VANCOUVER TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION
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A PRELIMINARY' REPORT
V^ANCOUX'ER, BRITISH COLUMBIA
HARLAN D BARTHOLOMEW AND ASSOCIATES
Towx Planning Consultants
Saint Louis, Missouri
VANCOUVER CITY COUNCIL
Mayor, J. W. Corni;tt
John Bennett H. L. Corey R. K. Gervin W. D. Greyell
Charles Jones George C. Miller Jack Price Charles E. Thompson
City Engineer ..Charles Braken ridge, m.e.i.c.
(Retired June, 1946)
Charles A. Battershill, b.sc, c.e., m.a.s.c.e.,
City Comptroller Frank Jones
Corporation Counsel D. E. McTaggart, b.a., k.c.
City Clerk Ronald Thompson
City Solicitor A. E. Lord, b.a.
Medical Health Officer S. Stewart Murray, m.d., d.p.h.
Building Inspector Andrew Haggart
VANCOUVER TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION
Harry \\ Jackson, Chairman
John S. Porter, m.r.a.i.c, Vice-Chairman
Earl M. Bennett, phm.b. Frank E. Buck, b.s.a. F. N. Hamilton
Joseph Briggs Charles T. Hamilton, b.a.sc, m.e.i.c. J. C. McPherson
W. R. Owen
Alderman Jack Price Representing Vancouver- City Council
E. A. Cleveland, ll.d., m.e.i.c Chairman, Vancouver Districts Joint
Sewerage and Drainage Board
Mrs. T. J. Rolston Representing Board of Park Commissioners
Elmore Meredith, b.a Representing Board of School Trustees
F. \V. G. Sergant Representing \'ancouver Port Authority
J. Alexander Walker, b.a.sc, c.e., m.e.i.c, Executive Engineer
L.wvrence R. Munroe, b.a.sc, Engineer-Draughtsman
F. Marjorie Ross, Secretary
TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANTS
Harland Bartholomew and Associates
Harland Bartholomew Russell H. Riley
Eldridge H. Lovelace
J. Alexander Walker, b.a.sc, c.e., m.e.i.c
John H. F. Eassie M. Isobel Beveridge
ZONING BY-LAW BOARD OF APPEAL
W. Dalton, Chairman R. M. Edgar John Elliott, b.c.l.s.
Albert J. Harrison, Secretary
HARLAND BARTHOLOMEW AND ASSOCIATES
CITY PLANNERS - CIVIL ENGINEERS - LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS
317 NORTH ELEVENTH STREET
Sai XT Loris I, ^^lss^^Rl
Tuwu riannin^" Coininissioii,
\ anoouver, liritish C()hinil)ia.
Ladies and Gentlenien:
In accordance with our agreement we are pleased to sul)mit tlie
following report upon "Decentralization" and "Regional Planning",
a part of your revised Town •! Man.
Because of their interrelation these two subjects are included in
a single report. With the more common u,se of the automobile our
cities, which were originally small and com])act .settlements, are
spreading out fni-ther and further into the country. Urban de\'clo])-
mcnt has now gone far beyond the nuniicipal limits, liowever,
from the standpoint of i)hvsical develo])nu'nt the entire urban area
still ])ossesses considerable unity. The various ])arts are interdependent
and interrelated. To be properly done planning of any part must
carefully consider the whole and planning of the entire metropolitan
area would l)ring many achantages to each ])art.
We wish to gratelnlly acknowledge the cooperation and assistance
\\e have received from many oflicials and citizens in the ])reparation
of this ix'port.
