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BY  J.  O.  WESTWOOD,  F.L.S. 





London : 

Printed  by  Baker  & Darby* 
Holborn  Hill. 


Perhaps  no  book  was  ever  so  soon,  so  generally,  and  with  so  little  envy, 
admitted  to  take  its  place  at  the  head  of  that  department  of  knowledge  to 
which  it  belongs,  as  the  Regne  Animal  of  the  illustrious  Baron  Cuvier. 
This  is  a high,  but  a just  tribute,  both  to  the  work  and  the  author ; for  it  at 
once  showed  that  the  former  is  what  had  long  been  required,  and  that  the 
latter  was  as  much  beloved  for  the  kindness  and  urbanity  of  his  manners,  as 
he  was  admired  for  the  comprehensive  range  and  unprecedented  accuracy  of 
his  views. 

It  must,  indeed,  be  admitted,  that,  until  Cuvier’s  great  work  made  its  ap- 
pearance, we  had  no  modern  systematic  arrangement  of  animals  which  applied 
equally  to  all  the  Classes,  Orders,  and  Families; — which  brought  the  extinct 
species  into  their  proper  situations  in  the  living  catalogue,  and  enabled  every 
discoverer  of  a new  animal,  or  part  of  an  animal,  instantly  to  connect  it  with 
its  proper  tribe  or  family.  Important,  however,  as  are  the  labours  of  this 
great  naturalist,  they  could  not  possibly  extend  beyond  the  limits  of  what  was 
known ; and  as  Cuvier  was  no  speculative  theorist,  but  a rigid  adherent  to 
nature  and  fact,  he  kept  his  system  considerably  within  the  limits  of  those 
who  were  more  speculative,  and  consequently  less  accurate. 

For  students,  no  work  is  equal  to  that  of  Cuvier,  for  it  is  at  once  compre- 
hensive and  concise ; and  though  the  student  may  choose  a particular  de- 
partment, and  require  books  more  in  detail  with  reference  to  that  department, 
he  must  still  have  the  Regne  Animal  to  point  out  to  him  the  general  analogies 
of  the  living  creation.  The  present  work  is  a complete  Cuvier,  as  regards  the 
essential  part  of  the  arrangement ; and  it  is  not  a mere  translation,  but  in  some 
respects  a new  book,  embodying  the  original  one.  Throughout  the  whole  of 
it,  there  will  be  found  original  remarks ; but  these  are  always  distinguished 
from  that  which  belongs  to  Cuvier,  by  being  inclosed  within  brackets. 
This  mode  of  arrangement  was  thought  to  be  much  better  than  the  appending 



of  notes,  which  always  divide  the  attention  of  the  reader,  and  weaken  the 
interest  of  the  subject.  Many  of  the  classes  and  orders  have  been  reinves- 
tigated, and  new  species  added.  This  is  most  extensively  done  in  the 
departments  which  were  intrusted  to  Mr.  Blyth  and  Mr.  Westwood  ; but 
it  runs  more  or  less  throughout  the  whole ; and  the  publishers  flatter  them- 
selves that  this  will  be  of  great  service  to  all  students  of  this  highly  in- 
teresting branch  of  knowledge.  The  style  in  which  the  book  is  brought 
out  will  speak  for  itself.  The  different  sizes  of  type,  which  bear  some  pro- 
portion to  the  comparative  importance  of  the  subject,  will  enable  the  reader  to 
glean  an  outline  of  the  system; — to  obtain  something  more  than  a bare 
outline,  he  must  read  the  entire  work,  which  in  the  present  edition  embodies 
all  the  discoveries  of  more  recent  naturalists. 

London,  June,  1840. 












Without  horns 


EDITION  .... 


With  horns 






Of  Natural  History,  and  of  Systems  gene- 




rally  ..... 





Of  living  Beings,  and  of  Organization  in 

Analogies  of  the  Teeth  of 


general  ..... 





Division  of  Organized  Beings  into  Animal 



and  Vegetable  .... 




Of  the  Forms  peculiar  to  the  Organic  Ele- 



ments  of  the  Animal  Body,  and  of  the 

Division  into  Orders 


principal  Combinations  of  itSj  Chemical 



Elements  .... 


Diurnal  Birds  of  Prey 


Of  the  Forces  which  act  in  the  Animal  Body 


Nocturnal  Birds  of  Prey 


Summary  idea  of  the  Functions  and  Organs 



of  the  Bodies  of  Animals,  and  of  their 



various  degrees  of  complication 




Of  the  Intellectual  Functions  of  Animals  . 




Of  Method,  as  applied  to  the  Animal  King- 



dom  ..... 




General  Distribution  of  the  Animal  King- 



dom  into  four  great  Divisions— Vertebrate 

Affinities  of  the  three  preceding 

Animals,  Molluscous  Animals,  Articulate 



Animals,  Radiate  Animals 








Subdivision  into  four  Classes 








Division  into  Orders 




Bimana,  or  Man 




Peculiar  Conformation  of  Man 




Physical  and  Moral  Developement  of 



Man  .... 




Varieties  of  the  Human  Species 




Quadrumana  .... 




Monkey-like  Animals 




Monkeys  of  America 




Carnaria  .... 




Cheiroptera  .... 




Insectivora  .... 


The  Crocodiles 


Carnivora  .... 


The  Lizards 


Marsupiata  .... 


The  Iguanas 


Rodentia  .... 


The  Geckotians 


Edentata  . . . 


The  Chameleons 


Ordinary  Edentata  . 


The  Scindoidiens 


Monotremata  .... 






The  Orvets 


Proboscidea  .... 


The  True  Serpents 


Ordinary  Pachydermata 


The  Naked  Serpents 


Solidungula  .... 






















Fishes  with  hard  cheeks 















Introduction,  by  Latreille 




Divided  into  Classes  . 









A.  Eyes  placed  on  a footstalk 






Labyrinthiform  Pliaryngeals 













Pectorales  pedunculati 












B.  Eyes  sessile  and  immoveable 


Malacopterygii  Abdominales 



























Malacopterygii  Subbrachiati 


Phyllopa  . 











Discoboli  . 




Malacopterygii  Apoda 




LophobranchiI  . 










The  Spiders 




The  Pedipalpi 


Chondropterygii  Branchiis  Liberis 




Chondropterygii  Branchiis  Fixis 


The  Pseudo-Scorpiones 




The  Pycnogonides 




The  Holetra 






Division  into  Classes  . 


Myriapoda  . 


































































Acephala  Testacea 




The  Oysters 


Taxi  cor  nes 


Mytilaceae  , 




Camacea  . 










The  Weevils 


Acephala  Nuda 
























Division  into  Classes 








Division  into  Orders 









Page  Page 


































































































































Having  been  devoted,  from  my  earliest  youth,  to  the  study  of  comparative  anatomy, 
that  is  to  say  of  the  laws  of  the  organization  of  animals,  and  of  the  modifications 
which  this  organization  undergoes  in  the  various  species,  and  having,  for  nearly  thirty 
years  past,  consecrated  to  that  science  every  moment  of  which  my  duties  allowed  me 
to  dispose,  the  constant  aim  of  my  labours  has  been  to  reduce  it  to  general  rules,  and 
to  propositions  that  should  contain  their  most  simple  expression.  My  first  essays  soon  led 
me  to  perceive  that  I could  only  attain  this  object  in  proportion  as  the  animals,  whose 
structure  I should  have  to  elucidate,  were  arranged  in  conformity  with  that  structure, 
so  that  under  one  single  name,  of  class,  order,  genus,  &c.,  might  be  embraced  all  those 
species  which,  in  their  internal  as  well  as  exterior  conformation,  present  accordancies 
either  more  general  or  more  particular.  Now  this  is  what  the  greater  number  of 
naturalists  of  that  epoch  had  never  sought  to  effect,  and  what  but  few  of  them  could 
have  achieved,  even  had  they  been  willing  to  try ; since  a parallel  arrangement  presup- 
poses a very  extensive  knowledge  of  the  structures,  of  which  it  ought,  in  some  measure, 
to  be  the  representation. 

It  is  true  that  Daubenton  and  Camper  had  supplied  facts, — that  Pallas  had  indicated 
views ; but  the  ideas  of  these  well-informed  men  had  not  yet  exercised  upon  their 
contemporaries  the  influence  which  they  merited.  The  only  general  catalogue  of 
animals  then  in  existence,  and  the  only  one  we  possess  even  now, — the  system  of 
Linnaeus, — had  just  been  disfigured  by  an  unfortunate  editor,  who  did  not  so  much  as 
take  the  trouble  to  comprehend  the  principles  of  that  ingenious  classifier,  and  who, 
wherever  he  found  any  disorder,  seems  to  have  tried  to  render  it  more  inextricable. 

It  is  also  true  that  there  were  very  extensive  works  upon  particular  classes,  which 
had  made  known  a vast  number  of  new  species  ; but  their  authors  barely  con- 
sidered the  external  relations  of  those  species,  and  no  one  had  employed  himself 
in  co-arranging  the  classes  and  orders  according  to  their  entire  structure  : the  cha- 
racters of  several  classes  remained  false  or  incomplete,  even  in  justly  celebrated 
anatomical  works ; somei*of  the  orders  were  arbitrary ; and  in  scarcely  any  of  these 
divisions  were  the  genera  approximated  conformably  to  nature. 



I was  necessitated  then, — and  the  task  occupied  considerable  time, — I was  com- 
pelled to  make  anatomy  and  zoology,  dissection  and  classification,  proceed  beforehand ; 
to  seek,  in  my  first  remarks  on  organization,  for  better  principles  of  distribution  ; 
to  employ  these,  in  order  to  arrive  at  new  remarks  ; and  in  their  turn  the  latter,  to 
carry  the  principles  of  distribution  to  perfection  : in  fine,  to  elicit  from  the  mutual 
reaction  of  the  two  sciences  upon  each  other,  a system  of  zoology  adapted  to  serve  as 
an  introduction  and  a guide  in  anatomical  researches,  and  a body  of  anatomical  doctrine 
fitted  to  develope  and  explain  the  zoological  system. 

The  first  results  of  this  double  labour  appeared  in  1795,  in  a special  memoir  upon  a 
new  division  of  the  white-blooded  animals.  A sketch  of  their  application  to  genera, 
and  to  the  division  of  these  into  sub-genera,  formed  the  object  of  my  Tableau 
Elementaire  des  Animaux,  printed  in  1798,  and  I improved  this  work,  with  the  assistance 
of  M.  Dumeril,  in  the  tables  annexed  to  the  first  volume  of  my  Lemons  d’  Anatomie 
Comparee , in  1800. 

I should,  perhaps,  have  contented  myself  with  perfecting  these  tables,  and  proceeded 
immediately  to  the  publication  of  my  great  work  on  anatomy,  if,  in  the  course  of  my 
researches,  I had  not  been  frequently  struck  with  another  defect  of  the  greater  number 
of  the  general  or  partial  systems  of  zoology  ; I mean,  the  confusion  in  which  the  want 
of  critical  precision  had  left  a vast  number  of  species,  and  even  many  genera. 

Not  only  were  the  classes  and  orders  not  sufficiently  conformed  to  the  intrinsical 
nature  of  animals,  to  serve  conveniently  as  the  basis  to  a treatise  on  comparative 
anatomy,  but  the  genera  themselves,  though  ordinarily  better  constituted,  offered  but 
inadequate  resources  in  their  nomenclature,  on  account  of  the  species  not  having 
been  arranged  under  each  of  them,  conformably  to  their  characters.  Thus,  in  placing 
the  Manati  in  the  genus  Morse,  the  Siren  in  that  of  the  Eels,  Gmelin  had  rendered  any 
general  proposition  relative  to  the  organization  of  these  genera  impossible  ; just  as  by 
approximating  in  the  same  class  and  in  the  same  order,  and  placing  side  by  side,  the 
Cuttle  and  the  fresh-water  Polypus,  he  had  made  it  impossible  to  predicate  anything 
generally  of  the  class  and  order  which  comprised  such  incongruous  beings. 

I select  the  above  examples  from  among  the  most  prominent ; but  there  existed 
an  infinitude  of  such  mistakes,  less  obvious  at  the  first  glance,  which  occasioned  incon- 
veniences not  less  real. 

It  was  not  sufficient,  then,  to  have  imagined  a new  distribution  of  the  classes  and 
orders,  and  to  have  properly  placed  the  genera ; it  was  also  necessary  to  examine  all 
the  species,  in  order  to  be  assured  that  they  really  belonged  to  the  genera  in  which 
they  had  been  placed. 

Having  come  to  this,  I found  not  only  species  grouped  or  dispersed  contrary  to  all  rea- 
son, but  I remarked  that  many  had  not  been  established  in  a positive  manner,  either 
by  the  characters  which  had  been  assigned  to  them,  or  by  their  figures  and  descriptions. 

Here  one  of  them,  by  means  of  synonymes,  represents  several  under  a single  name, 
and  often  so  different  that  they  should  not  rank  in  the  same  genus  : there  a single 
one  is  doubled,  tripled,  and  successively  reappears  in  several  sub-genera,  genera,  and 
sometimes  different  orders. 

What  can  be  said,  for  example,  of  the  Trichechus  manatus  of  Gmelin,  which,  under 
a single  specific  name,  comprehends  three  species  and  two  genera, — two  genera  differing 
in  almost  everything  ? By  what  name  shall  we  speak  of  the  Velella,  which  figures 


twice  among  the  Medusa  and  once  among  the  Holothuria  ? How  are  we  to  reassemble 
the  Biphora,  of  which  some  are  there  called  Dagysa,  the  greater  number  Salpa,  while 
several  are  ranged  among  the  Holothuria  ? 

It  did  not  therefore  suffice,  in  order  completely  to  attain  the  object  aimed  at,  to 
review  the  species  : it  was  necessary  to  examine  their  synonymes ; or,  in  other  words, 
to  re-model  the  system  of  animals. 

Such  an  enterprize,  from  the  prodigious  developement  of  the  science  of  late  years, 
could  not  have  been  executed  completely  by  any  one  individual,  even  granting  him 
the  longest  life,  and  no  other  occupation.  Had  I been  constrained  to  depend  upon 
myself  alone,  I should  not  have  been  able  to  prepare  even  the  simple  sketch  which 
I now  give;  but  the  resources  of  my  position  seemed  to  me  to  supply  what  I 
wanted  both  of  time  and  talent.  Living  in  the  midst  of  so  many  able  naturalists, 
drawing  from  their  works  as  fast  as  they  appeared,  freely  enjoying  the  use  of  the 
collections  they  had  made,  and  having  myself  formed  a very  considerable  one,  ex- 
pressly appropriated  to  my  object,  a great  part  of  my  labour  consisted  merely  in  the 
employment  of  so  many  rich  materials.  It  was  not  possible,  for  instance,  that  much 
remained  for  me  to  do  on  shells,  studied  by  M.  de  Lamarck,  nor  on  quadrupeds,  described 
by  M.  GeofFroy.  The  numerous  and  new  affinities  described  by  M.  de  Lacepede,  were 
so  many  data  for  my  system  of  fishes.  M.  Levaillant,  among  so  many  beautiful  birds 
collected  from  all  parts,  perceived  details  of  organization  which  I immediately  adapted 
to  my  plan.  My  own  researches,  employed  and  fructified  by  other  naturalists,  yielded 
results  to  me  which,  in  my  hands  alone,  they  would  not  all  have  produced.  So,  also, 
M.  de  Blainville  and  M.  Oppel,  in  examining  the  cabinet  which  I had  formed  of 
anatomical  preparations  on  which  I designed  to  found  my  divisions  of  reptiles,  anti- 
cipated— and  perhaps  better  than  I should  have  done — results  of  which  as  yet  I had 
but  a glimpse,  &c.,  &c. 

Encouraged  by  these  reflections,  I determined  to  precede  my  Treatise  on  Com- 
parative Anatomy  by  a kind  of  abridged  system  of  animals,  in  which  I should  present 
their  divisions  and  subdivisions  of  all  degrees,  established  in  a parallel  manner  upon 
their  structure,  both  internal  and  external ; where  I would  give  the  indication  of  well- 
authenticated  species  that  belonged,  with  certainty,  to  each  of  the  subdivisions  ; and 
where,  to  create  more  interest,  I would  enter  into  some  details  upon  such  of  the 
species  as,  from  their  abundance  in  our  country,  the  services  which  they  render 
us,  the  damage  which  they  occasion  to  us,  the  singularity  of  their  manners  and  economy, 
their  extraordinary  forms,  their  beauty,  or  their  magnitude,  are  the  most  remarkable. 

I hoped  by  so  doing  to  prove  useful  to  young  naturalists,  who,  for  the  most  part, 
have  but  little -idea  of  the  confusion  and  errors  of  criticism  in  which  the  most  accredited 
works  abound,  and  who,  particularly  in  foreign  countries,  do  not  sufficiently  attend  to 
the  study  of  the  true  relations  of  the  conformation  of  beings  : I considered  myself  as 
rendering  a more  direct  service  to  those  anatomists,  who  require  to  know  beforehand 
to  which  orders  they  should  direct  their  researches,  when  they  wish  to  solve  by  com- 
parative anatomy  some  problem  of  human  anatomy  or  physiology,  but  whose  ordinary 
occupations  do  not  sufficiently  prepare  them  for  fulfilling  this  condition,  which  is  essen- 
tial to  their  success. 

Nevertheless,  I have  not  professed  to  extend  this  twofold  view  equally  to  all  classes 
of  the  animal  kingdom  ; and  the  vertebrated  animals,  as  in  every  sense  the  most  in- 


teresting,  claimed  to  have  the  preference.  Among  the  Invertebrata,  I have  had  more 
particularly  to  study  the  naked  mollusks  and  the  great  zoophytes  ; but  the  innumerable 
variations  of  the  external  forms  of  shells  and  corals,  the  microscopic  animals,  and  the 
other  families  which  perform  a less  obvious  office  in  the  economy  of  nature,  or  whose 
organization  affords  but  little  room  for  the  exercise  of  the  scalpel,  did  not  require  to 
be  treated  with  the  same  detail.  Independently  of  which,  so  far  as  the  shells  and 
corals  are  concerned,  I could  depend  on  a work  just  published  by  M.  de  Lamarck,  in 
which  will  be  found  all  that  the  most  ardent  desire  for  information  can  require. 

With  respect  to  insects,  so  interesting  by  their  external  forms,  their  organization, 
habits,  and  by  their  influence  on  all  living  nature,  I have  had  the  good  fortune  to  find  as- 
sistance which,  in  rendering  my  work  infinitely  more  perfect  than  it  could  have  been  had 
it  emanated  solely  from  my  pen,  has,  at  the  same  time,  greatly  accelerated  its  publica- 
tion. My  colleague  and  friend,  M.  Latreille,  who  has  studied  these  animals  more 
profoundly  than  any  other  man  in  Europe,  has  kindly  consented  to  give,  in  a single 
volume,  and  nearly  in  the  order  adopted  for  the  other  parts,  a summary  of  his  immense 
researches,  and  an  abridged  description  of  those  innumerable  genera  which  entomolo- 
gists are  continually  establishing. 

As  for  the  rest,  if  in  some  instances  I have  given  less  extent  to  the  exposition  of 
sub-genera  and  species,  this  inequality  has  not  occurred  in  aught  that  concerns  the 
superior  divisions  and  the  indications  of  affinities,  which  I have  every  where  founded  on 
equally  solid  bases,  established  by  equally  assiduous  researches. 

I have  examined,  one  by  one,  all  the  species  of  which  I could  procure  specimens  ; I 
have  approximated  those  which  merely  differed  from  each  other  in  size,  colour,  or  in 
the  number  of  some  less  important  parts,  and  have  formed  them  into  what  I designate 
a sub-genus. 

Whenever  it  was  possible,  I have  dissected  at  least  one  species  of  each  sub-genus  ; 
and  if  those  be  excepted  to  which  the  scalpel  cannot  be  applied,  there  exists  in  my 
work  but  very  few  groups  of  this  degree,  of  which  I cannot  produce  some  considerable 
portion  of  the  organs. 

After  having  determined  the  names  of  the  species  which  I had  examined,  and  which 
had  previously  been  either  well  figured  or  well  described,  I placed  in  the  same  sub- 
genera those  which  I had  not  seen,  but  whose  exact  figures,  or  descriptions,  sufficiently 
precise  to  leave  no  doubt  of  their  natural  relations,  I found  in  authors  ; but  I have 
passed  over  in  silence  that  great  number  of  vague  indications,  on  which,  in  my  opinion, 
naturalists  have  been  too  eager  to  establish  species,  the  adoption  of  which  has  mainly 
contributed  to  introduce  into  the  catalogue  of  beings,  that  confusion  which  deprives  it 
of  so  much  of  its  utility. 

I could  have  added,  almost  every  where,  a vast  number  of  new  species ; but  as  I 
could  not  refer  to  figures,  it  would  have  been  incumbent  on  me  to  extend  their  descrip- 
tions beyond  what  space  permitted : I have,  therefore,  preferred  depriving  my  work  of 
this  ornament,  and  have  only  indicated  those,  the  peculiar  conformation  of  which  gives 
rise  to  new  sub-genera. 

My  sub-genera  once  established  on  positive  relations,  and  composed  of  well-authen- 
ticated species,  it  remained  only  to  construct  this  great  scaffolding  of  genera,  tribes, 
families,  orders,  classes,  and  primary  divisions,  which  constitute  the  entire  animal 


In  this  I have  proceeded,  partly  by  ascending  from  the  inferior  to  the  superior  divi- 
sions, by  means  of  approximation  and  comparison  ; and  partly  also  by  descending  from 
the  superior  to  the  inferior  groups,  on  the  principle  of  the  subordination  of  characters ; 
comparing  carefully  the  results  of  the  two  methods,  verifying  one  by  the  other,  and 
always  sedulously  establishing  the  correspondence  of  external  and  internal  structure, 
which,  the  one  as  well  as  the  other,  are  integral  parts  of  the  essence  of  each  animal. 

Such  has  been  my  procedure  whenever  it  was  necessary  and  possible  to  introduce 
new  arrangements  ; but  I need  not  observe  that,  in  very  many  places,  the  results  to 
which  it  would  have  conducted  me  had  already  been  so  satisfactorily  obtained,  that  I 
had  only  to  follow  the  track  of  my  predecessors.  Notwithstanding  which,  even  in 
those  cases  where  no  alteration  was  required,  I have  verified  and  confirmed,  by  new 
observations,  what  was  previously  acknowledged,  and  what  I did  not  adopt  until  it  had 
been  subjected  to  a rigorous  scrutiny. 

The  public  may  form  some  idea  of  this  mode  of  examination,  from  the  memoirs  on  the 
anatomy  of  mollusks,  which  have  appeared  in  the  Annales  du  Museum , and  of  which  I 
am  now  preparing  a separate  and  augmented  collection.  I venture  to  assure  the  reader 
that  I have  bestowed  quite  as  extensive  labour  upon  the  vertebrated  animals,  the  anne- 
lides,  the  zoophytes,  and  on  many  of  the  insects  and  crustaceans.  I have  not  deemed  it 
necessary  to  publish  it  with  the  same  detail ; but  all  my  preparations  are  exposed  in 
the  Cabinet  of  Comparative  Anatomy  in  the  Jardin  du  Roi,  and  will  serve  hereafter 
for  my  treatise  on  anatomy. 

Another  very  considerable  labour,  but  the  details  of  which  cannot  be  so  readily 
authenticated,  is  the  critical  examination  of  species.  I have  verified  all  the  figures 
alleged  by  different  authors,  and  as  often  as  possible  referred  each  to  its  true  species, 
previously  to  selecting  those  which  I have  indicated  : it  is  entirely  from  this  verifica- 
tion, and  never  from  the  classification  of  preceding  systematists,  that  I have  referred  to 
my  sub-genera  the  species  that  belong  to  them.  Such  is  the  reason  why  no  astonish- 
ment should  be  experienced  on  finding  that  such  and  such  a genus  of  Gmelin  is  now 
divided,  and  distributed  even  in  different  classes  and  still  higher  divisions  ; that  nume- 
rous nominal  species  are  reduced  to  a single  one,  and  that  popular  names  are  very 
differently  applied.  There  is  not  one  of  these  changes  which  I am  not  prepared  to 
justify,  and  of  which  the  reader  himself  may  not  obtain  the  proof,  by  recurring  to  the 
sources  which  I have  indicated. 

In  order  to  lessen  his  trouble,  I have  been  careful  to  select  for  each  class  a principal 
author,  generally  the  richest  in  good  original  figures ; and  I quoted  secondary  works 
only  where  the  former  are  deficient,  or  where  it  was  useful  to  establish  some  com- 
parison, for  the  sake  of  confirming  synonymes. 

My  subject  could  have  been  made  to  fill  many  volumes  ; but  I considered  it  my 
duty  to  condense  it,  by  imagining  abridged  means  of  expression.  These  I have 
obtained  by  graduated  generalities.  By  never  repeating  for  a species  that  which  might 
be  said  of  an  entire  sub-genus,  nor  for  a genus  what  might  be  applied  to  a whole 
order,  and  so  on,  we  arrive  at  the  greatest  economy  of  words.  To  this  my  endeavours 
have  been,  above  all,  particularly  directed,  inasmuch  as  it  was  the  principal  end  of 
my  work.  It  may  be  remarked,  however,  that  I have  not  employed  many  technical 
terms,  and  that  I have  endeavoured  to  communicate  my  ideas  without  that  barbarous 
array  of  fictitious  words,  which,  in  the  works  of  so  many  modern  naturalists,  prove 


so  very  repulsive.  I cannot  perceive,  however,  that  I have  thereby  lost  any  thing  in 
precision  or  clearness. 

I have  been  compelled,  unfortunately,  to  introduce  many  new  names,  although  I 
have  endeavoured,  as  far  as  possible,  to  preserve  those  of  my  predecessors  ; but  the 
numerous  sub-genera  I have  established  required  these  denominations  ; for  in  things 
so  various,  the  memory  is  not  satisfied  with  numerical  indications.  I have  selected 
them,  so  as  either  to  convey  some  character,  or  among  the  common  names  which  I 
have  latinized,  or  lastly,  after  the  example  of  Linnseus,  from  among  those  of  mytho- 
logy, which  are  generally  agreeable  to  the  ear,  and  which  we  are  far  from  having 

In  naming  species,  however,  I would  nevertheless  recommend  employing  the  sub- 
stantive of  the  genus,  and  the  trivial  name  only.  The  names  of  the  sub-genera  are 
designed  merely  as  a relief  to  the  memory,  when  we  would  indicate  these  sub- 
divisions in  particular.  Otherwise,  as  the  sub-genera,  already  very  numerous,  will  in 
the  end  become  greatly  multiplied,  in  consequence  of  having  substantives  continually 
to  retain,  we  shall  be  in  danger  of  losing  the  advantages  of  that  binary  nomenclature 
so  happily  imagined  by  Linnseus. 

It  is  the  better  to  preserve  it  that  I have  dismembered  as  little  as  possible  the  great 
genera  of  that  illustrious  reformer  of  science.  Whenever  the  sub-genera  into  which 
I divide  them  were  not  to  be  translated  into  different  families,  I have  left  them  together 
under  their  former  generic  appellation.  This  was  not  only  due  to  the  memory  of 
Linnseus,  but  was  necessary  in  order  to  preserve  the  mutual  intelligence  of  the 
naturalists  of  different  countries. 

To  facilitate  still  more  the  study  of  this  work, — for  it  is  to  be  studied  more  than  to  be 
glanced  over, — I have  employed  different- sized  types  in  the  printing  of  it,  to  correspond 
to  the  different  grades  of  generalization  of  the  statements  contained  in  it.  * * * 

Thus  the  eye  will  distinguish  beforehand  the  relative  importance  of  each  group,  and  the 
order  of  each  successive  idea  ; and  the  printer  will  second  the  author  with  every  con- 
trivance which  his  art  supplies,  that  may  conduce  to  assist  the  memory. 

The  habit,  necessarily  acquired  in  the  study  of  natural  history,  of  mentally  classify- 
ing a great  number  of  ideas,  is  one  of  the  advantages  of  this  science,  which  is  seldom 
spoken  of,  and  which,  when  it  shall  have  been  generally  introduced  into  the  system  of 
common  education,  will  perhaps  become  the  principal  one  : it  exercises  the  student  in 
that  part  of  logic  which  is  termed  method,  as  the  study  of  geometry  does  in  that 
which  is  called  syllogism,  because  natural  history  is  the  science  which  requires  the 
most  precise  methods,  as  geometry  is  that  which  demands  the  most  rigorous  reason- 
ing. Now  this  art  of  method,  when  once  well  acquired,  may  be  applied  with  infinite 
advantage  to  studies  the  most  foreign  to  natural  history.  Every  discussion  which  sup- 
poses a classification  of  facts,  every  research  which  requires  a distribution  of  matters, 
is  performed  after  the  same  manner ; and  he  who  had  cultivated  this  science  merely 
for  amusement,  is  surprised  at  the  facilities  it  affords  for  disentangling  all  kinds  of 

It  is  not  less  useful  in  solitude.  Sufficiently  extensive  to  satisfy  the  most  powerful 
mind,  sufficiently  various  and  interesting  to  calm  the  most  agitated  soul,  it  consoles 
the  unhappy,  and  tends  to  allay  enmity  and  hatred.  Once  elevated  to  the  contem- 
plation of  that  harmony  of  Nature  irresistibly  regulated  by  Providence,  how  weak  and 


trivial  appear  those  causes  which  it  has  been  pleased  to  leave  dependent  on  the  will  of 
man  ! How  astonishing  to  behold  so  many  fine  minds,  consuming  themselves,  so 
1 uselessly  for  their  own  happiness  and  that  of  others,  in  the  pursuit  of  vain  combina- 
tions, the  very  traces  of  which  a few  years  suffice  to  obliterate  ! 

I avow  it  proudly,  these  ideas  have  been  always  present  to  my  mind, — the  companions 
| of  my  labours ; and  if  I have  endeavoured  by  every  means  in  my  power  to  advance * 
; this  peaceful  study,  it  is  because,  in  my  opinion,  it  is  more  capable  than  any  other  of 
l supplying  that  want  of  occupation,  which  has  so  largely  contributed  to  the  troubles  of 
our  age  ; — but  I must  return  to  my  subject. 

There  yet  remains  the  task  of  accounting  for  the  principal  changes  I have  effected 
in  the  latest  received  methods,  and  to  acknowledge  the  amount  of  obligation  to  those 
naturalists,  whose  works  have  furnished  or  suggested  a part  of  them. 

To  anticipate  a remark  which  will  naturally  occur  to  many,  I must  observe  that  I 
have  neither  pretended  nor  desired  to  class  animals  so  as  to  form  a single  line,  or 
as  to  mark  their  relative  superiority.  I even  consider  every  attempt  of  this  kind  im- 
practicable. Thus,  I do  not  mean  that  the  mammalia  or  birds  which  come  last,  are 
the  most  imperfect  of  their  class ; still  less  do  I intend  that  the  last  of  mammalia 
are  more  perfect  than  the  first  of  birds,  or  the  last  of  mollusks  more  perfect  than  the 
first  of  the  annelides,  or  zoophytes  ; even  restricting  the  meaning  of  this  vague  word 
perfect  to  that  of  “ most  completely  organized.”  I regard  my  divisions  and  subdivisions 
as  the  merely  graduated  expression  of  the  resemblance  of  the  beings  which  enter  into 
each  of  them ; and  although  in  some  we  observe  a sort  of  passage  or  gradation  from 
one  species  into  another,  which  cannot  be  denied,  this  disposition  is  far  from  being 
general.  The  pretended  chain  of  beings,  as  applied  to  the  whole  creation,  is  but  an 
erroneous  application  of  those  partial  observations,  which  are  only  true  when  confined 
to  the  limits  within  which  they  were  made;  and,  in  my  opinion,  it  has  proved  more 
detrimental  to  the  progress  of  natural  history  in  modern  times,  than  is  easy  to 

It  is  in  conformity  with  these  views,  that  I have  established  my  four  principal 
divisions,  which  have  already  been  made  known  in  a separate  memoir.  I still  think 
that  it  expresses  the  real  relations  of  animals  more  exactly  than  the  old  arrangement  of 
Vertebrata  and  Invertebrata,  for  the  simple  reason,  that  the  former  animals  have  a much 
greater  mutual  resemblance  than  the  latter,  and  that  it  was  necessary  to  mark  this 
difference  in  the  extent  of  their  relations. 

M.  Virey,  in  an  article  of  the  Nouveau  Dictionnaire  d’Histoire  Naturelle,  had 
already  discerned  in  part  the  basis  of  the  division,  and  principally  that  which  reposes 
on  the  nervous.,  system. 

The  particular  approximation  of  oviparous  Vertebrata,  inter  se,  originated  from  the 
curious  observations  of  M.  Geoffroy  on  the  composition  of  bony  heads,  and  from  those 
which  I have  added  to  them  relative  to  the  rest  of  the  skeleton,  and  to  the  muscles. 

In  the  class  of  Mammalia,  I have  brought  back  the  Solipedes  to  the  Pachydermata, 
and  have  divided  the  latter  into  families  on  a new  plan ; the  Ruminantia  I have  placed 
at  the  end  of  the  quadrupeds  ; and  the  Manati  near  the  Cetacea.  The  distribution  of 
the  Carnaria  I have  somewhat  altered ; the  Oustitis  have  been  wholly  separated  from 
the  Monkeys,  and  a sort  of  parallelism  indicated  between  the  Marsupiata  and  other 
digitated  quadrupeds,  the  whole  from  my  own  anatomical  researches.  All  that  I have 



given  on  the  Quadrumana  and  the  Bats  is  based  on  the  recent  and  profound  labours  of 
my  friend  and  colleague  M.  Geoffroy  de  St.  Hilaire.  The  researches  of  my  brother, 
M.  Frederic  Cuvier,  on  the  teeth  of  the  Carnaria  and  Rodentia,  have  proved  highly 
useful  to  me  in  forming  the  sub- genera  of  these  two  orders.  Notwithstanding  the 
genera  of  the  late  M.  Illiger  are  but  the  results  of  these  same  studies,  and  of  those  of 
some  foreign  naturalists,  I have  adopted  his  names  whenever  his  genera  corresponded 
with  my  sub-genera.  M.  de  Lacepede  has  also  discerned  and  indicated  many  excellent 
divisions  of  this  degree,  which  I have  been  equally  compelled  to  adopt ; but  the  cha- 
racters of  all  the  degrees  and  all  the  indications  of  species  have  been  taken  from  nature, 
either  in  the  Cabinet  of  Anatomy  or  in  the  galleries  of  the  Museum. 

The  same  plan  was  pursued  with  respect  to  the  Birds.  I have  examined  with  the 
closest  attention  more  than  four  thousand  individuals  in  the  Museum  ; I arranged  them 
according  to  my  views  in  the  public  gallery  more  than  five  years  ago,  and  all  that  is 
said  of  this  class  has  been  drawn  from  that  source.  Thus,  any  resemblance  which  my 
sub-divisions  may  bear  to  some  recent  descriptions,  is  on  my  part  purely  accidental.* 

Naturalists,  I hope,  will  approve  of  the  numerous  sub-genera  which  I have  deemed 
it  necessary  to  make  among  the  birds  of  prey,  the  Passerirue,  and  the  Shore-birds  ; 
they  appear  to  me  to  have  completely  elucidated  genera  hitherto  involved  in  much 
confusion.  I have  marked,  as  exactly  as  I could,  the  accordance  of  these  subdivisions 
with  the  genera  of  MM.  de  Lacepede,  Meyer,  Wolf,  Temminck,  and  Savigny,  and 
have  referred  to  each  of  them  all  the  species  of  which  I could  obtain  a very  positive 
knowledge.  This  laborious  work  will  prove  of  value  to  those  who  may  hereafter 
attempt  a true  history  of  birds.  The  splendid  works  on  Ornithology  published  within 
a few  years,  and  those  chiefly  of  M.  le  Vaillant,  which  are  filled  with  so  many 
interesting  observations,  together  with  M.  Vieillot’s,  have  been  of  much  assistance  to 
me  in  designating  the  species  which  they  represent. 

The  general  division  of  this  class  remains  as  1 published  it  in  1798,  in  my  Tableau 
Element  air  e.-\ 

I have  thought  proper  to  preserve  for  the  Reptiles,  the  general  division  of  my  friend 
M.  Brongniart ; but  I have  prosecuted  very  extensive  anatomical  investigations  to  arrive 
at  the  ulterior  subdivisions.  M.  Oppel,  as  I have  already  stated,  has  partly  taken 
advantage  of  these  preparatory  labours  ; and  whenever  my  genera  finally  agreed  with 
his,  I have  noticed  the  fact.  The  work  of  Daudin,  indifferent  as  it  is,  has  been  useful 
to  me  for  indications  of  details  ; but  the  particular  divisions  which  I have  given  in  the 
genera  of  Monitors  and  Geckos,  are  the  product  of  my  own  observations  on  a great 
number  of  Reptiles  recently  brought  to  the  Museum  by  MM.  Peron  and  Geoffroy. 

My  labours  on  the  Fishes  will  probably  be  found  to  exceed  those  which  I have 
bestowed  on  the  other  vertebrated  animals.  Our  Museum  having  received  a vast 
number  of  Fishes  since  the  celebrated  work  of  M.  de  Lacepede  was  published,  I have  been 
enabled  to  add  many  subdivisions  to  those  of  that  learned  naturalist,  also  to  combine 
several  species  differently,  and  to  multiply  anatomical  observations.  I have  also  had 

* This  observation  not  having  been  sufficiently  understood  abroad, 
1 am  obliged  to  repeat  it  here,  and  openly  to  declare  a fact  witnessed 
by  thousands  in  Paris  ; it  is  this,  that  all  the  birds  in  the  gallery  of 
the  Museum  were  named  and  arranged  according  to  my  system,  in 
1811.  Those  even  of  my  subdivisions  to  which  I had  not  yet  given 
names,  were  marked  by  particular  signs.  This  is  my  date.  Inde- 
pendently of  this,  my  first  volume  was  printed  in  the  beginning  of 

1816.  Four  volumes  are  not  printed  so  quickly  as  a pamphlet  of  a few 
pages.  I say  no  more.  (Note  to  Edit.  1829). 

t I only  mention  this  because  an  estimable  naturalist,  M.  Vieillot, 
has,  in  a recent  work,  attributed  to  himself  the  union  of  the  Pica  and 
Passeres.  I had  printed  it  in  1798,  together  witli  my  other  arrange- 
ments, so  as  to  render  them  public  in  the  Museum  since  1811  and  1813. 


better  means  of  verifying  the  species  of  Commerson,  and  of  some  of  other  travellers ; 
and,  upon  this  point,  I am  much  indebted  to  a review  of  the  drawings  of  Commerson,  and 
of  the  dried  fishes  which  he  brought  with  him,  by  M.  Dumeril,  but  which  have  only 
been  very  lately  recovered ; — resources  to  which  I have  added  those  presented  to 
me  in  the  fishes  brought  by  Peron  from  the  Indian  Ocean  and  Archipelago,  those 
which  I obtained  in  the  Mediterranean,  and  the  collections  made  on  the  coast  of 
Coromandel  by  the  late  M.  Sonnerat,  at  the  Mauritius  by  M.  Matthieu,  in  the  Nile 
and  Red  Sea,  by  M.  Geofffoy,  &c.  I was  thus  enabled  to  verify  most  of  the  species 
of  Bloch,  Russell,  and  others,  and  to  prepare  the  skeletons  and  viscera  of  nearly  all 
the  sub-genera ; so  that  this  part  of  the  work  will,  I presume,  offer  much  that  is  new 
to  Icthyologists. 

As  to  my  division  of  this  class,  I confess  its  inconvenience,  but  I believe  it,  never- 
theless, to  be  more  natural  than  any  preceding  one.  In  publishing  it  some  time  ago, 
I only  offered  it  for  what  it  is  worth  ; and  if  any  one  should  discover  a better  principle 
of  division,  and  as  conformable  to  the  organization,  I shall  hasten  to  adopt  it. 

It  is  admitted  that  all  the  works  on  the  general  division  of  the  invertebrated 
animals,  are  mere  modifications  of  what  I proposed  in  1795,  in  the  first  of  my  memoirs ; 
and  the  time  and  care  which  I have  devoted  to  the  anatomy  of  mollusks  in  general,  and 
principally  to  the  naked  mollusks,  are  well  known.  The  determining  of  this  class,  as 
well  as  of  its  divisions  and  subdivisions,  rests  upon  my  own  observations ; the  magni- 
ficent work  of  M.  Poli  had  alone  anticipated  me  by  descriptions  and  anatomical 
researches  useful  for  my  design,  but  confined  to  bivalves  and  multivalves  only.  I have 
verified  all  the  facts  furnished  by  that  able  anatomist,  and  I believe  that  I have  more 
justly  marked  the  functions  of  some  organs.  I have  also  endeavoured  to  determine  the 
animals  to  which  belong  the  principal  forms  of  shells,  and  to  arrange  the  latter  from 
that  consideration ; but  with  regard  to  the  ulterior  divisions  of  those  shells  of  which  the 
animals  resemble  each  other,  I have  examined  them  only  so  far  as  to  enable  me  to  describe 
briefly  those  admitted  by  MM.  de  Lamarck  and  de  Montfort ; even  the  small  number 
of  genera  and  sub-genera  which  are  properly  mine,  are  principally  derived  from  observa- 
tions on  the  animals.  In  citing  examples,  I have  confined  myself  to  a certain  number  of 
the  species  of  Martini,  Chemnitz,  Lister,  and  Soldani ; and  that  only  because,  the  volume 
in  which  M.  Lamarck  treats  of  this  portion  not  having  yet  appeared,  I was  compelled 
to  fix  the  attention  of  my  readers  on  specific  objects.  But  in  the  choice  and  determin- 
ing of  these  species,  I lay  no  claim  to  the  same  critical  accuracy  which  I have  employed 
for  the  vertebrated  animals  and  naked  mollusks. 

The  excellent  observations  of  MM.  Savigny,  Lesueur,  and  Desmarest,  on  the  com- 
pound Ascidians,  approximate  this  latter  family  of  mollusks  to  certain  orders  of 
zoophytes : this  is  a curious  relation,  and  a further  proof  of  the  impracticability  of 
arranging  animals  in  a single  line. 

I believe  that  I have  extricated  the  Annelides, — the  establishing  of  which,  although 
not  their  name,  belongs  virtually  to  me, — from  the  confusion  in  which  they  had  hitherto 
been  involved,  among  the  Mollusks,  the  Testacea,  and  the  Zoophytes,  and  have  placed 
them  in  their  natural  order ; even  their  genera  have  received  some  elucidation  only 
by  my  observations,  published  in  the  Dictionnaire  des  Sciences  Naturelles,  and  else- 

Of  the  three  classes  contained  in  the  third  volume,  I have  nothing  to  remark. 


M.  Latreille,  who,  with  the  exception  of  some  anatomical  details,  founded  on  my  own 
observations  and  those  of  M.  Ramdohr,  which  I have  inserted  in  his  text,  is  its  sole 
author,  will  take  upon  himself  to  explain  all  that  is  necessary. 

As  to  the  Zoophytes,  which  terminate  the  Animal  Kingdom,  I have  availed  myself, 
for  the  Echinoderms,  of  the  recent  work  of  M.  de  Lamarck ; and  for  the  Intestinal 
Worms,  of  that  of  M.  Rudolphi,  intitled  Entozoa ; but  I have  anatomized  all  the 
genera,  some  of  which  have  been  determined  by  me  only.  There  is  an  excellent 
work  by  M.  Tiedemann,  on  the  anatomy  of  the  Echinoderms,  which  received  the 
prize  of  the  Institute  some  years  ago,  and  will  shortly  appear  ; it  will  leave  nothing  to 
be  desired  respecting  these  curious  animals.  The  Corals  and  the  Infusoria,  offering 
no  field  for  anatomical  investigations*,  will  be  briefly  disposed  of.  The  new  work  of 
M.  de  Lamarck  will  supply  my  deficiencies. f 

With  respect  to  authors,  I can  only  here  mention  those  who  have  furnished  me 
with  general  views,  or  who  were  the  origin  of  such  in  my  own  mind.f  There  are 
many  others  to  whom  I am  indebted  for  particular  facts,  and  whose  names  I have 
carefully  quoted  wherever  I have  made  use  of  them.  They  will  be  found  on  every 
page  of  my  book.  Should  I have  omitted  to  do  justice  to  any,  it  must  be  attributed 
to  involuntary  forgetfulness,  and  I ask  pardon  beforehand : there  is  no  property,  in 
my  opinion,  more  sacred  than  the  conceptions  of  the  mind ; and  the  custom,  too  pre- 
valent among  naturalists,  of  masking  plagiarisms  by  a change  of  names,  has  always 
appeared  to  me  a crime. 

The  publication  of  my  Comparative  Anatomy  will  now  occupy  me  every  moment  : 
the  materials  are  ready  ; a vast  quantity  of  preparations  and  drawings  are  arranged  ; 
and  I shall  be  careful  in  dividing  the  work  into  parts,  each  of  which  will  form  a 
whole,  so  that,  should  my  physical  powers  prove  insufficient  for  the  completion  of  my 
design,  what  I have  produced  will  still  form  entire  suites,  and  the  materials  I have 
collected  be  in  immediate  readiness  for  those  who  may  undertake  the  continuation 
of  my  labours. 

Jardin  du  Roi,  October,  1816. 


The  preceding  preface  explains  faithfully  the  condition  in  which  I found  the 
history  of  animals  when  the  first  edition  of  this  work  was  published.  During  the 
twelve  years  that  have  since  elapsed,  this  science  has  made  immense  progress, 
not  only  from  the  acquisitions  of  numerous  travellers,  as  well-instructed  as  courageous, 
who  have  explored  every  region  of  the  globe,  but  by  the  rich  collections  which 
various  governments  have  formed  and  rendered  public,  and  by  the  learned  and 

* The  surprising  researches  of  M.  Ehrenberg,  now  publishing  from 
time  to  time,  triumphantly  refute  this  allegation. — Ed. 

1 1 have  just  received  L' Histoire  des  Polypiers  correlligenes  flexible s 
of  M.  Lamouroux,  which  furnishes  an  excellent  supplement  to 

M.  de  Lamarck. 

t M.  de  Blainville  has  recently  published  general  zoological  tables, 
which  I regret  came  too  late  for  me  to  profit  by,  having  appeared 
when  my  book  was  nearly  printed. 


splendid  works,  -wherein  new  species  are  described  and  figured,  and  of  which  the 
authors  have  striven  to  detect  their  mutual  relations,  and  to  consider  them  in  every 
point  of  view.* 

I have  endeavoured  to  avail  myself  of  these  discoveries,  as  far  as  my  plan  permitted, 
by  first  studying  the  innumerable  specimens  received  at  the  Cabinet  du  Roi,  and  com- 
paring them  with  those  which  served  as  the  basis  of  my  first  edition,  in  order 
thence  to  deduce  new  approximations  or  subdivisions ; and  then,  by  searching  in  all 
the  books  I could  procure  for  the  genera  or  sub -genera  established  by  naturalists, 
and  the  descriptions  of  species  by  which  they  have  supported  these  numerous  com- 

The  determination  of  synonymes  has  become  much  easier  now  than  at  the  period 
of  my  first  edition.  Both  French  and  foreign  naturalists  appear  to  have  recognized 
the  necessity  of  establishing  divisions  in  the  vast  genera  in  which  such  incongruous 
species  were  formerly  heaped  together ; their  groups  are  now  precise  and  well-defined ; 
their  descriptions  sufficiently  detailed ; their  figures  scrupulously  exact  to  the  most 
minute  characters,  and  often  of  the  greatest  beauty  as  works  of  art.  Scarcely  any 
difficulty  remains,  therefore,  in  identifying  their  species,  and  nothing  hinders 
them  from  coming  to  an  understanding  with  respect  to  the  nomenclature.  This, 
unfortunately,  has  been  the  most  neglected ; the  names  of  the  same  genera,  and  the 
same  species,  are  multiplied  as  often  as  they  are  mentioned ; and  should  this  discord 
continue,  the  same  chaos  will  be  produced  that  previously  existed,  though  arising 
from  another  cause. 

I have  used  every  effort  to  compare  and  approximate  these  redundancies,  and,  forget- 
ting even  my  own  trifling  interest  as  an  author,  have  often  indicated  names  which 
seemed  to  have  been  imagined  only  to  escape  the  avowal  of  having  borrowed  my  divisions. 
But  thoroughly  to  execute  this  undertaking, — this  pinax  or  rectified  epitome  of  the 
animal  kingdom,  which  becomes  every  day  more  necessary, — to  discuss  the  proofs  and  fix 
the  definitive  nomenclature  which  should  be  adopted,  by  basing  it  on  sufficient  figures 
and  descriptions,  requires  more  space  than  I could  dispose  of,  and  a time  imperatively 
claimed  by  other  works.  In  the  History  of  Fishes,  which  I have  commenced  pub- 
lishing, with  the  assistance  of  M.  Valenciennes,  I purpose  to  give  an  idea  of  what 
appears  to  me  might  be  effected  in  all  parts  of  the  science.  Here,  I only  profess  to 
offer  an  abridged  summary — a simple  sketch  ; — well  satisfied  if  I succeed  in  rendering 
this  accurate  in  all  its  details. 

Various  essays  of  a similar  kind  have  been  published  on  some  of  the  classes, 
and  I have  carefully  studied  them  with  a view  to  perfect  my  own.  The  Mammalogie 
of  M.  Desmarest,  that  of  M.  Lesson,  the  Treatise  on  the  Teeth  of  Quadrupeds,  by 
M.  Frederic  Cuvier,  the  English  translation  of  my  first  edition,  by  Mr.  Griffith, 
enriched  by  numerous  additions,  particularly  by  Hamilton  Smith ; the  new  edition 
of  the  Manuel  d’ Ornithologie  of  M.  Temminck,  the  Ornithological  Fragments  of 
M.  Wagler,  the  History  of  R-eptiles  of  the  late  Merrem,  and  the  Dissertation  on  the 
same  subject  by  M.  Fitsinger,  have  principally  been  useful  to  me  for  the  vertebrated 
animals.  The  Histoire  des  Animaux  sans  Vertebres  of  M.  de  Lamarck,  the  Malacologie 
of  M.  de  Blainville,  have  also  been  of  great  service  to  me  for  the  mollusks.  To 

* See  my  discourse  before  the  Institute  on  the  Progres  de  Vhistoire  naturelle  depuis  la  paix  maritime,  published  at  the  close  of  the  first 
volume  of  my  Eloges. 


these  I have  added  the  new  views  and  facts  contained  in  the  numerous  and  learned 
writings  of  MM.  Geoffroy  St.  Hilaire,  father  and  son,  Savigny,  Temminck, 
Lichtenstein,  Kuhl,  Wilson,  Horsfield,  Vigors,  Swainson,  Gray,  Ord,  Say,  Harlan, 
Charles  Bonaparte,  Lamouroux,  Mitchell,  Lesueur,  and  many  other  able  and  studious 
men,  whose  names  will  be  carefully  mentioned  when  I speak  of  the  subjects  on  which 
they  have  treated. 

The  fine  collections  of  engravings  which  have  appeared  within  the  last  twelve 
years,  have  enabled  me  to  indicate  a greater  number  of  species ; and  I have  amply 
profited  by  this  facility.  I must  particularly  acknowledge  what  I owe  on  this 
score  to  the  Histoire  des  Mammiferes  of  MM.  Geoffroy  St.  Hilaire  and  Frederic 
Cuvier,  the  Planches  colorizes  of  MM.  Temminck  and  Laugier,  the  Galerie  des  Oiseaux 
of  M.  Vieillot,  the  new  edition  of  the  Birds  of  Germany,  by  MM.  Nauman,  the  Birds  of 
the  United  States  of  Messrs.  Wilson,  Ord,  and  Charles  Bonaparte*,  the  great  works 
of  M.  Spix,  and  of  his  Highness  the  Prince  Maximilian  de  Wied,  on  the  Animals  of 
Brazil,  and  to  those  of  M.  de  Ferussac  on  the  Mollusks.  The  plates  and  zoological 
descriptions  of  the  travels  of  MM.  Freycinet  and  Duperrey,  supplied  in  the  first  by 
MM.  Quoy  and  Gaymard,  in  the  second  by  MM.  Lesson  and  Garnot,  also  present 
many  new  objects.  The  same  must  be  said  of  the  Animals  of  Java,  by  Dr.  Hors- 
field. Though  on  a smaller  scale,  new  figures  of  rare  species  are  to  be  found  in  the 
Memoires  du  Museum,  the  Annales  des  Sciences  Naturelles,  and  other  French  peri- 
odicals, in  the  Zoological  Illustrations  of  Mr.  Swainson,  and  in  the  Zoological  Journal, 
published  by  able  naturalists  in  London.  The  Journal  of  the  Lyceum  of  New  York, 
and  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia,  are  not  less  valuable  ; but  in 
proportion  as  the  taste  for  natural  history  becomes  extended,  and  the  more  numerous 
the  countries  in  which  it  is  cultivated,  the  number  of  its  acquisitions  increases  in 
geometrical  progression,  and  it  becomes  more  and  more  difficult  to  collect  all  the 
writings  of  naturalists,  and  to  complete  the  table  of  their  results.  I rely,  therefore,  on 
the  indulgence  of  those  whose  observations  may  have  escaped  me,  or  whose  works  I 
have  not  sufficiently  consulted. 

My  celebrated  friend  and  colleague  M.  Latreille,  having  consented,  as  in  the  first 
edition,  to  take  upon  himself  the  important  and  difficult  part  of  the  Crustaceans, 
Arachnides,  and  Insects,  will  himself  explain  in  an  advertisement  the  plan  he  has 
followed,  so  that  I need  say  nothing  more  on  this  subject. 


Jardin  du  Roi,  October,  1828. 

* The  work  of  M.  Audubon  upon  the  Birds  of  North  America,  | me  till  after  the  whole  of  that  part  which  treats  of  Birds  was 
which  surpasses  all  others  in  magnificence,  was  unknown  to  | printed. 




As  few  persons  have  a just  idea  of  Natural  History,  it  appears  necessary  to  com- 
mence our  work  by  carefully  defining  the  proposed  object  of  this  science,  and  establish- 
ing rigorous  limits  between  it  and  the  contiguous  sciences. 

The  word  Nature,  in  our  language,  and  in  most  others,  signifies — sometimes,  the 
qualities  which  a being  derives  from  birth,  in  opposition  to  those  which  it  may 
owe  to  art;  at  other  times,  the  aggregate  of  beings  which  compose  the  universe; 
and  sometimes,  again,  the  laws  which  govern  these  beings.  It  is  particularly  in 
this  latter  sense  that  it  has  become  customary  to  personify  Nature,  and  to  employ 
the  name,  respectfully,  for  that  of  its  Author. 

Physics,  or  Natural  Philosophy,  treats  of  the  nature  of  these  three  relations,  and  is 
either  general  or  particular.  General  Physics  examines,  abstractedly,  each  of  the 
properties  of  those  moveable  and  extended  beings  which  we  call  bodies.  That  depart- 
ment of  them  styled  Dynamics,  considers  bodies  in  mass  ; and,  proceeding  from  a very 
small  number  of  experiments,  determines  mathematically  the  laws  of  equilibrium,  and 
those  of  motion  and  of  its  communication.  It  comprehends  in  its  different  divisions 
the  names  of  Statics,  Mechanics,  Hydrostatics,  Hydrodynamics,  Pneumatics,  &c.,  ac- 
cording to  the  nature  of  the  bodies  of  which  it  examines  the  motions.  Optics  considers 
the  particular  motions  of  light ; the  phenomena  of  which,  requiring  experiments  for 
their  determination,  are  becoming  more  numerous. 

Chemistry,  another  branch  of  General  Physics,  expounds  the  laws  by  which  the 
elementary  molecules  of  bodies  act  on  each  other  when  in  close  proximity,  the  com- 
binations or  separations  which  result  from  the  general  tendency  of  these  molecules  to 
unite,  and  the  modifications  which  different  circumstances,  capable  of  separating  or 
approximating  them,  produce  on  that  tendency.  It  is  a science  almost  wholly  ex- 
perimental, and  which  cannot  be  reduced  to  calculation. 

The  theory  of  Heat,  and  that  of  Electricity,  belong  almost  equally  to  Dynamics  or 
Chemistry,  according  to  the  point  of  view  in  which  they  are  considered. 

The  method  which  prevails  in  all  the  branches  of  General  Physics  consists  in 
isolating  bodies,  reducing  them  to  their  utmost  simplicity,  in  bringing  each  of  their 
properties  separately  into  action,  either  mentally  or  by  experiment,  in  observing  or 
calculating  the  results,  in  short,  in  generalizing  and  correcting  the  laws  of  these  pro- 



perties  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  a body  of  doctrine,  and,  if  possible,  of  referring  the 
whole  to  one  single  law,  under  the  universal  expression  of  which  all  might  he  resolved. 

Particular  Physics,  or  Natural  History, — for  these  terms  are  synonymous — has  for 
its  object  to  apply  specially  the  laws  recognized  by  the  various  branches  of  General 
Physics,  to  the  numerous  and  varied  beings  which  exist  in  nature,  in  order  to  explain 
the  phenomena  which  they  severally  present. 

In  this  extended  sense,  it  would  also  include  Astronomy  ; but  that  science,  suffi- 
ciently elucidated  by  Mechanics,  and  completely  subjected  to  its  laws,  employs  methods 
too  different  from  those  required  by  ordinary  Natural  History,  to  permit  of  its  cultiva- 
tion by  the  students  of  the  latter. 

Natural  History,  then,  is  confined  to  objects  which  do  not  allow  of  rigorous 
calculation,  or  of  precise  measurement  in  all  their  parts.  Meteorology,  also,  is 
subtracted  from  it,  to  be  ranged  under  General  Physics  ; so  that,  properly  speaking, 
it  considers  only  inanimate  bodies,  called  minerals,  and  the  various  kinds  of  living 
beings,  in  all  which  we  may  observe  the  effects,  more  or  less  various,  of  the  laws  of 
motion  and  chemical  attraction,  and  of  all  the  other  causes  analyzed  by  General  Physics. 

Natural  History  should,  in  strictness,  employ  the  same  modes  of  procedure  as  the 
general  sciences ; and  it  does  so,  in  fact,  whenever  the  objects  of  its  study  are  so 
little  complex  as  to  permit  of  it.  But  this  is  very  seldom  the  case. 

An  essential  difference,  in  effect,  between  the  general  sciences  and  Natural  History 

is,  that,  in  the  former,  phenomena  are  examined,  the  conditions  of  which  are  all 
regulated  by  the  examiner,  in  order,  by  their  analysis,  to  arrive  at  general  laws  ; while 
in  the  latter,  they  occur  under  circumstances  beyond  the  control  of  him  who  studies 
them  for  the  purpose  of  discovering,  amid  the  complication,  the  effects  of  general 
laws  already  known.  It  is  not  permitted  for  him,  as  in  the  case  of  the  experimenter, 
to  subtract  successively  from  each  condition,  and  so  reduce  the  problem  to  its 
elements  ; but  he  must  take  it  entire,  with  all  its  conditions  at  once,  and  can  analyze 
only  in  thought.  Suppose,  for  example,  we  attempt  to  isolate  the  numerous  pheno- 
mena which  compose  the  life  of  an  animal  a little  elevated  in  the  scale ; a single  one 
being  suppressed,  the  life  is  wholly  annihilated. 

Dynamics  have  thus  become  a science  almost  purely  of  calculation  ; Chemistry  is 
still  a science  wholly  [chiefly*]  of  experiment;  and  Natural  History  will  long  remain, 
in  a great  number  of  its  branches,  one  of  pure  observation. 

These  three  terms  sufficiently  designate  the  modes  of  procedure  employed  in  the 
three  branches  of  the  Natural  Sciences  ; but  in  establishing  between  them  very  different 
degrees  of  certitude,  they  at  the  same  time  indicate  the  point  to  which  the  two  latter 
should  tend,  in  order  to  approach  perfection. 

Calculation,  so  to  speak,  commands  Nature ; it  determines  phenomena  more  exactly 
than  observation  can  make  them  known  : experiment  forces  her  to  unveil ; while  obser- 
vation watches  her  when  deviating  from  her  normal  course,  and  seeks  to  surprise  her. 

Natural  History  has,  moreover,  a principle  on  which  to  reason,  which  is  peculiar  to 

it,  and  which  it  employs  advantageously  on  many  occasions  ; it  is  that  of  the  conditions 
of  existence,  commonly  termed  final  causes.  As  nothing  can  exist  without  the  concur- 
rence of  those  conditions  which  render  its  existence  possible,  the  component  parts  of  each 

* The  discovery  of  the  atomic  theory  has  reduced  many  of  its  phenomena  to  calculation. — Ed. 



must  be  so  arranged  as  to  render  possible  the  whole  living  being,  not  only  with  regard 
to  itself,  but  to  its  surrounding  relations ; and  the  analysis  of  these  conditions  fre- 
quently conducts  to  general  laws,  as  demonstrable  as  those  which  are  derived  from 
calculation  or  experiment. 

It  is  only  when  all  the  laws  of  general  physics,  and  those  which  result  from  the  condi- 
tions of  existence,  are  exhausted,  that  we  are  reduced  to  the  simple  laws  of  observation. 

The  most  effectual  mode  of  observing  is  by  comparison.  This  consists  in  suc- 
cessively studying  the  same  bodies  in  the  different  positions  in  which  Nature 
places  them,  or  in  a comparison  of  different  bodies  together,  until  constant  relations 
are  recognized  between  their  structures  and  the  phenomena  which  they  manifest. 
These  various  bodies  are  kinds  of  experiments  ready  prepared  by  Nature,  who  adds 
to  or  subtracts  from  each  of  them  different  parts,  just  as  we  might  wish  to  do  in  our 
laboratories,  and  shows  us  herself  the  results  of  such  additions  or  retrenchments. 

It  is  thus  that  we  succeed  in  establishing  certain  laws,  which  govern  these  relations, 
and  which  are  employed  like  those  that  have  been  determined  by  the  general  sciences. 

The  incorporation  of  these  laws  of  observation  with  the  general  laws,  either  directly 
or  by  the  principle  of  the  conditions  of  existence,  would  complete  the  system  of  the 
natural  sciences,  in  rendering  sensible  in  all  its  parts  the  mutual  influence  of  every 
being.  This  it  is  to  which  the  efforts  of  those  who  cultivate  these  sciences  should  tend. 

All  researches  of  this  kind,  however,  presuppose  means  of  distinguishing  with  certainty, 
and  causing  others  to  distinguish,  the  objects  investigated ; otherwise  we  should  be 
incessantly  liable  to  confound  the  innumerable  beings  which  Nature  presents.  Natural 
History,  then,  should  be  based  on  what  is  called  a System  of  Nature,  or  a great  catalogue, 
in  which  all  beings  bear  acknowledged  names,  may  be  recognized  by  distinctive  cha- 
racters, and  distributed  in  divisions  and  subdivisions  themselves  named  and  characterized, 
in  which  they  may  be  found. 

In  order  that  each  being  may  always  be  recognized  in  this  catalogue,  it  should  carry 
its  character  along  with  it : for  which  reason  the  characters  should  not  be  taken 
from  properties,  or  from  habits  the  exercise  of  which  is  transient,  but  should  be 
drawn  from  the  conformation. 

There  is  scarcely  any  being  which  has  a simple  character,  or  can  be  recognized  by 
an  isolated  feature  of  its  conformation : the  combination  of  many  such  traits  is  almost 
always  necessary  to  distinguish  a being  from  the  neighbouring  ones,  which  have 
some  but  not  all  of  them,  or  have  them  combined  with  others  of  which  the  first  is 
destitute ; and  the  more  numerous  the  beings  to  be  discriminated,  the  more  must 
these  traits  accumulate : insomuch  that,  to  distinguish  from  all  others  an  individual 
being,  a complete  description  of  it  must  enter  into  its  character. 

It  is  to  avoid  this  inconvenience  that  divisions  and  subdivisions  have  been  invented. 
A certain  number  of  neighbouring  beings  only  are  compared  together,  and  their  par- 
ticular characters  need  only  to  express  their  differences,  which,  by  the  supposition  itself, 
are  the  less  important  parts  of  their  conformation.  Such  a reunion  is  termed  a genus. 

The  same  inconvenience  would  recur  in  distinguishing  genera  from  each  other,  were 
it  not  that  the  operation  is  repeated  in  collecting  the  neighbouring  genera,  so  as  to  form 
an  order  ; the  neighbouring  orders  to  form  a class,  &c.  Intermediate  subdivisions  may 
also  be  established. 

This  scaffolding  of  divisions,  the  superior  of  which  contain  the  inferior,  is  what  is 


called  a method.  It  is,  in  some  respects,  a sort  of  dictionary,  in  which  we  proceed 
from  the  properties  of  things  to  discover  their  names  ; being  the  reverse  of  ordinary  dic- 
tionaries, in  which  we  proceed  from  the  names  to  obtain  a knowledge  of  the  properties. 

When  the  method,  however,  is  good,  it  does  more  than  teach  us  names.  If  the  sub  - 
divisions have  not  been  established  arbitrarily,  but  are  based  on  the  true  fundamental 
relations, — on  the  essential  resemblances  of  beings,  the  method  is  the  surest  means  of 
reducing  the  properties  of  these  beings  to  general  rules,  of  expressing  them  in  the 
fewest  words,  and  of  stamping  them  on  the  memory. 

To  render  it  such,  an  assiduous  comparison  of  beings  is  employed,  directed  by  the 
principle  of  the  subordination  of  characters,  which  is  itself  derived  from  that  of  the 
conditions  of  existence.  All  the  parts  of  a being  having  a mutual  correlativeness,  some 
traits  of  conformation  exclude  others  ; while  some,  on  the  contrary,  necessitate  others  : 
when,  therefore,  we  perceive  such  or  such  traits  in  a being,  we  can  calculate  before- 
hand those  which  co-exist  in  it,  or  those  that  are  incompatible  with  them.  The  parts, 
properties,  or  the  traits  of  conformation,  which  have  the  greatest  number  of  these 
relations  of  incompatibility  or  of  co-existence  with  others,  or,  in  other  words,  that 
exercise  the  most  marked  influence  upon  the  whole  of  the  being,  are  what  are  called 
important  characters,  dominant  characters ; the  others  are  the  subordinate  characters, 
all  varying,  however,  in  degree. 

This  influence  of  characters  is  sometimes  determined  rationally,  by  considering 
the  nature  of  the  organ  : when  this  is  impracticable,  recourse  must  be  had  to  simple 
observation ; and  a sure  means  of  recognizing  the  important  characters,  which  is 
derived  from  their  own  nature,  is,  that  they  are  more  constant ; and  that  in  a long 
series  of  different  beings,  approximated  according  to  their  degrees  of  similitude,  these 
characters  are  the  last  to  vary. 

From  their  influence  and  from  their  constancy  result  equally  the  rule,  which  should 
be  preferred  for  distinguishing  grand  divisions,  and  in  proportion  as  we  descend  to  the 
inferior  subdivisions,  we  can  also  descend  to  subordinate  and  variable  characters. 

There  can  only  be  one  perfect  method,  which  is  the  natural  method.  An  arrangement 
is  thus  named  in  which  beings  of  the  same  genus  are  placed  nearer  to  each  other  than 
to  those  of  all  other  genera ; the  genera  of  the  same  order  nearer  than  to  those  of 
other  orders,  and  so  in  succession.  This  method  is  the  ideal  to  which  Natural  History 
should  tend ; for  it  is  evident  that,  if  we  can  attain  it,  we  shall  have  the  exact  and 
complete  expression  of  all  nature.  In  fact,  each  being  is  determined  by  its  resem- 
blance to  others,  and  its  differences  from  them ; and  all  these  relations  would  be  fully 
given  by  the  arrangement  which  we  have  indicated.  In  a word,  the  natural  method  would 
be  the  whole  science,  and  each  step  towards  it  tends  to  advance  the  science  to  perfection. 

Life  being  the  most  important  of  all  the  properties  of  beings,  and  the  highest  of  all 
characters,  it  is  not  surprising  that  it  has  been  made  in  all  ages  the  most  general  prin- 
ciple of  distinction  ; and  that  natural  beings  have  always  been  separated  into  two 
immense  divisions,  the  living  and  the  inanimate . 


If,  in  order  to  obtain  a just  idea  of  the  essence  of  life,  we  consider  it  in  those  beings 
in  which  its  effects  are  the  most  simple,  we  readily  perceive  that  it  consists  in  the 

; i 



faculty  which  certain  corporeal  combinations  have,  of  enduring  for  a time,  and  under 
a determinate  form,  by  incessantly  attracting  into  their  composition  a part  of  sur- 
rounding substances,  and  rendering  to  the  elements  portions  of  their  own  proper 

Life,  then,  is  a vortex  (tourbillori) , more  or  less  rapid,  more  or  less  complicated, 
the  direction  of  which  is  constant,  and  which  always  carries  along  molecules  of 
the  same  kind,  but  into  which  individual  molecules  are  continually  entering,  and 
from  which  they  are  constantly  departing  ; so  that  the  form  of  a living  body  is  more 
essential  to  it  than  its  matter. 

As  long  as  this  movement  subsists,  the  body  in  which  it  takes  place  is  living — 
it  lives.  When  it  is  permanently  arrested,  the  body  dies.  After  death,  the  elements 
which  compose  it,  abandoned  to  the  ordinary  chemical  affinities,  are  not  slow  to 
separate,  from  which,  more  or  less  quickly,  results  the  dissolution  of  the  body  that 
had  been  living.  It  was  then  by  the  vital  motion  that  its  dissolution  was  arrested,  and 
that  the  elements  of  the  body  were  temporarily  combined. 

All  living  bodies  die  after  a time,  the  extreme  limit  of  which  is  determined  for  each 
species  ; and  death  appears  to  be  a necessary  consequence  of  life,  which,  by  its  own 
action,  insensibly  alters  the  structure  of  the  body  wherein  its  functions  are  exercised, 
so  as  to  render  its  continuance  impossible. 

In  fact,  the  living  body  undergoes  gradual  but  constant  changes  during  the  whole 
term  of  its  existence.  It  increases  first  in  dimensions,  according  to  the  proportions 
and  within  the  limits  fixed  for  each  species,  and  for  each  of  its  several  parts ; then 
it  augments  in  density,  in  most  of  its  parts  : — it  is  this  second  kind  of  change  that 
appears  to  be  the  cause  of  natural  death. 

On  examining  the  various  living  bodies  more  closely,  a common  structure  is 
discerned,  which  a little  reflection  soon  causes  us  to  adjudge  as  essential  to  a vortex, 
such  as  the  vital  motion. 

Solids,  it  is  evident,  are  necessary  to  these  bodies  for  the  maintenance  of  their 
forms,  and  fluids  for  the  conservation  of  motion  in  them.  Their  tissue,  then,  is  com- 
posed of  interlacement  and  network,  or  of  fibres  and  solid  laminae,  which  inclose  the 
liquids  in  their  interstices : it  is  in  these  liquids  that  the  motion  is  most  continual  and 
most  extended  ; the  extraneous  substances  penetrate  the  intimate  tissue  of  bodies  in 
incorporating  with  them  ; they  nourish  the  solids  by  interposing  their  molecules,  and 
also  detach  from  them  their  superfluous  molecules : it  is  in  a liquid  or  gaseous  form 
that  the  matters  to  be  exhaled  traverse  the  pores  of  the  living  body ; but,  in  return,  it 
is  the  solids  which  contain  these  fluids,  and  by  their  contraction  communicate  to  them 
a part  of  their  motion. 

This  mutual  action  of  the  solids  and  fluids,  this  passage  of  molecules  from  one  to 
the  other,  necessitated  considerable  affinity  in  their  chemical  composition ; and,  accord- 
ingly, the  solids  of  organized  bodies  are  in  great  part  composed  of  elements  easily 
convertible  into  liquids  or  gases. 

The  motion  of  the  fluids,  requiring  also  a continually  repeated  action  on  the 
part  of  the  solids,  and  communicating  one  to  them,  demanded  of  the  latter  both 
flexibility  and  dilatability ; and  hence  we  find  this  character  nearly  general  in  all 
organized  solids. 

This  fundamental  structure,  common  to  all  living  bodies — this  areolar  tissue,  the  more 




or  less  flexible  fibres  or  laminae  of  which  intercept  fluids  more  or  less  abundant  — 
constitutes  what  is  termed  the  organization ; and,  as  a consequence  of  what  we  have 
said,  it  follows  that  only  organized  bodies  can  enjoy  life. 

Organization,  then,  results  from  a great  number  of  dispositions  or  arrangements, 
which  are  all  conditions  of  life  ; and  it  is  easy  to  conceive  that  the  general  move- 
ment of  the  life  would  be  arrested,  if  its  effect  be  to  alter  either  of  these  conditions, 
so  as  to  arrest  even  one  of  the  partial  motions  of  which  it  is  composed. 

Every  organized  body,  besides  the  qualities  common  to  its  tissue,  has  one  proper 
form,  not  only  in  general  and  externally,  but  also  in  the  detail  of  the  structure 
of  each  of  its  parts  ; and  it  is  upon  this  form,  which  determines  the  particular  direction 
of  each  of  the  partial  movements  that  take  place  in  it,  that  depends  the  complication  of 
the  general  movement  of  its  life,  which  constitutes  its  species,  and  renders  it  what  it 

is.  Each  part  concurs  in  this  general  movement  by  a peculiar  action,  and  experiences 
from  it  particular  effects  ; so  that,  in  every  being,  the  life  is  a whole,  resulting  from 
the  mutual  action  and  reaction  of  all  its  parts. 

Life,  then,  in  general,  presupposes  organization  in  general,  and  the  life  proper 
to  each  being  presupposes  the  organization  peculiar  to  that  being,  just  as  the 
movement  of  a clock  presupposes  the  clock  ; and,  accordingly,  we  behold  life  only 
in  beings  that  are  organized  and  formed  to  enjoy  it;  and  all  the  efforts  of  philo- 
sophers have  not  yet  been  able  to  discover  matter  in  the  act  of  organization, 
either  of  itself  or  by  any  extrinsic  cause.  In  fact,  life  exercising  upon  the  elements 
which  at  every  instant  form  part  of  the  living  body,  and  upon  those  which  it  attracts 
to  it,  an  action  contrary  to  that  which  would  be  produced  without  it  by  the  usual 
chemical  affinities,  it  is  inconsistent  to  suppose  that  it  can  itself  be  produced  by  these 
affinities,  and  yet  we  know  of  no  other  power  in  nature  capable  of  reuniting  previously 
separated  molecules. 

The  birth  of  organized  beings  is,  therefore,  the  greatest  mystery  of  the  organic 
economy  and  of  all  nature  : we  see  them  developed,  but  never  being  formed ; nay, 
more,  all  those  of  which  we  can  trace  the  origin,  have  at  first  been  attached  to  a 
body  of  the  same  form  as  their  own,  but  which  was  developed  before  them  ; — in 
one  word,  to  a parent.  So  long  as  the  offspring  has  no  independent  life,  but  par- 
ticipates in  that  of  its  parent,  it  is  called  a germ. 

The  place  to  which  the  germ  is  attached,  and  the  occasional  cause  which  detaches 

it,  and  gives  it  an  independent  life,  vary ; but  the  primitive  adherence  to  a similar 
being  is  a rule  without  exception.  The  separation  of  the  germ  is  what  is  designated 

All  organized  beings  produce  similar  ones  ; otherwise,  death  being  a necessary  con- 
sequence of  life,  their  species  would  not  endure. 

Organized  beings  have  even  the  faculty  of  reproducing,  in  degrees  varying  with  the 
species,  certain  of  their  parts  of  which  they  may  have  been  deprived.  This  has  been 
named  the  power  of  reproduction. 

The  developement  of  organized  beings  is  more  or  less  rapid,  and  more  or  less  ex- 
tended, according  as  circumstances  are  differently  favourable.  Heat,  the  supply  and 
quality  of  nourishment,  with  other  causes,  exert  great  influence ; and  this  influence 
may  extend  to  the  whole  body  in  general,  or  to  certain  organs  in  particular  : — hence 
the  similitude  of  offspring  to  their  parents  can  never  be  complete. 



Differences  of  this  kind,  between  organized  beings,  are  what  are  termed  varieties. 

There  is  no  proof  that  all  the  differences  which  now  distinguish  organized  beings  are 
such  as  may  have  been  produced  by  circumstances.  All  that  has  been  advanced  upon 
this  subject  is  hypothetical : experience  seems  to  show,  on  the  contrary,  that,  in 
the  actual  state  of  things,  varieties  are  confined  within  rather  narrow  limits ; and, 
so  far  as  we  can  retrace  antiquity,  we  perceive  that  these  limits  were  the  same  as  at 

We  are  then  obliged  to  admit  of  certain  forms,  which,  since  the  origin  of  things, 
have  been  perpetuated  without  exceeding  these  limits  ; and  all  the  beings  appertaining 
to  one  of  these  forms  constitute  what  is  termed  a species.  Varieties  are  accidental 
subdivisions  of  species. 

Generation  being  the  only  means  of  ascertaining  the  limits  to  which  varieties  may 
extend,  species  should  be  defined  the  reunion  of  individuals  descended  one  from  the 
other,  or  from  common  parents,  or  from  such  as  resemble  them  as  closely  as  they 
resemble  each  other ; but,  although  this  definition  is  rigorous,  it  will  be  seen  that  its 
application  to  particular  individuals  may  be  very  difficult  when  the  necessary  experi- 
ments have  not  been  made.* 

To  recapitulate, — absorption,  assimilation,  exhalation,  developement,  and  generation, 
are  the  functions  common  to  all  living  beings  ; birth  and  death,  the  universal  limits  of 
their  existence  ; a porous,  contractile  tissue,  containing  within  its  laminae  liquids  or 
gases  in  motion,  the  general  essence  of  their  structure ; substances  almost  all 
susceptible  of  being  converted  into  liquids  or  gases,  and  combinations  capable  of  easy 
transformation  into  one  another,  the  basis  of  their  chemical  composition.  Fixed 
forms,  and  which  are  perpetuated  by  generation,  distinguish  their  species,  determine 
the  complication  of  the  secondary  functions  proper  to  each  of  them,  and  assign  to  them 
the  office  they  have  to  fulfil  in  the  grand  scheme  of  the  universe.  These  forms 
neither  produce  nor  change  themselves ; the  life  supposes  their  existence ; it  can  exist 
only  in  organizations  already  prepared ; and  the  most  profound  meditations,  assisted 
by  the  most  delicate  observations,  can  penetrate  no  further  than  the  mystery  of  the 
pre-existence  of  germs. 


Living  or  organized  beings  have  been  subdivided,  from  the  earliest  times,  into  ani- 
mate beings,  or  those  possessing  sense  and  motion,  and  inanimate  beings,  which  enjoy 

* That  insurmountable  difficulties  oppose  the  rigid  determination  of 
species,  and,  consequently,  render  even  the  definition  of  the  term 
impossible,  except  in  a very  vague  and  loose  manner,  will  readily 
appear  on  consideration  of  some  of  the  phenomena  presented. 
The  prevalent  idea  is,  that  a species  consists  of  the  aggregate  of 
individuals  descended  from  one  original  parentage,  which  alone  are 
supposed  to  he  capable  of  producing  offspring  that  are  prolific  inter 
se ; and  that  when  individuals,  not  of  the  same  pristine  derivation, 
interbreed,  the  hybrids  are  necessarily  mules,  which  are  either  quite 
sterile,  or  at  most  can  only  propagate  with  individuals  of  nnmixed 
descent.  But  it  so  happens,  that  every  possible  grade  of  approxi- 
mation is  manifested,  from  the  most  diverse  races,  to  those  which  are 
utterly  unaistinguishable  ; while,  even  in  the  latter  case,  urgent  ana- 
logies, notwithstanding,  sometimes  forcibly  indicate  a separateness  of 
origin  ; as  when  a series  of  analogous  races  inhabiting  distant  regions 
are  compared  together,  some  of  which  are  obviously  different,  others 
doubtfully  so,  and  some  apparently  identical.  And  it  remains  to  be 
shown  whether  such  intimately  allied  races  as  some  of  these,  even  if 
not  descended  from  a common  stock,  (which  of  course  cannot  be 

ascertained),  would  not  produce  hybrids  capable  of  transmitting  and 
perpetuating  the  mingled  breed.  It  is  true  that  Cuvier  guards 
against  this  contingency,  in  the  wording  of  his  definition  ; and  that 
most  naturalists  would  concur  in  regarding  such  miscible  races,  how- 
ever dissimilar,  as  varieties  merely  of  the  same  ; but  a question 
arises,  whether  there  be  not  different  degrees  of  fertility  in  hybrids, 
corresponding  to  the  amount  of  affinity,  or  physiological  accordancy, 
subsisting  betwixt  the  parent  races ; it  being  only  within  a certain 
sphere  of  that  affinity  that  they  can  be  produced  at  all : besides  which, 
as  hybrids  are  seldom  exactly  intermediate,  and  in  some  instances 
(particularly  among  multiparous  races)  have  been  known  to  resemble 
entirely  one  or  the  other  parent,  it  may  be  presumed  that  this  circum- 
stance would  also  materially  affect  their  capability  of  propagation. 
Experiments  are  needed  to  solve  this  important  problem,  though  there 
is  every  reason  to  suspect  that  the  following  proposition  will  eventu- 
ally gain  the  general  assent  of  naturalists,  viz.,  that  while  considerable 
dissimilarity  does  not  of  necessity  imply  specifical  diversity,  the  con- 
verse equally  holds,  that  absolute  resemblance  fails  of  itself  to  con- 
stitute specifical  identity. — Ed. 

c 2 



neither  the  one  nor  the  other  of  these  faculties,  but  are  reduced  to  the  simple  function 
of  vegetating.  Although  many  plants  retract  their  leaves  when  touched,  and  the  roots 
direct  themselves  constantly  towards  moisture,  the  leaves  towards  air  and  light, 
and  though  some  parts  of  vegetables  appear  even  to  exhibit  oscillations  without 
any  perceptible  external  cause,  still  these  various  movements  bear  too  little  resem- 
blance to  those  of  animals  to  enable  us  to  recognize  in  them  any  proofs  of  perception 
or  of  will. 

The  spontaneity  of  the  movements  of  animals  required  essential  modifications,  even 
in  their  simply  vegetative  organs.  Their  roots  not  penetrating  the  ground,  it  was 
necessary  that  they  should  be  able  to  place  within  themselves  provisions  of  food,  and 
to  carry  its  reservoir  along  with  them.  Hence  is  derived  the  first  character  of  animals, 
or  their  alimentary  cavity,  from  which  their  nutritive  fluid  penetrates  all  other  parts 
through  pores  or  vessels,  which  are  a sort  of  internal  roots. 

The  organization  of  this  cavity  and  of  its  appurtenances  required  varying,  according 
to  the  nature  of  the  aliment,  and  the  operations  which  it  had  to  undergo  before  it 
could  furnish  juices  proper  for  absorption  : whilst  the  atmosphere  and  the  earth  supply 
to  vegetables  only  juices  ready  prepared,  and  which  can  be  absorbed  immediately. 

The  animal  body,  which  abounds  with  functions  more  numerous  and  more  varied 
than  in  the  plant,  required  in  consequence  to  have  an  organization  much  more  com- 
plicated ; besides  which,  its  parts  not  being  capable  of  preserving  a fixed  relative  posi- 
tion, there  were  no  means  by  which  the  motion  of  their  fluids  could  be  produced  by 
external  causes,  as  it  required  to  be  independent  of  heat  and  of  the  atmosphere  : from 
this  originates  the  second  character  of  animals,  or  their  circulatory  system,  which  is 
less  essential  than  the  digestive,  since  it  was  unnecessary  in  the  more  simple  animals. 

The  animal  functions  required  organic  systems,  not  needed  by  vegetables,  as  that 
of  the  muscles  for  voluntary  motion,  and  that  of  the  nerves  for  sensibility ; and  these 
two  systems,  like  the  rest,  acting  only  through  the  motions  and  transformations  of  the 
fluids,  it  was  necessary  that  these  should  be  more  numerous  in  animals,  and  that 
the  chemical  composition  of  the  animal  body  should  be  more  complicated  than  that  of 
the  plant : and  so  it  is,  for  an  additional  substance  (azote)  enters  into  it  as  an  essential 
element,  while  in  plants  it  is  a mere  accidental  junction  with  the  three  other  general 
elements  of  organization,  — oxygen,  hydrogen,  and  carbon.  This  then  is  the  third 
character  of  animals. 

The  soil  and  the  atmosphere  supply  to  vegetables  water  for  their  nutrition,  which  is 
composed  of  oxygen  and  hydrogen,  air,  which  contains  oxygen  and  azote,  and  car- 
bonic acid,  which  is  a combination  of  oxygen  and  carbon.  To  extract  from  these 
aliments  their  proper  composition,  it  was  necesary  that  they  should  retain  the  hydrogen 
and  carbon,  exhale  the  superfluous  oxygen,  and  absorb  little  or  no  azote.  Such,  then, 
is  the  process  of  vegetable  life,  of  which  the  essential  function  is  the  exhalation  of 
oxygen,  which  is  effected  through  the  agency  of  light. 

Animals  in  addition  derive  nourishment,  more  or  less  immediately,  from  the  vegetable 
itself,  of  which  hydrogen  and  carbon  form  the  principal  constituents.  To  assimilate 
them  to  their  own  composition,  they  must  get  rid  of  the  superfluous  hydrogen,  and 
especially  of  the  superabundant  carbon,  and  accumulate  more  azote ; this  it  is  which 
is  performed  in  respiration,  by  means  of  the  oxygen  of  the  atmosphere  combining  with 
the  hydrogen  and  carbon  of  the  blood,  and  being  exhaled  with  them  under  the  form  of 



water  and  carbonic  acid.  The  azote,  whatever  part  of  their  body  it  may  penetrate, 
appears  to  remain  there. 

The  relations  of  vegetables  and  animals  with  the  atmosphere  are  then  inverse ; the 
former  retain  (dtfont)  water  and  [decompose]  carbonic  acid,  while  the  latter  reproduce 
them.  Respiration  is  the  function  essential  to  the  constitution  of  an  animal  body  ; it 
is  that  which  in  a manner  animalizes  it ; and  we  shall  see  that  animals  exercise  their 
peculiar  functions  more  completely,  according  as  they  enjoy  greater  powers  of  respira- 
tion. It  is  in  this  difference  of  relations  that  the  fourth  character  of  animals  consists. 


An  areolar  tissue  and  three  chemical  elements  are  essential  to  every  living  body,  a 
fourth  element  being  peculiar  to  that  of  animals ; but  this  tissue  is  composed  of  vari- 
ously formed  meshes,  and  these  elements  are  united  in  different  combinations. 

There  are  three  kinds  of  organic  materials,  or  forms  of  tissue, — the  cellular  membrane , 
the  muscular  fibre,  and  the  medullary  matter ; and  to  each  form  belongs  a peculiar 
combination  of  chemical  elements,  together  with  a particular  function. 

The  cellular  membrane  is  composed  of  an  infinity  of  small  laminae,  fortuitously  dis- 
posed, so  as  to  form  little  cells  that  communicate  with  each  other.  It  is  a sort  of 
sponge,  which  has  the  same  form  as  the  entire  body,  all  other  parts  of  which  fill  or 
traverse  it.  Its  property  is  to  contract  indefinitely  when,  the  causes  which  sustain 
its  extension  cease  to  operate.  It  is  this  force  that  retains  the  body  in  a given  form, 
and  within  determined  limits. 

When  condensed,  this  substance  forms  those  more  or  less  extended  laminae  which 
are  called  membranes ; the  membranes,  rolled  into  cylinders,  compose  those  tubes,  more 
or  less  ramified,  which  are  termed  vessels ; the  filaments,  named  fibres,  resolve  them- 
selves into  it ; and  the  bones  are  nothing  but  the  same,  indurated  by  the  accumulation 
of  earthy  particles. 

The  cellular  substance  consists  of  that  combination  [isinglass]  which  bears  the 
name  of  gelatine,  and  the  character  of  which  is  to  dissolve  in  boiling  water,  and  to 
assume  the  form,  when  cold,  of  a trembling  jelly. 

The  medullary  matter  has  not  yet  been  reduced  to  its  organic  molecules : it  ap- 
pears to  the  naked  eye  as  a sort  of  soft  bouillie  [pultaceous  mass],  consisting  of  exces- 
sively small  globules ; it  is  not  susceptible  of  any  apparent  motion,  but  in  it  resides 
the  admirable  power  of  transmitting  to  the  me  the  impressions  of  the  external  senses, 
and  of  conveying  to  the  muscles  the  mandates  of  the  will.  The  brain  and  the  spinal 
chord  are  chiefly  composed  of  it;  and  the  nerves,  which  are  distributed  to  all  the 
sentient  organs,  are,  essentially,  but  ramifications  of  the  same. 

The  fleshy  or  muscular  fibre  is  a peculiar  sort  of  filament,  the  distinctive  property 
of  which,  during  life,  is  that  of  contracting  when  touched  or  struck,  or  when  it  experi- 
ences, through  the  medium  of  the  nerves,  the  action  of  the  will. 

The  muscles,  immediate  organs  of  voluntary  motion,  are  merely  bundles  of  fleshy 
fibres.  All  the  membranes,  all  the  vessels  which  need  to  exercise  any  compression,  are 
furnished  with  these  fibres.  They  are  always  intimately  connected  with  nervous 
threads ; but  those  which  subserve  the  purely  vegetative  functions  contract  without 




the  knowledge  of  the  me,  so  that  the  will  is  indeed  one  means  of  causing  the  fibres 
to  act,  but  which  is  neither  general  nor  exclusive. 

The  fleshy  fibre  has  for  its  base  a particular  substance  termed  fibrine,  which  is 
insoluble  in  boiling  water,  and  of  which  the  nature  appears  to  be  to  take  of  itself  this 
filamentous  form. 

The  nutritive  fluid,  or  the  blood,  such  as  we  find  in  the  vessels  of  the  circulation,  not 
only  resolves  itself  principally  into  the  general  elements  of  the  animal  body, — carbon, 
hydrogen,  oxygen,  and  azote,  but  it  also  contains  fibrine  and  gelatine,  all  but  disposed 
to  contract,  and  to  assume  the  forms  of  membranes  or  of  filaments  peculiar  to  them  ; 
nought  being  ever  acquired  for  their  manifestation  but  a little  repose.  The  blood  pre- 
j sents  also  another  combination,  which  occurs  in  many  animal  solids  and  fluids,  namely, 
albumen  [or  white  of  egg],  the  characteristic  property  of  which  is  to  coagulate  in 
boiling  water.  Besides  these,  the  blood  contains  almost  all  the  elements  which  may 
enter  into  the  composition  of  the  body  of  each  animal,  such  as  the  lime  and  phosphorus, 
which  hardens  the  bones  of  vertebrated  animals,  the  iron,  which  colours  the  blood  itself 
as  well  as  various  other  parts,  the  fat  or  animal  oil,  which  is  deposited  in  the  cellular 
substance  to  maintain  it,  &c.  All  the  fluids  and  solids  of  the  animal  body  are  composed 
of  chemical  elements  contained  in  the  blood ; and  it  is  only  by  possessing  some  ele- 
ments more  or  less,  or  in  different  proportions,  that  each  is  severally  distinguished ; 
whence  it  becomes  apparent  that  their  formation  entirely  depends  on  the  subtraction 
of  the  whole  or  part  of  one  or  more  elements  of  the  blood,  and,  in  some  few  cases,  on 
the  addition  of  some  element  from  elsewhere. 

The  various  operations,  by  which  the  blood  supplies  nourishment  to  the  solid  or  liquid 
matter  of  all  parts  of  the  body,  may  take  the  general  name  of  secretion.  This  term, 
however,  is  often  exclusively  appropriated  to  the  production  of  liquids,  while  that  of 
nutrition  is  applied  more  especially  to  the  production  and  deposition  of  the  matter 
necessary  to  the  growth  and  conservation  of  the  solids. 

Every  solid  organ,  as  well  as  fluid,  has  the  composition  most  appropriate  for  the  office 
which  it  has  to  perform,  and  it  preserves  it  so  long  as  health  continues,  because  the 
blood  renews  it  as  fast  as  it  becomes  changed.  The  blood  itself,  by  this  continual 
contribution,  is  altered  every  moment ; but  is  restored  by  digestion,  which  renews  its 
matter ; by  respiration,  which  sets  free  the  superfluous  carbon  and  hydrogen ; and  by 
perspiration  and  various  other  excretions,  that  relieve  it  from  other  superabundant 

These  perpetual  changes  of  chemical  composition  constitute  part  of  the  vital  vortex, 
not  less  essential  than  the  visible  movements  and  those  of  translation : the  object,  in- 
deed, of  these  latter  is  simply  to  produce  the  former. 


The  muscular  fibre  is  not  only  the  organ  of  voluntary  motion ; we  have  seen  that  it 
is  also  the  most  powerful  of  the  means  employed  by  nature  to  effect  the  move- 
ments of  translation  necessary  to  vegetative  life.  Thus  the  fibres  of  the  intestines  pro- 
duce the  peristaltic  motion,  which  causes  the  aliment  to  pass  onward  along  this  canal ; 
the  fibres  of  the  heart  and  arteries  are  the  agents  of  the  circulation,  and,  through  it,  of 
all  the  secretions,  &c. 


The  will  causes  the  fibre  to  contract  through  the  medium  of  the  nerve ; and  the 
involuntary  fibres,  such  as  those  we  have  mentioned,  are  equally  animated  by  the 
nerves  which  pervade  them  ; it  is,  therefore,  probable,  that  these  nerves  are  the  cause 
of  their  contraction. 

All  contraction,  and,  generally  speaking,  all  change  of  dimension  in  nature,  is  produced 
by  a change  of  chemical  composition,  though  it  consists  merely  in  the  flowing  or  ebbing 
of  an  imponderable  *,  such  as  caloric ; it  is  thus  also  that  the  most  violent  of  known 
movements  are  occasioned,  as  combustions,  detonations,  &c. 

There  is,  then,  great  reason  for  supposing  that  it  is  by  an  imponderable  fluid  that 
the  nerve  acts  upon  the  fibre  ; and  the  more  especially,  as  it  is  demonstrated  that  this 
action  is  not  mechanical. 

The  medullary  matter  of  the  whole  nervous  system  is  homogeneous,  and  must 
exercise,  wherever  it  is  found,  the  functions  appertaining  to  its  nature  ; all  its  ramifi- 
cations receive  a great  abundance  of  blood-vessels. 

All  the  animal  fluids  being  derived  from  the  blood  by  secretion,  it  cannot  be  doubted 
tint  the  same  holds  with  the  nervous  fluid,  nor  that  the  medullary  matter  secretes 
[or  evolves]  it. 

On  the  other  hand,  it  is  certain  that  the  medullary  matter  is  the  sole  conductor 
of  the  nervous  fluid  ; and  that  all  the  other  organic  elements  serve  as  non-conductors, 
and  arrest  it,  as  glass  arrests  electricity. 

The  external  causes  which  are  capable  of  producing  sensations,  or  of  occasioning 
contractions  in  the  fibre,  are  all  chemical  agents,  capable  of  effecting  decompositions, 
such  as  light,  caloric,  the  salts,  odorous  vapours,  percussion,  compression,  &c. 

It  would  seem,  then,  that  these  causes  act  upon  the  nervous  fluid  chemically,  and 
by  changing  its  composition  : which  appears  the  more  likely,  as  their  action  becomes 
weakened  by  continuance,  as  if  the  nervous  fluid  needed  to  resume  its  primitive  com- 
position in  order  to  be  altered  anew. 

The  external  organs  of  sense  may  be  compared  to  sieves,  which  allow  nothing  to 
pass  through  to  the  nerve  except  the  species  of  agent  which  should  affect  it  in  that 
particular  place,  but  which  often  accumulates  so  as  to  increase  the  effect.  The 
tongue  has  its  spongy  papillae,  which  imbibe  saline  solutions  : the  ear  a gelatinous 
pulp,  which  is  intensely  agitated  by  sonorous  vibrations  ; the  eye  transparent  lenses, 
which  concentrate  the  rays  of  light,  &c. 

It  is  probable  that  what  are  styled  irritants,  or  the  agents  which  occasion  the  con- 
tractions of  the  fibre,  exert  this  action  by  producing  on  the  fibre,  by  the  nerve,  the 
same  effect  which  is  produced  by  the  will ; that  is  to  say,  by  altering  the  nervous  fluid 
in  the  manner  necessary  to  change  the  dimensions  of  the  fibre  on  which  it  has  influence ; 
but  the  will  has  nothing  to  do  in  this  action ; the  me  is  often  even  without  any 
knowledge  of  it.  The  muscles  separated  from  the  body  are  still  susceptible  of  irrita- 
tion, so  long  as  the  portion  of  the  nerve  distributed  within  them  preserves  its  power  of 
acting  on  them ; the  will  being  evidently  unconnected  with  this  phenomenon. 

The  nervous  fluid  is  altered  by  muscular  irritation,  as  well  as  by  sensation  and 
voluntary  motion ; and  the  same  necessity  occurs  for  the  re-establishment  of  its  primi- 
tive composition. 

The  movements  of  translation  necessary  to  vegetative  life  are  determined  by  irritants  : 

* “ Imponderable  fluid’'  is  the  expression  in  the  original.— Ed. 



the  aliment  irritates  [or  excites]  the  intestine,  the  blood  irritates  the  heart,  &c.  These 
movements  are  all  independent  of  the  will,  and  in  general  (while  health  endures)  take 
place  without  the  cognizance  of  the  me  ; the  nerves  which  produce  them  have  even, 
in  several  parts,  a different  distribution  from  that  of  the  nerves  affected  by  sensations 
or  subject  to  the  will,  and  the  object  of  the  difference  appears  to  be  the  securing  of 
this  independence.* 

The  nervous  functions,  that  is  to  say,  sensitiveness  and  muscular  irritability,  are  so 
much  the  stronger  at  every  point,  in  proportion  as  the  exciting  cause  is  more  abundant ; 
and  as  this  agent,  or  the  nervous  fluid,  is  produced  by  secretion  [or  evolution],  its 
abundance  must  be  in  proportion  to  the  quantity  of  medullary  or  secretory  matter, 
and  the  amount  of  blood  received  by  the  latter. 

In  animals  that  have  a circulation,  the  blood  is  propelled  through  the  arteries  which 
convey  it  to  its  destined  parts,  by  means  of  their  irritability  and  that  of  the  heart.  If 
these  arteries  be  irritated,  they  act  more  vigorously,  and  propel  a greater  quantity  of 
blood  ; the  nervous  fluid  becomes  more  abundant,  and  augments  the  local  sensibility  ; 
this,  in  its  turn,  increases  the  irritability  of  the  arteries,  so  that  this  mutual  action  may 
be  carried  to  a great  extent.  It  is  termed  orgasm,  and  when  it  becomes  painful  and 
permanent,  inflammation.  The  irritation  may  also  originate  in  the  nerve,  when  it 
experiences  acute  sensations. 

This  mutual  influence  of  the  nerves  and  fibres,  either  in  the  intestinal  system,  or  in 
the  arterial  system,  is  the  real  spring  of  vegetative  life  in  animals. 

As  each  external  sense  is  permeable  only  by  particular  kinds  of  sensation,  so 
each  internal  organ  may  be  accessible  only  to  such  or  such  agent  of  irritation.  Thus, 
mercury  irritates  the  salivary  glands,  cantharides  excite  the  bladder,  &c.  These 
agents  are  what  are  termed  specifics. 

The  nervous  system  being  homogeneous  and  continuous,  local  sensations  and  irrita- 
tion debilitate  the  whole  ; and  each  function,  carried  too  far,  may  enfeeble  the  others. 
Excess  of  aliment  thus  weakens  the  faculty  of  thought ; while  prolonged  meditation 
impairs  the  energy  of  digestion,  &c. 

Excessive  local  irritation  will  enfeeble  the  whole  body,  as  if  all  the  powers  of  life 
were  concentrated  on  a single  point. 

A second  irritation  produced  at  another  point  may  diminish,  or  divert  as  it  is  termed, 
the  first ; such  is  the  effect  of  purgatives,  blisters,  &c.  [denominated  counter- irritation] . 

All  rapid  as  the  foregoing  enunciation  is,  it  is  sufficient  to  establish  the  possibility  of 
accounting  for  all  the  phenomena  of  physical  life,  by  the  simple  admission  of  a fluid 
such  as  we  have  defined,  from  the  properties  which  it  manifests. f 

* In  the  above  sentence,  there  are  distinctly  mentioned  the  three 
sorts  of  nerves,  the  separate  functions  of  which  have  been  con- 
clusively demonstrated  by  Sir  Charles  Bell : viz.,  nerves  of  volition, 
which  transmit  the  mandates  of  the  will ; of  sensation,  which  convey 
to  the  sensorium  the  impressions  of  the  senses ; and  of  sympathy, 
or  involuntary  movement,  the  reunion  of  the  ramifications  of  which 
in  a plexus  of  knots,  or  ganglions,  is  intimated  in  the  text,  those  of 
the  second  class  being  distinguished  by  a swelling  or  ganglion  near 
their  base. — Ed. 

t The  unceasing  chemical  changes  consequent  upon  vitality  must 
necessarily  develope  electricity  ; and  that  the  nervous  fluid  is  no  other 
than  the  electric,  may  be  considered  as  proved  by  the  identity  of  their 
phenomena.  Indeed,  it  has  long  been  known  that  the  transmission 
of  voltaic  electricity  along  the  nerves  of  a recently  dead  animal, 
suffices  to  produce  the  most  violent  muscular  action  ; but  the  regula- 
tion of  that  action,  its  exclusive  direction  to  particular  suites  of 
muscles,  requires  the  vital  impulse.  “ If  the  brain,”  remarks  Sir 

John  Herschel,  " (for  which  wonderfully  constituted  organ  no  other 
mode  of  action  possessing  the  least  probability  has  ever  been  devised) , 
be  an  electric  pile,  constantly  in  action,  it  may  be  conceived  to  dis- 
charge itself  at  regular  intervals,  when  the  tension  of  the  electricity 
developed  reaches  a certain  point,  along  the  nerves  which  communi- 
cate with  the  heart,  and  thus  to  excite  the  pulsations  of  that  organ. 
This  idea  is  forcibly  suggested  by  a view  of  that  elegant  apparatus, 
the  dry  pile  of  Deluc,  in  which  the  successive  accumulations  of 
electricity  are  carried  off  by  a suspended  ball,  which  is  kept,  by  the 
discharges,  in  a state  of  regular  pulsation  for  any  length  of  time.  We 
have  witnessed  the  action  of  such  a pile,  maintained  in  this  way  for 
whole  years,  in  the  study  of  the  above-named  eminent  philosopher. 
The  same  idea  of  the  cause  of  the  pulsation  of  the  heart  appears  to 
have  occurred  to  Dr.  Arnott,  and  is  mentioned  in  his  useful  and  ex- 
cellent work  on  Physics,  to  which,  however,  we  are  not  indebted  for 
the  suggestion,  it  having  occurred  to  us  independently  many  years 
ago.” — Discourse  on  the  Study  of  Natural  Philosophy,  p.  343. — Ed. 




After  what  we  have  stated  respecting  the  organic  elements  of  the  body,  its 
chemical  principles,  and  the  forces  which  act  within  it,  it  remains  only  to  give  a sum- 
mary idea  in  detail  of  the  functions  of  which  life  is  composed,  and  of  their  respective 

The  functions  of  the  animal  body  are  divided  into  two  classes  : — 

The  animal  functions,  or  those  proper  to  animals, — that  is  to  say,  sensibility  and 
voluntary  motion. 

The  vital,  vegetative  functions,  or  those  common  to  animals  and  vegetables ; that  is 
to  say,  nutrition  and  generation. 

Sensibility  resides  in  the  nervous  system. 

The  most  general  external  sense  is  that  of  touch  ; its  seat  is  in  the  skin,  a mem- 
brane enveloping  the  whole  body,  and  traversed  all  over  by  nerves,  of  which  the 
extreme  filaments  expand  on  the  surface  into  papillae,  and  are  protected  by  the  epider- 
mis, and  by  other  insensible  teguments,  such  as  hairs,  scales,  &c.  Taste  and  smell 
are  merely  delicate  states  of  the  sense  of  touch,  for  which  the  skin  of  the  tongue  and 
nostrils  is  particularly  organized ; the  former  by  means  of  papillae  more  convex  and 
spongy ; the  latter,  by  its  extreme  delicacy  and  the  multiplication  of  its  ever  humid 
surface.  We  have  already  spoken  of  the  eye  and  ear  in  general.  The  organ  of  gene- 
ration is  endowed  with  a sixth  sense,  which  is  seated  in  its  internal  skin ; that  of  the 
stomach  and  intestines  declares  the  state  of  those  viscera  by  peculiar  sensations.  In 
fine,  sensations  more  or  less  painful  may  originate  in  all  parts  of  the  body  through 
accidents  or  diseases. 

Many  animals  have  neither  ears  nor  nostrils ; several  are  without  eyes,  and  some  are 
reduced  to  the  single  sense  of  touch,  which  is  never  absent. 

The  action  received  by  the  external  organs  is  continued  through  the  nerves  to  the 
central  masses  of  the  nervous  system,  which,  in  the  higher  animals,  consists  of  the 
brain  and  spinal  chord.  The  more  elevated  the  nature  of  the  animal,  the  more  volumi- 
nous is  the  brain,  and  the  more  the  sensitive  power  is  concentrated  there ; in  propor- 
tion as  the  animal  is  placed  lower  in  the  scale,  the  medullary  masses  are  dispersed,  and 
in  the  lowest  genera  of  all,  the  nervous  substance  appears  to  merge  altogether,  and 
blend  in  the  general  matter  of  the  body. 

That  part  of  the  body  which  contains  the  brain  and  the  principal  organs  of  sense,  is 
called  the  head. 

When  the  animal  has  received  a sensation,  and  which  has  induced  in  it  an  act  of 
volition,  it  is  by  [particular]  nerves  also  that  this  volition  is  transmitted  to  the  muscles. 

The  muscles  are  bundles  of  fleshy  fibres,  the  contractions  of  which  produce  all  the 
movements  of  the  animal  body.  The  extensions  of  the  limbs,  and  all  the  lengthenings 
of  parts,  are  the  effect  of  muscular  contractions,  equally  with  flexions  and  abbreviations. 
The  muscles  of  each  animal  are  disposed  in  number  and  direction  according  to  the 
movements  which  it  has  to  execute  ; and  when  these  movements  require  to  be  effected 
with  some  vigour,  the  muscles  are  inserted  into  hard  parts,  articulated  one  over 
another,  and  may  be  considered  as  so  many  levers.  These  parts  are  called  bones  in 



the  vertebrated  animals,  where  they  are  internal,  and  formed  of  a gelatinous  mass, 
penetrated  with  molecules  of  phosphate  of  lime.  In  mollusks,  crustaceans,  and  insects, 
where  they  are  external,  and  composed  of  a calcareous  or  corneous  substance  that 
exudes  between  the  skin  and  epidermis,  they  are  termed  shells,  crusts,  and  scales. 

The  fleshy  fibres  are  attached  to  the  hard  parts  by  means  of  other  fibres  of  a gela- 
tinous nature,  which  seem  to  be  a continuation  of  the  former,  constituting  what  are 
called  tendons. 

The  configuration  of  the  articulating  surfaces  of  the  hard  parts  limits  their  move- 
ments, which  are  further  restrained  by  cords  or  envelopes  attached  to  the  sides  of  the 
articulations,  and  which  are  termed  ligaments. 

It  is  from  the  various  dispositions  of  this  bony  and  muscular  apparatus,  and  from 
the  form  and  proportions  of  the  members  which  result  therefrom,  that  animals  are 
capable  of  executing  those  innumerable  movements  which  enter  into  walking,  leaping, 
flight,  and  swimming. 

The  muscular  fibres  appropriated  to  digestion  and  circulation  are  independent  of  the 
will ; they  receive  nerves,  however,  but,  as  we  have  said,  the  chief  of  them  exhibit 
subdivisions  and  enlargements  which  appear  to  have  for  their  object  the  estrangement 
of  the  empire  of  the  me.  It  is  only  in  paroxysms  of  the  passions  and  other  powerful 
mental  emotions,  which  break  down  these  barriers,  that  the  empire  of  the  me  becomes 
perceptible ; and  even  then  its  effect  is  almost  always  to  disorder  these  vegetative 
functions.  It  is  also  in  a state  of  sickness  only  that  these  functions  are  accompanied 
by  sensations.  Digestion  is  ordinarily  performed  unconsciously. 

The  aliment,  divided  by  the  jaws  and  teeth,  or  sucked  up  when  liquids  con- 
stitute the  food,  is  swallowed  by  the  muscular  movements  of  the  back  part  of  the 
mouth  and  throat,  and  deposited  in  the  first  portion  of  the  alimentary  canal,  usually 
expanded  into  one  or  more  stomachs ; it  there  is  penetrated  with  juices  proper  to  dis- 
solve it.  Conducted  thence  along  the  rest  of  the  canal,  it  receives  other  juices  destined 
to  complete  its  preparation.  The  parietes  of  the  canal  have  pores  which  extract  from 
this  alimentary  mass  its  nutritious  portion,  and  the  useless  residue  is  rejected  as 

The  canal  in  which  this  first  act  of  nutrition  is  performed,  is  a continuation  of  the 
skin,  and  is  composed  of  similar  layers ; even  the  fibres  which  encircle  it  are  analogous 
to  those  which  adhere  to  the  internal  surface  of  the  skin,  called  the  fleshy  pannicle. 
Throughout  the  whole  interior  of  this  canal  there  is  a transudation,  which  has  some 
connexion  with  the  cutaneous  perspiration,  and  which  becomes  more  abundant  when 
the  latter  is  suppressed  ; the  skin  even  exercises  an  absorption  very  analogous  to  that 
of  the  intestines. 

It  is  only  in  the  lowest  animals  that  the  excrements  are  rejected  by  the  mouth,  and 
in  which  the  intestine  has  the  form  of  a sac  without  issue. 

Among  those  even  in  which  the  intestinal  canal  has  two  orifices,  there  are  many  in 
which  the  nutritive  juices,  absorbed  by  the  coats  of  the  intestine,  are  immediately 
diffused  over  the  whole  spongy  substance  of  the  body : this  appears  to  be  the  case 
with  the  whole  class  of  insects. 

But,  ascending  from  the  arachnid es  and  worms,  the  nutritive  fluids  circulate  in  a 
system  of  confined  vessels,  the  ultimate  ramifications  of  which  alone  dispense  its  molecules 
to  the  parts  that  are  nourished  by  it ; those  particular  vessels  which  convey  it  are  named 



arteries,  and  those  which  bring  it  back  to  the  centre  of  the  circulation  are  termed  veins. 
The  circulating  vortex  is  sometimes  simple,  sometimes  double,  and  even  triple  (includ- 
ing that  of  the  vena  porta)  ; the  rapidity  of  its  movements  is  often  aided  by  the  contrac- 
tions of  a certain  fleshy  apparatus  denominated  hearts,  and  which  are  placed  at  one  or 
the  other  centres  of  circulation,  and  sometimes  at  both  of  them. 

In  the  red-blooded  vertebrated  animals,  the  nutritive  fluid  exudes  white  or  transpa- 
rent from  the  intestines,  and  is  then  termed  chyle ; it  is  poured  by  particular  vessels, 
named  lacteals,  into  the  venous  system,  where  it  mingles  with  the  blood.  Vessels 
resembling  these  lacteals,  and  forming  with  them  what  is  known  as  the  lymphatic 
system,  also  convey  to  the  venous  blood  the  residue  of  the  nutrition  of  the  parts  and 
the  products  of  cutaneous  absorption. 

Before  the  blood  is  proper  to  nourish  the  several  parts,  it  must  experience  from  the 
ambient  element,  by  respiration,  the  modification  of  which  we  have  already  spoken.  In 
animals  which  have  a circulation,  a portion  of  the  vessels  is  destined  to  carry  the  blood 
into  organs,  where  they  spread  over  an  extensive  surface,  that  the  action  of  the  ambient 
element  might  be  increased.  When  this  element  [or  medium]  is  the  air,  the  surface  is 
hollow,  and  is  called  lungs  ; when  water,  it  is  salient,  and  termed  gills*  There  are 
always  motive  organs  disposed  for  propelling  the  ambient  element  into,  or  upon,  the 
respiratory  organ. 

In  animals  which  have  no  circulation,  the  air  is  diffused  through  every  part  of  the 
body  by  elastic  vessels,  named  trachea ; or  water  acts  upon  them,  either  by  pene- 
trating through  vessels,  or  by  simply  bathing  the  surface  of  the  skin. 

The  blood  which  is  respired  is  qualified  for  restoring  the  composition  of  all  the  parts, 
and  to  effect  what  is  properly  called  nutrition.  It  is  a great  marvel  that,  with  this 
facility  which  it  has  of  becoming  decomposed  at  each  point,  it  should  leave  precisely 
the  species  of  molecule  which  is  there  necessary ; but  it  is  this  wonder  which  consti- 
tutes the  whole  vegetative  life.  For  the  nourishment  of  the  solids,  we  see  no  other 
arrangement  than  a great  subdivision  of  the  extreme  arterial  ramifications ; but  for 
the  production  of  liquids,  the  apparatus  is  more  complex  and  various.  Sometimes 
the  extremities  of  the  vessels  simply  spread  over  large  surfaces,  whence  the  produced 
fluid  exudes ; sometimes  it  oozes  from  the  bottom  of  little  cavities.  Very  often,  before 
these  arterial  extremities  change  into  veins,  they  give  rise  to  particular  vessels  that 
convey  this  fluid,  which  appears  to  proceed  from  the  exact  point  of  union  between  the 
two  kinds  of  vessels  ; in  this  case,  the  blood-vessels  and  these  latter  termed  especial, 
form,  by  their  interlacement,  the  bodies  called  conglomerate  or  secretory  glands. 

In  animals  that  have  no  circulation,  and  particularly  insects,  the  nutritive  fluid 
bathes  all  the  parts  ; each  of  them  draws  from  it  the  molecules  necessary  for  its  suste- 
nance : if  it  be  necessary  that  some  liquid  be  produced,  the  appropriate  vessels  float  in 
the  nutritive  fluid,  and  imbibe  from  it,  by  means  of  their  pores,  the  constituent  elements 
of  that  liquid. 

It  is  thus  that  the  blood  incessantly  supports  all  the  parts,  and  repairs  the  altera- 
tions which  are  the  continual  and  necessary  consequence  of  their  functions.  The 

* It  may  be  remarked  here,  that,  in  strictness  of  language,  no 
animals  respire  water,  but  the  air  which  is  suspended  in  water,  and 
which  has  been  ascertained  to  contain  more  oxygen  than  that  of  the 
free  atmosphere.  The  elements  of  water,  it  should  be  remembered,  are 
chemically  combined,  while  those  of  air  are  only  mechanically  mixed. 
To  obtain  oxygen  from  the  one,  therefore,  decomposition  is  required  ; 
from  the  other,  no  disunion.  The  only  distinction,  then,  in  the 

respiration  of  animals  is,  that  some  breathe  the  free  air,  and  are  sup- 
plied with  lungs,  and  others  that  diffused  in  water,  and  have  there- 
fore gills  : but  even  this  difference,  however,  is  more  apparent  than 
real,  as  in  all  cases  the  respiratory  surface  requires  to  be  moist  or  wet, 
in  order  to  perform  its  function.  Deprive  water  of  its  air  by  boiling  it, 
and  it  cannot  support  life. — Ed. 



general  ideas  which  we  form  respecting  this  process  are  tolerably  clear,  although  we 
have  no  distinct  or  detailed  notion  of  what  passes  at  each  point ; and  for  want  of 
knowing  the  chemical  composition  of  each  part  with  sufficient  precision,  we  cannot 
render  an  exact  account  of  the  transformations  necessary  to  produce  it. 

Besides  the  glands  which  separate  from  the  blood  those  fluids  which  perform  some 
office  in  the  internal  economy,  there  are  some  which  detach  others  from  it  that  are  to 
be  totally  rejected,  either  simply  as  superfluities,  such  as  the  urine,  which  is  produced 
by  the  kidneys,  or  for  some  use  to  the  animal,  as  the  ink  of  the  cuttle,  and  the  purple 
matter  of  various  other  mollusks,  &c. 

With  respect  to  generation,  there  is  one  process  or  phenomenon  infinitely  more 
difficult  to  conceive  than  that  of  the  secretions  ; it  is  the  production  of  the  germ.  We 
have  seen  even  that  it  may  be  regarded  as  little  less  than  incomprehensible ; but,  the 
existence  of  the  germ  once  admitted,  generation  presents  no  particular  difficulty : so 
long  as  it  adheres  to  the  parent,  it  is  nourished  as  if  it  were  one  of  its  organs* ; and 
when  it  detaches  itself,  it  has  its  own  proper  life,  which  is  essentially  similar  to  that 
of  the  adult. 

The  germ,  the  embryo,  the  foetus,  and  the  new-born  animal,  have  in  no  instance, 
however,  precisely  the  same  form  as  the  adult,  and  the  difference  is  sometimes  so  great, 
that  their  assimilation  merits  the  name  of  metamorphosis.  Thus,  no  one  not  previously 
aware  of  the  fact,  would  suppose  that  the  caterpillar  is  to  become  a butterfly. 

All  living  beings  are  more  or  less  metamorphosed  in  the  course  of  their  growth, 
that  is  to  say,  they  lose  certain  parts,  and  develope  others.  The  antennae,  wings,  and 
all  the  parts  of  the  butterfly  were  inclosed  within  the  skin  of  the  caterpillar ; this 
skin  disappears  along  with  the  jaws,  feet,  and  other  organs  that  do  not  remain  in  the 
butterfly.  The  feet  of  the  frog  are  inclosed  by  the  skin  of  the  tadpole  : and  the  tad- 
pole, to  become  a frog,  loses  its  tail,  mouth,  and  gills.  The  infant  likewise,  at  birth, 
loses  its  placenta  and  envelope  ; at  a certain  age  its  thymous  gland  almost  disappears ; 
and  it  acquires  by  degrees  its  hair,  teeth,  and  beard.  The  relative  size  of  its  organs 
alters,  and  its  body  increases  proportionally  more  than  its  head,  its  head  more  than  its 
internal  ear,  &c. 

The  place  where  these  germs  are  found,  the  assemblage  of  them,  is  named  the  ovary ; 
the  canal  through  which,  when  detached,  they  are  carried  forward,  the  oviduct ; the 
cavity  in  which,  in  many  species,  they  are  obliged  to  remain  for  a longer  or  shorter 
period  before  birth,  the  matrix  or  uterus ; the  exterior  orifice  through  which  they  pass 
into  the  world,  the  vulva.  When  there  are  sexes,  the  male  sex  fecundates ; the  germs 
appearing  in  the  female.  The  fecundating  liquor  is  named  semen ; the  glands  which 
separate  it  from  the  blood,  testicles ; and,  when  it  is  necessary  that  it  should  be  intro- 
duced into  the  body  of  the  female,  the  intromittent  organ  is  called  a penis. 


The  impression  of  external  objects  on  the  me,  the  production  of  a sensation,  of  an 
image,  is  a mystery  impenetrable  to  our  intellect ; and  materialism  an  hypothesis,  so 
much  the  more  conjectural,  as  philosophy  can  furnish  no  direct  proof  of  the  actual 

* Germs  have  been  detected  in  the  ovaria  of  a human  foetus. — Ed. 



29  I 

existence  of  matter.  But  the  naturalist  should  examine  what  appear  to  be  the  mate- 
rial conditions  of  sensation  ; he  should  trace  the  ulterior  operations  of  the  mind,  ascer- 
tain to  what  point  they  reach  in  each  being,  and  assure  himself  whether  they  are  not 
subject  to  conditions  of  perfection,  dependent  on  the  organization  of  each  species,  or 
on  the  momentary  state  of  each  individual  body. 

For  the  me  to  perceive,  there  must  be  an  uninterrupted  nervous  communication 
between  the  external  sense  and  the  central  masses  of  the  medullary  system.  Hence  it 
is  only  when  a modification  is  experienced  by  these  masses  that  the  me  perceives  : there 
may  also  be  real  sensations,  without  the  external  organ  being  affected,  and  which 
originate  either  in  the  nervous  passage,  or  in  the  central  mass  itself ; such  are  dreams 
and  visions,  or  certain  accidental  sensations. 

By  central  masses,  we  mean  a part  of  the  nervous  system,  which  is  more  circum- 
scribed as  the  animal  is  more  perfect.  In  man,  it  consists  exclusively  of  a limited 
portion  of  the  brain ; but  in  reptiles,  it  includes  the  brain  and  the  whole  of  the  medulla, 
and  each  of  their  parts  taken  separately ; so  that  the  absence  of  the  entire  brain  does 
not  prevent  sensation.  In  the  inferior  classes  this  extension  is  still  greater. 

The  perception  acquired  by  the  me,  produces  the  image  of  the  sensation  ex- 
perienced. We  trace  to  without  the  cause  of  that  sensation,  and  thus  acquire  the  idea 
of  the  object  which  produces  it.  By  a necessary  law  of  our  intelligence,  all  the  ideas 
of  material  objects  are  in  time  and  space. 

The  modifications  experienced  by  the  medullary  masses  leave  impressions  there, 
which  are  reproduced,  and  recall  to  mind  images  and  ideas ; this  is  memory,  a cor- 
poreal faculty  that  varies  considerably,  according  to  age  and  health. 

Ideas  that  are  similar,  or  which  have  been  acquired  at  the  same  time,  recall  each 
other ; this  is  the  association  of  ideas.  The  order,  extent,  and  promptitude  of  this  asso- 
ciation constitute  the  perfection  of  memory. 

Each  object  presents  itself  to  the  memory  with  all  its  qualities,  or  with  all  its 
accessory  ideas. 

Intellect  has  the  power  of  separating  these  accessory  ideas  of  objects,  and  of  com- 
bining those  that  are  alike  in  several  different  objects  under  one  general  idea,  the 
prototype  of  which  nowhere  really  exists,  nor  presents  itself  in  an  isolated  form  ; this 
is  abstraction. 

Every  sensation  being  more  or  less  agreeable  or  disagreeable,  experience  and  re- 
peated essays  show  promptly  what  movements  are  required  to  procure  the  one  and 
avoid  the  other  ; and  with  respect  to  this,  the  intellect  abstracts  itself  from  general 
rules  to  direct  the  will. 

An  agreeable^sensation  being  liable  to  consequences  that  are  not  so,  and  vice  versd, 
the  subsequent  sensations  become  associated  with  the  idea  of  the  primitive  one,  and 
modify  the  general  rules  abstracted  by  the  intellect ; this  is  prudence. 

From  the  application  of  rules  to  general  ideas,  result  certain  formulae,  which  are 
afterwards  adapted  easily  to  particular  cases ; this  is  called  reasoning — ratiocination. 

A lively  remembrance  of  primitive  and  associated  sensations,  and  of  the  impressions 
of  pleasure  and  pain  that  attach  to  them,  constitutes  imagination. 

