMARD) 

Whereas  the  ordinary  lobster  is  a  very  favourite  dish  with 
English  gourmets,  the  spiny  kind  has  scarcely  any  vogue.  This 
is  no  doubt  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  the  former  is  not 
only  very  plentiful,  but  also  of  excellent  quality,  while  the 
latter  is  comparatively  scarce. 

939— HOMARD  A  L'AM6RICAINE 

The  first  essential  condition  is  that  the  lobster  should  be 
alijve.  Sever  and  slightly  crush  the  claws,  with  the  view  of 
withdrawing  their  meat  after  cooking ;  cut  the  tail  into  sections ; 
split  the  carapace  in  two  lengthwise,  and  remove  the  queen_(a 
little  bag  jiear  the  head  containing  some  graYfilL„  Put  aside,  on 
a  plate,  ihe  intestines  and  the  coral,  wEich  will  be  used  in  the 
finishing  of  the  sauce,  and  seasori  the  pieces  of  lobster  with 
salt  and  pepper. 

Put  these  pieces  into  a  sautdpan  containing  one-sixth  pint 
of  oil  and  one  oz.  of  Jautter,  both  very  hot.  Fry  them  over 
an  open  fireunnl  the  meat  has  stiffened  well  and  the  carapace  is 
of  a  fine  red  colour. 

Then  remove  all  grease  by  tilting  the  saut^pan  on  its  side 
with  its  lid  on ;  sprinkle  the  pieces  of  lobster  with  two  chopped 
shallots  and  one  crushed  clove  of  garlic ;  add  one-third  pint  of 
wJiite  wine,  one-quarter  pint  of  fi_gh  fumet,  a  small  glassful  of 
burnt  brandy,  one  tablespoonful  of  rnetted  meat-glaze,  three 
"^small,  fresRf  pressed,  and  chopped  tomatoes  (or,  failing  fresh 
tomatoes,  two  tablespoonfuls  of  tomato  puree),  a  pinch  of  con- 
cassedjyarsleY ,  and  a  very  little  cayenne.  Cover  the  saut^pan, 
and  set  to  cook  in  the  oven  for  eighteen  "or  twenty  minutes. 


FISH  317 

This  done,  transfer  the  pieces  of  lobster  to  a  dish;  withdraw 
the  meat  from  the  section  of  the  tail  and  the  claws,  and  put 
them  in  a  timbale;  set  upright  thereon  the  two  halves  of  the 
carapace,  and  let  them  lie  against  each  other.  Keep  the  whole 
hot. 

Now  reduce  the  cooking-sauce  of  the  lobster  to  one-third 
pint ;  add  tKereto  the  intestines  and  the  chopped  coral,  together 
with  a  piece  of  butter  the  size  of  a  walnut;  set  to  cook  for  a 
moment,  and  pass  through  a  strainer. 

Put  this  cullis  into  a  vegetable-pan;  heat  it  without  letting 
it  boil,  and  add,  away  from  the  fire,  three  oz.  of  butter  cut  into 
small  pieces. 

Pour  this  sauce  over  the  pieces  of  lobster  which  have  been 
kept  hot,  and  sprinkle  the  whole  with  a  pinch  of  concassed  and 
scalded  parsley. 
r^'"     "-  940— HOMARD  A  LA    BORDELAISE 

Section  the  live  lobster  as  directed  above. 

Stiffen  the  meat  and  colour  the  carapace  in  a  saut^pan  with 
two  oz.  of  clarified  butter.  When  the  meat  is  quite  stiff  and 
the  carapace  is  red,  pour  away  two-thirds  of  the  butter.  Then 
add  two  tablespoonfuls  of  chopped  shallots,  a  crushed  piece 
of  garlic  the  size  of  a  pea,  one-sixth  pint  of  white  wine,  three 
tablespoonfuls  of  burnt  brandy,  and  reduce  the  whole  to  half. 
Complete  with  one-half  pint  of  fish  fumet,  one-third  pint  of 
maigre  Espagnole,  one-quarter  pint  of  tomato  sauce,  one  small 
faggot,  one  pinch  of  salt,  and  a  very  little  cayenne. 

Put  the  lid  on,  and  set  to  cook  for  one-quarter  hour. 

Take  the  meat  from  the  sections  of  the  tail  and  the  claws,  as 
in  the  case  of  the  preparation  k  I'amdricaine ;  put  these  into 
a  small  saut^pan,  and  keep  them  hot.  Add  the  intestines  and 
the  chopped  coral,  reduce  the  sauce  to  one-third  pint;  pass  it 
through  a  strainer,  and  pour  it  over  the  pieces  of  lobster. 

Heat  the  whole  without  boiling;  add  a  few  drops  of  lemon 
juice,  two  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  cut  into  small  pieces,  and 
one-half  tablespoonful  of  chopped  chervil  and  tarragon,  and 
stir  over  the  stove  with  the  view  of  thoroughly  mixing  the 
whole. 

Dish  as  directed  in  the  preceding  recipe. 

941— HOMARD  BOUILLI  A  LA  HOLLANDAISE 

Cook  the  lobster  in  a  court-bouillon  (No.  163),  allowing 
twenty  minutes  for  a  specimen  weighing  two  lbs. 

As  soon  as  the  lobster  is  cooked,  drain  it;  split  it  in  two 
lengthwise  without  completely  severing  the  two  halves;  lay  it 


31 8  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

on  a  long  dish  covered  with  a  napkin,  and  surround  it  with 
very  green,  curled-leaf  parsley. 

Serve  with  it,  at  the  same  time,  a  timbale  of  floury  potatoes 
freshly  cooked  a  I'anglaise,  and  a  sauceboat  of  melted  butter. 

942— HOMARD  A  LA  BROCHE 

Select  a  lobster  that  seems  full  of  life,  and,  after  killing  it, 
fix  it  on  the  spit.  Put  into  the  dripping-pan  six  oz.  of  butter, 
one-half  bottle  of  champagne,  salt,  and  peppercorns.  In  order 
to  cook  it  to  perfection,  frequently  baste  it  with  this  mixture,  and 
allow  one  hour  before  a  red  fire  for  a  specimen  weighing  three 
lbs.     It  may  be  dished  with  two  accompaniments  :■ — 

1.  A  hot  ravigote  sauce  combined  with  the  gravy  of  the 
lobster,  from  which  all  grease  has  been  removed. 

2.  Strain  the  contents  of  the  dripping-pan  (cleared  of  all 
grease)  through  a  fine  sieve ;  reduce  it  by  a  quarter  over  a  brisk 
fire ;  add  three  tablespoonfuls  of  meat-glaze,  two  tablespoonfuls 
of  Worcestershire  sauce,  and  a  little  chopped  parsley,  and  finish 
this  sauce  with  three  oz.  of  butter  and  a  few  drops  of  lemon 
juice. 

943— HOMARD  CARDINAL 

Plunge  the  live  lobster  into  boiling  court-bouillon,  and  cook 
it  after  the  manner  directed  under  "  Homard  k  la  Hollandaise  " 
(No.  941). 

The  moment  it  is  cooked,  cut  it  in  two  lengthwise ;  withdraw 
the  meat  from  the  tail,  slice  it,  and  keep  it  hot  in  a  little  Cardinal 
sauce.  Disconnect  the  claws;  open  them  sideways,  and  with- 
draw all  their  meat  without  breaking  them.  Cut  the  withdrawn 
meat  into  dice,  as  also  the  creamy  parts  from  the  carapace,  and 
add  thereto  their  weight  of  cooked  mushrooms  and  half  that 
quantity  of  truffles — both  of  which  products  should  also  be  in 
dice.  Thicken  this  salpicon  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  lobster 
sauce,  and  spread  it  in  even  layers  on  the  bottom  of  each  half- 
carapace. 

Reserve,  however,  two  tablespoonfuls  of  it  for  garnishing 
the  emptied  claws. 

Upon  the  salpicon  lay  the  slices  of  lobster,  kept  hot,  alter- 
nating these  with  fine  slices  of  truffles.  Set  the  two  half- 
carapaces,  thus  garnished,  on  a  dish,  and  wedge  them  upright 
by  means  of  the  two  claws. 

Coat  the  slices  and  the  claws  with  Cardinal  sauce;  sprinkle 
with  grated  cheese  and  melted  butter;  set  to  glaze  quickly  in  a 
fierce  oven  or  at  the  salamander,  and  serve  instantly. 


FISH  319 

944— HOMARD  CLARENCE 

Cook  the  lobster  in  court-houillon,  and  drain  it  as  soon  as 
it  is  done. 

When  it  is  only  lukewarm,  split  it  open  lengthwise ;  take 
the  meat  from  the  tail ;  slice  it,  and  keep  it  hot  in  a  vegetable- 
pan  with  a  few  drops  of  fish  fumet  or  the  cooking-liquor  of 
mushrooms. 

Remove  the  remains  of  meat  and  the  creamy  parts  from  the 
carapace;  pound  the  two  former  together  with  two  tablespoon- 
fuls  of  cream ;  strain  through  a  fine  sieve,  and  add  to  the  re- 
sulting cullis  one-half  pint  of  Bechamel  sauce  with  curry. 

Garnish  the  two  half-carapaces,  two-thirds  full,  with  rice 
a  rindienne;  set  the  slices  of  lobster  on  this  rice,  intercalating 
them  with  slices  of  truffle;  coat  thinly  with  the  prepared 
Bechamel  sauce,  and  set  the  two  garnished  and  sauced  half- 
carapaces  on  a  long,  hot  dish. 

Send  to  the  table,  at  the  same  time,  a  sauceboat  containing 
Bdchamel  with  curry. 

945— HOMARD  A  LA  CRfeME 

Proceed  as  for  "  Homard  h  la  New-burg  k  cru  "  (No.  948), 
but  swill  with  brandy  ouIy;  and  add,  immediately,  four  oz.  of 
fresh,  peeled  truffles  cut  into  slices. 

Moisten,  almost  sufficiently  to  cover,  with  very  fresh,  thin 
creani;  season  with  salt  and  cayenne,  and  cook  the  lobster. 
Then  take  the  meat  from  the  carapaces,  and  put  it  into  a 
timbale ;  reduce  the  cream  to  one-third  pint,  and  mix  therewith 
three  tabl^spoonfuls  of  melted,  white  meat-glaze  and  a  few  drops 
of  lemon  juice. 

'  btram   tills   sauce  through   muslin,   and   pour   it  over  the 
pieces  of  lobster. 

946— HOMARD  QRILL^ 

For  this  purpose,  the  lobster  may  be  taken  raw,  but  it  is 
better,  first,  to  have  it  three-parts  cooked  in  court-bouillon. 

Now  split  it  into  two  lengthwise;  sprinkle  it  with  melted 
butter,  and  set  it  on  the  grill  for  its  cooking  to  be  completed. 

Treated  thus,  the  meat  of  the  lobster  does  not  harden  as 
when  it  is  grilled  raw.  Dish  the  grilled  lobster  on  a  napkin 
or  on  a  drainer,  after  having  broken  the  shell  of  the  claws  in 
order  to  facilitate  the  withdrawal  of  the  meat,  and  surround  with 
curled-leaf  parsley. 

Serve  a  "  Devilled  sauce  Escoffier,"  or  any  other  sauce 
suited  to  grilled  fish,  with  the  lobster,  but  remember  that  the 
first-named  sauce  is  the  fittest  that  could  be  found  for  this 
particular  dish. 


320         GUIDE  TO  Modern  cookerV 

947— HOMARD  A  LA  MORNAY,  otherwise  AU  QRATIN 

Proceed  in  all  points  as  directed  under  "  Homard  Cardinal  " 
(No.  943),  but  substitute  Mornay  sauce  for  Cardinal. 

Homard  A  la  New-burg 

This  dish  may  be  prepared  in  two  ways — with  raw  lobster 
and  with  the  latter  cooked  some  time  beforehand.  The  second 
way  is  the  more  correct,  but  the  first,  which  is  less  troublesome 
to  prepare,  is  more  suited  to  the  work  of  large  establishments. 

948— HOMARD  A  LA  NEW-BURG  (with  raw  lobster) 

Cut  up  the  live  lobster,  and  fry  it  in  oil  and  butter  as  ex- 
plained under  "  Homard  k  I'Am^ricaine."  When  the  pieces 
of  lobster  are  stiffened  and  coloured,  clear  them  of  all  grease; 
swill  the  saut^pan  with  one  tablespoonful  of  burnt  brandy  and 
one-half  pint  of  Marsala. 

Reduce  by  a  third ;  season,  and  add  two-thirds  pint  of  cream 
and  one-sixth  pint  of  fish  fumet.  Cover  and  set  to  cook  for 
fifteen  minutes. 

Take  out  the  pieces  of  lobster;  withdraw  the  meat  there- 
from, and  keep  it  hot  in  a  covered  timbale.  Thicken  the  sauce 
with  the  reserved  intestines  and  coral  of  the  lobster,  which 
should  be  chopped  in  combination  with  one  oz.  of  butter. 

Set  to  boil  a  second  time ;  rub  the  sauce  through  tammy,  and 
pour  it  over  the  pieces  of  lobster. 

949— HOMARD  A  LA  NEW-BURQ  (with  the  lobster  cooked) 

Cook  the  lobster  in  court-bouillon.  Remove  the  shell  from 
the  tail ;  take  the  meat  therefrom,  and  cut  it  into  regular  slices. 
Lay  these  slices  in  a  liberally-buttered  saut^pan,  season 
strongly,  and  heat  the  slices  on  both  sides  until  the  outside 
membrane  acquires  a  fine  red  colour. 

Moisten  with  enough  Madeira  to  almost  cover  the  slices,  and 
reduce  the  moistening  almost  entirely.  When  dishing  up,  pour 
a  leason,  composed  of  one  and  one-quarter  pints  of  cream  and 
two  egg-yolks,  over  the  slices.  Stir  gently  on  the  side  of  the 
fire  until  the  thickening  has  been  effected  by  the  cooking  of  the 
egg-yolks,  and  serve  in  a  lukewarm  timbale. 

950— HOMARD  A  LA  PALESTINE 

Cut  up  the  live  lobster  and  toss  it  in  butter  with  a  mirepoix 

prepared  in  advance,  as  for  crayfish  intended  for  potage  bisque. 

Moisten  with   two-thirds  pint  of  white  wine,   one  pint  of 


Pish  321 

fish  fumet,  and  three  tablespoonfuls  of  burnt  brandy.  Cover 
and  cook  for  fifteen  minutes. 

Now  detach  the  sections  of  the  tail  and  the  claws;  withdraw 
the  meat  from  them,  and  keep  them  hot  in  a  small  covered 
saucepan  with  a  little  butter.  Pound  the  carapace  and  remains 
of  the  lobster  in  a  mortar;  fry  them  in  four  tablespoonfifls  of 
very  hot  oil,  and  add  thereto  an  ordinary  mirepoix,  cut  very 
fine.  Moisten  with  the  cooking-liquor  of  the  lobster,  and  set 
to  cook  for  one-quarter  hour.  Strain  through  muslin ;  leave 
to  stand  for  five  minutes,  that  the  oil  may  rise  to  the  surface, 
and  then  completely  remove  it.  Reduce  this  liquid  to  one- 
quarter  pint;  thicken  it  with  the  reserved  creamy  parts  of  the 
lobster,  rubbed  through  tammy,  and  two  tablespoonfuls  of 
fish  velout^,  and  finish  this  sauce  with  two  and  one-half  oz. 
of  curry  butter. 

Arrange  a  border  of  pilaff  rice  (No.  2255)  on  the  dish 
intended  for  the  lobster;  set  the  pieces  of  lobster,  kept  hot,  in 
the  centre,  and  coat  these  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  curry 
sauce. 

Serve  the  remainder  of  the  sauce  separately. 

951— M0USSELINE5  DE  HOMARD 

In  the  matter  of  crustaceans,  the  term  mousse  stands,  as  a 
rule,  for  a  cold  preparation,  whereas  the  term  mousseline  is 
only  applied  to  warm  dishes.  The  special  mousselines  or 
quenelles  of  lobster  are  made  with  a  mousseline  forcemeat,  the 
recipe  for  which  I  gave  under  No.  195.  This  forcemeat  is  pre- 
pared with  the  raw  meat  of  the  lobster. 