i-Jespect l'ull\- subniittcil,
ll.VRi.AXI) r..\RTll()L()Mb:W .VXD .\SStK"! .\ TI-.S
/)'\' ll.\KI..\Xn 1"! AKTIIOLOMIAV.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Commerce — 7
Measures to Control Decentralization .- 8
REGIONAL PLANNING 11
What Area Should Be Planned? 11
What Could a Planning; Agency Do? 12
Who Should Be Interested in a Regional Planning Agency ? 14
How Should the Regional Planning Agency Be Organized? 14
How Should a Regional Planning Agency Be Financed? 15
In tlie Iiorse and bugijy el's, transportation methods were capable of dispersing
urban population radially for a distance of about two miles. The introduction of
the electric street car increased this distance to approximately five miles and the
theoretical area of urbanization from 12.56 square miles to 78.5 square miles. With
the introduction of rapid transit and the high-speed low-cost automobile, however,
tlie potential area of urbanization was increased 900 per cent to more than 700
square miles, the area within a fifteen mile radius. About one-half of the area
within fifteen miles of the \^ancouver business district is water area or is so moun-
tainous as to be useless for the usual urban purposes. The corporate area of Van-
couver is 44 square miles, about one-eighth of the total area susceptible to urbaniz-
Past trends in population growth in the greater \'ancouver area are shown in
the following Table:
1 90 1
While a large percentage of the population of Cheater \'ancouver resides with-
in the City of Vancouver the percentage is becoming smaller each decade, having
decreased from 85.9 per cent in 191 1 to /T,.~ per cent in U)4t. However, a more
significant picture is shown in the following Table:
I'opulotion Iiirrrasr Population 1 lurcasc Increase in
Period Greater I'ancoiivcr I'anconver I'aneomer
191 1-192 1
1 9-' 1-193'
Per Cent in
City of Vancouver
\\'liile three-fourtlis of the new population growth of Greater A'ancouver located
within the city between 1921 and 193 1, this percentage dropped to 58.9 per cent in
the period 1931-1941.
In the Population Report, the probable population of Greater Vancouver in
1971 was estimated to be 650,000, a growth of 277,000. in order to permit econ-
omic provision of public services and facilities throughnut its area of 44 sc[uare
miles, the City of \'ancouver should contain a |)opulati(in of approximately 445,000,
an average density of 15 persons per acre. In order to attain this population the
city would have to attract 65 per cent of the new growth of the metropolitan area
during the next twenty-five years — a larger percentage than was attracted in the
period 1931-1941. The attainment of this objective is of dominant importance to
the future economic welbbeing of Wincouver. It should not be sacrificed by care-
less failure to control sporadic land subdivision. Emphasis of this broader phase
of planning should take precedence over all other planning actions.
In comparison with American cities, there is a relatively low ratio of auto-
mobiles to population in \'ancouver. As economic conditions improve the number
of cars per unit of population can be expected to materially increase, thus enhanc-
ing the potentialities for widespread dispersal of the population.
A large part of the major industrial development of the Greater Vancouver
area is located adjacent to navigable waters — along Rurrard Inlet and the Fraser
River. It is probable that large industries in the future will seek similar sites. In
addition to the land so situated in the City of \'ancouver, sites are, or can be, made
available in North \'ancouver, Richmond, and in the New Westminster area, the
latter city having prepared extensive plans for such industrial expansion.
The City of Vancouver has many available sites for the smaller industries,
particularly those of a service nature, and because of the superior distribution
facilities, and because of the concentration of population, it is probable that Van-
couver will continue to be the site for most of the smaller industries. The larger
industries, however, can be expected to find various locations throughout the
metropolitan area. This may well be the cause of the development of outlying
residential areas, and even of .small satellite towns and settlements.
As tlie population growth of the metropolitan area spreads outwardly, many
of the commercial uses, (stores, shops, garages, etc.) which serve this population
can be expected to move outward also. More and more secondary shopping centres
will be developed.
A comparison between tlie value of commercial l)uildint;- permits in the central
business district of Vancouver and in the remainder of the citv area over the past
ten years is shown in the following Tables:
Total Commercial Commercial Construction Per Cent in
Year Construction in in Central Business Central Business
Vancouver District District
1936 $ 664400 $ 247j/[) 40.2
1937 714,705 399.415 55-9
193S 862,125 455,600 52.8
1939 977,563 509,575 5-'- 1
1940 1,296,425 381,350 29.4
1941 1,285,970 263,050 20.5
'942 997,170 297,505 29.8
1943 987.104 458.754 46.5
1944 : 1,422,560 593.2^5 417
1945 2,408,525 7^1,905 30-0
Total $11,616,547 $4,347,779 37.4
(MoTi;: Does not include repairs and alteraticins under $1,000).
Thus, C(insideriniL^ the City of \'ancouver alone, somewhat less than two-lifths
of commercial construction is taking place within the central business district.
Unfortunately, similar figures are not availalile for the entire metropolitan area. It
is probable, however, that only about one-fifth of the new commercial building in
the metropolitan area is taking place in the central business district of \'ancouver.
Nor are data available showing the comparative volumes of retail trade as
between tJie Vancouver business district and other retail outlets in the metropolitan
area. As time goes on and more and more of the new residential growth takes place
further and further from the business district, it is probable that a decreasing pro-
IKjrtion of the total retail trade of the metroijolitan area will take place in the central
business district of \'ancouver.
