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PECENTRAUZATION and 
RieiONAL PLANNING 





VANCOUVER TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 

DECEMBER, 1946 



Vamcovvim B-C 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

City of Vancouver Archives 



T 



http://www.archive.org/details/decentralizationOOvanc 



A PRELIMINARY' REPORT 

UPON 

DECENTRALIZAIION 

AND 

REGIONAL PLANNING 



VANCOUVER 

TOWN PLANNING 

COMMISSION 

V^ANCOUX'ER, BRITISH COLUMBIA 




VANCOUVER 6.C, 



HARLAN D BARTHOLOMEW AND ASSOCIATES 

Towx Planning Consultants 

Saint Louis, Missouri 

f^'TOBER, 1946 
Price: $0.25 



VANCOUVER CITY COUNCIL 
1946 



Mayor, J. W. Corni;tt 



Aldermen 

John Bennett H. L. Corey R. K. Gervin W. D. Greyell 

Charles Jones George C. Miller Jack Price Charles E. Thompson 



CITY OFFICIALS 

City Engineer ..Charles Braken ridge, m.e.i.c. 

(Retired June, 1946) 

Charles A. Battershill, b.sc, c.e., m.a.s.c.e., 

(August, 1946) 

City Comptroller Frank Jones 

Corporation Counsel D. E. McTaggart, b.a., k.c. 

City Clerk Ronald Thompson 

City Solicitor A. E. Lord, b.a. 

Medical Health Officer S. Stewart Murray, m.d., d.p.h. 

Building Inspector Andrew Haggart 



VANCOUVER TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION 

1946 

Members 

Harry \\ Jackson, Chairman 

John S. Porter, m.r.a.i.c, Vice-Chairman 

Earl M. Bennett, phm.b. Frank E. Buck, b.s.a. F. N. Hamilton 

Joseph Briggs Charles T. Hamilton, b.a.sc, m.e.i.c. J. C. McPherson 

W. R. Owen 

Ex-Officio Members 
Alderman Jack Price Representing Vancouver- City Council 

E. A. Cleveland, ll.d., m.e.i.c Chairman, Vancouver Districts Joint 

Sewerage and Drainage Board 

Mrs. T. J. Rolston Representing Board of Park Commissioners 

Elmore Meredith, b.a Representing Board of School Trustees 

F. \V. G. Sergant Representing \'ancouver Port Authority 

Staff 

J. Alexander Walker, b.a.sc, c.e., m.e.i.c, Executive Engineer 

L.wvrence R. Munroe, b.a.sc, Engineer-Draughtsman 

F. Marjorie Ross, Secretary 



TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANTS 

Harland Bartholomew and Associates 

Harland Bartholomew Russell H. Riley 

Eldridge H. Lovelace 

Resident Engineer 
J. Alexander Walker, b.a.sc, c.e., m.e.i.c 

Staff, Vancouver 
John H. F. Eassie M. Isobel Beveridge 



ZONING BY-LAW BOARD OF APPEAL 
W. Dalton, Chairman R. M. Edgar John Elliott, b.c.l.s. 

Albert J. Harrison, Secretary 



HARLAND BARTHOLOMEW AND ASSOCIATES 

CITY PLANNERS - CIVIL ENGINEERS - LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS 
317 NORTH ELEVENTH STREET 

Sai XT Loris I, ^^lss^^Rl 



September, \<)4(^. 



Tuwu riannin^" Coininissioii, 
\ anoouver, liritish C()hinil)ia. 

Ladies and Gentlenien: 

In accordance with our agreement we are pleased to sul)mit tlie 
following report upon "Decentralization" and "Regional Planning", 
a part of your revised Town •! Man. 

Because of their interrelation these two subjects are included in 
a single report. With the more common u,se of the automobile our 
cities, which were originally small and com])act .settlements, are 
spreading out fni-ther and further into the country. Urban de\'clo])- 
mcnt has now gone far beyond the nuniicipal limits, liowever, 
from the standpoint of i)hvsical develo])nu'nt the entire urban area 
still ])ossesses considerable unity. The various ])arts are interdependent 
and interrelated. To be properly done planning of any part must 
carefully consider the whole and planning of the entire metropolitan 
area would l)ring many achantages to each ])art. 