One  privileged  being,  Man,  has  the  faculty  of  associating  his  general  ideas  with 
particular  images  more  or  less  arbitrary,  easily  impressed  upon  the  memory,  and  which 
serve  to  recall  the  general  ideas  which  they  represent.  These  associated  images  are 



what  are  called  signs ; their  assemblage  is  a language.  When  the  language  is  com- 
posed of  images  that  relate  to  the  sense  of  hearing  or  sound,  it  is  termed  speech. 
When  its  images  relate  to  that  of  sight,  they  are  called  hieroglyphics.  Writing 
is  a suite  of  images  that  relate  to  the  sense  of  sight,  by  which  we  represent 
elementary  sounds ; and,  in  combining  them,  all  the  images  relative  to  the  sense  of 
hearing  of  which  speech  is  composed : it  is,  therefore,  only  a mediate  representation 
of  ideas. 

This  faculty  of  representing  general  ideas  by  particular  signs  or  images  associated 
with  them,  enables  us  to  retain  distinctly  in  the  memory,  and  to  recall  without  con- 
fusion, an  immense  number,  and  furnishes  to  the  reasoning  faculty  and  the  imagina- 
tion innumerable  materials,  and  to  individuals  the  means  of  communication,  which 
cause  the  whole  species  to  participate  in  the  experience  of  each  individual ; so  that  no 
bounds  seem  to  be  placed  to  the  acquisition  of  knowledge : this  is  the  distinctive 
character  of  human  intelligence.* 

The  most  perfect  animals  are  infinitely  below  man  in  their  intellectual  faculties ; but 
it  is,  nevertheless,  certain  that  their  intelligence  performs  operations  of  the  same  kind. 
They  move  in  consequence  of  sensations  received,  are  susceptible  of  durable  affections, 
and  acquire  by  experience  a certain  knowledge  of  things,  by  which  they  are  governed  in- 
dependently of  actual  pain  and  pleasure,  and  by  the  simple  foresight  of  consequences. f 
When  domesticated,  they  feel  their  subordination,  know  that  the  being  who  punishes 
them  may  refrain  from  doing  so  if  he  will,  and  when  sensible  of  having  done  wrong,  or 
behold  him  angry,  they  assume  a suppliant  air.  In  the  society  of  man  they  become 
either  corrupted  or  improved,  and  are  susceptible  of  emulation  and  jealousy  : they 
have  among  themselves  a natural  language,  which,  it  is  true,  expresses  only 
their  momentary  sensations ; but  man  teaches  them  to  understand  another,  much 
more  complicated,  by  which  he  makes  known  to  them  his  will,  and  causes  them  to 
execute  it. 

In  short,  we  perceive  in  the  higher  animals  a certain  degree  of  reason,  with  all  its 
consequences,  good  and  bad,  and  which  appears  to  be  about  the  same  as  that  of  chil- 
dren before  they  have  learned  to  speak.  In  proportion  as  we  descend  to  the  animals 
more  removed  from  man,  these  faculties  become  enfeebled;  and,  in  the  lowest  classes, 
we  find  them  reduced  to  signs,  at  times  equivocal  only,  of  sensibility,  that  is  to  say, 
to  a few  slight  movements  to  escape  from  pain.  Between  these  two  extremes,  the 
degrees  are  endless. 

In  a great  number  of  animals,  however,  there  exists  a different  faculty  of  intelli- 
gence, which  is  named  instinct.  This  prompts  them  to  certain  actions  necessary  to  the 
preservation  of  the  species,  but  often  altogether  foreign  to  the  apparent  wants  of 
individuals  ; frequently,  also,  very  complicated,  and  which,  to  be  ascribed  to  intelligence, 
would  suppose  a foresight  and  knowledge  in  the  species  that  execute  them  infinitely 
superior  to  what  can  be  admitted.  These  actions,  the  result  of  instinct,  are  not  the 
effect  of  imitation,  for  the  individuals  that  perform  them  have  often  never  seen  them 
performed  by  others : they  are  not  proportioned  to  the  ordinary  intelligence,  but 
become  more  singular,  more  wise,  more  disinterested,  in  proportion  as  the  animals 
belong  to  less  elevated  classes,  and  are,  in  all  the  rest  of  their  actions,  more  dull  and 

* Linnaeus  defined  the  human  being  to  be  a “ self-knowing  animal i but  it  is  doubtful  whether  any  of  them  can  mentally  trace  remote 
which  is  a bold  assumption,  taken  either  way. — Ei>.  causes,  amid  the  complication  of  phenomena.  It  is  with  man  in  his 

t That  is  to  say,  they  obviously  remark  coincidences  and  sequences  ; ] least  civilized  state  that  they  should  be  compared. — Ed. 



stupid.  They  are  so  truly  the  property  of  the  species,  that  all  its  individuals  perform 
them  in  the  same  way,  without  any  improvement. 

Thus  the  working  bees  have  always  constructed  very  ingenious  edifices,  agreeably  to 
the  rules  of  the  highest  geometry,  and  destined  to  lodge  and  nourish  a posterity  not 
even  their  own.  The  wasps  and  the  solitary  bees  also  form  very  complicated  nests,  in 
which  to  deposit  their  eggs.  From  this  egg  issues  a grub,  which  has  never  seen  its 
parent,  which  is  ignorant  of  the  structure  of  the  prison  in  which  it  is  confined,  but 
which,  once  metamorphosed,  constructs  another  precisely  similar. 

In  order  to  have  a clear  idea  of  instinct,  it  is  necessary  to  admit  that  these  animals 
have  innate  and  perpetual  images  or  sensations  in  the  sensorium,  which  induce  them  to 
act  as  ordinary  and  accidental  sensations  commonly  do.  It  is  a sort  of  dream  or  vision 
that  ever  haunts  them,  and  may  be  considered,  in  all  that  relates  to  instinct,  as  a 
kind  of  somnambulism. 

Instinct  has  been  granted  to  animals  as  a supplement  for  intelligence,  to  concur  with 
it,  and  with  force  and  fecundity,  to  the  preservation,  in  a proper  degree,  of  each  species. 

There  is  no  visible  mark  of  instinct  in  the  conformation  of  the  animal ; but  intelli- 
gence, so  far  as  has  been  observed,  is  in  constant  proportion  to  the  relative  size  of  the 
brain,  and  particularly  of  its  hemispheres.* 


After  what  we  have  said  respecting  methods  in  general,  there  remains  to  ascertain 
which  are  the  most  influential  characters  of  animals,  that  should  serve  as  the  basis  of 
their  primary  divisions.  It  is  evident  they  should  be  those  which  are  drawn  from  the 
animal  functions  ; that  is  to  say,  from  the  sensations  and  movements  ; for  not  only  do 
both  these  make  the  being  an  animal,  but  they  establish,  in  a manner,  its  degree  of 

Observation  confirms  this  position,  by  showing  that  their  degrees  of  developement 
and  complication  accord  with  those  of  the  organs  of  the  vegetative  functions. 

The  heart  and  the  organs  of  the  circulation  form  a kind  of  centre  for  the  vege- 
tative functions,  as  the  brain  and  trunk  of  the  nervous  system  do  for  the  animal 

* One  of  the  most  curious  phenomena  of  instinct  is  the  transmission 
of  instilled  habits  by  generation,  as  in  the  instance  of  high-bred 
pointer  and  setter  dogs,  often  requiring  no  training  to  fit  them  for 
their  particular  modes  of  indicating  game.  Propensities  are  similarly 
hereditary  in  the  human  species  ; but  innate  knowledge,  as  a substi- 
tute for  individually  acquired  experience,  is  peculiar  to  brutes,  which, 
for  the  most  part,  are  thrown  upon  their  own  resources,  before  they 
have  had  time  or  opportunities  to  gain  the  necessary  information  to 
serve  as  a guide  for  the  regulation  of  their  conduct.  All  the  higher  ani- 
mals,  except  the  human  species,  appear  to  recognize  their  natural  foes 
intuitively,  to  know  even  where  their  hidden  weapons  lie,  also  where 
they  (and  likewise  themselves)  are  most  vulnerable,  and  they  endea- 
vour to  use  their  own  peculiar  weapons  before  these  are  developed.  If 
incapable  of  resistance,  they  commonly  have  recourse  to  stratagem  ; 
thus  a brood  of  newly-hatched  partridges  will  instantly  cower  motion- 
less at  sight  of  an  object  of  distrust,  the  intent  of  which  must  be,  that 
the  close  similarity  of  their  colour  to  that  of  the  surface  should  cause 
them  to  be  overlooked.  Predatory  animals,  again,  which  immolate 
victims  capable  of  dangerous  resistance,  instinctively  endeavour  always 
to  attack  a vital  part,  so  as  to  effect  their  purpose  speedily,  and  with 
least  hazard  to  themselves  ; but  those  which  prey  on  feeble  and  de- 
fenceless animals  attack  indiscriminately.  Many  astonishing  mani- 
festations of  the  instinctive  faculty  occur  respecting  the  manner  in 
which  the  food  is  obtained  ; and  in  the  ant  and  some  rodent  quadrupeds, 
which  store  up  grain,  the  embryo  of  every  seed  is  destroyed,  to  pre- 
vent germination. 

The  seasonal  migrative  impulse  which  recurs  in  some  animals  is 
among  the  most  incomprehensible  of  instinctive  phenomena,  as  it  is 
shown  to  be,  in  various  cases,  independent  of  food  or  temperature  ; 
though  the  latter,  in  particular,  exercises  some  influence  on  its  de- 
velopement, as  does  also  the  state  of  the  sexual  organs  in'  spring.  The 
guiding  principle  of  migration  is  equally  mysterious, — that  which 
enables  a bird  of  passage  to  return  periodically  to  its  former  haunts, 
to  the  same  locality  (both  in  winter  and  summer),  which  it  had  pre- 
viously occupied  ; and  the  young  also  to  the  place  of  their  nativity. 
This  principle  is  farther  evinced  in  the  return  of  pigeons,  &c.  to  their 
accustomed  place  of  abode  from  indefinite  distances,  and  by  a straighter 
and  more  direct  route  than  that  by  which  they  had  been  removed.  It 
appears,  likewise,  to  be  manifested  in  somnambulism,  and,  perhaps,  in 
some  other  affections  of  the  human  body  ; but  the  sexual  and  parental 
instincts  are  those  which  are  chiefly  cognizable  in  civilized  man- 

One  curious  fact  connected  with  the  migrative  propensity  is,  that 
the  same  species  is  sometimes  permanently  resident  in  one  locality, 
and  migratory  in  another.  Thus  the  robin,  which  is  stationary  in 
Britain,  leaves  Germany  in  the  autumn  ; which  would  seem  to  indi- 
cate that  the  erratic  habit  may  have  originated  (in  this  instance)  from 
necessity,  and  in  course  of  time  have  become  regular  and  transmis- 
sible, independently  of  external  causes.  Migratory  animals,  how- 
ever, may  commonly  be  distinguished  from  others  of  the  same  genus, 
by  their  superior  structural  powers  of  locomotion. — Ed. 


functions.  Now,  we  see  these  two  systems  degrade  and  disappear  together.  In 
the  lowest  of  animals,  where  the  nerves  cease  to  be  visible,  there  are  no  longer 
distinct  fibres,  and  the  organs  of  digestion,  are  simply  excavated  in  the  homogeneous 
mass  of  the  body.  In  insects,  the  vascular  system  disappears  even  before  the  nervous 
one  ; but,  in  general,  the  dispersion  of  the  medullary  masses  accompanies  that  of  the 
muscular  agehts  : a spinal  chord,  on  which  the  knots  or  ganglions  represent  so 
many  brains,  corresponds  to  a body  divided  into  numerous  rings,  and  supported  by 
pairs  of  members  distributed  along  its  length,  &c. 

This  correspondence  of  general  forms,  which  results  from  the  arrangement  of  the 
organs  of  motion,  the  distribution  of  the  nervous  masses,  and  the  energy  of  the  circu- 
lating system,  should  serve  then  for  the  basis  of  the  primary  sections  to  be  made  in 
the  animal  kingdom.  We  will  afterwards  ascertain,  in  each  of  these  sections,  what 
characters  should  succeed  immediately  to  these,  and  form  the  basis  of  the  primary 


If  the  animal  kingdom  be  considered  with  reference  to  the  principles  which  we  have 
laid  down,  and,  divesting  ourselves  of  the  prejudices  founded  on  the  divisions 
formerly  admitted,  we  regard  only  the  organization  and  nature  of  animals,  and  not 
their  size,  utility,  the  more  or  less  knowledge  which  we  have  of  them,  nor  any 
other  accessory  circumstances,  it  will  be  found  that  there  exist  four  principal  forms, 
four  general  plans,  if  it  may  be  thus  expressed,  on  which  all  animals  appear  to  have 
been  modelled,  and  the  ulterior  divisions  of  which,  under  whatever  title  naturalists 
may  have  designated  them,  are  merely  slight  modifications,  founded  on  the  develope- 
ment  or  addition  of  certain  parts,  which  produce  no  essential  change  in  the  plan  itself. 

In  the  first  of  these  forms,  which  is  that  of  man,  and  of  the  animals  which  most 
resemble  him,  the  brain  and  the  principal  trunk  of  the  nervous  system  are  inclosed  in 
a bony  envelope,  which  is  formed  by  the  cranium  and  the  vertebrae  : to  the  sides  of  this 
medial  column  are  attached  the  ribs,  and  the  bones  of  the  limbs,  which  compose  the 
framework  of  the  body  : the  muscles  generally  cover  the  bones,  the  motions  of  which 
they  produce,  and  the  viscera  are  contained  within  the  head  and  trunk.  Animals  of 
this  form  we  shall  denominate 

vertebrate  animals  ( Animalia  vertebrata). 

They  have  all  red  blood,  a muscular  heart,  a mouth  furnished  with  two  jaws, 
placed  one  either  before  or  above  the  other,  distinct  organs  of  sight,  hearing,  smell, 
and  taste,  situated  in  the  cavities  of  the  face;  never  more  than  four  limbs;  the 
sexes  always  separated ; and  a very  similar  distribution  of  the  medullary  masses,  and 
of  the  principal  branches  of  the  nervous  system. 

On  examining  each  of  the  parts  of  this  great  series  of  animals  more  closely,  there 
may  always  be  detected  some  analogy,  even  in  those  species  which  are  most  remote 
from  one  another ; and  the  gradations  of  one  single  plan  may  be  traced  from  man  to 
the  last  of  fishes. 

In  the  second  form  there  is  no  skeleton  ; the  muscles  are  attached  only  to  the  skin. 


which  constitutes  a soft,  contractile  envelope,  in  which,  in  many  species,  are  formed 
stony  plates,  called  shells,  the  production  and  position  of  which  are  analogous  to  that 
of  the  mucous  body ; the  nervous  system  is  contained  within  this  general  envelope, 
together  with  the  viscera,  and  is  composed  of  several  scattered  masses,  connected  by 
nervous  filaments,  and  of  which  the  principal,  placed  over  the  oesophagus,  bears  the 
name  of  brain.  Of  the  four  senses,  the  organs  of  those  of  taste  and  vision  only  can  he 
distinguished ; the  latter  of  which  are  even  frequently  wanting.  A single  family 
alone  presents  organs  of  hearing.  There  is  always,  however,  a complete  system  of 
circulation,  and  particular  organs  for  respiration.  Those  of  digestion  and  of  the  secre- 
tions are  little  less  complicated  than  in  the  vertebrated  animals.  We  will  distinguish 
the  animals  of  this  second  form  by  the  appellation  of 

Molluscous  Animals  ( Animalia  mollusca). 

Although  the  general  plan  of  their  organization  is  not  so  uniform,  as  regards  the 
external  configuration  of  the  parts,  as  that  of  the  vertebrates,  there  is  always  an  equal 
degree  of  resemblance  between  them  in  the  essential  structure  and  the  functions. 

The  third  form  is  that  observed  in  insects,  worms,  &c.  Their  nervous  system  con- 
sists of  two  long  chords  running  longitudinally  through  the  abdomen,  dilated  at  inter- 
vals into  knots  or  ganglions.  The  first  of  these  knots,  placed  over  the  oesophagus, 
and  called  brain,  is  scarcely  any  larger  than  those  which  are  along  the  abdomen,  with 
which  it  communicates  by  filaments  that  encircle  the  oesophagus  like  a collar.  The 
envelope  of  their  trunk  is  divided  by  transverse  folds  into  a certain  number  of  rings,  of 
which  the  teguments  are  sometimes  hard,  sometimes  soft,  but  to  the  interior  of  which 
the  muscles  are  always  attached.  The  trunk  often  bears  on  its  sides  articulated 
limbs,  but  is  frequently  unfurnished  with  them.  We  will  bestow  on  these  animals 
the  term 

Articulate  Animals  {Animalia  articulata). 

It  is  among  these  that  the  passage  is  observed  from  the  circulation  in  closed  vessels, 
to  nutrition  by  imbibition,  and  the  corresponding  transition  from  respiration  in  cir- 
cumscribed organs,  to  that  effected  by  tracheae  or  air-vessels  distributed  through  the 
body.  The  organs  of  taste  and  vision  are  the  most  distinct  in  them,  a single  family 
alone  presenting  that  of  hearing.  Their  jaws,  when  they  have  any,  are  always  lateral. 

Lastly,  the  fourth  form,  which  embraces  all  those  animals  known  under  the  name  of 
Zoophytes,  may  be  designated 

Radiate  Animals  {Animalia  radiata). 

In  all  the  preceding,  the  organs  of  sense  and  motion  are  arranged  symmetrically  on 
the  two  sides  of  an  axis.  There  is  a posterior  and  an  anterior  dissimilar  face.  In  this 
last  division,  they  are  disposed  as  rays  round  a centre ; and  this  is  the  case,  even  when 
they  consist  of  but  two  series,  for  then  the  two  faces  are  alike.*  They  approximate  to 
the  homogeneity  of  plants,  having  no  very  distinct  nervous  system,  nor  organs  of 
particular  senses : there  can  scarcely  be  perceived,  in  some  of  them,  the  vestiges  of  a 

* M.  Agassiz  has  expressed  a different  opinion.  See  Radiata. — Ed. 



circulation ; their  respiratory  organs  are  almost  always  on  the  surface  of  the  body ; 
the  greater  number  have  only  a sac  without  issue,  for  the  whole  intestine  ; and 
the  lowest  families  present  only  a sort  of  homogeneous  pulp,  endowed  with  motion  and 

[“  The  necessity,”  writes  Mr.  Owen,  “ for  a dismemberment  of  the  Radiata  of  Cuvier,  which 
Rudolphi  justly  calls  a chaotic  groupf,  has  been  felt,  and  directly  or  indirectly  expressed,  by 
most  naturalists  and  comparative  anatomists.  J It  is  impossible,  indeed,  to  predicate  a com- 
munity of  structure  in  either  the  locomotive,  excretive,  digestive,  sensitive,  or  generative 
systems,  with  respect  to  this  division,  as  it  now  stands  in  the  Regne  Animal.  * * * 

“ Taking  the  nervous  system  as  a guide,  the  Radiata  of  Cuvier  will  be  found  to  resolve  them- 
selves into  two  natural  groups,  of  which  the  second  differs  in  the  absence  or  obscure  traces  of 
nervous  filaments  from  the  higher  division,  in  which  these  are  always  distinctly  traceable, 
either  radiating  from  an  oral  ring,  or  distributed  in  a parallel  longitudinal  direction,  according 
to  the  form  of  the  body. 

“ These  different  conditions  of  the  nervous  system  are  accompanied  by  corresponding 
modifications  of  the  muscular,  digestive,  and  vascular  systems ; and  a negative  character,  appli- 
cable to  the  higher  division  of  Cuvier’s  Radiata,  may  be  derived  from  the  generative 

It  is  only  in  the  lower-organized  of  these  divisions,  to  which  the  term 

Acrite  Animals  ( Animalia  acrita) 

has  been  applied  by  Macleay,  also  that  of  Protozoa  and  Oozoa  by  Carus  (from  the 
circumstance  of  its  members  being  analogous  to  the  ova  or  germs  of  the  higher  classes), 
that  the  alimentary  cavity  and  sanguiferous  canals  are  destitute  of  proper  parietes, 
being  simple  excavations  or  passages  in  the  granular  pulp  of  the  body : for  in  the 
Nematoneura  (a  name  applied  to  the  higher  division  of  Cuvier’s  Radiata  by  Owen),  the 
digestive  organ  is  provided  with  a proper  muscular  tunic,  and  floats  in  an  abdominal 
cavity : and  those  classes  which  manifest  a circulating  system  distinct  from  the  diges- 
tive tube  possess  vessels  with  proper  parietes,  distinguishable  into  arteries  and  veins. 

No  nematoneurous  class  presents  an  example  of  generation  by  spontaneous  fision  or 
gemmation,  but  these  modes  of  reproduction  are  common  in  the  acrite  division.  Some 
of  the  latter,  however,  are  oviparous ; and  in  a few  the  sexes  are  separate.] 

* Before  my  time,  modern  naturalists  divided  all  invertebrated  ani- 
mals into  two  classes,  the  Insects  and  Worms.  I was  the  first  to  attack 
this  method,  and  presented  another  division,in  a Memoir  read  before  the 
Natural  History  Society  of  Paris,  on  the  10th  of  May,  1795,  and  printed 
in  the  Philosophique,  in  which  I marked  the  characters  and 
limits  of  the  Mollusks,  Crustaceans,  Insects,  Worms,  Echinoderms, 
and  Zoophytes.  I distinguished  the  red-blooded  worms,  or  Annelides, 
in  a memoir  read  before  the  Institute  on  the  31st  of  December,  1801. 
And  finally,  in  a Memoir  read  before  the  Institute  in  July,  1812,  and 
printed  in  the  Annales  du  Mus.  d’Hist.  Nat.,  tom.  six.,  1 distributed 

these  various  classes  under  three  grand  divisions,  each  of  which  is 
comparable  to  that  of  the  vertebrate  animals. 

f Synopsis  Entozoorum,  p.  572. 

t Lamarck  observes  : — “The  Apathetic  Animals,”  (as  he  terms  the 
Acrita,')  “ have  been  very  improperly  called  Zoophytes ; as  their  nature 
is  completely  animal,  and  in  no  respect  vegetable.  The  denomina- 
tion of  Rayed  Animals  is  also  objectionable,  as  it  applies  only  to  a 
portion  of  them. — Anim.  sans  Vertebras,  i.  p,  890. 

§ Cyclopaedia  of  Anatomy  and  Physiology,  Art.  Acrita  ; from  which 
the  succeeding  passages  are  also  abridged. — Ed. 




The  bodies  and  limbs  of  these  being  supported  by  a 
frame-work  composed  of  connected  pieces  moveable 
upon  each  other,  they  have  the  more  precision  and 
vigour  in  their  movements  : the  solidity  of  this  support 
permits  of  their  attaining  considerable  size,  and  it  is 
among  them  that  the  largest  animals  are  found. 

Their  more  concentrated  nervous  system,  and  the 
greater  volume  of  its  central  portions,  impart  more 
energy  and  more  stability  to  their  sentiments,  whence 
result  superior  intelligence  and  perfectibility. 

Their  body  always  consists  of  a head,  trunk,  and 

The  head  is  formed  by  the  cranium,  which  incloses 
the  brain,  and  by  the  face,  which  is  composed  of  the 
two  jaws  and  the  receptacles  of  the  organs  of  sense. 

Their  trunk  is  supported  by  the  spine  of  the  back 
and  the  ribs. 

The  spine  is  composed  of  vertebrae  moveable  upon 
each  other,  of  which  the  first  supports  the  head,  and 
which  have  an  annular  perforation,  forming  together  a 
canal,  wherein  is  lodged  that  medullary  production 
from  which  the  nerves  arise,  and  which  is  called  the 
spinal  marrow. 

The  spine,  most  commonly,  is  continued  into  a tail, 
FiS- 1-  extending  beyond  the  hinder  limbs. 

The  ribs  are  semicircles,  which  protect  the  sides  of  the  cavity  of  the  trunk : they 
are  articulated  at  one  extremity  to  the  vertebrae,  and  are  ordinarily  attached  in  front  to 
the  breast-bone ; but  sometimes  they  only  partly  encircle  the  trunk,  and  there  are 
genera  in  which  they  are  hardly  visible. 

There  are  never  more  than  two  pairs  of  limbs ; but  sometimes  one  or  the  other  is 
wanting,  or  even  both  : their  forms  vary  according  to  the  movements  which  they  have  to 
execute.  The  anterior  limbs  may  be  organized  as  hands,  feet,  wings,  or  fins ; the 
posterior  as  feet,  or  instruments  for  swimming. 

d 2 



The  blood  is  always  red,  and  appears  to  have  a composition  proper  for  sustaining  that 
energy  of  sentiment  and  vigour  of  muscles,  but  in  different  degrees,  which  correspond 
to  the  amount  of  respiration,  from  which  originates  the  subdivision  of  the  vertebrate 
animals  into  four  classes. 

The  external  senses  are  always  five  in  number,  and  reside  in  two  eyes,  two  ears,  two 
nostrils,  the  teguments  of  the  tongue,  and  those  of  the  body  generally.  Certain  species, 
however,  have  the  eyes  obliterated. 

The  nerves  reach  the  medulla  through  perforations  of  the  vertebrae,  or  of  the  cra- 
nium : they  all  seem  to  unite  with  this  medulla,  which,  after  crossing  its  filaments, 
expands  to  form  the  various  lobes  of  which  the  brain  is  composed,  and  terminates  in 
the  two  medullary  arches  ( voutes ) termed  hemispheres,  the  volume  of  which  corre- 
sponds to  the  amount  of  intelligence. 

There  are  always  two  jaws,  the  principal  motion  of  which  is  in  the  lower  one, 
which  rises  and  falls ; the  upper  is  oftentimes  entirely  fixed  : both  of  them  are  almost 
always  armed  with  teeth,  excrescences  of  a peculiar  nature,  the  chemical  composition  of 
which  is  very  similar  to  that  of  bone,  but  which  grows  by  layers  and  transudations ; 
one  entire  class,  however,  (that  of  birds,)  has  the  jaws  invested  with  horn*,  and  the 
group  of  tortoises,  in  the  class  of  reptiles,  is  in  the  same  predicament. 

The  intestinal  canal  is  continued  from  the  mouth  to  the  anus,  undergoing  various 
inflexions,  and  several  enlargements  and  contractions ; having  also  appendages,  and 
receiving  solvent  fluids,  one  of  which,  the  saliva,  is  discharged  into  the  mouth  : the 
others,  which  flow  into  the  intestine  only,  have  various  names  ; the  two  principal  are 
the  juices  of  the  gland  called  the  pancreas  [or  sweet-bread ],  and  the  bile  [or  gaU~\, 
which  is  the  product  of  another  very  large  gland,  named  the  liver. 

While  the  digested  aliment  is  traversing  its  canal,  that  portion  of  it  which  is  proper 
for  nutrition,  and  is  termed  the  chyle,  is  absorbed  by  particular  vessels,  named  lacteals, 
and  carried  into  the  veins ; the  residue  of  the  nutriment  of  the  parts  is  also  carried  into 
the  veins  by  vessels  analogous  to  the  lacteals,  and  forming  with  them  one  same  system, 
designated  the  lymphatic  system. f 

The  veins  return  to  the  heart  the  blood  which  has  served  to  nourish  the  parts,  to- 
gether with  the  chyle  and  lymph  with  which  it  has  been  renewed ; but  this  blood  is 
obliged  to  pass,  either  wholly  or  in  part,  into  the  organ  of  respiration,  to  regain  its 
arterial  nature,  previous  to  being  again  dispersed  over  the  system  by  the  arteries.  In 
the  three  first  classes,  this  organ  of  respiration  consists  of  lungs,  that  is,  an  assemblage 
of  cells  into  which  air  penetrates.  In  fishes  only,  and  in  some  reptiles  while  young,  it 
consists  of  gills,  or  a series  of  laminae  between  which  water  passes. 

In  all  the  vertebrate  animals,  the  blood  which  furnishes  the  liver  with  the  materials 
of  the  bile  is  venous  blood,  which  has  circulated  partly  in  the  parietes  of  the  intestines, 
and  partly  in  a peculiar  body  named  the  spleen,  and  which,  after  being  united  in  a 
trunk  called  the  vena  porta,  is  again  subdivided  at  the  liver. 

* M.  Geoffroy  St.  Hilaire  has  described  a structure  in  the  bill  of 
birds  which  presents  some  approach  to  a dentary  system.  In  a foetus  of 
a Parroquet  nearly  ready  for  hatching-,  he  found  that  the  margins  of  the 
bill  were  beset  with  tubercles  arranged  in  a regular  order,  and  having 
all  the  exterior  appearance  of  teeth  ; these  tubercles  were  not,  indeed, 
implanted  in  the  jaw-bones,  but  formed  part  of  the  exterior  sheath  of 
the  bill.  Under  each  tubercle,  however,  there  was  a gelatinous  pulp, 
analogous  to  the  pulps  which  secrete  teeth,  but  resting  on  the  edge  of 
the  maxillary  bones,  and  every  pulp  was  supplied  by  vessels  and  nerves 
traversing  a canal  in  the  substance  of  the  bone.  These  tubercles  form 
the  first  margins  of  the  mandibles,  and  their  remains  are  indicated  by 

canals  in  the  horny  sheath,  subsequently  formed,  which  contain  a 
softer  material,  and  which  commence  from  small  foramina  in  the  mar- 
gin of  the  bone.  In  certain  other  birds  (as  the  Mergansers)  also,  the 
lateral  edges  of  the  bill  are  provided  with  horny  processes  or  laminae 
secreted  by  distinct  pulps,  and  analogous  in  this  respect  to  the  whale- 
bone laminae  of  the  Whales,  which  are  toothless  Mammalia,  as  are  also 
the  ant-eaters  and  Monotremata : it  is  further  remarkable  that  the 
rudiments  cf  dentition  occur  in  the  foetus  of  the  toothless  Whales. 
— Ed. 

t The  lymphatic  vessels  are  also  the  media  of  cutaneous  transuda- 
tion.— Ed. 



All  these  animals  have  a particular  secretion,  which  is  that  of  urine , and  which  is 
elaborated  in  two  large  glands  attached  to  the  sides  of  the  spine  of  the  back,  and  called 
kidneys : the  liquid  which  these  glands  secrete,  accumulates  most  commonly  in  a 
reservoir  named  the  bladder. 

The  sexes  are  separate,  and  the  female  has  always  one  or  two  ovaries,  from  which 
the  eggs  are  detached  at  the  instant  of  conception.  The  male  fecundates  them  with 
the  seminal  fluid  ; but  the  mode  varies  greatly.  In  most  of  the  genera  of  the  three 
first  classes,  it  requires  an  intromission  of  the  fluid ; in  some  reptiles,  and  in  most  of 
the  fishes,  it  takes  place  after  the  exit  of  the  eggs. 


We  have  seen  to  what  extent  vertebrate  animals  resemble  each  other  : they  present, 
however,  four  great  subdivisions  or  classes,  characterized  by  the  kind  or  power  of  their 
movements,  which  depend  themselves  on  the  quantity  of  respiration,  inasmuch  as  it  is 
from  this  respiration  that  the  muscular  fibres  derive  the  energy  of  their  irritability. 

The  quantity  of  respiration  depends  upon  two  agents : the  first  is  the  relative 
quantity  of  blood  which  presents  itself  in  the  respiratory  organ  in  a given  instant  of 
time ; the  second,  the  relative  amount  of  [free]  oxygen  which  enters  into  the  com- 
position of  [or  is  dispersed  through]  the  ambient  fluid.  The  quantity  of  the  former 
depends  upon  the  disposition  of  the  organs  of  respiration  and  of  circulation. 

The  organs  of  the  circulation  may  be  double,  so  that  all  the  blood  which  is  brought 
back  from  the  various  parts  of  the  body  by  the  veins,  is  forced  to  circulate  through 
the  respiratory  organ  before  returning  by  the  arteries ; or  they  may  be  simple,  so  that 
a portion  only  of  the  blood  is  obliged  to  pass  through  the  respiratory  organ,  the  re- 
mainder returning  to  the  body  without  having  been  subjected  to  respiration. 

The  latter  is  the  case  with  reptiles.  The  amount  of  their  respiration,  and  all  the 
qualities  which  depend  on  it,  vary  according  to  the  quantity  of  blood  which  is  thrown 
into  the  lungs  at  each  pulsation. 

Fishes  have  a double  circulation,  but  their  organ  of  respiration  is  formed  to  execute 
its  function  through  the  medium  of  water  ; and  their  blood  is  only  acted  upon  by  that 
small  portion  of  oxygen  which  is  dissolved  or  mingled  in  water ; so  that  the  quantity  of 
their  respiration  is,  perhaps,  less  than  that  of  reptiles. 

In  mammalians,  the  circulation  is  double,  and  the  aerial  respiration  simple,  that  is, 
it  is  performed  in  the  lungs  only  : their  quantity  of  respiration  is,  therefore,  superior 
to  that  of  reptiles,  on  account  of  the  form  of  their  respiratory  organ,  and  to  that  of 
fishes,  from  the  nature  of  their  surrounding  medium. 

But  the  quantity  of  respiration  in  birds  is  even  superior  to  that  of  quadrupeds, 
since  they  have  not  only  a double  circulation  and  an  aerial  respiration,  but  also 
respire  by  many  other  cavities  besides  the  lungs,  the  air  penetrating  throughout 
their  bodies,  and  bathing  the  branches  of  the  aorta,  or  main  artery  of  the  body,  as 
well  as  those  of  the  pulmonary  artery.* 

Hence  result  the  four  kinds  of  progression  to  which  the  four  classes  of  the  vertebrate 
animals  are  more  particularly  destined.  The  quadrupeds,  in  which  the  quantity  of 

* In  Batrachian  reptiles  (frog’s,  newts,  &c.),  respiration  is  to  a 
certain  extent  performed  over  the  whole  outer  skin  ; which,  on  this 
account,  requires  to  be  always  moist.  Hence,  as  there  can  be  no 
muscular  action  without  previous  respiration,  the  chemical  change 

effected  by  which  is  needed  to  develope  the  requisite  nervous  or  vital 
energy,  those  animals  of  this  group  which  in  the  adult  state  have 
lungs  and  not  gills,  but  which  pass  the  winter  in  a torpid  state  under 
water,  are  enabled  to  resuscitate  in  spring.— Ed. 



respiration  is  moderate,  are  generally  formed  to  walk  and  run  with  precision  and 
vigour ; the  birds,  in  which  it  is  greater,  have  the  muscular  energy  and  lightness 
necessary  for  flight ; the  reptiles,  where  it  is  diminished,  are  condemned  to  creep,  and 
many  of  them  pass  a portion  of  their  life  in  a state  of  torpor ; the  fishes,  in  fine, 
to  execute  their  movements,  require  to  be  supported  in  a fluid  specifically  almost  as 
heavy  as  themselves.* 

All  the  circumstances  of  organization  proper  to  each  of  these  four  classes,  and 
especially  those  which  refer  to  motion  and  the  external  senses,  have  a necessary 
relation  with  these  essential  characters. 

The  class  of  mammalians,  however,  has  peculiar  characters  in  its  viviparous  mode  of 
generation,  in  the  manner  in  which  the  foetus  is  nourished  in  the  womb  by  means  of 
the  placenta,  and  in  the  mammse  by  which  they  suckle  their  young. 

The  other  classes  are,  on  the  contrary,  oviparous ; and  if  we  place  them  together,  in 
opposition  to  the  first,  there  will  be  perceived  numerous  resemblances  which  announce, 
on  their  part,  a special  plan  of  organization,  subordinate  to  the  great  general  plan  of 
all  the  vertebrates. 



Mammalians  require  to  be  placed  at  the  head  of  the  animal  kingdom,  not  only 
because  this  is  the  class  to  which  we  ourselves  belong,  but  also  because  it  is  that  which 
enjoys  the  most  numerous  faculties,  the  most  delicate  sensations,  the  most  varied 
powers  of  motion,  and  in  which  all  the  different  qualities  seem  together  combined  to 
produce  a more  perfect  degree  of  intelligence, — the  one  most  fertile  in  resources,  most 
susceptible  of  perfection,  and  least  the  slave  of  instinct. 

As  their  quantity  of  respiration  is  moderate,  they  are  in  general  designed  for  walking 
on  the  ground,  but  with  vigorous  and  continued  steps.  Consequently,  all  the  articula- 
tions of  their  skeleton  have  very  precise  forms,  which  rigorously  determine  their  motions. 

Some  of  them,  however,  by  means  of  lengthened  limbs  and  extended  membranes, 
raise  themselves  in  the  air ; others  have  the  limbs  so  shortened,  that  they  can  employ 
them  with  effect  only  in  water ; but  they  do  not  the  more  on  this  account  lose  the 
general  characters  of  the  class. 

* To  descend  to  particular  cases,  however,  it  would  appear  that 
species  may  be  framed  on  almost  every  type,  even  very  subordinate 
types,  for  any  particular  mode  of  life.  Thus,  to  illustrate  briefly,  the 
bats,  which  are  true  mammalians,  are  modified  for  aerial  progression 
like  birds  ; and  the  whales,  other  mammalians,  have  a fish-like  exterior, 
being  designed  to  live  exclusively  in  water : so  there  are  birds  which 
are  utterly  incapable  of  flight ; some,  as  the  ostrich,  adapted  to  scour 
the  plains,  like  a quadruped  ; others,  as  the  penguins,  whose  only 
sphere  of  activity  is  in  the  water : the  pterodactyle  affords  an  ex- 
ample of  a genus  of  flying  reptiles,  the  fossil  remains  of  which  only 
have  been  discovered.  Descending  to  lower  groups,  we  find  among 
birds,  a genus  of  thrushes  (Cinclus),  which  seeks  its  subsistence  under 
water;  and  another  of  totipalmate  water-fowl  (Tachypetes) , which 
neither  swims  nor  dives.  Such  deviations,  however,  from  the  general  j 
character  of  their  allied  genera,  have  no  intrinsical  relation  to  the  I 

groups  which  they  approximate  in  habit, — nought  that  can  be  regarded 
as  an  intentional  or  designed  representation  of  them,  as  has  some- 
times been  imagined  : for  it  is  evident,  that  if  species  based  on  two 
different  plans  of  organization  are  respectively  modified  to  perform 
the  same  office  in  the  economy  of  nature,  they  must  necessarily  re- 
semble, to  a certain  extent,  superficially,  as  a consequence  of  that 
adaptation  ; while  there  are  many  cases  also  in  each  class  which  can- 
not well  be  represented  in  some  others,  as  that  of  the  mole  among 
quadrupeds,  which  has  no  counterpart  or  correspondent  group  in  the 
class  of  birds.  Habit,  or  mode  of  life,  has  indeed  nothing  whatever 
to  do  with  the  physiological  relations  of  organisms,  which  afford  the 
only  legitimate  basis  of  classification  ; and  those  special  modifications 
to  particular  habits,  which,  occurring  alike  in  any  class,  superinduce 
j a resemblance  in  superficial  characters  only,  constitute  what  has  been 
I well  distinguished  by  the  term  analogy,  as  opposed  to  affinity. — Ed. 



They  have  all  the  upper  jaw  fixed  to  the  skull,  and  the  lower  composed  of  two 
pieces  only,  articulated  by  a projecting  condyle  to  a fixed  temporal  bone ; the  neck 

consists  of  seven  vertebrae,  one  single  species  excepted, 
which  has  nine*;  the  anterior  ribs  are  attached  in 
front,  by  cartilage,  to  a sternum  formed  of  a certain 
number  of  pieces  placed  in  a row;  their  fore-limb 
commences  in  a blade-bone,  which  is  not  articulated, 
but  merely  suspended  in  the  flesh,  often  resting  on 
the  sternum  by  means  of  an  intermediate  bone,  called 
a clavicle.  This  extremity  is  continued  by  an  arm,  a 
fore-arm,  and  a hand,  the  last  composed  of  two  ranges 
of  small  bones,  called  a wrist  or  carpus,  of  another 
range  of  bones  termed  metacarpus,  and  of  digits  or 
fingers,  each  of  which  consists  of  two  or  three  bones, 
named  phalanges. 

Excepting  the  Cetacea,  they  have  all  the  first  part  of 
the  hinder  extremity  fixed  to  the  spine,  and  forming  a 
girdle  or  pelvis,  which,  in  youth,  consists  of  three  pairs 
of  bones, — the  ilium,  which  is  attached  to  the  spine, 
the  pubis,  which  forms  the  fore  part  of  the  girdle,  and  the  ischium,  which  constitutes 
the  hind  part.  At  the  point  of  union  of  these  three  bones  is  situate  the  cavity  with  which 
the  thigh  is  articulated,  to  which,  in  its  turn,  is  attached  the  leg,  formed  of  two  bones, 
the  tibia  and  fibula : this  extremity  is  terminated  by  the  foot,  which  is  composed  of 
parts  analogous  to  those  of  the  hand,  namely,  a tarsus,  metatarsus,  and  digits  or  toes. 

The  head  of  mammalians  is  always  articulated  by  two  condyles  upon  the  atlas,  or 
first  vertebra. 

Their  brain  is  composed  of  two  hemispheres,  united  by  a medullary  layer  termed 
the  corpus  callosum,  containing  two  ventricles,  and  enveloping  the  four  pairs  of  tuber- 
cles named  the  corpora  striata,  the  thalami  nervorum  opticorum,  or  beds  of  the  optic 
nerves,  and  the  nates  and  testes . Between  the  optic  beds  is  a third  ventricle,  which 
communicates  with  a fourth  situated  under  the  cerebellum,  the  crura  of  which  always 
form  a transverse  prominence  under  the  medulla  oblongata,  called  the  pons  Varolii. 

Their  eye,  invariably  lodged  in  its  orbit,  is  protected  by  two  lids  and  a vestige  of  a 
third,  and  has  its  crystalline  fixed  by  the  ciliary  process  and  its  simply  cellular  sclero- 
tica [or  white] . 

In  their  ear,  there  is  always  found  a cavity  named  the  drum,  or  tympanum,  which 
communicates  with  the  back  part  of  the  mouth,  by  a canal  termed  the  trumpet,  or 
Eustachian  tube  : the  cavity  itself  is  closed  externally  by  a membrane  called  the 
membrana  tympani,  and  contains  a chain  of  four  little  bones,  named  the  hammer,  anvil, 
orbicular,  and  stirrup  bones  ; a vestibule,  on  the  entrance  of  which  rests  the  stirrup- 
bone,  and  which  communicates  with  three  semicircular  canals ; and,  finally,  a cochlea, 
which  terminates  by  one  passage  in  the  drum,  and  by  another  in  the  vestibule. 

Their  cranium  subdivides  into  three  portions : the  anterior  is  formed  by  the  two 
frontal  and  the  ethmoidal  bones  ; the  middle,  by  the  parietal  bones  and  the  sphenoidal ; 

* The  sloth  is  alluded  to,  in  which,  however,  distinct  rudiments  of  ribs  are  attached  to  the  eighth  and  ninth,  as  shown  in  the  above  figure 
(«,  b)  ; so  that,  in  reality,  this  constitutes  no  exception  to  the  universal  rule.— Ed. 



and  the  posterior,  by  the  occipital.  Between  the  occipital,  the  parietal,  and  the  sphe- 
noidal, are  interposed  the  temporal  bones,  part  of  which  belong  properly  to  the  face. 

In  the  foetus,  the  occipital  bone  divides  into  four  parts  ; the  sphenoidal  into  halves, 
which  subdivide  into  three  pairs  of  lateral  wings  ; the  temporal  into  three,  of  which 
one  serves  to  complete  the  cranium,  another  to  close  the  labyrinth  of  the  ear,  and  the 
third  to  form  the  parietes  of  its  drum,  &c.  These  bony  portions  [centres  of  ossifica- 
tion], which  are  still  more  numerous  in  the  earliest  period  of  foetal  existence,  are 
united  more  or  less  promptly,  according  to  the  species,  and  the  bones  themselves  be- 
come finally  consolidated  in  the  adult.* 

Their  face  is  essentially  formed  by  the  two  maxillary  bones,  between  which  pass  the 
nostrils,  and  which  have  the  two  intermaxillaries  in  front,  and  the  two  palate  bones  1 
behind  ; between  them  descends  a single  lamina  of  the  ethmoidal  bone,  named  the 
vomer ; at  the  entrance  of  the  nasal  canal  are  the  bones  proper  to  the  nose ; to  its  external 
parietes  adhere  the  inferior  turbinated  bones,  which  occupy  its  upper  and  posterior 
portion,  belonging  to  the  ethmoidal.  The  jugal  or  cheek  bone  unites  on  each  side  the 
maxillary  to  the  temporal  bone,  and  often  to  the  frontal ; lastly,  the  lachrymal  bone 
occupies  the  inner  angle  of  the  orbit,  and  sometimes  a part  of  the  cheek.  These  bones 
also  present  more  numerous  subdivisions  in  the  embryo. 

Their  tongue  is  always  fleshy,  and  attached  to  a bone  termed  the  hyoidal,  which  is 
composed  of  several  pieces,  and  suspended  from  the  cranium  by  ligaments. 

Their  lungs,  two  in  number,  divided  into  lobes,  and  composed  of  an  infinitude  of 
cells,  are  always  inclosed  without  adhesion  in  a cavity  formed  by  the  ribs  and 
diaphragm,  and  lined  by  the  pleura ; their  organ  of  voice  is  always  at  the  upper  end 
of  the  windpipe  ; a fleshy  elongation,  called  the  velum  palati,  establishes  a direct  com- 
munication between  their  larynx  and  nostrils. 

Their  residence  on  the  surface  of  the  earth  exposing  them  less  to  the  alternations  of 
heat  and  cold,  their  body  has  only  a moderate  kind  of  tegument,  the  hair  or  fur,  and 
even  this  is  commonly  scanty  in  those  of  hot  climates. f 

The  cetaceans,  which  live  entirely  in  water,  are  the  only  ones  that  are  altogether 
deprived  of  it. 

The  abdominal  cavity  is  lined  with  a membrane  called  the  peritonaeum ; and  their 
intestinal  canal  is  suspended  to  a fold  of  it,  termed  the  mesentery,  which  contains 
numerous  conglomate  glands,  in  which  the  lacteal  vessels  ramify : another  production 
of  the  peritonaeum,  named  the  epiploon,  hangs  in  front  of  and  under  the  intestines. 

The  urine,  retained  for  some  time  in  the  bladder,  is  discharged,  in  the  two  sexes, 
with  very  few  exceptions,  by  orifices  in  the  organs  of  generation. 

In  all  mammalians,  generation  is  essentially  viviparous ; that  is  to  say,  the  foetus, 
immediately  after  conception,  descends  [gradually]  into  the  matrix,  inclosed  in  its 
envelopes,  the  exterior  of  which  is  named  chorion,  and  the  interior  amnios ; it  fixes 
itself  to  the  parietes  of  this  cavity  by  one  or  more  plexus  of  vessels,  termed  the 
placenta,  which  establishes  a communication  between  it  and  the  mother,  by  which  it 
receives  its  nourishment,  and  probably  also  its  oxygenation  ; notwithstanding  which. 

* Here  it  may  be  remarked  that,  descending  in  the  series  of  verte- 
brates, the  same  is  observable  as  in  ascending  to  foetal  life  in  the 
higher  groups ; the  progress  of  developement,  in  this  and  other  re- 
spects, being  arrested  at  different  stages  of  advancement,  according 
to  the  class,  order,  and  species  : the  brain  for  instance,  in  man,  suc- 

cessively assuming  the  conditions  of  this  organ  in  fishes,  reptiles, 
birds,  the  lower  and  then  higher  groups  of  mammalians. — Ed. 

t In  some  monkeys  from  Sierra  Leone,  the  most  torrid  region  in  the 
world,  the  hair  is  much  elongated,  but  thin  and  coarse,  as  if  designed 
to  protect  them  from  the  solar  rays.— Ed. 



the  foetus  of  mammalians,  at  an  early  period,  has  a vessel  analogous  to  that  which 
contains  the  yolk  in  the  oviparous  classes,  receiving,  in  like  manner,  vessels  from  the 
mesentery.  It  has  also  another  external  bladder  named  the  allantoid,  which  communi- 
cates with  the  urinary  one  by  a canal  termed  the  urachus. 

Conception  always  requires  an  effectual  coitus,  in  which  the  fecundating  fluid  of  the 
male  is  thrown  into  the  uterus  of  the  female. 

The  young  are  nourished  for  some  time  after  birth  by  a fluid  peculiar  to  this  class 
(the  milk),  which  is  produced  by  the  mammae,  at  the  time  of  parturition,  and  for  as 
long  a period  as  the  young  require  it.  It  is  from  the  mammae  that  this  class  derives 
its  name,  and,  being  a character  peculiar  to  it,  they  distinguish  it  better  than  any 
other  that  is  external.* 


The  variable  characters  which  establish  essential  differences  among  the  mammalia 
are  taken  from  the  organs  of  touch,  on  which  depends  their  degree  of  ability  or 
address,  and  from  the  organs  of  manducation,  which  determine  the  nature  of  their 
food,  and  are  connected  together,  not  only  with  all  that  relates  to  the  digestive  func- 
tion, but  also  with  a multitude  of  other  differences  extending  even  to  their  intelligence. 

The  degree  of  perfection  of  the  organs  of  touch  is  estimated  by  the  number  and  the 
mobility  of  the  fingers,  and  from  the  greater  or  less  extent  to  which  their  extremities 
are  enveloped  by  the  nail  or  the  hoof. 

A hoof  which  envelopes  all  that  portion  of  the  toe  which  touches  the  ground,  blunts 
its  sensibility,  and  renders  the  foot  incapable  of  seizing. 

The  opposite  extreme  is  where  a nail,  formed  of  a single  lamina,  covers  only  one 
of  the  faces  of  the  extremity  of  the  finger,  and  leaves  the  other  possessed  of  all  its 

The  nature  of  the  food  is  known  by  the  grinders,  to  the  form  of  which  the  articula- 
tion of  the  jaws  universally  corresponds. 

For  cutting  flesh,  grinders  are  required  as  trenchant  as  a saw,  and  jaws  fitted  like 
scissors,  which  have  no  other  motion  than  a vertical  one. 

For  bruising  grain  or  roots,  flat-crowned  grinders  are  necessary,  and  jaws  that 
have  a lateral  motion  : in  order  that  the  crowns  of  these  teeth  should  always  be 
irregular,  as  in  a mill,  it  is  further  requisite  that  their  substance  should  be  formed  of 
parts  of  unequal  hardness,  so  that  some  may  wear  away  faster  than  others. 

Hoofed  animals  are  all  necessarily  herbivorous,  and  have  flat- crowned  grinders,  in- 
asmuch as  their  feet  preclude  the  possibility  of  their  seizing  a living  prey. 

Animals  with  unguiculated  fingers  are  susceptible  of  more  variety ; their  food  is  of 
all  kinds : and,  independently  of  the  form  of  their  grinders,  they  differ  greatly  from 
each  other  in  the  mobility  and  delicacy  of  their  fingers.  There  is  one  character  with 
respect  to  this,  which  has  immense  influence  on  their  dexterity,  and  greatly  multiplies 
its  powers ; it  is  the  faculty  of  opposing  the  thumb  to  the  other  fingers  for  the  purpose 
of  seizing  small  objects,  constituting  what  is  properly  termed  a hand;  a faculty  which 

* We  shall  find,  however,  in  the  sequel  some  doubts  on  this  sub- 
ject, as  regards  the  family  of  Monotremata.  [These  doubts  have 
since  been  removed,  inasmuch  as  the  lacteal  glands  have  been  de 
tected,  with  their  secretion  ; though,  as  in  the  cetaceans,  there  appear 

to  be  no  nipples,  simple  pressure  alone  causing  the  fluid  to  exude. 
In  the  class  of  birds,  a lacteal  fluid  is  secreted  by  the  crops  of  the 
parrots  and  pigeons,  which  is  disgorged  into  the  throats  of  the  young 
when  newly  hatched. — E».] 



is  carried  to  its  highest  perfection  in  Man,  in  whom  the  whole  anterior  extremity  is 
free,  and  capable  of  prehension. 

These  various  combinations,  which  rigidly  determine  the  nature  of  the  different 
mammalians,  have  given  rise  to  the  following  orders  : — 

Among  the  unguiculates  the  first  is  Man,  who,  besides  being  privileged  in  all  other 
respects,  has  hands  to  the  anterior  extremities  only  ; his  hinder  limbs  support  him  in 
an  erect  position. 

In  the  order  next  to  Man, — that  of  the  Quad  rum  ana,  there  are  hands  to  the  four 

Another  order,  that  of  the  Carnaria,  has  not  the  thumb  free  and  opposable  to  the 
other  fingers. 

These  three  orders  have  each  the  three  sorts  of  teeth,  namely,  grinders,  canines,  and 

A fourth,  that  of  the  Rodentia,  in  which  the  toes  differ  little  from  those  of  the 
Carnaria , is  without  the  canines,  and  the  incisors  are  placed  in  front  of  the  mouth,  and 
adapted  to  a very  peculiar  sort  of  manducation. 

Then  come  those  animals  whose  toes  are  much  cramped,  and  deeply  sunk  in  large 
nails,  which  are  generally  curved ; and  which  have  further  the  imperfection  of  want- 
ing the  incisors.  Some  of  them  are  also  without  canines,  and  there  are  others  which 
have  no  teeth  at  all.  We  comprehend  them  all  under  the  name  Edentata. 

This  distribution  of  the  unguiculated  animals  would  be  perfect,  and  form  a very 
regular  series,  were  it  not  that  New  Holland  has  lately  furnished  us  with  a small 
collateral  series,  composed  of  th e pouched  animals  [Marsupiata],  the  different  genera 
of  which  are  connected  together  by  the  aggregate  of  their  organization,  although  in 
their  teeth,  and  in  the  nature  of  their  regimen,  some  correspond  to  the  Carnaria , others 
to  the  Rodentia , and  others,  again,  to  the  Edentata. 

The  hoofed  animals  are  less  numerous,  and  have  likewise  fewer  irregularities. 

The  Ruminantia  compose  an  order  very  distinct,  which  is  characterized  by  its  cloven 
feet,  by  the  absence  of  the  incisors  to  the  upper  jaw,  and  by  having  four  stomachs. 

All  the  other  hoofed  animals  may  be  left  together  in  a single  order,  which  I shall 
call  Pachydermata  or  Jumenta,  the  Elephant  excepted,  which  might  constitute  a 
separate  one,  having  some  distant  relation  to  that  of  Rodentia. 

Lastly,  those  mammalians  remain  which  have  no  posterior  extremities,  and  whose 
fish-like  form  and  aquatic  mode  of  life  would  induce  us  to  form  them  into  a particular 
class,  if  it  were  not  that  all  the  rest  of  their  economy  is  precisely  the  same  as  in  that 
wherein  we  leave  them.  These  are  the  warm-blooded  fishes  of  the  ancients,  or  the 
Cetacea,  which,  uniting  to  the  vigour  of  the  other  mammalians  the  advantage  of  being 
sustained  in  the  watery  element,  include  among  them  the  most  gigantic  of  all  animals. 

[Linnaeus  reduced  all  mammalians  to  three  great  groups,  Unguiculata,  Ungulata, 
and  Mutica  ; terms  which  are  at  least  convenient  for  their  expressiveness,  although 
the  groups  they  represent  intergrade,  and  in  some  instances  invade  each  other,  if  too 
rigorously  accepted. 

His  order  Primates,  as  extended  to  the  Bimana,  Quadrumana,  and  Cheiroptera  of 
Cuvier,  receives  the  approbation  of  most  naturalists ; few  regard  the  last  as  subordinate 
to  the  Carnaria,  which  is  equivalent  to  Primates. 

Viewing  Man  zoologically,  opinion  is  divided  respecting  the  propriety  of  assigning 



him  a separate  ordinal  station ; his  rudimental  structure  according  so  nearly  with  that 
of  the  Quadrumana,  of  which  type  he  presents  the  modification  for  ground  habits  and 
an  upright  attitude  ; his  more  highly  developed  brain  is  merely  a difference  in  degree. 

Conceding  this  much,  he  would  require  to  be  admitted  into  the  same  particular 
group  as  all  other  mammalians  based  on  the  same  next  general  plan  of  structure 
to  that  of  the  entire  class ; which  special  type  is  externally  distinguished  by  pecu- 
liarities in  the  sexual  organs,  a system  of  organs  of  all  others  the  least  subject  to  be 
influenced  by  the  general  modification  in  reference  to  habit. 

It  is  thus  that,  after  being  necessarily  included  among  the  Mammalia,  Man  must 
next  range  with  the  other  handed  animals  and  the  Bats,  in  a particular  subdivision, 
which  Linnaeus  has  named  Primates. 

There  would  appear  to  be  four  distinct  major  groups  of  Primates  : — the  Catarrhini, 
composed  of  the  Apes,  Monkeys,  and  Baboons  of  the  eastern  hemisphere ; the 
Platyrrhini,  consisting  of  the  anthropoid  animals  of  America;  the  Strepsirrhini,  or 
Lemurs  (including  Galceopithecus,  and,  perhaps,  Cheiromys ) ; and  the  Cheiroptera,  or 
Bats,  which  last,  varying  most  essentially  in  their  dentition,  according  as  they  are 
frugivorous,  sanguivorous,  or  insectivorous,  afford  a decisive  proof  that  the  dentary 
system  alone,  like  any  other  single  character  considered  apart  from  the  rest,  fails  to 
supply  an  invariable  indication  of  the  affinities  of  an  animal  (as  has  sometimes  been 
stated).  We  perceive  no  sufficient  reason  why  the  genus  Homo  should  not  range  at 
the  head  of  the  Catarrhini,  though  as  a distinct  family — - Hominidce , as  opposed  to 
Simiada ; in  accordance  wherewith,  the  Primates  present  a tolerable  series,  from  the 
summit  of  the  animal  kingdom  to  forms  that  are  rather  low  in  the  class  of  mammalians. 

An  analogous  gradation  is  exhibited  by  the  second  grand  division,  which  De  Blain- 
ville  has  designated  Secundates ; it  is  the  Carnaria  of  Cuvier  divested  of  the  Bats.  We 
j prefer  the  latter  appellation,  as  more  in  unison  with  the  names  of  the  succeeding 
orders  ; and  for  the  same  reason  would  substitute  Primaria  for  Primates. 

Our  illustrious  author,  with  a view  to  present  some  approximation  to  a linear  suc- 
cession, has  arranged  the  present  series  inversely,  commencing  with  those  least  elevated 
in  the  scale,  or  the  Insectivora.  To  this  we  cannot  accede,  as  virtually  implying  an 
exploded  principle.  Considered  as  a carnivorous  group,  the  Feline  animals  must  be 
selected  as  the  standard — most  characteristic  example* — of  the  order ; but  in  its 
totality,  without  reference  to  especial  modifications,  the  Dog  has  better  claim  to  be 
placed  at  the  head.  Some  curious  analogies  accordingly  present  themselves  between 
the  respectively  highest  animals  of  the  two  first  orders. 

As  a general,  perhaps  universal  rule  obtaining  in  consecutive  groups  when  sufficiently 
extensive,  the  summit  of  the  inferior  displays  a higher  organization  than  the  terminal 
members  of  the  superior  f ; and  this  sometimes  in  a very  remarkable  degree,  as  shown 
in  the  present  instance.  A sort  of  parallelism  may  also  frequently  be  observed  between 
such  members  of  two  different  ordinal  types  as  are  of  a corresponding  degree  of  eleva- 
tion in  the  scale  of  being : thus,  the  Shrews  present  certain  characters  of  the  Rodentia, 
without  linking  with  them.  It  is  on  this  principle,  we  suspect,  that  transitions  appear 
to  occur  in  some  instances,  from  one  great  type  of  structure  to  another ; and  a key  is 
hereby  supplied  to  the  proper  understanding  of  much  that  seems  otherwise  inexplicable. 

* The  word  type  is  often  employed  in  this  sense  : we  use  it  in  a | t A proposition  which  is  sanctioned  by  the  acquiescence  of  Cuvier, 
somewhat  different  one.  j as  shown  by  his  remarks  on  linear  arrangement.  Vide  preface,  p.  7. 



We  have  seen,  in  the  Primaria,  that  particular  plan  of  conformation  so  modified  as 
to  enable  certain  species  to  fly  : in  the  Carnaria,  the  Seals  afford  an  example  of  exclusive 
adaptation  to  aquatic  habits. 

It  could  only  have  been  the  desire  to  maintain  a sort  of  continuous  succession,  as  in  the 
former  instance,  which  induced  our  author  to  range  the  Marsupiata  next  to  the  Carnaria ; 
for  they  are  unquestionably  the  lowest- organized  of  mammalians,  whence  their  intrusion 
so  high  in  the  system  of  the  class  furnishes  another  proof  of  the  impropriety  of  allowing 
undue  importance  to  particular  characters.  An  order  which  has  a better  claim  to 
succeed  the  Carnaria , is  that  of  the  fish-like  mammalians,  or  Cetacea ; but,  divested  of 
the  herbivorous  genera  ranged  in  it  by  Cuvier,  which  are  strict  Pachydermata.  (It  is 
scarcely  necessary  to  repeat,  that  modifications  which  have  reference  to  habit  do  not 
necessarily  affect  the  essential  relations  of  organisms). 

The  Pachydermata  follow,  which,  in  their  turn,  must  not  be  regarded  as  more  nearly 
related  to  the  last,  because  certain  genera  of  them  are  analogously  adapted  for  aquatic 
habits  only.  We  feel  compelled  to  reiterate  this  general  principle,  in  order  to  preclude 
misconception ; the  sound  inference  seems  to  be,  that  a tendency  to  general  modification 
for  aquatic  habits  prevails  in  this  part  of  the  system ; which  certainly  helps  to  indicate 
what  orders  should  be  placed  in  contiguity,  though  still  not  of  necessity,  even  admitting 
that  many  analogous  cases  may  be  cited  in  corroboration  of  a vague  index  being  thus 

We  prefer  to  arrange  the  Ruminantia  next  to  the  Pachydermata ; then  the  Edentata , 
and  the  Rodentia  ; and  last  of  all  the  Marsupiata , including  the  Monotremata  of  Cuvier, 
the  formerly  doubtful  points  concerning  which  are  now,  with  slight  reservation,  finally 
set  at  rest. 

It  will  be  perceived  that  this  arrangement  is  tolerably  in  accordance  with  the  ordinary 
cerebral  developement,  and  consequent  amount  of  intelligence,  of  the  eight  successive 
orders.  Passing  on  to  the  Birds,  we  commence  with  a higher  intellect  (in  the  Parrots) 
than  is  manifested  in  either  of  the  last  three,  or,  perhaps,  four  orders ; which  agrees 
with  the  general  proposition  stated  at  p.  43.] 



Man  forms  but  one  genus,  and  that  genus  the  only  one  of  its  order.  As  his  history 
is  more  directly  interesting  to  ourselves,  and  forms  the  standard  of  comparison  to 
which  we  refer  that  of  other  animals,  we  will  treat  of  it  more  in  detail. 

We  will  rapidly  sketch  whatever  Man  offers,  that  is  peculiar  in  each  of  his  organic 
systems,  amidst  all  that  he  has  in  common  with  other  mammalians ; we  will  describe 
his  principal  races  and  their  distinctive  characters ; and  finally  point  out  the  natural 
order  of  the  developement  of  his  faculties,  both  individual  and  social. 

* For  an  instance  in  point,  see  our  remarks  on  certain  conformities  of  structure  observable  in  the  two  groups  of  Parrots  and  Hawks. 




The  foot  of  Man  is  very  different  from  that  of  Apes : it  is  large ; the  leg  hears  vertically  upon 
it ; the  heel  is  expanded  beneath ; his  toes  are  short,  and  but  slightly  flexible ; the  great  toe, 
longer  and  larger  than  the  rest,  is  placed  on  the  same  line  with  and  cannot  be  opposed  to 
them.  This  foot,  then,  is  proper  for  supporting  the  body,  but  cannot  be  used  for  seizing  or 
climbing*,  and  as  the  hands  are  unfitted  for  walking,  Man  is  the  only  animal  truly  bimanous 
and  biped. 

The  whole  body  of  Man  is  modified  for  the  vertical  position.  His  feet,  as  we  have  already 
seen,  furnish  him  with  a larger  base  than  those  of  other  mammalians ; the  muscles  which  re- 
tain the  foot  and  thigh  in  the  state  of  extension  are  more  vigorous,  whence  results  the  swelling 
of  the  calf  and  buttock ; the  flexors  of  the  leg  are  attached  higher  up,  which  permits  of  com- 
plete extension  of  the  knee,  and  renders  the  calf  more  apparent.  The  pelvis  is  larger,  which 
separates  the  thighs  and  feet,  and  gives  to  the  trunk  that  pyramidal  form  favourable  to  equi- 
librium : the  necks  of  the  thigh-bones  form  an  angle  with  the  body  of  the  bone,  which  increases 
still  more  the  separation  of  the  feet,  and  augments  the  basis  of  the  body.  Finally,  the  head, 
in  this  vertical  position,  is  in  eauilibrium  with  the  trunk,  because  its  articulation  is  exactly 
under  the  middle  of  its  mass. 

Were  he  to  desire  it,  Man  could  not,  with  convenience,  walk  on  all  fours : his  short  and 
nearly  inflexible  foot,  and  his  long  thigh,  would  bring  the  knee  to  the  ground ; his  widely  sepa- 
rated shoulders  and  his  arms,  too  far  extended  from  the  median  line,  would  ill  support  the 
fore-part  of  his  body ; the  great  indented  muscle  which,  in  quadrupeds,  suspends  the  trunk 
between  the  blade-bones  as  a girth,  is  smaller  in  Man  than  in  any  one  among  them ; the  head 
is  heavier,  on  account  of  the  magnitude  of  the  brain,  and  the  smallness  of  the  sinuses  or  cavi- 
ties of  the  bones ; and  yet  the  means  of  supporting  it  are  weaker,  for  he  has  neither  cervical 
ligament,  nor  are  the  vertebrae  so  modified  as  to  prevent  their  flexure  forward;  he  could 
therefore  only  maintain  his  head  in  the  same  line  with  the  spine,  and  then,  his  eyes  and  mouth 
being  directed  towards  the  ground,  he  could  not  see  before  him ; the  position  of  these  organs 
is,  on  the  contrary,  quite  perfect,  supposing  that  he  walks  erectly. 

The  arteries  which  supply  his  brain,  not  being  subdivided  as  in  many  quadrupeds,  and  the 
blood  requisite  for  so  voluminous  an  organ  being  carried  to  it  with  too  much  violence,  fre- 
quent apoplexies  would  be  the  consequence  of  a horizontal  position. 

Man,  then,  is  designed  to  be  supported  by  the  feet  only.  He  thus  preserves  the  entire  use 
of  his  hands  for  the  arts,  while  his  organs  of  sense  are  most  favorably  situated  for  observa- 

These  hands,  which  derive  such  advantages  from  their  liberty,  receive  as  many  more  from 
their  structure.  Their  thumb,  longer  in  proportion  than  in  the  apes,  increases  the  facility  of 
seizing  small  objects  ; all  the  fingers,  except  the  annularis  [and  this  to  a certain  extent],  have 
separate  movements,  which  is  not  the  case  in  any  other  animal,  not  even  in  the  apes.  The 
nails,  covering' only  one  side  of  the  extremities  of  the  fingers,  form  a support  to  the  touch, 
without  in  the  least  depriving  it  of  its  delicacy.  The  arms  which  support  these  hands  have  a 
solid  attachment  by  their  large  blade-bone,  their  strong  collar  bone,  &c. 

Man,  so  highly  favoured  as  to  dexterity,  is  not  so  with  regard  to  strength.  His  swiftness 
in  running  is  much  inferior  to  that  of  other  animals  of  his  size ; having  neither  projecting 
jaws,  nor  salient  canine  teeth,  nor  crooked  nails,  he  is  destitute  of  offensive  armature ; and 
the  sides  and  upper  part  of  his  body  being  naked,  unprovided  even  with  hair,  he  is  absolutely 

* It  is  certain,  however,  that  hy  much  practice  from  early  youth, 
the  foot  has  been  known  to  acquire  an  amount  of  dexterity  in  manual 
operations,  which  it  would  not  have  been  supposed  capable  of  by  those 
whose  feet  have  been  enveloped  from  the  time  they  first  walked  in 
close  investments.  Individuals,  in  particular,  who  have  been  born 

with  the  anterior  extremities  imperfect,  have  illustrated  this  practi- 
cability the  most  remarkably.  The  influence  of  habit  in  training  even 
the  hand  to  perform  its  functions,  will  be  appreciated  by  those  who 
cannot  use  their  left  hand  with  the  same  freedom  as  the  right.— Ed. 


without  defensive  weapons : lastly,  he  is  of  all  animals  that  which  is  latest  to  acquire  the  power 
necessary  to  provide  for  himself. 

But  this  weakness  even  has  been  for  him  another  advantage,  in  obliging  him  to  have  re- 
course to  those  internal  means — to  that  intelligence  which  has  been  awarded  to  him  in  so 
high  a degree. 

No  quadruped  approaches  him  in  the  magnitude  and  convolutions  of  the  hemispheres  of  the 
brain,  that  is  to  say,  of  that  part  of  this  organ  which  is  the  principal  instrument  of  the  intel- 
lectual operations ; the  posterior  portion  of  the  same  organ  extends  backwards,  so  as  to  form 
a second  covering  to  the  cerebellum ; even  the  form  of  the  cranium  announces  this  great 
size  of  the  brain,  as  the  smallness  of  the  face  shows  how  slightly  that  portion  of  the  nervous 
system  which  influences  the  external  senses  predominates  in  him. 

These  external  senses,  however,  moderate  as  they  all  are  in  Man,  are  yet  extremely  delicate 
and  well  balanced. 

His  two  eyes  are  directed  forwards ; he  does  not  see  on  two  sides  at  once,  like  many  quadru- 
peds, which  produces  more  unity  in  the  result  of  his  vision,  and  concentrates  his  attention 
more  closely  on  objects  of  this  kind.  The  ball  and  iris  of  his  eye  vary  but  little,  which  re- 
strains the  activity  of  his  sight  to  limited  distances,  and  to  a determined  degree  of  light.  The 
conch  of  his  ear,  possessing  but  little  mobility  or  extent,  does  not  increase  the  intensity  of 
sounds,  notwithstanding  which,  of  all  animals,  he  best  distinguishes  their  intonation.  His 
nostrils,  more  complicated  than  those  of  apes,  are  less  so  than  those  of  all  other  genera ; and 
yet  he  appears  to  be  the  only  animal  whose  sense  of  smell  is  sufficiently  delicate  to  be  affected 
by  unpleasant  odours.  Delicacy  of  smell  must  influence  that  of  taste ; and  Man  must  have  a 
further  advantage,  in  this  respect,  at  least  over  those  animals  whose  tongues  are  covered  with 
scales.  Lastly,  the  nicety  of  his  touch  results,  both  from  the  delicacy  of  his  teguments  and 
the  absence  of  all  insensible  parts,  as  well  as  from  the  the  form  of  his  hand,  which  is 
better  adapted  than  that  of  any  other  animal  for  suiting  itself  to  all  the  small  inequalities  of 

Man  has  a particular  pre-eminence  in  his  organ  of  voice : of  all  mammalians,  he  can  alone 
articulate  sounds ; the  form  of  his  mouth  and  the  great  mobility  of  his  lips  being  probably 
the  cause  of  this.  Hence  results  his  most  invaluable  mode  of  communication ; for  of  all  the 
signs  which  can  be  conveniently  employed  for  the  transmission  of  ideas,  variations  of  sound 
are  those  which  can  be  perceived  at  the  greatest  distance,  and  in  the  most  various  directions 

It  seems  that  even  the  position  of  the  heart  and  of  the  great  vessels  bears  reference  to  the 
vertical  carriage.  The  heart  is  placed  obliquely  on  the  diaphragm,  and  its  point  inclines  to 
the  left,  thereby  occasioning  a distribution  of  the  aorta  differing  from  that  of  most  quadrupeds. 

The  natural  food  of  Man,  judging  from  his  structure,  appears  to  consist  principally  of 
the  fruits,  roots,  and  other  succulent  parts  of  vegetables.  His  hands  afford  every  facility  for 
gathering  them ; his  short  and  but  moderately  strong  jaws  on  the  one  hand,  and  his  canines 
being  equal  only  in  length  to  the  other  teeth,  together  with  his  tuberculated  molars  on  the 
other,  would  scarcely  permit  him  either  to  masticate  herbage,  or  to  devour  flesh,  were  these 
condiments  not  previously  prepared  by  cooking.  Once,  however,  possessed  of  fire,  and  those 
arts  by  which  he  is  aided  in  seizing  animals  or  killing  them  at  a distance,  every  living  being 
was  rendered  subservient  to  his  nourishment,  thereby  giving  him  the  means  of  an  indefinite 
multiplication  of  his  species. 

His  organs  of  digestion  are  in  conformity  with  those  of  manducation ; his  stomach  is  simple, 
his  intestinal  canal  of  mean  length,  his  great  intestines  well  marked,  his  ccecum  short  and  thick, 
and  augmented  by  a small  appendage,  and  his  liver  divided  only  into  two  lobes  and  one  small 
one ; his  epiploon  hangs  in  front  of  the  intestines,  and  extends  into  the  pelvis. 

To  complete  this  abridged  statement  of  the  anatomical  structure  of  Man,  necessary  for  this 

BIMAN  A,  OR  MAN.  4 7 

Introduction,  we  will  add,  that  he  has  thirty-two  vertebrae,  of  which  seven  belong  to  the  neck, 
twelve  to  the  back,  five  to  the  loins,  five  to  the  sacrum,  and  three  to  the  coccyx.  Of  his  ribs, 
seven  pairs  are  united  to  the  sternum  by  elongated  cartilages,  and  are  called  true  ribs j the 
five  following  pairs  are  denominated  false  ones.  His  adult  cranium  consists  of  eight  bones  j 
an  occipital  ( occipito-basilaire ) j two  temporal ; two  parietal ; a frontal ; an  ethmoidal,  and  a 
sphenoidal.  The  hones  of  his  face  are  fourteen  in  number j namely,  two  maxillaries ; two 
jugals,  each  of  which  joins  the  temporal  to  the  maxillary  bone  of  its  own  side  by  a sort  of 
handle  named  the  zygomatic  arch  ; two  nasal  bones ; two  palatines,  behind  the  palate j a vomer, 
between  the  nostrils ; two  turbinated  bones  of  the  nose  in  the  nostrils ; two  lachrymals  in  the 
inner  angles  of  the  orbits,  and  the  single  bone  of  the  lower  jaw.  Each  jaw  has  sixteen  teeth : 
four  cutting  incisors  in  the  middle,  two  pointed  canines  at  the  corners,  and  ten  molars  with 
tuberculated  crowns,  five  on  each  side,  in  all  thirty-two  teeth.  His  blade-bone  has  at  the 
extremity  of  its  spine  or  projecting  ridge  a tuberosity,  named  the  acromion,  to  which  the 
clavicle  or  collar-bone  is  connected,  and  over  its  articulation  is  a point  termed  the  coracoid 
process,  to  which  certain  muscles  are  attached.  The  radius  turns  completely  on  the  cubitus 
or  ulna,  owing  to  the  mode  of  its  articulation  with  the  humerus.  The  wrist  has  eight  bones, 
four  in  each  range j the  tarsus  has  seven ; those  of  the  remaining  parts  of  the  hand  and  foot 
may  be  easily  counted  by  the  number  of  digits. 

Enjoying,  by  means  of  his  industry,  uniform  supplies  of  nourishment,  Man  is  at  all  times 
inclined  to  sexual  intercourse,  without  being  ever  furiously  incited.  His  generative  organ  is 
not  supported  by  a bony  axis ; the  prepuce  does  not  retain  it  attached  to  the  abdomen ] but 
it  hangs  in  front  of  the  pubis : numerous  and  large  veins,  which  effect  a rapid  transfer  of 
the  blood  of  his  testes  to  the  general  circulation,  appear  to  contribute  to  the  moderation  of  his 

The  uterus  of  woman  is  a simple  oval  cavity j her  mammse,  only  two  in  number,  are  situated 
on  the  breast,  and  correspond  with  the  facility  she  possesses  of  supporting  her  child  upon  her 


The  ordinary  produce  of  the  human  species  is  but  one  child  at  a birth ; for  in  five  hundred 
cases  of  parturition,  there  is  only  one  of  twins,  and  more  than  that  number  is  extremely  rare. 
The  period  of  gestation  is  nine  months.  A foetus  of  one  month  is  ordinarily  an  inch  in 
height;  at  two  months,  it  is  two  inches  and  a quarter]  at  three  months,  five  inches]  at  five 
months,  six  or  seven  inches  j at  seven  months,  eleven  inches  ] and  at  nine  months,  eighteen 
inches.  Those  which  are  born  prior  to  the  seventh  month  usually  die.  The  first  or  milk 
teeth  begin  to  appear  a few  months  after  birth,  commencing  with  the  incisors.  The  number 
increases  in  two  years  to  twenty,  which  are  shed  successively  from  about  the  seventh  year, 
to  be  replaced  by  others.  Of  the  twelve  posterior  molars,  which  are  permanent,  there  are 
four  which  make  their  appearance  at  four  years  and  a half,  four  at  nine  years  ] the  last  four 
being  frequently -not  cut  until  the  twentieth  year. 

The  foetus  grows  more  rapidly  in  proportion  as  it  approaches  the  time  of  birth.  The  infant, 
on  the  contrary,  increases  always  more  and  more  slowly.  It  has  upwards  of  a fourth  of  its 
height  when  born,  attains  the  half  of  it  at  two  years  and  a half,  and  the  three  fourths  at  nine  or 
ten  years.  By  the  eighteenth  year  the  growth  almost  entirely  ceases.  Man  rarely  exceeds 
six  feet,  and  seldom  remains  under  five.  Woman  is  ordinarily  some  inches  shorter. 

Puberty  manifests  itself  by  external  signs,  from  the  tenth  to  the  twelfth  year  in  girls,  and 
from  the  twelfth  to  the  sixteenth  in  boys.  It  arrives  sooner  in  warm  climates.  Either  sex 
very  rarely  produces  before  the  epoch  of  this  manifestation. 

Scarcely  has  the  body  attained  its  full  growth  in  height,  before  it  commences  to 
increase  in  bulk]  fat  accumulates  in  the  cellular  tissue.  The  different  vessels  become 



gradually  obstructed  ; the  solids  become  rigid ; and  after  a life  more  or  less  prolonged,  more  or 
less  agitated,  more  or  less  painful,  old  age  arrives,  with  decrepitude,  decay,  and  death.  Man 
rarely  lives  beyond  a hundred  years  ; and  most  of  the  species,  either  from  disease,  accidents, 
or  merely  old  age,  perish  long  before  that  term. 

The  child  needs  the  assistance  of  its  mother  much  longer  than  her  milk,  whence  results  an 
education  intellectual  as  well  as  physical,  and  a durable  mutual  attachment.  The  nearly  equal 
number  of  individuals  of  the  two  sexes,  the  difficulty  of  supporting  more  than  one  wife,  when 
wealth  does  not  supply  the  want  of  power,  intimate  that  monogamy  is  the  natural  condition 
of  our  species ; and  as,  wherever  this  kind  of  union  exists,  the  sire  participates  in  the  education 
of  his  offspring,  the  length  of  time  required  for  that  education  allows  the  birth  of  others, 
whence  the  natural  perpetuity  of  the  conjugal  state.  From  the  long  period  of  infantile  weak- 
ness results  domestic  subordination,  and,  consequently,  the  order  of  society  at  large,  as  the 
young  persons  which  compose  the  new  families  continue  to  preserve  with  their  parents  those 
tender  relations  to  which  they  have  so  long  been  accustomed.  This  disposition  to  mutual 
assistance  multiplies  to  an  almost  unlimited  extent  those  advantages  previously  derived  by 
isolated  Man  from  his  intelligence  ; it  has  assisted  him  to  tame  or  repulse  other  animals,  to 
defend  himself  from  the  effects  of  climate,  and  thus  enabled  him  to  cover  the  earth  with  his 

In  other  respects,  Man  appears  to  possess  nothing  resembling  instinct,  no  regular  habit  of 
industry  produced  by  innate  ideas;  all  his  knowledge  is  the  result  of  his  sensations,  his 
observations,  or  of  those  of  his  predecessors.  Transmitted  by  speech,  increased  by  meditation, 
applied  to  his  necessities  and  his  enjoyments,  they  have  given  rise  to  all  the  arts.  Language 
and  letters,  by  preserving  acquired  knowledge,  are  a source  of  indefinite  perfection  to  his 
species.  It  is  thus  that  he  has  acquired  ideas,  and  made  all  nature  contribute  to  his  wants.* 

There  are  very  different  degrees  of  developement,  however,  in  Man. 

The  first  hordes,  compelled  to  live  by  hunting  and  fishing,  or  on  wild  fruits,  and  being 
obliged  to  devote  all  their  time  to  search  for  the  means  of  subsistence,  and  not  being  able  to 
multiply  greatly,  because  that  would  have  destroyed  the  game,  advanced  but  slowly ; their 
arts  were  limited  to  the  construction  of  huts  and  canoes,  to  covering  themselves  with  skins, 
and  fabricating  arrows  and  nets ; they  observed  such  stars  only  as  served  to  direct  them  in 
their  journeys,  and  some  natural  objects  whose  properties  were  of  use  to  them ; they  gained  the 
dog  for  a companion,  because  he  had  a natural  inclination  for  the  same  kind  of  life.  When 
they  had  succeeded  in  taming  the  herbivorous  animals,  they  found  in  the  possession  of 
numerous  flocks  a never-failing  source  of  subsistence,  and  some  leisure,  which  they  employed 
in  extending  the  sphere  of  their  acquirements.  Some  industry  was  then  employed  in  the 
construction  of  dwellings  and  the  making  of  clothes ; the  idea  of  property  was  admitted,  and, 
consequently,  that  of  barter,  together  with  wealth  and  difference  of  conditions,  those  fruitful 
sources  of  the  noblest  emulation  and  the  vilest  passions ; but  the  necessity  of  searching  for 
fresh  pastures,  and  of  obeying  the  changes  of  the  seasons,  still  doomed  them  to  a wandering 
life,  and  limited  their  improvement  to  a very  narrow  sphere. 

The  multiplication  of  the  human  species,  and  its  improvement  in  the  arts  and  sciences,  has 

* The  numerous  structural  concurrences,  all  of  which  are  required  | 
to  promote  the  intellectual  developement  of  mankind,  are  worthy  of  ; 
serious  consideration  with  reference  to  the  unaided  faculties  of  other 

For  example,  if  the  superior  intelligence  of  Man  were  not  seconded 
by  his  admirable  hands  { so  vastly  excelling  those  of  the  monkey 
tribe),  by  his  efficient  vocal  organ,  &c.,  which  are  obvious  to  all  as 
mere  physical  conformations,  indeed,  but  slight  modifications  of  what 
occur  in  other  animals,  — if,  in  short,  he  were  reduced  in  these  re- 
spects to  the  condition  of  the  Dog,  how  effectually  would  the  privation 
operate  to  prevent  that  progressive  advancement  which,  under  exist- 
ing circumstances,  is  achieved  by  the  human  race  only. 

But,  even  grant  to  Man  the  use  of  all  his  organs,  yet  deprive  him  of 
the  accumulated  experience  of  his  predecessors,  and  all  mental  culture 
beyond  the  result  of  his  incidental  experience  (which  in  brutes  is  a 

I necessary  consequence  of  their  imperfect  means  of  communication), 
‘ and  we  perceive  how  immensely  he  is  indebted  also  to  these  ac- 

On  the  other  hand,  however,  a duly  developed  brain  and  commensu- 
rate intelligence  are  required  to  enable  Man  to  avail  himself  of  the 
advantages  of  his  structure,  for  otherwise  he  appears  doomed  to  re- 
main stationary  like  a brute  (as  in  the  instance  of  the  New  Hol- 
landers), even  in  the  midst  of  civilization.  There  are  also  casualties, 
as  the  general  insecurity  of  life  or  property  arising  from  situation  or 
misgovernment,  which  ordinarily  suffice  to  repel  the  efforts  of  ad- 
vancement, even  of  the  most  intelligent  races. 

It  would  accordingly,  then,  appear,  that  the  characteristic  traits 
of  human  intellect  are  mainly  due  to  the  co-operation  of  extrinsic 
causes,  and  to  the  accessory  aids  afforded  by  physical  conformation. 
— Ed. 

BIMANA,  OR  MAN.  49 

only  been  carried  to  a high  degree  since  the  invention  of  agriculture  and  the  division  of  the 
soil  into  hereditary  possessions.  By  means  of  agriculture,  the  manual  labour  of  a portion 
of  society  is  adequate  to  the  maintenance  of  the  whole,  and  allows  the  remainder  time 
for  less  necessary  occupations,  at  the  same  time  that  the  hope  of  acquiring,  by  industry,  a 
comfortable  subsistence  for  self  and  posterity,  has  given  a new  spring  to  emulation.  The 
discovery  of  a representative  of  property,  or  a circulating  medium,  has  carried  this  emulation 
to  the  highest  degree,  by  facilitating  exchanges,  and  rendering  fortunes  more  independent  and 
susceptible  of  being  increased ; but  by  a necessary  consequence,  it  has  also  equally  increased 
the  vices  of  effeminacy  and  the  furies  of  ambition. 

In  every  stage  of  the  developement  of  society,  the  natural  propensity  to  reduce  all  knowledge 
to  general  principles,  and  to  search  for  the  causes  of  each  phenomenon,  has  produced  reflecting 
men,  who  have  added  new  ideas  to  those  already  accumulated ; nearly  all  of  whom,  while  know- 
ledge was  confined  to  the  few,  endeavoured  to  convert  their  intellectual  superiority  into  the 
means  of  domination,  exaggerating  their  merit  in  the  eyes  of  others,  and  disguising  the 
poverty  of  their  knowledge  by  the  propagation  of  superstitious  ideas. 

An  evil  more  irremediable,  is  the  abuse  of  physical  power ; now  that  Man  only  can  injure 
Man,  he  affords  the  only  instance  of  a species  continually  at  war  with  itself.  Savages  dispute 
their  forests,  and  herdsmen  their  pastures  ; and  make  irruptions,  as  often  as  they  can,  upon 
the  cultivators  of  the  soil,  to  deprive  them  of  the  fruits  of  their  long  and  painful  labours. 
Even  civilized  nations,  far  from  being  satisfied  with  their  enjoyments,  carry  on  war  for  the 
prerogative  of  pride,  or  the  monopoly  of  commerce.  Hence  the  necessity  of  governments 
to  direct  the  national  wars,  and  to  repress  or  reduce  to  regular  forms  the  quarrels  of 

Circumstances,  more  or  less  favourable,  have  restrained  the  social  condition  within  limited 
degrees,  or  have  promoted  its  developement. 

The  glacial  climates  of  the  north  of  both  continents,  and  the  impenetrable  forests  of 
America,  are  still  inhabited  by  the  savage  hunter  or  fisherman.  The  immense  sandy  or  salt 
plains  of  Central  Asia  and  Africa  are  covered  with  a pastoral  people,  and  innumerable  herds : 
these  half-civilized  hordes  assemble  at  the  call  of  every  enthusiastic  chief,  and  overrun  the 
cultivated  countries  that  surround  them,  in  which  they  establish  themselves  but  to  become 
enervated,  and  to  be  subjected  in  their  turn  to  the  next  invaders.  This  is  the  true  cause  of 
that  despotism,  which,  in  every  age,  has  crushed  the  industry  called  forth  under  the  fine 
climates  of  Persia,  India,  and  China. 

Mild  climates,  soils  naturally  irrigated  and  rich  in  vegetables,  are  the  natural  cradle  of 
agriculture  and  civilization ; and  when  their  position  is  such  as  to  afford  shelter  from  the 
incursions  of  barbarians,  talents  of  every  kind  are  mutually  excited ; such  were  formerly  (the 
first  in  Europe,)  Italy  and  Greece ; and  such  is,  at  present,  nearly  all  that  happy  portion  of 
the  earth’s  surface. 

There  are,  however,  certain  intrinsic  causes  which  appear  to  arrest  the  progress  of  particular 
races,  even  though  situated  amidst  the  most  favourable  circumstances. 


Although  the  human  species  would  appear  to  be  single,  since  the  union  of  any  of  its  members  pro- 
duces individuals  capable  of  propagation*,  there  are,  nevertheless,  certain  hereditary  peculiarities  of 
conformation  observable,  which  constitute  what  are  termed  races. 

Three  of  these  in  particular  appear  eminently  distinct : the  Caucasian , or  white,  the  Mongolian , or 
yellow,  and  the  Ethiopian , or  negro. 

The  Caucasian,  to  which  we  belong,  is  distinguished  by  the  beauty  of  the  oval  which  forms  the 

• It  is  now  certain  that  this  circumstance  affords  no  proof  of  spe-  j which  I have  just  witnessed,  in  the  class  of  birds,  of  a brood  of  ducks, 
cifical  identity,  inasmuch  as  many  nearly  allied  but  obviously  dis-  both  parents  of  which  were  half  mallard  and  half  pintail  ( Anas  boschas 
tinct  species  produce  hybrids  that  are  prolific  inter  te : an  instance  of  | and  A.  acuta).  See  note  to  p.  19. — Ed. 




head ; and  it  is  this  one  which  has  given  rise  to  the  most  civilized  nations, — to  those  which  have  gene- 
rally held  the  rest  in  subjection : it  varies  in  complexion  and  in  the  colour  of  the  hair. 

The  Mongolian  is  known  by  his  projecting  cheek-bones,  flat  visage,  narrow  and  oblique  eyebrows, 
scanty  beard,  and  olive  complexion.  Great  empires  have  been  established  by  this  race  in  China  and 
Japan,  and  its  conquests  have  sometimes  extended  to  this  side  of  the  Great  Desert ; but  its  civilization 
has  always  remained  stationary. 

The  Negro  race  is  confined  to  the  southward  of  the  Atlas  chain  of  mountains : its  colour  is  black, 
its  hair  crisped,  the  cranium  compressed,  and  nose  flattened.  The  projecting  muzzle  and  thick  lips 
evidently  approximate  it  to  the  Apes : the  hordes  of  which  it  is  composed  have  always  continued 

The  name  Caucasian  has  been  affixed  to  the  race  from  which  we  descend,  because  tradition  and  the 
filiation  of  nations  seem  to  refer  its  origin  to  that  group  of  mountains  situate  between  the  Caspian  and 
Black  Seas,  whence  it  has  apparently  extended  by  radiating  all  around.  The  nations  of  the  Caucasus, 
or  the  Circassians  and  Georgians,  are  even  now  considered  as  the  handsomest  on  earth.  The  principal 
ramifications  of  this  race  may  be  distinguished  by  the  analogies  of  language.  The  Armenian  or 
Syrian  branch,  spreading  southward,  produced  the  Assyrians,  the  Chaldeans,  the  hitherto  untameable 
Arabs,  who,  after  Mahomet,  expected  to  become  masters  of  the  world ; the  Phoenicians,  the  Jews,  the 
Abyssinians,  which  were  Arabian  colonies,  and  most  probably  the  Egyptians.  It  is  from  this  branch, 
always  inclined  to  mysticism,  that  have  sprung  the  most  widely  extended  forms  of  religion.  Science 
and  literature  have  sometimes  flourished  among  its  nations,  but  always  in  a strange  disguise  and 
figurative  style. 

The  Indian,  German,  and  Pelasgic  branch  is  much  more  extended,  and  was  much  earlier  divided : 
notwithstanding  which,  the  most  numerous  affinities  have  been  recognized  between  its  four  principal 
languages — the  Sanscrit,  the  present  sacred  language  of  the  Hindoos,  and  the  parent  of  the  greater 
number  of  the  dialects  of  Hindostan ; the  ancient  language  of  the  Pelasgi,  common  parent  of  the 
Greek,  Latin,  many  tongues  that  are  extinct,  and  of  all  those  of  the  south  of  Europe  ; the  Gothic  or 
Teutonic,  from  which  are  derived  the  languages  of  the  north  and  north-west  of  Europe,  such  as  the 
German,  Dutch,  English,  Danish,  Swedish,  and  their  dialects  ; and  finally,  the  Sclavonian,  from  which 
are  descended  those  of  the  north-east,  the  Russian,  Polish,  Bohemian,  and  that  of  the  Vandals. 

It  is  by  this  great  and  venerable  branch  of  the  Caucasian  stock,  that  philosophy,  the  arts  and 
sciences,  have  been  carried  to  their  present  state  of  advancement ; and  it  has  continued  to  be  the 
depository  of  them  for  thirty  centuries. 

It  was  preceded  in  Europe  by  the  Celts,  whose  tribes,  once  very  numerous,  came  by  the  north,  and 
are  now  confined  to  its  most  western  extremities ; and  by  the  Cantabrians,  who  passed  from  Africa 
into  Spain,  and  have  become  confounded  with  the  many  nations  whose  posterity  have  intermingled  in 
that  peninsula. 

The  ancient  Persians  originate  from  the  same  source  as  the  Indians,  and  their  descendants  still 
present  a very  close  resemblance  to  the  nations  of  Europe. 

The  Scythian  and  Tartar  branch,  extending  first  towards  the  north  and  north-east,  and  always 
wandering  over  the  immense  plains  of  those  countries,  returned  but  to  devastate  the  happier  abodes  of 
their  more  civilized  brethren.  The  Scythians,  who,  at  so  remote  a period,  made  irruptions  into  Upper 
Asia  ; the  Parthians,  who  there  destroyed  the  Greek  and  Roman  domination ; the  Turks,  who  there 
subverted  that  of  the  Arabs,  and  subjugated  in  Europe  the  unfortunate  remnant  of  the  Grecian  people, 
were  all  offsets  from  this  branch.  The  Finlanders  and  Hungarians  are  tribes  of  the  same  division, 
which  have  strayed  among  the  Sclavonic  and  Teutonic  nations.  Their  original  country,  to  the  north 
and  eastward  of  the  Caspian  Sea,  still  contains  inhabitants  who  have  the  same  origin,  and  speak 
similar  languages  ; but  these  are  mingled  with  many  other  petty  nations,  variously  descended,  and  of 
different  languages.  The  Tartars  remained  unmixed  longer  than  the  others  throughout  that  extent  of 
country  included  between  the  mouth  of  the  Danube  to  beyond  the  Irtisch,  from  which  they  so  long 
menaced  Russia,  and  where  they  have  finally  been  subjugated  by  her.  The  Mongoles,  however,  have 
mingled  their  blood  with  that  of  the  nations  they  conquered,  many  traces  of  which  may  still  be  found 
among  the  inhabitants  of  Lesser  Tartary. 

It  is  to  the  east  of  this  Tartar  branch  of  the  Caucasian  race  that  the  Mongolian  race  begins,  whence 
it  extends  to  the  eastern  ocean.  Its  branches,  the  Calmucks  and  Kalkas,  still  wandering  shepherds, 



traverse  the  great  desert.  Thrice  did  their  ancestors,  under  Attila,  Genghis,  and  Tamerlane,  spread 
far  the  terror  of  their  name.  The  Chinese  are  the  most  anciently  civilized  branch,  not  only  of  this 
race,  but  of  all  known  nations.  A third  branch,  the  Mantchures,  have  recently  conquered  and  still 
govern  China.  The  Japanese,  Coreans,  and  nearly  all  the  hordes  which  extend  to  the  north-east  of 
Siberia,  subject  to  Russia,  are  also  to  be  considered,  in  a great  measure,  as  originating  from  this  race ; 
and  such  also  is  deemed  to  be  the  fact  with  regard  to  the  original  inhabitants  of  various  islands  bordering 
on  that  archipelago.  With  the  exception  of  some  Chinese  literati,  the  nations  of  the  Mongolian  race 
pertain  generally  to  different  sects  of  Buddism,  or  the  religion  of  Fo. 

The  origin  of  this  great  race  appears  to  have  been  in  the  Altai  mountains,  as  that  of  ours  in  the 
Caucasus ; but  it  is  impossible  to  trace  with  the  same  certainty  the  filiation  of  its  different  branches. 
The  history  of  these  wandering  nations  is  as  fugitive  as  their  establishments ; and  that  of  the  Chinese, 
confined  exclusively  to  their  own  empire,  furnishes  little  that  is  satisfactory  with  respect  to  their 
neighbours.  The  affinities  of  their  languages  are  also  too  little  known  to  direct  us  in  this  labyrinth. 

The  languages  of  the  north  of  the  peninsula  beyond  the  Ganges,  as  well  as  that  of  Thibet,  bear  some 
relation  to  the  Chinese,  at  least  in  their  monosyllabic  structure  ; and  the  people  who  speak  them  are 
not  without  resemblance  to  the  other  Mongoles : but  the  south  of  this  peninsula  is  inhabited  by 
Malays,  whose  forms  approach  them  much  nearer  to  the  Indians,  and  whose  race  and  language  are 
distributed  over  the  coasts  of  all  the  islands  of  the  Indian  archipelago.  The  innumerable  small  islands 
of  the  southern  ocean  are  also  peopled  by  a handsome  race,  who  appear  to  hold  a near  relation  to  the 
Indians,  and  whose  language  has  much  affinity  with  the  Malay : but  in  the  interior  of  the  larger  islands, 
particularly  in  the  milder  portions  of  them,  there  exists  another  race  of  men  with  black  complexions, 
and  negro  faces,  all  extremely  barbarous,  which  are  named  Alfourous ; and  on  the  coasts  of  New 
Guinea  and  the  neighbouring  islands,  are  other  Negroes  nearly  similar  to  those  of  the  eastern  coast  of 
Africa,  which  are  termed  Papous ; to  the  latter  are  generally  referred  the  natives  of  Van  Diemen’s 
Land  [now  rapidly  approaching  to  extermination],  and  those  of  New  Holland  to  the  Alfourous.* 

Neither  the  Malays  nor  the  Papous  are  easily  referable  to  either  of  the  three  great  races ; but 
can  the  former  be  clearly  distinguished  from  their  neighbours  on  both  sides,  the  Caucasian  Indians  and 
the  Mongolian  Chinese  ? We  avow  that  we  cannot  discern  in  them  sufficient  traits  for  that  purpose. 
Are  the  Papous  Negroes,  which  may  formerly  have  strayed  into  the  Indian  Ocean  ? We  possess  neither 
figures  nor  descriptions  precise  enough  to  enable  us  to  reply  to  this  question. 

The  inhabitants  of  the  north  of  both  continents,  the  Samoyedes,  the  Laplanders,  and  the  Esquimaux, 
are  derived,  according  to  some,  from  the  Mongolian  race : but  others  regard  them  as  mere  degenerate 
offsets  from  the  Scythian  and  Tartar  branches  of  the  Caucasian  race. 

The  Americans  have  not  yet  been  referred  clearly  to  either  of  the  races  of  the  eastern  continent ; 
nevertheless,  they  have  no  precise  or  constant  character,  which  can  entitle  them  to  be  considered  as 
a particular  one.  Their  copper-coloured  complexion  is  not  sufficient : their  general  black  hair  and 
scanty  beard  would  induce  us  to  approximate  them  to  the  Mongoles,  if  their  defined  features,  their  nose 
as  projecting  as  ours,  their  large  and  open  eyes,  did  not  oppose  such  a theory,  and  correspond  with 
the  features  of  the  European.  Their  languages  are  as  numberless  as  their  tribes,  and  no  demonstrative 
analogies  have  as  yet  been  obtained,  either  with  each  other,  or  with  those  of  the  ancient,  world.f 

[With  all  deference,  I would  suggest  that  naturalists  are  much  too  prone  to  confound  resemblance 
with  identity;  as  if  any  reason  existed  of  necessity,  for  analogous  races  to  differ  in  the  least 
degree.  How  many  geographical  mutual  representatives  are  there,  which  the  analogy  of  allied 
races  forcibly  indicates  to  be  distinct,  though  undistinguishable  on  minute  comparison ! How  nearly 
also  do  many  acknowledged  species  resemble  ! Bearing  these  facts  in  mind,  does  it  not  appear  that 
the  Americans  have  as  good  a claim  to  be  regarded  as  a primary  race,  as  the  Mongolians  have  to  be 
separated  as  such  from  the  Caucasians  ? The  arrangement  of  Blumenbach,  who  adds  the  Malayan 
and  American  races  to  the  three  admitted  by  Cuvier,  has  been  more  generally  adopted : but  there 
would  seem  to  be  quite  as  good  reason  for  admitting  others.  Fischer,  in  his  Synopsis  Mammalium, 
indicates  what  he  conceives  to  be  seven  species  of  Homo  (reducing  the  number  that  had  previously 

* Refer,  for  the  different  races  which  people  the  islands  of  the  Indian 
and  Pacific  Oceans,  to  the  dissertation  of  MM.  Lesson  and  Garnot,  in 
the  Zoologie  du  Voyage  de  la  Coquille,  p.  1 — 113.  For  the  languages  of 
the  Asiatic  nations,  and  their  affinities,  consult  the  Asia  Polyglotta  of 
M.  Klaproth. 

t See,  on  the  subject  of  the  Americans,  the  travels  of  M.  de  Hum- 
boldt, so  rich  in  important  information,  and  the  dissertations  of  Vater 
and  of  Mitchell. 

E 2 



been  assigned  by  Bory  St.  Vincent) : and  the  numerous  divisions  and  subdivisions  of  that  naturalist 
being  tolerably  in  accordance  with  the  apparent  value  of  the  characters  presented,  whether  or  not  they 
truly  represent  the  real  distinctions,  or,  in  some  instances,  similarity  be  confounded  with  identity  (a 
problem  to  which  philology  seems  to  offer  the  only  key),  the  outline  of  his  arrangement  may  be 
transferred  to  the  present  work,  where  it  may  chance  to  prove  useful  to  some  observers.  His  supposed 
species  are  as  follow : — 

1 . H.  Japeticus,  Bory ; corresponding  to  the  Caucasian  race  of  Cuvier. — This  is  distributed  under 
three  principal  varieties,  termed  Caucasicus , Arabicus,  and  Indicus : of  these  the  first  is  arranged  into 
five  subvarieties,  named  Caucasicus  {Orient alls'),  Pelagius  { Meridionalis ),  Celticus  {Occidentals),  Ger- 
manicus  {Borealis),  and  Sclavonicus  {Intermedins),  which  severally  comprehend  the  Caucasic,  Pelasgic, 
Celtic,  Teutonic,  and  Sclavonic  (including  the  Sarmatic)  nations ; the  second  into  two  subvarieties, 
Atlanticus  { Occidentals ),  and  Adamicus  {Orientals),  respectively  containing  the  Phoenicians,  ancient 
Numidians,  and  Guanches,  or  the  Punic  nations,  and  the  Abyssinians,  primitive  Egyptians  (modern 
Copts),  Jews,  Armenians,  Arabians,  &c.,  or  the  Coptic  and  Semitic  nations. 

2.  H.  Neptunianus,  Bory. — Ranged  under  three  subdivisions:  the  first  unnamed  (Qu.  Malay  anus  ?) 
allied  to  — probably  much  mingled  with  — the  Indian  variety  of  H.  Japeticus,  and  consisting  of  the 
well-known  Malays,  which  people  the  coasts  only  of  the  peninsula  of  Malacca,  the  islands  of  the 
Indian  ocean,  Madagascar,  &c.,  never  penetrating  inland;  the  second,  Occidentals,  comprising  the 
New  Zealanders,  and  natives  of  the  Society,  Friendly,  Sandwich,  and  other  islands  scattered  over  the 
Pacific  ocean, — it  is  suggested,  also,  (but  with  due  and  much  required  hesitation,)  the  ancient  Mexi- 
cans and  Peruvians : the  third,  Papuensis,  composed  of  certain  inhabitants  of  part  of  the  north  coast 
of  New  Guinea,  the  shores  of  the  islands  Waigou,  Salwaty,  Gammeu,  and  a few  others,  is  obviously  a 
hybrid  race,  derived  from  the  intermixture  of  the  Malay  and  true  Papou.  Cuvier  has  remarked  the 
affinity  of  language  subsisting  between  the  Malays  and  South  Sea  Islanders. 

3.  H.  Scythicus,  Bory. — The  first  division  of  this,  unnamed  (Qu.  Mongolensis  ?)  consists  of  the 
Calmucks  and  other  Tartars ; the  second,  Sinicus  (Homo  sinicus  of  Bory),  of  the  Chinese,  Japanese, 
&c. ; and  the  third  and  last,  Hyperboreus  {Homo  hyperboreus,  Bory),  of  the  Esquimaux.  It  corre- 
sponds to  the  Mongolian  race  of  Cuvier. 

4.  H.  Americanus,  Bory. — “ Species,”  the  author  writes,  “ adhuc  male  cognita,  forsan  totavel  ex 
parte  ad  Scythicam  reducenda,”  of  which  the  latter  only  is  in  the  least  probable.  “ Autochthones  Ame- 
rica meridionalis,  in  stirpes  innumeras  distributi ; e.  g.  Omaguee,  Guarani,  Coroadi,  Atures,  Otomaqui, 
Botucudi,  Guiacce,  Cherrucce,  &c.”  * A second  division  is  designated  Patagonus,  (being  the  Homo 
Patagonus  of  Bory,)  composed  of  the  large-statured  Patagonians. 

5.  H.  Columbicus,  Bory. — The  ordinary  red  Indian  of  America. 

6.  II.  JEthiopicus,  Bory. — Divided  into  the  true  Negro, not  otherwise  named;  Caffer,  {Homo  Caffer , 
Bory,)  inhabiting  CafFraria,  and  part  of  the  coast  of  Madagascar ; Melanoides,  {Homo  melaninus,  Bory), 
the  Papous  or  indigenous  inhabitants  of  Madagascar,  the  shores  of  New  Guinea,  the  islands  of  New 
Britain,  New  Ireland,  and  many  others,  also  of  Van  Diemen’s  Land ; and  Hottentotus  {Homo  Hotten- 
totus,  Bory),  the  Bush  and  other  Hottentots,  which,  it  may  be  remarked,  have  not  a few  analogies  with 
the  nomadic  Mongoles.  The  last  appear  to  have  been  much  reduced  and  encroached  on,  till  a remnant 
only  is  left  near  the  south  coast  of  Africa,  just  as  the  Celts  are  now  confined  to  the  exteme  west  of  Europe. 

7.  Lastly,  H.  Polynesius,  Fischer  {H.  australaricus,  Bory). — The  Alfourous,  the  lowest  in  the  scale 
of  human  beings : comprising  the  inland  inhabitants  of  the  Malay  peninsula,  the  islands  of  the  Indian 
Ocean,  Madagascar,  New  Guinea,  New  Holland,  &c. 

Such  is  the  arrangement  of  an  able  and  accomplished  naturalist,  published  in  1829,  or  the  same 
year  in  which  our  author  gave  to  the  world  his  second  and  last  edition  of  the  present  work.  The 
most  recent  authority,  which  is  the  third  edition  of  Dr.  Prichard’s  elaborate  “ Researches  into  the 
Physical  History  of  Mankind,”  contends  strenuously  for  unity  of  species  in  the  genus  Homo : but  it 
may  be  remarked  that  much  stress  is  laid  on  the  productiveness  of  mingled  races  of  mankind,  without 
any  new  or  satisfactory  evidence  being  adduced  in  proof  of  the  comparative  sterility  of  the  hybrid 
offspring  of  the  more  intimately  approximate  races  which  have  claim*  to  be  ranked  as  species ; such  as 

* " A species  imperfectly  known,  probably  or  in  part  referable  to  I species,  want  of  space  compels  me  to  refer  the  reader  to  the  original 
the  preceding  one.  It  comprehends  numerous  tribes  of  South  Ame  | work.  A cranium  of  the  savage  tribe  of  Botucudi  is  figured  by  Spix 
rica,”  some  of  which  are  above  named.  For  the  characters  of  these  I in  his  work  on  American  Quadrumanet, 



the  wild  bovine  and  striped  equine  animals,  &c.  &c.  The  following  are  the  leading  varieties  of  Man, 
according  to  the  opinion  and  arguments  of  Dr.  Prichard. 

“ On  comparing  the  principal  varieties  of  form  and  structure  which  distinguish  the  inhabitants  of 
different  countries,  we  find  that  there  are  seven  classes  of  nations  which  may  be  separated  from  each 
other  by  strongly  marked  lines.  Among  their  principal  characteristics  are  peculiar  forms  of  the 
skull,  but  these  are  by  no  means  the  only  difference  which  require  notice  and  particular  description. 
These  seven  principal  classes  are,  first,  those  nations  which  in  the  form  of  their  skulls  and  other  physi- 
cal characters  resemble  Europeans,  including  many  nations  in  Asia  and  some  in  Africa ; secondly,  races 
nearly  similar  in  figure,  and  in  the  shape  of  the  head,  to  the  Kalmucks,  Mongoles,  and  Chinese.  These 
two  first  classes  of  nations  will  be  designated,  for  reasons  to  be  explained,  Iranian  and  Turanian 
nations,  in  preference  to  Caucasian  and  Mongolian.  * * * The  third  class  are  the  native  Ame- 

rican nations,  excluding  the  Esquimaux  and  some  tribes  which  resemble  them  more  than  the  majority 
of  inhabitants  of  the  New  World.  The  fourth  class  comprises  only  the  Hottentot  and  Bushman  race. 
A fifth  class  are  the  Negroes ; the  sixth,  the  Papuas,  or  woolly-haired  nations  of  Polynesia ; the 
seventh,  the  Alfourou  and  Australian  races.  The  nations  comprised  under  these  departments  of  man- 
kind differ  so  strikingly  from  each  other,  that  it  would  be  improper  to  include  any  two  of  them  in  one 
section,  and  there  is  no  other  division  of  the  human  family  that  is  by  physical  traits  so  strongly  cha- 
racterized. There  are,  indeed,  some  nations  that  cannot  be  considered  as  falling  entirely  within  either 
of  these  divisions,  but  they  may  be  looked  upon  as  approximating  to  one  or  another  of  them.”  * 

The  same  writer  affirms,  of  the  Caucasian  race  of  Cuvier,  that  “ there  is  no  truth  in  the  assertion 
that  the  traditions  of  all  these  nations  deduce  their  origin  from  Caucasus  f,”  and  states,  of  his  Indo- 
Atlantic,  or  Iranian  nations,  that  “ complexion  does  not  enter  among  the  characters  of  this  type,  since 
it  is  of  all  shades,  from  the  white  and  florid  colour  of  the  northern  Europeans,  to  the  jet-black  of 
many  tribes  in  Lybia,  and  southward  of  Mount  Atlas.  In  many  races,  as  we  shall  hereafter  prove, 
the  type  has  degenerated.  The  ancient  Celts  appear,  for  example,  to  have  had  by  no  means  the  same 
developement  of  the  head  as  the  Greeks,  and  the  Indians  display  some  differences  in  the  configuration 
of  the  skull,1 ” &c.J 

It  appears  to  be  conclusively  proved  that  barbarism  and  insufficient  nourishment  tend,  in  a few 
generations,  to  deteriorate  the  physical  characters  of  even  the  highest  races  of  mankind,  by  increasing 
the  facial  angle,  &c.  § ; while  the  reverse  induces  proportional  improvement.  Still  there  is  reason  to 
suspect  that  the  diversities  which  are  thus  occasioned  are  restrained  within  moderate  limits  ; and  this 
remarkable  fact  must  be  borne  in  mind  (which  I believe  has  not  been  hitherto  stated),  that  while  an 
artificial  mode  of  life  would  seem  to  have  produced  those  ackno  wledged  varieties  of  species  which  are 
noticeable  among  such  of  the  lower  animals  as  have  been  domesticated,  we  observe  very  dissimilar  races 
of  human  beings  among  those  whose  mannner  of  living  is  least  artificial  of  any,  and  which,  further- 
more, in  numerous  instances,  inhabit  the  same  countries,  besides  being  widely  diffused  ; thus  proving 
that  climate  and  locality  exert  less  influence  than  has  been  imagined.  This  most  difficult  subject  of 
inquiry,  in  fine,  is  endlessly  perplexed,  and  in  several  instances  rendered  quite  inextricable,  by  the 
occasional  blending  of  two  or  more  diverse  races,  in  every  degree  of  proportion.  There  are  also 
decisive  proofs  (afforded  by  architectural  reliques  scattered  over  Siberia  and  both  Americas)  of  great 
nations  having  been  utterly  exterminated,  whose  very  names  have  perished  : and  if  civilized,  or  com- 
paratively civilized,  populous  nations  have  thus  become  so  completely  sunk  in  oblivion,  that  we  infer 
their  former  existence  only  as  that  of  some  lost  tribes  of  animals  can  be  recalled,  how  very  many 
hordes  of  savages,  who  erect  no  memorials,  may  have  been  extirpated,  and  are  forgotten  irretrievably. 
Hence  the  extreme  and  apparently  insuperable  difficulties  which,  it  is  probable,  will  continue  to  oppose  the 
definitive  solution  of  the  intricate  and  peculiarly  interesting  problem  which  we  have  been  considering.] 

Vol.  i.  246-7. 

t Id.  259. 

t Id.  262. 

§ Vide  id.  vol.  ii.  349. 





Independently  of  the  anatomical  details  which  distinguish  it  from  Man,  and  which 
we  have  indicated,  this  family  differs  from  our  species  in  a very  obvious  character, 
having  the  thumbs  of  the  hind  feet  free  and  opposable  to  the  other  digits,  which  are 
as  long  and  flexible  as  those  of  the  hand  : in  consequence  of  this,  all  the  species  climb 
trees  with  facility,  while  it  is  only  with  pain  and  difficulty  that  they  can  stand  and 
walk  upright,  their  foot  then  resting  on  its  outer  edge  only,  and  their  narrow  pelvis 
being  unfavourable  to  an  equilibrium.  They  all  have  intestines  very  similar  to  those 
of  Man*,  the  eyes  directed  forward,  the  mammae  on  the  breast,  the  penis  pendent,  the 
brain  with  three  lobes  on  each  side,  the  posterior  of  which  covers  the  cerebellum,  and 
the  temporal  fossae  separated  from  the  orbit  by  a bony  partition.  In  every  thing  else, 
however,  they  gradually  recede  from  him,  in  presenting  a muzzle  more  and  more 
elongated,  a tail  and  a gait  more  like  that  of  quadrupeds  : nevertheless,  the  freedom 
of  their  arms,  and  the  complication  of  their  hands,  admit  of  their  performing  many  of 
the  actions  of  Man,  as  well  as  to  imitate  his  gestures. 

They  have  long  been  divided  into  two  genera,  the  Monkeys  and  the  Lemurs,  which, 
by  the  multiplication  of  secondary  forms,  have  now  become  two  small  families,  between 
which  must  be  placed  a third  genus,  that  of  the  Ouistitis  [or  Marmosets],  which  cannot 
be  referred  to  either  of  the  others. 

The  Monkey-like  Animals  (Simia,  Linnaeus). 

These  are  all  Quadrumana,  which  have  four  straight  incisors  to  each  jaw,  and  flat  nails  to 
all  the  extremities, — two  characters  which  approximate  them  more  nearly  to  Man  than  the  sub- 
sequent genera.  Their  molars  have  also  blunt  tubercles  like  ours,  and  they  subsist  mainly  upon 
fruits ; but  their  canines,  being  longer  than  the  other  teeth,  supply  them  with  a weapon  which 
we  do  not  possess,  and  require  a vacant  space  in  the  opposite  jaw  to  receive  them  when  the 
mouth  is  closed. 

They  may  be  divided,  according  to  the  number  of  their  molars,  into  two  principal  sub-genera, 
which  again  subdivide  into  numerous  others. 

The  Monkeys  (Singes),  properly  so  called,  or  those  of  the  ancient  continent, 

[Catarrh in i.  Geo/.'], — 

Have  the  same  number  of  grinders  as  Man,  but  otherwise  differ  among  themselves  in  the 
characters  which  give  rise  to  the  following  subdivisions. 

The  Ourangs  (Simia,  Erxl.,  Pithecus,  Geof.), — 

Are  the  only  Apes  of  the  ancient  continent  which  have  no  callosities  on  the  buttocks  ; their  hyoid 
hone,  liver,  and  coecum  resemble  those  of  Man.  Their  nose  does  not  project ; they  have  no  cheek 
pouches,  nor  any  vestige  of  a tail. 

Some  of  them  have  arms  long  enough  to  reach  the  ground  when  standing  ; their  legs,  on  the  con- 
trary, are  very  short.  Such  are  the  Ourangs,  strictly  so  called. 

* Here  we  must  except  the  genus  Semnopithecus,  and  probably  also  Colobus.—Eo. 



The  Ourang-outang*  ( Simla  satyr  us,  Lin.) 

Of  all  animals,  this  is  reputed  to  bear  the  nearest  resemblance  to  Man  in  the  form  of  its  head,  the  magnitude  of 
its  forehead,  and  volume  of  brain ; but  the  exaggerated  descriptions  of  some  authors  respecting  this  similarity 
irise  partly  from  the  circumstance  of  only  young  individuals  having  been  observed,  as  there  is  every  reason  to 
believe  that,  with  age,  the  muzzle  becomes  much  more  prominent  [a  fact  now  ascertained].  The  body  is  covered 
with  coarse  red  hair,  the  face  is  bluish,  and  the  hinder  thumbs  very  short  compared  with  the  toes.  The  lips  are 
capable  of  a singular  elongationf,  and  possess  great  mobility.  Its  history  has  been  much  confounded  with  that 
of  the  other  large  Apes,  and  especially  of  the  Chimpanzee ; but,  after  subjecting  it  to  a rigorous  analysis,  I have  i 

ascertained  that  it  inhabits  only  the  most  eastern  countries,  such  as  Malacca,  Cochin  China,  and  particularly  the  | 

great  island  of  Borneo,  whence  it  has  been  sometimes  brought  by  the  route  of  Java,  though  very  rarely.  When 
young,  and  such  as  it  has  been  seen  in  Europe,  it  is  a very  mild  animal,  that  is  easily  rendered  tame  and  attached, 
and  which,  by  its  conformation,  is  enabled  to  imitate  many  of  our  actions ; but  its  intelligence  appears  to  be 
lower  than  has  been  asserted,  not  very  much  surpassing  that  of  the  Dog.  Camper  discovered,  and  has  well  dis- 
cribed,  two  membranous  sacs  which  communicate  with  the  glottis  of  this  animal,  and  obstruct  its  voice ; but 
he  is  mistaken  in  supposing  that  the  nails  are  always  absent  from  the  hinder  thumbs. 

There  is  an  ape  in  Borneo,  at  present  only  known  by  its  skeleton,  called  the  Pongo,  which  so  closely  resembles 
the  Ourang-outang  in  all  its  parts,  and  by  the  arrangement  of  the  cavities  and  sutures  of  its  head,  that  notwith- 
standing the  great  prominence  of  its  muzzle,  the  smallness  of  the  cranium,  and  the  height  of  the  branches  of  the 
lower  jaw,  we  are  inclined  to  consider  as  an  adult,  if  not  of  this  species  of  Ourang,  at  least  of  another  very  nearly 
allied  to  it.  The  length  of  its  arms,  and  of  the  apophyses  of  its  cervical  vertebrae,  together  with  the  tuberosity  of 
its  calcaneum,  may  enable  it  to  assume  the  vertical  position.  It  is  the  largest  of  known  Apes,  approaching  to  the 
size  of  Man. 

[The  Pongo  has  proved  to  be  a second  species  of  Ourang,  covered  with  black,  relieved  with  dark  red  hair,  and  which 
at  present  is  known  only  to  occur  in  Borneo,  where  the  Red  Ourang  has  not  been  ascertained  to  exist.  Both  attain 
the  same  large  dimensions,  and  are  distinguished  as  the  Pithecus  Wormbii  and  P.  Abelii.  They  differ  somewhat 
in  the  configuration  of  the  cranium,  and  considerably  in  the  profile  of  the  face,  as  seen  in  the  skull.  A third 
species,  also  from  Borneo,  has  more  recently  been  determined  by  Prof.  Owen,  of  which  only  a single  adult  skull  has 
been  received ; it  announces  a smaller  animal,  which  has  been  named  P.  mono.  The  adult  males  of  this  genus 
have  an  immense  projecting  tuberosity  on  each  cheek4 

These  Ourangs  do  not  ordinarily  assume  the  upright  attitude,  to  maintain  which  they  are  obliged  to  raise,  and 
throw  their  long  arms  backward,  in  order  to  preserve  a balance ; the  outer  edges  only  of  their  feet  are  applied  to  the 
ground,  where  they  commonly  progress  by  resting  on  the  knuckles,  and  swinging  the  body  forward  between  the 
arms.  Their  structure  is  more  designed  for  traversing  the  forest  boughs ; and  they  are  said  to  inhabit  the  upland 
forests  of  the  interior  of  their  native  countries.  The  old  males  are  reported  to  be  savage  and  solitary,  and  much 
dreaded  by  the  Alfourou  inhabitants  of  their  native  region ; each  appropriating  a particular  district,  into  which 
it  resents  intrusion.  There  is  reason  to  suspect  that  they  are  not  exclusively  vegetable  feeders,  but  subsist 
in  part  on  the  eggs  and  callow  young  of  birds.  They  are  sedentary  and  inactive  animals,  possessed  of  great 

So  excessive  is  the  degradation  of  the  adult  from  the  characters  which  it  exhibits  in  youth,  that  our  author, 
in  his  first  edition,  arranged  the  Pongo  next  to  the  Baboons,  allowing  them  the  precedence.  According 
to  M.  Geoffroy,  “ the  brain  of  the  young  Ourang  bears  a very  close  resemblance  to  that  of  a child ; and  the 
skull,  also,  might  be  taken,  at  an  early  age,  for  that  of  the  latter,  were  it  not  for  the  developement  of  the  bones 
of  the  face.  But  it  happens,  in  consequence  of  its  advance  in  age,  that  the  brain  ceases  to  enlarge,  while  its  case 
continually  increases.  The  latter  becomes  thickened,  but  in  an  unequal  degree ; enormous  bony  ridges  appear, 
and  the  animal  assumes  a frightful  aspect.  When  we  compare  the  effects  of  age  in  Man  and  the  Ourang,  the  difference 
is  seen  to  be,  that  in  the  latter  there  is  a super-developement  of  the  osseous,  muscular,  and  tegumentary  systems, 
more  towards  the  upper  part  than  the  lower,  while  the  developement  of  the  brain  is  entirely  arrested.”  It  is  only 
in  the  male  sex,  however,  that  the  cranial  ridges  appear,  the  canines,  also,  of  the  females  being  much  smaller. 

