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TIIUBNEE’S COLLECTION 

OP 

SIMPLIFIED GRAMMARS 

OF THE PRINCIPAL 

ASIATIC AND EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. 

EDITEO BY 

REINHOLD ROST, LL.D., Ph.D. 


XI. 

POLISH. 

BY W. R. MORFILE, M.A. 



TRUBNER’S COLLECTION OF SIMPLIFIED GRAMMARS OF THE 
PRINCIPAL ASIATIC AND EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. 

EDITED BY RE1NHOLD ROST, LL.D., Ph.D. 


I. 

HINDUSTANI, PERSIAN, 
AND ARABIC. 

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II. 

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III. 

BASQUE. 

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Price 3s. 6d. 

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Price 5s. 

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X. 

SWEDISH. 

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XI. 

POLISH. 

By W. R. Moreill, M.A. 
Price 3s. 6 d. 


Grammars of the following are in preparation :— 
Albanese, Anglo-Saxon, Assyrian, Bohemian, Bulgarian, Burmese 
Chinese, Cymric and Gaelic, Dutch, Egyptian, Finnish, Hebrew 
Khassi, Kurdish, Malay, Pali, Russian, Sanskrit, Serbian, Siamese 
Singhalese, &c., &c., &c. 

Bonbon: TRUBNER & CO., Ludgate Hill. 



A 


SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

POLISH LANGUAGE. 

50114 


W. R. MORFILL, M.A. 


LONDON: 

TEUBNEE & CO., LUDGATE HILL. 
1884. 

[All rights reserved,] 



^ LONDON. 

oii.BKiiT 'an1>JIrvington, iimitrd, 

ST. JOllN’s’^ff^tiE, CLEtKERWELL ROAD. 





00050114 



CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER I. 

I'AG E 

Phonology.— The Polish Alphabet .... 1 

CHAPTER II. 


The Doctrine of Forms.5 

Nouns ........ 5 

Adjectives . . . . . . . . 12 

Numerals . . . . . . . . 15 

Pronouns . . . . . . . . 19 

Verbs.22 

Conjugation of Auxiliary Verbs . . . . 29 

B/jc, 1 to be.’ ....... 29 

J\liec, ‘ to have.’ ....... 32 

Conjugation of Regular Verbs 30 

First Conjugation . . . . . . . 30 

Second Conjugation ...... 39 

Verbs ending in qii • . . . ■ ■ 41 

Verbs ending in ec, lie . . . ... 42 

Third Conjugation .... . . 45 

Fourth Conjugation ... ... 47 

Passive Voice .... ... 49 







VI 


COSTENTS. 


PAGE 

Prepositions .51 

Adverbs: —Primary, Derived, and Compounded . . 53 

Of Time, Place, and Manner . . . 54 

Interrogative and Affirmative ... 54 

Conjunctions .. . . 55 


CHAPTER III. 

Syntax :—Cases of Nouns. 56 

Adjectives.58 

Pronouns and Verbs ; 59 

Arrangement of Words in a Sentence . . 60 




PREFACE. 


The following short Grammar is the first attempt of 
the kind in English. It is to be hoped that it may 
be instrumental in furthering the study of Polish, a 
noble language, which is still spoken by about ten millions 
of people. I have consulted with advantage previous 
works on the subject, written in Polish, German and 
French. I have found the “ Comparative Grammar ” of 
Miklosich, the “ IIistorico-Comparative Grammar ” of 
Malecki (2 vols., Lemberg, 1879), and the works of Orda 
(Paris, 1856) and Rykaczewski (Berlin, 1861) very useful. 
Following the plan of the “ Simplified Grammars,” I have 
only given an outline of the language, but this outline will 
be found to contain all the chief rules, which I have 
endeavoured to make as plain as possible. The student 
of comparative philology will thus be able to form a 
correct idea of the structure of the language, and it may 
serve as a rudimentary handbook to any one who is anxious 
to read the works of such authors as Mickiewicz and 
Krasinski in the original. 


Oxford. 


W. R. MORFILL. 




ERRATA. 


Page 28, line 10, after future anterior add perfect. 
Page 32, line 9, for perfect read-aorist. 

Page 62, line 18, for linen read cloth. 



POLISH GBAMMAB. 


CHAPTER I. 

Phonology. 


The Polish Alphabet is as follows :— 
A, pronounced as in Italian. 


B, 

C, 

D, 
L 
P, 

G, 

H, 

I, 

J, 
k; 
h 


)} 


as in English, 
as ts, 

as in English, 
as in Italian, 
as in English.* 

as in English, but always hard. 

as in English. 

as in Italian. 

as English y. 

as in English. 

as in English. 

as a very strong l, the pronunciation 
of which can only be learned from a 
native. It is produced by forcing 
the end of the tongue against the 
' teeth. 


* This letter is never found in any really Slavonic word in its ori¬ 
ginal state. When used it is either in a word derived from a foreign 
language or arises from some phonetic corruption. (See Malecki, i. 72.) 



2 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


as in English. 

somewhat stronger than the English. 

as in English. 

as on in French, 
as v. 

Y, a sound peculiar to the Slavonic languages, ex¬ 

pressed in Russian by bi. It is a kind of guttural 
e, the pronunciation of which can only be learned 
from a native, and something like the German ii. 

Z, pronounced as in English. 

To these must be added the following letters with 
diacritical marks and in combinations :— 

<! is the French on, but a little weaker. 

§ is the French in. 
e pronounced as in French. 

6 is equivalent to oo or ou (French), 
cz is the English ch in ‘ church/ 
dz'is equivalent to dzh, which corresponds to the 
English /. 

ch has the guttural sound of the German ch in ‘machen/ 
rz and z correspond to the French / in ‘jour/ 
sz corresponds to the English sk. 

We sometimes find the uncouth combination szcz, as 
szczegolny, ‘ special/ The pronunciation of the first four 
letters may be compared with that of those italicized in the 
English expression sma $ht ch ina. 


m, 

N, 

O, 

P, 
E, 
S, 
T 
U, 
w, 


pronounce 





PHONOLOGY. 


3 


b\ m\ p, w\ — Originally these letters were thus 
marked when at the end of words, and although the marks 
are no longer employed, we must remember that the 
letters have always a softened sound when in that position. 
The same rule applies to the letters c, di, n, s, £, which, 
however, are still used thus marked. The pronunciation 
can only be learned from a native; in fact, as regards 
phonological subtleties, Polish is one of the most remarkable 
languages of Europe. 

The accent is on the penultimate, except in some 
compound words. Syllables at the end of words, as ze, li, 
by and to (frequently added to strengthen the pronouns), 
do not affect the word, which is then of course accented 
on the antepenult, as jahoby. 

1 The sounds of the Polish language may be grouped as 
hard and soft. I have placed opposite to the hard sounds. 
those into which they are changed in the various modifica¬ 
tions of words by declension, conjugation, &c. 


.HABD. 

80FT. 

HABD. 

SOFT. 

b 

V 

m 

m 7 

d 

dz’ 

n 

n 7 

f 


P 

P’ 

S 

z, dz 

r 

rz 

h 


s 

s 

ch 

sz, . 

t 

c, c 


j 

w 

w 7 

k 

c, cz 

X 


1 

1 

z 

z 

• 



4 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


The consonant's cl, l, r, t, ch are changed into dz, l, rz, c, 
sz when they are followed by e or i. g and k can admit i 
after them, but never e, e, y: in the latter case there must 
be interposed an i before the e. 

The vowels a, o, 6 in declension and conjugation are 
frequently changed into e. Jfor example, hialy, ‘white/ 
lieli, nom. plur.; niosl, 1 he carried,’ nksli, ‘ they carried.’ 

The vowel e becomes accented e when placed before the 
consonants b, dz, g, j, r, rz. 0 is accented when it is fol¬ 
lowed by l, d, g, n, z, z, and some other letters, as nuz, ‘ a 
knife f but in inflexion the accent is lost, as noza, ‘ of a 
knife.’ 

The vowel q is changed into g — 

(1) When a substantive is turned into an adjective by 
the addition of ny or y ; e.g., mosiqdz, ‘brass,’ mosigzny, 
‘ brazen;’ miesiqc, ‘ a month,’ miesigczny, ‘ monthly.’ 

(2) In adjectives of two syllables before the termination 
sz ; e. g., sfcqpy, ‘ avaricious,’ skgpszy, * more avaricious.’ 

(3) In the inflection of words when other syllables are 
added to the stem, as rzad, ‘ rank,’ rzgdn, ‘ of a rank.’ 
This is by a law, by which in inflection the vowel of the 
stem is weakened. 

The vowel g is changed into q when the consonant after 
jt becomes final by the next syllable being cut off ; as, ggba, 
‘the mouth,’ gql, ‘of the mouths.’ In forming diminutives 
by the addition of ka to the stem, the letters 6, s are 
changed’into t, s and the vowel g into q; as, ggs, ‘ the 



NOUNS. 


5 


goose,’ gqsho, ‘the gosling.’ The vowels <?, o, 6 are changed 
into a in the formation of frequentative verbs; as jesc, 1 to 
eat;’ jadac, ‘ to eat often.’ When the letter e is omitted 
from a syllable, the soft consonant which preceded it is 
changed into a hard one, as dzien, ‘ the day,’ dnia, ‘ of the 
day.’ 


CHAPTER II. 

The Doctrine of Forms. 

The Polish language has the same parts of speech as 
others, with the exception of the Article, which is wanting 
in all Slavonic languages, except Lusatian-Wendish and 
Bulgarian, where it has been introduced by foreign influ¬ 
ences. 

NOUNS. 

There are three genders in Polish—masculine, feminine, 
and neuter. Polish nouns have seven cases—the nomina¬ 
tive, the genitive, the dative, the accusative, the vocative, 
the instrumental and the locative. 

There are three declensions, which may be arranged 
according to the genders: the first, masculine; the second, 
feminine ; and the third, neuter. 