We wish to gratelnlly acknowledge the cooperation and assistance 
\\e have received from many oflicials and citizens in the ])reparation 
of this ix'port. 

i-Jespect l'ull\- subniittcil, 

ll.VRi.AXI) r..\RTll()L()Mb:W .VXD .\SStK"! .\ TI-.S 

/)'\' ll.\KI..\Xn 1"! AKTIIOLOMIAV. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

DECENTRALIZATION 6 

Population 6 

Industry 7 

Commerce — 7 

Measures to Control Decentralization .- 8 

REGIONAL PLANNING 11 

What Area Should Be Planned? 11 

What Could a Planning; Agency Do? 12 

Who Should Be Interested in a Regional Planning Agency ? 14 

How Should the Regional Planning Agency Be Organized? 14 

How Should a Regional Planning Agency Be Financed? 15 



DECENTRALIZATION 

In tlie Iiorse and bugijy el's, transportation methods were capable of dispersing 
urban population radially for a distance of about two miles. The introduction of 
the electric street car increased this distance to approximately five miles and the 
theoretical area of urbanization from 12.56 square miles to 78.5 square miles. With 
the introduction of rapid transit and the high-speed low-cost automobile, however, 
tlie potential area of urbanization was increased 900 per cent to more than 700 
square miles, the area within a fifteen mile radius. About one-half of the area 
within fifteen miles of the \^ancouver business district is water area or is so moun- 
tainous as to be useless for the usual urban purposes. The corporate area of Van- 
couver is 44 square miles, about one-eighth of the total area susceptible to urbaniz- 
ation. 

POPULATION 

Past trends in population growth in the greater \'ancouver area are shown in 
the following Table: 

Year , 

1 90 1 

191 1 

1921 

I93f 

1941 

While a large percentage of the population of Cheater \'ancouver resides with- 
in the City of Vancouver the percentage is becoming smaller each decade, having 
decreased from 85.9 per cent in 191 1 to /T,.~ per cent in U)4t. However, a more 
significant picture is shown in the following Table: 

I'rrCciil 
I'opulotion Iiirrrasr Population 1 lurcasc Increase in 
Period Greater I'ancoiivcr I'anconver I'aneomer 

1901-191 r 

191 1-192 1 

1 9-' 1-193' 

1931-1941 



Population 


Population 


Per Cent in 


Iter ]'ancouvcr 


City of Vancouver 


Vancouver 


36,296 


29.432 


81. 1 


152,242 


130,847 


85-9 


213,641 


163,220 


76.4 


324.381 


246,588 


76.0 


373.413 


^7>2>SZ 


737 



115,946 


101,415 


87-5 


61,399 


2>^,2>7i 


52.6 


110,940 


83.368 


75-1 


48,832 


28,765 


58.9 


6 







\\'liile three-fourtlis of the new population growth of Greater A'ancouver located 
within the city between 1921 and 193 1, this percentage dropped to 58.9 per cent in 
the period 1931-1941. 

In the Population Report, the probable population of Greater Vancouver in 
1971 was estimated to be 650,000, a growth of 277,000. in order to permit econ- 
omic provision of public services and facilities throughnut its area of 44 sc[uare 
miles, the City of \'ancouver should contain a |)opulati(in of approximately 445,000, 
an average density of 15 persons per acre. In order to attain this population the 
city would have to attract 65 per cent of the new growth of the metropolitan area 
during the next twenty-five years — a larger percentage than was attracted in the 
period 1931-1941. The attainment of this objective is of dominant importance to 
the future economic welbbeing of Wincouver. It should not be sacrificed by care- 
less failure to control sporadic land subdivision. Emphasis of this broader phase 
of planning should take precedence over all other planning actions. 

In comparison with American cities, there is a relatively low ratio of auto- 
mobiles to population in \'ancouver. As economic conditions improve the number 
of cars per unit of population can be expected to materially increase, thus enhanc- 
ing the potentialities for widespread dispersal of the population. 



INDUSTRY 

A large part of the major industrial development of the Greater Vancouver 
area is located adjacent to navigable waters — along Rurrard Inlet and the Fraser 
River. It is probable that large industries in the future will seek similar sites. In 
addition to the land so situated in the City of \'ancouver, sites are, or can be, made 
available in North \'ancouver, Richmond, and in the New Westminster area, the 
latter city having prepared extensive plans for such industrial expansion. 

