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1■|||^ *'C)-I* r>(M)K" Is AN Ai THokiyn) Ri I'Rjxr <)i I in Edition. Proih ckd kv Mi(:Rt)FiLM-\KR<x.R\rii\ u\ 
Um\kr.sii^ i\fi<;R<)FH.Ms. Inc;.. Ann Arhor. Mi(:iii(;.\n. I9(»i 

The cores of the diseajsed in forruine attempts of the 
Kn<;]ish nation, Ix>n(lon, ir)98. Keproduced in facsimile with 
introduction an.l notes, by Charles Singer. Oxford, The 
Clarendon presf. 1015. 

7 1.. 28 p.. 3 I. l»i cm. 

With reprtHluctlon of original t.-p. 

Itt^prlntml from a copy in the Briti8h muHeam. 

Tlie preface Is tilirned G. W., which initials stand, according to the 
editor, for (Jwu-ge WHt»*s<»n, whom h»» wants to identify with George 
Whet»itone. Thn editor's quotation from "Richard Haltluyt'g Third 
and iiiHt volume of tlie voyaees ... 16UU" and other slim evidence are 
not c«>nviiicin^ eiiou;.'li to accept his statement regardiiii; tiie author- 
ship of tlie pumplilet. 

1. Tropics — Diseaves and hygiene. i. Singer, Charges 

Joeepii. 1870- ed. li. W., (}. iii. O. W. 

U. S. Army Medicui IJbr. ^ 

for library of Cojij;ri'Sis ^ 7n52flj 



In Forraine Attempts of the English Nation 





cures of the 

In Forraine Attempts of 
the English Nation 

I f 9 8 


With Introduction and Notes 

By Charles Singer 









The kinship of letters and national 
enterprise has never been more happily 
illustrated than in the closing years of 
Elizabeth's reign. The world, grown 
more spacious, was daily yielding fresh 
material for the writers whose works form 
the brightest diadem in our national 
treasury. Within ten years around the 
turn of the sixteenth century, a series of 
nautical adventures in close association 
with literary productions shewed that if 
the seaman's romantic life exercised a 
moulding force on literature, literature in 
its turn was not without its influence on 

With all this interest in oversea attempts, 
attention was bound to turn to the profes- 
sional needs of sailors, and a considerable 
literature intended for the use of seamen 



rapidly arose. Among these works it is 
not surprising to find a book on medicine 
adapted to the especial circumstances of 
the sailor^s life. New and strange Jands 
yielded diseases equally new and strange, 
and we may look to this period for the 
small beginnings of the study of tropical 
medicine in this country. 

The pamphlet here reproduced in fac- 
simile now lies in the British Museum 
library and is believed to be a unique copy. 
It \z the earliest work devoted to Tropical 
or Naval Medicine published in English, 
and is not improbably the first work of 
the kind in any language. 

The Author. 

Richard Hakluyt in the dedication to 
Sir Robert Cecil of The Third and Last 
Volume of the Voyages iSavigations Trafjiques 
and Discoveries of the English Nation^ pub- 
lished in the year i5oo, wrote as follows : 

< I was once minded to have added to 
the end of these my labours a short 
treatise, which I have lying by me in 



writing, touching The curing of hot diseases 
incident to travellers in long and Southeme 
voyagesy which treatise was written in 
English, no doubt of a very honest mind, 
by one M. George Wateson, and dedi- 
cated unto her sacred Maiestie. But 
being carefull to do nothing herein rashly, 
I shewed it to my worshipfull friend 
M. doctor Gilbert, a gentleman no iesse 
excellent in the chierest secrets of the 
Mathematicks (as that rare jewel lately set 
foorth by him in Latine cloth evidently 
declare) than in his own profession of 
physicke : who assured me, after hee had 
perused the said treatise, that it was very 
defective and imperfect, and that if hee 
might have leisure, which that argument 
would require, he would either write 
something thereof more advisedly him- 
selfe, or would conferre with the whole 
Colledge of the Physicions, and set downe 
some order by common consent for the 
preservation of her Maiesties subjects.' 

We may at once identify Hakluyt's 
Manuscript with our pamphlet. The 
name George Wateson corresponding to 
G. W. (see p. 4) the author of the little 
work, the close similarity of title and 


identity of subject, the nearness of the 
date of its publication to that of Hakluyt's 
note together with the valid criticism of 
Dr. Gilbert, the unusual feature of the use 
of the English language for a medical 
treatise,and finally the dedication to Queen 
Elizabeth, all these points may satisfy the 
reader that Hakluyt had before him either 
a written copy of our pamphlet or an 
improved draft of it with a slightly altered 

The Gilbert whose just criticism 
Hakluyt quotes was William Gilbert 
(i;4o-i(Jo3), Physician to Queen Flizabeth 
and again for the last £qw weeks of his 
life to King James I. Gilbert, who by 
reason of his work on the magnet, * that 
rare jewel lately set foorth by him in 
Latine ',' will always be regarded as 
among the greatest as he was certainly 
one of the most interesting of British men 
of science, became president of the Royal 
College of Physicians in the very year 

' William Gilbert, Dt Maffitttj magntticistjue corporibui^ 
tt dt magna magnttt uilnrt. PhytiologU nova. London, 




(itfoo) in which Hakluyt's volume was 
published. His scheme for a work by the 
college on the diseases of seamen was never 
fulfilled, and the project of Hakluyt and 
Gilbert for the systematic study of this 
subject was deferred to the end of the 
nineteenth century. 