M.  Geoffroy  thus  describes  the  skull  of  the  Pongo,  before  its  identity  as  an  Ourang  had  been  ascertained 
“ What  is  most  remarkable,”  he  observes,  “ is  the  excessive  elongation  of  the  muzzle ; and  as  this  con- 
siderable volume  of  the  muzzle  cannot  be  gained  but  at  the  expence  of  the  other  adjoining  parts,  we  accord- 
ingly find  that  there  is  scarcely  any  apparent  forehead,  that  the  bony  box  which  contains  the  brain  is 
uncommonly  small,  and  that  the  occipital  foramen  is  situated  as  far  as  the  posterior  part  of  the  head.  The 
immense  muzzle,  moreover,  is  remarkable,  not  only  for  the  enormous  thickness  of  the  gums,  but  also  for  the 
extraordinary  size  of  the  canine  and  incisor  teeth  with  which  they  are  provided;  the  incisors  exceed  in 
magnitude  those  of  a Lion,  and  the  canines  do  not  differ  much  in  dimensions  from  those  of  the  same 
animal:  the  occiput  also  is  elevated  at  its  point,  and  forms  a quadrilateral  protuberance,  very  large  and 
thick,  where  three  bony  crests  are  produced,  not  less  apparent  nor  less  solid  than  those  of  the  Lion.  Two  of 

Ourang  (P.  Wormbii),  in  the  menagerie  of  the  Zoological  Society, 
which  have  continued  now  for  several  months  in  a very  thriving  con- 
dition, and  afford  reasonable  grounds  for  expectation  that  they  will 
live  to  attain  maturity.  Most  of  those  previously  imported  have  been 
weak  and  sickly. — Ed.  ! 

* Ourang  is  a Malay  word,  signifying  rational  being,  which  is 
applied  to  Man,  the  Ourang-outang,  and  the  Elephant.  Outang 
signifies  wild,  or  of  the  woods : hence  Ourang-outang. 

t Noticeable,  to  a certain  extent,  in  the  Hottentot  race  of  man- 
kind.— Ed. 

t There  is  at  present  (1838)  a young  male  and  female  of  the  Black 



these  crests  are  considerably  elevated,  and  extend  laterally  to  the  auricular  foramina.  Another  extends  across 
the  vertex,  and  then  assumes  a bifurcal  form,  as  in  the  Lion,  above  the  forehead  in  two  lateral  branches, 
which  proceed  as  far  as  the  external  side  of  the  upper  edge  of  the  orbits.  These  little  crests  are  decisively 
marked,  and  form  an  equilateral  triangle  with  the  upper  edge  of  the  orbital  foramina.  The  head  is  formed 
like  the  half  of  a pyramid,  and  the  auricular  foramina  are  placed  so  considerably  above  the  palatine  bones, 
that  a line  let  down  from  the  former  to  the  internal  edge  of  the  ossa  palatina,  would  form,  with  a horizontal 
line,  an  angle  of  twenty-five  degrees.”  It  varies  to  about  thirty  degrees. 

All  the  above  modifications  have  immediate  reference  to  the  immense  size  of  the  canines,  which  necessitates  a 
proportional  developement  of  the  jaws,  and  the  high  cranial  ridges  to  furnish  attachment  to  muscles  of  sufficient 
power  to  work  them.  The  Ourangs  do  not  cut  their  huge  permanent  teeth  until  nearly  full  grown.*] 

In  the  other  Ourangs,  the  arms  descend  only  to  the  knees.  They  have  no  forehead,  and  their 
cranium  retreats  immediately  from  the  crest  of  the  eyebrow.  The  name  of  Chimpanzee  might  be 
exclusively  applied  to  them. 

Sim.  troglodytes,  Lin.  [ Troglodytes  niger  of  others]. — Covered  with  black  or  brown  hair,  scanty  in  front ; [a 
white  marking  on  the  rump].  If  the  reports  of  travellers  can  be  relied  on,  this  animal  must  equal  or  be  superior 
in  size  to  Man.  [The  skeleton  of  an  adult  female  in  London  is  considerably  smaller.]  It  inhabits  Guinea 
and  Congo,  lives  in  troops,  constructs  huts  of  branches,  arms  itself  with  clubs  and  stones,  and  thus  repulses 
Man  and  Elephants  ; pursues  and  abducts,  it  is  said,  negro  womenf,  &c.  Naturalists  have  generally  confounded  it 
with  the  Ourang-outang.  In  domestication  it  is  very  docile,  and  readily  learns  to  walk,  sit,  and  eat  like  a man. 
[It  is  much  more  a ground  animal  than  the  Ourangs,  and  runs  on  its  lower  extremities  without  difficulty,  holding 
up  the  arms.  Is  of  a lively  and  active  disposition.  The  facial  angle  of  the  adult  about  thirty-five  degrees. 
By  the  general  consent  of  living  naturalists,  the  Chimpanzee  is  placed  next  to  Man  in  the  system,  preceding 
the  Ourangs,  which  it  exceeds  in  general  approximation  to  the  human  form.] 

From  the  foregoing  groups  are  now  separated 

The  Gibbons  ( Hylobates , Illiger), — 

Which,  together  with  the  long  arms  of  the  Ourangs,  and  the  receding  forehead  of  the  Chimpanzee, 
possess  [all  of'  them]  callosities  on  the  buttocks  like  the  true  Monkeys  ; differing,  however,  from  the 
latter  in  having  no  tail  or  cheek-pouches.  All  of  them  inhabit  the  most  eastern  part  of  India,  and 
its  archipelago. 

The  Onko  Gibbon  (Sim.  lar,  Lin.)— [This  name  is  now  by  general  consent  applied  to  the  next  species,  the 
present  one  being  distinguished  as H.  Rafflesii,  Geof.]  Black,  with  white  hairs  round  the  face. 

[The  Lar  Gibbon  of  Linnaeus  (H.  lar,  Geof.)— Black,  with  white  hands  and  feet,  and  a white  circle  round  the 
face.  Is  identical  with  H.  albimanus,  Vig.  and  Horsf.,  and  probably  with  H.  variegatus,  Kuhl,  which  seems  to 
differ  only  in  colour,  being  brown  where  the  other  is  black. 

The  Hoolock  Gibbon  ( H . hoolock,  Harlan). — Black,  marked  with  white  across  the  forehead. 

The  Coromandel  Gibbon  (H.  choromandus,  Ogilby).— Of  a dingy  pale  brown,  with  black  hair  and  whiskers.] 

The  Wou-wou  Gibbon  ( S . agilis,  Lin.)— Brown,  the  circle  round  the  face  and  lower  part  of  the  back,  pale 
fulvous  [with  also  some  white  around  the  visage].  The  young  are  of  a uniform  yellowish  white.  Its  agility  is 
extreme ; it  lives  in  pairs,  and  its  name  Wou-ivou  is  derived  from  its  cry. 

The  Gray  Gibbon  (S.  leucisca , Schreb.)— Gray,  with  dark  crown,  and  white  beard  and  whiskers ; the  visage 
black.  It  lives  among  the  reeds,  and  climbs  up  the  highest  stems  of  the  bamboos,  where  it  balances  itself  by  its 
long  arms. 

We  might  separate  from  the  other  Gibbons 

The  Siamang  ( S . syndactyla,  Raffles),  which  has  the  second  and  third  toes  of  the  hind  fbot  united  by  a narrow 
membrane,  the  whole  length  of  the  first  phalanx  [a  character  which  now  and  then  occurs  in  some  of  the  others, 
but  in  the  present  species  is  constant].  It  is  wholly  black,  with  the  chin  and  eyebrows  rufous  [and  the  throat 
bare]  ; lives  in  numerous  troops,  which  are  conducted  by  vigilant  and  courageous  chiefs,  which,  at  sunrise  and 
sunset,  make  the  forest  resound  with  frightful  cries.  Its  larynx  has  a membranous  sac  connected  with  it. 

[All  the  above  are  mild  and  gentle  animals  in  domestication,  of  extremely  delicate  constitutions  when  brought 
to  our  climate]. 

The  remaining  Monkey-like  animals  of  the  ancient  continent  have  the  liver  divided  into  several 

* It  may  be  remarked  generally,  that,  with  the  possession  of  for- 
midable canines,  Quadrumana  acquire  a consciousness  of  their  efficacy 
as  weapons,  which  renders  them  impatient  of  that  controul,  more  par- 
ticularly if  based  on  fear,  to  which  they  had  previously  been  sub- 
missive. Chastisement  then  excites  their  ire  rather  than  affrights 
them  ; and  if  they  cannot  gratify  their  rage,  they  will  pine  and  die. 
They  require,  in  short,  different  treatment.  An  adult  male  Mandrill, 
which  was  long  exhibited  in  London,  would  perform  various  feats 
indicative  of  intelligence,  if  bribed  to  do  so  by  the  offer  of  its  favourite 
beverage.  The  notion  that  the  species  with  prominent  muzzles  are 
therefore  less  intelligent,  requires  modification.  The  developement 
of  brain,  in  all  the  Simite,  as  compared  with  that  of  Man,  is  arrested 
at  a particular  stage  of  advancement ; but  it  does  not  follow  that 

the  growth  of  the  other  parts — that  is,  the  developement  of  the  other 
systems— should  cease  simultaneously  s on  the  contrary,  this  proceeds 
to  a variable  extent  in  different  species,  and  the  projection  of  the 
muzzle,  with  its  accompaniments,  appears  to  increase  in  proportion 
to  the  stature  ultimately  attained  ; so  that  the  adults  of  the  smaller 
species  are,  in  this  respect,  analogous  to  partially  developed  speci- 
mens of  the  larger,  which  correspond  in  disposition  until  they  acquire 
the  strength  and  armature  of  which  an  instinctive  knowledge  prompts 
them  to  resent  affronts,  and  renders  them  so  highly  dangerous  to 
tamper  with.  The  Baboons  are  even  remarkable  for  penetration  and 
quickness  of  apprehension,  however  short  their  temper. — Ed. 
t Very  highly  improbable. — Ed, 



lobes ; the  coecum  thick,  short,  [except  in  Semnopithecus , and  perhaps  Colobus\,  and  without  any 
appendage  : the  hyoid  bone  has  the  form  of  a shield. 

The  Monkeys*  ( Cercopithecus , Erxl.  in  part),  [ Guenons  of  the  French], — 

Have  a moderately  prominent  muzzle  (of  sixty  degrees)  ; cheek  pouches  ; tail ; callosities  on  the  but- 
tocks ; the  last  of  the  inferior  molars  with  four  tubercles  like  the  rest.  Very  numerous  species  of  them, 
of  various  size  and  colouring,  abound  in  Africa,  living  in  troops,  which  do  much  damage  to  the  gardens 
and  cultivated  fields.  They  are  easily  tamed,  [and  are  lively  and  active  animals.  Their  hair,  unlike 
that  of  the  preceding  groups,  is  of  two  kinds,  the  outer  commonly  annulated  above  with  two  colours, 
producing  a grizzled  appearance,  which  in  several  imparts  a tinge  of  green. 

More  than  twenty  species  have  been  ascertained,  and  doubtless  many  others  remain  to  be  discovered.  They 
vary  in  the  proportional  length  of  the  fingers.  The  larger  of  them  acquire,  with  their  growth,  a more  projecting 
muzzle,  and  are  the  Cercocebi  of  some  naturalists  (a  term  now  falling  into  disuse) : these,  in  a few  instances, 
manifest  an  additional  relationship  to  the  Baboons,  in  exhibiting  bright  colours  on  the  genitals  ; as  exemplified 
by  the  Malbrouck  Monkey  ( C . cynosurus),  in  which  the  scrotum  is  vivid  ultramarine,  and  the  Vervet  (C.  pygery- 
thrus),  which  has  the  same  part  green.  Many  are  prettily  variegated,  as  the  Diana  Monkey  (C.  Diana),  which 
has  a crescent-shaped  white  mark  on  the  forehead,  and  a slender,  pointed,  white  beard ; the  Mona  Monkey 
(C.  mona),  &c.  One  only  is  of  a red  colour,  the  Patas  (C.  rubra).  A few  of  the  more  recently  discovered  of  them 
may  be  briefly  indicated. 

Campbell’s  Monkey  (C.  Campbellii , Waterhouse.)— Hair  long,  and  parted  on  the  back,  of  a grizzled  black  and 
yellow  colour,  nearly  uniform  blackish  grey  on  the  hind  parts  ; beneath,  dingy  white ; a black  line  encircling  the 
fore  part  and  sides  of  the  crown  of  the  head.  From  Sierra  Leone. 

The  Bearded  Monkey  (C.  pogonias,  Ben.)— Hair  very  long ; greyish,  i.e.,  grizzled  black  and  yellowish  white ; a 
spot  on  each  side  of  the  head,  another  on  the  crown,  and  tip  of  the  tail,  black ; cheeks  furnished  with  an 
immense  tuft  of  pale  hair. 

Red-eared  Monkey  (C.  erythrotis,  Waterh.)— Grey ; the  tail  red,  with  a dark  line  along  its  upper  surface; 
ears  with  very  long  red  hairs  internally ; throat  white ; under  parts  of  the  body  greyish.  From  Fernando  Po. 

Next  follows  a group  of  smaller  species,  of  mild  and  confiding  disposition ; consisting  of  the  Talapoin  M. 
(C.  talapoin,  Geof.,  Sim.  melarrhina,  F.  Cuv.),  the  Moustache  M.  (S.  cephus,  Lin.),  the  Vaulting  M.  (S.  petaurista, 
Gm.),  the  Hocheur  (S.  nictitans,  Gm.),  &c.  A new  Monkey  appertaining  to  it  is  the 

C.  Martini,  Waterh.— Of  a dark  grey,  the  hairs  annulated  with  yellowish  white;  lower  portions  of  limbs,  crown 
of  the  head,  and  tail,  blackish ; hairs  near  the  root  of  the  tail  beneath,  brown.  Inhabits  Fernando  Po.  Several 
of  these  smaller  kinds  are  very  common  in  Guinea.  Allied  to  them  are  the  larger  green  Monkeys ; and  the  series 
terminates  with  the  Mangabeys,  or  dusky-coloured  white-eyelid  Monkeys  (C.  cethiops,  and  C.  fuliginosus),  which 
display  some  peculiarities  of  gait  and  gesture,  and  have  the  most  prominent  muzzles  of  any. 

The  following  occurs  as  a note  in  the  original  work.  “ Pennant  lias  described  certain  Guenons” — 
Doucs  rather — “ without  thumbs  f,  Sim.  poly comos  and  S.  ferruginea,  of  which  Illiger  has  formed  his 
genus  Colobus,  but  I have  not  been  able  to  see  them,  and  for  this  reason  have  not  introduced  them. 
M.  Temminck  assures  us  that  the  head  and  teeth  resemble  those  of  a Semnopithecus.”  This  group  is 
now  well  established,  and  several  species  have  been  added  to  it ; all  of  them,  however,  peculiar  to 
Africa,  as  the  members  of  the  last-named  genus  are  to  Asia : they  differ  chiefly  from  the  Doucs 
in  possessing  cheek-pouches,  having  the  limbs  similarly  elongated,  and  only  one  sort  of  hair,  as  in  the 
Apes.  A small  rudiment  of  a thumb  exists  in  some  of  them. 

Nine  clearly  distinct  species  have  been  ascertained;  and  there  are  probably  many  others.  They  resolve 
into  two  minor  groups ; the  species  composing  the  first  are  rather  large  animals,  of  a black  ground-colour,  with 
very  long  hair ; those  of  the  second  division  are  smaller,  with  shorter  hair,  and  rufous  ground-colour.  Their 
markings  readily  distinguish  them. 

The  Black  Colobin.  (C.  satanas,  Waterh.)— Quite  black,  with  very  long  shaggy  hair,  obviously  designed  to  pro- 
tect it  from  the  scorching  rays  of  a vertical  sun.  This  animal  is  common  in  Fernando  Po,  and  when  captured 
refuses  to  take  sustenance,  pining  and  moaning  constantly  and  very  piteously. 

Ursine  Colobin  (C.  ursinus,  Ogilby.)— Black,  with  grey  head  and  white  tail.  From  Sierra  Leone. 

White-thighed  Colobin  ? (C.  ? leucomeros,  Ogilby.) — Established  on  some  imperfect  skins.  The  thighs  white ; 
head,  legs,  and  tail  undetermined.  From  the  Gambia. 

Sim. polycomos,  Pennant ; termed  by  him  the  “Full-bottomed  Monkey.” — Has  a long  yellowish-white  sort  of 
mane,  compared  to  a full-bottomed  wig,  and  a white  tail.  Brought  from  Sierra  Leone. 

C.  guereza,  Ruppel. — The  throat  and  around  the  face  white ; and  long  flowing  white  hair  on  the  shoulders 
and  along  each  side  of  the  body,  as  if  a garment  were  thrown  over  it ; end  of  the  tail  also  white,  and  largely  tufted. 
From  Abyssinia. 

C.  rufoniger,  Ogilby.— Black  above,  deep  red  beneath ; locality  unknown. 

* The  word  Monkey  is  a diminutive  of  Man. — Ed.  f The  thumb  is  very  small  in  the  Doucs.— Ed. 



Sim.  ferruginea,  Pennant ; called,  by  him  the  “ Bay  Monkey.” — Of  a deep  bay  colour  above ; cheeks  and  under- 
parts very  bright  bay.  From  Sierra  Leone. 

C.  Pennantii,  Waterh.— Above  blackish ; beneath  dingy  yellow ; the  sides  yellowish  red,  and  cheeks  white. 
From  Fernando  Po. 

C.  Temminckii,  Kuld. — Blackish  above ; rusty-red  beneath  and  on  the  cheeks ; the  sides  yellow.  From  the 
Gambia.  Is  identical  with  C.  obscurus,  Ogilby. 

The  skins  of  these  animals  are  an  article  of  traffic  in  Western  Africa,  but  are  commonly  deprived  of  the  head, 
limbs,  and  tail.  Many  Cercopitlieci  are  prepared  in  the  same  manner.*] 

The  Doucs  ( Semnopithecus , F.  Cuv.) — 

Differ  from  the  true  Monkeys  by  having  an  additional  small  tubercle  on  the  last  of  the  inferior  molars. 
They  are  the  ordinary  Monkeys  of  the  East ; and  their  lengthened  limbs  and  extremely  elongated  tail 
[as  in  Colobus~\  give  them  a peculiar  air.  Their  muzzle  projects  very  little  more  than  that  of  the 
Gibbons,  and,  like  them,  they  have  callosities  on  the  buttocks  ; they  appear,  likewise,  to  have  no 

cheek-pouches  : their  larynx  is  furnished  with 
a sac.  [The  stomach  (fig.  3)  is  singularly 
complicated,  consisting  of  three  divisions; 
first,  a cardiac  pouch,  with  smooth  and  simple 
parietes,  slightly  bifid  at  the  extremity; 
secondly,  a middle,  very  wide  and  sacculated 
portion ; thirdly,  a narrow,  elongated  canal, 
sacculated  at  its  commencement,  and  of  simple 
structure  towards  its  termination : their  food, 
accordingly,  is  supposed  to  be  more  herba- 
ceous than  that  of  other  Catarrhini,  which 
is  further  intimated  by  the  blunter  tubercles 
of  their  molars,  and  the  elongation  of  their 
intestines  and  ccecum.  Their  hair  is  of  one 
kind  only,  approaching  in  character  to  that  of 
Fi£*  3*  the  Gibbons.  Their  movements  are  staid  and 

deliberate,  though  capable  of  much  agility ; and  the  gravity  of  their  deportment  is  expressed  by 
their  systematic  name. 

Fourteen  or  fifteen  species  have  been  determined,  of  which  the  most  extraordinary  is] 

The  Long-nosed  or  Proboscis  Douc  (Sim.  nasica,  Schr. ; Nasalis  larvatns,  Geof.f)  [The  S.  recurvus,  Vig.  and 
Horsf.,  is  apparently  the  young.]— It  is  of  large  size,  and  yellowish  colour  tinted  with  red ; the  nose  extremely 
long  and  projecting,  in  form  of  a sloping  spatula.  This  species  inhabits  Borneo,  and  lives  in  great  troops,  which 
assemble  morning  and  evening  on  the  branches  of  the  great  trees  on  the  banks  of  the  rivers ; its  cry  is  Kahau. 
Is  stated  also  to  occur  in  Cochin  China. 

The  Variegated  Douc  (S.  nemceus , Geof.) — Remarkable  for  its  lively  and  varied  colouring:  the  body  and  arms 
are  grey ; the  hands,  thighs,  and  feet  black ; legs  of  a lively  red ; the  tail,  [fore-arm,]  and  a large  triangular  spot 
upon  the  loins,  white ; face  orange ; and  there  is  also  a black  and  red  collar,  and  tufts  of  yellow  hairs  on  the  sides 
of  the  head.  It  inhabits  Cochin  China.  (The  genus  Lasiopyga  of  Illiger  was  founded  on  a mutilated  skin  of  this 

S.  entellus,  Dufres.  [The  species  most  frequently  brought  alive  to  Europe.]— Of  a light  yellowish  grey  colour, 
with  black  hair  on  the  eyebrows  and  sides  of  the  head,  directed  forwards.  From  Upper  Bengal,  where  it  is  held 
in  superstitious  reverence.  [Some  frequent  the  Pagodas. 

Several  are  black,  dusky,  or  ash-coloured.  S.  auratus,  Geof.,  is  uniform  bright  golden  yellow,  with  a black 
patch  on  each  knee.  The  Simpai  (S.  melalophus , Cuv.)  is  of  a very  lively  red ; beneath  white : its  face  is  blue ; 
and  a crest  of  black  hairs  reaches  from  one  ear  to  the  other.  Some  have  the  hair  of  the  head  turned  up,  forming 
a sort  of  crest.  All  are  from  the  islands  of  the  Indian  Ocean,  and  neighbouring  regions  of  Asia.] 

The  Macaques  {Macacus,  Desm.) — 

Possess,  like  the  Doucs,  a fifth  tubercle  on  their  last  molars,  and  callosities  and  cheek-pouches  like 
the  true  Monkeys.  Their  limbs  are  shorter  and  stouter  than  in  the  former ; their  muzzle  is  more 
elongated,  and  the  superciliary  ridge  more  prominent  than  in  either  the  one  or  the  other.  Though  docile 
when  young,  they  become  unmanageable  with  age.  They  have  all  a sac  which  communicates  with 

* I have  availed  myself  of  this  opportunity  to  give  a more  complete  I f The  anatomy  of  this  animal  is  now  known  to  accord  with  that  of 
list  of  the  Colobi  than  has  hitherto  been  published.— Ed.  | the  other  Doucs. — Ed. 



the  larynx  under  the  thyroid  cartilage,  and  which  fills  with  air  when  they  cry  out.  Then*  tail  is 
pendent,  and  takes  no  part  in  their  movements  ; [it  varies  in  length  from  a tubercle  to  longer  than  the 
body.]  They  produce  early,  hut  are  not  completely  adult  for  four  or  five  years.  The  period  of  gesta- 
tion is  seven  months ; during  the  rutting  season  the  external  generative  organs  of  the  female  become 
excessively  distended  [as  in  the  Baboons].  Most  of  them  [all]  inhabit  India  [and  its  Archipelago. 

At  least  seven  species  have  been  ascertained,  the  most  remarkable  of  which  is] 

The  Maned  Macaque  or  Wanderoo  (Sim.  Silenus  and  leonina,  Lin.)— Black,  with  an  ash-coloured  mane  and 
whitish  beard  surrounding  the  head.  [Tail  moderately  long,  and  slightly  tufted.]  Inhabits  Ceylon. 

[The  Bonneted  Macaque  (M.  sinicus),  and  the  Toque  (M.  radiatus),  have  the  hairs  on  the  top  of  the  head  dis- 
posed as  radii ; these,  with  the  Hare-lipped  M.  (M.  cynomolgus),  have  long  tails.  In  the  Pig-tailed  Macaque 
(M.  rhesus),  this  appendage  reaches  little  below  the  hamstrings  : it  is  shorter,  thin,  and  wrinkled  in  the  Brown 
Macaque  (M.  nemestrinus) ; and  in  the  Black  M.  (M.  niger,  Ben. ; Cynocephalus  niger,  Desm.,  and  of  Cuvier’s 
last  edition),  it  is  reduced  to  a mere  tubercle.  The  Black  Macaque  is  wholly  of  that  colour,  with  an  erect  tuft  of 
hair  on  the  top  of  its  head ; its  native  country  Celebes.] 

The  Magots  ( Inuus , Cuv.) 

Mere  Macaques,  which  have  a small  tubercle  in  place  of  a tail.  [According  to  this  definition,  the 
last-named  species  should  be  introduced  here  : the  only  known  Magot,  however,  does  not  well  range 
with  the  others ; its  cranium  is  intermediate  to  those  of  the  Macaci  and  Cynocephali\. 

The  Barbary  Magot  (Sim.  sylvanus,  pithecus,  and  inuus,  Lin.)— Completely  covered  with  greenish-brown  hair. 
Of  all  the  tribe,  this  suffers  least  in  our  climates.  Originally  from  Barbary,  it  is  said  to  have  become  naturalized 
on  the  Rock  of  Gibraltar.*  [This  well-known  species,  in  its  wild  state,  is  both  lively  and  remarkably  intelligent 
at  all  ages ; but,  subjected  to  the  restraint  of  captivity,  becomes  sullen  and  unmanageable  as  it  grows  up ; forcibly 
illustrating  what  has  been  stated  in  a note  to  the  Ourangs.] 

The  Baboons  ( Cynocephalus , Cuv.), — 

Together  with  the  teeth,  cheek-pouches,  and  callosities  of  the  preceding,  have  an  elongated  muzzle 
abruptly  truncate  at  the  end,  where  the  nostrils  are  pierced,  which  gives  it  a greater  resemblance  to  that 
of  a Dog  than  of  other  Monkeys  ; their  tail  varies  in  length.  They  are  generally  large,  ferocious,  and 
dangerous  animals,  of  which  the  majority  [all  of  them]  inhabit  Africa. 

[Some  have  the  tail  long  and  tufted,  as  the  Gelada  Baboon  (Macacus  gelada  of  Ruppell).— This  has  the  upper 
parts  covered  with  very  long  hair,  of  a pale  brown  on  the  head,  shoulders,  and  rump,  blackish  on  the  back ; a 
dark  medial  line  extends  backwards  from  the  forehead ; the  extremities  are  black.  A native  of  Abyssinia. 

The  others  have  the  hair  grizzled  or  annulated.  Such  are  the  Tartarin  Baboon  (Sim.  hamadryas,  Lin.),  of  a 
slightly  bluish  ash-colour  (grizzled  black  and  white) ; face  flesh-coloured : inhabits  Arabia  and  Ethiopia.  The 
Chacma  B.  (Sim.  porcaria,  Bodd. ; S.  ursina,  Penn ; S.  sphyngiola,  Herm.),  which  is  black,  with  a yellowish  or 
greenish  glaze,  particularly  on  the  forehead ; the  face  and  hands  black,  and  the  adult  has  a large  mane.  From  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope.  The  Anubis  B.  (C.  anubis,  F.  Cuv.),  is  another  huge  Cape  species,  uniformly  grizzled  black 
and  yellow ; the  face  black,  and  snout  much  elongated.  The  Sphynx  B.  (Sim.  sphynx,  Lin.,  and  it  would  appear 
from  descriptions,  also,  C.  papio,  Desm.),  is  likewise  yellowish,  more  or  less  tinged  with  brown ; face  black ; the 
cheek-tufts  fulvous : inhabits  Guinea.  Lastly,  the  Babouin  (Sim.  cynocephalus,  F.  Cuv.),  has  a shorter  tail, 
and  coat  more  inclining  to  greenish ; also  whitish  cheek-tufts,  and  flesh-coloured  visage.] 

The  Mandrills  — 

Are,  of  all  the  Monkey  tribe,  those  which  have  the  longest  muzzle  (thirty  degrees  f) ; their  tail  is  very  short ; they 
are  also  extremely  brutal  and  ferocious  ; nose  as  in  the  others. 

The  Mandrill  Baboon  (Sim.  maimon  and  mormon,  Lin.)— Greyish  brown,  inclining  to  olive  above ; a small 
citron-yellow  beard  on  the  chin ; cheeks  blue  and  furrowed.  The  adult  males  have  the  nose  red,  particularly  at 
the  end,  where  it  is- scarlet ; the  genital  parts  and  those  about  the  anus,  are  of  the  same  colour ; the  buttocks  are 
of  a fine  violet.  It  is  difficult  to  imagine  a more  hideous  and  extraordinary  animal.  It  nearly  attains  the  size  of 
a Man,  and  is  a terror  to  the  negroes  of  Guinea.  Many  details  of  its  history  have  been  mixed  up  with  that  of  the 
Chimpanzee,  and  consequently  with  that  of  the  Ourang-outang. 

The  Drill  (Sim.  leucopheea,  F.  Cuv.)— Yellowish  grey,  the  visage  black ; in  old  ones  the  coat  becomes  darker ; 
[the  white  hairs  on  the  belly  are  much  elongated],  and  the  chin  is  bright  red. 

[Hideous  as  the  animals  of  this  genus  appear,  and  disgustingly  deformed  to  those  who  have  only  seen  them  in 
captivity,  their  adaptation  to  a peculiar  mode  of  life  is  of  course  as  exquisite  as  that  of  any  other  animal,  and 
requires  only  to  be  understood  to  command  an  amount  of  admiration,  which  must  lessen  to  a considerable 

* Pithecus  is  the  Greek  name  for  Monkeys  in  general ; and  the  one  . species,  all  that  Galen  has  stated  respecting  the  anatomy  of  his 
of  which  the  anatomy  is  given  by  Galen  was  a Magot,  although  Pithecus. 

Camper  tnought  it  was  an  Ourang-outang.  M.  de  Blainville  perceived  j f The  Ourangs  will  bear  comparison.— Ed. 

this  mistake,  and  I have  proved  it  by  comparing  with  these  two  i 



extent  the  abhorrence  with  which  we  are  apt  to  regard  them.  It  has  lately  been  discovered  that  they  chiefly 
inhabit  barren  stony  places,  where  they  subsist,  for  the  most  part,  upon  scorpions  ; to  procure  which  they  employ 
their  hands  to  lift  up  the  numerous  loose  stones,  under  most  of  which  one  or  more  of  these  creatures  commonly 
lie  concealed ; their  stings  they  extract  with  dexterity.  Accordingly,  we  find  that  the  Baboons  are  expressly 
modified  for  traversing  the  ground  on  all-fours,  and  are  furnished  with  efficient  hands ; their  eyes  are  peculiarly 
placed,  directed  downwards  along  the  visage.  Want  of  space  necessarily  prevents  us,  generally,  from  noticing 
these  highly  interesting  relations,  afforded  by  the  special  modifications  of  structure  in  reference  to  habit : but 
we  avail  ourselves  of  the  present  instance  (which  is  little  known*)  to  call  attention  to  them. 

With  the  Baboons,  the  series  of  Catarrhini  (Geof.)  terminates ; and  we  may  observe  that  the 
Simiadce  fall  under  three  principal  divisions.  First,  that  of  the  Apes,  (comprising  the  Chimpanzee, 
Ourangs,  and  Gibbons),  tail-less  genera,  which  have  the  liver  divided  as  in  Man,  an  appendage 
to  the  ccecum,  &c.  Second,  the  slender-limbed  Monkeys,  with  sacculated  stomachs  and  longer 
intestines  (or  the  Doucs,  and  most  probably  the  Colobins),  all  of  which  have  exceedingly  long  tails. 
Third,  those  with  shorter  and  stouter  limbs,  a simple  stomach,  and  tail  varying  in  length  from  a 
tubercle  to  longer  than  the  body.  These  last  (or  the  true  Monkeys,  Macaques,  Magots,  and 
Baboons),  are  all  partly  insectivorous  ; and  the  habit  mentioned  of  the  Baboons,  of  turning  over  stones 
in  quest  of  prey,  applies  perhaps  more  or  less  to  all  of  them,  but  particularly  to  the  Magot  and  some 
Monkeys.  In  the  two  first  divisions,  the  coat  consists  of  only  one  sort  of  hair ; in  the  last  of  two 
sorts,  the  longer  and  coarser  of  which  is  mostly  annulated  with  two  colours.  It  is  remarkable  that 
none  of  the  genera  are  common  to  Asia  and  Africa  (one  Baboon  only  extending  to  Arabia),  and,  until 
very  recently,  no  remains  of  any  had  occurred  in  a fossil  state ; but  the  jaw  of  one  said  to  be 
allied  to  the  Gibbons  has  lately  been  detected  in  a tertiary  deposit,  at  Sanson,  France  ; and  some  bones, 
adjudged  to  be  those  of  Macaques,  in  the  tertiary  ranges  of  northern  India.] 

The  Monkey-like  Animals  of  the  New  World, 
[Platyrrhini,  Geof.'], — 

Have  four  grinders  more  than  the  others,  thirty-six  in  all ; the  tail  [with  very  few  excep- 
tions] long ; no  cheek-pouches ; the  buttocks  hairy  and  without  callosities  ; nostrils  opening 
on  the  sides  of  the  nose,  and  not  underneath  ; [the  thumbs  of  the  anterior  hands  no  longer 
opposablef.]  All  the  great  Quadrumana  of  America  pertain  to  this  division.];  Their  large  in- 
testines are  less  inflated,  and  their  ccecum  longer  and  more  slender  than  in  the  preceding 

The  tails  of  some  of  them  are  prehensile,  that  is  to  say,  their  extremity  can  twist  round  a 
body  with  sufficient  force  to  seize  it  as  with  a hand.§  Such  have  been  designated  Sapajous 
(Cebus,  Erxl.) 

At  their  head  may  be  placed  the 

Stentors  ( Mycetes , Illiger), — 

Or  Howling  Monkeys  [ Alouattes  of  the  French],  which  are  distinguished  by  a pyramidal  head,  the 
upper  jaw  of  which  descends  much  below  the  cranium,  while  the  branches  of  the  lower  one  ascend 
very  high,  for  the  purpose  of  lodging  a bony  drum,  formed  by  a vesicular  inflation  of  the  hyoid  bone, 
which  communicates  with  their  larynx,  and  imparts  to  their  voice  prodigious  volume  and  a most 
frightful  sound.  Hence  the  appellations  which  have  been  bestowed  on  them.  The  prehensile  portion 
of  their  tail  is  naked  beneath. 

[The  Rufous  Stentor  (Sim.  seniculus,  Buff.,  Supp.  vii.  25),  the  Ursine  Stentor  ( Stentor  ursinus,  Geoff.),  and 
at  least  five  other  species,  are  now  tolerably  established.  They  are  shaggy  animals,  averaging  the  size  of  a Fox, 
of  different  shades  of  brown  or  blackish,  the  females  of  some  being  differently  coloured  from  the  males ; such  is 
M.  barbatus,  Spix,  pi.  32,  of  which  the  male  is  black  and  bearded,  the  female  and  young  pale  yellowish-grey.  || 
They  are  of  an  indolent  and  social  disposition,  and  grave  deportment ; utter  their  hideous  yells  and  howling  by 
night ; subsist  on  fruits  and  foliage,  and  are  deemed  good  eating.] 

* For  the  information  communicated,  we  are  indebted  to  Dr.  A. 
Smith,  the  conductor  of  the  South  African  expedition  from  the  Cape 
colony. — Ed. 

t They  are  but  slightly  so  in  many  of  the  Suniadte. — Ed. 
t By  this  is  meant,  that  the  Marmosets  and  Tamarins  ( Ouistitis  of 
our  author)  are  excluded  from  the  generalization. — Ed. 

§ This  organ  possessing  in  an  eminent  degree  the  sense  of  touch, 
where  the  character  is  most  developed. — Ed. 

||  Cuvier  accordingly  suggests,  inadvertently,  that  the  M.  stramineus 
Spix,  pi.  31,  which  is  entirely  of  a straw-yellow  colour,  may  be  the 
female  of  some  other ; Spix,  however,  figures  a male. — Ed. 



The  Ordinary  Sapajous  have  the  head  flat,  the  muzzle  but  slightly  prominent  (sixty  degrees). 

In  some  the  anterior  thumbs  are  nearly  or  quite  hidden  in  the  skin,  and  the  prehensile  portion  of 
the  tail  naked  beneath.  They  constitute  the  genus 

Coaita  ( Ateles , Geof.), — 

[Or  the  Spider  Monkeys , as  they  are  commonly  termed,  in  allusion  to  their  long  slender  limbs,  and  sprawling 

The  first  species,  the  Chamek  (A.  subpentadactylus,  Geof.),  has  a slight  projection  of  the  thumb,  though  only 
for  one  phalanx,  which  has  no  nail,  Another,  the  Mikiri  {At.  hypoxanthus,  Pr.  Max. ; Brachyteles  macrotarsus, 
Spix),  has  also  a very  small  thumb,  and  sometimes  even  a nail.  These  two  species  are  separated  by  Spix  under 
the  name  Brachyteles.  They  connect  Ateles  with  Lagothrix.* 

The  others,  to  which  alone  Spix  applies  the  name  Ateles,  have  no  apparent  thumb  whatever.  [Six  have  been 
ascertained ; one  of  them  the  Sim.  paniscus,  Lin.] 

All  the  above  are  natives  of  Guiana  and  Brazil.  Their  limbs  are  very  long  and  slender,  and  their  gait  slow 
and  deliberate.  They  exhibit  some  remarkable  resemblances  to  Man  in  their  muscles,  and,  of  all  animals,  alone 
have  the  biceps  of  the  thigh  made  like  his.  [Accordingly,  they  make  little  use  of  their  fore-hands  in  progression. 
Their  colours  are  chiefly  or  wholly  black,  or  fulvous-grey ; face  black,  or  flesh-coloured.  They  are  gentle  and 
confiding,  and  capable  of  much  attachment.  Some  attain  to  as  large  a stature  as  the  preceding.] 

The  Gastromargues  ( Lagothrix , Geof. ; Gastromargas,  Spix). 

Head  round,  as  in  the  Coaitas  ; the  thumb  developed,  as  in  the  Stentors ; and  tail  partly  naked,  like 
the  one  and  the  other.  Such  are — 

The  Caparo,  Humb.  {L.  Humboldtii,  Geof. ; G.  olivaceus,  Spix),  and  the  Grison  {L.  canus,  Geof. ; G.  infumatus, 
Spix.)— Inhabitants  of  the  interior  of  South  America,  said  to  be  remarkable  gluttons.  Their  limbs  are  shorter 
and  stouter  than  in  the  Coaitas,  and  they  often  raise  themselves  on  their  hinder  extremities : occur  in  numerous 

The  other  Sapajous,  or 

The  Capuchins  ( Cebus , Geof.) — 

Have  a round  head,  the  thumbs  distinct,  and  the  tail  entirely  hairy,  though  prehensile.  The  species 
are  still  more  numerous  than  those  of  the  Stentors,  and  almost  as  diflicult  to  characterize. 

Some  have  the  hair  upon  the  forehead  of  a uniform  length ; as  the  Sajou  {Sim.  apella,  Lin.),  and  the  Capuchin, 
[Auct.]  {S.  capucina,  Lin.) : others  have  the  hair  of  the  forehead  so  disposed  as  to  form  aigrettes ; as  the  Horned 
Capuchin  {Sim.  fatuellus,  Gm.,  which  has  a tuft  of  black  hairs  on  each  side  of  the  forehead),  the  C.  cirrhifer, 
Geof.,  and  the  Cebus  of  the  same  name  of  Pr.  Max.,  but  which  is  different — C.  cristatus,  F.  Cuv.  There  are  nu- 
merous others ; but  we  require  many  observations,  made  in  the  places  where  these  animals  inhabit,  before  we  can 
hope  to  establish  their  species  otherwise  than  in  an  arbitrary  manner.  [About  sixteen  are  commonly  admitted, 
most  of  which  are  of  different  shades  of  brown,  some  very  variable.  They  are  of  smaller  size  than  the  preceding, 
and  of  mild  and  gentle  disposition ; their  motions  are  quick  and  light,  and  they  are  easily  tamed.  Several  exhale 
-a  strong  odour  of  musk.] 

In  the  SAiMiRif,  the  tail  is  depressed,  and  almost  ceases  to  be  prehensile ; the  head  is  very  much 
flattened ; in  the  interorbital  partition  of  the  cranium  there  is  a membranous  space.  Only  one  species 
is  known, — 

The  Saimiri  {Sim.  sciurea,  Buff.  xv.  10.)— Size  of  a Squirrel ; of.  a yellowish  grey  ; the  fore-arms,  legs,  and  the 
four  extremities,  of  a fulvous-yellow ; end  of  the  nose  black.  [A  pretty,  vivacious  little  animal,  which  subsists 
much  on  insects,  and  is  also  carnivorous.  Its  tail  is  sub-prehensile,  or  capable  of  coiling  slightly  throughout  its 
length,  and  so  holding  in  a moderate  degree ; but  its  extremity  cannot  seize  a small  object : it  is  often  wound 
round  the  body.] 

The  remaining  Monkey-like  animals  of  America  have  the  tail  not  at  all  prehensile. i Several  have 
that  appendage  very  long  and  tufted,  whence  they  have  been  termed  Fox-tailed  Monkeys : their  teeth 
project  forwards  more  than  in  the  others.  They  are 

The  Sakis  ( Pithecia , Desm.  and  Illig.), — 

[Which  are  again  divisible  into  three  minor  groups.  Of  these,  the  first  is  represented  by  the  Yarke  Saki  {Sim. 
Pithecia,  Lin.,  P.  leucocephala),  and  three  or  four  others : singular-looking  animals,  with  extremely  long  hair,  except 
on  the  head,  where,  in  most  of  the  genus,  it  is  parted.  In  the  Yarke,  the  head  is  whitish,  and  all  the  other  parts 
brown-black,  which  adds  to  the  strangeness  of  its  appearance.  The  Jacket  Saki  {Sim.  sagulata,  Traill),  illustrates 

* The  latter  may  do  so,  but  certainly  not  the  former,  which  is  in 
all  other  respects  a characteristic  Ateles. — Ed. 

t Sagoirtus  (or,  what  would  be  preferable,  Sagunus,)  of  some. 
This  name,  however,  originally  proposed  by  Lacepede  for  the  Sagouins, 
(Callithrix),  among  which  the  Saimiri  was  included,  can  only  lead  to 

confusion  if  applied  to  the  latter  exclusively.  We  would  suggest, 
therefore,  the  appellation  Samiris,  formed  out  of  the  vernacular. — Ed. 

t It  has  a propensity  to  curl  in  the  Marmosets,  if  not  in  the  Sa 
gouins. — Ed. 


the  next  group,  which  chiefly  differs  from  the  third  ( Brachyurus,  Spix),  in  possessing  a long  tail : the  hair  is 
comparatively  short,  and  in  the  Jacket  Saki  of  a rich  dark  brown,  except  on  the  head,  where  it  is  longer,  crisped, 
and  deep  black,  as  is  also  its  fine  bushy  beard.  Others  would  appear  intermediate,  as  the  P.  satanas , Humb. : 
seemingly  allied  to  which  is  the  Brachyurus  israelitus  of  Spix,  and  the  diminutive  P.  melanocephala  of  Humboldt.* 
These  last  are  represented  as  mainly  frugivorous,  and  the  first  to  be  great  destroyers  both  of  wild  bees  and  their 
honey.  They  are  said  to  inhabit  the  very  depth  of  the  forest,  and  to  repose  during  mid-day ; are  moderately 
social,  and  crepuscular  if  not  nocturnal  in  their  time  of  action.] 

There  are  also  some, 

The  Sagouins  ( Callithrix , Geof.), — 

The  tail  of  which  is  slender,  and  the  teeth  do  not  project.  They  were  a long  time  associated  with  the 
Saimiri,  but  the  head  of  the  Sagouins  is  much  higher,  and  their  canines  considerably  shorter.  Such 

The  Masked  Sagouin  (C.  per  sonata,  Geof.),  the  Widow  Sagouin  (C.  lugens,  Humb.),  [and  several  others;  some  of 
which  have  been  ascertained  to  live  in  pairs,  while  others,  (as  the  C.  melanochir,  Pr.  Max.),  assemble  in  numerous 
bands,  and  make  a loud  and  unpleasant  yelping  about  sunrise.  They  are  very  carnivorous,  though  small,  and 
spring  to  a considerable  distance  on  birds  and  other  prey,  for  which  they  lie  in  wait ; are  also  dexterous  in  seizing 
flying  insects  with  the  hand.  They  have  none  of  the  sprightliness  of  the  Saimiri.] 

The  Douroucouli  ( Nocthorus , F.  Cuv. ; Nyctipithecus,  Spix : improperly  named  Aotus  by  Illiger), — 
Only  differ  from  the  Sagouins  by  their  great  nocturnal  eyes,  and  in  their  ears  being  partly  hidden 
under  the  hair. 

[Three  species  are  now  known,  of  somewhat  Lemur-like  appearance,  but  still  having  no  particular  relation- 
ship with  the  Lemurs.  They  are  almost  lethargic  by  day,  which  they  pass  in  the  darkest  recesses  of  the  hollows 
of  trees ; but  at  night  are  all  energy  and  activity,  and  subsist  on  small  birds  and  insects,  as  well  as  fruit : they 
drink  little,  and  appear  to  live  in  pairs.] 

All  the  foregoing  animals  are  from  Guiana  or  Brazil. 

The  Ouistitis  ( Hapale , Illiger), — 

Constitute  a small  genus,  similar  to  the  Sakis,  and  which  was  long  confounded  in  the  great 
genus  Simla.  They  have,  in  fact,  like  the  American  Monkey-like  animals  in  general,  the 
head  round,  visage  flat,  nostrils  lateral,  the  buttocks  hairy,  no  cheek-pouches ; and,  like  the 
latter  divisions  of  them  in  particular,  the  tail  not  prehensile  : but  they  have  only  twenty 
grinders,  like  those  of  the  old  continent.  All  their  nails  are  compressed  and  pointed,  except 
those  of  the  hinder  thumbs  [a  character  to  which  the  immediately  preceding  divisions  approx- 
imate], and  their  anterior  thumbs  are  so  little  separated  from  the  other  digits,  that  we  hesi- 
tate to  apply  the  name  Quadrumana  to  them.  All  are  diminutive  animals  of  pleasing  forms, 
and  are  easily  tamed.  [Their  brain  is  surprisingly  low,  almost  without  convolutions.] 

M.  Geoffroy  distinguishes  the  Ouistitis,  properly  so  called,  by  the  name  Jacchus.  They  are  the 
Marmosets  {Hapale,  as  restricted), — 

Which,  for  characters,  have  the  inferior  incisors  pointed,  and  placed  in  a curved  line,  equalling  the 
canines.  Their  tail  is  annulated,  and  well  covered  with  hair  ; and  their  ears  are  generally  tufted. 

[Seven  or  eight  species  are  tolerably  established,  some  of  which  are  subject  to  vary.  These  pretty  little  creatures 
are  gregarious,  and  very  indiscriminate  feeders  ; are  indeed  rapacious,  and  in  confinement  will  eagerly  seize  and 
prey  on  gold  fishes,  &c.  They  produce  two  or  three  young  at  a birth.] 

M.  Geoffroy  designates  as 

Tamarins  {Midas), — 

Those  species  which  have  inferior  trenchant  incisors  placed  in  an  almost  straight  line,  and  shorter 
than  the  canines.  Their  tail  is  also  more  slender,  and  not  annulated. 

[These  differ  more  than  the  others,  and  are  also  somewhat  variable  in  colour.  At  least  seven  or  eight  have  been 
ascertained,  of  which  the  Pinche  (Sim.  cedipus,  Lin.),  is  the  longest  known.  Those  curious  little  beings,  the 
Silky  Tamarin  (M.  rosalia),  and  the  Leoncito,  or  Lion  Monkey  of  Humboldt  (M.  leoninus),  fall  under  this  division. 

* It  is  probable  that  all  but  the  members  of  the  first  should  range  in  the  division  Brachyurus,  Spix,  (provided  this  be  separable,)  which 
name  is  consequently  ill-chosen. — Ed. 



All  are  restlessly  active,  and  extremely  rapid  in  their  movements ; also  remarkably  short-tempered,  bristling 
with  fury  when  enraged,  and  putting  on  a most  formidable  appearance,  considering  their  size.  They  are  so 
cleanly,  that  any  appearance  of  dirt  about  their  habitations  causes  them  to  fret ; and  are  exceedingly  sensitive  of 
damp : but,  if  duly  attended  to,  are  easily  kept  in  captivity. 

The  Platyrrhini  were  very  properly  ranged  by  Buffon  in  two  great  natural  divisions,  named  by 
him  Sapajous  and  Sagouins  ; to  the  latter  of  which  the  Ouistitis  are  strictly  referable,  to  judge  from 
the  aggregate  of  their  conformation.  We  cannot  but  think  that  Cuvier  has,  in  this  rare  instance, 
attached  undue  importance  to  the  number  of  molar  teeth,  in  so  decidedly  separating  the  Ouistitis  from 
the  other  small  American  Quadrumana.'] 

The  Lemurs,  {Lemur,  Linn.), 

[Strepsirrhini,  Geo/.'], — 

Comprehend,  according  to  Linnaeus,  all  the  Quadrumana  which  have  [supposed]  incisors  in  either 
jaw  differing  in  number  from  four,  or  at  least  otherwise  directed  than  in  the  Monkeys.  This 

negative  character  could  not  fail  to  em- 
brace very  different  beings,  while  it  did 
not  unite  those  which  should  range  to- 
gether. M.  Geoffroy  has  established 
several  better  characterized  divisions  in 
this  genus.  The  four  thumbs  of  these 
animals  are  well  developed  and  oppos- 
able, and  the  first  hind  finger  is  armed 
with  a raised  and  pointed  claw  (fig.  4), 
all  the  other  nails  being  flat.  Their  cover- 
ing is  woolly;  and  their  teeth  begin  to 
exhibit  sharp  tubercles,  catching  in  each 
other,  as  in  the  Insectivora.  [These 
animals  have  been  described  to  differ 
from  all  other  Mammalia  in  the  circum- 
stance of  their  upper  canines  locking 
outside  or  before  the  lower : but  we  have 
just  discovered  that  their  true  inferior  canines  have  always  hitherto  been  mistaken  for  ad- 
ditional incisors,  which  they  resemble  in  general  aspect  and  direction ; while  the  succeeding 
tooth,  which  from  its  size  and  appearance  has  been  supposed  to  be  the  lower  canine,  is  in 
reality  the  first  false  molar ; (as  will  readily  appear  on  opposing  the  successive  teeth  of  both 
jaws).  In  the  genus  Tarsius,  however,  the  true  canine  assumes  more  of  its  ordinary  form; 
and  the  same  is  observable  of  the  first  false  molar  in  Microcebus.*  The  grinding  motion  of 
the  lower  jaw  is  exceedingly  reduced.] 

The  Lemurs,  properly  so  called  {Lemur,  as  restricted  [ Prosimia , Briss.]), — 

Have  six  [four]  lower  incisors,  compressed,  and  slanting  forwards  [as  are  also  the  canines]  ; four  in 
the  upper  jaw,  which  are  straight,  those  intermediate  being  separated  from  each  other ; trenchant 
[upper]  canines;  six  molars  on  each  side  above,  and  six  below t>  the  ears  small.  They  are  very 
nimble  animals,  and  have  been  designated  Fox-nosed  MonJceys , from  their  pointed  heads.  They 
subsist  on  fruits.  Their  species  are  very  numerous,  and  inhabit  only  the  island  of  Madagascar,  where 
they  appear  to  replace  the  Monkey-tribe,  which,  it  is  said,  do  not  exist  there.  They  differ  but  slightly 
among  themselves,  except  in  colour. 

[Thirteen,  at  least,  have  been  ascertained  definitively;  one  of  the  longest  known  of  which  is  the  Macaco  of 
Buffon,  or  the  Ring-tailed  Lemur  (L.  catta,  Lin.),  which  is  ash-grey,  the  tail  annulated  black  and  white.  Others 
are  black,  or  rufous,  with  sometimes  white;  and  one  beautiful  species,  the  Ruffed  Lemur  ( L . macaco,  Lin.),  is 

Fig.  4. — Hand  and  Foot  of  Lemur 

* An  approach  to  this  deviation  on  the  part  of  the  inferior  canine  is 
noticeable  in  the  adult  Mandrill.— Ed. 

t The  latter  statement  chances  to  be  correct,  but,  as  intended 
would  have  been  erroneous.— Ed. 



varied  with  large  patches  of  black  on  a pure  white  ground.  They  average  the  size  of  a large  Cat,  hut  have  longer 
limbs ; and  have  all  long  tails,  which  are  elevated  in  a sigmoid  form,  when  in  motion,  and  not  trailed  after  them. 
They  are  nocturnal  or  twilight  animals,  which  sleep  by  day  in  a ball-like  figure,  perched  on  a bough  ; are  gentle 
in  disposition,  and  easily  tamed  ; but  have  much  less  intelligence  than  the  Monkeys,  and  are  without  the  prying, 
mischievous  propensities  of  those  animals  : their  ordinary  voice  is  a low  grunt,  but  they  often  break  forth  into  a 
hoarse  abrupt  roar,  producing  a startling  effect ; in  their  native  forests  they  frequently  thus  roar  in  concert.] 

The  Indris  ( Lichanotus , Illiger) — 

Have  teeth  as  in  the  preceding,  except  that  there  are  only  four  [two]  lower  incisors  [the  central  pro- 
bably soon  falling.  Their  hinder  limbs  are  extremely  long  ; the  head  broad,  muzzle  short,  and  hands 

But  one  species  is  known,  without  tail  [this  appendage  being  reduced  to  a tubercle],  three  feet  in  height,  blacky 
with  the  face  grey,  and  white  behind  ( Lemur  indri,  Lin.,  Indris  brevicaudatus,  Geof.),  which  the  inhabitants 
of  Madagascar  tame,  and  train  to  the  chace  like  a Dog.  The  Long-tailed  Indri  {Lemur  laniger,  Gm.)  needs 
further  examination. 

[The  latter  appears  to  be  very  intimately  allied  to  a species,  with  a naked  face,  named  Propithecus  diadema 
by  Bennett,  {Macromerus  typicus,  Smith,)  the  systematic  characters  of  which  seem  hardly  to  warrant  its  separa- 
tion from  the  Indris.  Both  are  natives  of  Madagascar,  and  it  is  doubtful  whether  the  present  genus  should  not 
precede  the  last.  The  Short-tailed  Indri  is  the  most  human -like  of  its  tribe. 

The  Macaucos  ( Microcebus , Geof.,  Galagoides,  Smith)  — 

Have  the  head  round;  muzzle  short  and  pointed;  ears  moderate  and  erect;  the  fore-limbs  small:  four 
incisors  above,  the  central  larger ; also  four  below,  with  similar  projecting  canines,  as  in  Lemur  ; the 
upper  canines  are  small  and  pointed ; and  the  first  inferior  false  molar  is  scarcely  larger  than  the 
next : the  cheek-teeth  indicate  a partly  insectivorous  regimen.  Their  scrotum  is  disproportionately 

Two  small  species  are  known : the  Murine  Macauco  {Lemur  murinus,  Pen.),  which  is  Buffon’s  Rat  of  Madagascar  ; 
and  the  Brown  Macauco  (M.  pusillus,  Geof. ; also  Galago  madagascariensis,  Geof.,  G.  demidaffii,  Fischer,  and 
Otolicnus  madagascariensis,  Schinz).  The  Lemur  cinereus,  Geof.  and  Desm.  {Petit  Maki,  Buff.),  may  perhaps  con- 
stitute a third.  These  little  animals  have  much  the  aspect,  and  also  the  manners,  of  a large  Dormouse,  which  they 
further  resemble  in  nestling  in  the  holes  of  trees,  which  serve  them  for  a dormitory  : during  day  they  sleep  rolled 
up  in  a ball,  and  only  rouse  from  their  torpor  on  the  approach  of  twilight,  but  are  then  extremely  agile  and  lively. 
Of  their  habits  in  a state  of  nature  wre  know  little,  except  that  they  are  arboreal.] 

The  Loris  ( Stenops , Illiger) — 

Have  the  teeth  of  the  Lemurs,  except  that  the  points  of  their  grinders  are  more  acute ; the  short  muzzle 
of  a mastiff;  body  slender  ; no  tail ; large  approximating  eyes;  the  tongue  rough.  They  subsist  on 
insects,  occasionally  on  small  birds  or  quadrupeds,  and  have  an  excessively  slow  gait : their  mode  of 
life  is  nocturnal.  Sir  A.  Carlisle  has  found  that  the  base  of  the  arteries  of  the  limbs  is  divided  into 
small  branches,  [anastomosing  freely  with  each  other,]  as  in  the  true  Sloths,  [the  object  of  which 
appears  to  be  to  enable  them  to  sustain  a long  continuance  of  muscular  contraction.  The  same  cha- 
racter occurs,  however,  in  the  Cetacea ]. 

Only  two  species  are  known,  both  from  the  East  Indies  ; the  Short-limbed  Loris  {Lemur  tardigradus,  Lin.), 
and  the  Slender  Loris  {L.  gracilis) : the  former  has  been  made  a separate  genus  of  by  Geoffroy,  who  styles  it 
Nycticebus  ; but  he  is  wrong  in  asserting  that  it  has  only  two  incisors  in  the  upper  jaw : the  latter  is  remarkable 
for  the  disproportionate  elongation  of  its  limbs,  and  especially  of  its  fore-arms.  [These  most  singular  animals 
are  eminently  nocturnal  and  arboreal,  being  incommoded  by  daylight ; they  are  also  very  susceptible  of  cold, 
which  makes  them  dull  and  inanimate.  During  the  day,  they  sleep  clinging  to  a branch,  with  the  body  drawn 
together,  and  head  sunk  upon  the  chest ; at  night  they  prowl  among  the  forest  boughs  in  quest  of  food. 
Nothing  can  eseape  the  scrutiny  of  their  large  glaring  orbs  : they  mark  their  victim,  insect  or  bird,  and  cautiously 
and  noiselessly  make  their  advances  towards  it,  until  it  is  within  the  reach  of  their  grasp ; they  then  devour  it  on 
the  spot,  previously  divesting  it,  if  a bird,  of  its  feathers.  When  rousing  from  their  diurnal  slumbers,  they 
delight  to  clean  and  lick  their  full  soft  fur ; and  in  captivity  will  then  allow  themselves  to  be  caressed  by  those 
accustomed  to  feed  them : they  are  remarkable  for  extreme  tenacity  of  grasp. 

The  Pottos  ( Perodicticus , Bennett) — 

Have  comparatively  small  eyes  ; the  ears  moderate  and  open : dentition  approaching  that  of  the  Lemurs  ; 
tail  moderate ; limbs  equal ; the  index  finger  of  the  anterior  hands  (fig.  5)  little  more  than  rudimentary. 



Geoffroy’s  Potto  ( Lemur  potto,  Lin. ; Galago  Gruniensis,  Desm. ; 
P.  Geoffroyi,  Ben.)— From  Sierra  Leone ; a slow-moving  and  retiring 
animal,  which  seldom  makes  its  appearance  but  in  the  night-time, 
and  feeds  on  vegetables,  chiefly  the  Cassada.] 

The  Galagos  ( Otolicnus , Illig.) — 

Have  the  teeth  and  insectivorous  regimen  of  the  Loris  ; the 
tarsi  elongated,  which  gives  to  their  hinder  limbs  a dispro- 
portionate extent ; tail  long  and  tufted  ; large  membranous  ears 
[which  double  down  when  at  rest,  as  in  some  Bats]  ; and 
great  eyes,  which  indicate  a nocturnal  life.  [The  index,  as  well 
as  the  thumb  of  the  anterior  hand,  inclines  in  some  to  be  op- 
posable to  the  other  fingers.] 

Several  species  are  known,  all  from  Africa ; as  the  Great  Galago  ( Galago 
crassicaudatus,  Geof.),  as  large  as  a Rabbit ; and  the  Senegal  Galago  (G. 
Senegalensis,  Geof.),  the  size  of  a Rat.  The  latter  is  known  as  the  Gum 
animal  of  Senegal,  from  its  feeding  much  on  that  production.  [These  pretty  animals  have  at  night  all  the  activity  of 
birds,  hopping  from  bough  to  bough,  on  their  hind  limbs  only.  They  watch  the  insects  flitting  among  the  leaves, 
listen  to  the  fluttering  of  the  moth  as  it  darts  through  the  air,  lie  in  wait  for  it,  and  spring  with  the  rapidity  of  an 
arrow,  seldom  missing  their  prize,  which  is  caught  by  the  hands.  They  make  nests  in  the  branches  of  trees,  and 
cover  a bed  with  grass  and  leaves  for  their  little  ones  : are  a favourite  article  of  food  in  Senegal.  A species  larger 
than  the  others  has  lately  been  received  alive,  O.  Garnottii  of  Ogilby.] 

The  Malmags  ( Tarsius )— 

Have  the  tarsi  elongated  (fig.  6),  and  all  the  other  details  of  form  as  in  the  preceding ; but  the  interval 
between  their  molars  and  incisors  is  occupied  by  several  shorter  teeth  [that  is,  their  upper  canines  are 
very  small ; and]  the  middle  ujjper  incisors  are  elongated,  and  re- 
semble canines.  [There  are  but  two  permanent  lower  incisors,  and  the 
inferior  canines  present  more  of  the  ordinary  form  and  direction.]  Their 
muzzle  is  very  short,  and  their  eyes  still  larger  than  in  any  of  the  fore- 
going. [Tail  very  long,  and  almost  naked.]  Are  also  nocturnal  ani- 
mals, and  insectivorous  ; inhabiting  the  Molluccas. 

[Two  species  are  known,  T.  spectrum , Geof.,  {Lemur  tarsius,  Shaw  ; T.  fusco- 
manus,  Fischer,)  and  the  T.  bancanus  of  Horsfield.  It  is  observed  by  Geoffroy 
that  although  the  Malmags  have  the  external  ears  much  less  developed  than  in 
the  Galagos,  this  inferiority  is  counterbalanced  by  the  far  greater  volume  of  the 
auditory  bulla  of  the  temporal  bones,  which  are  so  developed  as  to  touch 
each  other;  and  thus  the  sense  of  hearing  is,  by  another  mode,  rendered 
as  acute  in  the  former  as  in  the  latter.  The  Malmag  has  an  aversion  to  light, 
and  retires  by  day  under  the  roots  of  trees ; feeds  chiefly  on  lizards,  and  leaps 
about  two  feet  at  a spring ; is  easily  tamed,  and  capable  of  some  attachment ; 
holds  its  prey  in  its  fore-hands,  while  it  rests  on  its  haunches ; produces  one 
young  at  a birth,  and  lives  in  pairs.] 

Travellers  should  search  for  certain  animals  figured  by  Commerson, 
and  which  Geoffroy  has  engraved  {Ann.  Mus.xix.  10),  under  the  name  of 

Cheirogales  {Cheirogaleus). 

These  figures  seem  to  announce  a new  genus  or  subgenus  of  Quadrumana.  [Three  species  are  re- 
presented in  Commerson’s  drawing,  all  of  which  appear  to  be  now  authenticated  by  specimens.  Their 
proportions  are  those  of  the  Galagos ; dentition  as  in  the  Malmags,  except  that  they  retain  all  their 
inferior  incisors  ; the  head  is  round,  the  nose  and  muzzle  short,  lips  furnished  with  whiskers,  the  eyes 
large  and  approximate,  and  the  ears  short  and  oval ; the  nails  of  the  four  extremities  are  compressed 
and  somewhat  claw-like,  and  the  tail  is  long,  bushy,  and  regularly  cylindrical. 

Three  or  more  species  are  known,  all  from  the  great  island  of  Madagascar.  They  constitute  the  division 
Lichanos  of  Gray. 

The  singular  genus  Cheiromys,  also,  from  the  same  peculiar  locality,  which  is  arranged  by  the 
author  among  the  Rodentia,  would  appear  to  have  much  better  claim  to  be  introduced  here,  and  near 



to  the  Galagos.  Likewise,  Galceopithecus,  which  Cuvier  has  placed  after  the  Bats,  hut  which  is 
Lemurine  in  all  the  essential  details  of  its  conformation.*] 



Consists  of  an  immense  and  varied  assemblage  of  unguiculated  quadrupeds,  which  pos- 
sess, in  common  with  Man  and  the  Quadrumana,  the  three  sorts  of  teeth,  but  have  no 
opposable  thumb  to  the  fore -feet.  £ They  all  subsist  on  animal  food,  [some  Bats  ex- 
cepted,] and  the  more  exclusively  so,  as  their  grinders  are  more  cutting.  Such  as 
have  them  wholly  or  in  part  tuberculous,  take  more  or  less  vegetable  nourishment,  and 
those  in  which  they  are  studded  with  conical  points  live  principally  upon  insects.  The 
articulation  of  their  lower  jaw,  directed  crosswise,  and  clasping  like  a hinge,  allows  of 
no  lateral  motion,  but  can  only  open  and  shut : [the  latter,  however,  had  already  been 
nearly  lost  in  the  Lemurs.] 

Their  brain,  though  still  tolerably  convoluted,  has  no  third  lobe,  and  does  not  cover 
the  cerebellum,  any  more  than  in  the  following  families  ; the  orbit  is  not  separated 
from  the  temporal  fossa  in  the  skeleton  § ; the  skull  is  narrowed,  and  the  zygomatic 
arches  widened  and  raised,  in  order  to  give  more  strength  and  volume  to  the  muscles 
of  the  jaws.  Their  predominant  sense  is  that  of  smell,  and  the  pituitary  membrane 
is  generally  spread  over  numerous  bony  laminae.  The  fore-arm  is  still  capable  of  re- 
volving in  nearly  all  of  them,  though  with  less  facility  than  in  the  Quadrumana.  The 
intestines  [save  in  the  frugivorous  Bats]  are  less  voluminous,  on  account  of  the  sub- 
stantial nature  of  the  aliment,  and  to  avoid  the  putrefaction  which  flesh  would  undergo 
in  a more  extended  canal : [besides  which,  the  requisite  nutriment  is  more  readily  ex- 
tracted from  it.] 

As  regards  the  rest,  their  forms  and  the  details  of  their  organization  vary  consider- 
ably, and  occasion  analogous  differences  in  their  habits||,  insomuch  that  it  is  impossible 
to  arrange  their  genera  in  a single  line ; and  we  are  obliged  to  form  them  into  several 
families,  which  are  variously  connected  by  multiplied  relations. 

* Here,  at  the  end  of  the  Quadrumana,  may  be  appended  some  in-  t 
formation,  which  unfortunately  arrived  too  late  for  insertion  under 
the  generic  heads  Cercopithecus  and  Colobus. 

It  has  just  been  ascertained,  by  Mr.  Martin,  that  the  Mangabbys 
( Cercopithecus  cethiops  and  fuliginosus,  Auct.)  possess  the  additional 
tubercle  on  the  last  molar,  found  in  the  Macaques,  Doucs,  &c. ; 
whence  the  name  Cercocebus  may  now  be  continued  to  them  ex- 
clusively, as  a definite  subordinate  group,  more  nearly  related  to  the 
true  Monkeys  than  to  the  Macaques,  notwithstanding  the  structural 
character  adverted  to.  Their  hair,  it  may  be  remarked,  is  not  grizzled 
or  annulated,  as  in  both  the  Macaques  and  Monkeys. 

Of  the  genus  Colobus,  a perfect  skin  of  C.  leucomeros,  Ogilby,  has 
been  received  in  Paris,  which  securely  establishes  that  species.  The 
face  is  encircled  with  white  hair,  very  long  on  the  sides  ; and  the  tail 
also  is  white,  as  in  C.  ursinus. 

Finally,  a notice  and  figure  have  been  just  published  of  a species 
designated  Colobus  verus,  but  which  appears  to  me,  both  from  its  con- 
tour and  the  description  (which  states  its  hair  to  be  annulated),  to  be 
a thumbless  Cercopithecus,  allied  to  C.  Campbellii.  The  negative 

I character  of  wanting  a thumb,  only,  will  not  constitute  a Colobus. 

t Written  Carnassiers  by  Cuvier. — Ed. 

t In  one  genus  of  Cheiroptera  ( Dysopes ),  the  hinder  thumbs  of  some 
of  the  species  incline  to  be  opposable ; while  the  la6t  trace  of  this 
character  in  the  anterior  limbs,  would  seem  to  be  the  freedom  of  the 
thumb  in  the  Bats  generally,  their  fingers  being  all  connected  by 
membrane. — Ed. 

§ At  least  not  generally : but  it  is  commonly  so  in  the  Mangoustes 
( Herpestes ),  and  allied  genus  Cynictis;  also  in  the  Felis  planiceps  : 
it  is  nearly  so  in  the  frugivorous  Cheiroptera,  and,  it  would  seem,  in 
Taphozous  among  the  insectivorous  Bats. — Ed. 

||  This  is  a favourite  mode  of  expression  of  our  author  ; but  we 
have  reason  rather  to  transpose  the  sequency,  or,  in  other  words,  to 
regard  the  habit  as  necessitating  the  particular  modifications  of  struc- 
ture. Thus,  on  consideration,  it  will  appear,  that  the  productive 
powers  of  nature  ever  exceeding  the  actual  demand  for  such 
multiplication,  species  upon  species  have  been  endowed  with 
the  necessary  organization  to  aid  as  successive  checks  upon 





Preserves  some  affinities  with  the  Quadrumana  by  the  pendulous  penis*,  and  mammae  which 
are  placed  on  the  breast.  Their  distinctive  character  consists  in  a fold  of  the  skin,  which, 
commencing  at  the  sides  of  the  neck,  extends  between  their  four  feet  and  their  fingers,  sustains 
them  in  the  air,  and  even  enables  such  of  them  to  fly  as  have  the  hands  sufficiently  developed 
for  that  purpose.-}*  This  disposition  required  strong  clavicles,  and  large  scapulars,  to  impart 
the  requisite  solidity  to  the  shoulder ; but  it  was  incompatible  with  the  rotation  of  the  fore- 
arm, which  would  have  diminished  the  force  of  the  stroke  necessary  for  flight.  These  animals 
have  all  four  large  canines,  but  the  number  of  their  incisors  varies.  Thejf  have  long  been 
distributed  into  two  genera,  according  to  the  extent  of  their  organs  of  flight  X [sustaining 
membrane]  ; but  the  first  requires  numerous  subdivisions. 

The  Bats  {Vespertilio,  Lin.) — 

Have  the  arms,  fore-arms,  and  fingers  excessively  elongated,  so  as  to  form,  with  the 
membrane  that  occupies  their  intervals,  real  wings,  the  surface  of  which  is  equally  or 
more  extended  than  in  those  of  Birds.  Hence  they  fly  very  high,  and  with  great  rapidity. 

our  climates,  pass  the  winter  in  a torpid 

Their  pectoral  muscles  have  a thickness  pro 
portioned  to  the  movements  which  they  have 
to  execute,  and  the  sternum  possesses  a 
medial  ridge  to  afford  attachment  to  them, 
as  in  Birds.  The  thumb  is  short,  and  fur- 
nished with  a crooked  nail,  by  which  these 
animals  creep  and  suspend  themselves.  Their 
hinder  parts  are  [generally]  weak,  and  divided 
into  five  toes,  nearly  always  of  equal  length, 
and  armed  with  trenchant  and  sharp  nails. 
They  have  no  coecum  to  the  intestine.  Their 
eyes  [except  in  the  frugivorous  species]  are 
extremely  small,  but  their  ears  are  often  very 
large,  arid  constitute  with  the  wings  an  enor- 
mous extent  of  membrane,  almost  naked,  and 
so  sensible  that  the  Bats  guide  themselves 
through  all  the  intricacies  of  their  labyrinths, 
even  after  their  eyes  have  been  removed,  pro-  j 
bably  by  the  sole  diversity  of  aerial  impres- 
sions. § They  are  nocturnal  animals,  which,  in 
During  the  day  they  suspend  themselves  in 

superfluity,  it  being  clear,  speaking  generally,  that  the  consumed 
must  have  pre-existed  to  the  consumer  ; or,  to  embody  the  proposi- 
tion in  still  more  general  terms,  the  conditions  must  have  been  first 
present,  in  especial  reference  to  which  any  species  has  been  or- 
ganized : in  conformity  with  which  theorem,  it  may  be  remarked,  that, 
however  reciprocal,  on  a superficial  view,  may  appear  the  relations  of 
the  preyer  and  the  prey,  a little  reflection  on  the  observed  facts 
suffices  to  intimate  that  the  relative  adaptations  of  the  former  only 
are  special,  those  of  the  latter  being  comparatively  vague  and  general ; 
indicating  that  there  having  been  a superabundance  which  might 
serve  as  nutriment,  in  the  first  instance,  and  which,  in  many  cases, 
was  unattainable  by  ordinary  means,  particular  species  have  therefore 
been  so  organized  (that  is  to  say,  modified  upon  some  more  or  less 
general  type  or  plan  of  structure,)  to  avail  themselves  of  the  supply  ; 
which  special  adaptation,  however,  does  cot  necessarily  prevent  them 
(in  a vast  proportion  of  cases)  from  also  deriving  nourishment  from 

other  sources.  Hence,  therefore,  the  organization  should  be  con- 
sidered as  having  reference  to,  rather  than  as  occasioning  the  par- 
ticular habit. — Ed. 

* This  organ,  however,  as  in  the  Carnivora , contains  a bone  (though 
only  within  the  glans,)  with  its  accompanying  pair  of  muscles. — Ed. 

_ f This  character  applies  to  all,  with  the  exception  of  the  Colugo 
( Galaopithecus ),  a genus  which  has  little  claim  to  range  in  this  divi- 
sion.— Ed. 

t This  term  is  inapplicable  to  the  parachute  membrane  of  the 
Colugo. — Ed. 

§ I have  reason  to  suspect  that  the  delicate  tact  alluded  to  resides 
principally  in  the  facial  membrane,  present  in  only  some  genera.  A 
specimen  of  Vesp.  Nattereri,  which"  1 have  just  been  observing,  (in 
which  restricted  genus  there  is  no  developement  of  membrane  on  the 
face,)  has  several  times,  in  flying  about  the  room,  flapped  against  a 
glass  case.— Ed. 

F 2 



obscure  places.  Their  ordinary  produce  is  two  young  at  a birth,  [one  only  in  the  frugivorous 
species,  and  many  others,]  which  cling  to  the  mammae  of  their  parent,  [have  their  eyes  closed 
for  a while,*]  and  are  of  large  proportional  size.  They  form  a very  numerous  genus,  present- 
ing many  subdivisions.  First  there  require  to  be  separated — 

The  Roussettes  ( Pteropus , Briss.), — 

Which  have  cutting  incisors  to  each  jaw,  and  grinders  with  flat  crowns,  or  rather  the  lattei  have 
originally  two  longitudinal  and  parallel  projections,  separated  by  a groove,  and  which  wear  away  by 
attrition : accordingly  they  subsist  in  great  part  upon  fruits,  of  which  they  consume  a vast  quantity  ; 
they  also  ably  pursue  small  birds  and  quadrupeds  : [a  statement  which  much  requires  confirmation.] 
They  are  the  largest  of  the  tribe,  and  their  flesh  is  eaten.  The  membrane  is  deeply  emarginated  between 
their  legs,  and  they  have  little  or  no  tail ; their  index  finger,  shorter  by  half  than  the  middle  one,  pos- 
sesses a third  phalanx,  bearing  a short  nail  (see  fig.  9),  which  are  wanting  in  other  Bats ; but  the  following 
fingers  have  each  only  two  phalanges ; [their  thumb  is  proportionally  very  large]  ; they  have  the  muzzle 
simple,  the  nostrils  widely  separated,  the  ears  middle-sized  and  without  a tragus,  and  their  tongue  studded 
with  points  that  curve  backwards ; their  stomach  is  a very  elongated  sac,  unequally  dilated,  [and  their 
intestines  are  much  longer  than  in  other  Bats.]  They  have  only  been  discovered  in  the  south  of  Asia  and 
the  Indian  Archipelago ; [now,  however,  also  in  Japan,  Australia,  Madagascar,  and  the  south  and  west 
of  Africa. 

The  species  are  very  numerous,  and  have  been  greatly  elucidated  by  the  investigations  of  Temminck  and 
others,  who  have  established  most  of  them  on  a considerable  number  of  specimens  of  all  ages,  and  many 
anatomically.  They  produce  early,  and  the  sexes  are  separately  gregarious,  the  young  also  associating  apart 
from  their  parents  as  soon  as  they  can  provide  for  themselves.f]  They  divide  into 

1.  Tailless  Roussettes,  with  four  incisors  to  each  jaw;  all  of  which  were  comprehended  by  Linnaeus  under 
his  Vespertilio  vampyrus.  [More  than  twenty  species  are  known,  some  of  which  exceed  five  feet  across. 
One  of  the  commonest  in  collections  is] 

The  Black-bellied  Roussette  ( Pt.  ednlis , Geof.)— Of  a blackish  brown,  deeper  beneath  [the  fur  crisp  and 
coarse] ; nearly  four  feet  in  extent  [sometimes,  according  to  Temminck,  upwards  of  five  feet  French,  corre- 
sponding to  five  feet  and  a half  English].  It  inhabits 
the  Moluccas  and  Isles  of  Sunda,  where  they  are  found 
during  the  day  suspended  in  great  numbers  to  the  trees. 
To  preserve  fruit  from  their  attacks,  it  is  necessary  to 
cover  it  with  nets.  Their  cry  is  loud,  and  resembles  that 
of  a Goose.  They  are  taken  by  means  of  a bag  held  to 
them  at  the  end  of  a pole ; and  the  natives  esteem  their 
flesh  a delicacy  ; but  Europeans  dislike  it  on  account  of 
its  musky  odour.  The  flesh  of  the  Common  Roussette 
(Pt.  vulgaris,  Geof.),  an  inhabitant  of  the  Mauritius, 
has  been  compared  to  that  of  the  Hare  and  Partridge. 

2.  Roussettes  with  a short  tail,  and  four  incisors  to  each 
jaw : [also  generally  less  than  the  smaller  species  of 
the  preceding.  At  least  six  are  known,  one  of  which 
only  (Pt.  amplexicaudatus),  has  the  tail  moderately  con- 
spicuous : the  muzzle  is  comparatively  somewhat  shorter. 
These  two  divisions  comprehend  all  that  are  now 
ranged  in  Pteropus ; and  one  species  only  (Pt.  macro- 
cephalus,  Ogilby),  from  the  Gambia,  presents  any  marked 
Fig.  8.— Head  of  Pteropus  edulis.  departure  from  the  general  character,  in  the  great  size  of 

its  head,  the  superior  magnitude  and  solidity  of  its 
canines,  and  separation  of  the  molars : allied  to  it  is  Pt.  gambianus,  Ogilby,  from  the  same  locality,  and  Pt., 
Whitei,  Ben.,  which  has  a singular  tuft  on  each  side  of  the  neck.  The  name  Epomophorus,  Ben.,  is  applied  to 
these  three  species  by  Gray.] 

3.  According  to  the  indicia  of  M.  Geoffroy,  we  now  separate  from  the  Roussettes 
The  Cephalots  ( Cephalotes , Geof.), — 

Which  have  [nearly]  similar  grinders,  but  in  which  the  index  finger,  short,  and  consisting  of  three 

* Perhaps  the  frugivorous  species  form  an  exception  to  this.  The  I + The  same  appears  to  be  the  case  with  some  of  the  insectivorous 
others  are  naked  at  birth,  but  have  the  limbs  strong,  and  adapted  for  Bats  of  Europe. — Ed. 
dinging  to  their  parent.  I 



phalanges,  like  that  of  the  preceding,  has  no  nail.  The  membranes  of  their  wings,  instead  of  meeting 
at  the  flank,  are  joined  to  each  other  at  the  middle  of  the  back,  to  which  they  adhere  by  a vertical  and 
longitudinal  partition  [a  character  which  occurs,  however,  more  or  less  completely,  that  is,  the  volar 
membrane  is  attached  more  or  less  near  to  the  middle  of  the  back,  in  some  of  the  Roussettes]. 
They  have  often  only  two  incisors  [when  adult,  which  are  inserted  in  small  curved  intermaxillaries, 
that  are  moveable  backwards  and  forwards]. 

« Isidore  Geoffroy,  in  a monograph  of  this  genus  [P  ter  opus] , forms  the  Ft.  personatus,  Tern., 
and  some  allied  species,  into  the  subgenus  Pachysoma,  which  has  four  molars  less  than  the  others,  and 
the  zygomatic  arches  more  projecting : the  Pt.  minimus  or  rostratus  composes  his  subgenus  Macro- 
glossus,  the  muzzle  of  winch  is  longer  and  more  slender,  and  there  are  spaces  between  the  grinders ; 
it  is  believed  that  the  tongue  is  extensile  [now  known  to  be  slightly  so,  and  of  a rather  longer  and 
more  acuminate  form  than  in  the  others].  Lastly,  he  separates  the  Cephalot  of  Peron  from  that  of  Pallas, 
and  applies  to  the  former  the  name  Hypo  dermis,  on  account  of  the  complete  dorsal  insertion  of  the 
membranes  of  its  wings.”* 

[M.  Temminck,  in  his  excellent  monograph  of  the  Pter opiate,  or  frugivorous  Bats  (published  in  1835),  adopts,  as 
generic,  the  divisions  Pteropus,  Pachysoma  ( Cynopterus , F.  Cuv.),  Cephalotes,  Geof.  ( Hypodermis , Is.  Geof.), 
Harpyia,  Illiger  ( Cephalotes , Is.  Geof.),  and  Macroglossus.j  Six  species  are  known  of  Pachysoma,  which  present 
some  other  peculiar  characters, 
and  vary  in  size  from  ten  to  twenty 
inches  across : the  remaining  three 
respectively  consist  of  one  known 
species  only,  viz.,  C.  Peronii, 
sometimes  two  and  a half  feet 
in  extent, — H.  Pallasii  (fig.  9),  a 
singular  looking  animal,  from  Ti- 
mour,  fourteen  inches  across,  with 
a claw  on  its  fore-finger  (like  the 
Cephalot),  and  projecting  tubular 
nostrils,  — and  M.  rostratus,  the 
Kiodote,  the  smallest  of  the  tribe, 
rarely  measuring  a foot  in  spread 
of  wing,  and  which  is  known  to 
subsist  chiefly  on  the  fruit  of  the 
Clove  ( Eugenia ) ; its  grinders  are 
remarkably  diminutive.  Between 
these  frugivorous  Cheiroptera  and 
the  following  genera,  the  lapse  is  Fig.  9.— Harpyia  Pallasii. 

very  considerable.] 

The  Roussettes  having  been  detached,  the  genuine  Bats  remain,  all  of  which  [excepting  Desmodus]  are 
insectivorous,  and  possess  three  grinders  on  each  side  of  both  jaws,  beset  with  conical  points,  and 
preceded  by  a variable  number  of  false  molars.  Their  index  never  has  a nail,  and,  a single  sub- 
genus excepted,  the  membrane  always  extends  between  their  hind-legs.  [The  greater  number  have 
cheek-pouches,  and  most,  if  not  all,  emit  a peculiar  low  clicking  note.] 

They  should  be  divided  into  two  principal  tribes : the  first  having  three  bony  phalanges  to  the 
middle  finger  of  the  wing,  while  the  other  finger  and  the  index  even  have  only  two.  To  this  tribe, 
which  is  almost  exclusively  foreign,  belong  the  following  subgenera : — 

The  Molossines  (Molossus,  Geof.  Dysopus%,  Illig.) 

These  have  the  muzzle  simple ; the  ears  broad  and  short,  arising  near  the  angle  of  the  lips,  and 
uniting  with  each  other  upon  the  muzzle  ; the  tragus  short,  and  not  enveloped  by  the  conch.  Their 
tail  occupies  the  whole  length  of  the  interfemoral  membrane,  and  very  often  extends  beyond  it. 
[Their  wings  are  narrow,  and  body  large  and  heavy.]  It  is  seldom  that  they  have  more  than  two  in- 
cisors to  each  jaw : but,  according  to  M.  Temminck,  several  of  them  have  at  first  six  below,  four  of 
which  they  successively  lose. 

* This,  passage  occurs  in  the  Appendix  to  the  original  work. — Ed.  I is  likewise  used  in  Ornithology,  where  another  appellation  must  be 

t The  term  Macroglomit,  however,  has  unfortunately  been  pre-  substituted.— -Ed. 
occupied  in  Entomology  : for  which  reason  Kiodotut  (the  common  t This  term  is  more  generally  accepted.— Ed. 
name  of  the  species,  latinized)  may  be  proposed  in  its  stead.  Harpyia  | 



Fig.  10.— Head  of  Dysopus  tenuis. 

The  Dinops  of  M.  Savi  refers  to 
these  Molossines  with  six  inferior 
incisors.  There  is  one  of  them  in 
Italy  ( Dinops  cestonii,  Savi). 

M.  Geoffroyhas  applied  the  name 
Nyctonomus  to  those  which  have 
four  inferior  incisors. 

The  Molossines  were  at  first  dis- 
covered only  in  America ; but  we 
now  know  several  from  both  con- 
tinents. Some  of  them  have  the 
hinder  thumb  placed  farther  from 
the  other  digits  than  these  are 
from  each  other,  and  capable  of 
separate  motion ; a character  on  which,  in  one  species  where  it  is  very  strongly  marked,  Dr.  Horsfield  has 
established  his  genus  Cheiromeles  [the  ears  of  which,  also,  differ  in  being  widely  separated]. 

It  is  probable  that  we  should  also  place  here  the  Thyroptera  of  Spix,  which  appears  to  have  several  cha- 
racters of  the  Molossines,  and  the  thumb  of  which  has  a little  concave  palette  peculiar  to  them  (fig.  10,  a),  by 
which  they  are  enabled  to  cling  more  closely.  [Several  species  of  this  genus  agree  in  possessing  this  appendage, 

which  is  proportionally  larger  in  the 

As  a whole,  the  group  of  Molossines  is 
extremely  distinct  and  insulated,  though 
consisting  of  a vast  number  of  species, 
of  which  about  twenty  may  be  considered 
established;  six  or  seven  of  these  ap- 
pertain to  the  eastern  hemisphere.  The 
largest  and  most  curious  of  them  is 
D.  cheiropus,  Tem.  {Cheiromeles,  Horsf., 
fig.  11),  from  Siam,  which  measures 
nearly  two  feet  across : it  is  quite  naked, 
with  the  exception  of  an  abrupt  collar 
of  hairs  round  the  neck. 

Several  have  the  upper  lip  laterally 
pendent  (fig.  10),  whence  the  name 
Molossus  or  Mastiff;  and  the  term 
Dysopus  refers  to  the  toes  being  more 
or  less  tufted  with  hair.  The  greater 
number  of  species  are  from  Brazil  and 

Fig.  11. — Dysopus  cheiropu*. 

The  Noctules  ( Noctilio *,  Lin.  Ed.  xii.) 

Muzzle  short,  inflated,  and  split  into  a double  hare-lip,  marked  with  odd-looking  warts  and  grooves  ; 
ears  separate  ; four  incisors  above  and  two  below  ; tail  short,  and  [possibly  in  some]  free  above  the  inter- 
femoral  membrane  ; [limbs  much  elongated,  the  binder  very  large  and  stout,  and  furnished  with  strong 
claws ; the  volar  membranes  are  attached  high  upon  the  back,  in  some  almost  meeting  dorsally,  as  in  the 
Cephalot  and  some  Roussettes.] 

The  most  generally  known  species  is  from  America  (Vesp.  leporinus,  Gm.),  of  a uniform  fulvous.  [Others 
have  been  found  on  the  same  continent : and  Celceno , Leach,  was  founded  on  an  imperfect  specimen,  which  is 
still  extant.  The  Noctules  are  allied  to  the  true  Bats  ( Vespertilio ) ; and  a group  which  appears  to  be  somewhat 
intermediate,  but  with  a more  elongated  muzzle,  is  the  Emballonura,  Kuhl  ( Proboscidea , Spix),  of  which  four 
species  have  been  described  from  South  America,  and  a fifth  from  Java.  Pteronotus,  Gray,  is  probably  a Noctule, 
with  a longer  tail  than  usual ; and  Myopteris,  Geoff.,  and  also  Aello,  Leach,  do  not  seem  to  differ  essentially.] 

The  Phyllostomes  ( Phyllostoma , Cuv.  and  Geoff.) 

The  regular  number  of  incisors  is  four  to  each  jaw,  but  some  of  the  lower  ones  frequently  fall, 
being  forced  out  by  the  growth  of  the  canines ; [the  second  false  molar  is  generally  elongated] . They  are, 
moreover,  distinguished  by  the  membrane,  in  the  form  of  an  upturned  leaf,  which  is  placed  across  the 
end  of  the  nose.  The  tragus  of  their  ear  (fig.  12)  resembles  a leaflet,  more  or  less  indented.  Their 
tongue,  which  is  very  extensile,  is  terminated  by  papillae,  which  appear  to  be  arranged  so  as  to  form 

* The  division  Noctilio  was  unaccountably  ranged  by  Linnaeus  among  his  Gliret,  or  the  Rodentia  of  our  author. — Ed. 



an  organ  of  suction  ; and  their  lips  also  have  tubercles  symmetrically  arranged.  They  are  American 
animals,  which  run  along  the  ground  with  more  facility  than  the  other  Bats,  and  have  a habit  of 
sucking  the  blood  of  animals. 

1.  Tailless  Pliyllostomes  ( Vampyrus , Spix). 

The  Vampyre  [of  authors]  (Vesp.  spectrum,  Lin.)— (.fig. 
12.)  This  animal  is  reddish-brown,  and  as  large  as  a 
Magpie.  It  has  been  accused  of  causing  the  death  of 
* men  and  animals  by  sucking  their  blood ; but  the  truth 
appears  to  be,  that  it  inflicts  only  very  small  wounds, 
which  may  sometimes  prove  dangerous  from  the  effects  of 
the  climate.  [There  are  several  others,  certain  of  which 
compose  the  divisions  Madatceus  and  Arctibeus,  Leach, 
Lophostoma,  Orb.,  (which  is  very  like  a Desmodus  ex- 
ternally,) Diphylla,  Spix,  and  Carollia,  Gray, — founded  on 
trivial  modifications  of  the  form  of  the  nose-leaf,  tragus, 
and  interfemoral  membrane.] 

2.  Phyllostomes  with  the  tail  enveloped  in  the  interfe 
moral  membrane. 

The  Javelin  Ph.  (Vesp.  hastatus,  Lin.)— The  leaf  shaped 
like  the  head  of  a javelin,  with  its  edges  entire.  [Also 
various  others,  some  of  which  constitute  Macrophyllum  and 
Brachyphylla,  Gray.] 

3.  Phyllostomes  with  the  tail  free  above  the  membrane. 

Ph.  crenulatum,  Geof. — The  leaf  indented  on  the  side. 

M.  Geoffroy  distinguishes  from  the  Phyllostomes 
those  species  which  have  a narrow  extensile  tongue, 
furnished  with  papillae  resembling  hairs.  He  de- 
signates them  Glossophagues  ( Glossophaga ).  All 
the  species  are  likewise  from  America.  [These  also 
have  been  subdivided,  according  to  the  presence  or 
absence  of  a short  tail,  and  other  frivolous  characters 
into  Phyllophora  and  Anoura , Gray,  Monophyllus , 
Leach,  and  Glossophaga,  as  restricted.  Spix  applies  to 

one  of  them  (Gl.  amplexicaudata , Phyllophora  of  Fig.  i2.-VamPyrus  spectrum. 

Gray)  the  term  Sanguisuga  crudelissima,  — “ a very 

cruel  blood-sucker.”  According  to  Mr.  Bell,  the  tongue  of  Phyllostoma,  has  “ a number  of  wart-like 
elevations,  so  arranged  as  to  form  a complete  circular  suctorial  disc,  when  they  are  brought  into  con- 
tact at  their  sides,  which  is  done  by  means  of  a set  of  muscular  fibres,  having  a tendon  attached  to 
each  of  the  warts.”  The  teeth  of  these  animals,  however,  are  decidedly  ill-adapted  for  blood-letting. 

The  True  Yampyres  ( Desmodus , Pr.  Max.,  Edostoma,  Orb.,  Stenoderma  ?,  Geof.) 

This  extraordinary  genus  has  two  immense,  projecting,  approximate  upper  incisors,  and  similar 
lancet-shaped  superior  canines,  all  of  which  are  excessively  sharp-pointed,  and  arranged  to  inflict  a 

triple  puncture,  like  that  of  a Leech ; four  bilobate  inferior 
incisors,  the  innermost  separated  by  a wide  interval ; the 
lower  canines  small  and  not  compressed : there  are  no  true 
molars,  but  two  false  ones  on  the  upper  jaw,  and  three  on 
the  lower,  of  a peculiar  form,  apparently  unfitted  for  mas- 
tication (fig.  13).  The  intestine  is  shorter  than  in  any 
other  known  animal ; as  blood,  which  probably  constitutes 
their  sole  food,  is  so  readily  assimilated.*  They  have  the 
general  characters  of  the  Phyllostomes  externally,  a small 
bifid  membrane  on  the  nose,  no  tail  or  calcaneum,  and  the 
interfemoral  membrane  but  little  developed.  Are  also  in- 
habitants of  South  America. 

* In  Vespertilo  noctula,  the  intestine  is  only  twice  the  length  of  I proceeds  almost  straight  to  the  anus.  It  would  be  interesting  to  know 
the  body,  while  in  Pteropus  it  is  full  seven  times.  In  Desmodus,  it  ' the  first  or  milk  teeth  of  Desmodus. 



Two  or  three  species  are  known,  of  moderate  but  not  large  size.*  One  was  taken  in  the  act  of  sucking  blood 
from  the  neck  of  a Horse,  by  Mr.  Darwin.  It  is  probable  that  their  external  similitude  to  the  Phyllostomes  has 
occasioned  the  latter  to  be  accused  of  a sanguivorous  propensity,  for  which  their  structure  seems  to  be  at 
most  but  partially  adapted,  while  that  of  the  present  genus  is  obviously  expressly  designed  for  this  mode  of  life. 
Compare  the  figures  given  of  the  dentition  of  the  two  genera.] 

In  the  second  grand  tribe  of  Bats,  the  index  has  only  one  bony  phalanx,  while  all  the  other  fingers 
have  two.  This  tribe  also  requires  to  be  divided  into  several  subgenera. 

The  Megaderms  ( Megaderma , Geof.) — 

Have  the  nasal  membrane  more  complicated  than  in  the  Phyllostomes ; the  tragus  large  and  most 
commonly  bifurcated ; the  conch  of  the  ears  very  ample,  and  joined  together  on  the  top  of  the  head  ; 
the  tongue  and  the  lips  smooth ; interfemoral  membrane 
entire,  and  there  is  no  tail.  They  have  four  incisors  below, 
but  none  above,  and  their  intermaxillaries  remain  carti- 
laginous. [Their  wings  are  remarkably  ample,  the  whole 
cutaneous  system  of  these  animals  being  excessively  de- 

Four  species  are  known ; two  from  Africa,  the  others  from 
the  Indian  archipelago.  One  of  the  former  ( M . frons,  fig.  14) 
has  the  body  covered  with  long  hair,  of  most  delicately  fine 
texture;  it  constitutes  the  division  Lavia  of  Gray.]  They  are 
distinguished  by  the  figure  of  the  leaf,  like  the  Phyllostomes. 

The  Rhinolphines  ( Rhinolopkus , Geof.  and  Cuv.  [ Nociilio 
Bechst.]),  vulgarly  termed  Horse-shoe  Bats. 

These  have  the  nose  furnished  with  very  complicated 
membranes  and  crests  resting  on  the  forehead,  and  al- 
together presenting  [more  or  less]  the  figure  of  a horse- 
shoe ; their  tail  is  long,  and  placed  in  the  interfemoral 
membrane.  They  have  four  incisors  below,  and  two  small 
ones  above,  fixed  in  a cartilaginous  intermaxillary. 

Two  species  are  very  common  in  France  [and  found  sparingly 
and  locally  in  England f], — Vesp.  ferrum-equinum,  Lin.,  or  Rh. 
bifer,  Geof.,  and  Vesp.  hipposideros,  Bechstein.  They  both 
inhabit  quarries  [cathedrals,  &c.],  where  they  hang  solitarily  [?]  suspended  by  the  feet,  and  enveloping  then- 
selves  with  their  wings,  so  that  no  part  of  their  body  is  visible.  [They  differ  chiefly  in  size,  but  in  this  con- 
siderably ; the  larger  measuring  13  ifiches  across,  the  other  8£  inches. 

More  than  twenty  species  are  known,  all  from 
the  eastern  hemisphere.  They  fall  under  two 
divisions,  of  which  the  extremes  are  shown  in 
the  accompanying  representation  (fig.  15) ; but 
the  majority  are  of  intermediate  character,  like 
the  two  which  inhabit  Europe.  Those  with 
membranous  crests  have  the  tragus  distinct, 
and  sometimes  considerably  developed;  the 
others  have  no  separated  tragus,  and  compose 
the  divisions  Hipposidoros,  Gray,  (identical  with 
Phillorhina , Bonap.)  and  Asellia,  Gray  : Ariteus 
of  the  same  systematist  referring  to  a member  of 
the  former  sub-group,  which  is  destitute  of  tail, 
and  almost  of  interfemoral  membrane  ; charac- 
ters, however,  to  which  other  species  approxi- 
mate. They  inhabit  the  darkest  caverns,  in  vast  m altitudes,  the  sexes  and  young  in  separate  assemblages. 
Penetrating  to  more  deeply  obscure  recesses  than  any  of  the  others,  it  is  probable  that  their  facial  appendages  are 
endowed  with  exquisite  sensibility,  for  the  still  further  extension  of  that  delicacy  of  the  sense  of  touch,  by  which 
others  of  this  family  are  enabled  to  guide  themselves  when  deprived  of  vision  : the  dryness  of  those  membranes 
intimates  that  they  are  not  olfactory.  Certain  inguinal  glands,  more  or  less  distinctly  developed  in  these 
animals,  have  been  erroneously  described  as  mammary  teats. 

* There  is  reason  to  suspect  that  the  genus  Desmodus  is  much  more  i t A British  locality,  where  both  occur  rather  numerously,  is  the 
extensively  represented. — Ed.  | well-known  cave  near  Torquay,  in  Devonshire,  called  Kent’}  Hilo. 

Fig.  14. — Megaderma  frons. 



The  Nyctophilets  (Nyctophilus,  Leach) — 

Are,  according  to  Temminck,  somewhat  intermediate  to  the  Rhinolphines  and  the  next  genns  of 
Nycterins ; approaching  the  former  in  the  character  of  their  incisors  and  canines,  and  the  latter  in 
that  of  their  molars : the  ears  are  large  and  pointed ; the  tragus  lanceolate ; nasal  follicles  distinct ; 
the  tail  moderately  long,  and  enveloped  in  the  membrane. 

Nyct.  Geojffroyi,  Leach,  is  the  only  known  species,  from  some  part  of  Oceanica.  It  appears  to  be  allied  to  the 
true  Bats  {Vesper tilio),  and  was  included  in  Barbastellus,  Gray,  as  originally  constituted.] 

The  Nycterins  ( Nycteris , Cuv.  and  Geof.)  — 

Have  the  forehead  furrowed  by  a longitudinal  groove,  which  is  even  marked  upon  the  cranium, 
bordered  by  a fold  of  the  skin,  which  partially  covers  it ; nostrils  simple ; four  incisors  without  inter- 
vals above,  and  six  below ; ears  large  and 
separated ; the  tail  involved  in  the  inter- 
femoral  membrane  [and  terminated  by  a 
bifid  cartilage  (fig.  16,  2).]  They  are 
African  species  [for  the  most  part,  but  one 
inhabits  Java. 

These  animals  are  remarkable  for  a power  of 
inflating  the  skin,  which  is  only  attached  to 
the  body  in  some  few  places,  by  an  open  cel- 
lular connexion.  There  is  a small  aperture  at 
the  bottom  of  each  cheek-pouch,  by  which  this 
is  effected ; and  the  nostrils  are  so  formed  as 
to  close  when  at  rest,  and  to  open  only  at  will. 

By  respiring  with  the  mouth  closed,  the  air 
passes  through  these  apertures  along  the 
frontal  groove  to  the  upper  part  of  the  neck,  and  thence  under  the  skin  of  the  back,  chest,  and  abdomen, 
which,  by  a repetition  of  the  process,  can  be  puffed  out  like  a balloon : the  intent  remains  to  be  explained.] 

The  Rhinopomes  ( Rhinopoma , Geof.) — 

Have  the  frontal  depression  less  marked ; the  nostrils  at  the  end  of  the  muzzle,  with  a little  lamina 
above,  forming  a kind  of  snout ; the  ears  are  joined ; and  the  tail  [which  is  very  slender]  extends 
far  beyond  the  interfemoral  membrane. 

[A  few  species  occur  on  both  continents,  one  of  which  is  figured  in  the  great  French  work  on  Egypt,  under  the 
name  Taphien  filet.] 

The  Taphiens  ( Taphozous , Geof.) — 

Have  also  a small  rounded  indenture  on  the  forehead ; but  their  nostrils  have  no  raised  lamina : the 
head  is  pyramidal,  and  there  are  only  two  incisors  above,  very  often  none,  and  four  trilobate  incisors 
below ; their  ears  are 
widely  separated,  and  [the 
tip  of]  their  tail  free  above 
the  membrane.  The  males 
have  a transverse  cavity 
under  the  throat.  A little 
prolongation  of  the-mem- 
brane  of  their  wings  forms 
a sort  of  pouch  near  the 

One  species  was  discover- 
ed in  the  catacombs  of 
Egypt  by  M.  Geoffroy  [and 
it  is  probable  that  the  others 
are  peculiar  to  the  old  con- 
tinent, though  one  {Vesp.  Fig.  17.-Mormoops  Bl«nvillii. 

mursupialis,  Muller)  is  said  to  be  American.  T.  rufus,  Harlan  (Wils.  Am.  Orn.,  vol.  vi.  pi.  50)  is  most  likely  a 

* Hence  the  name  Saccopteryw , applied  to  this  genus  by  Illigcr. 

Fig.  16. — Head  of  Nycteris  javanicus. 



Vespertilio.  The  Egyptian  species  is  represented  to  have  small  eyes ; but  that  figured  by  Gen.  Hardwicke  (Lin. 
Trans.,  vol.  xiv.  p.  525)  possesses  eyes  proportionally  as  large  as  in  a Squirrel,  and  we  have  examined  skins  of 
another  species  (chinchilla-grey  above,  pure  white  beneath),  in  which  the  same  character  must  have  been  con- 

The  Mormopes  ( Mormoops , Leach) — 

Have  four  incisors  to  each  jaw,  the  superior  rather  large  ; the  inferior  trilobate  : their  skull  (fig.  17)  is 
singularly  raised  like  a pyramid  above  the  muzzle ; and  on  each  side  of  the  nose  is  a triangular 
membrane,  which  extends  to  the  ear. 

The  species  M.  Blainvillii,  Leach,  is  from  Java.  [It  has  since  been  received,  together  with  two  others  of  the 
same  form  (but  considered  by  Gray  as  separable),  from  Jamaica;  so  that  the  former  locality  may  be  presumed  to 
be  wrongly  assigned.] 

The  ordinary  Bats  [to  which  this  term  may  be  restricted]  ( Vespertilio , Cuv.  and  Geof.) — 

Have  no  leaf  or  other  distinctive  mark  on  the  muzzle,  and  the  ears  separated ; four  incisors  above,  of 
which  the  two  middle  ones  are  apart,  and  six  below,  sharp-edged,  and  somewhat  notched  * : their  tail 
is  comprehended  in  the  membrane. 

This  subgenus  is  the  most  numerous  of  all,  and  universally  distributed.  There  are  six  or  seven  species 
in  France  [more  than  double  that  number.  Thirteen  have  now  been  met  with  in  England,  including  the  Barbastelle 
and  Oreillard.  The  sexes  and  young  of  several  congregate  separately. f] 

* M.  Rousseau,  in  a memoir  on  the  anatomy  of  Fesp.  murinus, 
states,  of  the  two  dentitions  of  this  animal,  that  the  first  is  developed 
before  birth,  the  second  not  till  some  time  afterwards.  The  foetal  teeth, 
he  remarks,  are  twenty-two  in  number ; namely,  four  incisors,  two 
canines,  and  four  molars  to  the  upper  jaw,  and  six  incisors,  two 
canines,  and  four  molars  to  the  lower  one.  The  permanent  teeth,  in 
the  adult,  are  thirty-eight  in  number ; of  which  twenty-two  should 
replace  the  foetal  or  temporary  teeth  ; the  sixteen  others  successively 
show  themselves,  later  as  their  position  is  further  backward.  The 
permanent  teeth  do  not  wait  to  appear  until  their  predecessors 
are  shed,  whence  at  a certain  epoch  forty  or  fifty  teeth,  or  even  more, 
may  be  counted  in  the  same  individual : this  last  fact  we  have  ob- 
served in  the  instance  of  the  common  Fitchet  Weasel. — Ed. 

t To  facilitate  the  researches  of  the  British  naturalist,  our  known 
indigenous  species  may  be  briefly  indicated : it  is  not  unlikely  that 
more  remain  to  be  discovered,  as  but  few  persons  have  hitherto  be- 
stowed much  attention  on  these  lucifugal  animals. 

The  British  species  fall  under  two  natural  divisions. 

In  the  first,  the  tragus  is  more  or  less  rounded  at  the  tip,  short,  and 
a little  thickened  in  its  substance  ; there  are  four  pairs  of  false  molars 
to  each  jaw.  Such  are 

The  Noctule  Bat  (.F.  noctula ) .—Of  a bright  reddish-brown ; the 
membrane  dusky.  Length  of  the  head  and  body  nearly  3 inches  : ex- 
tent 13  or  14  inches.  Ears  oval-triangular,  shorter  than  the  head  ; 
the  tragus  not  one-third  the  length  of  the  ear,  arcuated,  and  termi- 
nated in  a broad  rounded  head  ; muzzle  short,  broad,  and  blunt. 
This  species  is  not  uncommon,  and  is  even  numerous  in  some 
districts  : its  flight  is  lofty,  whence  designated  altivolans  by  White. 

Hairy-armed  Bat  ( F.Leisleri ). — The  fur  long,  bright  chestnut  above, 
brownish  grey  beneath  ; under  surface  of  the  flying  membrane  with  a 
broad  band  of  hair  along  the  fore-arm.  Length  of  the  head  and  body 
2 % inches  ; extent  11%.  inches.  The  ears  oval-triangular,  shorter  than 
the  head  ; tragus  barely  one-third  the  length  of  the  ear,  terminating 
in  a rounded  head.  But  one  specimen  is  known  to  have  been  killed  in 

Particoloured  Bat  (F.  discolor). — Fur  reddish-brown  above,  with 
the  tips  of  the  hairs  white;  beneath,  sullied  white.  Length  of  the 
head  and  body  2%  inches  ; extent  10%  inches.  Ears  about  two- 
thirds  the  length  of  the  head,  oval,  with  a projecting'  lobe  on  the 
inner  margin  ; the  tragus  of  nearly  equal  breadth  throughout,  rather 
more  than  one-third  the  length  of  the  ear.  It  inhabits  towns,  and 
comes  abroad  early  in  the  evening.  The  only  native  specimen  was 
taken  at  Plymouth. 

Pipistrelle  Bat  {F.  pipistrellus,  erroneously  termed  F.  murinus  by 
British  writers  till  very  lately)  .—This  small  species  is  the  commonest 
of  any ; it  is  dark  reddish  brown,  paler  beneath.  Length  to  the  tail 
1%  inch  ; extent  8%  inches.  Ears  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  head, 
oval-triangular,  notched  on  the  outer  margin  ; tragus  nearly  half  as 
long  as  the  ear,  almost  straight,  thickened,  obtuse,  and  rounded  at 
the  apex.  It  runs  with  celerity,  carrying  its  head  near  the  ground, 
from  which  it  rises  with  ease  ; and  is  active  during  the  greater  part 
of  the  year.  The  Pygmy  Bat  ( F . pygrruzus,  Leach,)  is  evidently  a 
young  animal,  and  probably  of  this  species. 

The  next  has  only  two  pairs  of  superior  false  molars. 

The  Serotine  Bat  {F.  serotinus).— Fur  chestnut- brown  above,  yel- 
lowish-grey beneath.  Length  of  the  head  and  body  2%  inches  ; ex- 

tent 12%  inches.  The  ears  oval  triangular ; shorter  than  the  head  ; 
tragus  semicordate,  little  more  than  one-third  the  length  of  the  ear. 
The  Serotine  frequents  uninhabited  houses,  the  roofs  of  churches,  &c. 
and  sometimes  hollow  trees ; flies  steadily  and  rather  slow,  and  is 
occasionally  taken  near  London. 

In  the  second  group,  the  tragus  is  relatively  longer,  thin,  narrow, 
and  more  or  less  pointed  ; and  there  are  six  pairs  of  false  molars  to 
each  jaw. 

Mouse-coloured  Bat  ( F . murinus). — The  fur  reddish-brown  above, 
dull  white  beneath.  Length  of  the  head  and  body  3%  inches  ; spread 
of  wing  15  inches.  Ears  oval,  broad  at  the  base,  becoming  narrower 
towards  the  apex,  as  long  as  the  head ; tragus  falciform,  the  inner 
margin  straight,  not  quite  half  the  length  of  the  ear.  This  Bat  is  very 
common  in  France  and  Germany,  but  only  one  instance  has  been  re- 
corded of  its  occurrence  in  Britain. 

Bechstein’s  Bat  (F.  Bechsteinii). — Fur  reddish-grey  above,  greyish- 
white  beneath.  Dimensions,  to  the  insertion  of  the  tail,  2%  inches  ; 
11  inches  across.  Ears  oval,  rather  longer  than  the  head ; tragus 
narrow,  falciform,  not  half  the  length  of  the  ear.  The  thumb  longer 
than  in  the  others.  A woodland  species,  found  occasionally  in  the 
New  Forest,  Hants. 

Fringe-tailed  Bat  ( F.  Nattereri). — Fur  brown  above,  whitish 
beneath.  Length,  to  the  tail,  nearly  2 inches;  extent  11  inches. 
Ears  oblong-oval,  about  as  long  as  the  head ; tragus  narrow-lanceo- 
late, nearly  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  ear ; interfemoral  membrane 
with  the  margin  crenate  and  stiffly  ciliated,  from  the  end  of  the  spur 
or  calcaneum  to  the  tail.  Has  been  met  with  in  several  parts  of  the 

Notch-eared  Bat  {F.  emarginatus,  Geof.,  not  of  Jenyns).— The  fur 
reddish-grey  above,  ash-coloured  beneath.  Length  of  the  head  and 
body  two  inches  ; extent  9 inches.  The  ears  oblong,  as  long  as  the 
head,  with  a notch  and  a small  lobe  on  the  outer  margin  ; tragus  awl- 
shaped,  a little  curved  outward,  more  than  half  the  length  of  the  ear. 
One  was  killed  near  Dover. 

Daubenton’s  Bat  (F.  Daubentonii, — emarginatus  of  Jenyns).— Fur 
soft,  plentiful,  brownish-black  at  the  base  ; the  surface  greyish-red 
above,  ash-grey  beneath.  Length  of  the  head  and  body  2 inches  ; 
extent  9 inches.  The  ears  oval,  three-fourths  the  length  of  the  head, 
very  slightly  notched  on  the  outer  margin,  with  a fold  on  the  inner 
margin  at  the  base  ; tragus  narrow-lanceolate,  rather  obtuse,  bending 
a little  inward,  half  the  length  of  the  ear  ; tail  longer  than  the  body. 
Has  been  taken  in  several  localities,  and  flies  rapidly  near  the  ground, 
or  over  stagnant  water. 

Whiskered  Bat  ( F.  mystacinus). — Fur  blackish-chestnut  above, 
dusky  beneath  ; the  upper  lip  furnished  with  a moustache  of  long  fine 
hair.  Length  of  the  head  and  body  1%  inch  ; extent  8%  inches.  Ears 
oblong,  bending  outward,  shorter  than  the  head,  notched  on  the  outer 
margin  ; the  tragus  half  the  length  of  the  ear,  lanceolate,  a little  ex- 
panded at  the  outer  margin  near  the  base.  Has  also  occurred  in 
different  parts  of  the  country. 

The  above  characters  are  chiefly  compiled  from  Bell’s  British  Quad- 
rupeds, where  figures  and  minute  descriptions  are  given  of  each  of 
them,  together  with  full-sized  representations  of  their  heads.  It  rrry 
be  remarked  that  only  the  last  five  are  retained  in  Fespertilio  by  Mr. 
Gray,  the  others  being  included  in  his  Scotophilus. — Ed. 



M.  Geoflroy  also  separates  from  the  Bats 

The  Oreillards  ( Plecotus ), — 

Which  have  the  ears  longer  than  the  head,  and  joined  above  the  cranium,  as  in  the  Megaderms, 
Rhinopomes,  &c.  Their  tragus  is  large  and  lanceolate,  and  there  is  an  operculum  to  their  auditory 

Fig.  18. — Ears  of  Plecotus  auritus. 

The  common  species  ( Vesp . auritus , Lin.)  is  still  more 
abundant  in  France  than  any  of  the  Bats  [and  is  equally 
plentiful  in  England],  inhabiting  houses,  kitchens,  &c.  Its 
ears  (fig.  18)  are  nearly  as  long  as  its  body  [more  than  double 
the  length  of  the  head;  yet,  when  reposing  (as  shown  in 
fig.  19),  they  are  folded  so  as  to  be  out  of  sight.  Its  peculiar 
shuffling  gait,  with  the  head  raised,  is  different  from  that  of 
the  Bats  with  short  ears ; and  it  may  be  tamed  to  hover  around 
with  familiarity,  and  alight  upon  the  hand  for  insect  food. 

The  PL  brevimanus,  Jenyns,  is  merely  the  young ; but  there 
are  several  exotic  species.]  We  have  also  another,  discovered  by 
forming  the  equivalent  division 

Fig.  19. — Plecotus  auritus. 

Daubenton,  with  much  shorter  ears,  [now 

Barbastelle  ( Bariastellus , Gray) — 

The  ears  of  which  are  moderate,  united  at  base  ; and  there  is  a hollowed  naked  space  on  the  upper 
surface  of  the  muzzle,  in 
which  the  nostrils  are  situ- 
ated ; hut  one  pair  of  false 
molars  to  each  jaw. 

B.  Daubentonii,  Bell,  (fig. 

20,)  is  the  only  ascertained 
species.  It  is  of  rare  occur- 
rence in  Britain,  and  measures 
10£  inches  in  extent  of  wing.] 

Finally,  Nycticeus*,  Ra 
fin.,  [ Scotophilus,  Leach, 

Pipistrellm,  Bonap.],  with  Fig.  20.— Barbastellus  Daubentoid. 

ears  of  medium  size,  and  the  simple  muzzle  of  the  Bats,  has  only  two  incisors  to  the  upper  jaw 
[which  are  widely  separated,  and  close  to  the  canines.]  It  does  not  otherwise  differ  from  Vespertilio. 

The  known  species  are  from  North  America,  [but  others  have  since  been  discovered  in  the  ancient  continent, 
as  N.  Heathii,  Horsf.,  from  India,  and  another  from  Java.  Mr.  Gray,  indeed,  includes  most  of  the  European  Bats 
in  his  Scotophilus  ; but  Temminck,  who  rejects  Plecotus  even, -suggests,  and  I think  with  reason,  that  the  present 
also  is  a superfluous  division,  based  on  insufficient  characters.  The  Oreillards  and  Barbastelles  are  subordinate 
to  Vespertilio , also  Furia,  F.  Cuv.,  ( Furipterus , Bonap.)  which  has  the  tail  partly  cartilaginous,  Natalus,  Gray, 
wherein  the  heel-bone  extends  the  whole  length  of  the  interfemoral  membrane ; Romicius,  Gray,  and  Miniopterus, 
Bonap.  Atalapha,  Rafin.,  is  said  to  have  no  incisors,  Hypexodon,  Rafin.,  to  have  incisors  (of  the  usual  number, 
six)  in  the  lower  jaw  only ; Lasiurus  has  been  applied  to  a small  group  with  the  interfemoral  membrane  hairy  ; 
and,  lastly,  Pachyotus  and  Nyctalus,  Bowditch,  are  divisions  of  no  value  whatever.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that 
naturalists  cannot  occupy  their  time  more  profitably  than  in  coining  supernumerary  names. 

• Sometimes  written  Nycticeju s. — Ed. 



Many  of  the  foregoing  animals  fly  with  their  young  involved  in  the  interfemoral  membrane.  The 
extremity  of  the  tail  in  some  is  slightly  prehensile. 

We  would  remark,  here,  that  the  order  Primaria , indicated  at  p.  43,  resolves  into  two 
primary  sections,  of  which  the  second  is  constituted  by  the  Cheiroptera,  as  opposed  to  the 
remainder,  or  the  Bimana  and  Quadrumana  of  Cuvier.  We  regard  the  Cheiroptera  as 
divisible  into  two  groups  only  of  the  value  of  families,  namely,  Pteropidce,  comprising  the 
frugivorous  genera,  and  Vespertilionidee,  comprehending  all  the  remainder,  which  may  pro- 
bably be  reduced  to  seven  or  eight  primary  divisions.  The  remains  of  insectivorous  Cheiroptera 
have  been  detected  in  the  European  tertiary  deposits.]* 

The  Colugos  ( Galceopithecus , Pallas) — 

Differ  generically  from  the  Bats  in  having  their  fingers,  which  are  armed  with  trenchant  nails,  no 
longer  than  the  toes,  so  that  the  membrane  which  occupies  their  intervals,  and  extends  to  the  sides  of 
the  tail,  can  only  officiate  as  a parachute.  Their  canines  are  dentelated,  and  as  short  as  the  molars. 
They  have  two  [four]  dentelated  incisors  above,  very  widely  apart;  six  below f,  split  into  narrow 

strips  like  a comb,  a structure  altogether  pe- 
culiar. These  animals  live  on  the  trees  in  the 
Indian  archipelago,  and  pursue  insects,  and  per- 
haps birds ; to  judge  from  the  detrition  which 
their  teeth  experience  with  age,  they  would  ap- 
pear to  subsist  also  upon  fruits.  They  have  a 
large  caecum. 

[This  remarkable  genus  accords  chiefly  with  the 
Bats  in  the  adaptive  structure  of  its  hind  extremities, 
and  in  the  tail  being  completely  attached  to  interfe- 
moral membrane : the  molars,  also,  are  sharply  tuber- 
culated,  implying  an  insectivorous  regimen,  at  least 
in  part ; but  this  character  is  common  to  several  Strep- 
sirrhini:  there  is  also  a tendency  to  an  opposable 
power  in  both  the  fore  and  hind  thumbs.  The 
general  anatomy  agrees  very  closely  with  that  of  the 
Lemurs ; one  marked  feature  in  which  it  differs  from 
the  Bats  is,  the  presence  of  a large  coecum,  as  intimated 
by  Cuvier.  The  orbits  of  the  skull,  though  raised, 
are  much  less  approximated  than  in  the  Lemurs,  and 
incomplete  ; in  which  respect  this  genus  chiefly  devi- 
ates from  the  type  of  the  Quadrumana.  A parachute 
membrane  occurs,  likewise,  among  the  Squirrels  and 
Phalangers,  only  not  extending  to  the  tail,  as  in  the 
present  instance ; this,  therefore, is  merely  an  adaptive 
character  of  minor  importance.  Linnaeus  designated 
the  only  species  he  knew  Lemur  volans. 

“ Two  species,”  remarks  Temminck,  “ are  strongly 
Fig.  21. — GaisBopithecug  Temminckii.  characterized  by  their  osteology which  may  be  pre- 

sumed to  be  those  provisionally  named  by  Waterhouse 
G.  Temminckii,  and  G.  philippinensis,  both  of  which  are  extremely  variable  in  colour.  The  former  is  more  exten- 
sively diffused,  and  superior  in  its  linear  dimensions,  but  with  smaller  hands  and  ears ; its  teeth  are  separated  by 
intervals,  and  the  parietal  ridges  of  the  cranium  are  widely  apart : in  the  latter  there  are  no  interspaces  between 
the  teeth,  which  are  much  stouter  and  broader ; the  jaw  is  accordingly  much  stronger,  and  to  impart  ad- 
ditional vigour  to  the  muscles  which  operate  upon  it,  the  parietal  ridges,  to  which  they  are  attached,  almost  meet 
on  the  occiput.  They  inhabit  lofty  trees  in  dark  woods ; to  which  they  cling  with  all  four  extremities,  and  traverse 
easily  by  means  of  their  strong  and  extremely  compressed,  very  hitching  claws ; they  also  leap  and  float  a dis- 
tance of  a hundred  yards  in  an  inclined  plane,  supported  by  the  membrane.  They  are  very  inoffensive  animals, 
subsisting  in  part  on  the  leaves  of  the  nanka,  or  jack-fruit ; and  when  captured,  do  not  attempt  to  bite,  as  has  often 

* Our  plan  only  permitting  ns  to  class  those  animals  the  characters  , that  of  the  Bats— a revision  from  Nature,  and  not  from  compilation, 
of  which  we  have  personally  ascertained,  or  from  very  complete  [Their  mutual  affinities  particularly  require  elucidation.] 
descriptions  and  figures,  we  have  been  obliged  to  omit  several  genera  f Analogy  with  the  Lemurs  intimates  that  the  exterior  of  these 

of  MM.  Rafincsque,  Leach,  &c. ; and  may  here  observe  that  there  is  represent  the  canines.— Ed. 
no  group  of  animals  which  stands  more  in  need  of  revision  than  I 



been  remarked  on  cutting  down  the  tree  to  which  one  was  clinging,  and  seizing  it  before  it  could  extricate  itself 
from  the  branches.  They  produce  generally  two  young  at  a birth ; and  their  cry  resembles  the  low  cackle  of  a 

All  the  other  Carnaria  have  the  mammae  situated  on  the  belly. 



Possess,  like  the  Cheiroptera,  grinders  beset  with  conical  points,  and  generally  lead  a nocturnal 
or  subterraneous  life  : they  subsist  principally  on  insects,  and  in  cold  countries  most  of  them 
pass  the  winter  in  a torpid  state.  They  have  no  lateral  membranes,  as  in  the  Cheiroptera  j 
but  the  clavicles  are  never  absent : their  feet  are  short,  and  their  movements  feeble*;  the 
mammae  are  placed  under  the  abdomen,  and  the  penis  in  a sheath.  None  of  them  have  a 
ccecum,  and  in  running  they  all  place  the  entire  sole  of  the  foot  upon  the  ground. 

They  differ  in  the  relative  proportions  and  position  of  their  incisors  and  canines. 

Some  have  long  incisors  in  front,  followed  by  other  incisors  [along  the  sides  of  their  narrow 
jaws],  and  canines,  all  shorter  even  than  the  molars;  a kind  of  dentition,  of  which  the  Mal- 
mags,  among  the  Quadrumana,  have  already  afforded  an  example,  and  which  somewhat 
approximates  these  animals  to  the  Rodents : others  have  large  separated  canines,  between 
which  are  placed  small  incisors,  being  the  ordinary  disposition  of  these  teeth  both  in  the  Quad- 
rumana and  Carnaria  j and  these  two  systems  of  dental  arrangement  occur  in  genera  other- 
wise very  similar  in  the  character  of  their  teguments,  in  the  form  of  their  limbs,  and  mode 
of  life. 