First Declension. 

Most nouns which terminate in a hard consonant are 



6 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


masculine, and diminutives of substantives relating to men 
and ending in 0 . Also most nouns ending in one of the 
soft consonants, c,j, l, n, s. 


Example 1 :— Mop, ‘ the peasant.’ 


Singular. 

N. chlop 
G. chlopa 
D. chlopowi 
A. chlopa 
V. ehlopie 
I. chlopem 
L. chlopu (ie) 


Plural. 

chlopowie (pi). 

ehlopow. 

chlopom. 

ehlopow. 

chlopowie. 

chlopami. 

chlopach. 


Note that in the case of inanimate things, the genitive 
singular ends in u, and the nominative and accusative are 
the same both in the singular and the plural. 


Example 2 :— zolnierz, 


Singular. 

N, zolnierz 
G. zolnierza 
D. zolnierzowi 
A. zolnierza 
Y. zolnierzu 
I. zolnierzem 
L. zolnierzu. 


the soldier.’ 

Plural. 

zolnierze. 

zolnierzy. 

zolnierzom. 

zolnierzy. 

zolnierze. 

zolnierzami. 

zolnierzaeh. 



NOUNS. 


7 


Example 3 

— kon, ‘the horse/ 

Singular. 

Plural. 

N. kon 

konie. 

G. konia 

koni (ow). 

D. koniowi 

koniom. 

A. konia 

konie. 

V. koniu 

konie- 

I. koniem 

koniami (konmi). 

L. koniu 

w koniach. 

Among peculiar forme belonging to this declension may 

be mentioned the noun 

Bog , ‘ God/ which makes the 

dative Bogu, instead of Bogowi, and also the vocative Bo&e; 
czlowiek, ‘ man/ has in the vocative both czlomieku and 

czlowiecze; xiqdz, ‘priest/ 

has the genitive xi$ze. 

Second Declension. 

Feminine substantives are those ending in the vowels a 
(except a few implying the offices of men) and i, and most 
of the substantives ending in one of the soft consonants c. 

d£, sc* z, z. 


Example 1:- 

-paniy 4 the lady/ 

Singular. 

Plural . 

N. pani 

panie. 

G. pani 

pan. 

D. pani 

paniom. 

A. panuj. 

panie. 

V. pani 

panie. 

I. panig. 

paniami. 

L. pani 

paniach. 



8 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


Example 2 :— praca, ‘ labour/ 


Singular. 

N. praca 
G. praey 
D. praey 
A. pracg 
V. praco 
I. praeq, 

L. praey 

Example 3 :■ 
Singular. 

N: zona 
G. zony 
D. zonje 
A- zong 
V. zono 

I. ZOIUj, 

L. zonie 

Example 4 

Singular. 

N. czgsc 
G. czgsci 
D. czgsci 
A. czgsc 
Y. czgsci 
I. czgsci^ 

L czgsci 


Plural. 

prace. 

prae. 

pracom. 

prace. 

prace. 

pracami. 

praeach. 

-zona^ ‘ the wife. 

Plural 

zony. 

zt>n. 

zonom. 

zony. 

zony. 

zonami. 

zOnacli. 

czgsc, ‘ the part. 1 

Plural 

czgsci. 

czgsci. 

:zesciom 

czgsci. 

czgsci. 

ezgsciam 

ezgsciacl 



NOUNS. 


9 


Third Declension. 

Neuter Substantives. 

To this declension belong all the neuter substantives 
ending in e, q, o. These neuter nouns differ from mas¬ 
culines, with the same termination ; in the neuters the 
nominative, accusative and vocative are the same in both 
numbers: in the plural these cases end in a. 

Example 1:— pole, ‘ the field.’ 

Singular. Plural. 


N. pole 

pola. 

G. pola 

pol. 

D. polu 

polom. 

A. pole 

pola. 

Y. pole 

pola. 

I. polem 

polami. 

L. polu 

polach. 


Example 2 :— cielq, ‘ the calf.’ 
Singular. Plural. 


N. ciel§ 

cielfha. 

G. ciel^cia 

cieli|t. 

D. cieltjciu 

eielfjtom. 

A. ciel§ 

cieleta. 

Y. ciel§ 

cielgta. 

I. ciel^ciom 

ciel§tami. 

L. cieleciu 

ciel^tach. 



10 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


Example 3 :— imie. 


Singular. 

N. imie 
G. imienia 
D. imieniu 
A. imie 
V. imie 
I. imieniem 
L. imieniu 


the name.’ 

Plural. 

imiona. 

imion. 

imionom. 

imiona. 

imiona. 

imionami. 

imionach. 


To this declension belong the verbal substantives in ie, 
but, as a rule, they are only used in the singular. 

Many other substantives are also used only in the sin¬ 
gular, especially when a collective idea is implied; as, zyto, 
‘barley jazda, ‘cavalry/ dziatwa, ‘children.’ Others 
are only used in the plural; as, chrzciny , ‘baptism;’ lowy, 
‘ hunting.’ Substantives can also be modified into diminu¬ 
tives and augmentatives; as, hrowlca , ‘ a little co\y;’ mies- 
cisko,‘a, great ugly town/ In some substantives in the 
last syllable in the locative a and o are changed into e, as 
gniazdo, ‘ the nest,’ w gniezdie; siodlo , ‘ the saddle,’ w 
siedle; jezioro, ‘ the lake,’ w jezierze j zelazo, 1 the iron,’ 
w zelazie. 

The following substantives are also irregular:— oko, ‘the 
eye uc/io, ‘ the ear,’ in the plural; Maze, * prince,’ is 
irregular in the singular—in the plural it is declined like 
cielgta , ‘calves,’ 




NOUNS. 


11 


In the plurals of oho ‘the eye’ and ucho ‘the ear’ we 
find dual forms mixed up with the others. 


Oho, ‘ the eye/ 
Plural. 


N. oczy 
G. oezu 

D. oczom {dual, oczyma) 
A. oczy 


Y. oczy 

I. oczami {dual, oczyma) 
It. w oezaeh. 


Ucho, ‘ the ear/ 
Plural. 


N. uszy 
G. uszu 

D. uszom {dual, uszyma) 
A. uszy 


V. uszy • 

I. uszami {dual, uszyma) 
L. uszach. 


Niebo, ‘ the sky/ has for the nominative plural niebiosa, 
and for the locative w niebiosach or w niebiesiech, ‘ in the 
skies/ 

Ziele, ‘ a herb/ formerly ziolo, changes in all the cases of 
the plural el into ol: n. ziola, ‘ herbs,’ g. ziol, d. ziolom, &c. 

There was also in the old Polish language a dual of the 
verbs, as is still found in Slovenish and Lusatian-Wendish, 
but it is now obsolete. 

Diminutives are formed in Polish in the following 
manner :—The final letter of the stem is changed, c into cz, 
ch into S3, g into z, h into cz, t into c ; thus, ulica, ‘ a street/ 



12 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


uliczha, 1 a little street;’ brat, ‘ a brother/ IraoiszeJc, ‘ a little 
brother.’ Diminutives .derived from monosyllables end for 
the most part in ik, as hon, ‘ a horse/ JconiJc; 1 stol, ‘ a table/ 
stolik; Sometimes in ylc, as stolarczyk , ‘a journeyman car¬ 
penter/ szewczyk, ‘a journeyman shoemaker.’ Sometimes 
the vowels are changed, as rqka, * a hand/ rqczha, ‘ a little 
hand.’ Another diminutive form is yna or in a, as psina, 
‘ poor little dog/ expressing ‘ amoris quandam fatuitatem/ 
as the old grammarians used to say. Here also may 
he mentioned the termination -arnia, to express the place 
at which a trade is carried on, as drukarnia, ‘ a printing- 
office / Jcawiarnia , ‘ a coffee-house.’ 

ADJECTIVES. 

The Polish adjective has the same number of cases as 
the noun, and its inflections vary according to the three 
genders. In the nominative masculine it ends in y or i, 
in the feminine in a, in the neuter in e. 

Example : dobry, * good/ 


Singular. 


Masculine. 

Feminine. 

Neuter. 

N. dobry 

dobra 

dobre 

G. dobrego 

dobrej 

dobrego 

D. dobremu 

dobrej 

dobremu 

A. dobrego 

dobrq 

dobre 

V. dobry 

dobra 

dobre 

I. dobrym 

dobrq 

dobrem 

L. dobrem. 

dobrej. 

dobrem. 



ADJECTIVES. 


13 


Plural. 

N. dobrzy dobre dobre 

G. dobrych dobrycb dobrych 

D. dobrym dobrym dobrym 

A. dobrych dobre dobre 

Y. dobrzy dobre dobre 

I. dobrymi dobremi dobremi 

L. dobrych. dobrych. dobrych. 

There are, however, certain adjectives which end in a con¬ 
sonant in the masculine, and o in the neuter, such as 
rad, ‘pleased,’ rada, rado; 

sam, * alone,’ sama, samo; 


wszystek, ‘ all,’ mzystka, wszystko. 

Sometimes the adjective assumes an apocopated form as 
in Russian, especially when it is used as a predicate, as 

Jeon laskawy, ‘ a quiet horse.’ 

kroljest laskaw na mnie, ‘the king is favourable to me.’ 

Maleeki and Miklosich have shown that the termina¬ 
tion of the adjectives -y, -a, -e really are demonstrative 
pronouns. (Maleeki, i. 235.) So also pokarm zdrowy, 
‘ healthy food j’ moj ojeiee zdrow, ‘ my father is healthy.’ 

Adjectives like rad, sam and wszysiek are really in their 
original form, and have not had the suffix added to them. 

, Terminations of Adjectives. 

The following terminations of adjectives are deserving 
of notice. Many are of necessity omitted, from want of 
space. 



14 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


(1) -any, -ny, -oioy, indicate the material of which a tiling' 
is made, as miedziany, ‘ made of copper/ kamienny, ‘ made 
of stone.’ 