But who was George Wateson or G. W., 
the author of our pamphlet? We may 
hazard the guess that he was none other 
than the poet and swashbuckler, George 
Whetstone, remembered as the author 
of the crude play Promos and Cassandra^ 
the original of Shakespeare's Measure for 
Measure, Whetstone, like many other 
Elizabethan writers, was accustomed 
to sign his productions with his initials 

That the author of our pamphlet was at 
least well used to the writing of verse is 
apparent from the technically perfect pro- 
ductions on pages s and 2j. Whetstone 
himself poured out a vast quantity of verse 
of which only a very small proportion can 
be called poetry. 

He employed mainly two metres. For 


his numerous dirges or < Remembrances 'of 
recently deceased notabilities ^ he used a 
verse of seven lines of five feet each, the 
first and third, the second, fourth and fifth, 
and the sixth and seventh lines always 
rhyming. The seven-lined stanza is a fre- 
quent device of the period. Borrowed 
from the Italian, it was used in English 
first by Chaucer and was revived in Thomas 
in i|'5'9 and in numerous later editions. 
This form of composition is illustrated on 
pages 2^ and 6 of our pamphlet. Whet- 
stone's other instrument is a stanza of six 
lines of five feet each, the first and third, 
the second and fourth, and the fifth and 
sixth lines rhyming. This metre is illus- 
trated by the two stanzas on page f. 

The stanza on page 2 j- beginning < Let 
no man boast of beauty, strength, or youth ' 
has claims to be regarded as real poetry of 
a type not too common even in that verse- 
writing age. The sentiments however are 

' Cf * Remembrances ' on George Gascoi'gne, Ij77j 
on Sir Nicholas Bacon, 1578 ; on Sir James Dyer, ij8z j 
on the Earl of Sussex, 1583 ; on Sir Philip Sidney, 158^. 


hardly in touch with the character of our 
work, though they accord fully with 
Whetstone's habitual expression, and it 
may be suggested that this verse, written 
for another occasion, was considered by 
the author sufficiently apposite for in- 
sertion here. Thus in both form and 
sentiment the stanza is not unlike a verse 
published by Whetstone in ij%6 in his 
< Remembrance ' of Sir Philip Sidney : 

And what is life (the life of flesh and blood) 
A moments joie a blast, a blaze, a breathe, 

A bitter-sweate that yields no savory food, 
A certaine cause that brings uncertain death 
A rusty sword clos'd in a pay n ted sheath. 

Which being drawn to set the soul at large. 

They only live whom vertuehath in charge. 

The banality of putting the table of 
contents into verse (page 6) is an offence of 
which Whetstone is quite capable. Typical 
of him is also the unctuous loyalty to the 
Queen exhibited by the verse on page y, 
and by the dedication. The Eriglish 
Myrror of George Whetstone published 
in is%6 bore a dedication to Queen 
Elizabeth very similar to that of our 



pamphlet. Lastly, we may add that nearly 
all Whetstone's works appeared in pamphlet 
form of about the size and general get-up 
of the production before us. 

The interest in Medicine shewn by 
Whetstone, if indeed he be the author 
of this tract, was not an altogether 
isolated phenomenon among the group of 
Elizabethan poets to which he belonged. 
Thus the novelist Thomas Lodge, the 
probable joint author of the play King 
Leir and his Three Daughters (15-92-4), 
produced a Treatise of the Plague in 1503. 

As regards Hakluyt's spelling of the 
name, JVateson instead of Whetstone^ it may 
be remarked that Whetstone himself can- 
not have been sure of the spelling or even 
of the pronunciation. At least four forms 
of the name are found in books which he 
himself must have seen through the press. 
Thus he gives his name sometimes as 
Whetston, sometimes as Whetstones. In- 
deed in a single work he spells his name in 
three different manners.' Moreover, in 

* ^n f/eftamtron of Ciuill DitcourstSy London, I J 83, where 
the name is spelt Whetstone, Whetstons, and Whetston. 



one of his works, The censure of a loyall 
jubiecty a character who is apparently his 
own mouthpiece is called ''Weston^ a dis- 
crete gentleman '. In Middle English the 
word < whetstone ' appears as < watstone ' 
and' weston '. Hakluy t'sspelling,*Wateson% 
is therefore as near as a stranger might be 
expected to reach in those times when the 
spelling of our language was not standard- 
ized as it now is. 

