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Full text of "The Great Works of Raphael Sanzio of Urbino; a series of thirty photographs from the best engravings of his most celebrated paintings, with descriptions, translated from Passavant’s Rafael von Urbino und Sein Vater, Vasari’s Life of Raphael and an appendix, containing a classified list of the principal paintings of the artist, 3rd ed."

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HE world never tires of its best work. For more 
than three centuries the paintings of Raphael have 
been the admiration of mankind; they have been 
reproduced in every country and in every variety of 
style, and they are ever welcome. The famous engravings from his 
most celebrated works, by Raphael Morghen, Longhi, Desnoyers, 
Garavaglia, Muller, Toschi, and other eminent men, delighted 
connoisseurs for many years, and are reckoned among the foremost 
achievements of the engraver s art; but now they have become very 
rare, and can only be seen in the portfolios of the wealthy. Luckily 
for all lovers of art a new aid has lately sprung up which olfers the 
present generation a wonderful advantage. The marvellous power of 
Photography has rarely been more beautifully shown than in the 
reproduction of these magnificent engravings. Line for line the 
miniature copy reproduces the work of the original; and though 
the grandeur and brilliancy of the first proofs cannot be obtained, a 



delicate and thoroughly accurate transcript is secured, which charms 
and satisfies the eye, . 

The Editor has selected thirty of the most justly celebrated of 
Raphael’s works to form the illustrations of the present work. To 
the well-known Life of Raphael by Giorgio Yasari, (which is fully 
annotated by the translator, Mrs. Foster,) he has added, from 
Passavant’s “ Rafael von Urbino,” further descriptions of those 
pictures which are here represented; and at the end of the volume 
he has given, from the same authority, a complete list of the 
authenticated works of the “ divine artist.” 


. . Pa K e 

. V**^ Marriage op the Virgin (Lo Sposalizio). In the Brera, at 

\w§uO^ Milan. From the engraving by Longhi .... 4 

(iWffJti 2- The Madonna with thf. Goldfinch (del Cardellino). In the 

ffif&TsT 'KIK 5 Florence Gallery. From the engraving by Raphael Morgiien 6 

3. The Holy Family, with the Palm-Tbef,. In the Bridge- 

water Gallery, From the engraving by Martinet . . 8 

4. Saint Catherine of Alexandria. In the National Gallery. From the engraving 

by Desnoyers ..10 

5. The Entombment. In the Borgbese Palace, at Rome. From the engraving by 

Amsler ... . ......... 12 

6. The Madonna. La Belle Jardiniere. In the Louvre, at Paris. From the engraving 

by Desnoyers ..14 

7. The School of Athens. In the Chamber of the “ Scgnatura” in the Vatican. From 

the engraving by Volpato ..16 

8. The Judgment of Solomon. In the chamber of the “ Segnatura” in the Vatican. 

From the engraving by Anderloni ......... 18 

9. The Madonna della Gasa ddAlba. Now in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg. From 

the engraving by Desnoyers . . . . . . • . . . • . 20 

10. The Madonna, Aldobrandini. (Lord Garvagli’s). Now in the National Gallery. 

From the engraving by Bridoux .... . .... 22 

11. Galatea. A Fresco in the Farnesina Palace, at Rome. From the engraving by 

Richommb ............. 24 

12. The Madonna di Fuligno. In the Vatican, at Rome. From the engraving by Des¬ 

noyebs .............. 26 

13. The Madonna with the Diadem, (au linge). In the Louvre, at Paris. From the 

engraving by Desnoyers ..28 

14. Heliodorus driven from the Temple. In the Chamber of “ Heliodorus” in the 

Vatican. From the engraving by Anderloni . . ..... 30 

15. The Madonna del Pesce (au poisson). In the Escurial, Madrid. From the engraving 

by Desnoyers . ..32 



16. St. Cecilia. In the Museum at Bologna. From the engraving by Raphael 

Massard ..34 

17. The Vision of Ezekiel. In the Pitti Palace, Florence. From the engraving by 

Paolo Caeonni ...... .36 

18. Pope Reo %. with the Cabdinals Giulio de Medici and Lodovico de Rossi. In 

the Pitti Palace, Florence. From the engraving by Jesi ..... 38 

19. The Masonna della Sedia. In the Pitti Palace, Florence. From the engraving by 

Gabavaglia ........ .... .40 

20. Christ Bearing His Cross, (Lo Spasimo di Sicilia). In the Madrid Museum. From 

the engraving by Toschi ...... ..... 42 

21. The Madonna del Passeggio. In the Bridgewater Gallery. From the engraving by 

AndRrlont .. 44 

22. The Madonna della Tenda. In the Pinaeotheca, at Munich. From the engraving by 

Toschi ..46 

23. The Madonna di San Sisto {La Vierge de Saint-Sixte). In the Dresden Gallery. 

From the engraving by Muller .... .... .48 

24. The Archangel St. Michael. In the Louvre, at Paris. From the engraving by 

Alexander Tardijju ........... 50 

25. Portrait of a Rady (Beatrice of Ferrara ?). In the Tribune, at Florence. From 

the engraving by Raphael Morghen ........ 52 

26. The Transfiguration. In the Vatican, at Rome. From the engraving by Raphael 

Morghrn ........ ..... 54 

27. Joan of Arragon. In the Louvre, at Paris. (The bust only). From the engraving 

by Refevee ........ . 58 

28. Bindo Altoviti. In the Pinaeotheca, at Munich. From the engraving by Raphael 

MoeghEn. (See page 37). ..60 

29. Raphael at Fifteen. In the Louvre, at Paris. From the engraving by F. Forster 


30. Raphael at Twenty-three. In the Gallery of Painters’ Portraits, at Florence. From 

the engraving by Desnoyers .......... 64 

Photographed by Messrs. Cundall and Fleming-, New Bond Street. 


[E large and liberal hand wherewith Heaven is sometimes 
pleased to accumulate the infinite riches of its treasures on 
the head of one sole favourite,—showering on him all those 
rare gifts and graces which are more commonly distributed 
among a larger number of individuals, and accorded at 
long intervals of time only,—has been clearly exemplified in the well-known 
instance of Raphael Sanzio of Urbino. 

No less excellent than graceful, he was endowed by nature with all that 
modesty and goodness which may occasionally be pereeived in those few 
favoured persons who enhance the gracious sweetness of a disposition more 
than usually gentle, by the fair ornament of a winning amenity, always ready 
to conciliate, and constantly giving evidence of the most refined consideration 
for all persons and under every circumstance. The world received the gift of 
this artist from the hand of nature when, vanquished by art in the person of 
Michael Angelo, she deigned to be subjugated in that of Raphael, not by art 
only but by goodness also. And of a truth, since the greater number of 
artists had up to that period derived from nature a certain rudeness and 
eccentricity which not only rendered them-uncouth and fantastic, but often 




caused the shadows and darkness of vice to be more conspicuous in their 
lives than the light and splendour of those virtues by which man is rendered 
immortal; so was there good cause wherefore she should, on the contrary, 
make all the rarest qualities of the heart to shine resplendently in her 
Raphael, perfecting them by so much diffidence, grace, application to study, 
and excellence of life, that these alone would have sufficed to veil or 
neutralize every fault, however important, and to efface all defects, however 
glaring they might have been. Truly may we affirm that those who are the 
possessors of endowments so rich and varied as were assembled in the person 
of Raphael, are scarcely to be called simple men only, they are rather, if it 
be permitted so to speak, entitled to the appellation of mortal gods; and 
further are we authorized to declare, that he who by means of his works has 
left an honoured name in the records of fame here below, may also hope to 
enjoy such rewards in heaven as are commensurate to and worthy of their 
labours and merits. 

Raphael was born at Urbino, a most renowned city of Italy, on Good 
Friday 1 of the year 1483, at three o’clock of the night. 2 His father was a 
certain Giovanni Sanzio, a painter of no great eminence in his art, 3 but a 
man of sufficient intelligence, nevertheless, and perfectly competent to direct 
his children into that good way which had not for his misfortune been laid 
open to himself in his younger days. And first, as he knew how important 
it is that a child should be nourished by the milk of its own mother, and not 

1 On the 28th of March, according to the Julian Calendar, but by the Astronomical Tables, on 
the 26th. Longhena, Istoria, Sfc, di Raffaello Sanzio del Sig. Quatremere de Quincy. Milan, 1829. 

2 About nine in the evening at this season of the year, the Italians commencing the enumeration 
of the hours at one hour after sunset. 

3 As compared with his son, that is to say; hut on comparing the works of Giovanni with those 
of the masters his contemporaries, he will be seen to have been rather a good than a merely tolerable 
painter. Paintings from his hand are still to be seen at Urbino, as well as in Fano, Pesaro, Montefiore, 
Gradara, and Cagli, with some others in the Brera (Milan). See Passavant, Rafael von Urbino und 
sein Voter Giovanni Santi. Leipzig, 1839, vol. i. See also the Appendix to that work. 



by that of the hired nurse, 1 so he determined when his son Raphael (to 
whom he gave that name at his baptism, as being one of good augury) was 
born to him, that the mother of the child, 2 3 he having no other, as indeed he 
never had more, 8 should herself be the nurse of the child. Giovanni further 
desired that in its tender years the boy should rather be brought up to the 
habits of his own family, and beneath his paternal roof, than be sent where 
he must acquire habits and manners less refined, and modes of thought less 
commendable, in the houses of the peasantry, or other untaught persons. 4 5 * * 
As the child became older, Giovanni began to instruct him in the first 
principles of painting, perceiving that he was much inclined to that art and 
finding him to be endowed with a most admirable genius; few years had 
passed therefore before Raphael, though still but a child, became a valuable 
assistant to his father in the numerous works which the latter executed in 
the State of Urbino.® 

At length this good and affectionate parent, knowing that his son would 

1 The pertinence of this remark will be more obvious if we remember that, while in our own 
country the practice of employing hired nurses is comparatively rare, and is usually confined to cases 
of strict necessity, on the continent, but more especially in France, it is, on the contrary, the almost 
invariable practice of matrons in all ranks to confide their infants to the care of the hireling. 

2 The mother of Raphael was Magia, daughter of Giovanni-Battista Oiarla; she died in 1491, 
when Giovanni Sanzio married Bernardina, daughter of the gold-worker, Pietro di Parte ; this woman 
is said by some writers to have caused Raphael much vexation at a later period, and after his father’s 
death; by others she is affirmed, on the contrary, to have been at all times among his best friends.— 
See Passavant, ut supra. See also Longhena, Istoria, tyc, di Ilaffaello Sanzio, fyc, 

3 When Raphael was born, Giovanni Sanzio had already one son, but this child died in 1485. 
He had afterwards one, or, as some authors say, two daughters. 

4 We have numerous testimonies to the fact that Giovanni was a man of refined habits and highly 
cultivated mind. See, among other writers, Pungileoni, Elogio Storico di Giovanni Santi Pittore e 
Poeta, &c. Urbino, 1822. 

5 Since Giovanni died in 1494, when Raphael was but eleven years old, the latter could not have 
assisted his father in any but the most unimportant labours of their Vocation, unless indeed we are to 

suppose in him an instance of that precocity of genius which is exemplified in Mozart and some few 

others, whose powers have been developed in their earliest youth, but who have for the most part 

become exhausted before the attainment of more than half the common age of man.— Schorn. 


acquire but little of his art from himself, resolved to place him with Pietro 
Perugino, 1 who, according to what Giovanni had been told, was then 
considered to hold the first place among the painters of the time. Where¬ 
fore, proceeding to Perugia for that purpose, and finding Pietro to be absent 
from the city, he occupied himself, to the end that he might await the return 
of the master with the less inconvenience, in the execution of certain works 
for the Church of San Francesco 2 in that place. But when Pietro had 
returned to Perugia, Giovanni, who was a person of very good manners and 
pleasing deportment, 3 soon formed an amicable acquaintanceship with him, 
and when the proper opportunity arrived, made known to him the desire he 
had conceived, in the most suitable manner that he could devise. Thereupon 
Pietro, who was also exceedingly courteous, as well as a lover of fine genius, 
agreed to accept the care of Raphael; Giovanni then returned to Urbino; 
and having taken the boy, though not without many tears from his mother, 
who loved him tenderly, he conducted him to Perugia; when Pietro no 
sooner beheld his manner of drawing, and observed the pleasing deportment 
of the youth, than he conceived that opinion of him which was in due time 
so amply confirmed by the results produced in the after life of Raphael. 4 

It is a well-known fact that while studying the manner of Pietro, Raphael 
imitated it so exactly at all points, that his copies cannot be distinguished 

1 The best authorities affirm that Raphael received his first instructions from Luca Signorelli and 
Timoteo Viti, who were at that time in Urbino; they add that he was placed with Perugino by the 
care of his uncle Simone Ciarla, and that of his guardian, Don Bartolommeo. 

2 It cannot now be ascertained that there has ever been any work in Perugia by Giovanni Sanzio, 
nor is the visit to Perugia here described authenticated by any known documents. 

3 Many writers concur to prove that Giovanni Sanzio was, as we have said, a man of gentle 
disposition, refined habits, and pleasing manners ; he was also a follower of the muses, and composed 
“ a work not without merit,” observes an Italian commentator, “ to the praise of the Count and Duke 
of Urbino.” Dr. Gaye has likewise made mention of a Chronicle in Rhyme, by Giovanni Sanzio. See 
the Kunlsblatt for 1836, JVo. 86. 

* For this portion of Raphael’s life, and for details respecting his fellow students, see Passavant, 
Rafael von Urbino, &o. lib. lv. 



this celebrated picture, generally known as Lo Sposalizio St. Joseph, who 
.ancls on the right hand, is placing the wedding-ring on the finger of the 
Virgin, who is opposite him, while the priest holds their hands. The Virgin is attended 
by five young women, and St. Joseph by five young men. The latter are former 
suitors for the hand of Mary. The most handsome of them breaks his reed, which 
would not bloom, upon his knee; the second also breaks his reed, and the others raise 
theirs in the air. In the background is a temple with sixteen sides, surrounded by a 
colonnade. On the moulding of the arcade is written Raphael . vrbinas . mdiiii. 

This picture was painted for the church of St. Francesco at Citt& di Castello, where 
it remained for nearly three centuries, until it was taken, in 1798, by General Lechi, 
the commander of a French brigade. It afterwards passed into the hands of Count 
Salazar, who left it to the Ospedale Maggiore at Milan. It is now in the Brera.— 



from the original works of the master, 1 nor can the difference between the 
performances of Raphael and those of Pietro be discerned with any certainty. 
This is proved clearly by certain figures still to be seen in Perugia, and which 
the former executed in a picture painted in oil in the Church of San Francesco, 
for Madonna Maddalena degl’ Oddi. 2 The subject of this work is the 
Assumption of the Virgin, and the figures here alluded to are those of Our 
Lady and of the Saviour himself, who is in the act of crowning her; beneath 
them and around the tomb are the Apostles, who contemplate the celestial 
glory, and at the foot of the painting, in a predella divided into three stories, 
is the Virgin receiving the Annunciation from the Angel, the Adoration of 
the Magi, and the Infant Christ in the Temple, with Simeon, who receives 
the Divine Child into his arms. This painting is without doubt executed 
with extraordinary diligence, and all who have not a thorough knowledge of 
the manner of Pietro will assuredly take it to be a work of that master, 
whereas it is most certainly by the hand of Raphael. 3 

After the completion of this picture, Pietro repaired for certain of his 
occasions to Florence, when Raphael departed from Perugia and proceeded 
with several of his friends to Citta di Castello, where he painted a picture, in 
the same manner, for the church of Sant’ Agostino, with one representing the 
crucified Saviour for that of San Domenico; which last, if it were' not for the 
name of Raphael written upon it, would be supposed by every one to be a 
work of Pietro Perugino. 4 For the church of San Francesco in the same city 

1 Minute details respecting the earliest works of Raphael in Perugia will be found in Passavant, 
ut supra. 

2 This picture was among those transported to Paris, but when restored to Italy was “ not replaced 
in Perugia, hut taken possession of by Rome,” observes a justly dissatisfied native of the former city. 

3 Now in the Vatican. 

4 The picture painted for Sant’ Agostino represented the coronation of St. Nicholas of Tolentino, 
who tramples the figure of Lucifer beneath his feet, while the Almighty Father is seen in the heavens 
above. This work was lost amidst the disorders of the French domination, in the first years of the 
present century. The Crucifix was formerly in the collection of Cardinal Fesch. 



he painted a small picture representing the espousals of Our Lady, and in this 
work the progress of excellence may be distinctly traced in the manner of 
Raphael, which is here much refined, and greatly surpasses that of Pietro. 1 
In the painting here in question, there is a church drawn in perspective with 
so much care that one cannot but feel amazed at the difficulty of the problem 
which the artist has set himself to solve. 

While Raphael was thus acquiring the greatest fame by the pursuit of this 
manner, the painting Df the library belonging to the Cathedral of Siena had 
been entrusted by Pope Pius III. 2 to Bernardino Pinturicchio, who was a 
friend of Raphael’s, and, knowing him to be an excellent designer, took the 
latter with him to Siena. Here Raphael made Pinturicchio certain of the 
designs and cartoons for that work ; 3 nor would the young artist have failed 
to continue there, but for the reports which had reached him concerning 
Leonardo da Vinci, of whose merits he heard many painters of Siena speak 
in terms of the highest praise. They more especially celebrated the cartoon 
which Leonardo had prepared in the Sala del Papa at Florence, for a most 
beautiful group of horses which was to be executed for the Great Hall of 
the Palace. They likewise mentioned another cartoon, representing nude 
figures, and made by Michael Angelo Buonarroti, in competition with 
Leonardo, whom he had on that occasion greatly surpassed. These dis¬ 
courses awakened in Raphael so ardent a desire to behold the works thus 
commended, that, moved by the love he ever bore to excellence in art, 
and setting aside all thought of his own interest or convenience, he at once 
proceeded to Florence. 4 

1 This is tte celebrated picture of the “ Sposalizio,” now in the Brera. 

8 Then Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini, who afterwards became Pope Pius III. 

s It will be found that in the life of Pinturicchio, Vasari attributes to Raphael all the designs 
and cartoons for this work. 

* The first visit of Raphael to Florence took place in 1504, as we learn from a letter bearing 
date 1st October in that year, from Giovanni, Duchess of Sora, sister of the Duke of Urbino, to Piero 
Soderini, who was then Gonfaloniere of the Florentine Republic, which Raphael took with him, and 



Virgin, seated in a meadow, is holding a book in her left hand, and is 
dng with tenderness upon the little St. John, who offers a goldfinch to the 
Infant Jesus; the Holy Child is leaning against his mother’s knees and evidently wishing 
to caress the bird. 

This picture was broken in 1547, when the house of Lorenzo Nasi, at Florence, 
fell to the ground. It was afterwards restored.— Passavcmt. 



Arrived in that place, he found the city please him equally with the works 
he had come to see, although the latter appeared to him divine; he therefore 
determined to remain there for some time, and soon formed a friendly intimacy 
with several young painters, among whom were Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Aristotele 
San Gallo, and others. He was, indeed, much esteemed in that city, but 
above all by Taddeo Taddei , 1 who, being a great admirer of distinguished 
talent, desired to have him always in his house and at his table. Thereupon 
Raphael, who was kindliness itself, that he might not be surpassed in 
generosity and courtesy, painted two pictures for Taddeo, wherein there are 


traces of his first manner, derived from Pietro, and also of that much better 
one which he acquired at a later period by study, as will be related hereafter. 
These pictures are still carefully preserved by the heirs of the above-named 
Taddeo . 2 Raphael also formed a close friendship with Lorenzo Nasi; and 
the latter, having taken a wife at that time, Raphael painted a picture for 
him, wherein he represented Our Lady with the Infant Christ, to whom San 
Giovanni, also a child, is joyously offering a bird, which is causing infinite 
delight and gladness to both the children. In the attitude of each there is a 
childlike simplicity of the utmost loveliness: they are besides so admirably 
coloured, and finished with so much care, that they seem more like living 
beings than mere paintings. Equally good is the figure of the Madonna: it 
has an air of singular grace and even divinity, while all the rest of the work— 
the foreground, the surrounding landscape, and every other particular, are 

wherein she calls the painter himself “ a discreet and amiable youth.” The cartoons prepared by 
Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo, in competition with each other, were not completed till the 
year 1506. See, for more minute details respecting this period of the life of Raphael, Longhena, 
Istoria della Vita, <fcc, Munich, 1824; Rehberg, Rafael Sanzio ; Platner and Bunsen, Beschreibung 
der Stadt Rom ; Passavant, Pungileoni, and others. 

1 What Vasari here relates must have taken place at a subsequent period, perhaps on the 
occasion of Raphael’s second, or, as some say, third visit, when he remained in Florence from 1506 to 
1508, and may then have seen the Cartoons of Leonardo and Michael Angelo. 

2 They were both pictures of the Madonna, one is in the gallery of the Belvidere, at Vienna; the 
other, which represents the whole of the Holy Family, is in the Bridgewater collection. 



exceedingly beautiful. 1 This picture was held in the highest estimation by 
Lorenzo Nasi so long as he lived, not only because it was a memorial of 
Raphael, who had been so much his friend, but on account of the dignity and 
excellence of the whole composition: but on the 9th of August, in the year 
1548, the work was destroyed by the sinking down of the hill of San Giorgio; 
when the house of Lorenzo was overwhelmed by T the fallen masses, together 
with the beautiful and richly decorated dwelling of the heirs of Marco del 
Nero, and many other buildings. It is true that the fragments of the picture 
were found among the ruins of the house, and were put together in the best 
manner that he could contrive, by Batista the son of Lorenzo, who was a 
great lover of art. 