The City of Vancouver has many available sites for the smaller industries, 
particularly those of a service nature, and because of the superior distribution 
facilities, and because of the concentration of population, it is probable that Van- 
couver will continue to be the site for most of the smaller industries. The larger 
industries, however, can be expected to find various locations throughout the 
metropolitan area. This may well be the cause of the development of outlying 
residential areas, and even of .small satellite towns and settlements. 



COMMERCE 

As tlie population growth of the metropolitan area spreads outwardly, many 
of the commercial uses, (stores, shops, garages, etc.) which serve this population 
can be expected to move outward also. More and more secondary shopping centres 
will be developed. 



A comparison between tlie value of commercial l)uildint;- permits in the central 
business district of Vancouver and in the remainder of the citv area over the past 
ten years is shown in the following Tables: 

Total Commercial Commercial Construction Per Cent in 
Year Construction in in Central Business Central Business 

Vancouver District District 

1936 $ 664400 $ 247j/[) 40.2 

1937 714,705 399.415 55-9 

193S 862,125 455,600 52.8 

1939 977,563 509,575 5-'- 1 

1940 1,296,425 381,350 29.4 

1941 1,285,970 263,050 20.5 

'942 997,170 297,505 29.8 

1943 987.104 458.754 46.5 

1944 : 1,422,560 593.2^5 417 

1945 2,408,525 7^1,905 30-0 

Total $11,616,547 $4,347,779 37.4 

(MoTi;: Does not include repairs and alteraticins under $1,000). 

Thus, C(insideriniL^ the City of \'ancouver alone, somewhat less than two-lifths 
of commercial construction is taking place within the central business district. 
Unfortunately, similar figures are not availalile for the entire metropolitan area. It 
is probable, however, that only about one-fifth of the new commercial building in 
the metropolitan area is taking place in the central business district of \'ancouver. 
Nor are data available showing the comparative volumes of retail trade as 
between tJie Vancouver business district and other retail outlets in the metropolitan 
area. As time goes on and more and more of the new residential growth takes place 
further and further from the business district, it is probable that a decreasing pro- 
IKjrtion of the total retail trade of the metroijolitan area will take place in the central 
business district of \'ancouver. 

MEASURES TO CONTROL DECENTRALIZATION 

The trend toward decentralization that will affect the metropolitan area of 
X'ancouver more and more over the next twenty-five years can be absorbed \\^ith- 
out disruption or it can result in substantial harm dei)ending u])on whether or not 
there is proper control of the ])rocess. If the best results are to l)e i-ealized, li\c 
measures are recpiired, as follows: 

I. Good Living Conditions ml;st ke .M.mxtatnkd in tiik Oldkk Aki;.\s. 
In many older cities, there has been considerable loss of jiopulation in the older 
residential areas adjacent to the business district. To |)ermit such areas to deteri- 
orate into blighted districts and slums bv merely rei)lacing them with the new resi- 
dential areas on the outskirts is not common sen.se. This increa.ses unnecessarily 

8 



the total residential area, re(juires additional public facilities and services such as 
sewers, streets, and schools, with only limited abandonment of facilities already 
installed and largely or wholly paid for in the older districts. 

( )ne is too prone to forget that a cit\- is predominately a residential area. < )ther 
uses such as commerce and industry (iccui)y (inly a minor part of the land area. 
Probably between 60 and 75 per cent of the tax dollar is spent in the residential area. 
At the same time a large proportion of attention is paid to the commercial and 
industrial rather than to the residential development of the community. Rec|uests 
for changes in the Zoning By-law are usually for more intensive and widespread 
commercial and industrial tle\-elopment, and seldom to provide better protecti(^n for 
the residential areas, thus the largest, most expensive, and most important part of 
the city, the residential part, gradually becomes the most neglected. 

Fortunately, \'ancouver does not now possess extensive slums and blighted 
areas. There are a few areas (slums) that .should be rebuilt, and some larger 
areas that need rehabilitation to which the city should give early attention. The Do- 
minion Government is developing programmes that will be of great assistance in con- 
nection with these undertakings. 