George Whetstone lived the life of ;i 
typical Elizabethan grdlant. All that is 
known of him is fully recounted by Sir 
Sidney Lee in the Dictionary of National 
Biography. Born about 1 5-44, he led a wild 
youth, wasting his substance riotously. 
He entered the army in 11-72 and fought 
against the Spaniards in the Low Countries, 
where he distinguished himself in the field. 
He returned to London in i f 74, and his 
Promos and Cassandra appeared in 1578. 
in the same yearhe accompanied Humphrey 
Gilbert on his attempted voyage to New- 
foundland, returning in 1^79. Italy he 
visited in lySo. In lySy he again en- 
tered the army, and in 1^87 was back in 



London,having written hisCensure of a loyall 
suhiect. In a note -preceding that work 
a friend T. C. explains that he is seeing the 
book through the press, G. W. being away 
in the country. 

With this note George Whetstone 
apparently disappears from literature. 
Although he was not without literary 
friends, no notice has been found of his 
death, the date of which is therefore 
doubtful. If our pamphlet was really 
written by him, we may suppose that the 
intervening period of silence between his 
disappearance in 15-87 and its publication 
in 15-98 was occupied in part by travels in 
the West Indies and in part by the im- 
prisonment in Spain to which he refers in 
the opening sentence of his dedication. 
He would thus have been a bout fifty-four 
years of age when the pamphlet was pub- 
lished, and was still living in idoo when 
Hakluyt wrote his preface. 



the Difeafed^ in remote 

ticjincidcnt in Forrainc Attempts, 
of the englijh Nation. 

merecerla quetenerla^^ 

^t LondotLj 
Printed byF.lC. for H.I* 




(tiered Soueraigne, 

in my iniuH imprU 

Jonmentln Spayne, 

itpleaJedGodto af- 

hardilhTe/iilence : rphereofking 

in cure , Sj an ejpeciall T^hijition of 

that I\Jng y f obferuedhis methode 

for the fame, andfuch other T^ifea^ 

Jes^as haue peripjed your alAdaie^ 

Jltes people in the ^OMihtmt parts. 

IVhich^medies hme Jinceyby my 

direUion^tal^en the ItJ^ good ejfeUs. 

(tA^ And 



JndofperfeHi^eale to your (^^d^ 
iefliesjemicej and (Countries weale, 
f theretpith acquaint your Htghnes 
fubieHs. fnuocating (jodtoprejeme 
your ^lAdaieUie , enable them In 
your/eruices,proteElyotir King- 
doms, and fupprejie your 





The JVrkers intent. 

VI Anthat isbome, no^ for bimfelfc is borne. 

But for his Prince, his Coumric, and bis friends, 
Toheipe the ncke,di(}re(red,aod (brlome, 
Axe workes ofmercie^n to men extends. 
Who hath the power, and meanes,and willooechcxidf^ 
Shall with the biderofhisTallcntperitbr 

Tran^fsion firft did finnc in man beget, 
Sinne,(icknc$,dcath,and raifchicfcs many more: 
For as mens mindcs on wickcdnes were ice, 
So plagues increaft,which were not knowne befoia 
ButGod.wbofemerciCjiufiice doth exceed. 
Sends helps for hurts, and falues for fores at need 


The Bookes Content. 

The burning TeuctyCdlde the Calenture, . 
The aking Tabardilla feHtUnt^ 
rZ/Efpinlas frtckingsy'^htcb men do endure^ 
Cameras dc Sangre, V luxes 'violent ^ 
76'Er \iy^'A7i,^j^eliing the Paaent, 
The TinoCo^'\"phich fix the Scuruey call, 
tAretrul^ here defend di^nd cured all. 

SiDios no csadorado, 
nunca feras biencurado. 


The Cures of the 

Difeafed , in remote 

He Calenture (or bur- 
ning Fcuer) called by 
^ the Spaniar^lj^La Calen- 
~ turay is the moftvfuall 
Difeafe, happening to 
ourNationrn intempe- 
rate ClimatSjby inflammation of blood, 
and often proceeding of immoderate 
drinking of wine^and eating of pleafant 
Fruits,which are fuch nourifliers thereof, 
as they preuentthc conuenient meanes, 
that are vfed in curing the fame. 

B To 


The Cures of theDifeafed, 
To know the Qalentttrc^. 

THc Caknture at the firft apprchcnfi- 
on afHidls the Pacicnt with great 
painc in the head, and heate in the bo- 
die 5 which is continuall or increafing, 
anddothnoc diminifliand augment a$ 
other Fcuersdoo: andisan introdudti- 
on to the r4i4r^//7rf,orPcftilence5 where- 
of ncxtisintreated: but then thebodie 
will feeme very yellow. 

To cure the Qtknturc^. 