After having completed these works, Raphael was himself compelled to 
leave Florence and repair to Urbino, where his mother and Giovanni his 
father having both died, his affairs were in much confusion. 2 While thus 
abiding in Urbino, he painted two pictures of the Madonna for Guidobaldo of 
Montefeltro, who was then Captain-general of the Florentines; these pictures 
are both small, but are exceedingly beautiful examples of Raphael’s second 
manner; they are now in the possession of the most illustrious and most 
excellent Guidobaldo, Duke of Urbino. 3 For the same noble, the master 
executed another small picture representing Christ praying in the garden, 
with three of the Apostles, who are sleeping at some distance, 4 and which is 
so beautifully painted that it could scarcely be either better or otherwise 

1 Our readers will remember that this is among the most admired works now adorning the 
Tribune of the Florentine Gallery. 

2 For various details respecting this period of Raphael’s life, see Passavant, Rafael von Urbino 
und sein Voter, &c. 

3 The authorities in this question are inclined to believe that one of these pictures is now in the 
Imperial Gallery of St. Petersburg; the other is said to be in England. Leclanche suggests that 
these may be the Madonnas engraved by Crozat. 

4 This work, which belongs to those executed in the early manner of the master, is now in Rome, 
in the possession of the Prince Gabrielli.— Passavant. 



HE Virgin, seated upon a bank beneath a palm tree, is holding on her knee the 
Infant Jesus, whom she has encircled with the end of her veil. To the left, 
St. Joseph is kneeling to present flowers to the child, who is receiving them with an 
expression of exquisite sweetness. In the background is seen a' valley planted with 

This picture was bought from the collection of the Duke,of Orleans by the Duke 
of Bridgewater for £1200.— Passavant. 



were it even in miniature. After having been long in the possession of 
Francesco Maria, Duke of Urhino, this picture was presented by the most 
illustrious lady, his consort, the Duchess Leonora, to the Venetians, Don 
Paolo Giustiniano and Don Pietro Quirini, brothers of the Holy Hermitage 
of Camaldoli, and was placed by them, like a relic or sacred thing, in the 
apartments of the principal of that Hermitage, where it remains, honoured 
both as a memorial of that illustrious lady and as being from the hand of 
Raphael of Urbino. 

Having completed these works and arranged his affairs, Raphael returned 
to Perugia, where he painted a picture of Our Lady with San Giovanni 
Battista and San Niccolo, for the Chapel of the Ansidei Family, in the 

Church of the Servites : l and at the Monastery of San Severo, a small 

Convent of the Order of Camaldoli, in the same city, he painted a fresco for 
the Chapel of Our Lady. The subject of this work is Christ in Glory* with 
God the Father, surrounded by Angels, and six figures of Saints seated, 
three on each side: San Benedetto, San Romualdo, and San Lorenzo, on the 

one side namely; with San Girolamo, San Mauro, and San Placido, on the 

other. Beneath this picture, which, for a work in fresco, was then considered 
very beautiful, Raphael wrote his name in large and clearly legible letters. 2 
In the same city Raphael was commissioned to paint a picture of Our Lady 
by the nuns of Sant’ Antonio of Padua; the Infant Christ is in the lap of 
the Virgin and is fully clothed, as it pleased those simple and pious ladies 
that he should be ; on each side of Our Lady are figures of saints, San 
Pietro namely, with San Paolo, Santa Cecilia, and Santa Catarini. 3 To 

1 Now in the possession of the Duke of Marlborough at Blenheim: it hears the date 1505 ; on 
the Predella is the preaching of John the Baptist, but this part of the work is or was in the collection 
of Lord Lansdowne. 

2 Having suffered much injury, this fresco was restored some years since by the painter, Giuseppe 
Carattoli. The upper part only was painted by Raphael, the lowermost portion being the work of 
Perugino. The inscription was not added until after Raphael’s death. See Passavant. 

3 An Italian writer calls this figure St. Margaret; the German commentators, on the contrary, 




these two holy virgins the master has given the most lovely features and 
most graceful attitudes; he has also adorned them with the most fanciful and 
varied head-dresses that could he imagined—a very unusual thing at that 
time. In a lunette above this picture he painted a figure of the Almighty 
Father, which is extremely fine, and on the Predella are three scenes from 
the history of Christ, in very small figures. The first of these represents the 
Saviour praying in the garden; in the second he is seen bearing the cross, 
and here the movements and attitudes of certain soldiers who are dragging 
him along, are singularly beautiful; the third shows him lying dead in the 
lap of the Madonna. 1 The whole work is without doubt very admirable: it 
is full of devout feeling, and is held in the utmost veneration by the nuns for 
whom it was painted. 2 It is very highly commended by all painters likewise. 

But I will not omit to mention in this place, that after Raphael had been 
to Florence, he is known to have much changed and improved his manner, 
from having seen the many works by excellent masters to be found in that 
city; nay, the manner afterwards adopted by him was so little in common 
with his earlier one, that the works executed in the latter might be supposed 
to be by a different hand, and one much less excellent in the art. 

Before Raphael had left Perugia, he had been requested by Madonna 
Atalanta Baglioni to paint a picture for her chapel in the church of San 
Francesco, 3 but as he could not at that time comply with her wishes, he 
promised that on his return from Florence, whither he was then obliged to 

proceed for certain affairs, he would not fail to do so. While hi Florence, 


though equally declaring that it does not represent St. Cecilia, consider it to be intended for St. 
Rosalie, but the garland of flowers which it bears, and which might seem to imply that this opinion is 
well-founded, is in fact also worn of right by St. Cecilia, as it is by St. Dorothea, and, perhaps, by 
other saints. This part of the painting is now at Naples, in the Museo Borbonico. 

1 This portion of the work is in England.— Passavant-. 

2 But was sold by their successors in the convent for two thousand scudi. 

3 “ Vasari is mistaken,” remarks Bottari, “ the church is that of San Bernardino, and not San 
Francesco .”—Roman Edition of Vasari, 1759. 



. CATHERINE is seen resting her right hand on her breast, and her left 
arm on a wheel, the instrument of her martyrdom. Her face is raised, with an 
expression of divine enthusiasm, towards a ray of light coining from heaven. In 
the background is a river bordered with trees and houses. 

This picture was formerly in the Aldobrandini Palace at Rome. It afterwards 
became the property of Mr. Beckford, from whom it was purchased for the National 
Gallery.— Passavant. 



therefore, where he devoted himself with indescribable energy and applica¬ 
tion to the studies connected with his art, he prepared the cartoon for this 
chapel, with the intention of proceeding to execute it in San Francesco on 
the first opportunity that might present itself for doing so,—a work which 
he afterwards accomplished. 

While Raphael was thus sojourning in Florence, Agnolo Doni was dwelling 
in that city; now Agnolo was averse to spending money for other things, but 
for paintings or sculptures, in which he greatly delighted, he would willingly 
pay, although he still did so as frugally as was possible. By him, therefore, 
Raphael was commissioned to paint a portrait of himself, as well as that of 
his wife, and both were executed, as we now see them; they are in the 
possession of Agnolo’s son, Giovanni Battista, in the house which Agnolo 
built most handsomely and commodiously, at the corner of the Alberti, in 
the street of the Dyers, in Florence. 1 

For Domenico Canigiani, Raphael also painted a picture, wherein he 
represented the Madonna with the Infant Christ; the divine Child is caressing 
the little San Giovanni, who is brought to him by Santa Elizabeth ; and the 
latter, while holding the boy, looks with a most animated countenance at St. 
Joseph, who stands leaning with both hands on his staff; he bends his head 
towards her with an expression of astonishment and of praise to God, whose 
greatness had bestowed this young child on a mother already so far advanced 
in years. All appear to be amazed at the manner in which the two cousins 
treat each other at an age so tender, the one evincing his reverence for the 
Saviour, the other affectionately caressing his companion. Every touch of 
the pencil in the heads, hands, and feet of this work has produced such effect 
that the parts seem rather to be of the living flesh than the mere colours of 
the painter, however able a master of his art. This most noble picture is 

1 They were sold by the descendants of Agnolo Doni to Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
and now make part of the magnificent collection in the Pitti palace. They are engraved in Longhena. 
See Passavant. 



now in the possession of the heirs of Domenico Canigiana, by whom it is held 
in all that esteem which is due to a work of Raphael of Urbino. 1 

While in the city of Florence this most excellent painter studied the 
ancient works of Masaccio, and what he saw hi the labours of Leonardo and 
Michael Angelo caused him still more zealously to prosecute his studies; he 
consequently attained to an extraordinary amelioration of manner, and made 
still further progress in art. Among other artists, Raphael formed a close 
intimacy with Fra Bartolommeo di San Marco, during his abode in Florence, 
the manner of that master pleasing him greatly, wherefore he took no small 
pains to imitate his colouring, teaching that good father on his part the rules 
of perspective, to which the monk had not previously given his attention. 

But just when this intercourse was most frequent and intimate, Raphael 
was recalled to Perugia; here the first work which he performed was that in 
the church of San Francesco, where he completed the painting j>romised to 
the above-named Madonna Atalanta Baglioni, for which he had prepared the 
cartoon in Florence, as we have said. In this most divine picture there is 
a dead Christ, whom they are bearing to the sepulchre, the body painted 
with so much care and freshness that it appears to have been only just com¬ 
pleted. When occupied with the composition of this work, Raphael had 
imagined to himself all the grief and pain with which the nearest and most 
affectionate relatives see borne to the tomb the corpse of one who has been 
most dear to them, and on whom has, in truth, depended all the honour and 
welfare of the entire family. Our Lady is seen to be sinking insensible, and 
the heads of all the weeping figures are exceedingly graceful; that of San 
Giovanni more particularly, his hands are clasped together, and he bends his 
head with an expression which cannot but move the hardest heart to com- 

1 This work is believed by certain Italian writers to be at Rome, in the possession of the Marchese 
Rinuccini, but that picture is declared by other authorities to be a copy only, the original being, as they 
affirm, in the Pinacoteca at Munich. See Passavant. See also Rumohr, Jtalienische Forschungen, 
vol. iii. p. 65. 



MfWO young men are carrying the body of Christ to the tomb. The elder of the 
two, who is on' the left side of the picture, is walking backwards up the steps 
which lead to the sepulchre ; the other holds the feet of Jesus. Mary Magdalene, who 
has come to take a last look at the much-loved features of Christ, has taken his left 
hand. Behind her is Joseph of Arimathea, and leaning upon him is St. John, clasping 
his hands in grief. To the right is the Virgin, who is fainting in the arms of three 
women, one of whom is crouching on the ground. In the background is Mount 
Calvary, with the three crosses: 

This picture Was painted in the year 1507, for the altar of the church of the 

Franciscans at Perugia, and remained there till the monks sold it, in 1607, to Pope 
Paul V, who placed it in the Borg\hese palace.— Passavant. 



passion. Truly may we say that whoever shall consider the diligence and 
love, the art and grace exhibited in this work, has good reason to feel as¬ 
tonishment, and it does indeed awaken admiration in all who behold it, not 
only for the expression of the heads, but for the beauty of the draperies, and 
in short for the perfection of excellence which it displays in all its parts. 1 

When Raphael, having completed his work, had returned to Florence, he 
received a commission from the Dei, Florentine citizens, to paint the altar- 
piece for their chapel in the church of Santo Spirito: this painting the master 
commenced and made considerable progress with the sketch for it, 2 he likewise 
prepared a picture at the same time which was afterwards sent to Siena, but 
had first to be left with Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, on the departure of Raphael, to 
the end that he might finish an azure vestment which was still wanting when 
Raphael left Florence. 3 And this last event happened from the circumstance 
that Bramante of Urbino, being in the service of pope Julius II, for some 
little relationship that he had with Raphael and because they were of the 
same place, had written to the latter, informing him that he had prevailed 
with the Pope to entrust certain rooms which 'the Pontiff had caused to be 
built in the Vatican to his care, and that therein he might give evidence of 
his ability. The proposal gratified Raphael, and he left his works in Florence 
unfinished, the picture for the Dei family among the rest, but this last was in 
such a state that Messer Baldassare da Pescia afterwards, on the death of 

1 This justly celebrated work was purchased by Pope Paul V, for the Borghese Gallery, where it 
long remained. The tympan belonging to this picture, representing God the Father, with uplifted 
hands, is still in the Church of San Francesco, at Perugia. The Predella is in the Vatican.— Passavant. 

2 This is the picture called the Madonna del Baldachino, now in the Pitti Palace, and still in 
its unfinished state, although much restored: the work remained in Pescia until the end of the 
seventeenth century, when it was purchased- at a very high price by the Grand Duke Ferdinand. The 
restoration was effected by G. A. Cassana. See Passavant, wt supra. 

3 The picture sent to Siena is that called La Belle Jardiniere, purchased by Francis I. of France, 
and now in the Louvre. For the conflicting opinions respecting the work painted by Kidolfo 
Ghirlandajo, see Passavant, Waagen, RuntswerTce und Kuntsler in Paris, and Bumohr, who agrees 
with the latter in the belief that the Madonna of the Colonna Palace is that completed by Ridolfo 
Ghirlandajo. Engraved by Desnoyers. 



Raphael that is to say, caused it to be placed in the chapter-house of his 
native city. 1 2 The master then proceeded to Rome, where he found, on his 
arrival, that a large part of the rooms in the palace had already been painted, 
or were in process of being painted, by different masters. In one of these 
apartments, for example, there was an historical picture painted by Piero 
della Francesca; Luca da Cortona 3 had made considerable progress in the 
painting of one side of another; Don Pietro della Gatta, 3 abbot of San 
Clemente in Arezzo, had also commenced certain works in the same place, 
and Bramantino of Milan had painted numerous figures there, the greater 
part of which were portraits from the life, which were considered to be 
exceedingly beautiful. 4 On his arrival in Rome, Raphael was received with 
much kindness by Pope Julius, and commenced a picture in the chamber of 
the Segnatura, the subject of which is, Theologians engaged in the recon¬ 
ciliation of Philosophy and Astrology with Theology. 5 In this work are 
depicted all the sages of the world, arranged in different groups, and 
occupied with various disputations. There are certain astrologers standing 
apart who have made figures and characters of geomancy 6 and astrology, on 
tablets which they send by beautiful angels to the evangelists, who explain 

1 Pungileoni, Vita di Baffaelo, affirms that Bramante was not related to Raphael, and was but 
his fellow townsman and acquaintance; other writers suggest that the introduction to Julius II. was 
most probably effected by the young Duke of Urbino, Francesco Maria della Rovere, to whom Raphael 
had been known from childhood. 

2 Of this work, Vasari does not make mention in the life of Luca da Cortona (Luca Signorelli), 
which precedes that of Raphael. 

3 Don Bartolommeo della Gatta, in whose life Vasari speaks only of works in the Sistine Chapel, 
omitting all mention of those here alluded to. 

1 There is much confusion in this passage. Piero della Francesca and Bramantino having 
painted in the Vatican under Pope Nicholas V, Bartolommeo della Gatta and Luca Signorelli under 
Sistus IV, and only Perugino and Sodoma during the pontificate of Julius II. See Platner and 
Bunsen, Beschreibung der Stadt Bom. 

5 “ The School of Athens.” * 

8 Geometrical and astronomical figures are here meant. Astronomy and astrology were identical, 
as our readers will remember, when our author wrote, in the ideas of all but the learned. 



beautiful picture is thus named because the Virgin is sitting upon a bank of 
les in a meadow richly covered with plants and flowers. The Holy Mother 
is gazing with unspeakable sweetness upon the Infant Jesus, who, leaning against her 
knee, is smiling at her with a countenance full of love. St. John, kneeling and leaning 
upon his cross, is watching his divine companion with tender admiration. A winding 
river amid mountains, and a town in the distance, form the background. ' 

It is believed that this picture was painted for a gentleman at Sienna* before 
Raphael was called to Rome. It was afterwards purchased by Erancis I.—Passavant. 



them . 1 Among the figures in this painting is Diogenes with his cup; he is 
lying on the steps, an extremely well-imagined figure, wrapt in his own 
thoughts, and much to be commended for the beauty of the form and cha¬ 
racteristic negligence of the garments. There are likewise Aristotle and 
Plato in this work, the one with the Timseus, the other with the Ethics in 
his hand; around them is gathered in a circle a large school of philosophers. 
The dignity of those astrologers and geometricians who are drawing various 
figures and characters with the compasses on a tablet, is not to be described: 
among these is the figure of a youth of most graceful beauty, who extends 
his arms in admiration and inclines his head; this is the portrait of Feclerigo, 
second Duke of Mantua, who was at that time in Rome. There is also a 
figure stooping to the ground and drawing lines with a pair of compasses 
which he holds in his hands; this is said to be the architect Bramante, and 
is no less life-like than that of Federigo previously described, or than it 
would be if it were indeed alive. Beside him is one whose back is turned 
towards the spectator, and who holds a globe of the heavens in his hand: 
this is the representation of Zoroaster; and near to this figure stands that 
of Raphael himself, the master of this work, drawn by his own hand with 
the aid of a mirror ; a youthful head of exceedingly modest expression 
wearing a black cap or barett, the whole aspect infinitely pleasing and 
graceful . 2 

1 “ What a medley!” exclaims one of the angry Italians, at this description, “ he has coupled 
the Evangelists with Diogenes and Plato,” and that our author is somewhat confused in his description 
of this painting, cannot be denied; he has mingled the personages of the Disputa with those of the 
Scuola di Atene; but his compatriots have fallen on him for the same with so little mercy, that we 
may spare him any further reproaches, and the rather, as we have ample means for the rectification of 
his mistakes in the numerous “ biographies,” “ treatises,” and dissertations in every form, on the 
works of the Prince of Painters which abound in all languages. See Bichardson, Treatise on Painting 
and Sculpture, Amsterdam, 1728; Dupper, Life of Raffaello Sanzio, London, 1816; Bellori, 
Descrizione delle Immagini depinte da Raffaello da Urbino, nel Palazzo Vatieano, <kc., Borne, 1672 ; 
Behberg. Quatrem^re de Quincy. Platner and Bunsen : Passavant, with many others. 

2 The figure of Baphael is in the angle of the picture and to the right of the spectator; the 
older man beside him, and dressed in a similar manner, is his master, Pietro Perugino. 



It would not be possible to describe the beauty and nobility of character 
which the master has imparted to the heads and figures of the Evangelists; 
there is a certain air of meditative thought and attentive consideration on 
the countenances, more especially of those who are writing, which is depicted 
with the utmost truth. This may be more particularly remarked in a St. 
Matthew, who is copying the characters from a tablet which an angel holds 
before him , 1 these he is setting down in a book. Behind him is an old man 2 
who has placed a paper on his knee, and in this he is inserting what St. 
Matthew 3 writes, as the latter makes his extracts from the tablet: intent on 
his occupation, he remains in this inconvenient attitude, and seems to be 
twisting his head and jaws as if to accompany the movements of his pen. 
And to say nothing of all these well-considered minutice, of which there are 
nevertheless very many, the composition of the whole work displays so much 
beauty of proportion and such perfection of arrangement in every part, that 
the master did indeed give a notable example of his capabilities therein, and 
clearly proved jhimself to be one who had resolved to retain the undisputed 
possession of the field against all who handled the pencil; furthermore the 
artist adorned this work with fine perspective views of magnificent buildings 
and with numerous figures, all finished in a manner so delicate and har¬ 
monious, that the excellence of the work caused Pope Julius to have all the 
'stories of the other masters, whether old or new, destroyed at once, resolving 
that Raphael alone should have the glory of seeing his works preferred to all 
that had been done in paintings of that description up to his own time . 4 

1 “ Another blunder,” exclaims one of the Florentine critics; but it is only the continuation of 
that previously noted, and for which our good Giorgio has already been sufficiently castigated. 

2 This figure has been usually called Empedocles, but Passavant will have it to represent 

3 Vasari here means to indicate the figure of Pythagoras, which is in the foremost group of the 
“ School of Athens,” and to the right of the spectator. 

4 The first picture painted by Raphael in Rome was not the “ School of Athens,” according to the 
authorities now considered of the greatest weight, but rather the Bisputa , which Vasari describes as 
executed at a later period. 



tlio left, at the foot of the steps, is Pythagoras, surrounded by a group of his 
mpils; among whom is Archytas; Anaxagoras is standing; Heraclitus is by 
himself, and Democritus, surrounded by young men, is leaning against the base of a 
column. There are in all thirteen persons, amongst whom the painter has placed portraits 
of the Duke of TTrbino and Frederick II, Prince of Mantua. Upon the steps at the left 
hand are three sophists, near the group of Socrates and his listeners, amongst whom is 
Alcibiades; in all eleven figures. Plato and Aristotle occupy the middle of the picture, 
with their disciples, amongst whom is Zeno, chief of the stoics; in all sixteen figures. 
Diogenes is seated on the steps by himself; Aristippus, talking with Epicurus, is passing 
by him. Amongst the six figures on the right side there are two sceptic philosophers, 
Pyrrho and Arcesilaus* ,and in the group at the foot, composed of nine persons, is Euclid, 
or perhaps, Archimedes, in the figure of Bramante, teaching mathematics to four young 
men. On the extreme right, at the base of the picture, Ptolemseus and Zoroaster, 
representing geography and astronomy, are conversing together, while Perugino and 
Raphael himself are listening.— Passavant. 



Above the painting by Raphael, here described, was a work by Giovanni 
Antonio Sodoma, of Yercelli , 1 and which ought to have been destroyed in 
obedience to the commands of the Pope, but Raphael nevertheless determined 
to retain the compartments as he found them, and to use the arabesques 
which Giovanni Antonio had employed as decorations; there were besides 
four circular divisions, and in each of these Raphael depicted a figure, 
having relation to the picture which was immediately beneath it. In the 
first of these circular compartments, which is above the picture wherein the 
painter has delineated Philosophy, Astrology, Geometry, and Poetry, 
forming a union with Theology, is a female figure representing Knowledge : 2 
on each side of this figure, which is seated, is a statue of the goddess Cybele, 
with the form of breast usualty attributed by the ancients to Diana 
Polymastes ; 3 the vestments are of four colours, to indicate the four 
elements; from the head downwards they are flame colour, to intimate fire; 
beneath the girdle is the colour of the air; from the lap to the knees is that 
of earth; and the remainder to the feet has the colour of water; these 
figures are accompanied by very beautiful boys. 