[It  is  in  this  group  that  we  are  led  to  identify  the  canine  tooth  as  simply  the  first  of  the 
false  molars,  which  in  some  has  two  fangs ; and,  as  in  the  Lemurs,  to  perceive  that  the  second 
in  the  lower  jaw  is  in  some  more  analogous  in  size  and  character  to  an  ordinary  canine,  than 
that  which  follows  the  incisors.  The  incisor  teeth  are  never  more  than  six  in  number,  which 
is  the  maximum  throughout  placental  Mammalia  (as  opposed  to  marsupial) ; and,  in  several 
instances,  one  or  two  pairs  are  deficient-}*:  the  canines,  with  the  succeeding  false  molars,  are 
extremely  variable  X ; but  there  are  ordinarily  three  tuberculated  molars  posterior  to  the  repre- 
sentative of  the  carnivorous  or  cutting  grinder  of  the  true  Carnivora.  The  snout  in  the 
Insectivora  is  generally  elongated.] 

The  Urchins,  or  Hedgehogs  ( Erinaceus , Lin.) — 

Have  the  body  covered  with  prickles  instead  of  hairs.  The  skin  of  the  back  is  furnished  with  such 
muscles  that  the  animal,  by  inclining  its  head  and  feet  towards  the  belly,  is  enabled  to  inclose  itself  as 
in  a purse,  presenting  only  its  spines  towards  an  enemy.  Their  tail  is  very  short,  and  their  feet  have 
each  five  toes.  They  possess  on  each  jaw  six  incisors,  of  which  the  middle  are  the  longest ; and  on 
either  side  three  false  molars,  three  bristled  true  molars,  and  a small  tuberculous  tooth. 

The  European  Urchin  ( E . Europceus,  Lin). — A well  known  species,  common  in  the  woods  and  hedges.  It  sub- 
sists chiefly  on  insects,  but  also  feeds  partly  upon  fruit,  by  which  at  a certain  age  its  teeth  become  worn  : passes 
the  winter  in  its  burrow,  whence  it  issues  in  the  spring  with  an  amplitude  and  complication  of  its  vesiculce  semi- 
nales  that  is  almost  incredible.  [It  produces  a variable  number  of  young,  sometimes  six  or  seven,  which  are 
born  with  their  eyes  closed,  and,  what  is  remarkable,  their  ears  also : their  prickles  are  then  thin,  and  few  in 
number,  white,  and  at  first  flexile  and  disposed  backward  ; but  they  soon  harden  on  exposure.  The  adults  remain 
concealed  till  the  evening,  when  they  run  about  in  search  of  prey,  with  an  omnivorous  appetite ; they  devour 
Toads,  and  have  been  known  to  destroy  leverets.]  Pallas  has  noticed  as  an  interesting  fact,  that  the  Urchin  eats 
hundreds  of  Cantharides  without  experiencing  any  ill  effect,  whereas  a single  one  produces  horrible  agony  in  a 
Dog  or  Cat. 

[Ten  other  species  are  now  known,  distributed  over  Asia  and  Africa,  but  not  Madagascar.  Some  are  of  small 
size,  and  others  have  the  ears  considerably  enlarged. 

* In  Macrotchelides,  the  hind  feet  are  lengthened,  and  announce 
agility ; while  the  Banxrings  are  said  to  be  as  lively  as  a Squirrel. — Ed. 

t The  forked  incisors  of  the  Shrews  appear  each  to  represent  two 
teeth ; and  the  analogues  of  the  inferior  central  incisors,  wanting  in 

this  genus,  appear,  in  Solenodon  and  Myogalea,  of  small  size,  between 
the  representatives  of  the  long  dentelated  incisors  of  Sorex. 

t It  should  be  remarked  that  a single  tooth  with  two  fangs  is  often 
represented  by  two  separate  teeth,  each  with  one  fang. 




The  Sokinah  ( Echinops , Martin) — 

Is  a Madagascar  animal,  which  differs  chiefly  from  the  Urchins  in  its  dentition,  having  but  four  upper 
incisors,  of  which  the  medial  are  large,  and  placed  before  the  others ; the  superior  canines  (or  what 
may  he  designated  as  such)  are  tuberculated  behind ; there  are  five  molars  in  all  to  each  side  of  the 
upper  jaw,  longitudinally  very  short,  hut  broad,  a groove  passing  continuously  along  their  crowns  : two 
small  lower  canines,  three  inferior  false  molars  inclining  forward,  and  four  true  molars  obtusely 

E.  Telfairi,  Mart.,  is  the  only  ascertained  species ; and  the  form  may  be  regarded  as  subordinate  to  Erinaceus. 1 
The  Tenrecs  ( Centenes , Illiger) — 

Have  the  body  covered  with  spines,  like  the  Urchins  [but  more  slender  and  bristle-like]  ; they  do  not, 
however,  possess  the  faculty  of  rolling  themselves  so  completely  into  a ball : they  have  no  tail ; their 
muzzle  is  very  pointed,  and  their  teeth  are  very  different.  On  each  jaw  are  from  four  to  six  incisors, 
and  two  large  canines : next  follow  one  or  two  small  teeth,  and  four  triangular  molars  with  sharply 
tuberculated  crowns.  They  are  natives  of  Madagascar,  one  species  having  been  naturalized  in  the 
Mauritius : are  also  nocturnal  animals,  which  pass  three  months  of  the  year  in  a state  of  lethargy, 
although  inhabiting  the  torrid  zone.  Brugiere  even  asserts  that  it  is  during  the  greatest  heats  that 
they  become  torpid. 

[Three  if  not  four  species  have  been  ascertained ; one  of  which,  the  Tendrac  of  Buffon  ( Erinaceus  setosus , Lin.), 
with  six  incisors  to  each,  jaw,  composes  the  Ericulus  of  Is.  Geoffroy. 

The  foregoing  genera  have  little  or  no  tail,  whereas  the  following  have  very  long  tails.] 

The  Gymnures  ( Gymnura , Yig.  and  Horsf.  [Echinosorex,  Blain.]  ) — 

“ Appear  to  approach  the  Banxring  in  dentition,  and  the  Shrews  by  the  pointed  muzzle  and  scaly  tail. 
There  are  five  unguiculated  toes  to  each  foot,  and  tolerably  stiff  [almost  spinous]  bristles  growing 
among  woolly  hair,  [resembling  the  close  fur  of  the  Shrews.]  It  can  only  be  properly  classed  when  its 
anatomy  is  known/’*  [The  general  aspect  is  that  of  a Tenrec,  with  a long,  naked,  and  scaly  tail.  There 
are  six  incisors  to  each  jaw,  the  medial  above  widely  separated,  large,  and  resembling  canines  ; the 
others  lateral,  and  successively  smaller : those  below  are  separated  into  two  pairs,  the  middle  ones 
being  somewhat  apart,  and  one  smaller  on  each  side.  The  canines  are  moderately  large,  and  somewhat 
curved,  those  of  the  upper  jaw  having  two  fangs  : next  follow,  on  each  jaw,  two  pairs  of  small  false 
molars,  succeeded  by  one  larger  above,  and  two  below  ; and  the  true  molars  are  four  in  number  above 
and  three  below,  square,  and  tuberculated  as  in  the  Urchin. 

The  only  known  species  (G.  Rafflesii)  inhabits  Sumatra,  and  is  larger  than  the  Urchin  of  Europe. 

The  various  preceding  genera  have  small  but  not  minute  eyes. 

The  Macroscelles  (Macroscelides , Smith ; Erinomys,  Blain. ; Rhynomys,  Lichst.) — 
Compose  a well-marked  genus,  somewhat  resembling  the  Shrews,  but  with  large  eyes  and  more  elong- 
ated hind-feet : their  fur  is  long  and  soft,  and  of  very  fine  texture.  They  have  six  (lateral)  incisors  to 
each  jaw,  minute  canines,  and  on  either  side  five  sharply  tuberculated  molars.  Their  habits  are 
diurnal,  and  they  retreat  into  burrows  or  beneath  stones  on  apprehension  of  danger. 

Eight  species  are  known,  all  from  South  Africa  except  one,  which  inhabits  Algiers.  They  are  called  Elephant 
Mice  in  the  Cape  Colony.] 

The  Banxrings  ( Tupaia , Raff. ; Cladobates , Fr.  Cuv.  [ Glisorex , Diard. ; Hylogale,  Tern.]  ), — 

A genus  lately  characterized,  from  the  Indian  Archipelago,  the  teeth  of  which  bear  some  resemblance 
to  those  of  the  Urchins,  only  that  their  middle  superior  incisors  are  proportionally  shorter,  and  there 
are  four  to  the  lower  jaw,  more  elongated,  [and  projecting  forwards  as  in  the  Lemurs]  ; they  also  [do 
not]  want  the  tuberculous  tooth  behind.  These  animals  are  covered  with  hair  [soft  and  glistening,  but 
not  fine  in  texture] , and  have  a long  bushy  tail ; and,  contrary  to  the  habits  of  other  Insectivora, 
they  ascend  trees  with  the  agility  of  a Squirrel,  but  their  pointed  muzzle  renders  them  easily  distin- 

* From  the  Appendix  to  the  author’s  edition.— Ed. 



guisliatle,  even  at  a distance.  [The  general  form  is  not  unlike  that  of  the  Marsupial  genus  Myrme - 
cohius : and  the  bony  orbits  of  the  cranium  are  sometimes  complete. 

Three  species  are  known,  the  T.  tana,  sumatrana,  and  ferruginea,  all  of  which  are  well  characterized  by  differ-  i 
ences  in  the  conformation  of  the  cranium,  in  addition  to  external  distinctions  : they  inhabit  trees,  and  are  lively 
and  active  animals.* 

All  the  remaining  genera  have  minute  eyes.] 

The  Shrews  (Sorex,  Lin.) — 

Are  generally  small,  and  covered  with  [soft]  hair.  Under  this,  on  each  flank,  there  is  a band  of  stiff, 
closely-set  bristles,  from  between  which,  during  the  rutting  season,  exudes  an  odorous  fluid,  the  product 
of  a peculiar  gland.  Their  two  middle  superior  incisors  are  hooked,  and  dentated  at  the  base  ; the 
lower  ones  slanting  and  elongated : five  small  teeth  follow  on  each  side  the  first,  and  only  two  the 
second.  There  are  besides,  on  each  jaw,  three  bristled  molars,  and  finally  on  the  upper  one  a small 
tuberculous  tooth.  These  animals  retire  to  holes  they  burrow  in  the  ground,  which  they  scarcely 
leave  till  towards  the  evening,  and  subsist  on  worms  and  insects. 

[We  have  observed  them  to  he  much  about  during  the  day,  under  shelter  of  close  herbage,  where  their  sibilant 
and  insect-like  cry  notifies  their  presence,  and  have  occasionally  seen  them  venture  forth  from  cover  when  all  was 
quiet.f  M.  Duvernoy  discovered  that  their  incisors  occupy,  from  the  first,  the  position  they  maintain  in  after-life, 
but  are  enveloped  for  a while  by  the  periostceum  or  investing  membrane  of  the  bone  to  which  they  are  attached, 
through  which  the  larger  protrude  some  time  before  the  others : he  accordingly  infers  that  these  animals  have  no 
milk-teeth.  The  same  naturalist  divides  this  genus  into 

1.  Sorex,  Duv.  (Crocidura,  Wagl. ; including  Myosorex,  Gray) ; wherein  the  edge  of  the  long  inferior  incisors  is 
unserrated ; that  of  the  upper  notched,  or  with  the  spur  appearing  as  a point  behind  ; the  small  lateral  teeth  which 
follow  are  three  or  four  in  number,  and  diminish  rapidly  in  size  from  the  first  to  the  last ; none  of  the  teeth  being 
coloured.  The  ears  are  conspicuously  developed,  and  the  tail  has  always  longer  and  coarser  hairs  mingled  with 
the  ordinary  short  ones.  This  group,  which  is  very  distinct,  comprises  all  the  numerous  extra-European  species, 
together  with  three  (S.  araneus,  Geoff.,  S.  Etruscus,  Savi,  and  S.  leucodon , Herm.)  which  are  met  with  on  this  con- 
tinent. None  occur  in  the  British  islands.  One  of  the  most  remarkable  is  S.  giganteus,  Is.  Geof.,  from  India, 
which  approaches  in  size  to  the  Black  Rat,  and  has  a follicle  on  each  side,  producing  a pungent  musky  secretion. 

The  remainder  have  the  ears  buried  in  the  fur,  and  consequently  inconspicuous. 

2.  Amphisorex,  Duv.  (Cor sir  a,  Gray.)— Incisors  of  the  lower  jaw  with  the  edge  dentelated  ; those  of  the  upper 
forked,  the  spur  behind  prolonged  to  a level  with  the  point  in  front : the  lateral  small  teeth  which  follow  five  in 
number,  and  diminishing  gradually  in  size  : all  the  teeth  more  or  less  coloured  at  the  tips.  The  British  species 
have  till  very  recently  been  confounded  together  under  the  name  araneus,  which  pertains  to  a continental  mem- 
ber of  the  preceding  division.^ 

3.  Hydrosorex,  Duv.  (Amphisorex  and  Crossopus,  Gray.)— The  inferior  incisors  with  an  entire  edge ; the  upper 
notched,  or  with  a spur  appearing  as  a point  behind : the  lateral  teeth  which  follow  in  the  upper  jaw  four 
in  number ; the  first  two  equal,  the  third  somewhat  smaller,  and  the  fourth  rudimentary : tips  of  all  the  teeth  a 
little  coloured.  This  division,  which  comprises  the  aquatic  species,  is  less  distinct  from  the  second  than  both  are 
from  the  first.  Crossopus  of  Gray  is  indeed  stated  to  have  the  lower  incisors  dentelated.  The  British  species 
require  further  elucidation.§ 

The  Shrews  compose  an  exceedingly  numerous  genus,  the  first  section  of  which  appears  to  be  almost  generally 
diffused.  They  renew  their  covering  both  in  spring  and  autumn,  acquiring  a longer  and  less  glossy  winter  coat ; 
and  the  mode  of  effecting  this  is  rather  peculiar,  the  change  commencing  at  the  head  and  proceeding  backward, 
preserving  a distinct  cross  line  of  demarcation  throughout  its  progress.  These  animals  are  often  found  dead  on 
foot-paths,  and  dry  ditches,  on  spots  devoid  of  herbage,  the  cause  of  which  remains  to  be  explained. 

* It  is  remarkable  that  tne  Squirrels  of  the  same  region  have  very- 
similar  fur,  both  in  colour  and  texture. 

t The  common  Shrike  [Latiiut  collurio)  preys  much  upon  our  native 
species. — Ed. 

t Mr.  Jenyns  distinguishes  them  as  follows:  all  are  of  a reddish- 
brown  colour. 

The  Common  Shrew  (A.  rusticus,  Jenyns). — Snout  and  feet  slender  : 
tail  moderately  stout,  nearly  cylindrical,  not  attenuated  at  the  tip, 
well  clothed  with  hairs,  which  are  very  divergent  in  the  young  state, 
and  never  closely  appressed.  It  appears  principally  to  frequent  dry 
situations — gardens,  hedge-banks,  &c. 

Irish  Shrew  (A.  hibernicus,  Jenyns). — Admitted  as  a species  doubt- 
fully, until  more  specimens  have  been  examined.  It  is  allied  to  but 
apparently  smaller  than  the  last,  with  the  colours  more  uniform,  and 
tail  shorter  and  more  slender. 

Square-tailed  Shrew  ( A . tetrngonurui,  Herm.) — The  snout  broad, 
compared  with  that  of  the  common  Shrew:  feet,  the  fore  especially, 
much  larger ; the  tail  slender,  more  quadrangular  at  all  ages,  and 
slightly  attenuated  at  the  tip  ; clothed  with  closely  appressed  hairs  in 
the  young  state,  in  age  nearly  naked  : upper  parts  very  deep  reddish 
brown  ; below,  dirty  yellowish-grey.  This  species  is  more  attached  to 

marshy  districts,  though  not  confined  to  them. 

Chestnut  Shrew  {A.  castaneus,  Jenyns). — Snout  and  feet  much  as 
in  the  last  species,  but  the  former  rather  more  attenuated  ; tail  mo- 
derately short,  nearly  round,  well  clothed  with  hairs,  which  form  at 
the  extremity  a long  pencil : upper  parts,  as  well  as  the  snout,  feet, 
and  tail,  bright  chestnut ; under  parts  ash-grey.  The  cranium  is 
broader  posteriorly  and  rather  more  elevated  in  the  crown  than  in 
A.  tetragonurus.  It  inhabits  the  same  marshy  districts. 

§ Mr.  Jenyns  distinguishes  the 

H.  fodiens,  Gm. — Of  a deep  brownish-black  above,  nearly  white 
beneath  ; the  two  colours  distinctly  separated  on  the  sides  : feet  and 
tail  ciliated  with  white  hairs.  It  inhabits  marshes  and  banks  in 
ditches,  but  is  occasionally  met  with  at  a distance  from  water.  It 
often  seeks  its  prey  at  the  bot  om  of  pools  under  water,  thus  approxi- 
mating in  habit  to  the  Desmans. 

S.ciliatua,Sowcrby{remifer  of  Varrell,  and  doubtfully  of  Geoffroy).— 
Black  above  ; greyish-black  beneath  ; throat  yellowish-ash  colour  : 
feet  and  tail  strongly  ciliated  with  greyish  hairs.  Is  found  in  the 
same  situations  as  the  preceding. 

There  is  reason  to  suspect  others,  one  or  more  marked  with  rufous 
on  the  under  parts  having  been  indicated  by  observers. — Ed. 



The  Solenodon  ( Solenodon , Brandt) — 

Resembles  a gigantic  Shrew,  but  with  coarse  fur,  and  proportionally  much  longer  whiskers : the  tail  is 
long,  naked,  and  scaly,  and  the  claws  considerably  more  developed.  There  are  six  incisors  to  each 
jaw,  the  first  pair  above,  and  the  second  pair  below,  very  large,  and  resembling  canines ; two  superior 
false  molars,  and  three  inferior,  on  each  side ; then  five  true  molars  above,  and  four  below,  subquad- 
rate, and  broad  or  transverse. 

The  species,  S.  paradoxus,  Brandt,  inhabits  Hayti,  and  is  larger  than  the  Brown  Rat.] 

The  Desmans  ( Mygale *,  Cuv.) — 

Differ  from  the  Shrews  by  having  [like  the  Solenodon]  two  very  small  teeth  placed  between  the  two 
large  inferior  incisors,  and  in  their  upper  incisors,  which  are  flattened  and  triangular.  Behind  these 
incisors  are  six  or  seven  small  teeth,  and  four  bristled  molars.  Their  muzzle  is  elongated  into  a small, 
very  flexible  proboscis,  which  is  constantly  in  motion.  Their  long  tail,  scaly  and  flattened  at  the  sides, 
and  their  feet  with  five  toes  all  connected  by  membrane,  proclaim  them  to  be  aquatic  animals.  Their 
eyes  are  very  small,  [the  fur  long,  straight,  and  divergent,]  and  they  have  no  external  ears. 

The  Russian  Desman  ( Sorex  moschatus,  Lin).— Nearly  equal  in  size  to  the  common  Urchin ; blackish  above, 
inclining  to  white  beneath ; the  tail  one  fourth  shorter  than  the  body.  It  is  very  common  along  the  rivers  and  lakes 
of  Southern  Russia,  where  it  feeds  on  worms,  the  larvae  of  insects,  and  particularly  on  Leeches,  which  it  easily  with- 
draws from  the  mud  by  means  of  its  flexible  proboscis.  Its  burrow,  excavated  in  a bank,  commences  under  water, 
and  ascends  to  above  the  level  of  the  highest  floods.  This  animal  never  comes  voluntarily  on  shore,  but  is  taken 
very  often  in  the  nets  of  the  fishermen.  Its  musky  odour  arises  from  a kind  of  pomatum  secreted  in  small  follicles 
under  the  tail,  and  is  even  communicated  to  the  flesh  of  Pike  which  devour  the  Desman. 

There  is  found  in  the  streamlets  of  the  Pyrenees  a smaller  species  of  this  genus,  which  has  the  tail  longer  than 
its  body  (Myg.  pyrenaica,  H.)  [This  constitutes  the  division  Mygalina  of  Isidore  Geoffroy. 

The  rest  of  the  Insectivora  have  amazingly  powerful  fore-feet,  designed  for  tearing  open  the  ground, 
rather  than  for  burrowing  by  merely  scratching  away  the  mould,  as  in  the  preceding  genera.] 

The  Chrysochlores  ( Chrysocloris , Lacepede), — 

Like  the  preceding  genus,  possess  two  incisors  above  and  four  below ; but  their  grinders  are  elevated, 
distinct,  and  nearly  all  in  the  form  of  triangular  prisms : the  muzzle  is  short,  broad,  and  recurved ; and 
their  fore-feet  have  only  three  nails,  of  which  the  exterior  is  very  large,  much  arcuated,  and  pointed, 
forming  a powerful  instrument  for  digging  and  burrowing  into  the  soil ; the  others  successively  decrease 
in  size.  Their  hind  limbs  have  five  toes  of  the  ordinary  dimensions.  They  are  subterraneous  animals, 
whose  mode  of  life  is  similar  to  that  of  the  Moles.  To  enable  them  to  dig  the  better,  their  fore-arm 
is  supported  by  a third  bone  placed  under  the  cubitus. 

The  Cape  Chrysochlore  ( Talpa  asiatica,  Lin.  [now  better  known  as  C.  capensis,  Desm.)]. — Rather  smaller  than 
our  Moles,  without  apparent  tail.  It  is  the  only  known  quadruped  which  presents  any  appearance  of  those  splendid 
metallic  reflections  which  adorn  so  many  birds,  fishes,  and  insects.  Its  fur  is  of  a green,  changing  to  copper  or 
bronze : the  ears  have  no  conch,  and  the  eyes  are  not  perceptible. f It  inhabits  Africa,  and  not  Siberia,  as  falsely 
reported.  [There  are  three  others,  C.  Hottentota,  Damarensis,  and  villosa,  all  from  the  same  general  locality.] 


The  Moles  {Talpa,  Lin.) — 

Are  well  known  for  their  subterraneous  life,  and  for  their  structure  eminently  qualified  in  adaptation  to 
it.  A very  short  arm,  attached  to  a large  shoulder-blade,  supported  by  a stout  clavicle,  and  provided 
with  enormous  muscles,  sustains  an  extremely  large  hand,  the  palm  of  which  is  always  directed  either 
outwards  or  backwards  : the  lower  edge  of  this  hand  is  trenchant,  and  the  fingers  scarcely  perceptible, 
but  the  nails  which  terminate  them  are  long,  flat,  strong,  and  sharp.  Such  is  the  instrument  which 
the  Mole  employs  to  tear  open  the  ground,  and  throw  back  the  mould  behind  it.  Its  sternum  possesses, 
in  common  with  that  of  Birds  and  Bats,  a ridge  which  allows  the  pectoral  muscles  to  attain  the  mag- 
nitude requisite  for  the  performance  of  their  functions.  To  pierce  and  raise  up  the  ground,  it  makes 

* This  name  being  preoccupied  by  a genus  of  Spiders,  Fischer  has 
altered  it  to  Myogalea. — Ed. 

t The  Red  Mole  of  America,  SebaT.  pi.  xxxii.  fig.  1,  ( Talpa  rubra, 
Lin.),  is  most  probably  a Cape  Chrysochlore,  figured  from  a dried  spe- 
cimen, for  then  the  fur  appears  purple.  [It  is  more  likely  the  Scalops 

canadensis .]  But  the  Tucan  of  Fernandez,  regarded  as  one  of  its 
synonymes,  appears  rather,  to  judge  from  its  two  long  teeth  to  each 
jaw,  and  vegetable  regimen,  to  be  some  subterraneous  rodent,  perhaps 
a Diplostomu. 



use  of  its  long,  pointed  head,  the  extremity  of  its  muzzle  being  provided  with  a peculiar  little  bone,  and 
the  cervical  muscles  being  extremely  powerful.  There  is  even  an  additional  bone  in  the  cervical  liga- 
ment. The  hinder  part  of  the  body  is  .feeble,  and  the  animal  above  ground  advances  as  awkwardly  as 
it  does  rapidly  below  the  surface.  Its  sense  of  hearing  is  extremely  acute,  and  the  tympanum  very 
large,  although  there  is  no  external  ear ; but  the  eyes  are  so  small,  and  so  hidden  beneath  the  hair, 
that  their  existence  even  was  denied  for  a long  while.  [They  have  been  ascertained,  however,  to  he 
tolerably  sharp-sighted.]  The  genital  organs  have  this  peculiarity,  that  the  bones  of  the  pubis  do  not 
become  joined ; by  reason  of  which,  notwithstanding  the  narrowness  of  the  pelvis,  they  are  enabled  to 
produce  tolerably  large  young  ones : the  urethra  of  the  female  passes  through  the  clitoris : she  has 
six  teats.  The  jaws  are  feeble,  and  the  food  consists  of  insects,  worms,  and  some  tender  roots,  [chiefly, 
however,  worms,  though  even  small  birds  are  sometimes  sacrificed  to  their  voracity,  when  they  can 
dart  upon  them  from  the  entrance  of  their  runs].  There  are  six  incisors  above  and  eight  below.*  The 
canines  have  two  roots,  in  which  respect  they  partake  of  the  nature  of  false  molars  f : behind  them  are 
four  false  molars  above,  and  three  below  ; and  finally,  three  bristled  molars.  [The  fur  is  set  vertically 
in  the  skin,  whence  it  has  no  grain  or  particular  direction.] 

Our  common  European  Mole  (T.  Europcea,  Lin.)— Entirely  black,  but  often  varying  to  white,  fulvous,  or  pied. 
[A  most  remarkable  animal,  not  only  for  the  ardour  of  its  passions,  appetites,  and  emotions,  but  for  the  curious 
instincts  with  which  it  is  endowed,  more  particularly  with  regard  to  the  complicated  regularity  of  its  subterraneous 
dwelling  and  galleries.]  According  to  M.  Harlan,  this  species  likewise  exists  in  North  America  [or,  at  any  rate, 
there  is  a species  stated  to  be  from  that  continent  most  closely  allied  to  it,  of  which  the  Zoological  Society  of 
London  possess  specimens.] 

M.  Savi  has  found  a Mole  in  the  Apennines  said  to  be  quite  blind,  although  otherwise  similar  to  the  common  one 
(the  T.  cceca,  Sav.) : it  is  not,  however,  perfectly  blind,  for  the  eyelids  have  an  opening,  though  smaller  than  in  the 
common  Mole.  The  existence  of  the  optic  nerve  in  this  last  species  has  been  denied : I think  I can  demonstrate 
it  throughout  its  course.  (Two  other  species  are  known,  T.japonica  and  T.  moogura.'] 

The  Cond  ( Condylura , Illig.), — 

Seem  to  combine  the  two  kinds  of  dentition  of  the  Insectivora  : their  upper  jaw  has  two  large  trian- 
gular incisors,  two  others  which  are  extremely  small  and  slender,  and  upon  each  side  a strong  canine ; 
the  lower  jaw  has  four  incisors  slanting  forward,  and  a pointed  canine  of  small  size.  Their  superior 
false  molars  are  triangular,  and  separated  ; the  lower  dentelated  and  trenchant.  In  their  feet  and  whole 
exterior,  the  animals  of  this  genus  resemble  the  Moles,  but  have  a longer  tail,  and,  what  very  readily 
distinguishes  them,  their  nostrils  are  encircled  with  small  moveable  cartilaginous  points,  which,  when 
they  separate,  radiate  like  a star. 

[Three  or  four  species  are  now  known,  all  from  North  America.  Among  them  is]  Sorex  cristatus,  Lin. 

The  Shrew-moles  ( Scalops , Cuv.) — 

Have  teeth  rather  similar  to  those  of  the  Desmans,  except  that  their  small  or  false  molars  are  less 
numerous  ; the  muzzle  is  simply  pointed,  as  in  the  Shrews  ; and  their  hands  are  widened,  armed  with 
strong  nails,  and  in  short  adapted  for  digging  into  the  ground  precisely  as  in  the  Moles,  which  they 
entirely  resemble  in  their  mode  of  life.  Their  eyes  are  equally  small,  and  their  ears  concealed  in  the 
same  manner. 

Sorex  aquaticus,  Lin. — Appears  to  inhabit  a very  great  part  of  North  America,  along  the  rivers  : externally,  it 
so  nearly  resembles  the  European  Mole  as  to  be  readily  mistaken  for  it.  [Three  other  species,  from  the  same 
general  locality,  have  been  recently  discovered. 

The  Insectivora,  according  to  the  views  of  De  Blainville,  should  constitute  an  entirely 
distinct  order,  intermediate  to  the  Cheiroptera  and  Edentata. 

They  present  an  almost  unbroken  series  of  successively  distinct  divisions,  more  or  less  allied 
together.  The  most  definite  super-generic  section  is  that  composed  of  the  four  genera  last  in 
order,  or  the  various  animals  analogous  to  the  European  Mole.  At  the  other  end  of  the  series, 
the  spinous  genera,  at  first  sight,  appear  equally  separated ; but  they  certainly  grade  through 
Centenes  and  then  Gymnura  to  the  Shrews,  which  are  again  related  to  the  Talpidcej  if,  indeed, 
the  line  of  separation  should  not  be  drawn  between  Centenes , and  Erinaceus  and  Echinops : the 

* Were  this  truly  the  case,  it  would  be  an  anomaly  throughout  pla-  I incisors  as  the  real  canines.— Ed. 
cental  Mammalia : but  as  the  lower  canines,  as  thus  assigned,  close  t There  is  no  essential  difference  between  canines  and  false  molars, 
within  the  upper,  we  are  led  to  identify  the  exterior  pair  of  seeming  | See  p.  77. — Ed. 



different  generic  groups,  however,  maintain  their  integrity.  Macroscelides  and  Tupaia  are  the 
least  conformable  with  the  others ; but  neither  are  these  much  removed  in  their  more  essential 
characters.  As  a whole,  they  compose  a very  natural  and  appreciable  division,  and  our  author 
assigns  them  a rank  equivalent  to  the  Cheiroptera  on  the  one  hand,  and  to  the  Carni- 
vora, comprising  his  Plantigrada,  Digitigrada,  and  Amphibia,  on  the  other. 

Remains  of  three  species  of  Sorex,  one  of  Talpa,  and  one  of  Erinaceus,  have  been  found  in 
| the  European  Tertiary  deposits,  apparently  referable  to  species  still  in  existence.  The  present 
| range  of  the  division  does  not  extend  to  South  America*  nor  Australia,  where,  however,  it 
I appears  to  be  adequately  represented  by  the  numerous  small  Marsupiata,  peculiar  to  those 
regions;  a curious  fact,  first  noticed  by  Waterhouse,  and  since  by  De  Blainville.] 



Although  the  designation  carnivorous  is  applicable  to  all  unguiculated  Mammalia,  except 
the  Quadrumana,  which  have  three  sorts  of  teeth,  inasmuch  as  they  all  subsist  more  or  less  on 
animal  matter,  there  are  nevertheless  many,  more  especially  of  the  two  preceding  families, 
which  are  reduced  by  the  feebleness  and  the  conical  tubercles  of  their  grinders  to  prey  almost 
entirely  on  insects.  In  the  present  family,  the  sanguinary  appetite  is  combined  with  the  force 
necessary  for  its  gratification.  There  are  always  four  stout  and  long  separated  canines, 
between  which  are  six  incisors  to  each  jaw,  of  which  the  second  inferior  are  inserted  a little 
more  inward  than  the  rest.  The  molars  are  either  wholly  cutting,  or  have  some  blunted 
tuberculous  parts,  but  they  are  never  studded  with  sharp  conical  projections. 

These  animals  are  the  more  exclusively  carnivorous,  in  proportion  as  their  teeth  are  more 
completely  trenchant  or  cutting,  so  that  the  degree  of  admixture  of  their  regimen  may  be 
almost  calculated  from  the  extent  of  the  tuberculous  surface  of  their  teeth,  as  compared  with 
the  cutting  portion.  The  Bears,  which  can  live  altogether  on  vegetables,  have  nearly  all  their 
teeth  tuberculated. 

The  anterior  molars  are  the  most  trenchant ; next  follows  a molar,  larger  than  the  others, 
which  has  usually  a tuberculous  projection,  differing  in  size ; and  then  follow  one  or  two 
smaller  teeth,  that  are  entirely  flat.  It  is  with  these  small  hindward  teeth  that  the  Dog  chews 
the  herbage  that  he  sometimes  swallows.  We  will  call,  with  M.  F.  Cuvier,  this  large  upper 
molar,  and  its  corresponding  one  below,  carnivorous  teeth  j the  anterior  pointed  ones,  false 
molars,  and  the  posterior  blunt  ones,  tuberculous  molars. 

It  is  easy  to  conceive  that  the  genera  which  have  fewer  false  molars,  and  of  which  the  jaws 
are  shorter,  are  consequently  better  adapted  for  biting. 

Upon  these  differences  the  genera  can  be  most  surely  established. 

The  consideration  of  the  hind-foot,  however,  must  also  be  attended  to. 

Several  genera,  like  those  of  the  two  preceding  families,  in  walking,  place  the  whole  sole  of  the 
foot  on  the  ground,  a circumstance  [generally]  indicated  by  the  absence  of  hair  on  all  that  part.f 

Others,  and  by  far  the  greater  number,  rest  on  only  the  ends  of  the  toes,  elevating  the  tarse. 
Their  gait  is  more  rapid,  and  to  this  primary  difference  are  added  many  others  of  habit,  and 
even  of  internal  conformation.  In  both,  the  clavicle  is  a mere  bony  rudiment  suspended  in 
the  muscles. 

The  Plantigrada 

Constitute  this  first  tribe,  which  walk  on  the  whole  sole  of  the  foot,  a circumstance  which  gives 
them  greater  facility  of  standing  upright  upon  their  hind-feet.  They  partake  of  the  slowness 

* Sorex  tristriatus  of  some  of  the  old  authors  is  a true  I with  hair  : the  same  is  observable  in  some  Martens  ; while  others  of 

Ed.  this  genus  have  the  sole  altogether  naked. — Ed. 

t In  the  Polar  Bear,  and  Panda,  the  sole  is  completely  covered  | 



and  nocturnal  life  of  the  Insectivora,  and,  like  them,  have  no  ccecum  : most  of  those  which 
inhabit  cold  countries  pass  the  winter  in  a state  of  lethargy.  All  have  five  toes  to  each  foot. 

The  Bears  ( Ursus , Lin.) — 

Possess  three  large  molars  on  each  side  of  both  jaws*,  altogether  tuberculous,  and  of  which  the  poste- 
rior above  are  the  most  extended.  These  are  preceded  by  a tooth  a little  more  trenchant,  which  is  the 
carnivorous  tooth  of  this  genus  f,  and  by  a variable  number  of  very  small  false  molars,  which  sometimes 
fall  at  an  early  age.  This  system  of  dentition,  almost  frugivorous,  explains  why,  notwithstanding  their 
great  strength,  the  animals  of  this  genus  devour  flesh  only  from  necessity. 

They  are  large  stout-bodied  animals,  with  thick  limbs,  and  tail  extremely  short : the  cartilage  of  tlieir 
nose  is  elongated  and  moveable.  They  excavate  dens  and  construct  huts  [?],  where  they  pass  the 
winter  in  a state  of  somnolency  more  or  less  profound,  and  without  taking  food.  It  is  in  these  retreats 
that  the  female  brings  forth. 

The  species  are  not  easily  distinguished  by  obvious  characters. 

The  Brown  Bear  ( U.  arctos,  Lin.)  of  Europe,  has  the  forehead  convex  : fur,  brown,  more  or  less  woolly  when 
young,  becoming  smoother  with  age.  It  varies,  however,  considerably  in  colour,  and  also  in  the  relative  propor- 
tion of  parts:  the  young  have  generally  a pale  collar,  which  in  some  is  permanent.  This  animal  inhabits  the 
high  mountains  and  extensive  forests  of  Europe,  together  with  a great  part  of  Asia.  [The  Barren-ground  Bear  of 

North  America  appears  to  be  undistinguishable.] 
It  couples  in  June,  and  brings  forth  in  January ; 
nestles  sometimes  very  high  up  in  trees ; its  flesh 
is  good  eating  when  young,  and  the  paws  are  much 
esteemed  at  all  ages.  [The  Black  Bear  of  Europe 
is  now  generally  regarded  as  a mere  variety.] 

The  Black  Bear  ( U . americanus,  Gm.)  of  North 
America,  is  a species  well  distinguished,  with  a 
flat  forehead,  smooth  and  black  fur,  and  fulvous 
muzzle.  We  have  always  found  the  small  teeth 
behind  its  canines  to  be  more  numerous  than  in 
the  Bear  of  Europe.  It  lives  chiefly  on  wild  fruits, 
and  where  fish  is  abundant  sometimes  frequents 
the  shores  for  the  purpose  of  catching  it ; resorts 
to  flesh  only  in  default  of  other  food,  [and  is  then 
destructive  to  Pigs  ; is  a great  devourer  of  honey, 
in  common  with  most  others  of  the  genus] : its 
flesh  is  highly  esteemed.  There  is  another  Black 
Bear  found  in  the  Cordilleras,  with  white  throat 
and  muzzle,  and  large  fulvous  eye-brows  ( U . or- 
natus,  F.  Cuv.),  [considered  by  many  to  be  a variety  of  U.  americanus.  The  Jardin  des  Plantes,  however,  has  lately 
received  a Bear  from  the  Peruvian  Andes,  which  appears  very  distinct : colour  of  U.  arctos,  with  larger  ears. 

The  gigantic  Grisly  Bear  ( U . fcrox),  now  a well-known  species,  from  the  Rocky  Mountains  of  North  America,  is 
the  most  formidable  of  all  the  land  Bears,  and  by  much  the  largest.  It  can  only  ascend  trees,  as  the  others  do, 
when  young.  It  constitutes  the  ill-characterized  subgenus  Danis  of  Gray. 

The  Syrian  Bear  ( TJ . syriacus)  is  of  a fulvous  white  colour,  with  a stiff  mane  of  close  erected  hairs  be- 
tween the  shoulders.  The  species  which  inhabits  the  Atlas  chain  of  mountains  remains  to  be  ascertained.] 

The  East  Indies  produce  several  Bears  of  a black  colour ; such  as 

The  Malayan  Bear  (U.  malayanus) ; from  the  peninsula  beyond  the  Ganges  to  the  islands  of  the  Straits  of  Sunda. 
— Sleek  [with  comparatively  short  fur],  a fulvous  muzzle,  and  heart-shaped  mark  of  the  same  colour  upon  the  chest. 
[This,  and  another  species,  or  perhaps  variety,  ( U . euryspilus,)  with  the  whole  chest  fulvous,  from  Borneo,  consti- 
tute the  division  Helarctos  of  Horsfield,  or  the  Sun  Bears.  They  are  small,  and  of  very  gentle  and  playful  dispo- 
sition, easily  rendered  quite  tame.]  It  is  very  injurious  to  the  cocoa-nut  trees,  which  it  climbs  in  order  to  devour 
the  tops,  and  drink  the  milk  of  the  fruit. 

The  Thibet  Bear  ( U . thibeticus,  F.  Cuv.)— -' Black  ; the  under  lip,  and  a large  mark  in  the  form  of  a Y on  the 
breast,  w’hite  ; profile  straight  and  claws  weak.  [Is  intermediate  to  the  preceding  and  next  species.]  From  the 
mountains  in  the  north  of  India. 

The  most  remarkable,  however,  of  all  these  Indian  Bears  is  the  following,  of  which  Illiger  forms  his  genus 

Fig.  24.— The  Black  Bear. 

* We  shall  no  longer  repeat  the  words  on  each  side,  Sec. ; it  being 
understood  that  where  the  molars  of  one  side  are  spoken  of,  those 
of  the  other  correspond. 

t Although  it  may  seem  presumptuous  to  attempt  to  set  Cuvier 
right  in  matters  of  this  kind,  it  is  nevertheless  sufficiently  obvious,  on 

analogical  comparison  of  the  Bear’s  dentition  with  that  of  proximate 
genera,  that  the  third  tooth  in  succession  front  behind  represents  the 
cutting  or  carnivorous  tooth  in  each  jaw,  there  being  two  tuberculous 
grinders  in  this  and  the  five  succeeding  genera  (which  together  com- 
pose a distinct  natural  group),  and  one  only  in  the  remainder. — Ed. 

G 2 



The  Jungle  Bear  (IT.  labiatus,  Blainv. : U.  longirostris , Tied  : Bradypus  ursinus,  Shaw),  which  has  the  nasal 
cartilage  dilated,  and  the  tip  of  the  under  lip  elongated,  both  lips  being  moveable  : when  old,  very  long  shaggy 
hairs  surround  the  head.  The  muzzle  and  tips  of  the  paws  are  fulvous  or  whitish,  and  there  is  a half-collar 
or  Y-like  marking  on  the  fore-neck  and  cheek.  [The  incisors  of  this  species  generally  drop  at  an  early 

age.]  It  is  a favourite  with  the  Indian  jugglers 
on  account  of  its  uncouth  appearance. 

M.  Horsfield  describes  another  Bear  from  Nipal 
of  a light  bay  colour,  the  nails  of  which  are  less 
trenchant  than  those  of  the  other  Bears  of  India, 
and  which  appears  to  him  a distinct  species.  We 
have  also  recovered  many  fossil  bones  of  lost  spe- 
cies of  Bears ; the  most  remarkable  of  which  are 
U.  spelaeus,  Blumenb.,  with  a rounded  forehead, 
and  of  very  large  size ; and  U.  cultridens,  Cuv.,  for 
which  see  the  fourth  vol.  of  my  Ossemens  Fos- 
siles : [another  extinct  species  {TJ.  sivalensis, 
Caut.  and  Falc.),  has  been  detected  in  the  Sivalik 
deposits  of  the  sub-Himmalayas.]  Lastly, 

The  Polar  Bear  ( Ursus  maritimus,  Lin.),  is  yet 
another  species,  very  distinctly  characterized  by 
its  lengthened  and  flat  head,  and  by  its  smooth 
and  white  fur.  It  pursues  Seals  and  other  marine 
animals  [on  the  polar  ice,  but  in  captivity  will 
thrive,  like  the  rest,  on  vegetable  food  only.  It  is  the  largest  of  the  genus,]  and  exaggerated  reports  of  its  voracity 
have  rendered  it  very  celebrated.  [It  constitutes  the  Thalarctos  of  Gray.] 

The  Raccoons  (Procyon,  Storr.) — 

Have  three  tuberculous  back  molars  [the  first  representing  the  carnivorous  tooth] , of  which  the  superior 
are  nearly  square,  and  three  pointed  false  molars  before  them,  forming  a continuous  series  to  the 
canines,  which  are  straight  and  compressed.  Their  tail  is  [moderately]  long ; but  the  rest  of  their 
exterior  is  that  of  a Bear  in  miniature.  They  rest  the  whole  sole  of  their  foot  on  the  ground  only 
when  they  are  still,  raising  the  heel  when  they  advance.  [Are  peculiar  to  the  western  continent.] 

The  Common  Raccoon  ( Ursus  lotor,  Lin.;  Mapach  of  the  Mexicans.)— Greyish  brown;  the  muzzle  white;  a 
brown  streak  across  the  eyes : tail  annulated  with  brown  and  white  rings.  An  animal  the  size  of  a Badger,  which 
is  easily  tamed,  and  remarkable  for  a singular  instinct  of  eating  nothing  that  it  has  not  previously  dipped  in  water. 
It  is  a native  of  North  America,  and  subsists  on  eggs,  birds,  &c. 

The  Crab-eating  Raccoon  (P.  cancrivorus,  Buff.  Supp.  vi.  xxxii.) — Uniform  ash-brown ; the  caudal  rings  less 
distinct.  From  South  America.  [Three  others  have  been  described  by  Prof.  Wiegmann,  (see  Ann.  Nat.  Hist. 
i.  133),  of  which  P.  Hernandrii,  Wagler,  would  appear  to  be  dubiously  separable  from  P.  lotor.'] 

The  Panda  ( Ailurus , F.  Cuv.) — 

Fig.  25. — The  Jungle  Bear. 

Appears  to  approximate  the  Raccoons  by  its  canines  and  what  is  known  of  its  other  teeth ; except 
that  it  has  only  one  false  molar.  “ Gen.  Hardwicke  has  since  described  it  to  have  four  square  tuberculous 
molars,  and  one  trenchant  false  molar  in  front,  at  a short  distance  from  the  canine.,,  The  head  is 
short ; tail  [rather]  long  ; gait  plantigrade,  the  toes  five  in  number,  with  half-retractile  nails. 

Only  one  is  known,  the  Bright  Panda  (A.  refulgens,  F.  Cuv.)— Size  of  a large  Cat ; the  fur  soft  and  thickly  set : 
above  of  the  richest  cinnamon-red ; behind  more  fulvous,  and  deep  black  beneath.  The  head  is  whitish,  and  the  tail 

annulated  with  brown.  This  beautiful  species,  one  of 
the  handsomest  of  known  quadrupeds,  from  the  moun- 
tains of  the  north  of  India,  was  sent  to  Europe  by  my 
late  son-in-law,  M.  Alfred  du  Yaucel.  [It  frequents 
the  vicinity  of  rivers  and  mountain  torrents,  passes 
much  of  its  time  upon  trees,  and  feeds  on  birds  and 
the  smaller  quadrupeds.  Is  generally  discovered  by 
means  of  its  loud  cry  or  call,  which  resembles  the  sound 
wha,  often  repeated.  The  soles  of  its  feet  are  hairy.] 

Are  also  related  to  the  Raccoons  by  their  denti- 
tion ; hut  the  three  superior  back  molars  are 
considerably  smaller,  and  less  tuberculous,  the 
last  one  of  each  jaw  more  particularly,  which  is  very  small  and  almost  simple.  These  animals  are 



covered  with  long  hair,  and  have  a tuft  at  each  ear.  The  tail  is  long,  hairy,  and  has  a propensity  to 
curl,  as  if  prehensile ; [which  it  really  is  : their  whiskers  are  long  and  conspicuous]. 

They  are  also  natives  of  India,  for  the  first  knowledge  of  which  we  are  indebted  to  M.  du  Vaucel.  One  species 
(let.  albifrons,  F.  Cuv.)  is  grey,  with  the  tail  and  sides  of  the  muzzle  black ; of  the  size  of  a large  Cat ; from 
Boutan.  Another  (let.  ater,  F.  Cuv.)  is  black,  with  a whitish  muzzle,  and  as  large  as  a stout  Dog ; from  Malacca. 
[The  latter  is  merely  the  male,  and  the  other  the  female  of  the  same  species,  which  is  rather  a slow-moving 
animal,  allied  to  the  last  in  habit,  of  a timid  disposition,  and  easily  tamed.  The  Ictide  doree,  F.  Cuv.,  is  a 
species  of  Musang  (Paradoxurus).  ] 

The  Coatimondis  {Nasua,  Storr), — 

To  the  dentition,  tail  [which  however  is  longer],  nocturnal  life,  and  slow  dragging  gait  of  the 
Raccoons,  add  a singularly  elongated  and  moveable  snout.  Their  feet  are  semi-palmate,  notwith- 
standing which  they  climb  trees  [with  great  facility,  and  descend  them  head  foremost,  clinging  by 
their  hind  feet,  which  they  almost  reverse].  Their  long  claws  serve  them  to  dig  with ; [and  they  feed 
voraciously  on  earth-worms,  slugs  and  snails,  also  on  small  mammalians  (which  they  catch  adroitly), 
birds  and  their  eggs,  together  with  fruits  and  vegetables].  They  inhabit  the  warm  parts  of  America, 
and  subsist  on  nearly  the  same  food  as  our  Martens. 

The  Red  Coatimondi  (Viverra  nasua,  Lin. ; N.  rufa,  Desm.)— Rufo-fulvous,  the  muzzle  and  caudal  annulations 
brown.  And  the  Brown  Coatimondi  ( V . narica,  Lin. ; N.fusca,  Desm.) — Brown,  with  white  spots  over  the  eye 
and  snout.  [These  animals  employ  their  claws  to  divide  flesh,  which  they  thus  tear  and  separate  before  devour- 
ing it.] 

The  Kinkajou  ( Cercoleptes , Illiger) — 

Can  scarcely  be  introduced  elsewhere  than  in  this  place  [which  is  unquestionably  its  true  position]. 
To  the  plantigrade  gait,  it  joins  a very  long  tail,  prehensile,  as  in  the  Sapajous*,  a short  muzzle,  slender 
and  extensile  tongue,  with  two  pointed  grinders  before,  and  three  tuberculous  ones  backward,  [the 
first  of  which  latter  represents  the  carnivorous  tooth]. 

But  one  species  is  known  ( Viverra  caudivolvula,  Gm.),  from  the  warm  parts  of  America  and  some  of  the  Great 
Antilles,  where  it  is  named  Potto  f : size  of  a Fitchet,  [and  larger] ; the  fur  woolly,  and  of  a yellowish  [or  golden] 
brown : nocturnal,  and  of  a mild  and  gentle  disposition ; subsisting  on  fruits,  honey,  milk,  blood,  &c.  [It  is  emi- 
nently axl  arboreal  quadruped,  which  moves  with  a cautious  gait,  recalling  to  mind  some  of  the  Quadrumana. 

There  is  a Mexican  animal  to  which  Lichtenstein  has  assigned  the  generic  name  Bassaris,  and  which 
Blainville  and  others  have  associated  with  the  Viverrine  genera,  but  which  I greatly  suspect  must 
rather  be  placed  near  the  Kinkajou,  though  I have  not  at  present  the  means  of  ascertaining  its  cha- 
racters. In  form  it  is  not  unlike  a Musang  ( Paradoxurus .)  % 

The  remaining  genera  are  only  semi-plantigrade  (that  is,  they  do  not  bring  the  heel  quite 
to  the  ground),  and  possess  but  one  tuberculous  grinder,  which  varies  greatly  in  extent  of 
surface : none  of  them  become  torpid  in  winter ; and  they  all  emit,  when  alarmed,  a defensive 
odour,  which  in  many  is  horribly  fetid.] 

The  Badgers  ( Meles , Storr), § — 

Which  Linnaeus  placed,  together  with  the  Raccoons,  in  his  genus  of  Bears,  have  one  very  small  tooth 
behind  the  canine,  then  two  pointed  molars,  followed  in  the  upper  jaw  by  one  which  we  begin  to 
recognize  as  carnivorous,  from  the  trace  of  a cutting  character  which  it  exhibits  on  its  outer  side ; 
behind  this  is  a square  tuberculous  tooth,  the  largest  of  the  series ; and,  on  the  lower  jaw,  the  last  but 
one  likewise  commences  to  bear  some  resemblance  to  the  inferior  carnivorous  tooth ; but  as  there 
are  two  tubercles  on  its  inward  border  as  elevated  as  its  cutting  point,  it  performs  the  office  of  a 
tuberculous  one ; the  last  below  is  very  small.  [The  Badger,  in  fact,  has  precisely  the  same  den- 
tition as  the  Weasels  and  Otters,  presenting  a modification  of  that  type  for  less  carnivorous  regimen.] 
These  animals  have  the  tardy  gait  and  nocturnal  habit  of  all  the  preceding ; their  tail  is  short,  [and 

* One  which  I had  an  opportunity  of  studying,  as  it  ran  about  loose 
in  a room,  possessed  the  prehensile  power  of  the  tail  in  an  extremely 
moderate  degree,  merely  resting  slightly  on  this  organ,  which  it 
stiffened  throughout  its  length,  and  never  coiled  in  the  manner  of  the 
Sapajous. — Ed. 

t This  term,  applied  by  the  negroes  in  Africa  to  a Lemurine  animal 
(Perodicticus) , has  been  introduced  by  them,  and  misapplied  in  other 
countries. — Ed. 

t Strong  presumptive  evidence  that  the  Basset  ( Bassaris ) does  not 
appertain  to  the  Viverrine  group,  is  afforded  by  the  restriction  of  the 
geographic  range  of  the  latter  to  the  eastern  hemisphere,  in  every 
other  instance.  The  presence  or  absence  of  a coecum  would  decide 
the  question. 

§ Taxus  of  some  systematists  : but  this  name  is  employed  in  Botany 
for  the  Yew  genus. — Ed. 



commonly  held  erect] . Their  toes  are  much  enveloped  in  the  skin  ; and,  what  eminently  distinguishes 

them,  is  a pouch  situate  beneath  the  tail, 
from  which  exudes  a fatty,  fetid  humour,  [as 
in  the  Skunks,  Weasels,  &c.,  to  which  the 
Badgers  are  very  closely  allied].  The  long 
claws  of  their  fore-feet  enable  them  to  burrow 
with  much  facility. 

The  European  Badger  (Ur sits  meles , Lin. ; M. 
taxus,  Auct.)— Greyish  above,  beneath  black,  with 
a dusky  band  on  each  side  of  the  head.  That  of 
America  (Mel.  hudsonius  [ (?)  M.  labradorius,  Sa- 
bine; Ursus  taxus , Schreb.]  does  not  appear  to 
differ  essentially.  [It  is  even  generically  very  dis- 
tinct, pertaining  to  the  next  division.  A second 
species  of  Badger,  however,  appears  to  me  to  ex- 
ist in  the  Balysaur  of  India  (Arctonyx  collaris, 
F.  Cuv. ; Mydaus  collaris,  Gray,)  which  M.  F. 
Cuvier  has  represented  much  too  Hog-like  in 
his  figure;  the  snout  being  scarcely  longer  than 
that  of  the  European  Badger,  the  fur  somewhat 
coarser,  and  the  tail  (which  almost  reaches  the  ground)  not  so  scantily  covered  with  hair  as  stated.*  A 
cranium  figured  as  that  of  the  Balysaur  by  Mr.  Gray,  in  his  published  series  of  Gen.  Hardwicke’s  drawings, 
appears  to  me  to  indicate  another  species,  distinguished  by  the  long  vacant  interspace  between  the  inferior  canine 
and  first  existing  molar.  This  genus  would  seem  to  be  peculiar  to  the  eastern  continent. 

The  T axels  ( Taxidea , Waterh.) — 

Are  the  reputed  Badgers  of  America,  but  which  present  a very  different  cranium,  and  more  carnivorous 
dentition : their  cutting  molar  is  increased,  and  the  tubercular  reduced,  to  an  equal  size ; the  latter 

having  a triangular  crown : skull  widest  at 
the  occiput,  where  it  is  abruptly  truncated ; 
the  auditory  bullae  much  developed;  and 
articulating  surface  of  the  lower  jaw  ex- 
tended, but  not  locking  as  in  the  Badgers. 
Their  claws  are  longer  and  stouter,  enabling 
them  to  burrow  with  great  rapidity. 

One  only  is  clearly  ascertained,  the  T.  labra- 
doria  ( Ursus  taxus,  Schreb.)  Remarkable  for 
the  fine  quality  of  its  fur.  Dr.  Richardson 
has  taken  a Marmot  from  the  stomach  of  this 

The  Bharsiah  ( Ursotaxus , Hodgson). 

Four  cheek-teeth  above  and  below,  com- 
prising two  superior  and  three  inferior  false 
molars  ; the  tubercular  of  the  upper  jaw  transverse,  and  smaller  than  the  carnivorous  tooth.  General 
conformation  similar  to  that  of  the  Badger,  but  without  external  ears . 

But  one  species  is  known  (N.  inauritus,  Hodg.,  Asiat.  Res.  xix.  60,  and  Journ.  As.  Soc.  v.  621),  from  the 
vicinity  of  Nipal,  scantily  covered  with  coarse  hair.  It  is  completely  plantigrade  and  fossorial,  dwelling  in  bur- 
rows on  the  southern  slopes  of  the  hills,  which  it  seldom  leaves  during  the  day.] 

The  Wolverines  ( Gulo , Storr) — 

Have  also  been  placed  in  the  Bear  genus  by  Linnaeus  ; but  they  rather  approximate  the  Martens  in 
their  dentition  and  general  character,  according  only  with  the  Bears  in  their  plantigrade  gait.  They 
have  three  false  molars  above,  and  four  below,  anterior  to  the  carnivorous  tooth,  which  is  well  cha- 
racterized ; and  behind  this  a small  tubercular,  which  is  wider  than  long.  Their  upper  carnivorous 
tooth  has  but  one  small  internal  tubercle,  so  that  they  have  nearly  the  same  dental  system  as  the 

* There  is  a figure,  in  Bewick’s  Quadrupeds,  apparently  of  this  i Tower  Menagerie.  The  description  intimates  its  near  resemblance 
species,  taken  from  a seemingly  unhealthy  individual  confined  in  the  | to  the  common  Badger. 

Fig.  25.— Common  Badger. 



Martens.  These  animals  have  the  tail  of  middle  length,  with  a fold  beneath  it  in  place  of  a pouch ; and 
their  foot  is  very  similar  to  that  of  a Badger. 

The  most  celebrated  species  is  the  Glutton  of  the  north,  Rossomak  of  the  Russians  ( Ursus  gulo,  Lin.) ; size  of  a 
Badger,  and  commonly  of  a fine  deep  maroon  colour,  with  a browner  disk  on  the  back  ; but  sometimes  it  is  paler. 
It  inhabits  the  glacial  regions  of  the  north,  is  reputed  to  be  very  sanguinary  and  ferocious,  hunts  by  night,  does 
not  become  torpid  during  the  winter,  and  subdues  the  largest  animals  by  leaping  upon  them  from  a tree.  Its 
voracity  has  been  absurdly  exaggerated  by  some  authors.  The  Wolverine  of  North  America  ( Ursus  luscus,  Lin.) 
does  not  appear  to  differ  by  any  constant  characters,  but  is  generally  of  a paler  tint.  [Excepting  in  size  and 
massiveness,  I cannot  perceive  that  this  animal  differs  from  the  Martens  : assuredly  it  does  not  in  the  structure 
of  its  feet.] 

Warm  climates  produce  some  species  which  can  only  be  placed  near  the  Wolverines,  from  which  they  differ  merely 
in  having  one  false  molar  less  to  each  jaw,  and  by  a longer  tail.  Such  are  the  animals  termed  by  the  Spanish 
inhabitants  of  North  America  Ferrets  ( Hurons ),  and  which  in  point  in  fact  have  the  dentition  of  our  Ferrets  and 
Weasels,  and  lead  the  same  kind  of  life  ; but  they  are  distinguished  by  their  semi-plantigrade  carriage,  [or  rather 
by  having  their  soles  uncovered  with  hair].  Such  are 

The  Orison  ( Viverra  vittata,  Lin.)— Black,  the  top  of  the  head  and  neck  grey,  a white  band  reaching  from  the 
forehead  to  the  shoulders.  [This  constitutes  the  Grisonia,  Gray,  and  with  an  allied  species,  le  petit  furet  of 
Azzara  ( Galictis  Allamandi,  Bell),  the  Galictis*  of  the  last-named  naturalist,  who  places  them  contiguous  to  the 
Weasels.  They  are  small  animals,  easily  rendered  very  tame,  and  extremely  playful  in  domestication  ; of  very 
carnivorous  disposition,  and  particularly  fond  of  eggs.] 

The  Taira  ( Mustela  barbara,  Lin.)  [Subdivision  Taira  of  Gray.] — Brown  [or  brownish-black] ; the  head  grey ; 
[and  sometimes]  a large  white  spot  under  the  throat.  [The  fur  remarkably  short.] 

These  two  animals  are  distributed  throughout  the  warm  parts  of  America,  and  exhale  an  odour  of  musk.  Their 
feet  are  a little  palmated,  and  it  appears  that  they  have  been  sometimes  taken  for  Otters.f  [We  conceive  that  the 
Wolverine  might  be  advantageously  removed  to  the  genus  of  Martens ; and  would  restrict  the  term  Gulo  to  the 
others.  The  Grisons  diffuse  when  irritated  a disgusting  stench.] 

The  Ratels  ( Mellivora , F.  Cuv.) — 

Have  a false  molar  to  each  jaw  still  less  than  the  Grisons,  and  their  upper  tuberculous  tooth  but 
little  developed,  so  that  they  approximate  the  Cats  in  dentition  ; but  their  whole  exterior  is  that  of  the 
Grison,  or  [rather]  of  a Badger.  The  legs  are  short ; feet  [semi-]  plantigrade,  and  five  toes  to  each  ; 
the  claws  very  strong,  &c. 

But  one  species  is  known  ( Viverra  mellivora , Sparm.,  and  Viv.  capensis,  Schreb.  pi.  125),  of  the  size  of  the 
European  Badger;  grey  above,  black  below,  with  a white  line  that  separates  the  two  colours;  sometimes  it  is 
almost  wholly  white  above.  It  inhabits  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  and  burrows  into  the  ground  with  its  long 
claws,  in  search  of  the  honey-combs  of  the  wild  Bees. 

The  Digitigrada — 

Form  the  second  tribe  of  Carnivora,  the  members  of  which  walk  on  the  ends  of  their  toes. 

In  the  first  subdivision  of  them  [all  the  members  of  which  are  semi-plantigrade],  there 
is  only  one  tuberculous  grinder  behind  the  upper  carnivorous  tooth : these  animals,  on  account 
of  the  length  of  their  body,  and  shortness  of  the  limbs,  which  permit  them  to  pass  through 
very  small  openings,  are  styled  vermiform  [vermin].  They  are  destitute  of  coecum,  like  the 
preceding,  but  do  not  pass  the  winter  in  a state  of  lethargy.  Although  small  and  feeble,  they 
are  very  sanguinary  and  ferocious.  Linnaeus  comprehended  them  all  under  one  genus,  that  of 

The  Weasels  {Mustela,  Lin.), — 

Which  we  will  divide  into  four  subgenera. 

The  True  Weasels  {Putorius,  Cuv.  [ Mustela , Ray.]  ) — 

Are  the  most  sanguinary  of  any  : their  lower  carnivorous  tooth  has  no  internal  tubercle,  and  the  upper 
tuberculous  one  is  broader  than  long  ; there  are  only  two  false  molars  above  and  three  below.  These 
animals  may  be  recognized  by  having  the  extremity  of  the  muzzle  somewhat  shorter  and  blunter  than 
in  the  Martens.  They  all  diffuse  [when  alarmed]  a fetid  stench ; [take  the  water,  and  dive  with 
facility,  having  the  toes  semipalmated ; trace  their  prey  by  scent,  and  kill  it  by  inflicting  a wound  in  the 
neck : the  female  is  commonly  much  smaller  than  the  male. 

• This  must  not  be  confounded  with  the  Galictis  of  Is.  Geoffroy  j f It  is  supposed  from  the  description  given  by  Marcgreave  of  his 
[Compte  rendu,  Oct.  1837),  which  refers  to  the  Mustela  or  Putorius  | Cariqueibeia,  which  name  Buffon  has  applied  to  his  Saricovienne,  vol. 
siriatus  of  Cuvier. — Ed.  i xiii.  p.  319,  that  he  meant  to  speak  of  the  Taira. 



There  are  very  many  species,  three  of  which  inhabit  Britain : — The  Fitchet  Weasel,  or  Polecat,  of  which  the 
Ferret  appears  to  be  a domesticated  variety* ; the  Stoat,  or  Ermine,  which  in  cold  countries  (and  occasionally  even 
in  South  Britain)  becomes  pure  white  in  winter,  except  the  end  of  its  tail,  which  always  continues  black ; and  the 
Common  Weasel,  of  diminutive  size,  which  preys  chiefly  on  Mice  and  other  small  animals  injurious  to  the  agricul- 
turist. It  is  a curious  fact  that  in  several  instances  the  female  Polecat  has  been  known  to  stow  away  many  Frogs 
and  Toads  in  an  apartment  of  its  burrow,  disabling  each  without  killing  it,  by  puncturing  the  skull.  The  Common 
Weasel  traverses  the  boughs  of  trees,  tops  of  palings,  &c.,  with  facility,  and  will  spring  from  the  ground  upon  a 
Partridge  flying  near  the  surface.  Put.  striatus,  Cuv.,  a small  Madagascar  species,  reddish-brown,  with  five  longi- 
tudinal white  stripes,  composes  the  division  Galictis  of  Isidore  Geoffroy  (not  of  Bell) ; and  Put.  Zorilla,  Cuv.,  a 
species  marked  with  broken  stripes  of  white,  and  possessing  a more  snout -like  muzzle,  the  tail  of  which  also  is 
longer  and  more  bushy,  is  the  Zorilla  capensis  of  some  recent  authors : there  would  appear,  indeed,  to  be  several 
species  of  these  Zorilles.] 

The  Martens  ( Mustela , Cuv.  [Maries,  Ray]  ) — 

Differ  from  the  true  Weasels  by  having  [commonly]  an  additional  false  molar  above  and  below,  and  a 

small  tubercle  on  the  inner  side  of  their  car- 
nivorous tooth ; two  characters  which  some- 
what diminish  the  ferocity  of  their  nature. 
[They  are  handsome,  and  remarkably  lithe 
active  animals,  with  larger  ears  than  the 
Weasels,  and  fine  bushy  tails ; are  also 
more  arboreal  in  their  habits.  The  scent 
they  diffuse  when  irritated  is  not  disagree- 
able, f] 

There  are  two  species  in  Europe,  very  closely 
allied  together.  The  Yellow-breasted  or  Pine 
Marten  ( Mustela  martes,  Lin.),  inhabiting  wild 
districts,  and  the  White-breasted  or  Beech 
Marten  (M.  foina,  Lin.),  which  frequents  woods 
near  human  habitations.  [Many  consider  these  to 
be  varieties  merely  of  the  same ; but  on  examining  several  crania,  I have  noticed  that  the  former  are  constantly 
smaller,  with  the  zygomatic  arch  fully  twice  as  strong  as  in  the  other.  The  American  species  usually  deemed 
identical  with  M.  foina,  is  intermediate.  There  are  numerous  others,  as  the  Pekan  or  Fishing  Marten  of  Canada, 
&c. ; and  the  Sable  of  commerce  ( M . zibellina,  Auct.),  celebrated  for  its  beautiful  fur,  is  a member  of  this 
division.  In  the  Sable  and  several  others,  the  soles  are  completely  covered  with  close  fur ; but  in  M.  flavigula  of 
the  Himmalayas,  the  under  surface  of  the  foot  is  naked,  and  the  toes  joined  to  their  extremities,  as  in  the 
Badgers,  &c.] 

The  Skunks  ( Mephitis , Cuv.) — 

Possess,  like  the  Weasels,  two  false  molars  above  and  three  below;  but  their  superior  tuberculous 
grinder  is  very  large,  and  as  long  as  broad,  and  their  inferior  carnivorous  tooth  has  two  tubercles  on 
its  inner  side,  thus  approximating  these  animals  to  the  Badgers,  in  the  same  way  as  the  Weasels  are 
related  to  the  Grisons  and  Wolverine.  In  addition  to  this,  the  Skunks  accord  with  the  Badgers  in 
having  their  anterior  claws  long,  and  adapted  for  burrowing,  and  they  are  even  semiplantigrade,  [and 
equally  slow  in  their  movements].  This  resemblance  extends  even  to  the  distribution  of  their  colours. 
[The  truth  is,  they  scarcely  differ  from  the  Badgers,  except  in  having  a remarkably  fine  and  large 
bushy  tail,  which  is  borne  elevated,  like  the  small  short  tail  of  the  Badgers.]  In  the  present  family, 
notorious  for  diffusing  a fetid  stench,  the  Skunks  are  pre-eminently  distinguished  by  emitting  a most 
intolerable  odour. 

These  animals  are  mostly  striped  longitudinally  with  white  on  a black  ground,  but  the  number  of  stripes  appears  to 
vary  even  in  the  same  species ; [not,  however,  I think,  to  the  extent  that  has  been  supposed ; for  there  are  several 
species,  distinguishable  by  their  osteology,  which  agree  sufficiently  in  their  general  style  of  colouring,  allowing  for 
some  variation  on  the  part  of  each,  to  induce  the  supposition,  judging  only  from  external  characters,  that  they 
might  all  be  referred  to  one.  The  intensity  of  their  most  nauseous  suffocating  stench,  which  has  been  described 
to  resemble  that  of  the  Fitchet  mingled  with  assafoetida,  is  scarcely  credible : it  appears,  however,  to  be  emitted 
only  in  self-defence.  The  geographic  range  of  this  genus  is  confined  to  America]. 

We  may  make  an  additional  subgenus  of 

The  Teledu  ( Mydaus , F.  Cuv.), — 

Which,  together  with  the  dentition,  [the  teeth,  however,  being  smaller  (from  which  results  a more 

* I have  sought  in  vain  for  any  osteological  distinction  between  I t Hence  our  native  species  are  designated  Sweet-mart,  in  opposi- 
these  animals. — Ed.  I on  to  Fou-mart,  or  foul  mart,  a common  name  for  the  Polecat. — Ed. 

Fig.  27. — The  Marten. 



elongated  muzzle),  the  canines  placed  further  backward,  and  the  molars  more  sharply  tuberculated, 
recalling  to  mind  those  of  the  Insectivora ],  feet,  and  colouring  even  of  the  Skunks,  have  the  muzzle 
truncated,  so  as  to  assume  the  form  of  a snout,  and  the  tail  reduced  to  a small  pencil,  [which,  however, 
is  also  held  erect,  as  in  the  Badgers,  &c.]  Only  one  species  is  known, — 

The  Javanese  Teledu  (Mid.  melaceps,  F.  Cuv.)— [Brownish]  black,  the  nape  of  the  neck,  a stripe  along  the  back, 
and  tail,  white ; the  dorsal  stripe  sometimes  interrupted  about  the  middle.  [Fur  soft  and  rather  fine.]  Its  stench 
is  equally  horrible  with  that  of  the  Skunks,  [and  precisely  similar,  as  I am  informed  by  Dr.  Horsfield,  who  has  had 
experience  of  both  : it  subsists  principally  on  earth-worms,  for  which  it  turns  up  the  light  soil  with  its  snout,  in  the 
manner  of  a Hog ; is  easily  tamed,  and  by  no  means  offensive  in  captivity ; and  it  is  especially  remarkable  for  its 
restriction  to  a particular  elevation  on  the  mountains  of  Java,  below  which  it  is  never  found. 

We  may  here  also  introduce 

The  Nyentek  ( Helictis , Gray ; Meloyale , Is.  Geof.), — 

The  body  of  which  appears  to  be  more  lengthened  and  vermiform,  and  the  tuberculous  molar  small 
and  transverse  : it  is  described  to  have  three  false  molars  above,  and  four  below ; the  upper  carnivorous 
tooth  three-lobed,  with  a broad  two-pointed  internal  process  : soles  of  the  feet  bare,  and  toes  united. 

The  Nyentek  of  the  Javanese  ( Gulo  orientalis,  Horsf. ; II.  moschatus,  Gray.) — Size  of  a Polecat : brown,  with  a 
white  stripe  along  the  back,  crossed  by  another  less  distinct  over  the  shoulders,  and  a white  spot  on  the  head ; tail 
of  mean  length.  This  animal  inhabits  eastern  Asia,  and  smells  strongly  of  musk : it  is  one  of  the  few  Mammalia 
known  in  Europe  to  inhabit  China,  where  the  larger  indigenous  species  are  supposed  to  have  been  exterminated.  ] 

The  Otters  ( Lutra , Storr) — 

Have  three  false  molars  above  and  below,  a strong  process  to  the  upper  carnivorous  tooth,  an  internal 
tubercle  to  the  lower  one,  and  a large  tuberculous  grinder  that  is  nearly  as  long  as  broad ; their  head 
is  flattened,  and  the  tongue  rather  rough.  They  are  distinguished  from  all  the  preceding  genera 
by  their  [more  completely]  webbed  toes,  and  horizontally  flattened  tail, — two  characters  which  pro- 
claim them  to  be  aquatic  animals  : they  subsist  on  fish. 

The  European  Otter  (Must,  lutra , Lin.) — Brown  above,  whitish  round  the  lips,  on  the  cheeks,  and  the  whole 
under  parts.  The  rivers  of  Europe  [and  sometimes  the  sea-coast.  Is  occasionally  spotted  above  with  white.  The 
species  of  this  extensive  genus,  which  is  almost  generally  diffused,  are  mostly  very  similar  externally,  and  are  best 
distinguished  by  the  configuration  of  the  cranium,  &c.]  That  of  India  (L.  nair,  F.  Cuv.)  is  employed  for  fishing, 
as  the  Dog  is  for  hunting.  The  Cape  Otter  (L.  capensis,  F.  Cuv.)  is  remarkable  (at  least  at  a particular  age)  for 
having  no  nails  ; a character  on  which  M.  Lesson  has  founded  his  genus  Aonyx : young  individuals,  however,  have 
been  received  from  the  Cape,  which  possess  nails ; and  it  remains  to  ascertain  whether  they  are  of  the  same  species. 
The  American  Otter  (M.  braziliensis),  from  the  rivers  of  both  Americas,  has  the  extremity  of  the  muzzle,  which  in 
most  other  animals  is  naked,  covered  with  close  fur:  [it  is  also  very  gregarious  in  its  habits.  But  the  most  remark- 
able species  is  the  great  Sea  Otter  (Mustela  lutris,  Lin.,  composing  the  division  Enhydra  of  Fleming.  It  is 
twice  the  size  of  the  European  species,  from  which  it  differs  in  the  form  of  its  hind  feet,  which  have  the 
outermost  toe  longest.  The  adults  have  but  four  lower  incisors,  the  exterior  pair  being  doubtless  forced 
out  by  the  canines.]  Its  blackish  velvet-looking  fur  is  extremely  valuable,  to  obtain  which  the  English  and 
Russians  hunt  the  animal  throughout  the  northern  shores  of  the  Pacific  Ocean,  for  the  purpose  of  disposing  of  it 
to  the  Chinese  ancl  Japanese.  [A  species  intermediate  to  the  Sea  Otter  and  the  others  constitutes  the  Ptero- 
nura,  Gray.  M.  Temminck  has  received  a new  genus  allied  to  the  Otters,  which  he  names  Potamophilus. 

We  here  arrive  at  the  termination  of  an  extensive  and  very  distinct  natural  group,  which 
falls  under  two  principal  subdivisions,  the  limits  of  which,  however,  are  not  easy  to  define. 

The  first  consists  of  exclusively  ground  animals,  with  a thick  and  heavy  body,  stout  limbs, 
and  strong  claws  adapted  for  burrowing  with  rapidity.  It  comprises  the  Badgers,  Teledu, 
Skunks,  Taxels,  Bharsiah,  and  Ratel ; nearly  all  of  which  ordinarily  erect  the  tail,  and  are 
more  or  less  striped  longitudinally. 

The  remainder  are  vermiform  and  agile,  and  most  of  them  ascend  trees  with  facility  : they 
are  also  more  predatory,  though  some  of  the  former  (as  the  Ratel)  possess  an  equally  carni- 
vorous dentition : many  are  marked  similarly  to  the  preceding. 

The  Zorilles  might  almost  be  referred  to  either  section ; but  we  prefer  retaining  them  near 
the  Weasels.] 

The  second  subdivision  of  the  Digitigrada  [being  the  first,  strictly  so  named,]  possesses 
[like  the  Ursidce]  two  flat  tuberculated  molars  posterior  to  the  upper  carnivorous  tooth*, 

* There  are  three  tuberculous  molars  to  each  jaw  in  the  Canis  ( Mcgalotis ) Lalandi,  and  De  Blainville  figures  the  cranium  of  a common  Dog 
in  which  the  same  was  observable. — Ed. 



which  has  itself  a large  internal  process.  They  are  carnivorous  animals,  but  not  preda- 
tory in  proportion  to  their  strength,  and  often  feed  on  carrion.  They  have  all  a small 

The  Dogs  ( Canis , Lin.) — 

Have  three  false  molars  above,  four  below,  and  two  tuberculous  grinders  behind  each  carnivorous  tooth. 
The  first  of  these  upper  tuberculous  molars  is  very  large.  Their  superior  carnivorous  tooth  has  only  a 
small  internal  tubercle  ; but  the  inferior  one  has  its  hinder  portion  altogether  tuberculous.  The 
tongue  is  soft ; the  fore-feet  have  five  toes,  and  the  hind-feet  [in  general]  only  four.  [The  ccecum  is 
of  a peculiar  spiral  form.] 

The  Domestic  Dog  (C.  familiaris,  Lin.)—  Distinguished  by  its  recurved  tail,  but  otherwise  varying  infinitely 
with  respect  to  size*,  form,  colour,  and  quality  of  the  hair.  It  is  the  most  complete,  the  most  singular,  and  useful 
conquest  ever  made  by  Man  ; the  whole  species  having  become  his  property : each  individual  is  devoted  to  its 
particular  master,  assumes  his  manners,  knows  and  defends  his  property,  and  remains  attached  to  him 
until  death ; and  all  this,  neither  from  constraint  nor  want,  but  solely  from  gratitude  and  pure  friendship.  The 
swiftness,  strength,  and  scent  of  the  Dog  have  rendered  him  a powerful  ally  to  Man  against  other  animals,  and 
were  even,  perhaps,  necessary  to  the  establishment  of  society.  It  is  the  only  animal  which  has  followed  Man  all 
over  the  world. 

Some  naturalists  think  the  Dog  is  a Wolf,  and  others  that  he  is  a domesticated  Jackal ; but  those  which  have 
become  wild  on  desert  islands  resemble  neither  one  nor  the  other,  t 

The  wild  Dogs,  and  those  which  belong  to 
savages,  such  as  the  inhabitants  of  Australia, 
have  straight  ears,  whence  has  arisen  a belief  that 
the  European  races,  nearest  to  the  original  type, 
are  our  Shepherd's  Dog  and  Wolf  Dog ; but  com- 
parison of  the  crania  indicates  a closer  approach 
on  the  part  of  the  French  Matin  and  Danish  Dog , 
after  which  follow  the  Hound,  the  Pointer,  and 
the  Terrier,  which  chiefly  differ  in  size  and  the 
relative  proportions  of  parts.  The  Greyhound  is 
more  attenuated,  and  has  the  the  frontal  sinus 
smaller,  and  scent  weaker.  The  Shepherd's  Dog 
and  Wolf  Dog  resume  the  straight  ears  of  the 
wild  ones,  but  with  greater  derelopement  of  brain, 
which  continues  to  increase,  together  with  the 
intelligence,  in  the  Barbet  and  Spaniel.  The 
Bull-dog,  on  the  other  hand,  is  remarkable  for  the 
shortness  and  strength  of  its  jaws.  The  small 
pet  Dogs,  the  Pugs,  lesser  Spaniels,  Shocks,  &c., 
are  the  most  degenerate  productions,  and  exhibit 
the  most  striking  marks  of  that  influence  to  which  Man  subjects  all  nature. 

The  Dog  is  born  with  its  eyes  closed ; it  opens  them  on  the  tenth  or  twelfth  day ; its  teeth  commence  changing 
in  the  fourth  month,  and  its  full  growth  is  attained  at  the  expiration  of  the  second  year.  The  female  remains  with 
young  sixty-three  days,  and  produces  from  six  to  ten  young  at  a birth.  The  Dog  is  old  at  fifteen  years,  and  seldom 

* A specimen,  which  attained  two  years  of  age,  and  is  preserved 
in  the  Museum  of  Dresden,  measured  only  five  inches  and  a 
half  in  length ; this  being  exactly  the  same  length,  from  the  corner  of 
the  eye  to  the  tip  of  the  nose,  of  a Saxon  boar-hound  examined  by 
Col.  Hamilton  Smith. — Ed. 

t If  the  idea,  which  I conceive  there  is  every  reason  to  entertain, 
respecting  the  origin  of  the  Domestic  Dog  be  well  founded,  it  is  clear 
that  a recurrence  to  a single  wild  type  would  be  impossible.  The  Dog 
is  apparently  a blended  race,  derived  principally  from  the  Wolf,  and 
partly  from  various  other  allied  species.  In  the  Museum  of  the  Zoologi- 
cal Society  of  London,  there  is  a specimen  of  an  Esquimaux  Dog,  which 
resembles  the  large  American  Wolf  (C.  nubilus)  so  closely,  that  there 
can  scarcely  be  any  doubt  of  the  connexion  which  subsists  between 
them  ; and  it  is  well  known,  of  the  American  Wolves  in  particular, 
that  if  a young  animal  be  surprised  by  a hunter,  and  suddenly  menaced 
by  his  voice  and  manner,  it  will  crouch  to  him  and  implore  his  mercy 
in  precisely  the  manner  of  a spaniel ; so  that  only  a little  encourage- 
ment and  kindness  are  required  to  gain  its  permanent  attachment ; 
indeed,  many  of  them  are  killed  to  obtain  the  proffered  reward,  by 
taking  this  (assuredly  unworthy)  advantage  of  their  natural  submis- 
siveness. That  the  Wolf  possesses  the  mental  qualities,  and  is 
capable  of  the  same  strong  attachment  to  Man  as  the  most  faithful 
Dog,  lias  been  abundantly  proved  by  the  observations  of  M.  F.  Cuvier 
and  others  ; and  the  unremitting  persecution  to  which  it  has  been 
necessarily  subjected  in  Europe  for  so  many  ages,  will  sufficiently 

account  for  the  savage  and  distrustful  character  which  it  exhibits 
when  unreclaimed  ; though  even  then  the  germs  of  a better  disposition 
are  traceable  in  the  permanent  attachment  of  the  male  and  female, 
and  sociality  of  the  young  till  urgent  necessity,  or  the  annual  period 
of  dominant  sexual  excitement,  subdues  every  milder  propensity  and 
acquired  sentiment  of  friendship  or  disinterested  affection. 

In  the  late  edition  of  Dr.  Prichard’s  work  on  Man,  an  old  error  is 
revived,  which  originated  with  Buffon,  but  which  that  naturalist 
afterwards  corrected  ; namely,  that  the  period  of  gestation  in  the 
Wolf  is  much  shorter  than  in  the  Dog.  It  is  precisely  the  same  in 
both  animals. 

Instances  occasionally  happen  of  theDog  returning  by  choice  to  a state 
of  wildness,  and  assuming  then,  of  necessity,  the  character  ascribed 
to  the  Wolf.  I have  known  this  to  occur  in  a male  pointer,  and  in  a 
female  greyhound : the  latter  was  so  fine  a specimen  of  the  breed,  that 
on  being  entrapped,  it  was  thought  desirable  to  obtain  a litter  from 
her,  which  was  accordingly  effected  ; but,  while  her  puppies  were  very 
young,  she  managed  to  escape  to  the  woods,  and  never  returned  : 
three  of  her  progeny  grew  to  be  excellent  hounds  ; but  two  others 
proved  quite  irreclaimable ; and  escaping  from  servitude,  like  their 
dam,  were  finally  shot,  for  their  destructive  poaching  propensities. 

It  is  not  unusual  to  trace  the  peculiar  markings,  and  grizzled  colour- 
ing of  the  back,  common  to  most  of  the  wild  species  of  Canis,  in 
domestic  Dogs,  of  various  size  and  character. — Ed. 




lives  beyond  twenty.  Every  one  is  acquainted  with  its  vigilance,  bark,  singular  mode  of  copulation,  and  suscepti- 
bility of  various  kinds  of  education. 

The  Wolf  (C.  lupus,  Lin.)— A large  species,  with  a straight  tail ; the  most  noxious  of  all  the  Carnivora  of  Europe. 
It  is  found  from  Egypt  to  Lapland,  and  appears  to  have  passed  over  to  America.  Towards  the  north,  its  coat 
becomes  white  in  winter.  It  attacks  all  our  animals,  but  does  not  evince  a courage  proportioned  to  its  strength ; it 
often  feeds  on  carrion.  Its  habits  and  physical  developement  are  closely  related  to  those  of  the  Dog.  Another 
species,  the  Black  Wolf  ( C . lycaon)  is  sometimes,  though  rarely,  found  in  France.  The  Mexican  Wolf  (C.  mexicanus , 
Lin.)  has  the  under  part  of  the  body  and  the  feet  white. 

The  Red  Wolf  (C.  jubata,  Az.)— A fine  cinnamon  red,  with  a short  black  mane  along  the  spine.  From  the 
marshes  of  South  America.  [The  beautiful  fur  of  this  animal  renders  it  one  of  the  handsomest  of  the  genus.] 

The  Jackal  (C.  aureus , Liu.)  [division  Vulpicanis,  Blainv.  and  Jacalus,  Hodg.]— A voracious  species,  which 
hunts  like  the  Dog  [in  packs],  and  in  its  conformation  and  the  facility  with  which  it  is  tamed,  resembles  the  latter 
more  nearly  than  any  other  wild  species.  Jackals  are  found  from  the  Indies  and  the  environs  of  the  Caspian  Sea, 
as  far  as  Guinea  inclusive ; but  it  is  doubtful  whether  they  all  belong  to  the  same  species.  [There  are  now  several 
well-known  species  of  these  animals.  The  Canis  prinuevus,  Hodg.,  C.  Dukhunensis,  Sykes,  is  a large  red  Jackal, 
or  Jackal-like  Dog,  inhabiting  India,  and  very  like  the  Dingo  of  Australia.] 

Foxes  [ Vulpes  of  some  naturalists]  may  be  distinguished  from  Wolves  and  Dogs  by  having  the  tail 
longer  and  more  bushy  [though  in  this  respect  there  is  no  drawing  the  line  of  separation] , by  a more 
pointed  muzzle,  and  pupils  which,  during  the  day,  form  a vertical  fissure ; also  by  their  upper  incisors 
being  less  sloping;  they  emit  a foetid  odour  [scarcely  less  offensive  in  the  Jackals],  dig  burrows,  and 
attack  only  the  weaker  animals  ; [are  also  more  frugivorous  than  the  preceding.*]  This  subgenus  is 
more  numerous  than  the  foregoing. 

The  Common  Fox  (C.  vulpes,  Lin.)— More  or  less  rufous,  with  the  extremity  of  the  tail  [generally]  white.  Is 

found  from  Sweden  to  Egypt,  [though  many  of 
those  of  the  south  of  Europe  appertain  to  a diffe- 
rent species,  C.  melanogaster,  Savi,  which  is 
smaller  and  less  carnivorous  than  the  Common 
Fox,  and  differs  somewhat  in  habit.f  There  are 
very  many  others,  almost  generally  diffused  over 
the  globe.  We  can  only  mention] 

The  Arctic  or  Blue  Fox,  or  Isatis  ( C . lagopus, 
Lin.)— Deep  ash-colour,  often  white  in  winter; 
the  under  surface  of  the  toes  hairy,  (though  several 
of  the  Foxes,  and  even  the  common  one,  have  hair 
under  the  feet  in  the  north).  From  the  glacial 
regions  of  both  continents,  particularly  the  north 
of  Scandinavia ; is  much  esteemed  for  its  fur. 

The  interior  of  Africa  produces:  Foxes  remarkable  for  the  size  of  their  ears,  and  the  strength  of  then- 
whiskers  : they  compose  the  Megalotis,  Illiger.  Two  are  known,  the 

C.  megalotis,  Lalande  [ Megalotis  Lalandi  of  some  authors],  a Cape  species,  somewhat  smaller  than  the  Common 
Fox,  but  higher  on  its  legs  ; [especially  remarkable  for  possessing  three  tuberculous  molars  posterior  to  the  cutting 
grinder  of  each  jaw : its  teeth  become  much  worn  with  use,  whence  it  would  appear  to  be  mainly  frugivorous.]  And 

The  Zerda,  or  Fennec  of  Bruce  (C.  zerda,  Gm.), 
which  has  ears  still  larger;  it  is  a very  small 
species,  almost  of  a whitish  fulvous,  with  woolly 
hair  extending  beneath  the  toes  ; burrows  in  the 
Sands  of  Nubia,  [and  ascends  the  trunks  of  trees 
with  facility : dentition  that  of  an  ordinary  Fox.] 

Finally,  wTe  may  place  after  the  Dogs,  as  a 
fourth  subgenus,  distinguished  by  the  num- 
ber of  toes,  which  are  four  to  each  foot, 

The  Wild  Dog  of  the  Cape  (Hycena  venatica, 

Burch  ; II.  picta,  Tern.  [ Lycaon  picta,  Brookes] ), 
which  has  the  dental  system  of  the  Dogs  [Ci- 
vets, &c.],  and  not  of  the  Hyaenas ; a tall  gaunt 
form ; fur  marbled  with  white,  fulvous,  grey, 
and  blackish;  the  size  of  a Wolf,  with  large 
ears  tipped  with  black,  &c.  It  lives  in  numerous 
packs,  which  often  approach  Cape-town,  and  de-  Fig.  30.— The  Marbled  Lycaon. 

vastate  the  environs.  [This  remarkable  species 

* The  common  Dog  is  an  eager  devourerof  gooseberries,  of  which  i Fox,  in  the  old  Greek  fables,  apply  better  to  C.  melanognster  thin  to 
it  will  soon  strip  the  bushes  to  which  it  has  access.— Ed.  C.  vulpes. — Ed. 

t It  is  remarkable  that  many  of  the  habits  attributed  to  the  | 

Fig.  2'J. — The  Black  Fox. 



is  Dog-like,  but  certainly  not  a Cams:  its  form  and  colouring  (and  there  is  reason  to  suspect  its  internal 
conformation),  are  rather  those  of  a Hyaena ; and  it  is  known  to  copulate  in  the  manner  of  those  animals,  and 
not  in  the  peculiar  manner  of  the  Dogs  and  Foxes.  Even  its  dentition  is  the  same  as  that  elsewhere  found, 
(with  one  other  exception, — Proteles,)  throughout  the  group  to  which  we  conceive  the  Hyaenas  to  belong,  the 
dental  system  of  which  latter  appears  to  be  modified  in  accordance  with  their  much  increased  and  prodigious 
strength  of  jaw.] 

The  Civets  ( Viverra ), — 

Have  three  false  molars  above  and  four  below,  the  anterior  of  which  sometimes  fall  out ; two  tolerably 
large  tuberculous  teeth  above,  one  only  below,  and  two  tubercles  projecting  forwards  on  the  inner  side 
of  the  lower  carnivorous  tooth,  the  rest  of  that  tooth  being  tuberculous.  The  tongue  is  covered  with 
sharp  and  rough  papillae.  Their  claws  are  more  or  less  raised  as  they  walk ; and  near  the  anus  is  a 
pouch  more  or  less  deep,  where  an  unctuous  and  often  odorous  matter  is  secreted  by  peculiar 

They  divide  into  four  subgenera. 

The  True  Civets  ( Viverra , Cuv.), — 

In  which  the  pouch,  large,  and  situate  between  the  anus  and  the  genitals,  divided  also  into  two  sacs, 
is  abundantly  supplied  with  a pommade  having  a strong  musky  odour,  secreted  by  glands  which 
surround  the  pouch.  This  substance  is  an  article  of  commerce,  much  used  in  perfumery.  It  was 
more  employed  when  musk  and  ambergris  were  little  known.  The  pupil  of  the  eye  remains  round 
during  the  day*,  and  their  claws  are  only  semi-retractile. 

[Four  species  are  known,  from  Africa  and  India : beautiful  spotted  animals,  larger  than  a domestic  Cat : they 

have  an  erectible  mane  along  the  back  (as  in  the 
Hyaenas),  more  or  Jess  conspicuous : are  of  an 
indolent  disposition,  and  easily  tamed ; feed  partly 
on  fruits ; and  when  irritated  raise  the  dorsal 
mane,  and  hiss  like  Cats.] 

The  Genets  ( Genetta , Cuv.), — 

Have  the  pouch  reduced  to  a slight  depres- 
sion formed  by  the  projection  of  the  glands, 
with  scarcely  any  discernible  secretion,  al- 
though diffusing  a very  perceptible  odour. 
In  the  light,  their  pupil  forms  a vertical 
fissure ; and  their  claws  are  completely  re- 
tractile, as  in  the  Cats.  [They  are  smaller  and 
more  slender  animals  than  the  Civets,  from 
which  they  scarcely  differ  in  style  of  colour- 
ing : are  also  partly,  but  less,  frugivorous, 
and  in  general  easily  tamed. 

The  species  are  numerous,  and  inhabit  the  same  general  locality  as  the  preceding.  One  ( Viv . genetta,  Lin.)J  is 
found  from  the  south  of  France  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  It  frequents  the  edges  of  brooks,  near  springs,  &c., 
and  its  skin  forms  an  important  article  of  traffic. 

[The  Galet  ( Cryptoprocta , Ben.) — 

Would  appear,  from  its  dentition,  to  be  the  most  carnivorous  of  the  Yiverrine  quadrupeds : its  jaws 
are  much  abbreviated,  and  there  are  only  two  false  molars  to  each : claws  wholly  retractile. 

The  species  (C.  ferox,  Ben.)  is  little  larger  than  a Stoat,  and  uniformly  brown,  with  large  ears  : an  inhabitant  of 
Madagascar.  Eupleres  (Jourdan  ?)  would  seem  to  be  allied. 

The  Delundung  ( Prionodon , Horsf.) — 

Is  also  allied  to  the  Genets,  but  with  the  false  molars  three-lobed  or  serrated. 

Felis  and  subsequently  Pr.  gracilis,  Horsf.,  is  the  only  species : a rare  Javanese  animal,  of  slender  form,  very 
handsomely  streaked  and  spotted.] 

* Indicating  that  they  inhabit  the  open  country.  See  the  Cats  (Felis) . — Ed. 

Fig.  31.— The  African  Civet. 



The  Musangs  ( Paradoxurus , F.  Cuv.) — 

Possess  the  teeth  and  most  of  the  characters  of  the  Genets,  with  which  they  were  long  confounded : 
but  their  general  form  is  stouter,  and  their  gait  plantigrade : what  more  particularly  distinguishes 
them,  however,  is  the  spiral  inclination  of  the  tail*,  which  is  not  prehensile. 

Only  one  species  is  known,  the  Pougonnd  of  India  (P.  typus,  F.  Cuv.),  termed  Palm  Marten  by  the  French  in 
India.  [No  less  than  ten  or  twelve  have  since  been  discovered,  chiefly  from  India  and  the  great  Asiatic  islands,  though 
some  inhabit  Africa.  They  feed  much  on  fruit,  but  are  also  tolerably  carnivorous,  springing  upon  their  prey  from 
a place  of  ambush : gait  slow  and  plantigrade,  with  the  head  and  tail  lowered,  and  the  back  arched ; but  they 
also  advance  by  rapid  digital  bounds,  and  are  excellent  climbers,  constructing  a nest  on  the  forked  branches  of 
trees.  They  are  easily  tamed,  and,  when  angry,  growl  and  spit  like  Cats  : sleep  rolled  up  in  a ball,  &c. 

As  the  Dogs  may  be  considered  the  highest  of  the  Carnivora , and  the  Cats  the  most  eminently  predaceous,  so 
the  Musangs  may  be  regarded  as  presenting  the  fairest  average  of  a member  of  this  division.  Their  dentition  is 
scarcely  distinguishable  from  that  of  the  Dogs ; but,  on  reverting  the  cranium,  their  cerebral  cavity  is  seen  to  be 
proportionally  smaller. 

Various  species  of  Musang  have  been  named  as  separate  subgenera  by  different  systematists.  Ambliodon,  Jourd., 
is  the  Jctide  doree  of  M.  F.  Cuvier ; and  Paguma , Gray,  refers  to  the  young  of  P.  larvatus.  P.  Derbianus,  Gray, 
a species  approximating  the  Genets,  of  a fulvous-grey  colour,  with  broad  cross  bands  of  dark  brown,  is  the 
Hemigalea  zebra  of  Jourdan.  Most  of  them  present  the  streaks  and  spots  of  the  Genets,  but  on  a darker 

Several  affect  the  vicinity  of  human  habitations,  and  are  very  destructive  to  poultry,  their  eggs,  &c. 

The  Cynogale  (Cy  nog  ale,  Gray;  Limictis,  Blainv.) — 

Is  an  aquatic  representative  of  the  preceding,  to  which  it  hears  a similar  relation  to  that  which  the 
Otters  hold  with  the  Weasels.  Its  false  molars  are  large,  compressed,  sharp,  and  slightly  notched  or 
serrated ; and  entire  dental  system,  together  with  its  external  characters,  generally  modified  for  a pis- 
civorous regimen. 

One  species  only  is  known  (C.  Bennettii,  Gr. ; Viv.  and  him.  carcharias,  Bl.)— A native  of  Sumatra,  uniform  dark 
brown ; the  ears  small : head,  and  also  colouring,  very  similar  to  that  of  a common  Otter : its  tail,  however,  is 

The  Mangoustes  ( Mangusta , Cuv. ; Herpestes,  Ill.f ) 

The  pouch  voluminous  and  simple,  and  the  anus  situate  within  its  cavity ; [bony  orbits  of  the  skull 
most  usually  perfect.]  Their  hairs  are  annulated  with  pale  and  dark  tints,  which  determine  the 
general  colour  of  the  eye.  [Tail  long  as  in  the  preceding  subdivisions,  and  bushy  towards  its 

The  species  are  very  numerous  ; and]  that  of  Egypt  (Viv.  ichneumon , Lin.),  so  celebrated  among  the  ancients  by 
the  name  of  Ichneumon , is  grey,  with  a long  tail  terminated  by  a black  tuft ; it  is  larger  than  our  Cat,  and  as 
slender  as  a Marten.  It  chiefly  hunts  for  the  eggs  of  the  Crocodile,  but  also  feeds  on  all  sorts  of  small  animals ; 
brought  up  in  houses  [where,  in  common  with  its  congeners,  it  is  readily  domesticated,  and  exhibits  much  intelli- 
gence and  attachment],  it  pursues  Mice,  reptiles,  &c.  By  the  Europeans  at  Cairo  it  is  designated  Pharaoh's  Rat, 
and  Nems  by  the  natives.  The  ancient  allegation  of  its  entering  the  throat  of  the  Crocodile,  to  destroy  it,  is  quite 
fabulous.  The  common  Indian  species  (Viv.  mungos,  Lin.)  is  celebrated  for  its  combats  with  the  most  dangerous 
serpents  ; and  for  having  led  us  to  a knowledge  of  the  Ophiorhiza  mungos  as  an  antidote  to  their  venom.  [Some 
are  less  vermiform  in  their  make,  and  higher  on  the  legs  : one,  termed  the  Vansire  by  Buffon,  forms  the  division 
Athylax  of  M.  F.  Cuvier ; others  compose  the  Galidea  and  Ichneumonia  of  M.  Is.  Geoffroy  : Cynictis,  Og.,  includes 
several  species  with  only  four  toes  to  each  foot ; and  Lasiopus  and  Mongo,  Auct.,  are  additional  dismember- 
ments of  this  genus.  The  TJrva  of  Mr.  Hodgson  appears  also  to  be  a Mangouste,  with  incomplete  orbits.] 

The  Surikate  ( Ryzcena , 111.) — 

Resembles  the  Mangoustes,  even  to  the  tints  and  annulations  of  its  fur ; but  is  distinguished  from 
them,  and  from  all  the  Carnivora  hitherto  mentioned  [save  the  Lycaon  picta  and  Cynictis,  just  indi- 
cated], by  having  only  four  toes  to  each  foot.  It  is  also  higher  upon  the  legs,  and  does  not  possess 
the  small  molar  immediately  behind  the  canine.  The  pouch  extends  even  into  the  anus. 

Only  one  is  known  (Viv.  tetradactyla,  Gm.),  a native  of  Africa,  and  rather  smaller  than  the  Mangouste  of  India. 

The  Mangub  ( Crossarchus,  F.  Cuv.), — 

Has  the  muzzle,  teeth,  pouch,  and  gait  of  the  Surikate;  the  toes  and  genital  organs  of  the  Man- 


* In  those  which  I have  seen  alive,  including  P.  typus,  this  charac- 
ter was  not  perceptible  : the  individual  figured  by  M.  F.  Cuvier  pre- 
senting a morbid  deformity,  an  analogous  instance  of  which  occurred 
in  a Leopard  formerly  exhibited  in  London. — Ed. 

t This  term  is  more  generally  adopted.  The  name  Ichneumon, 
formerly  applied  to  the  animals  of  this  genus,  has  been  transferred 
to  a very  extensive  group  of  Hymenopterous  Insects. — Ed. 



We  know  but  of  one  ( Cr . obscurus,  F.  Cuv.),  from  Sierra  Leone  : size  of  a Surikate.  [Other  Mangoustes  are 
included  by  recent  systematists  ; and  it  may  be  remarked  that  both  this  and  the  preceding  subdivision  are  merely 
slight  modifications  of  Herpestes,  and  have  similar  perfect  orbits.] 

We  shall  here  mention  a singular  animal  from  South  Africa,  which  is  known  only  when  young,  and 
which  has  five  toes  before,  four  behind,  and  the  head  a little  elongated  as  in  the  Civets,  the  legs  raised, 
those  behind  rather  shorter,  and  a mane  as  in  the  Hyaena ; and  which  also  resembles  the  Striped  Hyaena 
very  remarkably  in  its  colouring.  Its  anterior  thumb  is  short,  and  placed  high  up.  The  Proteles 

Lalandi,  Is.  Geof. ; an  inhabitant  of  caverns. 

The  individuals  examined,  which  were  all 
young,  possessed  but  three  small  false  molars, 
and  one  small  tuberculous  back  molar.  It 
seems  as  though  their  teeth  had  never  come  to 
perfection,  as  often  happens  in  the  Genets. 
(See  my  Ossemens  fossiles,  iv.  388.)  [The  per- 
manent canines  are  of  tolerable  size,  but  the 
simple  form  of  the  molars,  all  very  small,  and 
separated  by  intervals,  presents  an  anomaly 
among  the  Carnivora,  which  is  even  more  re- 
markable on  account  of  the  affinity  of  this  spe- 
cies to  the  Hyaenas.  It  is  destructive  to  very 
young  lambs,  and  is  stated  to  attack  the  mas- 
sive fatty  protuberance  on  the  tails  of  the 
African  Sheep.] 

Fig.  32. — Proteles  Lalandi. 

The  last  subdivision  of  the  Digitigrades  has  no  small  teeth  whatever  behind  the  large  molar 
of  the  lower  jaw.  It  contains  the  most  sanguinary  and  carnivorous  of  the  class.  There  are 
two  genera. 

The  Hyasnas  (Hyaena,  Storr) — ■ 

Have  three  false  molars  above  and  four  below,  all  conical,  blunt,  and  singularly  large  : their  upper  car- 
nivorous tooth  has  a small  tubercle  within  and  in  front ; but  the  lower  one  has  none,  presenting  only 
two  stout  cutting  points.  This  powerful  armature  enables  them  to  crush  the  bones  of  the  largest  prey. 
Their  tongue  is  rough  [exhibiting  a circular  collection  of  retroflected  spines]  ; all  their  feet  have  each  hut 
four  toes,  as  in  the  Surikate ; and  under  the  anus  is  a deep  and  glandular  pouch,  which  led  the  ancients 
to  believe  that  these  animals  were  hermaphrodite.  The  muscles  of  their  neck,  and  of  the  jaws,  are  so 
robust,  that  it  is  almost  impossible  to  take  from  them  anything  they  may  have  seized ; whence,  among 
the  Arabs,  their  name  is  the  symbol  of  obstinacy.  It  sometimes  happens  that  their  cervical  vertebrae 
become  anchylosed  in  consequence  of  these  violent  efforts  ; and  thus  has  arisen  the  opinion  that  the 
animals  of  this  genus  have  only  one  bone  in  their  neck.  They  are  nocturnal  animals,  and  inhabit 
caverns  ; voracious,  subsisting  chiefly  on  dead  bodies,  which  they  will  even  disinter  from  the  grave,  a 
habit  that  has  given  rise  to  a multitude  of  superstitious  traditions. 

Three  species  are  known.  The  striped  Hyaena  (II.  vulgaris,  Canis  hycena,  Lin.),  found  from  India  to  Abyssinia 
and  Senegal.  The  spotted  H.  (H.  crocuta,  Schreb.,  C.  crocuta,  Lin.,)  from  South  Africa ; and  the  Woolly  Hyaena, 
(II.  bruanea,  Thunb.,  H.  villosa,  Smith),  also  from  South  Africa.  Remains  of  a fossil  species  (H.  spelcea)  are 
found  in  many  cavern  deposits  of  France,  Germany,  and  England.  [Hyaenas  are  easily  tamed,  if  allowed  their 
liberty,  and  are  susceptible  of  strong  attachment  to  those  who  use  them  kindly  : many  are  employed  in  the  capacity 
of  watch-dogs  both  in  Asia  and  Africa.  They  are  physiologically  nearly  related  to  the  Civets,  and  not  to  the 
Dogs  * ; and  the  loss  of  the  posterior  tuberculous  molar  appears  to  be  a consequence  of  the  great  increase  in  size 
of  the  carnivorous  grinders  : notwithstanding  which  these  animals  feed  much  on  bulbs.] 

The  Cats  (Felis,  Lin.) — 

Are,  of  all  the  Carnaria,  the  most  completely  and  powerfully  armed.  Their  short  and  rounded  muzzle, 
short  jaws,  and  especially  their  retractile  talons,  which,  being  raised  upward  when  at  rest,  and  closing 
within  the  toes,  by  the  action  of  elastic  ligaments,  lose  neither  point  nor  edge,  render  them  most  for- 
midable animals,  more  particularly  the  larger  species.  They  have  two  false  molars  above,  and  two 

* Their  rough  tongue,  small  and  not  spiral  coecum,  the  structure  | their  anal  pouch,  style  of  colouring,  &c.,  combine  to  iudieate  their 
of  their  reproductive  organs,  and  consequent  mode  of  copulation  ; 1 true  position  to  be  as  above  assigned. 


below  : the  upper  carnivorous  tooth  three-lobed,  with  a broad  heel  on  its  inner  side ; the  inferior  with 
two  pointed  and  cutting  lobes,  and  without  any  heel : finally,  they  have  only  one  very  small  upper 
tubercular,  and  no  corresponding  one  in  the  lower  jaw.  [These  animals  creep  unawares  upon  their  prey, 
and  seize  it  with  a sudden  spring,  in  which  they  expend  their  energy.]  The  species  are  exceedingly 
numerous,  and  vary  much  in  size  and  colour,  but  they  are  all  nearly  similar  in  structure.  We  can 
only  subdivide  them  by  characters  of  trivial  import,  as  size,  and  the  length  of  fur. 

At  the  head  of  this  genus  ranks 

The  Lion  ( Felis  leo,  Lin.),  the  most  powerful  of  the  beasts  of  prey ; distinguished  by  its  uniform  tawny  colour, 
the  tuft  of  black  hair  at  the  end  of  the  tail,  and  the  flowing  mane  which  clothes  the  head,  neck,  and  shoulders  of 
the  male.  Formerly  inhabiting  the  three  divisions  of  the  ancient  world,  it  appears  to  be  now  confined  to  Africa, 
and  the  neighbouring  parts  of  Asia.  Its  head  is  squarer  than  in  the  following  species.  [The  Lion  is  subject  to 
considerable  variation,  chiefly  as  regards  the  quantity  of  mane,  and  lengthened  hair  on  other  parts : those  of 
Guizerat  are  almost  destitute  of  any ; the  Lions  of  Africa  present  the  greatest  quantity,  in  many  of  which  there  is 
a median  line  of  long  hair  extending  along  the  belly ; but  even  these  differ  one  from  another : there  is  also  con- 
siderable difference  of  physiognomy  between  the  African  and  Asiatic  Lions,  and  the  latter  are  always  paler,  and 
reputed  to  be  less  courageous ; but  there  is  no  difference  of  size  and  apparent  strength.  Those  who  distinguish 
the  Lions  of  Asia  and  Africa  as  different  species,  might  change  their  opinion  on  seeing  the  various  adults  now 
living  in  London.] 

Tigers  are  large  species  with  short  hair,  and  commonly  exhibiting  vivid  markings.  [We  may  here  observe  that 
it  is  quite  impossible  to  subdivide  the  genus  Felis  into  definite  sections,  and  that  every  attempt  of  this  kind 
hitherto  made  has  consequently  proved  a complete  failure  : the  transition  into  the  Lynxes  is  most  gradual ; and 
the  spotless  species  (as  the  Lion,  Puma,  &c.)  are  marked  like  the  rest  when  young.  Those  species,  however, 
which  affect  the  open  country,  as  the  Lion  and  Leopard,  have  the  pupil  of  the  eye  contracting  to  a point ; whereas 
in  those  which  inhabit  forests,  as  the  Tiger  and  domestic  Cat,  the  pupil  closes  to  a vertical  line,  permitting  thus, 
when  least  dilated,  of  a full  range  of  vision,  in  the  direction  in  which  these  animals  chiefly  watch  for  prey.  A few 
of  the  more  conspicuous  may  be  briefly  indicated.] 

The  Tiger  ( F . tigris,  Lin.)— As  large  as  the  Lion,  but  with  the  body  longer  and  head  rounder ; of  a bright  red- 
dish-buff above,  with  irregular  black  transverse  stripes,  and  pure  white  underneath ; [the  hair  surrounding  the 
head  elongated]  : the  most  cruel  of  quadrupeds,  and  the  scourge  of  the  East  Indies.  Such  are  the  strength  and 
the  velocity  of  its  movements,  that  during  the  march  of  an  army  it  has  been  known  to  seize  a soldier  while  on 
horse-back,  and  bear  him  off  to  the  jungle,  without  affording  a chance  of  rescue.  [This  species  also  occurs, 
sparingly,  in  northern  Asia.  Its  markings  vary  much  in  different  individuals.] 

The  Jaguar  (F.  onca,  Lin.)  of  America.— Nearly  as  large  as  the  preceding,  and  scarcely  less  dangerous : it  is 
beautifully  spotted  with  rings  more  or  less  complete,  and  containing  smaller  spots  [on  a deeper  ground-tint : the 
space  included  within  the  annulations  of  all  the  spotted  Cats  being  deeper  coloured  than  the  rest  of  the  body.] 
Black  individuals  sometimes  occur,  which  have  the  spots  more  intense,  and  visible  only  at  particular  angles, 
[the  fur  of  the  spots  differing  in  texture : the  same  has  been  observed  of  the  Tiger  and  Leopard,  and  albino 
individuals  of  the  former  have  likewise  been  noticed.  Jaguars  also  differ  much  one  from  another]. 

The  Panther  (F.  pardus,  Lin. : Pardalis  of  the  ancients.)— [Covered  with  annular  series  of  irregular  small  spots.] 
It  is  widely  spread  over  Africa,  the  hottest  region  of  Asia,  and  also  the  Indian  archipelago. 

The  Leopard  (F.  leopardus,  Lin.)— [Very  like  the 
Panther,  but  with  the  markings  less  broken  into 
small  spots  : it  varies,  however,  considerably,  and 
the  two  sides  of  the  same  animal  do  not  always 
resemble : from  Asia  and  Africa.]  These  two  spe- 
cies are  smaller  than  the  American  Jaguar  [and 
are  very  doubtfully  separable  from  each  other. 

The  Ounce  of  Buffon  (F.  uncia,  Gm.)  is  a long- 
haired mountain  Cat,  as  large  as  a Leopard,  with 
tail  longer  than  the  body : also  similarly  spotted, 
but  more  obscurely,  and  on  a paler  ground-tint. 
It  inhabits  the  Asiatic  mountains,  and  a fine  spe- 
cimen of  it  has  lately  been  deposited  in  the  British 

Of  the  other  spotted  Cats,  may  be  mentioned 
the  F.  chalybeata,  Herm.,  from  the  north  of  India ; 
and  F.  viverrina,  Ben.,  from  Sumatra*:  also  the 
Rymau-dyan  (Fig.  33),  or  gigantic  Tiger-cat  of 
Sumatra  (F.  macroscelis),  and  the  nearly  allied  but 
smaller  Marbled  Cat  (F.  marmorata),  from  the 
same  locality,  which  are  remarkable  for  length  of 
tail.  The  Ocelot  of  South  America  (F.  pardalis, 

* Notwithstanding  its  name,  this  species  presents  no  real  approach  to  Viverra : its  cranium,  for  instance,  being  strictly  that  of  a Felis. 




Lin.),  twice  the  size  of  a large  domestic  Cat,  and  comparatively  lower  on  the  legs,  is  marked  somewhat  like  the 
Jaguar,  but  with  a tendency  to  a linking  of  the  spots  into  longitudinal  bands,  more  or  less  observable  in  different 
individuals.*  F.  Sumatranus  and  Bengalensis  are  not  larger  than  a House-cat,  but  coloured  like  the  foregoing ; 
though  individuals  commonly  occur  of  the  same  greyish  ground-tint  as  the  majority  of  the  smaller  species.  A 
beautiful  European  Cat,  with  the  markings  of  the  Leopard  group,  is  the  F.  pardina,  Oken,  which  inhabits  the 
mountains  of  Spain ; its  tail,  however,  is  short,  as  in  the  following.  There  are  many  others]. 

Lynxes  are  short-tailed  Cats,  with  mostly  pencil-tufts  to  their  ears,  and  fur  generally  spotted  more  or  less  dis- 
tinctly : those  of  cold  countries  have  the  fur  long. 
A species  little  less  than  a Leopard  ( F . lynx,  Lin.) 
still  inhabits  the  mountainous  parts  of  Europe, 
from  Scandinavia  to  Spain  and  Naples,  and,  it  is 
said,  the  north  of  Africa  also.  [Prof.  Nilsson  dis- 
tinguishes three  large  European  species  in  Scan- 
dinavia, and  figures  different  varieties  of  each.] 
The  Canada  Lynx  is  smaller,  with  very  long  fur, 
which  extends  even  under  the  toes ; [it  is  allied 
to  the  Wild  Cat  of  Britain.  There  are  many 
others,  some,  as  the  Pampas  Cat  ( F.pajeros ) grad- 
ing into  the  next  group.  We  can  only  notice 
a handsome  short-haired  species,  the  Caracal  of 
Turkey  and  Persia,  almost  uniform  bright  vinous 
red;  it  is  the  true  Lynx  of  the  ancients.  The 
Chati  {F.  Serval,  F.  Cuv.),  an  elegant  spotted 
species,  of  slender  form,  and  very  high  upon  the 
Fig.  34.— Fells  Lynx.  legs,  may  be  approximated  to  this  group,  and 

indeed  has  a moderately  short  and  singularly 
mobile  tail : it  inhabits  Africa.  Allied  to  it  is  the  Chati  (F.  mitis),  a native  of  South  America. 

Approaching  the  domestic  Cat  in  size,  colour,  and  markings,  are  also  numerous  species,  among  which  the 
native  Cat  of  Britain  (fig.  35)  may  be  particularized,  distinguished  by  its  tail  not  tapering  as  in  the  tame  Cat; 
it  is  also  larger,  but  with  much  shorter  intestinal  canal,  though  it  is  probable  that  the  length  of  intestine  in  the 
common  Cat  may  have  been  gradually  induced  by  long-continued  habituation  to  a less  carnivorous  regimen, 
operating  through  many  successive  generations.  The  domestic  Cat  is  referred  by  Temminck  to  his  F . maniculata , a 
species  wild  in  Egypt ; but  is  probably  a mingled  race,  derived  from  several  distinct  wild  stocks  : our  author,  in 
his  last  edition,  referred  it  to  the  European  Vfild  Cat,  but  subsequently  retracted  his  opinion : the  Angora  variety 

of  it  is  perhaps  the  most  remarkable,  being 
covered  with  long  silky  hair.  Of  the  spotless 
species,  may  be  mentioned] 

The  Cougar,  Puma,  or  pretended  Lion  of 
America  ( F . concolor,  Lin.)  (Fig.  36.)— Red  [sil- 
very or  greyish-red],  with  small  spots  of  a 
slightly  deeper  colour,  which  are  not  easily  per- 
ceived [nor  always  present  in  the  adults,  and  a 
small  black  tuft  at  the  end  of  the  tail.  Size 
nearly  that  of  a Leopard],  from  both  Americas, 
where  it  preys  on  Sheep,  Deer,  &c.  [and  has 
been  known,  though  very  rarely,  to  attack 
mankind.  An  allied  species,  redder,  and  with 
shorter  tail,  exclusively  from  South  America,  is 
known  as  F.  unicolor;  and  there  is  a small 
species  also  very  similar,  the  Eira  of  Azzara, 
the  tail  of  which  is  not  tufted.  The  Jaguarondi 
is  another  from  the  same  locality,  of  medium 
size,  altogether  of  a blackish-brown,  more  or 
less  dark,  and  rather  low  on  the  legs : and  there  is  a deep  reddish-brown  Cat  in  India,  scarcely  larger  than  the 

Fig  35  — WilQ  Cat. 

* As  a warning  against  relying  too  much  upon  the  proverbially 
uncertain  temper  of  these  eminently  carnivorous  animals,  may  be 
mentioned  a fact  which  occurred  not  long  ago  in  France.  A gentleman 
had  succeeded  in  taming  an  Ocelot,  which  for  three  years  enjoyed 
the  range  of  his  house  and  garden  as  freely  as  a domestic  Cat, 
appearing  thoroughly  reclaimed.  One  evening,  however,  at.  the  fire- 
side, when  a child  of  three  years  old  was  playing  with  it,  as  it  had 
often  done  before,  the  animal,  being  irritated,  seized  the  infant  by 
the  throat,  and  killed  it  before  assistance  could  be  rendered.  An 
instance  has  occurred  in  this  country  of  a babe  being  attacked  by  a 
tame  Ferret.  The  Domestic  Cat  is  undoubtedly  more  susceptible  of 
attachment  than  it  has  been  generally  described  ; and  it  is  surprising 
to  perceive  how  patiently  it  bears  the  rough  handling  of  children.  We 
have  seen  it  hail  the  return  of  persons  it  knew  with  as  lively  joy  as 

any  animal  could  well  testify,  and  this  in  the  case  of  individuals  who 
had  never  fed  it : but  it  is  understood,  with  what  general  truth  may 
perhaps  be  questioned,  that  while  the  Dog  will  mourn  and  even  pine 
to  death  over  the  body  of  its  master,  the  Cat  feels  no  compunction  in 
making  it  its  prey : it  is  needless  to  observe,  however,  that  the  intel- 
lect of  the  Cat  is  very  much  inferior  to  that  of  the  Dog,  on  which 
account  some  allowance  may  be  granted. 

With  respect  to  the  Domestic  Cat,  also,  another  consideration  may 
be  borne  in  mind,  which  is,  that  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  its 
nature  has  been  considerably  modified  by  domestication,  which  has 
gradually  rendered  it  less  exclusively  carnivorous  than  its  wild  con 
geners.  It  is  even  remarkable  that  instances  of  the  rapacity  of  this 
animal  towards  young  children  are  not  of  frequent  occurrence. — Ed. 



domestic,  named  F.  Temminckii:  F.  planiceps  approximates  the  last,  but  is  smaller,  with  some  markings  on  the 
head,  and  is  remarkable  for  its  complete  bony 

We  might  place  as  a separate  subgenus  [Cy- 
nailurus,  Blainv.  ? ] a species  which  has  the  head 
rounder  and  shorter,  and  the  talons  of  which  are 
not  retractile  [a  statement  which  is  unwar- 
ranted by  fact],  the  Chetah,  or  Hunting  Leo- 
pard (F.  jubata,  Schreb.) : size  of  a Leopard,  but 
longer-bodied,  and  stands  higher;  of  a pale 
fulvous,  with  tolerably  uniform  small  black  spots, 
a black  streak  reaching  from  the  eye  to  the  angle 
of  the  mouth,  and  tail  annulated  at  the  end. 

The  disposition  of  this  animal  is  mild  and  docile. 

[From  Asia  and  Africa,  but  apparently  not 
specifically  the  same  on  the  two  continents. 

The  Digitigrada  of  Cuvier,  exclu- 
sive of  the  semi-plantigrade  genera  which 
have  no  ccecum,  divide  primarily  into, 
first,  the  Canine  group,  or  the  Dogs  and 
Foxes,  which  is  the  most  distinctly  se- 
parated by  anatomical  characters ; the 
remainder  are  all  much  more  nearly  al- 
lied, but  we  may  venture  to  detach  the 
Feline  animals  or  Cats  : the  rest  may  all 
be  included  in  the  Viverrine  section,  to 
which  the  Hyaenas  strictly  appertain ; a 
varied,  but  quite  natural  assemblage,  ex- 
clusively confined  in  its  distribution  to  the  eastern  continent,  and  scarcely  extending  beyond 
the  tropics ; whereas  the  former  groups  are  generally  diffused,  with  the  exception  of  Aus- 
tralia and  the  remote  oceanic  islands.  Of  the  Viverrine  animals,  the  most  definitely  cha- 
racterized subdivision  is  that  of  the  Mangoustes  and  subordinate  sections : the  Genets  scarcely 
differ  from  the  Cats  except  in  the  prolongation  of  the  muzzle ; and  the  Hysena  group  is  so 
nearly  related  to  the  Civets  that  it  does  not  appear  to  be  separable  on  physiological  characters.] 

The  Amphibia  [Pinnigrada,  Blain.] — 

Compose  the  third  and  last  of  the  minor  tribes  into  which  we  divide  the  Carnivora.  Their 
feet  are  so  short  and  so  enveloped  in  the  skin,  that,  upon  land,  they  only  serve  to  crawl 
with*  ; but,  as  the  intervals  between  their  toes  are  occupied  by  membranes,  they  form  excel- 
lent oars : hence  these  animals  pass  the  greater  portion  of  their  lives  in  the  water,  which  they 
only  quit  to  bask  in  the  sunshine,  and  to  suckle  their  young.  Their  lengthened  body ; their 
very  moveable  spine,  provided  with  muscles  which  strongly  flex  it ; their  narrow  pelvis ; their 
short  close  fur,  setting  flat  upon  the  skin ; all  combine  to  render  them  able  swimmers,  and 
the  details  of  their  anatomy  confirm  these  first  indications.  [As  in  the  Dugong,  the  Cetacea,  and 
other  large  aquatic  Mammalia,  their  bones  are  light  and  spongy,  more  particularly  in  the 
larger  species.]  Only  two  genera  have  as  yet  been  distinguished,  the  Seals  and  the  Morses. 

The  Seals  ( Phoca , Lin.) — 

Have  six  or  four  incisors  above,  four  or  only  two  below,  pointed  canines,  and  grinders  to  the 
number  of  twenty,  twenty-two,  or  twenty-four  [that  is  to  say,  two,  in  the  complete  series,  posterior 
to  the  representative  of  the  carnivorous  tooth],  all  of  them  trenchant  or  conical,  without  any  tuber- 
culous portion : five  toes  to  each  foot,  the  anterior  successively  shortening  from  the  thumb  ; whereas, 

* It  is  only  when  clambering  that  the  Seal  employs  its  feet  on  land : it  wriggles  along,  upon  the  ground,  by  the  action  of  the  abdo- 
minal muscles. — Ed. 