Of more importance, however, is the maintenance of good living conditions 
in the residential areas that are now in good condition. This will re(iuire ( i) form- 
ation of local neighborhood organizations throughout the city. (2) strict and 
impartial enforcement of the Zoning By-law, (3) a thorough programme for the 
planting and care of street trees, (4) continued efficient collection of garbage and 
trash, (5) planning and good maintenance of streets and lanes, and (6) continued 
development and maintenance of good local park and school areas. 

2. There must he .strict control o\'er .\ll xew sl r.i)i\isio.\s in the 
METROPOLITAN ARE.\. A far greater area has been subdivided in the \'ancouver 
metropolitan district than is needed for residential purposes. Square miles of 
plotted territory vacant except for a solitary house or two can be found in the 
southwestern portions of the city, in North \'ancouver and in Burnaby. These con- 
sist of poorly designed plats unrelated to tc^pography and often unimpro\ed except 
for a substandard surfacing on the street. The cost of providing even the mini- 
mum public services and facilities in these areas is far more than the area can 
ever pay — even if developed to ten times the present density. In fact, it is doubtful 
if the future pojnilation growth will be sufficient to utilize more than a small part 
of these areas. They are a good example of the harm that can result trom uncon- 
trolled decentralization. 

In the future no new subdivision should be permitted unless adetjuate facilities 
for water supply and sewage disposal and a minitnum standard street paving is first 
installed. Such a practice is followed in suburban areas of many American cities. 
It stops subdividing for speculative purjjoses only, insures a satisfactory location 
for new subdivisions, and a pro])er standard for new subdivision development. 



Many of the poorly i)latted subdivisiions which are jiresently vacant should be 
redeveloped under "Replotting", Part II, of the Town Planning Act. This might 
well he made the subject of a special study. 

3. Industrial Development should in-: stli)ii;i) axd i'K(»m()ted on a metro- 
politan BASIS. Much of the future growth of the X'ancouver metropolitan area 
will be dependent upon industrial development. The different parts of the area 
should not compete for new industries. Rather, there should be a strong citizens' 
organization to promote new industries for the entire area. Such an organization 
could encourage use of those industrial sites that are best related to highway and 
transit facilities, to existing utilities, and to the existing residential areas. 

4. The Central Business District must be accessible, convenient, 
ATTRACTIVE, AND INVITING. This subject is discussed at greater length in previous 
reports. The metropolitan area must have a centre and the only logical centre is 
the present A'ancouver business district. It is important to the metropolitan area, 
and particularly because of the tourist trade, that this centre not be allowed to dis- 
integrate into a number of scattered subcentres, no one of which could possibly 
contain the centralized institutions that should be found in one location. 

Measures to imjM-ove accessibility by means nf highway and transit imi)rove- 
ments have been outlined in previous parts of the Town Plan, as have proposals to 
increase convenience by means of the improvement in facilities for parking of cars. 
The downtown area should be the location for the great majority of new central- 
ized institutions both public and ])rivate. Auditoriums, main libraries, museums — 
all uses of interest to the entire metropolitan area — should have a downtown location. 
The commercial sub-centres can then perform their normal lunction of service to 
their tributary areas, and the business district will continue to contain the high 
property values so essential to the welfare of the city. 

5. The entire metropolitan area should have a planned development. 
The metropolitan area fre(|uently referred to as Greater \'ancou\'er is gradually 
becoming one great community with contiguous de\'elopment. Transportation, the 
larger recreational areas, water supply, sewage dis])osal, and certain other services 
are problems of a nature requiring a unified effort. It is essential that these be 
planned on a metro])olitan or unified basis as the area continues to grow in total 
population and in commercial and industrial signilicance. 



10 



LOWER F BASER RIVER VALLEY 



LEGEND 

PAILWAY 

HIGHWAY 

MUNICIPAL DISTRICT BOUNDARY 




REGIONAL PLANNING 

The previous part of this report has indicated some of the reasons whv 
regional planning is necessary in the \'ancouver area. Under our present process 
of city building the urban growth of Vancouver has gone far beyond the corporate 
limits of the City of \''ancouver. Nevertheless it is still a unified development. The 
natural unity of the metropolitan area is in great contrast with the complexity of 
local government, the natural area being split up by the arbitrar}- limits of many 
individual cities, villages and districts. Each of these municipalities, however, must 
recognize and accept the essential unity of the region in wiiich they are located. It 
seems almost obvious that in order to do good planning in any of these individual 
communities, such planning must be related to the entire region and further that 
only as we plan the entire area as a unit can the communit-'- attain its highest econ- 
omic and social usefulness and value. 