In another circle, that turned towards the window which looks upon the 
Belvedere, is depicted Poetry, represented under the form of Polyhymnia; 
she is crowned with laurel, in one hand she holds the antique lyre, and has 
a book in the other, the limbs are crossed, and the face, which is of super¬ 
human beauty, is turned upwards with the eyes raised to heaven. This 
figure also is accompanied by two boys, who are full of life and spirit; these 
children assist to form with her, as do those attending on the other figures, 
a group of richly varied beauty; and on this side Raphael afterwards painted 
the Mount Parnassus over the above-mentioned window. 

1 Yasari is here describing the decorations of the ceiling. 

2 Yasari has here returned to the “ School of Athens,” over which is the figure of Philosophy; 
over the “ Disputation respecting the Sacrament,” is that of Theology ; Poetry is placed over the 
Parnassus; and over the allegory of Jurisprudence is the figure of Justice. 

3 The all-sustaining Diana. 


18 - 


In the circle which is over the picture wherein the holy doctors are 
reading mass, is a figure of Theology, with hooks and other objects around 
her, accompanied in like manner by the boys, which are no less beautiful 
than those before referred to; above the other window which looks towards 
the court, is placed the figure of Justice, in the fourth circle namely; she 
bears the balance in one hand and holds the sword raised aloft in the other; 
the boys are with her as with the previously cited figures, and are of 
supreme beauty. On the wall beneath is represented the delivery of the 
civil and canon law, as will be related in its due place. 

In the angles of the ceiling Raphael likewise executed four historical 
pictures, designed and coloured with extraordinary care, but the figures are 
not of a large size : 1 in one of these, that next the Theology, the master has 
depicted the sin of Adam in eating the apple, and this he has executed in a 
very graceful manner. In the second, which is above the Astrology, is the 
figure of that Science; she is assigning their due places to the planets and 
fixed stars. In the one belonging to the Mount Parnassus is the figure of 
Marsyas, fastened to a tree, and about to be flayed by Apollo; and near the 
picture which represents the promulgation of the Decretals, is the judgment 
of Solomon, when he decides that the infant shall be divided between the 
contending mothers. All these four delineations exhibit much thought and 
feeling; they are admirably drawn, and the colouring is pleasing and 

But having now finished the description of the vaulting or ceiling of that 
apartment, it remains that we declare what was executed on each wall con¬ 
secutively, and beneath the works indicated above. On the side towards 
the Belvedere, where are the Mount Parnassus and the fountain of Helicon, 
the master depicted a laurel grove of very deep shadows, and the verdure of 
the foliage is so finely painted that the spectator almost fancies himself to 

1 See Passavant, Rafael von Urbino, where minute devils, such as cannot here find place, will 
bo found respecting’ all the&e works. 



the right, Solomon, seated upon a throne, has just pronounced judgment. A 
•oung man holds in his left hand the child which he is about to cut in two. In 
front, the false mother is on her knees, while the true mother hastens to stay the 
execution of th# sentence.— Passavant. 




perceive each separate leaf trembling in the gentle breeze: innumerable 
figures of naked Loves, with inexpressibly beautiful countenances, are 
hovering in the air, they are gathering branches of the laurel wherewith they 
weave garlands, which they then throw down and scatter on the mount, 
over which there does of a truth seem to be the spirit of the divinity 
breathing, such is the beauty of the figures, and the noble and elevated 
character of the whole picture, which awakens admiration and astonish m ent 
in all who behold it, when they consider that the human mind and mortal 
hand, with only the simple means of imperfect colours, and by the help of 
excellent drawing, has made a picture which appears as if it were alive. 
The figures of the Poets also, distributed over the mount, are all most truly 
animated. Some are standing, others seated, some are writing, or speaking, 
or singing, others are conversing together in groups of four or six, 
accordingly as it has seemed good to the master to arrange them. In this 
portion of the work there are portraits of the most renowned poets, ancient 
and modern, including among the latter several who had lived or were living 
at Raphael’s own time: some of the older poets were taken from statues, 
some from medals, many from old pictures; and others, who had lived in his 
own day, were taken from nature by Raphael himself. To begin with the 
one end, we have here the portraits of Ovid, Virgil, Ennius, Tibullus, 
Catullus, Propertius, and Homer: the last named, blind and with the head 
elevated, is pouring forth his verses, while there is a youth' seated at his feet 
who writes them as he sings. There is also in one group Apollo 1 with the 
Nine Muses; and in all these figures there is so much beauty, their counte¬ 
nances have an air of so much divinity, that grace and life seem to breathe 

1 The viol which Raphael has placed in the hands of Apollo would, beyond all doubt, be well 
replaced by the lyre, but the painter is believed to have given the God the first-named instrument, in 
honour of the then admired improvisatore and violinist, Giacomo Sansecondo, who had inspired 
Raphael himself with so great an admiration for the viol, that he considered it worthy to be placed in 
the hands of the God of Song. For a detailed explanation of the figures in this work, see Passavant, 
ut supra. 



from every feature. There is here portrayed the learned Sappho, and the 
most divine Dante; the graceful Petrarch, and the gay Boccaccio, who are 
all most truly animated and life-like. Tebaldero 1 is also here, with many 
other modern writers, who are grouped with infinite grace and painted with 
extraordinary care. 

On one of the other sides the master has depicted Heaven, with Christ 
and the Virgin, San Giovanni Battista, the Apostles, the Evangelists, and the 
Martyrs, all enthroned amid the clouds; and above them is the figure of God 
the Father, who sends forth his Holy Spirit over them all, but more parti¬ 
cularly on a vast company of Saints, who are celebrating the mass below, and 
some of whom are in disputation respecting the Host, which is on the altar . 2 
Among these are the four Doctors of the Church, who are surrounded by 
numerous saints, San Domenico namely, with San Francesco, St. Thomas 
Aquinas, SS. Bonaventura, Scotus, and Nicolaus of Lyra ; Dante , 3 Fra 
Girolamo Savonarola of Ferrara, and all the Christian theologians are also 
depicted, with a vast number of portraits from the life. In the air above are 
four Children, who are holding open the four Gospels; these are figures 
which it would not be possible for any painter to surpass, such is their grace 
and perfection. The Saints are seated in a circle in the air, and not only does 
the beauty of the colouring give them all the appearance of life, but the fore¬ 
shortenings, and the gradual receding of the figures, are so judiciously 
managed, that they could not appear otherwise if they were in relief; the 
draperies and vestments are richly varied, and the folds are of infinite 

1 This figure is frequently called Sannazzaro, but not on very good grounds.— ScJiorn. 

- Theology is here symbolized, but the picture is most commonly called the “ Dispute concerning 
the Sacrament.” It is said to be the first work performed by Eaphael in the Vatican, or indeed 
in Rome. 

3 “ It is not without good reason,” observes an Italian commentator, “ that Eaphael has placed 
Dante among the theologians as well as poets ; and therein he may have followed the advice of 
Ariosto, whom he is known to have consulted in respect to the personages to be placed in his 




j^HE Virgin, seated upon the ground amidst a beautiful landscape,'is holding her 
Divine Child upon her knee. In her left hand she has a book which lies upon 
her lap. St. .John, in adoration, is presenting a little cross ‘to the Infant Jesus. 

This painting formerly hung in the church at Nocera, in the Neapolitan states'; it 
was afterwards bought by the Marchese del Carpio, Viceroy of Naples, and then passed 
into the gallery of the Duke of Alba, at Madrid, where it remained : until the beginning 
of the present century, when, after changing hands several times, it was purchased for 
the sum of £14,000 for the Emperor of Russia.— Passavant. 



grace, the expression of the countenances moreover is celestial rather than 
merely human. This is more particularly to be remax-ked in that of the 
Saviour, which exhibits all the mildness and clemency of the divine nature 
that could possibly be presented to the human eyes by a mere painting. 
Raphael was indeed largely endowed with the power of imparting the 
most exquisite expression to his faces, and the most graceful cha¬ 
racter to the heads of his pictures: of this we have an instance in the 
Virgin, who, with her hands crossed on her bosom, is regarding her divine 
Son, whom she contemplates with an expression which implies her perfect 
assurance that he will not refuse forgiveness. There is, moreover, a certain 
dignity in the' figures of this master with a characteristic propriety, which is 
without doubt most beautiful; to the holy Patriarchs he gives the reverence 
of age, lo the Apostles the earnest simplicity which is proper to their cha¬ 
racter, and the faces of his Martyrs are radiant with the faith that is in them . 1 
But still more richly varied are the resources of art and genius which this 
master has displayed in the holy Doctors, who are engaged in disputation, 
and are distributed over the picture in groups of six, four, or two. Their 
features give token of a certain eager curiosity, but also of the earnest desire 
they feel to discover the precise truth of the matter in question: this is made 
further manifest by the action of the hands and by various movements of the 
person, they bend the ear with fixed attention, they knit the brow in thought, 
and offer evidence, in their looks, of surprise, or other emotions, as the con¬ 
tending propositions are presented; each in his own peculiar manner, but all 
with most appropriate as well as beautiful and varied expression. Distin¬ 
guished from the rest are the four Doctors of the Church, who, being 

1 Quatremere de Quincy remarks on these heads, that they are indeed full of truth, but of the 
truth of portraiture, as was to be expected from the prevalence of ideas proper to the Florentine school, 
which then influenced the manner of Raphael: in succeeding works, a character of beauty which is 
more ideal will be found to prevail. See Passavant also, who agrees with De Quincy in the opinions 
here expressed. 



illuminated by the Holy Spirit, resolve and explain, by the aid of the Holy 
Scriptures, all the difficulties presented by the gospels, which the boys who 
are hovering in the air hold before them. 

On the third side of the apartment, that namely wherein is the other 
window which looks upon the court, Raphael painted, on the one part, 
Justinian, who is giving the laws to the Doctors , 1 for revisal, with figures of 
Temperance, Fortitude, and Prudence above; on the other, the Pope 2 who 
delivers the Decretals or canon laws; and in this pontiff Raphael has depicted 
the portrait of Pope Julius II; he has likewise executed portraits from the 
life of Cardinal-vicar Giovanni de’ Medici, who was afterwards Pope Leo X, 
of Cardinal Antonio de’ Monte, and the Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, who 
ultimately became Pope Paul III, with those of many other personages . 3 

The Pope was highly satisfied with all that was done; and to the end that 
the wood-work of the apartment should be worthy of the paintings, he caused 
F ra Giovanni of, Verona to be summoned from the convent of Monte Oliveto 
di Chiusuri, a monastery in the territory of Siena; Fra Giovanni was a 
renowned master in works representing perspective views of buildings, formed 
of woods inlaid; and he not only prepared the wainscot around the room, but 
also made very beautiful doors and seats, richly decorated iu the perspective 
ornaments for which he was famed, and which acquired for him very great 
honour, with much favour from the Pope, who rewarded him very liberally. 

It is indeed certain that in works of this kind there has never been a 
more able master than Fra Giovanni, a fact to which we have testimony still 
in his native city of Verona; this is presented by the Sacristy of Santa Maria- 
in-Organo, which is most beautifully adorned with inlaid work representing 
views in perspective . 4 The choir of Monte Oliveto di Chiusuri affords 

1 To Trebonianus namely, who is accompanied by six other Doctors, in the Law.— Schorn. 
s Pope Gregory IX. 3 See Passavant, vol. ii. p. 109. 

* Fra Giovanni was an architect also. The Campanile of the above-mentioned church of Santa 
Maria-in-Org-ano was built after his design.— Masselli. 



8 ^TR^HE Virgin, seated upon a bench, is holding her mantle behind the Infant Jesus, 
who leans against her breast, and offers a pink to St. .Jbhn, who, standing on 
the right, is stretching his left hand to take it, while he leans the other, which holds his 
cross, upon the bench. The Virgin, whose head is surrounded with a green cloth 
striped with gold, is caressing St. John, who wears a mantle of goat-skin. 

This picture was bought from the Aldobrandini Gallery, by Mr. Day, who after¬ 
wards sold it to Lord Garvagh.— Pasbavant. 

This painting was purchased for the National Gallery in the year 1865, for the sum • 
of £9,000 .—j Ed. 



another proof of his skill, as does that of San Benedetto di Siena: the Sacristy 
of Monte Oliveto di Napoli was in like' manner adorned by Fra Giovanni, 
and in the same place is the Chapel of Paolo da Tolosa, which that master 
also decorated in wood-work. 1 By all these labours he obtained much 
honour from those of his order, by whom he was ever held in the highest 
estimation until his death, which took place in 1537, when he had attained 
the age of sixty-eight. Now of this master, as of a person who was truly 
excellent" and remarkable in his art, I have thought it well to make mention 
thus far, for it appears to me that his talent has well merited so much, seeing 
that we are indebted to it for the fine works that were afterwards executed 
by many other masters, to whom Fra Giovanni laid open the way. 

But to return to Raphael. His powers now became developed to the 
utmost, and he received a commission from the Pope to paint a second room 
in the Vatican; that towards the great hall namely. At this time, also, our 
artist, who had now acquired a very great name, depicted the portrait of 
Pope Julius himself. This is an oil painting, of so much animation and so 
true to the life, that the picture impresses on all beholders a sense of awe as 
if it were indeed the living object; this portrait is now preserved in the 
church of Santa Maria del Popolo, 2 together with a very beautiful Madonna, 
executed at the same time by the same master. In the last named picture, 
which represents the Nativity of Christ, the Virgin is covering Avith a veil 
her divine Child; 3 the expression of whose countenance is of such wonderful 

1 These decorations in wood-work are said to have been destroyed in 1527, when Rome was 
plundered, as our readers will remember; an event which took place in the pontificate of Clement VII. 

2 Now in Florence in the Pitti Palace, where there is also a copy of the same work. There is a 
replica, or duplicate, in the Tribune of the Uffizj, in the same city. That in our National Gallery 
needs no mention here. For the many duplicates and other copies, see Passavant, as before cited. 

3 Longhena mentions various pictures of the Virgin throwing a veil over or removing it from the 
divine Child, but of this, which comprises the figure of St. Joseph, we do not find it possible to obtain 
any information that is entirely satisfactory. The most probable conjecture is that it was the one 
called the “ Madonna di Loretto,” and which has now disappeared. See Landon, (Euvres de Raphael. 
See also Passavant, as above cited, vol. ii. p. 126. 



beauty, and his whole person so clearly demonstrates the divinity of his 
origin, that all must perceive him to be truly the Son of God. Nor are the 
attitude and countenance of the Madonna less beautiful, they exhibit the 
perfection of grace with an expression of mingled piety and gladness. There 
is also a St. Joseph standing with both his hands supported on a staff, and 
contemplating the King and Queen of Heaven, with the adoration of a most 
righteous old man. Both these pictures are exhibited to the people on all 
occasions of solemn festival. 

Raphael had at this time acquired much fame in Rome, but although he 
had the graceful manner which was held by every one to be most beautiful, 
and saw continually before his eyes the numerous antiquities to be found in 
that city, and which he studied continually, he had, nevertheless, not yet 
given his figures that grandeur and majesty which he always did impart to 
them from that time forward. For it happened at the period to which we 
now refer, that Michael Angelo had made such clamours in the Sistine Chapel, 
and given the Pope such alarms, that he was compelled to take flight, and 
sought refuge in Florence. Whereupon Bramante, having the key of the 
chapel, and being the friend of Raphael, permitted him to see it, to the end 
that he might understand Michael Angelo’s modes of proceeding. 1 The sight 
thus afforded to him caused Raphael instantly to paint anew the figure of the 
prophet Isaiah, which he had executed in the Church of Sant’ Agostino, above 
the Sant’ Anna of Andrea Sansovino, although he had entirely finished it; 
and in this work he profited to so great an extent by what he had seen in the 
works of Michael Angelo, that his manner was thereby inexpressibly ame¬ 
liorated and enlarged, receiving thenceforth an obvious increase of majesty. 

1 “ That Raphael should secretly yisit the works of Michael Angelo by the means here described,” 
observes an Italian writer, “ is very unlikely, but the fact that there were many who would not have 
scrupled to do so, may have suggested the suspicion to Michael Angelo and his followers.” It is, 
besides, well known that the Sistine Chapel was thrown open to the public about the time when this 
secret visit is said to have taken place. 



ALATEA, floating upon the sea, is standing with reins in her hands in a large 
shell drawn by two dolphins, which are guided by a Cupid. A Triton, swimming 
on the left hand, is trying to embrace a nymph, who is riding on his back. Behind him 
is a sea-horse, ridden by a young man, who is blowing a concha. On the right, in the back¬ 
ground, is another nymph, seated on a Triton. A third Triton, in front, is sounding a 
trumpet. Three Cupids in the air are shooting arrows, and a fourth, half hidden by the 
clouds, is preparing his bow. 

This fresco is still in an excellent state of preservation, in the gallery of the house 
of Agostino Cliigi, now called the Farnesina palace, where it was undoubtedly painted 
by Raphael himself.— Pas-savant. 



But when Michael Angelo afterwards saw the work of Raphael, he 
thought, as was the truth, that Bramante had committed the wrong to 
himself of which we have here spoken, for the purpose of serving Raphael, 
and enhancing the glory of that master’s name. 1 

No long time after this, Agostino Chisi, a very rich merchant of Siena, 
who was a great admirer of all distinguished men, gave Raphael a commis¬ 
sion to paint a chapel. This he did because, some short time previously, the 
master had produced a fresco of the most exquisite beauty, in a Loggia of 
his palace, in the Trastevere, now called the Chisi ; 2 3 the subject of this is 
Galatea 8 in a car on the sea drawn by two dolphins and surrounded by 
Tritons and different marine deities. 4 Having made the cartoon for the 
above-named chapel, which is at the entrance of the Church of Santa Maria 
della Pace, on the right as one enters by the principal door, the master 
executed it in fresco, in his new manner, which was somewhat grander and 
more majestic than the earlier one. In this picture Raphael painted some of 
the Prophets and Sybils, before Michael Angelo had thrown open the chapel, 
which he had nevertheless seen, as has been related; 5 and of a truth, these 

1 It is now the general opinion among good judges, that the manner of Raphael was rather 
injured than ameliorated by whatever influence he may have permitted the works of Michael Angelo to 
exercise over it. The Isaiah, which is one of his feeblest works, was completed in 1512. It suffered 
considerable injury from an ignorant pretender, who affected to clean it, in the reign of Paul IV, and 
was afterwards retouched by Daniel of Volterra, who very probably rendered it still more feeble. 

2 The Chigi Palace is now the Farnesina. 

3 The Galatea was painted in 1514. 

* The following passage will be found in a letter on the subject of ideal beauty in works of art, 
from Raphael to Baldassare Castiglione:—“ With respect to the Galatea, I should hold myself to be a 
great master, if there were in it one half of the merits of which you write, but in your words I Cannot 
fail to perceive the partiality of your friendship for myself. To paint a figure truly beautiful, it might 
be necessary that I should see many beautiful forms, with the further provision that you should yourself 
be near, to select the best ; but seeing that good judges and beautiful women are scarce, I avail myself 
of certain ideas which come into my mind. Whether I have in myself any portion of the excellence of 
art, I know not, but I labour heartily to secure it.” 

5 In the life of Michael Angelo, Vasari himself asserts that the Prophets and Sybils were painted 




figures are considered to be the best, and among so many beautiful the most 
beautiful, seeing that in the women and children represented, there is the 
very perfection of truth and animation; the colouring, moreover, is faultless. 1 
This work caused the master to be most highly extolled, both during his 
life and after his death, being, as it was, the most remarkable and most 
excellent one that Raphael ever executed. Raphael being earnestly 
entreated by a chamberlain of Pope Julius II. 2 to paint the picture for the 
high altar of the chapel of the Ara Cceli, he therein depicted the Madonna, 
reposing on the clouds of heaven, and with San Giovanni, San Francesco, and 
San Girolamo, 8 robed in the vestments of a cardinal, in a beautiful landscape 
beneath. In this virgin there is the expression of a modesty and humility 
truly worthy of the Mother of Christ: the divine Child, in an attitude of 
exquisite beauty, is playing with the mantle of Our Lady; the form of San 
Giovanni gives clear proof of the fasting to which his penitential discipline 
has subjected him, while in the expression of his countenance, one reads the 
sincerity of his soul, together with a frank and cheerful serenity, proper 
to those who, far removed from the influence of the world, look down on it 
with contempt, and in their commerce with mankind, abhorring all duplicity, 
devote themselves to the promulgation of truth. The head of San Girolamo 
is raised, his eyes are fixed on the Virgin, whom he is regarding earnestly. 
And in the eyes thus raised there are to be perceived all that learning and 

wisdom which are made manifest in his writings. 4 With a movement of both 


by Raphael after the Sistine Chapel had been publicly opened. Quatremere de Quincy remarks of 
Raphael, that “ so far from having imitated Michael Angelo in these figures, it might be supposed that 
he had in fact designed to make manifest in his own production, what it is that the work of Buonarroti 
wants to be perfect.” 

1 These admirable paintings of the Church called Della Pace having suffered much from time, 
were carefully restored some years since by Palmaroli .—Masselli and Passavant. 

2 Sigismondo Conti of Fuligno, private secretary to Pope Julius, and a learned historian. 

* St. Jerome. 

4 Conti is said to have commanded this picture to be presented to the Virgin, in gratitude for her 
interposition between himself and a flash of lightning, or, as other accounts have it, a shell, which had 



Virgin, seated in a golden glory upon the clouds, is surrounded by a vast 
ruber of angels lightly painted upon the azure blue of heaven. The Holy 
Mother is holding the Infant Christ by the left hand, and both are looking down upon 
the donor of the picture, Sigismondi Conti, who, kneeling in adoration, is directed by 
St. Jerome. ’ On the left stands St. John the Baptist, and before him is St. Francis, 
kneeling, in ecstasy. A little angel, standing between the two groups, bears a tablet, 
on which was formerly inscribed the name of the donor. 