SO foone as the Pacient is percciued 
to be poflcfl: of the Calenture ; except 
Signe (I haue feene the time of the day 
not refpedled) to open the Median *-veinc 
of the right arme, and take fuchquan- 
titic of blood, as agreeth to the abilitie 
of the bodie, which notaflwaging the 
hcate,by the next day 3 to open the fame 



in remote ^gions. 

Vcincinihclcfi armc, and take fomucfi 
more blood at his like difcretion* And 
the bodic being Coftiue (for fo com- 
monly the Pacients are)to giue him fome 
mcete Purgation 5 and not to permit 
himtodrinkc other then water cooldc, 
wherein Barley &Annilccdes hauebccn 
fodden with brnfcd Licorice. And i£with- 
in fourc daics the partie doo not amend, 
or being rccoucreddoo take it againej 
then open the' Sepha/icaT^einc^ inoneor 
both hands , bathing them in warmc 
water, vntill there comes fo much more 
blood as caufe requires. And not to fuf • 
for thePacicnt to drinke,(euen dayes af- 
ter he is pcrfe(ftlie recouered , any other 
drinke, then fuch water as herein is di- 


HeDifeafe called by the Spam- 
irds. La TabardiOay and by the 
\%Mexicansy Coca/iBa, is named 
by odicr Jndians^Taberdet : and i s fo ex- 

B % cceding 


7 he Cures of the Difeafed, 

cccding Pcftilent and infeaious, as by 
the fame, whole Kingdomcs in both the 
Jndias haue been depopulated : which 
feemeth to infuc of the ignorance of the 
fauagc people, to minifter redreflc to 
themfelues.For i^cSpaniards zni, Portu^ 
gds there inhabiting, and in their natiuc 
Countries, where it is alfo contagious, 
before they had this knowledge, dida- 
boundandie die thereof. But now by ap- 
plying the meanes here defcribed, they 
are recouered of ihc fame. 

To know the Tabardilla. 

THe TabardiBa firft aflaults the Paci- 
head andbacke : and the bodie feeming 
yellowjisfomefigne thereof, and within 
Js pofleft therofjcannot fleep or reft^tur- 
ning hiitifclfe on either fide, backe and 
belliej burningin hrs backe moft ex- 
cxeamely. And when it growes to pcr- 



in remote T^gtons. 

fcfliOD, there witUppeare red and blew 
ipots vpon the Pacicnts brcft and wrifts. 
Andfuchperfonsashaue not prcfently 
applyed vnto them, meanes requiflte to 
prcuentir, will be by the incomparable 
torment thereof, dcptiucd of their wits. 
And multitudes haue de/paringly flainc 
and drowned tliemfelucs, that by loflc 
of their liues, they might finifti their tcr- 
reftriall paine. 

To cure the TabardiUa. 

WHen the Tahardilla is percciucd 
to affliil the Pacientj permit him 
not to lie very warme, nor vpon Fca- 
thers(for of what qualitie foeuer he is in 
Sfdyne^dMin^this ficknes, he is layd vp- 
on Wheatcflraw:)Then immcdiatly o- 
pcn the Median njeitie^fix^ in one arme, 
and the next day in the other , taking a 
good quanritie of blood: And let him 
haue water coldc , wherein Barley ana 
Annifeedes haue been fodden, without 
B 3 Licorice 


The Cures of the Vijeafedj 

Licoricc(for I haue heard the opinion of 
good Phifitions of Sfayncy that Licorice 
is huf tfuU vnto them) fo much as he will 
dcfircjwhich will be euery moment ; bur 
no other drinkc,nor any raw fruits : and 
fo foone as the (pots appeare, giuehim 
fomcCordiall potion: and laying him 
vpon his beHic,fct ibre Ventofes together 
inhisbacke^betweene and beneath the 
Oioulders. And fcarifying them, draw 
out (il it bee a bodic of ftrong conftitu- 
tion)i8.ounces of blood. Aitcr which, 
and that he hath flept, he willfeeleeafc 
within 24.houres, and finde fuch altera- 
tion in himfelfe, as he will thinke that he 
is dcliucrcd of a moftftrange tormenn 
Then giuing him nourifliing meats mo- 
deratly f for he will defirc to eate much^ 
the fourth day giue him fome couenicnc 
Purgation, And ifin the mcane while he 
isCofliue, prouokc him cuery day by 
Cliftotsrand admonilh him to forbearc 
fiftcene daies all other drinke, then that 
is ordained And to bee carcfull of his 



diet : for if this TabardiUa^^Yi\c\x we call 
here in £«f/W, Gods Tokens', come a* 
gainc vnco the Pacient, he can hardly c- 
fcape it. And it is no leffc infeftiousjthcn 
the vfuall Englifh Plague, 


hlcSjJfin/aJis a very flrangc 
licknes,and vfuall in thofc 
parts> to fuchas take cold in 
their breafts,arccr great heat 
or trauelL And rood times it conies to 
thofc that lye with their breafts vpon the 
ground(efpecially)in the night. 

To know the Ejpinlas. 