(2) Diminutive adjectives in -awy, as czarniawy , ‘ rather 
black, blackish/ slodlcawy, ‘rather sweet/ Diminutives, 
both adjectives and substantives, are very much used in all 
Slavonic languages. 

(3) The termination -owity denotes tendency, as ckorowUy, 
‘sickly/ from choroba, ‘ illness / jadowity, ‘ poisonous/ from 
iad, ‘poison/ 

(4) Adjectives in -chi, -dzhi, -shi, -zki imply possession or 
connexion with, as Niemiechi, ‘ German/ from Niemiec, ‘ a 
German/ The termination ski is added to the names of 
towns and villages, as obywatel Warszawski, ‘ an inhabitant 
of Warsaw / Biskup Zmudzki, ‘ the Bishop of Samogitia.’ 
This is also the termination of many family names derived 
from their place of residence, as Czartoryski, Sobieski, &c. 
The various kinds of compound adjectives have been omitted 
here for want of space, but they may easily be found in 
the dictionaries. 


Degrees of Comparison. 

The comparative degree is formed by the addition of 
ejszy or szy to the root, as bialy, ‘ white/ bielszy / whiter / 
czarny, ‘ black/ czarniejszy, ‘ blacker/ 

The superlative is formed by adding the syllable naj to 
the comparative, as tani, ‘ cheap/ taiiszy, ‘ cheaper/ naj- 



ADJECTIVES. 


15 


tahszy, ‘ cheapest/ The superlative of pre-eminence is made 
by placing bardzo, ‘ very/ before the adjective, as bardzo 
dobry, ‘ very good/ 


Numerals. 


1. Jeden, 

2. Dwa. 

3. Trzy. 

4. Cztery. 

5. Pi§c. 

6. Szesc. 

7. Siedm. 

8. Osm. 

9. Dziewie:c. 

10. Dziesi^c. 


Cardinal. 

11 . 

12 . 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 

20 . 


Jedenascie. 

Dwanascie. 

Trzynascie. 

Czternascie. 

Pi§tnascie. 

Szesnascie. 

Siedemnascie. 

Osmnascie. 

Dziewi^tnascie. 

Dwadziescia. 


Dziescie, or dziesci, is added to the numerals from twenty 
to fifty, fiqdziesiat; from fifty to one hundred, dziesiat 
being added. Thus, cz ter dziesci, ‘ forty/ dzieiviyc-dziesiat, 
1 ninety/ The smaller numerals follow the greater as in 
English ; as trzydziescipi$c, ‘ thirty-five / osmdziesiat siedm’ 
‘eighty-seven/ 


100. Sto. 

200. Dwiescie. 
300. Trzysta. 
400. Czterysta 
500. Preset. 


600. Szescset. 
700. Siedemset. 
800. Osmset. 
900. Dziewieeset. 
1000. Tysifjc. 



16 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


The arrangement of the greater and smaller numerals is the 
same as in English.: .thus, sto dwadeie'scia siedm, * one 
hundred and twenty-seven/ Jeden, jedna, jedno are declined 
after the manner of adjectives. 


Dwaj, ‘two.’* 


N. dwaj (a), dwa (6). 

. G. dwoch. 

D. dwdm. 

A. dwoch (a), dwa (h). 
I. dwoma. 

L. dwoch. 

Trzej, * three.’ 

N. trzey (a), trzy (d). 
G, trzeeh. 

D. trzem. 

A. trzeeh (a), trzy (d ). 
I. trzema. 

L. trzeeh. 


N. dwie (c). 

G. dwoch. 

D. dwom. 

A. dwie. 

I. dwiema. 

L. dwoch. 

Czterej, ‘four.’ 

N. czterej (a), cztery (6). 
G. czterech. 

D. czterem. 

♦ 

A. czeterech (a), cztery (r/j 
I. czterema. 

L. czterech. 


* following the example of Eykaczewski, and in order to secure 
brevity in the above tables, letters have been used for, (a) men, 
(b) animals of the masculine gender, and inanimate objects masc. and 
neuter; (c) women,and all feminine substantives; (tf) substantives of 
whatsoever gender they may be, except signifying men. According to 
their position with these, the numerals are modified. 




ADJECTIVES. 


17 


Piqciu, ‘ five/ 

N. pigciu (a), piqe (d), 

G. pigciu. 

D. pigciu. 

Jeden, dwaj, dwa, dwie, trzej, trzy, czterej, czlery are 
considered as adjectives, and in consequence the substantive 
goes with them in the nominative case. Dwaj, trzej, and 
czterej, however, are only so used when they precede their 
nouns; if they follow them the noun' is put in the genitive, 
as miast dwa, ‘ two cities/ Pi$c and the rest up to tyaiqc 
are substantives, and take a genitive case after them. 

Jedenastu, ‘eleven.’ 

N. jedenastu (a), jede- A. jedenastu (a), jede- 

naseie (£). nascie (d). 

G. jedenastu. I. jedenastq. 

D. jedenastu. L. w jedenastu. 

Piyciudziesiql, ‘ fifty,’ inflects the word piqciu {as given 
previously): the word dziesiqt remains unaltered. All the 
numerals till czterdjiesci are declined like jedenascie, and all 
the others till dziewiycdziesiqt like pi$cdziesiqt. 

Stu, ‘ a hundred.’ 


Singular. 

Plural. 

N. stu (a), sto (d). 

sta. 

G. sta or stu. 

set. 

D. stu. 

stom. 

A. stu (a), sto (d). 

sta (d). 

I. stem. 

sta mi. 

L. stu. 

stach. 


A. pifciu (a), piec (d). 
I. piqciq. 

L. pi§ciu. 


c 



,18 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


Bwustu, ‘ two hundred.’ 


N. dwustn («), dwieseie (d). 
G. dwochset. 

D. dwomset. 


A. dwochset (a), dwieseie (d). 
I. dwomaset, dwiemaset (c). 
L. dwochset. 


For the others, e.g. 500, take the word pi$c, as previously- 
declined, and add in each ease set. 


Tgsiqc, ‘ a thousand.’ 


Singular. 

Plural. 

N. tysiqc. 

tysiq.ee. 

G. tysiqe a 

tysi§cy. 

D. tysiqcu. 

tysiqcom. 

A. tysiqc. 

tysiqce. 

I. tysiqcem. 

tysiqcami. 

L. tysiqeu. 

tysiqcach. 


The ordinal numbers are not given here, as they are in¬ 
flected like adjectives, and can be easily learned from a 
dictionary. In the Slavonic languages we also find collec¬ 
tive numerals, as czworo , ‘ a collection of four piecioro 
dzieci, ‘ a band of five children.’ Gf. English, f a dozen,’ 
‘ a score.’ These collective numerals take for the most 
part the genitive case after them. 



PRONOUNS. 


19 


THE PRONOUNS. 
Personal. 
Singular. 


Ja ,‘ 1/ 

Tg, ‘ Thou/ 

N. ja. 

N. ty. 

G. mnie. 

G. eiebie. 

D. mnie, mi. 

D. tobie, ci. 

A. mnie, mig. 

A. eiebie, ci§. 

Y. ja. 

V. ty. 

I. mnq,. 

I. tobs|. 

L. mnie. 

L. tobie. 

Plural. 

N. my, ‘ we.’ 

N. wy, ‘'you/ 

G. nas. 

G. was. 

D. nam. 

D. warn. 

A. nas. 

A. was. 

Y. my. 

V. wy. 

I. nami. 

I. warni. 

L. nas. 

L. was. 


Singular. 

N. on, ‘ he/ ona, ‘ she/ 

G. jego, go, niego. jej, niej. 

D. jemu,mu,niemu. jej, niej.. 

A. jego, go, niego. ja, nii*. 

I. nim. niij,. 

L. nim. niej. 


ono, ‘ it/ 
jego, go, niego. 
jemu, mu, niemu 
je, nie. 
niem. 
niem. 



20 


POLISH GRAMMAR- 


For Men. 
N. oni, 'they. 1 
G. ich, nich. 
D. im, nim. 
A. ich, nich. 
I. nimi. 

L. nich. 


Plural. 

For all except Men. 
one, ' they.’ 
ich, nich. 
im, nim. 

j e * 

niemi. 
nich. 


The abridged forms of the pronouns are only used after 
verbs, and cannot be employed after prepositions, or when 
emphasis is to be laid upon the pronoun. 

The pronoun niego is sometimes changed into n in the 
genitive and accusative, and is united with the preposition, 
as d/ah for 'him So also the pronoun ci is changed into 
c, and is attached to a previous word ending in a vowel. 

The pronoun siebie, si$ is reflexive: it is used to express 
the singular and the plural of all three genders, and may 
refer to all three persons. 

G. siebie, si§. I. sob^. 

D. sobie. L. sobie. 

A. siebie, si§. • 


The Possessive Pronouns are declined like adjectives, as 
my, ‘ my/ twoj, c thyfor the third person the genitive 
singular and plural of the personal pronoun is used, as 
jego, ich. 



PRONOUNS. 


21 


Demonstrative Pronouns. 


Ten, ‘this.’ 


Singular, 


N. ten. 

ta, 


to. 

G. tego. 

tej 

> 

tego. 

D. tem, 

tej. 

temu. 

A. tego, ten, 


» 

to. 

I. tym. 


tem. 

L. tym. 

tej. 

tem. 


Plural. 


Men. 



For all others. 

N. oni. 



one. 

G. onych. 



onych. 

D* onym. 



onym. 

A. onych. 



one. 

I. onymi. 



onemi. 

L. onych. 



onych. 


Relative Pronouns. 

Kto, co, ktory, ktora , More are both relatives and inter- 
rogatives. Kto refers to masculines and feminines; co to 
animals and inanimate things: they have no plural. 
Ktory is declined like an adjective, the only irregularity 
being ktorzy for the masculine nominative plural. 



polish grammar. 