WHAT AREA SHOULD BE PLANNED? 

A "region" is generally considered to be an area that is inherentlv unified in 
one or more certain important asjjects. It is, of course, difficult to place an exact 
boundary for a metropolitan region. The boundaries should, however, conform 
wherever possible with those natural topographical features that are the real limits 
to the activities of the metropolitan area. In \"ancouver, it is apparent that the 
boundaries of the regional area are related to the valley of the Lower Eraser River. 
(See accoinpauyiiig Plate). 

Eor the purpose of this report it is suggested that the lower mainland of British 
Columbia, that is, the entire Eraser River A^alley, from the Strait of Georgia to as 
far east as Hope, should be planned as a regional unit. The Plate shows a map of 
this regional area and indicates the various cities, districts and villages which it con- 
tains. The international boundary line would, of course, be the south boundary of 
the region. The western boundary would extend along the shore line from Point 
Roberts to the north boundary of West X'ancouver. From this point to a point 
opposite Hoi)e the boundary would follow the height of the land — the mountain 
ridge — along the north side of the Eraser River. Similarly the mountain ridge 
south of Chilliwack from the international boundary to a point opposite Hope would 
form the easterly ])ortion of the south boundary. 

This area covers approximately i,8oo square miles, about one-thirtl of which 
is mountainous. It contains some 23 separate municipalities and approximately one- 
half of the population of British Columbia. As can be seen on the Plate the eastern 
part of this region is a considerable distance from Vancouver. While it is probable 
that the great part of the urban development of the region will lie concentrated 
within twenty or twenty-five miles of the A'ancouver business district, the remain- 

11 



ing part of the region up-stream is such an integral part of the area from the topo- 
graphic standpoint that it seems only logical to include the entire lower river valley. 

This great natural river hasin containing Canada's largest city on the Pacific 
Coast should have a unified, sound and planned development. 

WHAT COULD A PLANNING AGENC^" DO? 

Before considering the composition or the organization of a planning agency 
for this region it is well to briefly analyse what a planning agency could do. 

The activities of such an agency should largely he concentrated on the Idllow- 
ing nine items: 

1. Factual Studies. A planning agency should make factual studies of 
economic conditions and of population growth and location within the entire region. 
Studies should be made of local development of agricultural, commercial and 
industrial enterprises and the available natural resources that might attract new 
enterprises. This data should be collected, compiled and pul)lished in such form 
that it can be distributed within and beyond the region. 

Much of our ditticulty in the development of all connnunities has been the 
lack of .information about them to use as a guide for both public and private 
enterprises. Factual data about topography, soil, land use and population in the 
entire area would, for example, be of great importance to persons desiring to locate 
new commercial and industrial concerns. This information would also be of vital 
interest to industries considering the region as a possible location, to pros])ective 
residents, honie seekers and to tourists. While certain of this type of work is done 
at the present time by ]irivate individuals and organizations, sucli collection and 
compilation of data has not hitherto been done on a regional basis, nor does it have 
the continuitv that is essential if significant trends are to be ascertained and sound 
planning programmes developed and enforced. However, an excellent report with 
this (>l)iect in view entitled, ■■Proi)().sed Lower Mainland Regional Plan", was 
recentlv prepared by the Regional Planning Dixisioii '>\ the Provincial I'ureau of 
Reconstruction. 

2. Traxsportattox Studiks. Transportation is one of the most vital factors 
in the develoi)ment of \'ancouver. Plans for the im])rovement of railways, harbour 
facilities and airpoi-ts should be made on a regional basis, A ])revious rei)ort* 
has clearh' indicated the necessitx' for the ])lanning of air])orts on a regional .scale. 
.\ regional planning agency could make studies and plans looking toward i)ro])er 
Dominion and 1 'i-o\incial, as well as local action for the iniproxfnient of all forms 
of irans])ortation. 