Fig.  36. — The  Puma 



in  the  hind  feet,  the  outer  and  inner  toes  are  the  longest,  and  the  intermediate  comparatively  short. 
Their  fore-feet  are  enveloped  in  the  integuments  of  the  body  as  far  as  the  wrist,  the  hinder  almost  to 
the  heel ; between  the  latter  is  a short  tail.  The  head  of  a Seal  resembles  that  of  a Dog ; and  they 
have  the  same  intelligence  and  mild  and  expressive  physiognomy.  They  are  easily  tamed,  and  become 
much  attached  to  their  feeder.  The  tongue  is  smooth,  and  notched  at  the  end,  their  stomach  simple, 
coecum  short,  intestinal  canal  long,  and  tolerably  regular.  These  animals  subsist  on  fish,  which  they 
always  devour  in  the  water,  and  are  enabled  to  close  their  nostrils  when  diving,  by  means  of  a sort  of 
valve.  As  they  remain  long  below  the  surface,  it  was  supposed  that  th & foramen  ovale  continued  open 
as  in  a foetus,  which  is  not  the  case : they  have  a large  venous  cavity,  however,  in  their  liver,  which 
assists  them  in  diving,  by  rendering  respiration  less  necessary  to  the  motion  of  the  blood.  The 
latter  is  very  abundant  and  very  dark. 

Analogous  to  Calocephala,  The  Seals,  (properly  so  called,  or  without  external  ears), — 

Have  the  incisors  pointed ; all  their  toes  enjoy  a certain  degree  of  motion,  and  are  terminated  by 
pointed  nails  placed  on  the  edge  of  the  connecting  membrane. 

They  may  be  divided  according  to  the  number  of  their  incisors.  In 

Calocephala , F.  Cuv.  [Phoca,  as  restricted], — 

There  are  six  above  and  four  below.  [The  cheek-teeth  have  more  than  one  root ; and  besides  the 
main  cutting  point,  there  is  on  each  an  anterior  smaller  one,  and  two  posterior.  The  brain  is  in  this 
division  amply  developed,  and  the  intelligence  proportionate.] 

The  common  Seal  ( Ph . vitulina , Lin. ; Ph.  littorea,  Thiem.)— Common  on  the  coast  of  Europe  in  vast  herds,  and 

Fig.  37. — Greenland  Seal. 

The  Sterrincks  ( Stenorhynchus , F.  Cuv.) — 
Possess  four  incisors  to  each  jaw,  and  cheek- 
teeth deeply  notched  into  three  points  (fig.  38), 
[but  with  single  roots  : the  muzzle  slender  and 
much  elongated ; and  very  small  claws]. 

One  only  is  known  {Ph.  leptonyx,  Bl.),  from  the 
Austral  seas : size  of  the  Bearded  Seal.  [An  allied 
species  constitutes 

The  Leptonyx  ( Leptonyx , Gray) — 

The  grinders  of  which  are  bluntly  three-lobed, 
the  muzzle  broad  and  rounded,  and  hind  feet 

extending-  far  to  the  north.  The  European  seas, 
however,  contain  several  Phocce , which  have 
been  long  confounded,  some  of  which  are  per- 
haps varieties  of  the  others ; as  Ph.  hispida, 
Schreb. ; Ph.  annellata,  Nills. ; Ph.fcetida,  Fabr., 
&c.  [Those  of  the  British  islands  much  require 
elucidation.]  A species  more  easily  recog- 
nized is 

The  Harp  Seal  {Ph.  groenlandica  and  oceanica, 
Auct.),  from  the  whole  north  of  the  globe.  [Re- 
markable for  the  difference  in  marking  between 
the  adult  male  (fig.  37)  and  the  female  and 
young : length  five  feet.  It  pertains  to  the  British 
fauna,  as  does  also  the  next  species,  according  to 
report,  for  which  the  Halicheerus  griseus , how- 
ever, has  been  generally  mistaken.] 

Bearded  Seal  (PA.  barbata,  Fabr.),  a northern 
21  species,  surpassing  all  the  preceding  ones  in 
2:  size,  which  is  from  seven  to  eight  feet.  Its 

moustaches  are  thicker  and  stronger  than  in  the 
others.  [Several  more  are  known  from  the  north- 
ern hemisphere.] 

Otaria  Weddellii,  Lesson.— Also  from  the  South  Seas], 



The  Monk  ( Pelagius , F.  Cuv.) — 

Also  possesses  four  incisors  to  each  jaw  ; but  the  grinders  form  obtuse  cones,  with  a slightly  marked 
process  before  and  behind.  There  is  one  in  the  Mediterranean, 

Ph.  monachus,  Gm.,  from  ten  to  twelve  feet  in  length.  It  is  particularly  found  among  the  Grecian  and  Adriatic 
Isles,  and  was  probably  the  species  best  known  to  the  ancients. 

[The  Halkets  ( Halichcenis , Nilsson). 

Grinding  teeth  of  the  upper  jaw  simple  ; those  of  the  lower  with  an  inconspicuous  tubercle  before  and 
behind.  Muzzle  deep  and  obliquely  truncated  : the  head  flat,  and  brain  comparatively  very  small. 

H.  gryplius,  Nils.,  a species  nearly  as  large  as  the  Bearded  Seal,  inhabits  the  Baltic  and  British  seas,  where  it 
would  seem  to  be  not  uncommon.  Its  intelligence  has  been  observed  to  be  very  inferior  to  that  of  the 
true  Phoc(C.'] 

The  Hoodcap  ( Stemmatopus , 1.  Cuv.). 

Four  superior,  and  two  inferior  incisors ; the  grinders  compressed  and  slightly  three-lobed,  supported 
by  thick  roots. 

Ph.  cristata,  Gm. ; Ph.  leonina,  Fabr.— A species  attaining  a length  of  seven  or  eight  feet,  with  loose  skin  upon 
the  head,  which  can  be  inflated  into  a sort  of  cowl,  and  is  drawn  over  the  eyes  when  the  animal  is  menaced,  at 
which  time  the  nostrils  also  are  puffed  out  like  bladders.  From  the  Arctic  Ocean. 


The  Myroungas  ( Macrorhinus , F.  Cuv. ; [ Cystophora , Nilsson,]  ) — 

Possess,  with  the  incisors  of  the  preceding,  obtuse  conical  molars  (fig.  39)  [but  ma'ssive  canines],  and 

muzzle  lengthened  into  a short  moveable  proboscis.  The 
largest  known  Seal  is  of  this  subgenus  ; the 

Ph.  leonina,  Lin. — Twenty  to  twenty-four  feet  in  length  [sometimes 
thirty,  according  to  English  measure,  and  of  great  proportionate 
bulk].  Brown,  the  muzzle  of  the  male  terminated  by  a wrinkled 
snout,  which  becomes  inflated  when  the  animal  is  angry.  It  is  common 
in  the  southern  latitudes  of  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  of  great  request  for 
the  quantity  of  very  superior  oil  with  which  it  abounds. 

Those  with  external  ears, 

The  Otaries  ( Otaria , Peron), — 

Are  worthy  of  being  formed  into  a separate  genus,  inasmuch 
as,  besides  the  projecting  auditory  conch,  the  four  middle  upper  incisors  have  a double  cutting  edge  (a 
structure  not  hitherto  remarked  in  any  other  animal) ; the  exterior  are  simple  and  very  small,  and  the 
four  inferior  forked : the  molars  are  all  simply  conical.  The  toes  of  their  anterior  swimming-paws 
[which  are  placed  far  backward]  are  almost  immoveable ; and  the  membrane  of  their  hind  feet  is 
prolonged  into  a flap  beyond  each  toe  : all  the  nails  are  thin  and  flat. 

Ph.jubata,  Gm.  (Sea  Lion  of  Steller,  Pernatty, 
&c.,  but  not  of  Anson,  which  refers  to  the  My- 
rounga;  the  latter  being  also  the  Sea  Wolf  of  Per- 
natty). From  fifteen  to  twenty  feet  [French],  and 
more,  in  length : the  neck  of  the  male  covered 
with  more  frizzled  and  thickly-set  hairs  than 
those  on  the  other  parts  of  the  body.  From  the 
South  Pacific. 

[The  Falkland  Otary,  or  Fur  Seal  of  com- 
merce (C.  Falldandia,  Desm.)— Remarkable  for 
the  great  disproportionate  size  of  the  sexes  (if, 
indeed,  the  same  does  not  apply  to  all  its  con- 
geners) ; the  full-grown  male,  according  to 
Weddell,  measuring  6 ft.  9 inch.;  the  female 
only  34  feet.  It  is  polygamous,  in  the  proportion  of 
one  male  to  about  twenty  females.  The  fur  is 
an  esteemed  article  of  commerce ; and  so  abun- 
dant was  the  species  formerly  in  various  locali- 
ties, that  for  a period  of  fifty  years,  not  less  than 
1,200,000  skins  were  annually  obtained  from  a 
single  island]. 

Fig.  40.—' The  Ursal. 

H 2 




The  Ursal  ( Ph . ursina,  Gm.  [. Arctocephalus  ursinus,  F.  Cuv.  fig.  40.]— Eight  feet  long,  no  mane,  varying  from 
brown  to  whitish.  From  the  north  of  the  Pacific  Ocean. 

The  Morse  ( Trichecus , Lin.) — 

Resembles  the  Seals  in  the  general  form  of  its  body  and  limbs,  but  differs  considerably  from  them  in 
the  head  and  teeth.  The  lower  jaw  has  neither  incisors  nor  canines,  and  is  compressed  anteriorly  to 
pass  between  two  enormous  canines  or  tusks  which  issue  from  the  upper  one,  and  which  are  directed 
downwards,  attaining  sometimes  a length  of  two  feet,  with  proportionate  thickness.  The  magnitude 
of  the  sockets  requisite  for  holding  such  enormous  canines  raises  up  the  whole  front  of  the  upper  jaw, 
so  as  to  form  a thick  bulging  muzzle,  the  nostrils  opening  upwards,  instead  of  being  terminal.  The 
molars  are  all  short  cylinders,  obliquely  truncated.  There  are  four  [or  five]  on  each  side  above  and 
below ; but  at  a certain  age,  two  of  the  upper  ones  fall  out.  Between  the  canines  are  two  incisors 
similar  to  the  molars,  which  the  majority  of  observers  have  overlooked,  as  they  are  not  fixed  in  the 
intermaxillary  bones ; and  between  these  again,  in  young  individuals,  are  two  pointed  and 
small  ones. 

The  stomach  and  intestines  of  the  Morse  are  nearly  similar  to  those  of  the  Seals : and  it  appears  j 
that  they  subsist  on  fuci  as  well  as  on  animal  substances. 

One  species  only  has  been  ascertained,  the  Morse  or  Walrus  (Tr.  rosmarus,  L.) ; an  inhabitant  of  all  parts  of  the 
Arctic  seas,  exceeding  the  largest  Bull  in  bulk ; it  attains  a length  of  twenty  feet,  and  is  covered  with  short  yel- 
lowish hair.  This  animal  is  much  sought  for  on  account  of  its  oil  and  tusks  ; the  ivory  of  which,  though  coarse- 
grained, is  employed  in  the  arts.  The  skin  makes  excellent  coach-braces.  [A  strange  assertion  originated  with 
Sir  E.  Home,  that  the  feet  of  the  Morse  possess  suckers,  by  which  it  is  enabled  to  ascend  perpendicular  ice-bergs. 
There  is  no  foundation  for  this  statement. 

It  is  difficult  to  intercalate  the  Amphibia  in  the  series  of  Carnivora,  and  to  determine  to 
what  extent  their  peculiarities  should  he  regarded  as  adaptive  modifications,  based  on  the 
rudimental  structure  of  the  whole  order. 

At  the  head  of  the  Carnivora  we  prefer  to  place  the  Dogs  or  Canidce,  followed  by  the 
Viverridce  and  Felidce  : the  Seals  or  Phocidce  might,  we  conceive,  next  range  with  less  impro- 
priety than  elsewhere  : and  after  them  the  Must  elides,  and  Ur  sides  j then,  finally,  the  Insectivora, 
which  the  author  ranks  as  equivalent  to  all  the  foregoing.  The  Cheiroptera,  or  Bats,  we 
deem  to  be  subordinate  rather  to  the  preceding  order. 

Remains  of  nearly  all  the  principal  genera  and  some  additional  ones  have  been  found,  more 
or  less  abundantly,  in  the  tertiary  strata,  or  deposits  overlying  the  chalk,  but  not  in  beds  of 
anterior  formation.] 



(Or  that  of  the  Pouched  Animals,) — 

With  which  we  formerly  terminated  the  Carnaria,  as  a fourth  family  of  that  great  ordinal 
division,  presents  so  many  singularities  in  the  economy  of  its  members,  that  we  are  induced  to 
separate  and  elevate  it  to  its  present  position ; the  more  particularly,  as  we  observe  in  it  a 
sort  of  representation  of  three  very  different  orders. 

The  first  of  all  their  peculiarities  is  the  premature  production  of  their  young,  which  are 
born  in  a state  of  developement  scarcely  comparable  to  that  of  an  ordinary  foetus  a few  days 
after  conception.  Incapable  of  motion,  and  barely  exhibiting  the  rudiments  of  limbs  and 



other  external  organs,  these  minute  offspring  attach  themselves  to  the  teats  of  their  mother, 
and  remain  fixed  there  until  they  have  acquired  a degree  of  developement  analogous  to  that 
in  which  other  animals  are  horn.  The  skin  of  the  abdomen  is  almost  always  so  disposed 
around  the  mammae  as  to  form  a pouch,  in  which  these  imperfect  young  are  preserved  as  in  a 
second  uterus ; and  into  which,  long  after  they  can  walk,  they  retire  for  shelter  on  the  appre- 
hension of  danger.  Two  peculiar  bones  attached  to  the  pubis,  and  interposed  between  the 
muscles  of  the  abdomen,  support  the  pouch,  [and  prevent  inconvenient  pressure  of  the  young, 
when  grown,  upon  the  bowels.]  These  hones  are  also  found  in  the  male,  and  even  in  those 
species  in  which  the  fold  that  forms  the  pouch  is  scarcely  visible. 

The  matrix  of  the  animals  of  this  order  does  not  open  by  a single  orifice  into  the  extremity 
of  the  vagina,  but  communicates  with  this  canal  by  two  bent  lateral  tubes.  The  premature 
birth  of  the  young  appears  to  depend  on  this  singular  organization.  The  scrotum  of  the  male, 
contrary  to  what  obtains  in  other  quadrupeds,  hangs  before  the  penis,  which  at  rest  is  directed 

Another  peculiarity  of  the  Marsupiata  is,  that,  notwithstanding  a general  resemblance  of 
the  species  to  each  other,  so  striking  that  they  were  all  long  included  in  one  genus,  they 
differ  so  much  in  the  teeth,  the  digestive  organs,  and  the  feet,  that  if  we  rigidly  adhered  to 
these  characters,  it  would  be  necessary  to  separate  them  into  distinct  orders.  They  carry  us 
by  insensible  gradations  from  the  Carnaria  to  the  Rodentia*,  and  there  are  even  some  animals 
which  have  the  pelvis  furnished  with  similar  bones ; but  which,  being  destitute  of  incisors  and 
even  of  any  sort  of  teeth,  have  been  approximated  to  the  J Edentata,  where,  in  fact,  we  shall 
leave  them,  under  the  name  of  Monotremata.  [The  latter  are  now  more  properly  included 
as  a second  order  of  the  same  superior  division  of  Mammalia  which  contains  the  Marsupiata, 
by  the  general  consent  of  physiologists.] 

In  brief,  it  may  be  stated  that  the  Marsupiata  form  a distinct  class,  parallel  to  that  of 
ordinary  quadrupeds,  and  divisible  into  similar  orders ; so  that,  if  we  were  to  arrange 
these  two  classes  into  even  columns,  the  Opossums,  Dasyures,  and  Bandicoots,  would  be 
opposed  to  the  insectivorous  Carnaria,  such  as  the  Tenrecs  and  Moles ; the  Phalangers 
and  Potoroos  to  the  Urchins  and  Shrews ; while  the  Kangaroos,  properly  so  called,  could  not 
well  be  compared  with  any  other  genus ; but  the  Wombat  should  be  placed  opposite  the 
Rodentia.  Lastly,  if  we  were  to  consider  the  bones  of  the  pouch  only  [commonly  desig- 
nated marsupial  bones],  and  regard  as  marsupial  all  animals  which  possess  them,  the 
Platypuses  and  Echidnas  might  compose  a group  parallel  to  the  Edentata. 

Linnaeus  ranged  all  the  species  which  he  knew  under  his  genus  Didelphis,  signifying  double 
matrix.  The  pouch  is  indeed  in  some  respects  a second  one. 

[The  Marsupiata,  together  with  the  Monotremata,  is  now  generally  regarded  as  a distinct 
subclass,  Ovovivipara,  equivalent  to  the  rest  of  the  Mammalia.  Its  members  are  lower  in 
their  organization  than  any  other  mammiferous  animals,  approximating  the  oviparous  type 
(and  particularly  Reptiles),  in  sundry  details  of  their  organization.  The  hemispheres  of  the 
brain,  for  instance,  (which  is  much  reduced  in  size,)  are  not  united  by  a corpus  callosum  j 
and  they  are  observed  to  be  very  defective  in  intelligence,  as  is  indicated  by  their  phy- 
siognomy f:  the*"  blood  also  is  returned  to  the  heart  by  two  principal  veins,  as  in  Birds 
and  Reptiles;  and  the  sutures  of  the  skull  never  become  united.  In  short,  they  hold  an 
analogous  relation  towards  other  Mammalia,  to  that  which  the  Batrachia  present  to  all 
other  Reptiles.  Their  incisor  teeth  frequently  exceed  six  in  number,  which  is  the  maxi- 
mum throughout  the  rest  of  the  class, — another  indication  of  their  inferiority. 

The  geographic  range  of  the  Marsupiata,  with  the  exception  of  the  Opossum  group 
peculiar  to  America,  is  at  present  almost  confined  to  Australia  and  the  neighbouring  coun- 

* Only  upon  the  supposition  that  the  gnawing  teeth  of  the  Rodentia  J supiata,  is  afforded  by  their  turning  to  bite  the  stick  with  which  they 
are  modified  incisors,  which  is  more  than  doubtful. — Ed.  I are  smitten,  rather  than  the  hand  that  guides  it. 

t A curious  illustration  of  this  inferiority  on  the  part  of  the  Mar-  1 



tries,  where  they  constitute,  very  nearly  indeed,  the  only  mammiferous  animals ; but  fossil 
remains  of  them  occur,  sparingly,  in  the  ancient  secondary  deposits  of  Europe,  where 
hitherto  no  higher  Mammalia  have  been  detected.  Consequently,  the  Marsupiata  would 
appear  to  have  been  much  earlier  introduced  upon  our  planet ; a further  indication,  if  not 
of  their  inferiority,  at  least  of  their  intrinsical  separateness  as  a group : there  is  reason 
also  to  suspect  that  at  former  epochs  they  were  much  more  numerous,  as  well  as  generally 
diffused,  than  at  present.*] 

The  first  subdivision  of  them  is  distinguished  by  long  canines,  and  small  incisors  to 
each  jaw ; the  back  molars  are  beset  with  pointed  tubercles,  and  the  general  character  of 
the  teeth  is  the  same  as  in  the  Insectivora,  which  these  animals  entirely  resemble  in  their 

The  Opossums  ( Didelphis , Lin.), — 

Which  of  all  the  Marsupiata  have  been  the  longest  known,  compose  a genus  peculiar  to  America. 
They  have  ten  incisors  above,  and  eight  below ; three  anterior  compressed  molars,  and  four  sharply 
tuberculated  back  molars,  the  superior  of  which  are  triangular,  the  inferior  oblong : so  that,  with  the 
four  canines,  they  have  in  all  fifty  teeth,  a number  greater  than  has  as  yet  been  observed  in  any  other 
quadruped.f  Their  tongue  is  bristled,  and  the  tail  prehensile  and  in  part  naked  ; the  hinder  thumb  is 
long  and  effectively  opposable  to  the  four  other  digits,  whence  the  name  Pedimana  has  been  applied 
to  these  animals  ; it  is  not  furnished  with  a nail.  Their  extremely  wide  mouth,  and  large  naked  ears, 
give  them  a peculiar  physiognomy.  The  glans  penis  is  bifurcated.  They  are  fetid  and  nocturnal 
animals,  whose  gait  is  slow  ; nestle  upon  trees,  and  there  pursue  birds,  insects,  &c,,  without  rejecting 
fruit : their  stomach  is  small  and  simple,  and  the  ccecum  moderate  and  without  enlargements. 

The  females  of  certain  species  have  a deep  pouch,  wherein  are  placed  their  teats,  and  in  which  the 

The  Common  Opossum  ( D.virginiana , Pen.  (fig.  41.) 
—Nearly  the  size  of  a Cat;  fur,  a mixture  of  black 
and  white : it  inhabits  the  whole  of  America,  enters 
the  villages  at  night,  and  attacks  poultry,  devour- 
ing their  eggs,  &c.  The  young  at  birth,  sometimes 
sixteen  in  number,  weigh  only  a grain  each.  Al- 
though blind  and  nearly  shapeless,  they  find  the 
nipple  by  instinct,  and  adhere  until  they  have  at- 
tained the  size  of  a Mouse,  which  happens  about  the 
fiftieth  day,  at  which  epoch  they  open  their  eyes. 
They  continue  to  return  to  the  pouch  until  they  are 
as  large  as  Rats.  The  term  of  uterine  gestation 
is  only  twenty-six  days.  [Several  others  are  known ; 
one  of  which]  the  Crab-eating  Opossum  (D.  cancri- 
vorus),  frequents  the  marshes  of  the  sea-coast,  where 
it  feeds  chiefly  upon  crabs. 

Other  species  possess  no  pouch,  but  merely  a 
vestige  of  it,  or  fold  of  skin  on  each  side  of  the 
belly.  They  habitually  carry  their  young  on 
their  backs,  the  tails  of  the  latter  being  entwined 
round  that  of  the  mother. 

[A  considerable  number  are  known,  from  South 

The  Yapach  ( Cheironectes , Illig.) — 

[Is  merely  an  aquatic  Opossum,  with  semi-pal- 
mate toes.] 

young  are  inclosed. 

• Since  writing  the  above,  Prof.  Blainville  has  published  an  elabo- 
rate Essay  on  the  reputed  Marsupiata  of  the  secondary  deposits, 
wherein  he  advances  the  opinion  that  these  celebrated  fossil  remains 
appertain  rather  to  reptiles  of  a higher  organization  than  any  now 
existing.  M.  Valenciennes  and  Prof.  Owen  have  subsequently  ad- 
vocated the  currently  received  opinion;  while  the  first-named  natu- 
ralist has  been  supported  by  Dr.  Grant,  who  long  previously  had 

entertained  the  same  idea.  The  question  still  remains  sub  judice ; and 
it  even  appears  that  the  objections  to  either  solution  of  the  difficulty 
are  more  weighty  than  the  arguments  in  its  favour. 

t There  are  fifty- two  teeth  in  the  newly- discovered  Myrmecobius. 
The  multiplication  of  the  teeth  jn  the  Cetacea  is  on  a different 
principle. — Ed. 



The  Yapach  (Did.  palmata,  Geof. ; Lutra  memina,  Bodd,  fig.  42)  frequents  the  rivers  of  Guiana. 

All  the  other  Marsupials  inhabit  eastern 
countries,  and  especially  New  Holland  ; a 
land  of  which  the  mammiferous  population 
seems  even  to  consist  principally  of  ani- 
mals of  this  group. 

[The  three  next  genera,  and  probably 
the  fourth,  possess  no  ccecum.] 

The  Thylacines  ( Thylacinus , Tem.) — 
Are  the  largest  of  this  first  division : they 
are  distinguished  from  the  Opossums  by 
the  hind-feet  having  no  thumb,  by  a hairy 
and  not  prehensile  tail,  and  two  incisors 
less  to  each  jaw ; their  molars  are  of  the 
same  number.  They  have  accordingly 
forty-six  teeth ; but  the  external  edge  of 
Fig.  42.— The  Yapach.  the  three  large  ones  is  projecting  and 

trenchant,  almost  like  the  carnivorous  tooth  of  a Dog : their  ears  are  hairy,  and  of  middle  size. 

But  one  [living]  species  is  known,  a native  of  Van  Diemen’s  Land. — Size  that  of  a [small]  Wolf,  but  lower  on  the 
legs ; of  a greyish  colour,  barred  with  black  across  the  crupper  (Did.  cynocephala,  Harris).  It  is  very  carnivorous, 
and  pursues  all  small  quadrupeds.  [This  animal  does  not  fish,  as  has  been  stated  ; nor  is  its  tail  compressed : it 
is  principally  nocturnal,  and  is  called  Tiger  and  Hycena  in  its  native  island.]  A.  fossil  species  of  Thylacine  has 
been  found  in  the  gypsum  quarries  of  Paris. 

The  Phascogales  ( Phascogale , Tem.) — 

Have  the  same  lumber  of  teeth  as  the  Thylacines ; but  their  middle  incisors  are  longer  than  the 
others,  and  their  tack  molars  more  sharply  tuberculated,  in  which  respect  they  rather  approximate  the 
Opossums.  They  ire  also  allied  to  them  by  their  small  size  ; the  tail,  however,  is  not  prehensile  : 
their  posterior  thumbs,  though  very  short,  are  still  distinctly  apparent. 

[Four  species  are  row  known,  varying  from  the  size  of  a Rat  to  that  of  a Mouse : they  inhabit  New  Holland  and 
Van  Diemen’s  Land,  vhere  they  live  on  trees,  and  pursue  insects.] 

The  Dasyures  ( Dasyurus , Geof.) — 

Have  two  incisors  aid  four  grinders  in  each  jaw  less  than  the  Opossums,  so  that  they  have  only  forty- 
two  teeth ; and  their  tail,  everywhere  covered  with  long  hairs,  is  not  prehensile.  The  hinder  thumb 
is  reduced  to  a men  tubercle,  or  even  quite  disappears,  [as  in  the  Thylacine].  They  inhabit  New 
Holland,  and  subsist  on  insects  and  dead  carcases ; they  even  penetrate  into  houses,  where  their 
voracity  is  very  inccnvenient.  Their  mouth  is  not  so  wide*,  and  the  muzzle  [much]  less  pointed,  than 
in  the  Opossums  ; their  ears  also  are  shorter,  and  hairy.  They  do  not  ascend  trees. 

The  Ursine  Dasyire  (Did.  ursina,  Harris). — Long  coarse  black  hairs,  with  some  white  markings ; the  tail 
half  as  long  as  the  body,  almost  naked  underneath.  Inhabits  the  north  of  Van  Diemen’s  Land,  and  is 
nearly  the  size  of  a ladger.  [This  species,  which  is  of  common  occurrence,  is  designated  in  Van  Diemen’s  Land 
the  Devil:  it  is  nocturnal,  and  very  destructive  to  Sheep,  of  a fierce  disposition,  bites  severely,  and  is  a match  for 
an  ordinary  Dog : in  common  with  the  rest  of  its  tribe,  including  the  Thylacyar,  it  often  sits  on  its  haunches,  and 
cleans  its  head  with  its  fore-paws.] 

The  long-tailed  Disyure  (Das.  macrourus,  Geof.) — Size  of  a Cat,  with  the  tail  as  long  as  the  body  ; fur  brown, 
spotted  with  white  )0th  on  the  body  and  tail.  The  tubercle  of  the  thumb  is  still  well  marked  in  this  species,  but 
in  the  following  it  can  no  more  be  seen. 

Mauge’s  Dasyure  (Das.  Maugii,  Geof.) — Rather  smaller  than  the  preceding,  of  an  olive  colour,  spotted  with 
white  both  on  the  boiy  and  tail : and  lastly,  Did.  viverrina,  Shaw ; which  is  black,  spotted  with  white,  and  no  spots 
on  the  tail ; a third  less  than  the  first.  [These  are  still  the  only  ascertained  species,  though  it  is  probable  that  others 
remain  confounded.  The  last  is  termed  Wild  Cat  in  Van  Diemen’s  Land,  and  is  very  destructive  to  poultry,  of 
which  it  only  sucks  the  blood.  These  animals  apply  the  entire  sole  of  the  hind-foot  to  the  ground  when  standing. 

The  Myrmecobe  ( Myrmecobius , VTaterh.) — 

Has  the  greatest  lumber  of  teeth  of  any  known  marsupial,  fifty-two  in  all ; namely,  eight  upper  and 

* I lave  been  much  astonished  on  witnessing  the  amazingly  wide  gape  of  the  Ursine  Dasyure. — Ed. 



six  inferior  incisors,  and  behind  the  canines  four  compressed  molars  in  each  jaw,  and  finally  four  small 
molars  above,  and  five  below,  the  latter  pectinated  internally  in  consequence  of  the  irregularity  of 
attrition  ; the  canine  of  the  lower  jaw  is  much  incurved.  The  form  of  this  animal  is  similar  to  that  of 
a Squirrel,  but  with  a long  and  pointed  muzzle,  as  in  the  Banxring  : it  has  no  thumb  to  the  hind-foot. 

The  Banded  Myrmecobe  ( M.fasciata , Waterh.)— Size  of  a Rat,  and  barred  on  the  crupper  similarly  to  the  Thy- 
lacine,  but  with  white  bands  on  a reddish  ground  tint.  The  only  specimens  at  present  known  were  procured  at 
Swan  River  settlement,  Australia.  This  animal  has  been  supposed  to  present  the  nearest  living  approach  to  the 
fossil  Thylacotherium  of  the  secondary  lias.] 

The  Bandicoots  ( Perameles , Geof. ; Thylacis , Illig.) — 

Have  the  hinder  thumb  short,  as  in  the  first  Dasyures,  and  the  two  following  toes  joined  by  the  skin  as 
far  as  the  claws ; the  thumb  and  little  toe  of  their  fore-feet  are  reduced  to  simple  tubercles,  so  that 
there  seem  to  be  only  three  toes : the  superior  incisive  teeth  are  ten  in  number,  the  most  hindward 
pointed,  and  widely  separated  from  the  rest ; below  there  are  only  six,  [the  posterior  bilobate]  ; but 
their  molars  are  the  same  as  in  the  Opossums,  [though  less  angular  internally].  Their  tail  is  hairy, 
and  not  prehensile.  They  inhabit  Australia.  The  great  claws  of  their  fore-feet,  almost  straight, 
announce  the  habit  of  digging  into  the  ground,  and  their  rather  long  hind-feet  that  their  gait  is  rapid. 
[Their  ccecum  is  of  middle  size,  as  in  the  Opossums,  to  which  they  are  approximated  by  Prof.  Owen.] 

The  Long-nosed  Bandicoot  (P.  nasutus,  Geof.)— Muzzle  very  much  elongated ; the  ears  pointed ; fur  a greyish 
brown.  It  resembles,  at  the  first  glance,  a Tenrec.  The  P.  oiesula,  Geof.,  is  not  so  authentic.  [The  latter  is 
now  well  established,  as  also  another,  P.  Gunnii,  from  Van  Diemen’s  Land,  which  is  very  generally  diffused 
throughout  that  island ; it  lives  principally  on  bulbs,  but  also  on  insects.  Two  or  three  movi  have  been  indi- 
dicated,  one  of  which,  P.  lagotis,  Reid,  is  ranged  by  Prof.  Owen  as 

The  Philander  ( Thalacomys , Owen), — 

The  superior  hindward  incisor  of  which  is  close  to  the  others,  and  the  muzzle  very  l»ng,  and  abruptly 
attenuated : auditory  bullae  remarkably  large,  and  divided  posteriorly.  The  ears  long,  and  the  tail  also 
long  and  bushy. 

The  only  known  species  (Per.  lagotis,  Reid)— is  a nimble-looking  and  handsome  animal ; greyish,  and  as  large 
as  the  common  Opossum.  From  New  South  Wales.] 

In  the  second  subdivision  of  Marsupials,  there  are  two  large  and  long  incisors  in  the  lower 
jaw,  with  pointed  and  trenchant  edges  sloping  forwards,  and  six  corresponding  teeth  in  the 
upper  one.  The  superior  canines  are  still  long  and  pointed ; but  those  of  tlfr  lower  jaw  are  so 
small  that  they  are  often  hidden  in  the  gum  : in  the  last  subgenus  there  are  even  none  below. 

Their  regimen  is  in  great  part  frugivorous ; hence  their  intestines,  anil  particularly  the 
ccecum,  are  much  longer  than  in  the  Opossums.  They  have  all  a large  thijmb,  so  separated 
from  the  other  digits  that  it  seems  directed  backward  as  in  Birds  : it  has  no  nail,  and  the  two 
following  fingers  are  joined  by  the  skin  as  far  as  the  last  phalanx.  It  is  from  this  circum- 
stance that  they  have  derived  their  name  of 

Phalangers  ( Phalangista , Cuv.) 

The  Restricted  Phalangers  ( Balantia , Illig.) — 

Have  not  the  skin  of  the  flank  extended  : they  have  on  each  jaw  four  back  molars,  alj  of  which  present 
individually  four  points,  ranged  in  two  rows  ; and  before  these  a large  one,  conically  eompressed ; also, 
between  this  and  the  upper  canine,  two  small  and  pointed  teeth,  to  which  correspond  the  very  small 
teeth  below,  of  which  we  have  spoken  : their  tail  is  always  prehensile. 

In  some  it  is  in  great  part  scaly.  They  inhabit  trees  in  the  Molucca  islands,  wdere  they  feed  on 
insects  and  fruit.  At  the  sight  of  a man  they  suspend  themselves  by  the  tail ; and  ifhe  gazes  at  them 
steadily  for  some  time,  they  fall  through  lassitude.  They  diffuse  an  offensive  odour(  notwithstanding 
which  their  flesh  is  eaten. 

Several  species  are  known,  of  various  size  and  colours,  all  of  which  are  comprehended  ipder  the  Didelphis 
orientalis  of  Linnaeus.  [Those  in  which  the  tail  is  partly  scaly  are  peculiar  to  the  Molucca  islands,  aud  constitute 
the  division  Cuscus  of  some  systematists.  Five  are  enumerated  by  the  author,  who  follows  Tepminck.] 

In  others,  which  have  hitherto  been  found  in  New  Holland  only,  the  tail  is  hairy  tj  the  tip. 


[The  author  enumerates  three,  to  which  four  have  since  been  added  by  Mr.  Ogilby,  and  an  eighth  by  M.  Geoffroy. 
These  animals  keep  in  holes  of  trees  till  twilight,  and  for  an  hour  or  two  after  sunset  are  observed  eating  the 
leaves  of  the  different  Eucalypti  ; also,  in  retired  places,  those  with  the  young  shoots  of  fruit-trees.  The  Ph.  vul- 
pina  is  known  as  the  Brush-tailed  Opossum  in  Van  Diemen’s  Land,  and  the  Ph.  Cookii,  as  the  Ring-tailed 
Opossum .] 

The  Petaurists  ( Petaurus , Shaw ; Phalangista,  Illig.) — 

Have  the  skin  of  the  flanks  more  or  less  extended  between  the  legs,  as  in  the  Colugos,  and  Taguans 
among  the  Rodents,  by  which  they  are  enabled  to  sustain  themselves  in  the  air  for  some  seconds,  and 
to  make  greater  leaps.  They  have  been  found  only  in  New  Holland. 

Some  of  the  species  still  possess  inferior  canines,  hut  extremely  small.  Their  upper  canines  and 
the  three  first  molars,  both  above  and  below,  are  very  pointed  ; the  back  molars  have  each  four  points 
[the  last  excepted,  in  which  there  are  hut  three],  M.  Desmarest  has  named  this  division  Acrobates. 
[It  possesses  thirty-six  teeth  in  all.] 

The  Pygmy  Petaurist  (Did.  pignuea,  Shaw).— Of  the  colour  and  nearly  the  size  of  a Mouse ; the  hairs  of  the  tail 
disposed  very  regularly  on  its  two  sides  like  the  barbs  of  a feather. 

Other  species  have  no  inferior  canines,  and  the  superior  are  very  small.  Their  four  back  molars 
each  present  four  points,  but  a little  curved  into  a crescent,  somewhat  as  observed  in  the  Ruminants. 
Anteriorly,  there  are  two  above  and  one  below,  less  complicated : this  structure  renders  them  still 
more  frugivorous  than  any  of  the  preceding.  [Their  teeth  amount  in  all  to  thirty-four.] 

The  Great  Petaurist  (Did.  petaurus,  Shaw ; P.  taguanoides,  Desm.) — Resembles  the  Tagaun  and  the  Colugo  in 
size  : its  fur  is  soft  and  thick,  and  the  tail  long  and  [not  in  those  which  I have  seen]  flattened : brown-black 
above,  white  underneath. 

The  Sciurine  Petaurist  (Did.  sciurea,  Shaw). — Ash-coloured  above,  white  beneath,  and  smaller  than  the  pre- 
ceding; a brown  line  commencing  on  the  muzzle  and  continued  along  the  back  : the  tail  tufted,  and  as  long  as  the 
body,  its  posterior  portion  black.  From  the  islands  near  New  Guinea.  [It  is  abundant  along  the  south  coast  of 
New  Holland.  The  teeth  are  forty  in  number,  and  exhibit  considerable  modification ; hence  this  animal  has  been 
made  a separate  division  of  the  Belidea,  Waterh.  There  are  but  four  true  molars  to  each  jaw,  with  comparatively 
blunt  tubercles  originally ; three  false  molars  and  a middle-sized  canine  above,  and  four  small  flattened  teeth 
below : the  palate  also  is  in  this  group  perfect,  whereas  it  is  not  so  in  the  two  others.  Four  or  five  species  are 
known  to  possess  these  characters. 

The  remainder  appertain  to  the  same  minimum  group  as  P.  taguanoides.'] 

Our  third  subdivision  possesses  the  incisors  and  superior  canines  of  the  preceding.  The 
two  toes  of  the  hind-foot  are  also  similarly  united ; but  the  posterior  thumbs  and  inferior 
canines  are  wanting.  It  contains  but  a single  genus, 

The  Potoroos  (. Hypsiprymnus , Illig.), — 

Which  are  the  last  animals  of  this  family  that  retain  any  trace  of  the  general  character  of  the  Car- 
naria.  Their  teeth  are  nearly  the  same  as  in  the  Phalangers,  and  they  still  have  pointed  canines  above 
[which  all  but  disappear  in  one  species].  Their  two  middle  upper  incisors  are  longer  than  the  rest, 
and  pointed;  the  two  inferior  ones  project  forwards.  They  have  anteriorly  a long  trenchant  and 
dentelated  molar,  followed  by  four  others,  each  with  four  blunt  tubercles.  What  particularly  distinguishes 
these  animals,  however,  is  their  hind  legs,  which  are  very  much  longer  in  proportion  than  their  fore 
ones,  that  have  no  thumbs,  and  the  two  first  toes  of  which  are  joined  as  far  as  the  nail ; so  that,  at  a 
first  glance,  it  seems  as  though  there  were  but  three  toes,  the  middle  one  having  two  nails.  They 
often  hop  on  their  hind-feet,  at  which  time  they  make  use  of  them  long  and  strong  tail  to  support 
themselves.  They  have  accordingly  the  form  and  habits  of  the  Kangaroos,  from  which  they  only  differ  in 
possessing  the  superior  canine.  Their  regimen  is  frugivorous,  and  the  stomach  large,  divided  into  two 
sacs,  and  possessing  several  inflations  ; but  their  ccecum  is  moderate  and  rounded. 

Only  one  species  is  known,  the  size  of  a small  Rabbit,  and  of  a mouse-grey  colour,  which  is  termed  the  Kanga- 
roo-rat (Macropus  minor,  Shaw.)  [Five  or  six  others  have  since  been  discovered,  two  of  which,  inhabiting  New 
Guinea,  are  remarkable  for  their  arboreal  habits,  in  reference  to  which  their  structure  is  slightly  modified,  the 
limbs  being  less  unequal,  and  the  great  nails  of  their  hind-feet  curved : they  do  not,  however,  essentially  differ 
from  the  others.  One  species  is  common  in  the  interior  of  Van  Diemen’s  Land], 

The  fourth  subdivision  differs  only  from  the  third  in  having  no  canines  whatever. 

The  Kangaroos,  ( Macropus , Shaw;  Halmaturus,  Illig.), — 

In  which  all  the  characters  occur  that  we  have  assigned  to  the  preceding  genus,  except  that  the  upper 



canines  are  wanting,  and  the  middle  incisors  do  not  project  beyond  the  others.  The  unequal  size  of 
the  limbs  is  even  more  remarkable,  so  that  they  advance  on  all  fours  with  difficulty  and  slowly,  hut 
make  immense  leaps  on  their  hind-feet,  the  great  nail  of  which  (almost  in  the  shape  of  a hoof)  serves 
them  likewise  for  defence,  as,  by  supporting  themselves  on  one  foot  and  their  enormous  tail,  they  can 
inflict  a severe  blow  with  that  which  is  at  liberty.*  They  are  very  gentle,  herbivorous  animals,  their 
grinders  presenting  only  transverse  ridges : they  possess  five  in  all,  of  which  the  anterior  are 
more  or  less  trenchant,  and  fall  with  age,  so  that  older  individuals  have  often  only  three.  Their 
stomach  is  formed  of  two  elongated  sacs,  that  are  inflated  at  several  places  like  a colon  : the  coecum 
also  is  large  and  inflated.  The  radius  allows  a complete  rotation  of  the  fore-arm. 

The  penis  in  these  two  genera  is  not  bifurcated ; but  the  female  organs  are  similar  to  those  of  other 

The  Great  Kangaroo  ( M . major,  Shaw). — Sometimes 
six  feet  in  height,  being  the  largest  animal  of  New  Hol- 
land. It  was  discovered  by  Cook  in  1779,  and  is  now 
bred  in  Europe.  The  flesh  is  said  to  resemble  venison. 
The  young  ones,  which  are  only  an  inch  long  at  birth, 
remain  in  the  maternal  pouch  even  when  they  are  old 
enough  to  graze,  which  they  effect  by  stretching  out  the 
neck  from  their  domicile,  when  the  mother  herself  is 
feeding.  These  animals  live  in  troops,  conducted  by  the 
old  males.f  They  make  enormous  leaps.  [Numerous 
other  species  are  now  known,  which  have  even  been  ar- 
ranged into  subgenera : these,  however,  are  not  gene- 
rally adopted.  They  degrade  in  size  to  smaller  than  a 

in  the  lower  jaw,  but  no  canines;  in  the  upper 
two  long  middle  incisors,  with  some  small  ones 
[four  in  number]  placed  laterally,  and  two 

small  canines.  It  comprehends  but  one  genus, 

The  Koala  {Koala,  Cuv. ; Lipurus,  Goldf. ; Phascolarctos%,  Blainv.), — 

Which  presents  a short,  stout  body,  and  short  legs,  without  any  [or  rather  with  a short]  tail : their  ante- 
rior toes,  five  in  number,  separate  into  two  groups 
for  prehension,  the  thumb  and  index  antagonizing 
with  the  other  three.  On  the  hind-feet  there  is 
no  thumb ; and  the  first  two  toes  are  united  as  in 
the  Phalangers  and  Kangaroos.  [There  are  five 
molars  in  each  jaw,  square,  with  four  tubercles  each, 
excepting  the  first.  This  animal  is  essentially  a 
Phalanger  with  a short  tail.] 

One  only  is  known  (Lip.  cinereus,  Goldfuss.)— Of  a 
greyish  colour,  which  passes  its  life  partly  upon  trees, 
and  partly  in  burrows  which  it  excavates  at  their  foot 
(fig.  44.)  The  female  carries  her  young  for  a long  time 
on  her  back. 

Finally,  our  sixth  division  of  the  Marsupial 
animals,  consisting  of 

Fig.  44.— Koala. 

The  Wombat  {Phascalomys,  Geof. ; [ Amblotis , Bass]), — 

Comprehends  a true  Rodent  according  to  the  teeth  and  intestines,  which  preserves  its  relationship  with 
the  Carnaria  only  in  the  mode  of  articulation  of  its  lower  jaw ; and  which,  in  a rigorous  system,  it 

They  lodge  during  the  day  among  high  ferns,  and  feed  chiefly  by 
night,  or  in  the  evening  and  morning  j but  are  very  sharp-sighted 
during  the  day. — Ed. 

$ This  term  is  generally  adopted. — Ed. 

* A Kangaroo  will  hug  a Dog  with  its  fore-paws,  while  it  kicks  and 
rips  up  the  belly  with  its  hind-foot. — Ed. 

+ It  appears  rather  that  the  animals  of  this  genus  are  not  strictly 
gregarious,  but  collect  accidentally  at  the  scattered  feeding-places. 

The  fifth  subdivision  has  two  long  incisors 

Fig.  43.— Great  Kangaroo. 


would  therefore  be  necessary  to  rank  among  the  Rodentia.  We  should  even  have  placed  it  there, 
had  we  not  been  gradually  led  to  it  by  an  uninterrupted  series  from  the  Opossums  to  the  Phalan- 
gers,  thence  to  the  Kangaroos,  and  from  the  Kangaroos  to  the  Wombat.*  Their  reproductive  organs 
are  entirely  similar  to  those  of  other  Marsupiata. 

They  are  sluggish  animals,  with  large  flat  heads,  and  bodies  that  appear  as  if  crushed.  They  are 
without  a tail ; have  five  nails  on  each  of  the  fore-feet,  and  four,  with  a small  tubercle  in  place  of  a 
thumb,  on  each  of  the  hind  ones,  all  very  long  and  adapted  for  burrowing.  Their  gait  is  remarkably 
slow.  They  have  two  long  incisors  to  each  jaw,  almost  similar  to  those  of  the  Rodentia,  [but  which 
oppose  flat  surfaces  to  each  other,  and  not  chisel-like  edges,  as  in  the  latter]  ; and  their  grinders  have 
each  two  transverse  ridges. 

They  subsist  on  herbage,  and  have  a large  and  pear-formed  stomach,  and  short  and  wide  ccecum, 
furnished  (like  that  of  Man  and  the  Ourang-outang)  with  a vermiform  appendage.  The  penis  is  forked, 
as  in  the  Opossums. 

One  species  only  is  known  (Bid.  ursina,  Shaw) ; of  the  size  of  a Badger ; the  fur  abundant,  and  of  a more  or  less 
yellowish-brown.  It  is  found  in  Van  Diemen’s  Land,  where  it  lives  in  its  burrow;  and  breeds  readily  in  confine- 
ment. The  flesh  is  said  to  be  excellent.  [The  skin  of  this  animal  is  remarkably  thick,  and  curiously  attached  to 
the  hip-bones  : its  eyes  are  unusually  small.  When  attacked,  it  grunts  like  a Pig ; and  is  found  at  various  eleva- 
tions, burrowing  in  the  forests  and  low  grounds,  and  retiring  to  crevices  in  the  upper.  To  the  colonists,  it  is 
generally  known  as  the  Badger. 

The  Marsupiata  are  distributed  by  Prof.  Owen,  in  conformity  with  the  structure  of  their 
digestive  organs,  as  follows  : — 

1.  The  ccecum  altogether  absent. — Thylacynus,  Dasyurus,  Phascogale,  and  probably 

2.  With  a small  ccecum. — Didelphis  and  Cheironectes j Perameles,  and  probably  Thy- 

3.  Ccecum  of  large  size. — Phascolarctos , Phalangista,  Petaurus. 

4.  The  stomach  complicated. — Macropus  and  Hypsiprymnus. 

5.  Ccecum  with  a vermiform  appendage. — Phascalomys. 

This  arrangement  appears  to  be  perfectly  in  accordance  with  the  affinities  of  these  animals : 
though,  at  the  same  time,  it  may  be  added  that  the  Wombat  (. Phascalomys ) might  properly 
form  a distinct  order  of  Ovovivipera.~\ 



We  have  just  seen,  in  the  Phalangers,  canines  so  small,  that  we  can  hardly  consider  them 
as  such.  The  nutriment  of  these  animals,  accordingly,  is  chiefly  derived  from  the  vegetable 
kingdom.  Their  intestines  are  long,  and  the  ccecum  simple ; and  the  Kangaroos,  which  have 
no  canines  at  all,  subsist  on  vegetables  only.  The  Wombat  might  commence  that  series  of 
animals  of  which  we  are  now  about  to  speak,  and  which  have  a system  of  manducation  even 
less  complete. 

Two  large  incisors  in  each  jaw,  separated  from  the  molars  by  a wide  interval,  cannot  well 
seize  a living  prey,  or  devour  flesh.  They  are  unable  even  to  cut  the  aliment ; but  they 
serve  to  file,  and  by  continued  labour,  to  reduce  it  into  small  particles ; in  a word,  to  gnaw 
it : hence  the  name  Rodentia  applied  to  the  animals  of  this  order  : it  is  thus  that  they  suc- 

* This  gradation  is,  however,  more  apparent  than  real,  as  regards  I never  cease  growing  at  the  base,  as  their  crowns  wear  away  by 
the  Wombat,  which  differs  from  all  other  Marsupiata  in  the  persist-  I attrition. — Ed. 
ency  of  the  formative  pulps  of  its  teeth,  which,  in  consequence,  I 



cessfully  attack  the  hardest  substances,  frequently  feeding  on  wood  and  the  bark  of  trees. 
The  better  to  accomplish  this  object,  these  incisors  have  enamel  only  in  front,  so  that 
their  posterior  edges  wearing  away  faster  than  the  anterior,  they  are  always  naturally  sloped 
[or  chisel-like] . Their  prismatic  form  causes  them  to  grow  from  the  root  as  fast  as  they  wear 
away  at  the  tip  [their  formative  pulps  being  persistent]  ; and  this  tendency  to  increase  in 
length  is  so  powerful,  that  if  either  of  them  be  lost  or  broken,  its  antagonist  in  the  other  jaw, 
having  nothing  to  oppose  or  comminute,  becomes  developed  to  a monstrous  extent.*  The 
inferior  jaw  is  articulated  by  a longitudinal  condyle,  in  such  a way  as  to  allow  of  no  horizontal 
motion,  except  from  back  to  front,  and  vice  versa , as  is  requisite  for  the  action  of  gnawing. 
The  molars  also  have  flat  crowns,  the  enamelled  eminences  of  which  are  always  transversal,  so 
as  to  be  in  opposition  to  the  horizontal  movement  of  the  jaw,  and  better  to  assist  in 

The  genera  in  which  these  eminences  are  simple  lines,  and  the  crown  is  very  flat,  are  more 
exclusively  frugivorous ; those  in  which  the  eminences  of  the  teeth  are  divided  into  blunt 
tubercles  are  omnivorous ; while  the  small  number  of  such  as  have  no  points  more  readily 
attack  other  animals,  and  approximate  somewhat  to  the  Carnaria. 

The  form  of  the  body  in  the  Rodentia  is  generally  such,  that  the  hinder  parts  of  it  exceed 
those  of  the  front ; so  that  [with  the  exception  of  a large  South  American  group,  including 
the  Guinea-pig  and  its  allies,]  they  rather  leap  than  run.  In  some  of  them,  this  disproportion 
is  even  as  excessive  as  in  the  Kangaroos. 

The  intestines  of  the  Rodentia  are  very  long ; their  stomach  simple,  or  but  little  divided ; 
and  their  ccecum  often  very  voluminous,  even  more  so  than  the  stomach.  In  the  subgenus 
Myoxus,  however,  this  intestine  is  wanting. 

Throughout  the  present  group,  the  brain  is  almost  smooth  and  without  furrows  : the  orbits 
are  never  separated  from  the  temporal  fossse  which  have  but  little  depth : the  eyes  are 
directed  sideways : the  zygomatic  arches,  thin  and  curved  below,  announce  the  feebleness  of 
the  jaws ; and  the  fore-arms  have  almost  lost  the  power  of  rotation,  their  two  bones  being 
often  united  : in  a word,  the  inferiority  of  these  animals  is  perceptible  in  most  of  the  details 
of  their  organization.  Those  genera,  however,  which  have  stronger  clavicles,  display  a certain 
degree  of  address,  and  employ  their  fore-feet  together  to  hold  up  food  to  the  mouth  : some  of 
them  even  climb  trees  with  facility. 

[We  have  seen  that  in  the  true  Lemurs  the  middle  superior  incisors  are  separated  by  a wide 
interval,  which  in  the  Colugos  ( Galeopithecus ) is  still  more  extended  : in  Propithecus  of 
Mr.  Bennett,  on  the  contrary,  the  front  pair  are  brought  nearly  contiguous,  having  more  of 
the  Monkey  character  than  in  other  Strepsirrkini.  The  lower  canines  also,  which  are  directed 
horizontally  forward  throughout  that  group,  and  approximated  so  as  to  leave  little  room  for 
the  intervening  incisors,  which  are  accordingly  extremely  narrow  or  compressed,  are  even 
more  approximated  in  the  Propithecus , so  that  one  pair  of  the  incisors  is  necessarily  sacri- 
ficed; and  hence  the  diminution  of  the  interspace  between  the  upper  incisors.  Now  in 
this  we  may  discern  a slight  approach  to  the  rodent  character  of  Cheiromys,  in  the  loss  of  one 
pair  of  incisors.  In  the  latter  genus,  the  whole  of  the  incisors  disappear,  the  canines  of  both 
jaws  occupying  their  site : precisely  as  in  the  true  Rodentia,  wherein  also  the  incisors  and  not 
the  canines  or  tusks  are  almost  without  exception  obliterated,  as  is  beautifully  shown  in  the 
instance  of  the  Hare,  where  true  incisors  exist  posterior  to  the  upper  gnawing  teeth  : it  will 
be  observed  that  in  all  Rodentia  the  currently  reputed  incisors  pass  through  the  inter- 
maxiliaries ; while  the  constant  limitation  of  their  number  to  two  in  each  jaw,  and  the  inva- 
riable absence  of  any  trace  of  other  teeth  in  the  ordinary  position  of  canines,  assist  in  con- 
firming the  opinion  here  decidedly  entertained  respecting  the  nature  of  what  have  been  desig- 
nated incisive  teeth  in  these  animals.  It  may  be  added  that  the  Marsupiata  do  not,  therefore,  as 

* We  have  seen  one  of  these  upper  teeth  thus  prolonged,  and  I t They  are  so  in  Cheiromys,  ranged  by  the  author  in  this  order. — 
gradually  curling  round,  so  as  to  destroy  the  eye  of  a Rat. — Ed.  | Ed. 



arranged  by  Cuvier,  effect  a transition  in  the  rudimental  character  of  their  dentition  from  the 
Carnivora  to  the  Rodentia;  inasmuch  as  the  canines,  and  not  the  incisors,  disappear  in  them 
(as  observable  in  Hypsiprymnus) : the  Wombat  ( Phascalomys ) might  indeed  be  thought  to 
present  a solitary  exception  to  this  remark ; but  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  the  gnawing 
teeth  of  this  animal  are  modified  incisors.  Perhaps  the  nearest  affinity  of  the  Rodentia  is 
with  the  Elephant,  among  the  Pachydermata.'] 

Some  of  the  Rodentia  even  ascend  trees  with  facility.  Such  are 

The  Squirrels  ( Sciurus , Lin.), — 

Which  may  be  recognized  by  their  very  compressed  lower  incisors,  and  by  their  long  bushy  tail.  Their 
fore-feet  have  only  four  toes,  the  hinder  five : the  site  of  the  anterior  thumb  is  however  marked  by  a 
tubercle  [and  it  is  between  these  tubercles  of  the  two  fore-paws  that  the  Squirrels  and  allied  genera 
hold  up  their  food  to  the  mouth].  They  have  in  all  four  grinders  to  each  jaw,  variously  tubercu- 
lated,  and  a very  small  additional  one  above  in  front,  which  soon  falls.  Their  head  is  large,  the  eyes 
prominent  and  lively.  They  are  light  and  agile  animals,  which  nestle  on  trees,  and  subsist  upon  then- 

The  Squirrels,  properly  so  called  {Sciurus,  Cuv  ), — 

Have  the  hairs  on  the  tail  directed  laterally,  so  as  to  resemble  a feather.  There  are  numerous  species 
on  both  continents. 

The  Common  Squirrel  (Sc.  vulgaris , L.) — [Bright  red  in  summer,  with  a dash  of  grey  on  the  upper  parts  in 
winter,  at  which  latter  season  the  fur  is  much  finer,  and  the  ears  are  terminated  with  long  hairs ; the  belly  white.] 
One  of  the  most  beautiful  is  the 

Sc.  maocimus  and  macrourus,  a native  of  India.— Nearly  the  size  of  a Cat ; above,  black,  the  flanks  and  top  of  the 
head  a beautiful  bright  maroon,  the  head,  and  all  the  under  parts  of  the  body,  with  the  inside  of  the  limbs,  pale 
yellow ; a maroon-coloured  band  behind  the  cheek.  It  inhabits  the  palms,  and  is  extremely  fond  of  the  milk  of 
the  cocoa-nut. 

There  are  several  species  in  warm  climates,  remarkable  for  the  longitudinal  bands  which  adorn  their  fur.  Such 
are  the  Palmist  [which  has  been  known  to  vary  entirely  black,  or  white,  &c.  Certain  African  species,  inhabiting 
rocky  situations,  the  tail  of  which  is  not  bushy,  but  thinly  covered  with  stiff  appressed  hairs,  and  somewhat  tufted  at 
the  extremity,  constitute  the  Petromys  of  Smith ; and  others,  also  from  Africa,  which  are  entirely  covered  with 
coarse  rigid  fur,  the  claws  of  which  also  are  long  and  straight,  adapted  for  burrowing  only,  compose  the  Xerus, 
Emp.,  and  Ehr. ; Geosciurus,  Smith  : many  of  the  latter  animals  live  together,  in  holes  of  the  ground ; subsisting 
mainly  on  roots,  for  which  they  scratch  up  the  soil.  Sc.  capensis,  Thunberg,  is  an  example  of  this  form.] 

It  is  probable  that  we  shall  have  to  separate  from  the  Squirrels  certain  species  that  have  cheek- 
pouches,  like  the  Hamsters,  and  which  retreat  into  subterraneous  holes.  They  are 

The  Ground-squirrels  ( Tamia , Illig.). 

Such  are 

The  Sc.  striatus,  Lin.,  which  is  found  throughout  northern  Asia  and  America,  particularly  in  the  pine  forests. 
The  tail  is  less  bushy  than  in  the  Common  Squirrel  of  Europe,  the  ears  smooth,  and  fur  brown,  with  five  black 
stripes  and  two  white  ones.  [Those  from  America  are  specifically  different,  and  indeed  constitute  two  or  three 
separate  species.] 

We  ought  also,  most  probably,  to  distinguish 

The  Guerlinguets  [ {Macroxus,  Bodd.)], — 

Wherein  the  tail  is  long,  and  almost  round,  and  the  scrotum  pendent  and  enormous.  In  both  the 
Ground-squirrels  and  Guerlinguets,  the  teeth  are  similar  to  those  of  the  true  Squirrels. 

Species  of  them  occur  on  both  continents. 

The  Taguans,  Assapans,  or  Flying  Squirrels,  ( Pteromys , Cuv.) — 

Have  already  been  separated.  In  these  the  skin  of  the  flank,  extending  between  the  fore  and  hind 
legs,  imparts  the  faculty  of  sustaining  themselves  for  some  instants  in  the  air,  and  of  making  immense 
leaps.  Their  feet  have  long  osseous  appendages,  which  support  a portion  of  this  lateral  membrane. 

There  is  a species  in  Poland,  Russia,  and  Siberia  (Sciurus  volans,  Lin.)— Greyish  ash-colour  above,  white  below ; 
the  tail  only  half  the  length  of  the  body : size  of  a Rat ; and  which  lives  solitarily  in  the  forests.  Another  in 
North  America,  smaller,  with  the  tail  only  a fourth  shorter  than  the  body  (Sc.  volucella,  Lin.) : it  lives  in  troops  in 
the  prairies  of  the  more  temperate  districts. 



In  the  Indian  Archipelago  there  is  one  nearly  the  size  of  a Cat  (Sc.  petaurista,  Lin.) : but  the  same  Archipelago 
produces  smaller  ones,  as  the  Sc.  sagitta,  distinguished  from  the  rest,  the  small  ones  especially,  by  its  membrane, 
which,  as  in  Pt.  petaurista,  forms  an  acute  projecting  angle  behind  the  tarsus. 

[M.  F.  Cuvier  has  subdivided  this  group  into  the  Taguans  ( Pteromys ),  and  Assapans  ( Sciuropterus ),  which 
latter  term  he  applies  to  the  smaller  species,  the  hairs  on  the  tail  of  which  are  arranged  distachously  : there  are 
several  eastern  species,  however,  which  appear  to  connect  the  two  together.] 

The  Aye- Aye  ( Cheiromys , Cuv.), — 

The  inferior  incisors  of  which  are  still  more  compressed,  and  above  all,  more  extended  from  front  to 
back,  resembling  plough-shares.  Their  feet  have  each  five  toes,  of  which  four  of  the  anterior  are 
excessively  elongated ; the  medius  being  much  more  slender  than  the  others ; in  the  hind-feet,  the 
thumb  is  opposable  to  the  other  digits ; so  that  in  this  respect  these  animals  are  to  the  other  rodents, 
what  the  Opossums  are  among  the  Carnaria.*  The  structure  of  their  head  is  otherwise  very  different 
from  that  of  the  other  Rodentia , presenting  a closer  relationship  with  the  Quadrumana  [among  which 
this  remarkable  genus  is  now  ranged  by  almost  general  consent.  It  is,  in  fact,  in  the  aggregate  of  its 
conformation,  a Lemurine  animal : in  which  group  we  have  already  seen  that  the  lower  canines  are 
singularly  modified,  projecting  forwards,  and  being  approximated  to  each  other ; insomuch  that  the 
intervening  incisors  (except  in  Galceopithecus)  are  consequently  extremely  compressed  and  narrow, 
one  pair  of  them  being  even  sacrificed  in  the  Indris.  In  the  present  genus,  the  whole  of  the  incisors 
disappear,  as  in  the  ordinary  Rodentia ; the  canines  of  both  jaws  occupying  their  site  : hut  it  is  very 
doubtful  whether,  as  in  the  true  Rodents,  these  teeth  have  persistent  formative  pulps,  as  there  does 
not  exist  another  known  instance  of  continuously  growing  teeth  in  any  animal  pertaining  to  the  great 
divisions  of  Primaria  and  Carnaria. f What  little  is  known  of  the  osteology  of  Cheiromys  is  strictly 

Lemurine ; and  no  rodent  possesses  the  rotation  of  the  bones  of  the 
fore-arm,  and  free  separate  movement  of  the  limbs  as  prehensile  in- 
struments, which  are  observed  in  this  genus.  Its  habitat  even  is 
Madagascar,  the  metropolis  of  the  Lemurine  group  of  animals.] 

One  species  only  is  known,  discovered  by  Sonnerat  ( Sciurus  madagascar- 
iensis,  Gm.) ; as  large  as  a Hare,  of  a brown  colour,  tinged  with  yellow ; tail 
long  and  thick,  with  some  black  bristles;  and  large  naked  ears.  It  is  a 
nocturnal  animal,  the  movements  of  which  seem  painful  to  it;  lives  in 
burrows,  and  employs  its  long  slender  digit  to  convey  food  to  its  mouth. 

Linnaeus  and  Pallas  have  brought  together  in  one  single  group, 
under  the  general  name  of 

Rats  (Mm,  Lin.),-— 

All  the  rodents  possessed  of  clavicles  which  they  could  not  distin- 
guish by  some  obvious  external  character,  such  as  the  tail  of  the 
Squirrels  or  that  of  the  Beaver ; from  which  resulted  the  utter  impos- 
sibility of  assigning  to  them  any  common  character : the  greater 
number  had  merely  pointed  lower  incisors,  but  even  this  character 
was  subject  to  exceptions. 

Gmelin  has  already  separated  the  Marmots,  Dormice,  and  Jerboas; 
but  we  Carry  their  subdivision  much  further,  from  considerations  founded  on  the  form  of  their 

The  Marmots  (Arctomys,  Gm.) — 

Have,  it  is  true,  the  inferior  incisors  pointed,  as  in  the  greater  number  of  animals  comprised  in  the 
great  genus  of  Rats  ; hut,  as  in  the  Squirrels  [to  which  superior  group  they  indubitably  appertain], 
they  have  five  molars  on  each  side  above,  and  four  below,  all  of  them  sharply  tuberculated ; accord- 
ingly, some  of  the  species  are  inclined  to  eat  flesh,  and  feed  upon  insects  as  well  as  vegetables.  They 
have  four  toes,  and  a tubercle  in  place  of  a thumb,  to  their  fore-feet ; and  five  toes  to  their  hind  feet. 
In  other  respects,  these  animals  are  nearly  the  direct  reverse  of  the  Squirrels ; being  heavy,  with  short 
limbs,  a hairy  tail  of  middle  length  or  short,  a large  flat  head,  and  they  pass  the  winter  in  a state  of 

• The  Opossums  were  arranged  among  the  Carnaria  in  the  author’s  | + The  Wombat  presents  the  only  instance  amongst  the  Mar- 

fast  edition. — Ed.  I supiata. 



lethargy  in  deep  holes,  the  entrance  of  which  they  close  with  a quantity  of  grass.*  They  live  in  society, 
and  are  easily  rendered  tame. 

Two  species  are  known  in  the  Eastern  continent.  The  Alpine  Marmot  {Mus.  alpinus,  Lin.),  as  large  as  a Rabbit, 
with  a short  tail,  and  yellowish-grey  fur,  more  ash-coloured  towards  the  head,  which  inhabits  lofty  mountains 
immediately  below  the  perpetual  snow  line : and  the  Polish  Marmot,  or  Bobac  (M.  bobac,  Lin.),  the  same  size  as 
the  other,  and  yellowish-grey,  with  a russet  tint  about  the  head  ; it  inhabits  the  lesser  mountains  and  hills  from 
Poland  to  Kamtschatka,  and  often  burrows  in  the  hardest  ground.  Russian  travellers  in  Bucharia  mention  some 
others,  as  Arct.  fulvus,  leptodactylus,  and  musogaricus , which  are  perhaps  not  sufficiently  determined.  America 
likewise  produces  several  Marmots. 

Under  the  name  of 

Sousliks  ( Spermophilus , F.  Cuv.), — 

May  be  distinguished  several  Marmots  which  have  cheek-pouches.  Their  superior  lightness  has 
caused  them  to  be  designated  Ground-squirrels,  [and  they  connect  the  true  Squirrels  with  the 
foregoing].  Eastern  Europe  produces  one, — 

M.  citillus,  Lin. — A pretty  little  animal,  of  a greyish-brown,  waved  or  mottled  with  white,  the  spots  small,  which 
is  found  from  Bohemia  to  Siberia.  It  has  a particular  fondness  for  flesh,  and  does  not  spare  even  its  own  species. 
[There  is  another  in  Russia,  Sp.  guttatus.  Tern.,  and  more,  further  eastward,  as  Sp.  xanthoprymnus,  a native  of 
Trebizond ; but  North  America  produces  by  far  the  greater  number,  some  of  which  are  beautifully  marked  with 
white  lines  along  the  back,  between  each  of  which  is  a series  of  white  spots  in  the  elegant  Sp.  Hoodii.] 

It  appears  that  we  should  approximate  to  the  Marmots,  a rodent  remarkable  for  the  habit  of  living 
in  great  troops,  in  immense  burrows,  which  have  even  been  styled  villages.  It  is  called  the  Prairie 
Dog  or  Barking  Squirrel , on  account  of  its  voice,  which  resembles  the  bark  of  a small  Dog : the 
Arctomys  ludovicianus  of  Say.  M.  Rafinesque,  who  [erroneously]  ascribes  to  it  five  toes  to  each  foot, 
has  formed  of  it  his  genus  Cynomys.  [It  is  in  every  respect  a true  Marmot. 

All  the  foregoing  genera,  with  the  prominent  exception  of  Cheiromys,  are  simply  modifications  of  a 
single  peculiar  type,  and  together  compose  the  first  principal  section  of  the  Sciuridce  or  Squirrel  family.] 

The  Dormice  ( Myoxus , Gm.) — 

Have  the  lower  incisors  pointed,  and  four  grinders,  the  crown  of  each  of  which  is  divided  by  closely- 
folded  lines  of  enamel. 

They  are  pretty  little  animals,  with  soft  fur,  a hairy  and  even  tufted  tail,  and  lively  expression : they 
inhabit  trees  like  the  Squirrels,  and  subsist  on  their  produce.  In  the  very  numerous  order  of  rodents, 
this  is  the  only  subgenus  which  is  destitute  of  a ccecum.  They  become  torpid  in  winter,  like  the 
Marmots,  passing  that  season  in  a very  profound  lethargy : and  so  natural  is  it  for  them  to  fall  into 
this  state,  that  a species  from  Senegal  {M.  Coupeii ),  which  had  probably  never  experienced  it  in  its 
native  country,  became  torpid  in  Europe  as  soon  as  it  was  exposed  to  cold. 

The  Fat  Dormouse  ( M . glis,  Lin.)— Size  of  a Rat ; greyish  ash-brown  above,  whitish  underneath ; of  a deeper 
brown  around  the  eyes ; tail  very  hairy  throughout  its  length,  and  disposed  somewhat  like  that  of  a Squirrel,  fre- 
quently also  a little  forked  at  its  extremity.  It  inhabits  the  south  of  Europe,  and  nestles  in  the  holes  of  trees  and 
fissures  of  rocks.  It  sometimes  attacks  small  birds.  This  is  probably  the  Rat  fattened  by  the  ancients,  among 
whom  it  was  considered  a great  delicacy.  [It  is  still  eaten  by  the  modern  Italians.] 

The  Garden  Dormouse  {M.  nitela).— Somewhat  less  than  the  preceding  ; greyish-brown  above,  white  beneath  ; 
black  round  the  eye,  which  extends  spreading  to  the  shoulder  ; the  tail  tufted  only  at  the  end,  and  black,  with  its 
extremity  white.  This  species  is  common  in  gardens,  where  it  shelters  itself  in  holes  about  the  walls,  and  does 
much  injury  to  the  fruit-trees  nailed  to  them.  [It  does  not  occur  in  Britain.] 

The  Red  Dormouse  ( M . avellanarius,  Lin.)— Size  of  a Mouse;  cinnamon-red  above,  white  beneath;  the 
hairs  of  the  tail  disposed  somewhat  like  a feather.  From  the  forests  of  all  Europe.  It  constructs  its  nest  of  grass 
on  low  branches,  in  which  it  rears  its  young : the  rest  of  its  time,  and  particularly  during  winter,  it  remains  in 
the  hollows  of  trees. 

[It  has  been  said  that  this  species  cannot  pierce  a ripe  nut-shell,  and  that  its  specific  name  does  not  correctly 
apply ; but  in  confinement  we  have  frequently  seen  it  penetrate  to  the  kernel  of  the  hardest  hazel-nuts. 

The  Graphyures  ( Graphyurus,  F.  Cuv.) — 

Scarcely  differ  from  the  Dormice  externally,  but  have  weaker  jaws,  and  a longer  and  more  slender 
intestinal  canal : their  molars  are  of  small  size,  and  simple  structure ; and  they  have  also  no  ccecum  to 
the  intestine. 

• The  Ground-Squirrels  (Tatnias),  and  even  the  members  of  the  restricted  group  Sc  turns,  are  more  or  less  subject  to  become  torpid  in 
winter. — Ed. 



Two  species  have  been  ascertained,  both  from  South  Africa. 

The  Dormice  and  Graphyures  compose  the  second  and  last  division  of  the  Sciuridce  or  Squirrel  family]. 

We  approximate  to  the  Dormice,  [but  with  questionable  propriety],— 

The  Echymyds  ( Echymys , Geof. ; Loncheres , Illig.), — 

Which  also  have  four  grinders,  but  differently  formed ; the  superior  consisting  of  two  laminae  bent  like 
a V,  the  inferior  of  one  bent  and  one  simple  lamina.  The  fur  of  several  species  is  rough,  with  inter- 
mixed flattened  spines  or  prickles.  They  inhabit  America.  One  of  them, 

The  Golden-tailed  Echymyd  ( Hystrix  chrysuros,  Schreb.),  is  more  than  double  the  size  of  the  Brown  Rat ; it  is 
a handsome  animal,  of  a brown  maroon-colour,  the  belly  white,  with  a crest  of  elongated  hairs  and  a longitudinal 
white  band  on  the  head ; the  tail  long,  and  black,  with  its  posterior  half  yellow.  From  Guiana.  Another, 

The  Red  Echymyd  {Ech.  rufus;  the  Spinous  Rat  of  Azzara),  of  the  size  of  a Rat,  reddish-grey,  with  tail  shorter 
than  the  body,  is  found  in  Guiana,  Brazil,  and  Paraguay.  It  excavates  long  subterraneous  burrows.  [These 
species  with  hairy  tails  pertain  to  the  Nelomys  of  M.  Jourdan,  who  restricts  the  term  Echymys  to  the  following.] 

Others  have  merely  the  ordinary  kind  of  hair,  more  or  less  rough. 

The  most  remarkable  is  Ech.  dactyliacus,  Geoff.,  the  Long-toed  Echymyd,  which  is  still  larger  than  the  Golden- 
tailed species,  and  has  the  two  middle  toes  of  the  fore-feet  double  the  length  of  the  lateral  ones : its  scaly  tail  is 
longer  than  the  body ; fur  yellowish  grey ; the  hairs  on  the  nose  forming  a crest  directed  in  front. 

The  Mus paradoxus,  Thomas  (Lin.  Trans,  xi.,  Heteromys,  Lesson),  apparently  differs  only  from  the  Echymyds 
in  possessing  cheek-pouches.  However,  not  having  seen  its  teeth,  I cannot  arrange  it. 

[The  Cercomyds  ( Cercomys , F.  Cuv.)  — 

Are  closely  related  to  the  preceding,  and  have  also  four  molars  surrounded  with  enamel,  which  are 
deeply  indented  internally,  and  inclose  three  insulated  circlets  of  enamel  near  their  external  border: 
their  form  is  still  more  Rat-like,  but  with  the  profile  of  the  visage  arched ; there  are  no  spines  in  the 
fur,  and  the  tail  is  long  and  scaly. 

One  species  ( C . braziliensis)  is  figured  by  M.  F.  Cuvier  in  his  great  work  on  Mammalia]. 

The  Hydromyds  ( Hydromys , Geof.) — 

Are  in  many  respects  related  to  the  Echymyds  externally  ; but  they  are  distinguished  from  all  other 
Rats  by  their  hind-feet,  two-thirds  of  which  are  palmated : their  molars,  also,  two  in  number  above 
and  below,  have  a peculiar  character  in  the  crown,  which  is  divided  into  obliquely  quadrangular  lobes, 
the  summits  of  which  are  hollowed  out  like  the  bowl  of  a spoon.  They  are  aquatic. 

Several  have  been  sent  to  Europe  from  Van  Diemen’s  Land,  some  with  the  belly  white,  others  with  a fulvous 
belly,  but  all  deep  brown  above,  with  a long  tail  which  is  black  at  the  base,  the  distal  half  white.  They  are  some- 
times double  the  size  of  the  Brown  Rat.  H.  hydrogaster  and  H.  leucogaster,  Geof.  [The  former  is  variable,  but 
the  latter  notwithstanding  appears  to  be  another  species.] 

The  Houtias  ( Capromys , Desm.) — 

Have  four  molars  above  and  below,  with  flat  crowns,  the  enamel  of  which  is  folded  inward,  so  as  to 
form  three  re-entering  angles  on  the  external  border,  and  only  one  on  the  internal  side  of  those  above, 
and  the  inverse  in  the  lower  ones.  Their  tail  is  round,  and  slightly  hairy.  Like  the  Rats,  they  have 
five  toes  to  their  hind  feet,  and  four  with  the  rudiment  of  a thumb  to  the  anterior  ; their  form  is  that 
of  Rats  as  large  as  a Rabbit  or  Hare. 

Two  [three]  species  are  known  [all  from  the  West  Indies],  which,  together  with  the  Agoutis,  formerly  consti- 
tuted the  chief  game  of  the  indigenous  inhabitants.  Isodon  pilorides,  Say,  refers  to  one  of  them.  [They  are 
net  distantly  allied  to  the  Porcupines.  It  is  remarkable  that  these  animals  hold  up  their  food  (a  fusiform  root  for 
instance)  with  one  foot  only  to  the  mouth,  resting  on  the  other  three.  They  ascend  bushes  with  facility.] 

The  Rats,  properly  so  called,  (Mus,  Cuv.), — 

Have  three  molars  to  each  jaw,  the  anterior  of  which  is  the  largest  [and  the  posterior  smallest],  and  the 
crowns  of  which  are  divided  into  blunt  tubercles,  which,  by  attrition,  acquire  the  form  of  a disc  vari- 
ously indented ; their  tail  is  long  and  scaly.  These  animals  are  very  annoying  from  their  fecundity, 
and  the  voracity  with  which  they  gnaw  and  devour  substances  of  every  kind.  There  are  three  species 
very  common  in  houses,  namely, 

The  Common  Mouse  (M.  musculus,  Lin). — Known  in  all  times  and  all  places. 



The  Black  Rat  (M.  rattus,  Lin.),  which  the  ancients  have  not  alluded  to,  and  which  appears  to  have  entered 
Europe  during  the  middle  ages.  It  is  more  than  double  the  size  of  the  Mouse  in  all  its  dimensions.  The  fur  is 
blackish  [with  the  ears  much  larger,  and  the  tail  longer,  than  in  the  following.  There  is  a brown  variety  of  this 
species,  which  is  common  in  Paris,  and  appears  to  have  been  figured  by  M.  F.  Cuvier  as  the  Surmulot.] 

The  Brown  Rat,  or  Surmulot  (M.  decumanus,  Lin.),  which  did  not  pass  into  Europe  till  the  eighteenth  century, 
and  is  now  more  common  in  large  cities  [and  elsewhere,  except  in  remote  isolated  localities,]  than  the  Black  Rat 
itself;  it  is  a fourth  larger  than  that  species,  and  is  also  distinguished  by  its  brown  colour.  This  animal  appears  to 
belong  to  Persia,  where  it  lives  in  burrows  : it  was  not  till  1727,  that,  after  an  earthquake,  it  arrived  at  Astracan, 
by  swimming  across  the  Volga. 

It  would  seem  that  the  Black  Rat,  also,  originated  in  the  East ; and  these  two  large  species,  together  with  the 
Mouse,  have  been  transported  in  ships  to  all  parts  of  the  globe. 

[Of  the  very  numerous  others,  it  must  suffice  to  name  the  huge  Bandicoot  Rat  of  India  ( M . giganteus, 
Hardw.),  which  is  much  larger  than  the  Surmulot.  Those  indigenous  to  South  America  have  more  complicated 
folds  of  enamel  to  their  molars.*]  Some  have  spines  mingled  with  their  fur,  as 

The  Cairo  Mouse  ( M . cahirinus,  Geoff.),  which  has  spines  on  the  back  in  place  of  hairs,  and  was  noticed  by 

[Only  two  strictly  indigenous  British  Mice  have  hitherto  been  described : the  first,  extremely  diminutive,  is  the 
Harvest  Mouse  {M.  messorius,  Shaw),  with  short  ears,  and  red  fur  similar  to  that  of  the  Common  Dormouse : it 
constructs  a beautiful  round  or  pear-shaped  nest,  attached  to  corn-stems,  or  placed  in  low  bushes ; and  is  remark- 
able for  its  tail  being  slightly  prehensile  at  the  extremity.  The  second  is  commonly  termed  the  Long-tailed  Field 
Mouse  ( M . sylvaticus),  and  might  almost  form  a separate  subgenus ; it  rather  exceeds  the  common  Mouse 
in  size,  with  proportionately  larger  ears,  and  much  larger  and  very  brilliant  eyes ; a brown  mark  in  the  centre 
of  the  chest : it  is  a pretty  and  very  active  species,  more  generally  diffused  than  the  Harvest  Mouse,  and  never 
enters  buildings,  where  the  other  is  often  carried  with  the  sheaves.] 

Warm  climates  produce  Rats,  similar  in  every  detail  to  those  of  which  we  have  just  spoken,  except 
that  their  tails  are  more  hairy.  Such  are 

HypudUeus  variegatus,  Licht.,  var.  flava;  Meriones  syenensis , Id.  To  which  must  be  added  the  Arvicola 
messor,  Le  Conte ; Arv.  hortensis,  Harl.,  or  Sygmodon , Say,  distinguished  however  by  its  hairy  ears,  like 
the  Otomys. 

Another  group,  also  with  a hairy  tail,  but  the  teeth  of  which  wear  away  faster,  comprises  the  Hypudaeus  obesus, 
Licht.,  the  Mus  ruficaudus,  Id.,  and  also  the  Meriones  sericeus  of  the  same  naturalist,  characterized  by  the 
projecting  ridges  of  the  molars,  which  alternately  catch  in  each  other. 

We  have  then  to  group  the  Neotoma  jloridanum  of  Say,  or  the  Arvicola  floridana  of  Harlan,  and  the  Arvicola 
gossypina,  Le  Conte,  two  species  which,  size  excepted,  are  very  similar  even  in  their  colours,  and  the  molars  of 
which,  provided  with  roots  [after  a while],  when  worn  a little,  have  crowns  similar  to  those  of  the  Arvicolce.  [The 
tail  in  one  of  them  is  covered  with  hair  of  tolerable  length.  Both  inhabit  North  America. 

Reithrodon,  Waterh.,  requires  also  to  be  introduced  here,  distinguished  by  its  grooved  upper  incisors,  its  arched 
and  Rabbit-like  head,  great  eyes,  and  large  and  round  ears.  Three  or  four  species  are  known,  from  South 
America,  where  they  were  discovered  by  Mr.  Darwin. 

The  Pseudomys  of  Gray  is  another  Rat-like  animal,  remarkable  for  inhabiting  New  Holland : the  anterior  molar 
of  its  lower  jaw  is  however  more  compressed  and  elongated,  and  there  is  a claw  on  its  rudimentary  thumb.  The 
species,  Ps.  australis,  inhabits  holes  in  swampy  places,  at  Liverpool  plains. 

It  is  necessary  also  to  introduce  here  the  Hapalotis  albipes,  Licht. ; Conilurus  constrictus,  Ogilby ; another 
rodent  from  New  Holland,  the  size  of  a Rat,  with  delicate  ample  ears,  and  a long,  hairy,  and  somewhat  tufted  tail. 
It  is  remarkable  for  constructing  an  above-ground  habitation,  so  firmly  interlaced  with  thorny  twigs  externally, 
as  to  repel  the  Dingo  or  semi-wild  Dog  of  that  country.] 

The  Gerbils  ( Gerlillus , Desm. ; Meriones,  Illig.) — 

Have  molars  scarcely  differing  from  those  of  the  Rats,  merely  becoming  sooner  worn,  so  as  to  form 
transverse  ridges.  Their  upper  incisors  are  furrowed  with  a groove ; their  hind  feet  are  somewhat 
longer  in  proportion  than  those  of  Rats  in  general,  with  the  thumb  and  little  toe  hut  slightly  sepa- 
rated: their  tail  is  [very]  long  and  hairy,  [and  generally  tufted]. 

The  sandy  and  warm  parts  of  the  eastern  continent  produce  several  species,  [mostly  of  a light  buff  colour,  white 

The  Merions  ( Meriones , F.  Cuv.), — 

Which  we  separate  from  the  Gerbils,  have  the  hind  feet  still  longer,  the  tail  nearly  naked,  and  a very 
small  tooth  before  the  superior  molars ; characters  which  approximate  them  to  the  Jerboas : their 
superior  incisors  are  grooved,  as  in  the  Gerbils,  and  their  toes  also  are  similar. 

There  is  a small  species  in  North  America,  Mus  canadensis,  Pen. ; Dipus  canadensis,  Shaw ; D.  americanus , 

* Certain  of  these,  the  upper  lip  of  which  is  scarcely  fissured,  com-  I South  Africa,  which  constitute  the  Dendromys  of  Smith  : they  scarcely 
pose  the  Holochilut,  Brandt.  There  are  also  some  arboreal  Mice  in  ! differ  in  structure  from  the  British  Harvest  Mouse. — Ed. 




Barton.  Its  agility  is  extreme,  and  it  closes  itself  up  within  its  burrow,  and  passes  the  winter  in  a state  of  lethargy. 
The  Gerbillus  labradorius,  Harl.,  or  Mus  labrad.,  Sabine,  constitutes  another. 

The  Hamsters  ( Cricetus , Cuv.) — 

Have  teeth  nearly  similar  to  those  of  the  Rats,  but  their  tail  is  short  and  hairy,  and  the  two  sides 
of  their  mouth  are  hollowed  (as  in  certain  Monkeys)  into  sacs  or  cheek-pouches,  in  which  they  trans- 
port the  grain  they  collect  to  their  subterraneous  abodes. 

The  Common  Hamster  ( Mus  cricetus,  Lin.). — Larger  than  the  Rat,  of  a reddish-gray  above,  black  on  the  flanks 
and  underneath,  with  three  white  spots  on  each  side ; its  four  feet  are  white,  and  there  is  also  a white  spot  under 
the  throat,  and  another  under  the  breast ; some  individuals  are  all  black.  This  animal,  so  agreeably  variegated  in 
colour,  is  one  of  the  most  hurtful  in  existence,  on  account  of  the  quantity  of  grain  which  it  hoards  up,  filling  its 
hole,  which  is  sometimes  seven  feet  in  depth.  It  is  common  in  all  the  sandy  districts,  that  extend  from  the  north 
of  Germany  to  Siberia.  The  latter  country  produces  several  smaller  species. 

The  Voles  ( Arvicola , Lacep.) — 

Have  three  grinders  above  and  below,  like  the  Rats,  but  without  roots,  and  which  are  each  formed  of 
triangular  prisms,  placed  alternately  in  two  lines.  [Their  incisors  (or  tusks),  unlike  those  of  the  pre- 
ceding genera,  are  rounded,  having  an  oval  section.]  They  require  to  be  subdivided  into  several 
groups,  viz. : — 

The  Musk.q,uash  (Fiber,  Cuv.;  \Ondatra , Laceped.]), — 

Which  is  a Vole  with  semi-palmated  hind-feet,  a long,  scaly,  and  compressed  tail,  of  which  one  species 
only  is  well  known, — 

The  Ondatra,  Muskquash,  or  Musk  Rat  of  Canada  ( Castor  zibeticus,  Lin. ; Mus  zibeticus,  Gm.) — As  large  as  a 
Rabbit,  and  reddish  grey  [the  fur  resembling  that  of  the  Beaver].  In  winter  they  construct,  on  the  ice,  a hut  of  earth, 
in  which  several  reside  together,  passing  through  a hole  in  the  bottom,  for  the  roots  of  the  Acorus  on  which  they 
feed.  When  the  ice  closes  their  holes,  they  are  necessitated  to  devour  one  another.  This  habit  of  building  has 
induced  some  authors  to  refer  the  Muskquash  to  the  genus  Castor. 

The  second  subdivision  is  that  of 

The  Ordinary  Voles  (Arvicola,  Cuv. ; Hypudceus,  Illig.), — 

The  tail  of  which  is  hairy,  and  about  the  length  of  the  body  [or  shorter] , without  webs  to  the  toes. 

The  Water  Vole  ( Mus  amphibius,  Lin.)— A little  larger  than  the  Black  Rat,  and  deep  greyish-brown  ; the  tail  as 
long  as  the  body.  Inhabits  the  banks  of  ditches,  and  burrows  in  marshy  plains  in  search  of  roots ; but  it  swims 
and  dives  badly.  [This  species  has  been  known  to  occasion  much  damage,  by  burrowing  into  the  raised  banks  of 
canals : in  other  respects  it  is  quite  harmless,  except  that  it  lays  up  a store  of  potatoes,  &c.,  in  its  winter  retreat, 
which  is  placed  far  from  the  water.  Its  ordinary  food  is  green  aquatic  herbage.  A black  variety  is  not  of 
uncommon  occurrence,  in  many  parts  of  Britain.] 

The  Alsacian  Vole  {Mus  terrestris,  Lin.) — Rather  smaller  than  the  last,  with  a shorter  tail.  It  lives  under 
ground  like  the  Mole,  preferring  elevated  fields,  where  it  excavates  galleries,  and  removes  the  earth  to  some  dis- 
tance from  the  opening.  Its  magazines,  which  are  principally  filled  with  the  roots  of  the  wild  carrot  cut  into  two- 
inch  pieces,  are  frequently  two  feet  in  diameter.  [It  is  not  found  in  Britain.] 

Meadow  Vole  {Mus  arvalis,  Lin.). — Size  of  a Mouse,  reddish  ash-colour,  the  tail  a little  shorter  than  the  body.  It 
inhabits  burrows  in  the  fields,  in  which  it  hoards  up  grain  for  the  winter.  By  multiplying  excessively,  it  sometimes 
occasions  great  damage.  [There  are  several  nearly  allied  small  European  species,  two  of  which  inhabit  Britain  : 
that  known  as  A.  arvalis  in  this  country  has  the  tail  very  short,  and  the  ears  inconspicuous ; A.  pratensis  or 
ripicola  is  redder,  with  a longer  tail,  and  more  apparent  ears  ; it  is  less  common  than  the  other.  Many  more  exist 
in  Asia  and  North  America,  of  which  it  will  be  sufficient  to  notice] 

The  Economic  Vole  {Mus  ceconomicus,  Pallas.)— A little  darker  coloured  than  the  foregoing,  with  the  tail  still 
shorter.  It  inhabits  a sort  of  oven-shaped  chamber,  placed  under  the  turf,  from  which  issue  several  narrow  and 
ramifying  canals  running  in  various  directions ; other  canals  communicate  with  a second  cavity,  wherein  it 
amasses  its  provisions.  From  all  Siberia.  It  is  thought  to  have  been  also  found  in  Switzerland  and  the  south  of 
France,  particularly  in  the  potato  fields. 

The  Lemmings  (Georychus,  111. ; \Lemmus,  Link]  ), — 

Have  exceedingly  short  ears  and  tail,  and  fore-feet  better  adapted  for  digging.  [In  other  respects, 
they  only  differ  from  the  Voles  in  being  rather  more  heavily  formed.] 

The  two  first  species  have  five  very  distinct  nails  to  their  fore-feet,  as  in  the  Mole-rats  and  Helamyds. 

The  Scandinavian  Lemming  {Mus  lemmus,  Lin.)— A northern  species,  the  size  of  a Rat,  with  fur  variegated  black 
and  yellow  : it  is  very  celebrated  for  its  occasional  migrations  in  immense  bodies.  At  these  periods  they  are  said 
to  march  in  a straight  line,  regardless  of  rivers  or  mountains ; and  while  no  insurmountable  obstacle  impedes  their 



progress,  they  devastate  the  country  through  which  they  pass.  Their  ordinary  residence  appears  to  be  the  shores 
of  the  Arctic  Ocean. 

The  Siberian  Lemming,  or  Zocor  {Mus  aspalax,  Gm.)— Reddish-grey ; the  three  middle  nails  of  the  fore-feet 
long,  arcuated,  compressed  and  trenchant,  for  cutting  earth  and  roots.  The  limbs  are  short ; there  is  scarcely 
any  tail ; and  the  eyes  are  exceedingly  small.  From  Siberia,  where  it  lives  under-ground,  like  the  Moles  and 
Mole-rats,  and  subsists  chiefly  on  the  bulbs  of  different  Liliacece. 

The  third  species,  like  the  other  animals  comprehended  under  the  great  genus  of  Rats,  has  only  the  rudiment 
of  a thumb  to  its  fore-feet.  It  is  the  Hudson’s  Bay  Lemming  {Mus  Hudsonicus,  Gm.) ; of  a pearl-grey  colour, 
without  any  tail  or  external  ears:  the  two  middle  toes  of  the  fore-feet  of  the  male  seem  to  have  double 
claws,  the  skin  at  the  end  of  the  toe  being  callous,  and  projecting  from  under  the  nail ; a variety  of  con- 
formation unknown  except  in  this  animal.*  It  is  as  large  as  a Rat,  and  lives  under  ground  in  North 

The  Otomyds  ( Otomys , F.  Cuv. ; [ Euryotis , Brandt]  ) — 

Are  nearly  allied  to  the  Voles,  and  have  also  three  grinders,  hut  composed  of  slightly  arcuated  laminae, 
which  are  arranged  successively  in  file,  so  as  to  present  an  exact  miniature  resemblance  to  the  grinders 
of  the  Elephant.  Their  incisors  are  grooved  longitudinally,  and  the  tail  and  ears  are  hairy,  the  latter 
being  also  large. 

The  only  known  species,  the  Cape  Otomyd  (0.  capensis,  F.  Cuv.),  inhabits  Africa,  and  is  of  the  size  of  a Rat, 
with  fur  annulated  black  and  fulvous.  Tail  a third  shorter  than  the  body. 

The  Jerboas  (Dipits,  Gm.) — 

Have  nearly  the  same  teeth  as  the  Rats  properly  so  called,  differing  only  in  the  occasional  presence  of 
a very  small  tooth,  placed  before  the  superior  molars.  Their  tail  is  long  and  tufted  at  the  end,  the 
head  large,  and  eyes  large  and  prominent ; hut  their  principal  character  consists  in  the  immoderate 
length  of  the  hinder  limbs,  as  compared  with  the  anterior,  and  above  all,  in  the  metatarsus  of  the  three 
middle  toes,  which  is  formed  of  a single  bone,  as  in  what  is  termed  the  tarsus  of  birds.  This  dispro- 
portion of  the  limbs  caused  them  to  be  designated  two-footed  Rats  by  the  ancients  : and  in  fact  their 
ordinary  gait  is  by  great  leaps  on  the  hind-feet.  Their  fore-feet  have  each  five  toes ; and  in  certain 
species,  besides  the  three  great  ones  to  the  hind-feet,  there  are  [one  or  two]  small  lateral  toes.  These 
rodents  live  in  burrows,  and  become  profoundly  torpid  in  winter. 

[There  are  numerous  species,  inhabiting  Asia  and  Africa.  Those  with  five  toes  have  been  brought  together  by 
some  under  the  name  Alectaga.] 

The  Helamyds  (Helamys,  F.  Cuv. ; Pedetes,  111.), — 

Which  are  commonly  termed  Jumping  Hares , have,  like  the  Jerboas,  the  head  large,  as  are  also  the  eyes,  a 
long  tail,  and  very  short  fore-legs  in  comparison  with  the  hinder ; the  disproportion,  however,  being  much 
less  than  in  the  true  Jerboas.  Their  peculiar  characters  consist  in  having  four  grinders,  each  com- 
posed of  two  laminae  ; five  toes  to  the  fore-feet,  armed  with  long  and  pointed  nails,  and  four  only  to 
the  hind-feet,  all  separate,  even  to  the  bones  of  the  metatarsus,  and  terminated  by  large  claws  almost 
resembling  hoofs.  The  number  of  their  toes  is  accordingly  inverse  to  that  of  the  ordinary  Rats.  Their 
inferior  incisors  are  truncated,  and  not  pointed  as  in  the  Jerboas,  and  as  in  the  majority  of  other 
animals  which  have  been  comprised  in  the  great  genus  of  Rats. 

One  species  only  is  known,  as  large  as  a Rabbit, 
and  pale  fulvous,  with  a long  tufted  tail  black  at  the 
tip  {Mus  caff er,  Pallas ; Dipus  caffer,  Gm.) — It  inha- 
bits deep  burrows  near  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

[The  affinities  of  this  curious  animal  are  by  no 
means  obvious.] 

The  Mole-rats  (Spalax,  Guldensteat) — 

Have  also  been  very  properly  separated  from 
the  genus  of  Rats,  although  their  grinders  are 
three  in  number,  and  tuberculated  as  in  the 
Rats  properly  so  called,  and  also  the  Hamsters, 
and  are  merely  a little  less  unequal ; their  in- 
cisors being  too  large  to  be  covered  by  the 

* The  Plovers,  and  several  other  birds  belonging  to  the  same  group,  present  a somewhat  analogous  conformation. — Ed. 

i 2 

Fig.  46. — Mole-rat. 

lips,  and  the  extremities  of  those  of  the  lower  jaw 



trenchant,  rectilinear,  and  not  pointed  : their  limbs  are  very  short ; all  their  feet  have  five  short  toes, 
with  flat  and  slender  nails ; their  tail  is  short  or  wanting,  and  there  is  no  external  ear.  They  live 
under  ground  like  the  Moles,  throw  up  the  earth  in  the  same  manner,  although  provided  with  very 
inferior  instruments  for  the  purpose,  and  subsist  entirely  on  roots. 

The  Blind  Mole-rat,  Zemny,  or  Stepitz  (Mus  typhlus,  Pallas.)— A singular  animal,  which,  from  its  large  head, 
angular  at  the  sides,  its  short  legs,  the  total  absence  of  a tail  or  of  any  apparent  eye,  has  a most  shapeless  appear- 
ance. The  eye  is  not  visible  externally,  and  we  merely  find  beneath  the  skin  a small  black  globule,  which  appears 
to  be  organized  like  an  eye,  but  which  cannot  serve  for  the  purpose  of  vision,  since  the  skin  passes  over  it  without 
opening,  or  even  becoming  thinner,  and  being  as  much  covered  with  hair  as  on  any  other  part.  It  exceeds  our  Rat 
in  size,  and  has  smooth  ash-coloured  fur,  verging  on  red.  Olivier  supposed  that  this  animal  was  alluded  to  by  the 
ancients,  when  they  spoke  of  the  Mole  as  being  totally  blind. 

The  islands  in  the  Straits  of  Sunda  produce  a Mole-rat  as  large  as  a Rabbit,  of  a deep  grey  colour,  with  a white 
longitudinal  stripe  upon  the  head  (Spalax  javanicus,  Auct.) 

[The  Canets  (Rhizomys,  G ray;  Nyctocleptes,  Tem.) — 

Have  been  approximated  to  the  Mole-rats ; hut  have  small  open  eyes,  and  conspicuous  naked  ears : 
their  head  is  large,  the  body  round  and  massive ; limbs  short,  with  five  toes  to  each  foot,  and  thick 
and  naked  tail  of  mean  length.  There  are  three  rooted  molars  on  each  side  of  both  jaws,  more  com- 
plicated than  in  Spalax. 

Two  species  are  described,  Mus  sumatrensis,  Raffles,  which  feeds  chiefly  on  the  roots  of  the  bamboo,  and 
R.  sinicus,  Gray.] 

From  the  Mole-rats  themselves  should  have  been  separated — 

The  Bathyergues  ( Bathyergus *,  111. ; Orycteropus,  F.  Cuv.), — 

Which,  with  the  general  form,  the  feet,  and  truncated  incisors  of  the  preceding,  combine  four  molars 
to  each  jaw : their  eyes,  though  small,  are  distinctly  perceptible  ; and  they  have  a short  tail. 

The  Shore  Bathyergue  (Mus  maritimus,  Gm.). — Nearly  the  size  of  a Rabbit,  with  grooved  upper  incisors,  and 
whitish-grey  fur.  Also  the  Cape  Bathyergue  (M.  capensis,  Gm.),  scarcely  as  large  as  a Guinea-pig,  brown,  with 
a spot  around  the  eye,  another  round  the  ear,  and  a third  on  the  vertex,  together  with  the  end  of  the  muzzle, 
white.  The  incisors  of  this  species  are  smooth.  There  is  a third,  also,  with  smooth  incisors  like  the  last,  grey, 
and  hardly  equal  in  size  to  a Rat  (B.  hottentotus). 

We  should  place  near  the  Mole-rat  and  Bathyergues 
The  Pseudostomes  ( Geomys , Rafinesque  ; Pseudostoma , Say ; Ascomys,  Licht. ; [Saccophorus,  Kuhl]), — 
Which  have  likewise  four  molars  above  and  below,  prismatically  compressed : the  first  double,  the 
three  others  simple ; and  the  upper  incisors  of  which  are  furrowed  with  a double  groove  in  front. 
Their  three  anterior  middle  nails,  the  medial  more  especially,  are  very  long,  crooked,  and  trenchant. 
They  are  low  on  the  legs,  and  have  very  deep  cheek-pouches,  which  open  externally,  enlarging  the 
sides  of  the  head  and  neck  in  a singular  manner. 

Only  one  species  is  known  ( Mus  bursarius,  Shaw),  of  the  size  of  a Rat,  with  reddish-grey  fur ; the  tail  naked, 
and  shorter  by  half  than  the  body.  It  inhabits  deep  burrows,  in  the  interior  of  North  America.  The  figure  of 
this  animal  in  the  Linncean  Transactions  resembles  nothing  in  nature,  having  the  cheek-pouches  turned 
inside  out. 

The  Gauffres  ( Diplostoma , Rafin.) — 

Scarcely  differ  from  the  preceding,  except  in  the  total  absence  of  a tail. 

They  are  from  North  America.  The  species  before  us  is  reddish,  and  ten  inches  in  length.  [Eight  or  ten 
species  pertaining  to  this  and  the  preceding  subdivision  are  now  known,  one  or  more  inhabiting  Europe. 

The  Saccomyds  ( Saccomys , F.  Cuv.) — 

Have  similar  cheek-pouches,  and  four  rooted  molars  on  each  side  of  both  jaws,  successively  lessening. 
They  have  five  toes  on  each  foot,  the  anterior  thumbs  very  small ; tail  long  and  naked. 

The  only  species  described  (S.  xanthophilus ) inhabits  North  America,  and  is  of  the  size  and  has  much  the  aspect 
of  a Mouse.  Its  cheek-pouches  were  distended  with  the  flowers  of  Securidaca  volubilis,  with  some  entire  seeds, 
apparently  of  Convolvulacece. 

* This  name  is  now  confined  to  certain  species  which  have  only  three  molars.  Orycteropus,  however,  is  also  applied  to  a genus  of  Edentata. 
— En. 


We  now  pass  to  larger  rodents  than  those  of  which  we  have  hitherto  spoken,  but  of  which 
several  have  still  well-developed  clavicles. 

Of  this  number  are 

The  Beavers  ( Castor , Lin.), — 

Which  are  distinguished  from  all  other  rodents  by  their  horizontally-flattened  tail,  of  a nearly  oval 
form,  and  covered  with  scales.  They  have  five  toes  on  each  foot,  the  hinder  being  webbed,  and  a 
double  and  oblique  nail  on  the  digit  next  the  thumb.  Their  grinders,  four  in  number  above  and 
below,  with  flat  crowns,  appear  as  if  formed  of  a doubled  bony  fillet,  exhibiting  one  deep  indentation 
on  their  internal  border,  and  three  on  the  outer  edge  above,  and  the  reverse  below. 

They  are  rather  large  animals,  and  are  aquatic  in  their  mode  of  life ; their  feet  and  tail  assisting 
them  in  swimming.  As  they  subsist  chiefly  on  bark  and  other  hard  substances,  their  incisive  teeth 
are  very  robust,  and  grow  as  rapidly  from  the  root  as  they  wear  at  the  tip.  By  means  of  them  they 
are  enabled  to  cut  down  trees  of  various  kinds. 

Large  glandular  pouches,  which  terminate  on  the  prepuce,  secrete  a pommade  of  very  pungent 
odour,  which  is  employed  in  medicine  under  the  name  of  Castoreum.  In  both  sexes,  the  organs  of 
generation  terminate  within  the  extremity  of  the  rectum,  so  that  they  have  only  one  external  orifice. 

The  Beaver  of  Canada  (C.  fiber,  Auct.). — Surpasses  the  Badger  in  size,  and  is,  of  all  quadrupeds,  the  most  indus- 
trious in  fabricating  its  dwelling ; to  erect  which  many  work  in  concert,  in  the  most  retired  districts  of  North 

Beavers  choose  water  of  such  a depth  as  is  not  likely  to  be  frozen  to  the  bottom,  and,  whenever  possible,  run- 
ning streams,  that  the  wood  which  they  cut  above,  may  be  carried  downwards  by  the  current  to  where  they 
require  it.  They  maintain  the  water  at  an  equal  height,  by  dams  constructed  of  branches  of  trees,  mixed  with 
clay  and  stones,  and  repair  them  year  after  year,  till  a hedge  is  at  length  formed  by  the  germination  of  part  of  the 
materials.  Each  hut  serves  for  two  or  three  families,  and  is  divided  into  two  apartments  ; the  upper  dry,  for  the 
habitation  of  the  animals  ; the  lower  under  water,  for  the  provision  of  bark.  The  latter  only  is  open,  having  its 
entrance  under  water,  without  any  communication  with  the  land.  The  huts  are  formed  of  interlaced  twigs  and 
branches,  having  their  interstices  closed  up  with  mud.  There  are  always  several  burrows  along  the  bank,  in  which 
these  animals  seek  for  refuge  when  their  huts  are  attacked.  They  only  inhabit  them  during  the  winter  ; dis- 
persing in  summer,  at  which  season  they  live  solitarily. 

The  Beaver  is  easily  tamed,  and  accustomed  to  feed  on  animal  substances.  Those  of  Canada  are  of  a uniform 
reddish  brown ; and  their  fur,  as  every  one  knows,  is  in  much  request  for  hatting.  It  is  sometimes  flaxen- 
coloured  ; at  others  black,  or  white.  We  have  been  unable  to  ascertain,  on  the  most  scrupulous  comparison, 
whether  the  Beavers  which  inhabit  burrows  along  the  Rhone,  the  Danube,  the  Weser,  and  other  rivers  of  Europe, 
are  specifically  different  from  those  of  America ; and  whether  the  vicinity  of  man  prevents  those  of  the  eastern 
continent  from  building. 

The  Coypu  ( Myopotamus , Commerson) — 

Resembles  the  Beaver  in  size,  in  having  four  molars  almost  similarly  compressed,  in  the  robustness  of 
its  yellow-coloured  incisors,  and  in  having  five  toes  to  each  foot,  those  of  the  hinder  palmated ; but  its 
tail  is  long  and  rounded,  [and  its  skull  dissimilar]. 

We  only  know  one  ( Mus  coypus,  Molina),  which  lives  in  burrows  beside  the  rivers  of  South  America.  Its 
yellowish-grey  fur,  mixed  with  down  at  the  root,  is  employed  by  hatters  like  that  of  the  Beaver,  and  is  conse- 
quently an  important  article  of  commerce.  Thousands  of  their  skins  are  sent  to  Europe.  [This  species,  like  the 
Beaver,  is  easily  tamed,  and  appears  to  withstand  the  climate  of  this  country.] 

The  Porcupines  {Hystrix,  Lin.) — 

Are  recognized  at  the  first  glance  by  the  stiff-  and  pointed  quills  with  which  they  are  armed,  somewhat 
as  in  the  Urchins  or  Hedgehogs,  among  the  Carnaria.  Their  grinders  are  four  in  number  above  and 
below,  with  flat  crowns  differently  modified  by  lines  of  enamel,  between  which  are  depressed  intervals. 
Their  tongue  is  roughened  by  spiny  scales.  The  clavicles  are  too  small  to  rest  on  the  sternum  and 
scapular,  being  merely  suspended  by  the  ligaments.  They  live  in  burrows,  and  have  very  much  the 
habits  of  Rabbits.  From  their  grunting  voice,  and  thick  truncated  muzzle,  they  have  been  compared 
to  Pigs,  whence  their  French  name  of  Porc-epm  or  Porcupine. 

The  Porcupines,  properly  so  called  ( Hystrix , Cuv.),  — 

Have  the  head  more  or  less  convex,  on  account  of  the  developement  of  the  nasal  bones.  They  have 
four  toes  before  and  five  behind,  furnished  with  stout  claws. 

That  of  Europe  ( H . cristata,  Lin.)  inhabits  the  South  of  Italy,  Sicily,  and  Spain.  Its  quills  are  very  long,  and 



annulated  black  and  white ; there  is  a crest  of  long  bristles  on  its  head  and  neck.  Its  tail  is  short,  and  furnished 
with  hollow  truncated  tubes  suspended  by  slender  pedicles,  which  make  a rattling  sound  when  the  animal  shakes 
them.  Its  cranium  and  muzzle  are  singularly  convex.  There  are  other  species  not  very  different,  but  with  the 
head  less  convex,  inhabiting  India  and  Africa.  [These  constitute  the  Acanthion  of  M.  F.  Cuvier : the  H.  hirsuti- 
rostris,  Brandt,  is  however  intermediate.] 

We  separate  from  the  true  Porcupines 

The  Atherures  {Atherura,  Cuv.), — 

The  head  and  muzzle  of  which  are  not  inflated,  and  the  tail  long,  but  not  prehensile ; their  feet  are 
similar  to  those  of  the  preceding. 

The  Pencil-tailed  Atherure  ( Hyst . fasciculata,  Lin.)— The  quills  on  the  body  furrowed  with  a groove  in  front, 
and  the  tail  terminated  by  a bundle  of  flattened  horny  slips,  constricted  at  intervals.  [Inhabits  India  and  Malacca.] 

The  Ursons  ( Erethizon , F.  Cuv.), — 

Have  a flat  cranium,  and  short  muzzle  which  is  not  convex : their  tail  is  of  middle  length,  and  the 
spines  short  and  half-hidden  in  the  hair. 

One  species  only  is  known,  from  [the  Atlantic  side  of]  North  America  {Hyst.  dorsata,  Lin.).  [The  E.  epixan- 
thus,  Brandt,  from  the  western  side  of  the  same  continent,  appears  to  be  another.  These  animals  produce  but 
one  young  at  a birth.] 

The  Coendous  ( Synetheres , F.  Cuv.  \_Cercolabes , Brandt]  ). 

Muzzle  short  and  thick ; the  head  convex  above ; quills  short ; and  the  tail,  in  particular,  long, 
naked  at  the  tip,  and  prehensile,  as  in  a Sapajou  or  Opossum.  They  climb  trees,  and  have  only  four 
toes  on  each  foot. 

In  the  warm  parts  of  North  America,  there  is  a species  with  black  and  white  spines,  and  brown-black  fur 
{Hyst.  prehensilis,  Lin.) ; and  a smaller  kind  in  South  America  {H.  insidiosa,  Licht.),  the  prickles  of  which  are 
partly  red  or  yellow,  and  hidden  during  part  of  the  year  by  its  long  greyish-brown  fur.  [M.  d’Orbigny  is  of 
opinion  that  these  constitute  but  one  species.  In  Brandt’s  memoir  on  the  Porcupines,  however,  they  are  referred 
to  different  subgenera,  after  M.  F.  Cuvier ; the  first,  with  the  addition  of  another  {S.  platycentrotus),  to  Synetheres 
as  restricted,  the  other,  with  two  more  species  {S.  nigricans  and  S.  affinis ),  to  a subdivision  Sphiggurus. 

The  Aulacodon  ( Aulacodus , Tern.) 

Incisors  very  broad,  the  upper  furrowed  with  two  grooves,  and  a third  at  their  inner  margin  : four 
molars  as  in  the  preceding,  those  of  the  upper  jaw  with  a single  deep  fold  of  enamel  within,  and  two 
without,  excepting  the  anterior,  which  has  three ; in  the  lower  jaw,  the  outer  margin  has  only  one 
fold,  and  the  inner  two.  There  are  five  toes  before  and  four  behind,  and  some  flattened  spines 
mingled  with  the  fur.  The  form  is  that  of  a Rat,  with  the  molars  of  a Porcupine. 

A.  swinderianus,  Tern.,  is  the  only  known  species,  from  the  Eastern  Archipelago]. 

The  Hares  ( Lepus , Lin.) — 

Have  a very  distinctive  character,  in  their  superior  incisors  being  double ; that  is  to  say,  there  is 
another  of  small  size  behind  each  of  them*  [or,  in  other  words,  two  genuine  incisive  teeth  are  present 
in  these  animals,  posterior  to  the  ordinary  representatives  of  the  tusks  or  canines].  Their  molars,  five 
in  number  above  and  below,  are  each  of  them  formed  of  two  vertical  laminae  soldered  together,  and  in 
the  upper  jaw  there  is  a sixth,  simple  and  very  small.  They  have  five  toes  before,  and  four  behind ; 
an  enormous  coecum,  five  or  six  times  the  size  of  the  stomach,  and  lined  internally  with  a spiral  layer 
throughout  its  whole  length.  The  interior  of  then  mouth  and  the  under  part  of  their  feet  are  covered 
with  hair  like  the  rest  of  the  body. 

The  Hares,  properly  so  called  {Lepus,  Cuv.), — 

Are  distinguished  by  their  long  ears,  short  tail,  hind-feet  much  longer  than  the  fore,  imperfect  clavi- 
cles, and  antorbital  space  in  the  cranium  widely  pierced  and  reticulated.  There  are  numerous  species 
in  both  hemispheres,  which  from  their  resemblance  are  difficult  to  characterize. 

[Four  occur  in  the  British  islands.  The  Common  Hare  {L.  timidus,  Lin.),  with  yellowish-brown  fur,  which  has 
a tendency  to  curl;  the  Irish  Hare  {L.  hibernicus),  with  shorter  limbs  and  ears,  and  smooth  reddish  fur,  of  very 

* There  is  even  a period  when  they  are  shedding;  their  teeth,  during  which  they  appear  to  have  three  pair  of  upper  incisors,  one  behind 
the  other. 


inferior  value  to  that  of  the  preceding1,  and  which  occasionally  turns  white  in  winter  * ; the  Variable  Hare  (L.  varia- 
bilii),  a mountain  species,  larger  than  either  of  the  foregoing,  with  still  shorter  ears  and  limbs  than  the  Irish  Hare, 
and  brown  fur  in  summer,  which  always  changes  to  white  at  the  approach  of  winter ; and  the  Rabbit  (L.  cuniculus ), 
remaikable  for  its  burrowing  habits,  and  for  bringing  forth  its  young  blind  and  naked,  while  the  Leverets  of  the 
three  others  see  and  run  from  birth.  Not  less  than  sixteen  species  of  Lepus  are  already  known  in  North 
America ; and  many  others  exist  in  Asia  and  Africa.] 

The  Pikas  (. Lagomys , Cuv.) — 

Have  eais  of  moderate  length,  the  limbs  nearly  equal,  the  antorbital  foramen  simple,  almost  perfect 
clavicles,  and  no  tail  whatever.  They  often  utter  a very  sharp  cry.  They  have  hitherto  been  found 
only  in  Sberia  [since,  however,  at  a considerable  altitude  on  the  Himmalayas,  and  in  North  America], 
and  Pallas  was  the  first  to  make  them  known. 

[The  largst  of  them]  Lepus  alpinus,  Pallas,  is  the  size  of  a Guinea-pig,  and  yellowish-red.  It  inhabits  the  most 
elevated  imuntain  summits,  where  it  passes  the  summer  in  selecting  and  drying  the  hei-bage  for  its  winter  pro- 
vision. ltshay-stacks,  which  are  sometimes  six  or  seven  feet  high,  are  a valuable  resource  for  the  Horses  of  the 

Some  fossi  remains  have  been  discovered  of  an  unknown  species  of  Pika,  in  the  accumulations  of  osseous 
breccia  in  theisland  of  Corsica. 

After  the  wo  genera  of  Porcupines  and  Hares,  come  the  rodents  which  Linnaeus  and  Pallas 
brought  togeher  under  the  name  of  Cavia , hut  for  which  it  is  impossible  to  assign  any  other 
constant  and  positive  character  than  the  imperfection  of  their  clavicles,  though  the  various 
species  are  nc  without  analogy  in  the  aspect  of  their  body  and  manners.  They  are  all  from 
the  New  Coninent. 

The  Capybara  ( Hydrochcerus , Erxleben) — 

Has  four  toes  before,  and  only  three  behind,  all  of  them  armed  with  stout  claws,  and  connected 
together  oy  nmnbranes ; four  grinding  teeth  above  and  below,  the  last  of  which  [especially  in  the 
lower  j;w]  art  the  longest,  all  composed  of  numerous  simple  and  parallel  laminse ; the  anterior  of 
these  lminae  forked  towards  the  outer  edge  in  the  upper,  and  towards  the  inner  one  in  the  lower 
teeth.  Only  one  species  is  known. 

The  Capybara  (Cavia  capybara , Lin.),  as  large 
as  a Siamese  Pig,  with  very  thick  muzzle,  short 
legs,  coarse  yellowish-brown  hair,  and  no  tail. 
Inhabits  the  rivers  of  Guiana  and  the  Amazons, 
where  it  lives  in  troops : is  a good  swimmer,  and 
the  largest  [existing]  species  of  the  Rodentia. 
The  Beaver  alone  approaches  it  in  size. 

The  Cavies,  popularly  termed  Guinea-pigs , 
(Anoema,  F.  Cuv. ; Cavia , Illig.), — 

Are  miniatures  of  the  Capybara,  except  that 
their  toes  are  separated,  and  their  molars 
have  each  only  a simple  lamina,  together 
with  a forked  one  externally  in  those  above, 
and  on  the  inside  in  the  lower. 

The  species  best  known  is  the  common  domestic  Cavy,  or  Guinea-pig  (Cavia  cobaia,  Pallas ; Mus  porcettus, 
Lin.),  extremely  common  now  in  Europe,  where  it  is  bred  in  houses,  under  the  [mistaken]  supposition  that  its 
odour  drives  away  Rats.  It  varies  in  colour  like  other  domestic  animals.  [Six  or  seven  species  are  now  known, 
one  of  which,  the  Patagonian  Cavy  (C.  patachonica,  Pen.),  is  much  larger  than  the  rest,  with  remarkably  long 
limbs : the  author  suspected  it  to  be  an  Agouti.  Some  separate  it  by  the  appellation  Dolichotis .] 

The  Mocos  ( Kerodon , F.  Cuv.) — 

Have  grinders  rather  more  simple  than  those  of  the  Cavies,  each  being  formed  of  two  triangular 

The  only  known  species  is  also  from  Brazil,  somewhat  surpassing  the  Guinea-pig  in  size,  and  of  an  olive-grey 

* The  Irish  Hare  has  only  recently  been  distinguished,  and  has  ] Common  Hare  was  unknown.  Great  numbers  of  the  latter,  however, 
hitherto  been  met  with  only  in  that  island,  where,  until  lately,  the  | have  been  turned  loose  there  during  the  last  twelvemonth. 

Fig.  47. — The  Capybara. 



The  Agoutis  ( Chloromys , F.  Cuv. ; Dasyprocta,  111.) — 

Have  four  toes  before  and  three  behind,  and  four  grinders  above  and  below,  of  nearly  equal  size,  with 
flat  crowns  irregularly  furrowed,  and  a rounded  contour,  notched  on  the  inner  edge  of  those  abive, 
and  the  outer  of  those  below.  In  disposition  and  the  nature  of  their  flesh,  they  resemble  Hare?  and 
Rabbits,  which  they  in  some  degree  represent  in  the  Antilles  and  hot  parts  of  America. 

[Several  species  have  been  ascertained,  one  with  only  two  toes  to  the  hind-feet.  They  employ  their  fire-feet 
to  hold  up  food  to  the  mouth.] 

The  Pacas  ( Calogenys , F.  Cuv. ; Osteopera,  Harl.) — 

With  teeth  pretty  much  resembling  those  of  the  Agoutis  [and  Porcupines],  combine  a vffy  small 
additional  toe  on  the  inner  side  of  the  fore-foot,  and  two,  equally  small,  on  the  sides  of  the  lind-foot, 
which  have  consequently  five  in  all.  Besides  this  [and  in  addition  to  ordinary  cheek-pouch®],  there 
is  a cavity  hollowed  in  each  cheek,  which  dips  under  the  projection  of  a very  large  and  salifent  zygo- 
matic arch,  which  imparts  an  extraordinary  aspect  to  the  skull.  Their  flesh  is  understcod  to  be 
fine  eating. 

There  is  one  species  or  variety  of  a fulvous  colour,  and  another  brown,  both  of  which  are  spottd  with  white 
( Cavia  paca,  Lin.). 


Finally,  there  remains  an  animal  perhaps  allied  to  Cavia,  perhaps  more  approximating  Lagomys , 
or  to  the  Rats,  which  we  are  unable  to  arrange  for  want  of  knowing  its  dentition, — theChinchilla  of 
the  furriers,  the  skins  of  which  are  imported  in  immense  numbers,  but  the  b<py  we  have 
never  been  able  to  obtain.  * * * 

The  Yiscacha,  described  by  Azzara,  and  such  as  we  have  seen  it  figured,  can  hardly  \e  other  than 
a large  species  of  Chinchilla,  with  shorter  and  coarser  fur. 

[The  progress  of  discovery  has  realized  this  expectation  of  the  author,  and  we  are  nw  acquainted 
with  three  subdivisions  of  these  animals,  all  of  which  have  four  rootless  molars  above  aid  belVw,  com- 
posed of  alternating  transverse  layers  of  enamel  and  ivory  : the  form  of  the  cranium  ind  lover  jaw 
indicates  considerable  affinity  with  the  Cavies  ; but  the  clavicles  are  developed,  and  the  aspect  altogether 
more  Rabbit-like,  or  rather  approximating  that  of  the  Pikas ; the  eyes  are  placed  far  backward  the 
whiskers  remarkably  long  and  conspicuous,  and  the  tail  is  always  held  recurved.  These  animaklive 
socially  in  extensive  burrows.  The  first  subdivision  is  that  of  \ 

The  Yiscacha  ( Lagostomus , Brookes), — 

In  which  the  fore-feet  are  furnished  with  four  toes,  the  hinder  with  three  only,  as  in  the  Cavies,  all  ( 
them  armed  with  stout  claws  adapted  for  digging.  The  ears  are  of  moderate  size,  and  the  tail  com 
paratively  short.  Their  three  anterior  molars  of  the  upper  jaw  consist  each  of  two  double  layers,  and 
the  last  of  three ; the  lower  of  two  each  throughout. 

The  only  known  species  (L.  trichodactylus,  Brookes,)  is  about  the  size  of  a Hare,  and  inhabits  Chili  and  Brazil 
, its  general  colour  is  greyish,  the  fur  of  two  sorts,  one  entirely  white,  and  the  other,  which  is  coarser,  black, 
except  at  the  base  ; the  under  parts  white.  Its  motions  are  quick,  and  resemble  those  of  a Rabbit ; and  it  seeks 
its  food  by  night,  subsisting  wholly  on  vegetables : inhabits  the  level  country,  and  is  not  esteemed  as  food.  This 
animal  is  figured  in  Griffith’s  edition  of  the  present  work  under  the  name  of  Diana  Marmot. 

The  others  are  mountain  animals,  which  frequent  rocky  places  near  the  snow-line. 


The  Chinchas  ( Lagotis , Ben. ; Legidium,  Meyer) — 

Scarcely  differ  from  the  Viscacha  except  in  having  four  toes  to  each  foot,  and  a long  bristly  tail,  as  in 
the  Chinchilla. 

Two  species  are  known;  the  first  with  long  Rabbit-like  ears,  and  greyish  fur,  from  the  Peruvian  Andes 
( L . Cuvieri,  Ben. ; Legid.  peruvianum,  Mey.) ; the  other  from  the  Chilian  Andes,  with  shorter  ears,  and  fur  inclining 
to  reddish-brown  (L.  pallipes,  Ben.). 


The  Chinchilla  ( Chinchilla , Ben. ; Eriomys,  Vander  Hoeven ; Callomys,  Gray), — 

Has  a fourth  very  small  internal  toe  on  the  hind-foot : ears  ample ; the  internal  auditory  bullae 
remarkably  capacious,  appearing  on  the  upper  part  of  the  skull.  Each  of  the  upper  molars  has 
three  alternate  layers  of  enamel  and  ivory,  the  inferior  only  two. 



One  species  only  is  well  determined,  the  Chin- 
chilla of  the  furriers  ( Ch . lanigera,  Ban.),  cele- 
brated for  the  delicate  fineness  of  its  fur.  It 
inhabits  the  Chilian  and  Peruvian  Andes. 