THc partie hauing the Efpmlas^ will 
be giddic in the headland haue pain 
and pricking at his breaft, as with many 
thorncs: wherefore I thinke it is focal- 
led o{ Spina and Efpina^ the Latine and 
SpaniQi words for a Thome. And there 




will be vpon Huefo radio, or Focel/^ be- 
ing the vppcr bone, of his arme, a hand 
breadth aboue the wrift, a little kernell, 
by which itis certainly knowne. And he 
that hath this Difeafe, will not haue ap- 
petite to meate ordrinkej nor cannot 
digcftmeatCj although he bee procured 
to take it. 

To cure the EJ^inUs^ 

THe Sffittlaiy appearing by the for- 
mer fignes: Take Oliueoyle pre- 
fently, and therewith chafe the kernell 
vpon the Pacients arme, vfing fo to doc 
twife eueryday, vntillitbecdiflblued: 
and laying Oyle like wife vpo his breaft, 
ftroke it vpwarde fomewhat hard with 
the hand : then ipreadfincFlaxe vpon it 
and the kernell, making it faft with a 
rowlcr : and within two or three dayes^ 
tlie difeafed thereof will be recouercd. 
Whereas els it is very dangerous to de- 
priuc them of life. 



in remote T^egionr. 

Camtroi de Sangre* 

HAT is Laxatiucncs, or 
Bloodie Fluxc, which in 
thofe parts procccdes of 
diuers caufes. As by ea- 
ting ofGrapes,Orringes, 
lya great Fruit that growes mxhcFyefl 
JndiaiCdWcd Ttna^ hkc a Pine-apple, but 
bigger then fbure of the greateft that I 
haue feene j which the Spaniards doe re- 
pute to be themoft delicate Fruit that is 
there, and many other Fruites. Alfo by 
fudden coIde,or fitting (being veryiiot) 
vpon a colde ftone, or, being hot, by 
drinking Water abundantly. And alfo 
eatingofButter,OyIe,andFi(h,isfo hurt- 
full to the parties that haue it, that they 
muft refraine tpeate thereof: and what- 
fouer els, that defiles the entfailes, with 

C To 


ne Cures of theT>ifea/ed, 

To cure Las Qamras^ or Cameras 

de Sangre, which is the 


With the more expedition, that 
medicine ismJniftrcd to the diC- 
czfedoi ^ameras de Saagre, Laxattuenes, 
ox Bioodie Flux^'Aittc is the more pofsibi- 
Ikie it ftiould prcuaile. And dctrading it, 
the Pacicnts often die {iiddenly,wiihout 
fceUng much gricfe. For fpecdie and af- 
furcd remcdie thereof, the Pacicnts bo- 
die muft bee clcnfcdof thcflimrncs, en-^ 
gendered in the paflages of the nutri- 
ments; before anie fuflinance can re- 
mainein bis bodie. And for that pur- 
pofe, gtue to purge him in the morning, 
halfc apint pf white Wine coold,wherin 
j.ounce of Rubarb hath been fodden, 
being fmallcut 5 putting infomeSuger 
Candle to iweetcn it. And immediatly af- 
ter he hath fo purged, keepe at his nauell 
Roferaaric fodden in ftrong Vinegerjap- 




plied in the moniingand cuenlng veric 
hot,vntiIl it be flayed : giuing him often 
Quinces brufed and fowled inMarmc- 
Ict like Pils, which hee (hould fwallowc 
wholc,and none of the Fruits, ormeates 
before recited,nor any more white wine, 
but red wine of any fort. And if it be on 
Land, the liucrs ofGoates(e(peciallie) 
Sheepe,or Bullocks rofted : not willing- 
ly permitting the Pacient to cate any o- 
ther meate. And if atSea,Rice only fod- 
denin water, rather then any thing clfc 
vfuall there ♦ vntill the infirmitieisper- 
fedly aflwaged. 


He Ertz^ifiU \s a Difeafc 
very much raigning in 
thofe Countries, the ra- 
ther proceeding of the 
vnholefome aires and va- 
pours, that hoc Climates doo yecldc, 
whereof many people doo perifli. And 

Ca it 

7he Cures of the Dijeafedy 

it is found incurable,cxccp t it be preucn- 
tcd by Mcdicines^prcfently miniftrcd to 
the Pacicnts vexed therewith. 

To know the Eri^ipi/a. 

HE that hath the Ertzifiiay will bee 
fwohie in the face, or fomc part of 
him,and it will be of yellow colour mixc 
with red. And when it isthruftwiththc 
finger,there will remaine a figne or dint 
of the fame : and then by degrees it will 
fill againc to the former proportion. 
And it fpeedily inted^eth die inwardc 
partSjbecaufe fuch fwellings comes foo- 
nerto perfcdion in hot places, then in 
temperate Countries, And therefore the 
difeafed thereof, muft bee immediatlic 
prouided of remedie. 


To cure the Eri^ipi/a. 