MEASURES TO CONTROL DECENTRALIZATION
The trend toward decentralization that will affect the metropolitan area of
X'ancouver more and more over the next twenty-five years can be absorbed \\^ith-
out disruption or it can result in substantial harm dei)ending u])on whether or not
there is proper control of the ])rocess. If the best results are to l)e i-ealized, li\c
measures are recpiired, as follows:
I. Good Living Conditions ml;st ke .M.mxtatnkd in tiik Oldkk Aki;.\s.
In many older cities, there has been considerable loss of jiopulation in the older
residential areas adjacent to the business district. To |)ermit such areas to deteri-
orate into blighted districts and slums bv merely rei)lacing them with the new resi-
dential areas on the outskirts is not common sen.se. This increa.ses unnecessarily
the total residential area, re(juires additional public facilities and services such as
sewers, streets, and schools, with only limited abandonment of facilities already
installed and largely or wholly paid for in the older districts.
( )ne is too prone to forget that a cit\- is predominately a residential area. < )ther
uses such as commerce and industry (iccui)y (inly a minor part of the land area.
Probably between 60 and 75 per cent of the tax dollar is spent in the residential area.
At the same time a large proportion of attention is paid to the commercial and
industrial rather than to the residential development of the community. Rec|uests
for changes in the Zoning By-law are usually for more intensive and widespread
commercial and industrial tle\-elopment, and seldom to provide better protecti(^n for
the residential areas, thus the largest, most expensive, and most important part of
the city, the residential part, gradually becomes the most neglected.
Fortunately, \'ancouver does not now possess extensive slums and blighted
areas. There are a few areas (slums) that .should be rebuilt, and some larger
areas that need rehabilitation to which the city should give early attention. The Do-
minion Government is developing programmes that will be of great assistance in con-
nection with these undertakings.
Of more importance, however, is the maintenance of good living conditions
in the residential areas that are now in good condition. This will re(iuire ( i) form-
ation of local neighborhood organizations throughout the city. (2) strict and
impartial enforcement of the Zoning By-law, (3) a thorough programme for the
planting and care of street trees, (4) continued efficient collection of garbage and
trash, (5) planning and good maintenance of streets and lanes, and (6) continued
development and maintenance of good local park and school areas.
2. There must he .strict control o\'er .\ll xew sl r.i)i\isio.\s in the
METROPOLITAN ARE.\. A far greater area has been subdivided in the \'ancouver
metropolitan district than is needed for residential purposes. Square miles of
plotted territory vacant except for a solitary house or two can be found in the
southwestern portions of the city, in North \'ancouver and in Burnaby. These con-
sist of poorly designed plats unrelated to tc^pography and often unimpro\ed except
for a substandard surfacing on the street. The cost of providing even the mini-
mum public services and facilities in these areas is far more than the area can
ever pay — even if developed to ten times the present density. In fact, it is doubtful
if the future pojnilation growth will be sufficient to utilize more than a small part
of these areas. They are a good example of the harm that can result trom uncon-
In the future no new subdivision should be permitted unless adetjuate facilities
for water supply and sewage disposal and a minitnum standard street paving is first
installed. Such a practice is followed in suburban areas of many American cities.
It stops subdividing for speculative purjjoses only, insures a satisfactory location
for new subdivisions, and a pro])er standard for new subdivision development.
Many of the poorly i)latted subdivisiions which are jiresently vacant should be
redeveloped under "Replotting", Part II, of the Town Planning Act. This might
well he made the subject of a special study.
3. Industrial Development should in-: stli)ii;i) axd i'K(»m()ted on a metro-
politan BASIS. Much of the future growth of the X'ancouver metropolitan area
will be dependent upon industrial development. The different parts of the area
should not compete for new industries. Rather, there should be a strong citizens'
organization to promote new industries for the entire area. Such an organization
could encourage use of those industrial sites that are best related to highway and
transit facilities, to existing utilities, and to the existing residential areas.
4. The Central Business District must be accessible, convenient,
ATTRACTIVE, AND INVITING. This subject is discussed at greater length in previous
reports. The metropolitan area must have a centre and the only logical centre is
the present A'ancouver business district. It is important to the metropolitan area,
and particularly because of the tourist trade, that this centre not be allowed to dis-
integrate into a number of scattered subcentres, no one of which could possibly
contain the centralized institutions that should be found in one location.