Somewhat  allied  to  the  foregoing,  is  an- 
other small  group  of  South  American  rodents, 
with  also  four  rootless  molars  of  equal  size 
above  and  below,  except  in  one  instance 
{Abrocoma'),  where  the  inferior  resemble  those 
of  an  Arvicola;  they  are  surrounded  with 
enamel,  and  doubled,  or  indented  deeply,  on 
both  sides.  The  antorbital  foramen  is  very 
large.  There  are  five  toes  to  each  foot,  ex- 
cept in  Abrocoma , whish  has  only  four  anteriorly;  and  the  general  aspect  is  intermediate  to  that  of  the 
Chinchillas  and  Rats  or  Voles : the  head,  however,  is  arched.  Four  subdivisions  have  been  distin- 
guished. In 

The  Abrocomes  ( Abrocoma , Waterh.), — 

The  ears  are  large,  the  claws  very  small,  and  the  tail  rather  long  and  not  tufted.  The  excessive 
fineness  of  their  fur  probably  exceeds  that  of  any  other  animal. 

Two  species  were  taken  near  Valparaiso  by  Mr.  Darwin,  A.  Cuvieri  and  A.  Bennettii,  Waterh. 

The  Octodons  ( Octodon , Bennett;  Dendrobius,  Meyer), — 

Have  also  large  ears,  and  a long  and  tufted  tail : their  inferior  molars  resemble  those  of  the  following. 

The  only  known  species  (0.  Cummingii,  Ben.),  is  the  Sciurus  degus  of  Molina,  D.  degus,  Meyer.  It  inhabits 
Chili,  and  is  often  seen  traversing  the  branches  of  low  underwood. 

The  Pcephagomes  ( Poephagomys , F.  Cuv.), — 

Have  narrow  incisors,  the  auditory  conch  small,  but  distinct : claws  adapted  for  burrowing. 

The  only  ascertained  species  (P.  ater)  inhabits  Chili. 


The  Ctenomyds  ( Ctenomys , Ben.)— 

Are  distinguished  by  the  great  breadth  of  their  incisors,  by  the  smallness  of  their  ears,  their  rather 
short  tail,  and  stout  claws,  well  qualified  for  burrowing. 

There  is  a species  in  Brazil  (Ct.  braziliensis,  Blainv.),  and  another  near  the  Straits  of  Magellan  (Ct.  Magellani- 
cus,  Ben.) 

A remarkable  African  rodent,  which  is  in  several  respects  allied  to  the  last,  is  known  as 
The  Ctenodactyle  ( Ctenodactylus , Gray), — 

The  incisors  of  which  are  rounded ; there  are  but  three  molars,  however,  on  each  side  of  both  jaws, 
surrounded  with  enamel,  the  upper  with  one  deep  indentation  externally,  the  lower  indented  on  both 
sides.  The  feet  have  each  four  toes,  with  the  rudiment  of  a thumb  on  the  anterior  ; and  the  hinder 
especially  are  furnished  with  stiff  brush-like  bristles,  which  curve  over  the  toes  (a  structure  which  is 
also  seen  in  the  last  preceding  subdivisions).  The  general  aspect  resembles  that  of  the  Chinchilla 
group,  to  which  the  structure  of  the  lower  jaw  bears  also  some  resemblance  ; and  there  are  similar 
great  whiskers  on  the  upper  lip. 

But  one  species  fs  known  (C.  Massonii,  Gray),  from  North  Africa ; size  of  a Rat,  with  a short  tail,  and  pale 
yellowish-brown  fur,  of  very  fine  texture. 

The  foregoing  arrangement  of  the  extensive  series  of  Rodentia  is  by  no  means  reduced  to 
that  simplicity  which  we  conceive  will  ultimately  be  attained.  Mr.  Waterhouse,  who  has 
recently  studied  these  animals  very  attentively,  has  succeeded  in  detecting  several  unexpected 
affinities  which  tend  to  this  result : and  he  finds  that  the  most  useful  or  least  variable  charac- 
ters, indicative  of  the  mutual  relations  of  the  several  genera,  are  derivable  from  the  configura- 
tion of  the  cranium,  and  especially  that  of  the  lower  jaw.  The  space  allotted  in  this  work 
forbids  our  entering  into  details ; so  that  it  must  suffice  to  state  that,  in  general,  the  members 

Fig-.  48.— The  Chinchilla. 



of  the  first  grand  division  are  distinguished  by  having  the  inferior  projecting  angle  of  the 
lower  jaw  subquadrate,  and  not  tapering  to  an  acute  point.  In  this  group,  or  series,  range 
first  the  Sciuridce,  or  Squirrels  and  Marmots,  followed  by  the  Dormice,  and  next  by  the 
Jerboas,  which  latter  require  to  be  interpolated  between  the  Sciuridce , and  the  Muridoe  or 
Rats ; the  Jerboas  evincing  several  peculiar  points  of  relationship  with  the  Dormice  : the 
Arvicolidce,  or  Muskquash,  Voles,  and  Lemmings,  together  with  the  GuafFres  ( Geomys ), 
follow  the  Muridce,  and  then  succeed  two  isolated  genera, — Castor  and  Helamys,  which  seem 
to  constitute  particular  families  : all  these  successive  groups  being  readily  distinguishable  by 
the  structure  of  the  cranium  and  inferior  jaw,  combined  with  other  characters.  The  members 
of  the  next  great  group  have  the  inferior  angle  of  the  lower  jaw  acute,  and  usually  four  equal 
molars  on  each  side  above  and  below,  having  their  folds  of  enamel  gradually  more  complex. 
Abrocoma,  Octodon,  Poephagomys , Ctenomys , Capromys , Echymys,  Myopotamus,  Aulacodon, 
then  Hystrix  and  its  allies,  and  near  to  the  last  Ccelogenys  and  Dasyprocta , form  a very  intel- 
ligible series,  after  which  the  bony  palate  contracts  anteriorly,  and  we  arrive  at  the  Cavidce, 
or  Capyhara,  Moco,  and  Cavies,  succeeded  by  the  Chinchillidce,  and  lastly  by  the  Hares  and 
Pikas,  near  which  it  may  be  that  the  Ctenodactyle  holds  its  station.  In  the  terminal  genera, 
or  the  Leporidce,  the  angle  of  the  jaw  suddenly  ascends.  It  is  probable  that  multitudes  of 
existing  rodents  still  remain  to  be  discovered,  a knowledge  of  some  of  which  may  assist  in 
improving  the  general  arrangement.  But  few  have  hitherto  been  met  with  in  the  ancient 
tertiary  deposits,  and  those  of  genera  still  extant,  as  that  of  the  Dormice  in  particular.] 



Or  quadrupeds  without  teeth  in  the  fore-part  of  their  jaws,  constitute  our  last  principal  divi- 
sion of  unguiculated  animals.  Although  brought  together  by  a purely  negative  character, 
they  have,  nevertheless,  some  positive  mutual  relations,  particularly  in  the  great  claws  which 
encompass  the  ends  of  their  toes,  and  which  more  or  less  approximate  to  the  nature  of  hoofs ; 
also  by  a certain  slowness,  or  want  of  agility,  obviously  arising  from  the  peculiar  organization 
of  their  limbs.  There  are  certain  tolerably  well-marked  intervals,  however,  in  these  relations, 
which  subdivide  the  order  into  three  tribes. 

The  Tardigrada 

Compose  the  first  of  these  divisions.  They  have  a short  face.  The  name  refers  to  their 
excessive  slowness,  consequent  upon  a construction  truly  heteroclite,  in  which  nature  seems 
to  have  amused  herself  by  producing  something  imperfect  and  grotesque.  [A  most  strange 
assertion  on  the  part  of  Cuvier,  originating  from  a want  of  knowledge  of  the  peculiar  habits 
of  these  singular  animals.]  The  only  existing  genus  is  that  of 

The  Sloths  [as  they  are  badly  named]  ( Bradypus , Lin.), — 

Which  have  cylindrical  molars,  and  sharp  canines  longer  than  these  molars ; two  pectoral  mammae ; 
and  the  toes  completely  joined  by  the  skin,  and  only  marked  externally  by  enormous  compressed  and 
crooked  claws,  which,  when  at  rest,  are  always  bent  towards  the  palms,  or  soles,  of  the  fore  and  hind 
feet.  The  latter  are  obliquely  articulated  on  the  leg,  and  apply  only  their  outer  edge ; the  phalanges 
of  the  toes  are  articulated  by  serrated  ginglymi,  and  the  first,  at  a certain  age,  becomes  soldered  to 
the  metacarpal  or  metatarsal  hones,  which  also,  for  want  of  use,  become  similarly  anchylosed.  To  this 
inconvenience  [ ? ] in  the  organization  of  the  extremities  is  added  another,  not  less  great,  in  their 
proportions.  Their  arms  and  fore-arms  are  very  much  longer  than  their  thighs  and  legs,  insomuch 



that,  when  these  animals  advance  [on  the  ground],  they  are  obliged  to  drag  themselves  forward  on  their 
elbows.  The  pelvis  is  so  large,  and  the  thighs  so  much  directed  outwards,  that  they  cannot  approxi- 
mate their  knees.  Their  gait  is  the  necessary  consequence  of  so  disproportioned  [unusual]  a struc- 
ture.* These  animals  inhabit  trees,  and  never  remove  from  that  on  which  they  are  located  until  they  have 
stripped  it  of  every  leaf,  so  painful  to  them  is  the  requisite  exertion  to  reach  another ; it  is  even 
asserted  that  they  let  themselves  fall  from  a branch  to  avoid  the  labour  of  descending.  [The  truth  is, 
that  these  animals  are  modified  for  hanging  by  their  limbs  to  the  branches  of  trees,  instead  of  sup- 
porting themselves  upon  the  limbs  like  others  : in  this,  their  only  natural  posture,  they  are  by  no 
means  slow  in  their  movements ; and  they  inhabit  the  densely  intertangled  forests  of  South  America, 
where  hundreds  of  miles  may  be  traversed  by  passing  from  one  tree  to  another : clinging  by  the  hinder 
claws,  the  posterior  limbs  securely  embracing  the  bough,  and  generally  by  one  of  their  fore-limbs  also, 
they  employ  the  other  to  hook  towards  them  the  foliage  on  which  they  browze,  whence  the  great 
length  of  their  arms  : and  it  is  observed  that  in  more  open  places,  where  the  trees  are  less  contiguous, 
the  Sloths  take  advantage  of  windy  weather  to  effect  their  transits,  when  the  boughs  are  blown 
together  and  commingled.  Their  long  and  coarse  shaggy  hair  protects  them  from  insects  : and  in 
short,  as  is  well  remarked  by  Professor  Buckland,  the  peculiar  conformation  of  these  animals  ought  no 
more  to  excite  our  pity  and  compassion,  than  the  circumstance  of  fishes  being  deprived  of  legs.  They 
are  just  as  admirably  adapted  and  fitly  organized  for  their  appointed  singular  mode  of  life  as  any  other 
animal  whatever.]  The  female  produces  but  one  young  one  at  a birth,  which  she  carries  on  her  back. 

The  viscera  of  these  animals  are  not  less  singular  than  the  rest  of  their  conformation.  Their  stomach 
[of  enormous  size]  is  divided  into  four  compartments,  somewhat  analogous  to  the  four  stomachs  of 
the  ruminants,  but  without  leaflets  or  other  internal  projecting  parts  ; while  the  intestinal  canal  is 

short,  and  without  a ccecum. 

M.  F.  Cuvier  applies  the  name  Acheus  to  such  of  them  as  have  three  claws  on  their  fore-feet ; they 
have  a very  short  tail. 

The  Ai  ( Br . tridactylus,  Lin.)  is  the  species  in  which  all  the 
peculiarities  of  its  genus  are  developed  to  the  greatest  extent. 
Its  thumb  and  little  toe,  reduced  to  small  rudiments,  are 
concealed  by  the  skin,  and  soldered  to  the  metatarsus  and 
metacarpus  ; the  clavicle,  also,  reduced  to  a rudiment,  is  sol- 
dered to  the  acromion.  Its  arms  are  twice  as  long  as  its  legs ; 
the  hair  of  its  head,  back,  and  limbs  is  long,  coarse  and  un- 
elastic, hearing  some  resemblance  to  dried  grass,  which  gives 
it  a forbidding  aspect.  The  colour  is  greyish,  often  spotted 
with  brown  and  white,  [particularly  when  young].  Size  that 
of  a Cat.  It  is  the  only  known  mammalian  which  has  nine 
cervical  vertebrae  [the  fact  being,  that  the  eighth  and  ninth 
support  rudimental  ribs  (as  shown  at  Fig.  2,  p.  39),  and  are 
therefore  dorsal  vertebrae,  as  in  all  the  rest  of  the  class : the 
Fig.  49.— The  Ai,  or  Common  Sloth  more  complete  rotation  of  the  neck,  however,  thus  acquired 

by  this  extraordinary  animal,  having  an  obvious  reference  to  its  peculiar  habits].  Some  varieties  of  the  Ai  have 
been  described  as  separate  species,  differing  however  in  colour  only : but  the  Bradypus  torquatus , Geof.,  is  very 
distinct,  even  in  the  bony  structure  of  its  head. 

M.  F.  Cuvier  reserves  the  name  Bradypus  for  those  species  which  have  two  claws  only  on  their 
fore-feet  (the  Cholcupus,  Illig.).  Their  canines  are  longer  and  more  pointed,  and  they  are  quite  desti- 
tute of  tail.  We  know  but  of  one, 

The  Unau  (Br.  didactylus,  L.),  which  is  rather  less  unfortunately  ( malheureusemenf)  organized  than  the  Ai.  Its 
arms  are  shorter, Its  clavicles  complete ; there  are  fewer  bones  of  its  fore  and  hind  feet  which  become  soldered 
together.  Its  muzzle  is  more  elongated,  &c.  It  is  larger  by  one  half  than  the  Ai,  and  of  an  uniform  greyish- 
brown,  which  inclines  sometimes  to  reddish. 

These  two  animals  are  indigenous  to  the  hot  parts  of  America.  Were  it  not  for  their  stout  claws,  they  would 
probably  have  been  long  since  exterminated  by  the  Carnivora  of  that  country.  [The  lofty  canopy  from  which 
they  hang  is  beyond  the  reach  of  such  enemies.  In  their  affinities,  the  Sloths  are  closely  related  to  the 

* Sir  A.  Carlisle  has  observed  that  the  arteries  of  the  limbs  com- 
mence by  subdividing  into  numerous  ramifications,  which  afterwards 
re  unite  into  a single  trunk,  from  which  the  usual  branches  proceed. 
This  structure  being  also  met  with  in  the  Loris,  the  gait  of  which  is 
almost  equally  sluggish,  it  is  possible  that  it  may  exert  some  influence 
on  this  slowness  of  motion,  [It  occurs  also  in  the  Whale,  and  the 

generality  of  birds,  being  connected  rather  with  the  power  of  pro- 
tracting muscular  exertion.]  Independently  of  this,  the  Loris,  the 
Ourang-outang,  and  the  Coiate,  all  very  slow  animals,  are  remarkable 
for  the  length  of  their  arms.  [Still  more  so  are  the  Gibbons,  which 
are  distiuguished  for  the  agility  of  their  movements.] 



There  have  been  discovered  in  America  the  fossil  skeletons  of  two  animals  belonging  to  the  order 
Edentata  [and  lately  another  not  yet  named],  of  enormous  dimensions:  the  first  of  them,  the  Mega- 
therium, has  a head  very  similar  to  that  of  a Sloth,  hut  without  canines,  and  approximating  in  the  rest 
of  its  skeleton  partly  to  the  Sloths,  and  partly  to  the  Ant-eaters,  [most  of  all,  however,  to  the  minute 
Chlamyphorus,  having  even  been  covered  by  a similar  massive  buckler].  It  is  twelve  feet  long,  and 
six  or  seven  high.  The  other,  the  Megalonyx,  is  rather  less : its  toes  are  the  only  parts  that  are  well 
known,  and  they  strongly  resemble  those  of  the  other. 

The  second  tribe,  comprehending 

The  Ordinary  Edentata, — 

Have  the  muzzle  pointed.  They  have  still  molar  teeth,  and  are  divisible  into  two  genera. 

The  Armadillos  ( Basypus , Lin.) — 

Are  very  remarkable  among  the  Mammalia , for  the  scaly  and  hard  [bony]  shell,  composed  of  pave- 
ment-like  compartments,  which  covers  their  head  and  body,  and  often  the  tail.  This  substance  forms 
a shield  upon  their  forehead,  another  larger  and  more  convex  on  the  shoulders,  a third  on  the  crupper 

similar  to  the  preceding,  and  between  the  two 
latter  several  parallel  and  moveable  bands, 
which  allow  the  body  to  bend.  The  tail  is 
sometimes  furnished  with  successive  rings ; and 
at  others,  with  varied  tubercles,  like  the  legs. 
These  animals  have  [generally]  large  ears,  and 
also  great  claws,  either  five  or  four  anteriorly* 
and  always  five  to  their  hind-feet ; a some- 
what pointed  muzzle ; cylindrical  grinding 
teeth  separated  from  each  other,  to  the  num- 
ber of  seven  or  eight  on  each  side  of  both 
jaws,  and  without  enamel  on  the  inside ; a 
soft  tongue,  but  little  extensible ; and  there 
are  a few  scattered  hairs  between  their  scales, 
or  on  those  parts  of  the  body  not  covered  by  the  shell.  They  excavate  burrows,  and  subsist  partly  on 
vegetables,  and  partly  on  insects  and  carcases : their  stomach  is  simple,  and  there  is  no  ccecum.  All 
of  them  are  indigenous  to  the  warm  or  at  least  temperate  regions  of  South  America. 

They  may  be  arranged  into  subgenera,  according  to  the  structure  of  their  fore-feet  and  the  number 
of  their  teeth.  The  majority  have  only  four  toes  anteriorly,  of  which  the  medial  are  the  longest.  Of 
this  number  are 

The  Cachicames,  F.  Cuv., — 

Which  have  only  seven  teeth  on  each  side  of  both  jaws  ; a pointed  muzzle ; and  long  tail  encircled 
with  bony  rings.  Such  are 

The  Black  Armadillo  of  Azzara  ( D . novemcinctus,  Lin.),  with  nine  intermediate  bands,  and  sometimes  but 
eight ; also  the  Mule  Armadillo  of  the  same  naturalist  {D.  septemcinctus),  with  a shorter  tail  than  the  preceding. 

The  Aparas,  F.  Cuv., — 

Have  toes  the  same  as  in  the  Cachicames,  but  nine  or  ten  teeth  above  and  below. 

The  Apara  Armadillo  of  Azzara  (D.  tricinctus,  Lin.),  with  three  intermediate  bands,  and  a very  short  tail  plated 
with  regular  tuberculated  compartments.  By  enclosing  its  head  and  feet  within  its  armour,  this  species  is  enabled 
to  roll  itself  completely  into  a ball,  like  certain  Onisci.  It  inhabits  Brazil  and  Paraguay,  and  is  one  of  those  found 
farthest  to  the  south. 

Other  Armadillos, 

The  Encouberts,  F.  Cuv., — 

Have  five  toes  to  their  fore-feet,  of  which  the  three  medial  are  the  longest : their  tail  is  in  great  part 
covered  with  quincunx  scales,  and  their  teeth  are  nine  or  ten  in  number,  above  and  below.  In  this 
subdivision  ranges 



The  Encoubert  Armadillo,  Payou  of  Azzara,  (D.  sexcinctus  and  ociodecemcinctus , Lin.),  which  is  distinguished 
from  the  rest  of  the  genus  by  having  a tooth  on  each  side  fixed  in  the  intermaxillary  bone : its  coat  of  mail  has  six 
or  seven  bands,  with  smooth,  large,  and  angular  compartments  ; tail  middle-sized,  and  annulated  only  at  its  base. 
The  Pichiy  of  Azzara,  and  an  allied  species,  the  Hairy  Armadillo  ( Tatou  velu,  Az.),  resemble  the  Encoubert 
except  in  wanting  the  intermaxillary  teeth,  in  having  the  posterior  shell  denticulated,  and  the  parts  that  are  not 
plated  clad  with  longer  and  more  close-set  hairs. 

A third  principal  division  of  these  animals  exhibits  five  toes  to  the  fore-feet,  but  disposed  obliquely, 
so  that  the  thumb  and  index  are  slender,  the  latter  being  longest,  the  middle  one  bearing  an  enormous 
trenchant  claw,  the  next  having  a shorter  claw,  and  the  fifth  being  shortest  of  any.  This  structure 
enables  them  to  cut  up  the  ground,  and  burrow  very  rapidly,  or  at  any  rate  to  hold  on  so  firmly  to  the 
sides  of  their  excavation  as  to  be  very  difficult  to  detach.  In  this  subdivision,  or 

The  Cabassous, — 

There  are  eight  or  nine  teeth  on  each  side  of  both  jaws. 

The  Cabassou  propre,  Buff. ; Tatouay,  d’Azz. ; ( D . unicinctus , Lin.) — Twelve  intermediate  bands  ; the  tail  long 
and  tubercuiated ; the  compartments  of  the  bands  and  skin  are  square,  and  broader  than  long;  five  toes  before, 
of  which  four  are  furnished  with  enormous  claws,  trenchant  on  their  outer  border.  It  attains  a great  size. 

The  Priodontes,  F.  Cuv., — 

With  five  anterior  toes  still  more  unequal,  and  claws  even  exceeding  those  of  the  Cabassous,  possess 
twenty-two  or  twenty-four  small  teeth  on  each  side  above  and  below,  making  eighty-eight  or  ninety-six 
in  all.  Such  is 

The  Giant  Armadillo  ( D . gig  as,  Cuv.)— With  twelve  or  thirteen  intermediate  bands,  a long  tail  covered  with 
imbricated  scales,  the  compartments  of  which  are  square,  and  broader  than  long.  It  is  the  largest  species  of 
Armadillo,  being  sometimes  three  feet  in  length  without  the  tail. 

At  the  termination  of  the  Armadillos,  as  a very  distinct  subgenus,  [genus,  or  even  family,  to  which 
the  colossal  Megatherium  also  appertains] , may  be  placed 

The  Chlamyphores  ( Chlamyphorus , Har.), — 

Which  have  ten  teeth  on  each  side  of  both  jaws,  five  toes  on  each  foot,  the  anterior  claws  very  large, 
crooked,  compressed,  and  furnishing  (as  in  the  Cabassous)  a very  powerful  cutting  instrument  [adapted 
for  digging].  The  back  is  covered  with  a series  of  scaly  pieces,  arranged  transversely,  without  any 
solid  buckler  either  before  or  behind,  but  forming  a sort  of  cuirass,  which  is  only  connected  with  the 
body  along  the  spine.  The  hind  part  of  the  body  is  abruptly  truncated,  and  the  tail  incurved  and 
partially  attached  to  the  under  part  of  the  body  : [it  is  covered  with  small  scales,  and  expanded  at  the 
tip.  The  osteology  of  this  animal,  as  given  by  Mr.  Yarrell  ( Zool . Journ.,  No.  xii.),  is  considerably  allied 
to  that  of  the  Cabassous.  There  is  a singular  tuberosity  on  the  skull  over  each  eyebrow. 

We  know  but  of  one  (Chlamyphorus  truncatus,  Harlan),  only  five  or  six  inches  in  length ; it  is  a native  of  the 
interior  of  Chili,  where  it  passes  most  of  its  time  under  ground,  [and  is  either  very  rare  (perhaps  verging  towards 
extinction),  or  difficult  to  obtain  on  account  of  its  subterraneous  habits]. 

N.B.  There  have  been  found,  in  America,  some  fossil  bones  of  a gigantic  Armadillo,  which  appears  to  have  been 
about  ten  feet  long  exclusive  of  the  tail.  (See  my  Ossemens  Fossiles,  vol.  v.  part  1,  p.  191,  note.) 

The  Orycteropes  ( Orycteropus , Geof.) — 

Have  been  long  confounded  with  the  Ant-eaters,  inasmuch  as  they  subsist  on  the  same  food,  have  a 
similar-formed  head,  and  a tongue  which  is  somewhat  extensible ; but  they  are  distinguished  by  having 
grinding  teeth,  and  flat  claws,  adapted  for  burrowing  rather  than  for  cutting  open  ant-hills.  The 
structure  of  their  teeth  is  different  from  that  of  all  other  quadrupeds  ; they  are  solid  cylinders,  traversed, 
like  reeds,  in  a longitudinal  direction,  by  an  infinitude  of  little  canals.  The  stomach  is  simple,  and 
muscular  towards  its  outlet,  and  the  coecum  small  and  obtuse. 

Only  one  species  is  known  of  this  genus,  the  Cape  Orycterope  ( Myrmecophaga  capensis,  Pallas),  which  the 
Dutch  colonists  style  the  Ground  Hog.  It  is  an  animal  about  the  size  of  a Badger  or  larger,  low  upon  the  legs, 
with  scanty  greyish-brown  hair,  and  tail  shorter  than  the  body  and  as  little  clad.  It  inhabits  burrows,  which  it 
forms  with  extreme  rapidity  ; and  its  flesh  is  eaten. 

The  remaining  Edentata  possess  no  grinders  whatever,  and  consequently  have  no  teeth 
at  all.  There  are  two  genera. 



The  Ant-eaters  ( Myrmecophaga , Lin.) — 

Are  well  covered  with  hair,  have  a long  muzzle  which  terminates  by  a small  toothless  mouth,  from 
which  is  protruded  a filiform  tongue,  susceptible  of  considerable  elongation,  and  which  they  insinuate 
into  ant-hills  and  the  nests  of  the  Termites , whence  these  insects  are  withdrawn  by  being  entangled  in 
the  viscid  saliva  that  covers  it.  Their  fore-nails,  strong  and  trenchant,  which  vary  in  number  according 
to  the  species,  enable  them  to  tear  open  the  nests  of  the  Termites , and  also  furnish  them  with  effective 
means  of  defence.  When  at  rest,  these  nails  are  always  half-bent  inwards,  resembling  a callosity  of  the 
tarsus ; hence  these  animals  can  only  bring  the  side  of  the  foot  to  the  ground.  Their  stomach  is 
simple,  and  muscular  towards  its  outlet,  their  intestinal  canal  moderate,  and  without  a ccecum.* 

The  members  of  this  genus  are  peculiar  to  the  warm  and  temperate  regions  of  South  America,  and 
produce  but  one  young  at  a birth,  which  is  carried  on  the  back. 

The  Maned  or  Great  Ant-eater  (M.  jubata, 
Auct.),  upwards  of  four  feet  in  length,  with 
four  anterior  claws  and  five  hind  ones,  and  a 
tail  furnished  with  long  hairs  vertically  directed, 
both  above  and  beneath.  Its  colour  is  greyish- 
brown,  with  an  oblique  black  band  bordered  with 
white  on  each  shoulder.  It  is  the  largest  species 
of  Ant-eater ; and  stated  [but  erroneously]  to  de- 
fend itself  from  the  Jaguar.  It  inhabits  low  places, 
never  ascends  trees,  and  moves  slowly. 

The  Tamandua  (M.  tamandua,  Cuv. ; Myrm. 
tetradactyla  and  M.  tridactyla,  Lin.).— Figure 
and  feet  of  the  preceding,  but  not  half  the 
Fig.  51.— Great  Ant-eater.  size ; the  tail  scantily  furnished  with  hair,  and 

naked  and  prehensile  at  the  tip,  enabling  the  animal  to  suspend  itself  to  the  branches  of  trees.  Some  of  them  are 
of  a yellowish-grey,  with  an  oblique  band  on  the  shoulder,  that  is  only  visible  at  a certain  light ; others  are  fulvous 
with  a black  band ; some  fulvous,  with  the  band,  crupper,  and  belly  black ; and  others  again  black  altogether.  It 
is  not  yet  known  whether  these  differences  indicate  species. 

The  Two-toed  Ant-eater  {Myrm.  didactyla,  Lin.).— Size  of  a Rat,  with  fulvous  woolly  hair,  and  a russet  line  along 
the  back,  the  tail  prehensile  and  naked  at  the  tip,  and  only  two  claws  anteriorly,  one  of  them  very  large,  and  four 
to  the  hind-foot.  [Were  it  not  for  the  interposition  of  the  preceding  species,  it  is  doubtful  whether  the  author 
would  have  arranged  this  curious  little  animal  in  the  same  minimum  group  as  M.  jubata : it  has  been  sepa- 
rated by  some  naturalists ; and  its  close  affinity  with  the  Sloths  is  very  obvious.] 

The  Pangolins  ( Manis , Lin.), — 

Are  also  without  teeth,  have  an  extensile  tongue,  and  subsist  on  Ants  and  Termites  in  the  manner  of 
the  Tamanduas ; but  their  body,  limbs,  and  tail,  are  covered  with  large  trenchant  imbricated  scales, 
which  they  elevate  in  rolling  themselves  into  a ball,  when  they  wish  to  defend  themselves  against  an 
enemy.  All  their  feet  have  five  toes.  Their  stomach  is  slightly  divided  in  the  middle  part  of  it,  and 
they  have  no  coecum.  They  occur  only  in  the  ancient  Continent. 

[Four  or  five  species  are  now  ascertained,  inhabiting  Asia  and  Africa,  and  varying  from  three  to  five  feet  in 
length].  The  Short-tailed  Pangolin  {M.  pentadactyla,  Lin.),  is  the  Phattagen  of  ALlian.  An  unguinal  phalanx  has 
been  found,  in  the  Palatinate,  of  a Pangolin  that  must  have  been  twenty  feet  long,  or  more.  (See  Cuv.,  Oss.  foss. 
vol.  v.  part  1,  p.  193.) 

The  third  tribe  of  Edentata  comprehends  animals  which  M.  GeofFroy  designates 


On  account  of  their  having  but  one  external  opening~for  all  their  excretions.  Their  genera- 
tive organs  present  extraordinary  anomalies  : though  without  a ventral  pouch,  they  have 
nevertheless  the  same  supernumerary  bones  to  the  pubis  as  the  Marsupiata  j the  vasa  defe- 
rentia  terminate  in  the  urethra,  which  opens  into  the  cloaca ; the  penis,  when  retracted,  is 
drawn  into  a sheath,  which  opens  by  an  orifice  near  the  termination  of  the  cloaca.  The  only 
matrix  consists  of  two  canals  or  trunks,  each  of  which  opens  separately  and  by  a double 
orifice  into  the  urethra,  which  is  very  large,  and  terminates  in  the  cloaca.  As  yet  naturalists 
are  not  agreed  as  to  the  existence  of  their  mammeef;  nor  whether  these  animals  are  viviparous 

* Daubenton  has  described  two  small  appendages  in  the  M.  di-  ] + M.  Meckel  considers  as  such  two  glandular  masses  which  he 

dactyla,  which,  in  strictness,  may  be  considered  as  coeca.  I have  I found  greatly  developed  in  a female  Ornithurynchus.  These  M.  Geof- 
satislied  myself,  however,  that  they  do  not  exist  in  M.  tamandua.  I froy  deems  to  be  rathe'  glands,  analogous  to  those  on  the  flank's  of  the 



or  oviparous.*  The  singularities  of  their  skeleton  are  not  less  remarkable ; there  being  a sort 
of  clavicle  common  to  both  shoulders,  placed  before  the  ordinary  clavicle,  and  analogous  to 
the  furcula  of  birds.  Lastly,  in  addition  to  five  claws  on  each  foot,  the  males  have  a peculiar 
spur  on  the  hind  ones,  perforated  by  a canal  which  transmits  a liquid  secreted  by  a gland 
situated  on  the  inner  surface  of  the  thigh  : it  is  asserted  that  the  wounds  it  inflicts  are 
venomous.f  These  animals  have  no  external  conch  to  the  ear,  and  their  eyes  are  very  small. 

The  Monotremes  are  found  only  in  New  Holland,  where  they  have  been  discovered  since 
the  settlement  of  the  English.  There  are  two  genera  known. 

The  Echidnas  ( Echidna , Cuv. ; Tachyglossus,  Illig. : sometimes  called  Spiny  Ant-eaters ). 

The  elongated  slender  muzzle  of  these  animals,  terminated  by  a small  mouth,  and  containing  an  exten- 
sile tongue,  resembles  that  of  the  Ant-eaters  and  Pangolins,  and  like  them,  they  feed  on  Ants.  They 
have  no  teeth,  but  their  palate  is  provided  with  several  ranges  of  small  spines,  directed  backwards. 
Their  short  feet  have  each  five  long  and  very  stout  claws,  fitted  for  burrowing ; and  all  the  upper  part 
of  their  body  is  covered  with  spines,  as  in  a Hedgehog,  [but  much  larger  and  more  powerful].  It 
appears  that  in  the  moment  of  danger,  they  have  also  the  faculty  of  rolling  themselves  into  a ball. 
The  tail  is  verv  short ; stomach  ample  and  nearly  globular,  and  the  coecum  of  middle  size. 

Two  species  have  been  discovered,— the  Spiny  Echidna 
(E.  hystrix),  completely  covered  with  large  spines,— and 
the  Bristly  Echidna  ( E . setosa),  covered  with  hair, 
among  which  the  spines  are  half-hidden.  Some  con- 
sider the  difference  as  only  arising  from  age. 

The  Duckbills  ( Ornithorynchus , Blumenbach  ; 
. Platypus,  Shaw). 

Muzzle  elongated,  and  at  the  same  time  singularly 
enlarged  and  flattened,  presenting  the  greatest  ex- 
ternal resemblance  to  the  bill  of  a Duck,  and  the 
more  so  as  its  edges  are  similarly  furnished  with 
rig.  52  —Echidna  small  transverse  laminae.  They  have  no  teeth  ex- 

cept at  the  bottom  of  the  mouth,  where  there  are  two  on  each  side  of  both  jaws,  without  roots,  with 
flat  crowns,  and  composed,  as  in  the  Orycterope,  of  small  vertical  tubes.  Their  fore-feet  have  a 
membrane  which  not  only  connects  the  toes,  but  extends  beyond  the  claws : in  the  hinder,  the  mem- 
brane reaches  only  to  the  base  of  the  claws  ; two  characters  which,  in  addition  to  their  flattened  tail, 
indicate  aquatic  habits.  Their  tongue  is  to 
a certain  extent  double ; one  in  the  bill  beset 
with  villosities ; and  another  at  the  base  of 
the  first,  thicker,  and  furnished  anteriorly 
with  two  little  fleshy  points.  The  stomach 
is  small,  oblong,  and  has  its  outlet  near 
the  entrance ; coecum  small ; and  there  are 
numerous  salient  and  parallel  laminae  in  the 
course  of  the  intestines.  The  penis  has  only 
two  tubercles.  These  animals  inhabit  the 
rivers  and  marshes  of  New  Holland,  and 
particularly  the  neighbourhood  of  Port 

Jackson.  Fig.  53,—The  Ornithorynchus. 

Two  species  only  are  known,  one  with  smooth  and  thin  reddish  fur  (O.  paradoxus,  Blum.) ; the  other  with 
blackish-brown  fur,  flat,  and  somewhat  frizzled.  These  are  perhaps  only  varieties  of  age. 

Shrews.  [Prof.  Owen  has  since  demonstrated  them  to  be  mammary, 
although  these  animals  (like  the  true  Cetacea)  have  no  teats  or  nip- 
ples, the  lacteal  secretion  transuding  by  a number  of  minute  pores.] 

• Travellers  have  lately  asserted,  that  they  have  been  ascertained 
to  produce  eggs.  Should  this  prove  to  be  the  case,  the  Monotremes 
must,  in  some  sort,  be  considered  as  a particular  class  of  animals  ; but 
it  is  much  to  be  wished,  that  some  competent  anatomist  would  minutely 
describe  these  eggs,  their  internal  origin,  and  their  developement 
after  .exclusion.  [Prof.  Owen  has  since  conclusively  shown  that  the 

Monotremata  are  not  oviparous,  but  must  resemble  in  their  repro- 
duction the  Marsupiata.  The  young  have  never  yet  been  met  with 
attached  to  the  mammae  of  their  dam,  but  from  the  structure  of  the 
beak  in  very  young  Ornithorhynci,  which  have  been  found  in  the 
burrows,  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  mouth  forms,  at  first,  a 
suctorial  disk,  adapted  to  hold  on  an  even  flat  surface.] 

f There  is  reason  to  suspect  that  this  statement  is  without  founda- 
tion, as  the  animals  never  attempt  to  employ  the  spur  as  a weapon  of 
defence. — Ed. 






The  Edentata  terminate  the  series  of  unguiculated  Mammalia , and  we  have  just  seen  that 
there  are  some  of  them  with  claws  so  large,  and  so  enveloping  the  ends  of  the  toes,  as  to 
approximate  to  the  nature  of  hoofs.  Nevertheless,  they  have  still  the  faculty  of  bending 
these  toes  round  various  objects,  and  of  seizing  with  more  or  less  force.  The  entire  absence 
of  this  faculty  characterizes  the  hoofed  animals.  Using  their  feet  only  as  supports,  they  in  no 
instance  possess  clavicles.  Their  fore-arms  remain  constantly  in  the  state  of  pronation, 
whence  they  are  reduced  to  feed  on  vegetables.  Their  forms  and  mode  of  life  present  there- 
fore much  less  variety  than  in  the  unguiculated  animals,  and  they  can  hardly  be  divided  into 
more  than  two  orders, — those  which  ruminate,  and  those  which  do  not ; but  the  latter,  which 
we  bring  together  under  the  general  term  Pachydermata,  admits  of  some  subdivision  into 

The  first  is  that  of  the  Pachyderms,  which  have  a proboscis  and  tusks,  or  the 

Probqscidea,* — 

Which  are  distinguished  by  having  five  toes  to  each  foot,  very  complete  in  the  skeleton,  but 
so  enveloped  by  the  callous  skin  which  surrounds  the  foot,  that  their  only  external  appearance 
consists  in  the  nails  attached  to  the  extremity  of  this  species  of  hoof.  They  have  no  canines, 
nor  incisors  properly  speaking ; but  in  the  incisive  [or  intermaxillary]  bones  are  implanted 
two  defensive  tusks,  which  project  from  the  mouth,  and  frequently  attain  enormous  dimen- 
sions. The  magnitude  of  the  sockets  necessary  to  hold  these  tusks  renders  the  upper  jaw  so 
high,  and  so  shortens  the  bones  of  the  nose,  that  the  nostrils  in  the  skeleton  are  placed  near 
the  top  of  the  face  : but  in  the  living  animal  they  are  prolonged  into  a cylindrical  trunk, 
composed  of  several  thousands  of  small  muscles  variously  interlaced,  flexible  in  all  directions, 
endowed  with  exquisite  sensibility,  and  terminated  by  an  appendage  like  a finger.  This  trunk 
imparts  to  the  Elephant  as  much  address  as  the  perfection  of  the  hand  does  to  the  Monkey. 
It  enables  him  to  seize  whatever  he  wishes  to  convey  to  his  mouth,  and  sucks  up  the  water 
he  is  to  drink,  which,  by  the  flexure  of  this  admirable  organ,  is  then  poured  into  the  throat, 
thus  supplying  the  want  of  a long  neck,  which  could  not  have  supported  so  large  a head  with 
its  heavy  tusks.  Within  the  parietes  of  the  cranium,  however,  are  several  great  cavities, 
which  render  the  head  lighter  : the  lower  jaw  [except  in  a fossil  genus  when  immature,]  has 
no  incisors  whatever ; the  intestines  are  very  voluminous ; the  stomach  simple ; ccecum 
enormous ; the  mammae,  two  in  number,  placed  under  the  chest.  The  young  suck  with  the 
mouth  and  not  with  the  trunk.  Only  one  living  genus  exists,  that  of 

The  Elephants  ( Elephas , Lin.), — 

Which  comprehends  the  largest  of  terrestrial  Mammalia.  The  astonishing  services  performed  by  their 
trunk,  an  instrument  at  once  supple  and  vigorous,  an  organ  both  of  touch  and  smell,  contrast  forcibly 
with  the  clumsy  aspect  and  massive  proportions  of  these  animals  ; and  being  conjoined  to  a very 
imposing  physiognomy,  have  contributed  to  exaggerate  their  intellect.  After  studying  them  for  a long 
time,  we  have  not  found  it  to  surpass  that  of  the  Dog,  or  of  several  other  Cam, aria.  Naturally  of  a 
mild  disposition,  Elephants  live  in  troops  conducted  by  the  old  males.  They  subsist  wholly  on 

Their  distinctive  character  consists  in  the  grinders,  the  bodies  of  which  are  composed  of  a certain 
number  of  vertical  laminae,  each  formed  of  a bony  substance,  enveloped  with  enamel,  and  cemented 

* The  Proboscideans  have  various  affinities  with  certain  Rodents  ; . grinders  being  often  formed  of  parallel  laminae  ; 3rdly,  in  the  form  of 
lstly,  in  the  magnitude  of  their  incisors  [tusks]  ; 2ndly,  in  their  | several  of  their  bones,  &c. 


together  by  a third  substance,  termed  the  cortical;  in  a word,  similar  to  those  we  have  already  seen 
in  the  Cavies,  and  some  other  Rodents.  These  grinders  succeed  each  other  not  vertically,  as  our 
permanent  teeth  replace  the  milk  teeth,  but  from  behind  forwards,  so  that  as  fast  as  one  tooth  becomes 
worn,  it  is  pushed  forward  by  that  which  comes  after  it  ; hence  it  happens  that  the  Elephant  has 
sometimes  one,  sometimes  two  grinders  on  each  side,  or  four  or  eight  in  all,  according  to  its  age.  The 
first  of  these  teeth  is  always  composed  of  fewer  laminae  than  those  which  succeed  them.  It  is  stated  that 
certain  Elephants  thus  change  their  molars  eight  times  : their  tusks,  however,  are  changed  but  once. 

The  Elephants  of  the  present  day,  covered  with  a rough  skin  nearly  destitute  of  hair,  inhabit  only 
the  torrid  zone  of  the  ancient  Continent,  where  hitherto  but  two  species  have  been  discovered. 

The  Asiatic  Elephant  ( E . indicus,  Cuv.).— Head  oblong,  with  a concave  forehead ; the  crown  of  the  grinders 
presenting  transverse  undulating  ridges  ( rubans)y  which  are  sections  of  the  laminae  which  compose  them,  worn 
down  by  trituration.  This  species  has  smaller  ears  than  the  next  one,  and  has  four  nails  to  the  hind  foot.  It  is 
found  from  the  Indus  to  the  Eastern  Ocean,  and  in  the  large  islands  to  the  south  of  India.  From  time  immemo- 
rial this  species  has  been  employed  as  a beast  of  draught  and  burden ; but  has  never  yet  propagated  in  captivity, 
though  the  assertion  respecting  its  modesty  and  repugnance  to  copulate  before  witnesses  is  utterly  devoid  of 
foundation.  The  females  have  very  short  tusks,  and  in  this  respect  many  of  the  males  resemble  them. 

The  African  Elephant  ( E . africanus , Cuv.).— Head  round,  with  a convex  forehead;  very  large  ears;  and  grinders 
presenting  lozenge-shaped  eminences  on  their  crowns.  It  appears  to  have  often  only  three  toes  on  the  hind-foot. 
This  species  inhabits  from  Senegal  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  Whether  they  ascend  the  eastern  coast  of  Africa, 

or  are  replaced  there  by  the  Asiatic  species,  is  not  yet 
ascertained.  The  tusks  of  the  female  are  as  large  as 
those  of  the  male,  and  the  weapon  itself  is  generally 
larger  than  in  the  preceding.  This  animal  is  not 
now  tamed  in  Africa,  though  it  appears  that  the  Car- 
thaginians employed  it  in  the  same  way  that  the 
inhabitants  of  India  do  theirs. 

In  nearly  every  part  of  the  two  Continents,  are 
found,  under  ground,  the  bones  of  a species  of  Ele- 
phant allied  to  that  of  India,  but  the  grinders  of 
which  bear  straighter  and  narrower  eminences,  the 
sockets  for  the  reception  of  the  tusks  are  much  longer, 
and  the  lower  jaw  is  more  obtuse.  A specimen  re- 
cently taken  from  the  ice  on  the  coast  of  Siberia,  by 
Mr.  Adams,  appears  to  have  been  densely  covered 
with  hair  of  two  kinds,  so  that  it  is  possible  that  this 
species  may  have  lived  in  cold  climates.  It  [is  termed 
the  Mammoth  Elephant  ( E . primogenius , Cuv.),  and] 
has  long  been  quite  extinct. 

Fig.  54.— Mammoth  Skeleton. 

The  second  genus  of  Proboscideans,  or  that  of 

The  Mastodons  ( Mastodon , Cuv.), — 

Has  been  quite  destroyed,  no  species  of  it  being  now  alive.  They  had  the  feet,  tusks,  trunk,  and  many 
other  details  of  conformation  the  same  as  the  Elephants  ; but  their  grinding  teeth  differed  in  having 
large  conical  tubercles  above  the  gum,  which,  by  detrition,  were  reduced  to  disks  of  various  size,  that 
represent  sections  of  the  tubercles,  (a  conformation  common  to  the  Mastodon,  Hippopotamus,  Pig, 
&c.,  which  has  induced  the  erroneous  idea  that  the  first  were  carnivorous).  These  grinders,  which 
succeeded  each  other  from  behind  as  in  the  Elephants,  present  also  so  many  pairs  of  points,  as  the 
animal  was  advanced  in  age.  [There  are  small  tusks  in  the  lower  jaw  of  the  immature  Mastodon,  in 
which  state  it  is  the  Tetracaulodon  of  Godman.] 

The  Great  Mastodon  ( M . giganteum,  Cuv.),  in  which  the  tubercles  were  lozenge-shaped,  is  the  species  most  cele- 
brated. It  equalled  the  Elephant  in  size,  but  with  still  heavier  proportions.  Its  remains  are  found  in  a wonderful 
state  of  preservation,  and  in  great  abundance  through  all  parts  of  North  America  * : in  the  Eastern  Continent 
they  are  of  much  rarer  occurrence. 

Narrow-toothed  Mastodon  (M.  angustidens).— Much  narrower  grinders  than  the  preceding,  the  tubercles  of 
which,  when  worn  down,  present  trefoil-shaped  discs,  whence  they  have  been  mistaken  by  some  authors  for  the 
grinders  of  the  Hippopotamus.  This  species  was  one-third  less  than  the  Great  Mastodon,  and  much  lower  on  the 
legs.  [Two  or  three  have  been  confounded  under  its  name.]  Its  teeth,  in  certain  places,  tinged  with  iron,  become 
of  a fine  blue  when  heated,  forming  what  is  called  the  “ oriental  turquoise.” 

• An  almost  perfect  skeleton,  made  up  however  of  the  bones  of  different  individuals,  found  in  the  celebrated  deposit  of  “ Big-boue  lick,”  is 
mounted  in  the  Museum  of  Philadelphia. — Ed. 




Our  second  family  is  that  of  the 

Pachydermata  Ordinaria, — 

Which  have  four,  three,  or  two  toes  to  their  feet.  Those  in  which  the  toes  make  even  num- 
bers have  feet  somewhat  cleft,  and  approximate  the  Ruminants  in  various  parts  of  the 
skeleton,  and  even  in  the  complication  of  the  stomach.  They  are  usually  divided  into  two 

The  Hippopotami  ( Hippopotamus , Lin.) — 

Have  four  nearly  equal  toes  to  each  foot,  terminated  by  little  hoofs  ; six  grinders  on  each  side  of  both 
jaws,  the  three  anterior  of  which  are  conical,  the  posterior  presenting  two  pairs  of  points,  which,  by 
detrition,  assume  a trefoil  shape  ; four  incisors  above  and  below,  those  of  the  upper  jaw  short,  conical, 
and  recurved,  the  inferior  prolonged,  cylindrical,  pointed,  and  horizontally  projecting ; a canine  tooth 
on  each  side  above  and  below,  the  upper  straight,  the  lower  very  large  and  recurved,  those  of  the  two 
jaws  rubbing  against  each  other. 

These  animals  have  a very  massive  body,  naked  of  hair;  very  short  legs,  their  belly  almost 
touching  the  ground ; an  enormous  head,  terminated  by  a swoln  muzzle,  which  encloses  the  apparatus 
of  their  large  front  teeth ; a short  tail,  and  small  eyes  and  ears.  Their  stomach  is  divided  into  several 
sacs.  They  live  in  rivers,  upon  roots  and  other  vegetable  substances,  and  display  much  ferocity  and 

One  living  species  only  is  known,  the  H.  amphibius,  Lin.,  now  confined  to  the  rivers  of  medial  and  south 
Africa.  It  formerly  found  its  way  to  Egypt  by  the  Nile,  but  has  long  disappeared  from  that  country. 

The  European  freshwater  deposits  contain  the  bones  of  a species  of  Hippopotamus  very  similar  to  that  of 
Africa,  and  also  of  two  or  three  others  successively  smaller.  (See  my  Researches  on  Fossil  Bones,  voi.  i .} 

The  Pigs  ( Sus , Lin.) — 

Have  two  large  middle  toes  to  each  foot,  armed  with  strong  hoofs,  and  two  much  shorter  lateral  ones 
that  hardly  touch  the  ground.  Their  incisors  vary  in  number,  but  the  inferior  always  slant  forward  ; 
the  canines  project  from  the  mouth  and  curve  upward : muzzle  terminated  by  a truncated  snout 
adapted  to  turn  up  the  soil,  and  stomach  but  slightly  divided. 

The  Pigs,  properly  so  called, — 

Have  from  twenty-four  to  twenty-eight  grinders,  the  posterior  of  which  are  oblong,  with  tuberculated 
crowns,  the  anterior  more  or  less  compressed,  and  six  incisors  to  each  jaw. 

The  Wild  Boar  ( Sus  scropha,  Lin.),  which  is  the  parent  stock  of  our  Domestic  Hog  and  its  varieties,  has  pris- 
matic tusks  that  curve  outward  and  slightly  upward  ; the  body  stout  and  thick ; straight  ears ; the  hair  bristly 
and  black : the  young  ones  are  variegated  black  and  white.  It  does  great  injury  to  fields  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  forests,  by  tearing  up  the  ground  in  search  of  roots. 

The  Domestic  Pig  varies  in  size  and  length  of  limbs,  in  the  direction  of  its  ears,  and  also  in  colour ; being  white 
or  black,  sometimes  red,  and  often  varied.  Every  one  is  acquainted  with  the  usefulness  of  this  animal,  on  account 
of  the  flavour  of  its  flesh,  and  the  length  of  time  it  can  be  preserved  by  means  of  salt ; the  facility  with  which  it  is 
fed  ; and  its  great  fecundity,  which  surpasses  that  of  all  other  animals  of  its  size,  the  female  often  producing 
fourteen  young  at  a litter.  The  period  of  gestation  is  four  months,  and  they  produce  twice  a year.  The  Hog 
continues  to  increase  in  size  for  five  or  six  years,  is  prolific  at  one,  and  sometimes  lives  to  twenty.  Although 
naturally  savage,  they  are  social,  both  wild  and  tame,  and  know  how  to  defend  themselves  against  Wolves,  by 
forming  a circle,  and  presenting  a front  in  every  direciion.  Voracious  and  savage,  they  do  not  even  spare  their 
own  young,  [at  least,  if  the  parent  be  disturbed  soon  after  their  birth].  This  species  is  spread  throughout  the 
globe,  and  none  but  Jews  and  Mahometans  refuse  to  eat  its  flesh.  [It  appears  to  be  indigenous  only,  however,  to 
Europe  and  Asia,  extending  to  the  Peninsula  of  Hindostan : the  Chinese  breed  is  probably  a distinct  species, 
though  it  commingles  freely  with  the  other.] 

The  Masked  Boar  (S.  larvatus,  F.  Cuv. ; S.  africanus,  Schreber ; Sanglier  de  Madagascar,  Daub.) — Tusks  like 
the  Common  Hog ; but  on  each  side  of  the  muzzle,  near  the  tusks,  is  a large  tubercle,  somewhat  like  the  nipple  of 
a woman,  supported  by  a bony  prominence,  which  imparts  a singular  physiognomy  to  the  animal.  It  inhabits 
Madagascar  and  the  south  of  Africa. 

The  Babyroussa  ( Sus  babyrussa , Buff.  Supp.)— Longer  and  more  slender  legs  than  the  others,  with  slender  tusks 
turned  vertically  upwards,  those  of  the  upper  jaw  inclining  spirally  backward.  It  inhabits  several  islands  of  the 
Indian  Archipelago.  [The  Papuan  Hog  ( S . papuensis)  is  another  distinct  species  from  New  Guinea.] 

From  the  Pigs  require  to  be  separated 



The  Wart-hogs  ( Phascochceres , F.  Cuv.), — 

The  grinders  of  which  are  composed  of  cylinders,  cemented  together  by  a cortical  substance,  almost 
like  the  transverse  laminae  of  the  Elephant,  and  like  them  succeeding  each  other  from  behind.  Their 
skull  is  singularly  large,  the  tusks  rounded,  directed  laterally  upward,  and  of  a frightful  magnitude  ; 
and  on  each  of  their  cheeks  hangs  a thick  fleshy  lobe,  which  completes  the  hideousness  of  their 
aspect.  They  have  but  two  incisors  above  and  six  below. 

The  individuals  received  from  Cape  Verd  (S.  africanus , Gm.)  have  generally  the  incisive  teeth  complete ; those 
which  arrive  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  (S.  <ethiopicus,  Gm.)  scarcely  show  any  trace  of  them,  although  vestiges 
are  sometimes  found  within  the  gum.  This  difference  may  perhaps  arise  from  age,  which  has  worn  down  the  teeth 
of  the  latter,  or  it  may  indicate  a specific  diversity,  the  more  especially  as  the  heads  of  those  from  the  Cape  are 
rather  larger  and  shorter. 

There  is  still  better  reason  to  separate  from  the  genus  of  Pigs — 

The  Peccaries  (. Dycoteles , Cuv.), — 

Which  have  certainly  grinders  and  incisors  very  like  those  of  the  Pigs  properly  so  called,  but  their 
canines,  directed  as  in  the  generality  of  the  class,  do  not  project  from  the  mouth,  besides  which  they 
want  the  external  toe  to  their  hind-feet.  They  have  no  tail,  and  upon  the  loins  is  a glandular  opening 
from  which  a fetid  humour  exudes.  The  metacarpal  and  metatarsal  bones  of  their  two  great  toes  are 
soldered  into  a kind  of  cannon-bone,  as  in  the  Ruminants ; with  which  their  stomach,  also,  divided  into 
several  sacs,  presents  a marked  analogy.  It  is  a singular  fact,  that  the  aorta  of  these  animals  is  often 
found  very  much  enlarged,  but  not  always  in  the  same  part,  as  if  they  were  subject  to  a kind  of 

There  are  two  species  known,  both  inhabitants  of  South  America,  which  were  first  distinguished  by  Azzara. 
Linnaeus  confounded  them  together  under  the  name  of  Sus  tajassu. 

The  Collared  Peccary  (D.  torquatus , Cuv.).— Hair  annulated  grey  and  brown;  a whitish  collar,  stretching 
obliquely  from  the  angle  of  the  lower  jaw  over  the  shoulder.  Size  half  that  of  the  Wild  Boar. 

The  White-lipped  Peccary  ( D . labiatus , Cuv.). — Larger ; and  brown,  with  white  lips. 

Here  may  be  placed  a genus  now  unknown  among  existing  animals,  which  we  have  discovered,  and 

Anoplotherium,  Cuv., — 

And  which  presents  the  most  singular  relations  with  the  different  tribes  of  Pachydermata,  ap- 
proximating, in  some  respects,  to  the  order  Ruminantia.  Six  incisors  to  each  jaw,  four  canines 
almost  similar  to  the  incisors  and  of  even  length  with  them,  and  seven  molars  on  each  side  above  and 
below,  form  a continuous  series  without  any  intervening  space,  a disposition  of  the  teeth  seen  elsewhere 
in  Man  only.  The  four  posterior  molars  on  each  side  resemble  those  of  the  Rhinoceroses,  the  Damans, 
and  Palaeotheriums ; that  is  to  say,  they  are  square  above,  and  form  double  or  triple  crescents  below. 
The  feet,  terminated  by  two  great  toes,  as  in  the  Ruminants,  are  yet  different  in  the  circumstance  of 
the  metacarpal  and  metatarsal  bones  remaining  always  separated,  or  being  never  united  into  a cannon- 
bone.  The  construction  of  their  tarsus  is  the  same  as  in  the  Camel. 

The  bones  of  this  genus  have  hitherto  only  been  found  in  the  gypsum  quarries  near  Paris.  We  have  already 
recognized  five  species  : one  the  size  of  a small  Ass,  with  the  low  form  and  long  tail  of  an  Otter  (A.  commune,  Cuv.), 
the  fore-feet  of  which  have  a small  internal  accessory  toe ; another  of  the  size  and  slender  form  of  the  Gazelle 
(A.  medium)-,  a third  no  bigger  and  with  nearly  the  same  proportions  as  a Hare,  with  two  accessory  toes  to  the 
6ides  of  its  hind-feet,  &c.  (See  my  Ossemens  fossiles,  tom.  iii.) 

The  ordinary  Pachydermata  which  have  not  cloven  feet  comprehend,  m the  first  place, 
three  genera,  the  molar  teeth  of  which  are  very  similar,  there  being  seven  on  each  side  with 
square  crowns,  and  various  prominent  lines,  and  seven  in  the  lower  jaw,  the  crowns  of  which 
form  double  crescents,  and  the  last  of  all  a triple  one : their  incisors,  however,  vary. 

The  Rhinoceroses  {Rhinoceros,  Lin.) — 

In  this  respect  differ  from  one  another.  They  are  large  animals,  with  each  foot  divided  into  three  toes, 
and  the  nasal  bones  of  which,  very  thick  and  united  into  a kind  of  arch,  support  a solid  horn,  which 
adheres  to  the  skin,  and  is  composed  of  a fibrous  and  horny  substance,  resembling  agglutinated  hairs. 

K 2 



They  are  naturally  stupid  and  ferocious  ; frequent  marshy  places ; subsist  on  herbage  and  the  branches 
of  trees ; have  a simple  stomach,  very  long  intestines,  and  great  ccecum. 

The  Indian  Rhinoceros  ( Rh . indicus,  Cuv.).— In  addition  to  its  twenty-eight  grinders,  this  species  has  two  stout 
incisive  teeth  in  each  jaw,  together  with  two  other  intermediate  smaller  ones  below,  and  two  still  more  diminutive 
outside  of  its  upper  incisors.  It  has  only  one  horn,  and  its  skin  is  remarkable  for  the  deep  folds  into  which  it  is 
thrown  behind  and  across  the  shoulders,  and  before  and  across  the  thighs.  It  inhabits  the  East  Indies,  and 
chiefly  beyond  the  Ganges. 

The  Javanese  Rhinoceros  ( Rh.javanus , Cuv.), — with  the  great  incisors  and  single  horn  of  the  preceding,  has 
fewer  folds  in  the  skin,  though  one  of  them  on  the  neck  is  larger ; and,  what  is  remarkable,  the  entire  skin  is 
covered  with  square  angular  tubercles,  [as  is  also  the  case,  to  a partial  extent,  in  the  preceding ; from  which  it 
further  differs  in  having  a comparatively  slender  head]. 

The  Sumatran  Rhinoceros  (Rh.  sumatrensis , Cuv.),— with  the  same  four  great  incisors  as  the  foregoing,  has  no 
folds  to  the  skin,  which  is  besides  hairy,  and  there  is  a second  horn  behind  the  first. 

The  African  Rhinoceros  (Rh.  africanus,  Cuv.)  [or  rather  Rhinoceroses,  three  species  of  them  being  now  ascer- 
tained].— Two  horns  as  in  the  preceding ; and  no  folds  of  the  skin,  nor  any  incisor  teeth,  the  molars  occupying 
nearly  the  whole  length  of  the  jaw.  This  deficiency  of  incisors  might  warrant  a separation  from  the  others.  [The 
Great  Rhinoceros  (Rh.  simus,  Burchell),  which  considerably  exceeds  in  size  any  of  the  others,  is  further  distin- 
guished by  its  pale  colour,  its  very  long  and  straight  anterior  horn,  and  remarkably  short  hind  one,  and  particu- 
larly by  the  form  of  its  upper  lip,  which  is  not  capable  of  elongation,  and  a certain  degree  of  prehension,  as  in  all 
the  others  : it  is  the  most  gregarious  of  any,  and  also  the  most  inoffensive,  frequenting  the  open  karoos.  The 
common  Cape  Rhinoceros  (Rh.  africanus  or  capensis)  is  darker,  with  also  unequal  horns,  the  posterior  being 
shorter ; and  the  Ketloa  Rhinoceros  (Rh.  ketloa),  recently  discovered  by  Dr.  Smith,  is  an  animal  of  solitary  habits, 
with  horns  of  equal  length,  reputed  to  exceed  the  rest  in  ferocity.*] 

There  have  been  found,  under  ground,  in  Siberia  and  different  parts  of  Germany,  the  bones  of  a double-horned 
Rhinoceros,  the  skull  of  which,  besides  being  much  more  elongated  than  in  any  known  existing  species,  is  further 
distinguished  by  a bony  vertical  partition  that  supported  the  bones  of  the  nose.  It  is  an  extinct  animal ; but  of 
which  a carcase,  almost  entire,  exposed  by  the  thawing  of  the  ice  on  the  banks  of  the  Vilhoui  in  Siberia,  showed 
to  have  been  covered  with  tolerably  thick  hair.  It  is  possible,  therefore,  that  it  inhabited  northern  climates,  like 
the  fossil  Elephant. 

More  recently  there  have  been  disinterred,  in  Tuscany  and  Lombardy,  other  Rhinoceros  bones,  which  appear 
to  have  belonged  to  a species  allied  to  the  African.  Some  have  been  found,  in  Germany,  with  incisors  like  the 
Asiatic  species  ; and  lastly,  there  have  been  discovered,  in  France,  the  bones  of  one  which  announce  a size  scarcely 
larger  than  a Pig.  [It  appears  that  several  of  the  fossil  species  were  destitute  of  the  nasal  horn.] 

The  Damans  (Hyrax,  Hermann) — 

Were  long  placed  among  the  Rodentia , on  account  of  their  very  small  size ; but,  on  examining 
them  carefully,  it  will  be  found  that,  excepting  the  horn,  they  are  little  else  than  Rhinoceroses  in 
miniature ; at  least  they  have  quite  similar  molars ; but  the  upper  jaw  has  two  stout  incisors  curved 
downwards,  and,  during  youth,  two  very  small  canines  ; the  inferior  four  incisors,  without  any 
canines.  They  have  four  toes  to  each  of  their  fore-feet,  and  three  to  the  hind-feet,  all,  excepting  the 
innermost  posterior,  which  is  armed  with  a crooked  and  oblique  nail,  terminated  by  a kind  of  very  small, 
thin,  and  rounded  hoof.  The  muzzle  and  ears  are  short : they  are  covered  with  hair,  and  have  only 
a tubercle  in  place  of  a tail.  The  stomach  is  divided  into  two  sacs ; their  ccecum  is  very  large,  and  the 
colon  has  several  dilatations,  and  is  also  furnished  with  two  appendages  about  the  middle,  analogous  to 
the  two  cceca  of  birds. 

Only  one  species  is  known,  the  size  of  a Rabbit,  and  greyish  : it  is  not  uncommon  in  rocky  places  throughout 
Africa,  where  it  is  much  preyed  on  by  rapacious  birds,  and  it  also  appears  to  inhabit  some  parts  of  Asia ; at 
least  we  cannot  perceive  any  certain  difference  between  the  Hyrax  capensis  and  II.  syriacus.  [Five,  if  not  six,  are 
now  conclusively  established ; one  of  which,  indigenous  to  South  Africa,  even  ascends  trees.] 

The  Pal^otherium,  Cuv. — 

Is  another  lost  genus  : with  the  same  grinders  as  the  two  preceding,  six  incisors  and  twro  canines  to 
each  jaw  as  in  the  Tapirs,  and  three  visible  toes  to  each  foot,  it  combined  a short  fleshy  trunk,  for  the 
muscles  of  which  the  bones  of  the  nose  were  shortened,  leaving  a deep  notch  underneath.  We  have 
discovered  the  bones  of  this  genus,  mingled  with  those  of  the  Anoplotherium,  in  the  gypsum  quarries 
in  the  environs  of  Paris,  and  they  occur  in  several  other  parts  of  France ; [also,  with  those  of  the 
Choeropotamus,  Dichobune,  &c.,  other  lost  genera  of  Pachydermata,  in  the  Binstead  quarries  of  the 
Isle  of  Wight,  England]. 

* Previous  to  discovering  this  species,  a fine  specimen  of  which  is  I Africa,  which  are  distinguished  there  by  separate  names  : one  of  them 
deposited  in  the  British  Museum,  Dr.Smith  received  information,  from  I is  stated  to  have  only  a single  horn. — Ed. 
the  natives,  of  the  existence  of  five  sorts  of  these  animals  in  South  I 



Eleven  or  twelve  species  are  already  known.  At  Paris  alone,  we  have  found  one  the  size  of  a Horse,  another 
that  of  a Tapir,  and  a third  of  a small  Sheep : the  bones  of  a species  nearly  equalling1  the  Rhinoceros  in  size 
have  been  met  with  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Orleans.  These  animals  appear  to  have  frequented  the  borders 
of  lakes  and  marshes,  for  the  deposits  which  enclose  their  remains  contain  also  those  of  freshwater  shells.  (See 
my  Ossemens  fossiles,  tom.  iii.) 

The  Lophiodons — • 

Form  another  extinct  genus,  which  appears  to  have  been  closely  allied  to  the  preceding  one  ; but  the 
inferior  incisors  of  which  exhibit  transverse  ridges.  Ten  or  twelve  species  have  been  exhumed  from 
the  same  ancient  freshwater  deposits  that  have  yielded  the  Palseotheriums. 

To  these  last  genera  succeeds  that  of 

The  Tapirs  ( Tapir , Lin.), — 

Wherein  the  twenty-seven  molars,  before  they  are  worn,  present  transverse  and  rectilinear  ridges ; 
there  are  six  incisors  and  two  canines  in  each  jaw,  separated  from  the  molars  by  a wide  interval.  The 
nose  assumes  the  form  of  a short  fleshy  trunk ; and  the  fore-feet  have  each  four  toes,  the  hinder 
but  three. 

For  a long  while  only  one  species  was  known,  that  of  America  (T.  americanus,  Lin.),  which  is  the  size  of  a small 
Ass,  with  a brown  and  almost  naked  skin,  a short  tail,  and  fleshy  neck,  that  forms  a crest  at  the  nape.  It  is 
common  in  humid  places  and  along  the  rivers  of  the  warm  parts  of  America,  where  its  flesh  is  eaten.  The  young 
are  spotted  with  white  like  the  fawns  of  a Stag.  Within  a few  years,  a second  species  has  been  discovered  in  the 
Eastern  Continent  (T.  indicus),  of  larger  size  than  the  other,  and  brown-black,  with  the  back  greyish  white.  It 
inhabits  the  forests  of  the  Malay  peninsula,  the  island  of  Sumatra,  & c.  Still  more  recently,  Dr.  Roulin  has  dis- 
covered in  the  Cordilleras  a third  species,  of  a black  colour,  and  covered  with  thick  hair ; the  bones  of  its  nose 
are  more  elongated,  a particular  in  which  it  somewhat  approximates  the  Palaeotheriums. 

There  have  also  been  found  in  Europe  some  fossil  bones  of  Tapirs,  and,  among  the  rest,  those  of  a gigantic 
species  approaching  the  Elephant  in  size  ( T . giganteus,  Cuv.,  Oss.  foss.)  “ The  lower  jaw  of  this  huge  animal 
has  been  obtained  by  M.  Schleyermacher,  and  proves  to  possess  enormous  canines,  which  must  have  projected 
from  the  mouth,  [and  are  directed  downwards] : it  should  therefore  form  a separate  genus.  Its  size  may  have 
been  greater  than  that  of  the  Elephant  by  one  half.  [A  more  perfect  head  of  this  extraordinary  species,  the  largest 
of  the  Pachydermata  hitherto  discovered,  has  been  lately  disentombed  in  Germany,  and  described  by  Prof.  Kaup. 
With  two  other  species,  successively  smaller,  it  now  composes  the  genus  Deinotherium,  the  members  of  which  are 
suspected  by  Blainville  and  other  anatomists  to  have  been  aquatic  animals,  destitute  of  posterior  extremities,  like 
the  Dugongs  and  Manati.] 

The  third  family  of  Pachydermata , or  of  hoofed  animals  that  do  not  ruminate,  consists 
of  the 


Or  quadrupeds  with  only  one  apparent  toe  and  a single  hoof  to  each  foot,  although  beneath 
the  skin,  on  each  side  of  their  metacarpus  and  metatarsus,  there  are  appendices  ( stylets ) 
which  represent  two  lateral  toes.  But  one  genus  of  them  is  known,  that  of 

The  Horses  ( Equus , Lin.). 

There  are  six  incisors  to  each  jaw,  which,  during  youth,  have  their  crowns  furrowed  with  a groove, 
and  six  molars  on  each  side  above  and  below,  with  square  crowns,  marked  by  laminae  of  enamel  which 
penetrate  them,  with  four  crescents,  besides  which  there  is  a small  disk  on  the  inner  border  of  those 
above.  The  males  have  in  addition  two  small  canines  in  their  upper  jaw,  and  sometimes  in  both, 
which  are  always  wanting  in  the  females.  Between  these  canines  and  the  first  molar,  there  is  a wide 
space  which  corresponds  with  the  angle  of  the  lips,  where  the  bit  is  placed,  by  which  alone  Man  has 
been  enabled  to  subdue  these  powerful  quadrupeds.  Their  stomach  is  simple  and  middle-sized ; but 
their  intestines  are  very  long,  and  coecum  enormous.  The  teats  are  situate  between  the  thighs. 

The  Horse  ( E . caballus,  Lin.). — This  noble  associate  of  Man  in  the  chase,  in  war,  and  in  the  labours  of  agricul- 
ture, arts  and  commerce,  is  the  most  important  and  carefully  tended  of  domestic  animals.  It  does  not  appear  to 
exist  in  the  wild  state,  excepting  in  those  countries  where  the  offspring  of  tame  individuals  have  been  suffered  to 
run  wild,  as  in  Tartary  and  America,  where  they  live  in  troops,  each  conducted  and  defended  by  an  old  male. 
The  young  males,  expelled  as  soon  as  they  have  attained  the  age  of  puberty,  follow  the  troop  at  a distance,  until 
they  have  attracted  some  of  the  younger  mares. 

In  a state  of  servitude,  the  colt  continues  sucking  for  six  or  seven  months,  and  the  sexes  are  separated  at  two 
years ; at  three  they  are  first  handled  and  accustomed  to  some  management,  and  at  four  saddled  and  mounted, 
at  which  age  they  can  propagate  without  injuring  themselves.  The  period  of  gestation  is  eleven  months. 



A Horse’s  age  is  known  by  his  incisors.  The  middle  teeth  begin  to  appear  about  fifteen  days  after  birth ; and 
at  two  years  and  a half  the  middle  ones  are  replaced ; at  three  and  a half  the  two  next  follow ; and  at  four  and  a 
half,  the  outermost  or  corner  teeth.  All  these  teeth,  with  originally-indented  crowns,  lose  by  degrees  this  character 
by  detrition.  At  seven  and  a half  or  eight  years,  the  depressions  are  completely  effaced,  and  the  Horse  is  no 
longer  marked. 

The  inferior  canines  appear  at  three  years  and  a half,  the  superior  at  four  years ; they  remain  pointed  until  the 
sixth,  and  at  ten  begin  to  peel  away. 

The  life  of  a Horse  seldom  extends  beyond  thirty  years.  Every  one  knows  how  much  this  animal  varies  in  size 
and  colour.  The  principal  races  even  exhibit  sensible  differences  in  the  form  of  the  head,  and  in  their  proportions, 
each  being  specially  adapted  for  some  particular  mode  of  employment. 

The  most  beautiful  and  swift  are  the  Arabs,  which  have  contributed  to  perfect  the  Spanish  breed,  and  with  the 
latter  to  form  the  English : the  stoutest  and  strongest  are  from  the  coasts  of  the  North  Sea  ; and  the  most  dimi- 
nutive from  the  north  of  Sweden  and  Corsica.  Wild  Horses  have  a large  head,  frizzled  hair,  and  ungraceful  pro- 
portions. [If  the  figure  of  Pallas  be  correct,  of  the  Wild  Horse  of  northern  Asia,  it  is  doubtful,  from  the  length  of 
the  ears  and  some  other  characters,  whether  a distinct  species  intermediate  to  the  true  Horse  and  the  fol- 
lowing be  not  represented.  M.  Serres  suspects  that  a species  of  Equus  now  extinct  is  represented  on  the  celebrated 
mosaic  of  Palestrina.  Bones  of  this  genus  are  not  uncommon  in  the  older  tertiary  strata,  and  have  even  been  found 
in  those  of  South  America. 

The  Dzegguetai  ( Equus  hemionus , Pallas). — A distinct  species,  intermediate  in  its  proportions  to  the  Horse  and 
Ass,  which  lives  in  troops  in  the  sandy  deserts  of  Central  Asia.  Colour  isabelle,  with  black  mane  and  [broad] 
dorsal  line ; a terminal  black  tuft  to  the  tail.  This  was  probably  the  Wild  Mule  of  the  ancients. 

The  Ass  ( E . asinus,  Lin.).— Known  by  its  long  ears,  the  tuft  at  the  end  of  its  tail,  and  the  black  line  crossing  the 
dorsal  one  over  its  shoulders,  which  is  the  first  indication  of  the  transverse  stripes  that  occur  in  the  following 
species.  [Some  of  the  young  have  obscure  cross-bands  on  the  legs.]  Originally  from  the  vast  deserts  of  the 
interior  of  Asia,  the  Ass  is  still  found  there  free  and  unreclaimed,  in  numerous  troops,  which  migrate  north  and 
south  according  to  the  season  : hence  it  does  not  thrive  in  countries  too  much  to  the  north.  Its  patience,  sobriety, 
hardy  constitution,  and  the  services  which  it  renders  to  the  poor,  are  well  known  to  every  one.  The  harshness  of 
its  voice,  or  bray,  is  occasioned  by  two  small  peculiar  cavities  situate  at  the  bottom  of  the  larynx. 

The  Zebra  [E.  zebra,  Lin.). — Nearly  the  form  of  the  Ass,  and  everywhere  transversely  striped  with  black  and 
white  in  a regular  manner.  It  is  indigenous  to  the  whole  south  of  Africa.  We  have  known  a female  Zebra 
produce  successively  with  the  Horse  and  the  Ass. 

The  Couagga  ( E . quaccha,  Gm.),  resembles  the  Horse  more  than  the  Zebra,  but  inhabits  the  same  country  as  the 
latter.  Its  coat  is  brown  on  the  neck  and  shoulders,  transversely  striped  with  whitish ; the  crupper  reddish-grey, 
and  tail  and  legs  whitish.  Its  name  expresses  the  sound  of  its  voice,  which  is  not  unlike  the  bark  of  a Dog. 

The  Onagga  or  Dauw  ( E . montanus,  Burchell).— Another  African  species,  inferior  [?]  in  size  to  the  Ass,  but 
with  the  handsome  form  of  the  Couagga,  and  of  an  isabelle  colour,  striped  with  alternately  broader  and  more 
narrow  black  markings  on  the  head,  neck,  and  body.  The  hinder  stripes  are  disposed  obliquely  forward,  and  the 
legs  and  tail  are  white. 



Is,  perhaps,  the  most  natural  and  the  best  determined  of  the  whole  class,  for  all  the  species 
which  compose  it  appear  to  have  been  constructed  on  the  same  model,  and  the  Camels  alone 
present  some  inconsiderable  exceptions  to  the  general  characters  of  the  group. 

The  first  of  these  characters  is  that  of  having  no  incisors  in  the  upper  jaw,  while  the 
inferior  has  always  eight,  [the  two  outermost  of  which  represent  canines,  as  can  be  easily 
shown].  They  are  replaced  above  by  a callous  pad.  Between  the  incisors  and  the  molars 
is  a wide  space,  where,  in  some  genera,  there  are  one  or  two  canines.*  The  molars,  almost 
always  six  in  number  above  and  below,  have  their  crowns  marked  with  two  double  crescents, 
the  convexity  of  which  is  turned  inwards  in  the  upper,  and  outwards  in  the  lower  jaw. 

The  four  feet  are  each  terminated  by  two  toes,  and  by  two  hoofs,  which  present  a flat  sur- 
face to  each  other,  appearing  as  though  a single  hoof  had  been  cleft : hence  the  names  that 
have  been  applied  to  these  animals,  of  cloven-footed,  bifurcated,  &c. 

Behind  the  hoof  there  are  always  two  small  spurs,  which  are  vestiges  of  lateral  toes.  The 

* Though  acquainted  with  all  the  subdivisions  of  Ruminantia,  we  . in  the  Camels,  wherein  the  inferior  canine  has  been  recognized  as 
have  never  seen  more  than  one  canine  in  any  animal  whatever  ; and  | such,  there  are  never  more  than  six  lower  incisors  — Ed. 



two  bones  of  the  metacarpus  and  metatarsus  are  united  into  a single  one,  designated  the 
cannon  bone ; but  in  certain  species  there  are  also  vestiges  of  lateral  metacarpal  and  metatarsal 

The  name  Buminantia  intimates  the  singular  faculty  possessed  by  these  animals,  of  masti- 
cating their  food  a second  time,  it  being  returned  to  the  mouth  after  the  first  deglutition. 
This  faculty  depends  on  the  structure  of  their  stomachs,  which  are  always  four  in  number, 
the  first  three  of  which  are  so  disposed  that  the  food  may  enter  into  either  of  them,  the 
oesophagus  terminating  at  the  point  of  communication. 

The  first  and  largest  stomach  is  named  the  paunch  j it  receives  a large  quantity  of  vegetable 
matters  coarsely  bruised  by  the  first  mastication.  From  this  it  passes  into  the  second,  termed 
the  honey-comb  bag,  the  parietes  of  which  are  laminated  like  the  cells  of  Bees.  This  second 
stomach,  very  small  and  globular,  seizes  the  food,  and  moistens  and  compresses  it  into  little 
pellets  (or  cuds),  which  afterwards  successively  return  to  the  mouth  to  be  rechewed.  The 
animal  remains  at  rest  during  this  operation,  which  lasts  until  all  the  herbage  first  taken  into 
the  paunch  has  been  subjected  to  it.  The  aliment  thus  remasticated  descends  directly  into 
the  third  stomach,  termed  the  feuillet,  on  account  of  its  parietes  being  longitudinally  lami- 
nated somewhat  like  the  leaves  of  a book,  from  which  it  descends  into  the  fourth  or  caillette, 
the  coats  of  which  are  wrinkled,  and  which  is  the  true  organ  of  digestion,  analogous  to  the 
simple  stomach  of  animals  in  general.  In  the  young  of  the  ruminants,  while  they  continue  to 
subsist  on  the  milk  of  the  mother,  the  caillette  is  the  largest  of  the  four.  The  pauneh  is  only 
developed  by  receiving  great  quantities  of  herbage,  which  finally  give  it  its  enormous  volume. 
These  animals  have  the  intestinal  canal  very  long ; but  there  are  few  enlargements  in  the 
great  intestines.  The  ccecum  is  likewise  long  and  tolerably  smooth.  Their  fat  hardens  more 
by  cooling  than  that  of  other  quadrupeds,  and  even  becomes  brittle.  It  is  commonly  termed 
tallow.  The  udder  is  placed  between  the  thighs. 

The  Ruminants,  of  all  animals,  are  those  which  are  most  useful  to  Man.  They  furnish  him 
with  food,  and  nearly  all  the  flesh  that  he  consumes.  Some  serve  him  as  beasts  of  burden, 
others  with  their  milk,  their  tallow,  leather,  horns,  and  other  products. 

The  two  first  genera  are  without  horns. 

The  Camels  ( Camelus , Lin.),~ 

Approximate  the  preceding  order  rather  more  than  the  others.  They  have  not  only  always  canines  in 
both  jaws,  but  have  also  two  pointed  teeth  implanted  in  the  intermaxillary  bones,  six  inferior  incisors, 
and  from  eighteen  to  twenty  molars  only ; peculiarities  which,  of  all  the  Ruminantia , they  alone 
possess,  besides  which  the  scaphoid  and  cuboid  bones  of  the  tarsus  are  separated.  Instead  of  the 
great  hoof,  flat  at  its  inner  side,  which  envelopes  the  whole  inferior  portion  of  each  toe,  and  which 
determines  the  figure  of  the  ordinary  cloven  foot,  they  have  but  one  small  one,  which  only  adheres  to 
the  last  phalanx,  and  is  symmetrically  formed  like  the  hoofs  of  the  Pachydermata.  Their  tumid  and 
cleft  lip,  their  long  neck,  projecting  orbits,  weakness  of  the  crupper,  and  the  disagreeable  proportions 
of  their  legs  and  feet,  render  them  in  some  sort  deformed ; but  their  extreme  sobriety,  and  the  faculty 
they  possess  of  passing  several  days  without  drinking,  cause  them  to  be  of  the  highest  utility. 

It  is  probable  that  this  last  faculty  results  from  the  great  masses  of  cells  which  cover  the  sides  of 
their  paunch,  injwhich  water  is  constantly  retained  or  produced.  The  other  Ruminants  have  nothing 
of  the  kind. 

Camels  urinate  backward,  but  the  direction  of  the  penis  changes  during  copulation,  which  is  effected 
with  considerable  difficulty,  and  while  the  female  lies  down.  In  the  rutting  season  a fetid  humour 
issues  from  the  head. 

The  Camels,  properly  so  called, — 

Have  the  two  toes  united  below,  almost  to  the  point,  by  a common  sole,  and  humps  of  fat  upon  the 
back.  They  are  large  animals  of  the  Eastern  Continent,  of  which  two  species  are  known,  both  of  them 
completely  domesticated.* 

• Pallas  states,  on  the  authority  of  the  Bucharians  and  Tartars,  I may  remark  that  the  Calmucks  are  in  the  habit  of  liberating  all  sorts 
that  there  are  wild  Camels  in  the  deserts  of  Central  Asia  ; but  we  I of  animals  from  a religious  principle. 



The  Bactrian  or  Two-humped  Camel  ( C . bactrianus,  Lin.),— originally  from  Central  Asia,  and  which  descends 
much  less  to  the  south  than 

The  Arabian  or  One-humped  Camel  (C.  dromedarius , Lin.),  which  is  spread  from  Arabia  into  all  the  north  of 
Africa,  and  great  part  of  Syria,  Persia,  &c. 

The  first  is  the  only  one  employed  in  Turkostan,  Thibet,  &c. ; and  is  sometimes  led  as  far  as  Lake  Baikal.  The 
second  is  well  known,  in  consequence  of  the  necessity  of  employing  it  in  crossing  the  great  Desert,  being  the  only 
means  of  communication  between  the  countries  on  its  borders. 

The  Two-humped  Camel  walks  less  painfully  than  the  other  on  humid  ground ; and  is  also  larger  and  stronger. 
Previous  to  renewing  its  coat  it  sheds  the  whole  of  its  hair.  It  is  the  One-humped  Camel  that  is  the  most  abste- 
mious. The  Dromedary  is  merely  a lighter  variety  of  it,  better  fitted  for  expedition. 

The  flesh  and  milk  of  the  Camel  serve  for  food,  and  its  hair  for  garments,  to  the  people  who  possess  it.  In  rocky 
or  stony  countries  both  species  are  useless.  [Buffon  considered  the  humps  and  callous  pads  on  the  legs  of  these 
animals  as  marks  of  servitude : on  the  contrary,  they  are  admirable  instances  of  direct  adaptation  to  their  indi- 
genous locality.  The  enlargement  and  convex  soles  of  their  feet  are  expressly  fitted  for  treading  on  loose  yielding 
sand ; and  their  humps  are  provisions  of  superabundant  nutriment,  which  are  gradually  absorbed  and  disappear 
on  the  occasion  of  a scarcity  of  other  food,  as  is  particularly  observed  at  the  end  of  a long  journey.  By  resting  on 
their  callosities,  they  are  enabled  to  lie  down  and  repose  on  a scorching  surface ; and  finally,  the  abundant  supply 
of  fluid  in  their  stomach  is  too  obvious  a provision,  in  reference  to  their  peculiar  requirements,  to  need  even  this 
passing  allusion.] 

The  Lamas  ( Auchenia , Illiger), — 

Have  their  two  toes  separate,  and  are  without  humps.  Only  two  clearly  distinct  species  are  known, 
both  from  the  New  World,  and  much  smaller  than  the  preceding. 

The  Lama,  which,  in  its  wild  state,  is  termed  Guanaco  ( Camelus  llacma,  Lin.).— As  large  as  a Stag,  with  dense 
hair  of  a chestnut-colour,  but  varying  when  the  animal  is  domesticated.  It  was  the  only  beast  of  burden  which  the 
Peruvians  possessed  at  the  time  of  the  conquest.  It  can  carry  a hundred  and  fifty  pounds,  but  can  only  make 
short  journeys.  The  Alpaca  is  a variety  with  long  woolly  hair. 

The  Vicugna  {Cam.  vicunna,  Lin.).— Size  of  a Sheep,  and  covered  with  fulvous  wool,  of  admirably  fine  texture, 
and  of  which  valuable  stuffs  are  manufactured.  [The  Lamas  are  mountain  animals,  peculiar  to  the  Andes. 
M.  Ale.  d’Orbigny,  who  has  long  resided  in  their  native  country,  distinguishes  four  species  of  them,  viz.,  the 
Lama  and  Alpaca,  which  have  been  completely  reduced  to  servitude,  and  the  Guanaco  and  Vicugna,  which  con- 
stantly refuse  to  copulate  with  the  others. 

The  bones  of  an  animal  related  to  the  Lamas,  but  which  must  have  equalled  the  Camels  of  the  eastern  hemi- 
sphere in  stature,  and  which  had  three  toes  to  the  fore-feet,  have  lately  been  recovered  by  Mr. Darwin  in  Paraguay: 
the  Macr auchenia , Owen]. 

The  Musks  ( Moschus , Lin.), — 

Are  very  much  less  anomalous  than  the  Camels,  differing  only  from  ordinary  Ruminants  in  the  absence 
of  horns,  by  a long  canine  on  each  side  of  the  upper  jaw,  which  projects  beyond  the  mouth  in  the 
males,  and  lastly,  by  having  a slender  peronseum,  which  is  not  present  even  in  the  Camel.  They  are 
remarkable  for  their  elegance  and  lightness. 

The  Pouched  Musk  ( M . moschiferus , Lin.),  is  the  most  celebrated  species.  Size  that  of  a Roe,  and  almost 
without  tail ; it  is  completely  covered  with  hairs,  so  coarse  and  brittle  that  they  might  almost  be  termed  spines  : 
what  particularly  distinguishes  it,  however,  is  the  pouch  situate  before  the  prepuce  of  the  male,  which  contains 
an  odorous  substance,  well  known  in  medicine  and  perfumery  by  the  appellation  mush.  This  species  appears  con- 
fined to  that  rugged  and  rocky  region  from  which  most  of  the  Asiatic  rivers  descend,  and  which  extends  between 
Siberia,  China,  and  Thibet.  Its  habits  are  nocturnal  and  solitary,  and  timidity  extreme.  It  is  in  Thibet  and 
Tonquin  that  it  yields  the  best  musk ; that  of  the  north  being  almost  inodorous.  [The  difference  more  probably 
arises  from  the  amount  of  adulteration,  which  is  practised  to  a vast  extent.] 

The  other  Musks  have  no  musk-pouch,  [and  constitute  the  Tragulus  of  Bennett].  They  inhabit  the  warm  parts 
of  the  eastern  hemisphere,  and  are  the  smallest  and  most  elegant  of  the  Ruminantia.  Such  are  M.  pygmeeus, 
Buff. ; M.  memina,  Schreb. ; and  M.javanicus , Buff. 

All  the  other  Ruminants,  at  least  of  the  male  sex,  have  two  horns  j that  is  to  say,  two  pro- 
minences of  the  frontal  bones,  more  or  less  long,  which  occur  in  no  other  group  of  animals. 

In  some,  these  prominences  are  covered  with  an  elastic  sheath,  formed  as  it  were  of  agglu- 
tinated hair,  which  continues  to  increase  by  layers  during  life.  The  name  of  horn  is  applied 
to  the  substance  of  this  sheath,  and  the  sheath  itself  is  termed  the  core.  The  pro- 
minence which  it  envelopes  grows  with  it  during  life,  and  never  falls.  Such  are  the  horns  of 
cattle,  as  Oxen,  Sheep,  Goats,  and  Antelopes. 

In  others,  the  prominences  are  only  covered  with  a hairy  skin,  continuous  with  that  of  the 
head : these  prominences  do  not  fall ; and  the  Giraffes  afford  the  only  example. 



Finally,  in  the  genus  of  Stags,  the  prominences,  covered  for  a while  with  a hairy  skin  like 
the  other  parts  of  the  head,  have  at  their  base  a ring  of  bony  tubercles,  which,  as  they  enlarge, 
compress  and  obliterate  the  nutritive  vessels  of  that  skin,  [commonly  termed  the  velvet] . It 
becomes  dry,  and  is  thrown  off : the  bony  prominences,  being  laid  bare,  at  the  expiration  of 
a certain  period  separate  from  the  skull  to  which  they  were  attached ; they  fall,  and  the 
animal  remains  defenceless.  Others,  however,  are  reproduced,  generally  larger  than  before, 
which  are  destined  to  undergo  the  same  fate.  These  horns,  purely  osseous,  and  subject  to 
periodical  changes,  are  styled  antlers. 

The  Stags  ( Cervus , Lin.) — 

Are  consequently  ruminants  which  have  heads  armed  with  antlers ; but,  if  we  except  the  Rein  Deer, 
the  females  in  no  instance  possess  them,  [save  in  rare  individual  cases  *].  The  substance  of  these 
antlers,  when  completely  developed,  is  that  of  a dense  hone  without  pores  or  internal  cavity : their 
figure  varies  greatly  according  to  the  species,  and  even  in  each  species  at  different  ages.  These  animals 
are  extremely  fleet ; live  mostly  in  forests ; and  feed  on  grass,  the  leaves  and  buds  of  trees,  &c. 

Those  species  which  have  antlers  either  wholly  or  partially  flattened  may  be  first  distinguished ; such  as — 

The  Elk,  or  Moose  Deer  (C.  dices , Lin.). — As  large  as  a Horse,  and  sometimes  larger;  very  high  upon  the  legs ; with 
a swoln  cartilaginous  muzzle,  and  a sort  of  goitre,  or  variously  shaped  pendulous  swelling,  under  the  throat ; hair 
always  very  stiff,  and  of  an  ash-colour,  more  or  less  dark.  The  antlers  of  the  male,  at  first  dagger-shaped,  and 
then  divided  into  narrow  slips,  assume,  at  the  age  of  five  years,  the  form  of  a triangular  blade,  dentelated  on  its 
outer  edge,  and  borne  on  a pedicle.  They  increase  with  age,  so  as  to  weigh  fifty  or  sixty  pounds,  and  to  have 
fourteen  branches  on  each  horn.  The  Elk  lives  in  troops  in  the  marshy  forests  of  the  north  of  both  continents, 
and  its  skin  forms  valuable  leather. 

The  Rein  Deer  (C.  tarandus,  Lin.).— Size  of  a Stag,  but  with  shorter  and  stouter  limbs ; both  sexes  have  antlers, 
divided  into  several  branches,  at  first  slender  and  pointed,  and  finally  terminating  with  age  in  broad  dentelated 
palms  : the  hair,  brown  in  summer,  becomes  almost  white  in  winter.  It  is  peculiar  to  the  glacial  regions  of  both 
continents,  and  is  the  animal  so  celebrated  for  the  services  which  it  renders  to  the  Laplanders,  who  have  numerous 

Fig.  55. — Red  Deer. 

their  inner  side,  which  increase  in  number  with  age ; they 

herds  of  them,  which  in  summer  they  lead  to  the 
mountains,  and  in  winter  bring  back  to  the  plains  : 
it  is  their  only  beast  of  burden  and  draught,  its 
milk  and  flesh  serve  them  for  food,  its  hide  for 
clothes,  &c. 

The  Fallow  Deer  (C.  dama). — Less  than  the  Stag, 
and  blackish-brown  in  winter,  fulvous  spotted  with 
white,  in  summer ; the  buttocks  always  white,  bor- 
dered on  each  side  with  black : tail  longer  than  that 
of  the  Stag,  black  above  and  white  below.  The  horn 
of  the  male  is  round  at  base,  with  a pointed  antler, 
and  throughout  the  rest  of  its  length  flattened,  with 
its  outer  edge  dentelated.  After  a certain  age  it 
shrinks,  and  splits  irregularly  into  several  slips. 
This  species,  the  Platyceros  of  the  ancients,  has  be- 
come common  throughout  Europe,  but  appears  to 
have  been  originally  from  Barbary.  A blackish  variety 
without  spots  [even  in  the  fawns]  is  not  uncommon. 

The  species  with  round  antlers  are  more  nume- 
rous. Those  of  temperate  climates  change  colour, 
more  or  less,  with  the  seasons. 

The  Common  Stag,  or  Red  Deer  (C.  elephas, 
Lin.).— Fulvous-brown,  with  a black  dorsal  line, 
and  on  each  side  of  it  a series  of  small  pale  fulvous 
spots,  in  summer  ; uniform  greyish-brown  in  win- 
ter : the  crupper  and  tail  pale  fulvous  at  all  seasons. 
It  is  indigenous  to  the  forests  of  all  Europe,  and 
of  the  temperate  parts  of  Asia.  The  antlers  of 
the  male  are  round,  and  appear  in  the  second  year, 
at  first  dagger-shaped,  and  then  with  branches  on 
are  crowned  finally  with  a sort  of  palmation,  having 

* There  is  the  head  of  a female  Roe,  with  antlers,  in  the  Museum  of 
the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  London.  The  connexion  of  these 
defences,  however,  with  the  sexual  organs  is  remarkable.  They  do 
not  grow  in  emasculated  individuals ; and  the  rutting  season  imme- 
diately follows  their  developement.  In  Lin.  Trans,  vol.  ii.  p.  356,  an 

instance  is  recorded  of  a Doe  with  only  a single  horn,  resembling  that 
of  a three-year-old  Buck ; and  on  dissection,  the  ovary  of  the  same 
side  was  found  to  be  schirrous.  After  attaining  their  maximum  of 
developement,  the  antlers  of  these  animals  decrease,  in  old  age,  at 
each  successive  renewal. — Ed. 



many  points.  When  very  old,  the  Stag  becomes  blackish,  and  the  hairs  on  the  neck  lengthen  and  become  erect.  The 
antlers  are  shed  in  spring,  the  old  ones  losing  them  first ; and  are  reproduced  in  summer,  during  the  whole  of 
which  period  the  males  associate  separately.  When  they  are  grown  again,  the  rutting  season  commences,  which 
lasts  three  weeks,  at  which  time  the  males  become  furious.  Both  sexes  unite  in  vast  herds  to  pass  the  winter. 
The  hind  carries  eight  months,  and  brings  forth  in  May ; the  fawn  is  fulvous,  spotted  with  white. 

The  Canadian  Stag,  or  Wapiti;  Elk  of  the  Anglo-Americans  (C.  canadensis,  Gm. ; C.  strongyloceros,  Schreb.) 
—A  fourth  larger  than  our  Stag,  and  nearly  of  the  same  colour,  but  with  the  disk  of  the  crupper  larger  and  paler, 
the  horns  equally  round,  but  more  developed,  and  without  a palm.  Inhabits  all  the  temperate  parts  of  North 

The  Virginian  Stag,  or  Deer  of  the  Anglo-Americans  (C.  virginianus,  Gm.). — Less  than  ours,  and  more  elegantly 
formed ; the  muzzle  more  pointed ; of  a pale  fulvous  in  summer,  reddish-grey  in  winter ; the  under  part  of  the 
throat  and  tail  white  at  all  seasons.  Antlers  shorter  than  in  the  European  species,  and  very  differently  formed. 

The  species  inhabiting  warm  climates  do  not  change 
colour.  There  are  several  in  South  America,  at  pre- 
sent but  imperfectly  determined ; as  C.  paludosus, 
Desm. ; C.  campestris,  F.  Cuv. ; C.  nemoralis, 
H.  Smith,  &c.  There  are  also  several  in  the  East  In- 
dies ; as  the  Axis  {C.  axis,  Lin.),  permanently  spotted 
with  pure  white,  and  which  is  indigenous  to  Bengal, 
but  propagates  easily  in  Europe  : also  C.  Aristotelis, 
Cuv.,  which,  with  long  hairs  on  the  neck  and  throat, 
and  inhabiting  the  north  of  India,  must  correspond 
with  the  Hippelaphus  of  Aristotle,  &c.,  &c.  Several  of 
these  have  canine  teeth. 

The  Roe  (C.  capreolus,  Lin.),— with  but  two  tines  to 
its  antlers ; of  a greyish-fulvous ; the  buttocks  white ; 
no  infra-orbital  sinuses,  and  scarcely  any  tail.  Some 
individuals  are  very  bright  russet,  and  others  black- 
ish. This  species  lives  in  pairs  in  the  elevated  forests 
of  temperate  Europe,  sheds  its  antlers  at  the  close  of 
autumn,  renews  them  in  winter,  undergoes  the  rut  in 
November,  and  remains  with  young  five  months  and 
a half.  Its  flesh  is  much  more  esteemed  than  that  of 
the  Stag.  There  are  none  in  Russia.  The  Tartarian 
Roe  (C.  pygargus,  Pallas)  is  larger,  with  longer  hair, 
and  horns  more  spinous  at  their  base.  It  inhabits 
the  high  grounds  beyond  the  Volga.  There  are  also 
some  Roes  in  America,  the  antlers  of  which  always 
remain  simple,  or  without  tines  ; as  C.  rafus,  F.  Cuv., 
with  canines  in  both  jaws,  C.  nemorivagus,  F.  Cuv., 
and  C.  simplicicornis,  H.  Smith. 

In  India  there  are  some  small  species  which  might 
Fig.  56.— Cervus  macrourus.  be  separated  from  the  other  Roes,  having  sharp  ca- 

nines, and  short  antlers  borne  upon  pedicles,  covered  with  hair  on  the  forehead  ; such  are  the  Muntjac,  or  Kijang, 
(C.  muntjac,  Gm.),  which  is  found  in  small  herds  at  Ceylon  and  Java,  the  C.  philippinus,  H.  Smith,  C.  moschatus, 
Id.,  &c. 

The  Giraffe  ( Cameleopardalis , Lin.) — 

Is  characterized  by  conical  horns  in  both  sexes,  that  are  always  covered  with  a hairy  skin,  and  never 
fall.  The  bony  nucleus  of  them  is  articulated  during  youth  to  the  frontal  bone  by  a suture.  In  the  middle 
of  the  forehead,  there  is  an  eminence  or  third  horn,  broader  and  much  shorter,  but  equally  articulated 
by  suture.  This  animal  is  in  other  respects  one  of  the  most  remarkable  that  exist,  on  account  of  the 
great  length  of  its  neck  and  the  disproportionate  extension  of  its  fore-legs.* 

Only  one  species  is  known  (C.  giraffa,  Lin.),  confined  to  the  deserts  of  Africa,  which  has  short  hair,  marked 
with  angular  fulvous  spots  on  a greyish  ground,  and  a slight  mane  on  the  hind-neck.  It  is  the  tallest  of  all 
animals,  its  head  being  frequently  raised  eighteen  feet  from  the  ground.  Its  disposition  is  gentle,  and  it  feeds  on 

The  Ruminants  with  hollow  horns — 

Are  more  numerous  than  the  others,  and  we  have  been  necessitated  to  divide  them  into 
genera  upon  characters  of  trivial  import,  derived  from  the  form  of  the  horns,  and  the  propor- 
tions of  the  various  parts.  To  these  M.  Geoffroy  has  advantageously  added  those  afforded  by 
the  substance  of  the  frontal  prominence,  or  the  bony  nucleus  of  the  horn. 

* The  Giraffe  is  essentially  a modified  Deer,  with  persistent  horns.  | large  gall  bladder,  like  the  Antelopes ; whereas  no  trace  of  this 
Of  three  dissected,  however,  by  Prof.  Owen,  one  proved  to  possess  a ! receptacle  existed  in  either  of  the  others,  as  in  the  Deer  tribe. — Ed 



The  Antelopes  ( Antilope , Lin.) — 

Have  the  substance  of  the  bony  nucleus  of  the  horn  solid,  with  neither  pores  nor  cavity,  like  the 
antlers  of  the  Stags.  They  also  further  resemble  the  Stags  in  possessing  infra-orbital  sinuses,  in  the 
slenderness  of  their  form,  and  speed  of  foot.  They  compose  a very  numerous  genus  [consisting  now 
of  more  than  seventy  well-ascertained  species],  which  we  have  been  compelled  to  subdivide  principally 
after  the  shape  of  the  horns. 

a.  Horns  annulated,  with  a double  curvature ; the  points  forward,  or  inward  and  upward,  [in  other  words,  annu- 
lated  and  lyrated ; also  placed  forward  on  the  head,  above  the  eye : the  muzzle  and  around  the  nostrils  hairy. 
This  is  the  most  characteristic  section  of  the  genus,  and  the  species  composing  it  may  be  distinguished  by  the 
term  Gazelles .] 

The  Numidian  Gazelle  {A,  dorcas,  Lin.). — Round,  thick,  and  black  horns,  with  the  size  and  graceful  shape 
of  the  Roe:  pale  fulvous  above,  white  below;  a brown  band  along  each  flank,  a tuft  of  hair  on  each  knee, 
and  a deep  pouch  on  each  groin.  Inhabits  the  north  of  Africa  in  innumerable  herds,  which  form  a circle  when 
attacked,  presenting  horns  on  every  side.  Is  the  ordinary  prey  of  the  Lion  and  the  Panther.  The  soft  expression 
of  its  eye  supplies  the  Arabic  poets  with  many  images. 

[To  this  division  belong  also  the  A.  euchore,  Kevella,*  Bennettii,  arabica,  corinna,  Soemmeringii,  mhorr,  dama, 
ruficollis,  melampus,  and pygargus,  which  last  seems  to  tend  through  A.  caama,  bubalus , &c.,  to  the  Gnus.  The 
author  likewise  includes  A.  gutturosa , Pallas,  the  Hoang-yang  or  Yellow  Goat  of  the  Chinese,  herds  of  which 
inhabit  the  arid  plains  of  Central  Asia,  and  the  A.  saiga , Pal.,  or  Coins  of  Strabo,  a European  animal,  indigenous 
to  the  south  of  Poland  and  Russia] ; it  is  as  large  as  a Fallow  Deer,  and  fulvous  in  summer,  whitish-grey  in 
winter.  Its  cartilaginous,  thick,  and  vaulted  muzzle,  with  very  expanded  nostrils,  obliges  it  to  retrograde  in 
feeding.  The  herd  sometimes  consists  of  more  than  ten  thousand  individuals.  [We  are  inclined  to  approximate 
to  the  Saiga  a remarkable  species  from  Northern  India,  the  Chiru  ( A . Hodgsoni,  Abel) ; it  is  somewhat  less  than 
the  Fallow  Deer,  of  a whitish  colour,  with  the  face  and  front  of  the  limbs  black ; horns  nearly  straight,  or  but  slightly 
lyrated,  and  remarkably  long  and  slender,  rising  abruptly  from  the  forehead.  Among  the  true  Gazelles,  may  be 
particularly  noticed  the  Springer,  or  Spring-bok  (A.  euchore)  of  the  Cape  colonists,  so  celebrated  for  occasionally 

visiting,  during  seasons  of  drought,  the  cultivated  lands 
of  South  Africa  in  innumerable  herds,  which  devastate 
wherever  they  pass.]  It  is  larger  than  the  Numidian 
Gazelle  (A.  dorcas),  and  nearly  of  the  same  form  and  co- 
lour ; is  distinguished  by  a fold  of  skin  on  the  crupper, 
clothed  with  long  white  hairs,  which  opens  and  enlarges  at 
every  bound  the  animal  takes.  [The  A.  Soemmeringii  is 
still  larger,  and  of  a delicate  pale  bufl-yellow  or  nankeen 
colour,  the  hairs  singularly  disposed  in  zig-zag  patches, 
imparting  a peculiar  waved  appearance.] 

b.  Horns  annulated,  and  with  a triple  [spiral]  curve. 
The  Indian  Antelope  (A.cervicapra, Lin.).— Still  very  like 
the  Gazelles,  but  the  horns  have  a triple  flexure.  [Colour 
variable,  black  or  different  shades  of  brown,  relieved  with 
white  around  the  eyes, and  below:  this  animal  is  remarkable 
for  the  great  developement  of  its  infra-orbital  cavities]. 

The  Addax,  or  Nubian  Antelope  {A.  addax,  Licht.).— Also  three  curves  to  the  horns,  which  are  larger  and  more 
slender  than  those  of  the  preceding : it  is  whitish,  tinged  with  grey  on  the  back,  and  has  a large  brown  spot  on 
the  forehead.  [There  are  horns  in  both  sexes,  as  in 
most  of  the  foregoing : this  animal  seems  to  be  allied 
rather  to  A.  strepsiceros,  pertaining  to  a subsequent 

c.  Horns  annulated,  with  a double  curve,  but  winding 
in  an  opposite  direction  to  those  of  the  preceding, 
the  points  directed  backward ; the  Damalis  of  H.  Smith, 
in  part.  - 

The  Bubalus  of  the  ancients  (A.  bubalus,  Lin.).— More 
heavily  formed  than  the  others ; the  head  [very]  long 
[and  the  eyes  situate  remarkably  backward] : size  of 
a Stag,  and  yellowish-brown,  except  the  end  of  the 
tail,  which  is  terminated  by  a black  tuft.  A common 
species  in  Barbary.  The  A.  caama,  or  Harte-beeste  of  the 
Cape  colonists,  [and  A.  lunata ,]  range  in  this  division. 

[These  animals  have  much  the  aspect  of  a small  Cow,  and  inhabit  the  more  sterile  regions  of  Africa  in 
herds,  headed  by  an  old  male.  They  are  easily  domesticated.] 

* The  A.  subgutturosa,  Gm.,  remarks  the  author,  has  not  been  pretended  to  differ  from  A.  Kevella,  further  than  in  having  a slight  swelling 
under  the  throat. 

Fig.  57.— Spring.bok. 

Fig.  58. — Addax. 



d.  Small,  straight,  or  but  slightly  curved  horns,  shorter  than  the  head ; peculiar,  in  most  of  the  species,  to  the 

male  sex,  [and  placed  far  backward,  behind  the  eyes : these 
animals  have  a distinct  maxillary  gland,  and  naked  muzzle : 
there  is  generally  a tuft  of  long  hair  between  the  horns.  The 
crupper  is  broad  and  elevated,  the  body  heavy,  and  general 
form  approximating  that  of  the  small  Musks  ( Tragidus ), 
the  Hog  Deer,  and,  we  may  add,  the  Agoutis  : they  are  de- 
nominated Bush  Antelopes  ( Philantomba , Ogilby),  from  their 
natural  haunts. 

At  their  head  may  be  placed  the  Great  Bush  Antelope 
(A.  silvicultrix),  much  larger  than  the  rest,  and  dark-coloured, 
with  a white  stripe  along  the  back,  becoming  very  broad  on 
the  crupper.  In  its  train  follow, — A.  mcrgens,  pygmcea,  Max- 
wellii,  perspicilla , Natalensis,  philantomba,  Burchellii, 
grimmea,  and  one  or  two  others ; some  of  them  very  dimi- 
nutive : the  delicate  little  A.  saltiana  appears  to  rank  on  the 
extreme  confines.  The  author  likewise  admits  a very  peculiar 
species,  the  Klip-springer  (A.  oreotragus),  distinguished  by  its  stiff  brittle  hair,  of  a greenish-yellow  colour,  and  espe- 
cially by  the  singular  structure  of  its  hoofs,  which  do  not  expand 
or  project  forwards,  their  outline  being  perpendicular  with  the 
leg : its  name  signifies  roch-springer.  He  also  places  here  the 
Woolly  Antelope  (A.  lanata,  Desm.).] 

e.  Annulated  horns  with  a simple  curve,  the  point  directed 
forward  ( Redunca , Smith).  [The  muzzle  still  naked. 

To  this  group  belong  the  A.  redunca , scoparia,  quadriscopa, 
montana,  tragulus,  capreolus,  eleotragus,  isabellina,  Lalandii, 
pedeotragus,  rufescens,  madagua , melanotis,  &c.] 

/.  Horns  annulated,  straight,  or  a little  curved,  and  longer 
than  the  head  (.Oryx,  Smith,  in  part). 

The  Oryx  (A.  oryx,  Pallas).— As  large  as  a Stag,  with  slender 
horns  two  or  three  feet  long,  straight,  pointed,  round,  the  basal 
third  obliquely  annulated,  and  smaller  in  the  females.  It  is  found 
northward  of  the  Cape,  and  in  the  interior  of  Africa.  The  length 
of  its  hoof,  which  is  greater  than  in  the  other  species,  enables  it  to  climb  rocks,  and  it  prefers  mountain 

The  Algazel  (A.  gazeUla , Lin. ; [A.  bezoastica,  H.  Smith].— Inhabits  North  Africa,  from  Nubia  to  Senegal.  It  is 

often  sculptured  on  the  monuments  of  Egypt  and  Nubia; 
and  M.  Lichtenstein  thinks  that  it  is  the  true  Oryx  of  the 
ancients.  [The  A.  leucoryx,  which  is  distinct,  and  A.  beisa, 
require  to  be  here  added.  Perhaps  also  the  Anoa  depressi- 
rostris,  Auct.] 

g.  Horns  annulated,  with  a simple  curve,  the  points  di- 
rected backward. 

The  Blue  Antelope  (A,  leucophaa,  Gm.). — A little  larger 
than  the  Stag,  of  a bluish  ash-colour ; large  horns  in  both 
sexes,  uniformly  curved,  with  more  than  twenty  rings. 

The  Equine  Antelope  (A.  equina,  Geof.).— As  large  as  a 
Horse,  and  reddish-grey,  with  the  head  brown,  a white  spot 
before  each  eye ; a mane  on  the  neck,  large  horns,  &c.  [A 
nearly  allied  species,  of  equal  size  (A.  nigra),  has  lately  been 
discovered  in  South  Africa,  the  males  of  which  are  almost 
wholly  black.  We  may  here  mention  also  the  A.  ellip- 
siprymnus,  which  is  larger  than  a Stag,  with  a conspicuous 
white  ring  on  the  buttocks,  and  rather  long  coarse  hair ; which 
latter  character  is  enhanced  in  A.  hoba  and  A.  sing-sing.] 

The  Cambing-outan,  or  Antelope  of  Sumatra  (A.  suma- 
tfensis,  Shaw).— Size  of  a large  Goat ; black,  with  white  hair  on  the  neck  and  throat ; the  horns  small  and  pointed. 
[The  affinity  of  this  species  with  the  preceding  is  not  obvious : it  is  more  nearly  allied  to  A.  thar  and  A.  ghorral.] 

h.  Horns  encircled  with  a spiral  ring. 

The  Impoof  (A.  oreas,  Pall.).— Elk  of  the  Cape  colonists.  As  large  as  the  largest  Horse,  with  stout,  conical,  and 
straight  horns,  surrounded  by  a spiral  ridge ; greyish  hair,  with  a small  mane  along  the  spine ; a kind  of  dewlap 
under  the  neck ; and  tail  terminated  by  a tuft.  It  lives  in  herds  on  the  mountains,  to  the  north  of  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope.  [Allied  to  it  is  the  A.  canna,  from  the  same  locality,  which  is  smaller  and  more  slender.] 

The  Coudou  (A.  strepsiceros,  Pal.)— Size  of  a Stag,  with  large  horns  in  the  male  only,  that  are  smooth  with  a 
triple  curve,  and  a single  longitudinal  and  slightly  spiral  ridge : a small  beard  on  the  chin,  and  a mane  along  the 
spine.  This  animal  lives  solitarily,  to  the  north  of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

Fig-.  60. — Steen-bok  {A.  tragulus) . 

Fig.  59. — Great  Bush  Antelope. 



Fig.  62. — Prong-horned  Antelope. 

Near  it,  we  conceive,  should  be  placed  the  Addax,  together  with  the  A.  sylvatica , decula,  scripta,  and  one 

or  two  others.  The  A.  scripta , or  Harnessed  Antelope,  is  an 
elegant  small  species,  the  Guib  of  BufFon,  of  a lively  fulvous 
colour,  marked  with  harness- like  white  stripes  and  spots. 
The  A.  zebra  has  dark  regular  stripes  across  the  crupper.] 
i.  Horns  bifurcated,  ( Antilocapra , Ord ; Dicranoceros, 

Of  all  the  forms  of  hollow  horns,  this  is  the  most  singular : 
a compressed  branch  is  given  off  from  their  base  or  trunk, 
almost  like  the  antler  of  a Stag ; the  pointed  tips  curve  back- 
ward. The  best  known  species  is 
The  Cabril  of  the  Canadians  (A.  furcifera,  H.  Smith),  which 
inhabits  the  extensive  plains  of  the  centre  and  west  of  North 
America  in  vast  herds : its  size  is  nearly  that  of  the  Roe  ; hair 
thick,  waved,  and  reddish ; the  antler  of  its  horns  situate 
near  the  middle  of  their  height.  [Nearly  allied  is  the  A.pal- 
mata,  Smith,  decidedly  a distinct  species,  which  has  palmated 
forked  horns,  that  it  employs  in  scooping  away  the  snow  : it  is 
a mountain  animal,  the  range  of  which  appears  to  be  more  southward  than  that  of  the  other.] 

Jc.  Four  horns  ( Tetraceros , Leach). 

This  subdivision,  recently  discovered  in  India,  was  not  unknown  to  the  ancients.  JElian  speaks  of  it,  xv.  c.  14, 
by  the  name  of  the  Four-horned  Oryx*:  the  anterior  pair  are  before  the  eyes,  the  posterior  completely  behind  the 
frontal.  [As  the  position  of  the  horns  varies  in  some  groups  of  two-horned  Antelopes,  it  may  be  that  the  anterior 
pair  of  the  four-horned  species  are  represented  in  the  greater  number,  and  the  posterior  pair  in  the  Bush  Ante- 
lopes (PhilarJomba).] 

The  Tchicarra  (A.  chicarra,  Hardw.).— Size  of  a Roe,  and  nearly  uniform  fulvous  : no  horns  in  the  female  sex. 
It  is  found  in  the  forests  of  Hindostan.  The  A.  quadricornis,  Blainv.,  is  only  known  to  me  by  a cranium,  the 
anterior  horns  of  which  are  proportionally  larger ; perhaps  it  may  only  differ  in  age. 

1.  Two  smooth  horns. 

The  Nylghau  (A.  picta , and  trago-camelus,  Gm.). — As  large  as  a Stag,  and  larger : horns  short,  and  recurved  for- 
ward, peculiar  to  the  male  sex  ; a beard  under  the  middle  of  the  neck.  Inhabits  India. 

The  Chamois  (A.  rupricapra , Lin.). — The  only  ruminant  of  western  Europe  that  can  be  compared  with  the 
Antelopes,  but  presenting  peculiar  characters.  Its  smooth  horns  are  curved  abruptly  backward  like  a hook : behind 
each  ear,  is  a sac  beneath  the  skin,  which  opens  externally  by  a small  orifice.f  Its  size  is  that  of  a large  Goat. 
Hair  deep  brown,  with  a black  band  descending  from  the  eye  towards  the  middle.  This  species  traverses  rocks  and 
precipices  with  extreme  agility,  inhabiting  in  small  troops  the  middle  region  of  the  highest  mountains.  [The 
A.  thar,  sumatrensis,  ghorral , and  other  goat-like  species,  seem  to  be  allied  to  this  group  and  to  that  of 
A.  strepsiceros.] 

Col.  Smith  separates  from  the  Antelopes,  under  the  generic  title  of 

The  Gnus  ( Catoblepas ),— 

The  Antilope  gnu , Gm. ; a very  extraordinary  species,  which,  at  first  sight,  seems  to  be  a monstrous  being, 
compounded  of  parts  of  different  animals.  It  has  the  body  and  crupper  of  a small  Horse,  covered  with  brown 
hair ; the  tail  furnished  with  long  white  hairs,  like  that  of  a Horse ; and  on  the  neck  a beautiful  flowing  mane, 
white  at  base,  and  black  at  the  tip  of  the  hairs.  Its  horns,  approximated  and  enlarged  at  the  base,  like  those  of 
the  Cape  Buffalo,  descend  outwardly,  and  turn  up  at  the  point ; the  muzzle  is  large,  flat,  and  surrounded  by  a 
circle  of  projecting  hairs:  under  the  throat  and  dewlap  is  another  black  mane;  and  the  legs  are  as  slender 
and  light  as  those  of  a Stag.  Both  sexes  have  horns. 

This  animal  inhabits  the  mountains  northward  of  the  Cape ; where  it  does  not  appear  common,  although  the 
ancients  seem  to  have  had  some  knowledge  of  it.  [There  are  two  other  very  distinct  species,  the  Brindled  Gnu 
(C.  gorgon),  and  the  Taurine  Gnu  (C.  taurina),  both  also  from  the  interior  of  South  Africa.] 

The  three  remaining  genera  have  the  bony  core  of  the  horns  occupied,  to  a considerable 
extent,  with  cells,  that  communicate  with  the  frontal  sinuses.  The  direction  of  their  horns 
characterizes  the  several  divisions. 

The  Goats  ( Capra , Lin.) — 

Have  the  horns  directed  upwards  and  backwards  : their  chin  is  generally  furnished  with  a long  beard, 
and  the  chanfrin  almost  always  concave. 

* The  fossil  cranium  and  some  other  bones  of  a gigantic  four-horned 
ruminant,  have  lately  been  discovered  in  the  productive  Sivolik 
deposits  of  Northern  India,  the  Sivatherium,  Cant,  and  Falc  j twice 
the  sire  of  a large  Ox. — Ed. 

f It  was  perhaps  a miscomprehension  of  the  nature  of  this  aperture, 
which  led  the  ancients  to  say,  after  Empedocles,  that  Goats  breathed 
through  their  ears. 



Fig.  63. — Angora  Goat. 

The  Wild  Goat,  or  /Egagrus  (C.  cegagrus,  Gm.) — Appears  to  be  the  stock  of  all  our  domestic  breeds,  and  is  dis- 
tinguished by  its  anteriorly  sharp  horns,  very  large  in  the  male,  short  and  sometimes  wanting  in  the  female ; 

which  is  also  sometimes  the  case  with  the  different 
Ibexes.  It  inhabits  the  mountains  of  Persia  in 
troops,  where  it  is  known  by  the  appellation  pasing, 
and  perhaps  those  of  several  other  countries,  even 
the  Alps.  The  oriental  bezoar  is  a concretion  found 
in  its  intestines. 

Domestic  Goats  (C.  hircus,  Lin.),  vary  exceed- 
ingly in  size,  colour,  and  the  length  and  texture  of 
their  coat ; also  in  the  magnitude,  and  even  the 
number  of  their  horns.  Those  of  Angora  and 
Cappadocia  have  the  longest  and  most  silky  hair. 
The  Thibet  Goats  are  celebrated  for  the  admirably 
fine  wool  which  grows  among  their  hair,  of  which 
the  Cashmere  stuffs  are  fabricated.  There  is  a race 
in  Upper  Egypt  with  short  hair,  convex  chanfrin, 
and  projecting  lower  jaw,  which  probably  is  hybrid. 
The  Goats  of  Guinea,  termed  mambrines  and  juida, 
are  very  small,  with  horns  inclining  backwards.  All  of  them  are  robust,  capricious,  wandering  animals,  that 
betray  their  mountain  origin  by  affecting  dry  and  wild  situations,  where  they  feed  on  coarse  herbage  and  the 
shoots  of  bushes.  They  do  much  injury  in  forests.  The  kid  only  is  eaten,  but  their  milk  is  useful  in  several 
diseases.  The  female  can  produce  at  seven  months,  and  goes  with  young  five  months ; she  generally  yeans  two 
kids.  The  male  engenders  at  a year  old,  and  one  suffices  for  more  than  a hundred  females  : in  five  or  six  years 
he  becomes  aged. 

The  Ibex  (C.  ibex , Lin.).— Immense  horns,  square  in  front,  and  marked  with  prominent  transverse  knots.  It 
inhabits  the  most  elevated  summits  of  lofty  mountain  chains,  throughout  the  whole  ancient  Continent.  The 
Caucasian  Ibex  (C.  caucasica ),  has  great  triangular  horns,  obtuse  but  not  square  in  front,  and  notched  as  in  the 
preceding.  Both  species  propagate  with  the  Domestic  Goat.  The  African  Maned  Ibex  {C.  cethiopica)  is  another. 
[These  various  animals  with  enormous  horns  are  said  to  precipitate  themselves  fearlessly  down  precipices,  always 
falling  on  the  horns,  the  elasticity  of  which  secures  them  from  injury.  Those  who  have  observed  the  force  with 
which  domestic  Rams  butt  at  each  other,  mutually  striking  the  forehead,  will  feel  less  surprise  at  the  Ibexes 
withstanding  the  shock  of  a fall.] 

The  Sheep  (Ovis,  Lin.) — 

Have  horns  directed  backward,  and  then  inclining  spirally  more  or  less  forward ; their  chanfrin  is 
generally  convex,  and  they  have  no  heard.  They  so  little  merit  to  be  generically  separated  from  the 
Goats,  that  the  two  produce  by  intermixture  a fertile  offspring.  As  in  the  Goats,  there  are  several 
wild  races  or  species,  closely  allied  together. 

The  Argali,  or  Wild  Sheep  of  Siberia  ( Ov . ammon,  Lin.), — the  male  of  which  has  very  large  horns,  triangular  at 
base,  the  angles  rounded,  flattened  in  front,  and  transversely  striated ; those  of  the  female  are  falchion-shaped  and 
compressed.  Its  hair,  in  summer,  is  short  and  greyish-fulvous  ; in  winter  close,  stiff,  and  reddish-grey,  with  some 
white  or  whitish  upon  the  muzzle,  throat,  and  under-parts.  There  is  always,  as  in  the  Stag,  a yellowish  space 
around  the  tail,  which  latter  is  very  short.  This  animal  inhabits  the  mountains  of  all  Asia,  and  attains  the  stature 
of  a Fallow  Deer.  [A  smaller  and  distinct  species  inhabits  the  Himmalaya  mountains,  which  is  termed  the 
Burrhal:  there  are  specimens  in  the  Museums  of  the  Linnaean  and  Zoological  Societies,  London.] 

The  Corsican  Moufflon  (Ov.  musimon,  Pal.)— appears  to  differ  only  in  its  inferior  size,  and  in  the  deficiency  or 
smallness  of  the  horns  in  the  female  sex.  It  is  said  to  be  also  found  in  Crete.  There  are  some  varieties  wholly 
or  partially  black,  and  others  more  or  less  white. 