Ome fauage people hauefirft found 
perfe(ftly to cure ihisEriT^ipfU^ al- 


m remote ^gicms. 

though it is the Spanip? name of the Ma- 
ladie i by brufing (o much Tobace:,zsvf\ll 
yceld fourc fpoonfuls of iuycc, and to 
drinke it prcfcntly after they are infcftcd 
therewith. And to launce the places 
fwolne^ thereunto putting Ca/aaa wet, 
and made in pafte. Continuing in colde 
places and (hadie^necre Riuers : and not 
to trauell or labc ur, vntill they are reco- 
uered.* But the Sfanyaris in Jndta, reco- 
uer themfelues by taking the fame iuyce 
oiTobaco, and /ctdngfpmany Ventofes 
vpon the {wolneplaces,as they can con- 
taine/carrifyingthcm^nd drawing out 
the corrupted Humour fo congealed. 
And doing the like in twoor three other 
parts of the bodie, where the Difeafc 
doth not appeare. 

The tuice of Tobaco,/3f n/ery excellent to 
ixpell^ ToyfofJ^ and U the ordmarie remeSe 
'vfedhy the IndiBOs^andmany other ptuage 
feofle^^hen they are foy/oned, and bit "^iti 
Scorfions^or other ^enemouscreatures/^ut 

C s fhey 

[ 19 ] B 

The Cures of the Difeafed 

they fnfently mak^,fome ^adu of incifion^ 
fUfhere they are bit orfiung, and loajh tt "^tth 
t^e iuyce of Tobaco: then af flying the fame 
brtifed thereunto, f^o or three dayes, they 
healeit ^vp Inth dried lobaco. 


He Tiiiofo , or Sceruey !s an 
infcftingDifcafc, fuflScicntKc 

[knowne vnto Seafaring men : 

who by putrificHmeates, and corrupted 
drinke^^ eating Bisket flowrte , or foule 
crufted,wearing wet apparell (efpccial- 
ly fleeping in it) and flothfull demea- 
nour, or by groflc humours contained 
in their bodies^obtainc the fame. 

To know the Scuruey. 

ALthough moft^ Chirurgions , and 
chiefly thofe that frequent the Sea, 
doo vnderftand how to difcernc when 

their Pacients haue the Scuruey s becaufe 



in remote ^ghns. 

icis fo ordinary at Sca,as it hath been fcl- 
dome feenc, any Ship oiPinnice,to bee 
fourc moneths vpon any Voyage, toa- 
ny part of the world, notariuing where 
they haue been fupplied and relicucd 
with the benefits of the Land: butfome 
of the Companic haue had this Difeafe. 
Yet it is not impertinent hereto infert 
the lignes thereof: the rather, becaufel 
haue known Come fo deftitute of know- 
ledge , to difcerne and cure the fame,a$ 
the loffe of men loft thereby,hathdiuer- 
led determined purpofes to proceed on 
Voyages: and others to peri(h, when 
they returned out of hot Regions into 
cold Climates, where they haue had the 
lineaments of their bodies , that with 
heate are nimble and tradable to cueric 
motion of the (pirits,dulled and benum- 
med with colde : which is a token that 
this difeafe is engcndringintheir roints t 
and fooneft appeares by fwelling of 
their anckles and knees^andblacknes of 
their gummes^or loofenes of their teeth, 




which will foinerimes come forth, when 
diere is not redrefle miniflrcd in feafon. 

Preferuatfues againfl: 

the Scuruey, 

TO prefcrue men from the Scurute^ 
there mufl be care to prepare thofc 
things before rehcarfcd, well conditio- 
ned: the badnes whereof doth partlic 
breede the inconuenience. And men 
themfclues muft haue a difcrect ende- 
uour to auoid their ownc ruine,by vfing 
cxercifc of their bodies. And fuch as arc 
exempted from being commanded to 
doo labour, to hang by the armes twife 
or thrice euery day. And not to hauc 
fcarcitie of drinke in hot Chmates : and 
comming into the cold^to be daily relie- 
ued mi\it/4qua Vita, or wine. Alfo it is a 
certainc and affured medicine againft 
thisDifeafe, to haue fuch quantitic of 
Beere brewed with Graynes and Long 
pepper, as in the morning twife cucric 



week there may be giuca good draught 
to a oian, proportioning three <juartcrs 
ofa pound ofGraincs,and three <iuar- 
ters ofa pound of Pepper to a hoglhead 
of Becrc. But white Wine orSyder^boy- 
Icd and brewed with Graynes and Long 
pcppcr,in Iikequantitic,is very Angular 
good. And it is not fittofiifFertheguras 
to abound with fleQi: and therfore (omc- 
timcs letthem blecdcj andclecre them 
with ftrong Vinegcjr, 

To cure the Scuruey. 