As  with  the  other  crustaceans,  their  meat  produces  forcemeat 
which  is  somewhat  too  flimsy  to  be  spoon-moulded,  and  it  is 
preferable   to   goach    it  in   special   well-buttered   quenelle-   or 
dariole-m,oulds . 
y^  Mousselines  are  poached  under  cover  in  a  moderate  oven.^" — 

All  the  garnishes  and  sauces  given  in  respect  of  salmon 
m,ousselines  may  be  applied  here.  The  reader  will  therefore 
refer  to : — 

Mousselines  de  Saumon  Alexandra  (No.  798). 

Mousselines  de  Saumon  k  la  Tosca  (No.  799). 

952— SOUFFLES  DE  HOMARD 

For  lobster  souffles  the  same  forcemeat  is  used  as  for  the 
mousselines;  but,  unlike  the  latter,  it  is  poached  in  the  half- 
carapaces  of  the  lobster,  the  meat  of  which  has  served  in  its 
preparation.  The  procedure  is  as  follows: — First  cook  the 
two  half-carapaces  carefully,  that  they  may  not  lose  their 
shape  in  the  process. 

Y 


322  GUIDE  TO  MODEilN  COOKERY 

After  having  drained  and  dried  tiiem,  fill  them  with  mousse- 
line  forcemeat  and  surround  them  with  strong,  buttered  paper, 
which  should  be  tied  on  with  string,  and  should  overreach  the 
edges  of  the  carapaces  by  one  inch. 

The  object  of  this  measure  is  to  prevent  the  forcemeat  from 
spilling  during  the  poaching. 

Lay  the  two  garnished  carapaces  on  a  tray  containing  just 
enough  boiling  water  to  moisten  its  whole  surface.  Put  the 
tray  in  a  moderate  oven  or  in  a  steamer,  and  allow  from  fifteen 
to  twenty  minutes  for  the  souffle  to  poach. 

This  done,  carefully  drain  the  two  carapaces;  remove  the 
paper  holding  in  the  forcemeat;  dish  them  on  a  napkin,  and 
surround  them  with  bunches  of  very  green,  curled-leaf  parsley. 
Serve  separately  a  sauce  in  keeping  with  the  preparation ;  i.e.,  a 
Normande,  a  White-wine,  a  Diplomate,  or  a  Bechamel  finished 
with  lobster  butter,  &c. 

N.B. — The  above  constitutes  the  model-recipe  of  lobster 
souffle,  and  I  need  scarcely  point  out  that  the  latter  may  be 
varied  almost  indefinitely  in  accordance  with  the  fancy  of  the 
cook  and  the  taste  of  the  consumer. 

Thus  the  forcemeat  may  be  garnished  with  truffles  in  dice, 
slices  of  lobster,  milt,  or  poached  oysters,  &c.,  which  garnishes 
may  also  be  laid  on  the  souffle  when  it  is  finished.  I  therefore 
leave  to  the  operator,  who  should  now  see  his  way  quite 
clearly,  the  task  of  imagining  the  various  possible  combinations, 
a  description  of  which  would  but  unnecessarily  delay  the  pro- 
gress of  this  work. 

953— COLD  LOBSTER  WITH  VARIOUS  SAUCES 

Cook  the  lobster  in  court-bouillon,  and  let  it  cool  in  the 
latter.  Drain  it,  sever  the  claws,  and  break  them  open  in  order 
to  withdraw  their  meat.  Split  the  lobster  into  two  lengthwise, 
remove  the  intestines  and  the  queen,  and  dish  it  on  a  napkin. 
Lay  the  claws  on  either  side  of  it,  and  surround  it  either  with 
curled-leaf  parsley  or  with  a  few  hearts  of  lettuce. 

Send  to  the  table  separately  one  of  the  derivative  sauces  of 
the  Mayonnaise  (Nos.  123  to  132). 

954— ASPIC  DE   HOMARD 

Under  "  Aspic  de  filets  de  soles  "  (No.  915),  I  pointed  out 
the  preparatory  principles  of  an  aspic;  in  this  case,  therefore, 
I  shall  only  refer  to  the  various  details  very  cursorily. 

Let  a  thin  coating  of  white  fish  jelly  set  on  the  bottom  of 
an  aspic-mould  incrusted  in  ice.  The  reader  is  reminded  of 
the  great  care  that  must  be  observed  in  the  preparation  of  an 


FISH  323 

aspic  jelly,  that  the  latter  be  limpid,  succulent,  and  just  suffi- 
ciently firm  hot  to  break  when  withdrawn  from  the  mould. 
Decorate  the  bottom  of  the  mould  with  bits  of  truffle,  poached 
white  of  egg,  lobster  coral,  capers,  and  tarragon  leaves. 

The  decorative  design  cannot  be  described;  it  must  be  left 
to  the  taste  and  fancy  of  the  operator.;  all  I  can  urge  is  that 
it  be  as  regular  and  symmetrical  as  possible. 

Fix  the  decoration  iSy  means  of  a  few  drops  of  jelly;  then 
cover  the  whole  with  a  thickness  of  one  inch  of  the  same  jelly, 
and  leave  the  latter  to  set.  Upon  this  layer  of  jelly  arrange 
rows  of  thin  slices  of  lobster  meat  and  slices  of  truffles  placed 
alternately  and  slightly  overlapping.  Now  add  enough  jelly 
to  cover  these  slices,  and  continue  filling  up  the  mould  with 
varying  layers  consisting  respectively  of  jelly  (one  inch  thick) 
and  the  slices  above  described. 

When  about  to  serve,  dip  the  mould  in  hot  water;  dry  it, 
and  turn  out  the  aspic  upon  a  dish  covered  with  a  napkin. 

955— CbTELETTES  DE  HOMARD  ARKANQEL 

Prepare  a  salpicon  of  lobster  meat  in  dice  combined  with 
its  weight  of  caviare,  the  whole  quantity  being  in  proportion 
to  the  number  of  cotelettes  required. 

Thicken  the  salpicon  with  an  equal  quantity  of  lobster 
mousse  (No.  956),  and  at  once  garnish  some  moderately  oiled 
cutlet-moulds  with  the  preparation.  As  soon  as  the  latter  has 
set,  turn  out  the  cutlets;  coat  them  with  a  fish  chaud-froid 
sauce,  finished  with  lobster  butter;  and  deck  each  with  a  fine, 
grooved  slice  of  truffle.  Glaze  them  with  cold  melted  jelly, 
and  keep  them  in  the  cool  until  required  to  be  served. 

Arrange  them  in  a  circle  on  a  round  dish ;  garnish  the  centre 
with  chopped  white  jelly,  and  serve  a  Russian  salad  separately. 

956— MOUSSE  DE  HOMARD 

Cook  the  lobster  in  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  previously- 
prepared  fine  mirepoix,  one  half-bottle  of  white  wine,  and  a 
small  glass  of  burnt  brandy.  Leave  to  cool  in  the  cooking- 
liquor.  Now  split  the  lobster  in  two,  with  the  view  of  with- 
drawing its  meat.  Finely  pound  the  latter  while  adding  thereto, 
little  by  little,  one-third  pint  of  cold  fish  velout6  per  lb.  of 
meat.  Rub  through  a  sieve;  put  the  resulting  pur^e  in  a 
vegetable-pan  lying  on  ice,  and  stir  for  a  few  minutes.  This 
done,  add  a  little  good  fish  jelly,  melted  and  cold,  and  one- 
third  pint  of  barely-whipped  cream.  Taste;  rectify  the  season- 
ing, and  warm  it  slightly  with  cayenne. 

Y  2 


324  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

957— MOUSSE  DE  HOMARD  MOULEE 

When  the  mousse  is  intended  for  moulding,  it  is  well  to 
decorate  and  "  clothe  "  the  mould  with  fish  jelly  some  time  in 
advance.  I  have  already  explained  that  to  "  clothe  "  a  mould 
with  jelly,  all  that  is  needed  is  to  pour  therein  a  few  table- 
spoonfuls  of  melted  jelly,  and  then  to  rock  the  utensil  on 
ice.  By  this  means  a  thin  even  coating  sets  on  the  bottom 
and  sides  of  the  mould,  which,  when  the  moulding  is  turned 
out,  swathes  the  latter  in  a  transparent  film. 

This  "  clothing  "  of  jelly  may  be  made  more  or  less  thick, 
according  to  the  requirements,  by  simply  using  more  or  less 
jelly,  and  by  proportionately  lengthening  or  shortening  the 
time  for  rocking  the  mould. 

When  the  mould  is  clothed,  decorate  the  sides  with  large 
slices  of  very  black  truffle  dipped  in  melted  jelly,  that  they 
may  stick. 

This  done,  fill  the  receptacle  with  the  prepared  mousse  (see 
the  preceding  recipe),  and  leave  to  set  in  the  cool. 

For  the  turning  out  of  the  mould  and  the  dishing  of  the 
moulding,   proceed  as  for  the  aspic. 

9S8— PETITES  MOUSSES  DE  HOMARD 

For  these  small  mousses,  use  little  cassolettes  or  silver  tim- 
bales.  First  let  a  thin  layer  of  jelly  (one  or  two  tablespoonfuls, 
according  to  their  size)  set  on  the  bottom  of  each  utensil, 
and  then  surround  the  latter  with  bands  of  white  paper,  the  ends 
of  which  should  be  stuck  together,  and  should  reach  one  inch 
above  the  brims  of  the  cassolettes.  The  preparation  of  mousse 
may  now  be  placed  in  the  cassolettes  in  a  sufficient  quantity 
to  overflow  the  brims,  so  that,  when  the  paper  is  removed, 
their  appearance  is  that  of  small  souffles. 

When  the  cassolettes  have  been  garnished,  put  them  aside 
on  ice  or  in  a  refrigerator  until  they  are  served. 

959— HOMARD  A  LA  QRAMMONT 

Split  the  lobster  open  lengthwise  down  the  middle.  With- 
draw the  meat  from  the  tail ;  trim  it,  and  cut  it  into  regular 
collops.  Coat  the  latter  again  and  again  with  aspic  jelly,  that 
they  may  be  well  covered  with  it;  decorate  each  with  a  slice  of 
truffle,  and  glaze  it  with  the  same  aspic. 

Also  coat  with  jelly  as  many  very  white  poached  and  dried 
oysters  as  there  are  collops. 

Now  take  the  creamy  parts  and  the  meat  of  the  claws,  and 
pound  them  finely  with  one  tablespoonful  of  cold  Bechamel 


FISH  325 

sauce;  rub  through  a  sieve,  and,  with  the  resulting  pur^e  com- 
bined with  melted  fish  jelly  and  cream  (see  lobster  mousse  No. 
956),  prepare  a  mousse  "  au  paprika  "  of  a  decided  pink  colour. 

Fill  the  two  half-carapaces  to  their  edges  with  this  mousse, 
and  leave  it  to  set  on  ice. 

When  about  to  serve,  lay  the  collops,  glazed  with  jelly,  upon 
this  m,ousse,  and  place  an  oyster  between  each  pair.  Dish  the 
two  garnished  half-carapaces,  back  to  back,  upon  a  napkin, 
and  put  the  heart  of  a  lettuce  in  the  middle,  and  a  bunch  of 
curled-leaf  parsley  at  either  end. 

Serve  a  mayonnaise  or  other  cold  sauce  separately. 

960— HOMARD  A  LA  PARISIENNE 

Tie  a  lobster  to  a  little  board;  stretch  out  its  tail  to  the 
fullest  extent;  cook  it  in  court-bouillon,  and  leave  it  to  cool  in 
the  latter. 

When  it  is  quite  cold,  with  the  help  of  scissors,  carefully 
cut  a  strip  of  the  shell  from  the  back  of  the  head  to  the  tail. 
The  aperture  left  by  the  removed  strip  of  shell  ought  to  be 
sufficiently  wide  to  allow  of  the  meat  of  the  tail  being  removed 
without  breaking  it.  Having  emptied  the  tail,  refill  it  with 
salad  leaves,  and  return  the  strip  of  shell  (upside  down)  to  its 
place.  Cut  the  meat  of  the  tail  into  even  collops,  and  lay  on 
each  a  roundel  of  truffle  stamped  out  with  the  fancy-cutter,  and 
dipped  in  half-melted  jelly.  Then  coat  these  slices,  which 
should  be  on  a  dish,  again  and  again,  with  cold  melted  jelly 
until  they  are  well  covered  with  it. 

Now  break  the  claws  and  remove  their  meat,  as  also  that 
remaining  in  the  carapace,  and  cut  both  meats  into  dice.  Take 
the  creamy  parts,  and  rub  them  through  a  sieve. 

Prepare  a  small  vegetable  salad;  add  thereto  the  meat  dice, 
and  cohere  the  two  with  a  mayonnaise  sauce  combined  with 
melted  jelly  and  the  creamy  parts  rubbed  through  a  sieve. 
When  the  salad  begins  to  set,  owing  to  the  jelly  contained  in 
the  mayonnaise,  garnish  twelve  small  artichoke-bottoms  with 
it,  arranging  the  salad  in  them  in  pyramid  form.  Set  a  bit  of 
truffle  on  each  pyramid,  and  sprinkle  the  salad  with  melted 
fish  jelly  in  order  to  make  it  glossy. 

Dishing. — Dish  the  lobster  on  a  cushion  of  buttered  bread 
on  which  a  julienne  of  lettuce  has  been  stuck,  or  on  one  of 
carved  rice.  The  cushion  should  have  the  shape  of  a  wedge, 
in  order  that  the  lobster  may  lie  at  an  angle  of  about  45",  with 
its  head  raised,  when  laid  upon  it.  Arrange  the  slices  (slightly 
overlapping  one  another)  along  the  back  of  the  lobster,  be- 


326  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

ginning  at  its  head  with  the  smallest  of  them,  and  progressing 
down  towards  the  tail,  gradually  increasing  their  size. 

Surround  the  lobster  alternately  with  artichoke-bottoms  gar- 
nished with  salad,  and  quartered  hard-boiled  eggs,  or  halved 
hard-boiled  eggs  (set  upright  with  their  yolks  facing  outwards). 

Border   the   dish   with   very   clear  jelly   in   large  cubes  or 
triangles,  etc. 
961— HOMARD  A  LA  RUSSE 

Proceed  exactly  as  above  with  regard  to  the  cooking  of  the 
lobster,  the  extraction  of  the  meat,  and  the  cutting  of  it  into 
slices.  Coat  the  slices  with  mayonnaise  sauce  combined  with 
melted  jelly;  or,  better  still,  with  a  white  fish  chaud-froid 
sauce  combined  with  the  lobster's  creamy  parts  rubbed  through 
a  sieve. 

Decorate  each  slice  with  a  bit  of  coral  and  two  little  chervil 
leaves ;  coat  them  again  and  again  with  cold  melted  aspic,  and 
put  them  aside  in  the  cool.  "  Clothe  "  ten  dariole-moulds,  and 
decorate  the  bottom  of  each  with  a  slice  of  truffle.  Also  prepare 
ten  hard-boiled  eggs. 

Prepare  a  Salade  Russe  (without  meat) ;  add  to  this  the 
remains  of  the  lobster  meat  cut  into  dice,  and  thicken  with 
mayonnaise  and  melted  aspic,  mixed.  With  this  thickened  salad 
fill  the  dariole-moulds,  and  leave  to  set  in  the  cool. 

Dishing. — Set  the  lobster  on  a  cushion,  after  the  manner  of 
the  preceding  recipe.  Trim  the  slices,  and  lay  them,  as  before, 
on  the  lobster's  back,  taking  care  to  graduate  their  sizes.  Sur- 
round the  lobster  with  the  small  moulded  salads,  and  alternate 
these  with  the  hard-boiled  eggs.  The  latter  should  be  cut  in 
two  at  a  point  one-third  of  their  height  above  their  base;  their 
yolks  should  be  removed,  the  space  filled  with  caviare  moulded 
to  the  form  of  a  pyramid,  and,  this  done,  the  eggs  should  be 
set  upright. 

Border  the  dish  with  roundels  of  very  clear  fish  jelly,  stamped 
out  by  a  fancy-cutter,  and  lay  a  bit  of  truffle  upon  each. 

N.B. — (i)  The  moulds  of  salad  must,  of  course,  be  dipped 
in  hot  water  before  being  turned  out. 

(2)  The  lobster  may  also  be  served  "  k  la  N6va,"  "  k  la 
Moscovite, "  "  kla  Sib6rienne,"  &c.,  but  these  preparations  are 
only  minor  forms  of  "  Homard  h  la  Russe"  under  different 
names. 