It  is  probable  that  the  American  Moufflon  (Ov.  montana)  is  a species  of  Argali,  which  may  have  crossed  the  sea 
on  the  ice.  Its  horns  are  very  stout,  and  more  perfectly  spiral  than  those  of  the  Asiatic  Argali. 

The  African  Moufflon  (Ov.  tragelephus,  Cuv.)  has  soft  reddish  hair,  with  a long  mane  hanging  under  the  neck, 
and  another  at  each  ankle ; the  tail  short : it  appears  to  be  a distinct  species,  and  inhabits  the  rocky  regions  of 
Barbary ; M.  Geoffroy  observed  it  in  Egypt. 

From  the  Moufflon  or  Argali,  it  is  believed  that  the  innumerable  breeds  of  our  woolly  domestic  Sheep  have  been 
derived ; animals  which,  the  Dog  alone  excepted,  have  split  into  a greater  number  of  varieties  than  any  other. 
[One  remarkable  fact,  however,  at  variance  with  this  supposition,  and  which  we  have  never  yet  found  to  be 
noticed,  is,  that  all  the  wild  races  have  exceedingly  short  tails,  whereas  the  domestic  breeds  have  generally,  if 
not  always  when  unmutilated,  tails  that  reach  nearly  to  the  ground.  It  is  easier  to  conceive  the  loss  of  this 
appendage  in  certain  domestic  breeds,  than  its  acquirement  or  extension,  and  the  latter  theory  is  borne  out 
by  no  analogy]. 

We  have  some  in  Europe  with  fine  or  common  wool ; large  and  small ; with  big  or  little  horns,  wanting  in  the 
female,  or  in  both  sexes,  &c.  The  most  interesting  varieties  are  the  Spanish  or  Merino,  which  has  a fine  curly 
fleece,  with  large  spiral  horns  in  the  male,  now  beginning  to  be  diffused  through  Europe,  and  the  English,  which 
has  long  and  fine  wool.  The  most  common  variety  in  southern  Russia  has  a very  long  tail.  Those  of  India  and 



of  Guinea,  which  have  also  long  tails,  are  distinguished  by  their  long  legs,  very  convex  forehead,  pendent  ears, 
want  of  horns,  and  short  coarse  hair  instead  of  wool.  The  Sheep  of  Northern  Europe  and  Asia  are  mostly  of  small 
size,  with  a very  short  tail,  [the  truth  being,  that  this  appendage  is  merely  cut  short  by  the  shepherds  soon  after 
birth].  Those  of  Persia,  Tartary,  and  China,  have  the  tail  completely  transformed  into  a double  globe  of  fat. 
The  Syrian  and  Barbary  Sheep  retain  long  tails,  which  are  loaded  with  a vast  mass  of  fat.  In  both  the  latter 
varieties,  the  ears  are  pendent,  the  horns  large  in  the  Rams  and  middle-sized  in  the  Ewes  and  Wethers,  and  the 
wool  is  intermixed  with  hair. 

Sheep  are  valuable  for  their  flesh,  suet,  milk,  skin,  wool,  and  manure;  the  flocks,  well  managed,  proving  every- 
where a source  of  fertility.  The  Lamb  is  weaned  at  two  months,  and  sheds  its  milk  teeth  from  the  first  to  the 
third  year.  The  Ewe  propagates  at  one  year,  and  is  prolific  for  ten  or  twelve ; its  period  of  gestation  is  five 
months,  and  it  often  yeans  two  Lambs.  The  Ram,  adult  at  eighteen  months,  suffices  for  thirty  Ewes,  and  is 
enfeebled  at  eight  years  old. 

The  Oxen  (Bos,  Linn.) — 

Have  horns  directed  laterally,  inclining  upwards  or  forwards  in  a crescent  form ; they  are  large 
animals,  with  a broad  muzzle,  heavy  and  massive  body,  and  stout  limbs. 

The  Common  Ox  (.8.  taurus,  Lin.).— Specifically  distinguished  by  its  flat  forehead,  longer  than  broad,  and  round 
horns,  placed  at  the  two  extremities  of  a projecting  ridge  which  separates  the  forehead  from  the  occiput.  In 
fossil  skulls,  which  appear  to  have  belonged  to  this  species  in  its  original  condition  (the  TJrus  of  the  ancients), 
these  horns  curve  forwards  and  downwards ; but  in  the  numberless  domestic  varieties  they  vary  exceedingly  in 
size  and  direction,  and  are  sometimes  altogether  wanting.  The  ordinary  races  of  the  torrid  zone  have  all  a lump 
of  fat  upon  the  shoulders,  and  there  are  some  of  these  races  not  larger  than  a Hog.  Every  one  is  acquainted  with 
the  utility  of  these  animals  for  labour,  and  with  the  value  of  their  flesh,  fat,  milk,  hide,  and  even  horns.  The 
Cow  goes  with  young  nine  months,  and  produces  at  eighteen.  The  Bull  couples  at  eighteen  months  or  two  years, 

and  is  useless  at  ten. 

The  European  Bison,  or  Aurochs,  ( Bos  urus, 
Gm.) — This  species,  which  has  been  erroneously 
deemed  the  original  stock  of  our  domestic  cattle, 
is  distinguished  by  its  convex  forehead,  broader 
than  high,  by  the  attachment  of  its  horns  below 
the  occipital  ridge,  by  the  length  of  its  legs,  by  an 
additional  pair  of  ribs,  by  a sort  of  curly  wool 
which  covers  the  neck  of  the  male,  forming  a 
short  beard  under  the  throat,  and  by  its  grunting 
voice.  It  is  a savage  animal,  which  at  present 
finds  refuge  in  the  great  marshy  forests  of  Lithu- 
ania, of  the  Krapacs,  and  of  Caucasus,  but  which 
was  formerly  spread  all  over  temperate  Europe. 
It  is  the  largest  of  the  European  quadrupeds. 
[There  is  some  reason  for  suspecting  that  the 
Caucasian  or  Mountain  Bisons  are  not  identical 
with  those  of  Lithuania.] 

The  American  Bison,  termed  Buffalo  by  the 
Anglo-Americans,  ( B . bison,  Lin.). — The  bony 
head  very  like  that  of  the  preceding,  and  similarly 
covered,  together  with  the  neck  and  shoulders, 
with  frizzled  wool,  which  becomes  very  long  in 
winter ; but  its  limbs  and  tail  are  shorter,  [and  it 
has  yet  another  pair  of  ribs].  It  inhabits  all  the 
temperate  parts  of  North  America,  and  repro- 
duces with  the  domestic  Cow. 

The  Indian  Buffalo  (B.  bubalus,  Lin.). — Originally  from  India,  and  brought  into  Egypt,  Greece  and  Italy,  during 
the  middle  ages.  It-has  a convex  forehead,  longer  than  broad ; the  horns  are  directed  backward,  and  marked  in 
front  by  a longitudinal  projection.  This  animal  is  difficult  to  tame,  but  very  powerful,  and  prefers  marshy  places 
and  coarse  plants  on  which  the  Ox  could  not  live.  Its  milk  is  good,  and  the  hide  very  strong,  but  its  flesh  is  not 
esteemed.  There  is  a race  of  them  in  India,  the  horns  of  which  include  a space  of  ten  feet  from  tip  to  tip ; it  is 
named  Ami  in  Hindostan,  and  is  the  Bos  ami  of  Shaw.  [There  would  appear  to  be  several  different  wild  races, 
and  many  tame  ones,  varying  much  in  size.] 

The  Gy  all,  or  Jungle  Ox  (B.  frontalis,  Lambert),— resembles  the  Domestic  Ox  in  most  of  its  characters,  but 
has  horns  flattened  from  before  backwards,  and  no  angular  ridges.  They  are  directed  laterally  and  more  or  less 
upward,  but  not  backward.  It  is  a domestic  race  in  the  mountain  districts  of  the  north-east  of  India,  and 
is  perhaps  derived  from  the  intermixture  of  the  Buffalo  with  the  common  species.  [We  suspect  it  rather  to  be 
allied  to  the  original  stock,  if  it  be  not  really  the  latter,  of  the  various  humped  breeds  of  India.] 

The  Yak,  or  Grunting  Ox,  (B.  grunniens,  Pal.) — A small  species,  with  the  tail  completely  covered  with  long 
hairs  like  that  of  a Horse,  and  a long  mane  on  the  back  : its  head  appears  to  resemble  that  of  a Buffalo,  but  the 



horns  have  not  been  sufficiently  described.  This  animal,  mentioned  by  jElian,  was  originally  from  the 
mountains  of  Thibet.  Its  tail  constitutes  the  standard,  still  used  by  the  Turks  to  distinguish  their  superior 


The  Cape  Buffalo  (Bos  caffer , Sparm.).— Very 
large  horns,  directed  outward  and  downward  and 
then  turned  upward,  flattened,  and  so  large  at 
base  that  they  nearly  cover  the  forehead,  leaving 
only  a triangular  space,  the  point  of  which  is 
above.  It  is  a very  large  and  extremely  ferocious 
animal,  which  inhabits  the  woods  of  Caffraria. 
[There  are  other  African  Buffaloes  of  inferior  size, 
a female  of  one  of  which  (B.  brachyceros,  Gray), 
or  the  Short-horned  Buffalo,  with  very  large 
ears  and  well-proportioned  limbs,  is  now  living  in 
London.]  Lastly, 

The  Musk  Ox  (Bos  moschatus,  Gm.  [Ovibos  mos- 
chatus,  Blainv.]). — Horns  approximated  and  di- 
rected as  in  the  Cape  Buffalo,  but  meeting  on  the 
forehead  by  a straight  line:  those  of  the  female 
smaller  and  separated.  The  forehead  convex,  and 
extremity  of  the  muzzle  hairy.  It  stands  low,  and 
is  covered  with  long  hair,  that  reaches  the  ground. 
Tail  extremely  short  It  diffuses  more  strongly 
the  musky  odour  common  to  the  whole  genus, 
[and  which  is  also  particularly  noticeable  in  the 
European  Bison].  Inhabits  the  coldest  regions 
of  North  America,  where  alone  it  has  been  seen, 
c.  „ „ . though  its  skull  and  bones  are  sometimes  carried 

Fig.  6a. — Cape  Buffalo.  ° 

by  the  ice  to  Siberia. 



Consists  of  animals  without  liind-limbs  : the  trunk  being  continued  by  a thick  tail,  which 
terminates  in  a horizontal  cartilaginous  fin,  while  the  head  is  connected  to  the  body  by  so 
short  and  thick  a neck,  that  no  diminution  of 
its  circumference  is  perceptible : this  neck 
consists  of  very  slender  cervical  vertebrae,  that 
are  partly  ancliylosed  or  soldered  together. 

The  first  bones  of  their  anterior  extremities 
are  shortened,  and  the  succeeding  ones  flattened 
and  enveloped  in  a tendinous  membrane,  which 
reduces  them  to  the  condition  of  true  fins. 

Hence  the  external  form  is  absolutely  that  of 
fishes,  except  that  the  latter  have  the  tail-fin 
vertical.  They  always  therefore  remain  in  the 
water ; but  as  they  breathe  by  lungs,  they  are 
compelled  to  return  frequently  to  the  surface 
to  take  in  fresh  supplies  of  air.*  Their  warm  blood ; ears  that  open  externally,  though  by 
very  small  orifices ; their  viviparous  generation,  mammae  by  which  they  suckle  their  young, 
and  all  the  details  of  their  anatomy,  sufficiently  distinguish  them  from  fishes. 

* The  larger  species,  however,  will  remain  more  than  an  hour  I blood  required  to  store  these  cavities,  they  continue  breathing  for  a 
beneath  the  surface  : in  reference  to  which  faculty,  these  animals  I certain  regular  period,  at  each  time  of  coming  to  the  surface  for  that 
have  capacious  reservoirs  for  arterial  blood  along  the  dorsal  region,  I purpose. — Ed, 
and  even  within  the  head : hence,  to  oxygenate  the  great  volume  of  | 

Fig.  66. — Swimming  Paw  of  Whale. 

CETACEA.  145 

The  brain  is  large,  and  its  hemispheres  well  developed ; that  portion  of  the  cranium  which 
contains  the  internal  ear  is  separated  from  the  rest  of  the  head,  to  which  it  only  adheres  by 
ligaments.  There  are  never  any  external  ears,  nor  hairs  upon  the  body. 

The  form  of  the  tail  compels  them  to  flex  it  from  above  downwards,  to  produce  a progressive 
motion ; and  it  greatly  assists  them  in  rising  in  the  water. 

To  the  genera  hitherto  included,  we  add  others  formerly  confounded  with  the  Morses, 
[and  which  have  since,  with  still  greater  propriety,  been  placed  subordinately  to  the  great 
series  of  Pachydermata].  They  form  our  first  family,  or  that  of  the 

Cetacea  Herbivora, — 

The  teeth  of  which  have  flat  crowns,  which  determines  their  mode  of  life ; and  the  latter 
induces  them  to  leave  the  water  frequently,  to  seek  for  pasture  on  shore.  They  have  two 
teats  on  the  breast,  and  hairy  moustaches ; two  circumstances  which,  when  observed  from 
a distance  as  they  raise  the  anterior  portion  of  the  body  above  water,  may  give  them  some 
resemblance  to  human  beings,  and  have  probably  occasioned  those  fabulous  accounts  of 
Tritons  and  Sirens  which  some  mariners  pretend  to  have  seen.  Although,  in  the  cranium,  the 
bony  nostrils  open  towards  the  summit,  the  orifices  of  the  skin  are  pierced  at  the  end  of  the 
muzzle.  Their  stomach  is  divided  into  four  sacs,  of  which  two  are  lateral,  and  they  have  a 
large  ccecum. 

The  Manati  ( Manatus , Cuv.) — 

Have  an  oblong  body,  terminated  by  a lengthened  oval  fin:  their  grinders,  eight  in  number  throughout, 
have  square  crowns,  marked  by  two  transverse  ridges ; there  are  no  incisors  or  canines  in  the  adult, 
but,  when  very  young,  there  are  two  very  small  pointed  teeth  in  the  intermaxillary  bones,  which  soon 
disappear.  Vestiges  of  nails  are  visible  on  the  edges  of  their  swimming-paws,  which  they  employ 
with  some  address  in  carrying  their  young ; hence  the  comparison  of  these  organs  with  hands,  and 
the  name  of  Manatus  applied  to  the  animals.  From  their  manner  of  living,  they  are  also  called 
Sea-cows , &c. ; and  from  their  mammae,  Mermaids,  &c. 

The  Manati  ( Trichechus  manatus , Lin.), — Is  chiefly  found  near  the  mouths  of  rivers,  in  the  hottest  parts  of  the 
Atlantic  Ocean  ; and  it  does  not  appear  that  those  of  the  American  rivers  differ  specifically  from  those  of  Africa. 
They  grow  to  the  length  of  fifteen  feet,  and  their  flesh  is  eaten.  [M.  F.  Cuvier,  from  examination  of  the  crania, 
arrived  at  the  conclusion  that  the  African  species  (M.  senegalensis,  Adanson)  was  satisfactorily  distinct ; and  a 
third,  from  the  rivers  of  Florida,  has  since  been  distinguished  by  Dr.  Harlan  as  M.  latirostris.] 

The  Dugongs  ( Halicore , Illig.) — 

Have  grinders  composed  of  two  cones  laterally  united : the  teeth  implanted  in  the  incisive  bones 
continue  to  increase  in  length,  till  they  become  true  pointed  tusks,  but  are  in  great  part  covered  by 
thick  fleshy  lips,  that  are  bristled  with  moustaches.  The  body  is  elongated,  and  the  tail  terminated  by 
a crescent-shaped  flapper. 

We  know  but  of  one  species  (II.  dugong),  which  inhabits  the  Indian  Ocean,  and  has  been  confounded  by  several 
travellers  with  the  Manati.  Like  that  animal,  it  has  been  named  Siren,  Sea-cow,  &c.  [There  is  reason  to  suspect 
the  existence  of  several  species  of  this  genus ; that  of  the  Red  Sea  is  described  by  M.  Ruppell  by  the  appellation 
II.  tabernaculus.'] 

The  Stellerines  ( Rytina , Illig.) — 

Appear  to  have  only  a single  composite  grinder  on  each  side,  with  a flat  crown,  and  elevated  ridges  of 
enamel.  Their  swimming-paws  have  not  even  the  little  nails  observable  in  the  Manati.  According  to 
Steller,  the  first,  and  hitherto  the  only  one  who  has  described  them,  their  stomach  also  is  much  more 

But  one  species  is  known,  which  inhabits  the  southern  parts  of  the  Pacific  Ocean.  [It  is  entirely  covered  with 
a thick  rugged  cuirass,  formed  of  agglutinated  hairs,  like  the  hoofs  of  ungulated  quadrupeds. 

The  second  family,  or  the  animals  which  constitute  the 

Cetacea  Ordinaria, — 

Are  distinguished  from  the  preceding  by  the  singular  apparatus  from  which  they  have 
received  the  appellation  of  Blowers.  As  with  their  prey  they  necessarily  engulf,  in  their 



capacious  mouths,  a great  volume  of  water,  there  required  to  be  some  method  of  getting  rid 
of  it ; and  accordingly  it  passes  through  the  nostrils  by  means  of  a peculiar  disposition  of  the 
velum  palati,  and  is  accumulated  in  a sac  situated  at  the  external  orifice  of  the  cavity  of  the 
nose,  whence,  by  the  compression  of  powerful  muscles,  it  is  violently  expelled  through  a 
narrow  aperture  pierced  on  the  summit  of  the  head.  It  is  thus  that  these  animals  produce 
those  jets  of  water  observed  by  mariners  at  so  great  a distance.  Their  nostrils,  continually 
bathed  in  salt  water,  could  not  be  lined  with  a membrane  sufficiently  delicate  to  enable  them  to 
perceive  odours ; hence  they  have  none  of  those  projecting  laminae  observed  in  other  animals  : 
the  olfactory  nerve  is  in  some  wanting,  and  if  there  be  any  endowed  with  the  sense  of  smell, 
it  must  be  in  a very  slight  degree.  Their  larynx,  of  a pyramidal  form,  penetrates  into  the 
posterior  portion  of  the  nostrils,  to  receive  air  and  conduct  it  to  the  lungs,  without  the  animal 
being  obliged  to  raise  its  head  and  throat  above  water  for  that  purpose  : there  are  no  pro- 
jecting laminae  in  the  glottis,  and  the  voice  is  reduced  to  simple  bellowing.  They  have  no 
vestige  of  hair*,  but  the  whole  body  is  covered  with  a smooth  skin,  under  which  [or  more 
strictly,  forming  part  of  it,]  is  that  thick  layer  of  blubber  abounding  in  oil,  the  principal 
object  for  which  they  are  pursued. 

The  mammae  are  placed  near  the  anus,  and  their  swimming-paws  are  incapable  of 

Their  stomach  has  five  and  sometimes  as  many  as  seven  distinct  sacs ; instead  of  one  single 
spleen,  they  have  several,  that  are  small  and  globular.  Those  species  which  have  teeth  have 
them  all  conical  and  similar  to  one  another  for  they  do  not  chew  their  food,  but  swallow  it 

Two  little  bones  suspended  in  the  flesh,  near  the  anus,  are  the  sole  remaining  vestiges  of 
posterior  limbs. 

Several  have  a vertical  fin  on  the  back,  composed  of  a tendinous  substance,  but  unsup- 
ported by  bone.  Their  eyes,  flattened  in  front,  have  a thick  and  solid  schlerotica  j and  the 
teguments  of  the  tongue  are  soft  and  smooth. 

They  may  be  subdivided  into  two  small  tribes  : those  in  which  the  head  bears  the  usual 
proportion  to  the  body,  and  those  in  which  it  is  immoderately  large ; the  first  comprehending 
the  Dolphins  and  the  Narwhals. 

The  Dolphins  ( Delphinus , Lin.) — 

Have  teeth  in  both  jaws,  all  simple,  and  nearly  always  conical.  They  are  the  most  carnivorous,  and, 
in  proportion  to  their  size,  the  most  cruel  of  their  order.  There  is  no  coecum. 

The  Dolphins,  properly  so  called,  ( Delphinus , Cuv.) — 

Have  a convex  forehead,  and  the  muzzle,  which  forms  a kind  of  beak  in  front  of  the  head,  more 
slender  than  the  rest. 

The  Common  Dolphin  (D.  delphis,  Lin.).— The  beak-like  snout  depressed,  and  armed  on  each  side  of  both  jaws 
with  from  forty-two  to  forty-seven  slender,  curved,  and  pointed  teeth  : it  is  black  above,  white  below,  and  eight  or 
ten  feet  in  length.  This  animal,  found  in  vast  herds  in  every  sea  [?],  and  celebrated  for  the  velocity  of  its  move- 
ments, which  sometimes  precipitate  it  on  the  decks  of  vessels,  appears  really  to  have  been  the  Dolphin  of  the 
ancients.  The  entire  organization  of  its  brain  would  seem  to  indicate  the  docility  which  they  attributed  to  it.f 
The  Great  Dolphin  (D.  tursio,  Bonaterre.) — The  beak  short,  broad,  and  depressed  ; twenty-one  to  twenty-four 
teeth  on  each  side  above  and  below,  which  are  conical,  and  often  worn  down  : some  individuals  are  more  than 
fifteen  feet  in  length.  It  appears  that  they  are  found  in  the  Mediterranean  as  well  as  in  the  Ocean  [and,  though 
seldom  taken,  on  account  of  the  extreme  rapidity  of  their  movements,  they  are  not  rare  in  the  British  seas.  There 
are  numerous  others]. 

M.  de  Blainville  separates  from  these  first  Dolphins,  under  the  term 

Delphinorynchus, — 

Those  species  in  which  the  snout,  though  elongated  and  slender,  is  not  separated  from  the  forehead 
by  a distinct  groove. 

* Except  in  the  genus  Inia,  d’Orbigny,  wherein  there  are  true  I Hippuris),  celebrated  for  its  beautiful  iridescent  colours,  which  bears 
moustaches  — Ed.  the  same  popular  name, — Ed. 

t This  animal  must  not  be  confounded  with  a fish  ( Coryphcena  I 







One  has  been  thrown  upon  our  coasts  (D.  micropterus,  Cuv.),  remarkable  for  the  small  size  and  backward  posi- 
tion of  its  dorsal  fin ; it  attains  a length  of  fifteen  feet,  and  loses  all  its  teeth  at  an  early  age.  [Only  a single 
specimen  of  this  remarkable  species  has  ever  been  obtained,  which  was  cast  upon  the  shore  near  Havre : its  form 
is  slender  and  elongated,  and  the  head  is  externally  attached  to  the  body  by  a distinct  neck.  No  teeth  were 
discovered  in  either  jaw  in  the  recent  state ; but  after  the  gums  were  removed,  a few  rudimentary  teeth  were 
found  in  the  lower  jaw,  as  often  happens  in  the  upper  jaw  of  the  Cachalots.  This  animal  constitutes  the  Aodon, 
we  believe,  of  Lesson.] 

Another,  which  also  sometimes  occurs  in  our  seas  (D.  rostratus,  Cuv.),  has  a slender  muzzle,  externally  all  even 
with  the  head,  and  twenty-one  teeth  on  each  side  of  both  jaws.  Its  dorsal  is  of  the  ordinary  size. 

The  Soosoo  of  the  Ganges  ( D . gangeticus,  Roxburgh)  should  be  separated  from  the  foregoing,  having  the 
spiracle  in  a longitudinal  line,  and  slender  jaws  swoln  at  the  end.  [Its  teeth  are  thirty  on  each  side  above  and 
below,  and  according  to  M.  F.  Cuvier,  the  long  symphysis  and  the  intermaxillary  crests  approximate  it  to  the 
Cachalots.]  It  ascends  very  high  up  the  Ganges,  and  is  probably  the  Platanista  of  Pliny,  [which  might  be 
adopted  as  its  generic  designation]. 

The  Porpoises  ( Phoccena , Cuv.) — 

Have  no  beak  [the  largeness  of  the  front-head  compensating  for  its  non-extension],  but  a short 
muzzle,  uniformly  convex. 

The  Common  Porpoise  ( Delph . phoccena,  Lin.),  compressed  and  trenchant  teeth,  of  a rounded  form,  to  the 
number  of  twenty-two  or  twenty-four  on  each  side  of  both  jaws ; blackish  above,  the  under-parts  white.  It  is 
[one  of]  the  smallest  of  the  Cetacea,  not  exceeding  four  or  five  feet  in  length,  and  is  very  common  in  all  our 
seas,  where  it  associates  in  vast  herds. 

The  Grampus  (D.  orca  and  D.  gladiator,  Auct.). — Large  conical  teeth,  a little  crooked,  eleven  on  each  side  above 
and  below,  the  posterior  transversely  flattened : body  black  above  and  white  beneath;  a whitish  crescent-shaped 
mark  over  the  eye ; and  the  dorsal  fin  elevated  and  pointed.  It  is  the  largest  of  the  Dolphin  group,  becoming 
from  twenty  to  twenty-five  feet  in  length ; and  is  a cruel  enemy  to  the  Whale,  which  it  attacks  in  troops,  tor- 
menting it  till  it  opens  its  mouth,  when  they  devour  the  tongue. 

A smaller  species  is  occasionally  met  with  on  our  coasts  (D.  aries,  Risso ; [ Ph . griseus,  F.  Cuv.] ),  which  loses 
its  upper  teeth  at  an  early  age,  and  retains  but  few  of  the  lower  : its  dorsal  fin  is  less  elevated  and  placed  farther 
backward  than  in  the  Grampus,  which  latter  is  the  true  Aries  of  the  ancients.  The  Epaulard  ventru  of  Bonaterre 
presents  a similar  form ; but  Hunter’s  specimen  was  eighteen  feet  in  length,  whereas  the  present  species  does  not 
exceed  ten. 

[The  species  with  globular  heads  compose  the 

Globicephalus,  Lesson.] 

The  Deductor,  or  Ca'ing  Whale  (Delph.  globiceps,  Cuv.  [_Gl.  deductor,  Scoresby] ).— Head  globular,  with  long  and 
pointed  swimming  paws : attains  a length  of  more  than  twenty  feet ; and  is  black,  with  a white  streak  from  the 
throat  to  the  anus.  This  species  lives  in  troops  of  several  hundreds,  conducted  by  old  males ; and  is  sometimes 
thrown  upon  our  coasts.  It  has  from  nine  to  thirteen  teeth  on  each  side  above  and  below,  but  loses  all  of  them 
with  age.  [A  beautiful  second  species  (Gl.  Rissii ) exists  in  the  Mediterranean,  and  two  others  have  been  deli- 
neated and  described.] 

The  Delphinapterus,  Lacepede, — 

Merely  differs  from  the  Porpoises  in  having  no  dorsal  fin.  [This  name  has  more  recently  been  con- 
fined to  such  as  have  a beak  like  the  Dolphins,  the  others  constituting  the 

Beluga,  Lesson. 

To  the  latter  subdivision  appertains] 

The  White  Beluga  (Delph.  leucos,  Gm. ; D.  albicans,  Fabr.),  with  nine  teeth  on  each  side  above  and  below, 
thick  and  blunt  throughout ; a yellowish-white  skin  ; head  externally  convex  like  that  of  a Porpoise,  [but  more 
approaching  to  globular],  and  size  that  of  a Grampus.  It  inhabits  all  the  glacial  seas,  and  sometimes  ascends 
rivers  to  some  distance.  [Is  occasionally  met  with  on  the  British  coasts. 

To  the  restricted 

Delphinapterus — 


The  White-beaked  Dolphin  of  Peron  (D.  leucoramphus , Per. ; [ Delphinapterus  Peronii,  Less.],  an  inhabitant  of 
the  Austral  seas,  the  head  of  which  is  but  slightly  convex  and  rather  pointed,  and  the  muzzle,  part  of  the  swim- 
ming-paws, and  all  the  under  parts  of  the  body,  lustrous-white ; the  superior  portion  black.  It  has  from  thirty- 
eight  to  forty-two  teeth  on  each  side  above  and  below.* 

* M.  Rafinesque  speaks  of  a Dolphin  with  two  dorsal  fins  [on  which  I but  as  they  only  saw  it  at  a distance,  and  half-immersed  in  the  waves, 
he  bestows  the  appellation  Oxypterus]  ; and  M.  M.Quoy  and  Gaymard  I there  may  have  been  some  optical  delusion, 
saw  one  they  have  named  D.  rhinocerot,  Voy.  de  Freycinet,  ii.  f.  21  ; I 

L 2 



The  Bottle-heads  ( Hyperoodon , Lacep.) — 

Have  the  body  and  muzzle  nearly  similar  externally  to  those  of  the  Dolphins  properly  so  called,  but 
the  cranium  is  laterally  elevated  by  vertical  bony  partitions : most  usually  there  are  found  only  two 
small  teeth  in  the  fore-part  of  the  lower  jaw,  which  do  not  always  appear  externally ; the  palate  is 
studded  with  small  tubercles,  [and  there  is  a small  dorsal  fin]. 

But  one  species  is  known,  which  attains  a length  of  five-and-twentv  feet,  and  perhaps  more,  [Delph.  edentulus, 
Schreb. ; D.  bulskopf,  Lacepede ; D.  bidentatus,  Hunter ; D.  Hunteri,  Desm. ; the  Bottle-nosed  Whale  of  Hunter]. 
— It  is  taken  in  the  British  Channel  and  the  North  Sea,  and  is  often  designated  Baleine  a bee. 

[The  Diodons  ( Diodon , Lesson)— 

Principally  differ  from  the  preceding  in  having  a flattened  forehead : their  lower  jaw  is  much  larger 
than  the  upper,  and  convex. 

There  is  a species  in  the  Mediterranean  {Delph.  Desmarestii,  Risso),  fifteen  feet  in  length ; a specimen  of  which, 
or  of  another  closely  allied,  was  cast  on  shore  on  the  coast  of  Scotland  {D.  Sowerbii,  Desm.  and  Blainv.)  Several 
others  are  said  to  belong  to  this  subdivision.] 

The  Narwhal  ( Monodon , Lin.) — 

Has  no  teeth,  properly  so  called ; but  very  long  and  slender-pointed  tusks  implanted  in  the  inter- 
maxillary bones,  and  directed  in  the  line  of  the  axis  of  the  body.  The  form  of  their  body  and  head 
greatly  resembles  that  of  the  Porpoises,  [and  still  more  the  Beluga,  as  noticed  by  Prof.  Bell ; the 
swimming  paws  being  also  remarkably  small,  and  the  dorsal  fin  wanting,  as  in  the  latter  animal]. 

Only  one  species  is  known  {Mon.  monoceros , Lin. ; [Narwhalus microcephalus,  Bonat.,  Lacep.,  Desm.]),  the  tusk 
of  which,  grooved  spirally,  and  sometimes  ten  feet  long,  was  formerly  termed  the  horn  of  the  Unicorn.  This 
animal  possesses  the  germs  of  two  tusks,  but  it  is  seldom  that  both  become  equally  developed.  That  on  the  left 
side  usually  attains  its  full  growth,  while  the  other  remains  permanently  concealed  within  its  socket,  its  develope- 
ment  having  been  prevented  by  its  interior  cavity  becoming  too  rapidly  filled  with  the  deposition  of  ivory,  which 
thus  obliterates  its  gelatinous  core.  According  to  the  description  of  the  Narwhal,  it  is  scarcely  more  than  twice 
or  three  times  the  length  of  its  tusk ; the  skin  is  marbled  with  brown  and  whitish ; it  has  a convex  muzzle,  small 
mouth,  spiracle  placed  on  the  top  of  the  head,  and  no  dorsal  fin,  but  merely  a projecting  crest  the  whole  length  of 
its  spine.  The  teeth  are  sometimes  found  perfectly  smooth. 

[We  may  here  mention,  at  the  conclusion  of  the  Cetacea  with  moderate-sized  heads,  an  extremely 
remarkable  genus, — 

The  Ini  a,  d’Orbigny, — 

Which  has  the  external  form  of  the  Dolphins,  properly  so  called,  with  some  coarse  bristly  hairs  on  the 
snout : the  spiracle  is  placed  far  backward,  above  the  swimming-paws ; the  lips  are  deeply  cleft  to 
beneath  the  eye;  and  there  is  a small  dorsal  fin,  and  proportionally  large  auditory  aperture. 

The  only  species  known  {I.  Boliviensis,  d’Orb.)  is  remarkable  for  occurring  thousands  of  miles  from  the  sea, 
appearing  to  inhabit  only  the  remote  tributaries  of  the  Amazons,  and  the  elevated  lakes  of  Peru : the  singular 
character  of  possessing  bristly  hairs  on  the  snout  has  also  been  observed  in  them  when  very  young.  This  species 
has  large  swimming-paws,  and  thirty-four  teeth  on  each  side  above  and  below,  all  of  them  rough,  marked  with 
deep  and  interrupted  furrows,  and  of  an  irregular  mammalory  shape  behind,  which  is  very  peculiar.  A female 
specimen  measured  seven  feet  long,  and  the  males  are  stated  to  be  double  that  size  : colour  variable,  commonly 
pale  blue  above,  passing  into  a roseate  hue  beneath.  It  comes  more  frequently  to  the  surface  than  the  marine 
species,  and  is  generally  met  with  in  troops  of  three  or  four  individuals.] 

The  remaining  Cetacea  have  the  head  so  very  large,  as  to  constitute  one-third  or  even  half 
the  entire  length ; but  neither  the  cranium  nor  the  brain  participates  in  this  disproportion, 
which  is  wholly  due  to  an  enormous  developement  of  the  bones  of  the  face. 

The  Cachalots  ( Physeter , Lin.), — 

Are  Cetacea  with  a most  voluminous  head,  excessively  enlarged,  particularly  in  front ; in  the  upper  jaw 
of  which  there  are  neither  teeth  nor  baleen  ( whalebone ),  or,  if  any  of  the  former,  they  are  small,  and 
•not  projecting  beyond  the  gum ; but  the  lower  jaw,  straight,  elongated,  and  corresponding  to  a groove 
in  the  upper  one,  is  armed  on  its  two  sides  with  a row  of  cylindrical  or  conical  teeth,  which  enter  into 
corresponding  cavities  of  the  upper  jaw  when  the  mouth  is  closed.  The  superior  portion  of  their 
enormous  head  consists  almost  entirely  of  large  cavities,  separated  and  covered  by  cartilages,  and  filled 
with  an  oil  that  becomes  concrete  on  cooling,  well  known  in  commerce  by  the  name  spermaceti , a 



substance  for  which  they  are  principally  hunted,  as  the  body  does  not  yield  a large  proportion  of 
blubber : these  cavities,  however,  are  very  distinct  from  the  true  cranium,  which  is  rather  small,  is 
placed  under  their  posterior  portion,  and  contains  the  brain  as  usual.  It  appears  that  cavities  filled 
with  this  spermaceti,  or  adipocire  as  it  is  called,  are  distributed  to  several  parts  of  the  body,  communi- 
cating with  those  which  fill  the  mass  of  the  head ; they  even  ramify  through  the  external  fat  or 
blubber.  The  odorous  substance  known  by  the  appellation  ambergris  appears  to  be  a concretion 
formed  in  the  intestines  of  the  Cachalots,  particularly  during  certain  states  of  disease,  and,  it  is  said, 
chiefly  in  the  ccecum. 

The  species  of  this  genus  are  by  no  means  well  determined.  That  which  appears  most  common,  the  Ph.  macro- 
cephalus  of  Shaw  and  Bonaterre,  but  not  of  Linnaeus,  has  a mere  callous  prominence  instead  of  a dorsal  fin ; there 
are  from  twenty  to  twenty-three  teeth  on  each  side  of  the  lower  jaw,  and  small  conical  ones  hidden  beneath  the 
gum  in  the  upper : its  blow-hole  is  single,  and  not  double  as  in  the  greater  number  of  Cetacea ; neither  is  it 
symmetrical,  but  is  directed  towards  the  left,  and  terminates  on  that  side  on  the  front  of  the  muzzle,  which  latter 
is  truncate.*  In  addition  to  this,  it  is  stated  that  the  left  eye  is  often  smaller  than  the  other,  for  which  reason  the 
whalers  endeavour  to  attack  it  on  that  side.  This  species  must  be  very  extensively  distributed,  if,  as  is  asserted, 
it  alone  furnishes  the  whole  of  the  spermaceti  and  ambergris  of  commerce,  for  these  substances  are  brought  from 
both  the  north  and  south.  Cachalots  without  a dorsal  fin  have  even  been  taken  in  the  Adriatic. 

The  Physeters,  Lacepede, — 

Are  Cachalots  with  a dorsal  fin. 

Two  species  only  have  been  distinguished  ( microps , and  tursio  or  mular),  and  those  merely  by  the  equivocal 
character  of  having  the  teeth  curved  or  straight,  blunt  or  pointed.  These  animals  are  found  both  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean and  glacial  seas,  in  the  latter  of  which  they  are  reputed  to  be  cruel  enemies  to  the  Seals. 

The  Whales  ( Balcena , Lin.) — 

Equal  the  Cachalots  in  size,  and  in  the  proportional  dimensions  of  the  head,  although  the  latter  is  not 
so  much  enlarged  in  front ; but  they  have  no  teeth  whatever  [beyond  the  rudiments  of  them  in  the 
foetal  state].  The  two  sides  of  their  upper  jaw,  which  is  keel-shaped,  are  furnished  with  thin,  trans- 
verse, serrated  laminae,  termed  baleen  or  whalebone , composed  of  a sort  of  fibrous  horn  fringed  at  the 
edges,  which  serve  to  retain  [and  strain  from  the  water]  the  minute  animals  on  which  these  enormous 
cetaceans  feed.  Their  inferior  jaw,  supported  by  two  osseous  branches  arched  outwardly  and  upward, 
without  any  armature,  affords  lodgment  to  a very  thick  and  fleshy  tongue,  and,  when  the  mouth  is 
closed,  envelopes  all  the  internal  part  of  the  upper  jaw  and  the  baleen  with  which  it  is  invested.  These 
organs  do  not  allow  Whales  to  feed  on  such  large  animals  as  their  vast  size  would  lead  to  imagine. 
They  subsist  on  fish,  but  principally  on  worms,  mollusks,  and  zoophytes,  and  it  is  said  that  they 
chiefly  take  the  very  smallest,  which  become  entangled  in  the  filaments  of  the  baleen.  Their  nostrils, 
better  organized  for  smell  than  those  of  the  Dolphins,  have  some  ethmoidal  laminae,  and  appear  to 
receive  some  small  olfactory  nervous  filaments.  They  have  a short  ccecum. 

The  Great  Northern  Whale  ( B . mysticetus , Lin.)  was  long  considered  to  be  the  largest  of  known  animals,  but  it 
appears  from  the  recent  observations  of  Capt.  Scoresby,  that  it  scarcely  ever  exceeds  seventy  feet  in  length,  which 
the  Rorquals  or  Whales  with  wrinkled  bellies  frequently  surpass.  It  has  no  dorsal  fin.  To  procure  its  blubber, 
often  several  feet  in  thickness,  and  yielding  an  immense  quantity  of  oil,  whole  fleets  are  annually  equipped  in 
pursuit  of  it.  Formerly  bold  enough  to  venture  into  our  seas,  it  has  gradually  retired  to  the  far  north,  where  the 
number  is  daily  diminishing.  Besides  its  oil,  it  furnishes  the  black  and  flexible  whalebone  of  commerce,  the  pieces 
of  which  are  eight  or  ten  feet  long,  and  to  the  number  of  eight  or  nine  hundred  on  each  side  of  the  palate.  A 
hundred  and  twenty  tons  of  oil  are  obtained  from  a single  individual.  Shelled  Mollusks  attach  themselves  to  its 
skin,  and  multiply  there  as  upon  a rock ; the  Balanus  family  even  penetrate  into  it.  The  excrement  is  of  a fine 
red  colour,  and-affords  a tolerable  dye.  There  is  a very  similar  species  in  the  Antarctic  seas. 

Other  species, 

The  Rorquals  ( Balcenoptera , Lacepede),— 

Have  a dorsal  fin,  and  are  subdivided  according  as  the  belly  is  smooth  or  wrinkled.  [As  the  former 
section  is  unquestionably  founded  in  error,  as  suspected  by  Cuvierf,  we  pass  to  those]  which  have  the 
throat  and  under-parts  wrinkled  with  deep  longitudinal  folds,  and  consequently  susceptible  of  great 
dilatation,  the  intent  of  which,  in  their  economy,  is  yet  unknown. 

* We  have  verified  on  two  crania  this  want  of  symmetry  in  the  | induces  us  to  credit  the  inequality  of  the  eyes  mentioned  by  Eg£de. 
spiracle,  announced  by  Dudley,  Anderson,  and  Swediauer,  which  I t The  wrinkled  belly  being  simply  filled  out  with  water. 



There  are  two  in  the  European  seas,  viz., — the  Great  Rorqual  ( Bal . hoops,  Lin.),— superior  in  length  to  the  com- 
mon Whale,  and  shunned  on  account  of  its  extreme  ferocity,  and  the  small  quantity  of  its  oil ; and  the  Small  Ror- 
qual {Bal.  musculus,  Lin.),  which  differs  from  the  other  [in  its  very  inferior  size,  in  its  proportions,  and  number 
of  vertebrae.  There  is  a third  in  the  southern  seas,  and  also  a distinct  fossil  species. 

On  proceeding  to  determine  the  fixed  analogies  of  the  teeth  throughout  the  different  groups  of  Mammalia,  we 
have  arrived  (since  most  of  the  foregoing  pages  were  stereotyped)  at  the  conclusion,  that  no  placental  mammalian 
has  more  than  three  pairs  of  incisors,  or  three  pairs  of  true  or  persistent  molars,  (normally,)  in  either  jaw ; all 
seeming  exceptions  being  reducible  to  this  general  proposition : whereas  the  Marsupials  have  normally  four  of 
each,  and  some  even  five.  By  persistent  molars,  are  intended  those  which  are  not  preceded  by  milk-teeth. 

Following,  then,  the  indications  afforded  by  the  structure  of  the  molars,  (which  we  conceive  to  furnish  the  most 
available  guide  to  sound  classification,)  we  are  next  led  to  recognize  two  principal  varieties  of  dentition  among  the 
Placentalia,  to  one  or  the  other  of  which  every  observed  modification  may  be  definitively  referred.  These  two 
varieties  are  characteristic  of  a great  zoophagous  type  and  a great  phytophagous  type. 

Where  exceptions  occur  in  the  former  instance,  the  amylaceous  parts  of  vegetables,  as  fruits,  seeds,  and  fari- 
naceous bulbs  or  roots,  are  almost  exclusively  resorted  to ; and  animal  products  are  preferred  to  the  composition 
of  the  recent  carcass  in  those  few  exceptive  cases  which,  in  a trivial  degree,  affect  the  latter  generalization. 

The  zoophagous  type  of  dentition  is  obviously  of  a higher  grade  than  the  other,  and  the  animals  in  which  it 
occurs  require  more  nutritious  aliment. 

Throughout  the  zoophagous  division,  the  molars  are  compact  in  texture,  and  the  enamel  never  dips  into  their 
substance ; the  basal  growth  of  the  teeth  (except  the  pseudo-incisive  canines  only,  in  the  very  singular  genus 
Cheiromys,)  ceases  upon  the  latter  attaining  their  required  size ; in  consequence  of  which  they  gradually  wear 
down  by  attrition,  till  in  aged  animals  they  are  not  unfrequently  reduced  to  stumps. 

In  the  phytophagous  division,  the  molars  are  much  less  compact,  and  the  enamel  generally  dips  into 
their  substance  in  various  ways;  the  teeth  are  commonly  furnished  with  persistent  formative  pulps,  which 
deposit  fresh  substance  at  their  base  as  their  crowns  wear  away,  so  that  they  continue  permanently  growing.  The 
exceptions  that  occur  to  this  general  definition  do  not  intrinsically  affect  the  distinctness  of  the  present  group 
from  the  other,  and  are  easily  understood,  so  that  a transverse  section  of  a molar  (known  to  be  that  of  a placental 
animal)  will  suffice  in  every  instance  for  the  determination  to  which  it  belongs. 

These  two  great  divisions  somewhat  analogously  subdivide  each  into  two  sections,  which  differ  considerably  in 
the  general  details  of  their  organization,  and  most  commonly  in  the  structure  of  the  teeth.  They  may  be  regarded 
as  normal  and  abnormal  sections. 

In  the  normal  sections  of  the  zoophagous  and  phytophagous  grand  divisions  of  Placentalia,  the  four  sorts  of 
teeth— incisors,  canines,  renewed  and  persistent  molars— are  generally  present,  or  at  least  three  sorts  of  them, 
each  characterized  by  a particular  form  and  structure  different  from  the  rest.  In  the  abnormal  sections,  the  teeth 
are  commonly  much  more  numerous,  and  alike  in  structure,  and  consist  principally  or  even  wholly  of  false 
molars ; all  of  them  are  without  exception  single-rooted. 

We  might  consider  these  four  sections  as  Orders , and  denominate  them  as  follow. 

A.  Zoophagous  type. 

1.  Typodontia.  Normal:  comprehending  the  Bimana,  Quadrumana,  and  Carnassiers  of  Cuvier. 

2.  Isodontia.  Abnormal : consisting  of  the  Cetacea  of  Cuvier,  divested  of  the  herbivorous  subdivision. 

B.  Phytophagous  type. 

3.  Diplodontia.  Normal:  comprising  the  Pachydermata,  Cetacea  herbivora,  Rodentia,  and  Ruminantia  of 
the  same  naturalist. 

4.  Aplodontia.  Abnormal : corresponding  to  the  Edentata  of  Cuvier,  divested  of  the  Monotremata. 

These  together  constitute  the  normal  or  placental  subclass  of  Mammalia;  and  the  abnormal  or  ovo-viviparous 
subclass  might  range  in  two  orders  only,  viz. : 

5.  Heterodontia.  Normal:  or  the  Marsupiata : and 

6.  Pseudodontia.  Abnormal : or  the  Monotremata. 

The  Typodontia  primarily  subdivide  into  the  Pnmates  and  Ferce  of  Linnaeus,  or  fecundates , as  the  latter  has 
recently  been  termed  by  De  Blainville. 

The  Primates  are  characterized  by  the  external  distinctions  popularly  known,  and  also,  it  maybe  added,  by  their 
hair  being  of  one  sort  only,  having  never  any  softer  felt  beneath  it.*  They  separate  into  Cheiropoda  and  Cheiroptera. 

The  Cheiropoda  comprise  the  Bimana  and  Quadrumana  of  Cuvier,  but  not  the  marsupial  handed  animals,  in- 
cluded under  this  name  by  Mr.  Ogilby.  They  have  never  more  than  four  incisors  in  either  jaw,  invariably  pos- 
sess a coecum,  have  no  os  penis,  and  are  born  with  the  eyes  open.  They  subdivide  into  Anthropida  and  Lemuria. 

The  Anthropida  are  characterized  by  the  general  form  of  the  head,  the  complete  separation  of  the  orbits  from 
the  temporal  fossa  by  a bony  partition,  by  having  the  incisors  broad  and  contiguous,  and  vertical,  or  nearly  so, 
in  both  jaws,  by  their  anthropoid  molars,  &c.  Their  teeth  form  an  even  series,  the  continuity  of  which  is  only 
broken  by  the  interspace  required  for  the  reception  of  the  opposite  canine ; and  in  Man  only,  where  the  canines 
are  not  lengthened  beyond  the  other  teeth,  even  this  vacuity  does  not  occur.  They  fall  into  the  Catarrliini  and 
Platyrrhini  of  Geoffroy,  according  to  the  number  of  false  molars ; and  the  circumstance  of  their  being  respectively 
peculiar  to  the  Old  and  New  Worlds,  affords  a presumptive  argument  that  the  human  genus,  which  pertains 
strictly  to  the  former,  is  not  indigenous  to  America. 

We  were  deceived  by  certain  appearances  in  stating  that  exceptions  to  this  rule  existed,  at  pp.  57,  60. 


The  Lemuria  are  mostly  distinguished  by  a vulpine  muzzle,  with  separated  incisors  in  the  upper  jaw,  those  of 
the  lower  directed  horizontally  forward,  as  are  also  the  inferior  canines,  which  the  author  reckoned  as  a third  pair 
of  incisors.  Their  cheek-teeth  are  often  sharply  tuberculated  ; and  the  doubling  down  of  the  ears  in  some,  the 
character  of  the  fur,  the  particular  structure  of  the  female  reproductive  organs,  nocturnal  habits,  and  a variety  of 
other  characters,  forcibly  recall  to  mind  the  insectivorous  Bats.  Among  them,  the  genus  Cheirogaleus  is  remark- 
able for  the  total  absence  of  superior  canines ; and  that  of  Cheiromys  for  having  rodent  canines,  which  pass 
through  the  intermaxillary  bones,  and  supply  the  place  of  incisors,  which  are  altogether  wanting. 

The  Cheiroptera  have  never  more  than  four  incisors  to  the  upper  jaw,  but  commonly  six  below,  which  is  the 
normal  complement.  Amongst  their  less  obvious  distinctive  characters  from  the  other  Primates,  may  be  mentioned 
the  constant  absence  of  any  coecum,  and  the  presence  of  a small  os  penis  within  the  glans,  but  different  from  that  ! 
of  ordinary  occurrence  among  the  Secundates.  They  are  born  with  their  eyes  closed.  Following  the  fancy  of 
Linnaeus  in  applying  the  name  Lemur  to  the  preceding  group,  we  propose  to  designate  the  two  principal  divisions 
of  Cheiroptera, — Harpy dia  and  Spectra,  which,  in  various  respects,  are  analogous  to  the  Anthropida  and  Lemuria. 

The  Harpydia  have  blunt  molars,  an  extremely  elongated  stomach,  and  long  intestines ; also  a sonorous  voice, 
and  most  usually  a claw  to  the  fore-finger.  Though  stated  to  feed,  in  some  instances,  partly  on  insects,  we  have 
reason  to  believe  (from  recent  observation  of  a living  animal,  which  invariably  rejects  all  insect-food  that  is  offered 
to  it,)  that  they  are  exclusively  frugivorous.  All  are  peculiar  to  the  eastern  hemisphere. 

The  Spectra  have  a globular  stomach,  short  intestines,  and  sharp  tubercles  to  the  molars,  except  in  the  very 
extraordinary  genus  Desmodus,  which,  for  reasons  connected  with  its  habits,  has  no  true  molars  whatever.  They 
have  a clicking  voice,  and  no  claw  to  the  fore-finger,  &c. 

The  second  sub-order  of  Typodontia,  or  the  Ferae,  or  Secundates,  subdivides  into  the  obvious  groups  Carnivora 
and  Insectivora  of  Cuvier;  but  as  these  names  are  equally  applicable  to  Marsupial  genera,  and  therefore  particu- 
larly liable  to  mislead,  by  inducing  the  erroneous  supposition  that  they  apply  to  all  carnivorous  and  insecti- 
vorous Mammalia  respectively,  in  which  significant  general  sense  they  might  still  be  employed  with  con- 
venience, just  as  the  analogous  terms  Herbivora  and  Frugivora  are  at  present,  we  believe  that  they  might 
advantageously  be  disused  in  their  restricted  and  forced  meaning,  to  be  superseded  by  names  of  more  special 
application.  We  therefore  venture  to  designate  them  Cynodia  and  Ecanina.  It  is  in  this  division  that  the  four 
different  sorts  of  teeth  assume  their  most  distinctive  characters,  as  it  is  unnecessary  to  dwell  upon.  The  incisors 
are  rarely  less  than  six  in  number,  in  either  jaw. 

In  the  Cynodia,  the  canines  are  always  present,  both  above  and  below,  and  are  invariably  strongly  characterized 
as  such ; and  the  incisors  form  a transverse  range,  the  outer  pair,  more  particularly  those  above,  being  always 
largest,  and  the  medial  smallest.  They  fall  into  four  subtribes,  viz.,  Digitigrada,  Subplantigrada,  Plantigrada,  and 
Pinnigrada  ; the  first  and  last  of  which  are  constantly  furnished  with  a coecum,  which  does  not  occur  in  the  others. 

The  Digitigrada  are  not  always  digitigrade,  but  the  term  need  not  on  this  account  be  altered.  We  adopt  the 
group  as  instituted  by  Cuvier,  detaching  only  the  first  leading  subdivision,  or  that  of  the  Weasels  and  allied  genera. 

The  Subplantigrada  have  never  more  than  one  true  molar  above,  and  another  below,  which  vary  exceedingly  in 
developement,  in  an  inverse  ratio  to  the  carnassier,  or  scissor-tooth, — the  Weasels  and  Badgers  exhibiting  the 
extremes.  The  great  and  small  intestines  scarcely  differ  in  calibre ; and  all,  unless  the  Otters  constitute  an  excep- 
tion, can  diffuse  at  will  a disgusting  stench.  None  of  them  fall  into  a torpid  state  during  the  winter,  like  the  northern 
Plantigrada.  Their  hind  feet  are  always  semi-plantigrade,  but  none  of  them  bring  the  heel  quite  to  the  ground. 

The  Plantigrada  have  constantly  two  pairs  of  true  molars  in  each  jaw,  which  likewise  vary  exceedingly  in  de- 
velopement, and  in  an  inverse  ratio  to  the  scissor-teeth,  which  in  the  Bears  are  reduced  to  their  minimum 
throughout  the  Cynodia.  In  their  plantigrade  gait,  and  generally  naked  sole  (not  naked  by  friction  merely,  as  in 
the  Badgers),  their  tendency  to  torpor  during  severe  weather,  and  a variety  of  other  particulars,  a direct  affi- 
nity to  the  Insectivora,  Cuv.,  is  very  apparent ; and  the  Raccoons  among  them  are  further  remarkable  for  the 
entire  separation,  and  a certain  amount  of  prehensibility  of  the  toes,  which  last  enables  them  to  clasp  small  objects 
in  a manner  observed  in  no  other  Secundates, — the  rest  of  the  Cynodia  having  a membrane  more  or  less  developed 
between  the  toes.  The  skull  of  the  Bears  exhibits  various  tokens  of  affinity  with  the  next  group. 

The  Pinnigrada,  or  Seals,  correspond  to  the  Amphibia  of  Cuvier,  and  are  remarkable  for  the  similarity  of  their 
true  and  false  molars  ; the  former  of  which,  however,  in  no  instance,  exceed  the  typical  number. 

The  Ecanina,  or  second  and  abnormal  subtribe  of  Secundates  (being  the  Insectivora,  Cuv.),  have  an  attenuated 
muzzle,  and  mostly  separated  incisors  that  face  laterally,  the  medial  or  foremost  being  always  largest,  as  in  the  Pri- 
mates; no  true  upper  canines,  but  very  commonly  an  enlarged  false  molar  with  two  fangs,  that  presents  the  appear- 
ance and  performs  the  office  of  a canine,  the  lower  canines  being  always  present  (unless  in  the  Shrews),  but  commonly 
very  small,  and  hence  ranked  as  a fourth  pair  of  incisors.  They  have  generally  three  true  molars,  both  above  and  be- 
low, and  always  perfect  clavicles,  which  is  the  case  in  no  species  of  Cynodia.  The  genera  Macroschelides  and  Tupaia 
alone  possess  a coecum ; and  the  Shrews, which  have  no  incisors,  nor  even  intermaxillary  bones  that  should  contain  the 
upper  ones,  are  remarkable  for  possessing  two  very  curious  front  teeth,  which  we  suspect  are  modified  false  molars. 

We  shall  offer  no  further  remarks  on  the  Isodontia,  or  Cetacea  ordinaria  of  Cuvier,  than  to  observe,  that 
the  Narwhal  alone  among  them  possesses  other  than  false  molars. 

The  Diplodontia,  or  normal  order  of  the  great  phytophagous  type,  divides  first  into  Brochata  and  Ungulata, 
the  names  of  which  require  to  be  admitted  with  some  reservation,  though  certainly  not  with  more  than — nor  indeed 
so  much  as — the  Edentata  of  Cuvier.  They  have  always  a voluminous  coecum,  with  the  single,  and  consequently 
very  remarkable,  exception  of  the  small  Dormouse  group. 

The  Brochata  have  ordinarily  (at  least  the  three  first  principal  divisions  of  them)  permanently  growing  canines, 
which  either  pass  through  the  intermaxillaries,  as  in  the  Elephants  and  Rodents— deriving  their  nutriment,  how- 



ever,  from  within  the  true  maxillaries — or  they  are  directed  outwards,  as  in  the  Pigs  and  Hippopotami.  The 
composite  structure  of  the  molars,  from  which  this  order  takes  its  name,  attains  its  most  remarkable  develope- 
ment  in  the  present  division,  as  observed  in  the  Elephant,  the  Capybara,  and  the  Phascochoere.  They  have  rarely 
fewer  than  four,  and  often  five  distinct  toes  on  each  foot ; and  generally  a cleft  upper  lip,  less  observable  when  the 
nose  is  prolonged  into  a snout,  or  proboscis.  They  separate  into  Proboscidian  Rodentia,  Chcerodia,  and  Syrenia. 

The  close  affinity  of  the  Proboscidia  and  Rodentia  was  distinctly  pointed  out  and  descanted  upon  by  Cuvier  in 
his  Ossements  Fossiles,  to  which  valuable  work  the  reader  is  necessarily  referred,  from  want  of  space  to  enlarge 
upon  the  subject  here.  The  tusks  of  the  Proboscidia  are  mostly  peculiar  to  the  upper  jaw,  where  they  attain 
enormous  dimensions,  being  small  when  present  in  the  lower  one.  Their  form  is  cylindrical,  with  conically- 
pointed  tips,  and  they  are  surrounded  with  enamel.* 

The  Rodentia  have  approximated  tusks  in  both  jaws,  with  enamel  only  in  front ; and  the  Hares  alone  among 
them  possess  true  incisors  in  the  upper  jaw  only,  in  front  of  which  the  tusks  pass,  protruding  in  their  usual  site 
throughout  the  group.  They  have  neither  an  elongated  snout  nor  a proboscis ; and  their  extremities  are  unguicu- 
lated.  In  the  Hare,  which  has  six  rootless  molars,  the  three  first  alone  are  preceded  by  rooted  milk  teeth ; and 
the  anterior  molar,  in  numerous  other  genera,  the  adults  of  which  have  four,  is  in  like  manner  preceded  by  a 
deciduous  rooted  tooth,  which  is  shed  about  the  time  the  last  posterior  molar  protrudes  through  the  gum. 

The  Chcerodia  have  always  incisors,  their  tusks,  of  similar  kind  to  those  of  the  two  preceding  groups,  being 
directed  outwards,  and  those  of  the  upper  and  lower  jaws  generally  rubbing  against  each  other.  The  Swine  and 
Hippopotami  are  characteristic  examples  ; and  we  are  disposed  to  refer  to  this  division  (as  a distinct  minor  group), 
the  very  singular  genus  Hyrax,  the  adults  of  which  do  not  possess  canines. 

Lastly,  the  Syrenia,  or  Cetacea  herbivora,  Cuv.,  which  have  no  posterior  extremities,  like  the  Isodontia,  are 
likewise  deprived  of  canines,  at  least  the  existing  genera ; for  the  Deinotherum  (assuming  that  this  lost  genus  is 
correctly  placed  here)  had  enormous  tusks  in  the  lower  jaw  only,  anomalously  turned  downward.  Their  general 
anatomy  leaves  no  doubt  of  the  propriety  of  separating  them  altogether  from  the  Isodontia,  or  zoophagous 
Cetacea,  and  allies  them  (we  consider)  most  nearly  to  the  Chcerodia. 

The  Ungulata,  or  grazing  animals,  divide,  according  to  the  simple  or  complex  stomach,  into  Bellua  & Ruminantia. 

The  Bellua  consist  of  the  Horses,  Tapirs,  Rhinoceroses,  and  proximate  fossil  genera ; all  of  which  now  existing 
have  a prehensile  upper  lip  more  or  less  developed,  the  nostrils  being  prolonged  with  it  into  a short  flexible  pro- 
boscis in  the  Tapirs,  and  there  is  reason  to  conclude  in  many  of  the  extinct  forms.  The  true  and  false  molars 
present  no  sensible  difference  in  the  adult  animal ; but  the  dentition  of  the  young  proves  that  the  normal  comple- 
ment of  true  molars  is  not  exceeded. 

The  Ruminantia  fall  into  Ancerata  and  Pecora  ; the  former  consisting  of  the  Camels  and  Llamas,  which  have  a 
cleft  and  prehensile  upper  lip,  and  claw-like  hoofs  upon  which  they  do  not  rest ; and  the  latter  of  the  remainder, 
which  have  the  upper  lip  entire  and  non-prehen sile,  (the  tongue  becoming  so  in  its  stead,)  and  the  ends  of  their 
toes  encased  in  hoofs,  upon  the  soles  of  which  the  weight  of  the  body  is  supported.  The  former  alone  possess  any 
superior  incisors,  though  only  one  pair ; but  all  have  six  incisors  in  the  lower  jaw,  together  with  inferior  canines, 
which  in  the  Pecora  assume  the  form  and  direction  of  incisors,  but  the  true  analogy  of  which  appears  on  com- 
parison of  them  with  the  lower  canines  of  either  the  Bellua  or  Ancerata,  and  of  the  Bactrian  or  Two-humped 
Camel  in  particular,  which  has  no  interspace  (as  in  the  others)  between  its  lower  canines  and  incisors. 

The  Aplodontia,  or  abnormal  division  of  the  phytophagous  type,  corresponding  to  the  Edentata  of  Cuvier,  is 
now  in  course  of  becoming  unexpectedly  elucidated  by  the  extraordinarily  rapid  discovery  of  fossil  genera  in  South 
America,  which  present  a more  complicated  form  of  molar  tooth  than  was  previously  known  in  this  division,  as 
exemplified  by  the  newly  established  genera  Mylodon , Glyptodon,  and  we  venture  to  suggest  — Toxodon , 
wherein  the  indentations  of  the  enamelled  sides  of  the  teeth  resemble  those  of  many  rodents.  However  numerous 
may  be  the  false  molars  in  certain  genera  of  this  division,  the  number  of  their  true  molars  appears  in  no  instance 
to  exceed  three,  (at  least  in  those  which  we  have  been  able  to  examine,  comprehending  all  with  the  unfortunate 
exception  of  Priodon ) ; and  the  structural  distinction  between  their  true  and  false  molars  is  sufficiently  evident. 

Of  the  two  Ovo-viviparous  orders,  there  is  only  space  left  to  remark,  that  whereas  the  Placental  Carnivora  and 
Herbivora  are  (as  we  have  seen)  modified  upon  two  distinct  types,  which  do  not  pass  into  each  other,  the  Marsu- 
pial Carnivora  and  Herbivora  pertain  to  the  same  equivalent  type,  and  grade  into  each  other  so  that  an  analogous 
line  of  rigid  demarcation  cannot  be  traced.  This  perhaps  may  be  added  to  the  various  indications  of  their 
abnormity  as  a group,  as  compared  with  the  preceding  or  Placental  subclass  of  Mammalia. 

In  conclusion,  it  may  here  be  noticed,  that  without  intending  any  thing  of  the  kind  while  gradually  ascending 
to  the  foregoing  classification,  it  has  so  happened  that  species  with  superior  intelligence  in  conformity  with  their 
cerebral  developement  are  placed  at  the  head  of  each  principal  group,  which  may  or  may  not  be  fortuitous  coinci- 
dence. Thus,  Man  ranks  at  the  head  of  the  most  highly  organized  order — Typodontia,  the  Dolphin  at  the  head  of 
the  Isodontia,  and  the  Elephant  at  that  of  the  great  phytophagous  division,  and,  consequently,  of  the  Diplodontia; 
while  the  Dog  ranges  first  among  the  Secundates,  and  the  Horse  first  of  the  Ungulata.  The  leading  genus  of  the 
Aplodontia  may  yet  remain  to  be  discovered.  The  animals  here  mentioned  (at  least  the  terrene  kinds,  for  hf  the 
Dolphin  we  do  not  possess  the  requisite  data  for  forming  an  opinion),  certainly  appear  to  possess  more  eminently 
culturable  intellects  than  any  others,  such  as  may  be  applied  to  purposes  having  no  relation  to  their  natural 
habits  ; and  Man  has  accordingly  been  enabled  to  gain  them  as  assistants  in  his  various  labours  and  occupations.] 

* It  may  be  that  the  Proboscidia  supply  an  exception  to  the  other- 
wise universal  rule  of  placental  Mammalia  having;  never  more  than 
three  pairs  of  true  molars  in  either  jaw ; but  we  suspect  that  such 
seeming  exception  would  upon  analysis  prove  to  be  more  apparent  than 

real,  the  last  of  them  being  probably  analogous  to  the  teeth  which 
human  beings  sometimes  develope  when  in  vigorous  senility  ; theoreti- 
cally, a renewal  of  their  predecessors. 




Although  the  three  classes  of  Oviparous  Vertebrates  differ  very  much  from  each  other 
in  their  quantum  of  respiration,  and  in  all  that  relates  to  it,  viz.,  the  power  of  move- 
ment and  the  energy  of  the  senses,  they  present  several  characters  in  common  when 
opposed  to  the  Mammalia,  or  Viviparous  Vertebrates,  [certain  of  which  are  partici- 
pated in  by  the  Ovoviviparous  Mammalia,  or  the  subclass  of  Marsupiata  and 
Monotremata ] . 

The  hemispheres  of  the  brain  are  much  reduced,  and  [as  in  the  Ovoviviparous 
Mammalia]  are  not  united  by  a corpus  callosum ; the  crura  of  the  cerebellum  do  not 
form  that  protuberance  called  the  pons  Varolii ; the  nates  (at  least  in  two  of  these 
classes)  attain  a great  development,  are  hollowed  so  as  to  enclose  a ventricle,  and  [as 
in  the  Ovoviviparous  Mammalia]  are  not  covered  by  the  hemispheres,  but  are  visible 
below  or  on  the  sides  of  the  cerebrum,  [which  last  statement  does  not  apply  to  the 
Ovoviviparous  Mammalia]  : their  nostrils  are  less  complex  ; the  ear  [as  in  the  Mono- 
tremata] has  not  so  many  small  bones,  which  in  several  are  totally  wanting;  the 
cochlea,  where  it  exists,  which  is  only  the  case  in  Birds,  is  much  more  simple,  &c. 
Their  lower  jaw,  always  composed  of  many  pieces,  is  attached  by  a concave  facet  to  a 
salient  process,  which  belongs  to  the  temporal  bone,  but  is  separated  from  its  petrous 
portion : the  bones  of  the  cranium  are  more  subdivided,  though  they  occupy  the  same 
relative  places,  and  fulfil  similar  functions  ; thus,  the  frontal  is  composed  of  five  or  six 
pieces,  &c.  The  orbits  are  merely  separated  by  an  osseous  lamina  of  the  sphoenoidal 
bone,  or  by  a membrane.  When  these  animals  possess  anterior  extremities,  in  addition 
to  the  clavicle,  which  is  often  united  to  its  fellow  on  the  opposite  side,  and  is  then 
termed  fourchette,  the  scapular  also  rests  upon  the  sternum,  by  means  of  a very  large 
and  prolonged  coracoid  apophysis.  The  larynx  is  more  simple,  and  has  no  epiglottis ; 
the  lungs  are  not  separated  from  the  abdomen  by  a perfect  diaphragm,  [except  in  the 
single  instance  of  that  extraordinary  bird,  the  Apteryx],  &c.  But  in  order  that  these 
various  relations  should  be  adequately  appreciated,  it  would  be  necessary  to  enter  into 
anatomical  details,  which  do  not  belong  to  this  first  part  of  our  work.  It  is  sufficient 
to  have  here  pointed  out  the  mutual  analogy  of  the  Ovipara,  which,  in  reference  to  the 
plan  on  which  they  are  constructed,  is  greater  than  that  of  any  of  them  with  the 

Oviparous  generation  consists,  essentially,  in  this ; that  the  young  animal  is  not 
attached  by  a placenta  to  the  parietes  of  the  uterus,  or  of  the  oviduct,  but  remains 
separate  from  it  by  its  most  external  envelope,  [all  which  applies  to  the  Ovoviviparous 
Mammalia] . Its  aliment  is  prepared  beforehand,  and  enclosed  in  a sac  attached  to  its 
intestinal  canal ; being  what  is  termed  the  vitellus,  or  yolk  of  egg,  of  which  the  young 
animal  is  a sort  of  appendage,  at  first  imperceptible,  which  is  nourished  and  augmented 
by  absorbing  the  fluid  of  the  yolk.  Such  of  the  Ovipara  as  breathe  by  lungs,  have  the 
egg  furnished  with  a highly  vascular  membrane,  which  appears  to  serve  for  respiration  ; 
it  is  connected  with  the  bladder,  and  represents  the  allantoid  of  Mammalia.  This 
membrane  is  neither  found  in  Fishes,  nor  the  Batrachians ; which  latter,  when  young, 
respire  in  the  manner  of  Fishes,  by  gills  or  branchice. 



Many  of  the  cold-blooded  Ovipara  do  not  bring  forth  their  young  until  they  are 
developed  and  extricated  from  their  shell,  or  other  membranes  which  separated  them 
from  their  parent.  These  are  called  false  Ovipara. 


THE  BIRDS  (. AVES ),— 

Are  oviparous  vertebrates  with  double  circulation  and  respiration,  [mostly]  organized 
for  flight. 

Their  lungs,  undivided  and  attached  to  the  ribs,  are  enveloped  by  a membrane 
pierced  with  large  holes,  and  which  allows  the  air  to  pass  into  many  cavities  of  the 
chest,  the  abdominal  region,  arm-pits,  and  even  of  the  interior  of  the  bones* ; so  that 
the  ambient  fluid  not  only  bathes  the  surface  of  the  pulmonary  vessels,  but  also  that 
of  an  infinitude  of  vessels  traversing  the  rest  of  the  body.  Thus  Birds  respire,  in 
certain  respects,  by  the  ramifications  of  their  aorta,  as  well  as  by  those  of  their 
pulmonary  artery,  and  the  energy  of  their  irritability  is  in  proportion  to  their  amount 
of  respiration. f Their  total  conformation  is  arranged  to  participate  in  this  energy. 

Their  anterior  extremities,  destined  to  sustain  them  in  flight,  could  neither  serve 
them  for  standing,  nor  for  clutching : they  are  bipeds,  then, 
and  pick  up  objects  from  the  earth  with  their  mouth  ; their 
body,  consequently,  is  balanced  upon  the  legs ; the  thighs 
are  directed  forward,  and  the  toes  are  lengthened  to  form 
a sufficient  base  for  standing.  The  pelvis  is  longitudi- 
nally much  extended,  to  furnish  attachment  to  the  muscles 
which  support  the  trunk  upon  the  thighs  : there  is  even 
a suite  of  muscles  proceeding  from  the  pelvis  to  the  toes  ; 
and  passing  over  the  knee  and.  heel,  so  that  the  simple 
weight  of  the  bird  flexes  the  toes  : it  is  thus  that  they 
are  enabled  to  sleep  perched  on  one  foot.  The  ischia,  and 
especially  the  ossa  pubis,  are  lengthened  out  behind,  and 
widened  in  their  span,  to  allow  the  necessary  space  for 
the  developement  of  the  eggs. 

The  neck  and  the  beak  are  elongated  to  reach  the 
ground ; but  the  former  has  also  the  requisite  flexibility  for 
doubling  backward  when  at  rest.  It  has  therefore  numerous 
vertebrae,  [varying  from  twelve  to  twenty-three,  which  latter 
number  is  attained  only  in  the  genus  Cy gnus'] . The  trunk, 
on  the  contrary,  which  serves  as  a fulcrum  to  the  wings, 
has  but  little  mobility ; the  sternum  especially,  to  which 
are  attached  the  muscles  which  effect  the  propulsive  stroke 
in  flying,  is  of  great  extent,  its  surface  [except  in  the  Ostrich  and  allied  genera,  which  do 
not  fly,]  being  further  augmented  by  a projecting  ridge  along  its  middle.  It  is  [mostly] 

Fig.  6". — Skeleton  of  Jer  Falcon. 

* In  the  Hornbills,  even  the  phalanges  of  the  toes  are  hollow,  and  . f Two  Sparrows  consume  as  much  air 
communicate  with  the  lungs.  The  opposite  extreme  occurs  in  the  | sikh,  Memuires  de  Chimie,  i.  110. 

Apteryx,  which  has  no  accessory  air-cavities.— Ed. 

a Guinea-pig.. — Lavoi- 

AYES.  155 

composed  originally  of  five  pieces  : one  medial  (fig.  68,  a),  of  which  this  salient  lamina 
[known  as  the  sternal  crest,  ridge,  or  keel]  constitutes  a part ; two  triangular  anterior  la- 
teral [termed  costal  processes]  ( b ),  for  the  attachment  of  the  ribs  ; 
and  two  forked  posterior  lateral  (c),  for  the  extension  of  its  sur- 
face ; and  the  greater  or  less  degree  of  the  ossification  [that  is  to 
say,  obliteration]  of  the  notches  of  these  last,  and  the  extent  of 
the  interval  which  is  left  between  them  and  their  principal  bone, 
denote  the  relative  amount  of  vigour  of  flight  in  Birds.  The 
[Eagles,  Harriers,  (the  Falcons  much  more  slowly,  if  indeed  at 
all),  and  some  other]  diurnal  Birds  of  prey,  the  Swifts  and  the 
Humming-birds,  [the  Parrots,  and  also  the  Storm-petrels,]  lose, 
^’J^-^heSFSuc”05*  as  they  grow  old,  all  traces  of  these  unossified  spaces.  [In  the 
Ostrich  and  its  allies,  the  sternum  is  composed  originally  of  only  two  pieces  ; and  the 
number  likewise  varies  in  those  Birds  which  possess  a sternal  crest.] 

The  fourchette  [ furcula , or  “ merry- thought”  bone],  (fig.  68,  d),  produced  by  the 
junction  of  the  two  clavicles,  and  the  two  stout  abutments  formed  by  the  [huge] 
coracoid  aphophyses  (e),  keep  the  shoulders  apart,  notwithstanding  the  opposing  force 
exerted  by  the  action  of  flying  ; the  fourchette,  in  particular,  is  commonly  more  stout 
and  open,  according  as  the  flight  of  a Bird  is  vigorous.*  (See  fig.  67.)  The 
wing,  supported  by  the  humerus  (fig.  69  a,)  fore-arm 
(b),  and  hand,  which  is  elongated,  and  exhibits  one 
digit  and  the  rudiments  of  two  [or  (including  the 
winglet  o,)  three]  others  (1, 2,4)  is  furnished  through- 
out its  length  with  a range  of  elastic  quills,  which  greatly 
extend  the  surface  that  resists  the  air.  The  quills  ad- 
hering to  the  hand  are  named  primaries,  and  these  are 
[almost]  always  ten  in  number  f ; those  attached  to 
the  fore-arm  are  called  secondaries,  but  their  number 
varies  ; weaker  feathers  attached  to  the  humerus  are 
styled  scapularies  [tertiaries ; the  true  scapularies 
constituting  that  separate  range  which  grows  over 
the  scapulars,  or  “ shoulder-blades”]  ; and  the  bone 
which  represents  the  thumb  f (o),  is  also  furnished 
with  what  are  designated  bastard  quills,  [this  member 
being  generally  termed  alula  spuria,  or  winglet ] . Along 
the  base  of  the  quills  is  a range  [and  successive 
ranges]  of  feathers  named  coverts  [both  on  the  outer 
and  inner  surfaces  of  the  wing,  which  receive  corre- 
sponding appellations  to  those  of  the  quill- feathers  they 
impend,  as  primary  coverts,  &c.,  and  are  further  distinguished  as  greater,  lesser,  and  least] . 

first  extremely  minute  ; and,  in  the  Starling  and  some  others,  it  is, 
analogically  speaking,  wanting ; so  that  the  number  is  in  these 
reduced  to  nine. — Ed. 

t As  on  the  removal  of  digits,  that  of  the  thumb  is  found  to  be 
invariably  the  first,  the  rudimentary  finger  above  referred  to  is  now 
considered  as  analogous  to  the  index  finger  of  the  human  hand  : the 
thumb,  however,  being  sometimes  represented  by  a bony  spine ; 
as  the  spur  of  a common  fowl  represents  the  first  digit  of  the 
foot. — Ed. 

• In  the  instance  of  the  Parrots,  some  of  which  are  birds  of  very 
strong  flight,  although  the  coracoids  are  always  very  stout  (much 
resembling  those  of  the  Hawks),  the  furcula  is  never  strong,  and  is 
peculiarly  flattened,  so  that  its  resisting  force  is  thus  considerably 
diminished.  Some  Parroquets,  indeed,  as  those  small  ones  popularly 
termed  Love-birds  (Agrapornis) , have  no  urcula  whatever;  and  it 
is  worthy  of  being  noticed  that  the  restricted  Toucans  (Rhamphastos) 
have  the  clavicles  separate  and  very  short,  forming  small  dagger- 
shaped appendages,  the  use  of  which  is  not  obvious. — Ed. 

+ In  the  Grebe  genus,  eleven : many  of  the  singing  birds  have  the 

156  AVES. 

The  bony  tail  is  very  short,  [and  consists  in  most  instances  of  nine  vertebrae,  the 
three  last  of  which  are  commonly  anchylosed  into  a plough- share  form,  and  are  gene- 
rally collectively  styled  the  coccyx ],  but  has  a range  of  strong  feathers,  which,  when 
spread  out,  assist  in  supporting  the  bird  : their  number  is  ordinarily  twelve  ; sometimes 
fourteen,  and  in  many  of  the  Gallinacew  eighteen  ; [in  some  few  genera,  as  the 
Grebes,  Nandou,  &c.,  these  are  wanting  altogether ; a single  Humming-bird  ( Trochilus 
enicurus)  possesses  only  six ; the  Ani  eight ; the  rest  of  the  Humming-birds,  and 
various  others,  ten  ; while  the  Swans  present  from  eighteen  to  twenty-two.  The  two 
central  of  these  feathers  are  implanted  above  the  even  line  formed  by  the  insertion  of 
the  rest,  and  essentially  correspond  to  the  wing-tertiaries,  as  the  others  do  to  the 
wing- secondaries ; the  latter  being  in  no  instance  moulted  more  than  once  in  the  year, 
the  former  in  many  instances  twice  : we  might  accordingly  designate  the  two  central  j 
tail  feathers,  which  differ  conspicuously  from  the  rest  in  structure,  uropygials.  Above 
and  below  the  tail  are  lengthened  feathers,  commonly  of  weak  texture,  known  as  the 
upper  and  under  tail-coverts. 

The  rest  of  the  feathers  of  Birds  are  named  from  their  position,  as  frontal,  coronal, 
occipital,  nuchal,  dorsal  or  interscapulary,  which  together  form  a continuous  series,  apart 
from  the  scapalaries ; those  in  front  of  the  eye  are  termed  Zor«/,and  the  auditory  aperture 
is  covered  by  a range  styled  auricular  s or  ear -coverts : the  sides  of  the  neck  and  medial 
portion  of  the  sternal  and  abdominal  region  are  at  most  covered  with  down ; the 
former  being  concealed  by  the  lateral  feathers  of  the  fore  and  hind  neck  meeting ; the 
latter  by  a similar  junction  of  two  distinct  lateral  ranges.  As  it  is  necessary  that  the 
warm  body  of  a bird  should  be  in  actual  contact  with  the  eggs  during  incubation, 
whatever  down  may  cover  the  medial  inferior  region  disappears  in  the  females  towards 
the  season  of  propagation,  even  in  those  confined  in  cages,  so  that  this  bareness  is  not 
produced  mechanically.  Finally,  besides  various  accessory  tufts  in  different  genera, 
some  long  slender  feathers  are  situate  at  the  base  of  the  wing  internally,  which  are 
named  axillaries']. 

The  legs  have  a femur,  a tibia,  and  a peronseum  attached  to  the  femur  with  a spring, 
which  maintains  their  extension  without  effort  on  the  part  of  the  muscles.  The  tarsus 
and  metatarsus  are  represented  by  a single  bone,  terminating  below  in  three  pullies. 

Most  commonly  there  are  three  toes  before,  and  a thumb  behind* ; the  latter  being 
sometimes  deficient.  In  the  Swifts  it  is  directed  forwards,  [though  half-reversible  : in 
the  Moth-hunters  and  some  others,  inward,  at  a right  angle  with  the  axis  of  the  body] . 

In  the  yoke-footed  Birds,  on  the  contrary,  the  external  toe  and  the  thumb  are  dis- 
posed backwards  [most  usually,  but  sometimes  (as  in  the  Touracos  and  Puff-birds) 
laterally : in  the  Trogons,  the  first  and  second  toes  are  opposed  to  the  third  and 
fourth ; and  accordingly  the  longest  toe,  or  that  which  corresponds  to  the  middle  one 
in  the  generality  of  the  class,  is  inward,  instead  of  being  outward,  as  in  all  the  other 
yoke-footed  groups] . The  number  of  articulations  increases  in  each  toe,  commencing 
with  the  thumb,  which  has  two,  and  ending  with  the  external  toe,  wrhich  has  five. 
[The  Swifts  present  a remarkable  exception ; and  it  may  be  remarked  that,  in  the 
Ostrich  alone,  only  two  toes  are  present.] 

In  genera],  [invariably].  Birds  are  covered  with  feathers,  a sort  of  tegument  best 

* The  word  thumb  is  here  and  subsequently  used  merely  in  a popular  ] thumbs  of  the  Quadrumana  arc  represented,  in  the  class  of  Birds, 
sense,  to  signify  its  antagonism  to  the  other  digits:  as  the  hinder  | only  by  the  tarsal  spurs  of  many  Gallinacete.—Ko. 

AYES.  157 

adapted  to  protect  them  from  the  rapid  variations  of  temperature  to  which  their  move- 
ments expose  them.  The  air- cavities  which  occupy  the  interior  of  their  body,  and 
[usually]  even  supersede  the  marrow  in  their  bones,  increase  their  specific  lightness. 
The  sternal  portion  of  the  ribs  is  ossified,  as  well  as  the  vertebral,  to  impart  more  force 
to  the  dilatation  of  the  chest.  To  each  rib  is  attached  a small  bone,  which  soon  becomes 
soldered  to  it,  and  is  directed  obliquely  backward  towards  the  next  rib,  all  concurring 
to  give  additional  solidity  to  the  thorax. 

The  eye  of  Birds  is  so  conformed  as  to  enable  them  to  distinguish  objects  both  far 
and  near  with  equal  clearness ; a vascular  and  plaited  membrane,  which  extends  from 
the  profundity  of  the  globe  to  the  edge  of  the  crystalline,  probably  assists  in  displacing 
that  lens.  The  anterior  surface  of  the  globe  is  also  strengthened  by  a circle  of  bony 
pieces  ; and,  besides  the  two  ordinary  eyelids,  there  is  always  a third,  situate  at  the 
inner  angle,  and  which,  by  means  of  a remarkable  muscular  apparatus,  can  be  drawn 
over  the  front  of  the  eye  like  a curtain.  The  cornea  is  very  convex,  but  the  crystalline 
is  flat,  and  the  vitreous  humour  small. 

The  ear  of  Birds  has  but  a single  small  bone,  formed  of  a branch  adherent  to  the 
tympanum,  and  of  another  terminating  in  a plate  that  rests  upon  the  fenestra  ovalis  : 
their  cochlea  is  a cone  slightly  curved ; but  their  semicircular  canals  are  large,  and 
lodged  in  a portion  of  the  skull,  where  they  are  surrounded  on  all  sides  by  air- cavities 
that  communicate  with  the  area.  [Some]  nocturnal  Birds  alone  have  a large 
external  conch,  which  however  does  not  project  like  that  of  quadrupeds,  [though  in  the 
restricted  genus  Strix  an  overlapping  cartilaginous  flap  is  developed  anteriorly,  by 
which  the  auditory  aperture  is  closed  at  will] . The  orifice  of  the  ear  is  generally 
covered  with  feathers  [the  ear-coverts ],  the  barbs  of  which  are  more  fringed  than  those 
of  other  feathers. 

The  organ  of  smell,  concealed  within  the  base  of  the  beak,  has  ordinarily  three  car- 
tilaginous ossa  turbinata,  which  vary  in  complication ; it  is  very  sensible,  although  it 
has  no  cavity  excavated  within  the  parietes  of  the  cranium.  The  size  of  the  bony 
openings  of  the  nostrils  determines  the  strength  of  the  beak;  and  the  cartilages, 
membranes,  feathers,  and  other  teguments  which  contract  these  apertures,  exert  an 
influence  on  the  perceptibility  of  odours,  and  on  the  sort  of  nourishment. 

The  tongue  has  little  muscular  substance,  and  is  supported  by  a bone  articulated  on 
the  hyoid ; in  most  Birds  this  organ  is  not  very  delicate.  [The  Parrots  probably  enjoy 
most  perfectly  the  sense  of  taste.] 

The  feathers,  as  well  as  the  quills,  which  differ  only  in  size,  are  composed  of  a stem, 
hollow  at  its  base,  and  of  barbs,  which  are  themselves  furnished  with  smaller  ones ; 
their  tissue,  lustre,  strength,  and  general  form,  vary  infinitely.  [They  may  be  con- 
veniently divided  into  clothing  feathers,  and  those  which  are  subservient  to  locomo- 
tion ; the  vibrissae  even,  which  are  disposed  in  some  instances  as  eyelashes,  and  more 
frequently  impend  the  nostrils  or  arm  the  rictus  of  Birds,  are  merely  barbless  feathers, 
which  are  developed  and  periodically  renewed  like  other  feathers.  In  many  groups, 
the  clothing  feathers  are  furnished  with  a supplementary  shaft,  or  accessory  plume, 
which,  in  the  quills  or  sustaining  feathers,  is  at  most  represented  by  only  a few  downy 
filaments.  This  supplementary  plume,  in  the  Emeus,  is  developed  equally  with  the 
primary  shaft,  so  that  two  similar  feathers  grow  from  the  same  quill : and  in  the 
Cassowary,  there  is  even  a third  shaft  in  addition.  In  the  Poultry  and  some  others. 



I the  accessory  plume  is  large,  but  of  soft  and  downy  texture  : others  have  it  reduced  to 
i a small  tuft  of  down ; while  in  many  it  is  absent  altogether.  In  some  Birds,  the 
vanes  of  the  feathers  are  to  a variable  extent  united,  or  soldered  into  an  uniform  mass , 
and  there  are  various  additional  modifications,  too  numerous  to  admit  of  detail] . The 
touch  must  be  feeble  in  all  parts  that  are  covered  with  them  ; and,  as  the  beak  is 
almost  always  corneous  and  but  little  sensitive,  and  the  toes  are  invested  with  scales 
above  and  a callous  skin  underneath,  this  sense  can  be  of  little  efficacy  in  the  class  of 
Birds.  [In  the  Snipes  and  Lamellirostres , however,  the  sense  of  touch  in  the  bill  must 
be  delicate,  as  testified  by  their  manner  of  feeding,  as  well  as  by  the  many  nervous 
papillae  distributed  over  its  surface.  The  enormous  bill  of  the  Toucans,  also,  is 
very  sensitive ; and  even  the  hardest  bills  are  traversed  by  ramifications  of  the  fifth 
pair  of  nerves,  which  terminate  in  scattered  papillae.] 

The  feathers  are  cast  twice  in  the  year  [in  some  instances,  but  by  far  the  greater 
number  of  Birds  renew  their  plumage  in  autumn  only ; and  in  no  instance  are  the 
wing-primaries  shed  excepting  in  autumn,  or  at  that  moult  which  corresponds  to  the 
autumnal  moult.  Many,  as  the  Hawks,  larger  Gulls,  &c.,  retain  their  entire  nestling 
garb  till  the  second  autumn ; while  others,  as  the  Crows,  Starlings,  &c.,  renew  every 
feather  previous  to  the  first  winter;  and  there  are  some  groups,  as  that  of  the 
Thrushes,  together  with  various  double -moulting  Birds,  as  the  Pipits  and  Wagtails, 
which  change  their  first  clothing  plumage  soon  after  quitting  the  nest,  but  retain  their 
nestling  primaries  until  the  second  autumn — (that  is,  until  the  third  renovation  of  the 
body  feathers).  In  the  Cormorants,  Grebes,  &c.,  some  additional  ornamental  plumes  are 
developed  towards  the  commencement  of  the  breeding  season ; at  which  time  various 
other  Birds  undergo  a change  of  colour,  unaccompanied  by  any  moult  * ; while  others, 
again,  cast  the  terminal  portion  (commonly  of  a dingy  hue)  of  the  greater  number  of 
their  feathers,  which  during  winter  had  concealed  the  brighter  tints  of  summer : two 
or  more  of  these  various  modes,  by  which  a seasonal  alteration  of  appearance  is  effected, 
being  frequently  simultaneously  observable  in  the  same  individual.]  In  certain  species, 
the  winter  plumage  differs  in  its  colours  from  that  of  summer ; and  in  the  greater 
number,  the  female  differs  from  the  male  by  colours  less  vivid,  and  the  young  of  both 
sexes  then  resemble  the  female.  When  the  adult  male  and  female  are  of  the  same 
colour,  the  young  have  a peculiar  livery.  [As  thus  expressed,  however,  these  rules 
require  to  be  qualified  by  numerous  exceptions  : the  true  enunciation  of  them  being, 
that,  when  the  plumage  of  the  young  differs  from  that  of  the  adult  male,  or  of  the 
female  in  those  few  cases  where  (as  in  the  common  Gallinule)  this  sex  is  the  brighter, 
that  of  the  other  sex  may  be  similar  to  either  of  those  extremes,  or  is  in  various 
degrees  intermediate : the  male  and  female  of  the  common  British  Redstart,  for 
instance,  are  dissimilar,  and  the  young  do  not  resemble  the  adult  female  ; but  the 
garb  of  the  latter  is  intermediate  to  those  of  the  adult  male  and  young. f] 

* When  this  takes  place,  as  in  certain  Gambets  ( Totanus ),  the 
colouring  matter  is  often  entirely  absorbed  previously  to  the  autumnal 
change  of  feather  ; and  in  some  double-moulting  species,  as  the  Golden 
Plover,  it  commonly  happens  in  spring  that  the  colouring  secretion 
tinges  the  old  feathers  that  are  loose,  and  ready  to  drop  off thus 
proving  that  a circulation  obtains  in  the  pores  of  feathers,  even  up  to 
the  period  of  their  being  naturally  cast.— Ed. 

t There  is  a typical  state  of  plumage  in  most  groups  of  Birds, which, 
in  certain  species,  as  the  Tree  Sparrow,  is  common  to  old  and  young 
of  both  sexes  ; but  which  is  very  usually  obtained  only  by  the  adult 
male,  as  is  observable  in  the  common  House  Sparrow : in  the  Robin, 
Goldfinch,  &c.,  to  select  other  familiar  examples,  it  is  acquired  by  the 

adults  of  both  sexes  ; and,  in  the  Common  Gallinule,  only  by  the 
mature  female.  There  are  also  many  Birds  in  which  neither  sex 
assumes  this  comparatively  advanced  livery:  the  larger  Bitterns,  for 
example,  both  sexes  of  which  permanently  retain  the  markings  and 
style  of  colouring  characteristic  of  only  the  first  or  immature  dress  of 
the  Dwarf-bitterns  (subgenus  Ardeola);  the  adult  male  common 
Bunting  ( Etnberiza  miliaria),  also,  thus  exhibits  correspond* 
ing  livery  to  that  proper  to  the  females  and  young  of  the  rest  of  its 
group,  never  advancing,  like  the  males  of  the  other  species  of  Bunting, 
beyond  its  primitive  nestling  colours  and  markings.  We  are  led  to 
recognize,  therefore,  two  extreme  conditions  of  plumage  as  regards 
the  colouring, — one  generally,  but  not  always,  characteristic  of  matu- 



The  brain,  in  Birds,  offers  the  same  general  characters  as  in  the  rest  of  the  Ovipara  ; 
but  is  distinguished  by  its  very  considerable  proportionate  size,  which  often  even  sur- 
passes that  of  this  organ  in  the  Mammalia.  It  is  principally  on  the  tubercles  analo- 
gous to  the  corpora  striata  that  this  volume  is  dependent,  and  not  upon  the 
hemispheres,  which  are  very  small  and  without  convolutions.  The  cerebellum  is 
tolerably  large,  and  almost  without  lateral  lobes,  being  principally  formed  by  the 
vermiform  process. 

The  trachea  of  Birds  has  its  rings  entire  ; at  its  bifurcation  is  a glottis , most  usually 
furnished  with  peculiar  muscles,  and  named  the  lower  larynx ; it  is  there  that  the  voice 

rity, — the  other  of  immaturity  ; the  first  having  usually  more  decided 
and  contrasted  colours  ; the  second  being  comparatively  sombre,  with 
fainter  or  more  blended  colours,  which  however  are  commonly  broken 
into  various  streaks  or  spots,  and  other  different  mottlings  : where  the 
latter  condition,  however,  becomes  permanent,  the  variegations  of  the 
adult  bird  are  in  general  more  distinctly  defined  ; thus  a beautiful 
Himmalayan  Thrush  {T Urdus  Whitei),  which  occasionally  strays  into 
Europe,  retains  the  mottling  of  the  dorsal  plumage  peculiar  to  the 
unmoulted  young  of  other  Thrushes,  but  the  colours  of  those  mottled 
feathers  are  much  more  finely  brought  out ; in  like  manner  the  distinct 
transverse  bars  on  the  adult  plumage  of  the  Bush-shrikes  ( Thamno - 
philus)  and  those  on  certain  Woodpeckers  ( Colaptes ),  respectively 
represent  the  more  indistinct  markings  of  the  nestling  dress  of  the 
ordinary  Shrikes  ( Lanivs ) and  certain  other  Woodpeckers  ( Chryso - 
ptilus),  which  barred  plumage  is  succeeded  in  the  latter  by  an  adult 
garb  devoid  of  those  markings  : this  increased  distinctness  is  however 
less  apparent  in  some  cases,  as  in  that  of  the  Bittern  of  North  Ame- 
rica, the  adult  markings  of  which  correspond,  feather  by  feather,  (their 
intensity  being  but  inconsiderably  enhanced,)  with  those  of  the  im- 
mature Dwarf-bitterns  already  referred  to. 

Accordingly,  then,  it  is  in  the  first  plumage  of  Birds  that  the  affinity 
of  allied  groups  is  ordinarily  most  apparent,  as  is  analogously  the  case 
with  the  young  of  animals  in  general  (the  distinctions  of  all  essen- 
tially allied  groups  of  which  continue  to  decrease  till  they  disappear 
successively,  as  we  ascend  to  the  embryo)  ; and  the  same  remark 
applies,  as  might  be  anticipated,  to  the  shape  and  structure  of  the 
feathers,  equally  with  their  colouring.  Thus,  the  nestling  garb  is 
always  much  less  firm  than  that  subsequently  attained  ; and  those 
feathers  which  are  acuminate  in  the  adult  are  rounded,  or  but  slightly 
narrowed,  in  the  young,  and  in  general  become  gradually  more 
elongated  and  pointed  at  each  successive  moult,  till  they  have  ac- 
quired their  final  shape  and  developement : the  dorsal  feathers  of  the 
common  Heron,  and  clothing  plumage  of  the  Starling,  may  be  cited 
in  exemplification.  In  this  respect,  also,  as  with  their  colouring,  the 
feathers  of  some  species,  compared  with  those  of  others  proximately 
allied,  are  specifically  arrested  at  various  stages  of  developement : the 
adult  plumage  of  the  Bitterns  represents  in  this  particular  the  imma- 
ture garb  of  the  Herons  generally ; and  in  the  weakness  of  texture  of 
the  dorsal  feathers,  equally  with  their  mottled  markings,  the  mature 
livery  of  the  Iantkncinclee  corresponds  with  the  nestling  dress  of  the 
majority  of  other  Birds  of  the  Thrush  tribe. 

It  should  be  remarked  that  in  some  cases  where  the  typical  plumage 
is  finally  attained,  this  is  only  after  a series  of  moultings  more  or  less 
numerous,  each  successive  stage  of  which  may  or  may  not  present  a 
nearer  approximation  to  it  in  different  species  ; it  being  thus  assumed 
gradually,  or  abruptly  ; and,  in  such  cases,  it  is  generally  acquired  by 
the  male  sex  sooner  than  by  the  female,  where  both  ultimately  arrive 
at  it.  In  the  European  Oriole,  the  male  alone  attains  the  typical  garb, 
but  not  before  its  third  or  fourth  change  of  plumage,  when  it  is 
assumed  abruptly,  or  nearly  so;  in  the  Dwarf-bitterns,  the  male 
acquires  its  final  livery  at  the  first  moult,  the  female  not  before  the 
third  or  fourth  moult,  presenting  an  intermediate  garb  in  the  mean 
while,  which  is  ultimately  exchanged  for  the  same  livery  as  that  of  its 
mate.  The  amount  of  constitutional  vigour  tends  to  determine  the 
period  at  which  the  more  advanced  condition  of  plumage  is  obtained, 
in  the  ratio  of  the  average  period  required  for  its  assumption  : thus, 
we  perceive  little  or  no  irregularity  in  those  instances  where  the 
typical  dress  is  gained  at  the  first  renewal,  but  considerable  irregu- 
larity where  the  period  of  its  assumption  is  ordinarily  protracted  ; and 
it  would  seem  that  in  the  latter  case  the  females  are  more  apt  to 
acquire  ultimately  the  most  advanced  livery,  than  in  those  instances 
where  the  male  alone  regularly  obtains  it  at  the  first  moult ; though, 
as  there  is  always  a tendency  on  the  part  of  vigorous  females  to  throw 
out  the  masculine  attire,  it  maybe  that  this  apparent  difference  arises 
simply  from  the  fact  of  such  females  being  liable  to  escape  notice 
from  their  consequent  similarity  to  the  other  sex  inducing  a belief 
that  they  belong  to  it,  and  so  precluding  further  examination.  Of 
species  thus  usually  presenting  a marked  sexual  diversity  of  plu- 

mage, we  have  seen  females  of  the  common  Redstart,  Linnet,  Redpole, 
Red-backed  Shrike,  and  Scaup  Pochard,  which  could  not  be  distin- 
guished externally  from  males  ; and  all  of  them  contained  eggs  in  the 

As  the  assumption  of  the  typical  plumage,  then,  in  species  wherein 
it  is  tardily  acquired,  is  especially  dependent  on  the  amount  of  con- 
stitutional vigour,  it  follows  that  captive  Birds  should  generally  arrive 
more  slowly  at  their  final  livery,  than  those  individuals  which  are 
unconfined  ; and  it  might  be  predicated,  also,  that  instances  of  captive 
females  assuming  the  male  plumage,  in  those  species  wherein  the. 
females  ordinarily  differ  from  the  males,  would  be  of  comparatively 
unfrequent  occurrence.  Such  are  accordingly  the  facts  : but  it  requires 
to  be  noticed,  that  any  effectual  injury  to  the  ovarium,  or  other  cause 
of  sterility,  also  occasions  female  Birds  to  throw  out  the  masculine 
livery  (just  as  the  Doe,  mentioned  at  p.  137,  with  one  schirrous  ovary, 
developed  an  antler  on  the  same  side),  this  fact  being  very  commonly 
noticed  in  Pheasants  and  domestic  Poultry.  On  the  other  hand,  how- 
ever, it  is  still  more  remarkable  that  a male  bird,  analogously  injured, 
will  sometimes  even  moult  back  from  the  typical  plumage  to  that  pro- 
per to  the  female  and  young ; though  caponized  fowls  retain  their 
male  costume. 

We  have  thus  far  treated  on  the  subject  only  under  its  most  simple 
phase,  as  observed  in  those  species  which  renew  their  plumage  in 
autumn  only ; and  have  entered  somewhat  into  detail,  from  experience 
of  the  great  assistance  rendered  by  a knowledge  of  the  characters  thus 
afforded  in  tracing  the  affinities  of  groups,  by  simple  inspection  of  the 
plumage:  being  enabled  thus  to  perceive  the  systematic  relationship 
of  various  genera  at  a glance,  which  is  not  obvious  in  the  rest  of  their 
external  characters,  nor  even  in  this  one  to  persons  unacquainted 
with  the  normal  progressive  changes  characteristic  of  the  particular 
group.  In  illustration,  let  it  be  supposed  that  a species  of  Sparrow 
existed  (which  is  quite  probable),  the  males  of  which,  like  the 
females  of  the  House  Sparrow,  retained  permanently  the  colouring  of 
the  nestling  garb  of  the  latter,  (or,  in  other  words,  that  its  plumage 
presented  the  same  analogy  with  that  of  the  House  Sparrow  which 
the  common  Bunting’s  plumage  does  to  that  of  its  congeners):  the 
affinity  of  such  a species  to  the  Tree  Sparrow,  both  sexes  of  which 
exhibit  at  all  ages  a style  of  colouring  corresponding  to  that  peculiar 
to  the  adult  male  of  the  House  Sparrow,  would  be  rendered  intelli- 
gible by  the  mutation  incidental  to  the  latter,  even  though  no  actual 
similitude  were  traceable  between  the  plumage  of  the  Tree  Sparrow 
and  that  of  the  imagined  species.  There  are  numerous  groups,  then, 
the  relationship  of  which  may  be  at  once  recognized  on  the  principle 
here  indicated. 

Among  those  species  which  retain  their  first  plumage  till  the  second 
autumn,  its  aspect  undergoes  considerable  variation  in  some,  from 
different  causes.  Thus,  in  the  Osprey,  Gannet,  and  some  others,  the 
upper  parts  are  fora  while  conspicuously  speckled  with  terminal  white 
spots,  on  a dark  ground-colour  ; which  spots  gradually  disappearing, 
as  the  terminal  edges  of  the  feathers  are  naturally  shed,  leave  the 
back  uniformly  dark-coloured  and  plain.  In  certain  other  groups,  as 
in  some  Harriers  {Circus),  an  actual  change  of  colour  takes  place  in 
the  feathers,  to  a variable  extent. 

In  those  species  of  Birds  which  undergo  a double  moult,  the  sexes 
are  generally  similar,  or  nearly  so,  in  both  states  of  plumage,  and 
always  in  the  winter  dress  ; and  even  the  summer  and  winter  liveries 
do  not  in  all  cases  differ,  as  may  be  observed  in  the  Tree  Pipit 
{Anthus  arboreus).  Where  the  contrary  prevails  in  both  sexes,  the 
young,  in  their  first  down,  are  subject  to  possess  the  colouring  of  the 
adult  summer  garb,  as  noticeable  in  the  common  Guillemot  and 
Razorbill ; and,  in  the  plumage  which  succeeds  the  down,  to  resemble 
the  mature  winter  dress,  or  to  present  a combination  of  the  two, 
which  is  not  uncommon — particularly  among  the  small  waders,  which 
subsequently  attain  their  proper  winter  clothing  plumage  by  a moult 
towards  the  close  of  autumn.  When  the  breeding  livery  of  the  male 
and  female  differs,  the  same  law  prevails  as  in  single-moulting  Birds. 
We  have  not  space  to  enter  more  minutely  into  detail. — Ed. 



of  Birds  is  formed ; the  enormous  volume  of  air  contained  in  the  air- cavities  contri- 
butes to  the  strength  of  this  voice,  and  the  trachea , by  its  various  forms  and  move- 
ments, to  its  intonations.  The  upper  larynx,  which  is  extremely  simple,  has  little  to 
do  with  it. 

The  face,  or  upper  mandible  of  Birds,  formed  principally  by  the  intermaxillaries,  is 
prolonged  backwards  into  two  arcades,  the  internal  of  which  is  composed  by  the  pala- 
tine and  pterygoid  bones,  the  external  by  the  maxillaries  and  jugals,  and  which  are 
both  supported  on  a moveable  tympanic  bone,  commonly  termed  the  square  bone 
(os  carre),  that  represents  the  drum  of  the  ear : above,  this  same  face  is  articulated  or 
united  to  the  skull  by  elastic  laminae ; a mode  of  union  which  always  leaves  some 

The  horny  substance  which  invests  the  two  mandibles  supplies  the  place  of  teeth, 
and  is  occasionally  serrated,  so  as  to  represent  them.*  Its  form,  as  also  that  of  the 
mandibles  which  support  it,  varies  excessively,  according  to  the  sort  of  food 
resorted  to. 

The  digestion  of  Birds  is  in  proportion  to  the  energy  of  their  vitality,  and  the 
amount  of  respiration.  The  stomach  is  composed  of  three  parts  : the  craw,  which  is 
an  expansion  of  the  gullet ; the  proventriculus,  a membranous  stomach,  furnished  in 
the  thickness  of  its  coats  with  a multitude  of  glands  [variously  disposed  and  shaped  in 
different  groups],  the  secretion  of  which  humects  the  aliment;  and  lastly,  the 
gizzard,  armed  with  two  powerful  muscles  united  by  two  radiating  tendons,  and  inter- 
nally lined  by  a coating  of  cartilage.  The  food  is  more  readily  ground  there,  as  Birds 
are  in  the  habit  of  swallowing  small  stones  to  augment  its  triturating  power. 

In  the  greater  number  of  species  which  subsist  only  on  flesh  or  fish,  the  muscles 
and  the  internal  lining  of  the  gizzard  are  reduced  to  extreme  tenuity,  so  that  it  appears 
to  make  but  one  sac  with  the  proventriculus.  [The  same  is  noticeable  in  the  Bustards, 

which  subsist  mainly  upon  herbage  : a series  of  inter- 
mediate gradations,  however,  occurring  from  these  to 
the  most  powerfully  muscular  gizzards.] 

The  dilatation  of  the  craw  is  also  sometimes  [even 
generally]  wanting.  [This  is  is  commonly  situate 
above  the  furcula,  but  in  the  genus  Palamedea 
beyond  it : in  the  Grebes,  there  is  a contraction  and 
intervening  space  between  the  proventriculus  and 
gizzard  f,  which  in  the  very  peculiar  genus  Opistho- 
comus  is  developed  into  a considerable  cavity  (this  bird 
subsisting  mainly  on  green  foliage)  : the  Totipalmati 
have  generally  an  accessory  pouch  to  the  stomach, 
analogous  to  that  of  the  Loricated  Reptiles.  It  may 
also  be  mentioned  here,  that  in  the  Parrots  and 
Pigeons,  both  exclusively  vegetable  feeders,  the  craw 
is  furnished  with  numerous  glands,  which  become 
developed  in  both  sexes  during  the  period  that  they  alternately  perform  the  duty 

• See  note  to  p.36. — Ed. 
t The  same  contraction  is  noticeable,  to  a less  extent,  in  the  Mer- 
gansers, and  other  piscivorous  Birds  with  strong  and  muscular 
gizzards : hence  the  fishes  that  they  swallow  are  mechanically  pre- 

vented from  entering  the  gizzard  till  they  have  been  sufficiently 
reduced,  by  the  action  of  the  gastric  juice  elaborated  in  the  proven- 
triculus, to  pass  its  aperture. 



of  incubation,  and  the  function  of  which  is  to  secrete  a lacteal  substance,  with 
which  the  young  are  at  first  nourished.  The  craw  of  Birds  generally  is  situate  on 
the  right  side  only;  but  in  the  Pigeons  it  is  double,  and  fig.  70  represents  the  ordi- 
nary aspect  of  that  on  one  side  when  inflated  (a),  and  the  thickened  glandular  appear- 
ance of  that  on  the  other  (b),  as  noticeable  in  Pigeons  that  have  newly-hatched  young. 
In  other  Birds,  the  craw  merely  serves  as  a reservoir  for  such  food  as  cannot  be  imme- 
diately taken  into  the  stomach ; though  grain  is  generally  moistened  there  and 
softened,  by  macerating  in  fluid  sipped  for  the  purpose] . 

The  liver  voids  its  bile  into  the  intestine  by  two  ducts,  which  alternate  with  the  two 
or  three  by  which  the  pancreatic  fluid  passes.  The  pancreas  of  Birds  is  large,  but  their 
spleen  is  small ; they  have  no  epiploon,  the  functions  of  which  are  in  part  fulfilled  by 
the  partitions  of  the  air-cavities.  The  ccecal  appendages  [when  present]  are  placed  near 
the  origin  of  the  rectum,  and  at  a short  distance  from  its  outlet ; these  are  more  or  less 
long,  according  to  the  regimen  of  the  bird.  * The  Herons  [as  also  the  Smew  Mer- 
ganser] have  only  one,  which  is  minute ; in  other  genera,  as  that  of  the  Woodpeckers, 
they  are  wanting  altogether. 

The  cloaca  is  a pouch  in  which  the  rectum,  the  ureters,  and  the  spermatic  ducts — 
or,  in  the  female,  the  oviduct — terminate ; it  opens  externally  by  the  anus.  As  a 
general  rule.  Birds  do  not  urinate ; the  secretion  of  the  kidneys  being  mingled  with 
their  solid  excrement.  The  Ostriches  alone  have  the  cloaca  sufficiently  dilated  to 
allow  of  an  accumulation  of  the  urine.  [In  the  majority  of  Water-fowl,  there  is  a 
small  accessory  pouch  to  the  cloaca,  termed  the  bursa  Fabricii:  its  use  has  not  been 
clearly  ascertained.] 

In  most  of  the  genera,  coition  is  effected  by  the  simple  juxta-position  of  the  anus  ; 
the  Ostriches  and  many  aquatic  Birds  [those  which  copulate  in  water] , however,  have 
a penis  furrowed  with  a groove,  along  which  the  seminal  fluid  is  conducted.  The 
testicles  are  situate  internally  above  the  kidneys,  and  near  the  lungs  ; [they  attain  an 
enormous  developement  towards  the  season  of  propagation ;]  only  one  oviduct  is 
developed,  the  other  [with  its  ovary]  being  reduced  to  minute  size. 

The  egg,  detached  from  the  ovary,  where  only  the  yolk  is  perceptible,  imbibes  in  the 
upper  part  of  the  oviduct  that  exterior  fluid  termed  the  white,  and  becomes  invested 
with  its  shell  in  the  lower  part  of  the  same  canal.  The  chick  is  developed  by  incuba- 
tion, unless  where  the  heat  of  the  climate  suffices,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Ostrich  [in 
some  localities] . The  young  bird  has  on  the  tip  of  its  beak  a horny  point,  which 
serves  to  rupture  the  shell,  and  falls  off  a few  days  after  exclusion. 

Every  one  knows  the  varied  industry  which  Birds  exhibit  in  the  construction  of  their 
nests,  and  the  tender  care  which  they  take  of  their  eggs  and  young ; it  is  the 
principal  part  of.  their  instinct.  With  regard  to  the  rest,  their  rapid  passage  through 
different  regions  of  the  air,  and  the  intense  and  continued  action  of  that  element  upon 
them,  renders  them  presensible  of  the  variations  of  the  atmosphere,  to  an  extent  of 

* Some  difficulties  occur  in  the  way  of  this  explanation,  unless 
duly  qualified  in  reference  to  the  normal  characters  of  particular 
groups,  or  subtypes  of  form.  Thus,  the  Hawks  and  the  Owls  subsist 
pretty  nearly  on  the  same  regimen  ; the  coeca  being  in  the  former  in- 
stance constantly  minute,  and  in  the  latter  as  invariably  of  consider- 
able size,  but  with  the  same  proportional  dimensions  in  every  species  : 
nor  can  this  diversity  be  explained  on  another  principle  that  has  been 
advanced,  equally  correct  in  its  application  to  groups  ; viz.,  that  the 
somnolent  inactive  Owls  require  to  have  more  complex  digestive 
organs  (which  should  retain  the  chyme  longer  in  its  passage),  than  < 

the  more  energetic  tribe  of  Falcons  j inasmuch  as  the  rapidly-flying, 
active  Harfang,  or  Snowy  Owl,  which  on  the  wing  can  scarcely  be 
distinguished  from  the  Jer  Falcon,  possesses  caeca — as  before  gene- 
rally intimated — proportionally  quite  as  large  as  those  of  the  light- 
flapping Barn  Owl ; while  the  lazy,  smooth-sailing  Buzzard,  the 
floating  Kite,  and  the  buoyantly-skimming  Harrier,  present  no  further 
developement  of  these  appendages  than  the  darting  Hawks,  or  the 
impetuous,  far-rushing  Falcons.  A variety  of  analogous  instances 
might  be  enumerated.- — Ed. 


I 162  AYES. 

which  we  can  have  no  idea,  and  from  the  most  ancient  times  has  caused  to  be  attri- 
buted to  them,  by  superstitious  persons,  a power  of  announcing  future  events.  It  is 
doubtless  upon  this  faculty  that  the  instinct  depends  which  [periodically]  agitates 
migratory  Birds,  and  impels  them  to  direct  their  course  towards  the  equator  when 
winter  approaches,  and  pole- ward  at  the  return  of  spring.*  They  are  not  devoid  of 
memory,  and  even  imagination — for  they  dream ; and  every  body  knows  with  what 
facility  they  may  be  tamed,  taught  [in  numerous  instances]  to  perform  various  services, 
and  to  retain  airs  and  words. 


Of  all  classes  of  animals,  that  of  Birds  is  the  most  strongly  characterized,  that  in 
which  the  species  bear  the  greatest  mutual  resemblance,  and  which  is  separated  from 
all  others  by  the  widest  interval. 

Their  systematic  arrangement  is  based,  as  in  the  Mammalia,  on  the  organs  of  man- 
ducation  or  the  beak,  and  on  those  of  prehension,  which  are  again  the  beak,  and  more 
particularly  the  feet.  [The  configuration  of  the  sternal  apparatus,  also,  (which  we 
have  illustrated  by  numerous  figures,)  and  the  modifications  of  the  digestive  and  some- 
times vocal  organs,  supply  highly  important  characters  on  which  to  ground  the 

One  is  first  struck  by  the  character  of  webbed  feet,  or  those  wherein  the  toes  are 
connected  by  membranes,  that  distinguish  all  swimming  Birds. f The  backward  position 
of  their  feet,  the  elongation  of  the  sternum,  the  neck,  often  longer  than  the  legs,  to 
enable  them  to  reach  below  them,  the  close,  shining  plumage,  impervious  to  water, — 
altogether  concur  with  the  feet  to  make  good  navigators  of  the  Palmipedes. 

In  other  Birds,  which  have  also  most  frequently  some  small  web  to  their  feet,  at 
least  between  the  two  external  toes,  we  observe  elevated  tarsi ; legs  denuded  of  feathers 
above  the  heel-joint;  a slender  shape;  in  fine,  all  the  requisites  for  fording  along 
shallow  water,  in  search  of  nourishment.  Such,  in  fact,  is  the  regimen  of  the  greater 
number ; and,  although  some  of  them  resort  exclusively  to  dry  places,  they  are  never- 
theless termed  Shore-birds  or  Waders. 

Amongst  the  true  land-birds,  the  Gallinacece  have — like  our  domestic  Cock — a heavy 
carriage,  a short  flight,  the  beak  moderate,  its  upper  mandible  vaulted,  the  nostrils 
partly  covered  by  a soft  and  tumid  scale,  and  almost  always  the  edges  of  the  toes 
indented,  with  short  membranes  between  the  bases  of  those  in  front.  They  subsist 
chiefly  on  grain. 

Birds  of  prey  have  a crooked  beak,  with  its  point  sharp  and  curving  downward ; 
and  the  nostrils  pierced  in  a membrane  that  invests  its  base  : their  feet  [save  in  the 
Vulture  group]  are  armed  with  stout  talons.  They  live  on  flesh,  and  [the  Vultures 

* It  is  certain,  however,  that  the  rapid  enlargement  of  the  sexual 
organs  is  the  immediate  stimulant  to  migration  in  the  spring;  while 
decline  of  temperature,  most  generally,  is  the  directly  predisposing 
agent  in  the  autumn : this  is  manifest  in  the  case  of  migratory  Birds 
kept  in  confinement.  The  instances  of  the  Swift,  and  adult  Cuckoo, 
retiring  southward  at  the  hottest  season  of  the  year,  are  more  difficult 
of  explanation,  and  indicate  some  ulterior  agency  not  hitherto  divined  ; 
though  they  do  not  affect  the  multitudinous  observations,  which  con- 
clusively prove  the  influence  of  decline  of  temperature.  It  is  less  easy 
to  imagine  physical  agency  that  should  constantly  impel  migratory 
animals  to  travel  in  the  right  dircctiun;  and  the  marvel  increases 
when  we  consider  the  length  of  route  ordinarily  traversed,  and  still  ! 

more  the  extraordinary  fact  (familiar  to  all  practical  observers)  of 
Birds  of  passage,  unless  when  driven  by  stress  of  weather,  returning, 
both  in  summer  and  winter,  to  their  former  place  of  abode,  and  this 
even  when  reared  in  confinement,  and  released  immediately  previous 
to  their  first  journey. — Ed.  (See  note  to  p.  31.) 

t It  is  most  difficult  thus  to  generalize  in  the  class  of  Birds.  For 
instance,  the  Gallinules,  or  Moorhens t, — habitual  swimmers, — have  no 
connecting  membrane  to  the  toes  ; while  the  Terns,  which  are  never 
seen  to  swim,  have  their  toes  completely  webbed,  &c.  Even  the  Herons, 
the  Curlews,  and  numerous  other  waders,  will  sometimes  take  the 
water  of  their  own  accord,  and  swim  across  pools,  though  their  struc- 
ture does  not  indicate  such  a habit.— Ed. 



again  excepted]  pursue  other  Birds  ; their  flight  accordingly  is  mostly  powerful.  The 
greater  number  still  retain  a slight  web  betwixt  their  external  toes. 

The  Passerine  Birds  comprise  many  more  species  than  all  the  other  families  ; but 
their  organization  presents  so  many  analogies  that  they  cannot  be  separated,  although 
they  vary  very  much  in  size  and  strength.  Their  two  external  toes  are  joined  at  the 
base,  and  sometimes  higher. 

Finally,  the  name  of  Climbers  is  applied  to  those  Birds  in  which  the  external  toe  is 
directed  backwards  like  the  thumb,  because  the  greater  number  of  them  [some  of  them] 
avail  themselves  of  a conformation  so  favourable  for  a vertical  position,  to  climb  along 
the  trunks  of  trees.*  [As  constituted  upon  this  single  character,  the  present  group  is 
a most  unnatural  one,  excluding  genera  that  in  every  other  respect  belong  to  it,  and 
including  the  Parrots,  which  differ  widely  from  the  rest  in  every  other  detail  of  their 
conformation.  Besides  the  Parrots,  also,  which  are  the  only  true  climbers  among 
Birds,  (if  we  except  perhaps  the  Colies,)  the  Woodpecker  and  Barbet  groups  comprise 
all  the  yoke-footed  species  which  ascend  the  trunks  of  trees,  the  latter  only  being 
enabled  to  descend  them ; and  corresponding  genera  to  these  occur  among  the  Passerine 
Birds,  as  the  Creepers  and  their  allies — to  the  Woodpeckers,  and  the  Nuthatches — to 
the  Barbets.  The  Trogons  moreover,  as  stated  at  p.  156,  are  yoke-footed  on  a different 
principle  from  the  rest.  We  have  no  hesitation  in  placing  the  Parrots  at  the  head  of 
the  whole  series  of  the  class  of  Birds.] 

Each  of  these  orders  subdivides  into  families  and  genera,  principally  after  the  con- 
formation of  the  beak.  But  these  different  groups  pass  into  each  other  by  almost 
imperceptible  gradations,  insomuch  that  there  is  no  other  class  in  which  the  genera 
and  subgenera  are  so  difficult  of  limitation. 



Are  recognized  by  their  hooked  beak  and  talons, — powerful  weapons,  with  which  they  immo- 
late other  Birds,  and  even  the  weaker  Quadrupeds  and  Reptiles.  They  are  among  Birds  what 
the  Carnivora  are  among  Quadrupeds.]*  The  muscles  of  their  thighs  and  legs  indicate  the 
force  of  their  claws ; their  tarsi  are  rarely  elongated : they  having  all  four  toes ; and  the  claw 
of  the  thumb  and  that  of  the  innermost  toe  are  the  strongest. 

They  constitute  two  families,  the  Diurnal  and  the  Nocturnal. 

The  Diurnal  Birds  of  Prey  have  the  eyes  directed  sideways ; a membrane,  termed  the 
cere  [as  in  the  Parrots],  covering  the  base  of  the  beak,  in  which  the  nostrils  are  pierced ; three 
toes  before  [the  outer  in  the  Osprey  genus  reversible],  and  one  behind,  unfeathered,  the  two 
exterior  almost  always  connected  at  base  by  a short  membrane ; the  plumage  close,  the  quills 
strong,  and  flight  powerful.  [They  have  constantly  a large  craw  (fig.  71)  or  dilatation  of  the 
gullet] ; their  stomach  is  almost  wholly  membranous ; their  intestines  [save  in  the  Osprey 
genus]  but  little  extended,  and  furnished  with  minute  cceca.  The  sternum  (fig.  72)  is  large 
and  completely  ossified,  [or  with  only  a posterior  foramen  left,  in  most  of  the  genera],  in 
order  to  give  more  extended  attachment  to  the  muscles  of  the  wing ; and  their  fourchette 

* In  my  first  Elementary  Sketch,  in  1798,  I was  obliged  to  suppress  I of  recent  Ornithologist,  have  assented  to  this  suppression, 
the  order  Piece  of  Linnaeus,  which  has  no  one  determinate  character,  I + As  the  frugivorous  Parrots  may  be  compared  to  the  Quadrumana. 
[at  least  as  constituted  by  that  naturalist].  M.  Illigcr, and  the  majority  I — Ed. 

M 2 



(fig.  72,  a)  is  semicircular  and  very  wide,  the  better  to  resist  the  violent  pressure  of  the  humerus 
incidental  to  a rapid  flight.  [The  young  undergo  no  change  of  feather  until  their  second 

autumn ; and  they  renew  their  plumage  slowly,  and  in  no 
instance  more  than  once  in  the  year ; its  seasonal  change 
being  confined  to  a slight  wearing  off,  rather  than  a natural 
shedding,  of  the  margins  of  the  feathers  : in  several  species, 
however,  the  colour  indicative  of  maturity  is  partially  ac- 
quired, previously  to  moulting,  by  a change  of  hue  in  the  first 
or  nestling  plumage.  The  eggs  of  Accipitrine  Birds  are 
nearly  spherical ; and  those  of  the  present  division  are  gene- 
rally more  or  less  spotted  or  blotched  with  rusty-brown. 
The  young  are  at  first  densely  clad  in  short  soft  down.] 
Linnaeus  made  only  two  genera,  which  are  two  natural 
divisions, — the  Vultures  and  the  Falcons. 