Measures to imjM-ove accessibility by means nf highway and transit imi)rove-
ments have been outlined in previous parts of the Town Plan, as have proposals to
increase convenience by means of the improvement in facilities for parking of cars.
The downtown area should be the location for the great majority of new central-
ized institutions both public and ])rivate. Auditoriums, main libraries, museums —
all uses of interest to the entire metropolitan area — should have a downtown location.
The commercial sub-centres can then perform their normal lunction of service to
their tributary areas, and the business district will continue to contain the high
property values so essential to the welfare of the city.
5. The entire metropolitan area should have a planned development.
The metropolitan area fre(|uently referred to as Greater \'ancou\'er is gradually
becoming one great community with contiguous de\'elopment. Transportation, the
larger recreational areas, water supply, sewage dis])osal, and certain other services
are problems of a nature requiring a unified effort. It is essential that these be
planned on a metro])olitan or unified basis as the area continues to grow in total
population and in commercial and industrial signilicance.
LOWER F BASER RIVER VALLEY
MUNICIPAL DISTRICT BOUNDARY
The previous part of this report has indicated some of the reasons whv
regional planning is necessary in the \'ancouver area. Under our present process
of city building the urban growth of Vancouver has gone far beyond the corporate
limits of the City of \''ancouver. Nevertheless it is still a unified development. The
natural unity of the metropolitan area is in great contrast with the complexity of
local government, the natural area being split up by the arbitrar}- limits of many
individual cities, villages and districts. Each of these municipalities, however, must
recognize and accept the essential unity of the region in wiiich they are located. It
seems almost obvious that in order to do good planning in any of these individual
communities, such planning must be related to the entire region and further that
only as we plan the entire area as a unit can the communit-'- attain its highest econ-
omic and social usefulness and value.
WHAT AREA SHOULD BE PLANNED?
A "region" is generally considered to be an area that is inherentlv unified in
one or more certain important asjjects. It is, of course, difficult to place an exact
boundary for a metropolitan region. The boundaries should, however, conform
wherever possible with those natural topographical features that are the real limits
to the activities of the metropolitan area. In \"ancouver, it is apparent that the
boundaries of the regional area are related to the valley of the Lower Eraser River.
(See accoinpauyiiig Plate).
Eor the purpose of this report it is suggested that the lower mainland of British
Columbia, that is, the entire Eraser River A^alley, from the Strait of Georgia to as
far east as Hope, should be planned as a regional unit. The Plate shows a map of
this regional area and indicates the various cities, districts and villages which it con-
tains. The international boundary line would, of course, be the south boundary of
the region. The western boundary would extend along the shore line from Point
Roberts to the north boundary of West X'ancouver. From this point to a point
opposite Hoi)e the boundary would follow the height of the land — the mountain
ridge — along the north side of the Eraser River. Similarly the mountain ridge
south of Chilliwack from the international boundary to a point opposite Hope would
form the easterly ])ortion of the south boundary.
This area covers approximately i,8oo square miles, about one-thirtl of which
is mountainous. It contains some 23 separate municipalities and approximately one-
half of the population of British Columbia. As can be seen on the Plate the eastern
part of this region is a considerable distance from Vancouver. While it is probable
that the great part of the urban development of the region will lie concentrated
within twenty or twenty-five miles of the A'ancouver business district, the remain-
ing part of the region up-stream is such an integral part of the area from the topo-
graphic standpoint that it seems only logical to include the entire lower river valley.
This great natural river hasin containing Canada's largest city on the Pacific
Coast should have a unified, sound and planned development.
WHAT COULD A PLANNING AGENC^" DO?
Before considering the composition or the organization of a planning agency
for this region it is well to briefly analyse what a planning agency could do.
The activities of such an agency should largely he concentrated on the Idllow-
ing nine items:
1. Factual Studies. A planning agency should make factual studies of
economic conditions and of population growth and location within the entire region.
Studies should be made of local development of agricultural, commercial and
industrial enterprises and the available natural resources that might attract new
enterprises. This data should be collected, compiled and pul)lished in such form
that it can be distributed within and beyond the region.