Changes  may  be  effected  in  the  preparation  by  altering  the 
constituents  of  the  salad  and  its  dishing.  It  may,  for  instance, 
be  made  in  small  cucumber  or  beetroot  barquettes,  while  the 
caviare,  instead  of  being  laid  in  hard-boiled  eggs,  may  be  served 
in  little  pleated  cases. 


FISH  327 

As  these  preparations,  however,  are  based  neither  on  fixed 
principles  nor  on  classical  rules,  I  shall  refrain  from  giving 
them. 

962— MAYONNAISE  DE  HOMARD 

Proceed  as  for  Mayonnaise  de  Saumon — that  is  to  say,  gar- 
nish the  bottom  of  a  salad-bowl  with  ciseled  lettuce  leaves,  and 
season  them  moderately. 

Upon  this  salad  lay  the  remains  of  the  lobster,  and  upon 
the  latter  place  the  thin  slices  of  the  tail.  Cover  with  mayon- 
naise sauce,  and  decorate  with  strips  of  anchovy  fillets,  capers, 
olives,  hard-boiled  eggs,  roundels  of  pink  radishes,  the  hearts  of 
lettuce,  &c. 

N.B. — I  have  already  pointed  out  the  futility  of  prescribing 
a  decorative  design.  As  a  rule,  the  matter  is  so  intimately  con- 
nected with  the  taste  and  fancy  of  the  individual,  and  the 
products  used  for  the  purpose  lend  themselves  to  such  inde- 
finite variation,  that  I  prefer  merely  to  enumerate  these  products, 
and  to  leave  the  question  of  their  arrangement  to  the  artistic 
ingenuity  of  the  operator. 

963— SALADE  DE  HOMARD 

See  "  Salade  de  Saumon"  (No.  810).  As  the  preparation 
and  seasoning  of  the  latter  are  identical  with  those  of  the  dish 
under  consideration,  all  that  is  needed  is  to  replace  the  salmon 
of  recipe  No.  810  by  the  collops  of  lobster. 

Spiny  Lobsters.    CLangouste.') 

All  culinary  preparations  dealing  with  lobsters  may  be 
adapted  to  spiny  lobsters.  There  is,  therefore,  no  need  to 
repeat  them  here.  Of  the  cold  recipes,  two  are  much  better 
suited  to  the  spiny  than  to  the  ordinary  kind,  though,  as  they 
are  used  for  both  specimens,  I  gave  them  earlier  in  the  book. 
The  two  recipes  referred  to  are  : — 

964— LANQOUSTE  A  LA  PARISIENNE;  see  LOBSTER, 

recipe  960. 
965— LANQOUSTE  A  LA  RUSSE  ;  see  LOBSTER,  recipe  961. 

Crayfish.    (Ecrevisses.) 

When  crayfish  are  prepared  after  one  of  the  recipes  most 
commonly  used  on  the  Continent,  i.e.,  whole,  they  are  not  much 
relished  in  England.  This  is  doubtless  accounted  for  by  the 
fact  that  ladies,  dining  in  evening  dress,  find  them  somewhat 
difficult  to  manage. 

They  are  therefore  only  served  in  the  form  of  an  aspic,  a 


328  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

mousse,  mousselines,  timbales,  &c.,  or  as  the  garnish  of  some 
other  fish ;  for  in  all  these  cases  they  are  shelled. 

Be  all  this  as  it  may,  I  give  below  the  various  recipes  re- 
lating to  them,  and  from  among  these  it  ought  to  be  possible  to 
choose  one  which  will  meet  the  requirements  of  any  particular 
case. 

966    ECREVISSES  A  LA  BORDELAISE 

N.B. — Whatever  be  their  _mode  of  preparation,  crayfish 
should  always  be  thoroughly  cleansed  and  cleared  of  their  in- 
testines, the  extreme  end  of  which  is  to  be  found  under  the 
middle  of  the  tail.  In  order  to  remove  the  intestines,  take  the 
telson  or  tail-segment  between  the  point  of  a  small  knife  and 
the  thumb,  and  pull  gently.  If  this  were  not  done,  the  in- 
testines, especially  in  the  breeding  season,  might  render  the 
crayfish  disagreeably  bitter. 

As  soon  as  their  intestines  have  been  removed,  the  crayfish 
should  be  set  to  cook,  otherwise,  i.e.,  if  they  be  left  to  wait, 
their  juices  escape  through  the  anal  wound,  and  they  empty. 

For  twelve  crayfish,  after  having  cleaned  and  eviscerated 
them,  put  them  into  a  vegetable-pan  with  one  tablespoonful 
of  very  fine  mirepoix,  completely  cooked  beforehand,  and  two- 
thirds  oz.  of  butter.  Toss  them  over  an  open  fire  until  the 
shells  have  acquired  a  fine,  red  colour.  Moisten  with  three 
tablespoonfuls  of  burnt  brandy  and  one-quarter  pint  of  white 
wine;  reduce  by  a  third,  and  complete  with  one  tablespoonful 
of  Espagnole,  two  tablespoonfuls  of  fish  fumet,  the  same  quan- 
tity of  tomato  pur^e,  and  one  spoonful  of  special  mirepoix 
(No.  229). 

Put  the  lid  on,  and  set  to  cook  for  ten  minutes. 

Dish  the  crayfish  in  a  timbale ;  reduce  the  sauce  by  a  quarter, 
and  finish  it  with  a  few  drops  of  meat  glaze,  one  oz.  of  butter, 
a  very  little  cayenne,  chopped  chervil,  and  tarragon.  Pour 
this  over  the  crayfish,  and  serve  instantly. 

967— 6CREVISSES  A  LA  MARINIERE 

In  the  case  of  twelve  crayfish,  toss  them  in  two-thirds  oz.  of 
butter  over  an  open  fire,  until  the  shells  are  of  a  fine  red.  Season 
with  salt  and  pepper;  add  two  finely  chopped  shallots,  a  bit 
of  thyme  and  a  bit  of  bay;  moisten  with  one-third  pint  of 
white  wine;  cover;  cook  for  ten  minutes,  and  dish  in  a  timbale. 

Reduce  the  cooking-liquor  to  half;  thicken  with  two  table- 
spoonfuls of  fish  velout^ ;  finish  the  sauce  with  one  oz.  of  butter, 
and  pour  it  over  the  crayfish. 


FISH  329 

Sprinkle  with  a  pinch  of  chopped  parsley,  and  serve  at 
once. 

968— ECREVISSES  A  LA  NAQE 

For  twelve  crayfish,  ten  minutes  beforehand  prepare  a  court- 
bouillon  of  one-half  pint  of  white  wine,  one-quarter  pint  of 
fish  jumet,  a  few  roundels  of  carrot  and  onion,  one  stalk 
of  parsley  cut  into  dice,  a  small  pinch  of  powdered  thyme  and 
bay,  and  a  very  little  salt  and  cayenne  pepper. 

Put  the  crayfish  into  the  boiling  court-bouillon ;  cover,  and 
leave  to  cook  for  ten  minutes,  taking  care  to  toss  the  crayfish 
from  time  to  time. 

When   about   to   serve,    pour   the   crayfish  with    the   court- 
bouillon  and  the  aromatics  into  a  timbale. 

969— 6CREVISSES  A  LA  LIEQEOISE 

Cook  the  crayfish  in  court-bouillon  as  eJcplained  in  the  pre- 
ceding recipe.  Dish  them  in  a  timbale,  and  keep  them  hot. 
Strain  the  court-bouillon;  reduce  it  by  a  quarter;  add  one  oz. 
of  butter,  and  pour  it  over  the  crayfish. 

Sprinkle  with  a  pinch  of  concussed  parsley. 

970— MOUSSELINES  D'ECREVISSES 

What  I  said  with  reference  to  "  Mousseline  de  Homard  " 
(No.  951)  applies  perfectly  here,  and  my  remarks  relative  to  the 
variation  of  the  garnishing  ingredients,  which  are  the  same  as 
those  in  No.  951,  also  hold  good. 

971— TIMBALE  DE  QUEUES  D'ECREVISSES  A  LA  NANTUA 

For  ten  people  prepare  (i)  a  shallow  timbale  crust,  and  a 
cover  decorated  with  a  design  of  leaves  or  some  other  orna- 
mental treatment ;  (2)  toss  sixty  crayfish  in  butter  with  two 
tablespoonfuls  of  very  fine  mirepoix  cooked  in  butter  before- 
hand. When  the  crayfish  are  of  a  distinct  red,  moisten  with 
one  glass  of  white  wine  and  three  tablespoonfuls  of  burned 
brandy ;  season  with  salt  and  cayenne  pepper ;  cover  them,  and 
keep  them  on  the  side  of  the  fire  for  ten  minutes,  taking  care  to 
toss  them  again  from  time  to  time;  (3)  shell  the  tails  and  put 
them  into  a  small  saucepan  with  twenty  small  quenelles 
of  whiting  forcemeat,  finished  with  crayfish  butter;  fifteen 
small,  grooved  mushrooms,  cooked  and  very  white,  and  three 
oz.  of  truffles  in  slices.  Add  a  few  drops  of  the  mushroom  cook- 
ing-liquor to  this  garnish,  and  keep  it  hot;  (4)  pound  the 
remains  and  carcasses  of  the  crayfish  very  finely ;  add  two-thirds 
pint  of  cream  sauce  to  the  resulting  pur6e;  rub  it  through 
tammy,  and  add  it  to  the  garnish ;  (5)  when  about  to  serve,  pour 


330  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

this  garnish  into  the  timbale  crust,  which  should  be  very  hot, 
and  deck  the  top  with  a  crown  of  fine  slices  of  very  black 
truffle.  Close  the  timbale  with  its  cover,  and  dish  it  on  a 
napkin. 

972— SOUFFLE  D'lSCREVISSES  A  LA  FLORENTINE 

Make  a  preparation  of  Souffle  au  Parmesan  (No.  2295A) 
combined  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  crayfish  cream  per  pint. 
The  cream  is  prepared  after  the  manner  of  lobster  cream  (No. 
295). 

Put  this  preparation  in  a  buttered  timbale  in  alternate  layers 
separated  by  litters  of  sliced  truffle  and  crayfish  tails.  Cook 
the  souffle  after  the  manner  of  an  ordinary  one. 

973— SOUFFLE  D'ECREVISSES  LEOPOLD  DE  ROTHSCHILD 

Prepare  a  souffle  as  above,  and  add  thereto  a  bare  tablespoon- 
ful  of  freshly-cooked  asparagus  and  slices  of  truffle,  and  cray- 
fish tails  placed  between  the  layers  of  the  souffle  preparation. 
Cook  as  above. 

974— S0UFFL6  D'jgCREVISSES  A  LA  PI^MONTAISE 

This  is  identical  with  No.  972,  except  that  the  ordinary 
truffles  are  replaced  by  shavings  of  Piedmont  truffles. 

975— ASPIC  DE  QUEUES  D'ECREVISSES  A  LA  MODERNE 

Cook  twelve  fine  crayfish  in  accordance  with  the  directions 
under  No.  996,  but  substitute  champagne  for  the  white  wine. 

Shell  the  tails;  trim  them  evenly;  cut  them  in  two  length- 
wise, and  keep  them  in  the  cool  until  they  are  wanted.  Remove 
the  creamy  parts  from  the  carapaces  of  the  crayfish ;  add  the 
trimmings  of  the  tails,  the  meat  from  the  claws,  and  the 
mirepoix  in  which  the  crayfish  have  cooked. 

Pound  the  whole  very  finely  in  a  mortar,  and  rub  it  through 
a  sieve.  Put  the  resulting  pur^e  in  a  receptacle;  add  thereto 
one-quarter  pint  of  very  cold,  melted  aspic,  and  three  table- 
spoonfuls  of  barely  beaten  cream.  Leave  this  preparation  to 
settle. 

Trim  the  crayfish  carapaces;  fill  them  with  a  little  prepared 
mousse,  and  decorate  each  carapace  with  a  small  roundel  of 
truffle. 

Put  the  remainder  of  the  mousse  in  the  middle  of  a  little 
crystal  bowl,  and  mould  it  to  the  shape  of  a  cone,  narrow  to- 
wards the  base,  and  as  high  as  possible. 

Arrange  the  garnished  crayfish  carapaces  on  their  backs  in 
the  bowl  around  the  cone  of  mousse,  and  set  some  crayfish 
tails  in  superposed  rings  up  the  cone.     The  crayfish  tails  should 


FISH  331 

be  dipped  in  half-melted  jelly,  that  they  may  stick  fast  to  the 
cone.  Lay  a  small,  very  round  truffle  on  the  top  of  the  cone 
to  complete  the  decoration.  This  done,  coat  the  whole  again 
and  again  by  means  of  a  spoon  with  half-melted,  succulent, 
clear  fish  jelly,  and  incrust  the  timbale  in  a  block  of  ice,  or  set 
it  amidst  the  latter  broken  up. 

976— MOUSSE  D'ECREVISSES 

For  ten  people  cook  thirty  crayfish  as  for  potage  Bisque. 
This  done,  remove  the  tails,  and  reserve  a  dozen  fine  carapaces. 
Finely  pound  the  remainder,  together  with  the  mirepoix  in 
which  the  crayfish  have  cooked,  and  add  thereto  one-half  oz. 
of  butter,  one  oz.  of  red  butter  (No.  142),  one-quarter  pint  of 
cold  fish  velout^,  and  six  tablespoonfuls  of  melted  fish  jelly. 
Rub  through  tammy,  and  put  the  resulting  pur^e  in  a  sauce- 
pan ;  stir  it  over  ice  for  two  or  three  minutes ;  add  three-quarters 
pint  of  half-beaten  cream,  and  the  crayfish  tails  cut  into  dice 
or  finely  sliced. 

Before  beginning  to  prepare  the  mousse,  line  the  bottom  and 
side  of  a  Charlotte-mould  with  paper,  that  the  mousse  may  be 
moulded  as  soon  as  ready. 

Pour  the  preparation  into  the  mould,  taking  care  to'  reserve 
enough  for  the  twelve  carapaces  already  put  aside,  and  put  the 
mousse  on  ice  or  in  a  refrigerator  until  dishing  it.  Fill  the 
twelve  trimmed  carapaces  with  the  reserved  mousse,  and  decorate 
each  with  a  round  slice  of  truffle.  When  about  to  serve,  turn 
out  the  mousse  on  a  small,  round  cushion  of  semolina  or  rice, 
one-half  inch  thick,  lying  on  a  dish.  Remove  all  the  paper, 
and  decorate  the  top  of  the  mousse  with  a  crown  of  fine  slices 
of  truffle  dipped  in  melted  jelly,  that  they  may  be  glossy. 

Surround  the  semolina  or  rice  cushion  with  a  border  of 
chopped  jelly,  and  arrange  the  garnished  carapaces  upon  this 
jelly,  setting  them  almost  upright. 

N.B. — (i)  Instead  of  being  served  on  a  cushion,  the  crayfish 
mousse  may  be  sent  to  the  table  in  a  deep  silver  dish  with  a 
border  of  chopped  jelly,  and  surrounded  by  the  garnished 
carapaces.  The  utensil  is  then  laid  on  a  flat  dish  in  a  bed  of 
broken  ice,  or  it  is  incrusted  direct  in  a  block  of  carved  ice. 

(2)  For  the  moulding  of  crayfish  mousse,  the  mould  may  be 
"clothed"  with  fish  jelly  and  decorated  with  slices  of  truffle, 
as  directed  under  "  Mousse  de  Homard  moul^e  "  (No.  957). 

A  mousse  prepared  in  this  way  may  be  either  dished  on  a 
semolina  or  rice  cushion,  or  in  a  deep  silver  entree  dish,  as 
described  above. 


332  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

976a— SUPRfeMES  D'ECREVISSES  AU  CHAMPAGNE 

Select  forty  medium-sized  crayfish  that  seem  full  of  life; 
cooli  them  quickly  in  a  highly-seasoned  mirepoix,  moistened 
with  one  half-bottle  of  dry  champagne.  This  done,  shell  them ; 
trim  their  tails,  and  keep  them  in  the  cool  in  a  small  bowl. 
Pound  their  shells  as  finely  as  possible  with  one-quarter  lb. 
of  fresh  butter,  and  put  the  resulting  pur^e  in  a  saucepan, 
together  with  one-half  pint  of  boiling  velout^  containing  four 
or  five  leaves  of  gelatine,  and  the  cooking-liquor  of  the  cray- 
fish passed  through  a  fine  strainer. 