For more than two centuries this picture hung as an altar-piece in the Church of 
Saint Anne at Fuligno. It was taken by the French to Paris, and there transferred to 
canvas gmd restored. After the treaty of peace in 1815, the picture was returned to 
Italy, not to the Church at Fuligno, but to the Vatican, where it now is.— Passavant. 



the hands he is in the act of recommending the chamberlain to the protection 
of Our Lady; and the figure of that chamberlain in actual life is scarcely 
more animated than the one here painted. Nor is there less of truth and 
nature in the San Francesco; he is kneeling on the earth, with one arm 
extended, and the head raised as he turns his gaze aloft, towards the 
Madonna; he is depicted with a glow of pious affection in his countenance, 
every line of which is beaming with the holiest emotion. The features and 
complexion show that the saint is consuming away in pious resignation, but 
is receiving comfort and life from the most gentle and beautiful looks of the 
Mother, as well as from the sovereign loveliness of the divine Child. 1 In the 
centre of the picture and immediately beneath the Virgin, is a boy; his head 
is raised towards Our Lady, and he bears a tablet in his hands. It is not 
possible to imagine anything more graceful or more beautiful than this child, 
whether as regards the head or the rest of the person. There is besides a 
landscape of singular beauty, and which is executed to the highest perfection 
in every part. 

Raphael then continued his work in the chambers of the Vatican, where 
he depicted the Miracle of the Sacrament, or the Corporas of Bolsena, which¬ 
ever it may be called. In this story, the Priest who is reading the Mass is 
seen to have his face glowing with the shame which he felt, when, in con¬ 
sequence of his own unbelief, he beheld the Host bleeding on the Corporas, 
as a reproof for his want of faith; terrified at the looks of his hearers, he 
has lost all self-possession, and is as a man beside himself; he has the aspect 
of one utterly confounded, the dismay that has seized him is manifest in his 
attitude, and the spectator almost perceives the trembling of his hands; so 

fallen near liis house at the siege of Fuligno. In allusion to this circumstance, a fiery ball is seen 
passing over the landscape. 

1 This picture is called the Madonna of Fuligno, having been removed from the Church of the 
Ara Cceli, to that city, at the request of a niece of Conti’s, who was a nun at the convent of Sant 
Anna, called Le Contesse. The work here in question was among those taken to Paris, where it was 
transferred from panel to canvas: it is now in the Vatican. 



well are the emotions inevitable from such a circumstance expressed in the 
work. 1 Around the priest are many figures of varied character; some are 
serving the Mass, others kneel, in beautiful attitudes, on a flight of steps, 
and moved by the novelty of the occurrence, exhibit their astonishment and 
emotion in divers gestures, some giving evidence of a desire to acknowledge 
themselves guilty of error, and this is perceived in men as well as in women. 
Among the latter is one at the lower part of the picture, seated on the earth 
and holding a child in her arms; she is listening while another relates the 
circumstance that has just happened to the priest; full of wonder she turns 
towards the speaker with a feminine grace and animation that is truly 
characteristic and life-like. 2 On the other side is the Pope, Julius II, who 
is hearing the Mass, an admirable part of the work, and here Raphael has 
depicted the portrait of the Cardinal di San Giorgio, 3 with a vast number of 
other personages, also from the life. The break caused by the window was 
turned to account by the master, who having there represented an ascent in 
the form of a flight of stairs, thus makes the paintings on each side into one 
sole picture, nay, he has even made it appear that if this opening caused by 
the window had not been there, the scene could not have been so well 
arranged. It may indeed with truth be said of Raphael here, as elsewhere, 
that as respects invention and the graces of composition, whatever the story 
may be, no artist has ever shown more skill, more readiness of resource, or 
a more admirable judgment than himself; a fact of which he has given 
further proof in this same place, where in the opposite picture he has 
represented San Pietro thrown into a prison by Herod, 4 and guarded by 

1 This miracle is said to have taken place in the year 1264, and under the pontificate of Urban 
IV, who instituted the festival of the Corpus Domini in consequence thereof.— Bottari. The festival 
so called was nevertheless not universally celebrated until fifty years later.— Ed. Flor. 1832-8. 

2 “ The Miracle of Bolsena” was painted in 1512.— Ed. I 1 lor. 1832-8. 

3 Eaffaefio Eiario, who made himself conspicuous by his hatred to the House of Medici, against 
which he twice organized a conspiracy.— Schom. 

4 Called “ La Scarcerazione di San Pietro.”— Note to the German Edition of Vasari. 




Virgin, her head adorned with a blue diadem, is crouching before the Infant 
sus, who is lying asleep on some drapery spread upon the ground. She raises 
the veil which covers him to show him to the little St. John, who is kneeling beside 
her with his little reed cross in his hands. In thb mid-distance is a ruin peopled with 
figures, and beyond, a town. This picture is often called “ Le Sommeil de Jesus.” 

There is a remarkable story told concerning this picture. It is said that, divided 
in halves, it formed the covering of two casks in a, cellar at Pescia, where it was. found 
by an amateur, who had it restored by such a skilful artist that no trace of the joining 
can now be seen. It is one of the gems of the Louvre.— Passavant. 



soldiers. The architectural details here depicted and the simple delineation 
of the prison, are treated with so much ingenuity that the works of other 
artists, when compared with those of Raphael, seem to exhibit as much of 
confusion as do that master’s of grace and beauty. Raphael constantly 
endeavoured to represent the circumstances which he depicted as they 
are described or written, and to assemble only the most appropriate and 
characteristic objects in his works, as for example in the picture before us, 
where he reveals to us the wretchedness of the prison. Bound with chains, 
that aged man is seen extended between two soldiers; the deep and heavy 
sleep of the guards is rendered fully manifest, as the resplendent light 
proceeding from the Angel illumines the darkness of night, and causes the 
most minute particulars of the prison to be clearly discerned; the arms of 
the sleepers shine so brilliantly, that their burnished lustre seems rather to 
belong to things real and palpable, than to the merely painted surface of a 

No less remarkable are the art and ingenuity displayed 1 in another part of 
the same picture; that namely where, freed from his chains, the Apostle 
walks forth from his prison, accompanied by the Angel. In the countenance 
of St. Peter there is evidence that he is a man who feels himself to be acting 
in a dream, and not as one awake. Equally well expressed are the terror 
and dismay of those among the guards, who, being outside the prison, hear 
the clang of the iron door; a sentinel with a torch in his hand, awakens his 
sleeping companions; the light he holds is reflected from their armour, and 
all that lies within the place which the torch has not reached, is lighted by 
the Moon. This admirably conceived picture Raphael has placed over the 
window, at the darkest part of the room; it thus happens that when the 
spectator regards the painting, the light of day strikes on his eyes and the' 
beams of the natural light mingle and contend with the different lights of 
the night as seen in the picture, the observer fancies himself really to behold 
the smoke of the torch, and the splendour of the Angel, all which, with the 



dark shadows of the night, are so natural and so true, that no one would 
ever affirm it to be painted, but must believe it to be real, so powerfully has 
our artist rendered this most difficult subject. 1 The play of the shadows on 
the arms, the flickering reflections of the light, the vaporous haloes thrown 
around the torches, the dim uncertain shade prevailing in certain parts; all 
are painted in such a manner, that contemplating this work one cannot but 
declare Raphael to be indeed the master of all masters. Never has painting 
which purports to counterfeit the night been more truly similar to the reality 
than is this, which is of a truth a most divine work, and is indeed admitted 
by common consent to be the most extraordinary and most beautiful of its 

On one of the unbroken walls of the chamber, Raphael then depicted the 
worship of God as practised among the Hebrews, with the Ark and golden 
Candlesticks; here also is the ' figure of Pope Julius, who is driving the 
avaricious intruders from the Temple. 2 In this work, which is of similar 
beauty and excellence to the night-piece described above, several portraits of 
persons then living are preserved to us in the persons of the bearers 3 who 
support the chair wherein Pope Julius is borne along; the figure of the 
Pontiff is most life-like. While the populace, among whom are many 
women, make way for his Holiness to pass, they give to view the furious 
approach of an armed man on horseback; he is accompanied by two others 

1 This is one of the earliest night-pieces painted by the Italian artists, and its masterly treatment 
has secured the author the lasting admiration of the world. It was the first painted after the 
accession of Leo X, and doubtless refers to his remarkable liberation from the French after the battle 
of Ravenna. It was finished in 1514. See Passavant, vol. i. p. 198, vol. ii. p. 160. 

2 On this picture, which represents the miraculous expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple, 
Giulio Romano is said to have worked to a considerable extent. It was completed in 1512, con¬ 
sequently before that previously so much extolled by Vasari.— Ed. Flor. 1832-8. 

3 The foremost of these bearers is the portrait of the copper-plate engraver, Marc Antonio 
Raimondi: his opposite companion is said to he that of Giulio Romano. Behind the Pope, stands the 
Secretary of Memorials, who holds a paper in his hand, with the inscription, Io Petro de Falcariis 
Cremonens. — Bottari. See also Passavant, vol. i. p. 194, vol. ii. p. 156. 



3ELIODORUS, who attempted to' seize the guarded treasure,in the Temple of 

Jerusalem, is being driven out by an apparition sent by God. (See Maccabees, 
b<>$k ii. chap. iii. v. 25). In the interior of the temple is the chief-priest Onias, and 
persons in prayer before the tabernacle and the candlestick with seven branches. 
Heliodorus has fallen on the ground, and his soldiers have taken flight, pursued by a 
celestial horseman and two angels with scourges. On the left hand the people are 
collected, amongst whom there are several women, who show great enthusiasm at the 
sight of the divine help. In the foreground. Pope Julius II, seated On his chair borne 
by four men, contemplates the scene. The first of the four bearers is the celebrated 
" encraver. Marc Antonio Raimondi. The second is nerhans Giulio Romano. 



who are on foot, and together they smite and overthrow the haughty 

Heliodorus, who, by the command of Antiochus, is about to despoil the 

Temple of all the treasures deposited for the widows and orphans . 1 The 

wares and treasures are already in process of being borne away, but the 

terror awakened by the new occurrence of Heliodorus, struck down and 

scourged by the three figures above-mentioned, who are seen and heard by 

himself alone, being only a vision, causes those who are bearing the spoils 

away to let all drop from their hands, while they themselves fall stumbling 

over each other, possessed as they are by a sudden affright and horror which 

had fallen on all the followers of Heliodorus. Apart from these stands the 

High Priest, Onias, in his pontifical robes, his hands and eyes are raised to 

heaven, and he is praying most fervently, being moved to compassion for the 

poor, whom he has beheld on the point of being despoiled of their possessions, 

but is yet rejoiced at the succour which he feels that Heaven has sent to 

them. With felicitous invention Raphael has placed various figures about 

the different parts of the building, some of whom climb on the socles of the 

columns, and clasping the shaft, thus stand, maintaining themselves with 

difficulty in their inconvenient position, to obtain a better view of the scene 

passing before them; the mass of the people meanwhile, astounded at what 
they behold, remain in divers attitudes awaiting the result of the wondrous 

The whole of this work was so admirably executed in every part that 
even the Cartoons were very highly estimated. Messer Francesco Masini , 2 a 
gentleman of Cesena, who, without any master, but impelled from childhood 
by the love of art, has produced many paintings and works in design, has 
certain pieces of the Cartoon which Raphael prepared for this story of 
Heliodorus still in his possession; they are treasured, with all the esteem 

1 See the second book of Maccabees, chap. Hi. 

2 The Roman Edition has Massini, as the Crexnonese family still write the name. The 
fragments here alluded to are still in their possession. 



which they so truly merit, among the various antiquities in marble, relievi 
and others, which he has collected; his own pictures and designs are also 
of such merit, that many, well acquainted with art, have bestowed on them 
the highest commendations. Nor will I omit to mention that Messer Nicolo 
Massini, from whom it is that I have received intelligence of these things, is 
himself a sincere lover of our arts, as he is the friend of all other good and 
praiseworthy endeavours. 

But to return to Raphael. In the ceiling above these works he deli¬ 
neated four pictures: the subject of the first being the appearance of the 
Almighty Father to Abraham, to whom he promises the continuation of his 
race; that of the second, the sacrifice of Isaac; and of the third, Jacob’s 
dream; while the fourth represents Moses standing before the burning bush. 
In this work, the knowledge of art, rich power of invention, correct design, 
and exquisite grace which distinguish our artist, are no less manifest than in 
the others whereof we have made mention. 

And now, when the happy genius of the master was effecting such 
wonders, the envy of fortune deprived of life that pontiff who was the especial 
protector and support of such talent, while he was the zealous promoter of 
every other good and useful work. Julius II. died , 1 but was succeeded by 
Leo X, who forthwith commanded that the labours commenced should be 
continued. The genius of Raphael was now exalted to heaven, and he 
received innumerable proofs of favour from the new pontiff, fortunate in 
having encountered a prince so great, and one on whom the love of art had 
devolved by hereditary descent . 2 

Thus encouraged, Raphael devoted himself with all his heart to the work, 
and on another wall of the same apartment he represented the Approach of 
Attila towards Rome, and his encounter with Pope Leo III, by whom he is 

1 On the 13th February, 1513. 

2 For the services to art performed by Julius II, and Leo X, and for the connection of Eaphael 
with both these Pontiffs, see Passavant, as above cited, vol. i. p. 205, et seq. 

'The madonna del pesce. 


Virgin, seated on a throne, is holding on her knee the Infant Jesus, who is 
nding towards Tobias, who has a fish in his hand. The angel Raphael is pre¬ 
senting Tobias to the Holy Infant. On the right St. Jerome, his lion at his feet, is 
standing near the throne, reading a large hook. A large curtain forms the background. 

This picture, bright in tone as the “ Madonna di San Sisto,” perhaps surpasses that 
masterpiece in expression. It would be impossible to render with better effect the 
majesty of the Virgin, the goodness and serenity of the Infant Jesus, the timid expression 
of Tobias, dr the manly dignity of St. Jerome.— Passavcmt. 



met at the foot of Monte Mario, and who repulses him by the power of his 
word alone. In this picture, Raphael has shown San Pietro and San Paolo 
appearing in the air with swords in their hands, with which they come to 
defend the church. It is true that the history of Leo III. says nothing 
of such an occurrence, but so Raphael has chosen to represent it, perhaps 
as a mere fancy; for we know that painters and poets frequently permit 
themselves a certain degree of freedom for the more effectual decoration 
of their works, and this they may do without any undue departure from the 
propriety of the original thought. In the two apostles thus depicted, there 
is all that holy zeal and dignity which the Divine Justice frequently imparts 
to the countenances of those among God’s servants, whom it has com¬ 
missioned to become the defenders of the most holy faith. The effect 
of this expression on Attila is manifest in his face. He is riding on a 
fiery black horse, having a star on the forehead, and beautiful as it is 
possible that a horse could be; the attitude of the animal also betrays the 
utmost terror, its head is thrown aloft, and the body is turning in the act of 
flight . 1 

There are other magnificent horses in the same work, among them a 
Spanish jennet, ridden by a figure which has all the parts usually left nude 
covered with scales in the manner of a fish; this is copied from the column 
of Trajan, the figures of the people around that column being armed in this 
fashion; such defences being made, as is conjectured, from the skins of 
crocodiles. Monte Mario is seen burning, as an intimation that on the 
departure of soldiery, the dwellings are constantly given as a prey to the 
flames. Certain mace-bearers belonging to the papal retinue are painted 
with extraordinary animation, as are the horses which they are riding: the 
same may be said of the court of Cardinals, and of the grooms who bear the 

1 The numerous errors into which Vasari has here fallen, are in part attributable to the Florentine 
historian Villani, (see lib. ii. cap. 3). The meeting with Attila took place on the river Mincio, near 
Mantua, and the Pontiff was not Leo III. but Leo the Great, the first of the name. 



canopy over the head of the pontiff . 1 The latter, Pope Leo X, is on horse¬ 
back, in full pontificals, and is no less truthfully portrayed than are the 
figures beforementioned. He is followed by numerous courtiers, the whole 
scene presenting an extremely beautiful spectacle, in which all is finely 
appropriate to its place, and these details are exceedingly useful to those 
who practise our art, more particularly to such as are unprovided with the 
objects here represented. 

About the same time a picture was executed by Raphael for Naples, 
and this was placed in the church of San Domenico, and in that chapel 
wherein is the crucifix which spoke to St. Thomas Aquinas. In this work, 
Raphael depicted Our Lady, San Girolamo, clothed in the vestments of a 
cardinal, and the angel Raphael, who is serving as the guide of the youthful 
Tobias . 2 For Leonello da Carpi, Lord’ of Meldola, who is still living, and 
has attained the age of more than ninety years, he painted a picture, the 
colouring of which is most admirable, and the beauty of the whole work very 
remarkable; it is indeed executed with so much force, and in a manner so 
exquisitely graceful withal, that I do not think the art could possibly 
produce or exhibit a finer work. There is a divinity in the countenance of 
Our Lady, and a modest humility in her attitude, than which it would not be 
possible to conceive anything more beautiful. The master has depicted her 
with folded hands, in adoration of the divine Child, who is seated on her lap, 
and is caressing a little St. John; the latter is also adoring the Redeemer: 

1 The choice of subject in this picture is sometimes said to have been intended as an allusion to 
the expulsion of the French from Italy, and the figure of Attila has been called a portrait of Louis XII, 
King of France, but these assertions do not appear to be well-founded. See Passavant. 

2 This is the picture known as the Madonna del Pesce (of the Fish), and is now in the Escurial. 
The chapel in which it was originally placed was one much resorted to by persons afflicted with diseases 
of the eyes; Tobias, with his fish, is therefore highly appropriate. St. Jerome, who holds a book in 
his hand, is also much in his place on this occasion, as being the translator of the book of Tobit. This 
is one of the works taken to Paris, where it was transferred from the panel to canvas ; it is entirely by 
Eaphael himself, and is considered to be one of his best works. 




. CECILIA, her eyes turned towards heaven, is listening to the celestial songs 
of six angels. Her hands are lightly holding a'little organ, and musical instru¬ 
ments are lying half broken at her feet. On the right is the apostle Paul leaning on his 
sword, and behind him St. John the Evangelist. On the opposite side is St. Mary 
Madgalen holding a vase of perfume in her left hand, and behind her is St. Augustine. 

This picture, one of.the most magnificent which the genius of Eaphael has produced, 
is, with regard to colour, an inimitable masterpiece, although it has lost some of its 
brilliancy by successive restorations.— Passavant. 



the figures of St. Joseph and St. Elizabeth complete the group. This 
picture was formerly in the possession of the most reverend Cardinal di 
Carpi , 1 son of the above-named Signor Leonello, a very zealous admirer of 
our arts; it must now be in that of his heirs . 2 3 

When Lorenzo Pucci, Cardinal of Santi Quattro, was created High 
Penitentiary, he caused Raphael, who was in great favour with him, to paint 
a picture for San Giovanni-in-Monte, at Bologna. This is now placed in 
that chapel wherein are deposited the relics of the Beata Elena dall’ Olio,® 
and serves to show what grace united with art could effect, when acting by 
the most accomplished and most delicate hand of Raphael. The subject of 
the work is Santa Cecilia , 4 listening in ecstacy to the songs of the angelic 
choir, as their voices reach her ear from heaven itself: wholly given up to 
the celestial harmony, the countenance of the saint affords full evidence 
of her abstraction from the things of this earth, and wears that rapt 
expression which is wont to be seen on the faces of those who are in 
ecstacy . 5 Musical instruments lie scattered around her, and these do not 
seem to be merely painted, but might be taken for the real objects repre¬ 
sented . 6 The same thing may be affirmed of the veil and vestments, formed 

1 The Cardinal Ridolfo Pio da Carpi, a great protector of learned men, and the possessor of the 
celebrated Medicean Virgil. He died in 1564.— Bottari. 

2 Passavant considers this picture to be that in the Museo Borbonico, at Naples, but equally 

important authorities declare the Madonna of the Borbonico to be a fine copy, by Giulio Romano, or at 
best, but a replica of the original, which they affirm to have been taken to Paris, whence, after having 
adorned the gallery at Malmaison, it was transferred to St. Petersburg. ' 

3 Elena Duglioli dall’ Olio, who was inspired to build the chapel to St. Cecilia, which is that here 
alluded to, was a noble lady of Bologna, and kinswoman to the Cardinal of Santi Quattro, who under¬ 
took to erect the same. Elena was afterwards declared a Beata. 

4 This picture is the celebrated St. Cecilia, now in the gallery of the Academy at Bologna. 

5 The visitor of Italian galleries and churches will remember many an eloquent exposition of what 
is here meant, in the pictures of Santa Theresa, St. Francis, and others. To the Protestant Church 
the exhibition of “ Saints in ecstacy” is not yet become matter of frequent occurrence, nor is there now' 
perhaps any very high probability of its doing so. 

6 These instruments are said to have been painted by Giovanni da Udine, as is remarked by 
Vasari himself in another place.— Ed. Flor. 1832-8. 



of cloth of gold and silver, with which Santa Cecilia is clothed, and beneath 
which is a garment of hair-cloth, also most admirably painted. In the figure 
of Si., Paul likewise, the power and thought of the master are equally 
obvious: the saint is resting his right arm on his naked sword, the head is 
supported by the left hand, and the pride of his aspect has changed to a 
dignified gravity; the vestments of St. Paul consist of a simple cloth mantle, 
the colour of which is red, with a green tunic beneath, after the’ manner of 
the apostles; his feet are bare. St. Mary Magdalen also forms part of the 
group, and holds a vase, made of a very fine marble, in her hand. The 
attitude of this figure is singularly graceful, as is the turn of her head; she 
seems to rejoice in her conversion, and I do not think it would be possible 
that any work of the kind could be more perfectly executed. The heads of 
St. Augustine and of St. John the Evangelist, which are both in this picture, 
are of equal excellence. It may indeed with truth be declared that the 
paintings of other masters are properly to be called paintings, but those of 
Raphael may well be designated the life itself, for the flesh trembles, the 
breathing is made obvious to sight, the pulses in his figures are beating, and 
life is in its utmost animation through all his works. 