22 


The Negative Pronouns when employed with verbs re¬ 
quire also the use of the negative particle. Several letters 
and words may be added to pronouns., which have the effect 
of modifying their meanings, as s, kolwick, li, lito, z, ze, 
zeto : s and kolwick are added only to pronouns, as kto's, 
jaJci's, ktokolwiek, &c.; li, lito, z, ze, zeto are added not 
only to pronouns but to adjectives. 

THE VERBS. 

Since a great object has been simplification as much as 
possible, I shall here only enumerate the chief divisions 
of the verbs :— 

1. Active. 

2. Passive. In reality, there is no independent form of 

the passive voice in Polish. It is made, as in most modern 
European languages, by the auxiliaries and the past parti¬ 
ciple. See, however, on p. 49 as to the various ways of 
expressing this voice. , 

3. Neuter. 

4. Impersonal. 

5. Perfect, sometimes called Completive Verbs, which 
express the action as finished; e.g,, sjadlem, ‘ I have 
ceased eating/ 

6. Imperfect, or Continuative Verbs, which express the 
duration of the action; e.g., Jem,11 continue to eat/ 

7. Incep lives, which express an increasing action; as 
starzejq siq, ‘I grow old/ 



VERBS. 


23 


8. Frequentatives, which express an action continually 
repeated, as jaclam ,, ‘ I eat frequently.* Both active and 
neuter verbs may be either ddkonane or nieddkonane, perfect 
or imperfect. The perfect verbs have no present tense nor 
any present participle.* The mark of the perfect verb is 
the future anterior, as it is called, which is conjugated like 
the present of the imperfect verbs ; e. g., zgadn%, r I shall 
have guessed przyczytam, ‘ I shall have finished reading/ 

Many perfect verbs are characterized by being com¬ 
pounded with a preposition, which gives the idea of com¬ 
pletion ; others by changes in the letters. Perfect verbs are 
sometimes formed out of imperfect by changing the 
termination ad into id or qc. The two forms, perfect and 
imperfect, make a complete conjugation in Polish. We must 
"ascertain to which of these two classes a verb belongs by 
looking into a good dictionary. Frequentatives, as a rule, 
form the present in warn, the perfect in wal, and the infinitive 
in wad. The four last of these divisions are termed hv 
Slavonic grammarians ‘ aspects/, The constant use of the 
aspects amply atones for the poverty of tenses in the modern 
Slavonic verb, in Polish the palteo-Slavonic aorist being 
lost. 

The following are the chief prepositions which enter into 
the composition of the Polish verbs :— 

Do —which implies carrying the action to the extremity; 
as dobic, ‘ to beat utterly/ 


* MaZecki, i. 263. 



24 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


Ng ,—expresses direction towards a certain place, as ply- 
wac * to sail/ naplywac, ‘ to sail towards/ 

Nad —expresses excess, as dac, ‘ to give/ naddac, ‘ to 
give too much.’ 

Od —expresses distance from a place, as jeehac, ‘to depart/ 
odjeohac, ‘ to go from a place.* 

Po —expresses continuation of an action, as bielic, ‘ to 
make whit e,’pobielid, 'to continue to make white.* 

0, ob, obe —express the accomplishment of an action, as 
siodlac, ’ to saddle/ oswdlac, ’ to finish saddling a horse.’ 

Pod —expresses ‘ underneath/ like the Latin sub, as 
pisac, ’ to write/ podpisac, ‘to sign.* 

Prze-— express the thorough accomplishment, of the action, 
Latin per, as czytac, ‘ to read/ przecytac, ‘ to read from 
beginning to end.* 

Przy —^expresses ‘ nearness/ as biedz, * to run/ przybiedz, 
’ to run by the side of.* 

Iloz —expresses different directions, as pisad, ‘ tp write/ 
rozpisae, * to write in different directions/ 

U —expresses thoroughness, as smiac siy, ‘ to laugh/ 
usmiad sty, ‘ to laugh out and out.’ 

W -—expresses direction of a thing within, as chodzic, ‘ to 
go/ wchodzic, ‘ to go in.* 

Wy —expresses ‘ out/ as prosic, ‘ to entreat/ wyprosic, ‘ to 
obtain from a person by entreaty.* 

IF, icz —expresses ‘ on high/ as nesic, ‘ to carry/ wznosic, 
‘to carry on high/ 



VERBS. 


25 


Z ' ze —expresses the perfect accomplishment of an action, 
as je'sc, ‘ to eat/ zjesc, ‘ to eat entirely/ 

Za —expresses 1 over/ as mowic, ‘ to speak/ zamowic, * to 
talk a person over/ 

The tenses are, (1) the Present, as czyniy, uty, &c. (2) The 
Perfect; as czynilem , ‘ I did really a past participle with 
certain suffixes, as will he shown afterwards, and hence it is 
inflected according to gender. (3) The Pluperfect, rarely 
used; as czynilem byl, ‘ 1 had done/ (4) The Future, which 
may be expressed in two ways, either by the auxiliary 
and the participle, as bgd$ czynil, or the auxiliary and the 
infinitive, czynic b$d $—this is the simple future; when some¬ 
times the present is used as a future ( e.g . in the perfect 
verb), it is called the future anterior. 

The perfect, imperfect, frequentative verbs, &c., are 
arranged under the four conjugations according to their 
terminations. 

In Polish there are four conjugations and six moods: 
(1) the Infinitive; (2) the Indicative ; (3) the Imperative; 
(4) the Subjunctive, which is expressed by adding zeby, aieby 
and izby to the participial form, as zebym hochal, ‘ that I 
may love/ In reality no Slavonic language has an inde¬ 
pendent form of the subjunctive. (5) The Conditional, 
implying a condition : this mood is expressed in Polish in 
two ways, (a) with by , gdyby, aby, with the participial form 
of the verb bye, ‘ to be •/ or ( b) by the addition of by to the 
participial form of the verb in l, but the particle by must 
then take the personal terminations, as hochal bym , ‘ I 
should have loved/ (6) The Optative, which is made by the 



26 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


conjunction oiym with the participial form in l, as olym list 
odebral, ‘ Oh, that I could receive the letter! ’ Thus 
we see that in reality there are only three moods in 
Polish of independent form: the last three are made by 
particles. 

The reader will observe the following elements of the 
Polish verb :— 

The mark of the 1st per. sing, is m, which sometimes by 
a phonetic law becomes g; parallels to these two forms 
being found in all the Slavonic languages. Sometimes 
both forms are found in the same verb, as wydzmbywam 
and wydziubujq; the latter, however, is the more common. 
Of the second s, or sz; of the first person plural smy, of the 
second scie * These may enter into various combinations, 
and by paying attention to their positions the acquisition 
of a knowledge of the verbs may be much simplified. These 
suffixes are in reality, as might be imagined, merely muti¬ 
lated parts of the present tense of the verb ‘ to be,’ which 
oldest form was as follows :— c 


jesm 

jesmy 

jes 

jescie 

jest. 

sq. 


* The original suffix for the third person singular was t; this, how¬ 
ever, though preserved in Bussian, is lost in the West-Slavonio 
languages. The suffix of the third person plural is n ; this, however, 
by its coalescing with the bindevocal, becomes a. 



VERBS. 


27 


The explanation of the form now in use will be given a 
little farther on. 

But these particles can be used not only with verbs but 
with other words, so as to cause the sentence to he shaped 
in many different ways, and this peculiarity of the Polish 
language is deserving of careful consideration; thus we 
may say either ilobrze pisalem, or dobrzem pisal, ‘ I have 
written well/ ja pilny jestem, or jam pilny jest, ‘ I am in¬ 
dustrious/ wczora rano byles w Tiosciele, or wczora ratios byl 
w hosciele, ‘ Thou wert early at church yesterday/ So also 
my bylismy, or my'smy byli, ‘We were/ wy byliscie, or 
wy'scie byli, ‘ Ye were / glosno spiewaliscie, or glosnosiie spie- 
wali, 1 You have sung loudly / &e. They may also be 
added to particles, as Bom nie przyszedl wzywac sprawiedli- 
wych ale grzesznych do pohuty, ‘ I came not to call the 
righteous but sinners to repentance/ (Matt. ix. 13.) So 
also Ale abyscic wiedzieli, iz ma moc syn czlowieczy, ‘ But 
that ye may know that the Son of man hath power/ 
(Matt, ix, 6.) This gives extraordinary flexibility and 
variety to the sentence. 

The following are the suffixes of the Imperative:— 

Singular ... 2 pel’s., j. 

Plural ... j 1 P erS - ^y- 
(2 pers., icie. 

The suffix of the Perfect is l, which is added immediately 
to the stem, as grai,piekl. The only exceptions are Mol, 
prol, where the o is the connecting vowel {bindevocal). This 



28 


Polish grammar. 


is properly a participle, as is shown hy the feminine and 
neuter terminations and the plural form. 

The suffix of the Infinitive is c, which is generally added 
immediately, but in some instances with a bindevocal; from 
the fusing of k with c we get c, and from g the combination 
dz. The spelling of the termination of the infinitive in some 
cases in dz is censured by Miklosieh as inaccurate (iii. 450). 

The suffix of the Active Participle is qc. The suffix is 
originally no, and the addition of a bindevocal makes it qc; 
e. g. piekqc, trqc. When the participle is used adjectively 
it is declined like an adjective— -piekqcy, -a -e, trqcy -a -e. 

The suffix of the Perfect Gerund is szy; but this is not 
added immediately to the stem, but after the l of the per¬ 
fect, as upiekhzy {u-pieh-l-szy); or with the addition of w, 
e. g. toygrawszy ( wy-gra-w-szy): this, however, is only 
another form of l, which is frequently pronounced as w in 
Slavonic dialects. 