Set  to  boil  for  a  few  minutes,  that  the  remains  may  exude 
all  their  flavour;  rub  through  tammy  over  a  basin  lying  on 
ice,  and  whisk  the  preparation  in  order  to  accelerate  its  cool- 
ing. As  soon  as  it  begins  to  thicken,  add  one  pint  of  half- 
whipped  cream  to  it.  Then  pour  the  whole  into  a  silver  or 
porcelain  timbale,  taking  care  that  the  utensil  be  not  more 
than  three-quarters  full. 

When  the  mousse  has  set,  decorate  the  surface  with  the 
reserved  crayfish  tails,  to  which  are  added,  as  a  finish,  bits 
of  truffle  and  chervil  leaves.  Cover  the  decoration  with  a  thin 
coating  of  easily-melting  and  amber-coloured  fish  jelly,  and 
put  the  timbale  on  ice.  When  about  to  serve,  incrust  it  in  a 
block  of  carved  ice,  or  place  it  on  a  silver  dish  with  broken  ice 
all  round. 

977— MOUSSE  D'ECREVISSES  CARDINAL 

For  ten  people  cook  the  crayfish  as  explained  in  No.  976,  but 
take  forty  instead  of  thirty.  Shell  the  tails;  trim  them  and  cut 
them  into  dice.  Prepare  the  mousse  in  the  same  way,  but  use 
twice  as  much  red  butter.  Garnish  twelve  carapaces  after  the 
same  manner,  and  decorate  each  with  a  slice  of  truffle. 

Clothe  a  dome-  or  Charlotte-mould  somewhat  thickly  with 
jelly;  garnish  its  bottom  and  sides  with  crayfish  tails,  pre- 
viously dipped  in  half-melted  jelly,  and  arranged  in  superposed 
rows;  and  place  the  crayfish  so  that  the  tails  of  the  first  row 
lie  to  the  left,  those  of  the  second  row  to  the  right,  and 
so  on.  As  often  as  possible,  do  this  work  before  preparing 
the  mousse,  in  order  that  the  latter  may  be  put  into  the  mould 
as  soon  as  ready. 

When  about  to  fill  the  mould,  add  twenty  fine  slices  of 
truffle  to  the  mousse.  Dish  after  one  of  the  two  methods 
directed  in  the  appended  note  to  No.  970,  and  take  care  to  dip 
the  mould  quickly  into  hot  water  before  attempting  to  turn  out 
its  contents. 


FISH  333 

978— PETITS  SOUFFLES  FROIDS  D'^CREVISSES 

Prepare  the  crayfish  mousse  as  directed  under  No.  976,  and 
replace  the  fish  velout^  by  cold  Bechamel.  The  addition  of 
sauce  is  even  unnecessary  in  this  case,  and  the  preparation  may 
be  all  the  more  delicate  for  consisting  only  of  the  crayfish  cullis 
and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  fish  jelly. 

For  the  moulding  of  these  small  souffles  I  can  only  repeat 
what  I  said  under  "  Petites  Mousses  de  Homard  "  (No.  958). 
Let  a  thin  coating  of  jelly  set  on  the  bottom  of  the  small 
cassolettes  or  timbales  used;  garnish  their  insides  with  a  band 
of  white  paper,  reaching  one,  inch  above  their  brims ;  stick  the 
end  of  this  band  with  a  little  batter. 

Now  garnish  the  timbales  with  mousse,  letting  it  project 
above  their  edges  to  the  extent  of  two-thirds  of  an  inch,  and  leave 
it  to  set  in  the  cool.  When  about  to  serve,  remove  the  band  of 
paper,  holding  in  the  projecting  mousse,  and  the  appearance 
of  the  garnished  timbales  is  exactly  that  of  small,  hot  souffles. 
Allow  one  souffle  for  each  person. 

979— SHRIMPS  AND  PRAWNS  (Crevettes  Qrises 

et  Crevettes  Roses) 

Prawns  are  chiefly  used  for  hors-d'oeuvres,  but  they  may, 
nevertheless,  be  prepared  in  Aspics;  Mousses;  small  cold 
Souffles,  &c. 

As  regards  shrimps,  their  use  is  entirely  limited  to  gar- 
nishes, hors-d'ceuvres,  and  to  the  preparation  of  soups,  shrimp 
butters,  and  creams. 

OYSTERS.     (HUlTRES.) 

Though  oysters  are  nicer  raw,  there  are  so  many  culinary 
preparations  of  which  they  form  the  leading  constituent,  and 
such  a  number  of  garnishing  uses  to  which  they  may  be  put, 
that  I  feel  compelled  to  mention  some  of  these. 

980— HUiTRES  A  LA  FAVORITE 

Poach  the  oysters  (cleared  of  their  beards)  in  their  own 
liquor,  which  should  have  been  carefully  collected  when  open- 
ing them.  Clean  their  hollow  shells,  and  place  them  on  a 
tray  covered  with  a  layer  of  salt  one-half  inch  thick.  Garnish 
them  with  Bechamel;  upon  the  latter,  in  each  shell,  lay  an 
oyster  decked  with  a  slice  of  truffle;  cover  with  the  same 
sauce ;  besprinkle  with  grated  Parmesan  and  melted  butter,  and 
set  to  glaze  quickly.     Serve  immediately. 


334  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

981— HUITRES  AU  QRATIN 

Open  the  oysters ;  cut  them  free,  and  lay  them  in  the  hollow 
halves  of  their  shells,  which  should  be  incrusted  in  a  layer  of 
salt  covering  a  tray.  On  each  oyster  put  a  drop  of  lemon  juice, 
a  pinch  of  fried  bread-crumbs,  a  little  melted  butter,  and  a  piece 
of  fresh  butter  the  size  of  a  pea. 

Set  the  gratin  to  form  in  a  fierce  oven  or  at  the  salamander, 
and  serve  immediately. 

982— HUITRES  A  LA  MORNAY 

Poach  the  oysters,  and  allow  two  per  shell. 

Set  the  hollow  shells,  thoroughly  cleansed,  on  a  tray  covered 
with  salt.  Cover  the  bottom  of  the  shells  with  Mornay  sauce; 
put  two  poached  oysters  into  each ;  cover  with  the  same  sauce ; 
sprinkle  with  grated  cheese  and  melted  butter,  and  set  to  glaze 
quickly.     Serve  instantly. 

983— HUITRES  SOUFFLEES 

Make  a  preparation  of  SoufH6  au  Parmesan  (No.  2295A). 
Slightly  poach  the  oysters,  clean  their  hollow  shells,  and  set 
these  on  a  tray  covered  with  kitchen  salt.  Spread  a  layer  of  the 
preparation  on  each  shell ;  put  an  oyster  thereon,  and  cover  the 
latter  with  the  soufE16  au  Parmesan. 

Heat  the  base  of  the  tray  on  the  stove,  and,  when  the  souffle 
begins  to  rise,  put  the  tray  in  the  oven,  that  the  souffle  may 
cook  and  colour  at  the  same  time.     Serve  at  once. 

984— HuITRES  A  LA  FLORENTINE 

Poach  the  oysters.  Set  their  hollow  shells  on  a  tray  as 
above;  garnish  the  bottom  of  each  of  these  with  shredded 
spinach  stewed  in  butter;  lay  an  oyster  on  the  spinach  in  each 
shell ;  cover  with  Mornay  sauce,  and  set  to  glaze  quickly.  Serve 
immediately. 

985— HUiTRES  QRILLEES 

Open  the  oysters,  and  leave  them  in  their  hollow  shells ;  lay 
them  (very  straight)  on  a  tray  covered  with  salt,  incrusting 
them  in  the  latter;  besprinkle  with  a  drop  of  lemon  juice  and 
a  little  mignonette  pepper  and  put  them  in  a  fierce  oven,  that 
their  top  surfaces  may  be  speedily  poached. 

Dish  them  on  a  napkin;  pour  a  coffeespoonful  of  "Sauce 
Diable  Escoffier  "  over  each,^  and  serve  directly. 

986— QUENELLES  D'HUITRES  A  LA  REINE 

With  four  oz.  of  chicken  fillets  and  six  raw  oysters,  prepare 
a  mousseline  forcemeat  in  accordance  with  the  directions  given 


FISH  335 

under  No,  195.  Mould  this  forcemeat,  by  means  of  a  table- 
spoon, into  large  quenelles,  in  the  centre  of  which  lay  two 
cold  poached  oysters. 

Poach  these  quenelles  after  the  manner  of  ordinary  mous- 
selines.  This  done,  drain  them  on  a  piece  of  linen;  arrange 
them  in  a  circle  on  a  round  dish,  and  cover  them  with  highly- 
seasoned  Supreme  sauce.  Decorate  each  quenelle  with  a  fine 
slice  of  truffle,  and  garnish  the  middle  of  the  dish  with  some 
asparagus-tops,  cohered  with  butter. 

987— BASS  (Bar) 

This  excellent  fish  is  very  little  knownj  and,  consequently, 
rarely  sought  after  in   England. 

The  large  specimens  are  served,  boiled,  with  the  same  kind 
of  sauce  as  for  turbot.  The  smaller  ones  are  chiefly  served  k  la 
Meuni^re  or  fried. 

988— BRILL  (Barbue) 

Served  whole,  brill  may  be  looked  upon  as  the  understudy, 
as  it  were,  of  the  chicken-turbot,  and  all  the  preparations  given 
for  the  latter  may  be  adapted  to  the  former. 

If  it  be  preferred  filleted,  it  may  be  treated  after  the  recipes 
given  for  fillets  of  sole.  Hence  for  brill  cooked  whole  refer 
to  chicken-turbot  and  the  recipes  Nos.  925  to  938,  and  for  filleted 
brill  see  recipes  Nos.  865  to  922. 

989— BLOATERS 

Bloaters,  or  herrings  partially  dried  in  smoke,  form  one  of 
the  nicest  breakfast  dishes.  As  a  rule,  they  are  simply  grilled 
over  a  moderate  fire.  It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that,  as  these 
fish  are  only  partially  salted  and  smoked,  they  will  not  keep 
very  long. 

COD.    (CABILLAUD.) 

If  cod  were  less  common,  it  would  be  held  in  as  high  esteem 
as  salmon ;  for,  when  it  is  really  fresh  and  of  good  quality,  the 
delicacy  and  delicious  flavour  of  its  flesh  admit  of  its  ranking 
among  the  finest  of  fish. 

990— CABILLAUD  BOUILLI 

Fresh  cod  is  mostly  served  boiled,  either  whole,  in  sections, 
or  in  dames,  and  the  directions  given  under  "The  Boiling  of 
Fish  "  (No.  766)  apply  particularly  to  this  fish. 

Boiled  fresh  cod  is  always  accompanied  by  its  liver,  poached 
in  salted  water,  and  very  floury  potatoes,  boiled  at  the  last 
minute,  must  always  be  sent  to  the  table  with  it. 

Served  thus  with  an  oyster  sauce,  a  Hollandaise  sauce,  or 


336  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

melted  butter,  fresh  cod  constitutes  a  Relev^  which  would  satisfy 
the  most  exacting  of  gourmets. 

991— CABILLAUD  QRILL6 

Cut  the  fish  into  slices  one  inch  or  two  inches  thick.  Season 
these  slices ;  dredge  them ;  sprinkle  them  copiously  with 
melted  butter,  and  set  them  to  grill,  remembering  to  baste 
them  frequently  the  while  with  melted  butter. 

Serve  them  on  a  hot  dish ;  garnish  them  with  slices  of  lemon, 
and  surround  with  bunches  of  parsley. 

Send  a  Maitre-d' Hotel  or  Anchovy  butter,  or  a  grilled-fish 
sauce  to  the  table  with  the  dish. 

992— CABILLAUD  FRIT 

Cut  some  slices  of  fresh  cod,  from  one  inch  to  one  and  one- 
half  inches  thick.  Season  them,  treat  them  a  I'anglaise,  and 
fry  them  sufficiently  to  allow  of  their  being  well  cooked  all 
through.  Dish  them  on  a  napkin  with  fried  parsley  and  lemon, 
and  send  a  butter  sauce  (No.  66),  a  tartare  sauce,  or  a  tomato 
sauce  to  the  table  at  the  same  time  as  the  fish. 

993-CABILLAUD  CREME  QRATIN 

For  ten  people  take  two  lbs.  of  boiled  fresh  cod  divided 
into  small  pieces;  clear  these  of  all  bones  and  skin,  and  keep 
them  hot  in  a  little  of  their  cooking-liquor. 

Now,  with  the  necessary  quantity  of  Duchesse  potatoes  (No. 
221),  and  by  means  of  a  piping-bag  fitted  with  a  grooved  pipe, 
lay  a  border,  one  and  one-half  inches  high,  round  a  dish,  shap- 
ing it  in  such  wise  that  it  is  thickest  at  its  base.  The  dish  may 
be  either  round  or  oval.  Carefully  gild  this  border  with  egg- 
yolks. 

This  done,  pour  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  Mornay  sauce  on 
the  dish ;  lay  thereon  the  drained  pieces  of  cod,  and  cover  the 
latter  with  enough  Mornay  sauce  to  reach  within  one-third  of  an 
inch  of  the  brim  of  the  border.  If  more  sauce  were  used,  it 
would  flow  over  the  border  during  the  process  of  glazing. 

Sprinkle  with  grated  Parmesan  and  melted  butter;  set  to 
glaze,  and  see  that  the  border  gets  evenly  coloured. 

Serve  the  moment  the  dish  is  withdrawn  from  the  oven. 

N.B. — This  mode  of  preparation  is  not  restricted  to  fresh 
cod.  It  may  be  applied  to  all  other  boiled  fish — turbot,  chicken- 
turbot,  brill,  bass,  salmon,  &c. 

994— CABILLAUD  A  LA  FLAMANDE 

Cut  the  fresh  cod  into  slices  one  inch  thick ;  season  them  with 
salt,   pepper,  and  nutmeg,  and  put  them  in  a  saut^pan  or  a 


PISH  337 

deep,  liberally-buttered  tray.  Moisten  with  white  wine  to  the 
height  of  the  slices;  add  chopped  shallots  and  "  fines  herbes," 
and  garnish  the  fish  with  roundels  of  pipped  lemon,  peeled  to 
the  pulp. 

Set  to  boil,  and  then  poach  in  the  oven  for  twelve  minutes. 
Place  the  slices  on  a  dish;  thicken  their  cooking-liquor  with 
crushed  biscotte;  cook  it  for  five  minutes;  pour  it  over  the 
slices,  and  serve. 

995— CABILLAUD  A  LA  PORTUQAISE 

For  ten  people,  cut  five  slices  of  fresh  cod,  each  weighing 
one-half  lb.,  and  season  them  with  salt  and  pepper.  Put  these 
slices  into  a  saut^pan  containing  the  following  garnish,  Into 
which  they  should  be  pressed  : — Three  oz.  of  butter  and  one- 
sixth  pint  of  oil ;  one  large  onion,  chopped  and  lightly  coloured 
in  butter ;  a  bit  of  crushed  garlic  the  size  of  a  pea ;  one  faggot ; 
two  pinches  of  concassed  parsley;  eight  medium-sized,  peeled, 
pressed,  and  minced  tomatoes,  and  one-third  pint  of  white  wine. 

Cover  the  saut^pan,  and  set  to  boil  on  an  open  fire  for  five 
minutes. 

Now  take  the  lid  off  the  saucepan,  and  leave  it  to  cook  for 
twelve  minutes  on  the  side  of  the  fire,  in  order  that  the  liquid 
may  be  reduced  and  the  fish  cooked  at  the  same  moment  of 
time. 

Set  the  slices  on  a  long  dish ;  withdraw  the  faggot,  and  pour 
the  garnish  and  the  cooking-liquor  over  the  fish. 

996— LAITANCES  DE  CARPE  (Carp's  Milt) 

The  milt  of  a  carp  makes  a  very  delicate  dish.  It  is  served 
either  as  a  second  fish  at  a  dinner;  as  a  garnish  to  large  fish 
Relev^s,  after  having  been  poached  in  salted  water;  or  cut 
while  raw  into  slices  which  are  generally  treated  a  la  Meuniere. 