Much of our ditticulty in the development of all connnunities has been the
lack of .information about them to use as a guide for both public and private
enterprises. Factual data about topography, soil, land use and population in the
entire area would, for example, be of great importance to persons desiring to locate
new commercial and industrial concerns. This information would also be of vital
interest to industries considering the region as a possible location, to pros])ective
residents, honie seekers and to tourists. While certain of this type of work is done
at the present time by ]irivate individuals and organizations, sucli collection and
compilation of data has not hitherto been done on a regional basis, nor does it have
the continuitv that is essential if significant trends are to be ascertained and sound
planning programmes developed and enforced. However, an excellent report with
this (>l)iect in view entitled, ■■Proi)().sed Lower Mainland Regional Plan", was
recentlv prepared by the Regional Planning Dixisioii '>\ the Provincial I'ureau of
2. Traxsportattox Studiks. Transportation is one of the most vital factors
in the develoi)ment of \'ancouver. Plans for the im])rovement of railways, harbour
facilities and airpoi-ts should be made on a regional basis, A ])revious rei)ort*
has clearh' indicated the necessitx' for the ])lanning of air])orts on a regional .scale.
.\ regional planning agency could make studies and plans looking toward i)ro])er
Dominion and 1 'i-o\incial, as well as local action for the iniproxfnient of all forms
:;. T lI(■.^\\•A^•s. The major through highways in the regional area nuist also
he planned on a regional basis. The locati<Mi of the ])rop(.s(,'d su])erhighway through
*Mutr(iiii]Iitan Airport I'lan.
New Westminster f^r example, may well atTect the location of this route in \ ancou-
ver or in Surrey. A regional ag"enc\- with intimate knowledge of local conditions
would be of great assistance to the l'ro\incial and Donn'nion ( loxernments in the
planning of these highways.
4. Rf.ciox.m, I'akks, Plans should he made for the de\elo|)ment of a complete
system of regional parks, not only to ser\e the local population hut to serve the
great number of tourists coming into \'ancouver. Certainly no other area possesses
comparable potential park sites. Proper location of the regional parks and of the
roads leading to them re(|uires regional planning. This is one of the objectives of
the Metropolitan Park Planning Conunittee, which has done some excellent work in
5. Navigation, Flood Protection and Power. A regional planning agencv
coukl he of great assistance in correlating public and private plans for navigation,
Hood jirotection, and power generation and distribution.
(>. Miscellaneous Pltiilic Services and Facilities. A regional planning
agenc}- could be of great benefit in making region-wide studies of other public
services and facilities such as police and fire protection, water supply, sewage dis-
posal and schools. Such studies might indicate the possibility for cooperative
provision of certain facilities between two or more nnmicipalities.
7. Zoxixo .\xn Srr.nnisiox Co.xtroi, in Unor(;axizei) Areas. In recent
years the sporadic and often hai)hazard development of unorganized lands in the
area has been a matter of serious concern to the Provincial Government. A regional
planning agency should ht given the power to make zoning regulations and control
land subdivision in this region. Such areas could then have a planned development
coordinated with the region as a whole.
8. Encouraoement of Local Planning and Zoning. One of tlie most
important tasks that a regional jilanning agency would have would be to encourage
proper local planning and zoning in all the many municipalities as well as in the
unorganized territory. Many of the plans that would be made bv the regional agencv
would have to be carried out liy the local municipalities. The regional agency
would have to work very closely with each and every one of these and assist them
in their local planning and in maintaining good standards of zoning and subdivision
control. The regional agency could be of great value to these municipalities I)\' the
dissemination of information relating to modern techni(|ues and ])ractices in plan-
1;. Li:(;isl.\tio.\. A regional planning" agency would be a good '"clearinghouse"
for all proposed Dominion and Provincial legislation affecting the ])h\'sical develop-
ment of the area.
WHO SHOULD BE INTERESTED IN A REGIONAL
All persons residing or having business interests in the region sliould certainly
l)e interested in seeing tliat it lias a unified and planned development. Onlv by good
planning can there be assurance of a better place in which to live and work and in
which costs of construction and of annual maintenance charges can be kept to a
mininnmi. Secondly, all the jxilitical subdivisions of the area should be interested in
the de\elopment of a regional planning agency. They should be interested in such
an agency whether each municipality has a Town Plan at present or not. All of
the diiTerent parts of this region are so very closely interrelated that one municipal-
ity could undertake a course of action that might not coordinate fully with the plan
of others. Each should consider the actions and the plans of all. Local plans alone
are not entirely sufficient. The comparatively small cost of a regional plan to any
one political subdivision would be a small price to pay for insurance that the plan
it has developed is the right plan from the regional standpoint and further-
more, that it would not be up-set by some action in another part of the region.