This picture secured the author many commendations and a great 
increase of fame, insomuch that numerous verses, both in Latin and the 
vulgar tongue, were composed to his honour; of these I will but insert the 
following, that I may not make a longer story than is needful:— 

“ Pingunt sola alii, referantque coloribus ora ; 

Ccecilice os Raphael atque 'animurn explicuit.” 

At a later period our artist painted a small picture, which is now at 
Bologna, in the possession of the Count Yicenzio Ercolani. The subject of 
this work is Christ , 1 enthroned amid the clouds, after the manner in which 

1 Quatremere de Quincy declares this figure to represent not Christ, but Ezekiel himself; this 
opinion has, however, not found advocates among such of the later writers as are considered the best 




I§|jpffHE Divine Majesty is represented, seated in glory, two little angels supporting 
EIh extended arms, and surrounded by the four symbols of the Evangelists. 
The glory is formed of countless heads of cherubim, scarcely visible in the radiancy of 
the Divine Light. In the landscape below are several figures, who are awestruck yit the 
heavenly vision. ' 

Raphael painted this little picture for the Count Vincenzo Ercolani, of Bologna, 
whb paid him eight gold ducats for it. 



Jupiter is so frequently depicted, but tbe Saviour is surrounded by the four 
Evangelists, as described in the book of Ezekiel. One in the form of a man, 
that is to say; another in that of a lion; the third as an eagle; and.the 
fourth as an ox. The earth beneath exhibits a small landscape, and this 
work, in its minuteness—all the figures being very small—is no less beautiful 
than are the others in their grandeur of extent . 1 

To Yerona, Raphael sent a large picture of no less excellence, for the 
Counts of Canossa. The subject is the Nativity of Our Lord, admirably 
treated: the day-break in particular, as here portrayed, has been highly 
commended, and the same may be said of the figure of Sant’ Anna, and 
indeed of the whole work, which one could not extol more effectually than 
by the simple assertion, that it is by the hand of Raphael da Urbino. The 
Counts hold this picture in the highest estimation, as it well deserves, very 
great sums have been offered to them for it by different princes, but they 
have never been prevailed on to part with it . 2 

For Bindo Altoviti, Raphael executed a picture of himself when he 
(Bindo) was still young, and this work also has obtained, as it merits, the 
highest admiration . 3 He also painted a picture of the Madonna for the same 
person, who despatched it to Florence: this is now preserved in the Palace 
of the Duke Cosimo: it has been placed in the Chapel of the new apartments, 
which have been, built and painted by myself, where it serves as the Altar- 
piece : the subject is Sant’ Anna , 4 a woman much advanced in years, who is 

1 This picture was doubtless painted after the St. Cecilia, as Yasari affirms; the assertion of 
Malvasia to the contrary is by no means well-founded, or adequately supported by evidence. The work 
is now in the Pitti Palace. 

2 This picture was for some time supposed to have disappeared, it was then believed by certain 
writers to have been discovered in the Palace of the Belvedere at Vienna, and is now generally affirmed 
to be in that city ; but “ in the palace of the Prince of Thurm and Valdassina.” 

3 The portrait of Bindo Altoviti is now in the Pinacoteca at Munich. 

4 This is not St. Anna, but St. Elizabeth, whose countenance, Eichardson, Account of Paintings, 
Statues, &c, declares to be very like that of a Sybil painted by Eaphael in the Chiesa della Pace 
(Church of Peace). 



seated with the infant Christ in her arms; she is holding him out to the 
Virgin, and the beauty of his nude figure, with the exquisite loveliness of 
the countenance which the master has given to the divine Child, is such, that 
his smile rejoices the heart of all who behold him. To Our Lady also, 
Raphael has imparted all the beauty which can be imagined in the expression 
of a virgin; in the eyes there is modesty, on the brow there shines honour, the 
nose is one of very graceful character, and the mouth betokens sweetness and 
excellence. In the vestments also, there is an indescribable simplicity with 
an attractive modesty, which I do not think could possibly be surpassed; 
there cannot indeed be anything better of its kind than is this whole work: 
there is a beautiful figure of the little San Giovanni undraped, in this picture, 
with that of another saint, a female, which is likewise very beautiful . 1 The 
background represents a dwelling, in which there is a window partially 
shaded, through which light is given to the chamber wherein the figures are 

In Rome, Raphael likewise painted a picture of good size, in which he 
represented Pope Leo, the Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici, and the Cardinal de’ 
Rossi. The figures in this work seem rather to be in full relief, and living, 
than merely feigned, and on a plane surface. The velvet softness of the 
skin is rendered with the utmost fidelity; the vestments in which the Pope 
is clothed are also most faithfully depicted, the damask shines with a glossy 
lustre; the furs which form the linings of his robes are soft and natural, 
while the gold and silk are copied in such a manner that they do not seem to 
be painted, but really appear to be silk and gold. There is also a book in 
parchment decorated with miniatures, a most vivid imitation of the object 
represented, with a silver bell, finely chased, of which it would not be pos¬ 
sible adequately to describe the beauty. Among other accessories, there is, 

1 This picture, called the Madonna delV Impannata, is now in the Pitti Palace. LoDghena 
speaks of an engraving from it bj the Spanish engraver, Pmanuele Esquivel, and it has also been 
engraved by Cornelius Cort, and others. 




Pope is seated in an arm-chair at a table covered with red cloth, upon which 

holding a magnifying-glass, with which he appears to have been examining the miniatures 
in the book. Upon the left stands the Cardinal de’ Medici (afterwards Clement VII), and 
on the right is the Cardinal de’ Rossi, who rests his hands on the back of the arm-chair. 
The Pope wears a cap of red velvet, and beneath his red cape a garment of white 
damask with large sleeves trimmed with fur.— Passavant. 

placed a richly-chased silver hand-bell and an illuminated breviary. He is 



moreover, a ball of burnished gold op the seat of the Pope, and in this—such 
is its clearness—the divisions of the opposite window, the shoulders of the 
Pope, and the walls of the room, are faithfully reflected; all these things are 
executed with so much care, that I fully believe no master ever has done, or 
ever can do anything better . 1 For this work, Raphael was richly rewarded 
by Pope Leo. It is now in Florence, in the Guardaroba of the Duke . 2 3 He 
also painted the portraits of the Duke Lorenzo and of the Duke Giuliano, 
whom he depicted with that perfection and that grace of colouring which is 
to be seen in no other than himself. These works belong to the heirs of 
Ottaviano de’ Medici, and are now in Florence . 8 

The fame of Raphael continued to increase largely, as did the rewards 
conferred on him; wherefore, desiring to leave a memorial of himself in 
Rome, he caused a palace to be erected in the Borgo Nuovo, which was 
decorated with stucco work by Bramante . 4 * The renown of this most noble 
artist having been carried, by the fame of these and other works, into France 
and Flanders, Albert Dtirer, a most admirable German painter, and the 
engraver of most beautiful copperplates, sent a tribute of respect to Raphael 
from his own works, a head, namely, which was his own portrait, executed 
on exceedingly fine linen, which permitted the picture to appear equally on 
both sides, the lights not produced by the use of whites, but transparent, and 
the whole painted in water colours. This work was much admired by 

1 This picture, remarks Bottari, must have been painted between the years 1517 and 1519, since 
the Cardinal de’ Rossi received the purple in the first-mentioned year, and died in the last.— Roman, 
Edition, 1759. 

2 Now in the Pitti Palace. Of the fine copy made from this work by Andrea del Sarto, some 
mention is made by our author in his life of Andrea. 

3 Of these portraits nothing absolutely certain is now known. There is a copy of that of Giuliano 
in the Florentine Gallery, which was once believed to be by Vasari himself, but it is now attributed to 
Alessandro Allori. 

4 Raphael’s house was destroyed to make way for the Colonnade of St. Peter’s. See Ferrario, 

and Giacomo de’ Rossi, Palazzi di Roma. See also Fea, Notizie intomo a Raffaello Sanzio. 



Raphael, who sent a number of his own drawings to Albert Diirer , 1 by whom 
they were very highly estimated. The head sent by the German artist, 
Albert Diirer, to Raphael, was subsequently taken to Mantua, among the 
other possessions inherited from the last named master, by Giulio Romano . 2 

Raphael having been thus made acquainted with the mode of proceeding 
adopted in his engravings by Albert Diirer, was desirous of seeing his own 
works treated after that manner; he therefore caused Marco Antonio of 
Bologna, who was well practised in that branch of art, to prepare numerous 
Studies from them; and in this Antonio succeeded so well, that Raphael 
commissioned him to engrave many of his earliest works, namely, the 
Slaughter of the Innocents, a Last Supper, the Neptune, and the Santa 
Cecilia, when she is being boiled in oil . 3 Marco Antonio subsequently 
executed a number of engravings, which were afterward given by Raphael 
to II Baviera, his disciple, who was the guardian of a certain lady, to whom 
Raphael was attached till the day of his death, and of whom he painted a 
most beautiful portrait, which might be supposed alive. This is now at 
Florence, in the possession of the good and worthy Botti, a Florentine 
merchant of that city , 4 who is the friend and favourer of all distinguished 
men, but more especially of painters; by him the work is treasured as if it 
were a relic, for the love which he bears to the art, but more especially to 

1 One of these, containing two undraped figures of men. is now in the collection of the Archduke 
Charles, at Vienna, The drawing is addressed to Albert Diirer by the hand of Eaphael himself, who 
has also inscribed the date 1515.— Ed. Flor. 1832-8. The German Commentator, Ludwig Schorn, 
adds, that the following inscription, written by Albert Diirer, is also to be found thereon. “ 1515, 
Eafael of Urbino, Who is so highly esteemed by the Pope, has made this naked figure, and has sent it 
to Nuremberg to Albert Diirer, as a specimen of work from his hand.” 

s This portrait is now believed to be lost. 

8 This is not St. Cecilia boiled in oil, but the martyrdom of Santa Felicitas and her sons.— Bottari. 
For the legend of this saint, the reader is referred to Mrs. Jameson, Sacred and Legendary Art, vol. 
ii. p. 266, et seq. See also Bicha, Chiese Fiorentine, vol. ix. 

4 Still in Florence, in the tribune of the Uffizj, according to Masselli, but according to Schorn it 
has been removed to the Pitti Palace. 



Virgin embraces the Infant Jesus, who is seated upon her knee, and upon 
lose head her own inclines: both are looking, at the spectator. The Holy 
Mother wears a striped head-dress, the ends of which fall behind: her shoulders are 
covered with a richly coloured dress ornamented with fringe. On the right, St. John, 
holding a small cross in his arms, joins his little hands in adoration. The chair (sedia) 
in which the Virgin is seated, gives the name to the picture.;— Passavant. 



Raphael. Nor less friendly to artists than himself is his brother Simon 
Botti, who,' to say nothing of the fact, that he is held by us all to be one of 
the most friendly among those who benefit our arts, is to myself in particular, 
the best and truest friend that ever the long experience of many years made 
dear to man: he has besides given proof of very good judgment in all things 
relating to our own art. 

But to return to the copperplate engravings. The favour which Raphael 
had shown to II Baviera was afterwards the cause which induced Marco of 
Ravenna, and many others, to labour in that branch of art; insomuch, that 
what was formerly the great dearth of engravings on copper, became 
eventually that large supply of them which we now find. Hugo da Carpi, 
moreover, whose fine powers of invention were turned to the discovery of 
many ingenious and fanciful devices, found out that of carving in wood, in 
which, by means of three blocks, the light, shadow, and middle tint can equally 
be given, and drawings in chiaro-scuro imitated exactly. Without doubt a 
very beautiful and fanciful invention, 1 which has since been largely extended. 

For the Monks of Monte Oliveto, Raphael executed a picture of Christ 
Bearing his Cross, to be placed in their Monastery at Palermo, called Santa 
Maria della Spasmo; this is considered to be a most admirable work, and is 
remarkable, among other characteristics, for the force with which the master 
has rendered the cruelty of the executioners, who are dragging the 
Redeemer to his death on Mount Calvary, with all the evidences of a 
furious rage. The Saviour himself, grievously oppressed by the torment of 
the death towards which he is approaching, and borne down by the weight 
of the Cross, has fallen to the earth faint with heat and covered with blood; 
he .turns towards the Maries who are weeping bitterly. Santa Veronica is 
also among those who surround him, and, full of compassion, she extends her 
arms towards the Sufferer, to whom she presents a handkerchief with an 

1 It is now well known that Lucas Cranach, Hans Grim, and other German engravers, practised 
the art of wood-engraving long before the time of Hugo da Carpi. 




expression of the deepest sympathy. There are besides vast numbers of 
armed men on horseback and on foot, who are seen pouring forth from the 
Gate of Jerusalem, bearing the ensigns of justice in their hands, and all in 
attitudes of great and varied beauty. 

This picture was entirely finished, but had not yet been fixed in its 
place, when it was in great danger and on the point of coming to an unhappy 
end. The matter was on this wise : The painting, according to what I' have 
heard related, was shipped to be taken to Palermo, but a frightful tempest 
arose which drove the vessel on a rock, where it was beaten to pieces, men 
and merchandize being lost together, this picture alone excepted, which, 
secured in its packings, was carried by the sea into the Gulf of Genoa. Here 
it was picked up and borne to land, when, being seen to be so beautiful a 
thing, it was placed in due keeping, having maintained itself unhurt and 
without spot or blemish of any kind; for even the fury of the winds and the 
waves of the sea had had respect to the beauty of so noble a work. The 
fame of this event was bruited abroad, and the Monks, to whom the picture 
belonged, took measures to obtain its restoration: in this they eventually 
succeeded, though not without great difficulty and only by the aid of the 
Pope, when they largely rewarded those who # had effected its recovery from 
the waves. 1 Being then embarked anew, the picture was ultimately landed 
in Sicily; the Monks then deposited the work in the city of Palermo, where 
it has more reputation than the Mount of Yulcan itself. 2 

While Raphael was thus engaged with the works above described, which 
he could not decline doing, partly because commissioned to execute them by 
great and important personages, but partly, also, because a due regard for 

1 This much celebrated picture, called Lo Spasimo di Sicilia, was taken to Paris, where it was 
transferred from the panel to canvas; it is now in the Jioj-al Gallery of Madrid. The figure of St. 
Veronica is not in the picture. Vasari described it from memory, and is in error on this point. 

2 Our author is here following the old poets, who make Mount Etna the abode of Vulcan and the 

site of his forge. 



HRIST, sinking to the earth under the weight of the Cross, turns to the holy- 
women who tearfully accompany him. His mother, overwhelmed with grief, 
supported by St. John and Mary Magdalene, stretches her arms towards her Divine Son. 
In front, one of the women, kneeling, lifts the virgin’s veil, and behind, a fourth woman 
wrings her hands in her ecstasy of sorrow. Simon, the Cyrenian, has seized the cross to 
carry it himself. One of the soldiers thrusts a lance at Christ in order to compel him to 
rise, while another endeavours to lift the cross with a cord. A horseman, bearing a 
standard, heads the procession. From the gates of the city issue forth the Roman judges 
on horseback, attended by soldiers. In the background, the two thieves are being con¬ 
ducted to. Mount Calvary. - 

This picture is also called Lo Spasimo di Sicilia, from the name of the church St. 
Maria dello Spasimo, at Palermo, in which it formerly hung. A singular incident is 
attached to the history of this celebrated painting. The vessel in which it was shipped 
for Palermo was wrecked, and- the case containing the picture floated upon the sea into 
the harbour of Genoa, where the inhabitants took possession of it, until the Pope inter¬ 
fered and ordered it to be sent to its proper destination.— Passavant. 



his interest would not permit him to refuse them,—while thus occupied, I 
say, he did not on that account neglect to continue the works which he had 
commenced in the Papal Halls and Chambers; on the contrary, he kept 
people constantly employed therein, and by them the work was continued 
from drawings made by his own hand, every part being minutely superin¬ 
tended by himself, and the more important portions of the whole executed 
by him, so far as was possible in a work of such magnitude. No long time 
elapsed, therefore, before he gave to view the apartment of the Torre Borgia , 
m every wall of which he had placed a painting—two over the windows 
namely, and two on the sides wherein there are no windows. In one of 
these pictures the master has depicted the Conflagration of the Borgo 
Fecchio of Rome, which could not be extinguished until Pope Leo IV. 
presented himself at the Loggia of the Palace, and extinguished it entirely 
jy the power of his benediction. In this work is the representation of many 
perilous incidents; on one side are women bearing vases of water on their 
reads and in their hands wherewith to extinguish the flames; the hair and 
clothing of these figures are blown about by the fury of a tempestuous 
wind; others, who are attempting to throw water on the burning masses, 
rre blinded by the smoke, and appear to be in a state of bewilderment. At 
mother part of the picture is a group, resembling that described by Virgil, 
of Anchises borne out of danger by iEneas. An old man being sick, is 
exhausted by his infirmity and the heat of the fire, and is carried by a youth 
in whose form the determination and power to save are manifest, as is the 
effort made by every member to support the dead weight of the old man 
helplessly hanging in utter abandonment upon his back. He is followed by 
an old woman barefoot and with loosened garments, who is rushing in haste 
from the fire—a naked child goes before them. From the top of a ruined 
building also is seen a woman naked and with dishevelled hair, who has an 
nfant in her hands which she is about to throw down to one of her family; 
just escaped from the flames, the last-mentioned person stands in the road 



below raised on the points of his feet and stretching forth his arms to receive 
the child—an infant in swathing-bands, which the woman holds out to him: 
and here the anxious eagerness of the mother to save her child is no less 
truthfully expressed than is the suffering which she is herself enduring from 
the devouring flames, glowing around and threatening to destroy her. In 
the figure of the man who is receiving the child also there is as clearly to be 
perceived the anxiety which he suffers in his desire to rescue it, with the 
fear he entertains for his own life. Equally remarkable is the power of 
imagination displayed by this most ingenious and most admirable artist in a 
mother, who, driving her children before her, with bare feet, loosened 
vestments, girdle unbound, and hair dishevelled, bears a part of her clothing 
in her hands, and smites her children to hasten their flight from the falling 
ruins and from the scorching fury of the flames. There are besides other 
women, who, kneeling before the Pope, appear to be entreating that his 
Holiness will cause the fire to be stayed. 1 

The second picture also represents an incident from the life of Pope Leo 
IV: here the master has depicted the Port of Ostia occupied by the fleet of 
the Turks, who had come to make his Holiness prisoner. On the sea 
without are seen the Christians engaged in combat with the Turkish 
Armada, and numerous prisoners are already observed to be entering the 
harbour; the latter are seen to issue from a boat whence they are dragged 
by soldiers, the attitudes and countenances of whom are exceedingly spirited 
and beautiful. The prisoners are clothed in a variety of vestments proper 
to seamen, and are led before St. Leo, whose figure is a portrait of the then 
reigning Pontiff, Leo X. His Holiness, who is in full pontificals, is 
enthroned between the Cardinal of Santa Maria-in-Portico, Bernardo Divizio 
da Bibbiena namely, and Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici, who was afterwards 

1 For various details respecting this work, which is that wherein Eaphael did the most with his 
own hand, those succeeding being for the most part by his scholars, see Passavant, vol. i. p. 261, vol. 
ii. p. 193. 



HE Virgin, standing in a meadow, is holding the infant Jesus with her left hand, 
and places her right on the head of Saint John, who is approaching, with his 
little reed cross in his hand, to embrace his Divine Companion. Behind a thicket is 
St. Joseph watching them. A rich landscape forms the background. In 1798 the 
Duke of Bridgewater bought this picture from the Orleans Gallery for £3000. It is 
not certain that it is the original.— Passavant. 



Pope Clement VII. It would not be possible minutely to describe the 
admirable thought with which this most inventive artist has depicted the 
countenances of the prisoners, in whose expression all necessity for speech is 
superseded, so eloquently does it set forth their grief, their terror, and the 
bitter foretaste which they are enduring of the death preparing for them. 1 2 

In the other two pictures is first Leo X. consecrating the most 
Christian King, 3 * * * Francis I. of France. He is chanting the mass, robed in full 
pontificals, and is blessing the oils wherewith to anoint the monarch at the 
same time that he likewise blesses the royal crown; a vast body of Cardinals 
and Bishops, also in their episcopal robes, are serving the mass, and there 
are, moreover, numerous ambassadors and other personages portrayed from 
nature, with several figures dressed in the French manner of that period. 
The second picture represents the Coronation of the above-named King, 8 and 
here the Pope and Francis are both drawn from the life, the King in armour, 
the Pope in his pontifical robes; the College of Cardinals, a large number of 
Bishops, chamberlains, shield-bearers, and grooms of the chamber, all in 
their appropriate robes and dresses of ceremony, are placed in their due 
position and proper order as is usual in the papal chapel. Among them are 
many portraits from the life, as, for example, that of Giannozzo Pandolfini, 
Bishop of Troy, and the most intimate friend of Raphael, with those of many 
other persons holding eminent positions at that time. Rear the King is a 

1 This picture has suffered more than the others; it is said to have been executed principally by 
Gaudenzio da Ferrara, but re-touched by Sebastiano del Piombo, who received a sharp reproof from 
Titian for hia pains.— Ptmavant, ut supra. 

2 The Coronation is that of Charlemagne, by Leo III, but the figure of the emperor is a 
portrait of Francis I, as that of the Pontiff is of Pope Leo X. The work has been engraved by 

3 Here also Vasari is in error as to the subject, which is generally called the Justification of Leo 

III, that Pontiff taking an oath on the Gospels, and in the presence of Charlemagne, that he is not 

guilty in the matter of the charges brought against him by the nephew of Adrian I. The picture, 

according to Passavant, was executed by the scholars of Raphael. 



boy kneeling, who bears the crown in his hands; this is the portrait of 
Ippolito de’ Medici, who was afterwards a Cardinal and became Vice-Chan¬ 
cellor—a highly esteemed prelate, and the firm friend, not of these arts only, 
but of all others—one too, whose memory I am myself bound to hold in the 
most grateful respect, and do indeed acknowledge myself deeply obliged to 
him, since my own commencement in art, such as it may have been, had its 
origin with that noble prelate. 