The suffix of the Passive Participle is either -n, or -i, 
which is declined like an adjective, either -ny, -na, -ne, or 
-ty, -ta, -te. ' 

The Verbal Substantive is derived from the Passive 
Participle by adding ie to n or t ; e. g. bity, bide. If 
the bindevocal before ny has become o, it is changed 
again into e before nie; e. g. pieczony, pieczenie , niesiony, 
niesienie. 

The Indicative Mood has the following tenses: the present, 
in perfect verbs the future anterior, the pluperfect, and the 
future. The Subjunctive, Conditional and Optative have 
only the perfect tense. 



CONJUGATION OF AUXILIARY VERBS. 


Conjugation of Auxiliary 


Jestem 

bye, ‘ to be/ 

Indicative Mood. 

Present.. 

Singular. 

| jestes. 

Jestesmy 

Plural. 

\ jesteseie. 

M^sc. 

Perfect. 

Singular. 

Fem. 

Bylem. 

bytam. 

Bytes. 

bylas. 

Byt. 

byla. 

Bylismy. 

Plural. 

bytysmy. 

Byliscie. 

bytyscie. 

Byli. 

byty. 


Verbs. 


jest. 


?* 


Neut. 
by tom. 
bytos. 
byto. 


bytysmy. 

bvtyscie. 

byly. 



30 


POLISH, GRAMMAR. 


Pluperfect (but little used). 

Singular. 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

Bylem byl. j ' bylam byla. j bylom bylo. 

And so on, adding hyl to the masculine, byla to the feminine, 
and bylo to the neuter, in all the different persons. 


Bylismy byli, 

Plural. 

bylysmy byly. 

same 

adding byli 

adding 

as 

to the other 

byly. 

feminine. 

persons. 

B§d§, ‘I shall be.’ j 

Future. 

Singular. 

j b^dziesz. j 

b^dzie. 


Plural. 

C 

Bfdziemy. ] 

b^dziecie. J 

b§dq. 


Conditional. 



The Conditional Mood is formed from the participial 
form in l and the particle by; after which are added the 
letters and combinations m, #, smy, scie, to designate the 
persons. There is no present tense. Thus the perfect 
(1st. pers.) would be bylbym, bylalym, bylobym. 



CONJUGATION OP AUXILIARY VERBS. 31 

Subjunctive. 

This Mood is formed by the participial form in l (by I), 
before which is used the conjunction zeby ; to which the 
letters and combinations m, s, smy, scie are added, as zebym 
byl, 1st person, zebys byla (feminine). There is no present, 
and the pluperfect is omitted here as being so little used. 

Optative. 

This resembles in form the Conjunctive, with the dif¬ 
ference that oby is used instead of zeby, and takes the same 
terminations to mark the persons. The perfect is the only 
tense used. 

Imperative. 

Singular. 

Bqdz', ‘ be thou/—Bqdz'cie. 

* Niech or niechaj bgdz'cie 1 let him be/ 

To niech and niechaj, the suffix ze is sometimes added. 

Plural. 

B^dzmy. 

Bfplz'eie. 


bfplzmyz. 

bqdz'eiez. 


Niech or niechaj b§da. 



32 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


JJasc. 

Participles. 

Present. 

Pem. 

Neut. 

Bedtjcy. 

b^dfjea. 

b«;ds|ce. 

Byly. 

Past. 

byla. 

bylo. 

Majsjcy bye. 

Future. 

maj^ea bye. 

m ajq,ce by 

B§di|c, ‘being 

bywszy, ‘ having been/ 


These two last are not inflected. 


The modern form of the present tense of the verb by 6^ is 
merely a corruption, and arose from adding to the third 
person of the old form the pronominal suffixes. This re¬ 
sulted from false analogy, as the suffixes had become fused 
with the participial form lyl, by la, bylo, and made a past 
tense; thus byljesm had become bylem, bylijesmy, by limy. 

The particle by, which is used in Polish and other Slavo¬ 
nic languages to express condition, was originally the third 
person singular of the old perfect of the verb bye, a tense 
which is now lost. This particle has at the present time 
something like the use of the Greek av. We also find it 
in composition as aby, ztby, azely, with which we may com¬ 
pare Greek oiav and av in other combinations. 



CONJUGATION OF AUXILIARY VERBS. S3 


Sing... Mam. 

Mice, 'to have/ 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 

■ masz. 

ma. 

Plur... Mamy. 

macie. 

majV 

Masc, 

Perfect. 

Singular. 

Fem.' 

Neut. 

Mialem. 

miaiam. 

mialom. 

Miales. 

mialas. 

mialos. 

Miat. 

miala. 

mialo. 

Masc. 

Plural. 

Fem. 

Neuter. 

• 

Mietismy. 

j mialysmy. 

| mialysmy. 


(In the second person add the usual suffix: the third 
person has no suffix.) 

Pluperfect. 

The same as the preceding tense, adding byl to the masc. 
sing., byla to the fem., and bylo to the neuter ; lyli for 
masc. plur., and byly for fem. and neuter. 



34 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


Future. 

Singular. 

Masc. Fem. 

Bed§ mial or b§d§ miala or 
miec. miec, 

B^dziesz, bfdziesz. 

B§dzie. -bfdzie. 

Plural. 

B^dziemy mieli bfdziemy mialy. 

or miec. 

B^dziecie. b§dziecie mialy. 

B§d'4. b^dq, mialy. 

Conditional. 

Perfect Tense. 

Masc. Fem. Neuter. 

Mialbym. | mialabym. | mialobym. 

Add the regular suffixes to the first and second persons 
as above, and add the suffixes to the plural, which will be 
mietody for the masc., and mialy by for the fem. and neut.; 
thus, mielobismy , &c. 

Subjunctive. 

Add zeby, with suffixes for each of the persons, to the 
ordinary past tense mial , in its various mutations of gender 
and number. 

Optative. 

Add oby, with the same suffixes. 


Neuter. 

b§d§ mialo or 
miec. 
b^dziesz. 
b§dzie. 

ibid. 



CONJUGATION OF AUXILIARY VERBS. 


35 


Imperative. 

Singular. 

Miej, ‘ have thou/—Miejze. 

Niech or niechaj (with addition sometimes of suffix 
ze) —ma. 


Plural. 

Miej my. 

Miejcie. 

Niech or niechaj majqi 



Participles. 


Present. 

Masc. 

Tem. 

Majsjcy. 

| majqca. 


Perfect. 

Miany. 

| miana. 

» 

Future. 

Majqcy miec. 

j majqca miec. 


Neuter. 

majqce. 

miane. 
majqce miec. 


Note. —The verb mam (I have) is frequently used with 
merely a future signification, as wyclanie ma by6 ozdobione 
trzema porireta-mi, ‘The edition will be furnished with three 
portraits.’ 

Gerunds. 


Majqe, ‘ having/ 
Miawszy, * having had/ 



36 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


Conjugation of Regular Verbs. 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

The mark of the conjugation is the second person singular 
present of the verbs niedokonane, or the future anterior 
of the verbs dolconane, which of necessity have no present, 
as I have previously stated. 

The characteristic of the first conjugation is the letter a 
in the second person singular of the present. 



Infinitive. 

KoChac, ‘ to love.’ 

Indicative. 

Present Tense. 


Kocham. 

koehasz. j 

kocha. 

Kochamy. 

kochacie. 1 

Perfect. 

kochajt 


For the masculine, add the suffixes for the first and 
second persons, with the bindevocal e to the participial form 
in l , and add them also to the feminine kochala and the 
neuter kOchalo. For the plural masculine, add the suffixes 
to kochali, and for the feminine and neuter to kochaly, thus 
kochalem, kockalam, kochalom, &c. 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 


37 


Pluperfect. 

To form this tense, add to the perfect byl for the mascu¬ 
line singular, and byli for the plural; byla for the feminine 
singular, and bylo for the neuter; and lyly for the plural of 
both genders. 


Future. 

Put the auxiliary Irfq —infleeting it regularly, as in the 
form given under the verb bye , ‘ to be/—before Ttochal for 
the masculine singular, and hochali for plural; kochala for 
feminine, and Jcochato for neuter singular • and kochaly for 
the plural of both, according to the invariable rule. 


Imperative. 

Kochaj. 

Niecb or niechaj kocha. 

Kochaj my. 

Kochajcie. 

Niech or niechaj kocha j. 

It will be observed that the characteristic letter of the 
imperative is/, to which the terminations of the plural are 
added, e. g. kocha-j-my. 

I have not given at length another form of the impera¬ 
tive included in some grammars : it is formed by adding 
the enclitic z or ze to the simple form 



38 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


Conditional. 

Made by adding the pronoun suffixes to -by, which is 
appended to the participial form, as Icochalbym. In the plural 
we have the usual kochali and Itochaly, with the personal 
suffixes. 

The pluperfect is formed by adding to the perfect byl, 
which is inflected in the manner previously shown. 

Subjunctive. 

Perfect. 

This is aby, with the usual personal suffixes appended to 
the inflected participial form in l. 


Optative. 

The same, oby being added instead of aby. 


Participles. 


Pres . kochajijcy. 
Past, kochany. 

Fvt. maj^cykochac. 


kochajqca. 
kochana. 
maj^ca kocbac. 


kochajsjce. 
kochane. 
majijce kocbac. 


Gerund. — Kochajqc, ‘ loving/ 

The tenses, which are wanting to the imperfect verb 
kocbac, are supplied by the perfect verb nTwchac. 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 


39 


SECOND CONJUGATION. 

The characteristic of this conjugation is iesz or esz in the 
second person singular present. 

Grzelac, ‘ to bury/ 

Present. 

Grzebi^. grzebi§sz. grzebi§. 

Grzebi§my. grzebi§eie. grzebi^. 

Perfect. 

Formed from the participial form grzelal, with the addi¬ 
tion of the suffixes, as in the preceding verb. The same 
remarks apply to the pluperfect and future. 

Imperative. 

Grzeb. 

Niech or niechaj grzebif. 

Grzebmy. 

Grzebeie. 