997— LAITANCES  A  LA  MEUNIERE 

Prepare  them  whole  or  in  collops,  in  pursuance  of  the  direc- 
tions  given   under   "The  Cooking  of   Fish   k  la  Meuniere" 

(No.  778). 

998— BARQUETTES  DE  LAITANCES  A  LA  FLORENTINE 

Poach  the  milts  in  salted  water;  cut  them  into  small,  long 
slices,  and  set  them  in  barquette  crusts  prepared  in  advance. 

Cover  the  sliced  milts  with  a  souffle  au  Parmesan  (No. 
2295a),  and  shape  the  latter  slightly  after  the  manner  of  a  dome. 

Arrange  the  barquettes  on  a  dish,  and  put  them  in  a  moderate 
oven,  that  they  may  cook  and  the  souffle  be  glazed  at  the  same 

z 


338  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

time.     When  taking  them  out  of  the  oven,   dish  them  on  a 
napkin  and  serve  immediately. 

999— CAISSES  DE  LAITANCES  A  LA  NANTUA 

Poach  the  milts  in  salted  water.  Drain  them,  and  cut  them 
into  small  slices  thicker  than  their  length. 

Place  these  slices  in  small  pleated  porcelain  cases  with 
two  crayfish  tails  in  each.  Fill  up  the  cases  with  Nantua  sauce, 
and  lay  a  fine  slice  of  truffle  over  the  centre  of  each  case. 

looo— JOHN  DORY  (St.  Pierre) 

This  fish,  which  is  in  the  highest  degree  unsightly,  is  pos- 
sessed of  flesh  whose  firmness,  whiteness,  and  delicacy  are 
of  the  rarest  excellence;  and,  when  quite  fresh,  its  fillets  are 
certainly  equal  in  quality  to  those  of  the  chicken-turbot  and 
the  sole. 

Albeit  the  dory  is  not  as  popular  as  it  deserves  to  be,  and 
this  is  owing  either  to  its  unsightliness,  which  may  prejudice 
the  opinion  of  gourmets  against  it,  to  people's  indifference  with 
regard  to  it,  or  to  a  mere  trick  of  fashion. 

While  I  admit  its  unpopularity,  however,  I  should  strongly 
recommend  all  lovers  of  fish  to  give  it  a  trial.  Let  them  prepare 
the  dory's  fillets  after  the  recipes  given  under  Fillets  of  Sole  and 
Chicken-turbot,  and,  provided  the  directions  be  properly  carried 
out,  I  venture  to  believe  that  the  prevailing  aversion  to  dory  will 
very  soon  be  found  to  have  no  warrant  in  fact. 

looi— FRESH  HADDOCK  (Eglefin) 

This  fish  is  chiefly  eaten  smoked,  under  the  name  of  haddock. 

When  it  is  fresh,  it  may  be  prepared  after  the  recipes  given 
for  cod,  to  which  it  is  quite  equal  in  the  matter  of  delicacy. 

I002— SMELT  (^perlans) 

Owing  to  their  small  size,  smelts  only  lend  themselves  to  a 
very  limited  number  of  preparations.  They  are  usually  served 
either  on  little  skewers  or  dished  in  a  heap  on  a  napkin,  with 
fried  parsley  and  grooved  half-lemons;  those  on  skewers  are 
dished  flat  with  the  same  garnish. 

Large  smelts  may  be  treated  after  the  recipes  immediately 
following. 

1003— 6PERLANS  A  L'ANQLAISE 

Open  the  smelts  down  the  back  and  carefully  bone,  without 
disfiguring  them.  Treat  them  a  I'anglaise  with  fine  bread- 
crumbs, and  pat  them  lightly  with  the  flat  of  a  knife,  that  the 
bread-crumbs  may  adhere  well. 


FISH  339 

Cook  them  in  clarified  butter;  set  them  on  a  long  hot  dish, 
and  besprinkle  them  with  half-melted  butter  h  la  Maltre-d'H6tel 
(No.  150). 

1004— EPERLANS  AU  QRATIN 

Proceed  as  for  "  Merlans  au  Gratin  "  (No.  1018),  but  allow- 
ing for  the  difference  between  the  sizes  of  the  two  fish,  put  the 
smelts  in  a  fiercer  oven  than  the  whiting,  in  order  that  they  may 
be  cooked  simultaneously  with  the  formation  of  the  gratin. 

1005— EPERLANS  QRILLI6S 

Open  them  down  the  back,  and  remove  the  bulk  of  their 
spine,  leaving  a  small  piece  only  in  the  region  of  the  tail,  and 
another  small  piece  at  the  head.  Season,  dredge,  and 
sprinkle  them  with  melted  butter,  and  grill  them  quickly. 

Set  them  on  a  long,  hot  dish ;  surround  them  with  slices  of 
lemon  and  bunches  of  fried  parsley,  and  serve  separately  either 
some  half-melted  butter  k  la  Maitre-d'H6tel,  or  a  sauce  suited 
to  grilled  fish. 

1006— MOUSSELINES  D'^PERLANS 

Proceed  exactly  as  for  Mousselines  de  Saumon  (No.  797). 
To  prepare  the  forcemeat,  follow  the  directions  under  No.  195 ; 
but  note  the  following  changes : — Of  the  whole  quantity  of  the 
meat  of  fish,  that  of  the  smelt  should  only  measure  one-third; 
the  other  two-thirds  should  be  supplied  by  the  sole,  dory,  or 
whiting. 

The  object  of  this  disproportion  has  already  been  explained 
under  "  Velout^  d'Eperlans  "  (No.  680).  The  flesh  of  the  smelt 
is  of  a  much  too  decided  flavour  to  be  used  alone,  and  when 
this  flavour  dominates,  it  becomes  positively  disagreeable ;  hence 
the  need  of  a  fish  whose  flesh  is  almost  neutral  in  so  far  as 
taste  is  concerned.  But  this  addition  of  a  fish  foreign  to  the 
base  of  the  preparation  fulfils  a  double  purpose;  for,  while  it 
effectually  weakens  the  pungency  of  the  smelt's  flesh,  it  also 
enables  the  whole  preparation  to  absorb  a  much  larger  quantity 
of  cream,  and  this  last  circumstance  can  only  allow  of  the 
mousselines  being  lighter  and  mellower. 

1007— MOUSSE  CHAUDE  D'EPERLANS  A  LA  ROYALE 

Take  a  Charlotte-mould,  of  a  size  in  proportion  to  the 
number  of  people  to  be  served,  and  butter  its  bottom  and  sides. 
Cover  the  bottom  of  the  mould  with  a  round  piece  of  buttered 
kitchen  paper,  and  do  the  same  on  the  sides. 

Prepare  the  required  quantity  of  smelts'  fillets;  slightly 
flatten  them  in  order  to  break  their  fibres,  and  trim  them  all  to 
the  same  length  and  width. 

z  2 


340  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Then  garnish  the  bottom  of  the  mould  with  tlie  fillets  of 
smelt,  placing  them  so  that  their  skin-sides  are  against  the 
mould.  Between  each  of  the  fillets  set  a  small  strip  of  truffle, 
one  quarter  of  the  width  of  the  former. 

Garnish  the  sides  in  the  same  way,  putting  a  strip  of  truffle 
between  each;  but  take  care  to  place  the  fillets  aslant  instead 
of  upright.  Having  thus  lined  the  mould  with  fillets  of  smelt 
and  truffle,  cover  the  whole  with  a  layer  of  mousseline  force- 
meat, one-half  inch  thick. 

Now  fill  the  mould  in  the  following  way  : — On  the  layer  of 
forcemeat  covering  the  fillets  at  the  bottom  of  the  mould  set 
as  many  slices  of  truffle  as  will  cover  it;  spread  another  layer 
of  forcemeat  on  the  truffle,  and  over  that  lay,  alternately,  a 
sufficient  quantity  of  fillets  of  smelt  and  anchovy.  Follow  with 
a  fresh  layer  of  forcemeat,  slices  of  truffle,  &c.,  until  the  mould 
is  full,  and  finish  with  a  layer  of  forcemeat. 

Poach  the  motisse  (covered)  in  a  moderate  oven,  and  allow 
fifty  minutes  for  one  prepared  in  a  quart-mould.  It  is  very 
easy,  however,  to  tell  when  the  mousse  is  done,  by  simply 
thrusting  a  small  knife  into  it;  if  the  blade  of  the  knife  with- 
draws quite  clean,  the  mousse  is  cooked. 

As  soon  as  it  is  ready,  turn  the  mould  upside-down  on  a 
dish,  and  raise  it  a  little  in  order  to  allow  the  liquid,  which 
always  accumulates  in  more  or  less  large  quantities,  to  drain 
away.  Soak  up  this  liquid;  gently  draw  off  the  mould;  take 
oft"  the  paper,  and  remove  the  froth  which  may  have  formed  on 
the  fillets  by  means  of  a  wet  brush. 

Lay  a  fine,  grooved  mushroom  on  the  top  of  the  mousse ; 
surround  it  with  mousseline  sauce  (No.  92),  finished  with 
crayfish  butter,  and  send  a  sauceboat  of  the  same  mousseline 
sauce  to  the  table  with  the  dish. 

N.B. — This  m,ousse  may  also  be  prepared  with  fillets  of  sole, 
of  salmon,  or  of  trout,  &c. 
1008— HADDOCK 

Sometimes  the  fish  is  grilled,  but,  after  having  boned  it  and 
removed  its  fins  and  the  greater  part  of  its  belly,  it  is  more 
often  cooked  in  water  or  milk,  either  of  which  moistening  is 
usually  short. 

It  is  plunged  in  slightly  salted  boiling  water,  and  then  it 
is  moved  to  the  side  of  the  fire  to  poach,  with  lid  on.  Allow 
about  fifteen  minutes  for  a  fish  weighing  one  and  one-half  lbs. 

Dish  it  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  its  cooking-liquor,  and, 
subject  to  the  consumer's  taste,  serve  some  fresh  or  melted 
butter  separately. 


FISH  341 

When  haddock  is  served  at  lunch,  send  to  the  table  with 
it  an  egg-sauce  and  a  timbale  of  potatoes,  freshly  cooked  a 
I'anglaise. 

Mackerel   (Maquereau) 
1009— MAQUEREAU  BOUILLI,  SAUCE  AUX  QROSEILLES 

Cut  the  mackerels  into  three,  crosswise,  and  poach  them  in 
court-bouillon  with  vinegar  (No.  163),  seasoned  with  a  pinch 
of  fennel  per  pint.  Drain  them  on  a  napkin ;  skin  them,  and 
dish  them  with  curled-leaf  parsley  all  round. 

With  the  mackerels  serve  a  gooseberry  sauce  prepared  as 
follows : — 

Green  Gooseberry  Sauce  proper  to  Mackerel. — Cook  one  lb. 
of  green  gooseberries  in  a  copper  sugar  boiler  with  three  oz.  of 
sugar  and  enough  water  to  cover  them,  and  then  rub  them 
through  tammy. 

loio— MAQUEREAU  GRILLE 

Cut  off  the  extremity  of  the  mackerels'  mouths;  open  them 
down  the  back,  without  dividing  them  into  two. 

Season  them ;  sprinkle  them  with  melted  butter,  and  grill 
them  gently,  taking  care  to  baste  them  by  means  of  a  brush 
with  melted  butter  while  they  are  cooking. 

Set  them  on  a  round,  hot  dish,  and  sprinkle  them  with 
half-melted  butter  a  la  Maitre-d' Hotel,  after  having  drawn  their 
halves  together,  that  they  may  seem  natural  and  untouched. 

Or  surround  them  with  grooved  slices  of  lemon,  and  send 
a  "  Sauce  Diable  Escoffier  "  to  the  table  separately.  This  sauce 
constitutes  an  excellent  adjunct  to  grilled  mackerel. 

ion— FILETS  DE  MAQUEREAU  AUX  FINES  HERBES 

Raise  some  mackerels'  fillets  in  such  wise  as  to  leave  the 
bones  quite  clean.  Arrange  the  fillets  on  a  buttered  dish,  and 
poach  them  in  white  wine  and  the  cooking-liquor  of  mushrooms 
in  equal  quantities.  Take  care  to  cover  them  while  they  are 
being  poached. 

This  done,  drain  them;  skin  them;  set  them  on  a  long 
dish,  and  cover  them  with  a  herb  sauce  (No.  83),  combined 
with  their  cooking-liquor  strained  through  linen  and  reduced. 

1012— FILETS  DE  MAQUEREAU  AU  PERSIL 

Raise  the  fillets  as  before,  and  poach  them  in  a  white-wine 
court-bouillon  with  one-half  oz.  of  parsley  leaves  per  pint. 
Drain  them ;  skin  them ;  set  them  on  a  long  dish,  and  cover 


342  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

them  with  a  parsley  sauce.  This  latter  is  an  English  butter 
sauce  (No.  113a)  to  which  some  freshly-chopped  parsley  is 
added  at  the  last  moment. 

1013— FILETS  DE  MAQUEREAU  A  LA  V^NITIENNE 

Poach  the  fillets  in  a  court-bouillon  with  white  wine.  Drain 
them ;  skin  them ;  set  them  on  a  long  dish,  and  cover  them 
with  a  Venetian  sauce  (No.  107). 

Whiting  (Merlan) 

1014— MERLAN  A  L'ANQLAISE 

Open  the  whitings  down  the  back;  loosen  the  spine,  and 
completely  remove  it.  Season  them  inside,  and  treat  them 
a  I'anglaise  with  very  fresh  and  fine  bread-crumbs. 

Cook  the  whitings  very  quickly  in  clarified  butter;  set  them 
on  a  long  dish,  and  sprinkle  them  with  half-melted  butter 
k  la  Maitre-d'Hotel. 

N.B. — Whitings  a  I'anglaise  may  also  be  grilled,  but  it  is 
preferable  to  cook  them  in  clarified  butter. 

lo  15— MERLAN  A  LA  BERCY 

Slightly  open  the  whitings  down  the  back,  with  the  view 
of  promoting  their  cooking  process.  Lay  them  on  a  buttered 
dish  sprinkled  with  finely-chopped  shallots,  and  moisten 
them  with  white  wine  and  fish  fumet.  Add  one-half  oz.  of 
butter  per  whiting,  and  cook  in  the  oven,  basting  often  the 
while.  The  moment  when  the  whitings  are  quite  done  should 
be  coincident  with  the  almost  complete  reduction  of  their 
cooking-liquor. 

Set  to  glaze  at  the  last  moment. 

When  taking  the  whitings  out  of  the  oven,  sprinkle  them 
with  a  few  drops  of  lemon  juice  and  a  little  chopped  parsley. 

1016— MERLAN  A  LA  COLBERT 

Open  the  whitings  down  the  back,  and  bone  them.  Season 
them;  dip  them  in  milk;  roll  them  in  flour;  and  treat  them 
a  I'anglaise.  Fry  them ;  drain  them ;  set  them  on  a  long  dish ; 
garnish  the  openings  in  their  backs  with  butter  k  la  Maitre- 
d'Hotel,  and  border  the  dish  with  grooved  slices  of  lemon. 

1017— MOUSSELINES  DE  MERLAN 

For  the  preparation  of  the  mousseline  forcemeat,  refer  to 
No.   195.     The  moulding  and  poaching  of  these  mousselines 


FISH  343 

are  the  same  as  for  salmon  mousselines,  and  the  preparations 
suited  to  the  latter  may  likewise  be  applied  to  mousselines  de 
merlans.    (See  Mousselines  de  Saumon,  Nos.  797  to  799.) 

ioi8— FILETS  DE  MERLAN  AU  QRATIN 

Raise  the  fillets  from  some  whitings,  and  leave  the  bones 
quite  clean.  Lay  them  on  a  buttered  dish  besprinkled  with 
chopped  shallots,  the  bottom  of  which  should  have  been  covered 
with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  gratin  sauce.  Surround  the  fillets 
with  slices  of  raw  mushrooms;  set  two  small,  cooked  mushrooms 
upon  each  fillet;  pour  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  white  wine  into 
the  dish,  and  cover  the  whole  with  gratin  sauce. 

Sprinkle  with  fine  raspings  and  melted  butter,  and  put  the 
dish  in  a  sufficiently  fierce  oven  to  (i)  reduce  the  sauce;  (2)  allow 
the  gratin  to  form ;  and  (3)  cook  the  fillets  at  the  same  moment 
of  time.  In  respect  of  this  operation,  refer  to  Complete  Gratin, 
No.  269. 