To describe all the minute particulars of Raphael’s works, wherein every 
object seems to be eloquently speaking in its silence, would not be possible; 
I must yet not omit to mention that beneath each of the pictures above 
described is represented a socle or basement, wherein are depicted the 
figures of various benefactors and defenders of the church, separated from 
each other by terminal figures of various character, 1 but all executed in such 
a manner that every part gives evidence of the utmost thought and care; all 
are full of spirit, with a propriety and harmony of colour that could not 
possibly be better. The ceiling of this apartment had been painted by 
Pietro Perugino, Raphael’s master, and this the latter, from respect to his 
memory and from the affection that he bore him, would not destroy, seeing 
that by his instructions it was that Raphael himself was first conducted to 
the path which had led him to so high a position in art. 

So comprehensive and extended were the views of Raphael in all things 
relating to his works, that he kept designers employed in all parts of Italy, at 
Puzzuolo, and even in Greece, to the end that he might want nothing of that 
which appertained to his art; and for this he spared neither labour nor cost. 

Pursuing his works in the Vatican, Raphael decorated one of the halls in 

1 These termini are in chiaro-scuro of a yellow colour, they were partly drawn as well as 
executed, according to some authorities, by Giulio Romano. See Passavunt, wt supra. Bottari, in 
the Roman edition, affirms them to have been so much injured by time as to have required almost 
entirely repainting, which, he further informs us, and is herein followed by all later commentators,, was 
done in a very masterly maimer by Carlo Maratti. 



Virgin is seated with her fane in profile, and embraces with her right arm 
) Infant Jesus, who is seated on her lap. He is turning his head and seems to 
he listening to the words of little St. John, who is standing in an attitude of adoration. 
The Virgin’s head is covered with a richly-ornamented cloth. The curtain ( tenda ) which 
forms the background gives the name to the picture.— Passavant. 



terretta, 1 depicting several of the Apostles and numerous Saints, 2 whom he 
has represented standing in niches or tabernacles. 3 There also he caused his 
disciple Giovanni da Udine, who had not his equal in the delineation of 
animals, to paint all those then in the possession of Pope Leo X; the 
chameleon, for example, the civet cat, the apes, the parrots, the lions, the 
elephants, 4 * and other animals from distant lands. He also adorned many of 
the floors and other parts of the palace wifh grottesche and other embellish¬ 
ments ; and gave the design for certain of the staircases, as well as for the 
loggie commenced by the architect Bramante, but which remained incomplete 
at the death of that master, when they were continued after a new design, 
and with many changes in the architecture, by Raphael himself, who prepared 
a model in wood, the arrangement and decoration of which were richer and 
more beautiful than that proposed by Bramante. 

Pope Leo, desiring to show the greatness of his magnificence and 
generosity, caused Raphael to make designs for the ornaments in stucco, 
which he had resolved to have placed between the paintings 6 executed in the 

1 Terretta, otherwise called Terra di Cava, or, as by Baldinucci, Terra da Boceali. “ The 
earth or clay used in making earthenware for the service of the table, and which, being mixed with 
powdered charcoal, was employed for making grounds, for painting chiari-scuri, and even for the tints. 
It is found in Rome, near St. Peter’s and at Monte Spertoli, thirteen miles from Florence, and 
appears to resemble what in England is called ‘ China clay.’”—From a note to the Ancient Treatises 
on the Arts of Painting, admirably translated, with valuable notes, by Mrs. Merrifield. See the 
Volputo Manuscript. 

2 Christ and the twelve apostles rather.— L. Schom. . 

3 These works were nearly destroyed by Pope Pius IY, who changed the Hall into a series of 
smaller chambers, but when its original form was restored to the apartment by Gregory XIII, that 
pontiff caused all then remaining to be restored by Taddeo ^ucchero. The figures of Christ and his 
Apostles are best known to us through the engravings of Marco Antonio. 

4 Leo X. had received the present of an elephant from the King of Portugal, and had its 

portrait taken, in compliment to the Roman people, to whom the animal had furnished much amuse- 
meut.— Ed. Flor. 1832-8. 

* Forty-eight subjects from the Old Testament namely, and four from the New, known as “ The 
Bible of Raphael.” He surrounded them with mythological representations, giving the designs of all 
himself. See Passavant, vols. i. and ii. 



loggie, as well as for those in other parts; and as superintendent of all these 
grottesche in stucco, he appointed Giovanni da Udine, Giulio Romano being 
commissioned to prepare the figures; but the latter did not work at them to 
any great extent. The Pontiff also commissioned Giovanni Francesco, 1 II 
Bologna, 2 Perino del Vaga, Pellegrino da Modena, Vincenzio of San 
Gimignano, and Polidoro da Caravaggio, with many other artists, to execute 
historical pictures, separate figures, and many other portions of the works, all 
which Raphael caused to be completed with so much care, that he even 
suffered the pavement to be procured in Florence from Luca della Robbia, 3 
inasmuch that, whether for the paintings, the stucco work, the architecture 
or other beautiful inventions, a more admirable performance could not be 
executed, nay, could scarcely be imagined; its perfection was indeed the 
cause of Raphael’s receiving the charge of all the works in painting and 
architecture that were to be executed in the palace. 

It is said that Raphael was so courteous and obliging, that for the 
convenience of certain among his friends, he commanded the masons not to 
build the walls in a firm uninterrupted range, but to leave certain spaces and 
apertures among the old chambers on the lower floors, to the end that they 
might store casks, pipes, firewood, &c. therein; but these hollows and spaces 
weakened the base of the walls, so that it has since become needful to fill 
them in, seeing that the whole work began to show cracks and other signs of 
deterioration. For all the doors, wainscots, and other portions ornamented 
in woodwork, Raphael caused fine carvings to be prepared, and these were 
executed and finished in a very graceful manner by Gian Barile. 4 

The architectural designs for the Yigna 5 of the Pope and for several 

1 Giovanni Francesco Penni, called II Fattore. 

2 Bartolommeo Ramenghi, called, from his birthplace, II Bagnacavello. 

3 Not from Luca della Robbia, who was then dead, but from his nephew Andrea.— Ed. Flor, 

4 For details respecting this celebrated carver in wood, see Della Valle, Lettere Sanesi. 

5 Vasari here means the Villa on Monte Mario, commenced by Raphael, for the Cardinal Giulio 



ETWEEN curtains which are looped up on each side of the picture, appears the 
Virgin, like a divine apparition, standing upon luminous clouds and holding 
the Infant Jesus in her arms. An immense glory, formed of countless heads of angels, 
surrounds her with its golden radiancy. Pope St. Sixtus, • clothed in a white tunic 
covered with a pallium of golden cloth lined with purple, is kneeling on the left; his 
tiara is placed in the comer beneath him; he supplicates the Virgin, and seems to 
point out with his right hand to his flock, which are'not included in the picture. On 
the right hand is St. Barbara kneeling, her hands crossed on her chest, contemplating 
the faithful, who are supposed to b.e in adoration. At the base of the picture.are two 
angels leaning on a balustrade; one of them gazes upwards, while the other looks with 
infinite grace towards the spectator. 

This incomparable masterpiece is distinguished above all other paintings of Raphael 
in his later years, inasmuch as, according, to all evidence, it was painted entirely by his 
own hands; for each touch of the brush is so masterly and full of intelligence, the 
colour is so luminously bright and so harmonious, the expression of the countenances 
are so sweet and so angelic, that no one but Raphael himself could have attained to 
such a sublimity of art .—P assay ant. 



houses in the Borgo , 1 but more particularly for the palace of Messer Giovanni 
Battista clall’ Aquila, which was a very beautiful edifice, were likewise 
prepared by Raphael. He also designed one for the Bishop of Troia, who 
caused him to construct it in the Via di San Gallo at Florence . 2 

For the Black Friars of San Sisto in Piacenza, Raphael painted a picture, 
intended to form the altar-piece for the high altar of their church, the subject, 
of this work is the Virgin with St. Sixtus and Santa Barbara, a truly 
admirable production.* Raphael painted many pictures to be sent into 
France, but more particularly one for the king, St. Michael namely, in 
combat with the Arch-fiend; this also is considered singularly beautiful, a 


rock, whence flames are issuing, represents the centre of the earth, and from 
the clefts of this rock fires and sulphurous flames are proceeding, while 
Lucifer, whose limbs, scorched and burning, are depicted of various tints, 
exhibits every emotion of rage that pride, envenomed and inflated, can 
awaken against the Oppressor of his greatness, by whom he is deprived of 
his kingdom, and at whose hands he may never hope for peace, but is certain 
to receive heavy and perpetually enduring punishment. In direct contrast 
with this figure is that of the Archangel San Michele; his countenance is 
adorned with celestial beauty, he wears armour formed of iron and gold, 
fearlessness, force, and terror are in his aspect, he has cast Lucifer to the 
earth, and compels him to lie prone beneath his uplifted spear; the work 
was performed in so admirable a manner, at all points, that Raphael 
obtained, as he had well merited, a large and honourable reward for it from 

do’ Medici, afterwards Pope Clement VII, but finished by Giulio Romano, after designs of his own, 
which were different in many respects from those of Raphael. 

1 Destroyed to make way for the Colonnade of San Pietro. 

2 Now the property of the Nencini family.— Ed. Flor. 1838. 

3 This work was purchased by Augustus III, King of Poland, for 22,000 crowns, and is now in 
the Dresden Gallery. Rumohr is of opinion that this picture was originally intended, not for an altar- 
piece, but to be borne in procession, since it is not on panel, as Vasari’s “ tavola” might imply, but on 
canvas. The work has been engraved by Muller. 




the king. 1 This master also painted the portrait of Beatrice of Ferrara, 2 
with those of other ladies; that of his own inamorata is more particularly to 
be specified, but he also executed many others. 3 He was much disposed to 
the gentler affections and delighted in the society of woman, for whom he 
was ever ready to perform acts of service. But he also permitted himself to 
be devoted somewhat too earnestly to the pleasures of life, and in this 
respect was perhaps more than duly considered and indulged by his friends 
and admirers. We find it related that his intimate friend, Agostino Chigi, 
had commissioned him to paint the first floor of his palace, 4 but Raphael was 
at that time so much occupied with the love which he bore to the lady of 
his choice, that he could not give sufficient attention to the work. Agostiho, 
therefore, falling at length into despair of seeing it finished, made so many 
efforts by means of friends and by his own care, that after much difficulty he 
at length prevailed on the lady to take up her abode in his house, where she 
was accordingly installed in apartments near those which Raphael was 
painting; in this manner the work was ultimately brought to a conclusion. 5 

For these pictures Raphael prepared all the cartoons, painting many of 
the figures also with his own hand in fresco. 6 On the ceiling he represented 

1 How in the Louvre. Engraved bj Edeiinck and others. 

2 Passavant is of opinion that the well-known picture in the Tribune of the Uffizj, hitherto called 
the Fornctrina, is the portrait of Beatrice of Ferrara, who was not, as he further informs us, a 
royal personage, but may rather be conjectured to have been an improvisatrice. 

3 Among these portraits was that of the celebrated beauty, Joanna of Aragon, now also in the 
Louvre, and eDgraved by Morghen. Respecting these and other female portraits by Raphael, see 
Passavant, ut supra. 

4 That on the Lungara namely, now called the Farnesina, and which has for many years been 
the property of the King of Haples. 

5 Longliena, Storia, &c. will not admit the truth of this anecdote, which is denied by Passavant 
also. For details respecting the paintings see the last named writer, with Pungileoni, Elogio Storico. 
See also Fea, Notizie, &c. 

6 According to the best authorities but little of these works was executed by Raphael himself. See 
Passavant. See also Rumohr, Longhena, and Pungileoni. 



MICHAEL, who has descended from heaven in rapid flight, has alighted upon 
Satan, who, crushed to the earth, dares no longer oppose his diabolical fury to the 
Divine Omnipotence. The Archangel, with outspread wings, holds with both his hands a 
spear, which he is raising to strike his adversary : he has on a tunic and a cuirass covered 
with golden scales; his sword hangs from a belt, his legs are bare, and his feet shod 
with sandals. Red and blue fire escape from the crevices of the ground. Rocky scenery, 
with the sea in the distance form the background. In the figure of St. Michael, 
Raphael seems to have wished to express the idea of strength and youth. On the 
edge of the blue garment of the Archangel is written, “ Raphael . vrbinas . pikgkbat . 

Raphael painted this picture for Lorenzo de’ Medici, who gave it to Francis I. of 
France.— Puasavant. 



the council of the Gods in heaven, and in the forms of these deities many of 
the outlines and lineaments may be perceived to be from the antique, as are 
various portions of the draperies and vestments, the whole admirably drawn 
and exhibiting the most perfect grace. In a manner equally beautiful, 
Raphael further depicted the Marriage of Psyche, with the attendants 
ministering to Jupiter, and the Graces scattering flowers. In the angles of 
the ceiling also he executed other stories, representing in one of them a 
figure of Mercury with his flute; the god in his graceful movements appears 
really to be descending from heaven: in a second is the figure of Jupiter 
depicted with an aspect of the most sublime dignity, near him is Ganymede, 
whom with celestial gravity he is caressing, and on the'remaining angles 
are other mythological representations. Lower down is the chariot of 
Venus, wherein Psyche is borne to heaven in a car which is drawn by the 
Graces, who are aided by Mercury. In those compartments of the vaulting 
which are above the arches and between the angles, are figures of boys most 
beautifully foreshortened, they are hovering in the air, and bear the various 
attributes proper to the different deities; one has the thunderbolts of Jove 
for example, others bear the helmet, sword, and shield of Mars, or the 
hammers of Vulcan, some are laden with the club and lion-skin of Hercules, 
one carries the caduceus of Mercury, another the pipe of Pan, while others 
again have the agricultural implements of Vertumnus: all are accompanied 
by the animals appropriate to their various offices, and the whole work, 
whether as painting or poetry, is of a truth eminently beautiful . 1 All these 
representations Raphael further caused Giovanni da Udine to surround with 
a bordering of flowers, fruits, and foliage in the richest variety, disposed in 
festoons, and all as beautiful as it is possible that works of the kind can be. 

This master likewise gave a design for the stables of the Chigi Palace, 
with that for the chapel belonging to the same Agostino Chigi in the Church 

1 The pictures of the Farnesina_were restored by Carlo Maratti.— Ed.Flor. 1832-8. SeeBellori, 
Della Eeparazione, &c. 



of Santa Maria del Popolo, this he painted also , 1 and furthermore made 
preparations for the construction of a magnificent sepulchral monument, for 
which he caused the Florentine sculptor Lorenzetto to execute two figures , 2 
these are still in his house situate in the Macello de Corvi in Rome . 3 4 But 
the death of Raphael, and afterwards that'of Agostino , 1 caused the execution 
of the sepulchre to be made over to Sebastiano Yiniziano . 5 

Baphael had now attained to such high repute, that Leo X. commanded 
him to commence the painting of the great hall on the upper floor of the 
Papal Palace, that namely wherein the victories of Constantine are deli¬ 
neated, and this work he accordingly began . 6 The Pope also desired to have 
certain very rich tapestries in silk and gold prepared, whereupon Raphael 
made ready the Cartoons, which he coloured also with his own hand, giving 
them the exact form and size required for the tapestries. These were then 
despatched to Flanders to be woven, and when the cloths were finished they 
were sent to Rome . 7 This work was so admirably executed that it awakened 

1 According to the Italian commentators, Raphael made the cartoons for this chapel, hut did not 
execute them. The Mosaic is said to be by the Venetian, Luigi da Pace, called Maestro Luisaccio. 
The whole work has been finely engraved by Gruner, Rome, 1840. 

2 They represent the Prophets Elisha and -Jonas: the last said to have been modelled by Raphael 

3 They are now placed in the Chapel, with two other figures by Bernini, the latter representing 
the Prophets Daniel and Habakkuk. 

4 AgostinO Chigi died a few days after the death of Raphael himself, on the 10th of April 
namely, 1520. 

5 Sebastiano Luciani, better known among ourselves as Sebastiano del Piombo, so called from the 
office of signet (piombo) bearer, which he held under Clement VII. 

6 He made the design for the general arrangement, that is to say, with the cartoons for the 
Speech of Constantine to his soldiers, that for the battle, and those for the allegorical figures of 
Justice and Clemency. These last he caused Giulio Romano and Francesco Penni to paint in oil, on 
the wall, by way of specimen; the remainder were executed by his disciples after his death. For 
details respecting these works, see Passavant, and the many other authorities above cited. 

7 The tapestries were sent to Rome, but the cartoons were not returned. Seven of the latter, of 
which there were originally ten, are now, as our readers are aware, at the South Kensington Museum; 
of the remaining three, certain fragments only now exist. 




C^P|HIS is a nearly full-face portrait of a handsome young lady, who wears a wreath 
of gold, enamelled with green leaves, around her head. She holds in one hand’ 
a cloak trimmed with fur, which covers her deep-blue velvet bodice. In this picture 
the decorations of the bodice and of the wreath, the filagree which glitters round her 
neck, the ring' which ornaments one of the fingers of her hand, and also the light on the 
hair, are heightened with gold, which adds a magical richness to the painting.— Passavqnt. 

This picture has been engraved as “ La Fomarina,” but it is more probably the 
portrait of a celebrated poetess and improvisatrice, Beatrice of Ferrara. 



astonishment in all who beheld it, as it still continues to do; for the 
spectator finds it difficult to conceive how it has been found possible to have 
produced such hair and beards by weaving, or to have given so much soft¬ 
ness to the flesh by means of thread, a work which certainly seems rather to 
have been performed by miracle than by the art of man, seeing that we 
have here animals, buildings, water, and innumerable objects of various 
kinds, all so well done that they do not look like a mere texture woven in 
the loom, but like paintings executed with the pencil. 1 This work cost 
70,000 crowns, and is still preserved in the Papal chapel. 2 

For the Cardinal Colonna, Raphael painted a San Giovanni on canvas, 
which was an admirable work and greatly prized for its beauty by the 
cardinal, but the latter being attacked by a dangerous illness, and having 
been cured of his infirmity by the physician Messer Jacopo da Carpi, the 
latter desired to be presented with the picture of Raphael as his reward; the 
cardinal, therefore, seeing his great wish for the same, and believing himself 
to be under infinite obligation to his physician, deprived himself of the work, 
and gave it to Messer Jacopo. It is now at Florence in the possession of 
Francesco Benintendi. 3 4 

Raphael also painted a picture for the Cardinal and Vice-chancellor Giulio 
de’ Medici,* a Transfiguration namely, which was destined to be sent into 
France. This he executed with his own hand, and labouring at it continually, 

1 These tapestries, ten in number, were designed by Pope Leo X. for the lower part of the wall 
of the Sistine Chapel, and there Raphael a short time before his death, on the 26th December, 1519, 
that is to say, had the happiness of seeing them suspended, and of beholding all Rome regarding them 
with delight and admiration. 

2 The tapestries made after Raphael’s designs were carried off in the sack of Rome by the 
Constable Eourbon, but were restored during the pontificate of Julius III. 

3 This work has long adorned the Tribune of the Florentine Gallery of the Uffizj. In the collec¬ 
tion of the same gallery is the sketch for it in red chalk. For details respecting the numerous copies 
made from this picture, see Passavant, vol. ii. p. 355. 

4 Afterwards Pope Clement YII. 




he brought it to the highest perfection, depicting the Saviour transfigured 
on Mount Tabor, with eleven of the disciples awaiting him at the foot of the 
Mount. To these is meanwhile brought a youth possessed of a spirit, who is 
also awaiting the descent of Christ, by whom he is to be liberated from the 
demon. 1 The possessed youth is shown in a distorted attitude stretching 
forth his limbs, crying, rolling his eyes, and exhibiting in every movement 
the suffering he endures; the flesh, the veins, the pulses, are all seen to he 
contaminated by the malignity of the spirit, the terror and pain of the 
possessed being rendered further manifest by his pallid colour and writhing 
gestures. The figure is supported by an old man in whose widely open eyes 
the light is reflected, he is embracing and seeking to comfort the afflicted 
boy, his knitted brow and the expression of his face show at once the appre¬ 
hension he feels, and the force with which he is labouring to combat his fears; 
he looks fixedly at the apostles as if hoping to derive courage and consolation 
from their aspect. There is one woman among others in this picture who 
is the principal figure therein, and who, kneeling before the two just 
described, turns her head "towards the apostles, and seems by the movement 
of her arms in the direction of the possessed youth, to be pointing out his 
misery to their attention. The Apostles also, some of whom are standing, 
some seated, and others kneeling, give evidence of the deep compassion they 
feel for that great misfortune. 

In this work the master has of a truth produced figures and heads of such 
extraordinary beauty, so new, so varied, and at all points so admirable, that 
among the many works executed by his hand, this, by the common consent 
of all artists, is declared to be the most worthily renowned, the most 
excellent, the most divine. Whoever shall desire to see in what manner 
Christ transformed into the Godhead should be represented, let him come 

1 For this work Raphael was to receive 655 ducats; 224 of which remaining unpaid at his 
death, were then made over to his heir, Giulio Romano, who probably worked with him at this 
picture.— Ed. Flor. 1832-8. 



IjsN the lower part of this picture, on the right hand, a father has brought his son, 
possessed of the devil, and implores the assistance of the Apostles who are 
waiting upon Jesus at the foot of Mount Tabor: accompanying the lad are eight 
members of his family. The Apostles, not having the power to cast out devils, point 
to their Heavenly Master, who, surrounded by celestial radiancy, appears floating in 
the air between Moses and Elias. The three Apostles, St- Peter, St. James, and 
St. John, who have followed Jesus to the mountain, have thrown themselves upon the 
earth, dazzled with the brightness of the Transfiguration. On their left are two priests 
worshipping. These, it is believed, were introduced by Raphael at the request of the 
Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici.— Passavant. 