THe partie that hath the ScttrueyCct'* 
led in his mouth^mud haue the cor« 
rupted and black fle(h take away, wafli- 
ing Ins moudi with ftrong Vinegcr 
wherein Graines and Long pepper hauc 
been infufed and brewed : and giue him 
the drinke daily that is before prefcri- 
bed. And afwcll fuchas haueitinthcir 
mouthes^s thofe that are fwohie in their 
limmes,muft haue fomc mectc Purga- 

D tion. 

The Cures of ihe'DtJeajed, 

ti^^prcfcntly. But thofc fa fwolnc or 
ftiffe (for fo fomc will bcc without fivcU 
ling^Up fcarificthc parts infcded,and to 
applie thereunto a Tultis or ('atapiafme 
of Barley mcalc, more hot then the Paci- 
cnt will willingly fufFer it.Sodoing euc- 
ricnoiorning, permit him not to reft two 
hourcs after, although hec being num- 
med orfainr^bcfupportcd-towalke: and 
not to fufFer him to cate any fait mcates, 

My felfe hauing 8o, men^ ?oo. leagues 
forth of England ,/^ri^r of the Scurucy, / 
caufed thk meanes of fcarifymgto bcvfedy 
and to the f laces fcartfied^ ^ultefes (being 
deHstute of the helfes mentioned) to bee ap^ 
flted of'Bfs^ty beaten m a morter^andfod^ 
den m loater: Tt^htcb '^ith the comfort offome 
frefh meates (obtained) recouered them all, 
except one ferfon , andthej amuedtn Eng*- 
hndperfeSIly found,. 



r £c no imo t)oaft of beaucic^(lreogcb,oc ycmh • 

*^Fot like to flo wres wc bud, we rprcad,we fade: 

Nothing is certaiae,but che certaine trucb. 

To day a p)ao>to morrow but a lliade. 

His lall apparelhcuc ouc with a fpade, 

Ot Natures courfcftftufie(I meane)hcr molde, 

Muft (hro wd the corps,that liuiog {hone in goldc 

^ando tengas/ttoi fortuna, 
mira que es,comotaljtna* 

Da To 

To the Reader. 

H^ caufe that induceth 
mee, publiquelie to ex-* 
frejje the C tires ofDif- 
eafes offuch conjeqtitnce, 
as euery iudtciallconceite 
may ferceiuCyto haue been 
the onely freiudice to our Nation, in the ex' 
f editions of our time to the Southerne parts : 
from whence in this and former ages, the 
Englifli haue returned "^ith reno^med 
VtSiorie-, yet exceedingite opfreH ^ith ex^ 
treame and penurious fickpejfe , that hath 
much more preuented the proceeding and 
ferforming of their pretenttons, than the 
po'toer of Enemies : is not that J purpofe, 
fraCHtioncr-ltke in Phificl^or fTjirurgsrie^to 
afume ijnto me ante kfioli^/edge in tho/e Sci^ 
ences and Faculties: but to pojfejje'all men 


To the Reader. 

cfremedie for Juch infirmU'tes ^ as in my 

o^n^ experience y hatte infmulte tmpatred 

Englifti ForceJ in intemperate ^fymateji 

Vf^htch Jpubhfhyfor the goodof thofe^ 

"^hom caufe may compel! to haue 

ipje thereof, and "^ould 

befo cenfured 

of all. 

( ; 


Imprinted at Lon- 

donrby FettxJ^ngflonJcr 

X 5 P 8. 



Page, i La hot^J^a mas vale 
merecerla que tenerla. 

It is better to deserve honour than to have it. 

The printer, F(elix) K(ingston), and the pub- 
lisher, H(umfrey) L(ownes), were both well 
known and fairly active in their business. The 
book itself is without typographical distinction, 
but the printer's mark, with its motto ' By peace 
plenty, by wisdom peace ', though known in its 
general outline, is unique in certain minute details.* 

Page s- The two verses of * The Writers in- 
tent * have no logical connexion with each other. 
The former verse, beginning * Man that is borne ', 
is thoroughly in Whetstone's most usual vein and 
was probably a verse he had by him ; the second 
verse was perhaps written for the present volume. 

Page 6. The type of jingle in the verse ot 
* The Bookes Content ' was one of which Whet- 
stone was often guilty. 

11. p, I o. Si Dios no es adorado, 

nunca seras bien curado. 
If God is not adored 

You ne'er will be well cured. 

Pages ']-p. By the Calenture is probably 
meant the condition now classed as * heat-stroke *, 
or * sunstroke*. The word, which in Spanish 

' There is no exact reproduction or inentionof itin J. R. 
Mackcrrow's complete English Printtrs' markj btftrt 1640. 


Notes on Text, 

meant simply a heat or fever, was introduced 
into England from Spain about lypo. The 
Calenture was considered to be especially a 
disease of sailors in the Tropics, and by the 
popular fancy it was associated with a delirium 
in which the patient imagined the sea to be 
a green field and desired to jump into it. Stories 
are even told of the disease having seized upon 
entire crews.' Such a mad sea fever attacking 
a crew is attributed to the pranks of Ariel in 
The Tempest (Act i, sc. ii). 