When  taking  the  dish  from  the  oven,  sprinkle  a  little 
chopped  parsley  and  a  few  drops  of  lemon  juice  over  it. 

N.B. — If  the  whiting  be  treated  whole,  the  procedure 
remains  the  same. 

1019— PAUPIETTES  DE  MERLAN  AU  QRATIN 

Raise  some  fillets  of  whiting;  coat  them  with  a  fish  force- 
meat combined  with  fine  herbs,  and  roll  them  into  scrolls.  Set 
these  rolled  fillets  on  a  round,  buttered  gratin  dish  sprinkled  with 
chopped  shallots,  the  bottom  of  which  should  have  been  covered 
with  gratin  sauce. 

Surround  them  with  a  border  of  sliced,  raw  mushrooms; 
place  a  small,  cooked  mushroom  on  each  fillet,  and  proceed  for 
the  rest  of  the  operation  exactly  as  explained  under  "  Filets  de 
Merlan  au  Gratin." 

1020— MERLAN  EN  LORGNETTE  AU  QRATIN 

Separate  the  fillets  from  the  bones,  proceeding  from  the  tail 
to  the  head,  and  completely  remove  the  spine  near  the  head. 
Cover  the  fillets  with  fish  forcemeat  "  aux  fines  herbes,"  and 
roll  them  into  scrolls  with  their  tail-ends  inside. 

Set  them  on  a  round  dish  sprinkled  with  chopped  shallots 
and  covered  with  gratin  sauce,  placing  them  side  by  side,  all 
round  the  dish,  with  the  whitings'  heads  in  the  centre;  and 
proceed  for  the  rest  of  the  operation  as  explained  under  No. 
1018. 

N.B. — Whitings  prepared  in  this  way  may  be  treated  with 
white  wine,  Dieppoise,  Bercy,  fried,  ^C, 


344  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

1021— FILETS  DE  MERLAN  ORLY 

Raise  the  fillets  and  proceed  as  for  "  Filets  de  Soles 
Olga,"  No.  893. 

I023— MERLAN  SUR  LE  PLAT 

Proceed  as  for  "  Sole  sur  le  Plat,"  No.  837. 

1023-MERLAN  A  LA  RICHELIEU 

Prepare  six  "  Merlans  k  I'anglaise,"  No.  1014.  Lay  thereon 
a  few  slices  of  truffle.  Or  dish  them  simply  on  their  sides; 
garnish  their  top  surfaces  with  the  butter  prescribed  above,  and 
put  a  row  of  truffle  slices  on  the  butter. 

1024— MORUE  AND  SALTED  COD  (Morue  et  Cabillaud  Sal6) 

Salted  cod  bought  in  England  has  generally  been  fished 
somewhere  along  the  English  coast,  and  is,  as  a  rule,  of 
recent  salting.  It  has  not  the  peculiar  flavour  of  the  Icelandic 
morue,  or  that  of  the  Newfoundland  specimens,  and  it  does  not 
lend  itself  to  such  a  large  variety  of  preparations  as  these  two. 

At  the  end  of  each  of  the  following  recipes,  I  indicate  the 
kind  of  cod  to  which  the  procedure  may  be  applied. 

Morue,  especially  the  Newfoundland  kind,  should  be  set 
to  soak  at  least  twelve  hours  before  being  used,  and  the  water 
during  that  time  should  be  frequently  changed. 

When  about  to  cook  it,  suppress  its  fins,  and  cut  it  up  in 
a  way  befitting  the  selected  mode  of  preparation. 

Allow  four  oz.  gross  of  the  fish  for  each  person. 

1024a— SALTED  COD  AND  MORUE  A  L'ANQLAISE 

Put  the  fish  into  cold  water ;  set  to  boil,  and  as  soon  as  this 
point  is  reached,  leave  the  fish  to  poach  on  the  side  of  the  fire 
for  fifteen  minutes. 

Drain,  skin,  dish  on  a  napkin,  and  serve,  separately,  a 
timbale  of  parsnips  and  an  egg-sauce  a  I'Ecossaise. 

Both  kinds  of  cod  may  be  used  for  this  dish. 

1025— MORUE  A  LA  BENEDICTINE 

Poach  one  and  one-half  lbs.  of  morue  as  above;  drain  it 
and  cut  into  small  pieces,  cleared  of  all  skin  and  bone.  Pound 
it  quickly  while  it  is  still  hot,  and  add  to  it  half  its  weight  of 
potatoes  cooked  as  for  a  puree,  drained,  and  dried  in  the  oven 
for  a  few  minutes.  When  the  whole  has  been  reduced  to  a 
fine  paste,  add  one-sixth  pint  of  oil,  and  one-quarter  pint 
of  boiled  milk.  The  oil  and  the  milk  should  be  added 
little  by  little,  and  the  paste  should  be  more  mellow  than  stiff. 


FISH  345 

Serve  in  a  buttered  gratin  dish ;  arrange  ttie  preparation  in 
tlie  form  of  a  dome ;  sprinkle  with  melted  butter,  and  set 
to  colour  in  the  oven. 

Icelandic  and  Newfoundland  morue. 

1026— MORUE  AU  BEURRE  NOIR 
OU  AU  BEURRE  NOISETTE 

Cut  the  morue  into  squares  or  rectangles;  roll  these  into 
paupiettes  or  scrolls,  and  bind  these  with  a  piece  of  string. 
Poach  them  in  the  usual  way;  drain  them;  scrape  their  skins, 
and  dish  them.  Sprinkle  with  concussed  parsley;  add  lemon 
juice,  and  cover  with  brown  or  lightly-browned  butter.  Either 
kind  of  cod  may  be  used. 

1027— BRANDADE  DE  MORUE 

Cut  one  lb.  of  morue  into  pieces,  and  poach  these  for  eight 
minutes.  The  eight  minutes  should  be  counted  from  the  time 
the  water  begins  to  boil. 

Drain  on  a  sieve,  and  clear  the  pieces  of  all  skin  and  bones. 
Heat  in  a  sautepan  one-sixth  pint  of  oil  until  the  latter 
smokes;  throw  the  cleaned  pieces  of  morue  into  the  oil;  add  a 
piece  of  crushed  garlic  the  size  of  a  haricot-bean,  and  stir  over 
a  brisk  fire  with  a  wooden  spoon  until  the  morue  is  reduced  to 
shreds. 

Then  take  the  saucepan  off  the  fire,  and,  without  ceasing  to 
stir  the  paste,  add  thereto,  little  by  little,  as  for  a  mayonnaise, 
about  one-half  pint  of  oil.  When  the  paste  begins  to  stiffen 
through  the  addition  of  the  oil,  now  and  again  add  a  table- 
spoonful  of  milk.  For  the  amount  of  morue  used,  one-quarter 
pint  of  boiling  milk  should  thus  be  added  by  degrees. 

When  the  Brandade  is  finished,  it  should  have  the  consist- 
ence of  an  ordinary  potato  purde.  When  about  to  serve,  taste 
the  preparation,  and  rectify  its  seasoning. 

Dish  the  Brandade  in  a  hot  timbale,  building  it  up  in  the 
shape  of  a  pyramid,  and  set  thereon  a  crown  of  bread-crumb 
triangles  fried  in  butter  just  before  dishing  up. 

N.B. — The  triangles  of  fried  bread  may,  with  advantage,  be 
replaced  by  lozenges  made  from  puff-paste,  which  are  baked 
without  colouration.  For  the  Brandade  use  only  well-soaked 
Icelandic  or  Newfoundland  morue, 

1028— BRANDADE  DE  MORUE  A  LA  CREME 

Follow  the  directions  given  above,  but  instead  of  oil  and 
milk,  use  two-thirds  pint  of  cream,  which  should  be  added  to 
the  morue  paste  by  spoonfuls. 


346  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

I029— MORUE  A  LA  CREOLE 

Finely  mince  an  onion,  and  cook  it  gently  in  butter  until 
it  is  of  a  nice  golden  colour.  Spread  it  on  the  bottom  of  a 
little  oval  earthenware  dish,  and  set  three  tomatoes  prepared 
h.  la  Proven9ale  (No.  2268)  upon  it. 

Poach  one  lb  of  morue ;  drain  it  as  soon  as  ready,  and  flake 
it  while  clearing  it  of  all  skin  and  bones.  Lay  this  flaked 
morue  on  the  slices  of  tomato;  cover  it  with  three  mild  cap- 
sicums, split  and  broiled;  sprinkle  the  whole  with  a  few  drops 
of  lemon  juice  and  one  oz.  of  lightly-browned  butter,  and  put 
the  dish  in  the  oven  for  a  few  minutes.     Serve  very  hot. 

Icelandic  or  Newfoundland  morue  may  be  used. 

1030— CABILLAUD  SALE,  OR  MORUE  A  LA  HOLLANDAISE 

Proceed  exactly  as  for  "  Sole  h.  la  Hollandaise"  (No.  829). 
Both  kinds  suit  this  preparation. 

103 1— CABILLAUD  SALE,  OR  MORUE  A  L'INDIENNE 

Poach  one  lb.  of  salted  cod  or  morue,  and  flake  it  while 
clearing  it  of  all  skin  and  bones.  Mix  this  flaked  fish  with 
two-thirds  pint  of  Indienne  sauce,  and  dish  it  in  a  hot  timbale. 

Serve  some  rice  k  I'lndienne  separately. 

Both  kinds  of  fish  are  suited  to  this  dish. 

1032— MORUE  A  LA  LYONNAISE 

Poach  one  lb.  of  morue,  and  flake  it  as  explained  above. 
Finely  mince  a  medium-sized  onion,  and  toss  it  in  butter.  Also 
toss  three  medium-sized  potatoes  cut  into  roundels.  Heat  one 
oz.  of  butter  and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  oil  in  a  frying-pan ;  put 
therein  the  flaked  morue  and  the  potatoes,  and  toss  the  whole 
over  a  brisk  fire  for  a  few  minutes. 

When  about  to  dish  up,  add  a  few  drops  of  vinegar. 

Dish  in  a  hot  timbale,  and  sprinkle  the  morue  with  a 
pinch  of  chopped  parsley.  Use  either  the  Icelandic  or  the 
Newfoundland  fish  for  this  preparation. 

1033— SOUFFLE  DE  MORUE 

Finely  pound  one-quarter  lb.  of  freshly  poached  and  flaked 
morue,  and  add  thereto,  little  by  little,  two  tablespoonfuls  of 
hot  and  very  thick  B6chamel  sauce.  When  the  paste  is  very 
smooth,  season  it;  put  into  a  saucepan,  heat  it,  and  add  the 
yolks  of  three  eggs,  and  four  whites  beaten  to  a  stiff  froth. 

Put  the  whole' into  a  buttered  souffle-saucepan,  and  cook 
after  the  manner  of  an  ordinary  souffle.  Take  either  Icelandic 
or  Newfoundland  morue  for  this  dish. 


FISH  347 

1034— CHAR  (Ombre-Chevalier) 

The  char  is  a  fish  of  the  salmon  family,  which  is 
culinarily  treated  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  the  trout.  When 
it  is  large,  the  recipes  given  for  salmon  trout  may  be  adapted 
to  it,  but  it  is  mostly  used  small — that  is  to  say,  from  five 
inches  to  ten  inches  long.  The  fishing  of  char  is  restricted 
chiefly  to  lake  countries,  such  as  Scotland  and  Switzerland,  and 
it  is  only  in  season  during  two  months  of  the  year.  More- 
over, as  this  fish  loses  much  of  its  quality  in  transit,  its  scarcity 
on  the  market  will  be  easily  understood.  The  lake  of  Zug,  in 
Switzerland,  supplies  the  most  famous  specimens,  which  are 
called  Rothel  by  the  people  of  the  locality.  The  delicacy  of 
the  fish  is  remarkable,  and  in  this  it  may  vie  even  with  the 
best  river  trout. 

The  char  of  the  Scotch  lakes  may  be  treated  after  the  same 

recipes  as  the  Swiss  specimens,  but  they  are  more  often  used 

in  the  preparation  of  potted  char,  the  recipe  for  which  is  as 

follows : — 

1035— POTTED  CHAR 

Cook  the  chars  in  a  fine  mirepoix  with  white  wine,  exactly 
after  the  manner  of  trout.  When  the  fish  are  cooked,  leave 
them  to  cool  completely  in  their  cooking-liquor.  Drain  them ; 
skin  them;  separate  their  fillets,  and  thoroughly  bone  them. 
Set  the  fillets  in  a  special  earthenware  pot;  entirely  cover  them 
with  clarified  butter,  and  put  them  in  a  moderate  oven  for  one 
quarter  of  an  hour. 

Leave  them  to  cool  until  the  next  day,  and  add  sufficient 
clarified  butter  to  cover  them  with  a  layer  one-third  inch  thick. 

If  Potted  Char  be  left  in  the  cool,  it  will  keep  for  some 
considerable  time. 

RED    MULLETS    (ROUGETS) 

Red  mullet,  especially  the  Mediterranean  rock  kind,  is  one 
of  the  greatest  fish  delicacies  known ;  and  the  surname  ' '  Sea 
Woodcock,"  which  gourmets  sometimes  give  it,  is  quite  justi- 
fied, not  only  by  its  quality,  but  by  the  fact  that,  except  for  its 
gills,  it  is  generally  left  whole,  and  not  even  emptied. 

It  is  best  grilled. 

io3Sa— GRILLED  RED  MULLET 

Carefully  wipe  the  mullet;  cisel  it  on  either  side  to  a  depth 
in  proportion  to  the  thickness  of  its  flesh  and  at  closer  intervals 
the  thicker  the  latter  is,  in  order  to  facilitate  the  cooking ;  season 
it  with  salt  and  pepper ;  sprinkle  it  with  a  little  oil  and  a  few 
drops  of  lemon  juice;  spread  a  few  slices  of  lemon  and  a  few 


348  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

parsley  stalks  upon  and  beneath  it;  and  let  it  marinade  for  an 
hour  or  two,  turning  it  over  frequently  the  while. 

Twenty  minutes  before  serving,  set  the  red  mullet  on  a 
double  fish  grill,  and  cook  it  over  a  rather  fierce  fire, 
sprinkling  it  often  the  while  with  its  marinade.  Dish  and  serve 
it  as  soon  as  it  is  ready,  and  serve  a  little  half-melted  maitre- 
d'hotel  butter  separately. 

1035b— ROUQET  A  LA  BORDELAISE 

Grill  or  saute  the  red  mullet.  At  the  same  time  serve  a 
sauce  Bordelaise  Bonnefoy  (No.  67). 

1035c— ROUQET  AU  FENOUIL 

Cisel  and  marinade  the  red  mullet  as  directed  under  No. 
1035a,  and  add  a  certain  quantity  of  chopped  fennel  to  the 
aromatics.  Twenty  minutes  before  serving,  add  two  oz.  of 
roughly-chopped  raw  pork  fat  and  a  little  parsley  to  the 
marinade ;  wrap  the  red  mullets  in  strong,  oiled  paper,  together 
with  its  marinade,  grill  it  gently,  and  serve  it  as  it  stands. 

io35d-ROUQET  A  LA  NICOISE 

Grill  it  as  directed  above,  and  serve  it  with  the  garnish 
given  under  "  Sole  a  la  Niyoise." 

10356— ROUQET  EN  PAPILLOTE 

Grill  and  wrap  it  in  strong,  oiled  paper  between  two  layers 
of  somewhat  thick  Duxelle  sauce.  When  about  to  serve,  put 
the  papillote  for  five  minutes  in  the  oven,  that  it  may  be 
souffled. 

1036— WHITEBAIT 

Thames  whitebait,  which  has  many  points  in  common  with 
the  "  Nonat  "  of  the  Mediterranean,  is  one  of  the  riddles  of 
ichthyology;  for,  while  it  is  generally  admitted  that  it  is  the 
fry  of  one  of  the  many  species  of  fish,  its  real  parentage  is 
quite  unknown. 