This was the last picture painted by Raphael, who left it partly unfinished at his 
death. It was hung above his coffin in the great hall in which he lay in state, and was 
borne before him in his funeral procession. 



and behold it in this picture. The Saviour is shown floating over the mount 
in the clear air; the figure, foreshortened, is between those of Moses and 
Elias, who, illumined by his radiance, awaken into life beneath the splendour 
of the light. Prostrate on the earth are Peter, James, and John, in attitudes 
of great and varied beauty, one has his head bent entirely to the ground,* 
another defends himself with his hands from the brightness of that immense 
light, which proceeds from the splendour of Christ, who is clothed in 
vestments of snowy whiteness, his arms thrown open, and the head raised 
towards heaven, while the essence and Godhead of all the three persons 
united in himself, are made apparent in their utmost perfection by the divine 
art of Raphael. 

But as if that sublime genius had gathered all the force of his powers 
into one effort, whereby the glory and the majesty of art should be made 
manifest in the countenance of Christ; having completed that, as one who 
had finished the great work which he had to accomplish, he touched the 
pencils no more, being shortly afterwards overtaken by death. 1 

Having now described the works of this most excellent artist, I will not 
permit myself to consider it a labour to say somewhat for the benefit of those 

1 Few readers will require to be reminded that the glorious Transfiguration of Raphael is now in 
the Vatican. It was taken, with other works, to Paris in 1797, and was there cleaned, having become 
almost indistinguishable. “ The painter,” remarks the German annotator, Schorn, “ had succeeded in 
expressing the light emanating from the person of Christ, and illuminating those beneath, by a 
masterly use of chiaro-scuro, but the lamp-black having been affected by the lapse of time, much of the 
original beauty of the work is lost. The head of the Apostle Andrew, the figure of the kneeling 
maiden, and other parts, still remain, nevertheless, to give a fair idea of what the whole has been.” 
For miuute details respecting this work, see Fiorillo, Geschichte der Malerei in Italien. Marco di 
Figuera, Examen Analitico del Quadro de la Transfiguration. Constantin, Id'ees Italimnes sur 
quelques Tableaux celebres, Florence, 1840; and Rumolir, Italienesche Forschungen. See also 
Richardson, Account of Statues, Paintings, &c. London, 1722; Duppa, London, 1816; with many 
other writers, who have treated this subject with more or less ability. A very fine drawing made for 
the engraving of this work is now at South Kensington, removed from Hampton Court. See the 
Catalogue of the South Kensington Museum., and an article in a recent number of the Athenaeum on 
the Cartoons, <fcc. 



who practise our calling, respecting the manner of Raphael,- before proceeding 
to the relation of such particulars as remain to be specified in regard to other 
circumstances of his life, and to those which relate to his death. In his 
childhood he had imitated the manner of his master, Pietro Perugino, but 
•had greatly ameliorated the same, whether as regarded design, colouring, or 
invention: having done this, it then appeared to him that he had done 
enough, but when he had attained to a riper age he perceived clearly that 
he was still too far from the truth of nature. On becoming acquainted with 
the works of Leonardo da Vinci, who in the expression which he gave to his 
heads, whether male or female, had no equal, and who surpassed all other 
painters in the grace and movement which he imparted to his figures; 
seeing these works, I say, Raphael stood confounded in astonishment and 
admiration: the manner of Leonardo pleased him more than any other that 
he had ever seen, and he set himself zealously to the study thereof with the 
utmost zeal; by degrees therefore, abandoning, though not without great 
difficulty, the manner of Pietro Perugino, he endeavoured as much as was 
possible to imitate that of Leonardo. But whatever pains he took, and in 
spite of all his most careful endeavours, there were some points and certain 
difficulties of art in which he could never surpass the last named master. 1 
Many are without doubt of opinion that Raphael surpassed Leonardo in 
tenderness and in a certain natural facility, but he was assuredly by no 
means superior in respect of that force of conception and grandeur which is 
so noble a foundation in art, and in which few masters have proved them¬ 
selves equal to Leonardo: Raphael has nevertheless approached him more 
nearly than any other painter, more particularly in the graces of colouring. 

1 An Italian commentator here remarks, that, notwithstanding the marvellous genius of 
Leonardo, he was exceedingly whimsical, and frequently sought the difficult as well as the good. 
Raphael looked only to the perfection of his work, and if simple means sufficed to produce that, 
with these means he contented himself. “ It may, therefore, be fairly inquired,” continues our writer, 
“ whether in these ‘ difficulties’ of Vasari, Raphael could not, or whether it was that he would not, 
surpass Leonardo.” This is a question which we leave .our readers ta determine. 



But to speak more exclusively of Raphael himself; in the course of time 
he found a very serious impediment, in that manner which he had acquired 
from Pietro in his youth, 1 and which he had at the first so readily adopted: 
dry, minute, and defective in design, he could not completely divest himself 
of all recollection thereof, and this caused him to find the utmost difficulty in 
learning to treat worthily the beauties of the nude form, and to master the 
methods of those difficult foreshortenings which Michael Angelo Buonarroti 
executed in his Cartoon, for the Hall of the Council in Florence. Now any 
artist, who might have lost courage from believing that he had been 
previously throwing away his time, would never, however fine his genius, 
have accomplished what Raphael afterwards effected: for the latter having, 
so to speak, cured and altogether divested himself of the manner of Pietro, 
the better to acquire that of Michael Angelo, which was full of difficulties in 
every part; may be said, from a master to have almost become again a 
disciple, and compelled himself by incredible labours to effect that in a few 
months, now that he was become a man, which even in his youthful days, 
and at the time when all things are most easily acquired, would have 
demanded a period of many years for its attainment. 2 It is by no means’ to 
be denied, that he who is not early imbued with just principles, or who has 
not entered from the first on that manner which he can be content to pursue, 
and who does not gradually obtain facility in the difficulties of the art, by 
means of experience (seeking fully to comprehend every part and to confirm 
himself by practice in the knowledge of all), will scarcely ever attain to 

1 The Cavalier Tommaso Puccini, in a MS. note to Vasari, remarks, that on this point he 
“ cannot agree with the biographer, since it is certain that to Pietro we owe half the success of Raphael 
Sanzio.”— Ed. Flor. 1832-8. 

2 The works of Raphael in Florence,” remarks the German annotator, Ludwig Schorn, “ bear 
no trace of influence exercised on his manner by the cartoons of Michael Angelo, while they show 
many of that exercised by the works of Fra Bartolommeo, and by the earnest manner of Leonardo da 


I ’ 



perfection; or if he do attain it, must do so at the cost of much longer time 
and. greatly increased labour. 

At the time when Raphael determined to change and ameliorate his 
manner, he had never given his attention to the nude form, with that degree 
of care and study which the subject demands, having drawn it from the life 
only after the manner which he had seen practised by Pietro his master, 
adding nevertheless to all that he did, that grace which had been imparted to 
him by nature. But he thenceforth devoted himself to the anatomical study 
of the nude figure, and to the investigation of the muscles in dead and 
excoriated bodies as well as in those of the living; for in the latter they 
are not so readily to be distinguished, because of the impediment presented 
by the covering of the skin, as in those from which the outer integuments 
have been removed; but thus examined, the master learnt from them in 
what manner they acquire fulness and softness by their union, each in its 
due proportion, and all in their respective places, and how by the due 
management of certain flexures, the perfection of grace may be imparted to 
various attitudes as seen in different aspects. Thus also he became aware of 
the effects produced by the inflation of parts, and by the elevation or 
depression of any given, portion or separate member of the body or of the 
whole frame. The same researches also made him acquainted with the 
articulations of the bones, with the distribution of the nerves, the course of 
the veins, &c, by the study of all which he rendered himself excellent in 
every point required to perfect the painter who aspires to be of the best: 
knowing, nevertheless, that in this respect he could never attain to the 
eminence of Michael Angelo; like a man of great judgment as he was, he 
considered that painting does not consist wholly in the delineation of the 
nude form, but has a much wider field; he perceived that those who possess 
the power of expressing their thoughts well and. with facility, and of giving 
effective form to their conceptions, likewise deserve to be enumerated among 
the perfect painters; and that he, who in the composition of his pictures 



iijOAN was the daughter of Ferdinand of Arragon, Duke of Montalto, third 


natural son of Ferdinand I. King of Naples.- She married Ascanio Colonna, 
Prince of Tagliacozzo and Duke of Pagliano, Constable of Naples. Her beauty and 
her wit rendered her one of the most distinguished women of,the sixteenth century, 
and she retained this double celebrity to a very advanced age; she was named “ the 
divine,” and more than three hundred poets sang her praises. 

This portrait is supposed to have- beeh painted for Lorenzo de Medici, and by him 
presented to Francis I. It is now in the Gallery of the Louvre.— Passavant. 



shall neither confuse them by too much, nor render them poor by too little, 
but gives to all its due arrangement and just distribution, may also be 
reputed a judicious and able master. 

But in addition to this, as Raphael rightly judged, the art should be 
further enriched by new and varied inventions in perspective, by views of 
buildings, by landscapes, by a graceful manner of clothing the figures, and 
by causing the latter sometimes to be lost in the obscurity of shadows, some¬ 
times to come prominently forward into the clear light; nor did he fail to 
perceive the importance of giving beauty and animation to the heads of 
women and children, or of imparting to all, whether male or female, young 
or old, such an amount of spirit and movement as may be suited to the 
occasion. He gave its due value, likewise, to the attitudes of horses in battle 
scenes, to their movements in flight, and to the bold bearing of the warriors: 
the due representation of animals in all their varied forms, did not escape his 
consideration, still less did that of so portraying the likenesses of men that 
they may appear to be alive, and may be known for those whom they are 
intended to represent. Raphael perceived in like manner that innumerable 
accessories of other kinds and of all sorts were equally to be taken into 
account, as for example the ornament of the work by well arranged and 
beautiful draperies, and vestments of every kind; by due attention to the 
helmets and other parts of armour, to the appropriate clothing of the feet, 
and to the head-dresses of women: he saw that equal care should be accorded 
to the hair and head of figures, to vases, trees, grottoes, rocks, fires, the air, 
either turbid or serene, clouds, rains, tempests, lightnings, dews, the 
darkness of night, the moonlight, the sunshine, and an infinite variety of 
objects beside, to every one of which attention is demanded by the require¬ 
ments of painting: all these things, I say, being well considered by Raphael, 
he resolved, since he could not attain to the eminence occupied by Michael 
Angelo on the point after which he was then labouring, to equal, or perhaps 
to surpass him in those other qualities that we have just enumerated, and 



thus he devoted himself, not to the imitation of Buonarroti, lest he should 
waste his time in useless efforts, but to the attainment of perfection in those 
parts generally of which we have here made mention . 1 2 

And Well would it have been for many artists of our day if they had 
done the same, instead of pursuing the study of Michael Angelo’s works 
alone, wherein they have not been able to imitate that master, nor found 
power to approach his perfection, they would not then have exhausted them¬ 
selves by so much vain effort, nor acquired a manner so hard, so laboured, 
so entirely destitute of beauty, being, as it is, without any merit of colouring, 
and exceedingly poor in conception; but instead of this, might very possibly, 
by the adoption of more extended views and the endeavour to attain perfec¬ 
tion in other departments of the art, have done credit to themselves as well 
as rendered service to the wmrld . 4 

Having made the resolution above referred to, therefore, and learning 
that Fra Bartolommeo had a very good manner in painting, drew very 
correctly, and had a pleasing mode of colouring, although, with the intention 
of giving more relief to his figures, he sometimes made his shadows too dark: 
knowing all this, Raphael determined to adopt so much of the Monk’s, 
manner as he should find needful or agreeable to him; to take a medium 
course that is, as regarded design and colouring, and mingling with what he 
obtained from the maimer of Fra Bartolommeo, other qualities selected from 
the best that he could find in other masters, of many manners, he thus 
formed one, which was afterwards considered his own , 3 and which ever has 
been, and ever will be highly esteemed by all artists. 

1 “ We need scarcely remark,” observes Schorn, “ that in his partiality for Michael ADgelo, 
Vasari here attributes that which was indeed the effect of, Raphael’s universality of genius, to his 
supposed rivalry with the first-named master.” Puccini has an observation to the same effect. 

2 The remarks which Vasari here makes in regard to his fellow-students, are declared with 
reason, by all writers who have noted the passage, to be more especially applicable to himself and his 
owm works. 

3 The art of Raphael would indeed have remained most inert and lifeless, had it consisted in the 



portrait remained, until the year 1808, in the ancient mansion of the Altoviti 
family at Florence, when it was purchased for 8,500 sequins by Louis, 
Crown Prince of Bavaria. IBs agent, Metzger, concealed it for several years during 
the French occupation of paly. It is now one of the chief ornaments of the Pinacotheca, 
at Munich, where it is in an excellent state of preservation.— Passavard. 

In the Munich Catalogue this portrait is described as that of Raphael himself. This 
mistake is to be attributed to Bottari, who evidently misunderstood Vasari’s wbrds. 



Thus his manner was afterwards seen perfected in 'the Sybils and 
Prophets of the work, executed, as we have said, for the Church of Santa 
Maria della Pace, and in the conduct of which he was greatly assisted by the 
circumstance of his having seen the work of Michael Angelo in the Chapel of 
the Pope. Nay, had Raphael remained constant to the manner as there 
seen, had he not endeavoured to enlarge and vary it, for the purpose of 
showing that he understood the nude form as well as Michael Angelo, he 
would not have lost any portion of the good name he had acquired; but the 
nude figures in that apartment of the Torre Borgia, wherein is depicted the 
Conflagration of the Borgo Nuovo, although certainly good, are not by any 
means all excellent, or perfect in every part . 1 In like manner, those 
painted by this master on the ceiling of Agostino Chigi’s Palace in the 
Trastevere, are not altogether satisfactory, since they want that grace and 
softness which were peculiar to Raphael; but the cause of this was, in great 
part, his having suffered them to be painted after his designs by other 
artists/ an error which, j udicious as he was, he soon became aware of, and 
resolved to execute the picture of the Transfiguration in San Pietro-a- 
Montorio, entirely with his own hand, and without any assistance from 
others. In this work, therefore., will be found, all those qualities which, as 
we have said, a good picture demands, and should exhibit: nay, had 
Raphael not used in this picture, almost as it were from caprice, the lamp- 

inerc imitation anti mingling of different manners. That he accepted the good wherever he found it, is 
indeed most true, nor did he fail to profit by whatever progress was made in art, but his guide at every 
step, and the cause of his greatness, was the ever ready eye of this master for nature, and his ceaseless 
study of her beauties, as seen from the point of view presented by his own artistic idea and feeling. 

1 “ An opinion which may have been formed by Yasari, from the fact of his having regarded art 
from a false point of view,” remarks an Italian annotator. “ No one denies that in drawing the nude 
figure, Michael Angelo attained to the ne plus -ultra. But what Raphael had in mind was the ne quid 
nimis ; nor did he forget the further warning, sunt certi deniquefines, &c ; there were consequently 
limits which he did not desire to pass.” 

- lie is then not to be reproved for their defects of execution.— Si-horn, and others. 



black, or printer’s black, which, as we have more than once remarked, does 
of its nature become evermore darker with time, and is thus injurious to the 
other colours used with fit, had he not done this, I believe that the work 
would now be as fresh as when he painted it; whereas, it is, on the contrary, 
not a little darkened. 

I have thought proper to make these remarks at the close of this life, to 

the end, that all may discern the labour, study, and care to which this 


honoured artist constantly subjected himself, and with a vietv, more par¬ 
ticularly, to the benefit of other painters, who may learn from what has been 
said, to avoid those impediments, from the influence of which the genius and 
judgment of Raphael availed to secure him. I will also add the further 
observation, that every man should content himself with performing such 
works as he may reasonably be supposed to be capable of and equal to, by 
his inclination and the gifts bestowed on him by nature, without seeking to 
contend for that which she has not qualified him to attain, and this let him 
do, that he may not uselessly spend his time, fatiguing himself vainly, nay, 
not unfrequently, to his own injury as well as discredit . 1 Let it be observed, 
moreover, that when what has been accomplished suffices, it is not good to 
make further efforts, merely in the hope of surpassing those who by some 
special gift of nature, or by the particular favour accorded to them by the 
Almighty, have performed, or are performing, miracles in the art; for it is 
certain, that the man who has not the needful endowments, let him labour as 
he may, can never effect those things to which another, having received the 
gift from nature, has attained without difficulty; and of this we have an 
example among the old masters in Paolo Uccello, who, struggling against 
the natural bent of his faculties to make progress on a given path, went ever 
backwards instead. The same thing has been done in our own days, and 
but a short time since, by Jacopo da Pontormo; nay, examples have been 

1 “A piece of advice of such value,” remarks a compatriot of our author, “ that it might be 
usefully written over the entrance of every academy of the fine arts throughout Europe.” 



seen in the experience of many others, as we have said before, and as will 
often he said again. And this is permitted to occur, perhaps, in order that 
when Heaven has distributed its favours to mankind, each one may be 
content with the portion which has fallen to his lot. 

But I have now discoursed respecting these questions of art at more 
length perhaps than was needful, and will return to the life and death of 
Raphael. This master lived in the strictest intimacy with Bernardo Divizio, 
Cardinal of Bibbiena, who had for many years importuned him to take a 
wife of his selection, nor had Raphael directly refused compliance with the 
wishes of the Cardinal, but had put the matter off, by saying that he would 
wait some three or four years longer. The term which he had thus set 
approached before Raphael had thought of it, when he was reminded by the 
Cardinal of his promise, and being as he ever was just and upright, he would 
not depart from his word, and therefore accepted a niece of the Gardinal 
himself for his wife. But as this engagement was nevertheless a heavy 
restraint to him, he put off the marriage from time to time, insomuch that 
several months passed and the ceremony had not yet taken place . 1 Yet this 
was not done without a very honourable motive, for Raphael having been 
for many years in the service of the Court, and being the creditor of Leo X. 
for a large sunn of money, had received an intimation to the effect, that when 
the Hall with which he was then occupied was completed, the Pontiff 
intended to reward him for his labours as well as to do honour to his talents 
by bestowing on him the red hat , 2 of which he meant to distribute a Con¬ 
siderable number, many of them being designed for persons whose merits 

1 The intended bride of Raphael was Maria Bibbiena, but this lady died before he did, as we 
learn from the inscription placed in the Pantheon by the testamentary injunction of Raphael himself. 
It is, therefore, not improbable, that the true cause of the marriage being deferred was the illness of 
the lady.— Schorn, Masselli, and others. 

2 No reader will now require to be reminded that the red hat is that of a cardinal, and that to 
receive the red hat is equivalent to being raised to the dignity of a cardinal of the Roman Church. 



were greatly inferior to those of Raphael . 1 The painter meanwhile did not 
abandon the light attachment by which he was enchained, and one day on 
returning to his house from one of these secret visits, he was seized with a 
violent fever , 2 3 which being mistaken for a cold, the physicians inconsider¬ 
ately caused him to be bled, whereby he found himself exhausted, when he 
had rather required to be strengthened. Thereupon he made his will, and, 
as a good Christian, he sent the object of his attachment from the house, but 
left her a sufficient provision wherewith she might live in decency; having 
done so much, he divided his property among his disciples; Giulio Romano, 
that is to say, whom he always loved greatly, and Giovanni Francesco , 8 with 
whom was joined a certain priest of Urbino, who was his kinsman, but whose 
name I do not know . 4 He furthermore commanded that a certain portion of 
his property should be employed in the restoration of one of the ancient 
tabernacles in Santa Maria Ritonda , 5 which he had selected as his burial 
place , 6 * and for which he had ordered that an altar, with the figure of Our 

1 The father Pungileoni, and the advocate C. Pea, deny that there was any intention of this 
kind on the part of Leo, but Longliena, in a note to the Istoria, makes certain observations, from 
which it seems probable that what we here read is nevertheless tine. We leave our readers to decide 
between these authorities ; but it is to be remarked that no instance of the cardinal’s hat having been 
bestowed in recompense of artistic talent has yet been known. 

2 Longkena, Pungileoni, Passavant, and all whose researches entitle them to attention, agree to 
attribute, the fever which deprived the world of this great painter, to the too earnest zeal of his labours 
in the examination of the Roman antiquities, labours which rendered a frame prematurely weakened by 
mental exertions, an easy prey to the malaria so fatally prevalent in the localities to which his 
researches must of necessity have led him. 

3 To these disciples he left his artistic possessions only ; to Cardinal Bibbiena he bequeathed the 
palace built for him by Bramante. 

4 The priest of -Urbino, his kinsman, and the Brotherhood of the Misericordia in that city, 
dividing a certain portion of the master’s property between them, and the remainder going to his 
kinsmen on the mother’s side, the sons of Giovanni Battista Ciarla. 

5 The Pantheon is popularly so called. 

6 Raphael also left funds for a mass to he performed yearly for the repose of his soul in Santa 

Maria ad Martyres, so is the Pantheon also called. 



PMt is believed that Raphael made this portrait in 1506, in order that he might 
leave it as a souvenir to his parents in his native town. At all events it 
remained at Urbino until it was transferred to the Academy of Saint Luke, at Rome. 
The Academy sold this portrait, with some other pictures, to Cardinal Leopold de 
Medici, since which time it has remained in the collection of portraits of painters, all 
painted by themselves, in the Gallery at floren 




Lady in marble, should be prepared ; 1 all that he possessed besides he 
bequeathed to Giulio Romano and Giovanni Francesco, naming Messer 
Iialdassare da Pescia, who was then Datary 2 to the Pope, as his executor. 
He then confessed, and in much contrition completed the course of his life, 
on the day whereon it had commenced, which was Good Friday . 3 The 
master was then in the thirty-seventh year of his age, and as he embellished 
the world by his talents while on earth, so is it to be believed that his soul is 
now adorning heaven. 