Pages 8-p, To cure the Calenture, The Sephalica 
or Cephalic vein is a vessel in the arm well adapted 
for blood-letting. The effect of blood-letting is 
naturally identical, whatever vein be selected for 
the purpose, but at the date of our pamphlet 
much fanciful importance was attached to the 
choice of the vessel to be opened — an evil legacy 
from Arabian medicine. 

G. W.'s treatment is in general of a strongly 
* depletory' character. Nevertheless the out- 
line of treatment suggested for the Calenture 
would appear to be by no means irrational. 

Pages p-i?. Tabardillo is again Spanish for 
fever, but the word, unlike Calenture, did not 
become naturalized in England. The word is 
still current in Spain, while in Mexico it is used 

' Those bitten by the Tarantula were supposed to be 
similarly affected by a desire to jump into the sea {yldt 
.Athanasius Kircher, Afagnesy sive de ytrte Mamttica^ opus^ 
Rome, i<54i, p. 870), as were also, at times, the St. Vitus' 
dancers of the Middle Ages. The subject of the Calenture 
in medical literature is reviewed by Edward Knicht in the 
British Mtdical Journal^ '909, vol. i, p. J41 and p. 1176. 


Notes on Text. 

to describe the disease known in Europe as 
typhus. Etymologically Tabardillo is probably 
a diminutive of the Latin tabes. The deriva- 
tion from tabardo^ a peasant's cloak, can 
hardly be maintained, though tempting in view 
of the vermin-borne character of the contagion 
of typhus. 

Under the term Tabardilla our author is 
apparently describing cases both of yellow fever 
and of typhus. He describes an initial headache, 
jaundice, and vigil which would well apply to 
yellow fever, where, however, the purpuric rash 
is a rare phenomenon. 

There are numerous Spanish works of similar 
date to our pamphlet which treat the Tabardilla 
as a new disease. Thus in 157-f the well-known 
medical writer A loisius Tor eus published atBurgos 
his De Febris epidemicae et novae quae Latine 
Puncticulaiis^ vulgo Tauardillo^ et Pintas d'tcitur^ 
natura, cogriittone ct medela. The term febris 
punctkulans was applied by Fracastor, the father 
of modern epidemiology, to a disease which clearly 
corresponds to the modern typhus, but there can 
be no doubt that by less gifted writers this disease 
was frequently confused with true plague. It is 
the symptoms of typhus rather than of true 
plague that our author has mainly in his mind. 

Page i i, 1. 8. The legend of possessed patients 
drowning themselves is, as already explained, 
more usually attached to the Calenture than to 
the Tabardillo. 

Page 12, 1. 8. Fetitosc. an obsolete word 
for a cupping-glass. 


Notes on Text, 

Pages 13-14. The ^j^/W^j would appear to be 
* prickly heat ', but the * little kernel above the 
wrist * has no part in that disease. 

Page 14, 1. i. The Huesso radio is the radial 
bone or focell, which is, however, only upper 
when the arm is placed with the thumb upwards 
and the fingers below. 

Pages ix-17. Camtnas de Sangre comprise 
forms of tropical dysentery. 

Pages i 7-20. The word Erysipelas is one of 
the most ancient surviving in the medical 
vocabulary, but though the disease now known 
under that name was described by the Father of 
Aledicine, the term has acquired exact signi- 
ficance only in quite modern times. Our author, 
however, describes well Erizipila according to 
the present connotation of the term. 

Page ip, 1. 6. By Casada is meant Cassava 
or Mandioc, a plant extensively cultivated in the 
West Indies una in tropical America. The fleshy, 
tuberous roots are used as food, and from them is 
prepared Tapioca, a substance which can be 
made into a good cold compress. 

Pages ip-io. The use of Tobaccoasamedicinal 
substance was very common throughout the latter 
part of the sixteenth century. The American 
Indians attributed magic powers to the subsnnce 
and used it for every imaginable distemper. 
Their faith in the drug was shared by the 
early explorers of the Western Continent.' 

' The subject of beliefs concerning tobacco has been 
broadly dealt with by the present writer, Quarterly H^itw^ 
July 1914. 


Rotes on Text. 

Pages 10-24. Scurvy was the terror of 
sailors until quite modern times, when the shorter 
voyages of steam vessels, the improvement in 
methods of food preservation, and the ease with 
which fresh food can be obtained, have combined 
to make this scourge but a memory among the 
scafiiring population. Outbreaks of this disease, 
affecting as they did whole companies and crews, 
suggested an infective nature, but it is extremely 
improbable that this belief is justifiable. 

The preservatives and remedies against the 
scurvy arc reasonable and would probably prove 
fairly effective. 

Pag'e ly. ^ando tengas, mas fortuna^ 
mira que eSy como la Luna, 

When you have the best of fortune observe 
how like the moon it is [i. e. changing from day 
to day]. 


Santa Barbara 


ries 9482