Niech or niechaj grzebiq,. 

Also another form with the addition of the enclitic ie. 


Conditional. — Grzebalhym. 

Cf. the former under Teocka6, also the pluperfect on the 
same model. 


Subjunctive. —Abyrn grzelal. 
Optative. —Obym grzelal. 


Cf. with kochac. 



40 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


Participles. 

'Present ... Grzebiqcy, &c. 

Past .G rzebany, &e. 

Future ... Maj^cy grzebac, &c. 

Gerund.— Grzebiqc, 'bringing/ 

Other tenses are supplied to this verb by the perfect or 
complete form pogrzebac. Verbs belonging to this conju¬ 
gation which end in owac, iwac and ywac , and are gene¬ 
rally derivatives, change their termination into «/g, ujesz, 
vje, &c., in the present. 

The following rules may help to ascertain how the verbs 
ending in ad belonging to this conjugation form their 
present, this being in reality the only difficulty in the 
Polish verb: — 

When one final consonant of the stem is b, m,p, the 
vowel i must be added before the personal suffixes; as, 

itami§, ‘ I break,’ from Idmac. 

iiamifsz. 

Iiami§. 

JLamifmy. 

tami^seie. 

When the final consonant is s or w, preceded by another 
consonant, the i is only added to the second and third 





CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 


41 


persons of the singular, and the first and second of the 
plural; thus— 

Zw§, ‘ I call.’ Zw-i-emy. 

Zw-i-esz. Zw-i-ecie. 


Zw-i-e. 


Zw-q,. 


If the final consonant of the stem is s, preceded by a 
vowel, as jb isctc, ‘ to write/ this hard consonant is changed 
into the soft sz, as pisz%, ‘ I write/ So also other hard 
consonants which precede ac are changed into the soft 
consonants corresponding to them; as Igac, ‘ to lie,’ lze 6 ; 
plakac, * to weep,’ placzq. When the termination of the 
stem is sic, it becomes szcz, as glaslcac, ‘ to pat with the hand,’ 
glaszcz$; so also r is changed into rz, t into c, and z into z. 

In the monosyllabic verbs, brae , ‘to take,’ grrac, ‘to wash 
linen/ and the verbs compounded from them, io is inserted 
between the first and final consonants of the stem in the 
first person singular and third person plural; as, biorq, 
bierzesz, bierze, bierzemy, bierzecie, biorq.. 


Verbs ending in 0,6. 

When the root consonant is d, in the inflections m must 
be put after it, with the vowel i in all the persons, except 
the first and last, as dqc, ‘ to breathe/ 


Dm§. 

Dmiesz. 

Dmie. 


Dmiemy. 

Dmiecie. 

Dm3. 


When the final consonant of the stem is n, an i must be 
added to all the persons of the present except the first sin- 



42 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


gular and the third plural, as pragnqi, ‘ to be thirstythe 
present of which is thus inflected— 


Pragn§. 

Pragniesz. 

Pragnie. 


Pragniemy. 

Pragniecie. 

Pragnsj,. 


The present tense of the verbs ciqc, ‘ to cut,’ giqc, ‘ to fold/ 
is thus inflected— 


Tn§. 

Tniesz. 

Tnie. 


Tniemy. 

Tnieeie. 

Tnij. 


The t for c here being altogether irregular. 


In many verbs ending in nqc, the n disappears entirely 
in the inflection of the perfect, as rosnqd, * to grow.’ 


Roslem. 

Rosies. 

Rosl. 


Roslismy. 

Eosliscie. 

Rosli. 


Verbs ending in ec, uc. 

Verbs terminated in this way, as dec, c to flow,’ piec, ‘ to 
Cook/ change the consonant e into h in the present, in the 
first person singular, and third plural. 


Piek§. 

Pieczesz. 

Piecze. 


Pieezemy. 

Pieczecie. 

Pieki|. 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 


43 


/ 

Verbs ending in id take j after i in tbe present; 
e. g., from bid, ‘ to fight . 1 


B\j§- 

Bijesz. 

Bije. 


Bijemy. 

Bijicie. 

Bij%. 


The same is the case with verbs in nc and ye, as czuc, * to 
feel,’ zyc, ‘ to live.’ 

The following verbs belonging to this conjugation are 
very irregular 

Jesc, ‘ to eat . 1 


Jem, ‘ I eat . 1 
Jesz. 

Je. 


Present. 

Jemy. 

Jecie. 

Jedzij. 


Jadlem, { I ate . 1 
Jadles. 

Jadt. 


Perfect. 

Jedlismy,/ jadlysmy. 
Jedliscie. 

Jedli,/. jedly. 


Future 

(borrowed from perfect form of verb). 


Zjem. 

Zjesz. 

Zje. 


Zjemy. 

Zjecie. 

Zjedzq,. 



44 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


Jedz. 
Niech i 


Idziesz 

Idzie. 


Szlismy. 
Szliscie. 

Szli. 

Plural 
(for both gendei 
Szlysmy. 
Szlyscie. 

Szly. 

Future. 

Przyjd^ f I shall come.’ Przyjdziemy. 

Przyjdziesz. Przyjdziecie. 

Przyjdzie. Przyjc% 


Fem. 

Sziam, szias, szla. 
Neut. 

Sziom, szios, szlo. 


Perfect. 

Masc/ 

Szedlem, 1 1 Went.’ 
Szedles. 

Szedt. ' 


Imperative. 

Jedzmy. 
Jedzcie. 
Niech jedzjj. 

Isc, ‘ to go on foot.’ 

Present. 

Idziemy. 
Idziecie. 

Idq,. 





CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 


45 


Imperative. 

Idz. Idz'my. 

Niech idzie. Idzcie. 

Niech idsj. 

It has been thought advisable to give the chief tenses of 
these verbs on account of their being so much in use. 

THIRD CONJUGATION. 

The characteristic of this conjugation is that the 2nd 
pers. sing, present ends in isz. 

Verbs belonging to this conjugation, which terminate in 
the infinitive in ac, as bad si$, ‘ to fear/ change in the 
present and future a into oj, in the first person of the singular 
and the third person of the plural: in the other persons they 
change a into oi; e. g. dad, ‘ to stand,’ present. 

Stofe. 

Stoisz. 

Stoi. 

Spad, ‘ to sleep/ changes a into i: 

Spi§. Spimy. 

Spisz. Spicie. 

Spi. Spiq,. 

They preserve in all the persons of the past tenses a 
before l or l; e. g. balem sig. 

If the stem of a verb ends in l, as m/sled, ‘ to think/ 
the present is thus inflected : 

Mysl§. Myslimy. 

Myslisz. Myslicie. 

Mysli. Myslij,. 


Stoimy. 

Stoicie. 

Stojfj. 



46 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


The softening of the final consonants for euphony is 
shown in the treatment of verbs ending in ie, in the first 
sing, and third plural, as follows:—When a hard con¬ 
sonant ends the stem, the i of the infinitive is preserved, 
as zific, e to cool , 5 ziqbiq , ‘ I cool,’ zigbiq, ‘ they cool 
but when a soft consonant goes before, the i is not pre¬ 
served, All these verbs keep in the past tenses their 
characteristic vowel i before l and l; e. g. prosileni, prod- 
limy, &c., ‘ I entreated.’ 

Palic , ‘ to burn.’ 


Indicative. 
Present Tense. 


Pal§, 

palisz. 

pali. 

Palimy, 

palicie. 

pali|. 


Perfect. 


Palilem, 

palilam, 

palilom, 


and the other persons as before. 

In the plural, add the pronominal suffixes to the plural 
forms, masc., fem., and neut. of the participle, as pre¬ 
viously. 

The Pluperfect, same as the form in kocka.6. 
Future. 

B^dg paid, &c., as before. 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 


47 


Imperative. 

Pal. 

Nieeh or nieehaj pali. 

Palmy. 

Palcie. 

Niech or nieehaj pal 3,- 

Conditional. 

Palilbym, &c. 

Subjunctive. 

Abym palil, &c. 

Optative. 

Obym palil, &c. 

Participles. 

■Present, palqcy, palqca, palq.ee. 

Past, * palony, palona, palone 

Future, majqcy palic, majqca palic, majqce palic. 

Gerund —Palqe, * burning/ 

Some tenses are supplied to this verb by the perfect 
form, spalic. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

The characterictic of this conjugation is that the 2 nd 
pers. sing, present ends in - ysz . 



48 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


Sly&zec, £ to hear/ 

Indicative. 

Present. 

Slysz§ slyszysz slyszy. 

Slyszymy slyszyeie slyszy. 

Perfec t— Slyszalem. 

Formed in the same way as given in the previous 
paradigms. 

Pluperfect •—Same as before. 

Future —B§d§ slyszal, &c. 

Imperative. 

Slysz. 

Niech or niechaj slyszy. 

Slyszmy. 

Siyszeie. 

Niech or niechaj slyszy. 

Conditional— Slyszal bym 
The pluperfect as in previous paradigms. 

Subjunctive —Abyrn slyszal. 

Optative —Obym slyszal. 

Participles. 

Present, Slyszsjcy, -a, -e. 

Past, Slyszany, -a, -e. 

Future, Majsjcy slyszec, &c. 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 


49 


Gerund —Slyszsje, ‘ hearing 1 

Tenses wanting to this verb are supplied by the' perfect 
form, vslyszec ; e. g., udyszalem, ‘ I have heard/ 

All verbs in the fourth conjugation end in the infinitive 
in ec or yt'-. Verbs which make the infinitive in ec have 
in the past tenses a before l, and e before l, as jqczalem, ‘ I 
groaned ■’ jqczelismy, ‘ we groaned/ Those verbs which make 
the infinitive in y, preserve it throughout the perfect tense. 

Passive Voice. 