Thirdly, both the Provincial and Dominion povernments should be most interested
in the development of a regional planning agency. Both construct a considerable
number of public works in the region. They should be interested in seeing that these
are coordinated with the planned development of the region and that the\- do not
build at great ex])ense, improvements that may be soon found to be outmoded, inade-
quate or inappropriately located.
About seven or eight years ago a few municipal leaders from this region who
were interested in its welfare, formed an informal group, known as the "Lower
Mainland Regional Planning Committee", for the purpose of discussing regional
planning and ad\'ancing the premise that only by the coordinated effort upon the
part of all the municipalities could the region be efficientlv and logicallv planned.
The need for regional planning was evidenced by the keen interest in the meetings.
As it became apparent that Provincial Government leadership was essential, certain
recommendations to this effect w^ere made. The Government evidently had the prob-
lem in hand as it had already issued a report, to which previous reference has been
made, presenting factual data.
HOW SHOULD THE REGIONAL PLANNING AGENCY BE
There are two alternatives for the organization of a regional planning agencv.
First, an unoflicial corporation could be established, financed by both public or ])ri-
vate subscription. This method has been followed in Chicago and in New \'ork
with notable success. A ])rivate agencv would carry on all the activities listed in the
previous section with the exce])tion, of course, ot the zoning and subdivision control
in the unc^rganized areas. It would have no real power, however, except that of
persuasion, and it would ha\e to work very closely with the various governmental
agencies in order to encourage them to undertake certain |)lans that thev do not
have a i)art in formulating.
The second, and infniitely ])refcral)le, alternative would be to establish an
official regional planning aoency. This would, of course, re(|uire a Provincial
Regional Planning- Act. Such an agency could very properly be given power to
undertake all the activities previously outlined and cimld i)robably also adopt the plan
as the official plan for the region with the re(|uirenient that the jilan be cnnsidered
before ptiblic works are undertaken.
How to organize such an nfticial i)lanning agency is a considerable problem. It
could be composed of a representative from each city, village and district and a
representative from the Provincial Government. Perhaps certain ])arts of the region
should be given representation on more of a population basis. This would create
quite an unwieldly agency composed of probably 25 or 30 persons. This difficulty
could, however, be eliminated to a certain extent b\' ha\'ing an executive committee
or board of directors carrying on most of the activities and then to have the entire
])lanning agency meet only once or twice a year. The executive committee might be
composed of the Provincial representative, the City of \'ancouver representative,
and three others elected bv the entire agency. Any regional planning agency should,
however, have an advisorv board composed of the Dominion and Provincial legis-
lative representatives. This advisorv board should meet at least four times a year
for the piu'pose of reviewing the activities of the regional commission and its execu-
tive, and making appropriate criticisms and suggestions.
The problem of the precise composition, organization and powers of a regional
planning agency is a complicated one, but it is not incapable of solution. The above
is offered only as a suggestion and as a basis for discussion. An official agency is
recommended, however. With an official agency eacJi political subdivision would
feel that it had a part in the regional plan and it is believed that a better continuity
of planning and of planned development would ensue.
HOW SHOULD A REGIONAL PLANNING AGENCY P.E FINANCED?
If an unofficial agenc}- is established it could be financed b}' private or public
subscription or by both. The person or agency subscribing would then be given a
part in the direction of the agencv the same as in a corporation.
The method of financing an official agency is also somewhat complicated and
difficult to determine. It will require a free and frank roundtable discussion among
the representatives of all the interested municipalities and the Provincial Govern-
ment. The latter, on account of its interest in the contiguous unorganized territory
and due to the fact that a regional plan would benefit it in a very large measure,
should be ])repared to contribute to the extent of a substantial share of the cost.
With respect to the balance of the cost, the munici])alities which would benefit the
most from the i)lan should be prepared to pay in proportion to the benefits received,
the factors of jx^ipulation and extent (area) of each municipality also being kept in
Tlie cost could be estimated l)y the engineers of the Government and munici-
palities, due regard being taken of the extent of the work involved which would
include engineering and clerical staff and publication of reports, etc. The Regional
rianning Division of the Provincial Bureau of Reconstruction, as already men-
tioned, has made a compilation of factual data. In order to adequately and prop-
erly utilize this data and to implement this Bureau's work, it will be essential that
some type of organization will have to be set up under the sponsorship of the
Provincial Government which will lia\e representation from the Government and all
the interested municipalities.
In addition to the initial cost, the organization should also keep in mind that
regional planning would be a continuing effort and after the Regional Plan and
Report have been prepared, the organization should be maintained upon an annual