:;. T lI(■.^\\•A^•s. The major through highways in the regional area nuist also 
he planned on a regional basis. The locati<Mi of the ])rop(.s(,'d su])erhighway through 

*Mutr(iiii]Iitan Airport I'lan. 

12 



New Westminster f^r example, may well atTect the location of this route in \ ancou- 
ver or in Surrey. A regional ag"enc\- with intimate knowledge of local conditions 
would be of great assistance to the l'ro\incial and Donn'nion ( loxernments in the 
planning of these highways. 



4. Rf.ciox.m, I'akks, Plans should he made for the de\elo|)ment of a complete 
system of regional parks, not only to ser\e the local population hut to serve the 
great number of tourists coming into \'ancouver. Certainly no other area possesses 
comparable potential park sites. Proper location of the regional parks and of the 
roads leading to them re(|uires regional planning. This is one of the objectives of 
the Metropolitan Park Planning Conunittee, which has done some excellent work in 
its field. 

5. Navigation, Flood Protection and Power. A regional planning agencv 
coukl he of great assistance in correlating public and private plans for navigation, 
Hood jirotection, and power generation and distribution. 

(>. Miscellaneous Pltiilic Services and Facilities. A regional planning 
agenc}- could be of great benefit in making region-wide studies of other public 
services and facilities such as police and fire protection, water supply, sewage dis- 
posal and schools. Such studies might indicate the possibility for cooperative 
provision of certain facilities between two or more nnmicipalities. 

7. Zoxixo .\xn Srr.nnisiox Co.xtroi, in Unor(;axizei) Areas. In recent 
years the sporadic and often hai)hazard development of unorganized lands in the 
area has been a matter of serious concern to the Provincial Government. A regional 
planning agency should ht given the power to make zoning regulations and control 
land subdivision in this region. Such areas could then have a planned development 
coordinated with the region as a whole. 

8. Encouraoement of Local Planning and Zoning. One of tlie most 
important tasks that a regional jilanning agency would have would be to encourage 
proper local planning and zoning in all the many municipalities as well as in the 
unorganized territory. Many of the plans that would be made bv the regional agencv 
would have to be carried out liy the local municipalities. The regional agency 
would have to work very closely with each and every one of these and assist them 
in their local planning and in maintaining good standards of zoning and subdivision 
control. The regional agency could be of great value to these municipalities I)\' the 
dissemination of information relating to modern techni(|ues and ])ractices in plan- 



1;. Li:(;isl.\tio.\. A regional planning" agency would be a good '"clearinghouse" 
for all proposed Dominion and Provincial legislation affecting the ])h\'sical develop- 
ment of the area. 

13 



s 



WHO SHOULD BE INTERESTED IN A REGIONAL 
PLANNING AGENCY? 

All persons residing or having business interests in the region sliould certainly 
l)e interested in seeing tliat it lias a unified and planned development. Onlv by good 
planning can there be assurance of a better place in which to live and work and in 
which costs of construction and of annual maintenance charges can be kept to a 
mininnmi. Secondly, all the jxilitical subdivisions of the area should be interested in 
the de\elopment of a regional planning agency. They should be interested in such 
an agency whether each municipality has a Town Plan at present or not. All of 
the diiTerent parts of this region are so very closely interrelated that one municipal- 
ity could undertake a course of action that might not coordinate fully with the plan 
of others. Each should consider the actions and the plans of all. Local plans alone 
are not entirely sufficient. The comparatively small cost of a regional plan to any 
one political subdivision would be a small price to pay for insurance that the plan 
it has developed is the right plan from the regional standpoint and further- 
more, that it would not be up-set by some action in another part of the region. 
Thirdly, both the Provincial and Dominion povernments should be most interested 
in the development of a regional planning agency. Both construct a considerable 
number of public works in the region. They should be interested in seeing that these 
are coordinated with the planned development of the region and that the\- do not 
build at great ex])ense, improvements that may be soon found to be outmoded, inade- 
quate or inappropriately located. 