There is no separate form for the Passive Voice in 
Polish. It may be expressed by the auxiliary bye and the 
passive participle; but this method is rare in Polish, which 
prefers to represent the passive either by a reflexive 
verb, or by changing the mode of expression and using 
the active;' or employing the third person of the pre¬ 
sent, or the past participle used impersonally with the 
accusative of the pronouns ja, ty, on, mi/, wy, oni, or a 
substantive ; thus, instead of saying oni byli zabijani, ‘ they 
were killed/ it is more in accordance with the Polish idiom to 
say zabijawo icli: this is by an idiom of the Polish language, 
by which, even i n the case of a neuter verb, although it has pro¬ 
perly no past participle passive, yet one may be employed in 
an impersonal use, as skakano, £ they were leaping’ (literally, 
it having been leapt) ; ziewano, ‘ they were yawning/ Cf. 
Mickiewicz Pan Tadeusz , Book X. Ze mine Jackoiei czarnq 
poclanopoletck^, ‘ That the black soup was given to me, 
Jaczek/ 



50 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


The reflexive verb, however,cannot be used for the passive 
when any ambiguity might arise ; thus-we cannot say, Cezar 
zabil siq dnia pietnastego Marca, ‘ Caesar was killed on the 
fifteenth of March . 5 The following enclitics are suffixed to 
verbs, li (which implies a question), and z after vowels, ze 
after consonants. The two latter add emphasis to the 
expression. Similar particles are found in the Russian and 
Bohemian languages. By an idiom of the Polish language 
the ‘infinitives widac } slychac , may be used alone in an 
impersonal sense, without adding mozna, (it is possible); 
so also in the past tenses we have bylo widac , just as in 
English, ‘ there was to be seen/ 

Sometimes, instead of byl, zostal is used with the past 
participle as an historical perfect, as stateh zaniesiony zostal 
az hu hrzegom Danii (Balinski), ‘ the vessel was brought to 
the coast of Denmark/ Both jest and byl can be omitted by 
an idiom common to all the Slavonic languages. Every 
verb has its substantive, as bify, ‘ beaten/ hide, ‘ the act 
of beating / proszony, ‘ entreated/ proszenie, ‘ the act of 
entreating / these substantives are all of the neuter gender, 
and have no plural. The verbal noun in Polish can take 
with it the reflexive pronoun; as nieudanie siq powtorney 
elecl'cyi Leczynskiego, ‘ the failure of the second election of 
Leczynski/ 


Impersonal Verbs. 

Of these there are many in Polish, as bywa, ‘ it happens / 
grzmi, ‘ it thunders/ All verbs maybe made impersonal 
by adding the pronoun -dq to the third person of the 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 


51 


present and future of the active verb, and to the third 
person neuter of the perfect, as mowi si$, ‘ it is said/ muwilo 
si$, ‘it has been said/ 

Participles. 

There are four participles— 

Present. 

1st. The undeclined, called sometimes the gerund, czy- 

tajqc. 

2nd. The declined, czytajq,cy, ‘ reading/ 

Past. 

1st. Undeelined or gerund, dawszy, ‘ having given/ 

2nd. Declined, przeczytany, ‘having been read.’ 


PREPOSITIONS. 

Prepositions which govern the genitive :— 
Bez, * without/ 

I)la, ‘ for/ 

Do, ‘ to/ 

Okoto, ‘around/ 

Krom , olcrom,procz, oprocz, ‘outside of.’ 
Miasto, zamiast, ‘ in place of/ 

Ocl, ‘from/ 

Poclle, ‘ near/ 

ZfZ’g, } 

50114 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 


52 

w<JW ’ ( ‘ in the midle of.’ 

W srod, 5 

U, ‘ with ’ (ef. the French chez). 

Also the following adverbs used as prepositions:— 

Blizlco, ‘ near.’ 

Niedaleko, ‘ not far/ 

Obok, ‘ by the side of.’ 

Poprzek , ‘ across.’ 

Wewnqdrz, * within.’ 

Zewnq.trz, ‘ without.’ 

Wzdluz, 'along.’ 

Prepositions which govern the dative :— 

Owoli, ) < f or> according to.’ 

Kwoli, ) 

Ku, ‘ forward.’ 

Przeciw, ) , ... 

t ‘against. 

PrecmJco,) 

W brew, ‘ against, in contempt of.’ 

Pi •zez, ‘ by,’ governs the accusative; przy, * near,’ the 
locative. 

Naprzeciw, naprzecivjko , * against,’ * opposite/ govern the 
genitive or dative. 

Mimo, pomimo, c in spite of,’ 1 notwithstanding/ govern 
the genitive or accusative. Mimo, however, when it means 
'near/ always governs the genitive. 

Z takes the genitive when it marks the place from 
which the movement comes, the cause, the material out of 
which a thing is made ; but when it signifies e together 
with,’ it must take the instrumental. 



ADVERBS. 


53 


The prepositions mi$dzy, pomiqdzy, ‘ among / nad, 
‘ upon ; pod, * under/ przed, ‘ before/ za, ‘ beyond/ 
govern the accusative when motion is signified, but the 
instrumental when rest is implied. The prepositions na, 
‘ on / o, ‘ about / po, ‘ after / w, ‘ in/ govern the accusative 
when the verb with which they are used marks motion to 
a place. On the other hand, they govern the locative 
when the verb with which they are used implies rest. 

ADVERBS. 

I can only find room here for the principal adverbs : the 
rest can be learned from the dictionaries. 

Primary 

Gdzie, ‘ where/ 

Tu, ‘ here/ 

Wnet, * soon/ 

Gdy, ‘ as.’ 

Derived. 

Dobrze, ‘ well/ 

Dingo, ‘long/ 

Slabo, ‘ weakly/ 

Mocno, ‘ strongly/ 

Compounded. 

Nazajutrz, ‘ the following day/ 

W czas, ‘ at the right time/ ‘ punctually/ 
Przedlem, c previously/ 

Niegdgs , ‘ once/ 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 


5f 

Adverbs of Time. 

Zawsze, ‘ always.’ 

Nigdy, ‘never/ 

Teraz, * now.’ 

Dawno, ‘ long since/ 

Of Place. 

Na gone, ‘ above/ 

Na dole, ‘ below.’ 

Napodal, ‘from afar.’ 

Na przeciw, ‘ from opposite/ 

Of Manner. 

Po polsku, ‘ in the Polish manner/ 
Zewnqtrz, ‘ from without.’ 

TJstnie, ‘ by word of mouth/ 

Cichaczem, ‘quietly/ 

Interrogative. 

Kiedy, ‘ when ?’ 

Zkqd, ‘ from whence ?’ 

Gdzie, ‘where?’ 

Pokqd, ‘ whither ?’ 

Affirmative. 

Koniecznie, ‘certainly;’ da, ‘yes.’ 

Adverbs are formed from adjectives by changing the 
termination of the adjective into e or o j for example, 
msoly, ‘ gay,’ toesolo, ‘ gaily/ 



CONJUNCTIONS. 


55 


Adverbs ending in ie are formed from adjectives which 
have a'hard consonant in the last syllable but one, as 
pewne, ‘ sure/ pevmie, ‘surely/ 

Some adverbs have a double termination, as smialo, or 
miele, ‘ boldly/ 

Many adverbs are formed in Polish by the use of sub¬ 
stantives, either alone or with prepositions, as na bahier, 

‘ across na jaw, ‘ evidently / na o'slep , * blindly poprzek, 
‘across/ pogotowiu, 4 in readiness;’ wewnatrz, ‘within/ 
wet za wet, ‘tit for tat/ So also substantives alone, as 
ublazem, ‘ in a body / raptem, ‘ suddenly / uhradlciem, 

‘ secretly / ranhiem, ‘ in the morning / pospolu, ‘ to¬ 
gether/ 

The comparative of adverbs is formed by adding j or ej 
to the stem; as, skromnie, ‘ more modestly / smielej, ‘ more 
boldly/ For the superlative add naj to the comparative 
adverb ; as, pipkniej, ‘ more beautifully / najpiqkniej, ‘ most 
beautifully.’ 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

Of 'these there are different sorts: some join sen¬ 
tences together, as a, i, ‘ and / takze, tez , ‘ also / oraz, 
tndziez, ‘ so that / nie tylko-ale, ‘ not only/— 1 but / 
ani — ani, ‘neither/ A when employed between two ad¬ 
verbs strengthens the expression of the adverb, as wszyscy 
a wszy-scy, ‘ all without exception / nie a nio, ‘ absolutely 
nothing/ 

Alternative conjunctions, albo, lub . albo, tub, or 

bqdz . bqdz ., ‘whether’!., or cay,‘if/ czyli, or 

czy . czy, ‘ whether it be that/ &c. Conjunctions of 






56 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


comparison, JaJco . talc; as, talc . ze,-‘ so that/ nii 

nizeli (after the comparative), raczej . niz, ‘rather than.’ 

Adversative conjunctions, such as acz, aczholwiek, 
‘although/ ale, lecz, ‘but,’ choc, chociaz, ‘although,’ za-s, 
‘ hilt/ which latter, like the Latin quoqve , is never put as 
the first word in a sentence. Conditional conjunctions are 
hjle, ‘ provided that,’ -chyba, ‘unless/ Conjunctions of time 
are gcly, ‘ when/ jak tylko, ‘ as soon as/ Optative Con¬ 
junctions,. bogdaj oby, ‘ God grant that,’ used to express 
the optative mood. 


CHAPTER III. 

Syntax. 

As brevity has been aimed at in this Grammar, I shall 
allow myself to omit those points of Syntax which are not 
peculiar to Polish, but are shared in by the majority of 
languages. 

Cases op Nouns. 

1. The genitive is used after many adjectives and parti¬ 
ciples : of these a few are here specified—the rest must be 
learned by practice; as ,godzien nagrody, * worthy of recom- 
penee / potrzebujaay wsparcia, ‘ having need of assistance/ 

2. After all the cardinal numbers beginning with pipe, 
‘ five/ (See page 17.) 

3. The genitive is always used after the verb when it 
goes witli a negative; as nie czyta listn, ‘ he does not mad 
the letter.’ 