At  dinners  in  London  it  usually  stands  as  a  second  fish- 
course,  and,  fried  after  the  customary  manner,  it  constitutes  a 
dish  the  delicacy  of  which  is  incomparable.  Whitebait,  like 
the  nonat,  are  extremely  fragile,  and  ought  to  be  cooked  as 
soon  as  they  are  caught.  They  are  always  served  fried,  and 
the  frying-medium  used  in  their  preparation  should  be  fresh, 
abundant,  and  just  smoking  when  the  fish  are  plunged  into  it. 
Previous  to  this  operation,  however,  the  whitebait  ought  to 
be  thoroughly  dredged  with  flour  and  placed  in  a  special  sieve 


FISH  349 

or  frying  basket,  either  of  which  should  be  well  shaken,  in 
order  to  rid  the  fish  of  any  superfluous  flour. 

They  are  then  plunged  into  the  smoking  frying-medium, 
in  small  quantities  at  a  time,  and  one  minute's  stay  therein 
suffices  to  render  them  sufficiently  crisp. 

Draining  is  the  next  operation,  effected  upon  a  spread  piece 
of  linen,  that  the  fish  may  be  easily  seasoned  with  table-salt 
and  cayenne,  mixed.  This  done,  the  whitebait  are  dished  upon 
a  napkin  and  sent  to  the  table  with  very  green,  fried  parsley. 


VARIOUS   PREPARATIONS   OF    FISH 

1037— JWATELOTE  AU  VIN  ROUQE 

The  fish  used  for  the  Matelote  are  eel,  carp,  tench,  bream, 
perch,  &c. 

It  may  be  prepared  from  one  or  many  kinds  of  fish. 

Put  the  fish,  cut  into  sections,  into  a  sautdpan.  For  two  lbs. 
of  it,  add  one  minced  onion,  one  faggot,  two  cloves  of  garlic, 
one  pint  of  red  wine,  a  pinch  of  salt,  and  another  of  pepper  or 
four  peppercorns. 

Set  to  boil ;  add  three  tablespoonfuls  of  heated  and  burnt 
brandy;  cover  the  saut^pan,  and  complete  the  cooking  of  the 
fish. 

This  done,  transfer  the  pieces  to  another  saucepan;  strain 
the  cooking-liquor,  reduce  it  by  a  third,  and  thicken  it  with 
manied  butter  (consisting  of  one  and  one-half  oz.  of  butter  and 
one  tablespoonful  of  flour),  cut  into  small  pieces. 

When  the  leason  has  been  properly  effected,  pour  the 
resulting  sauce  over  the  pieces  of  fish;  heat,  and  dish  in  a 
timbale. 

1038— MATELOTE  AU  VIN  BLANC 

Prepare  the  fish  as  above,  but  use  red  wine  instead  of 
white,  and  burn  the  brandy  as  before.  When  the  pieces  of  fish 
are  cooked,  transfer  them  to  another  saucepan  with  small 
onions,  previously  cooked  in  butter,  and  small,  cooked  mush- 
rooms. Strain  the  cooking-liquor,  reduce  it  to  a  little  less  than 
half,  thicken  it  with  fish  velout^,  and  finish  with  one  oz.  of 
butter. 

Pour  this  sauce  over  the  fish  and  the  garnish ;  dish  the  whole 
in  a  timbale  or  a  deep  dish,  and  surround  with  crayfish,  cooked 
in  court-botiillon,  and  little  crusts  in  the  shape  of  hearts,  fried 
in  butter. 


350  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

1039— BOUILLABAISSE  A  LA  MARSEILLAISE 

The  fish  for  Bouillabaisse  are  rascasse,  chapon,  dory, 
whiting,  fielas,  boudreuil,  spiny  lobster,  red  mullet,  gurnet, 
&c. 

Cut  the  larger  fish  into  slices ;  leave  the  smaller  ones  whole, 
and  with  the  exception  of  the  whiting  and  the  red  mullet,  which 
cook  more  speedily  than  the  others,  put  them  all  into  a  saucepan. 

For  two  lbs.  of  fish,  add  one  small  onion,  the  chopped  white 
of  one  leek,  one  small,  peeled,  pressed  and  chopped  tomato, 
two  crushed  cloves  of  garlic,  a  large  pinch  of  concussed  parsley, 
a  pinch  of  powdered  saffron,  a  bit  of  bay,  a  little  savory  and 
fennel,  and  two  tablespoonfuls  of  oil. 

Moisten  the  fish  with  just  enough  cold  water  to  cover  it, 
and  season  with  one-third  oz.  of  salt  and  a  pinch  of  pepper 
per  quart  of  water. 

Set  to  boil,  and  cook  over  a  brisk  fire.  At  the  end  of  eight 
minutes  add  the  pieces  of  whiting  and  red  mullet,  and  leave  to 
cook  for  a  further  seven  minutes. 

Pour  the  liquor  of  the  bouillabaisse  over  some  slices  of 
household  bread  lying  on  the  bottom  of  a  deep  dish ;  set  the 
fish  on  another  dish  with  the  sections  of  spiny  lobster  all  round, 
and  serve. 

1040— QUENELLES  DE  BROCKET  A  LA  LYONNAISE 

Pound  separately  one  lb.  of  the  meat  of  pike,  cleared  of 
all  skin  and  bones,  and  one  lb.  of  the  fat  of  kidney  of  beef, 
very  dry,  cleaned,  and  cut  into  small  pieces.  If  desired,  half 
of  the  weight  of  the  fat  of  kidney  of  beef  may  be  replaced  by 
one-half  lb.  of  beef  marrow. 

Put  the  pounded  meat  of  the  pike  and  the  kidney  fat  on 
separate  plates.  Now  pound  one  lb.  of  frangipane  Panada 
(No.  192)  and  add  thereto,  little  by  little,  the  white  of  four 
little  eggs.  Put  the  pike  meat  and  the  fat  back  into  the  mortar, 
and  finely  pound  the  whole  until  a  fine,  smooth  paste  is 
obtained.  Rub  the  latter  through  a  sieve;  put  the  resulting 
pur6e  into  a  basin,  and  work  it  well  with  a  wooden  spoon  in 
order  to  smooth  it. 

With  this  forcemeat  mould  some  quenelles  with  a  spoon, 
and  poach  them  in  salted  water. 

If  these  quenelles  are  to  be  served  with  an  ordinary  fish 
sauce,  put  them  into  it  as  soon  as  they  are  poached  and  drained, 
and  simmer  them  in  it  for  ten  minutes  that  they  may  swell. 

If  the  sauce  intended  for  them  is  to  be  thickened  with  egg- 
yolks,  and  buttered  at  the  last  moment,  put  them  into  a  sauce- 


FISH  351 

pan  with  a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  fumet,  and  simmer  them  as 
directed  in  the  case  of  an  ordinary  fish  sauce,  taking  care  to 
keep  the  saucepan  well  covered  that  the  concentrated  steam 
may  assist  the  swelling  of  the  quenelles.  In  this  case  they  are 
added  to  the  sauce  at  the  last  moment. 

N.B. — Slices  of  truffle  may  always  be  added  to  the  sauce. 
The  quenelles  are  dished  either  in  a  silver  timbale,  in  a  shallow 
timbale-crust,  or  in  a  fine  vol-au-vent  crust,  in  accordance  with 
the  arrangement  of  the  menu. 

1041— FISH  CAKES 

Fish  cakes  or  balls,  which  are  greatly  appreciated  in  both 
England  and  America,  are  made  from  any  boiled  fish.  Salted 
cod,  however,  is  best  suited  to  their  preparation,  and  is  therefore 
used  much  more  often  than  other  kinds  of  fish. 

Flake  one  lb.  of  cooked  cod,  and  clear  it  of  all  skin  and 
bones;  pound  it  with  one-half  lb.  of  freshly-cooked,  floury 
potatoes,  two  tablespoonfuls  of  reduced  Bdchamel  sauce,  and 
two  whole  eggs.  Season  with  salt  and  pepper.  When  the 
paste  has  been  well  beaten  and  is  smooth,  take  it  out  of  the 
mortarand  divide  it  into  portions  weighing  about  two  oz.  Roll 
these  portions  into  balls  upon  a  flour-dusted  mixing-board, 
flatten  them  out  to  the  shape  of  thick  quoits,  and  treat  them 
a  I'anglaise. 

Fry  them  at  the  last  moment  in  very  hot  fat,  and  dish  them 
on  a  napkin  with  fried  parsley  all  round. 

1042— WATERZOI 

In  order  to  prepare  Waterzoi,  it  is  best,  when  possible,  to 
have  live  fish  at  one's  disposal,  not  only  because  these  are 
better  able  to  resist  the  cooking  process,  but  also  owing  to  the 
fact  that  they  are  richer  in  gelatine  in  the  live  state. 

The  fish  more  generally  used  are  the  eel,  the  perch,  the 
tench,  the  carp,  the  pike,  &c. 

After  having  scaled  and  emptied  them,  trim  them  and  cut 
off  their  heads  and  tails.  Cut  the  fish  into  sections;  moisten 
these  with  just  enough  cold  water  to  cover  them;  add  a  piece 
of  butter,  sufficient  parsley  roots  or  stalks  to  produce  a  decided 
taste,  a  few  peppercorns,  and  some  salt. 

Set  to  cook  on  a  brisk  fire,  and  take  care  that  the  cooking- 
liquor  be  reduced  and  sufficiently  thickened  when  the  fish  are 
cooked. 

Serve  in  a  timbale  or  on  a  dish,  and  send  some  slices  of 
bread  and  butter  to  the  table  at  the  same  time. 


CHAPTER    XV 
RELEVES  AND  ENTREES 

The  difference  between  Relev^s  and  Entries  needs  only  to 
be  examined  very  superficially  in  order  for  it  to  be  seen  how 
entirely  the  classification  hangs  on  the  question  of  bulk. 
Indeed,  with  very  few  exceptions,  the  same  alimentary  pro- 
ducts— butcher's  meat,  fish,  poultry,  and  game — may  be  used 
with  perfect  propriety  in  the  preparation  of  either  Releves  or 
Entries.  And  if  the  mode  of  preparation  and  the  nature  of 
the  garnishing  ingredients  are  sometimes  dissimilar,  it  is  owing 
to  that  difference  in  bulk  referred  to  above,  on  account  of  which 
the  Releves,  being  more  voluminous,  are  usually  braised, 
poeled,  poached,  or  roasted;  while  the  Entries,  consisting  of 
smaller  pieces,  are  chiefly  sauted,  poached,  or  grilled. 

In  the  menus  of  old-fashioned  dinners  k  la  Fran9aise,  the 
line  of  demarcation  between  Releves  and  Entries  was  far  more 
clearly  defined,  the  latter  being  generally  twice,  if  not  thrice, 
as  numerous  as  the  former.  The  first  service  of  a  dinner  for 
twenty  people,  for  instance,  comprised  eight  or  twelve  Entries 
and  four  soups,  all  of  which  were  set  on  the  dining-table  before 
the  admission  of-  the  diners.  As  soon  as  the  soups  were  served, 
the  Releves,  to  the  number  of  four,  two  of  which  consisted  of 
fish,  took  the  place  of  the  soups  on  the  table;  they  relieved 
the  soups;  hence  their  name,  which  now,  of  course,  is  quite 
meaningless. 

The  Russian  method  of  serving  greatly  simplified  the  prac- 
tice just  described.  Nowadays  a  dinner  rarely  consists  of  more 
than  two  soups,  two  Relevds  (one  of  which  is  fish),  and  two 
or  three  Entries  for  the  first  service.  Very  often  the  fish 
Relev6,  instead  of  being  a  large  piece  of  fish,  only  consists 
of  fillets  of  sole,  of  chicken-turbots,  &c.,  or  timbales,  which  are 
real  entries;  while  the  Releves  (consisting  of  large  pieces  of 
butcher's  meat  or  game),  instead  of  being  served  as  common 
sense  would  dictate,  i.e.,  after  the  fish  Relev^,  when  the  diner's 
appetite  is  still  keen,  are  placed,  according  to  English  custom, 
after  the  Entries. 


RELEVES  AND  ENTREES  253 

Thus,  as  the  two  above  examples  show,  the  parts  played 
by  the  Releves  and  Entries  respectively  are  very  far  from 
being  clearly  defined ;  and  I  therefore  resolved  to  treat  of  them 
both  in  the  same  chapter,  and  to  append  a  few  grills  (usually 
accompanied  by  various  sauces  and  garnishes),  which  are  really 
only  luncheon-roasts.  The  indications  given  concerning  the 
class  to  which  the  recipes  belong  will  suffice  to  avoid  confusion, 

RELEVES  AND  ENTREES  OF  BUTCHER'S  MEAT 

BEEF 

1043-PILLET  OF  BEEF  (Relev6) 

Fillet  of  beef  for  a  Relev^  may  consist  either  of  the  whole 
piece,  trimmed,  studded,  or  larded,  or  a  more  or  less  large 
piece  cut  from  the  whole,  and  treated  after  one  of  the  methods 
suited  to  the  whole  fillet.  The  fillet  may  be  braised,  poeled, 
or  roasted;  but  the  last  two  modes  of  preparation  suft  it  best, 
as  it  is  generally  preferred  underdone  and  somewhat  red 
towards  the  centre. 

The  garnishes  for  a  Relev6  of  fillet  of  beef  are  as  numerous 
as  they  are  varied;  and,  as  they  are  applicable  not  only  to 
fillet  of  beef  but  to  all  Releves  of  butcher's  meat,  I  give  them 
here  in  preference,  since  fillet  of  beef  may  be  considered  the 
choicest  of  Releves. 

1044— FILETS  DE  B(EUF  ANDALOUSE 

Having  removed  all  the  connective  tissue  from  the  fillet,  lard 
it  with  thin  strips  of  bacon,  and  poele  or  roast  it.  Glaze  it  at 
the  last  moment;  set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  surround  it  with  : — 
(i)  Some  grilled  half-capsicums,  filled  with  rice  a  la  grecque 
(No.  2253) ;  (2)  roundels  of  egg-plant,  two  inches  in  diameter 
and  one  inch  thick,  hollowed  out  to  form  cases,  fried  in  oil, 
and  garnished  with  concassed  tomatoes  tossed  in  oil.  Arrange 
the  half-capsicums  and  the  egg-plant  alternately  round  the 
fillet,  and  place  a  grilled  chifolata  sausage  between  each. 

Sauce  to  be  sent  separately. — The  gravy  taken  from  the 
poeling-stock,  strained,  cleared  of  all  grease,  and  thickened. 

I045— FILET  DE  B(EUF  BOUQUETIERE 

Having  larded  the  fillet  and  poeled  or  roasted  it,  set  it  on 
a  long  dish  and  surround  it  with  : — (i)  Small  heaps  of  carrots 
and  turnips,  turned  by  means  of  a  small  grooved  spoon,  and 
cooked  in  consommd;  (2)  small  heaps  of  little  potatoes  turned 
to  the  shape  of  olives  and  cooked  in  butter;  (3)  small  heaps  of 

A  A 


354  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

peas  and  of  French  beans,  cut  into  lozenges  and  cohered  with 
butter;  (4)  five  bunches  of  cauliflower. 

Arrange  these  different  products  in  such  wise  as  to  vary 
their  colours  and  throw  them  into  relief. 

Serve  the  gravy  of  the  fillet  separately,  after  having  cleared 
it  of  all  grease  and  strained  it. 

1046— FILET  DE  BCEUF  CAMARQO 

Trim  the  fillet;  suppress  the  long  muscle  lying  on  its  thicker 
side  (Fr.  chaine),  and  open  the  meat  lengthwise  from  the  same 
side.  Withdraw  the  meat  from  the  inside  of  the  fillet  so  as  to 
leave  a  wall  of  meat  only  one-half  inch  thick  all  round.  Finely 
chop  the  withdrawn  meat  and  combine  with  it,  per  lb.,  little 
by  little,  from  four  to  five  tablespoonfuls  of  cream  and  four  oz. 
of  fresh  foie  gras.  Season  with  salt  and  pepper,  rectify  the 
consistence  of  the  paste,  and  add  thereto,  per  lb.,  two  oz.  of 
chopped  truffles. 

Fill  the  hollow  fillet  with  this  forcemeat,  thereby  returning 
it  to  its  original  shape,  and  stud  its  top  surface  with  pointed 
pieces  of  truffle  one  inch  long  by  one-quarter  inch  wide,  stuck 
into  the  meat  aslant.  In  order  to  facilitate  this  operation,  bore 
the  meat,  before  the  insertion  of  the  pieces  of  truffles,  by  means 
of  a  small  knife. 