About seven or eight years ago a few municipal leaders from this region who 
were interested in its welfare, formed an informal group, known as the "Lower 
Mainland Regional Planning Committee", for the purpose of discussing regional 
planning and ad\'ancing the premise that only by the coordinated effort upon the 
part of all the municipalities could the region be efficientlv and logicallv planned. 
The need for regional planning was evidenced by the keen interest in the meetings. 
As it became apparent that Provincial Government leadership was essential, certain 
recommendations to this effect w^ere made. The Government evidently had the prob- 
lem in hand as it had already issued a report, to which previous reference has been 
made, presenting factual data. 

HOW SHOULD THE REGIONAL PLANNING AGENCY BE 
ORGANIZED? 

There are two alternatives for the organization of a regional planning agencv. 
First, an unoflicial corporation could be established, financed by both public or ])ri- 
vate subscription. This method has been followed in Chicago and in New \'ork 
with notable success. A ])rivate agencv would carry on all the activities listed in the 
previous section with the exce])tion, of course, ot the zoning and subdivision control 
in the unc^rganized areas. It would have no real power, however, except that of 
persuasion, and it would ha\e to work very closely with the various governmental 
agencies in order to encourage them to undertake certain |)lans that thev do not 
have a i)art in formulating. 

14 



The second, and infniitely ])refcral)le, alternative would be to establish an 
official regional planning aoency. This would, of course, re(|uire a Provincial 
Regional Planning- Act. Such an agency could very properly be given power to 
undertake all the activities previously outlined and cimld i)robably also adopt the plan 
as the official plan for the region with the re(|uirenient that the jilan be cnnsidered 
before ptiblic works are undertaken. 

How to organize such an nfticial i)lanning agency is a considerable problem. It 
could be composed of a representative from each city, village and district and a 
representative from the Provincial Government. Perhaps certain ])arts of the region 
should be given representation on more of a population basis. This would create 
quite an unwieldly agency composed of probably 25 or 30 persons. This difficulty 
could, however, be eliminated to a certain extent b\' ha\'ing an executive committee 
or board of directors carrying on most of the activities and then to have the entire 
])lanning agency meet only once or twice a year. The executive committee might be 
composed of the Provincial representative, the City of \'ancouver representative, 
and three others elected bv the entire agency. Any regional planning agency should, 
however, have an advisorv board composed of the Dominion and Provincial legis- 
lative representatives. This advisorv board should meet at least four times a year 
for the piu'pose of reviewing the activities of the regional commission and its execu- 
tive, and making appropriate criticisms and suggestions. 

The problem of the precise composition, organization and powers of a regional 
planning agency is a complicated one, but it is not incapable of solution. The above 
is offered only as a suggestion and as a basis for discussion. An official agency is 
recommended, however. With an official agency eacJi political subdivision would 
feel that it had a part in the regional plan and it is believed that a better continuity 
of planning and of planned development would ensue. 



HOW SHOULD A REGIONAL PLANNING AGENCY P.E FINANCED? 

If an unofficial agenc}- is established it could be financed b}' private or public 
subscription or by both. The person or agency subscribing would then be given a 
part in the direction of the agencv the same as in a corporation. 

The method of financing an official agency is also somewhat complicated and 
difficult to determine. It will require a free and frank roundtable discussion among 
the representatives of all the interested municipalities and the Provincial Govern- 
ment. The latter, on account of its interest in the contiguous unorganized territory 
and due to the fact that a regional plan would benefit it in a very large measure, 
should be ])repared to contribute to the extent of a substantial share of the cost. 
With respect to the balance of the cost, the munici])alities which would benefit the 
most from the i)lan should be prepared to pay in proportion to the benefits received, 
the factors of jx^ipulation and extent (area) of each municipality also being kept in 
mind. 

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Tlie cost could be estimated l)y the engineers of the Government and munici- 
palities, due regard being taken of the extent of the work involved which would 
include engineering and clerical staff and publication of reports, etc. The Regional 
rianning Division of the Provincial Bureau of Reconstruction, as already men- 
tioned, has made a compilation of factual data. In order to adequately and prop- 
erly utilize this data and to implement this Bureau's work, it will be essential that 
some type of organization will have to be set up under the sponsorship of the 
Provincial Government which will lia\e representation from the Government and all 
the interested municipalities. 

In addition to the initial cost, the organization should also keep in mind that 
regional planning would be a continuing effort and after the Regional Plan and 
Report have been prepared, the organization should be maintained upon an annual 
budget arrangement. 



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