SYNTAX. 


57 


Ale serce u molojcow, 

Niezlfknie sie Turkow.— (SiemiehsJci.) 

‘ Bat the hearts of the young men do not fear the Turks/ 

4. After the impersonal verb, niemasz or niema , niebylo, 
' there is not/ ‘ there was not / as nie ma zgody, ‘ there is 
no agreement/ 

5. After active verbs where they have a partitive sense; 
as daj mi toody, ‘ Give me some water/ 

6. Verbs compounded of the prepositions do, od, na, nad, 
przy, w, take the genitive; as nazrywac kwiatow, 'to gather 
flowers/ 

7. The genitive is used after adverbs implying abun¬ 
dance, or want, as in other languages. 

8. Also to express quality or character; as czlawiek wy~ 
solciego wzrostu, ‘ a man of tall stature/ 

9. Also to express point of time ; as Dwadziestego dzie- 
wiqtego stycznia roku tytiqcznego osmsetnego osmdziesiqfego 
czwartego , ‘January 2-9, 1884/ 

A gi’eat number of verbs take the genitive, but these 
must be learned by the help of a good dictionary. 

The Dative. —Many adjectives take the dative, as pos- 
luszny, * obedient/ Verbs compounded with do take the 
dative, and many others which can be learned from the 
dictionary. 

The Accusative is, as in most languages, the ordinary 
ease after the verb. The price of a thing is put in the 
accusative, also duration of time, distance, height and 
length (with these four last compare the Latin use). 



58 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


The Instrumental .—Many verbs take this ease; as mia- 
nowac go wodzem, ‘ to name him leader.’ ' 

It is sometimes employed idiomatically with the verb ‘to 
beas jestem gospodarzem, ‘ I am the master.’ And the 
same is the case with zostawac, ‘ to become;’ as zOstal 
gnelgrzymeni, ‘ he has become a pilgrim.’ The following 
examples will, it is believed, clearly illustrate the various 
uses of this ease, which is often peculiarly employed 
in the Slavonic languages jechal noea, ‘ he travelled 
during the night jadl lyzkq, ‘ he ate with a spoon 
zlapalzajaya zyweem, ‘he has caught a hare alive nuzywal 
tnnieprzyjacielem, ‘he called me friend.’ 

The Locative expresses in what place, or when, except the 
days of the week, when point of time is marked by the 
accusative; as we czwartek, ‘ Thursday.’ 

Adjectives. 

The adjective agrees in number, gender, and case with 
its substantive. - When an adjective refers to the names of 
a man or a woman, or a man and an animal, it is put in 
the plural of the more worthy gender; but when the 
adjective is placed with several names of inanimate things, 
of whatever gender they may be, it is used in the neuter 
plural. In sentences where the two subjects of the verb 
are connected by the preposition z, the verb may be put in 
the singular or the plural; as, ojciec z synem zyl w zgodzie, 
or ojciec z synem zyli tv zgodzie , ‘ the father lived peaceably 
with his son.’ 



SYNTAX. 


59 


Collective substantives ending in shoo require the verb 
in the plural. With collective numerals the verb is put in 
the third person singular, and when in a past tense with the 
singular neuter; as, dwoje dzieci umarlo, ‘ two children are 
dead.’ 

Pronouns. 

Go, ‘ what,’ is often used instead of htory , when it refers 
not to the subject, but to the whole previous sentence. 

Comparison of Adjectives .—If a superior thing is com¬ 
pared with an inferior, the adverbs niz, nizli , nizeli, anizeli, 
must be used; as Drozsze jest zycie anizeli majq.tek, ‘ Life is 
more valuable than goods/ But if superiority is attributed 
to the thing which is the object of the comparison, the 
adverb jak is placed after the comparative ; as, Nie ma nic 
lepszego jak spokojne swmienie, * There is nothing better 
than a quiet conscience/ Instead of the adverbs niz, nizli, 
nizeli, anizeli, the preposition od may be employed with 
the genitive, or nad with the accusative: Jajestem mlodszy 
od ciebie, ‘ I am younger than thou/ 

Verbs. 

The preposition do is employed after verbs when it is 
desired to express an approximate number; as Bylo tv, do 
trzy dziestu ludzi, ‘ There were here almost thirty men/ 
Od is used to designate the place or the time after which a 
thing is begun ; as, od piq.tego rolcu, * from the fifth year/ 
Od is used after passive participles and neuter verbs, to 
express the agent or instrument; as kochany od przyjaciol. 



60 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


‘ loved by one’s friends/ umiera od zalu , ‘ he is dying of 
grief.’ Z is also used to express the instrument or agent; 
as mdl'eje z slabosci, ‘ he faints from weaknessso also 
przez —thus we may equally say wybrany od wojska, or 
wybrany przez wojsko, ‘ elected by the army.’ 

Nad is used with the instrumental after verbs implying 
pity, grief, astonishment, or vengeance. The occasions on 
which the preposition w are employed remind ns of the 
difference in Latin between the uses of in with the accusative 
and with the ablative ; as zamienic w chleb , ‘to change into 
bread oblec w szat$, ‘to-surround with a garment,’ 

The preposition z governs the genitive of substantives 
to express material, as dom z drzewa, ‘ a house of wood/ 
which can also be expressed by the adjective, as dom dnew- 
niany; also to imply motion from, as in English; and it is 
the ordinary case after the superlative, as najpilnicjszy z 
nich, ‘ the most industrious of them/ 

On the Arrangement of Words in a sentence. 

Owing to the Polish language being in a highly syn¬ 
thetic state, great licence is allowed in this respect. Much 
must depend upon the taste of the writer; and, in order to 
get a good style in composition, good works should be read, 
such as Lelewel’s “ History of Poland,” or the “Ballads" 
of Mickiewicz, which would be useful for the beginner. It 
may be remarked, however, that a preposition cannot be sepa¬ 
rated from the noun which it governs, and the adverb must 
be put either immediately before or after the word which it 
qualifies. Any conjunction may begin a sentence, except 



SYNTAX. 


61 


zas and bowiem. The verb is frequently put at the. 
end of a sentence. The adjective and participle can be 
separated, by many words, from the substantives with 
which they agree. Thus, Domowe miqdzy na&tqpcami Karola 
Witlkego w rozdzielonem cesarstme rozruchy, ‘ The domestic 
troubles among the successors of Charles the Great in his 
divided empire.’ 


In order to convey to the reader a fair idea of the con¬ 
struction of a sentence, the following lines are given, 
-selected from “ Lelewel’s History of Poland,” Dzieje Polski, 
page 58. (Leipzig, 1837) :— 

Pomimo oplakanego polozenia w jakim si§ Polska 
In spite of the melancholy condition in which herself Poland 

znajdowata, nie mozna powiedziec aby miala bye biedmj 
found, not is possible to say that she found herself poor 

i zn^dzionq, tylko w niej ladu i publieznego zycia niedos- 
and miserable, only in her of order and public life was 

tawalo, ktore umial obudzic Lokietek. Ludnosc Polska 
not which understood how to stimulate Lokietek. The people Polish 

widoeznie wzrastala, liezba wsi i miast pomnozyla sifj, 
visibly increased, the number of villages and cities augmented itself 

i wielu Polakow szlo' w Litw§ j na Rus, fortuny szukae. 
and many Poles went to Lithuania and to Russia, fortunes to seek. 

Licznych ksi^stw stolice podnozqc sit; pociqgnqly za 
Of many principalities, the capitals raising themselves, drew after 

sobq wzrost wielu innyeh miast. Murowano koseioly 
them the growth of many other cities. They built of stone churches 

i klasztory a w miastach i domy. Po dworach szla- 
and convents, and in the cities also houses. In the abodes belong- 



02 


POLISH GRAMMAR. 


cheekich i znainienitszych wiejskich domach, mozna 

ing to gentlemen, and notable country bouses possible 

bylo widzic piece i w scianie pomieszezone z wyprowad-. 
it was to see stoves, and in tbe wall placed with built 

-zona, nad daeh szyja, kominy, eo nie malo, do wygody 
up above roof projection chimneys, which not a little to convenience 

i zdrowia przyczynilo. Okna byly niewielkie, ale szklanne. 
and health contributed. The windows were small, but made of glass. 

Szklo rozpow^zeehnialo si§. Obok dawnyeh drzewnianyeh, 
(The use of) glass spread itself. By the side of old wooden, 

glinianych lub metalowych kubkow i baniek stawaly 

earthen or metallic goblets and cups stood 

skleniee i butelki. Polewane gliniane naczynia, coraz w 
glasses and bottles. Glazed earthen vessels, always in 

lepszym gatunku upowszechnialy si§. Do ubioru 
the best Style - developed themselves. For the furniture 

i mieszkan, wiejcej bylo potrzeba kobiercovv, wybor- 
also of the dwellings more was need of carpets, most 

niejszego sukna i jedwabnyeh materyj rownie po dworacb 
excellent linen and silk materials, equally at the courts 

jak przez mieszczan uzywanych. 
as among the burghers used. 

The following points of syntax in this passage seem 
worthy of special attention: — 

Nie mozna, used impersonally, as explained on page 50. 
With this may be compared bylo potrzeba, like the Latin 
opus fait, a few lines further on. 

Byi biednq :—this construction, very much used in the 
Slavonic languages, is explained on page 58. 



SYNTAX. 


63 


Zycia niedostawalo : observe genitive with the .negative, 
page 56. 

IFsi, gen. plural of the somewhat irregular fem. noun 
wie's, ‘ a village.’ 

Pomnozyla siy : observe the dislike of the Polish language 
to the ordinary passive form. 

Wielu Polakow szlo, page 59, a curious idiom. 

Murowano : this idiom is explained on page 49. 

Pomieszczone . hominy : observe the arrangement 

of these words, and compare with remarks on page 61. 















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on 05 October, 2018