Now  cover  the  fillet  with  slices  of  bacon  and  string  it 
laterally,  leaving  a  space  of  one  inch  between  each  strand. 

Poele  the  meat  carefully,  and  take  care  that  the  forcemeat 
inside  be  well,  but  not  over-done.  This  may  be  ascertained  by 
thrusting  a  braiding  needle  into  the  thickest  part  of  the  fillet, 
as  soon  as  the  meat  seems  resisting  and  elastic  to  the  touch. 
If  the  needle  withdraws  clean,  the  fillet  is  ready. 

Now  glaze  it,  after  having  cut  away  the  string  and  removed 
the  slices  of  bacon ;  dish  it,  and  surround  it  with  the  following 
garnish  : — Small  tartlet-crusts  garnished  by  means  of  noodles 
with  cream ;  a  slice  of  foie  gras  stamped  out  with  a  round  cutter 
and  tossed  in  butter,  upon  the  noodles ;  and  a  fine  slice  of  truffle 
on  the  foie  gras. 

Sauce  to  be  sent  to  the  table  separately. — The  reduced 
^oeZm^-liquor  of  the  fillet,  cleared  of  all  grease,  and  added 
to  a  P^rigueux  sauce. 

1047— FILET  DE  B(EUF  CHATELAINE 

Lard  the  fillet,  poele  it,  and  glaze  it  just  before  dishing  up. 
Set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  surround  it  with  the  following 
garnish  : — (i)  Medium-sized  artichoke-bottoms  garnished  with 
thick    Soubise ;    (2)    fine,     peeled    chestnuts    cooked    in    the 


RELEVES  AND  ENTREES  355 

poeling-liquor ;  (3)  small  heaps  of  lightly  browned  potatoes, 
cooked  in  butter  at  the  last  moment. 

Sauce  to  be  sent  separately. — The  reduced  poeling-liquor 
of  the  fillet,  cleared  of  all  grease  and  added  to  a  Madeira  sauce. 

1048— FILET  DE  B(EUF  CLAMART 

Lard  the  fillet  and  roast  it. 

Set  it  on  a  long  dish  and  surround  it  with  : — (i)  Little 
tartlet-crusts  garnished  with  peas,  prepared  h  la  Frangaise  (No. 
2193),  combined  with  the  ciseled  lettuce  used  in  their  cooking- 
process,  and  cohered  with  butter;  (2)  small  quoits  of  "  Pommes 
Macaire  "  (No.  2228).  Arrange  the  tartlet-crusts  and  the  quoits 
alternately. 

Sauce  to  be  sent  separately  .—The  gravy  slightly  thickened. 

1049— FILET  DE  BCEUF  DAUPHINE 

Lard  the  fillet  and  poele  it. 

Glaze  it  at  the  last  moment;  set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and 
surround  it  with  a  garnish  of  potato  croquettes  a  la  Dauphine, 
moulded  to  the  shape  of  corks,  and  fried  just  before  dishing  up. 

Sauce  to  be  sent  separately. — Pale  half-glaze  with  Madeira. 

1050— FILET  DE  BCEUF  DUBARRY 

Lard  the  fillet  with  bacon,  and  roast  it. 

Set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  surround  it  with  small  heaps  of 
cauliflower  moulded  to  the  shape  of  balls,  coated  with  Mornay 
sauce,  besprinkled  with  grated  cheese,  and  put  in  the  oven 
for  the  gratin  to  form  just  in  time  for  the  dishing  up. 

Send  a  thickened  gravy  to  the  table  separately. 

1051— FILET  DE  BOEUF  DUCHESSE 

Either  roast  or  poele  the  larded  fillet.  If  it  be  poeled, 
glaze  it  at  the  last  moment. 

Set  it  on  a  long  dish  and  surround  it  with  potatoes  k  la 
Duchesse  (the  shape  of  which  may  be  varied  according  to 
fancy),  lightly  browned  and  coloured  in  the  oven  for  a  few 
minutes  before  the  dishing. 

Sauce  to  be  sent  separately. — Half-glaze  with  Madeira. 

1052— FILET  DE  BOEUF  FINANCIERE 

Poele  the  larded  fillet. 

Glaze  it  at  the  last  moment  and  set  it  on  a  long  dish. 

Surround  it  with  a  garnish  consisting  of  (i)  quenelles  of 
ordinary  forcemeat;  (2)  grooved  and  cooked  button-mushroom 
heads;  (3)  cocks'  combs  and  kidneys;  (4)  turned  and  blanched 
olives.  Each  garnish  should  be  placed  on  the  dish  in  distinct 
heaps. 

A  A   2 


356  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Cover  the  garnish  with  a  little  financiere  sauce,  and  send 
the  same  sauce  separately. 

> 053— FILET  DE  BCEUF  GASTRONOME 

Insert  truffles,  cut  to  the  shape  of  ordinary  larding-bacon, 
into  the  fillet,  and  set  the  latter  to  marinade  for  four  or  five 
hours  in  one-quarter  pint  of  Madeira. 

This  done,  thoroughly  wipe  it;  cover  it  with  slices  of  bacon, 
and  braise  it  in  Madeira.  When  about  to  serve  it,  remove  the 
slices  of  bacon ;  glaze  it  slightly,  and  set  it  on  a  long  dish. 

Surround  it  with  a  garnish  consisting  of  (i)  large  and  thick 
slices  of  truffle,  cooked  in  a  fine  mirepoix  with  champagne ; 
(2)  fine  chestnuts  cooked  in  consomm6  and  glazed ;  (3)  fine 
cocks'  kidneys,  rolled  in  pale,  thin  meat-glaze;  (4)  noodles 
tossed  in  butter.  These  different  garnishes  should  be  arranged 
in  alternate  heaps,  and  connected  by  means  of  medium-sized 
truffles  cooked  in  Madeira. 

Sauce  to  be  sent  separately. — Half-glaze  combined  with  the 
cooking-liquor  of  the  truffles,  strained  through  linen  and 
reduced  to  two-thirds. 

1054— FILET  DE  BCEUF  QODARD 

Lard  the  fillet  with  alternate  strips  of  bacon  and  salted 
tongue,  and  poele  it.  Glaze  it  a  few  minutes  before  serving; 
set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  surround  it  with  a  garnish  con- 
sisting of  (i)  quenelles  of  ordinary  forcemeat  with  chopped 
mushrooms  and  truffles  added  thereto,  moulded  by  means  of 
a  coffee-spoon,  and  poached  just  before  dishing  up ;  (2)  turned 
and  cooked  button-mushroom  heads;  (3)  glazed  lamb  sweet- 
breads; (4)  cocks'  combs  and  kidneys;  (5)  truffles  fashioned 
like  olives. 

Slightly  coat  these  garnishes,  which  should  be  arranged  in 
heaps,  with  sauce ;  finish  the  dish  with  four  oval  quenelles 
decked  with  tongue  and  truffle,  and  place  one  of  these  at  either 
end  and  side  of  the  dish. 

Sauce  to  be  sent  separately. — A  Godard  sauce  combined 
with  the  cooking-liquor  of  the  fillet,  cleared  of  all  grease  and 
reduced. 

,055— FILET  DE  BCEUF  HONQROISE 

Lard  the  fillet  and  roast  it. 

Set  it  on  a  long  dish  and  surround  it  with  a  garnish  con- 
sisting of  medium-sized  onions,  cooked  in  white  consomm^, 
and  glazed  in  butter  at  the  last  minute. 

Sauce  to  be  sent  separately . — Thin  Soubise  with  paprika. 


RELEVES  AND  ENTREES  357 

1056— FILET  DE  BCEUF  JAPONAISE 

Lard  the  fillet  and  poele  it. 

Glaze  it  just  before  dishing;  set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  sur- 
round it  with  a  garnish  consisting  of  (i)  small  croustades 
cooked  in  grooved  brioche-moulds  and  garnished  with  Japanese 
artichokes  cohered  by  means  of  velout6;  (2)  potato  croquettes 
moulded  to  the  shape  of  eggs  and  fried  just  before  dishing  up. 
Arrange  the  croustades  and  the  croquettes  alternately. 

Send  the  gravy  of  the  fillet,  strained  and  cleared  of  all 
grease,  to  the  table  separately. 

I057— FILET  DE  BCEUF  JARDINIERE 

Lard  the  fillet  and  roast  it. 

Set  it  on  a  long  dish  and  surround  it  with  the  following 
garnishes,  which  should  be  arranged  in  distinct  heaps  in  such 
wise  as  to  alternate  their  colours  : — Carrots  and  turnips,  raised 
by  means  of  a  grooved  spoon-cutter  and  cooked  separately  in 
consomm6;  peas,  French  beans  in  lozenge-form  and  small 
flageolets,  each  of  which  vegetables  should  be  cooked  in  a 
manner  in  keeping  with  its  nature,  and  separately  cohered  with 
butter;  portions  of  freshly-cooked  cauliflower,  kept  very  white 
and  of  tight  growth. 

Send  some  Hollandaise  sauce  for  the  cauliflower,  and  some 
clear  gravy,  to  the  table,  separately. 

1058— FILET  DE  BCEUF  LORETTE 

Lard  the  fillet  and  poele  it. 

Glaze  it  at  the  last  moment ;  set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  sur- 
round it  with  a  garnish  as  follows: — (i)  A  small  pyramid  of 
Lorette  potatoes  (No.  2226)  at  either  end  of  the  fillet;  (2)  fine 
heaps  of  asparagus-heads,  cohered  with  butter,  on  either  side. 

Send  some  tomated  half-glaze  separately. 

1059— FILET  DE  BCEUF  MACEDOINE 

Prepare  the  fillet  as  directed  under  "Filet  de  Boeuf 
Jardinilre."  Set  it  on  a  long  dish  and  surround  it  with  a 
Macedoine  garnish.  The  latter  comprises  the  same  ingredients 
as  the  "Jardiniere" ;  but,  instead  of  their  being  heaped 
separately,  they  are  mixed  together  and  cohered  by  means  of 
butter. 

1060— FILET  DE  BCEUF  AU  MADBRE 
ET  AUX  CHAMPIGNONS 

Lard  and  poele  the  fillet. 

Glaze  it;  dish  it  as  before,  and  surround  it  with  fine  mush- 
room-heads, turned  and  grooved. 


358  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

Send  to  the  table,  separately,  a  Madeira  sauce  finished  with 
the  poeling-liquoT,  cleared  of  all  grease  and  reduced. 

io6i— FILET  DE  BCEUF  MODERNE 

Lard  the  fillet  alternately  with  bacon  and  tongue,  and 
poele  it. 

Glaze  it  just  before  dishing;  set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  sur- 
round it  with  garnish  as  follows : — On  either  side  of  the  fillet 
lay  a  row  of  small  "chartreuses,"  made  in  small,  hexagonal 
moulds. 

To  make  these  "chartreuses,"  butter  the  moulds  and  deck 
the  bottom  of  each  with  a  slice  of  truffle,  big  enough  to  almost 
entirely  cover  it.  Now  line  the  sides  of  the  moulds  with  various 
vegetables,  such  as  carrots,  turnips,  peas,  and  French  beans; 
each  of  which  vegetables  should  be  cooked  as  its  nature 
requires. 

Arrange  them  in  such  wise  as  to  vary  their  colours,  and 
spread  over  the  whole  a  thin  layer  of  rather  flimsy  forcemeat. 

Fill  up  the  moulds  with  braised  cabbage,  which  should  be 
well  pressed  with  the  view  of  ridding  it  of  all  its  moisture,  and 
put  the  chartreuses  in  a  bain-marie  ten  minutes  before  dishing 
the  fillet. 

At  either  end  of  the  fillet  set  some  braised  half-lettuces, 
arranging  them  so  that  they  frame  the  ends  of  the  fillet  in 
half-circles. 

Between  the  lettuce  and  the  chartreuses  set  four  round 
quenelles,  decorated  with  salted  tongue  and  poached  in  time 
to  be  ready  for  the  dishing  of  the  meat. 

Send  to  the  table,  separately,  the  poeling-liquor  of  the  fillet, 
cleared  of  all  grease,  strained,  and  slightly  thickened  with 
arrowroot. 

1062— FILET  DE  BCEUF  MONTMORENCY 

Lard  the  fillet  and  poele  it. 

Glaze  it  just  before  dishing  up,  and  set  it  on  a  long  dish. 

Send  to  the  table,  separately,  a  Madeira  sauce  finished  with 
the  ^oe7mg--liquor  of  the  fillet,  to  which  add  (per  pint  of  the 
sauce)  three  tablespoonfuls  of  red-currant  jelly ;  two  tablespoon- 
fuls  of  finely-grated  horse-radish,  or  the  latter  finely  grated  first, 
and  then  chopped;  thirty  moderately-sweetened  cherries,  set  to 
soak  in  tepid  water  seven  or  eight  minutes  beforehand,  and 
drained  just  before  being  added  to  the  sauce. 

1063— FILET  DE  BOEUF  NIVERNAISE 

Lard  the  fillet  and  poele  it. 

Glaze  it  at  the  last  moment;  set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  sur- 


RELEVES  AND  ENTRIES  359 

round  it  with  garnish  as  follows: — (i)  Heaps  of  small  carrots, 
shaped  like  elongated  olives,  cooked  in  white  consomm^  and  a 
little  butter  and  sugar,  and  rolled  in  their  cooking-liquor  (re- 
duced to  the  consistence  of  syrup),  with  the  view  of  glazing 
them. 

Send  the  poeling-liquov  (cleared  of  all  grease  and  strained) 
to  the  table  separately. 

1064— FILET  DE  B(EUF  ORIENTALE 

Roast  the  fillet  "  plain,"  i.e.,  without  previously  larding  it. 

Set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  surround  it  with  the  following 
garnish,  taking  care  to  alternate  the  ingredients,  viz.,  (i)  tim- 
bales  of  rice  k  la  grecque  (No.  2253)  moulded  in  buttered  dariole- 
moulds,  each  timbale  being  placed  on  a  medium-sized  half- 
tomato,  seasoned  and  tossed  in  butter;  (2)  croquettes  of  sweet 
potatoes,  moulded  to  the  shape  of  corks,  and  fried  just  before 
dishing  up. 

Send  to  the  table,  separately,  a  highly  seasoned  tomato 
sauce. 

1065— FILET -DE  BCEUF  P^RIQOURDINE 

Lard  the  fillet  and  poele  it. 

Glaze  it  just  before  dishing  up;  set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and 
surround  it  with  medium-sized  truffles,  freshly  cooked  in 
Madeira  and  fine  mire'poix,  and  glazed.  Send  a  P^rigueux 
sauce  separately. 

1066— FILET  DE  BGEUF  PETIT  DUG 

Lard  the  fillet  and  poele  it. 

Glaze  it  in  good  time;  set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  surround 
it  with  the  following  garnish : — (i)  crisp,  small  patties  of 
puff  paste  garnished  with  asparagus-heads  cohered  by  means 
of  cream  sauce;  (2)  medium-sized  artichoke-bottoms,  prepared 
in  the  usual  way,  and  garnished  with  slices  of  truffle. 

Send,  separately,  a  light,  meat  glaze,  combined  with  four 
oz.  of  butter  per  one-half  pint. 

1067— FILET  DE  BCEUF  PORTUQAISE 

Lard  the  fillet  and  roast  it. 

Set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  garnish  it  as  follows  : — 

1.  A  row  of  medium-sized,  stuffed  tomatoes  on  either  side. 

2.  At  either  end  a  nice  heap  of  potatoes,  shaped  like  long 
olives,  and  cooked  in  butter  just  before  dishing  up. 

Send  a  light,  Portugaise  sauce  separately. 

1068— FILET  DE  BCEUF  PROVEN9ALE 

Lard  the  fillet  and  poele  it. 

Glaze  it  at  the  last  minute;  set  it  on  a  long  dish,  and  sur- 


36o  GUIDE  TO  MODERN  COOKERY 

round  it  with  the  following,  alternated: — Tomatoes  and  mush- 
rooms stuffed  a  la  Provengale  (Nos.  2266  and  2075). 
Send  a  tomated  half-glaze  sauce,  separately. 

1069— FILET  DE   BCEUF  R^QENCE 

Marinade  the  fillet  in  Rhine  wine  two  or  three  hours  in 
advance;  cover  it  with  a  Matignon  (No.  227);  envelop  the  fillet 
and  the  Matignon  in  slices  of  bacon,  and  set  the  whol