After his death the body of Raphael was placed at the upper end of the 
hall wherein he had last worked, with the, picture of the Transfiguration, 
which he had executed for Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici, at the head of the 
corpse. He who, regarding that living picture, afterwards turned to 
consider that dead body, felt his heart bursting, with grief as he beheld 
them. The loss of Raphael caused the Cardinal to command that this work 
should be placed on the High Altar of San Pietro-a-Montorio, where it has 
ever since been held in the utmost veneration for its own great value, as 
well as for the excellence of its author . 4 The remains of this divine artist 
received that honourable sepulture which the noble spirit whereby they had 
been informed had so well deserved, nor was there any artist in Rome who 
did not deeply bewail the loss sustained by the departure of the Master, or 
who failed to accompany his remains to their repose. 

The death of Raphael was in like manner bitterly deplored by all the 
papal court, not only because he had formed part thereof, since he had held 
the office of chamberlain to the Pontiff, but also because Leo X. had 
esteemed him so highly, that his loss occasioned that sovereign the bitterest 

1 This was done by Lorenzo Lotti. called Lorenzetto. 

2 President of tho Chancery. 

* In the year 1520. 

* Considered, as our readers are aware, the first picture in the world, and now in the 




grief . 1 Oh most happy and thrice blessed spirit, of whom all are proud to 
speak, whose actions are celebrated with praise by all men, and the least of 
whose works left behind thee, is admired and prized! 

When this noble artist died, well might Painting have departed also, for 
when he closed his eyes, she too was left as it were blind . 2 3 * * * * But now to us, 
whose lot it is to come after him, there remains to imitate the good, or rather 
the excellent, of which he has left us the example, and as our obligations to 
him and his great merits well deserve to retain the most grateful remem¬ 
brance of him in our hearts, while we ever maintain his memory in the 
highest honour with our lips. To him of a truth it is that we owe the 
possession of invention, colouring, and execution, brought alike and alto¬ 
gether to that point of perfection for which few could have dared to hope; 
nor has any man ever aspired to pass before him . 8 

And in addition to the benefits which this great master conferred on art, 
being as he was its best friend, we have the further obligation to him of 
having taught us by his life in what manner we should comport ourselves 
towards great men, as well as towards those of lower degree, and even 
towards the lowest; nay, there was among his many extraordinary gifts one 
of such value and importance, that I can never sufficiently admire it, and 

1 During his illness, which lasted a fortnight, Raphael is said to have received proofs of the most 
affectionate interest from all quarters, not excepting the Pope himself. 

2 His place of burial was in the Pantheon, immediately beneath the figure of the Madonna, 
executed, as above said, by Lorenzetto. The tomb was opened in October 1833, when the skeleton 
was found remaining, with the skull entire, proving that a skull previously preserved as that of 
Raphael in the Academy of St. Luke, in Rome, was not that of the painter. This opening of the 
tomb of Raphael is described in Italian by the Prince Pietro Odescalchi, and in German by the 
painter Overbeck. 

3 Vasari has omitted here to mention the circumstance that Raphael was architect of St. Peter’s, 

nor does he here allude to the fact, that he was much occupied towards the close of his life with 

measures for the restoration of ancient Rome, but near the end of his work, and when speaking of his 

obligations to the writings of Lorenzo Ghiberti and Ghirlandajo, he remarks, that the annotations of 

Raphael were also of the most essential service to him. 



always think thereof with astonishment. This was the power accorded to 
him by Heaven, of bringing all who approached his presence into harmony; 
an effect inconceivably surprising in our calling, and contrary to the nature 
of our artists, yet all, I do not say of the inferior grades only, but even those 
who lay claim to be great personages (and of this humour our art produces 
immense numbers), became as of one mind, once they began to labour in the 
society of Raphael, continuing in such unity and concord, that all harsh 
feelings and evil dispositions became subdued and disappeared at the sight 
of him; every vile and base thought departing from the mind before his 
influence. Such harmony prevailed at no other time than his own. And 
this happened because all were surpassed by him in friendly courtesy as well 
as in art; all confessed the influence of his sweet and gracious nature, which 
was so replete with excellence, and so perfect in all the charities, that not 
only was he honoured by men, but even by the very animals, who would 
constantly follow his steps and always loved him . 1 

We find it related, that whenever any other painter, whether known to 
Raphael or not, requested any design or assistance, of whatever kind, at his 
hands, he would invariably leave his work to do him service; he continually 
kept a large number of artists employed, all of whom he assisted and 
instructed with an affection which was rather as that of a father to his 
children, than merely as of an artist to artists. From these things it 
followed, that he was never seen to go to Court but surrounded and 
accompanied, as he left his house, by some fifty painters, all men of ability 
and distinction, who attended him thus to give evidence of the honour in 
which they held him. He did not, in short, live the life of a painter, but 

1 “ Who,” inquires a zealous annotator of our author, “ who, among the most affectionate 
disciples of the great painter, could eulogize him with more enthusiasm and cordiality than xloes our 
poor Vasari ? ” (he alludes to the bitter reproach of partiality so often and so unjustly brought against 
the biographer) “ he too who was the follower, hot only of another master, but of that one precisely 
who was the most powerful and most untired antagonist of the object of his praise.” 



that of a pxince. Wherefore, oh art of Painting! well mightest thou for 
thy part, then esteem thyself most happy, having, as thou hadst, one artist 
among thy sons, by whose virtues and talents thou wert thyself exalted to 
heaven. Thrice blessed indeed mayest. thou declare thyself, since thou hast 
seen thy disciples, by pursuing the footsteps of a man so exalted, acquire the 
knowledge of how life should be employed, and become impressed with the 
importance of uniting the practice of virtue to that of art. Conjoined as 
these were in the person of Raphael, their force availed to constrain the 
greatness of Julius II. and to awaken the generosity of Leo X, both of 
whom, high as they were in dignity, selected him for their most intimate 
friend, and treated him with every kind of familiarity; insomuch that by 
means of the favour he enjoyed with them and the powers with which they 
invested him, he was enabled to do the utmost honour to himself and to art. 
Most happy also may well be called those who, being in his service, worked 
under his own eye; since it has been found that all who took pains to 
imitate this master have arrived at a safe haven, and attained to a re¬ 
spectable position. In like manner, all who do their best to emulate his 
labours in art, will be honoured on earth, as it is certain that all who 
resemble him in the rectitude of his life will receive their reward in heaven. 



The following epitaph was written on Raphael by the Cardinal Bembo. 

d. o. M. 











1 “ For the greater exactness,” remarks Pungileoni, “ we might here add, dies vhi.” And in so 
short a life did Raphael find time to execute all the pictures enumerated by Vasari, with many others, 
which he has omitted: to render himself accomplished in architecture to such an extent, that he was 
found capable of succeeding Bramante in the direction of the building of St. Peter’s; to study the 
works of antiquity, and to pursue the most rigid and minute inquiry into those found in and around 
Romo. Nay, so passionate a lover, and so zealous a student was Raphael of these antiquities, that he 
wrote to Leo X. concerning them, in these memorable words : “ But with what justice can we complain 
of the Goths and Vandals, and other perfidious enemies, if those who should defend these few relics of 
old Rome, as fathers or guardians, have themselves been long found engaged in efforts to destroy 
them ? ” <kc. It is even believed that Raphael collected materials for the history of the artists who had 
preceded him, since Vasari, as we have before said, admits himself to have profited by the writings of 
Raphael among those of other authors. 



The Count Baldassare Castiglione also wrote respecting the death of this 
master in the manner following:— 

Quod lacerum corpus medica sanaverit arte, 

Hippolytum, Stygiis et revocarit aquis; 

Ad Stygias ipse est raptus Epidawrius undas; 

Sic precium vitae mors fuit artifici. 

Tu quoque dum toto laniatam corpore Romam 
Componis miro, Raphael, ingenio ; 

Atque Urbis lacerum ferro, igni, annisque cadaver. 

Ad vitam, antiquum jam revocasque decus. 

Movisti superum invidiam, indignataque mors est, 

Te dudum extinctis reddere posse animam. 

Et quod longa dies paullatim aboleverat, hoc te 
Mortali spreta lege pa-rare iterum. 

Sic miser heu,prima cadis intercepte juventa ; 

Deberi et morti nostraque, nosque mones. 




The figures at the bey inning of each line show the chronological order in which the subjects 

were painted. 

painted between A. n. 1500 and 1504, in the manner of Perngino. 

„ from 1504 to 1510, at Florence. 

„ from 1508 to 1513, at Rome, in the time of Pope Julius II. 

,, from 1513 to 1520, at Rome, in the time of Pope Leo X. 


Nos. 121 to 172. 

IFTY-TWO FRESCOES in the cupolas of the Loggie of the Vatican. Forty- 
eight subjects from the Old Testament and four from the New Testament, 
executed by the pupils of Raphael, after his small sepia sketches, under the 
direction of Giulio Romano. 

4. A Church Banner, on which are painted the Holy Trinity, and on the 
reverse, the Creation of Eve, at Citta di CaStello. 

67. The First Sin, on the ceiling of the Chamber of the “ Segnatura” in the Vatican. 

74. Moses with the Tables of the Law, on the dado of the Chamber of the “ Segnatura.” 

70. The Judgment of Solomon, on the ceiling of the Chamber of the “ Segnatura.” 

94. God appearing to Noah. Fresco on the ceiling of the Chamber of Heliodorus in the Vatican. 

95. The Sacrifice of Abraham. Fresco on the ceiling of the Chamber of Heliodorus. 

96. The Dream of Jacob. Fresco on the ceiling of the Chamber of Heliodorus in the Vatican. 

97. God appearing to Moses in the Burning Bush. Fresco on the ceiling of the Chamber of 

Heliodorus in the Vatican. 

103. Joseph before Pharaoh ; The Red Sea; Moses Receiving the Tables of the Law. 

Small paintings in the embrasures of the windows in the Chamber of Heliodorus. 

105. The Prophets. Frescoes in S. Maria della Pace, at Rome. Daniel and David, Jonah and 

35. The Prophet Isaiah. Fresco in the Church of S. Agostino, at Rome. 

110. Vision of Ezekiel. Pitti Palace, Florence. 

Nos. 1 to 20 were 
Nos. 21 to 55 
Nos. 56 to 103 
Nos. 104 to 248 



subjects Delating to chbist. 


111. Birth of Christ. Lost. 

36. Adoration of the Shepherds. Formerly at Bologna. 

1. The Infant Jesus Caressed by St. John. At Perugia. 

197 to 207. Tapestries by Raphael, in the Vatican, second series. Twelve subjects taken from the 
Life of Christ, and a thirteenth representing allegorical figures (for the most part by Giulio 
Bomano and other pupils of Raphael). 

186 to 195. Tapestries by Raphael, in the Vatican ; first series, taken from the History of the 
Apostles. Ten subjects. 

The Seven Cartoons of Raphael for the tapestries; three are lost. Formerly at Hampton 
Court, now at the South Kensington Museum. 

120. Christ and the Apostles. Fresco in the “ Sala Vecchia de Palafrenieri ” at Rome. (Re¬ 
painted by Taddeo Zuechero). 

73. Christ and his Apostles ; in the embrasure of a window in the Chamber of the “ Segnatura.” 
17. Christ upon the Mount of Olives ; in Mr. Fuller Maitland’s Collection, England. 

224. Christ bearing the Cross. (Lo Spasimo cli Sicilia). Madrid Museum. 

6. Christ on the Cross and Four Saints, (from the Fesch Gallery). Now in Earl Dudley’s 

48. The Entombment. Borghese Palace, Rome. 

20. Three Small Circular Pictures. Christ seated upon a sarcophagus; Saint Louis ; and Saint 

Herculanus. Berlin Museum. 

2. The Resurrection. In the Vatican. 

27. Peace be with you. {Pax vobis). In the'Tosi Collection, at Brescia. 

241. The Transfiguration. In the Vatican. 

119. Subjects relating to Christ, in the embrasures of the windows of the Chamber of the 
“ Incendio del Borgo ” in the Vatican. 


91. The Holy Family, Of Naples. Naples Museum. 

227. The Holy Family, The Pearl. Madrid Museum. 

226. The Holy Family, Beneath the Oak. Madrid Museum. 

46. The Holy F’amlly, with the Infant Jesus seated upon a lamb. Madrid Museum. 

229. The Holy Family, La Grande (de 1518). Louvre. 

232. The Holy Family, La Petite. Louvre. 

45. The Holy Family, The Canigiani. Munich Museum. 

38. The Holy Family, u nth the beardless St. Joseph. Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

33. The Holy Family, with the Palm Tree. Bridgewater Gallery. 

84. The Madonna, The Fuligno. Vatican. 

221. The Madonna, della Sedia. Florence. 

30. The Madonna, with the Goldfinch (cardellino ). Florence. 

21. The Madonna, The Grand Duke of Tuscany’s, Pitti Palace, Florence. 




54. The Madonna, Baldaquin. Pitti Palace. 

25. Altar Pictures for the Monastery of Saint Anthony of Padua, at Perugia. 

Principal painting. Madonna with Saints; the Tympan, The Eternal Father, both in 
the Naples Museum ; Paintings on the Predella—Christ on the Mount of Olives, Christ 
hearing ITis Cross, The Dead Christ, Saint Francis and Saint Anthony of Padua. Dispersed 
among English Collections. 

9. The Madonna, The Countess Alfani’s. Alfani Collection at Perugia. 

40. The Madonna, with the Pink. Spada Collection at Lucca. 

12. The Madonna, Count Staffa's. Collection della Staffa. 

02. The Madonna, with the Fish (ntt poisson). Madrid Museum. 

273. The Madonna, with the Rose. Madrid Museum. 

53. The Madonna, La Belle Jardiniere. Louvre. 

S3. The Madonna, with the Diadem (au linge). Louvre. 

39. The Madonna, La Petite, of the Orleans Gallery. Delessert Collection, Paris. 

10. The Madonna, with Saint Jerome and Saint Francis. Berlin Museum. 

22. The Madonna, The Duke of Terranuovd 1 s. Berlin Museum. 

7. The Madonna, The Solly. Berlin Museum. 

52. The Madonna, the Colonna. Berlin Museum. 

238. The Madonna, di San Sisto. Dresden Gallery. 

222. The Madonna, della Tenda. Munich Museum. 

32. The Madonna, The Tempi. Munich Museum. 

31. The Madonna, in the Meadow. Vienna Museum. 

55. The Madonna, The Esterhazy. Esterhazy Gallery, Vienna. 

81. The Madonna, della Casa d’Alba. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

89. The Madonna, The Orleans. Bridgewater Gallery. 

26. The Madonna, The Ansidei. Blenheim. 

51. The Madonna, The Cowper (1508). Panshanger. 

23. The Madonna, The small Cowper (1505). Panshanger. 

82. The Madonna, Aldobrandini. (Lord Garvagh’s). National Gallery. 

223. The Madonna, with the candelabra. (Formerly Mr. Munro’s). 

90. The Madonna, with the Holy Child standing. Formerly in the Orleans Gallery. In England. 
50. The Madonna, with the Infant Jesus asleep. Lost. 

80. The Madonna, di Loreto. Lost. 


15. The Marriage of the Virgin. (Lo Sposalizio). Brera, Milan. 

103. The Annunciation. In the embrasure of a window in the Chamber of Heliodorus. 

225. The Visitation. Madrid Museum. 

11. The Coronation of the Virgin. Vatican. 

248. The Coronation of thf. Virgin. Finished by G. Romano and F. Penni. Vatican. 

190. The Coronation of the Virgin. Tapestry for the Sistine Chapel. Lost. 




74. Saint Augustine on the Sea Shore . In the Chamber of the “ Segnatura-,” Vatican. 

18. Saint George with the Sword. Louvre. 

37. Saint George armed with a Lance. Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

240. Saint John the Baptist. Florence Gallery. 

228. The Archangel Michael, Louvre. 1 

19. The Archangel Michael, Le Petit. Louvre. 

3. The Archangels Michael and Raphael. National Gallery. 

5. Coronation op Saint Nicholas de Tolentino. Formerly at Citta di Castello. 

101. Deliverance op St. Peter. Fresco in the Chamber of Heliodorus, Vatican. 

16. Saint Sebastian. Lochis Collection, Bergamo. 

29. Camaldulite Saints surrounding the Holy Trinity. Fresco at San Severo. 

47. Saint Catherine of Alexandria. National Gallery. 

109. Saint Cecilia. Bologna Museum. 

208. Martyrdom op Saint Cecilia. Fresco in the chapel of the Pope’s country-house. 

8. Mary Magdalen and Saint Catherine. Camuccini Collection, Kome. 

230. Saint Margaret. Louvre. 

231. Saint Margaret. (Repetition). Vienna Gallery. 



58. Mount Parnassus. A fresco. 

68. The Judgment op Apollo against Marsyas. On the ceiling. 

64. Allegorical Figure of Poetry. On the ceiling. 

63. Allegorical Figure op Theology. On the ceiling. 

65. Allegorical Figure of Philosophy. On the ceiling. 

66. Allegorical Figure op Jurisprudence. On the ceiling. 

69. Allegorical Figure of Astronomy. On the ceiling. 

60. Prudence, Fortitude, Moderation. Frescoes. 

Philosophy. On the dado. 

Science (of things Divine). On the dado. 

102. Twelve Allegorical Figures and Twelve small Compositions, on the walls of the Chamber 

of Heliodorus in the Vatican. 

209 to 215. Seven Mythological Subjects. Frescoes in the bath-room of Cardinal Bibbiena. 

21 6. Six CuRids Victorious. Beneath the frescoes. 

217. Cupid and Pan. On the ceiling. 

106. Galatea. At La Farnesina, Rome. 

239. Cupid and Psyche. Frescoes in the Loggia de la Farnesina, 




42. Tiib Three Graces. Earl Dudley’s Collection. 

Cupids Playing. Five subjects, tapestries. Lost, 
l.'i. Vision op a Knioht. National Gallery. 


105. The Sybils. Four Frescoes at Santa Maria della Pace, Rome. 

218. M.v itniAiiK op Alexander and Roxana. Fresco in the Villa Raphael, Rome. 


74. The Sybil op Tibur. On the dado. 

74. Solon teaching the Giif.eks. On the dado. , 

71. Alexander the Great depositing the Works op Homer in the Tomb op Achilles. In 

“ grisaille,” beneath the “ Parnassus.” 

78. The Judgment op Seleucus. In the embrasure of a window. 

74. Siege op Syracuse. On the dado. 

74. The Death of Archimedes. On the dado. 

.19. The School op Athens. Fresco. 

72. The Emperor Augustus Forbidding the Burning op Virgil’s 2Eneid. In “ grisaille.” 
74. A Pagan Sacrifice. On the dado. 

74. Eastern Magicians. On the dado. 


•~>7. Theology. The Dispute concerning the Holy Sacrament (La Disputa). In the Chamber of 
the “ Segnatura,” Vatican. 

9S. Hf.liodorus Driven from the Temple. Fresco in the Chamber of Heliodorus. 

99. The Mass of Bolsena. A fresco in the same chamber. 

244. The Baptism op Constantine. In the Hall of Constantine, Vatican. 

242. Constantine Addressing his Soldiers. In the Hall of Constantine, Vatican. 

245. The Donation op the City op Rome to the Pope. In the Hall of Constantine, Vatican. 
108. Constantine giving the City op Rome to the Pope. In the embrasure of a window in the 

Hall of Heliodorus. 

247. Subjects prom the History op Constantine. In the Hall of Constantine, Vatican. 

115. Coronation op Charlemagne. Fresco in the Chamber of the “ Incendio del Borgo.” 

82. Gregory IX. giving the “ Decretals.” Fresco in the Chamber of the “ Segnatura.” 

114. The Oath op Leo III. Fresco in the Chamber of the “ Incendio del Borgo.” 

118. The Fire in the Borgo. Fresco in the chamber bearing- that name. 

118. Six Protectors of the Church of Rome. On the bases of the same chamber. 

248. Eight Popes, wIth Allegorical Figures. Hall of Constantine. 

108. A Pope Celebrating Mass. In the embrasure of a window in the Hall of Heliodorus. 




243. The Battle op Constantine. In the Hall of Constantine, in the Vatican. 

100. TSe Meeting of tjie Hordes op Attila. Fresco in the Chamber of Heliodorus. 

117. The Victory over the Saracens. Fresco in the Chamber of the “ Incendio del Borgo.” 


41. Raphael, by himself. Florence Gallery. 

77. Raphael, by himself, (two copies). Lost. 

75. Pope Julius II. Pitti Palace, Florence. 

234. Pope Leo X. with the Cardinals Julius de Medici and Louis de Rossi. Pitti Palace. 

235. Lorenzo de Mjjdici, Duke of Urbino. Lost. 

107. Giulio de Medici. Florence Gallery. (?) 

108. Bernardo JDovizio da Bibbiena. Madrid Museum. 

40. Guiduraldo, Duke of Urbino. Lost, 

112. BaLdassarE Castiglione. Louvre. 

76. MarchEse Federico de Mantua. Lucy Collection, England. 

220. Andrea Navagero and Agostino Beazzano. Lost. Copies of these portraits are in the 
Doria Gallery, at Borne, where they pass for Bartolo and Baldo. 

219. Antonio Tebaldeo. Lost. 

88. Bindo XltOvitI. Munich Museum. 

104. FeDra Inghirami. Pitti Palace. 

34. Angelo Doni and Madpalena Strozzi. 

43. Don Blasio and Don Balthasar. Two Monks of the Monastery of Vallombrosa. Academy 

of Florence. 

236. A Player On the Violin. Sciarra Colonna Palace, Rome. 

24. A Young Man Of the Family of Riccio. Munich Museum. 

79. A Young Man. Louvre. 

14. A Young Man. Kensington Palace. 

237. Raphael’s Mistress. Pitti Palace. 

78. Raphael’s Mistress. Barberini Palace, Rom 
233. Joanna of Aragon. Louvre. 

44. A Young Girl. Pitti Palace. 

87. A Woman. Florence Gallery. 

• 35. A Woman. Florence Gallery. 



Digitized with financial assistance from 
Observer Research Foundation 
on 22 February, 2019