Fig.71.— AlimentaryCanal  of  the  Common  Buzzard  : 
exhibiting  the  first  expansion,  or  craw ; and  (be- 
low the  divarication  of  the  trachea)  the  proven- 
triculus,  stomach,  and  intestines.  The  second 
figure  represents  the  termination  of  the  small 
intestines,  with  the  rectum  swelling  below  to 
form  the  cloaca,  and  two  minute  coeca  placed  at 
the  junction  of  the  great  and  small  intestines.* 

The  Vultures  ( Vultur , Lin.) — 

Have  the  eyes  even  with  the  head ; the  tarsi  reticulated,  or,  in 
other  words,  covered  with  small  scales ; the  beak  lengthened, 
curved  only  at  the  end  ; and  a greater  or  less  portion  of  the  head, 
and  generally  of  the  neck,  [in  the  adult,]  devoid  of  feathers.  The 
force  of  their  talons  does  not  correspond  with  their  stature,  and 
they  make  more  use  of  their  beak  than  of  their  claws.  Their 
wings  are  so  long,  that  in  walking  they  hold  them  half-extended. 
They  are  of  a cowardly  disposition,  and  feed  on  carrion  oftener 
than  on  living  prey : when  they  have  gorged  themselves,  their 
craw  forms  a large  protuberance  above  the  fourchette,  a fetid 
humour  issues  from  their  nostrils,  and  they  are  almost  reduced 
to  a state  of  apathy.  [They  differ,  moreover,  from  all  the  suc- 
ceeding groups,  till  we  arrive  at  the  Poultry, — with  the  sole  ex^ 
ception  of  the  Secretary  genus  ( Gypogeranus ),  which  indeed  might 
be  ranged  with  them, — in  possessing  more  than  twelve  cervical  ver- 
tebrae f:  their  fourchette,  though  extremely  stout  and  wide, 

is  flattened  as  in  the  Owls ; the  sternal  crest  low,  and  reduced  a <3 

anteriorly ; and  the  posterior  edge  of  the  sternum  (fig.  73),  in 
some  of  those  of  America,  is  doubly  emarginated  for  some 
time : they  even  further  accord  with  the  Owls  in  having  a rib 
less  than  the  Faleonine  genera. 

The  Vultures,  properly  so  called,  ( Vultur , Cuv.) — 

Have  a large  and  strong  beak,  the  nostrils  opening  cross-wise  at 
its  base,  the  head  and  neck  without  feathers  or  caruncles,  and  a 
collar  of  long  feathers,  or  of  down,  at  the  base  of  the  neck. 

They  have  hitherto  been  found  only  on  the  old  continent  [but 
none  of  the  tribe  are  met  with  in  Australia,  where  the  absence 
of  larger  indigenous  quadrupeds  than  the  Kangaroos,  and  of 
predatory  animals  that  should  leave  the  surplus  of  their 
meals  to  putrefy,  indicate  that  they  could  not  be  sup-  F-  72 

Sternal  apparatus  of  the  Common  Harrier. 

(0)  i.s  rather  more  developed  in  the 

«■  Ti. 

N.B.  The  keel  ( h ') 

Falcons  ; less  so  in  the  Eagles. 

* Copied  from  M'Gillivray’s  Rapacious  Birds  o)  Britain. — Ed. 
f In  the  long  series  of  groups  adverted  to,  the  thirteenth  vertebra 
generally,  but  not  always,  bears  a pair  of  minute  ribs,  which  diminish 
till  they  disappear  in  some  species ; if,  therefore,  the  thirteenth 
vertebra  is  to  be  considered  as  cervical  in  such  cases,  as  not  bearing 

a rib,  the  difference  is  essentially  trifling,  and  does  not  intrinsically 
affect  the  above  generalization  — Ed. 

t The  Alectura,  Gray,  which  has  been  ignorantly  classified  with  the 
Vultures,  is  in  every  respect  a true  Poultry  bird. 



The  Fulvous  Vulture  (F.  fulvus , 
Gm.)  is  the  most  widely-diffused  spe- 
cies, inhabiting  the  mountainous  parts 
of  the  whole  ancient  continent.  Its 
body  surpasses  in  size  that  of  a Swan 
[possibly  in  the  instance  of  some  fe- 
males. This  bird  has  been  errone- 
ously stated  to  have  fourteen  tail- 
feathers.*  The  greater  number  of  the 
genus  possess  similar  characters.] 

The  Dusky  Vulture  (F.  cinereus , 
Gm.)— As  widely  distributed  as  the 
preceding  [but  less  numerously],  and 
still  larger : it  frequently  attacks  liv- 
ing animals.  [This  species  exemplifies 
the  subgenus  Gyps  of  Savigny : hav- 
ing the  beak  more  sharply  pointed, 
the  nostrils  almost  round,  and  the 
head  partially  clothed  with  feathers. 
The  Vultures  generally,  indeed,  have 
the  head  and  neck  feathered  when 
young,  like  the  Turkey  and  other 
birds  which  have  bald  heads  in  a state 
Of  maturity : the  immature  F.  Ango- 
lensis,  Gm.,  is  doubtfully  figured  by 
Bennett  as  a species  of  Caracara  (Po- 
ly borus?  hypoleucos) ; but  the  adults 

Fig.  73. — 1,  hind  margin  of  the  sternum  of  a true  Vulture— 2,  ditto,  of  Neophron— 3,  ditto,  of  of  that  species  continue  to  have  those 
Cathartet  aura — 4,  ditto,  of  C.  Calif  ornianus,  the  foramina  of  which  have  become  obliterated  . , _ 

— 5,  ditto,  of  another  presumed  Catharte j— 6,  ditto,  of  Secretary.  parts  invested.] 

The  Oricou  Vulture  (F.  auricular  is,  Daud.),  an  African  species,  [probably  the  largest  of  the  true  Vultures,]  has 
a longitudinal  fleshy  crest  on  each  side  of  the  neck,  above  the  ear,  [a  character  which  likewise  occurs,  less  promi- 
nently, in  one  or  two  others], 

America  produces  Vultures  remarkable  for  the  caruncles  which  surmount  the  membrane  at  the  base 
of  the  beak ; the  latter  is  as  large  as  in  the  preceding,  but  the  nostrils  are  oval  and  longitudinal. 
They  are 

The  Condors  ( Sarcoramphus , Dumeril), — 

[A  very  distinct  genus,  remarkable  for  having  no  muscles  attached  to  the  trachea,  in  consequence  of 
which  they  are  necessarily  deprived  of  voice,  emitting  no  sound  beyond  a weak  snorting.  Their  hind 
toe  is  shorter  than  in  other  Accipitres.'] 

The  King  Condor  (F.  papa,  Lin).— Size  of  a Goose.  The  naked  parts  of  the  head  and  neck  vividly  coloured,  and 
the  caruncle  denticulated  like  the  comb  of  a cock.  It  inhabits  the  Pampas  and  other  hot  parts  of  South  America. 
This  species  is  termed  the  King  of  the  Vultures,  from  the  Gallinazos  giving  place  to  it,  through  fear,  whenever  it 
settles  upon  a carcase  which  they  had  begun  to  devour. 

The  Great  Condor  (F.  gryphus,  Lin.);  the  male  of  which,  in  addition  to  his  superior  caruncle t,  has  another 
under  the  beak,  like  the  cock.  The  female  differs  in  colour,  and  is  without  the  caruncles.  This  bird  has  been 
rendered  famous  by  exaggerated  reports  of  its  size : it  is  little  larger  than  the  Bearded  Griffin,  which  its  manners 
resemble.  It  inhabits  the  most  elevated  regions  of  the  Andes,  and  flies  higher  than  any  other  bird. 

The  Gallinazos  ( Cathartes , Cuv.) — 

Have  the  beak  of  the  Condors,  that  is  to  say,  large,  with  longitudinal  oval  nostrils,  but  no  fleshy  crest : 
their  head  and  neck  are  without  feathers  ; [plumage  nearly  or  wholly  black : the  sternum  emarginated 
inward  of  the  ordinary  foramen.  All  the  species  are  from  America.] 

The  Great  Gallinazo  (F,  calif  ornianus,  Shaw),— approaches  the  large  Condor  in  size,  with  proportionally  longer 
wings.  [From  the  western  coast  of  North  America.] 

The  Turkey  Buzzard  of  the  Anglo-Americans  (F.  aura , Lin.)— Little  larger  than  a fowl.  [There  appear  to  be 
others,  hitherto  imperfectly  determined.] 

The  Neophrons  ( Neophron , Cuv.) — 

Have  a long  and  slender  beak,  rather  tumid  above  its  curvature ; the  nostrils  oval  and  longitudinal, 

• No  species  of  bird  has  more  than  twelve  tail-feathers  (including 
the  uropygials ) till  we  arrive  at  the  Poultry.  Hence,  the  Alectura, 
— mentioned  in  the  preceding  note, — which  possesses  eighteen,  might 
in  this  character  alone  have  been  referred  to  its  proper  station. 

f It  is  proper  to  remark  that  the  rigid  cartilaginous  crest  of  the 
male  of  this  Condor  offers  no  analogy,  anatomically,  with  the  flaccid 
caruncle  of  the  other.— Ed. 

166  AYES. 

and  the  head,  but  not  the  neck,  devoid  of  feathers.  They  are  birds  of  moderate  size,  and  in  strength 
do  not  approach  the  Vultures  properly  so  called  ; hence  they  are  even  more  addicted  to  carrion  and 
all  sorts  of  filth,  which  attract  them  from  afar.  They  do  not  even  disdain  to  feed  on  excrement. 

The  White  Neophron  (F.  percnopterus,  Lin.)— Little  larger  than  a Raven  : the  adult  male  [and  probably  also 
the  old  female]  white,  with  black  quill-feathers ; the  female  and  young  brown.  [It  is  common  in  Africa,  and  the 
countries  bordering  the  Mediterranean ; rare  in  the  north  of  Europe : has  been  once  killed  in  England.]  It  fol- 
lows the  caravans  in  the  desert,  to  devour  all  that  dies. 

The  Urubu  (F.  jota,  Ch.  Bonap.),  or  Carrion  Crow  of  the  Anglo-Americans.— The  same  size  and  form  as  the 
preceding,  but  with  a stouter  bill,  and  the  head  entirely  naked ; plumage  wholly  deep  black.  It  abounds  in  the 
temperate  and  hot  parts  of  America,  [and  is  generally  ranged  in  Cathartes.  One  or  more  additional  true  Neo- 
phrons, however,  exist  in  Africa.] 

The  Griffins  ( Gypdetos , Storr), — > 

Placed  by  Gmelin  in  his  genus  Falco,  approximate  the  Vultures  rather  in  their  habits  and  conformation : 
they  have  the  eyes  even  with  the  head ; the  claws  proportionally  feeble  ; wings  half-extended  when  at 
rest ; the  craw,  when  full,  projecting  at  the  bottom  of  the  neck : but  their  head  is  completely  covered 
with  feathers  ; [and  they  have  only  thirteen  cervical  vertebrae,  which  is  one  more  than  in  any  of  the 
Falcons  ; the  Neophrons  and  Gallinazos  possessing  fourteen,  and  the  Condors  and  true  Vultures  fifteen. 
The  sternum  is  proportionally  short,  and  very  broad.]  Their  distinctive  characters  consist  in  a very 
strong,  straight  beak,  hooked  at  the  point,  and  inflated  on  the  curve ; nostrils  covered  [owl-like]  with 
stiff  hairs  directed  forward ; and  a pencil  of  similar  hairs  under  the  beak : their  tarsi  are  short,  and 
feathered  to  the  toes  ; and  their  wings  long,  having  the  third  quill  longest. 

The  Bearded  Griffin,  or  Lammer-geyer,  (F  barbatus,  and  Falco  barbatus,  Gm.).— This  is  the  largest  bird  of  prey 
belonging  to  the  Eastern  Continent : it  inhabits  the  high  chains  of  mountains,  but  is  not  very  common.  It 
nestles  in  inaccessible  acclivities ; attacks  Lambs,  Goats,  the  Chamois,  and  even,  it  is  said,  sleeping  Man  [or 
persons  standing  on  the  edge  of  a precipice]  ; it  is  pretended  that  children  have  been  sometimes  carried  away  by 
it,  [a  statement  recently  confirmed  by  facts,  in  more  than  one  instance].  Its  method  is  to  force  animals  over  steep 
precipices,  and  to  devour  them  when  disabled  by  the  fall.  It  does  not,  however,  refuse  dead  bodies.  Its  length 
is  nearly  five  feet  (French),  and  extent  of  wing  from  nine  to  ten  feet.  This  bird  is  the  Phene  of  the  Greeks,  and 
the  Ossifraga  of  the  Latins.  [The  species  of  the  Himmalayas  is  considered  to  be  different.] 

The  Falcons  {Falco,  Lin.)— 

Constitute  the  second,  and  by  much  the  most  numerous  division  of  the  diurnal  birds  of  prey.  They 
have  the  head  and  neck  covered  with  feathers : their  eye-brows  [except  in  the  Ospreys]  form  a pro- 
jection which  occasions  the  eye  to  appear  sunk,  and  imparts  a very  different  character  to  their  phy- 
siognomy from  that  of  the  Vultures  : the  majority  of  them  subsist  on  living  prey  ; but  they  differ  much 
in  the  amount  of  courage  displayed  in  the  pursuit  of  it.  Their  first  plumage  is  often  differently 
coloured  from  the  adult,  and  they  do  not  [in  most  instances]  assume  the  latter  for  three  or  four 
years, — a circumstance  which  has  occasioned  the  species  to  have  been  greatly  multiplied  by  nomencla- 
tors.  The  female  is  generally  one-third  larger  than  the  male,  which,  on  this  account,  has  been  named 
a tercel. 

It  is  necessary  to  subdivide  this  genus  first  into  two  sections. 

The  Falcons,  properly  so  called,  {Falco,  Bechstein),  commonly  termed  the  Noble  Birds  of  Frey, — 

Compose  the  first.  They  are  the  most  courageous  in 
proportion  to  their  size,  a quality  which  is  derived  from 
the  power  of  their  armature  and  wings.  Their  beak 
(fig.  74),  curved  from  its  base,  has  a sharp  tooth  on  each 
side  near  the  point ; and  the  second  quill  of  their  wings 
is  the  longest,  the  first  nearly  equalling  it,  which  renders 
the  entire  wing  longer  and  more  pointed.  From  this, 
also,  result  particular  habits  : the  length  of  the  quills  of 
their  wings  weakens  their  efforts  to  ascend  vertically,  and 
renders  their  forward  flight,  in  a calm  state  of  the  at- 
mosphere, very  oblique,  necessitating  them,  when  they 
wish  to  rise  directly,  to  fly  against  the  wind.  They  are 

Fi(f.  74. — Beak  of  Jer  Falcon 




exceedingly  docile  Birds,  and  are  those  which  are  most  generally  employed  in  falconry , being  taught 
to  pursue  game,  and  to  return  when  called. 

The  Peregrine  Falcon  ( F . communis,  Gm. ; [F.  peregrinus,  Lin.).— Apparently  a cluster  of  indefinitely  distin- 
guishable species,  generally  diffused  in  temperate  climates,  both  northward  and  southward  of  the  equator].  The 
species  mostly  trained  for  purposes  of  falconry. 

[There  are  numerous  others,  of  which  the  Jer  Falcon,  the  Lanner, — which  is  intermediate  to  the  Jer  and 
Peregrine  Falcons, — the  Hobby,  the  Red-legged,  and  the  Merlin  Falcons,  inhabit  northern  Europe.  The  Red- 
legged  Falcon  is  remarkable  for  sometimes  breeding  in  society.  F.  concolor  and  some  others  have  the 
tarsi  elongated:  and  in  F.  cesalon  (the  Merlin),  and  some  allied  species,  the  third  quill-feather  equals  and 
sometimes  exceeds  the  second ; these  last  are  also  somewhat  Hawk-like  in  the  structure  of  their  feet,  and  in 
their  manners.  The  division  of  Kestrel-falcons  (termed  Cerchneis  by  Bote)  comprehends  Birds  of  weaker 
structure,  which  have  the  sternum  proportionally  smaller ; in  some  the  front  of  the  tarsi  is  scutellated,  as  in 
the  short-winged  Hawks : the  Kestrel-Falcons  prey  chiefly  on  field-mice,  which  they  discern  as  they  hover 
stationary  at  a moderate  altitude,  with  the  head  invariably  turned  towards  the  wind ; it  is  thus  that  they  have 
obtained  the  names  of  Wind-hover  and  of  Stand-gall  or  “stand-gale:”  there  are  several  species,  two  only  of 
which  inhabit  Europe — the  common  Kestrel  (F.  tinnunculus,  Lin.),  and  the  White-clawed  Kestrel  (F.  cenchris , 
Frisch,  and  Naum  ; F.  tinnunculoides,  Tern.). 

The  division  Hierofalco,  Cuv.,  was  instituted  by  mistake,  for  the  reception  of  the  Jer  Falcon,  under  the  suppo- 
sition that  its  beak  had  only  a festoon,  as  in  the  short-winged  Hawks ; the  tooth  of  these  Birds  being  sometimes 
cut  away  by  the  falconers.  Gampsonyx,  Vigors,  however,  fulfils  nearly  the  conditions  which  were  assigned  to 
Hierofalco ; the  upper  mandible  being  devoid  even  of  emargination,  and  considerably  resembling  that  of  the 
Buzzards  : the  head  is  small,  feet  and  tarsi  robust,  the  latter  feathered  half-way  from  the  joint;  wings  the  same 
as  in  Falco : one  species  only  is  known,  a bird  of  small  size  from  Brazil  (G.  Swainsonii,  Vig.). 

Other  species  (the  Ierax,  Vigors),  of  very  small  size,  have  the  second  and  third  quill-feathers  nearly  equal ; the 
upper  mandible  strongly  and  sharply  bidentated,  by  the  further  developement  of  a sinuation  visible  in  the  rest. 
Two  species  are  known,  from  Java  and  Manilla  respectively,  ( F . ccerulescens,  Edwards,  and  I.  erythrogenys, 
Vig.)— They  are  scarcely  larger  than  a Swallow,  but  yield  to  none  in  energy  and  spirit : their  wings,  however,  are 
less  firm  than  in  other  Falcons. 

There  are  some  bidentate  species,  which  in  other  respects  accord  more  nearly  with  the  Goshawks  : 
they  are 

The  Harpagons  ( Harpagus , Vig. ; Bidens,  Spix), — 

Which  present  an  acute  bidentation  of  both  mandibles,  and  have  hitherto  been  found  only  in  South 

The  best  known  species  ( F . bidentatus,  Latham)  is  figured  in  the  adult  state  by  Spix  as  Bidens  rufiventer,  and 
in  immature  plumage  as  B.  albiventer. 

Others  more  nearly  approximate  the  Perns,  as 

The  Falcoperns  (Lepidogenys,  Gould), — 

The  wings  of  which  are  remarkably  long,  having  the  third  quill  longest ; feet  very  short,  and  the  talons 
small  and  but  slightly  curved  : the  bidentation  is  less  strongly  marked  than  in  the  preceding. 

F.  lophotes,  Tem.,  an  elegantly-crested  bird  from  India,  and  another  from  Australia— L.  subcristatus,  Gould, 
pertain  to  this  division.  Nearly  allied  would  seem  to  be  the  Aviceda , Swains.,  from  Western  Africa ; except  that 
its  armature  is  considerably  more  powerful.]  The  Baza  of  Hodgson  is  probably  identical  with  Lepidogenys. 

The  second  section  of  the  great  genus  Falco  is  that  of  the  Birds  of  prey  termed  Ignoble , because  they 
cannot  be  so  well  employed  in  falconry ; a tribe  much  more  numerous  than  that  of  the  Nobles , and 
which  it  is  necessary  to  subdivide  considerably.  Their  longest  quill-feather  is  almost  always  the  fourth, 
the  first  being  very  short,  which  has  the  same  effect  as  if  the  tip  of  the  wing  had  been  obliquely  cut 
off ; hence,  cceteris  paribus,  result  diminished  powers  of  flight.  Their  beak,  also,  is  not  so  well  armed, 
as  there  is  no  lateral  tooth  near  its  point,  but  only  a slight  festoon  about  the  middle  of  its  length. 

The  Eagles  ( Aquila , Brisson), — 

Which  form  the  first  tribe,  have  a very  strong  beak,  straight  at  its  base,  and  curved  only  towards  the 
point.  Among  them  we  find  the  largest  species  of  the  genus,  and  the  most  powerful  of  all  the 
Birds  of  prey. 

The  Eagles,  properly  so  called  {Aquila,  Cuv.) — 

Have  the  tarsi  feathered  down  to  the  base  of  the  toes : they  inhabit  mountains,  and  pursue  Birds  and 
Quadrupeds ; their  wings  are  as  long  as  the  tail,  their  flight  both  elevated  and  rapid,  and  their  courage 
superior  to  that  of  most  other  Birds. 



Fig.  75. — White-headed  Erne. 

[The  Golden  Eagle  (F.  chrysaetos,  Lin.),  the  Grecian  Eagle  (A.  Heliaca,  Savigny ; F.  imperialis,  Tem.),  the 
Spotted  Eagle  ( F . ncevius  and  maculatus,  Gm.),  the  Social  Eagle  (A.  Bonelli,  Bonap.),  and  the  Little  Eagle 

(F.  pennatus,  Gm.),  are  the  European  species,  which  suc- 
cessively decrease  in  size  in  the  order  announced ; the 
last-named  being  smaller  than  a Common  Buzzard.] 
New  Holland  produces  Eagles  of  similar  form  to  those 
of  Europe,  the  tail  excepted,  which  is  cuneiform.  Such 
is  the  Wedge-tailed  Eagle  ( A.fucosa , Cuv.). 

[There  are  many  others.]  We  should  remark  that  the 
transition  from  the  Eagles  to  the  Buzzards  is  elfected  by 
insensible  gradations,  [the  typical  Buzzards  being  merely 
small-sized  Eagles,  with  weaker  armature]. 

The  Ernes  ( Haliceetus , Cuv.) 

Have  wings  resembling  those  of  the  preceding, 
but  the  tarsi  clothed  only  on  its  upper  half  with 
feathers,  the  remainder  being  semi-scutellated. 
[Their  beak  also  is  longer  and  larger.]  They 
frequent  the  shores  of  rivers  and  of  the  sea,  and 
subsist  in  great  part  upon  fish  [without  disdaining 
carrion,  like  the  true  Eagles. 

The  Cinereous  Erne  (F.  albicilla,  Lin.)  of  Europe,  and 
the  American  White-headed  Erne  ( F . leucocephalus,  Lin. 
fig.  75)  are  characteristic  examples.  There  are  also  some 
of  small  size,  as  the  bird  commonly  termed  the  Pondi- 
cherry Kite  (F.  ponticerianus,  Gm.),  which  the  Hindoos 
consider  sacred  to  Vishnu.  The  Cunduma  of  Hodgson 
is  merely  a large  Haliceetus']. 

The  Ospreys  ( Pandion , Savigny)-— 

Have  [somewhat]  the  beak  and  feet  of  the  Ernes ; but  their  talons  are  round  underneath,  while  in 
other  Birds  of  prey  [save  in  the  true  Elani]  they  are  grooved 
or  channelled ; their  tarsi  are  reticulated,  and  the  second 
[third]  quill  of  their  wings  is  longest.  Their  sternum  (fig.  76) 
differs  from  that  of  other  Falcons  (see  fig.  72)  in  becoming 
narrower  towards  its  posterior  margin,  where  a notch  exists 
analogous  to  the  inner  emargination  of  the  Gallinazos,  but  not 
to  the  foramen  observable  in  the  Falcons  generally : the  intes- 
tine is  very  slender  and  of  great  length  (whereas  in  the  Ernes 
it  does  not  differ  from  that  of  other  Falcons) : the  super- 
orbital bone  does  not  project : the  feathers  even  are  com- 
pletely destitute  of  the  supplementary  plume,  (which  in  the 
Ernes  and  most  other  Falcons  is  considerably  developed),  and 
aib  not  lengthened  over  the  tibia  : the  outer  toe  is  reversible, 
and  the  foot  astonishingly  rough  underneath,  to  enable  them 
to  hold  their  slippery  fishy  prey,  on  which  they  subsist  ex- 
clusively. This  is  by  far  the  most  strongly  characterized  division 
of  the  Linnsean  genus  Falco.*] 

The  Common  Osprey  (F.  haliceetus,  Lin.)— [Evidently  a cluster  of  a 
allied  species,  very  generally  distributed.  That  of  New  Holland  (P.  leu- 
cocephalus, Gould)  has  the  crown  white.  In  some  places  this  bird 
nidificates  in  large  societies. 

As  a group,  externally  intermediate  to  the  Ernes  and  Ospreys, 
might  be  separated  the  F.  ichthyceetus , Horsf.,  and  several  allied 
species  from  Australasia.  They  are  essentially  Osprey-like  Ernes, 
which  most  probably  retain  the  anatomy  of  the  latter,  and  ex- 
hibit greater  developement  of  the  mandibular  tooth  than  either.] 

* The  genus  Herpethotheres  alone  is  nearly  allied. 

Fig.  76. — Sternum  of  Osprey. 



The  Marsh-eagles  ( Circaetus , Vieillot) — 

Hold  a sort  of  mediate  station  between  the  Ernes,  the  Ospreys,  and  the  Buzzards.  They  have  the 
wings  of  the  Eagles  and  Buzzards,  and  the  reticulated  tarsi  of  the  Ospreys.  Such  are 

The  European  Marsh-eagle,  or  Jean-le-blanc,  ( F . gallicus,  Gin.),- the  beak  of  which  curves  more  rapidly  than 
in  other  Eagles,  and  the  toes  are  proportionally  shorter.  It  exceeds  the  Osprey  in  size,  and  inhabits  Europe, 
preying  chiefly  on  reptiles. 

Le  Bateleur  of  Le  Vaillant,  (F.  ecaudatus,  Shaw).— An  African  species,  remarkable  for  the  extreme  shortness 
of  its  tail,  and  its  beautifully  variegated  plumage.  [It  constitutes  the  division  Helotarsus  of  Smith,  synonymous 
with  Terathopias  of  Lesson,  ditfering  in  several  particulars  from  the  others,  and  particularly  in  the  baldness  of 
its  cheeks.  The  Bateleur  preys  on  young  Gazelles,  young  Ostriches,  &c.,  and  also  on  putrid  carrion,  disgorging 
the  latter  into  the  throats  of  its  young,  as  observed  of  the  Vultures.] 

America  produces  Eagles  with  long  wings  like  the  foregoing,  and  naked  scutellated  tarsi,  in  which 
a more  or  less  considerable  proportion  of  the  sides  of  the  head,  and  sometimes  of  the  throat,  is 
denuded  of  feathers.  The  general  name  of 

Caracaras — 

Has  been  applied  to  them.  From  this  group  M.  Vieillot  has  made  his  genera  Daptrius , Ibycter , 
and  Polyborus , [partly]  according  to  the  greater  or  less  extent  of  the  bare  part  of  the  head. 
[ Phalcobanus,  d’Orbigny,  Gymnops  and  Milvayo,  Spix,  have  also  been  applied  to  divisions  of  the 
Caracaras.  These  Birds  are  carrion-feeders,  and  pass  their  time  chiefly  on  the  ground,  amongst  the 
herbage,  where  their  gait  is  ambulatory.  All  are  from  the  warm  regions  of  America.] 

The  Coronards,  or  short-winged  Fisher-eagles,  (Harpy ia*,  Cuv.  j [ Thrasaetos , G.  Gray]  ) — 

Are  also  American  Eagles,  which  have  the  tarsi  very  thick  and  strong,  reticulated,  and  half-covered 
with  feathers,  as  in  the  Ernes,  from  which  they  differ  chiefly  in  the  shortness  of  their  wings  ; their 
beak  and  talons  are  stronger  than  in  any  other  tribe. 

Tlie  Harpy  Coronard  or  Eagle  (F.  harpyia,  and  F.  cristatus,  Lin.).— Of  all  Birds,  this  possesses  the  most  terrific 
beak  and  talons ; it  is  superior  in  size  to  the  common  Eagle.  On  the  back  of  its  head  are  elongated,  feathers, 
forming  a sort  of  fan-like  crest  upon  the  nape,  which,  when  erected,  impart  to  its  physiognomy  a resemblance  to 
the  tufted  Owls : like  them,  also,  its  external  toe  is  frequently  directed  backward.  It  is  said  to  be  so  strong,  as  to 
have  sometimes  cleft  a Man’s  skull  with  a blow  of  its  beak.  The  Sloths  are  its  ordinary  food,  and  it  not  unfre- 
quently  carries  off  Fawns. 

The  Eagle-hawks  (Morphnus,  Cuv.) — 

Have,  like  the  preceding,  wings  shorter  than  the  tail ; but  their  elevated  and  slender  tarsi,  and  their 
feeble  toes,  oblige  us  to  distinguish  them.  Some  have  the  tarsi  naked  and  scutellated. 

The  Crested  Eagle-hawk  of  Guiana  ( F . guianensis,  Daud.),  resembles  singularly,  in  its  colours  and  markings, 
the  Harpy  Coronard  of  the  same  country ; but  is  not  so  large,  and  its  naked  and  scutellated  tarsi  sufficiently 
distinguish  it. 

F.  urubitinga,  Lin.,  is  crestless.  This  handsome  species  hunts  in  inundated  grounds.  [Certain  other  uncrested 
species,  with  very  long  tarsi,  constitute  the  Limncietos,  Vigors. 

Others  have  elevated  tarsi,  feathered  throughout  their  length  [the  Spizaetus  of  Vieillot]. 

The  Tufted  Black  Eagle-hawk  of  Africa  (F.  occipitalis,  Daud.), — inhabits  the  whole  of  that  continent. 

The  Variegated  Eagle-hawk  (F.  ornatus,  Daud.;  F.  superbus  and  coronatus,  Shaw:  Harpyia  braccata,  Spix, 
refers  to  the  young).— A handsome  species  from  South  America,  which  varies  from  black  and  white  to  deep  brown. 
[Certain  Indian  species  compose  the  Nisaetos  of  Hodgson.] 

Finally,  there' are  in  America  some  Birds  with  beaks  as  in  all  the  preceding;  very  short,  reticulated 
tarsi,  half-feathered  in  front ; wings  shorter  than  the  tail ; but  the  most  distinctive  character 
of  which  consists  in  their  nostrils,  which  are  almost  closed,  and  resemble  a fissure.  A small  tribe  may 
be  made  of  them,  designated 

The  Cymindues  (Cymindis,  Cuv.). 

Such  is 

Tire  small  Cayenne  Hawk  of  Buffon  (F.  cayennensis,  Gm.) ; which  has  another  peculiar  character,  by  possessing 
a small  tooth  at  the  bend  of  its  beak. 

[F.  hamatus,  Illiger,  ranged  by  the  author  in  Cymindis,  composes  the  Rostrhamus  of  Lesson  : its  beak  is  very 
narrow,  the  upper  mandible  resembling  a long  and  slender  claw : tail  slightly  furcate. 

This  term  was  previously  applied  to  a subgenus  of  Cheiroptera. — Ed. 





The  Asturines  ( Asturina , Vieillot) — 

Have  been  generally  placed  next.  They  have  the  nostrils  lunulated ; the  bill  straight  at  its  base ; 
wings  short,  and  the  tarsi  also  short  and  somewhat  slender. 

A.  cinerea,  Vieillot,  a species  from  Guiana,  may  be  cited  in  exemplification.] 

The  Hawks  ( Astur , Bechstein ; Dcedalion , Savigny), — - 
Which  form  the  second  division  of  the  Ignobles , have  wings  shorter  than  the  tail,  as  in  the  last  three 
tribes  of  Eagles ; but  their  beak  curves  from  its  base,  as  in  all  that  follow. 

The  Goshawks  {Astur,  as  restricted) — 

Have  the  tarsi  [more  distinctly]  scutellated,  and  comparatively  short. 

The  European  Goshawk  (F.  palumbarius,  Lin.),  equals  the  Jer  Falcon  in  size,  but  always  stoops  obliquely  on  its 
quarry.  Falconers,  however,  sometimes  use  it  for  the  weaker  kinds  of  game.  It  is  common  in  the  hilly  and 
secondary  mountain  ranges  of  Europe. 

Among  foreign  Goshawks,  we  may  notice  that  of  New  Holland  (F.  Novae  Hollandice,  White),  which  is  often 
entirely  snow-white ; but  it  appears  that  these  white  individuals  constitute  a variety  only  of  a bird  of  the  same 
country,  pale  ash-coloured  above,  white  below,  with  vestiges  of  pale  undulations. 

We  may  approximate  to  the  Goshawk  certain  American  Birds,  with  short  wings  and  tarsi,  the  latter 
reticulated.  [These  are 

The  Nicaguas  ( Herpethotheres , Vieillot ; Dcedalion,  Vigors), — 

A strongly  characterized  division,  interesting,  as  presenting  evidently  a modification  of  the  peculiar 
Osprey  type,  to  which  genus  they  alone  appear  to  be  allied.  It  is  particularly  desirable,  therefore,  that 
their  anatomy  should  be  ascertained.] 

The  Nicagua  of  Azara,  or  Laughing  Falcon,  (F.  cachinnans,  Lin.) : so  named  from  its  cry.  From  the  marshes  of 
South  America,  where  it  preys  on  reptiles  and  fish.  [Its  colouring,  and  the  texture  of  its  plumage,  are  the  same 
as  in  the  Osprey ; and  it  has  similar  short  feathers  on  the  tibia.  F.  melanops,  Lath,  and  F.  sufflator,  Lin.,  apper- 
tain to  this  division ; the  latter,  however,  constituting  the  restricted  Physeta  of  Vieillot.] 

The  Sparrow-hawks  ( Nisus , Cuv. ; [ Accipiter , Ray]  ) — 

Have  longer  and  more  slender  tarsi  than  the  Goshawks,  [still  shorter  wings,  and  the  middle  toe  much 
lengthened]  ; but  the  passage  from  one  to  the  other  of  these  divisions  is  almost  insensible. 

Our  common  Sparrow-hawk  (F.  nisus,  Lin.)  has  the  same  colouring  as  the  Goshawk,  but  is  much  less  in  size  ; 
notwithstanding  which  it  is  employed  in  falconry.  There  are  foreign  species  still  smaller ; but  also  some  that  are 
much  larger,  as 

The  Chaunting  Hawk  (F.  musicus,  Daud.),— a native  of  Africa,  where  it  pursues  Partridges  and  Hares,  and 
builds  in  trees.  It  is  the  only  bird  of  prey  known  that  sings  agreeably,  [by  which,  however,  cannot  be  meant  that 
it  inflects  the  voice,  as  in  those  Passerine  Birds  which  have  additional  laryngeal  muscles.  This  bird, — and  there  is 
more  than  one  species  here  confounded, — has  a much  weaker  bill,  and  longer  wings,  than  the  true  Sparrow-hawks ; 
it  has  probably  been  made  the  type  of  a separate  division. 

The  Gymnogenys  of  Vieillot  may  also  be  introduced  here.  It  is  a Hawk  with  very  long  wings,  lengthened  and 
distinctly  scutellated  tarsi,  and  short  toes,  but  the  most  distinctive  character  of  which  consists  in  its  being  naked 
above  the  bill  and  on  the  cheeks.  The  only  species,  G.  madagascariensis,  is  grey,  with  round  black  spots  on  the 
wings,  and  the  lower  parts  below  the  breast  transversely  rayed : it  bears  some  resemblance  to  the  Secretary. 

The  species  of  Hawks  displays  the  maximum  sexual  disparity  of  size,  in  favour  of  the  female.] 

The  Kites  {Milvus,  Bechst.) — 

Have  short  tarsi,  and  feeble  toes  and  claws,  which,  added  to  a beak  equally  disproportioned  to  their 
size,  render  them  the  most  cowardly  of  the  whole  group : they  are  further  distinguished  by  their 
excessively  long  wings,  and  by  their  forked  tail,  in  consequence  of  which  their  flight  is  very  swift 
and  easy. 

Some  have  the  tarsi  very  short,  reticulated,  and  half-feathered  above,  like  the  last  small  tribe  of 
Eagles : [their  claws,  save  that  on  the  middle  toe,  are  rounded  underneath].  Such  are 

The  Elanets  {Elanus,  Savigny). 

The  Black-winged  Elanet  ( F . melanopterus , Daud.) ; a common  species  from  Egypt  to  the  Cape,  and  which 
appears  to  be  found  in  India,  and  even  in  America.  [The  American  and  New  Holland  species  are  distinct.] 
Insects  are  almost  its  sole  prey. 

The  Swallow-tailed  Glede  ( F . furcatus , Lin.).— Larger  than  the  preceding,  [with  wings  excessively  long,  and  tail 




deeply  furcate].  It  attacks  reptiles  [and  the  larger  insects,  and  has  been  known  to  scrape  out  Wasps’-nests  like 
the  Pern.  Its  talons  are  not  rounded  underneath,  on  account  of  which,  together  with  other  distinctive  characters, 
it  is  now  generally  recognized  as  constituting  the  Nauclerus,  Vigors.  This  bird  is  indigenous  to  America,  but 
has  been  known  to  stray  into  Britain.  It  is  social  in  its  habits,  and  almost  gregarious.  A nearly  allied  African 
species  constitutes  the  Elanoides  of  Vieillot.  j 

The  Kites,  properly  so  called  {Milvus,  Cuv.) — 

Have  the  tarsi  scutellated  and  stronger,  [and  are  very  nearly  related  to  the  Ernes]. 

The  Common  or  Red  Kite  ( E . milvus,  Lin.).— Of  all  European  Birds,  this  remains  longest  and  most  tranquilly 
on  the  wing.  It  scarcely  attacks  any  thing  but  reptiles.  [Another  European  species,  not  hitherto  found  in  Britain, 
where  the  first  is  fast  disappearing,  is 

The  Black  Kite  (il f.  ater,  G111.). — The  author  has  likewise  ranged  here 

The  American  Puttock  ( F . plumbeus,  Lath.),  or  the  Mississipi  Kite  of  Wilson,  which  is  referrible  to  Vieillot’s 
genus  Ictinia,  now  generally  accepted.  This  forms  an  obviously  distinct  group,  the  members  of  which  are  much 
more  powerfully  armed  than  the  Kites,  having  a short  and  stout  beak,  the  upper  mandible  of  which  is  somewhat 
angularly  festooned,  and  talons  comparatively  developed.  They  prey,  however,  principally  on  the  larger  insects, 
and  occasionally  on  Snakes  and  Lizards : are  most  nearly  related  to  the  Elanets.] 

The  Perns  ( Pernis , Cuv.), — 

Or  Honey  Buzzards , combine,  with  the  weak  bill  of  the  Kites,  a very  peculiar  character,  in  having  the 
space  between  the  eye  and  beak,  which  in  the  rest  of  the  genus  Falco  is  naked,  and  only  furnished 
with  some  [radiating]  bristly  feathers,  covered  with  close  feathers  disposed  like  scales  ; their  tarsi  are 
half-feathered  above,  and  reticulated  ; their  tail  even ; wings  long,  [the  third  quill  being  longest]  ; and 
their  beak  curved  from  its  base,  as  in  all  that  follow. 

The  Common  Pern  ( F . apivorus,  Lin.)  pursues  insects,  and  principally  Bees  and  Wasps,  [the  combs  of  which  it 
scratches  out  of  banks  to  feed  on  the  maggots : in  default  of  these,  however,  it  will  attack  small  warm-blooded 
animals  and  reptiles.  It  runs  with  celerity  on  the  ground ; is  migratory ; and  generally  builds  on  the  tops  of 
lofty  beeches.  Two  or  three  additional  species  have  been  ascertained,  all  from  the  Eastern  Continent]. 

The  Buzzards  ( Buteo , Bechstein) — 

Have  long  wings,  the  tail  even,  the  beak  curved  from  its  base,  the  interval  between  it  and  the  eyes 
without  feathers,  [at  least  such  as  the  Perns  exhibit],  and  the  feet  strong. 

Some  of  them  have  the  tarsi  feathered  to  the  toes  [the  Butaetes , Lesson].  They  are  distinguished 
from  the  Eagles  by  having  the  beak  curved  from  its  base,  and  from  the  Hawks  and  Eagle-hawks  by 
their  feathered  tarsi  and  long  wings.  Europe  possesses  one, 

The  Rough-legged  Buzzard  (F.  lagopus,  Lin.),  [of  which  F.  Sancti  Johannis,  Auct.,  appears  to  be  merely  the 
old  individuals.*]— One  of  the  most  widely  diffused  of  Birds,  being  found  almost  everywhere.  [It  frequents 
marshy  tracts,  and  particularly  rabbit-warrens,  which  it  beats  till  very  late  in  the  evening.] 

But  the  greater  number  of  Buzzards  have  the  tarsi  naked  [except  on  the  upper  half  in  front]  and 
scutellated.  In  Europe  there  is  but  one, 

The  Common  Buzzard  ( E . buteo,  Lin.). — The  commonest  and  most  noxious  bird  of  prey  throughout  Europe.  It 
remains  all  the  year  in  the  forests,  descends  upon  its  prey  from  the  top  of  a tree,  and  destroys  much  game. 

Some  species  are  crested,  [have  also  naked  cheeks,  and  reticulated  tarsi.  They  are  barely  separable 
from  the  Circaeti. 

The  ELematorns  ( Hcematornis , Gould)]. 

F.  bacha,  Auct.— A very  savage  bird  of  Africa,  which  preys  chiefly  on  the  Hyraces.  [Other  naked-cheeked 
Buzzards  compose-the  Buteogallus,  Lesson.] 

The  Harriers  ( Circus , Bechst.) — 

Differ  from  the  Buzzards  in  their  more  elevated  [and  very  slender]  tarsi,  and  by  a sort  of  collar,  which 
the  tips  of  the  feathers  which  cover  the  ear  form  on  each  side  of  the  neck.  [These  Birds  frequent 
open  moorlands,  over  which  they  skim  in  search  of  prey  very  close  to  the  ground,  and  nestle  and 
always  roost  on  its  surface.f] 

• We  have  seen  a British-killed  specimen  as  dark  as  any  from 
America. — Ed. 

t Some  systematists  consider  the  Harriers  to  form  a link  from  the 
Falcons  generally  to  the  Owls  ; but  neither  in  the  skeleton,  as  shown 

by  the  sternal  apparatus  (fig.  72),  nor  In  their  digestive  otgans,  do 
they  approximate  the  latter  in  the  least  degree.  The  structure  of  the 
ear,  resembling  that  of  other  Falcons,  is  shown  at  fig.  77.  They  aro 
most  nearly  related  to  the  Hawks. 



There  are  only  three  species  in  France,  which  have  been  multiplied  by  the  nomenclators  on  account  of  the  varia- 
tions of  their  plumage.  [The  Common,  Montagu,  and  Marsh 
Harriers  are  alluded  to ; besides  which  the  C.pallidus , an  abun- 
dant Asiatic  species,  has  recently  been  met  with  in  the  east  of 
Europe.  There  are  numerous  others.] 


The  Secretary  ( Gypogeranus , Illig.), — - 
Is  an  African  bird  of  prey,  the  tarsi  of  which  are  at  least 
double  the  length  of  those  of  the  preceding,  which  has 
induced  some  naturalists  to  range  it  among  the  Waders ; 
but  its  thighs,  entirely  covered  with  feathers,  its  hooked 
beak,  projecting  eyelids,  and  all  the  details  of  its  ana- 
Fig.  77  -Ear  of  Hamer.  tomy,  concur  to  place  it  in  the  present  order.  Its  tarsi 

are  scutellated,  the  toes  proportionally  short,  and  the  circumference  of  the  eyes  naked ; it  has 
a long  rigid  crest  on  the  occiput,  and  the  two  middle  feathers 
of  its  tail  extend  far  beyond  the  others.  An  inhabitant  of  the 
arid  and  covertless  plains  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Cape,  it 
pursues  reptiles  on  foot,  whence  its  claws  become  much  worn. 

Its  principal  strength  is  in  the  foot.  It  is  the 
Falco  serpentarius,  Gm. — An  attempt  has  been  made  to  multiply  the 
breed  in  Martinique,  where  it  might  render  the  most  important  service 
by  destroying  the  lance-headed  Vipers  which  infest  that  island.  [This 
bird,  two  if  not  three  species  of  which  are  recognized,  resembles  the 
Vultures  in  having  fifteen  cervical  vertebrae.  It  offers  no  molestation  to 
poultry  or  other  warm-blooded  animals.] 

Although  a vast  number  of  generic  and  subgeneric  names  have 
been  applied,  the  Diurnal  Birds  of  Prey  may  be  reduced  to 
comparatively  few  natural  divisions.  After  detaching  the  Vul- 
tures and  the  Secretary,  the  genera  Pandion  and  Herpethotheres 
may  be  signalized  as  forming  a particular  subdivision  apart  from 
all  the  rest.  The  whole  of  the  remainder  then  form  an  equiva- 
lent natural  group,  the  members  of  which  scarcely  differ  anato- 
mically. The  most  distinct  subdivision  is  that  of  the  Coronards, 
which  alone  differ  in  the  number  of  pelvic  vertebrae,  and  in 
having  the  outer  toe  reversible,  as  in  the  Ospreys  and  Owls.  The 
rest  are  little  else  than  adaptive  modifications  of  one  another, 
according  in  all  their  rudimental  characters.  We  may  commence 
with  the  Falcon  group,  followed  by  that  of  the  Hawks  (or  the  Flg-  7a .— s sternum  of  secretary, 

subdivisions  Dcedalion,  Asturina,  Astur,  Accipiter,  and  Gymnogenys ) ; the  Harriers  naturally  succeed, 
which  lead  by  C.  ceruginosus  to  the  Ernes,  and  then  to  the  Kites  ( Milvus , as  restricted) ; probably  the 
Buzzards  and  Eagles,  which  are  but  arbitrarily  separable,  should  next  range,  merging  into  the  Eagle- 
hawks  ; or  perhaps  the  Perns,  followed  by  the  Elanet  group  (including  Ictinia ).  We  are  less  satisfied  of 
the  affinities  of  the  Caracaras,  of  the  Cymindues,  and  of  the  Marsh-eagles  and  Haematoms,  which  last 
group  seems  to  approximate  that  of  the  Hawks.] 

The  Nocturnal  Birds  of  Prey 

Have  the  head  large;  very  great  eyes,  directed  forwards,  and  surrounded  by  a circle  of 
fringed  feathers,  the  anterior  of  which  cover  the  cere  of  the  beak,  and  the  posterior  the  orifice  of 
the  ear.  Their  enormous  pupils  permit  so  much  light  to  enter,  that  they  are  dazzled  in  full  day. 
Their  skull,  inflated,  but  of  a slight  substance,  contains  large  cavities  that  communicate  with  the 
ears,  and  probably  assist  the  sense  of  hearing ; but  their  apparatus  for  flight  is  feeble,  the  furcula 
offering  but  slight  resistance  : their  feathers,  with  soft  barbs,  and  delicately  downy,  make  no 
noise  in  flying.  The  external  toe  can  be  voluntarily  directed  forward  or  behind.  These  Birds  fly 



chiefly  during  twilight,  or  by  the  light  of  the  moon.  When  attacked  by  day,  or  struck  by  the 
appearance  of  some  new  object,  they  [the  majority  of  them]  do  not  fly  off,  but  stand  more 
erect,  assume  grotesque  attitudes,  and  make  the  most  ludicrous  gestures. 

Their  stomach  is  tolerably  muscular,  [as  compared  with  the  Falcons,]  although  their  prey 
is  wholly  animal,  consisting  of  Mice,  small  birds,  [even  fish  in  some  instances,]  and  insects ; 

but  is  preceded  by  a large  craw,  [an  inadvertent  statement 
of  the  author,  as  the  absence  of  any  expansion  of  the 
gullet,  which  is  wide,  but  always  of  uniform  diameter  (see 
fig.  79  a),  invariably  distinguishes  the  nocturnal  from  all  the 
diurnal  birds  of  prey]  ; the  coeca  ( b ) are  long,  and  enlarged 
towards  the  extremity,  &c.  Small  Birds  have  a natural 
antipathy  to  them,  and  assemble  from  all  parts  to  assail 
them;  hence  they  are  employed  to  attract  Birds  to  the 
snare.  [It  may  be  added,  that  their  tarsi  are  in  no  in- 
stance scaled,  even  when  denuded  of  feathers,  as  in  the 
subdivision  Ketupaj  all  of  them  lay  round  white  eggs.] 
They  form  one  genus,  that  of 

The  Owls  (Strii r,  Linn.),— 

Which  may  be  divided  according  to  their  head-tufts,  the  size  of 
their  ears,  the  extent  of  the  circle  of  feathers  which  surrounds 
their  eyes,  and  some  other  characters. 

Those  species  which  around  the  eyes  have  a large  complete 
disk  of  fringed  feathers,  itself  surrounded  by  a circle  or  collar  of 
scaly  feathers,  and  between  the  two  a large  opening  for  the  ear 
(see  fig.  80),  are  more  removed  in  their  form  and  manners  from 
the  diurnal  Birds  of  Prey,  than  those  in  which  the  ear  is  small, 
oval,  and  covered  by  fringed  feathers  which  come  from  below 
the  eye.  Traces  of  these  differences  are  perceptible  even  in  the 
skeleton,  [though  only  as  regards  the  degree  of  stoutness  of  the 

Fig.  79. — Alimentary  canal  of  an  Owl : a,  the  gullet,  boneS  (See  figS*  81  SIld  84)>  there  bein&  110  g^dation  Or  transi- 

devoid  of  any  craw;  b,  the  coeca.*  tion  int0  the  paiconSj  either  in  the  skeleton  or  digestive  organs. 
The  following  arrangement  of  the  Owls,  based  on  the  comparative  size  of  the  aperture  of  the  ear,  is 
liable  to  the  objection  of  dispersing  some  nearly  allied  groups,  and  approximating  others  that  are  less 
so,  which  is  almost  necessarily  the  result  of  too  exclusive  attachment  to  any  single  character.] 

Among  the  first  species,  we  will  distinguish 

The  Hiboux  ( Otus , Cuv.), — 

Which  have  two  tufts  of  feathers  (vulg.  horns ) which  they 
can  erect  at  will,  and  the  ear-conch  of  which  (fig.  80), 
extends  in  a semicircle  from  the  beak  almost  to  the  top  of 
the  head,  and  is  furnished  anteriorly  with  a membranous 
operculum.  Their  feet  are  feathered  to  the  toes.  Such,  in 
Europe,  are 

The  Long-tufted  Hibou  (Sir.  otus , Lin.). — Very  widely  distri- 
buted ; it  inhabits  woods,  especially  those  of  fir  and  other  ever- 
greens, and  breeds  generally  in  deserted  Crows’  nests  : and 
The  Short-tufted  Hibou  (Str.  brachyotus , Lin.). — Found  almost 
every  where,  [if  indeed  the  same  species,  which  there  is  reason  to 
doubt : it  inhabits  open  moors,  breeds  on  the  ground,  and  exhibits 
trifling  sexual  disparity  of  size.  This  bird  is  scarcely,  if  at  all, 
dazzled  by  sun-light : it  is  the  Brachyotus  palustris  of  Gould]. 

We  apply  the  designation  of 

Fig.  80.— Ear  of  Hibou 
Copied  from  M.  M'Gillivray's  Rapacious  Birds  of  Britain. 

observed  by  raising  its  ante 



Howlets  ( Ulula , Cuv.) — 

To  the  species  which  have  the  beak  and  ear  of  the  Hiboux,  [the  latter,  however,  less  developed 
(see  fig.  83)],  but  not  the  tufts.  They  are  to  be  found  in  the  north  of  both  continents  : for  example, 

The  Cinereous  Howlet  ( Str . lapponica,  Gm.).— Almost  as  large  as  our  Bubow.  It  inhabits  the  mountains  of  the 
north  of  Sweden,  [and  Arctic  America]. 

The  Barred  Howlet  (Str.  nebulosa,  Gm.).— [A  common  bird  of  North  America,  very  rare  in  Europe.] 

The  Restricted  Owls  ( Strix , Savigny) — 

Have  ears  as  large  as  in  the  Hiboux  [but  of  a very  different  form],  and  furnished  with  a still  larger 
operculum ; but  their  elongated  beak  is  only  bent  towards  the  end,  while  in  all  the  other  subgenera  it 
curves  from  the  point.  They  have  no  head-tufts ; their  tarsi  are 
feathered  [and  rather  long] , but  they  have  hairs  only  upon  the  toes  : 
[their  middle  claw  is  obtusely  serrated : their  sternum  (fig.  81), 
shorter  than  in  the  others,  has  its  inner  notch  very  slight,  and  often 
obliterated.]  The  mask,  formed  by  the  fringed  feathers  that  surround 
the  eyes,  is  greatly  extended,  which  renders  their  physiognomy  more 
extraordinary  than  that  of  any  other  night-bird.  The  species  common 
in  France, 

The  Barn  Owl  (Strix  flammed,  Lin.,  fig.  82),  appears  to  be  diffused  over  the 
whole  globe,  [or  rather,  there  are  numerous  species  more  or  less  distinguish- 
able]. It  builds  in  steeples,  towers,  &c.  [and  in  places  distant  from  the  abode 
of  Man,  where  no  hollow  trees  occur,  in  the  burrows  of  quadrupeds.  When 
nestling  in  pigeon-houses,  it  offers  no  molestation  to  the  other  inhabitants. 
Its  manner  of  propagation  is  remarkable ; as  it  produces  three  or  four  suc- 
cessive broods,  two  or  more  of  which,  of  different  ages,  commonly  occur  in 
the  same  nest : the  young  remaining  much  longer  in  the  nest  than  those  be- 
longing to  the  other  divisions,  from  which  they  differ  in  developing  a firmer 
nestling  plumage,  similar  to  the  adult  garb,  and  which  (as  in  the  Hawks)  is 
not  shed  before  the  second  autumn.  This  curious  and 
handsome  bird  is  naturally  familiar,  and  eminently  worthy 
of  protection;  as  it  preys  solely  on  small  quadrupeds  and 

Syrnium,  Savigny. 

The  disk  and  collar  of  the  preceding  ; but  the  conch 
(fig.  83)  reduced  to  an  oval  cavity,  that  does  not  ex- 
tend to  half  the  height  of  the  skull ; they  have  no 
head-tufts,  but  their  feet  are  feathered  to  the  talons. 

[Notwithstanding  the  authority  of  Cuvier,  it  is  proper 
to  remark,  that  there  is  no  appreciable  difference  be- 
tween this  and  Ulula, — certainly  none  of  generical 
importance.  The  Bulaca  of  Hodgson  appears  also 
to  be  synonymous.] 

The  Tawny  Howlet  (Strix  aluco  and  stridula,  Lin.). — A 
common  European  bird,  which  nestles  in  the  woods,  or 
frequently  lays  its  eggs  in  the  [deserted]  nests  of  other 
Birds,  [though  more  commonly  (if  not  always)  in  the  hol- 
lows of  trees,  where  it  abides  by  day.  It  is  the  species  so 
well  known  for  its  sonorous  hootings.  The  young  are  clad 
at  an  early  age  with  downy  feathers,  which  are  succeeded 
by  the  adult  plumage  previous  to  their  first  winter.  Their 
parents  often  feed  them  with  fish.] 

The  Bubows  {Bubo,  Cuv.)— 

Are  species  which,  with  as  small  a conch,  and  the  Fig-  82.— Bara  owi. 

disk  of  feathers  less  marked  than  in  the  preceding,  possess  head-tufts.  The  known  species  have  great 
feet,  feathered  to  the  talons.  [They  differ  from  the  Hiboux  only  in  their  superior  size,  and  the  small- 
ness of  the  auditory  aperture.]  Such  is 

The  European  Bubow  (Str.  bubo,  Lin.),  or  the  Great- horned  or  Eagle-owl.— The  largest  of  nocturnal  Birds  [or 

Fig:.  81. — Sternum  of  Barn  Owl. 



which  is  exceeded  in  size  only  by  others  of  this  genus.  It  is  little  less  than  the  Golden  Eagle,  and  very  destruc- 
tive to  Grouse,  Hares,  and  even  Fawns : inhabits  the  mountainous  parts  of  Europe,  and  is  seldom  seen  in 
Britain.]  Add 

The  American  Bubow  (Str.  virginiana,  Baud.)— [Smaller  than  the  preceding,  with  the  grey  colour  predominating 
over  the  fulvous  : the  Arctic  Eagle-owl  of  the  Fauna  Americana-borealis  appears  to  be  only  a semi-albino  variety. 
Another  species  is 

The  Small-tufted  Bubow  (Sir,  ascalaphus,  Savigny),  inadvertently  placed  by  the  author  in  his  division  Otus.  It 
is  proper  to  Asia  and  Africa,  and  is  occasionally  met  with  in  the  south-east  of  Europe.  There  are  several  more, 
certain  of  which  appear  to  compose  the  Huhua  and  Urrhua  of  Hodgson.] 

Other  species  occur,  in  which  the  aigrettes,  wider  apart  and  placed  further  backward,  are  elevated 
with  less  facility  above  the  horizontal  line.  Species  occur  in  both  continents  ; as 

Str.  griseata,  Shaw,  from  Guiana ; and  Str . strepitans, 
Tern.,  from  Batavia. 

Noctua*,  Savigny. 

Neither  tufts,  nor  an  open  and  deeply  set  conch  to 
the  ear ; the  aperture  of  which  is  oval,  and  scarcely 
longer  than  in  other  Birds  : the  disk  of  fringed  fea- 
thers is  smaller  and  even  less  complete  than  in  the 
Bubows.  Their  relations  to  the  diurnal  Birds  of 
prey  are  evident,  even  in  their  habits,  [but  not  in 
their  internal  conformation]. 

Some  are  remarkable  for  a long  cuneiform  tail, 
and  have  their  toes  densely  feathered.  They  are 

The  Surns  (Surnia,  Dumeril) — 

The  Rayed  Surn  (Str.nisoria,  Wolf;  Str.  funerea,  Lin.). 
— This,  the  best-known  species,  from  the  north  of  the 
whole  globe,  is  about  the  size  of  the  Sparrow-hawk.  It 
Fig.  83.— Howlet’s  Ear.  hunts  more  during  the  day  than  the  night. 

The  species  of  the  Uralian  mountains  (Str.  uralensis, 
Pallas),  is  nearly  as  large  as  the  Harfang.  It  also  hunts  during  the  day,  and  is  sometimes  seen  in  Germany.  It 
is  probably  the  Hybris  or  Ptynx  of  Aristotle.f 

There  is  a species  termed  Arcadian  (Str.  acadica,  Naum),  but  which  belongs  to  the  whole  north  of  the  Globe  [?  ] 
It  is  the  smallest  of  its  tribe,  being  hardly  larger  than  a Sparrow.  It  does  not  avoid  the  light  of  day;  but  Le  Vail- 
lant  has  made  known  another,  from  Africa  (le  Choucou,  No.  xxxviii.),  which,  according  to  his  account,  is  very 
nocturnal.  [The  former  is  the  Str.  passerina  of  Linnaeus,  but  not  of  British  authors,  and  the  Str.  acadica  of 
Temminck,  but  not  of  Gmelin ; it  is  referrible  to  the  Glaucidium  of  Boie, 
and  is  not  found  in  America:  the  Str.  acadica,  Gm.,  is  peculiar  to 
America,  and  pertains  to  a very  different  subdivision,  Nyctale  of  Brehm, 
the  members  of  which  are  considerably  more  nocturnal  in  their  habits 
and  adaptments.  To  the  latter  group  the  Choucou  of  Le  Yaillant 
should  also  probably  be  referred.  Ninox  of  Hodgson  seems  to  be  iden- 
tical with  Glaucidium.'] 

Others  have  the  tail  short,  and  the  toes  densely  feathered : 
the  largest  of  which,  and  also  the  largest  night-bird  without 
head-tufts,  is 

The  Harfang  (Str.  nyctea,  Lin.),  or  Great  Snowy  Owl,  which  almost 
equals  the  European  Bubow  in  its  dimensions.  It  inhabits  the  north 
of  both  continents,  nestles  on  elevated  rocks,  and  preys  on  Hares,  Ca- 
percalzies,  and  Ptarmigan.  [This  bird  forms  another  very  distinct 
division,  and  is  most  nearly  allied  to  the  Bubows : like  them,  it  does 
possess  head-tufts,  which  however  are  small  and  inconspicuous,  though 
we  have  seen  the  bird  erect  them;  its  plumage  is  remarkably  firm. 

The  term  Nyctea,  Swainson,  has  been  generically  applied  to  it,  with  the 
specific  appellation  Candida.] 

* This  term  is  falling  into  disuse,  from  its  having  been  previously  | of  it,  in  the  Birds  of  Europe,— should  be  disposed  to  elevate  it  to  the 
bestowed  on  a group  of  insects:  it  is  moreover  far  from  being  feli-  1 rank  of  a separate  division  (Ptynx);  its  large  and  complete  ruff  distiu- 
citous,  as  applied  to  the  most  diurnal  of  the  Owls. — Ed.  | guishes  it  from  Surnia,  as  its  accipitrine  form  and  lengthened  tail  do 

t The  Prince  of  Musignano  places  this  remarkable  bird  in  Syrnium.  I from  Syrniutn  or  Ulula.— Ed. 

I have  never  seen  a specimen,  but — to  judge  from  Mr.  Gould’s  figure  > 



There  are  others  very  much  smaller, — such  as 

Str.  Tengmalmi,  Gm.- [These  have  an  extended  auditory  conch,  as  in  the  Howlets,  like  which  they  are  very 
nocturnal,  and  unable  to  endure  the  light  of  day.  The  Nyctale  of  Brehm.  The  species  indicated  is  peculiar  to 
the  Eastern  Continent,  that  confounded  with  it  in  the  fur-countries  of  North  America,  Str.  Tengmalmi, 
Richardson,  being  now  dedicated  to  its  enterprising  discoverer.] 

But  the  greater  number  of  these  small  species  have  only 
a few  scattered  hairs  on  the  toes,  [and  are  nearly  allied  to  the 
true  Sums.  They  are  the  Athene , Boie],  Such  is 
Str.  passerina,  Gm.  [and  of  British  authors;  Str.  noctua,  Lin.; 
Athene  noctua , Bonap.] — It  nestles  in  old  walls,  [and  frequently  in 
chimneys,  and  has  been  seen  to  pursue  Swallows  on  the  wing.  A 
remarkable  exotic  species,  with  very  long  tarsi,  is  the 
Str.  cunicularia , Molina,  or  the  Burrowing  Owl,  as  it  has  been 
called ; but  which,  it  is  most  probable,  only  appropriates  the  dwell- 
ings of  burrowing  quadrupeds,  as  the  Barn  Owl  is  known  to  do 
under  similar  circumstances  ; the  present  species  inhabiting  the  open 
prairies  of  America,  where  there  are  no  trees,  and  abounding  in  the 
villages  of  the  Prairie  Marmots,  as  also  in  the  burrows  of  the  Vis- 

There  are  yet  other  Nocture  with  unfeathered  toes,  which 
approximate  the  Howlets  in  size.  Cayenne  supplies  several  fine 
species,  and  particularly  the  three  following  : — 

Str.  cayennensis,  Gm. ; Str.  lineata,  Shaw,  or  Str.  albomarginata, 
Spix;  and  Str.  torquata,  Daud. — The  two  first  of  these  equal  in  size  the  Tawny  Howlet,  and  the  last  is 
still  larger. 

Finally,  there  are  some  in  America,  which  have  the  tarsi,  in  addition  to  their  toes,  denuded  of 
feathers  ; of  which  the 

Str.  nudipes,  Daud.,  may  be  cited  in  illustration. 

The  Scops  (Scops,  Savigny), — 

With  ears  proportioned  to  the  size  of  the  head,  the  incomplete  disk  and  naked  toes  of  the  preceding, 
combine  aigrettes  analogous  to  those  of  the  Bubows  and  Hiboux. 

One  inhabits  Europe  (Str.  scops,  Lin.)— Scarcely  larger  than  a Blackbird,  [and  there  are  many  others]. 

Some  foreign  species  occur  of  rather  large  size,  with  the  legs,  as  well  as  the  toes,  naked.  [They 
constitute  the  subdivision  Ketupa.'}  Such  are 

Str.  Ketupa,  Tem.,  and  Str.  Leschenaulti,  Id.,  which  may  possibly  prove  to  be  identical.  [These  Birds  are 
essentially  Bubows,  with  long  and  naked  tarsi,  the  skin  of  which  corrugates  in  dry  specimens,  so  as  to  present 
somewhat  the  appearance  of  being  covered  with  reticulated  scales,  which  is  not  the  case.  Their  toes  are  very 
rough  underneath,  as  in  the  Ospreys ; and  like  them  they  prey  chiefly  on  fish,  and  sometimes  crustaceans.  The 
Cultrunguis  of  Hodgson  appears  to  be  a synonyme  of  this  subdivision. 

The  great  group  of  Owls  falls  naturally  into  three  distinct  sections,  distinguishable  at  the 
first  glance ; and  two  of  these  sections  comprehend  species  which  differ  exceedingly  in  the 
magnitude  of  the  external  ear. 

The  first  comprises  all  that  are  decorated  with  aigrettes,  or  what  are  popularly  termed 
Horned  Owls  j as  the  divisions  Nyctea,  Bubo,  Ketupa,  Scops,  and  Otus. 

In  the  second  section,  the  whole  of  the  tuftless  species  should  be  brought  together, 
excepting  those  constituting  the  subdivision  Strix  of  Savigny.  They  mainly  differ  in  their 
degrees  of  adaptation  for  nocturnal  or  semi-diurnal  habits. 

The  third  is  composed  of  the  restricted  genus  Strix,  or  the  Barn  Owls,  and  is  much  more 
distinct  from  both  the  others,  than  the  latter  are  inter  se.  The  aspect  of  the  living  bird  is 
very  different  in  these  i hree  primary  sections.] 


1 77 



This  is  the  most  numerous  order  of  the  whole  class.  Its  character  seems,  at  first  sight, 
purely  negative,  for  it  embraces  all  those  Birds  which  are  neither  swimmers,  waders,  climbers, 
rapacious,  nor  gallinaceous.  Nevertheless,  by  comparing  them,  a very  great  mutual  resem- 
blance of  structure  becomes  perceptible,  and  particularly  such  insensible  gradations  from  one 
genus  to  another,  that  it  is  extremely  difficult  to  establish  the  subdivisions. 

They  have  neither  the  violence  of  the  Birds  of  Prey,  nor  the  fixed  regimen  of  the  Poultry 
and  Water-fowl;  insects,  fruit,  and  grain,  constitute  their  food,  which  consists  more  exclu- 
sively of  grain  as  the  beak  is  stouter  and  stronger,  and  of  insects  as  it  is  more  slender.  Those 
in  which  it  is  strong  even  pursue  other  Birds. 

Their  stomach  is  a muscular  gizzard.  They  have,  generally,  two  small  cceca : and  it  is 
among  them  that  we  find  the  singing  Birds,  and  the  most  complicated  inferior  larynx. 

The  proportional  length  of  their  wings  and  the  power  of  their  flight  are  as  various  as  their 

The  adult  sternum  has  ordinarily  but  one  emargination  on  each  side  of  its  posterior  border. 
There  are,  however,  two  in  the  Rollers,  Kingfishers,  and  Bee-eaters,  [also  in  the  Colies, 
Motmots,  and  Todies,  which  the  author  includes  in  this  group,]  and  none  whatever  in  the 
Swifts  and  Humming-birds. 

We  institute  our  first  partition  according  to  the  feet,  and  have  then  recourse  to  the  beak. 

The  first  and  most  numerous  division  comprehends  those  genera  in  which  the  external  toe 
is  connected  to  the  middle  one  as  far  as  the  first  or  second  joint  only. 

[This  ordinal  subdivision,  properly  restricted,  is  one  of  the  most  rigorously  defined  through- 
out nature,  quite  as  much  so  as  that  of  the  Parrots. 

The  entire  skeleton,  digestive  and  vocal  organs,  are  peculiar ; and  those  genera  included 
by  the  author  which  differ  in  one  particular  differ  also  in  the  rest,  and  accord  in  all  their 
essential  characters  with  another  great  group  that  follows. 

The  lower  larynx  is  always  complicated,  and  operated  upon  by  four  distinct  pairs  of 
muscles ; besides  which,  the  long  sterno-tracheal  pair — found  in  most  other  Birds — is  gene- 
rally present,  but  reduced  to  extreme  tenuity.  This  character  excludes  the  Cuvieran  genera 
Cypselus,  Caprimulgus,  Podargus , Colitis,  Coracias,  Colaris,  TJpupa,  Merops,  Prionites,  Alcedo, 
Ceyx,  Todus,  and  Buceros, — ten  of  which  have  also  no  intestinal  coeca,  and  the  three  others 
very  large  coeca,  exactly  resembling  those  of  the  Owls  (fig.  79).  All  the  remaining  genera, 
except  the  Humming-birds,  which  also  require  to  be  excluded,  have  twro  minute  coeca. 

With  the  sole  exception  again  of  the  Humming-birds,  which  have  the  lower  larynx  diffe- 
rently complicated,  all  singing  Birds  belong  to  this  great  order : the  conformation  alluded  to 
enables  them  to  inflect  and  modulate  the  voice ; though  there  are  many  species,  possessing 
the  same  structure,  which  nevertheless  utter  only  monotonous  cries,  and  others  of  which  the 
notes  are  harsh  and  little  varied ; even  these,  however,  are  very  generally  capable  of  being 
taught  to  speak,  to  whistle  airs,  and  to  imitate  almost  any  sound ; and  in  such  individuals  as 
cannot  be  brought  to  do  so,  it  by  no  means  follows  that  there  is  any  physical  deficiency,  as 
indicated  by  the  diversity  noticeable  in  this  respect  in  individuals  of  the  same  species : there 
are  indeed  very  fewr  of  them,  if  any,  that  do  not  sing,  or  utter  some  peculiar  note  or  chatter 
analogous  to  song,  during  the  season  of  courtship. 

The  sternal  apparatus,  whether  of  a Swallow  or  Tree-creeper,  a Promerops,  Finch,  Crow, 
Thrush,  or  Manakin,  presents  invariably  the  same  peculiar  characters,  with  scarcely  any  modi- 
fication. The  long  manubrial  process  in  front  between  the  coracoids,  with  slantingly  truncate 
bifurcate  tip ; the  costal  process,  expanding  anteriorly  much  beyond  the  articulations  of  the 




ribs ; the  single  deep  and  angular  posterior  emargination,  reduced  to  a foramen  in  some ; the 
long,  slender,  and  curving  furcula,  with  invariably  a compressed  vertical  appendage; — all  are  J 

characters  that  at  once  indicate  the 
present  order,  and  exclude  every 
one  of  the  genera  that  have  been 

They  have  constantly  a large  brain, 
and  characteristic  form  of  skull,  ex- 
cepting in  one  genus* ; twelve  tail- 
feathers,  another  character  which 
excludes  the  genera  Cypselus,  Capri- 
mulgus,  Podargus,  Colius , Upupa , 
Trochilus , and  Buceros ; and  their 
clothing  feathers  have  rarely  any 
trace  of  the  supplementary  plume, 
which  is  never  developed  beyond  a 
few  downy  filaments.  All  of  them  are 
hatched  naked,  and  in  nearly  every  instance  from  coloured  or  speckled  eggs,  larger  at  one  end, 
and  in  a nest  constructed  and  generally  interwoven  by  the  parents, — extremely  few  other 
Birds  doing  more  than  heaping  together  a quantity  of  materials. 

The  toes  are  formed  for  perching ; and  are  always  three  before  and  one  hindward,  the 
outward  and  middle  toes  being  in  every  instance  connected  to  the  first  joint,  and  sometimes 

The  first  family  of  this  division  is  that  of 

The  Dentirostres, — 

Wherein  the  upper  mandible  is  notched  on  each  side  toward  the  point.f  It  is  in  this  family 
that  the  greatest  number  of  insectivorous  Birds  occur ; though  many  of  them  feed  likewise 
on  berries  and  other  soft  fruits. 

The  genera  are  determined  by  the  general  form  of  the  beak,  which  is  stout  and  compressed 
in  the  Shrikes  and  Thrushes,  flattened  in  the  Flycatchers,  round  and  thick  in  the  Tanagers, 
and  slender  and  pointed  in  the  Pettychaps  group ; but  the  transitions  from  one  to  another  of 
these  forms  are  so  gradual  that  it  is  very  difficult  to  limit  the  genera. 

[The  study  of  the  changes  of  plumage,  and  even  colours  and  markings,  affords  considerable 
assistance  in  determining  the  affinities  of  the  various  genera, — more  so,  perhaps,  than  any 
other  character.] 

The  Shrikes  ( Lanius , Lin.) — 

Have  a conical  or  compressed  beak,  more  or  less  hooked  at  the  point. 

The  Shrikes,  properly  so  called,  ( Lanius , Vieillot) — 

Have  it  triangular  at  the  base,  with  compressed  sides.  They  live  in  families  [for  a few  weeks  after  the 
breeding  season] , fly  irregularly  and  precipitately,  uttering  shrill  cries  ; nestle  on  trees  [or  in  bushes]  ; 
lay  five  or  six  eggs,  and  take  great  care  of  their  young.  They  have  the  habit  of  imitating,  in  the  wild 
state,  part  of  the  songs  of  such  Birds  as  live  in  their  vicinity.  The  females  [?]  and  young  are  gene- 
rally marked  with  fine  transverse  lines  on  the  upper  parts. 

Some  have  the  upper  mandible  arched ; those  in  which  its  point  is  strong  and  much  hooked,  and  in 
which  the  notch  forms  a small  tooth  on  each  side,  manifest  a degree  of  courage  and  cruelty  which  has 
led  to  their  association  with  the  Birds  of  Prey  by  many  naturalists.  In  fact,  they  pursue  other  Birds, 
and  successfully  defend  themselves  against  the  larger  ones,  even  attacking  the  latter  whenever  they 
intrude  in  the  vicinity  of  their  nest. 

* Malurtii ; the  different  species  of  which  are  singularly  variable  I f No  trace  of  this  notch  is  ever  visible  in  the  bone,  from  which  the 
in  this  respect.  I « tooth”  of  certain  Accipitrei  is  a true  process — Ed. 



There  are  four  or  five  species  of  this  subdivision  in  Europe,  as 

The  Sentinel  Shrike  ( L . excubitor,  Lin.)— As  large  as  a Thrush,  and  ash-coloured  above,  white  underneath  : the 
wings,  tail,  and  a band  crossing  the  eyes,  black ; some  white  on  the  scapulars  and  tail.  It  resides  all  the  year  in 
France,  [and  is  chiefly  known  as  an  uncommon  winter  visitant  in  Britain]. 

The  Red-backed  Shrike  ( L . collurio,  Gm.)— Smaller,  with  the  head  and  rump  ash-coloured,  the  back  and  wings 
reddish-brown,  a black  streak  through  the  eyes,  lower  parts  whitish,  tinged  with  pinkish  lilach,  wings  and  tail  dull 
black,  the  side  feathers  of  the  latter  white  at  the  base  externally.  [Female,  brown  above,  without  transverse  striae,  and 
sometimes  attaining  the  masculine  livery  with  age.]  It  destroys  other  Birds,  young  Frogs,  and  a vast  number  of 
insects,  which  it  impales  on  the  thorns  of  bushes,  to  devour  at  leisure,  [a  habit  common  to  the  whole  genus,  whence 
they  have  derived  the  name  of  Butcher-birds.  We  may  here  remark  that  the  Shrikes  have  great  power  of  clutching 
with  their  toes,  and  always  hold  their  prey  in  one  foot,  resting  on  the  tarsal  joint  of  that  foot,  unless  when  they 
have  fastened  it  upon  a thorn,  when  they  pull  it  to  pieces  in  a contrary  direction.  The  present  species  feeds  much 
on  small  mammalia,  as  Shrews  and  the  smaller  Voles,  captures  insects  on  the  wing  in  the  manner  of  a Flycatcher, 
and  is  a common  summer  visitant  in  the  southern  counties  of  England]. 

The  Wood  Shrike  ( L . rufus,  Gm.)— Wings  and  tail  nearly  as  in  the  preceding,  the  band  across  the  eyes  meeting 
over  the  forehead,  the  head  and  neck  bright  rufous,  back  black,  the  scapulars,  rump,  and  lower  parts,  white. 
[Sexes  almost  similar.  A summer  visitant,  of  very  rare  occurrence  in  Britain.  There  are  two  others  in  Europe, 
allied  to  the  first,  L.  minor , Gm.,  and  L.  meridionalis,  Tem. ; and  many  more  in  Asia,  Africa,  and  America,  some 
of  the  former  having  shorter  wings,  and  a longer  and  more  cuneated  tail.] 

There  are  numerous  exotic  species  with  arcuated  beaks,  the  points  of  which  diminish  by  degrees,  till  it  becomes 
impossible  to  define  the  limits  between  them  and  the  Thrushes. 

The  genus  Lanio  of  Vieillot  is  founded  on  one  of  them,  the  edges  of  the  upper  mandible  of  which  are  slightly 
angular.  It  is  the  Tangara  mordore  of  Buffon,  {Tan.  atricapilla,  Gm.) 

Various  species  with  feeble  bills  constitute  thS  Laniarius  of  Vieillot.  (Gal.  Ois.  143.) 

The  Vireoles  ( Vireo ) of  the  same  naturalist  chiefly  differ  in  the  shortness  and  slenderness  of  the  bill.  [They  con- 
stitute a very  distinct  genus,  consisting  of  the  warbling  Flycatchers  of  North  America,  as  Muscicapa  olivacea, 
Wils.,  and  many  proximate  species,  which  are  allied  to  the  Pettychaps  group  (the  restricted  Sylvia,  or  Phillo- 
pneuste)  of  Europe : they  are  to  a considerable  extent  baccivorous.] 

Other  Shrikes  have  the  superior  mandible  straight,  and  abruptly  hooked  at  the  tip.  They  are  all 
foreign,  and  grade  towards  the  Fauvettes  and  other  slender-billed  Dentirostres. 

[They  constitute  the  Thamnophilus  of  Vieillot,  as  now  generally  accepted,  wherein  the  plumage  is  soft  and  puffy, 
and  conspicuously  barred  across  at  all  ages,  these  markings  being  in  some  instances  broken  into  spots,  as  in  the 
nestling  dress  of  the  Thrushes,  to  which  and  the  true  Shrikes  they  are  intermediate,  passing  to  the  Thrushes 
through  Ianthocincla.  They  are  also  related  to  the  Antcatchers,  and  are  indigenous  to  South  America]. 

Some  of  them  have  a straight  and  very  strong  beak,  the  lower  mandible  of  which  is  much  inflated ; 

As  L.  lineatus,  Leach,  {Zool.  Misc.  pi.  vi.),  Thamnophilus  guttatus,  Spix. 

Others,  again,  with  a straight  and  slender  bill,  are  remarkable  for  their  crests  of  vertical  feathers  ; 

As  L.  plumatus,  Shaw ; of  which  Vieillot  makes  his  genus  Prionops,  and  le  Manicup  of  Buffon  {Pipra  albifrons, 
Gm.),  which  has  nothing  in  common  with  the  true  Piprce,  beyond  a more  than  usually  prolonged  junction  of  the 
two  outer  toes.  M.  Vieillot  makes  of  it  his  genus  Pithys.  {Gal.  129.) 

Among  these  Shrikes,  more  particularly  so  called,  some  other  exotic  subgenera,  that  differ  more  or 
less,  require  to  be  specified.  Such  are 

The  Vangas  ( Vanga ),  Buffon, — 

Distinguished  by  a large  beak,  very  much  compressed  throughout,  its  tip  strongly  hooked,  and  that  of 
the  lower  mandible  bent  downward. 

The  Vanga  {L.  curvirostris,  Gm.),  and  also  some  newly-discovered  species,  as  V.  destructor,  Cuv.,  &c. 

The  Langareys  ( Ocypterus , Cuv. ; Artamus,  Vieillot) — 

Have  the  beak  conical  and  rounded,  without  any  ridge,  somewhat  arched  towards  the  tip,  with  a very 
fine  point,  slightly  emarginated  on  each  side.  Their  feet  are  very  short,  and  the  wings  in  particular 
reach  beyond  the  tail,  which  renders  their  flight  similar  to  that  of  a Swallow ; but  they  have  the 
courage  of  the  Shrikes,  and  do  not  fear  to  attack  even  the  Crow. 

Numerous  species  inhabit  the  coasts  and  islands  of  the  Indian  Ocean,  where  they  are  continually  seen  on  the 
wing,  flying  swiftly  in  pursuit  of  insects.*  [They  are  unquestionably  allied  to  the  following.] 

The  Baritahs  ( Barita , Cuv. ; Cracticus,  Vieillot) — 

Have  a large  and  straight  conical  beak,  round  at  its  base, — where  it  extends  circularly  backward  upon 

• Consult  a monograph  of  this  genus,  by  M.  Valenciennes,  published  in  Mem.  du  Mus.,  tom.  vi.  p.  20. 

N 2 



the  forehead,  occupying  the  site  of  the  frontal  feathers, — laterally  compressed,  and  emarginated.  The 
nostrils,  small  and  linear,  are  not  surrounded  by  a membranous  space. 

They  are  large  birds  of  Australia  and  the  neighbouring  islands,  which  naturalists  have  arbitrarily  dispersed  in 
several  genera.  They  are  said  to  be  very  noisy  and  clamorous,  and  pursue  small  Birds : [are  also  docile,  and 
readily  learn  to  whistle  airs  with  remarkable  power  and  execution]. 

The  Chalybeans  ( Chalyiceus , Cuv.) — 

Have  the  beak  similar  to  that  of  the  Baritahs,  except  that  it  is  rather  less  thick  at  the  base,  and  the 
nostrils  are  pierced  in  a large  membranous  space.  The  known  species  are  indigenous  to  New  Guinea, 
and  are  remarkable  for  their  fine  tints,  resembling  burnished  steel. 

The  Paradisian  Chalybean  (C.  paradisceus,  Cuv. ; Paradisoea  viridis,  Gm.). — The  feathers  on  the  head  and  neck 
like  curled  velvet,  which,  together  with  the  lustre  of  its  hues,  has  caused  it  to  be  ranked  among  the  Birds  of 

The  Tufted  Chalybean  (C.  cornutus , 111. ; Barita  Keraudrenii,  Lesson). — Two  pointed  tufts  of  feathers  on  the 
occiput ; and  the  trachea  forms  three  circles  before  it  reaches  the  lungs.* 

The  Psaras  ( Psaris , Cuv. ; Tetyra,  Vieillot,) — 

Have  a conical  beak,  very  thick,  and  round  at  its  base,  but  not  extending  backward  upon  the  forehead ; 
the  point  is  slightly  compressed  and  hooked. 

The  species  inhabit  South  America,  and  that  best  known  is 

The  Cayenne  Psara  ( Lanius  cayanus,  Gm.),  which  is  ash-coloured,  with  the  head,  wings,  and  tail,  black.  Its 
manners  resemble  those  of  the  Shrikes.  There  are  many  others. 

The  Choucaris  ( Graucalus , Cuv.) — 

Have  the  bill  less  compressed  than  in  the  Shrikes,  the  ridges  of  its  upper  mandible  sharp,  and  regu- 
larly arcuated  throughout  its  length ; the  commissure  of  the  beak  is  slightly  arched.  The  feathers 
which  sometimes  cover  the  nostrils  have  occasioned  them  to  have  been  approximated  to  the  Crows, 
but  the  emargination  of  the  beak  removes  them  from  that  genus  [ ? ] 

They  inhabit,  like  the  Baritahs,  the  remotest  parts  of  the  Indian  Ocean.  Some  have  very  brilliant  plumage,  and 
compose  the  Pirola  of  Temminck,  or  Ptilonorhynchus,  Kuhl,  founded  on  the  head-feathers  being  more  like  velvet. 
Sphecotheres,  Vieillot,  only  differs  from  the  others  in  being  rather  more  naked  round  the  eyes. 

To  the  Choucaris  may  be  approximated  one  of  the  most  beautiful  of  the  birds  lately  discovered  in  those  regions, 
the  Coracias  puella , Lath. ; Irena  puella,  Horsf. ; Drongo  azure,  Tem. ; a Javanese  species,  of  a velvet  black,  the 
back  of  which  is  of  the  most  splendid  ultramarine  blue  that  can  possibly  be  imagined. 

The  Bethules  ( Bethylus , Cuv. ; Cissopus,  Vieillot). 

The  beak  thick,  short,  uniformly  bulging,  and  slightly  compressed  towards  its  tip. 

We  know  but  of  one,  which  has  the  form  and  colours  of  our  common  Magpie — ( Lanius  leverianus , Shaw ; 
L.  picatus , Latham). 

The  Falconets  ( Falcunculus , Vieillot) — 

Have  a compressed  beak,  almost  as  high  as  long,  with  the  ridge  of  the  upper  mandible  arcuated.  [They 
are  merely  Tits,  with  a somewhat  shrike-like  bill,  and  resemble  our  common  Pari  in  their  manners, 
notes,  nullification,  eggs,  and  plumage]. 

The  Crested  Falconet  ( Lanius  frontatus,  Latham).— Size  of  a Sparrow,  and  nearly  the  same  colours  as  our  com- 
mon Great  Tit : the  coronal  feathers  of  the  male  form  a crest.  It  inhabits  New  Holland.  [Some  of  the  Malaconoti 
are  nearly  allied.] 

The  Pardalotes  {Pardalotus,  Vieillot) — 

Have  a short  beak,  slightly  compressed,  the  upper  mandible  with  a sharp  arcuated  ridge,  and  its  tip 
emarginated.  They  are  very  small  birds,  with  a short  tail. 

The  best-known  species  ( Pipra  punctata , Shaw),  is  partly  sprinkled  with  white,  like  an  Amaduvat.  From 
New  Holland,  [where  there  are  many  others]. 

The  Flycatchers  ( Muscicapa , Lin.)— 

Have  the  beak  horizontally  depressed,  and  armed  with  bristles  at  its  base,  with  the  point  more  or  less 
decurved  and  emarginated.  Their  general  habits  are  those  of  the  Shrikes  ; and,  according  to  their  size, 
they  prey  on  small  Birds  or  Insects.  The  most  feeble  of  them  pass  by  insensible  gradations  into  the 
slender-billed  warblers.  We  divide  them  as  follow. 

* This  is  the  only  modification  of  the  trachea  we  have  heard  of  among  the  Passerina. — Ed. 



The  Tyrants  ( Tyrannus , Cuv.) — 

Have  a long,  straight,  and  very  stout  bill ; the  ridge  of  the  upper  mandible  straight  and  blunt ; its 
point  abruptly  hooked.  They  are  American  birds,  of  the  size  of  our  Shrikes  and  equally  spirited, 
•which  defend  their  young  even  against  Eagles,  and  drive  all  Birds  of  prey  from  the  vicinity  of  their 
nest.  The  largest  species  prey  on  smaller  birds,  and  do  not  always  disdain  those  they  find  dead. 
[They  have  even  been  observed  to  plunge  after  fish  in  the  manner  of  a Kingfisher;  and  have  been 
sometimes  noticed  to  throw  up  their  food  and  catch  it  in  the  throat,  as  in  the  Toucans,  Hornbills,  &c. 

The  species  are  extremely  numerous,  and  have  been  further  subdivided  by  different  systematists.  Thus,  several 
with  extremely  furcate  tails  compose  the  Milvulus,  Swains.,  and  the  smaller  and  weaker  species  the  Tyrannula  of 
the  same  nomenclator  : the  latter  grade  into  the  Kinglets.  Others  constitute  the  Platyrynchus,  Vieillot,  &c.  The 
majority  have  yellow  or  red  coronal  feathers,  somewhat  as  in  the  Kinglets.] 

The  Moucherolles  ( Muscipeta , Cuv.) — 

Have  a long  beak,  very  much  depressed,  and  twice  as  broad  as  high,  even  at  the  base  ; the  ridge  of  the 
upper  mandible  very  obtuse,  but  sometimes  however  the  reverse ; the  edges  slightly  curved,  the  points 
and  emargination  feeble,  and  long  vibrissse  at  the  gape. 

Their  weakness  disables  them  from  preying  on  aught  but  insects.  All  of  them  are  foreign ; and 
many  are  ornamented  with  long  tail-feathers  or  with  fine  crests,  or  at  least  have  vivid  colours  on  the 

[Several  different  natural  groups  are  here  brought  together : the  term  is  now  generally  restricted  to  some  beau- 
tiful birds  of  the  eastern  hemisphere,  the  males  of  which  have  crimson  and  black  plumage,  and  long  even  tails,  the 
females  being  yellow  where  the  male  is  red ; their  colours  are  distributed  as  in  the  Redstarts,  and  there  are  other 
birds  of  similar  form  and  colouring,  but  stouter  and  larger,  which  compose  the  Phcenicornis,  Gould.] 

Some  species  approximating  the  Moucherolles  [or  rather  the  Tyrants], — 

The  Flatbills  ( Platyrynchus , Vieillot), — 

Are  remarkable  for  having  the  bill  still  broader  and  more  depressed. 

[They  have  been  confused  by  many  writers  with  the  Todies,  a widely  separated  genus,  that  does  not  even  possess 
the  distinctive  characters  of  the  Passerince.  They  have  also  been  ranged  under  many  named  minor  subdivisions.] 

Others,  which  have  also  the  beak  broad  and  depressed,  are  distinguished  by  their  longer  legs  and 
short  tail.  They  compose  the  genus 

Conopophaga,  Vieillot, — 

Of  which  but  two  or  three  species  are  known,  all  from  America,  that  subsist  on  Ants,  which  has  caused 
them  to  be  ranged  with  the  small  tribe  of  Thrushes  termed  Antcatchers. 

The  Restricted  Flycatchers  ( Muscicapa , Cuv.) — 

Have  shorter  bristles  at  the  gape,  and  the  bill  more  slender  than  in  the  Moucherolles.  It  is  still, 
however,  depressed,  with  an  acute  ridge  above,  a straight  edge,  and  the  point  a little  curved  downward. 
[They  are  closely  related  by  affinity  to  the  Chats  and  Redstarts,  as  are  also  the  Moucherolles,  and  have 
similar  mottled  nestling  plumage,  a character  that  does  not  occur  in  the  great  Tyrant  group. 

Four  species  inhabit  Europe,  migrating  southward  in  winter.] 

The  Grey  Flycatcher  ( M . grisola,  Gm.) — Grey  above,  whitish  underneath,  with  some  greyish  streaks  on  the 
breast.  [It  is  very  common  throughout  Britain,  seldom  arriving  before  May : one  of  the  least  musical  of  our 
native  Birds.  Its  legs  are  shorter  than  in  the  following,  and  general  character  different : hence,  with  some  others 
from  Africa,  it  composes  the  Butalis  of  Boi<*.] 

The  Collared  Flycatcher  (M.  albicollis,  Tem.),  is  very  remarkable  for  the  changes  of  plumage  [or  rather  of 
colouring  only]  which  the  male  undergoes  seasonally.  Resembling  the  other  sex  in  winter,  that  is  to  say,  grey  [on 
the  upper  parts]  with  a white  patch  on  the  wing,  it  attains  towards  the  nuptial  season  an  agreeable  distribution  of 
pure  black  and  white,  the  head,  back,  wings  and  tail,  being  of  the  former  colour,  and  the  forehead,  a collar  round 
the  neck,  a great  patch  on  each  wing,  a smaller  one  in  front  of  it,  and  the  outer  edge  of  the  tail,  white.  It  nestles 
in  the  trunks  of  trees. 

Another  species  subject  to  the  same  changes  has  more  recently  been  discovered,  in  which  the  neck  of  the  male 
is  black  like  the  back  in  the  nuptial  season,  and  which  wants  the  small  white  spot  on  the  edge  of  the  wing.  It  is 
the  Pied  Flycatcher  ( M . luctuosa,  Tem.),  which  is  found  further  northward  than  the  other.  [This  species  is 
remarkable  for  its  local  distribution  in  the  British  islands,  being  very  common  near  the  lakes  of  the  north  of 
England,  and  of  rare  occurrence  elsewhere.  It  is  doubtful  whether  the  other  ever  occurs  here.  They  are  said  to 
differ  in  their  notes,  and  both  lay  blue  eggs,  whereas  the  Grey  Flycatcher  lays  whitish  eggs  spotted  with  brown. 
The  two  pied  species  are  also  comparatively  musical.] 



The  fourth  was  discovered  in  Germany,  [in  some  parts  of  which  it  is  common  It  is  smaller  than  the  others,  with 
plumage  resembling  that  of  a Robin ; constitutes  the  division  Erythrosterna  of  Bonaparte], 

The  beak  of  the  Flycatchers  becomes  more  and  more  slender,  till  it  finally  approaches  that  of  some 

Some  species,  wherein  the  ridge  of  the  upper  mandible  is  more  raised,  and  arched  towards  the  tip, 
lead  to  the  Chats  and  Wheatears.  Certain  of  these  appear  to  compose  the  Drimophilus  of  Temminck. 

There  are  also  several  genera  or  subgenera  closely  allied  to  different  links  of  the  great  series  of 
Flycatchers,  although  they  much  surpass  them  in  size.  Such  are 

The  Bald  Tyrants  ( Gymnocephalus , Geof.), — 

Which  have  nearly  the  same  beak  as  the  Tyrants,  only  that  its  ridge  is  rather  more  arcuated, 
and  a great  part  of  the  face  is  destitute  of  feathers. 

We  know  but  of  one  species,  from  Cayenne,  as  large  as  a Crow,  and  the  colour  of  Spanish  snuff. 

The  Dragoon-birds  ( Cephalopterus , Geof.) — 

Have,  on  the  contrary,  the  base  of  the  bill  adorned  with  feathers,  which,  radiating  at  top,  form  a large 
crest  resembling  a parasol. 

Only  one  species  is  known,  from  the  banks  of  the  Amazon  ; of  the  size  of  a Jay,  and  black:  the  feathers  on  the 
lower  part  of  its  breast  form  a sort  of  pendent  dewlap— (C.  ornata,  Geoff. ; Coracina  cephaloptera , Vieillot ; 
Cor.  ornata,  Spix.) 

The  Cotingas  ( Ampelis , Lin.) — 

Have  the  beak  compressed,  as  in  the  generality  of  Flycatchers,  but  proportionally  rather  shorter,  tole- 
rably wide  at  base,  and  slightly  arcuated. 

Those  in  which  it  is  strongest  and  most  pointed,  retain  a very  insectivorous  regimen.  They  are 

Piatjhaus  ( Querula , Vieillot) — 

From  their  cry,  and  inhabit  America,  where  they  live  in  flocks  in  the  woods,  and  pursue  insects. 

Such  are  the  Common  Piauhau  ( Muscic . rubricollis,  Gm.),  black  with  a purple  throat ; and  the  Great  Piauhau, 
entirely  purple,  ( Cotinga  rouge,  Vaillant ; Coracias  militaris,  Shaw).  The  Grey  Cotinga  (Amp  cinerea ) resembles 
the  Piauhaus  rather  than  the  genuine  Cotingas.  The  Golden-throated  Piauhau  ( Coracias  scutata,  Lath.,  or  Co- 
racina scutata,  Tem.),  has  a smaller  beak,  and  approximates  the  Bald  Tyrant. 

The  Restricted  Cotingas  {Ampelis,  Vieillot), — 

In  which  the  beak  is  rather  weaker,  feed  on  berries  and  soft  fruits,  in  addition  to  insects.  They  inhabit 
humid  places  in  South  America ; and  the  greater  number  are  remarkable,  at  the  breeding  season,  for 
the  splendour  of  the  azure  and  purple  which  adorn  the  males.  During  the  rest  of  the  year  both  sexes 
are  grey  or  brown. 

The  Scarlet  Cotinga  (A.  carnifex,  Lin.)— Crown,  rump,  and  belly  scarlet ; the  rest  brownish-red : fourth  quill  of 
the  wing  narrowed,  shortened,  and  tough  or  horn-like.  The  Pompadour  Cotinga  (A.  pompadora,  Lin.).— Of  a 
lovely  reddish  purple,  with  white  quill -feathers.  The  Blue  Cotinga  (A.  cotinga,  Lin.).— Splendid  ultramarine,  with 
a violet  breast,  frequently  traversed  by  a large  blue  band,  and  spotted  with  dark  yellow.  There  are  others  equally 

The  Tersines  {Tersina,  Vieillot) — 

Are  Cotingas  with  the  beak  wider  at  its  base.  As 
The  Tersine  of  Buffon  (Amp.  tersa,  Gm. ; Procnias  tersina,  Tem.,  or  Pr.  hirundinacea,  Swainson). 

The  Caterpillar-hunters  {Ceblepyris,  Cuv. ; Campephaga,  Vieillot), — 

With  the  beak  of  the  Cotingas,  have  a singular  character,  which  consists  in  the  somewhat  prolonged, 
stiff,  and  spiny  shafts  of  their  rump-feathers.  They  inhabit  Africa  and  India,  and  feed  upon  Caterpil- 
lars, which  they  find  on  the  highest  trees ; but  they  have  none  of  the  brilliancy  of  the  Cotingas.  Their 
tail,  somewhat  forked  in  the  middle,  is  rounded  at  the  sides. 

Such  are  the  Grey  and  Black  Caterpillar-hunters  of  Vaillant  (the  former  of  which  is  the  Muscic.  cana,  Gm.).  The 
Yellow  C.  of  the  same  naturalist  is  the  young  of  Turdus phenicopterus, Tem.  Add  C.  fimbriatus,  Tem.  Col.  249,250. 

We  may  also  distinguish 

The  Waxwings  {Bombycilla,  Brisson), — 

The  head  of  which  is  adorned  with  [erectible]  feathers,  longer  than  the  rest,  and  they  have  besides 



a singular  character  in  the  secondary  quills  of  the  wing,  the  ends  of  which  [at  least  in  two  of  the  three 
species,  are  converted  into]  smooth,  oval,  red  disks,  [much  resembling  red  sealing-wax]. 

There  is  one  in  Europe,  the  Common  Waxwing  {Amp.  garrulus,  Lin.),  [and  which  also  occurs  in  America  west- 
ward of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  and  in  Asia  to  China  and  Japan.]  It  is  less  than  a Thrush,  with  soft  vinous-grey 
plumage,  the  throat  black  ; tail  black,  tipped  with  yellow,  [with  minute  scarlet  lobes  resembling  those  on  the  wing- 
secondaries  in  old  specimens*,  wherein  the  primary  quills  also  are  each  terminated  with  white,  forming  a series  of 
transverse  markings] ; wings  black,  variegated  with  white  [and  yellow].  This  bird  appears  in  flocks,  at  long  inter- 
vals, and  without  regularity,  from  which  circumstance  its  presence  was  long  considered  an  evil  omen.  It  is  not 
timorous,  is  easily  captured  and  kept  in  captivity,  eats  of  every  thing,  and  a great  quantity,  [but  in  the  wild  state 
is  principally  baccivorous,  and  in  times  of  necessity  has  been  seen  to  eat  the  buds  and  sprouts  of  various  trees : 
it  flies  rapidly,  and  has  a low  warbling  song].  This  bird  is  supposed  to  breed  very  far  to  the  north.  Its  flesh  is 
esteemed  good  eating. 

There  is  a very  similar  but  smaller  species  in  America  {Amp.  garrulus,  B.,  Lin. ; A.  americana,  Wils. ; B.  caro- 
linensis,  Brisson ; B.  cedrorum,  Vieillot),  [the  Cedar-bird  of  the  Anglo-Americans : it  inhabits  eastward  only  of 
the  Rocky  Mountains.] 

A third,  in  Japan  {B.  pheenicoptera,  Tern.),  has  no  wax-like  appendages  to  the  wings,  and  the  tail  and  lesser 
wing-coverts  are  tipped  with  red.  [Its  size  equals  that  of  the  first.] 

M.  M.  Hofmansegg  and  Illigerhave  separated,  with  equal  propriety, — ■ 

The  Campanero  and  some  others  {Procnias,  Hof.), — 

Wherein  the  beak,  weaker  and  more  depressed,  opens  nearly  as  far  as  the  eye.  They  are  indigenous 
to  South  America,  and  subsist  on  insects. 

They  require  to  be  subdivided  into 

The  Campaneros  ( Procnias , as  restricted), — 

Which  have  feathered  throats. 

One  species  {Amp.  carunculata,  Gm.),  distinguished  by  a long  soft  caruncle  at  the  base  of  its  beak,  is  white  when 
adult,  greenish  when  young.  [This  is  the  celebrated  Campanero  or  Bell-bird  of  Guiana,  the  loud  sonorous  voice 
of  which,  heard  from  time  in  the  depths  of  the  forest,  during  the  stillness  of  mid-day,  exactly  resembles  the  tolling 
of  a bell.] 


The  Averanos  ( Casmarhynchus , Tern.), — 

Have  naked  throats. 

There  is  one  in  which  the  naked  part  of  the  throat  of  the  male  is  covered  with  fleshy  caruncles : the  Averano  of 
Buffon  {Amp.  variegata,  Lin.).  Another  {Procn.  araponga,  Pr.  Max  ; Casm.  ecarunculatus,  Spix)  has  some  small 
thinly-scattered  feathers  on  the  same  place.  These  birds  also  are  white  in  the  adult  state,  and  have  the  females 
and  young  greenish. 

Finally,  we  place  at  the  end  of  the  Cotinga  group, 

The  Gymnodes  ( Gymnoderes , Geoff.), — 

The  beak  of  which  is  only  a little  stouter,  but  the  neck  is  partly  naked,  and  the  head  covered  with 
velvety  feathers. 

The  species  known  is  from  South  America,  and  in  great  part  frugivorous.  It  is  the  size  of  a Pigeon,  and  black, 
with  bluish  wings.  (The  Gracula  nudicollis,  Sh. ; Corvus  nudus  and  Gracula  fetida,  Gm.). — N.B.  M.  Vieillot 
brings  the  Choucaris,  Gymnode,  and  Dragoon-bird  together,  to  form  his  genus  Coracina. 

The  Drongos  ( Edolius , Cuv. ; Dicrurus , Vieillot) — 

Also  pertain  to  the  great  series  of  Flycatchers.  Their  beak  is  equally  emarginated  and  depressed,  its 
upper  ridge  acute  ; but  they  are  distinguished  by  having  both  mandibles  slightly  arcuated  throughout 
their  length : the  nostrils  are  covered  with  feathers,  besides  which  there  are  long  hairs  forming  mous- 
taches. [These  interesting  birds  exhibit  a fly  catching  modification  of  the  great  corvine  type]. 

The  species  are  numerous  in  the  countries  bordering  the  Indian  Ocean,  and  are  generally  glossy  black,  with  a 
forked  tail,  [the  outermost  feathers  of  which  are  often  extremely  long,  with  a naked  shaft  except  at  the  base  and 
tip  : they  are  gregarious,  assembling  towards  the  evening,  and  subsist  on  insects,  particularly  Bees  and  Wasps,  for 
which  they  hawk  in  the  vicinity  of  the  hive ; are  popularly  termed  Devil-birds ].  It  is  said  that  some  of  them  sing 
as  finely  as  a Nightingale. 

The  genus  Sparactes  of  Illiger  was  founded  on  a disguised  specimen  of  one  of  these  birds,  decorated  with  feathers 
not  its  own  by  a dealer,  and  the  legs  of  a Hoopoe. 

* This  tends  to  corroborate  a remark  in  p.  156,  wherein  the  tail-feathers  are  stated  to  correspond  to  the  wing-secondaries,  excepting  the 
middle  pair,  or  uropygials,  which  represent  the  wiug-tertiaries.— Ed. 



The  Phibalures  {Phibalura,  Vieillot) — 

Have  an  arcuated  ridge  to  the  bill,  as  in  the  Drongos,  but  the  beak  is  shorter  than  the  head. 

The  only  known  species  ( Ph . flavirostris,  Vieillot)  inhabits  Brazil,  and  has  a deeply-forked  tail ; its  plumage  is 
spotted  with  black  and  yellow,  and  there  are  some  red  feathers  on  the  head,  which  recal  to  mind  the 
Tyrant  Flycatchers.  [This  is  a very  curious  species,  which  is  closely  related  to  the  Swallows,  as  well  as  the  Cotinga 
group,  and  to  the  Tyrants.] 

The  Tanagers  ( Tanagra , Lin.) — 

Have  a conical  beak,  triangular  at  its  base  ; the  upper  mandible  emarginated  towards  the  tip,  with  its 
ridge  arcuated ; wings  and  flight  short.  They  resemble  the  Sparrow  tribe  in  their  habits,  and  feed  on 
grain  as  well  as  on  insects  and  berries.  The  greater  number  are  conspicuous  in  our  collections  for 
their  brilliant  colours.  [All  are  peculiar  to  America.]  We  subdivide  them  as  follow  : — 

The  Lindos  (Euphonia,  Vieillot  ?) — 

Or  Bullfinch  Tanagers,  which  have  a short  beak  when  viewed  vertically,  bulging  on  each  side  of  its 
base : their  tail  is  proportionally  shorter  than  in  the  others. 

Such  are  the  Tanagra  violacea,  cayennensis,  diademata,  viridis,  chrysogaster  [and  several  others.  The  Spanish 
name  Lindo,  applied  by  Azara,  intimates  their  brilliancy]. 

The  Finch-tanagers  { Habia , Vieillot) — 

Have  a thick,  bulging,  conical  bill,  as  broad  as  high,  the  upper  mandible  of  which  is  rounded  above. 
Such  are  Tan.  flammiceps,  Pr.  Max.,  T.  superciliosa,  psittacina,  and  atricollis,  Spix,  &c. 

The  Tanagers,  properly  so  called, — 

Have  a conical  beak,  shorter  than  the  head,  as  broad  as  high,  the  upper  mandible  arcuated  and  slightly 

T.  episcopus , multicolor,  and  numerous  others  [many  of  them  remarkable  for  the  variety  of  contrasting,  brilliant 
hues,  which  variegate  and  adorn  their  plumage]. 

T.  talas  and  some  others  have  been  separated  by  Mr.  Swainson  under  the  name  Aglaia . 

The  Ortole-tanagers  ( Tachyphonus , Vieillot), — 

Have  the  beak  conical,  arcuated,  pointed,  and  notched  towards  the  tip. 

T.  cristata,  Tern.,  of  which  T.  brunnea,  Spix,  is  the  young,  and  various  others. 

The  T.gularis  and  pileata,  Tem.,  and  T.  speculifera , Spix,  approximate  the  Bec-fins  in  the  slenderness  of  their 
bills.  “ Mr.  Swainson  makes  of  them  his  genus  Spermagra.,> 

The  Pyranga  of  Vieillot  is  founded  on  an  individual  deformity.  We  will  designate  his  species  T.  cyanictera. 

In  the  Palmiste,  Buff.,  the  emargination  of  the  upper  mandible  is  very  slight,  and  it  almost  entirely  disappears 
in  a proximate  species,  of  which  M.  Vieillot  has  formed  his  genus  Icteria.  This  bird  is  the  Pipra  polyglotta, 
Wilson,  [a  very  curious  species,  the  affinities  of  which  are  by  no  means  obvious].  It  conducts  to  the  Weavers. 

The  Cardinal-tanagers  [(Pyranga,  as  now  generally  accepted)], — 

Have  a conical  and  slightly  bulging  beak,  with  an  obtuse  salient  dentation  on  each  side. 

T.  mississipiensis,  Tem.,  or  T.  cestiva,  Wils.  Also  T.  rubra  and  T.  ludoviciana,  Wils.,  &c. 


The  Rhamphocele-tanagers  (Jacapa,  Vieillot), — 

Have  a conical  beak,  the  rami  of  the  lower  mandible  of  which  are  enlarged  behind. 

Such  are  T.  jacapa  and  brazilia,  Tem.,  and  T.  nigrogularis,  Spix. 

[We  may  remark  that  the  great  group  of  Tanagers  is  simply  a ramification  of  the  Cotinga  family, 
peculiar  to  the  same  restricted  locality.] 

The  Thrushes  ( Turdus , Lin.) — 

Have  the  beak  arcuated  and  compressed ; but  its  point  is  not  hooked,  and  the  lateral  emargination 
does  not  produce  so  marked  a dentation  as  in  the  Shrikes.  Nevertheless,  as  already  stated,  there  are 
gradual  transitions  from  one  to  the  other  of  these  genera. 

The  regimen  of  the  Thrushes  is  more  frugivorous  : they  feed  much  on  berries,  and  their  habits  are 
solitary.  [The  majority  are  however  gregarious  during  the  winter ; and  some  (as  our  common  Field- 
fare) even  throughout  the  year.] 

The  name  of  Merle  is  applied  to  those  species,  the  colours  of  which  are  uniform  or  distributed  in  large  masses. 
[They  are  generally  also  more  bulky ; but  pass,  by  insensible  gradations,  into  the  spotted-breasted  Thrushes.] 



The  Black  Merle,  or  Blackbird  (T.  merula,  Lin.)— Male  entirely  black,  with  the  bill  and  eyelids  yellow;  female 
blackish  brown,  reddish  and  more  or  less  spotted  on  the  breast,  [beak  seldom  wholly  yellow.  The  plumage  is  soft, 
and  wings  short  and  rounded].  A mistrustful  species,  which  however  is  easily  tamed,  and  sings  finely,  having 
even  been  taught  to  speak.  [It  is  generally  seen  in  pairs,  and  is  at  no  season  gregarious  : appears  to  be  peculiar 
to  Europe,  being  replaced  by  an  allied  species  ( T . pcecilopterus)  eastward.] 

The  Ring  Thrush  (T.  torquatus,  Lin.).— Black,  with  the  feathers  bordered  with  whitish,  and  a conspicuous  white 
gorget  on  the  breast.  [All  the  proportions  of  this  bird  exactly  correspond,  even  to  minutiae,  with  those  of  the 
Fieldfare,  which  is  placed  by  many  systematists  in  a different  named  division.  The  Ring  Thrush  inhabits  bleak 
and  upland  moors,  chiefly  in  the  north  of  Europe,  and  migrates  far  southward  at  the  close  of  autumn.  It  is  a loud 
but  inferior  songster,  and  common  only  in  a few  districts  of  Britain.] 

The  lofty  mountains  of  the  south  of  Europe  sustain  two  species  (T.  saxatilis,  Lin.,  and  T.  cyaneus, Lin.).  The 
first,  which  is  more  frequently  seen  northward,  is  better  known.  It  sings  finely,  and  nestles  in  steep  rocks,  or 
ruined  buildings.  [These  Birds,  which  with  various  others  constitute  the  Petrocincla,  Vigors,  and  have  since 
even  been  separated  into  minor  groups,  form  a natural  division  apart  from  the  other  Thrushes,  and  are  allied  to 
the  Chats  and  Wheatears,  which  they  much  resemble  in  habit.  They  are  not  found  in  Britain.] 

The  term  Thrush  is  applied  more  particularly  to  the  species  with  spotted  plumage,  that  is  to  say,  marked  with 
black  or  brown  spots  on  the  breast.  There  are  several  in  Europe,  which  assemble  in  large  flocks  in  winter,  andi 
migrate  southward. 

The  Missel  Thrush  (T.  viscivorus,  Lin.) — Is  the  largest  [with  one  exception]  of  the  whole  genus.  [It  is  uniform 
yellowish-brown  above,  and  tinged  with  sulphur-yellow  on  the  under  parts,  which  are  speckled  with  transverse 
spots ; beneath  the  wings  white.  Is  common  throughout  Britain,  and  resident  at  all  seasons ; feeding  princi- 
pally on  berries : the  young  alone  associate  in  large  flocks  about  October,  which  soon  separate  and  disperse.  This 
bird  is  very  wild  and  distrustful,  except  at  the  season  of  propagation,  when  it  affects  the  vicinity  of  human  habi- 
tations, and  is  remarkable  for  the  spirit  with  which  it  attacks  and  drives  away  Magpies,  &c.  from  near  its  nest, 
uttering  a loud  rattling  screech : it  always  builds  on  trees  ; and  is  a powerful  but  monotonous  songster,  heard 
nearly  throughout  the  year.] 

The  Fieldfare  Thrush  (T.  pilaris,  Lin.).— Distinguished  by  the  ash-colour  of  the  neck  and  rump,  [dark  reddish 
colour  of  the  back,  &c.  Is  remarkable  for  generally  nestling  in  society,  being  gregarious  throughout  the  year; 
visits  Britain  in  large  flocks  about  November,  and  departs  late  in  spring;  is  the  least  musical  probably  of 
the  whole  genus]. 

The  Song  or  Mavis  Thrush  (T.  mmicus,  Lin.).— [Brown  above,  yellowish  on  the  breast,  which  is  spotted  with 
black ; fulvous  beneath  the  wings.  It  is  the  finest  songster  of  the  European  species,  and  is  seldom  observed  in 
flocks  in  Britain,  where  it  is  resident  at  all  seasons.  This  bird  is  a great  destroyer  of  snails.] 

The  Redwing  Thrush  (T.  iliacus,  Lin.)— Smaller  than  the  preceding,  the  flanks  and  beneath  the  wings,  deep 
rufous  ; [back  brown,  inclining  to  olive  green ; a conspicuous  pale  streak  over  the  eye ; and  longitudinal  markings 
on  the  under  parts.  This  bird  is  a common  winter  visitant  in  Britain,  arriving  always  some  weeks  before  the 
Fieldfare,  and  keeping  in  more  straggling  flocks,  the  individuals  of  which  depart  gradually  in  spring,  and  not 
simultaneously,  as  in  that  species.  It  is  an  inferior  songster. 

Allied  to  the  Fieldfare,  Redwing,  and  Ring  Thrushes,  are  numerous  foreign  species,  two  of  which— of  interme- 
diate character  to  those  mentioned— occur  in  Eastern  Europe,  T.  Naumanni  and  T.  atrogularis ; others,  related  to 
the  Redwing  and  Mavis,  all  of  which  are  proper  to  the  eastern  parts  of  Asia,  including  Japan,  have  slaty-black 
plumage,  more  or  less  relieved,  to  which  group  the  T.  sibiricus,  which  has  also  been  met  with  in  the  east  of 
Europe,  appertains.  There  are  foreign  species  of  this  extensive  genus  intermediate,  in  every  possible  way,  to  all 
those  of  Europe  : some  are  found  almost  everywhere. 

In  a group  inhabiting  Australia,  the  Indian  Archipelago,  and  slopes  of  the  Asiatic  mountains,  the  dorsal 
plumage  is  mottled  at  all  ages;  a character  peculiar  to  the  nestling  dress  of  the  others.  One  species  belonging 
to  it  (T.  Whitii,  Eyton),  the  largest  of  all  the  Thrushes,  resembles  the  Missel  Thrush  in  its  form  and  proportions, 
and  occasionally  strays  to  the  west  of  Europe,  having  been  met  with  even  in  Britain : it  is  common  on  the  southern 
slopes  of  the  Himmalayas.  Another  (T.  varius,  Horsf.)  indigenous  to  Java,  conducts  to  the  lanthocinclce,  not  only 
by  this  style  of  marking,  but  by  its  soft  puffy  plumage,  short  and  rounded  wings,  and  large  bill  and  feet. 

Other  Thrushesj  peculiar  to  America,  and  breeding  in  the  northern  division  of  that  continent,  are  solitary  in 
habit,  and  pass  insensibly  into  the  Nightingales ; successively  diminishing  in  size ; having  the  bill  gradually 
weaker  and  tarsi  more  elongated ; assuming  even  the  russet  tint  and  rufous  tail  of  those  birds,  gradually  losing 
the  breast-spots,  &c.  Such  are  T.  mustelinus,  Gm.,  which  differs  little  from  the  true  Thrushes,  T.  solitarius , 
Wilsonii,  and  minor,  which  last  is  but  arbitrarily  separable  from  the  European  Nightingales. 

A group  now  generally  distinguished  is  that  of 

The  Mockers  ( Mimus , Boie ; Orpheus,  Swains.) — 

Wherein  the  form  is  much  more  elongated,  the  wings  shorter,  and  tail  in  particular  longer,  and  the 
upper  mandible  more  curved. 

The  Mocking-bird  of  North  America  (Turdus  polyglottus,  Lin.).— One  of  the  finest  of  song-birds,  and  remark- 
able for  its  great  facility  of  imitating  almost  any  sound. 

There  are  several  others,  all  of  them  peculiar  to  America. 

The  Thrushes  form  a great  centre  of  radiation,  which  ramifies  in  every  direction,  and  graduates  till  the  normal 

186  AYES. 

generic  features  disappear.  We  have  already  seen  them  pass  through  Petrocincla,  into  the  Chats  and  Wheatears, 
to  which  should  be  added  the  Robins,  Redstarts,  Phsenicorns,  &c. ; through  T.  varius,  into  the  Iantliotindce , 
Gould,  an  eastern  group,  with  large  bill  and  feet,  very  soft  plumage,  and  short  wings,  the  species  of  which  inhabit 
shrubberies,  and  find  their  food  chiefly  on  the  ground,  never  flying  to  any  distance ; through  certain  North  Ame- 
rican species  into  the  Nightingales ; and  the  passage  into  various  other  received  genera  is  equally  gradual : in  a 
word,  these  latter  are  merely  ramifications  of  Turdus,  different  as  some  of  them  appear  in  extreme  cases.  Thus 
Cindosoma,  Vigors,  conducts  from  the  Fieldfare  to  the  subdivision  Accentor  ; the  Dippers  and  Ant-catchers  to  the 
Wrens  and  Tree-creepers,  &c.  &c.] 

Some  of  these  birds  appear  to  approximate  the  Shrikes  in  their  habits,  although  there  is  nothing  in 
the  form  of  the  beak  to  distinguish  them  from  other  Thrushes. 

There  are  even  no  available  characters  by  which  to  distinguish  certain  African  species,  which  live  in 
numerous  bustling  troops,  like  Starlings,  pursue  insects,  and  commit  great  havoc  in  gardens. 

Several  of  them  are  remarkable  for  the  glossy  tints  of  their  plumage,  which  are  of  a browned  steel-colour,  (as 
T.  auratus  and  T.  nitens,  Tern.) ; and  one  of  the  former  for  its  cuneated  tail,  which  is  a third  longer  than  the 
body  (T.  ceneus,  Tem.)  [The  straightness  of  the  wing  indicates  these  birds  to  belong  rather  to  the  Starling  group, 
as  does  also  their  brown  and  spotless  nestling  plumage,  the  wing  primaries  of  which  are  shed  at  the  first  moult, 
which  is  not  the  case  in  any  of  the  Thrush  tribe.  Their  habits,  as  already  mentioned,  are  strictly  those  of  the 

We  conceive  it  proper  to  approximate  also  the  New  Guinea  Thrush,  with  a tail  three  times  longer  than  the 
body,  and  a double  crest  on  the  head,  which  has  been  considered  a Bird  of  Paradise  ( Paradiscea  gularis,  Latham, 
and  P.  nigra , Gm.),  but  only  on  account  of  the  incomparable  magnificence  of  its  plumage.  M.  Vieillot  applies  to 
it  the  generic  name  Astrapia. 

Other  Thrushes  with  brilliantly  shining  plumage,  the  occipital  feathers  of  which  are  pointed  as  in  the  Starlings, 
compose  the  Lamprotornis  of  Temminck.  [These  also  strictly  pertain  to  the  natural  family  of  Starlings.]  We 
should  distinguish  the  L.  erythrophrys,  on  account  of  its  bright  red  eyebrows,  formed  of  cartilaginous  feathers. 

Some  Thrushes  have  the  bill  so  slender,  that  it  approximates  that  of  the  Wheatears  (the  Ixos  of  Temminck). 
[These  birds  are  mostly  crested,  and  have  bright  red  feathers  under  the  tail,  which  generally  intimates  that  that 
appendage  is  carried  erect.  They  rank  among  the  very  finest  of  singing  birds,  and  the  celebrated  Buhl-buhl 
of  the  Oriental  poets  is  one  of  them  all  are  peculiar  to  the  eastern  hemisphere,  and  they  are  closely  related  to  the 
Philedons,  into  which  they  pass  by  insensible  gradations.] 

Others  have  a slender  bill,  but  straight  and  strong,  and  in  the  greater  number  of  them  the  tail  is  excessively 
forked.  They  are  the  iEnicures  ( AEnicura , Tem.),  [a  group  having  much  the  appearance,  at  first  sight,  of  the  Pied 
Wagtails,  and  resembling  them  in  habit,  but  which  are  essentially  modified  Thrushes,  and  not  distantly  removed 
from  the  Wheatears]. 

Others,  again,  [closely  allied  to  the  last,]  are  distinguished  by  having  legs  so  long,  that  they  have- the  general 
appearance  of  Waders.  They  constitute  the  Grallina  of  Vieillot,  or  T 'any pus  of  Oppel. 

The  Crinons  ( Criniger , Tem.)-— 

Are  Thrushes  with  strong  setae  at  the  gape,  and  which  have  sometimes  bristly  feathers  on  the  neck. 

Such  is  Cr.  barbatus,  Tem.  (Col.  88). 

The  Antcatchers  ( Myothera , Illig.) — 

Are  known  by  their  lengthened  limbs  and  short  tail.  They  subsist  on  insects,  and  principally  Ants : 
inhabit  both  continents. 

Those  of  the  eastern  hemisphere,  however,  are  remarkable  for  their  brilliant  colours.  They  are 
The  Breves  of  Buffon  (Pitta,  Vieillot), — 

[The  plumage  of  which  recals  to  mind  that  of  the  Halcyons  and  Kingfishers,  the  latter  of  which  they 
further  resemble  in  their  flight,  as  do  also  the  Dippers  and  Wrens,  and  they  similarly  frequent  streams 
and  brooks,  like  the  Dipper  of  Europe.] 

Such  are  Corvus  brachyurus,  Gm.,  and  several  other  beautiful  species,  to  which  we  add  the  Turdus  cyanurus, 
Latham,  or  Cornus  cyanurus,  Shaw,  which  only  differs  in  the  tail,  which  is  rather  more  pointed.  [There  are  indeed 
two  natural  subdivisions,  distinguished  apart  by  the  form  and  structure  of  the  tail]. 

The  Pitta  thoracina,  Tem.,  of  which  MM.  Vigors  and  Horsfield  make  their  genus  Thimalia,  is  but  little  removed 
from  P.  cyanura,  Vieillot,  if  we  except  its  sombre  hues  and  its  beak,  which  latter  diminishes  more  regularly  in 
front,  and  thereby  approaches  the  Tanagers. 

Those  of  the  New  Continent,  which  are  much  more  numerous,  have  brown  tints,  and  vary  in  the 
length  and  stoutness  of  the  bill.  They  obtain  their  living  from  the  enormous  Ant-hills  which  abound 
in  the  woods  and  deserts  of  South  America ; and  the  females  of  them  are  larger  than  the  males.  These 
birds  fly  but  little,  and  have  sonorous  voices,  even  extraordinarily  so  in  some  instances.  [They  are 
essentially  gigantic  Wrens.] 


Among  those  which  have  a thick  and  arched  bill,  may  be  particularized 

The  King  of  the  Antcatchers  ( Turdns  rex , Gm. ; Corvus  grallarius,  Shaw),  which  is  larger  than  the  others,  also 
the  highest  upon  its  legs,  and  that  which  has  the  shortest  tail : at  the  first  glance  it  might  be  taken  for  a wader ; 
its  size  is  that  of  a Quail,  and  its  grey  plumage  is  elegantly  barred  across.  This  species  lives  more  isolated  than 
the  others.  M.  Vieillot  has  formed  of  it  his  genus  Grallaria. 

The  species  with  a straighter,  but  still  tolerably  strong  beak,  approximate  the  Bush-Shrikes  with  similar  bills. 
Such  are  Thamnophilus  stellaris  and  Th.